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Acquisition of photographs : determining archival quality 1989

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ACQUISITION OF PHOTOGRAPHS DETERMINING ARCHIVAL QUALITY BY ANN ELIZABETH CARROLL B.A., M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES \ i n THE FACULTY OF ARTS (School of L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and Information S t u d i e s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1989 0Ann E l i z a b e t h C a r r o l l In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of S ^ - A \*Z> The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT This t h e s i s examines the c o l l e c t i o n or a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs by a r c h i v e s . It focuses on those documents which are not generated by the a r c h i v e s ' sponsoring i n s t i t u t i o n but are p o t e n t i a l l y a r c h i v a l . The t h e s i s i d e n t i f i e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r c h i v a l documents by which a r c h i v i s t s can judge the a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y of photographs and thus t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a c q u i s i t i o n . Such documents form organic c o l l e c t i o n s which have been set aside by t h e i r c r e a t o r and r e s p o n s i b l y cared f o r . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are drawn from the t h e o r i e s formulated by European a r c h i v i s t s , S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson, S. M u l l e r , J.A. F e i t h , R. F r u i n , Eugenio Casanova, and American a r c h i v i s t s , Theodore Schellenberg and L ester Cappon. This paper a l s o examines the question of whether a r c h i v e s should e s t a b l i s h a separate c o l l e c t i o n s p o l i c y for photographs. Conservation, d e s c r i p t i o n and c o pyright i m p l i c a t i o n s posed by photographs suggest t h i s as a p l a u s i b l e procedure to take. However, the i n t e g r i t y of c o l l e c t i o n s and t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g l y multi-media nature suggest otherwise. A r c h i v a l documents should not be c o l l e c t e d f o c u s s i n g on the form of the record, but rather as forming part of the t o t a l documentation of t h e i r c r e a t o r . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Page i i Acknowledgements i v Chapter One Introduction.. 1 Notes to Chapter One 8 Chapter Two A c q u i s i t i o n According to Form of the M a t e r i a l 9 Notes to Chapter Two 23 Chapter Three Nature of A r c h i v a l Documents 25 Notes to Chapter Three 54 Chapter Four E v a l u a t i n g Photograph C o l l e c t i o n s ' A r c h i v a l Nature: A Case Study 58 Notes to Chapter Four 97 Chapter Five Conclusion 98 Notes to Chapter Five 105 B i b l i o g r a p h y . 106 9 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS G r a t e f u l acknowledgement i s made to Ter r y Eastwood h i s encouragement and advice i n the preparation of t h i s t h e s i s . for 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION A r c h i v i s t s have a twofold r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f i r s t i s to preserve the records of permanent value of the body that sponsors the a r c h i v e s . This may be a government, business, i n s t i t u t i o n , or a s s o c i a t i o n . In t h i s instance, a r c h i v i s t s r e c e i v e or ac c e s s i o n records, a p p r a i s i n g or e v a l u a t i n g them and s e l e c t i n g those which have enduring value based on the evidence they c o n t a i n . They are s e l e c t e d for what they r e v e a l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n that created the records and f o r other information they may provide that i s considered u s e f u l to r e s e a r c h e r s . The second r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a r c h i v i s t s i s to preserve those records that document s o c i e t y . These may be records of government, businesses, i n s t i t u t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s or i n d i v i d u a l s . In t h i s case, records are gathered or acquired mostly from outside the body that sponsors the a r c h i v e s . This may be e i t h e r by donation or purchase. Records are appraised, as i n the f i r s t case, before being s e l e c t e d for i n c l u s i o n i n the holdings of the a r c h i v e s , that i s they are i d e n t i f i e d as being of i n t e r e s t i n g s ubject matter and then evaluated for t h e i r worth for a c q u i s i t i o n . In t h i s second s i t u a t i o n , a r c h i v i s t s look beyond the subject content of the 2 m a t e r i a l s i n an e f f o r t to determine the nature of the records. This i s necessary because the o r i g i n s and completeness of the documentation i s l e s s c e r t a i n than in the former case and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r a u t h e n t i c i t y and value as records which a c c u r a t e l y document s o c i e t y i s l e s s c e r t a i n . A c q u i s i t i o n , thus, concerns not only i d e n t i f y i n g records that are valuable for t h e i r subject content. It a l s o i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r i n g the records from the point of view of how they were created. A c q u i s i t i o n i s an important area of a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e to study as d e c i s i o n s made at the time of a c q u i s i t i o n a f f e c t the worth and usefulness of m a t e r i a l s held i n an a r c h i v e s . C o l l e c t i o n of a u t h e n t i c , o r i g i n a l documents as opposed to those of dubious a u t h e n t i c i t y or copies which may have been tampered with has a bearing on the value of the documents. A c q u i s i t i o n i s a l s o but the f i r s t step i n the a r c h i v a l process or continuum of arranging and d e s c r i b i n g and conserving the records, and g r e a t l y a f f e c t s these l a t t e r a c t i v i t i e s . As American a r c h i v i s t Gerald Ham commented, " t h i s age of overabundant records and information, combined with a s c a r c i t y of resources, i s f o r c i n g a r c h i v i s t s to replace t h e i r e s s e n t i a l l y unplanned approach to a r c h i v a l p r e s e r v a t i o n with a systematic, planned and documented process of b u i l d i n g , maintaining and p r e s e r v i n g c o l l e c t i ons." (1) 3 Recent concern about a c q u i s i t i o n as r e f l e c t e d in a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e on a c q u i s i t i o n tends to focus on the need for cooperation between r e p o s i t o r i e s i n t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s and s t r a t e g i e s , the r o l e of the a r c h i v i s t i n s e l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s which document s o c i e t y , and the need to c o l l e c t documentation from the overwhelming mass of a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s . This paper focuses on a r c h i v a l documents examining them f o r the c r i t e r i a which determine t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y for . a c q u i s i t i o n by an a r c h i v e s . (2) Archives today are comprised of many forms of m a t e r i a l other than the t r a d i t i o n a l w r i t t e n or t e x t u a l documents. Sometimes c o l l e c t i o n s c o n t a i n only these other forms of record. These may be maps, sound re c o r d i n g s , f i l m s , photographs or machine readable records, to name a few. This t h e s i s concentrates on a c q u i s i t i o n of a form of record other than t e x t u a l . I t di s c u s s e s how present theory on the a r c h i v a l nature of records can be a p p l i e d to the a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs by a r c h i v e s and t e s t s c o l l e c t i o n s of photographs according to defined c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r c h i v a l r e c o r d s . As part of the d i s c u s s i o n of a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs by a r c h i v e s , i t examines the t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n s for c o n s i d e r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n of a r c h i v a l documents from the viewpoint of the form of the m a t e r i a l . 4 A focus on photographic a r c h i v e s may be j u s t i f i e d i n four ways. F i r s t l y , photographs are c o l l e c t e d by many c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . These include f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and municipal a r c h i v e s , u n i v e r s i t y a r c h i v e s , h i s t o r i c a l s o c i e t i e s , l i b r a r i e s , museums, research centres, p r i v a t e companies and photography s t u d i o s , to name the most common. Archives base a c q u i s i t i o n on a p a r t i c u l a r philosophy. This philosophy runs counter to the commonly held dictum that "a p i c t u r e i s worth a thousand words," and as such i t needs to be examined. Secondly, a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs by a r c h i v e s i s an important area to study as most a r c h i v e s c o l l e c t photographs. In 1980, a study reported that 83.6% of Canadian a r c h i v e s provide s e r v i c e on photograph c o l l e c t i o n s and that the number of photographs held i n the r e p o s i t o r i e s was growing annually. (3) In B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1988, t h i s n a t i o n a l p i c t u r e was confirmed by a study which showed that 51 out of the 63 a r c h i v e s held photograph c o l l e c t i o n s . (4) T h i r d l y , the number of photographs being produced i n North America and t h e r e f o r e p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e for a c q u i s i t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g at the alarming r a t e , i t i s estimated, of 10 b i l l i o n images an n u a l l y . (5) A coherent c o l l e c t i n g or a c q u i s i t i o n philosophy thus needs to be i d e n t i f i e d , i n order to s e l e c t from such numbers. 5 F o u r t h l y , photographs as documents provide yet another record of the past and as such are part of our h e r i t a g e . As N a t i o n a l Archives of Canada a r c h i v i s t Joan Schwartz noted, photographs r e f l e c t "the i n t e l l e c t u a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l m i l i e u w i t h i n which [they were] crea t e d . " (6) It i s a l s o the most commonly understood language of communication in the world. Anth r o p o l o g i s t John C o l l i e r has observed that "we think p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y and c e r t a i n l y communicate p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y . The nonverbal language of photorealism i s the language that i s most understood i n t e r c u l t u r a l l y and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y . " (7) Consequently, we should be concerned to sharpen our understanding of a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n of photographic documents. Chapter Two examines the reasons for f o c u s s i n g on the q u a l i t i e s of photographs during a c q u i s i t i o n . It explores the reasons why a r c h i v i s t s consider the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of form important i n a s s e s s i n g the value of photographic documentation. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s include the kind of information that i s only provided by v i s u a l s , the conservation i m p l i c a t i o n s posed by c e r t a i n types of photographic c o l l e c t i o n s , the s p e c i a l d e s c r i p t i v e needs of photographs and copyright problems posed by such documents. It then d i s c u s s e s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of form on a c q u i s i t i o n . Such a focus encourages a r c h i v i s t s to consider the a r t i f a c t u a l and a r t i s t i c value of the images 6 rather than t h e i r value as documentation. Context of c r e a t i o n and f u n c t i o n of the records become secondary to c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of form. The chapter concludes that a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs should be guided by a multi-media c o l l e c t i o n s p o l i c y as opposed to one based on form of the m a t e r i a l . Conservation, d e s c r i p t i o n , and copyright i m p l i c a t i o n s posed by photographs are important elements of a c q u i s i t i o n but, photographs, l i k e other documents a r c h i v e s a c q u i r e , should f i r s t l y be appraised for t h e i r a r c h i v a l nature. Chapter Three d e f i n e s the a r c h i v a l nature of documents. F i r s t l y , i t c h a r a c t e r i z e s a r c h i v e s based on the philosophy of a r c h i v a l science of European a r c h i v i s t s , S i r H i l a r y Jenklnson, Eugenio Casanova, S. Mull e r , J.A. F e i t h , and R. F r u i n , and Michel Duchein, and American a r c h i v i s t s , Theodore Schellenberg and Lester J . Cappon. I t underlines the f a c t that the a r c h i v a l nature of documents i s based upon c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the records. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are t h r e e f o l d . The f i r s t i s that a r c h i v a l documents are part of an organic whole. The second i s that they show re s p o n s i b l e c u s t o d i a n s h i p and the t h i r d i s that they have been considered valuable enough to be set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n by t h e i r c r e a t o r s . The chapter concludes with a d i s c u s s i o n of the elements of these three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as they apply to a l l records and i n p a r t i c u l a r to photographs. 7 The f o u r t h chapter examines photograph c o l l e c t i o n s a l r e a d y held by a r e p o s i t o r y that i s a hybrid i n s t i t u t i o n c o n t a i n i n g both s p e c i a l l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s and a r c h i v a l documents. A number of photograph c o l l e c t i o n s from S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, are tested for t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r i n c l u s i o n i n an a r c h i v e s based on the c o n s e r v a t i o n , copyright and d e s c r i p t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s inherent in t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n and on the three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r c h i v a l nature o u t l i n e d i n Chapter Three. I t concludes that the a r c h i v a l value of documents i s r e l a t i v e , depending on the extent to which t h e i r context of c r e a t i o n and the nature of t h e i r custody i s documented. 8 Notes to Chapter One 1. Gerald Ham, "Managing the H i s t o r i c a l Record i n an Age of Abundance," i n Nancy Peace, ed., A r c h i v a l Choices (Lexington, Mass: D.C. Heath and Company, 1984), 134. 2. See the N a t i o n a l Archives of Canada, A c q u i s i t i o n E v a l u a t i o n Study Volume 1 (Ottawa, January 1988): 1-6; Frank G. Burke, " A r c h i v a l Cooperation," American A r c h i v i s t 46 (Summer 1983): 292-304; Hans Booms, "S o c i e t y and the Formation of the Documentary Heritage: Issues i n the A p p r a i s a l of A r c h i v a l Sources," A r c h l v a r l a 24 (Summer 1987): 69-107; F.Gerald Ham, "The A r c h i v a l Edge," Amer ican A r c h i v i s t 38 (January 1975): 5-13; Helen W i l l a Samuels, "Who Contr o l s the Past", American A r c h i v i s t 2 (Spring 1986): 109-124; Richard M. Kesner, " A r c h i v a l C o l l e c t i o n Development: B u i l d i n g a S u c c e s s f u l A c q u i s i t i o n Program," Midwestern A r c h i v i s t 5 (2 1981): 101-112. 3. Canadian A r c h i v e s : Report to the S o c i a l Sciences and Humanities Research C o u n c i l of Canada (Ottawa: Information D i v i s i o n of the S o c i a l Sciences and Humanities Research C o u n c i l of Canada, 1980), 36-41. 4. B r i t i s h Columbia Archives C o u n c i l , Needs Assessment Survey Report ( V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1988), 154. 5. W i l l i a m Leary, Ap p r a i s i n g A r c h i v a l Photographs: a RAMP Study with G u i d e l i n e s ( P a r i s : General Information and UNISIST, UNESCO, 1987), 93. 6. Joan M. Schwartz, "The Photographic "Record of Pre-Confederation B r i t i s h Columbia," A r c h i v a r i a 5 (Winter 1977-78): 8. 7. John C o l l i e r , V i s u a l Anthropology: Photography as a Research Method (New York: Rinehart & Winston, 1967), 5. 9 CHAPTER TWO ACQUISITION ACCORDING TO FORM OF THE MATERIAL In 1978, Richard Huyda, Chief Curator of the National Photography C o l l e c t i o n at the P u b l i c Archives of Canada (now the N a t i o n a l Archives of Canada) estimated that there were over ten m i l l i o n photographs i n Canadian a r c h i v e s . (1) A conservative estimate of t h e i r numbers ten years l a t e r i s eighteen m i l l i o n and growing. (2) This tremendous inventory of resource m a t e r i a l a t t e s t s to i t s place i n our documentary h e r i t a g e . As Huyda noted, "that t h i s many documents have been c o l l e c t e d , preserved and made a c c e s s i b l e to the p u b l i c demonstrates our deep commitment to t h i s segment of our h e r i t a g e . " (3) P a r a l l e l to and both i n f l u e n c e d by and i n f l u e n c i n g a r c h i v e s ' commitment to pr e s e r v i n g photographs i s t h e i r widespread appeal. The evidence of t h i s i n t e r e s t i s e a s i l y seen i n the reproduction of a r c h i v a l photographs i n books, j o u r n a l s , magazines, newspapers, f i l m s and t e l e v i s i o n . Photographs are used f o r reference or for i l l u s t r a t i o n . As communications c r i t i c E s t e l l e Jussim summarizes i t , " v i s u a l forms tare] used both to generate evidence and document f i n d i n g s . " (4) 10 The general l i t e r a t u r e on photographs deals mainly with the h i s t o r y of photography, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of photographs and the t e c h n i c a l aspects of photographs. The a r c h i v a l l i t e r a t u r e includes commentary and i n s t r u c t i o n on proper care and handling as w e l l as arrangement and d e s c r i p t i o n of photographs. Less a t t e n t i o n has been devoted to the a c q u i s i t i o n of these m a t e r i a l s by a r c h i v e s . Two aspects i n p a r t i c u l a r bear examination because of t h i s minimal coverage. F i r s t l y , are there s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which should be a p p l i e d to photographs when e v a l u a t i n g or a p p r a i s i n g them for a c q u i s i t i o n ? If so, are these important enough to n e c e s s i t a t e e s t a b l i s h i n g a separate c o l l e c t i o n s p o l i c y by form of m a t e r i a l ? Secondly, supposing that photographs have s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s , should they be acquired according to p r i n c i p l e s d i f f e r e n t from those for other a r c h i v a l documents, most notably t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s , the t r a d i t i o n a l a r c h i v a l documents? This chapter examines the question of whether a r c h i v e s should e s t a b l i s h a separate c o l l e c t i o n s p o l i c y for photographs. As explained i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter, t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s not concerned with the a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs i n a f u n c t i o n a l a r c h i v a l context such as u n i v e r s i t y records or government records. It i s concerned with the c o l l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s which are not created by the sponsor but which a r c h i v e s c o l l e c t because of t h e i r 11 documentary value. It assumes that a r c h i v e s a c q u i r i n g photographic records can provide proper storage f o r the mat e r i a l s to ensure t h e i r _ p r e s e r v a t i o n and proper access to them. Photographs l i k e m a t e r i a l s i n other forms c o l l e c t e d by ar c h i v e s t e l l us of our h i s t o r y and inform us of people and events. Thus they are l i k e other documents a r c h i v e s a c q u i r e . C e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s of photographs, however, d i f f e r e n t i a t e them from other a r c h i v a l documents and suggest that they be given separate a t t e n t i o n . Arguments f o r separate c o n s i d e r a t i o n F i r s t l y , f o c u s i n g on form of the documentation enables a r c h i v e s to preserve information best documented by photographs, such as p o r t r a i t s of people, microscopic images of p l a n t s or the remote c o n t r o l l e d images of the lunar landscape which the w r i t t e n word cannot as a c c u r a t e l y or r e a l i s t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e . By p r o v i d i n g t h i s focus on subject matter best revealed by the v i s u a l image, a r c h i v i s t s can preserve information which would otherwise be u n a v a i l a b l e . It a l s o focuses a t t e n t i o n on those s u b j e c t s which may al r e a d y be documented t e x t u a l l y or by other media but not by s t i l l images which are a common twentieth century means of communication. Klaus Hendrlks, a s p e c i a l i s t i n photographic co n s e r v a t i o n at the N a t i o n a l Archives of Canada, comments that "the photographic r e c o r d . . . i s indispensable to a r c h i v a l 12 i n s t i t u t i o n s and res e a r c h e r s . Photography has preserved a unique view of the past i n a form p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to an i n c r e a s i n g l y v i s u a l l y o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y . " (5) Well-known h i s t o r i a n , e d i t o r , and w r i t e r on h i s t o r i c a l photographs, Robert Weinstein, observes how photographs "add g r e a t l y to what people can glean from h i s t o r y by i l l u m i n a t i n g , b e l i e v a b l y , the t e r r a i n , the a r t i f a c t s , the p a r t i c i p a n t s , and the p a r t i c u l a r aspect of s i g n i f i c a n t events." (6) A r c h i v i s t W i l l i a m Leary concludes that photographs have a "marvelous c a p a c i t y to capture the look and f e e l of the n a t u r a l and man-made environment of everyday l i f e and working c o n d i t i o n s . " He adds that they provide "evidence about l i t t l e known or oft e n ignored places and people." Beyond the question of the unique c a p a b i l i t i e s of photographs to document events and c o n d i t i o n s , i t i s v i t a l to take account of the s p e c i a l c o n s e r v a t i o n needs of photographs. I t i s necessary to make c a r e f u l judgements about the v i a b i l i t y of p r e s e r v i n g photographic images from the p o i n t of view of c o s t . For example, the d i f f i c u l t y of pr e s e r v i n g c o l o r photographs should be a f a c t o r bearing on a c q u i s i t i o n . Color photographs are made by a v a r i e t y of processes. These include screen p l a t e processes, such as the Autochrome s l i d e , T r i Color Carbos, Dye Transfer or Dye Imb i b i t i o n p r i n t s , Chromogenic development m a t e r i a l s , which make up the m a j o r i t y of c o l o r photographs made since 1940, 13 Clbachromes, and Color D i f f u s i o n Transfer Process m a t e r i a l s , such as P o l a r o i d i n s t a n t p r i n t s . Each of these processes uses dyes to create the c o l o r e f f e c t . A l l w i l l e v e n t u a l l y fade, even i f s t o r e d i n the dark. However, t e s t s and experience have shown that d i f f e r e n t types of c o l o r m a t e r i a l s l a s t longer than others under the same c o n d i t i o n s . Cibachrome p r i n t s on f i b r e based paper, for instance, i f stored under normal room temperature c o n d i t i o n s , w i l l l a s t over a 100 years before they s t a r t to fade. Dye Transfer P r i n t s are very s t a b l e and w i l l l a s t a long time i f s t o r e d in a i r conditionned rooms at a temperature of 35 degrees F (2 degrees C) or l e s s and a r e l a t i v e humidity of 25-30%. (9) P r i n t s from the dye d i f f u s i o n process, by c o n t r a s t , have a very short l i f e s p a n . A l l c o l o r photographs w i l l l a s t for a much longer time i f r e f r i g e r a t e d or f r o z e n . Photographs produced using the chromogenic process show a n o t i c e a b l e fading (about 10%) w i t h i n 10 to 20 years when stored at normal room temperature. They may be expected to l a s t 100 years or more i n f r o s t - f r e e storage. Kodachrome and Cibachrome p r i n t s could l a s t as long as 800 years i n r e f r i g e r a t e d storage. (10) Proper c o n s e r v a t i o n of a l l photographic m a t e r i a l s e n t a i l s more work than for t e x t u a l records. Photographs u s u a l l y have to be rehoused, o f t e n i n d i v i d u a l l y re-enveloped or resleeved and numbered. Often information on o r i g i n a l 14 envelopes must be t r a n s c r i b e d so that the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l i s not l o s t . Both the rehousing i n a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y c o n tainers and t r a n s c r i b i n g are time-consuming operations which should be taken i n t o account i n a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs. Textual records, of course, r e q u i r e proper conservation i n a climate c o n t r o l l e d environment. However, the c o n s e r v a t i o n measures for photographs are more extreme than f o r such rec o r d s . In some cases, such as the c o l o r m a t e r i a l s d e s c r i b e d above, these might well suggest that a c o l l e c t i o n not be acquired. The same argument can be made for d e t e r i o r a t i n g n i t r a t e negatives which cannot f e a s i b l y be r e s t o r e d or f o r which resources f o r r e s t o r a t i o n are l a c k i n g . This i s important as the value of photographs as documents i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r " l e g i b i l i t y . " Unless c o n s e r v a t i o n problems posed by photographs are recognized and addressed s p e c i f i c a l l y i n a c o l l e c t i o n s p o l i c y , they are l i k e l y to get brushed aside i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the mass of documents i n a c o l l e c t i o n . A c q u i s i t i o n according to form allows a r c h i v e s to consider the s p e c i a l d e s c r i p t i v e needs of photographs which are much more extensive than for other m a t e r i a l s , r e q u i r i n g a b i g budget and more s t a f f time to make the m a t e r i a l s a c c e s s i b l e to r e s e a r c h e r s . Huyda complains that i n the past, "[photographs] were accessioned l i k e other documents with l i t t l e information beyond provenance, general content 15 d e s c r i p t i o n and a statement of r e s t r i c t i o n s . Textual information accompanying photographs was normally not v e r i f i e d for completeness or accuracy." (11) Photographs need expanded ac c e s s i o n c o n t r o l s i n order to be a c c e s s i b l e . This includes d e s c r i p t i o n s of image content, p h y s i c a l format, the photographer and the purposes of the photographs, co p y r i g h t and p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n as well as l o c a t i o n . A l l of these are s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n making the records a c c e s s i b l e to r e s e a r c h e r s . This more i n t e n s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l of photographs i s necessary as researchers u s u a l l y request photographic records at the item l e v e l . Leary notes that t h i s i s c o s t l y . "Because of the frequent need for item access to photographs, the u n i t cost of processing and p r o v i d i n g reference s e r v i c e on them i s s u b s t a n t i a l . " (12) Focusing on form encourages a r c h i v e s to address c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of c o p y r i g h t . Photographs are used by researchers i n p u b l i c a t i o n s , d i s p l a y s and for broadcast. Under law, only the c o p y r i g h t holder has the l e g a l r i g h t to reproduce, p u b l i s h , e x h i b i t or otherwise make a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c m a t e r i a l s that are protected by c o p y r i g h t . (13) Under Canadian law, c o p y r i g h t e x i s t s i n a l l photographs, a u t o m a t i c a l l y , without the need for r e g i s t r a t i o n , for a p e r i o d of f i f t y years from the time of t h e i r c r e a t i o n . (14) Thus, a l l photographs w i t h i n t h i s time period are 16 copyrighted unless s t a t e d otherwise. Ownership of copyright belongs to whoever caused the photograph to be made which could be the photographer or the person who commissioned the photograph. Although a photographer may have the negatives, i f he i s asked by someone e l s e to take the photographs in r e t u r n f o r payment, t h i s person owns copyright to the photographs, unless the c l i e n t signs a c o n t r a c t surrendering c o p y r i g h t to the photographer or s t u d i o . (15) The same a p p l i e s to newspaper or magazine photographers. (16) A r c h i v e s , t h e r e f o r e , should know who owns copyright as p u b l i c a t i o n without copyright i s against the law. This i s a concern to a r c h i v e s because, " u n l i k e w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s photographs cannot be e a s i l y summarized or paraphrased i f t h e i r r eproduction v i o l a t e s copyright law. Furthermore, because photographs are f r e q u e n t l y used i n books and magazines that r e t u r n p r o f i t s to authors and p u b l i s h e r s , they are more l i k e l y than most records to occasion complaints or l a w s u i t s over v i o l a t i o n of c o p y r i g h t . " (17) A d d i t i o n a l l y , d i s c l a i m e r s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for copyright infringement may not stand up i n a court of law. (18) Thus, a r c h i v i s t s must focus on the i m p l i c a t i o n s of copyright on a c q u i s i t i o n . Focusing on form a l s o permits a r c h i v i s t s to respond to researcher requests more e f f e c t i v e l y as i t recognizes the s p e c i a l needs of photographic researchers who d e s i r e good 17 q u a l i t y images. Concentration on the form of the documentation recognizes t h i s important aspect of photographic documents emphasizing the c o l l e c t i o n of photographs which photograph curator Paul V a n d e r b i l t says should be " s t r i k i n g p i c t u r e s of broad connotative i n t e r e s t " , "that s t i c k i n the memory as photographs" that "continue g i v i n g a f t e r t h e i r f a c t u a l b a s i s i s absorbed" that "show q u a l i t y of v i s i o n . " This i s "what i s p a r t i c u l a r l y sought i n photographs today, both i n c u r r e n t work and i n r e t r o s p e c t i v e e d i t o r i a l s e l e c t i o n , and they are, t h e r e f o r e , to be considered i n planning, because they i n f l u e n c e use and a p p r e c i a t i o n . " (19) This c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the photograph as a v i s u a l image as w e l l as a form of documentation recognizes that they should be i n t e r e s t i n g v i s u a l s that are c l e a r and sharp i n d e f i n i t i o n . Textual documents may only need to be d e c i p h e r a b l e , but photographs must be more than t h a t . As Weinstein says, "the most popular view of photographic q u a l i t y emphazises such f a c t o r s as sharpness, c r i s p d e f i n i t i o n , f u l l t o n a l c o n t r a s t , and in-focus images." (20) These not only provide researchers with the best proof of the subject matter i n the photographs but a l s o permit the best r e p r o d u c t i o n of these images. He continues, "the highest p o s s i b l e l e v e l of s t r a i g h t photographic q u a l i t y i s 18 needed when d u p l i c a t i n g images whose p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n i s to transmit d e t a i l e d information a c c u r a t e l y . " (21) This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important to consider as photographs are used as much for i l l u s t r a t i o n as for ref e r e n c e . (22) Witness t h e i r I n c l u s i o n i n magazines, such as those on t o p i c s l i k e f i s h i n g , f o r e s t r y , engineering, f u r n i t u r e and fas h i o n ; i n science books, anthologies l i k e Famous Canadians, or h i s t o r y books to name but a few. Photographs are a l s o used as d e c o r a t i o n on c o f f e e mugs, postcards, calendars, t - s h i r t s , and the walls of restaurants and bars or as e x h i b i t m a t e r i a l s i n museums and a r t g a l l e r i e s . They are a l s o used as source m a t e r i a l i n s l i d e shows, f i l m s t r i p s , f i l m s and videos. The media use them f o r news broadcasts and documentaries. The l i s t i s endless. Focusing on the form of documentation i s more l i k e l y to ensure that t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y for reproduction i s a l s o considered when e v a l u a t i n g photographs f o r a c q u i s i t i o n . L a s t l y , f o c u s i n g on the record i t s e l f forces a r c h i v i s t s to t r e a t the documents with care. I t a l s o f o r c e s a r c h i v i s t s to understand the records, t h e i r s p e c i a l a t t r i b u t e s and shortcomings as documentation. How the documents p h y s i c a l l y were created increases a r c h i v i s t s ' a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t photographs and thus appraise them a p p r o p r i a t e l y for a c q u i s i t i o n . This i s an important aspect of preserving r e c o r d s . 19 Arguments against separate c o n s i d e r a t i o n As noted e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s , a r c h i v e s c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l s for t h e i r value as documentation r e l a t e d to the a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r c r e a t o r . Focusing on the c a r r i e r of the information, on the form of the m a t e r i a l , m i t i g a t e s against such a g o a l . F i r s t l y , i t i n v i t e s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the a r t i f a c t u a l and a e s t h e t i c values of the m a t e r i a l s Instead of on t h e i r value as documentation. A r c h i v i s t s i n the Sound and Moving Image D i v i s i o n of the Na t i o n a l Archives of Canada r e f e r to t h i s as the, "development of an a r t e f a c t o r i e n t a t i o n to a r c h i v a l documents" where "information becomes secondary to the p h y s i c a l document i t s e l f . " (23) Photographs, when considered according to such an o r i e n t a t i o n , may be acquired because they are works of a r t or rare items rather than as sources of information. The emotional appeal of o l d photographs i n p a r t i c u l a r may i n c l i n e a r c h i v i s t s to consider t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n based on the n o s t a l g i a they evoke, on the window they appear to open to our l o s t past. This tendency i s p a r t i c u l a r l y encouraged by e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y images. Secondly, f o c u s i n g on the form i n v i t e s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the medium and i t s development rather than on i t s documentary value. As T e r r y Cook, Chief of S o c i a l A f f a i r s and Natural Resources Records at the Na t i o n a l Archives of Canada says, "Documenting the h i s t o r y of the medium i t s e l f - 20 the medium i s the message - i s dangerous because of the i s o l a t i o n i t symbolizes and i n v i t e s . " (24) He complains about the c o l l e c t i o n of one media of records, maps, as being "acquired more to demonstrate c a r t o g r a p h i c techniques and processes or to document the oeuvre of i n d i v i d u a l cartographers, rather than to obtain any p r e v i o u s l y unknown h i s t o r i c a l information revealed on the face of the map i t s e l f . " (25) Most importantly, such a p o l i c y f o r c e s a r c h i v i s t s to focus on one medium of record to the e x c l u s i o n of other media. Not only does t h i s complicate r e l a t i o n s with donors, who o f t e n have records i n a v a r i e t y of formats, (26) but i t a l s o b l i n d s a r c h i v i s t s to the f a c t that most c o l l e c t i o n s are i n t e g r a t e d multi-media c o l l e c t i o n s , even i f the c e n t r a l focus i s photographic. (27) Focusing on the form of the m a t e r i a l ignores t h i s important f a c t . I t compromises the i n t e g r i t y of the t o t a l record i n favour of the concerns of the media. Conversely the documentary value of the photographs i s diminished because of a lack of concern about t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with other documents. As w i l l be examined i n ensuing chapters, the a r c h i v a l nature of documents and hence t h e i r value as documentation depends on t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p amongst documents. Photographs, l i k e other records, achieve greater documentary value i f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s maintained. This i s because p r e s e r v i n g the 21 o r i g i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between and among documents i t s e l f r e v e a l s information about the a c t i v i t i e s of the c r e a t o r . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of photographs depends on an understanding of t h e i r f u n c t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p to other j records. Photographs may seem to document places, persons or events a c c u r a t e l y . However, they are as much a r e s u l t of point of view, as other records. They are not accurate documents on t h e i r own. They do not show a l l there i s to see. As philosopher Max Wartofsky e x p l a i n s , "the photographic image i s taken to be the way things look, whether anyone i s l o o k i n g or not... There i s a hidden or t a c i t p r e s u p p o s i t i o n that the camera 'sees' what we would see, were we present; and that the photograph represents what there i s there for the eye to see, even when there are no eyes to do the seeing. Thus, i t i s t a c i t l y assumed that the camera records ' o b j e c t i v e l y ' the way things look, and that t h i s s o r t of 'seeing' i s indeed the d u p l i c a t e of the eye's own work." (28) Understanding that photographic records are part of a l a r g e r a r c h i v e s and hence pr e s e r v i n g information about the context and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of these records m i l i t a t e s a g a i n s t the tendency to evaluate i n d i v i d u a l photographs for the supposed r e a l i t y they capture. In a d d i t i o n , i t must be remembered that photographs de r i v e t h e i r meaning from the viewer. As w r i t e r P h i l i p 22 Stokes comments, "the g r e a t e s t problems in the a s c r i p t i o n of photographic meaning are encountered because of our tendency to see meaning as s e l f - e v i d e n t l y inherent i n the images, when they are r e a l l y dependent e n t i r e l y upon the i n t e r a c t i o n of a p e r c e i v e r with the image. It i s moreover, easy to forget the s u b j e c t i v i t y of a p e r c e i v e r ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n . " (29) Context provides the background knowledge against which to weigh the documentary evidence of the images. I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to the a r c h i v a l a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs. In c o n c l u s i o n , although a c q u i s i t i o n according to form of the m a t e r i a l encourages a r c h i v e s to e x p l o i t the p o t e n t i a l of the medium to i t s f u l l e s t extent and to attend to the s p e c i a l conservation requirements and c o p y r i g h t i m p l i c a t i o n s posed by photographs, a r c h i v e s should not set up a separate c o l l e c t i o n s p o l i c y for photographs. Photographs that a r c h i v e s acquire should be appraised for t h e i r a r c h i v a l q u a l i t i e s predominantly. As photographs are created, l i k e other documents, as part of an a c t i v i t y , they should be evaluated i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to a l l the documents generated by that a c t i v i t y and not s e p a r a t e l y . Their a r c h i v a l value depends on t h i s f a c t . 23 Notes to Chapter Two 1. Richard Huyda, "Photographs and Archives i n Canada," A r c h i v a r i a 5 (Winter 1977-78): 5. 2. Canadian A r c h i v e s , 34-36. 3. Huyda, 5. 4. E s t e l l e Jussim, "The Research Uses of V i s u a l Information," L i b r a r y Trends 25 ( A p r i l 1977): 775. 5. Klaus Hendriks, "The P r e s e r v a t i o n of Photographic Records," A r c h i v a r l a 5 (Winter 1977-78):92. 6. Robert Weinstein, "Why C o l l e c t Photographs," Plcturescope (Winter 1981):120. 7. W i l l i a m Leary, The A r c h i v a l A p p r a i s a l of Photographs, 20-21. 8. G a i l F i s h e r - T a y l o r , "Interview: Henry Wilheim," Photo Communique 3:1 (Spring 1981), 17. 9. Henry Wilheim, " S t o r i n g Color M a t e r i a l s " I n d u s t r i a l Photography 27 (October 1978): 33. 10. I b i d . 11. Richard Huyda, "Photographs and Archives i n Canada." A r c h i v a r i a 5 (Winter 1977-78): 10. 12. Leary, 25. 13. Corrado A. Santoro, "The A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t s and Coypright R e v i s i o n : An Update" Archivar i a 21 (Winter 1985-86): 111 and J u d i t h F e l s t e n , "News Photographs," Plcturescope 30 ( F a l l / W i n t e r 1982) : 100. 14. Jim Keon, "The Canadian A r c h i v i s t and Copyright L e g i s l a t i o n , " A r c h i v a r i a 18 (Summer 1984): 92 and Corrado A. Santaro, 121. 15. Andrew Rodger, "Copyright' The Photograph: An Annotated B i b l i o g r a p h y for A r c h i v i s t s , " A r c h l v a r i a 5 (Winter 1977-78): 134. 16. I b i d . 24 17. Mary Lynn R i t z e n t h a l e r , Gerald J . Munoff, and Margery S. Long, Archives and Manuscripts; A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Photographic C o l l e c t i o n s (Chicago: S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1984), 104. 18. I b i d . , 138 . 19. Paul V a n d e r b i l t , " E v a l u a t i n g H i s t o r i c a l Photographs: A Personal P e r s p e c t i v e , " T e c h n i c a l L e a f l e t 120, American A s s o c i a t i o n for Lo c a l and State H i s t o r y L e a f l e t 120, H i s t o r y News 34 ( 1979 ) : 288. 20. Weinstein, 123. 21. I b i d . 22. Leary, 20. 23. Ernest J . Dick, Jacques Gagne, Josephine Langham, Richard Lochead and Jean-Paul Moreau, " T o t a l Archives Come Apart," A r c h i v a r i a 11 (Winter 1980-81):225. 24. T e r r y Cook, "The Tyranny of the Medium," A r c h i v a r i a 9 (Winter 1979-80): 144. 25. I b i d . , 143. 26. Ernest J . Dick et a l , 225. 27. Te r r y Cook, "Media Myopia," A r c h i v a r i a 12 (Summer 1981) :151. 28. Max W. Wartofsky, "Cameras Can't See: Representation, Photography and Human V i s i o n , " Photo Communique (February/March 1980), 2. 29. P h i l i p Stokes, "Language and Photography," B r i t i s h J o u rnal of Photography (May 23, 1976), 1. 25 CHAPTER THREE NATURE OF ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTS In Canada, a v a r i e t y of c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s c o l l e c t photographs f o r t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t and s i g n i f i c a n c e ; the three main ones being l i b r a r i e s , museums and a r c h i v e s . As a consequence, i t i s oft e n assumed that the philosophy governing t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs i s the same. This i s understandable as these i n s t i t u t i o n s share common goals and s i m i l a r i t i e s i n methodology. They a l l see as t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the a c q u i s i t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n and making a v a i l a b l e of m a t e r i a l s , o f t e n unique, of c u l t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t . Each sees the need f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o cessing and pr e p a r a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l s before they can be made a v a i l a b l e f o r use by s c h o l a r s , students and the general p u b l i c and each of the pr o f e s s i o n s sees as part of i t s r o l e , the promotion of s c h o l a r s h i p . However, the bases upon which these r e p o s i t o r i e s c o l l e c t the m a t e r i a l s which promote s c h o l a r s h i p are very d i f f e r e n t . For the most par t , l i b r a r i e s c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l s for t h e i r s u b j e c t i n t e r e s t and b r i n g together items to form c o l l e c t i o n s based on user i n t e r e s t s . L i b r a r i a n and w r i t e r Robert Clark says that l i b r a r i a n s " s e l e c t from a universe of books or papers those which they wish to add to t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s . " (1) L i b r a r i a n s approach m a t e r i a l s by " p u l l i n g 26 together d i s c r e t e items and o r g a n i z i n g that information according to a standard c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of human knowledge."(2) Thus, l i b r a r i e s c o l l e c t items as important documents of c u l t u r a l or research i n t e r e s t . T heir s i g n i f i c a n c e i s independent of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to other items. Museum c u r a t o r s c o l l e c t items as w e l l , p r i m a r i l y for t h e i r a r t i f a c t u a l and a r t i s t i c value. They c o l l e c t items as examples or specimens of a c u l t u r e . Museologist E l l i s Burcaw notes that "museums are concerned with o b j e c t s . Objects are the s t a r t i n g point of a museum...objects j u s t i f y museums."(3) Other museologists confirm t h i s saying that a museum "performs i t s fu n c t i o n s by the c o l l e c t i n g and use of a r t i f a c t s or specimens, or both." (4) By c o n t r a s t , a r c h i v i s t s p r i m a r i l y acquire groups of documents which are r e l a t e d to each other i n an a c t i v i t y of t h e i r c r e a t o r . In the process of " a c q u i s i t i o n " they see t h e i r r e p o s i t o r i e s as housing and gathering bodies of records of other i n s t i t u t i o n s or persons. Items of c u l t u r a l , a r t i f a c t u a l or a r t i s t i c value are not t h e i r primary concern. "Archives are c h i e f l y the non-current substantive records of the i n s t i t u t i o n s or i n d i v i d u a l s they document....Their usefulness i s enhanced i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p to the o r i g i n a l t r a n s a c t i o n remains apparent." (5) Thus, the nature of the ma t e r i a l s ( i n f o r m a t i o n a l , a r t i f a c t u a l or a r c h i v a l ) , d i c t a t e s the d i s t i n c t i v e approach to photographs taken by each i n s t i t u t i o n . 27 Archives embarking upon c o l l e c t i n g or a c q u i r i n g photographic m a t e r i a l s should understand that there are bas i c d i f f e r e n c e s between the three types of i n s t i t u t i o n s for m a t e r i a l s w i l l be brought i n t o the a r c h i v e s that r i g h t f u l l y belong i n a museum or l i b r a r y . The d i s t i n c t i o n between a r c h i v e s on the one hand and l i b r a r i e s and museums on the other hand may be b l u r r e d when a c q u i s i t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l photographs takes place i n a l i b r a r y or museum. For instance, a r c h i v i s t s working i n s p e c i a l c o l l e c t i o n s d i v i s i o n s of l i b a r i e s face the problem of r e c o n c i l i n g a r c h i v e s and l i b r a r y p r i n c i p l e s . As American a r c h i v i s t Richard Berner p o i n t s out, " S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s u n i t s were formed for a d m i n i s t r a t i v e convenience i n l i b r a r i e s to take care of miscellaneous nonconforming l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s such as photographic c o l l e c t i o n s , incunabula, and h i s t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y manuscripts.... T r a d i t i o n a l l y , these m a t e r i a l s have been administered by e x i s t i n g techniques and p r a c t i c e s of l i b r a r i a n s h i p . " (6) Often, a c q u i s i t i o n of a r c h i v e s i s taken on a f t e r the I n i t i a l establishment and d e f i n i t i o n of the mandate of a s p e c i a l c o l l e c t i o n s d i v i s i o n . (7) A r c h i v i s t s working i n such an environment need to be able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between va r i o u s kinds of documents so that each may be t r e a t e d according to the proper p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s . 28 How then do a r c h i v i s t s decide which documents to c o l l e c t and which to r e j e c t ? S p e c i f i c a l l y , how do they decide which photographs c o n s t i t u t e a r c h i v e s and should therefore be t r e a t e d according to a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s ? The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r c h i v e s From the f i r s t , a r c h i v a l t h e o r i s t s were concerned with d e f i n i n g the nature of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s . E n g l i s h a r c h i v i s t and w r i t e r S i r H i l a r y Jenkinson, whose concepts form the ba s i s of a r c h i v a l theory i n the E n g l i s h speaking world today, described a r c h i v e s as documents "drawn up or used i n the course of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or executive t r a n s a c t i o n (whether p u b l i c or p r i v a t e ) of which [they] formed a part; and subsequently preserved i n t h e i r own custody for t h e i r own information by the persons r e s p o n s i b l e for that t r a n s a c t i o n and t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e successors." (8) He added, "To t h i s D e f i n i t i o n we may add a c o r o l l a r y . Archives were not drawn up i n the i n t e r e s t or f o r the information of P o s t e r i t y . " (9) Jenkinson f e l t that documents a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s c o l l e c t should provide " v e r i f i a b l e ' , " f i r s t - h a n d evidence" of f a c t s (10) as they were documents used i n the study of h i s t o r y which could be depended upon for t h e i r " i m p a r t i a l i t y " and " a u t h e n t i c i t y " . (11) Their i m p a r t i a l i t y d e r i v e s from the f a c t they they were drawn up i n the course of an a c t i o n , f o r a purpose q u i t e other than that f o r which 29 they might be used as the sources of h i s t o r y . They are i m p a r t i a l to the extent that they f a i t h f u l l y express the ac t i o n s which brought them i n t o being, to the extent that they were not created to i n s t r u c t p o s t e r i t y . Their a u t h e n t i c i t y comes from the f a c t t hat, by being preserved in the custody or care of the body or person who created or produced them or t h e i r successors, they have been protected from a l t e r a t i o n or disturbances of any kind which would e x p l a i n t h e i r q u a l i t y as evidence. A r c h i v a l documents could only be those m a t e r i a l s that an o f f i c e produced i n the t r a n s a c t i o n of i t s business. Thus, he defi n e d them as documents of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r a n s a c t i o n . They could be those created by the o f f i c e or c o l l e c t e d by the o f f i c e i n pursuance of i t s a c t i v i t i e s r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r form. They might, for instance, be ma t e r i a l s of a p r i n t e d nature, such as maps and plans. Dutch a r c h i v i s t s S. Mul l e r , J.A. F e i t h and R. F r u i n concurred with Jenkinson. "An a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n i s the whole of the w r i t t e n documents, drawings and p r i n t e d matter, o f f i c i a l l y r e c e i v e d or produced by an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body or one of i t s o f f i c i a l s . " (12) Jenkinson determined that these o f f i c i a l documents became a r c h i v a l when they had been set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n f o r future reference "at the point at which, having ceased to be i n cur r e n t use they are d e f i n i t e l y s et 30 aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n , t a c i t l y adjudged worthy of being kept." (13) I t i s a l s o important that the person who set them aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n was the person r e s p o n s i b l e for t h e i r c r e a t i o n or accumulation. "Archives are documents which formed part of an o f f i c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n and were preserved f o r o f f i c i a l r e f e r e n c e . " (14) Mul l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n a l s o held that such documents were a r c h i v a l " i n so f a r as these documents were intended to remain i n the custody of that body or of that o f f i c i a l [who o f f i c i a l l y r e c e i v e d or produced them]." (15) I t a l i a n a r c h i v i s t Eugenio Casanova was of the same o p i n i o n . A r c h i v a l documents were "the o r d e r l y accumulation of documents which were created i n the course of i t s a c t i v i t y by an i n s t i t u t i o n or an i n d i v i d u a l , and which are preserved for the accomplishment of i t s p o l i t i c a l , l e g a l or c u l t u r a l purposes by such an i n s t i t u t i o n or i n d i v i d u a l . " (16) Thus, documents were a r c h i v a l once they were c o n s c i o u s l y preserved by the cr e a t o r of the recor d s . U l t i m a t e l y they would be cared for In an a r c h i v e s , but the a r c h i v i s t would not determine whether they were a r c h i v a l or not, f o r the act of p r e s e r v a t i o n for reference i s performed by the persons who created the recor d s . The a r c h i v i s t ' s duty was merely to "compile a r c h i v e s . " (17) Mull e r , F e i t h and F r u i n viewed the a r c h i v i s t i n the same l i g h t , "...the a r c h i v i s t g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e s the a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n i n t o h i s custody when i t i s 31 dead, or at any rate only the parts of i t which must be considered as c l o s e d . " (18) Jenkinson f e l t that a r c h i v a l documents should remain i n the custody of t h e i r c r e a t o r , who made the s e l e c t i o n of those documents to be preserved, and t h e i r successors, which included the a r c h i v i s t s who r e c e i v e d them. This would be the best way of ensuring t h e i r a u t h e n t i c i t y . However, he recognized that i n some cases these a r c h i v a l documents could be taken over by someone e l s e . "The question now a r i s e s -- supposing there Is n e i t h e r h e i r nor any one w i l l i n g to take the f i r s t step of d e p o s i t i n g , can the P u b l i c A r c h i v i s t go out of h i s way and intervene u n i n v i t e d to save the l i f e and character of the A r c h i v e s ? " (19) He r e p l i e d i n the a f f i r m a t i v e and went on to s t a t e that under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s other than that of the P u b l i c A r c h i v i s t , that i s the o f f i c i a l government a r c h i v i s t , could a l s o look a f t e r the records of another i n s t i t u t i o n to save them from being destroyed or broken up. (20) Jenkinson recognized that i n order f o r the documents to r e t a i n t h e i r a u t h e n t i c i y and i m p a r t i a l i t y they must not be tampered with once out of the o f f i c e of t h e i r creator/accumulator. -He t h e r e f o r e came to the c o n c l u s i o n that to remain a r c h i v a l the documents had to be kept i n t a c t and maintained by an "unblemished l i n e of r e s p o n s i b l e custodians." (21) By t h i s he meant that the persons 32 r e s p o n s i b l e for the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the documents r e t a i n the records together i n the order designed by t h e i r c r e a t o r and i d e n t i f i e d as o r i g i n a t i n g from that c r e a t o r . "In a l l cases, then, the a u t h o r i t y t a k i n g over [the a r c h i v e s ] must be prepared to take them over en b l o c : there must be no s e l e c t i n g of p r e t t y specimens." (22) "No a r c h i v i s t ... could p o s s i b l y allow f u l l a r c h i v e value to documents which have been v i o l e n t l y t o r n from the connexion i n which they were o r i g i n a l l y preserved." (23) This idea that records of a body should be kept together was f i r s t introduced i n 1841 i n France by French h i s t o r i a n N a t a l i s de W a i l l y , i n a c i r c u l a r signed by the M i n i s t e r of the I n t e r i o r . In i t he introduced h i s concept of "respect des fonds." He explained that i t meant, "to gather together by fonds, that i s to u n i t e a l l the deeds ( i . e . documents) which came from a body...and to arrange the d i f f e r e n t fonds according to a c e r t a i n order." (24) Respect des fonds became o f f i c i a l p o l i c y i n the Archives Nationales i n France. Records were to be kept together i n the a r c h i v e s under the name of the agency that o r i g i n a t e d them, though w i t h i n each fonds they were to be arranged according to t h e i r subject matter as an a i d to s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h . (25) O r i g i n a l l y conceived as a method of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a r c h i v a l documents as opposed to the subject c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method used i n l i b r a r i e s at the time, respect des fonds, 33 became widely accepted i n Europe as the guiding p r i n c i p l e of a r c h i v e s . I t remains so to t h i s day. In P r u s s i a , the p r i n c i p l e of "respect des fonds" or " p r i n c i p e de provenance" was adopted under the name of " r e g i s t r a t u r p r i n z l p " . Here records from the o r i g n a l agency were kept together as a group. However, the o r i g i n a l order was imposed by the " r e g i s t r y o f f i c e [which] arranged and s e r v i c e d the records for the agency. This arrangement was r e t a i n e d when the records were t r a n s f e r r e d to a r c h i v a l custody." (26) In the Netherlands, Dutch a r c h i v i s t s expressed the same p r i n c i p l e . "An a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n comes in t o being as the r e s u l t of the a c t i v i t i e s of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body or of an o f f i c i a l and i s always the r e f l e c t i o n of the f u n c t i o n of that body or that o f f i c i a l : i t i s an organic whole, a l i v i n g organism, which grows takes shape, and undergoes changes i n accordance with f i x e d rules...The r u l e s which govern the ̂ composition, the arrangement and the formation of the a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e cannot be f i x e d by an a r c h i v i s t i n advance,; he can only study the organism and a s c e r t a i n the r u l e s under which i t was formed." (27) Sometimes, they conceded, "the o r i g i n a l arrangement of an a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n may be modified i n order to c o r r e c t d e v i a t i o n from the general s t r u c t u r e of the c o l l e c t i o n , " but t h i s was only to be done by the a r c h i v i s t a f t e r r e c e i v i n g the records i n t o h i s or her custody. (28) In England the 34 p r i n c i p l e of provenance was adopted a l s o . The fonds d'archives t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the ar c h i v e group. O r i g i n a l order was considered to be that e s t a b l i s h e d by the cre a t o r of the records. Although Jenkinson d e f i n e d a r c h i v a l documents as those created i n the course of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r a n s a c t i o n he d i d not exclude documents created by persons or p r i v a t e bodies from c o n s i d e r a t i o n . " I t seems that a r c h i v e s as a term must be extended to c o l l e c t i o n s made by p r i v a t e or semi-private bodies or persons, a c t i n g i n t h e i r o f f i c i a l or business a c t i v i t i e s . " (29) M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n agreed, "The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s or o f f i c i a l s of p r i v a t e c i v i l bodies may a l s o produce an a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n . " (30) However, they drew the l i n e at c o l l e c t i o n s of fami l y papers, "One should not c l a s s with the above, however, s o - c a l l e d f a m i l y archives....The documents i n a f a m i l y a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n do not form 'a whole'; very o f t e n they have been gathered together i n the str a n g e s t manner and lack the organic bond of an a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n . " (31) Theodore Schellenberg b u i l t upon these t h e o r i e s and r e f i n e d them to meet the demands of modern records production and the complexity of t h e i r o r i g i n s . He defined a r c h i v a l documents i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. "To be a r c h i v e s , m a t e r i a l s must have been created or accumulated for some purpose.... If they were created i n the process of 35 accomplishing some d e f i n i t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , l e g a l , business, or other s o c i a l end, then they are of p o t e n t i a l a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y . " (32) Schellenberg thus enlarged upon the d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s , a l l o w i n g that as long as records were created for some purpose, not n e c e s s a r i l y an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t r a n s a c t i o n , but any a c t i v i t y i n s o c i e t y , then they had p o t e n t i a l a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y . This increased the p o s s i b l e kinds of records that could be acquired and took the focus away from the l e g a l aspect of a r c h i v a l documents. Schellenberg a l s o expanded the d e f i n i t i o n of a r c h i v e s to i n c l u d e , " a l l books, papers, maps, photographs, or other documentary m a t e r i a l s r e g a r d l e s s of p h y s i c a l form or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " (33) Faced with the ^growing numbers of records which were the r e s u l t of the expansion of government a c t i v i t i e s and records keeping, Schellenberg concluded that a r c h i v i s t s should have a more i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e than h i s European forebearers granted them. He determined that documents could not be considered a r c h i v a l u n t i l the a r c h i v i s t deemed them so and set them aside f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n . "To be a r c h i v e s , m a t e r i a l s must be preserved for reasons other than those for which they were created or accumulated. These reasons may be both o f f i c i a l and c u l t u r a l ones." (34) 36 Schellenberg thought that the c r e a t o r s of records should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e l e c t i n g those records which were of value for t h e i r c urrent uses. However, he f e l t that a r c h i v i s t s should be the ones to judge the records for the information they contained of i n t e r e s t to researchers and for p o s t e r i t y . Records which had such information he a t t r i b u t e d as having secondary values; the primary values being those of i n t e r e s t s o l e l y to the c r e a t o r of the records. He f e l t the a r c h i v i s t was best able to judge these secondary values, based on h i s knowledge and t r a i n i n g i n h i s t o r y , research i n t e r e s t s , and records c r e a t i o n and maintenance. (35) The secondary values Schellenberg broke down in t o two types: " e v i d e n t i a l " and " i n f o r m a t i o n a l " . E v i d e n t i a l value r e f e r s "to a value that depends on the importance of the matter evidenced, i . e . the o r g a n i z a t i o n and functioning, of the agency that produced the r e c o r d . . . . The records of an agency that c o n t a i n e v i d e n t i a l value, then, are those necessary to provide an a u t h e n t i c and adequate documentation of i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n and f u n c t i o n i n g . " (36) These are not to be confused with the f u n c t i o n a l value of records which r e f e r s to the r o l e the records played i n accomplishing the purpose of the body c r e a t i n g them. For Schellenberg, i n f o r m a t i o n a l values r e l a t e d to value of the evidence i n a r c h i v a l documents for research purposes. 37 "The ' i n f o r m a t i o n a l ' value i s o r d i n a r i l y c a l l e d research value - that value that inheres i n p u b l i c records because the Information they c o n t a i n may be u s e f u l i n research of various kinds." (37) He went on to say that "the information may r e l a t e , i n a general way, e i t h e r to persons, or t h i n g s , or phenomena." (38) Schellenberg, l i k e Jenkinson, favoured only the a c q u i s i t i o n of records of the parent i n s t i t u t i o n . "As a r u l e , [the a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y ] does not r e l y to an important degree on a c q u i r i n g m a t e r i a l by purchase or g i f t . It normally has one source, namely the government, the i n s t i t u t i o n , or the person i t serves." However, he accepted that a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s acquire records of i n s t i t u t i o n s or persons other than t h e i r sponsoring agency. (39) Schellenberg considered proper custody an important f a c t o r i n determining the a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y of documents. Records were to be kept i n t a c t and t r a n s f e r r e d en b l o c . However, Schellenberg d i f f e r e d from Jenkinson concerning the question of custody. "In d e a l i n g with records produced under modern c o n d i t i o n s of government, proof of an 'unblemished l i n e of r e s p o n s i b l e c u s todians' or of 'unbroken custody' cannot be made a t e s t of a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y . " (40) However, he d i d say to have value as a r c h i v a l documents the i n t e g r i t y of the records had to be preserved. T h i s meant "1) that records of a given agency should be kept together as records of that 38 agency, 2) that such records should be kept, as far as p o s s i b l e , under the arrangement given them i n the agency i n the course of i t s o f f i c i a l business and, 3) that records should be kept i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y without m u t i l a t i o n , a l t e r a t i o n , or unauthorized d e s t r u c t i o n of p o r t i o n s of them." (41) Like h i s predecessors, Schellenberg determined that records of a p r i v a t e as opposed to a p u b l i c body could be considered a r c h i v a l . Thus, records of a business, o r g a n i z a t i o n or i n d i v i d u a l were p o t e n t i a l l y a r c h i v a l , based on t h e i r organic nature. As he put i t , "most recent p r i v a t e records have the organic q u a l i t y of p u b l i c records and are t h e r e f o r e a r c h i v a l i n c h a r a c t e r . (42) The t h e o r i e s o u t l i n e d above form the b a s i s for p r a c t i c e i n North America today. From them i t i s p o s s i b l e to draw conc l u s i o n s on the nature of a r c h i v a l documents and apply them to the process of a c q u i r i n g photographs for a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s . Three aspects of a r c h i v a l documents, although not always viewed from the same pe r s p e c t i v e by the various t h e o r l z e r s , point to the a r c h i v a l nature of documents. I t i s upon these three aspects that photographs l i k e other a r c h i v a l documents should be judged. The f i r s t i s that the documents form an organic whole. The second i s that they show evidence of r e s p o n s i b l e c u s t o d i a n s h i p , and the t h i r d , that they have been set aside f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n . 39 Organic whole As noted e a r l i e r , documents are not a r c h i v a l i n themselves, but only when considered as forming part of a group which by d e f i n i t i o n i s an organic group of records. (h How does one know when the c o l l e c t i o n or group of documents i s a whole? An a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n i s "a 'whole' as soon as i t ceases to be a p a r t , i e . . . a s soon as other parts of the c o l l e c t i o n are not known to e x i s t elsewhere." (44) A r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s evidence four c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : provenance, f u n c t i o n a l o r i g i n s , i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s . A l l documents i n an organic c o l l e c t i o n have a s i n g l e provenance, that i s they show evidence of a common o r i g i n and they emanate from one body or agency. In the case of records of an i n s t i t u t i o n , business, a s s o c i a t i o n or other such o f f i c i a l body, t h i s i s easy enough to d i s t i n g u i s h . Records of the C i t y C l e r k ' s O f f i c e of the C i t y of Vancouver show provenance i f kept together as the records of that o f f i c e . In the case of photographs, a c o l l e c t i o n ' s provenance might be a photographer's s t u d i o or the a u d i o - v i s u a l department of the a d v e r t i s i n g d i v i s i o n of a company. Provenance of personal papers i s e q u a l l y important. I t does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f e r to the donor of the c o l l e c t i o n . In the case of photographs, l i k e other records, provenance r e f e r s to the body c r e a t i n g or accumulating the documents as 40 in the case of photographer or an a r c h i t e c t who assembles photographs of b u i l d i n g s he has designed taken by a v a r i e t y of photographers, for a p o r t f o l i o of h i s work or a s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n for a prospective c l i e n t . The same may be s a i d of photographs arranged i n a photo album by an i n d i v i d u a l in a f a m i l y . Knowing the provenance or the source of the documents provides the f i r s t clue i n understanding the meaning of the documents. A case i n point i s a photograph, held i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC whose provenance had been l o s t . (See Figure 1.) The donor, noted h i s t o r i a n , author and respected judge, Judge Howay was known, but not the o r i g i n s of the document. On the face of i t , t h i s scene appears to show Indians and two p r i e s t s at prayer. Study of dress, blankets, f a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and vege t a t i o n depicted i n the photograph suggest that i t was probably taken i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the l a t e nineteenth century. This o b v i o u s l y was the c o n c l u s i o n of a p r i e s t who. r e c e n t l y wrote the d i v i s i o n r e q u e s t i n g a copy of the photograph which showed r e l i g i o u s Indians i n B r i t i s h Columbia at prayer i n the l a t e nineteenth century. (45) In f a c t , the photograph i s a l s o held at the P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia and i t s provenance i s known. The photograph i s one of a number of photographs taken by and put i n an album by a well-known photographer, F i g u r e 1 42 F r e d e r i c k D a l l y , who p r a c t i c e d h i s trade i n B r i t i s h Columbia towards the end of the nineteenth century. The o r i g i n a l photograph bears the i n s c r i p t i o n i n D a i l y ' s own handwriting: "Indians shamming to be at prayer for the sake of photography." Above he a l s o wrote, "At the p r i e s t s ' request a l l the Indians kneel down and assume an a t t i t u d e of devotion. Amen." (46) Many other such examples of the l i e i n photographs e x i s t . Hannah and Richard Maynard, V i c t o r i a , B.C. photographers, photographed many Northwest Coast Indians i n t h e i r s t u d i o s i n the 1860's and 1870's. Often the dress of the Indians or the backdrop was i n c o r r e c t . As author Margaret Blackman noted, "The Maynards seemed to prefer Haida backdrops f o r t h e i r Indian s u b j e c t s , r e g a r d l e s s of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r i b e . " (47) W i l l i a m Notman of Montreal a l s o 'created' many misleading Images using backdrops i n h i s s t u d i o , s p e c i a l l i g h t i n g e f f e c t s and composite montages to create d e s i r e d e f f e c t s . By knowing the o r i g i n s or provenance of the documents and hence the o r i e n t a t i o n and p r a c t i c e s of the c r e a t o r , the l a y e r s of subterfuge of photographs can be s t r i p p e d away and t h e i r e s s e n t i a l t r u t h b e t t e r understood. As photo h i s t o r i a n Jack Hurley e x p l a i n s , " i t i s a b a s i c r u l e of h i s t o r i c a l evidence that we must understand the sources 43 we use i n order to avoid e r r o r s . " (48) Thus, knowing the provenance of the c o l l e c t i o n provides the f i r s t clue to understanding t h e i r meaning. It a l s o a l e r t s one to the second c h a r a t e r i s t i c of documents i n a c o l l e c t i o n which i s an organic whole: the f u n c t i o n of the records. Records or documents i n an a r c h i v e s are an organic outgrowth of a purpose, a c t i v i t y or t r a n s a c t i o n . Their meaning and hence i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s d e r i v e d from a knowledge of t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n t h i s a c t i v i t y . As Duchein wrote, "The a r c h i v a l document i s present i n the heart of a f u n c t i o n a l process, of which i t c o n s t i t u t e s an element, however small i t may be. I t i s never conceived, i n the beginning, as an i s o l a t e d element. I t always has a u t i l i t a r i a n c h a r a c t e r . " ^ Photographs l i k e other documentary m a t e r i a l s were created as part of such a c t i v i t y and can only be p r o p e r l y understood in t h i s context. L i l y Koltun, Head, Documentary Art and Photography D i v i s i o n of the N a t i o n a l Archives of Canada, in C i t y Blocks, C i t y Spaces poin t s out how t h i s i s important to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the photographs and an understanding of t h e i r meaning. She notes how camera placement i n f l u e n c e s the perception of b u i l d i n g s , i n d i v i d u a l s and places and how the photographer often r e f l e c t s the p e r c e p t i o n of h i s or her time. In nineteenth century eastern Canada for Instance, "Big b u i l d i n g s were weighty symbols of the nature and 44 importance of t h e i r f unctions i n the moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e i r s o c i e t y . . . . Photographers responded to t h i s and took images from i d e a l viewpoints at i d e a l times of day and [maximized] s i z e and d e t a i l on a large and elaborate b u i l d i n g , while minimizing d i s t o r t i o n of i t s symbolic contour and s t y l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . . a s symbols outside space and time, the photographer shows the b u i l d i n g bare of human contact and a sense of f u n c t i o n i n g u t i l i t y . A few f i g u r e s are provided only to increase t h e i r grand proportions by c o n t r a s t . " (50) P h o t o j o u r n a l i s t G i s e l e Freund, i n Photography and So c i e t y , echoes Koltun. She points out the important r o l e photographs played i n the g l o s s y view of l i f e provided by publ i s h e r Henry Booth Luce. "What gave so much c r e d i b i l i t y to L i f e was i t s extensive use of photographs.... The world r e f l e c t e d i n L i f e was f u l l of l i g h t and had only a few shadows. It was u l t i m a t e l y a f a l s e world, one that i n s p i r e d the masses with f a l s e hopes." (51) The photographs were created as part of an a c t i v i t y and thus r e f l e c t the purpose of the a c t i v i t y . Alone they cannot be p r o p e r l y understood. Their meaning i s only c l e a r i f considered i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s a c t i v i t y of which they formed a pa r t . Thus, the purpose for which the photographs were produced i s important to understand and i s discerned by a n a l y s i s of the a c t i v i t y or purpose for which they were 45 c r e a t e d . If they are not part of an a c t i v i t y as a group, they are l i k e d i s p a r a t e images vo i d of context. As Duchein notes, "to appreciate a document, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to know e x a c t l y where i t was created, i n the framework of what process, to what end, for whom, when and how i t was received by the addressee." (52) This same concept i s a p p l i e d to photographs by Alan Trachtenberg, "The p r i n c i p l e i s to recognize that the meaning of the photograph - what the i n t e r p r e t e r i s a f t e r - i s r a r e l y given w i t h i n the p i c t u r e , but i s developed i n the f u n c t i o n of the p i c t u r e i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l use by p a r t i c u l a r people." (53) Thus, the a r c h i v i s t ' s concept of a r c h i v e s i s consonant with the i n t e r p r e t e r ' s needs i n order to evaluate h i s evidence. The i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p among documents forming an organic whole i s the t h i r d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a r c h i v e s . Records created during the course of an a c t i v i t y or t r a n s a c t i o n n a t u r a l l y r e l a t e to each other as a consequence of t h e i r part i n those a c t i v i t i e s or t r a n s a c t i o n s . Even when the a c t i v i t y i s o v e r t l y documentary, as i n the example of an a r c h i t e c t accumulating photographs of b u i l d i n g s he has designed, the documents as assembled r e f l e c t h i s a c t i v i t i e s as an a r c h i t e c t . Thus, a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g feature of a r c h i v e s i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p among the documents forming the whole of the body of records i n question. Importantly, t h i s extends beyond any s i n g l e form of document. For Instance, other 46 records of the a r c h i t e c t , such as correspondence with c l i e n t s , have a d i r e c t , t r a n s a c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to the photographs he accumulated in a p o r t f o l i o to i l l u s t r a t e h i s work to the c l i e n t . Is i t ever p o s s i b l e for a s i n g l e document to be considered a r c h i v a l , such as a monetarily valuable daguerreotype i d e n t i f i e d by date and s i t t e r , even i f i t does not show these connections? M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n contended that a c o l l e c t i o n i s a whole as soon as i t ceases to be a part, as soon as other parts of the c o l l e c t i o n are not known to e x i s t elsewhere. " I f , however, only a s i n g l e paper [Now almost 100 years l a t e r i n t h i s age of v i s u a l communications, we may be j u s t i f i e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s to mean photograph] of an a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n i s preserved, that one paper c o n s t i t u t e s the c o l l e c t i o n , i t i s i n i t s e l f a whole." (54) j Jenkinson r e f e r r e d to s i n g l e documents as "specimens" and recommended them for i n c l u s i o n i n the holdings of museums, not a r c h i v e s . He s a i d the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n would be one whereby "they [museums] took over i s o l a t e d specimens whose connexions were a l r e a d y l o s t , l e a v i n g the a r c h i v i s t to d e al with a l l more or l e s s i n t a c t c o l l e c t i o n s . " (55) Schellenberg agreed that such documents d i d not belong i n an a r c h i v e s . He pointed out that an a r c h i v e s i s not a 47 l i b r a r y , though the l a t t e r a l s o c o l l e c t s c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s . A r c h i v a l documents he s a i d were created for a purpose and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e "depends on t h e i r organic r e l a t i o n to the agency and to each other. Their c u l t u r a l values are i n c i d e n t a l . L i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s , on the other hand, are produced i n the f i r s t instance for c u l t u r a l purposes. And for t h i s reason they u s u a l l y c o n s i s t of d i s c r e t e items, whose s i g n i f i c a n c e i s wholly independent of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to other items." (56) Thus, a s i n g l e photograph poses a dilemma, for i t can be seen as r e p r e s e n t i n g an end i n i t s e l f or as evidence of a c t i v i t i e s not a v a i l a b l e elsewhere, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the whole a c t i v i t y and t h e r e f o r e worthy of a c q u i s i t i o n . The only occasion where i t i s d e f i n i t e l y j u s t i f i e d i n being c o l l e c t e d (and even Jenkinson admits t h i s i s acceptable) i s where the photograph forms part of an a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n a l r e a d y in the a r c h i v e s and i t s l o c a t i o n i n the o r i g i n a l order can be a s c e r t a i n e d . (57) C e r t a i n l y , i n the case of an o r i g i n a l negative, for which there i s a p r i n t i n the c o l l e c t i o n , a r c h i v i s t s would be j u s t i f i e d i n a c q u i r i n g the negative which i s indeed the o r i g i n a l or record copy. A note i n the inventory as to i t s provenance should d i s p e l any qualms about i t s e n try into the c o l l e c t i o n at t h i s l a t e r date. Where an i n d i v i d u a l photograph forms part of a s e r i e s , as for instance the f i f t h view i n a s e r i e s of photographs 48 rec o r d i n g the progress of c o n s t r u c t i o n of a b u i l d i n g , i t , too, should be acquired. Last, but not l e a s t , of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of photographs which are part of an organic c o l l e c t i o n i s that they are o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s . Only by ensuring that the c o l l e c t i o n contains o r i g i n a l s and not copies can the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the document as part of the o r i g i n a l a c t i v i t y or purpose be assured. M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n r e f e r r e d to " o r i g i n a l a r c h i v a l documents" as those which were created over the pe r i o d of time covered by the a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n and never as those made at a l a t t e r date and added to i t . (58) As we have seen, Jenkinson r e f e r r e d to a r c h i v a l documents as a u t h e n t i c documents "drawn up or used i n the course of ...[the] t r a n s a c t i o n of which [they] formed a p a r t . " (59) Schellenbeg s a i d these "materials must have been created i n the process of some ...end." (60) Authenticity of photographs as source documents depends on t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Copies do not r e v e a l the same information as o r i g i n a l s because they can be manipulated and because t h e i r p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which are d i f f e r e n t f o r photographs created by d i f f e r e n t t e c hnologies, may change how the information^ i s i n t e r p r e t e d . I f the s i l v e r g e l a t i n twentieth century photoprint of Indians at prayer had been recognized as being a copy of the o r i g i n a l albumen p r i n t , i t s c r e d i b i l i t y might have been questioned. 49 Responsible Custodianship Commenting on the matter of custody, an important report on Canadian a r c h i v e s pointed out that "records should be r e t a i n e d and preserved by those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g them. In a c t u a l f a c t , of course, i t i s i m p r a c t i c a l to adhere r i g i d l y to t h i s p r i n c i p l e , a p p l y i n g i t to the great breadth of a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l which i d e a l l y should be preserved." If c r e a t o r s don't always assume custody of t h e i r own documents of enduring value, what kind of custody can be considered s u f f i c i e n t to ensure what Schellenberg r e f e r r e d to as the " i n t e g r i t y of the records"? What kind of custody i s important f o r a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s of photographs? The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of such custody i s that the complete record of the t r a n s a c t i o n or a c t i v i t y i s acquired. This i s what Schellenberg r e f e r r e d to as t r a n s f e r r i n g documents en b l o c . This would mean for instance, a photographer's records that were bought by a p r i v a t e dealer and l a t e r s o l d to an ar c h i v e s should represent the whole c o l l e c t i o n and not j u s t part of the records. Responsible c u s t o d i a n s h i p t h e r e f o r e implies that the records are kept i n t a c t with no p i c k i n g of " p r e t t y specimens" or breaking up of the whole. If the whole of the c o l l e c t i o n i s acquired i t w i l l a i d in the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the records. As Berner says, "The degree to which completeness of documentation has been preserved a l s o provides a s o l i d b a s i s for a p p r a i s a l of ... 50 documentary value." (62) A r c h i v i s t Mary Lynn R i t z e n t h a l e r adds, "Completeness of the v i s u a l documentation of a c o l l e c t i o n of photographs i s necessary to support research into the h i s t o r y or development of a subject or t o p i c . " (63) The second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of r e s p o n s i b l e custodianship i s that the c o l l e c t i o n has not been a l t e r e d and contains only the documents in the form they were in when created. Replacing o l d , faded albumen p r i n t s or the b r i g h t blue cyanotypes with sharp black and white s i l v e r g e l a t i n photoprints would misrepresent the o r i g i n a l nature of the c o l l e c t i o n , even i f the new p r i n t s were made from the o r i g i n a l negatives. I t a l s o means that the order of the photographs has not been a l t e r e d en route from c r e a t o r or c o l l e c t o r to the a r c h i v e s . As i n the case of t e x t u a l documents, the order devised by the c r e a t o r places the photographs i n t h e i r proper r e l a t i o n s h i p . Photographs which have been r e f i l e d by someone other than t h e i r c r e a t o r , confuses the purposes f o r which the images were created. For example, f i l e s of s t u d i o shots of babies i f i n t e r f i l e d with h o s p i t a l ward photographs of s i c k babies on the b a s i s of su b j e c t matter, babies, would a l t e r the evidence these f i l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s bear. Lester Cappon pointed out that for h i s t o r i c a l manuscripts, or personal papers as they are now c a l l e d , (64) custody may have been broken s e v e r a l times as the records ( 51 may have passed through s e v e r a l hands. "However, with respect to organic groups, they may not have l o s t any of that valuable a t t r i b u t e of u n i t y by reason of t r a n s f e r . Their h i s t o r i c a l value i s not n e c e s s a r i l y lessened." (65) This i s true whether they be t e x t u a l or other media records, such as photographs. Broken custody can be compared to changes in a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c records which does not impair t h e i r p o t e n t i a l as a r c h i v a l documents. As noted e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, Schellenberg saw the d i f f i c u l t y of determining the e f f e c t s on records of changes i n custody and th e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d Jenkinson's r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n of r e s p o n s i b l e c u s t o d i a n s h i p . I t i s how successive custodians look a f t e r the m a t e r i a l s not whether custody i s broken that q u a l i f i e s these c o l l e c t i o n s as being p o t e n t i a l l y a r c h i v a l . Set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n The l a s t important aspect of a r c h i v a l documents i s that they have been set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n by t h e i r c r e a t o r . Casanova considered that documents become a r c h i v a l the moment t h e i r c r e a t o r decides to f i l e them rather than to throw them out. He r e f e r r e d to "the o r d e r l y accumulation of documents which were created i n the course of i t s a c t i v i t y by an i n s t i t u i o n or i n d i v i d u a l . " (66) Jenkinson considered documents a r c h i v a l that were set aside for reference by the c r e a t o r s of the documents, "preserved i n t h e i r own custody for t h e i r own r e f e r e n c e . " (67) Although as Schellenberg 52 forsaw, i t would be i m p r a c t i c a l to base a l l a p p r a i s a l d e c i s i o n s on t h i s n otion, i t i s an important element i n a c q u i s i t i o n . The f a c t that the c r e a t o r of the c o l l e c t i o n set the documents aside f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n i n d i c a t e s that he or she f e l t they were important to preserve i n the context of h i s or her a c t i v i t i e s . Set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n a l s o Implies that some s o r t of order has been a p p l i e d to the m a t e r i a l s by t h e i r c r e a t o r . Boxes of m a t e r i a l s i n d i s a r r a y without any system of arrangement h a r d l y q u a l i f y as being set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n . They are more l i k e l y the r e s u l t of negligence. If an order has been imposed on the m a t e r i a l , even one as b a s i c as a l i s t i n g of the m a t e r i a l s or i n the case of photographs, being arranged i n an album, then we can presume they were considered worth keeping and thus set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n . Such documents might a l s o show evidence of having been given s p e c i a l treatment i n order to prevent them from being damaged. This might be i n the form of s p e c i a l wrapping or boxing. Thus, the a r c h i v a l nature of m a t e r i a l s does not depend on whether the documents are o f f i c i a l or u n o f f i c i a l records, but rather on whether they have been considered important enough to set aside by t h e i r c r e a t o r s and whether they are an organic whole that has been c a r e f u l l y preserved i n context, unaltered and not mingled with other m a t e r i a l s i n whatever format. Only t h e i r context of c r e a t i o n and 53 p r e s e r v a t i o n as o u t l i n e d above can a t t e s t to t h e i r "value [as] documentary m a t e r i a l s for c o n t i n u i n g p r e s e r v a t i o n i n an a r c h i v a l i n s t i t u t i o n . " (68) 54 Notes to Chapter Three 1. Robert L. Cl a r k , J r . ed., A r c h i v e - L i b r a r y R e l a t i o n s (New York: R.R. Bowker Company, 1976), 37. 2. Canadian Archives, 16. 3. G. E l l i s Burcar, I n t r o d u c t i o n to Museum Work, ( N a s h v i l l e : American A s s o c i a t i o n for State and Lo c a l H i s t o r y , 1975), 47. 4. George MacBeth and S. James Gooding, ed., Basic Museum Management (Ottawa: Canadian Museum A s s o c i a t i o n , 1975), 43. 5. Canadian Archives, 16. 6. Richard C. Berner, "Manuscript C o l l e c t i o n s , Archives and S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s : Their R e l a t i o n s h i p s , " A r c h i v a r l a 18 (Summer 19 8 4): 24 8. 7. I b i d . 8. H i l a r y Jenkinson, A Manual of Archives A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , E d i t e d by Roger H. E l l i s , (London: Percy, Lund, Humphries and Co., 1966), 11. 9. I b i d . 10. I b i d . , 4. 11. I b i d . , 12. 12. Mul l e r , Samuel, J.A. F e i t h and R. F r u i n , Manual for the Arrangement and D e s c r i p t i o n of Archives, t r a n s l a t e d by Arthur H. L e a v i t t , (New York: H.W. Wilson, 1940), 13. 13. Jenkinson, 8-9. 14. I b i d . , 4. 15. Mul l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n , 13. 16. Eugenio Casanova, A r c h i v i s t l e a , (Second E d i t i o n , Siena, 1928), 19. 17. Jenkinson, 157. 18. Mul l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n , 19. 55 19. Jenkinson, 39. 20. I b i d . , 39-40. 21. I b i d . , 11. 22. I b i d . , 41. 23. I b i d . , 42. 24. Michel Duchein, " T h e o r e t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c a l Problems of Respect des Fonds in A r c h i v a l Science," A r c h i v a r l a 16 (Summer 1983): 66. 25. Richard C. Berner, A r c h i v a l Theory and P r a c t i c e i n the United S t a t e s : A H i s t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Press, 1983), 3. 26. I b i d . 27. M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n , 19. 28. I b i d . , 62. 29. Jenkinson, 8. 30. M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n , 20. 31. I b i d . 32. Theodore R. Schellenberg, Modern Archives P r i n c i p l e s and Techniques, (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1956), 13 . 33. I b i d . , 16. 34. I b i d . , 13. 35. I b i d . , 28-30. 36. T.R. Schellenberg, The Management of Archives (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965), 139-141. 37. I b i d . , 140. 38. T.R. Schellenberg, "The A p p r a i s a l of Modern P u b l i c Records," National Archives and Records Service B u l l e t i n 8, (1956): 7. 39. Schellenberg, Modern Arc h i v e s , 19. 56 40. I b i d . , 14. 41. I b i d . / 15. 42. Schellenberg, The Management of Arc h i v e s, 65-66. 43. Muller, F e i t h and F r u i n , 19. 44. I b i d . 45. See l e t t e r to S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s from Father John T r i t s c h l e r , August 19, 1987, Correspondence, Photo C o l l e c t i o n Records, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC L i b r a r y . 46. J . Robert Davison, "Turning A B l i n d Eye: The H i s t o r i a n ' s Use of Photographs," B.C. Studies 52 (Winter 1981-1982):19. 47. Margaret Blackman, "Copying People: Northwest Coast Native Response to E a r l y Photography," B.C. Studies 52 (Winter 1981-1982): 88. 48. Jack Hurley, "There's More Than Meets the Eye," Centre for Southern F o l k l o r e 3 (Winter 1981):6. 49. Michel Duchein, 67. 50. L i l l y Koltun, C i t y Blocks, C i t y Spaces: H i s t o r i c a l Photographs of Canada's Urban Growth, 1850-1900 (Ottawa, 1980), 46-47. 51. G i s e l e Freund, Photography and S o c i e t y (Boston: D.R. Godine, 1960), 149. 52. Duchein, 67. 53. N a t i o n a l Archives and Records S e r v i c e , The American Image, xxv-xxvi. 54. M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n , 55. Jenkinson, 56. Shellenberg, Modern A r c h i v e s , 17. 57. Jenkinson, 42. 58. M u l l e r , F e i t h and F r u i n , 151. 59. Jenkinson, 11. 60. Schellenberg, Modern Arc h i v e s, 15. 57 61. Canadian Archives, 15. 62. Berner, "Manuscript C o l l e c t i o n s " , 250. 63. R i t z e n t h a l e r et a l , 58. 64. Maygene Daniels, " I n t r o d u c t i o n to A r c h i v a l Terminology," Maygene F. Daniels and Timothy Walch, ed., A Modern Archives Reader: Basic Readings on A r c h i v a l Theory and P r a c t i c e (Washington, D.C.: National Archives Trust Fund Board, 1984): 341. 65. Lester J . Cappon, " H i s t o r i c a l Mansucripts as A r c h i v e s , " The American A r c h i v i s t ( A p r i l 1956): 104. 66. Casanova, 19. 67. Jenkinson, 4. 68. Dan i e l s , 339. 58 CHAPTER FOUR EVALUATING PHOTOGRAPH COLLECTIONS' ARCHIVAL NATURE A CASE STUDY The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n examines f i v e photograph c o l l e c t i o n s held i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia to determine whether or not they have a r c h i v a l nature and the extent to which a r c h i v a l value i s present i n them. In order to q u a l i f y as having a r c h i v a l nature, as o u t l i n e d i n the previous chapter, a c o l l e c t i o n must form an organic whole. I t should c o n t a i n records having a common provenance and that were created f o r a common purpose. The c o l l e c t i o n should only c o n t a i n o r i g i n a l documents. An a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n should a l s o have been set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n by i t s c r e a t o r , o r i g i n a l l y for reference and l a t e r because the c o l l e c t i o n was deemed valuable for h i s t o r i c a l research. The a r c h i v a l value of a c o l l e c t i o n depends on r e s p o n s i b l e c u s t o d i a n s h i p . If i t can be v e r i f i e d that the c o l l e c t i o n d e s c r i b e d has been r e s p o n s i b l y cared for by being passed on to a r e p o s i t o r y without the a d d i t i o n , e x t r a c t i o n or a l t e r a t i o n of documents a f t e r l e a v i n g the hands of the c r e a t o r , i t i s deemed to have a r c h i v a l value. This i s because such a c o l l e c t i o n w i l l provide evidence of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the documents r e l a t i n g to the a c t i v i t i e s of the c r e a t o r . Such custody 59 ensures that the o r i g i n a l order of the documents i s not d i s t u r b e d and that a l l of the records i n a l l t h e i r formats are included i n the c o l l e c t i o n . Such a c o l l e c t i o n has both e v i d e n t i a l and i n f o r m a t i o n a l value. The purpose of t h i s examination i s to b r i n g out t h i s important matter - a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y - as the major f a c t o r c o n d i t i o n i n g a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs by a r c h i v e s . I t i s what d i f f e r e n t i a t e s m a t e r i a l s acquired by a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s from those c o l l e c t e d by l i b r a r i e s and museums. The extent to which c o l l e c t i o n s c o n t a i n a l l of the elements determines t h e i r a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y and thus t h e i r value as documentation. Graham c o l l e c t i o n This c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of the s i x images reproduced as Figures 2 to 7. They were gathered together by a Vancouver fa m i l y , the Grahams, and donated to S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . (1) The images are i n good c o n d i t i o n , only the cabinet card i t s e l f needing r e p a i r . Thus, cons e r v a t i o n of the images i s not a major concern for a c q u i s i t i o n . Copyright has expired as the v i s u a l s were created over f i f t y years ago and the d e s c r i p t i v e needs of the photographs i s minimal. Each simply r e q u i r e s a c a p t i o n i d e n t i f y i n g the people, places and/or events and dates of the images. The photographs are we 11-composed, sharp images and t h e r e f o r e capable of good F i g u r e 2 61 F i g u r e 4    66 q u a l i t y reproductions. Thus, the photographs can be considered c o l l e c t i b l e . Are these images a r c h i v a l ? The f i r s t question to be answered i s whether they form an organic whole. Although the donor of the photographs i s known and we know that the Graham fami l y members c o l l e c t e d these items, the photographs cannot be s a i d to have a common provenance. They, o r i g i n a t e from d i f f e r e n t sources and were created at d i f f e r e n t times, as much as f i f t y years apart. Their c r e a t o r s were d i f f e r e n t photographers, l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . The Queen V i c t o r i a cabinet card most l i k e l y was taken i n England, probably by the Queen's photographer. We know from the evidence provided on three of the photographs, that two d i f f e r e n t photographers were r e s p o n s i b l e for the New Westminster images: W.T. Cooksley of New Westminster, B.C. and Hammond &.Wilson of V i c t o r i a , B.C. The f u n c t i o n a l o r i g i n s or purpose of the images i s a l s o open to s p e c u l a t i o n . What was the purpose of the Queen V i c t o r i a cabinet card? Was i t a c o l l e c t o r ' s item? What was the purpose of the image? We can guess that the image was meant for d i s p l a y and dates somewhere between 1870 and 1900. This can be determined from the information i n the photograph as well as from the format of the ph o t o p r i n t . Cabinet cards were much i n vogue i n England at t h i s time and were u s u a l l y d i s p l a y e d on t a b l e s i n the V i c t o r i a n p a r l o u r . ( 2 ) The Prince of Wales image, which i s a postcard 67 mounted i n a frame, probably was mass-produced as a souvenir of h i s v i s i t to Canada. The purpose of the New Westminster F i r e H a l l images i s l e s s c e r t a i n . Perhaps they were intended to be framed and hung on the w a l l . The f a c t that one of the images was developed on s i l v e r paper suggests that i t was a s p e c i a l image meant to show o f f the subj e c t s i n the v i s u a l , the f i r e h a l l and firemen. The parade image and the New Westminster townscape do not r e a d i l y r e v e a l t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l o r i g i n s and the r e f o r e are more open to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . P o s s i b l y the townscape i s a contact p r i n t of a negative from a Panorama camera and thus a miniature v e r s i o n of the f i n a l image which the photographer intended f o r d i s p l a y . However, i t must be admitted that the f u n c t i o n a l o r i g i n s and th e r e f o r e understanding of the i n t e n t of the images i s unclear. There i s no i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p among the documents. They were o b v i o u s l y not created as part of the same a c t i v i t y and thus have no r e l a t i o n s h i p with one another as part of a common a c t i v i t y except that of being accumulated for t h e i r s ubject i n t e r e s t by a c o l l e c t o r . Even as part of an accumulated c o l l e c t i o n the photographs are l a c k i n g i n i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s as they have been d i s a s s o c i a t e d from the body of records which the donor s t i l l has at home and of which these photographs form a pa r t . Other images, which formed part of the fam i l y ' s c o l l e c t i o n were presumably 68 r e t a i n e d by the donor because of the personal nature of the images which contained shots of people, events and places of i n t e r e s t to f a m i l y members. These images do not appear to have any connection with the l i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s of the Graham fami l y but were accumulated from simple i n t e r e s t . A l l of the items i n the c o l l e c t i o n are o r i g i n a l s . The technologies which created them, the papers on which they are p r i n t e d , and the mounts to which the images are attached, f i t the time period of the v i s u a l s . The Queen V i c t o r i a cabinet card contains an albumen photoprint, the only p r a c t i c a b l e process a v a i l a b l e at the time the image was created.(3) G e l a t i n emulsion and the r e s u l t i n g s i l v e r g e l a t i n p r i n t s were not introduced to photography u n t i l the mid 1880s and albumen s t i l l was used i n t o the twentieth century.(4) Standard s i z e cards, such as the cabinet card were much i n vogue at the time of t h i s image. (5) The small panorama of New Westminster appears to be p r i n t e d on printing-out-paper which was quite common in the e a r l y 1900s, but r a r e l y used now. I t was superceded by developing-out-papers, on which the l a t e r photographs appear to be p r i n t e d . (6) Less standard s i z e mounts became the norm a l s o . The other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r c h i v a l documents i s that they have been set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n by t h e i r c r e a t o r and then passed on to an a r c h i v e s for safekeeping. In t h i s 69 case, we can only presume that the f a m i l y accorded these . photographs value and preserved them, but the question i s why, for what purpose. C e r t a i n l y , there i s evidence that the accumulators of the c o l l e c t i o n thought the photographs were worthy of p r e s e r v a t i o n for they r e t a i n e d them over a period of e i g h t y or more years. However, they were kept as momentos or keepsakes and not as part of some t r a n s a c t i o n or fa m i l y business or even the conscious r e c o r d i n g of f a m i l y events or or even f a m i l y members. They thus have not been preserved e v i d e n t i a l l y but rather for the sake of i n t e r e s t or sentiment. There i s no obvious order to these images as they have not been numbered or arranged i n any way, not even i n an album. This would suggest that they are i n c i d e n t a l items of no great value to the c o l l e c t o r . No p r e s e r v a t i o n measures other than that of r e t a i n i n g them has been p r a c t i s e d on these documents. They have not even been c a r e f u l l y packaged to prevent them from being damaged. Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e to deduce that they have not i n t e n t i o n a l l y been set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n . How then does t h i s c o l l e c t i o n of photographs measure up? Can i t be considered a r c h i v a l and consequently valuable as a u t h e n t i c documentation? As has been shown, the photographs are not an organic c o l l e c t i o n nor i s there any evidence of t h e i r being kept i n r e l a t i o n to f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s . Thus, t h e i r value as a r c h i v a l documents Is diminished because the 70 r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the documents i s not apparent and the context of t h e i r c r e a t i o n i s unknown. These images have value as examples of images of the time or for the subject matter of them but t h i s i s divorced from t h e i r o r i g i n . They have l i t t l e value as au t h e n t i c documents r e l a t i n g to the a c t i v i t i e s or t r a n s a c t i o n s of t h e i r c r e a t o r s . As h i s t o r i c a l documents, t h e i r value i s diminished. Their i n t e r p r e t a t i o n depends l a r g e l y on the a r c h i v i s t ' s and researchers' knowledge of the s t y l e s , technology and h i s t o r y of photography. The photographs do not provide confirmable evidence. I t i s not inherent i n the c o l l e c t i o n I t s e l f . J e s s i e M i l l e r C o l l e c t i o n The J e s s i e M i l l e r c o l l e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of s i x t y - s i x hand c o l o r e d l a n t e r n s l i d e s belonging to J e s s i e M i l l e r which her brother donated along with her books, other p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l and china to the U n i v e r s i t y a f t e r her death. (7) They d e p i c t s t r e e t scenes i n Tokyo and the summer r e s o r t of N o j i r i - k o i n Japan i n the 1930s. The l a n t e r n s l i d e s are i n good c o n d i t i o n , devoid of cop y r i g h t problems and only req u i r e someone knowledgeable about the a r c h i t e c t u r e and b u i l d i n g s of Japan to i d e n t i f y the s u b j e c t matter i n the v i s u a l s . The images are f a i r l y well-composed and c l e a r enough for r e f e r e n c e . Thus they are s u i t a b l e for c o l l e c t i o n . Are they a r c h i v a l ? 71 The provenance of these images i s known. They were created (probably taken) by Anglican missionary, J e s s i e M i l l e r , who worked i n Japan from 1935-1969 and rec e i v e d an award fo r her work from the Emperor of Japan.(8) Examination of the i n t e r n a l evidence of the photographs suggests that a l l of the images were taken by the same person f o r the s t y l e of the photography and the hand-coloring of the images i s uniform throughout the c o l l e c t i o n . Thus, the photographs may be seen as having a common provenance. The f u n c t i o n or purpose for which the images were created i s l e s s c e r t a i n . Perhaps they were made for d i s p l a y . Maybe they were intended to be used as a s l i d e show to e n t e r t a i n or educate f r i e n d s or the p u b l i c or to show o f f M i l l e r ' s a r t i s t i c s k i l l s . Lack of documentation e i t h e r on the v i s u a l s , or i n an accompanying c a p t i o n l i s t or s l i d e set s c r i p t , renders i t d i f f i c u l t to determine the exact f u n c t i o n of the photographs. C e r t a i n l y there i s an i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p among the images as they are sequences of images which appear to have been taken from a common point of view or vantage p o i n t . The images are mostly s t r e e t scenes, shots of pagodas, and shots of people whose f r i e n d l y faces would suggest a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with the photographer. They are i n the same handcolored l a n t e r n - s l i d e format and c a r r y s i m i l a r i d e n t i f y i n g numbers. There appears to be an order to the documents as a l l but s i x of the images 72 are numbered, from 1 to 153. Unfortunately, the purpose of the numbering system i s not d e c i p e r a b l e , making i t d i f f i c u l t to determine the exact r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the documents. Neither do we know why the l a s t s i x images are not numbered or who numbered the s l i d e s . Was i t M i l l e r , her brother who donated the c o l l e c t i o n , or someone i n the Asian Studies Department? Was the numbering done a r b i t r a r i l y to i d e n t i f y and c o n t r o l the images or was i t meant to f i x them i n some meaningful sequence based on the nature of t h e i r c r e a t i o n ? Lack of answers to these questions makes i t d i f f i c u l t to determine the connections between the documents except on a n a l y s i s of the subject matter of the images. The l a s t element of organic c o l l e c t i o n s i s evident as the photographs are o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s of the a c t i v i t y which created them. They are not c o p i e s . The photographs show evidence of having been considered worthy of being set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n by t h e i r c r e a t o r . In r e t u r n i n g to Vancouver from Japan, M i l l e r must have made a c o n s c i e n t i o u s d e c i s i o n to keep the l a n t e r n s l i d e s d e s p i t e t h e i r f r a g i l i t y . They must have had some s i g n i f i c a n c e for her, and thus were worthy of r e t e n t i o n . They a r r i v e d i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l padded l a n t e r n s l i d e boxes suggesting the importance of t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n . The h i s t o r y of custody of the c o l l e c t i o n a l s o r a i s e s questions. We cannot be sure that a l l of the documents from 73 the c o l l e c t i o n were t r a n s f e r r e d to the a r c h i v e s . F i r s t l y , t h i s i s because they were sent o r i g i n a l l y to the Asian Studies Department of UBC, copied and then forwarded to S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . Were there any s l i d e s broken or l o s t on the way? Lack of any accompanying documentation r a i s e s questions as to whether a l l of the c o l l e c t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d to S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . Moreover, r e s p o n s i b l e c u s t o d i a n s h i p would have ensured that the reasons f o r the orde r i n g and numbering of the photographs was c a r e f u l l y documented. Thus, the c o l l e c t i o n can be considered an organic c o l l e c t i o n i n that the images have a common provenance, are documents apparently used i n some f u n c t i o n or for some purpose, showing i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and c o n s i s t i n g of o r i g i n a l documents. The lack of r e p s o n s i b l e custodianship, however, lessens t h e i r a r c h i v a l value as documentation of M i l l e r ' s l i f e i n Japan. U n c e r t a i n t y as to the o r i g i n a l order and r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the photographs renders the images p r i m a r i l y important f o r t h e i r subject matter alone. A c q u i s i t i o n of other documents of M i l l e r ' s l i f e and a c t i v i t i e s would have given greater value and "understandabi1ity" to these photographs. Lack of adequate documentation, missing or otherwise impaired records lessens the q u a l i t y of t h i s c o l l e c t i o n as evidence of the a c t i v i t i e s of i t s c r e a t o r . C o l l e c t i o n of other records of her Japanese 74 experience or of information e x p l a i n i n g why the photographs were taken, when, and by whom would have made them more u s e f u l as evidence of her a c t i v i t i e s . As a c o r o l l a r y , i t would a l s o have increased the images' value as we would then know from what vantage point they were taken, for whom they were intended, and t h e r e f o r e we would be i n a bet t e r p o s i t i o n to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r message. Georgia S t r a i g h t C o l l e c t i o n The photographs i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n were acquired by Sp e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s from Vancouver b o o k s e l l e r W i l l i a m Hoffer. (9) They number over f i v e thousand images, c o n s i s t i n g of photoprints and negatives. They d e p i c t the youth of the s i x t i e s and e a r l y seventies i n Vancouver Involved i n demonstrations, c o n f l i c t s with the p o l i c e and attending events such as concerts arid p i c n i c s . There are a l s o shots of musicians and p o l i t i c i a n s . The photographs were mainly taken by p r o f e s s i o n a l photographers. They are from the f i l e s of the Georgia S t r a i g h t newspaper when i t was an underground newspaper probing c o n t r o v e r s i a l issues such as sexual freedom and p o l i c e b r u t a l i t y . The photographs are in good c o n d i t i o n , and re q u i r e l i t t l e work to preserve them p r o p e r l y , the most time-consuming task being the re-enveloping of negatives. Some d e s c r i p t i o n i s already provided on the f i l e f o l d e r s which c o n t a i n the images. Many of the i n d i v i d u a l s d epicted i n the photographs are r e a d i l y 75 i d e n t i f i a b l e . Many of the photoprints c o n t a i n a p e n c i l l e d or penned i n n o t a t i o n of the page of the issue i n which the photograph appeared, which f a c i l i t a t e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the images. Copyright i s an issue with t h i s c o l l e c t i o n as the photographers s t i l l own c o p y r i g h t . Many of them no longer l i v e i n Vancouver or have an unknown address and so would be d i f f i c u l t to contact for permission to reproduce the images. As these photographs are not more than twenty years o l d , the usefulness of the c o l l e c t i o n for the next t h i r t y years i s l i m i t e d . The images are c l e a r and well-composed and negatives e x i s t f o r most of the photographs. Thus, once copyright has exp i r e d , t h i s c o l l e c t i o n i s a d e s i r a b l e because of i t s subject nature and the well-composed c l e a r images which make up the c o l l e c t i o n . Do the images form an organic c o l l e c t i o n ? This body of photographs was generated as part of the a c t i v i t y of p u b l i s h i n g the Georgia S t r a i g h t newspaper. This i s t h e i r source as a c o l l e c t i o n . They have a d i s c e r n i b l e f u n c t i o n . They were created to i l l u s t r a t e and document events, scenes, and people which were w r i t t e n up i n the newpaper. The i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p among the documents i s evident. Contact sheets and sheets of negatives, which appear to represent assignments undertaken by photographers, evidence a r e l a t i o n s h i p among groups of images. Often one r o l l of f i l m was taken to cover an event. The photographs cover 76 s i m i l a r events from a s i m i l a r viewpoint. The images are o r i g i n a l photographs. The records thus form an organic c o l l e c t i o n . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of being set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n and showing r e s p o n s i b l e custodianship, should be examined together for t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , the photographs were set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n by the c r e a t o r , though most l i k e l y as an asset to r a i s e money as a b o o k s e l l e r had them before S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . (Unfortunately, there i s no documentation on how the b o o k s e l l e r acquired them.) Perhaps they represent images the newspaper deemed to be of l i t t l e value. Perhaps the newspaper, which continues to be published to t h i s day, r e t a i n e d the most important of the records. Their e v i d e n t i a l value as source m a t e r i a l on the Georgia S t r a i g h t newspaper i s diminished by t h i s u n c e r t a i n t y . Although the c o l l e c t i o n has an order there, i s no guarantee i t i s the o r i g i n a l order imposed by the c r e a t o r . The images are contained i n l a b e l l e d f i l e f o l d e r s . The f i l e f o l d e r l a b e l l e d "Communes" contains photographs showing e x t e r i o r s of v a r i o u s communes i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 1960's. However, we do not know who e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s s ubject c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. Was i t the b o o k s e l l e r , i n order to make the c o l l e c t i o n more o r d e r l y and therefore more appealing for s a l e , or was i t the newspaper? There i s a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y that records from other sources could have 77 been added to the c o l l e c t i o n . Such a d d i t i o n s would a l t e r the message of the photographs causing m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the newpaper's philosophy. This lessens t h e i r value as e v i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , the f a i l u r e to acquire other records of the newspaper lessens the photographs' value as documentation on the a c t i v i t i e s of the newspaper and on the subject matter of the images. Thus, though the Georgia S t r a i g h t c o l l e c t i o n e x h i b i t s a l l the elements of an organic c o l l e c t i o n , i t s a r c h i v a l value i s diminished by u n c e r t a i n t i e s as to i t s custody and lack of other records of the newpaper to which the photographs are r e l a t e d . These d i f f i c u l t i e s might have been avoided had the newpaper i t s e l f donated or s o l d the c o l l e c t i o n to S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , or, at l e a s t , i f the b o o k s e l l e r had been able to show that a l l the documents he had acquired and subsequently passed on composed the complete photographic record of the newpaper over a given period which had not been a l t e r e d i n any way i n t h e i r passage to the a r c h i v e s . E a r l y Vancouver Views The photographs shown In Figures 8 to 11 are examples from a group of photographs donated to S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . The donor i s unknown. The photographs are i n good c o n d i t i o n , c o p y r i g h t i s not a problem as i t has expired. The photographs are a l r e a d y captioned. The photographs thus 78 79 80  82 could be considered a valuable v i s u a l record. How v a l i d i s t h i s from an a r c h i v a l viewpoint? F i r s t l y , are the Images an organic whole? Do they have a common provenance? They appear to be from a common source. They are a l l p r i n t e d on the same kind of paper, are a l l of the same s i z e , c o n t a i n captions i n i d e n t i c a l p r i n t e d handwriting. They a l l d e p i c t the same general subject matter during the years, 1886-1900. However, there Is no guarantee that they emanate from one source, from one photographer or from one c o l l e c t o r because there i s no documentation to e x p l a i n such matters. Secondly, the purpose of the photographs, t h e i r part i n an a c t i v i t y can only be guessed a t . Perhaps they were created for an album of Vancouver views, but we cannot be c e r t a i n . Again, lack of documentation makes i t d i f f i c u l t to be sure. T h i r d l y , the i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p among the m a t e r i a l s i s unknown. Do they represent the work of the same photographer and thus n a t u r a l l y r e l a t e to each other or were they assembled as a group r e l a t i n g to a common a c t i v i t y ? We do not know. L a s t l y , and most importantly are these Images o r i g i n a l photographs? Close examination of the images, which are not sharp i n d e f i n i t i o n , suggests that they are copy p r i n t s . Six copy negatives that are part of the c o l l e c t i o n confirm t h i s . Thus, they are not part of the o r i g i n a l purposeful a c t i v i t y that caused the c r e a t i o n of such images. Examination of 83 c o l l e c t i o n s held i n other r e p o s i t o r i e s r e v e a l s that these images are a l s o held by the C i t y of Vancouver Archives which has the o r i g i n a l g l a s s p l a t e negatives and the o r i g i n a l p r i n t s which the H i s t o r i c a l Photograph D i v i s i o n of the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y a l s o holds. These photographs are most l i k e l y l a t e r reproductions from the o r i g i n a l photographs. As they are copies of o r i g i n a l s held i n other r e p o s i t o r i e s , we may dismiss the idea that the c o l l e c t i o n i s a r c h i v a l i n any sense. Fisherman P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y C o l l e c t i o n The l a s t c o l l e c t i o n of photographs to be examined i s l a r g e , c o n s i s t i n g of over 20,000 images. They were donated to S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s by the Fisherman P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y which i s part of the United Fisherman and A l l i e d Workers Union, mainly r e s p o n s i b l e for p u b l i s h i n g the union newspaper, The Fisherman. (11) The photographs are the non- current photograph f i l e s of the newspaper. They date from 1900-1980 with the bulk of the images covering the years 1950-1980. The images cover three broad subject areas: labor and union a c t i v i t y , B.C. f i s h i n g v e s s e l s , and people working i n the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . Examples are shown i n Figures 12 to 21. The images are g e n e r a l l y i n good c o n d i t i o n , the main conserv a t i o n work re q u i r e d being the re-enveloping of the F i g u r e 13 F i g u r e lk F i g u r e 15  87 88 F i g u r e 19 89 F i g u r e 20  91 images from t h e i r k r a f t c o ntainers into a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y m a t e r i a l s . D e s c r i p t i o n of the images involves t r a n s c r i b i n g information from the envelopes. Copyright was t r a n s f e r r e d with the images to S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . Thus, the c o l l e c t i o n i s a d e s i r a b l e one. How does i t measure up a r c h i v a l l y ? F i r s t l y , the provenance of the c o l l e c t i o n i s known. The photographs were donated by the c r e a t o r of the c o l l e c t i o n , the Fisherman P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y . The images were taken by a great v a r i e t y of photographers, l i k e the Georgia S t r a i g h t c o l l e c t i o n , and l i k e that c o l l e c t i o n , t h i s body of photographs was generated as part of the a c t i v i t y of p u b l i s h i n g a newspaper. They are the photograph f i l e s of The Fisherman newspaper which are no longer In current use. They were e i t h e r gathered or caused to be created by the e d i t o r of the newspaper in a purposeful a c t i v i t y . They therefore evidence f u n c t i o n . They were c o l l e c t e d i n order to i l l u s t r a t e , r e c o r d , or i d e n t i f y people, places, events, and objects about which the newspaper published items. There are i n s t r l n s l c r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the documents. Examination of' the f i l e s r e v e a l s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . L a b e l l e d f i l e f o l d e r s c o n t a i n photographs taken to cover the same event. The images reproduced i n Figures 12 to 17, f o r example, were a l l taken from the f i l e f o l d e r l a b e l l e d " A r r e s t s / J a i 1 i n g s 1967: J.Nichol @ A i r p o r t Before Oakalla Demonstration, June 12, 1967" and are s e q u e n t i a l images of Nic h o l ' s a r r i v a l from 92 Prince Rupert at the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t where he was immediately placed under a r r e s t and taken away i n a p o l i c e wagon. They a l s o d e p i c t the over 250 demonstrators who turned up at the a i r p o r t to p r o t e s t h i s a r r e s t without b a i l . The photographs t h e r e f o r e have a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p to each other and thus enable us to f o l l o w an event through the a c t i o n recorded i n the photographs. This r e l a t i o n s h i p among the documents as we l l as the l a b e l l e d f i l e f o l d e r s c o n t a i n i n g the photographs, helps i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the content of the images. Of course, these are f u r t h e r explained by an examination of back issues of The Fisherman newspaper. Figures 18 and 19 are from the same f i l e f o l d e r . Taken on i t s own f i g u r e 18 i s hard to i n t e r p r e t . What i s i t s meaning? Why are the r i o t p o l i c e outside the Hotel Georgia? We can only guess. Are they there to p r o t e c t an occupant of the h o t e l or to prevent some l i k e l y t r o u b l e on West Georgia S t r e e t ? Perhaps they are on s t r i k e . We understand the message and t h e r e f o r e meaning of the image b e t t e r when we look at i t along with a l l the other photographs i n the f i l e which Is l a b e l l e d , "Demonstrations: War Measures Act 1970." The same may be s a i d of Figures 20 and 21 which are not meant to show that the Vancouver harbour i s busy i n winter but rather to d e p i c t the e f f e c t of a longshoreman's s t r i k e . The images come from the f i l e f o l d e r , " S t r i k e s / P i c k e t s 1966: 93 ILWU S t r i k e of Foremen-1966, Nov.-Dec. Ships @ E n g l i s h Bay." I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the images thus i s provided by t h i s i d e n t i f c a t i o n and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the other images in the f i l e f o l d e r s . We are t h e r e f o r e better able to understand t h e i r message. The f o u r t h element of organic c o l l e c t i o n s i s shown by these photographs which are a l l o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s . They are e i t h e r o r i g i n a l negatives taken at the time of the event they p o r t r a y or p r i n t s made from them at that date. The second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a r c h i v a l documents i s a l s o inherent i n the c o l l e c t i o n . The e d i t o r of the newspaper set i t aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n and c a r e f u l l y designated S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s as the l e g i t i m a t e successor of custody. The donor's not infrequent r e f e r r a l to photographs i n the c o l l e c t i o n to t h i s day a t t e s t s to the usefulness of the images and t h e r e f o r e t h e i r value as documentation and source m a t e r i a l . The c o l l e c t i o n a l s o r e v e a l s r e s p o n s i b l e c u s t o d i a n s h i p . The f i l e s were t r a n s f e r r e d to S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s d i r e c t l y from the e d i t o r of the newspaper who created the l a t e r f i l e s and i n h e r i t e d the e a r l i e r f i l e s from h i s predecessors. This provides a reasonable guarantee that the c o l l e c t i o n i s i n t a c t and has not been a l t e r e d i n any way. 94 Taking these sample c o l l e c t i o n s together, we get a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e of the a r c h i v a l value of photographs. Photograph c o l l e c t i o n s can be examined l i k e other m a t e r i a l s for t h e i r a r c h i v a l value and t h i s value discovered by a n a l y z i n g photographs based on whether they provide evidence of fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r c h i v a l documents. C o l l e c t i o n s such as the Graham photographs may be considered what Cappon and Schellenberg r e f e r r e d to as " a r t i f i c i a l c o l l e c t i o n s " of d i s p a r a t e items gathered according to some plan but not the outgrowth of some organic a c t i v i t y . Because they have been d i s a s s o c i a t e d from the context i n which they were created or even accumulated, t h e i r value as evidence of the a c t i v i t i e s which brought them into being i s diminished. The c o l l e c t i o n of E a r l y Vancouver views i s a l s o an a r t i f i c i a l c o l l e c t i o n . The images are not even o r i g i n a l s , and have no value as a r c h i v a l documentation. The J e s s i e M i l l e r c o l l e c t i o n , although more c l e a r l y an organic c o l l e c t i o n than the previous two, i n that the photographs emanate from one source and the images appear to r e l a t e to each other, has l e s s a r c h i v a l value than might be thought as a consequence of i t s h i s t o r y of custody. Not only are we not sure whether a l l the photographs which she created i n t h i s group are present, but the t e x t u a l documents that most l i k e l y went with them are missing. The documents 95 are l e s s u s e f u l as documentation than they could be because of the lack of information on the context of t h e i r c r e a t i o n . The Georgia S t r a i g h t and Fisherman P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y c o l l e c t i o n s provide an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison. Both are newspaper photograph c o l l e c t i o n s . Both c o n t a i n o r i g i n a l images taken by photographers for t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e newspapers. The photographs i n both c o l l e c t i o n s were c l e a r l y created i n the course of the p u b l i s h i n g of each of the newspapers, and there i s evidence that the images in both c o l l e c t i o n s are i n t e r r e l a t e d . Nevertheless, the Georgia S t r a i g h t photographs, because of the circumstance of t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n by S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , do not bear the same strong a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y as the Fisherman P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y photographs. Lack of r e s p o n s b i l e c u s t o d i a n s h i p has diminished the Georgia S t r a i g h t c o l l e c t i o n ' s e v i d e n t i a l value. This i s because we do not know how complete a record they are. We do not know whether they show a l l of what the newspaper intended to i l l u s t r a t e or j u s t an aspect of i t . Secondly, we do not know whether they represent only the records of the Georgia S t r a i g h t . I t i s p o s s i b l e that they c o n t a i n records from another body. T h i s , of course, a l s o makes them l e s s valuable as e v i d e n t i a l records of the newspaper. T h i r d l y , we are not sure of the o r i g i n a l order of the c o l l e c t i o n , or whether i t was a l t e r e d or rearranged by the donor. 96 Most importantly, the f a c t o r which increases the value of the Fisherman P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y c o l l e c t i o n over the Georgia S t r a i g h t c o l l e c t i o n i s that some t e x t u a l records of the S o c i e t y were t r a n s f e r r e d to S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , expanding our understanding of the operations of the s o c i e t y and thus help i n g us to i n t e r p r e t the message i n the images. Such documentation about the v i s u a l s , documentation about the c r e a t o r of the c o l l e c t i o n , and documentation about the t r a n s f e r r a l of the documents increases the value of t h i s c o l l e c t i o n over that of the Georgia S t r a i g h t m a t e r i a l s . This i s because the value of documents ar c h i v e s c o l l e c t depends as much on knowledge of the context of t h e i r c r e a t i o n and how they came into the a r c h i v e s ' possession as i t does on the documents themselves. 97 Notes to Chapter Four 1. See Gyle Gordon Graham Photograph C o l l e c t i o n Accession Data Record, Manuscript C o l l e c t i o n s , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC L i b r a r y . 2. Mary Lynn R i t z e n t h a l e r , Gerald J . Munoff, and Margery S. Long, Archives and Manuscripts: A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Photograph C o l l e c t i o n s (Chicago: S o c i e t y of American A r c h i v i s t s , 1984), 11. 3. I b i d . 4. R i t z e n t h a l e r , 46. 5. R i t z e n t h a l e r , 42. 6. W i l l i a m Crawford, The Keepers of L i g h t (Dobbs Fer r y , N.Y.:Morgan & Morgan, Inc., 1979): 63. 7. See J e s s i e M i l l e r Accession Data Record Manuscript C o l l e c t i o n s , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC L i b r a r y . 8. I b i d . 9. See Georgia S t r a i g h t Accession Data Record Manuscript C o l l e c t i o n s , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC L i b r a r y . 10. Fisherman P u b l i s h i n g S o c i e t y Accession Data Record, Manuscript C o l l e c t i o n s , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , UBC L i b r a r y . 98 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION A r c h i v i s t s no longer consider t h e i r job as one of c o l l e c t i n g and p r e s e r v i n g remnants of the past. Rather they see t h e i r r o l e as that of c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t i n g documents from an ever-growing and overabundant supply of information, a supply so large that i t threatens to overwhelm a r c h i v a l budgets and storage c a p a c i t i e s . (1) Photographs i n p a r t i c u l a r need such c a r e f u l e v a l u a t i o n as they are being produced d a i l y i n enormous numbers. They are a l s o more c o s t l y to preserve and time-consuming to d e s c r i b e , and t h e r e f o r e make a v a i l a b l e , than most other documents a r c h i v e s a c q u i r e . A c q u i s i t i o n of photographs which are the records of the sponsoring i n s t i t u t i o n Is a process of t r a n s f e r r a l of documents from sponsor to i t s a r c h i v e s . A p p r a i s a l of the records a f t e r t h i s a c c e s s i o n i n g subsequently helps to l i m i t the s i z e of the c o l l e c t i o n s , c u t t i n g down on the time s t a f f need to spend rehousing and d e s c r i b i n g them. I t a l s o reduces the q u a n t i t i e s of a r c h i v a l s u p p l i e s r e q u i r e d to preserve them. In a d d i t i o n , c o l l e c t i o n s are rendered more u s e f u l to researchers who should not have to wade through voluminous q u a n t i t i e s of redundant or unimportant m a t e r i a l . A c q u i s i t i o n of photographs by a r c h i v e s which are not the records of the 9 9 sponsoring i n s t i t u t i o n r e q u i r e s an a p p r a i s a l of the records to determine whether they should be acquired i n the f i r s t p l ace. N a t u r a l l y , the subject nature of the documents i s of paramount importance, and d e c i s i o n s on the s u i t a b i l i t y of the m a t e r i a l s for a c q u i s i t i o n depends upon the a r c h i v e s ' c o l l e c t i o n s mandate. Also important i n the d e c i s i o n i s the c o n d i t i o n of the documents and whether they need extensive conservation treatments. The d e s c r i p t i v e requirements of c o l l e c t i o n s , to make the photographs a v a i l a b l e , are a l s o important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . C o l l e c t i o n s without any or with only minimal I d e n t i f i c a t i o n are l e s s u s e f u l as sources of information. C o l l e c t i o n s where coypright has not been t r a n s f e r r e d to the a r c h i v e s pose p o t e n t i a l l e g a l problems for the a r c h i v e s . Thus, the subject nature and conse r v a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n and copyright i m p l i c a t i o n s posed by c o l l e c t i o n s are evaluated when c o n s i d e r i n g a c q u i r i n g photographs. However, important as a l l these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are i n a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs by a r c h i v e s , they should only be considered i n the context of the a c q u i s i t i o n of the t o t a l documentary record and a l l the forms c o l l e c t i o n s might c o n t a i n . The most important f a c t o r i n c o n s i d e r i n g a c q u i s i t i o n of photographs by a r c h i v e s i s whether they are a r c h i v a l i n nature. This d i s t i n g u i s h e s such documents from those c o l l e c t e d by museums and l i b r a r i e s . Photographs that have 100 t h i s a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y provide evidence of the a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r c r e a t o r s . They have e v i d e n t i a l value. They can be used as a u t h e n t i c sources of information on t h e i r c r e a t o r s . They have i n f o r m a t i o n a l values, too. They may be u s e f u l as sources of information on a v a r i e t y of subjects which are only l i m i t e d by the imagination of r e s e a r c h e r s . Their value as accurate documents which represent what i s photographed, however, depends on knowledge of the context of t h e i r c r e a t i o n . If the documents are a r c h i v a l , that i s those whose s i g n i f i c a n c e "depends on t h e i r organic r e l a t i o n to the agency and to each other," (2) then they are more l i k e l y to be c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d . This i s because we understand t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to each other and t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n the a c t i v i t y for which they were cre a t e d . Photographs, thus, l i k e other documents a r c h i v e s c o l l e c t , must stand the t e s t of a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y i f they are to be acquired. This t h e s i s I l l u s t r a t e s the c o n c l u s i o n that documents which are a r c h i v a l i n nature e x h i b i t the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : they form organic c o l l e c t i o n s , have been set aside f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n by t h e i r c r e a t o r s and show re s p o n s i b l e c u s t o d i a n s h i p . Documents i n such c o l l e c t i o n s show provenance, evidence f u n c t i o n a l o r i g i n s , and d i s p l a y i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They are o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s . They are documents which t h e i r c r e a t o r has c a r e f u l l y set a s i d e , in an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n , f o r reference and l a t e r for 101 p r e s e r v a t i o n . They are whole c o l l e c t i o n s which have not been a l t e r e d s i n c e they were set aside for p r e s e r v a t i o n by t h e i r c r e a t o r . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r c h i v a l documents as o u t l i n e d have not been a r b i t r a r i l y assigned. They have evolved from the t h e o r i e s , formulated over the l a s t one hundred years, by European and American a r c h i v i s t s , whose ideas are the foundation stones of a r c h i v a l p r a c t i c e i n North America today. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are common to a l l documents ar c h i v e s c o l l e c t , and as such may be a p p l i e d to a l l records no matter what t h e i r format. This t h e s i s provides a framework by which to t e s t the a r c h i v a l nature of photographs. Photograph c o l l e c t i o n s which are acquired from i n d i v i d u a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s other than the sponsor of the a r c h i v e s need such a framework of a n a l y s i s i f Only a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s are to be acquired. This i s because photographs are so immediate and so r e a l i s t i c that we tend to accept them immediately as a u t h e n t i c documents and t h e r e f o r e worthy of a c q u i s i t i o n . F i v e c o l l e c t i o n s of photographs held i n the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were analyzed for t h e i r a r c h i v a l nature based on t h i s framework. However, i t was not intended as a c r i t i q u e of the a c q u i s i t i o n p o l i c i e s or methodology of the r e p o s i t o r y . The c o l l e c t i o n s that were examined were chosen to i l l u s t r a t e c e r t a i n points and do not n e c e s s a r i l y represent the holdings 102 which S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s considers a r c h i v a l . Such an e v a l u a t i o n would not be appropriate as t h i s r e p o s i t o r y i s not p r i m a r i l y an a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r y . I t holds rare and expensive l i b r a r y m a t e r i a l s as well as a r c h i v a l documents. As such, the m a t e r i a l i t c o l l e c t s are acquired based on s e v e r a l c o l l e c t i n g p h i l o s o p h i e s of which the a r c h i v a l i s but one . I t soon became apparent i n t h i s examination which c o l l e c t i o n s were a r c h i v a l i n nature. It a l s o became c l e a r that a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y i s r e l a t i v e . The a r c h i v a l value of some c o l l e c t i o n s i s greater than others. These could be used as sources of information on t h e i r c r e a t o r as they had been kept i n t a c t i n t h e i r t r a n s f e r r a l to the a r c h i v e s and were the whole c o l l e c t i o n of the body that created them. The photographs thus would be capable of informing us of the a c t i v i t i e s , f u n c t i o n s , business and i n t e r e s t s of the body that created them. Such c o l l e c t i o n s a l s o provide more accurate documentation on the subject matter of the images because knowledge of t h e i r context enables us more a c c u r a t e l y to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r message. Other c o l l e c t i o n s had some elements of a r c h i v a l c o l l e c t i o n s but i n d i f f e r e n t or c a r e l e s s c u s t o d i a n s h i p dimished t h e i r a r c h i v a l value. This was because there were p o s s i b l y gaps in the records or a l t e r a t i o n s which would a l t e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the documents and hence i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 103 One c o l l e c t i o n could not be considered a r c h i v a l at a l l because i t d i d not c o n s i s t of o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s . This i s an important point as a r c h i v e s only c o l l e c t documents of the t r a n s a c t i o n which produced them. Documents made at a l a t e r date, such as copy photographs, cannot t h e r e f o r e be considered a r c h i v a l . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s study shows that the a b i l i t y to t e s t c o l l e c t i o n s for a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y depends h e a v i l y upon documentation. F i r s t l y , documentation of custody i s an important element determining a r c h i v a l q u a l i t y . If the records are known to be complete and t h i s information recorded as well as information.on t h e i r successive custodians and the circumstances of t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n by the a r c h i v e s , then t h e i r a u t h e n t i c i t y i s more c e r t a i n . The documents have a r c h i v a l value. Documentation on t h e i r context i s a l s o important. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the v i s u a l s , information on t h e i r f u n c t i o n , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to other documents in the c o l l e c t i o n and on t h e i r c r e a t o r increases t h e i r value as documentation. Photograph c o l l e c t i o n s need to be examined for t h e i r content but judgements about content are made based on knowledge of t h i s context. Photographs, because of t h e i r i l l u s o r y nature, p a r t i c u l a r l y need such accompanying documentation to e x p l a i n and a u t h enticate t h e i r s ubject matter. A r c h i v i s t s , t h e r e f o r e , at the time of a c q u i s i t i o n must f i n d out how the records came into being, 104 for what purpose and who was re s p o n s i b l e for t h e i r c r e a t i o n . The more of t h i s information that i s recorded the more valuable are the records a r c h i v e s acquire and the more u s e f u l w i l l the documents be to res e a r c h e r s . 105 Notes to Chapter Five 1. See Berner, 248 and Booms, 69-107. 2. Schellenberg, Modern Archives, 17. 106 BIBLIOGRAPHY A r c h i v a r l a 5 (Winter 1977-1978) S p e c i a l Issue on Photographs and Ar c h i v e s . Ottawa: A s s o c i a t i o n of Canadian A r c h i v i s t , 1978. Arnheim, R u d o l f f . V i s u a l Thinking Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1974. Bauer, G. P h i l i p . "The A p p r a i s a l of Current and Recent Records." 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