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Archival acquisition of the records of voluntary associations Hart, Susan Mary Anne 1989

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ARCHIVAL  ACQUISITION OF THE RECORDS OF VOLUNTARY  ASSOCIATIONS By  SUSAN MARY ANNE HART B.A., M.A.,  Memorial U n i v e r s i t y Memorial U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED  of Newfoundland, of Newfoundland,  1983 1987  IN PARTIAL.FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL  STUDIES  in THE SCHOOL OF LIBRARY,  We  accept to  ARCHIVAL,  this  AND  thesis  the required  as  INFORMATION  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June ©  1989  Susan Mary Anne H a r t ,  1989  STUDIES  In  presenting  degree freely  at  the  available  copying  of  department publication  this  of  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  University  of  British  Columbia,  I  agree  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  scholarly  or for  her  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  I further  purposes  gain  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  DE-6 (2/88)  study.  requirements  be  It not  that  the  advanced  Library shall  by  understood be  an  permission for  granted  is  for  allowed  the  make  extensive  head  that  without  it  of  copying my  my or  written  ABSTRACT  While a c q u i s i t i o n repositories, archival problem  is a vital  generally  acquisition  accepted  are sadly  lacking  associations,  definition,  with other  organizations.  applicable  acquisition  archival  their  life  associations, practices.  their  practices  activities,  done by e x i s t i n g  repositories  committees,  repositories, repositories  cycle  and  i t provides a  relationships  of a r c h i v a l  that  associations,  repositories,  and  and  appraisal.  two v o l u n t a r y  records-keeping  archival  associations,  repositories  that  t h i s c a n be  and t h r o u g h s u c h a r r a n g e m e n t s a s  a standard  when a c q u i r i n g  of the  of voluntary  consortiums of a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  and t h a t  the problem  s u b s e q u e n t l y moves on t o  and t h e i r  the records of voluntary  studies  of voluntary  to analyse  F i n a l l y i t i s proposed  of which a r e  acquisition  of a c q u i s i t i o n  i s used  This  to the records of  To b e g i n w i t h ,  The t h e s i s  theories  E t h n o g r a p h i c methodology  special  thesis  the records-keeping p r a c t i c e s  relevant  acquire  regard  and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  and d e l i n e a t e s  of  i n North America.  archival  associations.  description,  associations,  the  This  and p r o p o s e s a s y s t e m f o r ,  records of voluntary  and p r a c t i c e s  t h e n a t u r e and s i g n i f i c a n c e  l a r g e l y unknown t o a r c h i v i s t s .  consider  principles  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent with  voluntary  of,  responsibility for a l l archival  and  special  p r o c e d u r e be f o l l o w e d by  the records of a voluntary  association.  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Acknowledgements  iv  Introduction  1  Chapter  One:  Voluntary  Chapter  Two:  Archives  Chapter  Three:  First  Mothers Chapter  Chapter  Associations and  Case  Against  14  Voluntary  Associations  Study: Drinking  Drivers  F o u r : Second C a s e S t u d y : The O r i e n t e e r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h  59  Columbia  F i v e : A r c h i v a l A c q u i s i t i o n of the Records Voluntary  32  Associations  . .  .88  of 119  Conclusion  137  Bibliography  142  Appendix  A:  Interviews  on Tape  .  146  i i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many p e o p l e were o f g r e a t h e l p t o me i n r e s e a r c h i n g , w r i t i n g , and e d i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . My a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e — composed o f L u c i a n a D u r a n t i , T e r r y E a s t w o o d , and J a y P o w e l l -g u i d e d me a l o n g t h e r i g h t p a t h , and my s u p e r v i s o r P r o f e s s o r D u r a n t i gave i n v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s , c o u n s e l l i n g , e d i t i n g , and t h e i m p e t u s t o f i n i s h i n good t i m e . The a s s o c i a t i o n s I s t u d i e d , and e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e members whom I i n t e r v i e w e d , were v e r y g e n e r o u s w i t h t h e i r t i m e and p a t i e n c e . My f e l l o w s t u d e n t s L i n d a J a n z e n , Donna K y n a s t o n , T r e v o r L i v e l t o n , and D a v i d T r u d e l , p r o v i d e d s t i m u l a t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n a b o u t a r c h i v a l t h e o r y as w e l l as e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t . The N e w f o u n d l a n d Government p r o v i d e d g e n e r o u s s t u d e n t l o a n s and g r a n t s w h i c h made s t u d e n t l i f e f i n a n c i a l l y v i a b l e f o r me. As u s u a l , my p a r e n t s Anne H a r t and D a v i d H a r t h e l p e d me i n numerous ways. C h r i s t i n e and E d d i e Fung l e n t me a computer w h i c h made a l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e . J e a n n e Yang and R a l p h L a i e n c o u r a g e d me t o keep up a good p a c e o f t h e s i s production. F i n a l l y my f i a n c e ' , S t e p h e n s o n Yang, g a v e me immeasurable p e r s o n a l a s s i s t a n c e , i n c l u d i n g h e l p i n g t o choose t h e two a s s o c i a t i o n s I s t u d i e d . I am e t e r n a l l y g r a t e f u l t o him and t o a l l t h e o t h e r s m e n t i o n e d h e r e f o r making t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e .  iv  INTRODUCTION  The  a c t of a c q u i s i t i o n  archival  repositories,  Unfortunately, long  road  Archivists  better  and t o t h e i r  most a r c h i v a l  to t r a v e l before need  understanding  i s essential  service  repositories  attaining  t o conduct  research  of records c r e a t o r s ,  to the v i t a l i t y of to  i n North America  ideal acquisition i n order  on t h i s ,  The p r e s e n t  records creators Voluntary has  known as  associations  been e s p e c i a l l y  neglect  results  significance,  voluntary  from  by a r c h i v i s t s .  for  a system  preserved  rather  i s aimed  acquisition  Such a s y s t e m would  such a s s o c i a t i o n s and  thesis  of a r c h i v a l  associations.  are acquired  f o r the b e n e f i t  this thesis,  associations and  Much o f t h i s  these being  to society,  the structure  in  t h a n as t y p e s o f  of the records that  i n a thorough, of  records creators  at e s t a b l i s h i n g  ensure  some  basis  of v o l u n t a r y  the records of consistent  manner  society.  T h r e e m a t t e r s must be e x p l a i n e d of  which  a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r n a t u r e and  t e r m s o f s u b j e c t s and i n f o r m a t i o n , This  the group of  a type of o r g a n i z a t i o n  and f r o m a t e n d e n c y t o c o n s i d e r  organizations.  will  associations.  comprise  neglected  clearer  to develop  thesis  a d d r e s s one a r e a o f t h i s r e s e a r c h need by s t u d y i n g  have a  policies.  to reach a  and b a s e d  approaches to a c q u i s i t i o n .  society.  before  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  addressing  t h e aims  of v o l u n t a r y  the r e s e a r c h methodology adopted  here,  and c o n t e n t s o f t h e main body o f t h e t h e s i s .  1  Voluntary  associations  organizations, before  are  but  the  archivist  considering  the  a c q u i s i t i o n of  has  observed  Victoria records  Blinkhorn r e s t s on  significance society.  mandated  of  The  1  significant  to  their the  creator  archivist the  r e s t s on  needs to  This  consideration  the  and  the  That v o l u n t a r y asserted  extensively. the  2  with  to which  associations confidence  A cursory  array  to a volunteer of v o l u n t a r y  alone.  Two  by  search  d i r e c t o r y of v o l u n t a r y  a call  j u s t as the  his  creator,  (or  i t reflects are  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p to organization  by  taking  into  functions  for  society. in society  have s t u d i e d  is a  them  through a telephone d i r e c t o r y at  reveal  the that  local an  cities  library,  or or  astonishing  e x i s t s , f o r example,  of American  is  is  measured  and  pervasive  t h o s e who  Archivist  repository  be  i t influences  bureau, w i l l  intensive studies  her)  the  this  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  organization,  associations  associations  the  know w h e t h e r an  the  ways i n w h i c h extent  records.  s i g n i f i c a n c e may  p e r v a s i v e n e s s of  society,  that  their  community whose r e c o r d s  to p r e s e r v e .  complex  n e e d s t o know more t h a n  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  examining the  fact  i n t e r e s t i n g and  have  i n Vancouver produced  V i c t o r i a B l i n k h o r n , "The R e c o r d s o f V i s u a l A r t i s t s : A p p r a i s i n g f o r A c q u i s i t i o n and S e l e c t i o n " ( M a s t e r o f A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s d i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1988), 110. 1  N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on V o l u n t a r y A c t i o n t o t h e Government o f Canada, R e p o r t : P e o p l e i n A c t i o n ( O t t a w a , 1977), 4; A l b e r t M e i s t e r , P a r t i c i p a t i o n . A s s o c i a t i o n s . D e v e l o p m e n t , and Change. t r a n s , and ed. J a c k C. Ross ( L o n d o n : T r a n s a c t i o n Books, 1984), 54; D o n a t o J . P u g l i e s e , V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s : An A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , 1980), 6. 2  more c o n c r e t e  results.  In t h e i r  s o c i o l o g i s t s L l o y d Warner and associations  i n one  organizations. 37%  had  21-80  was  published  Of  P a u l Lunt  urban area, these  357,  members, and i n 1941  and  9%  famous s t u d y  357  "Yankee  899  voluntary  had  had  up  has  twenty or fewer t o 312  members.  doubtless  Detroit  to t h e i r  i n 1951  vitality  found  remains v a l i d .  t h a t 63%  of the  been amassed  o r more s u c h  bodies.  i n C a n a d a as y e t , b u t  Government o f t h i s on V o l u n t a r y  i n 1976  attests  v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canadian Voluntary As  study  in  the  but i t s  A similar  that half  study  of  fact  have  t h a t the  a National Advisory to the  were  o f them were  Similar statistics  the v e r y  nation appointed  Action  4  This  3  r e s i d e n t s of t h a t c i t y  members o f n o n - c h u r c h a s s o c i a t i o n s , and members o f two  members;  been change  demographics of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s s i n c e then, testament  City",  b e i n g permanent, s t a b l e  52%  there  found  of  importance  not  Federal  Council  of  society.  a s s o c i a t i o n s f u n c t i o n f o r s o c i e t y i n myriad  ways.  t h e N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l comments, t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  d e m o c r a c y by citizen's policies.  which Canada o p e r a t e s  need  to c o n t r i b u t e to shaping  Voluntary  meet t h i s need and traditions".  5  does not  adequately  the n a t i o n ' s  meet  laws  a s s o c i a t i o n s , the C o u n c i l contends,  are  therefore "central  Sociologist  Arnold  t o our  every  and help  to  democratic  Rose s t a t e s t h a t v o l u n t a r y  L l o y d Warner and P a u l S. L u n t , The S o c i a l L i f e o f a Modern Community (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941), 303-320. 3  A r n o l d M. Rose, T h e o r y and Method i n t h e S o c i a l ( M i n n e s o t a : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1954), 55. 4  5  N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , 28-30.  Sciences  a s s o c i a t i o n s p l a y a major r o l e  i n [ A m e r i c a n ] d e m o c r a c y by  distributing  life,  and  power o v e r s o c i a l  satisfaction  with  mechanism f o r s o c i a l voluntary  providing understanding  democratic processes, change.  Perhaps the  6  a s s o c i a t i o n i s most v a l u a b l e  and  voluntary  create  help and  them a r e  an  important  concerns are  not  German s o c i o l o g i s t , for  the  has  been t h e  g o e s so  As  8  w e l l as  represent  for  i n 1971,  example,  that  t o say  that  9  The  society.  religious,  one  percent  a  "the  on  are  their  Where t h e i r  part  of  the  a s s o c i a t i o n s , and  f r i e n d s , and  i s external  8  Rose, T h e o r y and  7  National Advisory  8  Meister,  9  National Advisory  affect  (as with  Method.  51.  Council,  30.  Council,  27.  54.  other  United  States  and  economic  voluntary of a  nation:  National  associations also (for those have a  social, members ripple  acquaintances.  political  to  reason  voluntary  is internal  purposes) they  families,  focus  focus  created  basic  of Canada's G r o s s  c e n t r a l aims o f v o l u n t a r y  Where t h e i r  the  prominent  religious,  p r o d u c e d by  the  their interests  a s u b s t a n t i a l economic a s s e t  or s e l f - h e l p  s o c i e t y who  ethnio,  a  the  which are  contributing politically,  ( o r $1,045,000,000) was  associations.  effect  f a r as  number o f d i f f e r e n t  associations  affect  ones;  Albert Meister,  7  are  immense d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e  subgroups".  Product  and  means o f e n s u r i n g  ignored.  f o r whom  politically  disadvantaged  of  f u n c t i o n i n g as  citizens  members o f m i n o r i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y a s s o c i a t i o n s which they  widely  action  and  of  5 service  associations),  especially  i f they are  Voluntary roots  voluntary,  on  a  schools,  voluntary  work and  function  from  Association  the  voluntary  and had  Labrador existed  voluntary  association  of v o l u n t a r y development voluntary the  of  the  libraries.  associations functions  society.  of  lobbying  set  i n the  years  society  has  they  regions,  and  Furthermore, voluntary  1 0  Meister,  1 1  Warner and  include  330.  t o be  t o by  this of  a  by  Rights  to  The  the the  are  men,  to which  to  are  the  number o f i t s hypothesis  i n t e g r a l to society children  backgrounds, people every  a  development  related  reflect  women and  associations  10.  large.  leads  associations  members o f  Lunt,  both t h e i r  of  extent  associations  p e o p l e of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c  different  carried  a f t e r a Human  modernizes,  This  1 0  voluntary  Voluntary  at  been f o u n d  a nation  grows.  these  f o r some t i m e .  reflects  as  longer  i s offered  Province  ago,  As  the  this evolution  t o government  up  of  i s attested of  no  were f i r s t  effectiveness  s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the  society;  which are  sector  a few  associations  demographics:  adults,  and  illustration  there  A n o t h e r measure o f  their  hospitals,  An  s i g n i f i c a n t as  organizations  their political  intervention.  Newfoundland  complex  historically  basis;  Human R i g h t s C o m m i s s i o n  that  are  broadly,  successful.  i n d i c a t e , many g o v e r n m e n t f u n c t i o n s  government  the  and  influential  s u c h as  s o l e l y on  service  large  associations  o f permanent,  examples  t h e y a f f e c t s o c i e t y much more  also  a in  and  living  in  social  class.  linked  i n numerous ways  1 1  6 to  many o t h e r  multifarious to  organizations, activities,  in  including everything  c o u n s e l l i n g people with  deforestation,  and when one c o n s i d e r s  cancer  one must r e a l i s e  o u r s o c i e t y where t h e e f f e c t  felt.  Archivist  states  that:  Darlene  from p l a y i n g  to lobbying  that  there  their  against  a r e few a r e a s  of voluntary  darts  of  life  a s s o c i a t i o n s i s not  Roth sums t h e s i t u a t i o n  up w e l l when she  The c h a r a c t e r o f v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n , m i r r o r e d i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h frame i t , o f f e r s t h e most i n t r i c a t e p i c t u r e o f t h e c h a n g e s , t e n s i o n s , new d i r e c t i o n s , and s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e A m e r i c a n community a t all levels. 1 2  This  statement  a p p l i e s to the Canadian  does t o the American very  significant  attention  one.  community  Clearly, voluntary  as w e l l as i t  a s s o c i a t i o n s are  t o s o c i e t y , and t h e r e f o r e w a r r a n t  special  f r o m t h e a r c h i v a l community w h i c h s e r v e s i t .  II Ethnography, used  f o r the primary research  Discussion  i s warranted  appropriate, used  the theory  for this  concerning behind  for this  why t h i s  thesis.  approach i s  i t , and t h e manner i n w h i c h  i s a method most commonly u s e d by  anthropologists,  appropriate  conducted  o f c u l t u r e , was  i t was  study.  Ethnography and  a methodology f o r the study  and a t f i r s t  to a r c h i v i s t s ,  because  glance  folklorists  i t may n o t a p p e a r  i t focusses  on a c u l t u r e o r  D a r l e n e R o t h , " P a n d o r a ' s New Box: A Look a t t h e R e c o r d s o f Women's V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s , " G e o r g i a A r c h i v e 7 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 36. 1  2  7 subculture archives  are a kind  understand This do  and i t s members, v e r y of c u l t u r a l  them p r o p e r l y  i s e s p e c i a l l y true  not g e n e r a l l y  attempting  s e l d o m on i t s r e c o r d s . artifact,  one must  know a b o u t  much a b o u t  t o take custody  know w h e t h e r t h e c r e a t o r  of.  falls  within  approach,  communicate w i t h ,  this  creator.  Knowing t h e g e n e r a l  used  by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  arrangement,  Ethnography investigates  luxury  a student own t e r m s .  their  sensical,  than  F o r example, w h i l e  better  co-operation  but in-depth  left  study of  f o r the stages  of  a n a l y s i s which i t from t h e p o i n t o f and j u d g i n g  to understand  students,  a culture becomes  i t in  its  may v i e w  s u c h as d u n k i n g one  a s r i d i c u l o u s and non-  observe these  interviews,  rituals  carefully,  and p e r h a p s p a r t i c i p a t i n g  i n t h e end t h e e t h n o g r a p h e r w i l l  write  an a n a l y s i s o f t h e e n g i n e e r s '  their  own t e r m s , b u t i n a manner c o m p r e h e n s i b l e semantics  from  c r e a t e d and  a u n i v e r s i t y a r t s student  into a pool,  an e t h n o g r a p h e r w i l l  Ethnographic  they are  of records  analysing  of engineering  f e l l o w s naked  some o f them;  archivists  o f h e r o r h i s own, t h e e t h n o g r a p h e r  t a k i n g n o t e s and c o n d u c t i n g in  kinds  c u l t u r e , and a t t e m p t s  many o f t h e r i t u a l s of  and r e c e i v e  a c u l t u r e by l e a r n i n g a b o u t  of that  when  i t s mandate, and how t o  i s a method o f c u l t u r a l  the perspective  creators.  and d e s c r i p t i o n .  v i e w o f i t s members; r a t h e r from  the records  or agency h e l p s ,  i s a time-consuming  appraisal,  their  An a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y n e e d s t o  best  these  and i n o r d e r t o  at the a c q u i s i t i o n stage,  know v e r y  Yet  be a b l e t o  c u l t u r e which e x p l a i n s  i t in  to outsiders.  ( a l s o known a s e t h n o s c i e n c e ) i s a s p e c i a l  8 kind  of ethnography  thesis; those this  i t f o c u s s e s on  language.  themselves  scourge  uses,  and  finding  —  different  permits.  concerns  i n the  life  people, drunks,  jail). and  i n making a f l o p .  "participant  approach  t h e t h i n g s he  to t h e m .  1 3  somewhat  originally  outsiders  the r i g o u r s a  less the  and  energy  i s , getting important  3  in  asked  i s a very  (that  very the  trap  be attractive  t h e members o f a  James P. S p r a d l e y , You Owe Y o u r s e l f a Drunk: An E t h n o g r a p h y o f Urban Nomads ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown, 1970). 1  some  tramps'  perceived to  how  "the  hundred  able to escape  wants t o u n d e r s t a n d  (that  of  among t h e m s e l v e s  semantics  An  reveal  "making a f l o p "  o b s e r v a t i o n " ) , and  Ethnographic  f o r anybody who  (known t o  are about  he was  culture  leading  "Making a j u g " ( t h a t  g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s to begin with, on  present a  Y o u r s e l f a Drunk:  o f tramps  t o them t a l k i n g  culture  t h i s method t o  Because S p r a d l e y observed  listened  within  t h e names,  much o f a tramp's t i m e  culture.  focussing  uses  There  tramps'  conducted  especially  as t h e e v e r - p r e s e n t  Owe  surviving  to d r i n k ) i s , s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  important  as t r u l y  e t c . ) are  a p l a c e t o s l e e p ) and  and  truly  In You  alcohol  he  can  this  significant  describing  at l e a s t ,  k i n d s of f l o p s ,  activities  and  uses,  Nomads, James S p r a d l e y , t h e  ( t h e c o u r t s and  spent  and  of ethnographic semantics,  t h e major  bucket"  of  a culture  the ethnographer  of Urban  as bums, s t r e e t  is,  the r e s e a r c h f o r  c a t e g o r i e s t h e members o f t h e  of s u b j e c t i v i t y  proponent  is  language  By d i s c o v e r i n g  employ,  Ethnography  is,  the  i t perceives i t s e l f  that  influenced  terms w h i c h a r e t h e most d e t a i l e d  definitions,  as  which  culture different world,  from  h e r o r h i s own behave and p e r c e i v e t h e  o r some p a r t o f i t , w h i c h  n e e d s t o be a b l e t o d o .  associations use,  treat  in relation  In t h i s  1 4  r e a c h some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i s e x a c t l y what an a r c h i v i s t  and t h i n k a b o u t  to their  various  flaws  The  i s the lack of t r a i n i n g  the d i s c i p l i n e  and e x p e r i e n c e  of F o l k l o r e ,  As s t a t e d  earlier,  i n ethnographic  has e x t e n s i v e l y  and c o n d u c t e d  here.  its  the ethnographer  with a s p e c i f i c  r e c o r d s , w h i c h may n o t r e f l e c t  association's therefore,  culture.  to r e f l e c t  appears i s supposed t h e emphases  necessarily  i n mind,  which r e s u l t s  the t o t a l i t y  cannot  focus  in  namely  t h e main f o c u s s e s o f t h e  The d e s c r i p t i o n  accurately reflect  ethnography  The o t h e r f l a w  o f t h e c u l t u r e b e i n g s t u d i e d -- b u t t h e a r c h i v i s t an a s s o c i a t i o n  archivist.  profession i s likely  thesis  t o a l l o w t h e emphases o f h e r o r h i s s t u d y  approaches  c r e a t e and  s t u d y made by an  of t h i s  i s n o t a problem  insurmountable.  t r y to  activities.  i n the a r c h i v a l  Because the author  the past, t h i s  the records they  i n an e t h n o g r a p h i c  methodology which a person  studied  will  p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e r e a r e two  important  t o have.  the author  o f how t h e members o f two v o l u n t a r y  From t h e e t h n o g r a p h e r ' s  first  thesis,  culture.  But a r c h i v i s t s  depend  out  about  the records-keeping p r a c t i c e s  for  them, b e c a u s e t h i s  i s not the sort  w i l l not,  of the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s  on e t h n o g r a p h e r s of voluntary of thing  to find  associations  ethnographers  Two m a n u a l s w r i t t e n b y S p r a d l e y were c o n s u l t e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , and s h o u l d p r o v e v e r y h e l p f u l t o anybody w i s h i n g t o u s e e t h n o g r a p h i c s e m a n t i c s ; t h e s e a r e The E t h n o g r a p h i c I n t e r v i e w (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1979), and P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a t i o n ( H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1980). 1  4  10 focus  on.  research the  can  most t h e  do  keeping  an  well  only  accurate  to the the  archivist  i s t r y to take  a s s o c i a t i o n , not  provides  how  The  overall  records  of  which are the  c u l t u r e of  reflect  that  used  its  first  problem  ethnographic  voluntary  research  rather  than  time-consuming,  for this  two  possibilities  understanding  of  action other  group c a l l e d a social  of B r i t i s h  much more  in  conducting  choosing  ethnography  which  is a  as  w e l l as  being  the  some b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n . f o r comparison  from each o t h e r .  MADD ( M o t h e r s A g a i n s t  and  to  In broaden  the  associations  One  was  Drinking  a  political  Drivers),  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n named OABC ( O r i e n t e e r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n  Columbia).  I t proved  p o s s i b l e to conduct p a r t i c i p a n t  observation  o f most o f MADD's a c t i v i t i e s  months, and  to conduct  officials  with  associations in general,  c h o s e n were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  is a  a s s o c i a t i o n s were c h o s e n ,  order the  faced  Since  to p r o v i d e  the  of  purposes.  t h e s i s was  m i n i m a l number needed to heighten  records-  be  a q u a n t i t a t i v e approach,  only  This  a s s o c i a t i o n , and  could  at the  end  of  tape-recorded this period.  over  the  interviews 1 5  This  period  with  research  of  three  two of i t s  was  A n o t e c o n c e r n i n g t h e method o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f q u o t a t i o n s from a l l the i n t e r v i e w s conducted i s n e c e s s a r y . Whereas a f o l k l o r i s t (who s t u d i e s s p e e c h p a t t e r n s , among o t h e r 1  5  of  i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s acknowledge  a u t h o r was  a s s o c i a t i o n s to study.  qualitative very  the  of  Ethnography  l i m i t a t i o n s when p r a c t i c e d f o r s p e c i f i c The  the  as  and  activities  records-oriented.  culture.  widely  long  a l l the  a voluntary  m e t h o d o l o g y f o r many p u r p o s e s , i t i s , so  ethnographic  importance  useful  than  in  i n t o account  those  account  engaged  facilitated regular  by  three factors:  office  hours,  occur and  on  OABC was  r e c o r d s , and  a very d i f f e r e n t  a s e a s o n a l , weekend b a s i s ,  i t s administrative  officials  and  extensive  activities  t h o s e members who  informal basis.  a t a meet, and  case,  regularly  analysis  t h e r e s e a r c h on  f o r the scope  t h e s e two  for i t s activities  assist  officials  of the a s s o c i a t i o n s  extremely  helpful  and  locations, to  them on  the an  confined to  participation  Like  any  associations  of study, but  of t h i s  students  i n and  o f t h o s e OABC r e c o r d s  research,  appropriate  of e n c o u r a g i n g  i t welcomes t h e h e l p o f  officials,  a longer period  keeps  are only a c c e s s i b l e  i n the p r e s i d e n t ' s custody.  from  and  at ever-changing  presently  benefitted  office  I n s t u d y i n g OABC, t h e a u t h o r was  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h two  assistance  an  i t makes a p r a c t i c e  t o r e s e a r c h i t s work and volunteers.  MADD has  thesis,  themselves.  nor  ethnographic would  t h i s was  neither  f a v o u r e d by  Although  c o - o p e r a t i v e , t h e y had  have  no  time  the  t h e y were a l l and  energy  to spare f o r f u r t h e r i n t e r v i e w s .  t h i n g s ) would be c a r e f u l t o q u o t e s u c h i n t e r v i e w s as e x a c t l y as p o s s i b l e , i n d i c a t i n g e a c h p a u s e , r e p e t i t i o n , and n o n - s t a n d a r d p i e c e o f grammar, t h i s i s u n n e c e s s a r y i n t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t . F o r p u r p o s e s o f c l a r i t y and r e a d a b i l i t y , t h e r e f o r e , t h e q u o t a t i o n s are not exact. Any r e a d e r who w i s h e s t o know t h e e x a c t p h r a s i n g used s h o u l d r e f e r d i r e c t l y to the t a p e s t h e m s e l v e s , w h i c h have been d o n a t e d t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n .  Ill This  thesis  introduction  i s structured  and a c o n c l u s i o n ,  appendix d e t a i l i n g the taped  into five a selected  interviews  C h a p t e r One, " V o l u n t a r y associations  literature.  I t b e g i n s by e x p l o r i n g developing  variations within examine t h e l i f e functional different another their  links  associations,  a good g e n e r a l  step  Voluntary  and  theories  associations,  to devise  to delineate  understanding  of which  i s to learn  a  seven  have w i t h one  of these  voluntary  the r e a l  about  the l i t e r a t u r e  of voluntary  describing  of  associations  archival  and a c q u i r e t h e  I n C h a p t e r Two,  "Archives  on t h e r e c o r d s i s surveyed,  as i s  e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s of a r c h i v a l  records.  A discussion  of ideas,  proposals,  of a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n f o l l o w s .  A q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y o f two v o l u n t a r y provided  to s c h o l a r l y  o f them, and d i s c u s s i n g t h e  i s ready to begin  Associations",  literature  acquisition  the nature  w i t h p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s on  of p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s .  keeping p r a c t i c e s the  with reference  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s which a s s o c i a t i o n s  the a r c h i v i s t  work, t h e f i r s t  and  describes  t o government.  Armed w i t h  records  made.  o f them, and f i n a l l y  organizations,  and an  The c h a p t e r moves on t o  c y c l e of voluntary  and o t h e r  a s an  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  a definition  this definition.  typology kinds  i n general,  as w e l l  bibliography,  Associations",  of v o l u n t a r y  associations,  chapters,  i n C h a p t e r s T h r e e and F o u r ,  Mothers Against  Drinking  Drivers"  associations i s  entitled  "First  Case  Study:  and "Second C a s e S t u d y : The  13 Orienteering structures these the  Association  and  purposes.  concerning:  voluntary  w h i c h the  the  them; and  of  association  the  practices  has  the  its filing  Chapter F i v e ,  chapters  records  w h i c h have s i m i l a r  into four  history,  contemplated;  the  and  the  the  association's  systems,  records  and  and  draws upon t h e  associations,  how  nature  of  relationships the  main  r e s u l t i n g from officials  i t s attitudes  of  the  in i t s  and  they should  Records  findings to  of  three  whether a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s s h o u l d  which records,  sections,  preservation.  to propose s o l u t i o n s  of v o l u n t a r y  and  organizations;  "Archival Acquisition  Voluntary Associations,"  These are:  is divided  with other  r o l e of  towards records  preceding  being  association,  finally,  records-keeping,  Each  Columbia",  aims, s t r u c t u r e ,  association  activities  of B r i t i s h  the  about  four  problems.  acquire  w h i c h ones s h o u l d go  of  acquiring  the  preserve these  records. The findings,  Conclusion and  of  this  thesis will  make s u g g e s t i o n s  review  for further  i t s methods  research.  and  CHAPTER ONE VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS  I Leading  sociologist  T h e o d o r e Caplow has d e f i n e d  t h e term  o r g a n i z a t i o n as a s o c i a l s y s t e m t h a t has an u n e q u i v o c a l collective i d e n t i t y , an e x a c t r o s t e r o f members, a p r o g r a m o f a c t i v i t y , and p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e p l a c i n g members. 1  The  "collective  locations, roster"  identity"  r e f e r s t o t h e name,  and a f f i l i a t i o n s  purposes,  of the organization;  the "exact  o f members s e t s t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f membership; t h e  " p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e p l a c i n g members" c o v e r s  recruitment  and  transfer  among p o s i t i o n s ; and t h e "program o f a c t i v i t y "  planning  towards meeting the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s g o a l s .  organization fact  t h a t the former  while the  the l a t t e r  i s capable  i s not.  3  this  and v o l u n t a r y  of sustained  as m a r r i a g e  collective  action,  are authorized  by  licenses, corporation  association registration.  a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r s e c u r i t y of property  have r e c o u r s e  An  2  an i n f o r m a l g r o u p by t h e  Most o r g a n i z a t i o n s  s t a t e through such t h i n g s  charters,  to  c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m  i s the  They  holdings  obtain  and i n o r d e r  t o t h e c o e r c i v e powers o f t h e s t a t e when  T h e o d o r e Caplow, P r i n c i p l e s U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1964), 1  2  I b i d . , 1-13.  3  I b i d . , 25.  14  of Organization 1.  (Chicago:  necessary. internal and  An  4  ones, w h i c h a r e  external  environment. expected and  by  ones,  smallest  Scholars  than  of own  right.  who  about v o l u n t a r y  ways, b u t  s i x broad  present  together,  distinguish  shared  purpose  activities  (or  intended  set  Ibid.,  23.  5  Ibid.,  72.  8  ibid.,  81-83.  to  Firstly,  i t s structure, modifies  its  i t s members,  t h e s e norms, more  Every organization f a c t i o n s which  except are  6  organization.  associations define  characteristics the  activities:  norms, t h a t i s ,  i s a type of  voluntary  o f p u r p o s e s ) and  them i n  emerge w h i c h , i f association  i t s members have an  to accomplish  4  of  spheres f o r  components and  association  7  by  conformity  voluntary  organizations.  kinds  organization  in various  various  other  the  through enactment.  in their  write  two  characterized  which enforce  i s made up  organizations The  through which  behaviour patterns  sanctions,  sustains  a means o f m a i n t a i n i n g  It i s also  5  through threat the  organization  a shared  this purpose.  8  set  from  explicit, of  Secondly,  the  The v a r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s o f v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s a n a l y s e d h e r e f o r common e l e m e n t s a r e : N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , 19; R o n a l d L. A k e r s and F r e d e r i c k C a m p b e l l , " S i z e and the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Component i n O c c u p a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n s , " P a c i f i c S o c i o l o g i c a l Review 13 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 241; B e r n a r d B a r b e r , P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Mass A p a t h y i n A s s o c i a t i o n s , " i n S t u d i e s i n L e a d e r s h i p , ed. A l v i n W. G o u l d n e r (New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1950): 479-488; P u g l i e s e , 910; Rose, T h e o r y and Method. 52; and Warner and L u n t , 301. 7  T h e r e may a l s o be u n o f f i c i a l g o a l s n o t s h a r e d by a l l members o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . T h e s e a r e p a r t o f what makes e v e r y a s s o c i a t i o n unique. 8  voluntary  association  controlled  and  necessarily and  mean t h a t  involvement  -of  members a r e case, but  excluded  the  usually  to  often  government,  a n d / o r may  the  association  to accomplish  fact the  emerges f r o m  these  not  l e v e l s of of  set  the  is far  c e r t a i n people association  t r y to  that  to  are is  strive  from  it.  Fifthly,  the  i s , m a k i n g money i s necessary  L a s t l y , the  expressed  rules.  of  influence  is generally  purposes.  explicit  which  i t i s independent  assistance  structure,  Thirdly,  means t o a c c o m p l i s h i t s  a s s o c i a t i o n may  i s non-profit,  high  the  is less likely  importantly,  i t s true  of  that  and  influence  them have  a reality  voluntary  for p o l i t i c a l  receive  a formal  or  does  i s always o f f i c i a l l y  create  although f u n d - r a i s i n g  constitution  is, i t is  percentage  This  i s the  Fourthly,  Most  although  has  This  that  a l l members c a n .  leave.  this  power t h a n  purpose(s).  association  and  organizations,  government,  order  or  pressures  other  a c e n t r a l aim,  a small  association,  from j o i n i n g . of  i t s members.  a l l members have e q u a l  f r e e to j o i n  political  voluntary  by  democratic,  non-members c a n n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n  Related  independent  explicit  but  various  from f r e e .  for  operated  p a r t i c i p a t i o n --  activities  i s formally  The  in a  not  in  voluntary written  definition  which  characteristics is:  A v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n i s a f o r m a l , d e m o c r a t i c , nonp r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f members who f r e e l y c h o o s e t o work t o g e t h e r t o w a r d s a s h a r e d p u r p o s e , i n d e p e n d e n t l y of o t h e r organizations. This  definition  discussion:  how  r a i s e s some i s s u e s truly  does i t s d e m o c r a t i c  f r e e and  structure  which r e q u i r e  voluntary  i s the  further association?  work? what d e g r e e o f  how  independence  17 does the  a s s o c i a t i o n need  to m a i n t a i n  i t s i d e n t i t y ? what  defines  a member? The  first  voluntary Bernard  issue  to address  association  Barber  has  i s the  pointed  never simply  psychological  patterned  a complex o f  by  considerations." associations itself,  shown  later  cycle  which,  brings  as  time passes  In  to  archivist  who  Archivists  the  (SAA) had  by  SAA  i t was  archivist  o 1 0  truly joined  Barber,  no  longer the  or  not.  480.  Pugliese,  9.  will  For  the  networking  i n the  of  near  life  frequently voluntary,  example,  Society  be  have a  sanctions  the  to s u f f e r . of  As  1 0  the  but  against  o f p o t e n t i a l members a r e  f o r employment  a matter  includes  change,  for professional certification  i s bound  value  associations  functioning.  is  i s always  and  category  organization,  access to  the  a l l non-profit  conditions  members, and  become a r e q u i r e m e n t career  and  membership  is ascribed.  voluntary  a member o f  lacks  opportunity  her/his  consider this  n a t u r e of  rather  structural,  but  universe  their  i s not  "voluntary  at which they are  a prescribed  impair  opportunities the  social,  the  i t s voluntariness.  w i l l i n g n e s s , but  chapter,  them t o a p o i n t  as  that  i n w h i c h membership  non-members w i t h i n severe  out  voluntary,  in this  prescribed.  n a t u r e of  Some s c h o l a r s  9  t o be  state  in considering  an  so American  American and  future which  educational will  lack  is likely  to  in archival repositories; However, i n t h e  free choice  as  e a r l y days  to whether  an  of  18 Another is  that  consideration  few o r g a n i z a t i o n s  t o make w i t h  o r some o t h e r  accepted  factor.  location, profession,  Sometimes t h e c o n d i t i o n s  an e s t a b l i s h e d  that  their  and  a few y e a r s  Thus,  ago t h e Mormon C h u r c h e x p e l l e d the Equal  i t c a n be s t a t e d i n three  that  second  issue  structure  o f most v o l u n t a r y  secretary,  1 1  preceded 1 2  rights  Amendment (ERA) m o v e m e n t .  from t h e d e f i n i t i o n  r e f e r s to i t s democratic  and t h u s  a treasurer,  meetings with  a member f o r  associations  involves  a chair  and o t h e r  and w i t h o u t  the other  of the  structure.  i s , at least or p r e s i d e n t ,  elected  membership.  officers  initially, a  having  members, f o r w h i c h  The  regular  minutes  The CCF was a s o c i a l d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t h e New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y i n Canada, 1933-1961.  which  The pro-ERA movement was an a t t e m p t t o e n t r e n c h t h e o f women i n t o t h e A m e r i c a n C o n s t i t u t i o n .  A l e x i s de T o c q u e v i l l e , On Democracy. R e v o l u t i o n , and S o c i e t y : S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s , e d . J o h n S t o n e and S t e p h e n M e n n e l l ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1980), 84. 1 3  12  an i n d i v i d u a l c a n be v i e w e d by an  arising  association  1 3  1 1  i t s ranks,  the boundaries of permitted  voluntary  democratic,  Rights  (CCF)  d i f f e r e n t ways: a s a member, a s a p o t e n t i a l  member, o r as one o u t s i d e The  to p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y opposing  a r u l e f o r b i d d i n g Communists t o j o i n  supporting  association  associations stipulate  t h e C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n  to enforce  publicly  the case of  a new member be s p o n s o r e d  Other v o l u n t a r y  members n o t b e l o n g  organizations: used  member.  that  religion, f o r being  a s members a r e a r t i c u l a t e d i n p o l i c y , as i n  a f r a t e r n a l s o c i e t y which r e q u i r e s by  to voluntariness  a r e open t o e v e r y member o f s o c i e t y .  Most a r e l i m i t e d by age, g e n d e r , class  respect  19 are  kept  and  everything Yet  the  eroded  made a v a i l a b l e t o  from  democratic over  grow, w i t h  to  control  while  executive to  the  Albert  Meister  activities. individual  In  1 6  the puts  the  negative  one.  Even  make t h e  extra  effort  members, and policy-making the  i t , "delegated  the  a dissatisfied necessary  executive  and  work done: the  to  officers  activities  by  enthusiastic  the  a  as  they  few,  founders,  a  directs  between  the  two  oligarchic form,  i s not  and  necessarily  member may  1 5  or,  extends to a l l  association  not  be  its seen  as  willing  to  a  ensure p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l may  feel  themselves but  become  structures  democracy"  the  members, t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t  SAA.  voluntary  c o n d u c t s and  d e m o c r a c y t a k e s an  of  may  hands o f  of  communication  evaluation  the  of  l a r g e l y i n a c t i v e membership,  makes p o l i c y and that  that  i n the  intentions  soon amasses a  point  becomes d i f f i c u l t : as  resting  i s true  to  association  t h e i r governing  Whatever t h e  14  association  activities,  a voluntary  eventually  This  drama a s s o c i a t i o n  formalize  voluntary the  membership.  Robert M i c h e l s p o s t u l a t e s  tend  members.  high-school i d e a l of  time.  associations  elite  the  the  that  i s the  inefficient  conducting only  way  e a r l y days  the  to  get  in  the  Robert M i c h e l s , P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s : A S o c i o l o g i c a l Study o f t h e O l i g a r c h i c a l T e n d e n c i e s o f Modern Democracy, t r a n s . Eden and C e d a r P a u l (New Y o r k : C o l l i e r Books, 1962), 71. 1 4  B a r b e r , 484-485; F. S t u a r t C h a p i n and J o h n E. T s o u d e r o s , " F o r m a l i z a t i o n O b s e r v e d i n Ten V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s : C o n c e p t s , M o r p h o l o g y , P r o c e s s , " P a c i f i c S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w 13 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 309; Rose, T h e o r y and Method. 57. 1 5  1 6  Meister,  148.  20 life  of  the  effective  in reaching  This the  a s s o c i a t i o n may  issue  voluntary  association's  of democracy  association's  environment: while are  the  have been more d e m o c r a t i c ,  which f o r c e s that  the  voluntary  nations,  dispersion  associations  of  and  do  exist  the  d e m o c r a t i c government  i s detrimental  to  from  the  early  USSR o f women i n i t i a t i n g  1980's, and  organizations The  w h i c h an  association  very  banning  with  existence.  No  organizations most f o r m a l  by  state,  the  f u n d s and  citizens,  s u c h as  on  Pugliese,  1 8  Caplow,  1 8  the  has  6-7. 23.  to  the  of  the in  a total  seventeen  of  to  maintain  absence  The  of  in a society.  At  officially  them a u t h o r i z a t i o n  activities  the  independence  in order  institutions  exile  movement.  definition  society  which g i v e s  non-  organizations  degree of  p u b l i c demonstrations. Action  That  1 7  i n c a s e s s u c h as  a s s o c i a t i o n s must be  conduct v a r i o u s  Voluntary  1 7  the  claimed  s u r v i v a l o f many  anti-apartheid  within  and  the  state"  have  i n South A f r i c a  organization  least,  recognized  the  r e l a t e s to  requires  the  in non-democratic  state.  feminist  i s s u e which a r i s e s from  l i n k s with other  Council  1988  associations  a separate  collect  the  associated  third  voluntary  the  i s demonstrated  to  associations  "a b u l w a r k a g a i n s t  instruments of  associations  these  s t a t e power, o t h e r s  can  respect  i t s social  argue t h a t  sometimes as  voluntary  also with  r e l a t i o n s with  a d e m o c r a t i c phenomenon and  less  goals.  i s considered  some s c h o l a r s  but  which a f f e c t National  Government o f C a n a d a  to the  Advisory maintains  that to  independence of s o c i e t y ' s  the i d e n t i t y of voluntary  associations with  other  policies  and a c t i v i t i e s .  components o f o t h e r s : local  school  i s part  i n s t i t u t i o n s i s fundamental  associations.  may have s t r o n g  organizations,  major  l i n k s with  these  control  Some v o l u n t a r y  associations are  f o r example,  the G i r l  of a regional, of G i r l  is  independent  of i t s parent  Girl  i s independent  it  Guides  comes t o d e v i s i n g The  fourth  associations  plans  issue  a coalition  of organizations,  one.  province,  the B r i t i s h  includes  member not  1 9  together  United  than  National  Advisory  Council,  purpose.  i n the  Church, the o f Women,  The f a c t t h a t t h e  a physical  association.  3, 19.  may be  "End L e g i s l a t e d  Vancouver S t a t u s  the essence of the v o l u n t a r y  A member  and o t h e r s n o t ,  Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n . rather  voluntary  association  for a certain  coalition  Centre,  may be an o r g a n i z a t i o n  alter  a voluntary  and among them a r e t h e F i r s t  the B r i t i s h  when  or moral person, not  some v o l u n t a r y  Columbia  Action  troupe  o f any i n s t i t u t i o n  16 g r o u p s w h i c h aim t o end p o v e r t y  V a n c o u v e r Unemployed and  Guides  o f t h e i r members.  Thus,  w h i c h have v o l u n t a r i l y banded  Poverty"  No G i r l  o r g a n i z a t i o n , but  b u t may be a j u r i d i c a l  a physical  example,  at a  and an  a r i s i n g from t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f  necessarily  For  t h e i r own  and p o l i c i e s .  r e f e r s to the nature  must be a p e r s o n ,  Guides.  over  Guides troupe  a national,  association  International  i n s t i t u t i o n s , and  b u t have b a s i c  international completely  Voluntary  1 9  person  does  22 This  discussion  voluntariness, do  not  that  but  their  necessary vary  democracy,  n e c e s s a r i l y occur  association, Now  shows t h a t  to  within  t h e y do  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  independence, i n pure  form  and  i n d i v i d u a l membership  i n any  one  voluntary  e x i s t i n some measure i n a l l o f  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been d e l i n e a t e d ,  consider a  the  the  ways i n w h i c h v o l u n t a r y  them.  i t is  associations  society.  II A single voluntary any  organic  begins  e n t i t y i t has  informally,  persons  through c o l l e c t i v e  recruit ones.  and  For  effort.  experience  to acquire  i t , and and  An  initiative  model  f o r any  i t s associates,  and  parents.  another,  and  this  of  need w h i c h can  group g i v e s  itself  i t s organization drama c l u b  student  of  One  i s not  with  that  regular  high-school  by  a group be  like  generally of  satisfied  a title  in order  and  a  to  upon s i m i l a r  i s formed school  assistance  to  who  f o r the  drama c l u b  chance: the  time;  association  mounts p e r i o d i c p r o d u c t i o n s  teachers  similar  The  a high-school  theatrical  community  from the  change o v e r  to p u b l i c i z e i t s purposes  I t may  example,  cycle.  to a p e r c e i v e d  begins  members.  a life  arising  in response  structure,  a s s o c i a t i o n may  provide wishes  school from  i s much  like  common p u r p o s e and  the  c i r c u m s t a n c e s make i t s o .  Stuart  Chapin  of development identified  by  and  J o h n T s o u d e r o s have d e l i n e a t e d  for voluntary  associations,  a main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : ( 1 )  five  each of which  informality,  is  with  stages  limited the  role differentiation,  creation  with  the  of  formal  formation  development  of  o f new  offices,  u n i t s and  with  performance of  specific  factors  i t also  spur  increase  one  observed;  overview of  are  a voluntary more and  actively  (5)  As  2 0  the  --  and  indeed, the  and  phenomena a c c o m p a n y i n g  two  records each  created stage.  s i z e has  requires  a  been  complex  Tsouderos a l s o provide the  more " n o m i n a l members", t h a t  the  executive  maturation  and  and  0  Chapin  and  2  1  A k e r s and  2  2  Caplow,  and  increase.  Tsouderos, Campbell,  is hired;  a written  formal;  i s , members who  works l o n g e r  staff  o r a l to  association  2  the  an  growth there seldom  hours,  reports  to  f o r m ; means of j o i n i n g income and  property  2 3  "Formalization  Observed":  308-309.  241-251.  28.  F. S t u a r t C h a p i n and J o h n E. T s o u d e r o s , Formalization Process in Voluntary Associations," 34 ( 1 9 5 6 ) : 342-344. 3  these  a s s o c i a t i o n : m e e t i n g s become r e g u l a r i z e d ;  become more i m p e r s o n a l  2  the  a positive  staff  organization Chapin  2 2  for  organization  volume a t  s i z e and  the  control  control units  Furthermore,  i f permanent o f f i c e  by  and  s u r p r i s i n g that  a large  membership p a s s f r o m an  possessed  of  types,  i t i s not  p a r t i c i p a t e ; the  especially  s e c t i o n a l i z a t i o n , with  i n membership  apparatus.  the  (4)  functions.  between membership  administrative  structural differentiation,  regions,  a n o t h e r on.  in fact,  2 1  (3)  creation  swells  this,  relationship  of  the  in formalization,  Considering  s t r u c t u r a l c o d i f i c a t i o n , with  committees,  reinforcement,  develops,  (2)  "The S o c i a l Forces  24 It do  not last  short for  i s important long  This  short  to vote,  a myriad  prohibited. Once t h e i r  failure the  if  very  political  existed.  a f t e r women  associations  century  died  were a c h i e v e d , a short  their  auspices.  connote  l i f e s p a n i s due t o  that  of other  of m a t u r i t y  a voluntary  likely  and s t a b i l i t y  to enter  damaging; r a t h e r ,  This  i t s goals.  a s s o c i a t i o n may  acquire under i t s  into r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  a  are indices  institutionalized,  the voluntary i s seldom  i tstrengthens  i s designated  even  i n the a s s o c i a t i o n .  membership on a p e r m a n e n t b a s i s . when a c h u r c h  achieving  These c i r c u m s t a n c e s  Once i t h a s become f o r m a l i z e d ,  nature.  well  l i f e s p a n does  secondary o r g a n i z a t i o n s  organizations.  t e r m s o f membership,  are not very  lack of s i g n i f i c a n c e to society,  i s , attract  I t i s also  Obviously,  However, a s h o r t  a s s o c i a t i o n d i e s without  i t s lifespan,  "satellites",  r a i s o n d ' § t r e no  the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s goals.  they a r e l e g i o n .  the voluntary  when a l c o h o l was  were n e v e r meant t o be p e r m a n e n t .  I n some c a s e s ,  automatically  voluntary  i s , t h e y have a  League d i s b a n d e d  a s s o c i a t i o n s which d i e f o r such a reason  variety  associations  may be a t t r i b u t e d t o s u c c e s s :  of this  goals  i n accomplishing  During  in  much; t h a t  of anti-war  These o r g a n i z a t i o n s  known, a l t h o u g h not  many v o l u n t a r y  when t h e V i e t n a m War ended, and t h e Temperance  Leagues of the e a r l y p a r t  longer  life  t h e Women's S u f f r a g e  won t h e r i g h t disappeared  that  enough t o e v o l v e  lifespan.  example,  to r e a l i s e  and l a r g e  a s s o c i a t i o n may l o s e i t s  s e e n by i t s p r o p o n e n t s a s the organization This  by s e c u r i n g  i s t h e case,  the o f f i c i a l  f o r instance,  church of a n a t i o n , or  25 when membership person of  can  work.  be  i n the  hired  by  appropriate  organization development  than  may  i s required  a certain business  When t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t  something other  union  occurs,  a voluntary  revert  i s perceived  a  the  a  a particular sort  organization  association;  to v o l u n t a r y as  t o do  before  over  time  membership, b u t  becomes the  such  a  weakening.  Ill The society coexist,  second i s by not  eight  i n which v o l u n t a r y  category;  categorized.  2 4  types of  Voluntary  The  f o r a r c h i v a l purposes  overlapping  associations  many d i f f e r e n t  always harmoniously.  been v a r i o u s l y appropriate  way  within  associations  associations  categorization  i s f u n c t i o n a l and  types of v o l u n t a r y  vary  have  most distinguishes  associations:  ( 1 ) p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s , s u c h as p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , p r o t e s t movements, and l o b b y g r o u p s , aimed a t a c h i e v i n g p o l i t i c a l power a n d / o r u s i n g p o l i t i c a l means t o m o d i f y some a s p e c t ( s ) o f s o c i e t y (2) p r o f e s s i o n a l or o c c u p a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s of p e r s o n s e d u c a t e d f o r o r w o r k i n g i n t h e same p r o f e s s i o n , meeting f o r p u r p o s e s of i n f o r m a t i o n exchange, n e t w o r k i n g , a n d . a c h i e v i n g common g o a l s ( 3 ) r e s e a r c h a s s o c i a t i o n s engaged i n s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h i n a c e r t a i n s u b j e c t a r e a , sometimes i n t h e f o r m o f a " t h i n k tank" (4) economic a s s o c i a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g cooperatives, b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t i o n s , t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s , and u n i o n s , i n t e n d e d t o improve t h e f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e i r members F o r example, see D a l e A. Somers e t a l . , " S u r v e y i n g t h e Records of a C i t y : the H i s t o r y of A t l a n t a P r o j e c t , " American A r c h i v i s t 36 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 354; Caplow, 45; Rose, T h e o r y and Method. 52; and P u g l i e s e , 8. 2  4  1  26 ( 5 ) r e l i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s , s u c h as c h u r c h e s , movements and g r o u p s w i t h i n them, and o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i n k i n g them ( f o r example, the I n t e r v a r s i t y C h r i s t i a n F e l l o w s h i p ) , aimed a t p r o m o t i n g r e l i g i o u s dogmas and v a l u e s (6) s e r v i c e a s s o c i a t i o n s committed to i m p r o v i n g the l i v e s o f d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s and p e r s o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n , m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , and c h a r i t y ( 7 ) s e l f - h e l p a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h work t o w a r d s t h e improvement of t h e members' l i v e s ( s u c h as W e i g h t W a t c h e r s and A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous) (8) s o c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s which are concerned w i t h e n t e r t a i n m e n t and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f s h a r e d a c t i v i t i e s ( s u c h as s p o r t s , games, h o b b i e s , the a r t s ) o r s h a r e d p e r s o n a l t r a i t s ( s u c h as e t h n i c o r i g i n or s p e c i a l a b i l i t y ) . The  overlap  can  be  amongst t h e s e  most c l e a r l y  For  Lodges are  oriented  socializing  traditionally  the  voluntary  functions  almost  equally  themselves,  and  i s based  on  the  to p u b l i c  correspond  to  themselves,  archivists.  They r e p r e s e n t  archival  analysis,  that  or  to the  by  those u s u a l l y  and  are  the  secondary  one.  do  voluntary  adopted  by  t y p o l o g y most a p p r o p r i a t e  i s , a functional  the  expressed  categories  the  on  Orange  clearly  on  these  service  However,  central function  those perceived  associations  service  not  considered,  s u c h as  organizations.  w h i c h t h e y a l l have. M o r e o v e r ,  necessarily  are  furthermore,  c o n s t i t u t i o n o f most a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  functions  associations  engage i n p u b l i c  fraternal associations  staunch Protestant  categorization in  organizations  example,  amongst  of  s e e n when s e r v i c e  b e c a u s e most t y p e s o f occasion.  categories  for  not  27 IV A third their  manner i n w h i c h v o l u n t a r y  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  voluntary  associations.  other  organizations,  or opposing,  beneficiary, the  co-operative,  Special consideration  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v o l u n t a r y A p r i m a r y and component  a s s o c i a t i o n and some p a r t  voluntary  organization  a c e r t a i n bank.  components: the  of  would be a s p o r t s  There are three  (such  must be g i v e n  to  and g o v e r n m e n t .  e x i s t between o r between  association within  a  a noni t .  An  team made up o f e m p l o y e e s  d i f f e r e n t types of  as t h e l o c a l  from  branch of a  t h o s e whose members a r e c o m p l e t e l y drawn (such  are  s p o n s o r and  t h o s e whose members a r e c o m p l e t e l y drawn  primary organization club),  of i t s e l f ,  and a v o l u n t a r y  primary organization  party),  associations  r e l a t i o n s h i p may  voluntary  of  other  co-ordinate,  l o b b y i s t and i n s t i t u t i o n ,  and m e r g e r s .  example o f t h e l a t t e r  including  i s in  Seven d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l i n k a g e s  a p p a r e n t : p r i m a r y and component, competitive  associations vary  within  political  from o u t s i d e  the  as t h e l a d i e s a u x i l i a r y o f a men's  and t h o s e whose members a r e b o t h members and non-members  the primary o r g a n i z a t i o n  associated formally  with  a church).  authorized  unauthorized sanctioned  (such  2 5  as a boy s c o u t  A component  may  troupe  o r may  by t h e p r i m a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n ;  n o t be  some  components become f a o t i o n s , whose aims a r e n o t  and a r e p e r h a p s f o r b i d d e n  organization.  2 6  2  5  Warner  2  6  Caplow,  An example o f t h i s  and L u n t , 17.  309-316.  by t h e p r i m a r y i s the group w i t h i n  the  Liberal  Party  the p a r t y  o f Canada w h i c h t r i e d  l e a d e r s h i p i n 1987  Co-operation organization musical Hall  between  i s another  and  to d i s l o d g e John T u r n e r  1988.  a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n and  type  band w h i c h u s e s t h e  of r e l a t i o n s h i p , facilities  through  a co-ordinate  organizations with were d i s c u s s e d different members).  common i n t e r e s t s . in this  o f membership  This relationship  Competitive  and  and  antithetical  t o one  proves  t o be  a vitalizing  Arnold  M.  structure  observed  of c o m p e t i t i o n  and  their  2  7  8  other  Lunt,  the as  co-operation. between  very  similar  of r e l a t i o n s h i p  or  often  associations involved.  tend  t o be  to develop flexible,  more a c t i v e a  significant,  in  complex  and  to  exhibit  voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n s .  is a particularly  Warner and  of  occur  between v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s .  A r n o l d M. o f C o m p e t i t i o n and 2  conflict  t o meet f r e q u e n t l y , t o be  Thus, c o m p e t i t i o n relationship  and  than  associations  t h a t v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s under  g o a l s , more l i k e l y  g r e a t e r group cohesion  from  p h y s i c a l persons  either  f o r c e w i t h i n the  Legion  organizations  r e f e r e n c e to  type  a  members.  of d e l e g a t e s  and  relationships  T h i s type  Canadian  to other  with  o r g a n i z a t i o n s which are  Rose has  the p u r s u i t of  chapter,  is a special  another.  example b e i n g  Co-ordinate  2 7  (juridical  opposing  associations  conditions  linked  another  f o r Legion  a s s o c i a t i o n , composed  earlier  types  be  one  of a Royal  in return for playing regular concerts A v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n may  from  2 8  formative  Political  parties  312.  Rose, " V o l u n t a r y A s s o c i a t i o n s Under C o n f l i c t , " S o c i a l F o r c e s 34 ( 1 9 5 5 ) :  Conditions 159-163.  compete  with  one a n o t h e r  i n order  the p o p u l a t i o n i n a democratic political for  parties  example,  trade with Party  government.  t o have p o l i c i e s  t h e New D e m o c r a t i c  the United  the r i g h t  A t t h e same  time,  w h i c h oppose one a n o t h e r ;  P a r t y o f Canada  States, while  to represent  opposes  the Progressive  free  Conservative  o f Canada s u p p o r t s i t . The  lobbyist-institution  democratic but  tend  to gain  societies,  not n e c e s s a r i l y  acting  as l o b b y i s t  institution  democratic  and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n  -- g o v e r n m e n t . tries  occurs mostly i n involved i s usually  The v o l u n t a r y  to publicly  i n some s p e c i f i c  S u f f r a g e League  relationship  areas.  elections.  Modern  association  influence the p o l i c y F o r example,  l o b b i e d t o g a i n women's r i g h t  —  of the  t h e Women's  to vote i n  f e m i n i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s have l o b b i e d  t h e p u b l i s h e r s o f n e w s p a p e r s , m a g a z i n e s , and s c h o o l t e x t b o o k s t o use  non-sexist The s i x t h  and  another  language i n t h e i r type  o f l i n k a g e between  grant  business  to another  conditions the  a voluntary  organization i s sponsor-beneficiary.  may r e c e i v e some t y p e private  publications.  of grant  or foundation organization.  concerning  from  a government  thrust  these  may g i v e a  T h i s g r a n t may come w i t h  however,  tends  receiving  to support  programmes o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ,  aims and programmes.  provided  body o r a  certain  t h e manner o f i t s u s e , w h i c h c a n compromise  of sponsorship,  aims and s p e c i f i c  An a s s o c i a t i o n  -- o r an a s s o c i a t i o n  independence o f the v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n  main  association  by a t r a d e u n i o n  An example donating  of t h i s  i t . The  the general  not to a l t e r  relationship i s  money and t h e t i m e  of i t s  members t o a c h a r i t y f o r t h e d i s a b l e d .  A sponsorship  as  assistance.  a one-time donation, Mergers,  associations  the f i n a l identified  organizations identities  other  type  o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between  here,  i n v o l v e the j o i n i n g  i n s u c h a c o m p l e t e manner t h a t  are l o s t .  organizations with  o r as l o n g - t e r m  A merger g e n e r a l l y  o f t h e same t y p e ,  voluntary  associations.  Canada and t h e L e a g u e f o r S o c i a l  within has  with  and t h e r e f o r e  government a g e n c i e s  association.  A l l types  occur  a voluntary  between  common b e i n g  pressure social pass. out  policy". of  i s the P a r t y of  influential  organization  a voluntary  t o have g r e a t  association  impact  a s s o c i a t i o n and g o v e r n m e n t , t h e most and  t h a t many v o l u n t a r y  The N a t i o n a l  "sponsor-beneficiary".  a s s o c i a t i o n s a c t as  are lobbying  Advisory  a c t i o n "permits  The A d v i s o r y  interaction  occurs  Council  on V o l u n t a r y  many C a n a d i a n s  states that  9  Rose, T h e o r y and Method.  3  0  National  Advisory  67-70.  Council,  29.  Action  points  ... t o e x e r c i s e  and e x e c u t i o n  i n the form of g r a n t s ,  2  of the  f o r g e n e r a l l y do come t o  Council  i n f l u e n c e on t h e f o r m u l a t i o n 3 0  on t h e  " m e r g e r s " can  g r o u p s upon g o v e r n m e n t , and t h a t some measure  that voluntary  a direct  a s s o c i a t i o n s merge  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s except  changes which they  2 9  two  Reconstruction.  "lobbyist-institution"  Rose has o b s e r v e d  independent  the S o c i a l i s t  the l i n k s  tend  voluntary  An example o f t h i s  i s t h e most p e r v a s i v e ,  a nation,  involves  occur  o f two o r more  their  thus v o l u n t a r y  CCF, w h i c h grew o u t o f a merger between  Government  may  of p u b l i c  the other payments,  main and  type  31 support  services  voluntary  which the government p r o v i d e s  associations.  government a i d i s used association. voluntary  force  A c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e  often  becomes an o n e r o u s d u t y  f o r the  F u r t h e r m o r e , g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c i e s n o t aimed a t  3 2  associations  associations;  3 1  f o r assorted  3 3  have an i n d i r e c t e f f e c t upon t h e  f o r example a m u n i c i p a l  an a s s o c i a t i o n  t o move  its office  r e - z o n i n g by-law  may  to a d i f f e r e n t part of  town. Armed w i t h  some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  associations,  their  organizations  in society,  keeping p r a c t i c e s preserving  life  cycle,  3  1  Ibid.,  153-155.  3  2  I b i d . , 161.  3  3  I b i d . , 159.  of  voluntary  and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h  we a r e r e a d y t o c o n s i d e r  and t h e manner  the archives  of the nature  their  other records-  i n which a r c h i v i s t s approach  which r e s u l t .  CHAPTER  TWO  ARCHIVES AND VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS  I The  records-keeping practices  received  little  Archivists large  attention  International  those of businesses about  the records  possessing Ellen activist  minimal s t a f f Starr Brinton,  associations,  who c a r e s  has o b s e r v e d  eccentric  are created  the archives  keeping reason  small  by t h e m ;  2  of a f f a i r s  the resources  less  and  o f peace  attention  R o t h , who  concurs:  "poor  associations"  may be t h a t  i s paid  therefore  Darlene  o f women's a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  f o r this state lack  s i m i l a r to  resources.  little  organizations,  seems t o be endemic t o v o l u n t a r y  associations  systems of v e r y  f o r the records that  1  associations  and r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g  i n these  archives  scholars.  and g o v e r n m e n t s , b u t t h e y know much  o f t h e more t y p i c a l  have  s u c h as t h e  w h i c h have b u r e a u c r a c i e s  to r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g  with  of the records  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , Red C r o s s ,  associations  f r o m a r c h i v i s t s and o t h e r  have some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  national  of voluntary  3  works record-  One  voluntary  t o h i r e an a r c h i v i s t o r  records  The s c h o l a r l y l i t e r a t u r e d e a l t w i t h h e r e i s m a i n l y C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e , w i t h some B r i t i s h and t r a n s l a t i o n s o f f o r e i g n - l a n g u a g e w r i t i n g s as w e l l . 1  E l l e n S t a r r B r i n t o n , " A r c h i v e s o f C a u s e s and Movements: D i f f i c u l t i e s and Some S o l u t i o n s a s I l l u s t r a t e d by t h e Swarthmore C o l l e g e P e a c e C o l l e c t i o n , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 14 ( 1 9 5 1 ) : 148. 2  3  R o t h , 38.  32  33 manager. not  4  create  specialized before for  Another  i s that  a great  many r e c o r d s ,  filing  old files  them.  6  small  financial  many o t h e r association  never b o t h e r i n g  files  causal  recorded, and l e g a l  organizations. which  7  8  t h e y do  to devise a  long periods  i n storage  to pass  I t i s common  5  rather  than  f a c t o r s f o r t h e r e l a t i v e l y low  out o r a l l y  ( i n person  and t h a t v o l u n t a r y  within a  or over t h e  a s s o c i a t i o n s have  incentives to preserve  records  t h a n do  F u r t h e r m o r e , when t h e e x e c u t i v e  lacks o f f i c e  t h e homes o f t h e p r e v i o u s  space changes,  executive  new one, and many l o s s e s a r e s u s t a i n e d 4  that  a r e t h a t much o f t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n  association i scarried  fewer  so s m a l l  and f r e s h ones o p e n e d .  older  Two o t h e r  p h o n e ) and n e v e r  are often  and a l l o w i n g v e r y  are closed  volume o f r e c o r d s  in  system,  associations to place  destroy  they  the records  o f an  stored  move t o t h e homes o f t h e through  this  process.  9  R o t h , 38.  R o b e r t B a l l e n t i n e , " R e c o r d s and A r c h i v e s o f t h e P r o f e s s i o n s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 29 ( 1 9 6 6 ) : 192. 5  8  I b i d . : 192.  E v a M o s l e y , "Women i n A r c h i v e s : D o c u m e n t i n g t h e H i s t o r y o f Women i n A m e r i c a , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 36 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 219. 7  8  Struggle  Nancy S t u n d e n , " L a b o u r , R e c o r d s , and A r c h i v e s : t h e f o r a H e r i t a g e , " A r c h i v a r i a 4 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 85.  B a l l e n t i n e , 194; R o t h , 38. R o t h t e l l s t h e f o l l o w i n g amusing anecdote showing a w o r s t - c a s e s c e n a r i o : One r a t h e r humorous example o f t h i s p r o c e s s i s a woman's c l u b w h i c h r e p u t e d l y c a r r i e s a l o c k e d , f o u r drawer, f i l i n g c a b i n e t o f c l u b " r e c o r d s " a l o n g w i t h t h e r e s t o f i t s p r e s i d e n t i a l baggage. The c a b i n e t , w h i c h r e q u i r e s two men t o move i t , h a s gone f r o m c h i e f o f f i c i a l t o c h i e f o f f i c i a l f o r y e a r s . No one knows what i s i n s i d e , b e c a u s e no one h a s t h e k e y . 9  The  possibilities  under normal c i r c u m s t a n c e s  disaster,  and m i s p l a c e m e n t  are multiplied  different  persons  f o r the records  locations.  Michael  1 0  structures,  who  care  Lutzker  conflicting  by t h e number o f in different  has observed  policies,  for deterioration,  that  informal  and o u t s i d e f o r c e s a f f e c t t h e  archival  records  o f any o r g a n i z a t i o n ;  negative  i n f l u e n c e s on t h e r e c o r d s  these  1 1  of a small  f o r c e s c a n become voluntary  association. Another problem voluntary  i s presented  a s s o c i a t i o n s to care  by t h e i n c a p a b i l i t y o f  for their  own  records  once  become i n a c t i v e .  I f an a s s o c i a t i o n i s l a r g e , s t a b l e , and  administratively  complex,  well,  f o r example,  Newfoundland storage records.  tends  officers  archivist  to care  0  very  for i t s archival  t o be a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l levels  circulating  of the a s s o c i a t i o n .  and s p l i t 1 2  current business  only,  with  among t h e  A more t y p i c a l i t s records  o f Women C o u n c i l , whose s t a f f  t o o busy d e a l i n g w i t h  1  records  a s s o c i a t i o n has an  t h e way a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n t r e a t s  John's Status far  a part-time  at a l l other  different of  this  i t s own  has s e t a s i d e a few rooms f o r r e c o r d s  However, even when a l a r g e r  archivist, records  handle  the A s s o c i a t i o n of Registered Nurses of  and L a b r a d o r  and h i r e d  i t may  these  example  i s the S t .  and v o l u n t e e r s a r e to sort  through  R o t h , 38.  M i c h a e l A. L u t z k e r , "Max Weber and t h e A n a l y s i s o f Modern B u r e a u c r a t i c O r g a n i z a t i o n : N o t e s Toward a T h e o r y o f A p p r a i s a l , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 45 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 126, 129. 1  1  1  2  R o t h : 38.  their  35 files,  even  though they  Many o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  wish to preserve  including voluntary  arrangements f o r r e c o r d s records  o f immediate v a l u e  In summary, be  preservation to their  the a r c h i v e s  their  own h i s t o r y .  a s s o c i a t i o n s , have no  at a l l ,  current  of voluntary  and r e t a i n activity.  The a c q u i s i t i o n  1 5  repositories  happen.  to preserve  In f a c t ,  them, and t h i s  than  movement value  to research,  [and o t h e r  out, " l i k e  i s not very  1 7  from  ever to  a s s o c i a t i o n must  others  take  l i k e l y to  oriented  voluntary  to action  1 8  a s s o c i a t i o n s ] a r e n o t aware o f t h e Even t h e o f f i c i a l s  i n charge  t o e s t a b l i s h some measure o f p r e s e r v a t i o n  records.  them  many p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e women's  of keeping p a p e r s " .  trouble  of saving  voluntary, a s s o c i a t i o n s are a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d  as E v a M o s l e y p o i n t s  rather  their  f o r i t s archives  an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y , a v o l u n t a r y  some s t e p s  and,  But i n order  1 4  a r c h i v e s by a r c h i v a l  seems t o be t h e o n l y p o s s i b i l i t y  complete d e s t r u c t i o n . reach  of those  only the  a s s o c i a t i o n s tend t o  " u n p r o c e s s e d , u n i d e n t i f i e d , and u n c o l l e c t e d " by  creators.  1 3  When an a s s o c i a t i o n d i s b a n d s ,  seldom  for their  i t s archives are  T h e s e e x a m p l e s a r e drawn f r o m r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d by t h e a u t h o r o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r t h e A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on t h e S t a t u s o f Women, M a y - J u l y 1987. 1  3  L a r r y Hackman and J o a n Warnow-Blewett, "The D o c u m e n t a t i o n S t r a t e g y P r o c e s s : a M o d e l and a C a s e S t u d y , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 50 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : 16. 1  4  1  5  Ibid.  1  8  M o s l e y , 29.  1  7  L e s t e r J . Cappon, 39 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 432.  Archivist  "The A r c h i v i s t  as C o l l e c t o r , " American  36 usually  soon  represented Ham w i t h  lost,  i n the expression  reference  When t h e c h o i c e made, t h i s  s c a t t e r e d , and d e s t r o y e d ,  to the records  to preserve  choice  "instant  of d e f u n c t Thus,  literature  the i n i t a t i v e  1 8  of t h i s  personal decision,  of the a s s o c i a t i o n . when he n o t e s  Lester  1 8  that the records  among p e r s o n a l  papers.  actively  engaged  The q u e s t i o n  i n a c q u i r i n g these  records?  II A study  of a r c h i v a l  acquisition  associations divides naturally acquisition nature  of e x i s t i n g  into  of the records three areas  of voluntary  of  concern:  actual acquisition  practices,  and t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  archivists  and t h e  policies,  members o f v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s .  Gerald 14 ( 1 9 7 5 ) : 9. 1  8  F. Ham,  "The A r c h i v a l  Edge," A m e r i c a n  Archivist  S a r a h C o o p e r , "The P o l i t i c s o f P r o t e s t C o l l e c t i o n s : D e v e l o p i n g S o c i a l A c t i o n A r c h i v e s , " P r o v e n a n c e 5:1 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : 10. 1 9  2  0  Cappon, 432.  2 0  f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of v o l u n t a r y  r e c o r d s must come f r o m t h e a r c h i v i s t .  are a r c h i v i s t s  by G e r a l d  on t h e s u b j e c t  an i n d i v i d u a l ,  o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e o f t e n found  associations' is,  evidence  a r c h i v e s " used  of voluntary a s s o c i a t i o n s .  ( o r so t h e s c a n t  made by one member  Cappon p r e s e n t s  well  an a s s o c i a t i o n ' s a r c h i v e s a c t u a l l y i s  i n d i c a t e s ) u s u a l l y d e r i v e s from independently  a reality  37 Acquisition  Policies  Although acquisition thought  i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed  policy  f o r an a r c h i v a l  o u t and c l e a r l y  to operate otherwise  inadequate.  significant  2 1  r e p o s i t o r y should  articulated,  under p o l i c i e s  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  be w e l l  many r e p o s i t o r i e s c o n t i n u e  w h i c h a r e vague, unmanageably b r o a d , o r The r e s u l t  i s t h a t t h e a r c h i v e s o f many  organizations p e r i s h before  o f an a r c h i v a l  that the  repository.  reaching  Furthermore,  the safe  i n the past  haven  fifteen  years  archivists  o f most r e p o s i t o r i e s have been f o r c e d t o c u r t a i l  their  collecting  h a b i t s , by e i t h e r  realization  that  institutions they  the ongoing  and t h e e x i s t i n g  can a d e q u a t e l y  perform.  a s s o c i a t i o n s which reach circumstances trend  negative  t r a n s f e r s of t h e i r holdings  provide  The r e c o r d s  archival  do so by u n s o l i c i t e d  in society during  economic c o n s t r a i n t s or t h e sponsoring a s much work a s  of v o l u n t a r y  r e p o s i t o r i e s under donation.  2 2  A  these  conservative  t h e same p e r i o d may a l s o have had a  i n f l u e n c e on a c q u i s i t i o n ,  especially  with  regard  to the  Among t h e c r i t i c s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s a r e Susan G r i g g , "A W o r l d o f R e p o s i t o r i e s , a World o f R e c o r d s : R e d e f i n i n g t h e Scope o f a N a t i o n a l S u b j e c t C o l l e c t i o n , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 48 ( 1 9 8 5 ) : 291 and Mary Lynn McCree, "Good Sense and Good Judgement: D e f i n i n g C o l l e c t i o n s and C o l l e c t i n g , " D r e x e l L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y 11 ( J a n u a r y 1975); r p t . i n A M o d e r n A r c h i v e s R e a d e r . e d s . Maygene F. D a n i e l s and T i m o t h y Walch, (Washington: N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s T r u s t Fund B o a r d , 1984), 104. 2  1  The a u t h o r o f t h i s t h e s i s has o b s e r v e d t h i s p r a c t i c e o f p a s s i v e r e c e i p t of such r e c o r d s a t the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of N e w f o u n d l a n d and L a b r a d o r and t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Nova S c o t i a , and been t o l d a b o u t i t a t t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . Ernst P o s n e r has n o t e d t h a t many A m e r i c a n s t a t e a r c h i v e s have a longstanding p r a c t i c e of p a s s i v e l y a c c e p t i n g p r i v a t e papers but n o t a c t i v e l y s e e k i n g them, i n h i s A m e r i c a n S t a t e A r c h i v e s ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1964), 346. 2  2  r e c o r d s of  political  established the  activist  systems of  society:  archival profession  "skewing the  study of  unrepresentative archivists  Archivists, upon the  taken  the  Examples are  the  of  Schlesinger  the  the  point  of  of  culture"  i s e c h o e d by  other  concerned  p e r h a p s one  may  either  say,  at  and  the  broadly  generally  such  which  2 4  of  the  the  Arthur  Women i n  might  repositories. by  the  papers of  Swedish P i o n e e r A r c h i v e s ;  History  --  mandated  associations  Archives;  s u f f r a g i s t movement a t the  archival  special-subject  of v o l u n t a r y  Library  acting  "mainstream"  of J e w i s h c h a r i t i e s p r e s e r v e d  Society  on  persons  h o l d i n g s of  have been c o l l e c t e d by  Library  to  that  preservation  emphases w i t h i n  records  Swedish E n g i n e e r s  Colman's comment  studied  other  —  establishing  Montreal Jewish P u b l i c  archives  and  Many r e c o r d s lost  P.  the  2 3  subject  o t h e r w i s e be  the  that  of gaps i n the  t a c k of  repositories.  by  of  have f r e q u e n t l y  r e p o s i t o r i e s or  Gould  become p o l i t i c i z e d  culture  scholars,  problem  repositories  has  indicators  in p r i n t .  groups which c h a l l e n g e  and  2 5  the the  Elizabeth  America";  2 6  G o u l d P. Colman, l e t t e r t o "The Forum: C o m m u n i c a t i o n s f r o m Members" A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 36 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 484; P a t r i c k M. Q u i n n , " A r c h i v i s t s A g a i n s t t h e C u r r e n t : f o r a f a i r and truly r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e c o r d o f our t i m e s . " P r o v e n a n c e 5:1 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : 3; C o o p e r : 8-16; Howard Z i n n , " S e c r e c y , A r c h i v e s , and t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t , " M i d w e s t e r n A r c h i v i s t 2 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 14-26. 2  3  2  4  Public 2  E v e l y n M i l l e r , "The H i s t o r y o f t h e M o n t r e a l J e w i s h L i b r a r y and A r c h i v e s , " C a n a d i a n A r c h i v i s t 2 ( 1 9 7 0 ) : 52.  5  Illinois 2  6  W e s l e y M. W e s t e r b e r g , "The L i b r a r i e s 63 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 298. Mosley:  216.  Swedish P i o n e e r  Archives,"  39 records  of p a c i f i s t  Collection; University  union  2 7  a s s o c i a t i o n s a t t h e Swarthmore C o l l e g e files  of B r i t i s h  i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s at the  Columbia,  and t h e A r c h i v e s  Urban A f f a i r s  a t Wayne S t a t e  are  a l l o v e r Canada and t h e U n i t e d  scattered  unlimited The help not  jurisdictions  University.  within  acquisition policies  preserve solve  the archives  the problem  their  of widespread  foundations.  Their  responsibility neatly  records  main f a i l i n g  a "relevant"  mentioned  neglect  their  f o r example.  c r e a t i n g documentation,  of these  being  of organizations subject  Furthermore,  using  records,  oriented to  t h e y do n o t t a k e  heading.  above would be l i k e l y  interest i n a subject  and c l a i m  upon f a u l t y t h e o r e t i c a l  i s that,  o f t h e End L e g i s l a t e d P o v e r t y  Columbia,  States,  a s s o c i a t i o n s , b u t t h e y do  to c r e a t i n g agencies,  f o r the records  f i t under  repositories  by  than  These r e p o s i t o r i e s  2 8  subjects.  of voluntary  r e p o s i t o r i e s are b u i l t  rather  o f L a b o u r and  of s p e c i a l - s u b j e c t r e p o s i t o r i e s  because these  subjects  w h i c h do n o t None o f t h e  t o seek out the  C o a l i t i o n of B r i t i s h these  r e p o s i t o r i e s are l e d  i n t o the dangerous quicksands of s u c h methods as o r a l  history.  2  7  Brinton:  2  8  R i c h a r d K e s n e r , " L a b o r U n i o n G r i e v a n c e R e c o r d s : An S t r a t e g y , " A r c h i v a r i a 8 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 102-114.  Appraisal  Peace  2 9  147-153.  O r a l h i s t o r y i s p r a c t i c e d a t the Western J e w i s h A r c h i v e s o f C a n a d a [ A . J . A r n o l d , "The B i r t h and D e v e l o p m e n t o f a W e s t e r n J e w i s h A r c h i v e s Program," Canadian A r c h i v i s t 2 (1972): 2 6 ] , t h e Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y A r c h i v e s o f L a b o r and Urban A f f a i r s [ P h i l i p P. Mason, "Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y : t h e A r c h i v e s o f L a b o r and Urban A f f a i r s , " A r c h i v a r i a 4 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 1 3 7 ] , and t h e M o n t r e a l J e w i s h P u b l i c L i b r a r y and A r c h i v e s [ E v e l y n M i l l e r : 5 3 ] , among o t h e r s . 2  9  40 Archival as  repositories  some would  accessible  archival by  document a r e  not  institutions, " p r o m i n e n t and  do  not  archival  to  notable"  answer s o c i e t y ' s  The types of theory  the  as  organizations In  3 1  do  p e r s o n s and  need  than for  and  sources, making  h i s t o r i e s prepared  the  of  archival  towards the  organizations, 33  to  special-  majority  "movements".  or  they wish  addition,  their acquisitions  rather  historical  about p r e s e r v i n g  records.  tend, j u s t  weight  creating  Oral  3 0  a r c h i v i s t s about  individuals  voluntary  about  rather  records.  repositories  document  not  have i t , but  commissioned  subject  are  papers  and  3 2  to  Therefore,  adequate documentation  of  they  of  associations. crux of  the  archival  of  repositories  acquisition  developed.  As  problem with  Larry  on  the  acquisition  lies  basis  Hackman and  i n the of  p o l i c i e s of a l l  lack  of  an  established  w h i c h s t a n d a r d s can  be  J o a n Warnow-Blewett p u t i t ,  L i t e r a t u r e on e s t a b l i s h i n g a sound a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y i s among t h e s k i m p i e s t a r e a s w i t h i n a r c h i v a l w r i t i n g . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n , t o f i n d c o m p e t i t i o n and d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t i n many f u n c t i o n a l and subject B r i t i s h a r c h i v i s t S i r H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n has s t a t e d that " a r c h i v e s a r e n o t drawn up i n t h e i n t e r e s t or f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n of P o s t e r i t y " ; h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the p r i m a r y d u t i e s of the a r c h i v i s t i s a l s o r e l e v a n t here. See H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n , A Manual of A r c h i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( L o n d o n : P e r c y Lund, Humphries & Co., 1965), 11-15. 3  0  T h a t i s t o say, o r a l h i s t o r i e s a r e n o t a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s o f t h e a g e n c i e s t h e m s e l v e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y may be a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s o f a r e p o s i t o r y i f t h e y have been c r e a t e d as p a r t o f a p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y s u c h as p r o d u c i n g an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e history. 3 1  L i n d a J . Henry, " C o l l e c t i n g P o l i c i e s o f R e p o s i t o r i e s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 43 ( 1 9 8 0 ) : 57. 3  2  3  3  Zinn:  21.  Special-Subject  41 a r e a s and l i t t l e o r no e f f o r t i n o t h e r s , even i n r e g i o n s w i t h numerous c o l l e c t i n g p r o g r a m s . 3 4  Acquisition Not  Praotioea  much has been w r i t t e n  acquiring  the records  concerning  of voluntary  numerous comments and c r i t i c i s m s practices records  in general.  of organizations  "defunct  organizations"  among t h e p e r s o n a l organizations unwilling  practice  the  papers of t h e i r  archives.  of allowing  undesirable  Cappon s p e a k s o f t h e s e a r c h  can be even h a r d e r  and engage  have been made a b o u t a c q u i s i t i o n  3 5  members;  to acquire  practices  appearing  Gerald  F. Ham  the records  i t makes " t h e a r c h i v i s t  has been a l a s t i n g Frederic Miller  have l o n g d e r i v e d  and e c o n o m i c  3 6  living  own  with  there  is a  a repository to  too c l o s e l y t i e d to This  i n f l u e n c e by  phenomenon i n a r c h i v a l s t a t e s t h a t , because a r c h i v a l  from n i n e t e e n t h  institutions  century  and t h e l i v e s  3  4  Hackman and Warnow-Blewett: 15.  3  5  Cappon: 432.  3  8  Ham:  329.  of  as o f f i c i a l s a r e  historical  m e t h o d o l o g y and emphases, a c q u i s i t i o n has been f o c u s s e d political  of  by c h a n c e  observes that  historians associated  f o r the  i n much o f i t s a c t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n , w h i c h i s  because  repositories;  the records  them o r e s t a b l i s h t h e i r  vogue o f t h e a c a d e m i c m a r k e t p l a c e . "  historians  task:  are e l u s i v e , often  from  approach to  a s s o c i a t i o n s per se, although  as a d i f f i c u l t  to either part  institutional  direct  Lester  archivists'  upon  of prominent  persons.  A c t u a l methods o f a c q u i s i t i o n  3 7  discussed, singled  except  out  f o r the  records  gather  used  by  archivists,  i n f o r m a t i o n about  immediate  custody."  tool  to achieve  and  used  disposition  relevance subject  area  from  papers not  s t a t e s t h a t the  the  records  a r e a so  three generations century  as  therefore  "a  be  in  records  others  to  their survey  is a  scheduling  in a subject  the  of r e c o r d s (the second  surveys and  ( o f most  i n the  third  from  the  1940's onwards; and  in a 3 9  There  United  occurring in  Administration's  records  a  or  acquisitions.  1930's D e p r e s s i o n ,  u s e f u l r e p o r t s on  or  Historical  which p r o v i d e d across  a wave o f s m a l l - s c a l e p r o j e c t s o c c u r r i n g i n another  systematic  of v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s  to plan  t h e Works P r o g r e s s  many l a s t i n g l y  one  and  towards a p u b l i s h e d g u i d e ,  Records Survey d u r i n g  States;  as  r e c o r d s managers, and  at v a r i o u s r e p o s i t o r i e s  States during this  and  survey  a larger goal, t h i s goal being  here) surveying  C a n a d a as w e l l ) :  records  records  He  3 8  or g e o g r a p h i c a l  have been  which w i l l  w i t h i n a r e c o r d s management programme, a m a s s i n g  census of h o l d i n g s geographical  little  here.  John F l e c k n e r d e f i n e s t h e procedure  survey,  have been  the  jobs  United  isolation  most r e c e n t l y , a  F r e d e r i c M. M i l l e r , " S o c i a l H i s t o r y and A r c h i v a l P r a c t i c e , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 44 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 113. M i l l e r argues t h a t t h e new i n f l u e n c e on a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n s h o u l d be s o c i a l h i s t o r y , m i s s i n g t h e r e a l p o i n t t h a t a r c h i v i s t s engaged i n a c q u i s i t i o n s h o u l d eschew t h e i n f l u e n c e o f h i s t o r i a n s a l t o g e t h e r . 3  7  3  8  Surveys 3  9  J o h n A. F l e c k n e r , " R e a c h i n g Out: t h e P l a c e i n A r c h i v a l P r a c t i c e , " Midwestern A r c h i v i s t Ibid.,  16.  of Records 2 (1977): 16.  43 series  of c o o p e r a t i v e  designed surveys  so  as  projects  i n t e n s i v e l y planned  to produce optimal  have become so p o p u l a r  to p o i n t  out  acquisition  that  they  process,  are  not  results.  that  i t has  a "logistical  an  acquisition  In  4 0  device", strategy  most commonly use  questionnaires  interviews,  a l s o form  and  At  least  one  records  associations: Archivists distributed  survey  between  committee and  letters  1962  has and  analysed  and  Voluntary  Archivists to v o l u n t a r y nurturers contact  continued  4  for  0  the 4  1  as the  this  in  in  Ham  the  themselves.  and  4 1  personal  at  4 2  voluntary  American  a r c h i v e s of concerning  professions the  records  4 3  in their  neglectors.  As  literature  as  c o n t r a s t i n g ways, t h a t nurturers,  a s s o c i a t i o n s they throughout  own  archivists  deemed s i g n i f i c a n t , the  life  of  J o h n A. F l e c k n e r , " R e c o r d s S u r v e y s : A r c h i v i s t , " 42 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 293-294. Ham:  a step  for  advertisements.  a S o c i e t y of the  records  Associations  presented  contact  journal  a questionnaire  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n two  and  with  are  fact,  aimed d i r e c t l y  1966,  concerned with  of p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s .  Archivists  been  carefully  been n e c e s s a r y  Records surveys but  and  relating i s , as  have made and  the a s s o c i a t i o n s , a Multi-Purpose  Tool  326.  T h e s e methods a r e d i s c u s s e d by P h i l i p N. A l e x a n d e r and H e l e n W. Samuels, "The R o o t s o f 128: A H y p o t h e t i c a l D o c u m e n t a t i o n S t r a t e g y , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 50 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : 529; B a l l e n t i n e : 187; R i c h a r d Kesner, " A r c h i v a l C o l l e c t i o n Development: B u i l d i n g a S u c c e s s f u l A c q u i s i t i o n s P r o g r a m , " Modern A r c h i v e s R e a d e r : 117; and Somers e t a l . : 354. 4  2  4  3  B a l l e n t i n e : 187-195.  thereby  ensuring  records  which  initiated  and  "probably  contacts  dissolved." exist  p e r i o d i c and  before  between L i n d a  Henry of  activist  associations.  groups,  the  and  assistance very  directly  several others  the  discuss  Ham:  quietly  of r e l a t i o n s h i p  between S a r a h Sherman o f  between E l l e n and  favour  see  numerous p e a c e  as  has  for their  about p u b l i c  the  activist the  this  can  be  in  political  Warnow-Blewett  as  few  a s s o c i a t i o n s i s an records;  a  provided  to s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s  voluntary  of  acknowledges  Hackman and  4 6  several  r e c e i v e from a r c h i v i s t s  this neglect  corrected.  and  the  Starr Brinton  archivists  a r c h i v a l community  amount w r i t t e n  4  not  had  L i b r a r y at R a d c l i f f e  t h a t a r c h i v a l j o u r n a l s have so  l a c k of concern  4  and  groups they  or g u i d e l i n e s  fact  i f we  type  Schlesinger  each of these  p r o b l e m w h i c h must be observe that  of  organizations  nurturant  Peace C o l l e c t i o n  But  4 5  which the  general,  the  today  f r o m them  U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y Women's C o l l e c t i o n  Swarthmore C o l l e g e  neglect  donations  exist  many o f  many women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  feminist  vast  would n o t  Examples of t h i s  4 4  Northwestern  The  final  no  long-term these.  articles  indication contrasted  4 7  which of to  the the  records.  331.  H e n r y : 61; S a r a h Sherman, "A C a s e S t u d y : The A r c h i v i s t as A c t i v i s t a t t h e N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y ' s Women's C o l l e c t i o n , " P r o v e n a n c e 5 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : 33; B r i n t o n : 149. 4  5  4  6  Quinn, 4  7  See t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d and Z i n n . Hackman and  articles  Warnow-Blewett:  by  16-17.  Colman,  Cooper,  45 It  appears that  acquisition  archivists  policies, practices,  associations  and most o t h e r  criticize  them and s u g g e s t  generally  ideas  realm  little  of a r c h i v a l  necessary  i n order  organizations,  associations,  will  be examined  to  i n the  to a theory of a c q u i s i t i o n i s approach to the  and t h i s s h o u l d Therefore,  from  voluntary  which belong  t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e  of s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s .  acquisition  with  These a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e  as y e t ,  Recourse  their  and t h e n u s u a l l y  alternatives.  to define  about  or r e l a t i o n s h i p s  implemented  theory.  records of voluntary analysis  seldom w r i t e  these  a theoretical  p r e c e d e any ideas  point  about  of view.  Ill An  archival  acquisition: institution large The  (generally  Different  engages i n two t y p e s o f  the archives  of i t s sponsoring  a government, a p u b l i c  i s referred  i n s t i t u t i o n , or a  the archives  of other  approaches are necessary  because t r a n s f e r r i n g  records  custody  different  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  of the Canadian M i n i s t r y  ( a s when t h e  o f D e f e n c e come  into  of t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f Canada) i s a v e r y  matter  organization  acquisition.  f o r t h e two t y p e s  f r o m one o f f i c e o f an i n s t i t u t i o n t o a n o t h e r  inactive  bodies.  t o as " i n s t i t u t i o n a l "  t h e l a t t e r as " n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l "  theoretical  acquisition  records  the  and  potentially  and i t may a c q u i r e  situation  acquisition,  of  i t may a c q u i r e  business),  former  repository  from s o l i c i t i n g  w h i c h has no f o r m a l  when t h e U n i v e r s i t y  and a c q u i r i n g  the records  t i e s with the r e p o s i t o r y  of B r i t i s h Columbia  Special  o f an  (as  Collections  acquired  the  archives  of Canada). sponsor  Most v o l u n t a r y  their  preservation  own of  institutional a small  to c a r e f u l l y  should aim  be  especially  shared  archivists'  as  Sam  ignored,  reflected  and  archivist  that  immediate  acquisition.  to.  the  addressed and  by  proposals  Mary Lynn  and  a  sentiments Cappon  history for collect  records  historical  needs.  t h a t modern  influence archivists'  McCree  i s to c r e a t e  Lester  4 8  a knowledge o f  acquisition  clientele,  scholar";  rewrites  appreciate  stance  non-  i s , r e p o s i t o r i e s should  Bass W a r n e r .  therefore  in Frederic M i l l e r ' s  h i s t o r i o g r a p h y should  informs  each g e n e r a t i o n  planning  form of  archival acquisition  which t h e i r  that  to  principles.  "primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  F r a n k B u r k e and  what an  i n the  from s t r a y i d e a s  patron-oriented,  so d o e s e a c h g e n e r a t i o n  hitherto is  ranging  records  resources  problems of which are  thought p o s i t s that  those  suggests that j u s t itself,  only  m e t h o d o l o g i e s and  body o f m a t e r i a l s  by  occurs  the  Federation  therefore archival  h i s t o r i a n s , w i s h t o have a c c e s s  that  focussed  of  Commonwealth  a s s o c i a t i o n s l a c k the  records  literature  entirely  to acquire  states  their  considered  school  Cooperative  r e p o s i t o r i e s , and  acquisition,  body o f  One  of the  A l l this  trends is  social  approach  to  4 9  McCree: 105; F r a n k G. B u r k e , commentary on "The A r c h i v i s t ' s F i r s t R e s p o n s i b i l i t y : A R e s e a r c h Agenda t o Improve t h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and R e t e n t i o n o f R e c o r d s o f E n d u r i n g Value," by R i c h a r d J . Cox and H e l e n W. Samuels, i n A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 51 ( 1 9 8 8 ) : 49; Sam B a s s Warner, "The Shame o f t h e C i t i e s : P u b l i c R e c o r d s o f t h e M e t r o p o l i s , " M i d w e s t e r n A r c h i v i s t 2:2 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 29. 4  8  4  9  Cappon: 429;  F r e d e r i c M.  Miller:  113-124.  There are  two  about  acquisition.  would  have t o be  fashions  major problems w i t h Firstly,  types  and  focusses  w h i c h c o - e x i s t ; a whole new e a c h new  records  trend  assumption  responsibility theorist  of  reflecting  research,  of r e s e a r c h e r s ,  comes a l o n g . that  survive The  archivist.  S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson  the  i s the  a s s e r t s t h a t the  t h a t making them a c c e s s i b l e t o r e s e a r c h e r s  restated;  the  archivist  towards r e c o r d s will  and  and  archives  objective record  0  a promising  suggestions  "collecting  5  primary duty  i n h i s or is a  her  i n the  of  of  patrons.  long  run,  society will i n the  advice.  be  secondary can  be policy  Researchers  b e c a u s e a more preserved.  literature  Richard  of  care,  or h i s a c q u i s i t i o n  r e c o r d s - c r e a t o r s , not  focus",  Jenkinson,  title,  but  do  not  Kesner's " A r c h i v a l  is a disappointing  about d e v e l o p i n g  conducting  15.  a  a records  in  prominent  Development: B u i l d i n g a S u c c e s s f u l A c q u i s i t i o n s  Program" has practical  lies  must o r i e n t h e r  much beyond p i e c e s  Collection  right  this principle  Many d i s c u s s i o n s o f a c q u i s i t i o n venture  the  to a c q u i s i t i o n ,  b e n e f i t from such a p o l i c y  complete  needed  main  contrary,  and  With r e f e r e n c e  otherwise,  would be  i n limbo u n t i l  archivist  5 0  a l l the  second, deeper problem  On  the  the  even s u p p o s i n g a l l t h e  the  duty.  i s to safeguard  as  policies  s c h o l a r l y or  s e r v i c e to r e s e a r c h e r s  the  often  wave o f a c q u i s i t i o n  f o r a l l h i s t o r y would  scholarly the  generation  c h a n g i n g as  never  of  thinking  resultant acquisition  overly flexible,  of s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h ,  different  for  the  t h i s manner o f  list  subject-based survey,  avoiding  of  48 competition transfer  with  other  of ownership  r e p o s i t o r i e s , doing forms,  and s o o n .  5 1  fieldwork, Mary Lynn  using  legal  McCree's  "Good Sense and Good Judgement: D e f i n i n g C o l l e c t i o n s and Collecting" repository area,  i s very should  but r a t h e r  similar,  although  n o t attempt exchange  i t s guiding  complete  information  and m i c r o f i l m s  i s q u i t e new i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n  theoretically  sound.  ideas  in hisarticle  proposals:  that  Gerald  Ham p r e s e n t s  archivists  t h e o r i e s be d e v e l o p e d  broader take  research But theory,  because  range o f r e c o r d s  i s preserved,  i n themselves.  suggestion  that,  in  archivists  should  si  Kesner:  5  McCree, 109.  2  man".  and i s  interesting four (not a  acquisition precede  be r e a l l o c a t e d so t h a t a and t h a t  the a r c h i v i s t and "become t h e  53  a r e g e n e r a l i t i e s l a y i n g a groundwork f o r  John F l e c k n e r ' s acquisition,  that better  resources  other  one a n o t h e r  f o r h i s ( s i c ) demanding r o l e  proposals  not theory  some more  " c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n must  community's R e n a i s s a n c e these  literature  c o o p e r a t e more w i t h  that c o l l e c t i n g  responsibility  with  "The A r c h i v a l Edge", where he makes  new i d e a b u t one w o r t h r e i t e r a t i n g ) ,  collection",  that a  coverage of a subject  repositories,  5 2  idea  Slightly  more s u b s t a n t i a l i s  i n t a k i n g a more " v i g o r o u s  role"  s e e k knowledge o f t h e " u n i v e r s e  114-123.  Ham: 12-13. However, Ham's i d e a s a r e n o t a l l a c c e p t a b l e in the l i g h t of a r c h i v a l theory; s e v e r a l statements i n h i s a r t i c l e show t h a t he t h i n k s o f a r c h i v e s i n t e r m s o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e a r c h i v i s t must g a t h e r f r o m a l l s o c i e t y , r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r m s o f t h e r e c o r d s w h i c h t h e a r c h i v i s t must s e l e c t f r o m a l l those created i n s o c i e t y . 5  3  49 of documentation" records  survey.  a v a i l a b l e to This  5 4  them, u s i n g  contrasts  a p p r o a c h o f J u d i t h Endelman, who that  i s , an  i n t e n s i v e study  from which the plan  that  those  archivist  should  be  well  aware o f  Endelman's approach acquisition large, this  and  her  or  should  work i t s way  draw upon t h e  dynamics" create  of  their  the  policies s u c h as  by be  businesses,  5  4  archivist  begin  of  other  and  particular records.  Frederic Miller, directed  and  than  when he  toward b r o a d  organization", labour  Fleckner:  This  5 6  unions.  gaps  has  on  In  but  implied, at  harmony  archival  reasons  which of  subject  with  theory study  the  "inner  f o r which  encouraging  research  of  society  disciplines  the  holdings,  in acquisition  Fleckner  understanding  of  odd  analysis",  holdings,  repository.  a better  creators  i n the  focussing  the  acquisition  engaged  recommends t h a t  i n s i g h t s of  records  by  back to the  in search  "citizen  fills  his repository's  c r e a t i n g agency r a t h e r  supported  and  an  as  rather  existing  to d e v i s e  i s s e l f - i n d u l g e n t ; as  planning  organizations,  upon  strengths  the  "collection  a repository's  approach, Michael Lutzker  should  suggests  C e r t a i n l y , an  5 5  p o s i t i v e l y with  i s supposed  b u i l d s upon t h e  holdings.  of  such d e v i c e s  they  emphasis is  urges that a c q u i s i t i o n  categories  neighbourhood  of  organizations,  groups,  major  5 7  16.  J u d i t h E. Endelman, " L o o k i n g Backward t o P l a n f o r Future: C o l l e c t i o n Analysis for Manuscript Repositories," A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 50 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : 340-355. 5  5  5  6  Lutzker:  5  7  Frederic Miller:  119-130. 118.  the  50 Even t h e solid  from  haphazard.  Beyond of  l i t e r a t u r e , by  and  the  John Anderson environment  of  acquisition  policy  an  are  predictable  their  of  one  having  of  Institute  establishing interpret  faced  delimited  Ethnic  with  by  a series  the  situation. with,  At  and the  stable  of  instead  Hans Booms, results.  from  collecting  The  issues  a r e a of  are  focus  ethnic  and  subject  "successive  area,  and  issues  are  the  these  defining  best of  the  resolved  Balch by  ( t o document and  policy  Each  8  and  locale  cycle  J o s e p h R. A n d e r s o n , "Managing Change and C h a n c e : C o l l e c t i n g P o l i c i e s i n S o c i a l H i s t o r y A r c h i v e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 48 ( 1 9 8 5 ) : 296. 5  with  statements  geographical  collecting cycles".  and  freedom  minority groups),  and  goals,"  Newtonian  main  Research L i b r a r y  more s p e c i f i c a c q u i s i t i o n time p e r i o d ,  two  l i b e r t y , independence, by  a  an  would  same knowledge b a s e  5 8  in  collecting  of  determining  these  subject  contributions  of  approaches  and  give better  contends Anderson,  Studies,  a general  then d e v i s i n g  Samuels,  the  and  have been o f f e r e d  " s p e c i f i c , long-term  favoured  principles  e m p h a s i s on  while  in a r e l a t i v e  strategies".  for  archives  a  holdings  unsatisfactory  three systematic  t h e s e may  " c o l l e c t i n g parameters"  "collecting  the  which a c q u i r e n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y  "live  not  are  acquisition;  would be  remarks t h a t  acquisition  repositories  for  John Anderson, Helen  repositories  and  system  provide  i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s would p r o f i t  because they  world"  or  those proposals,  application  archival  above p r o p o s a l s d o e s n o t  non-institutional  the  for  the  i t s application  acquisition  not,  of  guiding principle  resulting  to  best  51 utilizes  one  o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  collections, of  strategies: purchasing  conducting a research project,  supporters (to assist  in s o l i c i t i n g  records),  records,  c o n d u c t i n g r e c o r d s s u r v e y s , and  Anderson  feels  that  this  approach  developing a  targeting  creating  i s a good  one  network of  documentation.  because:  s o c i a l h i s t o r y a r c h i v e s t y p i c a l l y have l e s s t h a n c o m p l e t e knowledge o f t h e r e c o r d s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e u n i v e r s e from which they c o l l e c t , [ t h e r e f o r e ] c o h e r e n t g u i d a n c e , f l e x i b i l i t y , and a means f o r o n g o i n g r e a s s e s s m e n t become e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f an e f f e c t i v e c o l l e c t i n g p o l i c y . 5 9  While Anderson from  ideal.  I t i s true  non-institutional about  policy  It  i s as  or  h e r own  universe  also  invention, exist  special  only  h i s approach  engaged  is far  in acquiring  strategies  for learning  but w i t h a s u b j e c t - b a s e d alters,  can n e v e r be  a  clear  achieved.  o p e r a t e s on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  i s a legitimate  i f an a s t r o n o m e r  s t a r s which  a repository  which p e r i o d i c a l l y  the r e p o s i t o r y  documentation  points,  of documentation,  understanding of that that  that  a r c h i v e s needs  i t s universe  acquisition  makes some good  archival  task  The  that  i s another  creating  problem.  decided to study a c o n s t e l l a t i o n  altering  i t e v e r y few y e a r s ,  i n the i m a g i n a t i o n ;  this  and  fact  of h i s  adding  research w i l l  not  A n d e r s o n : 296-303; q u o t e f r o m 303. Two o t h e r a r c h i v i s t s s u g g e s t s u b j e c t - b a s e d a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g i e s on a l a r g e s c a l e , t h o u g h n o t as w e l l d e v e l o p e d as A n d e r s o n ' s . G r e g o r y S. H u n t e r s u g g e s t s t h a t r e p o s i t o r i e s network t o "develop a r e g i o n - w i d e s t r a t e g y t o document key a s p e c t s o f t h e a r e a ' s l i f e and h i s t o r y " [ " F i l l i n g t h e GAP: P l a n n i n g on t h e L o c a l and I n d i v i d u a l L e v e l s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 50 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : 112] and Sam B a s s Warner g o e s so f a r as t o p r o p o s e t h a t e a c h l a r g e A m e r i c a n c i t y e s t a b l i s h an a r c h i v e s f o c u s s e d on one s u b j e c t a r e a , s u c h as l a b o u r i n D e t r o i t , h o u s i n g i n L o s A n g e l e s , and so on; t h i s , he b e l i e v e s , s h o u l d p r o v i d e enough " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e m a t e r i a l s " t o s a t i s f y historians.[27-33] 5  9  bring  anybody t o a c l e a r  astronomer  can o n l y  which e x i s t to  of  six  o f h e r o r h i s own  artificially  theory,  that even  documentation its  area."  8 0  creators  comprehensive  done  subject groupings.  As f o r t h e  methods d o e s n o t make a  holistic  approach t o the  years,  by H e l e n W i l l a formulated  The i d e a i s f o r a c o m m i t t e e  of a given  topic.  (1) choosing  i s termed  Samuels ( o n e o f  or  geographic  of a r c h i v i s t s ,  t o work t o g e t h e r  w h i c h has  to assure the  issue, a c t i v i t y ,  i n the f o l l o w i n g stages:  Anderson  archives.  a t t e n t i o n i n recent  o f an o n g o i n g  ensure the documentation  characteristics,  approach to a c q u i s i t i o n ,  strategy, defined  and r e s e a r c h e r s  inherent  f o r a workable,  main p r o p o n e n t s ) a s "a p l a n  documentation  their  methods were a p p r o p r i a t e .  of n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l  much f a v o u r a b l e  i s created  i n s u c c e s s i v e c y c l e s , i t must be  i f a l l these  Another received  from  imposed  the universe  i n t e r v e n t i o n , and on c a t e g o r i e s  a s e t of a l t e r n a t i n g  d o e s n o t answer o u r need acquisition  can o n l y understand  by f o c u s s i n g on t h a t w h i c h  s t r a t e g i e s t o be u s e d  admitted  stars  o f t h e human mind, and i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s  document c r e a t o r s d e r i v e d than  by s t u d y i n g  An  w h i c h a r e n a t u r a l t o them and n o t c u l t u r a l l y  documentation  rather  of the universe.  the universe  J u s t so, the a r c h i v i s t  independently of  l e a r n about  independently  one a n o t h e r  imposed.  understanding  records  for a certain  period to  T h i s work i s t o be and d e f i n i n g a t o p i c  H e l e n W i l l a Samuels, "Who C o n t r o l s t h e P a s t , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 49 ( 1 9 8 6 ) : 115. Hackman and Warnow-Blewett have a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n : "a p l a n t o a s s u r e t h e a d e q u a t e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f an o n g o i n g i s s u e , a c t i v i t y , f u n c t i o n , o r subject" [14]. 6  0  53 t o be documented, and  a "site"  structuring the  (2) s e l e c t i n g  institution  an a d v i s o r y  t h e i n q u i r y and  t h a n f o r what d o e s  e x a m i n i n g t h e f o r m and  problems  exist,  A documentation  o f gaps  repositories,  and  is  a l s o supposed  institutions researchers discussed  using  of l i m i t e d to r e f l e c t  and use  (4) s e l e c t i n g  archival  resources  information.  the s o r t s of i n f o r m a t i o n which  and  even  s t r a t e g y i s supposed  r e p o s i t o r i e s to take to serve  non-institutionally  While  and  their  acquisition  common i n t h e p a s t ,  encourage records  look  for.  archivists  records  haphazard  and  as w e l l  strategy i s a refreshing approaches  i t i s not a v i a b l e  to alternative  1  Samuels:  109-124.  6  2  A l e x a n d e r and Samuels: 529-530; Hackman and 23-26; Cox and Samuels: 39-40. Hackman and Warnow-Blewett:  8 2  6 3  6  3  also  responsibilities for  institutional  the concept of documentation and  have  create  researchers  to encourage  acquired.  to the p a s s i v e  6  work; i t  modern  others  specially  "collective  alternative  Blewett:  the  among  s t r a t e g y framework t o  bearing  as t h o s e  other  to solve  of c o m p e t i t i o n  i n which  Samuels  8 1  the documentation  d o c u m e n t a t i o n " , and  documentation  for acquisition  t h e i n t e g r a t e d manner  creators to preserve  archival  exist  t h e i n t e g r a t i o n among modern  records  Documentation  (3)  substance of  r e p o s i t o r y or  s t r a t e g y i s supposed  in repository holdings,  and  experts  a c o n c e r n f o r what s h o u l d  and p l a c i n g i t a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e institution.  of  where t h e s t r a t e g y can be b a s e d ,  a v a i l a b l e documentation, with  rather  committee  15,  46.  Warner-  for  archivists.  categories It  of  does not  Documentation  s t r a t e g y does not  c r e a t i n g bodies,  so  but  much t r y t o g a t h e r  information;  in fact,  Samuels has  "information  gathered  i n any  thinking  along  librarians,  lines,  a monolithic  at once.  The  r a t h e r broad  they  defined  institution  archivists emphases on proper gaps the  and  emphases on  and  on  agencies  and  i n t e g r a t i o n among modern holdings  approach t h i s reflect  the  developing  certain patterns  for  archivist,  who,  to records  Archivists  way.  should  and  take  As  has  their  a d v i s o r s , but  acquisition  already  documents o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h  i s to  similarly to  own  through  meddling be  information.  responsibility lack their  to  influencing  been s t a t e d , must to  the  reflect  inappropriate  c r e a t o r s , not  collective  to f i l l  information and  its  archivists'  f o r attempting  use  a  with  a r c h i v i s t s need  i s u n n e c e s s a r y and as  only  valuable  attempt  i n s t i t u t i o n s with  of  a  clash with To  also  i n a l l these  be  i s d e s i r a b l e , as  manner i n w h i c h r e s e a r c h e r s  creation, this  oriented  succeed  records.  work i n a d i f f e r e n t  as  start  to pursue, perhaps  i n a r e p o s i t o r y , but  records the  can  information  in a repository's holdings  integrated  h i s t o r i a n s , and  r e l a t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s a c t i n g as  subjects  i t does  a r c h i v a l records  s t r a t e g y may  approach f o r a group of r e s e a r c h e r s  areas.  i n danger of becoming  oral  documentation  as  When a r c h i v i s t s  8 3  are  and  subject  a r c h i v a l records  form".  museum c u r a t o r s ,  superhero or areas  these  target  f o r the a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , but  H e l e n W i l l a Samuels, c o l l o q u i u m a t t h e S c h o o l o f L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and I n f o r m a t i o n S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , November 8 t h , 1988. 6  3  they should of  caring  While  do so w i t h o u t  f o r the records  compromising of t h e i r  their  first responsibility  sponsoring  institutions.  some o f t h e p u r p o s e s and methods o f t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n  strategy  concept  acquisition encompass  are t h e o r e t i c a l l y acceptable,  of n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l records  of  them.  acquisition  strategy  i s that  of a p p r a i s a l .  appraisal first  theory  must be f o u n d t o  The t h e o r e t i c a l s t a n c e w h i c h p r o v i d e s  context  another  a firm basis for  which c o n s i d e r s  As V i c t o r i a  a c q u i s i t i o n i n the  Blinkhorn  of n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r c h i v e s  has o b s e r v e d , t h e  occurs  i n two s t a g e s ,  the  of which i s r e l a t e d t o a c q u i s i t i o n i n t h a t i t d e t e r m i n e s whether o r n o t r e c o r d s o f f e r e d t o o r s o l i c i t e d by t h e r e p o s i t o r y f a l l w i t h i n the parameter of the a c q u i s i t i o n s policy. T h i s p a r t of a p p r a i s a l i s i d e a l l y c a r r i e d out before the records are accepted i n t o the r e p o s i t o r y . 8 5  B e c a u s e n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c q u i s i t i o n i s so c l o s e l y t i e d  to the  first  with i t ,  any  stage  o f a p p r a i s a l , and a c t u a l l y can be i d e n t i f i e d  consideration  Appraisal  o f i t must  i s an e v a l u a t i v e  evaluation  of the records,  evaluation  of the records  plan  devised  take a p p r a i s a l  a c t ; i n i t s second and i n t h i s creator.  f o r n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l records  d e t e r m i n i n g which r e c o r d s  creators  the  context  mandate.  has  been m a s t e r f u l l y  key  work o f a r c h i v i s t s i s r e c o g n i z i n g  5  first  of a r e p o s i t o r y ' s  Blinkhorn,  resolved  38.  account.  stage stage  Therefore,  for  6  into  i t involves i t involves  any a c q u i s i t i o n  must  include  a system  a r e most v a l u a b l e This  difficult  by Hans Booms, who the value  problem  asserts of the  within  that the  56 documentary guiding Rohr,  and  that  concepts of v a l u e .  who  suggested that  valuable" within  record,  He  function.  Booms' o b j e c t i o n  i s based  be d e s t r o y e d ) r a t h e r  for  which  standards. functional  records The  non-governmental  " t h e sum t h e sum  rather  to which  we  appraisal."  8 7  system  he f i n d s  give  view  of  life."  are r e s p o n s i b l e " ,  i s that  when he a r g u e d f o r according  guidance,  to  especially  8  does  because  not equal  Booms a r g u e s t h a t  0  "directly  from s o c i e t y  from the  the social  as a whole  t h a t d o i n g so " m o t i v a t e s us  v a l u e s f o r the p r o c e s s of  His j u s t i f i c a t i o n  of  selection  must n o t be n e g l e c t e d  s h o u l d be drawn  societal  the b a s i s  ( e m p h a s i z i n g what  of government o f f i c e s  and  George  w i t h Sante's approach i s  insufficient  which  placed  of a p p r a i s a l  are permanently v a l u a b l e  than merely the s t a t e ,  here to seek o v e r a l l  v a l u e on  long b e f o r e espoused  of h i s t o r i c a l - p o l i t i c a l of a p p r a i s a l  t h e work o f  of s e l e c t i o n  of Wilheim  "archivally  than the p o s i t i v e  records,  of the a c t i v i t i e s  principles process  to Rohr's  problem  principles  and  an a g e n c y ' s  on a n e g a t i v e v i e w  determining  that  measuring  Hermann M e i n e r t had  fixed  the w r i t i n g s  f o c u s on  hierarchy,  proposed  which  i s a s t r o n g need f o r  a g e n c i e s , t h e s e b e i n g t h e ones most h i g h l y  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  should  there  discusses  archivists  S a n t e , who  it  therefore  for this  approach  archival  i s that  Hans Booms, " S o c i e t y and t h e F o r m a t i o n o f a Documentary H e r i t a g e : I s s u e s i n t h e A p p r a i s a l o f A r c h i v a l S o u r c e s , " e d s . and t r a n s . H e r m i n a J o l d e r s m a and R i c h a r d Klumpenhouwer, A r c h i v a r i a 24 ( 1 9 8 7 ) : 75-92; q u o t e f r o m 101. 6  8  8  7  Ibid.:  101-102.  57 t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e v a l u e a s c r i b e d by t h o s e c o n t e m p o r a r y t o t h e m a t e r i a l s h o u l d become t h e most fundamental o f every a r c h i v a l endeavour t o form t h e a r c h i v a l h e r i t a g e ... I f t h e r e i s i n d e e d a n y t h i n g o r anyone q u a l i f i e d t o l e n d l e g i t i m a c y t o a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l , i t i s s o c i e t y i t s e l f , and t h e p u b l i c opinions i t expresses. 8 8  The  archivist  period  must t h e r e f o r e s e e k a t h o r o u g h  and a r e a o f t h e s o c i e t y  to a c q u i r e a r c h i v a l Jenkinson's,  records.  from  understanding  of the  w h i c h s h e o r he i s s u p p o s e d  T h i s statement  e c h o e s one o f  that  In r e l a t i o n t o h i s c h a r g e s t h e A r c h i v i s t s h o u l d be modern o n l y so f a r as s t r i c t l y modern q u e s t i o n s o f b u i l d i n g s , custody,and the l i k e are concerned: f o r the r e s t he s h o u l d be a l l t h i n g s t o a l l A r c h i v e s , h i s i n t e r e s t s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e i r s , h i s p e r i o d and p o i n t of view t h e i r s . T h i s may be a p e r s o n a l d i s a d v a n t a g e t o him; b u t i t i s a d u t y i n h e r e n t i n t h e c a r e e r o f an A r c h i v i s t and s h o u l d be f a c e d . 6 8  Booms s u g g e s t s documentation and  plan  plan  should  characteristic  values set  that the a r c h i v i s t begin  engaged  in devising a  by d e t e r m i n i n g  f o r documentation purposes,  as a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d ; t h e n  assistance period  cover  and t a k e  documentary  principle  to twenty year  o f an a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e  concerned,  desired  a five  the form  6  6  Ibid.:  6  8  Jenkinson,  My  concentrated  a minimal  number. The  p e r i o d , be made w i t h t h e  o f a s a n c t i o n e d model o f t h e  through  104. 124.  on s o c i e t a l  o f e x p e r t s on t h e s o c i e t y and  h e r i t a g e t o be u s e d  f o r a s c r i b i n g value  i s essential  based  c h o o s e t h e most  o f documents p o s s i b l e so a s t o p r e s e r v e should  what  emphasis.  as "a c o n c r e t e  an a p p r a i s a l  orienting  process of  58 positive  value  documentation discussed on  sound  selection". plan  resembles  earlier, archival  with  such  into  and in  theory  as t h e r e c o r d s  more c o m p l e t e offers order  learn  the "documentation  the important  s t r a t e g y " system  d i f f e r e n c e that  i t i s based  principles.  Booms' t h e o r y adapted  The m e t h o d o l o g y o f Booms'  7 0  i s intended  f o r a p p r a i s a l b u t can r e a d i l y  for acquisition  of n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l  of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s .  and s u i t a b l e  than  archives  T h i s theory i s  any o f t h e o t h e r s d i s c u s s e d  an improvement upon p r e s e n t  to s u c c e s s f u l l y  archival  a p p l y Booms' t h e o r y ,  practices.  0  Booms:  105-106.  here, But  i t i s necessary  more a b o u t t h e v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n o u r s o c i e t y .  7  be  to  CHAPTER THREE FIRST CASE STUDY: MOTHERS AGAINST DRINKING DRIVERS  I MADD, o r M o t h e r s A g a i n s t association  Drinking  Drivers,  i sa voluntary  whose m i s s i o n i s  to reduce t h e t r a g e d y caused by t h e drunk d r i v e r . MADD i s t h e v o i c e o f t h e v i c t i m . We a r e d e d i c a t e d t o b r i n g i n g v i c t i m s ' r i g h t s and t h e i s s u e s o f d r u n k d r i v i n g i n t o t h e p u b l i c e y e and k e e p i n g them t h e r e . 1  MADD has t h r e e offer the  support  system  the f i r s t  to alter  person  driving.  altogether,  and do away w i t h  voluntary  being to (both  f a m i l y members); t h e 2  i s done i n d r u n k d r i v i n g  i sto eliminate  The o t h e r  c a s e s ; and o f impaired  impaired  driving  t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s reason f o r  MADD i s f o r m a l l y d e m o c r a t i c ,  3  twelve-member b o a r d meetings.  and h i s / h e r  t o i n c r e a s e p u b l i c awareness o f t h e problem The " u l t i m a t e g o a l "  existence.  important  t h e laws and p r a c t i c e s o f t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e  so t h a t b e t t e r j u s t i c e  third  and most  and s e r v i c e s t o t h e v i c t i m s o f d r u n k d r i v e r s  injured or k i l l e d  second,  the  main g o a l s ,  being  administered  of d i r e c t o r s e l e c t e d a t annual g r o u n d s needed  to qualify  general  MADD a s a  a s s o c i a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n  MADD: M o t h e r s A g a i n s t D r i n k i n g D r i v e r s , ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i s h e r s , 1989), 7. 1  by a  given i n  pamphlet  The E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f MADD has s t a t e d : "we s t a r t e d o f f b e i n g t h e v o i c e o f t h e v i c t i m o f a d r u n k d r i v i n g c r a s h , and I t h i n k t h a t ' s where we s h o u l d s t a y . I t s h o u l d be o u r f i r s t mandate" [MADD 2 : 1 ( a ) ] . See A p p e n d i x A f o r a l i s t o f i n t e r v i e w s and an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e n o t a t i o n f o r m a t u s e d f o r them. 2  3  Ibid. 59  60 C h a p t e r One a l s o  e x i s t : MADD members a r e f r e e  MADD i s i n d e p e n d e n t decision  making;  Government, it  Society  organizations  i t i sregistered  and t h u s r e c o g n i z e d  has a t y p i c a l The  o f other  formal  to join  or leave;  i n i t s p o l i c y and  as a c h a r i t y w i t h  as a n o n - p r o f i t  the Federal  o r g a n i z a t i o n ; and  structure.  a s s o c i a t i o n now o f f i c i a l l y had i t s b e g i n n i n g s on J u n e  known a s MADD C a n a d i a n 1 4 t h o f 1981, when a young man  was k i l l e d  b y a d r i n k i n g d r i v e r , who s u b s e q u e n t l y was g i v e n  very  sentence.  light  concern banded  surrounding together  Frustrated  thedeath of t h e i r  with  f o r m e d VOCAL, V i c t i m s about  other  about  of  this  July  i n the United  Drunk D r i v e r s ) , and e a r l y  very  MADD's f o u n d e r  large  of  and w e l l  MADD i n t h e USA.  7 t h o f 1982, b u t a l r e a d y  association  had, begun m o d e l l i n g  May o f 1987, MADD C a n a d i a n substituting  "drinking"  heard  named MADD  i n 1982 one o f t h e  inCalifornia  to learn  i n May o f 1981  As a c o n s e q u e n c e  Society,  an o f f i c i a l  name change was f o r m a l i z e d  i n the February itself  of that  year the  upon t h e A m e r i c a n  one. I n  formally  altered  f o r "drunk", b u t r e t a i n e d  H e r e a f t e r , MADD C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y w i l l MADD, and t h e A m e r i c a n body a s MADD USA. 4  Then t h e y  States  organized.  This  Society  parents  i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s and  m e e t i n g , VOCAL became MADD C a n a d i a n  affiliate on  son, the v i c t i m ' s  a s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h had been e s t a b l i s h e d  was a l r e a d y that  at the lack of  o f C r i m e and Law S o c i e t y .  members o f VOCAL v i s i t e d  and  parents  a similar organization  (Mothers Against  and o u t r a g e d  a  i t s name,  i t s acronym.  4  be r e f e r r e d t o as  MADD's twelve-member B o a r d president,  a vice  of D i r e c t o r s includes a  p r e s i d e n t , an e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r ,  a s e c r e t a r y , and s e v e n m e m b e r s - a t - l a r g e . this  board,  which r e p r e s e n t s  MADD i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by  the approximately  members o f MADD, a number t h a t has f l u c t u a t e d The  main two i n d i v i d u a l s  who have k e p t  day  operations  S c o t t and H e l e n  been P r e s i d e n t Executive and to has  i n thepast,  herself  been T r e a s u r e r  full  time  interviewed  by t h e author  Thus,  although  S c o t t has  5  visited  MADD USA,  having  quit  Helen  For thepast  her j o b Nichols  year  and a  and s h e t o o  These a r e t h e t h r e e  of t h i s  office  inVictoria,  Kamloops, O l i v e r ,  i n i t s day-to-  s e c r e t a r y h a s been Nancy C a r r ,  MADD h a s a head as b r a n c h e s  the years.  to the association.  become a m a i n s t a y o f MADD.  thousand  thep o s i t i o n of  after  since thebeginning.  MADD's o f f i c e  over  Nichols.  D i r e c t o r ; s h e i s t h e one who f i r s t  dedicate  three  MADD a l i v e  and now h o l d s  who became MADD's main s p o k e s p e r s o n  half, has  are Greta  a treasurer,  persons  thesis.  l o c a t e d i n New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  as w e l l  Nanaimo, P r i n c e G e o r g e , P e n t i c t o n ,  Abbotsford,  dues-paying  and one on P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d .  MADD members a r e s p r e a d  throughout  Canada, a l l b u t one o f MADD's a c t i v e b r a n c h e s a r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  A recognized  members,  including  meeting;  each branch  5  remain  five  branch  o f MADD must have a t l e a s t  officers,  must s u b m i t  e l e c t e d a t t h e annual financial  twenty  general  reports, quarterly  The E t h i c s Committee o f UBC r e q u i r e s t h a t anonymous, s o a l l p e r s o n a l names have been  interviewees changed.  62 meeting office  minutes,  on a r e g u l a r  The did  and d o c u m e n t a t i o n  branches  t h e head  head  office  then  after  o p e r a t e o u t o f t h e homes o f t h e i r  two and a h a l f  decided  that  because  "the paper  ... i t s t a r t s  Chapter  o f 1987 ( s o o n  this point  building  MADD  f o r rent; she  over your  building,  a larger  after  I mean p a p e r home".  6  and p a p e r , and Accordingly  and h a s r e m a i n e d  office  there  i n t h e same b u i l d i n g i n  Nancy C a r r s t a r t e d  thesis,  working  to join.  receive  t h e r e as  of voluntary with,  i t s voluntary nature,  pressured to j o i n  even v i c t i m s  raised i n  To b e g i n  or refused the  of drunk d r i v i n g  and when t h e y do v o l u n t a r i l y  i t s assistance,  2:1(b).  maintained  or groups  By p o l i c y ,  solicited  MADD  the issues  concerning thenature  has c l e a r l y  t h e r e b e i n g no p e r s o n s  are never  t o address  w i t h r e g a r d t o MADD's s i t u a t i o n .  association  6  terrible,  i t i s useful  One o f t h i s  associations,  right  i n t h e home o f a n o t h e r  moved b a c k t o New W e s t m i n s t e r and  to take  the o f f i c e into  with her to  secretary).  At  this  i t travelled  home,  f o r MADD t o have i t s own q u a r t e r s  was j u s t  transferring  MADD's  At thevery beginning, the  i n a s m a l l commercial  i t was t i m e  MADD moved i n t o  fall  years  i n h e r home and t h e n  an o f f i c e  the  members, a s  was G r e t a S c o t t ' s d e n i n h e r New W e s t m i n s t e r  noticed  since,  f o r a long time.  I n 1985 G r e t a S c o t t  more p a p e r  t o t h e head  basis.  office  Richmond, f i r s t director.  of i t s a c t i v i t i e s  they are n o t r e q u i r e d  crashes  come t o MADD and  to j o i n .  A member  63 can  be e x p e l l e d o n l y  constitution,  or does n o t pay t h e annual  With regard structure pattern  MADD's  membership  t o t h e i s s u e o f d e m o c r a c y , MADD's  i s entrenched  of a largely  governing and  i f s h e o r he d o e s n o t u p h o l d  democratic  i n i t s by-laws, but i t p r e s e n t s t h e  inactive  membership  and an o l i g a r c h y - s t y l e  body. The main means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n  the association  fee.  i sthemail.  member s i n c e MADD's i n c e p t i o n ,  between  members  Nancy C a r r , who h a s been a  recalls  her a t t i t u d e  before  becoming s e c r e t a r y : I was v e r y o b l i v i o u s t o what was g o i n g on. I ' d g e t t h e odd t h i n g t h r o u g h t h e m a i l t h a t was s e n t t o t h e members, b u t t h a t was a b o u t i t ... I n e v e r understood the f u l l j i s t o f i t t i l l I a c t u a l l y g o t i n here i n t h e off i c e . 7  The.passive volunteer  a p p r o a c h o f t h e membership may soon change, f o r a  committee  would be w i l l i n g various  thing deal  to participate  activities  officials  (that  normally  democratic USA.  freedom  Until  government g r a n t s , influence  government  its activities.  MADD 1 ( a ) .  a i d with  entirely  by MADD  I n any c a s e ,  the only  i sthe great  this requires.  effort,  and f r o m  maintained  i t s parent  its  body, MADD  p u r p o s e l y d i d n o t a c c e p t any  s o t h a t no g o v e r n m e n t a l body would be a b l e t o  for very s p e c i f i c  7  conscious  1989 t h e a s s o c i a t i o n  their  b e c o m i n g more a c t i v e  and commitment  through from  out almost  and s t a f f ) .  p r e v e n t i n g a member f r o m o f s u s t a i n e d energy  more, and e n l i s t  carried  i s , directors  MADD has a l s o ,  are  has been e s t a b l i s h e d t o s e e k o u t members who  Even  activities  thegrants  i t h a s now a c c e p t e d  -- a workshop and an a d v e r t i s i n g  campaign  —  requested recently for  w h i c h were p l a n n e d  funding. turned  Funding  down b e c a u s e  thepublication  indetail  from  b e f o r e MADD even  a private  i t presumed  f o u n d a t i o n was  to alter  o f w h i c h t h e money had been  t h e pamphlet  offered.  However, MADD i s somewhat r e g u l a t e d by g o v e r n m e n t d e s p i t e t h e distance follow  certain  endorse is  i t keeps;  i n fact,  government  particular  as a r e g i s t e r e d  r e g u l a t i o n s ( f o r example,  products,  businesses,  more amenable t o i n f l u e n c e f r o m  has s l i g h t l y  campaigns, receives USA  and i t d o e s n ' t  about  these  The  other  thenature  formal  possible  Nevertheless  i t s own  the l i t e r a t u r e i t  Therefore, with i t s democratic  w i t h MADD some n a t u r e and  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s .  o f MADD's membership, annual  life  cycle  there are three fees:  individuals,  o f MADD s o f a r c o n f o r m s t o a t y p i c a l  began  informally,  swelled  pattern.  w i t h i n a few months a c q u i r e d a  s t r u c t u r e which has s i n c e remained  years  MADD USA.  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  association  There  of course.  MADD  receiving  -- a l w a y s c h e c k i n g  o f members, e a c h p a y i n g d i f f e r e n t  families,  few  from  to alter  compromise, MADD m a i n t a i n s  Regarding  The  changes,  i n d e p e n d e n c e from  types  hesitate  i t cannot  body,  i t s own name, i t i n i t i a t e s  t o i t s own s p e c i f i c a t i o n  inevitable its  changed  i t must  or p o l i t i c i a n s . )  i t s parent  many i d e a s and m o d e l s f o r l i t e r a t u r e it  charity,  constant,  and w i t h i n a  t o a l a r g e membership w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y made i t  and n e c e s s a r y  i s no immediate  f o r MADD t o have p a i d o f f i c e likelihood  workers.  o f MADD c e a s i n g o p e r a t i o n s o r  becoming a p r e s c r i b e d o r g a n i z a t i o n .  The number and l o c a t i o n o f  MADD b r a n c h e s fluctuated  inBritish  over  time.  Columbia  F o r example,  branch which e v e n t u a l l y  closed  St.  John's, Newfoundland,  the  near  every but  future.  state,  used  t o be a V a n c o u v e r  down, and an i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p i n  i s planning  MADD USA h a s l a r g e ,  t o e s t a b l i s h a branch i n a c t i v e branches  i n almost  i n Canada  exists  h a s n o t y e t been r e a l i s e d .  be c l a s s i f i e d  uses p o l i t i c a l research, are  there  so t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s i m i l a r growth  With r e s p e c t can  and i n t h e r e s t o f C a n a d a has  to the typology as a p o l i t i c a l  of voluntary action  association,  means t o m o d i f y s o c i e t y .  service,  associations,  I t also  s e l f - h e l p , and s o c i a l  MADD  because i t  functions  association,  as a  but these  subsidiary characteristics. II MADD has an i n t e r e s t i n g a s s o r t m e n t  other  organizations  discussed  according  and i n s t i t u t i o n s .  with  A l l such  t o t h e i r type, with  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h have been most success,  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s  and d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s  with  l i n k s w i l l be  an e m p h a s i s on t h o s e  important  t o t h e development,  o f MADD, namely t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  t h e news m e d i a , w i t h g o v e r n m e n t , and w i t h MADD USA. MADD i s a f f i l i a t e d  Association, Columbia  Alcohol  with the Canadian C r i m i n a l  and D r u g E d u c a t i o n  Services,  ( B . C . ) L e a g u e o f Women, t h e B.C. T r a f f i c  Correction  Services,  and t h e B.C. V i c t i m  Council,  8  Justice the B r i t i s h Safety  Board,  and i s  MADD 2 : 1 ( b ) . The C a n a d i a n C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e A s s o c i a t i o n i s an O t t a w a - b a s e d r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l c o h o l and Drug E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e s i s a p r i v a t e a g e n c y w h i c h engages i n p r e v e n t i v e e d u c a t i o n i n s c h o o l s , and l o b b i e s g o v e r n m e n t a b o u t some o f t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d by a l c o h o l and d r u g s . 8  66 therefore meetings  entitled  to a vote a t t h e i r  (AGM's), a s w e l l  These a r e c o - o r d i n a t e  respective  as t o a p l a c e  on t h e i r  a s s o c i a t i o n s composed  number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  annual  general  mailing  lists.  of delegates  from a  i n c l u d i n g MADD. F o r f u n d r a i s i n g  p u r p o s e s , MADD i s a l s o a member o f Skyway C h a r i t i e s A s s o c i a t i o n , another the  co-ordinate  profit  of several  association other  a s s o c i a t i o n which operates a bingo  requires  affiliations  registered charities. rather  Membership  more commitment  (MADD r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  hall for in this  f r o m MADD t h a n i t s  are required  t o work on  a regular basis). MADD h a s a c o - o p e r a t i v e organizations alcohol with  oriented  abuse,  them.  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  to victim assistance,  prevention of  and s o on, and r o u t i n e l y e x c h a n g e s  These  include  t h e B.C. M e d i c a l  Council,  almost  t o MADD's, s u c h as PAID ( P e o p l e  identical  and  PRIDE ( P e o p l e  SADD ( S t u d e n t s  competitive because each area,  direct  information  Association, the  Vancouver S a f e t y  Drivers),  various  and a number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s  t o Reduce I m p a i r e d  Against  Drunk D r i v i n g ) .  with  Against  Drivers  aims  Impaired  Everywhere),  One m i g h t  expect a  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a r i s e i n such a s i t u a t i o n , but a s s o c i a t i o n h a s emerged competition  amount o f t e n s i o n  i n a separate  does n o t occur.  involved,  by a l l t h e o t h e r s .  these  haven't  haven't g o t t h e support  i sa certain  however, b e c a u s e MADD n a t u r a l l y  w i s h e s t o be j o i n e d organizations  There  geographical  achieved  As G r e t a  Scott  explains,  t h e p r o m i n e n c e o f MADD, t h e y  of such a l a r g e , powerful  o r g a n i z a t i o n as  67 MADD USA, and w h i l e on t o o many  "side  MADD a l s o  services  or provide substantial  Columbia  i t spolicies  great  spokesperson,  this  study,  manner.  to at least  as w e l l  as media coverage  o t h e r MADD a c t i v i t i e s , of raising  public  1  not through publicizing that  MADD d o e s  especially  in i t s  theperiod of  four extensive By means o f s u c h  of court cases,  workshops,  w i t h one o f i t s main  awareness o f t h e problem o f  S o c i e t y i s a component  MADD 2:2. 0  10  have  t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e media  During  MADD i s h e l p e d  i t formal authorization  9  The news m e d i a  driving.  MADD C a n a d i a n from  shows.  (Keep  which by  but through  Greta Scott herself.  interviews,  impaired  KISS-FM.  r a t h e r , from  two o f them on t a l k  that  station  i n the association,  S c o t t consented  of the  i n USA and i s b e i n g  Greta Scott affirms  interviews,  goals,  9  with  i s MADD's u p c o m i n g KISS  or a c t i v i t i e s ,  interest  main  goals.  o f funds or  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g MADD,"  seek out media coverage,  have t a k e n  their  A good example  by a r a d i o  coincidence i scalled  them i n a s y m p a t h e t i c  and  donations  projects.  relationship  a tremendous r o l e  influencing  t r y t o take  and f o u n d a t i o n s w h i c h a d v e r t i s e i n i t s  inBritish  fortuitous  not  them f r o m  Summer) campaign, w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d  sponsored  "played  which d e f l e c t  towards p a r t i c u l a r  a Safe  ideas, they  has a s p o n s o r - b e n e f i c i a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p  sponsor-beneficiary It  have some good  issues"  various businesses publications  they  MADD  2:1(a).  o f MADD USA, r e c e i v i n g  t o e s t a b l i s h branches  i n Canada, t o  re-publish  American  programmes. closely  parent  However, t h e  bound  MADD a r e ,  MADD l i t e r a t u r e ,  to follow  arealtered  attention  to excluding  d e p a r t s from  tastes,  associations,  by government, b u t u n l i k e  government  i n return,  submitted  have d i r e c t l y  MADD's l e t t e r s  court  Federal  resulted  to the S o l i c i t o r with  i t s lobbying  officials  many o f them i t  influences  J u s t i c e Committee  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  i n new l e g i s l a t i o n  General of B r i t i s h  years,  i n the  have a l s o  activity,  seemed t o r e s e n t  t h e way i m p a i r e d  had an e f f e c t .  judges,  lawyers,  the attention;  MADD work r e s p e c t f u l l y w i t h i n  their attitude  When  and o t h e r  " t h e y t h o u g h t we  t h e system  but a f t e r  over the  has become much more p o s i t i v e and even  E x c e r p t s f r o m t h i s b r i e f , "Recommendations and Changes L e g i s l a t i o n , " a r e r e p r i n t e d i n t h e HAD_D_ 1989 p a m p h l e t , 33-37. 1 1  in  These  1 1  C o l u m b i a and  were a b u n c h o f s c r e a m i n g women, y o u know, p r o t e s t o r s , " observing  i n 1982  and i n 1988 MADD  t h e news m e d i a a b o u t  c a s e s have been h a n d l e d  MADD s t a r t e d  and p a s s a g e s .  d r i v i n g a t b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s .  discussions  driving  especial  MADD i s s t r o n g l y  House o f Commons i n 1984,  area of impaired  frank  the  a b r i e f to theParliament  presentations  with  of i t s  in a lobbyist-institution relationship.  spoke b e f o r e  the Canadian  branches of  mentioned,  gruesome o r m o r b i d p i c t u r e s  influenced  and  i s n o t as  thepractices  as p r e v i o u s l y  f o r Canadian  other voluntary  Greta Scott  office  MADD USA p o l i c y as A m e r i c a n  f o r example,  pamphlets  Like  C a n a d i a n MADD head  and i t f r e q u e n t l y  association;  and t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e US  69 helpful. driving  1 2  cases  The strong  More i m p o r t a n t l y ,  the courts  much more s e r i o u s l y t h a n  sponsor-beneficiary  type  membership  association  fees  1 3  The F e d e r a l  Since  then,  Government  more e c o n o m i c a l l y  viable.  The c h a r i t a b l e s t a t u s  well,  by e n t i t l i n g  bingo  and c a s i n o  financial  by t h e F e d e r a l Government  requested  i s more d i r e c t ,  Greta  i n the  projects.  as i t s d i r e c t o r s p r e f e r t o  i t s autonomy f r o m g o v e r n m e n t , and t h e y  making f u n d r a i s i n g a p r i o r i t y .  regulations.  toward p a r t i c u l a r  such g r a n t s ,  l e v e l as  money f r o m  to provincial  assistance  w h i c h MADD has u s e d  MADD h a s s e l d o m  f o r i t s f u n d i n g and  conferred  subject  t o MADD  I n r e t u r n , MADD must  at theP r o v i n c i a l  operations,  Federal  making t h e  MADD t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n and e a r n  Sometimes g o v e r n m e n t form o f g r a n t s  donations  have been t a x d e d u c t i b l e ,  Government r e v e r b e r a t e s  preserve  to.  of relationship i salso a  f o l l o w g o v e r n m e n t g u i d e l i n e s and a c c o u n t spending.  used  impaired  MADD's a p p l i c a t i o n f o r c h a r i t a b l e s t a t u s u n d e r  Income T a x r e g u l a t i o n s i n 1985. and  they  one between MADD and g o v e r n m e n t .  accepted  appear t o take  Scott  wish t o avoid  explains:  I f i t ' s s o t i m e - c o n s u m i n g t o g e t t h e f u n d s , and t h e n t h e r e ' s s o many months s p e n t a f t e r w a r d s a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e f u n d s , and t h e n t h e r e ' s a v i c t i m w a i t i n g i n t h e wings f o r y o u t o s i t down o r h e l p o r v i s i t o r go t o t r i a l w i t h them, o r j u s t t o t a l k , t h e n I ' d c h o o s e t o go w i t h t h e v i c t i m . B e c a u s e m a n a g i n g money i s t i m e c o n s u m i n g [and t h e v i c t i m s a r e my p r i o r i t y ] . 1 4  1 2  MADD  3(b).  1  MADD  2:l(a).  3  1 4  Ibid.  70  with and  Co-operation  and c o m p e t i t i o n  two a g e n c i e s  of B r i t i s h  ICBC ( I n s u r a n c e  Columbia government,  Corporation  have programmes w i t h  similar  feel  that  they  should  than  they  have i n t h e p a s t .  c h a r a c t e r i z e MADD's  of B r i t i s h  harder  Counterattack  Columbia).  aims t o MADD's,  be t r y i n g  relations  Both  1 5  and MADD d i r e c t o r s  to cooperate  with  MADD  Ill A full but  administrative history  i t i s important  association  to delineate thevarious a c t i v i t i e s  i n order  t o understand  the  office  all  o f them a r e i n i t i a t e d , The  the door  where many o f t h e s e  present into  o f MADD i s n o t needed  will  MADD o f f i c e  the h a l l ,  i t s records.  activities help  take  here, of t h i s  A d e s c r i p t i o n of place,  and where  t o s e t t h e scene.  i s L-shaped;  i n the foot of theLi s  and t h e s e c r e t a r y ' s d e s k s c o m p l e t e  phone, a n s w e r i n g m a c h i n e , and t y p e w r i t e r .  A t t h e t o p o f t h e L,  where t h e o n l y windows a r e s i t u a t e d , i s an o f f i c e  with  a d o o r and  a half-wall,  t h e upper h a l f  of thewall c o n s i s t i n g only of  bannisters.  In t h i s  i sthe executive  office  computer,  and a n o t h e r  editor).  Between t h e s e  rectangular cupboards,  desk  (irregularly  used  d i r e c t o r ' s desk, t h e by t h e n e w s l e t t e r  s e c t i o n s i s a l o n g room c o n t a i n i n g a  t a b l e and s e v e r a l c h a i r s , and s h e l v e s ,  with  a s e t of mail  several f i l e slots,  cabinets,  a small  photocopier,  C o u n t e r A t t a c k i s a c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n programme aimed a t r e d u c i n g d r i n k i n g d r i v i n g and t h e a c c i d e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . I t i s p a r t l y f u n d e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , and p a r t l y by ICBC. ICBC i s a p r o v i n c i a l l y - o w n e d c o r p o r a t i o n w h i c h i n s u r e s a l l a u t o m o b i l e s w i t h i n B.C. 1  5  71 a stamp m a c h i n e and a s c a l e coffee  machine.  selection Scott;  letters,  There a r e s e v e r a l d i s p l a y s  of c e r t i f i c a t e s  some p u b l i c i t y  persons as S t e v i e  a radio,  MADD and G r e t a  p h o t o g r a p h s o f MADD d i r e c t o r s w i t h  several  a r e a l l deceased  and a  on t h e w a l l s : a  and awards r e c o g n i z i n g  Wonder ( r o c k  mayor o f V a n c o u v e r ) ; (these  f o r weighing  s t a r ) and Mike H a r c o u r t  such  (then  framed photographs o f c h i l d r e n  victims);  clipboards  with  correspondence  f r o m MADD USA, C a n a d i a n MADD b r a n c h e s , g o v e r n m e n t , and o t h e r sources; covered  posters  oriented  i n business  Using  this  members c a r r y  planning  and a b u l l e t i n  board  cards.  office  as a h e a d q u a r t e r s ,  out a c t i v i t i e s  main o v e r l a p p i n g conducting  t o MADD's c a u s e ;  areas:  research,  w h i c h c a n be c a t e g o r i z e d  holding  court  and i m p l e m e n t i n g  MADD o f f i c i a l s and  meetings,  monitoring,  lobbying  organizing  special projects,  into  nine  government, publicity,  assisting victims  communicating  w i t h members and non-members, and f u n d r a i s i n g .  Each o f these  activities  Holding variants.  meetings  There  generates  i sa regular  i s of course  documentation. activity  1 6  o f MADD, h a v i n g  four  the Annual General Meeting, t o  w h i c h a l l members a r e i n v i t e d , and a t w h i c h t h e o u t g o i n g B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s makes i t s r e p o r t s , and  the a c t i v i t i e s  discussed.  a new B o a r d  and p o l i c i e s  The B o a r d  of Directors  i s elected,  f o r t h e upcoming y e a r a r e  of Directors  holds monthly meetings t h e  As p a r t o f t h e r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s , t h e a u t h o r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n most o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s , s o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w a r e b a s e d on p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a s r e c o r d e d i n f i e l d n o t e s , a s w e l l a s on i n t e r v i e w s and a r e v i e w o f MADD's r e c o r d s . 1 6  72 agenda o f w h i c h g e n e r a l l y branches, incoming  committees,  All  fourth  kind  generate  of meeting  initiated  official.  Greta  of v a r y i n g frequency.  r e p o r t s and m i n u t e s .  f o r MADD ( u s u a l l y  which  b y MADD s o a s t o s e e k  correspondence  The  ever  information or t o lobby f o r t h e phone o r i n p e r s o n ;  feeling  t h e need  The p u r p o s e  i salso  and  i t may be aimed  i s t o improve  r e g a r d i n g impaired d r i v i n g  at various levels  with reference to the relationship  government.  Lobbying  activities  government g e n e r a t e s  which  informs  the coroners' o f f i c e s  that  which G r e t a S c o t t MADD  charges,  between MADD and  briefs,  l o b b y i n g , as w e l l  of requesting s t a t i s t i c s  from  17  laws  n o t e s , and  f o r MADD.  o f MADD, i s c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h .  simple matter  1 7  and a g e n c i e s o f g o v e r n m e n t ,  as m e n t i o n e d  A pursuit  meeting.  a way t o l o b b y  of lobbying a c t i v i t y  prosecution strategies  upon i t ,  t o document t h e i n f o r m a l  o f meeting  and  correspondence  they  and n o t e s , b u t sometimes go u n r e c o r d e d ;  one-on-one k i n d  government.  occurs  S c o t t ) and a s e n i o r  S c o t t may make a p h o n e - c a l l and a c t i m m e d i a t e l y  without  A  I n most c a s e s t h e s e one-on-one m e e t i n g s a r e  change, and t h e y may o c c u r o v e r generate  relevant  o f p o l i c i e s and  hold meetings agendas,  report,  i s t h e "one-on-one" m e e t i n g  between a s p o k e s p e r s o n government  a financial  and d i s c u s s i o n  Committees a l s o  these meetings  r e p o r t s on a c t i v i t i e s by  and o f f i c i a l s ,  correspondence,  activities.  includes  2:l(a).  and ICBC.  conducted  a s some o t h e r  Much o f t h i s  on i m p a i r e d d r i v i n g Some r e s e a r c h ,  is a cases  especially  at thevery beginning,  i s rather  more d i f f i c u l t :  "when I s t a r t e d  I had a t e r r i b l e the  help  time  finding  t o r e s e a r c h t h i s problem  o u t what  o f a p r o f e s s o r and a l i b r a r i a n ,  t h e d e p t h s o f a few law l i b r a r i e s . specific police  nature;  records  prosecutors accused,  and c o r o n e r ' s  look  into  conducted  Court although  reports relating  shares  impaired;  assume t h e r o l e  monitor  i s expected  involve  a jury,  trials  activity.  of persons  If  notes,  accused  of d r i v i n g  The c o u r t m o n i t o r  problems a r e observed,  while  does n o t  a v o i d d r a w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o him  listens,  takes  notes,  and f i l l s  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e  o f the case,  (so that a t r a n s c r i p t  may be r e q u e s t e d  from  The c o u r t  t o wear a MADD badge i f t h e t r i a l  but t o otherwise  speaks  Representatives  of "court monitor".  demeanour o f t h e c o u r t , t h e d e t a i l s  proceedings  This  but not u s u a l l y  research generates  f o r m s s u p p l i e d b y MADD, g a t h e r i n g  each witness  establishment  some o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f r e s e a r c h ,  attend  out  and i n i t i a t e d  i t i sa rather different  herself.  of the  and r e p o r t s f o r MADD.  MADD r e g u l a r l y  or  records  cases,  was c o m i n g when t h e c r a s h o c c u r r e d .  Conducting  monitoring  they  criminal  copies of  to their  investigate thedrinking  i s encouraged  by MADD.  correspondence,  s h e e v e n t u a l l y plumbed  R e s e a r c h may have a more  1 8  theprevious  and t h e p o l i c e  of research  happened," b u t w i t h  f o r i n s t a n c e , when v i c t i m s r e q u e s t  from which t h e d r i v e r type  [had]  myself,  i f necessary),  the exact  time  of that portion of the and t h e j u d g e m e n t .  MADD may d i s c u s s them w i t h  t h e media o r  MADD 2 : l ( b ) . One f a c t S c o t t d i s c o v e r e d was t h a t " v e h i c u l a r manslaughter" f e l l i n t o d i s u s e as a c r i m i n a l charge i n B.C. a f t e r t h e 1950's; i t h a s now made a r e t u r n . 1  8  complain  to the S o l i c i t o r  activities  General,  (that  o f l o b b y i n g and o r g a n i z i n g p u b l i c i t y ) ,  news r e l e a s e s and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . practices  o f a c o u r t over  MADD, b e i n g d i r e c t e d  problem  of impaired  interviews  Forms c o l l a t i n g  i s another  important  at increasing public  driving.  This activity  community  fairs,  documented lesser  only  arranging special  mall d i s p l a y s , i n minutes;  1 9  speaking  and p a r a d e s ,  or reproduces  Canadian  c o p y r i g h t ) , and h i r e s  one p r o j e c t  i n t e n s e work b e f o r e with an  completion.  different  from  t o be  and t o a  w h i c h a r e a major  ( f o r which printer  i t holds the  to provide  a large  2 0  special  a t a time,  organizing publicity  activity  a local  distribution.  P l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g which occurs  which tend  b u t most o f t h e t i m e i t  MADD USA p a m p h l e t s  number o f c o p i e s f o r  participating in  and a m a j o r a r e a o f e x p e n d i t u r e .  MADD c r e a t e s some o f i t s own d r a f t s , adapts  t o student  and o f c o u r s e a  and p r e p a r i n g p a m p h l e t s ,  i n MADD's p u b l i c i t y ,  compiled.  awareness of t h e  projects;  e x t e n t p o s t e r s and bumper s t i c k e r s ,  emphasis  the sentencing  includes providing  and news r e l e a s e s t o media; p u b l i c  i n minutes;  creating  area of a c t i v i t y  g r o u p s and o t h e r g a t h e r i n g s , w h i c h p r o d u c e s n o t e s mention  thus  a one-month p e r i o d a r e a l s o  Organizing p u b l i c i t y for  i s , undertake the  p r o j e c t s i s an a c t i v i t y  requiring  Often  increasingly  theproject  i s concerned  o r l o b b y i n g government, b u t i s p a r t o f those  because  i t i s comprised of  On s u c h o c c a s i o n s somebody i s g i v e n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s e t t i n g up and s t a f f i n g a t a b l e and some p o s t e r b o a r d s , as w e l l a s p r o v i d i n g a money c a n f o r d o n a t i o n s . 1  9  2  0  MADD 1 ( b ) .  short-term other  undertakings  activities  with  a clear  a r e long-term  start  and f i n i s h ,  o r permanent.  while the  Some examples o f  s u c h p r o j e c t s a r e a Drunk D r i v i n g Awareness Week; a C a n d l e l i g h t Service  conducted  recount  their  Christmas to t h e i r and  in a significant  stories;  season,  a Red R i b b o n Campaign  (Keep  be p r o v i d e d  assistance author  from  of t h i s  with other  victims  held during the to t i e a red ribbon  a committment n o t t o d r i n k and d r i v e ;  i t a Safe  summer o f 1989, d u r i n g will  where  when d r i v e r s a r e e n c o u r a g e d  cars s i g n i f y i n g  t h e KISS  location,  Summer) p r o j e c t p l a n n e d  which people  f o r the  vacationing with  their  i n f o r m a t i o n p a c k a g e s by MADD, and w i t h bodies,  such as a l o c a l  t h e s i s had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  radio station.  to participate  "MADD on t h e Move," i t was a weekend  workshop w h i c h b r o u g h t  together  and  other  groups, voluntary  establishing communities was  licensees, students,  a s s o c i a t i o n s , with  a citizens  task  t o plan  MADD d i r e c t o r s , kits  m e e t i n g s were  and a s s i s t held  i n running  or h i r e d .  government  2  1  and s e v e r a l o t h e r  Columbia  i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the were c a l l e d  t h e workshop.  a t more and more f r e q u e n t and b o t h  F u n d i n g and o t h e r  leaders,  the purpose o f  volunteers  f r o m g o v e r n m e n t , t h e community, invited  community  A professional organizer  2 1  t h i s workshop  and numerous  existing  force i n various B r i t i s h  t o f u r t h e r MADD's a i m s .  contracted  assemble  liquor  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from  The  i n one  such p r o j e c t : e n t i t l e d  prevention  cars  Planning  intervals.  Speakers  MADD and MADD USA were  support  institutions  upon t o  was s o l i c i t e d  from  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  T h i s workshop t o o k p l a c e M a r c h 17-19, 1989.  76 Documentation generated notes,  financial  reports,  bills,  Victim who  estimates, cheques,  assistance  contact  included  registration  i sa central activity  MADD a r e s e n t  a sympathy  i n t h e f o r m o f sympathy  victim.  Victims  a r e encouraged  remember o f t h e c r a s h  have some b a c k i n g ) , research the  their  attorney  sending  to prepare the  cases  letters;  t o take  (so that  requesting  immediately  testimony  earlier);  statement  members  t h o u s a n d members  a few t i m e s a y e a r ,  is  although  to present  f o r the case, i m p a c t , and  i n court  i s an a c t i v i t y  i n v o l v e s p u b l i c a t i o n and mass cannot  receive  newsletter  personal  or l e t t e r  from t h e  a new " n a t i o n a l m o n t h l y newspaper" h a s  t r u e o f much o f t h e m a t e r i a l  membership  2  2  before  a p r a c t i c e w h i c h has n o t y e t become  i s n o t e x c l u s i v e l y aimed  communications  will  a letter to  r e c e n t l y been e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r one o f MADD's d i r e c t o r s . newspaper  on what  i n court  to write  and non-members  MADD s e n d s o u t a s p e c i a l  regularized,  which i s  u s u a l l y by a p a s t  notes  their  help,  a senior prosecutor  organizing publicity, Three  President  offering  2 2  Communicating w i t h  printing.  card  and a d v i c e ,  ( a s mentioned  a v i c t i m impact  like  forms,  f o r MADD. V i c t i m s  a photograph of the v i c t i m f o r greater  sentencing.  which,  evaluation  and p e r h a p s t o p h o t o g r a p h t h e s c e n e ; t o  general  along  forms,  contracts,  r e c e i p t s , and m i n u t e s .  provided  they  correspondence,  intended  renewal,  MADD 3 ( a )  solely  membership  a t members,  they  forms,  however, and t h i s  r e c e i v e f r o m MADD.  f o r members  The  The o n l y  are notices of  r e c e i p t s f o r membership  dues, to  and a g e n d a s f o r t h e A n n u a l G e n e r a l  satisfy  fact  most o f t h e membership,  t h a t MADD i s c o v e r e d  members  know what  association In members, their has  i t s work.  f o r MADD t o c a r r y on t h i s  names, a d d r e s s e s ,  kept  and o t h e r this,  in alphabetical  secretary,  Nancy C a r r , file  Scott feels  communication  file  categorized  (also An  actually file,  predating the l a t t e r .  especially  since the  them i n t h e summer  t o generate  and computer  as " v i c t i m s "  their  data  (because  arefiled  "professionals",  referred  entered  onto  address  o f 1988.  labels for  and  controlled  t h e non-members  through being  some o f t h e v i c t i m s a r e a l s o  under both  qualifications),  "companies/limited/corporations" or "organizational"  file).  has been d i s c o n t i n u e d , and t h e d a t a  the computer.  are p r e - p r i n t e d forms, Non-members  files,  t o as t h e " b u s i n e s s e s "  o l d "contacts" card f i l e  never  MADD  t o members.  the use o f c a r d f i l e s  "donors",  with i t s  and a computer  C o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i t h non-members a r e a l s o  members,  helps  2 3  t h e former  rationalized  i s a l s o used  that the  them t h a t t h e  relevant data.  a card  order,  appears  way t o s t o r e and r e t r i e v e  a s b a c k u p s t o one a n o t h e r ,  computer  mail-outs  on, and i n f o r m s  i t must have an e f f i c i e n t  These serve  The  i s going  two means f o r d o i n g  both  and G r e t a  This  f r e q u e n t l y b y t h e news m e d i a  i s continuing with  order  Meeting.  2 4  The c a r d s  e a c h on a d i s t i n c t  f o r each  category  colour of s t i f f  paper.  o f t e n r e c e i v e t h e same m a t e r i a l s a s members, o r t h e y  2  3  MADD  2:l(a).  2  4  MADD 1 ( a ) .  78 may be t a r g e t e d  f o r requests f o r s p e c i f i c  V i c t i m s may r e c e i v e information  MADD r a i s e s  though  projects  example, MADD h a s t w i c e s o l i c i t e d through  by t h i s  t h r o u g h membership  and e x h i b i t i n g  Some s p e c i a l  another s o u r c e ) .  e n a b l e s MADD t o c a r r y o u t  donations, s o l i c i t i n g  i t s publications,  displays.  which  on f r o m  i t i s n o t encompassed  some o f i t s f u n d s  through p r i v a t e for  i s an a c t i v i t y  mandate, even  fees  advertising  a grant.  a r e aimed  a l r e a d y mentioned, gambling  non-profit  i sentitled  e v e n t s , namely b i n g o  solicited  from  businesses  at fundraising;f o r  d o n a t i o n s from m e d i c a l d o c t o r s  on o c c a s i o n a c c e p t s g o v e r n m e n t  As a r e g i s t e r e d  mandate.  a money c a n a t m a l l  the mail with the help of a p r o f e s s i o n a l  association  or donations.  newsletter or other appropriate  ( w h i c h MADD sometimes p a s s e s  Fundraising its  a special  services  fundraiser.  f u n d i n g i n t h e form o f  association,  t o sponsor and c a s i n o ,  The  MADD, a s  government-regulated and t h r o u g h  them MADD  e a r n s much o f t h e money i t n e e d s t o f u n c t i o n . As is  a member  mandated  to raise  associations, a bingo  hall  o f t h e Skyway C h a r i t i e s A s s o c i a t i o n funds  f o r and o t h e r w i s e promote  MADD s p o n s o r s  a t h r e e - h o u r weekly  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r .  manager and two o t h e r employees, by out  s e n d i n g two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s the winnings,  opened the  to reveal  winnings  other  from  odd j o b s .  sell  "pull  a winning  These  bingo  i t s member session at  to " c a l l "  tabs" (small  thewinners' cards which  o f symbols)  to assist c a r d s , pay c a n be  and p a y o u t  t h o s e , empty a s h t r a y s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y do These  which  s e s s i o n s a r e r u n by a  b u t MADD i s e x p e c t e d  combination  (SCA),  representatives participate  i n the  creation  o f two k i n d s  of documentation:  they  fill  o u t t h e forms  s h o w i n g who won how much i n e a c h game i n a s e s s i o n , form  recording  receive the  the t o t a l  copies  of these  income f o r t h a t forms,  minutes o f t h e Board  report, report  and a c h e q u e .  casino staff  MADD i s a n n u a l l y  but require  responsibility  counting  these  required  earnings  t o two n i g h t s  of sponsorship  i n Greater  evening.  e a c h month i t r e c e i v e s  t o submit a  have been s p e n t  i n the  manner.  MADD i s e n t i t l e d annually,  MADD d o e s n o t  o f D i r e c t o r s f o r t h e SCA, a f i n a n c i a l  t o SCA s h o w i n g t h a t  permitted  although  session.  and s i g n a  Casinos  are mainly  representatives  One r e p r e s e n t a t i v e chips  acts  gambling  r u n b y permanent  f r o m MADD, who t a k e  f o r l a r g e sums o f money d u r i n g  the gambling  times  f o r an a r b i t r a r i l y d e s i g n a t e d  Vancouver. five  i n a row, t h r e e  the course  o f each  a s " b a n k e r " , u n l o c k i n g and  a t e a c h t a b l e , and r e s u p p l y i n g i t  when n e c e s s a r y .  Two more s i t i n a l o c k e d  exchange c h i p s  f o r money when t h e g a m b l e r s  request  notes of these  exchanges.  representatives  count  t h e money t a k e n  The o t h e r  i n , check over  three  and a c q u i r e d ,  these  A t t h e end o f e a c h e v e n i n g  produced well  from  " c a s h i e r s ' b o o t h " and  the records  chips disbursed details.  some  and s i g n v a r i o u s  each t r i p l i c a t e s e t o f forms  as a cheque and a f i n a n c i a l  report.  i t , keeping help  o f money and  forms  recording  one o f t h e o r i g i n a l s i s given  t o MADD, as  W h i l e most o f t h e r e c o r d s for  in relation  discussed  and  to i t s a c t i v i t i e s ,  f o ra f u l l e r  practices:  the role  b y MADD c a n be a c c o u n t e d  three  related  p o r t r a y a l of i t s  begin  o f MADD's o f f i c i a l s ,  directors  with,  and s t a f f .  whom MADD e m p l o y s , various  MADD's f i l i n g  reports.  The e x e c u t i v e  projects,  director  projects.  organize  and p r e p a r e s  and v i c t i m  for  special  assistance.  The s e c r e t a r y m a i n t a i n s  sessions.  A with systems,  routine  for callers  Having a paid  i t s records,  the f i l i n g  answers  a c t s as r e c e p t i o n i s t  and p r e s e r v e  financial  i s a l s o r e g u l a r l y h i r e d t o help  most m a t t e r s o f membership,  most SCA b i n g o  sends o u t r e c e i p t s  h a n d l e s much o f t h e  a l l incoming correspondence,  deals with  matters of the  money r e c e i v e d and  pays b i l l s ,  renewal,  lobbying,  organizer  correspondence,  of p a r t i c u l a r  and d o e s much o f t h e p l a n n i n g  government  professional  preservation.  of a l l the f i n a n c i a l  i s , she r e c o r d s  f o r membership  correspondence,  sorts  that  care  manages t h e a c c o u n t s ,  requests  the role  systems,  The t r e a s u r e r , a s s i s t e d by a b o o k k e e p e r  takes  activities;  disbursed,  special  l e t us c o n s i d e r  t o p i c s s h o u l d be  records-keeping  i t s a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s t o w a r d s r e c o r d s To  and  created  and v i s i t o r s ,  and r e p r e s e n t s  MADD a t  s e c r e t a r y has helped  maintain  better contact  MADD  with  t h e p u b l i c and i t s members, and g e t t h e r o u t i n e work d i s l i k e d by volunteers done. extensively  2  5  2 5  assist  The d i r e c t o r s and s u n d r y the executive  MADD 2 : 1 ( b ) and 3 ( a )  director  volunteers  and t h e s e c r e t a r y .  81 MADD's f i l i n g of  systems v a r y  the records, but with  systems.  Financial  2 6  chronological membership are,  order  files  catalogues  one e x c e p t i o n  records  are f i l e d  lists  above, f i l e d  order  file  access"  case.  The  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s  i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order  i n binders  form  by t h e t r e a s u r e r i n  of persons  and on t h e c o m p u t e r .  chronological  area l l "direct  i n a portable subdivided  and o t h e r  as d e s c r i b e d  according to the functional  i n card  Minutes a r e kept i n on s h e l v e s .  Photographs a r e  displayed  i n f r a m e s o r i n albums w i t h no p a r t i c u l a r  arrangement.  All  records  system, o f  other  which there the  he  have been t h r e e  original  years  are preserved  improved  the  upon  i n h i s workplace.  MADD h a s had, t h i s file  over  i t with  indirect  and e a c h f i l e  S c o t t s e t up  and a f t e r  access  index  yet  again;  S c o t t hasn't  she  observes offices,  [difficult  Greta  philosophically  a number, w i t h  what's a s i m p l e foranother]."  having  2 7  work, s h e a l t e r e d  grown c o m f o r t a b l e that  system  "I've  heard  a few on t h e one  filing  code w h e r e i n  o f each drawer showing t h e s u b j e c t o f every secretary started  access,  Greta  a system based  a numeric  when t h e p r e s e n t  in  filing  inadequate,  The o n l y  s y s t e m used  d r a w e r had a l e t t e r front  theyears.  system, which proved  h e r husband  used  i n a general  with  this  t o one p e r s o n  Nancy C a r r ' s s y s t e m  system each  an i n d e x a t file.  But  t h e system i t yet, but  i s very  common  becomes i s one o f d i r e c t  an a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r w i t h i n e a c h o f s e v e r a l  broad  A d i r e c t a c c e s s f i l i n g s y s t e m i s one w h i c h a l l o w s t h e u s e r t o go d i r e c t l y t o t h e f i l e s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o an i n d e x , b e c a u s e i t i s b a s e d on s u b j e c t s w r i t t e n o u t a s c o m p l e t e words. 2  6  2  7  MADD  2:l(b).  subject  c l a s s e s , these  being Other A s s o c i a t i o n s , V i c t i m  Assistance,  Government, A d v e r t i s i n g , MADD B r a n c h e s ,  This  system  filing  i s not very  s o p h i s t i c a t e d , and e v e r y b o d y  sometimes h a s p r o b l e m s f i n d i n g probable this not  reasons  system:  they  enough a b o u t The  filing  feel  have n o t a t t e m p t e d  systems t o a l t e r  records  a r e n o t knowledgeable  i t confidently.  arethe f i n a l  the t r e a s u r e r avoids  Nancy C a r r  disorder,  with  regarding the  of concern  here.  i t , and g e n e r a l l y d o e s h e r work a t home i n  inserted  Attitudes to f i l e t h e membership  into  some w e l l - m e a n i n g d i r e c t o r  office".  MADD's r e c o r d s  are completely  officials,  vary,  presumably by  as she puts i t  how t h i n g s a r e k e p t ,  One a t t i t u d e w h i c h  and was s t r e s s e d b y a l l t h r e e  also  catalogue i n  or other volunteer;  2 9  order  t h e wrong s l o t s ,  a r e more r e l a x e d a b o u t  happens i n e v e r y  government  area  2 8  t h e computer b e c a u s e s h e d o e s n o t  sometimes f i n d s  or mail  "some p e o p l e  t o improve  s y s t e m a s a s e c r e t a r y ' s domain,  and a l s o t h e y  to avoid d i s t r a c t i o n s .  policy  T h e r e a r e two  a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s stem f r o m p e r s o n a l i t y . F o r  comfortable  order  with,  of their  Some o f t h e s e  and  see a f i l i n g  it.  a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s o f MADD o f f i c i a l s  preservation  example,  things within  why MADD o f f i c i a l s  t o be i n t e r f e r e d  and s o on.  that  i s a matter of  interviewees  i sthat a l l  open and a c c e s s i b l e t o members,  and r e s e a r c h e r s .  Personal  information  T h e s e r e a s o n s a r e good enough t o d e t e r many s m a l l , and even l a r g e , o r g a n i z a t i o n s f r o m i m p r o v i n g t h e i r f i l i n g s y s t e m s , and s h o u l d n o t be s e e n as f a u l t s p a r t i c u l a r t o MADD. 2  8  2  9  MADD  1(b).  83 about v i c t i m s least  until There  or  to.  has been a s k e d  i s no s y s t e m a t i c  records  c l o s e t o i t , and i n s t e a d  Scott  throw a n y t h i n g  records  existed  that  any  financial  records  membership and o t h e r be  than  in case.  catalogues  records,  i t i sclear  secretary a separate records  file  centre  forwarding  has n o t d i s c a r d e d  everything  an a d d r e s s ,  on f i l e  This  and an a r c h i v a l  file  ceases t o  t o other  as a r e s u l t ,  cabinet  with  the card  i s kept  transferred a l l records  cabinet.  The p r a c t i c e  3 1  With regard  were g e t t i n g u n w i e l d y  accordingly  b u t MADD has  i s t h a t when a p e r s o n  i s discarded.  that  The law r e q u i r e s  records,  at a l l , just  to that person  1988 t h e f i l e s  f o r those  and s t i l l  a member o r moves w i t h o u t  may be  questioning  them.  that,  relating  By  any r e c o r d  i n case a government o f f i c i a l  longer  as "never  The t r e a s u r e r p r e s e r v e s a l l  retention period  a little  i sa set of generally  b y Nancy C a r r  MADD's n o n - p r o f i t s t a t u s w i s h e s t o s u r v e y a seven-year  concerned.  a t MADD seem t o s u b s c r i b e  the idea being  3 0  t o somebody someday.  financial  of thevictims  there  has a dictum quoted  out,"  however, a t  management programme a t MADD,  p r a c t i c e s w h i c h most p e o p l e  Greta  useful  from media r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ,  permission  anything  accepted  i s kept  permanently. and t h e  previous  functions  t o 1986 t o as b o t h a  r e p o s i t o r y f o r many o f MADD's  records. Many r e c o r d s safe  created  haven o f i t s f i l e s , ao  Ibid.  31  MADD 3 ( a ) .  and r e c e i v e d however.  by MADD n e v e r  The c a t e g o r y  reach the  "correspondence  received"  i n c l u d e s "junk m a i l " ,  does n o t r e l a t e  executive acted form  soon a f t e r  and p e r h a p s t h e b o a r d  i s also discarded.  and t h e l i k e ,  sent  i s photocopied  of l e t t e r s  monitoring not  i s no l o n g e r  a r e not kept.  needed.  some a t b r a n c h o f f i c e s ,  discarded them. Part  or remain  Greta  notes  here  a r e a l s o common.  o f MADD's a c t i v i t i e s . informal notations individual,  3  2  MADD  Despite  are recorded  A l l correspondence  she was h i r e d .  the fact of t h i s  have  been  who c r e a t e d  a s a m i s t a k e now, and r e g r e t s forms a r e o f t e n  i n an i d i o s y n c r a t i c considered  of  i t .  3  2  o f most  handwritten,  manner by an  t o be f o r immediate u s e o f  are generally  destroyed.  3 3  2:l(b).  T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s b a s e d upon p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f the author. The a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s c o n c e r n i n g n o t e - t a k i n g would be an i n t e r e s t i n g a r e a o f r e s e a r c h f o r a r c h i v i s t s . 3  3  used,  i n the course  They u s u a l l y have t h e f o r m  which they  court  activity  and many have e i t h e r  Notes a r e produced  taken  that  -- some o f them a r e a t t h e head  i s that while  and a r e w i d e l y  creator, after  registration  i n t h e hands o f t h e v o l u n t e e r s  S c o t t sees t h i s  of the problem  Some  by t h e s e c r e t a r y , b u t t h i s  t o MADD, t h e r e c o r d s  been c o n s i s t e n t l y p r e s e r v e d  office,  the  once t h e d a t a  f o r MADD's f i l e s  i s central  and j u n k m a i l i s  of d i r e c t o r s i s not  n o t a l w a y s have been t h e p r a c t i c e b e f o r e  Drafts  which  Correspondence which takes the  i s discarded  e l s e w h e r e and t h e f o r m  mail  c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e  o f membership a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m s , workshop  forms,  may  i t i s received.  r e c e i v e d , which a f t e r  director  upon,  t o cover  t o MADD's mandate o r o p e r a t i o n s ,  routinely discarded correspondence  a t e r m used  85 Consequently, exception has  very  being  few n o t e s s u r v i v e  telephone  been s e c r e t a r y .  telephone rapidly small has  kept  one  booklet,  pieces  has been f i l e d .  3 4  She has a l r e a d y  interviewee  was a s k e d  t o save  question  which a p p a r e n t l y  secretary  stated files,  i n t h e event  than  the loose  she p l a n s  t o implement  s h e would  explained  that  these  1(b).  3  5  Ibid.  3  6  MADD 3 ( a ) .  The  save t h e " f l o p p y d i s c s " o f o f members, d o n o r s , and o f f i c e s of location —  sometime a t MADD.  save t h e f i n a n c i a l  i n c l u d e t h e membership  The e x e c u t i v e  MADD  before.  o f such d i s c s i n a separate  said  4  disaster, a  t h e p r a c t i c e common t o o t h e r  treasurer  3  s h e would make i t a  or other  was n o t c o n s i d e r e d  containing a l l the l i s t s  keeping extra copies  3 6  filled  I t seems t h a t t h e  which r e c o r d s  of a f i r e  t h a t s h e would  and m e n t i o n e d  receipts.  Nancy  on w h i c h most n o t e s a r e t a k e n .  priority  practice  I n t h e b a c k o f t h e same b o o k l e t  f o r m o f a n o t e b o o k commands more r e s p e c t  Each  so'on,  accumulated so  s h e began e n t e r i n g them i n t o a  o f h e r h o u r s o f work.  and t h i s  of paper  computer  o f paper, but they  instead.  a record  s i n c e she  When s h e began w o r k i n g f o r MADD s h e t o o k  f o r safe-keeping,  "booklet"  physical  messages t a k e n by Nancy C a r r  n o t e s on s c r a p s  that  i n MADD's f i l e s , t h e  d i r e c t o r declared  35  a  The  r e c o r d s , and list that  i n t h e form o f her p r i o r i t y  86 would be t h e p h o t o g r a p h s o f v i c t i m s , the  videotape  lists  of  o f MADD's h i s t o r y , and o n l y  and b r i e f s  answers t h a t  The  a r e what s h e would  think  of copies  a r e saved  "diary" f o r Greta to Scott's  interviews.  Scott  3 9  record  three  "archives" records  Scott  lobbying  record  efforts  than  and t o s p e c u l a t e  weeds.  a personal point f o r  saves a great  Nichols  a l s o keeps a  especial  and news m e d i a  agree that  of Nichols',  interviewees  i s one l a s t  and h e r s e l f , w i t h  and N i c h o l s  a t h e r home r a t h e r The  i s quite  i n t e r e s t of the  as w e l l ; H e l e n N i c h o l s  of these a c t i v i t i e s ,  t o be a p e r s o n a l kept  work  a r e t h e main documents s o  many a t home, w h i c h s h e p e r i o d i c a l l y  complete  these  t o save, which  of preserving  o f MADD r e c o r d s  M i n u t e s and b r i e f s  but others  reference  from  as a whole.  consideration.  daily  save  t h e membership  which a r e c e n t r a l t o t h e s p e c i f i c  p r a c t i c e b y some o f f i c i a l s  collection  then  I t i s evident  3 8  but not n e c e s s a r i l y i n the best  association  kept,  to government.  the records  each o f f i c i a l  natural  a f t e r w h i c h s h e would  3 7  this  i s t h e most  but they consider  the diary  n o t MADD p r o p e r t y ,  and i t i s  i n the o f f i c e . were a l s o a s k e d as t o what would  i f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n were e v e r  to define  t h e term  happen t o MADD's  t o c l o s e down.  The  G r e t a S c o t t s a i d t h a t s h e would make t h i s c h o i c e b e c a u s e t h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s a r e so p r e c i o u s t o t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e s e victims. Another probable reason i s that f o r Scott, the c h i l d r e n t h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s r e p r e s e n t a r e what MADD i s a l l a b o u t , and t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n would be a s e c o n d d e a t h . 3  7  3  8  MADD 2 : l ( b ) .  3  9  MADD  3(a).  executive director  d e s c r i b e d a r c h i v e s as a p l a c e where g e n e a l o g y  can  and t h e t r e a s u r e r as " f o s s i l s  be r e s e a r c h e d ,  that";  t h e s e c r e t a r y had t h e most a c c u r a t e  and s t u f f  like  definition:  I t ' s b a s i c a l l y r e c o r d s o f t h i n g s ... o r g a n i z a t i o n s , c o m p a n i e s , b u s i n e s s e s , w h a t e v e r ... t h a t have been i n e x i s t e n c e , and u s u a l l y an a r c h i v e s would t a k e i t r i g h t f r o m t h e d a y i t s t a r t e d u n t i l t h e p r e s e n t , o r whenever it ended. 4 0  When f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n e d , concept they  o f an " a r c h i v a l  thought  library  might wish t o p r e s e r v e  because they  role  i n Canadian  both  preserve  lives.  feel  some r e c o r d s  which  MADD's r e c o r d s would be a  They do f e e l  society.  MADD were t o f o l d ,  had a c l e a r  r e p o s i t o r y , " and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s  or a u n i v e r s i t y .  important,  their  none o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s  that t h e i r  records are  t h a t MADD i s p l a y i n g an i m p o r t a n t  Greta  S c o t t and H e l e n  for personal  N i c h o l s would  "sentimental"  b e c a u s e MADD r e p r e s e n t s  reasons  a significant  part of  4 1  4  0  R e s p e c t i v e l y , MADD 2 : 1 ( b ) ,  4  1  MADD 2 : 1 ( b ) and MADD 3 ( a ) .  if  MADD 3 ( a ) , and MADD 1 ( b ) .  CHAPTER FOUR SECOND CASE STUDY I THE OF  ORIENTEERING ASSOCIATION  BRITISH COLUMBIA  I The  Orienteering  voluntary and  give  association leadership  provincially annually  and  a full  also  expected  to  national  orienteering  locally,  n a t i o n a l l y ; and  to  sanction  supervise  competition  periodically to  host  other  the  and  Manitoba),  Orienteering  clubs  and  s u c h as  the  OABC  1  Western  orienteering  coordinate  most o f  i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t , and  provinces.  promote  OABC  Canadian Championships.  championships,  among o r i e n t e e r i n g  in other  and  i n c l u d i n g the  ( a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h the  g o v e r n i n g body, t h e  associations  encourage,  of  of A l b e r t a  communication  the  main a i m s : t o  (OABC) i s a  sport  Canadian Championships associations  of B r i t i s h Columbia  h a v i n g two  program of  C h a m p i o n s h i p s and is  Association  the  the  parallel  2  is  t h e s p o r t o r p r a c t i c e o f f i n d i n g one's way through u n f a m i l i a r t e r r i t o r y by means o f a map o r compass o r b o t h , u s u a l l y i n v o l v i n g a g i v e n s t a r t i n g and f i n i s h i n g p o i n t w i t h a s e r i e s of check p o i n t s i n between. 3  OABC o f t e n  uses the  literature,  phrase  "your s p o r t  emphasizing o r i e n t e e r i n g ' s  1  As  stated  2  OABC  3  Gage C a n a d i a n D i c t i o n a r y .  for  life"  in i t s  flexibility;  participants  i n OABC's c o n s t i t u t i o n .  l:l(a).  88  1983  ed.,  s.v.  "orienteering".  89 range from c o m p e t i t i v e young c h i l d r e n , of  young r u n n e r s ,  to people  "running a course"  focussing ability  on  "personal  i s also  skills,  orienteering  structure  category  non-profit  Orienteering has  as  an  a  (novice,  many as  fifty.  for orienteering's  An  central  Columbia.  association"  who  may of  as  join  any  with  stated  this above;  or  leave  i t has  it is  fashion;  the  non-orienteering  a g e n c y ; and  a formal  body; i t structure  constitution.  originated  i n Sweden e a r l y  e i g h t - d a y meet w i t h  Orienteering  has  world,  is practiced  i n most p a r t s  h u n d r e d members, OABC i s t h e  in t h i s century,  and  t h r o u g h o u t W e s t e r n E u r o p e , where  uncommon. and  one  most  i t s members i n d e m o c r a t i c  become immensely p o p u l a r  such a t h i n g  facilitate  courses  in British  i t i s independent  in a written  effort  approaches,  s o m e t i m e s as  a c l e a r purpose,  r e s t r i c t i o n s on  a registered  expressed  and  "voluntary  o p e r a t e d by  is  and  To  speak  Map-reading  t i m e and  course.  them  with  n a t u r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m MADD, i t  controlled  association;  amount o f  groups  speed,  than winning.  l e a s t three  flourish  I t has  no  rather  t h i s at  i s necessary  organization. and  do  abilities,  expert),  o f meets t o  are  any  orienteering  A l t h o u g h OABC i s by  there  t h e y may  i n the  physical  and  administrative  s h a r e s the  A l l of  "meets" have a t  intermediate,  activity  an  in their eighties.  best"  a factor  needs to complete range of  but  through f a m i l y  also  17,000 p a r t i c i p a n t s  caught  on  in other parts  o f Canada.  is of  With over  largest provincial association  not the  five of  orienteers  i n the  orienteering The Clubs  clubs  club  members, t h e  on  Columbia range  as  a set  and  most o f  to-face  discussions,  present  or  interested.  acclamation.  4  orienteering w h i c h has while and  the  Greater  Thunderbird  t o be  Orienteers  B r i t i s h Columbia.  I t has  of  the  are  Columbia at years.  an  Club  the  merely  an  existence  are of  have  folded  North Shore t o become  the  the  clubs  similar  executive  befits  Orienteers  1985.  structure the  face-  moment, a number  body w h i c h u n i t e s  r o l e s t a k e n much more s e r i o u s l y , as  here  functioning  (GVOC) i n  d i f f e r e n c e that  a  member-at-  a matter  the  forces  executive  and  i s used  Some c l u b s  joined  ability  including  members who  approximately eight  in B r i t i s h  the  made i n i n f o r m a l ,  E l e c t i o n s tend  co-ordinating  with  has  any  Vancouver O r i e n t e e r i n g  clubs,  are  have merged; f o r example,  OABC i s t h e  the  decisions  f l u c t u a t e d over the  others  often  hundred  officially  "officially"  a consensus of  There are clubs  secretary,  time.  orienteering.  being  executive  committee c h a i r s ,  executive  the by  elected  term  in  this  f r o m s i x t o one  existence  treasurer,  The  i n p r a c t i c e , the  paper,  An  although  Columbia before  in size  for their  of  each c l u b .  i n 1974,  organizational unit  vice-president,  administers because  basic  main c r i t e r i a  as w e l l  founded  in British  o r i e n t e e r i n g meets.  president, large,  OABC was  existed  i s the  in B r i t i s h  to host  nation.  to  of that  positions  a body w h i c h  F o r example, G r e g G i l l i s m e n t i o n e d t h a t he o n l y r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t he i s o f f i c i a l l y an e x e c u t i v e member o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r O r i e n t e e r i n g C l u b (GVOC), h a v i n g been e l e c t e d months b e f o r e . T h i s i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e r o l e o f an executive p o s i t i o n o f t e n c a r r i e s l i t t l e w e i g h t i n an o r i e n t e e r i n g o l u b . 4  e x i s t s mainly newsletter  to administer.  e d i t o r , Peter  OABC were b o t h history, regular  Cawley  interviewed  OABC f u n c t i o n e d basis,  emphasized  for this  observing  i n the European  Greg G i l l i s ,  (who i s a l s o a p a s t study.  much a s a c l u b ,  but a f t e r  (when he was p r e s i d e n t  The p r e s i d e n t ,  that  and t h e  president) of  For a period  5  hosting  in its  meets on a  such bodies a r e de-  orienteering hierarchy,  o f OABC) made a p o l i c y  Peter  Cawley  shift.  A l l the a c t i v i t y , the sport, the s o c i a l i z i n g , the a t h l e t i c i s m , and t h e c a m a r a d e r i e s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e a t a club l e v e l . The OABC s h o u l d be t h e r e t o be a b e a n counting, p a p e r - s h u f f l i n g , money-grabbing kind o f c o o r d i n a t i n g body. And s o i t ' s l u r c h e d and s t u m b l e d i n that d i r e c t i o n since then. Ideally i t ' s functioning when i t ' s p r o v i d i n g c o m m u n i c a t i o n between t h e member c l u b s and w i t h p a r a l l e l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and when i t ' s g e t t i n g and d i s b u r s i n g c o r p o r a t e and g o v e r n m e n t a l f u n d s t o t h e member c l u b s . 8  Above OABC i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e Orienteering provincial  Federation  (COF), which f u n c t i o n s  associations,  oversee n a t i o n a l  hierarchy  set national policies  championships,  (a group o f t o p o r i e n t e e r s  administer  i s the Canadian to coordinate the and p r o c e d u r e s ,  the n a t i o n a l  from which the n a t i o n a l  team i s  d r a w n ) , and l i a i s e  with the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Orienteering  (IOF)  bodies  and p a r a l l e l  executive staff  structure  and o f f i c e  similar  to that  countries.  Federation  I t h a s an  o f OABC, a s w e l l  a s some  space.  OABC h a s no o f f i c e both  i n other  squad  i n the past.  Until  s p a c e and no s t a f f ,  a few y e a r s ago, OABC r e n t e d  5  T h e s e a r e n o t t h e r e a l names o f t h e  8  OABC  2(a).  although  i t has had space i n  interviewees.  92 the  "Sport  the  offices  BC" b u i l d i n g  of the sport ministry are located), j u s t  t o keep a c u p b o a r d work s p a c e , costly  ( a p r o v i n c i a l government b u i l d i n g  full  along with  of records other  enough room  i n , as w e l l a s a s h a r e  sporting bodies.  s o t h e OABC e x e c u t i v e d e c i d e d  to give  But t h i s i tup.  where  7  i n some  s p a c e was  The  c u p b o a r d was moved t o P e t e r C a w l e y ' s basement, where i t has s a t ever  since.  As r e g a r d s  a permanent, f u l l - t i m e and  i t s own r e s o u r c e s  occasion well  OABC h a s n e v e r employed  b a s i s , although  assistants.  Nevertheless,  position  to convince  the executive i s t o do t h e  v o l u n t e e r s , and  t o fund  one s u c h  i n the near f u t u r e .  OABC's n a t u r e tempered  t h e government  grants  mappers and on  paid s t a f f  and t i m e - c o n s u m i n g work w h i c h e x h a u s t s  been t r y i n g  anyone on  u s i n g government  i t has f r e q u e n t l y h i r e d  aware o f t h e a d v a n t a g e o f h a v i n g  routine has  executive  staff,  as a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , l i k e  by some f a c t o r s .  MADD's, i s  With r e f e r e n c e t o v o l u n t a r y c h a r a c t e r ,  OABC c o u l d be s e e n a s an a s c r i b e d a s s o c i a t i o n , b e c a u s e one c a n n o t join  an o r i e n t e e r i n g c l u b  OABC a s w e l l ( a l o n g w i t h However, t h e r e other  than  in British  t h e COF and t h e I O F ) ,  i s no measure f o r c i n g  the f a c t  Columbia without  a person  t h a t meet f e e s a r e h i g h e r  and v i c e to join  OABC  versa.  8  a club,  f o r non-members.  Nobody u n d e r t h e age o f f o u r t e e n c a n i n d e p e n d e n t l y  7  joining  compete  in a  l:2(a).  Under a p r e v i o u s OABC p o l i c y , one c o u l d j o i n OABC d i r e c t l y f o r a lower f e e , but t h e c l u b s l o b b i e d s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n t o change. 8  93 meet, b u t a c h i l d  can p a r t i c i p a t e as p a r t  of a family  or group  membership. There are f i v e family,  two t y p e s o f a s s o c i a t e  membership. paid  An a s s o c i a t e  or a club,  paid  a larger fee f o r the f u l l Honorary  p e r s o n s who have g i v e n orienteering.  that  consensus r a t h e r  Columbia clubs the  executive  isstill  than  i s drawn m a i n l y  membership  i s minimal. itself  mandate, b u t i s n o t a w h o l l y  8  OABC 1:3.  of acclamation  i n OABC, i n p r a c t i c e  s i t u a t e d on t h e Lower  because subsidy  within  implemented  While a l l B r i t i s h  8  f o r t r a v e l to  the areas p r e s c r i b e d  independent  association,  by i t s  its policy  o f t h e COF and IOF, and by  OABC i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y f u n d e d by t h e  C o l u m b i a g o v e r n m e n t , and i t s e x e c u t i v e  degree of a n x i e t y  on  among t h e c l u b t o  r u n on t h e b a s i s  p a r t l y shaped by t h e p o l i c i e s  British  i s conferred  s e r v i c e t o OABC and t o  from c l u b s  meetings  p r o v i n c i a l government.  which  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a l l i t s  through v o t i n g .  and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d ,  the  organization  and OABC, COF, and I O F .  Mainland  being  or other  ideally participate equally  OABC a d m i n i s t e r s  o r g r o u p who has  s t r u c t u r e , w h i l e more f o r m a l l y  of the clubs,  life  on OABC's m a i l i n g  Membership f e e income i s d i v i d e d  OABC's d e m o c r a t i c than  life  outstanding  w h i c h t h e member b e l o n g s ,  and  member may be a p e r s o n  youth group, s c h o o l  members a s a g r o u p .  OABC: i n d i v i d u a l ,  membership, and h o n o r a r y  a l e s s e r f e e f o r the p r i v i l e g e of being  list, has  t y p e s o f membership w i t h i n  about whether  this  funding  l i v e s with a  will  be s u f f i c i e n t ,  94 and  s p e n d s many e x t r a  hours o f labour  which t h e government r e q u i r e s Like has  voluntary in  to justify  MADD's, OABC's l i f e  n o t brought  cycle  the association  nature.  hierarchy  the  informality reigns.  c o m m i t t e e s and an i n c r e a s i n g  orienteering  hierarchy  inBritish  o t h e r s have been  more f o r m a l i z e d Within called bodies.  founded  longer  association,  staff  member,  However, when we association  i n the  t h a n MADD and, w h i l e  As t o t h e m a t t e r  Columbia e x i s t e d  i t may  "burn-out", i t of s a t e l l i t e s ,  b e f o r e OABC d i d ,  and t h e y have a l l grown and become o f OABC.  of voluntary  association",  I t sometimes f u n c t i o n s  (advocating  a permanent  at least) a national  under t h e i n f l u e n c e  the typology  a "social  level,  i s COF, n o t OABC, and COF h a s p a i d  o f c l o s i n g down.  some o f t h e c l u b s  i s its  h a s a number o f  become l e s s a c t i v e d u e t o v o l u n t e e r  shows no s i g n s  but  a t t h e lowest  i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g body  OABC h a s e x i s t e d  some p o i n t  the higher  membership, and ( a s a l r e a d y  MADD i s ( n o m i n a l l y membership,  at  of losing i t s  MADD i t has n o t y e t s u c c e e d e d .  with a large  employees.  while  OABC a l s o  mentioned) i t i s t r y i n g t o acquire  that  manner b u t  one g o e s , t h e more f o r m a l  and r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ,  consider  funding.  ina typical  to thepoint  structure  although unlike  began  this  t h e documents  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o observe that  the orienteering  club,  providing  associations,  OABC c a n be  a category which i n c l u d e s as a p o l i t i c a l  environmental c o n t r o l s )  activist  and a r e s e a r c h  but these are secondary functions  sporting  ( t o w a r d s maps)  f o r OABC.  95 II OABC d o e s n o t have t h e number o r a s s o r t m e n t other  organizations  of linkages  o f w h i c h MADD c a n b o a s t , b u t i t d o e s  have  some r e l a t i o n s h i p s w o r t h c o n s i d e r i n g .  Embedded  identity  of the o r i e n t e e r i n g  thus,  i s i t s place  the B r i t i s h  OABC, w h i c h component  Columbia o r i e n t e e r i n g  i n turn  o f IOF.  clubs  i s a component  with nearby clubs  orienteering countries.  a r e components o f  associations,  the i n d i v i d u a l club i s .  States  and A l b e r t a .  and w i t h s i m i l a r b o d i e s  Orienteering  Championships  orienteering  associations  from  also  bodies,  which together,  the B r i t i s h  in British  the P a c i f i c  associations.  A  involve Rim.  COF  co-operative  w i t h government  C o l u m b i a Summer Games e a c h association  Columbia  assistance  year.  f o r OABC and o t h e r  i n planning  t h e "Summer Games Committee".  of  w h i c h OABC i s a member i s t h e " O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n purpose of which  sporting  t h e summer games e a c h  is  the  as the  e x i s t s between OABC and o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l  A co-ordinate bodies  as w e l l  (APOC), w h i c h  a l l around  co-operates with other national  conduct  i n other  T h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e what makes t h e a f o r e -  Asia Pacific  sporting  OABC,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other p r o v i n c i a l  mentioned Western Canadian Championships p o s s i b l e ,  relationship  within  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among one a n o t h e r and  i n the United  has c o - o p e r a t i v e  sport;  o f COF, and t h e COF i s a  relationships, rather,  have c o - o p e r a t i v e  similarly,  clubs  i n i t s very-  OABC i s n o t t h e p r i m a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n  these componential The  i n the hierarchy  with  Another co-ordinate  i s t o promote outdoor  recreation  year  association Council", in British  96 Columbia. planning  OABC's c o n t a c t w i t h t h e f o r m e r stages  f o r t h e games, and w i t h t h e l a t t e r  an OABC member happens t o be on t h e b o a r d No e v i d e n c e relationship mention  was f o u n d  o f OABC h a v i n g  of i t s Ontario equivalent having that  competition  i t competes w i t h  bodies  unless  a competitive  such  although  t h e r e was  an a d v a n c e d  t h e COF i n some a r e a s , s o  i s c o n c e i v a b l e f o r OABC.  compete w i t h s i m i l a r  minimal  of d i r e c t o r s .  w i t h any o t h e r g r o u p a t p r e s e n t ,  administration such  i s r e g u l a r during the  A t t i m e s OABC may  t o host n a t i o n a l  also  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  championships. OABC d o e s n o t p a r t i c i p a t e relationship  with  in a  lobbyist-institution  any o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ,  a l t h o u g h member c l u b s may l o b b y OABC f o r p o l i c y may l o b b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t The The  sponsors  e n a b l i n g communication, sanctioning  their  are being planned standards.  the a c t i v i t i e s distributing  In turn,  i s important  of i t s clubs  t o OABC.  through  f u n d i n g , and o f f i c i a l l y  t o p - l e v e l meets, t h a t i n accordance  o r OABC  f o r increased funding.  sponsor-beneficiary relationship  association  changes,  is, certifying  with accepted  that  they  orienteering  OABC r e c e i v e s s p o n s o r s h i p f r o m t h e  p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t and a number o f c o r p o r a t i o n s , w h i c h g i v e financial companies,  support  provincial  F o r example, b o t t l e d  compass makers, and a i r l i n e s  g o o d s and s e r v i c e s Since  and o t h e r s e r v i c e s .  have a l l p r o v i d e d  water  their  t o w a r d s m a j o r . m e e t s f o r OABC.  orienteering  associations  and t e r r i t o r i a l  i n Canada r e f l e c t i t s  boundaries,  a  merger between two o f  97 them i s v e r y possible other are  unlikely.  and have o c c u r r e d .  s p o r t i n g body  fordifferent As  clear,  principally  with  services, through  i t s mail  slot  tailored  long),  Sport  i s funding,  shop,  space t o  the a s s o c i a t i o n reduced  other  mailing  costs  BC's most s u b s t a n t i a l  which  i tprovides  awkward, b e c a u s e  o f s p o r t i n g body.  Every  1  0  t h e coming y e a r  and  omitting  year  i n a manner i t i s not  form  OABC i s r e q u i r e d  ( s e v e r a l pages  an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an o p e r a t i n g  and i s r a t h e r  for  OABC  BC has r e n t e d  to give  o u t a "program d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n "  changes a n n u a l l y  0  Sport  who meets  a s s o c i a t i o n ' s s t r u c t u r e and n e e d s , b u t r a t h e r t o  form  "silly".  i t s department  consultant",  to i t s print  members a l w a y s f i n d  essentially  Gillis,  OABC  room, and t h e u s e o f i t s m a i l i n g a d d r e s s and a  to this  a generalized fill  and i t c o n t i n u e s  however,  OABC e x e c u t i v e  role.  Columbia M i n i s t r y o f Tourism,  and more s p e c i f i c a l l y  f o r correspondence.  contribution,  1  i n f l u e n c e on t h i s  t h e OABC e x e c u t i v e .  such as a c c e s s  abundantly  i n the sponsor-beneficiary  the B r i t i s h  and C u l t u r e ,  OABC i n t h e p a s t ,  to  strong  BC" and i t s "government s p o r t  regularly  mail  d i s c u s s i o n o f OABC makes  has a v e r y  r e g u l a r l y with  "Sport  mandates  sports.  government  Recreation,  OABC i s u n l i k e l y t o merge w i t h any  i n B r i t i s h Columbia because t h e i r  the preceding  association, deals  However, m e r g e r s between c l u b s a r e  This using  complicated  and, t o q u o t e  which Greg  form always r e q u i r e s a d e t a i l e d budget c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h do n o t r e f l e c t  c a t e g o r i e s which would.  l:2(a).  grant,  F o r example, mapping  OABC, i s one  98 o f OABC's g r e a t e s t into  expenses, but because  any o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s  refuses  t o fund  i t does n o t a p t l y f i t  i n t h e budget, t h e government  this activity.  OABC o f f i c i a l s  maps a r e t h e p l a y i n g  facility  fields  teams and swimming p o o l s  are to soccer  t o no a v a i l . "office  i s that  and r e q u i r e s  members i n e a c h  of  S p o r t BC d i v i d e s that  i n order  and t h e r e f o r e  year  interim  an " a n n u a l r e p o r t " ) . projects,  The t i m e ,  and  reports  applications  s u c h a s mapping o r h o s t i n g  effort  process  i s resented  through  i t s demands, t h e p r o v i n c i a l government  an  u n s a t i s f y i n g l y large  degree".  eight  fifty  l e v e l of  Once a b u d g e t throughout (the latter  are submitted f o r an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  and f r u s t r a t i o n expended  by OABC, and b o t h  into  a r e none i n one  o f expenses  year-end  Grant  areas.  have a t l e a s t  i t does n o t q u a l i f y .  the  and p r o v i d e  i n other  500 members, t h e r e  been a p p r o v e d , OABC must keep t r a c k  meet.  t o water p o l o , b u t  to q u a l i f y f o r the highest  has  specific  j u s t as p l a y i n g  the province  an a s s o c i a t i o n  w h i l e OABC has o v e r  the sections  being  that  S p o r t BC wants i t s f u n d s t o be s p e n t m a i n l y on  1 1  Another problem  funding;  have a r g u e d  f o rorienteering,  work", b u t OABC's n e e d s a r e g r e a t e r  sections,  usually  interviewees  throughout felt  this  that  c o n t r o l s OABC " t o  1 2  Ill OABC has e i g h t nature  activities,  t o some o f MADD's:  1 1  OABC  2(a).  1 2  OABC 1:3.  h a l f of which a r e s i m i l a r i n  holding  meetings,  conducting  promotion  (this  c o r r e s p o n d s t o MADD's " o r g a n i z i n g p u b l i c i t y " ) ,  co-ordinating  and  communicating  p r e p a r i n g maps, p l a n n i n g and meets, and conduct The  training.  which  generally  or c r e a t e  i s integral  changes e v e r y time  i t i s held  headquarters  t o OABC's c e n t r a l  event,  but  an  is invariably rural  OABC h o l d s t h r e e k i n d s o f m e e t i n g s  bound  t o be  October  may  held  championships.  reports,  various  clubs,  a new  minutes.  and  any  Soon a f t e r  At t h i s  be  held  list  c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the  considered meetings  A  but i s or  provincial  the o u t g o i n g e x e c u t i v e t h e c l u b s make  AGM  t h e AGM,  and  o t h e r b u s i n e s s members w i s h  g e n e r a t e s agendas, r e p o r t s , and  closely  linked  some meet r u l e  to  and  to i t , i s the  (APM), a t t e n d e d o n l y by OABC and  meeting  to  c h a n g e s may  club  be  agreed  list.  i s a c a l e n d a r of e v e n t s f o r the upcoming y e a r ,  throughout  coordinated,  i n a park.  cause,  upon, b u t t h e main b u s i n e s s i s a r r a n g i n g a f i x t u r e s A fixtures  venue,  i n September  executive i s elected,  policy  The  Planning Meeting  officials.  t h e meet,  on a r e g u l a r b a s i s .  time w i t h j u s t  t h e AGM  t o them.  outdoor  area, often  General Meeting  At  to  m a j o r e v e n t s f o r t h e coming y e a r a r e awarded  i s discussed.  Annual  a t any  as an A n n u a l  makes i t s r e p o r t s ,  raise  held  of each y e a r , u s u a l l y  orienteering  their  be  in  from which  the r e c o r d s r e l a t i n g  a w i l d e r n e s s o r an untamed  g e n e r a l meeting  non-members,  h o s t i n g meets, p a r t i c i p a t i n g  OABC has no  these a c t i v i t i e s  setting  w i t h members and  fundraising,  t h e p r o v i n c e i n an  equitable,  and  which  agreeable to a l l clubs.  a r e m a i n l y meets and  are held  arrangement  training  to plan p a r t i c u l a r  events.  activities  The  to  is events  Other p l a n n i n g throughout  the  100 year,  but these are mainly a t the club  generate is  minutes  and f i x t u r e s  the e x e c u t i v e meeting,  times  a year  lists.  records.  A l l these meetings  Conducting  cheques.  promotion  orienteering  the sport  require  travel  itself;  than  i s integral  of meeting four  combines  t h e same k i n d s  on t h e p a r t o f travel  receipts,  t o t h e aims o f OABC b u t n o t  i t i s therefore less  t o MADD, f u n c t i o n i n g m a i n l y  and t o u p c o m i n g e v e n t s .  important to attract  to this people to  OABC p u b l i s h e s f i x t u r e s  flyers  lists  and i n t r o d u c i n g t h e for particular  ( u s u a l l y drawn up by t h e c l u b s h o s t i n g them), and a  newsletter;  i t also  publications.  news r e l e a s e s association incentive  and r e l a t e d  and e n c o u r a g e s  offers  presentations,  OABC i s r e g u l a r l y demonstrations,  OABC l : l ( a ) ,  these  in National Orienteering produces  i n t e r v i e w s by t h e news m e d i a .  a modest j u n i o r  and community g r o u p s ,  3  and mock-ups t o w a r d s  t o t h e s e and o t h e r e v e n t s ,  f o r young p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  correspondence.  school  creates drafts  OABC has a l s o p a r t a k e n  Week p r o m o t i o n s ,  1  meetings  1 3  in general, teaching materials,  events  This  and g e n e r a t e s  ( m a i n l y f o r members), p a m p h l e t s a d v e r t i s i n g sport  kind  and t h e r e f o r e t h e y a l s o g e n e r a t e  e x p e n s e c l a i m s , and  association  The f i n a l  (according to i t s constitution).  OABC o f f i c i a l s ,  to  Planning  w h i c h OABC must h o l d a t l e a s t  a s p e c t s o f t h e o t h e r two m e e t i n g s , of  level.  s p o r t s promotion and t h i s g e n e r a t e s  The  b u r s a r y as c h e q u e s and  requested to give  and p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s t o  sometimes a l s o  1:3, and 2 ( b ) .  running  "mini-meets"  101 for  their  benefit.  1 4  On s u c h o c c a s i o n s p h o t o g r a p h s  displayed,  although orienteering  understood  through photographs;  maps, s e l e c t e d  t o show t h e i r  may be  i s not a s p o r t which a more c o m m u n i c a t i v e  variety  i s easily display i s  and t h e way mapping  s t a n d a r d s have changed  o v e r OABC's h i s t o r y .  promotional a c t i v i t i e s  may n o t be r e c o r d e d o u t s i d e OABC  important  ones may be m e n t i o n e d  D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n s and A n n u a l  As w i t h MADD, many  1 5  i n the association's  Program  R e p o r t s t o S p o r t BC.  OABC has two main t a r g e t s  f o rfundraising,  and i t s membership.  these being the  provincial  government  soliciting  t h e g o v e r n m e n t f o r money, t h e a s s o c i a t i o n  In the p r o c e s s o f generates  Program Development P l a n s , o t h e r g r a n t a p p l i c a t i o n s , reports the  i n c l u d i n g Annual  form o f f e e s  Reports.  collected  Funds r a i s e d  from c l u b s ,  based  forms  in triplicate  OABC, and C O F ) , membership receipts  lists,  on t h e number o f  ( f o r the relevant  which club,  c h e q u e s , and  s e n t t o members f o r income t a x p u r p o s e s . The COF i n t u r n  also generates b i l l s ,  correspondence,  s o u r c e o f income,  meet f e e s , spent  a process  correspondence,  demands a p e r c e n t a g e f r o m OABC b a s e d  Another  and v a r i o u s  f r o m members t a k e  members i n , and u s e o f OABC maps by, e a c h c l u b , c r e a t e s membership  minutes,  a part  in creating  new maps.  1  4  OABC  1  5  OABC 2 ( b ) .  cheques,  and r e c e i p t s .  again channelled through the clubs, i s  o f which  (commonly r e f e r r e d  on i t s membership, and t h i s  i s i n t e n d e d a s a "map l e v y " Statistical  reports  from  t o a s "meet s t a t s " ) a r e r e q u i r e d  l:l(a).  t o be t h e meets  b y OABC s o  102 that  i t can b i l l  OABC a l s o  solicits  corporations, In  the c l u b s ,  money t o w a r d s  which  company w h i c h producing has  produces  cheques,  and  Co-ordinating  and  OABC n e w s l e t t e r Due  training  communicating  West  community, and  on  the f i n a l  to issue  Cawley's  16  an  1 8  on  a president's  v i e w would  just  of notes,  w i t h members and  non-members  through correspondence i n and  newsletters.  The  by P e t e r C a w l e y , and i t  board"  on  f o r u p c o m i n g meets,  items of i n t e r e s t  a "journal  of record"  and  a holding  wish to include.  letter  culled  from  f o r meets  Cawley c o m p i l e s  at h i s work-place,  floppy disc  b u t may  in a casino,  OABC  f u n d i n g , t o s u p p l y news o f t h e  to pass t o be  the  of r e p o r t s .  the c r e a t i o n  letters,  i s edited  the micro-computer draft  some f o r m  and p a r t l y  available  i t e m s he has n o t u s e d used  and  i s , t o p r o v i d e meet r e s u l t s ) .  newsletter  receipts.  reports.  president's  e v e n t s , and  other p u b l i c a t i o n s , (that  and  them t o a c q u a i n t a n c e s ,  involve  to provide a " b u l l e t i n  orienteering  cheques,  to p a r t i c i p a t e  this will  financial  the form of n o t i c e s ,  selling  cheques  done a t m e e t i n g s ,  functions  from  e n t e r t a i n m e n t coupon b o o k s ,  them and  correspondence,  is partly  events  forthcoming.  i n v o l v e s b u y i n g a number o f t h e s e b o o k s f r o m  as MADD has done, and  only  sold  r e c e n t l y made a r r a n g e m e n t s  forms,  certain  g e n e r a t i n g correspondence,  r e c e n t y e a r s OABC has  activity  but these are not always  the and p r e s e r v e s  file  of  A past  president  t o membership, w h i c h  have more a p p r o p r i a t e l y been p a r t  any  in  of the  T h e s e o f f e r d e d u c t i o n s f r o m t h e c o s t o f g o o d s and s e r v i c e s at v a r i o u s b u s i n e s s e s , mostly r e s t a u r a n t s .  103 newsletter. own  A current  admission,  basis  he  has  i t i s supposed  necessary  newsletter been t o o  Communication  busy to  to f o l l o w .  for a l l this  problem  1 7  i s that,  issue  The  i t on  membership  correspondence to reach  which occurs  i n f o r m a l l y and  by  Cawley's  the  quarterly  list  is  i t s destinations.  orally  a t meets g o e s  unrecorded. Preparing orienteering;  maps ( o r Peter  "mapping") i s c e n t r a l t o  Cawley says  the  sport  of  that  P e o p l e who do t h i s s p o r t ... can be any l e v e l o f f i t n e s s o r a c t i v i t y o r o u t d o o r a w a r e n e s s , b u t you have t o be a n u t f o r maps, so t h a t becomes t h e document upon w h i c h we a l l f o c u s . 1 8  Maps a r e are  f a m i l i a r documents i n our  distinctive.  They are  s o c i e t y , but  f a r more d e t a i l e d and  r o a d maps, h a v i n g a much l a r g e r s c a l e scales  are  standard IOF  t y p i c a l ) covering  colours  standards.  and  lines  the  P a t h s and  map.  reaching  o r i e n t e e r needs to route not  (so  as  follow  the  maps a r e  forest  fairly  know t h e i r  symbols,  exact  ink, white  OABC  2(a).  1 8  OABC  2(b).  well  as  top  than  to the  their  about a r o u t e  drawn  i n brown  can  to  several  bottom  of the  approximate which  ink, water  f o r c l e a r i n g s or  f o r e s t where you  five  a l l according  p r e c i s e l y , because  rather  i s used  as  than  1:15,000  a l w a y s marked w i t h  drawn v e r y  Contours are  open a r e a s o f  7  area,  s t r a i g h t from the  roads are  path).  with blue  1  small of  precise  (1:5,000 and  t o make i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n s  indicated --  a very  a s p e c i a l set  Orienteering  longitude  o r i e n t e e r i n g maps  go  may is  "runnable through i t  104 at  reasonable  shades  speed"  indicating  -- g r e e n  levels  as roads  and  IOF s y m b o l s  1  "indistinct and  9  trail,"  "distinct  describing The  f o r thick  and b u i l d i n g s ) , indicate  "marsh,"  "form  v e g e t a t i o n boundary"  such  t h i n g s as " l a r g e  line,"  "depression,"  on t h e map, w i t h  process  o f making a map i s l o n g , e x p e n s i v e ,  OABC has a p o l i c y  of commissioning  under t h e d i r e c t i o n  step  i s t o a c q u i r e a government  send  i t t o a c a r t o g r a p h i c company t o p r e p a r e  not  v e r s i o n (and thus,  prepared  volunteers or people  twice  the s c a l e ) .  The s e c o n d  hired  They take  step  a b a s e map  OABC  suitable  the size  of the  OABC one, may be u s e d  i s f o r a group o f  and w a l k t h e r e l e v a n t  area  an a i r p h o t o o r an i n a c c u r a t e o l d  i n v o l v e s "pace c o u n t i n g "  go a l o n g  on t h e  and f r e q u e n t  and i t t a k e s many, many h o u r s t o c o m p l e t e .  c o r r e c t i o n s may be marked  9  first  A p r e - e x i s t i n g map  map may have m i s s e d , making c o r r e c t i o n s a s t h e y  compass b e a r i n g s ,  The  a c o p y o f a s m a l l s e c t i o n o f t h e map,  f o r a l l the d e t a i l s  Fieldwork  and  i n map-making, t o c o n d u c t  perhaps t a c k i n g i t t o a small board,  1  legend  on c o n t r a c t , a l l w i t h o r i e n t e e r i n g  and some t r a i n i n g  "fieldwork".  map d r a f t .  "knoll,"  a i r p h o t o g r a p h o f t h e a r e a and  f o r o r i e n t e e r s , o r an o u t d a t e d  as a b a s e map i n s t e a d .  checking  a  trail,"  f o u r new maps a  o f i t s "Map C o - o r d i n a t o r " .  o r i e n t e e r s , g e n e r a l l y a m y l a r map f o u r t i m e s  experience  f o r anything  as w e l l as f o r b o u l d e r s  year  final  (different  them b e i n g p r i n t e d i n t h e c o r n e r .  complicated.  for  forest  o f t h i c k n e s s ) , and b l a c k  man-made ( s u c h cliffs.  i s used  l:l(b).  i n any c o l o u r , b u t l a t e r t h e  The  105 fieldworker  will  c o p y o f t h e map. corrected then  turned  over  be  meet.  immediately,  sent  map.  for.  to the club  orienteering  20  t o a p r i n t e r by  which  i s hosting  Of c o u r s e , most o f them w i l l n o t  and t h e s e a r e s t o r e d  f o r use a t a f u t u r e  When a l l t h e maps o f a p r i n t i n g a r e u s e d up, t h e b a s e map  may be r e p r i n t e d , b u t more l i k e l y map i s i m p r o v e d oversights,  a b e a v e r dam.  and  Greg G i l l i s  times greater new m a p . In  i s done and t h e  of mistakes,  asserts  that  a meet w i l l  i f people  thing  forest  fires,  f o r orienteers,  have a t h r e e  know i t i s g o i n g  or four to present  2 2  funding,  used.  t o take account  A new map i s a d e l i g h t f u l  attendance  order  includes  and u p d a t e d ,  new f i e l d w o r k  and t h e c h a n g e s wrought by new r o a d s ,  or  for  by somebody, and o n l y  and one o r two t h o u s a n d map p r i n t s a r e  meet t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d needed  base  to a clean  has been c o m p l e t e d , t h e  t h e l a r g e m y l a r b a s e map i s t a k e n  T h e s e maps a r e t h e n  2 1  colours  t o a p r o f e s s i o n a l or experienced  map c o - o r d i n a t o r ,  made.  again  f o r making a p e r f e c t e d  Finally,  the  When a l l t h e f i e l d w o r k  b a s e map may be c h e c k e d  cartographer  the  t r a n s f e r them i n t h e s t a n d a r d  t o make a new map, a c l u b sending a request  a d e t a i l e d plan  Ibid.  0  2  1  OABC  2(a).  2  2  OABC  l:l(b).  which  be c o m p l e t e d and  submits a l i s t  to the treasurer,  2  t o t h e OABC  t o t h e Mapping C o - o r d i n a t o r  o f how t h e map w i l l  The mapping c o - o r d i n a t o r  mapping p r o j e c t s  must a p p l y  o f approved  and i f t h e t r e a s u r e r  accepts  a  106 it,  t h e mapping c o - o r d i n a t o r  w h e t h e r and  how  contributing certain  much OABC w i l l  the  total  amount p e r  work i s done, t h e  and  i s reimbursed are  Maps v a r y is  For  with  contours  also created  and  useful  individual  in relation  appropriate device  drafting.  the  quite different  area  because of the  and  coloured  maps s h o w i n g  they  only  such are  a  closer  seem new  and  interpretation  of  map-making i s a c r e a t i v e  o f mapping can  held  which  the  o r i e n t e e r t o pay  makes a f a m i l i a r  one  of  over  than  meet, b u t  be  noticed  in  in different  of t h i c k v e g e t a t i o n  from the  grant  first  deal  to read  among maps p r o d u c e d  concept  treasurer  a r e made t o t h i s day;  cartographers:  c r e a t i v e aspect  the  that t r a i n i n g  blue)  After  maps a r e p r i n t e d i n b l a c k  which f o r c e s the and  and  a  t o maps.  a great  to a competitive  Maps a l s o v a r y  v a r i a t i o n s which occur example,  reason  (brown and  mappers and  The  2 3  map  Contracts  have c h a n g e d  of the  to contours,  challenging.  act.  water  training  attention  b a s e maps, and  g r e a t l y f o r f o u r main r e a s o n s ,  i s part  maps a r e n o t  is  OABC c h e q u e s .  stating  generally  i t s r e c e i p t s to the  T h e s e maps a r e much h a r d e r  ones, which  For  c l u b sends  example, OABC's e a r l i e s t  white only.  t h e map,  c o s t o f a i r - p h o t o s and  t h a t mapping s t a n d a r d s  years.  fund  club n o t i f i c a t i o n  h o u r f o r f i e l d w o r k and  the  applications  sends the  in prairie  in B r i t i s h  the regions. Alberta  Columbia,  OABC l : 2 ( a ) . G i l l i s d e s c r i b e d an e x p e r i m e n t c o n d u c t e d i n F i n l a n d a few y e a r s ago, when f i f t e e n e x p e r i e n c e d mappers were a s k e d t o map t h e same s m a l l a r e a , and t h e r e s u l t s were a l l q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m one another. 2  3  107 therefore,  a map  area c o l o u r e d dark green  correspond  t o t h e same t y p e  does not  o f v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e two  F u r t h e r work must be done w i t h a map and  h o s t i n g a meet.  plotted,  each  of which  "control points" them on  one  cardboard  with s t r i n g s  from  b u s h e s and  punch ( a l s o  printed  the  threaded  termed  such  as  "82"  IOF  through  next  course  control on  step  t h e t o p so  a course  symbol  sheet  the a c t u a l  them  course i s  is for  those  i n the on w i r e and  the c o n t r o l  (or  orange be  is a  letters  or  hung paper  configuration  of  or  showing a concordance on  t h e map,  control,  which the c o n t r o l or  marking  connecting  t h e y can  marked w i t h  of  O r i e n t e e r s are given a small  as marked  "boulder",  14),  coloured white  Hung from  o r "V08".  or near  "path j u n c t i o n " , o r i e n t e e r s use  usually  i s permanently  identification  an  The  be  series  The  a "card s p i k e " ) with a unique  or p h o t o c o p i e d  landmark on  using  scanning.  other objects.  t h e number o f t h e letter  and  t h i s becomes a m a s t e r map.  versions),  Each c o n t r o l  numbers,  c o p i e s o f t h e map,  and  p l a c e s , c o n t r o l s b e i n g cubes of f a b r i c  red,  pins.  a numbered  i n p l a n n i n g t h e meet t o hang " c o n t r o l s "  designated cheaper  a s e t o f c o u r s e s must  ( u s u a l l y numbered between one  lines;  provinces.  when a c l u b i s p l a n n i n g  involves choosing  i n red f o r easy  involved  of a l l ,  of the p r i n t e d  with straight marked  First  necessarily  r a t h e r than w o r d s .  2 4  or  a description  i s located,  " b u i l d i n g NE  s h e e t where t h e  and  t h e number  between  corner".  such  of  as  Experienced  landmark  i s described  There  are four types  of  A c c o r d i n g t o G r e g G i l l i s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e c h a r t s and w o r k s h o p s w h i c h t e a c h t h e meaning o f t h e s y m b o l s , t h e main way t h e y a r e l e a r n e d i s t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e : "you go t o t h e l o c a t i o n 2  4  108 meets:  A,  actually  B,  and C m e e t s , and  a kind  measuring involved  up  to rigorous  to check  competition. competitor meets and  knows  a year,  submit given,  with  the club.  difficult best  in a  frequently.  often within meets are  be  year.  may  be  B meets and  by  one p e r s o n ;  also  are held  are generally  are entered  on  t o a l l members widely.  The  much  may  hold  advertised fixtures  and  advertising  i n the  by  of formal  t h e OABC  o f OABC,  As  Championships  are organized  a club  along  declared  hosted  Pacific  amount  has  t h e most  is  f o r that  as t h e A s i a  forms  the  runs  time  no  A  o f t h e meet  who  the least  more  approval  and  manner,  C meets  this  the person  four  out s a n c t i o n  i s also  championships  only  f i l l  the  so t h a t  sanctions  i n the shortest  such  plan  of t h e A meets  involve  B meets  even  OABC  event,  officials  f o r an A m e e t ,  after  Columbia  rigorous  a week.  are advertised  publicized  event  several  f o r the q u a l i t y  championships.  organized  a club,  event,  year,  C meets  as once  one  quality  carefully  clubs  f o r approval;  other  less  and  used  the hosting  year,  with  to expect.  in British  in a given  people  may  what  at this  earlier,  few  work  meets, which are  i s a high  IOF s t a n d a r d s ,  i s responsible  orienteer  the Canadian  A meet  i s always  championship  and  and  quite  Each  course  mentioned province  map  t o OABC  OABC  An  another's  f o r which  them  provincial  one  A new  been  the  o f A meet.  championship  only  a  more planning, these  as  only list,  A  championships takes  on t h e map a n d s e e w h a t ' s t h e r e , " o r a f t e r t h e m e e t o n e a n o t h e r o r i e n t e e r w h a t a s y m b o l m e a n s . [OABC l:2(a).]  the  form  can ask  109 o f meet f l y e r s , fixtures  lists.  Before  an  notice  requesting authority,  letter  received  granting  perhaps best  a fixtures list starting or  described  area  or  of  the  There s h e  instructions fixtures line,  and  and  list,  2 6  as  number o f card  f o r an  the  orienteer  of  the  goes to  signs  on  a  Saturday  except  giving  across  the  she  presents  a waiver  w i t h her  name and  wishes to  follow,  s q u a r e s and  entrance fee.  I f she  t o buy  to rent  her  address,  a whistle  a compass.  At  purposes, as w e l l  i s given  a  c o u r s e number,  does not  already  as  the  control in  have them,  ( i n c a s e she this  the  the r e g i s t r a r  insurance  and  finish  Following  h e r s e l f to  for  from  the  some f l a g g i n g s t r u n g s t a r t i n g area.  which  meet  and  signs  sent  one  flyers  signs,  p a r t i c i p a n t i s asked  a t any  cardboard  well,  or board w i t h v a r i o u s  as  a  another  of view of  receiving notice  s e e s a few  c o u r s e she  o r n e e d s h e l p ) and  point  season  card  for  must be  s u b - a c t i v i t i e s as  the  until  marked w i t h numbered  return the  the  land  2:00,  where she  a safety  the  10:00  of  out  t o use  i t i s used  held  on  fills  from  some more m a r k i n g t h e  race,  each time  is generally  well  the  correspondence.  meet, w h i c h  instructions the  other  After  a table  the  permission.  a meet f l y e r ,  Sunday f r o m a b o u t  winter.  this  i n a meet.  in  u s u a l l y a p a r k warden, and  a meet i n v o l v e s  participating  meets a l s o o c c u r s  permission  relevant  are  the  i s mapped, and  the  Hosting  of  Meets a l s o g e n e r a t e area  meet, a l e t t e r to  and  t i m e she  gets  lost  may  also  The a u t h o r w i l l use t h e f e m a l e p r o n o u n t h r o u g h o u t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , b e c a u s e i t i s b a s e d on h e r own e x p e r i e n c e , n o t b e c a u s e men do n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s p o r t o f o r i e n t e e r i n g . 2  5  110 be  g i v e n a map and a c o u r s e  to  go and c h e c k  expected  to record the course  course  for  t h e p u r p o s e ) o r pre-drawn t h e map u n t i l  goes t o t h e s t a r t i n g may be a l m o s t at  safety  (The s a f e t y  i f they've  begin  orienteer complete regular her  cards enable  time,  Then s h e  time,  marks t h e s a f e t y  c a r d and  and k e e p s t h e  a t any g i v e n that  are designed  of s k i l l  which  to s t a r t  t h e meet o f f i c i a l s  t h r e e hours,  A l l courses  the o f f i c i a l  devised  before s t a r t i n g .  starting  i n an hour o r l e s s . )  intervals,  form  i s nobody e l s e w i s h i n g  at the appropriate l e v e l them  printing  a r e o u t on w h i c h c o u r s e s  s e a r c h i n g f o r them.  A t an A meet,  t h e maps, and t h e c o m p e t i t o r  official  been o u t f o r o v e r  Near  w i t h which she  t o be g i v e n a s t a r t i n g  i f there  The s t a r t i n g  how many o r i e n t e e r s and  onto  card with the orienteer's card.  and d i r e c t e d  h e r own map.  immediately  official  immediate  t h a t moment.  control  onto  i s pre-printed (using a special  not given  case  r e d p e n s and p e n c i l s ,  the  is  in a plastic  i t a g a i n s t t h e m a s t e r map f o r h e r c o u r s e .  t h e m a s t e r map a r e s e v e r a l is  sheet  t o know time,  i t i s time t o so t h a t t h e  s h o u l d be a b l e t o  U s i n g a c l o c k which beeps a t  permits  the orienteer  to start  run a t the p r e s c r i b e d time. The  course, using  orienteer folding  i s easily  the square  h e r map scanned.  labelled  because t h i s  card  edge o f t h e map proceeds  s e t s o f f towards t h e f i r s t i n such  a manner t h a t  When s h e r e a c h e s  "1" on h e r c o n t r o l  control  the section  the c o n t r o l ,  card with  i s s t o r e d w i t h t h e map  control,  choosing  she i s  s h e marks  t h e paper  i n the p l a s t i c  i s a l s o marked w i t h p i n - p r i c k e d h o l e s .  t o t h e next  on h e r  punch;  c a s e , an She  t h e r o u t e which she  estimates  she c a n t r a v e l  Occasionally she  s h e may  "get l o s t "  becomes u n c e r t a i n how  although  s h e may  regaining  lost, the  her p o s i t i o n  with  the  know t h e g e n e r a l a r e a she i s i n .  Time  spent  h e r map  f o r the novice.  she p r o c e e d s  official  immediately  The o f f i c i a l  then  other  control  cards,  o r most p e o p l e  route. at  and t h e n  the  have f i n i s h e d  t h e meet  (OABC has t r i e d  to  on h e r c o n t r o l  t h e meet,  After  "post-  r o u t e c h o i c e s and o f t h e map  a p o t l u c k supper  i s over,  and  or lunch  t h e c l u b and t h e c o m p e t i t o r s  records of i t .  of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s  and i s a g a i n  these, because  The c l u b makes n o t e s  attempting  Meet r e s u l t s  may  concerning  i n t h e meet.  to e s t a b l i s h  a form f o r  i t has t o r e p o r t on meets t o COF, b u t  have n o t been v e r y c o n s i s t e n t i n s e n d i n g  date.)  sure  with the  an i n f o r m a l  and q u a l i t y into  card.  of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s .  compare t h e i r  continues  competitive s t a t i s t i c s  clubs  time  pub.  further  recording  be  and t h e f i n i s h i n g  t h e c a r d on d i s p l a y  f o r the viewing  Sometimes t h i s  After create  puts  and d i s c u s s t h e a c c u r a c y  a nearby  line,  t h e p u n c h c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t o make  mortem" t a k e s p l a c e , when t h e y results,  completely  t o w h i c h t h e compass may  w r i t e s the exact  are a l l c o r r e c t ,  occurrence,  When s h e has been t o a l l t h e  to the f i n i s h  checks  map,  and blow h e r w h i s t l e o r go t o  a road  o r i e n t e d and f o l l o w e d .  controls  i s a common  I f t h e o r i e n t e e r becomes  "safety bearing", usually  they  as o r i e n t e e r s o f t e n do, i n t h a t  she c a n g i v e up t h e c o u r s e  easily  and a c c u r a t e l y .  corresponds  "contact" with  especially  all  most s w i f t l y  in their  f o r a l l A meets a r e r e c o r d e d  results  i n the  112 newsletter.  The  making n o t e s  (perhaps  some o t h e r actually  details. form,  between  logs"  kept  appropriate membership  which v a r y  contours testing  one  and  formality.  a map  w a t e r ) and another's  they  they  and  8  OABC  qualify  and  keeping specific i n whatever  them f o r  a range of  training  as w e l l  as  has  certified  of achievement, compile  l:2(a).  go  (marked o n l y  informally.  c o a c h e s and  into with  But  "recreation  involving  as w e l l as p r o v i n c i a l their  lists,  badges team  activities.  training  flyers,  and  Clinics  i n these  events, the  are  meet o r g a n i z i n g , and  f o r achievement  in  training,  Program"  r e p o r t s to government.  a r e awarded  map  systems of  r e p o r t s on  in fixtures  sub-activities  various training exercises,  navigational skills  t o t e a c h mapping s k i l l s ,  2  to  i n championships,  i s created regarding these  a r e announced  certificates  they  ( f o r w h i c h t h e COF  have more a d v a n c e d  various levels  applications held  and  for a "Junior Participation  Correspondence  route  A g r o u p o f o r i e n t e e r s may  conduct  who  and  i n the  t h e map,  covers  or a s p e c i a l  instructors"  training,  squad"  certification  there are a l s o  for  time  keeps the r e c o r d s ) .  orienteering  especially  their  r e c o r d i n g a l l kinds of  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  in their  and  on  each year,  "national  and  t h e woods w i t h  each c o n t r o l  throughout  i n the  Training  to drawing  from  on  c o m p e t i t i v e r e c o r d s of o r i e n t e e r s ,  levels  responsibility  keep r e c o r d s , r a n g i n g  t h e b a c k o f t h e map)  or d i a r i e s ,  The  2 8  are  on  also  competitors' times,  took  "training  competitors  and  grant regularly  coaching, areas.  and  113 IV Three OABC: t h e systems, records  issues  remain  r o l e of and  the  t o be  officials  discussed  in their  a t t i t u d e s and  regarding  the  c r e a t i o n , the  records  filing  p r a c t i c e s which e x i s t  concerning  preservation.  W h i l e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n meets i s s o m e t h i n g e v e r y b o d y does,  and  general  m e e t i n g s and  attended,  the  m a i n l y by  officials.  administrative At  the  training  events are o f OABC a r e  club  the  level  at the  respected  Greg G i l l i s  much more c l o s e l y .  include supervising meetings, being  a  governing bodies, as w e l l  as  a l l the  liaison the  communicating and  successor,  keep t h e  and  constitution  to  the  other  reports,  sport  r e g u l a r l y with  with  the  and  the  president  has  s i g n i n g power f o r a l l c o n t r a c t s  records.  The  secretary's  Secretary's  Report  to  the  duties  executive  consultant, clubs  t o shape p o l i c y , t o  along  his  p r o v i n c i a l sport  association alive  also states that,  role i s described  by  find  and  very  a  active.  treasurer,  7  OABC l : l ( a ) ,  2 7  1:3.  The  the  financial w e l l by  the  AGM:  l : 2 ( b ) , and  and  means  G e n e r a l l y my j o b i n c l u d e d OABC m a i l o u t s (preparing, copying, f o l d i n g , s t u f f i n g , l a b e l l i n g , m a i l i n g ) , u p d a t i n g m a i l l i s t s [ w i t h the membership c o - o r d i n a t o r ] ... m a i l o u t s f o r o t h e r c l u b s , k e e p i n g t r a c k o f m a i l o u t s , a n s w e r i n g phone or m a i l r e q u e s t s by m a i l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and p h o n i n g , c o l l e c t i n g t h e m a i l and d i s t r i b u t i n g t o a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n s , s e t t i n g up  2  each  i t is  that  work o f OABC, s c h e d u l i n g  with  r o l e of  provincial level  p r o v i n c i a l government  of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  conducted  specific  stated  i n OABC  widely  activities  such p o s i t i o n i s b l u r r e d , but  COF,  of  1988  114 m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e Government C o n s u l t a n t and w i t h e x e c u t i v e , p r e p a r i n g a g e n d a s , p r e p a r i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e m i n u t e s , e v e n t s s c h e d u l i n g and preparation of f l y e r s , preparation with the Treasurer o f g o v e r n m e n t f u n d i n g g r a n t a p p l i c a t i o n s and a n n u a l report, ordering supplies, preparation of the Planning m e e t i n g , and who knows what e l s e ? ? ! 2 8  The  treasurer deals with  paying and  bills,  financial  audits.  The that was  ever  keeping  titles:  newsletter  editor,  and a r r a n g i n g roles  effectively  Sport  f o r semi-active  system  i s the f a c t  and i n a c t i v e  t h a t t o some e x t e n t ,  and n e v e r b r o u g h t  Officials  are completely  the f i l e s  together  free  each holder  successors.  o f each o f f i c i a l a r e  system,  records  and he s i m p l y  t o hand  their their  of t h i s files. files, files  s y s t e m may be d e v i s e d by predecessor  received h i s  t h a t he had a l r e a d y begun h i s own kept  the previous  h i spredecessor's  separate  ignored  is,  A p r i n t e d copy o f t h i s r e p o r t i s s t o r e d " l o o s e " , t h a t n o t i n a f i l e f o l d e r , i n t h e OABC p r e s i d e n t ' s box o f r e c o r d s . 8  i n t u r n found  records  and  2  them; G i l l i s  fail  Greg G i l l i s '  so l a t e  t h e o t h e r OABC  or rearrange  i f they  A new f i l i n g  of a position;  predecessor's  with  to cull  l i t t l e n o t i c e may be t a k e n to their  records  BC t o P e t e r C a w l e y ' s basement, and p r o b a b l y  i n t h e home o r w o r k - p l a c e o f e a c h s u c c e s s i v e h o l d e r  filing  budgets  mapping c o -  o f OABC's f i l i n g  s i n c e the cupboard  position,  on  the accounts,  i n OABC have s p e c i f i c  main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  even b e f o r e  and  such as  and s o on.  moved f r o m  kept  statements,  by t h e i r  ordinator,  affairs,  s u p p l y i n g c h e q u e s f o r OABC n e e d s , p r e p a r i n g  Other o f f i c i a l s  described  a l l the f i n a n c i a l  system  115 "bizarre" are  kept  related  and s t a r t e d  and how i s a m a t t e r  some o f whom k e p t  o t h e r s saw v e r y  his  hard  t o t h e many p e r s o n a l i t i e s  the y e a r s ,  file  y e t another  box o f p a s t living  few r e c o r d s  system.  2 9  to assess,  Thus, which being  closely  involved i n running  every  last  receipt  OABC  over  and l e t t e r ,  while  as b e i n g u s e f u l i n t h e l o n g run.  p r e s i d e n t ' s r e c o r d s which Greg G i l l i s  room f l o o r  records  contains f i l e s  with  A  k e e p s on  the f o l l o w i n g  labels:  correspondence p r e - '87 b u s i n e s s Outdoor R e c [ r e a t i o n ] C o u n c i l technical APOC [ A s i a P a c i f i c O r i e n t e e r i n g C h a m p i o n s h i p s ] A l b e r t a , j u n i o r s , badge, e t c . A l b [ e r t a ] meet f l y e r s sport r e c o g n i t i o n p o t e n t i a l members insurance constitution program d e v e l o p m e n t ] p l a n f r o m D.F. [ a p a s t p r e s i d e n t ] to d e a l w i t h S a t [ u r d a y ] 2 A p r i l articles f o rpresident's letter planning, executive The  box a l s o c o n t a i n s  a number o f l o o s e p a p e r s .  on h i s k i t c h e n t a b l e ,  Gillis  keeps h i s  current  files  and a l s o g i v e s some o f t h e  records  he c r e a t e s and r e c e i v e s t o t h e s e c r e t a r y , who k e e p s a  d r a w e r o f OABC r e c o r d s a t h e r w o r k - p l a c e . As system,  the reader  from t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n  of the f i l i n g  records p r e s e r v a t i o n i s not a high p r i o r i t y  f o r most OABC  officials few  o r members, and t h e r e c o r d s u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l  who do c a r e  2  9  3  0  can gather  3 0  OABC  represent  l:2(a).  Ibid.  o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e OABC  of the "fonds".  116 The  first  OABC p r e s i d e n t k e p t  ring binders  ... t h r e e b o x e s w o r t h " .  t h r o w s away a b o u t 90 p e r c e n t  correspondence  newspaper  clippings, s a y s he  he g e n e r a t e s  minutes,  as t h e  copies of a l l  and a p p l i c a t i o n s t o g o v e r n m e n t , and n o n - r o u t i n e  correspondence.  d i s c a r d s a l l items president,  ... i n t h r e e -  Greg G i l l i s  3 1  of the records  OABC p r e s i d e n t , s a v i n g m a i n l y  incoming  everything  complete with photos of events,  maps f r o m e v e n t s  current  "virtually  after  As n e w s l e t t e r  3 2  he h a s u s e d  Cawley attempted  some i m p o r t a n t  ones were  them.  to organize  editor,  Peter  Cawley  When he was  a l l the past  f i l e s , but  missing.  I t h i n k t h o s e a r e i n t h e hands o f p e o p l e who a t one t i m e o r a n o t h e r a t t e m p t e d t o do t h a t j o b , and i f we p u t a c a l l o u t we c o u l d p r o b a b l y r e t r i e v e a l o t o f i t , b u t t h o s e t h i n g s do t e n d t o go. What we're g r e a t i n , we have o u r o l d maps and we have a l l t h a t s o r t o f business. You c a n s e e we're n o t [ o r i e n t e d t o ] t h e business of our o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  maps a r e s t o r e d  the  c a b i n e t o f OABC r e c o r d s  mylar had  originals  p r i n t e d over  practice  preserved  the years. copies  (and o f every 3 3  and a l a r g e b l u e p r i n t box on t o p o f i n C a w l e y ' s basement, and i n c l u d e  and p r i n t e d c o p i e s o f most o f t h e maps OABC h a s  of donating  libraries Canada).  i n tubes  However,  Cawley, a t r a i n e d of every  newsletter  i t should  in libraries  librarian,  map t o a c o u p l e  makes a  o f map  t o the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of  be o b s e r v e d  a r e n o t marked w i t h  t h a t t h e maps t h e r o u t e s used a t  *  OABC 2 ( a ) . P h o t o g r a p h s a r e n o t t a k e n o r u s e d on a r e g u l a r b a s i s by OABC t h e s e d a y s , a l t h o u g h t h e y have been u s e d i n n e w s l e t t e r s and p a m p h l e t s . 3  1  3  2  OABC  3  3  OABC 2 ( a ) ; t h i s  l:2(b). also refers  to the preceding  quotation.  117 various  meets; s u c h maps, w h i c h a r e t r u e o r i g i n a l s ,  personal  property  preserved these  are the  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , and may o r may n o t be a l s o  p e r m a n e n t l y by t h e o f f i c i a l s  and c l u b s w h i c h  hosted  meets. There  i s some i n t e r e s t  preserving lives  among OABC members and o f f i c i a l s i n  the h i s t o r y of the a s s o c i a t i o n .  i n t h e K o o t e n a y s has c o l l e c t e d  earliest  records  Greg G i l l i s believes records  and i s p l a n n i n g  i s very  that  after  could  supportive  together  to write  come i n t o h i s hands, and he i s v e r y c o m p l e t e n e s s a s compared  to those  f e e l i n g s about e n c o u r a g i n g  "if  everybody s t a r t e d k e e p i n g books l i k e  practice  o f one c l u b  histories".  official  other  clubs  club  have  although  he  t o do t h e same;  t h i s we c o u l d  But G i l l i s  b e c a u s e he  their  o f h i s own c l u b ,  mixed  club  with  34  the i n a c t i v e  of a defunct  pleased  has  just  a h i s t o r y of OABC.  o f s u c h an i d e a , p a r t l y  The r e c o r d s  who  some o f t h e  a h i s t o r y has been w r i t t e n ,  be d i s c a r d e d .  apartment with  An o r i e n t e e r  fill  an  d e c r i e s the  he knows:  he's t a k e n r u l e d p a p e r , w r i t e s on i t by hand, and s t a p l e s i t t o g e t h e r , and c a r r i e s i t a r o u n d i n a p o c k e t . So i t ' s a l l f r a y e d and w r i n k l e d , and t h a t ' s g o n n a g e t tossed i n the garbage [ s o m e d a y ] . 3 5  Gillis well  feels  that better records-keeping  and p r e s e r v a t i o n , a s  as a c e n t r a l r e p o s i t o r y f o r t h e r e c o r d s ,  better  funding,  3  4  Ibid.  3  5  OABC  improved  1:3.  meet p l a n n i n g ,  would  lead to  and a g e n e r a l  a b i l i t y to  118 "learn  from h i s t o r y " .  he d o e s ,  would  take  that only other  orienteering British but  interviewees  and a r c h i v a l  archivists felt  neither believed that  much i n t e r e s t  i n the records  o r i e n t e e r s would  i s not l i k e l y  t o mainstream  stated  that  records  observed  Columbia.  care  about  s p o r t s and m e m o r a b i l i a .  i n h i s custody  during  t h e OABC  t h a t most o f OABC's r e c o r d s would  3  8  OABC l : l ( a ) ,  l:2(b),  3  7  OABC 2 ( a ) .  3  8  OABC 1:3 and 2 ( a ) .  3 8  and 1:3.  3 7  They  the history of that the  records,  institution i s Greg  h i s tenure,  t o COF, b u t b o t h  officials.  3 8  o f OABC.  P e t e r Cawley thought  t o happen b e c a u s e t h a t  i f OABC were t o f o l d  basements o f p a s t  feeling.  had some i d e a o f t h e n a t u r e o f  C o l u m b i a Museum o f S p o r t s m i g h t t a k e  this  t h e same way  repositories,  in British  geared  the  i n OABC a p p e a r t o f e e l  however none o f them has a c t e d upon t h i s  While both archives  Others  Gillis he would  he and C a w l e y languish i n the  send  CHAPTER  FIVE  ARCHIVAL ACQUISITION OF THE RECORDS OF VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS  The  central  archival  repositories  associations, records about  i s s u e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d should  acquire  here a r e whether  the records  and i f s o , w h i c h r e p o s i t o r i e s  o f w h i c h a s s o c i a t i o n s , and f i n a l l y ,  a c q u i r i n g these  of voluntary  should  preserve the  how t h e y s h o u l d go  records.  I This  thesis  significant mandated  t o t h e communities  to serve;  responsibility ability;  h a s shown t h a t v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e which a r c h i v a l  t h a t s o c i e t y has e n t r u s t e d  of preserving i t s records  and t h a t t h e r e  i s grave danger  t h e many a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h preserve  their  own a r c h i v e s .  archival  repositories  should  to a r c h i v i s t s the  to the best of loss  lack the resources These  repositories are  three  of t h e i r  of the records of and i n i t i a t i v e t o  f a c t s demonstrate  acquire the records  that  of voluntary  associations.  II The p r o b l e m o f w h i c h r e p o s i t o r i e s records  i s a complicated  individual of  repositories,  the e n t i r e  one, and w h i l e i t should  a r c h i v a l community.  119  should  acquire  i t mostly  be c o n s i d e r e d  which  r e l a t e s to first  i n terms  120 It  i s n a t u r a l and  acquisition society  i s best  approach. the  mainly  plan  can  clear  or  only voluntary  a s s o c i a t i o n s but policy  the  Blinkhorn  pertinence  l e a d the  work,  the  1  and  questions the  case  place  instead  a false  altered  archivists  1  be  at both  tempt  the  r e p o s i t o r y , but  Blinkhorn,  operated one  i n the "final  the p r o v i n c i a l  to argue t h a t  which  organizations.  i n terms of  the comes t o  of provenance  and  i n f l u e n c e and case  of  voluntary  product"  o f MADD's  MADD has  achieved  and  the n a t i o n a l  a s s o c i a t i o n has  had  might  this  112-116.  should  is a false  be  the  labours this level.  l e a d some  preserved  direction  art in  effect  level  i t s records  These  work o f  to consider  and  artist's  associations.  finished  archivist had  with  T h i s would b e n e f i t  of v o l u n t a r y  legislation,  the  particular,  a s t r a y when c o n s i d e r i n g an  said  for a l l  acquisition  of c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y  emphasis upon t h e  example,  government  national effect  national  and  o f where i t has  alteration The  same can  For  made a b o u t  that questions  i n t e r m s o f where i t has  associations. is  argued  archivist  of a r t i s t s ,  association  to the  i s considered  r e p o s i t o r y , the p r i n c i p l e  general  resulting  also other  individual  has  r e p o s i t o r y , but  responsibility  a c q u i r e which r e c o r d s .  When a c q u i s i t i o n  fore.  the  from the g e n e r a l  consider  a more  takes  s o c i e t y i t serves,  should  to  h i s own take  community  harmonious d e c i s i o n s b e i n g  repositories not  archival  of the  archivist  i f archivists  move l o g i c a l l y  and  f o r an  i n t e r m s of her  served  I f the  records  usual  to  by  take,  a  121 b e c a u s e most province.  o f MADD's o p e r a t i o n s  have o c c u r r e d  w i t h i n one  2  Blinkhorn  states that:  the p r i n c i p l e o f complementarity dictates for a r e p o s i t o r y t o a c q u i r e only those o r g a n i c groups o f records f o r which the r e p o s i t o r y i t s e l f o r other i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e a r e a have s u p p o r t i n g s o u r c e s , primary or secondary. Of c o u r s e , t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s v a l i d a l s o i n t h e c a s e o f a c q u i s i t i o n by r e p o s i t o r i e s h a v i n g a t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o r an i n s t i t u t i o n a l acquisition function. 3  Based  on t h e p r i n c i p l e  institution strong  with  links  of complementarity,  t h e r e p o s i t o r y o f an  w h i c h a v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n has e s p e c i a l l y  i s t h e most  appropriate place f o r i t s records  preserved.  T h i s way, t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s r e c o r d s w i l l  the  records  related  A business  of the repository's sponsoring  a r c h i v e s may p r e s e r v e  foundation,  or soccer  beneficiary  of the business.  preserve  the records  university,  team w h i c h was e i t h e r  and s o on.  the  records  and  f i n a n c e d by t h a t  A university  of a l l the student  as w e l l a s t h o s e  Women's C l u b ,  the records  t o be  complement  institution.  of a charity, a component  archives  societies  or a  should  of that  of the F a c u l t y Club, U n i v e r s i t y  A government  archives should  preserve  o f a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h have been h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d government.  The f a c t t h a t MADD i s , a t l e a s t n o m i n a l l y , a n a t i o n a l l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a b e t t e r r e a s o n f o r i t s r e c o r d s t o be p r e s e r v e d a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , b u t t h i s does n o t a l t e r t h e inadequacy o f t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f f e r e d above. 2  3  B l i n k h o r n , 116.  122 Many g o v e r n m e n t - s p o n s o r e d acquire  the records  of s i g n i f i c a n t  w h i c h have no d i r e c t absence o f other voluntary  be  acquired  mirrored  archivists belong For  a local  administrative records  This  records,  o f OABC i t s e l f  separate. records  club  practices, municipal In  and t h e i r  the event  o f Canada.  The  a s s o c i a t i o n s , but  the records  of associations  o f government r e p o s i t o r i e s .  that  they  should  may be s o c l o s e l y are meaningless  be p r e s e r v e d  Columbia A r c h i v e s  i n d e p e n d e n c e and good records  should  with  tied  to the  i f kept t h e OABC  and R e c o r d s  Service.  o f OABC; some o f  records-keeping  p e r h a p s be p r e s e r v e d  that  at local  t h e a s s o c i a t i o n i s l a r g e and w e a l t h y  i t s own a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y , t h i s n a t u r a l l y  u s u r p s t h e r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s acquire  Service,  archives.  enough t o s p o n s o r  to  could  and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s i s  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y true of a l l the clubs  them may have g r e a t  o f OABC  o f OABC may p r o d u c e v e r y few  and t h e s e  These r e c o r d s  at the B r i t i s h  levels  archives  and R e c o r d s  Archives  i n the s t r u c t u r e of voluntary  at the corresponding  example,  the records  provincial,  assume t h a t  o f many  by a g o v e r n m e n t  Columbia A r c h i v e s  of l o c a l ,  cannot b l i n d l y  agencies  r e p o s i t o r i e s , the records  o f COF by t h e N a t i o n a l  hierarchy  and  t h a t government, so i n t h e  F o r example,  by t h e B r i t i s h  the records  often  level.  a r e a l s o mandated t o  organizations  a s s o c i a t i o n s may be a c q u i r e d  the appropriate  government  l i n k s with  appropriate  at  and  archives  i t s records.  of a l l other r e p o s i t o r i e s  The  d i r e c t a c q u i s i t i o n of the records  associations solution  t o t h e need  associations  better  f o r improved  or committees  and o v e r s e e  the preservation  archives.  preservation;  and  associations  and t h e c r e a t i o n  idea; and  of s p e c i a l councils  there  i n New Y o r k a P h y s i c s  creator  of records  dies,  appropriate could  of s p e c i a l e x c l u s i v e , and  practiced  creator  i s n o t a new  i s a Business Archives  I n s t i t u t e , both of which  creators  and r e g u l a r l y  The N o r t h A m e r i c a n  Council, keep  intervene  d i r e c t i n g her, h i s , or i t s records  repository.  concerned  voluntary  and n a t i o n a l  archival  associations.  archivists,  but should  representatives membership. registry  committees concerned  when t h e  t o t h e most  u s e t h e s e a s m o d e l s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g permanent  provincial,  Using  aimed a t  or committees  o f one t y p e o f r e c o r d s  i n Great B r i t a i n  registries  the  co-operatively.  creation  with the records  voluntary  of t h e i r records;  i n d e e d would be most e f f e c t i v e i f t h e y were  The  of  These approaches a r e not m u t u a l l y  concurrently  of  are: the c r e a t i o n of  t o keep t r a c k  of a consortium of voluntary  records  one  a c q u i s i t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n  Three other p o s s i b i l i t i e s  councils  creation  voluntary  by e x i s t i n g a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s i s o n l y  these records. special  of  community local,  with the records  of  T h e s e c o m m i t t e e s would be l e d by also  have i n t e r e s t e d  from v o l u n t a r y  associations  They would be c h a r g e d  of a l l voluntary  researchers among t h e i r  with maintaining  associations  within  t h i s r e g i s t r y , s u c h a c o m m i t t e e would  and  their  an e x h a u s t i v e territories.  keep t r a c k  o f an  124 association with  the  records  and,  when and  retiring to the  i f i t ceases operations,  officials  and  repository.  c o m m i t t e e would m a i n t a i n  regular  associations  and  practices  among them.  repositories  their  The  of  one.  representatives particular  area,  community.  lieu the to  to  of d o n a t i n g  a l l the  The  be  would be  voluntary one  chances  "fonds",  of  but  choose to  composed  place  a  of  a s s o c i a t i o n s of  type  consortium  used  to hold  records,  a  of a s s o c i a t i o n ( f o r as  advisors  would  from  concentrate  the  the  could  records  archivist  records  in this  space.  all  records  of the  current  modest  The or  Whatever  space.  i n a c t i v e records  centre,  or  resources records  and  records,  In  other  f o r i t s e l f whether t o p o o l  i f possible.  hire a secretary,  work on  archival repository.  decide  office,  and  and/or s t o r a g e  and/or to s t o r e  them t o an  a shared  a l l three,  the  improve the  of a s s o c i a t i o n s i s a l s o  o r p u r c h a s e some o f f i c e  semi-active  consortium  —or  management  w h i c h most a s s o c i a t i o n s have f o r r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g ,  space could  create  the  voluntary  records  well-ordered  a s s o c i a t i o n s ) , as w e l l  them t o r e n t  store  only  the  that associations w i l l  or perhaps of  archival  This  and  a consortium  from  sports  use  not  Such a c o n s o r t i u m  example,  resources  with  their  in archival repositories.  concept  constructive  Ideally,  e n c o u r a g e good  r e c e i v i n g complete  records  contact  This w i l l  a l s o make i t more l i k e l y  contact  e n c o u r a g e them t o d i r e c t  most a p p r o p r i a t e  i n i t s area  make  in words,  resources  archival repository  might  a l s o be  manager t o c a r e  i s decided,  to  the  associations involved w i l l  found for  preservation be  improved.  the of  OABC, as  has  arrangement  been m e n t i o n e d , o v e r s e e n by  c o n s o r t i u m s of repository The  repositories  municipalities  possibility  for voluntary  sponsored  community a t  large  repositories, repositories are  S p o r t BC.  willing  because the  There are  by  the  should  i s the  creation  associations. associations work h a r d  to  to  acquire  records  t h o s e of  the  of  records  voluntary  of  an  importance  of  a p a r t i c u l a r type of  obviously  the  voluntary  important  Even to  associations community  a repository's  be  A type  resources.  themselves. find  r e f l e c t e d i n the organization  association, i f government  society  in favour  Special  a r c h i v a l community  of  should  parent  The  not of  be  archival  need  for  for  such  such  repositories  associations,  institution. serving  Returning  society  organization of  to the  at  large,  society archival  w h i c h p r o v e s s i g n i f i c a n t , as be  allocated  i n s t i t u t i o n s are  ample  considered  associations,  more  voluntary  c o n s i s t e n t l y neglected  by  the  archival  them.  r e p o s i t o r i e s mandated  to  voluntary  associations,  adapted.  Many r e p o s i t o r i e s w i t h good  theoretically  The  implied  must a l w a y s come  priorities  should  than v o l u n t a r y  as  sponsorship  associations  of  community.  These c o u l d ,  voluntary  concept  has  archival  special archival  e x i s t s even when g o v e r n m e n t - s p o n s o r e d  to  should  of  p a r t i c u l a r l y from government.  to  the  successful  i n Europe which share  second the  from a s i m i l a r  space.  final  above, be  once b e n e f i t t e d  acquire  the  records  whoever s p o n s o r s them, can  unsound mandates, c o u l d  resources, be  be  but  of  created vague  or  or  made more p u r p o s i v e  by  126 redirecting  their  aims t o a c e r t a i n t y p e  example,  t h e component  collects  a v a r i e t y of p r o v i n c i a l l y  on  of o r g a n i z a t i o n .  of a u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s which p r e s e n t l y relevant  economic a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e ,  already  has e x t e n s i v e  repository  holdings  i s especially  of union  created,  d e p e n d i n g on i t s r e s o u r c e s  records  records.  i t can take  and t h e e x i s t e n c e  records the  of p o l i t i c a l  records  When a s p e c i a l negotiate niche. and  with  special  existing  repositories to find  responsibilities  the records  r e p o s i t o r y should  some l o c a l  repository  basis;  need t o c o n v i n c e  at  a l l p o s s i b l e , those  in  the holdings  records  of e x i s t i n g  i t s appropriate scope  i n t h e hands o f a new  little  a s s o c i a t i o n s , the  opposition.  t o have a p o l i c y in this  case,  However,  of accepting  t h e new  special  them t o c e a s e t h i s p o l i c y .  of voluntary  associations  r e p o s i t o r i e s should  new r e p o s i t o r y whose mandate  involved  municipality.  t o narrow t h e i r  of voluntary  meet w i t h  on an i r r e g u l a r  will  or only  repositories i s specifically  r e p o s i t o r i e s are l i k e l y  such records  the  associations i n a given  I f none o f t h e l o c a l  to acquire  region,  r e p o s i t o r y i s e s t a b l i s h e d , i t should  some o f t h e i r  repository. mandated  or s t a t e , or only the  Some r e p o s i t o r i e s may be p l e a s e d  place  A repository  of a l l types of  action associations i n that  of voluntary  focus,  of other  to acquire  associations i n a province  i f i t  a similar  could  voluntary  focus  I f the  mandates w h i c h must be r e s p e c t e d . the records  could  especially  r e p o s i t o r i e s with be mandated  For  already  be t r a n s f e r r e d t o  encompasses them.  in establishing a special  If  r e p o s i t o r y should  Archivists bear i n  mind, however,  that  operation  from  other  standards  o f a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e , and  both of which take  they  will  only  receive respect  r e p o s i t o r i e s i f they by  earn  and  co-  i t through  proving  their  high  stability,  time. Ill  The  final  of v o l u n t a r y should  issue r e l a t i n g  a s s o c i a t i o n s i s the  proceed.  The  associations studied  the  acquisition  of  Acquisition  the  in this  records  should  begin  are  valuable  This  can  be  accomplished  the  advisory  voluntary style  same one  purpose of  associations. the  In  with  the  acquisition  is tailored  but  can  be  to  the  adapted  for  associations also. first  step  can  of a p p r a i s a l .  analyse  the  " e s s e n t i a l and help  o f an  as Booms s u g g e s t s . earlier  the  place  and  could  This  4  monitoring  s p o n s o r an  and  in-depth  committee  committee  chapter,  with  exploratory  of v o l u n t a r y Booms: 69-107.  a s s o c i a t i o n s has  of  records-survey  case s t u d i e s .  of e v a l u a t i o n ;  with  study  Co-operation  r e p o s i t o r i e s throughout North America task  the  voluntary  in conjunction  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n i t s community, u s i n g and/or  characteristic".  advisory  in this  a d d i t i o n , a r e p o s i t o r y --  i n v a l u a b l e f o r the  4  with  registering  questionnaires  analyses  of o t h e r  suggested  c o m m i t t e e --  among a r c h i v i s t s be  thesis,  or s i g n i f i c a n t ,  working f o r a set p e r i o d ,  central  here  records  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n s o c i e t y , d i s c o v e r i n g i n what ways  they  be  of the  manner i n w h i c h  Hans Booms' t h e o r i e s , a r c h i v i s t s  of v o l u n t a r y  could  acquisition  s t r a t e g y proposed  two  Following  to the  once a s e t o f  been made by  and  would  good for  archivists, strategies benefit  t h e y c a n be s h a r e d  from  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g in general.  associations  outlined  i n ensuring  ignored  The f u n c t i o n a l  in this thesis  that  acquisition  This  of the nature  work  of  should  should  voluntary  typology  no p a r t i c u l a r t y p e  also  of  voluntary  be h e l p f u l , i f  of a s s o c i a t i o n i s  by a r c h i v i s t s .  When a p a r t i c u l a r v o l u n t a r y targeted  by an a r c h i v a l  acquisition, association.  one a r c h i v i s t s h o u l d This  appointment,  association  be a s s i g n e d  i s caring they care  avoid  the i n f l u e n c e  o f p e r s o n s who do n o t ) ,  style  of a c t i v i t i e s  within  engender t r u s t ) ,  accepted,  officials.  about  (voluntary  I f the a t t e n t i o n s  on a s c a l e  i t s knowledge b a s e a b o u t v o l u n t a r y  one  being studied.  observation  study  and i n t e r v i e w s ,  mandate, h i s t o r y , association,  This  structure,  as w e l l  could  At t h i s  i t , and w i l l (the usual  forthright (to  associations are of the a r c h i v i s t are study  which r e f l e c t s the r e p o s i t o r y ' s  and  by  the a r c h i v i s t  informal  he o r s h e may t h e n make an e t h n o g r a p h i c  association  the  ( t h e members o f an  the a s s o c i a t i o n ) ,  and f l e x i b l e  extremely v a r i a b l e ) .  to contact  t h e whole p r o c e e d i n g s ,  because  have been  approach the a s s o c i a t i o n  one o f i t s s e n i o r  an a p p r o a c h w h i c h  are involved  records  as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  a r c h i v i s t should  and t h r o u g h o u t  maintain  association's  repository  making an a p p o i n t m e n t w i t h  should  to b u i l d  for a l l archival repositories.  associations  only  and u s e d  associations involve  and be aimed  of the resources  such as t h e  participant  at r e v e a l i n g the  and v o l u n t a r y  nature  as i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  of the  other  129 organizations, relation its  its activities  t o them, t h e r o l e s  filing  systems,  central  orienteering  maps.  The  findings  association may,  within  pay s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n  surrounding  like  have no o f f i c e  association,  filing high,  systems, and good  association. acquisition, an  to the records  discourage  may be w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d the  the association.  o f an e t h n o g r a p h i c  like  study of a  voluntary The a s s o c i a t i o n  and t h e r e f o r e  i t s records for.  Even i f  and one o r more c e n t r a l  t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s e s y s t e m s may n o t be v e r y  These f a c t o r s  should  not deter  because they a r e n o t a v a l i d from  the record  should  receive  The f i r s t  a sentimental value  t o them.  basis  of society. o f i n d i v i d u a l members o f  i s the preservation  An a s s o c i a t i o n  s u c h a s OABC may n o t p r e s e r v e  This  us t o t h e second that  from t h e of personal  r e c o r d s by members who  association  keeping p r a c t i c e ,  on w h i c h t o o m i t  special consideration  of these  f o r the  t h e a r c h i v i s t from  b u t an  i t s originals at a l l .  t y p e o f i n d i v i d u a l members'  i s , the preservation  attach  s u c h a s MADD  i t s o r i g i n a l documents a t i t s o f f i c e ,  brings  process  s u c h a s OABC's  MADD, has an o f f i c e  c o p i e s o f some o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s  preserves  creation  and i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y c a r e d  Three r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s  archivist.  The a r c h i v i s t  the a r c h i v i s t . base,  creation,  towards  r e c o r d s - k e e p i n g may n o t be a p r i o r i t y  organization  associations  i n records  and p r a c t i c e s  or unusual records,  may w e l l  OABC,  of i t s o f f i c i a l s  and t h e a t t i t u d e s  records preservation should  and t h e r e c o r d s p r o d u c e d i n  records-  of o r i g i n a l records  130 of  an a s s o c i a t i o n by i t s members among t h e i r  rather type  than  with  of i n d i v i d u a l  being  those  their  activities  and kept  records  of the a s s o c i a t i o n .  members' r e c o r d s  are t r u l y  within  i t , but wholly  own p u r p o s e s .  l o g s and o t h e r  orienteers participating  Examples o f these  notes  association,  the a r c h i v i s t  association.  records preserved invaluable.  records is the  must  individual  are the d i a r i e s  by i n d i v i d u a l  c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r t h e y add of the  by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s h o u l d  regard,  b u t i t has been shown t h a t  among t h e p e r s o n a l The a r c h i v i s t  members may  that  these  to the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s "fonds"  r e c o r d s which r e l a t e situation  the other OABC,  these  records  by t h e i r  records,  created  lack o f f i c e  their  i n t h e homes o f t h e i r  or t o  i n the  e r s t w h i l e o f f i c i a l s and  of the a s s o c i a t i o n .  like  "fonds" of  to the a s s o c i a t i o n .  i s when t h e r e c o r d s  associations, records  cases the  of t h e i r  who d e t e r m i n e s  supplement  name o f an a s s o c i a t i o n a r e k e p t with  files  who has h i t h e r t o p r e s e r v e d  One f r e q u e n t  by  members o f an  a dilemma, w h e t h e r t o a c q u i r e t h e e n t i r e  only those  filed  initiative  and i t s p r e s i d e n t , and  to the understanding  in this  are a necessary  faced with  acquire  not  first  The r e c o r d s p r e s e r v e d  be a d e q u a t e  own  i s n o t so f o r a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and i n s u c h  prove  records,  i n OABC meets.  information essential  this  The t h i r d  on p e r s o n a l p e r f o r m a n c e k e p t  In c o n s i d e r i n g r e c o r d s p r e s e r v e d  ideally  personal  at t h e i r  by t h e t r e a s u r e r o f MADD f o r h e r s e l f training  any  files,  c r e a t e d by members o f an a s s o c i a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o  for their  the  the other  personal  Many  s p a c e and t h e r e f o r e s t o r e members; however, n o t a l l o f  131 them make even a n o m i n a l p r a c t i c e records  on t o t h e i r  association its  personal  file  this  records.  can  a l s o help prove  person  itself,  from  f o r according  those  certainly  to i t s p r i n c i p l e s  files  i s i s s u e d o r r e c e i v e d , as recipient,  be c o n s i d e r e d  are acquired  an i n d i v i d u a l  records  files  i s i t s author.  o f an  individual  f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n by a  responsibility  f o r the records  and p r e s e r v e d  of the  among t h e o t h e r  files  cannot  preserved  a u t o m a t i c a l l y be  o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n , a s i f t h e y had  Such r e p l a c e m e n t  should  documented  i n t h e i n v e n t o r y and on n o t e s  themselves,  so t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i l l  distinguish  these  records.  ornot.  o f an a s s o c i a t i o n have been  member o f i t , t h e y  n e v e r been removed.  archival  the j u r i d i c a l  r e g a r d l e s s o f whether t h e remainder o f these  When o r i g i n a l  5  and d i p l o m a t i c s  5  of the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s records  among t h e p e r s o n a l  r e p o s i t o r y w h i c h has t a k e n  replaced  d i s t i n g u i s h e d from  r e c o r d s w h i c h were c r e a t e d by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n  and p r e s e r v e d  association,  in  h i s or her u n r e l a t e d  c a n be e a s i l y  i t s w r i t e r or i n d i v i d u a l  member, s h o u l d  personal  with  the d i s t i n c t n e s s  i n whose name a document  Therefore,  hand  that tenure i s  using the science of d i p l o m a t i c s ,  cases,  distinct  officials  t h e p r e s i d e n t o f an  but a f t e r  correspondence  These r e c o r d s  another  such  their  may w r i t e and r e c e i v e v o l u m i n o u s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  one  by  Thus,  name d u r i n g h i s o r h e r t e n u r e ,  completed,  in  successors.  of having  This  D i p l o m a t i c s i s the study documents.  be  thoroughly  accompanying t h e r e c o r d s be a b l e  i s necessary  to c l e a r l y  because  their  o f t h e c r e a t i o n and f o r m s o f  authenticity  i s suspect,  because t h e i r association therefore  a b s e n c e may have a l t e r e d  i n some i m p o r t a n t  create a false  records-keeping  to  after  the records  copying,  records  fact,  i t c o u l d be d e b a t e d  files,  them, and t h e y  However,  "fonds"  should  by  unless  as r e l e v a n t i n r e l a t i o n to the personal  This  i s not t o say that  independent  o f any " f o n d s " , i n  c a n o n l y be f u l l y  understood  and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s " f o n d s "  should  originals  remain  i n the "fonds"  are missing  be d e s c r i b e d t o g e t h e r  of the  from t h e  " m i c r o f i l m s o f complement"  by a t h o r o u g h e x p l a n a t i o n  third  type  own a c t i v i t i e s  which a r e t r u l y  in relation  clearly  p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  "fonds"  has no c l a i m t o them.  association's  of t h e i r  of records preserved  a s s o c i a t i o n are those  their  of records  should  with  be made  the other  i n the inventory of the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s "fonds",  accompanied  an  members.  among.  t h a t they  The r e c o r d s  but i f t h e i r  association's  The  of the  of the a s s o c i a t i o n .  are at least  have an e x i s t e n c e  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  individual,  to those  have been p r e s e r v e d  are p r e s e r v e d .  records  may  f o r the researcher  o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n as i n r e l a t i o n  these  of  of the  presence  which are merely c o p i e s  they  they  both  impression  members, b e l o n g  files  if  the operations  and a l s o  and r e c e i v e d by an a s s o c i a t i o n , made and p r e s e r v e d  individual altered  has been b r o k e n ,  way, and t h e i r  p r a c t i c e s and h i s t o r y  Documents and f i l e s created  s i n c e custody  "fonds"  may,  custodial  by i n d i v i d u a l personal  members o f  records of  to the a s s o c i a t i o n . "fonds"  history.  These a r e  and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s  The r e p o s i t o r y w h i c h h o l d s t h e  i f i t deems t h e s e  records  valuable  enough, basis  acquire  the "fonds"  of the relevant  of the p r i n c i p l e of complementarity;  "fonds"  i s relevant  complements records  some  of such  to the repository's  of i t s other a  "fonds"  possess  repository,  t o o low t o j u s t i f y  such  i t may  a case  treat  them  microfilm  be  as s i n g l e  the relevant  of  the association's  as  explaining If  their  another,  then  inventories, with  individual possible which  acquire,  itself,  and i f t h e s e  cross-references  this  members  to return  should  digression  inactive posterity  as w e l l records  should must  be k e p t  des  would  In  i s , to inventory  material,  as  well  most  effect  the s a t i s f a c t i o n of having  of  t o one  in their i n accordance  of the records dealt  with,  of acquiring  the  of i t  is.  records  for itself. an a s s o c i a t i o n ,  to ask the a s s o c i a t i o n  to the archival have  are related  has been  issue  has p r e s e r v e d  terms  the  as t h e r e c o r d s  separate  on t h e m a t t e r  to the central  reason,  fonds".  o f an a s s o c i a t i o n  on w h a t  records  i n the  be p r o v i d e d  t h e a r c h i v i s t has r e s e a r c h e d  know  them  that  f o r whatever  o f an a s s o c i a t i o n  the association Once  while  does  but the records  that  on them.  documents and  records,  as b i b l i o g r a p h i c  the p r i n c i p l e of "respect Now  these  of the  origins'.  o f a member  association  t o copy  this  f o rthe  resources  and d e s c r i b e  "fonds"  most  low v a l u e  not archival  files  the repository  records the  items,  a  words,  because i t  However,  expending  legitimate  i n other  mandate  holdings.  may  i n d i v i d u a l on t h e  repository.  An  s h e o r he  to donate i t s emphasis  on  on an a s s o c i a t i o n  such  i t s records  accessible,  i n an  a s MADD,  134 safe  place  OABC.  may  be t h e f a c t o r  The d o n a t i o n  between  i s also  which  persuades  influenced  of the executive  decision.  Acquisition  prevented records,  body  might  which  be  i f the association  must  and t h e i n t e r n a l make  the donation  l e g i t i m a t e l y postponed  i s not ready  or i f the a r c h i v i s t f e e l s  like  by t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  t h e a r c h i v i s t and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ,  dynamics  an a s s o c i a t i o n  that  to part  or  with  a transfer  any o f  i t s  i s notyet  advisable. The ensure  being  no need  right do  and w h i c h  i t i s possible  without is  goal  o f t h e a r c h i v i s t engaged  the preservation  society, If  main  f o r records  placed  i t s own  acquire records  urged  standards.  to request  might  that  receive  assistance in lieu  donated  of the association's  i twill  continue  to create  once  an a g r e e m e n t  records  by a r e p o s i t o r y  up a t r a n s f e r  specify  that  of custody  i n t h e event  accessible then  has e v e r y  satisfactory associations  records  own  more  to a  preferences, records  reached,  agreement.  of the closure  there  and i f i t c h o o s e s t o  t o employ  for acquisition  has been  a n d made  records c a n be  an  of the t a x exemptions  their  Because  exists,  draw  important  to  to care f o r .  The a s s o c i a t i o n  i s to encourage  government  i f they  i s mandated  indefinitely,,  i s to  are important  of the repository,  them.  Large,  archivist/records-manager,  which  t o be p r e s e r v e d  i n the custody  so t h e a r c h i v i s t ' s r o l e  preservation  records  h i s or her repository  to actually  t o keep  of those  in acquisition  repository. and t h e f a c t  as long  of the  they  as i t  association's  the a r c h i v i s t  should  This  should  contract  of the association,a l l  its  records  archival  the  agrees,  help the  inactive  their  of  a vigilant  contract  voluntary  other  to  s u c h as  Archivists  also  records  the  or p u r c h a s e ) t o  e s p e c i a l l y important  also  when new  can  will  survive  officials  ensure  the  a s s o c i a t i o n s not  only  specify that  In  assistance.  Together with  voluntary  existence  association's  and  r o l e of  significance  of  using  records  simple  the  the  form of p u b l i c  all  aimed  as  the  to approach the  described  become more c o n c e r n e d  of  or  to j o i n  above.  about  the  As  as  be  of  try  to as  the  the  benefits  O u t r e a c h can  improve  the  great  such t h i n g s  advisory to  them  well  and  associations.  encouraged  for assistance,  associations  could  and  of  voluntary  workshops, pamphlets,  which takes n o t i c e  k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e s and  with  awareness about  at v o l u n t a r y  be  with  as  archival repositories,  speaking,  of  records  t h e y can  management t e c h n i q u e s .  o u t r e a c h messages w i l l  repository  archivists,  or  regular  the  this,  associations  associations' records,  specifically  association  the  at  of  a c q u i s i t i o n work, c o m m i t t e e s c o n c e r n e d c o n s o r t i u m s of  chance  association  through c o n t r a c t s  t h r o u g h o u t r e a c h programmes.  for  elected.  preservation  only  by  the  and  transfers  occur  are  point  period  I f the  repository will  and  the  donation  archivist.  should  associations  raise  i s an  as  records  intervals,  but  This  (by  a s s o c i a t i o n s which e x i s t f o r a b r i e f  abruptly,  with  transferred  repository.  voluntary die  would be  take  letters,  An  committee its  records-  committee or  relevant  a consortium  of  voluntary  preservation  of  of  associations their  records,  136 the  r e p o s i t o r y can  for  this  purpose.  The  archival  should  be  unite with  r e p o s i t o r y ' s outreach  conducted  at a c e r t a i n  becomes o v e r - i n v o l v e d  with  of  misspending  her  on  the  objective The  stance  order  American the  records  the  study  suggested  chapter  their  records  the  have t o r a d i c a l l y  limited  with  an  of  taking  losing  the  way,  find  and  idealistic.  typical  North  i t s approach  a way  the  improve  and  research w i l l  a valid  with  acknowledge  s o c i e t y they  the  on  their  are meeting  to a c q u i r e  t h e s i s and  meant t o p r o v i d e  to  I f they  conducted  to  which p r e s e n t l y  they  Further  for this  voluntary  e m p h a s i s on  attempting  resources.  will  of  However, many a r c h i v i s t s  more e f f e c t i v e l y .  h e r e was  thus  alter  records,  a s s o c i a t i o n s to the  archivists  and  i s admittedly  work s u g g e s t e d ,  conceivable  of v o l u n t a r y  North American  of the  organizations.  i n every  who  needs.  have been a c t i v e l y  despite  importance  but  a l l the  archivist  a s s o c i a t i o n i s i n danger  a researcher,  of n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l  of d e f u n c t  repositories  their  archivist  or  u n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and  continent  success  an  r e p o s i t o r y would  tends to occur  this  insider  outlined in this  acquisition  records  an  to conduct  d i s t a n c e , f o r the  repository's resources,  of  facilities  to v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s  a particular  approach to a c q u i s i t i o n  associations In  h i s or  viewpoint  them t o c r e a t e b e t t e r  be  serve, preserve needed,  approach  starting  the  point.  CONCLUSION  This basis  t h e s i s has  f o r a system  voluntary In  order  the  of  associations,  be and  of t h i s  to develop the  thesis,  As  of d a t a  achieved.  may  be  questionnaire example, a  their  and  approach,  of these  of  of  the  records  primary a great  and  i t achieved  a good the  quantitative studies can  build  t o a sample o f v o l u n t a r y could  deal  voluntary  q u a n t i t a t i v e studies could  and  study  plan.  a s s o c i a t i o n s , although  a r c h i v a l community  present  have  revealed  p r a c t i c e s o f two  study  t h e o r i e s which  and  disadvantages,  the  to  records-keeping  f o r the  i t effectively  of  a r c h i v a l community. necessary  acquisition  made p o s s i b l e by  u s e f u l f o r the  records  methodology chosen  Both q u a l i t a t i v e  a d v a n t a g e s and  the  a tentative acquisition  a qualitative  depth of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  be  to the  records-keeping  associations.  breadth  i t was  a s s o c i a t i o n s and  applied  E t h n o g r a p h y was  the  North American  purpose,  to e s t a b l i s h a  of  t o examine a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e s and  could  research  the  this  of v o l u n t a r y  practices,  c e n t r a l purpose:  archival acquisition  to accomplish  been and  one  a s s o c i a t i o n s by  nature  about  had  upon one  not  have  another; i t  to d i s t r i b u t e  a  a s s o c i a t i o n s someday, f o r  inform  the  c r e a t i o n of  such  questionnaire. Before  discussed,  the this  associations  results  of  the  t h e s i s provided  in general,  ethnographic  research  a d e s c r i p t i v e study  presenting  137  several  general  were of  voluntary  138 characteristics associations role  of t h i s type of o r g a n i z a t i o n .  have a d e m o c r a t i c n a t u r e  i n the democratic  functions  to  developing  society,  into other  and t h e y o c c u r  none o f w h i c h s h o u l d associations  the  next  disappointingly  it  be o v e r l o o k e d  associations,  little  published  little  appeared  clearly  but the ideas  Following  information  associations  other which  research  had been g a t h e r e d  and r e c o r d s . conformed  a r e k e p t by  by a r c h i v i s t s .  a neglect  and by a r c h i v i s t s . at f i r s t , of  T h e r e was  a v a i l a b l e on t h e s e  since  of the Archival  n o t much o f  voluntary,  o f Hans Booms p r o v i d e d  a system  o v e r v i e w o f t h e i r aims,  activities,  factor  i s , how t h e y  indicated  excellent  of a c q u i s i t i o n .  these d i s c u s s i o n s ,  the ethnographic  types,  Voluntary  another  information  unsatisfactory  guidance f o r developing  an  that  to the a c q u i s i t i o n of records  associations,  of  important  i n t h i s t h e s i s was a b o u t t h e  b o t h by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s  applied  sometimes  different functional  by a r c h i v i s t s .  t h e m s e l v e s and l a t e r  concerns, but that  also  c y c l e which  types of o r g a n i z a t i o n s  in several  area of inquiry  associations  theory  they operate i n .  into the f a b r i c of society.  of voluntary  records,  life  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h government,  weaves them t i g h t l y  records  t a k e an a c t i v e  have a complex n e t w o r k o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  organizations,  The  and o f t e n  of the nations  T h e y a r e d y n a m i c and have a t y p i c a l includes  Voluntary  a description  was embarked upon. about  of the r e s u l t s Considerable  two a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  structure,  history,  Although quite  to the general  presenting  relationships,  d i f f e r e n t , both  nature  of  voluntary  139 associations.  MADD, t h e a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h had a permanent  leader,  daily  better  staff,  activities,  records-keeping  changing lacked changed  p r a c t i c e s than  s e t of o f f i c i a l s ,  office  space.  according  experienced  mainly  on weekends, and  of f i l i n g  to the t a s t e s of incoming  frequent  relations  operated  difficulty  practice  expressed  r e g r e t over  sure  the h i s t o r y  how t o e f f e c t  association present those  hazards  officials  believe  i t would  plans  being  libraries,  i f at a l l .  After possible  this descriptive  to present  voluntary engaged  preserved  rather  than  Neither  study  against Even  files,  which  they  p r i v a t e homes and p e r h a p s i n  had been made,  that  archivists  c o n s i d e r a t i o n should  of the e n t i r e  o f each r e p o s i t o r y a l o n e .  i t became  I t was s u g g e s t e d  c o n s i d e r a t i o n from  and t h a t t h i s  as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  officials  r e p o s i t o r y was d i d n o t  in their  in their  a s s o c i a t i o n s warrant  viewed  apparent  of the a s s o c i a t i o n .  several proposals.  in acquisition,  records  about p r e s e r v i n g i t s r e c o r d s  an i n t e r e s t  envisioned  B o t h had  i n the s i t u a t i o n .  knew what an a r c h i v a l  take  Both  a s s o c i a t i o n s , and who  or f u t u r e d i s s o l u t i o n who  files.  o f many r e c o r d s , b u t who were n o t  an improvement  had c l e a r  and  b u t n e i t h e r had any  of t h e i r  the loss  which  of p r e s e r v i n g the records of  knowledge o f r e c o r d s management t e c h n i q u e s . about  officials,  and a l s o o f some o t h e r  as i m p o r t a n t ,  who c a r e d  systems  locating particular  w i t h government,  which they p e r c e i v e d  demonstrated  OABC, w h i c h had an e v e r -  B o t h had a h i s t o r y  a s s o c i a t i o n s made a s p e c i a l their  and an o f f i c e ,  archival  Respecting  be  community the p r i n c i p l e  of  complementarity,  existing  of a c q u i s i t i o n should  r e p o s i t o r i e s , s p e c i a l committees,  associations, the  a new s y s t e m  of the records  Each a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y significance The  core  the  records  of voluntary  of voluntary  should  of p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s to society;  the ethnographic  i t using  arrange  f o r better  association,  as w e l l  repository.  associations While strategy  preservation  as e v e n t u a l  a comprehensive  taken  also quantitative  strategy  As m e n t i o n e d  studies  ones c o u l d  together,  with  records  by  voluntary  create  earlier,  be u s e f u l .  i s needed  not only  i t would be u s e f u l  are further  here needed, b u t  f o r once a  be d e l v e d  to study  i n order to  Such s t u d i e s  t h e y c a n be a p p l i e d  could  an a c q u i s i t i o n  i s b o t h d e t a i l e d and  some c o n f i d e n c e .  records-keeping practices examples,  which  association,  number have been c o m p l e t e d , associations  at  s u c h as t h e ones u n d e r t a k e n  encompass e v e r y v o l u n t a r y  other  by t h e  a c q u i s i t i o n of these  o f some s u b s t a n c e , more r e s e a r c h  qualitative  in this thesis,  of the records  aimed  to learn  encouraged.  these proposals,  applicable.  acquire  of t h e i r  i f expedient  approach followed  Community o u t r e a c h  i s also  to  a f t e r t h i s i s done, an a r c h i v i s t s h o u l d  about  widely  its jurisdiction.  on t h e b a s i s  approach the a s s o c i a t i o n ,  develop  t h e r o l e and  within  diplomatically  the  associations.  analyse  associations  t o ensure  of t h i s approach to a c q u i s i t i o n i s choosing  significance  and  a consortium of  and new r e p o s i t o r i e s s p e c i a l l y c r e a t e d  preservation  utilize  need n o t  representative  to the records  Certain  of  aspects of  i n t o more c l o s e l y ; f o r  some a s s o c i a t i o n s  at a l l  141 levels  of  records  their hierarchy,  of  a b r a n c h or  other parts the  of  practices Some o f  studies  the  related  improving  club  association  as  i t could  well,  survive,  and  methods and to  what happens t o  which disbands  of n o t e - t a k i n g  organizations  records  the  to d i s c o v e r  preserving  findings be  and  well  for archival  of  while to  learn  such  to  other  repositories  their acquisition practices  regarding  more  about  notes.  this thesis  applied  the  can  and  other  types  of  benefit  a l l types  from  of  creators.  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" S e c r e c y , A r c h i v e s , and t h e P u b l i c M i d w e s t e r n A r c h i v i s t 2:2 ( 1 9 7 7 ) : 14-26.  Illinois  Interest."  APPENDIX A: INTERVIEWS ON TAPE  Five this  i n t e r v i e w s were r e c o r d e d  thesis,  machine w i t h In  accordance  a l l on c a s s e t t e t a p e s  of  with  f o r a l l informants.  t o i n t h e body o f t h i s  side is  o f t h e tape  taken,  only). with  thesis  are given Committee  below. o f UBC,  The i n t e r v i e w s a r e a c c o r d i n g t o : t h e acronym  where a p p l i c a b l e ( f o r example,  three  f o r one o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s ) ; and t h e l e t t e r ( a o r b) from  of the  which t h e r e f e r e n c e or q u o t a t i o n  where a p p l i c a b l e (some t a p e s  are recorded  F o r example, MADD 2 : 1 ( b ) s i g n i f i e s  an o f f i c i a l  CTR-51  t h e number o f t h e i n t e r v i e w ( 1 t h r o u g h 3 ) ;  t h e number o f t h e t a p e , were u s e d  thed e t a i l s  theg u i d e l i n e s of theEthics  each a s s o c i a t i o n ;  tapes  using a R e a l i s t i c  an e x t e r n a l m i c r o p h o n e ;  pseudonyms a r e u s e d referred  as p a r t of t h e r e s e a r c h f o r  o f MADD, t h e s e c o n d  on one s i d e  t h e second  side of the f i r s t  interview tape.  MADD 1 — s e c r e t a r y , Nancy C a r r — s i x t y m i n u t e s r e c o r d e d on b o t h s i d e s o f one 60-minute t a p e , March 2 3 r d , 1989, i n New Westminster. [ r e f . : MADD 1 ( a ) , 1 ( b ) ] MADD 2 -- e x e c u t i v e d i r e c t o r , G r e t a S c o t t -- one hour and t w e n t y m i n u t e s r e c o r d e d on t h r e e s i d e s o f two 6 0 - m i n u t e t a p e s , A p r i l 1 1 t h , 1989, i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . [ r e f . : MADD 2 : l ( a ) , 2 : l ( b ) , 2:2] MADD 3 -- t r e a s u r e r , H e l e n N i c h o l s -- f o r t y m i n u t e s r e c o r d e d on b o t h s i d e s o f one 6 0 - m i n u t e t a p e , A p r i l 1 1 t h , 1989, i n New Westminster. [ r e f . : MADD 3 ( a ) , 3 ( b ) ] OABC 1 -- p r e s i d e n t , G r e g G i l l i s -- two and a h a l f h o u r s r e c o r d e d on f i v e s i d e s o f two 6 0 - m i n u t e t a p e s and one 9 0 - m i n u t e t a p e , A p r i l 1989, i n V a n c o u v e r . [ r e f . : OABC l : l ( a ) , l:l(b), l : 2 ( a ) , l : 2 ( b ) , 1:3] OABC 2 -- n e w s l e t t e r e d i t o r , P e t e r C a u l e y -- one hour r e c o r d e d on b o t h s i d e s o f one 9 0 - m i n u t e t a p e , A p r i l 1989, i n V a n c o u v e r , [ r e f . : OABC 2 : ( a ) , 2 ( b ) ] 146  

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