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Acquisition of photographs : determining archival quality Carroll, Ann Elizabeth 1989

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ACQUISITION OF PHOTOGRAPHS DETERMINING ARCHIVAL QUALITY BY ANN B.A.,  ELIZABETH CARROLL  McGill  A THESIS SUBMITTED  University,  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR  THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARCHIVAL \  1967  STUDIES  in THE FACULTY OF ARTS  (School  of L i b r a r y ,  We  accept to  Archival  this  and I n f o r m a t i o n  thesis  the required  as conforming standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February  1989  0Ann E l i z a b e t h  Carroll  Studies)  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  scholarly  or for  her  of  S  ^ - A \*Z>  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  I  I further  purposes  gain  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  Department  study.  of  be  It not  is be  that  the  for  Library  an shall  permission for  granted  by  understood allowed  the  advanced make  extensive  head  that  without  it  of  copying my  my or  written  ABSTRACT This thesis p h o t o g r a p h s by  examines the archives.  are  not  generated  but  are  potentially  characteristics can  judge the  by  of  It  the  c o l l e c t i o n or f o c u s e s on  archival  The  suitability  for a c q u i s i t i o n .  collections  which have been s e t  r e s p o n s i b l y cared the  theories  thesis  of  which  Such documents form aside  by  by  their  Fruin,  organic  are  drawn Sir  and from  Hilary  Muller,  C a s a n o v a , and  A m e r i c a n a r c h i v i s t s , Theodore S c h e l l e n b e r g  establish  examines the  question  a separate c o l l e c t i o n s  photographs. Conservation, d e s c r i p t i o n implications plausible  posed by  procedure to  collections  and  their  collected  focussing  forming part  of  on the  of  and  t a k e . However, the increasingly  the  whether  policy  photographs suggest  suggest otherwise. A r c h i v a l  as  Eugenio and  Cappon.  T h i s paper a l s o should  R.  their  creator  European a r c h i v i s t s , Feith,  thus  J e n k i n s o n , S.  Lester  J.A.  the  archivists  p h o t o g r a p h s and  f o r . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  formulated  institution  identifies  documents by  quality  of  t h o s e documents which  archives' sponsoring  archival.  archival  acquisition  t h i s as  a  integrity  multi-media  the  for  copyright  documents s h o u l d form of  archives  t o t a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n of  nature  not  record,  of  be  but their  rather creator.  iii TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Abstract  Page i i  Acknowledgements Chapter  iv  One  Introduction.. Notes t o C h a p t e r Chapter  One  8  Two  Acquisition  According  Notes t o C h a p t e r Chapter  1  t o Form of the M a t e r i a l  Two  9 23  Three  Nature  o f A r c h i v a l Documents  Notes t o C h a p t e r  25  Three  C h a p t e r Four E v a l u a t i n g Photograph  54 Collections' Archival  N a t u r e : A Case S t u d y  58  Notes t o C h a p t e r  97  Chapter  Four  Five  Conclusion Notes t o C h a p t e r  98 Five  105  Bibliography.  106  9  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  G r a t e f u l acknowledgement i s made t o T e r r y Eastwood f o r h i s encouragement and a d v i c e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s thesis.  1  CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Archivists to  preserve  sponsors  and  to  o f t h e body t h a t  or a s s o c i a t i o n . In t h i s  instance,  business,  archivists  or a c c e s s i o n r e c o r d s , a p p r a i s i n g or e v a l u a t i n g them  evidence  other  The f i r s t i s  t h e a r c h i v e s . T h i s may be a government,  selecting  reveal  responsibility.  t h e r e c o r d s o f permanent v a l u e  institution, receive  have a t w o f o l d  those  which have e n d u r i n g  value  based on t h e  t h e y c o n t a i n . They a r e s e l e c t e d f o r what  they  of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t c r e a t e d t h e r e c o r d s and f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y may p r o v i d e  that  i s considered  useful  researchers. The second r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  those  records  t h a t document  government, b u s i n e s s e s , individuals. mostly  In t h i s  of a r c h i v i s t s  s o c i e t y . These may be r e c o r d s o f  i n s t i t u t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s or  case,  records are gathered  f r o m o u t s i d e t h e body t h a t s p o n s o r s  T h i s may be e i t h e r  by d o n a t i o n  a p p r a i s e d , as i n t h e f i r s t inclusion identified evaluated situation,  i n the h o l d i n g s as b e i n g for their  or p u r c h a s e .  case,  before  the a r c h i v e s . Records are  being  selected for  s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t h e n  worth f o r a c q u i s i t i o n . look  or a c q u i r e d  of t h e a r c h i v e s , t h a t i s t h e y a r e  of i n t e r e s t i n g  archivists  i s to preserve  In t h i s  second  beyond t h e s u b j e c t c o n t e n t  of the  2 materials  i n an  records. This  effort  to determine  i s necessary  because the  c o m p l e t e n e s s of the d o c u m e n t a t i o n the as  former c a s e records  certain. records  and  that are  were  and than  a u t h e n t i c i t y and  valuable  c o n c e r n s not  for their records  i s an  important  as d e c i s i o n s made a t the  t h e worth and Collection those  origins  the  only  subject content.  f r o m the  usefulness  area  with  of a r c h i v a l  of m a t e r i a l s h e l d  p r a c t i c e to  i n an  documents as  has  i s a l s o but  the  activities. " t h i s age  As  on  the  first  value step  of o v e r a b u n d a n t r e c o r d s  their  of r e s o u r c e s ,  essentially  archives.  (1)  documents.  archival  d e s c r i b i n g and  Gerald and  Ham  these  latter  commented,  information,  unplanned approach t o  a systematic,  planned and  to  have been  is forcing archivists  of b u i l d i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g  c o l l e c t ions."  i n the  affect  opposed  of the  greatly affects  American a r c h i v i s t  p r e s e r v a t i o n with process  the  r e c o r d s , and  with a s c a r c i t y replace  a bearing  or c o n t i n u u m of a r r a n g i n g and  conserving  It also  p o i n t of v i e w of  time of a c q u i s i t i o n  of a u t h e n t i c , o r i g i n a l  Acquisition process  value  identifying  of d u b i o u s a u t h e n t i c i t y or c o p i e s which may  tampered  in  created.  Acquisition study  of  which a c c u r a t e l y document s o c i e t y i s l e s s  A c q u i s i t i o n , thus,  they  nature  is less certain  therefore their  i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r i n g the how  the  and  combined to  archival  documented  preserving  3  R e c e n t c o n c e r n about a c q u i s i t i o n archival need  l i t e r a t u r e on a c q u i s i t i o n  for cooperation  acquisition archivist the of  t e n d s t o f o c u s on t h e  between r e p o s i t o r i e s  p o l i c i e s and s t r a t e g i e s ,  in selecting  need t o c o l l e c t available  as r e f l e c t e d i n  the r o l e  d o c u m e n t a t i o n from t h e overwhelming mass  materials.  suitability  T h i s paper  for .acquisition  A r c h i v e s today are comprised other  of the  m a t e r i a l s which document s o c i e t y , and  f o c u s e s on a r c h i v a l  documents e x a m i n i n g them f o r t h e c r i t e r i a their  in their  by an a r c h i v e s .  (2)  o f many forms o f  than the t r a d i t i o n a l w r i t t e n  Sometimes c o l l e c t i o n s c o n t a i n  which d e t e r m i n e  or t e x t u a l  documents.  only these other  r e c o r d . These may be maps, sound r e c o r d i n g s ,  material  forms o f  films,  p h o t o g r a p h s or machine r e a d a b l e r e c o r d s , t o name a few. T h i s thesis  c o n c e n t r a t e s on a c q u i s i t i o n  than t e x t u a l . archival of  o f a form of r e c o r d  other  I t d i s c u s s e s how p r e s e n t t h e o r y on t h e  n a t u r e o f r e c o r d s c a n be a p p l i e d  p h o t o g r a p h s by a r c h i v e s and t e s t s  photographs a c c o r d i n g r e c o r d s . As p a r t  to defined  t o the a c q u i s i t i o n  c o l l e c t i o n s of  characteristics  of the d i s c u s s i o n  of a r c h i v a l  of a c q u i s i t i o n of  p h o t o g r a p h s by a r c h i v e s ,  i t examines t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and  practical  for considering  archival material.  justifications  documents from t h e v i e w p o i n t  a c q u i s i t i o n of  o f t h e form of t h e  4 A f o c u s on p h o t o g r a p h i c a r c h i v e s may be j u s t i f i e d i n f o u r ways. F i r s t l y , cultural  photographs  institutions.  municipal archives, societies, companies  These  are collected  include  federal,  university archives,  libraries,  by many p r o v i n c i a l and  historical  museums, r e s e a r c h c e n t r e s ,  and p h o t o g r a p h y  A r c h i v e s base a c q u i s i t i o n  private  s t u d i o s , t o name t h e most on a p a r t i c u l a r  common.  philosophy. This  p h i l o s o p h y r u n s c o u n t e r t o t h e commonly h e l d d i c t u m t h a t "a picture be  i s worth a t h o u s a n d words," and a s s u c h  i t needs t o  examined.  Secondly, a c q u i s i t i o n  of photographs  by a r c h i v e s  i m p o r t a n t a r e a t o s t u d y as most a r c h i v e s photographs.  I n 1980, a s t u d y r e p o r t e d  Canadian a r c h i v e s and t h a t  provide service  t h e number o f p h o t o g r a p h s  was g r o w i n g a n n u a l l y . national  picture  collecting identified,  Columbia,  showed  that  b e i n g produced i n  potentially available for  i s i n c r e a s i n g a t the alarming r a t e ,  or a c q u i s i t i o n  i n 1988, t h i s  p h o t o g r a p h c o l l e c t i o n s . (4)  t h e number o f p h o t o g r a p h s  e s t i m a t e d , o f 10 b i l l i o n  collections  i n the r e p o s i t o r i e s  was c o n f i r m e d by a s t u d y which  N o r t h America and t h e r e f o r e acquisition  83.6% o f  on p h o t o g r a p h  (3) In B r i t i s h  51 o u t o f the 63 a r c h i v e s h e l d  Thirdly,  collect  that  held  i s an  images  annually.  (5) A c o h e r e n t  p h i l o s o p h y t h u s needs  i n order to s e l e c t  from s u c h  i t is  t o be  numbers.  5 Fourthly, record  of the  National  p h o t o g r a p h s as documents p r o v i d e  yet  past  heritage.  Archives  and  social  such are  "the  i n the  observed  "we  that  communicate photorealism  language  world. Anthropologist  think  nonverbal  language t h a t  i s most  i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y and  cross-culturally."  should  t o s h a r p e n our  be  concerned  acquisition  of p h o t o g r a p h i c  C h a p t e r Two qualities  important  examines the  archivists in assessing  that  language  (7) C o n s e q u e n t l y ,  acquisition. the  value  i s only provided  characteristics  of  i n c l u d e the  by v i s u a l s ,  then d i s c u s s e s  on a c q u i s i t i o n . consider  the  the  special  of  kind  form  of  the of  d e s c r i p t i v e needs  of  p r o b l e m s posed by s u c h documents.  i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  Such a f o c u s  artifactual  the  photographic  collections,  the  the  It explores  photographic  It  we  of a r c h i v a l  i m p l i c a t i o n s posed by c e r t a i n t y p e s  copyright  of  understood  conservation  p h o t o g r a p h s and  has  certainly  f o r f o c u s s i n g on  d o c u m e n t a t i o n . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s information  of  understanding  reasons  consider the  (6) I t  documents.  of p h o t o g r a p h s d u r i n g  r e a s o n s why  economic  John C o l l i e r  p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y and  p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y . The i s the  political,  As  noted,  [ t h e y were] c r e a t e d . "  most commonly u n d e r s t o o d  communication  of our  Joan S c h w a r t z  intellectual,  m i l i e u w i t h i n which  i s a l s o the  part  of Canada a r c h i v i s t  photographs r e f l e c t and  as  another  and  of  form  encourages a r c h i v i s t s  to  artistic  images  value  of  the  6 rather  than t h e i r  value  as d o c u m e n t a t i o n . C o n t e x t of  c r e a t i o n and f u n c t i o n of t h e r e c o r d s considerations  o f form. The c h a p t e r  become s e c o n d a r y t o concludes  acquisition  of photographs should  collections  p o l i c y as opposed t o one based  material. Conservation, implications acquisition acquire,  be g u i d e d  that a r c h i v a l  by a m u l t i - m e d i a on form of t h e  d e s c r i p t i o n , and c o p y r i g h t  posed by p h o t o g r a p h s a r e i m p o r t a n t but, photographs, l i k e  should  firstly  other  be a p p r a i s e d  elements of  documents  archives  for their archival  nature.  Chapter Three d e f i n e s Firstly,  i t characterizes archives  of a r c h i v a l s c i e n c e Jenklnson, Fruin,  and M i c h e l  the a r c h i v a l nature  organic  considered  Sir Hilary  J.A. F e i t h ,  J . Cappon. I t u n d e r l i n e s  of the r e c o r d s .  Theodore  the f a c t  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e  i s t h a t a r c h i v a l documents a r e p a r t o f  and t h e t h i r d  valuable  and R.  o f documents i s based upon c e r t a i n  whole. The s e c o n d  custodianship  philosophy  D u c h e i n , and A m e r i c a n a r c h i v i s t s ,  t h r e e f o l d . The f i r s t an  of European a r c h i v i s t s ,  and L e s t e r  characteristics  o f documents.  based on t h e  E u g e n i o C a s a n o v a , S. M u l l e r ,  Schellenberg that  the a r c h i v a l nature  i s that they i s that they  show r e s p o n s i b l e have been  enough t o be s e t a s i d e  by  their  c r e a t o r s . The c h a p t e r  of  the elements of these  to  a l l records  three  concludes  for preservation  with  characteristics  and i n p a r t i c u l a r  a discussion as t h e y  t o photographs.  apply  7  The  fourth  already held containing  c h a p t e r examines p h o t o g r a p h  by  a repository  both s p e c i a l  documents. A number of Collections, their  for  photograph c o l l e c t i o n s of  inclusion  of  archival  Three. It concludes that relative, creation  d e p e n d i n g on and  the  n a t u r e of  from  i n an  and  on  archival  extent  to  Special for  a r c h i v e s based on  the  the  implications three  nature o u t l i n e d  the  the  archival  tested  descriptive  in their a c q u i s i t i o n  characteristics  institution  B r i t i s h Columbia, are  c o n s e r v a t i o n , c o p y r i g h t and inherent  i s a hybrid  l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s and  University  suitability  that  collections  i n Chapter  v a l u e of  documents i s  which t h e i r c o n t e x t  t h e i r custody  i s documented.  of  8 Notes  to Chapter  One  1. G e r a l d Ham, "Managing t h e H i s t o r i c a l R e c o r d i n an Age Abundance," i n Nancy Peace, ed., A r c h i v a l C h o i c e s ( L e x i n g t o n , Mass: D.C. Heath and Company, 1984), 134.  of  2. See t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s of Canada, A c q u i s i t i o n E v a l u a t i o n S t u d y Volume 1 (Ottawa, J a n u a r y 1988): 1-6; Frank G. Burke, " A r c h i v a l C o o p e r a t i o n , " American A r c h i v i s t 46 (Summer 1983): 292-304; Hans Booms, " S o c i e t y and the F o r m a t i o n of t h e Documentary H e r i t a g e : I s s u e s i n t h e A p p r a i s a l of A r c h i v a l S o u r c e s , " A r c h l v a r l a 24 (Summer 1987): 69-107; F . G e r a l d Ham, "The A r c h i v a l Edge," Amer i c a n A r c h i v i s t 38 ( J a n u a r y 1975): 5-13; H e l e n W i l l a Samuels, "Who C o n t r o l s t h e P a s t " , A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t 2 ( S p r i n g 1986): 109-124; R i c h a r d M. K e s n e r , " A r c h i v a l C o l l e c t i o n Development: B u i l d i n g a S u c c e s s f u l A c q u i s i t i o n Program," M i d w e s t e r n A r c h i v i s t 5 (2 1981): 101-112. 3. C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s : R e p o r t t o t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l of Canada (Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n of t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l of Canada, 1980), 36-41. 4. B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s C o u n c i l , Needs Assessment S u r v e y R e p o r t ( V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1988), 154. 5. W i l l i a m L e a r y , A p p r a i s i n g A r c h i v a l P h o t o g r a p h s : a RAMP S t u d y w i t h G u i d e l i n e s ( P a r i s : G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n and UNISIST, UNESCO, 1987), 93. 6. J o a n M. S c h w a r t z , "The P h o t o g r a p h i c "Record of P r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n B r i t i s h Columbia," A r c h i v a r i a 5 (Winter 1977-78): 8. 7. John C o l l i e r , V i s u a l A n t h r o p o l o g y : P h o t o g r a p h y as a R e s e a r c h Method (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1967), 5.  9  CHAPTER  TWO  ACQUISITION ACCORDING TO FORM OF THE MATERIAL In 1978, R i c h a r d  Huyda, C h i e f  Curator  of the N a t i o n a l  Photography C o l l e c t i o n a t the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s the  National  Archives  over t e n m i l l i o n conservative eighteen  of r e s o u r c e  photographs  estimate  million  o f Canada) e s t i m a t e d  o f Canada (now  that there  i n Canadian a r c h i v e s .  of t h e i r  numbers t e n y e a r s  and g r o w i n g .  (1) A  later i s  (2) T h i s tremendous  material a t t e s t s to i t s place  were  inventory  i n our documentary  h e r i t a g e . As Huyda n o t e d ,  " t h a t t h i s many documents have  been c o l l e c t e d ,  and made a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e p u b l i c  preserved  d e m o n s t r a t e s our deep commitment t o t h i s  segment of our  h e r i t a g e . " (3)  Parallel  t o and b o t h  a r c h i v e s ' commitment widespread appeal. seen  i n f l u e n c e d by and i n f l u e n c i n g  to preserving  The e v i d e n c e  i n the r e p r o d u c t i o n  photographs  of t h i s  i s their  interest  is easily  of a r c h i v a l photographs  i n books,  j o u r n a l s , m a g a z i n e s , newspapers, f i l m s and t e l e v i s i o n . P h o t o g r a p h s a r e used communications c r i t i c  f o r reference Estelle  or f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n . As  Jussim  summarizes  forms t a r e ] used b o t h t o g e n e r a t e e v i d e n c e f i n d i n g s . " (4)  i t , "visual  and document  10 The  general l i t e r a t u r e  the h i s t o r y and  of p h o t o g r a p h y ,  the t e c h n i c a l  literature c a r e and  a s p e c t s of p h o t o g r a p h s .  acquisition particular  of t h e s e m a t e r i a l s  be a p p l i e d  appraising  to photographs  them f o r a c q u i s i t i o n ?  photographs according  have s p e c i a l  to p r i n c i p l e s  on  of t h i s  aspects in  minimal  considerations  a separate  important  collections that  s h o u l d t h e y be a c q u i r e d  from t h o s e  for other  a r c h i v a l documents, most n o t a b l y t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s , traditional  archival  should e s t a b l i s h a separate c o l l e c t i o n s  discussion photographs  the  documents?  T h i s c h a p t e r examines t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether  photographs.  which  or  I f so, are these  qualities,  As e x p l a i n e d i n t h e  i s not concerned  archives  policy for  introductory chapter, t h i s  w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n  in a functional archival  context such  of as  u n i v e r s i t y r e c o r d s or government r e c o r d s . I t i s c o n c e r n e d with the c o l l e c t i o n the s p o n s o r  of  t o the  Secondly, supposing  different  proper  and d e s c r i p t i o n  when e v a l u a t i n g  establishing  form of m a t e r i a l ?  archival  by a r c h i v e s . Two  are there s p e c i a l  enough t o n e c e s s i t a t e  photographs  The  been d e v o t e d  bear e x a m i n a t i o n because  coverage. F i r s t l y ,  p o l i c y by  has  of  instruction  h a n d l i n g as w e l l as arrangement Less a t t e n t i o n  d e a l s mainly with  interpretation  i n c l u d e s commentary and  photographs.  should  on p h o t o g r a p h s  of m a t e r i a l s which  but which  archives collect  a r e not c r e a t e d because  of  their  by  11 documentary v a l u e . photographic materials  I t assumes t h a t a r c h i v e s a c q u i r i n g  records can provide  proper  storage  f o r the  t o e n s u r e t h e i r _ p r e s e r v a t i o n and p r o p e r  access to  them. Photographs l i k e archives events.  tell  m a t e r i a l s i n other  forms c o l l e c t e d  by  us o f our h i s t o r y and i n f o r m us o f p e o p l e and  Thus t h e y a r e l i k e  Certain qualities  o t h e r documents a r c h i v e s a c q u i r e .  o f p h o t o g r a p h s , however,  them f r o m o t h e r a r c h i v a l  differentiate  documents and s u g g e s t  t h a t t h e y be  given separate a t t e n t i o n . Arguments f o r s e p a r a t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n Firstly, archives  f o c u s i n g on form o f t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n  to preserve  photographs, such of  i n f o r m a t i o n b e s t documented by  as p o r t r a i t s  of people,  p l a n t s or t h e remote c o n t r o l l e d  landscape  focus  a l r e a d y be documented t e x t u a l l y  be u n a v a i l a b l e .  s u b j e c t s which  may  or by o t h e r media but n o t by  images which a r e a common t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y means o f  communication. Klaus  Hendrlks,  a specialist  i n photographic  c o n s e r v a t i o n a t t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f Canada, that  on s u b j e c t  image, a r c h i v i s t s c a n  i n f o r m a t i o n which would o t h e r w i s e  a l s o f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n on t h o s e  still  images  which t h e w r i t t e n word c a n n o t as a c c u r a t e l y or  m a t t e r b e s t r e v e a l e d by t h e v i s u a l  It  microscopic  images of t h e l u n a r  r e a l i s t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e . By p r o v i d i n g t h i s  preserve  enables  "the photographic  comments  r e c o r d . . . i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e to a r c h i v a l  12 institutions  and r e s e a r c h e r s . P h o t o g r a p h y  unique view of the past increasingly visually historian,  editor,  has p r e s e r v e d a  i n a form p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d  oriented  and w r i t e r  society."  t o an  (5) Well-known  on h i s t o r i c a l  R o b e r t W e i n s t e i n , o b s e r v e s how p h o t o g r a p h s  photographs, "add g r e a t l y t o  what p e o p l e c a n g l e a n f r o m h i s t o r y by i l l u m i n a t i n g , believably,  the t e r r a i n ,  and t h e p a r t i c u l a r Archivist  e v e n t s . " (6)  photographs  c a p a c i t y t o c a p t u r e t h e l o o k and f e e l  and man-made e n v i r o n m e n t  w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . " He adds about  the p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  a s p e c t of s i g n i f i c a n t  William Leary concludes that  "marvelous natural  the a r t i f a c t s ,  little  known o r o f t e n  that  have a  of the  o f e v e r y d a y l i f e and they provide "evidence  ignored  p l a c e s and p e o p l e . "  Beyond t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e u n i q u e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f photographs to  take account of the s p e c i a l  photographs. about the  t o document e v e n t s and c o n d i t i o n s ,  point  c o n s e r v a t i o n needs o f  I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make c a r e f u l  the v i a b i l i t y  acquisition.  photographs  Color  p r o c e s s e s . These  judgements  o f p r e s e r v i n g p h o t o g r a p h i c images  o f v i e w o f c o s t . F o r example,  preserving color  i t is vital  the d i f f i c u l t y of  s h o u l d be a f a c t o r  photographs  from  b e a r i n g on  a r e made by a v a r i e t y o f  i n c l u d e s c r e e n p l a t e p r o c e s s e s , such as the  Autochrome s l i d e , Imbibition prints,  T r i Color  C a r b o s , Dye T r a n s f e r  Chromogenic  make up t h e m a j o r i t y of c o l o r  development photographs  or Dye  materials,  which  made s i n c e 1940,  13 C l b a c h r o m e s , and  Color  s u c h as P o l a r o i d  instant prints.  uses dyes t o c r e a t e fade,  even  materials  the  i f stored  experience  longer  years  P r i n t s are  very  before  based  under the  (2 d e g r e e s C) Prints  or  from the  short  color  same c o n d i t i o n s .  produced fading  last  time  using  (about  a relative  diffusion  Dye  a long  time of  by  i f r e f r i g e r a t e d or  the 10%)  within  10  to  20  35 d e g r e e s  or more i n f r o s t - f r e e  Cibachrome p r i n t s c o u l d refrigerated  storage.  Proper c o n s e r v a t i o n more work t h a n  u s u a l l y have t o be resleeved  and  last  storage. as  25-30%.  last  (9)  to l a s t  Kodachrome 800  for a  noticeable  when s t o r e d  expected  l o n g as  F  Photographs  show a  years be  i f stored  c o n t r a s t , have a  frozen.  chromogenic process  last  Transfer  h u m i d i t y of  process,  normal room t e m p e r a t u r e . They may  entails  fade.  rooms a t a t e m p e r a t u r e  l e s s and dye  will  to  l i f e s p a n . A l l c o l o r photographs w i l l  much l o n g e r  or  and  paper, f o r i n s t a n c e , i f  they s t a r t  s t a b l e and  in a i r conditionned  years  eventually  under normal room t e m p e r a t u r e c o n d i t i o n s , w i l l  over a 100  very  than others fibre  All will  t y p e s of  materials,  processes  d a r k . However, t e s t s  have shown t h a t d i f f e r e n t last  Process  Each of t h e s e  color effect.  i n the  Cibachrome p r i n t s on stored  Diffusion Transfer  at 100  and  years  in  (10) of a l l p h o t o g r a p h i c for textual records.  rehoused, o f t e n  numbered. O f t e n  materials Photographs  individually  information  on  re-enveloped original  14 e n v e l o p e s must be  t r a n s c r i b e d so  the m a t e r i a l i s not  lost.  q u a l i t y c o n t a i n e r s and operations  Both the  be  of p h o t o g r a p h s . T e x t u a l  taken  records,  identification  rehousing  t r a n s c r i b i n g are  which s h o u l d  conservation  t h a t the  in archival  time-consuming  into account of c o u r s e ,  in a climate controlled  in acquisition  require  f o r such r e c o r d s .  In some c a s e s ,  m a t e r i a l s d e s c r i b e d above, t h e s e collection  not  be  a c q u i r e d . The  for d e t e r i o r a t i n g n i t r a t e restored This  or  f o r which r e s o u r c e s  i s important  is d i r e c t l y  related  conservation and  addressed  likely  as  to get  the  value  to t h e i r  specifically  the  a b i g budget and  feasibly  be  f o r r e s t o r a t i o n are l a c k i n g . of p h o t o g r a p h s as  documents  Unless  photographs are  i n the  recognized  policy,  they  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  to form a l l o w s  than  more s t a f f  for other  archives  are mass  to  t o r e s e a r c h e r s . Huyda c o m p l a i n s like  which  materials, requiring  time t o make the  " [ p h o t o g r a p h s ] were a c c e s s i o n e d little  be made  s p e c i a l d e s c r i p t i v e needs of p h o t o g r a p h s  a r e much more e x t e n s i v e  accessible  which c a n n o t  that a  collection.  Acquisition according consider  same argument can  in a collections  brushed a s i d e  of documents i n a  s u c h as the c o l o r  "legibility."  problems posed by  more extreme  might w e l l s u g g e s t  negatives  proper  e n v i r o n m e n t . However,  the c o n s e r v a t i o n measures f o r p h o t o g r a p h s a r e than  of  other  materials  that  i n the  documents  i n f o r m a t i o n beyond p r o v e n a n c e , g e n e r a l  content  past,  with  15 d e s c r i p t i o n and information verified  a s t a t e m e n t of  accompanying p h o t o g r a p h s was  includes  f o r m a t , the  descriptions  records  accessible  researchers  of p r o c e s s i n g  significant This  more  the  intensive  i s necessary  as a t the  i s c o s t l y . "Because of  reference  as  f a c t o r s i n making  photographic records  this  well  s e r v i c e on  item  the  unit  cost  them i s  (12) on  form e n c o u r a g e s a r c h i v e s of c o p y r i g h t .  to  only  the  automatically,  copyright  fifty  holder  e x h i b i t or that are  years  the  for the  used  by  broadcast. legal  r i g h t to  o t h e r w i s e make a v a i l a b l e by  copyright.  to (13)  e x i s t s i n a l l photographs,  need  from the  Thus, a l l p h o t o g r a p h s w i t h i n  has  protected  copyright  without  address  Photographs are  i n p u b l i c a t i o n s , d i s p l a y s and  Under C a n a d i a n law,  of  the  providing  public materials  period  p u r p o s e s of  and  reproduce, p u b l i s h , the  physical  i t e m a c c e s s t o p h o t o g r a p h s , the  considerations  law,  accessible.  for  substantial."  researchers  t o be  p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n as  u s u a l l y request  Focusing  the  not  Photographs  image c o n t e n t ,  c o n t r o l of p h o t o g r a p h s  need  (11)  i n order  to r e s e a r c h e r s .  Leary notes that  frequent  Under  and  A l l of t h e s e a r e  intellectual  level.  of  p h o t o g r a p h e r and  photographs, c o p y r i g h t location.  controls  Textual  normally  f o r c o m p l e t e n e s s or a c c u r a c y . "  need expanded a c c e s s i o n This  restrictions.  for r e g i s t r a t i o n , for a t i m e of t h e i r  this  time p e r i o d  creation. are  (14)  16 copyrighted  unless  stated otherwise.  b e l o n g s t o whoever c a u s e d the could  be  the  photographer  or  Ownership of  p h o t o g r a p h t o be the  p e r s o n who  p h o t o g r a p h . A l t h o u g h a p h o t o g r a p h e r may if  he  return  f o r payment, t h i s  photographs, unless copyright applies  t o the  the  the  client  photographer  to  signs a contract or s t u d i o .  (15)  without  copyright  concern to a r c h i v e s  because,  p h o t o g r a p h s c a n n o t be reproduction  know who  surrendering  The  because p h o t o g r a p h s a r e  summarized copyright  more l i k e l y  complaints  or  Additionally, infringement archivists  law.  t h a n most r e c o r d s  must  not  stand  focus  on  up  the  This  is a  Furthermore,  and  to  and  publishers,  occasion  of c o p y r i g h t . "  d i s c l a i m e r s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y may  as  materials  i n books  to authors  l a w s u i t s over v i o l a t i o n  (16)  or p a r a p h r a s e d i f  f r e q u e n t l y used  magazines t h a t r e t u r n p r o f i t s  same  law.  "unlike written  easily  violates  the  in  the  owns c o p y r i g h t  is against  the  negatives,  photographs  p e r s o n owns c o p y r i g h t  t h e r e f o r e , should  publication  they are  commissioned  t o newspaper or magazine p h o t o g r a p h e r s .  Archives,  their  made which  have the  i s a s k e d by someone e l s e t o take  copyright  in a court  of  for law.  (17)  copyright (18)  Thus,  i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o p y r i g h t  on  acquisition.  Focusing researcher special  on  form a l s o p e r m i t s  requests  archivists  more e f f e c t i v e l y as  needs of p h o t o g r a p h i c  to respond  i t recognizes  researchers  who  to  the  d e s i r e good  17 quality  images. C o n c e n t r a t i o n  documentation r e c o g n i z e s photographic  this  on t h e  form of  important  documents e m p h a s i z i n g  the  aspect  of  the c o l l e c t i o n  of  p h o t o g r a p h s which p h o t o g r a p h c u r a t o r P a u l V a n d e r b i l t should "that  be  "striking  stick  their  factual  of v i s i o n . "  photographs today, editorial  This both  selection,  considered  connotative  i n t h e memory as p h o t o g r a p h s " t h a t  giving after quality  p i c t u r e s of broad  appreciation."  interest",  "continue  i s a b s o r b e d " t h a t "show  i s "what i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s o u g h t i n c u r r e n t work and  and  in planning,  basis  they are, t h e r e f o r e , to because t h e y  be  i n f l u e n c e use  and  (19)  as w e l l as a form of d o c u m e n t a t i o n r e c o g n i z e s be  interesting  definition.  visuals  says,  These not the  full  "the most p o p u l a r  and  o n l y need t o  v i e w of  only provide  b e s t r e p r o d u c t i o n of t h e s e possible level  they  sharp  be that.  of s t r a i g h t  As  crisp  the  (20)  best proof  p h o t o g r a p h s but a l s o p e r m i t images. He  in  i n - f o c u s images."  researchers with  i n the  image  photographic  f a c t o r s as s h a r p n e s s ,  t o n a l c o n t r a s t , and  s u b j e c t matter  highest  that  p h o t o g r a p h s must be more t h a n  q u a l i t y emphazises such definition,  t h a t are c l e a r  T e x t u a l documents may  d e c i p h e r a b l e , but Weinstein  in  in retrospective  T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e p h o t o g r a p h as a v i s u a l  should  says  continues,  photographic  of the  "the quality  is  18 needed when d u p l i c a t i n g images whose p r i n c i p a l to transmit This  d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n a c c u r a t e l y . " (21)  is particularly  important  t o c o n s i d e r as  p h o t o g r a p h s a r e used as much f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n reference. as t h o s e  (22) W i t n e s s t h e i r  as f o r  I n c l u s i o n i n magazines,  on t o p i c s l i k e  fishing,  and f a s h i o n ;  i n science  furniture  function i s  such  f o r e s t r y , engineering, books, a n t h o l o g i e s  like  Famous C a n a d i a n s , or h i s t o r y books t o name b u t a few. P h o t o g r a p h s a r e a l s o used as d e c o r a t i o n postcards, and  bars  calendars,  news b r o a d c a s t s  f i l m s and v i d e o s .  on t h e form o f d o c u m e n t a t i o n  considered  material  suitability  in slide  The media use them f o r  and d o c u m e n t a r i e s . The l i s t  ensure t h a t t h e i r  of r e s t a u r a n t s  i n museums and a r t  They a r e a l s o used as s o u r c e  shows, f i l m s t r i p s ,  i s endless.  i s more l i k e l y t o  for reproduction  i s also  when e v a l u a t i n g p h o t o g r a p h s f o r a c q u i s i t i o n .  Lastly, to t r e a t  and t h e w a l l s  or a s e x h i b i t m a t e r i a l s  galleries.  Focusing  t-shirts,  on c o f f e e mugs,  f o c u s i n g on t h e r e c o r d  t h e documents w i t h  to understand  the r e c o r d s ,  care. their  itself  forces  archivists  I t also forces  archivists  special  a t t r i b u t e s and  s h o r t c o m i n g s a s d o c u m e n t a t i o n . How t h e documents p h y s i c a l l y were c r e a t e d  increases a r c h i v i s t s '  p h o t o g r a p h s and t h u s a p p r a i s e acquisition. records.  This  ability  to i n t e r p r e t  them a p p r o p r i a t e l y f o r  i s an i m p o r t a n t  aspect  of preserving  19  Arguments a g a i n s t As  separate  noted e a r l i e r  materials  for their  activities  of t h e i r  information,  on  their  in this  value  thesis,  archives  on t h e c a r r i e r  on t h e form o f t h e m a t e r i a l , m i t i g a t e s i t invites concentration  and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s  value  to this  orientation  Archives  t o a r c h i v a l documents" where  orientation,  because t h e y  the to  may be a c q u i r e d  items r a t h e r t h a n as s o u r c e s appeal  of o l d photographs  archivists  n o s t a l g i a they our l o s t  o f Canada  "information  according  incline  Instead of  as t h e , "development o f an a r t e f a c t  P h o t o g r a p h s , when c o n s i d e r e d  emotional  against  as d o c u m e n t a t i o n . A r c h i v i s t s i n t h e Sound and  becomes s e c o n d a r y t o t h e p h y s i c a l document  or r a r e  of the  on the  of the m a t e r i a l s  Moving Image D i v i s i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l refer  collect  as d o c u m e n t a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e  c r e a t o r . Focusing  such a g o a l . F i r s t l y , artifactual  consideration  past.  to consider  itself."  (23)  t o s u c h an a r e works o f a r t  o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The in particular  their  acquisition  may based on  evoke, on t h e window t h e y appear This tendency i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  t o open  encouraged  by e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y images.  Secondly,  f o c u s i n g on t h e form i n v i t e s c o n c e n t r a t i o n  the medium and i t s d e v e l o p m e n t r a t h e r  t h a n on i t s  d o c u m e n t a r y v a l u e . As T e r r y Cook, C h i e f and  Natural  Canada s a y s ,  on  of S o c i a l  Resources Records a t the N a t i o n a l  Affairs  A r c h i v e s of  "Documenting t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e medium i t s e l f  -  20 the  medium i s the  message - i s d a n g e r o u s because of  isolation  i t symbolizes  about the  collection  "acquired  more t o d e m o n s t r a t e c a r t o g r a p h i c  processes  or  itself."  rather  importantly,  on  one  medium of r e c o r d  o n l y does t h i s  integrated  complains maps, as  integrity  the  techniques  and  p r e v i o u s l y unknown  face  of the  map  forces archivists  t o the  ignores  this  of the  total  photographs  to the  (27)  fact  record  hence t h e i r  value  the  (26)  even  fact.  on  the  form of  i n favour  relationship  are  the  I t compromises of the of  the  concerns  of  the  because of a l a c k of c o n c e r n about  other  documents. As  a r c h i v a l nature  will  be  documentary v a l u e  i s maintained. This  examined  of documents  as d o c u m e n t a t i o n depends on  greater  but i t  i f the c e n t r a l  and  this  r e l a t i o n s h i p amongst documents. P h o t o g r a p h s , l i k e achieve  donors,  t h a t most c o l l e c t i o n s  the documentary v a l u e  i s diminished  chapters,  formats,  to  other  r e l a t i o n s with  Focusing  important  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  in ensuing  e x c l u s i o n of  complicate  multi-media c o l l e c t i o n s ,  media. C o n v e r s e l y  records,  being  individual  i n a v a r i e t y of  i s photographic.  material  their  on  such a p o l i c y  also blinds archivists  the  oeuvre of  revealed  o f t e n have r e c o r d s  focus  He  media of r e c o r d s ,  t h a n t o o b t a i n any  information  media. Not who  of one  (24)  (25)  Most focus  invites."  to document the  cartographers, historical  and  the  other  i f this  i s because p r e s e r v i n g  the  21 original  r e l a t i o n s h i p between and  reveals  information  Interpretation understanding  about the  among documents  activities  of the  of p h o t o g r a p h s depends on  of t h e i r  f u n c t i o n and  itself  creator.  an  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  other j  records.  P h o t o g r a p h s may  seem t o document p l a c e s , p e r s o n s  e v e n t s a c c u r a t e l y . However, t h e y point  of view, as  documents on see.  As  their  were we  i s there the  camera r e c o r d s  that  this  e y e ' s own records  s o r t of  seeing.  There  camera  t h a t the eye  Thus,  way  look,  i s a hidden what we  photograph  to see,  i s to  "the  things  'sees'  or  would  represents  even when t h e r e  i t i s t a c i t l y assumed  that  things  look,  and  the  d u p l i c a t e of  the  Understanding that  photographic  'seeing'  i s indeed  context  militates  and  against  p h o t o g r a p h s f o r the  hence  preserving  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of  the  tendency to  supposed r e a l i t y  evaluate they  capture. In a d d i t i o n , i t must be derive  their  meaning  are  way  p a r t of a l a r g e r a r c h i v e s and  records  individual  the  of  accurate  show a l l t h e r e  ' o b j e c t i v e l y ' the  work." (28)  are  and  the  f o r the  i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t the these  not  not  Wartofsky e x p l a i n s ,  that  present;  e y e s t o do  the  They do  i s l o o k i n g or n o t . . .  presupposition  what t h e r e no  Max  as much a r e s u l t  r e c o r d s . They a r e  image i s t a k e n t o be  whether anyone  see,  own.  philosopher  photographic  tacit  other  are  remembered t h a t  from the  v i e w e r . As  or  photographs  writer  Philip  22 S t o k e s comments, "the  greatest  p h o t o g r a p h i c meaning a r e t o see  meaning as  when t h e y a r e  the  Context  the  i n the  tendency  images,  image. I t i s moreover, e a s y  s u b j e c t i v i t y of a p e r c e i v e r ' s the  relevant  t o the  to  contribution."  background knowledge a g a i n s t  d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e of the  particularly  a s c r i p t i o n of  because of our  s e l f - e v i d e n t l y inherent  with  provides  weigh the  encountered  i n the  r e a l l y dependent e n t i r e l y upon the i n t e r a c t i o n  of a p e r c e i v e r forget  problems  which  (29) to  images. I t i s  a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n of  photographs.  In c o n c l u s i o n , the  material  the  medium t o  special  encourages a r c h i v e s its fullest  conservation  posed by  archives  extent  should  should  part  appraised  to attend  to  copyright not  s e t up  of an  this  not  activity,  fact.  separately.  form of  the  implications a  separate  that  for their a r c h i v a l  photographs are  i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a l l the  t h a t a c t i v i t y and depends on  be  p r e d o m i n a n t l y . As  documents, as  evaluated  and  to  p o t e n t i a l of  p o l i c y f o r photographs. Photographs  acquire  qualities  t o e x p l o i t the  r e q u i r e m e n t s and  photographs, a r c h i v e s  collections  other  although a c q u i s i t i o n according  created,  they should  like be  documents g e n e r a t e d  Their a r c h i v a l  value  by  23 Notes  1. R i c h a r d Archivaria  Two  Huyda, " P h o t o g r a p h s and A r c h i v e s 5 ( W i n t e r 1977-78): 5.  2. C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s , 3. Huyda,  to Chapter  in  Canada,"  34-36.  5.  4. E s t e l l e J u s s i m , "The R e s e a r c h Uses of V i s u a l I n f o r m a t i o n , " L i b r a r y T r e n d s 25 ( A p r i l 1977): 775. 5. K l a u s H e n d r i k s , "The P r e s e r v a t i o n of P h o t o g r a p h i c R e c o r d s , " A r c h i v a r l a 5 ( W i n t e r 1977-78):92. 6. R o b e r t W e i n s t e i n , "Why ( W i n t e r 1981):120.  Collect  Photographs,"  7. W i l l i a m L e a r y , The A r c h i v a l A p p r a i s a l 20-21. 8. G a i l F i s h e r - T a y l o r , Communique 3:1 ( S p r i n g  of Photographs,  " I n t e r v i e w : Henry W i l h e i m , " 1981), 17.  9. Henry W i l h e i m , " S t o r i n g C o l o r M a t e r i a l s " P h o t o g r a p h y 27 ( O c t o b e r 1978): 33. 10.  Plcturescope  Photo  Industrial  Ibid.  11. R i c h a r d Huyda, " P h o t o g r a p h s and A r c h i v e s A r c h i v a r i a 5 ( W i n t e r 1977-78): 10.  i n Canada."  12. L e a r y , 25. 13. C o r r a d o A. S a n t o r o , "The A s s o c i a t i o n of C a n a d i a n A r c h i v i s t s and C o y p r i g h t R e v i s i o n : An Update" A r c h i v a r i a ( W i n t e r 1985-86): 111 and J u d i t h F e l s t e n , "News P h o t o g r a p h s , " P l c t u r e s c o p e 30 ( F a l l / W i n t e r 1982) : 100. 14. J i m Keon, "The C a n a d i a n A r c h i v i s t and C o p y r i g h t L e g i s l a t i o n , " A r c h i v a r i a 18 (Summer 1984): 92 and C o r r a d o S a n t a r o , 121.  21  A.  15. Andrew Rodger, " C o p y r i g h t ' The P h o t o g r a p h : An A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y f o r A r c h i v i s t s , " A r c h l v a r i a 5 ( W i n t e r 1977-78): 134. 16.  Ibid.  24 17. Mary Lynn R i t z e n t h a l e r , G e r a l d J . Munoff, and Margery S. Long, A r c h i v e s and M a n u s c r i p t s ; A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f P h o t o g r a p h i c C o l l e c t i o n s ( C h i c a g o : S o c i e t y o f American A r c h i v i s t s , 1984), 104. 18.  I b i d . , 138 .  19. P a u l V a n d e r b i l t , " E v a l u a t i n g H i s t o r i c a l P h o t o g r a p h s : A P e r s o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e , " T e c h n i c a l L e a f l e t 120, American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r L o c a l and S t a t e H i s t o r y L e a f l e t 120, H i s t o r y News 34 ( 1979 ) : 288. 20. W e i n s t e i n ,  123.  21. I b i d . 22. L e a r y ,  20.  23. E r n e s t J . D i c k , J a c q u e s Gagne, J o s e p h i n e Langham, R i c h a r d Lochead and J e a n - P a u l Moreau, " T o t a l A r c h i v e s Come A p a r t , " A r c h i v a r i a 11 (Winter 1980-81):225. 24. T e r r y Cook, "The T y r a n n y o f t h e Medium," A r c h i v a r i a 9 (Winter 1979-80): 144. 25. I b i d . , 143. 26. E r n e s t  J . Dick  e t a l , 225.  27. T e r r y Cook, "Media M y o p i a , " A r c h i v a r i a 12 (Summer 1981) :151. 28. Max W. W a r t o f s k y , "Cameras Can't See: R e p r e s e n t a t i o n , P h o t o g r a p h y and Human V i s i o n , " Photo Communique ( F e b r u a r y / M a r c h 1980), 2. 29. P h i l i p S t o k e s , "Language and P h o t o g r a p h y , " J o u r n a l o f P h o t o g r a p h y (May 23, 1976), 1.  British  25  CHAPTER  THREE  NATURE OF ARCHIVAL In Canada, a v a r i e t y photographs f o r t h e i r the As  governing is and  of c u l t u r a l  their  institutions  h i s t o r i c a l interest  t h r e e main ones b e i n g a consequence,  DOCUMENTS  and  collect  significance;  l i b r a r i e s , museums and a r c h i v e s .  i t i s o f t e n assumed t h a t  acquisition  of photographs  understandable as these  institutions  the philosophy i s t h e same. T h i s  s h a r e common  goals  s i m i l a r i t i e s i n m e t h o d o l o g y . They a l l s e e as t h e i r  responsibility available  the a c q u i s i t i o n ,  of m a t e r i a l s ,  historical  o f t e n unique, of c u l t u r a l ,  and s c i e n t i f i c  professional  c o n s e r v a t i o n and making  interest.  Each s e e s t h e need f o r  p r o c e s s i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l s  b e f o r e t h e y c a n be made a v a i l a b l e s t u d e n t s and t h e g e n e r a l sees as p a r t  public  of i t s r o l e ,  f o r use by s c h o l a r s ,  and e a c h o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n s  the promotion of s c h o l a r s h i p .  However, t h e b a s e s upon which t h e s e r e p o s i t o r i e s m a t e r i a l s w h i c h promote s c h o l a r s h i p a r e v e r y  For subject  t h e most p a r t , interest  collections  and b r i n g  says t h a t  different.  l i b r a r i e s c o l l e c t materials  based on u s e r  Robert Clark  c o l l e c t the  together interests.  librarians  for their  items t o form Librarian  "select  and w r i t e r  from a u n i v e r s e o f  books o r p a p e r s t h o s e which t h e y w i s h t o add t o t h e i r collections."  (1) L i b r a r i a n s  a p p r o a c h m a t e r i a l s by " p u l l i n g  26 together d i s c r e t e  items and o r g a n i z i n g t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n  according to a standard c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  o f human  knowledge."(2) Thus,  items as i m p o r t a n t  libraries  documents o f c u l t u r a l significance  collect  or r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t .  i s independent  of t h e i r  Their  relationship  to other  i t e m s . Museum c u r a t o r s c o l l e c t  items a s w e l l ,  their  v a l u e . They c o l l e c t  artifactual  and a r t i s t i c  primarily for items as  examples or s p e c i m e n s o f a c u l t u r e . M u s e o l o g i s t E l l i s notes  that  "museums a r e c o n c e r n e d  the s t a r t i n g museums."(3)  point Other  museum " p e r f o r m s artifacts archivists related  with o b j e c t s . Objects are  o f a museum...objects  saying that a  i t s f u n c t i o n s by t h e c o l l e c t i n g or both."  other  o f documents which a r e  i n an a c t i v i t y  the p r o c e s s o f " a c q u i s i t i o n "  and use o f  (4) By c o n t r a s t ,  p r i m a r i l y a c q u i r e groups  t o each  justify  museologists confirm this  or s p e c i m e n s ,  Burcaw  of t h e i r  they see t h e i r  c r e a t o r . In  r e p o s i t o r i e s as  h o u s i n g and g a t h e r i n g b o d i e s o f r e c o r d s o f o t h e r institutions artistic  or p e r s o n s .  Items o f c u l t u r a l ,  value a r e not t h e i r  a r t i f a c t u a l or  primary concern.  "Archives are  c h i e f l y the non-current s u b s t a n t i v e records of the institutions usefulness  or i n d i v i d u a l s  i s enhanced  t r a n s a c t i o n remains materials  they  document....Their  i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the o r i g i n a l  apparent."  (5) Thus, t h e n a t u r e o f t h e  (informational, artifactual  the d i s t i n c t i v e institution.  approach  or a r c h i v a l ) ,  t o photographs  dictates  t a k e n by each  27  A r c h i v e s embarking photographic  upon c o l l e c t i n g  materials should  or a c q u i r i n g  understand  that there are  b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e t h r e e t y p e s for m a t e r i a l s w i l l rightfully  belong  be b r o u g h t  of i n s t i t u t i o n s  into the archives that  i n a museum or l i b r a r y .  The d i s t i n c t i o n  between a r c h i v e s on t h e one hand and l i b r a r i e s on  the other  historical For  hand may be b l u r r e d when a c q u i s i t i o n o f  photographs takes  instance, a r c h i v i s t s  divisions  of l i b a r i e s  a r c h i v e s and l i b r a r y R i c h a r d Berner formed care as  working  in a library  in special  photographic  principles.  As A m e r i c a n  nonconforming  collections,  been a d m i n i s t e r e d librarianship."  archivist  i n such  incunabula,  such  and h i s t o r i c a l and these  techniques  establishment  t o take  l i b r a r y materials  (6) O f t e n , a c q u i s i t i o n  mandate o f a s p e c i a l  in libraries  Traditionally,  by e x i s t i n g  the I n i t i a l  m a t e r i a l s have  and p r a c t i c e s of  of a r c h i v e s i s taken  and d e f i n i t i o n  collections division.  of the  (7) A r c h i v i s t s  an e n v i r o n m e n t need t o be a b l e t o  between v a r i o u s k i n d s  o f documents s o t h a t  e a c h may be t r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r o p e r practices.  collections  face the problem of r e c o n c i l i n g  l i t e r a r y manuscripts....  differentiate  or museum.  p o i n t s o u t , " S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s u n i t s were  of m i s c e l l a n e o u s  working  place  f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e convenience  on a f t e r  and museums  p r i n c i p l e s and  28 How and  t h e n do a r c h i v i s t s d e c i d e which documents t o  which t o r e j e c t ?  photographs treated The  constitute  characteristics  defining  principles?  t h e o r i s t s were c o n c e r n e d  of a r c h i v a l  materials. English  t h e o r y i n the E n g l i s h  or p r i v a t e ) of which  and  subsequently  own  i n f o r m a t i o n by the p e r s o n s  t r a n s a c t i o n and this  not drawn up Posterity."  facts  their  i n the  we  in their  or used  add  interest  in  transaction  [ t h e y ] formed a own  the  world  custody  part;  for their  responsible for that  l e g i t i m a t e s u c c e s s o r s . " (8) may  archivist  form  speaking  with  a corollary.  or f o r t h e  He  added,  A r c h i v e s were  i n f o r m a t i o n of  (9)  Jenkinson collect  preserved  Definition  which  t h e r e f o r e be  of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or e x e c u t i v e  (whether p u b l i c  of  should  d e s c r i b e d a r c h i v e s as documents "drawn up  the course  "To  they decide  S i r H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n , whose c o n c e p t s  of a r c h i v a l  today,  do  of a r c h i v e s archival  the nature  writer  basis  first,  how  a r c h i v e s and  according to a r c h i v a l  From the  and  Specifically,  collect  felt  t h a t documents a r c h i v a l  should provide  "verifiable',  repositories  "first-hand  (10) as t h e y were documents used  evidence"  i n the study  of  h i s t o r y which c o u l d be depended upon f o r t h e i r "impartiality" derives  and  from the  of an a c t i o n ,  "authenticity".  fact  (11) T h e i r  t h e y t h e y were drawn up  f o r a purpose  impartiality i n the  q u i t e other than that  course  f o r which  29 t h e y might be used a s t h e s o u r c e s o f h i s t o r y . They a r e impartial actions  t o the extent  that they f a i t h f u l l y  which b r o u g h t them i n t o b e i n g ,  t h e y were n o t c r e a t e d  to instruct  a u t h e n t i c i t y comes from t h e f a c t the  c u s t o d y or c a r e  produced  explain  their  or d i s t u r b a n c e s  q u a l i t y as  produced  defined  t h a t , by b e i n g  o n l y be t h o s e m a t e r i a l s  i n the t r a n s a c t i o n of i t s b u s i n e s s .  the  i n pursuance of i t s a c t i v i t i e s  form. They m i g h t ,  by t h e o f f i c e  f o r instance,  nature,  s u c h a s maps and p l a n s .  Muller,  J.A. F e i t h and R. F r u i n c o n c u r r e d  archival collection  t h a t an Thus, he  transaction.  or c o l l e c t e d by r e g a r d l e s s of  be m a t e r i a l s  printed  of a  Dutch a r c h i v i s t s with  S.  Jenkinson.  i s t h e whole o f t h e w r i t t e n  documents, d r a w i n g s and p r i n t e d m a t t e r , o f f i c i a l l y or p r o d u c e d by an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e officials."  protected  evidence.  be t h o s e c r e a t e d  "An  in  o f a n y k i n d w h i c h would  They c o u l d  their  preserved  t h e y have been  them a s documents o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  office  that  p o s t e r i t y . Their  successors,  A r c h i v a l documents c o u l d office  to the extent  o f t h e body or p e r s o n who c r e a t e d or  them or t h e i r  from a l t e r a t i o n  express the  received  body or one o f i t s  (12)  Jenkinson determined  t h a t these o f f i c i a l  documents  became a r c h i v a l when t h e y had been s e t a s i d e f o r preservation having  ceased  f o r future reference t o be i n c u r r e n t  " a t the p o i n t a t which,  use t h e y a r e d e f i n i t e l y s e t  30 aside kept."  for preservation,  tacitly  (13) I t i s a l s o  important  them a s i d e  for preservation  c r e a t i o n or a c c u m u l a t i o n .  which  formed p a r t  of an o f f i c i a l  for official  Muller,  t h a t t h e p e r s o n who s e t  was t h e p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  their  preserved  a d j u d g e d worthy of b e i n g  "Archives  a r e documents  t r a n s a c t i o n and were  reference."  (14)  F e i t h and F r u i n a l s o h e l d  t h a t s u c h documents  were a r c h i v a l " i n so f a r a s t h e s e documents were i n t e n d e d remain  i n the custody of t h a t  officially archivist  received  body or o f t h a t o f f i c i a l  or p r o d u c e d  them]."  documents were " t h e o r d e r l y a c c u m u l a t i o n  accomplishment by  and which a r e p r e s e r v e d  of i t s p o l i t i c a l ,  s u c h an i n s t i t u t i o n  legal  by an  or c u l t u r a l  not  purposes  or i n d i v i d u a l . " (16)  by t h e c r e a t o r  would be c a r e d  institution  f o r the  Thus, documents were a r c h i v a l once t h e y were preserved  Archival  o f documents which  i n the course of i t s a c t i v i t y  or an i n d i v i d u a l ,  [who  (15) I t a l i a n  E u g e n i o Casanova was o f t h e same o p i n i o n .  were c r e a t e d  to  of the r e c o r d s .  f o r In an a r c h i v e s ,  consciously  Ultimately  but the a r c h i v i s t  they would  d e t e r m i n e whether t h e y were a r c h i v a l o r n o t , f o r t h e a c t  of p r e s e r v a t i o n who c r e a t e d  for reference  the records.  "compile a r c h i v e s . " archivist receives  i s p e r f o r m e d by t h e p e r s o n s  The a r c h i v i s t ' s d u t y was m e r e l y t o  (17) M u l l e r ,  i n t h e same l i g h t ,  F e i t h and F r u i n viewed t h e  "...the a r c h i v i s t  the a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n  generally  i n t o h i s c u s t o d y when i t i s  31 dead, or a t any considered  as  only  closed."  Jenkinson the  rate  felt  c u s t o d y of  their  included  the  best  of e n s u r i n g  recognized be  supposing there first  out  of  step  h i s way  character  creator,  conditions,  preserved,  their  also  and  Archives?" went on  can  their  (19)  i s the  question  the  creator/accumulator.  destroyed  that  would be  He  -He  by an  (21)  By  t o save the  replied in  that  to  -take  life  the  than t h a t government  of a n o t h e r  office  and  under c e r t a i n  i n order  of  the  archivist,  institution  of  documents  meant t h a t  to be  their  came t o the  line  to  (20)  f o r the  documents had  "unblemished he  could  arises  willing  or b r o k e n up.  therefore  this  one  now  the  he  i m p a r t i a l i t y t h e y must not  of the  t o r e m a i n a r c h i v a l the  custodians."  which  P u b l i c A r c h i v i s t go  official  records  a u t h e n t i c i y and  maintained  successors,  them. T h i s  any  in  s e l e c t i o n of  their  uninvited  to s t a t e  a f t e r the  tampered w i t h once out  and  h e i r nor  intervene  Jenkinson recognized  that  and  received  of d e p o s i t i n g ,  save them from b e i n g  retain  made the  a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s other  look  be  remain  a u t h e n t i c i t y . However,  Is n e i t h e r  Public A r c h i v i s t , that could  who  someone e l s e . "The  of the  a f f i r m a t i v e and  i t which must  i n some c a s e s t h e s e a r c h i v a l documents  t a k e n over by  the  of  (18)  a r c h i v i s t s who  that  parts  t h a t a r c h i v a l documents s h o u l d  t h o s e documents t o be  way  the  t o be  of the  conclusion kept i n t a c t  responsible persons  32 responsible  f o r the  records together identified then,  p r e s e r v a t i o n of the documents r e t a i n  i n the  order designed  as o r i g i n a t i n g  to take  selecting  them over  en  [the a r c h i v e s ] must  b l o c : t h e r e must be  of p r e t t y s p e c i m e n s . "  possibly allow  full  (22)  a r c h i v e value  "No  This was  preserved."  introduced  N a t a l i s de  Interior.  des  fonds."  by  fonds,  In  He  that  i n 1841  i t he  i n France  be  kept  by F r e n c h  signed  were  i s t o u n i t e a l l the deeds  order."  (24)  of  "respect  together  together  ( i . e . documents) the d i f f e r e n t  Respect  i n the A r c h i v e s N a t i o n a l e s kept  together  historian  e x p l a i n e d t h a t i t meant, " t o g a t h e r  R e c o r d s were t o be  could  by t h e M i n i s t e r of  introduced h i s concept  a c c o r d i n g to a c e r t a i n policy  ...  i n which t h e y  which came f r o m a body...and t o a r r a n g e  official  no  archivist  of a body s h o u l d  Wailly, in a circular  the  be  (23)  idea that records  first  and  to documents which have  been v i o l e n t l y t o r n f r o m t h e c o n n e x i o n originally  creator  from t h a t c r e a t o r . "In a l l c a s e s ,  the a u t h o r i t y t a k i n g over  prepared  by t h e i r  the  des in  fonds  fonds became  France.  i n the a r c h i v e s under  the  name of t h e a g e n c y t h a t o r i g i n a t e d them, though w i t h i n e a c h fonds  t h e y were t o be a r r a n g e d  according to t h e i r  m a t t e r as an a i d t o s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h . O r i g i n a l l y conceived a r c h i v a l documents as method used  (25)  as a method of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  opposed t o t h e  in libraries  subject  a t the  time,  subject  of  classification  r e s p e c t des  fonds,  33 became w i d e l y a c c e p t e d  i n Europe as t h e g u i d i n g  archives.  I t r e m a i n s so t o t h i s day.  principle  of " r e s p e c t des  was  f o n d s " or " p r i n c i p e  from the o r i g n a l  de  "registry  office  o r d e r was  t h e a g e n c y . T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t was  In  to a r c h i v a l  retained  the provenance"  "An a r c h i v a l  official  and  by t h e the  records  when t h e  e x p r e s s e d t h e same  c o l l e c t i o n comes i n t o  of t h e a c t i v i t i e s  Here  c u s t o d y . " (26)  t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , Dutch a r c h i v i s t s  principle. result  imposed  [which] a r r a n g e d and s e r v i c e d  r e c o r d s were t r a n s f e r r e d  of  a g e n c y were k e p t t o g e t h e r as a  g r o u p . However, t h e o r i g i n a l  that  In P r u s s i a ,  a d o p t e d under t h e name of " r e g i s t r a t u r p r i n z l p " .  records  for  principle  b e i n g as t h e  o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  body or o f an  i s a l w a y s t h e r e f l e c t i o n of the f u n c t i o n of  body or t h a t  official:  i t i s an o r g a n i c whole, a  living  o r g a n i s m , which grows t a k e s shape, and undergoes changes i n accordance with composition, archival  fixed  rules...The rules  the arrangement  collection,  and  which g o v e r n t h e ^  the f o r m a t i o n of the  t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t be f i x e d  archivist  i n advance,;  ascertain  the r u l e s  by an  he can o n l y s t u d y the o r g a n i s m and  under w h i c h  i t was  formed."  (27)  Sometimes, t h e y c o n c e d e d , " t h e o r i g i n a l arrangement archival deviation t h i s was the  c o l l e c t i o n may  be m o d i f i e d  from t h e g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e  i n order  into  correct  of the c o l l e c t i o n , "  o n l y t o be done by t h e a r c h i v i s t  records  to  of an  after  receiving  h i s or her c u s t o d y . (28) In E n g l a n d the  but  34 principle  of p r o v e n a n c e was a d o p t e d a l s o . The  d'archives  translated  was c o n s i d e r e d  i n t o the a r c h i v e  t o be t h a t  established  fonds  group. O r i g i n a l by the c r e a t o r  order  of the  records. Although Jenkinson defined created did  a r c h i v a l documents as t h o s e  i n the c o u r s e of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  n o t e x c l u d e documents c r e a t e d  bodies  from c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  t r a n s a c t i o n he  by p e r s o n s or p r i v a t e  " I t seems t h a t a r c h i v e s  as a t e r m  must be e x t e n d e d t o c o l l e c t i o n s made by p r i v a t e or semi-private  bodies or persons, a c t i n g  business a c t i v i t i e s . " "The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  (29) M u l l e r ,  offices  in their  official  F e i t h and F r u i n  or o f f i c i a l s  However, "One  agreed,  of p r i v a t e  b o d i e s may a l s o p r o d u c e an a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n . "  civil  (30)  t h e y drew the l i n e a t c o l l e c t i o n s of f a m i l y  should  or  papers,  n o t c l a s s w i t h t h e above, however, s o - c a l l e d  f a m i l y a r c h i v e s . . . . T h e documents i n a f a m i l y a r c h i v a l collection gathered organic  do n o t f o r m  together  'a whole'; v e r y  i n the s t r a n g e s t  manner  bond of an a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n . "  Theodore S c h e l l e n b e r g refined  o f t e n t h e y have been  built  and l a c k the (31)  upon t h e s e t h e o r i e s and  them t o meet t h e demands of modern  production  and the c o m p l e x i t y of t h e i r  o r i g i n s . He  a r c h i v a l documents i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. materials  must have been c r e a t e d  p u r p o s e . . . . I f t h e y were c r e a t e d  records  "To be  or a c c u m u l a t e d  defined archives,  f o r some  i n t h e p r o c e s s of  35 accomplishing or  other  some d e f i n i t e  social  quality."  end,  some p u r p o s e , not activity  archival records the  are  thus enlarged  archives, allowing  any  then they  t h a t as  of p o t e n t i a l a r c h i v a l  l o n g as  be  the  and  of the  them. He  of a r c h i v e s  they  to  preserved  and  of  away from  role  documentary  than h i s European  determined  materials (33)  w h i c h were and  archivist  for reasons other  be  ones."  (34)  have  forebearers not  be  deemed them so archives,  than those  and  materials  f o r which  or a c c u m u l a t e d . These r e a s o n s may  cultural  the  records  should  t h a t documents c o u l d  the  also  i n c l u d e , " a l l books,  that a r c h i v i s t s  f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n . "To  were c r e a t e d  official  concluded  archival until  s e t them a s i d e must be  focus  e x p a n s i o n of government a c t i v i t i e s  a more i n f l u e n t i a l  considered  the  t h e ^growing numbers of r e c o r d s  Schellenberg  for  potential  of p h y s i c a l form or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . "  Faced w i t h  granted  had  p o s s i b l e kinds  took  p a p e r s , maps, p h o t o g r a p h s , or o t h e r  keeping,  were c r e a t e d  of a r c h i v a l documents. S c h e l l e n b e r g  expanded the d e f i n i t i o n  regardless  of  administrative transaction,  increased acquired  definition  records  i n s o c i e t y , then they  that could aspect  upon the  n e c e s s a r i l y an  q u a l i t y . This  legal  result  business,  (32)  Schellenberg  but  administrative, legal,  be  both  36 S c h e l l e n b e r g thought be  t h a t the c r e a t o r s of r e c o r d s  responsible for selecting  value  for their  archivists  c u r r e n t uses.  should  be  the  However, he  of  interest  p o s t e r i t y . R e c o r d s which had  attributed being  as h a v i n g  those  r e c o r d s . He secondary history,  of  felt  felt  such  information  v a l u e s ; the  was  interests,  and  best able to  values  types:  " e v i d e n t i a l " and  refers  "to a value  matter evidenced,  of  judge  these  training  in  value,  with  the  t o the r o l e  played  records are  of  an  those documentation  These a r e  of r e c o r d s  not  to  which  in accomplishing  the  body c r e a t i n g them.  Schellenberg,  the evidence  records  the  f u n c t i o n i n g , of  adequate  f u n c t i o n i n g . " (36)  functional value  the  then,  two  value  i m p o r t a n c e of  i . e . the o r g a n i z a t i o n and  t o p r o v i d e an a u t h e n t i c and  p u r p o s e of t h e For  the  "informational". Evidential  t h a t depends on t h e  i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n and  refers  values  S c h e l l e n b e r g broke down i n t o  agency t h a t c o n t a i n e v i d e n t i a l  be c o n f u s e d  he  r e c o r d s c r e a t i o n and  t h e a g e n c y t h a t p r o d u c e d t h e r e c o r d . . . . The  of  and  (35)  secondary  necessary  f o r the  primary  s o l e l y t o t h e c r e a t o r of  the a r c h i v i s t  research  that  to researchers  v a l u e s , based on h i s knowledge and  maintenance.  The  secondary  interest  r e c o r d s which were of  ones t o judge t h e r e c o r d s  information they contained for  those  should  informational values  related  i n a r c h i v a l documents f o r r e s e a r c h  to  value  purposes.  37 "The  ' i n f o r m a t i o n a l ' value  value the  - that value  Information  that  inheres  (37)  He  i n f o r m a t i o n may  relate,  rule,  has  institution, that a r c h i v a l  i n a g e n e r a l way,  Jenkinson,  source,  or t h e  person  other  than  i n determining  their  the  institution.  persons,  rely  to  "As  a  an  sponsoring proper  i n t a c t and  (39)  an  important  q u a l i t y of documents. t r a n s f e r r e d en  from J e n k i n s o n  "In d e a l i n g with  of r e s p o n s i b l e c u s t o d i a n s ' or of of a r c h i v a l  records of an  produced  t o be  preserved.  of a g i v e n a g e n c y s h o u l d  be  kept  (40)  T h i s meant "1) together  as  the  under  'unblemished  'unbroken  quality."  bloc.  concerning  t o have v a l u e as a r c h i v a l documents the  t h e r e c o r d s had  accepted  institutions  agency.  custody  modern c o n d i t i o n s of government, p r o o f  c a n n o t be made a t e s t  of  gift.  the  i t s e r v e s . " However, he  the a r c h i v a l  kept  q u e s t i o n of c u s t o d y .  say  only  namely the government,  However, S c h e l l e n b e r g d i f f e r e d  did  to  r e p o s i t o r i e s acquire records  R e c o r d s were t o be  line  "the  either  favoured  r e p o s i t o r y ] does not  one  of  (38)  Schellenberg considered factor  because  d e g r e e on a c q u i r i n g m a t e r i a l by p u r c h a s e or  normally  or p e r s o n s  research  useful in research  of r e c o r d s of t h e p a r e n t  [the a r c h i v a l  important It  like  be  went on t o s a y t h a t  or t h i n g s , or phenomena." Schellenberg,  called  in public records  t h e y c o n t a i n may  various kinds."  acquisition  is ordinarily  custody' However,  he  integrity  of  that  records  r e c o r d s of t h a t  38 a g e n c y , 2) possible, the  t h a t such r e c o r d s under the  course  should  be  of  alteration, them."  in their  or u n a u t h o r i z e d  of a p r i v a t e as archival.  o r g a n i z a t i o n or their  records  far  and,  3)  that  as  agency i n records  mutilation,  d e s t r u c t i o n of p o r t i o n s  Schellenberg  of  determined  that  opposed t o a p u b l i c body c o u l d  Thus, r e c o r d s  individual  of a  he  put  organic  nature.  As  have the  organic  q u a l i t y of p u b l i c r e c o r d s  t h e o r i e s o u t l i n e d above  be  business,  were p o t e n t i a l l y a r c h i v a l ,  therefore archival in character. The  as  them i n the  e n t i r e t y without  his predecessors,  considered  on  business  kept,  (41)  Like records  be  arrangement g i v e n  its official  kept  should  i t , "most r e c e n t  based  private and  are  (42) form the  basis  for practice  i n N o r t h A m e r i c a t o d a y . From them i t i s p o s s i b l e t o draw conclusions  on  the  nature  them t o the  process  of a r c h i v a l documents and  of a c q u i r i n g p h o t o g r a p h s f o r a r c h i v a l  r e p o s i t o r i e s . Three a s p e c t s not  always viewed  theorlzers, upon t h e s e archival  show e v i d e n c e they  aspects  documents s h o u l d  documents form an  that  from t h e  p o i n t t o the three  apply  organic  of a r c h i v a l documents, same p e r s p e c t i v e  a r c h i v a l nature  by the  j u d g e d . The  whole. The  first  second  of r e s p o n s i b l e c u s t o d i a n s h i p ,  have been s e t a s i d e  various  of documents. I t i s  t h a t photographs l i k e be  although  other i s that  the  i s that  they  and  third,  for preservation.  the  39 Organic  whole  As n o t e d themselves, group How  earlier,  documents a r e not a r c h i v a l  but o n l y when c o n s i d e r e d as  which by d e f i n i t i o n  does one  i s an  i s a whole? An a r c h i v a l  collection  it  i e . . . a s soon  ceases  t o be a p a r t ,  collection collections functional  a r e not known t o e x i s t evidence origins,  forming part  o r g a n i c group  know when the c o l l e c t i o n  i s "a  of a  of r e c o r d s . (h  or group  of documents  'whole' as soon  as o t h e r p a r t s of  elsewhere."  four c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : intrinsic  in  (44)  as  the  Archival  provenance,  relationships,  and  original  have a  single  materials.  All  documents i n an o r g a n i c c o l l e c t i o n  provenance, and  that  i s t h e y show e v i d e n c e  t h e y emanate from one institution,  such o f f i c i a l  body, t h i s  office.  business, association  i s e a s y enough t o  of the C i t y C l e r k ' s O f f i c e  show p r o v e n a n c e  v i s u a l department Provenance  or o t h e r  distinguish.  i f k e p t t o g e t h e r as the r e c o r d s o f  might  be a p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s  a  does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f e r  s t u d i o or the  i s equally  like  refers  or a c c u m u l a t i n g  audio-  of a company. important. I t  t o the donor of the  In t h e c a s e o f p h o t o g r a p h s , t o the body c r e a t i n g  that  collection's  of the a d v e r t i s i n g d i v i s i o n  of p e r s o n a l papers  of  of the C i t y of Vancouver  In the c a s e o f p h o t o g r a p h s ,  provenance  origin  body or a g e n c y . In t h e c a s e  r e c o r d s of an  Records  of a common  other r e c o r d s ,  collection. provenance  the documents as  40 i n t h e c a s e o f p h o t o g r a p h e r or an a r c h i t e c t photographs of  of b u i l d i n g s  of a  for a prospective  c l i e n t . The same may be  said  by an i n d i v i d u a l i n  family.  provides  the f i r s t  clue  or t h e s o u r c e o f t h e documents  i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e meaning o f t h e  documents. A c a s e i n p o i n t Collections,  Judge  noted h i s t o r i a n ,  had been  priests  late  that  facial  i n the photograph  i t was p r o b a b l y t a k e n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h i s o b v i o u s l y was t h e who. r e c e n t l y wrote  r e q u e s t i n g a c o p y o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h which  century.  judge,  scene a p p e a r s t o show I n d i a n s and  and v e g e t a t i o n d e p i c t e d  c o n c l u s i o n of a p r i e s t  Indians  (See F i g u r e  of the document.  a t p r a y e r . Study of d r e s s , b l a n k e t s ,  characteristics suggest  lost.  in Special  a u t h o r and r e s p e c t e d  Howay was known, b u t n o t t h e o r i g i n s  On t h e f a c e o f i t , t h i s two  i s a photograph, held  UBC whose provenance  1.) The d o n o r ,  i n B r i t i s h Columbia (45) In f a c t ,  Provincial is  variety  of h i s work or a s l i d e  p h o t o g r a p h s a r r a n g e d i n a photo album  Knowing t h e p r o v e n a n c e  the  assembles  he has d e s i g n e d t a k e n by a  photographers, f o r a p o r t f o l i o  presentation  who  showed  religious  a t prayer i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h  the photograph  i s a l s o held a t the  A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia  known. The p h o t o g r a p h  the d i v i s i o n  and i t s provenance  i s one o f a number o f p h o t o g r a p h s  t a k e n by and p u t i n an album  by a well-known  photographer,  Figure 1  42  Frederick towards  D a l l y , who  the end  photograph  practiced  h i s trade in B r i t i s h  of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The  b e a r s the  inscription  in Daily's  photography." all  Above he a l s o  wrote,  t h e I n d i a n s k n e e l down and  d e v o t i o n . Amen."  Hannah and  photographers, their  studios  Haida  assume an a t t i t u d e  many Northwest  i n the 1860's and  Blackman n o t e d ,  individual's  "The  for their  tribe."  was  and  Indians i n  author  Maynards seemed t o p r e f e r  Indian subjects,  regardless  of the  (47)  lighting  effects  effects.  By knowing the o r i g i n s  composite  ' c r e a t e d ' many  in his studio,  montages t o c r e a t e or provenance  hence t h e o r i e n t a t i o n and  creator,  the l a y e r s  stripped  away and  As photo  h i s t o r i a n Jack  of h i s t o r i c a l  B.C.  Coast  i n c o r r e c t . As  Images u s i n g b a c k d r o p s  documents and  of  1870's. O f t e n the d r e s s of  W i l l i a m Notman of M o n t r e a l a l s o misleading  request  photographs  R i c h a r d Maynard, V i c t o r i a ,  photographed  backdrops  of  (46)  t h e I n d i a n s or the b a c k d r o p Margaret  handwriting:  "At the p r i e s t s '  Many o t h e r s u c h examples of the l i e i n exist.  original  own  " I n d i a n s shamming t o be a t p r a y e r f o r t h e sake  Columbia  essential  truth  practices  Hurley explains,  e v i d e n c e t h a t we  better  desired  of the  of s u b t e r f u g e of p h o t o g r a p h s  their  special  of the can  be  understood.  " i t is a basic  must u n d e r s t a n d  rule  the s o u r c e s  43 we  use  i n order  to avoid  p r o v e n a n c e of the understanding  collection  their  organic  provides  f u n c t i o n of the  R e c o r d s or documents i n an  archival  document  i s present  heart  process,  of which  i t c o n s t i t u t e s an  isolated  e l e m e n t . I t a l w a y s has other  part  of s u c h a c t i v i t y  this  context. Lily  Division  Koltun, of the  interpretation  perception  out  of the  i n the  "The  of a f u n c t i o n a l  beginning,  as  an  d o c u m e n t a r y m a t e r i a l s were c r e a t e d  as  and  can  a utilitarian  small  ^  o n l y be  Archives  how  p r o p e r l y understood  this  i s important  n o t e s how  an  century  in City  understanding  " B i g b u i l d i n g s were w e i g h t y symbols of the  how  of h i s or  Canada f o r  of  influences  p l a c e s and  perception  eastern  Blocks,  to  camera p l a c e m e n t  the  in  Photography  of Canada,  p h o t o g r a p h s and  often r e f l e c t s  t i m e . In n i n e t e e n t h  from a knowledge  e l e m e n t , however  of b u i l d i n g s , i n d i v i d u a l s and  photographer  organic  character."  National  meaning. She  the  D u c h e i n wrote,  Head, Documentary A r t and  C i t y Spaces p o i n t s  their  i n the  I t i s never c o n c e i v e d ,  Photographs l i k e  an  interpretation i s derived As  be.  to  to  or t r a n s a c t i o n . T h e i r  function in this a c t i v i t y .  may  one  clue  records.  of t h e i r  it  first  a r c h i v e s are  o u t g r o w t h of a p u r p o s e , a c t i v i t y hence  the  the  of documents i n a c o l l e c t i o n which i s  whole: the  meaning and  Thus, knowing  meaning. I t a l s o a l e r t s  second c h a r a t e r i s t i c an  e r r o r s . " (48)  her  Instance,  nature  and  the the  44 importance of t h e i r  functions  o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e i r t h i s and took  and  s i z e and d e t a i l  of i t s symbolic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . a s symbols  and a sense o f f u n c t i o n i n g  provided  only to increase their  t i m e s of  on a l a r g e and e l a b o r a t e  t i m e , the p h o t o g r a p h e r shows t h e b u i l d i n g  contact are  viewpoints at ideal  while minimizing d i s t o r t i o n  c o n t o u r and s t y l e  intellectual  s o c i e t y . . . . Photographers responded t o  images from i d e a l  day and [maximized] building,  i n the moral and  utility.  outside  space  bare of human  A few f i g u r e s  g r a n d p r o p o r t i o n s by  c o n t r a s t . " (50) Photojournalist Society,  echoes  photographs publisher to  Life  Koltun.  played  Henry  G i s e l e Freund,  i n P h o t o g r a p h y and  She p o i n t s o u t t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e  i n the g l o s s y view of l i f e  Booth L u c e .  p r o v i d e d by  "What gave so much  credibility  was i t s e x t e n s i v e use o f p h o t o g r a p h s . . . . The w o r l d  reflected  in Life  was f u l l  of l i g h t  and had o n l y a few  shadows. I t was u l t i m a t e l y a f a l s e w o r l d , one t h a t  inspired  the  were  masses w i t h f a l s e  c r e a t e d as p a r t of  the a c t i v i t y .  hopes."  o f an a c t i v i t y and t h u s r e f l e c t  Thus,  the purpose  A l o n e t h e y c a n n o t be p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t o o d .  T h e i r meaning i s o n l y c l e a r this activity  (51) The p h o t o g r a p h s  o f which  the purpose  i f considered  i n r e l a t i o n to  t h e y formed a p a r t . f o r which t h e p h o t o g r a p h s  were  produced  i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d and i s d i s c e r n e d by  analysis  of the a c t i v i t y  or p u r p o s e  f o r which t h e y were  45 created.  I f t h e y a r e n o t p a r t of an a c t i v i t y as a  they are l i k e notes,  d i s p a r a t e images v o i d  " t o a p p r e c i a t e a document,  group,  o f c o n t e x t . As  i t is essential  Duchein t o know  e x a c t l y where i t was c r e a t e d , i n t h e framework o f what process,  t o what end, f o r whom, when and how i t was r e c e i v e d  by t h e a d d r e s s e e . " photographs  by A l a n T r a c h t e n b e r g ,  recognize that interpreter but  is after  social  archivist's  The organic  of t h e i r  i n order  (53) Thus, t h e with the  r e l a t i o n s h i p among documents f o r m i n g an  i s the t h i r d  characteristic  naturally relate  of a r c h i v e s .  o f an a c t i v i t y or  t o each  o t h e r a s a consequence  o r t r a n s a c t i o n s . Even when  i s o v e r t l y documentary, as i n t h e example o f an  architect  accumulating  designed,  t h e documents as assembled  as an a r c h i t e c t . is  inits  to evaluate h i s evidence.  p a r t i n those a c t i v i t i e s  the a c t i v i t y  people."  of a r c h i v e s i s consonant  Records c r e a t e d d u r i n g the course transaction  i s to  - what t h e  of the p i c t u r e  use by p a r t i c u l a r  needs  intrinsic whole  "The p r i n c i p l e  - i s r a r e l y given w i t h i n the p i c t u r e ,  i n the f u n c t i o n  concept  interpreter's  i s applied to  t h e meaning o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h  i s developed  particular  (52) T h i s same c o n c e p t  photographs  of b u i l d i n g s reflect  Thus, a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  he has  his activities  f e a t u r e of a r c h i v e s  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p among the documents f o r m i n g  t h e whole o f  the body o f r e c o r d s i n q u e s t i o n . I m p o r t a n t l y , t h i s beyond a n y s i n g l e  form o f document. F o r I n s t a n c e ,  extends other  46 records  of  clients,  the  architect,  have a d i r e c t ,  p h o t o g r a p h s he work t o Is  the  relationship  in a p o r t f o l i o  to  i t ever p o s s i b l e  for  a single  s u c h as  i d e n t i f i e d by  a monetarily d a t e and  contended t h a t a c o l l e c t i o n  not  a p a r t , as  known t o  paper  [Now  soon as  exist  almost  100 may  mean p h o t o g r a p h ] of one  whole."  the his  other  sitter,  an  years be  p a r t s of  even  and  i f i t does  Fruin  soon as  the  i t ceases  collection  " I f , however, o n l y a  later  i n t h i s age  justified  archival  paper c o n s t i t u t e s  be  valuable  i s a whole as  elsewhere.  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , we  that  to  illustrate  document t o  show t h e s e c o n n e c t i o n s ? M u l l e r , F e i t h  be  with  client.  daguerreotype  to  correspondence  transactional  accumulated  considered a r c h i v a l ,  not  s u c h as  the  in  of  single  visual  interpreting  collection  is  collection,  are  this  to  preserved,  i t is in i t s e l f  a  (54) j  Jenkinson referred and  recommended them f o r  museums, not one  to  single  inclusion  a r c h i v e s . He  whereby " t h e y  said  d e a l w i t h a l l more or  less  He  ideal  pointed  "specimens"  holdings situation  isolated  l o s t , leaving  intact  S c h e l l e n b e r g agreed that archives.  the  i n the  [museums] took over  whose c o n n e x i o n s were a l r e a d y  i n an  documents as  the  collections."  s u c h documents d i d  out  t h a t an  archives  of would  be  specimens archivist (55) not  belong  i s not  a  to  47 library,  though the  Archival  documents he  their  significance  a g e n c y and  to  incidental.  latter also collects said  were c r e a t e d  "depends on  their  each o t h e r . T h e i r  Library materials,  on  for  reason they u s u a l l y c o n s i s t  relationship  to  is wholly  other  Thus, a s i n g l e s e e n as  not  other  of  available  whole a c t i v i t y and  purposes.  discrete  itself  or  as  elsewhere, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w o r t h y of  is acceptable)  even J e n k i n s o n a d m i t s t h i s  a r c h i v e s and  ascertained. negative,  for  archivists which  is  about  to  the  the  i n the i n the  is a print  justified original  original c a s e of  in acquiring or  record  into  the  collection  photograph  fifth  at  view i n a s e r i e s  in  o r d e r can  be  original  collection, the  negative  c o p y . A note  this  forms p a r t of  the  already  an  i n the  only  collected  i s where  collection  i t s provenance should d i s p e l  individual  instance  archival  Certainly,  which t h e r e  i t s entry  Where an for  (57)  indeed  an  its location  would be  i n v e n t o r y as  of  the  The  i n being  be  of  of  acquisition.  (and  forms p a r t  i t can  evidence  justified  the  items,  their  o c c a s i o n where i t i s d e f i n i t e l y  photograph  And  (56)  in  therefore  the  are  p h o t o g r a p h poses a dilemma, f o r end  to  are  hand,  cultural  and  relation  values  i n d e p e n d e n t of  items."  r e p r e s e n t i n g an  activities  for  materials.  a purpose  organic  the  i n the  whose s i g n i f i c a n c e  instance  for  cultural  produced this  first  cultural  any later  of  in  the  qualms date.  a series,  photographs  as  48 recording  the p r o g r e s s  too, should Last,  o f c o n s t r u c t i o n of a b u i l d i n g , i t ,  be a c q u i r e d .  but n o t l e a s t ,  o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  p h o t o g r a p h s which a r e p a r t o f an o r g a n i c c o l l e c t i o n they are o r i g i n a l collection  m a t e r i a l s . Only  contains originals  authenticity  o f the document as p a r t o f t h e o r i g i n a l  or p u r p o s e be a s s u r e d .  referred  to " o r i g i n a l  were c r e a t e d over  M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n  a r c h i v a l documents" a s t h o s e  t h e p e r i o d o f time  c o l l e c t i o n and never as t h o s e added t o i t . (58)  covered  Jenkinson  d a t e and referred to  o f . . . [ t h e ] t r a n s a c t i o n o f which  a p a r t . " (59) S c h e l l e n b e g been c r e a t e d  said  i n the process  these  o f some  characteristic.  Copies  i n f o r m a t i o n as o r i g i n a l s because t h e i r  [they]  formed  " m a t e r i a l s must have ...end." (60)  Authenticity of photographs as source  for  by t h e a r c h i v a l  made a t a l a t t e r  As we have s e e n ,  which  documents as a u t h e n t i c documents "drawn up or used  in the course  on t h i s  t h a t the  and n o t c o p i e s c a n t h e  activity  archival  by e n s u r i n g  i s that  documents depends  do n o t r e v e a l t h e same  because t h e y c a n be m a n i p u l a t e d  physical characteristics,  p h o t o g r a p h s c r e a t e d by d i f f e r e n t  and  which a r e d i f f e r e n t  t e c h n o l o g i e s , may  change how t h e i n f o r m a t i o n ^ i s i n t e r p r e t e d . I f t h e s i l v e r gelatin had  twentieth century  been r e c o g n i z e d  print,  p h o t o p r i n t of I n d i a n s  as being  its credibility  a t prayer  a copy of the o r i g i n a l  might have been  questioned.  albumen  49  Responsible  Custodianship  Commenting on t h e m a t t e r on C a n a d i a n a r c h i v e s p o i n t e d retained  and p r e s e r v e d  them. In a c t u a l f a c t , rigidly  to this  of a r c h i v a l  of c u s t o d y ,  out t h a t " r e c o r d s  by t h o s e  m a t e r i a l which  report  s h o u l d be  responsible for creating  of course,  principle,  an i m p o r t a n t  i t i s i m p r a c t i c a l t o adhere  a p p l y i n g i t t o the great i d e a l l y should  I f c r e a t o r s d o n ' t a l w a y s assume c u s t o d y  be  breadth  preserved."  of t h e i r  own  documents o f e n d u r i n g  v a l u e , what k i n d o f c u s t o d y  c a n be  considered  t o e n s u r e what S c h e l l e n b e r g  referred  sufficient  t o as t h e " i n t e g r i t y is  important  first  for archival  characteristic  record  of t h e r e c o r d s " ? collections  of such  custody  o f t h e t r a n s a c t i o n or a c t i v i t y  what S c h e l l e n b e r g r e f e r r e d  What k i n d o f c u s t o d y o f p h o t o g r a p h s ? The i s t h a t the complete i s acquired. This i s  t o as t r a n s f e r r i n g  documents en  b l o c . T h i s would mean f o r i n s t a n c e , a p h o t o g r a p h e r ' s  records  t h a t were bought by a p r i v a t e d e a l e r and l a t e r  sold  archives should  and n o t j u s t  part  represent  t h e whole c o l l e c t i o n  of the r e c o r d s . Responsible  implies  If in  custodianship therefore  t h a t the r e c o r d s a r e kept  " p r e t t y s p e c i m e n s " or b r e a k i n g  intact  with  no p i c k i n g o f  up of t h e whole.  t h e whole o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  t o an  i s acquired  o f t h e r e c o r d s . As Berner  i twill aid s a y s , "The  d e g r e e t o which c o m p l e t e n e s s o f d o c u m e n t a t i o n has been preserved  also provides a s o l i d  b a s i s f o r a p p r a i s a l o f ...  50 documentary v a l u e . " adds,  (62) A r c h i v i s t  "Completeness of t h e v i s u a l  collection  of p h o t o g r a p h s  i n t o the h i s t o r y The  second  is that  has  i n the  not been a l t e r e d form  with sharp  even  b l a c k and  i f the new  collector  has  and  white  silver  the o r i g i n a l  not been a l t e r e d  blue  gelatin nature  p r i n t s were made from  t o t h e a r c h i v e s . As  (63)  contains  or the b r i g h t  n e g a t i v e s . I t a l s o means t h a t  photographs  research  t h e y were i n when c r e a t e d .  o l d , f a d e d albumen p r i n t s  collection,  of a  of r e s p o n s i b l e c u s t o d i a n s h i p  p h o t o p r i n t s would m i s r e p r e s e n t  original  documentation  i s necessary to support  characteristic  o n l y the documents  cyanotypes  Ritzenthaler  or development of a s u b j e c t or t o p i c . "  the c o l l e c t i o n  Replacing  Mary Lynn  of the  t h e o r d e r of  en r o u t e  i n the c a s e  the  the  from c r e a t o r or of  textual  documents, the o r d e r d e v i s e d by the c r e a t o r p l a c e s the photographs  in their  have been r e f i l e d  proper  by someone o t h e r t h a n  confuses  the p u r p o s e s  example,  files  f o r which t h e  filing  c u s t o d y may  (  i f interfiled  with  b a b i e s on t h e b a s i s of the e v i d e n c e  these  bear.  Cappon p o i n t e d out t h a t  manuscripts,  creator,  images were c r e a t e d . F o r  b a b i e s , would a l t e r  relationships  Lester  of s i c k  P h o t o g r a p h s which  their  of s t u d i o s h o t s of b a b i e s  h o s p i t a l ward p h o t o g r a p h s s u b j e c t matter,  relationship.  or p e r s o n a l p a p e r s have been b r o k e n  for  historical  as t h e y a r e now  several  called,  t i m e s as the  (64)  records  51 may  have p a s s e d  respect  to organic  that valuable Their This  t h r o u g h s e v e r a l hands. "However, groups, they  may  not have l o s t  a t t r i b u t e of u n i t y by r e a s o n  historical  value  i s t r u e whether  impair earlier  they  be t e x t u a l or o t h e r  therefore  chapter,  the e f f e c t s  Schellenberg on r e c o r d s  responsible custodianship. the m a t e r i a l s these  Set a s i d e  for preservation  The l a s t they  have been s e t a s i d e  Casanova c o n s i d e r e d moment t h e i r  I t i s how  aspect  noted  saw the d i f f i c u l t y of  of changes i n c u s t o d y  c o l l e c t i o n s as b e i n g  important  definition successive  custodians  i s broken t h a t  potentially  archival.  of a r c h i v a l documents  t h a t documents  i s that creator.  become a r c h i v a l t h e  to f i l e  them r a t h e r  than to  throw them o u t . He r e f e r r e d t o " t h e o r d e r l y a c c u m u l a t i o n documents  which were c r e a t e d  by an i n s t i t u i o n documents creators for  their  i n the c o u r s e  or i n d i v i d u a l . "  own  reference."  "preserved (67)  considered  for reference in their  A l t h o u g h as  of  of i t s a c t i v i t y  (66) J e n k i n s o n  a r c h i v a l t h a t were s e t a s i d e of t h e documents,  and  of  f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n by t h e i r  creator decides  records,  which does not  not whether c u s t o d y  qualifies  (65)  c a n be compared t o  r e j e c t e d Jenkinson's r i g i d  after  media  p o t e n t i a l as a r c h i v a l documents. As  in this  determining  look  of t r a n s f e r .  i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c r e c o r d s their  any of  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y l e s s e n e d . "  s u c h as p h o t o g r a p h s . B r o k e n c u s t o d y changes  with  own  by the custody  Schellenberg  52 forsaw,  i t would be  decisions  on  this  acquisition.  The  i m p r a c t i c a l t o base a l l a p p r a i s a l  notion, fact  the documents a s i d e she  felt  his  or her  Implies  they  without  were i m p o r t a n t  any  their  of o r d e r  i n d i c a t e s t h a t he i n the  as  order  b a s i c as  has  a listing  has  or  context  been a p p l i e d to  been imposed of the  arranged  were c o n s i d e r e d  set  of  for preservation also  c r e a t o r . Boxes of m a t e r i a l s  I f an  in  collection  the  in disarray  f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n . They a r e more l i k e l y  presume t h e y  on  the  the  materials  being  or  result  material, i n the  i n an album, t h e n we  worth k e e p i n g and  can  thus s e t  f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n . Such documents might a l s o show  evidence prevent  of h a v i n g  been g i v e n  them from b e i n g  of s p e c i a l  w r a p p i n g or  Thus, the  archival  rather  on whether  enough t o s e t a s i d e organic  treatment  i n order i n the  to  form  boxing.  nature  they  whole t h a t has  of m a t e r i a l s does not official  or u n o f f i c i a l  have been c o n s i d e r e d  by t h e i r  and  special  damaged. T h i s might be  on whether t h e documents a r e  an  of the  to preserve  Set a s i d e  c a s e of p h o t o g r a p h s , b e i n g  but  creator  element  s y s t e m of a r r a n g e m e n t h a r d l y q u a l i f y as  of n e g l i g e n c e .  aside  important  for preservation  t h a t some s o r t  set aside  even one  t h a t the  activities.  m a t e r i a l s by  i t i s an  c r e a t o r s and  been c a r e f u l l y  context,  unaltered  not  whatever  format. Only t h e i r  mingled with context  depend records,  important  whether t h e y preserved  other  in  materials  of c r e a t i o n  and  are  in  53 preservation  as o u t l i n e d above can a t t e s t  [ a s ] documentary m a t e r i a l s archival  i n s t i t u t i o n . " (68)  for continuing  to t h e i r  "value  preservation  i n an  54  Notes  t o C h a p t e r Three  1. R o b e r t L. C l a r k , J r . e d . , A r c h i v e - L i b r a r y R e l a t i o n s York: R.R. Bowker Company, 1976), 37. 2. C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s ,  (New  16.  3. G. E l l i s B u r c a r , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Museum Work, ( N a s h v i l l e : American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S t a t e and L o c a l H i s t o r y , 1975), 47. 4. George MacBeth and S. James G o o d i n g , e d . , B a s i c Museum Management (Ottawa: C a n a d i a n Museum A s s o c i a t i o n , 1975), 43. 5. C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s ,  16.  6. R i c h a r d C. B e r n e r , " M a n u s c r i p t C o l l e c t i o n s , A r c h i v e s and S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s : T h e i r R e l a t i o n s h i p s , " A r c h i v a r l a 18 (Summer 19 8 4 ) : 24 8. 7. I b i d . 8. H i l a r y J e n k i n s o n , A Manual o f A r c h i v e s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , E d i t e d by Roger H. E l l i s , (London: P e r c y , Lund, Humphries and Co., 1966), 11. 9. I b i d . 10.  I b i d . , 4.  11. I b i d . , 12. 12. M u l l e r , Samuel, J.A. F e i t h and R. F r u i n , Manual f o r t h e Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n o f A r c h i v e s , t r a n s l a t e d by A r t h u r H. L e a v i t t , (New Y o r k : H.W. W i l s o n , 1940), 13. 13. J e n k i n s o n , 8-9. 14.  I b i d . , 4.  15. M u l l e r ,  F e i t h and F r u i n , 13.  16. E u g e n i o Casanova, 1928), 19.  A r c h i v i s t lea,  17. J e n k i n s o n , 157. 18. M u l l e r ,  F e i t h and F r u i n , 19.  (Second E d i t i o n ,  Siena,  55  19.  Jenkinson,  39.  20.  Ibid.,  39-40.  21.  Ibid.,  11.  22.  Ibid.,  41.  23.  Ibid.,  42.  24. M i c h e l D u c h e i n , " T h e o r e t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c a l Problems of R e s p e c t des Fonds i n A r c h i v a l S c i e n c e , " A r c h i v a r l a 16 (Summer 1983): 66. 25. R i c h a r d C. B e r n e r , A r c h i v a l T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s : A H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P r e s s , 1983), 3. 26.  Ibid.  27.  Muller, Feith  and  Fruin,  19.  28.  Ibid.,  29.  Jenkinson,  30.  M u l l e r , F e i t h and  Fruin,  20.  31.  Ibid.  62. 8.  32. Theodore R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , Modern A r c h i v e s P r i n c i p l e s and T e c h n i q u e s , ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1956), 13 . 33.  Ibid.,  16.  34.  Ibid.,  13.  35.  Ibid.,  28-30.  36. T.R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , The Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 37.  Ibid.,  Management of A r c h i v e s 1965), 139-141.  (New  York:  140.  38. T.R. S c h e l l e n b e r g , "The A p p r a i s a l of Modern P u b l i c R e c o r d s , " N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s and R e c o r d s S e r v i c e B u l l e t i n ( 1 9 5 6 ) : 7. 39.  Schellenberg,  Modern A r c h i v e s ,  19.  8,  56 40.  Ibid.,  14.  41. I b i d . /  15.  42. S c h e l l e n b e r g , The Management of A r c h i v e s , 43. M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n , 44.  65-66.  19.  Ibid.  45. See l e t t e r t o S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s from F a t h e r John T r i t s c h l e r , August 19, 1987, C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , Photo C o l l e c t i o n R e c o r d s , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC L i b r a r y . 46. J . R o b e r t D a v i s o n , " T u r n i n g A B l i n d Eye: The H i s t o r i a n ' s Use of P h o t o g r a p h s , " B.C. S t u d i e s 52 ( W i n t e r 1981-1982):19. 47. M a r g a r e t Blackman, " C o p y i n g P e o p l e : N o r t h w e s t C o a s t N a t i v e Response t o E a r l y P h o t o g r a p h y , " B.C. S t u d i e s 52 ( W i n t e r 1981-1982): 88. 48. J a c k H u r l e y , " T h e r e ' s More Than Meets f o r S o u t h e r n F o l k l o r e 3 ( W i n t e r 1981):6. 49. M i c h e l  Duchein,  the Eye," Centre  67.  50. L i l l y K o l t u n , C i t y B l o c k s , C i t y S p a c e s : H i s t o r i c a l P h o t o g r a p h s of Canada's Urban Growth, 1850-1900 (Ottawa, 1980), 46-47. 51. G i s e l e F r e u n d , P h o t o g r a p h y and G o d i n e , 1960), 149. 52. D u c h e i n ,  Society  (Boston:  D.R.  67.  53. N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s and R e c o r d s S e r v i c e , The Image, x x v - x x v i . 54. M u l l e r , F e i t h and  Fruin,  55. J e n k i n s o n , 56. S h e l l e n b e r g , Modern A r c h i v e s ,  17.  57. J e n k i n s o n , 42. 58. M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n ,  151.  59. J e n k i n s o n , 11. 60. S c h e l l e n b e r g , Modern A r c h i v e s ,  15.  American  57  61. C a n a d i a n A r c h i v e s ,  15.  62. B e r n e r , " M a n u s c r i p t C o l l e c t i o n s " , 250. 63. R i t z e n t h a l e r e t a l , 58. 64. Maygene D a n i e l s , " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A r c h i v a l T e r m i n o l o g y , " Maygene F. D a n i e l s and T i m o t h y Walch, e d . , A Modern A r c h i v e s Reader: B a s i c R e a d i n g s on A r c h i v a l T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e (Washington, D.C.: N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s T r u s t Fund Board, 1984): 341. 65. L e s t e r J . Cappon, " H i s t o r i c a l M a n s u c r i p t s as The American A r c h i v i s t ( A p r i l 1956): 104. 66. Casanova,  19.  67. J e n k i n s o n , 4. 68. D a n i e l s ,  339.  Archives,"  58  CHAPTER FOUR EVALUATING PHOTOGRAPH COLLECTIONS' ARCHIVAL NATURE A CASE STUDY  The  f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n examines f i v e  collections British  held  i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s a t the  Columbia  archival  nature  t o d e t e r m i n e whether or not and  the  extent  present  i n them. In o r d e r  nature,  as  must  o u t l i n e d i n the  form an  organic  t o q u a l i f y as previous  p u r p o s e . The  should  reference valuable  and  later  c o l l e c t i o n depends on be  verified  t h a t the  responsibly cared without after  provide relating  a  collection  a l s o have been s e t  collection  research.  The  was  a r c h i v a l value  c o l l e c t i o n described passed  value. evidence t o the  hands of the  This  has  been  on t o a r e p o s i t o r y  creator,  of documents  i t i s deemed t o have  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the  activities  of the  of a  I f i t can  i s because s u c h a c o l l e c t i o n  of the  for  deemed  responsible custodianship.  f o r by b e i n g  having  original  the a d d i t i o n , e x t r a c t i o n or a l t e r a t i o n  l e a v i n g the  archival  archival  i t s creator, originally  because the  for h i s t o r i c a l  should  is  f o r a common  only contain  archival collection  f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n by  have  contain records  t h a t were c r e a t e d  aside  they  having  chapter,  whole. I t s h o u l d  collection  U n i v e r s i t y of  t o which a r c h i v a l v a l u e  a common p r o v e n a n c e and  documents. An  photograph  c r e a t o r . Such  will  documents custody  59 ensures  that  disturbed are  the o r i g i n a l  and  included  evidential The  that  a l l of the r e c o r d s i n a l l t h e i r  i n the c o l l e c t i o n .  and  informational  purpose  of t h i s  important matter  - archival  what d i f f e r e n t i a t e s repositories  Such a c o l l e c t i o n  out  both  by  this factor  by a r c h i v e s .  m a t e r i a l s a c q u i r e d by  archival  has  - as the major  of p h o t o g r a p h s  from t h o s e c o l l e c t e d  their  i s to b r i n g  quality  e x t e n t t o which c o l l e c t i o n s  determines  formats  value.  examination  conditioning acquisition  The  o r d e r of the documents i s not  It is  archival  libraries  and  museums.  c o n t a i n a l l of the  elements  q u a l i t y and  thus  their  value  as  documentation. Graham  collection  This c o l l e c t i o n Figures  consists  2 t o 7. They were g a t h e r e d  f a m i l y , t h e Grahams, and The  images a r e  itself  of t h e s i x images r e p r o d u c e d  needing  donated  for a c q u i s i t i o n .  as t h e v i s u a l s were c r e a t e d over  e v e n t s and  d a t e s of t h e  we 11-composed, s h a r p  y e a r s ago  and  i s minimal.  Each  the people, p l a c e s  images. The  images and  images i s  C o p y r i g h t has e x p i r e d  fifty  needs o f the p h o t o g r a p h s  requires a caption identifying  (1)  o n l y the c a b i n e t c a r d  r e p a i r . Thus, c o n s e r v a t i o n of t h e  not a major c o n c e r n  descriptive  t o g e t h e r by a Vancouver  to Special C o l l e c t i o n s .  i n good c o n d i t i o n ,  as  photographs  the simply  and/or  are  t h e r e f o r e c a p a b l e of good  Figure 2  61  Figure 4  66  quality  r e p r o d u c t i o n s . Thus,  considered c o l l e c t i b l e . The  first  the p h o t o g r a p h s  Are t h e s e images  q u e s t i o n t o be answered  an o r g a n i c whole. A l t h o u g h the donor known and these  we  created  They, o r i g i n a t e  at d i f f e r e n t  taken  form  of the p h o t o g r a p h s  c a n n o t be s a i d  collected  s o u r c e s and  were  years apart.  photographers,  Queen V i c t o r i a  is  t o have a common  t i m e s , as much as f i f t y  c o u n t r i e s . The  l i k e l y was  archival?  i s whether t h e y  from d i f f e r e n t  c r e a t o r s were d i f f e r e n t  different  be  the Graham f a m i l y members  items, the photographs  provenance.  Their  know t h a t  can  living  cabinet  in  card  most  i n E n g l a n d , p r o b a b l y by the Queen's  p h o t o g r a p h e r . We  know from t h e e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d on t h r e e o f  the  that  photographs,  responsible New  f o r t h e New  Westminster, The  two  B.C.  functional  different  Westminster  and  origins  the  c a b i n e t c a r d ? Was  purpose  of t h e  or purpose  T h i s c a n be d e t e r m i n e d photograph  as w e l l as  of t h e  t h e purpose  W.T.  C o o k s l e y of  can guess t h a t  images i s a l s o  item? What the image  d a t e s somewhere between 1870 from the  information  from the format o f the  and  was was 1900.  i n the photoprint.  C a b i n e t c a r d s were much i n vogue  i n England at t h i s  were u s u a l l y d i s p l a y e d  on t a b l e s  i n the  p a r l o u r . ( 2 ) The  of Wales image, which  Prince  B.C.  of t h e Queen  i t a collector's  image? We  meant f o r d i s p l a y and  images:  Hammond &.Wilson of V i c t o r i a ,  open t o s p e c u l a t i o n . What was Victoria  p h o t o g r a p h e r s were  time  and  Victorian i s a postcard  67 mounted  i n a frame,  of h i s v i s i t Fire  Hall  p r o b a b l y was mass-produced  t o Canada. The purpose  images  o f t h e New  i s l e s s c e r t a i n . Perhaps  was d e v e l o p e d on s i l v e r  special the  paper  that  Westminster origins  and f i r e m e n . The parade townscape  and t h e r e f o r e  image and t h e New  i s a contact  the photographer  must be a d m i t t e d t h a t  therefore  functional  a r e more open t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . p r i n t o f a n e g a t i v e from  a Panorama camera and t h u s a m i n i a t u r e v e r s i o n  it  i t was a  i n the v i s u a l ,  do n o t r e a d i l y r e v e a l t h e i r  P o s s i b l y t h e townscape  image which  one o f t h e  suggests that  image meant t o show o f f t h e s u b j e c t s  firehall  Westminster  t h e y were i n t e n d e d  t o be framed and hung on t h e w a l l . The f a c t images  as a s o u v e n i r  of the f i n a l  i n t e n d e d f o r d i s p l a y . However,  t h e f u n c t i o n a l o r i g i n s and  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n t e n t o f t h e images i s  unclear. There  i s no i n t r i n s i c  They were o b v i o u s l y and  r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e documents.  not created  o f t h e same  activity  t h u s have no r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h one a n o t h e r a s p a r t  common a c t i v i t y e x c e p t t h a t subject  intrinsic  collection  formed  Even a s p a r t  the photographs  of a  for their  o f an  are lacking i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s t h e y have been d i s a s s o c i a t e d  body of r e c o r d s which  which  of being accumulated  i n t e r e s t by a c o l l e c t o r .  accumulated  the  as part  these photographs part  t h e donor  still  has a t home and o f  form a p a r t . Other  of the f a m i l y ' s  from  c o l l e c t i o n were  images,  which  presumably  68 retained  by  the donor because of the  images which c o n t a i n e d interest  to  have any  connection  items  Victoria  the  collection  the  f i t the cabinet  gelatin mid  card  contains  p r i n t s were not  century.(4)  Standard  size  panorama of New  developing-out-papers,  they  Queen  time the  the  image  s u c h as  the  image.  I t was  on which the  later  the  twentieth cabinet  card  (5) The  printed  superceded  was  silver  q u i t e common i n the  (6) L e s s s t a n d a r d  the  are  The  resulting  time of t h i s  which was  which  images  i n t o the  of  to  to photography u n t i l  used  cards,  r a r e l y used now.  printed.  the  the  W e s t m i n s t e r a p p e a r s t o be  printing-out-paper  t o be  was  of  albumen p h o t o p r i n t ,  introduced  albumen s t i l l  places  The  visuals.  a v a i l a b l e at  were much i n vogue a t the  1900s, but  an  the  interest. A l l  p a p e r s on  of the  of  appear  activities  originals.  them, the  time p e r i o d  not  from s i m p l e  are  G e l a t i n e m u l s i o n and  1880s and  and  mounts t o which the  only p r a c t i c a b l e process created.(3)  lives  nature  e v e n t s and  images do  were a c c u m u l a t e d  which c r e a t e d  p r i n t e d , and  attached,  with  i n the  technologies are  of p e o p l e ,  f a m i l y members. These  Graham f a m i l y but of the  shots  personal  small  on early  by  photographs  appear  s i z e mounts became the  norm  also.  The they and  other  characteristics  have been s e t a s i d e then passed  on  t o an  of a r c h i v a l documents i s t h a t  f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n by archives  their  for safekeeping.  creator In  this  69 c a s e , we  can o n l y presume t h a t  photographs why,  v a l u e and  these  .  p r e s e r v e d them, but the q u e s t i o n i s  f o r what p u r p o s e .  accumulators  the f a m i l y a c c o r d e d  Certainly,  of t h e c o l l e c t i o n  there i s evidence  thought  that  the p h o t o g r a p h s  w o r t h y of p r e s e r v a t i o n f o r t h e y r e t a i n e d  them over a  the  were period  of  e i g h t y or more y e a r s . However, t h e y were k e p t as momentos  or  keepsakes  and  not as p a r t  of some t r a n s a c t i o n  or  family  b u s i n e s s or even t h e c o n s c i o u s r e c o r d i n g of f a m i l y e v e n t s or  even  f a m i l y members. They thus have not been p r e s e r v e d  e v i d e n t i a l l y but r a t h e r s e n t i m e n t . There  f o r t h e sake  i s no o b v i o u s  have not been numbered  of i n t e r e s t  order to these  or a r r a n g e d  an album. T h i s would s u g g e s t of  that  they are  than that  of r e t a i n i n g  them has  or  images as  i n any way,  no g r e a t v a l u e t o t h e c o l l e c t o r . No  other  incidental  t h e y have not  items  p r e s e r v a t i o n measures been p r a c t i s e d  p r e v e n t them from b e i n g damaged. Thus,  deduce t h a t  they  not even i n  t h e s e documents. They have not even been c a r e f u l l y to  or  on  packaged  i t is possible  to  i n t e n t i o n a l l y been s e t a s i d e f o r  preservation. How Can  t h e n does t h i s  collection  i t be c o n s i d e r e d a r c h i v a l  a u t h e n t i c documentation? are  not an  As has  organic c o l l e c t i o n  their  being kept  their  v a l u e as a r c h i v a l  and  in relation  of p h o t o g r a p h s  i s t h e r e any  photographs evidence  to family a c t i v i t i e s .  documents  up?  c o n s e q u e n t l y v a l u a b l e as  been shown, t h e  nor  measure  of  Thus,  Is d i m i n i s h e d because  the  70 relationships context  among the documents  of t h e i r  creation  i s not a p p a r e n t and the  i s unknown. These images have  v a l u e as examples of images of the time or f o r the s u b j e c t m a t t e r of them but t h i s have  little  i s divorced  or t r a n s a c t i o n s  documents,  their  largely  knowledge  value  of t h e i r  c r e a t o r s . As  i s diminished. Their  on t h e a r c h i v i s t ' s  of the s t y l e s ,  and  Jessie  Miller  historical  of  confirmable  i n the c o l l e c t i o n  Itself.  Collection  The J e s s i e colored  t o the  researchers'  t e c h n o l o g y and h i s t o r y  I t i s not i n h e r e n t  Miller  lantern  collection  slides  belonging  consists  of s i x t y - s i x  to J e s s i e  Miller  china  street Japan  to the U n i v e r s i t y  scenes  her d e a t h .  i n Tokyo and t h e summer r e s o r t  material  (7) They d e p i c t of N o j i r i - k o  in  i n the 1930s.  The l a n t e r n copyright  slides  a r e i n good c o n d i t i o n ,  problems and o n l y r e q u i r e  about t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e the  after  hand  which her  b r o t h e r d o n a t e d a l o n g w i t h her books, o t h e r p r i n t e d and  They  interpretation  p h o t o g r a p h y . The p h o t o g r a p h s do not p r o v i d e evidence.  origin.  v a l u e as a u t h e n t i c documents r e l a t i n g  activities  depends  from t h e i r  well-composed and c l e a r suitable  someone k n o w l e d g e a b l e  and b u i l d i n g s  s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n the v i s u a l s .  for collection.  enough  d e v o i d of  of Japan t o  The  images a r e  identify fairly  f o r r e f e r e n c e . Thus t h e y a r e  Are t h e y  archival?  71 The  provenance  of t h e s e images  i s known. They  were  created  ( p r o b a b l y t a k e n ) by A n g l i c a n m i s s i o n a r y , J e s s i e  Miller,  who  award  is may  internal  from 1935-1969 and  e v i d e n c e of the p h o t o g r a p h s  o f t h e images  style  i n Japan  an  of the p h o t o g r a p h y and  the h a n d - c o l o r i n g  be s e e n as h a v i n g a common The  function  created  suggests  or p u r p o s e  Thus,  f o r which  the  Miller's  artistic  the v i s u a l s , script,  skills.  caption  to determine  of t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e r e l a t i o n s h i p among the which appear  of v i e w or v a n t a g e  images  s c e n e s , s h o t s o f pagodas, f a c e s would  and  suggest a c l o s e  list  carry similar  on  or s l i d e s e t  the e x a c t  function  intrinsic of  t a k e n from a common p o i n t  images  are mostly  street  s h o t s of p e o p l e whose  friendly  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the  p h o t o g r a p h e r . They a r e i n t h e same h a n d c o l o r e d format and  either  as t h e y a r e s e q u e n c e s  t o have been p o i n t . The  i s an  show t o  or t o show o f f  of d o c u m e n t a t i o n  or i n an accompanying  renders i t d i f f i c u l t  were  t h e y were made f o r d i s p l a y .  or t h e p u b l i c  Lack  images  photographs  t h e images  Maybe t h e y were i n t e n d e d t o be used as a s l i d e or e d u c a t e f r i e n d s  of the  provenance.  i s l e s s c e r t a i n . Perhaps  entertain  that  were t a k e n by t h e same p e r s o n f o r the  u n i f o r m throughout the c o l l e c t i o n .  images  received  f o r her work from t h e Emperor o f J a p a n . ( 8 ) E x a m i n a t i o n  of the all  worked  identifying  lantern-slide  numbers. There  appears  t o be an o r d e r t o t h e documents as a l l but s i x o f t h e  images  72 a r e numbered,  from 1 t o 153. U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  t h e numbering  system  to determine  know why  numbered  donated  i s not d e c i p e r a b l e , making  the s l i d e s .  Was  m e a n i n g f u l sequence of answers  determine analysis element  photographs  who  Studies to  identify  i t meant t o f i x them i n some creation? to  for preservation  Collections  original  despite  lantern  in slide  preservation.  h i s t o r y of c u s t o d y of t h e c o l l e c t i o n c a n n o t be s u r e t h a t  must have made  They a r r i v e d  padded  s u g g e s t i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e i r  q u e s t i o n s . We  creator.  some s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r  of r e t e n t i o n .  in their  them.  considered  the l a n t e r n s l i d e s  They must have had  t h u s were worthy  photographs  by t h e i r  from J a p a n , M i l l e r t o keep  last  created  show e v i d e n c e of h a v i n g been  t o Vancouver  fragility.  The  i s e v i d e n t as the  of t h e a c t i v i t y which  a conscientious decision  The  done a r b i t r a r i l y  or was  of b e i n g s e t a s i d e  In r e t u r n i n g  boxes  her b r o t h e r  of t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r of t h e images.  copies.  Special  i t Miller,  the c o n n e c t i o n s between the documents e x c e p t on  They a r e not  h e r , and  a r e not numbered  t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s makes i t d i f f i c u l t  materials  their  s i x images  or someone i n t h e A s i a n  of o r g a n i c c o l l e c t i o n s  The  it difficult  based on the n a t u r e o f t h e i r  are o r i g i n a l  worthy  Was  the numbering  and c o n t r o l t h e images  Lack  the l a s t  the c o l l e c t i o n ,  Department?  of  the e x a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the documents.  N e i t h e r do we or who  the purpose  also  raises  a l l o f t h e documents  from  73 the  collection  this  were t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e a r c h i v e s .  i s because t h e y  were s e n t  originally  Studies  Department o f UBC, c o p i e d  Special  C o l l e c t i o n s . Were t h e r e any s l i d e s  the  to the Asian  and then  forwarded to b r o k e n or l o s t on  way? Lack o f a n y accompanying d o c u m e n t a t i o n  questions  as t o whether a l l of t h e c o l l e c t i o n  transferred  raises  was  to S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . Moreover,  c u s t o d i a n s h i p would have e n s u r e d  Firstly,  responsible  t h a t the reasons  o r d e r i n g and numbering o f the p h o t o g r a p h s was  f o r the  carefully  documented.  Thus, t h e c o l l e c t i o n collection  p u r p o s e , showing  used  and  life  and c o n s i s t i n g of  archival  value  custodianship,  as d o c u m e n t a t i o n of  i n J a p a n . U n c e r t a i n t y as t o t h e o r i g i n a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the p h o t o g r a p h s r e n d e r s important  Acquisition activities  of other  for their  of t h i s  the images  alone.  l i f e and  p h o t o g r a p h s . Lack o f adequate  or o t h e r w i s e  impaired  c o l l e c t i o n as evidence  i t s creator. Collection  order  g r e a t e r v a l u e and  to these  documentation, missing quality  s u b j e c t matter  documents o f M i l l e r ' s  would have g i v e n  "understandabi1ity"  of  relationships,  documents. The l a c k of r e p s o n s i b l e  primarily  the  i n some f u n c t i o n or f o r some  intrinsic  however, l e s s e n s t h e i r Miller's  an o r g a n i c  i n t h a t t h e images have a common p r o v e n a n c e , a r e  documents a p p a r e n t l y  original  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  of other  records  records  lessens  of t h e a c t i v i t i e s of her Japanese  74 experience  or o f i n f o r m a t i o n e x p l a i n i n g why t h e p h o t o g r a p h s  were t a k e n , useful  when, and by whom would have made them more  as e v i d e n c e  would a l s o have  of her a c t i v i t i e s .  As a c o r o l l a r y , i t  i n c r e a s e d t h e images' v a l u e  a s we would  know from what v a n t a g e p o i n t t h e y were t a k e n , were i n t e n d e d , position Georgia The  to interpret  their  message.  Straight Collection photographs  in this  collection  were a c q u i r e d by  C o l l e c t i o n s from Vancouver b o o k s e l l e r  Hoffer.  (9) They number over  consisting  Involved  five  and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s  i n demonstrations,  a t t e n d i n g events shots  taken  conflicts  s u c h as c o n c e r t s  of musicians  were m a i n l y  an  newspaper p r o b i n g  freedom and p o l i c e  of  t h e p o l i c e and  The p h o t o g r a p h s  S t r a i g h t newspaper when i t was c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s such  brutality.  p r o p e r l y , t h e most t i m e - c o n s u m i n g t a s k  provided  i n Vancouver  arid p i c n i c s . T h e r e a r e  good c o n d i t i o n , and r e q u i r e l i t t l e  re-enveloping  images,  by p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r s . They a r e  of the Georgia  underground  William  They d e p i c t t h e  with  and p o l i t i c i a n s .  from t h e f i l e s  as s e x u a l  thousand  o f p h o t o p r i n t s and n e g a t i v e s .  youth of the s i x t i e s  in  they  and t h e r e f o r e we would be i n a b e t t e r  Special  also  f o r whom  then  of negatives.  on t h e f i l e  The p h o t o g r a p h s a r e  work t o p r e s e r v e  them  being the  Some d e s c r i p t i o n i s a l r e a d y  f o l d e r s w h i c h c o n t a i n t h e images. Many  the i n d i v i d u a l s d e p i c t e d  i n the photographs a r e r e a d i l y  75 identifiable. penned  Many o f t h e p h o t o p r i n t s c o n t a i n a p e n c i l l e d or  i n n o t a t i o n o f t h e page  p h o t o g r a p h a p p e a r e d , which images. C o p y r i g h t  i n Vancouver  difficult  facilitates  i s an i s s u e w i t h t h i s  photographers s t i l l live  of t h e i s s u e  i n which t h e  identification collection  of the  as t h e  own c o p y r i g h t . Many o f them no l o n g e r  or have an unknown a d d r e s s and so would be  to contact  for permission  t o r e p r o d u c e the images.  As t h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s a r e n o t more t h a n t w e n t y y e a r s o l d , t h e usefulness limited.  of t h e c o l l e c t i o n  years i s  The images a r e c l e a r and well-composed and  negatives exist copyright  f o r most o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . Thus,  has e x p i r e d ,  because o f i t s s u b j e c t images  f o r the n e x t t h i r t y  this  collection  once  i s a desirable  n a t u r e and the well-composed  clear  which make up t h e c o l l e c t i o n .  Do the images  form an o r g a n i c c o l l e c t i o n ?  p h o t o g r a p h s was g e n e r a t e d as p a r t publishing  the Georgia  s o u r c e as a c o l l e c t i o n . They were c r e a t e d  Straight  T h i s body o f  of the a c t i v i t y of  newspaper.  This  They have a d i s c e r n i b l e  to i l l u s t r a t e  i s their function.  and document e v e n t s , s c e n e s ,  and p e o p l e which were w r i t t e n up i n t h e newpaper. The intrinsic Contact  r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e documents  i s evident.  s h e e t s and s h e e t s o f n e g a t i v e s , which appear t o  r e p r e s e n t a s s i g n m e n t s u n d e r t a k e n by p h o t o g r a p h e r s , e v i d e n c e a r e l a t i o n s h i p among g r o u p s o f images. O f t e n one r o l l o f f i l m was t a k e n t o c o v e r an e v e n t . The p h o t o g r a p h s c o v e r  76 similar  events  original  from a s i m i l a r  p h o t o g r a p h s . The  viewpoint.  records  The  images  t h u s form an  are  organic  collection. The and  characteristics  of b e i n g  showing r e s p o n s i b l e c u s t o d i a n s h i p ,  together  for t h i s  were s e t a s i d e l i k e l y as an before  they  collection.  asset  to r a i s e  represent  how  records. Georgia  the  money as a b o o k s e l l e r had  r e t a i n e d the value  S t r a i g h t newspaper  u n c e r t a i n t y . A l t h o u g h the  c r e a t o r . The file  i t i s the  1960's. However, we  order  classification  t o make the  appealing the  them.) Perhaps  do  the  by  this  an  order  that records  there, i s the  file  Columbia  in  this  bookseller, in t h e r e f o r e more  newspaper? There  from o t h e r  folders.  photographs  established  more o r d e r l y and  i t the  be  m a t e r i a l on  in labelled  i t the  little  the  imposed by  know who  scheme. Was  collection  to  communes i n B r i t i s h  not  of  of  "Communes" c o n t a i n s  f o r s a l e , or was  possibility  has  order  contained  folder labelled  source  collection  original  images a r e  as  them  i s no  most i m p o r t a n t  i s diminished  showing e x t e r i o r s of v a r i o u s  subject  there  newspaper deemed t o be  Their e v i d e n t i a l  guarantee  examined  c r e a t o r , though most  newspaper, which c o n t i n u e s  t o t h i s day,  be  photographs  bookseller acquired  images the  Perhaps the  published  the  C e r t a i n l y , the  Special C o l l e c t i o n s . (Unfortunately,  value.  The  for preservation  should  f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n by the  d o c u m e n t a t i o n on  no  set aside  sources  is also  could  have  77 been added  t o the c o l l e c t i o n .  message of t h e p h o t o g r a p h s  other  of the newspaper  v a l u e as d o c u m e n t a t i o n and  on the s u b j e c t  Thus, all  lack  though  the e l e m e n t s  value  lessens their  information. Additionally,  records  lessens  the  on t h e a c t i v i t i e s  m a t t e r of the  collection  of an o r g a n i c c o l l e c t i o n ,  itself  the newpaper  collection  to Special  bookseller  had  period passage  been a b l e  i t s archival  t o the  might  or s o l d  have  been  the  or, at least,  s u b s e q u e n t l y p a s s e d on composed  i f the he  the  o f the newpaper o v e r a g i v e n i n any way  in their  archives. Views  photographs  shown In F i g u r e s  from a group of p h o t o g r a p h s d o n a t e d The donor  i s unknown. The  copyright  i s not a p r o b l e m as  photographs  the  t o show t h a t a l l the documents  had n o t been a l t e r e d  E a r l y Vancouver The  donated  Collections,  photographic record  which  exhibits  by u n c e r t a i n t i e s as t o i t s c u s t o d y and  avoided  complete  to acquire  images.  These d i f f i c u l t i e s  and  of t h e  of t h e newspaper  photographs are r e l a t e d .  had a c q u i r e d  the  photographs'  of o t h e r r e c o r d s o f the newpaper t o which  had  alter  v a l u e as  the f a i l u r e  the Georgia S t r a i g h t  i s diminished  would  causing misinterpretation  newpaper's p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s evidential  Such a d d i t i o n s  8 t o 11 a r e to S p e c i a l  photographs  a r e a l r e a d y c a p t i o n e d . The  Collections.  a r e i n good  i t has e x p i r e d .  examples  condition,  The  photographs  thus  78  79  80  82  could this  be c o n s i d e r e d a v a l u a b l e v i s u a l from an a r c h i v a l  Firstly,  a r e the  common p r o v e n a n c e ?  same s i z e ,  They appear  that  t o be  contain captions  of p a p e r , a r e a l l of  in identical  printed  the same g e n e r a l s u b j e c t  t h e y emanate f r o m one collector  because  s o u r c e , from one  photographs, Perhaps  their  part  f o r an album of  cannot  be c e r t a i n .  documentation  makes i t d i f f i c u l t  Again, lack  Vancouver of  group r e l a t i n g and  most  We  C l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n of the  images,  suggests that  which  t h e y a r e copy p r i n t s .  of the c o l l e c t i o n  Thus,  of the o r i g i n a l  t h a t caused  the c r e a t i o n  of s u c h  as a  photographs?  a r e not s h a r p i n  negatives that are part t h e y a r e not p a r t  thus  do not know. L a s t l y ,  i m p o r t a n t l y a r e t h e s e Images o r i g i n a l  definition,  and  t o each o t h e r or were t h e y assembled  t o a common a c t i v i t y ?  the  i s unknown. Do  t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e work of t h e same p h o t o g r a p h e r naturally relate  to  guessed  t o be s u r e . T h i r d l y ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p among the m a t e r i a l s  or  of the  i n an a c t i v i t y can o n l y be  v i e w s , but we  intrinsic  guarantee  t h e r e i s no d o c u m e n t a t i o n  t h e y were c r e a t e d  matter  photographer  e x p l a i n s u c h m a t t e r s . S e c o n d l y , the purpose  at.  t h e y have a  the y e a r s , 1886-1900. However, t h e r e Is no  from one  is  from a common s o u r c e .  on the same k i n d  h a n d w r i t i n g . They a l l d e p i c t during  valid  viewpoint?  Images an o r g a n i c whole? Do  They a r e a l l p r i n t e d the  r e c o r d . How  images.  S i x copy  confirm this.  purposeful a c t i v i t y E x a m i n a t i o n of  83 collections images a r e has  the  held  in other  a l s o held  original  by  glass  p r i n t s which the  repositories reveals  the  plate negatives  Historical  later  p h o t o g r a p h s . As repositories, archival  we  i n any  may  large,  last  dismiss  of  the  the  United  F i s h e r m a n and  (11)  Fisherman.  photograph f i l e s the  1950-1980. The  images c o v e r B.C.  The  of t h e  1900-1980 w i t h  union a c t i v i t y ,  bulk  examined  Allied  newspaper, The  fishing  other  collection  Fisherman P u b l i s h i n g  f o r p u b l i s h i n g the  i n the  in  is  of  the  Society  Workers  union  photographs are  the  newspaper. They d a t e images c o v e r i n g  three  fishing  the  broad s u b j e c t v e s s e l s , and  i n d u s t r y . Examples a r e  non-  from  years  areas:  people  labor  working  shown i n F i g u r e s  12  21. The  images a r e  conservation  is  20,000 images. They were d o n a t e d  Union, mainly r e s p o n s i b l e  and  held  i d e a t h a t the  of p h o t o g r a p h s t o be  c o n s i s t i n g of over  current  are  original  of o r i g i n a l s  the  the  Society Collection  collection  i s part  original  These p h o t o g r a p h s  from the  copies  t o S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s by which  the  which  sense.  Fisherman P u b l i s h i n g The  and  P h o t o g r a p h D i v i s i o n of  reproductions  they are  these  C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s  Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y a l s o h o l d s . most l i k e l y  that  generally  work r e q u i r e d  i n good c o n d i t i o n , the  being  the  re-enveloping  main of  the  to  F i g u r e 13  Figure  Figure  lk  15  87  88  F i g u r e 19  89  F i g u r e 20  91  images from t h e i r  kraft  containers  m a t e r i a l s . D e s c r i p t i o n of the information w i t h the is  transferred  images t o S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . Thus, the  a d e s i r a b l e one.  photographs  How  does  the provenance were d o n a t e d  Fisherman  great  images i n v o l v e s t r a n s c r i b i n g  from the e n v e l o p e s . C o p y r i g h t was  Firstly,  the  into a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y  Publishing  i t measure up a r c h i v a l l y ? of the c o l l e c t i o n  by t h e c r e a t o r S o c i e t y . The  v a r i e t y of p h o t o g r a p h e r s ,  like  collection,  and  like  photographs  was  g e n e r a t e d as p a r t  i s known. The  of the  collection,  images were t a k e n by a the Georgia S t r a i g h t  that c o l l e c t i o n ,  this  body of  of t h e a c t i v i t y  p u b l i s h i n g a newspaper. They a r e the p h o t o g r a p h Fisherman  newspaper which  a r e no  were e i t h e r g a t h e r e d or c a u s e d of  the newspaper  evidence  files  contain  which  reveals  use.  The They  by the e d i t o r  They  from the  and  or i d e n t i f y p e o p l e , p l a c e s , the newspaper p u b l i s h e d  this  photographs  J.Nichol 1967"  activity.  of  therefore  events,  and  i t e m s . There  are  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e documents. E x a m i n a t i o n  images r e p r o d u c e d taken  files  In c u r r e n t  t o be c r e a t e d  in a purposeful  record,  about  instrlnslc the  longer  of  f u n c t i o n . They were c o l l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o  illustrate, objects  collection  relationship. Labelled  t a k e n t o c o v e r the same e v e n t .  in Figures  file  file  12 t o 17,  folder labelled  @ A i r p o r t Before Oakalla are s e q u e n t i a l  of'  folders The  f o r example, were a l l  "Arrests/Jai1ings  Demonstration,  images of N i c h o l ' s  June  arrival  1967: 12,  from  92 P r i n c e Rupert  a t t h e Vancouver  he was i m m e d i a t e l y police  p l a c e d under a r r e s t  wagon. They a l s o d e p i c t  who t u r n e d up a t t h e a i r p o r t bail. to  International  The p h o t o g r a p h s  each  recorded  t h e over  250  content  demonstrators  his arrest  t h e r e f o r e have a d e f i n i t e  i n the photographs.  the p h o t o g r a p h s ,  without  relationship  us t o f o l l o w an e v e n t This  among t h e documents a s w e l l as t h e l a b e l l e d containing  helps  where  and t a k e n away i n a  to protest  o t h e r and t h u s e n a b l e  the a c t i o n  Airport  through  relationship file  folders  interpretation  of the  o f t h e images. Of c o u r s e , t h e s e a r e f u r t h e r  explained  by an e x a m i n a t i o n  o f back  i s s u e s o f The  Fisherman  newspaper. Figures on  18 and 19 a r e from t h e same f i l e  i t s own f i g u r e  18 i s h a r d  meaning? Why a r e t h e r i o t We c a n o n l y g u e s s . the h o t e l  Taken  t o i n t e r p r e t . What i s i t s  police  o u t s i d e the Hotel  Georgia?  Are t h e y t h e r e t o p r o t e c t an o c c u p a n t o f  or t o p r e v e n t some l i k e l y  S t r e e t ? Perhaps  folder.  t h e y a r e on s t r i k e .  trouble  on West G e o r g i a  We u n d e r s t a n d the  message and t h e r e f o r e meaning o f t h e image b e t t e r when we look a t i t a l o n g w i t h a l l t h e o t h e r p h o t o g r a p h s which The  Is l a b e l l e d ,  "Demonstrations:  same may be s a i d  meant t o show t h a t  War Measures A c t 1970."  o f F i g u r e s 20 and 21 which a r e n o t  the Vancouver harbour  to depict  i n the f i l e  but  rather  the e f f e c t  The  images come from t h e f i l e  i s busy i n w i n t e r  o f a longshoreman's  folder,  strike.  " S t r i k e s / P i c k e t s 1966:  93 ILWU S t r i k e  of Foremen-1966, Nov.-Dec. S h i p s @ E n g l i s h Bay."  Interpretation identifcation the  file  their  o f t h e images t h u s and t h e i r  i s provided  relationship  f o l d e r s . We a r e t h e r e f o r e  by t h i s  t o the o t h e r  better  images i n  able t o understand  message.  The  fourth  element o f o r g a n i c c o l l e c t i o n s  i s shown by  t h e s e p h o t o g r a p h s which a r e a l l o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s . either  o r i g i n a l n e g a t i v e s t a k e n a t t h e time of t h e e v e n t  they portray The  or p r i n t s made from them a t t h a t  date.  second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a r c h i v a l documents  inherent  i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n . The e d i t o r  it  for preservation  aside  Collections  collection  images and t h e r e f o r e material.  c u s t o d i a n s h i p . The f i l e s  o f c u s t o d y . The i n the  t o the u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e  reveals  were t r a n s f e r r e d  d i r e c t l y from the e d i t o r  the l a t e r f i l e s  responsible  and i n h e r i t e d  to Special  o f t h e newspaper who the e a r l i e r f i l e s  his  predecessors. This  the  c o l l e c t i o n i s i n t a c t and has n o t been a l t e r e d  way.  Special  t h e i r v a l u e a s d o c u m e n t a t i o n and s o u r c e  The c o l l e c t i o n a l s o  Collections  successor  r e f e r r a l t o photographs  to t h i s day a t t e s t s  i s also  o f t h e newspaper s e t  and c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n a t e d  as t h e l e g i t i m a t e  donor's not i n f r e q u e n t  created  They a r e  provides a reasonable guarantee  from that  i n any  94 Taking clearer  t h e s e sample  picture  of t h e a r c h i v a l  Photograph c o l l e c t i o n s for  their  analyzing  collections  archival  v a l u e of  can be examined  v a l u e and  photographs  t o g e t h e r , we  other materials  t h i s value discovered  of  archival  s u c h as the Graham p h o t o g r a p h s may  c o n s i d e r e d what Cappon and collections"  Schellenberg  of d i s p a r a t e  referred  t o some p l a n but not t h e o u t g r o w t h  activity.  Because  their into  i n which  or even  v a l u e as e v i d e n c e of the a c t i v i t i e s b e i n g i s d i m i n i s h e d . The  views  is also  an a r t i f i c i a l  even o r i g i n a l s , and The  Jessie  relate  we  created that  accumulated, which  c o l l e c t i o n . The  brought  them  Vancouver  images  have no v a l u e as a r c h i v a l  a r e not  documentation.  M i l l e r c o l l e c t i o n , a l t h o u g h more c l e a r l y an  emanate from one  t o e a c h o t h e r , has  t h o u g h t as a consequence are  from the  c o l l e c t i o n of E a r l y  o r g a n i c c o l l e c t i o n t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s two, photographs  t o as  of some o r g a n i c  t h e y have been d i s a s s o c i a t e d t h e y were c r e a t e d  be  items g a t h e r e d  according  context  by  they provide  e v i d e n c e of f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  "artificial  photographs.  like  based on whether  documents. C o l l e c t i o n s  get a  n o t s u r e whether  s o u r c e and  less archival of i t s h i s t o r y  in that  the  the  images  appear  to  v a l u e t h a n might  be  of c u s t o d y . Not  only  a l l the photographs  which  she  i n t h i s group a r e p r e s e n t , but the t e x t u a l  most l i k e l y went w i t h them a r e m i s s i n g . The  documents  documents  95 are  less  u s e f u l as d o c u m e n t a t i o n  of t h e l a c k The  t h e y c o u l d be because  o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i r  Georgia  collections  Straight  and F i s h e r m a n  p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g  newspaper p h o t o g r a p h images t a k e n  collections.  by p h o t o g r a p h e r s  newspapers. The p h o t o g r a p h s created  than  i n the course  newspapers, and t h e r e  Publishing Society  comparison. Both  creation.  contain  Both a r e original  for their respective i n both c o l l e c t i o n s  of t h e p u b l i s h i n g i s evidence  that  o f each  were  clearly  of the  t h e images  i n both  c o l l e c t i o n s are i n t e r r e l a t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the Georgia Straight  photographs,  acquisition  by S p e c i a l  strong archival photographs. diminished  because of t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e Collections,  do n o t bear  q u a l i t y as t h e F i s h e r m a n  Lack  of t h e i r  t h e same  Publishing Society  of r e s p o n s b i l e c u s t o d i a n s h i p has  the G e o r g i a  Straight  collection's  evidential  v a l u e . T h i s i s because we do n o t know how complete  a record  t h e y a r e . We do n o t know whether  t h e y show a l l o f what t h e  newspaper  intended t o i l l u s t r a t e  or j u s t  Secondly,  we do n o t know whether t h e y r e p r e s e n t o n l y t h e  r e c o r d s of the Georgia contain  Straight.  r e c o r d s from a n o t h e r  It i s possible  body. T h i s ,  makes them l e s s v a l u a b l e a s e v i d e n t i a l newspaper. T h i r d l y , the c o l l e c t i o n , the  donor.  an a s p e c t o f i t .  that  of course,  also  records of the  we a r e n o t s u r e o f t h e o r i g i n a l  or whether  they  i t was a l t e r e d  order of  or r e a r r a n g e d by  96  Most  importantly,  t h e f a c t o r which  increases  the value  of t h e F i s h e r m a n P u b l i s h i n g  Society collection  Georgia  i s t h a t some t e x t u a l r e c o r d s of  the  Straight collection  S o c i e t y were t r a n s f e r r e d t o S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s ,  e x p a n d i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  thus h e l p i n g  creator  transferral  of the o p e r a t i o n s  the v i s u a l s , d o c u m e n t a t i o n  of t h e c o l l e c t i o n , of t h e documents  increases  the value  over t h a t  of the Georgia  is  because  the v a l u e  o f documents a r c h i v e s  as  much on knowledge o f t h e c o n t e x t  themselves.  of t h i s  Straight materials. collect  of t h e i r  how t h e y came i n t o t h e a r c h i v e s ' p o s s e s s i o n documents  about  and d o c u m e n t a t i o n about t h e  collection  the  of the s o c i e t y  us t o i n t e r p r e t t h e message i n t h e images.  Such d o c u m e n t a t i o n a b o u t the  over t h e  This  depends  c r e a t i o n and as i t does on  97  Notes to C h a p t e r  Four  1. See G y l e Gordon Graham P h o t o g r a p h C o l l e c t i o n A c c e s s i o n Data R e c o r d , M a n u s c r i p t C o l l e c t i o n s , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC Library. 2. Mary Lynn R i t z e n t h a l e r , G e r a l d J . Munoff, and M a r g e r y S. Long, A r c h i v e s and M a n u s c r i p t s : A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P h o t o g r a p h C o l l e c t i o n s ( C h i c a g o : S o c i e t y of A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s , 1984), 11. 3.  Ibid.  4.  Ritzenthaler,  46.  5.  Ritzenthaler,  42.  6. W i l l i a m C r a w f o r d , The K e e p e r s of L i g h t N.Y.:Morgan & Morgan, I n c . , 1979): 63. 7. See J e s s i e M i l l e r Collections, Special 8.  (Dobbs  Ferry,  A c c e s s i o n Data Record M a n u s c r i p t C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC Library.  Ibid.  9. See G e o r g i a S t r a i g h t A c c e s s i o n Data R e c o r d M a n u s c r i p t C o l l e c t i o n s , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC Library. 10. F i s h e r m a n P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y A c c e s s i o n Data R e c o r d , M a n u s c r i p t C o l l e c t i o n s , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC Library.  98  CHAPTER  FIVE  CONCLUSION Archivists collecting see t h e i r  no  and  longer consider  r o l e as t h a t  s u p p l y so l a r g e and  particular produced costly  j o b as one  of  p r e s e r v i n g remnants of the p a s t . R a t h e r  an e v e r - g r o w i n g and  budgets  their  of c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t i n g documents  overabundant  that  daily  such c a r e f u l  archival  (1) P h o t o g r a p h s  in  e v a l u a t i o n as t h e y a r e b e i n g  i n enormous numbers. They a r e a l s o  t o p r e s e r v e and  time-consuming  t h e r e f o r e make a v a i l a b l e ,  from  s u p p l y of i n f o r m a t i o n , a  i t t h r e a t e n s t o overwhelm  storage c a p a c i t i e s . need  they  more  to describe,  and  t h a n most o t h e r documents  archives  acquire. Acquisition sponsoring  of p h o t o g r a p h s  institution  documents from s p o n s o r records a f t e r the s i z e need  this  to i t s archives. Appraisal  accessioning  of a r c h i v a l  them. In a d d i t i o n , r e s e a r c h e r s who  of p h o t o g r a p h s  of t h e limit  c u t t i n g down on the time  staff  them. I t a l s o  supplies required  collections  reduces  to preserve  a r e r e n d e r e d more u s e f u l  s h o u l d not have t o wade t h r o u g h  of r e d u n d a n t  of  subsequently helps to  r e h o u s i n g and d e s c r i b i n g  the q u a n t i t i e s  quantities  a r e the r e c o r d s of t h e  Is a p r o c e s s of t r a n s f e r r a l  of t h e c o l l e c t i o n s ,  t o spend  which  or u n i m p o r t a n t  by a r c h i v e s which  material.  to  voluminous Acquisition  a r e n o t t h e r e c o r d s of the  99 sponsoring  institution  r e q u i r e s an a p p r a i s a l o f t h e r e c o r d s  t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e y s h o u l d p l a c e . N a t u r a l l y , the s u b j e c t paramount the  i n the f i r s t  n a t u r e of t h e documents  i s of  i m p o r t a n c e , and d e c i s i o n s on t h e s u i t a b i l i t y of  materials  f o r a c q u i s i t i o n depends upon t h e a r c h i v e s '  c o l l e c t i o n s mandate. A l s o condition  be a c q u i r e d  important  i n the d e c i s i o n  of t h e documents and whether  t h e y need  i s the  extensive  conservation  t r e a t m e n t s . The d e s c r i p t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f  collections,  t o make t h e p h o t o g r a p h s a v a i l a b l e , a r e a l s o  important  considerations.  C o l l e c t i o n s w i t h o u t a n y or w i t h  o n l y minimal  Identification  information.  C o l l e c t i o n s where c o y p r i g h t  transferred for  t o the a r c h i v e s  evaluated  has n o t been  pose p o t e n t i a l l e g a l  t h e a r c h i v e s . Thus, t h e s u b j e c t  d e s c r i p t i o n and c o p y r i g h t are  a r e l e s s u s e f u l as sources of  n a t u r e and c o n s e r v a t i o n ,  i m p l i c a t i o n s posed by c o l l e c t i o n s  when c o n s i d e r i n g  acquiring  photographs.  However, i m p o r t a n t as a l l t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s acquisition considered  o f p h o t o g r a p h s by a r c h i v e s , i n the context  documentary r e c o r d  problems  are i n  they should  o n l y be  of t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e t o t a l  and a l l t h e forms c o l l e c t i o n s might  contain. The  most i m p o r t a n t  p h o t o g r a p h s by a r c h i v e s nature.  factor in considering  a c q u i s i t i o n of  i s whether t h e y a r e a r c h i v a l i n  T h i s d i s t i n g u i s h e s s u c h documents f r o m t h o s e  collected  by museums and l i b r a r i e s .  Photographs that  have  100 t h i s a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y provide their as  sources  of  information  have i n f o r m a t i o n a l v a l u e s , sources  of  information  limited  as a c c u r a t e  by the  creation.  I f the  significance a g e n c y and  like  imagination  which a r e  "depends on t h e i r  which  are  Their  value  i s photographed, of  that  their  i s those  relation  to  whose  the  more l i k e l y  interpreted. This  i s because we  understand  documents a r c h i v e s  thesis Illustrates a r c h i v a l i n nature they  and  their  function in  were c r e a t e d . P h o t o g r a p h s , collect, t o be  the  conclusion  that  the  test  have been  c r e a t o r s and  original  and  display  m a t e r i a l s . They  carefully and  show  collections  functional origins,  orderly fashion, for reference  thus,  documents  collections,  c r e a t o r has  the  following  Documents i n s u c h  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They a r e  to  acquired.  e x h i b i t the  f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n by t h e i r  a r e documents which t h e i r  must s t a n d  are  form o r g a n i c  show p r o v e n a n c e , e v i d e n c e  i n an  as  then they are  responsible custodianship.  intrinsic  useful  context  organic  used  (2)  characteristics: set aside  what  documents a r e a r c h i v a l ,  of a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y i f t h e y This  be  be  of  c r e a t o r s . They  of r e s e a r c h e r s .  knowledge of the  f o r which t h e y  other  their  They may  r e l a t i o n s h i p s to each other  activity  They can  on a v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t s  to each o t h e r , "  correctly  their  too.  on  documents which r e p r e s e n t  however, depends on  be  of the a c t i v i t i e s  c r e a t o r s . They have e v i d e n t i a l v a l u e .  authentic  only  evidence  later  set for  aside,  101 preservation.  They a r e  altered  since  t h e y were s e t  creator.  The  characteristics  outlined  have not  evolved  from the  the  theories,  E u r o p e a n and  the  sponsor  analysis This  provides a  n a t u r e of  acquired  from of  and  as  individuals  the  we  tend  collections  Collections  Division  were a n a l y z e d  as  for  one  practice are  s u c h may  in  common t o a l l  be  applied  which t o  test  i n s t i t u t i o n s other framework  c o l l e c t i o n s are so  to  the  of  the  University  p o l i c i e s or  collections  that  m e t h o d o l o g y of  the  not  necessarily  as  Special  British  Columbia this  a critique repository.  were examined were c h o s e n t o do  of  acquisition.  n a t u r e based on  i n t e n d e d as  than  so  i n the  of  which  acquired.  them i m m e d i a t e l y  photographs held  not  be  immediate and  of  acquisition  to  t h e r e f o r e w o r t h y of  their archival  p o i n t s and  last  format.  and  to a c c e p t  framework. However, i t was  certain  the  archival  a r c h i v e s need s u c h a  a u t h e n t i c documents and Five  over  framework by  i s because p h o t o g r a p h s a r e that  their  photographs. Photograph c o l l e c t i o n s  i f Only a r c h i v a l  realistic  been  A m e r i c a n a r c h i v i s t s , whose  m a t t e r what t h e i r  thesis  are  documents  t o d a y . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  r e c o r d s no  archival  archival  formulated  documents a r c h i v e s c o l l e c t ,  This  of  f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n by  f o u n d a t i o n s t o n e s of  N o r t h America  all  aside  which have not  been a r b i t r a r i l y a s s i g n e d . They have  hundred y e a r s , by ideas are  whole c o l l e c t i o n s  of  the The  illustrate  represent  the  holdings  102 which S p e c i a l evaluation not  As  would not  primarily  expensive  an  be  considers a r c h i v a l .  a p p r o p r i a t e as  archival  repository.  l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s as  s u c h , the  several  Collections  material  well  c o l l e c t i n g philosophies  of  an  this repository It holds rare  as  i t c o l l e c t s are  Such  archival acquired  which the  is  and  documents. based  on  archival  is  but  one . I t soon became a p p a r e n t collections that  were a r c h i v a l  archival  quality  some c o l l e c t i o n s as  s o u r c e s of  kept the  intact  is greater  the  functions,  to  some e l e m e n t s of careless was  body t h a t  c a p a b l e of  the  archival  created  be  interests  us of  used been  were  them.  The  of  the  the  body  p r o v i d e more of  e n a b l e s us  the  images  more  influence  but  indifferent  their archival gaps  which would a l t e r the hence  of  t h e y had  informing  collections  because t h e r e were p o s s i b l y  documents and  value  t h e i r message. Other c o l l e c t i o n s  custodianship dimished  alterations  as  s u b j e c t matter  t h e i r context  interpret  clear  a r c h i v e s and  them. Such c o l l e c t i o n s a l s o  because knowledge of accurately  the  b u s i n e s s and  a c c u r a t e d o c u m e n t a t i o n on  became  archival  their creator  t r a n s f e r r a l to  whole c o l l e c t i o n of  created  It also  which  t h a n o t h e r s . These c o u l d  i n f o r m a t i o n on  p h o t o g r a p h s thus would be  that  in nature.  i s r e l a t i v e . The  in their  activities,  in t h i s examination  i n the  records  relationships  their  correct  value.  had  or This  or  among  the  interpretation.  103 One  collection  because  could  i t did  important  not  not  be  consist  p o i n t as  considered archival of  archives  original  at a l l  materials. This  o n l y c o l l e c t documents of  t r a n s a c t i o n which p r o d u c e d them. Documents made a t d a t e , s u c h as considered  In  copy p h o t o g r a p h s , c a n n o t  collections  this  known t o  r e c o r d e d as  w e l l as  c u s t o d i a n s and  the  be  is also  i n f o r m a t i o n on  their be are  d o c u m e n t a t i o n of  authenticity  the later  be  their  examined  function,  this  their their  on  is  the  information successive acquisition  of  their  their  content  knowledge of illusory  visuals,  creator  to  other  increases  find  out  judgements a b o u t  this  context.  how  e x p l a i n and  t h e r e f o r e , at the  need  to  content  Photographs, need  such  authenticate the  the  their  the  nature, p a r t i c u l a r l y  subject matter. A r c h i v i s t s , must  but  by  The  documentation. Photograph c o l l e c t i o n s  for  test  an  If  relationship  their  to  upon  i s more c e r t a i n .  their  and  accompanying d o c u m e n t a t i o n t o  acquisition  custody  quality.  Identification  collection  made based on  because of  ability  v a l u e . D o c u m e n t a t i o n on  important.  i n the  v a l u e as  c o m p l e t e and  c i r c u m s t a n c e s of  then t h e i r  the  depends h e a v i l y  information.on  documents have a r c h i v a l  documents  quality  element d e t e r m i n i n g a r c h i v a l  r e c o r d s are  context  s t u d y shows t h a t  for a r c h i v a l  documentation. F i r s t l y ,  archives,  therefore  a  an  archival.  conclusion,  important  is  time  r e c o r d s came i n t o  their  of being,  104 for  what purpose and who was r e s p o n s i b l e  The  more o f t h i s  valuable useful  information  are the records  will  that  for their  i s recorded  archives acquire  creation.  t h e more  and t h e more  t h e documents be t o r e s e a r c h e r s .  105  Notes  1. See B e r n e r ,  to Chapter  Five  248 and Booms, 69-107.  2. 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