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Turning points Turning points for wind quintet and accordion Hatch, Peter Donald 1986

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TURNING POINTS f o r wind q u i n t e t and a c c o r d i o n By PETER DONALD HATCH Mus.Bac, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1980 Mus.M., U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1982  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS-  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  of Music)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming tea fche, r e q u i r e 4 standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  Q  1986  P e t e r Donald Hatch, 1986  In  presenting  requirements  this thesis  f o r an a d v a n c e d  of  British  it  freely available  agree for  that  Columbia,  I agree  that  the L i b r a r y  shall  and s t u d y .  I  f o r extensive  p u r p o s e s may  f u l f i l m e n t of the  degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  f o r reference  permission  scholarly  in partial  for  that  copying  f i n a n c i a l gain  Department o f  Date  -7Q \  of this  Itis thesis  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  thesis  be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  or publication  shall  further  copying of t h i s  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood  make  Columbia  written  Abstract:  Turning  Points  f o r wind q u i n t e t and  by Peter  The  title  work serves  points.  a colotomic  to new  material.  trill,  functions  Hatch  of the work r e f e r s to i t s frequent  mood around v a r i o u s  The  accordion  rhythmic  'shot'  changes i n s t y l e and  chord which opens  the  f u n c t i o n throughout, 'announcing' t r a n s i t i o n s  A second t r a n s i t i o n a l f i g u r e , c o n s i s t i n g of a simple i n a s i m i l a r way.  Thus the work 'turns'  the p i e c e to a change, o f t e n a s t r i k i n g change.  throughout  There i s a l s o a  ' t u r n i n g ' throughout the p i e c e from the d i s s o n a n t ,  gradual  complex opening to  the more consonant, r h y t h m i c a l l y simple ending.  Formally  the work e x h i b i t s an a r c h - l i k e s t r u c t u r e , with  s e c t i o n s towards the beginning and middle.  end,  longer  sections  towards  These s e c t i o n s are based on u n i t s of 45" m u l t i p l i e d by  shorter the 1,  2, 3, 5 or 8 (these numbers taken from the Fibbonnacci  s e r i e s ) so  the longest  Many of  (middle) s e c t i o n i s 6'00"  (8 x 45")  long.  that  these  d i v i s i o n s are f u r t h e r d i v i d e d .  Pitch material  i s almost e n t i r e l y d e r i v e d  from the  'octatonic'  s c a l e , which i s o c c a s i o n a l l y i n i t s s c a l a r form, but most commonly as aggregates from which p i t c h e s are chosen f r e e l y .  There are a v a r i e t y  of chord s t r u c t u r e s employed, which range from f u l l  e i g h t note  aggregates to chords found 'dominant seventh'  i n f u n c t i o n a l harmony, e s p e c i a l l y  sonority.  the  Rhythmically much of the work i s  concerned with j u x t a p o s i n g s e c t i o n s which obscure any  sense of  p u l s e with s e c t i o n s i n which a pulse i s obvious.  The aspects.  element of t e x t u r e i s one of the work's most The  w r i t i n g was  traditional,  important  c o n t r a p u n t a l approach to wind q u i n t e t  abandoned i n favour of a homogenous treatment.  use of the a c c o r d i o n to blend the c o l o u r s of the other i s an important  The  instruments  aspect of the p i e c e .  Stephe^( Chatman, Thesis  Supervisor  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page  Abstract  i i  Turning Points f o r wind q u i n t e t and a c c o r d i o n Turning P o i n t s :  An A n a l y s i s  1 50  iv  -1-  Turning for  wind  Points  quintet and  accordion  Peter flute  oboe  clarinet  french  in Bb  horn  bassoon  accordion  /  ©19%  Hatch  -2-  >  -I-  \1 {.T?tft\T*/Stt?1tSSi\ 5z  5  I i  I I  =9=  — 3-  JU  "1  I  6  1  v  i  = —=  1  loco  A-  -1-  -V  -io-  -II  Al-  -14-  -22-  (>VT< ^  11  r* *  i 1 ^ , 1U L LJ LT LE£ 4-j —3—S—W 2 9 7—2 73— 1f ^ Ti f r r i> L4—T.J j 71^ U L T = R =S i u LTLT u P 7 ff i r T r rr r r r f r # = IU u u u y=[b ' 1 ( th, - = )  1  '  '  '  v  1  l\ cl.  s  n n in R  J^J ; 4 J Lf *  ——3—a—2—2—s—s—s—s—s  )  •  -  r Ti  7- <?,mM  ' - ^-=H-z—^-^—t~z-=  1/ 1 J — ! = ! — =  t r  i f J ,#  «« f  i  J  —  tfLf-uri'^Uj  e Lf  j  j  LT LT LT EJ=  titftim.  -7  -  =  If ,7  JJ u u feH  1—L  •  Sri- < 1  M  7  1  V fL,  ,nnn-jwl  ^ f J U Jlrj Lr f j f n n tfi n n p - f ^ p.. > .. — 1——» , h H *P  <Ai«.  6 ' 1 v—:J LJ  T-7—7  -fffrr f  f  > *  ——  fftlfCfffffte  ^ r r i_i LI [ / — ^ - L u  "  (Aft  .y r r r +- T  =-fc»-  u u T f rr -U—U_ »  K (  -q-Onn n l i d »»»»»»-  # ^...<y.  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UJ  L-  ^  ?.  U  LJ L J . ' L J ^-y-L— 4.  -24"  M  S i > Lf  ?  *  iff  f r  rn n n  n n  n  h  L  i r f r f i t i f f  5v [i iii> ^ ;  n n r a  »^  *.v  PHif  9=  mi •G  ^  *r  1  ^ —*3  £  —  ^  -H  Y  ft=F &=*±=  1—: .» • _L  i ? — F rir» f  ?  b»  r |  -3  f  m  rr r 1 n r  ff-  1  >  f—  f < •2--  TTT-  Jii-* U  1  f"  ( _i  U UJ: =t=t=t  i;» . » : -*—i—*—i—*  ^ — »  -25|-  N  1  iJIiJJill u LJ LJ" U I & Y L u LI u ' L u  V  3  mP S u  ^  U  i—I  u u  (I)  3*t  '* >  1  ^  >  IJ U  U U  L=E  1_J I  H F  Ml  i  P  7  LT  u  EJ  I n n n n  •t  V  eta'  I g L f u u Lf. ^  3  b  R  LTU1?T=*  i  FV|.  c/e <  If p  -  =  1  9...... okot  LJ J  j i n n  (5  n  »> <:  —1  L.n n  |f  V  u  n n  n  r  /  ' u v' fi\  v  n  ™i ... i —  )  b7 • n—1—-  n 7  .  h1 • i — 4 V V 1 1—f  n  -rr.  ff * f —  1  -  <  ^  s > > ^_ (  ffP  — 1 ' *  =~-ft  1  _  l4y'— ft *  m  k  (!)  U ul  n n n n n VJJ U U 0  u  •f—i— —5  N j  —  y  n "jrJ  u  IJ  J=  r  r*i  U 0 4J=  ^ - n  r i  l  —  5  ? ')  \, , rp  p  \ );  f ^ r r :u n  =  h. n a  ' U L - T u  l l  n  7  1  n  t• i u K-..  r ^ n  [LI  • LJ  —f""-i—F— — — r * - i — r = 4 1 J  j  J j J3  -31-  -4o-  -41-  -•A  M=4  i4 j  4  5 ^  4 4 44 •  *  •  •  -4?-  - 4 1 -  3«  r*-  -I I  ^_ H  I  -#-  H T -1  I  +4-  a— 3—i  -e-  —  1— o  •H  (!) 1  =—ri-y^ 7  i  s—  1  f> ' 1  A  3—  l J  |  rr-in  T  7  • -•  j'  ?  .,)>»• =p T M f  , T  :?—!  J  1_  1  '  1  Z  !  ••// 7  "It " -  =  -4  1  /_!  n  e  n  i  )  M  •o  —  <*-  50  Turning  Turning  Points  Points:  An  Analysis  f o r wind q u i n t e t and  accordion  thought of mine that began w h i l e I was  'shot'  changes i n s t y l e and  The  a colotomic  'announcing' t r a n s i t i o n s l e a d i n g to l e t t e r s C, K, f i g u r e i s developed only o n c e — a t the a c c o r d i o n  E, G, W,  and  X.  This  rhythmically  The  rhythmic  f u n c t i o n throughout, This  gestural  s o l o of l e t t e r G.  A second  i s used l e a d i n g  into  i d e a i s developed at l e t t e r s C, E, and  Thus the work 'turns' at these p o i n t s There i s a l s o a gradual  points.  S, and W.  t r a n s i t i o n a l f i g u r e , c o n s i s t i n g of a simple t r i l l ,  British  t i t l e of the work r e f e r s  mood around v a r i o u s  chord which opens the work serves  l e t t e r s C, D,  compositional  a student at the U n i v e r s i t y of  Columbia with the work Lagtime f o r s o l o marimba. to i t s frequent  continues  W.  to a change, o f t e n a s t r i k i n g change.  ' t u r n i n g ' throughout the p i e c e from the  dissonant,  complex opening to the more consonant, r h y t h m i c a l l y  simple  ending. My  approach to t h i s work d i f f e r s from most approaches to w r i t i n g f o r the  wind q u i n t e t .  Whereas most composers t r e a t t h i s ensemble i n a  f a s h i o n , emphasizing the d i v e r s e timbres of the v a r i o u s  contrapuntal  instruments, I have  t r i e d to c r e a t e a homogenous treatment, with the instruments o f t e n p l a y i n g i n s i m i l a r ranges and  c r o s s i n g each other's  extremely important r o l e i n b l e n d i n g ments throughout the  years has  the v a r i o u s  The  accordion  plays  timbres of the wind  an  instru-  piece.  A major i n f l u e n c e on my past few  lines.  w r i t i n g of t h i s p i e c e and  a l l of my  works of  the  been the compositions of composer Gyorgy L i g e t i , e s p e c i a l -  l y h i s works of the l a t e 1 9 6 0 ' s — t h e Chamber Concerto, the Second S t r i n g  51  Quartet , Continuum  f o r h a r p s i c h o r d , and the Ten Pieces f o r Wind Q u i n t e t .  L i g e t i ' s concept of micropolyphony, h i s emphasis  on t e x t u r e as a formal  determinant, and h i s use of the o c t a t o n i c s c a l e are a l l f a c t o r s found i n his  works which I f e e l have i n f l u e n c e d me.  Other composers  I see i n t h i s work are the Canadians Bruce Mather K l e i n e BlMsermusic f o r wind q u i n t e t ) and R. Murray S t r i n g Quartet No.  2,  subtitled  whose i n f l u e n c e  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s Eine Schafer ( p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s  'Waves').  Another extremely important i n f l u e n c e on my  t h i n k i n g i n t h i s work i s my  involvement w i t h e l e c t r o - a c o u s t i c music, p a r t i c u l a r l y my work on the system at Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y .  POD  Much of the c o m p o s i t i o n a l work done on  t h i s system i s based on the concept of the 'tendency mask', where the 'tendency' of p i t c h range, d e n s i t y , dynamics  and/or t e x t u r e to change can be  c o n t r o l l e d w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s about events are l e f t to the  decide.  f o r the  computer  Although there are no random procedures used i n T u r n i n g P o i n t s ,  i d e a of 'tendency to change' pervades my  t h i n k i n g throughout the work.  The v e r y opening shows 'masks' of i n c r e a s i n g d e n s i t y ( a c c e l e r a n d i ) , w h i l e the  s e c t i o n b e g i n n i n g at l e t t e r A shows a p i t c h range which spreads out from  a u n i s o n F to a f u l l of  a trilling  one and a h a l f octave ' c l u s t e r ' chord.  Section E consists  c l u s t e r which ascends i n p i t c h range to l e t t e r F, there to be  j o i n e d by a low c l u s t e r which g r a d u a l l y ascends u n t i l both c l u s t e r s to  a unison t r i l l  before l e t t e r  descend  G.  Other i n f l u e n c e s from e l e c t r o - a c o u s t i c music which can be seen i n t h i s work are the use of d i g i t a l d e l a y — o r  'echo'-like e f f e c t s  (seen a t l e t t e r s  D and K) and the use of a 'random' s c a l a r l i n e such as at l e t t e r s H and V. The s t a t i c  ' n o n - v i b r a t o ' l i n e s of l e t t e r S are a l s o r e m i n i s c e n t of e l e c t r o -  a c o u s t i c music.  52  F o r m a l l y , the work r e f l e c t s and a r c h - l i k e s t r u c t u r e , w i t h s h o r t e r towards  the b e g i n n i n g and end, and longer s e c t i o n s towards  the middle.  sections These  s e c t i o n s are based on u n i t s of 45" m u l t i p l i e d by 1, 2, 3, 5, or 8 (these numbers taken from the F i b b o n n a c c i s e r i e s ) so that the longest is  6'00" (8 x 45") l o n g .  These lengths of time a r e , of course, o n l y approx-  imate, c o n t r o l l e d as they are by the performers' tempi. ions are f u r t h e r d i v i d e d . as Example 1.)  (middle) s e c t i o n  Many of these d i v i s -  (A chart of the formal l a y o u t of the work i s g i v e n  The t r a n s i t i o n s to the main s e c t i o n s are much more prominent and  sudden than those to the s u b s e c t i o n s . There a r e common r e f e r e n c e s made on e i t h e r s i d e of the middle which serve to h e l p b i n d the work t o g e t h e r . music which  section  There i s only one s e c t i o n of  i s d i r e c t l y r e f e r r e d to more than once, t h i s b e i n g the t r i l l i n g  s e c t i o n found at l e t t e r s E and W. t i m b r a l modulation  S e c t i o n s of unison w r i t i n g which  (a d e v i c e found i n such works as E l l i o t t  feature  Carter's  Eight  Etudes and a Fantasy f o r wind q u a r t e t ) are found at l e t t e r s A and S.  Another,  more t r a n s i t i o n a l f i g u r e which  appears  at  both l e t t e r s H and V.  i s repeated i s the 16th note r u n which  There are p i t c h r e f e r e n c e s made throughout which  form  the  notes of the o c t a t o n i c s c a l e , ascending from D to B and descending back t o  D.  The p i t c h F i s prominent  B i s prominent the of  so-called  at l e t t e r A and b e f o r e l e t t e r W, w h i l e the p i t c h  throughout the s e c t i o n b e g i n n i n g a t l e t t e r L .  ' f a l s e dominant' r e l a t i o n s h i p i s c r e a t e d , a d e v i c e used i n many  the works of B e l a Bartok.(Example  transitional title  refers.  I n t h i s way  'shot' chords and t r i l l  1)  A l s o important f o r m a l l y are the  f i g u r e s mentioned  e a r l i e r to which the  A major concern of the work was that the s e c t i o n s should 'flow'  i n t o each other as smoothly as p o s s i b l e . P i t c h m a t e r i a l i n t h i s p i e c e i s almost completely d e r i v e d from the ' o c t a t o n i c ' s c a l e , which  c o n s i s t s of a l t e r n a t i n g major and minor  seconds.  53  T h i s s c a l e i s used o c c a s i o n a l l y i n i t s s c a l a r form (such as at l e t t e r L) but more commonly to form e i g h t - n o t e aggregates freely.  from which p i t c h e s are  chosen  As t h e r e are t h r e e p o s s i b l e non-transposable o c t a t o n i c s c a l e s , a  common working method was  to use the e i g h t notes of one aggregate,  e i g h t notes of a second aggregate and f i n a l l y aggregate.  T h i s produces  the d i a t o n i c  then the  the e i g h t notes of a t h i r d  a kind of chromatic c o n s t e l l a t i o n w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g  ' f e e l ' which the o c t a t o n i c s c a l e possesses.  Vertically range from f u l l  t h e r e are a wide v a r i e t y of chord s t r u c t u r e s employed which e i g h t note aggregates  (such as the opening  'shot' chords  and  the chord found two measures b e f o r e l e t t e r B) to chords found i n f u n c t i o n a l harmony, such as the 'dominant seventh" (Mm7th) s o n o r i t i e s which end the work. As mentioned  earlier,  there i s a gradual movement from dissonance to conso-  nance i n the work. A number of t r a d i t i o n a l  chord s o n o r i t i e s can be e x t r a c t e d from the o c t a -  t o n i c s c a l e , the most obvious b e i n g the by every other note i n the s c a l e . complete  scale.  Two  'diminished seventh' s o n o r i t y , such chords a semitone  formed  apart form the  An example of these two chords juxtaposed ends the work.  A  h a l f - d i m i n i s h e d seventh chord can a l s o be e x t r a c t e d u s i n g steps 1, 2, 4 and 6 of  the s c a l e .  (In t h i s d i s c u s s i o n the form of the s c a l e b e i n g r e f e r r e d to  begins w i t h a major second step.) at  l e t t e r T.  T h i s chord i s used as an important  The notes which remain  i n the s c a l e — s t e p s 3 , 5 ,  s o n o r i t y which i s most important to the w o r k — t h a t chord.  sonority  7 and 8 — f o r m  the  of the 'dominant seventh'  T h i s s o n o r i t y i s the b a s i s of the s e c t i o n which begins at l e t t e r  L,  i n which i t i s somewhat clouded by the a d d i t i o n of other notes of the o c t a t o n i c scale.  The  final  s e c t i o n , at l e t t e r X, i s based  w i t h r o o t s a minor t h i r d  apart.  on f o u r dominant seventh  chords  These f o u r chords are the p o s s i b l e dominant  54  seventh chords which can be e x t r a c t e d from an o c t a t o n i c s c a l e . i s approached  by a complete  Thus, l e t t e r X  o c t a t o n i c aggregate d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r t r i l l s  which  then slow down u n t i l X, where each instrument a l t e r n a t e s between the two  notes  on which i t had been t r i l l i n g ,  forming the above-mentioned dominant  seventh  chords. Melody takes on a v a r i e t y of guises i n t h i s work, none of them a t r a d i t i o n a l approach.  At l e t t e r C the melody of the c l a r i n e t and bassoon i s  t r e a t e d h e t e r o p h o n i c a l l y , w h i l e at l e t t e r D i t i s accompanied by  'echoes' —  the E n g l i s h horn p r e s e n t i n g the melody w h i l e the other instruments t h a t melody at slower rhythmic v a l u e s and at s o f t e r dynamic l e v e l s . c o n t a i n s a melody i n the horn aimless and s t a t i c .  (marked  imitate Letter E  'wild and crazy') which i s e s s e n t i a l l y  L e t t e r L c o n t a i n s melodic m a t e r i a l which develops  s l i g h t l y but i s e s s e n t i a l l y s t a t i c .  I n t e r e s t i n the melodic l i n e i n t h i s  s e c t i o n i s achieved by s m a l l v a r i a t i o n s on the l i n e , changes i n o r c h e s t r a t i o n , harmonic changes and a gradual change i n the accompaniment from l e g a t o to s t a c c a t o and back to l e g a t o . R h y t h m i c a l l y , much of the work i s concerned w i t h t e x t u r e s which obscure any sense of p u l s e .  These s e c t i o n s are juxtaposed w i t h a s e c t i o n b e g i n n i n g  at l e t t e r K which has an obvious e i g h t h note p u l s e . marked by the i n d i c a t i o n  The  s e c t i o n at E i s  'as f a s t as comfortably p o s s i b l e ' f o r a l l i n s t r u -  ments except the horn, whose melody acts as a cue f o r the o t h e r instruments. A s i m i l a r s e c t i o n i s found at l e t t e r The element As mentioned w r i t i n g was  W.  of t e x t u r e i n the work i s one of i t s most important a s p e c t s .  e a r l i e r , the t r a d i t i o n a l , c o n t r a p u n t a l appraoch abandoned i n f a v o u r of a homogenous treatment.  t o wind q u i n t e t Extreme care  taken i n choosing the exact range needed from each instrument.  was  The use of  55  alto of  f l u t e , Eb c l a r i n e t  and E n g l i s h horn aided t h i s approach, w h i l e the  the a c c o r d i o n to blend the c o l o u r s of the other instruments  aspect of the p i e c e .  l e t t e r s E and W are examples of a 'sound-mass'  composition.  Turning P o i n t s represents thinking.  a very important  Having worked on i t for' almost two  (Lagtime f o r s o l o marimba and products  work i n my  f u t u r e works.  compositional  y e a r s , I have had  Eurhythmy f o r two  clarinets)  of t h i s p i e c e and many other ideas suggest  w r i t i n g and  two works  emerge as  by-  themselves to me  for  I t r e p r e s e n t s , I f e e l , a c r e a t i v e approach to wind q u i n t e t  fills  an important  gap  i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the a c c o r d i o n , a  l i t e r a t u r e which c o n t a i n s works f o r a c c o r d i o n and  s t r i n g quartet  a c c o r d i o n and brass q u i n t e t but none, as f a r as I know, f o r t h i s I t i s a l s o an important chords taken from and  critical  There are many examples of t i m b r a l modulation (most  n o t a b l y at l e t t e r A ) , and approach to  is a  use  work f o r me  and combination.  i n terms of i t s d e a l i n g w i t h the use  'traditional' tonality  of  but used i n a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l way  f o r the problems posed by i t s extended l e n g t h , s i n g l e movement  format.  56  Example 1 Formal L a y o u t — T u r n i n g P o i n t s  Length  Letter  1 x 45"  INTRO.  Material  Shot  Prominent  Chords  D,  45"  A  F unison.  3 x 45"  C  Melody on A accompanied  D  Echoes  E  T r i l l i n g w i t h melody i n horn  G  Accordion solo  H  16th note runs  K  Echoes  L  Steady 8th note p u l s e and melody  2 x  5 x 45"  8 x 45'  C unison.  5 x 45"  Timbral modulation. by  A, F, F#  static  Timbral modulation.  T  •16th note runs to F pedal  2 x 45"  W  T r i l l i n g w i t h melody i n c l a r i n e t  1 x 45"  X  Sustained  chords  Eb  F  trill  Long s u s t a i n e d notes accompanied 32nd note runs  Pitches  C, Ab by  D, Eb  (trill)  

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