UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The fictional image of post-Mao youth : a thematic study Louis, Winnie Laifong 1985

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THE FICTIONAL IMAGE OF POST-MAO YOUTH: A THEMATIC STUDY  by Winnie L a i f o n g  M.A.  Louis  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF  PHILOSOPHY in  (Department  We a c c e p t  this  of  Asian  Studies)  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1985 ©Winnie  Laifong  L o u i s , 1985  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department o r by  be  h i s o r her  g r a n t e d by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It is  understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not  be  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  /ItfU^z™  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  n/an  ^^to^^--^ Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  The  present  fictional Chinese  works  youth  Among Chinese the  the  fall  of  the  daring  social  revelation  Fiction  enables  after  returning this  under  and a  cyclical  an  historical  the  relaxation  has  not  yet  a  escaped  or  played  an i t s  comprehensive  since  journey  1966.  journey  study  from and  of  Zhiqing the  Red  life  from  of is  Zhiqing  Fiction,  demonstrated.  circular  pattern  important  of  from to  the the  reaffirmation further policy,  political  part  of  negation  shows  influence.  of  of them  values i n  that,  Chinese  and  Chinese  affirmation  similar  An  shows  literary  values  literary  Fiction,  socio-political,  context. It of  and  spiritual  pattern  transformed  to  Zedong  homes.  thematically of  the  quantity,  i t s  that  thematic  (revolutionary) back  large  youth  city  flooded  has  r u s t i c a t i o n program  influence  was  finally  new  this  youth,  and  trace  their  factors,  literature official  a  Zhiqing  and  urban to  a  o f Mao  i t s  physical  the to  of  of  the  personal  to  death  educated  examine  contemporary  that  the  of  about  stories  Four",  terms  us  thesis,  existence  examination how  of  Chinese  Movement  the  "Gang  the  Guard  In  since  to  (1976-1984).  era  criticism,  of  contemporary  scene  in  and  thousand  urban  role  attempts  by  post-Mao  several  about  important  written  i n the  literary  fiction  dissertation  despite  literature A  political  exploration writers'  of this  inherent  fact  i s also  desire  seen  t o be  to influence  the  Chinese  society  through  literature. In  this  discussed  thesis  under  five  portraits thematic  categories:  life,  rediscovery  Movement,  rusticated  assertion  of the s e l f ,  Besides are loves and  and  the search  supporting the c y c l i c a l  seen  to also  and h a t e s ,  model,  youth  t h e Red of  these  Guard  love,  f o r new  are  re-  outlets. portraits  p r o v i d e a window  f o r understanding the  aspirations  frustrations,  disillusionments,  contemporary  o f post-Mao  Chinese  and  and above youth.  i i i  a l l ,  the  ideals  spirit,  of  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Introduction PART  1  I  Chapter  One  Literary  Scene:  "Cold  Winds"  a n d "Warm  Breezes"...24  Introduction The t h a w : D e n u n c i a t i o n and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n The d e m a n d s o f w r i t e r s Major campaigns and c o n t r o v e r s i e s "Forward-looking" l i t e r a t u r e " " P r a i s i n g V i r t u e and L a c k i n g V i r t u e " Social effects Anti-Bourgeois Liberalism A n t i - S p i r i t u a l P o l l u t i o n Campaign Chapter  24 ..26 35 40 41 43 45 50 53  Two  The P a t h Writers  o f Youth  and t h e Emergence  o f Young 58  The p a t h o f y o u t h Rustication Return to the c i t y D i s c u s s i o n s and d e b a t e s The r i s e o f y o u n g w r i t e r s  58 60 62 65 69  PART I I Chapter  Three  The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n Pattern  of Zhiqing  Fiction:  A  86  Introduction E a r l y Z h i q i n g F i c t i o n ( 1 966-1 976 ) The Reemergence o f Z h i q i n g F i c t i o n S t a g e I : m i d - 1 978 t o m i d - 1 980 S t a g e I I : m i d - 1 980 t o e a r l y 1 982 S t a g e I I I : e a r l y 1 982 t o m i d - 1 984 A c y c l i c a l pattern Chapter "The  Cyclical  86 89 100 100 107 11 4 119  Four  Fire  Spirit":  Retrospection  Introduction V i o l e n c e and t r a g e d y Confession and s e a r c h  and  Confession...126 126 127 144  iv  Chapter "The  Five  Path  of Life":  Rusticated  Life  Introduction The wound Struggle f o r personal goals Tragedies The p a n o r a m a o f r u s t i c a t i o n Chapter "The  167 170 179 185 198  Six  Right  to Love":  Rediscovery  o f Love  216  Rerecognition of love Struggles against "fedualism" and b u r e a u c r a t i s m S e a r c h f o r an i d e a l l o v e D i s i l l u s i o n m e n t i n marriage  222 228 243 253  Seven  t h e Same  Horizon":  Assertion  of the S e l f  Introduction Return o f f e m i n i n i t y Affirmation of individuality S e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t through acquirement of education Search f o r happiness Chapter "The  216  Introduction  Chapter "On  167  260 260 263 272 283 292  Eight  Southern  Bank":  Retreat  from  Authenticity  ...298  Introduction  298  Nostalgia Return to the countryside Affirmation of current l i f e  302 311 335  Conclusion  339  Abbreviations Notes Bibliography Glossary  362 366 408 **35  v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I  would  like  deep  gratitude  Duke  for  three  years.  Michael which  t o my  me  angle.  who  f o rher helpful  that  this  Louis  thesis  son  t o me  also  like  n o t have  Richard.  vi  thank  Finally, written  o f my  past  Professor Literature  fiction  to  been  and s u p p o r t  to  my  Michael  i n the  Soviet  Chinese  suggestions.  could  Professor  are given  introduced  co-operation  a n d my  thanks  I would  to express  and encouragement  t o examine  Chao  opportunity  thesis adviser  Special  enabled  unfailing  this  his instruction  Futrell  different  t o take  from  a  Professor I must  say  without  the  husband  Randy  INTRODUCTION  In more  the People's  than  any  instrument means  Republic  other  forms  for achieving Party  called  and  molding  "engineers  their  art  set  the Party.  by  called  their  upon  from  propagate  the  the u l t i m a t e v i c t o r y  to  they  1957,  reconstruction From  1958  the  were and  on,  were  construction  Leap  class  Revolution  (1966-76),  those  few  who  Party  line  relaxation sixties, three  were  of  decades  were  active  the time.  Chinese has  most had  writers  were  1953  about  industrial  of  agriculture.  to  write  and  the  about  for brief  i n 1956  and  Communist  Party  (CCP)  what  sixties  socialist  the  writers  about Utopian  the early  During  controlled  criteria  From  control  tightly  create  reform.  to eulogize  Except  so-  to  only  struggle.  their  the to  a  and  system From  as  of  required  to write  when  in literary the  1953,  write  Forward.  required  and  to  of land  o f t h e Commune  o f the Great  they  they  g  political  necessity  to  i s ,  Writers,  the c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n  t o 1960,  establishment  spirit  told  important  that  are required  19^9  celebrate  an  mobilizin  thinking.  to the changing  Thus,  to  behavior,  literature,  as  purposes;  of the soul"  according  (PRC),  o f a r t , i s used  of motivating people's  support,  of China  Cultural  were  purged,  the  radical  periods i n the  early  for  Chinese  of  almost writers  produced. Since the  arrest  the death  o f Mao  o f t h e Gang  Zedong  o f Four  1  i n September  i n October,  1976  along  and with  most  aspects  undergone Deng  the  latter  never  a more  writers  freely  than  People's  in  replaced  b y a more  themes  the  themselves founding  pre-1976  explored.  The r e a l i t y  fifties  and s i x t i e s  examined,  and  t h e new  social  new  policies  were  themes  conditions  realistically  the  highly  period  was  literature.  such  as  love,  emerged  depicted  was  more  of  the  controversies  the  CCP  literature,  individualized realistic  and h i s t o r i c a l  were  Although the  result,  forbidden  needed  leadership,  over  the  under  writers  also  policy.  As a  of  previously  problems  of  1949.  literature  Accordingly,  works  in  now  to express since  with  Maoist  i t s power  allowed  any p e r i o d  Republic  politicized  new  released  has  leadership,  a n d who  literary  literature  along  the previous  relaxed  were  CCP  deeply  Revolution,  completely  Chinese  T h e new  suffered  to d i s c r e d i t  instituted  social  who  the C u l t u r a l  Chinese  society,  d r a s t i c changes.  Xiaoping,  during  CCP  of Chinese  and  in  the  critically  re-  created  the  and  by  critically  depicted . Among fictional have  the works  proved  many  to  because  could  sprang  up. They  topics  be  dealt  situation  the  These  works  departures  by and about  controversial. numerous  new  there  with  within  the  were  works  s o many  2  Chinese  youths  were  the  new  magazines  dynamic  China.  vigorous  writers  closely related  contemporary  years,  young  b y t h e many most  recent  numerous,  fictional  be p u b l i s h e d were  contemporary  most  were  in  because  and most whose that  the varied  to  the  changing  They  were  t h e most  controversial  because  intimidated hence  more  By a  than  the  willing  1982,  this  distinct  the  to  middle-aged  kind  of  category  youth  I  used  term  dissertation. who  to  mountains  during gaps  were  the  urban,  sent and  the  manual  agriculture)  more  than  seventeen  Only  after  allowed this  to  return  generation  Movement, returned for  Zhiqing The  their  the  special  of  new  to  educated  city.  of  sent-down life,  The  rural  and  industry  and  and the  with  event  special --  life  the  involved 1 youths.  many  of  them  experience  the  Red  after  basic  up  movement"  educated  youths  became  "going  living  urban  present  the  (between labor,  sake,  bridge  l e a d e r s h p were  the  --  the  urban  unprecedented  to  city  in  the  by  Zhiqing  convenience  countryside  mental  millions  that  these  distinctive realism,  young  credibility  because  they  innovative  more  writers  were  experiences gives  Furthermore, are  the  remolded  the  as  as  Guard  they  subject  of  had  matter  Fiction.  fact own  be  recognized  to  Fiction  diversities and  rusticated to  to  and  ideas.  referred  to  less  writers,  become  For  were  c o u n t r y s i d e i n the  historically  under  old  Revolution i n order  to  This  1979  the  down  labor  peasants.  had  refers  three  and  was  Zhiqing  to  Cultural  between  and  fiction).  "Zhiqing"  youths the  fiction  and  (educated the  writers  challenge orthodox  Xiaoshuo have  young  they  are  less  i n themes  3  writing  Zhiqing  and burdened and  about  Fiction  a  signficance. by  the  techniques.  past, Their  exposure for  of  social  spiritual  exploration, The  are  present  Zhiqing  evident  in their  study  attempts  as  a  youths  Emphasis  changing  of  young  conditions.  thematic,  but  qualities.  Since i t  is  development  of  modern  Fourth  Movement  The Modern movement, time  when  May  Fourth  China  nation.  During  Chinese  writers  combined strong  1919.  a  great  sense  of  was  from  shackles  tradition, national  and  deal  social  literature the  concerned of  with  weakness  began  and  a  1930's,  of  individual  and  national  "feudal exploring social  artistic  briefly since  in the  the  May  May  movement,  at  a  imporverished many  talented  creativity mission.  bondages" causes The  which with  May  individual's  the  Fourth  literature  sickness.  4  is  understood  and  lively  the  of  the  nationalist  and  with  be  with  disintegrating  produced  study  this  the  1919-1942  was  1920's  of  literature  modern  the  discussing with  outline  first a  on  Chinese  change  cannot  Period:  of  discussion  to  literature  placed  the  fluctuating  lives  focus  of  factors:  the  which  some  Chinese  artistic  development  several  i s also  necessary  Chinese  their  the  the  Fiction  in  China's  to  primary  Zhiqing  search  works.  and  include  insolation,  as  trace  people  The  i t will  to  unorthodox  conditions,  climate,  themselves.  well  response  socio-political  portraits  their  as  political-literary  the  and  outlets,  Fiction  changing  reality  a  Fourth  liberation  and of  decadent China's  concern  for  the  i n d i v i d u a l c a n be s e e n  individual in  Yu  Dafu's  Ling's Ba  psychology  Jin's  parental and  (Jia),  Spring  (Chun)  the struggle  against  happiness.  i n under i n  (Chuncan),  Autumn  (Candong),  as w e l l  for  Mao  Dun's  Harvest  nushi  of  r i j i ) . (Qiu)  and  (Qiushou)  and  Midnight  and  freedom i s best  and  Spring  o f t h e May  Ding  system  rural  i n d i v i d u a l and c r i t i c a l  are typical  de  salvation  corruption  novel  in  individual  trilogy  as i n h i s  the  reality  depiction  bureaucratic  imperialism  social  the  and  a n d Autumn  fornational  of  and s e x u a l i t y  the "feudal"  to obtain  The c o n c e r n  demonstrated  concern  (Chenlun) (Shafei  i n order  revelation  f o r love  Sophie  control  bankruptcy  Sinking  candid  o f Miss  Family  illustrate  i n searching  novella  The D i a r y  i n the  urban foreign  Silkworms Winter  Ruin  (Ziye).  Such  depiction  Fourth  of  literary  tradition. During  t h e 1930's,  externally, increased  and  KMT  as the Japanese  threat  increased  ( N a t i o n a l i s t Government)  oppression  internally,  the influence  of Marxist  literary  2 theories Qu  Qiubai,  Jiang of  increased.  Guo M o r u o ,  Guangci  of  propagating that  writers  Qian  and c r i t i c s  Xingcun,  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y advocated  literature.  League  Radical  In the e a r l y  Leftist  1930's,  Writers,  the figure  which  the  superficial  depiction  of  excessive  political  head  of  Fangwu  and  the Marxist  view  became  the  a center  Despite League,  of the p r o l e t a r i a t sloganeering, 5  as  t h e CCP s p o n s o r e d t h e  "proletarian literature".  Lu X u n ,  Cheng  such  the  for fact  deplored  and t h e u s e proletarian  literature  attracted  idealistic  younger  literature the  toward  drastic  Water  (Shui)  The  Yan'an  The the  issued  from  Talks  Fourth  model  many  patriotic  cities  to  the  support  8th",  Wang  (1928)  to  features  of  such  t o view  their  way  at  criticized  inequality  the  interference  what  from  between  the  in literature  stressed t o combat  t h e need t h e KMT  6  coastal  by  CCP,  their  the  and  not.  as  and  of  "Statemen  Patience  Among  Understand particularly  comrades  and a r t by P a r t y  campaign,  short  i n "Thoughts  and l o w e r  f o r more  vrell  In  Writers,  and t h e  rectification  the  their  saw i n Y a n ' a n ,  the upper  as  While  Lilies"  i n "Respect  war,  Yan'an.  Ling  i n "Love  they  official  t h e CCP  were  as D i n g  i n "Wild  Jun  and A i Qing  a harsh  came  the  Talks  the Sino-Japanese  of society  Shiwei  Xiao  the  launched  and  by Mao's Y a n ' a n  welcomed  view  March  discipline  " I "  and f r e e d o m - l o v i n g temperaments  (Zawen) w r i t e r s  Mao  from  theme  Sophie  established  During  base  was  critical  Artists",  begun  which  CCP  essays  However,  was  a n d made main  individualistic  Writers"  style,  o f Miss  his  illustrated in  end o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  intellectuals  China  Comrades",  i s well  of  i n 1942  for literature.  of  and  many  tendency  Ling's  The D i a r y  i n 1942,  savior  their  Ding  literature  i n Yan'an  patriotic  The 3  literature  in  of  (1931).  CCP  as  "we"  effective  May  attention  followers.  shift  characterisation  the  and  cades.  r e g i m e n t a t i o n and Japanese, which  and  he  marked t h e  beginning  o f CCP p e r s e c u t i o n o f C h i n e s e Yan'an  The  Talks  w r i t e r s t o come.  ( i n t r o d u c t i o n g i v e n on May  1  and  c o n c l u s i o n on May 23 o f 1 9 4 2 ) were meant on t h e one to  refute  the  "heterodox" the  "undisciplined"  o p i n i o n s and,  writers  and  on t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  should  asserted be  artistic  judged  the  of  work  the q u a l i t y of a piece  first  by  political,  b u t no human n a t u r e  literature  portrayed  should  writers  should  engaged  in  revolution  reflect  class  better,  At  class  the  stamp  to their  Mao  responsible  patients; accordingly, effects"  t h e same t i m e ,  w r i t e r s should  o f t h e enemy ( t h e J a p a n e s e ,  classes";  struggle. be  by  a  transcending  consider the " s o c i a l  writing.  reactionaries  second  t h a t bears  as d o c t o r s who s h o u l d  when p r e s c r i b i n g m e d i c i n e writers  and  He a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t " I n  t h e r e i s o n l y human n a t u r e  a class,  hence,  that  criteria.  society  only  serve  of the P a r t y .  Mao  of  their  t o s e t up  g u i d e l i n e s by w h i c h w r i t e r s c o u l d b e t t e r  needs  hand  when  they  serve  the  to  expose  the  darkness  imperialists,  t h e KMT  and o t h e r e n e m i e s o f t h e p e o p l e ) ,  not  of  the masses, o r the P a r t y . This part  utilitarian  of  machine"  what and  literature  serve  Lenin as  called  the  "Whole  a weapon i n e d u c a t i n g  and a r t i n a s u b o r d i n a t e  "Literature art  view o f u s i n g l i t e r a t u r e  and a r t s e r v e  the workers,  politics"  peasants  7  and a r t a s  revolutionary  the  position  masses to  politics.  and " l i t e r a t u r e  and s o l d i e r s "  put  and  became t h e  guidelines The  Chinese  result  not  the  and  that  only  for  of  writers the  would  would  and  After control  Writers'  strive  the  over  a l l  the  overwhelming demands  of  in  the  completely  (eg.  conformed  the of  and  social  through  Mao  false  quality,  but  silenced  (eg.  Although  they Zhao the  Party  that and  or  to  simply  the  were  but  and  society  development to  conform  s t o r i e s on stopped For  those  the  . other  about  to the  writing  those of  human  maintain  a  through  degeneration  i n e v i t a b l y be Liu  society,  tried  Jin's  of  its  established  Congwen).  There  evasion,  extend  artistic  Ba  the  to  concerned  either  Shen  Shuli,  resulting  Association  were  fifties)  would  the  dissent  machinery  representation  skillful  the  Chinese  (eg.  reality.  become  writers.  rapidly  of  They  was  would  merit  demonstrated  the  individual  Dun,  result  because of  early  Party,  1949-1976  who  Party  the  literary  literary  remold  Writers'  power.  the  any  control  to  of  In  also  The  Writers  devoted  judge  CCP  sectors  the  that  problems  moved  literary  units.  War  to  CCP  was  creation.  the  arts.  Union,  those  Koren  political  controversies:  comprehensive  the  final  literary  1949,  especially  faced  Talks  r u t h l e s s l y suppress  Campaigns  and  the  campaign"  unceasingly  cultural  Yan'an  became  of  "rectification it  Mao's  Party's  subjects  writers.  who  quality condition  who  their  tried, artistic  condemned  and  Qing).  principle  of  8  Party  control  over  literature  in  China  never  intensitiy  of  Party  demands  greatly.  This  was  because  drastically  changed  was  racked  at  times  To  terrorize a  series  attacked  not  only  they  had  public  in  invariably  were  film  peasant  who  Among  The  of  Yu  of  influence  of  intellectual (1954)  in Yu' s Hu  criticizing  Chamber  (Honglou  methods  and  not  to  i t was  on  teacher,  using  Xun  of  a  but  what  they  had  overwhelming targets  poor,  who  not  was  Zhuan)  uneducated  schools  film  aimed the  for  for  the  stressing  through ended  that  each at  class  with  and of  the  time.  The  after purge the  western-oriented  Lan the  came  undermining  famous  for using  Ling's Dream o f  "bourgeois"  correct class  9  for  (Wuxun  criticized  harsher  study  the  were  Yu.  Li Xifan  Meng)  Party  literature  Wu  campaigns  was  Yu's  also  whom  and  build  the  Sun  became  Shi.  of  the  surrender.  art  education  1954  but  mobilized  life  money  aggressive  incident  Pingbo  remold  itself  Writers  and  director  several  1949 .  with  Party  and  struggles.  wrote, or  the  CCP  submission,  after  Story  often  the  confess  on  attack  the  internal  and  fluctuated  suddenly  because  into  nature  writers  designated  The  through  the  various  to  things,  The  Xun  to  based  other  reform  submission  Wu  was  and  they  The  collected  struggle.  the  forced  by  which  CCP  done,  past.  campaign  (1950),  social  or  against  the  the  campaigns  first  triggered  poor.  writers  of  the  the  bitter  f o r what  pressure  The  by  written  association  on  policies  the  launched  changed,  articles the  Red  research  standpoint  were  aimed  at  eliminating  approaches  to  academic  the  on  Yu  attack  who,  as  editor  published former  a  close  aesthetics Zhou up  charges  1955  critic  Gazette  favorable  comment  on  associate  of  was  the  from  Lu  quite  Xun,  had  different  Feng  and  their  finally  posts  and  target Feng  behind  Xuefeng,  (Wenyibao),  Yu's  e x e c u t o r o f Mao's  persecution  Feng  the  from  literary  the  were  Xuefeng's.  In  he  word  concern  f o r the  launched  called Hu  Hu  a  work.  from  replaced  view  that  literay  had  Feng,  h i s own  removed  of  Feng them  a of Mao.  ideas,  Yang,  came  assistant  drew  and  his  with  his  during  the  which  led to  Hu  than  Talks  and  that  he  of  in  and  1943  in his  expressed  literature.  the  Feng's  published  Yan'an  in  long-term  Marxist,  i n 1953,  friends  In  against  purge  of  readers.  deep 1955,  the  so-  hundreds  Hu  feng  was  1980.  even  more  attack  Qixia.  Yan'an  Mao's  intense  Yang's  "dissident"  of Chinese  until  under  Chen  more  t o Mao  supporters,  an  Zhou  w i d e - r a n g i n g campaign  Clique  Ling,  Feng,  more  h i s " R e a l i s m Today"  future  very  became  Although a  criticized  rehabilitated Ding  Hu  even  proposal  Feng  Feng's  on  1930's.  ideas  Chongqing,  of writers  attack  300,000  not  prominent  real  Literay  against  with  rival  of  the  The  western  men. The  Mao  research.  the  then  associates  in  of  which  Yang,  own  was  non-class-oriented,  Both  period,  prominent  along of when  10 i  them  rival  of  Zhou  with  her  editorial  had  been  criticized  t h e y were  editors  of  the  Liberation essays Ling  Daily  criticizing  became  a  rather with  thinking  of  and  of  during  "crimes"  "poisoning  The  write.  She  put  After  in  she  Literature Given  1957 set  the  in up  in  borrowed arts.  that was  the of  from Its  of  of  her  young  Ling  Ding  to  was  was  promoting  She  personal was  also  bourgeois  earlier  novella],  writers"  Ling in  with  reached  1957.  deprived  the  years  For  of  in  in  of the  the  CCP  her  the  early  the  rural  in  generally  in  line  objective  of  right to  to  raise she  seventies. area  of  i t  produced  with  the  Literature  and  the  next  machine,  literature  became  the  (1957):  of  Soviets,  peak  1979.  political  Socialist  its  Revolution  kind  Talks.  the  China  Cultural  released  propaganda.  key  Ding  the  Northeastern  During  Yan'an  the  short  Now  seeking  A n t i - R i g h t i s t Campaign  power  China  with  " c l i n g i n g to  r e h a b i l i t a t e d only  The  surprising  with  life.  masses.  Campaign  several  was  And  instruments  the  and  the  as  against  farm.  jail  charged  the  ideas.  sent  spending  Jiangxi,  not  a  for  publishing Yan'an  zhuyi),  minds  Ding  was  on  of  heroine  Anti-Rightist  years,  was  the  literary  twenty  chickens  for  side  such  [the  criticism the  shu  writing  Sophie"  "heterodox"  dark  ( y i ben than  charged  the  Ribao)  principal target,  "one-bookism" fame  (Jiefang  "depict[ing]  to  guidelines  Realism, Party  up  is  art  became  a  theory  orthodoxy  in  actuality in  5 its,  revolutionary  didactic  task  of  development"  educating  and  11  ,  molding  combined the  with  masses  in  the the  spirit  of  socialism,  made up t h e g e n e r a l  tendency  of  literature. As  expected,  soldier  fiction  literature. gave  village  made up t h e b u l k  The s t r i c t  a very  drastically  fiction,  application  different  from  t h e gloomy,  o f May F o u r t h  were  stereotyped,  with  protagonists  being  villains  the landlords,  being  between  were  resolved  the  i n which  criticisms freedom  advice"  peasants  the  Binyan  xiaoxi)  Who  and  those  values,  and  between  of course,  of  the  the  spies.  being  (post-1949)  guidance  (June  public.  themselves,  would  Party  as  Liu  Story  and O c t o b e r  Arrived  campaigns o f  t h e "Hundred  o p i n i o n s and  Taking  adventage  expressed Binyan's gongdi  o f The P r e s s  1 9 5 6 ) a n d Wang  open  of  writers  the such  their  "loyal  The  Bridge  shang)  (April  On  (Benbao Meng's  At The O r g a n i s a t i o n  1 2  Flowers"  honest  (Zai qiaoliang  Inside  Has J u s t  successive  conscientious  Meng  fiction.  Site The  these  proclaimed  a n d Wang  through  and  the  or  soldier  o r KMT  conflicts  Conflicts,  was  characters  and  and p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s ,  t h e CCP i n v i t e d  from  Construction  Man  Party  to express  Liu  The  characters  t h e main  i n 1956, a f t e r  repression,  1956)  under  which  by i t s c a d r e s .  Suddenly  policy  rich  and t h e c o l l e c t i v e .  represented  as  formulaic,  backwardness  self  be  positive  realism  pessimistic  peasant  t h e o l d ( p r e 1 9 4 9 ) a n d new  between the  the  works,  literature.  the worker,  and  Communist  of socialist  to these  tone  fiction  Chinese  tone  tragic  plots  of  optimistic  even  The  factory  neibu  The Young  Department  (Zuzhi  bu  revealed of  l a i xinlai  the  cadres  then  blindly  works  Fang  The  Ji's  intellectuals and  young  as  Communist During critics  also  application "Realism daolu) out  strict  of  Path"  which  developing  used  the  of  marked  Other  (Hongdou)  the  and young  theme  youth last  protagonists  in  dogmas.  in use  in  of a of  Chinese  He  of  could  mechanical  Zhaoyang  In  --  only  in  guangkuo  i t ,  severely  slogan  literary  the  zhuyi  example.  also  the  1956,  Qin  (Xianshi  realism  of  rather  situations.  criticisms  excellent  reality.  above  Beans  Flowers"  severe  socialist  from  1979.  literary  application  he  lead  de  pointed to  criticized  "literature  his  a the  and  art  politics" .  Liu  Shaotang  dogmatism zhuyi Liu  an  r  incompentence  sufferings  as  until  Broad  provides  distortion  serve  CCP  The  that  in  19 56)6  and  zhe),7  stories  "Hundred  of  --  (Laifang  These  produced  Red  1  intellectuals  the  orders  Pu s  psychological  literature  (September  difficult  protagonists  society.  urban  in  Zong  Visitor  the  socialist  followed  were  ren)  dogmatism  responsibility  noteworthy  love  nianqing  conservatism,  who  taking  de  zai  saw  declared reality  in  his  shehui  the  same  that as  revolutionary  too  voiced  "Realism zhuyi basic  since  reality,  in  de  his the  fa  and  Socialist  zhan).  problem  writers  opposition  with  could  had  development,  to the  13  Like  to  literary  Era"  (Xianshi  Qin  socialist not  regard  depict result  Zhaoyang, realism. the  He  prsent  reality  in  its  would  be  the  cosmeticisation  of  reality.  •reality*  is  Many  conscientious  other  dogmatic rigid  taken  ideas.  On  away,  the  a p p l i c a t i o n of  Faced ended  with  the  massive  what  whole  torrent  shortcomings literary  of  of  the  of  vengeful  Zhaoyang  was  denounced  as  in who  "a  ideas  "If  'realism'?"^ voiced  were  wrath  the  anti-  against  a  guideline  Party  and  the  or  were  the  exposed  the  criticized  the  among  Party.  For  "revisionist"  and  for  a  Anti-Rightist  forthrightly  Party  abruptly  launched  1957  society  of  the  movement  had  the  labelled  of  critics  criticism,  socialist  policies  questioned,  left  and  these  Flowers"  writers  he  Yan'an Talks.  counterattack The  is  writers  the  "Hundred  Campaign.  suffer  a  Hence,  revisionist  the  first  to  instance,  Qin  his  article  literature  and  1957  led  the  who  had  art" . In  fact,  the  persecution to  speak  of  up.  reform  Many  Liu  countryside Xinjiang. campaign  In  do  not  Leap  1958,  grandiose  Binyan  to  did  and  ended  of up  return  Forward Mao  countryside For  Shaotang  labor. who  to  literary  the  And  The  movement  society  in  a  14  were  were  Great  to few  dared  undergoing  sent  Meng  scene  years.  the  sent  to  in  this  until  1979.  1958-1966  Leap  transform  Qin  to  was  purged  aftermath:  the  to  instance,  Wang  those  launched  radical  Communist  Liu  physical a l l  the  labor.  and  in  intellectuals in  physical  Almost  Great  modern  thousands  through  Zhaoyang,  The  A n t i - R i g h t i s t Campaign  Forward, China  But  the  into  a a  result  was  only  China. to  complete  After  speak  wanted  up  to  Party  the had  been  to  the  early  Mao's  of  Forward  the  depict  The  main  divided again and to  and  given  integrity speak  Quanlian,  "Deepening  in  1962.  emphasis  the  Great  in  and  first  was  the  who  forth  erased  what  the  present  in  The works with  despite  the  Great  Leap  the  in  The  Revolutionary  famine,  no  writers  literature.  radicals  split  under  With  w r i t e r s . Chinese been  of  eclipse,  who  pronounced  Forward  Shaoqi.  temporary  the had  Liu  Those  Combination:  scale  Leap  the  not  Middle  National  failure  dared  Forward.  problem  more  Realism  national disaster  of  a  "Double  large  who  the  Leap  for  Mao  the  some  writers  seized  the  CCP  and  the  Party  now  relaxation whose  this  was  courage  opportunity  up.  The  The  to  even  in  Consequently,  resulting  under  Mao  was  the  factions,  conservatives  which  of  those  write  which Great  became  1958.  to  the  now  disaster  persecuted. but  --  Revolutionary  this  failure two  of  catastrophic  and  and  write  and  Campaign,  choice  reality  in  transparent  into  of  proclamation  Romanticism"  dared  to  fifties  Combination  no  eulogize  cosmeticisation of  silenced  had  them  meant  failure  Anti-Rightist  publish  wanted  context  economic  put  his  Characters" of  Realism"  Conference  of  In  these,  on  the  literary views (Xie  zhuyi  Writers'  Shao  pointed  depiction  15  two  of  "Write  renwu)  shenhua)  A s s o c i a t i o n at out  Shao  articles:  zhongjian  (Xianshi  the  in  theoretician  that  stereotyped  the  and  at  the  Dalian over"heroic  characters" depiction people"  and of  jieji  the  characters" those  "one t y p e  (Yige  reality,  who  not  yige  who  deserved  "realistic  o f the time  there  can  literary  works  should  However,  after  affirmed  masses good  Thus,  middle  nor bad)  -  were  i n them  that  said  that  too "revolutionary"  but  romanticism  concretely  i f there and  reflect  Zhao  raised  of  that, i n  - "the  he d e c l a r e d  Zhuo,  the  class  M o r e o v e r , Shao  his literary Mao  one  b e c a u s e i t was  were  b e no  by Rang  i n 1964,  "bourgeois"  the  had l e d t o  for He  are neither  " enough.  supported  of  manifested.  realism,  was  dianxing).  attention  were  works  characters"  of character  majority  (those  contradictions literary  "backward  Shuli  ideas  class  i s no  therefore,  reality. a n d many  were  Shao others.  criticized  struggle  as  the  as key  link. During sixties,  the other  criticized example,  for  truth, could  adhere  L i  dogmatic l i n e  class  Helin  called  manifest  to current  only i t s  Also  16  and c r i t i c s  also  in literature.  For  had l o n g  f o r the  in literary  policies.  early  human  to the dogmatic c r i t e r i o n o f the epoch  in  i n writing  of  he b e l i e v e d ,  o f work  who  nature  depiction  because,  objected spirit  on  the  writers  (Wang R e n s h u )  the  a piece  of relaxation  conscientious  Ba Ren  sentiment.  period  the Party's  over-emphasis call  brief  resented continued  nature  and  depiction  by d e p i c t i n g ideology. which  works  of  the  the truth  Zhou  how  to human  Gucheng  identified  with  resented  the  much  b y many  the they  critics  were  the  one-sided  subject  matters  "typicality" During several The  Zhaji) Tuo at  this  was  by  and  Wu  works  Mosha.  of  Baguan)  Wu  of  Han  Hai  his  works  direction  of  "Criticism  Of  on  this  The  radical  were  The  of  himself, part  who  policies.  In  New  Historical Xinbian  Lishi  "poisonous  Revolution:  the  (Hai  Rui  righteous  and  despotic against  that  these  attack  on  under  the  1965, his  article  'Hai  Rui  "Hai  Rui  Ba  Guan")  was  the  attack  weed".  the  It  Cultural  Dismissed  Revolution.  1966-1976  Revolution  was  tranform Party  for  Ju  was  attack  published Play  in  the  believed  November  Talks  written  Offioe  used  Cun Deng  Night  conservative  Wenyuan  triggered  disastrous  From  Han,  third  The  Yao  the  The  Wu  Wu  were  system.  that  in  these  latter  the  to  of  (Sanjia  Tuo's  commune  play  attempt  Deng  sixties,  Revolution.  of  radical  a  Cultural  name  (zawen).  of  (Ping  early  Mao's  Mao  and  was  Both  the  criticize  the  were  the  play  opposition  application  Village  pen  Dismissed  the  Cultural The  Rui In  Mao,  Office'"  labelling  important  Cultural  Family  second  essays  of  the  joint  Yehua).  to  from  leadership  From  of  to  Three  The  Hai  Rui  came  critical  mechanical  up  the  Han.  implementation Wu  of  short  play  by  particular  relaxation  led  Essays  historical  image  brief  (Yanshan  form  the  Nanxing,  Liao  Yanshan  the  and  on  (dianxing).  major  first  emphasis  Mao's  China.  was  last The  vanquished  Chinese  17  society.  but  and  most  conservative the The  results Chinese  literary  scene  desert  the  in  literary  literal  and  who  had  background publish. was work  which  dominant particular.  to  circulate  by  a  The  contained  writers  to  could  be  nothing  in  a  Chinese  humiliated, power.  Only  "good"  class  political  record  could  Gang  Four,  by  of  to  literary  was  a  mark  and  been  from  produce  reduced  Never  political  supported  ideology  Revolution  word.  brutal  strong  few  the  clean  was  were  Maoist  in  many  who  the  writings  of  so  a  who  writer  bears  Cultural  certified  had  Ran,  only  Literary the  and Hao  the  killed been  the  sense  h i s t o r y had  persecuted those  during  the a  fair  the  those the  amount  of  Gang's  ideology.  which  eulogized  p e r s o n a l i t y of  magazines but  of  crude  that  Mao  continued  propagandistic  pieces. The Yan'an  politicization Talks  was  now  many  of  letters.  Class  struggle  defeat  Party  line  mandatory  of  in  prominences"  all  was  to  positive  make  the  the  other good  and  by  prominent  the  now  key  in  bold  theme.  victory  of  the  make  the  characters.  characters  (workers,  the  the "Three  writer  among  The  were  so-called  characters  and  18  A l l works  protagonist)  required  heroic  the  printed  total  the  which  with  characterisation,  was  heroic  as  the  In  characters,  among  stereotyped,  enemy  characters  began  i t s extreme.  upheld  plot.  (Santuchu)  that  quotations,  class  the  positive  prominent  Mao's  guideline  characters,  to  (represented  prescribed  the  the  literature  taken  included  total  of  to  the  make other  prominent  among  principal  hero  Characters  were  poor  and  lower  middle  peasants,  revolutionaries) villains  were  experts)  were  works and  Red  of  The  landlords,  always can  Lantern  fiction Golden  be  Path  as  in  Mao's  Octobet  of  1976,  from  the  ruins  long  suppressed  burst  forth  found  an  after  the  hundred  in  bloom,  contend)  in  had  persecuted  as  been Ding  late  Xuefeng).  the  (such  plays  many  were Many  more  needs  of  the  ones long  the  plays in  Hao  Gang  such Ran's Tian)  were  Most  of  foreign resumed  flooded  the  a  thought  writers  Tian  republished,  now  (let  rehabilitated  intellectually  19  1976,  Hundred"  Shuli,  magazines  briefly  atmosphere  Dengke),  and  quickly  April  Chen  were  writers'  had  schools  Guofeng.  1949  that  Four  recovered  The  literary  "Double  of  quickly  of  hundred  Zhao  literary  new  relaxed  Libo,  staged,  These  (Yanyang  the  thoughts  Hua  works  as  Sky  of  Incident  let a  as  bad.  leadership.  more  since  Sunny  arrest  and  of  technical  1976-1984  new  by  Zhou  Forbidden  reprinted. and  1977  Ling,  posthumously  and  the  peasants,  or  well  literature  Tiananmen  proclamation  flowers  the  emotions  in  the  and  Dadao).  Chinese  the  J i ) as  Era:  the  good  revolutionary  Bright  and  under  outlet  in  (Jinguang  death  and  rich  academic  (Hongdeng  such  members  completely  seen  Post-Mao After  completely  conservatives,  characteristics The  Party  always  (previous  revisionists,  as  soldiers,  who (such  and Han,  some Feng  banned  films  classics  were  publication, market  starved  to  meet  readers.  Cultural In  exchange  contrast  relationship leadership create new  a  to  to  wsa  one  favorable  expose  the  leadership.  From  Literature"  exposed rule  Revolution. critical  many  bureaucratism, response harsh  to  greater  public  1 97 8  to  the the  aspects  increasing  criticisms  of  the  Four and  the  new  Party  order  to  the  "Wound  caused  by  the  society,  the  radical  so-called  durng  the  Cultural  1981,  works  particularly  scene.  However,  pressure,  system  to  writers  previous  literary  the  itself,  throughout  political  now  In  for  the  current  the  1949, the  tragedies  of  nations.  harmony.  1 979 ,  1980  and  freedom  of  human  of  dominated  since  opinion  some  Gang in  foreign  writers  disasters  of  with  periods  granted  Beginning  of  up  the  ofmuch  leadership  autocratic  set  previous  between  more  Party  were  since  have  in 1982  substantially  decreased. These Communist changed. fashion the in  with  in  show  Party's  direct  From  the  compared  Party the  trends  continued  recent  framework "relaxation"  spring the to  of  detail  of  of  in  Zhiqing  basic over  1979,  pre-1976  in  and  the  campaigns It  Fiction  20  policy will  be  that  is  the  has  a  not  milder  leaders  which  "restriction"  literary  in  literature,  One.  of  literature  period,  Chapter  fact  though  interfere in  alternating  (fang)  the  control  controversies  greater  development  to  that  as are  within (shou)  the  examined.  of seen  dealt the and  thematic  The  Rise of Zhiqing F i c t i o n  I n The  S i n c e Mao's Yan'an T a l k s i n 1942, the  dictum  peasants those  "literature  and  soldiers"  characters  others.  The  social  1979,  status  as  It  Literature, earliest  In  is  the  literature  thus  too,  not  played ignored. their Four  they regained  their  not  played  that i n  the  was  for Wound  one  of  the  reemerge.  o r d e a l s of the middle-aged  Tale  of  the  had  surprising  of  expense  were l a r g e l y  f a t e of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s  source A  at the  p r o t a g o n i s t s who  which they  s i n c e the A n t i - R i g h t i s t  Yanzhou's  i n the dominance  fiction  fiction  of  workers,  because of t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s to  the  importnant  the  i n t e l l e c t u a l s g r a d u a l l y regained  themes t o  While  Era  the enforcement  serve  resulted  Fourth  protagonists  decades.  art  young i n t e l l e c t u a l  Modernisations. role  had  i n Chinese  c e n t r a l r o l e s i n May After  and  Post-Mao  Campaign i n 1957  of  middle-aged  of  Tianyun  intellectuals  were u s e d as  writers  Mountain  as  an  in  (Tianyun  Lu Shan  quanqi),  and Shen Rong's R e a c h i n g M i d d l e Age (Rendao 8 zhongnian) , the unusual e x p e r i e n c e of t h i s g e n e r a t i o n of Chinese  youth  Revolution, returning source A  by  the  the  Red  young  few  Guard  rustication  to the c i t y  translation 9 China.  --  --  was  Movement, program,  the  and  Cultural  life  a l s o e x p l o i t e d as a  after primary  writers.  anthologies were  However  works from C h i n a .  of  published they The  Post-Mao in  literature  recent  years  only include a small  o n l y work d e v o t e d 21  to  in  outside number  contemporary  of  youth But  was H e l e n this  poems  book  present  category youth,  of  on a b o u t  novels.  from  some  restricted (Chou  Contention literary few,  those  West  available with  four  eight.  literary  background  outlines  the l i f e  o f contemporary  emergence  o f young  writers.  during  the  introduces in  Zhiqing  during bitter  Cultural  the c y c l i c a l Fiction:  the C u l t u r a l condemnation  such  mainly  As  as  for  outside  to  (Xihu),  into  chapters  Zhiqing  novellas  are  I was a b l e  It  obtain  The  Ugly  Works  and  underground  China  are  very  here.  one  of  Chinese  population.  outside  chapters  a n d two  two p a r t s .  and  Chapter 1976  from  of  available  Lake  includes  development  of a  stories,  magazines  dissertation i s divided  to  to the study  f o rdiscussion  yu Z h e n m i n g ) .  and a r e n o t d e a l t  This  short  magazines  Xiaoya),  works,  and  the l i f e  i n China,  literary  1 0  stories  of the Chinese  literary  (Zuopin  reflect  chosen  friends  of  Harvest.  writers.  hundred  The works  Through  Duckling  sector five  the o f f i c i a l  China.  to a handful  young  s t o r i e s which  Mao's  Stern's  d i s s e r t a t i o n i s devoted  the largest  based  and  i s confined  i n t r a n s l a t i o n from  The  is  F. S i u and Z e l d a  One  to  from  Revolution pattern  the eulogy Revolution  to  1984.  youth  chapter  and  the  also  development program,  (1966-1976), program  Two  stage  It  of the r u s t i c a t i o n period  the  traces the  i t s early 1984.  I  includes  Chapter  of thematic  of the rustication  22  II  introduces  Chinese  The t h i r d  Fiction  Part  Part  (late  the 1978  to  mid  life  to  1980),  in  the  affirmation full  the  The  the  so  past  Red  and  as  Guard  on  the  changes  and  changes  the  reactions  to  the  adverse  They  and  the  The  last  reveal  human  assertion chapter  stage  of  people literary  dignity, of  the  of  for current  Fiction  Chapter  Four  Fiction  program.  --  These and  Chapter  Six  individuality  through  love  and  of  i n favor  of  government  Zhiqing  psychological  Zhiqing  I t shows  characters  23  Zhiqing  and  for  converged  rebellion  eight.  people  factors  and  to  young  of  p o l i t i c a l , and  defiance  illustrated  protagonists  themselves,  fictional  the  of  i t s development.  of  and  stage  works  have  The  Zhiqing  second  search  and  in  young  physical  examines  creation  support  the  1984).  chronological  environment.  the  the  four  rustication  victimized  on  are  images.  stages  present and  pattern  i s both  the  concentrate  late  youth  i n youth  first  Movement  to  i n chapters  themes  of  1982),  cyclical Chinese  reveal  depiction  1982  on  happiness,  and  (early  covered  the  the  1980-early  the  these  to  to  focus  Fiction.  young  of  focus  Seven  third  of  subsequent  five  their  (mid  v a r i o u s themes  chapters  and  the  shift  contemporary  treatment  and the  of  of  thematic and  city  development  portraits in  the  to who  Fiction that  policies.  the in  pressure about  eschew  increasing  in  changes  social bring  self.  the  extreme  conformity  CHAPTER  LITERARY  SCENE:  WARM  ONE  BREEZES  AND  COLD  WINDS  Where ideology restricts, art frees; ideology generalizes, art discriminates; ideology simplifies, art complicates; i d e o l o g y l i e s , a r t t e l l s the t r u t h .  where where where  T.A. Hsia "Hero and H e r o - w o r s h i p i n C h i n e s e Communist F i c t i o n " 1  In times  China  since  inseparable  Zedong Four change  of  Chinese  literary  majority suicide  of or  only  which swept  the  to  under  by  the  hundreds"  (let a  schools  thought  But  was  the  i t  Committee  in  late  fall  of  the  resulted  literary  1976)  silent,  literary  new  the  Third 1978  the  Party  Mao  Gang  of  for  the  scene  from  which  the  driven  to  publication  line,  politicized,  of  the  during  remain  a l l  in  turn  killed,  praising  at  death  either  was  and now  in  to  be  leadership. announcement flowers  contend)  toward  the  a drastic  to  been  were  hundred  step  the  desolate  (1966  formal  initial  Hence  led to  The  has  year which  o f a r t were  Guofeng's  of  also  writers  forced  and  same  scene.  possible  away  politics.  Revolution  a l l forms  Hua  of  literature  1976  leadership  Cultural  was  from  i n September i n October  the  1 949,  of  bloom,  i n November  relaxation Plenum that  24  of  of  the  "double  let a  hundred  1977  marked  literary the  greatly  the  control.  11th enhanced  Central this  N  policy.  The  spontaneous political  post-Mao social  policy  intellectuals, "engineers public  the  of  new  to  reinstate  despite  the  literary  scene  though  a  in  The  made  conflicting writers. usually  returns, ideology. literary the  "warm  a  a  of  the  literary  scene  breezes that  the  and  not  the  firm  legacy  of  that,  control,  i t  proceeded  literary between of  to  the after  literature.  seems  the  "pernicious  surprising  "liberal"  the  times  "warm  Hence, policies  periods the  be  of  the  the  of  Chinese  at  work,  and  "cold  at  times  chapter, early  between cold  leadership  and  When to  we  will  1977  to  conform examine mid-1984  relationship  25  It  between  is  the  breezes"  realism  the  r e s t r i c t i o n and winds".  and  "warm  individual  problems. tends  and  the  humanism  of  breezes"  harmonious  between  works  from  and  the  literature,  social  alternation  framework  at  revival  this  Four  still  between  revelation  In  favorable  create  needed  form.2  Chinese  means  a  help  characteristic  1949  relationship  examination  of  since  the  so-called  alternation  relaxation  up  In  to  the  of  the  gained  more  product  a  writers,  to  is  not  which  of  It  was  leadership  r e s t r i c t i o n s on  fluctuation  winds"  the  Gang  era,  milder  but  "cleansing"  generally  and  "thaw"  for  had  some  post-Mao  restriction  new  soul",  the  leadership  the  the  Revolution.  the  leads  of  opinion  Cultural  of  phenomenon  particularly  of  influences"  literary  which  psyche "cold to the in  and  winds" political Post-Mao  the  light  relaxation within  writers  and  --  this the  leadership that  the  Zhiqing  developed,  thematic Fiction  affected  by  emphasis  as  this  The  Thaw:  After Mao  Hua  and  mobilize freedom vent  a  nation  nation  speech  hundreds"  late  the  "emancipation  on  i t  the  policy  meant  regard  to  or  other In  the  of  the  though literary  this  works  frame  framework fluctuated.  is  inevitably  the  to  be  (the  first  the  the  of  was  Four.  given  to  people  announced was  Four.  relaxation  in  degree  to  let  of them  long-suppressed the  1956)  second and  "double  called  from  the  For  intellectuals,  of  to  effectively  some  and  from  launched To  campaign,  thought" of  Chairmanship  campaign  emotions Hua  Gang  Rehabilitation  Gang  1977,  of  1984  to  confines  political form  for  imposed this  control of  in  literature  disciplines.  Guofeng,  Cultural  main  p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n i n the  Hua  words,  1976  f o r the  had  policy  by  this  wide  pent-up  In  literary  "inherited"  criticize"  their  thinking.  of  Scene:  Guofeng  the of  of  D e n u n c i a t i o n and  Zedong,  "expose  part  i t i s within  mechanism.  Literary  1.  and  transitional the  period  leader  want  to  with  magazines  strictly  change  R e v o l u t i o n ; the latent  1976  hand-picked  " w h a t e v e r i s t s " who d i d not  of  literary  great (such  the  as  1978,  Mao  and  adhered  legacy of scene  energy. Beijing  ' 26  by  to  was  Only  a  since  now  head  to Mao  Mao's and  still  quiet,  handful  Literature  the  and  of Art  [Beijing Wenyi] had  Wenyi],  Guangdong  and S h a n g h a i  resumed  s t i l l  Literature  publication.  by  the  Revolution.  Literary  from  the Cultural  were  reversed,  Chinese  Chinese  (Yinmou  active  style  still  Revolution,  then  of  closely except  Xiaoping  leadership  the  and  were  were  the  s t i l l  Cultural  resembled  that  changing  so-called  o f t h e Gang  two a r e a s :  the system  the Cultural  labels  Chinese  As  and  early  theories "basic  they  the  place  task  'capitalist  in  those  villains  with  the  to  necessary  "Conspiratory of Four.  This  of literary  order  to  revive to  Literature"  term  referred  theories  promoted  o f Four,  of  monopolize  and  persecuting control  of  art. 1 9 7 7 , many o f t h e G a n g ' s  as t h e " t h r e e  theory" roader'  person  was  up f o r t h e p u r p o s e  as s p r i n g  such  i t  that  R e v o l u t i o n b y t h e Gang  made  writers  literature  realized  art,  wenyi)  during  real  Those  works  literature  overthrow  the  Wenyi])  of Four. The  to  and A r t [ S h a n g h a i  literary  Deng  and A r t [Guangdong  The m a j o r i t y o f w r i t e r s  not r e h a b i l i t a t e d .  influenced  Gang  Literature  (Jiben  came  under  was  characterized  renxu  theory"  and r e a l  attack.  condemnation  rather  discussion.  In  prominences" lun),  (Xie zouzi  event"  o f these  by  political  heavy  than  this  calm  and  critical  27  (Santuchu),  the "write  pai),  (Fan zhenren  Criticism  literary  the  zhenshi  literary blame  "antilun)  theories and  convincing manner,  the  the  even  literary "three  prominences"  theory,  f o r instance,  was  called  a  tool  4 "for  usurping  avoid for  tracing  fear  that  theories Mao.  power  was  Deng  freedom  to d i g i n t o  Xiaoping,  support.  Literary course,  Mao's  Criticism was  initiate  not to honour  a  new  trend  frequently  used  by  undefined  notion  the idea  principles  was  Four  was  were  "scheming  that  brought that  invalid f o r power" 6  in  of more  to  gain  supported  Chen 5  Yi  The  the  (1975)  in  purpose,  opinion,  of  for  images"  a point  and  as  a r t has  discussion.  because  were  Mao's of  i t s own  The  main  o f t h e Gang  used  not i n accordance  to  strategy  Using  theories  they  a  leadership.  the l i t e r a r y  and  these  gave  order  he  literature up  of  but to use h i s p r e s t i g e  t h e Communist  departure,  criticism  to  in public  of "think  history  in  Pinglun). Mao  theories  f o r power,  1978,  letter  (Wenxue  to  o f becoming c r i t i c a l  to i n t e l l e c t u a l s early  tended  o f these  the formative  the danger  In  of  Critics  history  i n his struggle  speech  publication  the Party".  the formative  to face  of  their  from  as  tools  with  of in  artistic  principles. A was  stronger Deng's  testing  1978).  This  in  actual  "high,  "Practice  in  provided basis.  life  great  t o d e n o u n c e t h e Gang i s the sole  (Shijian s h i jianyan  (raised  theoretical  taken  slogan:  truth"  biaozhun)  step  May  critics  For instance,  [practice] and  1978  perfect"  there  and  28  zhenli  a  critics i s no  de  said  in weiyi  in  more  perfect  quan)  Four  criterion  enforced  with  (Gao da  of  late  powerful that  since  man,  heroes  the  created  according  to the  characters rich  without  i n content,  alone  "three prominences"  would  "blood  and  were  flesh".  Since  to emphasize "important be  one-sided  and  stereotyped life  subject  is  matter"  against  reality  7  [practice].  Applying  most o f t h e The and  this  A r t " was  of the  in  literature  lun) proposed  "Symposium On  Literary  late  1978. Literature  of " d i c t a t o r s h i p  and  art"  i n 1966  And  repudiated  "Conspiratory  the s o - c a l l e d l a b e l  line  zhuanzheng  critics  Gang's l i t e r a r y t h e o r i e s by  second aspect  black  logic,  by  (Wenyi  the  heixian  J i a n g Qing  A r t Work I n The  of  at  Armed  the  Forces"  8  (Budui from  wenyi 1949  "dictated an  gongzuo z u o t a n h u i  to by  1966,  literature  and  and  a r t of the  this  name  a p r e t e x t by  as  label,  says  and  that  art  was  o f a n t i - M a o Zedong T h o u g h t ,  anti-Socialist  refuting  It  Chinese l i t e r a t u r e  the c o m b i n a t i o n  anti-Party  jiyao).  black  thirties".  line, In  Chinese c r i t i c s again saying that  Mao  and  the  1977-78,  used  had  in  Mao's  positively  evaluated t h e m e r i t s o f May F o u r t h L i t e r a t u r e i n 1942, and thus to c a l l i t p a r t of a "black  i n Yan'an l i n e " was  9  simply  false.  The called used  content  of the  " b l a c k l i n e " was  " E i g h t b l a c k t h e o r i e s " ( H e i ba as  critics Cultural truth"  main  a p r e t e x t to persecute and  those  Revolution. (Xie  indirectly This  zhenshi),  label  "the 29  lun)  thousands involved  the  which of  path  during  of  were  writers,  referred to: "write  broad  so-  the the  realism"  (Xianshi  zhuyi  realism"  (Xianshi  determinism"  huoyaowei  (Shidai  jingshen  the  way"  (Lijing  to  overthrow.  "Eight in  black  the  by  of  rose  early had a  to  1978,  been  a  series  decline toward label  in  mean  to  separate  critics Line"  In  that Still,  the  nature  Revolution,  to  critics  there  and  of  the  a  theories posed 1977  that i t  a to  there  through  following  the  of  Mao  criticisms  of  the  getting  into  claimed  trouble  that  by  one  must  "covert  and  Four.  literature  arose  view  Gang  prestige  r e f u t a t i o n of  the  the  From  overcome  the  up  personally  This  only  daring  awkwardly  in  of  was  avoid  Gang  meantime,  deceitful"  more  to had  It  "whateverists"  from  the  Mao  these  brought  these  critics.  adhered but 11  easy  because  rehabilitate  and  and  not  before  Mao.  epoch"  canon  was  were  campaigns  power  the  writers  sixties,  campaigns.  1978  that  Chinese  of  "middle  the  label  simply  writers  some  of  of  theme-  "anti-gun  from  This  is  To  "Black  Mao,  Mao  lun).  criticize  Chinese  appeared.  criticizing  "spirit  "divorced 10  "anti  lun),  lun),  series  power.  the  late  jueding  early  to  of of  a  lun),  lun),  reason  and  "deepening  renwu  and  pandao The  Mao  then  difficulty  shenhua  t h e o r i e s , " which  attacked  would  lun)  fifties  Four  daolu),  ticai  (Zhongjian  (Fan  de  zhuyi  (Fan  characters" smell"  guangkuo  call  the of  for  the  Cultural  sincerity  and  12 truthfulness whether how  a  in  writer  truthfully  writing. was he  Critics  "emancipated"  depicted  30  even  said  that  or not depended on 13 reality. The unanimous  affirmation  of  rehabilitation black  truth  of realism  theories".  "Realism  in  Path"  Anti-Rightist  Campaign  "having  intention"  literature and  as  and  revealing  the l i t e r a r y  rehabilitated  of  Realism"  other  brought life"  important  (Ganyu  of "frankness problems  "eight article  during  the  recognized  as  the  essence  of 14  of  reality",  courage" in 15 o f the f i f t i e s . Also  Quanlin's  Middle  were  conspicuous  and  ideas  in 16  Characters",  Came  Garden  now  "Deepening  as w e l l  Flowers  as  of socialist  as " f r a g r a n t  To T h e O r g a n i z a t i o n ) , and  which  and d e h u m a n i z a t i o n  stories,  Bloom  others  collected  Again being  and  (Chongfang used  were  These  in  since brought  critical  "poisonous  f l o w e r s " . The most  by L i u B i n y a n Wang  Meng  aimed  at  republished 17  the  A  New  ( e g . West criticizing  in socialist  de x i a n h u a ) .  ( e g . On  (eg.  L i u Shaotang  to reinforce 31  notion  which  reality.  stories  also  labelled  of this  weeds"  were  "intervention  negatively  Construction Site),  Grass)  from  a term  the short  ideas  One was  "poisonous  regarded  were  bureaucratism These  "persecuted"  The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  side  Bridge  Youth  but  shenhuo),  many p r e v i o u s  weeds"  aside  was now  reflection  up f o r a f f i r m a t i o n .  t h e dark  The  was p u r g e d  i n "grasping  Shao  and " W r i t e  mid-1950s.  back of  were  i n the  the  issues.  Many  the  which  a r t i n the  to  Qin Zhaoyang's  (1957)  a demonstration  led  -- a k e y i s s u e  Accordingly,  -- A Broad  good  writing  society. in  Fresh  in  1979,  "expose  and  criticize"  c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t t h e Gang o f  the r e t u r n o f t h e c r i t i c a l In  1979  Chinese  endeavour:  to  guidelines  set forth  instead But  I n 1962, should  of only the workers,  Cultural  of  in  launched  principles  speech  and  Such  serve  the broad  peasants  and  re-  beginning  I n December  of  to  1978,  a t t h e Forum On L i t e r a r y  masses 18  soldiers.  R e v o l u t i o n showed t h a t any a t t e m p t  his  another  Zhou Yang had a l r e a d y  Zhou Yang a t t h e  Mao's words was d a n g e r o u s .  signify  i n China.  Mao's Yan'an T a l k s .  that l i t e r a t u r e  criticism  also  re-evaluate the l i t e r a r y  e v a l u a t i o n was n o t new. suggested  role of l i t e r a t u r e  writers  in  Four,  the  modify  Zhou Yang  Creation  in  Guangzhou again p o i n t e d o u t t h a t Mao's Yan'an Talks needed t o be e v a l u a t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e with historical 19 progress. and  At the F o u r t h  Artists  practical  i n late  purposes,  1979,  N a t i o n a l Congress of W r i t e r s he f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t , " f o r  we s h o u l d  courageously  correct  and  modify  whatever is unsuitable or completely 20 inappropriate". Many c r i t i c s a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t Mao's literary 21 thought s h o u l d n o t be d o g m a t i z e d . S i n c e Mao's t h o u g h t  on  literature  studied these  a r t was a  with a s c i e n t i f i c  science, 22  attitude.  thought, order.  summarized importance  by  The Feng  but  Mu  negation  a reassessment  paradox o f t h i s who s a i d  i t should Obviously,  d i s c u s s i o n s d i d n o t mean a t o t a l  literary social  and  o f Mao's new  re-evaluation  was  to  negate  o f Mao's l i t e r a r y d i c t a was e x t r e m e l y 32  a l l  the  that  under  be  the  wrong,  but  to  nature  stick  o f Mao  Many into  Zedong  issues  life"  lun),  t o Mao's  "praise  forth,  were  important  the  or  exposure"  issue  up  to  between  Since  the notion carried  "literature  Now,  also  against  Talks  such  as  (Gesong  for  politics that  the  the  critics  nature"  discussion. modification and l i t e r a t u r e  "literature  the  (Renxing and  most  v/as  the  and a r t .  and a r t  serve that  peasants,  out that  so  The  assumption  workers,  pointed  "delving  yu b a o l u ) 24  connotative  and a r t s e r v e  soldiers".  was  "human  undergo  relationship  politics"  Yan'an  shenghuo),  brought  1949,  word 23  Thought.  from  (Shenru  every  and  "times  have  changed," and, "whom l i t e r a t u r e and a r t s h o u l d serve cannot be decided by an u n c h a n g i n g r u l e but by the 25 objective lengthy  development  d i s c u s s i o n among  critics  on  literature  the  serve  issued  i n July  national  slogan  was  serve  the  official The from  politics,"  1980.  slogan, and  would  of this  long-held  which,  i n turn  and  and a r t  society"  was  goal  Modernisations,  literature  of this  and a r t  must  as i n d i c a t e d  serve  i s basically  slogan,  "literature  i t i s broader 33  a  literary  "Literature  slogan  that  and  the immediate  o f the Four  to say that  Following  politics  socialist  Modernisations  critics,  writers between  To s e r v e  policy  except  Chinese  a new people 26  expanded  essence the  the  Four  practice."  relationship  and a r t ,  should  the  of social  the no  people. different  and a r t  i n scope  by 27  serve  concerning  the o b j e c t o f s e r v i c e . new  slogan  slogan  d i f f i c u l t to  to the l e f t i s t s ,  question, what  However, some l e f t i s t s f o u n d accept.  explaining  Wang Ruowang a s k e d  " I f literature  and a r t s e r v e  d o e s p o l i t i c s s e r v e ? " He  "Politics  In  and l i t e r a t u r e  this  further  this  a provocative  politics,  then  asserted  that,  and a r t a r e n o t t h e e n d ;  human  28  beings  a r e the end."  As  f a r as c r e a t i v e method i s c o n c e r n e d ,  pointed in  one  critic  o u t t h a t t h e r e was no a b s o l u t e c r e a t i v e  literature  and h e n c e Mao's i n s i s t e n c e  combination"  method  was  a c t u a l l y caused Chinese  not  on t h e  scientific  literature  method "double  because  i t  to degenerate i n s t e a d  29  of  promoting  was  later  i t .  The n o t i o n o f  e l a b o r a t e d by  co-authored  many  not  only  Using  i n developing  They s a i d  understand  principle the  as g u i d e l i n e ,  (qingxiang xing),  e x p o s e d and what s h o u l d  and  be p r a i s e d ,  who  defending notion  creative  was  principle.  the w r i t e r  essence o f " f a c t u a l i t y "  "tendentiousness"  Zhenhai  that this  a c r e a t i v e method b u t a  this  combination"  L i Zhun and D i n g  articles  Mao's l i t e r a r y t h o u g h t .  "double  could  (zhenshi)  and  know what s h o u l d and know what  be  kind  30  o f s o c i a l i s t new man s h o u l d of  Li  and  officials Toward  Ding who  1982,  Yan'an regarded  Talks,  be c r e a t e d .  represented  the  The e l a b o r a t i n  views  of  orthodox  s t r o v e t o m a i n t a i n Mao's l i t e r a r y although though  many c h a n g e s had o c c u r r e d , in  a  as t h e g u i d e l i n e . 34  low  profile,  was  line. Mao's still  2.  The  Demands  Throughout with  the  Of  the  Chinese  years  of  the of  new  trend  Chinese  in  literary  among  evaluating  the  the  19^9  were  leadership  had  and  the  artists  in  the  politics.  This  the  This  to  a  a  a  that  to  crude  the  of  between  the  enemies.  This  writers  and  Secondly,  simplified and and  that  the art.  It  art  to  literature  justification  artistic  the  art.  Mao)  artistic  principles.  works  leadership  used  weapon  for 33  creation.  low-quality  brutal 35  as  and 31  (implying  of 32  demand  in  that  number  literature  acted  ignored  and  a  literature  interference  of  was  campaigns.  the  works  and  between  number  and  re-  "ultraleftism"  leadership  and  Finally, as  as  politics  number  opinion  in  a  autonomy  literary  literature  subordinated  large  by  mainly  large  led  and  the  articles  contradiction  the  notion  greater  leadership  political  leadership  production. criticism  of  policies  officials'  Thirdly,  the  writers  between  current  led  Chinese  that  "inappropriately"  the  the  many  relationship  theories,  general  of  embodied  purges  argued  literary  Numerous  "misled"  literary and  toward  The  simultaneous  Revolution  policies  was  1980,  ultraleft  begun.  handling  regarded  to  serve  was  been  the  Firstly,  leadership  writers  writers  published.  in  incorrectly  led  the  literary  malpractice  mistakes:  of  to  long-suppressed  creation  "feudalism" This  1978  Cultural  rehabilitation  since  from  denunciation  phenomena  Writers  rather  in  mass  literary than  as  a  means o f l i t e r a r y It  persuasion.  i s evident  that there  34  had t o be an i m p r o v e m e n t i n  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e l e a d e r s h i p and t h e in  order  take  f o r the f l o u r i s h i n g  place.  fortunate  Chinese  of l i t e r a t u r e  w r i t e r s at t h i s  than i n previous  years  and a r t  stage  were  because the experience  pragmatic  shared  and  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s  h a r m o n i o u s t o an e x t e n d u n p r e c e d e n t e d harmony  been s u b j e c t s o f  question  remained:  and  with  How  persecution.  could  February  To  This for  them,  the  that  To p r o m o t e  the  under  the  support  of  the  he the  b e t w e e n t h e l e a d e r s h i p and t h e w r i t e r s ,  1979  faction,  was  had  a w r i t e r be s u r e  h i s work w o u l d n o t be p u r g e d a g a i n ?  relationship  them  s i n c e 1949.  was n o t enough f o r C h i n e s e w r i t e r s who  decades  to  more  leadership hence  t h e same b i t t e r  writers  in  pragmatic  1961 s p e e c h e s o f Zhou E n l a i on drama  and  35  other  literary  originally  relevant particularly  writers 1979, hope and  the  in  called  Post-Mao  the notion  Using  they  Though  such  literary  were  situation,  Zhou's s p e e c h e s as a g u i d e l i n e , C h i n e s e f o r autonomy i n  sharply pointed  "ultraleftism"  publication  they  and  o f "democracy i n l i t e r a t u r e  f o r Chinese l i t e r a t u r e  writers  published.  accumulated s i n c e the f i f t i e s , to  art".  were  meant t o c l e a r t h e a i r o f " u l t r a l e f t i s m "  bureaucratism  and  matters  of as  out t h a t there  national  Xia  extant.  w o u l d be  Wu  no  practices  Following  constitution  Yan and A i 36  Throughout  i f "feudalistic"  were s t i l l  the  literature.  the  in  1978,  requested  legal  36 protection. also  In  requested  principles  of  rebuttal.  They  must  not  numerous that  literary  literature must  treat  articles,  and  not  their  officials  art  and  words  death  leadership  art  would  regard the  be  to  the  hopeless  the  role  best  way  to  under  of  t h e o r e t i c i a n Wang  the  lay  as  actor  warned  the  Zhao  follow  and  and  reason",  and  more  charges  upon  almost  on  his  "literature 38 restriction".  and  that  in  went  the  criticism  orders  Dan,  heavy  Party  writers  without  labels  Ruowang  handle  allow  "intervene  importantly, must not 37 writers. The famous bed,  Chinese  literature so  literature  far  and  as  and  art,  say  that  to  "do  attacked  by  art  to  With  was  39 nothing".  His  view, inevitably 40 critics, represented the  conservative among  Chinese  The point Artists 1979.  of  Deng's  in  Beijing by  Chinese  the  and  the  harmonious writers. effect  Chinese  National from  writers Congress  October  3,200,  this  writers  and  congratulatory  in  the  of  the  Fourth  Attended  reunion  to  the  held  "liberal"  intellectuals.  spirit at  most  speech  31  artists  represented  warmly  applauded  a  high  of  Writers  and  to  November  16,  meeting  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  Most  reached  was  the  since the the was  first 41 1960.  high  point  leadership the  passage  that:  Literature and art, as a complex mental activity, r e q u i r e s t h e c r e a t i v e s p i r i t o f an individual artist. What t o w r i t e and how to write can be decided only through the literary practice of the a r t i s t , and they s h o u l d n o t be i n t e r f e r e d with.42  37  Also  lending  sincere  and  significance critical  of  h i s exposure of b u r e a u c r a t i s m ,  writers  writes,  labelled  one  meeting  were  by some C h i n e s e  Binyan,  one  was  speeches  Liu  what  who  to t h i s  "rightist" said  cannot escape  the  writers.  i n 1957  because  t h a t no  matter  from purges.  Thus,  have no c h o i c e b u t t o e x p r e s s t h e v o i c e s o f  the  43  masses. also  The a  poet,  novelist  rehabilitated  "democracy", "attack,  for  the  and  playwright  "rightist", complete  revenge, o s t r a c i z a t i o n  Bai  called  elimination  and  Hua, for  of  isolation"  the  approach  to "those with d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s " , f o r improvement i n the l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s of w r i t e r s , and f o r s u p p o r t f o r young w r i t e r s . confessing  44  Chen D e n g k e ,  to being misled  a veteran  and w r i t i n g  writer, works  t h e p e o p l e " d u r i n g t h e G r e a t Leap F o r w a r d for  re-emphasis  of  realism  as  while  "deceiving  period,  well  called  as  the  45  institutionalization Despite  of the "double  a l l t h e p r o m i s e s and  hundreds".  e n c o u r a g e m e n t g i v e n by  the l e a d e r s h i p ,  C h i n e s e w r i t e r s were n e v e r f r e e i n  the  western  They  the  sense.  were c o n s t a n t l y r e m i n d e d  l e a d e r s h i p to study Marxism-Leninism-Mao a n d , above a l l , the  articles  "double  to adhere calling  hundreds"  Zedong  to the P a r t y l i n e .  f o r the policy,  by  Thoughts  I n 1978, i n  implementation  of  restrictions  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y s e t o u t . W r i t e r s were r e m i n d e d  the were  to observe  46  the  "six  Eleventh  criteria". Central  After  Committee, 38  the T h i r d they  Plenum  were  of  the  asked  to  "emancipate" were  told  their  to adhere  socialist  path,  the  and  CCP  thoughts,  justify  to the Four  proletarian  theoretician  dictatorship,  within He  writers  the  seemed  what  the Party  work  will  matter.  This  comes  comes  from  the  prescribed  he  will  be  reminds  critic  that  meant  writers  intensified  given  on  slogan  after  January of  the  as  [their]  Four  Basic  26,  the w r i t e r  safe. in  one  i s water.  to the c r e a t i v e  Demands  the  long  fact,  was  i s  that  and  Lu X u n  what  referred  the w r i t e r ,  something  another  saying  i s blood  However,  obeys  But whether h i s  o f Lu X u n ' s  of inspiration within  Communist  speech  as  out of a person's veins 48 a spring  official  from the stance of then, no matter material they use, be revolutionary  "revolutionary",  passage  the source  gradually  ,  that  demands,  be  what  to  to imply  To  that:  as l o n g as w r i t e r s w r i t e the Four B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s what t h e y w r i t e and what their work will literature."47 This  Thought.  emancipate of  the of  one  "to  they  leadership  Zedong  framework  asserted  1979,  Principles:  contradiction,  asked  Principles".  Basic  Marxism-Lenenism-Mao  this  thought  but i n s p r i n g  but  what  external  and  mind. adhere  to  Party  1980.  This  began  1980,  i n which  "insist  on  and  leadership with  he  Deng's  brought  improve  up  Party  49 leadership". and  turned  literature cudgel  Orthodox i t into was  a critical  judged.  i n Communist  theoreticians  As  took  criterion  i t developed,  critical 39  vocabulary.  this  phrase  against  which  i t  became  Any  work  a not  matching  the  "divorced  from  criticize  3.  Major  expectation  as  we  leadership i t  remaining  from  Revolution. to  guard  from  the  literary  etc.)  of new  Wound that  1980  reveal the  power,  in  flooded  represented the Gang  darkness of  public  Four  as  notion the  was  the  to  paragraphs.  of  Chinese  poles.  On  the  the  the  to  Cultural  remind  "bourgeois"  result the  of  became  a  writers  influence  the  "two-line  --  one  "ultraleftism"  and  i t had  and  the  not  Chinese  of  most  open  door  struggle" guideline  thinking), as  literary  daring  the  needed for  -for  without  limit.  they  40  The  the  to  Revolution.  The  literature of  writers.  not  the  date  rule  unreformed  were take  to  1979  the  of  Chinese  who  would saw  type  plays  in  under  consolidation  from  as  scene  society  this  the  films,  attempts  Cultural  criticism  however,  soon  includes  socialist  during  opinion  (also  conservatives/dogmatists  surface  subject  of  Four  right  the  which  tolerated  tolerance (or  of hand,  Literature  leadership,  prepare  nd  labelled  ideology  two  against  "rightist"  and  a  be  following  the  between  Gang  countries  left  the  years,  other  the  would  policy.  The  and  against  in  fight  the  Hence,  against  few  the  On  foreign  policy.  to  Party  Controversies  fluctuated  had  the  leadership"50  see  And  these  had  Party  shall  Campaigns  Throughout  hand,  the  of  its  own  But  its  leftists  "emancipated"  opportunity  tolerance  to  of  the  to new  leadership  begin  beneficial,  i t  criticism.  But  untimely, by  the  and  would  thin.  i f  the would  1979.  vulnerable  in  the  examine  campaigns  to  leadership  enlarge  speak  face  the  triggered  of  scope  counter  during  other  most by  The  only  At  the  important  i t of was  attack  the  times,  political  this  found  "judgement"  up.  occurred  of  now  the  leftist's  period  us  If  consent  however,  "liberated"  Let  run  writers  writers,  remained  to  most  writers  authority. controversies  kind  of  political  mechanism.  a)  Forward-looking  The  Wound  exposed Four  the  and  on  Deng's  March  wounds  But  the The  "confusion"  caused  forth  at  Committee the  the in  the  the  prestige  the  wounds of  Cultural  the  to  Four  of  to  by  the  1978. and  The  leftists  claimed  Revolution  that  society They had  41  of  in  Wound  the  Four  leftists,  tolerate  the  thought"  set  Eleventh took  this  too  much be  claimed  passed,  Riding  on  the  of well  Principles  attack  would  also  Gang  leftists.  not  the  which  extremely  with  could  of  the  raising  "emancipation  Plenum  Party.  an  1979,  by  Basic  compromise  socialist  the  the  Deng's  which  and  was  purpose  Third  of  Revolution,  of  Literature  caused  initiated  leadership  of  masses  1978  leftists  army,  late  late  upsetting  was  the  from  was  Principles  especially  in  the  proclamation  Literature. Basic  of  Cultural this  1979,  Backward-looking  Literature  the  received.  and  Central as  a  hint  exposure  harmful that  writers  to  since should  "look  to the f u t u r e "  The Wang  earliest  Ansi  from  and n o t " t o t h e  attack  on Wound  Guangzhou  Literature  in his article  literature  and a r t ! " w h i c h  appeared  Guangzhou  Daily.  that  exposed make  the  He  Gang  people and  looking  literature",  bright  therefore  should  i s ,  side of society 51  their  1 5 , 1979 i n works  which  Revolution  fate  write  literature  of  forward,  Cultural  about  that  "Look  the l i t e r a r y  writers that  was  on A p r i l  and t h e  uncertain  future,  the  said  o f Four  feel  past".  in  the  "forward-  dealing  with  the  Four  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  Modernisations. Wang's  view  articles. literary  One  disasters  difficult  of  the  were  writer story  lot  i s  b u t what  Revolution. female  a movie  (Xianqian  searches  fillled  The w r i t e r  with  backward  i f  the  problems  The a u t h o r ' s protagonist's  left  message words 42  be  be  in  more  A  Story  which  a  material f o r  her v i s i t from  and  i n refuting  entitled  i s brought  that,  might  would  k a n de g u s h i )  during  past  future,  B a i Hua,  script  the  there  f o r "forward-looking"  she sees  confines f o r  look  to  because  i n  of  up a new  Modernisations  wrote  Forward  that  a spate  setting  not exposed  mistakes  Four 53  idea,  Looking  her  the  and  said  by  to suggest  forward,  to r e a l i z e .  Ansi's  woman  look  and m i s t a k e s  consequently  that  Others  to  disasters  Wang  said  refuted  was no d i f f e r e n t t h a n 52  zone."  actually  more  immediately  critic  creation  "forbidden was  was  at a  the home  "In order  feed  Cultural through to  look  54 forward  one must  The of  the  most  leftists  writers.  the  b)  Praising  National "exposure unsolved works At  base  from  and  i s what  critical  t h e Yan'an  problems  was  still  needed  o f t h e Gang order  to  of  Wound  of  Four  strip  the  Hence,  this  gave  Virtue  unsolved  and A r t i s t s an  rise  of socialist  Forum  in  feelings  aborted.  For Writers  eulogy"  issue  the legacy  and L a c k i n g  many  Congress  the intention  the "Whateverists".  was  Virtue  the  Deng  Revolution  "campaign"  Among  stage,  to overthrow  theoretical  had m i s j u d g e d  and t h e c o m m o n l y - h e l d  At t h i s  Cultural  premature  backward".  apparently  leadership  Literature and  look  the  Fourth  i n late  1979,  important t o t h e many  reality  i n 1 9 4 2 , Mao  at  one.  This  attacks  i n these  few  on  years.  said,  For revolutionary w r i t e r s and artists the t a r g e t s f o r e x p o s u r e c a n n e v e r be t h e m a s s e s , but only the aggressors, exploiters and oppressors and t h e e v i l i n f l u e n c e t h e y have on t h e p e o p l e . 5 5  Based on this passage, the l e f t i s t litera initiated a n o t h e r a t t a c k on Wound L i t e r a t u r e . June i s s u e o f H e b e i L i t e r a t u r e and A r t ( H e b e i 1979, an a r t i c l e by t h e young w r i t e r L i J i a n "Praising Virtue and L a c k i n g V i r t u e " (Gede created a great turbulence in literary Supported by the veteran l e f t i s t poet and Tian Jian57, L i Jian, i n a tone r e m i n i c e n t Qing, accused Chinese w r i t e r s o f f a i l i n g to workers, peasants and s o l d i e r s : If writers the masses, [You] eat [you] wear [you] don't  ry  sector In the wenyi) of entitled yu quede) circles.56 bureaucrat of Jiang praise the  do n o t " p r a i s e " t h e " v i r t u e s " of whose v i r t u e w i l l t h e y p r a i s e ? the g r a i n produced by peasants, t h e c l o t h e s made b y workers, I f write the l i f e o f the masters of  43  the nation, morality?58 He  then  went  beautiful  of  about  turning  a  irritated  me  further  sky"  worried  let  to  socialist  eye  toward  writers  where  describe China  unemployment"  blind many  ask,  [your]  the  "sunny  where  and  "no  and  one  "security".  current  and  is  socialist  critics.  They  is Li's  problems  questioned  the  author, Is of  there a paradise i n d i s a s t e r under the  China a f t e r ten Gang o f F o u r ? " 5 9  years  If t h e r e was no u n e m p l o y m e n t i n C h i n a , then would i t be s u p e r f l u o u s f o r C h a i r m a n Hua to bring up at t h e 2nd p l e n u m of the Fifth Congress the p l a n s f o r s o l v i n g the employment problem f o r seven m i l l i o n people? 60 This though  "cold  wind  in  refuted  by  many  literary Chinese "On  and  Sense  did 61 circles.  art  writers Of  was  A  there  thieves  because even  of  and  the  i f there  there  are  phenomenon. because  he  no  can  one  feels  B,  are  of  they of  After belongs cause  the  are  them  at  a  says the  of  among  security  among  "praise  him  any  trouble.  fear  that  in his  there  socialist isolated  faction"  he  are  feels and  the  none  system  expose A  Two  whether  cases.  should  On  essay  shuoqi).  c o n v e r s a t i o n ends, the  term,  fear  conference  that  one  to  for  certain  L i u Xinwu  only  and  a  Ruowang's  Anquangan  arguing  superiority  Wang  lack  by  (Cong  A  lots  insecure  The  i n China.  are,  in  create  dramatized  Security"  friends, are  spring",  he  and  B  says this  secure knows  contrary,  will  be  B  labelled  62 rightist  i f any  Again,  the  political leftists  movement  arises.  had  an  44  made  untimely  attack  on  the  writers  Under Li  who  still  pressure,  Jian's  Tian  his  Li  however,  Jian,  distressed "helped"  by  However,  after  his  work.  the  Ironically, negative  of  experience  argued  should  several side  of  Social  Fourth  of  in  had  Red  one  and  a  Drunk  which  his  is  at  society. writers  are  wenyi) 64 there.  exposes  the  Guard's  exactly In  the  and  Red  what  Li  fact,  Li's  the  dark  revealing  Li's  the  literary  movement  article.  a l l aim  publish  (Zhanjiang  female  was  Amidst  story,  a  so  He  to  published  Guard  was  confession.  i t  countryside,  Chinese  blow  wanted  Art  of  situation.  county-level  through  in  supporter"  suicide.  story  a  faction.  self-criticism, 63  making  no  his  the  the  a  commit  after  this  avoided  self-contradiction victimized  by  the  at  the  politics.  Effects  Xiaoping National  October  to  of  cadres  socialist  complexity  Deng  of  stage  tremendous  to  and  Deng's  political  L i t e r a t u r e And  stories  how  a  mailed  theme  be  other  reflects  c)  he  local  tragic  the  incident,  province  aspect  ignorance  write  of  huacong)  the  to  leadership  Zhanjiang  Guangdong  "back  wanted  this  (Zuiru  magazine  of  he  from  the  suffered  Finally  Flowers  had  misjudgment  that  support  Jian,  article,  admitting  had  30,  1979,  in  his  Congress said  congratulatory of that  Writers to  speech and  help  build  for  the  Artists the  Modernizations, writers  who  are  responsible  45  masses  on Four  must continuously face perfect their artistic produce crude literary seriously consider social From used  then by  on,  the notion  official  critics  of  as  the masses, skill, must works and effects.65 "social  a new  literary  works  triggered  the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s  play  I Were  If  scripts  In  are judged.  Real  The  (Jiaru  Archives  concept  been which  works  that  were  zhende),  Society  has  against  literary  woshi Of  effects"  standard  The  must not must  the  stage  the  (Zai  movie  shihui  de  66 dangan  l i ) and  represented  the  juvenile  two  however,  A Female turned  singer, The  Female most  delinquency  Critics,  who  A  had  Thief  into  movie  themes  opinions  of the l i f e after  which  of  the  praised  time:  corruption.  on  o f an  her mother,  suicide during was  (Nuzei)  bureaucratic  differing  a thief  script  popular  and  tells  committed  Thief  these  plays.  innocent a  famous  the C u l t u r a l  f o r exposing  girl opera  Revotion.  the  aftermath  of the C u l t u r a l Revolution, b u t was a l s o c r i t i c i z e d unrealistic for i t s "excessive" description of female  protagonist's  skill  in stealing  and  as the  her  narrow  of Society  exposes  67 escape the fate his  from  abuse  second  i s  demands home  o f power  of a nurse.  boyfriend she  arrest.  In the Archives by  Raped  son,  she  (the f i r s t pressed  turns  into  officials  by i s  son  to leave  virginity.  and  high  a high forced  military to  o f t h e same her  Mistreated an  through  outlaw.  46  her This  and  with  official).  she  was  her  Later,  husband  father, story  tragic  officer  break  feudalistic by  the  who  leaves praised  for  i t s "anti-feudalism"  and  anti-bureaucratism  the  same  for  slandering  the  army,  for  not  portraying  Lin  followers,  and  for  overemphasizing  Actually,  the  most  time  the  annoying  realism "hope"  and  Were  Real,  in  Shanghai.  Xiaozhang  disguise  try  to  by  his  farm  to  The  climax  the  suddenly  between  of  Yexin  was  based  on  a  It  depicts  himself  group  and  and  confess  of  way  of  plans  to  marry when  The  youth  is  the  the  story  Team the  ticket  Zhao  protagonist  for  that He  a l l of  opportunity the  pregnant real  the (from when  is whom to  state fiance.  "father" The  most  conversation the Li  is  I ' v e made a m i s t a e . My m i s t a k e i s I'm a fake. If I were real, really the son o f Old Zhang or another high o f f i c i a l , t h e n what I ' v e d o n e w o u l d be legal.70  47  a  privileges  mistakes. :  Li  His  the  in  I  son.  arrested.  comes  leader  youth  from  his  bad If  getting.  registration"  occurs  of  a  officials  takes  any  happened  official's the  He  (et.al,)  incident  him  corrupt  him.  L i Xiaozhang,  Li  no  to  illustrating  getting high  critical  point  rusticated  story  judge,  his  a  brings  have  from  in  as  real  a  at  society.  Sha  the  part the  socialist  the  not  by  "residence  city  did  play  a  appears.  explosive  farm)  a  benefit  transfer  in  which  for  Chinese  surrounded  work  was  out  immediately  ordinary  violence.  frustrated  disguises  Biao's 68  singled  was  who,  and  the  work  which 69  of  official critics  "brightness"  effects  play,  sex  in  literary  social  traits  for  embodied  The  to  criticized  but  state asked  The  expression  problem when  " I f I were  of bureaucratism. performed  for  real"  sharply  The p l a y  restricted  was  exposes the  warmly  audiences  received in  August  71 1979.  But  different.  the Some  Firstly,  except  corrupt.  Since  this  play  obviously using  opinions  said  that  the play  the majority  bourgeois"  to oppose  youth  officials  with  Thirdly,  to  t h e wrong the  are  This  good,  using  expose  are  method  of  the "petty  the  corrupt  "tendentiousness"  officials  are  the authors  -- i e ,  L i Xiaozhang  - - shows  members  imposter.  a wrong  were  a l l the o f f i c i a l s  Secondly,  the  critics  had s e r i o u s d e f e c t s .  of Party  i s not " t y p i c a l " .  a wrong  official  f o r O l d Zhang,  sympathetic  authors.  of  i n the play  of  the  are  not  different from t h o s e i n G o g o l ' s The I n s p e c t o r General. This shows t h e a u t h o r s ' t e n d e n c y to equate contemporary 72 China  with  nineteenth  these  adverse  that  criticism  the  Gang  not  because a  play  quantity. been  The  their  are  a play i s  be b o i l e d  be d i r e c t e d  common  identification  imposter  only  elicits  down  has  48  to  whether do  critics  "typicality"  Secondly,  which  fact  criticism.  survey,  nothing  the audience's  of bureaucratism,  to the  literary  o f Chinese  of  A l l  at the followers o f  i s not a s o c i a l  tendency  of bureaucrats.  society.  officials.  n o t sound  typical  majority  victims  Russian  but not present  opinions  Firstly,  could  can only  o f Four,  These  or  opinions  century  with has  with  the  sympathy  with  the  sympathy  with  the  inevitably  leads  to  a  deeper  hatred  In  of  response  scripts,  a  Beijing  authors' social play  in  a  clampdown,  Sha  of  a  play  of  While of  ills,  has  creative  the  the  Ruowang  is  not  critics  a  by  the  suspension 75 This  work  Deng's  by  promise  Fourth  stressed  different  works.  Meng  social  will  of  be  National  put  shallow 49  has  the  said  that  a  by  society very  i f  similar  much  Wei is  on  Junyi  a  legacy to  do  literary  vein, held  a the  too  little  blame  concept  social  during  editor  the  social  on  burdened  in  importance  causing  effects  crimes  In  of  Qi  and  and  the  view  writer  justified. the  the  he  effect".  after  at  Hu's but  individual  authors  T h e r e f o r e , to 77  satirized  on  this  Artists.  Cultural Revolution  literature.  bad  play  the  social  months  writing  veteran  increase  to  Angered  calling  clampdown  consider he  the  lead  his  suspended.  accused  literary  The  change  article  and  and  to  three  that  f i r s t supported 74 Yaobang. After  "unexpected  first  process, 76  that  works  of  only  to  Hu  who  Hu  asked  expressed  pressure.  with  with  an  effects  of  writer  of  Yang,  wrote  Writers  writers  effects  said  Zhou  bureaucratic  social  1980.  13,  would  interference" in  Congress  February  in  imposter  the  was  the  to  three  convened  for  play  order,  "no  23  was  remarked  kind  marked  official  script-writing  these  speech,  was  The  over  six-hour  sided Sha  refused.  event  on  sympathy 73 effects.  criticism,  officials.  controversies  January  later  his  to  forum  from  Yaobang,  of  corrupt  by  Wang top  officials "seeing  that  a  shadow  "What  social  have?"  he  when  he  in d)  of  of  social  Cao  can  as  The  be  so  immediate  soon  as  i t is  Dream  Of  The  Xueqin  protest,  literary  spring  expose  consider  like  erected".  Red  Chamber  social  effects  by  foreign  influence  orthodox  critics  attack  on  target The  (Kulian)  in  written negative  Literature article  (under  patriotism",  a  result show  part  of  appear  powerful  the  that  the  "cudgel"  following  movie  was  remarks  Art  years.  "extreme  about of  sobriquet movie  increase  of  objection.  Hence,  slogan  Peng  But  liberalism"  found  Man  (Taiyang  Based the  on  leftist Army  published  "critic  script  yu Love  Liberation  wenyi) of  Bitter 80  Ning  movie,  the  "anti79  press.  script  individualism", 50  literary  policy;  And  the  of  relaxation  official  the  and  more  the  Sun  on  Hua  the  the  the  increase  gradual  1981,  (Jiefangjun  criticizing  for  their  The  Gang  the  the  "bourgeois  based  Bai  to  the  of  in  so-called  by  and  to  Huang And  magazine")  to  the  movie  theoretician  as  first  the  very  demand  writers,  began  began  remained  reaction  the  Chinese  liberalism"  a  fact  during  in  literature,  the  became  works  1981,  throughout  the  Liberalism  autonomy  Deng's  does  effects  Anti-Bourgeois  ren).  bamboo  "Did 78  a l l the  judging  its  effects  wrote i t ? "  In  the  a  effects  asked,  Despite notion  social  as  of  "negation  "anarchism"  an the of and  81 above  a l l "divorced  This  time  leftist  the  first  Chinese  The  introduced  army),  leadership  and  a  from a  the  fall  West  and  his  work  of  the  timely  one  away  Party." for  this  were  Gang  to  of  openly  to  "negative reconcile  campaign.  the  the  chance  the  (perhaps  nation-wide  the  of  taking  clear  since  writer  was  leadership,  launched  time  the  criticism  patriotism  elements" the  the  sector.  propagate  from  This Four  was  that  attacked  a by  name. The  script  painter during  who the  Bitter was  Love  forced  thirties  and  return  to  China  reasons.  Like  many  during  the  Cultural  participation he  was  under  fall  of  look  for  escaped used died  him.  body  main  to  the  and  3)  Buddha,  to  which  controversial  there.  Four,  them  at  the  wife  for  With  his  dot of  and  and  the  hurts  the  image  line  is  the  51  of  the  went  snow .  that  1)  Mao 82  he and  mark  the  to he  energy,  i t  under  i t  confuses revived as  the  The  most  between  the  leader.  conversation  the  people,  were  of  1976,  After  the  2)  use  his  spring  question Love  to  purged  of  friends  in  China  symbolic  was  remaining  mark  Bitter  he  Gang's  leadership;  Four  makes  of  in  a  patriotic  hiding.  the  question  Party of  his  chose  Because  into  of  States  He  for  Incident  went  fate  United  intellectuals,  and  a  i t  the  famous  Tiananmen  make  Gang  for  tragic  Revolution.  bushes.  off  the  "liberation"  criticisms  shake  under  Party;  of  exhaustion  The  China  the  leave  returned  Mistaking  among  of  after  the  Gang  to  became  indictment  the  his  tends  in  relates  painter  protagonist  Xingxing.  She  fiancee, tears,  an  is  Ling about  overseas  Xingxing  says  Chenguang to  Chinese.  to  reluctance  criticism writers. of  of  Bai  Under  Literary  of  Hua  implied  Gazette  unconvincing  Ling  circles  a  from  (Wenyi  articles,  But  country  daughter with  her  objects.  In  country, are painfully But, does t h i s country  literary  pressure  the  his  him,  Papa, you l o v e t h i s attached to i t . . . . l o v e you?83 The  leave  and  silent  the  to  respond  protest  leadership,  bao)  produced  admitting  laxness  the  by  Chinese  the  editors  two in  to  long  but  applying  the  "criticism  weapon" and w e a k n e s s i n r e s i s t i n g bourgeois 84 tendencies. The c a m p a i g n e n d e d w i t h B a i Hua's letter of  confession  (Renmin  ribao)  Although the  to  in Bai  system  of  criticism" Chinese given poetry  stressed  of  this  the  of  prize  that  further  for  literary of  a  ensure and the  of  the  a  conformity, was  National  "counter-  The  widow  drawn  Congress  Sharp  socialist  term  novellas,  be  writing,  and  demands  increased.  first  52  Daily  evident.  Party  The  Yingzhao,  workers"  Fourth  was  press.  for  must  People's  continue  the  reduced.  writers'  art  to  campaign  winners  writer  the 85  1981.  conformity  Deng  of  allowed  from  for  1980,  23,  corruption  dropped  To  meeting  was  greatly  writers to  Hua  the  were  editor  November  consequence  accusations  the  In  a  speech  reportage  of  Zhou  on  and  Enlai, 86  revolutionary. the up of  "communique  at  the  second  Writers  and  87 Artists.  Writers  regulations  covering  discipline.  With  "socialist Congress and  were  the  use  1982,  to  abide  political,moral emphasis  spiritual in  supposed  on  culture"  writers  Communist  and  the  thought  to  literary  the  urged  eight  building  after  were  by  to  of  12th  the Party  study  Marxism  "direct  literary  88 practice"  In  "socialist  the  e)  Four  The  new  and  his 89  Anti-Spiritual  1981,  the  the  their  Central  c r i t i c i s m of  and  works  situation  the  were  changed  began  Campaign. Deng.  as  other  the  wage this  portray  the  contribution  to  influence  literature  and  e d i t o r i a l in  included: promotion  1) of  art, the  negation the  "three  small  scale.  was  in  the  Daily  of  the (no  by  a  remark  socialist 90  ideas  targets  People's  Twelfth  Ruoshui)  so  main  This  Pollution  were  (Wang  and  leadership  ignited  forth 91 literature.  the  no's" 53  of the  campaign  of  relatively  Anti-Spiritual  and  half  writers  philosophical  manifested  was  when  humanism  liberalism,  second  Plenum  1983  the  Yang),  the  certain  a  campaign  western  their  of  Second  the  of  in  scene  to  October  targets  (Zhou  Hua  criticisms  in  to  The  Bai  existentialism,  an  and  to  Campaign  literary  after  Again,  alienation  in  urged  struggle  confined  Committee  suddenly  In  were  Pollution  Chinese  uneventful  well  man"  they  Modernisations.  After  by  fiction,  on  as  such which  as  as had  revealed  October  31,  socialist  "type"  and  theme,  plot  no  and  no  character);  2)  deficiencies; tendency  intentional  3)  promotion  toward  and a r t .  intensified  by t h e e x p a n s i o n  "socialist  alienation",  dealt  and  with  Basic  under the guidance 92  more  novel  vigorous  People,  to the  "confusion  They  were  to  so-called  in be Four  criticized  Another  Grassland  Xinxin's  On  T h e Same  was c r i t i c i z e d  social  alienation.  Generation  condemned  forward  Zhang  again  was  severe  "bourgeois was  i n h i s The 94 cao). Zhang y i  depingxian  individual  nianji tone  as n a r r a t i v e  and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n  which  Xiaotian,  story,  literary  54  up  f o r more  ( Z a i tong  Her o t h e r  f o r i t s "grey"  been  hatred"  for extolling  zhege  ren)  of  yuanshang  Xu J i n g y a was c r i t i c i z e d  "modernism"  a,  "class  Horizon  (Women  use o f subconscious  critic  (Ren  author,  (Lili  had  brought  propagation  for reconciling  Unending  shang)  her  were  which  F o r i n s t a n c e , D a i Houying's  People  i n 1981 was b r o u g h t of  works  before  criticism. Oh,  condemnation 93 humanism".  the  of  were  humanism" and  according  of the  literary  (or criticized)  criticized  Our  in  phenomena  of "bourgeois  pollution."  a n d 4) t h e  pornography  "unhealthy"  manifestations  controversial  discussed  and  o f "modernism",  a l l o f them,  "spiritual  socialist  Principles.  Many  for  These  leadership,  thought"  of  c o m m e r c i a l i z a t i o n and  literature  Chinese  exposure  The Dreams de  meng),  Of was  o f " d e s p a i r " and 95  method.  because  struggle  The  poet-  he p r a i s e d  of "obscure  poetry".  the 96  From  October  1983  to early  spring  was  dominated  by  literary  scene  opposition  to s o - c a l l e d  liberalism", sounds many  were  writers  "bourgeois  "modernism" heard.  the  the e n t i r e  authorities'  humanism",  and " a l i e n a t i o n " .  Following  whose works  1984,  Zhou  Yang's  had been  "bourgeois No  contrary  self-criticism,  criticized  in  previous  97 years The  were  told  to "re-examine"  self-criticisms  writers,  despite  o f these  writers  a l l their  "counter-criticism"  their  were  mistakes.  showed  calls  i n 1979,  own  for  still  that  the  Chinese  right  very  of  vulnerable  98 in  defending The  themselves  campaign  reasons.  First  was  that  said  soon  against slowed  political  down  of a l l , i t hurt some  business  pressure.  f o r various  economic  contracts  pragmatic  development. I t  with  Japan  were  99 suspended  because  indiscriminatory technology  attack  boundaries  attack  wore  At  of  western-style  refuted  detrimental beautify  to  l i f e as 100  pollution'". Deng  Xiaoping,  same  oppose  Hu  even  late  hurt  the  the  arbitrary  caused  young  took  who This  Press  'bourgeois  By  time,  pollution"  people,  Youth  also  foreign Four  great  of society. For instance,  clothes.  by C h i n e s e  The  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of  officials  young  campaign.  pollution"  the  sectors  local  those  the  "spiritual  i n many  conservative to  on  as " s p i r i t u a l  Modernisations.  confusion  of  permed  said  people's  spring,  oppportunity  their  hair or  narrow-mindedness  which  life  the  lacking  Y a o b a n g55 a n d Z h a o  that,  proper  style'  and  was  "It i s  desire  to  'spiritual  support  Ziyang,  some  the  from core  members  of  "spiritual of  this  as  shown  the  economic  pollution"  campaign in  increase  the  of  for  reform,  finally  the  died  literature,  campaign  down.  The  consequence  however,  decrease  of  criticism  of  conformity  to  Party  ideology  "warm  breezes"  against  was  serious,  society  and  in  the  literary  works. Fluctuations winds"  Chinese cannot  in  escape  the  past  a l l by  more  the  the  happened  writers,  from  poet-critic  writers of  changes  on  portrayal of  the  the  the  after of  the  Bai  Hua  above  56  Bai  Despite  or  1979,  another case  Zhang the  was The  Xiaotian continual  pressure.  writing  also  the  increasing looking"  "socialist  a l l ,  their  leadership. to  pre-  in  Hua's  marked  Modernisations,  and  way  is,  the and  writing  one  "forward  in  that  i t  leadership.  breezes"  with  Communist  writers  in  "cold  indicate  "warm  so-called  Four  of  political  literary  1981,  "social effects"  to  so  Whether  the  Jingya  between  writing of  Xu  the  "liberated"  fate  were  favor  quality  how  of  in  of  or  "interference"  What  emphasis  of  no  mercy  him.  After  depiction  the  campaigns  winds".  the  of  decades  the  to  Chinese  influences.  period, at  of  matter  the  of  subordination The  no  onesidedly  "confession"  three  political  always  initiated  with  history  promises  almost  and  the  post-1976  was  Deng's  even  in  literature,  or  works  the  shown  literature  1976  from  with  and  "cold official  literature,  new  the  fluctuated  man",  the  consciousness  the  criticisms  on  individual  social  criticism  unprecedented writers  were  techniques, confines, those  writers,'  of  in  literary  "liberal" able and  pre-1976  to  thus  produce  there  had  works.  atmosphere experiment  were  works  of  able more  period.  i  57  been  decline  Yet,  because  since  19^9,  and  to,  a  innovate within  artistic  of  of this  Chinese literary  permissible  diversity  than  CHAPTER  TWO  THE P A T H OF YOUTH AND T H E EMERGENCE OF YOUNG WRITERS  L e t me t e l l y o u , w o r l d , I - don't - b e l i e v e ! Even i f a thousand c h a l l e n g e r s a r e a t your C o u n t me a s t h e t h o u s a n d - a n d - f i r s t .  Bei  Zhiqing first, is  Fiction  i t i s about  mostly  embark  written on  the  instructive Chinese  urban  study  Contemporary from  fifties  and  Communist  to  ideals,  rebellion,  unemployment from  youths  factional  and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t .  B e i Dao's  poem  2  i s  generation  of  in  Unlike  writers.  many  ways  the youths  the Party  a twisting of reality.  fights,  path  has tends  They  physical  " I don't  of  ideology  g e n e r a t i o n which  i s emblematic  58  i t  o f young  are  accepted  and c r i t i c a l  we  Youth  the present  be n e g a t i v e t o w a r d  line  Of  and m e n t a l l y t r a v e l l e d  experienced  Fiction,  of this  predecessors.  generally  and s e c o n d , i t  Therefore, before  Zhiqing  The P a t h  characteristics:  youths  writers.  the l i f e  Chinese  their who  physically  basic  and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  A.  the  two  of  (Huida)1  Dao: " R e p l y "  educated  by young  t o examine  youth  different  has  feet,  have  labor,  believe,"  a  of the defiance  and  cynicism  of  shall  look  youth,  because  life and  that  at  we  about  the  are  Largely  the  benefit  of  the  priority;  to  requirement;  age  school.  By  expanded loyalty  to  In  under late  among  top  formed  among  a  of  their by  the  seeing  were  turned  in  Cultural  into  and  Bloody March  army  to  that  the  59  in  preserve Red  to  of  joined  the  trying  rebel." accelerated  by  felt social  Guards  fire  of  "capitalist  b a t t l e s were Mao  kind  fervently  struggle  1967  had  people's  the  right  high  cult  a  attacking  power  moral  the  young  when  " i t is  highest  Chairman  s t i l l  that  the  to  personality  and  of  that  basic  and  f a c t i o n s manipulated  Guards.  mobilize  a  When  they  Zedong  of  enthusiastically  olds"3  the  was  of were  Mao  taught  Party  idealistically  as  people  was  point  they  1967,  time  were  Therefore,  banner  factions that  1968,  Chinese  Repubic  and  Party  the  easily  the  leaders,  idealism  Mao's  high  was  between to  we  product  People's young  the  to  time  "four  Red  the  1966,  ignited,  the  of  literary  mandatory.  in  Revolution,  destroy  the  people  loyal  out  such  was  chapter,  understanding  They  and  the  worship.  revolution  roaders"  be  him  religious  Cultural  nation  this  to  an  Communist  considered broke  this  generation  Chinese  serve  Revolution  as  childhood.  to  were  with  In  group.  with  their  this  explain  contemporary  in  late  of  to  same  Thought  to  life  able  age  indoctrinated  Mao  generation.  i t i s only  this  China,  this  had  them so  were  frequent  that  i t  order.  was In  fulfilled  their  political  rivals  (Liu Shaoqi,  Mao  called  issued  the  mission He  f o r an  Long,  end  following  of  to  wiping Peng  the  out  Zhen  Red  his  and  many  Guard  practice  comparatively Cultural  and  bridge --  countryside,  the  sending  and  less  between  youths  were  1956 sent  --  to  drastically  Revolution  in  mandate  1968  for  signalled  the  the  the  1.2  youth  of  youths  from  Tianjin,  Harbin,  Chongqing,  distant  areas  provinces  their  with  the  world  view  so-called  three  city and  youths  had  been  areas  since  million  climax  which  nation-wide  educated  rural  the  "proletarian  labor  proclamation,  of  the  the  to  between  of  sent  the  urban But  and  to  late  educated  the the  number Cultural  5  millions  to  the  countryside.  after  begin  between  manual  border  beginning  urban  and  1966,  increased  Mao's  the  educated  or  to  1 969 .  temper  of  go by  youths  not  remolding  gaps  mental  developed  From  by  to  did  difference  peasants  1950s.  order  the the  educated  districts  successors"  differences  workers  of  R e v o l u t i o n . In  to  and  dictum:  backward  revolutionary  others),  Movement  I t i s necessary f o r educated youths to to t h e c o u n t r y s i d e t o be reeducated t h e p o o r and l o w e r m i d d l e peasants.^ The  political  such  big  as  bitter  many cities  years  to  large  Heilongjiang,  60  experience to  were  a  program,  come.  (Shanghai,  Guangzhou)  adjacent  became  rustication  a  for  later  Inner  Urban  Beijing,  sent  cities  for  either or  to  Mongolia,  Xinjiang, the  Yunnan,  decade  program, entire  seventeen generation  educated  generally the  youths,  enthusiasm was  poverty  of  cooled  and  came  L i n Biao  their  deceived  by  dream  have  faith  the  opportunity, for  the  on p o l i t i c a l to demonstrate  was  with  or t e c h n i c a l however,  the  commitment.  The  of  intellectual further  "traitor"  especially  performance, their  active  61  of  reality.  workers  Since  closest  overnight  intensified  youths  were  for  being  by  an  In  the  recruited  i n the an  cities.  unattainable those  from  recommendation  ambitious  in  i n 1971. The  t o be Mao's  remained  backgrounds.  their  that  mobility  bleak  rusticated  majority,  family  But  first  disillusionment  supposed  revolution  life,  at  and i d e a l i s m . The f e e l i n g  some  as c u l t u r a l  were  o f L i n Biao  o u t t o be a  they  less.  realized  biggest  dissatisfaction  seventies,  unfavorable based  turned  Since  call.  of  the  applied  to rural  much  the  to  also  towns.  the lack  chance  was  sent  Guards,  they  the death  -- almost  was  life-long  area,  who  was  Red  when  The  from  program  Mao's  t o be a  them.  shattered  This  rustication  -- were  on them  the slim  comrade-in-arms  work  of the  i n adapting  answering  the rural  revolution  to  problems  meant  disillusioned  increasing  regions. In  i n the market  program  in  stimulation  that  backward  people  youths  particularly  soon  program  young  rustication  people  of this  enthusiastic  early  o f urban  had fewer  Urban  fact  million  This  young  impact  and o t h e r  following the beginning  countryside.6 to  Guizhou  youths  participation  was  would  i n manual  labor  and  political  frequently The  became  tension  outlet  i n the  demand  for  challenge order. Chinese  late  for this  contemporary  and  Chinese  youth  clampdown  on  But the  slim  of  freedom to  the  they  the  of  lovers  5,  found  one  1976.  The  signified  the  first  system  i t s  fixed  and  temporary  arose  relaxation  youth  April  movement  soon  even  opportunity.  Chinese  Incident  democracy  after  F r i e n d s or  and  silenced  voiced  political  their  control  in  1978.7 The  situation  demise  of  the  government, the  of  youth.  opinions  rivals  Tiananmen  of  The  activities.  Four  which  to  rusticated  Gang  of  realizing  been  were,  shut  the  after  participate  down ten  in  youth  Four.  Modernizations, in  had  youths  of  The  1977  the  for a  years  opened  decade.  i n the  writing  state  farm.  However,  they  could  were  newly  graduated  from  high  them  disapppointed throughout The  a  new  rusticated meeting rusticated  permission  the  could  enter  majority decade  now  devoted youths  On to  was  the  local  commune  school.  Only  had  The been  of  15,  solution in Beijing.8  62  entrance  rival  was  held  rusticated  hardly  i t s peak.  the  universities  countryside, allowed  reached  December  education for  university  aware  the  pragmatic  Many  university. which  leadership youths.  from  after  and of  with  of  new  importance  examination  number  improved  the 1978, of The  those a  anger  or who  small of  the  building  up  problems  of  the problems  first of  leadership,  as  expected,  admitted was  that  poor  the tension  Shanghai the  were  allowed spring  their  demonstrations  border  and  of  1979,  to return  festival, to  rallies,  gathered  had  These but  they  took  already  place  pressure,  throughout  the  meetings  rusticated  meetings,  however,  rusticated  youths  nation  to s a c r i f i c e  and  unity" speech  reiterated  top  self  to the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  nation  above  the idea  that  urged the  of  them  Movement 1978.  "comforting" were  and  convened  1979.  f o r the  At  called of  rusticated  1 1  educated  the on the  "stability  for instance,  to put  of  emerge  in late  of  in  right  freedom  d i d not  individual.  sending  63  the  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  Zheri  city  rusticated  demanded  repeatedly  interest  Wang  to  meantime  Yunnan,  Beijing  summer  to understand  p r o v i n c e and  the  youth  leaders  of the nation.  Yunnan the  and  through  Democratic  for  of  the o p p o r t u n i t y  actions  of the  to  celebrate  disruption  angrily  out from  spring  improve  youths  to  o f r e s i d e n c e and  echoes  spread  program  authorities  causing  unprecedented  were  also  continued  to the c i t y  high  t o g e t h e r and  in their  It  to  rusticated  and  "understanding"  of  when  youths  as X i n j i a n g  Under  from  done  p r o v i n c e s such  suddenely  a  be  in  mobility.10  and  to  schedules.9  choice  which  had  railway  youths  of Four.  of the r u s t i c a t i o n  rusticatd  demands  and  t h e Gang  youth.  among  spring  voice  traffic  much  In  Chinese  to  that  for rusticated  increase.  on  t h e management  and  conditions But  put t h e blame  the  gave  youths benebit  They  also  youths  to the  countryside  was  development  of  Modernisations Towards  they  the  . 1  faced  most  serious  one.  early  to  the  thousands to  be  of  flexible more  "youth  other  With  spots"  of  discussions unmarried already  in  return  for  the  the  Four  and  the  forced  city. was  to  retire  c h i l d r e n . This  did  u n i v e r s i t y graduates  were  for  work  every  the  farms  year.  As  government,  reform,  implemented  more  restructured  street-owned  enterprises  and  help  youths  doing  also  as  from  were  service  was  the  to  were  to  business. one  a  in  finding  clinics"  people  were  these  problems  dating ideal  were  encouraged became  age,  to  set use  up  in  this  the  themes  of For had  great  Accordingly,  city  social  who  was  spouses.  dominant  64  girls  there  the  series  Chinese Youth (Zhongguo q i n g n i a n ) . 1 5 for  set  Among  catching in  be  street  allowed  revealed  especially  the which  were  leadership,  the  not  and  marriage  passed  the  when  permission  mainly  to  of  especially  economic State  number  Unemployment  problem,  increased,  returnees,  difficulty "Marriage  the  for  large  were  their  "job-waiting"  problems,  attention  to  looking  autonomous,13  organizations, up  jobs  policies.  e s t a b l i s h e d . 1^  to  problems.  school  toward  a  Some p a r e n t s  unemployed  moving  1979,  employment  high  allocated  number was  of  policy  especially  allowed  many  their  whole  of  was  soon  solve  correct  nation,  end  youths  give  a  2  the  rusticated But  s t i l l  and  young  service. of  A l l  Zhiqing  Fiction. In  the  to  build  to  have  thinking  the  Four  From  element  of  rustication persuasion public  was  lesson  the as  and  heroes who  as  Sons  serve  and  educated  areas.]18  sacrifice,  beginning  brought  up  top  (the  again,  nation-wide Haidi, several  who,  this  foreign  in  March  time  spite  of of  languages  [One  received of  the  spirit  1983  the  better have  jobs of  in  self-  campaign  to  Lei  Feng"  almost a l l  from  was  further  enhanced  altruistic  youth  paralysis,  strove  and  the  65  to  must  them  support  learned  the  ambitions  with  the  the  formal c a l l  many  soldier)  North  issued  administrative  promote  campaign  promotion in  To  and  The  1983,  1976.  have  who  reason)  Barren  your  first  particularly,  altruistic  leaders.19 This  f u l f i l l  youths  cultural  the  of of  those  in early  the  types  March".16  Great  countryside after  rural  from  Daughters,  before; to  Long  q i n g n i a n bao)  signalling  the  stating  i n the  of  o l d method  instance,  "New  models.17  (Zhongguo  that  appointed  "learn  For  i n the  remained  youth  a l l directions" ,  than  i s the  countryside (without new  however,  praise.  the  implementation  One  "Good  the  the  of  R e v o l u t i o n , the  adopted.  slogan  been  in  Cultural  been  Press  treatment  the  parts  have  Youth  note,  different  i n order necessary  Instead, various  acclaimed  to  to  i t is still  reduced.  thousand  youths  of  compulsion  China  in  go  leadership,  been  to  eighty  Chinese  has  praised  were  the  youths  recognition  returned  the  Modernisations,  educated  nation.  of  to  was  by  the  Zhang master  technique  of  a c c u p u n c t u r e .20  The  Haidi  i t i s not  was  spirit  that  alone;  person  must  also  The  above  Chinese  youth  Mentally, a  Communist the  Gang  be  from  ideals  enough  As  to  promotion  of  have  Lei  a  Four  Modernisations  equipped  with  knowledge  their  shows  Chinese  in  Lin one  the  childhood  They  and  of  the  the  path.  Four.  behind  discussion  death  of  build  contemporary  twisting  by  to  idea  youth  began  the  Biao youth  with  Party, and  by  expressed  life  the  of  adulthood.  also  were  young  skill.  travailed  great  but  then  and  their has  Feng  a  eventful to  Zhang  faith  in  shaken fall  i t in a  first  of  the  letter,  I h a t e t h e " c l a s s e n e m i e s " who "opposed the Chairman". I l e a n e d toward the "loyalists" such as L i n B i a o who "supported" Chairman Mao... but I never expected that L i n Biao whom I t h o u g h t was the "utmost" s u p p o r t e r o f Chairman Mao w o u l d t u r n o u t t o be the one scheming to k i l l him.... A t t h a t t i m e , t o me the "Gang o f F o u r " were "good a s s i s t a n t s of C h a i r m a n Mao" and " M a r x i s t t h e o r i s t s . " Therefore I e n t r u s t e d them w h o l e h e a r t e d l y . . . . Not long afterwards, t h e news o f t h e s m a s h i n g o f t h e "Gang o f F o u r " came to me. I was more confused than h e a r i n g of the death of Lin Biao.... From t h e n on, I ate very little, smoked a l o t . My f a c e t u r n e d y e l l o w a n d my weight dropped.21 The  above  responding life"  to  was  one  the  discussion  triggered  factory Life's  worker Road  by Pan  Getting  the  sixty of  members,  since  childhood  to  Party  and  thousand  "The  letters22  significance  twenty-three-year-old (pen  Narrower  Because  to  the  Xiao's  1980.23  the  her  of  parents she  serve  And  letter  Narrower?"  and  grandparents  had  been  the  66  name)  taught  People.  But  famale "Why  Is  in  May  were to  of  be  during  Party loyal the  Cultural  Revolution, things that  physical  struggle,  beliefs.  Later,  lost  financial  by  the Youth  she  made;  father  League  s h e was  life  from  from  many  h e r mother;  because  --  her  raids,  previous  setbacks. s h e was  of the c r i t i c a l  she  rejected  suggestions  d i s c a r d e d by h e r b o y f r i e n d a f t e r  office.  After  a n d human  nation-wide  -- s h a t t e r e d  she s u f f e r e d  support  resumed  through  killing  she witnessed  a l l this,  beings.  discussion  which  she had  Her l e t t e r lasted  his  from  seen  aroused May  1980  a to  mid-1 981 . Throughout  this  discussion,  into  the " s i g n i f i c a n c e  the  self  was they  was  attempted.  material  kill  each  proletarian  Was  rights name be  elevated?  faith" are  classified  2 1  these among  *  The g e n e r a l letters  Chinese  disillusioned  i s that  people  struggle  Why  personal system?  away  o f an one  i s  Chinese  a  and  idea?  should  be t a k e n  there  revolution  67  did  more  as a b o u r g e o i s  impression  contemporary  with  class  the value  why,  struggle Why  i n Marxism?  could  then  the s o c i a l i s t  o f an i n d i v i d u a l How  revolution  d i d harmonious  under  humanitarianism  of revolution?  reading  Why  deteriorate  and d i g n i t y  of  of  class  probing  o f man" a n d  people,  f o r so l o n g ?  i n t h e name  humanitarianism  there  stressed  dictatorship?  relationships was  o f the Chinese  production  other  the "value  I f the purpose  had t h e P a r t y  than  Why  of life",  f o r the betterment asked,  an u n p r e c e d e n t e d  the  i n the  individual gets  after  "crisis youth.  and t h e m o r a l i t y  of They of  the  people,  the  doubtful  people"),  Communism. the  They  absolute  beauty  i s basic  As  mental  die  an  increased  new  In  and  he  "what  belongs  right  to  was  top  student  him  a  made had  a  no  entitled the  only  to  inspiring  and  of the  continuously  alarmed  at  for  the  instance,  Chinese  Youth  a u t h o r i t i e s to  mid-1981, but  the  search  forms  and  to give  Chinese  consolidated  Youth did  the  not most  goal in to  after  Lenin  can by  made  Foreign who  felt  Life"  discussion  of  68  a  young  revealed  mine; The  Language that  red a  and  and that  i t is a l l  fact  r a i s e d . In 1980  of  believed  According  was  Press  unreliable  into  means".  c o n n e c t i o n . 27 of  diaries  He  Beijing those  His  himself.  any  Youth  arrest  Mao  i t  Communist  the  and  be  power,  to  Chinese  Daqing.  in  its  conformity the  Marx,  Center  t r u t h , goodness  were  different  for  Feng  others  the  necessary  n  discussion  lesson  "The  in  believed  reach  i  1982,  murderer  that  is  fiction.  late  considered  the  and  self  Qiaomu,  discussion,  demand  he  for  "serve  Party  only  became  urge  government  that  that  office  and  was  another  the  ideas  Hu  youth.26 the  toward  as  life.25  the  appeared  i t s  ideology.  robber  to  them  the  initiated  to  It  of  to  (such  search  leaders  concerns  end  down.  As  the  youth.  went  decrees  believe  one's  of  his  powerful  to  to  attention  called  seem  "dangerous"  state  express  cynical  government  personally  Maoist  and  that  these  unfolded,  more  and  of  that  he  Institute and  expert  discussion contrast 1981  to  which  emphasized  the  man,  one  this  importance  of the  realization was the  of  the  dominated  by  collective.  Because  in  Party  leadership  and  de-emphasizing  self-realization,  the  response  to  be  educator  Ren  patriotic,  at  an  Jiru  and  early  from  listed  idealistic,  the  value  anti-self  joined  official  discussion  self  and  the  the  leadership  stage,  emphasizing  individualism youth  five  and  of  was  key  and  cool.  The  virtues  responsible,  have  world view, a n d be k n o w l e d g e a b l e - - f o r 28 observe. Wu Mu, head o f the C e n t r a l Y o u t h  a  correct  youths  to  League  wrote  a  conclusive  article  for  the  discussion,  reiterating t h a t the Communist i d e a l i s the center 29 life. T h r o u g h o u t 1983a r t i c l e s s u c h as " S t e p p i n g from  the  small  students of  the  1980  world  continued  value  and  of  1981  a  to  the  self  this  circular  period  total  death  and  values  and  finally  promoted  the  cyclical  path,  thematic  progression  criticism in  from  during  the  Party  revealed in  in  Zhiqing  69  the  of  the the  denunciation  r e v e r t i n g to by  as  --  model  Accordingly,  lessened  path  by  1  generation  ideals"  the  'self " 30  appear.  "revolutionary to  your  gradually  Spiritually, trodden  of  or in  the  in  press. youth  them  of  Revolution after  compromising recent  has  support  Cultural  Fiction.  probing  society  Chinese  fiction,  out  university  of  fervent  of  of  with  years.  formed  a  Mao's the This clear  B.  The R i s e  In r e t r o s p e c t , in  the  the r i s e  of p o l i t i c s .  ideology  the  writing  altogether.  risk  placed  of  War  but  the  the  to write  criticized.  Mao Dun,  writers anything  Some  f o rinstance,  stopped became  Shen Congwen  a  turned,  t o the study of ancient  Some, s u c h as Ba J i n ( a s shown i n h i s  failed  match t h e s t a n d a r d  the  being  stories) tried  literature,  Libo,  feel unfit  l i t e r a r y bureaucrat;  Chinese costumes.  In  writers  made most p r o m i n e n t  h i s work was c r i t i c i z e d ,  Korean  o f Chinese  A f t e r 1 9 4 9 , t h e h e a v y demand o f  period  without  after  and f a l l  i n literature  f r o m t h e May F o u r t h  highly  Writers  p a s t few d e c a d e s have been r e f l e c t i o n s o f  fluctuation Party  Of Young  t o adopt P a r t y  t o produce works  of his previous  the f i f t i e s ,  ideology which  to could  stories.  middle-aged w r i t e r s such  as  Zhou  L i u Q i n g and Kang Zhuo who had been n u r t u r e d  in  r e v o l u t i o n a r y b a s e o f Yan'an became c o r e members o f literary  main  centers  Literature the  scene. I n t h e e a r l y 1950s, t h e r e  But  Rightist  Military  Zone and  the c r i t i c i s m  Campaign  soon  the  by  o f Ding Ling  p u t an end t o  and these  In the m i d - f i f t i e s ,  Liu Shaotang,  Wang Meng and L i u B i n y a n made  by p u b l i s h i n g  bureaucratism  and  short  7°  of  Ling,  Military the  Anti-  literary  young w r i t e r s s u c h a s  stories critical  dogmatism.  Ding  Nanjing  organizations.  known  three  the I n s t i t u t e  (Wenxue J i a n g x i Suo) c h a i r e d  Kunming 31  Zone.  t r a i n i n g young w r i t e r s :  were  But  themselves of s o c i a l i s t  the A n t i - R i g h t i s t  Campaign o f many  1957  silenced  s i g n i f i c a n t works.  mid-sixties hindered  the  the  Cultural  produce  From t h e  to  a f t e r m a t h o f the  growth  Revolution  of  the  silenced  and  clean  supportive  and  them b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d  purged.  writers.  During  the  of Chinese w r i t e r s  were  O n l y t h o s e who of  the  the  A n t i - R i g h t i s t Campaign  young  majority  late fifties  were  politically  Gang o f F o u r were a l l o w e d  to  publish. The  composition of Chinese w r i t e r s  drastic  change  rehabilitation who  had  them  i n the  post-Mao e r a .  p o l i c y has  been p u r g e d  resumed,  has  undergone  Since  1979,  b r o u g h t b a c k some o l d  i n past decades.  writing  essays  A small  mourning  only  write  on  literary  short  matters  number for  Li);  of the  problems  e s s a y s o r make o c c a s i o n a l  (Sun  the  writers  p e r s e c u t e d . Some have r e t i r e d b e c a u s e o f h e a l t h and  a  remarks  o t h e r s have t u r n e d  their 32  interest  to  writing  Chinese l i t e r a r y writers Cong  s u c h as  who  have  writers research  were  purged  in  the  w e l l as  recently now  the  emerged.  active  indicates  large  that  at  h u n d r e d s o f o t h e r s who  P r e c i s e l y how  l e a s t one  i n M a r c h 1983,  publish  known.  only  young My  own thirty  include  occasionally. that  at  of  writers  many  h u n d r e d and  Wang Meng s t a t e d 71  Gang  number o f young  i n C h i n a i s not  and  Anti-Rightist  p r o d u c e work r e g u l a r l y . T h i s f i g u r e d o e s n o t  article  The  middle-aged  r e h a b i l i t a t e d s h o r t l y a f t e r the  as  are  Jin).  s c e n e i s t h u s d o m i n a t e d by  who  and  Four f e l l ,  (Ba  L i u B i n y a n , Wang Meng, L i u S h a o t a n g ,  Weixi  Campaign  reminiscences  the  In  an  least  several  million 33  Chinese  writing.  This  potential  in  literature. February  years it  amazing the  absorbed  evident  70%  of  that  of  the  a of  Chinese given and  Association  total  number  of  of  young  of  tremendous  middle-aged  number  goal  statistics  Writers  the  the  suggests  the  number the  pursuing  development  to  into  constitutes  is  future  the  are  figure  According  1982,  writers  youths  in  young  in  recent  1550,  and  writers  well  34 surpasses  that  The  rise  factors. school a  urban  writers  Firstly,  after  1949  the  cities  population,  this  educated  constitute they  of  make  current  hundred  urban  major  in  of  youths  eight  middle-aged.  young  number  audience  the  of  education  large  the  of  and  component  is  the  up  the  and  market Even  than  ten  This  peasants,  enjoying  educated and  in  secondary produced  though  educated  of  of  the  the  group  many  towns  i s not  but  of  percent  majority 35  literature.  semi-urban  result  expansion  youths. less  million  the  reading  to  fact  has  the  slight is  that  become  perpetuating  the  literary  creation. Secondly, magazines since writers  1979  has  to  from  provided  publish given  literary  figure,  increasing  resulting  statistics of  the  320  in  1981  them  in  literary  Flowers  to  published  Daily,  634 at  and the  policy  for  According  Guangming  72  of  opportunity  works.  amounted are  Hundred  greater  their  magazines of  a  the  number  young  to  the among  the  number this  provincial  36 level.  Ding  group  Ling's  of teachers  amount  of  reached  over  instance,  from  Shangdong  young  young  are  writers,  sections  called  Persons,  New  such  Youth  and S h o o t s  works  Thirdly,  i s  correct  social  their  talents  own  remuneration monthly  from  (Shangdong  i s  works  wenyi)  have  were  for  set  Writers"  or  up  "New  (later  to  changed  of Nanjing,  devoted  Ugly and  Youth Duckling  Guangzhou  to the publication  bring  society  path  frequently powerful  f o r one t h o u s a n d 39  words  ten  dollars  (RMB)].  who  may  be i n v i t e d  Wang  Those  lectures Runzi] 73  getting  b y some  the young  can pursue  the fact exceeds  a  from  a name  on  that  by  cities invited  the  regular  incentive.  i n other o r even  other  requires  ranges  make  and  China,  they  Moreover,  i s a very  to give  like  As e x p r e s s e d  the only  a novella  fame  and f r e q u e n t l y  or merits.  pay cheque  Xiaosheng,  For  opportunity  magazines  remuneration  Liang  most  magazines,  can  "connections".  writing  that  writers.  difficult  writers,  magazines  of the published  more  the  writers.  (Mengya) o f S h a n g h a i  In a closed  very  young  a  of the l i t e r a r y  wenxue])  writing  opportunities. ahead  Some  And A r t a r e m a i n l y  by young  literary  F o r Young  (Qingchun)  of  of  literary  Works".  [Qingnian  Literature  70%  And A r t  "Pages  Literature Beijing  by  to  that,  I t i s evident  To p r o v i d e  many  given  reveals  and pure 37  1977 to 1984,  Literature 38  1983)  writers  written  writers,  as  (July  one t h o u s a n d .  pieces  by  and young  semi-literary  literary  in  speech  [The  five  to  writing [eg. to  go  abroad.  For instance,  to  Romania  the  Unitd  mobility  (1982)  States  Zhang  and F r a n c e  (1983).  f o r most  Chinese,  i s  eagerly  better  job opportunities.  L i u Xinwu,  publishing Teacher  single  to  tranferred Beijing,  national  in  fame  short  from  have  Fudan  taken  of Nanjing  magazine  Youth,  (Ertong  (Shanghai  h a s become  Wang  wenyi),  Anyi  lead  both  Lu  to  Xinhua after  (The C l a s s  [Shanghen]),  have  been  units.  Liu  was  to a publishing  house  in  University.  up e d i t o r i a l  to  outside  overnight  cultural  school  t o go  Anyi  also  stories  Lu t o a c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  Chao  Art  may  For instance,  T h e Wound  a high  a n d Wang  to see the  Writing  controversial  positions  from  graduation  Li  won  [Banzhuren],  appointed  writers  who  invited  t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s on  a chance  sought.  was  (1985)  Considering  world  and  Kangkang  i n Shanghai Some  after  of the  young  positions.  For  instance,  editor  the  literary  of  of Childhood  Literature  Zhu L i n o f S h a n g h a i  w e n x u e ) a n d Ye X i n o f H u a x i  and  Literature  (Flower  Stream) o f  Guizhou. As  a result  some  young  Some  can pursue  the  local  instance, After of was  writers  Deng  Gang  t h e Sea (Miren  have  further  Writers  publishing  sent  of the reform  attained training  Union was  i n the  and t h e i r  originally  well-received  Writers'  professional with own  support  work  unit.  such  de h a i ) a n d C o n t r a c t i o n  b y h i s own  unit  to attend  74  status.  the  a welder  stories  Union,  of For  i n Tianjing. as The  Lure  (Zhentong),  a two-year  he  writer's  training  program  his  unit 40 family. The  would  provide  enthusiasm  highest a  in Beijing.  i t has  common  phenomenon  thousand  manuscripts  each  receive  manuscripts  the  former  to  works  people's Press  great  set  desire  up  to  a  column a  revealed and  Since  a  only  even was  their sourly  rejected  like  the  veteran merits her  and  of  their  writers, or  Wang  the  did  requesting  even  recommend  the  to  the  interested  in  Zhijuan.) attention  play  any  role  • 75  What  the  be  complain Some  circles. published, about  not  his  have  a  (whose  Wang but  one  the that  bother One  to  youth  manuscript  writer-mother  mother  Anyi  has  actual  complain  do  reason  Youth  concerning  can  and  young  Chinese  f o r months.  not  Anyi 41  writers  response  works  manuscripts  writer  not  of  efforts  he  did  ten  publishing  magazines.  because  deserves  over  those  frequently  was  Ru  receive  "Problems  Chinese  that  writer  In  letters  complained  young  mother  stories.  literary  rejected  thus  shows  the  return  young  for  percentage  ignore  i t is  these  editors  simply  China  In  opinions.  contributors  editors  the  youth  i n f o r m a t i o n and  problems  small  is  for writing,  writer"  in  his  Established  comment  called  frustrated of  1949.  publication.  literary  situation  read,  period, to  among  month.  from  enthusiasm  be  exchanging been  proof  for  since  training  assistance  f o r e d i t o r s to 41  may  their  writing  been  the  financial  for  even  During  has  is  the  her  own  cannot  say  that  in publishing  her  first  The young  large people of  in  his  letter  his  knowledge  careers,  going and of  veteran  Ling,  to  the  "dangerous"  the  other  fields.  same g o a l , 45  situation  was  are  list the pursuit.  to  writer would  opinion  was  seeking  literary  veteran  warn  young  by  Wang  dreamers because  everybody  loss  hardly  of  goals.  The  Path  Of  Talk  With  Literary  remark  fond  of  discipline  to  worries  unjustified.  As  more of  that  talents,  veteran  but  76  thing  for  in the  article, "A  began  with  that  many  q u i c k l y turned  to  of this overcrowded d a y - d r e a m e r s who lack and  told 47  them  to  direct  careers.  writers  Meng  good  he  in  They  subtitled  Youth" ,  i t is a  fruitful  Wang  his  Literature,"  literature,  and  In  was  talents  convincing  literary  Meng.  by  writer  pursuits  i f  a  career.  themselves  a  and be  negative consequences He further discouraged  energy  The  a  there  provided  affirmative  literary  Junyi,  Yan,  cultivate 43  pursuing  temper  f a r as  to  is  Heart-to-heart  their  be  Wei's  Crowd  youths  first  Xia  literary  youths  the  w r o n g w i t h more people engaging 46 creation?" A more c o n c r e t e a n a l y s i s o f  literary  "Don't  any  aroused  him  impractical literary  could  "What  on  equipped  1979,  as  advised  Wei so  enthusiatically  asked,  the  went  poorly  field  early  more  to 44  masses.  and  everybody  those  them  even  As  man,  and  and  literary  embarking  more  advised  after  young  before  editor,  not  untrained  writers. a  seeing  among  of  f l o o d i n g the  concern  Ding  number  are  observed,  not due  altogether to  the  de-  emphasis  of  general  knowledge  decline  in  since  1949,  "cultural  there  standard"  has  been  among  a  Chinese  48 writers  , and  influx  of  this  young  considering  the  problem  writers. number  Cultural  Revolution.  majority  of  school  these  writers  in  classical some  the  group,  however,  writers. only  the  was  sent  education. Xinger, have  university and  Yu  scene.  in  the  In  the  students  If  (Wuhan this  of  near  Although  for  example, has  Huang  such  as  years  Fang  University)  tendency  educational  high  and  have  standards  there  some  to  the  youth  who  school  such  Chen  (Wuhan  among  This young  high  joined  continues,  high  the  sent  many  a  Most  out.  as  Lu  Jiangong  years  (1983-84),  Fang  had  school,  writers  after  the  education,  Shanghai  Peijia  university two  with  of  junior  young  high  completed  were a  only  some  past  than  broke  junior  the  years.  educated  the  that  more  many  they  in  generally  only  most  when  for  lost  sharply  Revolution  1977,  enter  no  the  foreseeable  post-secondary  finished  Kexiong, to  Cang  elevation  Xin,  was  with  shows  who  had  the  Guizhou,  Chen  countryside.  up  has  period  modern  acute  education  contrasts  school  Since  managed  writers  writers  barely  Ye  to  survey  Cultural  elementary  countryside.  brief  abroad  makes  Some  A  and  young  when  of  Fourth  studied  contemporary school  May  decline  years  This  education  even  This  more  of  young  education.  becomes  in  the  younger  University) the  literary  may  young  be  an  writers  future. education  i s not  77  a  prerequisite for  being  a  good  writer,  avoided  i f the author  discipline. Light  Morning  Fog  As  description  as  of years  a result  influenced obliged of  by  years  t o add  For  the  writers 1981  life  literary  writing  programs. youths  had  Shenyang  of raising  "study  classes"  their  own  alone,  by  On  a  Table  student, such  high  i n 1982.  on  thousand  and  creative  hundred  these  since  Association  one  78  young  control,  established  term  study  thousand 50 programs. In youths  literary  By May  feel  of  1983, o v e r  for publication.  hand,  American).  the standard  and  they  impressions  short  courses  writers  they  and  Many  i t  foreign  the other  forums,  for  when  hand,  propaganda,  have  this basic 49  to  simplified  in  school.  t h e one  effective  several 51  correspondence  chosen  describes  of Chinese  of the Writers'  lectures,  registered  city  held  f o r more  Amazingly,  The  related  China;  of adverse  organizations  classes,  i n junior  problem  outside  p r o v i n c i a l branches  local  were  as  story  because  ( e s p e c i a l l y North  purpose  as w e l l  she  been  academic  Periodic  of things  t h e commonly  "bourgeois"  the  of isolation.  life  t o more  a university  i s a general  material  have  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent  the depiction This  idealize  o u t by  could  Kangkang's  chenwu)  i s taught  o f knowledge  countries.  de  realistic  knowledge  to  exposed  learning  not  errors  i n Zhang  (Dandan  pointed i s  scientific  comes  had been  student  chemistry.  lack  obvious  For instance,  university  The  certain  attended  magazines  outstanding 1984,  more  have works  than  a  dozen  "correspondence  three  literary  writing,  was  creative  since  Lu  i n the  Established  Yao,  and 53  Ye  experiences.  Beijing  Literature  And  addition Despite  generation sources  Art  their  the  national  their  lack  of  young  from  from  had  been  Beijing,  His  mining  of  his  wanan), which  experience  stories  Ye  Guizhou  and  miner  Youths ren)  concerned  and  Of The  with  Xiangjiang Works  fiction  contest  yan)  there.  Years  rusticated  79  Stream Sweet  life  (Chatuo  youths  from  several  (Tianmi) of  was  with  (Women  years.  (Liushui  life  component  Generation  life  for  Shanghai,  His  frequent  creative  f o r ten  and  love  from  this  originally  inspiration  the  Wasted  rich  i n Datong  (Danfeng with  Our  Yalujiang  Jianggong,  Meandering  The  lives  as  such  checkered  as  a  Kong their  training,  the  still  become  share  magazines,  possess  Chen  originally  has  as  Literary  formal  became  Eyes  of  one.  Xin,  people  nianqing  a  concerned  miners.  are  such  Phoenix are 54  and  multifarious,  instance,  to  wenxue),  annual  writers  their  asked  in  (Wenxue  such  wenyi),  own  of  For  such  over  called  Press  local  wenxue)  experiences.  Yao  and  column  writers  were  (Yalujiang  founded  to  young  Xin  a  Literary  (Beijing  (Xiangjiang have  1982,  Moreover,  Literature  Literature (Zuopin)  October  classroom"  founded.  Jiesheng,  in  founded  thousand students r e c e i v e d training 52 writing. To p r o m o t e b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  "Literature  as  were  hundred  creative  bao)  centers"  of  young sent  the his  zhe  to  local novels  yi  suiyue)  dai  which 55 Shanghai.  Zhu  Lin  County  originally  o f Anhui.  background Path  Of  from  The p o v e r t y  condition Life  Shanghai  was s e n t  of the d i s t r i c t  f o r her well  (Shenghuo  to  de l u ) ,  became t h e  received which  Fengyang  novel  The  about  the  i s  56 tragedy  of  originally  from  1979,  Since of  a  this  inspiration.  The  Stream  recent Kong  rusticated  female.  Guangzhou,  was  place  From  (Zai xiaohe  The  Southern  has used  sent  h a s become  his early  Kong  Jiesheng,  t o Hainan  Island.  a significant  source  work  On T h e O t h e r  Side  de na b i a n )  (March/1979)  to  Bank  the s e t t i n g  (Nanfang  Of the  (April/1982)  de a n )  variously: first  as a p l a c e t o  57  get away f r o m a n d l a t e r a s a d e s t i n a t i o n . Some ( e g . Zhang Kangkang, Wang Peng) a l s o endured t h e agony of being  second  class  citizens  because  The most  pathetic  case  58  parents. Luojin,  younger  criticizing  the  sister  their  rightist  i s t h e woman  w r i t e r Yu  o f Yu L u o k e  "class  of  who  background  was e x e c u t e d f o r  theory"  during  the  59 Cultural whole to  family  marry  alive.  Great  i n such  someone Her  writing  has  Revolution.  brother's  a desperate  i n the Great  unique  action  situation  Barren  experience  that  North  North),  provided  her  Winter  Fairy  novellas  Tale  A Spring  (Zhuixun)  three with  Fairy  sources  (Yige  a n d many o t h e r  80  she  had  exile  (for  (to  a n d two d i v o r c e s  for  dongtian  Tale  the  -- i m p r i s o n m e n t  marriages  (Yige  put  so as t o s t a y  "counter-revolutionary diaries"),  Barren  Search  Her  her de  tonghua),  chuntian  stories.  reportage  60  de  the -A the  tonghua),  As  more  writing,  Zhang  relocated  Xiao  North"  group  stories  tend  literary In  to  Wang  Xiao  A  have  by  excelled  largely  Zhao in  dan  young  i s they  literary  have  works  is  a  conscious  expression  technique.  and  revolutionary  alternatives first  to  of  "stream-of-  Xingjian,  call  from for  another  of  western the  such  as  and  writers  who  feel  begun  to  of  writer 81  and  the egg  tradition others  who  China.  from  their  themes 62  in  stories. who  are  in  artistic  the  inadequacy artistic  i s one  realism  in  a Yi,  in  seek  L i Tuo  consciousness"  land.  writers  innovation  sources.  whose  Cheng  other  rural  young  have  --  in northern  included  Those  the  medicine  Xi  to  of  reside  Yong  North.  emerged  the  life  combination  young  native  follow  young  of  realism  L i Huiying  "mountain  in addition  Their  writers  also  Chen Barren  Barren  the  also  group  city.  still  Zhuo,  these  the  who  They  Kang  "Great 61  there  such  Xinger,  Great  writers  called  particularly  of  style,  were  --  the  in their  p o r t r a y i n g peasant  predecessors  There  set  pai).  Shuli,  distinguishes  their  Hong,  Shishan  been  the  Northeast  Xiao  Zhang  to  in  who  North  Lu  formed  in  Those  Barren  return  life  participate  emerged.  Xiaosheng,  the  of  youths  Great  have  literary  (shanyao  founded  What  are  and  areas  school"  about  number  Peng  --  Jun,  of  the  their  echoes  terms  rural  be  have  Liang  despite  works  pattern.  to  Fuxing  group  thirties--  rusticated  patterns  Kangkang,  Kexiong,  This  more  certain  originally as  and  and  of  the  the 63  use  writing.  playwright,  Gao is  also  keen  at renovating  insightful Modern  writing  booklet  Fiction  technique.  on f i c t i o n ,  Writing  manifestations is  one  of his literary  of  the  breakthroughs  letters story  in  and  h i s recent  has  moved  effect  thoughts  characteristic has  also  Xinxin,  Chinese One rise a  been  I f  there  i s  scene, feature  writers.  o f women  Zhijuan,  and  present,  about  consciously  making  as 65  shown  From  in  Bank  we  plots  order  inner  the  His  group  works  o f Chinese  young  In the f i f t i e s such  as Yang  known  116 p r o f e s s i o n a l  to  women  and the  fiction to  process tendency of  Zhang  other  young  school  i s a sure  he  action  This  a n d many  de)  literary  dissect  overt  a "modernistic"  82  le  monologue  novel.  in  early  s e e how  for  to  from  Lu X i n g e r  were  his  psychological  shown  this  i n his  (Na guoqu  interior  emphasis  writers  Wei J u n y i  Jiesheng  of h i scharacters.  Kangkang,  notable  o f women  of  clearly  literary  handful  on t w i s t i n g  of the modernistic  Zhang  writers.  The S o u t h e r n  the changing  delineation  F o r Godot a r e Kong  t o The P a s t  consciousness"  and  exemplifies  relying  (Chezhan)  Yan W e n j i n g .  the application o f  of  emotions  novella  In  Bus S t o p  by W a i t i n g  in  Study  xiaoshuo  o f h i s works  (Yinyuan)  from  to  "stream  the  each  play  and  (Xiandai  adventure.  foremost  to the o l d writer Marriage  Preliminary  Technique  jiqiao c h u t a n ) and h i s r e c e n t 64 which i s c l e a r l y i n f l u e n c e d  His concise  part  writers  i n the ofi t . i s the  and s i x t i e s ,  only  Mo, C a o M i n g ,  Ru  the  At  public.  writers  collect  66 salaries  from  cultural  organizations  aged  woman  writers  such  as Shen  Jie  have  become  established  i n China.  Rong,  Zong  figures.  Pu a n d  Yet  Zhang  larger  a n d more  vigorous  women  writers.  Names  frequently  seen  include  Zhang  Aiyi,  Lu X i n g e r ,  Zhang  Xinxin,  Huang  Peijia, their  Wang  Wang  works  Xiaoying, have  T i e Ning  aroused  creation  are  in  number  Kangkang,  in literary  Middle-  a n d many o t h e r s .  nation-wide  young  Some o f  discussion.  Zhang  67 Kangkang's heated Zhang  Northern  discussion Xinxin  on l o v e  (Beiji  i n China.  frankly  depicts  Yu*s  t h e most  novella  her divorce  o f an o f f i c i a l  guang)  and m o r a l i t y .  are at present  writers  editor  Lights  Yu L u o j i n  controversial  A Spring  Fairy  and a l o v e  newspaper  was  triggered  attacked  and women  Tale  affair  which  with  as  a  an  "private  68 literature" this  work  sized  i n Flower  literary  editorial in  by m o r a l i s t i c  literary  Her  recent  Literature  novella  issue  were  i n Yunnan  ideal  love  province.  regardless attack  on  wenyi)  of worldly her  was  to  the  editors of  to publish  h e r work.  published  by  i n t h e remote her stubborn moral  during  large-  confiscated  Consequently  was  Again,  criticism  o f 1982  afraid  Search  And A r t ( B e j i u  Gejiu  another  The f i r s t  magazines  a Guangzhou  brought  of i t s circulation.  many  The p u b l i c a t i o n o f  (Huacheng),  magazine,  board.  the midst  City  critics.  town  of  search f o r  restraint  the  Gejiu  brought  Anti-Spiritual  69 Pollution  Campaign  Xinxin's  The  nianji  de  i n late  Dreams meng)  1983  Of Our which  and e a r l y Generation  relentlessly  83  1984. (Women portrays  Zhang zhege the  helplessness society,  and have 71  publication. of  the  lack  of  also  been  under  Both  Yu  and  outlet  Zhang  in  attack  are  socialist since  stubborn  their  defenders  literary  i n d e p e n d e n c e as shown i n t h e i r r e f u t a t i o n o f 72 criticism. By c o n t r a s t , Wang A n y i s e e m s t o be safe  the  because  she  abides  Destination  (Benci  unhappiness a  within  of  pioneer  a  permissible  lieche  zongdian)  returned  of  the  youth,  theme  confines. which  has  of  tells  been  Her  The  of  the  acclaimed  returning  as  to  the  73 countryside. work  falls  In  short  Another young  such  as  of  is  because  feature  that they  they are  workers,  peasants  and  Jiesheng  used  be  Li  Cunbao peasant  reseacher  in  the  Research  Institute.  has  been  never well  a  after  their a  is  contemporary  highly a  variety  of  a  an  English  in  lock  for  Shaanxi;  Zhang  Sciences  which  Chinese the  the  and  Kong  factory  in  teacher  in  Army;  Wang  Chengzhi,  a  Nationalities  literature  whole  of  factory  instance,  playwright  modern  Chinese  professions  officers,  in  is  Wang's  representative  cultural  Social  period  of  worker  a  In  intensity.  For  in  China  Zhang,  there  population  is  represented.  Contemporary with  a  and  soldiers.  Naishan  a  so  is  to  Cheng  Shanghai; Peng  from  Yu  and  are  u n i v e r s i t y students,  Guangzhou;  to  profundity  salient  writers  society  comparison  May  young  Fourth  political  writers  share  counterparts.  movement  against  84  many Both  similarities groups  autocratic  emerged  rule.  Both  groups --  were  from  the  the  latter.  Both  and  humanity.  the  following  their  of own  the  seek --  groups  aim  to  the  at  chapters, Chinese  habits  values  the  and  to  young  perspective.  85  and  overthrow  in  romantic  restrictions  in  in  the  dogmas  in  the  "the  literature and  young  writers,  have  their  own  look  of  beauty  in  because  of  vision  of  previous generations.  writers  from  language  goodness  will  of  autocracy" their  literary  of we  and  former,  feudal  writing  experiences, that  oppression  classical  for truth,  from  spiritual  essence  contemporary  different  generation from  But  of  "ultraleft"  searching  unqiue  reality  is  groups  the  case  dogmatism  expression and  from  traditional  i n the  This  Both  literary  their  of  "ultraleft  temper.  man"  past  latter. 74  former  for relief  burden  feudal  Communist the  eager  at  represent  how  In this  reality  CHAPTER  THE  THREE  TRANSFORMATION OF A CYCLICAL  ZHIQING PATTERN  FICTION:  The protagonist Zhong Weihua in The Journey ( Z h e n g t u ) ( 1 9 7 3 ) s a i d , "The most b a s i c r e a s o n f o r u s S h a n g h a i e d u c a t e d y o u t h s t o come t o t h e rural area of H e i l o n g j i a n g i s to humbly receive reeducation and t h o r o u g h l y r e f o r m o u r w o r l d view, to use our hands, together with the poor-andlower-middle peasants to c u l t i v a t e and protect the borderland."1  The f e m a l e r u s t i c a t e d y o u t h J u a n j u a n o f The Path Of L i f e (1979) p l e a d e d w i t h her b o y f r i e n d Zhang Liang, "I can't stay here any longer. No d o u b t , p e o p l e h e r e a r e p i t i f u l . B u t c a n we c h a n g e their lot o n l y w i t h o u r own s t r e n g t h ? Do you mean we're going to waste our youth in this p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n mountain village? . . . I beg you, leave this place, f o r me, and f o r y o u . . . . l e a v e this place, leave this place!" 2  Y i J i e , p r o t a g o n i s t o f The S o u t h e r n Bank ( 1 9 8 2 ) , on h i s way t o H a i n a n I s l a n d , thought to h i m s e l f , "When I e m b a r k o n t h i s s t e a m e r , my w a s t e d youth immediately r e t u r n s t o me. The god o f f a t e has brought back to me those numerous days and nights, has i n j e c t e d anew i n my v e i n s a n d pores e v e r y d r o p o f b l o o d and t e a r s t h a t I s h e d . " 3  After toward the  forth from  Mao's  intellectuals  bourgeoisie  coupled first  19^9,  with serve  at  the  fiction  and  discriminatory (declaring were  the  tenet  the  workers,  that  subject  that  urban  to  peasants 4  intellectual  86  and  policy  intellectuals  literature  Yan'an T a l k s i n 1 9 4 2 , the  attitude  and had  thought and  art  reform) should  soldiers, almost  were  set  excluded  p r o t a g o n i s t s who  had  been  prominent  1950,  Xiao  (Women for  figures  i n May  Yemu's  short 5 zhijian)  fufu  "beautifying"  story was  the  intellectual (husband) 6 (wife). The attack intellectual's further  in  (Hongdou),  Deng  shang), and  t o be  of  on  the  "bourgeois"  of  the  depiction  Youmei's  of On  West  Zong  The  peasant of  was  Pu's  Cliff  Garden  Wife  criticized  the  idiosyncracy"  criticism  And  Grass  the  carried  Red  Bean  (Zai  xuanya  (Xiyuan cao)  other stories during the Anti-Rightist 7 o f 1 9 5 7 . F o r t h e n e x t two d e c a d e s , except in  Yang  fiction  Mo's  about  urban  roles  in  The Song  they  policies  socialist  realism in  individual Fourth  subject  in  war p e r i o d 8  (Qingchun  zhige)  youths i f  seldom  they  without  ,  which  i n the  early  played  were  such  central  portrayed  as  objects  of  exception  and r e - e d u c a t i o n . mandatory  and  the  subject  Chinese  aspirations  directly  with  and t h e s t r e s s  to  current  application  combination" and The  of had  stereotyped struggle  characteristic  had been  related  87  the  matter  and i d e a l s hero  adherence  "double  fiction.  intellectual  values  the c i v i l  the revolution  coupled  narrow  matter  Prescribed  were  meantime,  political  characters  Even  remolding  the  resulted  joining  fiction.  ideological  Of Y o u t h  intellectual  protagonists,  In  concerning  students  30's,  May  Husband  In  several  historical  is  image  literature.  a t the expense  L i u Shaotang's  Campaign  as  Between  the f i r s t  "bourgeois the  Fourth  taken  to economic  for of the  over  by  production.  on c o n f o r m i t y  had  put  an  end  life.  to  any  Youth  tend  to  the  Party,  search  stories  depict  how  to  they  give  up  old  other 1 2 (Caiyun)];  under  the  of  from  era,  the  the  increase  zuo  how  During  matter  in 9 lu]  na  how  perfect"  Clouds  Revolution,  theories,  further  the  narrowed  the  prominences"  and  join  Cultural  characterization, "three  to  altruistically  literary was  of  [Bright  they  the  help  [Spring 11 qiushou)] and  commune  a l l ,  the  production  (Chunzhong, the  sixties  tiao 10 (Hongmei)] ;  to  mechanical  method  heroes  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of rising  fictional While  Shen  and  Rong  folks  in  resulted completely  reality.  subsequent the  through  Plum  ultraleft  great,  comeback.  of  In  early  (Buneng  [Red  of  of  significance  and  old  Path  to  subject  Following their  ideas  influence  "high,  detached  peole  above  struggle,  the  young  society.  already-limited  in  fifties  Harvest  and  socialist  application  the  That  members  build  alternative  their  work  Autumn  serve  class  the  [Not  untiringly  Planting,  of  convince  collectivization and  for  social  image  of  middle-aged  Cong  Weixi)  i n t e l l e c t u a l s since  status  the  writers  1957  in  the  intellectual  endeavour  the  intellectuals  (such to  and  post-Mao has  made  a  as  Lu  Yanzhou,  write  on  the  Anti-Rightist  fate  Campaign 13  and  on  writers, write the  their most  about Red  of  their  Guard  current them  professional  former  life  Movement,  since  rusticated the  youths,  Cultural  rustication,  88  life;  and  young tend  to  Revolution  --  life  after  returning young  to  people  thematic  remain  as  static  reading  1981,  By  protagonists  subject  underwent  matter  of  about  novels,  my  and five  stories had  using  become  Zhiqing  was  a  a  rusticated distinctive  Fiction  years  hundred  short  i s that  cyclical only  Based  my  Zhiqing  itself,  but  by  also  on  novellas  Fiction  This  the  not It  stories,  path.  not  did  1979-1984.  transformation.  shaped  Fiction  Zhiqing the  conclusion  along  development  of  throughout  changes  progressed  of  city.  category.  The  and  the  pattern  literary by  has of  nature  extraliterary  factors. The of  task  of  this  body  of  the  sake  of  For  Fiction  of  between  the  demarcation deal  with  moment  A.  ZHIQING  After  the  youths  his  takes  not  at  the  assignment,  these  the  era  will  as  Zhiqing  dealt  of  the  with  time  lag  publication, definitive.  i t is instructive  work  development.  be  Because  be  taken  formation  discussion,  and  their  to  in  writing  FICTION:  sent  trace  i t s thematic  stages.  mid-fifties,  structure of  formula,  three  works,  EARLY  about plot  in  look  and  post-Mao  actual  these  i s to  convenience  should  and  chapter  fiction  the  chronologically  a  this  to  this  Before  digress  we for  predecessors. 1966-1976  there in  the  stories,  protagonist, through  an  89  were  scattered  stories  countryside.1^ following a  originally encounter  The  time-worn  unhappy with  about local  peasantry his  or a dramatic  job i s s i g n i f i c a n t  help.  The  ideology  psychology  of  Revolution,  of  no  in  and  he was  that  assigned  of conformity  character.  During  t o promote  to  the  to  Party  Cultural  the "Going  to the countryside" short  reveals  f o r the r e v e l a t i o n o f the deeper  order  a n d down  novels  process  room  the  and soon  f o r the people  simplified  leaves  mountain  incident,  up  movement,  stories eulogizing  to  the  a number  the  life  of  15 "sent-down" largely were  written  even  smaller of  Zhiqing come  The  through urban  (though  of  of  countryside  o f s e t t i n g as those  in  be r e g a r d e d Zhiqing  of these youths  against  works in  nature,  thinking.  • Based  novels  rituals)  slogans  type  with  as  early  Fiction  d i d not  c a n be  reduced  the  countryside  class  enemies and  These  antagonistic  structural perspective,  a myth.  representative  political  t h e same  deal  the term  themes  petty-bourgeois  rituals  more  1982).  the struggle  a  a r e much  much  they  " s t e e l i n g " o f urban  from  some  Though  should  they  They  were  and  fifties.  era,  use u n t i l  forces,  set  i n the  since  works  to the task,  with  type  prescribed  the  charged  those  These  teams.  i n t h e same  Fiction  into  assigned  heavily  i n quantity,  post-Mao  published.  by w r i t i n g  than  characters  the  to  and  messages  were  by t h o s e  produced  stereotyped and  youths  -- warmly  on t h e r e a d i n g  on t h i s  c a n be  theme,  deduced:  assisted 90  resemble of  a master departure  by P a r t y  the  several plot  (a  for  the  secretary  and  the  poor-and-  work  projects  of  enemy  in  the  ie,  --  be  endure  they  spiritual in  linked scheme  of  wrong  path" in  There early  pass  who used  will  i s also  a  hero  be  the  --  are  "reborn"  --  must  pilgrims  do.  one  step  closer  determined  portrayed are  to  set  as  positive  without  exception  villain. the  stay  "bourgeois"  as  are  in  arrest  to  masses  ordeals  their  When ones  mistakes  all-round  by  energy study His of  consciousness.  He  official  hero  abused  The  mentor  Party The  pattern  created  His  teaching  the  to  their  with  who  enemy  resolution  of  i s exposed,  Fiction.  characters".  daybreak.  by  set  method.  labor,  --  restless  confess  prominences"  abundant  class  they  Those  participation  and  the  "gone  dark on  the  resolve  to  countryside.  principal  brutally  one  test,  are  villain  Zhiqing  peasant.  rid  overcome a  --  wanting  countryside are  and  the  the  project  become and  Those  with  from  Youths  reform.  the  characters.  stay  to  hardships  roots  of  completely and  time  peasants  interference  completion  temperament  to  --  countryside.  to  Every  lower-middle  and works  good Mao His  model  for emulation  according  is usually or  an a  can,  after  by  Marx,  imparts  son  alertness  91  He  to  "secondary  poor  and  and  his a  class  and local  parents  i s endowed  Lenin  him  "three  worker  hours  of  without physical  Mao  until  a b i d i n g by  high  in the  impeccable  of  long  origins to  by  an  is  the  experienced  captalists.  class  to  i s surrounded  is usually the  for characterisation  the  political  struggle  always  makes the  him t h e f i r s t  the vicious  schemes  of  villain. The  villain  associate, the  a  i s frequently spy  ( i n works  Revolution). usually  has  He  the actual  i n the early  period  not d i r e c t l y  through  of the v i l l a i n ,  no m a t t e r  cannot  escape  o f the hero  Mao's  thought  arrest  of the v i l l a i n  rusticated  and c l a s s  youths,  countryside,  and  how  awareness.  serves  further  leader  who The  devious,  i s equipped The  them  affirms  Cultural  and  with  fore-ordained  to consolidate  persuading  in  people.  secret  who  roader"  team  t h e young  scheme  of  out h i s schemes,  the production  1  or h i s  years  of the  carry  power to m o b i l i z e  the eyes  landlord  or a " c a p i t a l i s t  i n the l a t e r  does  works  a previous  (particularly  Cultural Revolution),  disguise  but  to disclose  to  the f a i t h stay  in  the v i c t o r y of  of the  Mao's  line . Guo  Xianhong's  Kangkang's  The  represent Written  Revolution,  bearing  the The  Journey  movement.  in  1968  the  rustication  the  principal  respond  t o Mao's  romanticized  the  beginning  rustication December  Journey  Demarcation  novels at  The  call.  scenes  above period  depicts  i n Shanghai  hero  (Fenjie  The a c t i o n  program.  (1973)  Zhang This  92  of  the  of the plot  o f Red  Weihua  o f t h e Red  (1975)  characteristics.17  a f t e r Mao's  i s  Zhang  xian)  the f i r s t  A group  and  stage  of the  takes  place  proclamation Guards  led  of by  enthusiastically  followed Guards  Cultural  by a s e r i e s o f parading  along  the  streets  beating to  singing  and y e l l i n g  slogans,  gongs  the Great The  they  o f Shanghai,  plot  this  novel  not  in  North  shifts  to the r u s t i c a t e d  island, road  between  t h e young  "bourgeois  from  "golden class  people  beings  sentence"  t h e young  embodying, revolutionary The  the  revolutionary Heilongjiang march  to  Brigade weather,  phrase,  a  environment  class  whole  enemies  predictably  and t h e l o c a l  Guan's  a  poor-and-  family).  The  i s the awareness o f The g e n e r a l and  spirit  optimistic,  the  spirit  of  romanticism.  "steeling"  embodies  40-below  relationship  nature,  quotations.  Mao's  though  building  The  i s continuously high  in  in  physical  f o r the "pilgrims"  people  of  toughening  A s s i s t a n c e comes Tian)  after  The t i t l e  fire,  a flood.  (Granny  s t r u g g l e and Mao's  proper  in ice, cultivating  a forest  overcoming  (Commissar  peasants  life  miles  and t h e i r  thinking".  the Party  lower-middle  of  and h a r n e s s i n g  o n e o f human  and  from  members  pilgrimage,  seventy covered  songs,  t o war.  North.  of a  new  The r i t u a l i s t i c  walking  escaping  mountain  is  sense.  harvesting crops  soldiers  Barren  has t h e c o n n o t a t i o n  includes  weather, virgin  i n the Great  a religious  process  drawing  Barren  arrive  like  revolutionary  of the p r i n c i p a l  typical hero.  province,  their  (which  process  For he  in  instance, leads  destination,  hero  Zhong  the  making  upon  of  i s at the Sino-Soviet border)  instead  of  taking  93  the carts  of  arriving  his fellow t h e farm  Weihua  youths the  a in  in  a  Pine  i n 40-below  offered  by  that  production  team.  weather), a  cart)  Shan a the  (a  petty and  Soviet  high  a  the  stories,  his  Zhang  of  publishing  to of  before  years  makes  provides  us  toward  different  political  Kangkang  Barren She  North  was  Tangyuan  in  County,  literature  a  brick and  very and  this a  still  novel  window  climates.  asked  the  from  Heli  Heilongjiang in  the  factory, art  a  94  a  great that  to  write  to  changing under  Hangzhou, the  high  State  was  in  attention.  from  junior  she  began  author  go  deal Zhang  who  the  same  team.  Communist  our  into  reporter  propaganda  for  province.  countryside  the  Party.  of  River  After  reward  writers  to  by  the many  Originally  graduating in  the  death"  and  continues  looking  erode  hierarchy,  fact  worhty  by  or  bears  young  to  and  disclosing  in  The  few  Japanese  carts.  Party  Demarcation  the  Zhang  the  Communist  Journey.  villain  wants  and  as  The  riding  the  rather,  i s ,  the  The  on  (poor  of  hardship  the  or  voluntarily  after  stay  in  rustication  stationed  eight-year worker  to  1976  attitude  Zhang  tests  Kangkang's  the  who  projects  success  admission  i s one  garb)  ride  rises  his  comfort  of  fearing  work  ritual  similarity  Kangkang  "not  he  obstacles  translator for  comfortable  schemes, point  work  of  (the  scheme  peasant  s e r i e s of  passing  recent  poor  natural  habits  the  former  spirit  a  villain's  Her  in  them  leading  of  undermines  spy  youths'  overcomes  bourgeois  disguised  offering  the  He  Great school.  Farm  During a  her  farmer,  and  writer  Her  first  in  for  a a  short  story her  was  first  Demarcation, Revolution,  struggle. Deng  After  Xiaoping  with  the  The  Liu  revolves  Swamp  in  the  Demarcation  to  Enlai.  The  Deng  a  became  was  "capitalist  the  political 1973,  leading  position  pragmatic  faction  target  from  followers, Soviet  the  of  i n August  the  fiction  stage  ongoing  Congress  returned  in  later  another  Party  antagonists  takes  in  considered  "grain other as  "correct"  1973  spies  of  the  to  or  roaders"  Party  along  the  with  represented  by  villain  You  Branch  secretary  "correct"  a  central to  1975  previous of  conflict  to  produce  more  as  the  link")  kinds  key of  this  Danjing,  the  Pu, old  of  Song  the  the  tractor  Wang The  95  (who  title  fits  abandon  i t  (which  "revisionist"). the  hero  League Li  Geng branch  Qingshan,  the  "wrong"  Li  (Director  district),  team),  later  story  waterlogged  to  Youth  Huo  the  production  by  youths;  of  or  in  (which  worker  "revisionist"  Department  (head  side).  rusticated  the  and  i s represented  farm of  grain  sideline  Zhou  the  state  cultivate  secretary  other  Agricultural Fa  The  at  "money-mindedness" line  Zheng  place  whether  in order  secretary  the  and  province.  slogan  Changjiong,  is  again  Zhou  around  engage  The  Tenth  Zhou  story  Heilongjiang  is  The  faction.  The  and  written  of  but  pragmatic  Mao's  and  reflects  Shaoqi's  landlords  East  once  by  radicals. not  the  support  represented  are  (Deng)(1972)  n o v e l . 18  The Cultural  Light  and  changes of  the  line of the  the  Party  to  the  novel,  "Demarcation," demarcation  has  multifold  refers  cultivated  land  symbolically  to  the  and  i t of  it,  "money-making"  between The  staying  Marxism  and  story  line  through  a  draining  t h e swamp,  scheming program  i s  You  stolen  misled  after  from  official  the action  tasks  between  the  leaving  by t h e  two  line",  interwoven  level,  the  hero  there  the  villain's class  through when  i s laid  Geng's  recovering  The r e a s o n  Huo L i f i n a l l y  i s the  heightened  red-handed  t h e swamp  beans,  rustication  of the  Finally,  t h e swamp.  youths  harvesting  expansion by  of  l e d by t h e  ditches,  hero.  youth  for his bare.  confesses  of  a former  novel  takes  of the r u s t i c a t i o n  problems  i s s e t i n 1969.  countryside.  of this  the beginning  upon  daughter  But  that  The she  by t h e v i l l a i n .  Because  which  The  to cultivating  "revisionist"  touches  the  on  t o undermine  Fa i s caught  goods  objections  years  of  swamp.  i s the "steeling"  on t h e o t h e r  counterbalanced  strategem,  was  digging  the v i l l a i n  consciousness  his  there  and p r o j e c t s .  scheme  or "abiding  developed  o f arduous  a flood; of  division  dividing  i n the countryside or  i s  On o n e l e v e l ,  harnessing  line  "revisionism".  levels.  series  Physically,  abandoned  to the  alternatives between  boundary  the  refers  meanings.  not existent  In the l a t t e r , capitalist,  I n The D e m a r c a t i o n ,  96  place  program, i t  i n The only  Journey  Wan  i s restless this  five  problem  Lili, in  i s  the more  acute.  Yang  thinking Chuan,  of a  Landi, returning  gifted  university.  These  of  and  the  hero  thoughts" The  and  to  how  reality  "negative blamed  and  her  phenomenon be  by  the  Party  example.  and her  The  to  But  Ironically, receives  this  is  the  Youth  over"  forced  has  been  allocated  and  of  old  friend  This  plunges  Geng, him  than  to  on  Eager  secretly.  son into  farm. of  an  a  to  But  extremely  as  to  a  and used  up  these  author's  follow  seem  --  and  the  is  a be  --  Piling  Yang's  opposite.  genuine, I t makes  she those  want  to  insensible. of  attend A  up  fiction  to  part  martyr,  97  distorted  s e c r e t a r y ) who  the  and  Shanghai  condemnation.  and  eyes  people  f o r her  effect  branch  attitude  state  not  desires  unnatural  abrupt.  the  young  arranges  the  to  "bourgeois  s e t Yang  dealings.  that  League  studying to  to  i n post-1976  Yang's  appear  change  also  feel  the  purposely  order  others  go  Thought.  "negative" character,  sympathy  in  Xue  i s suppressed  returning  illegal  because  to  are  these  are  author  but,  Mao's  begins  husband.  " o p p o r t u n i s t salesman"  warn  I  more  In  upon  an  do  of  sentiment  disappears  to  with  a  longs  they  aspiration  demand.  with  villain on  cadres,  female,  find  desires,  process  the  to  professor,  corrected  parents  involved  intention  "win  genuine  human  which  misfortunes  (Geng  are  example",  by  a  individual  f i t ideological  to  of  be  five-old  Shanghai  son  the  must  twenty-  to  "correcting"  exemplifies how  a  Xue  Chuan  is  university,  he  vacancy he  finally  realizes will  have  restless  that  is his  priority.  state,  and  his  hostility  takes in  the  the  opportunity  order  to  Journey, the  toward  to  undermine  the  young  main  stir  the  In  among up  arranges  for  him  overhear  attend  countryside. into  tears  branch  secretary, I... I anymore,  Xue is  Chuan's only  but  a  change  a  Chuan's that  ashamed front  of  of  natural  Geng order  of  the  Geng  and  of  the  Geng  In  The  villain  and  personal  become  has to  the  more  the  author  given  up  stay  himself,  f i t the  outcome  against  change  a t t i t u d e , abrupt  s o l u t i o n to  villain  program.  don't want to attend not anymore![p.298 ]  forced  not  in  hatred  youths  university in  Feeling  bursts  Xue  The  Demarcation,  rusticated  speed  to  his  The  To  chance  up  i s between  complex.  to  intensifies.  rustication  conflict  people.  relationships  hero  in  Xue  the the  Chuan  Youth  League  university  and  unconvincing,  ideological  demand,  development  of  the  character. Ironically, and  Xue  are  much  receive more  Chuan  who  more  sympathy  pressure  identifies post-Mao emerge  as  are  than  post-Mao  intended  such  Wan  to  be  are  under,  It  i s not  characters figures hero  in Geng  standards,  98  Lili,  Yang  negative  hence,  so-called  principal literary  and  as  the  them.  dominant the  such  realistic,  they  with era,  contrast, by  characters  more  Landi  examples likely  p o s i t i v e ones.  the  more  the  the  Zhiqing  The  reader  s u r p r i s i n g that move  to  in  readers  and  Fiction.  Changjiong  when  i s hardly  a  the  By  judged  likeable  figure. and  No  zeal  doubt  he i s e n d o w e d  i n saving  into  fertile  only  reflects  without  the waterlogged  land,  h i s dogmatic the  Therefore,  his  not  h i s image,  reverence  for  principles, thinking, hemp  i s  on p a r t  hemp  state  farm.  The  fictional  work.  know  o f many death  characters.  has  also  The good  and  This  i s  embarrassing  writing  t h e bad guys  to face.  experience  bring  and  situation.  of  reveals economic  to  growing  i s made town  i n more  by t h e  will  need  income  to the  by t h e Communist  Party  reversed guys  the  turn  painful  role  after  fact  Zhang  a l l .  for  1975, r e p o r t i n g  o f The D e m a r c a t i o n  of  o u t t o be " n o t  a r e n o t bad  In late  does  his "ultraleft"  objection  a nearby  words  i t only  The s u g g e s t i o n  policies  good",  writers  in his  i twill  Mao's  ignorance  i t  hindsight,  and n i g h t s  terminology  that  that  Chinese  His  by  economic days  energy  and making  to  on t h e c o n t r a r y ,  shown  and hence  an  actual  post-Mao  who  Mao's  swamp  adherence  f o r seven  of the f i e l d .  reversal  after  hard  also  "revisionists" their  working  or i n  tremendous  yet h i s persistence,  considering  enhance  with  many  on h e r  Kangkang  said , T h r o u g h d e t a i l e d s u r v e y and s t u d y as w e l l as collating the material, I gradually discovered that although the line struggle i n the state f a r m was c o m p l e x and varied i t actually c o u l d b e b o i l e d down t o t h e p r o b l e m of whether t o f o l l o w the Marxist line or the revisionist line, and whether to follow s o c i a l i s m o r c a p i t a l i s m . " 19 However,  s i x years  later  (1981),  99  s h e made  the following  confession: The d e t a i l s o f t h e n o v e l m i g h t be t r u e , but the overall social contradiction was not true. This i s a product of that era and a necessary yet t w i s t i n g path f o r naive young people l i k e m y s e l f t o go through. However, b e c a u s e we w e r e s i n c e r e , we f e l t a l l t h e m o r e pained; because o u r p a t h was twisting, our f e e l i n g s were a l l the d e e p e r . 2 0 Zhang  Kangkang's  other  writers,21  who,  because  rather  than  In  of  to  short,  fiction  with  distinctive  characters their  emotions, Flowers  B.  in  were  I  the  little until  youths  IN  own  was  to  In  until  ZHIQING POST-MAO  to  heard  mid-1978 appear.  of  the  100  a to  a  young certain  be  treated  thinking  of and  Second  Hundred  AND  THEMATIC  ITS  ERA  The  Wounded  from  rusticated  The  works,  pecularities  FICTION  stage  that  formed  era.  mid-1980):  about  than  The  quantity  never  forth  ways  post-Mao  THE  ideology  i t s small  rather  right.  unveiled  OF  many  writers  to  these  bring  transitional  after  began  to  lessons  the  Chinese  protagonists  desires,  (mid-1978  During  not  in  of  i t s own.  their  RE-EMERGENCE  Stage  very  moral  of  of  reality.  as  used  confession  adhere  because  people of  sadness  of  1976,  not  DEVELOPMENT  1.  truth  unique  Movement  THE  presssure,  category  and  youth,  Party  young  ideological  the  the  before  were  like  shows  the  characters  as  confession,  fiction story  1976  to  youths. about  which  1978, It  was  rusticated marked  the  significant Xinhua's Daily the  resurgence  T h e Wound  (Wenhui agony  relation  of  which  appeared  a  with  rusticated  her mother  "traitor".  Its revelation  the  o f Four  foundation Chinese  literary  continues  for  the  vicissitudes The of  this  fate  (though that  sets  is  a  from  work  negative  story  good,  so,  to  "essence". 3 2  "liberal"  To r e f u t e  critics  and a r g u e d  said  that  "essence"  of  the  dominated  the  1981  and  tragedy were  also  The s o l e  stage.  every  and what  The  opinion  historical was  101  complaint stage,  and  hence  having  a  society  i s  i s to " d i s t o r t " i t s  criticism, this  the  dogmatists'  of socialist side  because  adverse  one a t t h i s  a term  that  Fiction.  under  literature",  this  concern political  Zhiqing  tragedy  i t s dark  s t i l l extent.  to  socialist  at this  by  laid  overwhelming  common  the "essence" expose  was  a  inflicted  due  there  a very  being  i t s particular  sector.  depicts  connotation that  social  However,  of  to a lesser  for later  exposure  o f "exposure  was  until  upon  cut o f f  Revolution  youth  of the public  the dogmatic  logic  one  an example  system.22  this  with  has  tragedy  Lu  i n Wenhui  centers  who  which  at least  was  11  accused  of family  story,  not published),  was  was  i t s influence  i t s unprecedented  opinions  who  of rusticated  reaction  socialist  female  Literature  scene  to assert  Specifically,  The p l o t  and t h e C u l t u r a l  f o r Wound  Fiction,  on A u g u s t  bao) i n Shanghai.  of  Gang  Zhiqing  comparatively was  stage  revealed  a  vulgar  has i t s  i n these  own  works  was  the "essence"  o f the era.24  Deng's  dictim  testing  t r u t h , " pointed  proved  that  and  to  there  expose  criticism people's  of  writers.  was  opinion  Xiaoping  in  helpful  in  rehabilitation Cultural theory" policy  timely  general  from  rusticated  as  appeared  in  f o r the  of  attack  to  Four.  In  i n The  preparation  were  of Deng  similarly  opinion  who  works  hooligan  was  the  f o r the  p u t f o r t h by  Wound  public cadres  and  leadership, literary  1977)  for  purged  in  the the  on " c l a s s  background  i n c l e a r i n g t h e way  f o r the  t h e need  Because  of the leadership,  i t  approval.  development  inseparable  the  as w e l l  the l a b e l s of the r i g h t i s t s .  L i t e r a t u r e matched  The  1978,  also  story  b y t h e Gang  1977.26 The  the  Modernisations.25  the leadership  reforms  has  deepen  (which  needed  in  society,  wenxue] i n November  beneficial  Its  [practice]  strengthen  of the i l l i t e r a t e  of older  o f removing  received  of this  inflicted  preparing  Revolution. was  and  Teacher  f o r education  autumn  criterion  only  the Four  [Renmin  t h e image  Teacher  public  Four  o f i t s power,  t h e "wounds"  Class  will  1977-78 t h e C h i n e s e  During  particular,  Wound  The C l a s s  applying  in socialist  t h e i n t e r p l a y between  consolidation expose  of  affirmation  Literature  reflected  reality  tragedies  to accomplish  earlier  People's  out that  Gang  critic,  i s the sole  are tragedies  the  official  the  "practice  these  spirit  The of  that  one  of  Zhiqing  the l i f e youths  o f young  who  had been  102  Fiction  i s  writers. i n the  By  also late  countryside  for  many  years  demonstrations leadership  to  stability. Central  treatment  of  the  the  of  which  they  with  young  Encouraged  by  the  were  the  Red  to  Guard  returning One  to  the  of  rehabilitated  Zhiqing In  Love  the  love  out  since  story,  like  his  that  in  and  by  Lu  had  in  the  policy  ills of  and  own  to  pursuits.  Gang  The  late  returned  social  Xinhua  the the  By  literary  the  their  of  conditions  anguish. of  to  improve  cultural  expose  (most Four),  truthfully topics  which  experience  rustication,  and  of  literature,  the  others  of  revolution  a  1978,  theme  is Liu  (Aiqing  written  life  after  103  Xinwu*s  short  weizhi) had  in  been  1977-78, theme  should  and  predominance  Revolution.28  The  love  the  de  which  Cultural  concept. and  post-Mao  Fiction,  July  Of  wiped  illustration  of  those  feature  theme.  Place  youths  caused  danger  city.  dominant  love  The  were  to  the  implemented.  relaxed  engage  example  Movement,  the  particularly  to  bitterness  them  were  new of  Plenum  to  and  The  problems  Third  favorable  leadership  the  the  policies  more  supposedly  their  appealed  after  youths  the  c i t y . 27  potential  rusticated  people  followed  depicted  cause  Committee,  of  the  rallies  accumulated  comparatively  coupled  enabled  might  rusticated  The  through  to  the  Hence,  majority  city.  city  that  program  Eleventh  1979,  return  realized  rustication national  demanded  of not  is this be  of  story  formally completely But more  this of  story  an is  mutually  exclusive better the  because  serve  Four  the  revolution  by  revival  of  artistically Kangkang's  return  everything early  element Fiction  zones", of  of  post-Mao some  subject  rustication Guards  matter life  do  of  occupy  not  done;  a  11,  1979)30  fights  protagonist  Lu  in  order  to  is  Danfeng,  show  aside  love,  her  the  one's, is  The  who  latter  an  indispensable  Guard  those  in  by her  of  into  panorama  104  From  Zhiqing  "forbidden a  variety  Movement  Stories  glorious  is  life  entitled.29  pages.  Red  the and  encompasses  Red  picture  of  in  the  of  violence  Cultural  (Feng)  tragic  aspect The  a  opposing  jumping  from  l o y a l t y to  and An  (February  Guards. faction  and  on  superstition".  Maple the  a  love.  Red  Yi's  from  career  majority  of  greater  i t stresses  become  depicts  among  takes  that  in  "modern  Zheng  which  factional  boyfriend's,  but  l o y a l t y and  example  a  a  Revolution  outstanding  marked  most  as  blind  Zhang  the  heroism,  horror,  Love,  love  revolutionary had  Of  has  present  of  Place  1979-80  the  because  1979,  citizen  which  expected,  April  breakthroughs of  context,  In  descriptions  Fiction  to  theme.  romantic  love  person  as  audience  love  to  was,  Love  fiction.  successive Zhiqing  of  each  romantic  include  With  theme  which  on, in  the  To  a  current  story  The  Right  individual  to  1979  to  The  call  an  This  the  forbidden  in  of  in  a  story  the  --  encourage  long-expectant  superior  for  can  a  breakthrough  right  latter  Modernisations.  well-received its  the  a Mao  of  female her  building and  the  revolutionary at  the  end  accused  line.  of  of  the  In  1979),31  the  belongs  tragic  The  to  another  During blamed  program  a l l  young  i n which  first  stage  mistreatment  of  unfavorable  class  Cultural  had  of  tends  aspects  in  negation  been  their to  rusticated  of  Revolution and  condemnation.  Of The  the  stories  reprove  the  "modern  from  desolation.  their  youths  mixture For  of  and  i n s t a n c e , Kong  Stream  during  the  are  generally  from  their  life  struggle  in a  harsh  stories, created  with  the  in  the  scenes  of  anguish,  bitterness  Jiesheng's  On  the second  of  The  to and  tone  2  of the  dominant  (March 1 9 7 9 ) , 3  105  rustication  revealing  these  replaced  society  on  ideals  In  anger,  the  was  Zhiqing Fiction  who  and  Four  Chinese  concentrate  The  of  constrained  rustication is  Gang  of  lives.  backgrounds  picture  is a  these  people  the  writers'  environment.  gloominess  brother  subsequent  young  (May  Through  and  that  personal aspirations  magnificent  Side  fact  dark  they  the  suppressive  h i s own  Guards,  faces  zaochen)  faction.  the  Honggang,  also  de  by  revolution  and  Li  Lu,  (Xieran  Guard Red  of  the  the  precious period  stories  of  friend  compounded  life.  most  realize  death  alienated  1977-80,  legitimized  boy  Red  Mao  which  of  for  i s further  her  Sunday  these  of  path  the  meaning  superstition" normal  when  Bloody  of  the  deification  tragedy  protagonist is killed  death  question  story  causing  execution.  who  This  these and  Other  story  on  rusticated  Wound,  youth  deals  with  vulnerability  of  vicissitudes  of  the  and  brother  topsy-turvy  to  arouse n a t i o n a l the  destruction  rusticated  politics. sister  political  criticism the  rusticated practically out  of  The the  novel  relates  how  novel  c l a s s background,  driven  to  of  the  fate  in  between  criticism  of  to  of  the  Transfer  Mingyu's  r u s t i c a t i o n and i t depicts  how  forces  flatter  and  many l e v e l s t o  the  by  negative  fusing  official The  idealistic  "bad"  an  at  portray  tragedy,  Lin's an  to  program  family  i s Zhu  to  discrimination  official  rustication  death  the  a  bribe  ease  his  countryside.  first  Movement,  f a m i l i e s and  corruption.33  to degrade h i m s e l f  every the  Xu  negation  political  youth  indirect  The  after  incest occurring  situation.  of bureaucratic  continuous  way  The  the  of  youths  i s an  ( F e b r u a r y / 1 9 7 9 ) combines  attention  Path  raped  the  Life  youth  by  of  Guard love  and  (1979) .3^  it  Juanjuan  a local  s u i c i d e i n a remote c o u n t y .  extreme c a s e ,  Red  corruption, Of  female  aspect  Her  h i g h l i g h t s the  cadre's  though d e a l i n g  with  from  cadre,  is  death,  though  serious  abuses  power. These  same  works,  kind  settings period, opposite  of  protagonists  similar are to  to  those  latter.  p r o g r a m has  completely  i n the  devastating  experience.  The  faded Hard  Cultural  glory has  physical  of  the  of  and  Revolution or  even  rustication  been r e p l a c e d labor  the  youth)  d i f f e r e n t from  and  106 i  lives  (rusticated  characteristically the  the  by  w h i c h was  a to'  be  exerted  condemned and  as  talent-.  middle  in  The  be  The  corrupt  concern or  the  pursue examples,  in  Demarcation  their  intention  type  of  Zhiqing search type By  young  The  protagonist  contrast, or  oblivion, Life),  the  the  Geng or  the  first  and  moving  but  they  The  Cui Red  stage  and  with  suffer  the  high  from  an  refinement.  1 07  us and  the  of  the  Xue  Chuan  condemned  for  Now  this  the  ideals of  endow  such  of  depicted of  as  Zhong  receded The as  Path  to Of  a  corrupt  Zhiqing  Fiction  are  spontaneous  critical  inadequacy  this  romanticism.  either  of  to  o p p r e s s i o n and  stories  degree  The  in  (villain are  to  protagonist  heroes,  impression  i s that a  and  as  or  struggle  education.  have  Guard,  general  are  and  tend  returning  s t r o n g sense  Haiying  lower-  nature  class  is time  factions.  Journey  against  Changjiong,  former  power-seekers.  a  of  and  who  reminds  whom  aspirations with  waste  with  Four  re-emerged  struggle  poor  but  higher  has  the  longer  i n The  revolutionary  like  of  This  of  a  officials  Gang  both  pursue  for individual  Weihua  of  ,  and  i s not  i s no  Lili  person  Fiction.  of  the  process  petty-mindedness  local  ideals.  Wan  to  to  countryside,  his  negative The  with  protagonist  i n the  of  conflict  supporters of  of  to  but  steeling  spirit"  reduced  central  enemy"  settling  city  is  the  laborious  "masterly  peasants  "class  of  inefficient,  ignorance. the  tests  of  realism, artistic  2.  Stage  II  ( m i d - 1 980  to  early  1 982):  Rethinking  and  Searching After  mid-1980,  vented,  the  recede.  Now,  experience,  high  young of  necessary  find  this  and  the  young  to  employment,  the  a  more  distant  roots  that  fostered  well  marriage  by  as At  look  search  life  the  two  characteristic  now  In  of  the  Red  replaced  Zhang  by  (June/1981), is  haunted  script  of  attack.  A  Li  but  a  a  writer  also  who  novella  record an  Fire  of  guilt  of  new  shihou) a  The  Guard  Movement  time  returned  in  in  of  reference  of  probing 108  this  the the  first  and  a  into  protagonist  of  the a  Clouds 36  the  novel heart-  Guard  former  stage  jingling)  burnt  Red  and  confession.  de  dies  in  stage.  horror  (February/1981). of  shift  recent  having  Sunset  to  as  and  (Huo  the  such  life  first-person  confession  intellectual  emergence  lives.  of  Spirit  was  new  concerns  of  It  their  point  subsequently  When  mere  problems  recollection  breakthrough  x i a o s h i de  the  a  rusticated  sense  greater  Ping's  (Wanxia only  by  The  that  began  past  Movement  painful  the  in  description  Guard  Kangkang's 35  same  urgent  at  the  is  for  bitter  the  Red  to  their  enough.  education,  and  violence  the  readjustment  characteristic  not  the  more  and  began  recognized  history  The  from  was  as  gradually  Literature  Four  retrospective  mark  grief  of  confronted  to  and  Wound  Revolution.  attention  Hence,  of  Gang  group  Cultural  anger  writers  the  radical  people,  their  tide  temporally  condemnation  of  with  theme  is  Diasppear  It Red  is  not  Guard,  significance  of  life,  first the  human  person home  event  of  Nanshan him  to  The  in  general)  religion  Nanshan) by  the  between  caused  "conservative"  and  revealing  is  and  of  old  scholar to  as  "crisis  be  in  This  him  on  nature  exchange  Mountain  a  long-  Nationalist  continually  faith"  a  human  the  "showing  of  infatuated.  former  shown  story  raids  into  the  The  unknowingly  causes  (as  critics  the  her  life  civilization.  Huaiping  probing  the  this  and  whom he  loose  (particularly and  Li  with  remorse.  conversation  religion  protagonist  causes  lasting  nature,  and  criticized  wrong  among  Tai  of  tendency"  contemporary  37 Chinese  youth.  exemplifies in  Despite  the  search  of  adverse  criticism,  Chinese  youths  for  this  work  new  faith  a  life. In  the  s t o r i e s on  central  rusticated  theme  is  the  life  hopeless  rusticated  protagonist  antagonists  representative  and  local  corrupt  main  action  frequently  involves  the  from  preventing higher  education  second  stage,  reduced  with  relationship community, There  or  the the among  on  i s also  the an  under  the  of  officials  youth  from  background  of  Gang  the the  aspect of  increase  in  youths receives  the  109  of  theory"  local  job.  The  cadres  institutions city  the from  Four.  of  At  the  life  is  Literature.  The  rusticated  Wound  rusticated contrary,  of  of  corrupt  a  stage,  pressure  "class  attending  decline  first  struggle  combined  t r a n s f e r r i n g to tragic  the  in  a  more  depiction  of  confined attention. the  youth-  peasant  r e l a t i o n s h i p which  has  What  also  that  is  retired in  a  noticeable  somewhat  to  comparatively In  pre-1976  presenting any  an  the  is  been  Zhiqing  among  the  first  stage,  conflict  between  local  cadres  In  second  the  leads  to  human  nature  youths.  (Dijiu  stage,  the  For  that  in  vacancy.  for  Even  a  love  Eye  Lake  protagonist  and  his  and  in  the  causes Zhiqing  a  love  people. been  to  The  betrayed  position  of have  the  girlfriend During  of  first  between  impression  been  side  dark of  a  shows  a  of  a  a  young  in  stiff  university  1981), when  In  the  they  are  betrays  her  months. stage  rarely and  that  youths'  describes  rural  rural  living  intermarriages 110  Ever  self-interest. 39  caught  urban is  And  conflict  how  friend to  of  educated  Forever  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , he  at  youths  the  (August/  for  the  emphasis  leads  are  up  urban  It  Hu)  on  themselves.  depicts  mercy  generally  thematic  story 38  by  locked the  people  of  life,  rusticated  of  that  (Longyan  be  general  there  short  is  Fiction  out  the  purpose  is  community  morality.  relationship  ruled  reality,  woods.  her  change  the  emphasis  and  depiction  at  has  portrayed  rustication  the  and  is  emperor"  even  youths  (August/1981)  Dragon  alone  of  young  confined  instance,  female  competition  the  a  friendship  rusticated  among  frequent  tianchang)  between  The  for  is  for  rusticated  In  room  or  Fiction,  avoided.  no  "local  neglected.  light.  optimistic picture  incongruity  leaves  the  background,  positive  largely  young  youths  have  circle.  between  In  these  two  groups.  depicted, loser  i t  between  by  that  Gu  of a  shenme)  elevate  the  protagonist, image Great  shabby  personally find  a  North.  He  dormitory,  see  helps  countryside; a father  unhappy  power.  i s clear:  h i s beloved first  taking  care  i n a coal the food  able  will  to The  fatherin  the  quality,  fixes  activities  young should  and  person  to  he  even  people. not  good  o f h i s s o n . Here  between  111  a  mine  young  take  (Ni z a i  cadres.  In the end,  of the p o s i t i v e  youths.  so  see the  first  assumes  youths  the Party  In 41  (June/81),  Party  leader,  t o some  and a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  rusticated  of  town.  gap  youth.  f o r an o l d e r  i n a nearby  Sister  i s betrayed  i s one o f t h e  youths  arrange  the re-emergence  members  of rural  we  increases cultural  of the story  like  girl  up w i t h Here,  improves  message  them  breaks  a newly-arrived  leading positions  the  an  (Dazixiang)  low image  assigns  in  through  n o v e l l a What A r e Y o u T h i n k i n g 42  hitherto  the  o f an u n b r i d g e a b l e  a rural  1981)  i s  and  Older  h i s f a t h e r resumes  image  (April  spouse  Lu Y a o ' s  to the c i t y .  f o r the r u s t i c a t e d Barren  relationship separation  people  Fragrance  lofty  Xiaoyan's  xiang  young  deliberately  she can r e t u r n  emergence  with  tells  after  Purple  youth  love  I t s h o w s how  youth  Fuxing's  rural  the  and u r b a n  urban  a  ends  (January/1981) rural  an  such  the r u r a l youth. 40  relationship.  Xiao a  when  frequently  i s always  (Jiejie)