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Effects of rates and methods of swine slurry application on crop N uptake and N distribution in the soil Khan, Mafiz 1986

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c.  EFFECTS  OF R A T E S A N D CROP  METHODS  N UPTAKE AND  OF  SWINE  SLURRY APPLICATION  N DISTRIBUTION  IN  THE  SOIL  by MAFIZ  THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  KHAN  IN P A R T I A L  R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E DOCTOR  FULFILMENT D E G R E E OF  OF P H I L O S O P H Y  in THE  FACULTY  OF G R A D U A T E  STUDIES  DEPARTMENT OP SOIL SCIENCE We  accept to  THE  this  the  required  UNIVERSITY  April, ®  thesis  as  conforming  standard  OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  1986 Mafiz  Khan,  1986  OF  ON  In  presenting  advanced Library agree  degree  shall that  purposes  this  the it  permission  may  financial  at  make  be  representatives. for  thesis  It  gain  for  shall  available  extensive by  the  understood not  fulfilment  University  freely  granted is  partial  The  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k Place Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5  Date:  in  be  Head that  allowed  Columbia  of 'for  British  the  requirements  for  an  C o l u m b i a , I agree  that  the  reference  copying of  of  my  copying without  of  this  and  thesis  Department or my  study.  or  publication written  for  I  further  scholarly  by  his  of  this  permission.  or  her  thesis  ABSTRACT A  three  British  year  Columbia  methods  of  availability from  to  a  to  year depth  corn  0,  163, 309  in  the  NH  cm the  silage of  application  reduced  1  N in  over  rate the  the  and  by  One were  rates)  year  followed  found  9%  a  to  the  in  0,  rates  and  on  the  538  64% of  in  330  kg  the  injected for  total  starter  N  N and  years 653  1  silage  yield  18% the to  in  1  slurry  the  of  further  compared  ha"  h a " . The  gave  as  kg  were  the  all  injection  year  653  values.  year. Addition no  to  Applicator  treatment,  Slurry  third  year  prior  and  kg  Waste  ranging  soil  173, 321  A  of  slurry  loam  Big  significantly  gave  slurry  Swine  third  test  first  of  silt  soil  to  effects  the  slurry  up  Vancouver,  and  nearly  third years  rate.  - 1  increase  month  after  in the  cm  zone  found  in  the  Maximum  in the  1  of  kg  538 and 430 increase  an  with  in  average first  broadcast  1  kg  yields  (over  year,  ha  5%  all the  application  incorporation.  15-30  indicating  ha  ha'  using  N application  yield  a  336  a p p l i e d , b a s e d on  slurry  kg  157,  application  increased  zone.  to  east  swine  supplying  kg  addition  s e c o n d and the  330  application second  In  yield  increasing rates  ha  of  P and K w e r e  Corn  430  broadcast,  time  form.  + 4  and  the  root  applied  0,  km  stored  the  year;  60  study  L.). R a t e s  first  or  in  was  (Zea,.mays  and  was  N  matter  the  methods. At  of  of  in  30  to  anaerobically  N  of  approximately  conducted of  4.98% d r y  both  amounts  been  distribution  total  second  located  application  silage  of  1  study  has  and  3.30  seeding ha  field  0-15  when root  greater  it  application cm  zone when  was  zone  of  slurry  the  injected. A  when  conservation  recovery  maximum  the  of N  concentrations  slurry  greater  slurry  slurry was  ii  NH  + 4  was  broadcast  quantity  of  was  injected  -  by  N  associated  of  the with  mineral and  mineral than  N  the was  broadcast,  injection the  in  N  80  method. t  ha-'  application  and  was  mineralization  of  obtained slurry  proportion  mineralized  (especially  temperature  Between when  80 t  rate  was  the  resulted  mainly  the  soil  organic  N  at  the  was  with  maximum The the  adjusted being  as the  leaching  use  of  N was  soil  N  the  net  and  the  ha"  1  conditions  of  N 0 ~ and  any  of  season  amounts  of 'N  increase  in  N application  over of  exceed  application  crop  yield, soil  the  amounts  found  to  N  and the  be  the major  N  losses as  well,  entering the  form  quantity  when  the  no  of  slurry  carried  in  applied  than  the  N  and  the  Slurry  be  slurry  over  the  same  for  denitrification  rate. H o w e v e r ,  was  N supply  to  influenced  16% o f  production.  higher  carried  and  the  Overwinter  of  season  injection  precipitation  greatly were  the  thought  fraction  fall  growing  were  season.  significant  amount  for  probably  3  the  30-50% when  values  were  growing  broadcast,  method  to  residual  to  b a s e d on target  t  highest  climatic  during  greater  growing  in  80  the  was  immobilization  of  carried  lost  compared  opposed  slurry  by  loss  p o o l . The the  amount  injection  N  over  N l o s s . Greater  injected  increased  of  with  determined  injected  and  indication  end  a p p l i c a t i o n . The  occurred  applied  because  from no  was  for  the  losses  was  overwinter  the  N  there  into of  of  after  moisture).  Overwinter  method  N  likely  and  method. Volatilization  mechanisms  as  was  slurry  broadcast.  broadcast  later  of  1  months  organic  6 - 2 8 % of  ha  two  case,  over did  N.  more  favourable  application  should  method  application  of  be  used. Factors  plough injection  layer  such also  as  reduced  could  have  soil  compaction  increased  method.  iii  crop  immediately  yields  as  a  below  result  of  the the  Table o f  Contents  Chapter I.  II.  Page INTRODUCTION  1  A.  Agriculture  B.  P r o b l e m s related  C.  Dynamics  D.  Specific Objectives  LITERATURE  in B.C  of  to  slurry  slurry  1  N  2 3 5  A.  Swine  slurry  management:  B.  Swine  slurry  composition  C.  Slurry  management  Factors Leaching  Factors Rate of  effecting l o s s of  Basis  of  of  affecting  slurry  General  5 6  : Nitrogen  l o s s of  Mineralization  D.  management  REVIEW  Volatilization  III.  1  flow  10  N  10  volatilization  of  NH  N  25  slurry  N  30  mineralization  of  33  determining of  slurry  38 application  N following  rate  Distribution  F.  Crop response to  G.  S l u r r y Injector - its p o s s i b l e b e n e f i c i a l p r o p e r t i e s and c r o p y i e l d  slurry  39  application  41  N  .41  OF T H E L I T E R A T U R E  IV. M A T E R I A L S  N  application  E.  SUMMARY  15  3  REVIEW  AND METHODS  effects  on  soil 43 .46 50  A.  The  soil  50  B.  The  slurry  50  C.  Inorganic  D.  Herbicides  fertilizers  55 55  iv  E.  Field methods  F.  Calibration  G.  Weather  of  the  equipment  condition of  between  and slurry  slurry  application  application,  57  incorporation  and  seeding  H.  Soil  sampling  I.  Locating  J.  Plant  K.  Laboratory  methods  65  L.  Statistical  analyses  65  AND DISCUSSION  68  V. RESULTS  corn  62  injection  A.  Corn yield  B.  Injection  C.  Crop  D.  Soil  E.  Volatilization  F.  Mineralization  G.  Percent  H.  N balance  I.  Root  zones  68 effect  on  corn  yield  77  N uptake mineral  80  N  94  of  N due  of  soil  accountable  to  broadcast  and slurry  slurry  treatment  organic  109  N  111  N  117 119  response  to  slurry  N application  129  AND CONCLUSIONS  130  CITED  133  Appendix  1. F i e l d d e s c r i p t i o n  Appendix  2. S e l e c t e d p h y s i c a l  of  the  and  soil  used  chemical  in the  study  properties  of  161  soil  used  in  research, 1981-1983  Appendix  3. R a t i o n s  Appendix  4. Crop  Appendix  4.1  Appendix 5 1983)  64 64  method  LITERATURE  thesis  .....59  sampling  VI. S U M M A R Y VII.  55  supplied  N uptake  C r o p N uptake C r o p N uptake  162  to  the  animals  and  dry  matter  and dry  matter  163 yield  (1981)  yield  and T K N b r o a d c a s t  and  (1982  164 and  injected  1983) (1982  165 and 166  v  A p p e n d i x 6. S o i l N H / and N 0 - N c o n t e n t b e f o r e and 1, 2 and m o n t h s a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f s w i n e s l u r r y (1982 and 1983.)  4  3  A p p e n d i x 7. C o n c e n t r a t i o n of N H * and N O y s l u r r y a p p l i c a t i o n (1982, 1983.) 4  N after  120 t  ha-  167 1  swine 168  A p p e n d i x 8. W e e k l y r a i n f a l l r e c e i v e d b y the e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t e f o r the p e r i o d O c t o b e r 1981 to A p r i l 1982 and O c t o b e r 1982 t o A p r i l 1983 A p p e n d i x 9. S o m e s e l e c t e d s o i l T K N and o r g a n i c the three y e a r s o f s l u r r y a p p l i c a t i o n  N d a t a at  A p p e n d i x 10. C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f experiment  slurry  P and K in s w i n e  the  end  169 of 170  u s e d in  the 171  vi  LIST OF TABLES Table  Table  Table  Page  1. N u t r i e n t and several studies  dry  matter  content  of  pig  slurry  used  in 8  2 . E s t i m a t e d n i t r o g e n l o s s e s ( N H / - N ) during s t o r a g e , t r e a t m e n t and h a n d l i n g f o r v a r i o u s m a n u r e m a n a g e r i a l s y s t e m s ( S u t t o n , 1981). 13  Table  Table  Table  3. N i t r o g e n l o s s f r o m s w i n e a p p l i c a t i o n ( S u t t o n , 1981)  5. P e r c e n t a g e o f arable  land  nitrogen  6. C o m p o s i t i o n  Table  7. R a t e s o f  Table  8. S p r i n g W e a t h e r  Table  Liquid  inorganic  Experimental 9. Rate o f  of  Swine  fertilizer  conditions  Slurry  from  field 16  leaching f r o m  Slurry  animal  manure  K o l e n b r a n d e r , 1978 U s e d in the  28  Experiment  applied during  53 56  1 9 8 1 , 1982 a n d  1983 at  the  Application  61  10. P a r t i t i o n i n g of s u m o f s q u a r e s and d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m f o r plant and s o i l f o r 1 9 8 1 , 1982 and 1983 1 1 . C o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n in c r o p d r y m a t t e r y i e l d and N u p t a k e at d i f f e r e n t s a m p l i n g d a t e s f o r the s l u r r y a p p l i c a t i o n r a t e s u s e d in 1 9 8 1 , 1982 and 1983  13. C a l c u l a t e d F v a l u e s f o r Square Error T e r m s ( 1 9 8 l )  Table  of  60  Table  Table  method  site  12. S i l a g e C o r n D r y  Table  by  volatilization  condition).  Table  Table  by  14  lost  (equilibrium  Table  .Table  as a f f e c t e d  4 . N i t r o g e n l o s s e s due t o a m m o n i a s p r e a d m a n u r e (Turner, 1975)  on  Table  slurry  Matter  Yield  67  69 71  M e a s u r e d C r o p R e s p o n s e s and  Mean 72  14. C a l c u l a t e d F v a l u e s f o r M e a s u r e d C r o p R e s p o n s e s and S q u a r e E r r o r T e r m s (1982, 1983)  Mean 73  15. G r o w i n g s e a s o n w e e k l y a v e r a g e m a x i m u m and m i n i m u m air t e m p e r a t u r e s and t o t a l r a i n f a l l (1 M a y - 30 S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 8 1 , 1982 and 1983)  76  16a. D r y m a t t e r p l a n t i n g (1982).  yields  78  16b. D r y  yields  planting  matter  at  at  different  sampling  different  sampling  dates  dates  after  after  (1983)  Table  17A. C r o p N uptake  Table  17B. P e r c e n t  recovery  79 ( 1 9 8 1 , 1982 a n d of  slurry  1983)  N ( 1 9 8 1 , 1982 a n d vii  82 1983)  83  Table  Table  Table  18. P l a n t N c o n c e n t r a t i o n and c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n at d i f f e r e n t s a m p l i n g p e r i o d s f o r the s e v e r a l r a t e s o f s l u r r y in 1 9 8 1 , 1982 and 1983 19. P e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in slurry a p p l i c a t i o n rates  c r o p N uptake o v e r the u s e d in 1 9 8 1 , 1982 and  control 1983  for  used 84 the 85  20. P e r c e n t c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n in s o i l m i n e r a l N m e a s u r e m e n t s at d i f f e r e n t s a m p l i n g d a t e s f o r the 0, 80 and 120 t h a r a t e s o f s l u r r y u s e d in the e x p e r i m e n t in 1982 and - 1  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  Table  1983. 98  2 1 . C a l c u l a t e d F v a l u e s f o r S o i l N H / and N 0 - - N C o n c e n t r a t i o n s and M e a n S q u a r e E r r o r T e r m s (1981)  99  22. C a l c u l a t e d F v a l u e s f o r S o i l N H and N G y - N C o n c e n t r a t i o n s and M e a n S q u a r e Error T e r m s (1983)  100  23. S o i l mineral nitrogen ( A m m o n i u m 2 and 4 m o n t h s a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n of and 1983)  101  3  +  4  + N i t r a t e ) b e f o r e and 1, s w i n e s l u r r y ( 1 9 8 1 , 1982  24. M i n e r a l N c o n t e n t of the s o i l ( 0 - 1 5 and 1 5 - 3 0 c m ) 1 m o n t h a f t e r s l u r r y a p p l i c a t i o n and N l o s s e s due to b r o a d c a s t treatment  110  2 5 . A m o u n t of s o i l and s l u r r y o r g a n i c N m i n e r a l i z e d f r o m i n j e c t i o n t r e a t m e n t at d i f f e r e n t s a m p l i n g p e r i o d s (1982 and  112  26. S o i l and  +  Crop  N content  at  different  sampling  periods  1983). (1982  1983)  116  Table  27. Percent  accountable  Table  28. N i t r o g e n  Balance -  1981  Experiment  120  Table  29. Nitrogen  Balance -  1982  Experiment  122  Table  30. N i t r o g e n  Balance -  1983  Experiment  123  Table  31. C a r r y - o v e r  Table  32. N balance  N and after  slurry  N (1981,  overwinter  slurry  and  1983)  N l o s s e s (1981,1982  application  viii  1982  for  3 years  and  118  1983)  125 127  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Figure  Figure  Figure  Page  1. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n d r y m a t t e r s l u r r y (Tunney and . M o l l o y , 1975)  and n i t r o g e n  content  from  liquid  dairy  cattle  5. L a t e s t prior  to  crop  6. A g i t a t o r  Figure  7. B i g A  F i g u r e 8. S o i l Figure  Figure Figure  (rough in  pasture) grown  experimental  29  site  1981  51  u s e d in m i x i n g the  slurry  54 58  S a m p l i n g plan, Direction of of  Swine Slurry  S e e d i n g and S l u r r y T r e a t m e n t .  A p p l i c a t i o n Rate on  74 N Uptake and Dry  Matter  Y i e l d (1981)  R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n N U p t a k e and D r y M a t t e r Y i e l d (1982 1983) R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n N U p t a k e and T K N B r o a d c a s t (1982 1983)  Figure  13. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n  Figure  14. V e r t i c a l and lateral 120 t h a - o f s l u r r y in 1  ..63  S i l a g e C o r n Dry  Yield  10. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n  11. and F i g u r e 12. and  o n the  1973)  Waste Applicator  9. E f f e c t Matter  11  22  ploughing  Figure  of  manure (Beauchamp  F i g u r e 4. N i t r o g e n l o s s e s on g r a s s land v s annual q u a n t i t y o f c h e m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r n i t r o g e n a p p l i e d ( G a r w o o d and T y s o n , Figure  pig 9  2. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n d r y m a t t e r and s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y c a t t l e and p i g s l u r r y (Tunney and M o l l o y , 1975) 3. A m m o n i a f l u x et a l . , 1978)  of  N U p t a k e a n d T K N Injected  N distribution 1982  following  (1982  injection  and  89  90 92 1983). 93  of 95  Figure  15. A m m o n i u m  and N i t r a t e  N distribution  (1 m o n t h  Figure  16. A m m o n i u m  and N i t r a t e  N distribution  (2 m o n t h s  later,  1982)  ...104  Figure  17. A m m o n i u m  and N i t r a t e  N distribution  (3 m o n t h s  later,  1982)  ...105  Figure  18. A m m o n i u m  and N i t r a t e  N distribution  (1 m o n t h  Figure  19. A m m o n i u m  and N i t r a t e  N distribution  (2 m o n t h s  later,  1983)  ...107  Figure  20. A m m o n i u m  and Nitrate  N distribution  (3 m o n t h s  later,  1983)  ...108  ix  later,  later,  1982)  1983)  103  106  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I  am  deeply  and  wise  my  study  counsel at  Supervisory for  their  indebted  for  helping  used and  in  Committee;  Dr.  are  due  with  during  my  many  happy  also L.  his  the  crop  I wish  degree  to  criticism  of  to  the  this  Big  A  Waste  Barry  this  and  the  thank  B.C.  w i t h their  wife,  my  sons  father,  of  and  also  of  my  members Mr.  of  R.  Plant  Caroline and  Langley  the  guidance  Bertrand  thesis.  Ministry  providing  my  To  of  his  research  other  Applicator  Baehr  for  R. B u l l e y , and  a n a l y s i s ; M r . R. J e s i a k  program.  moments  grateful  E. L o w e , D r .  Branch for to  greatly  Dr. G . W . E a t o n , D e p a r t m e n t  research; Mr.  Management  Finally  to  statistical  me  the  contributed  and c o n s t r u c t i v e  in  seeding  Property  U.B.C.  s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. A . A . B o m k e  have am  Thanks advice  which  my  I  help  his  to  for  of  Science  Farms, Langley  providing  the  preparing  Agriculture  experimental  slurry  the and  field Food,  site.  Rezia, for  her  support  Shuman  and  Samuel, who  I dedicate this  for  thesis.  and  patience missed  I.  A.  Agriculture  An  been  in B . C .  important  production,  most  90%  of  and  British  Columbia  1982).  In  1976,  to  the  the  B.  in  the  Problems  and  is  These most  and  average  in  K 0.  The  animal  producers these  have  spreading  manure  on  disposal.  Secondly  they  known  size  of  nature  of  area  (Van  this of  Southwestern its  with  variety  about  (Van  total  farm  of  22,000  Kleeck  and  agricultural  15 h e c t a r e s ,  agriculture  has  in  for  small  It  dairy  the  was  Valley. the  population  30%  livestock  7 5 % of  5%  1,500,000  had  that  livestock  50,000  tonnes  economic and  serious  their  of  or  126 h e c t a r e s . The  Khan,  confinement  producers  produced  well  farm  Fraser  swine,  hectares is  intensive  compared  size  in t h i s  reflects  region.  management  of  (Bomke  are  Valley  of  Lower  B.C. farm  intensive  a total 2  area  total  (1978) e s t i m a t e d  as  meat  is  total  population  Fraser  t o slurry  $30 m i l l i o n  of  a  size  the  91,000  The  the  average  contains  produced  About  p r o v i n c e . The  holdings  potassium  exceeds  of  in  province's  poultry  has  Lower  related  Barber province  1/3  agriculture  located  farms. It  B.C.  the  and  in  the  provincial  numerous  is  1982).  is  farms,  Johnson,  holdings  eggs  resources.  on  of  50% of  Johnson,  agricultural living  which  that  the  Kleeck  aspect  of  estimated  and  INTRODUCTION  do  of  of  1983). A  systems  large  such  an  own  farms  and  as  for  are  often  in  conflict  of  swine  problems.  rely  year  nutrients  portion  adequate must  per  phosphorus  these  management  have  1  produced  nitrogen,  value  manure not  waste  amount on  other  with  their  in  as  the P 0 , 2  5  probably  the  manure  and  poultry.  First  of  all,  land  for  farmers  for  of  nonfarming  2  neighbours to  due t o  establish  improve  noxious  more  odours. These  precisely  recommendations  problems  have  value  livestock  the e c o n o m i c  f o r land  spreading  of  stimulated  research  wastes  and to  procedures.  C. Dynamics of slurry N Animal plus  smaller  bedding.  of  conditions urine  the  Usually,  entirely  are rapidly  half  being  systems.  absent  to  loss  losses  by NhV  surface from  sampled NH/-N  loss  of  surface a from  material  as  waste  feed  hand  from  the  N  is  <  forms,  period  but urea  of  injection  of  present  as  varying  depending  and s o m e  N  in  NH„ ,  portion  systems. of  reported  on  the  Salter total that  on  with  fresh  swine  d a y s . Little  form.  inorganic  forms  handling  as  types  volatile down  15% b y  reported  manure  Fisheries  in  an a  information  s y s t e m s . Sutton  is  and  reported  upon  in  inorganic  and Schollenberger N  organic  variation  Agriculture,  a l . (1979)  ploughing  a l . (1981)  labile  the N in the m a n u r e  depending  et  application  et  of  of  depending  the other  +  et a l . , 1 9 7 8 ; M i n i s t r y  and G i l b e r t s o n  8  plus  is c o n s i d e r a b l e  3  5% in c o m p a r i s o n  applied  these  sources  N H . There  atmosphere,  Hoff  all  and  b y the a n i m a l , the N in the f a e c e s a n d  significant  (1975)  such  contains  various  proportion  the  50% loss  application.  over  a n d urine  and  the  reported  in  +  faeces  10-75 % respectively  Vanderholm  4  of  to  (1975)  spreading. NH -N  as a mixture  converted  and treatment  (1931)  other  in o r g a n i c  1976). A  Vanderholm  management  water  (Evans  to  1 0 - 9 9 % and  Heck  of  (M.A.F.F.,  subjected  the  organic  collection. A s voided  about  Food  other  on  composition  generally  of  slurry  is a l m o s t  both  of  additional  of  compounds  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  amounts  Animal  amounts  and  manure  storage  N  losses  of  manure  (1939);  ammonia manure  disking  after  and 3 0 - 9 0 % of  house  available (1981)  and  resulted  82.5% loss green  is  the study  regarding  and Hoff  et  3  al.  (1981)  and of  reported  3.5  et  than  Frederick and  a l . (1981); (1983)  (1958);  Information distribution  in  scarcely  Southwestern under  field  Gasser  the the  Ross  swine  slurry  and  and  10-25%  over  a  period  et  al.  (1982)  soil  available British  with  respect  (especially  Columbia)  as  Smith  to  injection  under  the  they  on  N,  have  slurry  the  or  injected  Mcintosh  retention,  injected its  into  and  reaction the  soil.  transformation broadcast  cool, not  was  (1958);  ammonia  manure  Sutton  when  reported  aqueous of  (1981);  yields  and  (1975)  availability  humid  been  and  applications condition  studied  of  adequately  Objectives  objectives  of  thesis slurry  present  Compare  2. S t u d y  the  applied the  swine  two  Crop  different  c)  over  slurry  methods  to;  broadcast  application  relationship  between  of  dry  effects  N  uptake  and  dry  time  Vertical  the  of  slurry  and  four  rates  of  on;  matter  production  at  dates quantity  w i t h i n the and  quantity  production.  application  their  incorporation  and  matter  evaluate  sampling  plus  the  to  b) C h a n g e s in N  and  and s i l a g e c o r n  compared a)  research were  injection  of  research N were  the  methods  N  swine  and  Guest  corn  McDowell  anhydrous  1.  the  injection  condition.  Specific  The  In  from  broadcast  and  higher  applied.  of  on  Klausner  reported  surface  distribution  are  surface  loss  days.  Beauchamp  rather  D.  0-2.5% N H / - N  10-16%, respectively, from  Safley and  0 - 2 % and  soil  lateral  and  form  profile  of  soil  and  slurry  and  distribution  of  N  shortly  4 following  manure  injection.  II.  A.  Swine  slurry  From 1983"  management:  the  (average  moisture  Columbia about  from  9% o f  it  available  the  80%)  livestock  total  in  BCMAF  has b e e n e s t i m a t e d  content  the  REVIEW  General  information  and B a r b e r , 1978  LITERATURE  or  of  and  about  wastes  that  are  poultry  18% o f  "Farm about  Statistics, wet  annually  in  Swine  slurry  Food  6 million  produced  industry. the  and  slurry  produced  tons British  represents  in  confinement  systems. With are on  few  employed a  short  whole,  manure  Total  slurry  used  swine  slurry  in  unit  to  late  North of  In  the  its  in  total  and  that  occasionally  province  handled of  as  Almost as  a  this  operation  of  less  this  is  all  goal  treated  75% of  utilized  is  rather  where  than  a  liquid.  emphasizes disposal  large  1/4  ranges  to  the good  1978).  and  early  farming  1960's  a  to  remain  increasing  C o l u m b i a to  output. The  very  5  series  communities.  decreased, livestock  1970's,  the  achievement  one  than  operations  British  stored  and  operations.  River, probably  less  (Barber,  American  late  industry  increase  and  1950's  their  is  industry  Fraser  operators,  commercial  excluding  the  confined. Open  Considering  however,  swine  and  production  in  totally  time  herds.  spreading  in the  into  part  used  possible;  recovered  intensify  agricultural to  is  reality,  the  most  business.  and  is  is  B . C . are  by  breeding  land  as a fertilizer  Around  had  In  discharged  advantage  for  for  in  basis  bedding  an a t t i t u d e  is  each  basis  recovery  slurry  on  limited  no  utilization.  place  a  or  swine  than  on  time  little  spoiled by  exceptions, swine  the  producers  improve  was its  of  changes profit  found  competitive  pressure  success  As  of  margin  that  and  stay  exerted  production agriculture  took  on  they in the  efficiency in  meeting  6  this  challenge  has  resulted  livestock  production  on, more  and  rural  areas  non-existent trying  to  setting  but  few  the been  and  beside  neighbour  some  land-based  and  volumes  slurry  a A  tanks,  coupled  research  opportunity  slurry  for  The consequently,  many  that  majority  the  towns  neighbours  of  the  be  profit  for of  of  need  swine  farms  less  than  move  less  that  is  slurry  collected  and  reliable  required in s w i n e  production  problem to  the  rural  small.  Only  input  other  than  few  years  have  past  handling  one  farm  small  of to  large another,  problems.  inexpensive  handling  either  themselves  are  labour  in  the  life.  farms  from  months  the  were  hectares. Intensification,  two  at  going  recognize  enjoyed  of  in the  than  both  way  was  found  who  resulted  and p o l l u t i o n  to  by-laws  time  8  have  began  poultry  full  to  slurry  rural  confinement  intensification  or  and  of  producers  warrant  of  size  Zoning  livestock  farming  odour  swine  will  B. S w i n e slurry  factors  the  odours  the  size  and  l a n d . Lack  aggravated  and live.  realities  specialized  usually  with  the  properties  transportation,  producing  of  of  established on  closed  of  to  the  this  s p e a k i n g , B.C. l i v e s t o c k  family.  of  a  places  in  when  cities  inadequate  are  Most  the  or  farms  creating  a time  desirable  not  of  in  increase  as  farm  owner's  an  systems. At  more, people  Relatively a  in  of  the  convert  is and  is  in  swine  industry.  on  for  spreading  disposal  earthen  spread  opportunities and  the  stored  forage disposal,  sites A  or  have  great  problem  to  deal an  production.  composition  nutrient its  influence  and  potential the  production, collection  dry  matter  fertilizer  nutrient and storage  content  value  can  composition prior  to  land  of vary  of  swine  slurry,  considerably.  swine  slurry  application. They  Several  during are:  and  it's  7  The  level  certain  of  feed  in the  rations  swine  and  slurry.  factor  contents  studies  are  of  level  rations  for  in  of  slurry  feed  the  in  it  in  mainly  depending  that  20  the  to  how  the  is a d d e d or  removed  and  (1975)  content  Molloy of  relationship  between  Tunney  Molloy  the dry  swine  is  of  is  from  the  and  period  illustrated  how  et  the  most  type  of  and  dry  in  two  several  years.  among  Undiluted  fast  The  values  He  the  farms  swine  slurry  a l . , 1973).  handled, especially  This the  value amount  tank. dry  highly  the  is  the  addition,  on  used  of  slurry  water.  that  were  In  processes.  slurries  the  influence  field.  concentration  (O'Callaghan  slurry  slurry  influence  a  with  reported  matter  (1975) -  over  application  can  slurry  the  land  an  of  of  of  antibiotics  the  swine  absence  and  to  biological  of  farms  matter  spillage  composition  dilution  9% d r y on  have  natural  or  composition  concerns with  hauled  composition  the  nutrient  water  temperature,  1.  variation  are  slurry  nutrient  presence  a r s e n i c , sulphur  u s e d . S o m e nutrient  sampled  spillage  the  the  and  in T a b l e  (1977)  and  salts, copper,  the  system  animal  of  during  system  of  reflected  in  affecting  and w a t e r  be  particularly  approximately  and  and t y p e  amount  and s t o r a g e  conditions  swine  will  fed  handling  feed  summarized  wide  change  Mg  in  of  number  Tunney and  Age  ration  waste  selected  attributed  water  5.  of  a  Tunney  can  Climatic  nutrients  management  contains  4.  decomposed  matter  and  Amount  The  of  is  influential  observed  3.  of  subsequently  conditions,  slurry  waste  Types  examples,  concentration  the  2.  additives  As  climatic  Composition  nutrient  slurry.  of  1.  N  matter  and  positively  content  in F i g . 1.  of  the  N, P, Ca  correlated. swine  slurry  The -  Table 1. Nutrient and dry matter content of pig slurry used i n several studies.  % AUTHOR DM  N  Lanza, 1977  2.4  0.30  Boschi et a l . , 1977  2.4  Sutton et a l . , 1978  NE\-N  P  K  —  0.06  0.25  0.26  0.13  0.06  0.25  2.4  0.32  0.18  0.09  0.13  Sutton et a l . , 1982  6.1  0.47  0.28  0.15  0.17  Kofoed, 1977  6.8  0.68  0.48  0.16  0.27  Tunney, 1977  8.0  0.43  —  0.18  0.20  Flowers and Arnold, 1983  8.4  0.42  0.24  —  —  RELATIONSHIP B E T W E E N DRY MATTER CONTENT  AND NITROGEN  O F PIG S L U R R Y  (Tunney ft M o l l o y , 1975)  8  12 %  DRY  16 MATTER  (Figure 1 ) CO  10  Tunney between  dry  Tunney the  C.  Molloy  matter  and  and  Molloy  specific  gravity  Slurry  the  person  contained animal  in  The  balance  in  manure N  production  Volatilization  NH  animal  is  exceeded  et  loss  of  only  established  (Lauer  3  in  in or  third N  most and  2  et  impact  acidity  concentration  components  the  of  person  N  times  and  more by  the  50  year  1  year  - 1  person-  1  of  1  is as  year , 1  N is  flow  kg  1  is  contained  h u m a n s , the  air  spread  complex  from on  a l . , 1982), f r o m  decomposing  the  in  3  of  N  fate  in  food  NH  of  The  3  1976;  chemistry, is  not  sulphur  (Beilke rain et Hoff  et  well  effect in  atmosphere  acid  faeces  troposphere,  a possible  (Denmead al.,  the  atmosphere  the  and  pastures et  1980).  suggests  NH  smog  (Lauer  al.,  oxidation  sulfates  grazed  soil  by  of  in  in  3  (1973)  of  species et  NH  produced  are  et  kg  to  N person"  N  protein  N  (Levine  2  1971)  Beauchamp  nine  importance  N 0  McKay,  manure  matter  chain, about  kg  kg  , 36  animal  abundant  the  animal  as  a l . , 1976). R a s o o l  Increasing  into  4  feed  slurry. Since  of  moves  dry  from  farms.  food  and 40  consume  animal  formation  3  of  human  production  aerosol  NH  2 , as t a k e n  between  a number  in the  consumed  environmental  that  Figure  relationship  N  neutralizing  atmosphere.  slurry.  close  flow  considerable  by  and  similar  a l . , 1976).  the  movement,  NH  is  of  (Lauer  is  3  than  from  Humans  manure  of  a  relationship  N flowing  feed.  in  manure  of  the  slurry  : Nitrogen  animal  protein.  animal  shows  swine  observed  gravity  is u s e d in c r o p  1  contained  of  of  also  specific  quantities  year  1  (1975)  (1975)  management  Of N  and  of the  causes  al.,  1975;  (Dawson,  1977).  a l . , 1976),  from  et  (MacDiarmid  al., and  1981; Watkin,  RELATIONSHIP  I.QO-1  0  I  i  BETWEEN  DRY  1  — i  4  MATTER  1  8 %  DRY  MATTER  (Figure 2)  AND  1  12  1  1  16  12  1972)  ,  from  (Hutchinson al.,  et  1979;  (Malo  cattle  Stutte  Purvis,  (Denmead  et  is  in  Volatilization if  Measures N  does  on 2  loss and  the  form  lot  systems When  irrigation  of  NH  stored  and  surface  applied  such  of  gain loss  cost  is  lagoons  exposed  NH  is  3  N  is  incorporation. application  magnitude and  of  N  quickly  lost  to  manure  On and  fertilizer systems  for  the  of  the  slurry  is  other  if  will  incorporation,  be and  ground lost  by  occurs  of  slurry  methods Tables  treatment  units  time.  as g a s  in  in  housing  the  using  where  Nitrogen and  a tanker  (Vanderholm, or  there  determined also  cost  in  in  open  storms.  incorporation, a significant  loss  be  fertilizer.  indicated  open  (volatilized)  injected  hand,  must  application  considerable  rain  c a n be  3  a  air  and  manure or  slurry  N.  ( 1 9 8 J ) , are  from  NH -N  when the  that  ditches  during  is s p r e a d o n top  lost  so  loss  weather  slurry  inexpensive  Sutton  and o x i d a t i o n the  nuisance  production.  potential  be  from  crop  as  management  greatest  to  plants  the  acceptance  inorganic  taken  leached from slurry  should  various  N , as  further  of  soil  accelerate  from  from  to  and  may  volatilization  3  NH  is  et  a l . , 1943).  of  3  lots  the  stimulate  loss  soil  application  may  for  or  The  N  water  fertilizer  little  manure  inorganic  by  into  1969)  as  s y s t e m , 30-90% of no  et  Viets,  absorbed  3  of  1  and  moves  3  utility  manure  of  L"  NH  feed  a l . , 1 9 7 8 ; Farquhar  has  such as  manure  mg  et  cattle  that  effects  the  (Hutchinson  consequence  3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The  systems  (Denmead  Alternatively,  NH  from  N  e x c e e d the  of  1982),  of  reduce  not  1979).  (Sawyer  al.,  crops  water  0.3  serious  slurry  to  The  1964),  lakes  most  dispersal  reduced  al.,  because  blooms The  et  from  et  a l . , 1978). A t m o s p h e r i c  eutrophification algae  (Vallis  a l . , 1982), a n d  and  and  urine  by  broadcast is  a  1975). with  time  amount  of  the  time  environmental  wagon  lag  Virtually  immediate between  N c a n be lag  or  lost.  between  conditions  over  Table 2.  Estimated nitrogen losses (NH^-N) during storage, treatment and handling for various manure managerial systems (Sutton, 1981).  System  % Nitrogen loss  Deep p i t or above ground storage  <  to 30  Earthen storage p i t  20 to 40  Anaerobic  70 to 80  lagoon  Oxidation ditch  70 to 90  Bedded confinement  20 to 40  Open l o t  40 to 60  Daily scrape and haul  15 to 35  T a b l e 3.  N i t r o g e n l o s s from swine s l u r r y as a f f e c t e d by method o f a p p l i c a t i o n ( S u t t o n , 1981).  Method o f Application  Type o f Waste  NII1+-N loss  % 15 - 30 10 - 25  Broadcast  solid liquid  Broadcast W/Cultivation  solid liquid  1-5 1-5  Injection  liquid  0-2  Irrigation  liquid  30 - AO  15  that  period. A n  Turner  example  surface  N  swine  recorded  loss  losses  is  Factors effecting  presented  volatilization  lost  within  in  Table  of  l o s s of  help  in u n d e r s t a n d i n g  1.  Total  3  of N H  NH . A  4  of  following  with  19.5 k m  hr  losses  22°C  after  be l o s t  after  of  more  temperature,  (Hoff  1  et  conditions  24 h o u r s  days  a l . , 1981).  are  surface  right.  A  application  (Sutton,1981).  3  soil  the  study  75% may  three  conditions,  weather  first  and  measures to  content  of  d i s c u s s i o n of  3  the  field  if  the  slurry,  30% w i t h i n  greenhouse  d a y s , about  volatilization  NH -N  a  about  under  considerable  three  number  be  slurry  during  be  N is  50%). A f t e r  can  and s i m u l a t e d w i n d  can  the  A  of  humidity  of  losses  +  4  80% were  majority (about  NH -N  application  50% relative Thus,  such  (1975). Although  than  of  environmental some  be t a k e n  slurry  and  of to  the  important  reduce  partial  factors  such  pressure  affect  ones  will  losses.  of  NH  3  in  the  air. 2.  Slurry  application  3.  pH of  the  4.  Buffering  5.  Soil  and air  6.  Soil  texture  7.  Cation exchange capacity of  8.  Presence of  9.  Wind  Partial  and  capacity  and d e p t h  application  slurry of  the  temperature  free  of  CaC0  3  soil and s o i l  the  moisture  soil  and N H  3  loss  speed  p r e s s u r e and N H , l o s s NH  partial  soil  rate  3  volatilizes  pressure  from  gradient  the  manure  (Lauer  et  to al.,  the  atmosphere  1976;  because of  Avnimelech  and  a  Laher,  16  Table 4.  Nitrogen losses due to ammonia v o l a t i l i z a t i o n from f i e l d spread manure (Turner, 1975).  Fresh Manure , Time between application and incorporation. 1-4  days, dry s o i l  directly field  Fraction of t o t a l N l o s t  % 35  7 days or more, warm dry s o i l  50  1-4  15  days, warm wet s o i l  spread  7 days or more, warm wet s o i l  30  '7 days or more, cool wet s o i l  10  17  1977;  Bouldin  high  total  manure after  al.,  and  stages  very  of  NH  from  urea  characterize  first  subjected  to  drying  losses  occur  Slurry  over  application  rate  amount  period  (Mather  and  percentage shallower the  drying  N  time  of  responsible  in  manure. stage  days,  the  very  begin  fraction  (>  a  pNH  high  as  the  hypothesized first pNH  the  after  high  of  3  stage values  3  of  <1  volatilization  3  The  immediately  Halflives  NH  large  that  can  Peters  total  N  day  losses,  manure  spreading.  75%)  volatilized  from  the  into  the  soil  by  the  of  and lost  through  increasing  of  NH  is  Third in  3  in with  of  the  rate N  given  its  1976).  the  application A  greater from  a  slurry  under  Beehler,  1982).  Rapid  is  thought  losses.  of  slurry  same  decreased NH depth  a  volatilization  and  shallower  results  of  Reddell,  (Moore  amount  from  rate  application  humidity  NH„ c o m p o u n d s  reduction  is  heavier  and  be  effected  1970;  slurry  1976).  by  or  differential  and K i s s e l ,  2-4  manure  manure. The  facility  this  of  the  1970).  maintain  a l . (1976)  bovine  the  for  magnitude  the  increase  Second  in a  than  temperature the  manure  of  driven  3  in  of  is  slurry  application  same  fold  Ludington,  and N H , l o s s  Stewart, the  the  Drying  from  NH  losses.  of  of  of  of  after  of  and  a l . , 1976). Lauer et  either  lost.  a  et  half-lives  has b e e n  The  pH  several  loss  stage  by  manure  a  hydrolysis  characterized  stage  and  volatilization  3  initial  Hashimoto  ambient.  pH (Lauer  rapid  resulting  to  causes  its  and  content  relative  3  spreading  three  1974;  ammonia  pNH  manure  is  et  to  be  Incorporation 3  losses  with  incorporation  of the  (Fenn  18  pH and N H , l o s s pH pH f o r  and  NH  NHj  volatilization  volatilization  3  are  very  much  is c o n s i d e r e d t o  be  related.  greater  than  and K o l e n b r a n d e r , 1 9 6 5 ; W e b b e r  and L a n e , 1969), w i t h  retarded  increased  (Olsen  and et  al.,  fertilization increases higher  with pH  1976). for  exchange  complex  increased  of  gaseous  2.5  L of  OH  of  respectively  Ca(OH)  or  3  was  volatilized  NH  3  was  reduced  H : +  and  slurry  a pH  applied to  capacity is  of  which  of  7.0 over  varied  manure were  were  in a  the  with  of  (being the  3.5 only  pH  one  at  +  causes and  of  the  containing at  the  7, 8 and  1,  5  and  and  65% of  the  days. Volatilization slurry  of  time.  dissociation  of  NH  from  slurry  applied  same period  12 30%  loss  was  when  rate  at  soil 7.8  pH  volatilization  added  be  the  higher  volatilization  14%)  which  Peters  cylinders  was  of  after  3  favouring  with  pH  7.3  up  NH -N  NH„  greenhouse, nearly  period  (pH 6.4) f o r  of  to 3  go  that  maintaihed  found  a  to  being  C a - s a t u r a t i o n of  from  significantly  slurry  significantly  soil  N  R o b i n s o n , 1969). N H  a l . , 1981). W h e n  3  losses  HCI  be the  (Harmsen  above  1960;  indicated  solution  pH o f  (Edward swine  soil  goes  increased  adsorption  and the  NH  NH  the  8.0  releases  Massey,  loss could less  pH  the  favourable  nitrification  tends  and  (1960)  poultry  2  pH  and  fresh  having  Buffer  in  the  hydrolysis,  Massey  activity  soil  was  and  which  Soil  (Ernst  3  3  addition  et  NH  volatilization  to  as  et» a l . , 1972)  and, therefore,  -  57 g p e r . d a y  (Hoff  upon  NH . Volatilization  water  broadcast  of  Ernst  1970).  Urea,  (Watkins  higher  or  Stewart,  urea.  volatilization  reasons  by  volatilization  3  1970;  soil  Reddell,  of  NH  A  pH to  a  applied loss  of  (pH  6.4)  NH  and  and N H , l o s s volatilized  due  to  the  + 4  to  3  19  NH Accordingly, volatilization 1973;  is  Fenn  Duplessis  were,  an  and  and  volatilization  has  important  six  pH,  other  the  soil's  cation  Wesemael  (1961)  dominant  factor  An  affecting  equation  through  above, a  the  the  medium the  reaction  depends  on  the  initial  final  capacity  concentration activity,  of  in  H  of  NH  to  a d e c r e a s e in the  +  3  in the  The of  high  the  initial  of  held  the  soil  is the only of  of  In  -NH  Lehr  carbonates  media.  3  its As  each conversion and  3  is and  is  the  approach  to  shown  of  NH  in  the  to  + 4  NH . 3  of  rate  of  medium  acidification  concentration  of  N H - as  well  (Avnimelech the  soil  4  and  buffer  NH  3  as  is  on  L a h e r , 1977). The  increases with  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , and  + 4  NH  ammonium  is  values  factor  and  3  fraction  by  final  concentration  extent  (1963)  NH  found.  important  process  of  i n c r e a s e in the  volatilization  of  the  medium  NH  most  3  1965).  predicted  the  of  acidified  the +  affect  NH  Kissel,  extent  actually  presence  the  final  4  the  those  Ivanov  the  and  initial  the  than  and  Kolenbrander,  predict  p r o g r e s s e s . The  NH  air. A n  pH of  ammonia  or, w h e n  the  of  (Fenn  that  losses.  + 4  being  as  buffer  that  released for  is  and  (1963), the  acidification  H* is  to  capacity.  feature  reduced  the  NH  soils  Harmsen  properties  Gasser  found  interesting  equilibrium  Thus,  have  basic  lower  soil  exchange  investigators  indicated a b o v e . The  times  volatilization. A c c o r d i n g to  H\ many  in  tried  equation  about  the  and  +  3  by  process  (1964)  the  NH  shown  1975;  Kroontje  through  to  been  Kissel,  however,  addition  it  ^ - ^  + 4  with  an i n c r e a s e  partial  capacity of  the  pressure soil  leads  concentration. dominant  when NH  + 4  the  factor soil's  in the  concentrations,  the  soil  controlling  buffer is  capacity  low. At  dominant  the  factor  high  extent is pH  high, and  controlling  20  the  reaction  often  met  Cation  is  when  (CEC)  liquid  research  on  NH  anhydrous  NH  Wahhab  et  applied  fertilizers  (Jackson  3  1956;  Harmsen  nitrogenous  fertilizers silt  Smith,  1956; Wahhab  NH  losses  decrease  Soil  Kissel,  and  air  soil  1959; Ernst  and  1978  and  weeks  after  addition  thought  to  in the  soil  higher  N  mixture  was  inhibit  losses having  temperature  at  lost  over  and  of  cation  exchange with  Smith,  1958;  Larsen  soils  NH -N  found and  to  be  least  and  in  use  Smith, and  losses  3  capacity  the  and  been  is  surface.  Stanley  1965).  increasing  1956; Gunary,  from  greatest clay  of  in  soils  soil sandy  (Stanley  McDowell  and  Smith,  1958).  CEC (McDowell  and  Smith,  1958;  moisture  direct  and  urea,  from  the  soil  at  and  period  25°C  moisture moisture  than  of  time.  affect  10°C of  60 NH  3  (Doak,  25°C.  higher  a  Adriano from or  et  90%.  two  25°C,  after  that  temperature  was  NH  concentration  3  applied They  volatilization  et  first  a l . (1971)  an  Volk,  the  lower higher  1952;  air  volatilization  For at  and  Beauchamp  determined  1 0 ° C . The  maintain  at  levels  and  were  at  soil  a l . , 1 9 7 1 ; and  (1958) 10  losses  nitrification  et  Smith of  between  volatilization  1960; A d r i a n o  of  NH, loss  relationship  temperatures  a long  and  and a m m o n i a  1982). W a g n e r urea  3  a  Massey,  from  NH  and  condition  soil  1947;  a l . , 1956  soil  moisture  losses  more  the  last  1976).  exists  temperature,  al.,  with  on  associated  Chang,  have  The  NH, loss  effect  been  loam et  temperature,  There  and  Kolenbrander,  and  F e n n and  has  soil.  sprayed  the  McDowell  in  the  Texture  and  and  of  are  concerning  , intermediate  3  capacity  retention  + 4  al.,  and  soils  buffer  Exchange C a p a c i t y . S o i l Most  1962  the  measured  faeces-urine  indicated  because  of  that their  21  effect  on  the  evaporation  volatilization (Elliot that  et NH  than  been  evolution that  Beauchamp diurnal  et  microbial  favourable and  temperature  more  pattern  of  its  early  al.  NH  activity.  Stewart,  from  Higher  evaporative  a  Elliot  et  feedlot  NH  3  conditions  1970). A s  dependent,  evolved  3  in  the  ammoniacal  NH  N late  which  enhanced  evidence al.  in  which  very  (1971)  the  spring  rate.  that  from  correlation descending  of  and their  by  after  due  of  was work. flux wind  related  midday that  the  in in  accumulated N  decreased  suppressed by Harper  et  with  soil  speed  of  al.  rainfall (1983)  surface  and  aqueous  phase  of  water  dew  occurred  was  as  in  and  manure  with  during  available  resulted  concentration. The  flux  temperature  concentration  loss  the  diurnal  the  atmosphere in  the  urea  during  the  temperature the  that  evaporation  N  grazed  and  minima  the  ammoniacal  sheep  aerial  and  Maximum  3  the  to  (1974), observed  manure  i n c r e a s e d in  to  NH .  ammoniacal  ammonia  order  closely  little  dew  magnitude  temperature  taken  the  indicated  deficit  Later,  urine,  1982)  decrease  pressure  sheep  al.  (1983)  (1978,  of  the  al.,  cattle  pressure  hours  et  dairy  suggested  partial  loss  Harper  et  liquid  shortly  the  diluted  indicated  its  Denmead  applied  very  They  because  vapour  effectively  was  morning  after  al.  occurring  and  the  volatilization  flux  3  and  from  and et  hours.  during  evaporation  flux  3  Beauchamp  morning  water  NH  (1973),  1982)  sludge  maxima  midday,  Rajaratnam  (1978,  sewage  respectively.  3  under a l . , 1974  soil  and  patterns  pasture,  with  et  and  winter. McGarity  with  is  much  water  found  a l . , 1 9 7 1 ; Lueb  3  reported  has  of  layer  time,  evapotranspiration  and  authors  increased  evidenced  temperature,  lower reduced  same  observed  for  the  in  Fig.  highest  followed during  in the  22  AMMONIA  FLUX  FROM  LIQUID DAIRY  (Beauchamp  CATTLE  et a l . , 1 9 7 8 )  NH,  VOLATILIZATION MAY,  0 TIME: DATE ;  12 3  0  12 4  0  12 5  MANURE  0  12 6  0  12  7 (Figure  1976  0 8  3)  12  0  12 9  0  12 10  0  23  summer was  season.  with  For  the  remainder  evapotranspiration  of  the  year  the  highest  correlation  followed  by  soil  temperature  and  wind  speed. Soil  moisture  volatilization It  may  soil or  to  the  of  rainfall.  NH  increased  flux 3  of  more  efflux  of  NH  relation  to  may  be  through  et  the  to  soil  form  et  of  surface  soil  levels  when  urea  was  urea  large  atmosphere.  NH  efflux  3  the  the  with  dependence  of  was  the  to  driving  but dry  incidence  and  strongly  about of  days  NH  and  a  5  large  after  urea  that  efflux  3  force  mm  the  discussion  maximum  on  of  three  wet  densities  rainless  added  content  duration  above  is  applied  Rainfall  and the  number from  soil  flux  1978)  observed  h y d r o l y s i s . The  of  the  incorporation  water  the  to  3  3  soil.  and  slurry  a l . (1983)  NH  the  NH  a l . , 1976  of  on  in  dissolved  when  associated  their  the  effects added  rates  the  to  material  high  concluded  highly  in  onset  reduced  corresponded  most  waste  1976). Harper  the  loss  3  the  effectiveness  incomplete  after  substantially  interrelated  in  of  negative  1956; Denmead  animal  Kissel,  or  transporting  the  moderate  because  It  by  increased to  rainfall  application. factors  or  to  total  type  increasing  efflux  periods  the  positive  Smith,  density  slowly  influenced or  by  (Fenn and  surface  amount  on  and  ammonia  soil  patterns  soil  it  liquid  have  volatilization  (Stanley  depress  when  depending  enhance  surface  may  of  the are solar  energy.  Presence  of  The generally done  CaCO,  effect  of  been  from  suggested  free  soil  considered  1913 an  and N H , l o s s  to  1946  additional  CaC0 only by  3  as  content a  soil  Dutch,  influence  of  on pH  3  buffer.  German CaC0  NH  and 3  on  volatilization However, Danish NH  3  has  studies  researchers volatilization  24  (Harmsen  and  greater were  Kolenbrander,  NH -N  losses  3  surface  (1973,  from  applied  1974)  and  to  Fenn  is g i v e n  below: X(NH ) Y Z  +  where  =  4  N,  Z  cation.  and  reaction  According  to  4  2  2NH HC0 4  These the from  earlier  4  2  to  +  2C0  NH N0 4  3  NH -N  soil  high  pH v a l u e s  3  20H"  2  +  2H 0  when  2  up t o CaC0  CaC0  kg  caused  a  550  reduction  application  remained  at  with and,  3  and  certain therefore,  formed  amount  of  3  NH HC0  3  of  CaC0  could  4  Ca  NH .  +  Fenn  content  3  of  but NH  + 4  in  rates;  loss  3  -N  the  but  at  ha . soil at  7.5-7.6. The e f f e c t  pH  soil  surface  applied  6.1%. N H  soil  increased of  soil  of  3  pH o n  loss from  CaC0  CaC0  3  and  3  NH -N 3  at  ammonium  CaC0  and  3  soil  the  low  6.1% C a C 0 of  (1975)  l o s s e s of  at  affect  of  1.3%  Acidity  1  3  Kissel  level  increasing  final  and  losses from  3  content  3  still  and  +  soil  NH  3  4  NH  maximum  CaC0  which  anion  which  increase b e y o n d this  lower  NH -N  that  reached - 1  2  greatest  formation.  not  h a , with  the  reacts 4  4  (1964)  a  Ca Y N X _  of  (NH ) C0  CaS0  of  4  3  quantity  loss did  4  +  the  3  reported  the  +  Kissel  2  (NH ) C0 4  the  and  (NOy, ' S 0 ~ , C I )  + 4  compounds  lost  +  2 +  CaC0  Those  s u g g e s t e d that  study  slightly  compounds and  Ca  NH  valences  unstable  solubility  of  the  mechanism  ^  extent  9.7%. N H  110 k g  on  3  increased rapidly  4  content.  6.1%  results  and  increased 6.1  this  3  a laboratory  (NH ) S0  dependent  low  3  +  3  both  existence  Hunt  2  noted  where  3  Fenn  the  N(NH ) C0  associated with  NH .  2NH  rate  anion  of  3  4  and  4  (1961)  NH N0  sods.  Terman  -—^  volatilization  CaC0  from  grass  by  3  produce  of  Volk  demonstrated  suggested  to  +  4  have  N CaC0  than  4  limed  compounds  products  (NH ) S0  Y are  increased  2  recently,  (s)  X  ammonium  4  (1975)  mechanism, first  More  (NH ) S0  heavily  chemical  and  1965).  3  levels  above,  NH -N 3  the  losses  25  was  greater  for  Leaching l o s s of The  soil in  presence  of  soil a  large  Allison,  s o i l . The  exhibits  biochemical  of  of  N  of  phenomenon  cause  practices  mobility  in  form  in w h i c h  these  ion  sites  mobility  of in  readily  land  will  at  solubility  scale of  3  NGy  can  below.  An  adsorption  adsorption  of  state and  the  In  and  will  2  and  the  the  adsorbed by red  CI" t o  (Thomas,  further  bottom  1970).  of from  been  be  and  similar  fate to  a the  carried  out  Clark, 1965;  onto  bacteria. N G y  but  they  the  generally  environment,  have a  NH  oxidation  the  scale  a ground  of  in and  the  4 4  ions very  considered. Because  of  c h a i n , at  the  affinity  for  water  sesquioxides when  subsoils  of  in  particles  soil  microbial  importance  on  organic  nitrifying  be  like  1973).  transformation,  not  of  at  experiment  SGy  undergo  adsorption  aerated by  medium  controlled  will  have  for  and  well  NGy  in this  greatest  NGy  a  to  end  be w e a k l y  of  be  they  capacity  minerals  converted  soils  locations  clay  soils.  intermediary in  its  N  s u r f a c e s . H e n c e , the  transformations  of  affect  is p r e s e n t , b e c a u s e  ( G a s s e r , 1964; B a r t h o l o m e w  because  causes pollution.  may  a porous  it  charged  transformations  which  environmental  cultural  to . agricultural  workers  p a r t i c l e s , N 0 " is  showed than  Reviews  existence  the  or  4  may  positively  the  +  are an  standpoint. 6  and  applied  4  little  extreme  clay  2  harmful  and  u p o n the  wastes  charged  constitute  of  and  degree  negatively  by  NH  compounds  top  4  1 9 6 6 ; S t e v e n s o n and W a g n e r , 1 9 7 0 ; B r o a d b e n t ,  negatively  its  (NH ) S0 .  a  factors  dependent  number  The  transient  agriculture  the  environment.  by  is  to  of  extent  for  n u t r i e n t s • is  climatic  nitrogenous  large  of  and  is s t r o n g l y  the  than  3  N  losses  movement soil  4  leaching  financial Several  NH N0  the  pollution soil  Southeastern  considerably  pH U.S.  smaller  26  Case abundant United  studies  in  the  of  N  contamination  literature.  States  in  Extensive  particular  recommended  The drinking  water it  plants  cattle.  0.2% o f  percentages  ingestion  poisoning.  In  contributor  most  c h a n g e s brought  Kolenbrander reported  in  the  approximately  (1969)  m  exclusively  in  each  proportional  to  the  with at  mm  yr . - 1  nitrogen 250  chemical  mm  heavier  field  trial  nitrogen the  All layer  of  on  a a  the  clay  less soil,  corresponding  subdrains. Highest  soil,  leaching  of  (sandy  The  the  water  was in  may  loss was  about of  discharge found  forage  cattle  ration,  the  main  N0 -  an  to  the  1974).  from  be 0  been  45 kg  an used  directly to  about  fertilized  N ha  - 1  dose  fertilizer  N. J a a k k o l a  tests  being  of  not  the  to  3  to  optimum  leaching  3  lysimeter  range  about  be  N0 ~  leaching  had  65  in  as  fertilizer  14% o f  to  (1975),  and J o n e s ,  of  of  hazards  the  of  in  toxicity  well  to  3  result  as as  N0 "  Winton  the  found  which  1-38%  loss was  of  chemical  soil)  leaching  reported  part  or  and  Bartlett  apply  application  l o s s by  (1970)  number  water  Missouri,  and  3  lead to  (Kreiler  N  central  M c N u l t y , 1976).  N0 ~  Lee  fertilizers  results  of  with  0.4%  a ' large  y e a r s , the  water.  and  identified  plough  drainage  increased this soil,  was  Leaching  of  drainage  the  only  the  Minnesota,  and  over  and  his  for  a number  up  in  extremely  samples approaching  can also  -  make  analyzed  case. amount  by  land  the  with  on  of  (1966),  Marriot  wastes  On cultivated  fertilizer  The  thick  to  agriculture  literature.  1  Bailey  containing  animal  Kansas,  associated  soils, NO,  should  cases,  to  by  are  surveys  2  hazard,  material  waters  N G y and N 0 " ( T o d d  According  3  of  due  ecological  600  for  in  N0 --N  water  large  discussed  accumulates  and  containing while  was  well Illinois,  methemoglobinemia  (1970). W h e n for  limits  ground  (e.g.  Nebraska, Texas) have revealed exceeding  of  (1984),  yr  1  of  applied. from  a  losses  of  applied  255  mm  through  a  previous  caused by  27  fallow.  The  same  production  if  author  also  applied  in  reported  the  1-4%  spring  loss  of  compared  the  to  N  20%  used  in  cereal  from  the  from  farmyard  fall  application. Little  information  manure. To  evaluate  calculated  the  manure  degree  of  Table  the  leaching to  According  present  in  figure  the  for  losses the  crop  average of of  of  Garwood  below  250  is  kg  N  and  17% l o s s e s  of  that  r e c e i v e d 2 5 0 , 500 Garwood  represented  the  land  which  is  long  as  manure  the did  applied  not  and  NH N0 4  and 900 k g h a Tyson  represented of  as  N  exceed  N  Fig. 4.  kg  ha-  added  of  due N  yr , _ 1  to  generally that  the  required  a loss  (1983)  leaching  the  by  mentioned  amounts  N  an  of  1-2%  by  those  applied  were  reported from  2,  grass  11 land  respectively.  and  N  leaching chemical but  than  supported  lysimeter  loss The  the  above  mineral  are  (1973)  Barraclough  3  from 1  as  from  between  application 350  1  (1973),  in  far  is  considered  were  shown  up, w h e r e a s  l a n d , plus  results  is  The  throughout  the  losses  (1976) was  cover  of  from  land.  temperature  Kolenbrander  so  arable  taken  and  leaching  calculation  90% is  unfertilized  1  relationship  rate  in  over  Jackson  annum- . Owen  N  and  (1973),  his  as the  N  by  on  Leaching  more  assumptions  vegetative  year  50%.  for  1  a  N applied. These  Tyson 1  of  when  yr  1  long  (1963),  and  fall  a  N  lost  b a s i s of  as  of  several  be or  has  production.  N ha-  will  o n the  than  Williams  made  spring  course  less  matter  ha-  that  Pfaff  the  fertilizer  and  by  significant  3 kg  chemical  the  leaching  (1978)  up n i t r o g e n  during  dry  in  the  land, grassland  tests  became  loss  the  to  small.  for  N  be e x p e c t e d  cereals  only  the  either  taking  soil  correspondingly  of  arable  capable of  6-7°C.  on  this, Kolenbrander  applied  5. U n l i k e  year  available  percentage  animal  in  is  studies,  application loss  was  fertilizer  sharply  graphically under  grass  negligible or  increased  as  farm  yard  above  this  Table 5.  Percentage of nitrogen lost by leaching from animal manure on arable land (equilibrium condition). Kolenbrander, 1978.  Time of application Type of waste Spring  Autumn  Cattle slurry  16  30  Pig slurry  13  30  Poultry s l u r r y  8  31  Calf slurry  5  Liquid manure  2  "  31 32  NITROGEN  LOSSES  QUANTITY  OF CHEMICAL  APPLIED  (Garwood  ON G R A S S L A N D  VS  FERTILIZER  S Tyson,  ANNUAL  NITROGEN  1973)  200 o  <D 100 X o <  UJ —1  0  200  400  N APPLICATION  600  (kg/ha/year)  3 0 M A R C H 1970 — 2 9 M A R C H 1971 , - 2 8 0 mm DRAINAGE WATER (LYSIMETER) 2 9 M A R C H 1971 -  20 MARCH  1972,  ~ 2 7 0 m m DRAINAGE WATER (LYSIMETER) HUPSELE  BEEK  (CATCHMENT AREA) (Figure 4)  30  rate.  Steenvoorden  sandy  soil  sand  >30  kg  - 1  ha  NGy  and  (peaty cm)  of  N  sand  in  the  Mineralization of  Nitrogen  below  in  the  hence,  of  inorganic fertility  and  animal are  considered usually  of  of  that  amounts  be of  varying  water  varies  added the  into  N  in  the  20-30 N  record  in  greatest  in  the  ha a  cm,  on  a  humus-poor  or  - 1  280  large  and  560  difference  of  quantity  inorganic  materials  animal  the  of  this  state,  found  wastes  in  is  is  nitrogen.  as  N0 ~  usually  or  added  organic  bound  system  may  have  led to  or  3  in s o i l  organically  agricultural  livestock  rather  fertilizers. of  most  response  other  the  faeces  this  waters  of  as  if  and,  N  into  improve  soil  a  farmyard  manure.  nutrient  fertilizers particular  mixture  materials  additional  urine  handling  composition  plant  element  the  (Pratt  the  are  content  is  et  attention  and  and  al.,  of is  of such  water.  faeces  risks  as  wasted  S o u r c e s and  collection.  almost  and  As  entirely  of  of  N0 3  used.  urine,  plus  feed  and  amount  voided in  1976).  because  e x c e s s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s are  condition and  total  drawn  to  traditional variable  inorganic  organic  amounts  the  The  have  considered  with  than  rearing  materials, of  contents  crop  can  experiment  production.  grade  bedding, with  animals  or  conversion  s u r f a c e and g r o u n d  Slurries smaller  nitrogenous  the  slurry  nitrogen  importance  pollution  of  methods  10% of  H o w e v e r , their  sand  not  require  entirely  bulky, heterogeneous  only  field  depth.  plants  flow  as  low  a  fertilizer  manure, did  residues  its  in the  as  rich  almost  crop  wastes  humus inorganic  60 c m  The  and b e n e f i t  Slurries  the  plant  forms  Changes of  bulk  unavailable.  of  that  assimilated  form  kg  from  N  nutrient  N H y . H o w e v e r , the  (1977),  cm,  150  form  slurry  soil is  0-20  receiving  concentration  The  Oosterom  organic  by  of the  forms  31  but  urea  There of  and  is  some  considerable  N in the  NH,*,  the  other of  of  total  microbial this years  N  is  to  The  nitrogenous  for  long that  growing organic  only  fraction  it  of  is  of 1.  to  the  waste  al.  (1977)  less  lignin-like  substances.  Dead  living  and  et  microbial  of  fraction being  so  mineralized  in  that  forms:  animal  cells  subsequent  suggested  two  combined  fraction  contribution  is  soil  1978;  to  attack  the  as  resistance  to  of  al.,  organic  of  resisted  et  and  soil  mainly  have or  first  resistance  consists  are . m o r e  the  the  4  present  large  varying  NH \  proportion  N is  (Evans  the.  to  the  1976). A  of  in  McCalla  that  total  measure  N reservoir  1967).  converted and  absent  forms  in  the  the  (M.A.F.F.,  present  of  Proteins  2.  being  N  nature,  rapidly  of  available  in  animal  half  important  plant  (Bremner,  are  composition  Food  organic  compounds  1-3%  season  as  and  periods  the  generally  F i s h e r i e s and  pool  application.  both  U s u a l l y about  present  the  compounds  in  forms  decomposition  appreciable  the  inorganic  after  persist  each  form.  Agriculture,  fraction  organic  variation  inorganic  Ministry the  labile  digestion  with  from  lidnin  and or  the  intestinal  and  may  tract. The  relative  expected storage. ruminant may  be  digestion  amounts  to In  vary  of  with  particular,  and  decomposition  the  from  ruminant in the  the  fractions  and may  animals.  animals soil.  two  age  differences  non-ruminant  expected by  these  two is  diet  are of  expected  Very  different  likely  to  known  animal  be  fractions.  not  between rates  Material be  and  very  possibly the  of that  slurry  be with from  decomposition has  resistant  to  resisted further  32  N  in  the  slurry  Kolenbrander,  1977;  mineralizable  in  the  mineralizes  in  of  slurry  swine  to  situations  the  in the  no  a  raoge  and  of  al.  40%  and  (1979)  pig  of  results  slurry  volatilization  of  similar  been  through  amount  the  slurry  immobilized  or  slurry  temperatures  and  moisture  swine  slurry  that  of  slurry  this  evidence. Tietjen biological no  decay  prediction  organic  bound  from  was  N  (1977) of  with  the  N  organic  certainty  nutrients.  to  N  which  mineralization has  be  been  extrapolated  indicate  studies  organic  and  N  that  what  to  al.,  (1983)  other  be r e s i s t a n t et  a l . , 1976).  by  little  be  might  from given  swine about  any  N  on  of  the  range  of  25%  of  decomposition (1981)  during field the  slurry the  a  only  Sutton  over  immobilization  over  to  1975).  out  mineralization  hand  losses  significant  carried  indicated  published  information  initially  Cooper,  of  study  difficult  N  of  1973;  available  any  been  made  incubated  the  could  be  et  has  inorganic  been  subsequent  On  fraction  can  has  incubation  when  supported  organic  not  these  Arnold  (Loynachan  stated  N  environment can  and  organic  organic  mineralization  without  contents.  not  N,  concerning  clue  (Mass  an  and  N has b e e n f o u n d digestion  a p p l i c a t i o n , but  of  record  organic  aerobic the  N  NHy  extensive 35%  important  measurement  Flowers  slurry  resistant  studies  between  to  organic  the  total  such  many  made no  and  inorganic  controlled  denitrif ication  of  namely  (Sluijsmans  conditions.  of  failed  temperatures.  of  forms  research  under  an  three  1980)  Limited  Results  has  in  application,  provide  of  in  al.,  years.  under  present  et  of  present  conducted  but  field  distinction  Germon  et  literature.  Interpretation as  Bhat  year  N  in  happen  be  subsequent  reported field  and  can  year  rate  available  availability  of  laboratory  annual is  under  assumed  the or  the  of  of and the  33  Mineralization of by  different  of  in the  eliminate  is  affected  the  by  important  of  but  on  is  affect of  activities  groups  when  been known  place the  and  very  soil  of  the  arable  land  A  will  of  The  habitat  do  rate  is  markedly  discussion  of  the  some  of  follow.  have  by  nitrification  slowly  is f r o z e n  at  is  2°C  out  using  constant  with  The  rate  microbial  than  fluctuation  1971; S m i t h ,  at  and  temperature  increase  for  organic  complexes  in  NH/  or  NO/  1977). on  cyclical growth  fluctuating  exceeds  1964;  the  temperature  as  temperatures.  microbial  (Alexander,  of  effect  that  35°C  conditions,  relative  biological  temperature and  of  factors  the  the  temperature  the  greater  shown  25  no  research  about  of  and  constant  between  (Alexander,  carried  environmental  increasing  optimum  biological  Reynolds,  the  are  microbial  microorganisms  stimulated  soil  of  affected  as  important  studies  most  amplitude  is  variety  organisms  of  as  a  long  hand  1977).  most  Since  considerably  of  peculiarities  other  by  microorganisms  1965; J u s t i c e and S m i t h , 1962). M i n e r a l i z a t i o n takes  out  N  growth  are  1965).  ammonif ication  in  the  Numerous  soil  (Alexander,  the  mineralization  one  the  soils. in  of  carried  mineralization  Temperature to  is  diverse  (Alexander,  affecting  and  As  nitrogen  mineralization of  Temperature  groups  mineralization  environment  Factors affecting  activity  factors.  possible,  factors  p r o c e s s and  diverse  mineralization  completely  known  the  environmental  proliferation  the  a biological  microflora. Activity  involved not  is  at  very  opposed  constant  effects  to  little  Howell  (Jensen,  temperature  et  1969;  is  constant  temperatures, particularly  10°C  has  Jensen  a l . , 1971). H o w e v e r  if  is the and  some  34  reports  tend  claimed  that  of  fungal  faster  to  contradict  this  temperature  growth,  under  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p . B u r g e s s and  fluctuation  P o w e r s et  cyclical  5-27?C  per  se  does  not  a l . (1965) r e p o r t e d  than  at  mean  Griffin  affect  that  constant  (1968)  the  rate  bacteria  grew  temperature  of  16°C. Few  investigators  temperature soil  was  fluctuations  incubated  microorganisms detrimental with  at  NHy-N  or  was  Cook,  also  In  than  did  activity.  temperatures  reduced  when et  lower  mean  of  When  the  the  al.,  with  it  below  has  15.5°C  soil  of  was  amended  The  rate  et  reported  mean  count  1971). T h e s e  (Campbell  temporarily  corresponding  unamended  fluctuating  been  diurnal  viable  1972).  the  temperature  contrast,  the  influence  (Biederbeck and C a m p b e l l ,  significantly  fluctuations  nitrification  low  (Campbell  constant  the  microbial  greatly  peptone  1952).  temperature  soil  fluctuating  were  corresponding  1973;  on  studied  declined sharply  effects  nitrification the  have  of  than  with  al.,  1971,  that  diurnal  caused  constant  more  temperature  (Frederick,1956). Another attention  oversight  given  to  the  measured  at  constant  temperatures in a l o a m  temperature  was  given  it  that  16,  of  research  soil was from  suboptimal the was  (Campbell  and  at  T  soil  Chandra  rate a  to of  the  (1962)  three  w h e n the than  of 1972).  of  activity different  showed  that  incubation vice  N transformation  function  lack  biological  optimal  Biederbeck,  1 8 / 7 (in  is  Using  considerably lower  condition  ammonification  on  temperatures.  27°C),  e m p h a s i z e d that  regime  area  different  (5,  shifted  temperature  temperature found  was  this  preceding temperature  subsequently  nitrification  Recently  in  the These  versa.  under  a  preceding workers  e a c h 24 h p e r i o d the s a m p l e s  35  were of  maintained  3  h)  much  (simulating  May  of  Campbell  and  also field  each N  (4  Moisture Both  moderate  the  above  validity  frosts  in  of  showed spring  was  there  amounts  confirmed  and N  following that  at  high,  but  was  of and  the  of  in  the  a  large  available  in  as  another  phenomenon  resulted  with  N the  regime. Biederbeck  hypothesis  onset  13/2  optimum  nitrification  temperature  this  T  initially  readily  was  the  was first  sudden  study  supported cold  flushes  spell  in  NOy  or  at  rapid  precise  and  As  a  slowly  at  percentage,  dry  falls  submergence,  water  or  c y c l e s , the  optimum  (Alexander,  result  but  arid  initiation  generally  anaerobic  e x c e s s i v e l y high  m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . In and  Mineralization  aerobic  formed  wilting  a  temperatures  new  the  when  biomass  periods  temperatures)  hypothesized  the  y e a r s ) that  ammonif ication.  wet  18/7  to  that  transition  September  ammonif ication  adapted  late  h each w i t h  T  They  considerable  (1973)  and  same  microbial  unfavourable  reported  fall  of  9  (simulating  the  subsequent  data  for  production.  Soil  is  during  organisms  and  by  27/16  provided for  7°C  temperatures).  sudden  substrate  and  production  which  surviving  T  than  temperatures  kill  18  following  greater  onset  at  of  nitrogen  moisture  levels  contents  semiarid onset  of  50  regions rainfall  values, and  the  75%  process  is  rapid  are is  and is  the  is  not  in  wet  mineralized  below  NH  + 4  status  stimulates  soils for  zones  having  associated  with  differ  their  in  mineralization  holding  eliminated paddy  at  permanent  typically  water  in  the  in c l i m a t i c  optimum  of  involved  ( A l e x a n d e r , 1977).  moisture  Although  A m m o n i f ication the  slightly  the  mineralization.  between  and  organic  improving  moisture  1977).  organisms  capacity by  fields, where  soil 0  2  36  level  is  quite  also  form  NH  processes  very  water  that  optimum  is  for  Wetting  mineralization If  inorganic  -  c y c l e s . Furthermore, the  amount  phase. more  of  The easily  cause  cell  anomalous evidence that  flush  of  (Alexander,  under  natural  easily  mineralizable  under  constant  incubation of  the  N  moisture  N0 --N 3  produced  in  0  other as  2  hand  NH  is  + 4  1977).  become  are  drying  and  wetting  nitrogen  of  the dry  Soil  to  be  frequent  the  0-2.5  remoistened  the  kept  of  and  the  cycles  the has  or  the  and of  apparently section  subsequent  the  drying for  the  is wet  may this  indicated produced  is  used  account  later  supporting  drying  those  the  substrates  (1956)  which  of  to  greater  convincing  as  occur,  the  explanations  Stevenson  production  cm  in  inaccessible  wetting  such  continuously  declines  community  (1960)  drying  and  be d e g r a d e d  during  make  none  and  dry  period, generally  may  the  may  process  released  conditions  studies. Wetting  soils  soils  development  substrate,  the  under  mineralization  were  however,  conditions,  and N  when  microbial  1977). B i r c h  these  considered  they  the  microbial  is  in  slowly  4 4  of  if  cycle  the  slow  (Alexander,  tension  dry  than  nitrogen  disintegration,  of  occurs  rate  longer  to  habitats  mineralization  a l . , 1955).  organic  wetting  available  et  absence  and t h a w i n g  the the  the  -  kPa)  such  inorganic  drying  (98  greater  although  or  aerated  previously  of  form  presence  change  quantities  and t h o s e  2  likewise  the  freezing  of  of  0 ,  aerobic  on  (Fitts  number  in  Bremner,1964). Nitrification  m  are  active  NH  When  rates  a  considerable  1  unexplained again.  absence  in w e l l  at  and d r y i n g  wet  wet.  only  held  soils  generate  to  nitrification  Some then  and  sensitive NGy  rule,  conditions  (Waring  to  a  in the  aerated  much  converted  As  readily  + 4  in  anaerobiosis is  low.  minimal in  the  for  70-90%  soil  over  a  37  growing  season  ( C a m p b e l l et  Frequent followed  by  1958;  and  effect  of  c y c l e s of  wetting,  a l . , 1974).  freezing  followed  freezing  (1958)  pretreatment  subsequent  incubation. However, Mack  in  nitrogen  mineral  incubated. The incubation and  on  et  ratio  organic soil  rate  at  but  to  have  a  not  NOy  initially being  becomes  the  soil  in the  mineralized  the  with  a  provide  allows  only  the  by  during  increase and  then  followed  Ross  et  al.  by  (1978)  content  in  sterile  available  to  the  plant  by  the  proportions  bound  in  approximately  soil  by  of  during  nitrogen;  the  of  of  the  added  to  the  material  protoplasm  whole  for  course  20;1  of  complex  of  or  lower  with  higher  all  mineralized  the  be e x p e c t e d u n t i l  20:1. This  order  the  CGy  when  developing  the  C/N  ratio  phenomenon  is  suppositions:  the  2.5%  residues  ratio  liberation  to  growth  thawing  Because  mineral  is  to  positive  nitrogen  governed  C/N  lag p e r i o d , t h e r e f o r e , m u s t  during  and  organic  material  microbes. A  1.  any  sharp  a d d e d m a t e r i a l s . In  ratio.  immediately  on two  is  C/N  directly  based  a  liquid  observed  desirable  generally  can  to  present  be  only  narrowed  in  (Gasser,  mineralization  reported  freezing  was  nitrogen  added  mineralization  nitrogen  (1963)  NGy  observe  nitrogen  frozen  of  content  NH/-N  N are  nitrogen  ratio  effect  N  which  are  C and  should  C/N  was  on  to  drying  mineralization  residues  in w h i c h  soil  failed  not  as  a l . (1971).  and N  The organic  mineral  exchangable  Campbell  C/N  when  favourable  on  thawing, much  i n c r e a s e s e x c h a n g e a b l e N H / but  H i n m a n , 1970). G a s s e r single  by  N  microbial must the  be  decomposition present  microbes without  in  of that  net  organic  matter  matter  to  immobilization;  at  least  guarantee and  1.5  good  38  2.  in  the  long  run  a p p r o a c h that  D. Rate o f In  slurry  order  distinguish In  of  the  to  arrive  cases  at  maximum  the  maximum  yield  is  the  the  yield.  The  maximum  profit  is  the  compared  to  To must  the  only  yield  the  tends  to  microbes.  determine  of  the  maximum  maximum  one  profit  maximum  fertilizer  will  have  to  be  that  the  fertilizer  prices  are  the  dollar  used to  profitable  nil  yield  i.e.  produce  rate  of  of the  the  profit.  If  to  the  result  in  no  would  result  in  is  free.  To  crop  must  be  fertilizer  value  yield.  applied  would  maximum  to  from  as  additional  has  possible  same  inputs  most  and  rate  the  point,  the  the  make  is  fertilizer  profit  yield  application  not  of  time  when  cost  to  objective,  maximum  The  physical  fertilizer  output  the crop.  fertilizer  application,  one  The  expected price  3.  The  cost  In  dealing  factor is  nutrients applied inorganic  of  with  that  has  the  organic to  be  of  yield)  bulky  obtain  the  crop  being  that  results  from  different  rates  of  fertilizers taken  nature the  available.  fraction Their  like  into  of  same  being  grown  used.  application.  fertilizer. A  readily  of  fertilizer  cost  and to  (i.e.  application.  2.  not  of  material  know;'  1.  rate  is  application  additional  calculate  decomposing  fertilizer  profitable  objective  available. Maximum  where  the  protoplasm  a suitable  resources  point  of  application  between  most  N content  of  the  materials,  amount the  wastes  consideration  Because the  of  animal  of  plant  availability  a  in  is  important application  concentration  large  nutrients  most  determining  low  nutrients  the  volume  when present  determined  of  the  to  be  has  compared in the  greatly  by  with  slurry  is  several  39  environmental application have  to  and  rate,  management  in  be t a k e n  addition into  to  factors. the  crop's  consideration  1.  Field  2.  Climatic  3.  Soil  type  4.  Type  of  Therefore,  in  requirement  as w e l l . T h e y  determining  the  slurry  following  factors  are;  topography regions  the  organic  wastes  and  ground  and  its  chemical  composition 5.  Method  of  6.  Irrigation  practices  features  B a s i s of  determining  The the NH  main  nutrient + 4  and  crop  that  through  relatively  insoluble  gases  are  can  or  of  content  and  vegetables relatively effects basis  for  determining  the  converted  and  purity 1977)  quantity  and  environment  determining application  to  others  surface  water  site.  N, P, K from  N 0,  the  other  of  It  of  sugarbeets, may  N  in  call  application  pollute the for  cause  surface  and  When of  some  and  its  N the  is  of  of  sugar  water.  in The  detrimental  to  its  use  used  as  a  of  as  cereals,  accumulation  potential  amount  are  application  ground  attention  to  organic  exist  reduction  nitrate  often  forms  lodging  and  special  rates, a knowledge  to  these  soluble,  is  compounds  back  of  potatoes,  slurry  rates.  S. N  hand, e x c e s s i v e N  may  content  or  2  Some highly  and  organic  N  2  are  crops.  starch  or of  are  transformations.  agricultural  matter  (Cremer,  be  water  application  is c o n v e r t e d  volatilized. On  juice  large on  in  affect dry  and  microbial  readily  adversely  reduction  can  the  requirements  growth  which  of  and  rate  fertility  limits  NGy  compounds  application  application  as  the  basis  for  organic  N  that  40  can  be  mineralized  environmental subsequent (1976)  slurries  conditions  years  plays  developed  have  implications  crop  n e e d s , but  also  be  N  from  used  during  an  to  the  role  in t e r m s  for  of  predicting  calculate  the  effects  based  on  documented  a  in the  was  on  (1966)  the  from  13  total  N  2/3  of  that  of  barley  ammonium  both  and  to  those  fraction period  of was  of  N N  N fraction  of  slurry  was  the  applied by  lack  of  for  different  and  also  a l . , 1975). Pratt  cattle  to  et  which  rates  relative  ground  waters.  management  swine  in  manure  slurry  al. can to  It  can  practices  such i n f o r m a t i o n ,  as  the  carried urea to  ammonium  shaking  slurry The  the  suggested to  be  out  and  on  application  have  not  1970), r e p r e s e n t e d year  of  N  sulphate with  Hoyle  very  application  response  been  of  slurry  were  or  urea.  and  N  Mattingly to  the  66% of  (Berryman,  that  equivalent soluble  HCI  N  over  (1954).  NHy-N the  years  showed  The  N  author  five  in  0.1  slurry  same  N  cold  inorganic  to  slurry  similar  about  The  a period  soluble  slurry  various  sulphate. over  soluble  by  with  yield  ammonium  or  has b e e n f o u n d  during  1981).  various  content.  responses  procedure  (McAllister,  available  and S u t t o n ,  uptake  h, a  soluble  of  et  application  leaching  swine  experiments sulphate  extracted  24  application  dairy  manure  a  compared of  comparing yield  for  approach  basis  approximately  (1970)  series  of  under  literature.  McAllister fertilizers  decay  composition  (Powers  NGy  mineralization. Perhaps, because of  rates  year  series approach  only  also  varying  important  a decay not  of  a  The  content  total  1970; Tunney,  N  and 1977;  41  E.  Distribution  A  o f slurry  considerable  depending  on  its  concentration This  is  of  NH  or  salts  especially  of  information injection  from  into  or  the  point  of  The  same  the  as  soil  texture  Crop  Land the Most  soil  authors  changed  research  t o slurry  with  cattle  has  been conducted  or  the  importance  for  distribution  after  one  in the  reduced  sand cm  soil  moved  injection  growth.  cm  texture,  silt  loam  to  40  cm  and  and  ammonia  moisture,  movement  depth  and  losses  losses  of  of  of NH  clay, spacing  depth  to  laterally  anhydrous  and  No  McDowell 7.5  and  growth,  subsequent  and  movement  to  concentration  crop  (1958)  its  dispersed.  after  N  +  4  plant  shortly  following  the  role  not  on  slurry  had  + 4  week that  a key  100  of  Frederick  indicated  from  N,  successful  NH  if  effects  NH -N  injected,  slurry. Localized  slurry  that  as  when  application  detrimental  and  present  + 4  of  application  N  animal  has b e e n  investigating  dealt  of  of  the  be  15 c m .  of  complex  has  applications.  to  application  plant  have  reported  from  zone in  can  Therefore,  distribution  play  soil. They  7.5 c m  response  the  reported  injection  decreased  increased from  F.  have  N  handling.  Mcintosh  application  from  application  on  slurry  present  can  The  soil.  NH -N the  both  however,  s p a c i n g of +  salts  available the  (1958)  4  the  of  within  paramount  is  treatment. and  of  application  and  high  germination.  be  Smith  be  true  +  amount  storage  can  also  4  could  N following  the  poultry  documenting  wastes  and  recycling  of  a commonly  accepted  method  effect  of  wastes  (Powers  crop  waste  nutrients  applications et  of on  a l . , 1975). L i t t l e  responses resulting  from  through disposal.  crop  land  research  swine  slurry  42  Crop  yield  slurry  applied  (1973)  and  3 1 8 , 224 dry  matter)  rates  (1978)  from  of  has  yield  from  indicated  applications  have  slurry  on  reaction.  This  a  suited  or  out  thought  chemical of  several  on slurry  weeks  due cattle  grass  under  for a  (which  ha  was  - 1  in  al.,  which 2-2.4%  effect  added  of from  Sutton  et  ( 1 . 8 - 3 % dry  1  of  et  containing  authors.  t  al.,  matter)  supplied  in  part slurry  weather  of  five  250  kg  that dry to  positive  were  Lanza  (1977)  indicated  forage  and  (barley, effect  and  neutral  rate  of  yields  than  cattle  it  an  has grass  conditions.  It  adverse  been surface is  N,  of  swine slurry.  N  from  physical  noted  that  which  likely  and swine  equal  availability  silage  of  an  have  state  that  rye  at  higher  to  tested  dilute  the  were  used  its  matter  the  be  to  might  on  can  years  crops  response  fertilizer  slurry.  (green  The  the  species  swine  forage  because  a coating  dry  period  attributed  grass  the  with  cereal  which  composition of  use  in  chemical  grass, maize  indicated  growth  form  the  and  application.  was  better  be  Moreover,  effect cattle  to  that  experiments  none  winter  also  consistently  N  Goodrich  adverse  ha  known  rye  slurry  production (1975)  of  over  and to  90  any  134 t  slurry  because  annual  sorghum  of  unsuited  carried  of  swine  slurry  fertilizer"  forage  slurry.  series to  "swine  responded  gave was  swine  from  of  4 5 , 90 and  a rate  of  amount  off.  species  that  Tunney  to  any  the  experiment  basis  record  amount  by,  field  weight  not  by  contents.  year  (wet  did  The  of  levelling  grass  fodder  oats)  slurry  up  crops, particularly  crops),  for  been  experiments  forage  rates  not  Cu  a two  respectively yields.  determined  and  slurry  corn  then  well  of  1  be  salt  from  on  chemical  particularly  yr  increases  stated  replace  ha->  often  N,  a l . , (1974)  (1975)  different  can  available  added  slurry  N ) and  tested,  t  were  Tunney of  its  448  rates  these  - 1  quality  H a n s o n et  application  ha  and  and  recorded  and  that  and  higher  might  last  this  coat  43  of  slurry  slurry,  reduces  because  of  slurry  on  the  of  from  grass  the  light  its  granular  cattle  fed  concern  for  reported  high  t  ha  its  (containing (250-370  effect  22  270  t  G.  or  year,  of  of  in  soil  in  grass  for  comparison  silage, does  Cu 29  dry  pig  not  in t  et  slurry  rations  crop  photosynthesis.  Swine  to  nature  the  form  ha  leaves  the  - 1  from  a l . (1983) corn  on  tissue  (3.2-5.2% dry  has  quality.  corn  matter)  C u in the  swine  the and  of  and  Cu). S u t t o n  accumulation  ppm  used on  percent  any  1  Cu  first  ppm  ha-  the  nature,  hay  concentrations  the  1  on  to  fibrous  a dense  coating  surface.  Supplementary  36  available  been  a  Kornegay  et  from  second  an  year  matter al.  of  swine  pigs  fed  high  the  other  hand  did  not  of  90,  applications  matter)  from  pigs  (1974)  application  the  from  of  slurry  Cu  fed  of  diets record 180  or  125 -  250  and  crop  Cu.  Slurry  Injector  -  its possible  beneficial  effects  o n soil  properties  yield  The depends  efficiency  on  downward  the due  geotropic  root  response.  affect  the  nutrient  and  water  al.,  been 1961)  1969;  and  density the  size  soil  Soane  reflects  relationship  of  ,  the  extraction. as  nutrient in  uptake of  response  until  impedence  soil  conditions  rooting  volume  and  (Taylor  and  1975).  condition  Burnett, In  or  density  plants  forces  the  impede  grow exceed  plant  root  efficiency root  1964;  Taylor  high  a reduced  soil  with  soil  and  different  et  Ratliff,  strength  porosity,  of  growth  al., 1948; Z i m m e r m a n  general,  varies  by Roots  impede  alter  et  strength  to  which  which  (Veihmeyer  strength  extraction.  conditions  density  a compacted  soil  zone  Soil  Pidgeon,  from  the  soil  and  of  and  geotropic  Therefore  measured and  water  concentration  to - a  growth  have  of  or  although  soil  types  44  (Portas,  1968;  tillage  Soane  equipment  pans.  Tillage  These  may  ethylene  pans  Limited  of  Great  ploughing  research  has the  in  literature, yield  Deep reduces large  response  1982; F l o y d , Braim clay  loam  compaction paraplow  tillage  density  primarily  pans  and  water  or  low  by  plough porosity.  permeability  and  be  to  broken  up  the  with  the  a  new  and  effect  soils  and  type  of  of  no  in  the  could  paraplow  on  on  be  soil  for  present  reference  yield  or  Company  implement  used  Since  crop  sub-soiling  Rotavator  injector  paraplow.  the  by  Howard  slurry  properties  down  the  obtained properties  follow.  resulting  and  strength,  in  retention on  clay  increases  improved  and  the  soil  soils  the  root  with  volume  The  of  compaction  traffic  (Spoor,  size of  pans  number  aeration,  of  the  1982;  plough  and  development,  temperature.  degree  subsequent  other  the  Kargin  water  crop  soil,  of  the  yield tillage  and  Danilov,  on  a sandy  1984). et  soil  ploughing,  high  years  come  soil  and  used  can  a d i s c u s s i o n on  depends  operation  on  density  and  of  decreased  p a r a p l o w . The  in  pores,  movement  has  ploughing  soil  pans  similarity  will  by  from  recent  the  injector  formation  produced  increased anaerobiosis.  the  Britain  some  of  and c r o p  In  the  ponding  plough  called  effect the  in  or  to  characterized  during  tillage  ploughing.  rise  are  result  deeper  deep  P i d g e o n , 1975). C o m p a c t i o n  gives  formation  The  and  a l . (1984) in w h i c h  in  a long-term  barley  was  grown  shallow  tine  cultivation  which  became  evident  was  used  decreased  soil  especially  pronounced  in  all  strength in  on  the  bulk  density  subsoil  direct  the to  experiment  each year, compared  and  treatments  and  cultivation  direct  drilling. drilled  a  depth  of  of  the  soil.  between  20-35  35  To  alleviate  treatment, cm.  This cm.  mouldboard  Paraplow  effect  The  the  was  paraplow  45  improved from  surface  heavy  cultivation  long-term The more no  rapid  per  on  ear.  increased  by  the  direct-drilled decrease  uncultivated  land  preventing  surface  ponding  land  effect treated  grain  yield  by  12%. The  paraplow  was  greatest  response  the  crop  mouldboard  and  on  the  the  paraplow  of  systems.  in  penetration  significant  barley  on  rain.  Paraplowing to  drainage  soil of  on  strength  roots shoot  with  the  in dry  caused each  horizon  matter  paraplow  by  up had  to  of  the  profile.  anthesis  more  ears  but, with  resulted There at more  in was  harvest, grains  III.  About Columbia, 1978).  6  production  of  only  stability  1982;  Swader  et soil  as  Manure  of  comes  have  been et  Beauchamp, plant  Stewart,  British  systems  (Barber, for  the  al., 1975; Sutton  et  al., 1978; R o b i n s o n  and  and  but  Improved  White  also  Mathers  et  receiving  animal  and  infiltration  a l . , 1977)  availability  Adamon  of  source  of  improve  organic  matter  potential  fertilizer  value  on  nutrient  and  P , K,  nutrients  physical  and  of  the  Mg to  aggregate  evaporation et  by  and  and  Manure chemical  as  (Mazurak  (1980)  Ca  such  recorded  compared  content  1984).  reduced  rate  were  source  Safley,  properties  capacity  manure.  and  improves  physical  al., 1972;  can  production  in  nutrient  1983;  these  produced  a  water  a  swine  is  as  1974),  higher  REVIEW  manure  recognized  nutrients  soil.  animal  from  1943), w a t e r - h o l d i n g  reported  used  OF THE LITERATURE  tonnes  (Mutlak  the  (Elson, and  (1980)  crops  of  (Unger  from  which  provides  properties  wet  manures  of  Beauchamp, not  million  9%  Animal  SUMMARY  al.,  these  Lund  when  rate 1955;  authors  and  Doss  manure  was  inorganic  fertilizers.  as w e l l  (Ketcheson  soil  and B e a u c h a m p , 1 9 7 8 ) . The depending composition amount  of  of  conditions slurry in  is  two  feed  and  water  s p i l l a g e , age  may  influence  the  types  -  about  to  soil  organic 1/2  on be  of  the  handling the  major  (pH, texture,  and total. and  of  nutrient of  and  content.  type  of  plant  storage  mechanism  of  C E C , temperature  N and  as  systems,  and  the  slurry.  Swine  slurry  occurs  N  amount  loss  such  storage  u s e . N in the  systems.  considerably  animal of  Inorganic  significant  vary  Factors  and  composition  inorganic.  46  can  handling  N for  A  slurry  matter  fed,  depending  Several  dry  ration  forms  considered  swine  the  c o n s i d e r e d as a s o u r c e  represents lost  its  of  (especially of  this  Volatilization from  moisture  climatic  the  NH„ ) +  N  can  of  NH  swine  content,  be 3  is  slurry.  presence  47  of  free  and  CaC0 ),  slurry  3  rate)  and  temperature)  affect  of  amount the  NH  have  content  application take  mineralized systems.  the  Generally,  in  the  lack  of  for  as  nutrient  top  commercial  has  crop  been  for  crop  factor,  which  In  addition,  application  in  excess  quality  of  ground  Safley,  1984)  and  water  communities.  The  of  slurry and  quality with  NGy  presence  of  determined  by  to  to  slurry  in  the  or  intensive  NGy  is  rates (Evans of  crop is  levels  moisture  basis  of  content  the  of  from  slurry  of of  determining  the  slurry  will  N  the  that  will  treatment  However,  because  of  (resulting  livestock  especially  producers on  either  of  excess  slurry  of  operations,  necessitated potentially 1984;  and  1975).  prime  concern  these  inorganic  are  manure  apply  amounts in  who  animal  often  application  (Tunney,  be  in  excessive  al.,  crop  nutrients  solely  could  should  supply  crop  often  of  different  Farmers  et  for  organic  rely  nutrient  yield  is  ratio  availability  production.  high  air  in  3  requirement  N mineralization),  water  and  N  that  nutrient  application  and  a  recommended.  utilization  surface  as  the  rates  many  crop  C/N  volatilization  3  are  results  air,  and  N content  of  hesitant  addition  for  and  application,  actual  have  NH  fraction  used  fraction  of  method  process.  based on  utilization  source  High  been  NH  a knowledge  of  temperature  cycles  application  determining  yields  as  of  to  slurry  in  unavailability.  cost  due  organic  mineralization  yield,  fertilizers  safety  ground  the  the  utilization.  of  slurry  such  slurry  losses  uncertainty  a  of  and  aiming  as  affect  pressure  (application  loss.  freeze/thaw  to  profitable  to  a  and  a  equal  from  the  Factors  consideration  produce  the  from  pH), m a n a g e m e n t  (partial  rates. Recommendations  into  amounts  N  wet/dry  been s h o w n N  to  of  factors  volatilization  3  mineralized.  soil,  content,  4  environmental  Availability the  (NH -N  crop slurry  by  land  reduce  the  White  and  Contamination to  the  farming  compounds  in  48  ground  water  poisoning known  of  The  slurry  farm  gave  effects  of  the  N  a  following  application  has  been  No  N.  treatment  but  compaction a moist In be  made  of  soil the as  conservation  the  fine  plus  it  has  been  made  there  anything  textured  absence  a  of the  and distribution 1. The  NH  soil  can  better  and  chemical  to 3  is  how  from  the  is  slurry  within  of  the  that  the  N  the  manure  injection  slurry for  injection application  negligible  concern  several could  for  could  be  especially  hypotheses  affect  as  application  the  broadcast  in  of  injection  obviously  process  growth.  methods  N  slurry  significantly  evident  slurry  of  application N  Higher  injection  crop  of  application  of  swine  influenced  can  method  of  concentration  N,  and  distribution  method  and  of  greatly  becomes  information,  injection  be  m e t h o d . The  of  soil  of  (Tunney,  slurry.  slurry  wealth  of  and  slurry N  rate  physical  else? Another  when  of  cattle  production  as  of  equal  incorporation  incorporation  Volatilization is  plus  conservation  1983).  how  literature  transformation  (Beauchamp,  to  for  grain  when  source  the  Injecting  broadcast  Higher  a  an  slurry  conditions  the  the  at  result  infants  responsible.  the  and b r o a d c a s t  to  conserves  injection  of  broadcast  mention  the  physical  limited.  attributed  treatment. method  the  to  availability,  very  from  bottle-fed  adverse  be  application.  compared  the  to  as  than  and  in could  used that  slurry  losses  soil  is  yields  thought  slurry  injection  is  to  N  of  N  yields  indicated  swine  survey  on  crop  matter  were  of  improve  information  opposed  dry  slurry  losses  also  also  from  amount  From  soil  N  method  decrease  methemoglobinemia  commercial  author  cattle  The  or  better of  in  animals. Similar  same  availability  could  resulted  composition  1975).  by  has  the the on  will  availability,  N; method  will  the  zone  result of  in  higher  application  49  compared 2.  The  greater soil  as  to  the  injection movement compared  method  of  3.  injection  The  broadcast plus application of  N  into  to  the  incorporation method  the  will  lower  broadcast  plus  method result  depths  of  in the  incorporation  application  physical  condition  available  for  crop  application and uptake  also  method  will  will  result  improve in  more  soil N  IV.  A.  MATERIALS  AND  METHODS  The soil  The Baehr The of  experiments  Farm located on  site  is o w n e d  Agriculture  Berry  silt  and  becomes The  subsurface  however,  also  and  that  and  known  the  has  suggests  applications  in  5) i l l u s t r a t e s  is  been  cm  related of  the  past  the  past. A  latest  picture  crop  being  Iv )  taken  prior  Iv ,  the  upper  below  75  cm  about  75  contents  and  some 1  is  of  the  a derelict  received  cultivation  the  of  the  and  2  farmers  last  seven  dairy  heavy in  in  unavailable,  neighbouring for  stone  Walmsley  1  practices  have to  cm  clay  pasture  was  (Aqualfic  appendices  presence may  site  textured,  depths  the  rough  site  in  1  management  under  experimental  0.02  in  from  Ministry  Luvisol  fine  profile  given  verbally  was  (<  greater soil  are  to  Barry  V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  experimental  at  1  the  Columbia  Gray  cm  fr )  to  grazed regularly. The the  the  (0.02-0.1  of  the  drained  of  British  moderately  (0.3-1.0  gathered  that  of  pervious  history  by  1983 o n  east  Podzolic  imperfectly  is  area  soil  from  properties  study  managed  The  Descriptions  chemical  1 9 8 1 , 1982 and  Gleyed  developed  information  suggests  as  permeability  A  and  (BCMAF).  pervious  horizons. and  crown  moderately  slowly  respectively.  years  is  slow  physical  It  in  S t r e e t , L a n g l e y , 60 k m  classified  sediments  et. a l , 1980). It  cm.  the  Food  USDA).  free, marine  conducted  232nd  by  loam,  Haplorthod,  but  were  1981  barn  manure (Figure  grown.  B. T h e slurry  The farm  is  Caroline  slurry  situated Farms  for at  has  the  224th a  experiment  came  Street, Langley  swine  population  50  from  and of  the  operated  1200  Caroline by  growers,  Farms.  Mr. Ralph 340  The  Jesiak.  weaners  and  51  52  300 s o w s is  first  collected  below x  and s l u r r y  slotted  each  barn  pipe)  main  storage  fed  Appendix  the to  four  was  In  were  On  pumped  2  paint manner  x  HP  m  are  b a r n s , all  storage  pump  a  three  months  presented of  the  m  x  cm  lined  ration  2.4  slurry  anaerobic The  6. A n i m a l s  supplied  m  diameter  collection.  in T a b l e  have  month,  10  covered, concrete  slurry  which  1.2  one  with  farm,  of  pits  m x 24m. After  10  3.6  slurry  into 2  can)  To  is  dry were  given  in  the  pit  the  A  1 of  similar  tank L the  to  for  three  1 L  per  laboratory  plot  earlier.  applicator collected tank  and  and  for  application,  was  then  collected  paint  samples of  can  of  to  and  attached  NH/-N  the  the The  using  and  several  slurry well  2  each  was  handled were  and  (using  The used  in  the  mixed  was  then  pump an  analysed  used to  put  2°C.  used  slurry  of  then  results  pressure  load  the  ml_  thoroughly  mixed  from  earlier. The results  rates  was  a vacuum  at  the  mixed  change,  which  stored  at  from  well  chemical  bottles  6) f o r  had b e e n a d d e d . T h e y w e r e  Kjeldahl  the  stated  polythene  in F i g u r e  empty  possibility  total  applicator that  of  slurry)  described  sample  set  the  field  of  an  the  application  (shown  samples were  into  required  method  agitator  slurry  using  capped  of  to  pit  a  litre  of  prior  the  reduce  transport  day  of  in t i g h t l y  slurry  week  powered  location  analysed  the  one  mixing. Slurry  centre  (per  4  for  the  crrr ).  and  H S0  were  following  kg  these  accomodate  the  thorough  each  calculating  study.  m  a hydraulic  stored  cooler  samples in  9  a  m o n t h s . O n the  individual  e a c h y e a r . The t y p e  collected.  concentrated a  for  corners  samples  in  (using  approximately  using  string.  slurry  five  2.4 m x 2.4  can  of  three  p i t s . Four o f  x  which  year  an hour  a  m  ration  agitated  least  18  in  for  3.  Each was  month  being  content  same  capacity  pumped  a pit  and N  the  one is  to  one  storage  fifth  outlet  matter  for  floor  15 m , the  from  storage  (1.4  empty in  calculate  a the  Table 6.  Composition of Liquid Swine Slurry Used i n the Experiment  Analyses pH  1981  1982  1983  6.5  6.5  6.5  Dry matter  3.30 (7.42)*  4.98 (10.42)  3.61 (5.90)  Kjeldahl-N  0.41 (2.17)  0.42  0.36 (2.86)  NH^-N  0.26 (0)  0.27 (25.88)  (19.64)  0.25 (12.33)  * Figure within the parentheses indicates c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n .  54  AGITATOR USED IN MIXING THE SLURRY  (Figure 6)  55  actual  amount  determined  of  by  N  drying  applied. a  Dry  matter  100  mL  s u b s a m p l e in  to  planting,  content  of  an o v e n  at  the 65  slurry  ±  2°C  was for  72  h.  C . Inorganic  fertilizers  Each  year  experimental measure  P  fertilizers  site and  by K  were  starter  N was  during  planting.  years  prior the  farmer  content  for  broadcast banded Rates  are g i v e n  of  in T a b l e  and  samples  sent  to  determining  and  5 cm  soil  and  inorganic  soil  fertilizer  harrowed  below  the  were  in  to  fertilizer  testing  from  side  seeding. of  the  application  the  laboratory  requirements.  before  the  taken  P  In  and  K  addition,  s e e d each  used  to  in  year  different  7.  D. H e r b i c i d e s In control than  order  to  insure  w e e d s . The  in  1982. The  h a - ) in  1981  1  adequate  crop  weed  problem -was  plots  were  and o n l y  growth more  rototilled  s p r a y e d in  effort  pronounced  and  1982 and  every  sprayed  was  in  made  1981  with  and  atrazine  1983 (4.5 k g h a -  to  1983 (9  kg  yr- ).  1  1  E. Field m e t h o d s Bulley Fraser of  were  slurry  three used  the  in  little  or  N in the  swine  recommended 1983  Cappelaere  Valley with  swine  year  and  slurry  this rate  maximum  rate  no  soil  half of  recommended  growth for  rates,  study.  and  (1978)  limitation  a yield  including  of the  that  a  requires  20 t  ha  - 1  the  slurry  and  twice  the  recommended  application  was  300  and  application  reduced  the  Lower kg  ha-  1  silage corn. Each  recommended  1981  in  about  of  In  slurry  soil  rate. to  a  control  included  the  In  and  1982  approximately  Table 7.  Year  Rates of Inorganic F e r t i l i z e r Applied-  N  P 0 2  !  K0  5  kg ha"  2  1  1981  18  182  80  1982  25  112  145  1983  40  179  202  57  1.5  x  recommended  swine  slurry  Big  Waste  A  USA  and  in  drawn  randomized  through  a  or  injected  of  of  by  four  the  control  was  reduced  at  that  to  a depth  of  0.3  Rickel  Manufacturing  injection  were  complete  effect  set  yield  with  treatments  physical  corn  (manufactured  F i g . 7)  eight  a  the  in  the  broadcast  Applicator  The  arranged  either  shown  intervals.  assess  was  rate, as  applied block  48.7  m  design  with  three  x  without  The  using a  Corp.,  Salina,  at  4.8  0.6  m  m  plots  replicates.  p r o c e s s , injection  plots  m  spaced  to  injection injected  shanks  rate.  shanks  applying  To  were  slurry  or  water.  F . Calibration o f The slurry  amount  of  the  (8,000  plots.  The  in  entire  (L  ha- )  quantity  Since  of  was  A  Waste  was  1 9 8 1 , the  maximum  To  d i s p e n s e the  to  half.  1982  run  slurry  for  slurry  the  size  of  Applicator  with  a  on  was area  an  area  emptied was  openings  calibration rate  as f a s t  to  application  r e q u i r e d a m o u n t , the and  plot  was  the  plot.  the  at  crop  On  the  volume  of  experimental  a known and  to  speed  the  several  established  different  N , the  known  measured  repeated  were  total  outside  running  then  three  slurry  times  until  supply  the  waste.  lower  slurry  per  and  procedure  equipment  run t w i c e  applied  content  outlet  the  applicator  In  of  and  y e a r , the  first.  tank  N  o p e n i n g s . The  speed  Each  Big  volume  be  application  c a l c u l a t e d b a s e d o n the  calculated. This  1  suitable  to  residual  its  outlet  predetermined  rate  soil  L)  known  applied a  slurry  a p p l i c a t i o n , the  slurry  with  of  application rates w a s  requirement, day  the equipment and slurry  1983  the  was  was 1/2  dispense rate  done the  1/2  was  speed of  equipment  was  the  recommended  recommended the  twice the  for  rate,  the  r e c o m m e n d e d rate. the  recommended  applicator w a s  separately  cut  calibrated  In  rate. down (in  a  58  (Figure 7)  59  way  described  years the  of  slurry  disked  G.  the  earlier) study,  was  the  slurry  disked  in three  Weather  for  days  1.5  was  in  a  x  the  applied  day  in  later  recommended the  second  whereas  in  rate.  half  In  of  1982  the  three  M a y . In  and  1983  1981  it  was  later.  condition  between  slurry  application,  incorporation  and  seeding  of  corn  Dates  of  slurry  parameters  measured  There  no  was  and  2.0  was  relatively  1983  mm  rain  application, on  on  rain  fell  dry  compared  the the  on  to  (Table  in  comparatively  day  after  low  as well  total  to  slurry  the  8)  and  are  long  axis  of  after  slurry  eight  days  of  100,000  application later  are  average rates  and  climatic Table  1981, w h e r e a s ,  respectively.  higher  in  as  average  1 mm  daily  8. 2.8  Weather 1981  period. Weather  same period  the  in  in  incorporation  from that  and  presented  1983  and  soil  and daily  condition  rain  fell  temperatures NH  the were  the  amount  of  was  seeded  perpendicular  + 4  and  9.  L.)  c v . "Dekalb in  ha- .  whereas  respectively.  the  application  plots  plants  and  during  also  in T a b l e  fZea<*mays  1982  resulted  for  some  application  application  and  corn  population  in  rainfall  mild  and  application slurry  day  no  Silage  the  of  This  8). S l u r r y given  of  slurry  application  (Table  N applied  that  1982.  temperatures 1982 w a s  day day  between  incorporation  1  in  0.8 In 1982  m  24' row  spacing  1981, planting and  1983  it  with  an  average  was  done  two  was  done  seven  days and  T a b l e 8.  Year  S p r i n g Weather C o n d i t i o n D u r i n g 1981, 1982  Date of Date of Slurry Slurry A p p l i c a t i o n Incorporation  1981  May  26  May  27  1982  May  21  May  24  1983  May  17  May  20  and 1983  at t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l S i t e .  Air Percent Air Air Temperature S o i l moisture Temperature (0 - 15 cm) Weather on °C Temperature °C °C on the day o f Date o f the day of (Max., Min. A p p l i c a t i o n and Average one day l a t e r two days l a t e r A p p l i c a t i o n Planting 18.0 Max. Aver. 13.5 Min. 8.5  Max. Aver. Min.  19.5 13.0 6.5  O c c a s i o n a l Max. 21.5 Aver. 14.8 showers. 8.0 (2.8 mm r a i n ) Min.  Max. Aver. Min.  14.5 11.0 7.5  Max. Aver. Min.  Cloudy w i t h Max. 12.0 sunny Aver. 10.0 8.5 breaks Min. (2.0 mm r a i n )  Max. Aver. Min.  17.5 13.5 9.5  Max. Aver. Min.  Sunny and dry. (No r a i n )  43  May  28  16.0 9.8 3.5  26  May  28  18.5 13.0 7.5  44  May  25  Table 9.  SWINE SLURRY 1981  1982  Rate of Application  NH -N  TOTAL N  4  1983  1981  1982  1983  1982  1983  -1  t ha _ - 1  0  1981  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  42  37  45  110  99  113  173  157  163  78  80  86  206  212  215  321  336  309  -  127  120  -  340  299  -  538  430  158  -  -  418  -  -  653  -  -  62  H. S o i l  sampling Each  were  further  ten a  year,  corn  soil  a  consisted  of  for  one  the  2.5  other  depths  from  cm  (the  intervals  slurry  proceeding  each  collected  corner first  from  treatment.  cm.  During  run  on  moved  ±15  designated  so  line  cm  that  no  m  a l o n g the  long  the  desired  pressing  length  of  was  made  cooler  for  samples the  cores  more At  and the  of  axis 1.5 to  one  would it. to  well  between  the  of  axis The  of  the  above  sampling  to  locate  hit  a corn  Collected  it  first  row  soil  the  laboratory,  mixed  within  the  and w e r e  subplot,  1.5  cores  sampled to  90  and  plastic extracted  not have  intervals  were  from  sampling cm  did  may  the  intended  to  center proceed  s p o t . But  shift  were  they  were  of  probably  samples where  by  direction  taken  a 30  samples  the  plot  was  the  samples  45  sampling be  60-90  e a c h at  was  applicator  plot  third  to  three  at  obtained  three  the  perpendicular  waste  and  each  points  core would  fingers  m)  this  cm  were  both  season,  composite  Samples  of  for  from  60-90  while  four  of  in o r d e r  transport were  long axis.  time  avoid  A  taken  s e c o n d and  line  used  growing  The  (7.6  each set  the  than  m  those  Big  short  the  axis  plots  containing  15-30, 30-60  plot  each.  cm  core  the  probe.  At  a  and  the  0-15,  per  e n d s , the  On each s a m p l i n g o c c a s i o n  replacement  of  long  on  both  samples were  8).  along  on  I. 5  The  the  m  1983, during  depths  a p p l i c a t i o n , the  zone.  2°C.  75  center  injection  portable  and  cores  another)  an  axis  without  twelve  one  of  long  buffer.  cores  at  straight  by  m  four  one  s u b p l o t s , each  a 0.6  Oakfield  along  4.8  x  at  (Figure  The  slurry  a  had  at  m  diameter of  buffer  7.6  1982  pattern  cm  m  intervals, soil  a composite  systematically m  In  month  a systematic  with  four  8.2  selected  sampling.  approximately  cm  randomly  plant  following  into  an  and . s e p a r a t e d b y  was  and  allowing  subdivided  rows  subplot  after  along  placed  were bags within  the in  stored by  if  a at  gently  a day  or  SOIL Directions  of  SAMPLING  Seeding  and  PLAN Slurry  Treatment  4.8 m  CORN  t  80 cm  ROWS  7.6 m  75  ,45  45 cm  X  45  H  45  75cm  H  1.5 m  I  I  2  3  8  4  5  INJECTION (Figure 8)  6  7  ZONES  8  64  two  after  depths  c o l l e c t i o n . Bulk  were  determined  I. L o c a t i n g i n j e c t i o n In  four  metallic  each  of  injection  sampling  from  without  collected  using  a line  the  core  soil  for  method  plot  each  that  of  3.04  four  different  Blake  sampling  (1965).  the  help  of  2.5  cm  axis  and  at  Oakfield  perpendicular to  the  40-60 of  the  cm  direction  from  of  0,  slurry  10, 20  each Soil slurry  date  was  of  one  randomly  samples  and  the  strings.  each  zone  sets  buried  following  depths. At  four  with  plant  harrowed,  coloured weeks  and  following  been  injection  each point probe  soil  marked  had  eight  each  in  immediately  field  and  used  were  string  three, four  long  long  the  with  replacement  m  not  After  0 - 2 0 , 2 0 - 4 0 , and the  was  coloured  slurry.  - 1  one, two,  along  a  a  to  located  the  location  of  zones  ha  taken  selected  on  t  was  were  application  area  attached  120  zone  samples  an  injection  rods  application  u s i n g the  of  zones  1982, in  sampling,  densities  30  cm  were apart  application.  J . Plant sampling On date)  each  two  crop  (containing of  the  Total a  and to  plan  samples  subplot ground  scale  sampling  plants)  same  total  climatic the  10  above  field  plant  and  each  were  plant  for  the  years  conditions  growing  season.  1982 and  which  were  randomly and  soil  1983 but  restricted  plant  one  each plot.  used  weights  Plant  following of  from  generally  plants  day  consisting  fresh  N determinations.  (a  collected  were  three  date  for  the  each  1  m  Rows  for  for  growth  1981  five  of and  of  the  field dry  collected  because of  during  the  row seven  sampling.  moisture,  samples were not  in  sampling  length  purpose  determined  selected  soil  early  using matter  according the part  poor of  65  In trenches opened visual  order in in  1981  and  and  the  soil  subsamples  was  after  response  (160  the  or  120  plants  to t  the  ha-  applied  slurry  injected)  1  established  plot  brace  N,  were  roots  and  made.  of  +  4  to  samples  steel  Wiley  total  Kjeldahl  were  (1965).  the  (TKN)  Methodology  1972). T o t a l  wet  oxidation  (soihsolution  soil  65°C and  h)  a dry  for  NH  Autoanalyzer C of  the  matter  method^ (Allison,  10g  gravimetric  moisture  0.1N H C I , u s i n g  and  Power  (1974). C h o p p e d  and  ground  samples  NGy  N0 -N  in  3  soil  and  soil  by  a  stainless  digested  the  the  (Technicon  the  in  were  following  samples was  of  1965)  analyses. Separate  with  II  slurry  mL)  extracted  h  and  + 4  (100  basis.  plant  and  2 N KCI  weight  120  NGy  with  for  Byrne  ground  of  furnace, organic  ratio  24  following  including  the  NGy-N  samples was  ratio at  extracted  and  + 4  N data to  Concentrations  using  NH  (105°C,  slurry  dried  determined  induction  the  Slurry,  N  for  dried  extractant  mill.  Leco  s u b s a m p l e d and  collected  convert  NH -N  plant  was  oven  to  slurry  Bremner  (I0g)  were  determinations  1:10  root  methods  filtrate  The  crop  a treated  1982  observations were  Fresh  a  investigate  a control  K. L a b o r a t o r y  and  to  method  samples  the  Walkley  in  0.01  of  were  Autoanalyzer determined  pH  for  II  using  a  -  Black  M  CaCI  2  1:2).  L. S t a t i s t i c a l analyses Analysis and  of  application  comparisons single  degree  of of  variance  methods rate  and  freedom  on  was  used  yield  rate tests  x  of  in  corn  method  for  testing  linear  dry  the  effects  matter  interactions  and were  and c u r v i l i n e a r  of  slurry  rates  uptake.  Trend  performed  using  N  effects.  66  In a  1981  plant  randomized  (Table dates  10).  and  complete  In  were  the  subsamples  (Table  therefore, factorial the  soil  dates  as  combinations  and Hills  least  in  a split  randomized  also  performed  factorially  and t w o  data,  a  in  was  and  and  date  NOy-N  only  in three  soil  in  successive  plot  block  in  subsamples sampling  design with design  rates  with  and the  to  test  depth  soil.  of  the  two  soil  Interactions  effects  of  sampling  on  studied  are  1981  was  collected  from  a  rates  and  methods  were  arranged  randomized  dates  sampling  subsubplots were  in  in  in  1981  depths a  a n a l y z e d as w h o l e blocks  (Table  and were  all  plots  b l o c k s . In data  in  considered plot in  the  the as  design.  single  a randomized  and  subplot  Rate  as  second  1982 a  depth,  and  a and  1983 effect,  method  complete  block  following  Little  10).  regression  and  (1978) w e r e  performed  to  and N uptake  complete  split-split  square  and N a p p l i e d  analysis  plots  methods  date  sampling  d e s i g n w i t h three  blocks  effect  sample  that  the  plant  three  arranged  10.  experiment  third  A  NHy  soil  for  experiments, and  rates, of  first  with  were  a subplot  variance  in T a b l e  The  1983  methods  10).  of  distribution  as  and  design  and  whole  application  indicated  1982  as  Analysis  the  block  considered  methods  slurry  a n a l y s i s , rates  and d r y  a  correlation  study  the  matter  analyses  relationship yield.  between  N  uptake  Table 10.  Partitioning of BUB of squares and degrees of freedom for plant and s o i l for 1981, 1982 and 1983.  Block Rate Method Depth Date Samples  -  b r • c d a  -  Soil Soli 81 82/83 d2/3 3 3 4 4 2 2 4 4 2 3 1 1  df  Anova Block Rate Method Rate x Method Error (1) Depth Depth x Rate Depth x Method Depth x Rate x Method Error (2) Date Date x Rate Date x Method Date x Rate x Method Date x Depth Date x Depth x Rate Date x Depth x Method Date x Depth x Rate x Method Error (3) Sub-samples Total  Plant Plant S o i l 81 82/83 81 dl 3 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 1  n-1 r-1 n-1  (r-l)(«-l) (n-D(rm-l) c-1 (c-D(r-l) (c-D(m-l) (c-l)(r-l)(m-l) rm(n-l)(c-l) d-1 (d-D(r-i) (d-l)(m-l) (d-l)(r-l)(m-l) (d-l)(c-l) (d-l)(c-l)(r-i) (d-l)(c-l)(m-l) (d-l)(c-l)(r-l)(m-l) rmc(n-l)(d-l) nrmd(s-l) nrmds-1  2 3 1 3 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 47  2 3 1 3 14 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 2 6 0 0 0 0 32 72 143  2 3 1 3 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23  2 3 1 3 14 3 9 3 9 48 1 3 1 3 3 3 9 64 0 47  2 3 1 3 14 3 9 3 9 48 4 12 4 12 12 36 12 36 256 0 119  V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  A . C o r n yield Six in  corn  individual  dry  measurements  matter  yields  and method  of  application,  variability  and ha  for  the  rates  - 1  40  in  compared  to  more  Yield  rates  slurry  contact  is  with  moderately the  a  were  when  at  an  early  volume  of  the  soil  some  plant  This  may  result  of  trend  to  the for  (maturation).  slurry  was  the  higher  80  method  application,  almost  broadcast  160  control  of  But  slurry  the  the  plant  in  for  or  120  compared  to  t  higher  harvesting all  rate  of  and  earlier  for  the  result the  early  plant  from  two  soil  small  harvesting different  (especially volume  of  if  the  injected),  periods  cases, the  (eg. nitrogen).  for there  of  nutrients. is  an  higher  plant  plants  Greater  uneven  occurs  variable in  growth,  in  the  yields  injection  variability  68  in  may  in  variability  No dry  it  in of  of  be  true only  the  with  the  rooting  the  uptake in  small could  the  concentrated can  be  production  in  for  small  same  in the  variability  nutrient  explanation matter  to  comparatively  the  very  comes  compared  relatively a  slurry  First, when  contact  explore  proximity  lower  in g r e a t e r  the  distribution  growth.  as  This  comes  and  perhaps  soil  result  s o i l . S e c o n d , b e c a u s e of  stage  growth in  nutrients  dates  factors.  the  as w e l l , b e c a u s e s l u r r y  system  and  recorded  date  plant  treatment  especially  of  were  application rates. This could  of  cm  compared  Irrespective  relatively  higher  overall  r a t e s , as  1  could  few  the  methods  measurements  particular  11).  surface  result  the  applied to  distribution  broadcast  both  variability  application  variability  a p p l i c a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , f o r  later  (Table  the  any  11).  the  determine for  yield  particular  to  and  yields  any  made date  in  ha-  variable  application  little  t  (Table  variability  were  slurry  at  were  soil area.  given which  for is  Table 11.  Coefficient of variation i n corn dry matter y i e l d and N uptake at d i f f e r e n t sampling dates for the slurry application rates used i n 1981, 1982 and 1983.  Slurry applied (t h a ) 40 80 Dry Dry matter N matter N yield uptake uptake yield - 1  0  Year  1981  Method of Application  Broadcast Injection Broadcast Injection  1982  Broadcast Injection Broadcast  Time after Planting (mo) 4  o Z 3 /.  Injection Broadcast Injection 1983  Broadcast Injection Broadcast Injection  o /  3 A  4  Dry matter yield  N uptake  C.V.  160 or 120 Dry matter N ' yield uptake  V  , to  15.8  9.4  11.8  12.2  6.2  14.1  7.6  9.9  8.2  11.9  9.2  10.4  9.9  10.9  10.6  9.8  24.6  8.9  16.0  7.3  19.6  24.0  5.6  20.7  4.0  8.5  6.4  13.0  1.9  10.3  2.4  12.9  4.4  10.0  5.7  12.2  4.9  14.1  9.6  19.6  3.3  5.6  4.5  7.1  13.8  17.5  • 18.4  8.4  14.7  13.0  16.7  17.7  7.7  15.6  16.5  20.4  13.5  22.0  16.3  11.5  19.7  19.3  20.6  44.0  8.7  8.8  13.7  13.7  16.2  22.7  6.1  15.8  6.6  13.2  9.6  6.8  7.4  9.1  7.0  14.6  9.2  10.9  3.8  7.8  7.0  5.7  5.7  7.1  11.3  13.7  2.5  5.7  23.0  30.8  21.7  13.5  22.8  22.8  21.4  24.5  10.5  11.3  13.2  13.6  11.7  10.7  9.0  9.4  16.2  9.6  15.1 7.4  70  associated  with  application.  The  application method  the  lower  could  as  broadcast yield  result  in  compared ranged  from  (1982)  3-11%  (1983).  from  the  that  year  bed,  fact  Uneven  thereby  Addition resulted  in  injection  the  broadcast  application  the  resulted  variable  of  swine corn  yields  application  up  For to  significant  from  a decrease  1982  and  9, Table  1983  when  13  80  broadcast.  the Sutton  the  swine  slurry  from  the  application  two  rates  two  compared  increased years,  14).  In  in  yield  from  effects a  of  90  slightly  application (Table  of  rates  rate  - 1  on  reduced  and lower  134  reported  injected  almost t  than  similar  as  1  N  N  in  trend in  that  weaker 120  t  higher  compared  corn  ha- . Their the  to  the  yields  applied  was  the  on  yield  application  to  with  performed  quadratic  ha  12).  compared  substantially  was  nitrogen.  increased  strong  160 t  of  was  manure  be  differential  effect  reported of  in  when  (1981); B e a u c h a m p (1983)  (1978)  were  the  quadratic  maximum  rates  1981  as  in  seed  could  control  analysis  1  and  the  yields  ha- . Curvilinear  sod  rough  such  methods  yields  corn  result  of  the  at  growth.  with  corn  this  2-10%  could  out  resulted  plant  to  treatment)  nutrients  different  quadratic  rate  al.  variable  and  12). T h e  same et  have  linear  9). K l a u s n e r and G u e s t when  t  ploughed  broadcast  could  all  1981  of  for  variability  compared in  slurry  injection  production  bed. Because  the  of  the  Yield  as  first  of  when  with  yields  distribution  using  method  method. of  for  in m o r e  slurry  was  method  matter  11) in  seed  nutrients  (Tables  (Figure  yield  in  dry  Table  site  rough  injection  application.  variability  (especially  years  year  (Figure  of  rates  showed  very  resulting  higher  The  all  a  resulting  distribution  availability  data  in  higher  (1981,  Greater  the  associated  broadcast  experimental  application  uneven  the 6-23%  the  resulting  slurry  more  that  variability  a relatively  to  maturation and  as o p p o s e d t o  yields  in ha-  1  corn to from  applications  supplied  by  the  Table 12. 1981  1982  1983  Swine Slurry Rate  1981 Broadcast  Silage Corn Dry Matter Y i e l d 1982  -  Injected  Broadcast  1983 Injected  Broadcast  Injected  ^  0  0  0  6.3  7.1  17.7  18.4  13.2  14.5  42  37  45  8.4  9.8  19.0  19.6  15.7  17.1  78  80  86  10.6  12.9  22.4  24.8  19.8  21.0  -  127  120  -  -  22.4  23.3  18.0  20.4  158  -  -  7.9  9.2  AVERAGE  8.3  9.8  20.4  21.5  16.7  18.3  Table 13.  Calculated F-values for Measured Crop Responses and Mean Square Error Terms (1981).  Source  DF  Block (B) Rate (R) Method (M) R X M Experr  2 3 1 3 14  F-Ratio Denominator Experr Experr Experr Experr Error  Dry Matter Yields  Calculated F--Values N-Uptake N-Concentration  16.67** 30.54** 15.25** 0.72 35.19**  21.84** 48.87** 38.93** 3.96 1.93  0.55 16.92** 9.58** 3.90* 0.72  10.90** 75.17** 5.56*  53.32** 84.44** 8.85*  50.68** 4.06E-3 . 8.49E-2  Curvilinear Analysis (Trend Analysis) R-Linear R-Quadratic R-Deviation8 R*M Linear R*M Quadratic R*M Deviations Mean Square Values Experimental Error Error  0.15 1.72 0.29  6.03* 3.93 1.94  9.83** 0.15 1.69  Calculated Mean Square Terms 1.74 4.93E-2  *, ** Significant at 5% and 1% l e v e l respectively.  223 115  8.80E-3 1.22E-2  Table 14.  Calculated F-values f o r Measured Crop Responses and Mean Square Error Terms (1982, 1983).  Source  DF  Block (B) Rate (R) Method (M) R X M B X RM Date (D) D X R D X M D X RM Experr  2 3 1 3 14 2 6 2 6 32  F-Ratio Denominator B X RM B X RM B X RM B X RM Experr Experr Experr Experr Experr Error  Calculated F-Values N Uptake 1982 1983  Dry Matter Yields 1982 1983 4.48* 199.94** 49.34** 7.29** 0.73 4164.10** 15.77** 2.33 0.38 0.82  1.53 152.35** 43.43** 0.49 1.05 1399.60** 4.52** 4.46* 0.39 0.56  18.34** 234.25** 78.48** 7.19** 0.62 132.77** 4.43** 1.17 0.36 2.16**  N Concentration 1982 1983  5.48* 285.32** 61.51** 0.94 1.15 240.95** 4.67** 5.46** 0.48 0.50  17.98** 176.67** 56.25** 6.73** 0.53 1202.50** 3.90* 0.79 0.94 2.50**  5.16* 106.47** 11.48** 2.29 1.05 393.31** 5.32* 0.13 0.75 1.03  577.07** 261.35** 17.53** 1.56 0.96 0.29  440.27** 74.61** 15.14** 9.60** 5.70* 4.91*  187.81** 115.85** 15.76** 0.32 0.18 6.40  Curvilinear Analysis (Trend Analysis) R-Linear R-Quadratic R-Deviations R X M Linear R X M Quadratic R X M Deviations  352.65** 179.76** 67.41** 2.63 14.13** 5.13*  298.38** 113.35** 45.33** 1.09E-3 4.05E-1 1.05  Mean Square Values Experimental Error Error  485.05** 167.87** 48.83** 8.73* 2.21 10.63**  Calculated Mean Square Terms 7.32E-1 8.91E-1  1.17 2.09  , **Signifleant at 5% and 1% level respectively.  620.66 287.49  250.04 500.59  2.53E-2 1.01E-2  1.75E-: 1.70E-:  74  E F F E C T OF S W I N E S L U R R Y A P P L I C A T I O N ON S I L A G E C O R N  DRY M A T T E R  RATE  YIELD  25-  BROADCAST  o- - -o —  20  >-  15  •  •  INJECTION  or  Ld  10  >or o  40  80  1983  1982  1981 160  0  APPLICATION  40  80  120  0  R A T E (t ho*')  (Figure 9)  40  80  120  75  comparable ha-  rates  u s e d in the  1  Averaged 9 t  ha-  ha  the  - 1  the  first, and  10°C the  rainfall  1982  growing  other  July  of  the  of  406 second  relatively  dry  beginning  of  temperatures (19.2  (especially air  and  properly. have  them  to  were  the  20  and  in  July.  growing 8.5°C)  for  the  cold  or  soil,  between . slurry  application  content  slurry  for  the of  and  corn  perhaps  160  seeding  have  an  growth  t  May  low  plants  the ha-  8).  and  corn  June  at  crop the  high  NH  seed  the  1983  causing  warm,  be  the  were  establish  plants  poor  could  affected  in  environment  relatively  The  total  minimum  to  soil  the  a  1 0 . 5 ° C ) and  failed  relatively rate  1  (Table  adversely  by  over  temperatures  and  a  which  August  maximum  to  had  J u n e ; the  s e a s o n had  and  20  pattern  season  distributed  July  the  and  second week  (22.7  shock  11°C;  and  to  for  and 2 0 % o f  anaerobic  followed  reason for the  and  could  growing  1983 g r o w i n g  half  season  distribution  in  due  Average  its  m m , 38  between  15).  and  equally  period,  was  (Table  21  fell  less  1982  and  This  year  especially  1981  to  season  yellowish.  and  250  primarily  growing  10°C;  high r a i n f a l l  same  was  year  the  which  later  compared  early  years  each  of  fell  The  17 t  in the  - 1  s e a s o n (June a v e r a g e  the  the  more  y e a r . Due t o  in A u g u s t . O n e o t h e r  of  42% of  which  an  t  s e c o n d and  ha  The  rainfall  rest  conditions same  different.  47% of  caused  160  21 t  rainfall  mm,  10.0°C)  turn  of  s e a s o n . The  16.4 and  of  was  and  growing  1981  that  yield  over  the  in that  than  matter  in  19.5  quantity  A u g u s t , the  Relatively  may  rainfall)  quite  mm,  week  lower  a p p l i c a t i o n , dry  among  temperatures  years  were  492  of  variation  s e a s o n had a t o t a l and  months  rainfall and  of  much  1  methods  yield  third  years  h a - , and  as c o m p a r e d to  r e s p e c t i v e l y . The  three  in  year  minimum and  total  fell  two  year. This  and  120 t  study.  the  weather  second  and  present  first  third  different  80  over  in the  1  maximum  for  of  + 4  yield  dry in  short  gap  and  salt  germination.  Table 15. Growing season weekly average maximum and minimum a i r temperatures and total r a i n f a l l (1 May - 30 September, 1981, 1982 and 1983). 1981 Week  1 2 *3 **4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  Max. °C  Min. °C  1982 Total ppt mm  Max.°C  Min. °C  1983 Total ppt mm  Max.°C  Min. °C  T o t a l ppt mm  12.5 15.1 16.2 19.8 16.5 15.8 14.1 19.3 22.0 19.6 20.4 23.4 23.9 27.4 23.6 21.0 22.2 22.7 19.4 15.2  5.4 6.4 7.4 9.2 8.4 8.6 8.1 8.9 10.3 9.9 12.7 12.9 11.0 14.7 12.6 10.9 10.8 9.7 10.1 6.6  37.4 18.0 12.8 31.8 46.0 88.2 61.0 12.0 18.2 7.4 30.8 9.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 27.0 1.6 0.6 24.6 66.0  14.6 15.6 17.0 21.3 15.9 24.5 27.4 22.9 18.1 22.4 19.1 24.3 21.3 20.4 24.2 23.2 22.7 22.5 21.8 17.6  4.6 6.1 6.9 7.0 7.6 10.1 12.1 12.2 11.0 10.1 12.1 11.9 11.4 10.9 11.2 11.9 12.1 9.4 9.6 7.5  7.2 10.4 12.6 2.8 4.8 0.0 0.0 31.4 60.0 22.2 6.2 5.6 3.4 32.0 0.0 7.6 12.4 24.8 0.0 6.2  15.1 16.6 18.6 24.0 18.6 19.9 18.2 20.2 19.7 18.1 23.7 22.3 24.1 22.6 24.3 21.7 18.4 17.7 19.9 17.0  10.2 9.1 10.8 10.3 11.6 11.1 10.0 11.6 12.6 9.8 12.3 11.3 7.8 6.2 6.2  32.6 32.6 2.2 1.8 6.2 18.2 42.8 3.0 17.2 109.8 0.8 7.0 3.6 9.6 0.0 37.4 38.4 22.8 7.4 12.4  X=49.5  X=9.7  E=492.4  X=20.8  X=9.8  E=249.6  X==20.0  X=9.6  E=405.8  •Slurry applied 1982 and 1983 **Slurry applied 1981.  7.2 ' 5.1 7.9 11.4 10*1  77  No  adverse  effect  the  plant  not  record  and  134 t  ha  In  each  matter  any  adverse on  - 1  for  months.  But  120  t  ha-  deficiency  the  clearly  r a t e s , and  the  control  N.  Because at  that  of  the  the  40  that  the  t  poor  slurry  in two t  ha  at  almost  control  the  40  crops in  for  t  ha  rate  resulted  season  final. harvest, therefore,  no  in  of  and  a  four  the  80  In  1982  N  1983  in  the  time.  benefitted  This  by  all  accumulation  for  from  1 9 8 1 , plant  dry  for  this  matter  primarily  such  in  of  and  period.  during  dry  90  showed  three rate  equally  of  rate  application  same  not of  the  same  rate  rates  did  population.  between  the  from  a l . (1978)  plant  plots,  - 1  et  1983),  the  were  the  on  rate  - 1  indicated  application  methods  the  growing  Sutton  and  in  rate  - 1  1982  b)  the  ha  swine  and  decrease  40  years.  a  receiving  the  a  the  occurred  1983 w a s  those  (both  16  1982 and  and, therefore,  accumulated  (Table  plots  and  in  for  and  indicated  the  only  rates  symptoms  and  result  averaged  in  from  period  matter  1  taken  seed germination  control  dry  used  1  effect  sampling  the  ha-  counts  accumulation  control  120 t  population  decline  and  of  a  deficiency  samples  Comparison was  were  made  of  taken  for  that  year.  B. Injection method Corn than all  the  (Table  was  matter  broadcast  application  yield  a  dry  effect  yield  rates. When  2.0  t  ha-  year  1  et  yr  averaged  2.1  t  ha  receiving  broadcast  - 1  and  t  ha-  when  1  yr  1  higher  averaged  years for  higher  was  corn 1.0  when  and  yield t  ha-  Safley from  1  slurry et plots  respectively  However,  the  N  for  across  a v e r a g e d a c r o s s the  1  manure.  1.38  method  a l . (1982)  period  yield  was  application  12). S u t t o n  three  on c o r n  the  injected  a l . (1981)  1  application  injection  the  years  and  80 t  ha  rate,  than  broadcast  reported  receiving year-  the  that  injected  more rates  than of  1  over  manure the  plots  Sutton  et  Table 16.a. Dry matter y i e l d at d i f f e r e n t sampling dates a f t e r planting (1982).  One month Rate of Slurry Application t ha" 1  Dry matter 1 yield t  Broadcast  hp-  Injection  Two months Dry matter yield  + ha"  Broadcast  1  Three months Dry matter y i e l d h Via" Broadcast Injection 1  Injection  X 4.0  11.5  X = 0.13 ± 0.06  4.7  5.0  12.5  4.85  80  5.4  6.4  5.1  17.7  ... ....  18.4 18.05  . 13.5 13.00  19.0  16.5  22.4  14.1  24.8 23.60  15.0 14.55  19.6 19.30  15.50 5.4  5.25  X 11.6  14.5  5.90  120  - 1  11.55  3.95 40  Dry matter yield r ha Broadcast Injection  X  3.9  0  Four months  22.4  23.3 22.85  Table 16.b.  Dry matter yields at different sampling dates a f t e r planting (1983).  One month Rate of Slurry Application t ha - 1  Dry matter yield f  Broadcast  ha~  Two months  Three months  Four months  Dry matter yield  Dry matter 1 y i e l d  Dry matter y i e l d  l  Injection  Broadcast  ^ ho-  Injection  Broadcast  4.4  9.4  X 0  3.9  Injection  Broadcast  X  4.15  Injection X  11.1  13.2  10.25  14.5 13.85  t 40  X - 0.12 ± 0.04  4.4  4.9  11.7  4.65 80  7.0  8.0  14.5  7.50 120  6.8  15.7  16.3  13.9  19.9  21.0 20.45  15.1 14.5  17.1 16.40  15.4  6.9 6.85  12.3 12.00  18.0  20.4 19.20  CO  80  al.  (1982) w e r e  Safley used  et  considerably  a l . (1981)  in this  were  rate,  there  and  14)  corn  yield  the  years,  in  methods.  rates  But  injection  for  the  application  method.  Out  method  interaction  dependent method  the  on  in  matter  of  itself  yields  injection  positive the  improved  conservation  of  effect  (1981);  injection  physical  slurry  in  when  no  indicated  on 0.7  that  year  and  1.3  method  greater  in higher  N  the  effect  t  In  all  of  1  rate  rate  all  the  broadcast  was  ha-  control  13  applied,  there  In  and  application  the  production.  x  was years,  Corn  dry  higher  for  treatment.  This  could have resulted  from  soil  crop  than  (1983)  broadcast  the  only.  (1982)  conditions,  N resulting  the  matter  application  rates  (Tables  was  1982  dry  the  the  methods.  than  in  that  and  yield  corn  to  than  1  slurry  corn  only  in  ha- )  rates yield  higher  application  compared  the  even  of  1  differences  corn  experiment,  14). T h i s  had  an  or  resulted  of  soil of  rate  method  of  significant  on  effect  kg  h a - ) and t h o s e  m e t h o d , and w i t h i n y e a r  greater  (Table  0.8  application  application  year's  control  effect  and  (168, 336  associated with  method  were  lower  statistically  same  three  the  year  were  had  (428, 6 4 3 and 857 k g  slightly  study. Within  application  higher  N  mineralization  and  uptake.  C . C r o p N uptake Like six  dry  individual  higher  for  the  160 or  an  early  the  been  control  stage  indicated  ha" of  were  application  y i e l d s , crop  measurements.  120 t  variabilities of  matter  and 1  plant  the  (Table  growth  associated  uptake  Variability  for  rates  N  with  (Table  11). P o s s i b l e  earlier  in the  crop  40  in  t  ha  data N  - 1  the  at  broadcast  section.  also  obtained  from  measurements  were  compared  variabilities  maturity  explanations yield  uptake  rates  11). H i g h e r than  were  and,  than for  the  these  to  were in  the  80  and  recorded  general, injection  at  higher method  variabilities  have  81  In  all  quadratic  effect  years, crop and  from  N  the  than  applied  (Table  both  the  root  zone  the  have  use,  thereby  itself  plant  soil  may  incorporation  slurry,  indicated  by  The  could  uptake  injected  80  beneficial  t  the ha  - 1  for  Klausner  B r a i m et  by  have  in  plants  and corn  Guest  effects  uptake  yields in  no  higher  slurry  treatment  of  30  availability  of  N  in  N  uptake  physical and  NH  slurry  to  (1981)  and  with  broadcast  especially to  the into and  broadcast  and  et  manure  application on  or  losses  Sutton  dairy  ploughing  soil  placed directly  the  the  crop  leading  volatilization  3  12  in the  the  condition,  thereby  resulted  in  by  N  was  cm  depth  - 1  were  at  relative  deep  N  (Tables  injected  of  in  N concentration  from  compared  ha  and  in the  reduced  t  injection  mineralization +  the  80  resulted when  all  the  soil's  4  uptake  maximum  N  or  1983  the  because  method  more  and  14). In  drop  slurry  N uptake. N H - N  respectively, when The  soil  the  and  and  much  1982  17B). T h e  broadcast  difference  improved  in  to  injection  form  13  linear  was  whereas  mainly  i n c r e a s e d the a  effect  i n c r e a s e d up  and  of  significant  (Tables  production  causing  available  N  uptake  concentration  and  1981  resulted  quantity N  more  method.  higher  materials.  N  N  17A  1 7 A ) . The  potentially  injection  the  reported  in  in  recovery  year  matter  have  growth  by  increased  and  may  aeration, resulting greater  each  dry  N  had  quadratic  prominent  (Tables  (Table  plant  18). P l a c e m e n t  injection  off  1 7 A ) . Higher  high  plant  slurry  rate  The  effect  more  comparable  and  for  linear  and  rate  application uptake.  much  dropped  rate  N  the  was  that  uptake  from  to  highest  at  slurry  crop  uptake  then  reduced  on  relative  linear  rate  years,  effects  pronounced the  the  al.  (1982)  and  swine  of  crop  the  same  yield  were  a l . (1984). plant  corn rate  recovery crop  (Tables  over  of  slurry  the  17B a n d  N and  the  greater  control  were  19).  1982, 4 5 % o f  In  increase  associated the  with slurry  in the N  Table 17A. Time After Application  Application Method  Crop N uptake (1981, 1982 and 1983). 1982 treatment (t h a ) 40 80 120  1981 treatment (t h a ) 0 40 80 160 -i  kg ha"  Month  1983 treatment (t ha"') 40 80  -1  kg ha - 1  1  kg h a  Average - 5 ± 1.9  Broadcast  120  - 1  Average - 5 ± 2.1  Injection Z**  4*  X**  Z**  Z**  Z**  Z**  X**  X**  Broadcast  77  66  105  62  139  60  133  56  47  51  73  54  126  65  118  64  Injection  87  60  112  62  159  54  161  59  54  49  94  53  137  60  130  59  Broadcast  90  77  135  80  187  81  170  71  57  62  124  91  176  91  161  88  Injection  107  73  151  84  236  80  221  81  72  65  137  78  201  88  189  86  Broadcast  71  98  125  102  117  169  232  239  92  136  193  183  Injection  79  116  171  136  146  180  296  272  111  176  229  220  •Final harvest. ••Percent of the total uptake.  Table 17B.  Application Time After Method Application  Percent  recovery of s l u r r y N (1981, 1982  1981 0  treatment  40  80  (t  and  1983).  1982 ha ) - 1  treatment  ( t ha  1983 treatment  160  0  40  80  120  -  -  18  18  10  -  16  21  14  -  29  29  15  -  28  38  21  _  (t h a ) _ i  0  40  80  120  -  16  26  16  24  27  18  41  38  24  40  42  27  27  33  21  40  38  25  Month  o  Broadcast  L  Injection  Broadcast  o  J  Injection  4*  Percent  -  -  -  -  Broadcast  16  17  5  -  33  34  23  Injection  21  29  9  -  22  45  23  recovery of s l u r r y N c a l c u l a t e d  **"  as:  (N uptake from the treatment - N uptake from the TKN a p p l i e d from the treatment  control)  Table 18.  Plant N concentration and c o e f f i c i e n t of variation at different sampling periods for the several rates of slurry used i n 1981, 1982 and 1983. Slurry application rate (t h a ) - 1  Year  Time after planting  Method of application  0 N cone  80  40 C.V.  N cone.  C.V.  N cone.  C.V.  120 or 160 N cone. C.V.  %  1981  4  O Z  1982  3  /.  o L  1983  3  4* * F i n a l harvest.  Broadcast  1.1  12.6  1.2  7.6  1.2  6.0  1.3  7.1  Injection  1.1  3.6  1.2  9.3  1.3  7.6  1.5  9.5  Broadcast  1.9  12.4  2.2  3.1  2.6  4.3  2.6  3.8  Injection  2.1  5.6  2.2  4.5  2.7  5.5  3.0  2.6  Broadcast  0.8  22.8  1.1  17.8  1.3  13.3  1.2  14.2  Injection  0.9  15.4  1.1  19.6  1.4  6.3  1.5  10.2  Broadcast  9.1  0.9  7.7  1.1  9.3  10.1  0.9  14.6 13.2  1.0  Injection  0.7 0.8  1.2  5.0  1.2  5.9  Broadcast  1.2  13.1  1.7  1.8  5.5  1.7  8.0  Injection  1.2  9.8  1.9  13.6 8.4  1.7  14.7  1.9  11.1  Broadcast  0.6  8.1  1.0  26.5  1.2  7.4  1.2  6.9  Injection  0.7  19.6  1.1  17.1  1.2  8.9  1.3  4.8  Broadcast  0.7  7.2  0.9  12.3  1.0  3.9  1.0  6.0  Injection  0.8  6.5  1.0  6.8  1.1  4.6  1.1  4.6  T a b l e 19.  Time after application (month) .  9  i.  J  Percent i n c r e a s e i n crop N uptake over the c o n t r o l f o r s l u r r y r a t e s used i n 1981, 1982 and 1983.  Method of application  1981 treatment (t h a " ) 40 80 160 1  1982 treatment — (t h a " ) 80 40 120 1  application  1983 treatment — (t h a " ) 40 80 120 1  Broadcast  36  80  73  55  168  151  Injection  29  83  85  74  154  140  Broadcast  50  108  89  117  209  182  Injection  41  121  106  90  179  162  Broadcast  38  76  44  44  98  104  48  110  99  Injection  47  116  72  23  102  86  58  106  98  4*  * F i n a l harvest.  86  was  recovered  opposed  to  17B).  the  In  increase  same crop  as  application in  the  crop  34% when  in  injection  by  the  year N  same and  the  rate  rate  control  for  results  of  broadcast  same  the  98%  19). S i m i l a r  was  the  over  to  above  rate  for  uptake  compared  (Table  when  the  were  slurry plus  of  was  incorporated  slurry  amounted  102%  plus  for  as  (Table  application,  to  broadcast observed  injected  the  for  the  incorporation  the  80  t  ha-  rate  1  1983. A  considerably  growing 17A).  season  This  lowest. the up  by  result  corn  injected (2.7  137  kg  and  to  of  t ha  high,  45% from  soil  and f o r  the  same  N  62-65%  uptake in  as  the  N  soil  kg  could kg  ha-  87  for  heavily  the  to  of  from  during  July)  the  80  t  only  available  39%  by In  1982,  after  N  1983  for  was  soil  as  when  the  crop  slurry  later was  the  the  for  N  available  of  the  evident  N . In  rate.  - 1  61% from  values  soil  supplied ha  injected  of  soil  with taken  be  of  the  up  will  slurry  (Table  were  N 1  the  was  keep  N daykg  N  As  on  was  lower,  not - 1  in  plots  July). Corresponding  supply  N  ha  of  1  to  supply  crop  compared  occurred  available  5  more  was  growth  soil  the  the  slurry  interesting  had  1983.  the  soil  the  also  of  when  N respectively.  relied  when  treated  during  when  later  slurry  opposed  1  occurred  the  1982, 159  of  as  of  1  112)  crop  55%  available  is  ha-  growth  in  N day-  26, p  by  It  kg  for  uptake  N, the  rate  rate  - 1  of  - 1  corn  of  uptake ha  54  (Table  months  (an  80  l o w , the  compared  crop  crop  N  1983  months  comparatively  rate  in  two  relatively  supplied  true  demand. After  thesis  supply  especially  than  available  were  two  control  of  low  plots  the  the  amount  of  the  control  in  a  the  from  1983  was  As  crop  for  greater  N  the  was same  period. to in  Corresponding  note the  that control  values  for  by  three plots  the  80  months in t  1982 ha-  1  73-77% as rate  of  the  compared were  to  80-81  87  and  88-91% respectively.  about and  one  month  rapid  dry  after  matter  the  corn  date  crop  of  production  and  Leng,  1972). T h e r e f o r e , a d e q u a t e q u a n t i t i e s  matter  ha  is t o  be a c h i e v e d .  year  In  1982, the  of  - 1  N  injected  the  the  plots  that  mineralization  rate  mineralization  of  mineralized rate,  in  of  and in  at  on  other  produced matter N the  yields  resulted  from  the  years  may  have  treated  from  resulted  the  compared 1  80  of  80  rate  plots  high  ha-  later  1  the  1  on  slower  N  in  in  the  uptake  1983  growing  mineralization crop  between  the  control  was  also  1982 and  (a  N  its  reported  1983 r e s u l t e d  were This active  of  - 1  and  soil  net the  period.  the  1-3  the  to  season  of  kg  25, p  slurry  crop  and  corn  dry  as w e l l . T h e  a corn  in  of  of  (2.6  (Table  ha  296  from  during  by  slurry  data  this  N requirement  rate  matter  period  organic  during  N  dry  months  r e c e i v i n g 40 t  crop  dry  addition  slurry  for  ultimate  mineralized  In  1  soil  contained  thesis  N were  demand  Maximum t  in the  months  in the  active  third  day- ).  of  ha-  a n d the  from  to  t  this  on  N  kg  yield  mineralization  h a - ' of  crop's  plots  N uptake  (1982). I n j e c t i n g 80 t h a -  the  meet  N  leaves  and  corn  its  and  1  of  1  107  yields.  control  greater  plots  to  maximum  later  kg  N,  the  maximum  day )  organic  ha-  plots  lower  uptake  Proportionately the  failed  relatively  N  and  N  (Aldrich  present  rate  during  of  months  grain  be  growth  occurred of  1  1.5-2.5  N must  in  amount  stalks, wide  protein  produced  36  kg  meet  p e r i o d . The control hand  slurry  from  of  large  sturdy  high  resulted  ha-  a  between  for  uptake  kg  organic  growth the  that  1.2  year  could  rate  - 1  N  for  maximum  months  of  that  and  1982 p r e s e n t e d  two  soil  therefore,  ha  this  Soil  1  112) s u g g e s t  t  s e c o n d (5  day- ).  control  80  if  corn crop  N. M o s t  during  of  1  application  Each  growth ha  after  yield  yields. kg  tasseling, silking  again  planting  month  demands  planting  after  one  for  The  higher in  both  organic  months by  N.  from  Johnson  in 64 and  36  88  kg  ha  same N  more • N  - 1  quantity.  uptake  uptake  by  Klausner  when  31  t  the  and  ha'  Guest of  1  crop,  respectively,  (1981)  dairy  recorded  than  36  broadcasting  kg  ha  the  greater  - 1  manure  were  injected  as  application  rates  had  significant  and  N  crop  compared  to  broadcast. As  indicated  earlier, slurry  quadratic  trend  effects  years.  order  to  of  In  dry  matter  uptake  and  where  the  best  and  1981  growing that  data  that  yields  (Figures  dry  uptake  10  by  was  over  kg,  of  N  efficient  use  lower  uptake  N  only  w i t h i n the  used  in the  limit  figure.  of  49 by  a separate  appears  corn  crop  additional In  kg the  the  kg  1982  and  dry  matter  corn  crop  resulted of  worst  reduced  It  from  performed  and  Appendix  N  (1982)  and on  record,  from  Figure  in  1981  of  N  1983  was in  for  yield. of  the  of  the  yields  out  and  on  dry  to  over  N uptake  The  of  matter  compared  This  N  Similar  one  N  which  crop  fertilizer.  that  an  terms  the  analyses suggest  10  produced.  1981  lower  measurement  uptake  the  experiment  carried  uptake  as  on  an  dry  correlation N  in  conditions  and  between  N  1982  climatic  analysis was  the  in  in  and  all  4.1).  chemical  uptake  for  slurry  was  Heemst  unfavourable  correlation  the  4  manure  the  The  11).  each  that  farmyard  this,  produced.  80  and  uptake  utilized  analysis  year. Results of  and  1981, for  matter  of  positive  utilized  In  Keulen  one  crop  (Appendix  significantly  particular  significant  efficiently  data  N were  season  the  correlation  by  was  production  efficiently  intermediate.  highly  1983.  of  year. Because  for  matter  yield  season  1983  a  drawn  sources  growing  how  matter  were  1981  for  study  dry  production,  dry  comparisons  on  linear  50  1982  masked  dry  and  kg  kg  of  indicated  relationship and  more  k g , 65  These was  matter  was  additional  a  by  of N an the  is  valid  matter  yield  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN N UPTAKE AND DRY MATTER YIELD 1981 16.8-j 16 H 15.2 H  5 0 6 0 70 8 0 9 0 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 2 0 0  N UPTAKE (kg  ha* ) 1  (Figure 1 0 )  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN N UPTAKE AND DRY MATTER YIELD 1982 and 1983  Q  I  UJ >en  >Q  Y = 9.84 + 0 . 0 4 9 X SE " 1.22  r = 0.92, P = <.001  13 |A A I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 0 100 120 140 160 180 2 0 0 2 2 0 240 2 6 0 2 8 0 3 0 0 3 2 0 3 4 0 3 6 0  N UPTAKE (kg (Figure  11)  ha' ) 1  91  From 11), it to  the  c a n be  produce  season.  relationship s e e n that  a yield  certain N  that  soil  has  field  be  order  knowledge  so  In  Therefore,  to  1982  Regression the  when this  12  that  was  the  the  profit the  on  dry  dry  was  - 1  matter  utilized  a moderate may obtaining  to  yield the  corn  out  that  fertilizer  relationship  is  yield  the  yield  or  amount  under  very  crop  growing  in  maximum  can figure  (Figure  excellent  used  the  produce  by  to  be  N  uptake  1983  and  the  broadcast  as  the  required from  N  research,  the  produce.  cost  per  unit  swine  If its  Figures 34%  swine  a of  similar  much  useful  crop  swine  80  t  for  its  be  ha-  &  to  in  two  calculation to  slurry  application  is  and  used  as  seen  terms  of  its  expected  soil  the  from uptake  (Figure13). to  taken  a  - 1  for  be  indicate  ha .  analysis  can  has  be  t  a  applications.  be  N c a n be c a l c u l a t e d . O n the could  can  methods. Results  injected  that  80  5)  slurry  1  uptake  had  regression  13. It  efficient  N  rate  up  yield,  applied  (Appendix  the  43% when  relationship  some  data  N  of  application  N, a  12  expected  to  slurry  and  slurry  has  N uptake  applied 40  to  that  and  separately  was  of  out  N  the  in t e r m s  slurry  yield  the  in  of of  sort  carry  of  of  opposed  amount  of  fertilizer  for  N  amount  this to  of  performed  slurry  N for  type  and  presented  of  fertilizer  matter  using  are  amount  the  efficiency  swine  growers  of  present  analysis was  information by  and  information  supply  crop  required  amount  the  indicate  analyses  it  the  effect  performed  Figure  in  and  y i e l d , one  the  the  efficiency  that  linear  of  in  in  - 1  result  maximum  supply  the  significant  years  ha  conditions. Therefore, this  calculated.  was  the  t  interested  present  to  of  essential  be  25 this  is  uptake  use.  In  is  to  of  and c l i m a t i c  for  about  one  N  310 kg N h a  from  If  percentage  about  of  Information  recommendations.  between  a  applied other  step  probable  to  hand,  forward cost  amendment  marketable  From  value  of  and then the  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN N UPTAKE AND TKN BROADCAST 1982 and 1983 360-j 340320300280-  80-4  0  1  40  1—i  1  1  1 — i — i — i — I — i — I — i  8 0 120 160 2 0 0 240 2 8 0 3 2 0 3 6 0 4 0 0 4 4 0 4 8 0 5 2 0  N APPLIED (kg (Figure 12)  ha" ) 1  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN N UPTAKE AND TKN INJECTED 1982 and 1983 360-i  0  40  80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400 440 480 520  N APPLIED (kg (Figure 13)  ha' ) 1  94  produce will  have to  There the  top  are  yield  s e c o n d , to long  at  increase  unless  the  further  investment  growing half  or  produce  whether  higher more  First,  to  increase  farmer's  No  farming  enterprise  production.  of  is  total  s o that  its  pays  good  yields  such a calculation.  1982).  for a  their  or  a  that  the  cost  for  producers  overhead  surplus  that  crop  fixed  fertilize  can and  allows  is  to  income  charges  s y s t e m . Fixed poor  production  unit  all  be  improve  a  out  reasons  should  to  carry  good  food  there  to  two  produce  Preferably  same  least  (Cooke,  inputs.  the  be k n o w n  and  the  survive  for  the  cost  farmers  costs  of  for  to  make  production  are  grown.  The  advantage  charges, which  may  amount  c o s t s , are  spread  over  of  larger  of  to  a  amount  of  is r e d u c e d .  D. Soil mineral N  Soil  mineral  N shortly  Considerable result  lateral  the  soil  changes  and  with  have  this  the  an  N will  spacing  experiment show  that  between  the  type,  concentration of  variability  especially when  the  will  following  0-30  respectively,  N  3  is  be g r e a t l y  lateral cm from  into  and  growth.  affect  for  points the  (lateral)  by  the  vertical  and  point  0-40 of  in  s o i l . This  is  the is  greatly  the  1  of  application,  because  Four  how  localized  and  the  crop's rooting  rate  or  by  zone  weeks  of  and the  application  N were  zones  it  higher  pattern  slurry  of  it  availability  Results  of  (vertical)  injection.  influenced N  distributions cm  is b e c a u s e  of  application. ha  could  form  germination  by  t  concentration  the  N  of  120  N  of  This  seed  determined  and the  the  injected  concentrated  the  14)  mineral  movement  plant  may  between  soil  conditions  on  NH  (Figure the  If  impact of  is  vertical  time.  in  slurry  climatic  injection  of  localized the  after  soil, slurry  VERTICAL AND LATERAL N DISTRIBUTION FOLLOWING INJECTION OF 120 t ha" OF SLURRY IN 1982 1  96  application,  when  s u p p l y , the  concentration  was  similar  zone.  had  was  little  appears  from  80 p p m  (in  if  the  on  the  the  a  0-30 of  by  same  vertical  NOy  cm  Sutton N  figure  and  from  et  in  cm  the  maximum  cm  the  center  the  soil  (vertical)  the  injection  from  maximum  swine  growth  (NH + NH ) N  of  1628  ppm  corn  120 t cm.  soil can  ppm  (Colliver  slurry ha-  It  and  and  of  from  be  1  also  concentration  in the  r e a c h e s 944  +  4  of  40  N  N  zone  of  below  zone) occurred root  of  its  0-20  concentration  early  concentration  need  a l . , 1982. I n j e c t i o n  that  3  to  in the  nitrogen  20-40  of  beginning  NH/+  mineral  germination  at  of  from  indicated  concentration  inhibited  was  dispersion  effect  rate. S e e d  crop  laterally  Sufficient  injection  the  this  retarded  completely  Welch,  1970).  substantially  lower  0  Since  the  than the  concentration  the  toxic  lower  effect  amount  rates  used  the  distribution plants  in their  adverse  of  (1982) zones  of  to  could  no  that  research  result  injection  used for difference the  growth  the  had  or  unequal  (height  decreased which  spaced  1.0  m  apart.  thought  to  be  responsible  Inadequate for  in the  soil  is  of  of  the  slurry  slurry was  a  barley  was of  variable  3  toxicity  be  reflected had shank  not  any  McLean  and  crop  injected  crop  in  have  between  increased  the  for  evidenced  distribution.  distance  or  1  an u n e q u a l  could  height  a  ha  e s p e c i a l l y true  swine  N  distribution such  NH  spacing used did  height  swine  any  t  growth.  and  in plant  on  as  zone  120  event  This  applying  shank  recorded  in  was  unlikely  treatment.  the  injector  application)  N  a n d , t h e r e f o r e , o n plant  injection  plant  is  the- present  research, probably on  NGy)  +  4  growth  close  60 c m . A s  effect  injection center  in  the  growing  thesis  Henry  from  heights. The  spacings the  plant  (NH +  i n d i c a t e d , it  on seed germination Differential  N  of  from by  slurry growth  the  shanks N  was which  97  resulted  in  a  application narrow  Soil  substantial  can  rooting  mineral Soil  mineral  Table  As  soil  were  significant effect  those  were  based  a  procedure  (materials was  used  of  this  slurry at  the  0-15,  entire  1982  in  application N  + 4  mineral  and  NGy-N  and  1983  rates  used  from  the  in  this  slurry  a p p l i c a t i o n . The a c c u m u l a t i o n o f where  distribution quite  the  slurry  patterns  of  different.  was N  than  been  Figures  section) with  treatment  large  variability  methods  and  and  application  always  of a the  effects did  of  the  presented there  treatment mineral  the 15-20  were  N in the  not  in  represent  all in  (Table  greater  broadcast  (Table  Appendix  6. W i t h  of  different the  accumulation  of  of  of  method  varied soil  depending  profile.  slurry  mineral  21, total  at  an  the soil  sampled  the  methods  soil  depths  In  methods  soil  in  cm  year.  regardless  applied two  in  on  changes  rates  soil  rates  60-90  resulted  comparable  study  initially from  soil  and m e t h o d s  the  on  content  have  in  experiment  effect  method  N  this  each  slurry  soil  in  period  did  dates  have  individual  variability  sampling  than  application  three  methods  15-30, 30-60  N concentrations injection  on  and  Since  application  greater  NH  which  of  research.  a  23) . The  Spacing  crops  of  relatively  had  of  yield.  rates, dates, depths  2 1 , 22), the  of  range  variabilities.  result  over  wide  earlier  concentrations  quantities  were  of  rates  22) . The  on  yield  all the  these  the  application  mineral  mineral  data f o r  effects  N  matter  season  shows  (Table  compared  years,  20  minimizing  The  dry  measurements  sampling  of  adversely  growing  indicated  hope  mineral  the N  N content  pre-set  limit  in  systems.  mineral  application.  were  especially  N over  observations.  decrease  N  The  application distribution  Table 20.  Percent coefficient of variation In s o i l mineral N measurements at different sampling dates for the 0, 80 and 120 t h a rates of slurry used In the experiment in 1982 and 1983. - 1  Year  Time after application (mo) 1  2 1982 3  4  1  2 t Qfll 170J  3  4  Slurry application rate (t ha~1)  n  Depth (cm) 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90  Broadcast 12.8 21.5 30.6 27.6 13.4 7.3 32.7 64.4 37.1 42.8 47.4 57.8 14.2 43.6 41.9 5.3 1.5 15.5 12.9 21.9 29.4 24.4 35.4 32.5 22.2 110.0 68.1 45.4 10.0 20.0 12.9 5.5  Hfl  Injection 14.5 21.9 15.5 28.9 38.0 26.8 75.1 53.8 9.1 24.2 62.9 81.6 21.4 8.1 23.1 94.8 49.1 11.9 23.1 29.5 42.5 40.7 34.9 35.6 38.3 74.3 29.3 2.2 23.2 8.8 7.5 5.7  Broadcast 10.3 12.9 55.9 71.1 18.1 16.4 30.4 52.3 34.2 15.8 34.6 58.4 11.7 21.2 94.0 53.6 12.4 29.0 28.5 44.9 32.3 8.6 21.7 15.1 57.1 11.5 1.4 15.9 39.9 59.7 41.2 38.6  Injection 32.0 40.5 8.2 37.6 10.7 39.1 39.1 55.1 29.5 39.5 24.0 53.6 57.9 34.2 30.0 47.1 10.7 10.5 7.3 25.9 31.5 24.3 24.1 30.4 3.1 12.9 27.9 22.8 27.0 39.7 27.3 39.3  Broadcast 14.7 10.3 58.3 82.2 60.8 49.4 25.6 39.7 36.0 51.2 27.7 36.5 28.8 57.4 1.8 15.6 71.4 35.4 38.9 13.2 39.6 36.1 19.4 19.4 33.4 45.8 23.3 49.1 35.2 28.0 46.9 46.6  1?0 Injection 44.2 30.6 59.0 22.1 24.7 40.2 38.5 58.1 100.2 51.2 25.5 49.0 32.5 64.7 51.4 75.0 42.7 21.1 22.0 22.2 55.8 15.4 8.7 8.9 80.9 9.2 35.4 46.7  40.7 40.0 33.9 18.5  Table 21. Calculated F values for S o i l NH^ and NO -N Concentrations and Mean Square Error Terms (1981) 3  Calculated F-Values  Source  DF  Block Method (M) Rate (R) M XR ER(MR) C » depth C XM C XR C X M XR ERR(C) . Date = D D XM D XR D X M XR D XC D X C XM D X C XR D X C X MR Error  2 1 2 2 10 3 3 6 6 36 1 1 2 2 3 3 6 6 48  F-Ratio Denominator ER(MR) ER(MR) ER(MR) ER(MR) ERR(C) ERR(C) ERR(C) ERR(C) ERR(C) ERROR ERROR ERROR ERROR ERROR ERROR ERROR ERROR ERROR  NH^-N Concentration 0.19 38.94** 41.21** 44.34** 1.76 54.78** 29.13** 27.79** 23.66** 1.51 230.78** 102.41** 105.41** 88.65** 57.07** 34.23** 38.05** 30.04**  N0 -N 3  Concentration 0.33 32.42** 211.66** 5.45* 0.60 357.66** 36.83** 34.92** 7.91** 0.85 307.53** 41.61** 18.31** 7.39** 214.07** 20.16** 24.26** 5.41**  Mean Square Values  Calculated Mean Square Terms  ER (MR) ERR (C) ERROR  298.63 611.01 538.87  *, ** S i g n i f i c a n t at 5% and 1% l e v e l respectively.  15.46 25.65 29.94  100  Table 22. Calculated F values for S o i l NH and NO-N concentrations and Mean Square Error Terms (1982 and 1983). lt  3  Calculated F-Values  Source  DF  F-Ratio Denominator  NH^-N Concentration 1982  2 Block 1 Method (M) 2 Rate (R) 2 M XR ER(MR) 10 C = depth 3 3 C XM C XR 6 C X M XR 6 ERR(C) 36 4 Date = D D XM 4 D X- R 8 D X M XR 8 12 D X C D X C XM 12 24 D X C XR D X C X MR 24 Error 192 Mean Square Values ER (MR) ERR (C) ERROR  ER(MR) ER(MR) ER(MR) ER(MR) ERR(C) ERR(C) ERR(C) ERR(C) ERR(C) ERROR ERROR ERROR ERROR ERROR ERROR ERROR ERROR ERROR  1983  3.19E-2 7.44* 10.87** 3.39 1.93 32.23** 30.96** 6.46** 9.03** 0.96 26.91** 1.83** 5.48** 0.86 7.33** 11.46** 2.08** 3.14**  0.12 21.27** 12.37** 7.32* 2.18* 40.53** 21.35** 7.03** 8.21** 1.05 60.68** 17.61** 5.72** 5.81** 11.07** 8.92** 3.67** 3.23**  NO 3-N Concentration 1982 0.66 0.17 26.75** 0.11 2.42* 79.53** 31.17** 11.89** 8.89** 2.08** 26.64** 1.44 10.63** 0.79** 17.11** 7.31** 3.21** 2.08**  1983 10.45** 6.24* 289.32** 3.03 0.34 51.19** 13.84** 5.36** 6.33** 1.78** 58.95** 4.94** 6.38** 4.28** 28.89** 7.49** 4.15** 3.51**  Calculated Mean Square Terms 117.90 61.23 63.73  12.61 5.78 5.48  *, ** S i g n i f i c a n t at 5% and 1% l e v e l respectively.  547.47 225.99 108.53  14.55 42.48 23.80  Table 23.  S o i l mineral nitrogen (Ammonium + Nitrate) before and 1, 2 and 4 months after application of . swine slurry (1981, 1982 and 1983). Time Manure Treatment (t ha After Soil 0 , 80 120* Application Depth Broadcast Injection Broadcast Injection Broadcast Injection ko  (mo)  Before  1  2  4  5  (cm) 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 Total 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 Total 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 Total 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 Total 0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 Total  1981 1982 1983 1981 1982 1983 1981 1982 20 14 17 18 16 14 16 20 16 15 37 22 21 38 43 37 34 36 18 18 107 110 115 69 69 44 34 54 156 50 30 33 19 18 18 37 32 46 21 15 33 13 29 18 28 254 107 124 100 143 121 20 27 13 26 11 12 20 25 26 27 16 17 23 22 9 13 15 5 12 94 54 83 49 181 12 9 9 15 73 10 7 8 9 27 10 34 9 16 16 11 8 13 6 13 47 48 36 39 145 14 13 9 4 7 12 6 7 16 4 4 10 23 31 52  *For 1981 this rate was 160 t h a  - 1  .  h a  -  1  .  1983 1981 1982 20 16 16 19 42 35 27 37 94 118 105 56 40 166 40 28 17 28 213 267 67 24 59 158 57 98 34 17 217 297 16 16 69 19 37 79 26 19 98 203 12 25 33 12 82  1983 1981 1982 14 17 23 17 48 43 41 36 126 113 92 214 146 28 62 73 43 62 343 377 40 138 95 58 75 38 24 39 249 258 16 77 28 51 67 34 42 16 153 178 26 31 25 10 92  1983 1981 1982 1983 21 26 16 23 32 20 57 60 64 44 43 53 144 162 153 162 117 86 58 209 181 62 68 85 67 34 49 349 428 401 74 51 50 79 209 171 51 106 100 32 28 64 394 236 385 21 56 28 25 107 146 60 100 100 43 13 43 149 317 276 22 53 55 16 146  102  patterns  of  month  after  broadcast in  the  cm  N was  concentration injection  t  that  the  4  broadcast  similar  slurry  cm  in  of  in  significant because  the  losses of  the  development. the  rooting  and  result  Also zone  in  of  was  cm  more  relatively as  in  3  that  of  N0 "  due  crop  demand  the with  the 3  greater the  i n c r e a s e d plant  the  the  zone.  of  at  uptake.  treatment  for  from  N  al.  in  the  injection  also  suggest  when  slurry  in the  et  it  was  reported to  swine  the  slurry.  condition NH -N +  4  is  nitrification  of  may  in  and/or  very  early  of  mineral  may  the  observed  warmer  treatment  a  3  (1978)  of  faster  leaching  N0 -N  compared  and  The  concentration  injection  soil  subsoil,  broadcast to  Steffens  aeration  to  the  and  nitrified  application  better  compared  N0 "  and  15-30  7. S u t t o n  study  the  NH/-N  mineral  present  of  the  higher  broadcast  quickly  surface  case  small  the  of  located  the  was  Appendix  from  section  following  to  in  the  6 1 % of  concentrations  3  injected. Vetter  0-30  soil  N0 "-N  One  in  was  whereas  rate  N  in  times  concentrations  results  slurry  a  same  respectively,  The  the  the  presented  which  present  methods three  and  + 4  1983.  mineral  application  was  for  higher  zone,  the  converted N  is  recorded  shortly  quickly  NH  treatment  depths  surface  trend  the  and  treatment  was  slurry  A  the  52% of  which  after  the  1982  injection  76% of  zone  lower  of  of  cm  in  because  case  15-30  N0 -N  Perhaps,  form,  4 4  the  as c o m p a r e d to 3  NH  both  of  years  1982, 4 7 % o f  for  higher  the  the  form,  + 4  treatment.  NH "-N  the  the  similar  30-60  slurry  in  for  in  months  were  1982)  and  swine  NH  slurry  - 1  and  0-30  in  in  rate  1  In  distribution  ha  (1978  was  zone.  method.  The  ha  application  Three  concentrations  120  t  treatment  zone.  1983.  80  slurry  0-15  mineral cm  the  result  denitrif ication stage N  conserve  of  its  deeper  in  slurry  N  AMMONIUM  AND N I T R A T E N  DISTRIBUTION  ONE MONTH A F T E R APPLICATION -  1982  ( 8 0 t h a " ' SWINE S L U R R Y ) NH  4  8. N 0  3  N C O N C . (ppm)  DEPTH (cm)  (Figure  15)  AMMONIUM  AND" N I T R A T E  TWO MONTHS A F T E R (80  t hcf' S W I N E NH  20  4  a N0 40  3  N  DISTRIBUTION  APPLICATION -  1982  SLURRY) N CONC. 60 80  (ppm) 100  13DEPTH (cm)  30-  60-o N H •o  N  0  • NH 90  J  —  4  4  —• NO,  (Figure 16)  BROADCAST  3  INJECTED o  AMMONIUM  AND NITRATE  THREE MONTHS  N  DISTRIBUTION  A F T E R APPLICATION — 1982  (80 tha"' SWINE S L U R R Y ) 0  20 1  NH  4  8 NO3  40 l  N CONC.  60 1  80 1  (ppm)  100 1  DEPTH (cm)  3 0 -\  60H -o  NH4  -o  N0  3  *  •  NH4  •  •  N0  (Figure  17)  3  } }  BROADCAST  INJECTED o  AMMONIUM  AND  NITRATE  N  DISTRIBUTION  O N E MONTH A F T E R A P P L I C A T I O N -  1983  ( 8 0 t h < f ' SWINE S L U R R Y ) NH  4  a N0  3  (Figure  N CONC.  18)  (ppm)  A M M O N I U M AND N I T R A T E  N  DISTRIBUTION  TWO M O N T H S A F T E R A P P L I C A T I O N -  1983  ( 8 0 t ha" S W I N E S L U R R Y ) 1  NH 0  _i  10 i  S N0  4  20  N CONC.  3  30  i  i  •  i  • (Figure  (ppm)  40  19)  N0  3  50  >  }  BROADCAST  V J  INJECTED  AMMONIUM  AND N I T R A T E  T H R E E MONTHS  N  DISTRIBUTION  AFTER APPLICATION -  1983  ( 8 0 tha"' SWINE S L U R R Y ) 10  NH  4  & N0 20  3  N CONC. (ppm) 30 40 50  15-  DEPTH (cm)  > 30-  U  I I I I I I  60-  / / / /  o NH ^ ° N0  61  3  * 90  -j \ J  4  N  "  4  )  BROADCAST  INJECTED o CO  J  (Figure  20)  109  Some 23) w a s either  of  found an  occurred heavier  rate  came  closer  to  observed application  shortly  following  amount  of  clay  organic  and  injected  1983. T h i s to  application  being  applied  NGy-N  content  upward  movement  in  a  content  (Table  indicated  d u r i n g ' a p p l i c a t i o n . In  any  matter  rate  - 1  volume  Since  application  ha  subsequent  surface  field.  t  1982  larger  negligible,  slurry and  in  N  the the  the is  of  120  of  had  at  the  fact, the  the  slurry  of  NH/-N  soil  with  an  appreciable  does  not  seem  reasonable  the  corn  crop  well.  little  month  of  between  the  N due to N  (5  it's  application.  broadcast  for  methods  of  Ammonia  volatilization  ha-  for  immobilization  slurry  N  the  broadcast  slurry depth)  treatment. treatments  volatilization.  during N  month  Differences were  and  in  N  the  (Table  in  considered  to  24). In  the  to  obtain  the  the N  the  N  negligible. the  the  have  from  stage  be  80  and  calculation,  application  (0-15  between be  for  the  methods  this  to  be  question  soil  application  content  at  considered  calculated  subtracted  after  content  following  period  was  be  during  broadcast  is a s s u m e d t o  1983  of  N  been  shortly  content  application one  have  the  and the  could  immobilization losses  by  mineral  application  of  mineral  up  injection  soil  1982  Total  (same  in  years  considered.  content  the  the  mineralization  sections) before  both  difference  v o l a t i l i z a t i o n , if  rates  taken  1  due t o  1  treatment  ha" ) w a s  growth  Any  two  kg  subsequent  from  in  the  zone  movement that  its  Very  any  cm  likely  during  120 t  0-15  more  was  losses  the  N from  or  E. V o l a t i l i z a t i o n of  of  in  slurry  upward  latter  as  first  the  and not  it's been  and  15-30  cm  total  mineral  N  the  mineral  N  injection  and  the  losses  due  to  Table 24.  Time after application (month)  Mineral N content of the s o i l (0-15 and 15-30 cm) 1 month after 8lurry application and N losses due to broadcast treatment. Slurry application rate (t ha" )  Soil depth (cm)  1  8  Broadcast 1982 1983  n  Injection 1982 1983 (Vo  Broadcast 1982 1983  Injection 1982 1983  Via - ) 1  0-15  17  16  20  14  17  21  26  16  15-30  16  16  19  23  17  23  32  20  33  32  39  37  34  44  58  36  0-15  156  105  56  92  214  162  117  86  15-30  19  40  166  146  28  58  209  181  175  145  222  238  242  220  326  267  142  113  183  201  208  176  268  231  41  88  —  —  60  55  —  —  Before Total  l  Total N from treatment  N volatilized  111  In kg  ha- ) c o m p a r e d to  the  1  these t  1982, v o l a t i l i z a t i o n  differential  ha  rate.  - 1  atmosphere  Because for  incorporated variation  losses  the  results  for  the  120 t  giving  that  one  of  unexpectedly  receiving which  the  plot.  The  high  have  affected  due t o  been  shown control  the in  during  of  This  plot  to  of  the  was  t  ha-  24). R e a s o n s  for  rates  (88  was  and this  close  that  slurry  might  particular  volatilization  to  the  rate.  - 1  have  to  120  infiltrated  kg  ha  compared  of  the  exposed  ha  could  1  from  t  as  1  (60  being  80  two  ha-  slurry  before  the  rate  values c o m p a r e d to  treatment for  of  slurry  1983. T h i s  N  value  1  time  80  120 t  h a , Table  application  mineral  treatment. N  in  the  volume  volume,  receiving  have  treatment  Some of  - 1  to  55  N kg  resulted  from  (Injected)  was  the  the  or  other  plots  farmer's  field  affected  this  in  may  1983  losses.  soil and slurry organic N the  greater  for  uncertainty  from  the  the  1982 a n d  different  Table  25.  Soil  mineral  been  added  have  treatment  1983 f r o m  receiving  from  the  soil  mineralized  from  the  slurry  in the  amount  of  broadcast treatment,  injection  plots  plots  large  slurry  rate)  1  soil  mineralized  made;  of  1  for  kg  compared  plots  volatilization  calculated  mineralized from  of  (41  period  as  estimation  F. M i n e r a l i z a t i o n o f  lost  the  recovery  the  the  large  long  ha-  inorganic N  Because  t  high  same  received  rate  - 1  ha-  ha-  fact  the  higher  observed between  80  the  be  were  we're  the  N  could  soil  for  of  ha  of  volatilized 1  80 t  a relatively  into  in  losses  the  rates N  and  together  organic organic  pool.  only.  soil of  to In  fraction  The  and s l u r r y  N  that  N  N mineralization  injected  crop  slurry  amounts organic  slurry  content  has  of  N  fractions  treatment  of  is  the  are  injected  estimate  the  amount  of  N  calculating  the  amount  of  N  two  assumptions  have  been  Table 25.  Amount of s o i l and s l u r r y organic N mineralized from i n j e c t i o n treatment at d i f f e r e n t sampling periods (1982 and 1983).  _ 0 t ha" Time After Application (mo)  1  _  - 80 t h a " kg h a " 1982 1983 1  _ 120 t h a  - i  1  1982  1983  1982  1983  1  105  148  -41  -10  -5  -35  2  141  137  107  38  81  85  4  185  159  106  12  30  79  -  113-  1.  Two  percent  (Sutton, 2. •  of  slurry  Additions  sample  or  losses  calculation  mineralized shown 80 t  N was  lost  during  injection  treatment  1981). of  fixation, precipitation) A  inorganic  from  the  N  were  that  through constant  has  slurry  any  been  organic  for  other all the  used  to  fraction  means  biological  rates.  calculate  using  (eg.  the  the  above  (Table  9)  amount  of  N  assumptions  is  below:  ha-  rate.  1  1982  Initial TKN  applied  Mineral  N in the  Initial NH  3  from  soil  the  above  slurry  =  mineral  loss during  N  =  rate  212 k g  118 k g  injection  =  =  336  kg  (Table  9)  Amount  of  TKN applied  Actual  Amount  of  Mineral  212  =  1  N applied  =  control  soil  Mineral  N from  soil  mineral  Can Mineral  loss  - 1  mineral  N  the  Slurry  ha  kg  4  =  332 k g  212  -  4  =  N applied  ha-  1  208 kg  =  ha-  124.0 kg  1  ha-  1  N  +  Crop  =  267  N  =  100  +  5  =  105  kg  ha  1  17, 23)  Treated  t  4  month  Injection (Table  =  336 -  Organic After  1  (Table. 23)  2% of  Actual  ha  N =  272 -  supplied 208 kg  account  There  was  no  rate  one  month  have  crop  treatment  N unaccounted  may  +  for  for  =  indication  occurred.  after  of  5  105  =  mineral  167.0 k g 41  +  =  272 k g h a -  167 k g  ha-  1  (Table  17, 23)  1  N  mineral  N  organic  N mineralization  kg any  application,  in  fact,  some  from  the  80  immobilization  or  114  Changes for  the  organic  two  to  1982  rainfall  which  that  season  may  and  end the  of  under  conditions  in  condition.  ploughing  in  1983  (Appendix  8).  and  combination  values  with  following  have  in  have  slower  slurry  and/or  may  to  the  an  resulted have  contributed in of  lower  kg  1983 some soil  rest  this  growing  with  soil  to  the  159  moderate in  of  larger atrazine  increased  organic kg  fact  a  as of  more  did  adverse  not  1981 of  poor  the  grass  soil N  any  overwinter  on  denitrif ication  the  the  receive  effect  of  the  aeration and  in  mineralization.  lower  compared  mineral  This  compaction  decreased  the  1983  favourable  rainfall  and  to  in  Table was  in  N  N  N  because  much  in  in  that  fully  of  for  1982  have  of  sealing  had  the  rates  may  plots  in  months  resulting  Heavy  slurry  two  over  mineralizable  of  may  have  application  activity  considerable  have  warming may  to  the  received  the  after  the  season  can a l s o be s e e n f r o m  185  because  denitrif ication  contributed  of  of  season  1982  due  and  86%  that  decompose  Most  soil  be  compared  be  resulted  the  aeration  in  1982  not  growing  explanation  growing  experimental  had  of  could  season  1982  The  may  mineralization  mineralization could  Poor  year.  but  millimeters  warming.  Decreased  This  did  the  application  1  a l . 1982). It  in  1982,  mineralized.  could  and  that  mineralized  few  plots  In  microbial  rate  growing  mineralization  environmental  surface  et  over  possible  1983  being  N  increase occurred A  the  moderate  control  turned  have  N  the  sod  may  N  than  (Cervelli  in  climatic  ha-  t  mineralization  facilitated  a  as w e l l  in  N  organic  difference was  80  the  warmer  have  slurry  the  mineralized  25.  seasons.  1981  at  from  Table  growing  relatively  in  in  1983  mineralization 25  shown  organic  subsequent  of  applied  slurry  1983. N o  early  was  quantities  are  and  4 0 % in  in  season  soil  mineralized  or  difference  the  years  N was  compared the  in  mineral  to  1982.  mineral  N  value  in  N  Lower in  1983  that  year  115  compared  to  For occurred of  N  1982.  all two  were  benefit  the months  taken  from  reported  similar  commercial  N  in  were  Soil for  the  for  the  soil  injected  than  as  the  well.  mineralization  irrespective N  uptake  in  1982  months were  as  by  season.  (slurry) of  and soil  rates  ha  control  to  the  contributions In  1983  slurry This  the  a  greater  39%  (soil)  mineral  N  in  was  soil  more  (185  N  higher  the  was  on  soil  same (55%)  At  final  of  than  at  ha ) - 1  final  at  the N  two  crop  the  soil  harvest N  (4  nutrition N  was  the  entire  months  being  harvest.  c o m p a r e d to  for  the  crop  over  N  that  by  proportion soil  soil  in  table  of  N in plant  to  the  condition  provided  (45%).  in  observed  treatment  the  higher  injection  present  were  than  seasons  suggests  was  from  slurry organic  growing  for  results  pronounced  kg  was  slurry  of  its  and s l u r r y  compared  repectively 1982  planting  swine  of  26). T h i s  percentage  treatment  of  (1977)  proportion  favourable  seen  greater  after  slurry  treatment  effect  a  be  McAllister  1983  injection  more  also  rate  second month  of  from  can  Similar  amounts readily  method  mineral  N  could  either  conservation  soil  effect  was  and  (Table  N  plots.  resulted  or  of  and  N  organic  it  mineralization  1982  slurry  more  - 1  method  equal. the  the  slurry  period  injection  the  greater  have  the  of  significant  a significant  throughout  beneficial  the  l a t e r ) the  growing  kg  compared  almost  amount  content  for  of  quick  N  p r o c e s s . It  the  during  provided  61%  of  of  this (1975)  source  presence  broadcast  could  the  be r e s p o n s i b l e .  and  This  Tunney  relatively  all  25). S i n c e  during  to  for  1982, 32  mineralization  The  method  and  when  mineralization  (Table  crop  treatment.  and  mineralization In  the  crop  broadcast  corn  yields  thought  plus  method.  1983  slurry  form,  maximum  application  the  fertilizer.  control  N  by  crop  inorganic  rates,  after  up  the  or  fraction  slurry  The 1983  greater (159  kg  Table  26.  S o i l + Crop N content at different sampling periods Manure  Time after Application (months)  Trpafmpnf  n Broadcast  1982  1983  1982  1983  1  112  129  105  148  2  126 (77)  141 (47)  141 (87)  137 (54)  % o f Crop N *from s o i l **from slurry treatment  % o f Crop N *from s o i l **from s l u r r y treatment  153 139 (117) (92)  h a  -  1  ) ....  ....  Hn Injection  Broadcast  1982  1983 \rp  4  (r  (1982, 1983).  185 (146)  159 (111)  259  218  19H Injection  1982 ha  1983  Broadcast  Injection  1982  1983  1982  1983  382  354  433  406  391 (133)  354 (118)  - 1  272  348  320 343 456 386 (139) (126) (159) (137)  555 515 (161) (130)  55  37  55  39  58  40  54  41  45  63  45  61  42  60  > 46  58  377 291 499 382 (232) (193) (296) (229)  417 (239)  332 (183)  548 537 (272) (220)  50  48  49  48  49  50  54  50  50  52  51  52  51  50  46  50  Figures within parentheses indicate Crop N uptake. Control Plant N *% of crop N from s o i l = Treated Plant N x 100 Treated Plant N - Control Plant N **% of crop N from treatment = Treated Plant N  cn  117  ha )  probably  1  resulted  in t h i s  G . P e r c e n t a c c o u n t a b l e slurry Percent the  accountable  y e a r s , rates  given  below  and  and  is  N  over  have  been  in T a b l e  +  the  TCrN) -  entire  growing  calculated  calculation  over  taken  the  into  applied  (CSMN  TSMN  +  17)  CCrn  =  Control  Crop  17)  =  Control  PASN  =  Percent accountable  the  not  change  the  percent  application. indicated (1982,  N  an  maximum  from  the  of  the  the  1  N was  1982  each  and/or  greatest  crop growing  of  low yield  the  slurry the  N  N. A  was the  season  late 153  near  (Table  has  will  greater  obtained  two  80  the  value  t  kg  ha  160 in  sampling 185  crop  not  been  affect  both  percentage  injected  N  the  and, therefore,  was  soil and  7) N  values  from  accountable and  N banded  injected  losses  23)  N  fertilizer  slurry  for N  slurry  year  crop  accountable  amount  100  23)  N (Table  fertilizer  because  when  rates. The poor  is  soil  accountable  ha-  area  accountable  appreciable  resulted end  control  recovery  1983) t  This  mineral  inorganic  experimental  and  and  of  soil  N (Table  CSMN  treated  broadcast  N (Table  C r o p N (Table  entire  was  mineral  Treated  consideration.  N  =Treated soil  amount  equation  9)  =  the  all  CCrN)  TCrN  the  applied  (Table  the  for  27.  X  „ the  season  following  =  Where  row  slurry  presented  TKN  In  N  methods  (TSMN PASN  difference.  1  the than  months  after  rate  which  - 1  1981  ha-  of  rather  (1981)  in  will  could  that of  and  120 have  year.  By  mineral  N  Table 27.  Percent accountable s l u r r y N (1981, 1982 and 1983).  Slurry Time a f t e r application (month)  treatment  80  - 1  )  120  Broadcast  Broadcast  Injection  1981 1982 1983  (t h a  1981 1982  1983  1981 1982 1983  Injection  1981 1982  Broadcast  1983  1  —  44  29  —  50  65  —  50  53  61  60  2  —  58  65  —  94  81  —  49  50  77  88  4  —  67  49  —  94  72  —  49  45  68  88  5  23  —  47  —  —  —  160 Injection  1981  1982  14  28  119  were  released  (Table 139  26)  (0-90  and  and  159  facilitated  for kg  cm)  the  ha-  from  1983 (Table  1  mineralization  aeration.  Improvement  subsurface  been reported  control  broadcast  growing  season  the  26).  of  of  compacted  the  by.Braim  physical  and  et  N  its  that  possibly  the  from  effect  were  in  itself  improved  deep  on  plots  values  injection  through  conditions  beneficial  injection  corresponding  indicated  organic  soil  soil  This  and  soil  plowing  crop  growth  of have  a l . (1984).  H. N balance Annual, for  the  the  initial  TKN  years  the  mineral  added  cm)  amount  overall  and  of  inorganic can and  final  harvest  were  added  from  the  accounted  of  220 for  the  mineral  following  kg  for  N . It  is  increased  unaccounted rate  was  application as  evident  well.  from  the  with  for  when  injected. method Because  the  the  for  Greater  80  same  table  evidenced  1981  was  poor  the  slurry  soil  mineral  calculating growing  added  (Table  was  the  1  rate  broadcast  than  higher  of  and 535  when  a  accountable plant  not  1981 be  and  447  N  was  comparable  the N  In  unaccounted  more  and  after  injected,  that  rate  season,  could  N  the  subtracted  for.  were  amount and  percent  28)  N  season,  collected  broadcast  160 t h a -  growing  and  N unaccounted  rate  the  added,  sample  N  of  In  the  addition  from from  of  N  that  N  was  were  a  the  1  of  soil  obtain  initial  calculated N  N  plots.  end  been  amount  and  in the  ha-  in  losses  the  added  t  for  slurry N  to  the  control  amount  the  increase the  at  The  of  respectively. Corresponding values kg  for  have  fertilizer  plots  the  N present  together.  144  inorganic  N for  accounted  sheets  calculating  treated  N accounted  and  balance  cm),  fertilizer  crop  amount  for  be  N  1983. In  (0-90  together  N that  of  and  N  N in the  amounts  summary  1 9 8 1 , 1982  soil  were  (0-90  and  broadcast calculations  harvest  was  Table 28.  Slurry Application rate t ha  S o i l Mineral kg ha"'  Fertilizer N kg ha" 1  - 1  Slurry TKN kg h a "  Nitrogen Balance - 1981  Total I n i t i a l N kg h a " 1  End of season Crop & S o i l N kg h a "  Total N accounted for  End of season Crop & S o i l N kg ha"'  Total N accounted for  Broadcast  Broadcast kg h a "  injection  Injection kg ha"'  Broadcast  injection  1  1  Broadcast I n j e c t i o n  Broadcast I n j e c t i o n  Experiment.  1  Crop  Soil  Crop  N unaccounted f o r • (N accounted f o r ) - (N added) kg ha"'  Soli  0  58  58  18  0  76  76  71  31  102  79  23  102  + 26  + 26  80  58  58  18  321  397  397  125  52  177  171  82  253  -220  -144  120  —  —  —  160  58  58  18  92  194  136  146  282  -535  -447  Not  653  729  applied In  729  1981  102  121  delayed post  that  harvest  mineral  not  organic  difference  1981. It  mineral  considerably 1981,  82  received for  N  and  respectively. September between have  the  There t  was  t  ha  to  and  were ha  - 1  the  N  of  post  uptake and  N  treatment  for  the  crop  and  the  soil  the  significant  before  and  mm  or  rain  fell  amount  date  same soil  at  denitrified.  sample the  soil  were  period.  sample  In  that  28). C o r r e s p o n d i n g v a l u e s  153  (Table  30)  kg  samples were  Lower the  Again,  a  poor  the  rates  soil  no  245  harvest  soil  the  a considerable  for  and  N  and  (especially  and  soil  sampling  crop  yield  methods  in  N0 3  leaching  1981  N  might in  (Table  uptake,  form)  1  in  resulted  in  30). L o w e r  ha-  collected  rainfall  final  and  N  may  and have  losses. quantities  following  not  of  1981  (Table  29  was  and  (Appendix  into  s a m p l i n g depth  harvest.  (Tables  in  total  1983  harvest  uptake  all  entering  collected  post  29)  1983  produced did  and  slurry  crop N  the  90% of  T K N data  there  sample  the  (Table  crop  as  harvest  in  difference.  greater  crop  1982  1983  mineral  rate  of  swine  N  a s s u m e d that  post  203  significant  benefitting  soil  the  before  1982  the  of  - 1  maturation  Soil  this  experiments. A  present  were  higher  23). T h i s  that, either it  to  the  crop  time.  of  leached b e l o w  those  this  lower  of  contributed  (Table  80  in  that  immobilization  field  were  - 1  cessation  28), c o m p a r e d  80  ha  1982  resulted  presence  than  1983  In  at  fraction  of  for  immediately  significantly  the  values  injected  1982  of  for  in N o v e m b e r . A b o u t  c o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be  lower  kg  values  have been  N  form  microbial  years  time  collected  significant  TKN  NO3--N m i g h t  Soil  maximum  in N C y  any  the three  in O c t o b e r of  present  through  in of  provide  sample was  indicate  pool  end  to  soil  N was  9) did  the  year  of  the  maximum  require in  all  addition  residual 1982 corn  the to  N  in  the  and  1983  yields.  It  N supplied the  soil  profile  of  growing  seasons  appeared,  therefore,  at  available  that N  r a t e , or it  that  supplied  .  Table 29.  Slurry Application Rate t ha"  S o i l Mineral kg ha" 1  1  Fertilizer N kg ha"'  Slurry TKN kg h a "  Nitrogen Balance - 1982 Experiment.  Total I n i t i a l N kg h a " 1  Broadcast I n j e c t i o n  Broadcast I n j e c t i o n  End of Season Crop & S o i l N kg h a "  Total N accounted for  End of Season Crop & S o i l N kg h a "  Total N accounted for  Broadcast  Broadcast kg h a "  Inject ton  Injection kg ha"'  Broadcast  Injection  1  1  1  1  Crop  Soil  Crop  N unaccounted f o r (N accounted f o r ) - (N added) kg h a - 1  Soil  0  115  110  25  0  140  135  117  36  153  146  39  185  + 13  + 50  80  107  118  25  336  468  479  232  145  377  296  203  499  - 91  + 20  120  113  162  25  538  676  725  239  178  417  272  276  548  -259  -177  160  Not applied In 1982  •  Table 30.  Slurry Application rate t ha"'  Soil Mineral kg h a "  1  Fertilizer N kg h a " 1  Slurry TKN kg h a "  Broadcast|Injection  Nitrogen Balance - 1983 Experiment.  kg ha"'  End of Season Crop & S o i l N kg h a "  Total N accounted for  End of Season Crop & S o i l N kg h a "  Total N accounted for  Broadcast I n j e c t i o n  Broadcast  Broadcast kg/ha  Injection  InJectIon kg/ha  Broadcast  Injection  Total I n i t i a l N 1  1  Crop  Soil  1  Crop  N unaccounted f o r " (N accounted f o r ) - (N added) kg ha  Soil  0  69  40  40  0  109  109  92  47  139  111  48  159  + 30  + 50  80  94  126  40  309  443  475  193  98  291  230  153  383  -152  - 92  120  144  153  40  430  614  623  183  149  332  220  317  537  -282  - 86  CO  124  Slurry of  supplied  these  nutrients  and t r a c e  the  were  and  during  ha  the  NH  earlier)  very  overwinter values  final  for  lost same  N  were  rate  present  were  in  experimental  ha  of  in  - 1  the site  year in  form  and  were  the  some  amounts secondary  loss  opposed one  in (0-1  to  16%  swine  slurry  1982,  1400  for  mm  end rain  greater  and  the  injection  in  greater  minimized  IM  were  Corresponding 31).  loss  prior  t  ha  - 1  Lower to  of  each  treatment  residual  the  swine were  for  the  N  was  season.  The  mineral  growing October  N  carried  77%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  the  between  crop  seeding).  (Table  80  Quick  greater  and  N  the  treatment  resulted  7%  100  of  from 3  of  120  injection  N0 ~.  injected.  1982. W h e n  8 0 - 9 0 % of  the  of  applied  and  to  broadcast  broadcast  another  lost  compared  to  after  were  to  the  absence  the  compared  at  the  month  of  the  3  the  were  were  mainly  of  to  from  values  result  broadcasting  season  and  the  injected  1983  N  broadcast  compared  applied  and  applied  for  the  rate  denitrif ication  resulted  N0 ~  was  case  season  and  the  could  the  same  recorded  or  9 4 % of  broadcast  the  broadcast  and  65%. A b o u t  received  rate  - 1  0  1981  of  for  were  Corresponding 86  ha  treatment  1981  that  t  this  from 2  rate  season  growing as  ha  - 1  and  3 0 - 5 0 % of  the  in  1982, t  broadcast  overwinter.  from  67  values  losses  facilitate  N  provided  season t  that  leaching  broadcast  values  N  slurry  80  in  80  80  NOf  in the  and  the  sampling  slurry  to  +  swine  when  carry-over  when  and,  3  could  1981  the  suggest  loss  carry-over  In  growing  growing  4  early  of  N  NH  of  Injecting  losses.  with  Slurry  to  matter.  1982  season  the  of  conversion  amounts  fertilizer.  i n j e c t e d . Higher  volatilization  demand  also  results  over  (indicated  as  27). C o r r e s p o n d i n g  Greater  treatment  10) in a d d i t i o n  the for  growing  rate.  1  of  (Table  6-28% when t  end  72%. T h e  P and K ( A p p e n d i x  and o r g a n i c  accounted  respectively 49  added  elements  At N  additional  1981  to  April  Table 31.  Slurry application rate  Method of application  (t ha" )  Carry-over N and Overwinter N Losses (1981, 1982 and 1983). Time of N measurement and amount present In the s o i l  Changes in N over control (Residual N)  Changes in N over control (Carry-over N)  Carry-over Overwinter N as % N loss of the applied N kg ha - 1 % of the residual N  Spring 1982  F a l l 1981  1  Time of N measurement and amount present i n the s o i l  kg ha- 1  kg ha- 1 115 110  Broadcast Injected  31 23  80  Broadcast Injected  52 82  21 59  107 118  -8 +8  0 2  29 51  100 86  160  Broadcast Injected  92 146  61 123  113 162  -2 +52  0 8  63 71  100 58  Spring 1983  F a l l 1982 Broadcast Injected  36 39  80  Broadcast Injected  145 203  109 164  120  Broadcast Injected  178 276  142 237  0  —  —  Overwinter N loss = Residual N - Carry-over N.  69 69  ——  —  —  — -  — -  —  94 126  25 57  7 16  84 107  77 65  144 153  75 84  13 15  67 153  47 64  —  126  1982  and  Since  mm  addition  organic of  1174  of  N pool  NOj- could  to  carrying the  the  swine  during  the  be thought  Injecting in  for  80  over  1983  and  of  were  significant  effect  rate  in  increased with  the  present  in  the  T h e r e f o r e , the pattern most  of of  nutrients or  the  t  ha" and  on  1983.  30-60  crop  kg  mineral  N  60-90 of  this  to  be  cm  roots  were  found  the  0-45  cm  corn  roots  have  amount  of  N  the  80,  depth.  of  the of  the  kg  N  the  of  the  the  the  potential  to  this  first  carried  over  acquire  N  was  (Table  23).  the  this  rooting research  moisture  shortage them  a  the  on  of  the  was  residual  absorbing a  for  for  profile  results  of  resulted  respectively  N  depend  actively event  soil  soil  much  From be  of  losses.  There  amount  rate. M o s t  very  to  the  N  soil  leaching  values  (13%).  of  9),  N  8).  the  1982  applied  Corresponding  zones  In  the  spring  in  that  grown.  com  these  content  N will  increase  of  75  application  (Appendix  mechanism  31). and  1983  (Appendix  (15%)  (7%)  and  experiment  slurry  indicated  in  and  major  84  1982  significantly  the  of  1  in  not  (Table  This  increase  the  from  nutrients,  be the  25  availability  of  of  season  treatment  date  course to  broadcast  sampling  did  (16%)  growing  period  slurry  120  57  of  same  of  and  moisture  from  deeper  depths. The  total  experimental plants Table  and  period  from  accumulation  32 and s o m e  of  1. N a p p l i e d 2.  N  in the  crops  in at  3. N r e m a i n i n g growing  soil,  season  120 and  calculations  as s l u r r y  removed  control  applied  =  crops the  in the  end soil  the  and  160  loss  from  t  involved  ZSIurry =  in  L(N  of  slurry ha  are  system given  TKN applied in  the  treated  each growing =  ZSoil  mineral  the  r a t e s , its  - 1  the  over  entire  removal  in  shown  in  are  below:  each  year  crops  -  N  in  the  season) N at  the  end o f  each  Table 32.  N-balance after slurry application for 3 years.  Addition and Losses  Slurry Rate ; 80 t h a Broadcast Injection - 1  Slurry Rate 120 or 160 t h a Broadcast Injection - 1  (Amount of N kg h a ) -1  Applied  as slurry  966  966  1621  1621  270  361  244  292  Remaining i n the s o i l (end of the growing seasons)  295(31)  438(45)  419(26)  739(46)  Total N accounted for  565  799  663  1031  401  167  958  590  134  56  319  197  Removed in crops (- N in the Controls)  Total loss from the system over the growing seasons Annual loss over the growing season  Figures within the parentheses are percent of the applied N i n the s o i l .  128  4. Total in the  N accounted  broadcast the  kg  from  6. A n n u a l  loss  of  N  rather  season  when the  the  hand,  soil  t was  that  growing  for  the  when  broadcast.  Corresponding  were  in  lower  harvest  soil  occurred  80  t  the  kg  +  N  values  remaining  in that  soil  of  lost  major  to N  opposed  other  broadcast in  to  29  kg  and  because  lower  the  the  were  1982  84 N  of  leaching  N  lost when  loss  the  the  kg  ha  - 1  values  late  losses  overwinter  of  mechanisms  N  Overwinter  3  to  losses  N  of  31).  N0 -  during  remained  1  107  was  volatilization  l o s s e s , on  ha  N  compared  greater  the  N  were  year. Significant  sampling, thereby  N were  the  kg  as  1982  that  slurry  residual  1 9 8 1 , 51  (Table  to  be  Total  when  compared of  injected  quantity  from  -  seasons  broadcast  Overwinter  method  for  applied  32). The  thought  In  were  1  (Table  amounts  31).  of  - 1  were  resulted  are  N  lower  ha  slurry  season.  higher  compared  sampling to  ha  same  1981  prior  134  have  injection  (Table  overwinter  for  crops  the . s y s t e m / N o . o f was  of  1  immobilization  method  respectively  in  LSIurry  soil  injected  might  because significantly  from  the  ha"  the  =  loss from  in  80  rate  and  higher  system  Total  slurry  during  were  method  when  broadcast  losses  N  removed  N  injected. Annually  same  3  =  the  remaining  than  NH . Volatilization of  from  for  growing  56  loss  accounted  amount  =  soil  5. T o t a l  The  for  post  probably  losses  were  measured. From the  15-30  the  0-15  the cm  cm  from  one  soil  depths  d i s c u s s i o n s o f a r , it section  when  growing (30-60  of  the  soil  is e v i d e n t  when  broadcast. About season and  to  60-90  the  next  cm).  slurry  that  more  was  injected  70% of  the  was  found  Information  N  on  that  to the  be  N was as  was  present  in  opposed  to  carried  present distribution  at  over lower  pattern  129  of  the  the  corn  roots  could  N concentration  I. R o o t  response  Crop  method  within  zone  roots 0,  160  in  the  (around t  ha-  45  in  from  the  rates  toxic  conditions to  days  response  slurry  in  increased  from  applied, did  not  The  study  how soil  to  N  it's  growth  is a f f e c t e d  by  profile.  could  distribution  date  120  t  of ha-  1  different  sufficient occur  cause a difference  in r o o t  pattern  after  planting) (1982)  if  the  zone  response.  the  injection  plant  nutrients  the  corn  roots  of  brace  establishment  rates  of  of of  from  treatments.  accumulation within  differ  concentration  immediately  the  0,  due  in the  to  treatment.  present  on  application  resulted  of  light  location  N  ( 1 9 8 1 ) . and  1  difference  sufficiently  it's  response  application  observed  and  t o slurry  root  the  shed some  the  did  plots  receiving  not  indicate  any  This  could  suggest  that  the  plant  of  injection  nutrients  or  application  V I . SUMMARY AND Silage application 1981  the  matter  corn  rates 160  of  t  yields  dry  of  slurry  N application  of  soil  injection  section  the  application.  The  nitrification  of  over  the  45% of t  ha'  the rate  1  broadcast.  In  mineralization  growing  season  (especially N  was  from  the  second  soil rate  month  after  21.0  t  with  were  injected.  1  swine  slurry  1983. H o w e v e r ,  ha-  slurry  always  was  the  a  resulted rate  0-15  in  in for  total case  15-30  the  inhibited  dry  total  In the  the  in  occurred  greater  broadcast.  cm  also  (1983)  1  corresponding  present  method  A  N was as the  of  each  was  recovered  cm  broadcast  early  season  quantity  by  the  34%  process  of  slurry  associated with slurry  organic  probably  and  moisture). 80  1 9 - 3 7 % higher of  corn  when  crop N  crop  the  appeared  N  equivalent  to  when  80  same to  uptake  the  rate  increase  was the  N.  year,  t  ha  rate. M a x i m u m slurry  to  injection  of  in  maximum  opposed  recovery  when 1  and  resulted  broadcast.  amounts  ha  and  to  decreased yields. Maximum  N  to  slurry  organic  temperature  120 t  of  injected  mineralized  more  application  slurry  and a l w a y s  Variable  1982  comparable  opposed  1  addition,  Maximum application  ha-  quantity  of  the  relatively as  ha-  response  N.  t  was  kg  method  N than  injection  applied  swine  320  in  1981,  (1982)  of  1  in  - 1  significantly  application  soil  same  ha  increased  24.8  ha-  mineral  80  t  rate  averaging  slurry  Injecting  80  t  treatment  of  yields  (1981),  80  injection of  to  13.0  approximately  quantities  up  ha~' s l u r r y  when  The  matter  CONCLUSIONS  N occurred the  80 t  N  were  depending Between were  - 1  net  application  on  at  ha  the  130  was  rate  injected.  as  always  over  weather  4 0 - 8 6 % of  injected  months  mineralized  N mineralization and  - 1  two  the  the  conditions  slurry  compared  after  to  occurred associated  organic 41-65%  during  the  with  the  131  80 t  ha-  rate.  1  Each TKN  was  injected  year, over lost  during  compared  significant  slurry that  N  period.  have  may the  of  of  any  1982  leaching  of  also  same  the  and  the  from  the  slurry  t  N in the ha-  amount  of  1  80  rates or  soil  rate  1  probably  the  were  broadcast.  received 1174  N0 ~ was 3  mm  N  1400  entering  mm  between  thought  to  into  the  precipitation October  be  the  amount  of  major  soil  to  treatment  no  to  the  fall  indication pool.  October  mechanism  was  compared  organic  April  slurry Between  8 0 - 9 0 % of  between  1982  minimizing  losses.  injected  broadcast. About  the  during  following  slurry  A  probably  1 9 - 4 1 % of  3  slurry  were  through  recorded  from  slurry  broadcast  denitrification  slurry  was  ha"  slurry  treatment  is b e c a u s e  t  applied of  1  was  broadcast  N,  leaching  ha-  N o c c u r r e d as N 0 - e a c h y e a r . T h e r e w a s  applied  site  for  t  the  amount  application. This  inhibited  80  80  same  nitrification  mineral  6 - 2 8 % of  when  the  loss  after  Slower  mineral  experimental April  the  N  only  season  conserved  when  77-100% when  season  when  volatilized  residual  overwinter  soil  this  Injection  injection  residual  30-50%  was  losses.  lost  growing  month  volatilization  6 4 - 8 6 % of  the  of  one  mineral  growing  to  fraction  occurred within  the  The  1981  to  1983. T h e r e f o r e , of  overwinter  N  losses. The quantity to ha-  the 1  of  of  method the  16% o f  residual  the  N that  next. B e t w e e n 2 - 1 6 % of slurry  b r o a d c a s t . The 0-13%  and  were  injected  was the  r e s p e c t i v e l y . In that a p p l i e d .  no  carried  case  did  application  over  from  applied N was  c o m p a r e d to  corresponding values  slurry  for the  one  carried  0 - 7 % w h e n the the  120  amount  t of  ha  - 1  N  influenced growing over  season  when  same amount rate  was  carried  8-15  over  the  80  t  was and  exceed  132  An not  amount  have  of  120 t  any  NH  application  of  this  rate,  section  the  soil  was  the on  of  injection mineral The  crop  it  is  the  seed  laterally  below  40  to  a depth  germination.  concentration  similar  method in  of  of  NH  from  0-30  c m , this  crop  application production.  volatilization  losses  produce  about  ha-'  required  by  the  25  approximately  top  kg  of  150  N  adjusted  than up  in or  a d d e d , if  injection.  ha  this  of  and  on  study, During  "  3  cm  of  Four  +N0 -  + 4  rate  is  n  from  had  30 c m weeks  did after  the  0-20  cm  the  center  of  very  little  effect  for  slurry  recommended  This  is  results  ha  plus  N  present  should  the  because  in  more  of  1  by  slurry  the  N  uptake  and the research  injection be  the  N  injection  available  soil.  kg  ha-  research.  To  meet  to  If  supplied  application about  310  T K N had a soil rate  method  is  efficiencies injection did  out  for  and c r o p  as  were  34  on  more  have  N this  applied  slurry  used  of  1  or  to  be  has  to  opposed  to  N  and  43%,  methods.  not  to  be  would  25% more  c o m p a r e d to  carried  soil physical properties  around  present  incorporation  broadcast  slurry  matter,  adjustment,  the  research  kg  slurry  because  the  dry in  supplied  is  r e s p o n s e due t o  injection  crop  300  N  broadcast  respectively, for  More  of  down.  This  Results  - 1  t  corn  requirement  root  on  injected  uptake.  were  be  slurry  effect  depths  used  minimizes  To  less  of  - 1  concentration.  injection  whenever method  toxicity  3  zone. At N  ha  indicate the  any  in  control.  understand  yields.  difference  the  effects  of  VII.  A d r i a n o , D.C., P.F. Pratt of  N  and  salt  and  from Symp.  M i c h i g a n , pp  243-246.  on  F.E.  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R e s . 14 (1);  3rd  Livestock  wastes, A S A E :  of  Turner,  of  livestock  1977.  Polluted  W a s h i n g t o n . , N.Y.  value  "Utilization  Tunney,  1976.  patches  in  and a  K.L. W e i e r . subtropical  soil  the  587-590.  conditions  954-957.-  1982. V o l a t i l i z a t i o n pasture.  Aust.  J.  of  Agric.  97-107.  D.H.  treatment  1975. N u t r i e n t  and  handling,  losses pp.  from  282-285.  livestock In:  waste  Managing  during  storage  Livestock  Waste.  158  Proc.  Int.  Symp.  Livestock  wastes,  Urbana  Champaign,  III.,  21-24  April,  1975. A m . S o c . A g r i c . E n g . , S t . J o s e p h , M i c h i g a n .  Van  Kleeck,  R . J . and  Waste  Management.  Paper  presented  held  at  13,  1982.  Veihmeyer,  the  F.G.  H.  out  G.M. of  at  urea t o  Volatile turf  or  1978.  different  Wahhab,  A.,  M.S.  ammonium  bare  of  The  effect  Application  CSAE,  Soil  of  Systems.  C S A , and Canada  density  nitrogen  times.  ammonia  In:  J.K.  following  soils. Agron. J . 51:  of  ammonia  C h e m . 9;  from  on  and  CSAS July  root  in  pig  Gasser  slurry, (ed.)  and  under  S c i . 85;  S.Q. Alam.  different  surface  application  applied  nitrogenous  746-749.  surface  280-283.  1958. N i t r o g e n  carriers. Soil  Randhawa sulfate  1948.  application  losses  G.E. S m i t h .  nitrogen  the  Livestock  Waste, pp. 4 4 - 6 1 .  J . Agric. Food  Wagner, G.H. and  and  on  487-493.  V o l k , G . M . 1961. G a s e o u s l o s s fertilizers.  of  influence  Columbia, Vancouver,  Hendrickson.  G.  the  Urban  meeting  British  different  N from  1959.  of  1982.  Handling, Storage  summer  S c i . 65:  Steffens,  Modelling  Volk,  the  A.H.  Soil  and  spread  at  and  Johnson.  Manure  University  penetration.  Vetter,  P.D.A.  losses from  soils  fertilized  with  125-129.  1956.  conditions  Loss when  of  ammonia  applied  to  from soils.  159  Soil  S c i . 84:  Walmsley,  M„  G.  Describing Columbia  Waring,  249-255.  T.  Void,  ecosystems Ministry  S . A . and  waterlogged 201:  Utzig,  of  in  D.  the  fields.  Envirnment  S.H.,  1964.  conditions  an  R.F.  influencing  Strand,  ammonia  soils. Soil  D.S.  of  losses  Debell from  S c i . S o c . A m . J . 36:  liquid  manure.  on Agricultural  R.K.  and  W i l l i a m s , T . E . and herbage Bull. 32;  E.F.  water  and  Animal  Waste  L.M.  Transactions  Winton,  Technical  Ammonium  index  Berneveld Paper  2.  1980. British  production  nitrogen  in  soil  availability.  under Nature.  of  urea  M.V. J a c k s o n .  problem  Jr.  1972.  Factors  northwestern  forest  Optimum  27(2):  520-524.  1976. The of  in the  Cornell  land  disposal  University  Conf.  124-130.  1984.  s o i l . U.K. M i n i s t r y  to  management.  Management, pp.  ASAE,  J.Esch,  applied  nitrogen  waste  Salfley.  the  and  354-357.  W e b b e v , L.R. and T . H . L a n e . 1969. T h e  White,  J.V.  951-952.  Watkins,  of  and  Resource A n a l y s i s Branch, pp. 4 7 - 4 8 .  J . M . Bremner. as  Moon  land  recovery  Agriculture  utilization  of  fertilizer  of  manure.  nitrogen  in  F i s h e r i e s and F o o d , T e c h .  145-152.  1970.  supply:  The  health  Source  and  effects control.  of  nitrates  Proc.  in  Twelfth.  water  In:  Sanitary  Nitrate  and  Engin. Conf.,  160  Urbana,  Zimmerman, growth.  II.  R.P.  and  L.T.  Kardos.  Soil  Sci. 91-92:  1961.  280-288.  Effect  of  bulk  density  on  root  161  Appendix 1.  F i e l d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s o i l used I n t h e study.  Soil classification: Location:  Horizon  Gleyed P o d z o l l c Gray L u v l s o l , Can. ( A q u a l f i c Haplorthod, U.S.) Langley 232nd S t r e e t , 60 km east o f Vancouver, B.C.  Depth (cm)  Description  Ap  0-20  Dark brown (7.5 YR 3.0/2.0, m); s i l t loam; moderate medium subangular b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; abundant r o o t s ; abrupt boundary t o :  Bf  20-32  Dark gray (7.5 YR 4.0/4.0, m); s i l t loam; moderate medium subangular b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; few f i n e f a i n t m o t t l e s ; abundant r o o t s ; c l e a r boundary to:  Bmgj  32-47  Dark y e l l o w i s h brown (10.0 YR 4.0/4.0, m); s l l t y c l a y ; moderate medium t o coarse subangular b l o c k y ; f i r m ; common medium d i s t i n c t 7.5 YR 5.0/7.0 m o t t l e s ; abundant r o o t s ; c l e a r boundary t o :  Aeg  47-62  G r a y i s h brown (2.5 Y 5.0/2.0, m); s l l t y c l a y ; moderate medium to coarse subangular b l o c k y ; f i r m ; common medium d i s t i n c t 7.5 YR 7.0/6.0 m o t t l e s ; p l e n t i f u l r o o t s ; c l e a r boundary t o :  Btgl  62-77  Gray (5.0 Y 5.0/1.0, m); heavy c l a y ; moderate t o s t r o n g coarse p r i s m a t i c ; f i r m ; common medium prominent 7.5 YR 5.0/7.0 m o t t l e s ; few; g r a d u a l boundary t o :  Btg2  77-98  Gray (5.0 Y 5.0/1.0, a ) ; heavy c l a y ; moderate to s t r o n g coarse p r i s m a t i c ; very f i r m ; common medium prominent 5.0 YR 2.0/2.0 m o t t l e s ; g r a d u a l boundary to:  BC  98-117  Dark g r a y i s h brown (2.5 Y 4.0/2..0, m); s l l t y c l a y ; moderate t o s t r o n g medium t o coarse angular blocky pseudo; common medium d i s t i n c t 10.0 YR 4.0/4.0 m o t t l e s ; d i f f u s e boundary t o :  Cg  117+  Dark g r a y i s h brown (2.5 Y 4.0/2.0, m); s i l t y c l a y ; moderate t o s t r o n g medium to coarse angular blocky pseudo; common medium d i s t i n c t 10.0 YR 4.0/4.0 mottles.  Appendix 2.  Selected physical and chemical properties  Sand S i l t Clay Texture  Depth cm  % -  Bulk density kg m"^  of s o i l s used i n thesis research, 1981-1983.  Exch. Exch. Exch. Exch. K Mg Na Ca - me.g"-100  CEC pH7  Total Total C/N pH C N ratio CaCl %  S i l t y , clay loam  0-15  6  60  34  922  0.19  0.16  6.47  0.81 30.3  4.8  0.45  10.6  4.5  S i l t y , clay loam  15-30  6  58  36  990  0.14  0.13  2.26  0.76 25.2  3.1  0.34  9.1  4.6  S i l t y clay  30-60  2  51  47  1400  0.41  0.24  5.75  7.40 34.4  0.5  0.17  2.9  5.0  Heavy clay  60-90  1  39  60  1250  1.35  0.40  17.10 40.6  0.3  0.08  3.7  5.4  13.0  2  Appendix 3.  Ratio  supplied to the animals (1981, 1982 and 1983)  16% SOW RATION R E G I S T R A T I O N NO.: GUARANTEED Min.  The  R E G I S T R A T I O N NO.:  ANALYSIS: 16%  Crude Protein..  W>  Min. Crude F»t Mil. Crude Fibre ... S a i l (actual) C a l c i u m (actual) — Phosphorus (actual) Min. Vitamin A M m Vitamin D Min. Vitamin E Z i n c (actual) . . . ingredients  used  6% 0.5% 0.8% 0.6%  8.000 I . U . / k g 1.325 I . U . / k g ...20 l . U . / k g  0.01%  i nthis  Certificate of R e g i s t r a t i o n .  feed  ire  those  named  T h i s feed c o n t a i n s added  i n the  sV.lenium  a t 100 m g / t o n r . *.  GUARANTEED ANALYSIS: Min.  Crude Protein  16%  Min. Crude Fat Max. Crude Fibre Salt (actual) C a l c i u m (actual) Phosphorus (actual) Min. Vitamin A Min Vitamin D Min. Vitamin E Z i n c (actual) The  ingredients  used  3% 6% 05% 0.8% 0.6% 8.000 I . U . / k g BOO I . U . / k g £0 I . U . / k g 0.01% i n thiB  Certificate of Registration.  feed  are  those  named  i n the  T h i s feed c o n t a i n s a d d e d a e l e n U u n  DIRECTIONS FOR USE:  F e e d aa the s o l e r a t i o n .  Feed  CAUTION: O v e r d o s e s of S e l e n i u m are  23740  a t 100 m g / t o n n e .  DIRECTIONS FOR USB:  carefully  18% M E D I C A T E D PIG W E A N E R  16% HOG GROWER  23739  a s the  sole ration from  25 k g b o d y w e i g b t t o  marketing.  CAUTION: toxic.  Directions for use must  followed.  be  O v e r d o s e s of S e l e n i u m are toxic. carefully  Directions for use  followed.  must  be  M E D I C A T E D WITH: Tyloain phosphate a t 0.0044% a n d F u r a z o l i d o n e a t 0.022% a a a n a i d i n t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f b a c t e r i a l enteritis in starter pigs associated with swine dysentery and Escherichia infections sensitive to tyloein and/or furazolidone.  coil  R E G I S T R A T I O N NO.: GUARANTEED  20033  ANALYSIS:  Min. Crude Protein Min. Crude Fat Max. Crude Fibre Salt (actual) C a l c i u m (actual) Phosphorus (actual) Min. Vitamin A Min. Vitamin D Min Vitamin E Z i n c (actual)  18% 3.5% 6.0% 0.5% 1.0% 0.75% 8,000 I . U . / k g BOO I . U . / k g 20 I . U . / k g 0.010%  The i n g r e d i e n t s used i n this feed are those n a m e d i n the Certificate of R e g i s t r a t i o n . T h i s feed c o n t a i n s added s e l e n i u m a t 100 m g / t o n n e .  DIRECTIONS FOR USE: .  9ed a s the sole r a t i o n '/eweight range.  for  21 d a y a  t opigs  in t h e  10-20 k g  WARNING: 1.  Treated a n i m a l s m u s t not be slaughtered for use i n food for at l e a s t f i v e d a y s a f t e r the l a t e s t t r e a t m e n t w i t h t h i s drug.  CAUTIONS:  1. 2.  W A L L b R E D E K O P F E E D S LTD. 333. 3067 T u r n e r R o a d . A b b o l s f o r d . B . C . Telephone- MfMKSl o r M0-06U  T h i s feed is to be fed to s t a r t e r  pigs  Overdoses of Selenium are toxic. m u s t be c a r e f u l l y f o l l o w e d .  only. D i r e c t i o n s f o r use  Box  Telephone: 8M-4861 or 6MMMIS  Telephone. 85H-4861 or K30-081I  Appendix 4.  Crop N uptake and dry matter y i e l d  Rep. I  0  40  80  8  96  11  US  13  147  8  103  6  66  Injection  9  101  12  149  14  194  9  143  6  73  **N  uptake In kg ha ->  - 1  .  DMY  _N0  DMY  JJO  Rep.Ill  .Slurry application rate 0 40 80  Broadcast  In t h a  j(U  160  H0«*  •Dry natter y i e l d  DOT  Rep.II  DMY*  Method  (1981)  DMY  NU  DMT  (t h a ) 160 - 1  DMY  _NU  0  40  80  160  Nil DMY  _N0  8  93  9  111  9  112  5  50  7  87  10  115  7  89  10  109  13  159  10  147  6  63  8  91  12  159  9  119  DMY  NU  DMY  NU  DMY  HO  DMY  NO  Appendix 4.1.  Crop N uptake and dry matter y i e l d  Rep. I  Rep.II S l n r r v  40  0 Year  Method  DMY  120  80 NU  (1982 and 1983).  DMY  NU  DMY  A n n l l r j i H  0 NU  DMY  on rate  40 NU  DMY  Rep.Ill It  h«-  30 NU  DMY  120 NU  DMY  0 NU  DMY  80  40 NU  DMY  NU  DMY  120  DMY*  NU"  Broadcast  17  no  19  149  22  243  21  216  18  124  19  166  22  203 " 23  241  18  113  19  192  23  249  22  261  Injection  18  129  20  157  24  284  22  255  19  141  19  171  25  291  24  278  19  167  20  210  25  312  23  184  Broadcast  14  97  IS  151  21  211  19  199  13  84  16  135  19  191  18  174  13  93  14  124  17  174  18  176  Injection  15  no  18  186  23  247  20  223  14  113  17  181  20  207  20  209  14  111  17  161  20  235  21  229  NU  DMY  NU  1982  1983  *Dry matter y i e l d In t ha **N uptake In kg h a  - 1  .  .  166  Appendix 5.  Crop N uptake and TKN applied (Broadcast and Injected) 1982 and 1983.  T r i -\ a  Year  N applied (kg ha" ) 1  Rep. I  N uptake Rep. II  Rep. I l l  Rep. I  N uptake Rep. II Rep. I l l kg-ha  1982  1983  n A  -1  0  110  124  113  129  141  167  157  149  166  192  157  171  210  336  243  203  249  284  291  312  0  97  84  93  110  113  111  163  151  135  124  186  181  161  309  211  191  174  247  207  235  Appendix 6.  Before  (c«)  2  4  Injection  Broadcast 1982 Kh\ NO 3  kg ha" 1982 1983 NH\  NO 3  NHi,  1983  NO 3  NHt,  NO3  3  3  120 Broadcast 1982 3  NHi,  NO3  Injectlon • kg ha 1983 1982 1983 m NO, NHi, NO 3 NHi, NO, ^  0-15  5.3  12.9  5.1  10.9  6.8  13.1  4.4  9.9  6.8  9.8  4.6  11.5  9.1  10.5  3.6  10.8  5.4  11.6  8.8  12.7  11.8  14.6  4.1  12.1  15-30  6.6  13.7  5.6  8.2  6.2  10.2  6.1  8.8  5.7  10.0  4.1  11.8  7.8  11.3  6.9  15.8  3.9  12.6  5.0  18.4  16.9  14.7  4.1  15.6  30-60  8.3  34.9  8.1  13.0 10.6  27.1  9.0  13.5  11.5  25.4  7.1  27.1  12.4  29.8  8.1  40.0  9.3  33.3  8.1  48.7  23.6  36.5  8.9  55.4  60-90  5.7  27.9  7.1  10.4 10.3  25.6  7.2  10.3  12.8  23.9  6.3  20.3  11.1  25.8  8.0  33.2  7.0  28.5  7.6  35.0  15.7  28.4  6.7  46.5  T o t a l 25.7  89.4  25.9  42.5 33.9  76.0  26.7  42.5  36.8  69.1  22.1  70.7  40.4  77.4  26.6  99.8  25.6  86.0  29.5 114.8  68.0  94.2  0-15 11.6  61.0 153.3  15.6 146.7  38.3  8.1  26.1 11.8  42.6  9.7  34.4  61.6  94.4  8.7  95.9  12.4  43.7  29.8  62.6  5.7  11.8  12.1  17.6  4.8  13.0  10.0  23.1  6.5  12.0  7.7  31.9 124.7  40.8  58.8  87.3  7.5  30-60 12.8  8.0  13.0  18.8  8.6  6.4  13.0  24.3  28.9  17.4  11.7  28.3  16.8  11.4  14.8  47.5  30.0  60-90 11.4  6.5  13.1  14.7  9.1  4.1  13.5  15.9  21.7  10.9  9.4  18.3  9.1  8.1  11.5  31.7  23.6  T o t a l 41.5  64.6  46.3  77.2 34.3  66.1  46.2  97.7  118.7 134.7 10.9 101.I  15-30 1  .Manure Treatment ( t h a ) 80 Broadcast lnjectlon . kg ha" 1983 1982 1983 1982 NHt, N0 Nn\ NO NH„ NO 3 NH„ N 0 - 1  Tine Soli After Depth Application Honth  S o l i N H i , and N O 3 - N content before and 1, 2 and 4 months a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n of swine s l u r r y (1982 and 1983).  37.5 174.4 163.0 104.0 114.9 229.1  23.8 129.6  25.5  91.1  35.7  12.2  46.2 148.6  60.5  74.8 106.3  42.8  19.0  42.6  20.7  47.8  23.4  61.2  37.9  20.1  47.1  10.1  23.9  11.4  37.2  20.7  122.4 254.7  50.2  66.9 282.6 204.9 223.3 145.3 254.9  14.4  52.8  20.0  5.5  34.1  11.4 126.2  3.7  70.4  10.2  22.4  4.4  54.8  47.7 110.0  18.3  76.6  11.8  45.8  5.4  73.5  56.4 152.5  68.0 102.5  3.2  19.8  5.4  31.6  14.8  83.1  5.6  69.8  8.1  30.3  4.5  46.8  17.7  88.1  22.6  77.0  1.8  10.2  3.4  30.9  1.6  15.2  5.1  34.1  4.1  20.0  3.4  28.4  2.5  25.5  4.3  59.3  0-15  4.7  7.9  3.6  22.9  6.0  14.0  6.5  20.2  15-30  3.5  7.8  3.5  22.6  2.1  9.8  4.5  15.6  3.5  30-60  4.9  11.2  2.7  24.4  3.2  14.0  6.4  16.4  60-90  3.3  5.5  0.9  14.1  1.2  3.7  2.6  10.2  T o t a l 16.4  32.4  10.7  84.0 12.5  41.5  20.0  62.4  19.4 153.5  27.6 170.1  4.4  68.5 228.3  34.5 214.6  35.4 222.3  17.0 219.1  40.4  86.8 306.5  3.8  46.6  98.7 285.4  0-15  7.2  4.4  2.8  6.6  4.1  10.6  2.8  7.3  9.5  63.9  2.8  3.2  4.8  31.5  1.9  14.4  6.2  70.9  3.6  17.2  6.0  50.1  15-30  5.1  1.5  2.7  6.7  3.8  3.3  2.7  7.1  6.5  21.7  2.6  16.1  10.6  58.1  2.2  26.1  4.7  46.0  3.0  22.3  22.0  85.6  30-60  7.7  1.7  2.7  13.0  8.8  0.9  2.6  13.3  9.3  24.6  4.4  31.9  11.6  66.9  3.6  63.2  8.4  25.7  4.4  55.7  30.1  69.7  9.7  9.9  60-90  6.4  1.1  0.9  12.2  5.0  0.5  1.3  11.8  3.9  6.8  1.7  24.2  8.9  10.0  3.4  38.5  6.0  9.7  3.4  39.3  5.2  7.3  2.5  40.8  T o t a l 26.4  8.7  9.1  37.9 21.7  15.3  9.4  39.5  29.2  62.1  11.5  85.4  35.9 166.5  11.1142.2  25.3 152.3  14.4 134.5  63.3 212.7  3.4  24.5  20.8 125.9  36.4 201.1  CD  Appendix 7.  Tlae a f t e r  1  2  3  a f t e r 120 t h a  - 1  swine s l u r r y a p p l i c a t i o n  (1982, 1983).  1 7  Depth  aa  NH -N (ppm)  application (month)  Concentration of NHi,* and NO3--N  4  (cm)  Broadcast  Injection  18.47  N0 -N (ppm) 3  Broadcast  Injection  110.22  NH -N (ppm) H  Broadcast  Injection  ...  N0j-N  (ppm) .  Broadcast  Injection  25.83  0-15  44.11  65.66  7.92  18.42  74.33  15-30  5.06  100.07  13.99  40.67  4.58  28.25  17.00  40.08  30-60  7.22  4.92  10.20  11.35  3.50  4.33  7.75  11.33  60-90  6.29  2.68  10.15  6.37  3.92  2.25  9.17  7.33  34.50  22.67  0-15  8.23  7.37  91.24  29.23  1.83  15-30  7.96  7.99  30.85  102.73  1.92  24.33  1.83  26.17  36.50  30-60  1.94  4.21  7.22  20.97  0.83  4.17  8.67  14.17  60-90  1.10  0.99  5.34  6.81  0.67  0.83  5.50  11.33  13.58  0-15  6.82  6.30  83.67  49.16  2.58  2.50  21.33  15-30  3.24  11.31  21.09  74.27  1.67  2.25  24.17  24.67  30-60  2.77  4.45  9.10  18.41  1.00  6.83  14.17  21.17  60-90  2.50  2.82  7.64  8.23  0.83  0.67  8.50  13.67  169  Appendix 8. Weekly r a i n f a l l received by the experimental s i t e for the period October 1981 to A p r i l 1982 and October 1982 to A p r i l 1983.  Week  R a i n f a l l for the period October 1981 - A p r i l 1982 (mm)  R a i n f a l l for the period October 1982 - A p r i l 1983 (mm)  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28  108.6 15.4 2.4 118.8 2.2 86.4 107.2 37.0 50.4 71.8 50.0 39.2 0 37.8 92.2 100.6 5.6 159.4 73.6 39.8 21 40.8 0 30.2 47.2 39.4 5.4 15.8  29.8 0.4 49.4 38.8 53.8 38.4 34.0 77.2 77.8 49.4 44.8 5.6 125.6 49.0 32.3 28.2 12.6 59.0 84.2 35.4 21.4 61.4 9.0 54.2 35.2 26.0 23.2 17.8  1398.2  1173.8  Total  Appendix 9.  Time  Some s e l e c t e d s o i l TKN and o r g a n i c N data before and at the end of the three years of s l u r r y a p p l i c a t i o n .  Slurry applied  S l u r r y TKN applied  (t h a " ) (kg h a " ) 1  Before slurry application  .  1  .  Rep. I Depth  Total Organic N  f\  u  n u  0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 • Total Organic N  After t h r e e years of s l u r r y application  0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90  ,  Total Organic N  405  1621  0-15 15-30 30-60 60-90 Total Organic N  - 1  ) _  X  (cm) 0-15 15-30 30-60 69-90  Rep. I I _ TKN (ke h a  3518 3173 1487 814  4532 3426 1715 775  5547 3679 1944 737  8992 8882  10448 10337  11907 11792  4589 3299 1493 1009  4531 3792 1915 1049  4474 4286 2338 1090  10390 10343  11287 11241  12188 12140  4931 3270 1373 928  4888 3839 1673 928  4845 4408 1973 929  10502 10404  11328 11203  12155 12002  4859 3230 1480 949  5094 3859 1748 979  5330 4489 2017 1009  10518 10369  11680 11448  12845 12528  171  Appendix 10.  Analyses  Concentration of P and K i n swine s l u r r y used i n the experiment.  1982  1981  1983  7.  P  0.16 (17.12)*  0.14 (21.42)  0.15 (18.13)  K  0.12 (1.89)  0.13 (13.43)  0.12 (6.75)  * Figures within the parentheses indicate  c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n .  


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