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Archival acquisition of the records of voluntary associations 1989

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ARCHIVAL ACQUISITION OF THE RECORDS OF VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS By SUSAN MARY ANNE HART B.A., Memorial U n i v e r s i t y of Newfoundland, 1983 M.A., Memorial U n i v e r s i t y of Newfoundland, 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL.FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES in THE SCHOOL OF LIBRARY, ARCHIVAL, AND INFORMATION STUDIES We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1989 © Susan Mary Anne Hart, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT While a c q u i s i t i o n i s a v i t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , g e n e r a l l y accepted p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s of a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n are s a d l y l a c k i n g i n North America. T h i s problem i s p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent with regard to the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e of which are l a r g e l y unknown to a r c h i v i s t s . T h i s t h e s i s s t u d i e s the problem of, and proposes a system f o r , a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n of the rec o r d s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . To begin with, i t p r o v i d e s a d e f i n i t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , and d e l i n e a t e s t h e i r l i f e c y c l e and r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The t h e s i s subsequently moves on to co n s i d e r the re c o r d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , the r e l e v a n t a c q u i s i t i o n p r a c t i c e s of a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , and a p p l i c a b l e a r c h i v a l t h e o r i e s of a c q u i s i t i o n and a p p r a i s a l . Ethnographic methodology i s used to analyse two v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e i r r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s . F i n a l l y i t i s proposed t h a t a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s a c q u i r e the re c o r d s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h a t t h i s can be done by e x i s t i n g r e p o s i t o r i e s and through such arrangements as s p e c i a l committees, consortiums of a s s o c i a t i o n s , and s p e c i a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , and t h a t a standard procedure be f o l l o w e d by r e p o s i t o r i e s when a c q u i r i n g the r e c o r d s of a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n . TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgements i v I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter One: V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s 14 Chapter Two: A r c h i v e s and V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s 32 Chapter Three: F i r s t Case Study: Mothers Again s t D r i n k i n g D r i v e r s 59 Chapter Four: Second Case Study: The O r i e n t e e r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia . . .88 Chapter F i v e : A r c h i v a l A c q u i s i t i o n of the Records of Vol u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s 119 C o n c l u s i o n 137 B i b l i o g r a p h y 142 Appendix A: Interviews on Tape 146 . i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people were of gre a t help to me i n r e s e a r c h i n g , w r i t i n g , and e d i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . My a d v i s o r y committee — composed of Lu c i a n a D u r a n t i , T e r r y Eastwood, and Jay Powell -- guided me along the r i g h t path, and my s u p e r v i s o r P r o f e s s o r D u r a n t i gave i n v a l u a b l e suggestions, c o u n s e l l i n g , e d i t i n g , and the impetus to f i n i s h i n good time. The a s s o c i a t i o n s I s t u d i e d , and e s p e c i a l l y those members whom I int e r v i e w e d , were very generous with t h e i r time and p a t i e n c e . My f e l l o w students L i n d a Janzen, Donna Kynaston, Trevor L i v e l t o n , and David T r u d e l , provided s t i m u l a t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n about a r c h i v a l theory as w e l l as emotional support. The Newfoundland Government provided generous student loans and gr a n t s which made student l i f e f i n a n c i a l l y v i a b l e f o r me. As u s u a l , my parents Anne Hart and David Hart helped me i n numerous ways. C h r i s t i n e and Eddie Fung l e n t me a computer which made a l l the d i f f e r e n c e . Jeanne Yang and Ralph L a i encouraged me to keep up a good pace of t h e s i s p r o d u c t i o n . F i n a l l y my fiance', Stephenson Yang, gave me immeasurable p e r s o n a l a s s i s t a n c e , i n c l u d i n g h e l p i n g to choose the two a s s o c i a t i o n s I s t u d i e d . I am e t e r n a l l y g r a t e f u l to him and to a l l the others mentioned here f o r making t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . i v INTRODUCTION The a ct of a c q u i s i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l to the v i t a l i t y of a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , and to t h e i r s e r v i c e to s o c i e t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , most a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s i n North America have a long road to t r a v e l before a t t a i n i n g i d e a l a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s . A r c h i v i s t s need to conduct r e s e a r c h i n order to reach a c l e a r e r understanding of records c r e a t o r s , and based on t h i s , to develop b e t t e r approaches to a c q u i s i t i o n . The present t h e s i s w i l l address one area of t h i s r e s e a r c h need by s t u d y i n g the group of records c r e a t o r s known as voluntary associations. V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s comprise a type of o r g a n i z a t i o n which has been e s p e c i a l l y n e g l e c t e d by a r c h i v i s t s . Much of t h i s n e g l e c t r e s u l t s from a misunderstanding of t h e i r nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e , and from a tendency to c o n s i d e r r e c o r d s c r e a t o r s i n terms of s u b j e c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n , r a t h e r than as types of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s t h e s i s i s aimed at e s t a b l i s h i n g some b a s i s f o r a system of a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n of the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . Such a system would ensure that the records of such a s s o c i a t i o n s are acq u i r e d i n a thorough, c o n s i s t e n t manner and preserved f o r the b e n e f i t of s o c i e t y . Three matters must be ex p l a i n e d before a d d r e s s i n g the aims of t h i s t h e s i s , these being the s i g n i f i c a n c e of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s to s o c i e t y , the r e s e a r c h methodology adopted here, and the s t r u c t u r e and contents of the main body of the t h e s i s . 1 V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s are i n t e r e s t i n g and complex o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but the a r c h i v i s t needs to know more than t h i s b efore c o n s i d e r i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e i r r e c o r d s . A r c h i v i s t V i c t o r i a B l i n k h o r n has observed t h a t j u s t as the s i g n i f i c a n c e of records r e s t s on t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the c r e a t o r , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c r e a t o r r e s t s on h i s (or her) r e l a t i o n s h i p to s o c i e t y . 1 The a r c h i v i s t needs to know whether an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t to the community whose records the r e p o s i t o r y i s mandated to p r e s e r v e . T h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e may be measured by examining the p e r v a s i v e n e s s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the ways i n which i t i n f l u e n c e s and f u n c t i o n s f o r s o c i e t y , and the extent to which i t r e f l e c t s s o c i e t y . That v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s are p e r v a s i v e i n s o c i e t y i s a f a c t a s s e r t e d with confidence by those who have s t u d i e d them e x t e n s i v e l y . 2 A c u r s o r y search through a telephone d i r e c t o r y or the d i r e c t o r y of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s at the l o c a l l i b r a r y , or a c a l l to a v o l u n t e e r bureau, w i l l r e v e a l that an a s t o n i s h i n g a r r a y of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s e x i s t s , f o r example, i n Vancouver alone. Two i n t e n s i v e s t u d i e s of American c i t i e s have produced 1 V i c t o r i a B l i n k h o r n , "The Records of V i s u a l A r t i s t s : A p p r a i s i n g f o r A c q u i s i t i o n and S e l e c t i o n " (Master of A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1988), 110. 2 N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n to the Government of Canada, Report: People i n A c t i o n (Ottawa, 1977), 4; A l b e r t M e i s t e r , P a r t i c i p a t i o n . A s s o c i a t i o n s . Development, and Change. t r a n s , and ed. Jack C. Ross (London: T r a n s a c t i o n Books, 1984), 54; Donato J . P u g l i e s e , V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s : An A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y (New York: Garland P u b l i s h i n g , 1980), 6. more concrete r e s u l t s . In t h e i r famous study of "Yankee C i t y " , s o c i o l o g i s t s L l o y d Warner and Paul Lunt found 899 v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n one urban area, 357 being permanent, s t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Of these 357, 52% had twenty or fewer members; 37% had 21-80 members, and 9% had up to 312 members. 3 T h i s study was p u b l i s h e d i n 1941 and there has d o u b t l e s s been change i n the demographics of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s s i n c e then, but i t s testament to t h e i r v i t a l i t y remains v a l i d . A s i m i l a r study of D e t r o i t i n 1951 found that 63% of the r e s i d e n t s of t h a t c i t y were members of non-church a s s o c i a t i o n s , and t h a t h a l f of them were members of two or more such b o d i e s . 4 S i m i l a r s t a t i s t i c s have not been amassed i n Canada as y e t , but the very f a c t t h a t the F e d e r a l Government of t h i s n a t i o n appointed a N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n i n 1976 a t t e s t s to the importance of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canadian s o c i e t y . V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s f u n c t i o n f o r s o c i e t y i n myriad ways. As the N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l comments, the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e democracy by which Canada operates does not adequately meet every c i t i z e n ' s need to c o n t r i b u t e to shaping the n a t i o n ' s laws and p o l i c i e s . V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , the C o u n c i l contends, help to meet t h i s need and are t h e r e f o r e " c e n t r a l to our democratic t r a d i t i o n s " . 5 S o c i o l o g i s t A r n o l d Rose s t a t e s t h a t v o l u n t a r y 3 L l o y d Warner and Paul S. Lunt, The S o c i a l L i f e of a Modern Community (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1941), 303-320. 4 Arnold M. Rose, Theory and Method i n the S o c i a l Sciences (Minnesota: U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota P r e s s , 1954), 55. 5 N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , 28-30. a s s o c i a t i o n s p l a y a major r o l e i n [American] democracy by widely d i s t r i b u t i n g power over s o c i a l l i f e , p r o v i d i n g understanding of and s a t i s f a c t i o n with democratic processes, and f u n c t i o n i n g as a mechanism f o r s o c i a l change. 6 Perhaps the c i t i z e n s f o r whom the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n i s most v a l u a b l e p o l i t i c a l l y are the members of m i n o r i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y disadvantaged ones; the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s which they c r e a t e and which are c r e a t e d to help them are an important means of e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and concerns are not i g n o r e d . 7 A l b e r t M e i s t e r , a prominent German s o c i o l o g i s t , goes so f a r as to say t h a t "the b a s i c reason f o r the immense development of a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the United S t a t e s has been the number of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i o , r e l i g i o u s , and economic subgroups". 8 As w e l l as c o n t r i b u t i n g p o l i t i c a l l y , v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a s u b s t a n t i a l economic ass e t of a n a t i o n : f o r example, i n 1971, one percent of Canada's Gross N a t i o n a l Product (or $1,045,000,000) was produced by v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . 9 The c e n t r a l aims of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s a l s o a f f e c t s o c i e t y . Where t h e i r focus i s i n t e r n a l ( f o r s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , or s e l f - h e l p purposes) they a f f e c t those members of s o c i e t y who are p a r t of the a s s o c i a t i o n s , and have a r i p p l e e f f e c t on t h e i r f a m i l i e s , f r i e n d s , and other acquaintances. Where t h e i r focus i s e x t e r n a l (as with p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n and 8 Rose, Theory and Method. 51. 7 N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , 30. 8 M e i s t e r , 54. 9 N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , 27. 5 s e r v i c e a s s o c i a t i o n s ) , they a f f e c t s o c i e t y much more broadly, e s p e c i a l l y i f they are l a r g e and s u c c e s s f u l . V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s are h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t as the r o o t s of permanent, i n f l u e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which are no longer v o l u n t a r y , such as s c h o o l s , h o s p i t a l s , and l i b r a r i e s . As these examples i n d i c a t e , many government f u n c t i o n s were f i r s t c a r r i e d on s o l e l y on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s ; the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of both t h e i r s e r v i c e work and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l l o b b y i n g i s a t t e s t e d to by t h i s government i n t e r v e n t i o n . An i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s e v o l u t i o n of a f u n c t i o n from the v o l u n t a r y s e c t o r to government i s o f f e r e d by the Human Rights Commission set up i n the P r o v i n c e of Newfoundland and Labrador a few years ago, a f t e r a Human Rights A s s o c i a t i o n had e x i s t e d there f o r some time. Another measure of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the extent to which a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n r e f l e c t s s o c i e t y at l a r g e . The development of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s has been found to be r e l a t e d to the development of s o c i e t y ; as a n a t i o n modernizes, the number of i t s v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s g r o w s . 1 0 T h i s leads to the hypothesis t h a t the f u n c t i o n s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s are i n t e g r a l to a complex s o c i e t y . V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s r e f l e c t s o c i e t y a l s o i n t h e i r demographics: they i n c l u d e women and men, c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s , people of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c backgrounds, people l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s , and members of every s o c i a l c l a s s . 1 1 Furthermore, v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s are l i n k e d i n numerous ways 1 0 M e i s t e r , 10. 1 1 Warner and Lunt, 330. 6 to many other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and when one c o n s i d e r s t h e i r m u l t i f a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g e v e r y t h i n g from p l a y i n g d a r t s to c o u n s e l l i n g people with cancer to lobbying a g a i n s t d e f o r e s t a t i o n , one must r e a l i s e t h a t there are few areas of l i f e i n our s o c i e t y where the e f f e c t of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i s not f e l t . A r c h i v i s t Darlene Roth sums the s i t u a t i o n up w e l l when she s t a t e s t h a t : The c h a r a c t e r of v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n , m i r r o r e d i n the a s s o c i a t i o n s which frame i t , o f f e r s the most i n t r i c a t e p i c t u r e of the changes, t e n s i o n s , new d i r e c t i o n s , and s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the American community at a l l l e v e l s . 1 2 T h i s statement a p p l i e s to the Canadian community as w e l l as i t does to the American one. C l e a r l y , v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s are very s i g n i f i c a n t to s o c i e t y , and t h e r e f o r e warrant s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n from the a r c h i v a l community which serves i t . II Ethnography, a methodology f o r the study of c u l t u r e , was used f o r the primary r e s e a r c h conducted f o r t h i s t h e s i s . D i s c u s s i o n i s warranted concerning why t h i s approach i s a p p r o p r i a t e , the theory behind i t , and the manner i n which i t was used f o r t h i s study. Ethnography i s a method most commonly used by f o l k l o r i s t s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , and at f i r s t glance i t may not appear a p p r o p r i a t e to a r c h i v i s t s , because i t focusses on a c u l t u r e or 1 2 Darlene Roth, "Pandora's New Box: A Look at the Records of Women's Vo l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s , " Georgia A r c h i v e 7 (1979): 36. 7 s u b c u l t u r e and i t s members, very seldom on i t s r e c o r d s . Yet a r c h i v e s are a kind of c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t , and i n order to understand them p r o p e r l y one must know about t h e i r c r e a t o r s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e at the a c q u i s i t i o n stage, when a r c h i v i s t s do not g e n e r a l l y know very much about the re c o r d s they are attempting to take custody of. An a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y needs to know whether the c r e a t o r f a l l s w i t h i n i t s mandate, and how to best approach, communicate with, and r e c e i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n from t h i s c r e a t o r . Knowing the g e n e r a l kinds of records c r e a t e d and used by the o r g a n i z a t i o n or agency helps, but in-depth study of these i s a time-consuming luxury b e t t e r l e f t f o r the stages of a p p r a i s a l , arrangement, and d e s c r i p t i o n . Ethnography i s a method of c u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s which i n v e s t i g a t e s a c u l t u r e by l e a r n i n g about i t from the p o i n t of view of i t s members; r a t h e r than a n a l y s i n g and j u d g i n g a c u l t u r e from the p e r s p e c t i v e of her or h i s own, the ethnographer becomes a student of that c u l t u r e , and attempts to understand i t i n i t s own terms. For example, while a u n i v e r s i t y a r t s student may view many of the r i t u a l s of e n g i n e e r i n g students, such as dunking one of t h e i r f e l l o w s naked i n t o a p o o l , as r i d i c u l o u s and non- s e n s i c a l , an ethnographer w i l l observe these r i t u a l s c a r e f u l l y , t a k i n g notes and conducting i n t e r v i e w s , and perhaps p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some of them; i n the end the ethnographer w i l l be able to w r i t e an a n a l y s i s of the en g i n e e r s ' c u l t u r e which e x p l a i n s i t i n t h e i r own terms, but i n a manner comprehensible to o u t s i d e r s . Ethnographic semantics ( a l s o known as ethnoscience) i s a s p e c i a l 8 kind of ethnography which i n f l u e n c e d the r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s ; i t f o c u s s e s on the language a c u l t u r e uses, e s p e c i a l l y those terms which are the most d e t a i l e d and s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h i n t h i s language. By d i s c o v e r i n g and d e s c r i b i n g the names, d e f i n i t i o n s , uses, and c a t e g o r i e s the members of the c u l t u r e themselves employ, the ethnographer can t r u l y present a c u l t u r e as i t p e r c e i v e s i t s e l f — at l e a s t , as t r u l y as the ever-present scourge of s u b j e c t i v i t y p ermits. In You Owe Y o u r s e l f a Drunk: An Ethnography of Urban Nomads, James Spradley, the l e a d i n g proponent of ethnographic semantics, uses t h i s method to r e v e a l that the major concerns i n the l i f e of tramps (known to o u t s i d e r s as bums, s t r e e t people, drunks, e t c . ) are "making a f l o p " ( t h a t i s , f i n d i n g a p l a c e to s l e e p ) and s u r v i v i n g the r i g o u r s of "the bucket" (the c o u r t s and j a i l ) . There are about a hundred d i f f e r e n t kinds of f l o p s , and much of a tramp's time and energy i s spent i n making a f l o p . "Making a j u g " ( t h a t i s , g e t t i n g some a l c o h o l to d r i n k ) i s , s u r p r i s i n g l y , somewhat l e s s important i n tramps' c u l t u r e . Because Spradley observed the tramps' a c t i v i t i e s and l i s t e n e d to them t a l k i n g among themselves ( t h a t i s , he conducted " p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n " ) , and asked very g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s to begin with, he was able to escape the t r a p of f o c u s s i n g on the t h i n g s he o r i g i n a l l y p e r c e i v e d to be important to them. 1 3 Ethnographic semantics i s a very a t t r a c t i v e approach f o r anybody who wants to understand how the members of a 1 3 James P. Spradley, You Owe Y o u r s e l f a Drunk: An Ethnography of Urban Nomads (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown, 1970). c u l t u r e d i f f e r e n t from her or h i s own behave and p e r c e i v e the world, or some p a r t of i t , which i s e x a c t l y what an a r c h i v i s t needs to be able to d o . 1 4 In t h i s t h e s i s , the author w i l l t r y to reach some understanding of how the members of two v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s t r e a t and t h i n k about the records they c r e a t e and use, i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . From the ethnographer's p o i n t of view, there are two important flaws i n an ethnographic study made by an a r c h i v i s t . The f i r s t i s the l a c k of t r a i n i n g and experience i n ethnographic methodology which a person i n the a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n i s l i k e l y to have. Because the author of t h i s t h e s i s has e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d the d i s c i p l i n e of F o l k l o r e , and conducted ethnography i n the past, t h i s i s not a problem here. The other flaw appears insurmountable. As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , the ethnographer i s supposed to allow the emphases of her or h i s study to r e f l e c t the emphases of the c u l t u r e being s t u d i e d -- but the a r c h i v i s t n e c e s s a r i l y approaches an a s s o c i a t i o n with a s p e c i f i c focus i n mind, namely i t s r e c o r d s , which may not r e f l e c t the main focusses of the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s c u l t u r e . The d e s c r i p t i o n which r e s u l t s w i l l not, t h e r e f o r e , a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the t o t a l i t y of the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s c u l t u r e . But a r c h i v i s t s cannot depend on ethnographers to f i n d out about the reco r d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r them, because t h i s i s not the s o r t of t h i n g ethnographers 1 4 Two manuals w r i t t e n by Spradley were c o n s u l t e d f o r the present study, and should prove very h e l p f u l to anybody wishing to use ethnographic semantics; these are The Ethnographic I n t e r v i e w (New York: H o l t , Rinehart & Winston, 1979), and P a r t i c i p a n t Observation ( H o l t , Rinehart & Winston, 1980). 10 focus on. The most the a r c h i v i s t engaged i n ethnographic r e s e a r c h can do i s t r y to take i n t o account a l l the a c t i v i t i e s of the a s s o c i a t i o n , not only those which are r e c o r d s - o r i e n t e d . T h i s p r o v i d e s an accurate account of the importance of r e c o r d s - keeping to the o v e r a l l c u l t u r e of a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , and of how w e l l the records r e f l e c t t h a t c u l t u r e . Ethnography i s a u s e f u l methodology f o r many purposes, and could be much more widely used than i t i s , so long as i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s acknowledge i t s l i m i t a t i o n s when p r a c t i c e d f o r s p e c i f i c purposes. The f i r s t problem the author was faced with i n conducting the ethnographic r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s was choosing which v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s to study. Since ethnography i s a q u a l i t a t i v e r a t h e r than a q u a n t i t a t i v e approach, as w e l l as being very time-consuming, only two a s s o c i a t i o n s were chosen, the minimal number needed to p r o v i d e some b a s i s of comparison. In order to heighten the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r comparison and to broaden the understanding of a s s o c i a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l , the a s s o c i a t i o n s chosen were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from each other. One was a p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n group c a l l e d MADD (Mothers Against D r i n k i n g D r i v e r s ) , the other a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n named OABC ( O r i e n t e e r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia). I t proved p o s s i b l e to conduct p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n of most of MADD's a c t i v i t i e s over the p e r i o d of two months, and to conduct tape-recorded i n t e r v i e w s with three of i t s o f f i c i a l s at the end of t h i s p e r i o d . 1 5 T h i s r e s e a r c h was 1 5 A note concerning the method of t r a n s c r i p t i o n of q u o t a t i o n s from a l l the i n t e r v i e w s conducted i s necessary. Whereas a f o l k l o r i s t (who s t u d i e s speech p a t t e r n s , among other f a c i l i t a t e d by three f a c t o r s : MADD has an o f f i c e and keeps r e g u l a r o f f i c e hours, i t makes a p r a c t i c e of encouraging students to r e s e a r c h i t s work and r e c o r d s , and i t welcomes the help of v o l u n t e e r s . OABC was a very d i f f e r e n t case, f o r i t s a c t i v i t i e s occur on a s e a s o n a l , weekend b a s i s , at ever-changing l o c a t i o n s , and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s are only a c c e s s i b l e to the o f f i c i a l s and those members who r e g u l a r l y a s s i s t them on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s . In s t u d y i n g OABC, the author was c o n f i n e d to e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w s with two o f f i c i a l s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n and a s s i s t a n c e at a meet, and a n a l y s i s of those OABC re c o r d s p r e s e n t l y i n the p r e s i d e n t ' s custody. L i k e any ethnographic r e s e a r c h , the r e s e a r c h on these two a s s o c i a t i o n s would have b e n e f i t t e d from a longer p e r i o d of study, but t h i s was n e i t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the scope of t h i s t h e s i s , nor favoured by the o f f i c i a l s of the a s s o c i a t i o n s themselves. Although they were a l l extremely h e l p f u l and c o - o p e r a t i v e , they had no time and energy to spare f o r f u r t h e r i n t e r v i e w s . t h i n g s ) would be c a r e f u l to quote such i n t e r v i e w s as e x a c t l y as p o s s i b l e , i n d i c a t i n g each pause, r e p e t i t i o n , and non-standard p i e c e of grammar, t h i s i s unnecessary i n the present context. For purposes of c l a r i t y and r e a d a b i l i t y , t h e r e f o r e , the q u o t a t i o n s are not exact. Any reader who wishes to know the exact p h r a s i n g used should r e f e r d i r e c t l y to the tapes themselves, which have been donated to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n . I l l T h i s t h e s i s i s s t r u c t u r e d i n t o f i v e c h apters, as w e l l as an i n t r o d u c t i o n and a c o n c l u s i o n , a s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y , and an appendix d e t a i l i n g the taped i n t e r v i e w s made. Chapter One, "Voluntary A s s o c i a t i o n s " , d e s c r i b e s the nature of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l , with r e f e r e n c e to s c h o l a r l y l i t e r a t u r e . I t begins by e x p l o r i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a s s o c i a t i o n s , d e v e l o p i n g a d e f i n i t i o n of them, and d i s c u s s i n g the v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . The chapter moves on to examine the l i f e c y c l e of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , to d e v i s e a f u n c t i o n a l typology of them, and f i n a l l y to d e l i n e a t e seven d i f f e r e n t kinds of r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a s s o c i a t i o n s have with one another and other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on t h e i r l i n k s to government. Armed with a good g e n e r a l understanding of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , the a r c h i v i s t i s ready to begin the r e a l a r c h i v a l work, the f i r s t step of which i s to l e a r n about and a c q u i r e the records of p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s . In Chapter Two, "Archives and V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s " , the l i t e r a t u r e on the r e c o r d s - keeping p r a c t i c e s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i s surveyed, as i s the l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b i n g e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s of a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n of these r e c o r d s . A d i s c u s s i o n of ideas, p r o p o s a l s , and t h e o r i e s of a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n f o l l o w s . A q u a l i t a t i v e study of two v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i s provided i n Chapters Three and Four, e n t i t l e d " F i r s t Case Study: Mothers Agains t D r i n k i n g D r i v e r s " and "Second Case Study: The 13 O r i e n t e e r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia", which have s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e s and purposes. Each i s d i v i d e d i n t o four s e c t i o n s , these concerning: the aims, s t r u c t u r e , h i s t o r y , and nature of the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n being contemplated; the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which the a s s o c i a t i o n has with other o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; the main a c t i v i t i e s of the a s s o c i a t i o n , and the records r e s u l t i n g from them; and f i n a l l y , the r o l e of the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s o f f i c i a l s i n i t s r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g, i t s f i l i n g systems, and i t s a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s towards records p r e s e r v a t i o n . Chapter F i v e , " A r c h i v a l A c q u i s i t i o n of the Records of V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s , " draws upon the f i n d i n g s of the four p r e c e d i n g chapters to propose s o l u t i o n s to three problems. These are: whether a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s should a c q u i r e the r e c o r d s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , which ones should p r e s e r v e which re c o r d s , and how they should go about a c q u i r i n g these r e c o r d s . The C o n c l u s i o n of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l review i t s methods and f i n d i n g s , and make suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . CHAPTER ONE VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS I Leading s o c i o l o g i s t Theodore Caplow has d e f i n e d the term o r g a n i z a t i o n as a s o c i a l system t h a t has an unequivocal c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y , an exact r o s t e r of members, a program of a c t i v i t y , and procedures f o r r e p l a c i n g members. 1 The " c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y " r e f e r s to the name, purposes, l o c a t i o n s , and a f f i l i a t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; the "exact r o s t e r " of members s e t s the boundaries of membership; the "procedures f o r r e p l a c i n g members" covers r e c r u i t m e n t and t r a n s f e r among p o s i t i o n s ; and the "program of a c t i v i t y " i s the p l a n n i n g towards meeting the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s g o a l s . 2 An o r g a n i z a t i o n can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from an i n f o r m a l group by the f a c t t h a t the former i s capable of s u s t a i n e d c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n , while the l a t t e r i s n o t . 3 Most o r g a n i z a t i o n s are a u t h o r i z e d by the s t a t e through such t h i n g s as marriage l i c e n s e s , c o r p o r a t i o n c h a r t e r s , and v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n r e g i s t r a t i o n . They o b t a i n t h i s a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r s e c u r i t y of p r o p e r t y h o l d i n g s and i n order to have recourse to the c o e r c i v e powers of the s t a t e when 1 Theodore Caplow, P r i n c i p l e s of O r g a n i z a t i o n (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1964), 1. 2 I b i d . , 1-13. 3 I b i d . , 25. 14 n e c e s s a r y . 4 An o r g a n i z a t i o n s u s t a i n s two kinds of a c t i v i t i e s : i n t e r n a l ones, which are a means of m a i n t a i n i n g i t s s t r u c t u r e , and e x t e r n a l ones, through which the o r g a n i z a t i o n m o d i f i e s i t s environment. 5 I t i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by norms, t h a t i s , expected behaviour p a t t e r n s i n v a r i o u s spheres f o r i t s members, and by s a n c t i o n s , which enforce conformity to these norms, more through t h r e a t than through enactment. Every o r g a n i z a t i o n except the s m a l l e s t i s made up of components and f a c t i o n s which are o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e i r own r i g h t . 6 The v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n i s a type of o r g a n i z a t i o n . S c h o l a r s who w r i t e about v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s d e f i n e them i n v a r i o u s ways, but s i x broad c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s emerge which, i f present together, d i s t i n g u i s h the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n from other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 7 F i r s t l y , i t s members have an e x p l i c i t , shared purpose (or set of purposes) and a shared set of a c t i v i t i e s intended to accomplish t h i s p u r p o s e . 8 Secondly, the 4 I b i d . , 23. 5 I b i d . , 72. 8 i b i d . , 81-83. 7 The v a r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s analysed here f o r common elements are: N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , 19; Ronald L. Akers and F r e d e r i c k Campbell, " S i z e and the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Component in O c c u p a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s , " P a c i f i c S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 13 (1970): 241; Bernard Barber, P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Mass Apathy i n A s s o c i a t i o n s , " i n S t u d i e s i n Leadership, ed. A l v i n W. Gouldner (New York: Harper, 1950): 479-488; P u g l i e s e , 9- 10; Rose, Theory and Method. 52; and Warner and Lunt, 301. 8 There may a l s o be u n o f f i c i a l g o a l s not shared by a l l members of the a s s o c i a t i o n . These are p a r t of what makes every a s s o c i a t i o n unique. v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n i s f o r m a l l y democratic, that i s , i t i s c o n t r o l l e d and operated by i t s members. T h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that a l l members have equal l e v e l s of i n f l u e n c e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n -- u s u a l l y a s m a l l percentage of them have high involvement -- but non-members cannot p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the a s s o c i a t i o n , and a l l members can. T h i r d l y , members are f r e e to j o i n or leave. T h i s i s always o f f i c i a l l y the case, but v a r i o u s p r e s s u r e s o f t e n c r e a t e a r e a l i t y which i s f a r from f r e e . Related to t h i s i s the f a c t that c e r t a i n people are excluded from j o i n i n g . F o u r t h l y , the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n i s independent of other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and i s l e s s l i k e l y to s t r i v e f o r p o l i t i c a l power than f o r p o l i t i c a l means to accomplish i t s e x p l i c i t p u r p o s e ( s ) . Most im p o r t a n t l y , i t i s independent of government, although the a s s o c i a t i o n may t r y to i n f l u e n c e government, and/or may r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e from i t . F i f t h l y , the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n i s n o n - p r o f i t , that i s , making money i s not a c e n t r a l aim, although f u n d - r a i s i n g i s g e n e r a l l y necessary i n order to accomplish i t s true purposes. L a s t l y , the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n has a formal s t r u c t u r e , expressed i n a w r i t t e n c o n s t i t u t i o n or s e t of e x p l i c i t r u l e s . The d e f i n i t i o n which emerges from these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s : A v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n i s a formal, democratic, non- p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n of members who f r e e l y choose to work together towards a shared purpose, independently of other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n r a i s e s some i s s u e s which r e q u i r e f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n : how t r u l y f r e e and v o l u n t a r y i s the a s s o c i a t i o n ? how does i t s democratic s t r u c t u r e work? what degree of independence 17 does the a s s o c i a t i o n need to maintain i t s i d e n t i t y ? what d e f i n e s a member? The f i r s t i s s u e to address i n c o n s i d e r i n g the nature of the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n i s the nature of i t s v o l u n t a r i n e s s . Bernard Barber has p o i n t e d out t h a t " v o l u n t a r y membership i s never simply p s y c h o l o g i c a l w i l l i n g n e s s , but r a t h e r i s always patterned by a complex of s o c i a l , s t r u c t u r a l , and value c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . " 9 Some s c h o l a r s c o n s i d e r a l l n o n - p r o f i t a s s o c i a t i o n s to be v o l u n t a r y , but t h i s category i n c l u d e s the s t a t e i t s e l f , i n which membership i s a s c r i b e d . 1 0 As w i l l be shown l a t e r i n t h i s chapter, v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s have a l i f e c y c l e which, as time passes and c o n d i t i o n s change, f r e q u e n t l y b r i n g s them to a p o i n t at which they are no longer v o l u n t a r y , but p r e s c r i b e d . In a p r e s c r i b e d o r g a n i z a t i o n , the s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t non-members w i t h i n the u n i v e r s e of p o t e n t i a l members are so severe as to impair t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n g . For example, an American a r c h i v i s t who i s not a member of the S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s (SAA) l a c k s access to the networking and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s had by members, and i n the near f u t u r e w i l l l a c k the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n which i s l i k e l y to become a requirement f o r employment i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s ; h e r / h i s c a r e e r i s bound to s u f f e r . However, i n the e a r l y days of SAA i t was t r u l y a matter of f r e e choice as to whether an a r c h i v i s t j o i n e d or not. o Barber, 480. 1 0 P u g l i e s e , 9. 18 Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n to make with res p e c t to v o l u n t a r i n e s s i s t h a t few o r g a n i z a t i o n s are open to every member of s o c i e t y . Most are l i m i t e d by age, gender, l o c a t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n , r e l i g i o n , c l a s s or some other f a c t o r . Sometimes the c o n d i t i o n s f o r being accepted as members are a r t i c u l a t e d i n p o l i c y , as i n the case of a f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t y which r e q u i r e s t h a t a new member be sponsored by an e s t a b l i s h e d member. Other v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s s t i p u l a t e that t h e i r members not belong to p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y opposing o r g a n i z a t i o n s : the Cooperative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n ( C C F ) 1 1 used to enforce a r u l e f o r b i d d i n g Communists to j o i n i t s ranks, and a few years ago the Mormon Church e x p e l l e d a member f o r p u b l i c l y s u p p o r t i n g the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) movement. 1 2 Thus, i t can be s t a t e d that an i n d i v i d u a l can be viewed by an a s s o c i a t i o n i n three d i f f e r e n t ways: as a member, as a p o t e n t i a l member, or as one o u t s i d e the boundaries of permitted membership. The second i s s u e a r i s i n g from the d e f i n i t i o n of the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n r e f e r s to i t s democratic s t r u c t u r e . The s t r u c t u r e of most v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i s , at l e a s t i n i t i a l l y , d e m o c r a t i c , 1 3 and thus i n v o l v e s a c h a i r or p r e s i d e n t , a s e c r e t a r y , a t r e a s u r e r , and other e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s having r e g u l a r meetings with and without the other members, f o r which minutes 1 1 The CCF was a s o c i a l democratic p o l i t i c a l p a r t y which preceded the New Democratic P a r t y i n Canada, 1933-1961. 1 2 The pro-ERA movement was an attempt to entrench the r i g h t s of women i n t o the American C o n s t i t u t i o n . 1 3 A l e x i s de T o c q u e v i l l e , On Democracy. R e v o l u t i o n , and S o c i e t y : S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s , ed. John Stone and Stephen Mennell (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1980), 84. 19 are kept and made a v a i l a b l e to the membership. T h i s i s true of e v e r y t h i n g from the h i g h - s c h o o l drama a s s o c i a t i o n to the SAA. Yet the democratic i d e a l of a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n may become eroded over time. Robert M i c h e l s p o s t u l a t e s that v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s tend to f o r m a l i z e t h e i r governing s t r u c t u r e s as they grow, with c o n t r o l e v e n t u a l l y r e s t i n g i n the hands of a few, e l i t e members. 1 4 Whatever the i n t e n t i o n s of the founders, a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n soon amasses a l a r g e l y i n a c t i v e membership, while the e x e c u t i v e makes p o l i c y and conducts and d i r e c t s a c t i v i t i e s , to the p o i n t t h a t communication between the two becomes d i f f i c u l t : the democracy takes an o l i g a r c h i c f o r m , 1 5 or, as A l b e r t M e i s t e r puts i t , "delegated democracy" extends to a l l a c t i v i t i e s . 1 6 In the e v a l u a t i o n of the a s s o c i a t i o n and i t s i n d i v i d u a l members, t h i s development i s not n e c e s s a r i l y seen as a n e g a t i v e one. Even a d i s s a t i s f i e d member may not be w i l l i n g to make the e x t r a e f f o r t necessary to ensure p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l members, and the e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s may f e e l t h a t conducting the p o l icy-making and a c t i v i t i e s by themselves i s the only way to get the work done: the e n t h u s i a s t i c but i n e f f i c i e n t e a r l y days i n the 1 4 Robert M i c h e l s , P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s : A S o c i o l o g i c a l Study of the O l i g a r c h i c a l Tendencies of Modern Democracy, t r a n s . Eden and Cedar Paul (New York: C o l l i e r Books, 1962), 71. 1 5 Barber, 484-485; F. S t u a r t Chapin and John E. Tsouderos, " F o r m a l i z a t i o n Observed i n Ten V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s : Concepts, Morphology, Process," P a c i f i c S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 13 (1970): 309; Rose, Theory and Method. 57. 1 6 M e i s t e r , 148. 20 l i f e of the a s s o c i a t i o n may have been more democratic, but l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n r e a c h i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s g o a l s . T h i s i s s u e of democracy i s considered a l s o with r e s p e c t to the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n ' s r e l a t i o n s with i t s s o c i a l environment: while some s c h o l a r s argue that these a s s o c i a t i o n s are a democratic phenomenon and "a bulwark a g a i n s t the s t a t e " which f o r c e s the d i s p e r s i o n of s t a t e power, others have claimed that v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s can and do e x i s t i n non-democratic n a t i o n s , sometimes as instruments of the s t a t e . 1 7 That non- democratic government i s d e t r i m e n t a l to the s u r v i v a l of many v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i s demonstrated i n cases such as the e x i l e from the USSR of women i n i t i a t i n g f e m i n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the e a r l y 1980's, and the 1988 banning i n South A f r i c a of seventeen o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with the a n t i - a p a r t h e i d movement. The t h i r d i s s u e which a r i s e s from the d e f i n i t i o n of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s r e l a t e s to the degree of independence which an a s s o c i a t i o n r e q u i r e s w i t h i n s o c i e t y i n order to maintain a separate e x i s t e n c e . No o r g a n i z a t i o n has a t o t a l absence of l i n k s with other o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n a s o c i e t y . At the very l e a s t , most formal a s s o c i a t i o n s must be o f f i c i a l l y r e cognized by the s t a t e , 1 8 which g i v e s them a u t h o r i z a t i o n to c o l l e c t funds and conduct v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s which a f f e c t the c i t i z e n s , such as p u b l i c demonstrations. The N a t i o n a l Advisory C o u n c i l on V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n to the Government of Canada maintains 1 7 P u g l i e s e , 6-7. 1 8 Caplow, 23. t h a t independence of s o c i e t y ' s major i n s t i t u t i o n s i s fundamental to the i d e n t i t y of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . 1 9 V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s may have s t r o n g l i n k s with these i n s t i t u t i o n s , and with other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , but have b a s i c c o n t r o l over t h e i r own p o l i c i e s and a c t i v i t i e s . Some v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s are components of o t h e r s : f o r example, the G i r l Guides troupe at a l o c a l s c h o o l i s p a r t of a r e g i o n a l , a n a t i o n a l , and an i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n of G i r l Guides. No G i r l Guides troupe i s completely independent of i t s parent o r g a n i z a t i o n , but I n t e r n a t i o n a l G i r l Guides i s independent of any i n s t i t u t i o n when i t comes to d e v i s i n g plans and p o l i c i e s . The f o u r t h i s s u e a r i s i n g from the d e f i n i t i o n of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s r e f e r s to the nature of t h e i r members. A member must be a person, but may be a j u r i d i c a l or moral person, not n e c e s s a r i l y a p h y s i c a l one. Thus, a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n may be a c o a l i t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , some v o l u n t a r y and others not, which have v o l u n t a r i l y banded together f o r a c e r t a i n purpose. For example, the B r i t i s h Columbia c o a l i t i o n "End L e g i s l a t e d Poverty" i n c l u d e s 16 groups which aim to end poverty i n the p r o v i n c e , and among them are the F i r s t United Church, the Vancouver Unemployed A c t i o n Centre, Vancouver Status of Women, and the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t the member may be an o r g a n i z a t i o n r a t h e r than a p h y s i c a l person does not a l t e r the essence of the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n . 1 9 N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , 3, 19. 22 T h i s d i s c u s s i o n shows that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of v o l u n t a r i n e s s , democracy, independence, and i n d i v i d u a l membership do not n e c e s s a r i l y occur i n pure form i n any one v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , but they do e x i s t i n some measure i n a l l of them. Now t h a t t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been d e l i n e a t e d , i t i s necessary to c o n s i d e r the ways i n which v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s vary w i t h i n a s o c i e t y . II A s i n g l e v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n may change over time; l i k e any organic e n t i t y i t has a l i f e c y c l e . An a s s o c i a t i o n g e n e r a l l y begins i n f o r m a l l y , a r i s i n g from the i n i t i a t i v e of a group of persons i n response to a p e r c e i v e d need which can be s a t i s f i e d through c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t . The group g i v e s i t s e l f a t i t l e and a s t r u c t u r e , and begins to p u b l i c i z e i t s purposes i n order to r e c r u i t members. I t may model i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n upon s i m i l a r ones. For example, a h i g h - s c h o o l drama cl u b i s formed to p r o v i d e t h e a t r i c a l experience f o r any student of that s c h o o l who wishes to a c q u i r e i t , and mounts p e r i o d i c p r o d u c t i o n s f o r the s c h o o l community and i t s a s s o c i a t e s , with r e g u l a r a s s i s t a n c e from te a c h e r s and p a r e n t s . One h i g h - s c h o o l drama cl u b i s much l i k e another, and t h i s i s not by chance: the common purpose and the s i m i l a r circumstances make i t so. S t u a r t Chapin and John Tsouderos have d e l i n e a t e d f i v e stages of development f o r v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , each of which i s i d e n t i f i e d by a main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : (1) i n f o r m a l i t y , with l i m i t e d r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , (2) s t r u c t u r a l c o d i f i c a t i o n , with the c r e a t i o n of formal o f f i c e s , (3) s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , with the formation of committees, (4) s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n , with the development of new u n i t s and r e g i o n s , and (5) c o n t r o l reinforcement, with the c r e a t i o n of c o n t r o l u n i t s f o r the performance of s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s . 2 0 As the o r g a n i z a t i o n develops, i t a l s o s w e l l s i n membership -- indeed, these two f a c t o r s spur one another on. Furthermore, the r e c o r d s c r e a t e d i n c r e a s e i n f o r m a l i z a t i o n , types, and volume at each stage. C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between membership s i z e and s t a f f s i z e has been o b s e r v e d ; 2 1 i n f a c t , a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s a complex a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p p a r a t u s . 2 2 Chapin and Tsouderos a l s o p r o v i d e an overview of the phenomena accompanying the maturation and growth of a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n : meetings become r e g u l a r i z e d ; there are more and more "nominal members", th a t i s , members who seldom a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e ; the e x e c u t i v e works longer hours, e s p e c i a l l y i f permanent o f f i c e s t a f f i s h i r e d ; r e p o r t s to membership pass from an o r a l to a w r i t t e n form; means of j o i n i n g become more impersonal and formal; and the income and p r o p e r t y possessed by the a s s o c i a t i o n i n c r e a s e . 2 3 2 0 Chapin and Tsouderos, " F o r m a l i z a t i o n Observed": 308-309. 2 1 Akers and Campbell, 241-251. 2 2 Caplow, 28. 2 3 F. S t u a r t Chapin and John E. Tsouderos, "The F o r m a l i z a t i o n Process i n V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s , " S o c i a l Forces 34 (1956): 342-344. 24 I t i s important to r e a l i s e t h a t many v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s do not l a s t long enough to evolve very much; that i s , they have a sho r t l i f e s p a n . T h i s s h o r t l i f e may be a t t r i b u t e d to success: f o r example, the Women's Su f f r a g e League disbanded a f t e r women won the r i g h t to vote, a myriad of anti-war a s s o c i a t i o n s disappeared when the Vietnam War ended, and the Temperance Leagues of the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s century d i e d when a l c o h o l was p r o h i b i t e d . These o r g a n i z a t i o n s were never meant to be permanent. Once t h e i r p o l i t i c a l g o a l s were achieved, t h e i r r a i s o n d'§tre no longer e x i s t e d . In some cases, a sh o r t l i f e s p a n i s due to f a i l u r e i n accomplishing the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s g o a l s . Obviously, the a s s o c i a t i o n s which d i e f o r such a reason are not very w e l l known, although they are l e g i o n . However, a sh o r t l i f e s p a n does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y connote l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n c e to s o c i e t y , even i f the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n d i e s without a c h i e v i n g i t s g o a l s . During i t s l i f e s p a n , a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n may acq u i r e " s a t e l l i t e s " , t h a t i s , a t t r a c t secondary o r g a n i z a t i o n s under i t s aus p i c e s . I t i s a l s o l i k e l y to enter i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s with a v a r i e t y of other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . These circumstances are i n d i c e s of m a t u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y i n the a s s o c i a t i o n . Once i t has become f o r m a l i z e d , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , and l a r g e i n terms of membership, the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n may lose i t s v o l u n t a r y nature. T h i s i s seldom seen by i t s proponents as damaging; r a t h e r , i t strengthens the o r g a n i z a t i o n by s e c u r i n g membership on a permanent b a s i s . T h i s i s the case, f o r i n s t a n c e , when a church i s designated the o f f i c i a l church of a n a t i o n , or 25 when membership i n the a p p r o p r i a t e union i s r e q u i r e d before a person can be h i r e d by a c e r t a i n business to do a p a r t i c u l a r s o r t of work. When t h i s development occurs, the o r g a n i z a t i o n becomes something other than a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n ; over time the o r g a n i z a t i o n may r e v e r t to v o l u n t a r y membership, but such a development i s p e r c e i v e d as a weakening. I l l The second way i n which v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s vary w i t h i n s o c i e t y i s by category; many d i f f e r e n t types of a s s o c i a t i o n s c o e x i s t , not always harmoniously. V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s have been v a r i o u s l y c a t e g o r i z e d . 2 4 The c a t e g o r i z a t i o n most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a r c h i v a l purposes i s f u n c t i o n a l and d i s t i n g u i s h e s e i g h t o v e r l a p p i n g types of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s : (1) p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s , such as p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , p r o t e s t movements, and lobby groups, aimed at a c h i e v i n g p o l i t i c a l power and/or u s i n g p o l i t i c a l means to modify some a s p e c t ( s ) of s o c i e t y (2) p r o f e s s i o n a l or o c c u p a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of persons educated f o r or working in the same p r o f e s s i o n , meeting f o r purposes of i n f o r m a t i o n exchange, networking, and.achieving common go a l s (3) r e s e a r c h a s s o c i a t i o n s engaged i n s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h i n a c e r t a i n s u b j e c t area, sometimes i n the form of a " t h i n k tank" (4) economic a s s o c i a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s , b usiness a s s o c i a t i o n s , trade a s s o c i a t i o n s , and unions, intended to improve the f i n a n c i a l resources and working c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r members 2 4 For example, see Dale A. Somers et a l . , "Surveying the Records of a C i t y : the H i s t o r y of A t l a n t a P r o j e c t , " American A r c h i v i s t 36 (1973): 354; Caplow, 45; Rose,1 Theory and Method. 52; and P u g l i e s e , 8. 26 (5) r e l i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s , such as churches, movements and groups w i t h i n them, and o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i n k i n g them ( f o r example, the I n t e r v a r s i t y C h r i s t i a n F e l l o w s h i p ) , aimed at promoting r e l i g i o u s dogmas and v a l u e s (6) s e r v i c e a s s o c i a t i o n s committed to improving the l i v e s of disadvantaged groups and persons, p a r t i c u l a r l y through education, medical a s s i s t a n c e , and c h a r i t y (7) s e l f - h e l p a s s o c i a t i o n s which work towards the improvement of the members' l i v e s (such as Weight Watchers and A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous) (8) s o c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s which are concerned with entertainment and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n on the b a s i s of shared a c t i v i t i e s (such as s p o r t s , games, hobbies, the a r t s ) or shared p e r s o n a l t r a i t s (such as e t h n i c o r i g i n or s p e c i a l a b i l i t y ) . The o v e r l a p amongst these c a t e g o r i e s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s can be most c l e a r l y seen when s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s are c o n s i d e r e d , because most types of o r g a n i z a t i o n s engage i n p u b l i c s e r v i c e on o c c a s i o n . For example, f r a t e r n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s such as Orange Lodges are o r i e n t e d almost e q u a l l y to p u b l i c s e r v i c e and s o c i a l i z i n g amongst themselves, and furthermore, are t r a d i t i o n a l l y staunch P r o t e s t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . However, the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s based on the c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n c l e a r l y expressed i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n of most a s s o c i a t i o n s , not on the secondary f u n c t i o n s which they a l l have. Moreover, these c a t e g o r i e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y correspond to those p e r c e i v e d by the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s themselves, or to those u s u a l l y adopted by a r c h i v i s t s . They rep r e s e n t the typology most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a r c h i v a l a n a l y s i s , that i s , a f u n c t i o n a l one. 27 IV A t h i r d manner i n which v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s vary i s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g other v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . Seven d i f f e r e n t types of l i n k a g e s are apparent: primary and component, c o - o p e r a t i v e , c o - o r d i n a t e , c o m p e t i t i v e or opposing, l o b b y i s t and i n s t i t u t i o n , sponsor and b e n e f i c i a r y , and mergers. S p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be gi v e n to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s and government. A primary and component r e l a t i o n s h i p may e x i s t between a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n and some p a r t of i t s e l f , or between a non- v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n and a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h i n i t . An example of the l a t t e r would be a s p o r t s team made up of employees of a c e r t a i n bank. There are three d i f f e r e n t types of components: those whose members are completely drawn from w i t h i n the primary o r g a n i z a t i o n (such as the l o c a l branch of a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y ) , those whose members are completely drawn from o u t s i d e the primary o r g a n i z a t i o n (such as the l a d i e s a u x i l i a r y of a men's c l u b ) , and those whose members are both members and non-members of the primary o r g a n i z a t i o n (such as a boy scout troupe a s s o c i a t e d with a c h u r c h ) . 2 5 A component may or may not be f o r m a l l y a u t h o r i z e d by the primary o r g a n i z a t i o n ; some unauthorized components become f a o t i o n s , whose aims are not sanctioned and are perhaps f o r b i d d e n by the primary o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2 6 An example of t h i s i s the group w i t h i n the 2 5 Warner and Lunt, 309-316. 2 6 Caplow, 17. L i b e r a l P a r t y of Canada which t r i e d to d i s l o d g e John Turner from the p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p i n 1987 and 1988. Co-operation between a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n and another o r g a n i z a t i o n i s another type of r e l a t i o n s h i p , one example being a musical band which uses the f a c i l i t i e s of a Royal Canadian Legion H a l l i n r e t u r n f o r p l a y i n g r e g u l a r c o n c e r t s f o r Legion members. A v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n may be l i n k e d to other o r g a n i z a t i o n s through a c o - o r d i n a t e a s s o c i a t i o n , composed of d e l e g a t e s from o r g a n i z a t i o n s with common i n t e r e s t s . 2 7 Co-ordinate a s s o c i a t i o n s were d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, with r e f e r e n c e to the d i f f e r e n t types of membership ( j u r i d i c a l and p h y s i c a l persons as members). T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a s p e c i a l type of c o - o p e r a t i o n . Competitive and opposing r e l a t i o n s h i p s occur between a s s o c i a t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s which are e i t h e r very s i m i l a r or a n t i t h e t i c a l to one another. T h i s type of r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t e n proves to be a v i t a l i z i n g f o r c e w i t h i n the a s s o c i a t i o n s i n v o l v e d . Arnold M. Rose has observed that v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s under c o n d i t i o n s of competition and c o n f l i c t tend to be more a c t i v e i n the p u r s u i t of t h e i r g o a l s , more l i k e l y to develop a complex s t r u c t u r e and to meet f r e q u e n t l y , to be f l e x i b l e , and to e x h i b i t g r e a t e r group cohesion than other v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . 2 8 Thus, competition i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r m a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . P o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s 2 7 Warner and Lunt, 312. 2 8 Arnold M. Rose, "Voluntary A s s o c i a t i o n s Under C o n d i t i o n s of Competition and C o n f l i c t , " S o c i a l F o r c e s 34 (1955): 159-163. compete with one another i n order to gain the r i g h t to represent the p o p u l a t i o n i n a democratic government. At the same time, p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s tend to have p o l i c i e s which oppose one another; f o r example, the New Democratic P a r t y of Canada opposes f r e e trade with the United S t a t e s , while the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y of Canada supports i t . The l o b b y i s t - i n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p occurs mostly i n democratic s o c i e t i e s , and the i n s t i t u t i o n i n v o l v e d i s u s u a l l y — but not n e c e s s a r i l y -- government. The v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n a c t i n g as l o b b y i s t t r i e s to p u b l i c l y i n f l u e n c e the p o l i c y of the i n s t i t u t i o n i n some s p e c i f i c areas. For example, the Women's Suf f r a g e League l o b b i e d to ga i n women's r i g h t to vote i n democratic e l e c t i o n s . Modern f e m i n i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s have l o b b i e d the p u b l i s h e r s of newspapers, magazines, and sch o o l textbooks to use n o n - s e x i s t language i n t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s . The s i x t h type of l i n k a g e between a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n and another o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s p o n s o r - b e n e f i c i a r y . An a s s o c i a t i o n may r e c e i v e some type of grant from a government body or a p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s or foundation -- or an a s s o c i a t i o n may g i v e a grant to another o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s grant may come with c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s c o ncerning the manner of i t s use, which can compromise the independence of the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n r e c e i v i n g i t . The main t h r u s t of sponsorship, however, tends to support the g e n e r a l aims and s p e c i f i c programmes of the a s s o c i a t i o n , not to a l t e r these aims and programmes. An example of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s prov i d e d by a trade union donating money and the time of i t s members to a c h a r i t y f o r the d i s a b l e d . A sponsorship may occur as a one-time donation, or as long-term a s s i s t a n c e . Mergers, the f i n a l type of r e l a t i o n s h i p between v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d here, i n v o l v e the j o i n i n g of two or more o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n such a complete manner that t h e i r independent i d e n t i t i e s are l o s t . A merger g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e s two o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the same type, thus v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s merge with other v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . An example of t h i s i s the CCF, which grew out of a merger between the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y of Canada and the League f o r S o c i a l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Government i s the most p e r v a s i v e , i n f l u e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n a n a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e the l i n k s a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n has with government agencies tend to have gr e a t impact on the a s s o c i a t i o n . A l l types of r e l a t i o n s h i p s except "mergers" can occur between a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n and government, the most common being " l o b b y i s t - i n s t i t u t i o n " and " s p o n s o r - b e n e f i c i a r y " . Rose has observed that many v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s act as pre s s u r e groups upon government, and that some measure of the s o c i a l changes which they are l o b b y i n g f o r g e n e r a l l y do come to p a s s . 2 9 The N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n p o i n t s out that v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n "permits many Canadians ... to e x e r c i s e a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the f o r m u l a t i o n and execution of p u b l i c p o l i c y " . 3 0 The A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l s t a t e s that the other main type of i n t e r a c t i o n occurs i n the form of gr a n t s , payments, and 2 9 Rose, Theory and Method. 67-70. 3 0 N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , 29. 31 support s e r v i c e s which the government p r o v i d e s f o r as s o r t e d v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . 3 1 Accounting f o r the manner i n which the government a i d i s used o f t e n becomes an onerous duty f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n . 3 2 Furthermore, government p o l i c i e s not aimed at v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s have an i n d i r e c t e f f e c t upon the a s s o c i a t i o n s ; 3 3 f o r example a m u n i c i p a l r e - z o n i n g by-law may f o r c e an a s s o c i a t i o n to move i t s o f f i c e to a d i f f e r e n t p a r t of town. Armed with some understanding of the nature of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e i r l i f e c y c l e , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with other o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n s o c i e t y , we are ready to co n s i d e r t h e i r r e c o r d s - keeping p r a c t i c e s and the manner i n which a r c h i v i s t s approach p r e s e r v i n g the a r c h i v e s which r e s u l t . 3 1 I b i d . , 153-155. 3 2 I b i d . , 161. 3 3 I b i d . , 159. CHAPTER TWO ARCHIVES AND VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS I The r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s have r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from a r c h i v i s t s and other s c h o l a r s . 1 A r c h i v i s t s have some understanding of the records systems of very l a r g e n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , such as the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Red Cross, which have b u r e a u c r a c i e s s i m i l a r to those of businesses and governments, but they know much l e s s about the re c o r d s of the more t y p i c a l s m a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s p o s s e s s i n g minimal s t a f f and reco r d s - k e e p i n g r e s o u r c e s . E l l e n S t a r r B r i n t o n , who cares f o r the re c o r d s of peace a c t i v i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s , has observed that l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s pa i d to r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g i n these o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t h e r e f o r e e c c e n t r i c a r c h i v e s are created by them; 2 Darlene Roth, who works with the a r c h i v e s of women's a s s o c i a t i o n s , concurs: "poor r e c o r d - keeping seems to be endemic to v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s " 3 One reason f o r t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s may be that v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s l a c k the resources to h i r e an a r c h i v i s t or records 1 The s c h o l a r l y l i t e r a t u r e d e a l t with here i s mainly Canadian and American a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e , with some B r i t i s h and t r a n s l a t i o n s of foreign-language w r i t i n g s as w e l l . 2 E l l e n S t a r r B r i n t o n , " A r c h i v e s of Causes and Movements: D i f f i c u l t i e s and Some S o l u t i o n s as I l l u s t r a t e d by the Swarthmore C o l l e g e Peace C o l l e c t i o n , " American A r c h i v i s t 14 (1951): 148. 3 Roth, 38. 32 33 manager. 4 Another i s that they are of t e n so small that they do not c r e a t e a gre a t many rec o r d s , never b o t h e r i n g to de v i s e a s p e c i a l i z e d f i l i n g system, and a l l o w i n g very long p e r i o d s to pass before o l d f i l e s are c l o s e d and f r e s h ones opened. 5 I t i s common f o r a s s o c i a t i o n s to p l a c e o l d e r f i l e s i n storage r a t h e r than d e s t r o y them. 6 Two other c a u s a l f a c t o r s f o r the r e l a t i v e l y low volume of records are that much of the communication w i t h i n a small a s s o c i a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out o r a l l y ( i n person or over the phone) and never r e c o r d e d , 7 and th a t v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s have fewer f i n a n c i a l and l e g a l i n c e n t i v e s to preserve r e c o r d s than do many other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 8 Furthermore, when the ex e c u t i v e of an a s s o c i a t i o n which l a c k s o f f i c e space changes, the rec o r d s s t o r e d i n the homes of the pr e v i o u s e x e c u t i v e move to the homes of the new one, and many l o s s e s are s u s t a i n e d through t h i s p r o c e s s . 9 4 Roth, 38. 5 Robert B a l l e n t i n e , "Records and A r c h i v e s of the P r o f e s s i o n s , " American A r c h i v i s t 29 (1966): 192. 8 I b i d . : 192. 7 Eva Mosley, "Women i n A r c h i v e s : Documenting the H i s t o r y of Women i n America," American A r c h i v i s t 36 (1973): 219. 8 Nancy Stunden, "Labour, Records, and A r c h i v e s : the St r u g g l e f o r a H e r i t a g e , " A r c h i v a r i a 4 (1977): 85. 9 B a l l e n t i n e , 194; Roth, 38. Roth t e l l s the f o l l o w i n g amusing anecdote showing a worst-case s c e n a r i o : One r a t h e r humorous example of t h i s process i s a woman's c l u b which r e p u t e d l y c a r r i e s a locked, f o u r - drawer, f i l i n g c a b i n e t of clu b " r e c o r d s " along with the r e s t of i t s p r e s i d e n t i a l baggage. The c a b i n e t , which r e q u i r e s two men to move i t , has gone from c h i e f o f f i c i a l to c h i e f o f f i c i a l f o r years. No one knows what i s i n s i d e , because no one has the key. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s under normal circumstances f o r d e t e r i o r a t i o n , d i s a s t e r , and misplacement are m u l t i p l i e d by the number of d i f f e r e n t persons who care f o r the records i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . 1 0 Michael L u t z k e r has observed t h a t i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s , c o n f l i c t i n g p o l i c i e s , and o u t s i d e f o r c e s a f f e c t the a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s of any o r g a n i z a t i o n ; 1 1 these f o r c e s can become neg a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s on the re c o r d s of a s m a l l v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n . Another problem i s presented by the i n c a p a b i l i t y of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s to care f o r t h e i r own records once these become i n a c t i v e . I f an a s s o c i a t i o n i s l a r g e , s t a b l e , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y complex, i t may handle i t s own re c o r d s very w e l l , f o r example, the A s s o c i a t i o n of R e g i s t e r e d Nurses of Newfoundland and Labrador has s e t a s i d e a few rooms f o r records storage and h i r e d a p a r t - t i m e a r c h i v i s t to care f o r i t s a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s . However, even when a l a r g e r a s s o c i a t i o n has an a r c h i v i s t , t h i s tends to be at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l only, with r e c o r d s at a l l other l e v e l s c i r c u l a t i n g and s p l i t among the d i f f e r e n t o f f i c e r s of the a s s o c i a t i o n . 1 2 A more t y p i c a l example of the way a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n t r e a t s i t s r e c o r d s i s the St. John's Status of Women C o u n c i l , whose s t a f f and v o l u n t e e r s are f a r too busy d e a l i n g with c u r r e n t b u s i n e s s to s o r t through t h e i r 1 0 Roth, 38. 1 1 Michael A. Lu t z k e r , "Max Weber and the A n a l y s i s of Modern B u r e a u c r a t i c O r g a n i z a t i o n : Notes Toward a Theory of A p p r a i s a l , " American A r c h i v i s t 45 (1982): 126, 129. 1 2 Roth: 38. 35 f i l e s , even though they wish to pre s e r v e t h e i r own h i s t o r y . 1 3 Many o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , have no arrangements f o r re c o r d s p r e s e r v a t i o n at a l l , and r e t a i n only the records of immediate value to t h e i r c u r r e n t a c t i v i t y . 1 4 In summary, the a r c h i v e s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s tend to be "unprocessed, u n i d e n t i f i e d , and u n c o l l e c t e d " by t h e i r c r e a t o r s . 1 5 The a c q u i s i t i o n of those a r c h i v e s by a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s seems to be the onl y p o s s i b i l i t y of s a v i n g them from complete d e s t r u c t i o n . But i n order f o r i t s a r c h i v e s ever to reach an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y , a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n must take some steps to pr e s e r v e them, and t h i s i s not very l i k e l y to happen. In f a c t , voluntary, a s s o c i a t i o n s are a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d and, as Eva Mosley p o i n t s out, " l i k e o t h ers o r i e n t e d to a c t i o n r a t h e r than to r e s e a r c h , many p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the women's movement [and other v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s ] are not aware of the value of keeping p a p e r s " . 1 8 Even the o f f i c i a l s i n charge seldom t r o u b l e to e s t a b l i s h some measure of p r e s e r v a t i o n f o r t h e i r r e c o r d s . 1 7 When an a s s o c i a t i o n disbands, i t s a r c h i v e s are 1 3 These examples are drawn from r e s e a r c h conducted by the author of t h i s t h e s i s f o r the A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on the Status of Women, May-July 1987. 1 4 L a r r y Hackman and Joan Warnow-Blewett, "The Documentation S t r a t e g y Process: a Model and a Case Study," American A r c h i v i s t 50 (1987): 16. 1 5 I b i d . 1 8 Mosley, 29. 1 7 L e s t e r J . Cappon, "The A r c h i v i s t as C o l l e c t o r , " American A r c h i v i s t 39 (1976): 432. 36 u s u a l l y soon l o s t , s c a t t e r e d , and destroyed, a r e a l i t y w e l l represented i n the ex p r e s s i o n " i n s t a n t a r c h i v e s " used by Gerald Ham with r e f e r e n c e to the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . 1 8 When the choice to preserve an a s s o c i a t i o n ' s a r c h i v e s a c t u a l l y i s made, t h i s c h o i c e (or so the scant l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t i n d i c a t e s ) u s u a l l y d e r i v e s from an i n d i v i d u a l , p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n , independently made by one member of the a s s o c i a t i o n . 1 8 L e s t e r Cappon prese n t s evidence of t h i s when he notes t h a t the records of defunct o r g a n i z a t i o n s are o f t e n found among p e r s o n a l p a p e r s . 2 0 Thus, the i n i t a t i v e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s ' r e c ords must come from the a r c h i v i s t . The qu e s t i o n i s , are a r c h i v i s t s a c t i v e l y engaged i n a c q u i r i n g these r e c o r d s ? II A study of a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n of the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s d i v i d e s n a t u r a l l y i n t o three areas of concern: a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s , a c t u a l a c q u i s i t i o n p r a c t i c e s , and the nature of e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a r c h i v i s t s and the members of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . 1 8 Gerald F. Ham, "The A r c h i v a l Edge," American A r c h i v i s t 14 (1975): 9. 1 9 Sarah Cooper, "The P o l i t i c s of P r o t e s t C o l l e c t i o n s : Developing S o c i a l A c t i o n A r c h i v e s , " Provenance 5:1 (1987): 10. 2 0 Cappon, 432. 37 A c q u i s i t i o n P o l i c i e s Although i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y f o r an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y should be w e l l thought out and c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d , many r e p o s i t o r i e s continue to operate under p o l i c i e s which are vague, unmanageably broad, or otherwise i n a d e q u a t e . 2 1 The r e s u l t i s that the a r c h i v e s of many s i g n i f i c a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s p e r i s h before r e a c h i n g the sa f e haven of an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y . Furthermore, i n the past f i f t e e n years a r c h i v i s t s of most r e p o s i t o r i e s have been f o r c e d to c u r t a i l t h e i r c o l l e c t i n g h a b i t s , by e i t h e r economic c o n s t r a i n t s or the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the ongoing t r a n s f e r s of t h e i r s ponsoring i n s t i t u t i o n s and the e x i s t i n g h o l d i n g s p r o v i d e as much work as they can adequately perform. The records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s which reach a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s under these circumstances do so by u n s o l i c i t e d d o n a t i o n . 2 2 A c o n s e r v a t i v e trend i n s o c i e t y d u r i n g the same p e r i o d may a l s o have had a nega t i v e i n f l u e n c e on a c q u i s i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y with regard to the 2 1 Among the c r i t i c s of contemporary a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s are Susan G r i g g , "A World of R e p o s i t o r i e s , a World of Records: R e d e f i n i n g the Scope of a N a t i o n a l Subject C o l l e c t i o n , " American A r c h i v i s t 48 (1985): 291 and Mary Lynn McCree, "Good Sense and Good Judgement: D e f i n i n g C o l l e c t i o n s and C o l l e c t i n g , " Drexel L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y 11 (January 1975); r p t . i n A Modern A r c h i v e s Reader. eds. Maygene F. D a n i e l s and Timothy Walch, (Washington: N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s T r u s t Fund Board, 1984), 104. 2 2 The author of t h i s t h e s i s has observed t h i s p r a c t i c e of p a s s i v e r e c e i p t of such records at the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of Newfoundland and Labrador and the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Nova S c o t i a , and been t o l d about i t at the Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s . E r n s t Posner has noted t h a t many American s t a t e a r c h i v e s have a long s t a n d i n g p r a c t i c e of p a s s i v e l y a c c e p t i n g p r i v a t e papers but not a c t i v e l y seeking them, i n h i s American S t a t e A r c h i v e s (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1964), 346. r e c o r d s of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t groups which c h a l l e n g e the e s t a b l i s h e d systems of s o c i e t y : Gould P. Colman's comment that the a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n has become p o l i t i c i z e d to the p o i n t of "skewing the study of c u l t u r e by the s t u d i e d p r e s e r v a t i o n of u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d i c a t o r s of t h a t c u l t u r e " i s echoed by other a r c h i v i s t s i n p r i n t . 2 3 A r c h i v i s t s , s c h o l a r s , and other concerned persons a c t i n g upon the problem of gaps i n the h o l d i n g s of "mainstream" a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s have f r e q u e n t l y — perhaps one may say, g e n e r a l l y -- taken the tack of e s t a b l i s h i n g e i t h e r s p e c i a l - s u b j e c t r e p o s i t o r i e s or s u b j e c t emphases w i t h i n b r o a d l y mandated r e p o s i t o r i e s . Many records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s which might otherwise be l o s t have been c o l l e c t e d by such r e p o s i t o r i e s . Examples are the r e c ords of Jewish c h a r i t i e s preserved by the Montreal Jewish P u b l i c L i b r a r y and A r c h i v e s ; 2 4 the papers of the Swedish Engineers S o c i e t y at the Swedish Pioneer A r c h i v e s ; 2 5 the a r c h i v e s of the s u f f r a g i s t movement at the A rthur and E l i z a b e t h S c h l e s i n g e r L i b r a r y on the H i s t o r y of Women i n A m e r i c a " ; 2 6 2 3 Gould P. Colman, l e t t e r to "The Forum: Communications from Members" American A r c h i v i s t 36 (1973): 484; P a t r i c k M. Quinn, " A r c h i v i s t s A g a i n s t the C u r r ent: f o r a f a i r and t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e c o r d of our times." Provenance 5:1 (1987): 3; Cooper: 8-16; Howard Zinn, "Secrecy, A r c h i v e s , and the P u b l i c I n t e r e s t , " Midwestern A r c h i v i s t 2 (1977): 14-26. 2 4 Evelyn M i l l e r , "The H i s t o r y of the Montreal Jewish P u b l i c L i b r a r y and A r c h i v e s , " Canadian A r c h i v i s t 2 (1970): 52. 2 5 Wesley M. Westerberg, "The Swedish Pioneer A r c h i v e s , " I l l i n o i s L i b r a r i e s 63 (1981): 298. 2 6 Mosley: 216. 39 records of p a c i f i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s at the Swarthmore C o l l e g e Peace C o l l e c t i o n ; 2 7 union f i l e s i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the A r c h i v e s of Labour and Urban A f f a i r s at Wayne State U n i v e r s i t y . 2 8 These r e p o s i t o r i e s are s c a t t e r e d a l l over Canada and the United S t a t e s , and c l a i m u n l i m i t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r s u b j e c t s . The a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s of s p e c i a l - s u b j e c t r e p o s i t o r i e s help preserve the a r c h i v e s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , but they do not s o l v e the problem of widespread n e g l e c t of these records, because these r e p o s i t o r i e s are b u i l t upon f a u l t y t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s . T h e i r main f a i l i n g i s th a t , being o r i e n t e d to s u b j e c t s r a t h e r than to c r e a t i n g agencies, they do not take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the records of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which do not n e a t l y f i t under a " r e l e v a n t " s u b j e c t heading. None of the r e p o s i t o r i e s mentioned above would be l i k e l y to seek out the records of the End L e g i s l a t e d Poverty C o a l i t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r example. Furthermore, these r e p o s i t o r i e s are l e d by t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n a s u b j e c t i n t o the dangerous quicksands of c r e a t i n g documentation, u s i n g such methods as o r a l h i s t o r y . 2 9 2 7 B r i n t o n : 147-153. 2 8 Richard Kesner, "Labor Union Grievance Records: An A p p r a i s a l S t r a t e g y , " A r c h i v a r i a 8 (1979): 102-114. 2 9 O r a l h i s t o r y i s p r a c t i c e d at the Western Jewish A r c h i v e s of Canada [A.J. A r n o l d , "The B i r t h and Development of a Western Jewish A r c h i v e s Program," Canadian A r c h i v i s t 2 (1972): 26], the Wayne State U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s of Labor and Urban A f f a i r s [ P h i l i p P. Mason, "Wayne St a t e U n i v e r s i t y : the A r c h i v e s of Labor and Urban A f f a i r s , " A r c h i v a r i a 4 (1977): 137], and the Montreal Jewish P u b l i c L i b r a r y and A r c h i v e s [Evelyn M i l l e r : 53], among ot h e r s . 40 A r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s are not about c r e a t i n g h i s t o r i c a l sources, as some would have i t , but r a t h e r about p r e s e r v i n g and making a c c e s s i b l e a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s . 3 0 O r a l h i s t o r i e s prepared or commissioned by a r c h i v i s t s about the o r g a n i z a t i o n s they wish to document are not a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s . 3 1 In a d d i t i o n , s p e c i a l - s u b j e c t r e p o s i t o r i e s tend, j u s t as do the m a j o r i t y of a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , to weight t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n s towards the papers of "prominent and n o t a b l e " persons and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , 3 2 and to document i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r than "movements". 3 3 T h e r e f o r e , they do not answer s o c i e t y ' s need f o r adequate documentation of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . The crux of the problem with a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s of a l l types of a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s l i e s i n the l a c k of an e s t a b l i s h e d theory of a c q u i s i t i o n on the b a s i s of which standards can be developed. As L a r r y Hackman and Joan Warnow-Blewett put i t , L i t e r a t u r e on e s t a b l i s h i n g a sound a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y i s among the s k i m p i e s t areas w i t h i n a r c h i v a l w r i t i n g . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , then, to f i n d c o m petition and d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t i n many f u n c t i o n a l and s u b j e c t 3 0 B r i t i s h a r c h i v i s t S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson has s t a t e d that " a r c h i v e s are not drawn up i n the i n t e r e s t or f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n of P o s t e r i t y " ; h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the primary d u t i e s of the a r c h i v i s t i s a l s o r e l e v a n t here. See H i l a r y Jenkinson, A Manual of A r c h i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (London: Percy Lund, Humphries & Co., 1965), 11-15. 3 1 That i s to say, o r a l h i s t o r i e s are not a r c h i v a l r e c o rds of the agencies themselves, although they may be a r c h i v a l records of a r e p o s i t o r y i f they have been cr e a t e d as p a r t of a p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y such as producing an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i s t o r y . 3 2 L i n d a J . Henry, " C o l l e c t i n g P o l i c i e s of S p e c i a l - S u b j e c t R e p o s i t o r i e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 43 (1980): 57. 3 3 Z i n n : 21. 41 areas and l i t t l e or no e f f o r t i n others, even i n regions with numerous c o l l e c t i n g p r o g r a m s . 3 4 A c q u i s i t i o n P r a o t i o e a Not much has been w r i t t e n concerning a r c h i v i s t s ' approach to a c q u i r i n g the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s per se, although numerous comments and c r i t i c i s m s have been made about a c q u i s i t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n g e n e r a l . L e s t e r Cappon speaks of the search f o r the records of o r g a n i z a t i o n s as a d i f f i c u l t task: the records of "defunct o r g a n i z a t i o n s " are e l u s i v e , o f t e n appearing by chance among the p e r s o n a l papers of t h e i r members; the re c o r d s of l i v i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s can be even harder to a c q u i r e as o f f i c i a l s are u n w i l l i n g to e i t h e r p a r t from them or e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s . 3 5 Gerald F. Ham observes t h a t there i s a p r a c t i c e of a l l o w i n g h i s t o r i a n s a s s o c i a t e d with a r e p o s i t o r y to d i r e c t and engage i n much of i t s a c t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n , which i s u n d e s i r a b l e because i t makes "the a r c h i v i s t too c l o s e l y t i e d to the vogue of the academic m a r k e t p l a c e . " 3 6 T h i s i n f l u e n c e by h i s t o r i a n s has been a l a s t i n g phenomenon i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s ; F r e d e r i c M i l l e r s t a t e s t h a t , because a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e s have long d e r i v e d from n i n e t e e n t h century h i s t o r i c a l methodology and emphases, a c q u i s i t i o n has been focussed upon p o l i t i c a l and economic i n s t i t u t i o n s and the l i v e s of prominent 3 4 Hackman and Warnow-Blewett: 15. 3 5 Cappon: 432. 3 8 Ham: 329. p e r s o n s . 3 7 A c t u a l methods of a c q u i s i t i o n have been l i t t l e d i s c u s s e d , except f o r the records survey, which w i l l t h e r e f o r e be s i n g l e d out here. John F l e c k n e r d e f i n e s the records survey as "a s y s t e m a t i c procedure used by a r c h i v i s t s , r e c o rds managers, and others to gather i n f o r m a t i o n about records and papers not i n t h e i r immediate c u s t o d y . " 3 8 He s t a t e s t h a t the records survey i s a t o o l used to achieve a l a r g e r g o a l , t h i s g o a l being s c h e d u l i n g and d i s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a records management programme, amassing a census of h o l d i n g s at v a r i o u s r e p o s i t o r i e s i n a s u b j e c t or g e o g r a p h i c a l area towards a p u b l i s h e d guide, or (of most re l e v a n c e here) s u r v e y i n g the records of v a r i o u s agencies i n a s u b j e c t or g e o g r a p h i c a l area so as to p l a n a c q u i s i t i o n s . 3 9 There have been three g e n e r a t i o n s of records surveys i n the United S t a t e s d u r i n g t h i s century (the second and t h i r d o c c u r r i n g i n Canada as w e l l ) : the Works Progress A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s H i s t o r i c a l Records Survey d u r i n g the 1930's Depression, which provided jobs and many l a s t i n g l y u s e f u l r e p o r t s on records across the United S t a t e s ; a wave of s m a l l - s c a l e p r o j e c t s o c c u r r i n g i n i s o l a t i o n from one another from the 1940's onwards; and most r e c e n t l y , a 3 7 F r e d e r i c M. M i l l e r , " S o c i a l H i s t o r y and A r c h i v a l P r a c t i c e , " American A r c h i v i s t 44 (1981): 113. M i l l e r argues that the new i n f l u e n c e on a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n should be s o c i a l h i s t o r y , m i s s i n g the r e a l p o i n t t h a t a r c h i v i s t s engaged i n a c q u i s i t i o n should eschew the i n f l u e n c e of h i s t o r i a n s a l t o g e t h e r . 3 8 John A. F l e c k n e r , "Reaching Out: the P l a c e of Records Surveys i n A r c h i v a l P r a c t i c e , " Midwestern A r c h i v i s t 2 (1977): 16. 3 9 I b i d . , 16. 43 s e r i e s of c o o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t s i n t e n s i v e l y planned and c a r e f u l l y designed so as to produce optimal r e s u l t s . 4 0 In f a c t , r e c o rds surveys have become so popular that i t has been necessary f o r Ham to p o i n t out that they are a " l o g i s t i c a l d e v i c e " , a step i n the a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s , not an a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g y i n t h e m s e l v e s . 4 1 Records surveys most commonly use q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s , but a l s o form l e t t e r s and j o u r n a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . 4 2 At l e a s t one records survey has been aimed d i r e c t l y at v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s : between 1962 and 1966, a S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s committee concerned with the a r c h i v e s of p r o f e s s i o n s d i s t r i b u t e d and analysed a q u e s t i o n n a i r e concerning the records of p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . 4 3 A r c h i v i s t s and V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s A r c h i v i s t s are presented i n t h e i r own l i t e r a t u r e as r e l a t i n g to v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n two c o n t r a s t i n g ways, t h a t i s , as n u r t u r e r s and as n e g l e c t o r s . As n u r t u r e r s , a r c h i v i s t s have made conta c t with the a s s o c i a t i o n s they deemed s i g n i f i c a n t , and continued t h i s c o n t a c t throughout the l i f e of the a s s o c i a t i o n s , 4 0 John A. F l e c k n e r , "Records Surveys: a Multi-Purpose T o o l f o r the A r c h i v i s t , " 42 (1979): 293-294. 4 1 Ham: 326. 4 2 These methods are d i s c u s s e d by P h i l i p N. Alexander and Helen W. Samuels, "The Roots of 128: A H y p o t h e t i c a l Documentation St r a t e g y , " American A r c h i v i s t 50 (1987): 529; B a l l e n t i n e : 187; Richard Kesner, " A r c h i v a l C o l l e c t i o n Development: B u i l d i n g a S u c c e s s f u l A c q u i s i t i o n s Program," Modern A r c h i v e s Reader: 117; and Somers et a l . : 354. 4 3 B a l l e n t i n e : 187-195. thereby e n s u r i n g p e r i o d i c and f i n a l donations from them of r e c o r d s which "probably would not e x i s t today i f we had not i n i t i a t e d c o n t a c t s before many of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s q u i e t l y d i s s o l v e d . " 4 4 Examples of t h i s n u r t u r a n t type of r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t between L i n d a Henry of the S c h l e s i n g e r L i b r a r y at R a d c l i f f e and many women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s , between Sarah Sherman of the Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y Women's C o l l e c t i o n and s e v e r a l f e m i n i s t a c t i v i s t groups, and between E l l e n S t a r r B r i n t o n of the Swarthmore C o l l e g e Peace C o l l e c t i o n and numerous peace a c t i v i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s . 4 5 But each of these a r c h i v i s t s acknowledges the n e g l e c t which the groups they favour r e c e i v e from a r c h i v i s t s i n g e n e r a l , and s e v e r a l others see t h i s n e g l e c t as a p o l i t i c a l problem which must be c o r r e c t e d . 4 6 Hackman and Warnow-Blewett observe t h a t the a r c h i v a l community has provided no long-term a s s i s t a n c e or g u i d e l i n e s to such o r g a n i z a t i o n s as t h e s e . 4 7 The very f a c t t h a t a r c h i v a l j o u r n a l s have so few a r t i c l e s which d i r e c t l y d i s c u s s v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the la c k of concern f o r t h e i r r e c o r d s ; t h i s can be c o n t r a s t e d to the v a s t amount w r i t t e n about p u b l i c r e c o r d s . 4 4 Ham: 331. 4 5 Henry: 61; Sarah Sherman, "A Case Study: The A r c h i v i s t as A c t i v i s t at the Northwestern U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y ' s Women's C o l l e c t i o n , " Provenance 5 (1987): 33; B r i n t o n : 149. 4 6 See the aforementioned a r t i c l e s by Colman, Cooper, Quinn, and Z i n n . 4 7 Hackman and Warnow-Blewett: 16-17. 45 I t appears t h a t a r c h i v i s t s seldom w r i t e about t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s , p r a c t i c e s , or r e l a t i o n s h i p s with v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s and most other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and then u s u a l l y to c r i t i c i z e them and suggest a l t e r n a t i v e s . These a l t e r n a t i v e s are g e n e r a l l y ideas l i t t l e implemented as yet, which belong i n the realm of a r c h i v a l theory. Recourse to a theory of a c q u i s i t i o n i s necessary i n order to d e f i n e the most a p p r o p r i a t e approach to the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , and t h i s should precede any a n a l y s i s of s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , these ideas about a c q u i s i t i o n w i l l be examined from a t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t of view. I l l An a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y p o t e n t i a l l y engages i n two types of a c q u i s i t i o n : i t may a c q u i r e the a r c h i v e s of i t s sponsoring i n s t i t u t i o n ( g e n e r a l l y a government, a p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n , or a la r g e b u s i n e s s ) , and i t may a c q u i r e the a r c h i v e s of other bodies. The former s i t u a t i o n i s r e f e r r e d to as " i n s t i t u t i o n a l " a c q u i s i t i o n , and the l a t t e r as " n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l " a c q u i s i t i o n . D i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l approaches are necessary f o r the two types of a c q u i s i t i o n because t r a n s f e r r i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r rec o r d s from one o f f i c e of an i n s t i t u t i o n to another (as when the i n a c t i v e r e c o r d s of the Canadian M i n i s t r y of Defence come i n t o the custody of the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada) i s a very d i f f e r e n t matter from s o l i c i t i n g and a c q u i r i n g the records of an o r g a n i z a t i o n which has no formal t i e s with the r e p o s i t o r y (as when the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s a c q u i r e d the a r c h i v e s of the Cooperative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n of Canada). Most v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s l a c k the resources to sponsor t h e i r own r e p o s i t o r i e s , and t h e r e f o r e a r c h i v a l p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e i r r e c o rds occurs only i n the form of non- i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c q u i s i t i o n , the problems of which are addressed by a s m a l l body of l i t e r a t u r e ranging from s t r a y ideas and p r o p o s a l s to c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d methodologies and p r i n c i p l e s . One s c h o o l of thought p o s i t s that a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n should be e n t i r e l y p a t r o n - o r i e n t e d , that i s , r e p o s i t o r i e s should aim to a c q u i r e those records which t h e i r immediate c l i e n t e l e , e s p e c i a l l y h i s t o r i a n s , wish to have access to. Mary Lynn McCree s t a t e s t hat a r c h i v i s t s ' "primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to c r e a t e a focussed body of m a t e r i a l s that informs the s c h o l a r " ; sentiments shared by Frank Burke and Sam Bass Warner. 4 8 L e s t e r Cappon suggests that j u s t as each g e n e r a t i o n r e w r i t e s h i s t o r y f o r i t s e l f , so does each g e n e r a t i o n a p p r e c i a t e and c o l l e c t r e c o rds h i t h e r t o ignored, and t h e r e f o r e a knowledge of h i s t o r i c a l trends i s what an a r c h i v i s t p l a n n i n g a c q u i s i t i o n needs. A l l t h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n F r e d e r i c M i l l e r ' s stance that modern s o c i a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h y should i n f l u e n c e a r c h i v i s t s ' approach to a c q u i s i t i o n . 4 9 4 8 McCree: 105; Frank G. Burke, commentary on "The A r c h i v i s t ' s F i r s t R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : A Research Agenda to Improve the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Retention of Records of Enduring Value," by Richard J . Cox and Helen W. Samuels, in American A r c h i v i s t 51 (1988): 49; Sam Bass Warner, "The Shame of the C i t i e s : P u b l i c Records of the M e t r o p o l i s , " Midwestern A r c h i v i s t 2:2 (1977): 29. 4 9 Cappon: 429; F r e d e r i c M. M i l l e r : 113-124. There are two major problems with t h i s manner of t h i n k i n g about a c q u i s i t i o n . F i r s t l y , the r e s u l t a n t a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s would have to be o v e r l y f l e x i b l e , changing as o f t e n as the f a s h i o n s of s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h , never r e f l e c t i n g a l l the d i f f e r e n t types and focusses of r e s e a r c h , s c h o l a r l y or otherwise, which c o - e x i s t ; a whole new wave of a c q u i s i t i o n would be needed f o r each new g e n e r a t i o n of r e s e a r c h e r s , even supposing a l l the r e c o r d s f o r a l l h i s t o r y would s u r v i v e i n limbo u n t i l the r i g h t s c h o l a r l y trend comes along. The second, deeper problem l i e s i n the assumption that s e r v i c e to r e s e a r c h e r s i s the main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a r c h i v i s t . On the c o n t r a r y , prominent t h e o r i s t S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson a s s e r t s that the primary duty of the a r c h i v i s t i s to safeguard the a r c h i v e s i n h i s or her care, and that making them a c c e s s i b l e to r e s e a r c h e r s i s a secondary d u t y . 5 0 With r e f e r e n c e to a c q u i s i t i o n , t h i s p r i n c i p l e can be r e s t a t e d ; the a r c h i v i s t must o r i e n t her or h i s a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y towards records and r e c o r d s - c r e a t o r s , not patrons. Researchers w i l l b e n e f i t from such a p o l i c y i n the long run, because a more complete and o b j e c t i v e r e c o r d of s o c i e t y w i l l be preserved. Many d i s c u s s i o n s of a c q u i s i t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e do not venture much beyond p i e c e s of a d v i c e . Richard Kesner's " A r c h i v a l C o l l e c t i o n Development: B u i l d i n g a S u c c e s s f u l A c q u i s i t i o n s Program" has a promising t i t l e , but i s a d i s a p p o i n t i n g l i s t of p r a c t i c a l suggestions about d e v e l o p i n g a subject-based " c o l l e c t i n g f o c u s " , conducting a records survey, a v o i d i n g 5 0 Jenkinson, 15. 48 competition with other r e p o s i t o r i e s , doing f i e l d w o r k , u s i n g l e g a l t r a n s f e r of ownership forms, and so o n . 5 1 Mary Lynn McCree's "Good Sense and Good Judgement: D e f i n i n g C o l l e c t i o n s and C o l l e c t i n g " i s very s i m i l a r , although i t s g u i d i n g idea that a r e p o s i t o r y should not attempt complete coverage of a su b j e c t area, but r a t h e r exchange i n f o r m a t i o n and m i c r o f i l m s with other r e p o s i t o r i e s , i s q u i t e new i n North American l i t e r a t u r e and i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y s o u n d . 5 2 Gerald Ham presen t s some more i n t e r e s t i n g ideas i n h i s a r t i c l e "The A r c h i v a l Edge", where he makes four p r o p o s a l s : t h a t a r c h i v i s t s cooperate more with one another (not a new idea but one worth r e i t e r a t i n g ) , t h a t b e t t e r a c q u i s i t i o n t h e o r i e s be developed because " c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n must precede c o l l e c t i o n " , t h a t c o l l e c t i n g resources be r e a l l o c a t e d so that a broader range of re c o r d s i s preserved, and that the a r c h i v i s t take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s ( s i c ) demanding r o l e and "become the re s e a r c h community's Renaissance man". 5 3 But these p r o p o s a l s are g e n e r a l i t i e s l a y i n g a groundwork f o r theory, not theory i n themselves. S l i g h t l y more s u b s t a n t i a l i s John F l e c k n e r ' s suggestion t h a t , i n t a k i n g a more "vigorous r o l e " i n a c q u i s i t i o n , a r c h i v i s t s should seek knowledge of the "universe s i Kesner: 114-123. 5 2 McCree, 109. 5 3 Ham: 12-13. However, Ham's ideas are not a l l ac c e p t a b l e i n the l i g h t of a r c h i v a l theory; s e v e r a l statements i n h i s a r t i c l e show t h a t he t h i n k s of a r c h i v e s i n terms of in f o r m a t i o n which the a r c h i v i s t must gather from a l l s o c i e t y , r a t h e r than i n terms of the rec o r d s which the a r c h i v i s t must s e l e c t from a l l those c r e a t e d i n s o c i e t y . 49 of documentation" a v a i l a b l e to them, u s i n g such d e v i c e s as the records s u r v e y . 5 4 T h i s c o n t r a s t s p o s i t i v e l y with the r a t h e r odd approach of J u d i t h Endelman, who suggests " c o l l e c t i o n a n a l y s i s " , that i s , an i n t e n s i v e study of a r e p o s i t o r y ' s e x i s t i n g h o l d i n g s , from which the a r c h i v i s t i s supposed to d e v i s e an a c q u i s i t i o n p l a n that b u i l d s upon the s t r e n g t h s and f i l l s i n the gaps of those h o l d i n g s . 5 5 C e r t a i n l y , an a r c h i v i s t engaged i n a c q u i s i t i o n should be w e l l aware of her or h i s r e p o s i t o r y ' s h o l d i n g s , but Endelman's approach i s s e l f - i n d u l g e n t ; as F l e c k n e r has i m p l i e d , a c q u i s i t i o n p l a n n i n g should begin by f o c u s s i n g on s o c i e t y at l a r g e , and work i t s way back to the r e p o s i t o r y . In harmony with t h i s approach, Michael Lutzker recommends t h a t a r c h i v a l theory should draw upon the i n s i g h t s of other d i s c i p l i n e s which study o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n search of a b e t t e r understanding of the "inner dynamics" of records c r e a t o r s and of the reasons f o r which they c r e a t e t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e c o r d s . 5 6 T h i s encouraging emphasis upon the c r e a t i n g agency r a t h e r than r e s e a r c h s u b j e c t i s supported by F r e d e r i c M i l l e r , when he urges t h a t a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s be d i r e c t e d toward broad c a t e g o r i e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as " c i t i z e n o r g a n i z a t i o n " , neighbourhood groups, major busi n e s s e s , and labour u n i o n s . 5 7 5 4 F l e c k n e r : 16. 5 5 J u d i t h E. Endelman, "Looking Backward to Plan f o r the Future: C o l l e c t i o n A n a l y s i s f o r Manuscript R e p o s i t o r i e s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 50 (1987): 340-355. 5 6 L u t z k e r : 119-130. 5 7 F r e d e r i c M i l l e r : 118. 50 Even the best of the above p r o p o s a l s does not p r o v i d e a s o l i d g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e or system f o r a c q u i s i t i o n ; the h o l d i n g s r e s u l t i n g from i t s a p p l i c a t i o n would be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and haphazard. Beyond those p r o p o s a l s , three s y s t e m a t i c approaches to a c q u i s i t i o n of n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s have been o f f e r e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , by John Anderson, Helen Samuels, and Hans Booms, and the a p p l i c a t i o n of one of these may g i v e b e t t e r r e s u l t s . John Anderson remarks t h a t while the s t a b l e c o l l e c t i n g environment of an i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s would p r o f i t from an a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y having " s p e c i f i c , long-term c o l l e c t i n g g o a l s , " a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s which a c q u i r e n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y would not, because they " l i v e i n a r e l a t i v e i n s t e a d of a Newtonian world" and are not favoured with the same knowledge base and p r e d i c t a b l e a c q u i s i t i o n s i t u a t i o n . 5 8 The two main i s s u e s these r e p o s i t o r i e s are faced with, contends Anderson, are d e f i n i n g t h e i r " c o l l e c t i n g parameters" and determining the best " c o l l e c t i n g s t r a t e g i e s " . At the Research L i b r a r y of the B a l c h I n s t i t u t e f o r E t h n i c S t u d i e s , these i s s u e s are r e s o l v e d by e s t a b l i s h i n g a g e n e r a l s u b j e c t area of focus ( t o document and i n t e r p r e t p r i n c i p l e s of l i b e r t y , independence, and freedom with emphasis on c o n t r i b u t i o n s by e t h n i c and m i n o r i t y groups), and then d e v i s i n g more s p e c i f i c a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y statements d e l i m i t e d by time p e r i o d , s u b j e c t area, and g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a l e f o r a s e r i e s of " s u c c e s s i v e c o l l e c t i n g c y c l e s " . Each c y c l e 5 8 Joseph R. Anderson, "Managing Change and Chance: C o l l e c t i n g P o l i c i e s i n S o c i a l H i s t o r y A r c h i v e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 48 (1985): 296. 51 u t i l i z e s one or more of the f o l l o w i n g s t r a t e g i e s : p u r c h a s i n g c o l l e c t i o n s , conducting a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , d e v e l o p i n g a network of s u p p o r t e r s ( t o a s s i s t i n s o l i c i t i n g r e c o r d s ) , t a r g e t i n g of re c o r d s , conducting r e c o r d s surveys, and c r e a t i n g documentation. Anderson f e e l s t h a t t h i s approach i s a good one because: s o c i a l h i s t o r y a r c h i v e s t y p i c a l l y have l e s s than complete knowledge of the r e c o r d s a v a i l a b l e i n the u n i v e r s e from which they c o l l e c t , [ t h e r e f o r e ] coherent guidance, f l e x i b i l i t y , and a means f o r ongoing reassessment become e q u a l l y important requirements of an e f f e c t i v e c o l l e c t i n g p o l i c y . 5 9 While Anderson makes some good p o i n t s , h i s approach i s f a r from i d e a l . I t i s t r u e that a r e p o s i t o r y engaged i n a c q u i r i n g n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s needs s p e c i a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r l e a r n i n g about i t s u n i v e r s e of documentation, but with a subject-based a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y which p e r i o d i c a l l y a l t e r s , a c l e a r understanding of that u n i v e r s e can never be achieved. The f a c t t h a t the r e p o s i t o r y a l s o operates on the assumption t h a t c r e a t i n g documentation i s a l e g i t i m a t e a r c h i v a l task i s another problem. I t i s as i f an astronomer decided to study a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of h i s or her own i n v e n t i o n , a l t e r i n g i t every few y e a r s , and adding s t a r s which e x i s t o n l y i n the i m a g i n a t i o n ; t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l not 5 9 Anderson: 296-303; quote from 303. Two other a r c h i v i s t s suggest subject-based a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g i e s on a l a r g e s c a l e , though not as w e l l developed as Anderson's. Gregory S. Hunter suggests that r e p o s i t o r i e s network to "develop a region-wide s t r a t e g y to document key aspects of the area's l i f e and h i s t o r y " [ " F i l l i n g the GAP: P l a n n i n g on the L o c a l and I n d i v i d u a l L e v e l s , " American A r c h i v i s t 50 (1987): 112] and Sam Bass Warner goes so f a r as to propose t h a t each l a r g e American c i t y e s t a b l i s h an a r c h i v e s focussed on one s u b j e c t area, such as labour i n D e t r o i t , housing i n Los Angeles, and so on; t h i s , he b e l i e v e s , should p r o v i d e enough " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m a t e r i a l s " to s a t i s f y h i s t o r i a n s . [ 2 7 - 3 3 ] b r i n g anybody to a c l e a r understanding of the u n i v e r s e . An astronomer can only l e a r n about the u n i v e r s e by s t u d y i n g s t a r s which e x i s t independently of the human mind, and i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s to one another which are n a t u r a l to them and not c u l t u r a l l y imposed. J u s t so, the a r c h i v i s t can only understand the u n i v e r s e of documentation by f o c u s s i n g on t h a t which i s cr e a t e d independently of her or h i s own i n t e r v e n t i o n , and on c a t e g o r i e s of document c r e a t o r s d e r i v e d from t h e i r i nherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r a t h e r than a r t i f i c i a l l y imposed s u b j e c t groupings. As f o r the s i x s t r a t e g i e s to be used i n s u c c e s s i v e c y c l e s , i t must be admitted that a s e t of a l t e r n a t i n g methods does not make a theory, even i f a l l these methods were a p p r o p r i a t e . Anderson does not answer our need f o r a workable, h o l i s t i c approach to the a c q u i s i t i o n of n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s . Another comprehensive approach to a c q u i s i t i o n , which has r e c e i v e d much f a v o u r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n recent years, i s termed documentation s t r a t e g y , d e f i n e d by Helen W i l l a Samuels (one of i t s main proponents) as "a pl a n formulated to assure the documentation of an ongoing i s s u e , a c t i v i t y , or geographic a r e a . " 8 0 The idea i s f o r a committee of a r c h i v i s t s , r e c o rds c r e a t o r s and r e s e a r c h e r s to work together f o r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d to ensure the documentation of a given t o p i c . T h i s work i s to be done i n the f o l l o w i n g stages: (1) choosing and d e f i n i n g a t o p i c 6 0 Helen W i l l a Samuels, "Who C o n t r o l s the Past," American A r c h i v i s t 49 (1986): 115. Hackman and Warnow-Blewett have a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n : "a pl a n to assure the adequate documentation of an ongoing i s s u e , a c t i v i t y , f u n c t i o n , or s u b j e c t " [14]. 53 to be documented, (2) s e l e c t i n g an a d v i s o r y committee of experts and a " s i t e " i n s t i t u t i o n where the s t r a t e g y can be based, (3) s t r u c t u r i n g the i n q u i r y and examining the form and substance of the a v a i l a b l e documentation, with a concern f o r what should e x i s t r a t h e r than f o r what does e x i s t , and (4) s e l e c t i n g documentation and p l a c i n g i t at the a p p r o p r i a t e a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y or other i n s t i t u t i o n . A documentation s t r a t e g y i s supposed to s o l v e the problems of gaps i n r e p o s i t o r y h o l d i n g s , of competition among r e p o s i t o r i e s , and of l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s f o r a c q u i s i t i o n work; i t i s a l s o supposed to r e f l e c t the i n t e g r a t i o n among modern i n s t i t u t i o n s and the i n t e g r a t e d manner i n which modern r e s e a r c h e r s use i n f o r m a t i o n . 8 1 Samuels and others have a l s o d i s c u s s e d u s i n g the documentation s t r a t e g y framework to encourage records c r e a t o r s to preserve and even s p e c i a l l y c r e a t e r e c o r d s b e a r i n g the s o r t s of i n f o r m a t i o n which r e s e a r c h e r s look f o r . 8 2 Documentation s t r a t e g y i s supposed to encourage a r c h i v i s t s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s to take " c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r documentation", and to serve t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o rds as w e l l as those n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y a c q u i r e d . 6 3 While the concept of documentation s t r a t e g y i s a r e f r e s h i n g a l t e r n a t i v e to the p a s s i v e and haphazard approaches to a c q u i s i t i o n common i n the past, i t i s not a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e 6 1 Samuels: 109-124. 6 2 Alexander and Samuels: 529-530; Hackman and Warner- Blewett: 23-26; Cox and Samuels: 39-40. 6 3 Hackman and Warnow-Blewett: 15, 46. f o r a r c h i v i s t s . Documentation s t r a t e g y does not t a r g e t c a t e g o r i e s of c r e a t i n g bodies, but r a t h e r broad s u b j e c t areas. I t does not so much t r y to gather a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s as i t does i n f o r m a t i o n ; i n f a c t , Samuels has d e f i n e d a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s as " i n f o r m a t i o n gathered i n any f o r m " . 8 3 When a r c h i v i s t s s t a r t t h i n k i n g along these l i n e s , they are i n danger of becoming a l s o l i b r a r i a n s , museum c u r a t o r s , and o r a l h i s t o r i a n s , and only a superhero or a m o n o l i t h i c i n s t i t u t i o n can succeed i n a l l these areas at once. The documentation s t r a t e g y may be a v a l u a b l e approach f o r a group of r e s e a r c h e r s to pursue, perhaps with a r c h i v i s t s and r e l a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s a c t i n g as a d v i s o r s , but i t s emphases on s u b j e c t s and on i n f o r m a t i o n c l a s h with a r c h i v i s t s ' proper emphases on agencies and r e c o r d s . To attempt to f i l l the gaps i n a r e p o s i t o r y ' s h o l d i n g s i s d e s i r a b l e , as i s to r e f l e c t the i n t e g r a t i o n among modern i n s t i t u t i o n s with s i m i l a r l y i n t e g r a t e d h o l d i n g s i n a r e p o s i t o r y , but a r c h i v i s t s need to approach t h i s work i n a d i f f e r e n t way. As f o r attempting to r e f l e c t the manner i n which r e s e a r c h e r s use i n f o r m a t i o n through d e v e l o p i n g c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s of a c q u i s i t i o n and i n f l u e n c i n g r e c o r d s c r e a t i o n , t h i s i s unnecessary and i n a p p r o p r i a t e meddling f o r the a r c h i v i s t , who, as has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d , must be o r i e n t e d to r e c o r d s and t h e i r c r e a t o r s , not to i n f o r m a t i o n . A r c h i v i s t s should take c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a r c h i v a l documents of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which l a c k t h e i r own r e p o s i t o r i e s , but 6 3 Helen W i l l a Samuels, co l l o q u i u m at the School of L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and Information S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, November 8th, 1988. they should do so without compromising t h e i r f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c a r i n g f o r the records of t h e i r sponsoring i n s t i t u t i o n s . While some of the purposes and methods of the documentation s t r a t e g y concept are t h e o r e t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e , another theory of a c q u i s i t i o n of n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l records must be found to encompass them. The t h e o r e t i c a l stance which p r o v i d e s a f i r m b a s i s f o r a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g y i s that which c o n s i d e r s a c q u i s i t i o n i n the context of a p p r a i s a l . As V i c t o r i a B l i n k h o r n has observed, the a p p r a i s a l of n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s occurs i n two stages, the f i r s t of which i s r e l a t e d to a c q u i s i t i o n i n t h a t i t determines whether or not re c o r d s o f f e r e d to or s o l i c i t e d by the repos- i t o r y f a l l w i t h i n the parameter of the a c q u i s i t i o n s p o l i c y . T h i s p a r t of a p p r a i s a l i s i d e a l l y c a r r i e d out before the records are accepted i n t o the r e p o s i t o r y . 8 5 Because n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c q u i s i t i o n i s so c l o s e l y t i e d to the f i r s t stage of a p p r a i s a l , and a c t u a l l y can be i d e n t i f i e d with i t , any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i t must take a p p r a i s a l i n t o account. A p p r a i s a l i s an e v a l u a t i v e a c t ; i n i t s second stage i t i n v o l v e s e v a l u a t i o n of the r e c o r d s , and i n t h i s f i r s t stage i t i n v o l v e s e v a l u a t i o n of the re c o r d s c r e a t o r . T h e r e f o r e , any a c q u i s i t i o n p l a n d e v i s e d f o r n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l records must i n c l u d e a system f o r d e termining which records c r e a t o r s are most v a l u a b l e w i t h i n the context of a r e p o s i t o r y ' s mandate. T h i s d i f f i c u l t problem has been m a s t e r f u l l y r e s o l v e d by Hans Booms, who a s s e r t s that the key work of a r c h i v i s t s i s r e c o g n i z i n g the value of the 6 5 B l i n k h o r n , 38. 56 documentary r e c o r d , and that t h e r e f o r e there i s a s t r o n g need f o r g u i d i n g concepts of v a l u e . He d i s c u s s e s the w r i t i n g s of Wilheim Rohr, who suggested that a r c h i v i s t s focus on " a r c h i v a l l y v a l u a b l e " agencies, these being the ones most h i g h l y placed w i t h i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i e r a r c h y , and the work of George Sante, who proposed measuring an agency's value on the b a s i s of f u n c t i o n . Booms' o b j e c t i o n to Rohr's system of a p p r a i s a l i s t h a t i t i s based on a n e g a t i v e view of s e l e c t i o n (emphasizing what should be destroyed) r a t h e r than the p o s i t i v e view of s e l e c t i o n which Hermann Meinert had long b e f o r e espoused when he argued f o r determining which records are permanently v a l u a b l e a c c o r d i n g to f i x e d standards. The problem he f i n d s with Sante's approach i s t h a t f u n c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s g i v e i n s u f f i c i e n t guidance, e s p e c i a l l y f o r non-governmental r e c o r d s , which must not be n e g l e c t e d because "the sum of the a c t i v i t i e s of government o f f i c e s does not equal the sum of h i s t o r i c a l - p o l i t i c a l l i f e . " 8 0 Booms argues t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s of a p p r a i s a l should be drawn " d i r e c t l y from the s o c i a l process to which we are r e s p o n s i b l e " , from s o c i e t y as a whole r a t h e r than merely the s t a t e , and t h a t doing so "motivates us here to seek o v e r a l l s o c i e t a l v a l u e s f o r the process of a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l . " 8 7 His j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s approach i s t h a t 6 8 Hans Booms, " S o c i e t y and the Formation of a Documentary H e r i t a g e : Issues i n the A p p r a i s a l of A r c h i v a l Sources," eds. and t r a n s . Hermina Joldersma and Richard Klumpenhouwer, A r c h i v a r i a 24 (1987): 75-92; quote from 101. 8 7 I b i d . : 101-102. 57 the q u e s t i o n of the value a s c r i b e d by those contemporary to the m a t e r i a l should become the most fundamental of every a r c h i v a l endeavour to form the a r c h i v a l h e r i t a g e ... I f there i s indeed anything or anyone q u a l i f i e d to lend l e g i t i m a c y to a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l , i t i s s o c i e t y i t s e l f , and the p u b l i c o p i n i o n s i t e x p r e s s e s . 8 8 The a r c h i v i s t must t h e r e f o r e seek a thorough understanding of the p e r i o d and area of the s o c i e t y from which she or he i s supposed to a c q u i r e a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s . T h i s statement echoes one of Jenkinson's, that In r e l a t i o n to h i s charges the A r c h i v i s t should be modern onl y so f a r as s t r i c t l y modern q u e s t i o n s of b u i l d i n g s , custody,and the l i k e are concerned: f o r the r e s t he should be a l l t h i n g s to a l l A r c h i v e s , h i s i n t e r e s t s i d e n t i f i e d with t h e i r s , h i s p e r i o d and p o i n t of view t h e i r s . T h i s may be a p e r s o n a l disadvantage to him; but i t i s a duty i n h e r e n t i n the car e e r of an A r c h i v i s t and should be f a c e d . 6 8 Booms suggests t h a t the a r c h i v i s t engaged i n d e v i s i n g a documentation plan should begin by determining what i s e s s e n t i a l and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r documentation purposes, based on s o c i e t a l v a l u e s as a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d ; then choose the most concentrated set of documents p o s s i b l e so as to preserve a minimal number. The plan should cover a f i v e to twenty year p e r i o d , be made with the a s s i s t a n c e of an a d v i s o r y committee of experts on the s o c i e t y and p e r i o d concerned, and take the form of a sanctioned model of the d e s i r e d documentary h e r i t a g e to be used as "a concrete o r i e n t i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r a s c r i b i n g value through an a p p r a i s a l process of 6 6 I b i d . : 104. 6 8 Jenkinson, 124. My emphasis. 58 p o s i t i v e value s e l e c t i o n " . 7 0 The methodology of Booms' documentation plan resembles the "documentation s t r a t e g y " system d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , with the important d i f f e r e n c e that i t i s based on sound a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s . Booms' theory i s intended f o r a p p r a i s a l but can r e a d i l y be adapted i n t o theory f o r a c q u i s i t i o n of n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s such as the re c o r d s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i s theory i s more complete and s u i t a b l e than any of the others d i s c u s s e d here, and o f f e r s an improvement upon present a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e s . But in order to s u c c e s s f u l l y apply Booms' theory, i t i s necessary to l e a r n more about the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n our s o c i e t y . 7 0 Booms: 105-106. CHAPTER THREE FIRST CASE STUDY: MOTHERS AGAINST DRINKING DRIVERS I MADD, or Mothers Again s t D r i n k i n g D r i v e r s , i s a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n whose mission i s to reduce the tragedy caused by the drunk d r i v e r . MADD i s the v o i c e of the v i c t i m . We are d e d i c a t e d to b r i n g i n g v i c t i m s ' r i g h t s and the i s s u e s of drunk d r i v i n g i n t o the p u b l i c eye and keeping them t h e r e . 1 MADD has three main g o a l s , the f i r s t and most important being to o f f e r support and s e r v i c e s to the v i c t i m s of drunk d r i v e r s (both the i n j u r e d or k i l l e d person and h i s / h e r f a m i l y members); 2 the second, to a l t e r the laws and p r a c t i c e s of the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system so th a t b e t t e r j u s t i c e i s done i n drunk d r i v i n g cases; and the t h i r d to i n c r e a s e p u b l i c awareness of the problem of impaired d r i v i n g . The " u l t i m a t e g o a l " i s to e l i m i n a t e impaired d r i v i n g a l t o g e t h e r , and do away with the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s reason f o r e x i s t e n c e . 3 MADD i s f o r m a l l y democratic, being administered by a twelve-member board of d i r e c t o r s e l e c t e d at annual g e n e r a l meetings. The other grounds needed to q u a l i f y MADD as a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n on the b a s i s of the d e f i n i t i o n given i n 1 MADD: Mothers Against D r i n k i n g D r i v e r s , pamphlet (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i s h e r s , 1989), 7. 2 The E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of MADD has s t a t e d : "we s t a r t e d o f f being the v o i c e of the v i c t i m of a drunk d r i v i n g crash, and I th i n k t h a t ' s where we should s t a y . I t should be our f i r s t mandate" [MADD 2 : 1 ( a ) ] . See Appendix A f o r a l i s t of i n t e r v i e w s and an e x p l a n a t i o n of the n o t a t i o n format used f o r them. 3 I b i d . 59 60 Chapter One a l s o e x i s t : MADD members are f r e e to j o i n or leave; MADD i s independent of other o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n i t s p o l i c y and d e c i s i o n making; i t i s r e g i s t e r e d as a c h a r i t y with the F e d e r a l Government, and thus recognized as a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n ; and i t has a t y p i c a l formal s t r u c t u r e . The a s s o c i a t i o n now o f f i c i a l l y known as MADD Canadian S o c i e t y had i t s beginnings on June 14th of 1981, when a young man was k i l l e d by a d r i n k i n g d r i v e r , who subsequently was given a very l i g h t sentence. F r u s t r a t e d and outraged at the lack of concern surrounding the death of t h e i r son, the v i c t i m ' s parents banded together with other parents i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s and formed VOCAL, V i c t i m s of Crime and Law S o c i e t y . Then they heard about a s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the United S t a t e s named MADD (Mothers Again s t Drunk D r i v e r s ) , and e a r l y i n 1982 one of the members of VOCAL v i s i t e d MADD's founder i n C a l i f o r n i a to l e a r n about t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , which had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n May of 1981 and was al r e a d y very l a r g e and w e l l organized. As a consequence of t h a t meeting, VOCAL became MADD Canadian S o c i e t y , an o f f i c i a l a f f i l i a t e of MADD i n the USA. T h i s name change was f o r m a l i z e d on J u l y 7th of 1982, but al r e a d y i n the February of that year the a s s o c i a t i o n had, begun mo d e l l i n g i t s e l f upon the American one. In May of 1987, MADD Canadian S o c i e t y f o r m a l l y a l t e r e d i t s name, s u b s t i t u t i n g " d r i n k i n g " f o r "drunk", but r e t a i n e d i t s acronym. 4 4 H e r e a f t e r , MADD Canadian S o c i e t y w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as MADD, and the American body as MADD USA. MADD's twelve-member Board of D i r e c t o r s i n c l u d e s a p r e s i d e n t , a v i c e p r e s i d e n t , an exe c u t i v e d i r e c t o r , a t r e a s u r e r , a s e c r e t a r y , and seven members-at-large. MADD i s administered by t h i s board, which r e p r e s e n t s the approximately three thousand members of MADD, a number that has f l u c t u a t e d over the years. The main two i n d i v i d u a l s who have kept MADD a l i v e i n i t s day-to- day o p e r a t i o n s are G r e t a Scott and Helen N i c h o l s . 5 S c o t t has been P r e s i d e n t i n the past, and now holds the p o s i t i o n of Exe c u t i v e D i r e c t o r ; she i s the one who f i r s t v i s i t e d MADD USA, and who became MADD's main spokesperson a f t e r having q u i t her job to d e d i c a t e h e r s e l f f u l l time to the a s s o c i a t i o n . Helen N i c h o l s has been T r e a s u r e r s i n c e the beginning. For the past year and a h a l f , MADD's o f f i c e s e c r e t a r y has been Nancy C a r r , and she too has become a mainstay of MADD. These are the three persons i n t e r v i e w e d by the author of t h i s t h e s i s . MADD has a head o f f i c e l o c a t e d i n New Westminster, as w e l l as branches i n V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, P r i n c e George, P e n t i c t o n , Kamloops, O l i v e r , Abbotsford, and one on P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . Thus, although dues-paying MADD members are spread throughout Canada, a l l but one of MADD's a c t i v e branches are i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A recognized branch of MADD must have at l e a s t twenty members, i n c l u d i n g f i v e o f f i c e r s , e l e c t e d at the annual g e n e r a l meeting; each branch must submit f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s , q u a r t e r l y 5 The E t h i c s Committee of UBC r e q u i r e s that i n t e r v i e w e e s remain anonymous, so a l l p e r s o n a l names have been changed. 62 meeting minutes, and documentation of i t s a c t i v i t i e s to the head o f f i c e on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . The branches operate out of the homes of t h e i r members, as d i d the head o f f i c e f o r a long time. At the very beginning, the head o f f i c e was Greta S c o t t ' s den i n her New Westminster home, then a f t e r two and a h a l f years i t t r a v e l l e d with her to Richmond, f i r s t i n her home and then i n the home of another MADD d i r e c t o r . In 1985 Greta S c o t t moved back to New Westminster and n o t i c e d an o f f i c e i n a small commercial b u i l d i n g f o r re n t ; she decided that i t was time f o r MADD to have i t s own q u a r t e r s because "the paper was j u s t t e r r i b l e , I mean paper and paper, and more paper ... i t s t a r t s to take over your home".6 A c c o r d i n g l y MADD moved i n t o the o f f i c e b u i l d i n g , and has remained there s i n c e , t r a n s f e r r i n g i n t o a l a r g e r o f f i c e i n the same b u i l d i n g i n the f a l l of 1987 (soon a f t e r Nancy Carr s t a r t e d working there as MADD's s e c r e t a r y ) . At t h i s p o i n t i t i s u s e f u l to address the i s s u e s r a i s e d i n Chapter One of t h i s t h e s i s , c o n cerning the nature of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , with regard to MADD's s i t u a t i o n . To begin with, t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n has c l e a r l y maintained i t s v o l u n t a r y nature, there being no persons or groups pressured to j o i n or ref u s e d the r i g h t to j o i n . By p o l i c y , even v i c t i m s of drunk d r i v i n g crashes are never s o l i c i t e d and when they do v o l u n t a r i l y come to MADD and r e c e i v e i t s a s s i s t a n c e , they are not r e q u i r e d to j o i n . A member 6 MADD 2:1(b). 63 can be e x p e l l e d o n l y i f she or he does not uphold MADD's c o n s t i t u t i o n , or does not pay the annual membership f e e . With regard to the i s s u e of democracy, MADD's democratic s t r u c t u r e i s entrenched i n i t s by-laws, but i t p r e s e n t s the p a t t e r n of a l a r g e l y i n a c t i v e membership and an o l i g a r c h y - s t y l e governing body. The main means of communication between members and the a s s o c i a t i o n i s the m a i l . Nancy Ca r r , who has been a member s i n c e MADD's i n c e p t i o n , r e c a l l s her a t t i t u d e before becoming s e c r e t a r y : I was very o b l i v i o u s to what was going on. I'd get the odd t h i n g through the ma i l t h a t was sent to the members, but th a t was about i t ... I never understood the f u l l j i s t of i t t i l l I a c t u a l l y got i n here i n the o f f i c e . 7 The.passive approach of the membership may soon change, f o r a vo l u n t e e r committee has been e s t a b l i s h e d to seek out members who would be w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e more, and e n l i s t t h e i r a i d with v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s normally c a r r i e d out almost e n t i r e l y by MADD o f f i c i a l s ( t h a t i s , d i r e c t o r s and s t a f f ) . In any case, the only t h i n g p r e v e n t i n g a member from becoming more a c t i v e i s the gre a t d e a l of s u s t a i n e d energy and commitment t h i s r e q u i r e s . MADD has a l s o , through conscious e f f o r t , maintained i t s democratic freedom from government and from i t s parent body, MADD USA. U n t i l 1989 the a s s o c i a t i o n p u r p o s e l y d i d not accept any government g r a n t s , so that no governmental body would be able to i n f l u e n c e i t s a c t i v i t i e s . Even the grants i t has now accepted are f o r very s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s -- a workshop and an a d v e r t i s i n g 7 MADD 1(a). campaign — which were planned i n d e t a i l before MADD even requested funding. Funding from a p r i v a t e f o u n d a t i o n was r e c e n t l y turned down because i t presumed to a l t e r the pamphlet f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of which the money had been o f f e r e d . However, MADD i s somewhat r e g u l a t e d by government d e s p i t e the d i s t a n c e i t keeps; i n f a c t , as a r e g i s t e r e d c h a r i t y , i t must f o l l o w c e r t a i n government r e g u l a t i o n s ( f o r example, i t cannot endorse p a r t i c u l a r products, b u s i n e s s e s , or p o l i t i c i a n s . ) MADD i s more amenable to i n f l u e n c e from i t s parent body, r e c e i v i n g many ideas and models f o r l i t e r a t u r e from MADD USA. Ne v e r t h e l e s s i t has s l i g h t l y changed i t s own name, i t i n i t i a t e s i t s own campaigns, and i t doesn't h e s i t a t e to a l t e r the l i t e r a t u r e i t r e c e i v e s to i t s own s p e c i f i c a t i o n -- always checking with MADD USA about these changes, of course. T h e r e f o r e , with some i n e v i t a b l e compromise, MADD maintains i t s democratic nature and i t s independence from other o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Regarding the nature of MADD's membership, there are three types of members, each paying d i f f e r e n t annual f e e s : i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The l i f e c y c l e of MADD so f a r conforms to a t y p i c a l p a t t e r n . The a s s o c i a t i o n began i n f o r m a l l y , w i t h i n a few months acquired a formal s t r u c t u r e which has s i n c e remained constant, and w i t h i n a few years swelled to a l a r g e membership which e v e n t u a l l y made i t p o s s i b l e and necessary f o r MADD to have p a i d o f f i c e workers. There i s no immediate l i k e l i h o o d of MADD ce a s i n g o p e r a t i o n s or becoming a p r e s c r i b e d o r g a n i z a t i o n . The number and l o c a t i o n of MADD branches i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the r e s t of Canada has f l u c t u a t e d over time. For example, there used to be a Vancouver branch which e v e n t u a l l y c l o s e d down, and an i n t e r e s t e d group i n St. John's, Newfoundland, i s p l a n n i n g to e s t a b l i s h a branch i n the near f u t u r e . MADD USA has l a r g e , a c t i v e branches i n almost every s t a t e , so the p o t e n t i a l f o r s i m i l a r growth i n Canada e x i s t s but has not yet been r e a l i s e d . With r e s p e c t to the typology of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , MADD can be c l a s s i f i e d as a p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n , because i t uses p o l i t i c a l means to modify s o c i e t y . I t a l s o f u n c t i o n s as a res e a r c h , s e r v i c e , s e l f - h e l p , and s o c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n , but these are s u b s i d i a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . II MADD has an i n t e r e s t i n g assortment of r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . A l l such l i n k s w i l l be di s c u s s e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r type, with an emphasis on those r e l a t i o n s h i p s which have been most important to the development, success, and d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s of MADD, namely the r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the news media, with government, and with MADD USA. MADD i s a f f i l i a t e d with the Canadian C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e A s s o c i a t i o n , A l c o h o l and Drug Education S e r v i c e s , 8 the B r i t i s h Columbia (B.C.) League of Women, the B.C. T r a f f i c S a f e t y Board, C o r r e c t i o n S e r v i c e s , and the B.C. V i c t i m C o u n c i l , and i s 8 MADD 2:1(b). The Canadian C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e A s s o c i a t i o n i s an Ottawa-based r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l c o h o l and Drug Education S e r v i c e s i s a p r i v a t e agency which engages i n pr e v e n t i v e education i n sc h o o l s , and l o b b i e s government about some of the i s s u e s r a i s e d by a l c o h o l and drugs. 66 t h e r e f o r e e n t i t l e d to a vote at t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e annual g e n e r a l meetings (AGM's), as w e l l as to a p l a c e on t h e i r m a i l i n g l i s t s . These are c o - o r d i n a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s composed of de l e g a t e s from a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g MADD. For f u n d r a i s i n g purposes, MADD i s a l s o a member of Skyway C h a r i t i e s A s s o c i a t i o n , another c o - o r d i n a t e a s s o c i a t i o n which operates a bingo h a l l f o r the p r o f i t of s e v e r a l r e g i s t e r e d c h a r i t i e s . Membership i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n r e q u i r e s r a t h e r more commitment from MADD than i t s other a f f i l i a t i o n s (MADD r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s are r e q u i r e d to work on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ) . MADD has a c o - o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r i e n t e d to v i c t i m a s s i s t a n c e , p r e v e n t i o n of a l c o h o l abuse, and so on, and r o u t i n e l y exchanges i n f o r m a t i o n with them. These i n c l u d e the B.C. Medi c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , the Vancouver S a f e t y C o u n c i l , and a number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s with aims almost i d e n t i c a l to MADD's, such as PAID (People A g a i n s t Impaired D r i v e r s ) , PRIDE (People to Reduce Impaired D r i v e r s Everywhere), and SADD (Students A g a i n s t Drunk D r i v i n g ) . One might expect a com p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to a r i s e i n such a s i t u a t i o n , but because each a s s o c i a t i o n has emerged i n a separate g e o g r a p h i c a l area, d i r e c t c o mpetition does not occur. There i s a c e r t a i n amount of t e n s i o n i n v o l v e d , however, because MADD n a t u r a l l y wishes to be j o i n e d by a l l the ot h e r s . As Greta S c o t t e x p l a i n s , these o r g a n i z a t i o n s haven't achieved the prominence of MADD, they haven't got the support of such a l a r g e , powerful o r g a n i z a t i o n as 67 MADD USA, and while they have some good ideas, they t r y to take on too many " s i d e i s s u e s " which d e f l e c t them from t h e i r g o a l s . 9 MADD a l s o has a s p o n s o r - b e n e f i c i a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p with v a r i o u s b u s i n e s s e s and foundations which a d v e r t i s e i n i t s p u b l i c a t i o n s or pr o v i d e s u b s t a n t i a l donations of funds or s e r v i c e s towards p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t s . A good example of the s p o n s o r - b e n e f i c i a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p i s MADD's upcoming KISS (Keep I t a Safe Summer) campaign, which o r i g i n a t e d i n USA and i s being sponsored i n B r i t i s h Columbia by a r a d i o s t a t i o n which by f o r t u i t o u s c o i n c i d e n c e i s c a l l e d KISS-FM. The news media have "played a tremendous r o l e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g MADD,"10 not through i n f l u e n c i n g i t s p o l i c i e s or a c t i v i t i e s , but through p u b l i c i z i n g them i n a sympathetic manner. Greta S c o t t a f f i r m s that MADD does not seek out media coverage, r a t h e r , from the beginning the media have taken g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n the a s s o c i a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s main spokesperson, Greta S c o t t h e r s e l f . During the p e r i o d of t h i s study, S c o t t consented to at l e a s t four e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w s , two of them on t a l k shows. By means of such i n t e r v i e w s , as w e l l as media coverage of cou r t cases, workshops, and other MADD a c t i v i t i e s , MADD i s helped with one of i t s main g o a l s , t h a t of r a i s i n g p u b l i c awareness of the problem of impaired d r i v i n g . MADD Canadian S o c i e t y i s a component of MADD USA, r e c e i v i n g from i t formal a u t h o r i z a t i o n to e s t a b l i s h branches i n Canada, to 9 MADD 2:2. 1 0 MADD 2:1(a). r e - p u b l i s h American MADD l i t e r a t u r e , and to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the US programmes. However, the Canadian MADD head o f f i c e i s not as c l o s e l y bound to f o l l o w MADD USA p o l i c y as American branches of MADD are, and i t f r e q u e n t l y departs from the p r a c t i c e s of i t s parent a s s o c i a t i o n ; f o r example, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, pamphlets are a l t e r e d f o r Canadian t a s t e s , with e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to e x c l u d i n g gruesome or morbid p i c t u r e s and passages. L i k e other v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , MADD i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by government, but u n l i k e many of them i t i n f l u e n c e s government i n r e t u r n , i n a l o b b y i s t - i n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p . Greta S c o t t spoke before the F e d e r a l J u s t i c e Committee i n 1982 and the Canadian House of Commons i n 1984, and i n 1988 MADD submitted a b r i e f to the Parliament of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 1 These p r e s e n t a t i o n s have d i r e c t l y r e s u l t e d i n new l e g i s l a t i o n i n the area of impaired d r i v i n g at both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . MADD's l e t t e r s to the S o l i c i t o r General of B r i t i s h Columbia and frank d i s c u s s i o n s with the news media about the way impaired d r i v i n g cases have been handled have a l s o had an e f f e c t . When MADD s t a r t e d i t s l o b b y i n g a c t i v i t y , judges, lawyers, and other c o u r t o f f i c i a l s seemed to resen t the a t t e n t i o n ; "they thought we were a bunch of screaming women, you know, p r o t e s t o r s , " but a f t e r o b s e r v i n g MADD work r e s p e c t f u l l y w i t h i n the system over the years, t h e i r a t t i t u d e has become much more p o s i t i v e and even 1 1 E x c e r p t s from t h i s b r i e f , "Recommendations and Changes i n L e g i s l a t i o n , " are r e p r i n t e d i n the HAD_D_ 1989 pamphlet, 33-37. 69 h e l p f u l . 1 2 More importantly, the c o u r t s appear to take impaired d r i v i n g cases much more s e r i o u s l y than they used t o . 1 3 The s p o n s o r - b e n e f i c i a r y type of r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a l s o a st r o n g one between MADD and government. The F e d e r a l Government accepted MADD's a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c h a r i t a b l e s t a t u s under F e d e r a l Income Tax r e g u l a t i o n s i n 1985. Since then, donations to MADD and membership fees have been tax d e d u c t i b l e , making the a s s o c i a t i o n more economically v i a b l e . In r e t u r n , MADD must f o l l o w government g u i d e l i n e s and account f o r i t s f u n d i n g and spending. The c h a r i t a b l e s t a t u s c o n f e r r e d by the F e d e r a l Government r e v e r b e r a t e s at the P r o v i n c i a l Government l e v e l as w e l l , by e n t i t l i n g MADD to p a r t i c i p a t e i n and earn money from bingo and ca s i n o o p e r a t i o n s , s u b j e c t to p r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s . Sometimes government f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s more d i r e c t , i n the form of gra n t s which MADD has used toward p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t s . MADD has seldom requested such g r a n t s , as i t s d i r e c t o r s p r e f e r to preserve i t s autonomy from government, and they wish to avoid making f u n d r a i s i n g a p r i o r i t y . Greta S c o t t e x p l a i n s : I f i t ' s so time-consuming to get the funds, and then t h e r e ' s so many months spent afterwards accounting f o r the funds, and then t h e r e ' s a v i c t i m w a i t i n g i n the wings f o r you to s i t down or help or v i s i t or go to t r i a l w ith them, or j u s t to t a l k , then I'd choose to go with the v i c t i m . Because managing money i s time consuming [and the v i c t i m s are my p r i o r i t y ] . 1 4 1 2 MADD 3(b ) . 1 3 MADD 2 : l ( a ) . 1 4 I b i d . 70 Co-operation and competition c h a r a c t e r i z e MADD's r e l a t i o n s with two agencies of B r i t i s h Columbia government, Counterattack and ICBC (Insurance C o r p o r a t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) . 1 5 Both have programmes with s i m i l a r aims to MADD's, and MADD d i r e c t o r s f e e l t h a t they should be t r y i n g harder to cooperate with MADD than they have i n the past. I l l A f u l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i s t o r y of MADD i s not needed here, but i t i s important to d e l i n e a t e the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i n order to understand i t s r e c o r d s . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the o f f i c e where many of these a c t i v i t i e s take p l a c e , and where a l l of them are i n i t i a t e d , w i l l help to set the scene. The present MADD o f f i c e i s L-shaped; i n the f o o t of the L i s the door i n t o the h a l l , and the s e c r e t a r y ' s desks complete with phone, answering machine, and t y p e w r i t e r . At the top of the L, where the only windows are s i t u a t e d , i s an o f f i c e with a door and a h a l f - w a l l , the upper h a l f of the w a l l c o n s i s t i n g o n l y of b a n n i s t e r s . In t h i s o f f i c e i s the exe c u t i v e d i r e c t o r ' s desk, the computer, and another desk ( i r r e g u l a r l y used by the ne w s l e t t e r e d i t o r ) . Between these s e c t i o n s i s a long room c o n t a i n i n g a r e c t a n g u l a r t a b l e and s e v e r a l c h a i r s , s e v e r a l f i l e c a b i n e t s , cupboards, and sh e l v e s , a s e t of mail s l o t s , a sm a l l p h o t o c o p i e r , 1 5 CounterAttack i s a crime p r e v e n t i o n programme aimed at reduc i n g d r i n k i n g d r i v i n g and the a c c i d e n t s a s s o c i a t e d with i t . I t i s p a r t l y funded by the M i n i s t r y of the Att o r n e y General, and p a r t l y by ICBC. ICBC i s a p r o v i n c i a l l y - o w n e d c o r p o r a t i o n which i n s u r e s a l l automobiles w i t h i n B.C. 71 a stamp machine and a s c a l e f o r weighing l e t t e r s , a r a d i o , and a c o f f e e machine. There are s e v e r a l d i s p l a y s on the w a l l s : a s e l e c t i o n of c e r t i f i c a t e s and awards r e c o g n i z i n g MADD and Greta S c o t t ; some p u b l i c i t y photographs of MADD d i r e c t o r s with such persons as S t e v i e Wonder (rock s t a r ) and Mike Harcourt (then mayor of Vancouver); s e v e r a l framed photographs of c h i l d r e n (these are a l l deceased v i c t i m s ) ; c l i p b o a r d s with correspondence from MADD USA, Canadian MADD branches, government, and other sources; p o s t e r s o r i e n t e d to MADD's cause; and a b u l l e t i n board covered i n busin e s s cards. Using t h i s o f f i c e as a headquarters, MADD o f f i c i a l s and members c a r r y out a c t i v i t i e s which can be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o nine main o v e r l a p p i n g areas: h o l d i n g meetings, l o b b y i n g government, conducting r e s e a r c h , court monitoring, o r g a n i z i n g p u b l i c i t y , p l a n n i n g and implementing s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s , a s s i s t i n g v i c t i m s communicating with members and non-members, and f u n d r a i s i n g . Each of these a c t i v i t i e s generates d o c u m e n t a t i o n . 1 6 H o l d i n g meetings i s a r e g u l a r a c t i v i t y of MADD, having four v a r i a n t s . There i s of course the Annual General Meeting, to which a l l members are i n v i t e d , and at which the outgoing Board of D i r e c t o r s makes i t s r e p o r t s , a new Board of D i r e c t o r s i s e l e c t e d , and the a c t i v i t i e s and p o l i c i e s f o r the upcoming year are di s c u s s e d . The Board of D i r e c t o r s holds monthly meetings the 1 6 As p a r t of the re s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s , the author p a r t i c i p a t e d i n most of these a c t i v i t i e s , so the d e s c r i p t i o n s which f o l l o w are based on p e r s o n a l experience as recorded i n f i e l d notes, as w e l l as on i n t e r v i e w s and a review of MADD's r e c o r d s . 72 agenda of which g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e s r e p o r t s on a c t i v i t i e s by branches, committees, and o f f i c i a l s , a f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t , r e l e v a n t incoming correspondence, and d i s c u s s i o n of p o l i c i e s and a c t i v i t i e s . Committees a l s o hold meetings of v a r y i n g frequency. A l l these meetings generate agendas, r e p o r t s and minutes. A f o u r t h kind of meeting i s the "one-on-one" meeting which occurs between a spokesperson f o r MADD ( u s u a l l y S c o t t ) and a s e n i o r government o f f i c i a l . In most cases these one-on-one meetings are i n i t i a t e d by MADD so as to seek i n f o r m a t i o n or to lobby f o r change, and they may occur over the phone or i n person; they generate correspondence and notes, but sometimes go unrecorded; Greta S c o t t may make a p h o n e - c a l l and act immediately upon i t , without ever f e e l i n g the need to document the i n f o r m a l m e e t i n g . 1 7 The one-on-one kind of meeting i s a l s o a way to lobby government. The purpose of l o b b y i n g a c t i v i t y i s to improve laws and p r o s e c u t i o n s t r a t e g i e s r e g a r d i n g impaired d r i v i n g charges, and i t may be aimed at v a r i o u s l e v e l s and agencies of government, as mentioned with r e f e r e n c e to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between MADD and government. Lobbying government generates b r i e f s , notes, and correspondence f o r MADD. A p u r s u i t which informs l o b b y i n g , as w e l l as some other a c t i v i t i e s of MADD, i s conducting r e s e a r c h . Much of t h i s i s a simple matter of r e q u e s t i n g s t a t i s t i c s on impaired d r i v i n g cases from the co r o n e r s ' o f f i c e s and ICBC. Some r e s e a r c h , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t which Greta S c o t t conducted at the very beginning, i s r a t h e r 1 7 MADD 2 : l ( a ) . more d i f f i c u l t : "when I s t a r t e d to re s e a r c h t h i s problem myself, I had a t e r r i b l e time f i n d i n g out what [had] happened," but with the help of a p r o f e s s o r and a l i b r a r i a n , she e v e n t u a l l y plumbed the depths of a few law l i b r a r i e s . 1 8 Research may have a more s p e c i f i c nature; f o r i n s t a n c e , when v i c t i m s request c o p i e s of p o l i c e r e c o r d s and coroner's r e p o r t s r e l a t i n g to t h e i r cases, p r o s e c u t o r s look i n t o the pr e v i o u s c r i m i n a l r e c ords of the accused, and the p o l i c e i n v e s t i g a t e the d r i n k i n g establishment from which the d r i v e r was coming when the cr a s h o c c u r r e d . T h i s type of r e s e a r c h i s encouraged and i n i t i a t e d but not u s u a l l y conducted by MADD. Conducting r e s e a r c h generates notes, correspondence, and r e p o r t s f o r MADD. Court m o n i t o r i n g shares some of the f u n c t i o n s of re s e a r c h , although i t i s a r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t y . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from MADD r e g u l a r l y attend t r i a l s of persons accused of d r i v i n g while impaired; they assume the r o l e of "court monitor". The court monitor i s expected to wear a MADD badge i f the t r i a l does not i n v o l v e a j u r y , but to otherwise avoid drawing a t t e n t i o n to him or h e r s e l f . The cou r t monitor l i s t e n s , takes notes, and f i l l s out forms s u p p l i e d by MADD, g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the demeanour of the co u r t , the d e t a i l s of the case, the exact time each witness speaks (so that a t r a n s c r i p t of that p o r t i o n of the proceedings may be requested i f n e c e s s a r y ) , and the judgement. I f problems are observed, MADD may d i s c u s s them with the media or 1 8 MADD 2 : l ( b ) . One f a c t S c o t t d i s c o v e r e d was th a t " v e h i c u l a r manslaughter" f e l l i n t o d i s u s e as a c r i m i n a l charge i n B.C. a f t e r the 1950's; i t has now made a r e t u r n . complain to the S o l i c i t o r General, ( t h a t i s , undertake the a c t i v i t i e s of lo b b y i n g and o r g a n i z i n g p u b l i c i t y ) , thus c r e a t i n g news r e l e a s e s and correspondence. Forms c o l l a t i n g the sent e n c i n g p r a c t i c e s of a cou r t over a one-month p e r i o d are a l s o compiled. O r g a n i z i n g p u b l i c i t y i s another important area of a c t i v i t y f o r MADD, being d i r e c t e d at i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c awareness of the problem of impaired d r i v i n g . T h i s a c t i v i t y i n c l u d e s p r o v i d i n g i n t e r v i e w s and news r e l e a s e s to media; p u b l i c speaking to student groups and other g a t h e r i n g s , which produces notes and of course a mention i n minutes; a r r a n g i n g s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s ; p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community f a i r s , m a l l d i s p l a y s , 1 9 and parades, which tend to be documented only i n minutes; and p r e p a r i n g pamphlets, and to a l e s s e r extent p o s t e r s and bumper s t i c k e r s , which are a major emphasis i n MADD's p u b l i c i t y , and a major area of expenditure. MADD c r e a t e s some of i t s own d r a f t s , but most of the time i t adapts or reproduces MADD USA pamphlets ( f o r which i t holds the Canadian c o p y r i g h t ) , and h i r e s a l o c a l p r i n t e r to pro v i d e a l a r g e number of co p i e s f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n . 2 0 P l a n n i n g and implementing s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s i s an a c t i v i t y which occurs one p r o j e c t at a time, r e q u i r i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e n s e work b e f o r e completion. Often the p r o j e c t i s concerned with o r g a n i z i n g p u b l i c i t y or l o b b y i n g government, but i s p a r t of an a c t i v i t y d i f f e r e n t from those because i t i s comprised of 1 9 On such occasions somebody i s given the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s e t t i n g up and s t a f f i n g a t a b l e and some po s t e r boards, as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a money can f o r donations. 2 0 MADD 1(b). short-term undertakings with a c l e a r s t a r t and f i n i s h , while the other a c t i v i t i e s are long-term or permanent. Some examples of such p r o j e c t s are a Drunk D r i v i n g Awareness Week; a C a n d l e l i g h t S e r v i c e conducted i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a t i o n , where v i c t i m s recount t h e i r s t o r i e s ; a Red Ribbon Campaign held d u r i n g the Christmas season, when d r i v e r s are encouraged to t i e a red ribbon to t h e i r c a r s s i g n i f y i n g a committment not to d r i n k and d r i v e ; and the KISS (Keep i t a Safe Summer) p r o j e c t planned f o r the summer of 1989, d u r i n g which people v a c a t i o n i n g with t h e i r c a r s w i l l be provided with i n f o r m a t i o n packages by MADD, and with a s s i s t a n c e from other bodies, such as a l o c a l r a d i o s t a t i o n . The author of t h i s t h e s i s had the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n one such p r o j e c t : e n t i t l e d "MADD on the Move," i t was a weekend workshop which brought together r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from e x i s t i n g p r e v e n t i o n groups, l i q u o r l i c e n s e e s , students, community l e a d e r s , and other v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , with the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g a c i t i z e n s task f o r c e i n v a r i o u s B r i t i s h Columbia communities to f u r t h e r MADD's a i m s . 2 1 A p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z e r was c o n t r a c t e d to pla n t h i s workshop i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the MADD d i r e c t o r s , and numerous v o l u n t e e r s were c a l l e d upon to assemble k i t s and a s s i s t i n running the workshop. P l a n n i n g meetings were held at more and more frequent i n t e r v a l s . Speakers from government, the community, and both MADD and MADD USA were i n v i t e d or h i r e d . Funding and other support was s o l i c i t e d from government and s e v e r a l other i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 2 1 T h i s workshop took p l a c e March 17-19, 1989. 76 Documentation generated i n c l u d e d correspondence, c o n t r a c t s , notes, f i n a n c i a l estimates, r e g i s t r a t i o n forms, e v a l u a t i o n forms, r e p o r t s , b i l l s , cheques, r e c e i p t s , and minutes. V i c t i m a s s i s t a n c e i s a c e n t r a l a c t i v i t y f o r MADD. V i c t i m s who con t a c t MADD are sent a sympathy card o f f e r i n g help, which i s pro v i d e d i n the form of sympathy and advice, u s u a l l y by a past v i c t i m . V i c t i m s are encouraged to take notes immediately on what they remember of the crash (so th a t t h e i r testimony i n court w i l l have some ba c k i n g ) , and perhaps to photograph the scene; to re s e a r c h t h e i r cases (as mentioned e a r l i e r ) ; to w r i t e a l e t t e r to the a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l r e q u e s t i n g a s e n i o r p r o s e c u t o r f o r the case, sending along a photograph of the v i c t i m f o r g r e a t e r impact, and to prepare a v i c t i m impact statement to present i n cou r t b e f o r e the s e n t e n c i n g . 2 2 Communicating with members and non-members i s an a c t i v i t y which, l i k e o r g a n i z i n g p u b l i c i t y , i n v o l v e s p u b l i c a t i o n and mass p r i n t i n g . Three thousand members cannot r e c e i v e p e r s o n a l l e t t e r s ; MADD sends out a s p e c i a l n e w s l e t t e r or l e t t e r from the P r e s i d e n t a few times a year, a p r a c t i c e which has not yet become r e g u l a r i z e d , although a new " n a t i o n a l monthly newspaper" has r e c e n t l y been e s t a b l i s h e d under one of MADD's d i r e c t o r s . The newspaper i s not e x c l u s i v e l y aimed at members, however, and t h i s i s t r u e of much of the m a t e r i a l they r e c e i v e from MADD. The only communications intended s o l e l y f o r members are n o t i c e s of membership renewal, membership forms, r e c e i p t s f o r membership 2 2 MADD 3(a) dues, and agendas f o r the Annual General Meeting. T h i s appears to s a t i s f y most of the membership, and Greta S c o t t f e e l s t h a t the f a c t that MADD i s covered f r e q u e n t l y by the news media helps members know what i s going on, and informs them t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n i s c o n t i n u i n g with i t s work. 2 3 In order f o r MADD to c a r r y on t h i s communication with i t s members, i t must have an e f f i c i e n t way to s t o r e and r e t r i e v e t h e i r names, addresses, and other r e l e v a n t data. MADD a c t u a l l y has two means f o r doing t h i s , a card f i l e and a computer f i l e , both kept i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order, the former p r e d a t i n g the l a t t e r . These serve as backups to one another, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the s e c r e t a r y , Nancy Ca r r , r a t i o n a l i z e d them i n the summer of 1988. The computer f i l e i s a l s o used to generate address l a b e l s f o r mai l - o u t s to members. Communications with non-members are a l s o c o n t r o l l e d through the use of card f i l e s and computer f i l e s , the non-members being c a t e g o r i z e d as " v i c t i m s " (because some of the v i c t i m s are a l s o members, t h e i r data are f i l e d under both q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ) , "donors", " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " , and "c o m p a n i e s / l i m i t e d / c o r p o r a t i o n s " ( a l s o r e f e r r e d to as the "businesses" or " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l " f i l e ) . An o l d " c o n t a c t s " card f i l e has been d i s c o n t i n u e d , and the data never entered onto the computer. 2 4 The cards f o r each category are p r e - p r i n t e d forms, each on a d i s t i n c t c o l o u r of s t i f f paper. Non-members o f t e n r e c e i v e the same m a t e r i a l s as members, or they 2 3 MADD 2 : l ( a ) . 2 4 MADD 1(a). 78 may be ta r g e t e d f o r requests f o r s p e c i f i c s e r v i c e s or donations. V i c t i m s may r e c e i v e a s p e c i a l n e w s l e t t e r or other a p p r o p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n (which MADD sometimes passes on from another s o u r c e ) . F u n d r a i s i n g i s an a c t i v i t y which enables MADD to c a r r y out i t s mandate, even though i t i s not encompassed by t h i s mandate. MADD r a i s e s some of i t s funds through membership fee s s o l i c i t e d through p r i v a t e donations, s o l i c i t i n g a d v e r t i s i n g from businesses f o r i t s p u b l i c a t i o n s , and e x h i b i t i n g a money can at ma l l d i s p l a y s . Some s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s are aimed at f u n d r a i s i n g ; f o r example, MADD has twice s o l i c i t e d donations from medical d o c t o r s through the ma i l with the help of a p r o f e s s i o n a l f u n d r a i s e r . The a s s o c i a t i o n on occ a s i o n accepts government fu n d i n g i n the form of a grant . As a r e g i s t e r e d n o n - p r o f i t a s s o c i a t i o n , MADD, as al r e a d y mentioned, i s e n t i t l e d to sponsor government-regulated gambling events, namely bingo and ca s i n o , and through them MADD earns much of the money i t needs to f u n c t i o n . As a member of the Skyway C h a r i t i e s A s s o c i a t i o n (SCA), which i s mandated to r a i s e funds f o r and otherwise promote i t s member a s s o c i a t i o n s , MADD sponsors a three-hour weekly bingo s e s s i o n at a bingo h a l l i n New Westminster. These s e s s i o n s are run by a manager and two other employees, but MADD i s expected to a s s i s t by sending two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to " c a l l " the winners' cards, pay out the winnings, s e l l " p u l l tabs" ( s m a l l cards which can be opened to r e v e a l a winning combination of symbols) and pay out the winnings from those, empty a s h t r a y s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y do other odd j o b s . These r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c r e a t i o n of two kinds of documentation: they f i l l out the forms showing who won how much i n each game i n a s e s s i o n , and s i g n a form r e c o r d i n g the t o t a l income f o r that s e s s i o n . MADD does not r e c e i v e c o p i e s of these forms, although each month i t r e c e i v e s the minutes of the Board of D i r e c t o r s f o r the SCA, a f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t , and a cheque. MADD i s an n u a l l y r e q u i r e d to submit a re p o r t to SCA showing that these earnings have been spent i n the permitted manner. MADD i s e n t i t l e d to two n i g h t s i n a row, three times a n n u a l l y , of sponsorship f o r an a r b i t r a r i l y d esignated gambling c a s i n o i n Greater Vancouver. Casinos are mainly run by permanent s t a f f but r e q u i r e f i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from MADD, who take some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l a r g e sums of money d u r i n g the course of each evening. One r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a c t s as "banker", u n l o c k i n g and count i n g the gambling c h i p s at each t a b l e , and r e s u p p l y i n g i t when necessary. Two more s i t i n a locked " c a s h i e r s ' booth" and exchange c h i p s f o r money when the gamblers request i t , keeping notes of these exchanges. The other three r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s help count the money taken i n , check over the records of money and ch i p s d i s b u r s e d and acqu i r e d , and s i g n v a r i o u s forms r e c o r d i n g these d e t a i l s . At the end of each evening one of the o r i g i n a l s produced from each t r i p l i c a t e s et of forms i s given to MADD, as w e l l as a cheque and a f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t . While most of the records c r e a t e d by MADD can be accounted f o r i n r e l a t i o n to i t s a c t i v i t i e s , three r e l a t e d t o p i c s should be di s c u s s e d f o r a f u l l e r p o r t r a y a l of i t s r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s : the r o l e of MADD's o f f i c i a l s , MADD's f i l i n g systems, and i t s a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s towards records p r e s e r v a t i o n . To begin with, l e t us c o n s i d e r the r o l e of p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t o r s and s t a f f . The t r e a s u r e r , a s s i s t e d by a bookkeeper whom MADD employs, takes care of a l l the f i n a n c i a l matters of the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s ; t h a t i s , she rec o r d s money r e c e i v e d and di s b u r s e d , manages the accounts, pays b i l l s , sends out r e c e i p t s and requests f o r membership renewal, and prepares f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s . The ex e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r handles much of the correspondence, and does much of the p l a n n i n g f o r s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s , government lobby i n g , and v i c t i m a s s i s t a n c e . A p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z e r i s a l s o r e g u l a r l y h i r e d to help with s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s . The s e c r e t a r y maintains the f i l i n g systems, s o r t s a l l incoming correspondence, answers r o u t i n e correspondence, a c t s as r e c e p t i o n i s t f o r c a l l e r s and v i s i t o r s , d e a l s with most matters of membership, and re p r e s e n t s MADD at most SCA bingo s e s s i o n s . Having a p a i d s e c r e t a r y has helped MADD organize and preserve i t s r e c o r d s , maintain b e t t e r c o n t a c t with the p u b l i c and i t s members, and get the r o u t i n e work d i s l i k e d by v o l u n t e e r s d o n e . 2 5 The d i r e c t o r s and sundry v o l u n t e e r s e x t e n s i v e l y a s s i s t the ex e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r and the s e c r e t a r y . 2 5 MADD 2:1(b) and 3(a) 81 MADD's f i l i n g systems vary a c c o r d i n g to the f u n c t i o n a l form of the re c o r d s , but with one exce p t i o n are a l l " d i r e c t access" s y s t e m s . 2 6 F i n a n c i a l records are f i l e d by the t r e a s u r e r i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order i n a p o r t a b l e s u b d i v i d e d f i l e case. The membership f i l e s and other l i s t s of persons and o r g a n i z a t i o n s are, as d e s c r i b e d above, f i l e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order i n card c a t a l o g u e s and on the computer. Minutes are kept i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order i n bi n d e r s on s h e l v e s . Photographs are d i s p l a y e d i n frames or i n albums with no p a r t i c u l a r arrangement. A l l other r e c o r d s are preserved i n a ge n e r a l f i l i n g system, of which there have been three over the years. Greta S c o t t s et up the o r i g i n a l system, which proved inadequate, and a f t e r a few years her husband improved upon i t with a system based on the one he used i n h i s workplace. The only i n d i r e c t access f i l i n g system MADD has had, t h i s system used a numeric index code wherein each f i l e drawer had a l e t t e r and each f i l e a number, with an index at the f r o n t of each drawer showing the s u b j e c t of every f i l e . But when the present s e c r e t a r y s t a r t e d work, she a l t e r e d the system yet again; G r e t a S c o t t hasn't grown comfortable with i t y e t , but she observes p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y t h a t "I've heard t h i s i s very common in o f f i c e s , what's a simple system to one person becomes [ d i f f i c u l t f o r a n o t h e r ] . " 2 7 Nancy C a r r ' s system i s one of d i r e c t access, having an a l p h a b e t i c a l order w i t h i n each of s e v e r a l broad 2 6 A d i r e c t access f i l i n g system i s one which allows the user to go d i r e c t l y to the f i l e s without r e f e r e n c e to an index, because i t i s based on s u b j e c t s w r i t t e n out as complete words. 2 7 MADD 2 : l ( b ) . s u b j e c t c l a s s e s , these being Other A s s o c i a t i o n s , V i c t i m A s s i s t a n c e , Government, A d v e r t i s i n g , MADD Branches, and so on. T h i s f i l i n g system i s not very s o p h i s t i c a t e d , and everybody sometimes has problems f i n d i n g t h i n g s w i t h i n i t . There are two probable reasons why MADD o f f i c i a l s have not attempted to improve t h i s system: they see a f i l i n g system as a s e c r e t a r y ' s domain, not to be i n t e r f e r e d with, and a l s o they are not knowledgeable enough about f i l i n g systems to a l t e r i t c o n f i d e n t l y . 2 8 The a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s of MADD o f f i c i a l s r e g a r d i n g the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e i r r e c o rds are the f i n a l area of concern here. Some of these a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s stem from p e r s o n a l i t y . For example, the t r e a s u r e r avoids the computer because she does not f e e l comfortable with i t , and g e n e r a l l y does her work at home i n order to avoid d i s t r a c t i o n s . A t t i t u d e s to f i l e order a l s o vary, and Nancy Carr sometimes f i n d s the membership catalogue i n d i s o r d e r , or ma i l i n s e r t e d i n t o the wrong s l o t s , presumably by some well-meaning d i r e c t o r or other v o l u n t e e r ; as she puts i t "some people are more r e l a x e d about how t h i n g s are kept, t h a t happens i n every o f f i c e " . 2 9 One a t t i t u d e which i s a matter of p o l i c y and was s t r e s s e d by a l l three i n t e r v i e w e e s i s that a l l MADD's records are completely open and a c c e s s i b l e to members, government o f f i c i a l s , and r e s e a r c h e r s . P e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n 2 8 These reasons are good enough to de t e r many s m a l l , and even l a r g e , o r g a n i z a t i o n s from improving t h e i r f i l i n g systems, and should not be seen as f a u l t s p a r t i c u l a r to MADD. 2 9 MADD 1(b). 83 about v i c t i m s i s kept from media r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , however, at l e a s t u n t i l p e r m i s s i o n has been asked of the v i c t i m s concerned. There i s no sys t e m a t i c records management programme at MADD, or anything c l o s e to i t , and i n s t e a d there i s a s e t of g e n e r a l l y accepted p r a c t i c e s which most people at MADD seem to s u b s c r i b e to. G r e t a S c o t t has a dictum quoted by Nancy Carr as "never throw anything o u t , " 3 0 the idea being that any re c o r d may be u s e f u l to somebody someday. The t r e a s u r e r p r e s e r v e s a l l f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s i n case a government o f f i c i a l q u e s t i o n i n g MADD's n o n - p r o f i t s t a t u s wishes to survey them. The law r e q u i r e s a seven-year r e t e n t i o n p e r i o d f o r those r e c o r d s , but MADD has e x i s t e d a l i t t l e longer than t h a t , and s t i l l has not d i s c a r d e d any f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s at a l l , j u s t i n c a s e . 3 1 The p r a c t i c e with membership and other catalogues i s that when a person ceases to be a member or moves without forwarding an address, the card r e l a t i n g to th a t person i s d i s c a r d e d . With regard to other r e c o r d s , i t i s c l e a r t h at e v e r y t h i n g on f i l e i s kept permanently. By 1988 the f i l e s were g e t t i n g unwieldy as a r e s u l t , and the s e c r e t a r y a c c o r d i n g l y t r a n s f e r r e d a l l records p r e v i o u s to 1986 to a separate f i l e c a b i n e t . T h i s f i l e c a b i n e t f u n c t i o n s as both a reco r d s c e n t r e and an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y f o r many of MADD's rec o r d s . Many re c o r d s c r e a t e d and r e c e i v e d by MADD never reach the safe haven of i t s f i l e s , however. The category "correspondence ao 3 1 I b i d . MADD 3( a ) . r e c e i v e d " i n c l u d e s "junk m a i l " , a term used to cover m a i l which does not r e l a t e to MADD's mandate or o p e r a t i o n s , and junk m a i l i s r o u t i n e l y d i s c a r d e d soon a f t e r i t i s r e c e i v e d . Some correspondence r e c e i v e d , which a f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the exe c u t i v e d i r e c t o r and perhaps the board of d i r e c t o r s i s not acted upon, i s a l s o d i s c a r d e d . Correspondence which takes the form of membership a p p l i c a t i o n forms, workshop r e g i s t r a t i o n forms, and the l i k e , i s d i s c a r d e d once the data are recorded elsewhere and the form i s no longer needed. A l l correspondence sent i s photocopied f o r MADD's f i l e s by the s e c r e t a r y , but t h i s may not always have been the p r a c t i c e before she was h i r e d . D r a f t s of l e t t e r s are not kept. D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t court m o n i t o r i n g i s c e n t r a l to MADD, the records of t h i s a c t i v i t y have not been c o n s i s t e n t l y preserved -- some of them are at the head o f f i c e , some at branch o f f i c e s , and many have e i t h e r been d i s c a r d e d or remain i n the hands of the v o l u n t e e r s who creat e d them. Greta S c o t t sees t h i s as a mistake now, and r e g r e t s i t . 3 2 P a r t of the problem here i s th a t while forms are o f t e n used, notes are a l s o common. Notes are produced i n the course of most of MADD's a c t i v i t i e s . They u s u a l l y have the form of handwritten, i n f o r m a l n o t a t i o n s taken i n an i d i o s y n c r a t i c manner by an i n d i v i d u a l , and are widely considered to be f o r immediate use of the c r e a t o r , a f t e r which they are g e n e r a l l y d e s t r o y e d . 3 3 3 2 MADD 2 : l ( b ) . 3 3 T h i s statement i s based upon p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s of the author. The a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s concerning n o t e - t a k i n g would be an i n t e r e s t i n g area of r e s e a r c h f o r a r c h i v i s t s . 85 Consequently, very few notes s u r v i v e i n MADD's f i l e s , the exception being telephone messages taken by Nancy Carr s i n c e she has been s e c r e t a r y . When she began working f o r MADD she took telephone notes on scraps of paper, but they accumulated so r a p i d l y t h at f o r safe-keeping, she began e n t e r i n g them i n t o a small "booklet" i n s t e a d . In the back of the same bo o k l e t Nancy has kept a re c o r d of her hours of work. She has a l r e a d y f i l l e d one b o o k l e t , and t h i s has been f i l e d . 3 4 I t seems t h a t the p h y s i c a l form of a notebook commands more r e s p e c t than the loose p i e c e s of paper on which most notes are taken. Each i n t e r v i e w e e was asked which records she would make i t a p r i o r i t y to save i n the event of a f i r e or other d i s a s t e r , a qu e s t i o n which a p p a r e n t l y was not considered b e f o r e . The s e c r e t a r y s t a t e d t h a t she would save the " f l o p p y d i s c s " of computer f i l e s , c o n t a i n i n g a l l the l i s t s of members, donors, and so'on, and mentioned the p r a c t i c e common to other o f f i c e s of keeping e x t r a c o p i e s of such d i s c s i n a separate l o c a t i o n — a p r a c t i c e she plans to implement sometime at MADD.35 The t r e a s u r e r s a i d she would save the f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s , and expla i n e d t h a t these i n c l u d e the membership l i s t i n the form of r e c e i p t s . 3 6 The ex e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r d e c l a r e d that her p r i o r i t y 3 4 MADD 1(b). 3 5 I b i d . 3 6 MADD 3( a ) . 86 would be the photographs of v i c t i m s , 3 7 a f t e r which she would save the videotape of MADD's h i s t o r y , and only then the membership l i s t s and b r i e f s to government. 3 8 I t i s evident from these answers t h a t the records which are c e n t r a l to the s p e c i f i c work of each o f f i c i a l are what she would t h i n k to save, which i s q u i t e n a t u r a l but not n e c e s s a r i l y i n the best i n t e r e s t of the a s s o c i a t i o n as a whole. The p r a c t i c e by some o f f i c i a l s of p r e s e r v i n g a p e r s o n a l c o l l e c t i o n of co p i e s of MADD rec o r d s i s one l a s t p o i n t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Minutes and b r i e f s are the main documents so kept, but others are saved as w e l l ; Helen N i c h o l s saves a grea t many at home, which she p e r i o d i c a l l y weeds. N i c h o l s a l s o keeps a d a i l y " d i a r y " f o r Greta S c o t t and h e r s e l f , with e s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to S c o t t ' s l o b b y i n g e f f o r t s and news media i n t e r v i e w s . 3 9 S c o t t and N i c h o l s agree that t h i s i s the most complete r e c o r d of these a c t i v i t i e s , but they c o n s i d e r the d i a r y to be a p e r s o n a l r e c o r d of N i c h o l s ' , not MADD pr o p e r t y , and i t i s kept at her home r a t h e r than i n the o f f i c e . The three i n t e r v i e w e e s were a l s o asked to d e f i n e the term " a r c h i v e s " and to s p e c u l a t e as to what would happen to MADD's reco r d s i f the a s s o c i a t i o n were ever to c l o s e down. The 3 7 Greta S c o t t s a i d t h a t she would make t h i s c h o ice because these photographs are so p r e c i o u s to the parents of these v i c t i m s . Another probable reason i s that f o r S c o t t , the c h i l d r e n these photographs represent are what MADD i s a l l about, and t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n would be a second death. 3 8 MADD 2 : l ( b ) . 3 9 MADD 3(a ) . e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r d e s c r i b e d a r c h i v e s as a p l a c e where genealogy can be researched, and the t r e a s u r e r as " f o s s i l s and s t u f f l i k e t h a t " ; the s e c r e t a r y had the most accurate d e f i n i t i o n : I t ' s b a s i c a l l y records of t h i n g s ... o r g a n i z a t i o n s , companies, businesses, whatever ... that have been i n ex i s t e n c e , and u s u a l l y an a r c h i v e s would take i t r i g h t from the day i t s t a r t e d u n t i l the present, or whenever i t e n d e d . 4 0 When f u r t h e r questioned, none of the int e r v i e w e e s had a c l e a r concept of an " a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y , " and the i n s t i t u t i o n s which they thought might wish to preserve MADD's records would be a l i b r a r y or a u n i v e r s i t y . They do f e e l that t h e i r r e c o rds are important, because they f e e l t h a t MADD i s p l a y i n g an important r o l e i n Canadian s o c i e t y . G r e t a S c o t t and Helen N i c h o l s would both preserve some re c o r d s f o r p e r s o n a l " s e n t i m e n t a l " reasons i f MADD were to f o l d , because MADD re p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of t h e i r l i v e s . 4 1 4 0 R e s p e c t i v e l y , MADD 2:1(b), MADD 3(a), and MADD 1(b). 4 1 MADD 2:1(b) and MADD 3 ( a ) . CHAPTER FOUR SECOND CASE STUDY I THE ORIENTEERING ASSOCIATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA I The O r i e n t e e r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia (OABC) i s a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n having two main aims: to encourage, promote and g i v e l e a d e r s h i p to the s p o r t of o r i e n t e e r i n g l o c a l l y , p r o v i n c i a l l y and n a t i o n a l l y ; and to s a n c t i o n and s u p e r v i s e a n n u a l l y a f u l l program of competition i n c l u d i n g the OABC Championships and p e r i o d i c a l l y the Canadian Championships. 1 OABC i s a l s o expected to host other championships, such as the Western Canadian Championships ( a l t e r n a t i n g with the o r i e n t e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s of A l b e r t a and Manitoba), and c o o r d i n a t e most of the communication among o r i e n t e e r i n g c l u b s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the n a t i o n a l governing body, the p r o v i n c i a l government, and p a r a l l e l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n other p r o v i n c e s . 2 O r i e n t e e r i n g i s the s p o r t or p r a c t i c e of f i n d i n g one's way through u n f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y by means of a map or compass or both, u s u a l l y i n v o l v i n g a g i v e n s t a r t i n g and f i n i s h i n g p o i n t with a s e r i e s of check p o i n t s i n between. 3 OABC o f t e n uses the phrase "your s p o r t f o r l i f e " i n i t s l i t e r a t u r e , emphasizing o r i e n t e e r i n g ' s f l e x i b i l i t y ; p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 As s t a t e d i n OABC's c o n s t i t u t i o n . 2 OABC l : l ( a ) . 3 Gage Canadian D i c t i o n a r y . 1983 ed., s.v. " o r i e n t e e r i n g " . 88 89 range from c o m p e t i t i v e young runners, through f a m i l y groups with young c h i l d r e n , to people i n t h e i r e i g h t i e s . A l l of them speak of "running a course" but they may do t h i s at any speed, f o c u s s i n g on " p e r s o n a l best" r a t h e r than winning. Map-reading a b i l i t y i s a l s o a f a c t o r i n the amount of time and e f f o r t one needs to complete an o r i e n t e e r i n g course. To f a c i l i t a t e a range of s k i l l s , p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s , and approaches, most o r i e n t e e r i n g "meets" have at l e a s t three courses ( n o v i c e , i n t e r m e d i a t e , and e x p e r t ) , and sometimes as many as f i f t y . An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s necessary f o r o r i e n t e e r i n g ' s c e n t r a l a c t i v i t y of meets to f l o u r i s h i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Although OABC i s by nature very d i f f e r e n t from MADD, i t shares the category " v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n " with t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t has a c l e a r purpose, as s t a t e d above; i t i s c o n t r o l l e d and operated by i t s members i n democratic f a s h i o n ; there are no r e s t r i c t i o n s on who may j o i n or leave the a s s o c i a t i o n ; i t i s independent of any n o n - o r i e n t e e r i n g body; i t i s a r e g i s t e r e d n o n - p r o f i t agency; and i t has a formal s t r u c t u r e expressed i n a w r i t t e n c o n s t i t u t i o n . O r i e n t e e r i n g o r i g i n a t e d i n Sweden e a r l y i n t h i s century, and has become immensely popular throughout Western Europe, where such a t h i n g as an eight-day meet with 17,000 p a r t i c i p a n t s i s not uncommon. O r i e n t e e r i n g has a l s o caught on i n other p a r t s of the world, and i s p r a c t i c e d i n most p a r t s of Canada. With over f i v e hundred members, OABC i s the l a r g e s t p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n of o r i e n t e e r s i n the n a t i o n . OABC was founded i n 1974, although o r i e n t e e r i n g c l u b s e x i s t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia b e f o r e t h i s time. The c l u b i s the b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t i n o r i e n t e e r i n g . Clubs i n B r i t i s h Columbia range i n s i z e from s i x to one hundred members, the main c r i t e r i a f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e being the a b i l i t y to host o r i e n t e e r i n g meets. An e l e c t e d e x e c u t i v e i n c l u d i n g a p r e s i d e n t , v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , t r e a s u r e r , s e c r e t a r y , and member-at- l a r g e , as w e l l as a s e t of committee c h a i r s , o f f i c i a l l y a d m i n i s t e r s each c l u b . The term " o f f i c i a l l y " i s used here because i n p r a c t i c e , the e x e c u t i v e o f t e n has merely an e x i s t e n c e on paper, and most of the d e c i s i o n s are made i n i n f o r m a l , f a c e - t o - f a c e d i s c u s s i o n s , by a consensus of any members who are p r e s e n t or i n t e r e s t e d . E l e c t i o n s tend to be a matter of a c c l a m a t i o n . 4 There are approximately e i g h t f u n c t i o n i n g o r i e n t e e r i n g c l u b s i n B r i t i s h Columbia at the moment, a number which has f l u c t u a t e d over the y e a r s . Some c l u b s have f o l d e d while others have merged; f o r example, the North Shore O r i e n t e e r s and the Thunderbird O r i e n t e e r s j o i n e d f o r c e s to become the G r e a t e r Vancouver O r i e n t e e r i n g Club (GVOC) i n 1985. OABC i s the c o - o r d i n a t i n g body which u n i t e s the c l u b s of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t has an e x e c u t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i m i l a r to t h a t of the c l u b s , with the d i f f e r e n c e t h a t the e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s are r o l e s taken much more s e r i o u s l y , as b e f i t s a body which 4 For example, Greg G i l l i s mentioned t h a t he o n l y r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t he i s o f f i c i a l l y an e x e c u t i v e member of the Greater Vancouver O r i e n t e e r i n g Club (GVOC), having been e l e c t e d months be f o r e . T h i s i s evidence that the r o l e of an executive p o s i t i o n o f t e n c a r r i e s l i t t l e weight i n an o r i e n t e e r i n g olub. e x i s t s mainly to a d m i n i s t e r . The p r e s i d e n t , Greg G i l l i s , and the ne w s l e t t e r e d i t o r , Peter Cawley (who i s a l s o a past p r e s i d e n t ) of OABC were both i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . 5 For a p e r i o d i n i t s h i s t o r y , OABC f u n c t i o n e d much as a c l u b , h o s t i n g meets on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , but a f t e r o b s e r v i n g t h a t such bodies are de- emphasized i n the European o r i e n t e e r i n g h i e r a r c h y , Peter Cawley (when he was p r e s i d e n t of OABC) made a p o l i c y s h i f t . A l l the a c t i v i t y , the s p o r t , the s o c i a l i z i n g , the a t h l e t i c i s m , and the camaraderie should take p l a c e at a club l e v e l . The OABC should be there to be a bean- counting, p a p e r - s h u f f l i n g , money-grabbing kind of co- o r d i n a t i n g body. And so i t ' s l u r c h e d and stumbled i n that d i r e c t i o n s i n c e then. I d e a l l y i t ' s f u n c t i o n i n g when i t ' s p r o v i d i n g communication between the member cl u b s and with p a r a l l e l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and when i t ' s g e t t i n g and d i s b u r s i n g c o r p o r a t e and governmental funds to the member c l u b s . 8 Above OABC i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i e r a r c h y i s the Canadian O r i e n t e e r i n g F e d e r a t i o n (COF), which f u n c t i o n s to c o o r d i n a t e the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , s e t n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and procedures, oversee n a t i o n a l championships, ad m i n i s t e r the n a t i o n a l squad (a group of top o r i e n t e e r s from which the n a t i o n a l team i s drawn), and l i a i s e with the I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r i e n t e e r i n g F e d e r a t i o n (IOF) and p a r a l l e l bodies i n other c o u n t r i e s . I t has an exe c u t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i m i l a r to th a t of OABC, as w e l l as some s t a f f and o f f i c e space. OABC has no o f f i c e space and no s t a f f , although i t has had both i n the p a s t . U n t i l a few years ago, OABC rented space i n 5 These are not the r e a l names of the in t e r v i e w e e s . 8 OABC 2 ( a ) . 92 the "Sport BC" b u i l d i n g (a p r o v i n c i a l government b u i l d i n g where the o f f i c e s of the s p o r t m i n i s t r y are l o c a t e d ) , j u s t enough room to keep a cupboard f u l l of re c o r d s i n , as w e l l as a share i n some work space, along with other s p o r t i n g bodies. But t h i s space was c o s t l y so the OABC exe c u t i v e decided to g i v e i t up. 7 The cupboard was moved to Peter Cawley's basement, where i t has s a t ever s i n c e . As regards s t a f f , OABC has never employed anyone on a permanent, f u l l - t i m e b a s i s , although u s i n g government g r a n t s and i t s own r e s o u r c e s i t has f r e q u e n t l y h i r e d mappers and on occ a s i o n e x e c u t i v e a s s i s t a n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the e x e c u t i v e i s w e l l aware of the advantage of having p a i d s t a f f to do the r o u t i n e and time-consuming work which exhausts v o l u n t e e r s , and has been t r y i n g to convince the government to fund one such p o s i t i o n i n the near f u t u r e . OABC's nature as a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , l i k e MADD's, i s tempered by some f a c t o r s . With r e f e r e n c e to v o l u n t a r y c h a r a c t e r , OABC could be seen as an a s c r i b e d a s s o c i a t i o n , because one cannot j o i n an o r i e n t e e r i n g c l u b i n B r i t i s h Columbia without j o i n i n g OABC as w e l l ( a l o n g with the COF and the IOF), and v i c e v e r s a . 8 However, there i s no measure f o r c i n g a person to j o i n a c l u b , other than the f a c t t h a t meet f e e s are higher f o r non-members. Nobody under the age of fo u r t e e n can independently compete i n a 7 OABC l : 2 ( a ) . 8 Under a p r e v i o u s OABC p o l i c y , one could j o i n OABC d i r e c t l y f o r a lower fee, but the c l u b s l o b b i e d s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n to change. 93 meet, but a c h i l d can p a r t i c i p a t e as p a r t of a f a m i l y or group membership. There are f i v e types of membership w i t h i n OABC: i n d i v i d u a l , f a m i l y , two types of a s s o c i a t e membership, and honorary l i f e membership. An a s s o c i a t e member may be a person or group who has pa i d a l e s s e r fee f o r the p r i v i l e g e of being on OABC's m a i l i n g l i s t , or a c l u b , youth group, s c h o o l or other o r g a n i z a t i o n which has p a i d a l a r g e r fee f o r the f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l i t s members as a group. Honorary l i f e membership i s c o n f e r r e d on persons who have g i v e n o u t s t a n d i n g s e r v i c e to OABC and to o r i e n t e e r i n g . Membership fee income i s d i v i d e d among the c l u b to which the member belongs, and OABC, COF, and IOF. OABC's democratic s t r u c t u r e , while more f o r m a l l y implemented than t h a t of the c l u b s , i s s t i l l run on the b a s i s of acclamation and consensus r a t h e r than through v o t i n g . 8 While a l l B r i t i s h Columbia c l u b s i d e a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e e q u a l l y i n OABC, i n p r a c t i c e the e x e c u t i v e i s drawn mainly from c l u b s s i t u a t e d on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver I s l a n d , because subsidy f o r t r a v e l to meetings i s minimal. OABC a d m i n i s t e r s i t s e l f w i t h i n the areas p r e s c r i b e d by i t s mandate, but i s not a wholly independent a s s o c i a t i o n , i t s p o l i c y being p a r t l y shaped by the p o l i c i e s of the COF and IOF, and by the p r o v i n c i a l government. OABC i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y funded by the B r i t i s h Columbia government, and i t s e x e c u t i v e l i v e s with a degree of a n x i e t y about whether t h i s funding w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t , 8 OABC 1:3. 94 and spends many e x t r a hours of labour p r o v i d i n g the documents which the government r e q u i r e s to j u s t i f y t h i s funding. L i k e MADD's, OABC's l i f e c y c l e began i n a t y p i c a l manner but has not brought the a s s o c i a t i o n to the p o i n t of l o s i n g i t s v o l u n t a r y nature. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to observe t h a t the higher i n the o r i e n t e e r i n g h i e r a r c h y one goes, the more formal i s i t s s t r u c t u r e and r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , while at the lowest l e v e l , the c l u b , i n f o r m a l i t y r e i g n s . OABC a l s o has a number of committees and an i n c r e a s i n g membership, and (as a l r e a d y mentioned) i t i s t r y i n g to a c q u i r e a permanent s t a f f member, although u n l i k e MADD i t has not yet succeeded. However, when we con s i d e r t h a t MADD i s (no m i n a l l y at l e a s t ) a n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n with a l a r g e membership, i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g body i n the o r i e n t e e r i n g h i e r a r c h y i s COF, not OABC, and COF has p a i d employees. OABC has e x i s t e d longer than MADD and, while i t may at some p o i n t become l e s s a c t i v e due to v o l u n t e e r "burn-out", i t shows no s i g n s of c l o s i n g down. As to the matter of s a t e l l i t e s , some of the cl u b s i n B r i t i s h Columbia e x i s t e d b e f o r e OABC d i d , but o t hers have been founded and they have a l l grown and become more f o r m a l i z e d under the i n f l u e n c e of OABC. Within the typology of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , OABC can be c a l l e d a " s o c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n " , a category which i n c l u d e s s p o r t i n g b o dies. I t sometimes f u n c t i o n s as a p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t ( a d v o c a t i n g environmental c o n t r o l s ) and a re s e a r c h (towards maps) a s s o c i a t i o n , but these are secondary f u n c t i o n s f o r OABC. 95 I I OABC does not have the number or assortment of l i n k a g e s w i t h other o r g a n i z a t i o n s of which MADD can boast, but i t does have some r e l a t i o n s h i p s worth c o n s i d e r i n g . Embedded i n i t s very- i d e n t i t y i s i t s p l a c e i n the h i e r a r c h y of the o r i e n t e e r i n g s p o r t ; thus, the B r i t i s h Columbia o r i e n t e e r i n g c l u b s are components of OABC, which i n tu r n i s a component of COF, and the COF i s a component of IOF. OABC i s not the primary o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n these componential r e l a t i o n s h i p s , r a t h e r , the i n d i v i d u a l c l u b i s . The c l u b s have c o - o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among one another and with nearby c l u b s i n the United S t a t e s and A l b e r t a . OABC, s i m i l a r l y , has c o - o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other p r o v i n c i a l o r i e n t e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s , and with s i m i l a r bodies i n other c o u n t r i e s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s are what makes the a f o r e - mentioned Western Canadian Championships p o s s i b l e , as w e l l as the A s i a P a c i f i c O r i e n t e e r i n g Championships (APOC), which i n v o l v e o r i e n t e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s from a l l around the P a c i f i c Rim. COF co-operates w i t h other n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . A c o - o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o e x i s t s between OABC and other p r o v i n c i a l s p o r t i n g bodies, which together, w i t h government a s s i s t a n c e conduct the B r i t i s h Columbia Summer Games each year. A c o - o r d i n a t e a s s o c i a t i o n f o r OABC and other s p o r t i n g bodies i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n p l a n n i n g the summer games each year i s the "Summer Games Committee". Another c o - o r d i n a t e a s s o c i a t i o n of which OABC i s a member i s the "Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n C o u n c i l " , the purpose of which i s to promote outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n B r i t i s h 96 Columbia. OABC's con t a c t with the former i s r e g u l a r d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g stages f o r the games, and with the l a t t e r minimal u n l e s s an OABC member happens to be on the board of d i r e c t o r s . No evidence was found of OABC having a c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with any other group at present, although there was mention of i t s O n t a r i o e q u i v a l e n t having such an advanced a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t i t competes wi t h the COF i n some areas, so such competition i s c o n c e i v a b l e f o r OABC. At times OABC may a l s o compete with s i m i l a r bodies to host n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l championships. OABC does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l o b b y i s t - i n s t i t u t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p with any other o r g a n i z a t i o n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , although member c l u b s may lobby OABC f o r p o l i c y changes, or OABC may lobby the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r in c r e a s e d funding. The s p o n s o r - b e n e f i c i a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p i s important to OABC. The a s s o c i a t i o n sponsors the a c t i v i t i e s of i t s c l u b s through e n a b l i n g communication, d i s t r i b u t i n g funding, and o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n i n g t h e i r t o p - l e v e l meets, t h a t i s , c e r t i f y i n g t h a t they are being planned i n accordance with accepted o r i e n t e e r i n g standards. In t u r n , OABC r e c e i v e s sponsorship from the p r o v i n c i a l government and a number of c o r p o r a t i o n s , which g i v e f i n a n c i a l support and other s e r v i c e s . For example, b o t t l e d water companies, compass makers, and a i r l i n e s have a l l p r o v i d e d t h e i r goods and s e r v i c e s towards major.meets f o r OABC. Since o r i e n t e e r i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canada r e f l e c t i t s p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries, a merger between two of 97 them i s very u n l i k e l y . However, mergers between c l u b s are p o s s i b l e and have occu r r e d . OABC i s u n l i k e l y to merge with any other s p o r t i n g body i n B r i t i s h Columbia because t h e i r mandates are f o r d i f f e r e n t s p o r t s . As the pr e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n of OABC makes abundantly c l e a r , government has a very s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , p r i n c i p a l l y i n the s p o n s o r - b e n e f i c i a r y r o l e . OABC d e a l s r e g u l a r l y w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Tourism, R e c r e a t i o n , and C u l t u r e , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y i t s department "Sport BC" and i t s "government s p o r t c o n s u l t a n t " , who meets r e g u l a r l y with the OABC e x e c u t i v e . Sport BC has rented space to OABC i n the past , and i t continues to g i v e the a s s o c i a t i o n other s e r v i c e s , such as access to i t s p r i n t shop, reduced m a i l i n g c o s t s through i t s m a i l room, and the use of i t s m a i l i n g address and a ma i l s l o t f o r correspondence. Sport BC's most s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n , however, i s funding, which i t p r o v i d e s i n a manner OABC ex e c u t i v e members always f i n d awkward, because i t i s not t a i l o r e d to t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n ' s s t r u c t u r e and needs, but r a t h e r to a g e n e r a l i z e d form of s p o r t i n g body. Every year OABC i s r e q u i r e d to f i l l out a "program development p l a n " form ( s e v e r a l pages lo n g ) , e s s e n t i a l l y an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an o p e r a t i n g grant, which changes a n n u a l l y and i s r a t h e r complicated and, to quote Greg G i l l i s , " s i l l y " . 1 0 T h i s form always r e q u i r e s a d e t a i l e d budget f o r the coming year u s i n g c a t e g o r i e s which do not r e f l e c t OABC, and o m i t t i n g c a t e g o r i e s which would. For example, mapping i s one 1 0 OABC l : 2 ( a ) . 98 of OABC's g r e a t e s t expenses, but because i t does not a p t l y f i t i n t o any of the c a t e g o r i e s i n the budget, the government u s u a l l y r e f u s e s to fund t h i s a c t i v i t y . OABC o f f i c i a l s have argued that maps are the p l a y i n g f a c i l i t y f o r o r i e n t e e r i n g , j u s t as p l a y i n g f i e l d s are to soc c e r teams and swimming p o o l s to water polo , but to no a v a i l . 1 1 Sport BC wants i t s funds to be spent mainly on " o f f i c e work", but OABC's needs are g r e a t e r i n other areas. Another problem i s th a t Sport BC d i v i d e s the p r o v i n c e i n t o e i g h t s e c t i o n s , and r e q u i r e s that an a s s o c i a t i o n have at l e a s t f i f t y members i n each i n order to q u a l i f y f o r the hi g h e s t l e v e l of funding; while OABC has over 500 members, there are none i n one of the s e c t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e i t does not q u a l i f y . Once a budget has been approved, OABC must keep t r a c k of expenses throughout the year and p r o v i d e i n t e r i m and year-end r e p o r t s (the l a t t e r b e i n g an "annual r e p o r t " ) . Grant a p p l i c a t i o n s are submitted f o r s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s , such as mapping or h o s t i n g an i n t e r n a t i o n a l meet. The time, e f f o r t and f r u s t r a t i o n expended throughout t h i s p r ocess i s resented by OABC, and both i n t e r v i e w e e s f e l t t h a t through i t s demands, the p r o v i n c i a l government c o n t r o l s OABC "to an u n s a t i s f y i n g l y l a r g e d e g r e e " . 1 2 I l l OABC has e i g h t a c t i v i t i e s , h a l f of which are s i m i l a r i n nature to some of MADD's: h o l d i n g meetings, conducting promotion 1 1 OABC 2 ( a ) . 1 2 OABC 1:3. ( t h i s corresponds to MADD's " o r g a n i z i n g p u b l i c i t y " ) , f u n d r a i s i n g , c o - o r d i n a t i n g and communicating with members and non-members, p r e p a r i n g maps, p l a n n i n g and h o s t i n g meets, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n meets, and t r a i n i n g . OABC has no headquarters from which to conduct these a c t i v i t i e s or c r e a t e the records r e l a t i n g to them. The s e t t i n g which i s i n t e g r a l to OABC's c e n t r a l event, the meet, changes every time i t i s held but i s i n v a r i a b l y an outdoor venue, g e n e r a l l y a w i l d e r n e s s or an untamed r u r a l area, o f t e n i n a park. OABC holds three kinds of meetings on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . A g e n e r a l meeting may be held at any time with j u s t cause, but i s bound to be h e l d as an Annual General Meeting i n September or October of each year, u s u a l l y c o n c u r r e n t l y with the p r o v i n c i a l o r i e n t e e r i n g championships. At the AGM the outgoing e x e c u t i v e makes i t s r e p o r t s , a new e x e c u t i v e i s e l e c t e d , the c l u b s make t h e i r r e p o r t s , major events f o r the coming year are awarded to v a r i o u s c l u b s , and any p o l i c y and other business members wish to r a i s e i s d i s c u s s e d . The AGM generates agendas, r e p o r t s , and minutes. Soon a f t e r the AGM, and c l o s e l y l i n k e d to i t , i s the Annual P l a n n i n g Meeting (APM), attended only by OABC and c l u b o f f i c i a l s . At t h i s meeting some meet r u l e changes may be agreed upon, but the main bus i n e s s i s a r r a n g i n g a f i x t u r e s l i s t . A f i x t u r e s l i s t i s a calendar of events f o r the upcoming year, to be held throughout the p r o v i n c e i n an arrangement which i s c o o r d i n a t e d , e q u i t a b l e , and agreeable to a l l c l u b s . The events c o n s i d e r e d are mainly meets and t r a i n i n g events. Other p l a n n i n g meetings are held to p l a n p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s throughout the 100 year, but these are mainly at the c l u b l e v e l . P l a n n i n g meetings generate minutes and f i x t u r e s l i s t s . The f i n a l kind of meeting i s the e x e c u t i v e meeting, which OABC must hold at l e a s t f o u r times a year ( a c c o r d i n g to i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n ) . T h i s combines aspects of the other two meetings, and generates the same kinds of r e c o r d s . A l l these meetings r e q u i r e t r a v e l on the p a r t of OABC o f f i c i a l s , and t h e r e f o r e they a l s o generate t r a v e l r e c e i p t s , expense c l a i m s , and c h e q u e s . 1 3 Conducting promotion i s i n t e g r a l to the aims of OABC but not to o r i e n t e e r i n g i t s e l f ; i t i s t h e r e f o r e l e s s important to t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n than to MADD, f u n c t i o n i n g mainly to a t t r a c t people to the s p o r t and to upcoming events. OABC p u b l i s h e s f i x t u r e s l i s t s (mainly f o r members), pamphlets a d v e r t i s i n g and i n t r o d u c i n g the sp o r t i n g e n e r a l , t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s , f l y e r s f o r p a r t i c u l a r events ( u s u a l l y drawn up by the c l u b s h o s t i n g them), and a ne w s l e t t e r ; i t a l s o c r e a t e s d r a f t s and mock-ups towards these p u b l i c a t i o n s . OABC has a l s o partaken i n N a t i o n a l O r i e n t e e r i n g Week promotions, and r e l a t e d to these and other events, produces news r e l e a s e s and encourages i n t e r v i e w s by the news media. The a s s o c i a t i o n o f f e r s a modest j u n i o r s p o r t s promotion b u r s a r y as i n c e n t i v e f o r young p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h i s generates cheques and correspondence. OABC i s r e g u l a r l y requested to g i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , demonstrations, and promotional m a t e r i a l s to sc h o o l and community groups, sometimes a l s o running "mini-meets" 1 3 OABC l : l ( a ) , 1:3, and 2( b ) . 101 f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t . 1 4 On such o c c a s i o n s photographs may be d i s p l a y e d , although o r i e n t e e r i n g i s not a s p o r t which i s e a s i l y understood through photographs; a more communicative d i s p l a y i s maps, s e l e c t e d to show t h e i r v a r i e t y and the way mapping standards have changed over OABC's h i s t o r y . 1 5 As with MADD, many promotional a c t i v i t i e s may not be recorded o u t s i d e OABC minutes, important ones may be mentioned i n the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s Program Development Plans and Annual Reports to Sport BC. OABC has two main t a r g e t s f o r f u n d r a i s i n g , these being the p r o v i n c i a l government and i t s membership. In the process of s o l i c i t i n g the government f o r money, the a s s o c i a t i o n generates Program Development Plans, other grant a p p l i c a t i o n s , and v a r i o u s r e p o r t s i n c l u d i n g Annual Reports. Funds r a i s e d from members take the form of fees c o l l e c t e d from c l u b s , based on the number of members i n , and use of OABC maps by, each c l u b , a process which c r e a t e s membership forms i n t r i p l i c a t e ( f o r the r e l e v a n t c l u b , OABC, and COF), membership l i s t s , correspondence, cheques, and r e c e i p t s sent to members f o r income tax purposes. The COF i n turn demands a percentage from OABC based on i t s membership, and t h i s a l s o generates b i l l s , correspondence, cheques, and r e c e i p t s . Another source of income, again c h a n n e l l e d through the c l u b s , i s meet f e e s , a p a r t of which i s intended as a "map l e v y " to be spent i n c r e a t i n g new maps. S t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s from the meets (commonly r e f e r r e d to as "meet s t a t s " ) are r e q u i r e d by OABC so 1 4 OABC l : l ( a ) . 1 5 OABC 2(b). 102 t h a t i t can b i l l the c l u b s , but these are not always forthcoming. OABC a l s o s o l i c i t s money towards c e r t a i n events from c o r p o r a t i o n s , g e n e r a t i n g correspondence, cheques, and r e c e i p t s . In recent y ears OABC has s o l d entertainment coupon b o o k s , 1 8 an a c t i v i t y which i n v o l v e s buying a number of these books from the company which produces them and s e l l i n g them to acquaintances, producing correspondence, cheques and some form of r e p o r t s . OABC has r e c e n t l y made arrangements to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c a s i n o , j u s t as MADD has done, and t h i s w i l l i n v o l v e the c r e a t i o n of notes, forms, cheques, and f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s . C o - o r d i n a t i n g and communicating with members and non-members i s p a r t l y done at meetings, and p a r t l y through correspondence i n the form of n o t i c e s , p r e s i d e n t ' s l e t t e r s , and n e w s l e t t e r s . The OABC n e w s l e t t e r Due West i s e d i t e d by Peter Cawley, and i t f u n c t i o n s to p r o v i d e a " b u l l e t i n board" f o r upcoming meets, t r a i n i n g events, and a v a i l a b l e funding, to supply news of the o r i e n t e e r i n g community, to pass on items of i n t e r e s t c u l l e d from other p u b l i c a t i o n s , and to be a " j o u r n a l of r e c o r d " f o r meets ( t h a t i s , to p r o v i d e meet r e s u l t s ) . Cawley compiles the n e w s l e t t e r on the micro-computer at h i s work-place, and p r e s e r v e s o n l y the f i n a l d r a f t on f l o p p y d i s c and a h o l d i n g f i l e of any items he has not used but may wish to i n c l u d e . A past p r e s i d e n t used to i s s u e a p r e s i d e n t ' s l e t t e r to membership, which i n Cawley's view would have more a p p r o p r i a t e l y been p a r t of the 1 6 s e r v i c e s These o f f e r deductions at v a r i o u s b u s i n e s s e s , from the c o s t of goods mostly r e s t a u r a n t s . and 103 n e w s l e t t e r . A c u r r e n t n e w s l e t t e r problem i s t h a t , by Cawley's own admission, he has been too busy to i s s u e i t on the q u a r t e r l y b a s i s i t i s supposed to f o l l o w . 1 7 The membership l i s t i s necessary f o r a l l t h i s correspondence to reach i t s d e s t i n a t i o n s . Communication which occurs i n f o r m a l l y and o r a l l y at meets goes unrecorded. P r e p a r i n g maps (or "mapping") i s c e n t r a l to the s p o r t of o r i e n t e e r i n g ; Peter Cawley says t h a t People who do t h i s s p o r t ... can be any l e v e l of f i t n e s s or a c t i v i t y or outdoor awareness, but you have to be a nut f o r maps, so t h a t becomes the document upon which we a l l f o c u s . 1 8 Maps are f a m i l i a r documents i n our s o c i e t y , but o r i e n t e e r i n g maps are d i s t i n c t i v e . They are f a r more d e t a i l e d and p r e c i s e than road maps, having a much l a r g e r s c a l e (1:5,000 and 1:15,000 s c a l e s are t y p i c a l ) c o v e r i n g a very s m a l l area, as w e l l as f i v e standard c o l o u r s and a s p e c i a l s e t of symbols, a l l a c c o r d i n g to IOF standards. O r i e n t e e r i n g maps are always marked with s e v e r a l l o n g i t u d e l i n e s r e a c h i n g s t r a i g h t from the top to the bottom of the map. Paths and roads are drawn very p r e c i s e l y , because the o r i e n t e e r needs to know t h e i r exact r a t h e r than t h e i r approximate route (so as to make informed d e c i s i o n s about a route which may not f o l l o w the p a t h ) . Contours are drawn i n brown ink, water i s i n d i c a t e d with blue ink, white i s used f o r c l e a r i n g s or "runnable f o r e s t -- f a i r l y open areas of f o r e s t where you can go through i t 1 7 OABC 2 ( a ) . 1 8 OABC 2(b ) . 104 at reasonable speed" -- green i s used f o r t h i c k f o r e s t ( d i f f e r e n t shades i n d i c a t i n g l e v e l s of t h i c k n e s s ) , and b l a c k f o r anything man-made (such as roads and b u i l d i n g s ) , as w e l l as f o r boulders and c l i f f s . 1 9 IOF symbols i n d i c a t e such t h i n g s as " l a r g e t r a i l , " " i n d i s t i n c t t r a i l , " "marsh," "form l i n e , " " d e p r e s s i o n , " " k n o l l , " and " d i s t i n c t v e g e t a t i o n boundary" on the map, wit h a legend d e s c r i b i n g them being p r i n t e d i n the corner. The process of making a map i s long, expensive, and complicated. OABC has a p o l i c y of commissioning f o u r new maps a year under the d i r e c t i o n of i t s "Map C o - o r d i n a t o r " . The f i r s t s tep i s to a c q u i r e a government a i r photograph of the area and send i t to a c a r t o g r a p h i c company to prepare a base map s u i t a b l e f o r o r i e n t e e r s , g e n e r a l l y a mylar map fou r times the s i z e of the f i n a l v e r s i o n (and thus, twice the s c a l e ) . A p r e - e x i s t i n g map not prepared f o r o r i e n t e e r s , or an outdated OABC one, may be used as a base map i n s t e a d . The second step i s f o r a group of v o l u n t e e r s or people h i r e d on c o n t r a c t , a l l w i t h o r i e n t e e r i n g experience and some t r a i n i n g i n map-making, to conduct " f i e l d w o r k " . They take a copy of a sm a l l s e c t i o n of the map, perhaps t a c k i n g i t to a sm a l l board, and walk the r e l e v a n t area checking f o r a l l the d e t a i l s an a i r photo or an i n a c c u r a t e o l d map may have missed, making c o r r e c t i o n s as they go along on the map d r a f t . F i e l d w o r k i n v o l v e s "pace counting" and frequent compass b e a r i n g s , and i t takes many, many hours to complete. The c o r r e c t i o n s may be marked i n any c o l o u r , but l a t e r the 1 9 OABC l : l ( b ) . 105 f i e l d w o r k e r w i l l t r a n s f e r them i n the standard c o l o u r s to a c l e a n copy of the map. When a l l the f i e l d w o r k has been completed, the c o r r e c t e d base map may be checked again by somebody, and only then turned over to a p r o f e s s i o n a l or experienced o r i e n t e e r i n g cartographer f o r making a p e r f e c t e d base map. 2 0 F i n a l l y , the l a r g e mylar base map i s taken to a p r i n t e r by the map c o - o r d i n a t o r , and one or two thousand map p r i n t s are made. 2 1 These maps are then sent to the clu b which i s h o s t i n g the meet they are r e q u i r e d f o r . Of course, most of them w i l l not be needed immediately, and these are s t o r e d f o r use at a f u t u r e meet. When a l l the maps of a p r i n t i n g are used up, the base map may be r e p r i n t e d , but more l i k e l y new f i e l d w o r k i s done and the map i s improved and updated, to take account of mistakes, o v e r s i g h t s , and the changes wrought by new roads, f o r e s t f i r e s , or a beaver dam. A new map i s a d e l i g h t f u l t h i n g f o r o r i e n t e e r s , and Greg G i l l i s a s s e r t s that a meet w i l l have a three or fou r times g r e a t e r attendance i f people know i t i s going to present a new map. 2 2 In order to make a new map, a c l u b must apply to the OABC f o r funding, sending a request to the Mapping C o - o r d i n a t o r which i n c l u d e s a d e t a i l e d p l a n of how the map w i l l be completed and used. The mapping c o - o r d i n a t o r submits a l i s t of approved mapping p r o j e c t s to the t r e a s u r e r , and i f the t r e a s u r e r accepts 2 0 I b i d . 2 1 OABC 2 ( a ) . 2 2 OABC l : l ( b ) . 106 i t , the mapping c o - o r d i n a t o r sends the c l u b n o t i f i c a t i o n s t a t i n g whether and how much OABC w i l l fund the map, g e n e r a l l y c o n t r i b u t i n g the t o t a l c ost of a i r - p h o t o s and base maps, and a c e r t a i n amount per hour f o r f i e l d w o r k and map d r a f t i n g . A f t e r the work i s done, the c l u b sends i t s r e c e i p t s to the t r e a s u r e r and i s reimbursed with OABC cheques. C o n t r a c t s and grant a p p l i c a t i o n s are a l s o c r e a t e d i n r e l a t i o n to maps. Maps vary g r e a t l y f o r f o u r main reasons, the f i r s t of which i s t h a t mapping standards have changed a g r e a t d e a l over the y e a r s . For example, OABC's e a r l i e s t maps are p r i n t e d i n b l a c k and white only. These maps are much harder to read than c o l o u r e d ones, which i s p a r t of the reason t h a t t r a i n i n g maps showing only contours and water (brown and b l u e ) are made to t h i s day; such maps are not a p p r o p r i a t e to a c o m p e t i t i v e meet, but they are a u s e f u l t r a i n i n g d e v i c e which f o r c e s the o r i e n t e e r to pay c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n to contours, and makes a f a m i l i a r area seem new and c h a l l e n g i n g . Maps a l s o vary because of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l mappers and c a r t o g r a p h e r s : map-making i s a c r e a t i v e a c t . 2 3 The c r e a t i v e aspect of mapping can be n o t i c e d i n the v a r i a t i o n s which occur among maps produced i n d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s . For example, the concept of t h i c k v e g e t a t i o n i n p r a i r i e A l b e r t a i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the one held i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 2 3 OABC l : 2 ( a ) . G i l l i s d e s c r i b e d an experiment conducted i n F i n l a n d a few years ago, when f i f t e e n experienced mappers were asked to map the same smal l area, and the r e s u l t s were a l l q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from one another. 107 t h e r e f o r e , a map area c o l o u r e d dark green does not n e c e s s a r i l y correspond to the same type of v e g e t a t i o n i n the two p r o v i n c e s . F u r t h e r work must be done with a map when a c l u b i s p l a n n i n g and h o s t i n g a meet. F i r s t of a l l , a s e t of courses must be p l o t t e d , each of which i n v o l v e s choosing a numbered s e r i e s of " c o n t r o l p o i n t s " ( u s u a l l y numbered between one and 14), marking them on one of the p r i n t e d c o p i e s of the map, and connecting them wit h s t r a i g h t l i n e s ; t h i s becomes a master map. The course i s marked i n red f o r easy scanning. The next step i s f o r those i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g the meet to hang " c o n t r o l s " i n the designated p l a c e s , c o n t r o l s b e i ng cubes of f a b r i c on wire (or cheaper cardboard v e r s i o n s ) , u s u a l l y c o l o u r e d white and orange or red, with s t r i n g s threaded through the top so they can be hung from bushes and other o b j e c t s . Hung from the c o n t r o l i s a paper punch ( a l s o termed a "card s p i k e " ) with a unique c o n f i g u r a t i o n of p i n s . Each c o n t r o l i s permanently marked with l e t t e r s or numbers, such as "82" or "V08". O r i e n t e e r s are given a s m a l l p r i n t e d or photocopied course sheet showing a concordance between the number of the c o n t r o l as marked on the map, the number or l e t t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n on the a c t u a l c o n t r o l , and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the landmark on or near which the c o n t r o l i s l o c a t e d , such as "path j u n c t i o n " , "boulder", or " b u i l d i n g NE c o r n e r " . Experienced o r i e n t e e r s use a course sheet where the landmark i s d e s c r i b e d u s i n g an IOF symbol r a t h e r than w o r d s . 2 4 There are f o u r types of 2 4 A c c o r d i n g to Greg G i l l i s , although there are c h a r t s and workshops which teach the meaning of the symbols, the main way they are learned i s through experience: "you go to the l o c a t i o n 108 meets: A, B, and C meets, and c h a m p i o n s h i p meets, w h i c h a r e a c t u a l l y a k i n d o f A meet. An A meet i s a h i g h q u a l i t y e v e n t , m e a s u r i n g up t o r i g o r o u s IOF s t a n d a r d s , w i t h s e v e r a l o f f i c i a l s i n v o l v e d t o c h e c k one a n o t h e r ' s work and c a r e f u l l y p l a n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n . A new map i s a l w a y s u s e d f o r an A meet, so t h a t no c o m p e t i t o r knows q u i t e what t o e x p e c t . OABC s a n c t i o n s f o u r A meets a y e a r , f o r w h i c h t h e h o s t i n g c l u b s f i l l o u t s a n c t i o n f o r m s and s u b m i t them t o OABC f o r a p p r o v a l ; a f t e r t h i s a p p r o v a l has been g i v e n , OABC i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e meet a l o n g w i t h t h e c l u b . E a c h y e a r , one o f t h e A meets i s a l s o t h e p r o v i n c i a l c h a m p i o n s h i p e v e n t , and t h e p e r s o n who r u n s t h e most d i f f i c u l t c o u r s e a t t h i s e v e n t i n t h e s h o r t e s t t i m e i s d e c l a r e d t h e b e s t o r i e n t e e r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h a t y e a r . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , o t h e r c h a m p i o n s h i p s may a l s o be h o s t e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n a g i v e n y e a r , s u c h as t h e A s i a P a c i f i c C h a m p i o n s h i p s and t h e C a n a d i a n c h a m p i o n s h i p s . B meets a r e o r g a n i z e d by o n l y a few p e o p l e i n a l e s s r i g o r o u s manner, and a r e h e l d much more f r e q u e n t l y . C meets i n v o l v e t h e l e a s t amount o f f o r m a l p l a n n i n g , and may be o r g a n i z e d by o n l y one p e r s o n ; a c l u b may h o l d t h e s e as o f t e n as once a week. C meets a r e g e n e r a l l y a d v e r t i s e d o n l y w i t h i n a c l u b , B meets a r e e n t e r e d on t h e OABC f i x t u r e s l i s t , A meets a r e a d v e r t i s e d t o a l l members o f OABC, and c h a m p i o n s h i p s a r e p u b l i c i z e d even more w i d e l y . The a d v e r t i s i n g t a k e s t h e f o r m on t h e map and see what's t h e r e , " o r a f t e r t h e meet one can ask a n o t h e r o r i e n t e e r what a symbol means. [OABC l : 2 ( a ) . ] 109 of meet f l y e r s , and n o t i c e of the meets a l s o occurs i n the f i x t u r e s l i s t s . Meets a l s o generate correspondence. Before an area i s mapped, and each time i t i s used f o r a meet, a l e t t e r r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n to use the land must be sent to the r e l e v a n t a u t h o r i t y , u s u a l l y a park warden, and another l e t t e r r e c e i v e d g r a n t i n g t h i s p e r m i s s i o n . H o s t i n g a meet i n v o l v e s other s u b - a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l , which are perhaps best d e s c r i b e d from the p o i n t of view of one p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a meet. A f t e r r e c e i v i n g n o t i c e of the meet from a f i x t u r e s l i s t or a meet f l y e r , the o r i e n t e e r goes to the s t a r t i n g area of the meet, which i s g e n e r a l l y held on a Saturday or Sunday from about 10:00 u n t i l 2:00, at any season except win t e r . There s h e 2 6 sees a few cardboard s i g n s g i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s and a t a b l e or board with v a r i o u s f l y e r s and f i x t u r e s l i s t , as w e l l as some f l a g g i n g s t r u n g a c r o s s the f i n i s h l i n e , and some more marking the s t a r t i n g area. F o l l o w i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n s on the s i g n s , she p r e s e n t s h e r s e l f to the r e g i s t r a r of the race, where she s i g n s a waiver f o r insurance purposes, f i l l s out a s a f e t y card with her name and address, as w e l l as the number of the course she wishes to f o l l o w , and i s g i v e n a c o n t r o l card marked with numbered squares and her course number, i n r e t u r n f o r an entrance fe e . I f she does not a l r e a d y have them, the p a r t i c i p a n t i s asked to buy a w h i s t l e ( i n case she gets l o s t or needs help) and to r e n t a compass. At t h i s time she may a l s o 2 5 The author w i l l use the female pronoun throughout t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , because i t i s based on her own experience, not because men do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s p o r t of o r i e n t e e r i n g . 110 be g i v e n a map and a course sheet i n a p l a s t i c case and d i r e c t e d to go and check i t a g a i n s t the master map f o r her course. Near the master map are s e v e r a l red pens and p e n c i l s , with which she i s expected to rec o r d the course onto her own map. At an A meet, the course i s p r e - p r i n t e d ( u s i n g a s p e c i a l p r i n t i n g form d e v i s e d f o r the purpose) or pre-drawn onto the maps, and the competitor i s not given the map u n t i l immediately before s t a r t i n g . Then she goes to the s t a r t i n g o f f i c i a l to be given a s t a r t i n g time, which may be almost immediate i f there i s nobody e l s e w i s h i n g to s t a r t at t h a t moment. The s t a r t i n g o f f i c i a l marks the s a f e t y card and c o n t r o l card with the o r i e n t e e r ' s s t a r t i n g time, and keeps the s a f e t y card. (The s a f e t y cards enable the meet o f f i c i a l s to know how many o r i e n t e e r s are out on which courses at any g i v e n time, and i f they've been out f o r over three hours, t h a t i t i s time to begin s e a r c h i n g f o r them. A l l courses are designed so that the o r i e n t e e r at the a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l of s k i l l should be able to complete them i n an hour or l e s s . ) Using a c l o c k which beeps at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , the o f f i c i a l permits the o r i e n t e e r to s t a r t her run at the p r e s c r i b e d time. The o r i e n t e e r s e t s o f f towards the f i r s t c o n t r o l on her course, f o l d i n g her map i n such a manner that the s e c t i o n she i s u s i n g i s e a s i l y scanned. When she reaches the c o n t r o l , she marks the square l a b e l l e d "1" on her c o n t r o l card with the paper punch; because t h i s card i s s t o r e d with the map i n the p l a s t i c case, an edge of the map i s a l s o marked with p i n - p r i c k e d h o l e s . She proceeds to the next c o n t r o l , choosing the route which she estimates she can t r a v e l most s w i f t l y and a c c u r a t e l y . O c c a s i o n a l l y she may "get l o s t " as o r i e n t e e r s o f t e n do, i n t h a t she becomes u n c e r t a i n how her p o s i t i o n corresponds w i t h the map, although she may know the g e n e r a l area she i s i n . Time spent r e g a i n i n g " c o n t a c t " with her map i s a common occurrence, e s p e c i a l l y f o r the n o v i c e . I f the o r i e n t e e r becomes completely l o s t , she can g i v e up the course and blow her w h i s t l e or go to the " s a f e t y b e a r i n g " , u s u a l l y a road to which the compass may be e a s i l y o r i e n t e d and f o l l o w e d . When she has been to a l l the c o n t r o l s she proceeds to the f i n i s h l i n e , and the f i n i s h i n g o f f i c i a l immediately w r i t e s the exact time on her c o n t r o l c a r d . The o f f i c i a l then checks the punch c o n f i g u r a t i o n s to make sure they are a l l c o r r e c t , and then puts the card on d i s p l a y with the other c o n t r o l cards, f o r the viewing of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . A f t e r a l l or most people have f i n i s h e d the meet, an i n f o r m a l "post- mortem" takes p l a c e , when they compare t h e i r route c h o i c e s and r e s u l t s , and d i s c u s s the accuracy and q u a l i t y of the map and rout e . Sometimes t h i s c ontinues i n t o a p o t l u c k supper or lunch at a nearby pub. A f t e r the meet i s over, the c l u b and the competitors may c r e a t e f u r t h e r r e c o r d s of i t . The c l u b makes notes concerning the c o m p e t i t i v e s t a t i s t i c s of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the meet. (OABC has t r i e d and i s again attempting to e s t a b l i s h a form f o r r e c o r d i n g these, because i t has to r e p o r t on meets to COF, but cl u b s have not been very c o n s i s t e n t i n sending i n t h e i r r e s u l t s to date.) Meet r e s u l t s f o r a l l A meets are recorded i n the 112 n e w s l e t t e r . The competitors a l s o keep r e c o r d s , ranging from making notes (perhaps on the back of the map) on t h e i r time and some other c o m p e t i t o r s ' times, to drawing i n the route they a c t u a l l y took between each c o n t r o l on the map, to keeping " t r a i n i n g l o g s " or d i a r i e s , r e c o r d i n g a l l kinds of s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . 2 8 The c o m p e t i t i v e r e c o r d s of o r i e n t e e r s , i n whatever form, are kept throughout each year, and q u a l i f y them f o r a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n championships, as w e l l as membership i n the " n a t i o n a l squad" ( f o r which the COF has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and keeps the r e c o r d s ) . T r a i n i n g and c e r t i f i c a t i o n covers a range of s u b - a c t i v i t i e s which vary i n t h e i r f o r m a l i t y . A group of o r i e n t e e r s may go i n t o the woods wit h a map or a s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g map (marked only with contours and water) and conduct v a r i o u s t r a i n i n g e x e r c i s e s , t e s t i n g one another's n a v i g a t i o n a l s k i l l s i n f o r m a l l y . But i n o r i e n t e e r i n g there are a l s o c e r t i f i e d coaches and " r e c r e a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s " who have more advanced systems of t r a i n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y f o r a " J u n i o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n Program" i n v o l v i n g badges f o r v a r i o u s l e v e l s of achievement, as w e l l as p r o v i n c i a l team t r a i n i n g , and they compile r e p o r t s on t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Correspondence i s c r e a t e d r e g a r d i n g these t r a i n i n g events, and they are announced i n f i x t u r e s l i s t s , f l y e r s , and the grant a p p l i c a t i o n s and r e p o r t s to government. C l i n i c s are r e g u l a r l y held to teach mapping s k i l l s , meet o r g a n i z i n g , and coaching, and c e r t i f i c a t e s are awarded f o r achievement i n these areas. 2 8 OABC l : 2 ( a ) . 113 IV Three i s s u e s remain to be d i s c u s s e d r e g a r d i n g the records of OABC: the r o l e of o f f i c i a l s i n t h e i r c r e a t i o n , the f i l i n g systems, and the a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s which e x i s t concerning records p r e s e r v a t i o n . While p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n meets i s something everybody i n OABC does, and g e n e r a l meetings and t r a i n i n g events are widely attended, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s of OABC are conducted mainly by o f f i c i a l s . At the c l u b l e v e l the s p e c i f i c r o l e of each such p o s i t i o n i s b l u r r e d , but at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l i t i s respected much more c l o s e l y . Greg G i l l i s s t a t e d t h a t h i s d u t i e s i n c l u d e s u p e r v i s i n g a l l the work of OABC, s c h e d u l i n g e x e c u t i v e meetings, being a l i a i s o n with the other p r o v i n c i a l s p o r t governing bodies, the p r o v i n c i a l government s p o r t c o n s u l t a n t , and COF, as w e l l as communicating r e g u l a r l y with the c l u b s by means of correspondence and r e p o r t s , to shape p o l i c y , to f i n d a successor, and to keep the a s s o c i a t i o n a l i v e and a c t i v e . 2 7 The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s o s t a t e s t h a t , along with the t r e a s u r e r , the p r e s i d e n t has s i g n i n g power f o r a l l c o n t r a c t s and f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s . The s e c r e t a r y ' s r o l e i s d e s c r i b e d v e r y w e l l by the 1988 S e c r e t a r y ' s Report to the AGM: G e n e r a l l y my j o b i n c l u d e d OABC mai l o u t s ( p r e p a r i n g , copying, f o l d i n g , s t u f f i n g , l a b e l l i n g , m a i l i n g ) , updating m a i l l i s t s [with the membership c o - o r d i n a t o r ] ... m a i l o u t s f o r other c l u b s , keeping t r a c k of m a i l o u t s , answering phone or ma i l requests by m a i l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and phoning, c o l l e c t i n g the m a i l and d i s t r i b u t i n g to a p p r o p r i a t e persons, s e t t i n g up 2 7 OABC l : l ( a ) , l : 2 ( b ) , and 1:3. 114 meetings with the Government Co n s u l t a n t and with e x e c u t i v e , p r e p a r i n g agendas, p r e p a r i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g the minutes, events s c h e d u l i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n of f l y e r s , p r e p a r a t i o n with the T r e a s u r e r of government funding grant a p p l i c a t i o n s and annual r e p o r t , o r d e r i n g s u p p l i e s , p r e p a r a t i o n of the P l a n n i n g meeting, and who knows what e l s e ? ? ! 2 8 The t r e a s u r e r d e a l s with a l l the f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s , such as paying b i l l s , s u p p l y i n g cheques f o r OABC needs, p r e p a r i n g budgets and f i n a n c i a l statements, keeping the accounts, and a r r a n g i n g a u d i t s . Other o f f i c i a l s i n OABC have s p e c i f i c r o l e s e f f e c t i v e l y d e s c r i b e d by t h e i r t i t l e s : n e w s l e t t e r e d i t o r , mapping co- o r d i n a t o r , and so on. The main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of OABC's f i l i n g system i s the f a c t t h a t ever s i n c e the cupboard f o r s e m i - a c t i v e and i n a c t i v e r e c o r d s was moved from Sport BC to Peter Cawley's basement, and probably even before that to some extent, the f i l e s of each o f f i c i a l are kept i n the home or work-place of each s u c c e s s i v e holder of t h i s p o s i t i o n , and never brought together with the other OABC f i l e s . O f f i c i a l s are completely f r e e to c u l l or rearrange t h e i r f i l e s , and l i t t l e n o t i c e may be taken i f they f a i l to hand t h e i r f i l e s on to t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s . A new f i l i n g system may be de v i s e d by each holder of a p o s i t i o n ; Greg G i l l i s ' predecessor r e c e i v e d h i s predecessor's r e c o r d s so l a t e t h a t he had a l r e a d y begun h i s own f i l i n g system, and he simply kept the pr e v i o u s records separate and ignored them; G i l l i s i n turn found h i s predecessor's system 2 8 A p r i n t e d copy of t h i s r e p o r t i s s t o r e d " l o o s e " , t h a t i s , not i n a f i l e f o l d e r , i n the OABC p r e s i d e n t ' s box of r e c o r d s . 115 " b i z a r r e " and s t a r t e d yet another s y s t e m . 2 9 Thus, which r e c o r d s are kept and how i s a matter hard to assess, being c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the many p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n running OABC over the years, some of whom kept every l a s t r e c e i p t and l e t t e r , while others saw very few records as being u s e f u l i n the long run. A f i l e box of past p r e s i d e n t ' s records which Greg G i l l i s keeps on hi s l i v i n g room f l o o r c o n t a i n s f i l e s with the f o l l o w i n g l a b e l s : correspondence p r e - '87 bu s i n e s s Outdoor R e c [ r e a t i o n ] C o u n c i l t e c h n i c a l APOC [ A s i a P a c i f i c O r i e n t e e r i n g Championships] A l b e r t a , j u n i o r s , badge, e t c . A l b [ e r t a ] meet f l y e r s s p ort r e c o g n i t i o n p o t e n t i a l members insurance c o n s t i t u t i o n program d e v e l o p m e n t ] p l a n from D.F. [a past p r e s i d e n t ] to d e a l with Sat[urday] 2 A p r i l a r t i c l e s f o r p r e s i d e n t ' s l e t t e r p l a n n i n g , e x e c u t i v e The box a l s o c o n t a i n s a number of loose papers. G i l l i s keeps h i s cu r r e n t f i l e s on h i s k i t c h e n t a b l e , and a l s o g i v e s some of the records he c r e a t e s and r e c e i v e s to the s e c r e t a r y , who keeps a drawer of OABC r e c o r d s at her w o r k - p l a c e . 3 0 As the reader can gather from t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the f i l i n g system, records p r e s e r v a t i o n i s not a high p r i o r i t y f o r most OABC o f f i c i a l s or members, and the records under the c o n t r o l of the few who do care r e p r e s e n t only a s m a l l p a r t of the OABC "fonds". 2 9 OABC l : 2 ( a ) . 3 0 I b i d . 116 The f i r s t OABC p r e s i d e n t kept " v i r t u a l l y e v e r y t h i n g ... i n t h r e e - r i n g b i n d e r s complete with photos of events, newspaper c l i p p i n g s , maps from events ... three boxes w o r t h " . 3 1 Greg G i l l i s says he throws away about 90 percent of the re c o r d s he generates as the c u r r e n t OABC p r e s i d e n t , s a v i n g mainly minutes, c o p i e s of a l l correspondence and a p p l i c a t i o n s to government, and non-routine incoming c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 3 2 As n e w s l e t t e r e d i t o r , P eter Cawley d i s c a r d s a l l items a f t e r he has used them. When he was p r e s i d e n t , Cawley attempted to org a n i z e a l l the past f i l e s , but some important ones were m i s s i n g . I t h i n k those are i n the hands of people who at one time or another attempted to do that j o b , and i f we put a c a l l out we cou l d probably r e t r i e v e a l o t of i t , but those t h i n g s do tend to go. What we're g r e a t i n , we have our o l d maps and we have a l l t h a t s o r t of bus i n e s s . You can see we're not [ o r i e n t e d to] the business of our o r g a n i z a t i o n . The maps are s t o r e d i n tubes and a l a r g e b l u e p r i n t box on top of the c a b i n e t of OABC records i n Cawley's basement, and i n c l u d e mylar o r i g i n a l s and p r i n t e d c o p i e s of most of the maps OABC has had p r i n t e d over the ye a r s . Cawley, a t r a i n e d l i b r a r i a n , makes a p r a c t i c e of dona t i n g c o p i e s of every map to a couple of map l i b r a r i e s (and of every n e w s l e t t e r to the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of C a n a d a ) . 3 3 However, i t should be observed t h a t the maps preserved i n l i b r a r i e s are not marked with the routes used at * 3 1 OABC 2 ( a ) . Photographs are not taken or used on a r e g u l a r b a s i s by OABC these days, although they have been used i n n e w s l e t t e r s and pamphlets. 3 2 OABC l : 2 ( b ) . 3 3 OABC 2( a ) ; t h i s a l s o r e f e r s to the pr e c e d i n g q u o t a t i o n . 117 v a r i o u s meets; such maps, which are tr u e o r i g i n a l s , are the p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s , and may or may not be a l s o preserved permanently by the o f f i c i a l s and c l u b s which hosted these meets. There i s some i n t e r e s t among OABC members and o f f i c i a l s i n p r e s e r v i n g the h i s t o r y of the a s s o c i a t i o n . An o r i e n t e e r who l i v e s i n the Kootenays has c o l l e c t e d together some of the e a r l i e s t r e c o rds and i s p l a n n i n g to w r i t e a h i s t o r y of OABC. 3 4 Greg G i l l i s i s very s u p p o r t i v e of such an i d e a , p a r t l y because he b e l i e v e s that a f t e r a h i s t o r y has been w r i t t e n , the i n a c t i v e records could be d i s c a r d e d . The records of a defunct c l u b have come i n t o h i s hands, and he i s very pleased with t h e i r completeness as compared to those of h i s own c l u b , although he has mixed f e e l i n g s about encouraging other c l u b s to do the same; " i f everybody s t a r t e d keeping books l i k e t h i s we co u l d f i l l an apartment with j u s t c l u b h i s t o r i e s " . But G i l l i s d e c r i e s the p r a c t i c e of one cl u b o f f i c i a l he knows: he's taken r u l e d paper, w r i t e s on i t by hand, and s t a p l e s i t together, and c a r r i e s i t around i n a pocket. So i t ' s a l l f r a y e d and w r i n k l e d , and t h a t ' s gonna get tossed i n the garbage [someday]. 3 5 G i l l i s f e e l s t h a t b e t t e r r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g and p r e s e r v a t i o n , as w e l l as a c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y f o r the rec o r d s , would lead to b e t t e r funding, improved meet p l a n n i n g , and a g e n e r a l a b i l i t y to 3 4 I b i d . 3 5 OABC 1:3. 118 " l e a r n from h i s t o r y " . Others i n OABC appear to f e e l the same way he does, however none of them has acted upon t h i s f e e l i n g . 3 8 While both i n t e r v i e w e e s had some idea of the nature of a r c h i v e s and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , n e i t h e r b e l i e v e d that a r c h i v i s t s would take much i n t e r e s t i n the r e c o r d s of OABC. They f e l t t h a t only other o r i e n t e e r s would care about the h i s t o r y of o r i e n t e e r i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Peter Cawley thought that the B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Sports might take the OABC re c o r d s , but t h i s i s not l i k e l y to happen because t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n i s geared to mainstream s p o r t s and m e m o r a b i l i a . 3 7 Greg G i l l i s s t a t e d t h at i f OABC were to f o l d d u r i n g h i s tenure, he would send the records i n h i s custody to COF, but both he and Cawley observed that most of OABC's records would l a n g u i s h i n the basements of past o f f i c i a l s . 3 8 3 8 OABC l : l ( a ) , l : 2 ( b ) , and 1:3. 3 7 OABC 2 ( a ) . 3 8 OABC 1:3 and 2 ( a ) . CHAPTER FIVE ARCHIVAL ACQUISITION OF THE RECORDS OF VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS The c e n t r a l i s s u e s to be considered here are whether a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s should a c q u i r e the r e c o r d s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , and i f so, which r e p o s i t o r i e s should preserve the records of which a s s o c i a t i o n s , and f i n a l l y , how they should go about a c q u i r i n g these r e c o r d s . I T h i s t h e s i s has shown that v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t to the communities which a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s are mandated to serve; t h a t s o c i e t y has e n t r u s t e d to a r c h i v i s t s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r e s e r v i n g i t s records to the best of t h e i r a b i l i t y ; and t h a t there i s grave danger of l o s s of the re c o r d s of the many a s s o c i a t i o n s which lac k the reso u r c e s and i n i t i a t i v e to preserve t h e i r own a r c h i v e s . These three f a c t s demonstrate t h a t a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s should a c q u i r e the re c o r d s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . II The problem of which r e p o s i t o r i e s should a c q u i r e which records i s a complicated one, and while i t mostly r e l a t e s to i n d i v i d u a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , i t should be co n s i d e r e d f i r s t i n terms of the e n t i r e a r c h i v a l community. 119 120 I t i s n a t u r a l and usual f o r an a r c h i v i s t to c o n s i d e r a c q u i s i t i o n mainly i n terms of her or h i s own r e p o s i t o r y , but s o c i e t y i s best served i f a r c h i v i s t s take a more g e n e r a l approach. I f the a r c h i v a l community takes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l the records of the s o c i e t y i t serves, the r e s u l t i n g a c q u i s i t i o n p l a n can move l o g i c a l l y from the g e n e r a l to the p a r t i c u l a r , with c l e a r and harmonious d e c i s i o n s being made about which r e p o s i t o r i e s should a c q u i r e which r e c o r d s . T h i s would b e n e f i t not only v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s but a l s o other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . When a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y i s considered i n terms of the i n d i v i d u a l r e p o s i t o r y , the p r i n c i p l e of complementarity comes to the f o r e . B l i n k h o r n has argued t h a t q u e s t i o n s of provenance and p e r t i n e n c e lead the a r c h i v i s t a s t r a y when c o n s i d e r i n g an a r t i s t ' s work, 1 and the same can be s a i d of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . These q u e s t i o n s p l a c e a f a l s e emphasis upon the f i n i s h e d work of a r t i n the case of a r t i s t s , and tempt the a r c h i v i s t to c o n s i d e r the a s s o c i a t i o n i n terms of where i t has had i n f l u e n c e and e f f e c t i n s t e a d of where i t has operated i n the case of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . For example, one " f i n a l product" of MADD's labours i s a l t e r e d government l e g i s l a t i o n , and MADD has achieved t h i s a l t e r a t i o n at both the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l and the n a t i o n a l l e v e l . The n a t i o n a l e f f e c t the a s s o c i a t i o n has had might lead some a r c h i v i s t s to argue that i t s records should be preserved by a n a t i o n a l r e p o s i t o r y , but t h i s i s a f a l s e d i r e c t i o n to take, 1 B l i n k h o r n , 112-116. 121 because most of MADD's op e r a t i o n s have occ u r r e d w i t h i n one p r o v i n c e . 2 B l i n k h o r n s t a t e s t h a t : the p r i n c i p l e of complementarity d i c t a t e s f o r a r e p o s i t o r y to a c q u i r e only those o r g a n i c groups of records f o r which the r e p o s i t o r y i t s e l f or other i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the area have s u p p o r t i n g s o u r c e s , primary or secondary. Of course, t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s v a l i d a l s o i n the case of a c q u i s i t i o n by r e p o s i t o r i e s having a t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n or an i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c q u i s i t i o n f u n c t i o n . 3 Based on the p r i n c i p l e of complementarity, the r e p o s i t o r y of an i n s t i t u t i o n with which a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n has e s p e c i a l l y s t r o n g l i n k s i s the most a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e f o r i t s r e c o r d s to be preserved. T h i s way, the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s r e c o r d s w i l l complement the r e l a t e d r e c o r d s of the r e p o s i t o r y ' s s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . A business a r c h i v e s may preserve the records of a c h a r i t y , f oundation, or soc c e r team which was e i t h e r a component or a b e n e f i c i a r y of the bus i n e s s . A u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s should preserve the rec o r d s of a l l the student s o c i e t i e s of th a t u n i v e r s i t y , as w e l l as those of the F a c u l t y Club, U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club, and so on. A government a r c h i v e s should p r e s e r v e the records of a s s o c i a t i o n s which have been h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d and f i n a n c e d by t h a t government. 2 The f a c t t h a t MADD i s , at l e a s t n o m i n a l l y , a n a t i o n a l - l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a b e t t e r reason f o r i t s r e c o r d s to be preserved at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , but t h i s does not a l t e r the inadequacy of the j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f f e r e d above. 3 B l i n k h o r n , 116. 122 Many government-sponsored a r c h i v e s are a l s o mandated to acq u i r e the re c o r d s of s i g n i f i c a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s and agencies which have no d i r e c t l i n k s with t h a t government, so i n the absence of other a p p r o p r i a t e r e p o s i t o r i e s , the records of many v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s may be acq u i r e d by a government a r c h i v e s at the a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l . For example, the re c o r d s of OABC could be a c q u i r e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s and Records S e r v i c e , and the records of COF by the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada. The government h i e r a r c h y of l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s i s of t e n m i r r o r e d i n the s t r u c t u r e of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , but a r c h i v i s t s cannot b l i n d l y assume that the records of a s s o c i a t i o n s belong at the corresp o n d i n g l e v e l s of government r e p o s i t o r i e s . For example, a l o c a l c l u b of OABC may produce very few a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s , and these may be so c l o s e l y t i e d to the rec o r d s of OABC i t s e l f that they are meaningless i f kept separate. These records should be preserved with the OABC records at the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s and Records S e r v i c e . T h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e of a l l the c l u b s of OABC; some of them may have g r e a t independence and good reco r d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s , and t h e i r r e c o rds should perhaps be preserved at l o c a l m u n i c i p a l a r c h i v e s . In the event t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n i s l a r g e and wealthy enough to sponsor i t s own a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y , t h i s n a t u r a l l y usurps the r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a l l other r e p o s i t o r i e s to a c q u i r e i t s r e c o r d s . The d i r e c t a c q u i s i t i o n of the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s by e x i s t i n g a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s i s onl y one s o l u t i o n to the need f o r improved a c q u i s i t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of these r e c o r d s . Three other p o s s i b i l i t i e s are: the c r e a t i o n of s p e c i a l c o u n c i l s or committees to keep t r a c k of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s and oversee the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e i r r e c o r d s ; the c r e a t i o n of a consortium of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s aimed at b e t t e r r e c o r d s p r e s e r v a t i o n ; and the c r e a t i o n of s p e c i a l a r c h i v e s . These approaches are not mutually e x c l u s i v e , and indeed would be most e f f e c t i v e i f they were p r a c t i c e d c o n c u r r e n t l y and c o - o p e r a t i v e l y . The c r e a t i o n of s p e c i a l c o u n c i l s or committees concerned w i t h the re c o r d s of one type of r e c o r d s c r e a t o r i s not a new idea; i n Great B r i t a i n there i s a Business A r c h i v e s C o u n c i l , and i n New York a P h y s i c s I n s t i t u t e , both of which keep r e g i s t r i e s of re c o r d s c r e a t o r s and r e g u l a r l y i n t e r v e n e when the c r e a t o r d i e s , d i r e c t i n g her, h i s , or i t s records to the most a p p r o p r i a t e r e p o s i t o r y . The North American a r c h i v a l community could use these as models f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g permanent l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and n a t i o n a l committees concerned with the re c o r d s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . These committees would be l e d by a r c h i v i s t s , but should a l s o have i n t e r e s t e d r e s e a r c h e r s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s among t h e i r membership. They would be charged with m a i n t a i n i n g an exhaustive r e g i s t r y of a l l v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s . Using t h i s r e g i s t r y , such a committee would keep t r a c k of an 124 a s s o c i a t i o n and, when and i f i t ceases o p e r a t i o n s , make cont a c t with the r e t i r i n g o f f i c i a l s and encourage them to d i r e c t t h e i r r e c o r d s to the most a p p r o p r i a t e r e p o s i t o r y . I d e a l l y , the committee would maintain r e g u l a r c o n t a c t with the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n i t s area and encourage good records management p r a c t i c e s among them. T h i s w i l l not only improve the chances of r e p o s i t o r i e s r e c e i v i n g complete and w e l l - o r d e r e d "fonds", but a l s o make i t more l i k e l y t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n s w i l l choose to p l a c e t h e i r r e c o rds i n a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . The concept of a consortium of a s s o c i a t i o n s i s a l s o a c o n s t r u c t i v e one. Such a consortium would be composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a l l the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r area, or perhaps of one type of a s s o c i a t i o n ( f o r example, s p o r t s a s s o c i a t i o n s ) , as w e l l as a d v i s o r s from the a r c h i v a l community. The consortium would con c e n t r a t e the modest resou r c e s which most a s s o c i a t i o n s have f o r records-keeping, and use them to r e n t or purchase some o f f i c e and/or storage space. T h i s space could be used to hold and work on c u r r e n t r e c o r d s , to s t o r e s e m i - a c t i v e r e c o r d s , and/or to s t o r e i n a c t i v e records i n l i e u of d o n a t i n g them to an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y . In other words, the consortium could decide f o r i t s e l f whether to p o o l resources to c r e a t e a shared o f f i c e , r e c o rds c e n t r e , or a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y — o r a l l three, i f p o s s i b l e . The r e s o u r c e s might a l s o be found to h i r e a s e c r e t a r y , a r c h i v i s t or r ecords manager to care f o r the r e c o r d s i n t h i s space. Whatever i s decided, the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a l l the r e c o r d s of the a s s o c i a t i o n s i n v o l v e d w i l l be improved. OABC, as has been mentioned, once b e n e f i t t e d from a s i m i l a r arrangement overseen by Sport BC. There are s u c c e s s f u l consortiums of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n Europe which share a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y space. The f i n a l p o s s i b i l i t y i s the c r e a t i o n of s p e c i a l a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s f o r v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . These could, as i m p l i e d above, be sponsored by the a s s o c i a t i o n s themselves. The a r c h i v a l community at l a r g e should work hard to f i n d sponsorship f o r such r e p o s i t o r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y from government. The need f o r such r e p o s i t o r i e s e x i s t s even when government-sponsored r e p o s i t o r i e s are w i l l i n g to a c q u i r e the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , because the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s must always come second to those of a r e p o s i t o r y ' s parent i n s t i t u t i o n . Returning to the concept of an a r c h i v a l community s e r v i n g s o c i e t y at l a r g e , the importance of a p a r t i c u l a r type of o r g a n i z a t i o n to s o c i e t y should o b v i o u s l y be r e f l e c t e d i n the p r i o r i t i e s of the a r c h i v a l community. A type of o r g a n i z a t i o n which proves s i g n i f i c a n t , as has the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , should be a l l o c a t e d ample res o u r c e s . Even i f government i n s t i t u t i o n s are considered more important to s o c i e t y than v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s should not be c o n s i s t e n t l y n e g l e c t e d by the a r c h i v a l community i n favour of them. S p e c i a l r e p o s i t o r i e s mandated to a c q u i r e the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , whoever sponsors them, can be created or adapted. Many r e p o s i t o r i e s with good resources, but vague or t h e o r e t i c a l l y unsound mandates, could be made more purposive by 126 r e d i r e c t i n g t h e i r aims to a c e r t a i n type of o r g a n i z a t i o n . For example, the component of a u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s which p r e s e n t l y c o l l e c t s a v a r i e t y of p r o v i n c i a l l y r e l e v a n t records could focus on economic a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the pr o v i n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t al r e a d y has e x t e n s i v e h o l d i n g s of union r e c o r d s . I f the r e p o s i t o r y i s e s p e c i a l l y c r e a t e d , i t can take a s i m i l a r focus, depending on i t s resources and the e x i s t e n c e of other r e p o s i t o r i e s with mandates which must be re s p e c t e d . A r e p o s i t o r y could be mandated to acq u i r e the records of a l l types of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n a p r o v i n c e or s t a t e , or onl y the records of p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s i n that r e g i o n , or only the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n a given m u n i c i p a l i t y . When a s p e c i a l r e p o s i t o r y i s e s t a b l i s h e d , i t should n e g o t i a t e with e x i s t i n g r e p o s i t o r i e s to f i n d i t s a p p r o p r i a t e n i c h e . Some r e p o s i t o r i e s may be pleased to narrow t h e i r scope and p l a c e some of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the hands of a new r e p o s i t o r y . I f none of the l o c a l r e p o s i t o r i e s i s s p e c i f i c a l l y mandated to a c q u i r e the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , the s p e c i a l r e p o s i t o r y should meet with l i t t l e o p p o s i t i o n . However, some l o c a l r e p o s i t o r i e s are l i k e l y to have a p o l i c y of a c c e p t i n g such records on an i r r e g u l a r b a s i s ; i n t h i s case, the new s p e c i a l r e p o s i t o r y w i l l need to convince them to cease t h i s p o l i c y . I f at a l l p o s s i b l e , those records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s a l r e a d y i n the ho l d i n g s of e x i s t i n g r e p o s i t o r i e s should be t r a n s f e r r e d to the new r e p o s i t o r y whose mandate encompasses them. A r c h i v i s t s i n v o l v e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a s p e c i a l r e p o s i t o r y should bear i n mind, however, that they w i l l only r e c e i v e r e s p e c t and co- o p e r a t i o n from other r e p o s i t o r i e s i f they earn i t through high standards of a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e , and by p r o v i n g t h e i r s t a b i l i t y , both of which take time. I l l The f i n a l i s s u e r e l a t i n g to the a c q u i s i t i o n of the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i s the manner i n which a c q u i s i t i o n should proceed. The s t r a t e g y proposed here i s t a i l o r e d to the two a s s o c i a t i o n s s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , but can be adapted f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of the records of other a s s o c i a t i o n s a l s o . A c q u i s i t i o n should begin with the f i r s t step of a p p r a i s a l . F o l l o w i n g Hans Booms' t h e o r i e s , a r c h i v i s t s can analyse the p l a c e of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n s o c i e t y , d i s c o v e r i n g i n what ways they are v a l u a b l e or s i g n i f i c a n t , " e s s e n t i a l and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " . T h i s can be accomplished with the help of an a d v i s o r y committee working f o r a set p e r i o d , as Booms s u g g e s t s . 4 T h i s committee could be the same one suggested e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, with the c e n t r a l purpose of r e g i s t e r i n g and m o n i t o r i n g v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , a r e p o s i t o r y -- i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the a d v i s o r y committee -- could sponsor an e x p l o r a t o r y study of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n i t s community, u s i n g r e c o r d s - s u r v e y s t y l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and/or in-depth case s t u d i e s . Co-operation among a r c h i v i s t s and r e p o s i t o r i e s throughout North America would be i n v a l u a b l e f o r the task of e v a l u a t i o n ; once a s e t of good analyses of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s has been made by and f o r 4 Booms: 69-107. a r c h i v i s t s , they can be shared and used to b u i l d a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g i e s f o r a l l a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . T h i s work should b e n e f i t from an understanding of the nature of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l . The f u n c t i o n a l typology of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s should a l s o be h e l p f u l , i f only i n ens u r i n g that no p a r t i c u l a r type of a s s o c i a t i o n i s ignored by a r c h i v i s t s . When a p a r t i c u l a r v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n ' s r e c ords have been t a r g e t e d by an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a c q u i s i t i o n , one a r c h i v i s t should be assigned to cont a c t the a s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s a r c h i v i s t should approach the a s s o c i a t i o n by making an appointment with one of i t s s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s . At t h i s appointment, and throughout the whole proceedings, the a r c h i v i s t should maintain an approach which i s c a r i n g (the members of an a s s o c i a t i o n are i n v o l v e d because they care about i t , and w i l l avoid the i n f l u e n c e of persons who do n o t ) , i n f o r m a l (the us u a l s t y l e of a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the a s s o c i a t i o n ) , f o r t h r i g h t ( t o engender t r u s t ) , and f l e x i b l e ( v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s are extremely v a r i a b l e ) . I f the a t t e n t i o n s of the a r c h i v i s t are accepted, he or she may then make an ethnographic study of the a s s o c i a t i o n on a s c a l e which r e f l e c t s the r e p o s i t o r y ' s resources and i t s knowledge base about v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s such as the one being s t u d i e d . T h i s study could i n v o l v e p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w s , and be aimed at r e v e a l i n g the mandate, h i s t o r y , s t r u c t u r e , and v o l u n t a r y nature of the a s s o c i a t i o n , as w e l l as i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other 129 o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i t s a c t i v i t i e s and the records produced i n r e l a t i o n to them, the r o l e s of i t s o f f i c i a l s i n rec o r d s c r e a t i o n , i t s f i l i n g systems, and the a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s towards re c o r d s p r e s e r v a t i o n w i t h i n the a s s o c i a t i o n . The a r c h i v i s t should pay s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to the records c r e a t i o n process surrounding c e n t r a l or unusual r e c o r d s , such as OABC's o r i e n t e e r i n g maps. The f i n d i n g s of an ethnographic study of a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n may w e l l d iscourage the a r c h i v i s t . The a s s o c i a t i o n may, l i k e OABC, have no o f f i c e base, and t h e r e f o r e i t s r e c ords may be widely s c a t t e r e d and i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y cared f o r . Even i f the a s s o c i a t i o n , l i k e MADD, has an o f f i c e and one or more c e n t r a l f i l i n g systems, the q u a l i t y of these systems may not be very high, and good rec o r d s - k e e p i n g may not be a p r i o r i t y f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n . These f a c t o r s should not dete r the a r c h i v i s t from a c q u i s i t i o n , because they are not a v a l i d b a s i s on which to omit an o r g a n i z a t i o n from the reco r d of s o c i e t y . Three re c o r d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s of i n d i v i d u a l members of a s s o c i a t i o n s should r e c e i v e s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n from the a r c h i v i s t . The f i r s t of these i s the p r e s e r v a t i o n of p e r s o n a l c o p i e s of some of the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s records by members who a t t a c h a s e n t i m e n t a l value to them. An a s s o c i a t i o n such as MADD pres e r v e s i t s o r i g i n a l documents at i t s o f f i c e , but an a s s o c i a t i o n such as OABC may not preserve i t s o r i g i n a l s at a l l . T h i s b r i n g s us to the second type of i n d i v i d u a l members' r e c o r d s - keeping p r a c t i c e , t h a t i s , the p r e s e r v a t i o n of o r i g i n a l r e c ords 130 of an a s s o c i a t i o n by i t s members among t h e i r p e r s o n a l f i l e s , r a t h e r than with the other r e c o r d s of the a s s o c i a t i o n . The t h i r d type of i n d i v i d u a l members' records are t r u l y p e r s o n a l r e c o r d s , being those c r e a t e d by members of an a s s o c i a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n i t , but wholly at t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e and f o r t h e i r own purposes. Examples of these are the d i a r i e s kept by the t r e a s u r e r of MADD f o r h e r s e l f and i t s p r e s i d e n t , and the t r a i n i n g logs and other notes on p e r s o n a l performance kept by o r i e n t e e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n OABC meets. In c o n s i d e r i n g records preserved by i n d i v i d u a l members of an a s s o c i a t i o n , the a r c h i v i s t must f i r s t c o n s i d e r whether they add any i n f o r m a t i o n e s s e n t i a l to the understanding of the a s s o c i a t i o n . The records preserved by the a s s o c i a t i o n should i d e a l l y be adequate i n t h i s regard, but i t has been shown t h a t t h i s i s not so f o r a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and i n such cases the records preserved among the p e r s o n a l f i l e s of t h e i r members may prove i n v a l u a b l e . The a r c h i v i s t who determines that these r e c o r d s are a necessary supplement to the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s "fonds" i s faced with a dilemma, whether to a c q u i r e the e n t i r e "fonds" of the i n d i v i d u a l who has h i t h e r t o preserved these r e c o r d s , or to ac q u i r e only those records which r e l a t e to the a s s o c i a t i o n . One frequent s i t u a t i o n i s when the records c r e a t e d i n the name of an a s s o c i a t i o n are kept by t h e i r e r s t w h i l e o f f i c i a l s and not f i l e d w ith the other records of the a s s o c i a t i o n . Many a s s o c i a t i o n s , l i k e OABC, l a c k o f f i c e space and t h e r e f o r e s t o r e t h e i r r e c o rds i n the homes of t h e i r members; however, not a l l of 131 them make even a nominal p r a c t i c e of having t h e i r o f f i c i a l s hand records on to t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s . Thus, the p r e s i d e n t of an a s s o c i a t i o n may w r i t e and r e c e i v e voluminous correspondence i n i t s name d u r i n g h i s or her tenure, but a f t e r t h a t tenure i s completed, f i l e t h i s correspondence with h i s or her u n r e l a t e d p e r s o n a l r e c o r d s . These records can be e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from one another u s i n g the s c i e n c e of d i p l o m a t i c s , 5 and d i p l o m a t i c s can a l s o help prove the d i s t i n c t n e s s of the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s records i n such cases, f o r a c c o r d i n g to i t s p r i n c i p l e s the j u r i d i c a l person i n whose name a document i s iss u e d or r e c e i v e d , as d i s t i n c t from i t s w r i t e r or i n d i v i d u a l r e c i p i e n t , i s i t s author. T h e r e f o r e , those records which were crea t e d by the a s s o c i a t i o n i t s e l f , and preserved among the p e r s o n a l f i l e s of an i n d i v i d u a l member, should c e r t a i n l y be considered f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n by a r e p o s i t o r y which has taken r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the records of the a s s o c i a t i o n , r e g a r d l e s s of whether the remainder of these p e r s o n a l f i l e s are acquired and preserved or not. When o r i g i n a l records of an a s s o c i a t i o n have been preserved by an i n d i v i d u a l member of i t , they cannot a u t o m a t i c a l l y be rep l a c e d among the other f i l e s of the a s s o c i a t i o n , as i f they had never been removed. Such replacement should be thoroughly documented i n the i n v e n t o r y and on notes accompanying the records themselves, so that the re s e a r c h e r w i l l be able to c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h these r e c o r d s . T h i s i s necessary because t h e i r 5 D i p l o m a t i c s i s the study of the c r e a t i o n and forms of a r c h i v a l documents. a u t h e n t i c i t y i s suspect, s i n c e custody has been broken, and a l s o because t h e i r absence may have a l t e r e d the o p e r a t i o n s of the a s s o c i a t i o n i n some important way, and t h e i r presence may t h e r e f o r e c r e a t e a f a l s e impression f o r the r e s e a r c h e r of the reco r d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s and h i s t o r y of the a s s o c i a t i o n . Documents and f i l e s which are merely c o p i e s of records c r e a t e d and r e c e i v e d by an a s s o c i a t i o n , made and preserved by i n d i v i d u a l members, belong to those members. However, u n l e s s a l t e r e d a f t e r copying, they are at l e a s t as r e l e v a n t i n r e l a t i o n to the records of the a s s o c i a t i o n as i n r e l a t i o n to the p e r s o n a l f i l e s they have been preserved among. T h i s i s not to say that these records have an e x i s t e n c e independent of any "fonds", i n f a c t , i t could be debated that they can only be f u l l y understood i f both the i n d i v i d u a l ' s "fonds" and the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s "fonds" are preserved. The records should remain i n the "fonds" of the i n d i v i d u a l , but i f t h e i r o r i g i n a l s are m i s s i n g from the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s f i l e s , " m i c r o f i l m s of complement" should be made of them, and they should be d e s c r i b e d together with the other r e c o r d s i n the i n v e n t o r y of the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s "fonds", accompanied by a thorough e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e i r c u s t o d i a l h i s t o r y . The t h i r d type of records preserved by i n d i v i d u a l members of an a s s o c i a t i o n are those which are t r u l y p e r s o n a l records of t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n to the a s s o c i a t i o n . These are c l e a r l y p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s "fonds" and the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s "fonds" has no c l a i m to them. The r e p o s i t o r y which holds the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s "fonds" may, i f i t deems these r e c o r d s v a l u a b l e enough, a c q u i r e t h e " f o n d s " o f t h e r e l e v a n t i n d i v i d u a l on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y ; i n o t h e r words, t h i s " f o n d s " i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e r e p o s i t o r y ' s mandate b e c a u s e i t complements some o f i t s o t h e r h o l d i n g s . However, most o f t h e r e c o r d s o f s u c h a " f o n d s " may p o s s e s s a low v a l u e f o r t h e r e p o s i t o r y , t o o low t o j u s t i f y e x p e n d i n g r e s o u r c e s on them. In s u c h a c a s e i t may be l e g i t i m a t e t o c o p y t h e s e documents and t r e a t them as s i n g l e i t e m s , n o t a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s , t h a t i s , t o m i c r o f i l m t h e r e l e v a n t f i l e s and d e s c r i b e them i n t h e i n v e n t o r y o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s " f o n d s " as b i b l i o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l , as w e l l as e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r o r i g i n s ' . I f t h e r e p o s i t o r y does a c q u i r e , f o r w h a t e v e r r e a s o n , t h e r e c o r d s o f a member o f an a s s o c i a t i o n as w e l l as t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n i t s e l f , and i f t h e s e r e c o r d s a r e r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r , t h e n c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d i n t h e i r i n v e n t o r i e s , b u t t h e r e c o r d s must be k e p t s e p a r a t e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f " r e s p e c t d e s f o n d s " . Now t h a t t h i s d i g r e s s i o n on t h e m a t t e r o f t h e r e c o r d s o f i n d i v i d u a l members o f an a s s o c i a t i o n has been d e a l t w i t h , i t i s . p o s s i b l e t o r e t u r n t o t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e o f a c q u i r i n g t h e r e c o r d s w h i c h t h e a s s o c i a t i o n has p r e s e r v e d f o r i t s e l f . Once t h e a r c h i v i s t has r e s e a r c h e d an a s s o c i a t i o n , she o r he s h o u l d know on what terms t o a s k t h e a s s o c i a t i o n t o d o n a t e i t s i n a c t i v e r e c o r d s t o t h e a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y . An emphasis on p o s t e r i t y would have most e f f e c t on an a s s o c i a t i o n s u c h as MADD, w h i l e t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h a v i n g i t s r e c o r d s i n an a c c e s s i b l e , 134 s a f e p l a c e may be t h e f a c t o r w h i c h p e r s u a d e s an a s s o c i a t i o n l i k e OABC. The d o n a t i o n i s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a r c h i v i s t and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n , and t h e i n t e r n a l d y n a m i c s o f t h e e x e c u t i v e body w h i c h must make t h e d o n a t i o n d e c i s i o n . A c q u i s i t i o n m i g h t be l e g i t i m a t e l y p o s t p o n e d o r p r e v e n t e d i f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n i s n o t r e a d y t o p a r t w i t h any o f i t s r e c o r d s , o r i f t h e a r c h i v i s t f e e l s t h a t a t r a n s f e r i s n o t y e t a d v i s a b l e . The main g o a l o f t h e a r c h i v i s t engaged i n a c q u i s i t i o n i s t o e n s u r e t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h o s e r e c o r d s w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t t o s o c i e t y , and w h i c h h i s o r h e r r e p o s i t o r y i s mandated t o c a r e f o r . I f i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r r e c o r d s t o be p r e s e r v e d and made a c c e s s i b l e w i t h o u t b e i n g p l a c e d i n t h e c u s t o d y o f t h e r e p o s i t o r y , t h e n t h e r e i s no need t o a c t u a l l y a c q u i r e them. The a s s o c i a t i o n has e v e r y r i g h t t o keep i t s own r e c o r d s i n d e f i n i t e l y , , and i f i t c h o o s e s t o do so t h e a r c h i v i s t ' s r o l e i s t o e n c o u r a g e s a t i s f a c t o r y r e c o r d s p r e s e r v a t i o n s t a n d a r d s . L a r g e , i m p o r t a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s can be u r g e d t o r e q u e s t government a s s i s t a n c e t o employ an a r c h i v i s t / r e c o r d s - m a n a g e r , i n l i e u o f t h e t a x e x e m p t i o n s t h e y m i g h t r e c e i v e i f t h e y d o n a t e d t h e i r r e c o r d s t o a r e p o s i t o r y . B e c a u s e o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s own p r e f e r e n c e s , and t h e f a c t t h a t i t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o c r e a t e more r e c o r d s as l o n g as i t e x i s t s , once an agreement f o r a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s r e c o r d s by a r e p o s i t o r y has been r e a c h e d , t h e a r c h i v i s t s h o u l d draw up a t r a n s f e r o f c u s t o d y agreement. T h i s c o n t r a c t s h o u l d s p e c i f y t h a t i n t h e e v e n t o f t h e c l o s u r e o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n , a l l i t s r ecords would be t r a n s f e r r e d (by donation or purchase) to the a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y . T h i s i s an e s p e c i a l l y important p o i n t f o r v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s which e x i s t f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d and d i e a b r u p t l y , as t h e i r r e c ords w i l l s u r v i v e only by chance or with the help of a v i g i l a n t a r c h i v i s t . I f the a s s o c i a t i o n agrees, the c o n t r a c t should a l s o s p e c i f y t h a t t r a n s f e r s of i n a c t i v e r e c ords to the r e p o s i t o r y w i l l occur at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , such as when new o f f i c i a l s are e l e c t e d . A r c h i v i s t s can ensure the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s not only through c o n t r a c t s with them but a l s o through outreach programmes. In t h i s , as w e l l as the other a c q u i s i t i o n work, committees concerned with v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s and consortiums of a s s o c i a t i o n s could be of great a s s i s t a n c e . Together with the a r c h i v i s t s , they can t r y to r a i s e v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n ' s awareness about such t h i n g s as the e x i s t e n c e and r o l e of a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the a s s o c i a t i o n s ' r e c o r d s , and the b e n e f i t s of u s i n g simple records management techniques. Outreach can take the form of p u b l i c speaking, workshops, pamphlets, and l e t t e r s , a l l aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y at v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . An a s s o c i a t i o n which takes n o t i c e of the a d v i s o r y committee outreach messages w i l l be encouraged to improve i t s r e c o r d s - keeping p r a c t i c e s and to approach the committee or r e l e v a n t r e p o s i t o r y f o r a s s i s t a n c e , or to j o i n a consortium of a s s o c i a t i o n s as d e s c r i b e d above. As v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s become more concerned about the p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e i r r e cords, 136 the r e p o s i t o r y can u n i t e with them to c r e a t e b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h i s purpose. The a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y ' s outreach to v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s should be conducted at a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e , f o r the a r c h i v i s t who becomes o v e r - i n v o l v e d with a p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n i s i n danger of misspending h i s or her r e p o s i t o r y ' s resources, and of t a k i n g on the viewpoint of an i n s i d e r or a r e s e a r c h e r , thus l o s i n g the o b j e c t i v e stance an a r c h i v i s t needs. The approach to a c q u i s i t i o n of the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s chapter i s a d m i t t e d l y i d e a l i s t i c . In order to conduct a l l the work suggested, the t y p i c a l North American r e p o s i t o r y would have to r a d i c a l l y a l t e r i t s approach to the a c q u i s i t i o n of n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o r d s , which p r e s e n t l y tends to occur u n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and with an emphasis on the r e c o r d s of defunct o r g a n i z a t i o n s . However, many a r c h i v i s t s on t h i s c o n t i n e n t have been a c t i v e l y attempting to improve t h e i r r e p o s i t o r i e s i n every c o n c e i v a b l e way, and they are meeting with success d e s p i t e t h e i r l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . I f they acknowledge the importance of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s to the s o c i e t y they serve, North American a r c h i v i s t s w i l l f i n d a way to a c q u i r e and preserve t h e i r records more e f f e c t i v e l y . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w i l l be needed, but the study conducted f o r t h i s t h e s i s and the approach suggested here was meant to p r o v i d e a v a l i d s t a r t i n g p o i n t . CONCLUSION T h i s t h e s i s has had one c e n t r a l purpose: to e s t a b l i s h a b a s i s f o r a system of a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n of the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s by the North American a r c h i v a l community. In order to accomplish t h i s purpose, i t was necessary to study the nature of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e i r r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s , to examine a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e s and t h e o r i e s which have been and could be a p p l i e d to the a c q u i s i t i o n of the records of a s s o c i a t i o n s , and to develop a t e n t a t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n p l a n . Ethnography was the methodology chosen f o r the primary r e s e a r c h of t h i s t h e s i s , and i t e f f e c t i v e l y r e v e a l e d a g r e a t d e a l about the r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s of two v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . As a q u a l i t a t i v e approach, i t achieved a good depth of understanding of these a s s o c i a t i o n s , although the breadth of data made p o s s i b l e by q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d i e s could not be achieved. Both q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d i e s have advantages and disadvantages, and can b u i l d upon one another; i t may be u s e f u l f o r the a r c h i v a l community to d i s t r i b u t e a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to a sample of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s someday, f o r example, and the present study could inform the c r e a t i o n of such a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Before the r e s u l t s of the ethnographic r e s e a r c h were d i s c u s s e d , t h i s t h e s i s provided a d e s c r i p t i v e study of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l , p r e s e n t i n g s e v e r a l g e n e r a l 137 138 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s type of o r g a n i z a t i o n . V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s have a democratic nature and o f t e n take an a c t i v e r o l e i n the democratic f u n c t i o n s of the n a t i o n s they operate i n . They are dynamic and have a t y p i c a l l i f e c y c l e which sometimes i n c l u d e s d e v e l o p i n g i n t o other types of o r g a n i z a t i o n s important to s o c i e t y , and they occur i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a l types, none of which should be overlooked by a r c h i v i s t s . V o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s have a complex network of r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y with government, another f a c t o r which weaves them t i g h t l y i n t o the f a b r i c of s o c i e t y . The next area of i n q u i r y i n t h i s t h e s i s was about the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h a t i s , how they are kept by the a s s o c i a t i o n s themselves and l a t e r by a r c h i v i s t s . There was d i s a p p o i n t i n g l y l i t t l e p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on these concerns, but th a t l i t t l e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d a n e g l e c t of the rec o r d s , both by the a s s o c i a t i o n s and by a r c h i v i s t s . A r c h i v a l theory a l s o appeared u n s a t i s f a c t o r y at f i r s t , s i n c e not much of i t a p p l i e d to the a c q u i s i t i o n of records of voluntary, a s s o c i a t i o n s , but the ideas of Hans Booms provided e x c e l l e n t guidance f o r d e v e l o p i n g a system of a c q u i s i t i o n . F o l l o w i n g these d i s c u s s i o n s , a d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e s u l t s of the ethnographic r e s e a r c h was embarked upon. C o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n had been gathered about two a s s o c i a t i o n s , p r e s e n t i n g an overview of t h e i r aims, s t r u c t u r e , h i s t o r y , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a c t i v i t i e s , and re c o r d s . Although q u i t e d i f f e r e n t , both a s s o c i a t i o n s conformed to the g e n e r a l nature of v o l u n t a r y 139 a s s o c i a t i o n s . MADD, the a s s o c i a t i o n which had a permanent lea d e r , s t a f f , d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , and an o f f i c e , demonstrated b e t t e r r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s than OABC, which had an ever- changing set of o f f i c i a l s , operated mainly on weekends, and lacked o f f i c e space. Both had a h i s t o r y of f i l i n g systems which changed a c c o r d i n g to the t a s t e s of incoming o f f i c i a l s , and experienced frequent d i f f i c u l t y l o c a t i n g p a r t i c u l a r f i l e s . Both a s s o c i a t i o n s made a s p e c i a l p r a c t i c e of p r e s e r v i n g the records of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with government, and a l s o of some other records which they p e r c e i v e d as important, but n e i t h e r had any apparent knowledge of records management techniques. Both had o f f i c i a l s who cared about the h i s t o r y of t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s , and who expressed r e g r e t over the l o s s of many records, but who were not sure how to e f f e c t an improvement i n the s i t u a t i o n . N e i t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n had c l e a r plans about p r e s e r v i n g i t s records a g a i n s t present hazards or f u t u r e d i s s o l u t i o n of the a s s o c i a t i o n . Even those o f f i c i a l s who knew what an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y was d i d not b e l i e v e i t would take an i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r f i l e s , which they e n v i s i o n e d being preserved i n t h e i r p r i v a t e homes and perhaps i n l i b r a r i e s , i f at a l l . A f t e r t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e study had been made, i t became p o s s i b l e to present s e v e r a l p r o p o s a l s . I t was suggested that v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s warrant c o n s i d e r a t i o n from a r c h i v i s t s engaged i n a c q u i s i t i o n , and that t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be viewed as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the e n t i r e a r c h i v a l community r a t h e r than of each r e p o s i t o r y alone. Respecting the p r i n c i p l e of complementarity, a new system of a c q u i s i t i o n should u t i l i z e e x i s t i n g r e p o s i t o r i e s , s p e c i a l committees, a consortium of a s s o c i a t i o n s , and new r e p o s i t o r i e s s p e c i a l l y c r e a t e d to ensure the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the records of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . Each a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y should analyse the r o l e and s i g n i f i c a n c e of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . The core of t h i s approach to a c q u i s i t i o n i s choosing to acq u i r e the records of p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s on the b a s i s of t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e to s o c i e t y ; a f t e r t h i s i s done, an a r c h i v i s t should d i p l o m a t i c a l l y approach the a s s o c i a t i o n , i f expedient to l e a r n about i t u s i n g the ethnographic approach f o l l o w e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , and arrange f o r b e t t e r p r e s e r v a t i o n of the records by the a s s o c i a t i o n , as w e l l as eventual a c q u i s i t i o n of these records by the r e p o s i t o r y . Community outreach aimed at v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i s a l s o encouraged. While these p r o p o s a l s , taken together, c r e a t e an a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g y of some substance, more r e s e a r c h i s needed i n order to develop a comprehensive s t r a t e g y which i s both d e t a i l e d and widely a p p l i c a b l e . As mentioned e a r l i e r , not only are f u r t h e r q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s such as the ones undertaken here needed, but a l s o q u a n t i t a t i v e ones could be u s e f u l . Such s t u d i e s need not encompass every v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , f o r once a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e number have been completed, they can be a p p l i e d to the records of other a s s o c i a t i o n s with some con f i d e n c e . C e r t a i n aspects of recor d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s could be delved i n t o more c l o s e l y ; f o r examples, i t would be u s e f u l to study some a s s o c i a t i o n s at a l l 141 l e v e l s of t h e i r h i e r a r c h y , to d i s c o v e r what happens to the r e c o rds of a branch or club which disbands while other p a r t s of the a s s o c i a t i o n s u r v i v e , and to l e a r n more about the p r a c t i c e s of n o t e - t a k i n g and p r e s e r v i n g such notes. Some of the methods and f i n d i n g s of t h i s t h e s i s and other s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to i t could be w e l l a p p l i e d to other types of o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l , f o r a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s can b e n e f i t from improving t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n p r a c t i c e s r e g a r d i n g a l l types of r e c o rds c r e a t o r s . 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APPENDIX A: INTERVIEWS ON TAPE F i v e i n t e r v i e w s were recorded as p a r t of the re s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s , a l l on c a s s e t t e tapes u s i n g a R e a l i s t i c CTR-51 machine with an e x t e r n a l microphone; the d e t a i l s are given below. In accordance with the g u i d e l i n e s of the E t h i c s Committee of UBC, pseudonyms are used f o r a l l informants. The i n t e r v i e w s are r e f e r r e d to i n the body of t h i s t h e s i s a c c o r d i n g to: the acronym of each a s s o c i a t i o n ; the number of the i n t e r v i e w (1 through 3); the number of the tape, where a p p l i c a b l e ( f o r example, three tapes were used f o r one of the i n t e r v i e w s ) ; and the l e t t e r of the si d e of the tape (a or b) from which the r e f e r e n c e or q u o t a t i o n i s taken, where a p p l i c a b l e (some tapes are recorded on one s i d e o n l y ) . For example, MADD 2:1(b) s i g n i f i e s the second i n t e r v i e w with an o f f i c i a l of MADD, the second s i d e of the f i r s t tape. MADD 1 — s e c r e t a r y , Nancy Carr — s i x t y minutes recorded on both s i d e s of one 60-minute tape, March 23rd, 1989, i n New Westminster. [ r e f . : MADD 1(a), 1(b)] MADD 2 -- ex e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r , G r e t a S c o t t -- one hour and twenty minutes recorded on three s i d e s of two 60-minute tapes, A p r i l 11th, 1989, i n New Westminster. [ r e f . : MADD 2 : l ( a ) , 2 : l ( b ) , 2:2] MADD 3 -- t r e a s u r e r , Helen N i c h o l s -- f o r t y minutes recorded on both s i d e s of one 60-minute tape, A p r i l 11th, 1989, i n New Westminster. [ r e f . : MADD 3(a) , 3(b)] OABC 1 -- p r e s i d e n t , Greg G i l l i s -- two and a h a l f hours recorded on f i v e s i d e s of two 60-minute tapes and one 90-minute tape, A p r i l 1989, i n Vancouver. [ r e f . : OABC l : l ( a ) , l : l ( b ) , l : 2 ( a ) , l : 2 ( b ) , 1:3] OABC 2 -- n e w s l e t t e r e d i t o r , Peter Cauley -- one hour recorded on both s i d e s of one 90-minute tape, A p r i l 1989, i n Vancouver, [ r e f . : OABC 2:(a), 2(b)] 146

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