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An investigation into the effectiveness of two strategy training approaches on the reading achievement… Bryant, Harriet Willis 1986

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO STRATEGY TRAINING APPROACHES ON THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF GRADE ONE NATIVE INDIAN CHILDREN by HARRIET WILLIS BRYANT B . E d . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1971 M . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E d u c a t i o n a l Psycho logy And S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n -We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1986 © H a r r i e t W i l l i s B r y a n t , 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . \ Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 i i ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to determine whether i n s t r u c t i o n in s p e c i f i c c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s , based on an i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g paradigm, c o u l d a f f e c t the reading achievement of grade one Native Indian c h i l d r e n . One type of s t r a t e g i e s d e a l t with simultaneous and s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g which have been shown t o improve achievement i n o l d e r c h i l d r e n . The other type of s t r a t e g i e s d e a l t d i r e c t l y with development of s p e c i f i c reading s t r a t e g i e s . The study was b a s i c a l l y an E x p e r i m e n t a l / C o n t r o l by Pre/Post d e s i g n . Three i n t e r v e n t i o n s were designed: t e a c h i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s based on the Luria/Das model of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , teaching reading r e l a t e d tasks f e l t to improve l i n g u i s t i c awareness, a combination of the s t r a t e g y and l i n g u i s t i c awareness programs. A f o u r t h group was i n c l u d e d to c o n t r o l f o r experimenter e f f e c t . A l l i n t e r v e n t i o n s were taught by c e r t i f i e d t eachers t r a i n e d by the experimenter. The 36 s u b j e c t s were taught i n small groups f o r a t o t a l of 15 hours over three months. A l l continued to r e c e i v e r e g u l a r reading i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r classrooms. No s i g n i f i c a n t group e f f e c t was found on the o v e r a l l reading measure. At both the pre- and p o s t - t e s t i n g s the simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g s c o r e s . No group e f f e c t s were found on the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g s c o r e s . The r e s u l t s showed a sex d i f f e r e n c e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g s t y l e as w e l l as d i f f e r e n t i a l performance between those c h i l d r e n r e p e a t i n g grade one and those not r e p e a t i n g . The r e s u l t s were d i s c u s s e d i n terms of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r the age l e v e l of the s u b j e c t s , the adequacy of the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g measure (K-ABC) and p o s s i b l e reasons f o r the observed sex d i f f e r e n c e on t h i s measure. CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS X DEDICATION x i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of the Study 4 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 5 The C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s of Na t i v e Indian C h i l d r e n .. 7 Luria/Das Model of Information P r o c e s s i n g 13 Native C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s W i t hin the Luria/Das Model 16 Block 1: A r o u s a l L e v e l 16 Block 2: Coding L e v e l 22 Block 3: Planning L e v e l 31 Reading Achievement W i t h i n the Luria/Das Model . 35 Native Performance W i t h i n T h i s C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n 38 The Use of S t r a t e g i e s 39 I n t e r v e n t i o n Within the Luria/Das Model 40 G e n e r a l i z a t i o n of S t r a t e g i e s 46 M e t a l i n g u i s t i c Awareness Review 50 I n t r o d u c t i o n and T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s .... 50 Word Awareness 57 P h o n o l o g i c a l Awareness 61 S t r a t e g i e s and M e t a l i n g u i s t i c Awareness 69 CHAPTER THREE: METHOD 73 Purpose of the Study 73 Hypotheses and R a t i o n a l e 73 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Study 83 S e l e c t i o n of the Subjects 83 V Design 84 Pre-Test B a t t e r y 85 I n t e r v e n t i o n Phase 92 The Post-Test B a t t e r y 93 S c o r i n g of the Pre-Test and Post-Test B a t t e r i e s 94 CHAPTER FOUR: THE INTERVENTION PROGRAMMES 95 Grouping and Scheduling f o r I n t e r v e n t i o n s 95 The S t r a t e g y I n t e r v e n t i o n 98 The Tasks 101 Task 1: People Pu z z l e s 101 Task 2: Animal P u z z l e s 103 Task 3: Matrix Numbers 104 Task 4: Matrix L e t t e r s 106 Task 5: Matrix P i c t u r e s 107 Task 6: P i c t u r e Story Arrangement 109 Task 7: S e r i a l R e c a l l of P i c t u r e s 110 Task 8: Free R e c a l l of P i c t u r e s 112 Task 9: S p a t i a l O r i e n t a t i o n 114 Task 10: V i s u a l Matching of Faces 115 Task 11 : Mazes ... 115 Task 12: Follow-The-Dots: Numbers 116 Task 13: Follow-The-Dots: L e t t e r s 116 Task 14: R i d d l e s 116 Task 15: T r a c k i n g 116 Task 16: R e l a t e d Memory Sets 117 Task 17: Pegboard 118 Task 18: Block Designs 118 The L i n g u i s t i c Awareness I n t e r v e n t i o n Programme ... 119 The Tasks 121 Task 1: Word Concept: Nouns and A d j e c t i v e s 121 Task 2: Word Concept: Verbs and Q u a n t i f i e r s 121 Task 3: Word Concept: Grammatical S t r i n g s . 121 Task 4: Word Concept: Sentences 122 Task 5: Rhyming 122 Task 6: Slow P r o n o u n c i a t i o n of Words 125 Task 7: S y l l a b l e R e c o g n i t i o n 125 Task 8: A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n of I n i t i a l Phonemes 127 v i Task 9: I n i t i a l Phoneme Segmentation 128 Task 10: Aud i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n of F i n a l Phonemes 129 Task 11: F i n a l Phoneme Segmentation 129 Task 12: T o t a l Segmentation 129 Task 13: Blending From S y l l a b l e s 130 Task 14: Blending From Phonemes 131 The Combination I n t e r v e n t i o n 131 The C o n t r o l I n t e r v e n t i o n 133 The Tasks 133 Task 1: F i n d the Other Half Memory Game .. 133 Task 2: Making a Puzzle 134 Task 3: A s s o c i a t i o n Game 134 Task 4: Colour By Number 135 Task 5: Word Searches 135 Task 6: V i s u a l Matching of Words 136 Task 7: Rebus Books 136 Task 8: Which Word Doesn't Belong? 136 Task 9: F i v e - F i n g e r s Game 137 Task 10: Read-Together Books 137 Task 11: Inch Cube Designs 137 CHAPTER FIVE: RESULTS 138 F i n d i n g s R e l a t e d to Hypothesis One 138 F i n d i n g s R e l a t e d to Hypothesis Two 140 F i n d i n g s R e l a t e d to Hypothesis Three 141 F i n d i n g s R e l a t e d to Hypothesis Four 156 Fi n d i n g s R e l a t e d to Hypothesis F i v e 157 CHAPTER SIX: DISCUSSION 159 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 181 Recommendations f o r Future Research 181 REFERENCES 184 v i i APPENDIX A : GITSEGUKLA PARENTAL CONSENT LETTER 207 APPENDIX B: LYTTON PARENTAL CONSENT LETTER 209 APPENDIX C : MAT SUBTEST RESULTS 211 APPENDIX D: BRAUN-NEILSEN RESULTS 214 APPENDIX E : LINDAMOOD AUDITORY CONCEPTUALIZATION RESULTS 218 APPENDIX F : TOKEN TEST RESULTS 220 APPENDIX G: K-ABC PRE- AND POST-TEST RESULTS 222 APPENDIX H : K-ABC SCALED PRE- AND POST-TEST RESULTS . . . 225 APPENDIX I : K-ABC GLOBAL PRE- AND POST-TEST RESULTS . . . 228 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e P h o n o l o g i c a l Awareness T r a i n i n g S t u d i e s 65 2. D e s c r i p t i o n of Groups i n G i t s e g u k l a and L y t t o n 85 3. Reported K-ABC Subtest and G l o b a l S c a l e R e l i a b i l i t i e s 91 4. A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e With One Fa c t o r Repeated f o r S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scores Across the Four Age L e v e l s 142 5. Summary of A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e f o r S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scores by Sex Across Repeat/Non-repeat 144 6. Summary of A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e f o r Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g Scores by Sex Across Repeat/Non-repeat 144 7. Summary of A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e f o r Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite Scores by Sex Across Repeat/Non-repeat 144 8. Summary of Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of Var i a n c e on. S e q u e n t i a l , Simultaneous, and Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite Scores by Sex Wit h i n and Between Repeat/Non-repeat 146 9. T - t e s t Comparison of S e q u e n t i a l with Simultaneous G l o b a l Scores at Pre- and P o s t - t e s t i n g s by Sex Within and Across Repeaters and Non-repeaters 155 10. Token Test Age Score Performances From Pre to Post T e s t i n g s Using a Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e 158 ix LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scores by Sex Within Repeat and Non-repeat Groupings 147 2. S e q u e n t i a l Adjusted P o s t - t e s t Scores by Sex W i t h i n Repeat and Non-repeat Groupings 149 3. Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g Scores by Sex W i t h i n Repeat and Non-repeat Groupings 150 4. Simultaneous A d j u s t e d P o s t - t e s t Scores by Sex Within Repeat and Non-repeat Groupings ... 151 5. Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite Scores by Sex W i t h i n Repeat and Non-repeat Groupings 152 6. Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite Adjusted P o s t - t e s t Scores by Sex Within Repeat and Non^-repeat Groupings 153 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S The completion of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s due to the he l p and unending support of many people. My r e s e a r c h committee never l o s t hope f o r the study. Dr. Buff O l d r i d g e , who by a c c e p t i n g me i n t o the d o c t o r a l programme, made me b e l i e v e graduation might be p o s s i b l e . Dr. A r t More (Research S u p e r v i s o r ) , whose hard working and committed s t y l e , made f i n i s h i n g a r e a l i t y . Dr. Kenneth Slade, whose humour made working on i t more bearable.. The f i n a n c i a l support from the Department of Indian A f f a i r s was in s t r u m e n t a l i n en s u r i n g the study was conducted. The teachers and c h i l d r e n at G i t s e g u k l a and Ly t t o n taught me as much, i f not more, than I taught to them. A s p e c i a l thanks to f e l l o w graduates students Geoff Karlebach and Mike McRae f o r s h a r i n g ideas, computer e x p e r t i s e s k i l l s and c i g a r e t t e s . F i n a l l y , and most i m p o r t a n t l y , the t o t a l support from my f a t h e r and s i s t e r s made a t t a i n i n g "our" dream a reward f o r us a l l to share. DEDICATION T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s d e d i c a t e d t o the memory of my mother, Laura Helen Bryant. Her death at the commencement of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n took much joy from l i f e ; i t a l s o committed me, as she had done, to "walk by f a i t h , not by s i g h t " (2 C o r i n t h i a n s 5:7). 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION ... (H)igh drop-out r a t e s and school f a i l u r e among Native c h i l d r e n i s p r e s s i n g a l l educators to examine t h e i r approaches to Native education (Kaulbach, 1984, p. 36). The f a i l u r e of s c h o o l i n g among Na t i v e c h i l d r e n i s s p e c t a c u l a r (McLeod, 1984). I t i s estimated that 85% of Native students leave school before completing grade 12 (More, 1984a). The achievement of N a t i v e s i n school i s f u r t h e r evidence of our f a i l u r e to adequately meet t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l needs. Thomas et al. (1979) found average achievement l e v e l s to be two or more years behind grade placement. T h i s d i s p a r i t y begins slowly i n the f i r s t years of s c h o o l . By the end of grade 1, o n e - t h i r d of Native c h i l d r e n are a l r e a d y a year behind, having repeated k i n d e r g a r t e n or grade 1, or taken three years to complete these grades (More, 1984a). By the end of grade 3 to 4 t h i s achievement l a g widens and becomes common acro s s a l l sub j e c t areas (Coleman et al. , 1966). By grade 8, 52% of Native students are at l e a s t one year behind grade placement (More, 1984c). One can only assume that the emotional and s o c i a l e f f e c t s of such f a i l u r e are d e v a s t a t i n g , and can have l a s t i n g d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s . 2 Our schools are under ever i n c r e a s i n g pressure to improve the achievement of a l l students, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the area of r e a d i n g . L i t e r a c y trends i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s over the past ten years i n d i c a t e d that younger readers made great e r gains than o l d e r ones ( C h a l l , 1983a). In s p i t e of t h i s , t here are s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t numbers of c h i l d r e n who experience d i f f i c u l t y i n a c q u i r i n g reading s k i l l s . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s exacerbated f o r N a t i v e c h i l d r e n (Downing, O l l i l a , and O l i v e r , 1975). Reading i s a s k i l l seldom mastered without d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n . Even with i n s t r u c t i o n , reading s k i l l s are l e a r n e d s l o w l y . The complexity of the reading a c t , and of processes needed in l e a r n i n g to read has l e d to continued r e s e a r c h i n t o both reading a b i l i t y and d i s a b i l i t y . While reading r e s e a r c h has burgeoned, a c e n t r a l i s s u e s t i l l remains: why some c h i l d r e n b e n e f i t more from rea d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n than o t h e r s . There have been numerous approaches to the study of reading, but few seem to be d i r e c t e d toward s o l v i n g the p r a c t i c a l problems of l i t e r a c y ( C h a l l , 1983a). Research a d d r e s s i n g the e f f i c a c y of i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches has long dominated the scene, only to show that a small p a r t of the v a r i a n c e i n reading a c q u i s i t i o n i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u r r i c u l u m (Bond and Dykstra, 1967; C a l f e e and Drum, 1978). While t h i s approach cont i n u e s to be researched, more t h e o r e t i c a l and b a s i c r e s e a r c h i s again being addressed ( C h a l l , 1983a; Gibson and L e v i n , 1975). 3 Gibson and L e v i n (1975) suggest that the development of d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s i s e s s e n t i a l i n l e a r n i n g to read. The s t r a t e g y approach may be s t a t e d i n terms of a d a p t i v e r u l e s or s t r a t e g i e s , c r e a t e d by the c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l which are f e l t to enhance performance i n reading ( M a r s h a l l , 1979) and which are b e l i e v e d to be t e a c h a b l e . In reading r e s e a r c h one approach to studying s t r a t e g i e s i s being researched through the concept of l i n g u i s t i c awareness ( M a t t i n g l y , 1972, 1979, 1984). In c o g n i t i v e psychology, s t r a t e g i e s are being researched through i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g t h e o r i e s as they r e l a t e to achievement, as w e l l as through metacognition ( F l a v e l l , 1977, 1985). The former tends to be concerned with s p e c i f i c , sometimes p e r c e p t u a l l y based, m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s f o r p r o c e s s i n g m a t e r i a l s (Biggs, 1984). The l a t t e r tends to be concerned with more g e n e r a l , m a c r o s t r a t e g i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g and i t s subsequent e f f e c t on reading achievement. In r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e both approaches have been i n d i v i d u a l l y taught i n attempts to improve academic achievement and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , r e a d i n g . L i k e w i s e , both approaches have g e n e r a l l y been s u c c e s s f u l f o r the samples s t u d i e d . However, a d i r e c t comparison of the e f f i c a c y of t e a c h i n g both approaches has not been attempted, p a r t i c u l a r l y with Native c h i l d r e n . The present study addresses t h i s i ssue through the t e a c h i n g of s t r a t e g i e s based on the Luria/Das model of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g 4 (Das, K i r b y , and Jarman, 1975, 1979), and l i n g u i s t i c awareness tasks from the reading l i t e r a t u r e . Purpose of the Study The major purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the extent to which two types of i n t e r v e n t i o n s , based on d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g approaches, had a f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t on the e a r l y reading achievement as w e l l as the simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g scores of N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n . The f i r s t type of t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n was based on the simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e model of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g ( m a c r o s t r a t e g i e s ) . The second type of s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g used l i n g u i s t i c awareness tasks from the r e a d i n g r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e ( m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s ) . A t h i r d i n t e r v e n t i o n combined the two types of s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h hypotheses and s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s are presented a f t e r the l i t e r a t u r e review i n Chapter Two. 5 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The t r a n s i t i o n to a new paradigm i s s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n (Kuhn, 1972, p. 90). Cronbach (1957) s i g n a l l e d f o r a paradigm s h i f t i n the f i e l d of i n t e l l i g e n c e (Das, 1984a). T h i s s h i f t away from psychometric d e f i n i t i o n s of a b i l i t i e s to one based on processes i s becoming apparent in recent c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of i n t e l l i g e n c e . As the i n f l u e n c e of t h i s newer c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e i s f e l t i n other d i s c i p l i n e s , they too begin to change. In e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h one e f f e c t of t h i s s h i f t i s the a n a l y s i s of academic performance as an i n t e r a c t i o n between a p t i t u d e and treatment (Cronbach, 1975). Information p r o c e s s i n g models of i n t e l l i g e n c e are p r o v i d i n g a needed framework f o r e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . E d u c a t i o n a l performance i s beginning to be d e f i n e d i n terms of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g t h e o r i e s . These models have common b a s i c concepts, although terminology used to d e s c r i b e these concepts d i f f e r (Hunt, 1980; Sternberg, 1983; Wagner and Sternberg, 1984). C o g n i t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y analyzed i n t o at l e a s t two components; one f o r p r o c e s s i n g of incoming i n f o r m a t i o n , the other f o r m o n i t o r i n g , s e l e c t i n g , and c o n t r o l l i n g these p r o c e s s e s . A t h i r d 6 component, metacognition, i s sometimes i n c l u d e d to deal with r e f l e c t i v e knowledge of c o g n i t i v e processes ( F l a v e l l , 1977; Lawson, 1984). C o g n i t i v e processes are i n v o l v e d i n the encoding, t r a n s f o r m i n g and s t o r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n . The c o n t r o l l i n g system i s seen as using s t r a t e g i e s i n performing i t s e n v i s i o n e d f u n c t i o n . These s t r a t e g i e s may be g e n e r a l or s p e c i f i c , and may i n v o l v e the use of many processes i n c a r r y i n g out an o p e r a t i o n ( K i r b y , 1984a). Educators are now attempting to d e f i n e e d u c a t i o n a l performance i n terms of c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . These processes are viewed as s k i l l s which are b e l i e v e d to be t e a c h a b l e . Research i s now being d i r e c t e d towards teaching c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g s k i l l s i n an e f f o r t to a f f e c t academic achievement. While the process approach i s not a panacea, i t does pr o v i d e a more r e a l i s t i c framework with which to a t t a c k e d u c a t i o n a l problems ( K i r b y , 1984a). S t r a t e g i e s p l a y a prominent r o l e i n t h i s newer c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . S t r a t e g i e s can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as broad, g l o b a l ways of o r d e r i n g incoming i n f o r m a t i o n (e.g., c o g n i t i v e s t y l e ) , or they may be very task s p e c i f i c and thus l e s s t r a n s f e r a b l e a c r o s s t a s k s . T r a i n i n g attempts have focused at both l e v e l s . T r a i n i n g in the use of a general or macrostategy f o r e f f i c i e n t p r o c e s s i n g of types of i n f o r m a t i o n may i n c r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y a c r o s s t a s k s , but not n e c e s s a r i l y s p e c i f i c task performance. T r a i n i n g i n the use of s p e c i f i c m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s , while seen as necessary f o r s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l task performance, may not g e n e r a l i z e to other tasks (Biggs, 1984). 7 The review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to the study i s presented here l a r g e l y w i t h i n the framework of t h i s newer paradigm of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . The review i s d i v i d e d i n t o two major s e c t i o n s : i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g r e s e a r c h and m e t a l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h . The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g review f i r s t presents the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s of N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n . The Luria/Das model of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g i s then d e s c r i b e d and the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s of Native Indian c h i l d r e n r e - i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n t h i s model. Reading achievement r e s e a r c h i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d i n terms of the Luria/Das model. L a s t l y , w i t h i n the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g s e c t i o n , the use of s t r a t e g i e s and i n t e r v e n t i o n s are reviewed. The second s e c t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e review p r e s e n t s the m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness r e s e a r c h with r e f e r e n c e to both the t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s , as w e l l as i n t e r v e n t i o n attempts at t r a i n i n g the development of m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness. The C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s of N a t i v e Indian C h i l d r e n Much of the e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h on Native Indian c h i l d r e n ' s c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s was done w i t h i n the psychometric model of i n t e l l i g e n c e (Wagner and Sternberg, 1984). In order to understand the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of group performances, v a r i o u s measures r e l a t e d t o , and p r e d i c t i v e of school success were a d m i n i s t e r e d . The u n d e r l y i n g a b i l i t y manifested i n these measures was 8 b e l i e v e d to be l a r g e l y unchangeable, r e n d e r i n g p o i n t l e s s any i n t e r v e n t i o n s based on them ( K i r b y , 1984b). The Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n (WISC) and the WISC-Revised (WISC-R) have been the most commonly employed instruments i n t h i s l i n e of re s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i n g the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s of Native Indian c h i l d r e n . Native c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y between v e r b a l and nonverbal a b i l i t i e s , with the v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s being lower than those f o r whites, and the nonverbal a b i l i t i e s being equal to or above those f o r whites (Conrad, 1974; Cundick, 1970; Deissner and Walker, 1986; F r a s e r , 1969; Hynd, Kramer, Quakenbush, Conner, and Weed, 1979; McShane, 1983; McShane and P l a s , 1982, 1984; Peck, 1972; Sachs, 1974; S a t t l e r , 1982; S t . John, K r i c h e v , and Bawman, 1976; S e y f o r t , Spreen and Lahmer, 1980; Thurber, 1976). Attempts have been made to f u r t h e r a n alyze WISC and WISC-R r e s u l t s based on subtest p r o f i l e s to determine i f a d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n emerges. McShane and P l a s (1982) used Bannatyne's f a c t o r scheme and found S p a t i a l s cores to be gr e a t e r than S e q u e n t i a l scores which were g r e a t e r than Conceptual and A c q u i r e d Knowledge s c o r e s . Reschly (1978) f a c t o r a n alyzed WISC-R s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n data f o r Papago Indians not l i v i n g on r e s e r v a t i o n s . He found t w o - f a c t o r s s u f f i c i e n t f o r the data; the v e r b a l s c a l e s u b t e s t s except D i g i t Span, and performance s c a l e s u b t e s t s except Coding. McShane and P l a s (1984) r e p o r t e d f a c t o r a n a l y t i c r e s u l t s based on a sample of Ojibwa c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on r e s e r v e s . 9 They found a t h r e e - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n . The f i r s t c o n s i s t e d of Information, S i m i l a r i t i e s , Vocabulary, and Comprehension, and has been found to e x i s t f o r other groups of c h i l d r e n . T h i s f a c t o r i s commonly named V e r b a l Comprehension (Kaufman, 1979). The second c o n s i s t e d of Information, S i m i l a r i t i e s , A r i t h m e t i c , Vocabulary, D i g i t Span, and Block Design, and was t e n t a t i v e l y named Automatic V e r b a l P r o c e s s i n g . The t h i r d c o n s i s t e d of Block Design, Object Assembly, and Mazes, and was thought of as S p a t i a l P r o c e s s i n g . Coding was not r e l a t e d to any f a c t o r , as i n Reschly's r e s u l t s . Although McShane and P l a s (1984) sought a two-factor s o l u t i o n , they c o u l d not c o n f i r m Reschly's r e s u l t s . Zarske, Moore, and Peterson (1981) f a c t o r a nalyzed WISC-R r e s u l t s of diagnosed l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d Navajo and Papago Indian c h i l d r e n . They found a two-factor s o l u t i o n s i m i l a r to R e s c h l y ' s . Zarske and Moore (1982) subsequently s t u d i e d a group of 452 Navajo c h i l d r e n grouped as e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged, l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d , and r e g u l a r classroom s t u d e n t s . The p a t t e r n of WISC-R subte s t r e s u l t s that emerged was the same as that of McShane and Pl a s (1982): S p a t i a l g r e a t e r than S e q u e n t i a l g r e a t e r than Conceptual. S c a l d w e l l , Frames and Coolson (1985) s t u d i e d WISC-R subtest p a t t e r n s to determine i f the 'Native' p a t t e r n emerged. T h e i r sample c o n s i s t e d of 81 Oneida, Chippewa and Muncey Native c h i l d r e n 7 to 13 years of age. A l l c h i l d r e n attended small community r e s e r v a t i o n s c h o o l s . The Oneida 10 Nati v e s (N=18) had been r e f e r r e d due to l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . A n a l y s i s of WISC-R r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d the Ve r b a l IQ was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than Performance IQ. T h i s was f e l t to r e f l e c t a c c u l t u r a t i o n of the sample, and the use of E n g l i s h as a f i r s t language. R e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of WISC-R s u b t e s t s d i s p l a y e d the Bannatyne (Bannatyne, 1976) p r o f i l e ( S p a t i a l > S e q u e n t i a l > Conceptual and Acquired Knowledge), with only the S p a t i a l f a c t o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the o t h e r s . The 'Native' p a t t e r n of S p a t i a l g r e a t e r than S e q u e n t i a l g r e a t e r than Conceptual was not found. The authors suggested that the p a t t e r n of the s p a t i a l high and the s e q u e n t i a l f a c t o r much lower may r e f l e c t simultaneous versus s u c c e s s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g as r e p o r t e d by Krywaniuk and Das (1976). None of the re p o r t e d f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d a Freedom from D i s t r a c t a b i l i t y f a c t o r or found Coding to r e l a t e to any f a c t o r . The Freedom from D i s t r a c t i b i l i t y f a c t o r i n other groups has been i n t e r p r e t e d as a b e h a v i o r a l r a t h e r than an i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s t r u c t (Kaufman, 1979; Reschly, 1978). T h i s may be i n t e r p r e t e d two ways f o r Native c h i l d r e n . I t may be that i n Native c h i l d r e n the WISC-R f a c t o r s represent only i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s t r u c t s . On the other hand, i t c o u l d r e f l e c t the o p p o s i t e . That i s , the Verbal-Performance d i f f e r e n c e s evidenced by Native c h i l d r e n on the WISC-R may be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of b e h a v i o r a l c o n s t r u c t s , s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r Native c h i l d r e n . 11 The reason f o r lack of a Freedom from D i s t r a c t i b i l i t y f a c t o r has not been d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , except to suggest the need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h using a v a r i e t y of Native groups. The r e s e a r c h on Native c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s tends to o v e r g e n e r a l i z e r e s u l t s . T h i s i s apparent i n the re s e a r c h c i t e d above i n which f a c t o r - a n a l y t i c WISC-R r e s u l t s of Ojibwa c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on r e s e r v e s were compared with r e s u l t s of Navajo and Papago l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n , and Papago c h i l d r e n not n e c e s s a r i l y l i v i n g on r e s e r v e s . The r e s u l t s may i n f a c t represent the d i f f e r e n c e between l i v i n g on a r e s e r v a t i o n versus not l i v i n g on a r e s e r v a t i o n . In e i t h e r case, much of the r e s e a r c h using Native samples has o v e r g e n e r a l i z e d r e s u l t s to bands and t o N a t i v e s i n gene r a l without a d d r e s s i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between Native groups (Vernon, 1984). The performance of Native c h i l d r e n on the WISC and WISC-R d i f f e r from other groups and the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n group. Native c h i l d r e n ' s performances have been shown to demonstrate a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and IQ. School e n t r y marks a r i s e i n measured a b i l i t y and co n t i n u e s u n t i l about grade 3, whence scores drop ( P e t e r s , 1963). T h i s p e r i o d from 7 to 9 years seems to be c r i t i c a l f o r the growth of c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s and achievement ( F l a v e l l , 1985). The sharp i n c r e a s e i n school d i f f i c u l t i e s at about age 9 years has been r e f e r r e d to as the 'crossover' e f f e c t (Saslow and Harrover, 1968). 12 The c o n s i s t e n c y of f i n d i n g s based on the WISC and WISC-R r e s u l t s as w e l l as other t e s t s has l e d to suggest an Indian l e a r n i n g s t y l e (Kaulbach, 1984; More, 1984c). More (1984c) reviewed a number of b i p o l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the verbal-performance d i s c r e p a n c y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n Kaufman (1979). Native Indian c h i l d r e n have evidenced r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : v i s u a l - s p a t i a l , f i e l d independent, simultaneous, r e l a t i o n a l , and nonverbal. R e l a t i v e weaknesses i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : a u d i t o r y , f i e l d dependent, s u c c e s s i v e , a n a l y t i c , and v e r b a l . The a n a l y s i s of N a t i v e c o g n i t i v e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses framed w i t h i n the o l d paradigm of i n t e l l i g e n c e and based on a psychometric c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n has not been p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to e d u c a t o r s . A b i l i t y w i t h i n t h i s paradigm, as i n d i c a t e d from t e s t i n g , has thus been viewed as a d e f i c i t , and something to be worked around. Education was t h e r e f o r e keyed to the s t r e n g t h s of the l e a r n e r s . In the case of Native Indian c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g was seen as most e f f e c t i v e when they l e a r n e d through v i s u a l means (Havighurst, 1970; Hynd & G a r c i a , 1979; Kaulbach, 1984; K l e i n f e l d , 1970). I n s t r u c t i o n keyed to a c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t u a l s t r e n g t h w i l l c o n s i d e r a b l y enhance and f a c i l i t a t e h i s a b i l i t y to l e a r n . Conversely, those taught without any regard f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g s t y l e may experience great d i f f i c u l t y and even face school f a i l u r e i f they lac k the s t r a t e g i e s to e f f i c i e n t l y process and r e t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n a p a r t i c u l a r manner (Kaulbach, 1984, p. 27). 1 3 However, i f N a t i v e c h i l d r e n are to s u c c e s s f u l l y compete i n s c h o o l s , they need stronger l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s , f o r "power l i e s i n language" (Kaulbach, 1984, p. 27). Luria/Das Model of Information P r o c e s s i n g Information p r o c e s s i n g conceptions of i n t e l l i g e n c e commonly view i n t e l l i g e n c e as the way i n which people process and m entally represent i n t e l l i g e n c e (Wagner and Sternberg, 1984). Information p r o c e s s i n g p r o v i d e s a framework f o r many models of mental processes and s t r a t e g i e s . L u r i a (1966a, 1966b, 1973) has s t u d i e d the c e r e b r a l bases of p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . He i d e n t i f i e d and i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l systems that operate as a r e s u l t of i n t e r a c t i o n s between d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b r a i n s t r u c t u r e s . These f u n c t i o n a l systems, while being l o c a l i z e d , are a l s o i n t e g r a t e d a c c o r d i n g to the p r o c e s s i n g demands of a p a r t i c u l a r t a s k . L u r i a (1973) s t r e s s e d that the f u n c t i o n a l systems of c o - j o i n t l y working c o r t i c a l zones are not independent s t r u c t u r e s , but r a t h e r are formed i n the course on each i n d i v i d u a l ' s development i n response to s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s ( K l i c h and Davidson, 1984). L u r i a d i v i d e s the b r a i n i n t o three b a s i c f u n c t i o n a l u n i t s or b l o c k s . These b l o c k s are i n t e r r e l a t e d systems i n v o l v e d with a r o u s a l , coding and p l a n f u l behavior (Das, K i r b y , and Jarman, 1975, 1979). The f i r s t block of the b r a i n i s concerned with a r o u s a l . T h i s f u n c t i o n a l u n i t i n c l u d e s the b r a i n stem, 1 4 r e t i c u l a r formation and hippocampus. I t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e g u l a t i n g the energy l e v e l and tone of the c o r t e x both e x c i t i n g and i n h i b i t i n g . T h i s u n i t can s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the f u n c t i o n i n g of the other blocks of the b r a i n , and i n turn i s a f f e c t e d by the higher c e n t r e s . The second f u n c t i o n a l system, or Block 2, i s concerned with o b t a i n i n g , p r o c e s s i n g and storage of i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s u n i t i s s i t u a t e d i n the p o s t e r i o r p a r t s of the c o r t e x , and i n c l u d e s the o c c i p i t a l , temporal, and p a r i e t a l l o b e s . I t i s organized h i e r a r c h i c a l l y i n t o primary p r o j e c t i o n areas, secondary a s s o c i a t i o n areas, and t e r t i a r y o v e r l a p p i n g areas. The primary p r o j e c t i o n area r e c e i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n and a n a l y z e s i t i n t o elementary components. The secondary- a s s o c i a t i o n areas f u r t h e r organize and code the m a t e r i a l . The t e r t i a r y areas are p a r t i c u l a r l y important as they r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n from a l l m o d a l i t i e s , and form the b a s i s of complex behavior. Block 2 i s r e g u l a t e d by the p r i n c i p l e of d i m i n i s h i n g modal s p e c i f i c i t y , so that the primary areas are more modality s p e c i f i c than the t e r t i a r y areas. T h i s f u n c t i o n a l system a l s o demonstrates i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n a l l a t e r a l i z a t i o n . Information w i t h i n Block 2, p a r t i c u l a r y i n the t e r t i a r y areas, . i s i n t e g r a t e d using simultaneous and/or s u c c e s s i v e s y n t h e s i s . Simultaneous s y n t h e s i s i s p r o c e s s i n g by i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o a q u a s i - s p a t i a l g e s t a l t , with a l l p a r t s being immediately surveyable and r e l a t a b l e ( K i r b y , 1980b). Simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g takes p l a c e i n the 15 o c c i p i t o - p a r i e t a l zones, and i s i n v o l v e d i n both v e r b a l and nonverbal t a s k s . S u c c e s s i v e s y n t h e s i s i s the i n t e g r a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a temporal sequence such that each element e x i s t s only as p a r t of a r e t r a c e a b l e sequence. Successive p r o c e s s i n g takes plac e i n the fronto-temporal area of the b r a i n . The t h i r d f u n c t i o n a l system i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r planning and programming behavior. I t i s l o c a t e d i n the f r o n t a l l o b e s , and uses the motor c o r t e x as an o u t l e t channel. As i n the other b l o c k s of the b r a i n , Block 3 i s d i v i d e d i n t o primary, secondary, and t e r t i a r y zones. The most important part of Block 3 i s seen as the p r e f r o n t a l region which i s i n v o l v e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of conscious a c t i v i t y of behavior ( L u r i a , 1973). The f r o n t a l lobes are a l s o connnected with the r e t i c u l a r formation, as mentioned e a r l i e r . Poor performance on achievement and a b i l i t y measures w i t h i n t h i s model may be due to e i t h e r a m e d i a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c y or a p r o d u c t i o n d e f i c i e n c y . The former i m p l i e s a Block 2 f u n c t i o n i n which simultaneous or s u c c e s s i v e coding i s impaired. The l a t t e r i m p l i e s a Block 3 f u n c t i o n i n which the p r o c e s s i n g a b i l i t y i s i n t a c t but i n e f f i c i e n t l y used (Das, K i r b y , and Jarman, 1979). To date, the l a t t e r has been assumed in i n t e r v e n t i o n attempts, and p l a n n i n g l e v e l programs attempted. K i r b y (1984b) f e e l s there i s good reason to be o p t i m i s t i c about the b e n e f i t s of such i n t e r v e n t i o n programs, but warns that there i s "no cause to a n t i c i p a t e m i r a c l e s " (p. 75). 1 6 Native Cognitive A b i l i t i e s Within the Luria/Das Model The major i m p l i c a t i o n of the Luria/Das model a p p l i e d to the c o g n i t i v e performance of other c u l t u r a l groups i s that "we are u n l i k e l y to f i n d c u l t u r a l group d i f f e r e n c e s i n b a s i c component processes" (Cole and S c r i b n e r , 1974, p. 193). Rather, observed behaviors are f e l t to r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n coding s t r a t e g i e s used i n task completion. T h i s new paradigm has l e d to a d d r e s s i n g the p r o c e s s i n g s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of Native Indian c h i l d r e n r a t h e r than a b i l i t i e s , and examining a l t e r n a t e means of r e l e v a n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l approaches based on the Luria/Das model (Sternberg, 1983). A reframing of observed c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s of N a t i v e c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the new i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g paradigm i s b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d below by independently examining the three f u n c t i o n a l systems. Block 1: Arousal Level The f i r s t f u n c t i o n a l u n i t , as d i s c u s s e d , i s concerned with c o r t i c a l a r o u s a l and a l e r t n e s s and i s i n f l u e n c e d by the two other b l o c k s of the b r a i n . The l e v e l i s seen as being c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the sensory r e g i s t r a t i o n of e x t e r n a l s t i m u l i . The modality s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , would seem to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h i s l e v e l of the model.. The general concensus from modality r e s e a r c h would i n d i c a t e that N a t i v e Indian 17 c h i l d r e n show s t r e n g t h when d e a l i n g with v i s u a l tasks and r e l a t i v e weakness on a u d i t o r y tasks (McShane and P l a s , 1984). Comparison between a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l modality s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of Native Indian c h i l d r e n have been r e p o r t e d i n s t u d i e s using the I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t i e s (ITPA). The evidence i s c o n s i s t e n t with a p a t t e r n of r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h i n v i s u a l modality versus r e l a t i v e weakness i n a u d i t o r y modality (Garber, 1968; Lombardi, 1969; T a y l o r and Skanes, 1975; 1976). For example, Garber (1968) ad m i n i s t e r e d the ITPA to 110 Navajo and Peublo f i r s t grade c h i l d r e n . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s t e s t i n g program r e v e a l e d that these c h i l d r e n were able to remember v i s u a l symbols, manipulate p i c t u r e s and designs and understand r e l a t i o n s h i p s which i n v o l v e d v i s u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s much b e t t e r than they c o u l d handle the a u d i t o r y modality t a s k s . Lombardi (1969) demonstrated s i m i l a r r e s u l t s a f t e r t e s t i n g Papago Indian c h i l d r e n . T a y l o r and Skanes (1976) a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d the ITPA to a sample of I n u i t and white c h i l d r e n i n i s o l a t e d communities i n Labrador. They a l s o evidenced the same v i s u a l m o dality s t r e n g t h s and a u d i t o r y modality weaknesses as r e p o r t e d f o r other Native Indian c h i l d r e n . As they s t a t e : These c h i l d r e n ( I n u i t ) score the lowest on the f o l l o w i n g s u b t e s t s : a u d i t o r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s , grammatical c l o s u r e and sound blending and p a r t i c u l a r l y p o o r l y on three of these. The ( I n u i t ) c h i l d r e n score b e t t e r than the t y p i c a l 18 Laborador white s u b j e c t s ... on v i s u a l r e c e p t i o n , v i s u a l s e q u e n t i a l memory, v i s u a l a s s o c i a t i o n and v i s u a l c l o s u r e ( T a y l o r and Skanes, 1976, p. 37). The white c h i l d r e n d i d not evidence s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two m o d a l i t i e s and were s u p e r i o r to I n u i t c h i l d r e n on a l l a u d i t o r y t a s k s . Kaulbach (1984) suggests c a u t i o n i n i n t e r p r e t i n g these r e s u l t s s i n c e the ITPA a u d i t o r y s u b t e s t s confounds v e r b a l a b i l i t y i n E n g l i s h with a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s . He f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s that " i t i s too premature to imply from these r e s u l t s alone that N a t i v e c h i l d r e n are d e f i c i t i n t h e i r a b i l i l t y to c o n c e p t u a l i z e through language" (Kaulbach, 1984, p. 130). McShane and P l a s (1982, 1984) provide more d i r e c t support f o r an a u d i t o r y modality weakness i n Native c h i l d r e n . They suggest that the prevalence of o t i t i s media d i s e a s e among these c h i l d r e n has a profound e f f e c t on t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l attainments, as evidenced on a u d i t o r y t a s k s . The evidence of an a u d i t o r y modality weakness amongst Native c h i l d r e n i s t e n t a t i v e and confounded by v e r b a l f a c t o r s , however, there i s c o n s i s t e n t evidence of v i s u a l m o d ality s t r e n g t h s on a v a r i e t y of c o g n i t i v e t a s k s . Researchers have demonstrated a r e l a t i v e v i s u a l m o d ality s t r e n g t h using a number of measuring instruments. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e t e s t s i n c l u d e : 1. WISC s c a l e s (Cundick, 1970; McAreavy, 1978; Peck, 1972; P e t e r s , 1963; Thurber, 1976), 2. WISC-R s c a l e s (McShane and P l a s , 1984 f o r a review of t h i s r e s e a r c h ) , 19 3. Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test (McCatin and S c h i l l , 1977 for a review of t h i s r e s e a r c h ) , 4. Raven's P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s (MacArthur, 1968a, 1968b), and a ... 5. V a r i e t y of v i s u a l t asks such as Memory f o r Designs and V i s u a l Short-Term Memory (Krywaniuk, 1974). Kaulbach (1984) suggests that Berry's (1966, 1976) c o g n i t i v e s t y l e r e s e a r c h may e x p l a i n Native Indian c h i l d r e n ' s v i s u a l modality s t r e n g t h s i n terms of t h e i r exposure to an o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g environment. The l i t e r a t u r e on both past and present Indian and I n u i t s o c i e t i e s i s r e p l e t e with suggestions that the l e a r n i n g environment of these c h i l d r e n n u r t u r e s and r e i n f o r c e s v i s u a l l y acute p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s (Cazden and John, 1971; K l e i n f e l d , 1970; K l i c k and Davidson, 1984; More, 1984b; Vernon, 1984). The work of Berry (1966, 1971, 1976, 1982) i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l psychology has helped to t e s t the g e n e r a l i t y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l laws. Berry, along with other c o l l a b o r a t o r s , has developed a theory of c u l t u r e and c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . T h i s work suggests that through a combination of techniques of s o c i a l i z a t i o n s p e c i f i c s k i l l s such as v i s u a l - s p a t i a l s k i l l are welded i n t o a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mode of f u n c t i o n i n g found thoroughout an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i o n . 20 Vygotsky (1978) i n a s i m i l a r approach, p o s t u l a t e d a "general law of c u l t u r a l development." Vygotsky argued that ontogenetic f u n c t i o n i n g must be c o n s i d e r e d from a ph y l o g e n e t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . Vygotsky's p o s i t i o n i s s u c c i n c t l y summarized by L u r i a : In order to e x p l a i n the h i g h l y complex forms of human consciousness one must go beyond the human organism. One must seek the o r i g i n s of conscious a c t i v i t y and ' c a t e g o r i c a l ' behavior not i n the recesses of the human b r a i n or i n the depths of the s p i r i t , but i n the e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e . Above a l l , t h i s means that one must seek these o r i g i n s i n the e x t e r n a l processes of s o c i a l l i f e , i n the s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l forms of human e x i s t e n c e ( L u r i a , 1981, p. 25). I t i s w i t h i n t h i s connection that Vygotsky proposed h i s law of c u l t u r a l development. Any f u n c t i o n i n the c h i l d ' s c u l t u r a l development appears twice, or on two pl a n e s . F i r s t i t appears between people as an i n t e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l category, and then w i t h i n the c h i l d as an i n t r a p s y c h o l o g i c a l category. T h i s i s e q u a l l y true with regard to v o l u n t a r y a t t e n t i o n , l o g i c a l memory, the formation of concepts, and the development of v o l i t i o n (1981, p. 163). One i m p l i c a t i o n that can be drawn from Vygotsky's general law of c u l t u r a l development i s that v i s u a l - s p a t i a l f u n c t i o n s appear twice. In the e a r l y years v i s u a l - s p a t i a l f u n c t i o n s appear as o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g (Kaulbach, 1984), and then as the c h i l d develops, c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s (Berry, 1966). The same would be t r u e f o r a u d i t o r y - l i n g u i s t i c f u n c t i o n s . F i r s t , they appear as v e r b a l l y mediated l e a r n i n g ( B a r c l a y and Hagan, 1982) and then as v e r b a l l y r e g u l a t e d behavior (Schubert, 1983; Schubert and Cropley, 1972). 21 Vygotsky (1978) f u r t h e r suggests that s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g s t y l e s i n four ways. F i r s t , i t arranges f o r the occurence of s p e c i f i c problem s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s . Kaulbach (1984) has reviewed s t u d i e s suggesting that the l e a r n i n g environment of N a t i v e c h i l d r e n p r o v i d e s both o b s e r v a t i o n a l and v e r b a l l y mediated prob l e m - s o l v i n g t a s k s . Second, the frequency of the t a s k s i s o r g a n i z e d . For Native c h i l d r e n , exposure to o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g tasks i s c o n s i d e r e d to occur more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e i r homes. T h i r d , c u l t u r e shapes the p a t t e r n i n g of the co-occurence of v e r b a l l y mediated l e a r n i n g i n connection with o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g t a s k s , which i s rar e f o r Native c h i l d r e n (Greenbaum and Greenbaum, 1983). L a s t l y , s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o v i d e s c o n t r o l over task d i f f i c u l t y . The N a t i v e c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g environment, based on the f o r e g o i n g f a c t o r s , has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as p r o v i d i n g frequent o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g without v e r b a l m ediation. Kaulbach summarizes t h i s l e a r n i n g environment as: ... nonverbal in n a t u r e . The c h i l d r e n l e a r n the customs and s k i l l s of t h e i r s o c i e t y by s h a r i n g d i r e c t l y i n the a c t i v i t i e s of o t h e r s . In such s i t u a t i o n s , v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s n e i t h e r o f f e r e d nor r e q u i r e d because the c h i l d ' s c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the o b s e r v a t i o n a l a c t i o n makes i n s t r u c t i o n - g i v i n g redundant .... ( I ) n those i n f r e q u e n t i n s t a n c e s where v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s used, the ... a d u l t g e n e r a l l y c a l l s a t t e n t i o n to the observable aspects of the s i t u a t i o n . . . (1984, p. 33). 22 While t h i s quote once again shows the tendency to o v e r g e n e r a l i z e r e s u l t s to i n c l u d e a l l Native people, Vernon (1984) has noted some r e s u l t s from d i f f e r e n t Native groups i n d i v e r s e p a r t s of Canada to be very s i m i l a r . The l i n k between i n t e r p e r s o n a l s t y l e s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and i n t r a p e r s o n a l s t y l e s of l e a r n i n g ( c o g n i t i v e s t y l e ) seems to r e c e i v e t h e o r e t i c a l support. Within t h i s framework of the Luria/Das model, Native c h i l d r e n c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as c o n t r o l l i n g Block 1 a t t e n t i o n a l processes by a c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , a Block 3 or p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . T h i s p o i n t w i l l be returned to l a t e r when the p l a n n i n g l e v e l of the model i s d i s c u s s e d . Block 2: Coding Level Das, K i r b y and Jarman (1979) d e s c r i b e the f u n c t i o n of what i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as the coding l e v e l . The second f u n c t i o n a l u n i t i s i n v o l v e d i n o b t a i n i n g , p r o c e s s i n g and s t o r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ... As i n a l l u n i t s , a h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement of c o r t i c a l areas e x i s t s i n t h i s u n i t . The primary p r o j e c t i o n zones r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and a n alyze i t i n t o elementary components. The secondary or p r o j e c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n zones f u r t h e r o r g a n i z e the m a t e r i a l and code i t . The t e r t i a r y zones where i n f o r m a t i o n from v a r i o u s sources o v e r l a p s are e s s e n t i a l l y amodal. They are organized to form the b a s i s of complex behavior (Das, K i r b y , and Jarman, 1979, p. 39). I t i s w i t h i n t h i s f u n c t i o n a l block that most a b i l i t i e s are measured. The Wechsler s c a l e s can be c o n s i d e r e d coding l e v e l tasks ( N a g l i e r i , Kamphaus, and Kaufman, 1983). The o l d paradigm of i n t e l l i g e n c e , l a r g e l y based on norm-referenced t e s t s , r e s u l t e d i n an o f t e n unstated 23 assumption that the u n d e r l y i n g s k i l l s or a b i l i t i e s measured by the t e s t s were i n n a t e , and l a r g e l y unimprovable ( K i r b y , 1984b). The new paradigm attempts to r e d e f i n e performance by a d d r e s s i n g the u n d e r l y i n g c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s , s k i l l s , and s t r a t e g i e s p o s t u l a t e d as necessary f o r s u c c e s s f u l performance. Thus poor performance i s seen as l a r g e l y due to sub-optimal or i n s u f f i c i e n t l y developed s t r a t e g i e s (Das, K i r b y , and Jarman, 1979; K i r b y , 1980b). V a r i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s of performances measured at the coding l e v e l have focused on a number of components. Two of these are d i f f e r e n c e s i n simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g a s s o c i a t e d with coding and r e t r i e v a l of i n f o r m a t i o n , and the use of language i n performing t a s k s . Native c h i l d r e n appear to d i f f e r from t h e i r non-Native c o u n t e r p a r t s i n both of these components. The r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h i n p e r c e p t u a l , mnestic and c o n c e p t u a l v i s u a l behavior evidenced by Native Indian c h i l d r e n i s a s s o c i a t e d with a s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n of p r o c e s s i n g s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. Simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g tasks used to date are u s u a l l y non-verbal i n nature ( K i r b y , 1984b; Das, I984e). The o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g environment d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r would seem to enhance the development of a r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h i n simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g i n N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n ( K l i c h and Davidson, 1984). Conversely, a r e l a t i v e weakness i n s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g should be shown due to the poor reinforcement schedule p r o v i d e d by the l e a r n i n g environment. 24 Krywaniuk (1974) compared low a c h i e v i n g grade three and four Cree c h i l d r e n to hig h and low a c h i e v i n g white c h i l d r e n . Mean WISC-R Performance IQ's d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r between the groups. The mean V e r b a l IQ of the Cree c h i l d r e n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than that of the white c h i l d r e n . T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i s c o n s i s t e n t with other r e s u l t s reviewed e a r l i e r . Krywaniuk a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d a b a t t e r y of t e s t s designed to measure simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e s y n t h e s i s . R e s u l t s of the p r i n c i p a l component f a c t o r a n a l y s i s on performance of the groups i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r l o a d i n g s . These r e s u l t s suggest that N a t i v e c h i l d r e n approach some tasks i n a d i f f e r e n t manner to white c h i l d r e n . For example, i n h i s sample the Na t i v e c h i l d r e n approached the Raven's P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s u s i n g s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , whereas t h i s t e s t was processed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y by the white c h i l d r e n . T h i s t e s t has been shown to l o a d simultaneously i n other s t u d i e s (Das, K i r b y and Jarman, 1979; Jarman, 1978). Krywaniuk's r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d that when v e r b a l content (e.g., f r e e and s e r i a l r e c a l l t a s k s ) was present h i s samples of low a c h i e v i n g Native c h i l d r e n demonstrated d i f f i c u l t y i n s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . T h i s l e d Das, K i r b y and Jarman to reason: How does one account f o r the s i m i l a r i t y of performance on simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g , but d i f f e r e n c e i n s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g between the white and n a t i v e c h i l d r e n ? F u r t h e r , how does one i n t e r p r e t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a c t o r l o a d i n g s ? One 25 may argue that s i n c e the white and n a t i v e c h i l d r e n had comparable WISC Performance IQ, and since WISC-P i s ak i n to simultaneous, they are not expected to d i f f e r on the usual simultaneous t e s t s . However, the simultaneous t e s t s d i d not behave i n the usual manner i n terms of f a c t o r l o a d i n g s f o r the n a t i v e data. S i m i l a r l y one may argue that s i n c e one group was higher than the other on WISC Ve r b a l IQ, these d i f f e r e n c e s on s u c c e s s i v e t e s t s would be expected. Again a simple i n f e r e n c e such as t h i s w i l l be i n e r r o r : Color Naming and Cross-modal Coding are not v e r b a l i n the sense of s e r i a l r e c a l l of words. Perhaps we should understand that n a t i v e c h i l d r e n have not l e a r n t to use s u c c e s s i v e processes e f f e c t i v e l y ... But l e t us accept that the n a t i v e c h i l d r e n are l e s s prone to u s i n g s u c c e s s i v e s t r a t e g i e s a p p r o p r i a t e l y (1979, p. 130). Thus Das, K i r b y and Jarman f e e l that the l e v e l two f u n c t i o n s are i n t a c t , but are i n e f f e c t i v e l y used. T h i s i s seen as a p l a n n i n g l e v e l or Block 3 f u n c t i o n . Recent s t u d i e s using the Kaufman Assessment B a t t e r y f o r C h i l d r e n (K-ABC) (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983) with Native c h i l d r e n support the c o n c l u s i o n of i n e f f e c t i v e use of s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s e s . The K-ABC d e f i n e s i n t e l l i g e n c e i n terms of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t y l e of s o l v i n g problems and p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . I t s Mental P r o c e s s i n g s c a l e s are p a r t i a l l y based on the Simultaneous-Successive processes o u t l i n e d i n the Luria/Das model and have been v a l i d a t e d a g a i n s t the o r i g i n a l b a t t e r y of Das, K i r b y and Jarman (1979). The t e s t was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to minimize the r o l e of language f o r s u c c e s s f u l performance. The K-ABC, l i k e the WISC-R, can be c o n s i d e r e d a coding l e v e l measuring instrument (Das, I984d, 1984e). 26 The authors of the K-ABC report two r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s conducted with North American Native c h i l d r e n : Brokenleg and Bryde, 1983; and N a g l i e r i , 1983. The f i r s t study a d m i n i s t e r e d the K-ABC to 20 male and 20 female Sioux c h i l d r e n who were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o white s o c i e t y and spoke E n g l i s h w e l l . T h i s sample d i d not show a s i g n i f i c a n t verbal/performance d i s c r e p a n c y on the WISC-R, nor between the K-ABC's Simultaneous and S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e s . The second study ( N a g l i e r i , 1983) a d m i n i s t e r e d the K-ABC to 14 male and 19 female Navajo c h i l d r e n who l i v e d i n an i s o l a t e d r e s e r v a t i o n and who spoke p r i m a r i l y Navajo. A l l were t e s t e d by a Navajo examiner. T h i s group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the Simultaneous than S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e . Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) i n d i s c u s s i n g the r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s s t a t e : The Sioux and Navajo groups earned v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l mean standard scores on the Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g and Non-verbal S c a l e s ... T h e i r subtest p r o f i l e s on these s c a l e s were h i g h l y s i m i l a r : both groups scored above 10 on G e s t a l t C l o s u r e , T r i a n g l e s , and S p a t i a l Memory and below 10 on M a t r i x A n a l o g i e s , Photo S e r i e s , and Hand Movements. T h e i r s t r e n g t h was i n v i s u a l - s p a t i a l a b i l i t i e s ; they showed l e s s w e l l developed s k i l l i n i n t e g r a t i o n of s e q u e n t i a l and simultaneous processes and reasoning (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983, p. 153). Kaufman and Kaufman go on•to note that both Number R e c a l l and Word Order on the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scale were performed p o o r l y by the Navajo group. They f e e l t h i s 27 may r e f l e c t t h e i r l i m i t e d p r o f i c i e n c y i n E n g l i s h , s i n c e both s u b t e s t s r e q u i r e good v e r b a l comprehension s k i l l s . More (1984b) a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d the K-ABC to Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n . His main sample c o n s i s t e d of 32 white and 32 Native c h i l d r e n . A l l the c h i l d r e n were 10 years of age. He found that the Native c h i l d r e n were weaker i n s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g than the white c h i l d r e n , but equal i n simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g . When the s u b t e s t s were f a c t o r analyzed two f a c t o r s , simultaneous and s e q u e n t i a l , emerged f o r the white c h i l d r e n . For the Native sample a s i n g l e f a c t o r , simultaneous, emerged i n d i c a t i n g an o v e r - r e l i a n c e on simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g r e g a r d l e s s of task demand. In order to understand the nature of the d i f f i c u l t y N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n experience on v e r b a l s u c c e s s i v e t a s k s , v e r b a l p r o c e s s i n g needs to be b r i e f l y addressed. L i n g u i s t i c f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n the Luria/Das model r e l a t e s both to simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e forms of coding, and a l s o to t h i r d block f u n c t i o n i n g . Successive p r o c e s s i n g i s i m p l i c a t e d i n both r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e use of c o n t e x t u a l grammatical s t r u c t u r e s (Cummins and Das, 1978). Simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g i s c l e a r l y i m p l i c a t e d i n comprehension of and performance on l o g i c a l grammatical c o n s t r u c t i o n s (e.g., t a l l e r than, b r o t h e r ' s f a t h e r ) . W i t h i n t h i s model then, s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g i s seen as r e l a t e d to performance on l i n g u i s t i c tasks which r e q u i r e e i t h e r a n a l y s i s of the s e q u e n t i a l l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e of the input or s y n t a c t i c a l l y mature e x p r e s s i v e speech. 28 Simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g i s seen as r e l a t e d to performance on l i n g u i s t i c tasks r e q u i r i n g g r a s p i n g of q u a s i - s p a t i a l conceptual r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Cummins and Das, 1978). These r e l a t i o n s h i p s appear to h o l d f o r a d u l t s and i n o l d e r c h i l d r e n (Cummins and Das, 1977). However, at younger age l e v e l s when these semantic systems are j u s t beginning to emerge, t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may not h o l d . In f a c t , the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s f o r the p r o c e s s i n g of l i n g u i s t i c input are l i k e l y to be more dependent on s u c c e s s i v e than on simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g . In c h i l d r e n who have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , t h i s may be e s p e c i a l l y so .... Thus c h i l d r e n who are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d e f i c i t i n s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g may experience a l a g i n the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of deeper l e v e l s of c o n c e p t u a l -l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s from more elementary or s u r f a c e forms of s e q u e n t i a l - l i n g u i s t i c p r o c e s s i n g (Cummins and Das, 1977, p. 253-254). I t i s suggested that Native c h i l d r e n demonstrate d i f f i c u l t y i n s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g tasks u s i n g v e r b a l content such as the K-ABC Word Order and Number R e c a l l s u b t e s t s , both of which r e s t r i c t l i n g u i s t i c p r o c e s s i n g to s e q u e n t i a l p r o s e s s i n g ( K e i t h and Dunbar, 1984). The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of language f u n c t i o n i n g and p r o c e s s i n g has mainly been c l i n i c a l . Jakobson (1971), L u r i a (1981), and Pribram (1971) have suggested that d y s f u n c t i o n s tend to f a l l i n t o two v a r i e t i e s : syntagmatic and p a r a d i g m a t i c . The former d i s r u p t s s u c c e s s i v e c o g n i t i v e processes and the l a t t e r simultaneous p r o c e s s e s . The study of paradigmatic/syntagmatic word a s s o c i a t i o n s i n normal s u b j e c t s o f f e r s i n s i g h t s i n t o the development of l i n g u i s t i c f u n c t i o n s and simultaneous-29 s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s e s . C e n t r a l to much of t h i s r e s e a r c h has been the syntagmatic/paradigmatic s h i f t . T h i s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n younger than 7 to 8 years of age tend to produce syntagmatic word a s s o c i a t i o n (e.g., h o r s e - r u n s ) , whereas o l d e r c h i l d r e n produce paradigmatic a s s o c i a t i o n s (e.g., horse -cat) (Jarman, 1980; L u r i a , 1981). T h i s aga i n suggests that younger c h i l d r e n are more dependent on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g (Cummins and Das, 1978; Das, 1984c). Although the r e l a t i o n s h i p between syntagmatic/ paradigmatic language processes and sim u l t a n e o u s - s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g i n gen e r a l has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n n e u r o p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , only r e c e n t l y has t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n normal p o p u l a t i o n s as a dimension of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Cummins and Das (1978) demonstrated paradigmatic f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s loaded on a simultaneous f a c t o r i n a sample of c h i l d r e n with a mean age of 105.3 months. Cummins and Mulcahy (1979) p r o v i d e l i m i t e d evidence that nominative and p r e d i c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s of language are r e l a t e d to simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e tasks r e s p e c t i v e l y . More d i r e c t evidence f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between syntagmatic/paradigmatic language processes and s u c c e s s i v e -simultaneous processes i n gen e r a l was s u p p l i e d i n two s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d by Jarman (1980). In the f i r s t study, he ad m i n i s t e r e d two c l u s t e r i n g tasks as w e l l as three t e s t s each of simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . The 30 syntagmatic c l u s t e r i n g task c o n s i s t e d of twelve words, with the f i r s t and l a s t used as f i l l e r words, an example being c h a i r - s i t . The paradigmatic c l u s t e r i n g task was i d e n t i c a l i n format but the words were d i f f e r e n t , an example being sheep-lamb. The words w i t h i n each task were randomly p o s i t i o n e d , and read to the c h i l d . The c h i l d ' s t asks were to r e c a l l the words o r a l l y . In c h i l d r e n with a mean age of 7.6 years the syntagmatic c l u s t e r i n g task loaded with s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s , the paradigmatic c l u s t e r i n g task loaded with simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s . The study was repeated using o l d e r c h i l d r e n (9 years of age), and longer l i s t s of words. As i n the younger c h i l d r e n , the paradigmatic c l u s t e r i n g task loaded with simultaneous t a s k s . The syntagmatic task loaded with the s u c c e s s i v e t a s k s , but the l o a d i n g s were n e g a t i v e . Jarman (1980) was prevented from a c l e a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s due to methodological weaknesses. No d i r e c t evidence on the performance of Native c h i l d r e n on syntagmatic/paradigmatic p r o c e s s i n g tasks has been r e p o r t e d . I n d i r e c t support comes from i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of other c o g n i t i v e measures. Based on these i t i s suggested that Native c h i l d r e n p r e f e r a v i s u a l c o g n i t i v e s t y l e and when able to use i t , are p r o f i c i e n t i n both simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s e s . On s u c c e s s i v e tasks r e q u i r i n g coding of v e r b a l m a t e r i a l s , Native c h i l d r e n appear to f u n c t i o n lower than non-Native c h i l d r e n . 31 Block 3: Planning Level The f u n c t i o n a l system of the b r a i n i s i n v o l v e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of conscious a c t i v i t y through the programming, r e g u l a t i o n , and v e r i f i c a t i o n of behavior ( L u r i a , 1973). " I n t e l l i g e n c e i s not merely a matter of concept formation, i t i s a l s o a matter of p l a n n i n g " (Schubert, 1983, p. 73). Based on r e s e a r c h reviewed, Native c h i l d r e n appear to r e g u l a t e and plan behaviors n o n - v e r b a l l y r a t h e r than v e r b a l l y . T h i s i s l a r g e l y seen as a consequence of t h e i r l e a r n i n g environment. At the p l a n n i n g l e v e l , N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n evidence a c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , "or a sequence of c o g n i t i v e o p e r a t i o n s that are s e l e c t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l i n response to a problem s i t u a t i o n " (Das, K i r b y and Jarman, 1979, p. 140). Within the Luria/Das model, a t t e n t i o n may be c o n t r o l l e d by the p l a n n i n g l e v e l . V i s u a l search p a t t e r n s have been used as measure of p l a n n i n g (Kirby and Ashman, 1982), and based on Native competencies, v i s u a l - m o t o r problem s o l v i n g i s well-developed. The a u d i t o r y - v o c a l problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s are l e s s w e l l developed. Achievement l e v e l s of N a t i v e c h i l d r e n may be a r e f l e c t i o n of t h i s c o g n i t i v e s t y l e . The 'crossover' e f f e c t or d e c l i n i n g achievement at about grade three may i n f a c t r e f l e c t the N a t i v e c h i l d r e n ' s i n a b i l i t y to s h i f t from predominantly v i s u a l - m o t o r problem s o l v i n g a c c e p t a b l e at 32 primary e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s to predominantly a u d i t o r y - v o c a l problem s o l v i n g i n higher grades. T h i s was a l l u d e d to i n More's (1984b) f a c t o r a n a l y t i c r e s u l t s of 10 year o l d Native c h i l d r e n ' s K-ABC r e s u l t s . Communication p a t t e r n s of Native c h i l d r e n f u r t h e r suggest that these c h i l d r e n favor non-verbal r e g u l a t i o n of behavior (Greenbaum and Greenbaum, 1983). Support f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n comes from a v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n of behavior study conducted by Schubert and Cropley (1972) among Canadian Native and non-Native c h i l d r e n . In t h i s study Schubert and Cropley s t u d i e d northern r u r a l N a t i v e and white c h i l d r e n l i v i n g c l o s e r to a white urban c e n t r e . These c h i l d r e n were given the WISC and v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n of behavior t a s k s . S u b j e c t s ranged i n age from 6 to 11 y e a r s . The WISC r e s u l t s were c o n s i s t e n t with other WISC s t u d i e s : higher Performance than V e r b a l IQs. The Native c h i l d r e n who scored below 70 d i f f e r e d from white c h i l d r e n with s i m i l a r IQs; they had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n of behavior s c o r e s . As the authors summarize: The major d i f f e r e n c e between the northern Indian c h i l d and the urban c h i l d looks to l i e i n the f a c t that the former does not h a b i t u a l l y and spontaneously analyze h i s experience i n v e r b a l terms and does not formulate i n t e r n a l i z e d r u l e s t h a t might guide him i n new l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s (Schubert and Cropley, 1972, p. 300). Schubert (1983) r e p o r t e d on a s i m i l a r study done by S t e i n b e r g (1974/75) using Canadian Native c h i l d r e n aged 6 to 16 years of age who l i v e d on a r e s e r v a t i o n c l o s e to a 33 white urban c e n t r e . The r e s u l t s of the v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n of behavior t a s k s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the younger c h i l d r e n (6 to 8 years) i n c r e a s e d i n t h e i r s c o r e s , whereas a f t e r 8 years of age no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e was seen. The younger c h i l d r e n ' s scores were s i m i l a r to the white age mates. However, a l l s u b j e c t s i n the o l d e r group d i d not progress beyond the l e v e l of d i s c o v e r i n g a r u l e but u n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e x p l a i n i n g the r u l e . Based on an e a r l i e r study, t h i s was i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e t a r d a t i o n i n the a r t i c u l a t i o n of v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n of behavior. These c h i l d r e n have not developed the kinds of i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s which are necessary to f u n c t i o n adequately i n a Western e d u c a t i o n a l system (Schubert and C r o p l e y , 1972, p. 301 ) . The Native c o g n i t i v e s t y l e r e f l e c t s a g l o b a l v i s u a l approach as adapted from t h e i r environments, one which has not tended to r e l y on v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n of behavior (Schubert, 1983). L u r i a (1981) concluded from h i s s t u d i e s that a l l higher mental a c t i v i t y i s l a r g e l y based on v e r b a l p r o c e s s e s . The f o r m u l a t i o n of s i g n systems that mediate human a c t i v i t y was a major theme i n Vygotsky's (1979) and l a t e r , L u r i a ' s work. Within t h i s framework the m e d i a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of language p l a y a dominant r o l e i n what i s termed the second s i g n a l system. Second s i g n a l system l e a r n i n g , as d e s c r i b e d below, has l a r g e l y been s t u d i e d through v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n of behavior from a developmental p e r s p e c t i v e . The main p o i n t from t h i s l i n e of r e s e a r c h i s that young 34 c h i l d r e n (4 to 5 years) begin to evidence a s h i f t from e x t e r n a l to i n t e r n a l speech and become more a n a l y t i c a l . L u r i a (1981) g e n e r a l l y found that by 6 to 7 years of age c h i l d r e n predominently used s i l e n t speech to analyze s i t u a t i o n s , and used t h i s i n t e r n a l speech to form r u l e s to c o n t r o l behavior. The use of speech has been i d e n t i f i e d with the development of the second s i g n a l system. However, i t i s not i d e n t i c a l with human speech. T h i s system may develop without v e r b a l language and the development of s y n t a c t i c a l speech may a l s o develop somewhat independently from v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n of behavior. I t i s suggested that without adequate a b i l i t y to form sentences, there i s no v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n or conscious thought (Schubert, 1983). Vygotsky (1981) saw the f i n a l stage i n concept development as the emergence of s c i e n t i f i c concepts. T h i s was seen as developing concepts i n response to the requirements of formal i n s t r u c t i o n . L e a r n i n g thus takes p l a c e through the use of language and not through the use of d i r e c t r e f e r e n t s or concr e t e o b j e c t s (Wertsch, 1983). V e r b a l p r o c e s s i n g i s important f o r p l a n n i n g l e v e l f u n c t i o n i n g . While language i s not seen as c r e a t i n g p r o c e s s i n g , i t i s seen as a means of t r a n s f o r m i n g and r e o r g a n i z i n g p r e - e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s e s . As noted p r e v i o u s l y , the second s i g n a l system may develop without v e r b a l language. Native c h i l d r e n have been shown to use the second s i g n a l system but are poor at c o n s i s t e n t l y g e n e r a l i z i n g the 35 v e r b a l r u l e s f o r a c t i o n s . They showed s i m i l a r performance to white c h i l d r e n up to about 8 years of age. As the demands f o r higher l e v e l l i n g u i s t i c p r o c e s s i n g were r e q u i r e d i n task completion, t h e i r performance d i d not improve as d i d that of the white c h i l d r e n . T h i s age once again c o i n c i d e s with that noted i n achievement l e v e l s t u d i e s showing the 'crossover' e f f e c t , and suggests an over r e l i a n c e on v i s u a l - g l o b a l c o g n i t i v e s t y l e p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s . R e a d i n g A c h i e v e m e n t W i t h i n t h e L u r i a / D a s M o d e l Reading i s a language dependent task and r e q u i r e s both simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n . Both semantics and syntax are important i n rea d i n g , as i n language comprehension, and are r e s p e c t i v e l y r e l a t e d to simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , as reviewed e a r l i e r . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n reading performance appear to be r e l a t e d to simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g i n a developmental f a s h i o n ( K i r b y , 1980a). On g l o b a l r e a d i n g achievement measures, l e s s competent readers have been shown to r e l y on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , which i s what they are poor in (Doehring, 1968; 1978; Leong, 1980; 1982). F u r t h e r evidence of t h i s i s seen i n poor sequencing a b i l i t y and poor use of s y n t a c t i c cues. As reading a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e s readers r e l y upon and need sumultaneous p r o c e s s i n g (K i r b y , 1980a; K i r b y , 1982a, 1982b; K i r b y , Moore and Cousins, 1979; McLeod, 1978). 36 In the e a r l y stages of l e a r n i n g to read, s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g has been seen as c r i t i c a l (Das, Snart and Mulcahy, 1982; K i r b y , Moore and Cousins, 1979; Leong, 1982; Torgesen, 1978). In a c q u i r i n g r e a d i n g s k i l l s decoding and the use of graphic cues are important ( G o l i n k o f f , 1978; Kaufman and Kamphaus, 1984; Kaufman, N.L., 1980). Simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g i s i m p l i c a t e d i n higher l e v e l s of s k i l l e d reading (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983). At these l e v e l s semantics, conceptual knowledge and v e r b a l reasoning become prominent, and have been shown to r e l y on simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g ( B r a i l s f o r d , 1981; Cummins and Das, 1977; Das and Cummins, 1981; Das, K i r b y and Jarman, 1979; Ryckman, 1981) . F u r t h e r support f o r the importance of p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g and r e a d i n g achievement comes from the study of reading d i s a b i l i t y . Much of t h i s r e s e a r c h was conducted from w i t h i n the o l d paradigm of measuring p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t i e s . I t i s not the purpose of t h i s review to d e a l with t h i s massive body of r e s e a r c h , but r a t h e r to b r i e f l y i n d i c a t e g e n e r a l and c o n s i s t e n t trends w i t h i n i t . E a r l y r e s e a r c h tended to r e l y on modality s p e c i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t e s t r e s u l t s . Such areas as v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s (Orton, 1925), a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n and memory d i f f i c u l t i e s (Liberman, Shankweiler, Liberman, Fowler and F i s h e r , 1977) and cross-modal t r a n s f e r ( B i r c h , 1962; B i r c h and Belmont, 1964) have a l l been i n v e s t i g a t e d . More recent r e s e a r c h has gone beyond the modality s p e c i f i c 37 approach to look at other b a s i c d e f i c i t s . S e r i a l r e c a l l or s e q u e n t i a l memory has thus been widely researched (Aaron, 1982; Doehring, 1978; Hynd and Cohen, 1983; Rourke, 1976, 1983). Recently V e l l u t i n o (1979) and V e l l u t i n o and Scanlon (1982) have reviewed much of t h i s e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h , and p o s i t e d that reading d i s a b i l i t y may be due l a r g e l y to a v e r b a l p r o c e s s i n g d e f i c i t . S y n t a c t i c and semantic language p r o c e s s i n g are addressed i n V e l l u t i n o and Scanlon's (1982) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of reading d i f f i c u l t i e s . I d e n t i f y i n g words r e l i e s i n p a r t on s y n t a c t i c competence. Words not only r e l a t e s e m a n t i c a l l y (e.g., c a t - a n i m a l ) , but a l s o on the b a s i s of grammatical r e l a t i o n s h i p s s i m i l a r to syntagmatic a s s o c i a t i o n s (e.g., c a t - r u n s ) . Word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n context t h e r e f o r e , not only r e l i e s on a c o r r e c t semantic p r o d u c t i o n , but a l s o one which i s s y n t a c t i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e . V e l l u t i n o and Scanlon (1982) propose that word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n depends to a l a r g e degree on normal s y n t a c t i c competence. They see any degree of s y n t a c t i c impairment as d e t r i m e n t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g p h o n o l o g i c a l awareness r e q u i r e d i n beginning readers, but a l s o i n more mature readers when s y n t a c t i c order of words w i t h i n sentences i s important. T h i s view does not ignore the f i n d i n g that word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n can be done p h o n o l o g i c a l l y ( s u c c e s s i v e l y ) and/or d i r e c t l y ( s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ) . I t does suggest t h a t : 38 c h i l d r e n who employ one route e x c l u s i v e l y w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y impaired ... I t i s p o s s i b l e that some c h i l d r e n who are m i l d l y impaired i n s y n t a c t i c growth would not a c q u i r e p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s i n g a b i l i t i e s , which i s a l s o an important p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r normal progress i n beginning reading ( V e l l u t i n o and Scanlon, 1982, p. 237-238). C h i l d r e n u s i n g a d i r e c t approach f o r word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( i . e . , whole word) while e v i d e n c i n g comprehension i n the beginning stages of reading, a l s o e v e n t u a l l y need to use s y n t a c t i c o r d e r i n g of words w i t h i n a sentence f o r comprehension. At some p o i n t s y n t a c t i c - s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g needs to commence, whether at the stage of a word, phrase or sentence (Aaron, 1982). T h e r e f o r e c h i l d r e n r e l y i n g on a d i r e c t access f o r word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n are seen as needing s y n t a c t i c p r o c e s s i n g i n order to adequately cope with i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l and beyond reading t a s k s . Native Performance W i t h i n T h i s C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n The academic achievement of Native Indian c h i l d r e n may be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n t h i s language p r o c e s s i n g framework. In the e a r l y grades these c h i l d r e n , while slower to master read i n g s k i l l s , are nonetheless g e n e r a l l y a b l e to read adequately. I t i s at about grade 3 to 4 that s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s emerge: the ' c r o s s o v e r 1 . In the primary grades i t i s suggested that many Native c h i l d r e n r e l y on t h e i r p r e f e r r e d mode of p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e i r v i s u a l , simultaneous c o g n i t i v e s t y l e (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983; Kaulbach, 1984). T h i s circumvents s y n t a c t i c -39 s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g by mediating words d i r e c t l y , as g e s t a l t s (Aaron, 1982). T h i s i s a c c e p t a b l e i n the e a r l y grades. However, as the demands of the reading task s h i f t to meaning, i n pa r t based on the s y n t a c t i c order of words w i t h i n a sentence, these c h i l d r e n begin to experience d i f f i c u l t y (Aaron, 1982; C h a l l , 1983b). The semantic-simultaneous word r e c o g n i t o n demands of the task can be done by t h e i r p r e f e r r e d mode of p r o c e s s i n g , however; weaker s y n t a c t i c - s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g i s seen as i m p a i r i n g performance. The Use of Strategies The Luria/Das model o f f e r s one means f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g performance on i n t e l l i g e n c e and achievement measures. U n l i k e p r e v i o u s paradigms, i t a l s o p r o v i d e s a l o g i c a l f oundation f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l design (Sternberg, 1983). Within t h i s model c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n s can be improved. I n t e r v e n t i o n s w i t h i n i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g models, and i n p a r t i c u l a r the Luria/Das model have focused at p r i m a r i l y the p l a n n i n g l e v e l . E f f o r t s have c e n t r e d on t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n e i t h e r s u c c e s s i v e l y or s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and f o r f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n . S t r a t e g i e s are methods f o r approaching t a s k s . The s t r a t e g y system i s seen as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e t t i n g g o a l s , s e l e c t i n g and c o n s t r u c t i n g s t r a t e g i e s , and monitoring performance ( K i r b y , 1984b). S t r a t e g i e s may be g l o b a l , or fr e e from academic content (Das, 1984c). Such 40 macro-strategies are d e f i n e d as the general way i n which a person orders and r e l a t e s data on a p a r t i c u l a r task (Biggs, 1984). The c o g n i t i v e s t y l e of Native c h i l d r e n i s thus a macrostrategy f o r d e a l i n g with i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . S t r a t e g i e s may a l s o be s p e c i f i c or t a s k - r e l a t e d (Das, 1984c). Biggs (1984) r e f e r s to these as m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s . These s t r a t e g i e s , u n l i k e m a c r o s t r a t e g i e s , do not t r a n s f e r to d i f f e r e n t n o n - r e l a t e d t a s k s ; they are task s p e c i f i c . S t r a t e g i e s may a l s o d i f f e r i n the degree to which they are e s t a b l i s h e d . S t r a t e g i e s which are w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d , or h a b i t u a l , r e q u i r e l i t t l e thought for producing when p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . C o n s t r u c t i n g a new s t r a t e g y r e q u i r e s more p r o c e s s i n g b e f o r e i t becomes e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s dimension of s t r a t e g i e s i s r e f e r r e d to as a u t o m a t i c i t y , and i s i n c l u d e d i n many in f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g models. I n t e r v e n t i o n W i t h i n the L u r i a / D a s Model The use of g l o b a l s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g has been the focus of remediation w i t h i n the Luria/Das model. Krywaniuk (1974) used t h i s approach i n h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n study. He found, among other t h i n g s , that i n h i s sample of low a c h i e v i n g grade 3 and 4 N a t i v e c h i l d r e n , t h e i r f a c t o r analyzed t e s t performances loaded d i f f e r e n t l y to what i s normally found i n non-Native samples. As quoted e a r l i e r , Das, K i r b y and Jarman (1979, p. 130) suggest the r e s u l t s to i n d i c a t e that the Native c h i l d r e n had not l e a r n e d to 41 e f f e c t i v e l y use s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , probably because i t i s not the p r e f e r r e d mode w i t h i n t h e i r c u l t u r e . Krywaniuk d e v i s e d a t r a i n i n g programme to improve mainly s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . A f t e r 15 hours of i n t e r v e n t i o n , the c h i l d r e n had improved in s u c c e s s i v e s t r a t e g y use as w e l l as i n decoding, which r e l i e s on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g (Cummins and Das, 1977). Two other t r a i n i n g s t u d i e s have been r e p o r t e d . Kaufman (1978) t r a i n e d average and below average grade 4 white c h i l d r e n . Both simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s were taught, with an emphasis on s u c c e s s i v e . T h i s group showed improvements i n not only s u c c e s s i v e and simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g , but a l s o i n reading and a r i t h m e t i c . B r a i l s f o r d (1981) taught mainly simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s to grade four c h i l d r e n who were reading d i s a b l e d . Again, the c h i l d r e n improved i n simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g when compared with a c o n t r o l group. They a l s o improved i n reading comprehension, which has been shown to r e l y more on simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g . In a separate study, Lesak, Hunt and Randhawa (1982) taught simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s to classrooms of c h i l d r e n . The main purposes were to determine i f average grade four c h i l d r e n c o u l d b e n e f i t from a program to improve simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g , and i f t h i s would r e s u l t i n improved academic achievement s c o r e s . The r e s u l t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g 42 compared to the c o n t r o l group. However, there were s i g n i f i c a n t g ains in reading and a r i t h m e t i c f o r the experimental classrooms. T h i s suggested that the c h i l d r e n used the deployment of l e a r n e d s t r a t e g i e s to improve academic performance. The i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s would seem to i n d i c a t e that s t r a t e g i e s can be s u c c e s s f u l l y taught and more imp o r t a n t l y , can improve academic achievement (Das, K i r b y and Jarman, 1979) . The r e s e a r c h of Das and h i s c o l l e a g u e s i n t o the Luria/Das model has l a r g e l y r e l i e d on two techniques. The f i r s t i n v o l v e s the use of marker t e s t s , as r e f e r r e d to p r e v i o u s l y . The Ravens P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s has been i d e n t i f i e d with simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g ; s e r i a l r e c a l l with s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . Other t e s t s are i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r ' b a t t e r y ' . R e s u l t s of the t e s t i n g are, i n many cases, f a c t o r a n alyzed to determine c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y f o r simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , and t h e o r e t i c a l support f o r p r o c e s s i n g of s p e c i f i c t asks f o r s p e c i f i c groups of s u b j e c t s . From a r e s e a r c h p e r s p e c t i v e , d e a l i n g with groups of s u b j e c t s , t h i s has been a v i a b l e technique f o r a d d r e s s i n g concerns r e g a r d i n g the Luria/Das model. In s i t u a t i o n s where t h i s was not p o s s i b l e , the assessment of simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g was d i f f i c u l t to determine. While the processes can be i s o l a t e d f o r groups of c h i l d r e n , i n d i v i d u a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g has not been d i r e c t l y addressed w i t h i n t h i s l i t e r a t u r e . 43 The recent i n t r o d u c t i o n of the K-ABC has overcome t h i s problem to some ex t e n t . T h i s t e s t measures i n t e l l i g e n c e from an i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g p e r s p e c t i v e : that of simultaneous and s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g . Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) s t a t e that the K-ABC i s not a Lu r i a - b a s e d t e s t , but that the two mental p r o c e s s i n g s c a l e s , represent two types of mental f u n c t i o n i n g that have been i d e n t i f i e d independently by c e r e b r a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s ... by L u r i a ... and h i s f o l l o w e r s , ... and by c o g n i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i s t s (p. 2 ) . In s p i t e of t h i s statement, the t e s t has been a s s o c i a t e d with the Luria/Das model (Bracken, 1985; Das, I984e; Sternberg, 1984). C r i t i c i s m s have been d i r e c t e d at not only i t s adequacy of measuring the processes i n i n d i v i d u a l cases, but a l s o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of obtained r e s u l t s . The c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the K-ABC has been p a r t i c u l a r l y s t u d i e d , s i n c e the t e s t was designed to measure two t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) r e p o r t many v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s i n the t e s t i n g manual. Kaufman and Kamphaus (1984) r e p o r t e d the the r e s u l t s of a f a c t o r - a n a l y s i s of K-ABC s u b t e s t s f o r the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample. The p r i n c i p a l - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s of the Mental P r o c e s s i n g s u b t e s t s a c r o s s a l l the age l e v e l s y i e l d e d two robust f a c t o r s . The authors concluded there was c l e a r - c u t support f o r the e x i s t e n c e of the simultaneous and s e q u e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t s . They f u r t h e r addressed the is s u e of f a c t o r l o a d i n g s of the su b t e s t s a c r o s s the age 44 l e v e l s , and found the s u b t e s t s to l o a d on t h e i r d e s i g n a t e d f a c t o r s except f o r Hand Movements. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r subtest loaded s e q u e n t i a l l y up to age 5, and then loaded about e q u a l l y on both f a c t o r s through age 12 1/2 y e a r s . They acknowledged the developmental t r e n d f o r t h i s s u b t e s t . They a l s o examined three and four f a c t o r r o t a t e d s o l u t i o n s . For c e r t a i n age l e v e l s (4, 5, 6, 11 years) a t h i r d f a c t o r c o n s i s t i n g of T r i a n g l e s and G e s t a l t C l o s u r e was e v i d e n t . Other three f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s were sought, but proved to be i n c o n s i s t e n t , with l i t t l e c l i n i c a l meaning. Subsequent c o n f i r m a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y t i c r e s e a r c h has p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r support f o r the two-factor p r o c e s s i n g model (Kamphaus and Reynolds, 1984; K e i t h , 1985; K e i t h and Dunbar, 1984). K e i t h and Dunbar (1984) and K e i t h (1985) i n v e s t i g a t e d the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the K-ABC using the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n data of the 5, 7 and 10 year o l d s . They found a r o t a t e d two-factor p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s o l u t i o n f o r the Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite s u b t e s t s , with some i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . The Hand Movements s u b t e s t , as noted by Kaufman and Kamphaus (1984), loaded simultaneously in the 5 year o l d s . Word Order had a small but meaningful l o a d i n g on the simultaneous f a c t o r f o r the 7 year o l d s , while Photo S e r i e s loaded s e q u e n t i a l l y f o r t h e i r age group (Kaufman and Kamphaus, 1984, p. 15). O v e r a l l , the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e found was c o n s i s t e n t with the c o n s t r u c t s of the K-ABC. However, the authors f e l t these f a c t o r s c o u l d a l s o r e f l e c t nonverbal reasoning (simultaneous) and v e r b a l memory 45 ( s e q u e n t i a l ) . Hand Movements c o u l d be done n o n v e r b a l l y , r e f l e c t i n g i t s simultaneous l o a d i n g , or us i n g v e r b a l mediation, r e f l e c t i n g i t s s e q u e n t i a l l o a d i n g . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n thus c o n s i d e r s the developmental t r e n d observed f o r t h i s s u b t e s t . Das (I984e) has reviewed the K-ABC. Two main concerns were r a i s e d . F i r s t , Das noted that the K-ABC seems to assess only the coding l e v e l i n the Luria/Das model, l a r g e l y i g n o r i n g the a t t e n t i o n and p l a n n i n g l e v e l s . Bracken (1985) and Sternberg (1984) a l s o r a i s e d t h i s p o i n t . In r e p l y , Kaufman (1984) p o i n t e d out that the K-ABC i s not s o l e l y a Luria/Das t e s t , but r a t h e r i s based on two p r o c e s s i n g s t y l e s t h at have been i d e n t i f i e d by v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s , of which L u r i a i s but one. F u r t h e r to t h i s p o i n t , Kaufman (1984) f e l t that a number of the su b t e s t s do r e q u i r e v i g i l a n c e and pl a n n i n g , n o t a b l y Photo S e r i e s and T r i a n g l e s . A second major concern r a i s e d by Das (I984e) was that the K-ABC does not pro v i d e f o r s c o r i n g a performance based on s t r a t e g i e s used by a c h i l d . In f a c t , the s u b t e s t s are f a c t o r analyzed and s a i d to measure p r o c e s s i n g , r a t h e r than how the c h i l d a c t u a l l y performs the task (Sternberg, 1984). However, Das and h i s c o l l e a g u e s have f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r approach through the use of t h e i r b a t t e r y and marker t e s t s . When the r e s u l t s from t e s t i n g are f a c t o r analyzed i n a re s e a r c h s i t u a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e to address how tasks were a c t u a l l y performed. As Gunnison (1984) and Kaufman (1984) suggested, i n a c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g , 46 t h i s i s not p o s s i b l e , and must be determined from o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a c h i l d ' s performance. To date, support has been shown f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the K-ABC. R e s u l t s of i n i t i a l s t u d i e s suggest that both e x p l o r a t o r y and c o n f i r m a t o r y f a c t o r - a n a l y s i s support Kaufman and Kaufman's (1983) r e s u l t s amd a l s o i n d i c a t e some i n c o n s i s t e n c e s ( K e i t h , 1985; K e i t h and Dunbar, 1984). The manual f o r the t e s t i s very complete. D i s c u s s i o n s of the K-ABC have a l l i n d i c a t e d i t to be a promising t e s t , needing f u r t h e r research to e s t a b l i s h i t s u s e f u l n e s s (Bracken, 1985; Das, I984e; Gunnison, 1984; Gunnison et a l . , 1982; Kamphaus and Reynolds, 1984; K e i t h , 1985; 1986; K e i t h and Dunbar, 1984). As Das s t a t e s , "As a s t a n d a r d i z e d measure of processes i t may not be p e r f e c t , but i t i s a l l we have got" (1984e, p. 237). G e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f S t r a t e g i e s The i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d , and which used small groups of c h i l d r e n , have shown g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g to academic achievement. T h i s i s viewed as l a r g e l y due to the use of v e r b a l mediation used d u r i n g s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g (Das, K i r b y and Jarman, 1979). The v e r b a l system, as shown e a r l i e r , i s seen as a major means fo r not only c o n t r o l l i n g a t t e n t i o n a l processes ( B a r c l a y and Hagan, 1982; K i r b y , 1982a; L u r i a , 1981; Torgesen, 1981), but a l s o f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g the t r a n s f e r of l e a r n i n g by d e v eloping g e n e r a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r l e a r n i n g ( B r a i l s f o r d , 1981; Schubert, 1983; Wertsch, 1983). 47 The work of both L u r i a (1981) and Vygotsky (1978) i n d i c a t e s that c o g n i t i v e development i s marked by the t r a n s i t i o n from non-mediated, concr e t e t h i n k i n g to a b s t r a c t and v e r b a l l y - r e g u l a t e d t h i n k i n g . Higher-order a s s o c i a t i o n s are f e l t to be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the development of a symbolic language system (Vygotsky, 1962). T h i s development i s seen as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of both s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l events ( L u r i a , 1981). The work of F e u r e r s t e i n (1979) and F l a v e l l (1977, 1978, 1981) a l s o d e a l t with m e d i a t i o n a l use of language. St r a t e g y t r a i n i n g not only teaches s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s , but a l s o how to use the s t r a t e g i e s . T h i s i s viewed as accomplished through v e r b a l mediation. The tea c h i n g of s t r a t e g i e s assures that the c h i l d r e n have e f f e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g s k i l l s . The use of v e r b a l mediation while performing the s t r a t e g i e s i s seen as a means of ensu r i n g the maintenance and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the s t r a t e g i e s ( B a r c l a y and Hagan, 1982). Research attempts have been made to t r a i n the use of d i f f e r e n t g l o b a l s t r a t e g i e s . L i k e w i s e , d i f f e r e n t samples of c h i l d r e n have been taught these s t r a t e g i e s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e of these s t u d i e s i s the memory work of F l a v e l l (1977, 1981) with normal c h i l d r e n ; Torgesen (1978, 1980, 1981) and F e u e r s t e i n (1979) with l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n ; Brown and Campione (1982) with r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ; and Meichenbaum and Asarnor (1979) with c h i l d r e n with 48 behavior problems. Keogh and Glover.(1980), i n reviewing the g e n e r a l i t y of the v a r i o u s s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g approaches, noted that i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o g n i t i v e and language m a t u r i t y are a l s o l i k e l y i n f l u e n c e s i n the ap p r o p r i a t e n e s s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c o g n i t i v e t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s (p. 79). They noted that while v e r b a l mediation techniques have been s u c c e s s f u l with c h i l d r e n as young as 4 or 5 years of age, they are t y p i c a l l y used with o l d e r c h i l d r e n . Younger and impulsive c h i l d r e n were found to use p r i v a t e speech which was not p a r t i c u l a r l y t a s k - r e l e v a n t . Krywaniuk (1974) found that g l o b a l s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d be taught to low a c h i e v i n g grade three and four N a t i v e c h i l d r e n . The use of language was encouraged i n h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n s , and h i s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that i t was e f f e c t i v e i n c o n t r o l l i n g a t t e n t i o n and g e n e r a l i z i n g r e s u l t s . In younger c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y N a t i v e c h i l d r e n , t h i s may not prove to be the case. Although by 6 to 7 years of age many c h i l d r e n have a c q u i r e d the language necessary f o r t h i s type of i n t e r v e n t i o n , N a t i v e c h i l d r e n of the same age may not. As Schubert (1983) found, while Native Indian c h i l d r e n c o u l d perform a task age a p p r o p r i a t e l y , they had d i f f i c u l t y v e r b a l i z i n g the r u l e . L i k e w i s e , the a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h i n t o c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s of these c h i l d r e n suggested that they use a g l o b a l non-verbal c o g n i t i v e s t y l e to mediate behaviors, as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r environment. 49 The f a c t that g l o b a l s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g was e f f e c t i v e w ith o l d e r N a t i v e c h i l d r e n i s important. T h i s suggests t h a t these c h i l d r e n a l r e a d y had the p r o c e s s i n g and language s k i l l s necessary to do the t a s k s . The t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d s t r a t e g i e s which helped to organize t h i s e x i s t i n g knowledge. Younger c h i l d r e n may not posess e i t h e r the language s k i l l s to ensure some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n or the necessary s k i l l s to perform the s t r a t e g i e s . In the l a t t e r case the t r a i n i n g may be d e v e l o p i n g s p e c i f i c s k i l l s rather than t r a i n i n g e f f i c i e n t means of p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . In the case of simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g , i t has been assumed that these coding processes are i n t a c t and t r a i n i n g i s aimed at p l a n n i n g l e v e l s t r a t e g i e s f o r t h e i r task a p p r o p r i a t e performance (Das, K i r b y and Jarman, 1979; Das, 1984b; Das and Jarman, 1981). In the former case, i t has been p r e v i o u s l y suggested that p r o f i c i e n c y i n language may not be to a l e v e l where i t serves to r e g u l a t e behavior ( B a r c l a y and Hagan, 1982; Keogh and G l o v e r , 1980; Schubert and Cropley, 1972). While o l d e r N a t i v e c h i l d r e n were able to b e n e f i t from such a program, i t remains to be seen i f success can a l s o be shown with younger c h i l d r e n . Research with a t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n has shown encouraging s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s however, the Luria/Das model was not the focus of the r e s e a r c h . K i r b y (1984b) f e e l s that macroplanning s k i l l s such as c o g n i t i v e s t y l e may be r e s i s t a n t to change without the use of s p e c i f i c task c o n t e x t s . Thus the use of m a c r o s t r a t e g i e s i s seen as one means by which to a l t e r m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s . 50 M e t a l i n g u i s t i c Awareness Review I n t r o d u c t i o n and T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s M e t a l i n g u i s t i c knowledge or l i n g u i s t i c awareness i n v o l v e s the a b i l i t y to focus a t t e n t i o n upon the form of language i n and of i t s e l f , r a t h e r than as the v e h i c l e by which meaning i s conveyed (Ryan, 1980). The a b i l i t y to focus a t t e n t i o n on language per se i s seen as d e v e l o p i n g g r a d u a l l y with c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t e s . Understanding of spoken language focuses on meaning, with l i t t l e regard f o r the a c o u s t i c forms of language (Ryan and Ledger, 1984), whereas w r i t t e n language r e q u i r e s a n a l y s i s and mani p u l a t i o n of language forms i n order to e x t r a c t the meaning. Within t h i s d e f i n i t i o n the importance of r e f l e c t i v e awareness of language i s s t r e s s e d , and i s seen as developing along with the c h i l d ' s i n c r e a s i n g r e f l e c t i o n on and c o n t r o l of i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n s . Both of these p o i n t s are not n e c e s s a r i l y i d e n t i f i e d nor accepted i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Lawson, 1980). R e f l e c t i v e awareness, the 'consciousness of being c o n s c i o u s ' , i s c e n t r a l i n much metacognitive r e s e a r c h . Vygotsky (1962) viewed t h i s as l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of formal s c h o o l i n g . I t i s p r e c i s e l y d u r i n g e a r l y school age that the higher i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n , whose main f e a t u r e s are r e f l e c t i v e awareness and d e l i b e r a t e c o n t r o l , come to the fo r e i n the developmental process (Vygotsky, 1962, p. 90). 51 For Vygotsky and Leontev (1981), a c h i l d may be aware of language and focus upon i t momentarily, but t h i s i s not synonymous with true c onscious awareness. Conscious awareness r e q u i r e s not only the " a b i l i t y to make language forms opaque" but a l s o to "attend to them i n and f o r themselves" (Cazden, 1974). Thus the c h i l d i s seen as needing to be aware of the language forms and a l s o i n d i c a t e mastery and c o n t r o l of them. C h i l d r e n must l e a r n to focus t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the forms of language. Learned consciousness i s seen as the r e s u l t of a c t i v e l y being aware of the u n i t s of a n a l y s i s , and a c t i n g upon t h i s awareness (Brown and DeLoache, 1978). T h i s p o i n t w i l l be r e t u r n e d to l a t e r . Language awareness may be viewed as d e v e l o p i n g through three stages ( V a l t i n , 1984a). The f i r s t i n v o l v e s the automatic use of language w i t h i n a communication s i t u a t i o n . The second l e v e l i s a l s o seen as l a r g e l y speech r e l a t e d . C h i l d r e n have ' a c t u a l awareness' of language and can a b s t r a c t from the a c t i o n and the meaning context to th i n k about the form of language. Knowledge about language u n i t s i s s t i l l i m p l i c i t . At t h i s stage, c h i l d r e n may manipulate language, but t h i s i s not viewed as a c o n s c i o u s a c t i v i t y . Both E l k o n i n (1973) and L u r i a (1976, 1981) s t r e s s that a c h i l d needs to i s o l a t e the word from i t s meaning i n order to have conscious awareness. Tunmer and Herriman (1984) d i s c u s s the same p o i n t : 52 Although l i n g u i s t i c i n t u i t i o n s i n v o l v e m e t a l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s , they must not be equated with them. T h i s i s an e s p e c i a l l y important p o i n t to bear i n mind i n the e v a l u a t i o n of s t u d i e s concerned with the development of m e t a l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s i n c h i l d r e n . I t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e , f o r example, that c h i l d r e n are able to perform m e t a l i n g u i s t i c o p e r a t i o n s without being a b l e to pr o v i d e e x p l i c i t , a d u l t - l i k e judgements about language s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n (p. 14). Thus, while c h i l d r e n may be able to t e l l i f two words rhyme, they cannot produce rhymes on request. The t h i r d stage i s seen as conscious awareness, i n which the c h i l d can d e l i b e r a t e l y focus on and manipulate l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s . T h i s knowledge i s e x p l i c i t , and viewed by some as dependent on formal i n s t r u c t i o n (Donaldson, 1978; Leontev, 1981; Vygotsky, 1962). M a t t i n g l y ' s (1972, 1979, 1984) view of l i n g u i s t i c awareness i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t to t h i s o u t l i n e . He f e e l s t h a t l i n g u i s t i c awareness.is not a matter of con s c i o u s awareness, but r a t h e r of access to the c e r t a i n a spects of l i n g u i s t i c a c t i v i t y . Thus he s t a t e s : the primary l i n g u i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s of speaking and l i s t e n i n g are n a t u r a l i n a l l normal human beings, secondary l i n g u i s t i c a c t i v i t i e s ... are p a r a s i t i c on these primary a c t i v i t i e s , and r e q u i r e " l i n g u i s t i c awareness," a s p e c i f i c a l l y c u l t i v a t e d m e t a l i n g u i s t i c consciousness of c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of primary l i n g u i s t i c a c t i v i t y . I s t i l l b e l i e v e t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n to be a v a l i d one, but I now t h i n k that l i n g u i s t i c awareness i s not a matter of consciousness, but of a c c e s s . T h i s access i s probably l a r g e l y unconscious, the degree of consciousness i s not very r e l e v a n t ( M a t t i n g l y , 1984, p. 9). 53 M a t t i n g l y (1972, 1979, 1984) views language as i n n a t e l y g i v e n , and thus d u r i n g the p e r i o d of a c t i v e language l e a r n i n g , grammatical knowledge i s h i g h l y a c c e s s i b l e to c h i l d r e n who possess l i n g u i s t i c awareness. He does not p o s i t the need f o r consciousness and thus a d d i t i o n a l c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s . While M a t t i n g l y (1972) o r i g i n a l l y c r e a t e d i n t e r e s t i n reading c i r c l e s by h i s use of the term ' l i n g u i s t i c awareness', h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s not p r e s e n t l y one of the more s e r i o u s l y regarded f o r m u l a t i o n s f o r the term p r e s e n t l y i n use. Language a b i l i t y i s viewed as necessary i n most c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s , needed i n c o n j u n c t i o n with some other reasoning or c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s . A n a l y z i n g l i n g u i s t i c awareness with r e f e r e n c e to c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s r e q u i r e s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of three a s p e c t s (Watson, 1984). The c h i l d must be a b l e to focus a t t e n t i o n on language forms per se (Donaldson, 1978; Cazden, 1974; Ryan, 1980; P r a t t and G r i e v e , 1984a; Ryan and Ledger, 1984). The c h i l d needs to a c q u i r e the concepts of o r a l and w r i t t e n language such as 'word', 'sentence', e t c . (Downing, 1982; 1984). The c h i l d needs the a b i l i t y to d e l i b e r a t e l y use the s t r u c t u r e s of language. In order f o r a c h i l d to focus on language per se the e f f e c t of c o g n i t i v e development and s c h o o l i n g i s seen as important. A number of r e s e a r c h e r s view the development of m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness as r e l a t e d to more gen e r a l changes i n c o g n i t i v e development. Hakes (1980) r e l a t e d the 54 development of m e t a l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y to P i a g e t ' s concept of d e c e n t r a t i o n of thought. He wrote that the m e t a l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d i n l i n g u i s t i c t a s k s " i s the same a b i l i t y as that whose development u n d e r l i e s the emergence of co n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s " (Hakes, 1980, p. 100). T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to the r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s of metacognitive knowledge i n s e v e r a l other a r e a s , although not n e c e s s a r i l y t i e d to P i a g e t ' s theory (Brown, 1982; Brown and DeLoache, 1978; F l a v e l l , 1977, 1981). The f a c t that the concepts of w r i t t e n and o r a l language the c h i l d a c q u i r e s are not p a r t of the n a t u r a l consequence of c o g n i t i v e development or language development r e q u i r e s one to c o n s i d e r the cause and e f f e c t of s c h o o l i n g i n the development of m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness. Vygotsky (1962, 1981) and Leontev (1981), as mentioned e a r l i e r , view the con s c i o u s awareness of t h i n k i n g , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness, as r e l a t e d to formal s c h o o l i n g . Donaldson (1978) f e e l s that l e a r n i n g to read b r i n g s about an i n c r e a s e i n m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness. E h r i (1980, 1984) views s c h o o l i n g and c o g n i t i v e development as i n t e r a c t i n g to a f f e c t l i n g u i s t i c awareness. The concepts of l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e are mainly the r e s u l t of l i t e r a c y . Less developed c u l t u r e s and i l l i t e r a t e a d u l t s do not show the same l e v e l of l i n g u i s t i c awareness as more l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e s . L i k e w i s e , c h i l d r e n may vary i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to use l i n g u i s t i c awareness as r e f l e c t e d i n the performance of poor readers (Downing, 1984; Downing and 55 Leong, 1982). Thus s p e c i f i c m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness i s s p e c i f i c to c u l t u r e s and to the e f f e c t s of s c h o o l i n g . The s e p a r a t i o n of the a c q u i s i t i o n of concepts of w r i t t e n language and the a b i l i t y to d e l i b e r a t e l y u t i l i z e t h i s knowledge i s a l s o debated. Vygotsky (1962) does not separate the two, f e e l i n g that "the c o n t r o l of f u n c t i o n i s the c o u n t e r p a r t of one's consciousness of i t " (p. 90). Ryan and Ledger (1984), as c i t e d , d i s t i n g u i s h between the awareness and the c o n t r o l a s p e c t s . T h i s i s i n l i n e with more recent i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g models and a l l o w s f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n of m e t a l i n g u i s t i c performances (Lawson, 1980; P r a t t and G r i e v e , 1984a, 1984b; Watson, 1984). The act of r e f l e c t i n g on language i s seen as a consequence of and d i s t i n c t from c o n t r o l of c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . M e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness i s domain s p e c i f i c ; c o g n i t i v e c o n t r o l processes may g e n e r a l i z e a c r o s s domains (Lawson, 1984). At present the r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g and the use of s t r a t e g i e s with m e t a l i n g u i s t i c performances. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x p l i c i t m e t a l i n g u i s t i c knowledge and performance i s not c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d . These are confused i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The d i s t i n c t i o n between general c o g n i t i v e c o n t r o l processes and knowledge-based c o g n i t i v e c o n t r o l processes can be framed w i t h i n the Luria/Das model of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . As presented e a r l i e r , s t r a t e g i e s f o r e i t h e r g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g or t a s k - s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s are a Block 3 f u n c t i o n . The g l o b a l s t r a t e g i e s , 56 m a c r o s t r a t e g i e s , can be taught as g e n e r a l ways of p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . The l a t t e r , m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s , can l i k e w i s e be taught i n r e l a t i o n to s p e c i f i c task performances. The former are f e l t to g e n e r a l i z e more e a s i l y to other task performances, whereas the l a t t e r do not. L i n g u i s t i c awareness r e s e a r c h has tended to focus on t a s k - s p e c i f i c knowledge and s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g . In t h i s l i t e r a t u r e there i s l i t t l e c o n t r o v e r s y over the e x i s t e n c e of the important r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i n g u i s t i c awareness and r e a d i n g . There i s c o n t r o v e r s y over the reasons f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p , as summarized e a r l i e r (Watson, 1984). Not only i s there c o n t r o v e r s y over the reasons f o r t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , but a l s o as to the appearance of l i n g u i s t i c awareness performances and whether they emerge i n sequence or synchronously. I f one tends to view the emergence of m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness as c o n t i n g e n t upon the development of metacognition, or the a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l i n t e l l e c t u a l p rocesses, then s y n c h r o n i c i t y i s i m p l i e d . T h i s does not mean, however, that the r a t e of development f o r each i s equal (Tunmer and Herriman, 1984). The work of F l a v e l l (1977) and Rozin and Gleitman (1977) suggest an order f o r the emergence of m e t a l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t i e s , although they d i s a g r e e as to the sequence. Rozin and Gleitman (1977) hypothesize the order of emergence to r e f l e c t depth of p r o c e s s i n g , with deep r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s being e a s i e r to access than s u r f a c e ones. T h i s sequence has been 57 r e s e a r c h e d w i t h i n t h e r e a d i n g l i t e r a t u r e ( E h r i , 1 9 8 0 , 1 9 8 4 ; E h r i a n d W i l c e , 1 9 8 5 ; G o u g h a n d H i l l i n g e r , 1 9 7 9 ; M a s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . W h i l e o t h e r v i e w p o i n t s a r e a p p a r e n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , a t p r e s e n t n o c l e a r - c u t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n e x i s t s . C o m m o n l y s t u d i e d m e t a l i n g u i s t i c c o m p e t e n c i e s i n c l u d e w o r d a w a r e n e s s a n d p h o n o l o g i c a l a w a r e n e s s . Word Awareness A f u l l y d e v e l o p e d w o r d a w a r e n e s s i s s e e n a s i n v o l v i n g t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s . T h e s e a r e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e w o r d a s a u n i t o f l a n g u a g e , a w a r e n e s s o f t h e w o r d a s a n a r b i t r a r y p h o n o l o g i c a l l a b e l , a n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e m e t a l i n g u i s t i c t e r m w o r d ( B o w e y a n d T u n m e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e s e t h r e e a s p e c t s o f w o r d a w a r e n e s s a r e b e l i e v e d t o d e v e l o p i n d e p e n d e n t l y ( T u n m e r , B o w e y a n d G r e i v e , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e c h i l d ' s f i r s t t a s k i n a c q u i r i n g r e a d i n g s k i l l s i s t o r e a l i z e t h a t o n e s p o k e n w o r d c o r r e s p o n d s t o o n e w r i t t e n w o r d ( E h r i , 1 9 7 5 ) . T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y a s s u m e d t o e x i s t w h e n c h i l d r e n e n t e r f o r m a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . B u t i n o r d e r t o d o t h i s t h e c h i l d m u s t p o s s e s s t h e l o g i c a l p r i o r n o t i o n t h a t t h e f l o w o f s p e e c h t h a t h a s b e e n p r o d u c e d a n d i n t e r p r e t e d u n r e f l e c t i n g l y f o r y e a r s i s , i n f a c t , c o m p o s e d o f w o r d s ( D o n a l d s o n , 1 9 7 8 ) . R e s e a r c h r a i s e s d o u b t s a b o u t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . F i r s t , i n s p e e c h t h e r e i s n o s i m p l e p h y s i c a l b a s i s f o r d e t e c t i n g w o r d s , t h e r e a r e n o s p a c e s b e t w e e n s p o k e n w o r d s a s t h e r e a r e b e t w e e n w r i t t e n w o r d s . 58 Second, E h r i (1975, 1979) argues that c h i l d r e n focus on the meaning of words i n c o n t e x t , and not on s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between words. T h i r d , she sees that most words r e l y on other words f o r t h e i r meaning. In l e a r n i n g to read c h i l d r e n need to develop the p h o n o l o g i c a l r e a l i z a t i o n of words, which f o r almost a l l words except c o n c r e t e nouns, depends on words i n meaningful c o n t e x t s . The key q u e s t i o n i n t h i s area of r e s e a r c h i s whether beginning readers are aware t h a t u t t e r a n c e s c o n s i s t of words. The recent r e s e a r c h reviewed by Bowey and Tunmer (1984), E h r i (1984) and Blachman (1984), would suggest that c h i l d r e n are not. C h i l d r e n 6 to 7 years of age experience d i f f i c u l t y segmenting words w i t h i n sentences ( E h r i , 1975, 1979; F r a n c i s , 1973; H a l l , 1976; Holden and M a c G i n i t i e , 1972; Lundberg, 1978; Templeton and Spivey, 1980). Downing, O l l i l a and O l i v e r (1975) found that c h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade one do not have a c l e a r understanding of the term word. The youngest c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r sample over-estimated the concept of 'word' but that t h i s was l e s s i n o l d e r c h i l d r e n . A commonly used paradigm i n t h i s r e s e a r c h has been to have c h i l d r e n l i s t e n to sentences, and to r e p r e s e n t each word spoken with a token or tap. Grade one c h i l d r e n score at about 50 percent using t h i s paradigm (Evans, T a y l o r and Blum, 1979). When feedback i s provided, k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n were able to perform the task f o r nouns, but had d i f f i c u l t y with f u n c t i o n words ( E h r i , 1975; Holden and 59 M a c G i n i t i e , 1972). The problem with using sentences i s one of memory load while t r y i n g to segment words. T h i s may have confounded the r e s u l t s , although the a b i l i t y to segment a u r a l word boundaries i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to reading achievement (Evans, T a y l o r and Blum, 1979). Three s t u d i e s have shown that young c h i l d r e n can s u c c e s s f u l l y segment word s t r i n g s i n t o words. Fox and Routh (1975) avoided the problem of using the term 'word' by a s k i n g the c h i l d r e n from 3 to 7 years of age to say " j u s t a l i t t l e b i t " of a spoken u t t e r a n c e . Sentences ranged from three to seven words i n l e n g t h . Using t h i s procedure they found that 4 year o l d c h i l d r e n c o u l d segment seven of the e i g h t t e s t sentences, whereas the 3 year o l d s c o u l d segment f i v e . Fox and Routh were able to get the c h i l d r e n to segment to i n d i v i d u a l words by r e q u e s t i n g f u r t h e r segmentation i f a phrase was given i n response by the c h i l d . They d i d not request segmentation beyond the l e v e l of a word. The r e s u l t s are f e l t to d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t experimental procedure, r a t h e r than evidence that young c h i l d r e n can segment sentences i n t o words. Tunmer and Bowey (1981) d i d three experiments i n v e s t i g a t i n g f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g young c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y to segment speech. They used word tapping as the response mode. Words used were a l l one s y l l a b l e , thus a v o i d i n g s y l l a b i c s t r e s s as a c l u e . They found that 4 year o l d s c o u l d segment 73 percent of the word s t r i n g s , while f i r s t graders performed at the 90 percent l e v e l . C h i l d r e n were 60 most ac c u r a t e with s t r i n g s c o n t a i n i n g verbs and q u a n t i f i e r s . Tunmer, Bowey and Grieve (1983) i n v e s t i g a t e d the use of s y l l a b i c s t r e s s as a b a s i s f o r responding to the word tapping tas k . They found that the high scores in t h e i r p r e v i o u s study may have r e f l e c t e d the use of a s y l l a b i c s t r e s s s t r a t e g y i n word tapping by some of the c h i l d r e n . They a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d segmentation of s t r i n g s c o n t a i n i n g compound words and meaningful two and three word s t r i n g s . A n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a q u a l i t a t i v e s h i f t i n segmenting. For the young c h i l d r e n (4 to 5 y e a r s ) , segmentation seemed to r e l y on phrase and s y l l a b l e s t r e s s , and performance was poor. Older c h i l d r e n responded to c o n c r e t e nouns, but not to f u n c t i o n words, as r e p o r t e d by E h r i (1975, 1979). The o l d e s t c h i l d r e n (7 years) responded f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y to the a b s t r a c t c onception of word as the s m a l l e s t , meaningful u n i t of language. In l e a r n i n g to read c h i l d r e n must have a minimum l e v e l of word awareness before they can r e a l i z e that a systematic correspondence e x i s t s betweeen the subunits of w r i t t e n and spoken words, the graphemes and phonemes. The r e s e a r c h of E h r i (1975, 1979) and E h r i and Wilce (1985) suggests that knowledge of grapheme correspondences at the l e x i c a l l e v e l i s more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d with word r e c o g n i t i o n than knowledge of s i n g l e grapheme-phoneme correspondences. The r e s e a r c h of Liberman et a l . (1977) i n d i c a t e s that i t i s not p o s s i b l e to segment a speech s i g n a l such t h a t each segment 61 corresponds to one and only one phoneme. Thus c h i l d r e n cannot be d i r e c t l y taught i n d i v i d u a l grapheme-phoneme correspondences, s i n c e there i s not a way to represent a systematic phoneme i n i s o l a t i o n (Gough, 1972). C h i l d r e n must d i s c o v e r the correspondences by r e f l e c t i n g upon spoken words and t h e i r w r i t t e n c o u n t e r p a r t s (Tunmer et al . , 1983). P h o n o l o g i c a l awareness w i l l be d e a l t with more f u l l y i n the next s e c t i o n . In t e a c h i n g reading i t i s p o s s i b l e to a v o i d segmentation problems. T h i s i s done through t e a c h i n g whole words. The d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s approach i s that words are not l e a r n e d as a r b i t r a r y u n i t s but r a t h e r w i t h i n a meaning base. C h i l d r e n taught t h i s way may not f u l l y r e a l i z e t h a t the meaning of a word i s separate from i t s p h o n o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Young c h i l d r e n have been shown to experience d i f f i c u l t y i n s e p a r a t i n g words from t h e i r r e f e r e n t s (Vygotsky, 1962). Phonological Awareness Beginning readers e a s i l y l e a r n to read d i s t i n c t s i g h t words. However, as new words are l e a r n e d i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y more d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e words based on d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s (Gough and H i l l i n g e r , 1979). Unless the c h i l d comes to l e a r n an a l t e r n a t e s t r a t e g y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p betweeen spoken and w r i t t e n language, f r u s t r a t i o n and c o n f u s i o n w i l l r e s u l t . In order to become a f l u e n t reader, the c h i l d must l e a r n to decode words. 62 I n i t i a l l y the beginning reader needs to l e a r n that there i s a systematic r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e t t e r s of the alphabet and the phonemes of the language. The d i f f i c u l t y here i s not with mastering the graphic symbols ( C a l f e e , 1977), but r a t h e r mastering the p h o n o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r the grapheme. To s u c c e s s f u l l y do t h i s , c h i l d r e n must become p h o n o l o g i c a l l y aware. P h o n o l o g i c a l awareness r e q u i r e s two b a s i c r e a l i z a t i o n s . F i r s t , a spoken word i s an o b j e c t that can be manipulated and t h i s was d i s c u s s e d under word awareness. Second, words are made up of phonemes or segments. While these requirements seem s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d , there i s ample evidence that t h i s i s not the case f o r young c h i l d r e n . The d i f f i c u l t y i n a c q u i r i n g p h o n o l o g i c a l awareness has to do with the a b s t r a c t n e s s of phonemes. Many young c h i l d r e n are not able to c o n s c i o u s l y segment words i n t o t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t phonemes ( C a l f e e , 1977; Hakes, 1980; Liberman et a l . , 1977, 1980; Lundberg and Torneus, 1978; Rozin and Gleitman, 1977; Tunmer and Bowey, 1984; Tunmer and Nesdale, 1982). T h i s l a c k of awareness of the phonemic a n a l y s i s of language has been i m p l i c a t e d i n f i r s t graders' d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a c q u i r i n g r e a d i n g s k i l l s ( C a l f e e , 1977; Fox and Routh, 1975, 1976, 1980; Liberman et al . , 1977; Lundberg, 1978; Read, 1978; Shankweiler et a l . , 1979; Wallach and Wallach, 1976; Wallach et a l . , 1977; W i l l i a m s , 1984). Both E h r i (1979) and G o l i n k o f f (1978) f u l l y review 63 most of t h i s r e s e a r c h . While c h i l d r e n can d i s c r i m i n a t e between speech sounds t h i s i s not the same as r e a l i z i n g t h a t the r e l e v a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s phonemic. The r e a l i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s conscious awareness of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between orthography and p h o n o l o g i c a l segments. The crux of p h o n o l o g i c a l awareness f o r the c h i l d i s that there i s no simple p h y s i c a l b a s i s f o r r e c o g n i z i n g phonemes in speech. The r e s e a r c h of Liberman and her c o l l e a g u e s (1974, 1977) has shown that i t i s not p o s s i b l e to segment speech s i g n a l s such that each segment corresponds to one and only one phoneme. As Gough s t a t e s , "We cannot show him that t h i s c h a r a c t e r goes with a systematic phoneme, f o r there i s no way to i s o l a t e a systematic phoneme" (1972, p. 348). In decoding a word such as 'bag' the c h i l d t y p i c a l l y segments i n t o s y l l a b l e s , as i n 'buh-ah-guh'. In order to "map the p r i n t e d , t h r e e - l e t t e r word bag onto the spoken word bag, which i s a l r e a d y i n h i s l e x i c o n , he must know that the spoken s y l l a b l e a l s o has three segments" (Liberman et a l . , 1977, p. 209, emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) . To do t h i s , the c h i l d must be a b l e to phonemically segment words. Since there i s not one-to-one correspondence between phonemes and graphemes, the c h i l d must l e a r n to d i s c o v e r the r u l e s f o r h i m s e l f . T h i s d i s c o v e r y l a r g e l y r e l i e s on the s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g of m e t a c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s , and reasoning (Watson, 1984). In t h i s regard, phonics i s seen as a means of p r o v i d i n g the c h i l d with i n f o r m a t i o n about phoneme-grapheme 64 r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but does not a c t u a l l y teach the s k i l l s (Gough and H i l l i n g e r , 1979). As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , E h r i (1979) and G o l i n k o f f (1978) have reviewed much of the e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h . More recent reviews have been done by E h r i (1984), Downing (1984), Watson (1984), Nesdale, Herriman and Tunmer (1984), and Blackman (1984). The main f i n d i n g s of the p h o n o l o g i c a l awareness r e s e a r c h , as summarized by V a l t i n (1984a, 1984b), are l i s t e d below, and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t u d i e s are o u t l i n e d i n Table 1. 1. Phonemic segmentation i s a d i f f i c u l t task due to the nature of the a c o u s t i c s i g n a l . In speech the phonemes are not d i s c r e t e u n i t s but encoded at the a c o u s t i c l e v e l i n t o l a r g e r u n i t s of approximately s y l l a b l e s i z e (Liberman et al . , 1977). Since phonemes are a b s t r a c t u n i t s , phonemic segmentation and s y n t h e s i s are thus not simple a s s o c i a t i v e memory tasks but h i g h l y demanding conc e p t u a l tasks ( E h r i , 1984). S y l l a b l e segmentation i s e a s i e r than phonemic segmentation (Fox and Routh, 1975, 1976; Gleitman and Rozin, 1973, 1977; G o l d s t e i n , 1976; Lundberg et al . , 1 980). 2. The d i f f i c u l t y of phonemic tasks v a r i e s with complexity of the o p e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e d , e.g., r e c o g n i t i o n , c o u n t i n g , p a r t i a l segmentation, f u l l segmentation, m a n i p u l a t i o n , and r e v e r s a l of phonemic u n i t s ( G o l i n k o f f , 1978; Lewkowicz, 1980; Nesdale, Herriman and Tunmer, 1984). The d i f f i c u l t y a l s o depends on type and p o s i t i o n of the phonemes (Lundberg, 1978). T a b l e 1: R e p r e s e n t a t i v e P h o n o l o g i c a l Awareness T r a i n i n g S t u d i e s A u t h o r s S u b j e c t s T e s t s Intens i t y Tasks R e s u l t s B r a d l e y & E x p e r i m e n t a l : Pre: 40 s e s s i o n s over Group 1: taught Group 1 b e t t e r than B r y a n t (1983) Group 1 13 Ss -Sound Categ. Tes t 2 years sound c a t e g o r - Group 3 by 3 t o 4 Group 2 13 Ss -Verbal 10 i z a t i o n f o r b e g i n , months C o n t r o l -30 t r i a l memory middle, & f i n a l Group 2 b e t t e r than Group 3 26 Ss t e s t r e c a l 1 i n g 4 sounds u s i n g Group 1 i n r e a d i n g Group 4 13 Ss words p i c t u r e s and s p e l 1 i n g Ss matched on age, -word r e a d i n g Group 2: same as Group 2 b e t t e r s c o r e d 2 S.D. on Post: above & used overal 1 Sound -WISC-R l e t t e r s & l e a r n e d Categor i z a t i on Sound Categ. Tes t how sounds r e p r e -T e s t , and c o u l d Schonnel Reading & sente d by l e t t e r s r e a d no words Spel 1ing -Neale Group 3: used p i c t u r e s of Group 1 but taught to c o n c e p t u a l i z e & c l a s s i f y them Group 4: no treatment Fox & Routh 4 - y r - o l d s c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d word 1-30 min. - r e a d i n g Gibson- -segmentat i o n ( 1976) t e s t s s e s s i on l i k e forms such as words (e.g. , A|±) e a s i e r , b l e n d i n g showed no e f f e c t G o l d s t e i n Group 1 1 1 PPVT 12 wks-10 mins. Group 1: -segmentation and ( 1976) 4 - y r - o l d s S e q u e n t i a l Memory da i 1 y B a l 1 - S t i c k - B i r d s y n t h e s i s of Group 2 12 Word A n a l y s i s - sounding s y l l a b l e s e a s i e r 4 - y r - o l d s Synthes i s Group 2: same book than l e t t e r Word Reading but l e a r n e d l e t t e r s e g mentation S t o r y T e s t names, no segtnentat i on - r e s u l t s p r e d i c t i v e of i n i t i a l r e a d i n g achievement -Group 1 b e t t e r on r e a d i n g t a s k s Marsh & Mimeo 64 p r e s c h o o l e r s PPVT 4 day t r i a l to Group 1: p a i r i n g -Group 1 b e t t e r ( 1977) Group 1 c r i t e r i on phoneme w i t h - s i g n i f i c a n t Group 2 4 day t r i a l t r a n s f e r to c r i t e r i o n to grapheme Group 2: p a i r i n g phoneme t o c o l o u r e d c a r d improvement o v e r t r i a l s T a b l e 1 ( c o n t i n u e d ) A u t h o r s Subj e c t s T e s t s I n t e n s i t y Tasks R e s u l t s 0 1 1 i l a , Johnson, & Downing (1974) 60 k i n d e r g a r t e n 3 groups -Wepman A u d i t o r y T e s t -Phoneme Counting -LARR: Word matching L i t e r a c y Concepts L e t t e r R e c o g n i t i o n B e g i n n i n g Sounds 6 Weeks: 1/2 hr freq u e n c y not s t a t e d - E l k o n i n t a s k s -Group 2: l e t t e r r e c o g n i t i o n & i dent i f i c a t i on -Group 3: s y n t h e t i c p h o n i c s worksheets E l k o n i n approach b e t t e r on Wepman & Phoneme c o u n t i n g -no LARR d i f f e r e n c e s O l o f s s o n & Lundberg (1983) Group 1: 19 Group 2: 28 Group 3: 14 Group 4: 23 Group 5: 11 Ss: a l l k i n d e r g a r t e n ~ Mean age: 6.11 y r s phonemic & s y n t h e t i c word r e a d i n g 6-8 wks: 1 hr, 3-4 times/week Group 1: s t r u c t u r e d Group 2: l e s s s t r u c t u r e d Group 3: spontaneous Group 4: a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m . but no sounds l e a r n e d Group 5: Swedish p r e s c h o o l program Group 1: o n l y group to show c l e a r g a i n s B i moda1 d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s y n t h e s i s and segme n t a t i o n t a s k s R o h r l a c k , B e l l & McLaughli n ( 1982) Group 1: 9 k1ndergarten Group 2: 10 k i n d e r g a r t e n Lindamood A u d i t o r y C o n c e p t u a l I z a t l o n Gates-McGini t i e 20 m i ns da i 1 y f o r 13 s e s s i o n s -sequencing s t o r y c a r d s -sequencing sound p a t t e r n s - b l e n d i n g words Group 1 improved on Gates b l e n d i n g and audi t o r y d i s e r i m i nat i on t e s t s LAC p a r t s 1A & 1B i mproved Treiman & Baron ( 1983) Group 1: 8 p r e s c h o o l e r s Group 2: 20 k i n d e r g a r t e n s 4 days: each day was p a r t a n a l y s i s and p a r t c o n t r o l A n a l y s i s : s y l l a b l e s segmented i n t o i n i t i a l & phonogram (e.g., h/en) C o n t r o l : 4 s y l 1 a b l e s read a l o u d w i t h no segmentat i on (e . g . , vok) P a r t 11: read p a i r e d - a s s o c i a t e items used i n f i r s t p a r t w i t h a n a l y s i s phonemic awareness h e l p e d s p e l l i n g -sound r u l e s & de c o d i n g T a b l e 1 ( c o n t i n u e d ) A u t h o r s S u b j e c t s T e s t s I n t e n s i t y Tasks R e s u l t s W i l l i a m s (1980) 60 7 to 12 y r o l d from the program: 6 mos.-20 min. -from the program: -those taught the L.D. ABD's of Reading d a i l y , 3 t o 4 ABD's of Reading program b e t t e r a t C o n t r o l s : 16 groups times weekly d e c o d i n g of 4 c h i l d r e n 68 Although phonemic segmentation may be t r a i n e d i n pr e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , not a l l c h i l d r e n w i l l l e a r n i t . The e f f e c t s of phonemic t r a i n i n g when v i s u a l a i d s are used to represent the sound sequence are higher (Downing, Ayers, and S c h a e f f e r , 1978; E l k o n i n , 1973; Lewkowicz, 1980; Lewkowicz and Low, 1979; Lundberg, O l o f s s o n and W a l l , 1980; Marsh and Mimeo, 1977; W i l l i a m s , 1980). Using l e t t e r s to v i s u a l i z e the phonemic tasks seems to be s u p e r i o r to using tokens ( E h r i , 1984). The g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e i n phonemic segmentation a b i l i t i e s can be observed between k i n d e r g a r t e n and f i r s t graders ( C a l f e e , Lindamood and Lindamood, 1973; Liberman et a l . , 1977; Lundberg, O l o f s s o n and Wall, 1980; Rosner, 1979; Tunmer and Bowey, 1984). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between phonemic awareness and reading a b i l i l t y has been demonstrated by means of c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d i e s , using concurrent or p r e d i c t i v e or both kinds of c o r r e l a t i o n s (Bruinsma, 1981; Downing, 1984; Lundberg, 1978; Leong and Haines, 1978; M a y f i e l d , 1983; Nesdale and Tunmer, 1984). The nature of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p remains u n c l e a r , however. There i s no d i r e c t experimental evidence to s p e c i f y the s t a t u s of phonemic segmentation i n the sense of a p r e r e q u i s i t e , or a consequence of reading i n s t r u c t i o n . Most r e s e a r c h e r s propose an i n t e r a c t i v e 69 view i n the sense that p h o n o l o g i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y i s both a c o n t r i b u t o r to and a consequence of l e a r n i n g to read ( E h r i , 1979, 1984; G o l d s t e i n , 1976; Tunmer and Herriman, 1984; Wallach and Wallach, 1976; Watson, 1984). 7. The l i t e r a t u r e a l s o g i v e s some i n d i c a t i o n of the need for a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between o b j e c t i v a t i o n of language ( a b s t r a c t i o n from meaning) and phonemic awareness t a s k s . T h i s was d e a l t with in the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s s e c t i o n . G o l i n k o f f (1978) concluded, a f t e r reviewing much of the p h o n o l o g i c a l awareness r e s e a r c h : ... phonemic awareness s k i l l s ... both a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s ... have been shown in a number of s t u d i e s to be p r e d i c t i v e of e a r l y and extended read i n g achievement. In f a c t , some s t u d i e s suggest that phonemic a n a l y s i s s k i l l s may be necessary f o r success i n e a r l y reading i n s t r u c t i o n . For the c h i l d who may not have n a t u r a l l y a c q u i r e d such s k i l l s ... the l i t e r a t u r e suggests that t h e i r r e a d i n g s k i l l s may s u f f e r ... I f a c h i l d has r e c e i v e d some type of phonemic awareness t r a i n i n g , the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s that the c h i l d ' s reading achievement i s l i k e l y to be boosted s i g n i f i c a n t l y above where i t would have been without t r a i n i n g ( G o l i n k o f f , 1978, p. 38). Strategies and Metalinguistic Awareness The preceding review of m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness res e a r c h i n d i c a t e s that both word awareness and p h o n o l o g i c a l awareness are p e r c e i v e d as prominent i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of reading s k i l l s . Although there i s l i t t l e c o n t r o v e r s y over the e x i s t e n c e of an important r e l a t i o n s h i p 70 between reading and language, there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y about the e x p l a n a t i o n (Watson, 1984), as suggested i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to the m e t a l i n g u i s t i c review sect i o n . The development of m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness i s co n s i d e r e d by some to be dependent on the development of metacogniton, the c o n t r o l l i n g of i n t e l l e c t u a l processes (Tunmer and Herriman, 1984; V a l t i n , 1984a, 1984b). These c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f t e n i n c o r p o r a t e Vygotsky's (1962) view that the a b i l i t y to r e f l e c t upon one's c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g (metacognition) p l a y s an important r o l e i n the development of problem-solving a b i l i t i e s ( P r a t t and G r i e v e , 1984b). General metacognitive s k i l l s such as p r e d i c t i n g , m o n i t o r i n g , and c o - o r d i n a t i n g behaviors are viewed as important i n dev e l o p i n g s p e c i f i c 'meta' areas such as m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness (Brown and Deloache, 1978; F l a v e l l , 1977, 1981). R e f l e c t i v e , m etacognitive awareness may be enhanced when the c h i l d has cause to t h i n k about a s i t u a t i o n . For l i n g u i s t i c awareness, the act of l e a r n i n g to read may pro v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o m etacognitive s k i l l s . The r e s e a r c h i n t o p h o n o l o g i c a l awareness i n d i c a t e s that s p e c i f i c tasks can be taught to c h i l d r e n . T h i s has been shown to p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e to reading achievement. T h i s r e s e a r c h , w i t h i n the i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g paradigm presented, i n d i c a t e s that c h i l d r e n can be taught task r e l e v a n t m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s f o r c o n t r o l l i n g task performances. M e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness, and ge n e r a l metacognitive s k i l l s 71 may only r e s u l t when c h i l d r e n have some experience with the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n such as r e a d i n g . The p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of m i c r o s t r a t e g y use on subsequent task performance has been shown in l i n g u i s t i c awareness r e s e a r c h and other metacognitive areas (e.g., Brown, 1978). That the use of m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s a f f e c t s a c t u a l l i n g u i s t i c awareness i n the e x p l i c i t sense i s , to date, u n s u b t a n t i a t e d . Much of the reviewed l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d that c h i l d r e n can be taught to perform t a s k s , or p e r c e i v e u n i t s important i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g l i n g u i s t i c awareness. These measures and competencies, however, need not n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e consciousness or true r e f l e c t i o n on the processes r e q u i r e d f o r task completion. Thus i t may be p o s s i b l e f o r a c h i l d to s u c c e s s f u l l y segment phonemes, without having to r e f l e c t on the segmentation process (Lawson, 1984). So i t may be that c h i l d r e n may s u c c e s s f u l l y perform task s p e c i f i c m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s , and not gain or d i s p l a y m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness i n i t s broader sense. T h i s view of m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness, while seldomly e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d i n r e s e a r c h , i s nonetheless d i s c u s s e d i n c o nceptual reviews of the area (Tunmer and Herriman, 1984). While there i s sharp r i s e i n m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n to formal reading i n s t r u c t i o n , t h i s f a c t does not mean that t e a c h i n g reading sooner would improve these s k i l l s . In a c q u i r i n g reading s k i l l s c h i l d r e n l e a r n to d i s c o v e r how to map the p r i n t e d t e x t i n t o e x i s t i n g 72 language, which r e l i e s on e x i s t i n g language a b i l i t y . The c h i l d needs to be able to r e f l e c t on language to some degree i n order to perform re a d i n g t a s k s . Thus l e a r n i n g to read i s seen as p r o v i d i n g a framework f o r l e a r n i n g m e t a l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s but i s not the only means of dev e l o p i n g l i n g u i s t i c awareness. If m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness was a consequence of l e a r n i n g to read then t r a i n i n g to in c r e a s e m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness should not a f f e c t reading achievement. While l e a r n i n g to read may provide the s i t u a t i o n f o r dev e l o p i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g s p e c i f i c m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness s k i l l s , without the a b i l i t y to r e f l e c t upon these and use them i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s a more e x p l i c i t m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness may not be c o n s i d e r e d as pres e n t . T h i s p o i n t r e f e r s to the i n i t i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of l i n g u i s t i c awareness. In that d e f i n i t i o n , awareness was d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by the a b i l i t y to both analyze knowledge, that i s use m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s , and a l s o c o n t r o l the use of these s t r a t e g i e s . 73 CHAPTER THREE METHOD Purpose of the Study The major purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the extent to which two types of i n t e r v e n t i o n s , based on d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g approaches, had a f a c i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t on the e a r l y reading achievement as w e l l as the simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g scores of N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n . The f i r s t type of t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n was based on the simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e model of in f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g ( m a c r o s t r a t e g i e s ) . The second type of s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g used l i n g u i s t i c awareness tasks from the reading r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e ( m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s ) . A t h i r d i n t e r v e n t i o n combined the two types of s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Hypotheses and Rationale Hypothesis 1: Improvement i n readi n g achievement i s gr e a t e r f o r the S t r a t e g y , L i n g u i s t i c Awareness, and Combination Groups than f o r the C o n t r o l Group. 74 During the i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d a l l groups were exposed to r e g u l a r classroom reading i n s t r u c t i o n (Ginn 720). The Experimental Groups and the C o n t r o l Group r e c e i v e d the same amount of i n t e r v e n t i o n time (15 h o u r s ) . However, the C o n t r o l Group was not exposed to s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g , but r a t h e r games and game-like a c t i v i t i e s not b e l i e v e d to a f f e c t reading achievement. The S t r a t e g y Group r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g focused on simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . Reading appears to r e l y on both forms of p r o c e s s i n g (Kirby and Biggs, 1980). Suc c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g may be u t i l i z e d more d u r i n g the reading a c q u i s i t i o n stages (Aaron, 1982; Cummins and Das, 1979), where p h o n o l o g i c a l and speech recoding, and decoding are u s u a l l y dominant i n reading programmes. With low a c h i e v i n g grade three Native Indian c h i l d r e n , Krywaniuk's (1974) i n t e r v e n t i o n programme, f o c u s i n g on s u c c e s s i v e process t r a i n i n g , not only improved s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , but a l s o word rea d i n g . Kaufman's (1978) remediation study with average and below average grade four c h i l d r e n a l s o f o c u s i n g on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g found s i g n i f i c a n t p o s t - t e s t improvement i n reading achievement. These i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s a l s o r e l i e d h e a v i l y on v e r b a l mediation and feedback d u r i n g task performance. Younger c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y those who have been shown to have r e l a t i v e l y weaker v e r b a l s k i l l s (McShane and P l a s , 1984), may not show the s i g n i f i c a n t gains shown with o l d e r c h i l d r e n . In s p i t e of a l l t h i s , i t was f e l t t h a t , based on 75 l i m i t e d p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , the S t r a t e g y Group would show gr e a t e r improvement i n reading achievement over that shown by the C o n t r o l Group. The L i n g u i s t i c Awareness Group r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g focused on reading r e l a t e d t a s k s . The i n t e r v e n t i o n programme i n c l u d e d t e a c h i n g phoneme segmentation, s y l l a b l e c o u n t i n g , b l e n d i n g , and a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which have been shown to c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y with l a t e r reading achievement ( E h r i , 1984; G o l i n k o f f , 1978; Lewkowicz, 1980; Liberman et a l . , 1980). These s k i l l s have a l s o been s u c c e s s i v e l y taught to younger non-Native c h i l d r e n (Lundberg et a l . , 1980; O l o f s s o n & Lundberg, 1983; Tunmer and Herriman, 1984). Based on t h i s l i t e r a t u r e , i t seemed a p p r o p r i a t e to suggest that the L i n g u i s t i c Awareness Group would show gr e a t e r improvement i n reading achievement over that shown by the C o n t r o l Group. The Combination Group r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g t h at was a combination of both the s t r a t e g y and l i n g u i s t i c awareness t r a i n i n g . S t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g and l i n g u i s t i c awareness t r a i n i n g have both been shown to a f f e c t reading achievement i n o l d e r and non-Native c h i l d r e n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . By r e c e i v i n g some t r a i n i n g i n both, the Combination Group was thus intended to address the q u e s t i o n of any cumulative e f f e c t of the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Compared to the C o n t r o l Group, the Combination Group was expected to show gr e a t e r gains i n reading achievement. 76 Hypothesis 2: On the p r e - t e s t measure of in f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g the Simultaneous G l o b a l Scale score i s higher than the S e q u e n t i a l G l o b a l Scale s c o r e . L i t t l e r e s e a r c h e x i s t s on the performance of Native c h i l d r e n r e g a r d i n g simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , or t h e i r performance on the measuring instrument chosen f o r t h i s study, the K-ABC. Krywaniuk's (1974) sample of low a c h i e v i n g grade three Native c h i l d r e n performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than comparable white c h i l d r e n on simultaneous t a s k s . Krywaniuk's measures were those used by Das, K i r b y , and Jarman (1979). His sample of Native c h i l d r e n performed p o o r l y on the s u c c e s s i v e measures. Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) r e p o r t two r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s on the K-ABC using N a t i v e c h i l d r e n . Brokenleg and Bryde (1983) s t u d i e d a group of Sioux c h i l d r e n who were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o white s o c i e t y . They found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the g l o b a l scores on the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e and the Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e . N a g l i e r i (1983) s t u d i e d a group of i s o l a t e d Navajo c h i l d r e n and found the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e to be twelve p o i n t s lower than the Simultaneous S c a l e . In d i s c u s s i n g the r e s u l t s of these two s t u d i e s , Kaufman and Kaufman (1983, p. 153) suggest, " T h e i r (Natives) s t r e n g t h was i n v i s u a l s p a t i a l a b i l i t i e s ; they showed l e s s developed s k i l l i n i n t e g r a t i o n of s e q u e n t i a l 77 processes and r e a s o n i n g . " Das et a l . (1979, p. 30), i n a d d r e s s i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s observed i n Krywaniuk's study, commented that "(P)erhaps we should understand that Native c h i l d r e n have not l e a r n t to use s u c c e s s i v e processes e f f e c t i v e l y . " The r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of c o g n i t i v e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses evidenced by Native c h i l d r e n on the WISC and WISC-R has l e d some to hypothesize a Native 'Learning S t y l e ' (Kaulback, 1984; More, 1984c). V a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have been used to d e s c r i b e the p a t t e r n of t e s t r e s u l t s observed. Native s t r e n g t h s have been shown on v i s u a l - s p a t i a l , f i e l d - independent, r e l a t i o n a l , simultaneous, and performance t a s k s . Weaknesses have been demonstrated on a u d i t o r y , f i e l d dependent, a n a l y t i c , s u c c e s s i v e and v e r b a l tasks (Krywaniuk, 1974; McShane, 1983; McShane and P l a s , 1984; MacArthur, 1968a, 1968b; More, 1984c; S e y f o r t et a l . , 1980; Schubert and Cropley, 1974; More, 1984c). Rec e n t l y , More (1984b) i n c l u d e d v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g s t y l e measures as p a r t of a l a r g e r q u a l i t y of education study of Indian students i n the Okanagan V a l l e y and the N i c o l a V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The K-ABC was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a sample of seven and t e n - y e a r - o l d Indian students, and a sample of t e n - y e a r - o l d non-Native students. For the t e n - y e a r - o l d s there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the S u c c e s s i v e Scale performance of N a t i v e s compared to that of the non-Natives. The Simultaneous S c a l e scores 78 were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . When the K-ABC s u b t e s t s were f a c t o r analyzed, two c l e a r f a c t o r s , simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e emerged f o r the non-Native sample. The Na t i v e subtest scores y i e l d e d only one f a c t o r : simultaneous. Karlebach (1986) i n v e s t i g a t e d these r e s u l t s as pa r t of a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n . For the seven-year-old N a t i v e s , the Simultaneous and Suc c e s s i v e Scale scores were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . However, when the Simultaneous and S u c c e s s i v e Scale scores of the seven-year-olds and the te n - y e a r - o l d s were analyzed, a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n simultaneous performance was observed; the s u c c e s s i v e scores were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . These f i n d i n g s suggest a developmental t r e n d f o r the emergence of simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . T h i s t r e n d has been suggested a l s o i n the l i t e r a t u r e , but not d i r e c t l y s t u d i e d (Jarman, 1980; L u r i a , 1981; Molloy, 1973).. W i l l i a m s ( i n progress) i s p r e s e n t l y doing a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n on age trends i n Native c h i l d r e n using the K-ABC as the measuring instrument. In the l i g h t of these f i n d i n g s , i t i s suggested that there would be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between performance on the Simultaneous and S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e s of the K-ABC f o r the age l e v e l being s t u d i e d . 79 Hypothesis 3: On the p o s t - t e s t measure of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g there i s g r e a t e r improvement i n S u c c e s s i v e Scale scores f o r the S t r a t e g y , L i n g u i s t i c Awareness, and Combination Groups than f o r the C o n t r o l Group. For a l l the groups a p o s t - t e s t improvement i n s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g might be expected due to r e t e s t i n g on the same measure. A g r e a t e r improvement f o r the S t r a t e g y and Combination Groups was hypothesized due to the i n t e r v e n t i o n t r a i n i n g on the t a s k - a p p r o p r i a t e use of simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . Krywaniuk's (1974) i n t e r v e n t i o n programme f o r low a c h i e v i n g grade three Native c h i l d r e n focused on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , and f a c i l i t a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t post-treatment improvement on s u c c e s s i v e and simultaneous t e s t s f o r the experimental group. Kaufman's (1978) remediation study f o r average and below average grade four students a l s o focused on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , and a l s o showed s i g n i f i c a n t post-treatment improvement on s u c c e s s i v e and simultaneous t e s t s f o r the experimental group. B r a i l s f o r d ' s (1981) i n t e r v e n t i o n programme for poor readers aged nine to twelve years focused on s u c c e s s i v e and simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g and f a c i l i t a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t post-treatment gains i n t e s t s of s u c c e s s i v e and simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g compared with a c o n t r o l group. These s t u d i e s used o l d e r c h i l d r e n and were 80 s u c c e s s f u l i n improving performance on s u c c e s s i v e and simultaneous t e s t s as used by Das, Jarman, and K i r b y (1979). As these authors s t a t e "The ... i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s are enough to convince one that s t r a t e g i e s can be taught" (p. 169). An important f a c e t i n each of these s t u d i e s was v e r b a l mediation. The c h i l d r e n were encouraged to t a l k about s t r a t e g i e s they a l r e a d y used, to t a l k through new s t r a t e g i e s being taught, and to share t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to doing tasks using d i f f e r e n t s t r a t e g i e s . Thus i t would seem that v e r b a l i z a t i o n i n o l d e r c h i l d r e n i s an e f f e c t i v e means of de-automatizing p r o c e s s i n g . I t may not be as e f f e c t i v e with younger c h i l d r e n f o r a number of reasons. Language as a means of c o n t r o l l i n g behaviour i s seen to be g e n e r a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d by about age seven ( L u r i a , 1981; Tunmer et a l . , 1983). The c h i l d r e n i n the present study are g e n e r a l l y younger than t h i s , and may not be able to e f f e c t i v e l y use language as a means of de-automatizing p r o c e s s i n g , and of g e n e r a l i z i n g l e a r n e d s t r a t e g i e s to new t a s k s . The work of L u r i a (1961, 1981) and Jarman (1980) i n syntagmatic-paradigmatic word a s s o c i a t i o n f u r t h e r suggests t h i s . Syntagmatic a s s o c i a t i o n s are present f i r s t i n language and l o a d with s u c c e s s i v e s y n t h e s i s (Jarman, 1980). Paradigmatic a s s o c i a t i o n s appear l a t e r , about seven years, and l o a d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The emergence of paradigmatic a s s o c i a t i o n would seem to be r e l a t e d to c o g n i t i v e processes and the use of language as a c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r i n behaviour. As Das, Snart, and Mulcahy (1982) s t a t e : 81 What i s assumed here i s that the path of i n f l u e n c e of c o g n i t i v e processes on reading performance may run through l i n g u i s t i c processes ... although there i s no evidence at present which c h a r t s the path of i n f l u e n c e (p. 105). I n d i r e c t support f o r t h i s comes from the path a n a l y s i s work of Leong (1982) and Leong and Haines (1978) showing that simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g have l i t t l e d i r e c t e f f e c t , but r a t h e r a f f e c t s l i n g u i s t i c awareness. "Language awareness i s a mental a c t i v i t y which i n t e r a c t s on other c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s on which i t depends and which i t can modify in t u r n " (Leong, 1982, p. 19). The L i n g u i s t i c Awareness Group was a l s o hypothesized to show g r e a t e r improvements on the p o s t - t e s t measure of s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g than the C o n t r o l Group. Su c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g has been suggested as an e f f e c t i v e coding s t r a t e g y f o r a n a l y t i c tasks r e q u i r i n g p h o n o l o g i c a l or speech r e c o d i n g (Cummins and Das, 1977). The segmentation and blending t a s k s of t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n programme were presumed to r e l y more h e a v i l y on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . I t was hypothesized that t h i s t r a i n i n g on r e a d i n g r e l a t e d s u c c e s s i v e t a s k s would have an e f f e c t on the p o s t - t e s t s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g score. 82 Hypothesis 4: Improvement in performance on the l i n g u i s t i c awareness measure, f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n , i s g r e a t e r f o r the L i n g u i s t i c Awareness Group and Combination Group than f o r the Str a t e g y Group and C o n t r o l Group. A g r e a t e r p o s t - t e s t improvement f o r the L i n g u i s t i c Awareness and Combination Groups was hypothesized due to the p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y of c e r t a i n t r a i n i n g with the measuring instrument. Both the L i n g u i s t i c Awareness and Combination Groups were exposed to tasks r e q u i r i n g s y l l a b l e c o u n t i n g and phoneme counting using markers. The d i r e c t exposure to t e s t - l i k e t asks was hypothesized to a f f e c t p o s t - t e s t performance on t h i s measure. Hypothesis 5: Improvement i n performance on the language measure, f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s , i s not d i f f e r e n t f o r Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups. A p o s t - t e s t improvement f o r a l l groups was expected due to exposure to the format of the t e s t d u r i n g the p r e - t e s t i n g , maturation, and classroom exposure to language. The i n t e r v e n t i o n s and the C o n t r o l Group would a l l be exposed to both f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s , and encouraged to v e r b a l i z e d u r i n g task completions. Based on these e x p e c t a t i o n s i t was suggested that there would be no 83 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups on the p o s t - t e s t measure. O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Study The study was conducted i n three stages. The f i r s t stage i n v o l v e d the s e l e c t i o n of the sample of s u b j e c t s from two s c h o o l s , and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the p r e - t e s t b a t t e r y . The second stage was the teaching of the s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The t h i r d stage was the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the p o s t - t e s t b a t t e r y , and the a n a l y s i s of the data to examine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s . S e l e c t i o n of the Subjects Permission to conduct t h i s study was i n i t i a l l y secured i n l a t e s p r i n g of 1984. The number of Native c h i l d r e n to e n r o l i n grade one would have accommodated the design of t h i s study. However, at the commencement of t h i s study i n September, 1984, f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n the withdrawing of permission f o r reasons beyond the c o n t r o l of the experimenter. A s m a l l e r second sample was secured, a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n with the r e s e a r c h committee, the study began. T h i s second sample c o n s i s t e d of Native Indian c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n grade one classrooms at two d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s . P a r e n t a l permission was r e q u i r e d before a student c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e (Appendices A and B ) . S i x t e e n c h i l d r e n , the 84 t o t a l g r a d e one p o p u l a t i o n a t G i t s e g u k l a S c h o o l , G i t s e g u k l a , p a r t i c i p a t e d . T w e n t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n , v i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e N a t i v e g r a d e one p o p u l a t i o n , a t L y t t o n E l e m e n t a r y , L y t t o n , were i n c l u d e d . C h i l d r e n w i t h i n e a c h s c h o o l were ra n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e f o u r i n t e r v e n t i o n g r o u p s . A f t e r random a s s i g n m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n L y t t o n i t was f o u n d t h a t f i v e were not r e g i s t e r e d I n d i a n s and t h e i r r e s u l t s were e x c l u d e d from t h e s t u d y . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n u n e q u a l g r o u p s i z e s . In G i t s e g u k l a S c h o o l t h e r e were f o u r c h i l d r e n i n e a c h g r o u p . L y t t o n had s i x N a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n t h e S t r a t e g y and L i n g u i s t i c A w a reness e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , f i v e N a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n t h e C o m b i n a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , and t h r e e N a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p . T a b l e 2 summarizes g r o u p membership w i t h i n e a c h s c h o o l . Design The s t u d y was b a s i c a l l y an E x p e r i m e n t a l / C o n t r o l X P r e / P o s t d e s i g n . The h y p o t h e s e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r e - t o p o s t - t e s t g a i n s were a d d r e s s e d u s i n g a r e p e a t e d m easures a n a l y s i s . BMDP2V ( D i x o n , 1983) was t h e computer programme u s e d i n t h e s e a n a l y s e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e o p t i o n . The p<.05 ( t w o - t a i l e d t e s t ) was a c c e p t e d a s t h e p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l b e y o n d w h i c h t h e h y p o t h e s e s w o u l d be r e j e c t e d . 85 Table 2: D e s c r i p t i o n of Groups i n G i t s e g u k l a and L y t t o n Group L o c a t i o n N Age # of (Non-Natives) X S .D. Boys St r a t e g y G i t s e g u k l a 4 6.4 .41 2 (0) L y t t o n 6 6.5 1 .24 5 (1 ) L i n g u i s t i c G i t s e g u k l a 4 7.3 .97 1 (0) Awareness L y t t o n 6 6.9 .81 5 (1) Combination G i t s e g u k l a 4 7.3 .96 2 (0) L y t t o n 5 7.0 .60 4 (1) C o n t r o l G i t s e g u k l a 4 6.9 .32 2 (0) L y t t o n 3 7.0 .70 0 (2) P r e - T e s t B a t t e r y F i v e t e s t s were ad m i n i s t e r e d as p r e - t e s t measures. A l l t e s t s were admi n i s t e r e d by the experimenter. The two reading r e l a t e d measures, the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t s : Reading I n s t r u c t i o n a l T e s t s (Farr et a l . , 1978), and the Braun-Neilsen Pre-Reading Inventory (Braun and N e i l s o n , 1979), are group measures. I n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d measures were the Kaufman Assessment B a t t e r y f o r C h i l d r e n Mental P r o c e s s i n g Subtests (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983), The Lindamood A u d i t o r y C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Test (Lindamood and 8 6 L i n d a m o o d , 1 9 7 9 ) , a n d t h e T o k e n T e s t f o r C h i l d r e n ( D i S i m o n i , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e M e t r o p o l i t a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s : R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n a l T e s t s ( F a r r et a l . , 1 9 7 8 ) P r i m e r L e v e l , F o r m J I w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l c h i l d r e n i n g r a d e o n e a t b o t h s c h o o l s . T h e P r i m e r l e v e l n o r m s i n c l u d e K i n d e r g a r t e n , a n d n o r m a t i v e s c a l e s f o r b o t h t h e F a l l a n d S p r i n g o f g r a d e o n e , a r a n g e s u f f i c i e n t t o c o v e r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l s o f t h e s a m p l e s e l e c t e d . T h e t e s t i n c l u d e d s u b t e s t s i n R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n , V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n , L e t t e r R e c o g n i t i o n , A u d i t o r y D i s c r i m i n a t i o n , S i g h t V o c a b u l a r y , a n d P h o n e m e / G r a p h e m e C o r r e s p o n d e n c e . S u b t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s w e r e s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h , r a n g i n g f r o m r = . 8 5 t o r = . 9 2 . T e s t i n g w a s d o n e i n g r o u p s o f s i x t o s e v e n c h i l d r e n t o e n s u r e t h e a c c u r a c y o f i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t s . T h e M e t r o p o l i t a n R e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n a l T e s t s (MAT) w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h r e e t h i r t y t o f o r t y - f i v e m i n u t e s e s s i o n s . G i t s e g u k l a c h i l d r e n w e r e t e s t e d d u r i n g t h e w e e k o f O c t o b e r 1 , 1 9 8 4 , a n d L y t t o n c h i l d r e n w e r e t e s t e d d u r i n g t h e w e e k o f O c t o b e r 2 9 , 1 9 8 4 . A p p e n d i x C s h o w s t h e MAT r a w s u b t e s t r e s u l t s f o r t h e s c h o o l s a n d g r o u p s . T h e B r a u n - N e i l s e n P r e - R e a d i n g I n v e n t o r y , F o r m A ( B r a u n a n d N e i l s e n , 1 9 7 9 ) w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l g r a d e o n e c h i l d r e n a t b o t h s c h o o l s . T h i s t e s t c o n s i s t s o f t w e l v e s u b t e s t s d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e p e r c e p t u a l , l i n g u i s t i c , a n d c o g n i t i v e r e a d i n e s s f o r r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . P e r f o r m a n c e o n i n d i v i d u a l s u b t e s t s i s i n t e n d e d t o b e u s e d b y t e a c h e r s 87 to i n d i c a t e areas of weakness and thus areas which w i l l r e q u i r e t e a c h i n g . I t i s not intended as a p r e d i c t i v e t e s t of l a t e r r e a d i n g achievement. Subtest r e l i a b i l i t i e s range from r=.70 to r=.93. The Braun-Neilsen Pre-Reading Inventory was a d m i n i s t e r e d to groups of s i x or seven c h i l d r e n . T e s t i n g was done d u r i n g the week of October 1, 1984 i n G i t s e g u k l a School, and the week of October 29, 1984 i n L y t t o n School. P r e - t e s t raw subtest r e s u l t s f o r schools and groups are r e p o r t e d i n Appendix D. The Lindamood A u d i t o r y C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Test (Lindamood and Lindamood, 1979) assesses the a b i l i t y to c o n c e p t u a l i z e i s o l a t e d phonemes and c o n t r a s t s w i t h i n and between s y l l a b l e s i n r e s p e c t to i d e n t i t y , number, and sequence of the phonemes i n v o l v e d . Part I of the t e s t d e a l s with the a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e gross and f i n e c o n t r a s t s between phonemes heard and whether the sounds are the same or d i f f e r e n t . The c h i l d has to p l a c e b l o c k s i n a row u s i n g d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r e d blocks f o r d i f f e r e n t sounds, and the same c o l o u r e d blocks f o r repeated sounds. Part II d e a l s with v a r i a t i o n s i n the sequence of gross and f i n e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s . The l a s t p a r t of the t e s t measures consonant-vowel c o n t r a s t s with s y l l a b l e s , and the sequence of sounds heard. A l l items are a maximum of three phonemes, and t e a c h i n g i s allowed through p r a c t i c e items. The t e s t has a p o s s i b l e 28 items, with a c e i l i n g r u l e to reduce o v e r t e s t i n g . Norms cover K i n d e r g a r t e n to A d u l t , and 88 are i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of minimum scores needed f o r success i n reading and s p e l l i n g s k i l l a r eas. The manual r e p o r t s t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y u s i ng a l t e r n a t e forms as r=.96. C o r r e l a t i o n s with the Wide Range Achievement Test a c r o s s grade l e v e l s are r e p o r t e d as r=.66 to r = . 8 l . The Lindamood A u d i t o r y C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Test was chosen as a measure of phonemic segmentation. I t was i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d to the c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the weeks of October 8th and 15th, 1984 i n G i t s e g u k l a , and d u r i n g the weeks of October 28th and November 1st, 1984 i n L y t t o n . Raw p r e - t e s t r e s u l t s are r e p o r t e d i n Appendix E. The Token Test f o r C h i l d r e n (DeSimoni, 1978) i s a measure of both r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e language a b i l i t y . The t e s t c o n s i s t s of twenty tokens: ten c i r c l e s and ten squares. F i v e c i r c l e s and squares are l a r g e , and f i v e c i r c l e s and squares are s m a l l . The groups of f i v e are c o l o u r e d blue, red, yellow, green, and white. The t e s t has f i v e p a r t s . Part I uses only l a r g e tokens and assesses s i n g l e c o l o u r and shape knowledge. Part II uses a l l the tokens and asks the c h i l d to d i s c r i m i n a t e s i z e and shape (e.g., 'Touch the l a r g e white c i r c l e . ' ) . Part I I I uses only l a r g e tokens and the c h i l d has to s i m u l t a n e o u s l y touch two s p e c i f i e d tokens (e.g., 'Touch the red square and the blue c i r c l e . ' ) . Part IV uses a l l the tokens and d u p l i c a t e s P a r t I I I . Part V uses only l a r g e tokens and r e q u i r e s the c h i l d to f o l l o w commands (e.g., 'Put the white c i r c l e i n f r o n t of the blue s q u a r e . ' ) . There are a t o t a l of 89 s i x t y - o n e commands. Discontinuance r u l e s are i n c l u d e d . The t e s t evidences h i g h concurrent v a l i d i t y with other language measures (r=.72), and has shown low c o r r e l a t i o n s with c h r o n o l o g i c a l age (r=.09). Norms cover from three to twelve years of age. The Token Test was i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d to the c h i l d r e n . T e s t i n g i n G i t s e g u k l a School was done d u r i n g the week of October 8, 1984, and the week of November 8, 1984 i n L y t t o n School. Raw p r e - t e s t r e s u l t s f o r the f i v e p a r t s of the Token Test are r e p o r t e d i n Appendix F. The Kaufman Assessment B a t t e r y f o r C h i l d r e n (K-ABC) (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983) was the measure of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l c h i l d r e n . The K-ABC measures i n t e l l i g e n c e i n terms of "the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s t y l e of s o l v i n g problems and p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n " (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983, p. 2). S e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g ( s u c c e s s i v e ) r e l i e s on the s e r i a l or temporal order of the s t i m u l i when s o l v i n g the problem, whereas simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g r e l i e s on " g e s t a l t - l i k e , f r e q u e n t l y s p a t i a l , i n t e g r a t i o n of s t i m u l i to s o l v e the problem" (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983, p. 2). The r o l e of language i s minimized i n t h i s t e s t . S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g i s assessed by three s u b t e s t s . Hand Movements r e q u i r e s performing a s e r i e s of hand movements i n the same order as the examiner performed them. Number R e c a l l r e q u i r e s r e p e a t i n g a s e r i e s of d i g i t s i n the same order as the examiner s a i d them. Word Order r e q u i r e s 90 touching a s e r i e s of s i l o u e t t e s of common o b j e c t s i n the same sequence as the examiner s a i d the names of the o b j e c t s (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983, p. 3). Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g i s assessed by f i v e s u b t e s t s f o r the m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n t e s t e d d u r i n g the p r e - t e s t . G e s t a l t C l o s u r e r e q u i r e s the c h i l d to name an o b j e c t or scene p i c t u r e d i n a p a r t i a l l y completed ' i n k b l o t ' drawing. T r i a n g l e s r e q u i r e s the c h i l d to assemble s e v e r a l i d e n t i c a l t r i a n g l e s i n t o an a b s t r a c t p a t t e r n to match a model. Matrix A n a l o g i e s r e q u i r e s the c h i l d to s e l e c t a meaningful p i c t u r e or a b s t r a c t design which best completes a v i s u a l analogy. S p a t i a l Memory r e q u i r e s the c h i l d to r e c a l l the placements of p i c t u r e s on a page t h a t was exposed b r i e f l y . Photo S e r i e s r e q u i r e s the c h i l d to p l a c e photographs of an event i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order. R e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r s u b t e s t s are r e p o r t e d i n Table 3. Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) used both p r i n c i p a l and c o n f i r m a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the s u b t e s t s to c o n f i r m the e x i s t e n c e of two types of mental p r o c e s s i n g . The r e s u l t s of the p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d " c l e a r - c u t e m p i r i c a l support f o r the e x i s t e n c e of two and only two f a c t o r s at each age l e v e l " (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983, p. 102). T r i a n g l e s and Photo S e r i e s were the s t r o n g e s t and most c o n s i s t e n t measures of simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g ; Word Order and Number R e c a l l , the s t r o n g e s t measures of s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g . However, Hand Movements, which i s p l a c e d on the s e q u e n t i a l s c a l e , showed almost equal 91 Table 3: Reported K-ABC Subtest and G l o b a l S c a l e R e l i a b i l i t i e s 1 I n t e r n a l 6.0-6.11 years C o n s i s t e n c y 7.0-7.11 years T e s t - R e t e s t (18 days) Su b t e s t s : Hand Movements G e s t a l t C l o s u r e Number R e c a l l T r i a n g l e s Word Order Matrix A n a l o g i e s S p a t i a l Memory Photo S e r i e s G l o b a l S c a l e s : S e q u e n t i a l Simultaneous Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite .75 .78 .83 .88 .87 .81 .74 .82 .91 .93 .95 .75 .62 .78 .83 .80 .84 .81 .76 .88 .93 .93 .61 .84 .84 .70 .76 .75 .67 .79 .82 .88 .88 1Source: Kaufman and Kaufman (1983, 82-85) l o a d i n g s on both simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e f a c t o r s above the age of f i v e y ears, and has shown a c l e a r developmental t r e n d (Kaufman and Kamphaus, 1984). Kaufman and Kamphaus (1984) a l s o t e s t e d a three f a c t o r s o l u t i o n of the Mental P r o c e s s i n g s u b t e s t s . However, v a r i o u s three f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s were r e j e c t e d due to t h e i r i n c o n s i s t e n c y across age l e v e l s i n the subt e s t l o a d i n g s . Based on the r e s u l t s of c o n f i r m a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) s t a t e that "The S e q u e n t i a l -92 Simultaneous dichotomy was confirmed for a l l age levels" (p. 107).. This reflects the construct validity of the K-ABC. Keith (1985) also found strong support for the validity of the K-ABC based on confirmatory factor analysis. The total K-ABC Mental Processing Scales required about 45 minutes to administer. Testing was done during the weeks of October 8 and 15, 1984 in Gitsegukla School, and the weeks of October 28 and November 1, 1984 in Lytton School. Raw pre- and post-test results are summarized in Appendix G and the scaled pre-test results are given in Appendix H. Global Scale results are summarized in Appendix I. Intervention Phase The intervention programmes for the groups in Gitsegukla School commenced October 22, 1984 and concluded January 31, 1985. The programmes in Lytton School commenced November 26, 1984 and concluded March 13, 1985. Al l intervention programmes were taught by female teachers hired by the experimenter. Chapter IV deals with the intervention phase in detail. During these periods the children also received regular classroom reading instruction following the Ginn 720 programme. 93 The Post-Test Battery The p o s t - t e s t b a t t e r y was a d m i n i s t e r e d to the s i x t e e n c h i l d r e n at G i t s e g u k l a School between January 29 and February 8, 1985. The p o s t - t e s t i n g at L y t t o n School was adm i n i s t e r e d to t w e n t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n and was completed between March 14 and March 26, 1985. A l l the t e s t s given d u r i n g the p r e - t e s t b a t t e r y were r e - a d m i n i s t e r e d i n order to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s . A l t e r n a t e , but e q u i v a l e n t , forms of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading I n s t r u c t i o n a l T e s t s (Form K1), the Braun-Neilsen Pre-Reading Inventory (Form B), and the Lindamood A u d i t o r y C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Test (Form B) were a d m i n i s t e r e d . The K-ABC and Token Test f o r C h i l d r e n were a l s o r e - a d m i n i s t e r e d . The MAT and Braun-Neilsen Pre-Reading Inventory were group a d m i n i s t e r e d as i n the p r e - t e s t i n g , a l l other t e s t s were i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d . The t e s t s were presented i n the same order as i n the p r e - t e s t b a t t e r y . The L e t t e r R e c o g n i t i o n and V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n s u b t e s t s of the MAT were not ad m i n i s t e r e d i n L y t t o n to reduce t e s t i n g time s i n c e the Braun-Neilsen i n c l u d e s these s u b t e s t s . Summaries of p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s are pro v i d e d i n Appendices C through I. 94 Scoring of the Pre-Test and Post-Test Batteries A l l the t e s t s w i t h i n the study were scored by the w r i t e r . The i n i t i a l r e a d i n g t e s t s , the MAT and the Braun-Neilsen Pre-Reading Inventory, were scored upon completion i n order to share those r e s u l t s with the classroom t e a c h e r s . The r e s u l t s of the other t e s t s were conf i d e n t i a l . At the completion of the data c o l l e c t i o n the i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s were r e - s c o r e d by a re s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t to check accuracy. 95 CHAPTER FOUR THE INTERVENTION PROGRAMMES Grouping and Scheduling for Interventions S i x t e e n Native c h i l d r e n at G i t s e g u k l a School, G i t s e g u k l a , were randomly a s s i g n e d to one of the three Experimental Groups or to the C o n t r o l Group. T h i s was the t o t a l grade one p o p u l a t i o n at t h i s s c h o o l . The c h i l d r e n were p r e - t e s t e d between October 1 and October 18, 1984. T e s t i n g c o u l d be done only i n the mornings due to l i m i t a t i o n s of space w i t h i n the s c h o o l . A l l c h i l d r e n continued to r e c e i v e reading i n s t r u c t i o n i n the classroom (Ginn 720). In a d d i t i o n , they a l s o r e c e i v e d f i f t e e n hours of i n t e r v e n t i o n or c o n t r o l group a c t i v i t i e s . The i n t e r v e n t i o n s began October 22, 1984 and ended January 31, 1985, and took p l a c e on a l t e r n a t i n g mornings of the week (Mon-Wed-Fri, Tues-Thurs). C h i l d r e n were seen i n groups of f o u r , and each s e s s i o n l a s t e d 30 minutes. The i n t e r v e n t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n was done by a c e r t i f i e d teacher who had been i n s t r u c t e d i n the use of the t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s . P o s t - t e s t i n g was completed February 7, 1 985. During the i n i t i a l stages of running the study, the r e g u l a r classroom teacher became i l l and r e q u i r e d extended 96 s i c k l e a v e . The school had some d i f f i c u l t y s e c u r i n g a q u a l i f i e d replacement teacher. In the i n t e r i m , the c l a s s had a number of u n q u a l i f i e d s u b s t i t u t e t e a c h e r s . T h i s a f f e c t e d not only the academic areas, but a l s o the behavior of the c h i l d r e n i n the classroom. In L y t t o n , t w e n t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n from two classrooms were i n c l u d e d i n the study. T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the two classrooms was t h i r t y - o n e c h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n w i t h i n classrooms were randomly a s s i g n e d to one of the three treatment groups or to the C o n t r o l group. Of the t w e n t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n f o r whom p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n was secured, f i v e were non-Native. These f i v e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study, but t h e i r r e s u l t s were excluded from data a n a l y s i s . C h i l d r e n from one classroom were p r e - t e s t e d i n the mornings between October 29 and November 9, 1984. C h i l d r e n from the other classroom were t e s t e d i n the a f ternoons between the same dates. A l l c h i l d r e n c o n t i n u e d to r e c e i v e r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r classrooms. A l l c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d an a d d i t i o n a l f i f t e e n hours of i n t e r v e n t i o n or c o n t r o l group a c t i v i t i e s . The i n t e r v e n t i o n s began November 26, 1984 and ended March 13, 1985. The f i r s t classroom had f i f t e e n c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. Random assignment of these c h i l d r e n r e s u l t e d i n the Experimental Groups each having four c h i l d r e n and the C o n t r o l Group three c h i l d r e n . The second classroom had ten c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n 97 two Experimental Groups having three c h i l d r e n , the other Experimental Group having two c h i l d r e n , and the C o n t r o l Groups had two c h i l d r e n . Due to l i m i t a t i o n s of space i n the mornings, and the agreement of the classroom teachers i n v o l v e d , the i n t e r v e n t i o n s were run d u r i n g the a f t e r n o o n s . C h i l d r e n from the f i r s t classroom were taken d u r i n g the f i r s t hour i n the a f t e r n o o n , and those from the second classroom d u r i n g the l a s t hour i n the a f t e r n o o n . Each i n t e r v e n t i o n group w i t h i n classrooms was i n s t r u c t e d every other day, as i n G i t s e g u k l a School. The i n t e r v e n t i o n teacher i n L y t t o n was a l s o a c e r t i f i e d teacher who had been i n s t r u c t e d i n the use of the m a t e r i a l s . The p o s t - t e s t i n g i n L y t t o n was completed March 26, 1985. The i n t e r v e n t i o n teachers (both female) i n G i t s e g u k l a and L y t t o n were given an o u t l i n e of the order of the t a s k s . They were h i r e d by the experimenter. Each teacher was i n s t r u c t e d as to the use of the m a t e r i a l s . Each task was demonstrated and they p r a c t i s e d u s i n g the a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s . S p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s were a l s o i n c l u d e d with each task. I d e n t i c a l m a t e r i a l s were used. Both were requested to keep a l o g of a c t i v i t i e s and attendance. The experimenter v i s i t e d both t e a c h e r s to monitor i n t e r v e n t i o n s , and r e g u l a r l y t a l k e d to them r e g a r d i n g any q u e s t i o n s they might have. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of a l l m a t e r i a l s i s a v a i l a b l e from the experimenter. 98 The Strategy Intervention Many Native Indian c h i l d r e n experience academic d i f f i c u l t y from the beginning of t h e i r s c h o o l i n g . More (1984b) found that o n e - t h i r d of Indian c h i l d r e n i n the Okanagan and N i c o l a V a l l e y were a year behind a c t u a l gade placement compared with c h r o n o l o g i c a l grade placement by the time they entered grade two, having a l r e a d y repeated kindergarten/grade one. The sample i n the present study was comprised of four t e e n c h i l d r e n (39%) who were r e p e a t i n g grade one. C h i l d r e n who experience academic d i f f i c u l t i e s are not b e l i e v e d to be d e f i c i e n t i n the coding processes but r a t h e r i n e f f i c i e n t i n u s i n g s t r a t e g i e s which r e l y on the coding processes (Das, K i r b y , and Jarman, 1979). E a r l y reading a c q u i s i t i o n s k i l l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y decoding, have been suggested as r e l y i n g on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g (Aaron, 1982; Cummins and Das, 1977; Das, 1984c; Das, Snart, and Mulcahy, 1982; Leong and Haines, 1978; K i r b y , 1982). Native c h i l d r e n may be inadequately u t i l i z i n g the processes u n d e r l y i n g e a r l y reading s k i l l s . The i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s ( B r a i l s f o r d , 1981; Kaufman, 1978; Krywaniuk, 1974) have shown that by t r a i n i n g i n p r o c e s s i n g s t r a t e g i e s , academic task performance can be enhanced. These s t u d i e s have focused on t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n how to use the proce s s e s . T h i s approach thus r e l i e s on the plann i n g u n i t of the b r a i n fo r a p p r o p r i a t e u t i l i z a t i o n of coding processes f o r a 99 p a r t i c u l a r task (Das, K i r b y , and Jarman, 1979; Kaufman, 1980; Kaufman and Kaufman, 1980; K i r b y , 1984). The present study attempted to examine the e f f e c t s of s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g on coding and reading achievement. As i n Krywaniuk's (1974) and Kaufman's (1978) s t u d i e s , s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g was emphasized. I t was r e c o g n i z e d that i t i s impossible to i s o l a t e simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , the two processes i n t e r a c t i n coding i n f o r m a t i o n (Das, K i r b y , and Jarman, 1979; L u r i a , 1966). While the s t r a t e g y i n t e r v e n t i o n was designed to p r i m a r i l y focus on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , i t i s evident t h a t a neat s e p a r a t i o n i s not p o s s i b l e ( B r a i l s f o r d , 1981). V e r b a l i z a t i o n d u r i n g task completion was encouraged. T h i s was done i n order that s t r a t e g y use c o u l d be monitored, and a l s o to a i d the c h i l d r e n i n o r g a n i z i n g i d e a s . The use of v e r b a l mediation d u r i n g problem s o l v i n g has been emphasized by numerous w r i t e r s (Das, 1984c; Das, Snart, and Mulcahy, 1982; K i r b y , 1984a, 1984b; Torgenson, 1981; Vygotsky, 1962). Vygotsky (1962, 1978) emphasized the r o l e of v e r b a l mediation as one s t r a t e g y f o r problem s o l v i n g , but f e e l s i t i s one way of e n s u r i n g that the problem has engaged the a t t e n t i o n . V e r b a l mediation i s a l s o seen as a means of i n v o l v i n g the coding and p l a n n i n g l e v e l s (Das, 1984c; Vygotsky, 1978). In the i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d , and i n the present one, the aim of the programme was to promote a t r a n s f e r of l e a r n e d s t r a t e g i e s to other areas, such as 100 reading achievement. T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s the involvement of the p l a n n i n g l e v e l mainly through the use of v e r b a l mediation. V e r b a l mediation has been an e f f e c t i v e means f o r ensuring task a t t e n t i o n and t r a n s f e r of s t r a t e g y use i n i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s using o l d e r c h i l d r e n ( B r a i l s f o r d , 1981; Kaufman, 1978; Krywaniuk, 1974). Younger c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y those c h a r a c t e r i z e d as having weaker v e r b a l s k i l l s , may not be a b l e to e f f e c t i v e l y use v e r b a l mediation. Thus, the sample of young Native c h i l d r e n might lack the language knowledge base to use d u r i n g s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g , i n which case, t r a i n i n g should not have the noted e f f e c t seen i n o l d e r c h i l d r e n (Torgenson, 1980). F u r t h e r to t h i s , the sample chosen may not be ready to a c t i v e l y organize the s t r a t e g y s k i l l s being taught, p a r t i c u l a r l y with the emphasized language demands. Me t a c o g n i t i v e r e s e a r c h suggests t h a t f o r s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g to be e f f e c t i v e , the b a s i c s k i l l s necessary f o r the e x e c u t i o n of the s t r a t e g y must be e s t a b l i s h e d ( F l a v e l l , 1977; Lawson, 1980, 1984; Leong, Cheng and Das, 1983; Snow, 1982). The assumption i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s has been that coding l e v e l processes are i n t a c t , but i n e f f i c i e n t l y used. T r a i n i n g i s thus aimed at engaging the p l a n n i n g l e v e l , so that coding i s planned r a t h e r than automatic. For younger c h i l d r e n , t h i s may not be the case. Rather, the N a t i v e c h i l d r e n may not be f a c i l e with using the processes, in p a r t i c u l a r s u c c e s s i v e coding, w i t h i n an 101 academic s e t t i n g . Nor may they know many s t r a t e g i e s , and t h e r e f o r e the programme serves to teach new s k i l l s , r a t h e r than l a r g e l y t e a c h i n g them how to apply known s k i l l s through s t r a t e g i e s . Thus the f a i l u r e ... to employ a given s t r a t e g y ... might be due to the f a c t that they have only r e c e n t l y a t t a i n e d the b a s i c s k i l l s necessary f o r the e x e c u t i o n of the s t r a t e g y , and these c h i l d r e n have not had time to l e a r n to apply them i n a s t r a t e g i c way to a i d l e a r n i n g (Torgenson, 1980, p. 369). " T r a i n i n g t h at i s c o g n i t i v e l y more i n t r u s i v e i s o f t e n not h e l p f u l , and sometimes a c t u a l l y seems to be harmful" (Snow, 1982, p. 29). The Tasks Task 1: PEOPLE PUZZLES (Adapted from Kaufman, 1980) People P u z z l e s (Developmental L e a r n i n g M a t e r i a l s ) c o n s i s t of seven 8 1/2 X 11 i n c h c o l o u r e d p i c t u r e p u z z l e s of people: a f a c i a l view of a t o d d l e r boy, a teen-aged boy i n f u l l view, a g i r l , a f a c i a l view of a boy, a man, and a g r a n d f a t h e r , and a f a c i a l view of a woman and a grandmother. The p u z z l e s are cut h o r i z o n t a l l y which extend the f u l l width of the p u z z l e . Each puzzle p i c t u r e i s on a s o l i d background of d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s , and the back of each p u z z l e i s composed of a d i f f e r e n t green design on a white background. The upper s i d e of each p u z z l e has a s o l i d l i n e of a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r from the background c o l o u r , along the extreme r i g h t hand s i d e . T h i s task i s f e l t to r e l y on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . 1 02 The task was not timed, but the c h i l d r e n were t o l d to work as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . The c h i l d r e n worked i n d i v i d u a l l y . Each was given an envelope c o n t a i n i n g two p u z z l e s : a baby and a boy or a g i r l and a grandmother. The second set of puz z l e s c o n t a i n e d e i t h e r a man and a woman or a grandfather and a boy. Step 1: Each c h i l d was given an envelope with two p u z z l e s , e i t h e r a baby and a boy or a g i r l and a grandmother. They were i n s t r u c t e d to put together the puz z l e of the youngest as q u i c k l y as they c o u l d . Step 2: Once they had completed the p u z z l e , they were d i r e c t e d to v e r b a l i z e how the p i e c e s were a l l the same. They were d i r e c t e d to use the f r o n t background c o l o u r as a c l u e or the back d e s i g n . Step 3: The c h i l d r e n switched envelopes and r e d i d the task, as q u i c k l y as they c o u l d . They were once again questioned about what c l u e s they had used i n choosing p i e c e s . Step 4: The c h i l d r e n were given d i f f e r e n t p u z z l e s to work with: e i t h e r a man and a woman or a boy and a gra n d f a t h e r . Those who r e c e i v e d the former set were i n s t r u c t e d to put together the pu z z l e of the man. Those r e c e i v i n g the l a t t e r set were i n s t u c t e d to put together the youngest. Step 5:.Once they had completed the p u z z l e , they were asked to v e r b a l i z e what c l u e s they had used. A t t e n t i o n was 103 drawn to other p o s s i b l e c l u e s they c o u l d have used, i f they d i d not suggest them. Step 6 : The c h i l d r e n switched envelopes and r e d i d the pu z z l e s as q u i c k l y as they c o u l d . Step 7: The c h i l d r e n were asked to summarize what they had done and how they had done i t . Task 2: ANIMAL PUZZLES (Adapted from Kaufman, 1980) Animal P u z z l e s (Developmental Learning M a t e r i a l s ) c o n s i s t e d of e i g h t 8 1/2 X 11 inch c o l o u r e d p u z z l e s of common animals: cow, deer, s q u i r r e l , dog, chipmunk, horse, cat and r o o s t e r . The p u z z l e s are cut so that the body and u s u a l l y the head, legs and t a i l form separate p i e c e s . L i k e the People P u z z l e s , each animal puzzle i s on d i f f e r e n t green on white d e s i g n . Two s e t s of p u z z l e s were formed: cow, deer, s q u i r r e l and dog, or r o o s t e r , chipmunk, cat and horse. The c h i l d r e n worked i n p a i r s . T h i s task i s f e l t to be mainly s u c c e s s i v e i n nature (Kaufman, 1980), although simultaneous i s a l s o e v i d e n t . Step 1: The c h i l d r e n were t o l d to work i n p a i r s . They were t o l d to work as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . The p i e c e s from the envelopes were dumped i n f r o n t of the c h i l d r e n , and they were i n s t r u c t e d to assemble the puzzle of the s m a l l e s t animal. Step 2: The c h i l d r e n were asked how they d i d the task, to t a l k about s t r a t e g i e s f o r choosing the p i e c e s . As i n the People P u z z l e s , they were d i r e c t e d to look' at 104 background c o l o u r , backside design, as w e l l as c l u e s they may have presented. S t e p 3: The c h i l d r e n scrambled t h e i r p i e c e s and were t o l d to assemble the p u z z l e of the b i g g e s t animal. S t e p 4: Upon completion the c h i l d r e n were once again asked what c l u e s they had used. S t e p 5: The c h i l d r e n scrambled t h e i r p i e c e s and changed pu z z l e s e t s between them. They were then t o l d to assemble the pet. S t e p 6: The c h i l d r e n were encouraged to t a l k about how they chose the p i e c e s . S t e p 7: The c h i l d r e n scrambled t h e i r p i e c e s . They were d i r e c t e d to assemble the farm animal. S t e p 8: The c h i l d r e n were asked to summarize what they had done. They were asked to summarize how they had chosen p i e c e s , and d i d u s i n g v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i e s h e l p t h e i r performance. T a s k 3: MATRIX NUMBERS (Adapted from Kaufman, 1980) T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of f i v e items. Each item was a f i v e c e l l e d matrix which had one number per c e l l . Numbers were chosen to that no one number appeared more than once in any c e l l . Each matrix was shaped l i k e a c r o s s , with one c e n t r a l c e l l , and one c e l l on each of i t s s i d e s . Each matrix was presented on a white sheet of 8 1/2 X 11 inch paper. The matrix was p l a c e d i n the c e n t r e of the paper, with each c e l l being one inch square. In 105 each case the c h i l d r e n were shown the complete matrix, c o n t a i n i n g one d i g i t i n each c e l l . T h e r e a f t e r , the c h i l d r e n were shown the matrix broken down i n t o i t s f i v e component p a r t s , but i n i t s c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n on an otherwise empty matrix. The c h i l d r e n were thus taken s e q u e n t i a l l y through the matrix. A f t e r viewing the e n t i r e matrix and each component s e p a r a t e l y , each c h i l d was asked to r e c a l l by w r i t i n g down the numbers on a blank matrix. The response matrix had been laminated so that responses c o u l d be washed o f f and the matrix redone. T h i s task focuses on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . 5 2 1 3 7 1 Step 1: The c h i l d r e n were t o l d that they would be shown a group of numbers. T h e i r task was to remember the numbers, and to w r i t e them from memory. They were i n s t r u c t e d to name the numbers by saying, " F i r s t the , second the , e t c . " , and shown what was meant with the f i r s t m a t r i x . They were asked to e x p l a i n what they were to do. Step 2: They were shown the f i r s t matrix again, and shown the f i r s t page f o r 5 seconds. Then they were guided through the matrix and the succeeding c e l l s of the matrix using the s t r a t e g y suggested. 106 Step 3: They were given a blank matrix and t o l d to w r i t e the numbers i n order as they had seen on the f i r s t m a t rix. I f they a l l got i t c o r r e c t , matrix 2 was begun. If not, they r e d i d matrix 1 a maximum of three times. Step 4: The other m a t r i c e s were presented i n the same way. The c h i l d r e n were d i r e c t e d to use the same s t r a t e g y each time. Step 5: The c h i l d r e n were asked to summarize what they had done and how they had t r i e d to remember the numbers. Task 4: MATRIX LETTERS (Adapted from Kaufman, 1980) T h i s task was s i m i l a r to Matrix Numbers, and was presented i n the same way. The task c o n s i s t e d of f i v e items. Each item was a f i v e c e l l e d matrix which had one l e t t e r per c e l l . L e t t e r s were chosen so that the top and f a r l e f t l e t t e r c o u l d be grouped, and the middle and the f a r r i g h t l e t t e r c o u l d be grouped. G e n e r a l l y , the groupings were a b b r e v i a t i o n s (eg. pm). The bottom l e t t e r of each matrix was the only vowel i n the matrix, and as such, c o u l d be a word, or p h o n e t i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with a word (eg. U - you). Each c h i l d was given up to three t r i a l s to remember the matrix. The task focuses on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g (Kaufman, 1980). Step 1: The c h i l d r e n were t o l d that they were going to t r y to remember l e t t e r s . They were i n s t r u c t e d to name each l e t t e r , as they had done i n Ma t r i x Numbers, " F i r s t the 107 , second the , etc." The first matrix was used to show them what was meant. S t e p 2: The children were asked to te l l what they were to do. S t e p 3: The first matrix was presented, and they were guided through the letters, saying, "First the , second the , etc." S t e p 4: Each child was given a blank matrix and asked to recall the letters in the order shown on the matrix. Up to three trials were given. S t e p 5: Matrix 2 was done in the same way. S t e p 6 : Matrix 1 was reshown to the children. Their attention was drawn to the letters to be grouped, and getting a cadence in the pronounciation. They were directed to realize that by so doing there were fewer chunks of information to recall. S t e p 7: Matrix 2 was presented, and the children were directed to group the letters to aid recall. They were then asked to print the letters on a blank matrix. They were given up to three trials to recall the matrix. S t e p 8: The last three matrices were presented in the same way. S t e p 9: The children were asked to te l l what they had done. Attention was drawn to the two strategies, rehearsal and grouping of letters. 108 Task 5: MATRIX PICTURES ( A d a p t e d f r o m K a u f m a n , 1 9 8 0 ) T h i s t a s k w a s s i m i l a r t o M a t r i x N u m b e r s a n d L e t t e r s . T h e t a s k c o n s i s t e d o f f i v e i t e m s . E a c h c e l l h a d a s t i m u l u s p e r c e l l . T h r e e o f t h e s t i m u l i w e r e p i c t u r e s , o n e s t i m u l u s w a s a g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n , a n d t h e f i f t h s t i m u l u s w a s a l e t t e r . T h e l a s t t w o s t i m u l i w e r e p r i n t e d o n t o t h e m a t r i x b y t h e w r i t e r . T h e p i c t u r e s w e r e t a k e n f r o m t h e G i n n W o r d E n r i c h m e n t P r o g r a m L e v e l One w o r k b o o k ( C l y m e r & B a r r e t t , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h e p i c t u r e s , d e s i g n a n d l e t t e r w e r e d i f f e r e n t f o r e a c h m a t r i x , a n d a r r a n g e d s o t h a t n e i t h e r t h e d e s i g n n o r t h e l e t t e r a p p e a r e d m o r e t h a n o n c e i n a n y c e l l . T h e t a s k i s f e l t t o r e l y o n s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g ( K a u f m a n , 1 9 8 0 ) . Step 1: T h e c h i l d r e n w e r e i n s t r u c t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e t o r e c a l l t h e m a t r i x a s t h e y h a d p r e v i o u s l y d o n e . T h e y w e r e t o l d t o u s e t h e r e h e a r s a l s t r a t e g y o f s a y i n g , " F i r s t t h e , s e c o n d t h e , e t c . " Step 2: T h e c h i l d r e n w e r e a s k e d t o t e l l w h a t t h e y w e r e t o d o . Step 3: T h e c h i l d r e n w e r e s h o w n t h e f i r s t m a t r i x , a n d t h e c e l l s g o n e t h r o u g h , a s i n t h e o t h e r m a t r i c e s . Step 4: T h e y w e r e g i v e n a b l a n k m a t r i x a n d a s k e d t o r e c a l l t h e m a t r i x i n o r d e r . U p t o t h r e e t r i a l s w e r e g i v e n . Step 5: T h e c h i l d r e n w e r e a g a i n s h o w n M a t r i x 1 , a n d t h i s t i m e s h o w n how t h e c e l l s c o u l d b e a s s o c i a t e d i n o r d e r , b y m a k i n g u p a ' s t o r y ' a b o u t t h e c e l l s . Step 6: T h e c h i l d r e n w e r e s h o w n M a t r i x 2 , a n d t o l d t o t r y a n d m a k e u p t h e i r owm s t o r i e s t o h e l p t h e m r e m e m b e r . 109 Step 7: They were given blank m a t r i c e s and asked to r e c a l l the c e l l s . Up to three t r i a l s were given. Step 8: The other m a t r i c e s were done f o l l o w i n g t h i s format. Step 9: The c h i l d r e n were asked to summarize the task. They were d i r e c t e d to r e c a l l the s t r a t e g i e s of v e r b a l r e h e a r s a l , a r e c a l l p a t t e r n , and a s s o c i a t i n g . Task 6: PICTURE STORY ARRANGEMENT (Adapted from Kaufman, 1980) Th i s task c o n s i s t e d of f i v e s e r i e s of s i x p i c t u r e s each (Developmental Learning M a t e r i a l s ) . Each c a r d i n the s e r i e s was numbered on the back to i n d i c a t e the order of placement before the c h i l d . S e r i e s were a l s o l e t t e r e d to i n d i c a t e the c o r r e c t sequence of the answer. The cards were p l a c e d i n f r o n t of the c h i l d , and then rearranged to show a sequence of events (e.g., bedtime). Each c h i l d was given a s e r i e s to arrange, and each s e r i e s r o t a t e d u n t i l each c h i l d had done a l l f i v e items. T h i s task i s f e l t to focus on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g (Kaufman, 1980). Step 1: The c h i l d r e n were t o l d that each would be given a s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s which they were to put i n t o c o r r e c t o r d e r . They were t o l d that before they s t a r t e d to rearrange the p i c t u r e s they were to think of a t i t l e f o r t h e i r s e r i e s . A f t e r they had s a i d t h e i r t i t l e , then they c o u l d rearrange t h e i r p i c t u r e s . 110 Step 2: The c h i l d r e n were asked to t e l l what they were to do. Step 3: Each c h i l d was given a s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s , l a i d down i n the p r e s c r i b e d o r d e r . Each was asked f o r the t i t l e of h i s ' s t o r y ' , and then allowed to rearrange h i s p i c t u r e s . Step 4: The sequence of each c h i l d ' s s t o r y was checked, and i f i n c o r r e c t , s/he was allowed to redo i t . Step 5: The se t s were switched, and the same steps f o l l o w e d . Step 6 : A f t e r a l l the s e t s had been done by the c h i l d r e n , they were asked to t e l l what they had done. V a r i o u s c l u e s to h e l p with the sequencing were d i s c u s s e d , such as u s i n g the c l o c k face to h e l p . The use of a t i t l e and a ' s t o r y ' were d i s c u s s e d as an a i d to o r d e r i n g . Task 7: SERIAL RECALL OF PICTURES (Adapted from Kaufman, 1980) T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of s i x items. The f i r s t two items were composed of four c a r d s , the next two items had s i x ca r d s , and the l a s t two items had e i g h t c a r d s . Each 5 1/2 cm square c a r d had a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e of an animal or o b j e c t on i t . The p i c t u r e s were taken from the Ginn Word Enrichment Programme L e v e l One workbook. Each s e r i e s of cards was composed of p i c t u r e s which c o u l d be p a i r e d together (e.g., bat and b a l l ) so that the f i r s t two items had two p a i r s , the next two items had three p a i r s , and the 111 last two items had four pairs. Picture cards were numbered on the back to indicate the order in which to place them in front of the child. The cards were arranged so that one item from each pair was in the first half of the series, while the other items from each pair were in identical order in the second half of the series (e.g., horse, bat, saddle, ball). Each child's task was to recall, in order, a l l the pictures in each series. The task is felt to rely on successive processing (Kaufman, 1980). S t e p 1: The children were shown the first series of pictures. It was explained that their task was to recall a l l the pictures in the correct order. As the pictures were placed before them they were to say, "First the , second the , etc." Once a l l the pictures were down, they were to go through them again. S t e p 2: The children were asked to te l l what they were to do. S t e p 3: The first series was placed before the children as they verbalized. Picture names were provided if they were not known. S t e p 4: The pictures were removed, and they were asked to recall the pictures in the correct order. If they were not sure, the series was repeated. S t e p 5: The pictures were placed before the children. This time they were directed to note that the pictures could be paired. They were told to study the pictures again, and then asked to recall them. 1 1 2 Step 6 : They were asked t o r e c a l l the order of the p i c t u r e s . They were then asked to r e c a l l the d i f f e r e n t ways of remembering the p i c t u r e s . They were t o l d that they c o u l d use e i t h e r way, r e h e a r s a l or p a i r i n g the items. Step 7: The r e s t of the s e t s were done f o l l o w i n g t h i s format. Step 8: The c h i l d r e n were asked to summarize what they had done, and how they had remembered the p i c t u r e s . Task 8: FREE RECALL OF PICTURES (Adapted from Kaufman, 1 980) T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of seventeen items. The f i r s t s i x items c o n t a i n e d four cards, the next s i x items had s i x car d s , and the l a s t f i v e items had e i g h t c a r d s . Each 4 X 4 1/2 cm c a r d had a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e . The p i c t u r e s were taken from the Ginn Word Enrichment Programme L e v e l One workbook. In the f i r s t s i x items a l l p i c t u r e s belonged to the same category (e.g., a n i m a l s ) . In each of the other items the p i c t u r e s were arranged so that a p i c t u r e from each category was followed by a p i c t u r e from the other category. Each c a r d i n an item was followed by a p i c t u r e from the other category. Each c a r d i n an item was numbered on the back i n the order i n which they were to be p l a c e d i n f r o n t of the c h i l d . The c h i l d ' s task was to r e c a l l i n any order, a l l of the p i c t u r e s . T h i s task i s f e l t to focus on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g (Kaufman, 1980). 113 Step 1: The c h i l d r e n were t o l d t h at they were to remember the p i c t u r e s . As each p i c t u r e was p l a c e d before them they were to name i t . Step 2: The c h i l d r e n were asked to t e l l what they were to do. Step 3: The f i r s t item was p l a c e d before them, and the names of p i c t u r e s t o l d to them, i f they d i d n ' t know. A f t e r studying the p i c t u r e s , the cards were removed. Step 4: The c h i l d r e n were asked to r e c a l l the p i c t u r e s i n any o r d e r . Step 5: The c h i l d r e n were shown the same item a g a i n . A t t e n t i o n was drawn to the f a c t t hat some of the p i c t u r e s c o u l d be grouped t o g e t h e r . They were a l s o t o l d that i n order to remember how many p i c t u r e s had been put down, to touch a f i n g e r each time a p i c t u r e was named. Step 6 : The c h i l d r e n were asked what they were to do. Step 7: The next item, was done, and up to three t r i a l s given to remember a l l the p i c t u r e s . The remaining four c a r d items were done. Step 8: A s i x c a r d item was p l a c e d before the c h i l d r e n . They were d i r e c t e d to see that there were now two c a t e g o r i e s . They were asked to once again r e c a l l the p i c t u r e s i n any order, and reminded to use t h e i r f i n g e r s to h e l p them count the p i c t u r e s . Step 9: They were asked to r e t e l l what they were to do. 1 14 Step 10: The remaining s i x c a r d items were done t h i s way. Step 11: The e i g h t c a r d s e t s were a l s o done f o l l o w i n g t h i s format. Step 12: The c h i l d r e n were asked to summarize what they had done, and to remember the s t r a t e g i e s they had lea r n e d f o r r e c a l l i n g t h i n g s . Task 9: SPATIAL ORIENTATION (Adapted from Kaufman, 1980) T h i s task i s an a d a p t a t i o n of a f i l m s t r i p task used by Kaufman (1980). The task c o n s i s t e d of twenty cards designed to strengthen the a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e d i r e c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s such as r i g h t - l e f t , above - below i n r e l a t i o n to a dot i n space. There i s a t o t a l of se v e n t y - s i x q u e s t i o n s to be responded to by the c h i l d r e n , each i n v o l v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e a u d i t o r y a t t e n t i o n and a u d i t o r y s e q u e n t i a l memory. Each c a r d c o n s i s t s of a v e r t i c a l l i n e or a h o r i z o n t a l l i n e or both, i n c o l o u r s red or b l a c k . The c h i l d r e n were asked to v i s u a l i z e the p o s i t i o n of a s p e c i f i c a l l y named c o l o u r e d dot i n r e l a t i o n to the l i n e s by naming the c o l o u r of the dot. For example, the c h i l d r e n c o u l d be asked to name the c o l o u r of the dot found above the red l i n e and to the l e f t of the black l i n e . The task focuses on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . 115 Task 10: VISUAL MATCHING OF FACES (Adapted from Kaufman, 1980) T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of twenty-two items mounted on 30 X 11 cm lime green cardboard. The task was designed to strengthen the a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a c e s , as w e l l as d i r e c t i o n a l a s p e c t s . I t was an a d a p t a t i o n of a f i l m s t r i p used by Kaufman (1980). The faces were adapted from a game c a l l e d Faces ( C r e a t i v e Toys) and c o n s i s t e d of black l i n e drawings of g e o m e t r i c a l l y represented faces with d i f f e r e n t eyes, noses, mouths, and eyebrows. The c h i l d r e n ' s task was to i n d i c a t e i f the two faces mounted on the card were the "same or d i f f e r e n t . The task was designed to be a small group a c t i v i t y with each c h i l d responding u s i n g f i n g e r s to i n d i c a t e Yes the same or No d i f f e r e n t . T h i s task focuses on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . Task 11: MAZES (Adapted from B r a i l s f o r d , 1981) T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of f i v e d i f f e r e n t mazes each mounted on b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d paper and laminated so that responses c o u l d be washed o f f . The mazes were taken from v a r i o u s c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t y books, and i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y i n d i f f i c u l t y . The c h i l d r e n ' s task was to draw a l i n e from the c e n t r e of the maze to the e x i t without c r o s s i n g l i n e s or going i n t o ' b l i n d ' a l l e y s . Up to three t r i a l s per maze were allowed. T h i s task focuses on simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g ( B r a i l s f o r d , 1981). 1 16 Task 12: FOLLOW-THE-DOTS: NUMBERS T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of four connect-the-dots pages using numbers. The mazes used ten, t h i r t e e n , and t h i r t y numbers. A l l had l i n e c l u e s embedded i n them. The task focuses on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . Task 13: FOLLOW-THE-DOTS: LETTERS T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of three connect-the-dots pages, two using lower case l e t t e r s and one us i n g upper case l e t t e r s . Each page was laminated so they c o u l d be reused. The task focuses on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . Task 14: RIDDLES T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of fourteen rhyming c l u e s to animals. The teacher read the 'poem' and the c h i l d r e n t r i e d to guess the name of the animal. The task was adapted from the K-ABC R i d d l e s subtest and i s f e l t to focus on simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g . Task 15: TRACKING (Adapted from B r a i l s f o r d , 1981) T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of a 35 X 30 cm black and white r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a v i l l a g e d i s s e c t e d with red l i n e s i n t o twenty-eight 9 X 4 cm r e c t a n g l e s (Le V i l l a g e , Nathan). There were twenty-eight 'dominoes', each c o l o u r e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y f o r the p a r t of the puz z l e i t f i t t e d . The c h i l d r e n ' s task was broken down i n t o two p a r t s . 1 17 The f i r s t p a r t of the task was to gain f a m i l i a r i t y with the pu z z l e p a r t s as they f i t t e d onto the black and white v i l l a g e . In t h i s p a r t , the 'dominoes' were a l l p l a c e d on the t a b l e and the c h i l d r e n assembled the puz z l e onto the l a r g e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s i s f e l t to r e q u i r e both s u c c e s s i v e and simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g . The c h i l d r e n were asked what c l u e s they used to f i n d p i e c e s . The second p a r t of the task i n v o l v e d a u d i t o r y s e q u e n t i a l memory and sequencing. In t h i s p a r t , the c h i l d r e n were shown the v i l l a g e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n black and white. They were asked to p o i n t to the part of the puz z l e d e s c r i b e d i n d i r e c t i o n a l c l u e s . For example, "Go up three spaces and to the l e f t one space". They were then asked to d e s c r i b e what was i n that p a r t i c u l a r r e c t a n g l e (e.g., cows and a r o o f ) . T h i s task i s f e l t to focus on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . Task 16: RELATED MEMORY SETS (Adapted from B r a i l s f o r d , 1981 ) T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of twenty-six 12 X 8.5 cm cards d e p i c t i n g the top or bottom of a farm animal. The bottom halve s were l a i d on the t a b l e and the c h i l d r e n asked to 'guess' what animal i t was. To check t h e i r accuracy the top halves were then l a i d out, and they matched the p a r t s . The back of each c o r r e c t l y assembled animal d e p i c t e d a d i f f e r e n t one i n black and white. 118 Task 17: PEGBOARD (Adapted from Krywaniuk, 1974) T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of design cards to be co p i e d by the c h i l d r e n using c o l o u r e d pegs which were p l a c e d onto the pegboard (Developmental L e a r n i n g M a t e r i a l s ) . There were f i v e c o l o u r s used i n the des i g n s . Each c h i l d was given a pegboard, and had to chose the a p p r o p r i a t e c o l o u r s and number of pegs needed to make the design on a c a r d . The cards were from s e t s 1, 5, 6, 7, and 8. Set 1 taught the idea of p l a c i n g the pegs. Set 5 taught forming a design l i k e the g e s t a l t presented, without the use of the i n d i v i d u a l peg o u t l i n e s . Sets 6 and 7 each used the end and l i n e formations which were to be f o l l o w e d to form the des i g n . Set 8 used geometric shapes with the peg holes d e p i c t e d as a g r i d ; the c h i l d r e n had to c e n t r e the design as on the c a r d . Each c h i l d was r e q u i r e d to complete at l e a s t ten designs, two per s e t . The task focuses on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . As i n other t a s k s , the c h i l d r e n were encouraged to t a l k about s t r a t e g i e s they had used f o r completing the desi g n s , as w e l l as summarizing the d i r e c t i o n s and the task. Task 18: BLOCK DESIGNS ( C H . S t o e l t i n g Co.) T h i s task was d e v i s e d from m a t e r i a l s s i m i l a r to those on the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d (Wechsler, 1974) subtest Block Design. The task c o n s i s t e d 119 of nine designs to be assembled from four b l o c k s . The b l o c k s were 2.5 cm square, and had the f o l l o w i n g c o l o u r e d s i d e s : red, blue, yellow, white, d i a g o n a l white and red, and d i a g o n a l blue and yellow. The c h i l d r e n had to use the same bl o c k s f o r each de s i g n . The c h i l d r e n were t o l d that a l l the b locks were i d e n t i c a l , and had a chance to p r a c t i c e on an easy item. The design cards had no l i n e s d e p i c t e d on them which helped to d i f f e r e n t i a t e block placement. The f i r s t three designs used c o l o u r to d e p i c t the block s i d e s needed, the next three used d i a g o n a l l i n e s to d e p i c t the b l o c k s . The c h i l d r e n were t o l d to work as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e once the task was understood. They were asked to summarize the d i r e c t i o n s , and s t r a t e g i e s they were using to h e l p them complete the task. A l l c h i l d r e n d i d the nine d e s i g n s . The task i s f e l t to focus on simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g , although s u c c e s s i v e i s a l s o p r e s e n t . The L i n g u i s t i c Awareness I n t e r v e n t i o n Programme The L i n g u i s t i c Awareness programme was content-s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g . E s s e n t i a l l y , i t a l s o f a c i l i t a t e s simultaneous, s u c c e s s i v e , and/or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . However, i n t h i s type of t r a i n i n g m a t e r i a l s are used that are r e l a t e d to school s u b j e c t s (Das, 1984c, p. 44). The process of l i n g u i s t i c awareness i s seen as mediating between c o g n i t i v e processes and reading achievement (Leong and Haines, 1978). L i n g u i s t i c awareness, the a b i l i t y to focus on the form of language, has been shown to have a 1 20 strong r e l a t i o n s h i p to l a t e r reading achievement (Blachman, 1984; E h r i , 1979, 1984; G o l i n k o f f , 1978; Liberman et a l . , 1980; Lundberg et a l . , 1980; W i l l i a m s , 1984). L i n g u i s t i c awareness i s seen as having access to l i n g u i s t i c elements. In order to succeed i n r e a d i n g , a c h i l d needs to develop both word and p h o n o l o g i c a l awareness (Downing, 1982). Included i n t h i s i s the n o t i o n that sentences can be segmented i n t o phrases, words, s y l l a b l e s , and phonemes, and a l s o s y n t h e s i z e d to c r e a t e the same (Olof s s o n amd Lundberg, 1983). A b i l i t y to both segment and s y n t h e s i z e phonemic elements i s seen as necessary r e g a r d l e s s of method of reading i n s t r u c t i o n ( G o l i n k o f f , 1978). S u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g i s seen as a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n b eginning reading (Aaron, 1982; Das,l984c; Das, Snart and Mulcahy, 1978). S u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g i s p a r t i c u l a r l y l i n k e d with l i n g u i s t i c t a s k s which r e q u i r e a n a l y s i s of a s e q u e n t i a l l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e , decoding and recoding (Cummins and Das, 1977; Das, K i r b y , and Jarman, 1979; Das, Snart, and Mulcahy, 1982; L u r i a , 1981). Through the t e a c h i n g of tasks c o n s i d e r e d c o n t e n t - s p e c i f i c , and r e q u i r i n g more r e l i a n c e on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g the c h i l d l e a r n s to focus on the s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s of language, r a t h e r than the automatic use of language (Tunmer and Bowey, 1981). The use of s t r a t e g i e s i s i m p l i c a t e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s , and thus the p l a n n i n g l e v e l . 121 The Tasks Task 1: WORD CONCEPT: NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES (Adapted from Tunmer and Bowey, 1981) Th i s task c o n s i s t e d of f o r t y items, ten items each of two nouns, three nouns, and two and three nouns, and two and three nouns and a d j e c t i v e s . The c h i l d r e n each had co l o u r e d markers. T h e i r task was to l i s t e n to what was read to them, repeat the word s t r i n g , and them put down markers f o r the number of words s a i d . The task r e q u i r e d a u d i t o r y memory, and i s aimed at g i v i n g p r a c t i c e at segmenting words from what i s spoken. The word s t r i n g s were nongrammatical (e.g., axe, f a n ) . Task 2: WORD CONCEPT: VERBS AND QUANTIFIERS (Adapted from Tunmer and Bowey, 1981) Th i s task c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t y items, ten each of two verbs and/or q u a n t i f i e r s , three verbs and/or q u a n t i f i e r s , and two and three verbs and q u a n t i f i e r s . The format was i d e n t i c a l to Task 1. Task 3: WORD CONCEPT: GRAMMATICAL STRINGS (Adapted from Tunmer and Bowey, 1981) Th i s task c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t y items, ten each of two words forming a grammatically c o r r e c t s t r i n g (e.g., many 122 t o y s ) , three words forming a grammatically c o r r e c t s t r i n g (e.g., happy g i r l s s i n g ) , and two and three word s t r i n g s . I t was i d e n t i c a l i n format to Task 1. Task 4: WORD CONCEPT: SENTENCES (Adapted from Tunmer and Bowey, 1981) T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of f o r t y items: ten each of three word sentences, four word sentences, a combination of three and four word sentences, and f i v e word sentences. I t was i d e n t i c a l i n format to Task 1. Task 5: RHYMING: Task 5a: Word Clues: T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of twenty items which were read to the c h i l d r e n . Each item began, 'I am t h i n k i n g of a word that rhymes with ,' and then g i v e s a c l u e to the word wanted (e.g., I t i s something to r e a d ) . The c h i l d r e n were r e q u i r e d to supply the rhyming word and then say the rhyming p a i r of words t o g e t h e r . The c l u e s were taken from Reading Games and A c t i v i t i e s (Dorsey, 1972). Task 5b: 1, 2, 3 Cards: T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of f i f t e e n items, each mounted on 35 X 10.5 cm lime green cardboard. On the f r o n t of each car d was pasted three black and white p i c t u r e s of o b j e c t s , two of which rhymed. Under each p i c t u r e was p r i n t e d from 123 l e f t to r i g h t the numbers 1, 2, or 3. The c h i l d r e n ' s task was to say the names of the p i c t u r e s , and then h o l d up f i n g e r s to i n d i c a t e the number f o r the p i c t u r e not rhyming with the o t h e r s . For example, the card showed cat drum bat 1 2 3 and the c h i l d r e n h o l d up two f i n g e r s to i n d i c a t e the one that d i d not rhyme. Task 5c: YES - NO: T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of twenty-three items read to the c h i l d r e n . Each item c o n s i s t e d of four or f i v e words i n which e i t h e r a l l the words rhyme, or one i n the group does not. I f a l l the words rhymed, the c h i l d r e n were to show one f i n g e r , i f they d i d not a l l rhyme, the c h i l d r e n were to show two f i n g e r s . Items were taken from Reading Games and A c t i v i t i e s (Dorsey, 1972). Task 5d: WHICH WORD DOESN'T BELONG? Th i s task c o n s i s t e d of s i x items. Each item had four c a r d s , 6 X 8 cm, on which had been pasted three p i c t u r e s which rhymed and a f o u r t h which d i d not rhyme with the o t h e r s . Each item was on d i f f e r e n t b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d paper. The items had been made s e l f - c o r r e c t i n g by p l a c i n g a dot on the back of the c a r d whose p i c t u r e name d i d not rhyme with the ot h e r s . The c h i l d r e n ' s task was to do each item, saying the names of the p i c t u r e s and i d e n t i f y i n g the one that d i d not rhyme. 1 24 Task 5e: WHICH WORD IS DIFFERENT? T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of twenty items which were read to the c h i l d r e n . Each item had f i v e words, four of which rhymed. The c h i l d r e n had to l i s t e n to the words and then name the one that d i d not rhyme. Items were taken from Reading Games and A c t i v i t i e s (Dorsey, 1972). Task 5f: GAME - FIVE FINGERS T h i s game was i n c l u d e d to r e i n f o r c e the rhyming concept w i t h i n a game format. Each c h i l d was given one of f i v e cards made of 22 X 14 cm cardboard on which had been pasted f i v e p i c t u r e s i n a l i n e . T h i s c a r d f i t t e d i n t o a p i c k e t i n a m a n i l l a tag f o l d e r which had been f o l d e d i n h a l f , and f i v e ' f i n g e r s ' cut a c r o s s the f r o n t s i d e . There were ten separate 10.5 X 7.5 cm cards on which had been pasted p i c t u r e s that rhymed with two words on the f i v e p l a y i n g c a r d s , but never on the same c a r d . Each p l a y e r p i c k e d up separate c a r d s , which were p l a c e d face down on the t a b l e . The p i c t u r e had to be named, and then each c h i l d checked to see i f one of the p i c t u r e s on t h e i r c a r d rhymed. If one d i d , the c h i l d covered the p i c t u r e with one of h i s f i n g e r s . The f i r s t c h i l d to have a l l have f i v e f i n g e r s c o v e r i n g h i s p i c t u r e s was the 'winner'. 1 25 Task 6: SLOW PRONOUNCIATION OF WORDS T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of p r a c t i s i n g s lowly pronouncing words. I t had f i f t y - s i x three phoneme items, and twenty-eight four phoneme items. Each item was on an 11 X 8 cm b r i g h t l y c o l o u r e d paper on which d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e s had been pasted on both f r o n t and back. A l l items were laminated. The p i c t u r e s were from the Ginn Word Enrichment Programme workbooks. Each c h i l d was r e q u i r e d to pronounce as slowly as p o s s i b l e at l e a s t ten each of the three and four phoneme words. Task 7: SYLLABLE RECOGNITON: Task 7a: SYLLABLE MARKING (2 SYLLABLES): T h i s task c o n s i s t s of eighty-one two s y l l a b l e words. The c h i l d r e n ' s task was to l i s t e n to the word read and then c l a p hands f o r the number of s y l l a b l e s as the word was re r e a d . Words were from Rosner (1979). Not a l l words were used. Task 7b: FIND THE HIDDEN SYLLABLE: T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t e e n items read to the c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n were asked to say the word and then asked i f the word was i n a longer word. For example, 'say ant. Is the word ant i n antelope? andy?', e t c . (Rosner, 1979). Not a l l words i n c l u d e d were used. 1 26 Task 7c: SYLLABLE MARKING ( 3 - 4 SYLLABLE WORDS): T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of s i x t y - n i n e three and four s y l l a b l e words. The c h i l d r e n ' s task was to l i s t e n to the word read and then to c l a p hands as they s a i d each s y l l a b l e (Rosner, 1979). Not a l l words were used. Task 7d: SYLLABLE COUNTING GAME: T h i s game was c o n s t r u c t e d on a green f i l e f o l d e r p l a y i n g board on which had been marked spaces. There were t h i r t y - t w o 8 X 5.5 cm p l a y i n g c a r d s . On each of twenty-nine p l a y i n g cards were p i c t u r e s of m u l t i - s y l l a b i c words. The remaining p l a y i n g cards had d i r e c t i v e s p r i n t e d on them (e.g., take another t u r n ) . The p l a y i n g cards were p l a c e d face down on the t a b l e . Each c h i l d took turns t u r n i n g a c a r d over, naming the p i c t u r e , and moving t h e i r marker f o r the number of s y l l a b l e s i n the word. The f i r s t c h i l d to reach the ' f i n i s h ' was the 'winner.' The teachers named any p i c t u r e s that were not known. Task 7e: FIND THE HIDDEN SYLLABLE II: T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of twelve items which were read to the c h i l d r e n . I t was s i m i l a r to Task 7b. The c h i l d r e n had to say a short word read to them and t e l l i f i t was embedded i n a longer word. For example, 'Say two. Is the word two hidden i n the word tomorrow? Say row. Is the word row hidden i n the word tomorrow?' C h i l d r e n ' s responses f o l l o w e d a yes/no format where f i n g e r s were used fo r responding (Rosner, 1979). 127 Task 8: AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION OF INITIAL PHONEMES: Task 8a: DOES A WORD START WITH A SPECIFIED PHONEME? This task contained a possible twenty-eight items. The children were asked i f the word read to them began with a sp e c i f i e d phoneme. For example, 'Does the word 'money' begin with /m/?' (Rosner, 1979). Task 8b: WHICH WORD DOESN'T BELONG? This task consisted of eight items. Each item had four 8 X 6 cm cards on which had been pasted three pictures which began with the same phoneme and a fourth picture which did not begin with that phoneme. Each item was on a dif f e r e n t coloured paper.... The items had been made 'self - c o r r e c t i n g ' by placing dots on the back of the card that began with a d i f f e r e n t phoneme. The children's task was to do each item, saying the names of the pictures, and iden t i f y i n g the one that did not belong with the others. They could check their responses by turning the cards over. Task 8c: INITIAL CONSONANT DOMINOES: This game had thirty-nine playing cards. The cards were 1 0 X 5 cm; t h i r t y - f i v e of them had a picture at either end, and four of them h£d one picture and a red star at the 1 28 other end. Each c h i l d was given three cards with which to begin p l a y . One c a r d was put on the t a b l e with which to begin. A designated c h i l d began p l a y i n g by attempting to match one of the i n i t i a l phonemes on h i s cards to the ones on the t a b l e . I f he c o u l d not match a phoneme he p i c k e d up another c a r d and used i t i f i t matched. I f not, the next c h i l d took a t u r n . The red s t a r s c o u l d be used f o r any phoneme. The f i r s t c h i l d to use a l l the card s , was the 'winner'. A l l p i c t u r e names were t o l d to the c h i l d r e n , i f they were unsure. Task 8d: SAY THE MISSING SOUND: The task c o n s i s t e d of one hundred and seven word p a i r s to be read to the c h i l d r e n . The f i r s t word was read and then s a i d again without the i n i t i a l phoneme. The c h i l d r e n ' s task was to say the i n i t i a l phoneme (Rosner, 1979). Task 9: INITIAL PHONEME SEGMENTATION: T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of one hundred and two words to be read to the c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n ' s task was to say the word, and then say i t again d e l e t i n g the i n i t i a l phoneme (e.g., c a t -at) . 129 Task 10: AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION OF FINAL PHONEMES: Task 10a: DOES A WORD END WITH A SPECIFIED PHONEME? Th i s task was i d e n t i c a l to Task 8a, except that f i n a l phonemes had to be d i s c r i m i n a t e d (Rosner, 1979). Task 10b: WHICH WORD DOESN'T BELONG? T h i s task was i d e n t i c a l to Task 8b, except that f i n a l phonemes had to be d i s c r i m i n a t e d (Rosner, 1979). Task 10c: SAY THE MISSING SOUND: Th i s task was i d e n t i c a l to Task 8d, except that f i n a l phonemes had to be d i s c r i m i n a t e d (Rosner, 1979). Task 11: FINAL PHONEME SEGMENTATION: T h i s task was i d e n t i c a l to Task 9, except that i t e n t a i l e d segmenting the f i n a l phoneme. Task 12: TOTAL SEGMENTATION: Task 12a: REVIEW SLOW PRONOUNCIATION OF WORDS: Th i s task c o n s i s t e d of f o r t y items. The items were p r i n t e d p i c t u r e s of two, three , and four phoneme words. The.cards were 9 X 5.5 cm. As i n Task 6, the c h i l d r e n p r a c t i c e d naming the p i c t u r e s as slowly as they c o u l d . 130 Task 12b: MARKERS FOR PHONEMES: This task consisted of s i x t y - f i v e items. Each item was a picture of a two, three, or four phoneme word mounted on a 6 cm yellow c i r c l e . The children had to say the name of the picture, and put down p l a s t i c markers for each phoneme heard. Task 13: BLENDING FROM SYLLABLES: Task 13A: COMPOUND WORDS: This task consisted of t h i r t y - s i x items, a l l compound words. The two words forming the compound word were read to the children and they had to t e l l the word (e.g., r a i l / r o a d ) . Task 13b: BLENDING 2 - 3 SYLLABLE WORDS: This task consisted of thirty-two items, each a two or three s y l l a b l e word. Each item was read to the children in sy l l a b l e s (e.g., p i / l o t ) and they had to id e n t i f y the word. Task 13c: BLENDING 2, 3, AND 4 SYLLABLE WORDS: This task consisted of forty items and was further practice of Task 13b. 131 Task 14: BLENDING FROM PHONEMES: T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t y - s i x items. The items were p i c t u r e cards of th r e e , f o u r , and f i v e phoneme words. The words were read to the c h i l d r e n i n i n d i v i d u a l phonemes and they had to i d e n t i f y the word (e.g., b / o a / t ) . The Combination Intervention The Combination programme was, as the name s t a t e s , a combination of both the s t r a t e g y and l i n g u i s t i c awareness programmes. The purpose of the programme was to attempt to address the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i n d i v i d u a l programmes versus combining the two. The t a s k s used i n t h i s programme are i d e n t i c a l to those t a s k s used i n the i n d i v i d u a l programmes. Tasks from the s t r a t e g y and l i n g u i s t i c awareness programmes were a l t e r n a t e d a c c o r d i n g to the s k i l l being taught. Tasks f e l t to be s i m i l a r or s e q u e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d were done i n suc c e s s i o n t o a i d l e a r n i n g of the s k i l l . The c h i l d r e n d i d not complete a l l the items f o r a p a r t i c u l a r task, but rat h e r d i d only the odd numbered items. For example, Matrix Numbers, L e t t e r s , and P i c t u r e s were done i n ord e r . The pace of t h i s programme was f a s t e r , and l e s s r e p e t i t i o n of s k i l l s taught was thus p r o v i d e d . The tasks are l i s t e d i n the order presented i n the programme. 1. People P u z z l e s 2. Animal Puzzles 3. Word Concepts: Nouns and Verbs 1 32 4. Word Concepts: S t r i n g s and Sentences 5. Mazes 6. R i d d l e s 7. Rhyming: a & b 8. Rhyming: c & d 9. Rhyming: e & f 10. Pegboards 11. Slow P r o n o u n c i a t i o n of Words 12. Matrix Numbers 13. Matrix L e t t e r s 14. Matrix P i c t u r e s 15. S y l l a b l e s : a & c 16. S y l l a b l e s : b & e 17. Follow-the-Dots: Numbers and L e t t e r s 18. I n i t i a l Phoneme D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : a & b 19. I n i t i a l Phoneme D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : c & d 20. I n i t i a l Phoneme Segmentation 21. S e r i a l R e c a l l of P i c t u r e s 22. F i n a l Phoneme D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : a Si b 23. F i n a l Phoneme D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : c 24. F i n a l Segmentation 25. Free R e c a l l 26. P i c t u r e Story Arrangement 27. T o t a l Segmentation 28. S p a t i a l O r i e n t a t i o n 29. V i s u a l Matching 30. B l e n d i n g : a £ b 133 31. B l e n d i n g : T o t a l 32. T r a c k i n g 33. R e l a t e d Memory Sets 34. Block Design The Control Intervention The C o n t r o l Groups, while r e c e i v i n g no s p e c i f i c treatment, r e c e i v e d equal time to that given the other groups. The main purpose of t h i s group was to address the e f f e c t of s o c i a l i z a t i o n on group performance. The a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d f o r t h i s group were u n s t r u c t u r e d , once d i r e c t i o n s were understood. Some rea d i n e s s tasks of s k i l l s b e l i e v e d to be mastered, were i n c l u d e d . The Tasks Task 1: FIND THE OTHER HALF MEMORY GAME (Creative Toys): T h i s game c o n s i s t e d of f i f t y - f o u r cards forming twenty-seven p a i r s . Each c a r d had h a l f of an o b j e c t on i t (e.g., h a l f a t r a i n ) . In the f i r s t p a r t the c h i l d r e n had to match the halves to gain f a m i l i a r i t y with what the p a i r s formed. The game was pla y e d by p l a c i n g the cards face down and having a c h i l d t urn two over. If the two d i d not match, they were turned face down, and the next c h i l d took a t u r n . I f the two matched, then the c h i l d kept the cards 134 and turned two more over, u n t i l t u r n i n g two which d i d not match. The c h i l d with the h i g h e s t number of p a i r s was the 'winner'. Task 2: MAKING A PUZZLE There were two items to be done by the c h i l d r e n . Both c o n s i s t e d of a black and white scrambled p i c t u r e i n p i e c e s which were to be cut out and pasted onto l i g h t cardboard. The p i e c e s were then cut out again, c o l o u r e d , and put together to form a p i c t u r e . Both were taken from c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t y books. The f i r s t p u z z l e c o n t a i n e d p i e c e s that were equal s i z e d r e c t a n g l e s . The second p u z z l e had i r r e g u l a r l y shaped p i e c e s and was a l s o a c o l o u r by number, with the code f o r the c o l o u r s p r o v i d e d . Task 3: ASSOCATION GAME ( C r e a t i v e Toys) T h i s game c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t y - s i x p l a y i n g cards of sturdy cardboard. On each c a r d were two p i c t u r e s , much l i k e a dominoe. The cards were d i v i d e d e q u a l l y among the p l a y e r s . A designated c h i l d began play by p l a c i n g one of h i s cards i n the c e n t r e of the t a b l e . The next p l a y e r a t t a c h e d to t h i s c a r d another car d which showed an a s s o c i a t i v e c o n n e c t i o n . For example, i f the c e n t r e c a r d showed a kennel and a b a l l , the next p l a y e r might have at t a c h e d a c a r d showing a dog or sports shoes. The c h i l d who had no cards l e f t , or the fewest, was the 'winner'. I t was necessary to name the drawings, and to l e t the c h i l d r e n combine the cards before a c t u a l l y p l a y i n g the game. 135 Task 4: COLOUR BY NUMBER: T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of three c o l o u r by number p i c t u r e s to be completed d u r i n g d i f f e r e n t s e s s i o n s . The p i c t u r e s were taken from v a r i o u s c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t y books. A l l i n v o l v e d the use of e i g h t c o l o u r s . Task 5: WORD SEARCHES: T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of four p o s s i b l e word searches taken from v a r i o u s c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t y books. The f i r s t one was a message to be decoded using the key p r o v i d e d . The g r i d had f i v e spaces down and f i v e a c r o s s with a t o t a l of t w e n t y - f i v e spaces. Each l e t t e r was i d e n t i f i e d by two numbers (e.g., 4 - 9 ) , the f i r s t number t o l d how f a r from the l e f t hand s i d e of the g r i d and the second number t o l d how f a r from the top of the g r i d . Where the two numbers i n t e r s e c t e d the l e t t e r needed (e.g., s) was found. Word boundaries were denoted by s l a s h e s between number groupings. The l a s t three searches were t y p i c a l word searches. Each had e i g h t words to l o c a t e w i t h i n the a r r a y of l e t t e r s d i s p l a y e d . Each search was mounted and laminated so that responses c o u l d be wiped from the page. 1 36 Task 6: VISUAL MATCHING OF WORDS: Th i s task c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t y s ets of three, four, and f i v e l e t t e r words to be matched. Each set has four p a i r s of words. The cards from one set were l a i d i n f r o n t of the c h i l d who was match the p a i r s . The cards were s e l f - c o r r e c t i n g , that i s , the same c o l o u r e d dot was on the backs of i d e n t i c a l words. T h i s task i s a v a r i a t i o n of one commonly found i n readiness books. Task 7: REBUS BOOKS: T h i s was a set of ten books designed and c o n s t r u c t e d by the w r i t e r . The sentence tags i n the books were from L e v e l Two of the Ginn 720 Reading S e r i e s . Each book used a d i f f e r e n t sentence tag (e.g., "I can r i d e ", "Can I r i d e a ?", e t c . ) , and p i c t u r e s to complete the sentences. They were o r i g i n a l l y designed to provide r e p e t i t i o n of the b a s i c s i g h t vocabulary w i t h i n a meaningful base. Task 8: WHICH WORD DOESN'T BELONG? T h i s task was designed and c o n s t r u c t e d by the w r i t e r u sing vocabulary from L e v e l Two of the Ginn 720 Reading programme. I t c o n s i s t e d of twenty-four job cards each c o n t a i n i n g three items. Each item had three words'. The c h i l d has to decide which two words he t h i n k s belong 137 tog e t h e r . Any response i s c o n s i d e r e d c o r r e c t i f i t can be e x p l a i n e d . For example, the words might be 'Lad run work', and the c h i l d f e e l s that 'work' doesn't belong with the o t h e r s , s i n c e Lad can run but he can't work. Task 9: FIVE-FINGERS GAME: T h i s task was i d e n t i c a l to that i n the l i n g u i s t i c awareness programme Task 5f. In t h i s v a r i a t i o n , words i n s t e a d of p i c t u r e s were used. The words were from L e v e l Two of the Ginn 720 Reading programme. I t was designed o r i g i n a l l y to r e i n f o r c e s i g h t vocabulary as taught i n t h i s programme. Task 10: READ-TOGETHER BOOKS: T h i s i s a set of e i g h t s t o r y books from Stage One of the Story Box supplementary reading s e r i e s (Ginn and.Co.). The books were read to the c h i l d r e n with some q u e s t i o n i n g of c o n t e n t . Task 11: INCH CUBE DESIGNS: T h i s task c o n s i s t e d of b u i l d i n g designs with c o l o u r e d i n c h cubes. The designs i n c l u d e d were the e a s i e s t , or the c h i l d r e n allowed to b u i l d designs of t h e i r own. T h i s was i n c l u d e d d u r i n g a number of s e s s i o n s . 138 CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS The purpose of the study was to examine the e f f i c a c y of s e l e c t e d i n t e r v e n t i o n programmes f o r Native Indian grade one c h i l d r e n . The Str a t e g y i n t e r v e n t i o n was based on the sim u l t a n e o u s / s u c c e s s i v e model of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . The L i n g u i s t i c Awareness i n t e r v e n t i o n was based on m e t a l i n g u i s t i c tasks which have been shown to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to reading achievement. The Combination i n t e r v e n t i o n was a combining of both the Str a t e g y and L i n g u i s t i c Awareness i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The C o n t r o l c o n s i s t e d of games and reading r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s which were f e l t to r e f l e c t u s u al classroom a c t i v i t i e s . F i v e main hypotheses were generated to t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Findings Related to Hypothesis One Hypothesis 1: Improvement i n reading achievement i s gre a t e r f o r the S t r a t e g y , L i n g u i s t i c Awareness, and Combination groups than f o r the C o n t r o l group. A pre/post improvement on the rea d i n g measures was a n t i c i p a t e d f o r a l l groups. However, g r e a t e r improvement fo r the S t r a t e g y , L i n g u i s t i c Awareness, and Combination groups than the C o n t r o l group was hyp o t h e s i z e d . 139 P r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s was performed through the A l b e r t a General F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Program (AGFAP) (Hakstian and Kyung, 1973). The reading measure r e s u l t s f o r each s u b j e c t were entered and one p r i n c i p a l component generated f o r both the pre- and p o s t - t e s t data. The reading f a c t o r s cores were thus a l i n e a r combination of the reading measures maximizing the v a r i a n c e of the component s c o r e s . The generated reading f a c t o r T-scores (X=50.0, S.D.=10.0) were subsequently used i n the analyses of v a r i a n c e s . A two by four a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was run on the p r e - t e s t reading f a c t o r scores using the BMDP2V (Dixon, 1983) programme. The two l e v e l s of school ( G i t s e g u k l a , Lytton) were c r o s s e d with the four treatment groups. T h i s was run to determine f i r s t i f school was a s i g n i f i c a n t independent v a r i a b l e and second, the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of treatment groups on the p r e - t e s t s with regards to the random assignment of the s u b j e c t s . R e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s ( F3 i28=4.22, p<.05), but n o n s i g n i f i c a n t school or i n t e r a c t i o n a f f e c t . The s c h o o l v a r i a b l e was d e l e t e d from subsequent a n a l y s e s . A one-way ANOVA (BMDP2V) was run on the p r e - t e s t reading f a c t o r scores a c r o s s the four treatment groups. Once again s i g n i f i c a n t ( F 3 t 2 8 = 4 . 4 7 , p<.0l) group d i f f e r e n c e s on the p r e - t e s t were found. Pai r w i s e comparisons of the group means using the S c h e f f e t e s t i n d i c a t e d that the Combination group p r e - t e s t mean (X=56.9, 140 S.D.=9.1) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than that of the C o n t r o l group (X=40.3, S.D.=8.2) ,p<.05). The p o s t - t e s t reading f a c t o r scores were analyzed i n a two by four a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . No s i g n i f i c a n t group, school or i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was found. A one-way ANOVA was a l s o run on p o s t - t e s t reading f a c t o r scores a c r o s s the four treatment groups. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . Hypothesis one was d i r e c t l y addressed using a one-way a n a l y s i s of co v a r i a n c e on the p o s t - t e s t reading f a c t o r scores by group. The c o v a r i a t e was the p r e - t e s t s c o r e s . With p o s t - t e s t reading f a c t o r scores a d j u s t e d f o r p r e - t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s there were no s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s (F 3 : >29 = «43, p>.25). Thus, hypothesis one was r e j e c t e d . Findings Related to Hypothesis Two Hypothesis 2: On the p r e - t e s t measure of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , the Simultaneous G l o b a l S c a l e score i s higher than the S e q u e n t i a l G l o b a l Scale s c o r e . Based on the l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h on the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g of Native Indian c h i l d r e n f o r the age l e v e l s i n the study, and a l s o using the measuring instrument chosen f o r t h i s study, the K-ABC, i t was suggested that there would be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e g l o b a l standard scores i n favour of the simultaneous s c o r e . The mean S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g score f o r the sample on the p r e - t e s t was 85.7 (S.D.=12.44). The 141 mean Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g Scale score f o r the t o t a l sample on the p r e - t e s t was 91.6 (S.D.=10.20). A t - t e s t f o r dependent samples was computed using the means f o r the S e q u e n t i a l and Simultaneous Scale s c o r e s , and was s i g n i f i c a n t ( t 3 5=3.02, p<.05). The r e s u l t s of t h i s t e s t are r e p o r t e d i n Table 9, and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l with those of Hypothesis 3. F i n d i n g s R e l a t e d to Hypothesis Three Hypothesis 3: On the p o s t - t e s t measure of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g there i s g r e a t e r improvement i n S e q u e n t i a l S c a l e scores f o r the S t r a t e g y , L i n g u i s t i c Awareness, and Combination groups than f o r the C o n t r o l group. For a l l groups a p o s t - t e s t improvement i n s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g was expected due at l e a s t i n p a r t , to r e t e s t i n g on the same measure. But the improvement was hypothesized to be g r e a t e r f o r the three i n t e r v e n t i o n groups than f o r the C o n t r o l groups due to treatment e f f e c t s on s u c c e s s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on the s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g p r e - t e s t scores was run to ensure e q u a l i t y of the groups with regards to random assignments of s u b j e c t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups were found. A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on p o s t - t e s t scores by group was used. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s . More (1984b) found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g scores of h i s seven- and t e n - y e a r - o l d Native groups. He d i d not f i n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n 142 S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g s c o r e s . I t must be noted that h i s study was i n p a r t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of in f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g s t y l e s of seven- and t e n - y e a r - o l d Native c h i l d r e n . Although the present study found no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g as a r e s u l t of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s , the p o s s i b i l i t y of an age e f f e c t on S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g was e x p l o r e d . The sample c o n s i s t e d of four age l e v e l s ranging from f i v e to e i g h t y e a r s . A four-by-two between-within a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was run with the four age l e v e l s c r o s s e d with pre- to p o s t - t e s t i n g s . The r e s u l t s are summarized i n Table 4. A s i g n i f i c a n t age e f f e c t was found between the S e q u e n t i a l S c a l e scores of the f i v e - and s i x - and both seven- and e i g h t - y e a r - o l d performances using a Scheffe t e s t of the group means. The o l d e r c h i l d r e n ' s performance on s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g was weaker than that of the younger c h i l d r e n ' s . Table 4: A n a l y s i s of Va r i a n c e with One F a c t o r Repeated f o r S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scores Across the Four Age L e v e l s Source SS DF MS F Age 3941.08 3 1313.70 5.87** E r r o r 7163.43 32 223.86 Pre to Post 64.20 1 64.20 2.56 Age/Pre to Post 54.48 3 18.16 .72 E r r o r 802.03 32 25.06 *p<.05 **p<.01 143 The membership c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s u b j e c t s w i t h i n each age l e v e l were v i s u a l l y i n s p e c t e d . The f i v e - and s i x - y e a r - o l d s u b j e c t s were a l l non-repeaters, whereas a l l of the o l d e r s u b j e c t s were r e p e a t i n g grade one. In e f f e c t , the age groupings may simply have r e f l e c t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g a b i l i t i e s of r e p e a t e r s versus non-repeaters. F u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i n g t h i s problem was the i n d i c a t i o n of a p o s s i b l e sex d i f f e r e n c e on the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g s c o r e s . T h i s was d e t e c t e d while examining the d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n groups a c r o s s a l l measures i n the study when separated by sex and r e p e a t / non-repeat. I t was decided to e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of sex with pre and p o s t - t e s t performances on i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g measures a c r o s s repeater versus non-repeater groups. A two by two a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e design was used c r o s s i n g sex with repeat versus non-repeat. S e q u e n t i a l , Simultaneous, and Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite scores at both the pre- and p o s t - t e s t i n g s were analyzed, and the r e s u l t s are summarized in Tables 5, 6, and 7. For the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g scores at the p r e - t e s t there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( F 1 , 2 9 = 1 5 . 6 3 , p<.00l) between r e p e a t e r s and non-repeaters, but no sex or i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . A n a l y s i s using the p o s t - t e s t scores y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between repeaters/non-repeaters ( F , t 2 9 =13.13, p<.00l) and a sex e f f e c t ( F l i 2 9 = 6 . 8 3 , p<.0l). An a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e was run on the p o s t - t e s t scores with the p r e - t e s t scores as the 144 Table 5: Summary of A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scores by Sex Across Repeat/Non-repeat Sex Repeat/ I n t e r a c t i o n Non-repeat Pre P i , 2 s "3.53 F i 63*** F i ,29=1.49 Post P i j 2 9=6.83** F i , 2 9 = 1 3 . 1 3*** F , ,29=0.00 Post (Pre Covar ied) P i j 2 8 = 2 . 8 6 F , , 2 8 = 0 . 59 F , ,26=1'55 *p<.05 * * p<.0l ***D<.001 Table 6: Summary of A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g Scores by Sex Across Repeat/Non-repeat Sex Repeat/ Non-repeat I n t e r a c t i o n Pre F l , 2 9 = 0. 25 F i , 2 9 = 6.84** F i , 2 9 = 1.82 Post F l , 2 9 = 0. 00 F , , 2 9 = 8 . 64** F i , 2 9 = 0. 16 Post (Pre Covaried) P 1 , 2 8 = 0. 61 F , , 2 8 = 1.47 F i , 2 8=1.58 *p<.05 **p<.0l ***p<.00l Table 7: Summary of A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite Scores by Sex Across Repeat/ Non-repeat Sex Repeat/ I n t e r a c t i o n Non-repeat Pre F i , 2 9 = 0 .32 F , . , 2 9 - l 5 . , 1 7** F , , 2 9~2. .25 Post F , , 2 9 = 1 .45 F i : ,29=13. , 31*** F i ; ,29=0. .09 Post (Pre Covaried) F , , 2 8 = 1 .77 F l : , 2 8 = 0. ,29 F i ,28=2. .88 *p<.05 **p<.0l ***p<.00l 145 c o v a r i a t e . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on any of the v a r i a b l e s on the ANCOVA. I d e n t i c a l a n a l yses were made using the Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g scores (Table 6). For both the pre- and p o s t - t e s t s there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the r e p e a t e r s and non-repeaters ( F 1 j 2 9 = 6 . 8 2 , p<.0l; F 1 > 2 9 = 8 . 6 4 , p<.01), with no sex or i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . When the p o s t - t e s t scores were c o v a r i e d on the p r e - t e s t r e s u l t s , no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were ob t a i n e d . The Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite scores were a l s o analyzed (Table 7 ) . For both the p r e - (F, > 2 9=15.63, P<.001) and the p o s t - t e s t s ( F i > 2 9 = 1 3 . 3 1 , p<.00l) there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between rep e a t e r s and non-repeaters. When the p o s t - t e s t scores were c o v a r i e d on the p r e - t e s t s c o r e s , no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d . These analyses i n d i c a t e d that sex was not r e l a t e d to S e q u e n t i a l , Simultaneous, and Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite scores a c r o s s the repeater and non-repeater groupings. However, w i t h i n the repeater and non-repeater groupings s e p a r a t e l y , t h i s was not found to be the case. The sample was grouped by sex w i t h i n repeater/non-repeater s t a t u s and f u r t h e r analyses performed using a one-way repeated measure a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s of these analyses are summarized i n Table 8. As can be seen i n t h i s t a b l e , sex was a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e f o r S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e scores i n the t o t a l sample ( F 1 j 3 „ = 6 . 4 2 , p<.05;) and i n those c h i l d r e n not r e p e a t i n g ( F 1 j 2 0 = 5 . 7 3 , p<.05). Sex was not a 1 4 6 T a b l e 8 : S u m m a r y o f R e p e a t e d M e a s u r e s A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o n S e q u e n t i a l , S i m u l t a n e o u s , a n d M e n t a l P r o c e s s i n g C o m p o s i t e S c o r e s b y S e x W i t h i n a n d B e t w e e n R e p e a t / N o n - r e p e a t S e q u e n t i a l S i m u l t a n e o u s MPC R e p e a t e r s S e x F , , 1 2 = 0 . 1 3 F , ,12" 0 . 2 3 F , , 1 2 " 0 . 01 P r e / P o s t F i , 1 2 = 0 . 3 6 F i > 1 2 = 9 . 1 g * * F , . 1 2 = 7 . 1 4 * N o n - r e p e a t e r s S e x F i , 2 0 = 5 . 7 3 * F i , 2 0 = 0 . 3 5 F i , 2 0 = 2 . 2 8 P r e / P o s t F i . 2 0 = 4 . 8 0 * F i , 2 0 = 3 5 . 59*** F , , 2 0 = 2 9 . 37*** T o t a l S e x F , > 3 fl = 6 . 4 2 * F i , 3 4 = 0 . 1 6 F , , 3 4 = 0 . 0 2 P r e / P o s t F , > 3 « = 3 . 5 7 F i , 3 4 = 4 1 . 1 2*** F , , 3 4 = 3 0 . 84*** R e p e a t / N o n - r e p e a t F i > 3 « = 1 7 . 6 2 * * * F i , 3 fl = 9 . 7 i ** F 1 , 3 « = 1 8 . 5 8 * * * * p < . 0 5 * * p < . 0 l * * * p < . 0 0 l s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n S i m u l t a n e o u s P r o c e s s i n g s c o r e s n o r i n t h e M e n t a l P r o c e s s i n g C o m p o s i t e . T h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e s e a n a l y s e s w e r e g r a p h e d . F i g u r e 1 d e p i c t s t h e m e a n S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e p e r f o r m a n c e s f o r t h e m a l e a n d f e m a l e r e p e a t e r s a n d n o n - r e p e a t e r s . F o r t h e n o n - r e p e a t i n g s u b j e c t s o v e r a l l , t h e r e w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e - t o p o s t - t e s t g a i n ( F 1 j 2 o = 4 . 8 0 , p < . 0 5 ) . A S c h e f f e t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f e m a l e s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e m a l e s a t b o t h t h e p r e - a n d p o s t - t e s t i n g s . F o r t h e r e p e a t e r s , n e i t h e r p r e - t o p o s t - t e s t g a i n s n o r s e x w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t . O v e r a l l t h e n o n - r e p e a t e r s s c o r e d 147 Non-repeaters: Males (n=14) • Females (n=8) A Mean (n=22) • Repeaters: Males (n=7) o Females (n=4) A Mean (n=1 1 ) n Fi g u r e 1: S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scores by Sex Within Repeat and Non-repeat Groupings 148 s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the repe a t e r s at both the pre-and p o s t - t e s t i n g s . P o s t - t e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s a c r o s s sex and repeat/non-repeat f a c t o r s were n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . F i g u r e 2 shows p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s c o v a r i e d on the p r e - t e s t . Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g Scale mean scores are d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 3. Sex was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to simultaneous i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g scores (F 1 l 3 ( l=.. 16, p<.25). Non-repeating c h i l d r e n scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher at both the pre- and p o s t - t e s t i n g s . For the t o t a l sample, s i g n i f i c a n c e p re- to p o s t - t e s t i n g gains (F, ) 2 9=28.31, P<.001) were made. However, as r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r , when p o s t - t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s were c o v a r i e d on the p r e - t e s t s c o r e s , n o n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were ob t a i n e d . F i g u r e 4 shows the p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s with the p r e - t e s t as the c o v a r i a t e . Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite mean scores are d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 5. No s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s were found. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the non-repeaters and r e p e a t e r s at both pre- and p o s t - t e s t i n g s , however, p o s t - t e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s were found to be n o n s i g n i f i c a n t when the scores were c o v a r i e d on p r e - t e s t r e s u l t s (see F i g u r e 6 ) . I t was decided to expl o r e f u r t h e r the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of sex and r e p e a t i n g between the S e q u e n t i a l and Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e s on both the pre- and p o s t - t e s t i n g s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the means of the S e q u e n t i a l and Simultaneous G l o b a l S c a l e s were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e using a t - t e s t f o r dependent samples. Both S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S t a n d a r d S c o r e s 1 00-95-90-85-80--75--P r e P o s t N o n - r e p e a t e r s : M a l e s • F e m a l e s A M a l e s o F e m a l e s A R e p e a t e r s : G r a n d M e a n a t p r e - t e s t F i g u r e 2: S e q u e n t i a l A d j u s t e d P o s t - t e s t S c o r e s b y S e x W i t h i n R e p e a t a n d N o n - r e p e a t G r o u p i n g s 150 1 05--100-Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g Standard Scores 95--90-85-80-- f -Pre Non-repeaters: Males (n=14) • Females (n=8) A Mean (n=22) • Repeaters: Males (n=7) o Females (n=4) A Mean (n=11) n F i g u r e 3: Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g Scores by Sex Wi t h i n Repeat and Non-repeat Groupings Post 151 85--80 75--Pre Post Non-repeaters: Males • Females A Repeaters: Males o Females A Grand Mean at p r e - t e s t • F i g u r e 4: Simultaneous A d j u s t e d P o s t - t e s t Scores by Sex Within Repeat and Non-repeat Groupings 105 Non-repeaters: Males (n=14) • Females (n=8) A Mean (n=22) • Repeaters: Males (n=7) o Females (n=4) A Mean (n=11) n F i g u r e 5: Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite Scores by Sex Within Repeat and Non-repeat Groupings 100 95-Mental P r o c e s s i n g Standard Scores 90-85-80--75-- 4 -Pre Non-repeaters: Males • Females A Repeaters: Males o Females A Grand Mean at p r e - t e s t • F i g u r e 6: Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite Adjusted P o s t - t e s t Scores by Sex Within Repeat and Non-repeat Groupings Post 1 54 the pre- and p o s t - t e s t i n g s f o r male and female repeaters and non-repeaters were compared. The r e s u l t s of these t e s t s are summarized i n Table 9. Once again a s i g n i f i c a n t sex e f f e c t was apparent. A l l of the S e q u e n t i a l with Simultaneous G l o b a l Scale comparisons f o r the males were s i g n i f i c a n t , r e g a r d l e s s of r e p e a t i n g or not. For the females, o n l y one of the S e q u e n t i a l with Simultaneous G l o b a l Scale comparisons was s i g n i f i c a n t , that f o r the t o t a l sample at the p o s t - t e s t i n g . Comparisons between r e p e a t e r s and non-repeaters were mixed. For those c h i l d r e n r e p e a t i n g , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the S e q u e n t i a l and Simultaneous G l o b a l S c a l e scores was found f o r both the pre- ( t 3 5 = 2 . 5 , p<.05) and p o s t - t e s t i n g s (t 3 5=2.72, p<.05). T h i s r e f l e c t s the gains i n Simultaneous Scale s c o r e s as noted e a r l i e r and which i s apparent i n F i g u r e s 1 and 3. For the t o t a l sample on the p r e - t e s t , there was a s i g n i f i c a n t S e q u e n t i a l with Simultaneous G l o b a l Scale d i f f e r e n c e , as r e p o r t e d i n the r e s u l t s f o r Hypothesis 2. On the p o s t - t e s t , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was a l s o found (t 3 5=5.37, p<.05), again r e f l e c t i n g g r e a t e r gains on the Simultaneous than the Suc c e s s i v e G l o b a l Scale s c o r e s . The d i f f e r e n t i a l performance of r e p e a t e r s and non-repeaters on the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g measures may have i n t e r f e r e d with the i n t e r v e n t i o n group a n a l y s e s . A l l the i n t e r v e n t i o n groups had r e p e a t e r s (see Table 2). T h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n i n t e r v e n t i o n groups analyses made group 155 T a b l e 9: T - t e s t Comparison of S e q u e n t i a l (SQ) w i t h S imul taneous (SM) G l o b a l Scores at P r e - and P o s t - t e s t i n g s by Sex W i t h i n and A c r o s s Repeaters and N o n - r e p e a t e r s Males Females T o t a l Repeaters Pre SQ: 77.4 SM: 89.0 t=2.50* (N=7) SQ: 77.0 SM: 83.6 t=1 . 16 (N=7) SQ: 77.2 SM: 86.3 t=2.53* (N=14) Post SQ: 76.4 SM: 91.3 t=2.72* (N=7) SQ: 80.4 SM: 91.4 t=2.03 (N=7) SQ: 78.4 SM: 91.4 t=3.46** (N=14) N o n - r e p e a t e r s Pre SQ: 87.0 SM: 93.8 t=2.40* (N=14) SQ: 98.0 SM: 97.0 t=- .32 (N=8) SQ: 91.1 SM: 95.0 t=1.76 (N=22) Post SQ: 90.5 SM:102.9 t=4.62*** (N=14) SQ:101.1 SM:104.9 t=1 . 12 (N=8) SQ: 94.4 SM:103.6 t=4.12*** (N=22) T o t a l Pre SQ: 83.9 SM: 92.2 t=3.46** (N=21) SQ: 88.2 SM: 90.7 t= .80 (N=15) SQ: 85.7 SM: 91.6 t=3.02** (N=36) Post SQ: 85.8 SM: 99.1 t=5.32*** (N=21) SQ: 91.6 SM: 98.6 t=2.27* (N=15) SQ: 88.1 SM: 98.9 t=5.37** (N=36) *p<.05 **p<.0l ***P<.001 156 e f f e c t s d i f f i c u l t to d i s c e r n , thereby o b s c u r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n e f f e c t s . D e l e t i o n of the r e p e a t e r s would have r e s u l t e d i n very small numbers w i t h i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n group a n a l y s e s . However, i t was important to i n c l u d e r e p e a t e r s i n the a n a l y s i s because of the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of r e p e a t e r s i n Native Indian c l a s s e s . F i n d i n g s Related to Hypothesis Four Hypothesis 4: Improvement i n performance on the l i n g u i s t i c awareness measure f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n i s g r e a t e r f o r the L i n g u i s t i c Awareness group and the Combination group than f o r the S t r a t e g y and C o n t r o l groups. Greater improvement f o r the L i n g u i s t i c Awareness and Combination groups than the S t r a t e g y and C o n t r o l groups was hypothesized due to p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t i e s of c e r t a i n t r a i n i n g t asks with the measuring instrument, the Lindamood A u d i t o r y C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Test (LAC). A one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was performed c r o s s i n g the LAC raw score performance f o r the p r e - t e s t with the four treatment groups. R e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s were n o n s i g n i f i c a n t ( F 3 i 3 2 = . 9 0 , p<.25). LAC raw score p o s t - t e s t r e s u l t s were then compared f o r the treatment groups. R e s u l t s were n o n s i g n i f i c a n t ( F 3 j 3 2 = 2 . 8 7 , p=.05). A one way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was performed on the p o s t - t e s t scores c o v a r y i n g on the p r e - t e s t . A s i g n i f i c a n t group e f f e c t was found ( F 3 j 3 1 = 3 . 7 2 , p<.05). Post hoc comparisons between the a d j u s t e d group means were done using the S c h e f f e t e s t . The S t r a t e g y group mean was s i g n i f c a n t l y higher (p<.05) than the C o n t r o l group mean. 157 The experimental groups improved from the pre- to p o s t - t e s t i n g s i n terms of raw score g a i n . The St r a t e g y group gained nine p o i n t s , the L i n g u i s t i c Awareness group gained four p o i n t s , and the Combination group gained f i v e p o i n t s . In sharp c o n t r a s t , the C o n t r o l group had i d e n t i c a l pre- and p o s t - t e s t mean raw s c o r e s . Thus, the r e s u l t s d i d not support the h y p o t h e s i s . P o s s i b l e reasons f o r t h i s are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter VI. Findings Related to Hypothesis Five Hypothesis 5: Improvement i n performance on the language measure, f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s , i s not d i f f e r e n t f o r Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups. A l l groups were expected to show some improvement due to exposure to the t e s t format. The i n t e r v e n t i o n and c o n t r o l groups were exposed to and encouraged to v e r b a l i z e d u r i n g task completion. Because of t h i s , i t was f e l t that no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s would occur between the groups on the Token Test p o s t - t e s t i n g . A one way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was performed on the p r e - t e s t Token Test age converted scores a c r o s s the four treatment groups. R e s u l t s were n o n s i g n i f i c a n t ( F 3 ) 3 1 = 6 . 8 2 , p>.50). The p o s t - t e s t scores were c r o s s e d with the treatment groups and the r e s u l t s were a l s o n o n s i g n i f i c a n t ( F 3 j 3 2 = . 8 7 , p>.25). 158 Pre- to p o s t - t e s t i n g improvement was addressed using a four by two repeated measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . The Token Test age converted scores f o r the pre- and p o s t - t e s t i n g s were c r o s s e d with the four treatment groups. Table 10 r e p o r t s the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s . As hypothesized, group d i f f e r e n c e s were n o n s i g n i f i c a n t , but pre- to p o s t - t e s t i n g improvement was s i g n i f i c a n t . Table 10: Token Test Age Score Performances From Pre to Post T e s t i n g s Using a Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Source SS DF MS F Group 163. 66 3 54. 55 .45 E r r o r 3762. 1 1 31 1 20. 20 Pre to Post 71 . 90 1 71 . 90 4. 17* Group/Pre to Post 87. 39 3 29. 1 3 1 .69 E r r o r 533. 98 31 17. 23 *p<.05 159 CHAPTER SIX DISCUSSION O v e r a l l , the r e s e a r c h on l i t e r a c y seems to be ready fo r a b e t t e r balance of the t h e o r e t i c a l with the problem o r i e n t e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r those c h i l d r e n , young people, and a d u l t s who are having great d i f f i c u l t y with l i t e r a c y ( C h a l l , 1983a, p. 8 ) . Since the mid-1960s, there has been a burgeoning i n t e r e s t i n the f i e l d of r e a d i n g . D e s p i t e t h i s i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g by v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s , a d d r e s s i n g both t h e o r e t i c a l and b a s i c r e s e a r c h , l i t t l e of t h i s seems to have been d i r e c t e d to i n s t r u c t i o n a l a s p e c t s . W i l l i a m s (1972/73), a f t e r reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e of l e a r n i n g to read s t a t e d a s i m i l a r sentiment: Our focus seems to have changed in the l a s t few y e a r s . C l e a r l y our u l t i m a t e goal i s s t i l l the improvement of reading i n s t r u c t i o n . However, what we are r e a l l y working toward at present i s the development of a model of reading geared more n e a r l y to the g e n e r a t i o n of r e s e a r c h hypotheses. In f a c t , we are q u i c k l y proceeding to the p o i n t where our t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s — and e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s — may become too r e f i n e d and s o p h i s t i c a t e d to be of great use i n h e l p i n g to determine i n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures ... I do f e e l that we must keep at l e a s t p a r t of our a t t e n t i o n on the goal of how models can be a p p l i e d to i n s t r u c t i o n a l problems (p. 123). While r e s e a r c h e r s of b a s i c processes i n reading b e l i e v e t h e i r f i n d i n g s should be r e l e v a n t to e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , t h i s does not seem to be the case. The q u e s t i o n s addressed by b a s i c r e s e a r c h e r s tend to be toward c l a r i f y i n g t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s ; such q u e s t i o n s u s u a l l y bear l i t t l e r e levance to i n s t r u c t i o n a l i s s u e s . A p p l i e d 160 r e s e a r c h , c o n v e r s e l y , seldom a r i s e s from t h e o r i e s and models of reading ( C h a l l , 1983a). There i s a "need f o r a s h i f t of emphasis from the 'hardware' of reading, the r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e c o g n i t i v e , l i n g u i s t i c , and p e r c e p t u a l f a c t o r s , to the 'software', the m o d i f i a b l e s k i l l s and the c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s " (Willow, Borwick, and Butkowsky, 1983, p. 92). It i s w i t h i n t h i s newer c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n that t h i s study was undertaken. M a c r o s t r a t e g i e s were taught which were based on the Luria/Das model of simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n processes and p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s , and c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as being i m p l i c a t e d i n every act of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g i n c l u d i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n of reading s k i l l s . The i n t e r v e n t i o n programmes were intended to t r a i n the t a s k - a p p r o p r i a t e use of not only simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e processes, but a l s o of t a s k - s p e c i f i c p r o c e s s e s , with the purpose of improving the reading achievement of grade one N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n . The general o b j e c t i v e of the S t r a t e g y i n t e r v e n t i o n was to teach the c h i l d r e n to l e a r n by emphasizing the t r a i n i n g of c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r tasks that focused on simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e coding. T h i s was attempted through encouraging the use of v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n of behavior, thus t r y i n g to make the c h i l d r e n aware of t h e i r a c t i o n s . T r a n s f e r of the c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s to tasks of e a r l y reading was a n t i c i p a t e d , though not s p e c i f i c a l l y taught. The o b j e c t i v e of the L i n g u i s t i c Awareness i n t e r v e n t i o n was to teach 1 6 1 t a s k - s p e c i f i c s k i l l s ( m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s ) through p r a c t i c e at d e a l i n g with l i n g u i s t i c u n i t s . Through f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on, and u t i l i z a t i o n of p h o n o l o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c u n i t s of language, i t was a n t i c i p a t e d that not only l i n g u i s t i c awareness, but a l s o reading achievement, would be a f f e c t e d . The Combination i n t e r v e n t i o n was i n c l u d e d to address the iss u e of cumulative e f f e c t of combined i n t e r v e n t i o n s over that of the i n d i v i d u a l programs. The purpose of the study was to address the e f f i c a c y of t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s to grade one Native Indian c h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n were i n s t r u c t e d using the i n t e r v e n t i o n s , d e r i v e d l a r g e l y from a t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . While some gene r a l r e s e r v a t i o n s were suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e , the v i a b i l i t y of the s p e c i f i c i n t e r v e n t i o n s with young Native Indian c h i l d r e n had not been attempted. The p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s i n t h i s i n s t a n c e seemed to warrant such an undertaking. The lack of s i g n i f i c a n t group r e s u l t s p e r t a i n i n g to the r e s e a r c h hypotheses does not negate the b e n e f i t to the experimental groups. While group e f f e c t s on i n d i v i d u a l measures were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , except in the case of the LAC, there was measureable growth from the pre-to the p o s t - t e s t i n g s . The i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g measure r e s u l t s at p r e - t e s t i n g i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g Scale mean than S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scale ( t 3 5=3.02, p<.05). T h i s was a n t i c i p a t e d , based on the 162 l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with the c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g of Native Indian c h i l d r e n . I t was hypothesized that the experimental groups would show g r e a t e r pre- to p o s t - t e s t i n g gains on the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scale than the C o n t r o l group. The r e s u l t s of the repeated measures a n a l y s i s d i d not support t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . N e i t h e r pre to post, nor group e f f e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s f i n d i n g supports the b e l i e f of K i r b y (1984b) that m a c r o s t r a t e g i e s , such as p r e f e r e n c e f o r a simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g s t y l e , may be d i f f i c u l t to change. Fu r t h e r support f o r t h i s comes from the f i n d i n g that the Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g Scale d i d show s i g n i f i c a n t pre- to p o s t - t e s t i n g gains a c r o s s the groups. In t h i s regard i t seems that the i n t e r v e n t i o n tasks appeared to p r o v i d e some p r a c t i c e i n p r o c e s s i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . While the use of language was encouraged to de-automatize p r o c e s s i n g and focus a t t e n t i o n , comments from the teachers seem to i n d i c a t e that c h i l d r e n gained f a c i l i t y i n performing the t a s k s , but had d i f f i c u l t y e x p l a i n i n g the s t e p s . I n d i c a t i o n s were that the c h i l d r e n performed the tasks using t h e i r p r e f e r r e d mode of p r o c e s s i n g whenever p o s s i b l e , i n s p i t e of presumed p r o c e s s i n g demands of the t a s k s . T h i s c o n t e n t i o n supports the view of Snow (1982) and Brown and DeLoache (1978) that i n order f o r s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g to be e f f e c t i v e , task performance must a l r e a d y be e s t a b l i s h e d . The n o v e l t y of the i n t e r v e n t i o n tasks suggest that f o r many of the present sample the i n t e r v e n t i o n a c t u a l l y served to 163 teach task performance r a t h e r than s t r a t e g i e s f o r c o n t r o l l i n g p r o c e s s i n g . The f i n d i n g that the sample as a whole improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e suggests that t h i s may a l s o r e f l e c t a developmental t r e n d . T h i s was hypothesized from the r e s u l t s of a study by More (1984b) comparing seven- and t e n - y e a r - o l d Native Indian c h i l d r e n ' s performance on the K-ABC. He found the Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g Scale scores to s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e with age, whereas the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scale s c o r e s appeared to progress more sl o w l y . In the present study, the gr e a t e r gains on the Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e a f f e c t e d the t o t a l K-ABC Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite such that the pre to post gains were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t . The K-ABC r e s u l t s were a f f e c t e d by age. Covarying the p o s t - t e s t i n g S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scale r e s u l t s on the p r e - t e s t r e s u l t e d i n no s i g n i f i c a n t group or p o s t - t e s t i n g e f f e c t . In r e p o r t i n g these r e s u l t s , i t was noted that the o l d e r c h i l d r e n had a l l repeated, whereas the younger had not. T h i s suggested that the age v a r i a b l e masked the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the rep e a t i n g / n o n - r e p e a t i n g v a r i a b l e . In a n a l y z i n g the data of r e p e a t e r s versus non-repeaters on Simultaneous, S e q u e n t i a l , and the Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite from p r e - to p o s t - t e s t i n g s t h i s was found to be the case. C h i l d r e n r e p e a t i n g were not only s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on the S e q u e n t i a l , Simultaneous and Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite performance to those c h i l d r e n 1 64 not r e p e a t i n g , but a l s o d i d not show pre- to p o s t - t e s t i n g gains on the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scale as d i d non-repeaters. The f i n d i n g of a sex d i f f e r e n c e on the K-ABC Mental P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e s was unexpected. Sex was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d with S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e gains i n non-repeaters, but not with Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g Scale performance, nor to the Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite. In i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i v e performance of males versus females at both pre- and p o s t - t e s t i n g i t was found t h a t males were s i g n i f i c a n t l y stronger with simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g than s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , whereas the females used both p r o c e s s i n g s t y l e s e q u a l l y w e l l . The females, however, scored higher on the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scale than the males, an average of f i v e p o i n t s at p o s t - t e s t i n g . The non-repeating females scor e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e , an average of eleven p o i n t s above the non-repeating males at both pre- and p o s t - t e s t i n g . The f i n d i n g of a s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e between S e q u e n t i a l and Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e s on the K-ABC r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n of why t h i s should occur. Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) noted a sex d i f f e r e n c e i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , with the females s c o r i n g an average of two p o i n t s higher i n s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s s i n g . T h i s s u p e r i o r i t y disappeared i n school-aged c h i l d r e n . The females i n the present study scored an average of f i v e p o i n t s higher on 1 65 the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scale than the males. The non-repeating females scored eleven p o i n t s higher than the non-repeating males on the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e . The females tended to use both s e q u e n t i a l and simultaneous processes e q u a l l y w e l l , whereas the males p r e f e r r e d simultaneous. Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) found school-aged males outperformed the females on G e s t a l t C l o s u r e and T r i a n g l e s . The females i n the present sample performed about e q u a l l y w e l l on these s u b t e s t s at the p o s t - t e s t i n g , but were weaker on G e s t a l t C l o s u r e and T r i a n g l e s at the p r e - t e s t i n g . The s u p e r i o r i t y of the females on Number R e c a l l and Word Order suggests they are stronger v e r b a l l y than the males. T h i s i s i n l i n e with known sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n young c h i l d r e n (Ansaro et al. , 1981; Bannatyne, 1976; Sherman, 1978; Yarborough and Johnson, 1980). The r e s e a r c h i n t o simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g of Native Indian c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e d mixed r e s u l t s . Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) r e p o r t e d two s t u d i e s u sing the K-ABC; i n one the Sioux sample evidenced no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p r o c e s s i n g s t y l e s , whereas the Navajo sample d i d show stronger simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g . Krywaniuk and Das (1976) found i n t h e i r sample of grade three and four low-achieving N a t i v e Indian c h i l d r e n that they performed many of the tasks by simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g . T h e i r r e s u l t s were based on f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of known marker t e s t s f o r simultaneous and 166 s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . More (1984b) a l s o used the K-ABC with Native Indian c h i l d r e n , and f o r h i s sample of seven-year-olds he found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the G l o b a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e s . In the present sample as a whole, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the S e q u e n t i a l and Simultaneous G l o b a l S c a l e s scores was found before i n t e r v e n t i o n (t 3 5=3.02, p<.05). T h i s would agree with the r e p o r t e d study of Navajo c h i l d r e n ' s performance (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983), but not with More's (1984b) r e s u l t s . However, none of the r e p o r t e d s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d sex d i f f e r e n c e s . Much of t h i s e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h had been d i r e c t e d toward v a l i d a t i n g the e x i s t e n c e of s u c c e s s i v e and simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g i n a l l c h i l d r e n , and t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r e f f i c i e n t use of the p r o c e s s e s . The only study to mention a sex d i f f e r e n c e was by Karlebach (1986), who found a s i g n i f i c a n t sex e f f e c t i n h i s N a t i v e Indian sample. Hand Movements, Word Order, and Photo S e r i e s were a f f e c t e d . His non-Native sample showed no sex e f f e c t on any of the K-ABC s u b t e s t s . He i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s f i n d i n g as a q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n how the c h i l d r e n approached the t a s k s . Within the l i t e r a t u r e on the Luria/Das model there i s l i t t l e to i n d i c a t e a sex d i f f e r e n c e should e x i s t , nor has t h i s been s p e c i f i c a l l y addressed. Jarman (1980) i n d i c a t e d that there may be a developmental t r e n d i n the development of the processes, based on syntagmatic/paradigmatic word a s s o c i a t i o n s . S e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g has been a s s o c i a t e d 167 with s y n t a c t i c development ( K i r b y , 1982b), which appears e a r l i e r i n c h i l d r e n ' s language than semantic word a s s o c i a t i o n s . I f one looks to language as a p o s s i b l e means of a d d r e s s i n g developmental changes in s e q u e n t i a l and simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g , then observed sex d i f f e r e n c e s have more credence. T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would a l s o concur with sex d i f f e r e n c e s found i n the area of language and reading a b i l i t y (Ansara el al. , 1981; Sherman, 1978). If t h i s i s the case, as the present r e s e a r c h has found, then i t may be that both processes would be a c q u i r e d , but the females would evidence e a r l i e r f a c i l i t y with s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g . The K-ABC performances w i t h i n t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . As K e i t h (1985), K e i t h and Dunbar (1984) and Das (1984b) have suggested, the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e may be more a p t l y named v e r b a l memory, and the Simultaneous P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e , nonverbal reasoning. The r e s u l t s of the present study would seem to f o l l o w more c l o s e l y t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . There are three main reasons f o r suggesting t h i s . F i r s t , the females performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the males on the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e . Second, the females performed c o n s i s t e n t l y higher on two of the s e q u e n t i a l s u b t e s t s having v e r b a l content: Word Order and Number R e c a l l . Hand Movements, the t h i r d S e q u e n t i a l Scale s u b t e s t , has been shown to evidence s p l i t f a c t o r l o a d i n g s i n seven-year-olds (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983; Kaufman and Kamphaus, 1984), 168 and thus can be performed e i t h e r s e q u e n t i a l l y or sim u l t a n e o u s l y . The females performed Hand Movements about e q u a l l y w e l l as the males, but t h i s was t h e i r poorest performance on the S e q u e n t i a l S c a l e . While s p e c u l a t i v e , i t may be that the females attempted Hand Movements sim u l t a n e o u s l y , r e s u l t i n g i n lower performance. L a s t , the higher performance of the females than the males on the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g Scale does not seem to be adequately accounted f o r w i t h i n the si m u l t a n e o u s - s u c c e s s i v e model unl e s s the r o l e of language with s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s l i n e of reasoning begs the q u e s t i o n of what the K-ABC does measure. At the onset of the present study, independent l i t e r a t u r e was not a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g the ap p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the K-ABC f o r the purposes of the study. I t would seem that the K-ABC was not an adequate measure of simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g f o r the age l e v e l of s u b j e c t s , the compentencies of the s u b j e c t s , the s e n s i t i v i t y to p r o c e s s i n g s h i f t s that may have o c c u r r e d , and to the s t a b i l i t y of coding processes used by the s u b j e c t s . Lack of s i g n i f i c a n t group d i f f e r e n c e s may, in f a c t , r e f l e c t the p o s i t e d inadequacies i n the measuring instrument, rather than lack of p r o c e s s i n g changes. Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) i n d i c a t e that the K-ABC should be an e f f e c t i v e r e s e a r c h t o o l . I n d i c a t i o n s of t h i s are based on psychometric s t r e n g t h s of the t e s t and the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y as repo r t e d i n a pre v i o u s c h a p t e r . They 169 suggest i t "be used in p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t designs to e v a l u a t e e d u c a t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g long-term treatment s t r a t e g i e s " (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983, p. 20). They view the K-ABC Mental P r o c e s s i n g p r o f i l e as "subject to the i n f l u e n c e s of ... d i r e c t e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n " (ibid, p. 21). T h i s optimism was not evidenced i n the r e s u l t s of the present study. The primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the adequacy of the K-ABC Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composites to measure simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the age l e v e l s i n c l u d e d i n the study. The authors used both p r i n c i p a l and c o n f i r m a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the s u b t e s t s to c o n f i r m the e x i s t e n c e of two types of mental p r o c e s s i n g . The r e s u l t s of the p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d " c l e a r - c u t e m p i r i c a l support f o r the e x i s t e n c e of two and only two f a c t o r s at each age l e v e l " (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983, p. 102). They found T r i a n g l e s and Photo S e r i e s to be the s t r o n g e s t and most c o n s i s t e n t measures of simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g , and Work Order and Number R e c a l l the s t r o n g e s t measures of s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g . However, Hand Movements, which i s p l a c e d on the s e q u e n t i a l s c a l e , showed almost equal l o a d i n g s on both f a c t o r s above the age of f i v e y e a r s . While Hand Movements performance i s i n c l u d e d i n the S e q u e n t i a l P r o c e s s i n g S c a l e , i t may not have a c t u a l l y been done using s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , and j u s t as l i k e l y done using simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g . Hand Movements has shown a c l e a r developmental t r e n d (Kaufman and Kamphaus, 1984). 170 K e i t h (1985) a l s o f a c t o r analyzed K-ABC s u b t e s t s f o r three age l e v e l s . At age f i v e years he found a one f a c t o r s o l u t i o n , whereas ages seven and ten i n d i c a t e d two f a c t o r s . For the younger c h i l d r e n , Word Order and S p a t i a l Memory loaded the h i g h e s t on the unrotated f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component. For the seven- and t e n - y e a r - o l d s Photo S e r i e s f o l l o w e d by Word Order and T r i a n g l e s had the h i g h e s t l o a d i n g s . R o t a t i n g the f a c t o r s y i e l d e d two f a c t o r s but evidenced some d i s c r e p a n c i e s . The d i s c r e p a n c i e s K e i t h (1985) n o t i c e d have rel e v a n c e to the age l e v e l s i n the present study. Hand Movements, as noted e a r l i e r , loaded on the simultaneous f a c t o r , and on both f o r the t e n - y e a r - o l d s . In the seven-year-olds Word Order had a meaningful (p>.35) l o a d i n g on the simultaneous f a c t o r , whereas Photo S e r i e s loaded on both the s e q u e n t i a l and simultaneous f a c t o r s . Based on the p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r a n a l y s i s he suggests that the simultaneous f a c t o r may r e a l l y r e f l e c t nonverbal reasoning and the s u c c e s s i v e f a c t o r , v e r b a l memory. Hand Movements c o u l d be performed n o n v e r b a l l y , or by using v e r b a l mediation, thus a f f e c t i n g i t s f a c t o r l o a d i n g s . Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) r e p o r t r e s u l t s of c o n f i r m a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , a technique designed to determine whether or not the data support the proposed o r g a n i z a t i o n of t a s k s . They s t a t e that "The S e q u e n t i a l -Simultaneous dichotomy was confirmed f o r a l l age groups" ( i b i d , p. 107), and r e f l e c t s the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the K-ABC. 171 For the c h i l d r e n aged f i v e to seven y e a r s , as i n t h i s study, s p e c i f i c s u b t e s t s may not have been performed a c c o r d i n g to the f a c t o r l o a d i n g s . Hand Movements and Word Order both supposed to be s e q u e n t i a l t a s k s , have been shown to a l s o l o a d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Photo S e r i e s , a simultaneous task, has been shown to a l s o l o a d s u c c e s s i v e l y . Based on j u s t the Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite Scores i t i s impossible to determine how the sample performed these t a s k s , and t h e r e f o r e i f the Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composites t r u l y r e f l e c t Simultaneous and S e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g . For example, Hand Movements was performed p o o r l y on the p r e t e s t (X=7.6); does t h i s mean that the c h i l d r e n t r i e d to use s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g and through i n e f f e c t i v e use of s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g d i d p o o r l y , or that they used simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g which i s i l l - s u i t e d to the task and thus d i d p o o r l y ? Photo S e r i e s , l i k e w i s e , may have been attempted through s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g , and p o o r l y performed, s i n c e Kaufman and Kaufman i n d i c a t e d higher g e n e r a l l o a d i n g s with the simultaneous f a c t o r . Without f a c t o r a n a l y z i n g subtest r e s u l t s i n the study t h i s cannot be r e s o l v e d c o n c l u s i v e l y . Kaufman and Kamphaus (1984) a l s o t e s t e d a three f a c t o r s o l u t i o n of the Mental P r o c e s s i n g s u b t e s t s . At ages 4, 5, 6, and 11 years a t h i r d f a c t o r emerged, and was composed of T r i a n g l e s and G e s t a l t C l o s u r e . T h i s dyad was f e l t to r e f l e c t v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s , and these p a r t i c u l a r 172 s u b t e s t s were the st r o n g e s t i n the present sample. Var i o u s three f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s were r e j e c t e d due to t h e i r i n c o n s i s t e n c y a c r o s s age l e v e l s as the su b t e s t s l o a d i n g s . Secondary c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the K-ABC r e s u l t s i s given with regards to the Luria/Das model. Both simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e processes are viewed as present at p e r c e p t u a l , mnestic and conceptual l e v e l s (Das, K i r b y and Jarman, 1979). The K-ABC minimizes the r o l e of language i n task performance i n order to make the r e s u l t s f a i r e r f o r m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n . However, s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g i s i n v o l v e d i n complex behaviors of which language i s one. The K-ABC has r e s t r i c t e d the measuring of s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g to v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y shortterm memory tasks (Braken, 1985), thus s e v e r e l y reducing g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s to complex classroom l e a r n i n g . L i k e w i s e , the K-ABC's simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g tasks do not g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e h i g h e r - l e v e l t h i n k i n g . T r i a n g l e s , Matrix A n a l o g i e s , and Photo S e r i e s may r e q u i r e v i s u a l - s p a t i a l a b i l i t y and reasoning (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983: Bracken, 1985). In t h i s regard the K-ABC i s a measure of Block 2 f u n c t i o n s of coding (Das, I984d). The Block 3, planning f u n c t i o n s , are n e g l e c t e d i n the K-ABC. The present study was an attempt to a f f e c t coding through p l a n n i n g l e v e l f u n c t i o n s ; l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s may r e a l i s t i c a l l y r e f l e c t the coding l e v e l emphasis of the t e s t . A t h i r d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the adequacy of the K-ABC as a measuring instrument has to do with subtest s p e c i f i c i t y . 1 73 A s u b t e s t ' s s p e c i f i c i t y was determined by s u b t r a c t i n g the s u b t e s t ' s shared v a r i a n c e from i t s r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t . Inadequate s p e c i f i c i t y was determined i f the e r r o r v a r i a n c e exceeds s p e c i f i c v a r i a n c e (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983, p. 188-191). At age seven years three of the e i g h t s u b t e s t s do not evidence adequate s p e c i f i c i t y : Word Order, G e s t a l t C l o s u r e , and Photo S e r i e s . T h i s s i n g l e age l e v e l of the others i n the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n group evidenced p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l a r g e r e r r o r v a r i a n c e , thus re n d e r i n g i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l s u b t e s t s untenable. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composites thus needs c a u t i o n with regards to p o s s i b l e redundancy of i n d i v i d u a l s u b t e s t s . An important c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the K-ABC i s la c k of an adequate f l o o r f o r some of the s u b t e s t s . At the s i x year l e v e l a score of zero would earn the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e d s c o r e s : T r i a n g l e s - 4 , M a t r i x A n a l o g i e s - 4 , and Photo S e r i e s - 5 . Kaufman and Kaufman (1983) note that on some su b t e s t s 10 and 20 percent of the c h i l d r e n obtained zero c r e d i t . They s p e c i f i c a l l y address the i s s u e of c a r e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s where c h i l d r e n have earned zero c r e d i t on more s u b t e s t s . While most c h i l d r e n do earn p a r t i a l c r e d i t on most s u b t e s t s , f a i l u r e to do so can s e r i o u s l y and d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a l t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composites. T h i s p o i n t was p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t f o r the sample i n t h i s study. On Photo S e r i e s the mean raw score at the 174 p r e - t e s t was 3.3, which, when converted to s c a l e d s c o r e s , y i e l d e d a mean of 5.97. Fourteen c h i l d r e n obtained zero c r e d i t on t h i s s u b t e s t ; 39 percent of the sample. Such performance makes i n t e r p r e t a t i o n extremely d i f f i c u l t . A f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n has to do with gain scores on repeated t e s t i n g s . For the Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composites r e p o r t e d gain scores were 1 on S e q u e n t i a l , 6.4 on Simultaneous and 4.8 on the Mental P r o c e s s i n g Composite (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983, Table 4.3). Thus p r a c t i c e e f f e c t i s g r e a t e r on the simultaneous s u b t e s t s . For i n d i v i d u a l s u b t e s t s t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were adequate (above .70) on a l l but Hand Movements (r=.61) and S p a t i a l Memory (r=.67) and T r i a n g l e s (r=.70). The g r e a t e s t subtest gains were made on G e s t a l t C l o s u r e and T r i a n g l e s , each e v i d e n c i n g a one p o i n t gain over an 18 day r e t e s t i n g . I n s p e c t i o n of Appendix H i n d i c a t e s that the t o t a l sample gained at l e a s t one p o i n t from pre- to p o s t - t e s t i n g s on the m a j o r i t y of s u b t e s t s , none were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Based on the preceeding c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s , had they o c c u r r e d , would have been exceedingly d i f f i c u l t . I n t e r v e n t i o n s based on the Luria/Das model, and as r e p o r t e d , have g e n e r a l l y r e l i e d on the use of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s f o r determining s h i f t s i n p r o c e s s i n g . In s t u d i e s where t h i s was not done ( B r a i l s f o r d , 1981), pre- to post-performance was s t u d i e d on known simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e marker t e s t s , such as the Raven's P r o g r e s s i v e 175 M a t r i c e s and S e r i a l R e c a l l of Words, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t e s t s , i n some i n s t a n c e s , have borne c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s to t e a c h i n g t a s k s , and would thus be expected to show improvement, but not n e c e s s a r i l y to s h i f t from s u c c e s s i v e to simultaneous p r o c e s s i n g or v i s a - v e r s a (Krywaniuk and Das, 1976). In the present study t h i s was not the case. The tasks were l a r g e l y adapted from the work of Das and h i s c o l l e a g u e s . The t e s t i n g tasks were not d i r e c t l y comparable to the t e a c h i n g t a s k s , except that simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e coding were r e q u i r e d i n both. The emphasis i n the i n t e r v e n t i o n s , as p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d , was at p l a n n i n g l e v e l f u n c t i o n s , which the K-ABC does not seem to address or measure adequately. In a d d r e s s i n g the adequacy of the K-ABC as the measuring instrument i n the study, i t seems i n r e t r o s p e c t , to have been inadequate f o r the age l e v e l of the s u b j e c t s , the competencies of the s u b j e c t s , the s e n s i t i v i t y to p r o c e s s i n g s h i f t s which may have oc c u r r e d , and to the s t a b i l i t y of coding processes used by the s u b j e c t s on i n d i v i d u a l s u b t e s t s . Even assuming the t e s t d i d measure simultaneous and s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g , given the coding l e v e l emphasis of the t e s t i t i s debatable whether the K-ABC would have been s e n s i t i v e to the p l a n n i n g l e v e l emphasis in the s t r a t e g y i n t e r v e n t i o n (Das, I984d; Sternberg, 1984). F u r t h e r support f o r t h i s c o n t e n t i o n was observed on the Lindamood A u d i t o r y C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Test (LAC) 176 r e s u l t s . The St r a t e g y group showed s i g n i f i c a n t gains when compared with the C o n t r o l group. T h i s f i n d i n g was not a n t i c i p a t e d , and suggested that the LAC may a c t u a l l y be a pl a n n i n g l e v e l task. I n t e r p e t e d from both the Luria/Das model and the l i n g u i s t i c awareness r e s e a r c h , the s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p of LAC performance to l a t e r r eading achievement may be e x p l a i n e d with r e f e r e n c e to the c o n t r o l aspect of c o g n i t i o n . Thus the i n t e r v e n t i o n s appeared to have a f f e c t e d both awareness and c o n t r o l of a s t r a t e g y f o r task performance. That the s t r a t e g y d i d not t r a n s f e r to reading r e l a t e d tasks i n d i c a t e d what F l a v e l l (1978; 1985) and Lawson (1984) r e f e r to as domain s p e c i f i c m e tacognitive knowledge. The LAC may a c t u a l l y serve as a measure of c o g n i t i v e c o n t r o l w i t h i n a l i n g u i s t i c awareness framework, accounting f o r i t s strong r e l a t i o n s h i p with l a t e r reading achievement. The f i n d i n g t h at a l l of the i n t e r v e n t i o n groups evidenced gains on the LAC, except the C o n t r o l group, i s support f o r the notion of t e a c h a b i l i t y of ma c r o s t r a t e g i e s and m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s , and i s seen as d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The te a c h i n g of both macro and m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s may be necessary to ensure t r a n s f e r to reading tasks (Snow, 1982). Das, K i r b y and Jarman (1979) and Jarman (1980) found that c r o s s modal matching loaded with both simultaneous and s u c c e s s i v e p r o c e s s i n g . On the p r e - t e s t i n g the c h i l d r e n attempted to use t h e i r p r e f e r r e d mode of inf o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g ; the task would be performed a u t o m a t i c a l l y 177 without conscious awareness of i t . The S t r a t e g y group, through the i n t e r v e n t i o n , l e a r n e d to be aware and to c o n t r o l some ways of p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , and seem to have done so on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r measure. T h i s would suggest that the i n t e r v e n t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l at a f f e c t i n g t h e i r use of a macrostrategy. The use of the macrostrategy d i d not t r a n s f e r to the r e a d i n g t a s k s . The S t r a t e g y group, while being aware of the s t r a t e g y f o r general task performance, d i d not have the concepts f o r g e n e r a l i z i n g the l e a r n e d s k i l l s to r e a d i n g . The tasks was not viewed as r e l a t e d to r e a d i n g , and t h e r e f o r e as not l i n g u i s t i c i n nature. They had c o n s c i o u s awareness of the s t r a t e g y , but l a c k e d the knowledge of the concepts i n w r i t t e n language with which to g e n e r a l i z e (Ryan and Ledger, 1984; V a l t i n , 1984a; 1984b). T h i s i s an important t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t . The s t r a t e g y f o r c h i l d r e n i n performing the LAC, showed improvement i n awareness and c o n t r o l of a macrostrategy f o r task performance. They d i d not seem to l e a r n e s s e n t i a l concepts needed to u t i l i z e the s t r a t e g y i n r e a d i n g . T h i s p o i n t supports the n o t i o n that metacognitive knowledge should be c o n s i d e r e d as d i s t i n c t from the c o n t r o l of p r o c e s s e s . M e t a c o g n i t i v e knowledge i s l e a r n e d as domain s p e c i f i c ( F l a v e l l , 1985; Lawson, 1984). Thus the S t r a t e g y group improved t h e i r c o n t r o l of a g e n e r a l macrostrategy, but t h i s does not seem to have been s o l e l y the r e s u l t of using l i n g u i s t i c t a s k s , and t h e r e f o r e d i d not improve other m e t a l i n g u i s t i c task performances. 178 S u c c e s s f u l performance on the LAC has been used to i n d i c a t e the presence of m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness and knowledge needed i n phonemic segmentation. However, the f i n d i n g t h at p a r t i c u l a r l y the S t r a t e g y group c o u l d be taught a macrostrategy f o r improving t h e i r LAC performance, and not g e n e r a l i z e t h i s to other reading t a s k s , suggests that the LAC may be a measure of p l a n n i n g l e v e l f u n c t i o n s or c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n s which are u s u a l l y t e s t e d w i t h i n m e t a l i n g u i s t i c domains. The LAC has been used w i t h i n the reading l i t e r a t u r e to assess phonemic segmentation a b i l i t y , and address i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to l a t e r reading achievement. As Leong and Haines (1978) found, the LAC was the most p r e d i c t i v e measure of v a r i o u s segmentation tasks they used. The reason f o r t h i s may not be because of i t s assessment of only m e t a l i n g u i s t i c knowledge, but because i t i s a l s o a s s e s s i n g the presence of the c o n t r o l processes necessary to perform the t a s k s . Thus the LAC may a c t u a l l y be a s s e s s i n g the a b i l i t y to c o g n i t i v e l y c o n t r o l and reason i n a way though necessary i n a c q u i r i n g reading s k i l l s , but not n e c e s s a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d to j u s t t h i s a r e a. The a b i l i t y to c o n s c i o u s l y c o n t r o l behavior without domain s p e c i f i c knowledge does not n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d to b e t t e r domain s p e c i f i c performance. I t may be that s u c c e s s f u l performance on the LAC does not reduce ' c o g n i t i v e c o n f u s i o n ' i n reading (Downing, 1984). In order to a c q u i r e reading s k i l l c h i l d r e n need to l e a r n domain 179 s p e c i f i c concepts such as 'word', 'sentence', e t c . , and t h i s has been shown to r e l a t e to r e a d i n e s s i n reading (Bruinsma, 1981; Downing, Ayers, and S c h a e f f e r , 1975). Once these are a c q u i r e d , then s t r a t e g i e s can be l e a r n e d f o r s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t i n g c o n t r o l of p r o c e s s i n g to task performance. Without the domain s p e c i f i c concepts, the c o n t r o l or p l a n n i n g l e v e l f u n c t i o n s do not spontaneously g e n e r a l i z e to the micro l e v e l , at l e a s t not i n young c h i l d r e n ( K i r b y , 1984b). The S t r a t e g y group d i d show s i g n i f i c a n t improvement on the LAC. However, t h e i r r e l a t i v e performance to the standards set on the LAC must be c o n s i d e r e d . In t h i s regard, t h e i r performance was below that c o n s i d e r e d necessary f o r success i n grade one r e a d i n g . T h e i r a c t u a l performance was comparable to that of k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , and as such was r e l a t i v e l y weak. The la c k of measureable gain by the C o n t r o l group was q u i t e remarkable. In l i g h t of t h i s , the gains made by the other groups may be c o n s i d e r e d a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s , r a t h e r than of classroom t e a c h i n g . LAC performance was s e n s i t i v e to both macro and m i c r o s t r a t e g y i n t e r v e n t i o n s . T h i s again suggests the t e s t may be measuring more than phonemic segmentation or a u d i t o r y c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . I f t h i s were s t r i c t l y the case, the L i n g u i s t i c Awareness group, which had task s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g , should have shown the g r e a t e s t g a i n s . In order f o r the LAC to be p r e d i c t i v e of reading 180 achievement, teaching both domain s p e c i f i c m i c r o s t r a t e g i e s as w e l l as m a c r o s t r a t e g i e s may be necessary. Teaching one without the other, while a f f e c t i n g LAC performance, does not seem to r e a d i l y a f f e c t other reading achievement measures. The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d that the i n t e r v e n t i o n s were s u c c e s s f u l i n producing improvement on a number of measures. However, the i n t e r v e n t i o n s d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t the measures. Within the conceptual a n a l y s i s , the c h i l d r e n seemed to gain a c t u a l awareness or metacognitive knowledge about t h e i r t h i n k i n g s k i l l s . They le a r n e d to focus on s p e c i f i c language forms and to c o n t r o l t h e i r behavior during task performance. For these c h i l d r e n the i n t e r v e n t i o n s seem to have f u n c t i o n e d as a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n , r a t h e r than s t r i c t l y l e a r n i n g to c o n t r o l a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s i n g . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , the s k i l l s d i d not appear to g e n e r a l i z e due to in e x p e r i e n c e d e a l i n g with the prob l e m - s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s (Brown and DeLoache, 1978). Fu r t h e r to t h i s p o i n t i s the r o l e of language as a means of r e g u l a t i n g behavior and of g e n e r a l i z i n g to d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . The macrostrategy i n t e r v e n t i o n attempted to i n c l u d e v e r b a l mediation, but i n a c t u a l task performance there was no guarantee that the c h i l d r e n d i d de-automatize thought pro c e s s e s . L i k e w i s e , the m i c r o s t r a t e g y i n t e r v e n t i o n through i t s use of language attempted to de-automatize language from i t s meaning. The n o v e l t y of t h i s approach may have served to make the c h i l d r e n aware of 181 t h i s f u n c t i o n and to teach some s k i l l s , but not to the p o i n t where mastery of s p e c i f i c language u n i t s was assured nor m e t a l i n g u i s t i c awareness f u l l y gained. The i n t e r v e n t i o n s would appear to have f u n c t i o n e d at the pl a n n i n g l e v e l i n the r o l e of f o r m u l a t i n g s t r a t e g i e s , r a t h e r than of c o n t r o l l i n g e x i s t i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Limitations of the Study A major l i m i t a t i o n i n the study was the v a r i a b i l i t y among the Native s u b j e c t s . The high p r o p o r t i o n of re p e a t e r s , as found i n Native c l a s s e s , coupled with the small sample s i z e made group e f f e c t s d i f f i c u l t to determine. A second major l i m i t a t i o n i n the study was the measure chosen to assess i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . The recent l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g the K-ABC (Bracken, 1985; Das, I984d; K e i t h , 1985; K e i t h and Dunbar, 1985) made c o n c l u s i o n s concerning i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g p r e f e r e n c e s , s t a b i l i t y and changes i n p r o f i c i e n c y f o r the age l e v e l s i n c l u d e d , impossible to make w i t h i n the design of the study. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s c o u l d not t h e r e f o r e be adequately determined. Recommendations for Future Research The r e s u l t s of the study r a i s e a number of i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g v a r i a b i l i t y among Na t i v e Indian s u b j e c t s at t h i s age l e v e l . The d i f f e r e n t i a l performance of repeaters 182 versus the non-repeaters, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the K-ABC, i n d i c a t e s t h i s to be an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e s i g n i n g such s t u d i e s . Another issue i s the sex e f f e c t on the K-ABC Mental P r o c e s s i n g s u b t e s t s which needs to be r e p l i c a t e d a c r o s s v a r i o u s age l e v e l s . In l i g h t of t h i s , the c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of t h i s t e s t f o r B r i t i s h Columbia Native Indian C h i l d r e n r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r study. I t i s not p o s s i b l e to make s p e c i f i c recommendations reg a r d i n g the comparative e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s on reading achievement. However, the p o s i t i v e comments from the teachers i n v o l v e d suggests that f u r t h e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s are worthwhile. Future r e s e a r c h endeavours might i n v e s t i g a t e the l e n g t h of the treatment p e r i o d as w e l l as the p o s s i b l i t y of i n t e r v e n t i o n e f f e c t s on achievement during the subsequent school year. I t may be that e f f e c t s are not apparent immediately but ra t h e r are i n c o r p o r a t e d over time and acr o s s v a r i o u s academic t a s k s . Teacher comments f u r t h e r suggest that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to ensure v e r b a l i z a t i o n when i n s t r u c t i n g small groups of c h i l d r e n at t h i s age l e v e l . Future r e s e a r c h should c o n s i d e r reducing the group s i z e i n order to i n c r e a s e v e r b a l i z a t i o n and i n turn the e f f i c a c y of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Another avenue to address i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i s competency l e v e l s of the s u b j e c t s before e i t h e r s t r a t e g y or l i n g u i s t i c awareness t r a i n i n g i s e f f e c t i v e . 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C o g n i t i v e development and u n i t s of p r i n t i n e a r l y r e a d i n g . In J . Downing and R. V a l t i n (Eds.), Language awareness and learning to read (pp. 93-118). New York: S p r i n g e r - V e r l a g . Wechsler, D. (1974). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children — Revised. New York: The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n . Wertsch, J.V. (1983). The r o l e of semiosis i n L.S. V y g o t s k y 1 s theory of human c o g n i t i o n . In B. Bain (Ed.), The s oci ogenes i s of language and human conduct (pp. 17-31). New York: Plenum Press. 206 W i l l i a m s , D.G. ( i n p r o g r e s s ) . Simultaneous and sequential processing, reading, and neurological maturation of Native Indian (Tsimshi an) chi I dr en. D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver. W i l l i a m s , J.P. (1972/73). L e a r n i n g to read: a review of t h e o r i e s and models. Reading Research Quarterly, 8, 121-246. W i l l i a m s , J.P. (1980). Teaching decoding with an emphasis on phoneme a n a l y s i s and phoneme b l e n d i n g . Journal of Educational Psychology, 7 2(1), 1-15. W i l l i a m s , J.P. (1984). Phonemic a n a l y s i s and how i t r e l a t e s to reading. Journal of Learning Di sabiIi t i es, 77(4), 240-245. Willow, D.M., Borwick, D.M., & Butkowsky, I.S. (1983). From theory to p r a c t i c e i n reading r e s e a r c h : toward the development of b e t t e r software. In M. P r e s s l e y and J . L e v i n (Eds.), Cognitive strategy research: educational applications (pp. 91-119). New York: S p r i n g e r - V e r l a g . Yarborough, B.H., & Johnson, R.A. (1980). A s i x - y e a r study of sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g , reading/language a r t s achievement, and a f f e c t i v e development. The Journal of Ps ychol ogy, 106, 55-61. Zarske, J.A., & Moore, C L . (1982). R e c a t e g o r i z e d WISC-R scores of l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d Navajo Indian c h i l d r e n . Ps ychol ogy in the Schools, 19, 1 56-159. Zarske, J.A., Moore, C.L., & Peterson, J.D. (1981). WISC-R f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s f o r diagnosed l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d Navajo and Papago c h i l d r e n . Ps ychol ogy in the Schools, 18, 402-407. APPENDIX A GITSEGUKLA PARENTAL CONSENT LETTER 208 Gitsegukla Elementary School 21 Seymour Ave. R.R.-1 South Hazelton, B r i t i s h Columbia, VOJ 2R0 SEPTEMBER 24th, 1984 Dear Parents: A p r o j e c t i s being done i n your c h i l d ' s s c h o o l . The p r o j e c t i s l o o k i n g at ways to improve Grade one reading achievement. C h i l d r e n i n the p r o j e c t w i l l be taught ways of t h i n k i n g which should h e l p them to read b e t t e r . The p r o j e c t i n c l u d e s t e s t i n g and t e a c h i ng c h i l d r e n . At the beginning each c h i l d w i l l be given a number of t e s t s d e a l i n g with reading and ways of t h i n k i n g . The c h i l d r e n w i l l then be taught the program of d i f f e r e n t ways to t h i n k . T h i s w i l l average 1 1/4 h r s . a week f o r about 12 weeks. Then each c h i l d w i l l again be t e s t e d i n reading and ways of t h i n k i n g . A l l t e s t i n g w i l l be known only to us, and not t o l d to anyone e l s e . The p r o j e c t has been explained- to the leader of School D i s t r i c t #88 and the K i t s e g u k l a School Board. They agree that t e a c h i n g of these s k i l l s should help the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d l e a r n to read b e t t e r . T h e r e f o r e , we are asking your permi s s i o n to i n c l u d e your c h i l d i n the program. You may stop your c h i l d ' s involvement i n the p r o j e c t at anytime, i f you wish. Would you please complete the a t t a c h e d Parent Consent Form and r e t u r n i t to your c h i l d ' s school as soon as p o s s i b l e . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e do not h e s i t a t e to c o n t a c t us at your c h i l d ' s s c h o o l . Thank-you very much. PATRICK CHURCH P r i n c i p a l APPENDIX B LYTTON PARENTAL CONSENT LETTER 210 Lytton Elementary School School D i s t r i c t No. 30 (South Cariboo) O f f i c e of the Pr inc i p a l Box 219 L y t t o n , B.C. VOK 1Z0 31 October 1984 Dear Parents: A p r o j e c t i s being done i n your c h i l d ' s s c h o o l . The p r o j e c t i s l o o k i n g at ways to improve Grade one reading achievement. C h i l d r e n i n the p r o j e c t w i l l be taught ways of t h i n k i n g which should h e l p them to read b e t t e r . The p r o j e c t i n c l u d e s t e s t i n g and teaching c h i l d r e n . At the beginning each c h i l d w i l l be given a number of t e s t s d e a l i n g with reading and ways of t h i n k i n g . The c h i l d r e n w i l l then be taught the program of d i f f e r e n t ways to t h i n k . T h i s w i l l average 1 1/4 h r s . a week f o r about 12 weeks. Then each c h i l d w i l l again be t e s t e d i n reading and ways of t h i n k i n g . A l l t e s t i n g w i l l be known only to us, and not t o l d to anyone e l s e . The p r o j e c t has been e x p l a i n e d to the le a d e r of School D i s t r i c t #30 and the L y t t o n School Board. They agree that t e a c h i n g of these s k i l l s should h e l p the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d l e a r n to read b e t t e r . T h e r e f o r e , we are asking your permission to i n c l u d e your c h i l d i n the program. You may stop your c h i l d ' s involvement i n the p r o j e c t at anytime, i f you wish. Would you ple a s e complete the attached Parent Consent Form and r e t u r n i t to your c h i l d ' s school as soon as p o s s i b l e . If you have any q u e s t i o n s , please do not h e s i t a t e to contact us at your c h i l d ' s s c h o o l . Thank-you very much. D. Elmore, Pr inc i p a l 21 1 APPENDIX C MAT SUBTEST RESULTS 212 Appendix C MAT Raw P r e - and P o s t - T e s t R e s u l t s for S c h o o l s and Groups Pre Post Subtes t Group N Mean S. D . Mean S . D . Reading T o t a l 36 1 1 . 94 4. 75 15. 75 6 .09 Comprehension G i t s e g u k l a 16 1 1 . 31 3. 1 1 12. 13 4 .37 L y t t o n 20 12. 45 5. 77 18. 65 5 .78 S t r a t e g y 10 12. 10 4. 77 15. 30 6 .18 L i n g u i s t i c 10 1 1 . 30 6. 04 16. 50 6 .10 Combinat ion 9 12. 22 3. 93 16. 78 6 .44 C o n t r o l 7 12. 29 4. 61 14. 00 6 .46 V i s u a l T o t a l 36 19. 25 4. 64 21 . 75 1 .57 Di s c r iminat ion G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 19. 88 2. 53 21 . 75 1 .57 L y t t o n 20 18. 75 5. 83 S t r a t e g y 10 19. 20 4. 55 21 . 75 1 .89 L i n g u i s t i c 10 17. 80 7. 02 23. 00 .82 Combinat ion 9 19. 89 2. 85 20. 75 1 .26 C o n t r o l 7 20. 57 1 . 90 21 . 50 1 .73 L e t t e r T o t a l 36 22. 89 4. 19 25. 50 .82 R e c o g n i t i o n G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 24. 06 2. 38 25. 50 .82 L y t t o n 20 21 . 95 5. 07 S t r a t e g y 10 22. 10 5. 36 25. 75 .50 L i n g u i s t i c 10 22. 70 5. 01 25. 50 .58 Combinat ion 9 22. 78 3. 1 4 25. 00 1 .41 C o n t r o l 7 24. 50 2. 15 25. 75 .50 A u d i t o r y T o t a l 36 1 1 . 39 3. 19 14. 64 2 .63 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n G i t s e g u k l a 16 1 1 . 00 3. 1 2 13. 75 2 .69 L y t t o n 20 1 1 . 70 3. 29 15. 35 2 .41 S t r a t e g y • 10 12. 00 2. 83 14. 40 3 .44 L i n g u i s t i c 10 1 1 . 60 2. 76 15. 30 2 .31 Combinat ion 9 10. 00 4. 03 14. 67 2 .65 C o n t r o l 7 12. 00 3. 22 14. 00 2 .00 S i g h t T o t a l 36 .14. 19 7. 12 19. 84 7 .15 V o c a b u l a r y G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 13. 50 6. 79 17. 38 6 .82 L y t t o n 20 14. 75 7. 50 21 . 80 6 .96 S t r a t e g y 10 14. 10 6. 37 19. 70 8 .31 L i n g u i s t i c 10 13. 00 6. 73 19. 90 7 .05 Combinat ion 9 13. 33 8. 20 18. 67 7 .00 C o n t r o l 7 17. 14 7. 97 21 . 43 7 .07 213 Appendix C (continued) Pre Post Subtest Group N Mean S.D. Mean S .D. Phoneme/ T o t a l 36 13.61 4.18 18.14 3 .91 Grapheme G i t s e g u k l a 16 14.00 4.72 17.06 3 .77 Correspondence L y t t o n 20 1 3.30 3.79 19.00 3 .91 S t r a t e g y 10 13.10 4.89 17.80 4 .64 L i n g u i st i c 10 13.10 3.78 18.30 2 .75 Combination 9 1 3.89 3.95 18.33 4 .33 C o n t r o l 7 14.71 4.61 18.14 4 .53 APPENDIX D BRAUN-NEILSEN RESULTS 215 Appendix D Braun-Neilsen Raw Pre- and Post-Test R e s u l t s f o r Schools and Groups Pre Post Subtest Group N Mean S. D. Mean S .D. Basic T o t a l 36 5.31 3. 08 8.67 3 .31 L i t e r a c y G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 4.75 2. 24 6.94 2 .52 L y t t o n 20 5.75 3. 61 10.05 3 .27 Str a t e g y 10 5.40 2. 01 8.30 3 .34 L i n g u i s t i c 10 4.40 2. 27 8.50 3 .03 Combinat ion 9 6.11 4. 60 9.44 4 .04 C o n t r o l 7 5.43 3. 31 8.43 3 .26 Spoken Word T o t a l 36 5.72 3. 13 8.64 2 .24 Boundaries G i t s e g u k l a 16 4.69 3. 07 8.38 1 .96 L y t t o n 20 6.55 3. 00 8.85 2 .48 Str a t e g y 10 4.80 3. 77 8.10 3 . 1 4 L i n g u i s t i c 1 0 5.90 2. 92 8.60 2 .27 Combinat ion 9 5.78 3. 38 8.67 1 .80 C o n t r o l 7 6.71 2. 29 9.43 1 .13 Speech-Print T o t a l 36 3.61 2. 22 5.64 2 .23 Assoc i a t ions G i t s e g u k l a 16 4.13 1 . 63 6.02 2 .08 L y t t o n 20 3.20 2. 57 5.30 2 .34 S t r a t e g y 10 4.40 2. 21 4.40 2 .71 L i n g u i s t i c 10 3.00 1 . 83 6.30 2 .41 Combination 9 3.22 2. 73 6.22 1 .72 C o n t r o l 7 3.86 2. 1 2 5.71 2 .22 Classroom T o t a l 36 9.56 2. 10 1 0.56 1 .44 Concepts G i t s e g u k l a 16 9.5.6 2. 19 10.25 1 .65 L y t t o n 20 9.55 2. 09 10.80 1 .24 St r a t e g y 10 9.60 2. 07 1 0.30 1 .49 L i n g u i s t i c 10 8.90 2. 1 3 1 0.40 1 .84 Combinat ion 9 9.89 1 . 97 11.11 1 .27 C o n t r o l 7 10.00 2. 52 1 0.43 .98 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n T o t a l 36 18.83 6. 33 24.25 4 .14 G i t s e g u k l a 16 18.69 5. 30 24.25 3 .80 Ly t t o n 20 18.95 7. 19 24.25 4 i 48 St r a t e g y 10 16.40 8. 1 7 25.40 4 .86 L i n g u i s t i c 10 19.90 6. 49 24.30 3 .71 Combinat ion 9 20.33 5. 57 24.22 4 .06 C o n t r o l 7 18.86 3. 76 22.57 4 .04 216 Appendix D ( cont inued) Pre Post Subtes t Group N Mean S . D . Mean S . D . L i s t e n i n g T o t a l 36 5.75 1 .44 6.53 1 .70 G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 5.56 1 .03 7.06 1 .44 L y t t o n 20 5.90 1.71 6.10 1 .80 S t r a t e g y 10 5.90 1 .20 6.80 1 .48 L i n g u i st i c 10 5.70 1 .25 6.40 2.12 Combinat ion 9 6.00 1 .32 6.67 1 .58 C o n t r o l 7 5.29 2.22 6.14 1 .77 L e t t e r T o t a l 36 1 0.36 2.79 11.61 .80 R e c o g n i t i o n G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 10.88 2.13 1 1 .50 1 .03 L y t t o n 20 9.95 3.22 1 1 .70 .57 S t r a t e g y 10 9.80 2.62 1 1 .50 .97 L i n g u i s t i c 10 10.50 3.75 1 1 .90 .32 Combinat ion 9 1 0.44 2.51 1 1 .44 1.01 C o n t r o l 7 10.86 2.19 1 1 .57 .79 V i s u a l T o t a l 36 9.17 1 .99 10.61 1 .34 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 8.38 1 .54 10.75 1.18 L y t t o n 20 9.80 2.12 1 0.50 1 .47 S t r a t e g y 1 0 9.70 2.26 1 0.70 1 .70 L i n g u i s t i c 1 0 8.20 1 .99 1 0.70 1 .34 Combinat ion 9 9.89 1 .36 10.11 1 .27 C o n t r o l 7 10.29 1 .70 1 1 .00 .82 B e g i n n i n g T o t a l 36 7.50 3.01 8.81 2.95 Sounds G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 6.94 3.30 8.06 2.99 L y t t o n 20 7.95 2.76 9.40 2.84 S t r a t e g y 10 7.00 3.20 8.90 2.96 L i n g u i s t i c 10 8.60 3.37 8.90 3.00 Combinat ion . 9 6.67 3.00 7.89 3.59 C o n t r o l 7 7.71 3.68 9.71 2.14 Rhyming T o t a l 36 5.92 2.57 6.58 2.05 G i t s e g u k l a 16 6.88 2.28 6.94 1 .70 L y t t o n 20 5.15 2.58 6.30 2.30 S t r a t e g y 10 5.50 2.51 6.70 1 .64 L i n g u i s t i c 10 5.60 2.95 7.50 1 .51 Combinat ion 9 6.89 1 .62 6.22 2.24 C o n t r o l 7 5.71 3.25 5.57 2.76 A u d i t o r y T o t a l 36 8.86 3.63 1 1 .50 2.64 D i s c r i m i n a t i o n G i t s e g u k l a 16 8.06 3.79 1 1 .25 2.46 L y t t o n 20 9.50 3.46 1 1 .70 2.81 S t r a t e g y 10 7.80 3.46 10.30 3.53 L i n g u i s t i c 10 10.40 3.60 1 1 .80 2.15 Combinat ion 9 8.00 4.36 12.00 2.06 C o n t r o l 7 9.29 2.63 12.14 2.41 217 Appendix D (continued) Pre Post Subtest Sequenc ing Group N Mean S .D. Mean S, .D. T o t a l 36 7. 28 2 .57 9. 89 1 , .77 G i t s e g u k l a 16 7. 06 2 .57 9. 88 1 , .41 Ly t t o n 20 7. 45 2 .63 9. 90 2, .05 St r a t e g y 10 5. 70 2 .87 9. 50 2, .46 L i n g u i s t i c 10 7. 90 2 . 1 3 10. 40 1 , .27 Combination 9 6. 89 2 .52 9. 67 1 , .50 C o n t r o l 7 9. 1 4 1 .35 10. 00 1 , .73 APPENDIX E LINDAMOOD AUDITORY CONCEPTUALIZATION RESULTS 219 Appendix E Lindamood A u d i t o r y C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n Raw Pre- and Post-Test R e s u l t s f o r Schools and Groups Pre Post Group N Mean S, .D. Mean S .D. T o t a l 36 10. 03 5. .54 14. 97 4 .49 G i t s e g u k l a 16 8. 31 5, .46 13. 31 4 .91 L y t t o n 20 1 1 . 40 5, .34 16. 30 3 .74 S t r a t e g y 10 7. 60 6. .72 16. 70 3 .68 L i n g u i s t i c 10 10. 60 5, .68 14. 70 3 .30 Combinat ion 9 1 1 . 22 3, .42 16. 33 4 .42 C o n t r o l 7 1 1 . 14 5. .76 1 1 . 14 5 .49 APPENDIX F TOKEN TEST RESULTS 221 Appendix F Token Test Raw Pre- and Post-Test R e s u l t s f o r Schools and Groups Pre Post Subtest Group N Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Part I T o t a l 36 9.67 .68 9.81 .53 G i t s e g u k l a 16 9.69 .79 10.00 .00 L y t t o n 20 9.65 .59 9.65 .67 St r a t e g y 10 9.70 .48 9.80 .63 L i n g u i s t i c 10 9.30 1 .06 9.70 .68 Combination 9 9.89 .33 9.89 .33 C o n t r o l 7 9.86 .38 9.86 .38 Part II T o t a l 36 8.64 1 .61 8.33 1 .77 G i t s e g u k l a 16 8.63 1 .26 8.56 1 .67 L y t t o n 20 8.65 1 .87 8.15 1 .87 Str a t e g y 10 8.80 1 .87 8.40 1 .43 L i n g u i s t i c 10 8.30 1 .95 8.80 1 .87 Combination 9 8.78 1 .20 7.89 2.03 C o n t r o l 7 8.71 1 .38- 8.14 1 .95 Part III T o t a l 36 6.28 2.26 7.27 2.35 G i t s e g u k l a 16 5.75 2.15 7.31 2.30 Ly t t o n 20 6.70 2.32 7.20 2.44 Str a t e g y 10 6.10 2.56 7.60 2.68 L i n g u i st i c 10 6.50 1 .96 7.30 2.41 Combination 9 5.89 2.62 6.44 2.51 C o n t r o l 7 6.71 2.14 7.71 1 .70 Part IV T o t a l 36 3.72 2.60 4.56 2.46 G i t s e g u k l a 16 3.50 2.34 4.13 2.22 Ly t t o n 20 3.90 2.85 4.90 2.63 Str a t e g y 10 3.70 2.31 5.00 2.40 L i n g u i s t i c 10 4.50 2.80 5.40 1 .96 Combination 9 3.44 2.74 3.33 3.12 C o n t r o l 7 3.00 2.83 4.29 1 .98 Part V T o t a l 36 8.17 3.50 11.19 3.29 G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 8.38 2.85 1 1 .06 2.46 Ly t t o n 20 8.00 4.01 1 1 .30 3.90 Str a t e g y 10 7.90 4.51 1 1 .00 3.83 L i n g u i st i c 10 8.50 3.27 1 1 .90 2.46 Combinat ion 9 8.11 3.10 10.78 3.70 C o n t r o l 7 8.14 3.44 1 1 .00 3.37 APPENDIX G K-ABC RAW PRE- AND POST-TEST RESULTS 223 Appendix G K-ABC Raw Pre- and Post-Test R e s u l t s f o r Schools and Groups Pre Post Subtest Group N Mean S .D. Mean S.D. Hand T o t a l 36 7.78 1 .99 8.78 1 .96 Movements G i t s e g u k l a 16 7.44 2 .16 8.88 2.06 Ly t t o n 20 8.05 1 .85 8.70 1 .92 Str a t e g y 10 6.90 2 .23 8.20 2.04 L i n g u i s t i c 10 8.20 1 .93 8.60 1 .90 Combination 9 8.44 1 .51 10.11 1 .69 C o n t r o l 7 7.57 2 .15 8.14 1 .77 G e s t a l t T o t a l 36 14.75 2 .16 1 6.33 1 .87 Cl o s u r e G i t s e g u k l a 16 15.00 2 .91 16.31 1 .70 Ly t t o n 20 1 4.55 2 .16 1 6.35 2.03 St r a t e g y 10 1 4.90 2 .23 1 6.70 1 .42 L i n g u i s t i c 10 1 4.60 2 .27 16.30 2.11 Combination 9 15.11 2 .09 16.33 1 .66 C o n t r o l 7 1 4.29 2 .36 15.86 2.55 Number T o t a l 36 7.11 2 .00 7.64 1 .94 R e c a l l G i t s e g u k l a 16 7.63 1 .82 7.88 1 .67 Ly t t o n 20 6.70 2 .08 7.45 2.16 St r a t e g y 10 6.60 1 .78 7.00 1 .56 L i n g u i s t i c 10 7.60 2 .12 8.30 1 .42 Combination 9 6.78 2 .28 7.67 2.60 C o n t r o l 7 7.57 1 .90 7.57 2.23 T r i a n g l e s T o t a l 36 8.47 3 .12 1 1 .08 3.02 G i t s e g u k l a 16 7.50 2 .50 10.50 3.08 L y t t o n 20 9.25 3 .40 1 1 .55 2.96 St r a t e g y 10 8.10 3 .93 1 1 .60 3.06 L i n g u i s t i c 10 9.30 3 .71 10.10 4.10 Combination 9 8.33 2 .50 1 1 .44 2.30 C o n t r o l 7 8.00 1 .73 1 1 .29 2.14 Word Order T o t a l 36 7.97 2 .48 9.1 4 2.58 G i t s e g u k l a 16 7.56 1 .71 9.00 2.48 Ly t t o n 20 8.30 2 .96 9.25 2.71 St r a t e g y 10 7.40 2 .37 8.20 1.81 L i n g u i s t i c 10 8.00 1 .56 10.10 1 .66 Combination 9 8.33 3 .28 9.33 3.74 C o n t r o l 7 8.29 2 .93 8.86 2.80 224 Appendix G (continued) Pre Post Subtest Group N Mean S.D. Mean S • D. Ma t r i x T o t a l 36 7.03 2.47 8.00 1 .72 Ana l o g i e s G i t s e g u k l a 16 6.00 2.03 8.06 1 .39 L y t t o n 20 7.85 2.52 7.95 1 .99 S t r a t e g y 10 6.20 3.23 8.10 2 .08 L i n g u i s t i c 10 7.10 1 .79 7.60 2 .17 Combination 9 7.22 2.49 8.44 1 .33 C o n t r o l 7 7.86 2.19 7.86 .90 S p a t i a l Memory T o t a l 36 9.00 2.88 1 0.64 2 .76 G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 8.56 2.90 9.94 2 .02 Ly t t o n 20 9.35 2.90 1 1 .20 3 .17 St r a t e g y 10 8.20 2.90 10.50 3 .41 L i n g u i s t i c 10 9.20 3.49 1 1 .00 2 .31 Combination 9 8.89 3.22 9.78 3 .23 C o n t r o l 7 10.00 1.16 1 1 .43 1 .72 Photo S e r i e s T o t a l 36 3.28 3.06 6.03 3 .08 G i t s e g u k l a 16 2.38 2.80 5.56 3 .12 Ly t t o n 20 4.00 3. 13 6.40 3 .09 S t r a t e g y 10 3.10 3.35 5.70 3 .77 L i n g u i s t i c 10 3.00 3.40 5.90 3 .67 Combinat ion 9 4.78 2.22 7.33 2 .06 C o n t r o l 7 2.00 2.89 5.00 2 .08 225 APPENDIX H K-ABC SCALED PRE- AND POST-TEST RESULTS 226 Appendix H K-ABC S c a l e d Pre- and Post-Test R e s u l t s f o r Schools and Groups Pre Post Subtest Group N Mean S.D. Mean S .D. Hand T o t a l 36 7.69 2.05 8.19 2 .20 Movements G i t s e g u k l a 16 7.38 2.03 8.31 2 .21 L y t t o n 20 7.95 2.09 8.10 2 .25 S t r a t e g y 10 7.40 1 .58 8.00 2 . 1 1 L i n g u i st i c 10 8.10 2.56 8.00 2 .40 Combination 9 8.00 1 .66 9.1 1 1 .76 C o n t r o l 7 7.14 2.55 7.57 2 .64 G e s t a l t T o t a l 36 10.31 2.32 1 1 .53 2 .51 C l o s u r e G i t s e g u k l a 16 10.63 1 .93 1 1 .38 2 .45 L y t t o n 20 10.05 2.61 1 1 .65 2 .62 St r a t e g y 10 1 1 .20 2.74 12.70 2 .45 L i n g u i s t i c 10 1 0.20 2.35 1 1 .30 2 . 1 1 Combinat ion 9 9.89 1 .97 10.89 2 .71 C o n t r o l 7 9.71 2.14 1 1 .00 2 .83 Number T o t a l 36 7.50 3.05 8.11 2 .85 R e c a l l G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 8.19 3.04 8.81 2 .01 L y t t o n 20 6.95 3.02 7.55 3 .32 St r a t e g y 10 7.30 2.54 7.40 2 .63 L i n g u i s t i c 10 8.10 3.38 8.60 2 .32 Combination 9 6.67 3.43 8.56 3 .40 C o n t r o l 7 8.00 3.11 7.86 3 .44 T r i a n g l e s T o t a l 36 9.42 2.64 1 1 .00 3 .28 G i t s e g u k l a 16 8.75 2.15 10.31 2 .73 L y t t o n 20 9.95 2.91 1 1 .55 3 .63 S t r a t e g y 10 9.70 3.02 12.10 3 .60 L i n g u i s t i c 10 10.00 3.02 10.00 3 .13 Combination 9 9.00 2.50 10.78 3 .35 C o n t r o l 7 8.71 1 .80 11.14 3 .13 Word Order T o t a l 36 7.81 2.60 8.39 2 .89 G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 7.44 2.13 8.19 2 .76 L y t t o n 20 8.10 2.94 8.55 3 .05 S t r a t e g y 10 7.70 1 .64 8.20 2 .10 L i n g u i s t i c 10 7.80 1 .48 9.00 2 .26 Combination 9 7.67 3.91 8.11 4 .20 C o n t r o l 7 8.14 3.39 8.14 3 .19 2 2 7 A p p e n d i x H ( c o n t i n u e d ) P r e P o s t S u b t e s t G r o u p N M e a n S . D . M e a n S . D . M a t r i x T o t a l 3 6 8 . 8 3 2 . 5 1 9 . 6 4 2 . 6 7 A n a l o g i e s G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 8 . 5 0 2 . 4 2 9 . 0 6 2 . 1 1 L y t t o n 20 9 . 1 0 2 . 6 1 1 0 . 1 0 3 . 0 2 S t r a t e g y 10 8 . 7 0 2 . 5 0 1 0 . 0 0 2 . 7 1 L i n g u i s t i c 10 8 . 8 0 3 . 0 1 9 . 7 0 2 . 6 3 C o m b i n a t i o n 9 8 . 4 4 2 . 9 6 8 . 7 8 3 . 1 5 C o n t r o l 7 9 . 5 7 1 . 1 3 1 0 . 1 4 2 . 3 4 S p a t i a l M e m o r y T o t a l 36 8 . 8 9 1 . 9 7 9 . 0 3 1 . 8 3 G i t s e g u k l a 16 7 . 9 4 1 . 6 5 9 . 2 5 1 . 3 4 L y t t o n 20 9 . 6 5 1 . 9 0 8 . 8 5 2 . 16 S t r a t e g y 10 8 . 8 0 2 . 4 9 9 . 7 0 1 . 7 0 L i n g u i s t i c 1 0 8 . 9 0 1 . 5 2 8 . 8 0 1 . 6 9 C o m b i n a t i o n 9 8 . 6 7 2 . 4 0 9 . 1 1 1 . 7 6 C o n t r o l 7 9 . 2 9 1 . 3 8 8 . 2 9 2 . 2 9 P h o t o S e r i e s T o t a l 3 6 5 . 9 7 2 . 6 1 8 . 1 4 2 . 4 9 G i t s e g u k l a 1 6 5 . 6 9 2 . 1 5 7 . 7 5 2 . 6 5 L y t t o n 20 6 . 2 0 2 . 9 7 8 . 4 5 2 . 3 7 S t r a t e g y 10 5 . 3 0 3 . 3 6 8 . 3 0 2 . 6 7 L i n g u i s t i c 1 0 6 . 1 0 2 . 0 8 7 . 9 0 2 . 8 1 C o m b i n a t i o n 9 7 . 1 1 2 . 2 1 8 . 7 8 2 . 4 4 C o n t r o l 7 5 . 2 9 2 . 63 7 . 4 3 2 . 0 7 228 APPENDIX I K-ABC GLOBAL PRE- AND POST-TEST RESULTS 229 Appendix I K-ABC G l o b a l Pre- and Post-Test R e s u l t s for Schools and Groups Pre Post Subtest Group N Mean S • D. Mean S .D. S e q u e n t i a l T o t a l 36 85. 67 12 .44 88. 17 1 3 .68 Pr o c e s s i n g G i t s e g u k l a 16 85. 63 1 1 .06 88. 1 2 1 2 .25 Ly t t o n 20 85. 70 13 .72 87. 65 15 .01 St r a t e g y 10 84. 30 6 .93 86. 80 1 1 .28 L i n g u i s t i c 10 87. 50 1 2 .21 90. 70 1 2 .02 Combination 9 84. 78 16 .54 89. 33 18 .70 C o n t r o l 7 86. 1 4 15 .21 85. 00 13 .77 Simultaneous T o t a l 36 91 . 58 10 .20 98. 86 1 2 .62 Pr o c e s s i n g G i t s e g u k l a 16 88. 25 8 .84 96. 88 10 .58 Lyt t o n . 20 94. 25 1 0 .63 100. 45 1 4 . 1 1 Strat e g y 10 94. 10 1 1 . 1 4 1 03. 50 1 1 .98 L i n g u i s t i c 10 91 . 50 1 1 .59 96. 80 1 3 .51 Combination 9 90. 44 1 1 .15 98. 22 1 5 .30 C o n t r o l 7 89. 57 6 .02 96. 00 8 .66 Mental T o t a l 36 87. 69 10 .72 93. 78 1 3 .07 Pr o c e s s i n g G i t s e g u k l a 16 85. 50 9 . 1 3 92. 94 1 1 .50 Composite L y t t o n 20 89. 45 1 1 .78 94. 45 14 .46 Strat e g y 10 88. 30 9 .19 96. 20 1 1 .83 L i n g u i s t i c 10 88. 70 1 1 .09 93. 40 13 .56 Combinat ion 9 86. 44 1 3 .96 94. 00 1 6 .88 C o n t r o l 7 87. 00 9 .73 90. 57 10 .42 

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