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Nineteenth-century Cape Breton : a historical geography Hornsby, Stephen J. 1986

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AN HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CAPE BRETON ISLAND IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY By STEPHEN JOHN HORNSBY M.A. (Hons.) The University of St. Andrews, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Geography) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 198 6 (6) Stephen John Hornsby, 1986 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Q^Q GRAPHV The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 Date XS SeP-r^m 8<H? l°l$(> DE-6 (2/79) Abstract This thesis i s an h i s t o r i c a l geography of Cape Breton Island i n the nineteenth century. It aims to provide a geographical synthesis of the Island over a hundred years, elucidating the changing r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Island's population and the i r environment. The Island i s considered as a region and the scale of enquiry i s at the regional l e v e l . The patterns of population, settlement, economy, and society are i d e n t i f i e d , and the processes that created them are discussed. F i n a l l y , the wider relevance of the Cape Breton experience i s suggested. Three d i s t i n c t and largely separate patterns of settlement, economy, and society coexisted • i n early nineteenth century Cape Breton: the old commercial staple trade of the cod fish e r y , semi-subsistent family-farms, and i n d u s t r i a l coal mining. After the end of the French regime on the Island, B r i t i s h and Nova Scotian c a p i t a l was invested in the inshore cod fishery, creating s p e c i a l i s e d f i s h i n g settlements, a f i s h i n g population, and an economy t i e d to distant, international markets. Superimposed upon th i s staple trade i n the 1820 's was a fee-simple empire of family-farms. A g r i c u l t u r a l changes i n Western Scotland displaced thousands of people, many of whom fetched up on Cape Breton - among the cheapest of overseas destinations. By mid-century, these immigrants had occupied a l l the good land and considerable areas of poorer backland. After years of backbreaking work, the s e t t l e r s had created semi-subsistent farms on r e l a t i v e l y cheap land far from markets. About the same time as the Scots arrived, B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l exploited the Island's coal reserves, introducing s k i l l e d B r i t i s h labour and steam-technology to win coal for external markets. Un t i l the f i n a l decades of the century, the fishery changed l i t t l e . The cod f i s h e r y , organised and supplied by Channel Island and resident merchants, remained dominant. Only i n the 1870 's was i t augmented by the rapid r i s e of the lobster f i s h e r y . Both farming and mining, however, were transformed i n the years a f t e r 1850. As the a g r i c u l t u r a l population grew, largely by natural increase, settlement expanded farther onto^backland, and growing numbers of subsistent farmers combined agriculture with seasonal work in the coal mines and i n Boston. Under the successive stimuli of Reciprocity and the National Policy, the coal industry expanded, a t t r a c t i n g more companies, increasing output, and employing more men accommodated i n several new settlements. Yet these three economies remained e s s e n t i a l l y separate. Agriculture supplied some produce and seasonal labour to the fishery and the mines, but the two staples -exploiting d i f f e r e n t resources and t i e d to d i f f e r e n t sources of c a p i t a l and markets - had no contact. With limited capacity to generate m u l t i p l i e r s , a larger, more mature economy did not develop on Cape Breton. Faced with limited land and uncertain returns from the staple industries, many Islanders emigrated to the burgeoning towns and c i t i e s of New England. This cycle of immigration, population growth, and emigration, set against an economic background of staple industries and semi-subsistent farming, was common to much of s e t t l e d Canada i n the nineteenth century. Table of Contents Page Abstract i i Table of Contents v L i s t of Tables v i i L i s t of Figures i x Preface x i i Chapter 1: Cape Breton at the Begining of the Nineteenth Century 1 Cape Breton i n 1800 10 The Staple Industries: The Cod Fishery 13 The Staple Industries: Coal Mining 33 Agriculture on Cape Breton • 3 6 Colonial Cape Breton 42 Chapter 2: The Scottish Background of Immigrants to Cape Breton 4 7 The Place of Origin 48 Economic and Social Background 5 0 The Clearances 6 3 The Condition of Migration 7 2 Chapter 3: A g r i c u l t u r a l Settlement i n the Early Nineteenth Century 77 Land Policy 82 A g r i c u l t u r a l Markets 91 The Developing Frontlands 9 7 The Struggling Backlands 128 Perspective 135 v Page Chapter 4: The Staple Industries i n the Early Nineteenth Century 138 The Cod Fishery 139 The Establishment of an Industrial Staple: Coal Mining, 1827-1857 154 Chapter 5: The Potato Famine, 1845-1849 175 Chapter 6: A g r i c u l t u r a l Settlement i n the Late Nineteenth Century 191 Land Policy 198 A g r i c u l t u r a l Markets 203 The Commercial Frontlands 206 The Subsistent Backlands 2 32 Chapter 7: The Staple Industries i n the Late Nineteenth Century 2 40 The Fishery 2 40 The Coal Industry 2 65 Chapter 8: The Exodus 2 86 Chapter 9: Conclusion 3 09 Notes 3 24 Bibliography 3 69 Appendix: Glossary of Terms 384 v i L i s t of Tables Table Page 1.1 Surnames i n A r i c h a t , 1811 2 7 1.2 Occupations of heads of households a t A r i c h a t and neighbouring f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , 1811 28 1.3 Occupations of heads of households a t I s l e Madame and neighbouring f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , 1811 32 3.1 A g r i c u l t u r a l e x ports o u t s i d e Nova S c o t i a , 1843 and 1853 95 3.2 Exports of c a t t l e , sheep, and b u t t e r o u t s i d e Nova S c o t i a , 1842-1848 96 3.3 Surnames on Cape Breton, 1818 115 3.4 O c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e on Cape Breton, 1851 120 3.5 Manufacturing e s t a b l i s h m e n t s on Cape Breton, 1851 123 4.1 Boats and v e s s e l s on Cape Breton, 1851 144 4.2 Workforce employed a t Sydney Mines and B r i d g e p o r t , September 1838 164 6.1 P r i n c i p a l occupations on Cape Breton, 1881 194 6.2 Landholdings i n Inverness County, 1871-1891 196 6.3 P r i n c i p a l a g r i c u l t u r a l e x ports o u t s i d e Nova S c o t i a , 1864-1865 205 6.4 Improved land on Cape Breton, 1891 209 6.5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of improved land and average h o l d i n g s of l i v e s t o c k i n Southwest Margaree and Red I s l a n d s , 1871 211 6.6 Numbers of l i v e s t o c k i n s e l e c t e d d i s t r i c t s , 1891 212 6.7 A r a b l e , p a s t u r e , and hay land i n s e l e c t e d d i s t r i c t s , 1891 213 6.8 Surnames i n Southwest Margaree and Red I s l a n d s , 1871 225 v x i Table Page 6.9 P r i n c i p a l i n d u s t r i e s on Cape Breton, 1871 229 7.1 Boats and v e s s e l s on Cape Breton, 1891 246 8.1 T o t a l net m i g r a t i o n from Cape Breton, 1871-1891 290 8.2 Percentage change of p o p u l a t i o n , 1851-1891 290 8.3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Nova S c o t i a n s i n Canada, 1881-1891 295 8.4 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Nova S c o t i a n s i n s e l e c t e d s t a t e s and t e r r i t o r i e s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1870-1880 295 v i i i L i s t of F i g u r e s F i g u r e Page 1.1 Main h e i g h t s of land and r i v e r s of Cape Breton 2 1.2 F o r e s t zones of Cape Breton 5 1.3 P o p u l a t i o n of Cape Breton, 1801 11 1.4 D i s t r i b u t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l land on Cape Breton 3 8 1.5 Sydney, 1795 44 2.1 O r i g i n of S c o t t i s h immigrants t o Cape Breton 49 2.2 C r o f t i n g township a t H a r r a p o o l , Skye 5 4 2.3 C r o f t a t H a r r a p o o l , Skye, 1854 55 2.4 Immigration t o Nova S c o t i a and Cape Breton from S c o t t i s h p o r t s , 1815-1850 66 3.1 Crown land grants on Cape Breton, 1786-1820 79 3.2 Crown land grants on Cape Breton, 1786-1850 81 3.3 Number and acreage of Crown lan d grants on Cape Breton, 1828-1850 86 3.4 Census d i s t r i c t s on Cape Breton, 1851 98 3.5 Improved land on Cape Breton, 1851 99 3.6 D i s t r i b u t i o n of l i v e s t o c k on Cape Breton, 1851 101 3.7 D i s t r i b u t i o n of b u t t e r p r o d u c t i o n on Cape Breton, 1851 103 3.8 H y p o t h e t i c a l p a t t e r n of f r o n t l a n d s e t t l e m e n t on Cape Breton' 108 3.9 Settlement a l o n g the S.W. Margaree R i v e r , Inverness County, showing land granted 1831-36, and the name and p l a c e of o r i g i n of the s e t t l e r s 114 4.1 P r o d u c t i o n of d r i e d and p i c k l e d f i s h on Cape Breton, 1851 145 4.2 D i s t r i b u t i o n of fishermen on Cape Breton, 1851 150 i x 1 F i g u r e Page 4.3 P r o d u c t i o n and export of c o a l from Cape Breton, 1827-1857 157 4.4 Coal p r o d u c t i o n a t the p r i n c i p a l mines on Cape Breton, 1827-1857 160 4.5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of c o a l mines on Cape Breton and t h e i r maximum output, 1827-1857 161 4.6 The General Mining A s s o c i a t i o n ' s v i l l a g e and p i t s a t Sydney Mines, Cape Breton County, c.1864 " 169 6.1 O r i g i n of p o p u l a t i o n of Cape Breton, 1871 192 6.2 Crown land grants on Cape Breton, 1786-1880 197 6.3 Number and acreage of Crown land grants on Cape Breton, 1850-1890 202 6.4 Census d i s t r i c t s on Cape Breton, 1891 214 6.5 Improved land on Cape Breton, 1891 215 6.6 D i s t r i b u t i o n of l i v e s t o c k on Cape Breton, 1891 216 6.7 D i s t r i b u t i o n of b u t t e r p r o d u c t i o n on Cape Breton, 1891 217 6.8 H y p o t h e t i c a l p a t t e r n of f r o n t l a n d and backland s e t t l e m e n t on Cape Breton 219 6.9 R e l i g i o u s denomination of Cape Breton, 1871 226 6.10 West Bay, Inverness County, 1864 231 7.1 Three-year moving averages of d r i e d and p i c k l e d f i s h p r o d u c t i o n on Cape Breton 244 7.2 D i s t r i b u t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n of d r i e d and p i c k l e d f i s h on Cape Breton, 1891 245 7.3 L o b s t e r p r o d u c t i o n on Cape Breton, 1872-1891 252 7.4 S h i p b u i l d i n g on Cape Breton, 1854-1891 255 7.5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of fishermen on Cape Breton, 1891 256 7.6 D'Escousse, I s l e Madame, Richmond County, 1864 259 7.7 N e i l ' s Harbour and New Haven, V i c t o r i a County, 1864 _ • 260 x F i g u r e Page 7.8 P r o d u c t i o n and e x p o r t o f c o a l f r o m Cape B r e t o n , 1858-1891 267 7.9 D i s t r i b u t i o n and o u t p u t o f p r i n c i p a l c o a l m i n e s on Cape B r e t o n , 1865-1866 270 7.10 D i s t r i b u t i o n a n d o u t p u t o f p r i n c i p a l c o a l m i n e s on Cape B r e t o n , 1890 271 7.11 C o l l i e r y r a i l w a y s on Cape B r e t o n 272 7.12 Men and boys e m p l o y e d a t t h e c o a l m ines i n Cape B r e t o n C o u n t y , 1866-1891 275 7.13 The B l o c k h o u s e and G p w r i e v i l l a g e s a t Cow Bay, Cape B r e t o n C o u n t y , c.1864 2 79 7.14 U n i o n membership among Cape B r e t o n m i n e r s , A u g u s t 1881-December 1884 283 8.1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f male e m i g r a n t s ( t o p ) and f e m a l e e m i g r a n t s (bottom) f r o m Cape B r e t o n by p l a c e o r s t a t e / p r o v i n c e o f d e a t h , 1880-1893 296 V 1 P r e f a c e T h i s t h e s i s began as a study of S c o t t i s h immigration and s e t t l e m e n t on Cape Breton I s l a n d i n the n i n e t e e n t h century. To an eager student with a degree from a S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t y , fond memories of s e v e r a l h i k i n g t o u r s i n the Western Highlands and I s l a n d s of S c o t l a n d , and a d e v e l o p i n g i n t e r e s t i n new world s e t t l e m e n t , such a study appeared to. make a good deal of sense. But as I immersed myself i n the records and got to know Cape Breton b e t t e r , i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t the I s l a n d was not onl y of i n t e r e s t because of the Scots , but a l s o because the developments t h a t o c c u r r e d t h e r e seemed t o en c a p s u l a t e much of what happened elsewhere i n Canada d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Apart from being an a g r i c u l t u r a l haven f o r emigrant c r o f t e r s , Cape Breton a l s o had a c e n t u r i e s - o l d s t a p l e t r a d e (the cod f i s h e r y ) , and c o a l mines t h a t were among the e a r l i e s t e n t e r p r i s e s t o be i n d u s t r i a l i s e d i n Canada. Moreover, a great demographic c y c l e of immigration, p o p u l a t i o n growth, and e m i g r a t i o n worked i t s e l f out on the I s l a n d d u r i n g the ni n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . These developments had c l o s e p a r a l l e l s i n other p a r t s of Canada. As a r e s u l t , the study was x i i broadened t o c h a r t the e v o l u t i o n of the s t a p l e t r a d e s and the u n f o l d i n g of the demographic c y c l e , and t o suggest t h e i r wider r e l e v a n c e . As i n many another r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l geography, the methodology employed combines c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l accounts of the p a t t e r n s of sett l e m e n t and economy a t s p e c i f i c times, and v e r t i c a l themes t h a t d i s c u s s the processes of change. The study begins with an assessment of Cape Breton i n 1800. With the p o p u l a t i o n and economic geography of the I s l a n d e s t a b l i s h e d , the remaining chapters seek t o account f o r the changes i n p o p u l a t i o n , s e t t l e m e n t , and economy t h a t o c c u r r e d i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Chapter 2 c o n s i d e r s the changing circumstances i n Western S c o t l a n d d u r i n g the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h century which p r o p e l l e d many Scots t o Cape Breton. The s o c i a l and economic background of the immigrants i s i d e n t i f i e d t o a l l o w comparison with subsequent developments on Cape Breton, and the nature of the m i g r a t i o n i s o u t l i n e d because of i t s r e l e v a n c e t o the process of settlement on the I s l a n d . The spread of sett l e m e n t and the growth of a g r i c u l t u r e on Cape Breton i s the s u b j e c t of Chapter 3. Chapter 4 d e a l s with the two s t a p l e t r a d e s - the cod f i s h e r y and the new i n d u s t r i a l s t a p l e of c o a l mining -and c h a r t s t h e i r e v o l u t i o n d u r i n g the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h century. A c t i n g as a hinge between the chapters t h a t deal with Cape Breton i n the e a r l y and l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century, Chapter 5 focusses on the potato famine t h a t o c c u r r e d between 1845-18 49. T h i s i s a convenient c e n t r e - p o i n t f o r t h i s study. The famine put an end t o s i g n i f i c a n t i m m i g r a t i o n and p r e c i p i t a t e d a n e m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h e I s l a n d t h a t was t o r u n i n t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . The p o t a t o f a m i n e on Cape B r e t o n , l i k e t h a t i n W e s t e r n S c o t l a n d and I r e l a n d , was a n e v e n t o f s i n g u l a r i m p o r t a n c e . The c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n , t h e s p r e a d o f s e t t l e m e n t , and t h e g r o w i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l c r i s i s on Cape B r e t o n i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a r e e x a m i n e d i n C h a p t e r 6. C h a p t e r 7 c o n s i d e r s l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e c o d f i s h e r y a n d t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e m i n e s a f t e r 1858. B o t h C h a p t e r s 6 and 7 d e a l w i t h Cape B r e t o n up t o 1891, a l o g i c a l p o i n t t o e n d t h e s t u d y . I n t h e e a r l y 1890 ' s , a b r a n c h o f t h e I n t e r c o l o n i a l r a i l w a y was b u i l t a c r o s s Cape B r e t o n l i n k i n g t h e i n d u s t r i a l towns o f e a s t e r n Cape B r e t o n C o u n t y w i t h t h e m a i n l a n d , and p r o v i d i n g an i m p r o v e d m a r k e t c o n n e c t i o n f o r I s l a n d f a r m e r s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e t a k e o v e r o f most o f t h e c o a l m i n e s by t h e D o m i n i o n C o a l Company i n 1893 and t h e b u i l d i n g o f a s t e e l w o r k s u s h e r e d i n an e x p a n s i o n o f t h e c o a l i n d u s t r y s o m a s s i v e t h a t t h e m i g r a t i o n s o f Cape B r e t o n e r s were t o some e x t e n t r e o r i e n t e d away f r o m B o s t o n t o w a r d s t h e m i n i n g towns o f e a s t e r n Cape B r e t o n C o u n t y . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y h i s t o r y o f Cape B r e t o n b e g i n s i n t h e e a r l y 1890 ' s . C h a p t e r s 5, 6, and 7 o u t l i n e t h e c a u s e s f o r t h e e m i g r a t i o n f r o m Cape B r e t o n i n t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w h i c h i s d e a l t w i t h i n C h a p t e r 8. R a t h e r t h a n c o n c l u d e t h e s t u d y w i t h a c r o s s -s e c t i o n o f Cape B r e t o n i n 1891, C h a p t e r 9 draws t h e v a r i o u s themes t o g e t h e r , d i s c u s s e s t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s , and s u g g e s t s s o m e , p o s s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n s between Cape B r e t o n and : xiv other p a r t s of Canada i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Research f o r t h i s t h e s i s has taken me from Ottawa t o Edinburgh v i a H a l i f a x and Cape Breton, and I would l i k e t o thank the s t a f f s of the f o l l o w i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e : the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y . of Canada, and the Department of Labour L i b r a r y , Ottawa; the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Nova S c o t i a , H a l i f a x ; the Beaton I n s t i t u t e , Cape Breton; the S c o t t i s h Record O f f i c e and the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of S c o t l a n d , Edinburgh. I am g r a t e f u l t o V i c t o r i a Hornsby f o r her e n e r g e t i c h elp i n c o r r e l a t i n g l i t e r a l l y thousands of land g r a n t s w i t h the Crown Land Index maps of Cape Breton, and to my w i f e , Kathleen, who helped i n innumerable ways t o expe d i t e the completion of t h i s t h e s i s . Ray H a r r i s of the Cartography U n i t , Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of Edinburgh, i s a l s o thanked f o r s p e e d i l y t r a n s f o r m i n g my rough d r a f t s i n t o c l e a r maps. The Canadian Commonwealth S c h o l a r s h i p Committee brought me t o Canada, and pr o v i d e d generous support f o r fou r years i n the d o c t o r a l programme a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; they a l s o made a v a i l a b l e funds f o r t r a v e l t o Ottawa, H a l i f a x , and Cape Breton, and f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t of the t h e s i s cartography. My f i n a l words of thanks are r e s e r v e d f o r P r o f e s s o r Graeme Wynn, who c l o s e l y read an e a r l i e r d r a f t and made many u s e f u l s u g g e s t i o n s , and f o r my s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r Cole H a r r i s , whose work f i r s t i n t e r e s t e d me i n the h i s t o r i c a l xv g e o g r a p h y o f C a n a d a a n d who, i n many h e l p f u l l e t t e r s , g u i d e d t h i s t h e s i s f r o m a f a r . x v i 1 Cape Breton a t the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century S i t u a t e d on the e a s t e r n rim of the North American c o n t i n e n t a t the mouth of the G u l f of S t . Lawrence, Cape Breton I s l a n d came to European a t t e n t i o n i n the l a t e f i f t e e n t h century when e x p l o r e r s were s e a r c h i n g f o r a sea-1 route t o A s i a . John Cabot's l a n d f a l l i n 1497 on what he thought was the c o a s t of "Cathay" or northern China may w e l l have been the rocky shore of Cape Breton. A few years l a t e r , Portuguese mariners, e x p l o r i n g along the n o r t h -e a s t e r n seaboard, probably c h a r t e d the I s l a n d ' s A t l a n t i c c oast and f i x e d i t i n r e l a t i o n t o the southern shores of Newfoundland and Nova S c o t i a . In the 1530 's, as a r e s u l t of C a r t i e r ' s voyages i n the G u l f , the no r t h e r n c o a s t l i n e was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d . By 1536, Cape Breton was f i r m l y l o c a t e d i n the European cartography of the New World. Although a m i d - l a t i t u d e environment, much of Cape 2 Breton must have appeared d i s c o u r a g i n g l y bleak. More than h a l f of the I s l a n d i s rough, g l a c i a t e d upland, p a r t of the o l d , worn-down Appalachian mountain range ( F i g . 1.1). Composed of pre-Cambrian igneous and metamorphic r o c k s , t h i s upland comprises a p l a t e a u t h a t occupies much of the 1 F i g u r e 1.1 Main he i g h t s of land and r i v e r s of Cape Breton. A f t e r map i n D.B. Cann, J . I . MacDougall, and J.D. H i l c h e y , S o i l Survey of Cape Breton I s l a n d Nova S c o t i a p.18. 2 n o r t h e r n h a l f of Cape Breton and a s e r i e s of p a r a l l e l h i l l s t h a t border the Bras d'Or Lake. Along the n o r t h e r n and southern f l a n k s of the p l a t e a u , g l a c i e r s and, more r e c e n t l y , r i v e r s have eroded narrow v a l l e y s or i n t e r v a l e s , the only n a t u r a l routeways through the mountains. The r e s t of the I s l a n d c o n s i s t s of g e n t l y r o l l i n g lowland. Made up of s o f t e r c a r b o n i f e r o u s r o c k s , the lowland has been scoured by g l a c i a t i o n , l e a v i n g i t pockmarked with innumerable lakes and marshes. In the c e n t r e of the I s l a n d , v i r t u a l l y b i s e c t i n g the upland and lowland h a l v e s , i s the Bras d'Or Lake. Open to the sea on the e a s t c o a s t , the Bras d'Or makes much of the i n t e r i o r e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e . No p a r t of Cape Breton i s more than ten m i l e s from e i t h e r the Bras d'Or or the c o a s t . Much of Cape Breton i s b l a n k e t e d with g l a c i a l t i l l and g l a c i o f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s . The upland p l a t e a u and most of the lowland are covered with a r e a d i l y permeable, reddish-brown or grayish-brown sandy loam t i l l , while the r e s t of the lowland i s covered with a moderately to s l o w l y permeable, reddish-brown or dark-gray c l a y loam or g r a v e l l y c l a y loam t i l l . There are a l s o g l a c i o f l u v i a l sands and g r a v e l s s c a t t e r e d throughout the I s l a n d , and more r e c e n t a l l u v i a l sediments on the i n t e r v a l e f l o o d - p l a i n s . Many small peat bogs are found on p o o r l y d r a i n e d s i t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the uplands. Often c l o s e t o the s u r f a c e , these v a r i o u s . d e p o s i t s p r o v i d e a meagre fo u n d a t i o n f o r s o i l s . On the porous t i l l and outwash d e p o s i t s are w e l l - d r a i n e d , n u t r i e n t - l e a c h e d podzols; while on the wetter boulder c l a y s , are water-logged 3 g l e y s o i l s . I mmature r e g o s o l s a r e f o u n d o n t h e a l l u v i a l f l a t s . I n g e n e r a l , t h e I s l a n d ' s s o i l s a r e t h i n , s t o n y , a n d a c i d i c . A l t h o u g h a m e l i o r a t e d t o some e x t e n t by a m a r i t i m e l o c a t i o n , Cape B r e t o n ' s w i n t e r s a r e m a r k e d l y c o n t i n e n t a l . They a r e f r e q u e n t l y b i t t e r l y c o l d ( J a n u a r y t e m p e r a t u r e s o a v e r a g e -5.5 C. a t S y d n e y ) a nd t h e s n o w f a l l h e a v y (5 f e e t p e r annum). Snow i s common i n May and i c e c a n l i n g e r a l o n g t h e c o a s t u n t i l e a r l y J u n e . The c o l d L a b r a d o r c u r r e n t w h i c h sweeps t h e A t l a n t i c c o a s t k e e p s t h e I s l a n d c o o l d u r i n g t h e o summer ( J u l y t e m p e r a t u r e s a v e r a g e 17.6 C. a t S y d n e y ) a nd s h o r t e n s t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n (156 d a y s a t C h e t i c a m p on t h e n o r t h c o a s t , 62 d a y s a t M a r g a r e e t e n m i l e s i n l a n d , a n d e v e n l e s s a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s ) . A l o n g t h e c o a s t s , f o g i s a f r e q u e n t h a z a r d d u r i n g summer when warm a i r moves o f f - s h o r e a n d c o n d e n s e s o v e r t h e c o l d s e a - c u r r e n t s . A t t h e t i m e o f E u r o p e a n d i s c o v e r y , v i r t u a l l y t h e e n t i r e I s l a n d was c o v e r e d w i t h a m i x e d c o n i f e r o u s a n d d e c i d u o u s 3 f o r e s t . A l o n g t h e A t l a n t i c c o a s t , t h i s f o r e s t was m a i n l y s p r u c e a n d b a l s a m , a l t h o u g h w h i t e s p r u c e was common c l o s e t o t h e s h o r e a n d l a r c h t h r i v e d on p o o r l y d r a i n e d s i t e s ( F i g . 1 . 2 ) . A r o u n d t h e B r a s d'Or L a k e a nd a l o n g t h e h i l l s i d e s on t h e e a s t a n d w e s t c o a s t s , grew s u g a r m a p l e , h e m l o c k , a nd p i n e . The s l o p e s a n d v a l l e y b o t t o m s w ere d o m i n a t e d by c o n i f e r s ( b a l s a m f i r , w h i t e s p r u c e , b l a c k s p r u c e , a n d w h i t e p i n e ) a l t h o u g h o n r i v e r t e r r a c e s , e l m grew " v e r y f i n e l a r g e 4 and i n g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s . " On h i g h e r , b e t t e r d r a i n e d s l o p e s w e r e f o u n d h e m l o c k a n d d e c i d u o u s v a r i e t i e s ( b e e c h , s u g a r 4 Sugar maple - Hemlock - Pine zone Sugar maple - Yellow birch - Fir zone Spruce - Fir coast zone Fir - Pine - Birch zone Spruce taiga zone F i g u r e 1.2 F o r e s t z o n e s o f Cape B r e t o n . A f t e r O.L. L o u c k s 'A F o r e s t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e M a r i t i P r o v i n c e s . m a p l e , a n d a few y e l l o w b i r c h ) ; b u t a b o v e 500 f e e t e l e v a t i o n , t h e s e s p e c i e s t h i n n e d a s r e d m a p l e , b a l s a m f i r , w h i t e s p r u c e , and s c a t t e r e d r e d s p r u c e a p p e a r e d . I n t h e Cape B r e t o n H i g h l a n d s , t h e f r e q u e n t l y s h a l l o w s o i l s s u p p o r t e d b a l s a m f i r , w h i t e b i r c h , a nd s p r u c e w i t h b e e c h and s u g a r m a p l e on t h e warmer, w e s t e r n s l o p e s . D warf c o n i f e r s , some w h i t e b i r c h and m o u n t a i n a s h g r e w on t h e p l a t e a u s u mmit. The I s l a n d ' s m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s i n c l u d e d gypsum a n d c o a l . The s m a l l gypsum d e p o s i t s w e r e s c a t t e r e d n e a r t h e G u t o f C a n s o a n d a t Mabou; w h i l e t h e b r o a d b a n d s o f b i t u m i n o u s c o a l o u t c r o p p e d a l o n g t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e I s l a n d , f r o m B o u l a r d e r i e t h r o u g h S y d n e y t o M i r a B a y , w i t h l e s s e r d e p o s i t s on t h e n o r t h c o a s t n e a r Mabou, I n v e r n e s s , and M a r g a r e e H a r b o u r . G e n t l y f o l d e d and b e t w e e n t h r e e a n d s i x f e e t t h i c k , t h e t w e l v e m a i n seams c o n s t i t u t e d t h e l a r g e s t c o a l f i e l d i n e a s t e r n C a n a d a a n d t h e most a c c e s s i b l e a l o n g t h e e n t i r e e a s t e r n s e a b o a r d o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . Y e t t h e r e s o u r c e t h a t f i r s t d r e w E u r o p e a n s a c r o s s t h e A t l a n t i c t o Cape B r e t o n l a y o f f - s h o r e . The I s l a n d ' s c o a s t s , l i k e t h o s e o f t h e G u l f , N e w f o u n d l a n d , and L a b r a d o r , a r e t h e 5 s e a s o n a l f e e d i n g g r o u n d s o f l a r g e numbers o f c o d . A f t e r t h e c o d h a v e spawned d u r i n g A p r i l o n t h e b a n k s a l o n g t h e c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f , t h e y m i g r a t e i n s h o r e t o f e e d on h e r r i n g , m a c k e r e l , and c a p e l i n s p a w n i n g i n s h a l l o w w a t e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e e x a c t t i m e v a r i e s f r o m p l a c e t o p l a c e , t h e c o d u s u a l l y a r r i v e a r o u n d t h e c o a s t s o f Cape B r e t o n i n e a r l y May and 6 s t a y u n t i l m i d-December when t h e y r e t u r n t o d e e p - w a t e r . The b e s t m o n t h s f o r f i s h i n g a r e J u n e , J u l y , and A u g u s t when t h e c o d a r e p l e n t i f u l , f r e s h b a i t a v a i l a b l e , a nd t h e w e a t h e r u s u a l l y f i n e . J o h n C a b o t r e p o r t e d l y f o u n d t h e s e a s o f f Cape B r e t o n and N e w f o u n d l a n d s o s w a r m i n g w i t h c o d t h a t t h e s h i p ' s c r e w c o u l d c a t c h them i n w e i g h t e d b a s k e t s a n d w i t h i n a few y e a r s o f h i s v o y a g e , t h e s e v i r t u a l l y i n e x h a u s t i b l e s t o c k s h a d b e e n c o n n e c t e d t o t h e b u r g e o n i n g E u r o p e a n m a r k e t by a m i g r a t o r y 6 f i s h e r y . E a c h y e a r , i n t h e s p r i n g , t h o u s a n d s o f f i s h e r m e n f r o m p o r t s f r o m B r i s t o l t o C a d i z s e t o u t t o f i s h f o r c o d a l o n g t h e c o a s t s o f L a b r a d o r , N e w f o u n d l a n d , a n d Cape B r e t o n , r e t u r n i n g w i t h t h e i r c a t c h i n t h e f a l l . A t f i r s t , t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e New W o r l d was s l i g h t , c o n f i n e d t o t h e summer f i s h i n g s e a s o n . V e s s e l s a n c h o r e d i n s h e l t e r e d h a r b o u r s , s u p p l i e s and b o a t s w e r e u n l o a d e d , and t e m p o r a r y s h o r e s t a t i o n s c o n s t r u c t e d . F i s h i n g was done c l o s e t o t h e s h o r e f r o m b o a t s a n d c a t c h e s w e r e p r o c e s s e d on l a n d . Cod w e r e h e a d e d , s p l i t , l i g h t l y s a l t e d , a nd d r i e d on c o b b l e b e a c h e s and wooden p l a t f o r m s o r ' f l a k e s ' u n t i l t h e y w e re s u f f i c i e n t l y c u r e d f o r t h e r e t u r n v o y a g e . L a t e r , a f e w o f t h e f i s h e r m e n o v e r - w i n t e r e d t o s e c u r e f i s h i n g s i t e s o r 'rooms' f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g s e a s o n , b u t none s t a y e d f o r more t h a n a few y e a r s . The d e e p - s e a , bank f i s h e r y , w h i c h d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e 1550 ' s , h a d no c o n t a c t w i t h l a n d , f o r t h e f i s h w e r e c a u g h t f r o m t h e v e s s e l s , p r o c e s s e d o n - b o a r d , a n d h e a v i l y s a l t e d t o p r e s e r v e them u n t i l t h e y c o u l d be d r i e d i n E u r o p e . 7 Much o f t h e Cape B r e t o n f i s h e r y was i n t h e h a n ds o f F r e n c h f i s h e r m e n . D u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1600 ' s , v e s s e l s f r o m O l o n n e , L a R o c h e l l e , and t h e B a s q u e p o r t s w e r e r e c o r d e d u s i n g Cape B r e t o n h a r b o u r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e a t S t . P e t e r ' s , L o u i s b o u r g , I n g o n i s h , and p e r h a p s Cape N o r t h and 7 C h e t i c a m p . E v e n s o , t h e r e was no p e r m a n e n t E u r o p e a n s e t t l e m e n t on t h e I s l a n d d u r i n g t h e s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , and t h e f i s h e r y r e m a i n e d a s u b o r d i n a t e p a r t o f t h e much l a r g e r F r e n c h f i s h e r y p r o s e c u t e d a l o n g t h e c o a s t s o f s o u t h e r n N e w f o u n d l a n d , t h e P e t i t N o r d , and t h e G a s p e . T h e n , i n 1 7 1 3 , a s a r e s u l t o f t h e T r e a t y o f U t r e c h t , F r a n c e l o s t m a i n l a n d Nova S c o t i a and h e r s u b s t a n t i a l f i s h e r i e s i n s o u t h e r n N e w f o u n d l a n d and d e c i d e d t o t u r n Cape B r e t o n i n t o a b a s e f o r b o t h r e s i d e n t i a l 8 and m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r i e s a nd an o u t e r - b a s t i o n o f New F r a n c e . L o u i s b o u r g , an i c e - f r e e h a r b o u r on t h e A t l a n t i c c o a s t , was d e v e l o p e d a s a f o r t i f i e d , g a r r i s o n t o w n , a b a s e f o r w a r s h i p s p a t r o l l i n g t h e v u l n e r a b l e s h i p p i n g l a n e s t o Q u e b e c , a n d s o o n a m a j o r e n t r e p o t o f F r e n c h t r a d e i n t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c . By t h e 1730 ' s , t h e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y on Cape B r e t o n had s u r p a s s e d t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y a n d e m p l o y e d many o f t h e I s l a n d ' s n e a r l y 4,000 i n h a b i t a n t s . I n some y e a r s , c o d e x p o r t s f r o m Cape B r e t o n w e r e more v a l u a b l e t h a n f u r e x p o r t s f r o m Quebec. By 1752, t h e r e w e re n e a r l y 6,000 r e s i d e n t s on t h e I s l a n d , t w o - t h i r d s o f them a t L o u i s b o u r g , p l u s , i n summer, a s i z e a b l e m i g r a t o r y p o p u l a t i o n . Y e t w i t h i n a few y e a r s , war d e s t r o y e d L o u i s b o u r g and t h e F r e n c h f i s h e r y on 8 Cape B r e t o n . As a p r e l u d e t o c a p t u r i n g Q u e b e c , L o u i s b o u r g was t a k e n by t h e B r i t i s h i n 1758, most o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s d e p o r t e d , and i t s f o r t i f i c a t i o n s r a z e d . The I s l a n d was a n n e x e d t o Nova S c o t i a a n d i n 1 7 6 3 , f o r m a l l y c e d e d a l o n g w i t h t h e r e s t o f New F r a n c e t o B r i t a i n . Soon a f t e r t h e f a l l o f L o u i s b o u r g , t h e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y on Cape B r e t o n b e g a n t o r e f o r m . A f e w F r e n c h f i s h e r m e n w e r e l e f t a t f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s a l o n g t h e s o u t h c o a s t a n d i n t h e 1760 's and 1770 's t h e y w e r e j o i n e d by A c a d i a n f i s h e r m e n r e t u r n i n g f r o m e x i l e on t h e M a g d a l e n I s l a n d s a n d t h e F r e n c h -9 i s l a n d s o f S t . P i e r r e and M i q u e l o n . I r i s h f i s h e r m e n f r o m N e w f o u n d l a n d a l s o d r i f t e d i n t o t h e I s l a n d , s e t t l i n g a t M a i n 10 a D i e u a nd L o u i s b o u r g . By t h e e a r l y 1760 's t h e s e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r m e n w e r e b e i n g o u t f i t t e d by a N e w f o u n d l a n d m e r c h a n t 11 b a s e d a t L o u i s b o u r g a nd i n 1765, m e r c h a n t s f r o m t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d s o p e n e d a f i s h i n g s t a t i o n a t A r i c h a t on I s l e Madame a n d , a f e w y e a r s l a t e r , a n o t h e r a t C h e t i c a m p on t h e 12 n o r t h w e s t c o a s t . By t h e l a t e 1760 ' s , t h e I s l a n d ' s f i s h e r y h a d b e e n r e c o n n e c t e d t o t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c c o m m e r c i a l w o r l d . Cape B r e t o n r e m a i n e d a t h i n l y p o p u l a t e d f i s h i n g s t a t i o n u n t i l t h e e a r l y 1780 's when s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d L o y a l i s t r e f u g e e s f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s p i l l e d i n t o B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a . A l t h o u g h m o s t went t o Q u e b e c , Nova S c o t i a , a n d t h e n e w l y c r e a t e d c o l o n y o f New B r u n s w i c k , some 3-400 a r r i v e d on 13 Cape B r e t o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e I s l a n d was s e p a r a t e d f r o m Nova S c o t i a a n d a new c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t , d o m i n a t e d by L o y a l i s t s , was f o r m e d . A c a p i t a l was f o u n d e d b e s i d e a bay on t h e e a s t c o a s t , a n d b o t h h a r b o u r 9 and s e t t l e m e n t were o b s e q u i o u s l y named Sydney a f t e r t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y . A few s e t t l e r s t o o k g o vernment o f f i c e ; most became s e m i - s u b s i s t e n t f a r m e r s . Some a l s o worked i n t h e s m a l l c o a l mine t h a t t h e government had op e n e d on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f Sydney H a r b o u r i n 1785 t o p r o v i d e i t w i t h some r e v e n u e . Then, i n t h e l a s t y e a r s o f t h e c e n t u r y , a few H i g h l a n d S c o t s a l s o a r r i v e d on t h e I s l a n d , an o v e r f l o w f r o m t h e s e t t l e m e n t s on P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and i n P i c t o u C o u n t y , Nova S c o t i a , and s e t t l e d a l o n g t h e S t r a i t s o f Canso and a r o u n d Mabou H a r b o u r . By t h e 1790 's, - a f e e b l e c o l o n y and a n a s c e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l economy had been g r a f t e d o n t o an i s l a n d economy t h a t s t i l l d e p e n d e d o v e r w h e l m i n g l y on f i s h i n g . Cape B r e t o n i n 1800 A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , Cape B r e t o n was s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d , f o r e s t e d , and u n d e v e l o p e d . B a r e l y 2,500 p e o p l e l i v e d on t h e I s l a n d , l e s s t h a n h a l f o f i t s 14 F r e n c h p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e e a r l y 1750 ' s . Most o f them d w e l t i n a few s e t t l e m e n t s d i s p e r s e d a r o u n d t h e c o a s t : some 800 a t Sydney and a l o n g t h e s h o r e s o f Sydney H a r b o u r , a l m o s t 200 a t G a b a r u s and L o u i s b o u r g , and a b o u t 1,500 s p l i t between 15 A r i c h a t and t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t ( F i g . 1 . 3 ) . P e r h a p s h a l f t h e p o p u l a t i o n were F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g A c a d i a n s , c o n c e n t r a t e d m a i n l y on I s l e Madame and a t C h e t i c a m p ; most o f t h e r e s t 10 Km F i g u r e 1.3 P o p u l a t i o n o f Cape B r e t o n , 1801. D a t a f r o m p o p u l a t i o n r e t u r n e n c l o s e d i n D e s p a r d t o H o b a r t , 24 December 1 8 0 1 , CO/CB/A/22. 11 w e r e L o y a l i s t s , s e t t l e d a t S y d n e y , B a d d e c k R i v e r , a n d some o f t h e s o u t h c o a s t o u t p o r t s . The s m a l l r e m a i n d e r w e r e I r i s h , i n h a b i t i n g t h e c o v e s o n t h e s o u t h e a s t c o a s t , o r G a e l i c - s p e a k i n g H i g h l a n d S c o t s d i s p e r s e d a l o n g t h e w e s t c o a s t . The l e a d i n g s e c t o r o f t h e Cape B r e t o n economy was s t i l l t h e c o d f i s h e r y . I t s u p p o r t e d a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , a t t r a c t e d B r i t i s h c a p i t a l a n d s k i l l e d l a b o u r , and t i e d t h e c o l o n y i n t o a h i g h l y c o m m e r c i a l N o r t h A t l a n t i c t r a d i n g s y s t e m . C o a l m i n i n g , t h e I s l a n d ' s o t h e r s t a p l e i n d u s t r y , was s m a l l , e m p l o y e d r e l a t i v e l y few p e o p l e , a n d f e d i n t o a more l o c a l , r e g i o n a l economy: e x p o r t s o f c o a l r a r e l y went b e y o n d H a l i f a x o r S t . J o h n ' s . F a r m i n g , e m p l o y i n g m o s t o f t h e r e m a i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n , was l a r g e l y s u b s i s t e n t f o r Cape B r e t o n was f a r f r o m m a r k e t s a n d o n l y o c c a s i o n a l s a l e s o f p r o d u c e w ere made t o t h e f i s h e r y . F i s h i n g a nd m i n i n g w e r e o r g a n i s e d by B r i t i s h a n d r e s i d e n t m e r c h a n t s , t h e i n t e r m e d i a r i e s t h a t l i n k e d Cape B r e t o n f i s h e r m e n and m i n e r s t o ' N o r t h A t l a n t i c m a r k e t s . They p u r c h a s e d t h e I s l a n d ' s s t a p l e p r o d u c t s , s u p p l i e d t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i m p o r t e d m a n u f a c t u r e s a n d f o o d s t u f f s , a nd k e p t many p e o p l e i n d e b t . M o s t f i s h e r m e n , c o a l m i n e r s , a n d f a r m e r s l i v e d , c l o s e t o s u b s i s t e n c e , t h e i r l i v e s p r e - o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e d a i l y s t r u g g l e t o s u r v i v e . To l e s s e n t h e i r d e p e n d e n c e u p o n t h e m e r c h a n t s , r e s i d e n t f i s h e r m e n k e p t k i t c h e n g a r d e n s ; m i n e r s h a d f a r m s ; and a few f a r m e r s d i d some s e a s o n a l f i s h i n g o r m i n i n g . F o r many, o c c u p a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m was a way o f l i f e . 12 T a g g e d o n t o t h i s e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e was t h e c o l o n i a l r e g i m e a t S y d n e y , w h i c h s u p p o r t e d b a r e l y 200 p e o p l e and h a r d l y e x t e n d e d b e y o n d t h e t o w n . The S t a p l e I n d u s t r i e s ; The Cod F i s h e r y I n 1800 t h e c o d f i s h e r y o f Cape B r e t o n c o m p r i s e d two e l e m e n t s : f i r s t , a m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y b a s e d on t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d s ; and s e c o n d , a r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y o r g a n i s e d by l o c a l m e c h a n t s and e m p l o y i n g I s l a n d l a b o u r . I n t e r m s o f e x p o r t s , t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y was t h e more i m p o r t a n t , h a n d l i n g more t h a n h a l f o f t h e a n n u a l t r a d e . I n 1796, f o r e x a m p l e , t h e t h r e e B r i t i s h f i r m s i n v o l v e d i n Cape B r e t o n e x p o r t e d 13,059 q t l s . o r 63% o f t o t a l c o d e x p o r t s , a n d d o m i n a t e d d r i e d f i s h 16 p r o d u c t i o n a t A r i c h a t and C h e t i c a m p . The m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y was f i n a n c e d and o r g a n i s e d on t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d s , p r i n c i p a l l y on J e r s e y . From t h e r e , c o m p a n i e s r a n a h i g h l y i n t e g r a t e d and s e l f - c o n t a i n e d b u s i n e s s , c o n t r o l l i n g a l l a s p e c t s o f . p r o d u c t i o n , 17 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and m a r k e t i n g . E a c h y e a r , i n t h e s p r i n g , t h e y s e n t o u t , on company v e s s e l s , i n f o r m a t i o n on p r i c e s and m a r k e t s t o t h e i r a g e n t s r e s i d e n t on Cape B r e t o n , s k i l l e d l a b o u r f o r c u r i n g t h e c o d , and most o f t h e s u p p l i e s r e q u i r e d a t t h e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s . Among t h e s e s u p p l i e s , d r a w n f r o m a l l a r o u n d t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c , w e r e s a l t f o r p r e s e r v i n g t h e c o d ; rum, t e a , t o b a c c o , s u g a r , b e e f , p o r k , a n d l a r d f o r p r o v i s i o n i n g t h e f i s h e r y ; b a r - i r o n , l e a d , c a n v a s , and c o r d a g e f o r s h i p - b u i l d i n g and f i s h i n g ; a nd s o a p , c a n d l e s , i n d i g o , a n d e a r t h e n w a r e f o r r e t a i l i n g t o t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . A f t e r t h e s e a s o n ' s f i s h i n g , i n t h e f a l l , t h e company v e s s e l s c a r r i e d t h e d r i e d f i s h t o m a r k e t i n S o u t h e r n E u r o p e and r e t u r n e d t h e w o r k f o r c e t o J e r s e y a s w e l l a s t h e f i s h - b o o k s , l e d g e r s , and a g e n t s ' r e p o r t s f o r i n s p e c t i o n . A g e n t s o r c a r e t a k e r s w e r e l e f t t o o v e r - w i n t e r on t h e I s l a n d t o l o o k - a f t e r t h e company p r e m i s e s . I n 1800 t h r e e C h a n n e l I s l a n d c o m p a n i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y t o Cape B r e t o n . By f a r t h e l a r g e s t , i n t e r m s o f e x p o r t s , was t h e J a n v r i n Company w h i c h i n 1796 e x p o r t e d 7,409 q t l s . ; f o l l o w e d by Remon & Co., 2,884 q t l s . ; 18 and P h i l i p R o b i n , 2,766 q t l s . T h e s e c o m p a n i e s w e r e e i t h e r f a m i l y - o w n e d b u s i n e s s e s o r p a r t n e r s h i p s , a n d s e v e r a l w e r e l i n k e d by m a r r i a g e o r j o i n t - d i r e c t o r s h i p s ( a t l e a s t two o f t h e c o m p a n i e s i n v o l v e d i n Cape B r e t o n , R o b i n a nd J a n v r i n , 19 w ere s o o n t o be c o n n e c t e d i n t h e s e w a y s ) . Management, t o o , f r e q u e n t l y d r e w on d i f f e r e n t members o f a f a m i l y , a t l e a s t i n t h e y e a r s b e f o r e s u c c e s s f u l f i r m s g r e w t o o l a r g e f o r s u c h management; f a t h e r s , s o n s , and b r o t h e r s w e r e o f t e n f o u n d c a p t a i n i n g v e s s e l s o r m a n n i n g f i s h i n g rooms on Cape 20 B r e t o n . The C h a n n e l I s l a n d c o m p a n i e s w e r e h i g h l y s p e c i a l i s e d , p r o d u c i n g " p r i m e m e r c h a n t a b l e " d r i e d f i s h f o r e x p o r t t o t h e l u c r a t i v e m a r k e t s o f I t a l y , S p a i n , and P o r t u g a l ; i n d e e d , t h e R o b i n mark was t o become synonymous w i t h h i g h g r a d e f i s h . By f a r t h e b e s t d r i e d f i s h came f r o m t h e i n s h o r e f i s h e r y , and w h i l e we c a n n o t be s u r e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i n 1800 l a t e r 14 p r a c t i c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d e r s w e r e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s f i s h e r y . They had l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e d e e p - s e a , b a nk f i s h e r y , w h i c h p r o d u c e d h e a v i l y - s a l t e d , 'wet c u r e ' f i s h . The t e c h n i q u e s a n d t e c h n o l o g y o f t h e i n s h o r e c o d f i s h e r y , w e l l d e v e l o p e d o v e r t h e c e n t u r i e s , w e r e n o t m o d i f i e d by t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d e r s . E a c h f i s h i n g s t a t i o n h ad a number o f s h a l l o p s , t h e u b i q u i t o u s c r a f t o f c o a s t a l w a t e r s , f o r c o d f i s h i n g a n d s h o r t - d i s t a n c e t r a d i n g . D e s c r i p t i o n s o f Cape B r e t o n s h a l l o p s a t t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y h a v e n o t s u r v i v e d , b u t p r o b a b l y t h e y w e r e s i m i l a r t o t h e s h a l l o p s o f t h e F r e n c h r e g i m e ( F r e n c h m e t h o d s o f b o a t b u i l d i n g h a v i n g b e e n m a i n t a i n e d by A c a d i a n 21 f i s h e r m e n ) and t h e w h a l e - b o a t u s e d l a t e r i n t h e c e n t u r y . They w e r e u s u a l l y u n d e c k e d o r p a r t i a l l y d e c k e d r o w i n g b o a t s w i t h a m a s t t h a t c o u l d be s t e p p e d o r u n s t e p p e d a s n e c e s s a r y . They w e r e p r o b a b l y c l i n k e r b u i l t , f i f t e e n t o t w e n t y f e e t l o n g , a n d t a p e r e d f r o m t h e m i d d l e t o e a c h e n d . G e n e r a l l y r i g g e d w i t h two s p r i t - o r g a f f - s a i l s , t h e y c o u l d be f i t t e d w i t h a s c h o o n e r r i g f o r d e e p s e a v o y a g e s . A t h r e e man c r e w was c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g t h e s h a l l o p i n t h e r o u g h e s t o f s e a s , a s one w r i t e r o b s e r v e d : "... t h e y a r e o f t e n o u t i n h e a v y g a l e s , i n w h i c h t h e y make, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s a i l o r ' s p h r a s e , g o o d w e a t h e r o f i t , a n d t h e y a r e s c a r c e l y e v e r 22 s h i p w r e c k e d . " 23 F i s h i n g was done w i t h hook and l i n e . E a c h f i s h e r m e n was e q u i p p e d w i t h f o u r l i n e s f o r s h a l l o w w a t e r ( l e s s t h a n t e n f a t h o m s ) and two f o r d e e p e r w a t e r . E a c h l i n e h a d a l e a d s i n k e r , w e i g h i n g f r o m two t o f o u r p o u n d s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e p t h o f t h e w a t e r a nd s t r e n g t h o f t h e c u r r e n t , a n d a d o u b l e hook b a i t e d w i t h f r e s h h e r r i n g , m a c k e r e l o r c o d o f f a l . I f t h e f i s h w e r e b i t i n g , a s many a s t h r e e o r f o u r q u i n t a l s o f c o d c o u l d be t a k e n by e a c h f i s h e r m e n i n a d a y . U s u a l l y , t h e f i s h e r m e n w e r e o u t on t h e g r o u n d s f r o m dawn u n t i l l a t e a f t e r n o o n , a l t h o u g h a f r e s h e n i n g w i n d ^or a l a c k o f b a i t c o u l d s h o r t e n t h e d a y ' s f i s h i n g . A f t e r t h e c a t c h h ad b e e n l a n d e d a nd w e i g h e d , w i t h e a c h f i s h e r m a n ' s t a l l y r e c o r d e d i n t h e company l e d g e r s , i t was h e a d e d , g u t t e d , s p l i t , a n d w a s h e d b e f o r e i t h a d t i m e t o h e a t o r s o f t e n . The f i s h w o u l d t h e n be r e a d y f o r c u r i n g ; a l o n g , c o m p l e x , a n d d i f f i c u l t t a s k on w h i c h t h e f o r t u n e s and r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e company d e p e n d e d . The f i s h w e r e f i r s t s a l t e d f o r f o u r t o e i g h t d a y s , t h e n w a s h ed a g a i n t o remove any b l o o d a n d v i s c e r a l m a t t e r , a n d s t a c k e d t o d r y , u s u a l l y on t h e s t a g e . A d a y o r two l a t e r a n d p r o v i d i n g t h e w e a t h e r was f i n e , t h e f i s h w e r e s p r e a d o u t t o d r y , f l e s h s i d e up on t h e f l a k e s . A f t e r t h e f i r s t d a y ' s d r y i n g , t h e f i s h w e r e t u r n e d o v e r , s k i n s i d e up, t o p r o t e c t them f r o m dew d u r i n g t h e n i g h t ; b u t t h e r e a f t e r , t h e y w e re c o l l e c t e d up e v e r y e v e n i n g and made i n t o p i l e s o f t w e n t y t o t h i r t y e a c h a nd l a i d o u t a g a i n t h e n e x t m o r n i n g . D u r i n g t h e d a y , c a r e h a d t o be t a k e n t h a t t h e y d i d n o t become wet o r s u n b u r n t and a l t h o u g h r e p e a t e d t u r n i n g a n d c o v e r i n g w i t h b r a n c h e s o r ' d i n n a g e ' o f f e r e d some p r o t e c t i o n , t h e f i s h w e r e t a k e n i n d o o r s a t t h e f i r s t s i g n o f r a i n . O b v i o u s l y t h e w e a t h e r 16 was c r i t i c a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e c u r e . A w e s t w i n d b r i n g i n g warm, d r y a i r o f f t h e c o n t i n e n t was t h e b e s t d r y i n g w e a t h e r , b u t t o o o f t e n w i n d s f r o m t h e e a s t o r s o u t h e a s t b r o u g h t r a i n , damp, o r i n t h e w o r d s o f a R o b i n a g e n t , " o u r 24 u s u a l l y c o n s t a n t f r i e n d t h e f o g . " A f t e r t h e f i s h h a d s p e n t s e v e r a l d a y s d r y i n g , t h e y w e r e c o l l e c t e d up i n t o l a r g e r o u n d p i l e s c o n t a i n i n g as much a s 100 q t l s . e a c h , c o v e r e d w i t h b i r c h b a r k o r c a n v a s , and p r e s s e d w i t h h e a v y s t o n e s . T h i s p r o c e s s a i m e d t o s q u e e z e o u t t h e l a s t r e m a i n i n g m o i s t u r e . They w e r e t h e n h o u s e d i n t h e d r y f i s h s t o r e u n t i l a f i n e d ay j u s t b e f o r e l o a d i n g when t h e y w e r e t a k e n o u t s i d e , s p r e a d on t h e g r o u n d a n d c o v e r e d w i t h f i n e g r a v e l , a n d g i v e n a ' l a s t s u n n i n g ' o r ' p a r t i n g - s u n . ' A p a r t f r o m t h e c o d f i s h e r y , t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d f i r m s w e r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p i c k l e d f i s h t r a d e . Good r u n s o f h e r r i n g a n d m a c k e r e l sweep t h e c o a s t s o f Cape B r e t o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a t e summer when t h e f i s h a r e m i g r a t i n g f r o m t h e i r f e e d i n g g r o u n d s i n t h e G u l f t o d e e p w a t e r i n t h e A t l a n t i c , a n d c a n be i n t e r c e p t e d e a s i l y a l o n g t h e S t r a i t s o f C a n s o and o f f t h e e a s t c o a s t . The f i s h w e r e c a u g h t i n s h o r e , 25 u s u a l l y u s i n g g i l l - n e t s s e t o v e r n i g h t . A f t e r t h e y h a d be e n l a n d e d , t h e f i s h w e r e g u t t e d ( ' g i b b e d ' ) a n d p i c k l e d i n b a r r e l s b e t w e e n l a y e r s o f s a l t . The p r o c e s s i n g was done e i t h e r by t h e i n d i v i d u a l f i s h e r m a n who s o l d h i s f i s h t o t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d c o m p a n i e s , o r by t h e s k i l l e d men w o r k i n g a t t h e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s . The m a i n m a r k e t was t h e West I n d i e s ; i n 1 7 96, J a n v r i n e x p o r t e d 660 b a r r e l s o f p i c k l e d f i s h t o 26 B a r b a d o s . 17 The m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y a l s o e x p l o i t e d two o t h e r l o c a l r e s o u r c e s : s a l m o n and s e a l s . The s a l m o n f i s h e r y was p r o s e c u t e d m a i n l y a r o u n d t h e I s l a n d ' s c o a s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t r i v e r m ouths w h e r e t h e f i s h c o u l d be c a u g h t a s t h e y m i g r a t e d u p s t r e a m ; M a r g a r e e was p e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t s a l m o n f i s h e r y on Cape B r e t o n . The f i s h w e r e c a u g h t i n n e t s 27 and t h e n s p l i t a n d s a l t e d i n b a r r e l s . I n t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y m o s t o f t h e p i c k l e d s a l m o n was e x p o r t e d o v e r s e a s ; i n 1796, J a n v r i n s h i p p e d 102 b a r r e l s t o P o r t u g a l a n d 35 b a r r e l s 28 t o I r e l a n d . S e a l i n g t o o k p l a c e a l o n g t h e w e s t c o a s t o f N e w f o u n d l a n d a nd a r o u n d t h e M a g d a l e n I s l a n d s e a c h M a r c h when 29 t h e h a r p s e a l pups were s t i l l on t h e i c e - f l o w s . M o s t l i k e l y t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d m e r c h a n t s w e r e n o t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e a l h u n t - a n e x p e n s i v e a n d r i s k y b u s i n e s s - b u t p u r c h a s e d s e a l s k i n s f r o m r e s i d e n t f i s h e r m e n . I n 1796, R o b i n e x p o r t e d 3 p u n c h e o n s o f s e a l s k i n s t o H a l i f a x and 425 s k i n s t o J e r s e y , w h i l e J a n v r i n a l s o e x p o r t e d 100 30 s k i n s t o J e r s e y . As t h e s e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l amounts show, t h e p i c k l e d f i s h e r y and s e a l i n g w e r e m i n o r a c t i v i t i e s c o m p a r e d t o t h e c o d f i s h e r y . The C h a n n e l I s l a n d e r s h a d f i s h i n g rooms on Cape B r e t o n a t t h r e e , w i d e l y - d i s p e r s e d l o c a t i o n s : A r i c h a t on I s l e Madame, j u s t o f f t h e s o u t h w e s t c o a s t ; C h e t i c a m p on t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t ; a n d S y d n e y on t h e e a s t c o a s t . A r i c h a t was by f a r t h e most i m p o r t a n t , s e r v i n g a s t h e r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s o f t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y , a s a c e n t r e f o r f i s h i n g a r o u n d I s l e Madame, and a s one o f two c u s t o m ' s 18 p o r t s i n t h e c o l o n y . M o s t o f t h e I s l a n d ' s f i s h i n g s u p p l i e s and c o d e x p o r t s p a s s e d t h r o u g h i t ; i n 1796, t h e p o r t h a n d l e d 31 8 1 % o f t h e d r i e d f i s h t r a d e . The f i s h i n g room a t C h e t i c a m p , e s t a b l i s h e d a s an o u t - s t a t i o n o f A r i c h a t , was u s u a l l y o p e r a t e d d u r i n g t h e summer and c l o s e d f o r t h e w i n t e r when t h e c a r e t a k e r and s h a l l o p s r e t u r n e d t o I s l e Madame. Sydney was e v e n l e s s i m p o r t a n t , a n d p r o b a b l y was u s e d o n l y 32 i n t e r m i t t e n t l y . -The f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s w e r e l a r g e , h i g h l y f u n c t i o n a l s e t t l e m e n t s c o m p l e t e l y o r i e n t e d t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f d r i e d f i s h . The R o b i n company owned 150 a c r e s a t A r i c h a t and a t l e a s t 2,440 a c r e s a t C h e t i c a m p , w h i l e J a n v r i n ' s 1,000 a c r e s a t A r i c h a t c o v e r e d v i r t u a l l y a n e n t i r e i s l a n d . S u c h e x t e n s i v e p r o p e r t i e s p r o v i d e d s p a c e n o t o n l y f o r b u i l d i n g s and d r y i n g f l a k e s , b u t a l s o f o r w o o d l o t s a n d a f a r m f o r 33 s u p p l y i n g f r e s h p r o v i s i o n s t o t h e f i s h i n g c r e w s . C l u s t e r e d by t h e f o r e s h o r e , t h e company b u i l d i n g s w e r e , t o a l l i n t e n t s a n d p u r p o s e s , a f i s h - p r o c e s s i n g f a c t o r y . Among t h e s e b u i l d i n g s w e re a- l o n g d e e p - w a t e r s t a g e f o r t h e u n l o a d i n g o f f i s h i n g b o a t s and s u p p l y v e s s e l s ; c o v e r e d s h e d s f o r s p l i t t i n g a nd s a l t i n g t h e c a t c h ; d r y i n g f l a k e s , o f t e n c o v e r i n g s e v e r a l a c r e s o f b e a c h ; d r i e d f i s h a nd s a l t s t o r e s ; r i g g i n g and s a i l l o f t s ; b l a c k s m i t h , j o i n e r , and c o o p e r s h o p s ; s e p a r a t e c o o k h o u s e s f o r J e r s e y and A c a d i a n w o r k e r s ; b u n k h o u s e s f o r t h e s e a s o n a l f i s h e r m e n ; an a g e n t ' s r e s i d e n c e ; a r e t a i l o u t l e t f o r s u p p l y i n g s e t t l e r s ; a nd p e r h a p s a s h i p y a r d c o n s i s t i n g o f l a u n c h w a y s , a c o v e r e d s a w - p i t , and 34 s h e d s . F i s h i n g , l i k e o t h e r p r e - i n d u s t r i a l t a s k s , was l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e . As Cape B r e t o n h a d a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e f i s h i n g p o p u l a t i o n , t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d c o m p a n i e s d i d n o t n e e d t o b r i n g many f i s h e r m e n a c r o s s t h e A t l a n t i c . I n s t e a d , t h e y o u t f i t t e d s e v e r a l h u n d r e d r e s i d e n t f i s h e r m e n a t A r i c h a t a n d C h e t i c a m p . The p r o c e s s i n g o f c o d , t h o u g h , was s t i l l d one by s k i l l e d men f r o m t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d s . I n t h e m i d - 1 7 9 0 ' s , a g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l r e c k o n e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e " a b o v e 100 J e r s e y men a t t e n d i n g t h e c u r i n g o f f i s h who s p e n d b u t s i x 35 months i n t h e y e a r i n t h e I s l a n d . " A p a r t f r o m t h o s e r e c r u i t e d a r o u n d t h e d o c k s i d e i n S t . H e l l i e r , J e r s e y , t h e y came f r o m r u r a l , s m a l l - h o l d i n g s on t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d s , 36 s i g n i n g on f o r s e a s o n a l e m p l o y m e n t . They l e f t w i v e s a nd f a m i l i e s t o m a i n t a i n t h e p l o t s d u r i n g t h e summer, and r e t u r n e d i n l a t e November i n t i m e f o r p o t a t o d i g g i n g , p l o u g h i n g , a n d s o w i n g . As l a b o u r c o s t s w e r e g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r i n t h e New W o r l d , c o m p a n i e s d i s c o u r a g e d t h e i r e m p l o y e e s f r o m s e t t l i n g on Cape B r e t o n . Wages w e r e p a i d i n t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d s , w i v e s a nd f a m i l i e s w e r e l e f t b e h i n d , and a g e n t s w e r e n o t p e r m i t t e d t o m a r r y o v e r s e a s . O c c u p a t i o n s a t t h e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s w e r e s p e c i a l i s e d t o e n s u r e e f f i c i e n t , l a r g e - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n a n d a c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h - q u a l i t y p r o d u c t . The s k i l l e d men r e c r u i t e d i n t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o f i s h i n g a n d c u r i n g c r e w s , and w i t h i n e a c h t h e r e w e r e w e l l - d e f i n e d j o b s . As one C h a n n e l I s l a n d e r e x p l a i n e d i n 1837, 20 When a r r i v i n g a t t h e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s , a d i v i s i o n o f w o r k t a k e s p l a c e , w h e r e b y much more w o r k i s d o n e , and b e t t e r d o n e . Some men a r e e m p l o y e d s o l e l y i n t h e c a t c h i n g o f t h e c o d f i s h , and i n b r i n g i n g i t a s h o r e ; o t h e r s i n t h e c a r r y i n g i t t o t h e s p o t w h ere one p e r s o n i s e m p l o y e d i n c u t t i n g o f f t h e h e a d s , a n d a n o t h e r i n r i p p i n g and g u t t i n g them, and some i n s a l t i n g t h e f i s h . O t h e r s a r e e n g a g e d i n t h e t r a n s p o r t i n g o f i t t o be d r i e d , a n d , a t t h e l e a s t symptom o f dampness i n t h e a t m o s p h e r e , i n s t o r i n g i t . 3 7 F i s h i n g c r e w s c o m p r i s e d s h a l l o p m a s t e r s , f i s h e r m e n , and s t o w e r s , w h i l e t h o s e on s h o r e i n c l u d e d c u t - t h r o a t s , h e a d e r s , s p l i t t e r s , a n d s a l t e r s . S u p e r v i s i n g s h o r e o p e r a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e c r i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t c u r i n g , w e r e f o r e m e n , b e a c h m a s t e r s , and a s s i s t a n t s . S u p p o r t s t a f f - c l e r k s , b o o k - k e e p e r s , s t o r e - k e e p e r s , c a r p e n t e r s , b l a c k s m i t h s , s h i p w r i g h t s , a n d c o o k s - m a i n t a i n e d and f a c i l i t a t e d t h e d a i l y r u n n i n g o f t h e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n . I n command o f t h e w h o l e w o r k f o r c e was t h e company a g e n t who was i n f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t by l e t t e r w i t h h e a d q u a r t e r s i n J e r s e y . A l t h o u g h n o t t h e m s e l v e s i n d u s t r i a l , t h e s e s t r a t i f i e d a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l l y s p e c i a l i s e d w o r k p l a c e s b o r e many o f t h e h a l l m a r k s o f t h e f a c t o r y s y s t e m i n B r i t a i n . The r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y was b a s e d on Cape B r e t o n and t i e d t o H a l i f a x . V i r t u a l l y a l l t h e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y ' s e x p o r t s went t o H a l i f a x ( i n 1796, t h e p o r t t o o k 8,209 q t l s . o r 96% o f t h e t o t a l o u t p u t ) f r o m w h e r e t h e f i s h w e r e r e - e x p o r t e d , 38 m o s t l y t o t h e West I n d i e s . The e x p o r t s o f N i c h o l a s P a i n t J u n i o r , a m e r c h a n t a t P o r t H a w k e s b u r y and a f o r m e r a g e n t o f t h e J a n v r i n Company, i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p a t t e r n . I n 1823, he c o l l e c t e d 1,834 q t l s . o f m e r c h a n t a b l e d r i e d c o d f r o m " s u n d r y f i s h e r m e n " a l o n g t h e S t r a i t s o f C a n s o and s h i p p e d them t o 21 I.G. C r e i g h t o n i n H a l i f a x who l o a d e d them on P a i n t ' s 131 t o n b r i g " U n i t y " b o u n d , i n t h i s c a s e , f o r V a l e n c i a and 39 G i b r a l t e r . I n r e t u r n , H a l i f a x h o u s e s s u p p l i e d m e r c h a n t s l i k e . P a i n t w i t h s u p p l i e s f o r t h e f i s h e r y : s a l t , b e e f , l a r d , rum, t o b a c c o , a n d m a n u f a c t u r e d i t e m s . As Cape B r e t o n m e r c h a n t s o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y e x p o r t e d d i r e c t l y t o o v e r s e a s m a r k e t s , t h e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y was e f f e c t i v e l y s u b o r d i n a t e d t o H a l i f a x , t h e r e g i o n a l m e t r o p o l i s . The r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y on Cape B r e t o n was c o n s i d e r a b l y more d i v e r s e t h a n t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y , and c o m p r i s e d t h r e e m a i n g r o u p s o f p e o p l e . F i r s t , t h e r e w e r e t h e m e r c h a n t s e n g a g e d i n t h e p u r c h a s e a n d e x p o r t o f d r i e d f i s h , i n t h e f i n a n c i n g o f f i s h i n g t h r o u g h t h e a d v a n c e o f s u p p l i e s a n d c r e d i t , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t i n t h e h i r i n g o f f i s h e r m e n . I n 1796, t h e r e w e r e p r o b a b l y o n l y t h r e e r e s i d e n t m e r c h a n t s o f any i m p o r t a n c e : K a v a n a g h a t S t . P e t e r ' s , L a w r e n c e a t A r i c h a t , and t h e p a r t n e r s h i p o f T r e m a i n & S t o u t a t S y d n e y . I n t o t a l , t h e y h a n d l e d 54% o f t h e c o d e x p o r t s o f t h e 40 r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y . S e c o n d , t h e r e w e r e t h e ' p l a n t e r s ' o r s m a l l m e r c h a n t - f i s h e r m e n , who owned t h e i r f i s h i n g r o o m s , one o r more b o a t s o r s m a l l v e s s e l s a n d h i r e d a f e w men a s c r e w . They w e r e u s u a l l y s u p p l i e d by l o c a l m e r c h a n t s and s o l d t h e i r c a t c h i n r e t u r n . Some p l a n t e r s a l s o d e a l t w i t h H a l i f a x h o u s e s . I n 1796, 25 p l a n t e r s h a n d l e d 46% o f t h e d r i e d f i s h e x p o r t s o f t h e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y on Cape B r e t o n w i t h 41 i n d i v i d u a l c a r g o e s r a n g i n g f r o m 20 t o 350 q t l s . No d o u b t , some o f t h e s e p l a n t e r s h a d s o l d f i s h t o m e r c h a n t s b a s e d on 22 42 Cape B r e t o n o r t o . t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d f i r m s . T h i r d , t h e r e w e r e t h e f i s h e r m e n , t h e m o s t numerous g r o u p , who l a c k e d t h e means o f f i s h i n g . B a s i c a l l y l a b o u r e r s , t h e y w e r e s u p p l i e d w i t h f i s h i n g g e a r by a m e r c h a n t i n r e t u r n f o r f i s h , o r h i r e d on s h a r e s by a p l a n t e r . B e c a u s e o f t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a b o u r i n t h e I s l a n d , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e o f a p o s s i b l e f o u r t h g r o u p , m i g r a n t f i s h e r m e n f r o m E u r o p e e m p l o y e d by l o c a l m e r c h a n t s . The r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y , l i k e t h e m i g r a t o r y , p u r s u e d t h e i n s h o r e c o d f i s h e r y and u s e d t h e same t e c h n i q u e s and t e c h n o l o g y a s t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d c o m p a n i e s . H o w e v e r , t h e e c o n o m i e s o f s c a l e and t h e q u a l i t y c o n t r o l common i n t h e 43 m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y w e r e n o t o f t e n a c h i e v e d . The u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y was e i t h e r t h e f i s h e r m a n ' s f a m i l y o r t h e p l a n t e r ' s c r e w , and w i t h t h e s e s m a l l , r e l a t i v e l y u n s p e c i a l i s e d w o r k f o r c e s q u a l i t y was b o u n d t o be u n e v e n . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , much o f t h e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y ' s e x p o r t s w e r e d e s t i n e d f o r t h e West I n d i e s , t h e p r i n c i p a l m a r k e t f o r i n f e r i o r f i s h . L i k e t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y , t h e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p i c k l e d f i s h e r y a n d s e a l i n g . I n 1796, r e i d e n t m e r c h a n t s a n d p l a n t e r s s h i p p e d 582 b a r r e l s o f p i c k l e d f i s h a l o n g t h e c o a s t t o H a l i f a x , 277 b a r r e l s t o o t h e r p o r t s i n Nova S c o t i a , a n d 100 b a r r e l s t o New B r u n s w i c k . I n a d d i t i o n , 598 b a r r e l s o f p i c k l e d s a l m o n w e r e 44 e x p o r t e d t o H a l i f a x . W h i l e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r m e n c o u l d c a t c h h e r r i n g , m a c k e r e l , and s a l m o n i n n e t s , p l a n t e r s w i t h t h e i r d e c k e d s h a l l o p s w e r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e a l h u n t . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no d a t a f o r 1800, l a t e r p r a c t i c e s u g g e s t s t h a t m o s t o f t h e s e p l a n t e r s w e r e b a s e d a l o n g t h e n o r t h w e s t s h o r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t M a r g a r e e H a r b o u r and C h e t i c a m p , p o r t s e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e G u l f i c e - f l o w s . I n 1796, t h e r e s i d e n t 45 f i s h e r y e x p o r t e d 340 s e a l s k i n s t o H a l i f a x . I n t e r m s o f men e m p l o y e d , t h e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y was much l a r g e r t h a n t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y a nd more d i s p e r s e d . Of t h e s e t t l e m e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y , A r i c h a t , by f a r t h e b i g g e s t p l a c e on Cape B r e t o n , h a d some 350 i n h a b i t a n t s ( i n c l u d i n g t h o s e i n n e i g h b o u r i n g West A r i c h a t and U p p e r A r i c h a t ) , w h i l e e l s e w h e r e on I s l e Madame t h e r e were a b o u t 150 p e o p l e a t P e t i t de G r a t a n d a s i m i l a r number a t D ' E s c o u s s e . On t h e o p p o s i t e , m a i n l a n d s h o r e o f Cape B r e t o n , some 100 p e o p l e w e r e s h a r e d b e t w e e n R i v e r B o u r g o i s e and S t . P e t e r ' s , a n d a n o t h e r 100 l i v e d a t n e a r b y L ' A r d o i s e . F a r t h e r e a s t , t h e r e w e r e a b o u t 50 p e o p l e a t G a b a r u s and L o u i s b o u r g , and a n o t h e r 50 a t M a i n a D i e u . C h e t i c a m p , t h e o n l y o t h e r i m p o r t a n t s e t t l e m e n t c o n n e c t e d w i h t h e r e s i d e n t 46 f i s h e r y , h ad a b o u t 200 i n h a b i t a n t s . The p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s was i n m a r k e d c o n t r a s t t o t h o s e o f t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y . P r o p e r t y r i g h t s w e r e n o t a l w a y s c l e a r l y d r a w n . M e r c h a n t s , s u c h a s K a v a n a g h , and some p l a n t e r s had g r a n t s b u t t h e m a j o r i t y o f f i s h e r m e n w e r e s q u a t t e r s . I n 1 7 9 3 , t h e g o v e r n o r r e p o r t e d t h a t 24 t h e r e a r e some F r e n c h A c a d i a n I n h a b i t a n t s on t h e I s l e Madame o r R i c h m o n d I s l a n d a n d i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h e r e o f , who a r e i n g o o d c i r c u m s t a n c e s f e e d i n g l a r g e h e r d s o f c a t t l e u pon t h e Crown L a n d s , b u t seem by no means d e s i r o u s t o o b t a i n g r a n t s , o r t o f e a r any power o f a G o v e r n o r o v e r t h e L a n d s o f t h e Crown.4 7 O t h e r " N a t i v e A c a d i a n s " r e l i e d "on t h e f a i t h a n d j u s t i c e o f G o v e r n m e n t ... t h a t t h e y s h a l l n e v e r l o o s e t h e l a n d s t h e y i m p r o v e d b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e n o t a b l e t o pay t h e f e e s f o r g r a n t s w h i l s t t h e y w e re i n d u s t r i o u s l y s t r i v i n g t o c u l t i v a t e 48 them a nd m a i n t a i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s S u c h s q u a t t i n g was p r o b a b l y common t o a l l t h e o u t p o r t s . W i t h no l e g a l t i t l e t o t h e i r l a n d , t h e s q u a t t e r ' s h o l d i n g s h a d n o t b e e n s u r v e y e d ; b o u n d a r y l i n e s w e r e o f t e n i r r e g u l a r a n d s u b j e c t t o d i s p u t e . By t h e s e c o n d d e c a d e o f t h e c e n t u r y , some f a m i l i e s h a d b e e n s e t t l e d i n Cape B r e t o n f o r a t l e a s t f i f t y y e a r s a n d t h e " r i g h t o f p r o p e r t y [was] b e c o m i n g d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n " a c c o r d i n g t o one g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l , "by r e a s o n o f t h e h e e d l e s s manner i n w h i c h t h e y o u n g e r b r a n c h e s o f f a m i l i e s 49 h a v e p l a c e d c a b i n s and f e n c e d t h e i r g a r d e n s ...." B u i l d i n g s , t o o , d i f f e r e d f r o m t h o s e o f t h e C h a n n e l I s l a n d f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s . Cape B r e t o n m e r c h a n t s , i n v o l v e d p r i m a r i l y i n t r a d e r a t h e r t h a n p r o d u c t i o n , h a d no n e e d o f c o m p l e x f i s h i n g rooms a nd t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o n s i s t e d o f a h o u s e , r e t a i l s t o r e ( p e r h a p s i n t h e same b u i l d i n g ) , w h a r f , and d r i e d f i s h s t o r e . P l a n t e r s ' f i s h i n g r o o m s , a l t h o u g h i n p r i n c i p l e t h e same a s t h o s e i n t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y , w e r e much s m a l l e r ; i n s t e a d o f a number o f b u i l d i n g s e a c h w i t h i t s own f u n c t i o n , t h e y h a d a s h e d on t h e s t a g e f o r p r o c e s s i n g t h e f i s h , a few f l a k e s , a n d a n o t h e r s h e d f o r s t o r a g e . F i s h e r m e n h a d l i t t l e more t h a n a l o g c a b i n , r o o f e d w i t h b a r k o r t u r f , a n d a s h e d f o r f i s h i n g g e a r . D e m o g r a p h i c a l l y t h e s e s e t t l e m e n t s w e r e c o n s i d e r a b l y more s t a b l e and b a l a n c e d t h a n t h e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s o f t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y . M e r c h a n t s , p l a n t e r s , . and f i s h e r m e n h a d w i v e s and f a m i l i e s , a n d o v e r t h e y e a r s c o n s a n g u i n e o u s c o m m u n i t i e s h a d d e v e l o p e d . Among t h e A c a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n o f A r i c h a t 1 2 . 5 % o f f a m i l i e s h a d t h e m o s t common surname and 50 5 6 . 2 5 % had one o f t h e s e v e n m o s t common names ( T a b l e 1 . 1 ) . C o n c e i v a b l y , t h e s e f a m i l i a l t i e s h ad s u r v i v e d t h e A c a d i a n e x p u l s i o n f r o m Nova S c o t i a i n 1755 and w e r e many g e n e r a t i o n s o l d . C e r t a i n l y , t h e r e was more s t a b i l i t y a n d i n t e r - m a r r i a g e i n t h e A c a d i a n f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s on Cape B r e t o n t h a n among t h e o l d F r e n c h s e i g n e u r i a l s e t t l e m e n t s a l o n g t h e l o w e r S t . 51 L a w r e n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e d a t a a r e l a c k i n g , t h e I r i s h s e t t l e m e n t s a t L o u i s b o u r g a n d M a i n a D i e u , s e t t l e d s i n c e t h e 1760 ' s , w e r e p r o b a b l y a l s o r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e a n d m o s t f a m i l i e s i n t e r r e l a t e d . F o r s u c h f i s h e r m e n Cape B r e t o n was home. A l m o s t a l l t h e p e o p l e i n t h e s e s e t t l e m e n t s d e p e n d e d on t h e f i s h e r y ( T a b l e 1 . 2 ) . The 1811 c e n s u s f o r t h e s o u t h w e s t o f t h e I s l a n d , t h e s t r o n g - h o l d o f t h e r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y , shows t h a t m o s t h e a d s o f h o u s e h o l d s w e r e e i t h e r f i s h e r m e n o r m a r i n e r s ( p l a n t e r s ) . A p a r t f r o m one m e r c h a n t , L a w r e n c e K a v a n a g h , l i v i n g a t S t . P e t e r ' s , a l l t h o s e e m p l o y e d i n s e c o n d a r y and t e r t i a r y a c t i v i t i e s l i v e d a t A r i c h a t . B u t a l t h o u g h t h e f i s h e r y p r o v i d e d t h e m a i n w o r k , t h e r e was some T a b l e 1.1 Surnames i n A r i c h a t , 1811 A c a d i a n O t h e r No. o f f a m i l i e s 80 15 No. o f d i f f e r e n t s u r n a m e s 32 15 % o f f a m i l i e s w i t h t h e most common surname 12.5 % o f f a m i l i e s w i t h one o f t h e 7 m o s t common s u r n a m e s 56.25 % o f f a m i l i e s w i t h a u n i q u e surname 2 100 B a s e d on t h e n o m i n a l c e n s u s o f A r i c h a t , 1 8 1 1 , RG/333/84-98 PANS. 27 T a b l e 1.2 O c c u p a t i o n o f h e a d s o f h o u s e h o l d s a t A r i c h a t a n d  n e i g h b o u r i n g f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , 1811 O c c u p a t i o n A r i c h a t W . A r i c h a t U p . A r i c h a t S t . P e t e r ' s f i s h e r m a n 8 10 m a r i n e r 5 6 3 2 4 yeoman 13 7 5 b l a c k s m i t h 2 s h o e m a k e r 1 t a i l o r 2 p r i e s t 1 t r a d e r 2 m e r c h a n t 2 1 i n n k e e p e r 2 c u s t o m s o f f i c e r 1 c i v i l o f f i c e r 1 d o c t o r 1 O c c u p a t i o n B a r r a c h o i s P. de G_^  D ' E s c o u s s e G . Digue f i s h e r m a n 8 19 13 1 m a r i n e r 5 6 11 12 ' yeoman 1 2 5 1 O c c u p a t i o n ' R . B o u r g o i s e L ' A r d o i s e f i s h e r m a n - 14 8 m a r i n e r 2 19 yeoman 3 3 B a s e d on t h e n o m i n a l c e n s u s o f A r i c h a t , L i t t l e A r i c h a t , U p p e r A r i c h a t , B a r r a c h o i s , P e t i t de G r a t , D ' E s c o u s s e , G r a n d D i g u e , R i v e r B o u r g o i s e , S t . P e t e r ' s , and L ' A r d o i s e , 1 8 1 1 , RG1/333/84-98 PANS. 28 o t h e r e m p l o y m e n t . F i s h m e r c h a n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e l o c a l c a r r y i n g t r a d e , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f c o a l t o H a l i f a x , s u p p l i e d I s l a n d f a r m e r s w i t h s e e d a n d s t o c k , a n d i n v e s t e d i n s h i p -b u i l d i n g . T r e m a i n & S t o u t , " t h e p r i n c i p l e a n d i n d e e d t h e o n l y r e s p e c t a b l e m e r c h a n t s i n S y d n e y , " r a n t h e c o a l m i n e s , e x p o r t e d c o a l , s o l d d r i e d f i s h t o H a l i f a x , a n d s u p p l i e d 52 S ydney w i t h most o f i t s d r y g o o d s a n d p r o v i s i o n s . They were g e n e r a l , a l l - p u r p o s e m e r c h a n t s w i t h f i s h i n g a s one i n t e r e s t . a m o n g o t h e r s . P l a n t e r s , t o o , w e r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e c a r r y i n g t r a d e a n d many must h a v e a c t e d a s s m a l l m e r c h a n t s , e x p o r t i n g c o d t o H a l i f a x and r e t u r n i n g w i t h f l o u r , m o l a s s e s , rum, a n d o t h e r a r t i c l e s f o r s a l e on Cape B r e t o n . F i s h e r m e n w e re o f t e n p a r t - f a r m e r s , c u l t i v a t i n g a r o c k - b o u n d a c r e o r two o f p o t a t o e s and p a s t u r i n g a few l i v e s t o c k on t h e r o u g h g r o u n d t h a t s u r r o u n d e d t h e s e t t l e m e n t s . No d o u b t , many a l s o h u n t e d and t r a p p e d game i n t h e n e a r b y f o r e s t . The r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y , l i k e t h e m i g r a t o r y , was s h a r p l y s t r a t i f i e d . A t t h e t o p o f t h e h i e r a r c h y w e r e t h e m e r c h a n t s , t h e f a c i l i t a t o r s o f t r a d e a n d t h e g r e a t e s t i n v e s t o r s i n t h e f i s h e r y . L a w r e n c e K a v a n a g h , p r o b a b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t m e r c h a n t r e s i d e n t on Cape B r e t o n , e x p o r t e d a l m o s t 3,3 00 q t l s . o f c o d i n 1796 ( s e c o n d o n l y t o t h e J a n v r i n Company), owned an o c e a n - g o i n g v e s s e l , p o s s e s s e d a " m a g n i f i c e n t e s t a t e " a t S t . P e t e r ' s , a n d w o u l d become t h e f i r s t Roman 53 C a t h o l i c t o t a k e a s e a t i n t h e Nova S c o t i a l e g i s l a t u r e . P l a n t e r s , midway b e t w e e n m e r c h a n t s a n d f i s h e r m e n , h a d some c a p i t a l , u s u a l l y t i e d up i n f i s h i n g b o a t s w h i c h g a v e them 29 some i n d e p e n d e n c e a nd power o v e r t h e i r f i s h i n g c r e w s . F i s h e r m e n h a d l i t t l e o r no c a p i t a l a n d d e p e n d e d on C h a n n e l 54 I s l a n d o r l o c a l m e r c h a n t s f o r t h e i r f i s h i n g o u t f i t . R a t h e r l i k e t h e p u t t i n g - o u t s y s t e m o f c l o t h m a n u f a c t u r e i n E n g l a n d , m e r c h a n t s s u p p l i e d f i s h e r m e n w i t h what t h e y n e e d e d a t t h e s t a r t o f f i s h i n g a n d c o l l e c t e d p ayment i n t h e f o r m o f d r i e d f i s h a t t h e e n d o f t h e s e a s o n . W i t h s p e c i e s c a r c e , t h i s s y s t e m o f p r o d u c t i o n d e p e n d e d on c r e d i t o r " t r u c k . " F i s h e r m e n b o u g h t s u p p l i e s o n t h e c r e d i t o f t h e i r f u t u r e c a t c h . I n e v i t a b l y , many f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s i n a r r e a r s a f t e r a p o o r s e a s o n a nd s a n k f u r t h e r i n d e b t f o r p r o v i s i o n s n e e d e d t o c a r r y them t h r o u g h t h e w i n t e r a nd f o l l o w i n g summer. A t b e s t , t h e f i s h e r m e n w e r e r a r e l y i n a p o s i t i o n t o a r g u e e f f e c t i v e l y a b o u t t h e p r i c e o f f i s h o r s u p p l i e s and t h e y l o s t a l l power when i n d e b t . As a p r i e s t n e w l y a p p o i n t e d t o A r i c h a t i n 1819 o b s e r v e d : "Most o f t h e p e o p l e a r e d e e p i n t h e b o o k s o f t h e m e r c h a n t s , who t r e a t them w i t h h o r r i b l e 55 t y r a n n y ...." Y e t t h e ' p u t t i n g - o u t ' m e t h o d o f p r o d u c t i o n , i n c o n t r a s t t o the, f a c t o r y - l i k e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s o f t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y , a l l o w e d t h e f i s h e r m e n c o n s i d e r a b l e i n d e p e n d e n c e , w h i c h p r o b a b l y h e l p e d d i f f u s e t e n s i o n g e n e r a t e d by t h e t r u c k 56 s y s t e m . ' Work was l e s s r i g o r o u s l y s u p e r v i s e d . A l t h o u g h p l a n t e r s must h a v e k e p t a c l o s e e y e on t h e i r f i s h i n g c r e w s , m e r c h a n t s h ad l i t t l e d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f t h e f i s h e r m e n t h e y o u t f i t t e d b e y o n d t h e t h r e a t o f f i n a n c i a l p e n a l t i e s i f e q u i p m e n t was l o s t o r damaged. As a r e s u l t , f i s h e r m e n w o r k e d a s t h e y p l e a s e d , c o n f o r m i n g t o no r o u t i n e l a i d down 30 by a m e r c h a n t a nd s u p e r v i s e d by an o v e r s e e r . 'Work' was n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m ' l i f e ' a s i t was i n t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y . J o b s , t o o , w e r e n o t d e m a r c a t e d . B e c a u s e t h e u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n was s m a l l , o f t e n t h e f a m i l y , i n d i v i d u a l s h a d t o do a v a r i e t y o f t a s k s t h a t w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f one o r two s k i l l e d men i n t h e much l a r g e r f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s o f t h e m i g r a t o r y f i s h e r y . Sons h e l p e d f a t h e r s h a n d l i n e , l a n d t h e c a t c h , a n d p r o c e s s i t . W i v e s and d a u g h t e r s h e l p e d l a y t h e f i s h o u t t o d r y and t e n d e d them d u r i n g t h e day when t h e men w e r e o u t f i s h i n g . I n t h e s e f a m i l i e s , 'work' was a 'way o f l i f e , ' r a t h e r t h a n a c o n t r a c t u a l e m p l o y m e n t . E c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o u t p o r t s w e r e r e f l e c t e d i n s o c i a l d i v i s i o n s . The m e r c h a n t s , a l o n g w i t h t h e few g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s , w e r e m o s t l y B r i t i s h o r L o y a l i s t s a n d P r o t e s t a n t . The f i s h e r m e n , i n c l u d i n g t h e p l a n t e r s , w e r e e i t h e r A c a d i a n o r I r i s h a n d Roman C a t h o l i c ( T a b l e 1 . 3 ) . A l t h o u g h c h u r c h e s w e r e a b s e n t , t h e s o c i a l w o r l d s o f t h e s e two g r o u p s p r o b a b l y r a r e l y o v e r l a p p e d . M e r c h a n t s knew e a c h o t h e r a n d o f f i c i a l s i n t h e c o l o n i a l c a p i t a l s o f H a l i f a x a n d S y d n e y . A p a r t f r o m t h e o c c a s i o n a l t r a d i n g v o y a g e t o H a l i f a x a n d mass c e l e b r a t e d by an i t i n e r a n t m i s s i o n a r y f r o m Q u e b e c , t h e f i s h i n g p o p u l a t i o n p r o b a b l y h a d f e w c o n t a c t s b e y o n d t h e i r v i l l a g e . S h u t o u t f r o m p o s i t i o n s o f power by e t h n i c i t y , r e l i g i o n , i n many c a s e s l a n g u a g e , and e s p e c i a l l y by p o v e r t y , t h e A c a d i a n and I r i s h f i s h e r m e n f o l d e d i n on t h e i r f a m i l i e s a n d f r i e n d s , t h e 31 T a b l e 1.3 O c c u p a t i o n s o f h e a d s o f h o u s e h o l d s on I s l e Madame  and n e i g h b o u r i n g f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , 1811 O c c u p a t i o n A c a d i a n O t h e r s f i s h e r m a n 7 9 2 m a r i n e r 139 8 yeoman 3 0 10 b l a c k s m i t h 1 1 s h o e m a k e r 1 t a i l o r 2 p r i e s t 1 t r a d e r 2 m e r c h a n t 3 i n n k e e p e r 2 c u s t o m s o f f i c e r 1 c i v i l o f f i c e r 1 d o c t o r 1 B a s e d on t h e n o m i n a l c e n s u s o f A r i c h a t , L i t t l e A r i c h a t , U p per A r i c h a t , B a r r a c h o i s , P e t i t de G r a t , D ' E s c o u s s e , G r a n d D i g u e , R i v e r B o u r g o i s e , S t . P e t e r ' s , a nd L ' A r d o i s e , 1 8 1 1 , R G l / 3 3 3 / 8 4 - 9 8 PANS. 32 most b a s i c s u p p o r t n e t w o r k s on Cape B r e t o n . When m e r c h a n t s , p l a n t e r s , and f i s h e r m e n met i n t h e w o r k - p l a c e , t h e t e r m s o f engagement were e x t r e m e l y u n e q u a l . The S t a p l e I n d u s t r i e s : C o a l M i n i n g The F r e n c h had min e d c o a l on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f Sydney H a r b o u r i n t h e e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and a f t e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Sydney t h e mine was r e o p e n e d t o s u p p l y t h e 57 g a r r i s o n s and n a v a l y a r d s a t H a l i f a x and S t . J o h n ' s . As t h e c o a l d e p o s i t s were c l a i m e d by t h e Crown, t h e c o l o n i a l g o vernment a t f i r s t r a n t h e mine, b u t i n 1788 began l e a s i n g i t t o l o c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s . R e n t f r o m t h e mine, c o n s i s t i n g o f r o y a l t i e s on c o a l . s a l e s , p r o v i d e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i t h i t s main s o u r c e o f r e v e n u e . Y e t a l t h o u g h T r e m a i n & S t o u t , t h e t e n a n t s between 1791-99, r a i s e d t h e a n n u a l o u t p u t f r o m a l i t t l e o v e r 2,000 t o a l m o s t 9,000 t o n s , t h e mine was n o t p r o f i t a b l e and a t t h e end o f t h e i r l e a s e , t h e government, had 58 t o t a k e o v e r t h e o p e r a t i o n . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e c o a l t r a d e s u f f e r e d f r o m h i g h p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s and s m a l l m a r k e t s . Wage c o s t s , c o m p r i s i n g f o u r - f i f t h s o f t h e t o t a l e x p e n s e , were c o n s i d e r e d " e x t r a v a g a n t " and t h e l a c k o f r e t u r n f r e i g h t s r a i s e d t h e 59 p r i c e o f s h i p p i n g . The I s l a n d was d i s t a n t f r o m m a j o r m a r k e t s , r e l y i n g i n s t e a d on m i n o r , l o c a l demand ( H a l i f a x consumed a b o u t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f o u t p u t and S t . J o h n ' s much o f t h e r e s t ) w h i c h one o b s e r v e r t h o u g h t had " a t t a i n e d i t s 60 medium...." Ev e n i n t h e s e n e a r b y m a r k e t s , t h e h i g h p r i c e o f Sydney c o a l made i t b a r e l y c o m p e t i t i v e a g a i n s t B r i t i s h c o a l s h i p p e d t o N o r t h A m e r i c a as b a l l a s t . W i t h a t r i f l i n g and s c a r c e l y p r o f i t a b l e c o a l t r a d e , Sydney M i n e s had n o t a t t r a c t e d much c a p i t a l . The c o l l i e r y r e m a i n e d s m a l l , p r i m i t i v e , and p r e - i n d u s t r i a l . A d i t s d r i v e n f r o m t h e b e a c h gave a c c e s s t o t h e seams and d r a i n e d o f f e x c e s s w a t e r , w h i l e s h a f t s sunk f r o m t h e s u r f a c e s h o r t e n e d u n d e r g r o u n d h a u l a g e and p r o v i d e d a d r a u g h t . Rooms o r ' b o r d s ' were c u t i n t o t h e c o a l and ' p i l l a r s ' were l e f t t o s u p p o r t t h e r o o f . C o a l was c u t w i t h p i c k s and s h o v e l s , and d r a g g e d i n t u b s t o t h e s h a f t - b o t t o m . T h e r e , i t was r a i s e d t o t h e s u r f a c e by a d o u b l e - h o r s e g i n , t i p p e d i n t o h o r s e -drawn waggons and t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e s h i p p i n g w h a r f . Such m i n i n g was s i m p l e and r u d i m e n t a r y , d e p e n d e n t on t h e m u s c l e 61 o f men and a n i m a l s and on an e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t e c h n o l o g y . In 1800 t h e s e t t l e m e n t a t Sydney M i n e s c o n s i s t e d o f two l o g b a r r a c k s o r c o o k h o u s e s , h a l f a d o z e n l o g and s o d h u t s , a f r a m e h o u s e , a c o u p l e o f s h e d s and . s t a b l e s , and a hay b a r r a c k . The m i n e r s were accommodated i n t h e c o o k h o u s e s : bunk-beds l i n e d t h e w a l l s and a f i r e o c c u p i e d a c e n t r a l g r a t e . . W a s hing f a c i l i t i e s were n o n - e x i s t e n t and i n t h e summer many men s l e p t o u t s i d e . The a g e n t l i v e d i n t h e f r a m e h o u s e , w h i c h was c o n s i d e r a b l y damaged by l o c a l 62 s u b s i d e n c e . Beyond a b u r n t - o v e r a r e a a r o u n d t h e b u i l d i n g s l a y t h e f o r e s t ; t h e m i n i n g camp b a c k e d s t r a i g h t i n t o w i l d e r n e s s . 63 About 50 men worked a t Sydney M i n e s . Some had w i v e s a n d f a m i l i e s l i v i n g , i n c a b i n s away f r o m t h e camp, b u t p r o b a b l y most w e r e y o u n g and s i n g l e , e i t h e r I r i s h f r o m N e w f o u n d l a n d o r s o n s o f l o c a l L o y a l i s t s . E m p l o y m e n t was t e m p o r a r y , c o n f i n e d t o t h e summer s h i p p i n g s e a s o n . Men had o t h e r w o r k , u s u a l l y f a r m i n g , w h i c h t h e y a t t e n d e d t o i n 64 s p r i n g and f a l l . E v e n d u r i n g t h e summer, w o r k i n t h e m i n e was i n t e r m i t t e n t , d e p e n d e n t on t h e a r r i v a l o f v e s s e l s a n d on o r d e r s . Some men w o r k e d t h i r t y d a y s p e r m o n t h , o t h e r s l e s s 65 t h a n a week, and a few o n l y p a r t - d a y s . The w o r k f o r c e was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y s p e c i a l i s e d . C o a l -c u t t e r s h a u l e d t u b s and t i m b e r e d t h e , l e v e l s . B e t w e e n 25 S e p t e m b e r and 24 O c t o b e r 1807, one James Cann e a r n e d 4/4 1/2 f o r c u t t i n g 2.5 c h a l d r o n s o f c o a l , 2/6 f o r h a u l i n g , a n d £2.11.6 f o r 25.75 d a y s w o r k . I n t h e same p e r i o d , a n o t h e r c u t t e r , G e o r g e L o n g , e a r n e d £1.4.6 f o r c u t t i n g 14 c h a l d r o n s , 13/6 f o r h a u l i n g 13.5 c h a l d r o n s , £1.16. f o r " w a t e r w o r k , " 66 and 2/- f o r 2 d a y s w o r k . S u r f a c e l a b o u r e r s a l s o d i d s e v e r a l j o b s , t r a n s p o r t i n g c o a l t o t h e w h a r f a n d l o a d i n g v e s s e l s . T h e r e was an " o v e r s e e r on t h e s u r f a c e , " a " c o n d u c t e r o f p i t s " u n d e r g r o u n d , a c a r p e n t e r , and a cook.' B u t e v e n t h e s e men w e r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y s k i l l e d ; t h e o v e r s e e r was s a i d t o h a v e b e e n " b r e d a b l a c k s m i t h n e a r a 67 c o a l e r y i n E n g l a n d . . . . " Wages w e r e p a i d a t p i e c e - r a t e s and v a r i e d f r o m j o b t o j o b , b u t some e s t i m a t e o f a workman's e a r n i n g s c a n be made. I n 1794, t h e wages o f a "common l a b o u r e r " w e r e $8 p e r month o r a b o u t 3 2 / - s t l g . ; t h o s e o f a c u t t e r b e t w e e n $8 t o $10, 35 68 s o m e t i m e s $12 o r a b o u t 4 0 / - s t l g . I n 1807, t h e m o n t h l y 69 wage was a b o u t 4 8 / - s t l g . A l t h o u g h James M i l l e r , an E n g l i s h m i n i n g e n g i n e e r , c o n s i d e r e d t h e s e wages h i g h , l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f t h e s h o r t a g e o f l a b o u r and h i g h c o s t o f l i v i n g , t h e t r u c k s y s t e m o p e r a t e d by t h e c o l l i e r y t e n a n t s l e f t f e w m i n e r s w i t h much i n c o m e . W i t h no a l t e r n a t i v e r e t a i l o u t l e t , t h e m i n e r s d e p e n d e d upon T r e m a i n & S t o u t f o r t h e i r s u p p l i e s and w e r e a l l o w e d " t o h a v e a r u n n i n g a c c o u n t i n t h e s t o r e s u n t i l t h e t i m e o f s e t t l e m e n t ; when, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e i r h i g h wages ... l i t t l e r e m a i n s due t o 70 t hem." The l a r g e p r e m i u m T r e m a i n & S t o u t c h a r g e d on i m p o r t e d g o o d s r e c o u p e d much o f t h e money t h e y p a i d o u t i n wages. James M i l l e r was a s s u r e d by S e v e r a l o f t h e c o l l i e r s . . . [ t h a t ] t h e y w o u l d be c o n t e n t e d w i t h one f o u r t h l e s s a l l o w a n c e , w e r e t h e y t o be p a i d r e g u l a r l y i n c a s h , t o buy t h e i r n e c e s s a r i e s w h e r e t h e y p l e a s e , & be p e r m i t t e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e m s e l v e s . 7 1 Y e t , g i v e n t h e m e r c h a n t - e m p l o y e r m o n o p o l y , s u c h i n d e p e n d e n c e was u n o b t a i n a b l e and no d o u b t many men w e r e t i e d by d e b t t o t h e m i n e summer a f t e r summer. A g r i c u l t u r e on Cape B r e t o n A p a r t f r o m t h e L o y a l i s t p l a n t a t i o n , f a r m i n g had d e v e l o p e d somewhat i n a d v e r t e n t l y on Cape B r e t o n . I n 1800, p e r h a p s 750 p e o p l e , a t h i r d o f t h e I s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n , d e p e n d e d p r i m a r i l y o n f a r m i n g , and many o f them w o r k e d s e a s o n a l l y i n t h e m i n e o r t h e f i s h e r y . The m a i n a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n was a r o u n d S y d n e y H a r b o u r , where t h e r e were 80-100 L o y a l i s t farms. Perhaps t h e r e were another 10 at Baddeck R i v e r ( F i g . 1.3). There were a l s o some Acadian farmers a t Margaree Harbour and along the Cheticamp shore, probably encouraged by a market nearby i n the f i s h e r y ; and the Highland Scots s e t t l e d along the west co a s t of Cape Breton were farmers, as they had been be f o r e a r r i v i n g on the I s l a n d . On Cape Breton, c l i m a t e , t e r r a i n , and s o i l s l i m i t e d the p o t e n t i a l farmland t o the i n t e r v a l e s and some p a r t s of the coas t ( F i g . 1.4). Even t h e r e , much of the land was s u i t a b l e only f o r rough pasture and hay. For more demanding crop s , l i m i n g was needed t o c o u n t e r a c t the n a t u r a l a c i d i t y of the s o i l . The range of p o s s i b l e crops was l i m i t e d t o hardy v a r i e t i e s from n o r t h e r n Europe: hay, coarse g r a i n s , potatoes, t u r n i p s , and some v e g e t a b l e s . C a t t l e , sheep, and pig s needed not only summer past u r e but l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of fodder f o r the seven months they were housed d u r i n g the w i n t e r . For t h a t p e r i o d , a m i l c h cow r e q u i r e d about t h r e e tons of hay. Markets, too, were l i m i t e d . Cape Breton was d i s t a n t from export markets and l o c a l ones were s m a l l . In 1796, only 100 bushels of pot a t o e s , 4 oxen, and 80 sheep were shipped t o H a l i f a x and 64 bushels of potatoes t o 72 St.John's. There were no other a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p o r t s . Within Cape Breton, the p r i n c i p a l markets were the f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s and Sydney, but many fishermen and townspeople i n these small s e t t l e m e n t s grew t h e i r own r o o t crops and 37 Figure 1.4 D i s t r i b u t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l land on Cape Breton. After map i n D.B. Cann, J . I . MacDougall, and J.D. Hilchey, S o i l Survey of Cape Breton Island Nova Scotia p.57. 38 k e p t d a i r y c ows. Crown L a n d r e g u l a t i o n s f u r t h e r d i s c o u r a g e d a g r i c u l t u r e . G r a n t s i n f e e s i m p l e w e r e o n l y a v a i l a b l e t o f i s h m e r c h a n t s , bona f i d e L o y a l i s t s , a n d s o l d i e r s d e m o b i l i s e d a f t e r t h e A m e r i c a n War. L o y a l i s t s a n d s o l d i e r s w e r e e n t i t l e d t o 100 a c r e s f o r e a c h f a m i l y h e a d a n d a f u r t h e r 50 a c r e s f o r e a c h member o f t h e h o u s e h o l d . A d d i t i o n a l l a n d was a l s o a v a i l a b l e t o c o m m i s s i o n e d a nd n o n - c o m m i s s i o n e d o f f i c e r s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r a n k . O t h e r s e t t l e r s , h o w e v e r , c o u l d o n l y l e a s e l a n d 73 f r o m t h e Crown and w e r e l i a b l e t o e v i c t i o n " a t w i l l . " A g o v e r n m e n t r e p o r t n o t e d i n 1814 t h a t t e n a n t s . . . f i n d i n g t h e y c a n n e i t h e r d i s p o s e o f , o r b e q u e a t h [ l a n d ] , w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s , h a v e become c a r e l e s s i n t h e i r c u l t i v a t i o n , a n d a r e n o t i n c l i n e d t o l a b o r , b u t f o r a mere s u b s i s t a n c e . 7 4 Few w a n t e d t o i m p r o v e l a n d t h a t d i d n o t b e l o n g t o them. I n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , m o s t f a r m s on Cape B r e t o n w e r e p r i m a r i l y s u b s i s t e n t . A f e w L o y a l i s t s c l o s e t o S y d n e y a n d some A c a d i a n s a t C h e t i c a m p , known f o r t h e i r " r a i s i n g o f c a t t l e " and g r o w i n g o f g r a i n , h a d f a r m s t h a t p r o d u c e d a r e g u l a r , c o m m e r c i a l s u r p l u s , m o s t l i k e l y s a l t e d b e e f , b u t t e r , l a r d , a n d o a t s ; b u t t h e m a j o r i t y o f f a r m e r s h a d o n l y 75 o c c a s i o n a l s u r p l u s e s . E s s e n t i a l l y t h e i r f a r m s p r o d u c e d f o o d f o r a f a m i l y . C l e a r a n c e s on t h e s e f a r m s w e r e s m a l l -an a v e r a g e o f n i n e t o t h i r t e e n a c r e s a c c o r d i n g t o an 76 e s t i m a t e made i n 1813 - and c o m b i n e d a r a b l e a n d p a s t u r e . P e r h a p s an a c r e o r two w e r e sown i n p o t a t o e s and v e g e t a b l e s , s e v e r a l a c r e s i n o a t s , b a r l e y , a n d on f e r t i l e , new b u r n t l a n d , w h e a t . An a r e a r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e a r a b l e was i n g r a s s . P r o b a b l y t h e r e w e r e s i x c a t t l e , a d o z e n s h e e p , a 77 p i g , and a h o r s e . . I n a d d i t i o n , game, f i s h , a n d b e r r i e s were t a k e n f r o m n e a r b y f o r e s t a n d s t r e a m . A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r i e s w e r e f e w a n d f a r b e t w e e n . I n t h e l a r g e r o u t p o r t s , t h e l o c a l m a r k e t h a d e n c o u r a g e d m e r c h a n t s a n d f a r m e r s t o i n v e s t i n g r i s t m i l l s ; 78 C h e t i c a m p h a d t h r e e m i l l s . E l s e w h e r e , s u b s i s t e n t f a r m i n g h a r d l y j u s t i f i e d s u c h s e r v i c e s . I n 1 8 0 1 , t h e g o v e r n o r c o m p l a i n e d t h a t The w a n t o f g r i s t m i l l s i s ... [ a ] g r i e v a n c e t o t h e c u l t i v a t o r o f t h e s o i l , t h e g e n e r a l p o v e r t y o f t h e c o u n t r y h a v i n g h i t h e r t o d e p r i v e d t h e s e t t l e r s o f t h e s e e s s e n t i a l c o n v e n i e n c e s , and t h e r e n o t b e i n g any p r o v i n c i a l r e v e n u e t o s u p p l y t h e d e f e c t . 7 9 M o s t f a r m e r s p r o b a b l y g r o u n d t h e i r g r a i n by h a n d r a t h e r t h a n pay t h e h i g h c o s t o f s h i p p i n g i t t o a d i s t a n t g r i s t m i l l . A g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s c o n s i s t e d o f s t r a g g l i n g l i n e s o f d i s p e r s e d f a r m s . G i v e n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l a n d and t h e w e a k n e s s o f t h e m a r k e t , t h e r e was no n e e d f o r c l u s t e r e d , n u c l e a t e d s e t t l e m e n t s . Where l a n d h a d b e e n g r a n t e d a n d s u r v e y e d , a s a r o u n d S y d n e y H a r b o u r , s e t t l e m e n t s c o n s i s t e d o f p a r a l l e l l o t s , r e c t a n g u l a r i n s h a p e and b e t w e e n 100-200 80 a c r e s i n s i z e , r u n n i n g b a c k f r o m t h e s h o r e o r r i v e r b a n k . On m o s t l o t s s t o o d a f a r m h o u s e , s e p a r a t e f r o m i t s n e i g h b o u r s by s e v e r a l h u n d r e d y a r d s a n d p e r h a p s by u n c l e a r e d b u s h . S q u a t t e r s e t t l e m e n t s , s u c h a s t h o s e a l o n g t h e S t r a i t s o f C a n s o w e r e l e s s o r d e r l y , j u s t r a g g e d p a t c h e s o f c l e a r e d l a n d a m i d t h e f o r e s t . F a r m h o u s e s v a r i e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , s t y l e , a n d c o m f o r t . 40 P i o n e e r s h a n t i e s , common among t h e H i g h l a n d S c o t s , w e r e u s u a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m r o u n d l o g s c r o s s n o t c h e d a t t h e c o r n e r s , t h e i r s i n g l e - s l o p e r o o f s f r o m b a t t e n s c o v e r e d w i t h t u r f o r b a r k . The o n e - r o o m i n t e r i o r h a d a d i r t f l o o r a n d m i n i m a l f u r n i s h i n g s . I n t h e L o y a l i s t s e t t l e m e n t s , more s u b s t a n t i a l , s e c o n d - g e n e r a t i o n h o u s e s w e r e p r o b a b l y n u m e r o u s . They w e r e more l i k e l y t o be c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m s q u a r e d l o g s , d o v e t a i l e d a t t h e c o r n e r s a n d t o h a v e g a b l e -r o o f s c o v e r e d w i t h s h i n g l e s . I n s i d e s u c h a h o u s e t h e r e w o u l d u s u a l l y be a r o o t c e l l a r , two o r t h r e e rooms on t h e g r o u n d f l o o r a n d f u r t h e r a c c o m m o d a t i o n i n t h e a t t i c . A few f a r m h o u s e s m i g h t e v e n h a v e b e e n o f f r a m e c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h s h i n g l e o r c l a p b o a r d s i d e s a n d a p e d i m e n t o v e r t h e c e n t r a l d o o r . C e r t a i n l y , s e v e r a l s u c h f r a m e - h o u s e s h ad b e e n b u i l t 81 i n S y d n e y by t h e 1790 ' s . E c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was n o t m a r k e d i n t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s . To be s u r e , p i o n e e r s q u a t t e r s h a d n o t a c h i e v e d as much a s more e s t a b l i s h e d s e t t l e r s , b u t among t h e r e l a t i v e l y l o n g - s e t t l e d L o y a l i s t s a n d A c a d i a n s a r o u g h p a r i t y p r o b a b l y p r e v a i l e d . S u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g h a r d l y a t t r a c t e d w e a l t h o r s u p p o r t e d i t . S o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e more m a r k e d . D i s t a n c e a n d f o r e s t i s o l a t e d g r o u p s o f s e t t l e r s , p r e v e n t i n g t h e i n t e r m i n g l i n g common on many f r o n t i e r s , a n d e n c o u r a g e d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f F r e n c h among t h e A c a d i a n s a n d G a e l i c among t h e S c o t s . W i t h i n t h e s e s e t t l e m e n t s , s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w e r e f e w . C h u r c h e s h ad n o t b e e n b u i l t and m i s s i o n a r i e s w e r e i n f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r s t o t h e 41 I s l a n d . The o n l y r e s i d e n t c l e r g y m a n , an A n g l i c a n , l i v e d i n 82 S y d n e y . L o c a l g o v e r n m e n t was' s i g n i f i c a n t by i t s a b s e n c e : no t a x e s a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n r a i s e d a n d w i t h no House o f A s s e m b l y i n t h e c o l o n y t h e r e was no p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The s e t t l e r ' s w o r l d must h a v e r e v o l v e d a r o u n d f a m i l y a nd c l o s e n e i g h b o u r s . By 1 8 0 0 , c l o s e t i e s w e r e f o r m i n g among L o y a l i s t f a m i l i e s , a s t h e y h ad a l r e a d y 83 among t h e A c a d i a n s . No d o u b t t h e same was t r u e o f t h e H i g h l a n d S c o t s . A l t h o u g h m o s t f a r m e r s l i v e d c l o s e l y b o u n d e d l i v e s , t h e c o n s t r a i n t s h a d more t o do w i t h t h e demands o f e v e r y d a y s u b s i s t e n c e i n f o r e s t - b o u n d , i s o l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a n w i t h p r e s s u r e s f r o m g o v e r n m e n t o r m e r c h a n t s . C o l o n i a l Cape B r e t o n The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e o f c o l o n i a l Cape B r e t o n h a d l i t t l e b e a r i n g on t h e I s l a n d ' s s t a p l e e c o n o m i e s o r s u b s i s t e n t a g r i c u l t u r e . The, c o d t r a d e , l a r g e l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l a n d h i g h l y c o m m e r c i a l , a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n u n a f f e c t e d by l o c a l p o l i t i c s ; t r a d e p o l i c i e s f a s h i o n e d i n L o n d o n w e r e f a r more r e l e v a n t . C o a l e x p o r t s w e r e t a x e d a nd c o l l i e r y t e n a n t s l o b b i e d f o r l o w e r c h a r g e s , b u t t h e s h o r t -c o m i n g s o f t h e m i n e s had more t o do w i t h t h e i r l o c a t i o n t h a n 84 w i t h f i s c a l i m p o s i t i o n s . Though some s e t t l ' e r s w e r e d i s c o u r a g e d f r o m i m p r o v i n g f a r m s by d e c i s i o n s i n t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e t h a t w e r e r e l a y e d t h r o u g h t h e I s l a n d ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s q u a t t i n g c o n t i n u e d a n d o f f i c i a l s i n S y d n e y were a l m o s t p o w e r l e s s t o s t o p i t . The Low v a l u e -of t h e l a n d h a r d l y j u s t i f i e d t h e c o s t o f e v i c t i o n . O v e r a l l , t h e sway o f t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t r a r e l y r e a c h e d b e y o n d i t s p e n i n s u l a r c a p i t a l ; i n 1 8 0 1 , a s u r v e y o f t h e I s l a n d f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e was h e l d up b e c a u s e " t h e i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h t h e o u t s e t t l e m e n t s [was] s o d i f f i c u l t & p r e c a r i o u s 85 o w i n g t o t h e t o t a l w a n t o f r o a d s ...." S y d n e y d e p e n d e d on i t s r o l e a s c o l o n i a l c a p i t a l . I n 1795, t h e t o w n h a d a b o u t 120 i n h a b i t a n t s o f whom 5 0 h a d 86 " o n l y s a l a r i e s t o d e p e n d upon f o r s u b s i s t e n c e . " O f f i c i a l s i n c l u d e d t h e g o v e r n o r , c h i e f j u s t i c e , a u d i t o r , c l e r k o f 87 c r o w n , and c l e r k o f c o u n c i l . W i t h l i t t l e c o m m e r c i a l t r a d e ( S y d n e y M i n e s was t e n m i l e s away on t h e o p p o s i t e s h o r e ) , f e w w e r e e m p l o y e d i n b u s i n e s s and s e r v i c e o c c u p a t i o n s : two o r t h r e e m e r c h a n t s , a c a r p e n t e r , two b l a c k s m i t h s , two s h o e m a k e r s , a b a k e r , a b u t c h e r , t w o p u b l i c a n s , and a b r o t h e l - o w n e r . I n 1796, s e v e r a l o f them w e r e t h r e a t e n i n g t o e m i g r a t e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The t o wn i t s e l f , s i t e d on a d e f e n s i b l e n e c k o f l a n d j u t t i n g o u t i n t o S y d n e y H a r b o u r , was l a i d o u t i n 1785 a c c o r d i n g t o an a m b i t i o u s , f o r m a l p l a n d r a w n up by t h e f i r s t g o v e r n o r ( F i g . 1 . 5 ) . A s e r i e s o f w i d e a v e n u e s i n t e r s e c t e d c r o s s - s t r e e t s b e a r i n g s u c h g r a n d i l o q u e n t names as G r e a t G e o r g e S t r e e t and P r i n c e W i l l i a m H e n r y S t r e e t . S y d n e y was t o be a c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l , p l a n n e d t o w n a k i n t o t h e New Town o f E d i n b u r g h w i t h t h e h a l l m a r k o f r o y a l t y s t a m p e d o v e r i t . Ten y e a r s l a t e r , o n l y two s t r e e t s k e p t t o t h e o r i g i n a l l a y o u t . E l s e w h e r e , b i r c h f o r e s t c o v e r e d p r o p o s e d c i t y 43 F i g u r e 1.5 Sydney, 1795. A f t e r 'Map o f t h e Town o f Sydney, 10 J u l y 1795.' H3/240/ Sydney/1795 VAC. A A b l o c k s a n d a c a t t l e t r a c k d i s t o r t e d what w e r e t o h a v e b e e n s t r a i g h t - l i n e d a v e n u e s . A c c o r d i n g t o one v i s i t o r t o S y d n e y , t h e r e w e r e more 88 r u i n e d a nd d e s e r t e d t h a n i n h a b i t e d h o u s e s . P u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , p a i d f o r by B r i t i s h money, b u i l t by t h e army, and r e f l e c t i n g E u r o p e a n a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , w e r e t h e most i m p r e s s i v e b u i l d i n g s i n t h e t o w n a n d on t h e I s l a n d . The g o v e r n o r ' s r e s i d e n c e was a c l a s s i c a l d e s i g n o f f i f t e e n b a y s 89 w i t h a c e n t r a l , f i v e b ay b l o c k s u r m o u n t e d by a p e d i m e n t . The g a r r i s o n c h u r c h , a l s o i n t h e p r e v a i l i n g c l a s s i c a l s t y l e , c o n s i s t e d o f a n a v e a b o u t s i x t y f e e t l o n g , l i t by s i x r o u n d -h e a d e d s i d e - w i n d o w s and a V e n e t i a n window a t t h e e a s t e n d . I t was c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m r o u g h - s t o n e a n d a s h l a r s a l v a g e d f r o m 90 t h e r u i n e d f o r t r e s s a t L o u i s b o u r g . A few New E n g l a n d f r a m e - h o u s e s a l s o l e n t some d i g n i t y t o a n o t h e r w i s e f o r e s a k e n t o w n . S o c i e t y , s u c h a s i t was, r e v o l v e d a r o u n d t h e G o v e r n o r . H i s s e d a n c a r r i e d g u e s t s o v e r t h e " G r e a t . t h a w o f d e e p mud" t o G o v e r n m e n t House w h e r e b a l l s , d a n c e s , a n d d i n n e r p a r t i e s 91 were h e l d w i t h i n s i g h t o f u n c l e a r e d f o r e s t . When a g a r r i s o n was s t a t i o n e d i n t h e t o w n , t h e army a d d e d t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n a n d e x p a n d e d t h e s o c i a l c i r c l e . O f f i c e r s ' w i v e s a f f e c t e d p r o v i n c i a l f a s h i o n s : " C h a r l o t t e c a l l ' d & b r o u g h t home my l a c e c a p a f t e r a l t e r i n g i t " one l a d y n o t e d i n h e r d i a r y , "- i t was o l d p o i n t o n c e my p o o r m o t h e r ' s t h a t h ad l o n g l a i n u s e l e s s i n my d r a w e r s b u t now by t h e v a r i a t i o n o f 92 f a s h i o n i s m e t a m o r p h o s e d i n t o a handsome h e a d d r e s s . " 45 Such s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y r e f l e c t e d the i s o l a t i o n of the town. 2,500 miles from B r i t a i n , several days from Halifax, hemmed in by forest and winter i c e , Sydney appeared detached and insular to many of i t s inhabitants. Self-important 93 o f f i c i a l s bickered and army o f f i c e r s grew morose. One sol d i e r , recently arrived i n 1789, r e f l e c t e d that having "passed a great part of my l i f e i n America and been i n many unpleasant and disagreeable situations ... I so declare without exaggeration that I think Sydney by far the 94 * worst ...." S t r a t e g i c a l l y unimportant and peripheral to the f i s h i n g economy of the Island, Sydney i n 1800 was an enclave of government amid the bush. 46 2 The S c o t t i s h B a c k g r o u n d o f I m m i g r a n t s t o Cape B r e t o n I n 1 8 02, t h e T r e a t y o f /Amiens e n d e d t h e war b e t w e e n B r i t a i n a n d F r a n c e . The N o r t h A t l a n t i c was a g a i n s a f e l y o pen t o s h i p p i n g , a n d w i t h i n a few weeks o f t h e p e a c e v e s s e l s w e r e l e a v i n g t h e West C o a s t o f S c o t l a n d c a r r y i n g 1 e m i g r a n t s f r o m t h e H i g h l a n d s t o B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a . A l t h o u g h b e f o r e t h e war H i g h l a n d e r s h a d b e e n e m i g r a t i n g t o e a s t e r n Nova S c o t i a a n d P r i n c e E d w a r d I s l a n d , t h e y h a d l a r g e l y p a s s e d Cape B r e t o n b y , d e t e r r e d by t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e g r a n t i n g o f l a n d . I n A u g u s t 1 802, h o w e v e r , t h e e m i g r a n t s h i p , ' N o r t h e r n F r i e n d s , ' w i t h 340 H i g h l a n d p a s s e n g e r s o n b o a r d , a r r i v e d i n S y d n e y H a r b o u r , t h e f i r s t d i r e c t s a i l i n g f r o m S c o t l a n d t o t h e C o l o n y . O v e r t h e n e x t f o r t y y e a r s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20,000 H i g h l a n d e r s w o u l d a r r i v e on t h e I s l a n d , a f r a g m e n t o f t h e m a s s i v e movement o f B r i t i s h 2 p e o p l e o v e r s e a s , b u t q u i t e e n o u g h t o t r a n s f o r m Cape B r e t o n . When t h e f i r s t S c o t s d i s e m b a r k e d , t h e r e w e r e f e w e r t h a n 3,000 p e o p l e i n t h e c o l o n y ; when t h e l a s t t r i c k l e d i n d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1840 ' s , t h e r e w e r e a l m o s t 5 5 , 0 0 0 . I m m i g r a t i o n a n d s u b s e q u e n t n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e h a d r a p i d l y e n l a r g e d t h e I s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n a n d changed, i t s e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n . P e r h a p s S c o t s made up a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n by t h e 47 1 8 2 0 ' s . By 1871 50,000 of the 75,000 Islanders were of Scottish o r i g i n , outnumbering by two to one the descendants of Acadian, I r i s h , and L o y a l i s t families who had s e t t l e d on 3 Cape Breton before 1800. The Place of Origin Throughout the period of immigration, o f f i c i a l s on Cape Breton reported that the s e t t l e r s came from the "Western 4 Highlands of Scotland" and the "Western Islands." Such observations are confirmed by genealogical records of 510 male s e t t l e r s i n Inverness County and tombstone i n s c r i p t i o n s of 301 male and female s e t t l e r s on Cape Breton, which show that most immigrants came from northwest A r g y l l , western 5 Inverness-shire, Wester Ross, and the Hebrides (Fig. 2.1). More s p e c i f i c a l l y , those from the mainland l e f t the coastal parishes between Loch Linnhe i n Argyle and Loch Torridon i n Wester Ross: Ardnurmurchan, A r i s a i g , Moidart, Glenelg, K i n t a i l , Loch Alsh, Loch Carron, and Applecross. Those from the islands came mainly from C o l l , Tiree, Rhum, Eigg, Muck, Canna, Skye, and Raasay i n the Inner Hebrides, and Barra, the Ui s t s , Benbecula, Harris, and Lewis i n the Outer Hebrides. A few others came from adjacent areas such as the island of Mull, Gairloch, and the central Highland valleys of Glengarry, Strath Glass, and Glen Orchy; but v i r t u a l l y none came from Sutherland or from Lome to the south of Loch Linnhe. The d i s t r i b u t i o n was remarkably confined to a 48 N Uist SUist Barra Emigrants • Fort William Lochaber Male emigrants to Inverness County 510 out of 529 cases shown Male and Female emigrants to Cape Breton 301 out of 364 cases shown Miles 30 _ l — — Lochaber district Figure 2.1 Origin of Scottish Immigrants to Cape Breton. Data from J.L. MacDougall, History of Inverness County and Ferguson Mss. B l . 49 t r i a n g u l a r wedge o f t e r r i t o r y t h a t h a d i t s e a s t e r n p o i n t a t F o r t W i l l i a m i n L o c h a b e r , i t s s o u t h - w e s t e r n a t B a r r a a n d i t s n o r t h - w e s t e r n a t L e w i s . E c o n o m i c a nd S o c i a l B a c k g r o u n d S c o t t i s h i m m i g r a n t s t o Cape B r e t o n w e re f r o m an o v e r w h e l m i n g l y r u r a l s o c i e t y h u d d l e d on some o f t h e w o r s t 6 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d ' i n t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s . I n 1 8 2 1 , a b o u t 85,000 p e o p l e l i v e d i n t h e W e s t e r n H i g h l a n d s a n d I s l a n d s , most s e t t l e d on t h i n c o a s t a l m a r g i n s s q u e e z e d b e t w e e n r o u g h , 7 g l a c i a t e d u p l a n d a n d t h e s e a . D e n s i t i e s o f t h i r t y o r f o r t y p e o p l e p e r s q u a r e m i l e w e r e common, a l t h o u g h t h e y c o u l d be much h i g h e r i n some i s l a n d p a r i s h e s w h e r e l a n d was e s p e c i a l l y l i m i t e d . T h e r e w e r e 66 p e o p l e p e r s q u a r e m i l e o n B a r r a , 63 i n K i l m u i r on S k y e , a n d 139 o n T i r e e , t h e most d e n s e l y s e t t l e d p a r i s h i n t h e H e b r i d e s . W i t h i n t h e s e c o n g e s t e d c o a s t a l s e t t l e m e n t s , much l a n d was u n s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . C o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a s o f b a r e r o c k h a d b e e n e x p o s e d by g l a c i a t i o n , a n d p e a t b o g and a c i d i c s o i l s w e r e common. O n l y a l o n g t h e s a n d y m a c h a i r s ( s h e l l - s a n d d u n e s ) o f t h e A t l a n t i c c o a s t s o f t h e i s l a n d s and t h e m a i n l a n d was t h e r e l a n d o f r e a s o n a b l e f e r t i l i t y . A l t h o u g h summers a r e warm a n d t h e G u l f S t r e a m k e e p s w i n t e r s m i l d , d e p r e s s i o n s t r a c k i n g i n f r o m t h e A t l a n t i c f r e q u e n t l y b r i n g w e t and c l o u d y w e a t h e r ; t h e r a i n f a l l a l o n g t h e m a i n l a n d c o a s t e x c e e d s 60 i n c h e s p e r annum. P e o p l e l i v e d a t t h e v e r y 50 m a r g i n o f a r a b l e c u l t i v a t i o n . The f e w c r o p s t h a t d i d w e l l w e r e p o t a t o e s , o a t s , b a r l e y , a n d h a r d y r o o t s . . I n s u c h c o n d i t i o n s l a n d , t h e k e y t o w e a l t h a n d s t a t u s , was a t a p a r t i c u l a r p r e m i u m . A h a n d f u l o f h e r i d i t a r y c l a n c h i e f s owned t h e e n t i r e a r e a ; t h e i r v a s t e s t a t e s o f t e n e n c o m p a s s e d a n i s l a n d o r t w o , w h i l e t h e l a r g e s t , b e l o n g i n g t o M a c d o n a l d o f C l a n R a n a l d , c o m p r i s e d s e v e r a l i s l a n d s a n d a 8 c o u p l e o f m a i n l a n d p a r i s h e s . A l t h o u g h some l a n d was l e t t o ' t a c k s m e n , ' o l d c l a n l i e u t e n a n t s who s u b - l e t i t t o l e s s e r t e n a n t s , m o s t was l e t t o l a r g e s h e e p f a r m e r s o r t o ' c r o f t e r s ' ( s m a l l - h o l d e r s ) . The c r o f t e r s , i n t u r n , s u b - l e t p o r t i o n s o f t h e i r h o l d i n g s t o ' c o t t e r s , ' t h e l a n d l e s s p o o r who made up b e t w e e n 30 a n d 70% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f a 9 p a r i s h . A p a r t f r o m t h e s h e e p f a r m e r s , f e w i f any o f t h e t e n a n t s h a d w r i t t e n l e a s e s a n d t e n a n t s w i t h o u t l e a s e s w e r e s u b j e c t t o e v i c t i o n " a t w i l l . " A l m o s t a l l S c o t t i s h e m i g r a n t s t o Cape B r e t o n came f r o m t h e r a n k s o f t h e c r o f t e r s a n d c o t t e r s . T hey h a d b e e n s e t t l e d i n c o a s t a l c r o f t i n g t o w n s h i p s l a i d o u t by t h e l a n d l o r d s b e t w e e n 1790 a n d 1820 t o r e p l a c e o l d ' r u n r i g ' o r o p e n - f i e l d s e t t l e m e n t s , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l 10 s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e H i g h l a n d s a n d I s l a n d s . The r u n r i g t o w n s h i p s c o n s i s t e d o f a n i r r e g u l a r g r o u p i n g o f s t o n e and t u r f h o v e l s s e t among a p e r m a n e n t l y c u l t i v a t e d i n f i e l d , a p a r t i a l l y c u l t i v a t e d o u t f i e l d , a n d s u r r o u n d i n g commons w h i c h i n c l u d e d d i s t a n t h i l 1 - g r a z i n g s , o r s h e i l i n g s . T e n a n t s h a d s h a r e s i n b o t h t h e a r a b l e a n d p a s t u r e , a n d t h e s e r i g h t s w e r e p r o t e c t e d by c o l l e c t i v e r u l e s a n d p r a c t i c e s . B o t h t h e i n f i e l d and o u t f i e l d were divided into s t r i p s and a l l o t t e d to tenants according to t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l share-holding. The st r i p s covered a variety of t e r r a i n and s o i l s , and by l o t t i n g them tenants were assured of some good land. Each tenant also had the r i g h t to pasture livestock on the commons according to his share. From the open-fields, the farmers raised subsistence crops of barley, oats, and potatoes; on the commons they kept black c a t t l e and sold them to southern drovers - the market connection that paid the rent. Nevertheless, i n the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, landlords i n the Western Highlands and Islands, seeking higher rents from t h e i r estates and influenced by the a g r i c u l t u r a l improvers i n the Lowlands, moved to reform t h e i r properties. Instead of drawing an income from the black c a t t l e economy, they cleared the runrig townships i n the i n t e r i o r valleys to make way for large, more p r o f i t a b l e sheep farms, while those with coastal properties began to encourage the kelp industry. Kelping, the gathering and processing of seaweed to produce a l k a l i , expanded rapidly during the 1790 's when foreign supplies of a l k a l i were cut off by the war with France, and by the beginning of the nineteenth century large shipments were sent south to manufacturers of soap and glass. As kelping was labour-intensive, landlords needed a large, cheap workforce and attempted to r e t a i n the tenants displaced from the runrig townships. Following the advice of a g r i c u l t u r a l 52 i m p r o v e r s , who s t r e s s e d t h e v a l u e o f i n d i v i d u a l h o l d i n g s , t h e y c o n s o l i d a t e d t h e s c a t t e r e d a r a b l e s t r i p s o f t h e o p e n -f i e l d s a n d d i v i d e d t h e l a n d i n t o s m a l l i n d i v i d u a l f a r m s o r c r o f t s f o r t h e i r d i s p o s s e s s e d t e n a n t s . The o l d common 11 p a s t u r e s a n d h i l l g r a z i n g s s u r v i v e d ( F i g . 2 . 2 ) . I n d i v i d u a l c r o f t s w e r e u s u a l l y r e c t a n g u l a r a n d up t o f i v e o r s i x a c r e s i n s i z e ( F i g . 2 . 3 ) . T h e i r r e g u l a r l a y o u t r a r e l y b o r e any r e l a t i o n t o t h e t e r r a i n . A t H a r r a p o o l , a c r o f t i n g t o w n s h i p l a i d o u t i n S t r a t h on S k y e f o r L o r d M a c D o n a l d i n t h e e a r l y 1800 ' s , l o n g , t h i n l o t s w e r e s u p e r i m p o s e d u p on moss ( p e a t b o g ) , a r a b l e , a n d h i l l p a s t u r e ( F i g . 2 . 2 ) . Some c r o f t s w e r e composed a l m o s t e n t i r e l y o f bo g , w h i l e much o f t h e o l d r u n r i g a r a b l e was t u r n e d o v e r t o p a s t u r e . Where t h e s o i l was e s p e c i a l l y w e t , a r a b l e s t r i p s w e r e r e d u c e d t o ' l a z y - b e d s ' ( c o r r u g a t e d r i d g e s a n d d r a i n a g e 12 d i t c h e s ) . The b e d s w e r e b u i l t - u p f r o m t h e e a r t h r e m o v e d f r o m t h e d i t c h e s a n d w e r e commonly a b o u t f o u r f e e t w i d e a n d o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h . A p a r t f r o m a n e a r t h b a u l k b e t w e e n t h e f i e l d s , f ew i f a n y o f t h e c r o f t s w e r e e n c l o s e d , a n d f o r p u r p o s e s s u c h a s f a l l o w g r a z i n g s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e d an o p e n -f i e l d . A s t o n e ' d y k e ' o r w a l l d i v i d e d t h e t o w n s h i p a r a b l e f r o m t h e common p a s t u r e s . On t h e a r a b l e s t r i p s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c r o p s o f t h e H i g h l a n d s w e r e c u l t i v a t e d : o a t s , b a r l e y , a n d p o t a t o e s . The r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n s o f e a c h c r o p g rown v a r i e d f r o m t o w n s h i p t o t o w n s h i p a c c o r d i n g t o s o i l q u a l i t y a n d t e r r a i n . M ore b a r l e y t e n d e d t o be gr o w n on t h e . l i g h t , s a n d y s o i l s o f t h e O u t e r H e b r i d e s t h a n on t h e h e a v y 53 a c i ,o c F i g u r e 2.2 C r o f t i n g T o w n s h i p a t H a r r a p o o l , S k y e . A f t e r P l a n o f H a r r a p l e RHP 5998/16 SRO. F i g u r e 2.3 C r o f t a t H a r r a p o o l , S k y e , 1854. A f t e r S k e t c h o f L o t s 1 and 13 H a r r a p l e - B r o a d f o r d 1854 RHP 5998/18 SRO. 13 c l a y and p e a t s o i l s o f t h e m a i n l a n d . In g e n e r a l , however, p o t a t o e s g r a d u a l l y d i s p l a c e d g r a i n s as t h e i r n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e was r e c o g n i s e d and as c r o f t s became s m a l l e r . By t h e 1840's, many c r o f t s i n t h e W e s t e r n H i g h l a n d s and I s l a n d s had a t l e a s t h a l f o f t h e i r g r o u n d i n p o t a t o e s ; t h e c r o p had 14 become t h e b u t t r e s s o f t h e c r o f t e r ' s e x i s t e n c e . The s t r i p s were u s u a l l y c u l t i v a t e d y e a r a f t e r y e a r w i t h o n l y an o c c a s i o n a l f a l l o w r o t a t i o n . I n t e n s i v e m a n u r i n g was r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n s o i l f e r t i l i t y ; b y r e muck, s e a - s h e l l s , and o l d t h a t c h were a l l s p r e a d on t h e f i e l d s b e f o r e 15 p l o u g h i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , l i v e s t o c k were p a s t u r e d on t h e s t r i p s a f t e r h a r v e s t i n g and b e f o r e p l a n t i n g , a d d i n g t h e i r dung t o t h e s o i l . L a b o u r was i n t e n s i v e . A l t h o u g h t h e c r o f t e r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own s t r i p s and f a m i l y members d i d much o f t h e w e e d i n g , d i g g i n g , p l o u g h i n g , p l a n t i n g , and h a r v e s t i n g were f r e q u e n t l y done i n c o -o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e t o w n s h i p . G i v e n t h e v a r i a b l e w e a t h e r i n s p r i n g and f a l l , p l a n t i n g and r e a p i n g had t o be done q u i c k l y and r e q u i r e d many h a n d s . As w e l l , c r o f t e r s u s u a l l y had t o s h a r e t o a s s e m b l e a p l o u g h - t e a m , f o r few f a m i l i e s owned t h e n e c e s s a r y h o r s e s . I n a r e a s u n s u i t a b l e f o r p l o u g h i n g , s p a d e s were u s e d - e i t h e r t h e c a s d h i r e a c h ( s t r a i g h t s p a d e ) o r t h e c a s c h r o m ( c r o o k e d s p a d e ) - and spadework, t o o , was o f t e n done i n teams. T w e l v e men u s i n g 16 c a s c h r o m s c o u l d t i l l an a c r e a d a y . I n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e c o u l d be e x t r e m e l y p r o d u c t i v e . P o t a t o p a t c h e s , t h e most l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e p a r t o f most c r o f t s , o f t e n p r o d u c e d h i g h e r y i e l d s t h a n on i m p r o v e d f a r m s i n t h e L o w l a n d s . E i g h t o r 56 17 n i n e b a r r e l s f o r one sown w e r e common. G r a i n s r e c e i v e d l e s s e f f o r t a n d f e r t i l i z e r , a n d y i e l d s w e r e p i t i f u l l y s m a l l : 18 u s u a l l y t w o o r t h r e e s e e d s f o r one sown. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i z e o f h i s a r a b l e h o l d i n g , e a c h c r o f t e r was e n t i t l e d t o a s h a r e o f t h e common p a s t u r e . I n g e n e r a l , t h i s s h a r e w o r k e d o u t t o r o u g h l y one cow o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t p e r a r a b l e a c r e , a b o u t h a l f a d o z e n l i v e s t o c k p e r c r o f t . On S o u t h U i s t , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e a v e r a g e l i v e s t o c k h o l d i n g s i n 1827 w e r e 3 p o n i e s , 3 cows a n d 2 o r 3 y o u n g c a t t l e , u s u a l l y y e a r o l d s . More p r o s p e r o u s c r o f t e r s , who p a i d £10-12 r e n t , u s u a l l y h a d 3 p o n i e s , 4 o r 5 c o w s , and 3 o r 4 y o u n g c a t t l e ; w h i l e p o o r e r t e n a n t s , who p a i d £4-5 r e n t , had 2 p o n i e s , 2 cows and a y o u n g b e a s t o r t w o . Some o f t h e s e l i v e s t o c k , h o w e v e r , b e l o n g e d t o l a n d l e s s c o t t e r s who 19 p u r c h a s e d p a s t u r a g e r i g h t s f r o m t h e c r o f t e r s . The p o n i e s , m i l c h c o w s , h o r n e d c a t t l e , s h e e p , a n d g o a t s b e l o n g i n g t o c r o f t e r s a n d c o t t e r s w e r e u s u a l l y o f i n d e t e r m i n a t e b r e e d , u n d e r - f e d , a n d s c r a g g y . Common p a s t u r i n g h a r d l y a l l o w e d p u r e b r e e d i n g a n d a p e r e n n i a l s h o r t a g e o f w i n t e r f o d d e r e n s u r e d t h a t a n i m a l s w e r e n e v e r f u l l y f a t t e n e d . C a t t l e h o u s e d i n d o o r s t h r o u g h t h e w i n t e r w e r e o f t e n s o weak by s p r i n g t h a t t h e y h a d t o be c a r r i e d o u t . Of t h o s e l e f t o u t s i d e t o gnaw t h e s t u b b l e " t o t h e q u i c k , " one i n f i v e d i e d 20 i n a n o r m a l w i n t e r . L i v i n g on t i n y f a r m s i n a m a r g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , c r o f t e r s e x p l o i t e d l o c a l r e s o u r c e s t o t h e f u l l . N a t u r a l g r a s s e s w e r e c u t f r o m g r e e n meadow t o p r o v i d e w i n t e r 57 l i v e s t o c k f o d d e r ; r e e d s a n d h e a t h e r w e r e u s e d f o r t h a t c h ; p e a t was d r i e d f o r f u e l ; l a k e s , r i v e r s a n d s t r e a m s w e r e f i s h e d f o r s a l m o n a nd t r o u t ; b e a c h e s w e r e s c o u r e d f o r s h e l l -f i s h ; a n d c l i f f - t o p n e s t s w e r e r a i d e d f o r e g g s a nd s e a b i r d s . Seaweed, a p o s s i b l e s o u r c e o f f e r t i l i s e r , was r e s e r v e d f o r t h e k e l p i n d u s t r y a n d s t i f f f i n e s w e r e l e v i e d on c r o f t e r s who a p p l i e d i t t o t h e i r f i e l d s - a s e r i o u s c o n s t r a i n t e s p e c i a l l y when p o t a t o e s w e r e b e i n g g r o w n on t h e same p l o t y e a r a f t e r y e a r . K e l p i n g i t s e l f was l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e , e m p l o y i n g men, women, a n d c h i l d r e n f r o m e a r l y May t o t h e e n d o f A u g u s t . G r o w i n g weed was p r e f e r r e d t o t h a t t h r o w n up on t h e b e a c h e s by A t l a n t i c s t o r m s , s o i t h a d t o be c u t f r o m t i d a l s o u n d s o r r o c k y i s l e t s , a b i t t e r l y - c o l d and o f t e n d a n g e r o u s - t a s k . A f t e r c u t t i n g , t h e k e l p was s p r e a d on t h e b e a c h t o d r y , a nd t h e n t a k e n by c a r t s o r c r e e l s t o t h e k i l n s , l o n g , l o w 21 c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f l o o s e s t o n e , b u i l t on t h e b e a c h . T h e r e , i t was b u r n t u n t i l r e d u c e d t o an a s h , w h i c h was c o l l e c t e d f o r e x p o r t t o one o f t h e s o u t h e r n p o r t s . W h i l e t h i s w o r k was g o i n g o n , f a r m i n g was o f t e n n e g l e c t e d : f i e l d s became c h o k e d w i t h w e e d s , u n a t t e n d e d c a t t l e made d e p r e d a t i o n s on t h e c r o p s , a n d t a s k s s u c h a s c u t t i n g p e a t , m a k i n g h a y , b u i l d i n g f o l d s f o r c a t t l e , r e p a i r i n g t h a t c h a n d w a l l s h a d t o 22 be h u r r i e d i n t h e autumn when t h e w e a t h e r was o f t e n p o o r . A l t h o u g h t h e l a n d l o r d s h a d d e s i g n e d c r o f t i n g a s an a d j u n c t o f k e l p i n g , t h e two a c t i v i t i e s w e r e b a r e l y c o m p a t i b l e . Wages f r o m k e l p i n g , s a l e s o f c a t t l e , a n d t h e p r o d u c e o f s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g , e n a b l e d c r o f t e r s t o o b t a i n a meagre 58 l i v i n g . M o s t o f t h e i r i n c o m e went o u t i n r e n t , a l t h o u g h 23 r e n t s w e r e u s u a l l y l e s s t h a n £5 a y e a r . On S o u t h U i s t i n 1827 481 c r o f t e r s p a i d r e n t s b e t w e e n £4 and £13 w i t h a n 24 a v e r a g e o f a b o u t £6.10/-. E s s e n t i a l l y t h e s e r e n t s w e r e p a i d f r o m k e l p e a r n i n g s r a t h e r t h a n f a r m i n g . As C l a n R a n a l d ' s f a c t o r on S o u t h U i s t e x p l a i n e d , I f t h e k e l p i s g i v e n up s m a l l t e n a n t s c a n n o t c o n t i n u e t o pay t h e p r e s e n t r e n t s b e c a u s e t h e w o r k t h e y g o t e n a b l e d them t o pay r e n t s f o r p o r t i o n s o f g r o u n d s o s m a l l t h a t t h e y c o u l d pay n o t h i n g f r o m t h e p r o d u c e . 2 5 A l t h o u g h t i t h e s w e r e n o t l e v i e d , l a n d l o r d s s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t e n a n t s u s e t h e e s t a t e m i l l a n d c h a r g e d h e a v y m i l l i n g f e e s . A nyone f o u n d u s i n g a h a n d - q u e r n was f i n e d and t h e s t o n e dumped i n t o t h e s e a . I n g o o d y e a r s , c r o f t e r s h a d s u f f i c i e n t i n c o m e a f t e r t h e s e e x a c t i o n s t o g e t b y , b u t i n b a d y e a r s , when t h e p r i c e o f k e l p o r c a t t l e f e l l , many f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s i n d e b t , f a c i n g t h e c o n f i s c a t i o n o f p o s s e s s i o n s a n d t h e l o s s o f l a n d . C l e a r l y , t h e c r o f t e r s l i v e d on t h e edge o f d e s t i t u t i o n . M o s t o f t h e i r s p a r e i n c o m e was s p e n t on i m p o r t e d m e a l and s a l t , b u t d i e t was g e n e r a l l y p o o r : u s u a l l y some c o m b i n a t i o n o f m i l k , c h e e s e , o a t m e a l , p o t a t o e s , and 26 f i s h . Red meat was r a r e l y e a t e n , e x c e p t when c a l v e s o r l a mbs h a d t o be k i l l e d b e c a u s e t h e r e was a l a c k o f m i l k t o r e a r them. S c u r v y was a c o n s t a n t t h r e a t ; v i s i t o r s t o t h e 27 H i g h l a n d s n o t e d t h a t p e o p l e w e r e s m a l l and u n d e r f e d . C r o f t e r s ' h o u s e s - t h e " b l a c k h o u s e s " - w e r e u n a d o r n e d s h e l t e r s a b o u t 40 o r 50 f e e t i n l e n g t h , 10 t o 12 f e e t w i d e 28 i n s i d e , and n o t much more t h a n a man's h e i g h t . T h e i r 59 c o n s t r u c t i o n made t h e most o f l o c a l r e s o u r c e s and was o f t e n m i n u t e l y a d j u s t e d t o t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e a r e a . The d r y - s t o n e w a l l s o f t h e house were u s u a l l y d o u b l e - s k i n n e d w i t h an i n t e r v e n i n g e a r t h c o r e t o p r o v i d e i n s u l a t i o n and were o f t e n r o u n d e d a t e a c h end t o l e s s e n w i n d r e s i s t a n c e . C o u p l e s , made f r o m d r i f t w o o d , r e s t e d on t h e i n n e r w a l l and s u p p o r t e d t h e r o o f members w h i c h were c o v e r e d w i t h o v e r l a p p i n g s l a b s o f t u r f o r t h a t c h made o f r u s h e s , f e r n s , h e a t h e r , o r s t r a w . The r o o f was l a s h e d down by h e a t h e r r o p e s f a s t e n e d t o s t o n e s . I n s i d e , t h e r e was a l i v i n g room where t h e f a m i l y a t e and s l e p t ; a b y r e f o r c a t t l e , p i g s , and p o u l t r y ; a n d a b a r n a t t h e r e a r f o r s t o r i n g o a t s , b a r l e y , p o t a t o e s , s a l t e d f o o d , and t h r e s h e d f o d d e r . One d o o r gave a c c e s s t o t h e s e v a r i o u s compartments and t h e r e were few, i f any, windows. The f l o o r u s u a l l y s l o p e d t o h e l p d r a i n away s l o p s and b y r e muck. The few f u r n i s h i n g s were f u n c t i o n a l and e a s y t o remove i f t h e l e a s e s u d d e n l y e n d e d . Beds were o f t e n f i t t e d i n t o t h e w a l l s t o s a v e s p a c e and t h e m a t t r e s s e s were made o f s t r a w , f e r n s o r h e a t h e r . S e v e r a l members o f t h e f a m i l y w o u l d s l e e p i n one b e d . T h e r e w o u l d be a few c h a i r s , s t o o l s , and b e n c h e s ; a t a b l e ; a c o o k i n g p o t and u t e n s i l s ; a s p i n n i n g w h e e l ; w o o l - b a s k e t ; and c h e s t s . The c r o f t e r w o u l d a l s o have a few a g r i c u l t u r a l i m p l e m e n t s - a c r o o k e d s p a d e , a s t r a i g h t s p a d e , a s c y t h e , a s i c k l e , a r a k e , and a f l a i l - some f i s h i n g g e a r - h a n d l i n e s , n e t s , and s h e e p s k i n b uoys - and c r e e l s f o r c a r r y i n g k e l p and p o t a t o e s . Few had much more t h a n t h e s e s c a n t y , u t i l i t a r i a n p o s s e s s i o n s . 60 Y e t t h e c r o f t e r s were r e l a t i v e l y w e l l o f f compared t o t h e c o t t e r s who had "no means o f s u b s i s t e n c e b u t what t h e y 29 d e r i v e f r o m t h e t e n a n t s t h e i r r e l a t i v e s . " I n r e t u r n f o r a p a t c h o f s o i l t o grow p o t a t o e s and t h e r i g h t t o p a s t u r e a cow on a g r a s s b o r d e r , c o t t e r s p a i d r e n t s i n t h e f o r m o f l a b o u r ( w e e d i n g , p l o u g h i n g , and k e l p i n g ) , money, o r k i n d (a few f o w l s , a s h e e p ) . They a l s o d e r i v e d some income f r o m k e l p i n g ; h a r v e s t i n g on L o w l a n d f a r m s ; b e g g i n g , s c a v a g i n g , 30 and k n i t t i n g s w e a t e r s f o r s a l e . T h e i r d i e t must have b e e n l e s s n u t r i t i o u s t h a n t h a t o f t h e c r o f t e r s ' ; s c a r c e l y more t h a n m i l k , p o t a t o e s , o a t m e a l , and s h e l l - f i s h . T h e i r h o u s i n g , t o o , was c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s s u b s t a n t i a l . W i t h no f i r m h o l d on l a n d , t h e y l i v e d i n h u r r i e d l y - c o n s t r u c t e d e a r t h and s t o n e h o v e l s , p a r t l y b u r r o w e d i n t o t h e g r o u n d , w i t h r o o f s made o f d r i f t w o o d , c o v e r e d w i t h h e a t h e r and t u r f . 31 C o t t e r s were h a r d l y b e t t e r o f f t h a n b e g g a r s . A l t h o u g h f i r m l y w i t h i n t h e " C e l t i c f r i n g e , " t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y a p p e a r s t o have been t h e ; most b a s i c u n i t o f c r o f t i n g 32 s o c i e t y . P a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n f o r m e d t h e m a j o r i t y o f h o u s e h o l d s , w h i l e t h e r e m a i n d e r c o m p r i s e d n u c l e a r g r o u p s t h a t i n c l u d e d g r a n d p a r e n t s and n ewly m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n . W i t h i n crowded t o w n s h i p s , c r o f t i n g f a m i l i e s s t r u g g l e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r h o l d i n g s and t h e i r r i g h t s t o t h e commons. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e m i n i s t e r o f N o r t h U i s t , t h e i r " c h i e f e a r t h l y a n x i e t y was t o pay t h e i r r e n t s , r e t a i n t h e i r s m a l l 33 p o s s e s s i o n s and k e e p t h e i r f a m i l i e s a b o u t them." To e n s u r e t h i s , f a m i l i e s d e pended on t h e r u l e s g o v e r n i n g t h e 61 c o l l e c t i v e u s e o f t h e commons. A t o w n s h i p c o n s t a b l e was e l e c t e d t o p r o t e c t c r o f t e r s ' r i g h t s , and he r i g o r o u s l y c h e c k e d o v e r - s t o c k i n g o f t h e g r a z i n g s and t h e c u t t i n g o f p e a t on t h e commons. Beyond t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y , c r o f t e r s c o u l d c o u n t on t h e s u p p o r t o f l a r g e r k i n g r o u p s . F a m i l i e s had become l i n k e d o v e r t h e g e n e r a t i o n s and c o n s a n g u i n e o u s c o m m u n i t i e s had d e v e l o p e d . One o r two surnames w o u l d a c c o u n t f o r most o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n s u c h a community. A l t h o u g h m u t u a l a i d and a s s i s t a n c e between r e l a t i v e s was common, t h e p e r s o n a l bonds between c l a n c h i e f and h i s t e n a n t s had l o n g - s i n c e v a n i s h e d . A l m o s t a l l t h e c h i e f s were a b s e n t e e l a n d l o r d s who were r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e i r e s t a t e s by a f a c t o r , o f t e n a L o w l a n d e r , who had no i n t i m a t e p e r s o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h t h e p e o p l e . Most o f t h e few t a c k s m e n were p o o r and p r o b a b l y d e t e s t e d by t h e i r t e n a n t s . I n t h e l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y Roman C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s t o o k c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r p a s t o r a l c h a r g e s , and i n t h e f a c e o f l a n d l o r d h o s t i l i t y f r e q u e n t l y e n c o u r a g e d t h e i r 34 c o n g r e g a t i o n s t o e m i g r a t e . P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r s , f o r t h e most p a r t , were on t h e s i d e o f l a i r d and f a c t o r , r a t h e r 35 t h a n c r o f t e r . They f r e q u e n t l y depended on t h e l a n d l o r d s f o r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t and some, a t l e a s t i n Skye i n t h e 1820's and 1830's, a c t e d as e s t a t e f a c t o r s and r a n s h e e p f a r m s . A c c o r d i n g t o a s t a t e m e n t t o t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y o f t h e C h u r c h o f S c o t l a n d i n 1824, t h e c l e r g y o f t h e n o r t h w e s t H i g h l a n d s were i n g e n e r a l " i n a t t e n t i v e t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f 36 r e l i g i o n " and o f t e n l a c k e d a w o r k i n g knowledge o f G a e l i c . E v a n g e l i c a l s e x p l o i t e d t h e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t o f t h e E s t a b l i s h e d C h u r c h by p r e a c h i n g i n t h e t o w n s h i p s and c i r c u l a t i n g G a e l i c B i b l e s . They a t l e a s t o f f e r e d some m o r a l and . s p i r i t u a l s u p p o r t t o a p e o p l e s t r u g g l i n g t o eke o u t a l i v e l i h o o d . The C l e a r a n c e s T h e r e were two p e r i o d s o f S c o t t i s h e m i g r a t i o n t o Cape B r e t o n . The f i r s t , between 1802 and 1827, c o m p r i s e d t e n a n t s f r o m o l d r u n r i g t o w n s h i p s who were l e a v i n g , m o s t l y o f t h e i r own v o l i t i o n , b e f o r e t h e w i n d o f a g r i c u l t u r a l change b l e w c o l d e r . The s e c o n d , between 1827 and 1845, was much l a r g e r and, c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f d e s t i t u t e c r o f t e r s and c o t t e r s c l e a r e d f r o m t h e l a n d , o f t e n e m i g r a t i n g b e c a u s e t h e i r p a s s a g e had been p a i d by t h e l a n d l o r d . The f i r s t p e r i o d o f e m i g r a t i o n began w i t h t h e t r e a t y o f Amiens and c l o s e d w i t h t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e k e l p i n d u s t r y i n 1827. I n g e n e r a l , t h i s e m i g r a t i o n c a n be c h a r a c t e r i s e d a s t h e " p e o p l e ' s c l e a r a n c e , " f o r H i g h l a n d e r s were c o n s c i o u s l y d e c i d i n g t o l e a v e r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g p u s h e d o f f by t h e 37 l a n d l o r d s . Many o f t h o s e l e a v i n g were r e a c t i n g t o t h e s w i t c h f r o m r u n r i g a g r i c u l t u r e t o c r o f t i n g and k e l p i n g , and f e a r e d t h e y w o u l d l o s e l a n d and r i g h t s i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n . On L o r d M a c D o n a l d ' s e s t a t e on Skye, f o r example, t h e s u r v e y o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l a y i n g o u t t h e new c r o f t s r e p o r t e d i n 1799 t h a t t h e t e n a n t s ' " a d h e r e n c e t o i n v e t e r a t e o p i n i o n s 63 and o l d u n c o r r e c t e d c u s t o m s o p e r a t e s p o w e r f u l l y a g a i n s t 38 improvements o r e v e n a l t e r a t i o n s . " S i m i l a r l y , on N o r t h U i s t , t h e y were " e q u a l l y a v e r s e t o s e t t l e i n s i t u a t i o n s f o r 39 v i l l a g e s o r t o t a k e moor c r o f t s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t s . " I n 1802, one H i g h l a n d c l e r g y m a n c o n c l u d e d t h a t T h i s p l a n o f improvement has p u t t h e w h o l e H i g h l a n d s i n t o commotion. They who a r e d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s ... f e e l a r e l u c t a n c e i n s e t t l i n g anywhere e l s e , c o n c e i v e a d i s g u s t a t t h e i r c o u n t r y , and t h e r e f o r e p r e f e r l e a v i n g i t ... and t h e c o n n e c t i o n once b r o k e n t h e y c a r e n o t where t h e y go.40 Most o f t h o s e e a r l y , v o l u n t a r y e m i g r a n t s l e f t b etween 1802 and 1803 when t h e f u l l o n s l a u g h t o f a g r i c u l t u r a l change was a f f e c t i n g t h e W e s t e r n H i g h l a n d s and I s l a n d s and b e f o r e t h e o u t b r e a k o f war i n 1 8 0 3 . I n two y e a r s , n e a r l y 7,000 41 H i g h l a n d e r s s a i l e d f o r B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a . L a n d l o r d s were so a l a r m e d t h a t t h e i r e s t a t e s w o u l d be d e p o p u l a t e d and c h e a p l a b o u r f o r t h e k e l p i n d u s t r y d i s a p p e a r t h a t t h e y j o i n e d h u m a n i t a r i a n s t o l o b b y f o r an a c t t o i m p r o v e 42 c o n d i t i o n s on e m i g r a n t s h i p s . S t r i c t e r r e g u l a t i o n s on t h e e m i g r a n t t r a d e w o u l d , o f c o u r s e , r a i s e t h e p r i c e o f a b e r t h and so stem t h e e x o d u s . A l t h o u g h t h e P a s s e n g e r A c t was p a s s e d i n May 1 8 0 3 , t h e o u t b r e a k o f renewed h o s t i l i t i e s w i t h F r a n c e i n t h e same month p r o b a b l y d i d more t o c u r t a i l t h e o u t f l o w . The d i s r u p t i o n o f s h i p p i n g , army r e c r u i t i n g , and t h e k e l p boom r e d u c e d t h e e m i g r a n t f l o w t o a t r i c k l e ; between 1803 and 1812 o n l y a b o u t 2,500 p e o p l e l e f t t h e 43 H i g h l a n d s f o r B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a . A f t e r t h e end o f t h e war, e m i g r a t i o n resumed a g a i n w i t h s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d s a i l i n g a c r o s s t h e A t l a n t i c ( F i g . 2 . 4 ) . — Many o f t h o s e who l e f t d u r i n g t h i s f i r s t p e r i o d a r r i v e d i n e a s t e r n Nova S c o t i a , e s p e c i a l l y P i c t o u and A n t i g o n i s h , and i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . Some, l i k e t h o s e o n b o a r d t h e ' N o r t h e r n F r i e n d s , ' a r r i v e d i n Cape B r e t o n , b u t numbers a r e d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e . P e r h a p s no more t h a n 5,000 H i g h l a n d e r s r e a c h e d Cape B r e t o n b e f o r e 1827 and some o f t h o s e who came b e f o r e 1817, when r e s t r i c t i v e l a n d 44 r e g u l a t i o n s were i n f o r c e , s o o n l e f t . Many o f t h e e m i g r a n t s must have had some c a p i t a l i n S c o t l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e c o m i n g a f t e r 1803 when t h e P a s s e n g e r A c t s were i n f o r c e ; t h e n a f a m i l y o f f i v e n e e d e d a b o u t £30 o r £40 j u s t t o c r o s s t h e A t l a n t i c . I n 1817, t h e 382 p a s s e n g e r s f r o m B a r r a who a r r i v e d a t Sydney o n b o a r d t h e 'Hope' and ' W i l l i a m T e l l ' had p a i d 8 g u i n e a s f o r e a c h a d u l t 45 and 6 g u i n e a s f o r e a c h c h i l d u n d e r t h e age o f 7. C o n t e m p o r a r y comment f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e l y p r o s p e r o u s r a t h e r t h a n t h e d e s t i t u t e were l e a v i n g . I n 1827, j u s t b e f o r e t h e mass c l e a r a n c e s b e g a n , t h e f a c t o r o f t h e S e a f o r t h e s t a t e on L e w i s f e a r e d t h a t " s e v e r a l o f t h e b e s t t e n a n t s " w o u l d e m i g r a t e u n l e s s t h e y g o t " t e n u r e s o f a f i x e d d u r a t i o n , " and c o n c l u d e d t h a t " t h e e v i l o f ... e m i g r a t i o n i s t h a t t h e b e s t & most a c t i v e t e n a n t s go & l e a v e t h e p o o r & 46 weak b e h i n d . " T h a t same y e a r , s i m i l a r s e n t i m e n t s were e x p r e s s e d by C l a n R a n a l d ' s f a c t o r on S o u t h U i s t who t h o u g h t t h a t i f e m i g r a t i o n was s p o n s o r e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t , t h e p r o p r i e t o r s s h o u l d have t h e r i g h t t o s e l e c t t h e e m i g r a n t s o t h e r w i s e " t h e most w e a l t h y and i n d u s t r i o u s o f o u r 65 Total passengers Nova Scotia Cape Breton 1850 Years F i g u r e 2.4 I m m i g r a t i o n t o Nova S c o t i a and Cape B r e t o n f r o m S c o t t i s h p o r t s , 1815-1850. Data f r o m J . S . M a r t e l l ' i m m i g r a t i o n t o and E m i g r a t i o n f r o m Nova S c o t i a 1815-1838' and R.G. F l e w w e l l i n g A p p e n d i x I I t o ' i m m i g r a t i o n t o and E m i g r a t i o n f r o m Nova S c o t i a 1839-1851' (Mss. i n PANS). 66 p o p u l a t i o n w i l l e m i g r a t e , and we w i l l be l e f t w i t h t h e 47 d r e g s . 1 1 The s e c o n d e m i g r a t i o n d epended much more d i r e c t l y on t h e l a n d l o r d s . The k e l p i n d u s t r y , t h e u n d e r p i n n i n g o f t h e c r o f t i n g economy i n t h e W e s t e r n H i g h l a n d s and I s l a n d s , c o l l a p s e d i n t h e 1820 ' s . K e l p p r i c e s had b een d e c l i n i n g s i n c e 1808 when t h e y r e a c h e d an a l l - t i m e h i g h o f £20 p e r t o n , t h e n plummeted i n t h e l a t e 1820 ' s . A f t e r 1813 g l a s s and s o a p m a n u f a c t u r e r s had b een c a m p a i g n i n g f o r a l o w e r i n g o f t a r i f f s on f o r e i g n a l k a l i , and as s a l t became i n c r e a s i n g l y u s e d i n t h e making o f a l k a l i , ' t h e y a l s o p e t i t i o n e d f o r t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e s a l t t a x . I n t h e e a r l y 1820 ' s , i m p o r t d u t i e s were l o w e r e d and i n 1825 t h e s a l t t a x was a b o l i s h e d . The e f f e c t on k e l p p r i c e s was s w i f t and d r a m a t i c . K e l p t h a t b r o u g h t £ 9 . 4 / - p e r t o n i n 1823 f e l l t o 48 £ 6 . 1 6 / - i n 1826, £ 4 . 1 4 / - i n 1827, and £ 3 . 1 3 / - i n 1828. I n 1827, t h e p r i c e was l o w e r t h a n t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n and t r a n s p o r t , and t h r o u g h o u t t h e West C o a s t and i s l a n d s t h e i n d u s t r y f a i l e d . T h a t y e a r , C l a n R a n a l d ' s f a c t o r on S o u t h U i s t r e p o r t e d : owing t o t h e f a l l i n t h e p r i c e o f k e l p i t w o u l d be c o n v e n i e n t t o d i s c o n t i n u e t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f t h a t i n f e r i o r k e l p f o r a s e a s o n ... i n f e r i o r k e l p w i l l n o t a g a i n be s a l e a b l e a t any p r i c e . 4 9 By 1830, p r o d u c t i o n had s t o p p e d i n t h e k e l p a r e a s a l o n g t h e West C o a s t - A r d n amurchan, S u n a r t , and M o r v e r n - and o n l y 50 t h e h i g h e s t g r a d e s were b e i n g p r o d u c e d on t h e i s l a n d s . D u r i n g t h o s e same y e a r s , p r i c e s f o r c a t t l e , t h e c r o f t e r s ' o t h e r m a i n s t a p l e , were a l s o f a l l i n g . I n l i n e 67 w i t h t h e g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n t h a t had s e i z e d B r i t a i n s i n c e t h e end o f t h e N a p o l e o n i c War, c a t t l e p r i c e s had f a l l e n f r o m £6 f o r a t h r e e y e a r o l d i n 1810 t o a b o u t 51 £ 3 . 1 0 / - i n t h e 1830 ' s . "Had t h e p r i c e s c o n t i n u e d as h i g h as f o r m e r l y " one f a c t o r r e p o r t e d i n 1823, " i t i s l i k e l y t h a t 52 no g r e a t sums o f a r r e a r s w o u l d have been l o s t . " As i t was, t h e c a t t l e t r a d e c o u l d n o t t a k e up t h e s l a c k c r e a t e d by t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e k e l p i n d u s t r y . A l l t h e w h i l e r e n t s r e m a i n e d s t a b l e , s e t a t t h e i r i n f l a t e d w a r - t i m e l e v e l s . S o u t h U i s t , f o r example, was 53 r e n t e d a t £ 2 , 4 0 8 i n 1811 and £ 3 , 0 0 0 i n 1830. Few l a n d l o r d s w i s h e d t o j e o p a r d i s e t h e i r s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g by l o w e r i n g r e n t s ; " I t i s i m p o s s i b l e I c a n f o r e g o t h e p r e s e n t r e n t " c o m p l a i n e d L o r d M a c D o n a l d i n 1817, " w i t h o u t e x t r e m e 54 i n c o n v e n i e n c e t o my a f f a i r s . " Y e t i n c r e a s i n g l y , as t i m e went by and t e n a n t s f e l l i n t o a r r e a r s , t h e s e r e n t s became f i c t i t i o u s . Some t e n a n t s l o s t p r o p e r t y , w h i l e o t h e r s p a i d o f f t h e i r d e b t s by i m p r o v i n g t h e r o a d s , b r i d g e s , and d r a i n s 55 on t h e e s t a t e . Such work c o u l d o n l y go on f o r s o l o n g . As l a n d l o r d f i n a n c e s began t o c r u m b l e , moves were made t o r e o r g a n i s e t h e e s t a t e s and p u t them on a sound f i n a n c i a l f o o t i n g . C l a n R a n a l d ' s f a c t o r on S o u t h U i s t r e p o r t e d i n 1827 t h a t i t was " a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o a r r a n g e [ t h e ] ... e s t a t e s s o as t o draw a r e v e n u e f r o m t h e l a n d s a l t o g e t h e r i n d e p e n d e n t o f k e l p ; " and t o t h e n o r t h , on L o r d M a c D onald's e s t a t e , t h e f a c t o r had r e a c h e d t h e same c o n c l u s i o n by 1839: "The f a l l i n t h e v a l u e o f k e l p r e n d e r s ... a change i n t h e management o f t h e N o r t h U i s t e s t a t e 68 56 n e c e s s a r y . " T h e r e was l i t t l e a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o t u r n t o s h e e p . Sheep f a r m i n g , w h i c h had r e a c h e d t h e b o r d e r s o f t h e W e s t e r n H i g h l a n d s and I s l a n d s i n t h e e a r l y 1800 ' s , swept i n t o t h e r e g i o n i n t h e 1820 's and 1830 ' s . W i t h t h e c o m i n g o f s h e e p , p e o p l e were e v i c t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n . On S o u t h U i s t , t h e p r o c e s s began when t h e c e n t r a l and n o r t h e r n t o w n s h i p s were c l e a r e d i n t h e l a t e 1820's and c o n t i n u e d on t h e r e s t o f t h e I s l a n d and on 57 B e n b e c u l a i n t h e e a r l y 1830 ' s . S i m i l a r e v i c t i o n s o c c u r r e d on L e w i s where a b o u t 28 s e t t l e m e n t s were removed i n t h e 1820's and 1830's, w h i l e on H a r r i s some 13 s e t t l e m e n t s a l o n g 58 t h e w e s t c o a s t o f t h e I s l a n d were c l e a r e d . By 1837, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e s t a t e f a c t o r , t h e p o p u l a t i o n had " i n a g r e a t measure been removed f r o m t h e west c o a s t o f H a r r i s and o t h e r a r r a n g e m e n t s [were] i n c o n t e m p l a t i o n by w h i c h what r e m a i n s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n [were] v e r y l i k e l y s o o n t o be 59 removed." M e a n w h i l e on S kye, t h e c l e a r a n c e s , begun i n t h e f i r s t two d e c a d e s o f t h e c e n t u r y , c o n t i n u e d u n a b a t e d . L a r g e a r e a s o f t h e Dunvegan e s t a t e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e p a r t s o f i t w i t h i n t h e p a r i s h o f B r a c a d a l e , were l e t t o s h e e p f a r m e r s . In 1821, B r a c a d a l e ' s p o p u l a t i o n was 2,103; a d e c a d e l a t e r , i t was 1,769 and t h e d e c r e a s e , r e p o r t e d t h e p a r i s h m i n i s t e r , was " s o l e l y t o be a s c r i b e d t o t h e s y s t e m o f f a r m i n g w h i c h has f o r some t i m e been a d o p t e d , v i z . t h r o w i n g a number o f f a r m s i n t o one l a r g e t a c k [ l e a s e ] f o r s h e e p g r a z i n g and 60 d i s p o s s e s s i n g and s e t t i n g a d r i f t t h e s m a l l t e n a n t s . " S i m i l a r o c c u r r e n c e s were t a k i n g p l a c e on B a r r a , C o l l , and. 69 t h e c o a s t a l p a r i s h e s o f t h e m a i n l a n d . Some o f t h o s e e v i c t e d were r e s e t t l e d on new c r o f t s l a i d o u t on r o c k y m o o r l a n d ; o t h e r s t r u d g e d s o u t h t o t h e L o w l a n d s , o f t e n t o j o i n an i n d u s t r i a l l a b o u r f o r c e and l i v e i n t h e te n e m e n t s o f Glasgow, H a m i l t o n , o r P a i s l e y . Many e m i g r a t e d o v e r s e a s . S i n c e 1815, c o n c e r n had been m o u n t i n g i n t h e r e s t o f B r i t a i n o v e r unemployment, p a u p e r i s m , and c i v i l u n r e s t , and by t h e 1820 's e m i g r a t i o n was b e i n g a d v o c a t e d as a c u r e 61 f o r " o v e r p o p u l a t i o n . " I n t h e e a r l y 1820 ' s , t h e g o v e r n m e n t d i f f u s e d t e n s i o n i n L o w l a n d t e x t i l e towns by h e l p i n g unemployed w e a v e r s t o e m i g r a t e t o B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a , and a few y e a r s l a t e r p r o v i d e d s i m i l a r a s s i s t a n c e t o I r i s h s m a l l - h o l d e r s a f t e r t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e p o t a t o c r o p . I n 1827, t h e P a s s e n g e r A c t was r e p e a l e d . W i t h t h e t i m b e r t r a d e e s t a b l i s h e d between B r i t a i n and h e r N o r t h A m e r i c a n c o l o n i e s , c h e a p p a s s a g e s a c r o s s t h e A t l a n t i c c o u l d be had on t i m b e r s h i p s r e t u r n i n g i n b a l l a s t . And w i t h t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e k e l p i n d u s t r y , e m i g r a t i o n was s e e n by most l a n d l o r d s i n t h e W e s t e r n H i g h l a n d s and I s l a n d s as t h e o n l y o p t i o n f o r t h e i r t e n a n t r y . Few c r o f t e r s had t h e r e a d y c a s h t o e m i g r a t e , b u t many l a n d l o r d s , k e e n t o c l e a r t h e i r e s t a t e s , a b o l i s h e d r e n t a r r e a r s t o a l l o w t e n a n t s t o r a i s e some c a p i t a l f r o m t h e s a l e o f l i v e s t o c k and e q u i p m e n t . C l a n R a n a l d ' s f a c t o r on S o u t h U i s t t h o u g h t t h a t most o f t h o s e a b o u t t o be e v i c t e d "would e m i g r a t e on t h e i r a r r e a r s b e i n g g i v e n up i n d e e d i t i s 62 b e l i e v e d t h e whole w o u l d e m i g r a t e on t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . " On E i g g , t h e " T e n a n t s a r e v e r y much i n a r r e a r s and t h e 70 r e c o v e r y o f t h e s e a r r e a r s i s i n many i n s t a n c e s h o p e l e s s " r e p o r t e d t h e f a c t o r i n 1827, b u t " t h e t e n a n t s have p r e s e n t e d a m e m o r i a l t o t h e T r u s t e e s [ o f C l a n R a n a l d ' s e s t a t e ] p r o p o s i n g t o e m i g r a t e on b e i n g a l l o w e d t o r e t a i n t h e a r r e a r s 63 due by them." A b a t e m e n t s t o c o v e r t h e c o s t o f t h e p a s s a g e were o f t e n i m p l e m e n t e d . Some t e n a n t s were so d e s t i t u t e t h a t e v e n when a r r e a r s had b een w a i v e d t h e y l a c k e d s u f f i c i e n t p o s e s s i o n s t o s e l l . On Sanday, f o r example, t h e t e n a n t s were r e p o r t e d t o be "even i n a worse c o n d i t i o n t h a n t h o s e o f C l i a d e l on E i g ; " were t h e i r a r r e a r s c a n c e l l e d , " t h e y w o u l d s t i l l be u n a b l e t o 64 e m i g r a t e . " I n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , l a n d l o r d a s s i s t a n c e was t h e o n l y r e c o u r s e . I n 1831, one Nova S c o t i a n newspaper r e p o r t e d t h a t "A g r e a t number o f t h o s e who have come o u t t h i s s e a s o n have been s e n t t o o u r s h o r e s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e l a n d e d p r o p r i e t o r s , a s t h e most e c o n o m i c a l means o f 65 g e t t i n g r i d o f a p a u p e r p o p u l a t i o n . " I n 1826, MacLean o f C o l l had a b o u t 300 p e o p l e s h i p p e d f r o m h i s Rhum e s t a t e t o B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a , p a y i n g £ 5 . 1 4 / - f o r e a c h a d u l t p a s s a g e . The I s l a n d was r e - l e t as a s i n g l e s h e e p - f a r m f o r 66 £800 p e r annum, an i n c r e a s e o f a b o u t £ 5 0 0 . E l s e w h e r e , on N o r t h U i s t , L o r d M a c D o n a l d h e l p e d a b o u t 1,300 p e o p l e t o e m i g r a t e between 1838 and 1843, and some o f t h o s e on S o u t h 67 U i s t and B e n b e c u l a were a l s o a s s i s t e d by t h e p r o p r i e t o r . The numbers l e a v i n g were c o n s i d e r a b l e . Between 1826 and 1827, a b o u t 1,300 p e o p l e l e f t Skye f o r B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a ; t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r o v e r 6 0 0 ' l e f t N o r t h U i s t and 6-71 68 800 l e f t H a r r i s . T h e r e were a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l e m i g r a t i o n s f r o m S o u t h U i s t and B a r r a a t t h e same t i m e . As F i g u r e 2.4 shows, many o f t h e s e e m i g r a n t s were a r r i v i n g i n Nova S c o t i a , p a r t i c u l a r l y on Cape B r e t o n . Between 1827 and 1832, t h e Custom House i n Sydney r e c o r d e d t h e a r r i v a l o f 7,300 S c o t t i s h p a s s e n g e r s ; i n 1828 a l o n e , 2,600 a r r i v e d . T h e s e numbers c o n s i d e r a b l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e i n f l o w , f o r as t h e c u s t o m s o f f i c e r s a d m i t t e d i n 1831, ... s e v e r a l v e s s e l s a r r i v e a n n u a l l y and l a n d t h e i r p a s s e n g e r s on t h e W e s t e r n s h o r e o f t h i s I s l a n d , t h e M a s t e r s n e g l e c t i n g t o make any r e p o r t o f t h e number, i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f an o f f i c e r n o t b e i n g s t a t i o n e d a t S h i p H a r b o u r [ P o r t H a w k e s b u r y ] . 6 9 A f t e r 1832, numbers d e c l i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y a l t h o u g h t h e r e were f u r t h e r l a r g e i n f l u x e s i n t h e l a t e 1830 's and e a r l y 1840 ' s . I m m i g r a t i o n v i r t u a l l y c e a s e d i n 1845 when t h e p o t a t o b l i g h t p r o d u c e d n e a r f a m i n e c o n d i t i o n s on Cape B r e t o n , as i t was s o o n t o do i n t h e W e s t e r n H i g h l a n d s and I s l a n d s o f S c o t l a n d . The C o n d i t i o n o f M i g r a t i o n P r o b a b l y most i m m i g r a n t s t o Cape B r e t o n l e f t t h e H i g h l a n d s and I s l a n d s i n f a m i l i e s . When a l a n d l o r d removed t h e p e o p l e f r o m a t o w n s h i p and p a i d f o r t h e i r p a s s a g e o v e r s e a s , f a m i l i e s and e x t e n d e d k i n g r o u p s embarked t o g e t h e r on t h e c h a r t e d v e s s e l s . I n t h e summer o f 1828, t h e L e i t h -r e g i s t e r e d ' S t . L a w r e n c e ' c a r r i e d 208 p a s s e n g e r s f r o m Rhum -p r o b a b l y t h e l a s t i n h a b i t a n t s t o be c l e a r e d f r o m t h a t i s l a n d - t o P o r t Hawkesbury. Of 13 surnames l i s t e d , 4 ( M cKinnon, 72 McLean, McKay, and M c M i l l a n ) a c c o u n t e d f o r 170 p e o p l e , 81% o f t h e t o t a l . 65 o f t h e p a s s e n g e r s were 15 y e a r s o f age o r 70 u n d e r and 20 were 60 o r o v e r . Even when w h o l e s a l e c l e a r a n c e d i d n o t o c c u r , f a m i l y m i g r a t i o n was p r o b a b l y common. As one c o n t e m p o r a r y o b s e r v e d , The f o l l o w i n g v e r y p r u d e n t p l a n has l o n g p r e v a i l e d i n S c o t l a n d .... When a f a m i l y , o r a few f a m i l i e s , d e t e r m i n e on e m i g r a t i n g , some o f t h e so n s o r r e l a t i o n s t h a t a r e grown up, a r e s e n t f o r w a r d t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e r e c e p t i o n o f t h e f a m i l i e s , who a r e t o f o l l o w a f t e r w a r d s . I t o f t e n o c c u r s t h a t t h e young men t h u s s e n t t o A m e r i c a h a v e , f o r two o r t h r e e y e a r s , t o e a r n money, w h i c h t h e y r e m i t t o pay t h e p a s s a g e s o f t h e i r f r i e n d s . 7 1 A f t e r w i t n e s s i n g a l a r g e e m i g r a t i o n f r o m K n o y d a r t i n t h e 1780 ' s , M r s . M a c d o n e l l o f G l e n m e d d l e , M o r a r r e c k o n e d t h a t t h e " p e o p l e , when once t h e y s e t t l e i n Canada, w i l l e n c o u r a g e o t h e r s , a s t h e y a r e now e n c o u r a g e d by some f r i e n d s b e f o r e 72 them. They w i l l f o r m a c h a i n o f e m i g r a t i o n . " F a m i l y t i e s h e l p d i r e c t t h e m i g r a t i o n s t r e a m t o w a r d s Cape B r e t o n . One s e t t l e r , who p r o b a b l y had a r r i v e d on t h e I s l a n d i n t h e l a t e 1820 ' s , w r o t e i n 1830 t o h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w i n t h e c o n g e s t e d t o w n s h i p on t h e A i r d o f Tong: " I w i s h y ou wo u l d s t i l l t h i n k o f coming when I know i t w o u l d be b e t t e r f o r you t h a n b e i n g 73 a t Tunk [Tong] o r any o t h e r p a r t o f L e w i s o r H a r r i s . " C l a n R a n a l d ' s f a c t o r on S o u t h U i s t must have t a k e n n o t e o f such' l i n k s when he was p r e p a r i n g t h e e m i g r a t i o n o f many o f t h e e s t a t e ' s t e n a n t s : " t h e p e o p l e f r o m t h i s c o u n t r y w i l l a l l go t o Cape B r e t o n , and no where e l s e i f t h e y c a n h e l p 74 i t . " E v e n t h o s e e m i g r a n t s c a r r i e d b e y o n d Cape B r e t o n by 73 t i m b e r s h i p s • r e t u r n i n g t o H a l i f a x , S a i n t J o h n , o r t h e M i r a m i c h i s t r u g g l e d b a c k t o t h e I s l a n d t o s e t t l e w i t h 75 f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t p e r i o d o f i m m i g r a t i o n t o Cape B r e t o n , t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e t o d e s t i t u t i o n among t h e p a s s e n g e r s ; p o s s i b l y many s t i l l r e t a i n e d some c a p i t a l t o p u r c h a s e l a n d and s u p p l i e s on t h e I s l a n d . E v e n i n t h e s e c o n d p e r i o d , one newspaper r e p o r t e d t h a t 568 p a s s e n g e r s l a n d e d a t Sydney i n 1832, " a p p e a r e d t o be p e r s o n s i n c o m f o r t a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a l t h o u g h f r o m 1827 onwards 76 s u c h a r r i v a l s were a r a r i t y . W i t h t h e p a s s e n g e r r e g u l a t i o n s r e l a x e d a f t e r 1827, e m i g r a n t s h i p s were u s u a l l y c rowded, u n d e r - p r o v i s i o n e d , and u n s a n i t a r y ; s m a l l - p o x and s h i p - f e v e r t o o k t h e i r t o l l ; and many p a s s e n g e r s were d r o p p e d i n i s o l a t e d c o v e s m i l e s f r o m t h e i r i n t e n d e d d e s t i n a t i o n s . P oor t o s t a r t w i t h , many were d e s t i t u t e when t h e y r e a c h e d Cape B r e t o n . F r e q u e n t l y t h o s e i n " g r e a t p o v e r t y & d i s t r e s s " were "thrown on s h o r e ... i n c a p a b l e o f p r o c u r i n g t h e i r own 77 s u b s i s t e n c e . " Some were s u p p o r t e d by f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s ; o t h e r s by go v e r n m e n t r e l i e f ; b u t no d o u b t many had no one t o h e l p them on t h e i r a r r i v a l . So g r e a t was t h e Nova S c o t i a g o v e r n m e n t ' s e x p e n d i t u r e on a i d , t h a t i n 1832 i t i n s t i t u t e d a h e a d - t a x on i m m i g r a n t s t o r e c o u p some o f i t s 78 o u t l a y . T h i s e x a c e r b a t e d t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e i m m i g a n t s as t h e t a x was u s u a l l y p a s s e d on t o t h e p a s s e n g e r s . A r g u i n g f o r t h e A c t ' s r e p e a l , one Cape B r e t o n member o f t h e House o f As s e m b l y d e c l a r e d t h a t he had s e e n 74 ... t h e b e d d i n g s o l d f r o m u n d e r a p o o r woman, t o r a i s e t h e money t o pay back, t o t h e s h i p m a s t e r t h e amount o f t h a t t a x - and he had s e e n p o o r c h i l d r e n b e g g i n g t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f Sydney f o r t h e means o f p a y i n g t h a t e x a c t i o n t o w h i c h t h e y become l i a b l e , by v e n t u r i n g f r o m one p a r t o f t h e E m p i r e t o a n o t h e r . 7 9 S i m i l a r s c e n e s o f d e s t i t u t i o n c o n t i n u e d u n t i l t h e end o f t h e p e r i o d o f i m m i g r a t i o n . I n 1842, f o r example, J u s t i c e s o f t h e P e a c e a t Sydney a p p l i e d f o r g o v e r n m e n t a i d " t o e r e c t a b u i l d i n g ... f o r t h e r e l i e f o f newly a r r i v e d 80 e m i g r a n t s , and s h i p w r e c k e d seamen and p a s s e n g e r s . " I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1844, "300 odd p o o r e m i g r a n t s f r o m t h e H i g h l a n d s o f S c o t l a n d , " who had a r r i v e d w i t h no means o f p u r c h a s i n g s e e d p o t a t o e s and o a t s " w i t h o u t w h i c h t h e i r o c c u p y i n g w i l d e r n e s s l a n d s , w o u l d be u n a v a i l i n g , " p e t i t i o n e d t h e 81 government f o r r e l i e f . They were among t h e l a s t s u c h c a s e s ; t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e p o t a t o c r o p f a i l e d and d e s t i t u t e e m i g r a n t s f r o m S c o t l a n d were d i r e c t e d e l s e w h e r e . The i m m i g r a n t s t o ' Cape B r e t o n d u r i n g t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y had been u p r o o t e d by a g r i c u l t u r a l c h a n g e s i m p l e m e n t e d by t h e l a n d l o r d s on t h e i r e s t a t e s . A few i m m i g r a n t s had l e f t b e f o r e t h e c h a n g e s had been c a r r i e d t h r o u g h , h o p i n g t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r way o f l i f e i n a new s e t t i n g o v e r s e a s ; b u t most l a c k e d s u f f i c i e n t means t o e x e r c i s e t h a t c h o i c e . They were c l e a r e d f r o m t h e l a n d and " s h o v e l l e d o u t " t o t h e New W o r l d , t h e i r p a s s a g e s o f t e n p a i d f r o m t h e p r o f i t s l a n d l o r d s had made f r o m s h e e p f a r m i n g . A l m o s t t h e n e a r e s t N o r t h A m e r i c a n l a n d f a l l t o E u r o p e and on t h e r o u t e o f r e t u r n i n g t i m b e r s h i p s , Cape B r e t o n was a c h e a p d e s t i n a t i o n . By 1829, as t h e i m m i g r a t i o n o f d e s t i t u t e 75 p e o p l e was a t i t s peak, c o n t e m p o r i e s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t Cape 8 2 B r e t o n had become "a r e f u g e f o r t h e p o o r . " 76 3 A g r i c u l t u r a l S e t t l e m e n t i n t h e E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y The p o p u l a t i o n o f Cape B r e t o n i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y d u r i n g t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . From 2,500 i n 1801, i t grew 1 t o n e a r l y 19,000 i n 1827-30. By 1838, i t was more t h a n 2 35,000, and i n 1851 was a l m o s t 55,000. I m m i g r a t i o n a c c o u n t e d f o r much o f t h i s g r o w t h . Some 20,000 c r o f t e r s and c o t t e r s had a r r i v e d f r o m W e s t e r n S c o t l a n d , and p e r h a p s a 3 t h o u s a n d I r i s h l a b o u r e r s had d r i f t e d i n f r o m N e w f o u n d l a n d . V i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e S c o t s were f a r m e r s and q u i c k l y t o o k up t h e v a c a n t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d on t h e I s l a n d . By t h e 1820 's t h e y had e n v e l o p e d t h e L o y a l i s t c o m m u n i t i e s a t Baddeck and Sydney, and e s t a b l i s h e d a d o m i n a n t p o s i t i o n i n r u r a l Cape B r e t o n . Some o f t h e I r i s h were f a r m e r s and s e t t l e d among t h e S c o t s , b u t many worked a t Sydney M i n e s and o t h e r s augmented t h e e x i s t i n g I r i s h f i s h i n g p o p u l a t i o n s a t L o u i s b o u r g and M a i n a D i e u . W i t h r e l a t i v e l y few s e t t l e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e f i s h e r y , t h e A c a d i a n s were l e f t a l m o s t u n t o u c h e d by t h e i n f l u x and c o n t i n u e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r s e p a r a t e e n c l a v e s on t h e A t l a n t i c and G u l f s h o r e s . B u t t h e y were no l o n g e r t h e l a r g e s t e t h n i c g r o u p . By t h e s e c o n d d e c a d e o f t h e c e n t u r y , S c o t s were p r o b a b l y t h e d o m i n a n t 77 g r o u p on Cape B r e t o n , and f a r m i n g had d i s p l a c e d t h e f i s h e r y as t h e I s l a n d ' s m a i n e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y . The f i r s t wave o f S c o t t i s h s e t t l e r s a r r i v e d between 1802 and 1827 and o c c u p i e d much ' o f t h e I s l a n d ' s b e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . C o n s i s t i n g o f r i c h i n t e r v a l e o r meadow l a n d a l o n g t h e m a j o r r i v e r v a l l e y s and g e n t l y r o l l i n g f r o n t l a n d a r o u n d t h e c o a s t s , t h i s l a n d was a c c e s s i b l e and e a s y t o c u l t i v a t e . S o i l s a r e r e l a t i v e l y deep, m o d e r a t e l y t e x t u r e d , l a r g e l y f r e e o f s t o n e s , and u s u a l l y w e l l - d r a i n e d . O n l y t h e i n t e r v a l e s , w h i c h a r e s u b j e c t t o s e a s o n a l f l o o d i n g , n eeded d y k i n g and d r a i n a g e . A r r i v i n g w i t h some c a p i t a l , t h e e a r l y s e t t l e r s q u i c k l y t o o k o u t g r a n t s . By 1820, l a n d had been g r a n t e d a l o n g much o f t h e we s t c o a s t between C h e t i c a m p and I n h a b i t a n t s Bay, and on t h e e a s t c o a s t a r o u n d t h e arms 4 o f Sydney H a r b o u r ( F i g . 3 . 1 ) . P o c k e t s o f g r a n t e d l a n d a l s o e x i s t e d on t h e e a s t c o a s t a t Cape N o r t h , L i n g a n , and M i r a Bay. Away f r o m t h e c o a s t s , l a n d had been g r a n t e d a l o n g much o f t h e I n h a b i t a n t s , Mabou, M a r g a r e e , Baddeck, and M i r a r i v e r v a l l e y s , and t h e r e were s m a l l e r p a t c h e s a t E a s t Bay and McNab's Cove on t h e B r a s d'Or L a k e . I n t h e n e x t d e c a d e , much more o f t h e i n t e r v a l e was a l i e n a t e d . By 1830, t h e a r e a o f g r a n t e d l a n d e x t e n d e d f a r t h e r a l o n g t h e Mabou and M a r g a r e e r i v e r s , and i n t o t h e b r o a d , p r e v i o u s l y u n t o u c h e d v a l l e y o f M i d d l e R i v e r . Many o f t h e gaps a l o n g t h e west c o a s t were a l s o g r a n t e d . Much o f t h e b e s t l a n d on t h e I s l a n d was now t a k e n . 78 F i g u r e 3.1 Crown l a n d g r a n t s on Cape B r e t o n , 1786-1820. Dat a f r o m t h e R e c o r d s o f t h e Crown Lands O f f i c e , 1738 t o 1962, RG 20/A/3 PANS, and t h e Crown L a n d Index S h e e t s 108-12, 114-33, and 135-40, Nova S c o t i a D e p t . o f Lands and F o r e s t s . 79 The s e c o n d wave o f S c o t t i s h i m m i g r a n t s , c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y o f d e s t i t u t e c r o f t e r s and c o t t e r s , a r r i v e d between 1827 and 1845 and o c c u p i e d t h e r e m a i n i n g good l a n d and e x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f p o o r e r b a c k l a n d . B e c a u s e many o f t h e s e s e t t l e r s s q u a t t e d on Crown l a n d and o f t e n d i d n o t o b t a i n a g r a n t u n t i l t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e c e n t u r y , F i g u r e 3.2 c o n s i d e r a b l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e s t h e e x t e n t o f s e t t l e m e n t . The f e r t i l e t r a c t s t h a t were s e t t l e d l a y m a i n l y a r o u n d t h e B r a s d'Or L a k e and a l o n g m i n o r r i v e r v a l l e y s . A t t h e w e s t end o f t h e B r a s d'Or, l a n d was g r a n t e d a t t h e h e a d o f West Bay, S t . G e o r g e ' s C h a n n e l , M a l a g a w a t c h , and a l o n g p a r t s o f R i v e r Denys B a s i n and Whycocomagh Bay. A t t h e e a s t end o f t h e L a k e , g r a n t s were t a k e n o u t a l o n g b o t h s i d e s o f E a s t Bay and S t . Andrew's C h a n n e l as w e l l as a t G r a n d N a r r o w s , Washabuck B r i d g e , Baddeck, and B o u l a r d e r i e . T h e r e was l i t t l e f r o n t l a n d l e f t a l o n g t h e G u l f c o a s t , b u t s e t t l e r s t o o k up l a n d a l o n g G r a n d Anse R i v e r a t P l e a s a n t Bay t o t h e n o r t h o f C h e t i c a m p . The e a s t c o a s t was s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y u n t o u c h e d , and l a n d was g r a n t e d a l o n g A spy R i v e r a t Cape N o r t h , Dundas B r o o k a t I n g o n i s h , N o r t h S h o r e , a l o n g N o r t h R i v e r , S t . Ann's, B r i d g e p o r t , and P o r t M o r i e n . Much o f t h e s o u t h c o a s t was t o o r o c k y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t . I n l a n d , s e t t l e r s p u s h e d i n t o t h e f a r t h e s t r e a c h e s o f t h e i n t e r v a l e s , t a k i n g up l a n d a t K i n g r o s s a t t h e h e a d o f t h e N o r t h w e s t M a r g a r e e and a l o n g t h e 0'Law B r o o k w h i c h f l o w s i n t o M i d d l e R i v e r . Land was a l s o g r a n t e d a l o n g t h e i n t e r v a l e s o f G r a n d R i v e r and R i v e r Denys. 80 F i g u r e 3.2 Crown l a n d g r a n t s on Cape B r e t o n , 1786-1850 Dat a f r o m t h e R e c o r d s o f t h e Crown Lands O f f i c e , 1738 t 19 62, RG 20/A/3 PANS, and t h e Crown Land Index S h e e t s 108-12, 114-33, and 135-40, Nova S c o t i a D e p t . o f Lands and F o r e s t s . 81 When t h e s e r e l a t i v e l y f e r t i l e a r e a s had been o c c u p i e d , s e t t l e r s were f o r c e d o n t o b a c k l a n d b e h i n d t h e f i r s t r a n g e o f l o t s . B a c k l a n d t o p o g r a p h y v a r i e s f r o m t h e r o c k y , g l a c i a t e d l o w l a n d s i n t h e s o u t h o f t h e I s l a n d t o t h e h i l l s i d e s and p l a t e a u summits o f t h e u p l a n d s i n t h e n o r t h . S o i l s a r e t h i n and s t o n y , and e i t h e r e r o d e q u i c k l y o r a r e t o o wet t o d r a i n . Much o f t h e l a n d i s b e s t s u i t e d t o r o u g h p a s t u r e o r f o r e s t r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , many o f t h e l a t e r i m m i g r a n t s were s e t t l e d on b a c k l a n d by m i d - c e n t u r y , a measure o f t h e s c a l e o f t h e i n f l u x a nd m e a g r e n e s s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d on Cape B r e t o n . The mai n a r e a s o f s e t t l e m e n t were i n Cape B r e t o n C o u n t y on t h e B o i s d a l e and C o x h e a t h H i l l s o v e r l o o k i n g F r e n c h v a l e B r o o k , and a l o n g Salmon R i v e r between M i r a Lake and L a k e U i s t . I n Richmond C o u n t y , s e t t l e m e n t o c c u r r e d on t h e knobby and l a k e - s t r e w n l a n d b e h i n d F r a m b o i s e , between Red I s l a n d s and L o c h Lomond, a l o n g t h e L e w i s Cove Road, and on S o u t h M o u n t a i n . To t h e n o r t h , i n I n v e r n e s s C o u n t y , s e t t l e m e n t t o o k p l a c e on t h e t h i n s t r i p b etween West Bay and N o r t h M o u n t a i n , on t h e C r e i g n i s h H i l l s o v e r l o o k i n g R i v e r Denys, a l o n g Skye G l e n , and a r o u n d p a r t s o f L a k e A i n s l i e . T h e r e were many o t h e r s m a l l p a t c h e s o f b a c k l a n d s e t t l e m e n t on t h e I s l a n d , u s u a l l y c l u s t e r e d a l o n g s t r e a m v a l l e y s where some a l l u v i a l s o i l was a v a i l a b l e . L a n d P o l i c y A l t h o u g h l a r g e numbers o f i m m i g r a n t s began a r r i v i n g on Cape B r e t o n a f t e r 1802, s e t t l e m e n t was o f f i c i a l l y 82 d i s c o u r a g e d u n t i l 1817. D u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , t h e r e s t r a i n i n g o r d e r on t h e g r a n t i n g o f l a n d , i s s u e d i n 1790, r e m a i n e d i n f o r c e : l a n d c o u l d o n l y be g r a n t e d i n f e e s i m p l e t o bona f i d e L o y a l i s t s and d i s b a n d e d s o l d i e r s , o r l e a s e d t o t e n a n t s a t ,5 w i l l . Many s e t t l e r s , however, s i m p l y i g n o r e d t h e r e g u l a t i o n s and s q u a t t e d ; t h e government was a l m o s t p o w e r l e s s t o s t o p them. B u t few were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n . S q u a t t e r s and t e n a n t s l o b b i e d t h e G o v e r n i n g C o u n c i l f o r p e r m a n e n t g r a n t s , and government o f f i c i a l s warned t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e o f t h e d r i f t o f d i s s a t i s f i e d 6 s e t t l e r s t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . E v e n t u a l l y , t h e r e g u l a t i o n s were l o o s e n e d . A f t e r 1815, t h e B r i t i s h g o v e r n m e n t , w o r r i e d by e c o n o m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s and s o c i a l u n r e s t a t home, l o o k e d t o t h e c o l o n i e s as "a s a f e t y v a l v e " f o r t h e c o u n t r y ' s s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n and began t o e n c o u r a g e e m i g r a t i o n and o v e r s e a s s e t t l e m e n t . I n 1817, t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e i n London i n s t r u c t e d t h e government o f Cape B r e t o n t o a d o p t t h e more f l e x i b l e l a n d r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e 7 n e i g h b o u r i n g c o l o n i e s and i s s u e g r a n t s i n f e e s i m p l e . A f t e r p a y i n g £3-5 t o t h e Crown L a n d s O f f i c e f o r f i l i n g t h e g r a n t and s u r v e y i n g t h e l o t , a s e t t l e r c o u l d a c q u i r e 200 a c r e s s u b j e c t t o an a n n u a l q u i t - r e n t o f 2/- p e r 100 a c r e s p a y a b l e a f t e r two y e a r s o f o c c u p a t i o n . The s e t t l e r a l s o had t o e r e c t a h o u s e , c l e a r and c u l t i v a t e 3 o f e v e r y 50 a c r e s , and p l a c e 3 n e a t c a t t l e on t h e l a n d w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s . I n 1820, when Nova S c o t i a resumed j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r Cape B r e t o n , j o i n t g r a n t s t o t h r e e , f o u r , o r f i v e a p p l i c a n t s were 83 p e r m i t t e d t o r e d u c e t h e c o s t o f s u r v e y and so make 8 s e t t l e m e n t "as e a s y as p o s s i b l e t o p o o r s e t t l e r s . " A l t h o u g h f e e s were a few p o u n d s , q u i t - r e n t s were n e v e r c o l l e c t e d and, i n e f f e c t , a f o r e s t e d 200 a c r e l o t was 9 a v a i l a b l e f o r l e s s t h a n £ 5 . F o r r e l a t i v e l y p r o s p e r o u s S c o t t i s h c r o f t e r s a r r i v i n g on Cape B r e t o n between 1817 and 182 7 when more s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n s were i n t r o d u c e d , l a n d was t h e r e a l m o s t f o r t h e t a k i n g . A 200 a c r e l o t c o u l d be p u r c h a s e d f o r a b o u t t h e same amount as t h e a n n u a l r e n t o f a 5 a c r e c r o f t i n t h e H i g h l a n d s . Many s e t t l e r s q u i c k l y t o o k o u t l a n d g r a n t s . By 1820, 541 g r a n t s c o m p r i s i n g 229,220 a c r e s had been i s s u e d , 10 most o f them on t h e b e s t i n t e r v a l e l a n d on t h e I s l a n d . C o n s i d e r a b l y more money w o u l d be n e e d e d t o c a r r y t h e s e t t l e r t h r o u g h h i s f i r s t few y e a r s on Cape B r e t o n and t o i m p r o v e h i s f a r m ; b u t w i t h some s a v i n g s and p e r h a p s s e a s o n a l employment i n t h e m i n e s o r on o t h e r f a r m s , many o f t h e s e e a r l y s e t t l e r s became s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . 11 In 1827 new r e g u l a t i o n s were ' i n t r o d u c e d . I n an a t t e m p t t o s t a n d a r d i s e t h e d i s p e r s a l o f Crown l a n d i n t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s and t o e n c o u r a g e s e t t l e r s w i t h c a p i t a l , t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e r e p l a c e d t h e i n e f f e c t u a l s y s t e m o f q u i t -r e n t s and f r e e g r a n t s w i t h a s y s t e m o f l a n d s a l e s a t p u b l i c a u c t i o n . A r e s e r v e o r u p s e t p r i c e o f between 2/3 and 2/6 p e r a c r e was s e t , p u s h i n g up t h e p r i c e o f a 200 a c r e l o t f r o m a b o u t £5 t o £ 2 5 , a f i v e - f o l d i n c r e a s e . The p u r c h a s e -money was p a i d i n f o u r e q u a l i n s t a l l m e n t s , t h e f i r s t a t t h e t i m e o f s a l e and t h e r e s t a t y e a r l y i n t e r v a l s . A l t h o u g h 84 t h i s gave p o o r e r s e t t l e r s some c h a n c e o f b u y i n g l a n d , t h i s was c o m p l e t e l y d a s h e d i n 1837 when t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e o r d e r e d t h a t 10% o f t h e p u r c h a s e money had t o be p a i d on t h e 12 day o f s a l e and t h e b a l a n c e w i t h i n f o u r t e e n d a y s . The new r e g u l a t i o n s s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f t h o s e w i t h l i t t l e c a p i t a l t o buy l a n d , and t h i s was s o o n o b v i o u s on Cape B r e t o n . I n 1827, t h o u s a n d s o f p o v e r t y -s t r i c k e n i m m i g r a n t s began a r r i v i n g on t h e I s l a n d , many o f them t o o p o o r t o s u p p o r t t h e m s e l v e s l e t a l o n e p u r c h a s e l a n d a t t h e new r a t e . As a r e s u l t , H.W. C r a w l e y , t h e S u r v e y o r G e n e r a l o f Cape B r e t o n , c o n t i n u e d t o a l l o w s e t t l e m e n t u n d e r t h e o l d r e g u l a t i o n s . I t was n o t u n t i l 1832 t h a t t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e c a u g h t up w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n on t h e I s l a n d 13 and o r d e r e d C r a w l e y t o comply w i t h t h e new d i r e c t i v e . A few h u n d r e d g r a n t s were i s s u e d d u r i n g t h o s e y e a r s ( F i g . 3.3 ) , b u t t h e r e were h a r d l y any a f t e r t h e p u r c h a s e r e g u l a t i o n s were c h a n g e d i n 1837. Fewer t h a t 60 were made 14 i n 1839 and o n l y 22 t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . U n a b l e t o a f f o r d l a n d , t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f i m m i g r a n t s became s q u a t t e r s . In 1837, C r a w l e y e s t i m a t e d t h a t 20,000 p e o p l e o r a b o u t h a l f t h e I s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n were s q u a t t i n g on Crown 15 l a n d . S e v e n y e a r s l a t e r , one army o f f i c e r , g r a n t e d 500 a c r e s , f o u n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a c o m p l e t e t r a c t o f l a n d b e c a u s e " t h e c o u n t r y i s o v e r s p r e a d w i t h p e r s o n s w h ® h a v e , w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n o b t a i n e d ... o r c h o s e n f o r t h e m s e l v e s a l l 16 t h e v a c a n t Crown L a n d s . " 85 F i g u r e 3.3 Number and a c r e a g e o f Crown Land G r a n t s on Cape B r e t o n , 1828-1850. D a t a f r o m A n n u a l Nova S c o t i a B l u e Books and J o u r n a l s o f t h e House o f A s s e m b l y o f Nova S c o t i a . 86 T h e r e was l i t t l e t h e Crown L a n d s O f f i c e c o u l d do t o p r e v e n t s q u a t t i n g . The few s a l e s o f l a n d h a r d l y c o v e r e d t h e s a l a r i e s o f t h e s u r v e y o r s and w i t h t h e go v e r n m e n t u n w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e e x t r a m o n i e s , Crown l a n d l a y p r a c t i c a l l y u n p r o t e c t e d . I n e f f e c t , t h e r e g u l a t i o n s had f o u n d e r e d on t h e huge e x p e n s e o f p o l i c i n g v a s t a r e a s . o f v i r t u a l l y w o r t h l e s s l a n d . As a r e s u l t , t h e law was f l o u t e d on a m a s s i v e s c a l e . " E v e r y body i s a g a i n s t p r o t e c t i n g t h e Crown L a n d s " C r a w l e y c o m p l a i n e d i n 1844, a l l b e i n g i n t e r e s t e d , i n some way, i n t h e p l u n d e r . The l a w y e r s a r e no e x c e p t i o n - Mr. Dodd h i m s e l f [ t h e I s l a n d ' s C h i e f J u s t i c e ] h as o p e n l y a d v e r t i s e d and s o l d l o t s o f t h e Crown L a n d s , and I have no d o u b t has e x e c u t e d many a c o n v e y a n c e f o r p e r s o n s whose o n l y c l a i m was i l l e g a l p o s s e s s i o n . 1 7 W i t h t h e I s l a n d ' s law o f f i c e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s c r a m b l e f o r l a n d , i t was h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t p e o p l e l e a r n t o l o o k upon t h e o r d e r s o f t h e G o v t . as mere m a t t e r s o f f o r m , and c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e y may do a s t h e y p l e a s e , and t h a t t h e s u r e s t way of o b t a i n i n g l a n d i s t o t a k e i t , w i t h o u t t h e d e l a y o f a s k i n g l e a v e , and t o p l u n d e r a t p l e a s u r e . 1 8 The s u r v e y o r s were a l m o s t p o w e r l e s s . I n 18 40, t h e s u r v e y o r f o r Richmond C o u n t y , w h i l e m a r k i n g o u t t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f l o t 9 a t Red I s l a n d s f o r a new owner, was c o n f r o n t e d by a s q u a t t e r , "armed w i t h a b l u d g e o n , " who warned t h a t " t h e f i r s t p e r s o n who w o u l d e n t e r ... h i s f e n c e d f i e l d s , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f ma k i n g a s u r v e y , w o u l d n e v e r 19 l e a v e t h e s e f i e l d s a l i v e . " The s u r v e y o r , e a r n e s t l y a d v i s e d by a g a g g l e o f n e i g h b o u r s t h a t t h e s q u a t t e r had " f i r e arms c o n c e a l e d and a p a r t y r e a d y t o make u s e o f them, and t h a t a r e n c o u n t e r w o u l d c e r t a i n l y be a t t e n d e d w i t h f a t a l 87 c o n s e q u e n c e s , " h a s t i l y w i t h d r e w t o make h i s r e p o r t . The. same s u r v e y o r had no more s u c c e s s a few y e a r s l a t e r when l a y i n g o u t l o t s a t Aspy Bay, V i c t o r i a C o u n t y . T h e r e , he e n c o u n t e r e d a n o t h e r s q u a t t e r who "made u s e o f no i l l l a n g u a g e t o me o r any t h r e a t s b e y o n d r e s p e c t f u l l y y e t f i r m l y a s s u r i n g me t h a t n o t h i n g b u t p h y s i c a l f o r c e w o u l d e n a b l e me 20 t o make a s u r v e y ...." A l t h o u g h t h e s u r v e y o r r e q u e s t e d h e l p f r o m t h e l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e s , t h e y d e c l i n e d t o a s s i s t , s a y i n g t h e d i s p u t e was b e y o n d t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . W i t h t h e f o r c e s o f law and o r d e r r e l u c t a n t , o r u n a b l e t o i n t e r v e n e i n m a t t e r s a s i m p o r t a n t a s o w n e r s h i p o f p r o p e r t y , l e g i t i m a t e s e t t l e r s o f t e n had no d e f e n c e a g a i n s t t r e s p a s s e r s . I n many a r e a s C r a w l e y o b s e r v e d , " t h e s t r o n g e s t 21 h e l p s h i m s e l f and t h e weak t a k e s what i s l e f t h im." The 22 c a s e o f Samuel C a m p b e l l i s i l l u s t r a t i v e . B o r n i n 1754, p r o b a b l y i n Skye, C a m p b e l l e n l i s t e d i n t h e 7 6 t h R e g i m e n t o f F o o t when he was 21, and s a i l e d f o r t h e T h i r t e e n C o l o n i e s . T h e r e , he s p e n t f i v e and a h a l f y e a r s f i g h t i n g t h e A m e r i c a n s and a y e a r and a h a l f a s a p r i s o n e r o f war i n V i r g i n i a . A t t h e end o f t h e War, he r e t u r n e d t o S c o t l a n d and was d i s c h a r g e d f r o m t h e army. He p r o b a b l y s p e n t h i s m i d d l e y e a r s c r o f t i n g on Skye f o r i n 1830, when he was 76, he l e f t t h e i s l a n d w i t h h i s f a m i l y f o r Cape B r e t o n . G i v e n a l e t t e r o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n f r o m t h e War O f f i c e a u t h o r i s i n g a f r e e g r a n t o f l a n d , C a m p b e l l p e t i t i o n e d f o r 200 a c r e s , and s e t t l e d b e s i d e t h e Kempt Road i n Richmond C o u n t y . T h r e e y e a r s e l a p s e d b e f o r e a Crown S u r v e y o r marked o u t t h e f r o n t o f t h e l o t and a s m a l l p a r t o f e a c h s i d e . Soon a f t e r , 88 t r e s p a s s e r s began t o s t r i p t h e l o t o f i t s v a l u a b l e t i m b e r . F i r s t , one A l a n M c D o n a l d w i t h a gang o f e i g h t men l o g g e d t h e r e a r o f t h e p r o p e r t y ; t h e n one Murdoch McLeod w i t h f i v e men t o o k away more t i m b e r . A n o t h e r two men, M a l c o l m M c D o n a l d and A r c h i b a l d M c L e l l a n d , began p r e p a r i n g t h e s t u m p - s t r e w n l a n d f o r c u l t i v a t i o n . A l t h o u g h C a m p b e l l managed t o warn o f f M c D o n a l d , M c L e l l a n d s t a y e d p u t , b u i l t a h o u s e , and was j o i n e d by "a t r i b e o f i g n o r a n t R o m a n c a t h o l i k s c a l l e d t h e M c C o r m i c k s c o u s i n s o f h i s own." F a c e d w i t h two f a m i l i e s o f s q u a t t e r s on h i s l a n d , C a m p b e l l p e t i t i o n e d L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r C a m p b e l l i n A u g u s t 1836, f o r a c o m p l e t e s u r v e y o f t h e l o t , and t h i s was c o m p l e t e d i n A p r i l t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . W i t h i n C a m p b e l l ' s l o t , M c L e l l a n d had f e n c e d s e v e n a c r e s w h i l e h i s w i f e ' s u n c l e , D u g a l d M c F a r l a n d , h e l d a n o t h e r p a r c e l . Aged 83, C a m p b e l l f e l t , no d o u b t c o r r e c t l y , t h a t t h e s q u a t t e r s were w a i t i n g f o r him t o d i e and w o u l d t h e n t a k e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e r e s t o f h i s l o t . W i t h l a n d h i s o n l y c r e d i t i n a l a w - s u i t , C a m p b e l l c o m p l a i n e d t o t h e L i e u t e n a n t G o v e r n o r i n J une 1837, " t h a t t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h i s I s l a n d a r e more k e p t u n d e r by t h e q u i r k o f l a w y e r s and s u r v e y o r s t h a n by t h e f r o s t and t h e d e c a y i n t h e p o t a t o e s , " and t h a t a l t h o u g h he w o u l d employ a l a w y e r , he had " n o t h i n g t o g i v e him b u t one m i l k cow t h e o n l y s u p p o r t I have t o k e e p m y s e l f and my a ged w i f e a l i v e . " He a s k e d , t h e r e f o r e , f o r t h e G overnment's c o n s i d e r a t i o n . S q u a t t e r s , t o o , were o f t e n t h r e a t e n e d by e n c r o a c h i n g n e i g h b o u r s , as t h e s i t u a t i o n o f one J o h n M c P h e r s o n i n 89 I n v e r n e s s C o u n t y makes c l e a r . B o r n i n I n v e r n e s s - s h i r e , M c P h e r s o n s e r v e d as a p r i v a t e i n t h e 5 1 s t R e g i m e n t o f F o o t 23 and e m i g r a t e d t o Cape B r e t o n i n 1831. A r r i v i n g w i t h "a weake and h e l p l e s s f a m i l y ... a l l l y i n g i n t h e s m a l l pox" and " b e i n g p o o r and d e s t i t u t e o f money," M c P h e r s o n s q u a t t e d on b a c k l a n d n e a r t h e head o f t h e S o u t h E a s t b r a n c h o f t h e Mabou R i v e r ; h i s 100 a c r e l o t l a y between t h e h o l d i n g s o f one A r c h i b a l d M a c D o n a l d and h i s s o n , J o h n . A f t e r f o u r y e a r s l a b o u r , he had i m p r o v e d a b o u t 15 a c r e s , enough f o r h i m s e l f and f a m i l y t o s u b s i s t on. I n 1835, however, J o h n M a c D o n a l d , w i t h i n months o f g e t t i n g m a r r i e d , b e g an i n t i m i d a t i n g M c P h e r s o n , " i n t h e h o p e s , " n e i g h b o u r s ' c o n j e c t u r e d , " o f a d d i n g more t o h i s l o t . " M a c D o n a l d began d e s t r o y i n g " F i n e woods and f e n c e p o l l s " on M a c P h e r s o n ' s l a n d , as w e l l as p l a n t i n g c r o p s . W i t h "Poor Mr. M c P h e r s o n and F a m i l y ... t r e a t e d b a r b a r o u s l y by t h e s a i d J o h n M c D o n a l d , " t h e l o c a l m a g i s t r a t e c l e a r l y r e g a r d e d M c P h e r s o n ' s c l a i m w o r t h i e r t h a n t h a t o f M c D o n a l d ' s , and a s k e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t f o r a g r a n t t o c o n f i r m M c P h e r s o n ' s h o l d i n g . F a c e d w i t h w i d e s p r e a d l a w l e s s n e s s and s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e s e t t l e r who " o u g ht t o be e n c o u r a g e d , and n o t m o l e s t e d , " t h e Nova S c o t i a l e g i s l a t u r e a t t e m p t e d t o b r i n g t h e r e g u l a t i o n s c l o s e r t o t h e r e a l i t i e s o f s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e 24 c o l o n y . I n 1840, t h e y moved t o r e d u c e t h e minimum p r i c e o f l a n d , b u t t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n o f 1/- p e r a c r e was r e j e c t e d 25 by t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e who i n s i s t e d on 2/6. By e a r l y t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , no one had a p p l i e d f o r l a n d on Cape B r e t o n and o n l y 44 a p p l i c a t i o n s had b een made i n t h e r e s t o f Nova 90 26 S c o t i a . I t was b e c o m i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t t h e r e g u l a t i o n s were u n w o r k a b l e , and i n 1842 t h e L i e u t e n a n t -G o v e r n o r p r o p o s e d t o t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e t h a t s a l e by a u c t i o n s h o u l d be d i s p e n s e d w i t h , t h e u p s e t p r i c e f i x e d a t 27 1/9 p e r a c r e , and payment made a t t h e t i m e o f s a l e . The a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s e p r o p o s a l s by t h e I m p e r i a l Government marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t r a n s f e r o f power t o Nova S c o t i a w h i c h c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e w i n n i n g o f r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t i n 1848. A n o t h e r way o f a c q u i r i n g l a n d on Cape B r e t o n was t o p u r c h a s e Crown l a n d t h a t had b e en a l i e n a t e d . T h i s was u s u a l l y more e x p e n s i v e t h a n b u y i n g Crown l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e l a n d had b e e n i m p r o v e d . Dyked o r c l e a r e d i n t e r v a l e , f o r e xample, was v a l u e d a t £ 1 - 5 an a c r e i n 1850, and a f r o n t l a n d f a r m w i t h 50 c l e a r e d a c r e s c o u l d c o s t £ 5 0 - 7 5 , p e r h a p s 28 more. I n o t h e r w o rds, i m m i g r a n t s who a r r i v e d i n t h e 1830 's a f t e r t h e b e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d had b e e n g r a n t e d , n e e d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c a p i t a l t o s e t t l e i n a f r o n t l a n d d i s t r i c t . A g r i c u l t u r a l M a r k e t s A l t h o u g h Cape B r e t o n o f f e r e d most s e t t l e r s a meagre a g r i c u l t u r a l o p p o r t u n i t y , m a r k e t s f o r .produce were r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . The d o m e s t i c m a r k e t c o m p r i s e d t h e towns, t h e f i s h e r y , and t h e f a r m s . Of t h e s e , t h e f i s h e r y was p r o b a b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t . A l t h o u g h few v e s s e l s were 91 f i t t e d - o u t f o r l o n g v o y a g e s t o t h e Banks , t h e f i s h i n g p o p u l a t i o n p r o v i d e d a m a r k e t f o r s a l t e d b e e f and p o r k , o a t m e a l , and p o t a t o e s . I n 1842, t h e Richmond A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e demand was more t h a n o u r f a r m e r s c a n f u r n i s h , s o t h a t a c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e amount o f f l o u r , p o r k , e t c i s a n n u a l l y i m p o r t e d by o u r m e r c h a n t s - a l s o many c a r g o e s o f p o t a t o e s e t c f r o m P r i n c e E. I s l a n d . a r e s o l d e v e r y s e a s o n i n A r i c h a t and t h e a d j a c e n t f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s . 2 9 T h o s e b e s t p l a c e d t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e f i s h e r y were t h e f a r m e r s i n S o u t h w e s t Richmond C o u n t y and a l o n g t h e I n v e r n e s s c o a s t n e a r C h e t i c a m p . The u r b a n m a r k e t was s m a l l e r f o r n o t more t h a n a t h o u s a n d p e o p l e l i v e d i n B a d d e c k , Sydney, and N o r t h Sydney, t h e p r i n c i p a l towns on t h e I s l a n d , and many had k i t c h e n g a r d e n s , p i g s , and m i l c h cows. N e v e r t h e l e s s , some f a r m e r s n e a r B a d d e c k and a r o u n d Sydney H a r b o u r p r o b a b l y s o l d p r o d u c e i n t h e s e m a r k e t s . B a c k l a n d f a r m e r s were a n o t h e r o u t l e t . They were o f t e n s h o r t o f hay, p o t a t o e s , o a t s , and l i v e s t o c k p r o d u c t s w h i c h were u s u a l l y i n s u r p l u s on f r o n t l a n d f a r m s . One f r o n t l a n d f a r m e r n e a r N o r t h Sydney, f o r e x a m p l e , s o l d a l a r g e p a r t o f h i s s u r p l u s hay, s t r a w , o a t s , o a t m e a l , b a r l e y , b a r l e y f l o u r , p o t a t o e s , t u r n i p s , 30 b u t t e r , and v e a l t o o t h e r f a r m e r s and t r a d e s m e n . I n r e t u r n , t h e y e i t h e r p a i d c a s h , o r worked f o r him. Beyond Cape B r e t o n , m a r k e t s were few and f a r betw e e n . In t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , wheat was v i r t u a l l y t h e o n l y c r o p a b l e t o b e a r t h e c o s t s o f l o n g - d i s t a n c e t r a n s p o r t , b u t i t was grown w i t h o n l y m o d e r a t e s u c c e s s on Cape B r e t o n 31 and n e v e r became an i m p o r t a n t e x p o r t commodity. The 92 I s l a n d ' s p r i n c i p a l c r o p s , o a t s , p o t a t o e s , and h a y , were low v a l u e , b u l k i t e m s c o n f i n e d t o l o c a l m a r k e t s a r o u n d t h e G u l f o f S t . L a w r e n c e . More v a l u a b l e b u t t e r and l i v e s t o c k , w h i c h m i g h t h a ve w i t h s t o o d h i g h s h i p p i n g c o s t s , f r e q u e n t l y 32 p e r i s h e d on l o n g v o y a g e s . As a r e s u l t , a l a r g e amount o f p r o d u c e was s h i p p e d t o m a i n l a n d Nova S c o t i a , w h i l e more t h a n 80% o f t h e I s l a n d ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p o r t s o u t s i d e o f t h e p r o v i n c e went t o t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g c o l o n i e s . Much o f t h e r e s t went t o t h e F r e n c h i s l a n d s i n t h e G u l f ( T a b l e 3 . 1 ) . But t h e s e o u t l e t s were l i m i t e d . P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and t h e f a r m i n g d i s t r i c t s o f New B r u n s w i c k and Nova S c o t i a p r o d u c e d s u f f i c i e n t o a t s , p o t a t o e s , hay, b u t t e r , and l i v e s t o c k f o r t h e i r own n e e d s and on o c c a s i o n s u p p l i e d Cape B r e t o n . O n l y t h e c i t i e s o f H a l i f a x and S t . J o h n ' s , t h e lumber camps o f n o r t h e r n New B r u n s w i c k , and t h e f i s h e r i e s o f S t . P i e r r e and M i q u e l o n p r o v i d e d Cape B r e t o n f a r m e r s w i t h s m a l l e x p o r t m a r k e t s . Y e t c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m m a i n l a n d and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d p r o d u c e must have k e p t p r i c e s low. The p r i n c i p a l e x p o r t s f r o m Cape B r e t o n were l i v e s t o c k and d a i r y p r o d u c t s : c a t t l e and s h e e p , s a l t e d b e e f and p o r k , b u t t e r ( T a b l e 3 . 1 ) . T h e s e p r o d u c t s made up 96.5% o f a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p o r t s o u t s i d e Nova S c o t i a i n 1843, and 90% t e n y e a r s l a t e r . P r o b a b l y most o f t h e t r a d e t o m a i n l a n d Nova S c o t i a e n t e r e d H a l i f a x , w h i l e much o f t h a t o u t s i d e t h e p r o v i n c e went t o S t . J o h n ' s . I n 1814, f o r e x a m p l e , 7 b a r r e l s o f b e e f and p o r k , 43 kegs and 1,000 l b s . o f b u t t e r , 1,050 b u s h e l s o f p o t a t o e s , 585 b u s h e l s o f o a t s and b a r l e y were s h i p p e d t o H a l i f a x , and 232 c a t t l e , 95 s h e e p , 8 h o r s e s , 400 b u s h e l s o f o a t s , and 500 b u s h e l s o f p o t a t o e s were s e n t 33 t o S t . J o h n ' s . I n a d d i t i o n , 51 b a r r e l s o f b e e f and p o r k , and 2 9 k e g s o f b u t t e r were s h i p p e d , p r o b a b l y as f i s h i n g s u p p l i e s , t o t h e M a g d a l e n I s l a n d s , t h e . G a s p e , and C h a l e u r 34 Bay. A l t h o u g h a f t e r 1820 r e c o r d s o f e x p o r t s t o H a l i f a x were subsumed i n t h e c o a s t w i s e t r a d e o f t h e P r o v i n c e , s h i p m e n t s o f c a t t l e , s h e e p , p o t a t o e s , o a t s , and b u t t e r most l i k e l y c o n t i n u e d . C e r t a i n l y , t h e t r a d e t o S t . J o h n ' s i n c r e a s e d . The p o p u l a t i o n o f N e w f o u n d l a n d grew r a p i d l y d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e c e n t u r y , w h i l e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n on Cape B r e t o n e x p a n d e d . I n A u g u s t , S e p t e m b e r , and O c t o b e r 1828, f o r e x a m p l e , S t . J o h n ' s r e c e i v e d 173 c a t t l e and 185 s h e e p f r o m A r i c h a t ; 122 c a t t l e and 100 s h e e p f r o m Sydney; 45 c a t t l e and 34 s h e e p f r o m P o r t Hood; and 32 35 c a t t l e and 5 s h e e p f r o m M a r g a r e e H a r b o u r . Between 1842 and 1848, an a v e r a g e o f n e a r l y 1,500 c a t t l e , n e a r l y 1,400 s h e e p , and a c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t y o f p o r k i n b a r r e l s were 36 s h i p p e d t o N e w f o u n d l a n d e a c h y e a r ( T a b l e 3 . 2 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , e v e n i f t h e s e amounts a r e g e n e r o u s l y d o u b l e d t o i n c l u d e e x p o r t s t o H a l i f a x , t h e p e r c a p i t a t r a d e was i n c o n s i d e r a b l e . W i t h n e a r l y 6,000 f a r m e r s a t m i d - c e n t u r y , t h e a v e r a g e e x p o r t e d f r o m e a c h f a r m was a b o u t one a n i m a l . 94 T a b l e 3.1 A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p o r t s o u t s i d e Nova S c o t i a , 1843 and 1853 1843 G r e a t West B r i t i s h U.S.A. O t h e r B r i t a i n I n d i e s N . A m e r i c a £ s t l g . B e e f 4 239 B r e a d 125 B u t t e r 10 3,693 48 C a t t l e 13,955 H o r s e s 156 O a t s 167 P o t a t o e s 211 41 Sheep 1,256 18 1853 B e e f & P o r k 999 1,716 4 360 B r e a d 47 B u t t e r 23 6,457 15 501 C a t t l e 3 ,188 965 H o r s e s 185 375 O a t s 7 634 11 18 P o t a t o e s 51 Sheep 655 222 O t h e r 294 36 D a t a f r o m A n n u a l Nova S c o t i a B l u e Books and J o u r n a l s o f t h e  House o f A s s e m b l y o f Nova S c o t i a . T a b l e 3.2 E x p o r t s o f C a t t l e , Sheep, and B u t t e r o u t s i d e Nova S c o t i a , 1842-1848 C a t t l e G r e a t West B.N.A. O t h e r U.S.A. O t h e r B r i t a i n I n d i e s C o l o n i e s Q u a n t i t y £ s t l g . 1842 750 he a d 4,850 96 3 2,416 13,955 4 2,111 8,714 150 5 1,206 5,556 125 6 1,290 5,940 413 7 1,303 6,274 150 8 1,246 4,983 303 Sheep 1842 663 h e a d 358 30 3 1,966 1,256 18 4 1,781 975 26 5 1,126 654 10 6 1,599 788 66 7 1,587 756 31 8 1,004 456 B u t t e r 1842 715 t u b s 36 1,617 3 1,894 10 3,693 48 4 2,653 5,261 50 5 2,887 12 5 5,685 60 9 6 3,725 19 7,204 34 36 7 1,665 3,265 46 8 1,615 3,011 49 60 D a t a f r o m A n n u a l Nova S c o t i a B l u e B o o k s . 96 The D e v e l o p i n g F r o n t l a n d s T h o s e most a b l e t o e x p l o i t t h e l o c a l and r e g i o n a l m a r k e t s were t h e s e t t l e r s on f r o n t l a n d . Not o n l y