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Accessibility of broadcast archives in Canada 1989

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ACCESSIBILITY OF BROADCAST ARCHIVES IN CANADA By JAN M. NORMAN B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES i n THE FACULTY OF ARTS (SCHOOL OF LIBRARY, ARCHIVAL AND INFORMATION STUDIES) We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1989 © Jan M. Norman, 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of S c h o o l o f L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and I n f o r m a t i o n S t u d i e s The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT Canada's broadcasting industry has a r i c h h i s t o r y and yet by t h e i r own admission, Canadian a r c h i v i s t s once overlooked the value of broadcast documentation. This thesis explores the many issues which govern the ac q u i s i t i o n , appraisal and description of broadcast records and the relevance of these issues to access and use. Because a r c h i v i s t s have frequently discussed access to textual material, t h i s exposition focuses on the sp e c i a l media records produced by the broadcasting industry: f i l m , videotape and sound recordings. This discussion reviews the problems associated with the development of an a c q u i s i t i o n strategy for these records and outlines the development of appraisal c r i t e r i a which recognize t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l , a r t i s t i c and s o c i o l o g i c a l content. The des c r i p t i v e practices preferred by a r c h i v i s t s working with broadcast material are evaluated to determine whether they a c t u a l l y respond to users needs. The physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which influence access and use are also reviewed. The proposed revisions to Canada's Copyright Act are examined and the implications for access and use are noted. F i n a l l y , throughout t h i s exposition attention i s given to the f i n a n c i a l obligations associated with the preservation and use of these records. This study i s based on an examination of Canadian, American and European a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e and the d i s c u s s i o n of each a r c h i v a l f u n c t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e s the t h e o r e t i c a l views and p r a c t i c a l experiences of v a r i o u s a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The study concludes t h a t t o f a c i l i t a t e a c c e s s i b i l i t y and use, r e p o s i t o r i e s should more thoroughly i n v e s t i g a t e t h e requirements o f broadcast records and agree t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r e s e r v i n g these documents based on a sound assessment of the impact such involvement has on o p e r a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t • 1 1 T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v Acknowledgement - v I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 CHAPTER ONE:, A c q u i s i t i o n o f B r o a d c a s t R e c o r d s 5 CHAPTER TWO: A p p r a i s a l 3 6 CHAPTER THREE: D e s c r i p t i o n 51 CHAPTER FOUR: P h y s i c a l A t t r i b u t e s 68 CHAPTER F I V E : C o p y r i g h t 84 C o n c l u s i o n 1 2 0 B i b l i o g r a p h y 1 2 6 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my gratitude to the following for t h e i r assistance and encouragement. My thanks to my thesis supervisor, Terry Eastwood, who pat i e n t l y awaited the completion of t h i s work and who offered many help f u l suggestions for i t s improvement. My thanks to Sam Kula, Ernest Dick and the s t a f f of the Moving Image and Sound Archives, National Archives of Canada, who welcomed me during my practicum, shared t h e i r enthusiasm for spe c i a l media documents and offered a friendship I have been p r i v i l e g e d to enjoy ever since. My gratitude to the Archives of Ontario for permitting access to a personal computer so that I might complete t h i s work. I am also indebted to my colleagues there who gave me t h e i r support and allowed me to put theory into p r a c t i c e . F i n a l l y , I wish to thank my husband Chris. His contribution to t h i s thesis transcends advice and understanding. 1 INTRODUCTION Many factors a f f e c t access to material i n Canadian archives. Examples include issues of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , government security, r e s t r i c t i o n s requested by donors of private papers, arbitrary l i m i t s imposed by s t a f f to favour p a r t i c u l a r researchers and the problems associated with the bulk of unprocessed or poorly described records which reside i n an archival i n s t i t u t i o n but cannot be located. 1 This thesis explores the conditions a f f e c t i n g access to, and use of, broadcast material. Central to t h i s exposition i s the view that access and use are c r u c i a l to underscoring the value of any archival record. In broadcasting archives, as i n repositories c h i e f l y responsible for textual records, c r u c i a l developments i n recent decades have influenced the way i n which a r c h i v i s t s respond to access demands from the public. For example, while foreseeing the impending transfer of huge volumes of 2 0th century documentation, a r c h i v i s t s scarcely imagined the enormous impact such a consignment would place on the resources of t h e i r 1 . Jean Tener, " A c c e s s i b i l i t y and Archives," Archivaria 6 (Summer 1978): 16-31. 2 i n s t i t u t i o n s . More successfully, a r c h i v i s t s accepted the advice of W. Kaye Lamb and altered t h e i r assumptions about researchers to match the persona of the modern user. 2 Different expectations i n the h i s t o r i c a l community arose from historiographical developments, such as the emergence of the new s o c i a l history, and other scholastic undertakings have introduced additional c l i e n t e l e to archives: educators, s o c i o l o g i s t s , legal professionals, art, music, theatre and f i l m historians, s c i e n t i s t s and genealogists. An emerging f a m i l i a r i t y with special media documents i s also p a r t l y responsible for encouraging these professionals to use the resources available in broadcasting archives. Technological innovations have also been important to archives. In particular, they have created an e n t i r e l y new body of documentation to be considered for permanent preservation; broadcast records are but one example. The physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these documents warrant attention, because the technology can pose problems for access and use. Copying services, which cannot be provided without understanding the limitations' of technology and the donor and copyright r e s t r i c t i o n s which govern reproduction, are more frequently required by users, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n countries as large as the United States or Canada where i t i s common to f i n d collections pertaining to a single subject dispersed nationwide among various 2 . W. Kaye Lamb, "Keeping the Past up to Date," Journal of the Society of Archivists 2 (1961):287. 3 i n s t i t u t i o n s . (Archivists and h i s t o r i a n s warn that Canadian historiography could s u f f e r i f these relevant sources were overlooked due to p r o h i b i t i v e t r a v e l costs suffered by researchers.) Lastly, copyright considerations are intimately linked with the question of access. The provisions of the Canadian Copyright Act specify conditions of use applicable to the s t a f f and users of archives. Moreover, while a r c h i v i s t s are concerned both with the protection of rights for creators and with the public's r i g h t to access archival holdings, these two disparate aims often are incompatible. This thesis w i l l explore the many "variables e x i s t i n g between the reader and the information" 3 contained i n broadcast records, including the issues governing the a c q u i s i t i o n , appraisal, description and dissemination of s p e c i a l media documents. And because a r c h i v i s t s have treated questions of access to textual records, t h i s exposition w i l l focus mainly on the by-product of the broadcasting industry: f i l m , videotape and sound recordings. These documents have been termed "broadcast records" to d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from the more encompassing body of broadcasting archives which include media and textual material. Where appropriate, general archival p r i n c i p l e s and theories w i l l be reviewed as background to developments i n the a c q u i s i t i o n and maintenance of broadcast records and to t h e i r subsequent use 3 . Bernard Vavrek, "A Theory of Reference Service," College and Research L i b r a r i e s 29 (1968):508. f o r r e s e a r c h purposes. The experiences of American and European r e p o s i t o r i e s c a r i n g f o r these documents w i l l be recounted s i n c e these i n s t i t u t i o n s have l o n g r e c o g n i z e d the h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e of broadcast records and have demonstrated a commitment not only t o t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n , but t o the study of the u b i q u i t o u s c u l t u r a l impact of t h i s 2 0 t h century communication medium. 5 CHAPTER ONE ACQUISITION David Lance, Sound A r c h i v i s t w i t h the B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l War Museum, portrayed the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between a c q u i s i t i o n , arrangement, d e s c r i p t i o n and access as f o l l o w s : Access and use seem t o me t o re p r e s e n t the r a i s o n d'etre of an a r c h i v e . The v a r i o u s o t h e r t a s k s with which sound a r c h i v i s t s are concerned - such as a c q u i s i t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n - are not ends i n themselves, but proc e s s e s d i r e c t e d mainly towards the d i s s e m i n a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f recorded sound c o l l e c t i o n s . A r c h i v e s e x i s t t o be used and, I b e l i e v e , should be used i n or d e r t o j u s t i f y t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . 1 An e s t a b l i s h e d and a c t i v e l y implemented a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y , whether w i t h i n a p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e a r c h i v e s , p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t s access and use w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n by a s s u r i n g t h a t the rec o r d s themselves are preserved f o r f u t u r e use. The primary purpose of any a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g y i s t o i d e n t i f y , l o c a t e and a c q u i r e the records which r e p o s i t o r i e s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o l l e c t i n g . The mandate of these i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l l a r g e l y determine the scope of t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c y . 1 . David Lance, "Dissemination o f Audio Resource M a t e r i a l s - Access and Use i n a Museum," Phonographic B u l l e t i n , no. 22 (December 1978), p. 29. 6 This chapter w i l l i d e n t i f y the problems and issues associated with the development of a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s for broadcast material. These concerns can be categorized i n general terms. The f i r s t relates to the primary question of j u r i s d i c t i o n . Various types of i n s t i t u t i o n s assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for broadcast documentation including public archives, museums, broadcasting organizations, l i b r a r i e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . There are no firm guidelines governing the creation of mandates which w i l l be subsequently observed when a repository acquires broadcast material and as a r c h i v i s t Josephine Langham declared, "Canadian a r c h i v i s t s have been lax both i n recognizing the value and s i g n i f i c a n c e of broadcast documentation and i n ensuring i t s preservation." 2 The second category encompasses the attitudes and requirements of broadcasters. The broadcasting industry i t s e l f has not yet fostered an h i s t o r i c a l appreciation for the records i t creates. More importantly, because both large networks and independent stations operate primarily as business ventures, they face the dichotomy of generating a product which i s a c u l t u r a l resource while s t r i v i n g to earn a p r o f i t for shareholders. In instances where a broadcasting agency has designated a public i n s t i t u t i o n as an o f f i c i a l repository for i t s records, c o n f l i c t s often a r i s e between the needs of the agency and the operational l i m i t a t i o n s of the archives. 2 . Josephine Langham, "Tuning In: Canadian Radio Resources," Archivaria 9 (Winter 1979-80), p. 105. 7 Last, a c r u c i a l factor influencing the development of ac q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s has been the high cost associated with the physical and i n t e l l e c t u a l care of these records. Financial r e s t r a i n t s have prohibited many archives from accepting material which belongs within t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . Because of such considerations many broadcasting organizations have decided not to maintain t h e i r a r c h i val records. In t h i s discussion of ac q u i s i t i o n B r i t i s h , American and Canadian e f f o r t s to preserve broadcast archives w i l l be highlighted. The essential differences between c o l l e c t i o n s preserved as a corporate resource versus broadcast archives with a broader c u l t u r a l purpose w i l l also be discussed. Throughout t h i s chapter the bond between a c q u i s i t i o n and access w i l l be examined. Organizations which maintain broadcast records i n the United Kingdom, Europe and North America include sound archives, broadcasting archives, record manufacturers, f i l m studios, private c o l l e c t o r s , business archives, museums and l i b r a r i e s . The o r i g i n s of these archives are varied. For example, "broadcasting sound archives came naturally into being because of the need for highly developed storehouses of recordings for use i n radio programmes."3 In t h i s instance p r a c t i c a l business needs were an incentive for the preservation of the documents. Private 3 . Rolf Schuursma, "National Research Sound Archives: Some Thoughts for Discussion," Phonographic B u l l e t i n , no. 14 (May 1976), p. 15. 8 r e p o s i t o r i e s such as these do not emphasize the provision of public access for research purposes. Conversely, other creators recognize that t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s are also of c u l t u r a l value and that some public access and scholarly use i s obligatory. The B r i t i s h Broadcasting Company i s an example of such an organization. Established i n 1922, the Company became a public body and was reformed i n 1927 as the B r i t i s h Broadcasting Corporation. Since that time, almost every major figure i n B r i t i s h national l i f e has been linked i n some way with the BBC. Many have appeared on BBC programmes, others have served on the board of governors or as participants on advisory councils and committees. I t i s not surprising therefore that the BBC has a highly developed sense of i t s h i s t o r i c a l place i n B r i t i s h s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e and consequently a well developed a r c h i v a l programme. S i r Asa Briggs stated that perhaps the most important by- product of the four volume history he prepared on the BBC was that the organization f i n a l l y began to put i t s own archives into order, i n appreciation of the national as well as i n s t i t u t i o n a l importance of i t s records. 4 A f t e r completing the project, Briggs chaired the newly created BBC Archives Advisory Committee whose mandate was to counsel the archives on how best to preserve v i s u a l , audio and written records, compare BBC storage and r e t r i e v a l procedures to those of other agencies and advise as to 4 . S i r Asa Briggs, "Problems and P o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the Writing of Broadcasting History," Media. Culture and Society 2 (1980):9. how the archives might be "best exploited, i n the BBC's and the national int e r e s t , whether by research, publication or s a l e . " 5 Their f i n a l recommendations recognize the dichotomy of purpose within the BBC for i t i s perceived as both a broadcasting organization, responsible to advertisers and viewers, and the creator of a v i t a l c u l t u r a l heritage. The committee i d e n t i f i e d the h i s t o r i c a l as well as operational value of the records and expressed regret on account of the " r e s t r i c t i v e terms of reference." Not unreasonably perhaps, the BBC, i n keeping with Jenkinson's c l a s s i c d e f i n i t i o n of archives, r e t a i n t h e i r records for t h e i r own information, i n t h e i r own custody. The p r i n c i p a l users are administrators and programme developers. The BBC derives i t s income from license revenue and although permitting some public access, i t i s BBC p o l i c y that i t s services to the public should not be paid for by either the Corporation or by government tax d o l l a r s . The Archives i s not considered to have mandate to c o l l e c t on a larger scale and t h e i r primary purpose i to serve future programme needs by preserving material with re- use p o t e n t i a l . To quote Lawrence Stapley, "that i s what the money i s allocated f o r . " 6 The BBC's archives are therefore p r i n c i p a l l y a corporate resource and the f i r s t p r i o r i t y i s to serve the network's administrative and production needs. 5 . Report of the Advisory Committee on Archives, by Lord Asa Briggs, Chairman (London: B r i t i s h Broadcasting Corporation, 1979) . 6 . Lawrence Stapley, "BBC Archive Material for Other Than Broadcasting Purposes," Phonographic B u l l e t i n , no. 17 (December 1978), p. 25. 10 Interestingly, t h i s reasoning led to the implementation of a modest service fee for external users. Researchers are charged on an hourly basis plus any costs incurred on t h e i r b e h a l f . 7 Thus, acknowledging the value of i t s holdings to outside researchers, the BBC has permitted access to some of i t s holdings, p r i n c i p a l l y those i n what i t terms i t s "Written Archives." The Written Archives contain those surviving textual records which document the underlying business of running the BBC such as s t a f f appointments, union r e l a t i o n s , programme planning and p o l i c y formation. Included i n the holdings i s correspondence with a r t i s t s , i n t e r n a l memorandums, material from writers, programme f i l e s , c o l l e c t i o n s of s c r i p t s and various groups of p o l i c y f i l e s documenting educational broadcasting, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the BBC i n London and i t s regional centers and o f f i c e s , p o l i t i c a l broadcasting, news e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y and the r e f l e c t i o n of minority interests i n programme schedules. The c o l l e c t i o n of newspaper clippings maintained by the News Information Service i s one of the largest of i t s type i n Europe. Another clippings c o l l e c t i o n , covering 1922 to 1954, amounts to over a h a l f a m i l l i o n items grouped by subject and i t i s also stored i n the Written Archives. The purpose of the l a t t e r i s to record instant public and e d i t o r i a l reactions to the BBC and i t s 1 . The rates are as follows: £5 i f under one hour; £3 i f over one hour but under one day; £2.50 for the second and subsequent hours. R.D. Hewlett, "The BBC's Written Archives," ASLIB Proceedings 27 (1975):421. 11 broadcasts. A l l BBC publications, such as "Radio Times", "Listener" and pamphlets for BBC School and Further Education broadcasts are retained as well. The administration of the Written Archives has proven to be somewhat e r r a t i c . In 1975 the Head of Reference, R.D. Hewlett admitted: There have been, I am sorry to say, a number of d i f f i c u l t and at times c o n f l i c t i n g , p o l i c i e s for the retention and destruction of paper. The r e s u l t i s that there i s a s u p e r f l u i t y of less important papers i n some subject areas and there are gaps of some substance i n others. 8 I n i t i a l l y l i t t l e consideration was given to the long term value of such documents. I t was not u n t i l 1927 that a uniform f i l i n g system was established among a l l the branches of the BBC's o f f i c e s . This r e g i s t r y system helped control the d i s p o s i t i o n of records and was the foundation for the e n t i r e BBC Archival program. In 1970 the Archives was detached from the Central Registry administratively and p h y s i c a l l y . 9 While Hewlett does not explain the reasons for t h i s , one supposes i t was due to the r e a l i z a t i o n that the control of active f i l e s d i f f e r e d greatly from the i n t e l l e c t u a l and physical control of a r c h i v a l records. Another B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n famed for i t s involvement i n the c o l l e c t i o n of broadcasting records i s the National Film Archives of the United Kingdom. I t acquires t e l e v i s i o n broadcasts produced by both the BBC and those independent 8 . Ibid., p. 418. 9 . The BBC Archives i s now located i n Caversham rather than London. 12 private production companies which are regulated by the Independent Broadcasting Authority. These independent companies have designated the NFA as t h e i r o f f i c i a l archives and are under contract to provide d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l support as well as regularly deposit broadcasts for preservation. The BBC responds to requests for copies of i t s ' material from both the NFA and the B r i t i s h I n s t i t u t e of Recorded Sound, and negotiates copyright r e s t r i c t i o n s where applicable. The BBC cooperates with these organizations i n order to accommodate public access requirements which cannot be met under i t s ' budget c o n s t r a i n t s . 1 0 The Imperial War Museum also c o l l e c t s recordings and f i l m r e l a t i n g to both World Wars. World War II recordings have no copyright r e s t r i c t i o n s and so can be given to the Museum, u n i v e r s i t i e s and other i n s t i t u t i o n s for research purposes. The preservation of textual and special media records by the BBC archives aims primarily to f u l f i l l the Corporation's operational needs. However, a strong t r a d i t i o n of public access has arisen to supplement t h i s main mandate. Cooperation with organizations such as the NFA helps the BBC surmount f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s by allowing other i n s t i t u t i o n s to acquire BBC records and make them available to the public. Thus, a coordinated a c q u i s i t i o n strategy has f a c i l i t a t e d greater public access and use. In the United States, a number of i n s t i t u t i o n s have taken 1 0 . The formal arrangements between the BBC and these organizations are not described. Stapley, "BBC Archive material," 26-27. 13 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the preservation of broadcast archives. The p r i n c i p a l ones are the Library of Congress, the National Archives and Records Service (NARS), the Museum of Broadcasting i n New York, various broadcasting organizations and several u n i v e r s i t i e s such as the Vanderbilt T e l e v i s i o n News Archives which was founded i n 1968 and i s supported by i n d i v i d u a l and private foundations. Another prominent c o l l e c t i o n of broadcast material i s located at the University of C a l i f o r n i a at Los Angeles. This archives was founded i n conjunction with the Academy of T e l e v i s i o n Arts and Sciences i n 1965. The Library of Congress c o l l e c t s private and commercial films. I t i s important to note that the 1972 U.S. Copyright Law requires a copy of any recording be sent to the Library of Congress when application i s being made for the r e g i s t r a t i o n of copyright. The Library's c o l l e c t i o n has also been supplemented by generous g i f t s from individuals involved i n early broadcasting. Their contributions are made more valuable by the fact that radio programming i s not acquired by mandatory deposit as part of the copyright process and so the Library i s lar g e l y dependent upon the h i s t o r i c a l awareness of private donors. To a s s i s t i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and preservation of surviving broadcasting records, the American T e l e v i s i o n and Radio Archives (ATRA) was created i n 1976 under the auspices of the Library of Congress' Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Div i s i o n . By 1978 ATRA asserted i t s e l f i n e f f o r t s to acquire programming which i s i n e l i g i b l e for copyright 14 protection and which consequently i s not acquired by the Library under mandatory deposit regulations. This applies to material such as " l i v e " , unfixed programmes which are not recorded on a tape or f i l m and consequently are not considered to be "published" and protected by copyright. P r i o r to the creation of ATRA, much of the early l i v e programming was l o s t . This dilemma has been r e c t i f i e d somewhat by the addition of an "ATRA Section" i n the l e g i s l a t i o n compelling the r e g i s t r a t i o n of broadcast items. The Section permits the Archives to acquire those l i v e programmes which might not be "published" at a l a t e r date, such as "Live from the Met", "Johnny Carson" and the "Superbowl." In t h i s e f f o r t ATRA has had an enviable working rela t i o n s h i p with broadcasting organizations as well as other broadcasting archives. At hearings held by the U.S. Copyright O f f i c e i n March 1982, the opinions of t e l e v i s i o n broadcasters and others were sought regarding rules proposed by the Copyright O f f i c e by which a mechanism would be provided for the o f f - t h e - a i r taping of such programme types as documentaries, news and feature i t e m s . 1 1 This mechanism gave ATRA the authority to demand copies of unpublished t e l e v i s i o n programmes. Both the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and the Motion Picture Association of America endorsed t h i s arrangement. Moreover, PBS assisted the archives i n developing s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a for t e l e v i s i o n records. The r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure combined with t h i s b e n e f i c i a l clause has proven to be 1 1 . Susan Robinson, "Paul Spehr Discusses ATRA - The American Te l e v i s i o n and Radio Archives," Library of Congress Information B u l l e t i n 41 (May 7, 1982): 135. 15 an e f f i c i e n t acquisitions t o o l , saving much important broadcasting material i n the United States. To avoid duplication and to ensure standards of service for both the record and the public, the Library of Congress co- ordinates i t s e f f o r t s with the National Archives, whose mandate i s to preserve f i l m and broadcast material produced by the government, and Vanderbilt University, an i n s t i t u t i o n p r i marily interested i n c o l l e c t i n g news broadcasts. Like the Library of Congress, the National Archives i n Washington i s concerned with the preservation and use of broadcast documents. Its Motion Picture and Sound Recording Branch acquires news, documentary, public a f f a i r s and s p e c i a l broadcasts. Agreements with CBS, NBC, and ABC allow NARS to tape news programmes o f f - t h e - a i r . The license granted by CBS was on a non-exclusive, royalty free basis. Copies may be made available for use i n NARS, i t s branches and a l l p r e s i d e n t i a l l i b r a r i e s . Scholars, researchers and others "meeting the requirements set by the National Archives (not CBS)...[are permitted] a c c e s s . " 1 2 The Museum of Broadcasting i n New York and other non- government agencies c o l l e c t material under contract with the networks and independent donors such as radio or t e l e v i s i o n p e r s o n a l i t i e s , producers and so on. Combining the philosophies of both a museum and an archives, the Museum of Broadcasting o f f e r s education programmes, study f a c i l i t i e s , exhibitions and 1 2 . "CBS License to National Archives," College and Research Library News 34-35 (1973-1974):125. 16 f i l m f e s t i v a l s . I t i s a non-profit organization sustained by the t e l e v i s i o n networks, public foundations, various corporations and membership fees. The Museum was founded i n 1975 by William S. Paley, the founding chairman of CBS. The radio and t e l e v i s i o n programmes are accessible to the general public; however, no programme i s available for loan or copy. Programming i s regularly received from CBS, NBC, ABC, PBS, independent foreign and domestic producers and assorted i n d i v i d u a l s . A notable example from t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n i s the 175,000 recordings of radio programmes and events broadcast on NBC radio between 1933 and 1970. The c o l l e c t i o n consists of comedy and drama productions, popular and c l a s s i c a l music concerts broadcast l i v e by the network and a wide array of p o l i t i c a l conventions, campaigns, debates and other news items. Among the l a t t e r are Edward R. Murrow's "This...Is London" series, World War II radio broadcasts, a portion of Franklin Roosevelt's so-called "Fireside Chats", and entertainment features such as "Marty" and "Requiem for a Heavyweight." The work of entertainers such as Sid Caesar, L u c i l l e B a l l and Ed S u l l i v a n , amongst others, i s also well represented. The Library of Congress has assisted i n the preservation and storage of t h i s extensive quantity of material. Given that the f i n a n c i a l burden of caring for a large c o l l e c t i o n often influences the a c q u i s i t i o n decision of any archives, t h i s kind of i n t e r - i n s t i t u t i o n a l support sets an i n t e r e s t i n g example for those organizations which are seeking ways of maintaining expensive c o l l e c t i o n s . In return for t h e i r assistance, "the 17 Library of Congress...[has]custody of a l l the o r i g i n a l recordings and [makes] copies available for research u s e . " 1 3 An i n i t i a l 2,000 programmes (1933 to 1936) were transferred to cassette tape for public use on the museum premises i n New York and e f f o r t s to convert the remainder of the c o l l e c t i o n for public use continue. In addition to the large r e p o s i t o r i e s , several smaller i n s t i t u t i o n s have also taken a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n preserving broadcast material. An example i s the Buffalo and E r i e County H i s t o r i c a l Society i n Buffalo, New York. As part of an agreement with l o c a l commercial stations, the society had col l e c t e d , as of 1977, nearly 8,000 reels of f i l m consisting of ten years of news broadcasts. Both the stations and the general public p r o f i t because righ t s of public access co-exist with co n t r o l l e d cataloguing and r e t r i e v a l systems. In the United States the ac q u i s i t i o n of broadcasting records i s f a c i l i t a t e d by mandatory deposit and o f f - t h e - a i r recording. These provisions have helped guarantee public r i g h t s of access to valuable material by ensuring i t s preservation. The copyright r e g i s t r a t i o n process has also assisted archival description and reference service by documenting many of the productions of American filmmakers and broadcasters. Also, the benefits of good relationships between creators and curators are demonstrated by the commitment made by the over 80 members of the Film and Tel e v i s i o n Archives Advisory Committee and the cooperative 1 3 . "Museum of Broadcasting Receives NBC Radio Archives," Library of Congress Information B u l l e t i n 38 (1979):207. 18 e f f o r t s o r c h e s t r a t e d by these members, which i n c l u d e the L i b r a r y of Congress, the U n i v e r s i t y o f Los Angeles, V a n d e r b i l t U n i v e r s i t y , the Museum of Broadca s t i n g , the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , PBS, CBS, ABC and NBC, among many o t h e r s , who meet r e g u l a r l y t o exchange views and p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , d i s c u s s i s s u e s and promote communication and c o o p e r a t i o n . These f a c t o r s has \/\<xvc promoted and f a c i l i t a t e d p u b l i c access i n the many i n s t i t u t i o n s c a r i n g f o r b r o a d c a s t i n g m a t e r i a l i n America. The l e g a c y o f the Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y may not be e q u i v a l e n t t o i t s American c o u n t e r p a r t , but d e s p i t e the handicaps of a s m a l l e r audience and more l i m i t e d funding, Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g over the past t h i r t y years i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some of the world's f i n e s t programming, and i f t h e r e i s a tendency t o ig n o r e l o c a l accomplishments, worldwide a c c l a i m has reminded Canadians of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h i s communications medium. Canadian a r c h i v e s i n t e r e s t e d i n broadcast r e c o r d s f u n c t i o n e d i n an environment of obscure i n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s , confused mandates and h i g h c o s t s . P u b l i c r e p o s i t o r i e s , more o f t e n than not, a c q u i r e d m a t e r i a l which was thr e a t e n e d w i t h immediate d e s t r u c t i o n and t h i s approach t o a c q u i s i t i o n l e d t o the random p h y s i c a l placement of c o l l e c t i o n s i n any i n s t i t u t i o n which was prepared t o accept them. There was l i t t l e time l e f t t o proceed with a planned and o r d e r l y t r a n s f e r of r e c o r d s i n t h i s r e c u r r i n g c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n . The s t r u c t u r e of the Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y i t s e l f 19 may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s . The Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n i s a p u b l i c , government funded o r g a n i z a t i o n , but i t c o - e x i s t s w i t h p r i v a t e networks and independent s t a t i o n s . The r e g u l a t i n g body known as the Canadian Radio and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) a d m i n i s t e r s the B r o a d c a s t i n g Act and i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h i s s u i n g one of the l i c e n s e s r e q u i r e d by a b r o a d c a s t i n g s t a t i o n , c a b l e system or network. (The o t h e r l i c e n c e i s more t e c h n i c a l i n nature and i s i s s u e d by the f e d e r a l Department of Communications.) The Commission may a t t a c h c o n d i t i o n s t o the l i c e n c e and i t s r e g u l a t o r y powers extend t o such matters as the a l l o c a t i o n of b r o a d c a s t i n g time t o ensure v a r i e d and comprehensive programming, the use of Canadian c r e a t i v e and o t h e r t a l e n t s , the r e g u l a t i o n of a d v e r t i s i n g and the amount of time devoted t o i t , as w e l l as the r e s e r v a t i o n of b r o a d c a s t i n g time f o r network programs by any s t a t i o n a f f i l i a t e d t o a network. I t s a u t h o r i t y does not extend t o r e g u l a t i n g the d i s p o s i t i o n of r e c o r d s , t e x t u a l or otherwise, nor i s t h e r e o t h e r government l e g i s l a t i o n t o do s o . 1 4 Given t h a t the CBC i s a major source of broadcast documentation i n Canada, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a v e r y c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e among a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i s d e t e r m i n i n g 1 4 . The new N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s A c t was passed w h i l e t h i s t h e s i s was i n p r o g r e s s . I n c o r p o r a t e d i n the l e g i s l a t i o n i s the s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t the producer or d i s t r i b u t o r of a r e c o r d i n g must p r o v i d e a copy t o the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s w i t h i n s i x months of r e c e i v i n g a w r i t t e n request from the A r c h i v e s . However, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i d e n t i f y i n g , a p p r a i s i n g the a r c h i v a l v a l u e (and paying f o r copying c o s t s ) of the programmes r e s t s w i t h the A r c h i v e s , not the c r e a t o r . The t e x t u a l r e c o r d s of the CBC are not s u b j e c t t o any of the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t ( C - l , s.2). p r e c i s e l y which repositories should assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for CBC material. Opinion d i f f e r s between those who f e e l the CBC should be responsible for the maintenance of i t s own archives and others who see the National Archives and/or i t s p r o v i n c i a l equivalents as the best custodian. The main arguments centre on the s p e c i a l i z e d care these records require and the f i n a n c i a l commitment which must be pledged by the agency or i n s t i t u t i o n designated to preserve such documents. Robin Woods, former CBC Program A r c h i v i s t , provided the impetus for the CBC's internal endeavours. He accepted the oblig a t i o n to preserve t h e i r records "by d e f a u l t . " 1 5 Echoing the BBC t r a d i t i o n , Woods believed that the best curator i s the creator. Being the predominant user and benefactor, curatorship seemed a natural extension of production. Moreover, i t seemed that the creator was i n the best p o s i t i o n to evaluate the long- term value of the records he produced. Why then has the CBC been reluctant to provide adequately for the proper safekeeping of i t s ar c h i v a l material? The conditions under which a programme i s produced may be i n d i r e c t l y at f a u l t . Enormous production costs plus the need for sophisticated technology and s k i l l e d support s t a f f contribute to the organization's desire to f a c i l i t a t e the production process by eliminating a l l unnecessary operations and overhead. Drastic 1 5 . An Account of the Development of Program Archives i n the English Language Services The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation quoted i n Appendix L of John Twomey. Canadian Broadcasting History Resources i n Canada- C r i t i c a l Mass or Mess? (Toronto: Ryerson Polytechnical I n s t i t u t e , 1978),p. 18. budget cuts have heightened the need to manage finances. Broadcasters regularly reuse videotape as a cost saving measure. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the natural i n c l i n a t i o n to t r e a t the archives p r i n c i p a l l y as a corporate resource base has amplified. I f a programme i s to be retained, future operational use must be c l e a r l y envisioned. Space and s t a f f constraints also plague in t e r n a l e f f o r t s to preserve archival material. In response to these constrictions the CBC's Program Archives has attempted to minimize the loss of valuable material by establishing c e r t a i n p r i o r i t i e s and by s a c r i f i c i n g e f f o r t s i n less pre-eminent areas. For example, when i t was established i n 1957 the archives contained a large c o l l e c t i o n of records which were v i r t u a l l y inaccessible because of i n e f f e c t i v e controls. The records were not only stored i n poor physical condition but were scattered throughout a number of locations. No c o l l e c t i o n or preservation p o l i c y had been designed or implemented. Faced with t h i s s i t u a t i o n , e f f o r t s were geared toward the care of radio programmes rather than t e l e v i s i o n because the former requires fewer f i n a n c i a l resources to maintain. The older radio programmes, mainly those from the 1950's, were passed over i n favour of current acquisitions — again i n response to the organization's use of the archives as a resource b a s e . 1 6 Neither the News Library nor the CBC's Program Resources f a c i l i t y form part of the Archives. Although the News Library exerts competent i n t e l l e c t u a l control over the news footage, i t does not provide 1 6 . Ibid., pp. 7-12. service to the public or operate as an archives. Both departments are s t r i c t l y for int e r n a l reference. Like other businesses, broadcasting organizations, whether public or private, are concerned with producing a commercially successful product. Cost overheads and p r o f i t a b i l i t y are as important to t h i s industry as to any other. As Howard Fink explains, the purpose of the CBC i s to act as a production f a c i l i t y and not a "repository of c u l t u r e . " 1 7 Broadcasters are not endowed with any special appreciation of h i s t o r y nor should they be expected to be, but many have apparently relinquished a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r records c i t i n g budget r e s t r a i n t s as the reason. In answer then to the question of why the CBC does not support a large a r c h i v a l program, i t appears that l i k e so many other "business archives" they cannot demonstrate a corporate need for an extensive archival c o l l e c t i o n nor do they f e e l responsible for maintaining such a c o l l e c t i o n for c u l t u r a l purposes. The strengths of that same c o l l e c t i o n however, cannot be measured s o l e l y i n terms of corporate e f f i c i e n c y . The CBC i s one of Canada's most prominent c u l t u r a l agencies, and as such the scope of the records which should be preserved f a r exceeds the mandate of an int e r n a l f a c i l i t y . Under these circumstances the CBC has elected to transfer a large percentage of t h e i r records to a r c h i v a l repositories whose mandate, resources and s k i l l s are dedicated to the protection of Canada's c u l t u r a l heritage. 1 7 . Howard Fink, "The CBC Radio Drama Project and i t s Background", Canadian Oral History Association Journal (1976- 1977):54. The chief agents are large public i n s t i t u t i o n s , namely the National Archives of Canada and the various p r o v i n c i a l counterparts. At present the Moving Image and Sound Archives, MISA, (formerly the National Film, T e l e v i s i o n and Sound Archives) of the National Archives of Canada i s the largest repository for broadcast records i n Canada. I t houses an extensive c o l l e c t i o n of CBC radio and t e l e v i s i o n broadcasts as well as smaller c o l l e c t i o n s from the Canadian Tele v i s i o n network (CTV), independent stations, individuals and various related organizations. ,The development of t h i s d i v i s i o n o f f e r s a c l a s s i c example of how such archival c o l l e c t i o n s often evolve. Although the National Archives acquired i t s f i r s t h i s t o r i c a l sound recordings i n 1939, no s p e c i f i c d i v i s i o n was created to acquire, preserve and make available these records u n t i l 1967 when the H i s t o r i c a l Sound Recordings Unit was e s t a b l i s h e d . 1 8 Between 1967 and 1975, 20,000 hours of sound recordings were c o l l e c t e d - a s i g n i f i c a n t increase from the 200 hours of recordings acquired from 1939 to 1967. The f i r s t p r i o r i t y of the new unit was to c o l l e c t recordings that were endangered either by natural deterioration or pre- planned destruction. Emphasis was admittedly on a c q u i s i t i o n , with l i t t l e attention being paid to documenting provenance or making the material accessible to the public. As the s t a f f grew 1 8 . Leo LaClare, "The Sound Archives of the Public Archives of Canada," Phonographic B u l l e t i n , no. 14 (May 1976), p. 9. 24 i n s i z e and the d i v i s i o n matured, more equity was sought between the various archival functions of ac q u i s i t i o n , description and dissemination. In 1975 an agreement was reached between the Public Archives of Canada (renamed the National Archives i n 1987) and the CBC to permit the a c q u i s i t i o n and preservation of CBC programming. 1 9 The audiovisual records became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the National Film, T e l e v i s i o n and Sound Archives (renamed the Moving Image and Sound Archives i n 1987) and the textual records were transferred to the Public Records and Manuscript Divisions of the Archives. However, under t h i s agreement, the CBC i s the cl e a r beneficiary as the Archives o f f e r s unparalleled service for the p r i v i l e g e of preserving the c u l t u r a l heritage hereto forsaken by the Corporation. For example, the CBC retains the ri g h t s to a l l programmes transferred. This causes enormous d i f f i c u l t i e s for access purposes although i t i s not wholly avoidable as a succeeding chapter of t h i s thesis on copyright seeks to explain. When the CBC requires a copy of a programme, a copy i s made at the Archives' expense, which, given the current cost of tape i s considerable. The CBC i s not precluded from making arrangements for a r c h i v a l transfers with other r e p o s i t o r i e s , although the Archives i s given f i r s t consideration i n the case of o r i g i n a l materials. The CBC also has the rig h t to approve equipment and maintenance procedures for the safeguarding of i t s programme 1 9 . Canadian Broadcasting Corporation/Public Archives of Canada Agreement November 27, 1981. Courtesy of the Moving Image and Sound Archives, National Archives of Canada. 25 m a t e r i a l s . 2 0 There i s an unresolved dispute between the CBC and the Archives over the standards to be observed when reproducing ar c h i v a l holdings for broadcast. The CBC i n s i s t s upon broadcast standards which have never been pr e c i s e l y defined and t h i s issue continues to be addressed. Despite complaints from broadcasters, a r c h i v i s t s i n s i s t that the standards they maintain meet a l l requirements and i n fact, conservators i n t h i s f i e l d are c r i t i c a l of the industry conversion to h a l f inch videotape. As the "standards" constantly evolve there must be a mutual agreement to e s t a b l i s h a measurement which w i l l s a t i s f y everyone's needs and concerns. There are several benefits from t h i s arrangement between the CBC and the National Archives. F i r s t , a large c o l l e c t i o n of valuable material i s secure and public and corporate use i s f a c i l i t i a t e d . Also, the f i n a n c i a l resources and the expertise of the MISA s t a f f are more varied than could be expected i n a smaller i n s t i t u t i o n . The CBC's Programme Archives and MISA exchange microfiche copies of t h e i r respective catalogues and are working to coordinate t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s . However, despite the status of the CBC as a Crown corporation and the agreement between i t and the National Archives, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of a c q u i s i t i o n that the Corporation i s free to dispose of i t s records without the consent of the National A r c h i v i s t , that i t i s under no obli g a t i o n to 2 0 . John Twomey, Canadian Broadcasting History Resources i n Canada - C r i t i c a l Mass or Mess? (Toronto, Ryerson Polytechnical I n s t i t u t e , 1978), pp.37-38. deposit any recordings whatsoever, and that to date i t has regarded with "reluctance and suspicion" i t s own Corporate Archives Committee. 2 1 Both the CBC News Library and Program Resources departments f e e l t h e i r p r i n c i p l e o b l i g a t i o n i s to s a t i s f y i n t e r n a l requests. There i s some suggestion that the e f f o r t s undertaken to locate and transfer tape, f i l m or sound material to the National Archives demands too heavy a share of the CBC's already dwindling assets and thus should not be an additional r e s p o n s i b l i t y of CBC s t a f f . The agreement between the National Archives and the CBC has not assured the preservation of, or access to, a l l CBC records. The records produced by the regional centres of the CBC must be included i n e f f o r t s to coordinate a c q u i s i t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Each regional production centre has strong l o c a l l o y a l t i e s and most are reluctant to approve the transfer of the programmes to a central repository i n Ottawa. On i t s part, the MISA has no desire to maintain regional c o l l e c t i o n s since i t s mandate i s national i n scope. 2 2 This delineation of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s complicated by the fact that some regional productions are eventually scheduled for national broadcast and so the f i n e l i n e between t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i s often blurred. How best to accommodate these concerns i s central to the discussion 2 1 . Ernest J . Dick, "Prospects for a History of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1 1 Archivaria 14 (Summer 1982):164. See also, The National Archives of Canada Act C - l , March 25, 1987. 2 2 . Josephine Langham, "The L i v e l y Archives," Archivaria 14 (Summer 1982): 170. 27 concerning the r o l e of p r o v i n c i a l archives i n preserving CBC documents. Regional production i s a key component of the CBC's mandate and i t i s not surprising that the d i s p o s i t i o n of these records i s a major consideration. Several proposals have been forthcoming i n answer to the objections raised concerning the transfer of a l l CBC documents to a central repository. One i s that p r o v i n c i a l archives assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for l o c a l programming which would thus enable both producers and the general public to have viable and quick access to l o c a l l y produced material. This appears to be a l o g i c a l and expedient solution, but many problems surface when i t comes to concluding an arrangement acceptable to a l l pa r t i e s . No one has championed the p o s i t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l archives as cogently as Derek Reimer, Head of the Sound and Moving Image Di v i s i o n of the Pr o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. At a symposium dealing with the archives of the CBC, Reimer voiced the objections raised i n face of the demands and obligations the care of such records e n t a i l s . 2 3 Among his reservations regarding the p r o v i n c i a l care of CBC records was the question of whether p r o v i n c i a l tax d o l l a r s should be designated for the care of records produced by a federal crown corporation. This reinforces two points; f i r s t , that as a federal agency the CBC occupies a unique position, and second, that the funds needed to provide a professional standard of care are substantial. 2 3 . Derek Reimer, "The View from a P r o v i n c i a l Perspective," Archivaria 14 (Summer 1982):159-162. 28 Equipment, manpower and storage expenditures plus a l l other operational costs must be met by the host repository. A further issue involves the separation of c o l l e c t i o n s which would r e s u l t when the textual records continue to be forwarded to Ottawa even i f the videotape and f i l m documents remain i n a l o c a l repository. Once again the c o r r e l a t i o n between a federal a r c h i v a l authority and a federal corporation a f f e c t s the willingness of p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the material. In more s p e c i f i c terms, discrepancies a r i s e between standards imposed by the CBC and those practiced by the archives. For instance, production needs often d i c t a t e more immediate and s p e c i f i c access than public archives are equipped to give. Rather than seeking an i n d i v i d u a l programme, most producers need a p a r t i c u l a r portion of that same programme, often one as short as s i x t y seconds i n length. The descriptive documentation must therefore be very precise, but as yet, there i s no standard from repository to r e p o s i t o r y . 2 4 Reimer claims that the CBC i n s i s t s that i n s t i t u t i o n s adopt CBC descriptive practices and counters that the PABC would be unwilling to abandon i t s own procedures to accommodate one c o l l e c t i o n , regardless of i t s undisputed value. Another area which demonstrates the problematic nature of caring 2 4 . The Canadian Working Group on Descriptive Standards provided an i r r e f u t a b l e i l l u s t r a t i o n that t h i s phenomenon i s not unique among broadcasting archives, but exists i n a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s , for a l l records. Towards Descriptive Standards: Report & Recommendations of the Canadian Working Group on Archival Descriptive Standards (Ottawa: Bureau of Canadian Archives, 1985), p. 34-53. for t h i s material i s , with obvious consequences, the lack of uniform appraisal c r i t e r i a among archival r e p o s i t o r i e s . A f i n a l item i s the lack of i n t e l l e c t u a l u n i f i c a t i o n of CBC c o l l e c t i o n s through the use of guides, l i s t s or catalogues. Consequently, a researcher i s unable to locate holdings i n various i n s t i t u t i o n s across the country. This i s not to say that i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have not published guides to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r holdings, but that union l i s t s have not been compiled. I t i s issues such as these which have delayed p r o v i n c i a l involvement with CBC arc h i v a l material for many years. Among the suggested solutions to these dilemmas i s the establishment of research f a c i l i t i e s i n the regional records centres of the National Archives or assistance from the National Archives and the CBC to help p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s maintain CBC a r c h i v e s . 2 5 Because there are arguments for maintaining regional c o l l e c t i o n s l o c a l l y , the National Archives may not choose to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a l l productions of the CBC. If l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s required, there must be closer coordination between the archival i n s t i t u t i o n s accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for these records to avoid duplication, or loss, and to guarantee that those r e p o s i t o r i e s which maintain these records can meet archival standards of operation. Although the CBC dominates any discussion of broadcast archives i t would be remiss to overlook the s i g n i f i c a n t contributions of private and independent broadcasting companies 2 5 . Ibid., p. 162. 30 and the various archives who preserve t h e i r records. The e f f o r t s of these bodies have larg e l y gone unheralded although the scope of the c o l l e c t i o n s i s very impressive. They range from the i n - house f a c i l i t i e s of the CTV Network to the holdings of university and l i b r a r y archives. As yet, no extensive survey has been conducted which i d e n t i f i e s f u l l y the scope and extent of holdings i n these re p o s i t o r i e s , but John Twomey's landmark study, Canadian Broadcasting History Resources i n Canada: C r i t i c a l Mass or Mess, provided the f i r s t overview of the current s i t u a t i o n . 2 6 From hi s work we learn that the CTV Network Archives i n Toronto maintains i t s administrative, programming, sales and promotion f i l e s along with approximately 700 videotapes and t h i r t e e n m i l l i o n feet of f i l m i n the Film Library. The r o l e of the network's Archives and Film Library i s to serve the needs of the network. Although there i s no formal relationship with the National Archives, copies of some programmes are occasionally sent to Ottawa for deposit, but no arrangements e x i s t for the routine transfer of a larger majority of CTV media documentation to i n s t i t u t i o n s which permit public access. This lack of a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d , no doubt, by the scarce number of scholarly works on private broadcasting i n Canada. Private c o l l e c t i o n s are common although t h e i r exact extent i s unknown. Retired broadcasters, network or s t a t i o n executives, and broadcasting employees i n other capacities often y i e l d rewarding and valuable items. Some arrange for t h e i r 2 6 . Twomey, C r i t i c a l Mass or Mess? 31 c o l l e c t i o n to be donated to a public archives such as the Harry "Red" Foster c o l l e c t i o n of s c r i p t s and discs of p r i v a t e l y produced programming from the 1940's and 1950's housed at the National Archives of Canada. Additionally, the Canadian Association of Broadcaster's Program Exchange Library i n Ottawa includes a fi n e c o l l e c t i o n of the best p r i v a t e l y produced programming i n Canada. University archives and l i b r a r i e s have made substantial contributions, perhaps the best known being the CBC Radio Drama Project at Concordia University under the d i r e c t i o n of Howard Fink. Recognizing the value of CBC support documentation, Fink i n i t i a t e d the project to save the s c r i p t s of approximately 7,000 o r i g i n a l Canadian plays produced on CBC radio from the l a t e 1920's to 1963. Concordia now maintains 14,000 s c r i p t s and has preserved the creations of an era when Canadian productions were acknowledged i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y as v i t a l contributions to the development of the dramatic a r t s . 2 7 York University cares for the CBC's t e l e v i s i o n s c r i p t s by agreement with the network and also has custody of producer Mavor Moore's papers. Other Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s maintaining broadcasting archives i n some form are the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Special Collections D i v i s i o n (the papers of Alan Plaunt, co-founder with Graham Spry of the Canadian Radio League), the University of Calgary (papers of nove l i s t s and playwrights who also wrote for radio or t e l e v i s i o n , notably W.O. 2 7 . Fink, "The CBC Radio Drama Project," pp. 54-63. 32 M i t c h e l l ) , McMaster University (6,000 CBC radio drama s c r i p t s and the papers of James Bannerman, broadcaster and L e s l i e McFarlane, writer) and Queen's University (the papers of M e r r i l l Denison, Canada's f i r s t radio dramatist). Other holdings are found at the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Windsor, Toronto, Mount A l l i s o n , New Brunswick and Memorial U n i v e r s i t y . 2 8 The r o l e these i n s t i t u t i o n s play i n the preservation of broadcasting archives i s by no means meager. Of course the preservation of private broadcast records does not rest s o l e l y with private c o l l e c t o r s , u n i v e r s i t i e s or special organizations. Both the National Archives of Canada and several p r o v i n c i a l archives have acquired i n t e r e s t i n g material from a va r i e t y of sources. One example i s the Public Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia's a c q u i s i t i o n of recordings from radio s t a t i o n CHWK i n Chilliwack, B r i t i s h Columbia. The discs date from 1939 and 1945 to approximately 1950. Included are such items as the 1939 Royal V i s i t stopover i n Chilliwack as well as advertising j i n g l e s f o r l o c a l businesses. A most prized recording contains t r i b u t e s paid to CHWK on the occasion of i t s twentieth anniversary. The tributes reveal the role of the s t a t i o n and radio generally i n a small community, describe the advances i n broadcast technology and feature a host of l o c a l performers. 2 9 Such c o l l e c t i o n s o f f e r valuable insights into the impact of radio i n r u r a l and small urban centers. The int e r e s t of l o c a l archives 2 8 . John Twomey, C r i t i c a l Mass or Mess? pp. 52-58. 2 9 . "News," ASCRT B u l l e t i n , no. 19 (August 1983), p. 26. 33 ensures the preservation of such recordings and such e f f o r t s could not be duplicated on a national scale. The p r o v i n c i a l archives of Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia and Ontario are also a c t i v e l y involved i n the preservation of broadcasting archives. In 1985 the Archives of Ontario conducted a survey of t e l e v i s i o n stations i n Toronto and Hamilton as a means of i d e n t i f y i n g a r c h i val records s t i l l maintained by t h e i r c r e a t o r s . 3 0 As a consequence, one of the stations donated material to the Archives for safekeeping. Combined with the intere s t of other groups i t i s apparent that some recognition at least has been given to the contributions of independent stations, writers, producers and other p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Canada's broadcasting history. In the introduction to t h i s chapter, i t was noted that a r c h i v i s t s once overlooked the h i s t o r i c a l value of broadcast records and consequently followed neither a methodical nor a well orchestrated approach to ac q u i s i t i o n . Access to these documents for research purposes was consequently impaired. Despite a progressive appreciation for the archival importance of the media record, neither the archival community nor the broadcasting industry has i n i t i a t e d comprehensive negotiations for the systematic preservation of these documents. Apart from sporadic arrangements between a lim i t e d number of creators and custodians, current e f f o r t s to acquire, preserve and make 3 0 . Survey of Televi s i o n Stations i n the Metropolitan Toronto area. Conducted A p r i l 1 - October 31, 1985 by Jan R o l l i n s for the Archives of Ontario. available the special media documents of the broadcasting industry are s t i l l characterized by a lack of planning and coordination. The framework of a structured approach to preservation should consist of a records d i s p o s i t i o n p o l i c y endorsed by both the industry i t s e l f and the archival community. This p o l i c y should include statements supporting records management i n broadcasting agencies and recognizing that archives do not serve as media entertainment centres. But any commitment to preserve broadcast documents must be upheld by an action plan. Such a plan must address the f e a s i b i l i t y of expecting broadcasting agencies to assume greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the documents they create. In contrast to American and European practice, Canadian broadcasters are reluctant to preserve or to permit public access to t h e i r broadcast records. Instead, c i t i n g the escalating costs associated with preserving tape stock, providing adequate f a c i l i t i e s and supporting a s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a f f complement, both public and private broadcasting agencies turn to public archives to serve as custodians. The reasons for t h i s attitude are unclear. (Even those c l o s e l y associated with the negotiations for the preservation of CBC material cannot state c a t e g o r i c a l l y whether the Corporation i s unwilling or unable to maintain i t s own c o l l e c t i o n . 3 1 ) But while the discrepancies between Canadian and foreign practices are worthy of further study, i t i s u n l i k e l y that Canadian broadcasters w i l l soon modify t h e i r long standing 3 1 . Derek Reimer, Archivaria 14 p. 159. 35 p o s i t i o n on t h i s issue. Rather, a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s must take authority and exercise t h e i r mandates to preserve the public memory. As has been recounted, many d i f f e r e n t repositories have committed resources to the preservation of broadcast material. The ro l e of l o c a l and regional archives has been demonstrated by issues of j u r i s d i c t i o n and public demand for l o c a l access. To form an e f f e c t i v e network i n t h i s regard, these and other candidate rep o s i t o r i e s should outline s p e c i f i c a l l y the extent of t h e i r mandate and the services they w i l l provide. A statement of intent should be based on a methodical assessment of the projected scope of a c t i v i t y and the relevant operational considerations. This exercise can reduce the e x i s i t i n g confusion by challenging a r c h i v i s t s to s e t t l e e s s e n t i a l issues: what i s the p o t e n t i a l scope of ac q u i s i t i o n within the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n ( t e r r i t o r i a l or otherwise), how much can the i n s t i t u t i o n afford to commit f i n a n c i a l l y , what services can i t off e r , and what other repositories are involved i n t h i s area of a c t i v i t y . Identifying the partners i n the network preserving broadcast material i s an essential factor i f a c q u i s i t i o n a c t i v i t y i s to be e f f e c t i v e l y coordinated. Without unity i n t h i s respect a c q u i s i t i o n w i l l continue to be haphazard and scarce resources w i l l not be deployed e f f i c i e n t l y . 36 CHAPTER TWO APPRAISAL Appraisal i s defined i n a glossary published by the Society of American A r c h i v i s t s as: The process of determining the value and thus the d i s p o s i t i o n of records based upon t h e i r current administrative, l e g a l and f i s c a l use; t h e i r e v i d e n t i a l and informational or research value; t h e i r arrangement; and t h e i r relationship to other records. 1 This process requires the a r c h i v i s t to analyze the o r i g i n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the record, be aware of current and developing research trends and review and measure a seri e s of rel a t e d c r i t e r i a to determine the administrative, informational and o v e r a l l a r c hival value of those records. Also assessed i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p to other records, "both i n an i n t e r - i n s t i t u t i o n a l context, but also i n a larger information context." 2 In other words, the a r c h i v i s t determines i f the information contained i n the records being appraised i s contained 1 . Frank B. Evans et a l , eds. "A Basic Glossary for A r c h i v i s t s , Manuscript Curators, and Records Managers," American A r c h i v i s t 37 (1974):417. 2 . Gerald Ham, "Archival Choices: Managing the H i s t o r i c a l Record i n an Age of Abundance", American A r c h i v i s t 47 (Winter 1984):15 i n other textual or media archival c o l l e c t i o n s , or i n published forms. The cost of preserving the material i s another important factor which i s considered during the appraisal process. In 1975 Gerald Ham observed that, despite the importance of appraisal as a c r u c i a l archival function, i t continued to be "random, fragmented, uncoordinated and a c c i d e n t a l . " 3 He suggested that a r c h i v i s t s have tended to acquire what was most e a s i l y accessible, which underscores the fundamental connection between appraisal and ac q u i s i t i o n . He also suggests that a r c h i v i s t s must come to tre a t appraisal i n a more scholarly and d i s c i p l i n e d fashion. Ham continued h i s discussion of t h i s important r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by examining, "Archival Choices: Managing the H i s t o r i c a l Record i n an Age of Abundance." 4 The urgent need to make judicious choices i s suggested i n the t i t l e of h i s a r t i c l e . The exponential growth of 20th century documentation i s a considerable factor. Whether responsible for textual or spe c i a l media material, a r c h i v i s t s agree that i t i s neither f e a s i b l e nor necessary to r e t a i n i t a l l . 5 This chapter w i l l explore the c r i t e r i a and techniques used i n the appraisal of broadcast records and w i l l review some of the practices i n established broadcast archives. 3 . Gerald F. Ham, "The Archival Edge," American A r c h i v i s t 38 (January 1975): 5. 4 . Ham, "Archival Choices," pp.,1-22. 5 . Ham, "The Archival Edge," p. 6. 38 A key element of appraisal, suggests Ham, i s the application of t r a d i t i o n a l appraisal canons i n a more rigourous, systematic and documented way. Ham also noted that: Both t r a d i t i o n a l appraisal c r i t e r i a and...other factors should be applied to the whole range of the h i s t o r i c a l record: photographs, sound recordings, t e l e v i s i o n news footage, posters, handbills and other ephemera. Selection, i n t e l l e c t u a l control and physical preservation of these materials make even greater demands on the a r c h i v i s t ' s resources than do t r a d i t i o n a l paper records. 6 T r a d i t i o n a l canons do apply to broadcast material, but additional c r i t e r i a are needed to address some of the unique appraisal problems posed by these documents. Most importantly, these c r i t e r i a are "cumulative: none stand alone" and they cannot be reduced to a mere c h e c k l i s t . 7 The c r i t e r i a developed for broadcast records can be characterized as follows: 1. H i s t o r i c a l : Programs judged to have enduring value for the study of Canadian and world h i s t o r y . Includes those which depict the evolution of the broadcasting industry as well as technological developments. 2. S o c i o l o g i c a l : Programs which r e f l e c t the o v e r a l l composition of t e l e v i s i o n programming (sports, variety, children's programmes e t c . ) . 3. A r t i s t i c : Programmes which win awards or advance the a r t of t e l e v i s i o n by demonstrating excellence i n elements of t e l e v i s i o n production. This can include the universal retention of work by noted producers, di r e c t o r s , writers or performers because of the connection to the i n d i v i d u a l and regardless of the value of the actual programme. These categories indicate that the "best" of the broadcasting 6 . Gerald F. Ham, "Archival Choices", p. 15-16. 7 . Frank Boles and J u l i a Marks Young, "Exploring the Black Box: The Appraisal of University Administrative Records", American A r c h i v i s t 48 (Spring 1985):137. 39 industry cannot be measured simply i n terms of i n t e l l e c t u a l or a r t i s t i c content. While attention i s usually focused on documentaries and news broadcasts, the s o c i o l o g i c a l influence of t e l e v i s i o n i s documented by preserving f i c t i o n a l work. Ken Larose explored the d i f f i c u l t i e s of ch r o n i c l i n g popular culture and popular hi s t o r y and concluded thus: To document f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n as media of mass communication i s c l e a r l y to maintain records of major forces shaping modern societies...The reasons f o r the importance of these films have l i t t l e to do with any i n t r i n s i c merit, but everything to do with t h e i r possible influence on large numbers of viewers. Thus any broadcast or f i l m , regardless of i t s subject matter - from t.v. game show to p o l i t i c a l speech - may f i t into t h i s category. 8 Although Larose 1s comments indicate that there has been some thought given to the need to preserve material of t h i s nature, the contents of only a few c o l l e c t i o n s r e f l e c t t h i s philosophy. The r e s u l t , observes Larose, i s that: E x i s t i n g network c r i t e r i a for keeping t h e i r own material lean heavily toward t h e i r most cultured and i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t s , presenting an irony of preservation for future hi s t o r i a n s attempting to reconstruct our s o c i a l history, e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the overwhelming amount of mediocrity broadcast to our society. Does i t matter that f a r fewer people saw the t e l e v i s i o n play so c a r e f u l l y preserved than sat transfixed by a vacuous game show which was so c a l l o u s l y erased? I t might matter a great deal when our period i s studied. Should we then preserve vast quantities of our future schlock? 9 This question underscores the need to comprehend the o r i g i n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the broadcast record. 8 . K.M. Larose, "Preserving the Past on Film: Problems for the A r c h i v i s t , " Archivaria 6 (Summer 1978):144. Ibid., p. 145. The broadcast e d i t i o n of a programme i s a fini s h e d product, made up of many components, much l i k e a published book. The creator engages i n research, a thesis evolves, various elements are arranged and rearranged to demonstrate that t h e s i s i n an appropriate manner, judicious e d i t i n g i s applied and material which i s ir r e l e v a n t or superfluous i s set aside. For example, the assembled footage for a t e l e v i s i o n documentary i s a mere f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l f i l m generated during the stages of production. The records of a t e l e v i s i o n or radio s t a t i o n consist of material produced in-house and programmes purchased from other production companies. The a r c h i v i s t seeks to c l a r i f y ownership to ascertain who holds the righ t s to the material and hence who may authorize i t s deposit i n an archives. Within a sta t i o n , each in-house producer may maintain his own f i l e s pertaining to the programmes he produces. "Master" or "c e n t r a l " programme f i l e s may contain only contractual and other f i n a n c i a l information which i s important, but which does not o f f e r a f u l l account of the production of the programme. The heavy f i n a n c i a l burdens associated with the operation of a broadcasting station force the erasure and re-use of tape stock on a f a i r l y frequent basis. Consequently, a programme which i s produced in-house i s only preserved on tape as long as i t has re-use p o t e n t i a l . News l i b r a r i e s are maintained f o r t h e i r informational value, but i n t e l l e c t u a l controls vary according to the resources of the station. Moreover, some of the material may 41 be produced by other stations or syndicated news agencies and i s loaned on a contractual basis for broadcasting purposes only. The l e g a l ownership of the material must be ascertained before the a r c h i v i s t can determine what material may be subject to appraisal. Should the a r c h i v i s t decide to round out the documentary record by preserving permanently broadcasts which meet not only the h i s t o r i c a l , but the s o c i o l o g i c a l or a r t i s t i c appraisal c r i t e r i a , then considerations of volume and cost must determine how he implements t h i s appraisal decision. The costs associated with the preservation and service of broadcast archives are high. The vast quantity of e l i g i b l e material has led a r c h i v i s t s to seek al t e r n a t i v e means to preserve' permanently material which meets the established appraisal c r i t e r i a . The desire to preserve a representative record must be measured against the p r a c t i c a l i t y of preserving "vast quantities of future schlock." As the a r c h i v i s t grapples with these issues, he or she also determines whether or not the information worthy of permanent preservation can be safeguarded i n other forms. This strategy depends upon a f a m i l i a r i t y with e x i s t i n g archival c o l l e c t i o n s as well as a commitment to the preservation of supporting textual documentation. By including the evaluation of the supporting textual documentation i n the appraisal process, the a r c h i v i s t can preserve a more representative record of the creative process without p h y s i c a l l y preserving every i n d i v i d u a l production element which may or may not have been included i n the f i n a l version of the programme. A media p r o d u c t i o n i s supported by v i t a l documentation such as s c r i p t s , p r o d u c t i o n notes and p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s . The v a l u e of p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a p p r e c i a t e d , but not i n c o n t e x t w i t h the r e c o r d i n g s they r e p r e s e n t e d and as a r e s u l t , some of the o t h e r t e x t u a l r e c o r d s such as p r o d u c t i o n f i l e s were i g n o r e d i n favour of the more glamourous media documentation. The frequent consequence f o r r e f e r e n c e and r e s e a r c h e r s was t h a t source m a t e r i a l was n e i t h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l l y nor p h y s i c a l l y r e l a t e d . Researchers i n v e s t i g a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t o f t e n d i d not r e a l i z e t h a t v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l was l o c a t e d i n o t h e r groups of r e c o r d s . Now i n s t i t u t i o n s are s t r i v i n g t o i n t e g r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r t e x t u a l and media h o l d i n g s t o encourage r e s e a r c h e r s t o c o n s u l t a l l r e l e v a n t sources r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l format. Few of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were conspicuous i n the a p p r a i s a l p o l i c i e s of former y e a r s . The absence of a w e l l developed a p p r a i s a l process f o r broadcast r e c o r d s was evidenced by the s i m i l a r i t i e s between Ham's o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the tendency t o c o l l e c t what i s c l o s e a t hand and the a c q u i s i t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , or l a c k of, i n both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a r c h i v e s . E a r l y a p p r a i s a l and a c q u i s i t i o n e f f o r t s were d i r e c t e d towards the rescue of whatever m a t e r i a l had s u r v i v e d p r e v i o u s p e r i o d s of n e g l e c t and mishandling. The r e s u l t s were a somewhat u n s t r u c t u r e d attempt a t a c q u i s i t i o n and a p p r a i s a l . The l a c k of a formal appraisal and a c q u i s i t i o n strategy led to the loss of many documents which might otherwise have been preserved. Past practices, experiences and operational requirements often determine the modern retention p o l i c i e s of archives within private organizations and may also influence what appraisal reforms are implemented. For instance, i n a paper e n t i t l e d "Report on the National Program Archives" Robin Woods, past a r c h i v i s t for the CBC, described the formation and growth of the Program Archives and reviewed the s e l e c t i o n p o l i c y , or lack thereof, which subsequently made his r o l e as a r c h i v i s t such a challenge. Woods summarized the corporation's attitude thus: The greatest document producing machine i n Canadian hist o r y was creating and consuming an incomparable record of our history. What was kept of t h i s record and what was destroyed was decided almost e n t i r e l y by operational expediency. 1 0 Such a p o s i t i o n i s not incongruous i n a corporate s e t t i n g given that recordings of any broadcast are " a n c i l l a r y to the medium - a by product of one of the myriad a c t i v i t i e s involved i n making and d i s t r i b u t i n g programs." 1 1 But while economic necessity may dic t a t e many of these p o l i c i e s , Mr. Woods and other CBC s t a f f often regret the loss of s i g n i f i c a n t works which would have contributed not only to the excellence of the CBC Programme Archives, but to the heritage of the broadcasting industry as 1 0 . An Account of the Development of Program Archives i n the English Language Services The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. quoted i n John Twomey, Canadian Broadcasting History Resources i n Canada - C r i t i c a l Mass or Mess? (Toronto: Ryerson Polytechnical I n s t i t u t e , 1978):1. Ibid., p. 1. well. A rather poignant i l l u s t r a t i o n concerns the discovery of seven C.P.E. Bach concertos. The manuscripts had been considered l o s t for 200 years, but were found i n Toronto by v i o l i n i s t Adolf Koldofsy. The concertos had never before been performed i n public, but the recordings of the CBC world premiere by Wanda Ladowska were subsequently destroyed. The los to musicology, to the repertoire of Ladowska, and to the CBC's own music l i b r a r y i s inestimable.-*-2 Such losses were among the reasons the CBC created the Ottawa Program Research and Development Group i n 1957. The Group was charged with investigating the corporation's programme archives. As a r e s u l t of i t s study, Robin Woods was appointed a Supervisor of the Program Archives i n 1959. As previously explained, a strategy was implemented for the a c q u i s i t i o n , appraisal, s e l e c t i o n and description of radio c o l l e c t i o n s f i r s t , and i n turn, t e l e v i s i o n productions were administered, but the new medium posed i t s own obstacles: "The m u l t i p l i c i t y , complexity, numbers and sheer bulk of these records soon dwarfed anything i n r a d i o . " 1 3 To manage these resources e f f e c t i v e l y , three basic appraisal c r i t e r i a were established and these continue to guide the CBC Archives' s e l e c t i o n process. F i r s t , material suitable for reuse i n future programmes i s preserved as are programmes documenting the hi s t o r y and culture of Canada or those providing a record of CBC t e l e v i s i o n and radio 12 Ibid p. 5. 13 Ibid p. 5. broadcasting. For example, part of the h i s t o r y of the CBC i s documented by programme premieres and f i n a l e s , anniversary shows, retrospectives, commissions, spectaculars, unique s p e c i a l events, controversial programmes, CBC documentaries, programmes featuring sp e c i a l achievements (such as new production or technological advances), programmes drawing a large audience response plus a sample of scheduled and unscheduled programming. " H i s t o r i c a l " programmes such as recordings of major events, p e r s o n a l i t i e s , issues, celebrations and anniversaries are also preserved. While primary attention i s given to Canadian subjects, the international perspective i s not ignored. Outstanding a r t i s t i c achievements i n the art of radio or t e l e v i s i o n production are also recognized and safeguarded. Amongst these are excellent prototypes of a genre, programmes which exhibit merit i n any aspect of production and those which win awards i n national or international competition. 1 4 The scope of these guidelines seeks to encompass v i r t u a l l y a l l possible areas of study, but the abundance of material which must be considered means that i n e v i t a b l y a large proportion i s l o s t through neglect or mischance. The B r i t i s h Broadcasting Corporation again affords an opportunity to make several comparisons between North American and European practices. The BBC preserves approximately 2% of i t s programme hours and t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y due to the same po l i c y c i t e d for i t s acquisitions strategy; namely, that the BBC 1 4 . Ibid., p. 20-21. i s financed from licence revenue and the terms of i t s charter state that a l l revenue i s for a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g to broadcasting only. This c o n s t r i c t i o n l a r g e l y determines the sel e c t i o n p o l i c y of the BBC's Sound Archives. Archive Selection Assistants audition a l l recordings which they f e e l deserve consideration for preservation. Comparisons are made to the ex i s t i n g c o l l e c t i o n to avoid duplication and attention i s given to the sig n i f i c a n c e of the sound version as opposed to the s c r i p t i t s e l f . Consideration i s also given to reuse p o t e n t i a l , as well as the h i s t o r i c and a r t i s t i c value of the programme. In addition, an annual recording i s made of a f u l l day's broadcast to preserve the contemporary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of broadcasting. 1 5 Various s e l e c t i o n techniques permit an a r c h i v i s t to preserve a portion of the archival record and cope with problems of preservation. One potential avenue i s through records management programs within government and private creating agencies. A closer involvement with the records early i n t h e i r l i f e c y c l e w i l l allow a r c h i v i s t s to determine which records are worthy of permanent preservation and help to ensure the material w i l l not be accidentally or purposefully destroyed. In fact, Records Management "may be the only e f f e c t i v e way of coping with the enormous quantity of moving images currently being produced 1 5 . Timothy Eckerlsey, "The Selection of Recordings for Permanent Retention i n the BBC Sound Archives," Phonographic B u l l e t i n no. 9 (August 1974) p. 9-12. 47 f o r . . . t e l e v i s i o n . 1 1 1 6 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s i s not a p r o c e s s which seems t o have been implemented t o any g r e a t e x t e n t . There are no w r i t t e n accounts o f any Records Management program designed f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o broadcast m a t e r i a l . S e l e c t i v e r e t e n t i o n and sampling are o t h e r methods by which the a r c h i v i s t can reduce the bulk o f a u n i t o f r e c o r d s which has a r c h i v a l v a l u e , but which cannot be p r e s e r v e d i n t o t o because of i t s e x tent. Sampling i s used t o r e f i n e the a r c h i v a l r e c o r d and s e l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s are a p p l i e d t o the m a t e r i a l a f t e r the a r c h i v i s t has determined t o a c q u i r e a body of r e c o r d s . The r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f d i f f e r e n t sampling methodologies and problems of a p p l i c a t i o n are important f o r the br o a d c a s t a r c h i v i s t . S u b j e c t i v e sampling c o n s i s t s o f the s e l e c t i o n o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t f i l e s o r documents from a l a r g e r group based on a predetermined s e t of parameters such as s u b j e c t o r geographic l o c a t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l sampling i n v o l v e s s e l e c t i n g a s m a l l p o r t i o n from a l a r g e r u n i t t h a t w i l l a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t a l l the important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l a r g e r u n i t . Every "nth" f i l e i s s e l e c t e d when s y s t e m a t i c s t a t i s t i c a l sampling i s a p p l i e d . T h i s approach has been r e j e c t e d by such i n s t i t u t i o n s as the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f Canada which p r e f e r s u b j e c t i v e r a t h e r than s t a t i s t i c a l s a m p l i n g . 1 7 The N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s c u r r e n t l y tapes a 1 6 . Sam Kula, The A r c h i v a l A p p r a i s a l o f Moving Images: A RAMP Study w i t h G u i d e l i n e s . ( P a r i s , General I n f o r m a t i o n Programme and UNISIST, UNESCO, 1983), p. 31. 1 7 . For a d i s c u s s i o n of sampling t e c h n i q u e s a p p l i e d t o the CBC programmes "Bob McLean Show" and "Take T h i r t y " see Rosemary Bergeron, "The S e l e c t i o n o f T e l e v i s i o n P r o d u c t i o n s " , A r c h i v a r i a 48 station's e n t i r e broadcast day, from the beginning to the end, on a regular, but periodic basis. This allows the Archives to capture the d i s t i n c t i v e quality of day long programming including commercials, voice-overs by announcers and r e g u l a r l y scheduled programmes. However, regardless of the chosen method, sampling i s most useful when broadcast a r c h i v i s t s develop written guidelines and regulate the r e j e c t i o n and disposal of unwanted m a t e r i a l . 1 8 Another option for e f f e c t i v e c o l l e c t i o n s management i s reappraisal and deaccessioning. These avenues have apparently not been f u l l y exploited, perhaps because there i s "so l i t t l e to guide a r c h i v i s t s - no l i t e r a t u r e , no previous p r a c t i c e . " 1 9 Records appraised i n the past can be subjected to refined appraisal c r i t e r i a or merely appraised i n a more "rigorous, systematic and documented way." 2 0 I f the material i s found to be lacking a r c h i v a l value, i t can be removed from the holdings of the i n s t i t u t i o n by means of deaccessioning. Another benefit of deaccessioning i s that i t allows a r c h i v i s t s to reunite fonds or to repatriate material which may be more su i t a b l y located i n a l o c a l repository. But, to deaccession conscientiously and without r i s k i n g the loss of t r u l y a r c h ival material, there must be well developed a c q u i s i t i o n and appraisal p o l i c i e s and the deaccessioning process must be meticulously documented. 23 (Winter 1986-87):41-53. 1 8 . Kula, The Archival Appraisal of Moving Images, p. 31. 1 9 . Ham, "Archival Choices," p. 17. 2 0 . Ibid., p. 15. 49 C r i t i c s of r e a p p r a i s a l and d e a c c e s s i o n i n g , such as Karen Benedict, g i v e v a r i o u s reasons f o r t h e i r o b j e c t i o n t o t h i s p r o c e s s . They contend t h a t a p p r a i s a l i s a v e r y s u b j e c t i v e e x e r c i s e and t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o separate d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n between a r c h i v i s t s from mistakes i n judgement d u r i n g the i n i t i a l a p p r a i s a l . Benedict c l a i m s t h a t d e a c c e s s i o n i n g should not be c o n s i d e r e d as an o p t i o n u n l e s s e a r l i e r c o l l e c t i o n and a p p r a i s a l p o l i c i e s were unsound. 2 1 In the case o f b r o a d c a s t r e c o r d s , t h e r e are arguments f o r r e a p p r a i s i n g m a t e r i a l which was c o l l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o e a r l i e r a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s and a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a . The need t o r e d e f i n e the concept of what r e c o r d s should be e l i g i b l e f o r permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n underscores the importance of conducting a p e r i o d i c review of a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a . The c r i t e r i a a p p l i e d w i t h i n both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s s hould be r e g u l a r l y r e - e v a l u a t e d i n l i g h t of new t r e n d s i n g e n e r a l s c h o l a r s h i p and a r c h i v a l s c i e n c e . New c r i t e r i a can r e f i n e the process of a p p r a i s a l and improve the standard o f the c o l l e c t i o n w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , a prime b e n e f i t t o r e s e a r c h e r s . What can be concluded from these o b s e r v a t i o n s i s t h a t c o r p o r a t e b r o a d c a s t i n g a r c h i v e s g e n e r a l l y p r e s e r v e m a t e r i a l c h i e f l y f o r t h e i r o p e r a t i o n a l use. However, they a l s o acknowledge the s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l importance of the r e c o r d s 2 1 . Karen Benedict, " I n v i t a t i o n t o a B o n f i r e : R e a p p r a i s a l and D e a c c e s s i o n i n g of Records as C o l l e c t i o n Management T o o l s i n an A r c h i v e s - A Reply t o Leonard Rapport," American A r c h i v i s t 47 (Winter 1984):45. 50 created by t h e i r organization and pay heed to those considerations as t h e i r means allow. Public archives, such as the National Archives of Canada, have more scope to preserve the public record and are therefore i n a better p o s i t i o n to s e l e c t material based on wider selection c r i t e r i a . Sam Kula observed that prejudice against media documents i s largel y due to the stereotypical view of the moving image as nothing more than a Hollywood st y l e feature f i l m . As a d i r e c t consequence the medium i s "regarded by the custodians of a r t i f a c t and culture as escapist fare of no l a s t i n g v a l u e . " 2 2 Such misconceptions are slowly disappearing, but are not absent altogether from contemporary archives. The continued refinement and a r t i c u l a t i o n of the appraisal c r i t e r i a and practices applied to broadcast material w i l l have two benefits. F i r s t , i t w i l l reinforce the place these records have i n archival repositories by emphasizing t h e i r c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l value. Second, reference and public access w i l l improve as a r c h i v i s t s discover the means to more adequately represent the contributions of broadcasting, both as an industry and as an agent of culture. Kula, The Archival Appraisal of Moving Images, p. 7. 51 CHAPTER THREE DESCRIPTION D e s c r i p t i o n i s " t h e p r o c e s s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l o v e r h o l d i n g s t h r o u g h t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f f i n d i n g a i d s " and i s t h e means by w h i c h t h e c o n t e n t s o f an a r c h i v e s a r e communicated t o i t s c l i e n t s . 1 G e n e r i c a l l y t i t l e d " f i n d i n g a i d s " , t h e s e r e f e r e n c e t o o l s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n v a r i o u s f o r m s i n c l u d i n g g u i d e s , i n v e n t o r i e s , c a t a l o g u e s a n d i n d i c e s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e c o r d may i n f l u e n c e w h i c h s t y l e o f f i n d i n g a i d i s most a p p r o p r i a t e . So t o o may t h e a c c e s s demands o f t h e p u b l i c . The c o n s i s t e n c y and q u a l i t y o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n a f i n d i n g a i d h a s become a f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n w i t h i n t h e a r c h i v a l community, u s e r s i n c l u d e d , and s o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d e s c r i p t i v e s t a n d a r d s h a s emerged as an i m p o r t a n t g o a l o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l e x p l o r e t h e n e e d s o f u s e r s i n b r o a d c a s t a r c h i v e s , t h e d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s w h i c h a r e p r e f e r r e d b y a r c h i v i s t s i n b r o a d c a s t a r c h i v e s and some o f t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d 1 . F r a n k B. E v a n s e t a l , e d s . "A B a s i c G l o s s a r y f o r A r c h i v i s t s , M a n u s c r i p t C u r a t o r s , and R e c o r d s M a n a g e r s , " A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 37 (197 4 ) : 4 2 1 . 52 b y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d e s c r i p t i v e s t a n d a r d s a s t h e y a p p l y t o b r o a d c a s t r e c o r d s . I f one p u r p o s e o f an a r c h i v a l f i n d i n g a i d i s t o make t h e r e c o r d more a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e u s e r , i t may a l s o be s u g g e s t e d t h a t f o r b r o a d c a s t m a t e r i a l t h e f i n d i n g a i d s e r v e s t o p r o t e c t t h e r e c o r d f r o m u n n e c e s s a r y h a n d l i n g . U n l i k e t e x t u a l r e c o r d s , s p e c i a l m e d i a documents c a n n o t be b r o w s e d . T h e i r p h y s i c a l f o r m r e n d e r s u s e l a b o r i o u s and r e p e a t e d a u d i t i o n i n g o f f i l m o r t a p e i n f l i c t s damage. W h i l e c o p i e s f o r p u b l i c u s e c a n be made f r o m an o r i g i n a l , t h i s i s a c o s t l y r e f e r e n c e t o o l and d o e s n o t f a c i l i t a t e r e s e a r c h i n o f i t s e l f . The f i n d i n g a i d t h u s s e r v e s b o t h a s an e s s e n t i a l n a v i g a t i o n a l t o o l f o r t h e u s e r and a s a c r i t i c a l component o f an a r c h i v a l p r e s e r v a t i o n programme. A c l i e n t p r o f i l e f o r u s e r s o f b r o a d c a s t m a t e r i a l h a s n o t be e n made p u b l i c l y a v a i l a b l e by any i n s t i t u t i o n . And s o , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o c a t e g o r i c a l l y p o r t r a y t h e t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n o r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s t h e s e c l i e n t s p u r s u e o r t h e i r r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y . However, " e x p e r i e n c e h a s shown t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s w i l l a p p r o a c h r e c o r d i n g s on an i t e m b a s i s , a s p e c i f i c e v e n t , a c e r t a i n v o i c e o r p e r f o r m a n c e . 1 1 2 T h i s demand h a s s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a r c h i v i s t s . F i r s t , e m p h a s i s w i l l b e p l a c e d on d e s c r i p t i o n a t t h e i t e m l e v e l i f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n p e r c e i v e s t h a t i t s u s e r s s e e k s p e c i f i c segments o f f i l m o r t a p e . E x t e n s i v e c r o s s - r e f e r e n c i n g a n d i n d e x i n g w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o accommodate 2 . L e s l i e G. W a f f e n , " R e c o r d e d Sound i n t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , " P h o n o g r a p h i c B u l l e t i n , no. 14 (May 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 6. 53 searches f o r s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t s , performers o r o t h e r c r e a t o r s such as d i r e c t o r s , authors or producers. F u r t h e r , t r a d i t i o n a l provenance based searches cannot always meet such demands. Recordings are produced f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons and t h e i r content i s of i n t e r e s t t o s c h o l a r s f o r more than i t s e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e . A p u b l i c a f f a i r s programme such as " T h i s Hour Has Seven Days" w i l l e x p l o r e a wide v a r i e t y of t o p i c s w i t h i n any g i v e n year and a p p r e c i a t i n g the b a s i c format of the s e r i e s w i l l not convey the t o p i c s , i n d i v i d u a l or events recorded f o r each e d i t i o n of the programme. Moreover, d e s p i t e having a d i f f e r e n t mandate and f u n c t i o n , a network's news department may encroach upon the same s u b j e c t areas t o f u l f i l l i t s programming needs or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s thereby c r e a t i n g a d i f f e r e n t r e c o r d o f the same event. The second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of user h a b i t s i n b r o a d c a s t a r c h i v e s i s t h a t c l i e n t s r e q u i r i n g s p e c i f i c segments of f i l m or tape o f t e n work t o t i g h t d e a d l i n e s and can devote v e r y l i t t l e time t o r e s e a r c h . While t h i s p r a c t i c e may seem u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the a r c h i v i s t , t h e i r p u b l i c s e r v i c e d u t i e s compel them t o f i n d a way t o s a t i s f y t h i s user group, which i n c i d e n t a l l y i s o f t e n the o r i g i n a l donor of the r e c o r d s themselves. The a r c h i v i s t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of broadcast m a t e r i a l might q u e s t i o n whether the g e n e r a l needs of t h e i r u s e r groups are a c c u r a t e l y known. However, i f i t i s accepted t h a t the m a j o r i t y of c l i e n t s seek s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a t an item l e v e l , how do a r c h i v a l f i n d i n g a i d s serve t h i s need? For some time t h e r e was debate as t o whether w r i t t e n 54 finding aids should bear the burden of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or communicating the contents of a fonds. Some a r c h i v i s t s f e e l that the subject s p e c i a l i s t should advise researchers seeking information. Certainly the knowledge gained by working with a body of records w i l l be superior to the facts which can be transcribed into a written finding a i d and, of course, a r c h i v i s t s working with media documents are, perforce, subject s p e c i a l i s t s . So convinced was Frank Burke of the merits of subject s p e c i a l i z a t i o n that he wrote: ... the a r c h i v i s t , to be t r u l y c l a s s i f i e d as an a r c h i v i s t , must be a subject or an area s p e c i a l i s t , with substantial knowledge of the content of the material for which he i s responsible. His value i s enhanced by the length of time he has worked with researchers i n the record... 3 However, i f the intent of the subject s p e c i a l i s t i s to o f f e r improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the records, i t may not be an accurate response to user needs. F i r s t , the volume of records of many repositories precludes any single a r c h i v i s t from having personal knowledge of a l l the holdings or even those within a d i v i s i o n or section of the i n s t i t u t i o n . The a r c h i v i s t cannot have such detailed knowledge that he can lead a c l i e n t to s p e c i f i c items scattered throughout many record groups. From a u s e r 1 s perspective, P h i l i p Jordan wrote: I do not expect an a r c h i v i s t , i n a large or small or public or private i n s t i t u t i o n , to have knowledge of the contents of each and every b i t of paper i n h i s 3 . Frank G. Burke, "The Impact of the S p e c i a l i s t on Archives," College and Research L i b r a r i e s 33 (1972):314. 55 custody. 4 I f there are strong arguments against the use of a subject s p e c i a l i s t for access to textual records, then i t i s more reason s t i l l to abandon such an approach for media material. I t should be noted however, that the p r i n c i p a l reliance on written finding aids does not p r o h i b i t consultation with the a r c h i v i s t responsible for the records. I t merely suggests that such consultation should follow, not precede, a search of a v a i l a b l e finding aids. If written finding aids are the most e f f e c t i v e way to cope with the volume of broadcast material housed i n archives, then what types of finding aids are chosen by a r c h i v i s t s to describe these documents? The Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s Working Group on Archival Descriptive Standards surveyed Canadian archives p a r t l y to determine what types of f i n d i n g aids were preferred by a r c h i v i s t s , what data elements were commonly included i n these finding aids and to what degree Canadian practices for the description of archival material were already standardized. The findings were included i n Towards Descriptive Standards: The Report of the Canadian Working Group on Archival Descriptive Standards. 5 Twenty-two of the 151 r e p o s i t o r i e s responding to the survey reported f i l m or video holdings and 4 . P h i l i p D. Jordan, "The Scholar and the A r c h i v i s t - A Partnership," American A r c h i v i s t 31 (January 1968):60. 5 . Towards Descriptive Standards: Report & Recommendations of the Canadian Working Group on Archival Descriptive Standards (Ottawa, Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , 1985) 56 i d e n t i f i e d a t o t a l of forty-eight finding aids for the material. Preferences for c e r t a i n types of finding aids were apparent. For example, descriptive l i s t s , indices and catalogues are favoured i n broadcast archives while the inventory, as defined by the Society of American A r c h i v i s t s places t h i r d among reported usage. 6 Subject indices are more prevalent than chronological ones. "Other" types of finding aids, such as t r a n s c r i p t s of recordings, are also reported. Location f i l e s are frequently maintained - not surprising given the need to account for the physical d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between f i l m and tape formats and the consequent need for separate storage. Box and f i l e l i s t s are not common because documents such as sound and moving images are not routinely stored i n boxes or f i l e s , but are shelved i n d i v i d u a l l y . Some basic observations can be made based on the data amassed by the Working Group. F i r s t , the d e s c r i p t i o n of these records does focus on the item l e v e l , although some archives describe the e n t i r e fonds. Also, i n a majority of instances, the use of one finding aid leads to the consultation of another, e s p e c i a l l y for f i l m material. The treatment of sound recordings d i f f e r s more frequently amongst reporting i n s t i t u t i o n s . The description of these records i s usually at a " f i l e " or unit l e v e l rather than at the item l e v e l possibly because a s i n g l e tape or cassette may contain many separate recordings- a l e s s common 6 . These figures do not represent the opinion of a l l audiovisual archives since only 50% of Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s responded to the survey conducted by the Working Group. 57 f e a t u r e of v i d e o t a p e or f i l m . 7 The m e r i t s o f these v a r i o u s f i n d i n g a i d s can be c o n s i d e r e d i n l i g h t o f u s e r demands. A l s o t o be c o n s i d e r e d are the e f f e c t s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f and budget r e s o u r c e s which may c o n t r i b u t e t o the chosen format f o r i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d t o the p u b l i c . The r e c o r d s o f the b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y are h e l d i n many i n s t i t u t i o n s a c r o s s Canada. Moreover, u s e r s have an i n t e r e s t i n the b r o a d c a s t s p r e s e r v e d i n other a r c h i v e s worldwide. The need f o r guides a t the r e p o s i t o r y l e v e l i s e v i d e n t and t o t h e i r c r e d i t , s e v e r a l Canadian a r c h i v e s have prepared guides f o r t h e i r b r o a d c a s t i n g r e c o r d s - a c o n s i d e r a b l e accomplishment c o n s i d e r i n g the r e l a t i v e s c a r c i t y of p u b l i s h e d guides f o r t e x t u a l c o l l e c t i o n s . A f i n e example i s the b i b l i o g r a p h y o f the Concordia Radio Drama P r o j e c t which l i s t s over 8,000 r a d i o drama s c r i p t s , i n c l u d i n g 3,700 Canadian p l a y s broadcast by the CBC, the CRBC and the CNR between 1925 and 1961. 8 The e n t r i e s p r o v i d e a s u c c i n c t d e s c r i p t i o n and g i v e the l o c a t i o n of major c o l l e c t i o n s housed i n Canada. The guide a l s o l i s t s those p l a y s h e l d by the BBC Drama L i b r a r y . Indexed by item, author, t i t l e and t h e sequence numbers i n the main e n t r y , the guide i s w e l l o r g a n i z e d and easy t o use. 7 . The term " f i l e " as a l e v e l of arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n i s somewhat m i s l e a d i n g when a p p l i e d t o s p e c i a l media m a t e r i a l . And s i n c e the a r c h i v i s t may wish t o d e s c r i b e the contents of a l i k e group of r e c o r d s w i t h i n a fonds of b r o a d c a s t m a t e r i a l , i t may be more accurate t o a s s i g n the term " u n i t " t o t h i s l e v e l . 8 . Howard Fink, "The CBC Radio Drama P r o j e c t and i t s Background," Canadian O r a l H i s t o r y A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , (1976- 1977):54-63. 58 In Europe and the United States several i n s t i t u t i o n s have published thematic guides and t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y has encouraged use by many foreign researchers. The BBC Sound Archives has produced three comprehensive catalogues for recorded t a l k s , speeches, events, commentaries, interviews and reminiscences plus World War II recordings from 1939 to 1945. Each provides an excellent avenue for i d e n t i f y i n g and loc a t i n g BBC sound materials. BBC Radio and TV Drama Catalogues are equally well organized. 9 Also available i s a guide i s to the BBC Home Service - Nine P.M. News 1939-1945. which reproduces news-readers typescripts and i s organized chronologically. In the United States, the Library of Congress o f f e r s a guide to the Radio Broadcasts i n the Library of Congress 1924- 1941. The 5,100 l i v e broadcasts l i s t e d are arranged chronologically. Each i s indexed by t i t l e and performer and the main entry includes the date, t i t l e and length of the broadcast as well as the c a l l number of the broadcasting s t a t i o n . Another useful publication i s Donald Godfrey's Directory of Broadcast A r c h i v e s . 1 0 Although published i n the United States, i t includes references to Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s . The c o l l e c t i o n s i n each repository are i d e n t i f i e d and b r i e f l y 9 . BBC Radio Drama Catalogue 1923-1975. The microfiche ed i t i o n reproduces 35,000 catalogue cards i n the Play Library of the BBC at Broadcasting House. BBC TV Drama Catalogue 193 6-1975. The microfiche e d i t i o n reproduces 16,000 catalogue cards i n the Play Library of the BBC Televis i o n S c r i p t Unit. 1 0 . Donald Godfrey, A Directory of Broadcast Archives (Washington, D.C., Broadcast Education Association, 1983) 59 d e s c r i b e d . A v a i l a b l e f i n d i n g a i d s are a l s o noted. In a d d i t i o n t o the s p e c i a l media r e c o r d s l i s t e d , the l o c a t i o n of t e x t u a l c o l l e c t i o n s are g i v e n , such as the Andrew A l l a n Papers, the E a r l e B i r n e y Papers and the John D r a i n i e Papers. While the data p r o v i d e d i n a guide of t h i s type i s n a t u r a l l y c o n c i s e , i t a l l o w s the r e s e a r c h e r t o o b t a i n a g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l sources. Guides such as these enable the u s e r t o i d e n t i f y which re c o r d s are h e l d w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n . The f i n d i n g a i d which i s then c o n s u l t e d g i v e s a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n concerning those c o l l e c t i o n s . In most br o a d c a s t a r c h i v e s , a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g a guide such as those d e s c r i b e d above, the r e s e a r c h e r would t u r n t o a c a r d catalogue. The scope and emphasis o f each e n t r y i n these c a t a l o g u e s v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o the e x t e n t and s u b j e c t content of the fonds i t r e p r e s e n t s . While p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the i n t e l l e c t u a l content, the e n t r y may a l s o d e s c r i b e the p h y s i c a l s t a t e and the l o c a t i o n o f the r e c o r d and l i s t the p r o d u c t i o n team r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e c o r d i n g . Experience w i t h c l i e n t requests may l e a d t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t formats f o r main e n t r y cards and v a r y i n g p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g i n d e x i n g from one r e p o s i t o r y t o another. C e r t a i n l y the o p e r a t i o n a l requirements of a c o r p o r a t e a r c h i v e s w i l l h e l p t o determine the data i n c l u d e d i n a c a r d e n t r y . In a p u b l i c r e p o s i t o r y l e s s emphasis may be p l a c e d on d e t a i l e d i n d e x i n g , but the r e s e a r c h methodology of users and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s t a f f and r e s o u r c e s may determine the q u a n t i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d . 60 The Motion P i c t u r e , B r o a d c a s t i n g and Recorded Sound D i v i s i o n o f the L i b r a r y o f Congress p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o examine the methodology of a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n . To make b e s t use o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s while s a t i s f y i n g the demands o f a d i v e r s e c l i e n t e l e , the D i v i s i o n undertakes d e s c r i p t i o n i n t h r e e stages. The f i r s t c o n s i s t s of a g e n e r a l i n v e n t o r y which a f f o r d s immediate l o c a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l o f a c o l l e c t i o n . The purpose i s t o g a i n prompt dominion over the m a t e r i a l w i t h l e s s emphasis on the accuracy of the h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n . In the second phase a p r e l i m i n a r y c a t a l o g u e i s prepared. A s t a f f member i s a s s i g n e d a f i l m o r tape on a p r i o r i t y based upon expected u s e r demand, t e c h n i c a l concerns and/or donor needs. The item i s a u d i t i o n e d and e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i s undertaken t o v e r i f y a l l i n f o r m a t i o n taken from the p i e c e . A l l a r c h i v a l c o n t r o l data i s l i k e w i s e v e r i f i e d . T e c h n i c a l data sheets and p r e l i m i n a r y c o n t r o l c a r d s are prepared. While t h i s stage i s c o n s i d e r e d an i n t e r m e d i a t e one, the data recorded on the cards i s q u i t e e x t e n s i v e . I t i n c l u d e s : 1. O r i g i n a l T i t l e (the main entry) 2. Country o f O r i g i n ( i f not the U n i t e d S t a t e s ) 3. Any r e l a t e d company, i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the o r i g i n a l r e l e a s e and t o the copy i n the D i v i s i o n . 4. P r o d u c t i o n and Broadcast Dates 5. Co p y r i g h t Information (claimant, date, number) 6. D i r e c t o r - and p o s s i b l y some o t h e r major c r e d i t s 7. Some c a s t names 61 8. C o l l e c t i o n , Source and Date of a c q u i s i t i o n 9. Physical description 10. Physical location 11. Notes - to explain further any of the elements l i s t e d above or to l i s t secondary sources consulted 12. Other t i t l e s - includes cross-references to other t i t l e s for the same work. F u l l cataloguing i s completed on a c o l l e c t i o n by c o l l e c t i o n basis as time and funding permit. The information l i s t e d i n stage two i s v e r i f i e d and then transferred onto a MARC input sheet for eventual transfer to a computer. There are no on- l i n e f a c i l i t i e s . Once i n the database, s p e c i a l request l i s t s can be generated for researchers on a cost basis. Cards with cross-references are also produced by the computer to update the preliminary controls used i n stage two and so the catalogue and index permit access by a l l the elements l i s t e d , an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the benefits of an automated system. These procedures ensure that at any given time a f t e r a c o l l e c t i o n i s accessioned, some sort of i n t e l l e c t u a l control w i l l f a c i l i t a t e user a c c e s s . 1 1 By comparison, the CBC maintains f i l e cards f o r every item with cross-references by date, subject, name, programme t i t l e , author and performers. The main entry card gives a pr e c i s of contents and distinguishing marks. The Moving Image and Sound Archives of the National Archives of Canada has adopted a system 1 1 . Interview with s t a f f of the Motion Picture D i v i s i o n of the Library of Congress, August 18, 1985. 62 s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the L i b r a r y of Congress. T h e i r emphasis i s a l s o on p r o v i d i n g minimum c o n t r o l as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e through the use of p r e l i m i n a r y data forms which are e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e d when f u l l c a t a l o g u i n g has taken p l a c e . At the BBC Sound A r c h i v e s , the r e t r i e v a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d by a c l a s s i f i e d c a r d catalogue and a supplementary index i n d i c t i o n a r y form. The main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the catalogue i s a d i v i s i o n by form ( i e : i n t e r v i e w o r play) w i t h allowances f o r f u r t h e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n such as music, s p o r t s , o r f o r e i g n language p r o d u c t i o n s . Each main c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s assigne d a l e t t e r code f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . F or example, A i s f o r T a l k s and Speeches, B i s f o r News, C f o r Chronology ( s i g n i f i c a n t events arranged i n date order) and D i s f o r Second World War m a t e r i a l and so on. Each e n t r y w i t h i n t h a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n c l u d e s the names of the br o a d c a s t e r s , authors, composers and p r o d u c t i o n s t a f f . T e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a p r e c i s o f the s u b j e c t content i s a l s o recorded. An a l p h a b e t i c a l index by t i t l e , s u b j e c t and p a r t i c i p a n t supplements the main c a t a l o g u e . T h i s index i s designed t o meet the re-use needs o f i n t e r n a l r e s e a r c h e r s . 1 2 The use of an index as a complement t o main e n t r y cards i n a catalogue i s common. In many cases the index forms a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f the catalogue system. A d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s of access can be p r o v i d e d by c r o s s - r e f e r e n c i n g data about the 1 2 . Tony T r e b b l e , " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and C a t a l o g u i n g P r a c t i c e i n BBC Sound A r c h i v e s , " Phonographic B u l l e t i n , no. 7 ( J u l y 1973), p. 19-23. 63 p r o d u c t i o n taken from the main e n t r y c a r d o r by i n t r o d u c i n g s u b j e c t headings t o a s s i s t s u b j e c t searches. D e s p i t e the common use of t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e t o o l , t h e r e i s no agreement about what body i s indexed - i s i t the i n v e n t o r y t o the c o l l e c t i o n ( i f one e x i s t s ) or should the e n t r i e s i n an index r e f e r t o s p e c i f i c p o r t i o n s w i t h i n the fonds i t s e l f ? I f the index l e a d s the u s e r d i r e c t l y t o the c o l l e c t i o n without the need t o c o n s u l t any other type of a i d , should the index then d e s c r i b e a s e r i e s or d i s c r e t e items w i t h i n a c o l l e c t i o n ? Automation can a s s i s t with the p r o d u c t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of a r c h i v a l f i n d i n g a i d s . However, a computerized system i s dependent upon the foundations l a i d by sound manual p r a c t i c e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as the f o l l o w i n g accounts demonstrate, a r c h i v e s can r e a l i z e t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s from the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f automated r e f e r e n c e systems. "Danmarks Radio" r e c o r d c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t s mainly of commercial r e c o r d i n g s . The l i b r a r y ' s c a r d c a t a l o g u e c o n t a i n e d e i g h t m i l l i o n index cards and was growing a t a r a t e of 9,000 a d d i t i o n a l cards per week. Apart from the main e n t r y f o r new a c q u i s i t i o n s , s u b j e c t headings i d e n t i f y i n g composers, arrangements and a r t i s t s had t o be l i s t e d and f i l e d on separate cards. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of a computerized system e l i m i n a t e s the need f o r c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e s which bear e s s e n t i a l l y the same i n f o r m a t i o n as the main e n t r y card. The e n t r y can p r o v i d e a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e c o r d and the user can manipulate the search 64 feature of the computer to i s o l a t e those subjects of i n t e r e s t . 1 3 The Netherlands Broadcasting Foundation, NOS, also maintains a l i b r a r y of commercial recordings. The two m i l l i o n cards i n t h e i r card catalogue have been supplemented with an automated system which uses subject "headings" and "keywords" to describe newly acquired material. After the material has been examined, a number of categories or subject headings are i d e n t i f i e d . "Headings" which w i l l appear i n the computerized entry w i l l be selected from t h i s group. The computer allows researchers to combine several "headings" to locate more s p e c i a l i z e d items. "Keywords" are f r e e l y chosen words or terms which r e f e r to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the text or music. Authority l i s t s for both "headings" and "keywords" are maintained to ensure c o n s i s t e n c y . 1 4 The increasing dependence on automated systems for the creation of ar c h i v a l finding aids has heightened, but not created, the need for descriptive standards. While an evaluation of the s p e c i f i c merits of standardization and the many problems associated with implementation are not suited to t h i s discussion, the introduction of approved standards w i l l strengthen the i n t e l l e c t u a l control a r c h i v i s t s exercise over t h e i r holdings, w i l l promote the sharing of information between 1 3 . B i b i Kjaer, "Cataloguing and the Computer - Danmarks Radio Computerizes Index F i l e , " Phonographic B u l l e t i n , no. 19 (December 1977), p.36-39. 1 4 . Joop van Dalfsen, "The Use of the Computer i n the Documentation-System of the Sound Archives of the Netherlands Broadcasting Foundation NOS," Phonographic B u l l e t i n , no. 21 (July 1978), p. 21-27. 65 repositories and w i l l f a c i l i t a t e reference. An archives housing audiovisual material may wish to adopt ex i s t i n g l i b r a r y cataloguing rules for the de s c r i p t i o n of these documents because many recordings are considered "published" items. However, archival needs d i f f e r from those of a l i b r a r y and so Anglo American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2) are not s t r i c t l y applicable. Many of the data elements presented i n AACR2 are not relevant for archives. The Working Group on Archival Descriptive Standards suggested that the Bureau of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s appoint a committee to study the requirements of sound and moving image materials i n order that a r c h i v a l d e s c r i p t i v e standards could be devised for them. This work would be co- ordinated with the current e f f o r t s of the Association for the Study of Canadian Radio and Television. This c r u c i a l recommendation w i l l help to ensure that proposed standards accommodate the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the records. The Report of the Working Group has already i n s p i r e d some i n s t i t u t i o n s to evaluate current practices and introduce standards for the i n t e l l e c t u a l control and de s c r i p t i o n of records in t h e i r custody. Description i s c r i t i c a l to such archival functions as acq u i s i t i o n , appraisal and reference because i t i s a ve h i c l e for the i n t e l l e c t u a l control of archival records. Apart from the administrative benefits such control brings, good fi n d i n g aids f a c i l i t a t e access. Any measures taken towards the development of 66 d e s c r i p t i v e standards w i l l have a pronounced e f f e c t on the q u a l i t y of r e f e r e n c e s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d t o r e s e a r c h e r s . For example, the c r e a t i o n of s t a n d a r d i z e d s u b j e c t , name and geographic headings w i l l s t r e a m l i n e the s e a r c h p r o c e s s by e l i m i n a t i n g v a r i a n t terminology. A more uniform p r e s e n t a t i o n of f i n d i n g a i d s w i t h i n and amongst i n s t i t u t i o n s may reduce the c o n f u s i o n of u s e r s and the need t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h y e t another i n f o r m a t i o n system. I t may be some time b e f o r e a r c h i v i s t s l o s e the impulse t o d e s i g n t h e i r f i n d i n g a i d s a c c o r d i n g t o the p e r c e i v e d d e s i r e s of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t group. I t i s understandable t h a t a r c h i v i s t s seek t o s a t i s f y the needs of t h e i r u s e r s by accommodating t h e i r r e s e a r c h p r a c t i c e s . Item l e v e l d e s c r i p t i o n would have g r e a t appeal t o any r e s e a r c h community and, as t h i s chapter has d i s c u s s e d , users of broadcast m a t e r i a l would undoubtedly p r e f e r t h i s approach. However, as the volume o f h o l d i n g s grow, item l e v e l d e s c r i p t i o n becomes l e s s f e a s i b l e . Regardless of the type of i n s t i t u t i o n , an a r c h i v e s cannot communicate the c o n t e n t s of the m a j o r i t y of i t s o v e r a l l h o l d i n g s i f i t devotes a l l r e s o u r c e s t o item l e v e l d e s c r i p t i o n . To a f f o r d g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s c r u t i n i z e a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of m a t e r i a l , more use c o u l d be made of the t r a d i t i o n a l i n v e n t o r y . The a r c h i v i s t c o u l d thereby p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the e n t i r e fonds and then subsequently o f f e r s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s a t a s e r i e s or item l e v e l as time and r e s o u r c e s permit. V a r i a t i o n s of t h i s approach are i n p r a c t i c e a t the L i b r a r y of Congress and the 67 N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada. S c h o l a r l y use might be f o s t e r e d by demonstrating the d i v e r s i t y of a c o l l e c t i o n w h i l e s t i l l p r o v i d i n g f o r the more p r e c i s e needs of b r o a d c a s t e r s and filmmakers. The implementation of d e s c r i p t i v e standards and automation w i l l l i k e l y improve access w i t h i n broadcast a r c h i v e s , but the c h a l l e n g e t o d e s c r i b e adequately a l l h o l d i n g s w i l l s t i l l be daunting. I t remains t o be seen whether u s e r h a b i t s w i l l change under the p r e s s u r e s the volume of m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t s or whether a r c h i v i s t s w i l l s t r u g g l e w i t h the burden of d e s c r i b i n g growing numbers of r e c o r d s a t the item l e v e l . E i t h e r way, t h i s i s s u e emphasizes the c r i t i c a l importance of d e s c r i p t i o n t o access and use by demonstrating the r e l a t i o n s h i p between u s e r needs, growth i n a c q u i s i t i o n s , d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s and the need f o r d e s c r i p t i v e standards. 68 CHAPTER FOUR PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES The t e c h n i c a l components o f s p e c i a l m e d i a m a t e r i a l s g r e a t l y i m p a i r a c c e s s and u s e . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l r e v i e w some o f t h e p r i n c i p a l c o n c e r n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l f o r m a t s o f t h e s e r e c o r d s a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e c u r a t o r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e a r c h i v i s t a s o p p o s e d t o t h o s e u n d e r t a k e n by c o n s e r v a t o r s . A c q u i s i t i o n d e c i s i o n s , a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a c c e s s may be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d i n l i g h t o f t h e p h y s i c a l demands o f t h e s e r e c o r d s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e p o o r c o n d i t i o n o f e a r l y f i l m and t a p e s t o c k h a s t e n e d t h e h a p h a z a r d a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o l l e c t i o n s a s a r c h i v i s t s s o u g h t t o p r e v e n t t h e i r f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n and l o s s by a c q u i r i n g what r e m a i n e d . The a p p r a i s a l o f t h e s e r e c o r d s a l s o r e f l e c t e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i n c e t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e v o l v i n g f o r m a t s i s a means o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e . M o r e o v e r , a s p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f f i n d i n g a i d s i s l a r g e l y d i r e c t e d a t r e d u c i n g t h e n eed t o c o n s u l t o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l w h i c h s h o u l d n o t be s u b j e c t e d t o r e p e a t e d a u d i t i o n i n g . M o r e o v e r , t h e p r o v i s i o n o f any p u b l i c a c c e s s must r e s p e c t t h e f r a i l q u a l i t i e s 69 of these documents. A r c h i v i s t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e x t u a l r e c o r d s have an understanding o f the fundamental p h y s i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which t h r e a t e n the l i f e s p a n o f paper documents. They d e a l c o n s t a n t l y w i t h how such i s s u e s as volume and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n a f f e c t a c q u i s i t i o n , a p p r a i s a l , d e s c r i p t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n . The p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with s p e c i a l media r e c o r d s are l e s s a p p r e c i a t e d . A synopsis of some of the major p h y s i c a l problems w i l l h o p e f u l l y demonstrate how such i s s u e s as h i g h c o s t s , r a p i d development of technology and developments i n media c o n s e r v a t i o n bear upon the a r c h i v a l treatment of these r e c o r d s . A r c h i v i s t s working with broadcast r e c o r d s a c q u i r e a degree of t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e which allows them t o a l l o c a t e w i s e l y a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and r e c o n c i l e the p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l needs of the r e c o r d s . D e f i n i n g the extent o f t h a t e x p e r t i s e and accommodating the p h y s i c a l requirements of thes e r e c o r d s i s i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t because t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are complex and the f i e l d o f knowledge i s r a p i d l y expanding. In the absence of a v a i l a b l e t r a i n i n g amongst support s t a f f , i n s t i t u t i o n s may f e e l d e t e r r e d from assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r br o a d c a s t m a t e r i a l . S m a l l e r r e p o s i t o r i e s with a primary focus on t e x t u a l r e c o r d s may not have e i t h e r a r c h i v i s t s o r c o n s e r v a t o r s w i t h the necessary s k i l l s t o care f o r a u d i o v i s u a l documents. Commonly, the exte n t t o which t h i s c h a l l e n g e i s met i s dependent upon the f i n a n c i a l and s t a f f r e s o u r c e s an i n s t i t u t i o n can a f f o r d t o commit. For i n s t a n c e , the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f 70 Canada r e l i e s upon the s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s o f t r a i n e d media c o n s e r v a t o r s . S m a l l e r i n s t i t u t i o n s without the e q u i v a l e n t f a c i l i t i e s seek a l t e r n a t i v e s , such as the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia which employs a s i n g l e s t a f f member i n i t s Sound and Moving Image D i v i s i o n e x p r e s s l y t o s e r v i c e the t e c h n i c a l requirements o f t h e i r h o l d i n g s . Other o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o l l o w the a d v i c e o f the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f Canada C o n s e r v a t i o n Branch which suggests t h a t a r c h i v i s t s a c q u i r e a f a m i l i a r i t y with the e s s e n t i a l t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and p r o v i d e the b e s t p o s s i b l e p r o t e c t i v e measures f o r the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f the c o l l e c t i o n ; i n the event o f a s e r i o u s c o n s e r v a t i o n problem, the a r c h i v i s t can then request the a s s i s t a n c e o f a q u a l i f i e d media co n s e r v a t o r . During a 1984 workshop entitled,"Workshop on the Cons e r v a t i o n and P r e s e r v a t i o n of Moving Images and Recorded Sound", the c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s e x p l a i n e d t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s between the p h y s i c a l needs and l i m i t a t i o n s o f the reco r d s , c o n s e r v a t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n expenses, and t h e a r c h i v a l d e c i s i o n s o f the a r c h i v i s t . Among many examples c i t e d was a h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n which an a r c h i v i s t a c q u i r e d a c o l l e c t i o n i n poor p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and i n r e t u r n promised c o p i e s o f a l l items f o r the donor. The c o n s e r v a t o r s urged the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o be aware of the c o s t s and s t a f f r e s o u r c e s needed t o ensure the a r c h i v a l p r e s e r v a t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s " c o l l e c t i o n " . Furthermore, they d i s c u s s e d how commitments such as were made i n t h i s example tend t o undermine the o r d e r and p r i o r i t i e s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n a c o n s e r v a t i o n s e c t i o n . 71 The workshop attempted t o educate the a r c h i v i s t i n o r d e r t h a t he or she might be b e t t e r a b l e t o a p p r a i s e , a c q u i r e and d i s s e m i n a t e a r c h i v a l b r o a d c a s t i n g r e c o r d s . The emphasis was p l a c e d on the fundamental i s s u e s which a f f e c t sound and moving images and the e s s e n t i a l knowledge the a r c h i v i s t should have r e g a r d i n g these documents. A l s o examined were the hazards which cannot be c o r r e c t e d without the a s s i s t a n c e of a p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s e r v a t o r . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n r e f l e c t s the p h i l o s o p h y o f t h i s workshop. 1 Severe p h y s i c a l damage t o e i t h e r f i l m , sound r e c o r d i n g s or v i d e o tape i s r e a d i l y apparent even t o the u n t r a i n e d eye and, as w i l l be o u t l i n e d , v a r i o u s p r e v e n t a t i v e measures can be "undertaken. However, i n order t h a t he may a s s e s s the f u t u r e needs of a c o l l e c t i o n , the a r c h i v i s t w i l l become f a m i l i a r with the more s u b t l e s i g n s of d e t e r i o r a t i o n . F i l m and tape may appear t o be i n p e r f e c t c o n d i t i o n , but the presence o f unseen contaminants can t h r e a t e n a c o l l e c t i o n no matter how s t r i c t the a r c h i v a l s t o r a g e and h a n d l i n g requirements. For example, the q u a l i t y of f i l m p r o c e s s i n g has a g r e a t e f f e c t on s t a b i l i t y because " p r o c e s s i n g f l u i d s may leave s t a i n s which d e s t r o y the image and a r e s i d u e of raw chemical which w i l l d e s t r o y the f i l m . " 2 I f the f i l m i s subsequently improperly s t o r e d or 1 . "Workshop on the Conservation and P r e s e r v a t i o n of Moving Images and Recorded Sound". N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of nnada. J u l y 2-5, 1984. Attendance by author. 2 . Sandra Lopez, " F i l m : An A r c h i v a l Problem," P.N.L.A. ^ r l y 34 ( Spring 1970):16. 72 mishandled, the pro c e s s of decay i s a c c e l e r a t e d and even under i d e a l s t o r a g e c o n d i t i o n s these r e s i d u a l c h e m i c a l s w i l l impair the m a t e r i a l . As a f u r t h e r example, the dangers of n i t r a t e f i l m are w e l l documented. U n t i l the 1950's n i t r a t e s erved as the primary base f o r 35mm f i l m s t o c k and so i s commonly found w i t h i n a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s . N i t r a t e has a l i f e span o f f o r t y t o s i x t y years and once d e t e r i o r a t i o n begins i t a c c e l e r a t e s v e r y r a p i d l y . U l t i m a t e l y the s u r f a c e becomes s t i c k y , the emulsion s e p a r a t e s from the base and the image i s l o s t . The r i s k o f spontaneous combustion i s g r e a t , e s p e c i a l l y with r o l l e d f i l m because as i t d e t e r i o r a t e s a flammable gas i s emitted. While the f i l m must be exposed t o h i g h temperatures (over 100 f a h r e n h e i t ) f o r an extended p e r i o d b e f o r e an e x p l o s i o n r e s u l t s , spontaneous combustion o f n i t r a t e f i l m has occur r e d . The N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada employs s p e c i a l l y equipped v a u l t s t o p r o v i d e the environmental and t e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l necessary t o p r e s e r v e n i t r a t e f i l m . The i s o l a t i o n o f the v a u l t s a l s o p r o t e c t s o t h e r c o l l e c t i o n s from damage due t o f i r e o r emitted gas. Another demonstration o f the i n h e r e n t weaknesses i n f i l m m a t e r i a l i s the i n a b i l i t y o f c o l o u r f i l m s t o c k t o r e t a i n i t s v i v i d n e s s . T e l e v i s i o n broadcasts which i n c o r p o r a t e f i l m footage from the 1960's i l l u s t r a t e how s e r i o u s t h i s problem has become. When comparisons are made t o modern f i l m o r v i d e o t a p e , the l o s s of q u a l i t y caused by the f a d i n g of the c o l o u r dyes i s s t r i k i n g l y apparent. As y e t , no way has been found t o prevent the f a d i n g of 73 c o l o u r f i l m . Moreover, modern c o l o u r s t o c k o f f e r s no guarantee a g a i n s t the same l o s s of c l a r i t y i n f u t u r e y e a r s . Heat and humidity c o n t r i b u t e t o the impairment of the image and so i t i s recommended t h a t c o l o u r m a t e r i a l be s t o r e d i n temperatures c l o s e t o O"F and 15-20% r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y . 3 N e v e r t h e l e s s , such p r e c a u t i o n s w i l l not t o t a l l y prevent but o n l y d e l a y the l o s s of q u a l i t y . Although these examples i l l u s t r a t e the types of p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n which cannot be r e v e r s e d by p r e v e n t a t i v e or r e s t o r a t i v e measures, t h e r e are many procedures which can be f o l l o w e d i n an a r c h i v a l environment which w i l l p r o h i b i t a s e r i o u s l o s s of q u a l i t y . The implementation and enforcement of proper storage and h a n d l i n g r e g u l a t i o n s are e s s e n t i a l . Of fundamental importance i s the environmental standards imposed. Apart from the s p e c i a l needs of n i t r a t e and c o l o u r f i l m , the recommended temperature requirements f o r sound and moving images are much the same as f o r t e x t u a l records (60-70 F ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y however, the e f f e c t s of h i g h temperatures v a r y with d i f f e r e n t media m a t e r i a l s . For example, s h e l l a c and modern v i n y l r e c o r d i n g s should not be exposed t o h i g h temperatures, but o l d e r a c e t a t e tapes and modern p o l y e s t e r can a p p a r e n t l y withstand 3 . The c o s t of c o l d storage i s c o n s i d e r a b l e and i s i m p r a c t i c a l on a l a r g e s c a l e f o r most i n s t i t u t i o n s . Commercial f r e e z e r s are not equipped t o p r o v i d e the humidity l e v e l s recommended. I f c o l d storage i s a v a i l a b l e , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t the f i l m be brought t o room temperature b e f o r e i t i s a u d i t i o n e d or the s t r e s s may f r a c t u r e the b r i t t l e f i l m . 74 temperatures o f over 100 f a h r e n h e i t . 4 G e n e r a l l y however, temperatures should never exceed 70 F s i n c e h i g h temperatures can cause s e v e r a l forms of d e t e r i o r a t i o n a p a r t from the growth of mold and mildew. One of the most common i s " p r i n t - t h r o u g h " , a melding o f images which occurs when a f i l m i s r o l l e d and the emulsion i s back t o back. Because the two s i d e s a re i n c o n t a c t the emulsions l i f t o f f and t r a n s f e r onto o t h e r p o r t i o n s o f the r o l l e d f i l m . Another common r e s u l t o f high temperatures and s h i f t i n g humidity i s shrinkage or warping which a f f e c t s a c e t a t e o r c e l l u l o s e f i l m . An a l l o w a b l e degree o f shrin k a g e i s measured a t .8% and ine x p e n s i v e gauges are a v a i l a b l e t o perform t h e s e measurements. 5 When t h i s mark i s exceeded the s p r o c k e t h o l e s i n the f i l m w i l l no l o n g e r a l i g n with the t e e t h o f the p r o j e c t o r and the f i l m w i l l t e a r and be i r r e v e r s i b l y damaged. O c c a s i o n a l l y shrinkage can be t e m p o r a r i l y r e v e r s e d w i t h the use o f "vacumated" tanks. A f t e r soaking f o r one t o t h r e e weeks i n a chemical s o l u t i o n , the s o f t e n e d f i l m i s s u f f i c i e n t l y p l i a b l e f o r copying. However, the f i l m does not remain i n t h i s s t a t e permanently and thus a p r e s e r v a t i o n copy must be made immediately. V a c i l l a t i n g o r h i g h humidity poses the same t h r e a t t o sound 4 . D i e t r i c h S c h u l l e r , " T e c h n i c a l B a s i s o f Sound A r c h i v e Work" i n Sound A r c h i v e s : A Guide t o t h e i r E s t a b l i s h m e n t and Development. ed. David Lance ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Sound A r c h i v e s S p e c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n s no. 4, 1983), p. 17. 5 . I n f o r m a t i o n obtained d u r i n g the "Workshop on the Conse r v a t i o n and P r e s e r v a t i o n o f Moving Images and Recorded Sound", 1984. and moving image c o l l e c t i o n s as t o any o t h e r media. I t i s recommended t h a t humidity l e v e l s not exceed 45-65% and t h a t s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s be maintained. Unique items, such as wax c y l i n d e r s , r e q u i r e more s p e c i a l i z e d c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . The s i z e of an a r c h i v e s may p r o h i b i t m o d i f i e d compartments f o r the s t o r a g e of d e l i c a t e m a t e r i a l s , but the p r e v e n t i o n o f f l u c t u a t i o n s i n humidity and temperature i s more e s s e n t i a l than the d e s i g n of e x c e p t i o n a l c l i m a t i c f a c i l i t i e s . Contaminants such as dust, sulphur o x i d e s , carbon and n i t r o g e n are e s p e c i a l l y harmful. Dust l e a d s t o s c r a t c h e s on f i l m , tape and sound r e c o r d i n g s . Damage caused t o the base s i d e of f i l m can be r e p a i r e d , but emulsion s c r a t c h e s are permanent and r e s u l t i n a l o s s of the image. As a p r e v e n t a t i v e measure, a l l r e c o r d i n g s should be p l a c e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e e n c l o s u r e s . 6 B r i e f l y , the c o r r e c t storage of t h i s m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . S h e l v i n g s h o u l d be s t u r d y and of s u f f i c i e n t width t o accommodate a l l s i z e s o f c a s s e t t e s or d i s c s . D i s c s should be p r o v i d e d w i t h adequate support t o prevent l e a n i n g and should not be t i g h t l y packed. N e i t h e r f i l m nor tape should be wound too t i g h t l y around a r e e l or " c i n c h " marks w i l l r e s u l t . Conversely, t e a r s and f o l d s w i l l occur i f the tape o r f i l m i s too l o o s e l y wound. F i l m i n any c o n t a i n e r should be s h e l v e d i n a h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n t o prevent i t from s i n k i n g on the r e e l . 6 . There i s i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e recommending proper e n c l o s u r e s f o r both sound and moving images. Given the t e c h n i c a l advances i n t h i s f i e l d i t i s wise t o c o n s u l t the most c u r r e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s . 76 Sound and v i d e o tape may be s t o r e d v e r t i c a l l y . 7 Damage caused by improper storage i s r a r e i n an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y s i n c e most i n s t i t u t i o n s adhere t o these recommended standards. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n j u r y i s more commonly th e r e s u l t of n e g l i g e n t h a n d l i n g . I n i t i a l l y , mistreatment by donors, such as the use of adhesive s p l i c e s , f a u l t y playback equipment and a poor s t o r a g e environment, may damage the m a t e r i a l . An i n s t i t u t i o n must emphasize the need t o ensure t h a t proper h a n d l i n g requirements are met by both s t a f f and p u b l i c u s e r s t o minimize f u r t h e r wear. Much o f the p h y s i c a l breakdown of a r e c o r d i n g i s i n f l i c t e d by the playback machinery. As the f i l m o r tape winds through and around the guides w i t h i n , t i n y s c r a t c h e s are etched onto the m a t e r i a l . Two key p r e v e n t a t i v e measures can minimize the consequences of repeated a u d i t i o n i n g . F i r s t , whenever p o s s i b l e the o r i g i n a l s h ould not be used f o r r e f e r e n c e purposes. Even under the s t r i c t e s t g u i d e l i n e s , repeated use l e a v e s s i g n s of d e t e r i o r a t i o n . Many i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d e a r e f e r e n c e copy f o r r e s e a r c h use and the o r i g i n a l remains the p r e s e r v a t i o n master. As a second p r e c a u t i o n , the equipment should r e c e i v e r e g u l a r maintenance because the tape heads wear down and the e l e c t r i c a l p a r t s can become f a u l t y . The frequency response s h o u l d be checked d a i l y , the tape heads cleaned and demagnetized weekly and '. David H a l l , "Phonorecord P r e s e r v a t i o n : Notes of a Pragmatist," S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 62 (1971):358-360. 77 a f u l l s e r v i c e g i v e n every two months. 8 Proper playback procedures a l s o h e l p t o reduce s t r e s s on sound and moving images. To a v o i d e x c e s s i v e s t r a i n some a r c h i v e s permit o n l y the r e g u l a r p l a y f u n c t i o n s ; no rewind or f a s t f o r w a r d o p t i o n s and no stop and s t a r t i n g p r i v i l e g e s are o f f e r e d . Others do not p l a c e any o p e r a t i n g c o n t r o l s whatsoever i n the hands of the user. An intercom system a l l o w s communication between the s t a f f , who i n i t i a t e the playback, and the user, who s i t s i n a s p e c i a l i z e d l i s t e n i n g a r ea. These o p t i o n s may not be a v a i l a b l e t o s m a l l e r a r c h i v e s who have n e i t h e r the equipment nor the s t a f f t o enforce such a programme, but users can be p r o h i b i t e d from i n f l i c t i n g unnecessary wear on both the machinery and the tape, and of course s h o u l d be s u p e r v i s e d w h i l e h a n d l i n g any m a t e r i a l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t as the technology has developed, so too have the c o n s e r v a t i o n recommendations f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n and care of these documents. For i n s t a n c e , i t was p r e v i o u s l y suggested t h a t t o guard a g a i n s t the t h r e a t o f magnetic o r e l e c t r i c contamination, tapes should be s t o r e d on non-conductive s h e l v i n g such as wood or p l a s t i c . I t i s now f e l t t h a t the t h r e a t was exaggerated because the l e v e l of e l e c t r i c i t y o r magnetism needed t o a f f e c t a tape i s f a r h i g h e r than i s c u s t o m a r i l y found i n e i t h e r a r c h i v a l or museum storage areas. 8 . Recommendations based on r e g u l a r use p a t t e r n s . D i e t r i c h S c h u l l e r , " T e c h n i c a l B a s i s of Sound A r c h i v e Work," i n Sound A r c h i v e s ; A Guide t o t h e i r E s t a b l i s h m e n t and Development, p. 14-15. 78 As e x p e r t i s e i n the f i e l d of sound and moving image c o n s e r v a t i o n grows, i t i s c l e a r t h a t much g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be focused on how e v o l v i n g technology can be a p p l i e d t o the c a r e g i v e n these r e c o r d s . In many i n s t a n c e s these advances pose f u r t h e r problems, such as how t o m a i n t a i n equipment and e x p e r t i s e f o r an outdated technology. The machinery c r e a t e d t o produce and playback e a r l y forms of f i l m and tape becomes r a r e and expensive t o m a i n t a i n as the format grows o b s o l e t e . Because a r c h i v i s t s seek t o p r e s e r v e the o r i g i n a l form of the i n f o r m a t i o n whenever p o s s i b l e , i t i s not a c c e p t a b l e simply t o copy the o l d format onto a new one. Moreover, changes come so r a p i d l y t h a t "new" formats v e r y q u i c k l y become " o l d " . I t i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e r v e much of the e a r l y equipment. Tape formats have a l r e a d y matured t o such an e x t e n t t h a t bulky two-inch tape i s o b s o l e t e . The s m a l l e r formats are convenient and l e s s c o s t l y f o r the b r o a d c a s t e r , but the l i f e span and d u r a b i l i t y of tape has not been p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of v i d e o and o p t i c a l d i s c s may p r e s e n t s e v e r a l a t t r a c t i v e o p t i o n s . For the permanent s t o r a g e of r e c o r d s i n a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , v i d e o d i s c s have r e v o l u t i o n i z e d the concepts of s t o r a g e and r e t r i e v a l . Data i s r e c o r d e d "on a s p e c i a l master d i s c by exposure t o an i n t e n s e and s h a r p l y focused p e n c i l of l i g h t from a high-powered l a s e r . " 9 The r e c o r d i n g i s accomplished by r e a r r a n g i n g the protons t h a t form p a r t of the 9 . Dennis Mole and Josephine Langham, P i l o t Study of the A p p l i c a t i o n of Video D i s c Technology at the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada (Ottawa: P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, 1982). p. 5. 79 structure of the recording substance. The la s e r forms t i n y holes or ridges i n a t i g h t s p i r a l on the surface of the master di s c . Replicas are made by a process of "stamping", s i m i l a r to the manufacture of phonograph records. The information i s "read" by a laser while the disc spins on a high speed turntable. Translated e l e c t r o n i c a l l y , the information then appears on a t e l e v i s i o n screen. A computer controls the operation of the video disc and allows for either random search or programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . 1 0 The storage capacity i s astounding. Sam Kula marvelled that such "recording devices...will enable me to carry our (Moving Image and Sound Archives) entire holdings around with me in an attache c a s e . " 1 1 Unfortunately, t e s t s f o r longevity have been inconclusive. The l i f e span can be predicted with a reasonable degree of accuracy, but cannot be s t r i c t l y s p e c i f i e d . However, the substances used for such discs are extremely stable and are far more permanent than magnetic tape. Moreover, since i t i s read by a l i g h t source, nothing touches the d i s c i t s e l f . T h e o r e t i c a l l y then, given that there i s p r a c t i c a l l y no wear, the number of plays i s l i m i t l e s s . The beam of l i g h t ignores dust, d i r t and scratches on the surface since i t focuses on the encoded si g n a l . When the recording i s sealed within a p l a s t i c coating, i t s longevity i s extended and i t can then withstand abuse from 1 0 . Ibid., p. 5. 1 1 . Sam Kula, "Archiving Television: NFTSA and Broadcasts of National H i s t o r i c a l Significance, 1 1 AS CRT B u l l e t i n , no. 16 (November 1982), pp. 10-11. 80 h a n d l i n g and s t i l l reproduce the recorded i n f o r m a t i o n with a b s o l u t e f i d e l i t y . 1 2 Given t h a t t h i s new technology o f f e r s so many a p p e a l i n g p r o s p e c t s , i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t f u l l implementation has not ye t been s u c c e s s f u l i n e i t h e r Canadian or American a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada commissioned a p i l o t study i n 1978 t o i n v e s t i g a t e the f e a s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g v i d e o d i s c s as a means of p r o v i d i n g access and s o l v i n g many othe r common c o n s e r v a t i o n problems, not o n l y f o r s p e c i a l c o l l e c t i o n s , but f o r t e x t u a l records as w e l l . The c o n c l u s i o n of t h e i r study was t h a t the technology met a r c h i v a l standards, but the u n c e r t a i n t y of c o s t s and storage c a p a c i t i e s i n the f u t u r e was s u f f i c i e n t t o warrant c a u t i o n i n adopting the system a t the p r e s e n t time. The c o s t of producing a master d i s c was estimated at $2000.00. Each subsequent copy c o u l d be p r e s s e d f o r r o u g h l y $40 t o $50. The g r e a t e r the number of c o p i e s produced, the s m a l l e r the c o s t per p i e c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the i n i t i a l p r i c e remains c o n s i d e r a b l e and beyond the f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of s m a l l e r i n s t i t u t i o n s . Manufacturers are c o n t i n u i n g t o improve and redevelop the necessary hardware and so systems produced one year are outdated by the next. The systems c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e range i n p r i c e from $10,000 t o 7 or 8 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s and so w h i l e the p o t e n t i a l f o r such technology i s g r e a t , the c o s t s and need f o r r e s e a r c h and development have d e f e r r e d immediate implementation. An e x t e n s i v e study j u s t completed by the 1 2 . Mole and Langham, P i l o t Study, p. 6. 81 Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n L i b r a r i e s also concluded that o p t i c a l disk technology has not been s u f f i c i e n t l y developed to s u i t the special needs of Archives and does not warrant the current c o s t . 1 3 In the meantime, a r c h i v i s t s must cope with the current impact of technological development. As previously mentioned, videotape formats have changed r a d i c a l l y i n recent years. Broadcasters r e l i e d primarily on f i l m i n the 1960's. In the interim they changed to 2" tape, then 1" tape, and then 3/4" and are now favouring broadcast quality 1/2" tape. And, the playback equipment a l t e r s as each new format i s introduced. The repercussions extend to the archives which must e i t h e r provide such equipment or re-dub old tape onto new. Repositories must also ensure that i f such transfers are undertaken, the r e s u l t i n g quality w i l l meet an acceptable standard for playback. Determining what that standard should be has become an extremely contentious issue. Broadcasters are the primary users of radio and t e l e v i s i o n archives and broadcasting organizations s t i p u l a t e that the materials w i l l be preserved and maintained to meet "broadcast standards", but these standards are f a s t i d i o u s and costly to meet. Broadcasters i n s i s t that q u a l i t y not be compromised, but a r c h i v i s t s claim that the broadcast standards as requested are excessive and that the care awarded the material i n an archives i n in e v i t a b l y better than i t would receive i f housed 1 3 . "Report of the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n L i b r a r i e s Optical Disk Working Group," by Nancy E. Gwinn, Chair. Washington, D.C., 1986. (Typewritten) 82 by the c r e a t i n g agency. A r e c e n t survey o f s e v e r a l b r o a d c a s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d t h a t a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s were not s t o r e d i n i d e a l environmental c o n d i t i o n s and t h a t p r e s e r v a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n procedures had not been a d d r e s s e d . 1 4 The l e v e l of care extended i n an a r c h i v a l s e t t i n g i s c l e a r l y s u p e r i o r t o the r a t h e r haphazard p r o v i s i o n s made by the c r e a t i n g a g e n c i e s . I f such documents were l e f t i n t h e i r care, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t they would s u r v i v e l e t alone be maintained a t the broadcast standards they i n s i s t on f o r a r c h i v e s . A r c h i v i s t s are i n a s t r o n g p o s i t i o n t o argue t h a t the l e v e l of c are they p r o v i d e w i l l p r o t e c t the "broadcast q u a l i t y " of the item and u n t i l such time as the standards are c l a r i f i e d and more s h a r p l y d e f i n e d , donating o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d be informed of the b e n e f i t s of a r c h i v a l maintenance. A consequence o f these cumulative f a c t o r s i s t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n s s eeking t o a c q u i r e broadcast r e c o r d s c o n s i d e r not o n l y whether the c o l l e c t i o n f a l l s w i t h i n t h e i r purview, but whether or not t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s are s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e adequate c a r e f o r the m a t e r i a l once i t i s a c q u i r e d . (Such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s bear upon p r e v e n t a t i v e maintenance and h a n d l i n g and not the treatment of i r r e v e r s i b l e damage such as n i t r a t e d e t e r i o r a t i o n or c o l o u r l o s s . ) I f d e s p i t e i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r i g h t s an i n s t i t u t i o n concludes t h a t i t cannot a f f o r d t o p r o v i d e a r c h i v a l c a r e f o r a c o l l e c t i o n , the r e p o s i t o r y may d e c i d e not t o 1 4 . Survey of T e l e v i s i o n S t a t i o n s i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto area. Conducted A p r i l 1 - October 31, 1985 by Jan R o l l i n s f o r the A r c h i v e s of O n t a r i o . 83 accept the r e c o r d s . Or, i t may be more r i g o r o u s i n i t s a p p r a i s a l d e c i s i o n s i n an e f f o r t t o reduce the amount o f m a t e r i a l d e s t i n e d f o r permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , in-house broadcast a r c h i v e s must c a r e f u l l y balance t h e i r a p p r a i s a l d e c i s i o n s w i t h c o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Should they seek t o donate t h e i r r e c o r d s elsewhere, they w i l l not do so u n l e s s they have conf i d e n c e t h a t the r e p o s i t o r y can meet the t e c h n i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s they seek t o impose. Access i s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the p h y s i c a l form o f these records s i n c e the p r e c a u t i o n s taken by the i n s t i t u t i o n t o prevent mishandling impinge upon the ease of use. I f t h e r e i s a s i n g l e i s s u e dominating the d i s c u s s i o n of p h y s i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i t i s the enormous c o s t s which are assumed when c a r i n g f o r these r e c o r d s . From the a d d i t i o n a l s h e l v i n g needed f o r h o r i z o n t a l storage of f i l m c a n i s t e r s t o the ever-changing requirements brought by e v o l v i n g tape formats and equipment improvements, most a r c h i v e s may never be i n a p o s i t i o n t o take a p r o a c t i v e r o l e i n the a c q u i s i t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of broadcast r e c o r d s . For those who w i l l , the p h y s i c a l requirements of these documents w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p l a y a l a r g e r o l e i n determining the methodology o f a r c h i v a l c a r e f o r s p e c i a l media documents. 84 CHAPTER F I V E COPYRIGHT: "NO SEX APPEAL" Canada's C o p y r i g h t A c t was e n a c t e d i n 1921 t o c o d i f y t h e e c o n o m i c and m o r a l r i g h t s o f c r e a t o r s . 1 The A c t a s s u r e s them o f f a i r c o m p e n s a t i o n f r o m t h o s e who w i s h t o o b t a i n a c o p y o f t h e i r work, r e p r o d u c e i t o r s e l l i t t o t h e p u b l i c . I t a l s o s a f e g u a r d s t h e i r m o r a l r i g h t s e n t i t l i n g them t o c l a i m a u t h o r s h i p and p r e v e n t i n g t h e " d i s t o r t i o n , m u t i l a t i o n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n o f ( t h e i r ) w o r k . " 2 B u t t h e same p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h p r o t e c t t h e e c o n o m i c and p e r s o n a l i n t e g r i t y o f t h e c o p y r i g h t h o l d e r s e r i o u s l y hamper p u b l i c r i g h t s o f a c c e s s i n an a r c h i v a l s e t t i n g . S i n c e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s law, new t e c h n o l o g i e s , c r e a t o r e x p e c t a t i o n s and u s e r i n t e r e s t s h a v e c o n f i r m e d t h e n e e d f o r m a j o r r e v i s i o n s . I n t h e p a s t s i x t y - s e v e n y e a r s s e v e r a l c o m m i t t e e s h a v e b e e n a p p o i n t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f o r m and e x t e n t o f s u c h r e v i s i o n s , b u t d e s p i t e a l o n g s t a n d i n g a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e A c t h a s b e e n u n a b l e t o meet s o c i e t y ' s n e e d s , new l e g i s l a t i o n h a s o n l y r e c e n t l y b e e n p r o p o s e d . The a r c h i v a l community h a s much t o 1 . C a n a d i a n C o p y r i g h t A c t 1970 R.S.C. 1970. 2 . Keon, "The C a n a d i a n A r c h i v i s t and C o p y r i g h t L e g i s l a t i o n , " A r c h i v a r i a 18 (Summer 1984): 91. 85 g a i n by u r g i n g the adoption of a contemporary law because a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s i n a l l formats are s u b j e c t t o c o p y r i g h t r e g u l a t i o n s . Moreover, as t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s make i t e a s i e r t o a p p r o p r i a t e the works of ot h e r s by copying, r i g h t s o f access may be unduly r e s t r i c t e d i n an attempt t o p r o t e c t the r i g h t s o f c r e a t o r s . In 1984, i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a new c o p y r i g h t b i l l , the government i s s u e d two major d i s c u s s i o n papers f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c r e a t o r s and i n t e r e s t e d u s e r s , From Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n : P r o p o s a l s f o r the R e v i s i o n o f the Canadian Copyright A c t and C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s f o r C r e a t o r s : Report o f the Sub-Committee on the R e v i s i o n o f C o p y r i g h t . 3 As p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the review p r o c e s s , a r c h i v i s t s as w e l l as many oth e r a f f e c t e d groups and i n d i v i d u a l s made p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o the government Committees r e s p o n s i b l e f o r recommending the p r o v i s i o n s o f the new law. The p u b l i c responses t o the p r o p o s a l s i n From Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n were asse s s e d and addressed by the Sub-Committee on the R e v i s i o n o f C o p y r i g h t i n Char t e r o f R i g h t s f o r C r e a t o r s . The exchange of views r e s u l t i n g from the r e l e a s e o f these two papers, i n a d d i t i o n t o the a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by a r c h i v i s t s c a r i n g f o r b r o a d c a s t i n g r e c o r d s , form the b a s i s o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the problems and i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f o r m u l a t i o n of even-handed l e g i s l a t i o n and the a f f e c t of 3 . Canada. Department of Consumer and Corporate A f f a i r s . From Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n : Proposals f o r the R e v i s i o n o f the Canadian C o p y r i g h t A c t . 1984. Ch a r t e r o f Righ t s f o r C r e a t o r s : Report o f the Sub- Committee on the R e v i s i o n of Copyright. By G a b r i e l Fontaine, Chairman. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r f o r Canada, 1985. 86 c o p y r i g h t on t h e a r c h i v a l t r e a t m e n t o f s o u n d and m o v i n g i m a g e s . The p u r p o s e o f e x a m i n i n g s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f C a n a d i a n and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o p y r i g h t law i s t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e many ways t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t s a c c e s s and r e f e r e n c e t o b r o a d c a s t m a t e r i a l . To t h i s end, most o f t h e p r i n c i p l e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e law w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and e v a l u a t e d . A l s o , t h e a l t e r n a t i v e methods o r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p r o v i d i n g s a f e g u a r d s f o r t h e c r e a t o r w h i l e p r o m o t i n g p u b l i c a c c e s s w i l l be e x p l o r e d . And, a s h a s b e e n t h e c a s e i n p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s , b e f o r e d e t a i l i n g t h e s p e c i f i c a r g u m e n t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t e d by C a n a d i a n s i n p u r s u i t o f a c o n t e m p o r a r y c o p y r i g h t law, c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n t o A m e r i c a n and E u r o p e a n e x p e r i e n c e s . The s i m i l a r i t i e s between i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o p y r i g h t l a w s were d e m o n s t r a t e d t o t h e a r c h i v a l community i n 1978 when t h e C o p y r i g h t Committee o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Sound A r c h i v e s r e v i e w e d t h e l e g i s l a t i o n o f member n a t i o n s and documented t h e p r o b l e m s o f d i s s e m i n a t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m imposed r e s t r i c t i o n s on u s e . A f u n d a m e n t a l c r i t i c i s m o f t h e many p i e c e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n e xamined by t h e c o m m i t t e e was t h a t t h e y h a d b e e n d r a f t e d i n an e r a when t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y was new and u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d . 4 F o r i n s t a n c e , a t t h a t t i m e , t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s s u c h as home v i d e o r e c o r d e r s a n d s a t e l l i t e d i s h e s were n o t e v e n e n v i s i o n e d , b u t t h e s e d e v i c e s a r e now common and e x i s t i n g l a w s do n o t p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y . 4 . " R e p o r t o f t h e IASA C o p y r i g h t C o m m i t t e e , " P h o n o g r a p h i c B u l l e t i n , no. 24 ( J u l y 1979), pp. 5-26. 87 The most s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y between the v a r i o u s a c t s i s the e x c e s s i v e d u r a t i o n of p r o t e c t i o n granted t o the c r e a t o r s of r e c o r d i n g s . In Canada the term i s f i f t y y e a r s from the making of the o r i g i n a l p l a t e . 5 The same a p p l i e s i n A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand, S w i t z e r l a n d , A u s t r i a , I r e l a n d and South A f r i c a , among o t h e r s . I n B r a z i l i t extends f o r s i x t y y e a r s ; i n I t a l y a t h i r t y y e a r r u l e a p p l i e s ; i n West Germany, Norway and Sweden i t i s t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s ; i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , twenty-eight; and i n Japan, twenty. 6 The l e n g t h of these terms i s an u n f o r t u n a t e o b s t a c l e t o the use of m a t e r i a l i n any type of i n s t i t u t i o n . On the o t h e r hand, IASA a l s o determined t h a t some c o u n t r i e s have attempted t o balance compensation f o r a r t i s t s w i t h p r i v i l e g e s of l e g i t i m a t e use. One t o o l f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s i s the r e g i s t r a t i o n and/or compulsory d e p o s i t system. T h i s i n v o l v e s the requirement f o r r e g i s t e r i n g and d e p o s i t i n g a work w i t h i n a c e r t a i n p e r i o d or c o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n i s f o r f e i t e d . Elsewhere, such as i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , r e g i s t r a t i o n and d e p o s i t must occur b e f o r e the owner(s) can e x e r c i s e t h e i r c o p y r i g h t s (such as when i n s t i g a t i n g a l e g a l s u i t i n cases of i n f r i n g e m e n t ) . Some n a t i o n s r e q u i r e m a t e r i a l such as sound r e c o r d i n g s t o be d e p o s i t e d f o r c u l t u r a l reasons. These systems i d e n t i f y c o p y r i g h t h o l d e r s and l e s s o n the h a r d s h i p s of t r a c i n g the owner. While o c c a s i o n a l l y such p r o v i s i o n s are designed t o permit 5 . R.S.C. 1970 c. C-30, S.9. 6 . "Report of the IASA Copyright Committee," Phonographic B u l l e t i n , no. 24 ( J u l y 1979), pp. 21-26. 88 access i n a l i b r a r y environment only, o t h e r s a l l o w f o r l e g i t i m a t e r e s e a r c h use i n an a r c h i v a l s e t t i n g . For example, the N a t i o n a l Record and A u d i o v i s u a l Department o f the French N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y s t u d i e d the l e g a l problems o f p e r m i t t i n g p u b l i c access t o t h e i r h o l d i n g s and subsequently sought a decree r u l i n g t h a t r e s e a r c h u t i l i z i n g a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s would be l i m i t e d t o on s i t e use o n l y , t a k i n g i n t o account French laws on c o p y r i g h t . 7 In the U n i t e d Kingdom unauthorized i m p o r t a t i o n , s a l e , h i r e or commercial e x h i b i t i o n f o r t r a d e purposes i s an i n f r i n g e m e n t of c o p y r i g h t . A r e c o r d i n g i s p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t d u p l i c a t i o n i n whole or p a r t , as w e l l as a g a i n s t unauthorized b r o a d c a s t or performance. The Canadian law d e f i n e s " p u b l i c a t i o n ' ' as the i s s u e of c o p i e s t o the p u b l i c . I t s p e c i f i e s t h a t "unpublished works" i n l i b r a r i e s , museums and a r c h i v e s are p r o t e c t e d f o r over f i f t y y ears from the death of the author or f o r over 100 y e a r s from the c r e a t i o n of the work. A f t e r these l i m i t a t i o n s , the work may be reproduced f o r p r i v a t e study or r e s e a r c h . 8 Other c o u n t r i e s employ the " f a i r use" d o c t r i n e which i s intended t o p ermit s c h o l a r s h i p t o f l o u r i s h without f e a r of i n f r i n g i n g c o p y r i g h t . T h i s p r a c t i c e i s a c e n t r a l component i n both the Canadian and 7 . Marie-France Calas, "The N a t i o n a l Record and A u d i o v i s u a l Department of the French N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y : H i s t o r y , A c t i v i t i e s , C o l l e c t i o n s , " Phonographic B u l l e t i n , no. 23 ( A p r i l 1979), p. 18. 8 . Jim Keon, "The Canadian A r c h i v i s t and C o p y r i g h t L e g i s l a t i o n , " A r c h i v a r i a 18 (Summer 1984):95. 89 American l e g i s l a t i o n . In the Canadian C o p y r i g h t A c t as enacted i n 1921 and c o d i f i e d i n a r e v i s e d s t a t u t e i n 1952, " f a i r d e a l i n g w i t h any work f o r the purposes of p r i v a t e study, r e s e a r c h , c r i t i c i s m , review o r newspaper summary" does not i n f r i n g e c o p y r i g h t . A l s o , a "performance without motive o f g a i n " does not contravene the l e g i s l a t i o n ; however, c o p y r i g h t i s i n f r i n g e d i f the work i s " s o l d o r l e t f o r h i r e " and a l t e r a t i o n t o , or omissions from, the produced work are not p e r m i t t e d without the owners 1 c o n s e n t . 9 In the U n i t e d S t a t e s a 1974 landmark l a w s u i t d e a l t w i t h the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of such measures when the CBS network sued the V a n d e r b i l t U n i v e r s i t y T e l e v i s i o n News A r c h i v e s c h a r g i n g t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n had i n f r i n g e d on the c o p y r i g h t s o f CBS news programmes. S i n c e August 5, 1968, the V a n d e r b i l t A r c h i v e s had taped both news and s p e c i a l news events, such as p r e s i d e n t i a l conventions, c o n g r e s s i o n a l hearings and so on. Copies were a v a i l a b l e on l o a n f o r a f e e . The a r c h i v e s a l s o compiled onto one tape any i n d i v i d u a l news items s e l e c t e d by r e s e a r c h e r s . CBS charged t h a t such a p r a c t i c e damaged t h e i r c r e d i b i l i t y and r e p u t a t i o n s i n c e no one other than a CBS employee was a u t h o r i z e d or q u a l i f i e d t o e d i t t h e i r b r oadcasts. Furthermore, they argued t h a t the statements made by p u b l i c f i g u r e s e x i s t e d because of the equipment and p e r sonnel p a i d f o r by the network, and t h e r e f o r e , the a u d i o v i s u a l r e c o r d was e f f e c t i v e l y t h e i r p r o p e r t y . The U.S. F e d e r a l Court was p e t i t i o n e d t o order V a n d e r b i l t U n i v e r s i t y t o 9 . R.S.C. 1970, c. C-30, S.17 (2). 90 r e t u r n a l l the m a t e r i a l i n c l u d i n g taped c o p i e s . CBS a f f i r m e d t h a t a l l attempts w i t h V a n d e r b i l t t o reach an agreement which would p r o v i d e access without c o p y r i g h t i n f r i n g e m e n t s had been u n s u c c e s s f u l . V a n d e r b i l t countered by arguing t h a t t h e news b r o a d c a s t s had h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e , were of n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , i n f l u e n c e and i n t e r e s t and so should be a v a i l a b l e under the p r o v i s i o n s o f " f a i r use". They c i t e d the dismal r e c o r d o f p r e s e r v a t i o n and r e t r i e v a l a t many commercial s t a t i o n s and networks which had r e s u l t e d i n an abundant l o s s of m a t e r i a l . They maintained t h a t t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s were u n a l t e r e d and "as a i r e d " (which i s c o r r e c t except f o r the c o m p i l a t i o n tapes which contravene c o p y r i g h t r e g u l a t i o n s , not t o mention the a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e of o r i g i n a l o r d e r ) . V a n d e r b i l t excused t h i s p r a c t i c e by r e a s o n i n g t h a t a r e s e a r c h e r w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n v i e w i n g o n l y s p e c i f i e d items would not la b o u r under the misconception t h a t he was watching a r e p l a y o f an a c t u a l broadcast. The A r c h i v e s a l s o a s s e r t e d t h a t no items were s o l d , d u p l i c a t e d o r r e b r o a d c a s t . S e v e r a l e x p e r t s advised as t o the v a l i d i t y o f these arguments. L. Quincy Mumford, the L i b r a r i a n o f Congress, s t a t e d t h a t : "The d a i l y t e l e v i s i o n news programs are not c o p y r i g h t e d and do not e x i s t i n any such permanent form as Kinescope f i l m . " 1 C e r t a i n l y v i d e o t a p e s of programmes are s e l e c t i v e l y r e t a i n e d by s t a t i o n s i f they are of e x c e p t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and have h i g h 1 0 . "CBS Sues TV News A r c h i v e s , " American L i b r a r i e s 5 (1974):119. 91 re-use p o t e n t i a l , but the overwhelming m a j o r i t y a re erased and u s u a l l y o n l y the s c r i p t s and f i l m e d p o r t i o n s o f news programmes s u r v i v e . U l t i m a t e l y CBS was u n s u c c e s s f u l w i t h the s u i t . The U.S. Congress passed the Copyr i g h t R e v i s i o n A c t i n 1976 which p e r m i t t e d " l i b r a r i e s and a r c h i v e s t o make o f f the a i r v i d e o t a p e s of d a i l y network news f o r r e s e a r c h purposes and f o r l e n d i n g . 1 , 1 1 T h i s a c t i o n subsequently l e d CBS t o drop i t s c o p y r i g h t i n f r i n g e m e n t s u i t . 1 2 V a n d e r b i l t s t i l l o p e r ates i t s T e l e v i s i o n News A r c h i v e s and has a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a R e g i o n a l Video Center a t George Washington U n i v e r s i t y i n Washington, D.C. t o i n c r e a s e access t o i t s h o l d i n g s , although no a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l i s s t o r e d at the Regiona l Center. Instead " i t serves as a r e n t a l agency f o r V a n d e r b i l t by a s s i s t i n g patrons i n o r d e r i n g newscasts and compiled t a p e s . " 1 3 V a n d e r b i l t c o n t i n u e s t o r e n t tapes f o r o f f - s i t e use and s t i l l compiles tapes a c c o r d i n g t o u s e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . A b e n e f i c i a l consequence of the CBS/ V a n d e r b i l t case was the c r e a t i o n o f ATRA, the American T e l e v i s i o n and Radio A r c h i v e s , l o c a t e d i n the L i b r a r y of Congress. Although the case was s e t t l e d out of c o u r t , the U.S. Copyright O f f i c e prepared f o r the 1 1 . "Hearings t o Consider A c q u i s i t i o n o f T e l e v i s i o n Programs f o r ATRA," L i b r a r y of Congress I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n 41 (March 12, 1982):80. 1 2 . Deidre Boyle, "Regional Center b r i n g s TV News t o L i b r a r i e s , " American L i b r a r i e s 9 (1978):51. 1 3 . I b i d . , p. 51. 92 p o s s i b i l i t y of c o u r t proceedings by i n t r o d u c i n g an approach i t hoped would narrow the " V a n d e r b i l t " amendment. I t commissioned ATRA t o p r o v i d e a p o t e n t i a l f e d e r a l r e s o u r c e f o r a u d i o v i s u a l news. S e c t i o n s 108(f)(3) and the ATRA p o r t i o n o f the new C o p y r i g h t law l i m i t e d t e l e v i s i o n a r c h i v e s t o a u d i o v i s u a l news programmes and narrowed t h e i r l e n d i n g power. 1 4 Under the ATRA a c t the L i b r a r y o f Congress i s t o p l a c e i n the a r c h i v e s : "those t e l e v i s i o n and r a d i o programs which are of p r e s e n t or p o t e n t i a l p u b l i c or c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t , h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , c o g n i t i v e v a l u e , otherwise worthy of p r e s e r v a t i o n . " 1 5 These p r o v i s i o n s accomplished two o f t e n d i s p a r a t e aims. While p e r m i t t i n g o f f - t h e - a i r r e c o r d i n g , the c o p y r i g h t owners were assured t h a t c o p i e s of taped programmes would not p r o l i f e r a t e o u t s i d e the L i b r a r y because of t h e i r l e n d i n g p o l i c i e s nor would the u n c o n t r o l l e d p u b l i c performance of c o p y r i g h t e d works c o n t a i n e d i n those t r a n s m i t t e d programmes be p e r m i t t e d . Conversely, the r e t e n t i o n of these v a l u a b l e r e c o r d s was assured. The C o p y r i g h t O f f i c e of the L i b r a r y of Congress p u b l i s h e d i t s f i n a l r e g u l a t i o n s on the a c q u i s i t i o n and d e p o s i t of unpublished t e l e v i s i o n programmes on August 17, 1983 i n the F e d e r a l R e g i s t e r . Designed t o a s s i s t ATRA, these r u l e s a l l o w the l i b r a r y t o make o f f - t h e - a i r c o p i e s and t o demand c o p i e s of unpublished t e l e v i s i o n t r a n s m i s s i o n s . ATRA may a l s o a c q u i r e 1 4 . "Hearings t o Consider A c q u i s i t i o n o f T e l e v i s i o n Programs f o r A t r a , " p. 80. 1 5 . I b i d . , p.80. 93 programmes through the c o p y r i g h t r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e s s and f o r p u b l i s h e d programming, through S e c t i o n 407 o f the mandatory d e p o s i t r u l e . 1 6 A c c o r d i n g t o the U.S. Copyright Act, a l l b r o a d c a s t m a t e r i a l s are under mandatory d e p o s i t r e g u l a t i o n s . The R e g i s t e r of C o p y r i g h t s may make a w r i t t e n demand t o the owner of the r i g h t of t r a n s m i s s i o n t o d e p o s i t a copy of a s p e c i f i c programme i n the L i b r a r y of Congress ( S e c t i o n 4 0 7 ( e ) ( 2 ) ) . 1 7 The l e g i s l a t i o n a l s o permits o f f - t h e - a i r r e c o r d i n g of b r o a d c a s t s f o r a r c h i v a l p u r p o s e s . 1 8 As w e l l , any n o n - p r o f i t a r c h i v e s o r l i b r a r y may copy an unpublished work f o r purposes of p r e s e r v a t i o n o r s e c u r i t y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , "as the law a p p l i e s t o t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g , the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f a program i s not p u b l i c a t i o n - i t i s a performance, not a p u b l i c a t i o n . 1 , 1 9 P u b l i c a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o p i e s t o the p u b l i c by s a l e or o t h e r t r a n s f e r of ownership or by r e n t a l , l e a s e or l e n d i n g . O f f e r i n g t o d i s t r i b u t e c o p i e s t o a group of persons f o r the purposes o f f u r t h e r d i s t r i b u t i o n , p u b l i c performance or p u b l i c d i s p l a y a l s o c o n s t i t u t e s p u b l i c a t i o n . Given these g u i d e l i n e s , r u l e s and o b l i g a t i o n s i t i s easy t o understand the d i f f i c u l t i e s between V a n d e r b i l t and CBS. 16 I b i d p. 80. 17 I b i d p. 80. 18 Keon, "The Canadian A r c h i v i s t and C o p y r i g h t L e g i s l a t i o n , " p. 95. 1 9 . "Hearings t o Consider A c q u i s i t i o n o f T e l e v i s i o n Programs f o r A t r a , " p. 81. 94 A T R A 1 s l i a b i l i t y was s o f t e n e d by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f o r m u l a f o r o f f - t h e - a i r r e c o r d i n g . By i t , t h e L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s d o e s n o t have t o n o t i f y n o n c o m m e r c i a l s t a t i o n s b e f o r e t a p i n g t h e i r programmes. I f t h e owner o f t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n r i g h t s s u b m i t s a w r i t t e n r e q u e s t , t h e L i b r a r y w i l l c o n f i r m i f a c o p y was made. An a t t e m p t i s made however, t o n o t i f y i n d e p e n d e n t c o m m e r c i a l s t a t i o n s i f a r e c o r d i n g i s t o be c o p i e d by t h e A r c h i v e s . I d e a l l y , t h e p r i n c i p l e o f m a n d a t o r y d e p o s i t w o u l d g u a r a n t e e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n s i n c e t o r e g i s t e r c o p y r i g h t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e p o s i t two c o p i e s o f t h e work. However, b r o a d c a s t e r s r a r e l y n eed t o r e g i s t e r f o r t h e i r own p u r p o s e s , h e n c e t h e c l a u s e a l l o w i n g t h e R e g i s t e r t o r e q u e s t c o m p l i a n c e . The need f o r a f i n e l y t u n e d a p p r a i s a l p o l i c y i s e v i d e n t . I f t h e r e q u e s t i s made t o o l a t e , t h e p r o g r a m w i l l l i k e l y h a v e b e e n e r a s e d and i t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e t o i n s i s t t h a t e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l programme be r e g i s t e r e d . Not e v e r y programme r e q u i r e s c o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n and t h e c o s t s o f p r e s e r v i n g a l l s u c h r e g i s t e r e d works w o u l d be c o n s i d e r a b l e . I n f a c t , n o t a l l f i l m s p r o d u c e d a r e r e g i s t e r e d f o r c o p y r i g h t , e s p e c i a l l y e x p e r i m e n t a l o r i n d e p e n d e n t f i l m s . M o r e o v e r , many f i l m s f a i l t o a c h i e v e c o m m e r c i a l s u c c e s s , and s o i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a ma r k e t , t h e p r o d u c e r s d o n ' t b o t h e r t o c o m p l e t e r e g i s t r a t i o n by d e p o s i t i n g a c o p y o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n . 2 0 F a i r u s e p r o v i s i o n s i n A m e r i c a n C o p y r i g h t l e g i s l a t i o n do 2 0 . Sam K u l a , The A r c h i v a l A p p r a i s a l o f M o v i n g Images: A RAMP S t u d y w i t h G u i d e l i n e s ( P a r i s : G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n Programs and UNISIST, UNESCO, 1983) pp. 45-46. 95 a l l o w f o r some f l e x i b i l i t y , but the g u i d e l i n e s are not so broad as t o p r o v i d e a " l o o p h o l e " f o r i n d i s c r i m i n a t e c o p y i n g . G u i d e l i n e s p e r m i t t i n g n o n - p r o f i t i n s t i t u t i o n s t o tape o f f - t h e - a i r f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes were reached by a n e g o t i a t i n g committee r e p r e s e n t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l and l i b r a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , c o p y r i g h t p r o p r i e t o r s , c r e a t i v e g u i l d s and unions. The copy may be r e t a i n e d f o r a maximum of f o r t y - f i v e days u n l e s s a s p e c i a l l i c e n s e extends the d u r a t i o n . The T e l e v i s i o n L i c e n s i n g Centre was c r e a t e d f o r the p r e c i s e purpose of n e g o t i a t i n g the l i c e n s e s between n o n - p r o f i t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and networks or other v i d e o c o p y r i g h t o w n e r s . 2 1 The arrangement i s intended f o r t e a c h e r s , but the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the a r c h i v a l community are c l e a r . S i n c e r e c o g n i t i o n has been g i v e n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e of b r o a d c a s t s , the groundwork has been l a i d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a system f o r the permanent r e t e n t i o n of b r o a d c a s t s w i t h a r c h i v a l v a l u e . " F a i r use" i s o f t e n e a s i e r t o demonstrate depending upon the nature of the programme i t s e l f . An " i n f o r m a t i o n a l " work such as a news programme or documentary i s r e c o g n i z e d f o r i t s e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e whereas one c r e a t e d p u r e l y f o r entertainment i s l e s s e a s i l y approved. A r c h i v i s t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s are arguing t h a t today's entertainment i s a source of i n t e r e s t t o tomorrow's h i s t o r i a n and as such the p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t such f a r e should not be upheld by those j u d g i n g " f a i r use" o f c o p y r i g h t e d Z L . Laura Gasaway, " A u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l and C o p y r i g h t i n S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s , " S p e c i a l L i b r a r i e s 74 ( J u l y 1983):233. 96 m a t e r i a l s . D e s p i t e t h e a m b i g u i t i e s w h i c h r e m a i n , A m e r i c a n c o p y r i g h t l e g i s l a t i o n h a s gone f a r t o e n s u r e t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f b r o a d c a s t r e c o r d s . F o r a r c h i v i s t s , t h e i d e a l C a n a d i a n c o p y r i g h t a c t w o u l d echo some o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e A m e r i c a n l e g i s l a t i o n , s u c h as t h e a u t h o r i t y o f a n a t i o n a l a g e n c y s u c h a s ATRA t o c h o o s e and p r e s e r v e programmes o f h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e a s w e l l a s m a n d a t o r y r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s t o a s s i s t w i t h t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f b r o a d c a s t s d e s e r v i n g p e r m a n e n t p r e s e r v a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e m e a s u r e s w h i c h c a n be i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e new law a r e l i m i t e d b e c a u s e o f p r e v i o u s C a n a d i a n commitments made i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . The b a s i s f o r Canada's l e g i s l a t i o n i s t h e 1886 B e r n e U n i v e r s a l C o p y r i g h t C o n v e n t i o n . A t a c o n f e r e n c e i n B e r n e , S w i t z e r l a n d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a d o p t e d t h e " I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f l i t e r a r y and a r t i s t i c w o r k s " t o w h i c h Canada was a s i g n a t o r y . 2 2 U n d e r t h e agreement, w h i c h came i n t o e f f e c t on December 7, 1887, member n a t i o n s a r e bound t o p r o v i d e a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f p r o t e c t i o n f o r works by a u t h o r s f r o m o t h e r member c o u n t r i e s and s u c h p r o t e c t i o n i s e n j o y e d r e c i p r o c a l l y . T hus, C a n a d i a n works a r e p r o t e c t e d a t home and a b r o a d . The f i r s t r e v i s i o n s t o t h e C o n v e n t i o n came i n 1896, b u t t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d . The appended B e r l i n D i p l o m a t i c C o n f e r e n c e i n 1908 s u p p r e s s e d a l l r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , b e c a u s e Canada i s s t i l l a p a r t y t o t h e B e r n e 2 2 . R.S.C.c. C-30 S c h e d u l e I I : R e v i s e d B e r n e C o n v e n t i o n . 97 Convention, no Canadian c o p y r i g h t l e g i s l a t i o n can impose mandatory r e g i s t r a t i o n or d e p o s i t : R e g i s t r a t i o n of c o p y r i g h t i s o p t i o n a l i n Canada. There i s no s t a t u t o r y s a n c t i o n o r p e n a l t y f o r not r e g i s t e r i n g a work; one does not f o r e g o c o p y r i g h t by n e g l e c t i n g t o r e g i s t e r a c l a i m i n i t . C o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n a r i s e s a u t o m a t i c a l l y w i t h c r e a t i o n i n a l l p u b l i s h e d and unpublished works and no f o r m a l i t i e s or procedures are r e q u i r e d t o o b t a i n p r o t e c t i o n . 2 3 The C o p y r i g h t A c t a f f e c t s the d e p o s i t , p r e s e r v a t i o n and use of broadcasted m a t e r i a l s housed i n a r c h i v e s i n s e v e r a l ways. F i r s t , the l a c k of mandatory r e g i s t r a t i o n and d e p o s i t means t h a t agencies such as the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s a c q u i r e m a t e r i a l without having the b e n e f i t of a c e n t r a l source documenting the c r e a t i o n of broadcast programmes. Second, a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s need t o d u p l i c a t e sound and moving images f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n purposes and have s t r o n g arguments f o r the r o l e of r e f e r e n c e c o p i e s as a c o n s e r v a t i o n t o o l . The c o p y r i g h t a c t does not s a n c t i o n these a c t i v i t i e s . The law i s so vague about usage o f t h i s n ature t h a t i t i s broken c o n t i n u o u s l y , but not f o r the purpose o f commercial e x p l o i t a t i o n . T h i r d , access i s f r e q u e n t l y s u b j e c t t o v a r i o u s r e s t r i c t i o n s . For i n s t a n c e , the c u r r e n t agreement between the CBC and N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada permits the p u b l i c t o view or l i s t e n t o c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s on A r c h i v e s ' premises o n l y . The CBC a l l o w s i n d i v i d u a l s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o use m a t e r i a l f o r p e r s o n a l or e d u c a t i o n a l purposes i n c l o s e d c i r c u i t p r o v i d i n g the borrower guarantees t h a t c o p i e s w i l l not be made and t h a t he w i l l not p r o f i t commercially. The N a t i o n a l F i l m Board s e l l s or lends 2 3 . I b i d . , p. 92. 98 a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , b u t must a c q u i r e a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y r i g h t s h e l d by p e r f o r m e r s o r t e c h n i c i a n s . N a t u r a l l y , t h e b u y e r o r r e n t e r may n o t p r o f i t h i m s e l f b y any f u r t h e r c o m m e r c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s a s he d o e s n o t a c q u i r e t h e c o p y r i g h t w i t h t h e p u r c h a s e o r r e n t a l o f t h e programme. U n l i k e t h e NFB, most a r c h i v e s c a n n o t n e g o t i a t e f o r t h e s e c o p y r i g h t s ; t h e y c a n n o t a f f o r d t o p u r c h a s e them n o r c a n t h e y manage t o i d e n t i f y a l l owners. C o n t r a c t u a l a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n an A r c h i v e s and a d o n o r o c c a s i o n a l l y w a i v e c o p y r i g h t f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s , b u t s u c h a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e n o t a l w a y s a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n s i n c e t h e d o n o r r a r e l y h o l d s t h e c o p y r i g h t on e v e r y i t e m he d e p o s i t s w i t h an A r c h i v e s , And as s h a l l be d e m o n s t r a t e d , f a i r u s e p r o v i s i o n s do n o t s a t i s f y a l l t h e c o n c e r n s o f a r c h i v i s t s p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e " t h e r e i s d o u b t as t o w h e t h e r t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l f a l l s w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f f a i r d e a l i n g . 1 , 2 4 The A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e S t u d y o f C a n a d i a n R a d i o a n d T e l e v i s i o n o u t l i n e d t h e p r i n c i p l e p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e c u r r e n t c o p y r i g h t l e g i s l a t i o n i n a b r i e f s u b m i t t e d t o t h e F e d e r a l C u l t u r a l P o l i c y R e v i e w Committee. B e c a u s e o f i t s c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s , i t i s w o r t h q u o t i n g a t l e n g t h : By F e d e r a l s t a t u t e , two c o p i e s o f e v e r y C a n a d i a n document (book, p e r i o d i c a l , newspaper) must be d e p o s i t e d i n t h e N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y , O t t a w a , upon p u b l i c a t i o n . . . T h e g u a r a n t e e s o f p r e s e r v a t i o n and r a p i d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p r i n t m a t e r i a l s a r e o b v i o u s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e a r e p a r a l l e l g u a r a n t e e s o f t h e 2 4 . Keon, "The C a n a d i a n A r c h i v i s t and C o p y r i g h t L e g i s l a t i o n , " p. 95. 99 p r e s e r v a t i o n o f government r e c o r d s , t h r o u g h s i m i l a r m a n d a t o r y d e p o s i t r e g u l a t i o n s ; a n d t h e r e a r e new l a w s g i v i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o t h e s e r e c o r d s . By c o n t r a s t , t h e r e a r e no s u c h g u a r a n t e e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e p r o d u c t s o f b r o a d c a s t i n g . T h e r e a r e , s i m p l y , no r e g u l a t i o n s n o r any c o m p u l s o r y p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f , o r a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o , t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . The documents o f t h e CBC, a Crown C o r p o r a t i o n , do n o t f a l l w i t h i n t h e ma n d a t o r y d e p o s i t r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e d o f g o v e r n m e n t D e p a r t m e n t s , n o r do p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s h a v e any g r e a t e r o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d . T hus t h e s c r i p t s and v a l u a b l e s u p p o r t i n g d o c u m e n t s o f b r o a d c a s t i n g ( i n c l u d i n g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , c o n t r a c t s and so on) a s w e l l a s t h e e l e c t r o n i c r e c o r d s o f a c t u a l b r o a d c a s t s , a r e u n d e r no p r o t e c t i o n , and u n d e r no a c c e s s i b i l i t y r e g u l a t i o n s . A c c e s s t o a c t u a l p r o g r a m s i s r e g u l a t e d by t h e C o p y r i g h t A c t ; t h e i m p o r t a n t t e r m h e r e i s " p u b l i c a t i o n 1 1 . The o n l y f o r m i n w h i c h a p r o g r a m i s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e p u b l i c i s on t h e a i r . U n l i k e p r i n t m a t e r i a l s , t h e p u b l i c a p p e a r a n c e o f w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s p u b l i c a t i o n (and h e n c e r e a s o n a b l e f u r t h e r a c c e s s ) , t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g o f r a d i o o r t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m s i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be p u b l i c a t i o n . N o t o n l y i s i t n o t m a n d a t o r y t o d e p o s i t c o p i e s o f b r o a d c a s t programmes, b u t a c c e s s t o p o s t - b r o a d c a s t p r o g r a m s i s as r e s t r i c t e d a s t o u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t s , l e t t e r s and o t h e r p r i v a t e w r i t i n g s . I t i s s i m p l y i m p o s s i b l e t o g e t a c c e s s t o b r o a d c a s t s w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e w i t h o u t t h e s p e c i a l p e r m i s s i o n o f a l l c o p y r i g h t h o l d e r s . M e a n w h i l e , and u n d e r s t a n d a b l y , t h e m a j o r p r i o r i t i e s o f o u r b r o a d c a s t e r s h a v e b e e n p r o d u c t i o n and d i f f u s i o n , n o t p r e s e r v a t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . 2 5 I n t h i s B r i e f , w h i c h was h e a r d by t h e l a t e s t o f s e v e r a l c o m m i s s i o n s c h a r g e d w i t h s e e k i n g r e f o r m s f o r C a n a d i a n c o p y r i g h t law, ASCRT c o n c i s e l y and e l o q u e n t l y p r e s e n t e d t h e v i e w s o f i t s membership; b r o a d c a s t e r s , w r i t e r s , a r c h i v i s t s , and many o t h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s t u d y o f b r o a d c a s t i n g . T h r e e p r e v i o u s a t t e m p t s a t r e f o r m were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u c c e s s f u l . The I l s l e y C o m m i s s i o n and t h e C a n a d i a n E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l p r o d u c e d l e n g t h y 2 5 . The A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e S t u d y o f C a n a d i a n R a d i o and T e l e v i s i o n , B r i e f : on t h e W h i t e P a p e r on C o p y r i g h t , M a r c h 12, 1985 ( T y p e w r i t t e n ) , p. 7. 100 r e p o r t s which were never acted u p o n . 2 6 The Department of Consumer and Corporate A f f a i r s produced the Keyes and Brunet Report i n 1977. 2 7 I t d i d much t o g a l v a n i z e the a r c h i v a l community, but a g a i n n o t h i n g c o n c r e t e r e s u l t e d . R e c e n t l y a j o i n t l y sponsored study by the Department o f Consumer and Corporate A f f a i r s and the Department of Communications i s s u e d a government White Paper e n t i t l e d From Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n : P r o p o s a l s f o r the R e v i s i o n of the Canadian C o p y r i g h t A c t . The White Paper i n v i t e d d i s c u s s i o n and i n 1985 the Sub-Committee of the Standing Committee on Communications and C u l t u r e i s s u e d a r e p o r t based upon the proceedings and evidence heard r e s p e c t i n g From Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n . E n t i t l e d , A C h a r t e r of R i g h t s f o r C r e a t o r s . i t has not been w e l l r e c e i v e d by the a r c h i v a l community. In f a c t , the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Canadian A r c h i v i s t s warned t h a t the implementation of the recommendations c o n t a i n e d i n the r e p o r t " c o u l d prove harmful t o the o p e r a t i o n o f a r c h i v e s i n Canada." 2 8 Each of these r e p o r t s has d e f i n e d or r e d e f i n e d e x a c t l y what c o n s t i t u t e s a f i l m , sound r e c o r d i n g or b r o a d c a s t a u d i o - v i s u a l 2 6 . Royal Commission on Patents, C o p y r i g h t , Trade Marks and I n d u s t r i a l Design: Report on C o p y r i g h t. Ottawa, 1957. ( I l s l e y Commission) and Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, Report on I n t e l l e c t u a l and I n d u s t r i a l Property. I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, Ottawa, January 1971. (Economic Council) 2 7 . A.A. Keyes and C. Brunet, C o p y r i g h t i n Canada - Pro p o s a l s f o r a R e v i s i o n of the Law. (Ottawa: Consumer and Corporate A f f a i r s Canada, 1977). 2 8 . " A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s Committee on Copyr i g h t : A Response t o Charter of R i g h t s f o r C r e a t o r s , " A r c h i v a r i a 21 (Winter 1985-86):127. 101 c r e a t i o n . T h i s i s c r i t i c a l because u n t i l 1970 no works o t h e r than products of the p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y were l i s t e d w i t h i n the Copyright A c t . The more i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n s o f p r o t e c t e d works r e f l e c t s a contemporary ease with communications media which i s l a c k i n g i n the o r i g i n a l l e g i s l a t i o n . The t e c h n o l o g y i s no l o n g e r new, and i t has improved and expanded t o such an e x t e n t t h a t i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of our d a i l y l i f e and so the outdated d e s c r i p t i o n s have been a p p r o p r i a t e l y modernized. R e g r e t t a b l y , t h i s p r o g r e s s i v e s t e p has not been e q u a l l e d i n o t h e r s e c t i o n s of the r e p o r t s . For example, the term of p r o t e c t i o n f o r broadcasted m a t e r i a l i s s t i l l l e ngthy. The term f o r f i l m p r e s e n t l y depends upon whether i t i s c l a s s i f i e d as a dramatic o r p h o t o g r a p h i c work. I f a "dramatic' 1 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a p p l i e s , the term i s the l i f e o f the author p l u s f i f t y y e a r s ; i f a "photograph" then f i f t y y e a r s from the making of the o r i g i n a l n e g a t i v e . Sound r e c o r d i n g s are p r o t e c t e d f o r f i f t y years from the making o f the o r i g i n a l p l a t e . Keyes and Brunet recommended a p p l y i n g the g e n e r a l term of the l i f e o f the author p l u s f i f t y years t o p u b l i s h e d works. For unpublished works they advised: That the form of p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i d e d t o l i t e r a r y , dramatic and musical works unpublished a t the author's death be u n t i l p u b l i c a t i o n or p u b l i c performance and f o r f i f t y years t h e r e a f t e r , but t h a t the t o t a l term of p r o t e c t i o n not exceed s e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r s a f t e r the death of the author, or 100 years a f t e r h i s death where the work has been d e p o s i t e d i n an a r c h i v e s . 2 9 Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n proposed t h a t both sound and f i l m Z 3 . A.A. Keyes and C.Brunet, Cop y r i g h t i n Canada - P r o p o s a l s f o r a R e v i s i o n of the Law (Ottawa: Consumer and Corporate A f f a i r s Canada, 1977) p. 65. 102 r e c o r d i n g s be p r o t e c t e d u n t i l the e x p i r y o f e i t h e r the p e r i o d from the date of f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n u n t i l the end of t h a t y e a r p l u s f i f t y y e a rs t h e r e a f t e r or, i f unpublished, the p e r i o d from c r e a t i o n u n t i l t he end of t h a t year p l u s s e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . 3 0 The C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s f o r C r e a t o r s endorsed t h i s s u g g e s t i o n and s t a t e d t h a t p r o d u c t i o n s by c o r p o r a t e e n t i t i e s are more common than p r o d u c t i o n s by p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s and so the p r o t e c t i o n of a u d i o v i s u a l works would be d i f f i c u l t t o c a l c u l a t e based on a person's l i f e s p a n . 3 1 While t h i s measurement may be based on a f a i r e v a l u a t i o n o f Canadian f i l m making p r a c t i c e s , i t i s i r o n i c t h a t the new terms are even longer than those p r e s e n t l y i n e f f e c t . I t i s a l s o important t o note how the d e f i n i t i o n s o f "p u b l i s h e d " and "unpublished" determine which term a p p l i e s . The I l s l e y Commission proposed t h a t p u b l i c a t i o n o f a f i l m s hould mean e x p l o i t a t i o n i n "the normal way" as w e l l as g e n e r a l r e n t a l , l e a s e , l o a n o r s a l e of c o p i e s t o the p u b l i c . Keyes and Brunet r e i n f o r c e d t h i s p o i n t by recommending: "That p u b l i c a t i o n , w i t h r e s p e c t t o f i l m , be d e f i n e d t o p r o v i d e f o r a l l manners i n which f i l m s are i n p r a c t i c e made a v a i l a b l e : by l e a s e , r e n t a l , s a l e or l i c e n s e . " 3 2 From Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n d i d not adequately address t h i s i s s u e . P u b l i c a t i o n i s l e f t simply as " i s s u e o f c o p i e s t o the p u b l i c " . The C h a r t e r of Righ t s f o r C r e a t o r s t r i e d t o compensate and when r e f e r r i n g t o a u d i o v i s u a l works, the sub- 3 0 . Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n . p. 56. 3 1 . C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s f o r C r e a t o r s , p. 39. 3 2 . Keyes and Brunet, Copyright i n Canada, p. 82. 103 committee s t a t e d t h a t : "The New Act, i n d e f i n i n g " p u b l i c a t i o n 1 , should take i n t o account the v a r i o u s methods o f making a work a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c o t h e r than by i s s u a n c e of c o p i e s of t h a t work." 3 3 The committee i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c u r r e n t a c t does not adequately p r o v i d e f o r i n s t a n c e s such as f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n where a copy i s never s o l d t o the p u b l i c i t s e l f and where use i s f o r a l i m i t e d time o n l y . The new d e f i n i t i o n seeks t o encompass any means by which a work i s made a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s concerning p u b l i s h e d v e r s u s unpublished m a t e r i a l i n a u d i o v i s u a l form are c r u c i a l t o the a r c h i v i s t and so i s the d e f i n i t i o n of whether a b r o a d c a s t has been " f i x e d " p r i o r t o t r a n s m i s s i o n . A b r o a d c a s t i t s e l f i s not c u r r e n t l y p r o t e c t e d by c o p y r i g h t i n Canada. The m a t e r i a l t r a n s m i t t e d may be, but c o p y r i g h t l i e s i n i t , not the a c t u a l broadcast on the airwaves. L e g a l l y i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t a work must be " f i x e d " i n a m a t e r i a l form as a c r i t e r i a f o r p r o t e c t i o n . While not a p r o v i s o i n the Copyright Act i t s e l f , t h i s requirement stems from d i f f i c u l t i e s the c o u r t encounters i n p r o v i n g the e x i s t e n c e of an u n f i x e d work. 3 4 " F i x i n g " has t h e r e f o r e been d e f i n e d as p r e s e n t a t i o n i n a w r i t t e n or p r i n t e d format, but t h i s d e f i n i t i o n does not r e c o g n i z e t h a t audio and v i s u a l r e c o r d i n g s cannot be presented i n a w r i t t e n or p r i n t e d form. Moreover, l i v e performances, such as news programmes, are never " f i x e d " , but merely t r a n s m i t t e d d u r i n g the a c t u a l b r o a d c a s t . Under the 3 3 . C h a r t e r of R i g h t s f o r C r e a t o r s , p. 39. 3 4 . Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n , p. 5. 104 p r e s e n t terms such m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be l e f t u n p r o t e c t e d . In 1977 Keyes and Brunet r e p o r t e d : Canadian b r o a d c a s t e r s are not i n t e r e s t e d i n s e c u r i n g ownership o f the c o p y r i g h t i n m a t e r i a l they b r o a d c a s t ; t h e i r i n t e r e s t i s i n c o n t r a c t i n g f o r the r i g h t s necessary t o enable them t o b r o a d c a s t t h a t m a t e r i a l . Indeed, b r o a d c a s t e r s expressed no i n t e r e s t i n having a c o p y r i g h t a t t a c h ( s i c ) t o t h e i r b r o a d c a s t s . 3 5 To f a c i l i t a t e use, i t was the non-broadcasting i n t e r e s t s which favored the p r o t e c t i o n of broadcasts. Keyes and Brunet recommended a term of p r o t e c t i o n e q u a l l i n g f i f t y y e a r s from the date of the broadcast with e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n , t r a n s m i s s i o n and use r e s t i n g with the b r o a d c a s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n . Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n saw the s o l u t i o n i n r e d e f i n i n g " f i x a t i o n " t o i n c l u d e b r o a d c a s t s themselves. The sub-committee agreed, but b r o a d c a s t e r s have a l t e r e d t h e i r stance s i n c e Keyes and Brunet. They now seek t o have the b r o a d c a s t i n g s i g n a l p r o t e c t e d , i n a d d i t i o n t o the m a t e r i a l embodied i n those s i g n a l s . 3 6 C o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n , they argue, should extend t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a l l d a i l y b r o a d c a s t s which i s termed the "broadcast day" by the i n d u s t r y . The sub-committee agreed a t t a c h i n g the f o l l o w i n g r i g h t s t o each broadcast: a) the r i g h t of r e p r o d u c t i o n b) a r i g h t of t r a n s m i s s i o n c) a r i g h t t o a u t h o r i z e each of the above; and d) a r i g h t of r e t r a n s m i s s i o n 3 7 3 5 . Keyes and Brunet, Copyright i n Canada, p. 107. 3 6 . C h a r t e r of R i g h t s f o r C r e a t o r s , p. 57. 3 7 . I b i d . , p. 58. 105 The sub-committee a l s o reduced the term of p r o t e c t i o n from f i f t y y e a r s as recommended by Keyes and Brunet t o t w e n t y - f i v e y ears from the f i x a t i o n of the broadcast. However, the sub-committee was not unanimous i n i t s support of t h i s p r o p o s a l . 3 8 I t i s r e l e v a n t t o note t h a t the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n d i d not endorse t h i s p l a n but t h a t i t was a demand of the p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y . Many argue t h a t the c r e a t i v i t y needed t o o r g a n i z e a broadcast day i s not equal t o t h a t e x h i b i t e d by a p l a y w r i g h t , composer or producer. C e r t a i n l y another argument a g a i n s t t h i s a c t i o n i s t h a t i t adds y e t a f u r t h e r l a y e r t o the h i e r a r c h y of c o p y r i g h t ownership. What i t p r o v i d e s i s enhanced c o r p o r a t e p r o t e c t i o n and i n c r e a s e d r o y a l t y d o l l a r s . 3 9 The example here emphasizes once again the d i s c o n c e r t i n g b i a s towards e n t r e n c h i n g c r e a t o r r i g h t s and f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s without proper a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the l e g i t i m a t e d i s s e m i n a t i o n of the c r e a t i o n s themselves. P r o t e c t i o n of the s i g n a l should be designed t o d i s c o u r a g e p i r a t e t r a n s m i s s i o n o p e r a t o r s , but such i l l e g a l a c t i v i t y has not y e t been h a l t e d d e s p i t e e x i s t i n g c o p y r i g h t r u l e s and enforcement. For a r c h i v i s t s of b r o a d c a s t i n g m a t e r i a l , the p r e s e r v a t i o n of l i v e t r a n s m i s s i o n such as p u b l i c a f f a i r s or news programmes w i l l be made even more p r e c a r i o u s because the n e g o t i a t i o n of r i g h t s t o produce an o f f - t h e - a i r r e c o r d i n g w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be time consuming and d i f f i c u l t t o complete. There are no second o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e c o r d a l i v e performance and 3 8 . I b i d . ( D i s s e n t i n g Opinion Appendix A), pp. 99-101. 3 9 . I b i d . , p. 100. 106 without exemptions p r o v i d i n g f o r a r c h i v a l r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l i v e t r a n s m i s s i o n s , a r c h i v a l p r e s e r v a t i o n cannot be guaranteed. A f u r t h e r complexity concerns the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the c o p y r i g h t owner. I t i s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t when a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l i s concerned, because t h e r e i s i n e v i t a b l y more than one person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o d u c t i o n . For f i l m m a t e r i a l a t pre s e n t , the author of a "dramatic" work i s the f i r s t owner (unless the work was completed i n the course o f the author's employment). For a "photographic" f i l m , the owner of the ne g a t i v e i s deemed the author. I f the work was commissioned, the person o r d e r i n g the f i l m i s the f i r s t owner. T h i s complex system was t o be suspended by the I l s l e y Commission which s t a t e d t h a t the owner should be the maker of the f i l m ; i n o t h e r words the person who made the necessary arrangements f o r the c r e a t i o n of the f i l m . Keyes and Brunet upheld t h i s recommendation. Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n a l s o supported t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by s u b m i t t i n g t h a t the producer of a f i l m , v i d e o o r sound r e c o r d i n g would own c o p y r i g h t . However, w i t h i n the d i s c u s s i o n , a t t e n t i o n . was g i v e n t o the p l i g h t o f performers who do not have r i g h t s c o n c e r n i n g r e c o r d i n g s of t h e i r performances. Not o n l y i s the r e - use o f a u t h o r i z e d r e c o r d i n g s beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , but the common p r a c t i c e o f " b o o t l e g " r e c o r d i n g i s u n r e s t r a i n e d . I f performers were granted s t a t u t o r y o r p r o p e r t y r i g h t s f o r t h e i r performances, i t would o b l i g a t e a user t o o b t a i n the p e r m i s s i o n o f every performer i n a r e c o r d i n g b e f o r e i t was re-used. The White Paper w i s e l y c o u n s e l l e d a g a i n s t awarding i n d i v i d u a l c o p y r i g h t , but 107 encouraged the r u l i n g t h a t u n a u t h o r i z e d r e c o r d i n g , o r re-use o f a r e c o r d i n g , be c o n s i d e r e d an o f f e n s e . The C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s f o r C r e a t o r s presented another viewpoint. In i t s view, the ownership of c o p y r i g h t should remain w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l o r e n t i t y p r i n c i p a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the arrangements undertaken«for i t s making. The recommendation made i n Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n r e g a r d i n g performer's r i g h t s was overturned by the Sub-committee because i t d i d not wish t o t r e a t u n a u t h o r i z e d r e c o r d i n g o r re-use as a c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e . 4 0 Instead, the Sub-committee recommended t h a t "performers' performances form a new categor y o f c o p y r i g h t s u b j e c t matter". A c c o r d i n g l y , i t proposed t h a t performers should be the f i r s t owners of the c o p y r i g h t i n t h e i r performances and t h a t performer's performances should be p r o t e c t e d f o r a term o f a t l e a s t twenty years from the time of f i x a t i o n o f the performance. T h i s g r a n t s proper compensation f o r re-use, w h i l e p r o t e c t i n g a g a i n s t u n a u t h o r i z e d use. The Sub- committee s t a t e d : "A performer i s j u s t as much a c r e a t o r as i s the producer of a sound r e c o r d i n g o r film...No good reasons have been advanced t o deny p r o t e c t i o n t o performers i n t h e i r own c r e a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n . " 4 1 While o t h e r c r e a t o r s may not have advanced good reasons f o r denying c o p y r i g h t p r o t e c t i o n t o performers, i t can be assumed t h a t u s e r s and a r c h i v i s t s would have. The l o g i s t i c a l problems of t r a c i n g and o b t a i n i n g performers p e r m i s s i o n t o a c q u i r e , copy and make a v a i l a b l e every 4 0 . I b i d . , p. 54. 4 1 . I b i d . , p. 55. 108 recording on which they are featured would be overwhelming. The Sub-committee claimed i n Charter of Rights for Creators that i t would be i n the performer's economic interests to sanction re-use and stated that c o l l e c t i v e s can negotiate for the performers they represent, but for archival purposes such proposals add a new hierarchy to an already complex s t r a t a . 4 2 Of other i n t e r e s t to a r c h i v i s t s i s the Sub-committee's r u l i n g that there should be no copyright i n government works such as those "works produced by a Crown agency such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation or the National Film Board, the purpose of which i s to entertain rather that to a s s i s t i n po l i c y debate and e v a l u a t i o n . " 4 3 Section 11 of the current act states that "where a work i s prepared by or under the d i r e c t i o n or control of the Crown or a government department, copyright belongs to the Crown i n the absence of an agreement to the contrary with the author." 4 4 From Gutenberg to Telidon argues that there can be no firm delineation as to what government employees should hold copyright because so many work under d i f f e r e n t circumstances. Some are i n competition with the private sector and others are f u l l y subsidized. The Sub- committee has c l a r i f i e d the si t u a t i o n , fortunately i n keeping with the recommendations of the Association for the Study of Canadian Radio and Television. In t h e i r B r i e f on the White Paper 42 Ibid p. 53-55. 43 Ibid p. 11. 44 R.S.C. 1970 c. C-30, s . l l . 109 ASCRT urged that: genuine creative products be distinguished from administrative records, and ... that only consciously creative broadcasting documents (including audio, v i s u a l and paper s c r i p t records) should come under copyright protection. Administrative records, which are the secondary products of the productions process, should not be placed under copyright p r o t e c t i o n . 4 5 This contribution, from an organization interested i n the arch i v a l preservation of broadcasting material, joins the long l i s t of recommendations put forth by assorted a r c h i v a l interests who hope to see concrete allowances made i n copyright law for the preservation and use of valuable archival records. To date, rulings of " f a i r dealing" are the only avenue exempting users of arch i v a l material from copyright l i a b i l i t y . Section 17(2) of the Canadian Copyright Act declares that "any f a i r dealing with any work for the purposes of private study, research, c r i t i c i s m , review or newspaper summary" does not constitute infringement of c o p y r i g h t . 4 6 This sketchy statement conveys no c l e a r p o l i c y , but s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n s or l i s t s of factors are provided to a s s i s t i n the determination of a " f a i r dealing" r u l i n g . For example, reproducing more than a "substantial" part of an recording without consent i s an infringement of copyright not defensible under the f a i r dealing provision. I f less than "substantial", the provision w i l l apply. What exactly constitutes a "substantial part" i s not defined by eithe r a 4 5 . My thanks to Mr. Hugh Taylor who kindly provided a copy of t h i s Brief for the purposes of t h i s study. 4 6 . R.S.C. 1970 c. C-30, s. 17(2). 110 q u a n t i t a t i v e nor a q u a l i t a t i v e t e s t . Consequently, i n event o f a l e g a l s u i t the c o u r t must s e t the parameters on i t s own d i s c r e t i o n . From Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n sought t o c l a r i f y t h i s s e c t i o n by p r o v i d i n g s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s . I t was proposed t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o being renamed " f a i r use" i n the new law, a " p r i o r i z e d " , l i s t and e x p l a n a t i o n of a p p l i c a b l e f a c t o r s would be i n c l u d e d . Moreover, i t was w r i t t e n t h a t " f a i r use w i l l not c o n f l i c t w i t h the normal e x p l o i t a t i o n of the work" nor w i l l i t "unreasonably p r e j u d i c e the l e g i t i m a t e i n t e r e s t s of the c o p y r i g h t owner." 4 7 I n t e r e s t i n g l y , as e n v i s i o n e d i n From Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n . f a i r use should apply t o a l l c o p y r i g h t e d m a t e r i a l " r e g a r d l e s s of whether such m a t e r i a l has been p u b l i s h e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s e n s e . " 4 8 T h i s was r e j e c t e d by the Sub-committee which f e l t " p u b l i c a t i o n has been, and should c o n t i n u e t o be, the e x c l u s i v e r i g h t of the c o p y r i g h t owner". I t j u s t i f i e d t h i s d e c i s i o n by c l a i m i n g t h a t "a member of the p u b l i c cannot d e a l f a i r l y w i t h a work t h a t i s u n a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c . " 4 9 Such a r u l i n g seems u n f a i r t o the academic community because i t p r o h i b i t s access t o m a t e r i a l which may be u n p ublished f o r any number of reasons. Perhaps the c r e a t o r d i e d or l o s t i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t b e f o r e i t s completion. In e i t h e r case, l e g i t i m a t e s c h o l a r s are b a r r e d from what c o u l d be r i g h t f u l a c c e s s . The Sub- committee a l s o r e j e c t e d the term " f a i r use" s a y i n g the concept of 4 7 . Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n . p. 39. 4 8 . I b i d . , p. 40. 4 9 . C h a r t e r of R i g h t s f o r C r e a t o r s , pp. 65-66. I l l f a i r dealing should remain. The difference appears to l i e i n the prosecution of i n f r a c t i o n s and i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l e g a l point. For the user, infringements of copyright must f i r s t be established under " f a i r dealing" and then defended on one of f i v e grounds: private study, research, c r i t i c i s m , review or newspaper summary. Rather than providing dispensation then, f a i r dealing can be c i t e d as a defence. The concept of " f a i r use" i s much wider according to the Sub-committee which claimed that the term was borrowed from the America le g a l system. They based many of t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s on the high number of instances of U.S. l i t i g a t i o n . F a i r dealing provisions do not s p e c i f i c a l l y deal with ar c h i v a l pursuits either from the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s or the user's perspective. A r c h i v i s t s have sought a r u l i n g exempting some of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s from copyright r e s t r i c t i o n s . This i s not to say that they are not cognizant of creators' r i g h t s . In fact, ASCRT's Br i e f to the Sub-committee urged appropriate compensation for owners and to achieve that goal, where broadcast items are concerned, a clear d i s t i n c t i o n was requested between commercial re-use of programmes, or parts of, and educational use of such material. ASCRT, not unlike the ACA i n past submissions, did not receive a favorable hearing from the Sub-committee. Consistently, proposals for revisions to the copyright law have authorized the duplication of a r c h i v a l materials for preservation purposes only. Some discussion was made of other archival " a c t i v i t i e s " i n Keyes and Brunet ( s p e c i f i c a l l y exemptions for the use of unpublished materials), 112 but the suggestion was r e j e c t e d . 5 0 Their f i n a l recommendation permitted archives to copy material judged to be "deteriorating or damaged." 5 1 Upholding the opinion of the I l s l e y Commissions that a l l rig h t s to reproduce a broadcast rested with the maker, Keyes and Brunet noted: "Copyright deals with the r i g h t s of authors f i r s t and not with the c u l t u r a l objectives of society as manifested i n any p o l i c y concerning the preservation and archival storage of copyright works. 5 2 One further proposal which had repercussions for archives dealt with the implementation of compulsory r e g i s t r a t i o n and/or mandatory deposit. The r e l a t i v e merits of such a programme are well documented. Perhaps the most obvious consequence i s that i t provides a systematic means of v e r i f y i n g the copyright status of a document. Unfortunately, the "no f o r m a l i t i e s " a r t i c l e of the Berne Convention bars any member from introducing such a provision. Keves and Brunet argue that introducing a national system i s fe a s i b l e , but that i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y the plan would neither meet with approval nor be e f f i c i e n t l y implemented. 1 , 5 3 From Gutenberg to Telidon also c i t e d the "no f o r m a l i t i e s " a r t i c l e as the reason Canada cannot adopt a r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure. Moreover, i t went so far as to recommend the a b o l i t i o n of the e x i s t i n g voluntary r e g i s t r a t i o n system by remarking that the 5 0 . Keyes and Brunet, Copyright i n Canada, p. 173. 5 1 . Ibid., p. 175. 5 2 . Ibid., p. 173. 5 3 . Ibid., p. 208. 113 r e g i s t r a t i o n data i s " i n c o n c l u s i v e and incomplete" and t h a t presumptions of c o p y r i g h t ownership should l i e w i t h the p l a i n t i f f i n case of l i t i g a t i o n . 5 4 Responses t o t h i s recommendation i l l u s t r a t e d the many p o t e n t i a l problems which would r e s u l t from the e l i m i n a t i o n of v o l u n t a r y r e g i s t r a t i o n and concluded t h a t some i n f o r m a t i o n was b e t t e r than none a t a l l . The Sub-committee was convinced t h a t v o l u n t a r y r e g i s t r a t i o n should be maintained, on the c o n d i t i o n t h a t the r e g i s t r a t i o n p rocess r e q u i r e a p p l i c a n t s t o p r o v i d e more i n f o r m a t i o n than was p r e v i o u s l y expected. Mandatory r e g i s t r a t i o n remains a c o n t r a v e n t i o n of the "no f o r m a l i t i e s " a r t i c l e o f the Berne Convention. Canada's i n a b i l i t y t o i n t r o d u c e such a p l a n has u n f o r t u n a t e consequences f o r the a r c h i v a l community. Mandatory r e g i s t r a t i o n would not o n l y e s t a b l i s h the s t a t u s of a m a j o r i t y of the works c r e a t e d i n t h i s country, but i t would enable both a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r u s e rs t o i d e n t i f y p o s i t i v e l y the owner(s) of those r i g h t s . The ambiguity surrounding c r e a t i o n dates and subsequently the e x p i r a t i o n of the term of p r o t e c t i o n would d i s a p p e a r because t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n would be recorded. Moreover, the d e p o s i t r e g u l a t i o n might a l s o i n c l u d e the placement of a copy of a d e s i g n a t e d p r o d u c t i o n i n an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y . But u n t i l such time as the Berne Convention a r t i c l e s are reviewed and p o s s i b l y a l t e r e d , Canada has no means of i n t r o d u c i n g a formal r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e s s . Given t h a t so many d i f f i c u l t i e s hamper the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 5 4 . Gutenberg t o T e l i d o n . p. 73. 114 of copyright owners and the subsequent negotiation for the legitimate use of copyrighted material, how are archives and t h e i r users to proceed? Each of the commissions has acknowledged that i t i s often d i f f i c u l t to ascertain s p e c i f i c and accurate information for a copyrighted work. This remains e s p e c i a l l y true for broadcast material where so many "creators" contribute to the production of a single programme. I f the recommendations of the Sub-committee are re a l i z e d , even more indi v i d u a l s w i l l own some ri g h t to pr o h i b i t access to a document. The creation of c o l l e c t i v e s or copyright s o c i e t i e s which w i l l represent individual creators has been endorsed by each commission or committee. As explained i n From Gutenberg to Telidon: "In Copyright law, a copyright society i s an organization to which copyright owners may assign or license a l l or part of t h e i r rights for the purpose of ex p l o i t a t i o n and enforcement." 5 5 The so c i e t i e s would represent copyright owners whose membership i n such a c o l l e c t i v e would be voluntary. Creators could grant exclusive licenses to the c o l l e c t i v e s on a whole or p a r t i a l basis. In other words, a member need not consign the bulk of his rights to be administered by a society but only c e r t a i n ones. This way the c o l l e c t i v e could negotiate on h i s behalf for some aspects of his copyrights while he personally controlled others. A member would not be constricted by an extended commitment to the c o l l e c t i v e and so could withdraw his membership completely i f he so choose. These s o c i e t i e s would 5 5 . Ibid., p. 61. 115 be required to submit t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and monitoring procedures to a revised Copyright Appeal Board to ensure fairness and e f f i c i e n c y . The Board would have the power to intervene i n the administration of a c o l l e c t i v e i f requested by a member of the society. The Board would also be able to authorize the use of a work where i t was not possible to locate a copyright owner. 5 6 The purpose of t h i s arrangement i s to protect the f i n a n c i a l i nterests of the creators. However, i f the negotiation of r i g h t s for a single programme must s t i l l involve several p a r t i e s how w i l l the user or the archival i n s t i t u t i o n benefit? Two s o c i e t i e s already e x i s t to represent musical and dramatico- musical performing a r t i s t s . They have not a l l e v i a t e d the problems for broadcast a r c h i v i s t s or the users of such documents. This recommendation appears to be yet another example of the emphasis on creator r i g h t s rather than on encouraging and f a c i l i t a t i n g use of t h e i r creations. Publisher Jack McClellan wrote the Hon. Anthony Abbott, then Minister of Consumer and Corporate A f f a i r s (the department responsible for copyright): "Copyright i s not high on the l i s t of Government p r i o r i t i e s and i n a troubled world i t shouldn't be. It has l i t t l e sex appeal. Copyright i s , i n fact, one of the d u l l e s t subjects known to man."57 Although not presently a source of public controversy, copyright may receive greater 5 6 . Gutenberg to Telidon. pp. 61-64. and Charter of Rights for Creators, pp. 85-88. 5 7 . "The Photograph: An Annotated Bibliography f o r A r c h i v i s t s , " Archivaria 5 (Winter 1977-78):133. 116 attention i n the future i f righ t s of access are r e s t r i c t e d because i n s t i t u t i o n s such as archives and l i b r a r i e s fear an extension of l i a b i l i t y i n cases of copyright infringement by patrons. Don Roberts, author of "Practice and Problems of Access to Sound Archives i n North America", accused a r c h i v i s t s of hiding behind the protective s h i e l d of copyright ambiguities: "Too often that statement oh, i t ' s i l l e g a l to copy that' i s used as an excuse for not providing s e r v i c e . " 5 8 But, a r c h i v i s t s are concerned that the i n s t i t u t i o n may ultimately be held responsible i f users do not adhere to copyright regulations and i l l e g a l l y copy or publish items from t h e i r holdings. Some foreign re p o s i t o r i e s , occasionally i n cooperation with the government formulating copyright law, have sought means by which they can unhesitatingly encourage academic use of copyrighted works. The United States created ATRA and France and England have defined circumstances under which legitimate research use may be made of protected works. In Canada a r c h i v i s t s have attempted to convince lawmakers that copyright can provide the creator with r i g h t s over reproduction, publication, performance, adaptation and recording without r e s t r a i n i n g reasonable access by the public. Their success cannot be evaluated u n t i l a l l of the l e g i s l a t i o n has been tabled. However, the tenor of the l a t e s t report issued by the Sub-Committee on the Revision of Copyright warns of the bias towards creator rights and the f a i l u r e of the user lobby to 5 8 . Don Roberts, "Practice and Problems of Access to Sound Archives i n North America," Phonographic B u l l e t i n , no. 17 (April 1977), p. 32. 117 persuade l e g i s l a t o r s to provide guarantees of f u l l e r r i g h t s of access. What al t e r n a t i v e e f f o r t s can be exerted to promote access and f a c i l i t a t e reference service i f the new copyright l e g i s l a t i o n does not adequately address the issues associated with the public use of protected material i n archives? One recourse i s to enter into a contractual agreement with the donor which grants the repository sole or j o i n t authority to copy records for preservation purposes, to prepare copies for reference use, to issue copies to the public for study and related non-commercial purposes, and to approve the publication of material. However, i t must be noted that donors are not always the owners of copyright; or, not the exclusive owners. Multiple copyrights commonly protect not only the creator, but the performing a r t i s t ( s ) , the technical crew and the broadcaster as well. The task of i d e n t i f y i n g the f u l l scope of copyright owners and obtaining t h e i r permission to allow public access i n an a r c h i v a l s e t t i n g could prove to be an onerous, and often impossible, task for a r c h i v i s t s . Organizations such as the Association for the Study of Canadian Radio and T e l e v i s i o n can serve as ambassadors between archives and donors by demonstrating the benefits of the services provided by the former while communicating the concerns of the l a t t e r . The main benefit of such a dialogue i s that the copyright holder may be quite content to allow the archives to undertake the administrative functions of approving reproduction and publication i f they understand that 118 the a r c h i v e s w i l l not compromise t h e i r economic o r moral r i g h t s . Another step which would h e l p t o a l l e v i a t e a r c h i v i s t ' s u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g c o p y r i g h t would be the p r e p a r a t i o n of a simple manual o f g u i d e l i n e s which would e x p l a i n , i n laymen's terms, the p r o v i s i o n s of the Canadian C o p y r i g h t Act, how c o p y r i g h t a f f e c t s a r c h i v a l documents and which i d e n t i f i e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and u s e r s . L e g a l o p i n i o n c o u l d then be g i v e n r e g a r d i n g the accuracy of the e x p l a n a t i o n s and the recommended course of a c t i o n . Such a manual would t r a n s l a t e the l e g a l j a r g o n of the l e g i s l a t i o n , a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s making c o p y r i g h t e d m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c and a s s ess the e x t e n t of l i a b i l i t y of a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s and c l i e n t s i n the case of c o p y r i g h t infringement. C l e a r l y the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the law p r o h i b i t an easy s o l u t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n of c o p y r i g h t i n a r c h i v e s . Nor can the answer be reached without the a s s i s t a n c e of the l e g a l community. A r c h i v i s t s may be r e l u c t a n t t o i n d i v i d u a l l y analyze, i n t e r p r e t and oversee the a p p l i c a t i o n of the C o p y r i g h t Act i n t h e i r r e p o s i t o r y . Few laymen want t o assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p e rforming a t a s k which i s u s u a l l y a s s i g n e d t o a lawyer s p e c i a l i z i n g i n c o p y r i g h t . A r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s r a r e l y have s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o c l a r i f y t h e i r l e g a l p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g c o p y r i g h t p a r t i c u l a r l y on a case by case b a s i s . U n t i l l i t i g a t i o n i s i n v o l v e d , i t may be d i f f i c u l t t o e x c i t e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s or sponsors about the p o s s i b l e l e g a l r e p e r c u s s i o n s 119 f o r u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g the extent of c o p y r i g h t coverage f o r a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s . In the s h o r t term, a r c h i v i s t s f a m i l i a r w i t h c o p y r i g h t i s s u e s may r e l u c t a n t l y f a l l prey t o Don Roberts' p r e d i c t i o n and r e s t r i c t access because of l a c k of c l a r i f i c a t i o n - an u n o f f i c i a l p o l i c y of " b e t t e r s a f e than s o r r y . " T h i s would be a sad l e g a c y of the new l e g i s l a t i o n . 120 CONCLUSION In 1972 Frank Burke, a r c h i v i s t and f u t u r e E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f the N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s and Records Commission (U.S.), wrote t h a t " a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e i s o r i e n t e d t o arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n , not u s e . " 1 Perhaps t h i s tendency r e f l e c t s an e a r l i e r p h i losophy espoused i n 1922 by B r i t i s h a r c h i v i s t S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson: v The d u t i e s of the a r c h i v i s t . . . are primary and secondary. In the f i r s t p l a c e he has t o take a l l p o s s i b l e p r e c a u t i o n s f o r the sa f e g u a r d i n g of h i s a r c h i v e s and f o r t h e i r custody, which i s the safe g u a r d i n g o f t h e i r e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s . S u b j e c t t o the d i s c h a r g e of these d u t i e s , he has i n the second p l a c e t o p r o v i d e t o the best of h i s a b i l i t y f o r the needs o f h i s t o r i a n and other r e s e a r c h workers. But the p o s i t i o n o f primary and secondary must not be r e v e r s e d . 2 While Burke's comment suggests t h a t a r c h i v i s t s might s u b c o n s c i o u s l y adhere t o t h i s d o c t r i n e , a r c h i v a l mandates seldom f o r m a l i z e the primacy of p r e s e r v a t i o n over use. T h i s t h e s i s has sought t o examine the i s s u e s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g p r e s e r v a t i o n of and access t o s p e c i a l media broadcast r e c o r d s . 1 . Frank G. Burke, "The Impact of the S p e c i a l i s t on A r c h i v e s , " C o l l e g e and Research L i b r a r i e s 33 (1972):315. 2 . S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson, A Manual of A r c h i v e s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , second e d i t i o n (London: Percy Lund, Humphries & Co., 1937), p. 15. V. 121 A r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o s t e r the support of sponsors and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c by encouraging i n t e r e s t i n , and use o f , a r c h i v a l documents. The symbiosis o p e r a t i n g here i s t h a t use promotes p r e s e r v a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n promotes use. There are however, o b l i g a t i o n s t o the r e c o r d and o p e r a t i o n a l circumstances which make i t more d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o n c i l e use and p r e s e r v a t i o n . Among numerous i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d i n the course o f examining how d i f f e r e n t a r c h i v a l f u n c t i o n s a f f e c t the degree t o which a u s e r does or does not access broadcast r e c o r d s , f i v e are d i s t i n g u i s h e d . F i r s t , p a s t f a i l u r e t o a c q u i r e b roadcast r e c o r d s has obvious r e p e r c u s s i o n s f o r s c h o l a r s h i p s i n c e c e r t a i n documents have not s u r v i v e d t o be c o n s u l t e d . A continued l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n between i n s t i t u t i o n s impairs access and the use of these r e c o r d s because some w i l l not be p r e s e r v e d and o t h e r s w i l l be d i f f i c u l t f o r users t o l o c a t e . Second, the c a r e f u l a p p r a i s a l of broadcast m a t e r i a l i s important i n two r e s p e c t s . As r e l a t e d t o a c q u i s i t i o n , a p p r a i s a l g u i d e l i n e s a s s i s t i n d e c i d i n g what t o c o l l e c t . A f t e r a c q u i s i t i o n , s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a are a p p l i e d i n s e l e c t i n g which p a r t of the whole body of m a t e r i a l i s t o be p r e s e r v e d . The a p p r a i s a l process a p p l i e d t o broadcast r e c o r d s has been somewhat e r r a t i c and the a r t i c u l a t i o n of s p e c i f i c a p p r a i s a l c r i t e r i a f o r these documents i s o n l y a r e c e n t accomplishment; one which should be encouraged and d i s c u s s e d w i t h c o l l e a g u e s r e g a r d l e s s of media r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . L i k e w i s e , d e s c r i p t i v e p r a c t i c e s f o r s p e c i a l media m a t e r i a l should r e c e i v e 122 v e r y c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n . The g r e a t e r the s i z e o f the c o l l e c t i o n , the l a r g e r the percentage o f m a t e r i a l which i s n e i t h e r processed nor d e s c r i b e d . For purposes of access and use, the c o n t e n t s of t h i s m a t e r i a l must be communicated t o the r e s e a r c h e r . P o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g l e v e l s o f d e s c r i p t i o n f o r media documents a r e r e q u i r e d and the d e s c r i p t i v e standards which are developed must i n c o r p o r a t e the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f media documents while managing t o minimize d e v i a t i o n of p r a c t i c e . Coupled w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l access i s p h y s i c a l access. I t i s p o i n t l e s s t o i n d i c a t e the content of a r e c o r d i f i t cannot be a u d i t i o n e d . Nor can c o p y r i g h t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s be overlooked s i n c e r e p r o d u c t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n are i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d t o the p r o v i s i o n s o f the Canadian Cop y r i g h t A c t . The new l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l not r e s o l v e a r c h i v a l concerns r e g a r d i n g c o p y r i g h t and i t s r e l e v a n c e t o access; r a t h e r , the r e v i s e d A c t w i l l generate renewed d e l i b e r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s cannot be d i s r e g a r d e d f o r the p r o v i s i o n of access i s f r e q u e n t l y dependent upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f adequate r e s o u r c e s . Given these o b s e r v a t i o n s , how can a r c h i v i s t s improve a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o broadcast a r c h i v e s ? B u i l d i n g on a shared a p p r e c i a t i o n of the a r c h i v a l v a l u e of these records, c r e a t o r s , c u s t o d i a n s and users should j o i n t o g e t h e r t o preserve, make a v a i l a b l e and promote the use of broadcast documents. John Twomey concluded h i s study by emphasizing the need f o r e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p . He recommended the formation o f a Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g H e r i t a g e Task Force which would review the p o l i c i e s 123 and p r a c t i c e s of p r i v a t e and p u b l i c a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , a d v i s e the f e d e r a l government r e g a r d i n g the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t m a t e r i a l and encourage media s c h o l a r s h i p . 3 The foundation f o r such an i n i t i a t i v e l i e s w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Study of Canadian Radio and T e l e v i s i o n which i s a l r e a d y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and would be a c r e d i b l e and t r u s t e d ambassador between c r e a t o r s , c u s t o d i a n s and u s e r s . The members of ASCRT represent many f i e l d s w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g , and t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s w e l l s u i t e d t o understand and a r t i c u l a t e the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a f f e c t the a p p r a i s a l , d e s c r i p t i o n , storage and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f sound and moving images while r e i n f o r c i n g t h e i r enduring v a l u e as a genuine r e s e a r c h source. However, no body i n the Canadian a r c h i v a l community has the a u t h o r i t y t o c r e a t e o r manage an a r c h i v a l program f o r the br o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y . The a r c h i v a l system comprised of p r o v i n c i a l and t e r r i t o r i a l c o u n c i l s has a d v i s o r y powers, but no a u t h o r i t y t o r e g u l a t e a r c h i v a l o p e r a t i o n s . Any e f f o r t s towards the establishment of a sy s t e m a t i c approach w i l l depend upon the v o l u n t a r y c o o p e r a t i o n o f b r o a d c a s t e r s and a r c h i v i s t s . Whatever a u t h o r i t y e x i s t s must come from w i t h i n the agency o r i n s t i t u t i o n which commits i t s resouces t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n of these r e c o r d s . Twomey f e l t the most important m i s s i n g f a c t o r was the l a c k o f c o n v i c t i o n on the p a r t o f b r o a d c a s t e r s themselves. I f a r c h i v i s t s are to be s u c c e s s f u l i n 3 . John Twomey, Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g H i s t o r y Resources i n E n g l i s h ; C r i t i c a l Mass or Mess? (Toronto: Ryerson P o l y t e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e , 1978), p. 70-71. 124 c o n v i n c i n g the i n d u s t r y o f the need t o document i t s e l f p r o p e r l y , a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n s must be prepared t o meet the c h a l l e n g e by c l a r i f y i n g t h e i r r o l e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . One fundamental i s s u e which must be r e s o l v e d i s how t o d e a l w i t h p r i v a t e versus p u b l i c agencies. The CBC i s a p u b l i c l y funded c o r p o r a t i o n and the d i s p o s i t i o n o f i t s r e c o r d s must be s u b j e c t t o p u b l i c a p p r o v a l . There are no i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the Canadian p u b l i c would condone the d e s t r u c t i o n o f these documents. Ther e f o r e , the government must develop a p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of CBC m a t e r i a l . E i t h e r the C o r p o r a t i o n must mai n t a i n i t s own a r c h i v e s , and be funded a c c o r d i n g l y , o r o t h e r a r c h i v e s must be compensated f o r the c o s t s o f a c q u i r i n g , p r e s e r v i n g and making a v a i l a b l e CBC documents. I t i s f u t i l e t o expect the CBC t o decide t h i s i s s u e . As long as i t i s underfunded i t w i l l continue t o r e j e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s r e c o r d s . Commitment t o c u s t o d i a l s e r v i c e s must be made by the Canadian government and a f i r m p o l i c y formulated r e g a r d i n g the d e s i g n a t i o n of o f f i c i a l r e s p o s i t o r i e s f o r CBC m a t e r i a l . D e a l i n g with the re c o r d s o f p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s w i l l be another matter. Government r e g u l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t e records i s unprecedented. However, these b r o a d c a s t i n g agencies c o u l d be made t o see the b e n e f i t s o f good c o r p o r a t e c i t i z e n s h i p and government funding c o u l d supplement p r i v a t e i n i t i a t i v e s . C e r t a i n l y the precedents e s t a b l i s h e d by American and European p r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s c o u l d be s t u d i e d and emulated. The Canadian b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y i s no lon g e r i n i t s 125 i n f a n c y . And while b r o a d c a s t e r s c o n c e n t r a t e on tomorrow's broadcast, a r c h i v i s t s must c o n s t a n t l y remind them of the l i n g e r i n g v alue of yesterday's programming. To accomplish t h i s e f f e c t i v e l y , the a r c h i v a l community should e s t a b l i s h a b l u e p r i n t f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n and f o r m a l i z e i t s commitment t o p u b l i c access and use. The a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n can then g a i n the support of b r o a d c a s t e r s i n documenting i n some f a s h i o n , more of s o c i e t y ' s h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . 126 BIBLIOGRAPHY " A r c h i v e s and t h e U s e r . " A r c h i v e s 9 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 6 9 ) : 6 3 . "The A r c h i v i s t ' s Code." A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 18 ( O c t o b e r 1955):307-08. " A r c h i v e s S e r v i c e s and S m a l l e r R e p o s i t o r i e s - A symposium." A r c h i v e s 4 (1960):189-203. " A s s o c i a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n A r c h i v i s t ' s C o p y r i g h t Committee: A R e s p o n s e t o A C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s f o r C r e a t o r s . " A r c h i v a r i a 21 ( W i n t e r 1985-86):125-135. 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" C o p y r i g h t O f f i c e I s s u e s R e g u l a t i o n s on U n p u b l i s h e d T e l e v i s i o n P r o g r a m s . " L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n 42 ( O c t o b e r 10, 1983):348-349. " H e a r i n g s t o C o n s i d e r A c q u i s i t i o n o f T e l e v i s i o n P r o g r a m s f o r ATRA." L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n 41 (March 12, 1982):80-81. " L i b r a r y E x t e n d s H o u r s f o r R e c o r d e d Sound S e r v i c e . " L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n 42 (November 28, 1 9 8 3 ) : 4 1 0 - 411. " L i b r a r y P u b l i s h e s G u i d e t o O l d R a d i o B r o a d c a s t s . " L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n 41 ( 1 9 8 2 ) : 3 3 9 . "Museum o f B r o a d c a s t i n g R e c e i v e s NBC R a d i o A r c h i v e s . 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