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Concepts of value in the archival appraisal literature : an historical and critical analysis Klumpenhouwer, Richard 1988

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CONCEPTS OP VALUE IN THE ARCHIVAL APPRAISAL LITERATURE AN HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS bv  RICHARD KLUMPENHOUWER B.A., C a l v i n C o l l e g e / 1981 M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Western O n t a r i o , 1982  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES in  THE FACULTY OF ARTS S c h o o l o f L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l , and I n f o r m a t i o n and t h e Department o f H i s t o r y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988  ©  R i c h a r d Klumpenhouwer, 1988  Studies  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  scholarly  or for  her  of  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6  (2/88)  I  1 further  purposes  gain  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  Department  study.  of  be  It not  that  the  be  Library  an  by  understood allowed  advanced  shall  permission for  granted  is  for  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  copying my  my or  written  ABSTRACT  Archival same The  time  t h e most  complex  appraisal  which it  make  varied  attention, process.  form,  archival  performed  appraisal  a documentary  by  and massive  now  present  challenging  occupies immense  such  and a t t h e archivists.  volume  the lion's  these  an i m p o r t a n t  of archivists record that  o f modern  challenges  Yet i ti s precisely  i s the responsibility  available  task  information, which  archivists'  the  i s t h e most  improtant  meaning,  documentary of  appraisal  during  factors  activity, f o r  to preserve  i s both  share  a n d make  u s a b l e and  complete. This involves  thesis  works  a process  preservation  on t h e premise  of applying value  or destruction  critical  examination  concepts  throughout  of the nature the history  from  the Middle  preservation  of archives before  upon  original  record-creators which  of  period  the political,  of. t i m e .  From  a r c h i v e s as h i s t o r i c a l  appraisal  historicist quantity  concepts.  of records being  Therefore,  i ti s a of value  to the recent past.  the late  legal,  nineteenth  and m i l i t a r y  persisted  sources  From  to the  and development  t h e 18 8 0 s  followed theories  appraisal  of archives i n western  Ages  depended  archival  concepts  of records.  civilization  long  that  over  a  of archival  century  values  the value  dominant and a d m i n i s t a t i o n based  1930 t o 1980, t h e q u a l i t y  generated  of the  relatively  t o t h e 19 3 0 s ,  became  The  by i n s t i t u t i o n s  and  forced  on  archivists define  to develop  value  which  processes  of such  chapters,  which  United  States  management  best  conformed  systems.  deal  with  and Europe  modern  problems  i n the application  for  certain  the future  serves  development  to reveal  of value  patterns  emerge  i i i  -  and  two i n the  the analysis  of  inconsistencies  which  From  suggest  appraisal  to  and  appraisal  concepts.  of archival  -  i n the last  archival  respectively,  and p r a c t i c e s  f o r appraisal  to the structures  Especially  theories  examination,  systems  and  such  an  directions  theory.  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Acknowledgements  v  Introduction  1  Chapter I: Before  The V a l u e o f Documents and T h e i r the Twentieth Century  Chapter I I : Appraisal 1880-1930  and the Rise  Preservation  of Archival  IV:  Archival  1930-1980:  Great  Theory, 35  Chapter I I I : A r c h i v a l A p p r a i s a l as a Management 1930-1980: The U n i t e d S t a t e s Chapter  5  Appraisal Britain,  as a Management France,  Function, 61 Function,  and Germany  10 5  Conclusion  152  Bibliography  156  -  i v -  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I and my  would  like  suggestions thesis  t o acknowledge  provided  supervisor  b y my  Terry  t h e encouragement,  colleagues  Eastwood,  Joldersma.  -  v -  i n t h e MAS  a n d my  wife  insights,  program,  Minnie  1  INTRODUCTION  Archival archival and  appraisal,  function,  practice.  before  a  whereby  process  preserved and  and  motives  earlier  incorrect same.  the  reasoning  implicit  In  of  judged  appear  fact,  the  behind  this  key  to  institutions  archival  appraisal,  identification have  an  relative certain  enduring  of  historical  on  on the  the  and  has  other  hand,  product  found  The  thinking applied or  effects these  as  to  have  the  changes  closely  the and  records  which  historically  records the  the  the  relationship  within  the  the  that  i t i s possible to  the  in  Therefore,  documentary i s an  in  archivist  society.  been  the  clear  follows  i t s purpose  i n the and  which  in  simply  identifying  I t becomes  value,  operating  in  of  been  i t was  the  archives,  Nevertheless, patterns  but  practice  of  constant  one  destroyed.  value  p r e s e r v a t i o n of  and  process.  archivists, society  and  the  have  as  us  unselfconscious,  w i t h i n modern  which  primarily  process  be  appraisal theory  archival  to  appraisal i n a l l periods  history  role  left  understanding  necessarily referred.  developing  by  archivists,  standards  and  record  valuable  arbitrary,  archives w i l l  changing  concept  valueless  appraisers of  twentieth-century  is also  archival  explicit  a  judged  lay behind  modern  or  century  documents  may  self-conscious, professional  documentary  present-day  the  history  this  which  to  the  those  times  a  is essentially  Yet,  societies  as  perceive  between  creators  appraisal  and  process.  2  From day  these  perceptions,  theoretical The  major  1930,  and  in  the  process  archival  1)  of  by  value  the  major  related  period  as  to  the  into may  as  emerge.  to  historical  2)  represent of  phases  the  is  toward  context  1880-  interpreters  period  in attitudes  into  1880,  conscious  each  present-  divided  controllers  importantly,  changes  be  periodizations  increasingly,  More  can  premodern  These  insight  appraisal  appraisal  archivists  and,  dealing with  immediately both  and  physical i n an  situation,  i t has  limits  of  the  the  and  conceptual  effort been  determining  within  which  of  a l l , the  correspond  to  the  archival  the  value;  selection,  or  value,  1  with  which  Peter  avoid  necessary  term  "a  eventual also  of  proportions the to  appraisal,  being  worst  one  overwhelmed of  the  the  is by  problem.  effects' of  define  the is a  "appraisal"  basic  completely  ed.  i n the  to  of as  retention."  in this  this  terminology  and  function  The  1  separate  K.  to  upon  of  determine  Saur,  their  review, appraisal  t h e r e f o r e not  process  G.  of  based  concept  should  will  D i c t i o n a r y of  records  archives  (Miinchen:  used  evaluation,  thesis of  as  archival  disposal  appraisal  Walne,  given  referred  selective  i t i s understood  confused  to  definition  Terminology:  determining  archival  topic.  First  Archival  subject of  c o n s t a n t l y i n danger  Therefore,  as  profound  occurred. In  the  archival  value.  characterized  more  surrounding  1930-1980."  development  archival  they  of  periods:  3)  appraisal of  problems  history  three  a  carried  1984),  be  monetary out  p.  for  21.  3  much  different  values" the  purposes.  c a n be d e f i n e d  indefinite Secondly,  is  with  the be  sure,  value in  techniques purpose  thesis  i n implementing  exhaustive value  theories textual  the  thesis  with  records  relating  only  refer  relating  of  f o rt h e used  by  have  to  been  of  an  archival ideas  s e l e c t e d and  and concerns  excluded.  scope  formative  itself  As a r e s u l t ,  the  t o the manually-produced  o f government  institutions.  the importance  and uniqueness  to non-textual  media  private individuals literature  explanations  values  presents  value  techniques,  and a r c h i v e s  point  value  i s b y no means  descriptive,  mainly  To  separate  and g e o g r a p h i c a l  M a t e r i a l which  and examples  to  systems.  the thesis  on a r c h i v a l  of the  a r e made  of the literature  practical  as opposed  i s that appraisal  that  archival  t h e temporal  i s derivative,  not to dismiss  problems by  statements  which  totally  is  treatment  concern  an important  the nature  be c l e a r  such  broad,  and a p p r a i s a l .  clear  that  i s quite  value  -- i n d e e d ,  determined  although  the major  appraisal theories  i n this  justify  or records.  possible or desirable to  from methodology  o r systems  to  i n the appraisal process.  -- b u t i t s h o u l d  Thirdly, the  used  of revealing the inherent  archivists  that  or theories of archival  themselves  used  used  emphasized  be  t h e a n a l y s i s o f modern  criteria  values  "archival  i t should  o r methods  concepts  as those  lines,  r e t e n t i o n o f documents  i t i s not always  techniques  or  simply  t h e same  o r permanent  concepts  techniques  Along  This  of appraisal  o r documents  produced  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , b u t t h e q u a n t i t y o f  dealing with  such  material  i s small,  the topics  4  confined value  to practical  criteria  developed  methods  presented  i n government  by  of appraisal  and  large  archives.  analysis,  similar to  and  those  the  5  CHAPTER  THE  VALUE  OF  I  DOCUMENTS AND THEIR PRESERVATION TWENTIETH CENTURY  Record-keeping  i s as  old  as  civilization  However,  i t i s n e i t h e r p o s s i b l e nor  consider  ancient  societies  which  historians on  archival  value  European a  of  the  linking  about in  the  Ernst  the  ancient  with  those  nature  and  value  policies,  and  are  broad  of  and  necessary  of  the  very  complex.  p r a c t i c e s of  and  past.  archives  Yet,  archival  works  study  of  scarce,  and  our  i n the  The  for  middle i n the  values  of  and  an  ages process  modern  period  this  such  the  archival  limited;  i s vast, during  for a  for  for a  starting-point  century  context  very  to  important  sources  structures, principles,  nineteenth  the  the  activity  logical  held  completed  context  record-keeping  the  provides  have 1  they  thing, while  period  cultural  and  value  THE  itself.  d e s i r a b l e f o r us  f o r one  world,  to  proportionally  the  Posner  ancient  clearer  practice  1200  and  served:  i n the of  represents  archival  as  i n the  understanding another,  they  such  archives  archives  BEFORE  from  the  changes  period  are  overview  d i s c u s s i o n of  issues,  a p p r a i s a l i n the  modern  period.  1  Mass.:  E r n s t Posner, Archives i n the Harvard Univ. Press, 1972).  Ancient  World  (Cambridge,  6  Recorded the  documentation  transition  society.  from  Such  information  they  which  completed  i n the  of  which  the  the  of  they  the  more  original  physical  a  preserved  such  they  than  and  Furthermore,  of  of  possessed  an  event  or  valued  by  be  had  oral  conveyance as  a  form,  relic  previously tradition.  to or  maintained  regarded  r e p l a c e d human  as  became  Written records to  textual  transaction  the  i t s physical  began  were  between  acquired as  a  means  been As  such,  speech  and  r e c o r d and  the  were  generations.  suited  to  survive  i n the  institutions  First  Already  of  the  at  a l l ,  to  event  the the  "archival"  i n order  medieval  twelfth  began  p l a c e d on  considered  c o n s c i o u s l y produced  beginning  ecclesiastical  was  charters.  i n recording rendered  well  the  significance  medieval  documents  for future  inks used  Memory  deal  permanence  that  2  they  recording itself  t o what  relationship  great  creation,  durable  rather  power  of  in  medieval  f o r the  event.  exclusively  in  much  r e c o r d was  they  function  so  surrounding  through  durability  almost  close  that  sense  the  when  not  act of  important  2  This meant  memory  an  communication  f o r the  ceremony  which,  supplemented  memory.  and  of  valued  The  hence,  characteristics  bringing  written  as  the  past.  memorial  transmitted  of  evoked  ritualistic  efficacy  such  carried  i t referred;  symbolic  to  r e c o r d s were  artifacts  part  oral  fulfilled  in  time the  be  the  parchment  records  extremely  ravages century,  establishing  of. t i m e . civil  and  "treasuries  of  M i c h a e l T. C l a n c h y , " ' T e n a c i o u s L e t t e r s ' : A r c h i v e s a n d i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , " A r c h i v a r i a 11 ( 1 9 8 0 - 8 1 ) , 116-118.  7  charters" charters for  t o preserve that  were  reference  ensured they  most  purposes.  that,  while  possessed  records  was  "dead"  and c o n s o l i d a t e d  frequently Their  d  never  consulted  physical  t h e documents  a t the time  diminish--there designated  such  they  a point  into cartularies  permanence,  survived,  were  those  the original  created  i n time  i n turn,  could  when  o r " i n a c t i v e " i n t h e modern  value  never  they  could  sense  of  be  those  terms. Michael charters  Clanchy's  illustrate  observations  the extent  valued  and preserved:  longer  considered  simply  altered  when  relevant  accordingly.  on f o r g e r y  t o which  the written t o new  among  permanence information  circumstances,  As C l a n c h y  medieval  of form was  was  no  i t was  explains,  Concern f o r posterity and pride i n the tenaciousness of letters gave monks a different attitude to charters from modern a r c h i v i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s , who a r e c o m m i t t e d t o t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t documents s h o u l d n o t be tampered w i t h and t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be allowed to speak f o r themselves. These principles would have seemed nonsensical to medieval monks, because a l l "scripture" needed i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and memory-retaining objects did not speak f o r themselves: the remembrancer v o i c e d t h e c o r r e c t meaning, just as t h e cantor chanted the true gospel from h i s i l l u m i n a t e d parchment.* The evoking types  concept object  of the medieval  f o roral  of records  written  transmission  considered  worthy  held  record  as a  memory-  consequences  of permanent  f o rt h e  preservation.  Robert-Henri B a u t i e r , "Les Archives," i n L ' H i s t o i r e e t Ses M e t h o d e s ( P a r i s : B i b l i o t h e q u e de l a P e i a d e , 1961), p. 1125. 3  k  Clanchy,  p. 125.  8  During  the  society, mainly as  high  the  as  Middle  Church  evidence  storehouses  of  Ages,  and of  charters  were  of  effective  f o r future  of  formal  documents  "treasuries"  generations.  most  commonly  and  in  kept  political  past  transactions  institutions  produced and  systematically  memorials  list  title  i n f o r m a t i o n on  Medieval  a  major  State,  legal  transactions. which  the  the  western  records  privilege,  not  administrative retained  only  classified  as  legal  permanent  i n the  p a s t meant  Robert  Bautier provides  found  i n such  to  be a  collections:  privileges pontificaux, c o n t r a t s de marriage et testaments, traites, actes d'hommage et d'investiture, reconnaisances domainales, e t a t s de droits et, bientot, enquetes et comptes, tous documents auxquels on pourra r e c o u r i r p o u r i n f o r m a t i o n ou p o u r preuve. 5  The certain  closest legal  authority found  on  of  medieval  legal  difference  now  more  constituted  the In  the  the  England,  5  the  wording  Such  formed  as  Bautier,  documents accessible  p.  1125.  used  to  of  are  or the  customs, the  were  "public  the  public  to  today. is  the together  privileges the  the  be  the  documents and  the  document  than  Crown,  foundation of  to  s t i l l  legal  value  are  enhance  contracts  ancient legal  between  the  records  in, for instance,  rights,  relationship  such  grants  for i t s evidentiary  effective  and  seals  conveyances,  participation  legal  regarded  the  c h a r t e r s and  ceremony.  community  were  i s that  actual  conveyancing  and  petitions,  important  document's  equivalents to  documents,  The  governing  modern  Church,  societal  order.  records" i n that as  "the  and  people's  they  9  evidences." would  They  6  emerge  made  up t h e core  as t h e P u b l i c  Record  of t h e h o l d i n g s  Office  of what  i n the nineteenth  century. Taken  as a whole,  essentially served  treasuries  to support their  primary  use.  such,  they  valueless  legal  would  i n t h e normal  they  could of course  many  court offices Other  in  of legal  and m a i n t a i n  retained As  archives i n medieval  types  significant  statutes  were  they  activities.  were  less  "public"  produced  and kept  agencies  which  sufficient  6  Are?,"  consisted  began  t o be  of the  facilitated  after  and were they  used  part  than  legal  essentially  emerged,  government  after  these  new  records  i n that  to record  whereas  of they  products  institutions  largely  were  century,  as  independent  O l i v e r W. H o l m e s , " P u b l i c R e c o r d s : Who A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 23 ( 1 9 6 0 ) , 2 1 - 2 3. .  of  documents  f o r the r e f e r e n c e purposes the sixteenth  and  of the  referred  classes  These  of state  charters represented the final In effect,  produced  1400.  o f documents  t o which  i nthe  emerging  f u n c t i o n s and t r a n s a c t i o n s  activities  such  i n Europe  as  kept.  however,  as a r e s u l t  age o r  although  they  internal  and l e g a l  of administration,,  i n which  records  institutional  regardless of their  neglect or disaster  o f documents,  they  society,  from  quantities  offices:  of  because  suffer  administrative  church  the structure  value  course  bureaucracies  initiate  which,  were  n o t c o n s c i o u s l y be d e s t r o y e d  administrative  and  documents  society  Knows What  of selffrom  They  10  the  direct  control  administrative inaccessible except  of the royal  documents,  t o persons  perhaps  through  not surprisingly,  outside special  officials  which  produced  observes,  "came  t o look upon  and  to regard their  property, The agency  at least  archives  indications did  when  "qui  " q u i peau with  7  History  7  rapidement  puent  3  of  but there are  i n t h e 13 8 7  valoir  documents when  inventory f o r  l y  those  de p r e s e n t , "  these  could  be d i s p o s e d  maintains  of France,  e t q u i ne p e u t  elimine."  private  of appraisal  Robert-Henri Bautier  ephemere  freeholds  t h e r e c o r d - k e e p e r marked  "Tresors des chartes"  e s t de v a l e u r sera  ou neant  as  administrative  the understanding that  necessary.  medieval  droit,  For instance,  Archives of Flanders,  as  muniments."  form  the  B. W i l l i a m s  almost  to establish,  some  large  circle  f o rthe disposition  to practice  presumably  the  view  not hesitate  documents  of  office  of early  Ducal  a s R.  offices  the keepers  warranted.  by and  Consequently,  i f not exactly  as s t r i c t l y  are d i f f i c u l t  them,  that  conditions the  permission.  their  of this  were  o f t h e government  and kept  archives,  implications  household.These  that,  i n  a l l documents  servir  I n c l u d e d among  a etablir such  G e o f f r e y R, E l t o n , E n g l a n d 1 2 0 0 - 1 6 4 0 : T h e S o u r c e s (London: H o u d e r & S t o u g h t o n , 1969), p. 69.  of  R o b e r t B. W i l l i a m s , " T h e P u b l i c R e c o r d s i n t h e S i x t e e n t h and Seventeenth Century" i n E n g l i s h H i s t o r i c a l S c h o l a r s h i p i n t h e S i x t e e n t h and Seventeenth Centuries, ed. L e v i F o x ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 14. 8  ' C. W y f f e l s , " D e t o e s t a n d i n B e l g i e t e n a a n z i e n v a n h e t p r o b l e m v a n de s e l e k t i e e n e l i m i n a t i e v a n h e d e n d a a g s e a r c h i e v e n , " N e d e r l a n d s A r c h i e v e n b l a d 74 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 3 4 9 . 1 0  Bautier,  p. 1125.  un  11  "valueless" exchanged in  the  documents,  between  process  Brenneke Germany  often  considered  were  viewed  produced were  their  as  them,  created  their  that  the as  and  used  for  I t would  administrative began  to  primary  value,  originally What  administrative societal  the  based  could  serve  as  an  administrative  about of  the  store  them  because  they  offices and  which  because  they  purposes,  records-keepers  arbitrary, that  1400  the  with  f o r which  in  the  utilitarian keepers  onwards  dealing  purposes  an  became  of  many  increasing more  records of  of  of  increasingly documents they  therefore,  of  whose  were  c e n t r a l i z e d and past  these  awareness,  as  complex,  administrative  information  activities.  papers,  the  preservation  "arsenal"  institutional  the  of  to  that,  records,  furthermore,  was  the  space  of  often  in  lapsed.  the  institutions  affairs  i t appears  own,  the  had  agencies  documents--those  whenever  problem  records  collectively,  current  legal  from  on  ensure  that,  future  seem,  created, did  the  or  Adolf  internal administrative  their  archives  encounter  oldest  c o n t r o l l e d by  to  intelligence,  century  documents to  of  communications  business.  the  case,  opposed  according  criteria.  to  private  d i s p o s i t i o n was  offices  official  registries any  written  f o r purposes  removed  In  1 1  be  pre-nineteenth  least relevant  scarce.  would  transacting  simply  offices--from became  officials  of  claims  then,  Within certain  for  the  present  body  groups,  acts and  of series,  or  Adolf Brenneke, Archivkunde: e i n B e i t r a g zur Theorie und G e s c h i c h t e des e u r o p a i s c h e n A r c h i v w e s e n s , ed. Wolfgang L e e s c h ( L e i p z i g : K o e h l e r & Amelang, 1953), p. 39. 1 1  12  classes  were  preserved  collected,  as  most  administrative The cities west and  the  Europe  began  and  Europe  town  and  i n the  of  and,  also  the  correspondence. not  emerge,  under  Renaissance  Popes  of  England  of  centralized centuries  sixteenth  cases for  and  of  i n these  better  were  Bautier,  pp.  the  II  in  1578.  areas of  which  form,  1,2  classified by  1126-1129.  council  reports of  half  of  the  of  administrative  of  Spain  The  and  and  of  in  not  1567,  under  central  the  European  establish and  eighteen  strategic However,  in  registration  the  was  a l l administrative relating  schematically.  government  with  commercial  archives  purposes.  files  actions  various  seventeenth  grouped  into  north-  Along  latter  1568,  diplomatic f o r war  in  judicial  Austria did the  the  or  the  state  s o p h i s t i c a t e d system  then  retrieval  in  until  important a  of  1300,  Philip Rome  of  r e g i s t e r s of  great  Habsburg  archives  regardless  which  1 2  of  proved  century  introduced records,  state  political  until  e s t a b l i s h e d under  Prussia  countries  centralized archives  r e s p e c t i v e l y , when  information  and  or  administrative  about  however,  was  State  of  kept  The  documents  kingdoms  a  low  decisions  after  century:  Secretary  political  t h i r t e e n t h century.  sixteenth  the  records,  institutions  evidencing  leaders  records  the  records  titles  agencies,  did  other  long-term  commercial  keeping  and  the  general  and  already  deliberations, municipal  from  purposes.  charters  privilege,  for  Mediterranean  decisions  legal  valuable  governmental  of  segregated  officials  than  to  specific  This the  allowed old  13  chronological records  held  These from  system,  f o rpolitical archives  were  the smaller  archives  which  of the state  eighteenth-century distinction which  were  kept  offices,  Prussia,  and used  the lower  i n addition consisted  departmental evidence  archives,  therefore,  offices  their  short-term  which of  housed  were  was  could  produced  1 3  Bautier,  1 4  Brenneke,  them,  found  pp.  the  higher  various valuable  The  agency  from t h e  as u s e f u l  only f o r  disposed  o f when  had c l e a r l y r u n i n England  when t h e S t a t e  repository  produced  p . 13 2.  after the  Paper  powerful  departments.  documents  which  diplomatic  remained  obtained  as a s p e c i a l  101-102.  by t h e  were  of  i n the selected  and  usefulness  p. 1130; B r e n n e k e ,  offices  permanently  of the increasingly  of the lesser  archives,  policy-making.  they  a  archives,  from  deemed  regarded  century,  established  be  produced  whatever  circumstances  the papers  also  o r agency  various and  emerged  executive  political,  were  i n the  or selected  selected  administrative  the archives  Papers  they  there  The m a t e r i a l  and domestic  of the sixteenth  State,  from  which  Comparable  middle  which  retained  and since  lower  l H  offices.  separate  In seventeenth-  by t h e higher  of administrative,  f o r foreign  out.  on.  such  1 3  and kept  f o r example,  o f documents  precedent  selection,  went  t o the papers  registries  value  had accumulated  and the Behordenarchiv.  with  archives,  as time  collected  between t h e A u s l e s e a r c h i v ,  government, remained  t h e growing  administrators.  state  offices  as  and r e f l e c t e d  Office, Secretary  distinct  Among  the  State  i n the lower  14  offices,  indicating  requisitioning Prussian The  bodies  valuable either  some  consciously  continuing papers  value.  were  s t i l l  government, officers  such  who  administrative retain of  their  which  being  purposes  political  and diplomatic  There  administrative  archives  1 5  (1908;  precedence,  evidence  records  preserve  records  r e p o s i t o r i e s to preserve i s little  them  that  recognized  them  of the  of the  d i dnot  beyond  the  the event  century continuing,  as evidence  of  independent,  f o rthat  the keepers  purpose.  of  the "historical"  purposes.  o r no  Early  and c r e a t e d  f o r independent  f o r such  those  documents,  d i d recognize  be  purposes  them.  much  i s the  state  yet, pre-nineteenth  of administrative  administrative  to  as records  administrations  value  legal  could  these  had  as  as o f l e s s  from  used  even  evidenced  others  i J  were  a distinction  speaking,  distinct  unlike  a part;  they  f o r the p o l i t i c a l  were  formed  archives  identified  while  and o r i g i n a l l y  documents,  be  or s e t aside  used  long-term  centralized  could  strictly  value  institutional  i n such  preservation  original  they  i n state  i n the  as w e l l .  t o t h e government,  Implicit  While,  undertaken  i n England  t r a n s a c t i o n which  destroyed  created  to that  housed  archival records  f o r permanent  s e l e c t i o n and  place  valuable  t o be o p e r a t i v e .  that  took  o f documents  as e s p e c i a l l y  some  similar  archives  the administrative  ceased view  perhaps  o f documents  government  recognized after  that  researchers  value and  Certainly, the fact  of sought that  H u b e r t H a l l , S t u d i e s i n O f f i c i a l H i s t o r i c a l Documents r p t . New Y o r k : B u r t F r a n k l i n , 1 9 6 9 ; ) , p . 4 4 .  15  such  records  their  use  were  by  obstacle,  outside  the  scholarship  very  did  administrative rather,  considered  nature  sources  for historical  the  important the  i n the  evidence  England,  gallicus  work  using  of  the  antiquarians  same way  on  traditions  legal  "public"  records  remained  the  most  important  purposes  and  this  r e i n f o r c e d the  was  keepers  very  little  "historical"  1 6  Modern,  of  for their rather  valueing  of  tradition  ancient  German  older  than  sources  the  1 6  In  Germany,  of  over  therefore,  administrative  law  laws  as  concentrated  As  a  in  to  in  medieval  consequence,  practice the  at  In  administrative  prevalent  legal  was  for historical  former  of  life.  preserved  studies.  public pressure,  value  of  France,  history  professors  regarded  as  record  basis  who  of  with  In  documentation by  over  made u s e  w r i t i n g of  erudite historians  and  records  concerned  docendi  century  charters or  the  customs  studies;  sixteenth century.  development  and  such  legal  often  i n the  archival  Gottingen  of  historical  interpretation.  juris  i n the  eighteenth  U n i v e r s i t y of  primary  the  mos  obvious  w r i t e r s who  most  s c h o l a r s h i p and developments  value  ancient  and  p e r i o d were  developed  ground-breaking  of  researchers  this  legal  value  precluded  century  as  of  undertaken  pre-nineteenth  records  problems  which  this  the  during  studies  besides  enhance  archives  from  secret,  to  Historical  derived  of  But  even  little  others.  the  scholars.  i t r e i n f o r c e d the  most  private,  records  research among  latter. recognize  There the  documents.  Ernst Breisach, Historiography: Ancient. Medieval, and ( C h i c a g o : U n i v . o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 8 3 ) , pp. 161-220.  16  The modern  French  archives.  culmination gaining of  the  of  French  conscious  nature  ideas,  value  institutions. liberalism required the  of  that  broadest  of  possible  subsequent  establishment  to  be  a  or  a  and  legal  was  the  acquired the  emerging  of  as  the  economic,  kept  nationalism  policy  this  of  nation,"  the  needed  to  to  break  were  the  church  was  that  produced  the  The  the  older  relied  With  the  some  after  were  a  The  problems  their i t s  place  certain from  period, those  r e s u l t was  divorced  and  administrative  took  distinct  them.  cultural  for  What  increasingly  archives.  be  Revolution  past,  lost.  documents,  in  assigned  French  which  and  values  which  archives  "agency"  that  the  with  upon  society,  idea  agency  since  time  appraisal  f o r which  be  by  and  centralized control,  to  the  during  phrase,  process  a  e f f e c t on and  period  to  of  legal,  used,  the  the  part  of  been  changes  as  an  a l l "records  conscious  state  "historical"  "historical" origins  a  of  continuity,  value  original  political  Secondly,  records  continuing  as  conscious  administrative  new  i n d i v i d u a l needed  responsibility. represented  had  history  had  c e n t r a l i z e d , r a t i o n a l i z e d manner.  seen  institution  a l l , the  of  that  political, also  the  century,  Europe  produced,  sense  in  forces  significant  new  d i s p o s i t i o n of  in  i t represents  eighteenth  changes  infused  controlled  began  a  records  First  which  the  throughout  create Such  watershed  and  brought  institutions  order.  and  movements,  Revolution  to  a  i n many ways,  throughout  effort  social  marks  Although,  strength  traditional  and  Revolution  from  evident  in  to  that  their  17  archival two  appraisal  during  for  The  establishment  set  two  the  legal  major  future  centralized and  documents.  of  development  of  the  But  what  is  importance  the  of  control  consequences were be  to  these  and  the  of  be  archives  as  often  most  of  overlooked  the  the  documents,  access  and  to is  both  a  those  the  intense  revolutionaries attached  documentary for  records,  and  determining  preserved  and  which  in  significant  i n Europe:  institution,  right  control  a l l , in  control  republicans  also  documents offices the  more  to  cited  de_Franc_e  to  the  which were  archives  valueless  and  destroyed.  under  and  such  often  one  which  France's  of  valuable  First  royal  than  alone. all  directly  NaJbio.nales  a l l government  in  public's  ideological  of  relate  Archives  of  of  administrative,  1 7  the  precedents  preservation  recognition  of  period  developments.  17 8 9  to  this  of  to  this  a  separate  a l l the  government  transferred responsibility  from the  record-creating new  government  1200  The  of  centralizing  national and  the  material  for  repository. churches  government  together  agency,  individuals,  r e p o s i t o r i e s throughout  revolutionary  national  into  at  France, first  Archives  the  the  disposing  institutions,  In  were  records  1789,  records  scattered 405  in  wished  among  Paris to  Nationales,  bring but  E r n s t P o s n e r , "Some A s p e c t s o f A r c h i v a l D e v e l o p m e n t since the French Revolution," i n A r c h i v e s and t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t : S e l e c t e d E s s a y s by E r n s t P o s n e r , ed. Ken Munden ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: Public A f f a i r s Press, 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 25-27; T h e o d o r e R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , M o d e r n A r c h i v e s : P r i n c i p l e s a n d T e c h n i q u e s (1956; r p t . C h i c a g o : U n i v . of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1975), pp. 4-5. 1 7  18  the  local  17 9 6 , By  records  placed  under  t h e law o f  divided  into  two  which the to  large  I n 1794,  appraise  two  the heightened  establishment  revolutionary  ways,  instituted  by  regime.  evident  token,  t o what  they  political  t h e management  control. the  archives  scheme than  This  consciously  1 8  and  republican  of  p.  25.  the  and theof of  established  of state  and  surrounding  gave p r e quality  values.  To  ends  be  t o be  which  they  of archives  of consequences:  and  now  but also,  order  a l l  f o r preservation  order,  republicans self-  sought  to  under  not only  to a prescribed,  the natural  sure,  of the  political  natural  which  i n many  of the o l d , the  values  according  and t r a d i t i o n ;  Posner,  new  destroyers  to reflect  held  activities  ideology  b u i l d e r s o f a new  social  was  law, a l l  were  Nationales  the ideological  a number  appraised  which  instant "historical"  and e v a l u a t i o n  held  ;  1 8  considered  classified  designed  growth  As  law o f  Dejpartment ales..  a p p r a i s a l s t r u c t u r e was,  to serve  t h e same  appealed  to  archival  a  records,  commissions  t h e government t o r e c o g n i z e  revolutionary and,  title  f o r the future  of the Archives  documents an  centralized  by  Nationales  a l l the pre-revolutionary records  Secondly,  the  land  of the courts  special  institutions.  forced  the Archives  and  valuable  ecclesiastical  the  later,  sections: the domainal,  records  considered  state.  1793,  legislative,  containing  were  were  the control of the Archives  2 November  administrative, judicial,  of the provinces  their were  rational  of r e a l i t y  documents  apply  were  and d e s t r u c t i o n  rather  19  according  to  conscious  manipulation  uniform, At major  rational the  beginning  were  order  1794,  they the  of  and It  1 9  of  of  were  the  regime  or  memorials  to  "the to  the  the  Through the  titles,  past."  the  height  of law  of  they Carl  and  the  monarchy  and  threats between  the by  under  their  referred  value.  make m o r e  of  as  by the  and  which of  They  original  observes,  records  for  medieval  long  the  government  institutions  i n the  so  17 92  the  official  purposes the  to  the  aristocratic  revolutionary  r e t a i n e d the  to  as  burned  used  formulated. of  records,  records  Lokke  be  that  archives  sense,  powers  they  of  were  destroying ancien  difficult  p.  circumstances,  the  regime.  any  however,  pre-revolutionary archives of  C a r l Lokke, American A r c h i v i s t Lokke,  and  meant  the  away  though  other  controlled  the  1 9  2 0  as  as  to  This  return  2 0  more  value  were  determined  r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s hoped  Under of  As  swept  the  which  which  regime.  monastic  that  archives  exist.  genealogies,  of  record  i t s identity:  titles  alone  as  allowed  assert  values.  needed  Revolution,  created  view  to  social  documentary  being  archives  originally  order  and  ancien  of  feudal  to  old  the  volumes  continued relics  the  the  is clear  regarded  ancien  the  of  struggling to  genealogies,  s t i l l  political  i n danger  hundreds  sanction.  new  appraisal criteria  institutions  church, new  these  25  July  Reign  of  1794  (7  Terror,  Messidor the  " A r c h i v e s and t h e 31 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 27-28. 28.  began  to  views  prevail.  I I ) , enacted  republican  French  other  at  government  Revolution,"  20  appointed Bureau  an Agence  de T r i a g e  records. revised archives  Temporaire  des T i t r e s ,  The i n s t r u c t i o n s thinking  des T i t r e s .  t o appraise  accompanying  later-  a l l pre-revolutionary this  of therevolutionaries with  of the ancien  called the  law reveal the regard  to the  regime:  Depuis longtemps i l s ' e l e v o i t de t o u t e s p a r t s de j u s t e s reclamants contre 1'existence de t i t r e s q u i ne doivent pas survivre a l a t y r a n n i e monarche ou feodale. Ce ne s o n t a la verite que d e s ossemens d e s s e c h e s e t sans vie, mais q u i , de l a p o u s s i e r e de tombeaux, paroissent attendre qu'on voix puisse l e s rassembler e t l e s ranimer; i l f a l l o i t done se hater de m i n e r une esperance n o n mo i n s insensee que c o u p a b l e e t de rassurer l e patriotisme contre les prevoyances meme l e s moins fondees. Mais pour ne r i e n conserver de p e r n i c i e u x , c o n v i e n t - i l d e t o u t e proscrire s a n s examen e t d'envelopper indistinctement dans u n e meme condemnation l e s monuments h o n t e a u x de l aservitude avec l e s materiaux p r e c i e u x dans l e s q u e l s nous pouvons puiser, ou d e s l u m i e r e s p o u r l ' h i s t o i r e , o u d e s armes pour attaquer l e s usurpations du domaine n a t i o n a l e? * 2  In  spite  services  of thefact of theold  especially retained enemies.  with  revolutionary  they  order,  regard  precisely But,  that  some  t o land  to protect  moreover, documents  were  and used  forthe  administrative continuity, titles,  required  t h er e p u b l i c from  there held  created  that  they  royalist  was a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t value  for  be  "des lumieres  the prepour  1 histoire." 1  The  law s p e c i f i e d  revolutionary  records.  categories Article  for theselection  VIII  prescribed  that  of pre"titres  i n M a r q u i s de L a b o r d e , L e s A r c h i v e s de l a F r a n c e : leurs v i c i s s i t u d e s pendant l aR e v o l u t i o n , l e u r r e g e n e r a t i o n sous 1'Empire ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e V Renoud, 1867), p p . 279-280. 2 1  v e  21  domainiaux  q u i peuvervt  nationales" and  were  listed  needs  those  annulled  of  the revolutionary already  controlled criteria they the  state  domains  even  3) t h o s e  of archives  The  legal  slated  armies.  as v a l u a b l e and f i s c a l  pre-revolutionary  were  as  These  well. * 2  Tresor  1  Parlement  historique"  Bulletin  Lokke,  i h  7 Messidor  among  of the French  de P a r i s ,  2 3  which Such  2 2  insofar  as  purposes  of  valueless of the  shipped  state  to  f o rt h e  f o r the f i r s t  were  were  were  monarchy  placed  severed  documents  which  i n a  forever  des L o i s ,  28-31. II, article XII.  no.  time  of value f o r  purposes,  to preserve  documents,  as a r c h i v e s  " France, [17943.  documents  and educational  instructed  des Chartes  to  2 3  some  committees  was  cartridges  t h e l a w o f 17 96 d i d r e c o g n i z e  artistic,  of  m i l i t a r y needs  Yet,  historical,  1790.  decrees  only  a n d 4). t h o s e  after  t o be  titles,  through  relating  f o r destruction  factories manufacturing  legal,  1) f e u d a l  identification  the pressing  p'roprietes  documents  judgement  awarded  to the overall  of the paper  revolutionary  the  definitely  served  Those  or alienated,  administration.  munitions  that  recovered  contributed  much  government,  des  the f i s c a l ,  IX, i n c l u d e d :  contradictory  r e f l e c t e d a view  documents as  by a  t o serve  of the state.  i n article  2)  domains  au recouvrement  t o be p r e s e r v e d  administrative  destroyed,  servir  and  screening  of such  included  the  and the records special  from  58,  "section  the primary  7 Messidor  value  II  of  22  function were in  f o r which  therefore  offices  after were of  had  that  appointed Archives  The  before  as  1789--and  not  but  these  age  i t considered  continuing  They not  into  the  also  needed  criteria  does  not  which  was  not,  required  government presented  members  of  the  of  documents" originating  It  is  also  Bureau  de  Triage.  pre-revolutionary the  be to  fact,  1844  Ministers  Finance,  It  therefore  were War,  is  be  completely  only  as  section  idea  appraised have  been  until to  18 3 5  be  for  of  and  a  that  values  of  the the  for from  radically a  an  severed  lost  tradition  that  documents  according  to  of  the  similar  considered. that  made  of  orders a l l  precise  and Works  were  issued  current  and  Interior for  Public  created  then,  documents  and  destruction  the  more  of  fonds. by  true,  to  only  created  artifacts  records The  closed  historical  apply  slated  Minister  of  that  ordered to  these  approval. the  examine  C h a r l e s V. L a n g o i s a n d H. S t e i n , L e s A r c h i v e s l ' H i s t o i r e de F r a n c e ( P a r i s : A l p h o n s e P i c a r d , 1 8 9 1 ) , 2 5  records,  historical  fonds  to  present. to  was  open  1789.  merely  inventories  the  other  valuable  Instructions of  to  served  documents to  exist.  recognize  seemed  seem in  the  did  as  republic  It  to  i t seems,  after  archives,  civilization,  fp_nds  ceased  documents--those  for  regime  i t s own.  closed  archivists in  process,  government  which  as  "Historical  Nationales.  revolutionary  from  the  for historical  republican  defined  appraisal  1800  appraisal  necessary  of  their  in  created.  suddenly  most  completing  the  were  implicitly  which  significant  they  de p.  the  7.  be  23  inventories  and  preservation: the  state,  church,  select  a l l titles,  the  history,  statistics.  Instead  were  being to  be  appraisal.  A  2 6  for  post-revolutionary a  archives  appears  Other structures be  of  a  provided whose the  control was  to  remained  importance.  and  England  by  the  countries  system.  nineteenth  century  and  the  for  likely  topography,  a  few  or  years  in  agencies  official  disposition  way  established,  developed  the  of  in  of  similar  records  German  Spain)  These as  deemed  states,  significantly and  retrieval  Germanic  of  the  the  in  from  their  and  the  services  for  the  The  existence  countries  of  registries,  and  managed.  to  The  t h e i r use  specialized  agencies  they  only  control  differ  the  those  to  unarticulated.  registry  correspondence  registries in  as  identifying value  Italy,  organization  current  over  (France,  o f f i c e s between  interest  factories,  allow  However,  did  of  documents  in this  approach  have  to  administrative  the  well-established  independent  of  years  for  paleography,  supporting  for  counterparts  operating  the  records  to  well  eliminated  being  European  Netherlands, Latin  parishes,  western  national  decisions  of  thirty  conceptual  records  art,  measure  although  the  of  science,  registered, kept  or  i n s t i t u t i o n s as  to  after  types  acts,  departments,  charitable  interest  certain  t i  not  only  archives, agencies of  influenced  M a r c e l Baudot, "Les T r i a g e s e t E l i m i n a t i o n s , " in M i n i s t r e des A f f a i r s C u l t u r e l l e s , D i r e c t i o n des A r c h i v e s de F r a n c e , M a n u e l d' A r c h i v i s t i c r u e ( P a r i s : S.E.V.P.E.N., 1 9 7 0 ) , 163 . 2 6  P o s n e r , "The Archives and t h e t 7  in  p.  R o l e o f R e c o r d s i n German Administration," P u b l i c I n t e r e s t , pp. 8 7-89.  24  the  application  later  i n the  rival  to  of  archival  century,  archives  archives  institutions  so as  the  agencies.  between  "historical" which  registries,  In  more  distinction the  clearly the  between  the  and  higher  of and  "historical" The original subject  2 3  greater  a  1834  agency  Brenneke,  pp.  or  between and  c u r r e n t use,  were  f o r primary  or  "historical"  eighteenth-century  archives  (Behordjejnarchiv) Because  interest  early  they  to  valued  and  were  importance  selected archives  to  were  nineteenth-century  and  preserved  later  as  an  2 3  between  those  carried  1836.  in  current boundaries  values,  values  the  f u r Archivkunde. and  the  political/historical  relationship  debate  of  France.  government,  and  a  and  documents,  (Auslesearchiv).  collection.  registries of  the  t h e r e f o r e were  general  Zeitschrift between  of  of  secondary  for their  offices  considered scholars,  kept  concerned,  in  As  passive  countries, the  than  potential  appraisal.  as  documents  developed  strong  records  non-current  to  a  "agency"  separation  corresponded  as  destroyers  and  defined  and  principles  operate  Germanic  values  selected archives  selected the  In  repositories  repositories  to  administered  Germany,  "agency"  over  a p p r a i s a l was  contained  which  served  b u i l d e r s and  of  therefore  tended  f a r as  records  archives,  also  for control  consequence,  registries,  but  arrangement  of  out  the  archives i n the  101-102.  was,  pages  Diplomatik,  H e i n r i c h August  values  und  of  the  i n fact, of  the  the  Geschichte  Erhard,  archivist  in  25  Miinster,  insisted  libraries research which of  the  purposes.  French  place  i n the  records  as  he  values. '  difficult  to  the  all  intents  a  are  that  the  in their  preserved  only to  when  exist  Revolution)  fonds.  to  any  L.  restore  i n the  purposes,  who  case,  r e c o n c i l e the  and  they  ceased  agencies  In  registries  closer  F.  would the  values early  archives  Germans  and  roles  nineteenth  authorized  of  their  found of  the  archives  century  disposition  and,  of  order  remained  outside  of  an  archival  disposition records  was  could  the  recognized,  be  judged  need but  independent  to the  control  records  ultimate  values  a r c h i v a l remained  vague  for  public  administrative  Evidently,  former  i t  an  authority.^  on  determine  established through control  papers  original  records,  the  case  Berlin,  the  to  also  i n the  their  Hoefer  to  agency  (as  did  nature  for  the  closer r e l a t i o n s h i p to  wished  c  and  closed  original  selection  had  after  sought  and  since  were  concluded  monarchy  hand,  registries,  He  the  "archival"  other  archives  registries  produced  become the  than  that  in  1833,  whereby  and  unexpressed. Dutch disposition  and of  Belgian their  archivists  i n these  appraising  values  d V  Brenneke,  archives  archives countries  according  pp.  to  also  during  undertook  to  rationalize  this  period,  and  experienced  similar  problems  distinct  administrative  and  54-60.  H a n s Booms, " S o c i e t y a n d t h e F o r m a t i o n o f a D o c u m e n t a r y Heritage: Issues i n the A p p r a i s a l of A r c h i v a l Sources," ed. and t r a n s . H e r m i n a J o l d e r s m a and R i c h a r d Klumpenhouwer, A r c h i v a r i a 24 ( 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 77. 3 0  26  historical records  criteria.  i n government  prescribing department no  longer  at  least  was  to  were  be  the  Netherlands,  departments the  ordered  useful  considered papers  In  methods  to  of  mark w i t h  to  the  of  historical  destroyed  l e d to  agency,  under  and  growth  official  appraisal. a to  pen  preserve In  of  orders  In  special  value.  the  the  1873,  each  those  papers  those  1877,  the  s u p e r v i s i o n of  the  marked Secretary-  General .  j 1  by  A  similar  utilitarian  the  Belgian  government  documents were a  not  considered  segregated  process  and  which  French  revolutionaries  ancien  regime.  responding those  to  the  after  1852, growth  created before into  of  18 51  records  sorted  two  without  o b j e c t i o n , and  offered  selection  out  their  departmental considered Belgian  to  work  be  archivist  of C.  be  be  to  selected  which,  the  were  that  historical Wyffels  In  also  1840.  the  the some  notes,  of  the  of  the  that  valuable  could  be  sold  their  only  guideline  a p p r a i s e r s were  to  instances,  but,  this  the  ordered  which  instructed  value,  by  Interior,  among  The  Those  "old archives,"  archives  because  adopted  administration an  from  destroyed. was  was  that undertaken  M i n i s t e r of  carefully.  officials  into  in  "useless records,"  those  had  carry  new  categories: those  confidentiality, f o r such  to  together  regard  the  appraisal  f o r the  resembled with  to  independence  useful  gathered  closely  In  approach  to  preseve  in practice,  last  records as  criterion  H. J . v a n M e e r e n d o n k , "De D r i e h o e k s v e r h o u d i n g als Basis voor L e g i t i m i t e i t , " Nederlands A r c h i e v e n b l a d 74 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 376377 . 3 1  27  received 18 7 7 be  scant  that  archivists  directly  of  slated  for  A  later,  attempted  to  departments  concept,  the  Louis create  could  appraisers."  Algemeen  state  did  not  archives contain  Gachard, an  the  administrative  value  within  concerned government  centralized  of  the  the  instances  with  mass  send  to  of  of  that  records  archival  to  this  control  value.  even  which  "useless  However,  control over came t h e  involved  r e c o n c i l i n g the  and  Records  problems  government  papers"  for  progressive  of  contemporary  and  Office  of  access  old  of  to  (PRO)  and  in  public  with  archival  records,  the  and  this  control,  appraisal  agency  18 38  Initially  rationalized  records  legal  surrounding  identifying  record-keeping;  problem  reports  documents.  e s t a b l i s h a more  also  values  which with  new  values.  Beginning a  Public with  however,  historical  ensure  their  commissions  preservation  began  completed  realized."  Britain,  the  to  division  effective  i n many  I t was  Archivist-General,  archivists  dealt  R i i k s a r c h i _ e f began  those  allowing  never  in  to  them.  was  only  a p p r a i s a l when t h e y  destroying  Great  of  the  periodically  establishment  first  the  before  material, In  in  smaller  disposal  inspection  from  involved  inspections  year  a t t e n t i o n by  in  1800,  s e r i e s of and  the  Record  nature,  extent,  various  r e p o s i t o r i e s of  British  Commissions  condition the  3 2  Wyffels,  "De  toestand  3 3  Wyffels,  p.  349.  Parliament  of  public  realm.  assigned documents  Although  in Belgie,"  appointed  p.  the  349.  to in  the  review  the  the  commissions  28  had  no  power  to  they  were  they  considered  under  given  which  throughout series was,  control  of  the  hundreds fees  invade  of  before an  response British  to  the  Commissions.  18 3 6  "the of  report and  from  useless.  indispensable of  and  the  of  methods  Committee evidence  of  value"  Soil,  recognized had  on  been  kept--they  be  whose  the  keepers  what  conditions  were  viewed--such  movement  a  a  then  scattered charged  a  a  selection  of  of  liberal  evidences,"  and  of  issues  efficiently report,  the  distinguishing  public records  of  that  i n the  somewhat  " f o r the  Customs,  overall  diminished  the  by  public legal  In  doing  value the  of  useful  "great  Extents, Rights."  importance  of a l l Boundaries, Though as  legal  constitutional  * G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , Committee on D e p a r t m e n t a l R e c o r d s , R e p o r t . Cmd. 9163 ( L o n d o n : HMSO, 1 9 5 4 ) , p . 9 [ h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as t h e G r i g g R e p o r t ] . 3  and  administration  determination  several Manoral their  relative  in  the  cumulative  therefore, noted  a l l local  to  Constitution. of  Committee  force,  access  the  to  mismanagement  reforming  as  British  importance of  beginning  Select Parliamentary  p r e s e r v a t i o n and  raised  The  property,  Rights  As  ancient  also  justice,...their  rights  Given  i n v e s t i g a t e charges  people's  archives the  to  concentrated  their  reform  institutions,  Record  so,  could  documents,  for publication  valuable. being  such  3  the  manifestation  were  of  appraisal exercise. '  in  as  most  they  formed  records  selecting  repositories  was  Committee  disposition  of  the  records  in effect, In  task  were  the  the  the  29  reforms,  i t maintained  historical In  view  in  commissioners  had  date,  according narrower  and  p u b l i c a t i o n , the  the  proper  of  that,  from as  the  could  less  not  the  older  serve  public  a l l the the  past  of  times,  obvious  interesting  of  still-existing  places  as  Records."  part Such  of less  the  was  to  be  value  not  because  a l l and  such  information a  small might  proportion extract  records  social  state  and  which of  such  manners  were  housed  "least  records  possessed  - Great B r i t a i n , Parliament, "Report of the S e l e c t Committee on t h e R e c o r d C o m m i s s i o n , " S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , v o l . XVI, s e c 1-11 ( L o n d o n : HMSO, 1 8 3 6 ) , p . i i i . 5  2 6  "Report  of  the  Select  Committee"  to  future  other  obvious  the  selection  many  series  for  secondary  mainly  enquirers  rights," vast  of  the  Therefore,  form  remained  to  legal  whole,  a  Records  mass"--there  for  as  "the  whole  records  assigned  that  historical  claimed,  recognized  records,  legal  events,  of  The  they  few.  which  of  report  i n t e r e s t s of out  the  Record  than  maintained,  valuable or  a  an  antiquarian,  rather  records,  pointed  most  the  committee  f o r the  report  the  collections  i n t e r e s t s of  committee  i n the  "notices  former  of  d e s c r i p t i o n of  The  contained  are  by  values,  for publication.  for historical,  usefulness  for  users.  used  "in  3 1 5  historical  work,  topographical,  historical  selection  their  there  character to  and  criteria  Clearly, while  3 6  historical  where  public records  undiminished."  legal  confined  valuable  genealogical, purposes."  the  of  s e l e c t i n g documents  offices  ancient  value  wholly  these  criticized  Commissions  "those  remained  considering  committee  that  (1836),  p. v i i .  of in  30  equal the  or  greater  value  commissioners  parochial  for  the  according  interests.  to  The  3 7  public their  committee  than own  those  selected  antiquarian  also  by  and  recognized,  however,  that t h e number o f t h e s e [ l e s s o b v i o u s r e c o r d s ] , . . . , is so s m a l l , and t h e v a l u e o f e a c h so uncertain until the occasion for turning i t t o a c c o u n t a c t u a l l y a r r i v e s , t h a t i t w o u l d be impossible to make a satisfactory selection without a thorough preliminary investigation, and w a s t e f u l and i n c o n v e n i e n t to p r i n t the whole extent of the Records, i n the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of which such information i s o r may be contained. 3 8  The  judgements  selection  criteria,  selection  for  archives. claimed the some  archives  for  valueless office,"  the  useless  i n the  report,  also  prohibitive. idea  of  publication,  they  found  report  of  claimed,  useless  these  would  disconcerting.  takes  Under do  to  "there anybody  up  almost  any  room  precautions,  service  by  of  large  for  valuable  proper  great  are  to the  of  members  papers  committee  the  task  "In  on  committee  the  extracting the  in  masses  While  the  less  the  just maintaining  report  related  preservation  was  trouble.  Commission  for  of  with  committee's  remembered,  cost  utterly  keeping  be  the  papers  documents The  elsewhere  difficulty  records  i t must  i n the  p u b l i c a t i o n not  Yet,  that  presented  most  had  valuable  identifying every  masses  of  purpose  . . . .  and  imposes  the  Record  destroying  in  them." ' 3  3 7  "Report  of  the  Select  Committee"  (1836),  p.  v i .  3 8  "Report  of  the  Select  Committee"  (1836),  p.  v i .  3 9  "Report  of  the  Select  Committee"  (1836),  p.  x l i i .  By  31  concentrating the  on t h e d i s p o s a l  identification  o f t h e most  reduction  of records  Committee  adopted  which  archivists  century  would  As Great  Britain  legal  could  contentious"  such  as those  o f a n y new  observers sense  material Museum.^  between  administrative primary  secondary "agency" 18 3 8  Public  Rolls in  archives  "charge  legal  twentieth  Office,  as  deposited  within the  literary  time  the clear  and  the use of records  they  were  they  created  serve  O f f i c e Act only  archives.  f o rt h e  and t h e i r users,  the Master  records  Public  use f o r  between  As a r e s u l t ,  of the legal  of such  constructed  other  gave  i n t h e same  British  or "public" records  and "custody"  Most  i n the  persisted at this  between  papers,  "records" or  i n  considered  departmental  documents  and " h i s t o r i c a l "  t o a y e t t o be  the  public records  on p u b l i c r e c o r d s .  and superintendence"  departments,  transfer  there  by which  Records  on t h e  records  and e a r l y  b u t as h i s t o r i c a l  f o rwhich  purposes  their  o f , a n d i t was  Paper  be p r o p e r l y  papers,  purposes  however,  to include  legislation  Therefore,  distinction  the nineteenth  i n the State  should  than  acquisition,  to appraising  disposed  an i s s u e  documents,  which  rather  for printing,  on t h e i r  documents,  d i d not see these  as l e g a l  papers  employ.  n o t be  housed  valuable  than  an approach  generally  "too  scope  rather  throughout  strictly  of useless  of the  records  only  Record  the  upon  housed their  Office  (PRO).  John Cantwell, "The P u b l i c R e c o r d O f f i c e A c t and i t s A f t e r m a t h : A New P e r s p e c t i v e , " J o u r n a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f A r c h i v i s t s 7 ( 1 9 8 4 ) , 277 . w  32  Administrative to  erode  such  appraisal Master  practice,  distinctions,  t o t h e PRO.  of the Rolls only  of  destroyed.^  being  producing transfer  into  their  such  procedure  of declaring  some  and sending  of their  them  t h e "charge  Rolls,  sanction.*  Although  2  began, this  ultimate  preserver  remained  a rather passive  government  administered with  own  documents.  housed  passing  upper  hand  volume  paper-  and r e t a i n i n g  ^  Grigg  ^  Cantwell,  under  p.  p. 284.  began  was  13.  a  documents Finally, documents of the  legislative  i t s role  as t h e  documentation, i t  papers  t h e 1845  custody  transfers  under  archives  century,  t h e PRO  continued  t o be  agreement  of their  the next  concerned.  appraiser,  continued  submitting  giving  departments  appraisal  Report,  Over  instruments  records,  where  t o t h e PRO  t o t h e PRO.  as under  departments  to  of the Master  Departmental  i n t h e PRO.  of legal  administrative  high  a c q u i r e r , n o t an a c t i v e  i n t h e same m a n n e r  initiative  even while  i n danger  t h e PRO  of a l l non-current  the T r e a s u r y w i t h  their  were  a l l departmental  time  assured  documents  which  non-current  routinely  this  s e t when t h e  and Admiralty  and superintendence"  and the f l o o d  not only  Admiralty  I n 1845, t h e T r e a s u r y  1852, an O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l p l a c e d  under  the  as Treasury  was  o l d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e documents  to increase.  of  from  began  responsibility for  h i s custody  The p r e s s u r e  continued  in  but to shift  t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e matters  departments  "historical"  slowly  I n 1841, a p r e c e d e n t  took  relating  however,  despite  authority  over  to maintain the  As t h e G r i g g  report  33  observed  i n 19 54,  " i n law,  branches  or  of  the  Public  parts Record  Departments." > £  Under burdens powers  Office  state  an  departments.  well  as  used  and  To  PRO  of be  the  authority  to  his  custody;  well,  were  rules  identify The  and  3  be  was  practice, the  PRO.  Report,  1858,  of  of  the which  of  but  legal  the  inconsistent  of  the  Rolls  i n the given  custody,  submitted to  and  given  PRO  under  the  same  both  documents  as  criteria  be  were  the  archival  destruction  deposited  of  few  committees  Master  their  and  their  a l l the  to  in  their  be  Parliament.  As  a l l departmental records-keepers to  over  p.  hoc  after  Lists  v a l u e were  control  therefore,  late  of  very  priorities  however,  under  archival  the  ad  the  records  made up  authority  until  Grigg  in of  and  continued to  of h i s t o r i c a l  records,  second-hand  *  s t i l l  instructing  somewhat weak  persisted  documents  i n the  records  government  are  inherited  documents  various  applied  PRO  appraisal  departments,  to  the  utilitarian  i n 1877  f o r records  destroyed  Office;  extension  did authorize  destroy  the  public  sure,  methodology  offices  an  affairs,  the  administrative  Only  own  of  officials  ill-defined.  powers  Record  as  independent  independent  included  acts  administering  t o make  value  Public  registries  3  this  of  the  Departmental  was  over  the  This  when t h e  instituted.^  disposition  accompanied  appraisal.  1950s,  also  only  by  procedure,  recommendations  of a too, of  15.  ^ Great B r i t a i n , Parliament, " F i r s t Report of the Royal Commission o n P u b l i c R e c o r d s , " S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , v o l . 44, cmd. 6361 ( L o n d o n : HMSO, 1 9 1 2 - 1 3 ) , pp. 15-16.  34  the  Grigg  were  the  1880s,  central  such  as  part  certain given a  of  to  more  mainly  were  an  records  as  record  the  government  made  why  and  rational the  volume  the  value  administrative importance  of  archivists  the  function.  the  as  of  archives first  ideas  part  a  no  of  agencies  recognized,  distinction archives when  indication as  vast  evident  from  with  the  research,  appraisal  as  an  be  increases  in  to  archivists. task  records  the  Yet, to  the  After  was  such.  d i s p o s i t i o n began the  of  decision.  Moreover,  archives.  centres  state  "agency"  clear that  combined  on  an  kind  were  strict  of  themselves  away  some  appraisal  identified  i t was  important  other  valueless,  records  i n the  as  to  placed  administrations  values  accompanying  make  challenges,  archives  final  had  most  under  often  were  shifting  keepers  State,  archives.  these  problems to  least  according  system  a p p r a i s a l was records  the  designated how  began  at  i t was  "historical" were  countries  historical,  especially in Britain,  records to  of  European  the  retained  documents'  implemented,  And,  records  national  control,  secondary,  the  of  Although  which  decisions  between  records  this  departments  Although  as  from  most  institution,  control.  benefited  or  departmental  then,  d i s p o s i t i o n of  record-producing  or  on  implemented. By  the  Report  1880,  of  creators these  growing elicited archival  from  35  CHAPTER I I  APPRAISAL  AND  THE R I S E  OF ARCHIVAL  THEORY,  1880-1930  With  t h e advancement  of archives  i n the  nineteenth  century  as c e n t r a l i z e d , r a t i o n a l i z e d , and independent  keeping  agencies,  function  of archives  Throughout not  only  this  centuries, served  role  as t h e background o f modern  archival  theory  throughout  historical archivists,  helped  began  this  new r o l e  t o address  century  of  status  European  twentieth  within  society  t o formulate This  had been  as c o n f l i c t i n g  such  apparent.  gaining  administration  the problem  theoretical memory  the basic  new b o d y o f regarded  values  of  and those  of  ammunition, of the nation,  of archival appraisal  which  them.  the value  as evidence  established.  With  and  cultural  administration.  of the collective  had given  t h e 1880s,  archives  of archives  of the original  as keepers  were  and e a r l y  t o r e c o n c i l e what  scholarship.  also  By  archives  became  identity  f o rarchivists  the nineteenth  archives--those  firmly  nineteenth  elevated  theories  also  b u t as  to the national  the late  this  the nature  a r c h i v a l agencies  of scholarship,  important  During  of defining  and a r c h i v a l work  period,  as centres  institutions states.  the problem  record-  of both  f o rh i s t o r i c a l Scholars  legal  and  scholarship  throughout  administrative had been  the early  modern  36  period  did  pressure  consult  archives,  record-creating purposes.  as  for historical  legal  documents  study  of  law  eighteenth  and  Those  century,  to  groups  were  did  often them  most  documents  concerned  of  history  c l o s e l y connected  up  to  least  i n terms  of  e n o u g h .to  for  value  study  at  the  not  preserve  which  research  charters:  remained  certainly  agencies  historical sources  but  the  with  and end  the of  the  documentary  criticism. By  the  historical  middle  on  analysis sources.  twentieth  centuries,  positions  of  public  before  characterize  this  historiography." this  period  appraisal The  of  which  both  In  the  legal late  century, the  however,  status  esteem  period The  and  and  nineteenth  as  the  nature  important  and  leads  methodology  and  early  brought  greater  Ernst  "'Golden  for  than  Briesach  Age'  prominence  consequences  an  administrative  influence  which  of  "scientific"  h i s t o r i a n s ' achievements  them  to  they to  of of  history  the  value  during and  archives.  nineteenth and  century  complex  elevated  graphical  movement,  to  and  which  witnessed  approach  history  intellectual,  Modern  i t s own  of  cultural,  1  attained  with  since,  1  held  comprehensive one  or  nineteenth  had  discipline  the  documentary  attained  the  scholarship  independent based  of  a  to  rise  of  historical  central  political  has  the  position  life.  generally  been  This  a  more  scholarship, in  European  historio-  termed  Ernst Breisach, Historiography: Ancient, Medieval, and (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1 9 8 3 ) , pp. 261-265.  "historicism" There,  developed  to i t s fullest  a l r e a d y i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , p h i l o s o p h e r s s u c h as  Johann G o t t f r i e d von Herder Enlightenment continual natural  historians  rejected  which p o r t r a y e d h i s t o r y  events  t h e i r time.  and i n s t i t u t i o n s  Gottfried  Wilheim  Spirit,  itself.  c  posited,  the d i a l e c t i c  this  t h a n an a p r i o r i  view,  historical  scientific  human u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  which  viewed  t o themselves Hegel  and  expanded t h e  of h i s t o r i c a l  can the generating force  which i s i n a constant s t a t e With  as a  p r o c e s s t o encompass t h e e n t i r e t y o f  human k n o w l e d g e : o n l y t h r o u g h development, Hegel  as u n i q u e Friedrich  views o f  of self-evident  i n f a v o u r o f an o r g a n i c approach,  meaning o f h i s t o r i c a l  or  the r a t i o n a l i s t  p r o g r e s s towards t h e r e a l i z a t i o n  laws,  historical to  e x p r e s s i o n i n Germany.  understanding,  structure,  as Georg  Iggers  o f becoming,  o f Reason realize rather  r e p r e s e n t s the key t o  explains:  H i s t o r y thus becomes t h e o n l y g u i d e t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i n g s human. T h e r e i s no c o n s t a n t human nature; rather, the character of each man reveals itself only i n his development. The abstract, classificatory methods o f t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s a r e t h e r e f o r e i n a d e q u a t e m o d e l s f o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e human. History requires methods which take into account that the h i s t o r i a n i s c o n f r o n t e d by concrete persons and groups who once were a l i v e and p o s s e s s e d unique p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h a t c a l l e d for_the i n t u i t i v e understanding of the historian. d  G. W. F . H e g e l , " P h i l o s o p h i c a l H i s t o r y , " i n T h e o r i e s o f H i s t o r y , e d . P a t r i c k G a r d i n e r (New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 58-73. £  G e o r g I g g e r s , T h e German C o n c e p t i o n o f H i s t o r y : The N a t i o n a l T r a d i t i o n o f H i s t o r i c a l Thought from Herder t o t h e P r e s e n t , r e v . e d . ( M i d d l e t o w n , Conn.: W e s l e y a n U n i v . P r e s s , 198 3 ) , p . 5. 3  38  This  historicist  nineteenth-century hailed  as  critical  the use  commitment  philosophy  German  founders of  to  historians  meaning  and  moral  Through  his  efforts  to  was"  perceive  working moral  school"  of  Heinrich  as  a means  Sybel of  through  (understanding) entire  organic  Through German their  of  were  history, a  Enlightenment  of  by  the  i n order  to  this  the  counterparts,  of  find  history.  or  i t  God"  expression  of  intuitive perception.'' the  Droysen  Droysen  "Prussian and  claimed could  that  only  be  yerstehen  involving  oneself  to  in  the  research,  the  5  their  century,  tended  to  strove  subject-matter.  nineteenth  was  also  Gustav  to  of  Ranke  f u r t h e r by  approach  goal  their  "how  human n a t u r e ,  directly  as  show  higher  personal  their  to  the  Ahnen,  been  above  "hand  as  prominent. hence  and  gewesen).  of  perceived  Ranke  through  developed  historicist of  von  process  s u b j e c t i v e and  context  historians  Leopold  whom J o h a n n  and  achieved  this  ultimate  providential  most  in  the  attaining was  history"  Yet,  referred  of  often  been  history  historical  often  have  work  has  operating  almost  the  what  eigentlich  historians,  von  as  write  methodology  meaning  grasped  es  the  Ranke  Historicist  to  divine,  through  knowledge,  the  (wie a  will.  and  such  values  who  "scientific  "objectivity."  documentary  actually  historians  of  documents  dominated  as view  opposed the  to  state  as  * L e o p o l d von Ranke, from H i s t o r i e s of t h e L a t i n and G e r m a n i c N a t i o n s f r o m 1 4 9 4 - 1 5 1 4 (18 3 2 ) , a s q u o t e d i n W h a t i s H i s t o r y - - F a c t o r Fancy?, ed. B r i a n T i e r n e y , D o n a l d Kagan, and L. P e a r c e W i l l i a m s , 3 r d . e d . (New Y o r k : R a n d o m H o u s e , 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 6 - 7. 5  Iggers,  p.  111.  the  primary  idealist  manifestation  concept  individual  viewed  entity and  realization  of  that  represent  would  the  which,  motivations  states  of  actions the  idea  foolish  to  existing  f o r the  protection  l e t us  historians Germany, viewed  were  but  historians, to  i n other  On  7  the  great  of  Iggers  social  of  the  documents  continued  of  great to  this  economic to  powers, offer  and so  property.'  the  Moreover,  0  only  state,  in  German  inattentive  about  by  primarily  diplomatic  and  sources  for  they  in  the  brought  remained  prime  joined  p r e c i s e l y because  changes  and  the  have  "were r e m a r k a b l y  them  that " i t  institutions  positive forces of  the  declared  maintained  figures not  as  to  Ranke  many  their  states,  out,  contributed  i n d i v i d u a l s who  view  historicist  philosophy  documentary  historians held  development  of  archival theory  appraisal.  In  the  first  i n c r e a s i n g l y under  b  in  7  Breisach,  8  the  time-bound  the  political historical  8  The  came  as  political  points  and  seemingly  God"  This  self-contained,  history.  safeguard  History  interplay  of  structures  account as  of  them  European  power  industrialization.  study."  to  prominent  existing  society.  consider  say,  a  the  purposes  "an  as  meaning.  i t s members,  be  together,  state  through of  true  historical  Iggers,  Iggers,  p.  p. p.  8. 262.  12.  vast  place, the  of  the  most  important  consequences  and the  control  concepts archives of  for  of of  the  archival government  h i s t o r i a n s . By  the  40  1880s,  h i s t o r i a n s such  Lehmann h e l d Archives.  to  highest  Because  9  historicist left  the  at  hands  agency  the  ways,  cultural on  this In  the  i t was  the  same  of  provenance,  and  Archives  in  1881.  required  that  the  agencies  artificially meant  they  of  i n the a  were  too  who were  not  the  the  provenienzprinzip.  This  new  be  original  which  preserving  or  arrangement  of  the  association  at  this  organized  them,  r e c r e a t i n g the  stage  between  of  In  many  prominent  Prussian  the  of State  arrangement  to  their  they  had  than  according  original hence  based  the  principle  scheme.  registries;  as  extent  archival  rather  the  in history.  ideas  according  classification  agency  of  s t r u c t u r e which  produced  imposed  concept  the  for  s o c i e t y was  place  the  i t s introduction into  the  archives  great  or  of  1  historicist a  be  documents  historians. ^  state's  to  to  in  them p r e c i s e l y  i n nineteenth-century of  Max  force  important  t r a n s f e r r e d out created  and  State  significant  s e l e c t i o n of  was  influenced  records  Prussian  such  central state  place,  archivist/historians formulation  time,  concept  second  was  The  officials  institutions  provenance,  positions state  argued,  idealist  F r i e d e r i c h Meinecke,  i t s archives  development  the  Sybel,  officials.  destruction,  because,  the  history,  registry  of  as  In  acquired to  practice,  in an this  internal the  close  registraturprinzip,  or  the  P o s n e r , "Max Lehmann and t h e G e n e s i s o f t h e Principle o f P r o v e n a n c e , " i n A r c h i v e s and t h e P u b l i c I n t e r e s t : S e l e c t e d E s s a y s b y E r n s t P o s n e r ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: Public Affairs P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 37-38. 9  W o l d e m a r L i p p e r t , "Das Verfahren bei Aktenkassation S a c h s e n , " D e u t s c h e G e s c h i c h t s b l a t t e r (1901), pp. 249-264. 1 0  in  41  principle  of original  recreating, organic, German  such in  archivists  gave  with  applying "the  It at  of every  o f i t s own  different  impulses  now  the foundation  most  view  based  concerned  new  to preserve  principle  were  would  n o t be  predetermined  a Dutch  chapters  became  as a  a number  living  of l i f e ,  necessity  and  and  source  to  practical,  this and  classification.  Dedel,  according  and s u b j e c t  was  for  of antecedents  decided  the archives  i n Utrecht  also lay  concept  as a more  Gerrit  to arrange  geographical  a  traditions  b u t t h e German  developed  lawyer,  Archives,  of a r c h i v a l  alternative to subject  practical  ecclesiastical  principle  the record  arrangement  18 2 6 ,  individual  by  •  on p r o v e n a n c e  In fact,  as  . . now  administrative  studies.  early  that,  i t sp e c u l i a r p r i n c i p l e  of this  the only,  observed  .  simple  more  F r i e d e r i c k Meinecke  s i n g l e agency  their  Archives:  o u t , was  to the State  historicist  sometimes  historical  of provenance  with  the  of the State  has p o i n t e d  when he  By  participated, the  greatly the  value,  Kimball  c a m e t o l i g h t . "12 that  they  philosophy."  with  persons  i s true  arrangement  t o enhance  as Gregg  to this  of the archives,  i n which  the ultimate  the principle  registry  organism  processes  historicist  expression  and p r o v e n i e n z p r i n z i p .  structure  sought  and hence  an approach,  line  the  i n the very  historical  quality,  order,  scheme  of  to  that i t  various  a  since  individual  G r e g g K i m b a l l , " T h e B u r k e - C a p p o n D e b a t e : Some F u r t h e r C r i t i c i s m s and C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r A r c h i v a l Theory," American A r c h i v i s t 48 ( 1 9 8 5 ) , 3 7 3 - 3 7 8 . 1 1  1 2  i n Posner,  "Max  Lehmann,"  pp.  41-42.  As  42  registers  contained  localities. -' 1  of  the  to  arrange  des  Interior  in  intermixed  agency, with  individual  nothing which  more  de  to  the  that  later  to  does, not- i n s i s t  the  fonds  as  main  concern The  advent  archives turn,  a  as  the  by  evidence the of  early a  new  formulated  system  decisions on  required  of  could  of be  subjective  of  made.  a  a  member  of  determine.  was  formulation  on  original  organic  French  be  that  Archives  arrangement  the  origin  principle  of a  development  that  of of  is respect  records  within  further was  not  the  practices.  theory  according  to  of  the  approach  provenance  which  to  offered,  in  appraisal  Certainly, historical of  clear  not  " i t consists  historicist-inspired  judgement  would  of  except  order  respect  French  only  registraturprinzip. of  of  administrative  the  This  Minister  Departmentales  is  advantage  items,  and  single,  It  principle  chief  French  (fonds)  fonds.  together  i n the  values  a  of  application since  German  fonds  that  the  bringing  des  indication  such  Wailly,  i t s ease  than  another  behind  i t i s necessary  similar  of  subjects  principle  or  contended in  a  family,  Commission, lay  to  the  Archives  records  Natalis  fonds  according  by  of  expediency:  by  issued  different  body  records  motivation  many  i n s t r u c t e d the  records the  on  circular  18 41  whereby  independent  main  famous  their  fonds.  the  The  information  criteria  historian/archivists  based of  the  H. H a r d e n b e r g , " T h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r a c t i c e u n d e r l y i n g the D u t c h Manual f o r t h e Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n of A r c h i v e s , " A r c h i v e s and M a n u s c r i p t s 3, No. 4 (1968), 6. 1 3  i n T h e o d o r e R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , M o d e r n A r c h i v e s : P r i n c i p l e s a n d T e c h n i q u e s ( 1 9 56; r p t . C h i c a g o : U n i v . C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 172.  of  43  time  had  been  sometimes 18 4 0 ,  used  with  to  unfortunate  f o r example,  General,  ordered  of  the  Antwerp  In  the  early  historical Baudot  Louis  a l l the  merchants  nineteenth  criteria  has  appraise  to  records  results  Gachard,  for the  before  the  future  researchers.  Belgian  sixteenth-century destroyed century,  identify  as  commercial  archivists  permanent  In  Archivist-  historically  French  1880s,  values,  records  valueless' " 1  also as  used  Marcel  observed: Malheureusement l a conception qu'on avait a l o r s de l a recherche historique etait bien different de l a notre, et certaines e l i m i n a t i o n s a u t o r i s e e s , t e l l e s que c e l l e des listes electorales e t des listes des plus imposes, etaient facheuses pour les h i s t o r i e n s d' a u j o u r d - h u i . 1 6  Historicism,  however,  philosophical  offered a  foundation  for a  definite  and  consistent  provenance-based  appraisal  methodology. The as  historians  process to  historicist  an  within  now  involved  archives,  increasingly  Second  concept  practically-minded documents  should  to  be  justify  had  archivists disposed  held come  over of  at  Renee D o e h a e r d , "Remarks on A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 14 ( 1 9 5 0 ) , 325. 1 5  allowed evidence  their  historical  Congress  historians  verstehen  i n maintaining  skeptical  German A r c h i v e s  research-minded  of  community. in  conflict  whether all.  of  organic  appraisal practices  i n Dresden into  archivists,  In  any  At  1900, with  archival  answering  Contemporary  the  their  Archives,"  i n M a r c e l Baudot, "Les T r i a g e s e t E l i m i n a t i o n s , " i n M i n i s t r e des A f f a i r s C u l t u r e l l e s , D i r e c t i o n des A r c h i v e s de F r a n c e , M a n u e l d ' A r c h i v i s t i a u e ( P a r i s : S.E.V.P.E.N., 1970), 169. i o  p.  44  historian  critics,  the  historicist  rationale  appraisal  legitimate  that  in  an  an  intuitive  society  value;  e f f o r t to  activity:  which  insight  allows  Woldemar L i p p e r t  them saw  yerstehen  claimed,  learning  and  historicism  practicing had  pre-determined historicist  concepts were  therefore,  answer  basis  of  from  case  to  his to  While  as  of  depended  for  of  historical case."  a  Rohr  also  never  of  through  philosophy  of  to  scientific,  as  such,  be  prescribed  a r c h i v i s t of  concludes,  and  archival  acquired  entire  value;  The  development  subjective  relative archival  education  historical  matter  reaction  could  declared  this  strove value  professional  or  to  "on  find the  experience  1 3  appraisal  justified in  the  in  the  the  eyes  i t s effectiveness  themselves  as  experienced.  of  The  historical  Wilhelm  a  intuitive,  1 7  for  relative  as  archivists  value  Meineke  progressive  measure  history.  of  the  the  developed  questions  verstehen  activity  immerse  been  theories  described--they period,  he  on  archival  "feeling  appraisal  based  which,  to  a  forward  render  Friederick  into  Fingerspitzengefuhl  the  a r c h i v i s t s put  a r c h i v i s t / h i s t o r i a n s possess  life," of  a  German  on  organic  essentially of the  subjective  historians, ability  process  of  of  i t  also  archivists  history  to  through  Hans B o o m s , " S o c i e t y and the F o r m a t i o n of a Documentary H e r i t a g e : Issues i n the A p p r a i s a l of A r c h i v a l Sources," ed. and t r a n s . H e r m i n a J o l d e r s m a and R i c h a r d Klumpenhouwer, Archivaria 24 ( 1 9 8 7 ) , p. 84. 1  W i l h e l m Rohr, "Zur P r o b l e m a t i k des modernen A k t e n w e s e n s , " A r c h i v a l i s c h e Z e i t s c h r i f t 75 ( 1 9 5 8 ) , 75 translation]. 1 8  [my  45  the a  documentary  concrete  context  historical archival  development  The  develop:  like  a  subjective,  anti-theoretical  extent  a historical  consensus  inevitability  o f human  intellectuals  to perceive  history.  Indeed,  experiencing lines  progress  o f development  process,  documents.  F r i e d e r i c k Meineke's  archivist's  "feeling  value  observes,  on a  progress,  the blessings  richly  "rather  unfolding  replaced  this  the  principle  for  appraisal.  1 9  accordingly  consensus  i n Booms,  p . 84.  Even  belief  remained  great  of human  that,  also  by  predict  about the  and h i s a b i l i t y  i n steady  the First  to  Wehler human and a  skepticism World  as t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  observes,  future  f o r historical  nation-state,  after  a  the  as i n t e l l e c t u a l  of optimism  a s Booms  to a  as H a n s - U l r i c h  of the liberal  of provenance Indeed,  life"  archivists, I t i s true  governing  values  depended,  as a  i tremained  did rely  assertions  unsceptical  culture."''  while  one c o u l d  f o rhistorical  determine  itself.  assumed  future  of the  of the  allowed  and the a b i l i t y  appraisal  and hence  served  nature  concerning  c e r t a i n laws  intuitive  historical  process  activity,  order  itself.  the organic  intuition,  which  progressive  and, as such,  historiography  a p p r a i s a l by h i s t o r i c i s t  upon  the  provided  from  the original  of historical  t o transcend  experience  of development  on p r e s e r v i n g  as evidence  by provenance  fossil,  organism  f o r the process  furthermore, that  living  emphasis  archives  could  revealed,  of a  Arrangement  f o rthe subjective  intuition  fonds  surrogate  evidence.  War  basis  as s k e p t i c i s m i n  46  archival  work  corresponding  instability  between  archivists'  attachment  reason  for  this  is  provenance-based structure  of  necessarily  an  unnecessary The  or  of  he  recognized  reasons, future  order  an  archivist, this  the  sea  in  provenance.  the  in  original  process,  and  pp.  Lippert,  p.  to  the  served  evidence  "archival  2  tool  of  explained later  the  records  appraisal  A  the  body"  have  firm  of  from  his  the  of  Lippert, for  "was to  long  a  while  blessing  drink of  from  to  an  '  original  career  essential  as  goals  works:  translation].  this  budgetary  proponent  86-87. [my  by  essential  nature  Woldemar  throughout  his  on  clarify  1901,  dispose  material." *  258  not  The  As a p p r a i s a l f r e e s the registry from dead weight [Ballast]. extracts the essential material o f t h e o r g a n i s m and t h e r e b y e n h a n c e s its clarity and u s a b i l i t y , so i s i t , i n t h e final analysis, a part of those activities  Booms,  The  i y  task  values.  archivists  In  would  of  German  material.  otherwise  one  the  automatically  the  who  Brenneke  of  i t rendered  that  of  Adolf  were  freeing  help  to  did  organic  convinced  appraisal  approach  since  by  may  so  historical  German  need  historians  as  of  intellectual  preserving  of  historians  approach.  remained  unfathomable  involved  future  irrelevant  provenance-based  principle  evidence  clearer  appraisal  general  archivist's essential  approach  statements  function  as  future  process  the  a  increased,  the  appraisal  appraisal  organic  to  predicting of  wars  that  archives  requirements such  the  to  an of  47  which transform_ " a r c h i v a l body. "  the  registry  into  an  c:i  The  value  of  provenance-based factors. German  First  case,  appraisal  and  fonds,  was  of  all,  formed  contained  valuable  long  the  state  so  fonds.  as  Secondly,  as  the  most  meaning,  and  as  records  more  i n the  by  appraising the  important The appraisal large  practical was  numbers  that of  by  were  evidence  records  offices,  i t was  entity,  organic  the  the  wholeness  view  of  the  rendered  the  provenance;  state's  state  what  activities to  the  bureaucracy--  assumed,  came  the  most  2 3  consequence archivists  records  of  the  became  within  a  provenance very  fonds  approach  reluctant  for  fear  of  to  to  destroy  affecting  A d o l f Brenneke, Archivkunde: e i n Beitrag zur Theorie und G e s c h i c h t e des e u r o p a i s c h e n A r c h i v w e s e n s , ed Wolfgang Leesch ( L e i p z i g : K o e h l e r & A m e l a n g , 1 9 5 3 ) , p . 38 [my translation]. 2 2  2 3  Booms,  pp.  of  historical  according  the  structure  and  entity,  the  the  automatically  valuable  of  in  subject-matter  system  the  absolute  of  for  original  valuable  registry  a u t h o r i t y s t r u c t u r e of  records.  number  guide  m a n i f e s t a t i o n of  useable  powerful  a  historicist/idealist  make  most  than  a u t o m a t i c a l l y of this  the  contributed to  to  the  of  records  the  by  of  registries,  permanently  was  hierarchical from  identify  the  of  object  practical  to  independent,  i t produced  remained  and  virtue  important  an  the  reinforced  by  i n the  they  as  existence  clear  (pertinenz):  information  of  a  easier  already  was  the  made v a l u e much  content  evidence  appraisal  provided  (provenienz) the  organic  87-88.  48  its in  organic  unity.  1920, S o u t h  "many  African  countries  ministerial Dutch  are rather  on a r c h i v e s  t h e most  methodology  consider  appraisal  of  t h e manual  originals purposes. appraisal should  through  they  decide  provenance;  t o obscure  this  period  could  such  appraisal  rely  of  or  reference  i n t h e cases "common  not destroy  an organic  unity,  on p r a c t i c a l  sense  approach t o  organic  number  where  anything  The h i s t o r i c i s t  the sheer  t o 35  of  unity documents  archivists i n  experience  t o make  decisions.  Similarly, Georg  Hille,  by  O. M e i s n e r  criteria  only  such  duplicates  that  of preserving  whenever  n o t even 33  i s offered,  2 5  on  Sections  f o r legal  i s the statement  a matter  does  1898  and F r u i n ,  statement  destroying  and one s h o u l d  that  any of t h e  Feith,  function.  be u s e f u l  of experts."  remained  threatened  H.  may  i s necessary,  the advice  appraisal  by Muller,  on provenance,  against  reported  The i n f l u e n t i a l  and i n s i g h t f u l  I n t h e end, a l l t h a t  always  without  warn  institutions  Botha  t o destroy  archives."^  as an a r c h i v a l  even  since  C. G r a h a m  written  based  of archival  reluctant  consistent  archival  a tour  archivist  or departmental  manual  perhaps  Following  the appraisal  the state  archivist  i n 193 9  and focussed  standards  remained  instead  formulated  of Schleswig, vague  on v e r y  and  on a c t u a l  practical  i n 1901 b y re-issued value  methods f o r  ^ C. G r a h a m B o t h a , R e p o r t o f a V i s i t t o V a r i o u s Archives C e n t r e s i n Europe. U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America, and Canada ( P r e t o r i a : G o v e r n m e n t S t a t i o n a r y O f f i c e , 1 9 2 1 ) , p. 44. S a m u e l M u l l e r , J a c o b A. F e i t h , a n d R o b e r t F r u i n , f o r . t h e Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n of Archives, trans. H. L e a v i t t , (New Y o r k : H. W. W i l s o n , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 9 6 . 2 5  Manual Arthur  49  establishing "General for to  is  the  for a  abstraction  " o l d age  specific  fulfilled,  the  can  and  document  the  could  be  to  the  of  the  the  the  of  records  only  a  significance the  rights  right"  affairs, a  notable  kept  value of  of  the  determining The  statement  place  each  on  of  " i f they  i f they  represent  typical  40-41.  the  at  the  intermediate to  the relates  "Disposition  of  upholding  property,  potential a  whole:  "Files  instances  pertain to rights,  Hille's  files,"  office  besides  rights  i n non-state  Altogether,  that  section that  s o c i e t y as  preserved  of  archives,  about  section contains  refer  The  reflects  Records"  records  for maintaining  be  pp.  for  central  Archives,"  to  -° B r e n n e k e ,  an  case.  the  i f they  private persons  2 o  each  the  offices.  information  person."  purpose  especially  proper  and  only  lower  by  of  are  that  great  criteria  of  are  "archives as  identified.  preserved  Subject  cursory of  "too  O r i g i n of  easily  documentary  to  offers  priori  generated,"  are  according value  and  long  maxims  "extremes  "General  are  agencies  actual  so  statement  uniqueness the  as  broad  more  where  administration  a  of  so  point  lower  number  Under  administrative hierarchy  i n s t r u c t e d , "are  and  of,"  last  to  to  Hille  they  values.  respected,"  f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the  within  duplicates  This  the  be  purpose,  disposed  according  methods  offered a  i s to  aversion  stresses  "Disposition general  be  legal  i n a p p r a i s a l , such  past  is evil."  historicist  value,  definite  archivist  avoided,"  created  and  Disposition," Hille  guiding be  origins  or  of  on  public  significant i f they  appraisal  document  standards  /  50  reflect with  an h i s t o r i c i s t  maintaining  their  the organic  generality,  practical  approach  such  experience  to appraisal  unity  guidelines  than  i n their  of the records.  concern  Due  necessarily relied  theoretical analysis  to more  on  for their  effectiveness. The  development  European German  countries  followed  historiography  documentary philosophy  approach which  historiography Frequent  German  "historical historical  missionaries  works were  had  retained  style  of historical  exalted  the unique  worthwhile British As  Oxford  seminars  the great  As  their  writing, cultural  historical  setting.  development  in  t h e work  unique  centres  Breisach  and t h e  describes  and  historicism,  adapted  British  antiquarian  t r a d i t i o n s o f any n a t i o n  manifestations,  i t ,  grounds f o r  The  2  b u t German  of  German  tracts." ' literary  States.  easily  which as to the  i 3  a result,  of  own  of  historical  were t h e t r a i n i n g  i t sm i s s i o n a r y  influence  historicist  and Cambridge  science."  other  German  and t h e U n i t e d  with  i n  influenced  of Geschichtswissenschaft  historical always  France,  The  and t h e  i t , greatly  and exchanges  o f Germany made  German-style  countries.  to scholarship,  i n Britain,  theory  closely the scholarly  i n these  supported  contacts  faculties  "the  of archival appraisal  appraisal  comparable  concepts  t o those  of S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson,  2 /  Breisach,  p.  2 3  Breisach,  pp.  263. 285-286.  i n Britain  i n Germany the most  followed  and  lines  culminated  comprehensive  51  and  sophisticated  documentary did  the  their  history  value  research.  In  on  1910,  1912,  the  of 1900  the to  records  royal to  work  of  for  the  for  historical  research.  keepers  the  to  In  into  their  the  state  of  order  which  of  of  historical  archives  and  preserving  the  of  extent.  under both  report,  Sir public  the  records.  In  their  between  legal  departmental  expediency  questioned  gave  destruction  review and  past  over  the  entire  a r c h i v i s t s and of  1852  criticized  in  methods  appointed and  and  released  to  commissioners  they  for  too  attention  administrative Indeed,  so  i t s furthest  first  special  both  Britain,  appointed  the  committees  legislation to  was  As  value  as  evidence  period.  records  concept  destruction  putting  power  research  recommend  appraisals  behind  the  paid  destruction,  motives  private  inquire  various  s e l e c t and  and  in  c a r r i e d the  in Britain.  for  this  importance  commission  commissioners  rationale  in  on  context  Pollock  records  views  appraisal  a  local  gained  t h e o r i s t of  government  organic  Frederick  and  of  British  ideas  original  archival  records  records:  The u l t e r i o r o b j e c t of the o f f i c i a l action taken in 1877 and 1898 for statutory authority to d e s t r o y v a l u e l e s s documents was t o make space f o r the reception of fresh transfers . . . . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to peruse these official documents without some misgivings in respect of the sweeping a s s e r t i o n s made by t h e authorities of the Records O f f i c e as to the utterly useless nature of a great mass of Departmental Records under t h e i r care. ' 2  Great B r i t a i n , Parliament, " F i r s t Report of the Royal C o m m i s s i o n o n P u b l i c R e c o r d s , " S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , v o l . 44, Cmd. 6361 ( L o n d o n : HMSO, 1 9 1 2 - 1 9 1 3 ) , p . 16 [ h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as P o l l o c k Commission I ] . 2 9  52  The  report  also  committees "their cited were  since their  general which  illustrated  appraisal  policy  could  of  only  approach  as  proposed  "a more  allegedly  made on  of  the  2)  by  experience  research  Various  selection  according  cases  to  to  were  records  later  which  be  the  in  evidence  of  archivist  for archival  and  one  most  value  evidences,"  of  but  their  this  historicist  examination"  been  with  or  the  role  as  the  other be  were  based  German  process  and  of  might  recommendations  appraisers, preserved  expertise  provided  in  and  reliable  judgements.  confirmed not  government with  in  relation  has  historian  concerned,  management  that  records  as  an  expert  historical  the  historical  report therefore  upon which  legitimizing  P o l l o c k Commission as  use These  3 1  The  in their  assumptions  s t r u c t u r e of the  "1)  new  Archivists,  using  more  for a  professional,  value.  and  documents,  of  a  appraisal  relative  of  to  calling  value.  their  P o l l o c k Commission  I,  pp.  ' P o l l o c k Commission  I,  p.  3 0  3  their  students."  the  of  foundations  people's  conformed  systematic  relied  original  control  the  appointed  found  were  which  i n respect  that  archivist  of  s e v e r a l c l a s s e s of  commissioners  their  same k i n d  The  not  history."  how  undertake  useless  archivists  the  to  them  namely,  of  were  f o r d e s t r u c t i o n were  the  understanding  classes,  qualifications  3 y  Clearly,  view,  the  members  knowledge  scheduled  valuable.  questioned  the with  the  documents  of  the  efficient as  "the  p r e s e r v a t i o n as  17-19. 20.  role  historical  53  evidence.  The  Jenkinson,  as  appraisal ideas formulated  Administration.  carried  furthest  i n order  limits  historical in  detail  context  evidence. before  of  this  in his the  they  can  adopted  the  German v i s i o n  are  collected,"  They  'Collection'  the or  or  prove  a  growth;  "state written  their  3 c  no  to  of  must  within  be  of  banished  be  the  to  i t s  archives dealt  as with  general  might  no  a  say, of  formed  a  as  much  their  by  the  the  . . . .  together of  the  came  with  future,  together,  natural process: an  organism  as  participation  claimed  actually  part."  They a  "I wish  fact  them  students  by  "Archives  archivist's  important  conjecture;  which  the  theory.  Jenkinson  unity. essay;  brought  Jenkinson  authenticated  events  later  useful to  consequence  voice  whole  that  someone  archives,  from  arrangement,  archives,  memorials,  in a  establish  be  of  organic,  illustrate  you  opinion*  themselves  of  nature  declared  final  a  process,  preservation, they  As  he  would  or  almost,  animal. "  approach  value  arguments  situated  the  because  they  point  reached  organic  there  that  the  Hilary  of,Archive  provenance  preserve  be  of  could  i f only  not  idea  and a  are  Manual  Sir  period.  definition  vocabulary,  1922  Jenkinson's  his  word  Deputy-Keeper  German  to  In  not  of  in his  they  are  fact  of  occurred  a  in  are tree this  Manual.,  simply their and  official  of  which  3 3  H i l a r y Jenkinson, "The E n g l i s h A r c h i v i s t : A New P r o f e s s i o n " ( 1 9 4 7 ) , i n R o g e r H. E l l i s a n d P e t e r W a l n e , Selected Writings of S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson (Gloucester: S u t t o n , 1980), p. 238. 3 2  Jenkinson, ( L o n d o n : P. L u n d , 3 3  Manual of Humphries  Archive Administration, & Co., 1 9 6 5 ) , p.. 4.  3rd  eds., Alan  ed.  54  in  The  fact  that  which  they  themselves  Jenkinson's  view,  as  historical  an  activity,  could  participated  a special  documents.  quality  Since  research.  Therefore,  Jenkinson  t o Jenkinson's  evidence, 1922  they  interpretations  contain i s "impartial."  central  formulation stated  serve  the Research  i s that  contemplated  were  entire  and  preserved. "  the  concept  3Ii  theory  which  will  documents to of  of impartiality i s  The  historical original  prediction  a r c h i v e s may  which  b y whom t h e a r c h i v e s w e r e a clearer  3 5  Jenkinson,  "The E n g l i s h  p. 12. Archivist,"  up  explanation of  The p u r p o s e f o rwhich they [archives] are used i s n o t once i n a hundred times . . . the purposes f o r which they were originally compiled and preserved . . . . I t i st h e indifference of the O f f i c i a l Custodian to the i n t e r e s t s i n w h i c h h i s d o c u m e n t s come t o b e used which give archives properly preserved one o f their outstanding characteristics-their unbiased quality: there i s no q u e s t i o n i n g t h e i m p a r t i a l i t y o f a w i t n e s s who knows nothing of the point, nor of i t s importance, which h i s evidence w i l l be u s e d to establish; who m a d e h i s statement i n a t o t a l l y difference [sic] connexion."  Manual.  were  drawn  essay:  Jenkinson,  . . .  b e made t o  n o t be t h e purposes  offered  of  the information  i n h i s own w o r d s . Safe  value  as p a r t  o f a r c h i v e s as  ends  Jenkinson  i n a later  a view  concept  "the only  by the people  produced  f o r t h e purposes  that  . . . these  to their  i n archival with  process  them, i n  concluded,  This  and i s best r e l a t e d  concerning  gave  the information recorded  future  of an o r g a n i c  essential  n o t c o n s c i o u s l y be m a n i p u l a t e d  influencing  they  archives are evidence  p. 241.  55  Jenkinson  therefore  structure  of  the  Germans  upon  the  the had  very  creator.  So  archives done;  long  research  in his  agencies  had  unconscious only  be  were  future  original  appraisal  researchers, Jenkinson overmuch that  they  taken  by  sure,  but  contended the  were the  unable  of  historical  Jenkinson,  record  an  very  original  could to  impartiality  be  destroyed If  of  the  not  to  question that  value  148.  in this  to  the  govern for  through  next a  truth  hundred  kind  of  the  future  to  d i r e c t i o n s which the  only  dangerous.  account  the  argued,  allowing  much more  periods;  i n t e r e s t s of  original  Jenkinson  i n disappointments  are  appraisal  so  creators  were  much  remaining  purposes  realized  record  earlier  p.  dependent  for  the  by  those  grounds  p r e d i c t the  Manual,  As  too  purposes, no  the  "we  as  remained  i t s value  so  f o r the  result  predicting historical  3 6  uses,  have  to  as  original  impartial criteria.  and  that  activity  i t s a u t h e n t i c i t y as  impartiality.  alternatives  judgement  as  s e l e c t i o n of  of  would the  the  intention  long  Jenkinson  intentions  process  of  impartial record  would  organic  original  assumed.  for research  generations be  of  by  i n the  a r c h i v a l a p p r a i s a l were  original,  not  To  on  the  only  of  established,  research  when  out  original so  value  archival value  motives  also  an  later  same  and  selection.  Yet,  of  carried  agencies,  the  created  the  perceived  be  was  seeing  evidence  record,  concept  assured  followed  as  this  ideas  1  up  he  could  Jenkinson s bound  as  i n the  record  historical  beyond  i n t e n t i o n and  uncompromised unaltered  went  is  blame simply  would  be  years."  verstehen  J i  56  could  never  serve  compromised  the  as  a  reliable  impartiality  appraisal  of  the  guide  entire  since  i t  fonds:  For the Archivist to destroy a document b e c a u s e he thinks i t useless is to import into the c o l l e c t i o n under h i s charge what we have been throughout most anxious to keep out o f i t , an e l e m e n t o f h i s p e r s o n a l judgement; for the Historian to destroy because he t h i n k s a d o c u m e n t u s e l e s s may be s a f e r a t t h e moment (since he presumably knows more h i s t o r y t h a n t h e A r c h i v i s t ) , b u t i s e v e n more destructive of the Archives' reputation for impartiality in the future: but for an A d m i n i s t r a t i v e body to destroy what is no longer needed i s a matter e n t i r e l y w i t h i n i t s competence and an a c t i o n which future ages (even though t h e y may find reason to deplore i t ) c a n n o t p o s s i b l y c r i t i c i z e as illegitimate o r as a f f e c t i n g the status of the remaining Archives; 1 , 3 7  Jenkinson's conclusions  very  counterparts. archival  material  danger,"  he  mention  as  and  a  Archivist,  could  to  relieve  considered  only  i n the  such  documents,  weeding  them  case  of he  out  those  clearly  "that  authorities."  Jenkinson  from  serious  manuscript help  appraisal  3 8  the  Was  be  there  pressure  Manual.  p.  149.  Jenkinson,  Manual,  p.  138.  bulk  "There  of  of  both  is  a  the the the  real  future, mass  not  of  the  archivist  overabundance?  the  archivist  duplicates, the  small  ' Jenkinson, 8  rising  way  practical  German  under  any  of  by  whether the  his  to  i n terms  buried  word-for-word  justified  the  him  H i s t o r i a n of  destruction  doubted  of  control:  the  may  saw  led  problem  intellectual  observed, the  on  different  Jenkinson  administrative  to  thinking  labour  reduction  but  legitimate even  involved this  with in  would  57  afford.problem the be  Instead,  1  of  he  appraisal  process  of  improved  maintained lay with  that  the  "archive making,"  and  adapted  to  make  either  too  little  or  making"  instructed  agency  officials  to  proceedings,  arrange  records  Altogether, to  keep  as  to  Jenkinson's  and  "golden  that  much.  preserve  clearly  Jenkinson  sure  destroy  important  answer  to  record-creators as  too  the  the  His  to  the  themselves:  termed  i t , could  agency  would  "rules  for archive  leave memorials  as  little  as  consistently  rule"  not  of a l l  possible, as  and  possible.  f o r archive-making  was  files in such a state of completeness and order that, supposing h i m s e l f and h i s s t a f f t o be by a c c i d e n t obliterated, a successor t o t a l l y ignorant of t h e work o f t h e o f f i c e w o u l d be able to t a k e i t up and carry i t on the strength of a study of the O f f i c e Files. 1 4 0  In  this  agency  way, would  preserved, of  the  the be  and  interests  and  intentions  clarified,  the  impartiality  material  archival  body  Jenkinson's preserving extension  the  preserve records with  the and  siphoned  concept  impartial  rather  Jenkinson's  ephemeral  than  an  of  i n which  historicist  the  appraisal  after  records of  Jenkinson,  Manual,  p.  Jenkinson,  Manual,  pp.  original  the  essential  record character  the  service  historical  alternative  thinking  of  i n the  to  all,  the  was  organic activity  the  the  off.  r e c o r d as  ultimate goal, original,  to  of  evidence  German  to  which  147. 152-153.  he  is  an  approach.  recreate  participated. time,  of  produced  and the  Consistent  essentially  viewed  58  record-creating self-contained  organizations entities  able  theories,  therefore,  appraisal  to i t s logical  German the of  approach  records  original  the  British  organic tradition  itself,  public  records  evidential  4  the quality  growth.  The  unity  reference derive  itself:  incompleteness documents  i tdifficult  structure  from  tradition  from  f o r  the of  file  viewing  impartiality  i n their  use.'"-  Yet, i n placing the  f o r a p p r a i s a l i n t h e hands  and o u t of those  of the record  to provide  t h e most  material;  after  a l l ,  Sche11enberg,  agency  appraisers,  and complex  historian/archivist,  body"  interests  as a c r i t i c a l  Modern  keepers, efficient  from  Jenkinson's and  logical  irrelevant  officials, remained with  pp.  of  of the record  scholar,  Archives,  to  probably  the importance  conflicting  and  as outside  of the  which the would  have t o  178-179.  * see Chapter I above; R i c h a r d S t a p l e t o n , "Jenkinson S c h e l l e n b e r g : A C o m p a r i s o n , " A r c h i v a r i a 17 ( 1 9 8 3 - 8 4 ) , 7 0 . 2  of  unique  a l l supporting  British  of freeing the "archival  h1  from t h e  raised  unselfconscious-conscious many  of provenance i n  the structural  f u n c t i o n made  the organic  His  evidence  o b j e c t i v e was  obscuring  needs.  of appraisal with  i n organizing  individual,  as l e g a l  responsibility  method  above  of archives  and the strong  1  own  emphasized  of record-keeping  to perceive  system  main  version  as  he d i v e r g e d  of organic  to administrative  archivists  creators  clearly  nature  English registries  according  he  their  the principle  conclusion;  as evidence  i n Jenkinson's  the  of  followed  i n that  as t h e S t a t e  to define  as i m p a r t i a l evidence  the records  emphases  such  and  59  deal.  In  concepts  of  The "golden of  this  way,  Jenkinson  appraisal  period age"  appraisal  concepts: of  public  manuscripts  had  been  central to  nineteenth sources  century,  for  philosophy  such and  establishment which  to  original  the  s e l e c t i o n of  as  to  the  practical,  approach  the  1930s, of  becoming  appraisal  assumptions  also about  produced,  and  records. appraisal  unities, above  the  apparent  record  status  a  for  primary  This  set  the  stage  as  management  of  of  private  the  for to  for  a l l , the  a  use  the  and  for  to  problem  of  interests  with  of in  the  documents  offer  a  adaptable  However,  and  by  provenance-based extent, the  on  the  concepts  certain  records  they  usefulness  development  f o r which  primary  determining  secondary  the  theory  scholarship  of  records.  large  as  permanent  seemed  that  an  late  archives  provenance,  and  as  historicist  historical  producers,  the  in  consensus  challenges  to  life  the  history,  a l l , infinitely  i n the  depended,  of  society;  structure  both  a  of  according  archival value  i t was  the  and  and  ever-growing  control  study  of  development  sophisticated archival  once  and  kind  i n the  to  intellectual  provided  a  preservation  the  i n western  organic  convincing,  identifying  the  elevated  original  and  measures  and  historicist  represents  archives  consistent,  Appraisal  to' t h e  time.  1930  i n place;  European also  the  a r c h i v a l documents  self-defining,  to  of  administration  preservation. reference  set  reconcile,  the  and  records  methodology a  at  official  history  of  seemed  18 80  history  disposition  activity  dominant  between  i n the  conformed  of  concrete  of  the  ax-chival models  60 and  theories  needed  to  be  developed.  61  CHAPTER  ARCHIVAL  The  great  nineteenth theories sources  APPRAISAL  for of  future.  provenance  definition organic  meant  or  conditions  assumptions historical the  The  held of  that  as  i n d i v i d u a l s which  about  the  evidence  nature  began  to  q u a l i t y and  organizations  which  and be  even  use.  of  forms  documentation  within  operations.  a  part  direct of  and  systems  order  to  apply  standards  simple which  maximize  documentation,  of  and  communicative needed  efficiency  to  be  and  archival value  archivists  were  them  But  and  the  value  were  compelled  of  archives  i n the  to  archives. and  for  Formerly  the  records  new  as  face  expanding  products  now  managed  effectiveness. such  of  1930,  of  functions  event,  self-  provided  after  consciously  to  for  contemporary  records  c r e a t i n g new  unique  the  s e r i o u s l y eroded  quantity  as  principle  linked to  diversifying,  of  archives  f o r purposes  inherent  produced  their  developing  i n the  created  original  late  self-contained,  embodied  value,  the  consequences  as  inextricably  for their  changing  lasting  1930-1980:  during  in  preserving  archives  their  was  archivists centuries  and  unities  research,  institutions  of  early twentieth  documentation  actualized,  the  made b y  administering  The  secondary  AS A MANAGEMENT F U N C T I O N , THE U N I T E D S T A T E S  advances  and  III  In  forms  initiate  became in  order of and  to  participate contol.  in a  process  of  Ultimately, they  systematic  began  to  management  techniques  in their  appraisal,  along  arrangement  management  function within  documents to  later  through  and  documents;  to  use.  tool  permanent  answers  to  archivists workings It century  such  has  the  1930  that,  a  while  created,  " t h a t we  revolution."  !  and  This  and  the the  form  and  offered, first assumed  to  be  both  as:  on  the  a l l ,  found  in  of  archivists needs  many w a y s , of  an  of  structure for  use  the  values  possibilities  In  were  was  such  a  bringing  problems  archival  users.  the  are  persistent  archives  by  of  the American  within  the  very  itself. accepted  that  have  theorist certainly  twentieth  used,  the  early  twentieth  revolution i n records  archival  there  records  approach  based  French  before  dramatic  which  veritable  developments were  management  of  became  administrative  values  been widely  witnessed  process  archival  process  record-keeping. contends  to  and  systematic  description,  orignal  original  questions  after  of  of  such  involved questions  value;  generations  and  of  creation  administrations;  overall  cycle  the  degree  determine  own  the  This  adopt  for analyzing  between  the  perceive  future  a  life  a p p r a i s a l which  relationship  archives  a  archival  incentive archival  with  records  and  justified  r e v o l u t i o n , both  been  century,  kept in  Michel  after  speaking  Duchein important  changes 1930 of  and  i n the  were a  quantitative  real  way  so archival  and  M i c h e l D u c h e i n , "The A r c h i v a l R e v o l u t i o n : The Challenge of Modern A r c h i v e s t o t h e A r c h i v i s t , " S o u t h e a s t J k s i a n Archives 5 ( J u l y , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 4. 1  63  qualitative structure  i n nature,  i s directly  and f u n c t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s  Twentieth-century  government,  institutions  not only  (through to  have  reproduce  ( b y means  photocopies),  scope  l a r g e r amounts  and complexity  produce One  those  have  need  business,  o f t h e same  provided  by Duchein  1882, t h e y e a r  department, 15,000 in  the areas  records  creating  annually--an  responsibilities international controlling  filing  expanded t h e  require of  records  rate.  government,  A  the point  century  most  education,  example  effectively.  government  had widened  agricultural  about  of i t s activities  veterinary services,  incentives, hydraulics,  By t h e 1970s,  and using  with  the  specific  the result  production  increase  production  and  to appreciate  increase.  o f documents,  statistics,  was  create  M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e produced  and horse-breeding.  department  to  and v a r i e t y  e s t a b l i s h e d as a  of agricultural  agricultural forestry,  feet  also  the nineteenth today  illustrates  the French  linear  of this  i t was  stencils,  inventories of from  society.  wordprocessors),  which  t h e volume  organizations  magnitude  capacity  a t a phenomenal  records  modern  social  b u t have  of the operations  compare  changing  the introduction of  of records,  increased  only  their  copies,  (with  a result,  o r church  quantitative  In  As  and  and, l a t e r ,  of carbon  a n d t o manage  documentation. they  increased  to the  within  business,  the use of typewriters  systems)  related  over  t h e same  170,000 l i n e a r  feet  o f 1100 p e r c e n t - - a n d i t s to include  policy  and p r i c i n g  n a t i o n a l and  and planning, levels,  fixing  commercial  and  of  64  marketing social  and  In  have  unique  data,  they in  can or  process  must  order  media  only  were  between of  a  and  of  by  and  only  by  1960,  the  which  grew  to  external  in  p.  5.  size  f o r the  help  were  and  defined  such  records,  the  total small  that  are,  this  media  of  proportion  i n the  in  of  addition,  quality  of  period. after  use  of  coordinate  1900,  records  both  the  objectives  the  in  number  communication  about  and  special  complexity  and  of  computer  such  Increasingly,  managed  assumptions  and  respective  c r e a t i o n and  by  products  documents  They  during  control  activities.  scientifically  Duchein,  1960.  larger revolution  functions  records  and  very  of  through  their  the  The  appearance  are  With  However,  a  directly  arrangement,  of  of  records  document.  i s the  f o r paper  and  and  microforms,  original  part  rural  perceive  interpreted  organizations  made t r a d i t i o n a l  2  tapes,  than  1930  much  introduced  structures  to  change  conventions  since  organizations  of  this  effective.  represent  produced  functions  records  photographs,  complex  be  and  carried  creation,  to  generated  internal  as  used  f o r them  also  which  be  the  methods  of  films,  to  symptoms  As new  only  their  produced  records  and  i s more  records  those  such  of  difficult  information  countless  t  forms  i t more  conform  documents  new  and  electronic intermediaries.  of  use  programs.  manifestation  process,  which  primary  the  documents  mechanical the  of  products,  terms,  rendered  obvious  non-paper a  environmental  meaning  most  agricultural  qualitative  systems the  for  forms  and  and systems  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  65  the  document  studies  of  business  to  organizations Relying  Chandler,  nineteenth which  original  and  Yates  early  transformed  many  departmentalized,  Within  the  small,  communications  a  series  wide  the  and  on  work  the  contends  small,  and  unstructured  in  system  manager-operated communications the  on  both  and  developed  Frederick  applied  to  to  the  record-keeping  in particular.  filing  organizations  allowed  (to  transmit  to  (to  more,  a  very  direct,  large,  their  internal  departments  subordinates). principles,  More  first  production a whole,  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  classify  between  arranged  other  as  to  transmitted  contrast,  organization The  relating  is  simply  increase  into  records  were  What  In  to  management"  Taylor  accounting  reflecting  laterally  downward  enterprises  written  company  communication. needed  occurred  corporations.  orders.  volumes,  paper  shift  communications  were  American  late  correspondence  the  indexed  "scientific  were  to  in  historian  the  a  business,  records  importantly,  efficiency,  during  limited  Yates'  these  owner-operated  account  of  systems  of  centuries,  verbal  JoAnn  business  Internal  businesses  company)  by  that  within  e x c l u s i v e l y through  chronologically  of  outgoing  subjects.  and  nature  manager-operated  supervisors  correspondence  within  the  generally  incoming  v a r i e t y of  owner  almost  of  reveal  owner-operated  were  obsolete.  communication  twentieth  large,  and  agency  twentieth-century  developments. Alfred  the  separate  and  vertical documents  66 according  to  f u n c t i o n a l and  chronologically As which  a  i n bound  result  occurred of  of  new  types  the  organization  appraise  internal  and  certain could Even and  be the  supervisory  reports  develop  forms  as  internal  and  to  research for  actual  were  were  writing to  ensure data  to to  one  their  used  to  were  and  circumstances letters  topic  ensure  that  per  within  circularcoordinate  and  efficiency;  compiled  programs,  communication  institutions,  functions  greater  growth;  business  f i t the  limited  developed  of  than  revolution,  private  and  were  future  different  as  memoranda,  individuals, organizations, r e l a t e d to  management  well  reports  rather  0  created  operations  strategies  standardized  creators  were  changed:  and  groups  systematic  public  documents  letters,  technical  volumes.  this  within  topical  to  case or  as  help  files  they  system:  information  on  subjects arose.*  became more  letter,  plan  and  formal  record standard  remained  J o A n n Y a t e s , "From P r e s s Book and P i g e o n h o l e t o V e r t i c a l F i l i n g : R e v o l u t i o n i n S t o r a g e and A c c e s s Systems f o r C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , " J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s C o m m u n i c a t i o n 19 , No. 3 ( 1 9 8 2 ) , 5-26; Yates, " I n t e r n a l Communication Systems i n American B u s i n e s s S t r u c t u r e : A Framework t o A i d A p p r a i s a l , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 48 ( 1 9 8 5 ) , 1 4 1 - 1 5 8 . d  * The case f i l e , common t o m a n y m o d e r n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , has b e e n d e f i n e d as "a f o l d e r o r o t h e r f i l e u n i t c o n t a i n i n g material r e l a t i n g to a s p e c i f i c action, event, person, place, project, or other subject." F r a n k B. E v a n s , et.. a l . , c o m p s , W i l l i a m s L. R o f e s , ed., "A B a s i c G l o s s a r y f o r A r c h i v i s t s , M a n u s c r i p t C u r a t o r s , and R e c o r d s Managers," A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 37 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 416. The B r i t i s h c o n c e p t o f " p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e p a p e r s , " w h i c h has a somewhat b r o a d e r meaning, r e f e r s t o " s e r i e s o f p a p e r s w h i c h h a v e t h e same g e n e r a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r , but r e l a t e i t to d i f f e r e n t instances." Michael Cook, Archives Administration ( F o l k s t o n e , K e n t : Dawson, 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 72.  67  consistent  and predictable."'  systematizing keeping," serving tool."  as F r a n c i s  Records  0  no l o n g e r  implications volume  overwhelm  not only  repositories, ensure  valuable  work.  unity  and  5  were make  shifted  produced, decisions  from  of  past  collected, on i n t e r n a l  profound.  threatened  capacities  control  fonds  more  that  historical  i t s own  ultimately,  measures receive  permanently  of non-essential  important  component  t h e 1930s carried fairly  phenomena,  the appraisal  i s a  and material,  of archival  assumed  that the  i n archives  and  d i r e c t and  and s t r u c t u r i n g  Filing,"  developed  coherent  justifications  "Vertical  of archival  i s made m o r e  t h e m was  the creation  to  by which the  the information  generated  The  as a p r o c e s s  the destruction  an ever  which  Yates,  storage  Appraisal,  between  provides  that,  "record  as memorials  of records  a r c h i v i s t s before  of organic,  which  they  the simple  of archival  became  spontaneous; part  towards  as an a n a l y t i c  a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s would  However,  agency  only  t o help  existing  through  relationship the  to serving  served  and v a r i e t y  documents.  therefore  "thus  f o r a r c h i v i s t s were  but also  that  perceptible  movement  operations.  increased  organic  function  or consulted  external The  to  observes,  f o rthe organization;  manipulated,  this  and use o f documents,  Blouin  a descriptive  actions  and  the creation  With  of archives,  "natural"  f o rwhat  of archives  as  process  i t produces; must  follow  p. 21.  F r a n c i s X . B l o u i n , J r . , "A New P e r s p e c t i v e on t h e A p p r a i s a l o f Business Records: A Review," American A r c h i v i s t . 42 ( 1 9 7 9 ) , 318. 0  criteria  of  archives  themselves.  agencies  clearly  their the be  value  current  original counted  inherent  was  evident  i n the  structure  had  been  alone  in their  to  form  conforming  as  requirements  formally  the  or  activities  the  increasingly, active in  that,  of  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  order  to  records.  Secondly,  systematic records,  the as  management  so  management control  identify  too  did  function  over  of  to  the  of  archivally  systems  to  archivists  documents  of  use  valuable  need  to  body  records  of  related  systems,  be  needed  and  to  be  and  itself  valueless  use  develop  transferred to  meant,  creation or  they  and  This  required  administrative  being  could  archival  records  control  once  intentions  were  of  records,  coherent  a l l , archivists  process  gain  and  themselves.  organizations  to  too,  of  the  development  longer,  communication as  of  archives  twentieth-century  creators  first  of  and  purposes  defined,  records  no  complete  structure  organic  creation  the  i s more,  informally of  a  to  What  to  the  exhausted;  institutions. much  and  longer  agencies,  documentation  form  No  use  on  i n the  to  use  their  appraisal  as  a  intellectual  their  repositories. American movement for  to  towards  archives  federal  archivists  dominate  developing  after  public the  were  1930.  records field Norton  at  the  systematic  Although at  the  after  Margaret  Cross  archival  a p p r a i s a l which  the  National  1930,  formulated set  f o r e f r o n t of  the  tone  general  appraisal  techniques  archivists  working  Archives  Illinois the  a  state  i n i t i a l for  quickly  with  began  archivist  concepts  a l l future  of debates  69  on  the  and,  subject.  for  some,  proposals  of  of  the U.S.  of  are  important  infrequently,  documents  acceptable  historians  basic  radical  elements  accepted  i n Europe  by  in  of  her  records  her  archival  archival  ensure  archives, records  regardless  and  after  of  and  because  they  Norton  are  been in  to  serve  Norton  and  the blamed  records  need  to  an  or  be  are  arrangement principle  historical  authenticity an  1943  necessity  i s the  basis  "the  f o r the  of  proper  transferred to that  kept  very  important of  the  public  provide  The  evidence legal  in  be for  methods  documents  current,  the  valuable"  Efficient  was  that  especially  that  the  believed to  are  noncurrent.  the  time,  institutions  the  i t preserved  wrote  certification  are  provenance  i t enhanced had  the  whether  hence  therefore to  that  this  they  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes. records  r e a c t i o n to  "vaguely  of  legal  a  at  1930,  saying  that  as  primarily  keep  progress"  because  institution.  considered  archives  Writing  essentially  not  but  and  historical  according  Norton,  growth,  as  consulted,  archives  U.S.  maintained  evidence  frequently  for  first  the  on  administered  material  administering  of  yet  ideas  historians.  Norton  legal  be  because  "slow 7  i n the  archives  archives, for  o f f e r e d her  should  value  at  successors.  dominant  interests view  were  unacceptable,  and  Norton  archives  ideas  e v e n t u a l l y became w i d e l y  colleagues  view,  Her  of  the  archival  adoption  for of  Margaret Cross Norton, i n h e r N o r t o n on A r c h i v e s : The W r i t i n g s o f M a r g a r e t C r o s s N o r t o n on A r c h i v a l and R e c o r d s M a n a g e m e n t , e d . T h o r n t o n W. M i t c h e l l ( C a r b o n d a l e , 111.: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 4. 7  70  provenance  as  Otherwise,  authenticity  sure,  primary  the  this  original  historians more  or  basis  using  for  would  the  "and  department  in  administration,  state  historian At to  as  first  those  she  and  of  cites  a  his  he  public  i n her  purposes  of  the  officials  historians,  and  that,  as  i m p a r t i a l i t y of as  keepers  concern  with  archivists formation creators records  should of  themselves  f o r which  their they  Norton,  p.  28.  9  Norton,  p.  8.  see  pp.  54-59  the  seem  above.  to  serving  also  the  the  to  the  forget  history," a  real  proposition duty  very  as  a  ones  not  legal  those  whom  f u l f i l l  rather, of  remain kept. '-'  the  their  that the records  selecting true The  and  Jenkinson's  conclusion  1  of  authenticity  However,  capable  originally  similar  defined  participation in  appraisal;  only  for  administrative  them,  evidence.  their  can  of  be  future  Jenkinson,  archivists also  him  of  for  his  be  Jenkinson  s e l e c t i o n would were  both  Sir Hilary  preserving  through  are  efficiency  produced  minimize  3  1 5  who  archives  archivist  up  To  9  ideas  documents  by  an  official."  of  needs  building  i s neglecting  historical  be  as  archives.  court."-  enthusiasm  f o r the  archives,  archives  only  the  personal  impartiality led  since  purposes  of  serve  writings.  primarily  role  best  archivist  archives  and  uses  the  of  in  legal  "Unless  Norton's  British  often  also  questioned the  functioning  glance,  the  with  work  archives  classification  be  records:  temporarily  concluded,  the  could  concern  agency  less  Norton  the  to  the  71  differences  between  an  new  entirely Norton  should been  be  approach  claimed  and  organizations  in  had  c i t e d an 18 3 1 ,  Illinois  1930s,  the  nine  day.'  an  from  her  amounted the  to  longer  132  of  record  and  own  select  for  archivist,  reproduction bilities contended order  caused  1945,  a l l records  1 1  New  Norton,  pp.  "that to  the  7-8.  of  "both  of  were  useable  them  f o r storage  to  own  handle  to  so  that, to  production  their  and  responsi-  fact,"  executive to  an  strictly  possible  than  one  claimed,  important  "The  by  no  technology  and  to  of  are  Norton  i t i s e a s i e r f o r an files  1818  represents  their  shirk  record:  She  volume;  office  i n document to  1930s.  delivered in  the to  record-  from  documents  necessary  techniques  a  post and  in  governors  producing  they  the  small  Formerly,  administrators  for maintaining in  unless  i t was  a l l " .  i t s own  according  were  them  single,  have  of  illustrate: a l l the  limitations  records  preserve  of  bulk  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes.  the  to  by  may  increasing  changes  obsolete  offices  documents  created  reveal  archives  evidence  functions  received  great  the  point  that  the  resultant  in a  defined  not  century,  work  needed  the  argument  the  the  letters  because  c o n s t r a i n e d by  organize  of  pages  this  this  historical  approach  statehouse  truckloads  inferior  as  correspondence  Furthermore,  1  the  nineteenth  such  official  the  while  complexity"  made  on  appraisal.  s o c i e t y and  example  the  to  Jenkinson  primarily  i n the  "multiplicity  and  that,  preserved  acceptable  keeping  Norton  Norton to  select  the  72  more  important  situation In  ones  i n most  contrast  for  state to  i n modem  which  keep  create this,  and she  viewed  one  of  for the  the  arrangement  when  are  transferred to  during their  the  period  of  creation.  archivist  pre-archival knowledge  that to  for  will  make  later  away  the  retrieval  possess  a  records  first  beyond  interrelations produced retrieval  of  them  their  system.  1 £  Norton,  p.  1 3  Norton,  p.  1 0  to  be  left  things  into  In  13 2. 9-10.  ah  an  view  of  as  they  of  only  with on  and  that  of  the in  will past,  archives  no  the  merely  concern  other  allows  them  value  of  to documents  the  integrated the  for  hand,  organization  and  point  i n the  secondly,  i n the  also  pessimistic  have  not  to  participant  maintained,  which  this  active  themselves  efficient, of  observed  for  the  not  the  to  files  use,  to  "his  continuing  agencies for  tasks  of  archivists,  initial  allow  ways  Because  records  even  Norton  because  a l l , the  between to  use,  1930,  perspective"  of  of  no  purposes  efficient  important  c l e r k s , Norton  use;  placed  the  purposes.  departments,  documents  "sense  appreciate,  filing  and  chaotic  a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s , but  in  of  define  appraisal  inclined  a mess  Filing  such most  departments  have  departments." cleared  Writing  the  a  Norton  devise  current  record-keeping  continue they  and  their  is naturally  to  l e t alone  archivist they  therefore,  organizations  records  as  brought  1  records,  maintain  has  offices." "  Jenkinson,  confidence they  preservation  which record  archivist's  as  7 3  "knowledge science should  of  and  history,"  have  veto  disposition training  select  of  and  archivists  departmental  the so and  with  operates  archives:  For  a  appraisal,  of  the  Norton,  a  along  archivist  transform  of  Norton  had  Department  that,  once  s i x months  By  every  1936,  Norton  a  an  records  rule  generally,  had  should  expanded  ^  Norton,  p.  16.  1 5  Norton,  p.  234.  1 6  Norton,  p.  11.  into  an  value.  f o r the  only be  record  system  is  value  of  a  most  of  and  the  be  a  creation. does  record;  agency  not  the  archives  Already  by  only is  1930,  Archives  referred  into  as  of  archives  transferred to  this  than  should  Illinois  records  archivist  agency  point  an  the  archivist  historical to  the  rather  arrangement,  historical  implemented  that  the  the  and  1 5  the  between  from  "specialised  f o r both  determining  with  the  organize  of  i t into  frequency  not  to  legal  the  archivist  documentation,  proper  entrance  for transferring  the  their  records  Since  right  criterion  use,  of  continuum  document's  automatically  a  process  on  of  researcher.  evidence.  preserving the  with  useable  manager  political  concerning  appraisal required a  of  that  qualified  are  future  on  field  best  they  the  ideas  administration,  concern  that  historical  concerned  decisions  Altogether,  persons  a p p r a i s a l as  of  over 1  are  Norton's  records  power  and  contended  expertise" i n the  administrator  keeper  Norton  records.* *  records  approach  development  to  the three  less  than  archives.'  2  classifications  f o r records  which  require  archival  control  required  f o r the day-to-day  operations  are  i n agency  semicurrent  kept  frequently under  which  archival  control  archives  records,  s t i l l  o f t h e agency,  which  records,  This  1 7  administration  of records  developed  later  storage  records,  administration,  of the archivist.  systems  less  i n alternate  and d i s p o s i t i o n e v e n t u a l l y  f o r integrated  levels of  and noncurrent  f o r current  the custody  current  are kept  of t h e agency;  r e g u l a r l y used  under  basis  offices;  consulted,  the control  longer put  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n :  three  which are  method  served  of  as t h e  management i n the  no  and  National  Archives. In  1944, N o r t o n  presented  a  to archival  appraisal  which  approach  simultaneous creation  processes.  records  administrative  and  archivist  can or  be  such  ways  are properly  destroyed  as h a v i n g  purposes."  1 7  Norton,  p.  1 8  Norton,  pp.  no  1 8  18. 233-238.  three of  and t o ensure  records.  original  prevent  documented..  the size  "scientific  to  function,  t o other  t o reduce  out a  both  produced  as m i c r o p h o t o g r a p h y .  carries  research  seeks  the potential  of the record  finds  techniques  being  activities  determining  relation  archivist  from  involved  management  of a l l , at the point  and use, the a r c h i v i s t  unnecessary  involves  First  comprehensive  form,  This content,  Secondly,  of the record  And t h i r d l y ,  that  the through  the  selection of records  further  value  which  f o r administrative  75  It  i s i n this  third  most  difficult  problems  easy  to select  records  decide of  on those  records  process that  Norton  of appraisal. o f permanent  o f no v a l u e , "  are borderline." ''  " I ti s comparatively  value,  Norton  relatively  observed.  Her approach  1  documents  required  a comprehensive  records'  function,  content,  form,  identified She  -- p r e c i s e l y  as important  d i d recommend  those  i n the creation  a number  such  as p r e s e r v i n g  destroying  most  "housekeeping"  valueless. problem  I n t h e main,  2 0  she simply  integrated  and e f f i c i e n t  archives could  administration  be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y While  advanced, federal this,  the ideas  t h e many  before  after  management  approach  was  not until  18 8 9 t h a t  Norton,  pp.  bypassed  the central appraisal an  management and  such  value  Cross Norton  criteria  meagre. made  239-246.  by  of a  appraisal  legislation  were  archives  decidedly  to archival  2 0  age and  relatively  of records  1930 t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  p. 239.  common-sense  f o rmaking  by American  1930 was  Norton,  Norton  applied.  of Margaret  1 9  to other  c o n c e n t r a t e d on e s t a b l i s h i n g  through which  of  of the  of a certain  as  of value  system  bulk  and use o f records.  Norton  important contributions  archivists  It  records  however,  t h e p r o g r e s s made  level  which  a l l records  of developing c r i t e r i a  judgements;  analysis  of conventional,  techniques  "The g r e a t  and r e l a t i o n s h i p elements  easy t o  to appraisal  existing  documentation  encountered the  was  highly  at the Considering  federal systematic  i s quite passed  surprising. which  76  required  department  recommended Only  in  for  1912  prevent  the  "historical  value."  established  as  an  Ironically, accomplishments  archivists suddenly and  at  found  large  very  accumulated European  over  to  fonds•  American  greater  need  records  were  form  involved  bound  to  National  the  and  of  develop  them  keeping.  i n the  European  formulate  and  mass  of  often  rely  on  colleagues. implement  of  new  not  make  the  much  a l l , when work,  records  and had  medieval  archival  situation,  felt  techniques creation  and  were  well  not  techniques  therefore and  as  as as  more  practices  C a r m e l i t a S. R y a n , " S p e c i a l S t u d y o f t h e A p p r a i s a l Indian Records," i n Indian-White Relations: A P e r s i s t e n t P a r a d o x . e d . J a n e F . S m i t h a n d R o b e r t M. Kvasnicka ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: Howard U n i v . P r e s s , 1976), 34 2 1  by  centuries.  with  archivists  theories  they  which  organized  appraisal  could  more  registry  their  structures They  was  twentieth  and  American  of  voluminous  established  systematic  Secondly,  of  records  considering  process  a  to  that  developed  complete  to  1934.  their  early  power be  Archives  1930  for  the to  helped  began  were  archivists,  given  First  responsible  comparatively  to  after  and  authorization.  until  start  Archives  records  considered  reasons.  nineteenth  for  National  late  organized  could  he  agency  e x i s t i n g record-keeping  their  easily  number  of  Congress  the  Americans  archival theories  systems  as  a  poorly  i n mind,  which  the  lists  Congress  records  rather  themselves  records  a  of  independent  of  the  to  Indeed,  2 1  their  for  submit  L i b r a r i a n of  destruction  spectacular,  to  destruction  was  the  heads  of  77  without which  too  had In  produced  the  Archives. value, of  much r e s i s t a n c e  first  i t was  a  administrative historical  of  and  activities,  effective  administrative of  archives.  The  of  values  was  management  necessarily  part  could  be  systematically  of  of  a  bureaucracies  of  a  an  legal  as  a  were  repository  separate  for the  formation  to  these  activity  which  managed  the  somehow  and  according  and  as  and  complemented  of  concept  archives  records  continuum  twofold  twofold  they  of  National  possess  distinct  records  integrated  the  concept  that  remaining  appraisal  sorts  idea  older  implied  than  purposes  the  of  This  i 6  institution's  and  Rather  the  Norton's  with  complementary.  archives  historical.  sponsoring  evidence  government  Bulletins  that  combined  evidence  the  ."  the  contended  a r c h i v a l value of  records  issue  administrative  repository  of  the  from  by  two  the  archivist. The archival by  Philip  Archives. insisted "life  first  appraisal C. In that  cycle"  period  of  sophisticated analysis following  Brooks, order  a to  this  senior  of  the  original  records  to  record  from  activity  to  the  approach  archivist  appraise  i t i s necessary  of  analyze the  time  dormancy  at  nature  was  a  the  1940  article  National  effectively, what of in  he  birth the  Brooks  called  the  archives.  Archival  U.S. National Archives, "The N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s United States," B u l l e t i n s of the National Archives 1 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , 1 9 3 6 ) , pp. 2-3. 2 3  the  through  E r n s t P o s n e r , "The N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s and the T h e o r i s t . " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 18 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , 2 0 9 - 2 1 0 . 2 3  of  of  the  78  Brooks and  provided  a detailed  ideological factors  survives factors  to reach have  of  Brooks'  use  of a  description  which  determine  the archival  on t h e c h a r a c t e r  life  cycle  o f t h e many  stage  whether  the record  and t h e e f f e c t t h a t  of the record.  concept  material  are best  The  illustrated  such  components through the  diagram: * 2  purpose, h i s t o r y , policies, structure of agency  filed  creation of = record  filing  Archives  informal, not filed  systems  appraisal certain But,  h i s analysis,  unlike from  archival  Brooks  and that,  Jenkinson, this  who  process,  considerations  apply  a t every  stage  At  t h e time  of creation,  distribution  record  since  such  "are based  documents  should  decisions  t o emphasise  that  found  made  i ti s a  under-  process.  the archivist i timperative  remain that  cycle.  t h e form,  content,  i s determined. concerning  and  Brooks  the creation  on t h e i n t e n t i o n t h a t be r e t a i n e d  that  t o t h e s e l e c t i v e management o f  of the l i f e  of the record  microfilm  therefore,  Brooks  sampling  of decisions  insisted  records  that,  wished  i s the result of a series  circumstances  removed  transfer  non-current, valueless  material origins of document  With  r e d u c t i o n  II  certain  f o rthe future,  claimed of the  of the  . . . t h e more  ^ P h i l i p C. B r o o k s , " T h e S e l e c t i o n o f R e c o r d s f o r P r e s e r v a t i o n , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 4 (1940), 223-227.  79  that  intention  instruction At for  systems  and  It  reference.  Contrary  program"  disposal  filed  of filing,  by copying  subject.  and  archival when  agency  full  records  a t which  the entire  appraisal  time  o f t r a n s f e r had been t o reduce  however,  archival  stage  that  with  of appraisal  of i t s l i f e ,  p. 223.  2 6  Brooks,  p . 22 5.  2 7  Brooks,  p. 226.  an  would  usefulness  be  expired.  that the  i n the process  t o make  of  are  filed,  of the  their  represented  as a process  storage  new  Brooks  by t h e a r c h i v i s t  overvalued,  when a r e c o r d  Brooks,  material  of the record,  undertaken  archival  2 5  of  for, appraisal  representatives  the archivist  cycle  the final  deny,  time  h i s view life  integrity  envisioned  maintained,  involved  filing  study  by t h e  1  that  pressure  that  allow  b y name o r  structured  as t o t h e f u n c t i o n 2  with  Brooks  to  many  i s made when t h e r e c o r d s  allow  information  line  meant  directly  at that will  system  Brooks  "Appraisal  that  letters  i t s original  stage,  are."-"'  violated the original  practice,  of the  are organized  acknowledged  This  i s available." '  In within  time  to this  become  consultation  o f f a l l o f us  and i n t e r s p e r s i n g  i s at the filing  record-keeping:  by t h e author  the records  Brooks  purposes.  must  account  f o ra filing  by t h e date  archivist  into  the better  i n use a t that  file  "ideal  manuals  t h e time  future  the  i s taken  partly  costs/'  enters  operating claimed at the  due t o t h e Brooks  d i d not  t h e dormant o r  considerations  must  be  taken  80  into of  account  reducing  in bulk  microfilming, solutions the  notion  the  of  the  of  of  agency  administrative  Brooks  problem  values,  Bulletins  origin;  history  evidence  of  of  record.  were  not  appraisal,  expanded  i n the three  for  the  record  first  twofold  issue  components:  the  administrative  the  and  legal  study  of  creating  as  for  scientists,  and  the  context  provenance  records  archivists;  on  people,  places,  potentially By  and  events  with  for  a  variety  i d e n t i f y i n g value  between  the  research series  three  as  continuing  value,  of  ultimate  for  useful  Brooks  activities  time;  they  records  2 9  evidence  as  of  values  must  become  soon  as  Brooks,  pp.  which  of  of  the  idea  the  upon  order,  agency  each  and of  history  appraisal for  to  a r c h i v i s t s must  to  expire  another  involved  possible:  230-232.  i n the  life  of  a  the  not  emerge  cycle  as  their  apply  appraisal,  to  dealt  activities.^'  to  and  the  potential  other  therefore,  of  information  administrative  reinforced  In  for  research  value  rely  political  value"  administrative  effectiveness.  set  wide  which  a r c h i v a l values  one  "historical  i t  for  operations  and  for  the  organizational  or  the  protection  body  precedent  of  value  administrators,  for  namely,  criteria.  value  functional  Methods  archives,  contended,  administration  of  the  other  Brooks  into  of  archival  outlined  efficient  of  to  archival value  such  Archives  provides  transfer  archival value  purposes  management  sampling, basic  defining  National  to  to  further  through  and  development In  the  any  wait  over the  81  The whole appraisal function is one u n d e r t a k i n g , and i t can best be performed with a complete understanding of the records of an agency i n their relationship to each o t h e r as they are created rather than after they have lain forgotten and deteriorating for twenty years . . . the e a r l i e r i n the life history of the documents the selection process begins, the b e t t e r f o r a l l concerned. And t h e e a r l i e r i n t h a t l i f e h i s t o r y t h a t coo p e r a t i o n between the agency of o r i g i n and the a r c h i v i s t c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e e a s i e r w i l l be t h e w o r k o f all. 2  Although archival results  Brooks'  theory of  this  emphasis  on  reducing  record  systematic Leahy  of  "father"  Leahy for  the  National modern  revealed  the  that,  governments  historical  2 ?  tendency  Brooks,  p.  22 6.  of  the  began  to  place  important 1940  considered  the  late  began  to  one  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e methods  the  Europe  and  records was  of  by  components  an for  of  study  by  Emmet  many  to  be  J.  the  management.  with  controlled  valuable  archivists  development  the  importance  concepts,  outlined in a  i n both  centuries,  segregating  of  Archives,  throughout  which  that  Most  records  analyzed  value  improving  r e d u c t i o n were  increasing  agencies  or  r e t a i n e d the  of  was  volume.  public archives  analysis  use  approach  developing  the of  and  concept  ?  of and  disposition the  pressure  of  nineteenth  to  and  implement  simplified  United  twentieth  within  process  the  valueless.  reduce  the  bulk  His  volume  early  from  of  States.  record  systems the  techniques  of  The  records  their  general by  82  managing  them  appraisal  more  Leahy what on  he  of  effective.  being  initial  and  approves of  purposes time  used  an  the  without  the  United  for  obtaining  in  a  a  date  of  Leahy  contended,  more  effective  efficient  for  systematic  method  to  throw  the  or  of  value"  and  no  such Leahy,  appraisal.  advice  archivists  of  would  former  documents  or  reduction an  be  making  the  further  and  thus It  Leahy  identified also  record  required,  creation  proper  maintained  ensure  final  on  that would  the  by  samples  for  that  a  archives  "special  be  of  "tends doubtful  knowledge  accessible  to  Fourthly,  microfilming or  and  records  c o l l e c t i o n s of  appraisal.  achieved  to  period  each  essential prerequisite  attention  scientific  large  for  schedules;  Emmet J . L e a h y , " T h e Reduction A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 3 (1940), 14-31. 3 0  of  supervises  specific  archivists records  based  time.  certain  approval  of  responsibility  for  after a  systems  custodians"  performing could  of  that  Secondly,  for t r a n s f e r r i n g records  and  of  components  archivist  disposition.  Thirdly,  s p o t l i g h t of  reduction  that  schedules final  at  c e r t a i n form  required  included  m a n a g e m e n t was,  job  program  given  the  legislative  which  to  is  destruction.  draw up  conforming  the  important  States  r o u t i n e l y destroyed  programs  making  reduction  records,  administrators  filing  most  administrator  produced  be  thus  effective  s e l e c t i o n of  records  Such  of  i n the  proposals  could  series.  be  way,  i 0  some  to  a l l , though  the  of  systematic  identified  for  series  a  considered  methods  First  in  abstracts  Public  bulky of  certain  Records,"  series  of  documents.''  disposition of  could,  i n themselves,  appraisal since  analysis  and  judgements The 1941  Altogether,  they  provided  about  United  eliminated needless  favourable  States' efforts  to  because  i t s limited  produced  by  costs  to  a  1943,  which  to  allowed  ever  involved  minimum.  A  authorizing  d e s t r u c t i o n of  records.  1945  covering these  A  of  of  of  d i s p o s a l methods  f o r making  value  records  and  of  effort Act  record  certain  was  government  use  of  general  of  were  the  cooperation  records  advocating  in  of schedules  However,  either  filing willing  a  system or  able  2  management the  effectiveness  3 1  keeping  e f f e c t i v e n e s s on  few  departments  passed  permissible.  for their  even  records  recurring series  which  a  felt  schedules  c r e a t i o n and  While  space,  while  Disposal  in  Archives,  i n the  war  War  management  National  integrated records the  World  of  use  relied  The  and  adopt.-  problems of  consistent  to  for  repetition  Second  staff  amendment made t h e  a l l agencies  very  the  i n c r e a s i n g number  Records  f o r the  the  agencies.  resources  control  agencies  into  implement  i n a l l government  pressure  conditions  entrance  techniques  more  s o l v e many  methods  records.  intensified  of  systematic  Leahy,  system  application to  pp.  the  of  the  record-creating agencies  remained of  elusive,  principles  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  of  archivists  efficiency  records  as  in  began  and  they  131-138.  D o n a l d R. M c C o y , T h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , , : A m e r i c a ' s M i n i s t r y o f Documents, 1934-1968 ( C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v . o f North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1978), pp. 155~-163. 3 2  84  received  them  presented coming  by  the  to  1,000  the  Bauer's  responses  meant  National of  in  of  the  insisted  civilized  man  records,  preservation  i n the  own  administrative  its  allocated  an  would not to  their such  could  to  and  relative  the  system,  incur  the  limits  need  such to  justify  disposal.  Bauer  administrative  only  a  Archives  moral  archival  and  justify  keeping  3  important  the  would  Given  then  records  Archives  determine  conference  Division,  cultural  monetary  institution." * 1  of  which  i t makes  is a  major  factor  of  judging  cost  of  Yet,  Bauer's  in  of  for  standards  for  an  by  many  Herman Kahn  criteria  requirements  of  elicited  a p p r a i s a l method.  the  resources,  to  Bauer  processing  National  c o n t r o v e r s i a l and  most  that  the  of  itself  accessions.  records,  Interior  not  approach,  i n new  presented  that  i s the  that  Philip  value  with  institution  Archives  such  G.  relative  compared  according  were  opposing  be  cycle.  standards  records."  1944,  the  archivists  incoming  instance,  general  This  statements,  Department  of  that  for taking  feet  life  archival  calculated that,  archivists  the  should  i t s resources,  cubic  value  view  the  them.  of  cost-accounting  standards,  the  that  r e t e n t i o n of fact  end  archives  i t s capacity  limits  in  costs  use  the  extreme  an  accepting  should of  the  into  storage  at  the  institution's efficient  use  of  determining  G. P h i l i p B a u e r , " T h e A p p r a i s a l o f C u r r e n t a n d Recent Records," National Archives Staff Information C i r c u l a r 13 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , 1946), pp. 11-20. 3 3  in  Bauer,  pp.  23-25.  85  archival  value,  theories  on  result  former president  implementing the  proposals  strong  emphasis  inherent  i n the  life-cycle  that  dominate  and  service  records,  a  program  and  Federal  records  country  t o house  archives federal  of  the  reports the  with  later  centres  were  goal  under  Services  Administration  accepted"  by  the National  McCoy,  pp.  was  and  head  The  housekeeping appraisal of  the  subsumed charged  of  under  current  or  with  of active  instituted  consistent  of better  d u p l i c a t i o n of  records  before  up  control. which  Archives  upon  to The  50  they  forms,  systems  for  records.  reached the  percent  head  records  a  a l l federal  objective  and  as  established throughout the  decided  220-231.  forces.  function  the  concise  of bringing their  and  For  iZ!  Leahy  efficient  development  typing,  Emmet  task  and  Hoover,  m a n a g e m e n t " was  creation of  semi-active  of  appraisal  concept of  under  "paperwork  the  Herbert  efficiency  cost. "  organization  1947-1949  Administration  operating  and  of  Archives  the  filing,  the  records  Services  and  on  structure  National  a t minimum  prescribed  controlling  The  maintaining  offices  "maximum  management  entire  General  coordinating  letters,  the  Archives.  newly-created  3 5  Commissions"  the  government  of  approach to  was  National  component  government  records  to  which  management  "Hoover by  on  commission's  activities began  important  commissions  this  The  chaired  recommended the  gave  form.  19 5 3 - 1 9 5 5 ,  of  federal  efficiency  concrete  an  appraisal.  Two and  remained  of a l l  of the were  to  General be  the recommendations  of  86  the  archivists,  approve  the  disposal  Although creation, records  although  archivists  administrative  being  s t i l l  set  decisions  process.  A  are  systematically provided  theorist  of  the  administrator formulated influence  by  perhaps  i n various  titled  the "The  Appraisal  defining  appraisal two  from  levels:  agency  3 6  that  of  National  Modern  approached  and  deriving He  "primary  values,"  which  produced  them  used  pp.  236-238,  and  ideas,  as  continue  first  manual  set  the  in  problem  them  appraisal records for  out  19 5 6  Unlike of  as  his  appraisal for  values  hold  their  a  and  for  own  275-278.  T h e o d o r e S. S c h e l l e n b e r g , "The A p p r a i s a l o f M o d e r n P u b l i c Records," B u l l e t i n s of the National Archives 8 (October, 1956). 3 7  in  published  a methodology  divided  to  appraisal.  Records"."" the  values  archival  Archives  Public  values.  McCoy,  were  a n a l y t i c procedures  first  those  His  archival  concepts  be  Archives  manuals, on  value  could  appraisal  National  and  make  administrative  and  of  to  American  required  influential  thinking  Schellenberg values  appraisal  the  government  1950s,  in this  Schellenberg.  the  U.S.  criteria  system  most  appraisal and  a  articles  B u l l e t i n s of  predecessors, by  R.  f o r managing  presented  period:  American  highly-structured of  the  post-war  Schellenberg's  one  to  to  0  early  value  systematically Such  the  points  approach  Theodore  North  by  coherent  applied.  i t s authority  d i s p o s i t i o n of  various  management  that  records.-'  i n place  at  retained  mechanisms  and  lacked  appraisal  were  federal  organization,  were  criteria  of  Congress  into the  87  administrative, "secondary than  values,"  only  Schellenberg  with  secondary  "evidential" those  them.  its  which  the  last  earlier  his  to  information  such  he  as  concerned into values  of the  which  which  original  were  Evidential  evidence  persons,  agency  their  divided further  are those  on  other  produced  the records  things,  and  dealt during  hold  phenomena  the course  of  3 5  sure,  Schellenberg's  values  two  value  concepts  which  Phillip  However,  Brooks  to the actual  life-cycle  to the.process  values,  f o r each,  records  and  by  an  both  Schellenberg,  3 9  Brooks,  pp.  230-232.  to  applying  Schellenberg,  6-7.  were  H i s purpose  evidential  and  f o r applying  a r e most  " A p p r a i s a l , " pp.  of h i s  than  guidelines f o r  tests.  3 3  more  to  propounded  of the records  techniques  agency  similar  Brooks  appraisal.  for positing  concrete  produced  For  the value  practical  C.  of records  of archival  justification  are very  devoted  to the records.  and d e c i s i o n s about  informational  which  served  archivists  be  provide  "tests"  hold  values  appraisal values  central  have  and  f o r users  f u n c t i o n i n g of the agency  3 9  analyses  hold  that  which  the records  i n 1940.  analysis  they  claimed  the originating  activity. To  after  purposes;  "informational" values.  and  of  legal  the records  values,  Informational  sources  with  and  which  organization  as  which  t h e c r e a t i n g agency  purposes.  are  o p e r a t i o n a l , and  determining  likely  to  pass  was  88  The  reasons  information simply  by  remains should  however be  this  they  serve  persons,  the  directly,  which  may  form  refer they  determine  and  the  and  concentrated,  and  physically  duplicated or  in a  Determining their  uniqueness  straightforward applying  the  archivist definitely what  the  is  informational Schellenberg  form  of  i n the  to  value simply  to  realm body  of  the  tests  the In  the  and  Schellenberg,  " A p p r a i s a l , " pp.  4 1  Schellenberg,  " A p p r a i s a l , " p.  is  relies  on  to  fairly  "in  admitted, f o r who  important,  "the  can  and  in  dealing with  to  their  5.  1 1  according  However,  22-2 25.  tests  are  records  traditional  w  the  and  arrangement.'  imponderable,  the  of  themselves  Schellenberg  according  to  things,  information  which  Therefore,  resorted to  tests  records  of  is  on  three  words,  form  value  likely  persons,  The  the  than  concentrated  most  records  which  that  for informational  other  records  records  Rather  the  comparison.  whom?"*' of  than  process  of  phenomena  records  usable  is a of  of  whether  importance,"  given  and  to  information  standards  test  i f a  purpose,  or  and  Schellenberg  as  contain. degree  question  record?  importance.  both  is indisputable  the  identified  serve  form,  things,  rather He  providing  phenomena  archival  document.  information to  unique  and  and  characteristics  uniqueness,  uniqueness the  by  question and  i n records  i t s comprehensiveness;  i s , which  characteristics  to  things,  informational value,  phenomena  value:  of  documented  qualities  possess or  persons,  virtue  answering the  on  for placing value  say  for the  importance,  assertions  of  89  his  predecessors  users  and  justify, of  a  for  famous  values  with  The  figure)  should  contended,  through  with  to  specific  groups  types  of  or  investigation  and  States:  records, civil  regulatory  drawings  specifications,  statistics, programs, In  and  showing  types  of  how  of  of  census  Schellenberg,  to  for  either  personnel  civil  registration, and  land  architectural and  federal  which,  and  records,  applied  patent  and  social  government  information  " A p p r a i s a l , " pp.  concentrated  data,  effectively of  applied  federal  economic  are  their  attempt  be  industries  special  contacts  an  here  registries,  informational values  a p p r a i s a l , some  their  could  surveys,  things;  records  Schellenberg  of  on  and  interests  specialists.^  modern-day  persons;  ship  various  scientific  records,  techniques  h l  records  on  on  such  s e r v i c e s , and  relating  records  exploration records  information  guide.  service records,  geographical  for  information  a  (to  signature  a n a l y s i s was  records  for  registries  by  the  as  Schellenberg  corporations  and  reference  produced  or  society  informational value  United  military  of  knowledge,  public records  records  present-day  into  subject-matter  phenomena.  immigration  insight  general  of  bearing serve  Schellenberg's for  of  i n the  titles,  own  providing  of  tests  things,  acquire  various  remainder the  land  their  while  s h o w how  records,  values  historical he  governments  sentimental letters  to  the  interests  keeping  consultations  on  research  instance,  researchers  persons,  the  quasi-mythical,  Archivists, and  that  on to  phenomena. specific  illustrated  particularly  26-27.  various  the  90  application Yet,  they  of s t a t i s t i c a l  remained  illustrated content  usable level the  the process  to define  form  already  problem his  which  By a n d l a r g e ,  informational value archival  i n a  theory  of the records  a question  of determining  merely  which  forms  archival  Schellenberg's  concrete much  a t t a i n e d by h i s predecessors.  and  beyond t h e  The q u e s t i o n  of  and the information  the very  value,  eluded  heart  of the  him as i thad  predecessors. Schellenberg  in  h i g h l y innovative."-'  and examples  decision.  importance  contain,  were  of appraisal but d i d not define the  d i d n o t advance  relative  they  techniques  of the value  attempts  sampling,  developing  because  much  h i s ideas  archival  evidential  was  value,  appraisers, do n o t n e e d  which  informational  importance  Schellenberg thing  t o be  agency  they  or things.  had already  produced  when  that  i s mainly  "realm  applying  t o an i n f i n i t e  identified  This  out records  to enter  the records  above  other  evidential  value  allowed  than  i n seeking  influential,  of of the  the test  universe  of  evidential  the person,  of persons,  value,  phenomena, o r  -- t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e  importance  concrete  face  value.  For i n positing  documented  which  s u c c e s s f u l , and  on e v i d e n t i a l  imponderable"  phenomena,  more  elements.  -- a n d a s s e r t e d As  Schellenberg  guidelines f o r applying  this  such,  i t s  the concept  t o develop value  much  archival of more  to the records  f o r the concept  of informational  value.  Schellenberg,  " A p p r a i s a l , " pp.  27-44.  91  Richard of  Stapleton,  Schellenberg,  idea  those the  records  agency  origins rule  has c l a r i f i e d  of evidential  Schellenberg's  value  general which  should  functions  by  explanation.  those  records  accounts  such  reports, budget  as annual  agency  or directives;  records  administrative than  and p u b l i c i t y  hierarchy  occupying  While  the process  outlined  appraisal,  rule  and seemingly  and  of determining provided  second  which  narrative records  minutes,  investigative matters,  summary  and m a t e r i a l ; and  rule  more  execution  i s that  of  those  levels  of the  evidential  value  4 4  evidential  archivists  o b j e c t i v e method a much  as  the higher  levels.'  on t h e  those  histories;  on t h e a c t u a l  The t h i r d  The  summary  on l e g a l  g e n e r a l l y have  i talso required  from  i s that  records  above  such  releases  occupying  t h e lower  by Schellenberg  practical  and agency  of records  by o f f i c e s  those  include:  research  and programs.  produced  rules  the substantive  be p r e s e r v e d  and opinions  or selections  policies  include  and procedures  correspondence  summaries  basic  first  document  These  reports  policies  documents,  The  These  which  should  the facilitative.  regulations,  Schellenberg's  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t s .  o f t h e agency  establish  of  theories  the structure or organization of  be p r e s e r v e d .  document  that  the nature  extracting three  document  of t h e agency  i s that  i n h i s analysis of archival  with  value a  as  highly  f o r undertaking  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  R i c h a r d S t a p l e t o n , " T h e I d e a s o f T.R. S c h e l l e n b e r g o n the A p p r a i s a l , Arrangement, and D e s c r i p t i o n of A r c h i v e s , " Master of Archival Studies Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1985, pp. 67-69; S c h e l l e n b e r g , " A p p r a i s a l , " pp. 1322 . 4 4  92  theoretical in  the  justification  first  "reasons"  place.  To  f o r keeping  function  of  original  agency  establish  the  for positing  this  end,  records  which  Secondly,  and  such  may  afford  a  records  administrative  require  measure  are  historians  administration.  and  Thirdly,  relatively  which  appraisal decisions will  documentary records  of  a  and  evidential  represent  information  to  the  of  archivist se  i s thus  5  and  a  by  or  of  to  to  on  evidential  the  of  agency,  as  "The  to  the  source  records  the  the been  quality  of  Schellenberg  7-9.  as  since  of  5  evidential  value  information that  his  legal  by the  idea  of  impartiality  i n the  propounded  " A p p r a i s a l , " pp.  of  a l l researchers  claimed with  degree  for  Fourthly,  records.*  i t having  issue here,"  Schellenberg,  of  meaning  the  do  for  public  exclusive  originally  of  accountability.  test  only  for positing  nothing  administrative  subject-matter.  often  Jenkinson.  the  vary  and  help  "objective" process  impartiality  virtue  person  Hilary not  had  and  provide  provenance  relative  evidence  custody"  vital  justification  value  the  three  a l l , the  to  sources  of  value  structure  of  records  public  understandable  Schellenberg  evidential  not  value  them  the  the  preserved.  of  a  on  Another relates  "definite"  completeness,  make  of  applying  the  maintain  students  is a  they  such  absolute cited  First  indispensable  value  whole  document  r e c o r d - c r e a t i n g agency. itself  an  Schellenberg  administrative precedent,  continuity,  i t as  "unbroken  the  British  evidence  explained,  per "but  "the  character  arrangement  of  of  impartiality  the  matter  archives,  as  an  evidenced." * 1  however,  important  In  6  later  Schellenberg  component  of  writings  on  cited  evidential  value:  Since they [the records] were created in consequence of the actions to which they related, they often contain an unconscious and t h e r e f o r e i m p a r t i a l r e c o r d of the a c t i o n . . . Records, however, a l s o have a v a l u e f o r the evidence they c o n t a i n of the a c t i o n s t h a t resulted in their production. . . These added values--values because of their production during a c t i o n and their evidence of a c t i o n - - w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as evidential values . H ?  Here,  Schellenberg  records which  with  value  produced  evidential  as  the  and  this  statement  that  the  actions of  the  information  contained  information  produced  that  the  functions  production It  must  is difficult  Schellenberg s 1  in  and  North  ideas  America,  but  Schellenberg,  of  the  of  the the  single  connection  original  needed  records  to to  be  and  structures of  between  have  been  documented preserved:  i s to  unconscious  claiming  i n order i f  understood  of  later the  for  the  be  formed  by  as  archival context  of  documented.  to  underestimate  on  a p p r a i s a l on  world-wide.  the  Perhaps  " A p p r a i s a l , " p.  influence  archival  of  science  the  not  best  7.  " Schellenberg, "Archival Principles A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 28 (1965),.39-41. H  impartial  concept  may  structures which  a l s o be  as  f u n c t i o n advocated  be  records  agents  value  functions  Schellenberg  i n the by  combining  under  Although  i s obscure,  original  be  evidence  evidence  impartiality  uses,  to  records  value.  impartiality  the  seems  of  Arrangement,"  only  94  illustration  of  the  extent  "informational"  and  "evidential"  synonymous  the  concept  the  with  professional  entries  i n the  in  1974  and  by  the  basic  i n the  North  particular,  analysis  and  influence is that  value  archival  of on  Archives  archivists,  conceptual  approach  and  generally accepted  since to  they a  seemed  extremely  terms  19 84.*°  those  used  separate  complex  a  produced Until archivists  Schellenberg's  relating  offer  in  archivists  government  and  to  form  terminology i n  terms  itself  American  archival  guidelines, especially  value,  by  the  almost  appraisal the  glossary prepared  American  evidential  become  terminology:  dictionary  have  this  of  International Council  recently, in  archival  of  to  workable  and. p r e s s i n g  problem. Schellenberg's outlined  for applying  management put  systems  i n place  because  of  Schellenberg  records of  value.  primary  His  in a  and  control  what  life-cycle of  all,  secondary  was  most  constitutes more  process the  values  of  is  found the  valuable  a  wide  rather  than  archival  for analyzing  delineation  Walne, Saur,  being  process  influential  clearly  were  perhaps  such  disposition  strict were  which  It  categories  he  life-cycle  records  theory  * E v a n s , pp. 422, 424; Peter A r c h i v a l Terminology ( M i i n c h e n : K.G. 8  of  methods  the  p e r s p e c t i v e , i t was  " v a l u e s " were  First  the  archives.  twofold  described which of  and  complemented  government  this  identification  material.  them,  that his  From  concepts,  f o r the  i n many  this  reception.  his  value  than  statements  between  formulated  to  serve  ed, D i c t i o n a r y o f 1 9 8 4 ) , p p . 70, 92.  95  a  management  personnel, used  by  process  procedures,  officials  records  as  Secondly, defined,  they the  cycle  because the  records  informational the  workings  management relative be  a  be  the  process,  and  National  1960s new  agency  the  as  concept  with  the  remains  too  the  the  significance, life-  of outside  of  life-cycle definition  or  Schellenberg  are  clearly  reality  place,  Archives  and  urgent  in  19 34  theory  activity  1970s,  appraisal  by  of  t h i n g which  failed vague  to  the is  to  offer  and  in  with  or  simply and  stages  was  area  w i t h i n the  It is difficult  archivists  culminating with  1956  i n the  i n the  to  United  indifferent  a  of  period archival  to  North  assess States the  life-cycle  a  general  of  the  publication  intense,  appraisal.  veritable  whether and  of  the  American  twofold  informational values in a  establishment  contrast, witnessed  concepts  that  evidential  while  concept  and  w i t h i n the  community.  for  administrative  requires a  person,  they  in archives.  special  the  period beginning  and  during  of  deal  and  f u n c t i o n s of  Thirdly,  does  as  useful.  Schellenberg's  almost  well.  necessarily  the  value,  document  insofar  definition, very  to  which  of  researchers  something  original  importance  The  of  of  documented,  such to  value,  administrative  for records  s t r u c t u r e and  as  as  by  evidential  the  i t helps  facilities  later  of  agency  separate  r e c o r d - c r e a t i n g agency  used  out  requires  and  the  concept  singles  of  of  are  record-creating mainly  which  dearth  of  archival  this  indicates  Canada were concept  The  satisfied  of  systematically applied  process  of  records  disposition  96  as  developed  National during  by  Archives.  this  evidential  Thornton  overly value. aware  Mitchell of  the  creating and  the  total  form  generalizations preferable merits."  to His  i t s goal  Records  a  cannot  about  their  value  against  return  to  appraisal  value,  practical  at  the  applied  various  archivists produced  on  the  to  of  was  be  the  agency,  making  an  theoretical  " i t is their  own  appraisal that records  value,  an  decisions  one  type  of  advocating  a  efficient  a l l points  defined  has  appraised.  and  balancing in effect  at  more  record-  of  of  ensuring  general,  secondary  the  that  the  made b y  operating of  by  basis  i n degrees  of  appraisal,  establishing  approach  be  on  should  before  maintaining  concerns  expense  strict  and  of  operations  Mitchell  decision process  advanced  the h i s t o r y - o r i e n t e d ,  concept  d e c i s i o n about  another."*'  the  values  as  against  pragmatic  measured  were  erode  article  records  records  clean-cut  life-cycle at  "a  the  r e t e n t i o n cannot  the  viewed  that  warned  evaluate  be  he  1970  s t r u c t u r e and  about  was  in his  documentation  d e c i s i o n and  the  values.  Schellenberg's  of  to  secondary  of  volume  at  a p p r a i s a l which  what  the  and  colleagues  of  suggested  agency,  appraisal  as  Mitchell,  nature  on  and  informational W.  his  i f anything,  primary  critical  rigid  and  ideas  tended,  between and  mildly  The  period  dichotomies  was  Schellenberg  in  the  appraisal  values  stages.  ^ T h o r n t o n W. M i t c h e l l , "New Viewpoints on Establishing Permanent-Values of State A r c h i v e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 3 3 (1970), 163-174.  97  The  first  Schellenberg of  the  Like  major  was  Society  his  of  of  volume,  rather  on  keepers  of  the  to  needs  criterion  incurred  to  describing which  and  an  the  and  which  the  successive of  defined.  depends other  value  with  cost  the the  no  value  of  them.  value  application  Bauer's of  Altogether,  appraisal process of  5 0  users  and  from  the  derives  documentary the  by  archival  comparing institution  last  1946  proposal  records  quality  original  This  with  value  the  that costs  Brichford concentrated  combining  values  a  i s merely  number one.  of  on  factors  The  Maynard J . B r i c h f o r d , A r c h i v e s and Manuscripts: A p p r a i s a l and A c c e s s i o n i n g ( C h i c a g o : S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s , 197 7 ) , p p . 2-10.' 5 0  based  administrative  the  the  were  potential  than  to  to  was  i s determined  records.  Phillip the  on  Besides  information value  for continuing  value  the  considered  administrative value  archival  balance  be  part  process  application  first  considerations  preserve  keep  a  as  Series.  Brichford's appraisal values  records  reintroduced must  to  for researchers  values  and  must  evidential  records  and  research  archives  of  of  of  records: the  1977  __In B r i c h f o r d ' s a p p r a i s a l p r o c e s s ,  concepts  records  process  the  function, Brichford  of  previous  and  after  Manual  records,  and  administration; the  values,  the  form,  the  activities;  Basic  a p p r a i s a l as  a n a l y s i s of  attached.  usefullness  Archivists' viewed  appear  Brichford in  records  the  of  Maynard  the  characteristics  necessarily  and  appraisal to  of  Schellenberg's be  he  certain  techniques.  characteristics age,  American  research  consideration  on  w r i t t e n by  predecessors,  involving  various  manual  98  technical this  thoroughness  process  appraisal  was  concepts,  as with  of records s t i l l  and  once  variations of  select  i n  t o make  used  upon  t o advance  article.  He  of archival  f o r them.  purpose, value.  scientists  based  a  disposition,  to  select  different  o f sampling on a  and t h e type Archives  technique  had to  geographic  p r e v i o u s l y by t h e Bureau o f However,  this  single  understanding  offered the f i r s t  Kulsrud, Carl Records f o rT r a n s f e r A r c h i v i s t 10 ( 1 9 4 7 ) ,  of  of the data  as an a r c h i v a l  techniques  defined  by a l l o w i n g  reduce the  at the National  records  archivists'  o f sampling Lewinson  3 1  archivists  out f o ra stated  the nature  Rehabilitation  Economics.  to help  b u t i t h a s many  a kind  appraisal  the decisions  by s o c i a l  Archivists  developed  value  systems  carried  value  American  the question  data,  t h e use of sampling  5 1  management  t o be  inquiry.  Rural  theory  1957  employed  i n 1947 i m p l e m e n t e d  Paul of  methods  begged  depending  Agricultural  and  used  than  of archival t o make  i s a method  classification  little  needed  research  research  already  by a r c h i v i s t s  as an a r c h i v a l  process  through  again  Sampling analyze  other  t o technique  f u r t h e r how  the problem  controlled  sampling  and  as t h e v a l u e s  of sampling  to illustrate  to solve  systematic,  this  more  t h e development  attempted  size  i tr e l a t e s  serves  However,  as important  used  decisions.  Although  method  and consistency  archival  case  of t h e methodology  appraisal  tool.  comprehensive  f o rarchival sampling  study d i d  explanation  appraisal i n a  i n government  J . , "Sampling Rural R e h a b i l i t a t i o n t o t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , " AmejrjLcan 328-334.  99  archives  as  "the selection  homogeneous work  records,  so t h a t  some  part  o f a body  aspect  may  distinguished concerned  be r e p r e s e n t e d this  with  viewed  and  which  t h a t which  i s typical  o f t h e whole,  sampling"  which  of archival  carried  thereby"  sampling,"  requires  not possible i n archival  sampling  process  or illustrated  by t h e  "commercial  revealing  "statistical  reliability  from  of  o f t h e Government's  o r the information received o r developed  Government  and  o f some  i s solely  a measure o f  sampling. -  Lewinson  0 1  m a t e r i a l , t h e r e f o r e , as a  out f o r the unique  documentary  unique  requirements  of  archives. To typical  be  sure,  and standards  considerations that  i t must  values  such  evidential necessary  a  since  order  criteria  of r e l i a b i l i t y  decided will  suggested  value,  of size  what  serve.  a random  important  b u t Lewinson  insisted  previously-defined archival  provided  whether  that,  to reveal the  Schellenberg's  sample  to reveal typical  of  i s  to preserve  conforming  would  concept  him with the  sampling  i n order  and p r o b a b i l i t y  serve  are  sampling,  f o r judging  be most aspects  to  records statistical  effective of the  and f u n c t i o n o f t h e r e c o r d s - c r e a t i n g agency; i n  which  records  conforms  Paul Lewinson, (1957), 292. j 2  20  he  to preserve  sample  selection  and i n f o r m a t i o n a l values  i twould  structure  be  sample  evidential  standards  o f random  i n archival  first  appropriate: of  methods  of informational value,  to preconceived  "Archival  standards  Sampling,"  a  of  American  selected importance  Archivist  100 would  be  things,  used or  to  5 3  acceptable  value  could even  can  archivist  atypical  this  i t clear  the  an  or  the  significant agency  suggestion could  that  be  the  open  a  specific  determined  to  be  to  sampling  o b j e c t i v e method  serve  persons,  dealt will  effectively debate,  process  are  met;  documentary  be  followed  an  but  in  itself  for selecting  p h y s i c a l requirements  only has  which  criteria  provide  i f"all  sample  Whether  made  not  that  phenomena w i t h  documented.  Lewinson  so  records,  i n the purpose  end,  the  which  the  valuable:  The a r c h i v i s t must b e a r i n m i n d t h a t t h e r e i s no s u c h t h i n g as a demonstrably universal sample that would serve a l l conceivable research purposes within a given universe. The o v e r a l l appropriateness, the refinement, and the r e l i a b i l i t y of a sample a r i s e out of the particular research problem that the sample i s t o illuminate. * 5  Eleanor as  an  McKay's  appraisal tool  appraisal  practice  Schellenberg's and  recent  reflected  of  large  the  However,  remained  a  sampling  project.  homogeneous  large  McKay  series  illustrate  archival  factor  of  how  a  material.  Lewinson, Lewinson,  used  random  more  the  the  emphasis  on  and  method  in  evidential case-by-case  criteria  success of  sampling  from  based  value  congressmen's  out,  shift  away  example  sampling  random  flexible,  archival  pointed  299-310. 312.  a  i n determining  U.S.  She  of  1970  framework  towards  issue  general  and  conceptual  the  d i s c u s s i o n of  the  1960s  informational values  process.  to  more  of  bulky  and  senator's  could  i n agreement  a  be  records  applied  with  to  101  Lewinson, and  that,  while  a  significant  files  i n such  retains  a  did  appeal  not  small,  informational  selective  typical  to  the  value  to  justify  rather,  political  scientists  and  would  best  appealed  determine serve  to  the  research,  interpreting  social  the  records;  of  itself In  the  appraisal possible modern  method  must  s t i l l  case  of  fields  to  sampling  of  American  agencies.  management  interests.  .  directed  archives, this  archivally in  archival  as  one  valuable.  The  But,  aspect  of  the  this  series  way,  McKay  methodology  justify  the  her  could  techniques  of  of  appraisal  not  in  with  a a  in  and  yet  archival  another  size  of  records  produced  as  with  other  appraisal  to  help  sampling  control  by and the  methodology  stated purpose  and  in  the  preconceived  idea  of  what  introduction  general  such  means  instituted  administration after  of  5 5  the  requires  of  one  archivists  towards  the  quantitative  only  material entering archives, be  in  and  she  and  opinions  In  process  sampling  systems  However,  sample  the  sampling  represents  values  use  on  sample  or  to  engaged  random  data,  for reducing  government  of  random  the  provided  disposition amount  end,  which  these  decision  specific  science  the  provide  of  series.  relied  atypical  random  evidential  historians  research  values  quantitative  of  she  whether  their  the  preserves the  the  categories of  technique;  to  series,  p o r t i o n of  preferred  research  a  sample  1945  situation  of can  sampling  techniques  t h e r e f o r e be  i n American  is  viewed  appraisal  E l e a n o r M c K a y , "Random S a m p l i n g Techniques: A Method of Reducing L a r g e , Homogeneous S e r i e s i n C o n g r e s s i o n a l Papers," A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 41 ( 1 9 7 8 ) , 2 8 1 - 2 8 9. 5 5  102  theory:  archivists  systematic  had  management  accepted  value  process,  and  analysed process  standards,  and  for  the  defined  appraisal,  ultimate  i t s effectiveness  the  as  an  factors  but  a  without  objective  appraisal  of  of  such  tool,  a  remained  elusive. The question  h i s t o r y of of  volume,  acquiring  to and  traditional records. of  and  assumptions  these  developments  force  than  with  a  their  increase  the  this  of  control modern  the  which  framework  order  to  material  entering  concept  records  management  which  to  gain  over  the  a  both  vast  and  of  were  record-creating  measure  of  and  body  of  upon  effects  with  response, provided  of  of  more they  archivists  volume  active and  archival records  and  implemented and  administrative  complex  in  development  the  and  the  the  structure  late  felt  in  based  f o r becoming  reduce  life-cycle  allowed  In  been  the  immediately  techniques  in  of  U.S.,  colleagues.  management  records  i n the  more  had  the  forced  approach  provenance  because  by  changes  records  which  The  concept  agencies  and  q u a l i t y of  repositories. systems  archives  dominated  intuitive  material  about  perhaps  is  documentary  archivists,  concepts  of  of  1930  Revolutionary  passive,  European  systematic  appraisers  of  the  disposing  government  formulated  use  abandon  American  large  after  archival appraisal.  quality,  archivists  archives  the to  serve  ax-chival and  records  intellectual generated  organizations.  These archivists  management to  make  processes,  overt  however,  decisions  about  also what  required is  of  archival  by  10 3  value  and  what  successful these  in  i s not, their  decisions.  Appeals  researchers  archivists  to  echoed  ideas  already in  help  clear  the  century.  American  they  are  into  an  values  to  the be  persons,  or  failed  the  on  creating  the  of  archivists systemtic  and  the  as  and  most  area,  were  process  which  on  a  to  to  which  of  be  which  that  revealed  in  implied  administrative  of  this to  of  or  bias  to  put  their  process  of  appraisal  faith and  much  they  in  a  trusted  way tied of  document  record-creating relative  as  and  the  they  of  the  towards In  and  the  concept  as  records  structures.  seemed  too  the  of  categories  concept document  record-creating  history  turn  the  phenomena,  records  i t s own a  of  definition;  the  the  the  place  evidential  and  the  was  the  value  records  merely  taken  disposition in  useful:  to  i t  since  such  of  future  had  of  vague  things,  relates  functioning  this  changes  definition  provide  the  archivists:  too  relates  persons,  for  while  for  experience  sophisticated  but  less  present-day  concept  process  they  assumption  agency  significance, concerns  such  value,  structure  relies  was  much  criteria  methodology  phenomena w i t h  relies  Schellenberg  needs  Schellenberg's  this  value,  of  of  historical  historical  applied,  significance  evidential  needs  important  life-cycle  things,  dealt,  the  that  administrative  informational  agency  R.  efforts in  complemented  the  value  nineteenth-century  and  T.  informational  and  193 0  historiography  to  a r c h i v i s t s were  develop  interpret these  of  in  American  e f f o r t s to  historical  the  and  the  is the  recordof  that,  special  values  end,  managed  agency,  and  American and  through  the  of  10  workings be  made.  of  this  process,  the  necessary  value  decisions  could  105  CHAPTER IV  ARCHIVAL  As  A P P R A I S A L A S A MANAGEMENT F U N C T I O N , 1 9 3 0 - 1 9 8 0 : G R E A T B R I T A I N , F R A N C E , AND GERMANY  archivists  comprehensive records,  systems  European  constructing  i n the United  f o r managing  archivists  their  The c r i s i s  in  of record  subject  matter  contained while  chose  was f e l t  neglect,  unique  Much in  Great  dealt Hilary  Britain,  about  production,  great  a vacuum  i n Britain,  of aspects  and concepts  of their  systems  should  any a p p r a i s a l  own  by years  But, of  a n d Germany  truly  value. administration archivists  had been  defined  As h a s been  to preserve  of records  of  record-keeping  British  and 1930s.  as h i s t o r i c a l  pp. 54-59.  left  archival  volume,  i n order  increase  archives.  to establish  i n which  of record  of archives  toward  records  France,  of archival  o f modern  a n d t h e ways  impartiality  ' see above,  such  to f i l l  that,  strides  and t h e d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  worked  i n t h e 1920s  of public  b y t h e immense  by European  archivists  contended  leave  making  acutely  t h e problem  Jenkinson  Jenkinson  brought  of the tradition  with  the appraisal  of controlled archival  i n t o new a p p r a i s a l  approaches  developing  no l e s s  t o incorporate  traditions  were  and q u a l i t y of information  t h e Americans  official  were  own s y s t e m  disposition. t h e volume  States  by  shown,  1  the  evidence,  the archivist  to the original  record-  106  creators. rejected  American this  receiving had  should  management  1956  the  whatever  Modern  analysis were  forces  o f t h e manual  concepts  the serious  i n society  custody.  Records  appraisal of  i n  and Jenkinson's  revealed  archivists  and d e c i s i o n s  f o rthe conscious  important  Archives,  Schellenberg,  and d i s i n t e r e s t e d  be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e i r  i n archives  two  and e s p e c i a l l y  of quiescent  and value  manual  review  vision  and keeping  deemed  records  archivists,  Schellenberg's  comments  differences  i n a between  approaches: To make the fact that Archives have been subject to selection of this kind an essential part o f A r c h i v e q u a l i t y i s t o make the sad c o n c l u s i o n t h a t our generation i s bringing Archives a long step nearer to the status of those a r t i f i c i a l "Collections" to which which Dr. Schellenberg . . . assigns, i n agreement w i t h me, a n i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y a s evidence; and t h a t i n doing so i t surrenders one of t h e most valuable of archive characteristics--their impartiality. m  t  Jenkinson's aspect  concerns  o f t h e form  provenance, based  followed  of archives  and hence  their  on t h e assumption  of  archives  or  else  they  needed would  the traditional directly  meaning;  that  reflect  appraisal  remained  Jenkinson  and Schellenberg  reflected  nothing  the central  focus  throughout  by  This  archivists issue of between  careers."  Jenkinson, " M o d e r n A r c h i v e s : Some R e f l e c t i o n s o n S c h e l l e n b e r g , " i n S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s , p. 341. 2  was  composition  of disagreement their  every  approach  and  and c o n t r o l l e d b u t chaos.  that their  the American  the organization  t o be a n a l y z e d  view  T.R.  F o r a general comparison o f t h e ideas o f Jenkinson and Schellenberg, see Richard Stapleton, "Jenkinson and S c h e l l e n b e r g : A C o m p a r i s o n , " A r c h i v a r i a 17 ( W i n t e r 1983-84), p p . 7 5 - 8 5. 3  107  In  spite  archival demands  theory  British  for  Records  the  first  archivists.  sole  demands  of  use  records not  history  to  the  records  Jenkinson the  general agency, and  a  2)  with  agency,  and  uses,  beyond  identifying  as  3)  these  meet  did  But,  encourage  i n spite archivists  of to  i t s  the  information  of  The the  terms  did  archive required  of  uses,  1)  unique  to  in practical  those  the  records.  however,  which  the  document  for  the  records:  f o r any  rule  of  also  usefulness  so  the  British  for  of  i n the  the  "golden  third  for  operations,  preserved  part  regarded  to  1943,  pamphlet  hold  uses"  wartime British  In  pamphlet  researchers  roughly  the  meet  issued  by  the  the  original  however,  the  offered guidelines for eliminating routine  information.*  document  or  judgements  For  erode  principles.  disposal,  Jenkinson's  value  merely  which  future  and  to  effort  that  methods  original  creators.  duplicate  and  second  of  his  British  exerted  appraisal principles  accidentally  with  The  pamphlet  of  began  salvage,  value  them,  corresponded  application  this  or  conflict  records  the  technical  f o r the  making."  defined  "historical  present  incidentally first  f o r paper  for records  three  important  efficiency to  i n f l u e n c e on  pressures  A s s o c i a t i o n , i n an  time  the  the  adherence  produced  document  and  and  need  criterion  immense  practice,  Besides  that  recognized to  and  strict  wartime  agency  Jenkinson's  f o r economy  profession's  urgent  of  and  shortcomings,  engage  in  conscious  * Great B r i t a i n . P u b l i c Record Office, Principles governing the E l i m i n a t i o n or Ephemeral or Unimportant Documents i n P u b l i c o r P r i v a t e A r c h i v e s (London, undated), o u t l i n e d i n S c h e l l e n b e r g , M o d e r n A r c h i v e s , pp. 137-139.  as  108  analysis  of  purposes  f o r which  Much system  the  value  on  the  scale  importance  Britain  and  under the  known  the  as  records  (as  report  to  i n the  appeared  centuries.  f o r the  the  line  management Grigg  Report  set  of  long  a  the  devised  out  a  material.  committee's  study  of  forward revealed  past for  and  and to  present  unique  of  various  concepts  aspects of  mandate  this  with  of  archives  twentieth  the  postand  revolution, f o r the  of  archival  Administration  the  the  efficient  valuable  drawn the  of  placed  on  early  archivally  p r a c t i c e , and  the  committee  information  this  conclusions,  M i c h a e l Cook, A r c h i v e s Dawson, 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 63. 5  control  a  reports  and  q u a l i t y of  was  J  departmental  and  i n keeping  in  procedures  preserve  records),  it,"  of  records  The  s  s e r i e s of  and  appraisal  event  by  and  nineteenth  disposition  implementing  rather  Grigg.  detailed structure  and  original  management  prepared  to  an  described  policies  legal  identification The  the  in addition,  systems  Cook  Report"  just  r e v o l u t i o n i n growth  the  "an  departmental  efforts  throughout  But  on  of  efforts,  S i r James  review  than  records  Michael  "Grigg  to  and  report  of  other  development  American  as  in their  opposed  for  created.  archives  the  was  archives  19305  to  chairmanship  committee  which  of  Government  British  the  were  elsewhere,"  British  commonly  they  records  more momentous  central  1954  of  from  an  in-depth  justifications their  report,  value.  (Folkstone,  Kent:  Great B r i t a i n , Parliament, Committee on D e p a r t m e n t a l R e c o r d s , R e p o r t , Cmd. 9163 ( L o n d o n : HMSO, 1 9 5 4 ) [hereafter c i t e d as t h e G r i g g Report]. 6  put  109  As  was  evident  by t h e s e l e c t i o n  the  war, t h e p r a c t i c a l  the  vast  the  effectiveness of traditional  the  archivist  the  inadequacy  build-up  judgements  judgements  the  schedules  before  avoided  research  both  t h e judgement  any k i n d  determining  administrative value  report  consequence whereby  departments, archival But  viewed  date  this  records which  purposes  the report  i n favour  archival  present  Deputy  Keeper  7  Grigg  Report,  8  see above,  of  confirmed While  much  more  i n compiling i n reviewing had i n  to the  even  the task of  7  t o be mainly  serves  as a storehouse f o r  the custody  of current  of the  making  a selection f o r  administrative  the force  of t h e Records  of  tasks.  traditional  [Jenkinson]  18-25.  I . r e : 1845-46  the  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1845-46  on a p p r a i s a l and t h e f a c t  pp.  Chap  back  difficult.  postponed  recognized  theory  were  a s t o make  Office under  eroded  of appraisal decision at a l l ,  situation  invariably  also  British  s t i l l  control  themselves,  by Parliament,  of administrative precedent  the P u b l i c Records  non-current  value  was u l t i m a t e l y r e f e r r e d  a t such  The  had  and the a r c h i v i s t s ,  approval  a late  to  Report  t h e departments,  departments  during  to the originating  by t h e departments  final  making  records  The G r i g g  of records  historical  As a r e s u l t ,  i n trying  p r a c t i c e s and concepts.  destruction schedules,  practice and  b e made  adopted  p r a c t i c e s and t h e concept  recipient.  the value  about  involved  departmental  of the these  could  difficult. their  o f modern  as p a s s i v e  about  departments  problems  policies  agreement  that "the once  3  110  expressed  the view  not  be c o n c e r n e d  --a  task  which  that  archivists,  should  be l e f t  for  p r a c t i c e s , t h e committee t o meet  historical The  committee that  revolutionary. judgements  document  records  them  t o be  administration  value  and  such  on t h e c r i t e r i o n  which  survived  o f whether  review  Grigg  research.  I t was  Report,  p . 22.  research first  officers,  Department,  make  "Is this  any longer  f o r i t s own  i n c l u d i n g t h e need t o  and t h e s t r u c t u r e and review,  i n conjunction Department,  with  make  of administrative  would  be undertaken  Record  In t h e second  the first  they  In the  records  purposes  Records  that  and h i s t o r i c a l  paper  precedent  records  than  recommended  "reviews."  this  of  less  on t h e q u e s t i o n  officers,  of the Public  historical  9  based  o f t h e department.  again  criterion  viewed  a n d no  the report  of the Public  Purposes?",  departmental officials  ?  justification  t o t h e system  precise,  i n two  to require  administrative  functions  first  o f modern  administrative  separately  likely  Departmental  of  Essentially,  by o f f i c i a l s  Department  records  clearly  changes  clear,  s e l e c t i o n of records  based  and t h e  s p e c i a l l y - t r a i n e d departmental  supervised a  proposed  were  about  b e made  review,  f o r preservation  administrators."  a theory,  t h e demands  should  research.  disposition  value  of such  to the  the merits  inadequate  historians,  i n the s e l e c t i o n of records  Whatever such  like  review  than  five  of the  now u s i n g  the  f o r the purposes  further required  no more  a selection,  value,  but also  be o f v a l u e  archival  that the  years  after the  Ill  records  became  records  are  system  of  report  also  twenty-five  reviews  in  records,  and  records,  such  the  setting  the  contended only  records that  rested  that be  are  sure,  deal  of  sense,  have  the  since  object  departmental the  first  of  dealt,  as  possible.  The  of  time,  certain  i s able  actions,  to  events,  of  files],  recordings.  1 1  management  assumptions. each  review, about  and  1 0  Grigg  Report,  pp. 28-38,  1 1  Grigg  Report,  pp.  1 2  Grigg  Report," pp.  38.  and  an  require  case  that, the  which  55-58,  of  may  the  time. a  l c  great  advantage  to  the  of with  the the  which  appraiser distance  s i g n i f i c a n c e of not  50-52.  34-45,  discontinued,  makes  perception  value the  organisation with  perceive  people  a l l , in  created  value  of  in this  suggests  better  which  contention be  of  committee  certain lapse  always  i n the  of  administrative  research  this  part  the  recently  a  system  First  functions  very  of  3 5,  classification  [case  after  or  records  papers"  structure,  second  the  instance  or  clear  possible,  of  documentation,  as  and  this  types  i t would  programs,  records  one  part  as  make  the  special  original  only  to  when  with  historical  achieved  order  for departmental  judgements  operative  review,  effective  for this  for  the  about  the  and  basic  accurate  judgements  be  two  periods  s t i l l  In  1  sound  grounds  made when  "perspective" To  and  on  time  old. "'  dealing  "particular  films,  second  registration  for  theoretical  appraisal  years  the  guidelines  proper  as  and  efficient  methods  photographs,  can  as  offered  officers  The  non-current,  71-80.  have  been  112  clear  at  allows,  or  near  to  f o r example,  and/or  continuity  gained  much  lines some  of  greater  degree  replaces  the  the  The  second  much more review only  i s to  the  records  be  programs  criterion were  being  historical  to  an  the  records  of  problem  i n the  the  of  system. the  value,  destroyed before they  research  value  historical  and  second  records  judged  to  following  value.  be not  The  on  be  using  judged.for thex^e  no  include  report  is  some  review of  even  first  themselves  could  i n the  research  time  values.  the  because  value  d e s t r o y e d would  the  rests  Although  in  not  application,  departments  administrative  at  simpler,  with  merely  relative  i t s expected  whole  time,  is s t i l l  f o r time  equally  which  However,  values ascendent new,  This  genesis  of  future.  i s important  w h i l e much  by  the  passage  assumption,  with  because  of  into  research  assurance that  administrative  this  or  with the  of what  undertaken  their be  phenomena,  assumption,  to  creation.  events,  current  crucial  records' of  extending  and,  the  documentation  question  were  of  importance  relative  ground  time  f o r the  a d d r e s s e d by  records  shakier  of  continuity  adequately  the  the  put  any the  terms:  We c o n s i d e r t h a t the s o l u t i o n to the problem must l i e in the application of this [ h i s t o r i c a l ] c r i t e r i o n by i n d i r e c t means. If the question to be answered by the Department's r e v i e w i n g o f f i c e r i s put i n the form, "Is t h i s ' paper likely to be of h i s t o r i c a l or legal importance, or to be useful for social or economic r e s e a r c h ? " i t is d i f f i c u l t t o see what t h e grounds f o r h i s answer c a n be; f o r he i s u n l i k e l y t o have had any e x p e r i e n c e to which he could possibly r e l a t e such a question. But i f the question is put in the form, "Is this Department likely to require this paper any l o n g e r f o r  had  113  its own Departmental purposes?" i t i m m e d i a t e l y becomes intelligible i n terms of the experience gained by a Departmental Officer in the course of h i s normal work. Such a substitution can of course be justified only i f the two forms of the q u e s t i o n are i n p r a c t i c e synonymous; t h a t i s , if the papers retained as a result of answering the question in its second form w i l l i n p r a c t i c e i n c l u d e t h o s e w h i c h w o u l d be retained i f i t were possible to give a c o r r e c t answer to the question in its first form.'' 3  Subject  to  the  administrative the  review  inactive,  be the  provisos  that  precedent  and  undertaken committee  "departmental  purposes"  organizational  very  soon  stated  after  simply,  in  history  and  that  record  has  become  the  "we  take  believe  that  they  will." In the in  many ways,  administrators the  the  needs  basic  system  own  who  created  of  leaves the  guidelines  the  mainly  the  records;  3  1 4  concerned  Grigg  the  the  the  However,  Report,  p.  crucial  of  insisted  remain  with  the  values  such the  Grigg  with  an  of  acting that his  in  the  their Grigg  strongly of  any  approach,  Jenkinson  impartial  q u a l i t y .....of  system  reviews  of  29.  J e n k i n s o n , " R o o t s , " ( 1 9 6 0 ) i n R o g e r H. E l l i s a n d Walne, eds., Selected Writings of S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson ( G l o u c e s t e r : A l a n S u t o n , 1980), p. 378. 1 4  take  This  act  outside  of  resembles  appraisal.  consistent  preserving  architects  researchers  most  himself  and  automatically  administrators,  archivist  with  needs  records  towards  and  were w h o l l y  process.  was  first of  the  historical  Jenkinson  principle that  appraisal  of  that  the  Jenkinson  hands  i n t e r e s t s , and  report held  in  assertion  values  attitude  s t i l l  appraisal  and  the  Peter  114  were  convinced  which  by  their  historical  the  to  first  since  f o r purposes  accommodated evidential which  why  The  any  i t  states  first  guide  by  an  and  value  that  the  that  use  of  i n a l l cases  published  three  the  i n the  values  the  Records  clarifies  inherent  by  of  nature Grigg  nature  cannot  I t then  and  relating  academic  problems  archives,  to  historical  always  will  b)  information  research  workers,"  on  a  applying research,  to  these which  continuing  to  values,  guide  the  the  ordinary  practical not  comprehensive  Great Departmental  value  necessarily  analysis especially  explains  in  first  The  of do  Office  why  they  coincide:  The i n f o r m a t i o n which the research worker requires may be found in a Department's records because the Department's work is d i r e c t l y concerned with the subject i n which  1 5  be  logical  the  the  "a)  supply  embarks of  of  at  system.  public to  1 5  of  documentation  i s no  Office  the  coincide.  in  information  P u b l i c Record  members  to  values  researchers  there  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes,  c)  'loopholes  the  a l l  preserve  and  for  Schellenberg's  for  them,  obvious  historical  the  records  important  the  Government  to  valuable  a p p l i c a t i o n of  later  Departmental  of  of  preserve  should.  confirms  problem  is  guarantee  than  will  This  informational value,  f o r use  review  c_o.nt.ent. w e r e  the  not of  more  values  i s of  reason  does  would  i t exposes  report's-assumption:  valuable  review  purposes.  make,  administrator  1958  the  informational  research  distinction Grigg  that  B r i t a i n , P u b l i c Record O f f i c e , A Guide Records O f f i c e r s (HMSO, 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 31.  for  of  the  those  115  he i s interested, or i t may be f o u n d t h e r e fortuitously . . . The importance of the distinction . . . is this: anyone f a m i l i a r with a Department's work and h i s t o r y i s i n a position to select records which will be useful to the f i r s t type of r e s e a r c h worker b e c a u s e he w i l l share h i s view point . . . T h e same i s not t r u e of the second type of research worker. His sense of v a l u e s i s not t h e one s h a r e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t , a n d i t may be n o t e d t h a t he is likely t o be t h e c h i e f person to s u f f e r under the procedure outlined i n the Grigg report . . . Moreover, the i n t e r e s t s of t h i s type of research worker present a further difficulty in that they cannot be easily foreseen even by those f a m i l i a r w i t h c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h work. 1 5  The  consequence  of  this  responsibility  for appraising  began  almost  to  Public first  shift  Record review  Office, or  simply  review.  "Selection  research  value],"  a  task  f o r the  colleagues Revisions 1962  and  values,  expertise use  of  Office this  guide  left  out  shift  material the  f o r departmental much  of  taken had  the  over  been  1 6  Guide,  p.  34.  1 7  Guide,  p.  34.  task  completed,  to  system  head  "will  will  at  very  able  f o r advice."'  largely  to  turn  archivists f o r them. Michael  at By  in  discussion  Public  the  Cook  of  gained  without  the  to  7  record officers  analytical  the  second  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s had  and  the  [historical be  be  in  them  the  for research value  because this  Grigg  involving  guide, who  effective  archivists  this  Office  departmental  but  i n the  meant  under  Record  that  appraisal  1958  appraise records  guidelines, had  that  deferring  Public  because  to  whether  was  towards  Inspecting Officer,  to.the  not  records  immediately  stated  i n the  1971  of  problem  the  the Record  mid-1970s,  could  observe  116  in  197 7  that  " i t i s no  departmental  record  value,  the  since  specialists  in  certain  shouldered  values  has  This  come  the  all of The  into  of  not  only  assumptions  officers  could  of  continuing  no  Office  was  involved  in  f o r a l l departmental  second  reviews.  This  officers,  that  research  managed  the  value  system  that  beyond  the  and  research  i n the  value  Cook,  are  now  have  of  in  research  the  be  report.  counted  merely  by  p.  identifying records  the  67.  a  way  Departmental to  the  given  historical both  guide  the  i n essence  for  task  of  of  to  and  research and of  the  of  implementing  merely  this  records  archivists.  a  imitates, of  selection  required  departmental  judging  passed  task  departmental  "natural" process prescribed;  review.  acceptance  by  ensured  value  first  was  capacities  the  this  records  the  preserve  first  p r e s e r v a t i o n of not  subverted  applying  practical  first  which  end  at  Jenkinsonian  upon  at  effectively  Jenkinson  administrators  1 8  Grigg  i n the  efficiently,  administrators judgements  the  revealed  outlined already  more  of  teach  research  knowledge,  practical  administrative usefulness  values  albeit  whom  contravened  in a  value  actively  strictly  of  of  establishment  but  longer  became  historical  The  seriously  of  archival  P u b l i c Record  record  some  areas  to  potential  professional area  impartiality,  documents  idea,  recognize  burden.  the  necessary  i 3  original  record  to  technical  this  process  principles  officers  considered  inspecting officers,  effect  archivists. "  longer  for As  their in  the  by  117  United  States,  process  process  t o make Archives  and  long  French  a  theorist  produced  by  Italy),  As  own  made  i n 1936, F r e n c h  the records  consequences  the  management French  of their  use.  archivists  of  as  rich  to the  more  closely As  French  out, the archives (France,  "Germanic"  Spain,  countries  and B r i t a i n ) ,  were n o t  registry  offices  The r e c o r d s - c r e a t i n g and d i s p o s e d  idiosyncratic  of  their  methods and  t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and a p p r a i s a l their  less  responsibility were  discrete  Germanic  f o r the development  of s t i l l - a c t i v e  hold  system.  of separate  archivists  a much  was  countries  organized,  when  was  documents p o s s e s s i n g  a l l ,  early  to their  a result,  two  of  which  Scandinavia,  produced,  a l l public records  than  by  but the unique  has pointed  i n "Latin"  of their  according  legislation  Britain,  i n contrast to the records  the period  9  but the  principles  i n France  management  Duchein  The N e t h e r l a n d s ,  1  value  l e d t o an approach  records  institutions  records  form  of Great  tradition  Michel  themselves  of  concrete  the administrative control  criteria.  made t h e  and o r g a n i z e d ,  institutions  as t h o s e  offices  of  lacked  of the appraisal process  archival  during  of selection  controlled  and a r c h i v a l  t o the American  (Germany,  system  appraisal decisions.  record-keeping  related  under  s t i l l  legacy  management  and  managed  o f a p p r a i s a l more  appraisal which  this  with  a  colleagues.  This  approaches  or pre-archivage:  more  mass  and p r e d i c t a b l e  of French  records  w e r e much  faced  through  inclined  held to first  to construct  M i c h e l Duchein, " T h e o r e t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c a l Problems o f Respect des Fonds i n A r c h i v a l S c i e n c e , " A r c h i v a r i a 16 ( S u m m e r 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 7 7 . 1 9  113  a  t h e o r e t i c a l continuum  records to  and  archives;  and  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  various  stages  counterparts. their the  The become  and  70s  involved  government  ideas  bear and  of  their  in  Archives  the  Seine  the  on  an  nature  Yves  and  contended,  as  had  the  1940,  records  period  permanent  proceeding of  go  through through  obsolescence,  preservation  researchers.  He  and  in  proposed  i n France  in  the  nature  various  organization and  lacking  of  then  extent  a  life  Director offered  use  by  the  f o r use  management  their  of a  the theory  archives  Brooks  beginning  original  culminating  of  based  Perotin  Phillip  cycle  and  a theoretical  Paris,  archivist  had  when to  archives.  archives a  at  in  appraisal  administrative  of  American  of  1950s  on  and  City  ages"  records  archivists  assigned  The  d i s p o s i t i o n of "three  a  were  and  of  free  French system  Perotin,  the  more  European  archives  consultants  1961,  much  observations.  informal  the  by  current  Western  i n the  2  were  appraisal  their  these  records. *  of  that  and  management  archives  idea  creation,  a  between  they  expressed  out  remained  But  value  departmental  the  direction. of  than  i n pre-archivage  from  however,  of  use  m i n i s t r i e s as  disposition  and  secondly,  develop  national  missionaires  work,  to  use  organization  their  The  2 0  efforts  1960s  of  of  in by  system  in  with  agency,  disposal  then  or  historical that  allowed  for  Alice Guillemain, "Les a r c h i v e s en f o r m a t i o n e t l e a r c h i v a g e : r e f l e x i o n s a p r o p o s d'un c h a p i t r e du 'Manuel d ' a r c h i v i s t i q u e , ' " G a z e t t e des A r c h i v e s 71 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 252.  pre-  d U  2 1  (1974),  J a m e s B. p. 86.  Rhoads,  "New  Archival  Techniques,"  Archiyum  24  119  a  controlled,  "second  age"  custody  and  custody.  2 2  managed between  the This  administrative of  records  stage the  "third  a  value  coinciding  i n t e r e s t s of  administrative reached  the  by  stage  for  and  the  Perotin  and  and  disposition  curve  explained,  with  of curve  of  the  archives  implementing  dealing  and  an  ascending  and  use  archival  provides  declining  administrations  recognizing  use  preservation the  the  administrative  historical  the  As  d i s p o s i t i o n at  of  second  when  value.  structure  second  age"  intersects with  research  accommodated  for  period  historical  be  of  intermediary  during  records  "first  age"  framework  administrative  of  need  to  an  records  which  have  age:  We h a v e seen that Administration at this s t a g e o f t e n has the t e n d e n c y not t o recognize its offspring. It e x p e l s them prematurely f r o m t h e home o r h o u s e s t h e m i n g a r r e t s u n d e r deplorable conditions. Archival Services, on their part, hesitate at this stage to accept these papers, which--properly classified-would s t i l l be o f use t o the bureaus, which cannot yet be made a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c , which have not yet b e e n s c r e e n e d , and which a r e t h e r e f o r e v e r y cumbersome. It is in this s t a t e of abandonment t h a t loss and damage occur. T o g e t a w a y f r o m t h i s s i t u a t i o n some intermediate depositories s h o u l d be created, grouping by large administrative areas everything that i s beyond the immediate use o f t h e b u r e a u s and t h a t i s t o be r e t a i n e d not f a r away. 2 3  .Although the  the  development  bring  the  of  notion  of  the  intermediate  i n t e r e s t s of  "three  ages"  storage  administrator  and  Yves P e r o t i n , " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and A r c h i v e s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 2 9 , No. 3, 2 2  Perotin,  p.  3 69.  of  depots the  archives would  seem  and to  archivist  the 'Three 3 68.  Ages'  of  120  "together,  i n actuality  the  archival  later  value  separate  and sometimes  science.  As a r e s u l t ,  their  energies  control by  over  which In  suggested separate  archivists  be k e p t  Michel  until  value.  Although  2 4  proposal  Britain  original  administrative  stage  brought  Duchein  t o bear  d i d insist,  tradition  could  management.  b y two s e p a r a t e  autonomous  later  officials  Report  selection  specializing  " Duchein, "Le p r e - a r c h i v a g e : n e c e s s a i r e s , " Gazette des Archives  the  t o i t , Duchein's implemented i n whereby t h e to  their  of h i s t o r i c a l research are i n a second  the American  American  two  historical  according  that the French  n o t accommodate  into  t h e second,  permanent  by a r c h i v i s t s  however,  down  of administration f o r the  o f two r e v i e w s  and t h e values  on t h e n o t i o n  institutions: the  a r e exhausted;  the f i r s t  He r e g a r d e d  offered  be b r o k e n  no o v e r t r e f e r e n c e  t h e system  needs  values  the theory, but  accepted  f o rdetermining  make  have  defining  archivists  f o l l o w i n g t h e 19 54 G r i g g  agencies  should  of  Duchein  h e made  resembles  who  most  based  requirements  of archives  expended  archival  of pre-archivage  administered  such  i n French  destroyed.  French  the intermediate  stages  or  and  completely  l i f e - c y c l e rather than  o f t h e system  that  concerns  1960 i n i d e n t i f y i n g  should  criteria  only  French  remained  s e r v i n g t h e c o n t i n u i n g needs  records  Great  conflicting  the record  ages."  administrative value  of records  1970, two p r o m i n e n t  "three  first,  after  records  criticisms of  the original  records  review.  archival system  managers  of  records  as  i n the disposition  of  quelques clarifications 71 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 226-236.  121  records  between  defining records the  the and  record  another them.  archivists  of  the  officials  hoped  of to  strictly  who  created  appraisal avoid  administrators  By  the  the  throughout emergence  operating  of  between  z 5  the  contended managing the  other  hand,  i n the  that the  most  Ministry  using  idea  disposition important  claimed  Alice  that  the  appraisal  stage  optique  system after  of  the  records  research  failed which  Guillemain  also  technology  necessitate  appraisal process.  and  pointed  to  model  archivists  who  and  wrote  dealt with only  for  from  the  Manuel  the  a  nineteenth-  that  with  archivists  becoming  longer the more  that  archivists  useful new  d 5  Duchein,  236  E o  Guillemain,  pp.  252-253.  2 7  Guillemain,  pp.  253-258.  kinds  current  advances becoming  records  i 7  to  much  outside  research.  maintained  serve  of  a  She  2 o  require  preservation  p.  197 0  a  Finance,  as  placed  records  no  out  and  record-keeping  and  of  are  of  herself  ages"  archivists  disposition,  administration, science  "three  196 5  historique.  Economics  records  French  acquisition century  of  aspects  between  and  Guillemain,  of  of  d'archivistiQue  only  archives.  process  Duchein  records  and  of  i n the  life-cylce,  missionaire  She  responsibilities  group  On  of  administrations  the  threeinvolved  the of  social  information.  in  information  involved earlier  in in  the the  "'2 2  The  ideas  confined nature  o f management Like  archivists ethical making  f i t  and G u i l l e m a i n  t o an a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i s p o s i t i o n  efficient.  this  of P e r o t i n , Duchein,  systems  their  American  effectively  problems  avoided  inherent  the ideas  the pattern  process  this  and B r i t i s h  of French  of development  and  values f o r process.  scientists  already  French  the conceptual  the disposition  archival  more  colleagues,  dealing with  during  and t h e  process  i n defining concrete  appraisal decisions  way,  f o r making  were  after  In  193 0  established i n other  countries. In  Germany  concepts as  well  during  f o r archival as p r a c t i c a l  when w r i t i n g a b o u t more  inclined  philosophical solution, ideas  nineteenth  verstehen of the  time  point was  approach  As  records  The were  archival  theoretical  theorists,  appraisal,  were  conceptual,  towards  a  important  archival  and  practical and  unique  based  on an enduring  which  explained  had been i n Chapter  of the archivist  operation arranged  community  i n i t sdevelopment.  to appraisal relied  or intuition  records.  generated  value  extensive  of archival  proceeding  t h e German  and p r a c t i c e  century.  traditional  German  of  value.  crucial  theory  the problem  the theoretical,  issues before  at this  archival  the subject  t h e 1930s,  at a  science  inquiries.  and, as a r e s u l t ,  In  period,  appraisal elicited  t o address  of archival  itself  this  of verstehen  according  German  archival  tradition  formed  of  i n the  II, this  upon t h e i n judging was  found  best  historical the  value  served i f  to the principle  of  123  provenance context  so  are  that  preserved.  countries  in  documents  produced  release ruling War,  of  large  rendered  pointed  out,  by  much  an  of  most  and  significant German  efficient early  on  the  applied  to  branches, Adolf  large or  Brenneke's  organization  this  attempted  groups  of  war. to  of of  general records  to  make  records  the  with  and  rested of  which  the  First  Hans  World to  Booms  has  historians on  a  German  was  the  by  approach  archivists  vision  of  kept  the  as  in  very society  perhaps  the  2 9  make and  the  process  ephemeral  guidelines in  organic  c l e a r e r by  This  could  be  departments, served,  unity  freeing  more  documents  which  individual  [Gruppengrundsatze].  view, the  level,  duplicate  use  coupled  during  vision  European  complexity  previously  approach  the  original  western  subjective  Idealist  of  other and  and  of  intuitive  casualty  offices  records  another  and  and  institutions,  faith  i t was  the  volume  before  On  2 8  identifying  through  like  intuitive,  archivists  by  of  elite  progressive,  state,  the  German  numbers  such  integrity  However,  provenance-based,  the  organic  period,  unworkable.  positive, and  this  aristocratic  appraisal  the  their  the  in  and essential  W i l h e i m Rohr, "Zur P r o b l e m a t i k des modernen A k t e n w e s e n s , " A r c h i v a l i s c h e Z e i t s c h r i f t 54 ( 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 8 8  75.  H a n s Booms, " S o c i e t y a n d t h e F o r m a t i o n o f a D o c u m e n t a r y Heritage: Issues i n the A p p r a i s a l of A r c h i v a l Sources," ed. and t r a n s . H e r m i n a J o l d e r s m a and R i c h a r d Klumpenhouwer, A r c h i v a r i a 24 ( 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 79. 2 9  124  body  of  archival  attempts  at  concrete  enough  conceptual In  to  alleviate  problems  study  appraisal.  Two  faced  to  and  Meisner,  Arch ives  of  irrelevant  appraisal principles  response  19 3 6 t o  Ernst  documents  the  discussion  at  determined  the  of  the  conference  direction  of  the  of  was  appointed  work  The  nature  clarified  and,  German  of  in  archival  Hermann M e i n e r t  their  1939.  future  and  and  problem  commission,  in  such  archivists.  commission  results  i n Gotha  comprehensive  practical  solutions to  o f f e r e d the  this  a  But  1  not  major  German  crisis,  members  Conference  the  by  develop  were  material.- '-'  at  the  of  and  German  the  partly,  archival  theory  on  appraisal. Both  Meisner  traditional, method  intuitive  from  valueless,  judging  by  the  value  original  of  of  Meisner, earlier  value  i n making  a  analysis, a  positive  building  documents:  contents,  and the  broad value  of  3)  on  enough  and  which  the  age  which to  decision.  a l l the as  a  identifies which  general  offered three 1)  for  urged  analysis,  relation  agency  and  FijigerspJ^  documents  colleagues,  of  remained  r e j e c t e d once  principles  negative  f u n c t i o n of  categories leeway  a  i n favour  valuable.  developed  2)  Meinert  f o r a p p r a i s i n g modern  approach  the  and  (using of  the  for  Meinert  in  the identifies  guidelines categories  a  cut-off  documents  created  allow  shift  them.  for  date), to  the  These  considerable  agreed  that  the  A d o l f B r e n n e k e , pp. 38-42; A r t u r Z e c h e l , "Werttheorie u n d K a s s a t i o n : H e r m a n n M e i n e r t zum 70. G e b u r t s t a g gewidmet," P e r A r c h i v a r 18 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 5 ) , c o l . 3.; a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n Booms, p; 86. J|J  a  125  value the  of  records  value  status  of  Meinert  concrete such and  office  in  comparison  expanded  on  Meisner's  norms  or  [Kuljtur].  appraisal  appraisal. relationship  create.  of  the  Koblenz  3 1  in  the  derived  criterion  from  three  [Volk],  of  of  the  for  records  which  suggested  society  general  the  the  offices.  Meinert  document  Meisner  area,  state  value  of  of  that  itself  areas  of  CStaat],  and  and  and  they  too  broad  practical set  archival  out  the  theory  analyzed  two  on  the  status  of  record-creating  value  of  the  the  archivists  the  were  developing  archivists  documents  and  Meinert  future  nature  area,  and  archives,  for  individuals  records  examined  records ways  based  on  the  usefulness  of  this  in  they which  informational information  general. efforts  the 1957.  Zechel,  be  purposes  first  i n Germany  until  second  found."  f o r German  second  the  first  appraisal place  the  or  society in The  to  of  f o r the  the  determine  content to  In  be  people  ideas  between  organizations  other  valuating process,  concentration  In  to  and  with  3 1  the  of  record-creating office  must  serve  standards  areas  i n accordance  informational content "a  s t r u c t u r e : the  preliminary  main  is  standards  Although and  the  norms must  t h e r e f o r e must  culture  to  by  contended, value  societal  determined  that  value  f o r the  be  hold  also  he  always  they  determining which,  must  made  after  towards the  thirty-fifth At  this  c o l . 3;  developing  Second  World  War  German A r c h i v e s  conference,  i n Brenneke,  p.  Wilheim  42.  a  theory d i d not  Conference Rohr,  of take in  Georg  126  Wilhelm  Sante,  examined  the  and  Fritz  problem  of  Zimmerman appraisal  presented  papers  extensively  and  which  offered  solutions. Georg based  on  Wilhelm  the  archivists which  assumption  are  the  the  this,  at  a  and  be  the  fact  preserved and  late  century,  nineteenth  consequence losing  the  began  this,  intellectual  neglecting At  of  of  to  same to  weed  time,  out  of  historians  the  work  institutions  were  contemporary  administrations:  period  concentrated  medieval merely  their  records  while  stockpiled  the  registries. they  becoming  of  were  As  a  actually  the  that  their  own  falling  and  show  that  and goals  and,  records which  to  remained  records  also  and  because  fairly in  the  record-  expand.  The  records from  and  were  thus  their  records.  scholarship  archivists,  archival  alienated  from  h i s t o r i a n / a r c h i v i s t s of  e f f o r t s on modern  administration  historical  German  the  the  of  administrations  material  increasingly  growing  result,  began  appraisal  beginning  functions  was  ephemeral  of  but  Then,  the  course,  control  as  dominate  shared,  institutions  of  common  deciding  unproblematic.  activities  to  archives  of  on  objectives of  production  only  both  and  attempted  task  not  ideas  those  towards  the  the  was  aims  century,  that  level,  his  with He  working  straightforward  creating  the  records.  were  manageable  should  that  nineteenth  administrations of  developed  closely linked  produced  throughout  Sante  acquiring  and  record-creating  volume  of  records  hopelessly  behind  studying institutions  in their  a r c h i v i s t s r e a l i z e d too  this  late  in their  own  that work  and  127  when  these  stockpiled  m.S_s.s_e._after 1 9 1 8 , them.  From  solving lie  i n the In  view  that  of  of  these  upon  based.  First  of  a l l the  records  Instead,  the  of  the  proposed,  "which  supporting just  their  of  archival  records.""  the  important  documentation, Sante's administering retains  activity.  divisions  third  Georg Wilheim A l t e T a k t i k und neue (1958), pp. 91-93. 93.  which such  be  called  the  offered  the  worthy  policy  a  preservation.  whole  chosen,"  Sante  which  so  to  agencies  are  the  speak,  and  to  submit  only  the  introduced  of the  length only  for  their  first.  time  those  S a n t e , " B e h o r d e n -- A k t e n Strategie," Archivalische  by  of  concept  of  apart  most  the  logic  that  form  valuable  the  contended  importance  the  worthy  to  given  set themselves  that  must  four  relative  upon  to  traditional  of  with  be  key  administrations.^  appraisal  the  en  with  records  agencies are  according  He  Sante  rejected  Only  condition  3 3  p.  and  followed  records  and  significance,  proposition,  within  i t s value.  Sante,  will  merely  he  the  archival  administration,  stuffing,  second  modern  agencies w i l l  of  The  concluded that  i n comparison  framework  3  deal  determine  greater  and  to  a l l agencies within  of  purposes  ill-prepared  necessarily  must  those  t h e mere  archives  archives  all,  are  creative  3 3  are  archivist  "Only  to  comprehensive  agencies themselves  structure.  not  Sante  transferred  observations, a  jurisdiction  were  between  which  archival  were  appraising  relationship  light  be  analysis,  problem  propositions should  archivists  this  the  records  a  of record  records  which  -- A r c h i v e : Zeitschrift  54  128  have and  an  enduring  that  value  a l l records  time  for  the  long  time  use  of  period,  should  which the  must  be  must  be  agency, remain  admitted kept  even  the  into  only  the  for  i f this  is  archives  a a  responsibility  limited relatively  of  the  agency.^ Fourthly,  Sante  the  jurisdiction  and  often  a  acquisition all  the  no  whole. state of  At  results the  In between more  of  are  time,  even  but to  the  higher  rather  such  end,  and and  should  system wished  3 h  Sante,  pp.  93-94.  3 5  Sante',  pp.  94-95.  own  of  of  structure  requires. to  restore  It of as  central  and  a  or  direct He  out life  appraisal  of  in  administration  point  being  take  society  records.  social  records  to  records  that  the  to  and  single,  well.  the  encourage  problem  records-creating systematic  think  archives  the  as  document  over  their  a  that  archival  that  to  to  expanded  society  not  economic  numbers  a  Sante  archives  did  preserve  over  be  insisted,  Sante  bureaucratic  which  informed  he  European  control  extensive  must in  notion  limited  Instead,  sufficient  a c t u a l l y exacerbates in  is  n e c e s s a r i l y take  eastern  state  activity  institutions  should  records,  regulation  a  same  traditional  archives  asserted,  institutions  extensive  to  the  example  nation  be  the  institution.  appraisal  private  archives  private  given  institutions  private  the  and  longer  state  a  government,  important  could  of  questioned  used  that of  the  since  produced  inspection  i t due  and  J  the  close  association  administrations  s e l e c t i o n of  records  to  based  allow on  129  the  f u n c t i o n of  venture the  beyond  f u n c t i o n and  systems .  out  these  could  .  . could  into  canals  Sante  was  theory  provenance Sante in  partially a  member  linked  the  developing  out  criteria  the  agencies  producing  the  Rohr,  application  of He  f o r example,  status  of  hierarchy certain whole  the of  of  of  at  the  to  of  study  this  [of and  archives."  f o r German  way,  records] channeled As  3 6  such,  German a p p r a i s a l  with  their  but the  federal  did  government  In  function holds the  or  this  archival  records  office  f o r the  produced  to  the  within  the  the  value  institution  value  for  Sante's  according  way,  of  colleague  guidelines  of of  offer  importance  Sante's  two  involved  himself  relative  value  division,  not  detailed  first the  3 7  archivists  records.  the  rated  determine  In  and  to  context.  administration. or  interests  i t s source  school  o f f e r e d more  simply  archivists  flood  archives  judging  least  "the  the  that  archival  department,  agency  serves  bypass  value  for  however,  propositions. by,  at  a p p r a i s a l .standards,  specific  Wilhelm  whereby  directions  any  urged  administrations.  administrative  set  He  historical  intercepted right  clearly  or  narrow  implemented  which  which  their  s t r u c t u r e of  be  be  administrations.  of  the  which as  a  a  records  i t  produces. Sante Zimmerman, for  and  Rohr's  accepted  the  provenance-based  3 6  Sante,  3 7  Rohr,  p. pp.  colleague validity  at of  a p p r a i s a l but  95. 79-80.  the  1957  their saw  a  conference,  scientific greater  need  Fritz  methods to  130  develop  values  records.  He  according  to the informational content  contended  that  a p p r a i s a l based  of the  on t h e age o f t h e  material  o r on t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f t h e r e c o r d -  creating  agency  truly  positive  claimed, with a an  when  t h e needs  document  created  statement  them,  and v a l u e s  of  i s only  upon  the principle f o r us."' '  possible,  of records  not just  to their  but f i r s t  t h e s o c i e t y as a whole  own  i s compared of  i t possesses  by t h e agencies  of a l l by t h e needs i n which  Zimmerman  therefore  structural  A  "The v a l u e  of whether  Zimmerman  30  according  appraisal.  of society i n general:  as determined  characteristics,  a negative  of the content  significance  value  s t i l l  of values  the value  depends  enduring  archival  i s essentially  and and  viewed  which functional  activities  the record-creating  agency  operates. Within  the concept  distinguished to  between  a l l archivally  which  records  values  are ranked  and economic  aesthetic  two k i n d s :  valuable  are determined  physical  of archival  worth,  value,  "general  records;  on a k i n d  rarity,  factors  of general  content  of the records.-  such  values"  and "graded of value  on t h e s i m p l e s t factors  Zimmerman  level  values"  scale. by  by  General  as p h y s i c a l m a t e r i a l ,  are determined 7  apply  "outer"  or antiquarian interest.  value  which  I t i s this  The  "inner"  by the i n f o r m a t i o n a l  "inner" value  which i s  - F r i t z Zimmerman, "Wesen u n d E r m i t t l u n g d e s Archivwertes: Zur Theorie einer a r c h i v a l i s c h e n Wertlehres," A r c h i v a l i s c h e Z e i t s c h r i f t 54 ( 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 1 0 4 - 1 0 7 [my translation]. 8  J 7  Zimmerman,  pp.  108-110.  131  the  key  to  explained  Zimmerman's in his  own  concept  of  a p p r a i s a l and  i t is  best  words:  In the practical application of inner a r c h i v a l v a l u e , the a r c h i v i s t must always ask himself which significant areas of life w i t h i n the p e r t i n e n t records w i l l continue to p r o v i d e answers to f u t u r e inquiries. '' 4  The  obvious  problem  recognized,  is that  predictions  about  the  future has  already  begun  i t requires  completely  already  left  to  develop  knowledge  of  future  first  insight  into  how  m a t e r i a l was  the  keeping most of  the  f o r what  records  research. on  the  Since  work  suggested years,  that  would  extensively  '  of  by  are  uses  purposes,  most  present-day  i n the  future.  page, The  that  the  future  has  philosophy,  records  by  i n the  records  are  archivists for  at  least  determining past.  By  being  used  are  a  most  likely  [my  translation].  4 1  Zimmerman,  p.  110  [my  translation].  4 2  Zimmerman,  pp.  made  the  aware  build  Zimmerman  over  110  gain  necessarily  researchers,  will  can  present-day  must  4 d  110-111.  that  for  archivists  p.  J  out  value.  Zimmerman,  4  also  make  for attaining  analyzed  records  to  Zimmerman  pointed  this  trends  archival  which  i t .  important  statistics,  indicate  also  researchers  future research  such  of  show w h i c h  research  that  methods  a l l claimed  used  which  on  archival  possible future  statistics  and  of  he  With  4 .  as  archivist  unwritten  i t s mark  out  Zimmerman  the  "an  present."  set  approach,  But  i n the  Zimmerman partial  this  f u t u r e use.  i s not  present  with  period be  of used  Zimmerman research  use  since  any  could  cause  of course  cannot  number  realized  that  serve  an  alone  of social,  material  valuable  records.  Because  archival  appraisal  values  to  suggested  by  two  kinds:  based  on By  the  "ideal  and  developed. interests  on  future  value  t o determine  3  must  legislators, an  supplementary  interests"  to balance  formed such  identified  and  those  the  and  are s t i l l these  closely  based  suggested  which-represents  legal  for certain being  practical with  on  "ideal  interests,"  of the state  that  of  i n  society  a kind  the various  sociology,  112-113.  of  1  the interests  as h i s t o r y ,  aware  technicians. *"  value  he  legal,  f o r ongoing  the research interests  this,  pp.  simply  t h e r e f o r e be  activity,  what  j u r i s p r u d e n c e , economics,  Zimmerman,  must  which  work  and  archival  accomplish  *  develop  Zimmerman  as e v i d e n c e  administrative  whole.  theology,  and  of  potentially  must  Zimmerman m e a n t  of records  records with  scholarship,  "practical  Archivists  preserving  be  from  types  usefulness f o r administrative,  are, archivists  Zimmerman w i s h e d  commission  other  archivists  independent  and p r o c e s s e s  In order  positing  To  ignoring  of this,  interests,"  projects  administrators,  certain  factors  interests."  f o r ongoing  technical  on  of  criterion  or technical  r e s e a r c h e r use, and  purposes.  documentary  matters,  academic,  virtually  based  "practical  technical  In  while  those  present-day or  appraisal  researchers to concentrate  archival  those  as  the c r i t e r i o n  as  of  areas  of  art, literature,  geography,  medicine,  and  a  engineering. "public  Such  interests"  preserving  records  research.  With  scholarship  a  an  into  records  would  opportunity  essential  i n the could,  which  commission  clearer  archivists  the  a  to  a  will  make  their  and  period be  a  case  of  time, to  for  needs  of  disciplines,  develop  serve  for  intellectual  the  artistic  of  needed  spokespersons  important  understanding  theoretical over  to  allow  such  an  insight  researchers  in  future.^ Zimmerman  archival  value"  according  to  methodology express  a  by  of  he  he  that  i s , the  Sante  d i d not  the  the  kind  of  as  documents  should  information to  on  the  the  history.  pp.  Rather,  according  to  people  archival  114-116.  events or  of  at of  the  than  the He of  lower  value  of  importance that  provide  interesting  value  within  records  the  records and  records,  traditional  the the  the  in  determinant.  places  interests  and  colleagues  key  those  Consequently,  important  Zimmerman,  above  historical  of  value  scale which  the  approach.  r e c o r d s - c r e a t i n g agency  carry.  scale  identify  the  judged  important  information on  they  be  following  his  the  "graded  records  provenance  value  military  to  a  the  serving mainly  and  was  with  posit  of  comparative  significantly  of  he  in trying a  to  value  Here  Rohr using  regard  political  4 4  and  administrative offices  echelons  higher  rank  scale.  values  status  to  attempt  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , as  regarded  related  further to  which  disagreed  that  overall  on  relative  archival  However,  higher  went  of  are new  phenomena  those  the  which  are  134  document  the  everyday,  Furthermore, which  are  archivists  more  likely  distinguishing f i l e s . "*  the  value  of  and  while  ideas  his  to  the  of  records  files"  as  analysis which  away  a  kind  and  the  the  "case  based  approach.  these  theorists  as  and  complex  appraisal  seemed  to  One  of  the  Johannes  pp. p.  v  criteria.  schematic" from  value of  they  which  Zimmerman away  from  administrative forum  of  community  interpreter. archival  *° Z i m m e r m a n ,  "too  research  German  Zimmerman,  However,  value  ever-changing  the  was  theories  and  effect,  archival  the  from  approach  environment  and  for  appraisal,  as  In  0  analysis  records.  usable  an  develop.*  stable  records  concrete  Sante's as  an  administrative  provenance-based  i n general, with  1960s,  of  the  relatively  such  on  radically  categories with  the  of  of  of  created the  ideas merely  formal  based  content  for determining  towards  problem  4 5  the  own  source  activity  In  on  was  departed  could possibly  relatively  structures  the  types  "general  appraisal  ideas  theories  his  criteria  societal  His  swept  viewed  the  of  categories of  presented  serving  the  repetitive.  valuable information,  informational  replace these  Zimmerman  shifted  the  designate  carry  structures  comprehensive  value  the  based  functions  and  to  concept  purposes.  appraisal  failed  must  and  5  research of  obvious,  f o r i n s t a n c e between  Zimmerman's of  the  most  f o r the  sophisticated  Papritz,  116-118. 103.  opt  theorists  who  who  tackled  provenanceand  attempted  thorough to  of  develop  135  a  p r a c t i c a l and  the  form  that the  and  one  as  criteria record the  structure  cannot  volume  "body"  systematic  and a  form  be  and  analysis  of  by  the  and  retrieval. appraisal  the  types  as  of  sophisticated  and  to  bring  the  as  Adolf  the  for  an  In  studying  component  implication  that  of  the  record  to  system and  present  with  files  to  the  the  a  an  built  up  and  twentieth  system the  to  used  process process  for of  of  4 3  was  nothing  application tool.  to  the  advocated and  by  developed  end,  the  ascertaining  selection  on  indexing  described  theory  the  insisted  its relationship  went  series  appraisal  century  a l l  that  of  then  and  He  to  different identifiable  appraisal  appraisal  Brenneke.  methodology  of  concrete  nineteenth  meant  of  studying  eighteenth  he  systematic  provenance-based of  analysis,  as  first and  each  the  description.  Registraturprinzip attempt  for  records  from  concept  1  This  according  themselves.  German r e g i s t r y  essentially a  Papritz s  material  descriptive  his  and  records  Papritz  4  of  appraisal  understanding  body. '  the  In  arrangement  with  an  of  without  organism.  organizations  centuries  the  developed  record history  kept  of  with  detailed  the  appraisal  form  whole  must  whole  do  of  method  Papritz  form  and  selection  of  more  than  a  the  As  such,  i t was  an  t r a d i t i o n a l ideas the  German  further could  criteria  archivists  by  others  offer  only  structure  of  would  of  such a  records naturally  " Johannes P a p r i t z , "Methodik der a r c h i v i s c h e n Auslese und K a s s a t i o n b e i z w e i S t r u k t u r t y p e n d e r M a s s e n a k t e n , " Der A r c h i v a r . 18, No. 2 (1965 ), c o l s . 1 1 7 - 1 1 8 4  4 8  Papritz,  cols.  119-126.  1 flow  from  archival by  this  process.  values  archivists  archivists  was  when  tend  an  to  seek  important,  other  "the  use  of  sampling  repetitive practical category The  and and  of  most  this  out,  on  unique,  typical."  on  homogeneous effective  in  1971.  in  the  fact  German  a  nature  as  of  appraisal Booms within  the  discussion any  *  Democratic  of  the  of  how  records could  and  used  that  special, on  the  the  which  proper document  provide  a  f o r the  second  influential  informational Hans  conceived  Republic,  as  content  Booms,  a  critique  a p p r a i s a l as  Booms'  appraisal theory,  in of  practised  p r e s e n t a t i o n was the  documentary  archivists  President  Conference  d i s c u s s i o n of  historical  seek and  role  of  evidence,  to  in  document,  the the  alternative  methods. chose  to  widest of  what  place  Papritz,  his  a n a l y s i s of  possible context he  considered  consideration of  9  and,  German A r c h i v e s  critical  German  striking,"  t h e o r i e s on  s o c i e t y which  of  "the  d e l i v e r e d by  the  archival  sources  the  development  in  at  thoroughgoing,  archives  namely,  hand,  incisive,  Initially  Marxist-Leninist  criteria  v  a p p r a i s a l was  Dortmund  one  general  broad  appraisal technique  comprehensive,  Bundesarchiv,  the  activities  approach the  the  to  methodology,  types  analysis advocating  of  of  and  theoretical to  reference  Papritz explained  techniques  records.*  only  observation  applying  meaningful, hand,  His  value  c o l . 12 7.  to  and be  concepts  /  so the  archival began two  appraisal  with main  in appraisal  a elements theory:  137  "society"  and "the formation  suggested  that,  independent  although  of a documentary  individuals exercise  heritage." a degree  Ke  of  judgement,  i t i s n o t o n l y more m e a n i n g f u l , b u t a c t u a l l y essential, to view the activity of the archivist i n relationship to the societal o r d e r , s i n c e i t seems c l e a r t h a t t h e r e exists an i n d i s s o l u b l e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e values held by society and those held by t h e individual. 5 0  The  archivist,  conforms and  to the basic  sometimes  responsible serving of  to society  t o form  into  observations,  image  he o r she does. through  the process t h e complex  and, above a l l ,  source  from 5  which  From  i ti s the account  to realize  and o b j e c t i v e  as  social of  their research  possible:  I t i s up t o historians, not archivists, to revise the critical methods of historical scholarship so that the "ideological relativity of the documentation" c a n be i d e n t i f i e d and controlled. But i t i s the task, i f not the societal duty, of the archivist to provide the required  Booms,  p . 75.  Booms,  pp.  75-81.  an  these  to practitioners of historical  a r e as c l e a r  In  by i n d i v i d u a l s and  usable,  that  (as v a r i e d  to transform  of society. '  concluded  society,  society  heritage  produced  documentary  of  b e ) , and i s u l t i m a t e l y  that  of a r c h i v i s t s t o give  decisions  which  may  f o r t h e work  a coherent,  Booms  responsibility  terms  as they  evidence  historical  appraisal  by that  a r c h i v i s t s are expected  objectively-formed accurate  held  t h e documentary  o f documentary  institutions  values  contradictory  appraisal,  mass  t o o , p a r t i c i p a t e s a s a member  i n  preconditions f o r such a reassessment of historical methodology. Due to the s c i e n t i f i c nature of h i s t o r i c a l enterprise, the h i s t o r i a n has a r i g h t , i n t u r n b a s e d on the h i s t o r i a n ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o society, t o an a r c h i v a l documentary r e c o r d t h a t has been systematically created following principles grounded i n archival theory. Therefore, a r c h i v i s t s must objectify their notions of archival value and formulate their value c o o r d i n a t e s so that their c o n t r i b u t i o n as a constitutive element of the documentary h e r i t a g e c a n be measured and c o n t r o l l e d . — Having and  discussed  responsibilities  appraisal, archival  cannot  value  o f something  of  be p o s i t e d  only  appraisal of  documents  cannot  valuable.  This  and define  Next, such  value  which  comparative  with  themselves;  coordinates  p. 81.  Booms,  p. 82.  determining  that  archival  words, t h e  Booms  have  logic,  them  they  that  reference  already then  absolute  value  insisted  i n  the value  as an  rather,  accords  process  work.  the stated  Booms,  this  identified  comprehensive  f o rtheir  of  i n other  be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h  and concepts  coordinates"  be  Therefore,  phenomena,  recognize  Following  when t h e a r c h i v i s t  can only  of a l l noted  archival  be e s t a b l i s h e d c o m p a r a t i v e l y  of the records  process."  significance  the process  as an a b s o l u t e ;  else.  records  characteristic  first  can only  t o something  documentary  valuable  He  the social  to the function of  on t o examine  itself.  value  relation  attached  Booms w e n t  value  and c l a r i f i e d  "become  during the the value to things,  been  designated  as  allows  archivists  to  and concrete  "value  5 j  intention  had i n f a c t  been  of determining identified,  whether  Booms  139  completed theory fact  an e x t e n s i v e  i n Germany  review  since  a devastating  the nineteenth  critique  methods  concluding  with  science  had f a i l e d  to solve  he  s h o w e d how  intuitive  the  century.  I t was  and p r e v a i l i n g  the assertion that the problem  the i n i t i a l  knowledge  German  i n  appraisal  archival  of archival  of record  German  Empire  this  crisis  was  provenance  volume  i n World  which War  t o expand  value  as  crumbled  I.  followed  archivists  i n the face practical  the c o l l a p s e of the  The response  of archivists  to  arrangement  principle  [Provenienzprinzip] into  a principle  of  vehemently  principle  based  on  seemingly  denouncing  subject matter  i n appraisal,  since  lacking  archival  any a p p l i c a t i o n  of a  [Pertinenzprinzip]),  i t presented  a  complex  i n any p r e s c r i b e d o r d e r  mass  of  Faced with the task o f a p p r a i s i n g documents under these conditions, archivists saw themselves pinned between t h e Scylla of a naive and t r o u b l e d f a i t h i n i n t u i t i o n on t h e one hand, and t h e Charvbdis of an a r c h i v a l world devoid of principles of value on t h e other. In response, they sought refuge i n structural and functional criteria. A disposal process based on the Proy_ejnie_nzp^^ obscured the need for concrete value concepts i n the appraisal process. T h i s s i t u a t i o n p e r s i s t e d as long as society continued to sanction the overestimation of government i n s t i t u t i o n s a t the expense o f more i n f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f society. * J l  Booms,  of  the archival  while  phenomena  o f German  o f s c e p t i c i s m and t h e  appraisal  especially  belief  or verstehen  philosophical crisis  crisis  of  of former  of appraisal  defined i t . Booms  in  of the history  p.  88.  of  value:  140  Therefore,  when  the values  o f s o c i e t y change  workings  of state  institutions  the  activity  i n s o c i e t y worthy  only  occurred  i n recent  administrative change, theory  question Sante, upon  values  the basic using  decades,  F o r these  value  agencies  system Booms  advocated  ultimately  "unsuccessful  comprehensive archival  theories  5 5  f o rprecisely  claims  that  system  f o r determining  principles  reflecting  historical  process  archival the broad  capitalist  colleagues,  provenance-based Booms  also  way  appraisal discussed  had attempted  5 5  Booms,  pp.  88-91.  5 i  Booms,  pp.  94-100.  develop criteria f o r  showed  how t h e  countries  were  their  them w i t h  an  absolute  concrete  value  t o documenting  materialism  European  the ideas  were  of  commitment  systems.  t o develop  of the record-  could  and i n t h e end, l i k e  eastern  based  i n spite  value:  of dialectical  i n any p r a c t i c a l  to  i n communist  provided  into that  systems,  concrete  I n a d d i t i o n , Booms  Marxist-Leninism  come  appraisal values  efforts  t h e same r e a s o n s ,  appraisal  concluded  registry  time,  of archivists  faulty  defined  i n their  a n d , a t t h e same  appraisal."  appraisal  and t h e i r  as h a s  themselves  must  an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n s administrations  t o be  s t r u c t u r e , and  f o r a comprehensive  reasons,  a n d P a p r i t z , who  considered  the size,  of record-producing  a provenance-based  Rohr,  longer  of documentation,  o r when  justification  as w e l l .  creating  who  a r e no  so t h a t t h e  the  n o t be  their  archivists  turned  to  5 6  of those  German  appraisal criteria  archivists  based  on an  141  analysis  of the informational content  themselves.  He  Hermann M e i n e r t  acknowledged  the important  i n precipitating  a  archival  appraisal  by advocating  oriented  standards  f o r identifying  Meinert's broad  principles  appraisal.  that  unachievable  intuitive way,  faults  needs  commended  Zimmerman's  Zimmerman's  historians  dominated efforts  present  theology"  archival  " t o form  from  evidence  necessarily  as even  criterion  like  Booms,  p.  5 8  Booms,  pp.  those  of the past  was  value  I n t h e same  91-92.  but  on t h e p r e s e n t  and f u t u r e  satisfactory.  According  t h e f u t u r e needs  an e x t e n s i o n Idealist  which  century.  The  archival  documentary  heritage  using  standards  value  existence  of  tradition  of h i s earlier  to  of the  end i n s p e c u l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y  93.  standards  i n the  theories,  i n the nineteenth  the archival  s  5 7  was  much t o o  f o r pointing out the  with  o f t h e German  c o n d i t i o n s o f human  f u t u r e . "-  Meinert  useable  appraisal  less  But  standards f o r  5  based  i n  content-  were  archivists. '  Zimmerman  theory,  science  o f Zimmerman,  colleagues,  basic  Fritz  preoccupation  as a value  "historical  future  of defining  of experienced  of researchers,  Booms,  and K u l t u r e  observed,  of the provenance-based  declared  value.  and r e v e r t e d t o t h e o l d f a i t h  abilities  Booms  archival  of  revolution"  the use of p o s i t i v e ,  as p r a c t i c a l  Booms  the goal  contribution  "Copernican  Staat.  t o serve  By t h e 1950s,  proclaiming was  of Volk.  and i l l - d e f i n e d  of the records  of the of the  since the  fog our perception  of the  Booms' served  to  attempt  systematic  clear  at  an  the  rejection  ground  appraisal  and  b a s i c premise  was  derive  necessary  useful  analyses  of  function;  directly  from  the  responsible."  5 9  necessary  make  process  itself.  must  not  such  as  use  to  be  which  approach,  of  source to  or  transcend  a  strive,  be  to  done,  this  to  we  examined. society  archivists derive  definition.  As  The  no are  their Booms  seek  to  first of  from  take  the  societal  or  analysis  seek  i n the problem  to  scheme"  reveal  with  this  i s so  complex  inner  interpretive  therefore  Booms,  p.  101.  6 0  Booms,  p.  103.  and  societal  left  values  and  with that  observed,  The archivist must decide which specific e v e n t s and development patterns should be p r e s e r v e d i n documents, y e t the v a l u e of such e v e n t s and p a t t e r n s can o n l y be determined when the archivist has attaineda comprehensive view of the total societal development process and an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the way a l l of society has actually developed.^  5 9  them  of a l l  ideological  appraisal  to  are  examination  should  own  ideas,  longer  rather,  i t is  predominant  possess  his  for appraisal  which  "predetermined  is that  i t seems  to  no  ideas  for his  developing  principles  process  German  stage  should  Liberalism, but  i s being  which  "we  i s more,  structure;  from  the  In  should  to  earlier  empirical examination  course,  that  that  relationships  structure  relational  an  made u s i n g  value  changing  this  What  Marxism  the  we  social  For  set  theory.  Booms'  and  of  and a seems  143  While  Booms  comprehensive, the  value  a  form  such  period  society  f o rwhich  "coarse  grid  groups  value the  Booms  concepts  time  standard  from  insisted of their  which  future  may  maintained,  Booms,  t o ensure the society  that  Using  conception section  From  prototype archivists  of a  of  this,  a  o r model" "to arrange  that  parallels  according  to  that  a scale  own  time  i t does value prove  ensures  p. 103.  such  which  "archivists  the material  beliefs;  the  6 1  a  of value  scaled  period,  a  societal  t o be that  since  of speculation to  archivists  will  wish  to  those  such  of  a  or  source  of the present  inadequate."  of  not follow the  but rather,  n o t do v i o l e n c e  standards  archivists  must  originated"  " i s not a product  by applying  Booms  events  i n order  material near  allow  together  a purpose.  of the entire  a hierarchy  reflects  of value  ideological  would  and  pieced  can form  a  0 1  accurately  document,  within  of historical  Furthermore, value  such  value  that  units  and then  an h i s t o r i c a l  which  some m e a n s f o r societal  he o r she i s r e s p o n s i b l e . "  constructed  f o r judging  suggested  smaller  serve  "the archivists  representing  significance."  whereby  i n the development  of records  gradient  o f a l l , he  could  an  framework  of linking  individually  patterns,  certain  be  First  found  he d i d o f f e r  method  methodology,  a methodology,  could  interpretive  reliable  are studied  larger  t o have  structures,  value.  sciences  structures to  fairly  appraisal  social  not claim  objective  of societal  achieving with  could  This  which i n approach,  be more  accountable since  they  dominant  to  society  must  at  i n making  follow  the  time  the  their  opinions  period  which  appraisal  and  the  values  records  decision  of  society  serve  to  document." Archivists considered  can  important  appraised  were  and  public  other  attain at  created  themselves,  determine  which  optimum  maximum  of  documents." develop,  an  interests, and or  6 3  a  of is  the  actions. f o r the  desired  of  the  collective  such  of  and  of used  itself  to  a  "to  so  minimum  of  would  records, the  that  a  of be  to and  public jurisdictions  defined  of  possess  archivists  various  Once  part  the  provenance,  process  appraise  becomes  to  archivist  for different  society.  being  publications  Turning  with a  was  documents  participation  plan"  what  information  council representing  periods  of  contemporary  achieved  objective  plan  when  regardless  The  form  documentation  in  a  written  the  documentary  6 4  Booms' the  statement  records  determining his  and  "documentation  published  time  time  studying  documents,  advisory  understanding  i t remains  documentation  historical  record.  by  concentration  with  perhaps  the  statements  documents  the  an  were  that  the  created  archival values  proposals.  Such  6 3  Booms,  p.  104.  6 3  Booms,  p.  105.  6 4  Booms,  p.  106.  an  idea  values must  serve  i s perhaps seems  of  to  the as  the be  an  society the  most  at  basis  the  for  interesting  attempt  to  of  145  reconcile approach  elements with  Essentially, followed the  of the traditional  those  archival  were  of the context  originally  i n two c r u c i a l  environment  or context  must  their  derive  narrow  world  information within  systems that  documents  directly,  arrived  were  created,  most  significant records  In  Booms'  and  and  In that in  as though  i n every  be u s e d they  researchers  elements  best  of that  document  those  i s  the  of the society  Secondly,  would  the value  be t h e v a l u e s  a t the time  of  t h e documents plan  of the  society;  d e c i s i o n s as t o  elements  a r e made  and content  broader  i t s  not to appraise the  therein, retains  b u t i t i s a much  original  archivists  aspect  t h e r e f o r e , t h e provenance  inherent  which  not only the  a documentation  a n a l y s i s of t h e form  theory,  relates  indirect  at will  but to construct  the values  position,  -- i t t a k e s  or archival  standard  concept  insists  embraces  within  to define  of all,  organization operated.  thus  to  First Booms  appraisal values  standards  which  Booms'  Booms  o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and  which  archivists  respects. which  theories,  and used  However,  from  concept.  or environment  generated  appraisal values.  different  content-based  as i n t h e p r o v e n a n c e - b a s e d  the values  records  o f h i s own  provenance-based  according  of the records. of the records,  an  important  definition  of the  t o t h e a c t u a l a p p r a i s a l o f documents  concept  i n an  way. presenting  h e was  h i s alternative  not seeking  any absolute  t o make  sense--he  methods,  archival  considered  this  Booms  stressed  appraisal "objective" "an  impossible  146  goal."  Rather,  whereby  archivists  subjectivity principles defined  he wanted could  t o develop "distance  to the greatest  used  t o make  and hence  themselves  possible  appraisal  subject  an a p p r a i s a l from  extent"  decisions  to evaluation  process their  since  are  the  value  clearly  and r e v i s i o n :  If such a program i s instituted, the final product w i l l be a model f o r forming the documentary h e r i t a g e which has been developed by a r c h i v i s t s , i s sanctioned and c o n t r o l l e d by s o c i e t y at large, and can be analyzed u s i n g t h e ^ h i s t o r i c a l method of documentary criticism. 0 D  The  very  problems in  expansiveness  and p o s s i b l e  itself  marked  o f Booms'  future  departure  literature  of h i s contemporaries.  conceptual  theatre  ideas  allowed  esoteric of  confines  appraisal  a  appraisal conscious  confidence or  else  scale  from  thereby  document  °  5  derived appeal  a l l aspects  Booms,  p. 106.  found  which  since  of the records the wider  of social  a  activity.  tradition from  either  social disintegrated; applied the  organizational  these  archival  subject  and  essentially  governing  often  on t h e  was  to a general  outh i s  and  i t s legitimacy  long  of the  to play  political,  Booms  importance  ignoring  chose  social,  intuition  to the appraisal  the appraisal  archival theories  structural theories  of administrative  produced, to  or unconscious  appraisal  Yet the vastness  Booms  What  p r a c t i c e which  i n historical  structures  their  foundations.  from  out of the technical  of previous  t o analyze  philosophical of  which  him t o break  on t h e  direction of archival  i t as a r a d i c a l  within  presentation  organizations  responsibility However  much  147  Booms  recognized  records  f o r analyses  content  he  insisted  that  of the records  document  only  which  analyses  to truly  appraisal  useful,  standards.  contemporaries,  was w o r k i n g  way,  to appraisal practice.  however,  he m a i n t a i n e d  a systematic  values  used  values  spite  comprehensive archivists  major  "an u n s o l v e d  steps  could  that  ever  problem"  approach  and  an i n d u c t i v e approach  long  a s Booms'  incomplete, the  all-inclusive  case-by-case  must  they  also  towards  a  such  an  all-encompassing,  to practical  that  archival  and launched  theory that  methods  methods.  into  a critique emphasized  maintained,  on experience.  remained  vague  a  over  and  Sante,  of  But so  i ti s better to rely o f Rohr,  In  appraisal  Booms  Granier  based  the  serves.  German-speaking  lead  be  reflect  many  on theory,  G r a i n i e r contended  traditional  process  b y Booms  o f Booms' p r e s e n t a t i o n .  deductive above  out the methodology  so t h a t  taken  proclaimed  based  management  h i s colleagues,  the archivist  skeptical  Granier  points  i n this  of appraisal,  approach  Gerhard  remained  theory  controlled  like h i s  setting  and defined  of the bold  remained  theoretical  the  decisions  developed  created  o f a p p r a i s a l i s n o t enough; t h e  of the s o c i e t y which  In  1974,  process  i n making  systematically  that merely  were  a systematic  Unlike  of  the records  they  and  Booms,  t o apply  approach  well  a t the time  accountable,  In this  description  of  of the informational  r e v e a l how  t h e s o c i e t y as a whole  lead  for  of t h e provenance  as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e a r c h i v a l  records,  will  t h e need  on  Zimmerman, Booms'  and  claim  overvalued state  their  the  and  role  twentieth  idea  made u s i n g  the  the  among  pan the  Booms  many  the  in  where  sanctioned  most  was  only  reflect  ideology.  the  what  the  the  the  that public  of a l l ,  the  the  important  at  time  the  left  to  expressed  press, German and  the  and  Booms' must  documents  will  reveal  time.  In  from  the  determine in  which  such  is difficult but  be  of  archivists  This  of  documented  analysis  leads  opinions  political  criticism  the  dominant  free  the  sponsors  of  statements  are  with  document  major  most  be  an  opinions  as  issue  0 7  society at  is a  to  beginning  should  significant.  such  of  Granier's  f o r they  there  regimes,  spite  suggestion  fire  first  responsibility  in society.  was  took  theories  society:  remains  suggested  which  appraisal  in  since  the  conflicting  are  will  of  Booms'  publications  press  to  Granier  administration which  in  p u b l i c a t i o n s and  into  totalitarian  the  state  as  values  view,  societies  of  matter  "public opinion"  frying  primary  institution  judgements  created.  Granier's  a  state  occurred  serious  contemporary  the  secondly,  century,  more  that  were  have  have  pervasive A  of  functions  which  Furthermore,  1 0  provenance-based  activities;  changes  the  that  archivists  structure  most  Papritz.  enough  under  Third Reich, values  of  the  the state-  6 8  Gerhard Granier, "Die a r c h i v a r i s c h e Bewertung von D o k u m e n t a t i o n s g u t - - e i n e u n g e l o s t e A u f g a b e , " Der...Archivar No. 2 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , c o l . 2 34. a c  6 7  Granier,  c o l . 23 5.  6 8  Granier,  col.  237.  27,  149 Moreover, certain of  the  Granier  documents time  accounting early  He  economic  study  it  cannot  of  contemporary  serve  such  as  a  appraise  the  and  by  Granier  public  opinions  weaknesses  to  the one  of  this  last of  appraise to  plans  are  rejecting  Granier  sensical.  He  served  and  continued  manage  records:  i n every  disposing  of  he  Granier,  concept  of  true,  the  Booms  role  advocated of  not  the to  the  questions  determining  for evaluating which  their the  constructed--revealed  returned  regarded  to  col.  as  serve  clearly which  to  three  identifying  those  certainly  for  and  modern  documented,  comprehensive,  identified  case  valueless  serious  arguments.  Booms'  which  be  is  upon  opinion  important  significance  sources  standards  to  early  Nevertheless,  the  found  ages  most  appraisal:  be  the  middle  the  point  the  to  seemingly  and  Booms'  have  considered  late  medieval  directly.  the  approaches  9  late  phenomena  i n Booms'  appraisal,  °  now  were the  significance--the foundation  documentation  are  are  generations  according  example  during  concerning  and  which  in archival  documents  raised  an  later  created  criticism  values  things,  of  of  values  persons,  In  as  While  0  relative  were  produced  history. '  following  they  period which  f o r the  that  valuable  gave  records  modern  sources  very  i n which  insignificant.  noted  of are  238.  the  more  subject-based  more  traditional  practical  and  comraon-  appraisal techniques archivists  and  in their  preserving  permanent  those  value;  unquestionably  theory  which  had  attempts records  identifying  worthless;  to  which and  making  150  services that and  available  their  to  valuable  implementation  similar  records of  s t r u c t u r e and  archivists  "should  non-government  sampling form.  s t i l l  until  the  day  comes when  which  are  not  only  theoretical  of  the  two  i n North  and  offered  which  an  and  after  at  are  clear  German  to  and  a  least  found  necessary  and  faced  a  Granier,  col.  240.  7 1  Granier,  col.  240.  i n the  out  used  to  the  science to  to  using  arrange  they  within this these  i n Great quantity  subject-  merely  fox- a p p r a i s a l ,  archives  the  provenance-based  content  for positing  on  content-based  according  judgements  revolution  7 0  the  principles  Not  their  archival set  more  problem  for appraisal  information  processes  1980,  German  much  complex  than  archivists  of  were  Relying  problem:  records.  value  the  standards  records  justifications 1930  the  the  1930  of  Europe.  extension  i n the  f o r making  Germany  of  that  a l l the  for appraisal  systematic  appraised  management  Between and  was  documented  criteria  meet  analyses  values  approaches  which  systematic  series  is attainable,  archivists  century,  describe records;  matter  also  ensure  development  for file  concluded  c a t e g o r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d by  different  approach,  but  America  o b j e c t i v e and  approach,  what  the  better solutions  in their  archival  nineteenth  develop  Granier  l(>  truly  German  concise  determining  theoretical in  techniques  and  to  requirements.'"*  and  colleagues  preserved;  accept  useful,  I n many ways, extensive  are  institutions  to  offer-  presented  process  and  criteria.  Britain, and  France,  quality  of  151  records  every  b i t as  American.  Like  management  systems  volume  complexity  and  traditional  called  consistent attempted underlay  of  to  which  f o r more  retain  their  disposition  while  own  of  that  was  the  to  and new  efficient,  build  unique  alleviate to  t h e o r i e s of situation  in  the  value  record-keeping  North  turned  the  to  pressure  of  explode archives archives  comprehensive,  archivists  upon  in  archivists  threatening  appraisal,  and  experienced  European  practices,  But  methods  as  Americans,  systems,  administration. clearly  the  profound  and  i n each  country  assumptions  traditions.  which  152  CONCLUSION  The  o b j e c t i v e s of  critically keepers which be  examine  have  used  records  topical  but  patterns  i n the  in  the  a  terms  of  were  the  they  special and  to  a  between  the  developed  of  have  an  1880s  to  degree  records  as  organic to  some  produced,  recordsto  which  dimensions  is vast and  three  decide will of  the  and  conceptual  before  1880,  reference  of  value  unities.  f o r the  to  military,  the  1930s,  control  were their  or  be records purposes  for  selected  for  original  use  diplomatic  over  the  introduced use  appraisal a  dichotomy  of  archives,  historicist  in original the  period  i n both  the  quality  constructed  and  concepts  s t r u c t u r e and  In  archivists  periods  historian/archivists  historical on  general can  documents  producers,  changes  and  concepts  period  t h e o r i e s based  inherent  i n reponse  records  value  political,  the  archival  archives  survey,  archival  yet  and  archives  theoretical traversed  and  emerged.  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  placed  of  records-creating offices  serve  the  archivists  historical  pre-modern  significant from  1980,  of  elucidate  for posterity  been  broad  to  history  and  historical  created,  From  process  of  the  preservation, without  purposes.  which  an  the  were  value,  gained  of  geography  In  by  has  were  criteria  temporal  which  development  kept  value  preserved  number  identified.  which  be  The  complex,  study  throughout  landscape  In  the  will  destroyed.  this  from and  1930  use to  quantity  comprehensive-  153  management control  systems  the  appraisal  life-cycle  values  administrative important cultural of  for records  were  and  aspects  records  defined  analytical of  the  jurisdiction  value  of  beyond  has  generated,  the  way  the  and  an  effort  result,  conform  to  these  to  archival  the systems,  traditions  i n f l u e n c e the  of  but  each  development  historical  developments,  activities,  operating  consistently  archival  value  First  of  of  that,  three  significant  factors  important  terms, are  for a  specific  comprises  events  employees  and  relationships of  two  and  an  in  archival  analysis  appraisal  of  process,  i n determining  the  people,  or  determine  to  the  to  function, and  clients  the  this  and  world  and  authority structures operating w i t h i n the  record things,  creator. and  There  phenomena  Since  groups  of  the  of  original  perceivable;  customers,  friends  There  reality.  immediately or  the  document.  individuals  circumstances,  employers, active  by  obvious the  and  dimensions  produced  i s most  programs,  patterns  records.  i t i s most  reality  study  conceptual  i n the  reality  creators  this  developed  from  broad  analyze  individuals  of  argued  archivists  records  environment  be  general  have  all,  in archival  archival  perceive  simultaneously  been  of  synthesis which  records-keepers  these  reality  to  historical  I t can  this  to  a  c a t e g o r i e s of  continued  concepts.  record  as  records-keeping  value  are,  as  i t i s possible to  archivists  aspects  so  use;  in  criteria.  Moving  have  disposition  projects  and  relatives, and  immediate  is also  the  existing  and  larger evolving  154  outside which such  of  may an  the be  narrower  equally  analysis,  development evaluated  are  in a  responsibilities  or  more  important  jurisdictions,  defined  so  that  comprehensive  they  and  d e s c r i p t i v e process  organization  and  presentation  greater  of  the  the  universe  of  significant structure,  a  and  and or  of  original provides  the  value  the  and  this  elements  activity  of  The  to  which  the  in this  document  of  meaning  the  in  to  itself  place and over  within the of  most the  form,  the  information.  reality  the  for  sometimes  economic,  created  traditionally  most  replaced  which  the  profound  and  process,  perceptions  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  have  and  i s perhaps  according  organizations  of  the  records  records  provenance of  a  operated.  understanding  framework  is  This the  document.  authority.  community  the  or  overshadowed  analyzing to  An  context  documentary  conceptual  cultural  reality.  the  agency  best  formulated  value  the  generated  Thirdly,  are  producing  documentation  serve  difficult  which  of  This  reality meant  making  and  structures  which  aspects  of  agency  the  lines  although of  creator  In  compared  i t i s not  instance,  government  a n a l y s i s has  activity  aspects  and  manner.  and,  determine  establishing  records  in, for  be  archivists  documentation  of  of  comparison,  society within  Secondly,  kind  value  importance  functions against  a  may  record  document.  reliable  and  influence  to  the  categories,  categorizing  can  of  and  political, archivists,  the  been  of  records, the  most  archival  values  in reference  to  administrative, the and  individuals the  critical  research factors  in  155  determining that  archival value.  d e s c r i p t i v e and  record-creators, provide  a  value  perception in  of  patterns these  of  its  be  decisions  scope  the  a  users  society  nature  justified  decisions from  time  an  and  and  diverse  to  specific  development  may  overarching  framework  provide of  of  culture  a r c h i v a l community a  are  the  on  i n which  social  and  foundations  reference  for  judgements;  perspective.  to  for  an  awareness  avoid and a  in  operates.  reponsibility  institutions  but  is restricted  i t  a  and  value  i s developing with  and  decisions,  existential  based  serving  records  appraisal  constituency  are  descriptive  by  the  appraisers'  they  of  realize  themselves  the  archivists  profession  the  in  who  to  records,  authoritative value  authority  as  and  the  supported  the  from  about  be  of  cannot  past,  cannot  allegiences  values.  analyses  the  have  identity  wide  important  In  use  value  the  in  role.  derived the  by  unique  serve  role  appraisal  sure,  However, its  this  their  propositions  record  i t is  authority--this arises  propositions  ultimately,  To  practical the  their  fulfilling  practical  or  Yet  defining  to  narrow  groups.  more  of  This  universal,  archival  156  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Baudot, Marcel. 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