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Nineteenth-century Cape Breton : a historical geography Hornsby, Stephen J. 1986

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AN HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CAPE BRETON ISLAND IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY By STEPHEN JOHN HORNSBY M.A.  (Hons.) The U n i v e r s i t y of S t . Andrews, 1979  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Geography)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 198 6 (6)  Stephen John Hornsby, 1986  In  presenting  requirements of  British  it  freely  agree for  this  thesis  f o r an a d v a n c e d  Columbia, available  that  I agree  degree that  f o r reference  permission  scholarly  i n partial  may  and study.  I  copying  be g r a n t e d  understood  that  f i n a n c i a l gain  or publication  shall  n o t be a l l o w e d  permission.  Department  of  Q^Q GRAPHV  The University of British 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  (2/79)  XS  SeP-r^m 8<H?  Columbia  l°l$(>  make  further  of this  by t h e head  o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . copying  University shall  department  for  DE-6  at the  of the  the Library  f o rextensive  purposes  fulfilment  thesis  o f my  I ti s  of this without  thesis my  written  Abstract  This Island  t h e s i s i s an h i s t o r i c a l  in  geography of Cape  the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  geographical  the changing  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  p o p u l a t i o n and t h e i r environment. a  region  level.  a  years, Island's  The I s l a n d i s c o n s i d e r e d  and the s c a l e of enquiry i s a t  the r e g i o n a l  The p a t t e r n s of p o p u l a t i o n , s e t t l e m e n t , economy, and  society are i d e n t i f i e d , are  provide  s y n t h e s i s of the I s l a n d over a hundred  elucidating  as  I t aims t o  Breton  discussed.  Finally,  Breton experience Three  largely  and  c o a l mining.  separate  society  century Cape Breton:  t r a d e of the cod f i s h e r y , industrial  the wider r e l e v a n c e of the  and  economy,  nineteenth  t h a t c r e a t e d them Cape  i s suggested.  distinct  settlement,  and the processes  patterns  coexisted • i n  of early  the o l d commercial  staple  s e m i - s u b s i s t e n t f a m i l y - f a r m s , and A f t e r the end of the French  regime  on the I s l a n d , B r i t i s h and Nova S c o t i a n c a p i t a l was i n v e s t e d in  the  inshore cod f i s h e r y ,  settlements, distant, staple  a fishing population,  international trade  family-farms. displaced Cape  creating specialised  in  the  markets.  Superimposed  changes  thousands of people,  Breton - among the cheapest  By mid-century,  and an economy t i e d  1820 's was a  Agricultural  fishing  upon  fee-simple  this  empire  i n Western  on  destinations.  these immigrants had occupied a l l the  land and c o n s i d e r a b l e areas of poorer backland.  of  Scotland  many of whom f e t c h e d up of overseas  to  After  good years  of  backbreaking  subsistent  work,  the  settlers  had  created  farms on r e l a t i v e l y cheap land f a r from markets.  About the same time as the Scots a r r i v e d , B r i t i s h capital  semi-  e x p l o i t e d the  Island's  s k i l l e d B r i t i s h labour  and  coal  reserves,  industrial introducing  steam-technology t o win  coal  for  e x t e r n a l markets. Until  the f i n a l decades of the  changed l i t t l e . Channel  I s l a n d and  Only i n the lobster  output,  mines and  expanded, and  settlements. separate. labour  onto^backland,  a t t r a c t i n g more  employing more men  Agriculture  capital  Islanders  of work  successive  Policy,  companies,  the  coal  increasing  accommodated i n s e v e r a l  the mines,  and  markets - had  and no  to generate m u l t i p l i e r s ,  but the two  new  uncertain  returns  emigrated  seasonal staples  -  t i e d t o d i f f e r e n t sources contact. a  economy d i d not develop on Cape Breton. land and  the  s u p p l i e d some produce and  t o the f i s h e r y and  capacity  numbers  Yet these t h r e e economies remained e s s e n t i a l l y  e x p l o i t i n g d i f f e r e n t resources of  were  settlement  growing  the N a t i o n a l  the  agricultural  increase,  Under  by  dominant.  however,  As the  and  i n Boston.  of R e c i p r o c i t y and  industry  supplied  farmers combined a g r i c u l t u r e with seasonal  coal  stimuli  fishery  i t augmented by the r a p i d r i s e of  l a r g e l y by n a t u r a l  farther  subsistent  and  Both farming and mining,  grew,  the  remained  i n the years a f t e r 1850.  population  the  f i s h e r y , organised  r e s i d e n t merchants,  fishery.  expanded  cod  1870 's was  transformed  in  The  century,  larger,  With more  limited mature  Faced with l i m i t e d  from the s t a p l e i n d u s t r i e s ,  to the burgeoning towns and  cities  many of  New  England.  T h i s c y c l e of immigration,  p o p u l a t i o n growth,  and e m i g r a t i o n , s e t a g a i n s t an economic background of s t a p l e i n d u s t r i e s and  s e m i - s u b s i s t e n t farming,  of s e t t l e d Canada i n the n i n e t e e n t h  was  century.  common t o  much  Table of Contents  Page Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  v  L i s t of Tables  vii  L i s t of F i g u r e s  ix  Preface Chapter  xii 1: Cape Breton a t t h e B e g i n i n g of t h e Nineteenth Century Cape Breton i n 1800  10  The S t a p l e I n d u s t r i e s : The Cod F i s h e r y  13  The S t a p l e I n d u s t r i e s : Coal Mining  33  A g r i c u l t u r e on Cape Breton C o l o n i a l Cape Breton Chapter  Chapter  1  •  36 42  2: The S c o t t i s h Background of Immigrants t o Cape Breton  47  The Place of O r i g i n  48  Economic and S o c i a l Background  50  The C l e a r a n c e s The C o n d i t i o n of M i g r a t i o n  63 72  3: A g r i c u l t u r a l Settlement i n the E a r l y Nineteenth Century  77  Land P o l i c y  82  A g r i c u l t u r a l Markets  91  The Developing F r o n t l a n d s  97  The S t r u g g l i n g Backlands  128  Perspective  135 v  Page Chapter  4: The  S t a p l e I n d u s t r i e s i n the E a r l y  Nineteenth Century  138  The Cod F i s h e r y  139  The E s t a b l i s h m e n t of an  Industrial  S t a p l e : Coal M i n i n g , 1827-1857 Chapter  5: The Potato Famine, 1845-1849  Chapter  6: A g r i c u l t u r a l Settlement i n the Late  Chapter  154 175  Nineteenth Century  191  Land P o l i c y  198  A g r i c u l t u r a l Markets  203  The Commercial F r o n t l a n d s  206  The S u b s i s t e n t Backlands 7: The S t a p l e I n d u s t r i e s i n the Late  2 32  Nineteenth Century  2 40  The F i s h e r y  2 40  The Coal Industry  2 65  Chapter  8: The Exodus  2 86  Chapter  9: C o n c l u s i o n  3 09  Notes  3 24  Bibliography  3 69  Appendix: G l o s s a r y of Terms  vi  384  List  of  Tables  Table  Page  1.1  Surnames i n A r i c h a t , 1811  27  1.2  O c c u p a t i o n s of heads o f households a t A r i c h a t and n e i g h b o u r i n g f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , 1811  28  O c c u p a t i o n s o f heads o f households a t I s l e Madame and n e i g h b o u r i n g f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , 1811  32  Agricultural and 1853  95  1.3  3.1  3.2  Exports  exports  of c a t t l e ,  Nova S c o t i a ,  o u t s i d e Nova S c o t i a ,  s h e e p , and  1843  butter outside  1842-1848  96  3.3  Surnames on  3.4  Occupational  3.5  M a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s on Cape B r e t o n , 1851 B o a t s and v e s s e l s on Cape B r e t o n , 1851  123 144  W o r k f o r c e e m p l o y e d a t Sydney M i n e s B r i d g e p o r t , September 1838  164  4.1 4.2  Cape B r e t o n , s t r u c t u r e on  6.1  Principal  occupations  on  6.2  Landholdings  6.3  Principal agricultural S c o t i a , 1864-1865  i n Inverness  115  Cape B r e t o n ,  exports  120  and  Cape B r e t o n , County,  1851  1881  1871-1891  194 196  o u t s i d e Nova 205  6.4  Improved  6.5  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f i m p r o v e d l a n d and average h o l d i n g s of l i v e s t o c k i n Southwest Margaree and Red I s l a n d s , 1871  211  Numbers o f 1891  212  6.6  6.7 6.8  l a n d on  1818  Cape B r e t o n ,  livestock  A r a b l e , p a s t u r e , and d i s t r i c t s , 1891  1891  i n selected  hay  land i n  209  districts,  selected 213  Surnames i n S o u t h w e s t M a r g a r e e and 1871 vxi  Red  Islands, 225  Table  Page  6.9  Principal  i n d u s t r i e s on Cape B r e t o n ,  7.1  B o a t s and v e s s e l s on Cape B r e t o n ,  8.1  Total net migration  f r o m Cape  1871  1891  246  Breton,  1871-1891  290  8.2  P e r c e n t a g e change o f p o p u l a t i o n ,  8.3  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Nova S c o t i a n s i n C a n a d a , 1881-1891 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Nova S c o t i a n s i n s e l e c t e d s t a t e s and t e r r i t o r i e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1870-1880  8.4  229  viii  1851-1891  290  295  295  List  of Figures  Figure  Page  1.1  M a i n h e i g h t s o f l a n d and r i v e r s  1.2  F o r e s t z o n e s o f Cape B r e t o n  1.3  P o p u l a t i o n o f Cape B r e t o n ,  1.4  Distribution  o f Cape B r e t o n  2 5  1801  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  11  l a n d on Cape  Breton  38  1.5  S y d n e y , 1795  44  2.1  Origin of Scottish  2.2  Crofting  2.3  Croft  2.4  Immigration  immigrants  t o Cape B r e t o n  township a t Harrapool,  at Harrapool,  54  S k y e , 1854  t o Nova S c o t i a  from S c o t t i s h  Skye  49  55  and Cape  Breton  p o r t s , 1815-1850  66  3.1  Crown  land grants  on Cape B r e t o n ,  1786-1820  79  3.2  Crown  land grants  on Cape B r e t o n ,  1786-1850  81  3.3  Number a n d a c r e a g e Cape B r e t o n ,  o f Crown  land grants  on  1828-1850  86  3.4  Census d i s t r i c t s  3.5  Improved l a n d on Cape B r e t o n ,  3.6  Distribution  3.7  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f b u t t e r p r o d u c t i o n on Cape B r e t o n , 1851 H y p o t h e t i c a l p a t t e r n of f r o n t l a n d settlement on Cape B r e t o n ' S e t t l e m e n t a l o n g t h e S.W. M a r g a r e e R i v e r , I n v e r n e s s C o u n t y , s h o w i n g l a n d g r a n t e d 1831-36, and t h e name and p l a c e o f o r i g i n o f t h e s e t t l e r s P r o d u c t i o n o f d r i e d and p i c k l e d f i s h on Cape B r e t o n , 1851  3.8 3.9  4.1 4.2  Distribution  on Cape B r e t o n ,  of l i v e s t o c k  of fishermen  ix  1851  98  1851  on Cape B r e t o n ,  on Cape B r e t o n ,  99 1851  1851  101  103 108  114 145 150  1  Figure 4.3 4.4 4.5  Page  P r o d u c t i o n and e x p o r t 1827-1857  of coal  from  Cape  Breton, 157  Coal production a t the p r i n c i p a l B r e t o n , 1827-1857  m i n e s on Cape 160  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o a l m i n e s on Cape B r e t o n a n d t h e i r maximum o u t p u t , 1827-1857  161  The G e n e r a l M i n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n ' s v i l l a g e a n d p i t s a t Sydney M i n e s , Cape B r e t o n C o u n t y , c.1864 "  169  6.1  O r i g i n o f p o p u l a t i o n o f Cape B r e t o n ,  192  6.2  Crown  6.3  Number a n d a c r e a g e  4.6  l a n d g r a n t s on Cape B r e t o n ,  Cape B r e t o n ,  o f Crown  1871  1786-1880  197  l a n d g r a n t s on  1850-1890  202  6.4  Census d i s t r i c t s  6.5  Improved l a n d on Cape B r e t o n ,  6.6  Distribution  6.7  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f b u t t e r p r o d u c t i o n on Cape B r e t o n , 1891 H y p o t h e t i c a l p a t t e r n o f f r o n t l a n d and b a c k l a n d s e t t l e m e n t on Cape B r e t o n  219  6.9  R e l i g i o u s denomination  226  6.10  West Bay, I n v e r n e s s  7.1  T h r e e - y e a r m o v i n g a v e r a g e s o f d r i e d and p i c k l e d f i s h p r o d u c t i o n on Cape B r e t o n  6.8  7.2  on Cape B r e t o n ,  of livestock  1891  214  1891  215  on Cape B r e t o n ,  o f Cape B r e t o n ,  1871  C o u n t y , 1864  and p r o d u c t i o n o f d r i e d and  pickled  on Cape B r e t o n ,  L o b s t e r p r o d u c t i o n on Cape B r e t o n ,  7.4  Shipbuilding  on Cape B r e t o n ,  7.5  Distribution  of fishermen  7.6  D'Escousse,  7.7  Neil's 1864 _  217  244  1891  7.3  216  231  Distribution fish  1891  245 1872-1891  1854-1891  255 1891  256  I s l e Madame, Richmond C o u n t y , 1864  259  H a r b o u r a n d New Haven, V i c t o r i a C o u n t y , •  260  x  on Cape B r e t o n ,  252  Figure 7.8  7.9  7.10  Page  Production 1858-1891  and  export  of coal  from  D i s t r i b u t i o n and output o f p r i n c i p a l on C a p e B r e t o n , 1 8 6 5 - 1 8 6 6  coal  D i s t r i b u t i o n and output on C a p e B r e t o n , 1890  coal  on  Cape  mines 270 mines 271  7.12  Men a n d b o y s e m p l o y e d a t t h e c o a l B r e t o n C o u n t y , 1866-1891  8.1  railways  of p r i n c i p a l  Colliery  7.14  Breton, 267  7.11  7.13  Cape  Breton  The B l o c k h o u s e and Gpwrie v i l l a g e s Cape B r e t o n C o u n t y , c.1864 U n i o n m e m b e r s h i p among C a p e A u g u s t 1 8 8 1 - D e c e m b e r 1884  Breton  272 mines  i n Cape 275  a t Cow  Bay, 2 79  miners,  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f male emigrants (top) and female emigrants ( b o t t o m ) f r o m Cape B r e t o n by p l a c e o r s t a t e / p r o v i n c e o f d e a t h , 1880-1893  V 1  283  296  Preface  This and  thesis  settlement  century.  began as a study on  Cape B r e t o n  To an e a g e r  university,  fond  memories  Western Highlands interest  records  and  increasingly  Scottish  Island  with  in  settlement,  from a  Scottish  such  i n the  and a d e v e l o p i n g  a study  appeared  B u t a s I immersed m y s e l f  t o know Cape  clear  nineteenth  of several hiking tours  of sense.  got  immigration  the  a degree  and I s l a n d s o f S c o t l a n d ,  i n new w o r l d  make a good d e a l  student  of  Breton  better,  i t  to.  i n the became  t h a t t h e I s l a n d was n o t o n l y o f i n t e r e s t  because o f the S c o t s , but a l s o because t h e developments t h a t occurred  there  seemed t o e n c a p s u l a t e  much o f what  elsewhere  i n Canada d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h  from b e i n g  an a g r i c u l t u r a l  Breton  also  fishery), enterprises great and  had  and  haven  coal  mines  staple  t h a t were  t o be i n d u s t r i a l i s e d  in  worked  nineteenth  century.  in  parts  other  itself  trade the  Canada.  xii  earliest  Moreover,  population  o u t on t h e I s l a n d  As a r e s u l t ,  Cape  ( t h e cod  the  a  growth,  during  T h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s had c l o s e  o f Canada.  Apart  crofters,  among  demographic c y c l e o f immigration, emigration  century.  f o r emigrant  a centuries-old  happened  the  parallels study  was  broadened  to chart the evolution of the staple  the u n f o l d i n g o f t h e demographic wider  cycle,  i n many a n o t h e r  methodology patterns  and  vertical  The  study  With  the  of settlement  cross-sectional  with  an a s s e s s m e n t  chapters  the nineteenth  circumstances nineteenth  century.  in  Chapter  Western  century  which  Breton.  The  social  immigrants  i s identified  outlined  settlement  because  of  agriculture  Chapter  3.  Chapter  economic  The s p r e a d  and t h e new i n d u s t r i a l  and  charts  their  Chapter  5  focusses  between  1845-18 49. study.  The  on  to  Cape  background  of  the  of the migration  to  the  process  is  the  the  and l a t e  early  and t h e of  - the  famine  an  end  that  that  deal  century, occurred  centre-point to  -  nineteenth  nineteenth  This i s a convenient put  of  subject  between t h e c h a p t e r s  the potato  famine  subsequent  s t a p l e of coal mining  evolution during  i n the early  early  t h e two s t a p l e t r a d e s  fishery  A c t i n g as a hinge  occurred  the  of settlement  on Cape B r e t o n  4 deals with  f o r the  Scots  and t h e n a t u r e  cod  Cape B r e t o n  many  of i t s relevance  growth  century.  during  t o a l l o w comparison with  on t h e I s l a n d .  Island  2 c o n s i d e r s t h e changing  propelled  d e v e l o p m e n t s on Cape B r e t o n ,  i n 1800.  seek t o account  Scotland  and  change.  the  and economy t h a t  of  times,  of  o f Cape B r e t o n  p o p u l a t i o n and economic geography o f the remaining  the  accounts  and economy a t s p e c i f i c  changes i n p o p u l a t i o n , s e t t l e m e n t ,  this  their  geography,  themes t h a t d i s c u s s t h e p r o c e s s e s  begins  established,  with  and t o s u g g e s t  regional historical  employed combines  the  is  and  relevance. As  in  trades  for  significant  immigration that  was  famine  to run into  on  Ireland,  and p r e c i p i t a t e d  Cape  was  The  continued  settlement, Breton  in  Chapter cod  and  6.  Chapters point the  late  and  6 and  with  takeover Company an  for of  later  i n 1893  expansion  migrations away Breton  of  and  7 outline  in  the  Chapter  mines  Rather  o f Cape  themes  together,  of a  were  than  Breton  by  i n 1891,  xiv  a  branch  Breton  Breton  County market  Dominion  that  Chapter their  Cape  dealt  the study  with  9 draws  Cape  5,  with a  Cape  6,  Breton in  cross-  the various  interrelations, between  the  history  Chapters  i s  in  reoriented  of eastern  from  the Coal  ushered  massive  towns  of  Cape  steelworks  which  Both  importantly, the  the  logical  improved  1890 ' s .  connections :  a  in  i n  the twentieth-century  conclude  discusses  some,possible  an  of Cape  1858.  t o some e x t e n t  the mining  century  and  examined  1890 ' s ,  f o r the emigration  nineteenth  on  after  More  i n the early  the causes  section  suggests  towards  crisis  t o 1891,  i n d u s t r y so  Essentially,  late 8.  Bretoners  spread  across  providing  coal  potato  the  o f e a s t e r n Cape  of the coal  begins  up  built  farmers.  the  Boston  Breton  Breton  and t h e b u i l d i n g  County.  Cape  and  Island  o f Cape  from  towns  The  Scotland  are  o f the mines  was  Island  developments  In the e a r l y  railway  most  agricultural  Cape  the  importance.  7 considers  mainland,  connection  i n Western  century  the i n d u s t r i a l  the  century.  nineteenth  7 deal with  from  of population,  the expansion  Intercolonial  that  growing  t o end t h e study.  linking  of  growth  Chapter  fishery  like  of singular  the  the  emigration  the twentieth  Breton,  an event  an  Breton  and and  other parts  o f Canada i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h  Research Edinburgh thank  forthis thesis  v i aHalifax  the  the  Library . of  Canada,  Ottawa;  and  National  grateful  to  Library  Victoria  Crown  Index who  completion Unit,  clear  maps. The  t o Canada,  in  the  Ottawa,  Hornsby f o r h e r thousands  Harris,  grants and  Halifax,  final  help  in  my  the wife, the  Cartography  Committee  Cape B r e t o n ,  funds  into  brought  f o r four of  years  British  for travel  and f o r a  to  considerable  cartography.  words o f t h a n k s a r e r e s e r v e d  suggestions, whose  am  expedite  University  made a v a i l a b l e  and  I  of Edinburgh, i s  generous support  programme a t t h e also  Office  with  to  of the  University  Graeme Wynn, who c l o s e l y r e a d an e a r l i e r useful  energetic  the  t r a n s f o r m i n g my r o u g h d r a f t s  and p r o v i d e d  they  Library,  Record  i n i n n u m e r a b l e ways t o  f o rspeedily  doctoral  National  Edinburgh.  of land  Ray H a r r i s  their  Halifax;  the Scottish  to  like to  for  the  Scotia,  maps o f Cape B r e t o n ,  helped  of the thesis My  Canada,  C a n a d i a n Commonwealth S c h o l a r s h i p  me  Columbia;  of  Scotland,  Department o f Geography, thanked  part  of  of t h i s t h e s i s .  also  and I w o u l d  institutions  o f Nova  Cape B r e t o n ;  literally  Kathleen,  Ottawa  and t h e Department o f Labour  correlating Land  Archives  Archives  Institute,  the  and Cape B r e t o n ,  Public  the Public  Beaton  h a s t a k e n me f r o m  s t a f f s of the following  assistance:  century.  work  draft  and f o r my s u p e r v i s o r , first  xv  interested  for  Professor  and made many  Professor  me i n t h e  Cole  historical  geography of this  thesis  Canada and from  who,  afar.  xvi  i n many h e l p f u l  letters,  guided  1  Cape B r e t o n of  Situated continent Breton  on  a t the Beginning  the Nineteenth  eastern rim of  the  North  a t t h e mouth o f t h e G u l f o f  St.  Lawrence,  Island  the  Century  late  fifteenth  c e n t u r y when e x p l o r e r s were s e a r c h i n g f o r a 1  sea-  route  Asia.  thought have  John Cabot's  the  rocky  Portuguese  eastern coast  European  seaboard, and  fixed  shore  also in  voyages  established.  mariners, probably  Although  a  By 1536,  i s rough,  old,  worn-down  Appalachian  comprises  a  northAtlantic  shores  the northern c o a s t l i n e  Cape B r e t o n was f i r m l y  of  glaciated mountain  located  much 2  of  Cape  More  than  upland,  part of the  range  ( F i g . 1.1).  and m e t a m o r p h i c r o c k s ,  plateau that  was  World.  environment,  igneous  1  well years  the  Island's  discouragingly bleak.  of the Island  upland  along  few  he  I n t h e 1530 ' s , a s a r e s u l t o f  mid-latitude  Composed o f p r e - C a m b r i a n  A  t o the southern  o f t h e New  half  what  o r n o r t h e r n C h i n a may  charted the  i n the Gulf,  B r e t o n must have a p p e a r e d  i n 1497 on  exploring  i t in relation  the European cartography  in  o f Cape B r e t o n .  N e w f o u n d l a n d and Nova S c o t i a . Cartier's  attention  landfall  was t h e c o a s t o f " C a t h a y "  been  later,  to  Cape  the  to  came  American  occupies  much  of  this the  Figure  1.1  Main h e i g h t s  of land  and r i v e r s  o f Cape  Breton.  A f t e r map i n D.B. Cann, J . I . M a c D o u g a l l , and J.D. H i l c h e y , S o i l S u r v e y o f Cape B r e t o n I s l a n d Nova S c o t i a p.18.  2  northern that  half  border  southern rivers  the Bras  a series  f l a n k s of the p l a t e a u , g l a c i e r s  and,  consists  Lake.  of p a r a l l e l the  narrow v a l l e y s  routeways  Island  d'Or  and  Along  have e r o d e d  natural  softer  o f Cape B r e t o n  through  of g e n t l y r o l l i n g  carboniferous rocks,  glaciation,  leaving  the  The  lowland  has  In the c e n t r e of the  Island,  the upland  and  i s the Bras  to  the  the  s e a on  interior  more t h a n  the east c o a s t , easily  accessible.  t e n m i l e s from  either  Much o f Cape B r e t o n glaciofluvial  No  The  upland  lowland  sandy  or dark-gray  till.  are  There  also  scattered  throughout  sediments  on t h e  bogs a r e uplands. provide and  found  clay  the  Island,  lakes  are  3  by and  Open  makes much  or the  of  coast.  till  and  most o f  the  reddish-brown  slowly  and  sands  of  the  permeable, clay  and  more r e c e n t  loam  gravels alluvial  Many s m a l l particularly  peat on  the  surface, these v a r i o u s . d e p o s i t s On  well-drained,  p o d z o l s ; w h i l e on t h e w e t t e r  of  bisecting  Lake.  loam o r g r a v e l l y  on p o o r l y d r a i n e d s i t e s ,  deposits  d'Or  to  a meagre f o u n d a t i o n f o r s o i l s .  outwash  d'Or  flood-plains.  t o the  up  while the r e s t  glaciofluvial  intervale  Often close  d'Or  p l a t e a u and  i s covered with a moderately  reddish-brown  the  been s c o u r e d  permeable,  loam t i l l ,  of  Made  i s blanketed with g l a c i a l  deposits.  grayish-brown  rest  only  p a r t o f Cape B r e t o n i s  the Bras  lowland are covered with a r e a d i l y or  the  virtually  the Bras  and  recently,  innumerable  marshes.  halves,  more  lowland.  i t pockmarked w i t h  lowland  northern  or i n t e r v a l e s ,  the mountains.  hills  boulder  clays,  the porous  till  nutrient-leached are  water-logged  gleysoils. flats.  Immature  In general,  regosols  a r e found  the Island's  soils  on  the  are thin,  alluvial  stony,  and  acidic. Although location, They  ameliorated  to  Breton's  winters  Cape  by  a  are markedly  maritime  continental.  are  frequently bitterly cold (January temperatures o - 5 . 5 C. a t S y d n e y ) a n d t h e s n o w f a l l h e a v y (5 feet  average per  annum).  the  coast  Snow i s common  until  the Atlantic  summer  (July  shortens  coast,  less  at  frequent  The c o l d L a b r a d o r keeps  temperatures  average  season  higher hazard  (156 days  elevations). during  1 7 . 6 C.  Along  the  a t Sydney)  and  on  the  i n l a n d , and even  the coasts,  fog  summer when warm a i r m o v e s  the cold  which  during  a t Cheticamp  ten miles  along  current  the Island cool o  62 d a y s a t M a r g a r e e  condenses over  At Island  coast  the growing  north  i n May a n d i c e c a n l i n g e r  e a r l y June.  sweeps  and  some e x t e n t  i s  a  off-shore  sea-currents.  t h e time o f European d i s c o v e r y , v i r t u a l l y t h e e n t i r e was covered with a mixed coniferous and deciduous 3  forest. spruce the  Along  and balsam,  shore  1.2). the  and were  and l a r c h  and west  The  conifers pine)  although  coast, white  this  spruce  t h r i v e d on p o o r l y  f o r e s t was w a s common  drained  A r o u n d t h e B r a s d'Or L a k e and a l o n g east  pine.  the Atlantic  slopes  (balsam  although  i n great  coasts, and  fir,  on r i v e r  white  bottoms  spruce,  terraces, 4  quantities."  found hemlock and deciduous 4  sites (Fig.  were  and  dominated  spruce,  e l m grew  "very  and fine  better drained  varieties  on  hemlock,  black  On h i g h e r ,  close to  the hillsides  grew sugar maple,  valley  mainly  (beech,  by  white large slopes sugar  Sugar maple - Hemlock - Pine zone  Sugar maple - Yellow birch - Fir zone  Spruce - Fir coast zone  Fir - Pine - Birch zone  Spruce taiga zone  Figure After  1.2 O.L.  Provinces.  Forest Loucks  zones  o f Cape  'A F o r e s t  Breton.  Classification  f o r the  Mariti  maple,  and  elevation,  a these  white  spruce,  Cape  Breton  supported  as  scattered red the  f i r , white  the  birch);  thinned  Highlands,  balsam  white  yellow  species  and  s u g a r maple on some  few  birch  and  red  above  maple,  spruce  and  western  feet  balsam f i r , In  the  shallow  spruce  slopes.  mountain ash  500  appeared.  frequently  birch,  warmer,  but  with  beech  Dwarf  grew  on  soils and  conifers,  the  plateau  summit. The The  Island's mineral  small  Canso and  gypsum d e p o s i t s a t Mabou; w h i l e  outcropped  along  Boularderie  through  on  the  north  Harbour.  the  coast  Gently  thick,  the  the  eastern  entire Yet  the  like  seasonal cod  of  Mabou,  Inverness,  continental  main  and  the  time  exact  around  between t h r e e  seams  Canada and  that  Gulf, grounds  shelf,  mackerel,  and  migrate  coasts  The and  of 6  on  deposits  and  Margaree  and  six  the  feet  largest  Island's Labrador, 5  the  inshore  to  to place,  Cape B r e t o n  cod.  banks  i n shallow  v a r i e s from place  lesser  along  drew Europeans a c r o s s  l a r g e numbers o f April  from  America.  Newfoundland, of  of  Island,  most a c c e s s i b l e  lay off-shore.  c a p e l i n spawning  the  the  Gut  coal  constituted  North  first  during they  with  the  coal.  bituminous  the  near  seaboard of  spawned  of  Bay,  resource  the  side  to Mira  eastern  feeding  have  arrive  eastern  t o Cape B r e t o n  those  broad bands of  Sydney  twelve  in  i n c l u d e d gypsum and  were s c a t t e r e d near  the  folded  coalfield  Atlantic  deposits  feed  the  coasts, are  the  After  the  along on  the  herring,  waters.  Although  the  usually  cod  in early  May  and  stay  until  mid-December when t h e y  b e s t months f o r f i s h i n g cod  are  plentiful,  usually  of  Cabot  c a t c h them  h i s voyage,  connected 6 fishery.  along  the  contact  fishing  stations from  the  A u g u s t when and  the  weather  split,  and  cured  than  few from  years. the  were caught salted  set out  was  lightly  to preserve  fall. slight,  years been  salted,  'flakes'  deep-sea, no  vessels,  to  the  and  temporary  dried  on  none s t a y e d  cobble were  a few sites  or  which  land, for on-board,  c o u l d be  of  f o r more  fishery,  processed  Cod  they  Later,  bank  the  land.  fishing  they  their  sheltered  on  contact with  them u n t i l  Breton,  in  until  voyage.  but  cod  done c l o s e t o  and  to secure  Cape first,  anchored  was  for  confined  were p r o c e s s e d  season,  7  At  were unloaded,  return  Europe.  to fish  Newfoundland, and  catches  the  few  fishermen  1550 ' s , h a d  from  a  s t o c k s had  thousands  Fishing  The  within  crew  of  boats  following  ship's  spring,  over-wintered  f o r the  and  Vessels  f o r the  that the  Breton  migratory  wooden p l a t f o r m s o r  'rooms'  developed  World  o f f Cape  a  catch i n the  and  and  seas  E u r o p e a n m a r k e t by  constructed.  fishermen  heavily  and  inexhaustible  to Cadiz  season.  boats  headed,  a  i n the  New  supplies  sufficiently  fish  virtually  Bristol  the  the  baskets  burgeoning  from  with  beaches  the  these  with their  harbours,  were  i n weighted  coasts of Labrador,  returning  shore  The  available,  swarming w i t h cod  Each year,  ports  shore  so  to the  from  summer  bait  July,  r e p o r t e d l y found  Newfoundland  could  fresh  June,  to deep-water.  fine.  John and  are  return  dried  the and in  Much French  of  the  Cape B r e t o n  fishermen.  Olonne, using  La  During  Rochelle,  Cape  Breton  and  fishery  the the  harbours,  was  early  i n the  1600 ' s ,  hands  vessels  Basque p o r t s  were  particularly  those  of from  recorded at  St.  Peter's,  Louisbourg, Ingonish, and p e r h a p s Cape N o r t h and 7 Cheticamp. Even so, there was no permanent European settlement  on  the  Island  seventeenth  centuries,  subordinate  part  prosecuted Petit the her  along  Nord,  Treaty  and of  the  decided  to  the  the much  coasts  of  Gaspe.  Utrecht,  substantial  and  of the  during  fisheries  larger  southern  t u r n Cape B r e t o n  mainland  a base  a  fishery  Newfoundland,  southern  into  and  remained  French  i n 1713,  lost  in  sixteenth  fishery  Then,  France  the  the  as  a result  of  Nova  Scotia  and  Newfoundland  f o r both  and  residential 8  and  migratory  fisheries  Louisbourg,  an  developed  a  as  patrolling a major the  the  surpassed  from  Quebec.  the  Island,  summer, years,  a war  o u t e r - b a s t i o n of on  of  the  French  i n the  fishery  fishery  and  1752,  t w o - t h i r d s of  sizeable migratory destroyed  North on  and  for  warships soon  Breton  some than  French  had the  years,  cod  exports  6,000 r e s i d e n t s  Yet  By  of  fur  Louisbourg,  the  was  Atlantic.  Cape  In  population.  Louisbourg  8  at  coast,  e m p l o y e d many  were n e a r l y  them  France.  t o Quebec, and  were more v a l u a b l e there  New  Atlantic  lanes  4,000 i n h a b i t a n t s .  Cape B r e t o n By  trade  resident  migratory  the  g a r r i s o n town, a base  vulnerable shipping  nearly from  an  harbour  fortified,  the  Island's exports  ice-free  entrepot  1730 ' s ,  and  on  plus,  in  within a  few  fishery  on  Cape  Breton.  was  taken  by t h e B r i t i s h  deported, annexed with  As a p r e l u d e  and  Cape B r e t o n  left  Scotia  o f New  Soon a f t e r on  and  returning  most  to  stations they  exile  The  formally  of Louisbourg,  Island ceded  the resident  A few French  along were  inhabitants was along  Britain.  began t o r e f o r m .  1 7 7 0 's  from  France  Louisbourg  of i t s  razed.  and i n 1763,  the f a l l  at fishing  1 7 6 0 's  i n 1758,  i t s fortifications  t o Nova  the rest  t o c a p t u r i n g Quebec,  the south joined  fishery  fishermen  c o a s t and  by  were  i n  Acadian  the  fishermen  on t h e M a g d a l e n I s l a n d s and t h e  French-  9  islands  of St.  Newfoundland  Pierre  and M i q u e l o n .  drifted 10 and L o u i s b o u r g .  a Dieu  also  fishermen  were  based  Louisbourg  at  Channel  being  into  the Island,  By t h e e a r l y  and i n  a few y e a r s l a t e r , 12 coast. By t h e l a t e  been reconnected Cape B r e t o n  until  the  refugees  from  America.  Although  1 7 8 0 's  Cape  Breton.  government, was  founded  o f New  Atlantic  several  the  from  dominated  by L o y a l i s t s ,  the Isle  fishery  fishing  thousand into  world. station Loyalist  British Scotia,  North and t h e  some 3-400 a r r i v e d  administration  Scotia  a bay on t h e e a s t 9  on  commercial  populated  separated  beside  Nova  from  1760 ' s , t h e I s l a n d ' s  Brunswick,  As a r e s u l t ,  merchant  at Arichat  most went t o Quebec, Nova  created colony 13  was  when  a t Main  a t C h e t i c a m p on t h e  the United States s p i l l e d  newly  Island  another  a thinly  from  1 7 6 0 's t h e s e r e s i d e n t  station  t o the North  remained  early  settling  by a N e w f o u n d l a n d 11 1765, merchants  Madame a n d ,  had  fishermen  outfitted  I s l a n d s opened a f i s h i n g  northwest  Irish  and a  was  of  new  formed.  on the  colonial A  capital  c o a s t , and both  harbour  and  settlement  Colonial most  Secretary.  became  the  small  north  side  mine  Scots  and  Nova  around  and  also  took  Edward  that  worked  still  some  a  few  an o v e r f l o w  from  Island  and  i n  the Straits  had been  depended  the  i twith  Pictou  o f Canso  By t h e 1790 ' s , - a f e e b l e economy  i n  on  of the century,  along  the  office;  had opened  on t h e I s l a n d ,  and s e t t l e d  agricultural  economy  years  after  government  i n 1785 t o p r o v i d e  Prince  Harbour.  Sydney  Some a l s o  t h e government  arrived  on  Mabou  farmers.  the last  Scotia,  a nascent  island  A few s e t t l e r s  Harbour  i n  settlements  County,  named  that  o f Sydney Then,  Highland  obsequiously  semi-subsistent  coal  revenue.  the  were  colony  g r a f t e d onto  overwhelmingly  an on  fishing.  Cape  Breton  At was  i n 1800  the beginning  sparsely settled,  2,500  people  French  population  in at at  of the nineteenth  lived  forested,  on t h e I s l a n d ,  i n the early  a few s e t t l e m e n t s Sydney  and along  Gabarus  and  and Louisbourg,  Cape  Breton  undeveloped. less 14  1750 ' s .  d i s p e r s e d around  t h e shores  century,  and about  than  half  Most  o f them  the coast:  o f Sydney  Barely  Harbour,  1,500  of i t s  dwelt  some almost  split  800 200  between  15 Arichat the  and t h e northwest  p o p u l a t i o n were  mainly  on  Isle  coast  (Fig.  French-speaking  Madame  and  10  at  1.3).  Acadians,  Cheticamp;  most  Perhaps  half  concentrated of the rest  Km  Figure  1.3  Population  o f Cape B r e t o n ,  Data from p o p u l a t i o n r e t u r n enclosed 24 D e c e m b e r 1 8 0 1 , C O / C B / A / 2 2 .  11  1801.  i n Despard  t o Hobart,  were L o y a l i s t s , of  the  Irish,  settled  south  a t Sydney,  coast outports.  inhabiting  Gaelic-speaking  the  coves  Highland  Baddeck R i v e r ,  The on  Scots  small  the  and  some  remainder  southeast  dispersed  were  coast,  along  or  the  west  e c o n o m y was  still  coast. The the  l e a d i n g s e c t o r of the  cod  fishery.  population, and  tied  trading  colony  system.  industry, into  I t supported  attracted  the  was  a more l o c a l ,  Breton  was  produce  regional  'North  staple  struggle  to survive.  merchants, had  and  For  and  a  few  lives  and  farmers  fed  rarely most  sales  farmers  were  miners Island's  with  imported  lived, with  in  d i d some s e a s o n a l  debt.  close the  the  miners  fishing  a way  to  daily  upon  k i t c h e n gardens;  was  the  the  dependence  many, o c c u p a t i o n a l p l u r a l i s m  of  mining  and  of  Cape  merchants,  fishermen  pre-occupied  kept  and  coal  k e p t many p e o p l e  lessen their  12  and  population  and  staple  subsistent for  They purchased  miners,  To  other  employing  resident  the  Atlantic  people,  Fishing  Cape B r e t o n  resident fishermen  farms;  mining.  their  few  the  labour,  North  only occasional  fishery.  markets.  coal  largely  and  foodstuffs,  fishermen,  subsistence,  was  supplied  and  Island's  Farming,  of  skilled  economy: e x p o r t s o f  markets  that linked  products,  and  commercial  the  St.John's.  British  Atlantic  manufactures Most  or  w e r e made t o t h e  intermediaries  two-thirds  capital  a highly  population,  by  about  employed r e l a t i v e l y  f a r from  organised  to  into  small,  remaining  British  Coal mining,  went beyond H a l i f a x the  Cape B r e t o n  of  or life.  Tagged onto at  this  Sydney,  extended  The  which  beyond  Staple In  1800  the  and  m e c h a n t s and  half  the  British  qtls.  or  63%  The  at  Channel  Arichat  ran  business,  f i s h e r y based  Island  and  hardly  the  more  trade.  cod and  on  the  In  terms  important,  In  1796,  exports,  and 16  two  Channel by  of  local  exports,  handling  more  f o r example,  i n Cape B r e t o n  exported  dominated  the  13,059  dried  fish  Cheticamp.  f i s h e r y was  financed  principally a  comprised  fishery organised  labour.  involved  total  Islands,  companies  people  Cape B r e t o n  a resident  annual  migratory  200  c o l o n i a l regime  Fishery  a migratory  firms of  Cod  f i s h e r y of  f i s h e r y was  three  production  cod  employing  of  barely  the  town.  second,  migratory  than  supported  the  first,  Islands;  s t r u c t u r e was  I n d u s t r i e s ; The  elements:  the  economic  highly  on  and  Jersey.  integrated  controlling  a l l  organised From  and  aspects  on  the  there,  self-contained of.  production,  17 transportation, they  sent  markets  out, to  for  at  fishing  all  around  cod;  curing  the  rum,  provisioning cordage  for  on  their  labour the  and  marketing.  Each year,  company v e s s e l s , agents the  cod,  stations. North  resident and  information on  tea,  tobacco,  the  fishery;  s h i p - b u i l d i n g and  were  sugar,  on  spring,  prices  and  Cape  Breton,  skilled  the  supplies  required  most of  Among t h e s e  Atlantic,  i n the  supplies, salt  beef,  drawn  from  for preserving  the  pork,  for  bar-iron,  lead,  fishing;  and  and  lard  canvas,  soap,  and  candles,  indigo,  and  population.  earthenware After  the season's  company  vessels  Europe  and r e t u r n e d  fish-books, Agents to  and were  left  migratory  in  terms of exports,  and  Philip  linked the  was  qtls.;  Robin,  family-owned  were  soon  too,  frequently  for  the  i n Southern as  the  inspection.  on t h e I s l a n d  companies p a r t i c i p a t e d i n By  the Janvrin  f a r the  largest,  Company w h i c h  i n 1796  2,884  qtls.;  These companies were  either  or partnerships,  and s e v e r a l  were  o r j o i n t - d i r e c t o r s h i p s ( a t l e a s t two i n Cape B r e t o n ,  t o be c o n n e c t e d  i n these  R o b i n and 19  ways).  before  successful  firms  of  Janvrin,  Management,  d r e w on d i f f e r e n t members o f a  the years  local  fall,  as w e l l  to over-winter  Island  qtls.  businesses  companies i n v o l v e d  i n  to Jersey  f o l l o w e d b y Remon & C o . , 18  2,766  by m a r r i a g e  least  t o market  f i s h e r y t o Cape B r e t o n .  7,409  the  premises.  Channel  the  to  i n the  agents' reports  l o o k - a f t e r t h e company  exported  fish  the workforce  ledgers,  1800 t h r e e  retailing  fishing,  carried the dried  or caretakers  In  for  family,  grew t o o  at  large  f o r s u c h management; f a t h e r s , sons, and b r o t h e r s were found c a p t a i n i n g v e s s e l s o r manning f i s h i n g rooms on 20  often Cape  Breton. The  Channel  producing  By and  markets  m a r k was  far  companies were h i g h l y  "prime merchantable"  lucrative Robin  Island  t o become  the best  while  we  of I t a l y ,  dried  cannot  dried  Spain,  fish  be s u r e 14  f o r export  and P o r t u g a l ;  synonymous w i t h  fish  specialised,  came f r o m  high  indeed, grade  the inshore  of the situation  to the the fish.  fishery,  i n 1800  later  practice  suggests  exclusively interest  involved  in  the  heavily-salted, The  modified  by  number  waters,  of  cod of  and  They  were  long,  and  rigged with  a  probably tapered  w i t h two schooner  capable  seas,  as  of  the  i n which weather 22  fishing  French  stepped  or  built,  the middle  sea  shallop  observed:  "...  ten  century.  rowing as  boats  necessary. feet  Generally  c o u l d be  fitted  A  t h r e e man  crew  the  roughest  of  they  are  o f t e n out  in  t h e y make, according to the s a i l o r ' s of i t , and t h e y a r e scarcely ever 23  Fishing  was  equipped  with  fathoms)  were  to twenty  they  in  they  Acadian 21  end.  voyages.  the  by  unstepped  or g a f f - s a i l s ,  of  methods  decked  t o each  trading.  (French  i n the  fifteen  had  coastal  end  probably  later  shipwrecked."  was  of  maintained  used  not  station  craft  regime  cod  were  short-distance  or p a r t i a l l y  handling the writer  Each  been  r i g f o r deep  one  heavy g a l e s , phrase, good  sprit-  produced  centuries,  s u r v i v e d , but  clinker  from  little  inshore  s h a l l o p s at the  whale-boat  a m a s t t h a t c o u l d be  had  which  the  ubiquitous  Breton  undecked  of  the  and  having  the  They were u s u a l l y  was  the  s h a l l o p s of  building  fishermen)  with  over  c e n t u r y have not  to the  boat  technology  fishing  Cape  almost  They  fishery,  Islanders.  shallops,  were  fish.  and  Channel  for  eighteenth  of  cure'  Islanders  fishery.  bank  developed  the  Descriptions  similar  deep-sea,  'wet  well  Channel  in this  techniques  fishery,  a  that the  and  done w i t h hook and four  two  lines  line.  Each  f o r shallow water  f o r deeper water.  Each  line  fishermen  (less had  than a  lead  sinker, depth  weighing  of the water  hook b a i t e d the  fish  cod  from  with  and s t r e n g t h o f t h e c u r r e n t , and a  fresh  herring,  were b i t i n g ,  c o u l d be t a k e n  fishermen  were  afternoon, could  out  tally  a  The and  reputation  any  fish  was the  fine,  the  to  the f i s h  night;  skin but  and  out again be  taken  although 'dinnage' indoors  be r e a d y  task  on w h i c h  side  spread  up,  that they  piles  with  each  to  for curing;  a  the The  washed  fish  sign  were  first remove usually  side  from  protection,  the f i s h Obviously  were during  up  every  each  the day,  with  on  dew  to thirty  During  up  the f i s h  were c o l l e c t e d  and c o v e r i n g  16  and  and p r o v i d i n g t h e weather  of twenty  of r a i n .  heat long,  again to  day's d r y i n g ,  they  was  fortunes  d i d n o t become wet o r  some  i t  i t had time  out t o dry, flesh  morning.  turning  at the f i r s t  bait  ledgers,  t o p r o t e c t them  thereafter,  the next  offered  late  of  and s t a c k e d t o d r y ,  later  the f i r s t  made i n t o  repeated  then  matter,  were  After  over,  evening laid  then  A day o r two  flakes.  turned  would  t h e company d e p e n d e d .  on t h e s t a g e .  until  and weighed,  and washed b e f o r e  and v i s c e r a l  dawn  i n t h e company  f o r four t o e i g h t days,  blood  from  of  fishing.  difficult  of  If  Usually, the  f r e s h e n i n g w i n d ^or a l a c k  recorded  headed, g u t t e d , s p l i t , soften.  double  or cod o f f a l .  i n a day.  t h e c a t c h had been l a n d e d  fisherman's  salted  fishermen  on t h e g r o u n d s  shorten t h e day's  complex,  mackerel  the  a s many a s t h r e e o r f o u r q u i n t a l s  by each  although  After  or  two t o f o u r pounds a c c o r d i n g t o  care  sunburnt branches were the  and had and or taken  weather  was  critical  bringing  but  several  round  piles birch  This  process  moisture.  a  bark  were  friend  aimed  sunning' from  involved  herring  and  particularly  to  before  been  either Channel  squeeze housed  i n  the pickled  fish  had large  covered  w i t h heavy  stones.  the  last  remaining store  until  were t a k e n o u t s i d e , gravel,  t h e Channel  fish  sweep t h e  trade.  coasts  summer when t h e f i s h i n the Gulf  coast.  gill-nets the fish  and g i v e n  layers  of  fisherman  companies,  Cape  of  Breton,  water  from  i n  the  the Straits  After  of  inshore, they  had  ('gibbed') and p i c k l e d i n T h e p r o c e s s i n g was who  sold  his fish  o r by t h e s k i l l e d  the in  runs  were caught 25  set overnight.  of salt.  firms  are migrating  along  The f i s h  Island Good  t o deep  easily  were g u t t e d  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l Island  "our  each,  with fine  the cod f i s h e r y ,  grounds  between  agent,  or 'parting-sun.'  i n late  using  out  drying  up i n t o  i n the dry fish  a n d c a n be i n t e r c e p t e d  landed,  barrels  and p r e s s e d  wind  southeast  the  were c o l l e c t e d  and covered  Canso and o f f t h e e a s t usually  west  or  After  l o a d i n g when t h e y  mackerel  feeding  Atlantic,  the east  the fog."  or canvas,  on t h e ground  their  A  o r i n t h e words o f a Robin 24  They were t h e n  Apart  from  days d r y i n g , they  day j u s t  'last  cure.  c o n t a i n i n g a s much a s 100 q t l s .  with  spread  of the  o f t e n winds  damp,  constant  spent  fine  too  rain,  usually  a  the success  warm, d r y a i r o f f t h e c o n t i n e n t was t h e b e s t  weather, brought  to  done  to  men w o r k i n g  the at  fishing stations. The m a i n m a r k e t was t h e West I n d i e s ; 1 7 9 6 , J a n v r i n e x p o r t e d 660 b a r r e l s o f p i c k l e d fish to 26 Barbados. 17  The  migratory  resources:  salmon  prosecuted  mainly  at  mouths  river  migrated salmon and  and  then  also exploited  seals.  around  The  the Island's  where t h e f i s h  upstream;  fishery  fishery  fishery  salmon  c o u l d be  M a r g a r e e was p e r h a p s The f i s h 27 i n barrels.  and s a l t e d  most o f t h e p i c k l e d  was  particularly  caught  as  t h e most  the  s a l m o n was e x p o r t e d  they  important  were caught In  local  fishery  coasts,  on Cape B r e t o n .  split  two o t h e r  i n nets  migratory  overseas; i n  1796,  J a n v r i n s h i p p e d 1 0 2 b a r r e l s t o P o r t u g a l a n d 35 b a r r e l s 28 Ireland. S e a l i n g took p l a c e along t h e west coast of  to  Newfoundland the  harp  likely  seal  the  involved -  but  1796, and  hunt  seal  exported  t o Jersey. pickled  northwest far  Channel  were  - an expensive  not  directly  and r i s k y  business  s k i n s from  resident  3 puncheons  of seal  fishermen.  skins to  while Janvrin also  and  relatively  sealing  exported  minor  In  Halifax  s m a l l amounts  were  I s l a n d e r s had f i s h i n g  widely-dispersed  just  off  coast; the  headquarters fishing  merchants  As t h e s e  fishery  on  I s l a n d s e a c h M a r c h when 29 the ice-flows. Most  100 show,  activities  t o the cod fishery.  three,  Madame,  still  Island  425 s k i n s t o J e r s e y , 30  The  by  Channel  purchased  compared  at  t h e Magdalen  pups were  i n the seal  Robin  skins the  and around  most of  around  locations:  t h e southwest  and Sydney  the migratory Madame, 18  coast;  on t h e e a s t  important,  Isle  rooms on Cape Arichat Cheticamp coast.  on on  Isle the  A r i c h a t was  serving  as  the  fishery,  as  a  and as one o f  Breton  regional  centre two  for  custom's  ports  i n the  and  cod  81%  of  exports the  Cheticamp, usually when  colony. passed  dried  the was  Island's  fishing  supplies  i t ; i n 1796, t h e p o r t h a n d l e d 31 trade. The fishing room at  fish as  during  caretaker  the  through  established  operated  Sydney  Most of  an  the  and  o u t - s t a t i o n of  summer a n d  shallops  closed  returned  even l e s s important, 32  and  Arichat, f o r the  to  Isle  probably  was  was  winter Madame.  used  only  intermittently. The  fishing  s t a t i o n s were  settlements  completely  fish.  Robin  The  least at  2,440 a c r e s  Arichat  extensive and  flakes, fresh  Clustered  by  i n t e n t s and  of  foreshore, purposes,  and  covering  several  rigging  and  shops;  were  fishing  splitting  sail  f o r the  a-  entire  salting  the  catch;  beach;  seasonal  for  and  acres Such  a  farm  crews.  dried fish  for Jersey fishermen;  stage  flakes,  to  Among  for  v e s s e l s ; covered  blacksmith,  for 33  b u i l d i n g s were,  drying  at  buildings  fishing  deep-water supply  cookhouses  1,000  fish-processing factory.  long  lofts;  dried  island.  only  company  and  of  Janvrin's  the  of  a t A r i c h a t and  for woodlots to  functional  production  space not  the a  highly  acres  boats  acres  separate  bunkhouses  also  150  an  provisions  buildings  unloading for  the  but  the  while  virtually  properties provided  drying  these  Cheticamp,  covered  supplying  all  oriented to  company owned at  large,  the sheds often  and  salt  stores;  joiner,  and  cooper  and an  Acadian  agent's  workers;  residence;  a retail outlet for supplying settlers; and perhaps a s h i p y a r d c o n s i s t i n g of launchways, a covered saw-pit, and 34 sheds.  Fishing,  like  intensive.  As  population,  the  bring  many  outfitted  other  Cape  Breton  Channel  fishermen several  across  hundred  The p r o c e s s i n g  skilled  from  government Jersey  men  months  i n  recruited came  the  from  signing  year  around  to  maintain  returned  i n  late  higher  the  New  and  Channel  ensure  high-quality Channel  Islands  within  Channel  large-scale  product.  Islander  The  were d i v i d e d  each  there  on t h e 36  were  explained  costs  Breton.  100  those  Jersey,  left  a  but s i x  from  the  labour  they  Islands, wives  and  summer,  and  potato were  digging, generally  discouraged  their  Wages w e r e p a i d i n left  behind,  overseas.  s t a t i o n s were production men  into fishing  specialised to  and a c o n s i s t e n t l y recruited and c u r i n g  well-defined  i n 1837,  20  They  for  skilled  "above  Channel  during  t o marry  and  done by  spend  and f a m i l i e s were  at the fishing  efficient,  who  time  on Cape  wives  were  Hellier,  companies  agents were n o t p e r m i t t e d Occupations  and  As  World,  settling  Islands,  i n  to they  at Arichat  Apart  employment.  November  sowing.  the  i n St.  the plots  and  from  there  i n the Island."  ploughing,  need  I n t h e mid-1790 's,  of fish 35  small-holdings  families  fishing  Instead,  fishermen  that  the curing  on f o r seasonal  employees  Atlantic.  Islands.  labour  large  o f c o d , t h o u g h , was s t i l l  the dockside  rural,  i n  the  reckoned  attending  was  companies d i d not  resident  t h e Channel  official  had a r e l a t i v e l y  Island  Cheticamp. men  pre-industrial tasks,  jobs.  i n  the  crews, As  one  When a r r i v i n g a t t h e f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s , a d i v i s i o n o f w o r k t a k e s p l a c e , w h e r e b y much more w o r k i s done, and b e t t e r done. Some men a r e e m p l o y e d s o l e l y i n t h e c a t c h i n g o f t h e c o d f i s h , and i n b r i n g i n g i t ashore; others i n the carrying i t to the spot w h e r e one p e r s o n i s e m p l o y e d i n c u t t i n g o f f t h e h e a d s , and a n o t h e r i n r i p p i n g and g u t t i n g them, a n d some i n s a l t i n g t h e f i s h . Others are engaged i n t h e t r a n s p o r t i n g o f i t t o be d r i e d , a n d , a t t h e l e a s t symptom o f dampness i n t h e atmosphere, in storing it.37 Fishing  crews  stowers,  while those  splitters,  and  especially beach  comprised  the c r i t i c a l l y and  book-keepers, and  running  whole  w o r k f o r c e was by  letter  themselves  in  resident  Halifax.  the t o t a l  mostly Junior, the  station.  company a g e n t  these bore  collected fishermen"  fishery  output)  was  based  a l l the  on  I n command o f  the  was  in  and  frequent  Although  not  occupationally of  the  the  Cape B r e t o n and  resident  the port took  from where the 38  Indies.  qtls.  along  the  Britain.  Company,  1,834  clerks,  the hallmarks  The  illustrate  21  exports  8,209 q t l s . were  tied  or  this  and  a former In  dried  from  o f Canso and  Paint  agent  pattern. cod  96%  re-exported,  exports of N i c h o l a s  of merchantable Straits  fishery's  fish  a merchant a t P o r t Hawkesbury  Janvrin  -  blacksmiths,  i n Jersey.  many o f  foremen,  facilitated  who  stratified  headers,  were  carpenters,  and  operations,  staff  - m a i n t a i n e d and  ( i n 1796,  t o t h e West  Support  headquarters  Virtually  went t o H a l i f a x of  with  workplaces  system  The  the  shore  important curing,  fishing  industrial,  specialised  to  of the  fishermen,  cut-throats,  Supervising  assistants.  cooks  daily  masters,  included  store-keepers,  shipwrights,  factory  shore  salters.  masters,  contact  on  shallop  1823,  of he  "sundry  s h i p p e d them  to  I.G.  Creighton  i n H a l i f a x who  brig  "Unity" 39 Gibralter. like. Paint rum,  In  with  return,  and  only  markets,  the  main  of  in  financing credit, In of  of and  1796, any  In  and  resident  or  a  they  more b o a t s  catch  in  exports  In of  individual of  or  1796,  handled 40  small  54%  cargoes  ranging  22  fish,  hiring  Tremain  of  the  and  local  sold  20  to  fish  fishermen. merchants  at  a  few  of  of  the  rooms,  men  and  Cape  or one  as  crew.  sold  their  with the  at  Sydney.  'planters'  fishing  46%  350  and  Lawrence  dealt  on  supplies  exports  merchants  handled  the  & Stout  hired  also  in  resident  cod  three  merchants  of  were the  fishery  had  dried  of  from  comprised the  owned t h e i r  by  considerably  Peter's,  there  planters  planters  Breton overseas  were  three  St.  Some p l a n t e r s  resident  of  i n the  vessels  supplied  25  lard,  subordinated  advance of  only  Second,  the  these  the  partnership  return.  houses.  export  through  m e r c h a n t - f i s h e r m e n , who  They were u s u a l l y  some  and  there  Kavanagh at  fishery.  to  effectively  First,  were p r o b a b l y  the  Cape  directly  f i s h e r y , and  lesser extent  importance:  total,  small  to  As  and  merchants beef,  C a p e B r e t o n was  migratory  fishing  ton  metropolis.  purchase  there  Arichat,  f i s h e r y was  people.  the  salt,  items.  131  Valencia  supplied  fishery:  exported  f i s h e r y on  than the  engaged  f o r the  Paint's  for  H a l i f a x houses  regional  more d i v e r s e  them on  case,  manufactured  resident  resident  groups  this  occasionally  H a l i f a x , the The  in  supplies  tobacco,  merchants  to  bound,  loaded  Halifax  dried  fish  Breton 41  with  No  doubt,  qtls.  to merchants  based  on  42 Cape  Breton  or  to.the  were the  fishermen,  means o f  fishing.  with on  fishing shares  labour  i n the  fourth  group,  local  the  firms.  by  m o s t n u m e r o u s g r o u p , who  a merchant  a planter. Island,  Third,  migrant  in return  Because of  there  they  i s no  fishermen  for  the  there  lacked  were fish,  the  supplied or  hired  availability  evidence  of  a  from Europe  of  possible  employed  by  pursued  the  merchants. The  resident  inshore  cod  technology  fishery,  fishery as  the  like  and  Channel  scale  migratory  f i s h e r y were not in  fisherman's  family  small,  the  relatively  be  For  exports  principal  market  Like  the  participated  i n the  pickled  fish  Brunswick. exported herring, decked  in  workforces  reason,  Nova  coast  to  Scotia, 598  While and  However,  the  the  and  with  the  West  the these  q u a l i t y was of  of  bound  resident  Indies,  the  resident  fishery  also  sealing.  In  1796,  shipped  582  barrels  of  Halifax,  277  barrels  to  and  barrels  barrels resident  salmon  were i n v o l v e d  either  the  fish.  planters  addition, 44  mackerel,  much  f o r the  fishery,  the  and  was  crew,  p i c k l e d f i s h e r y and  Halifax.  shallops  planter's  inferior  and  along  In  to  this  migratory  merchants  ports  the  techniques  companies.  fishery  were d e s t i n e d  for  reident  other  resident or  same  q u a l i t y c o n t r o l common in 43 often achieved. The unit  unspecialised  uneven.  fishery's  the  migratory,  the  Island  of  production  and  the  used  economies  to  Island  Basically labourers,  gear by  Channel  100 of  fishermen  i n nets, i n the  pickled  planters  seal  hunt.  to  New  salmon  were  could  catch  with  their  Although  there of  i s no  these  data  planters  particularly accessible fishery  f o r 1800,  were based  at Margaree to the  exported  Gulf  340  I n t e r m s o f men larger  than  the  later  seal  skins  employed,  migratory  b i g g e s t p l a c e on  were at  Upper A r i c h a t ) , about  150  D'Escousse.  On  Breton,  s o m e 100  and  P e t e r ' s , and  St.  Farther  east,  Louisbourg, only  other  fishery, The in  people  about  physical  rights  such  Kavanagh,  as  majority  of  reported  that  100  easily  resident  on  Grat  a  some  West  Arichat there  similar  number  shore  at nearby at  a Dieu.  350  Madame  of  between R i v e r  people  Of  Arichat,  had  Isle  mainland  50  much  dispersed.  and  lived  was  fishery,  settlement connected 46  Cape  Bourgoise L'Ardoise.  Gabarus  and  Cheticamp,  the  wih  the  resident  inhabitants. of  these  to those  were not  fishermen  de  at Main  structure  Property  more  Breton,  opposite,  50  the  i n neighbouring  were about  200  contrast  and  were shared  another  1796, 45  resident  Petit  another  important  had  marked  the  there  and  at  shore,  ports  resident fishery  while elsewhere  people  northwest  Cheticamp,  Cape  those  t h a t most  Halifax.  fishery  far  (including  to  suggests  the  In  the  by  and  and  ice-flows.  settlements involved i n the  inhabitants  along  Harbour  the  the  practice  and  always  of  fishing the  migratory  clearly  drawn.  some p l a n t e r s h a d  were  squatters.  24  settlements  In  fishery. Merchants,  grants 1793,  was  the  but  the  governor  t h e r e a r e some F r e n c h A c a d i a n I n h a b i t a n t s o n t h e I s l e Madame o r R i c h m o n d I s l a n d a n d i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d t h e r e o f , who a r e i n g o o d circumstances feeding large herds of c a t t l e upon t h e Crown L a n d s , b u t seem by no means d e s i r o u s t o o b t a i n g r a n t s , o r t o f e a r any power o f a G o v e r n o r o v e r t h e L a n d s o f t h e Crown.4 7 Other  "Native Acadians"  Government improved grants  ...  t h a t they  because whilst  they  they  them and m a i n t a i n probably their  land,  lines  settled  i n of  heedless  have p l a c e d  Buildings, fishing  primarily  stations.  i n trade fishing  a  retail  and  dried  principle much its  fish  store store.  processing  and  years to  ascertain"  "by r e a s o n  branches  gardens those  of  of 49  the  families  ...." of the  merchants,  production,  the  Channel involved  had no need  establishments  of  consisted of  i n t h e same b u i l d i n g ) ,  wharf,  rooms, a l t h o u g h i n fishery,  were  i n s t e a d o f a number o f b u i l d i n g s e a c h  with  function, the  surveyed;  fifty  Planters' fishing  t h e same a s t h o s e  smaller; own  (perhaps  to  had been  Cape B r e t o n  rooms and t h e i r  title  some f a m i l i e s  from  rather than  s q u a t t i n g was  and s u b j e c t t o d i s p u t e .  t h e younger their  for  to cultivate  no l e g a l  [was] becoming d i f f i c u l t  and fenced  they  fees  had n o t been  f o ra t least  too, differed  complex house,  With  of the century,  i n which  cabins  the  Such  one government o f f i c i a l ,  manner  t h e lands  striving 48  families  Cape B r e t o n  to  loose  and j u s t i c e o f  t o pay  industriously  were o f t e n i r r e g u l a r  property  according  Island  never  the squatter's holdings  t h e second decade  "right  shall  were n o t a b l e  were  their  "on t h e f a i t h  common t o a l l t h e o u t p o r t s .  boundary By  relied  they  fish,  i n the migratory  had  a  shed  a few f l a k e s ,  on  the  and another  stage  for  shed  for  storage.  Fishermen  with  or t u r f ,  bark  had and  Demographically more  stable  migratory wives  had  one  Conceivably, expulsion old.  balanced  of of  than  and  had  seven  Scotia  t h e r e was  log cabin, roofed gear. were  fishing  considerably  stations  p l a n t e r s , . and the  Among t h e  the  fishermen  had  consanguineous  Acadian  p o p u l a t i o n of  t h e m o s t common s u r n a m e (Table  ties  had  s u r v i v e d the  i n 1755  and  w e r e many  more  of  years  m o s t common n a m e s  familial  Nova  Certainly,  the  over  families the  a  settlements  Merchants,  these  from  for fishing  developed.  12.5%  56.25% had  shed  a  families,  communities  more t h a n  these  fishery.  and  Arichat  and  little  stability  and  and 50  1.1). Acadian  generations  inter-marriage  i n t h e A c a d i a n f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s on Cape B r e t o n the o l d French seigneurial settlements along the 51  t h a n among lower St.  Lawrence.  the  Although  settlements  the  at Louisbourg  1760 ' s ,  were  probably  families  interrelated.  data  and  Main  also For  are  lacking,  a Dieu,  relatively such  Irish  settled  since  stable  and  fishermen  the most  Cape B r e t o n  was  home. Almost the  fishery  of  the  a l l the (Table  Island,  people  1.2). the  The  (planters).  Kavanagh,  living  secondary  and  although  the  at  households Apart  St.  tertiary  fishery  1811  strong-hold of  shows t h a t m o s t h e a d s o f mariners  i n these  from  Peter's, activities  s e t t l e m e n t s depended  on  census  f o r the  southwest  the  resident  fishery,  were e i t h e r one  merchant,  a l l those lived  fishermen  at  p r o v i d e d the main work,  or  Lawrence  employed Arichat. t h e r e was  in But some  Table  1.1  Surnames  i n Arichat,  1811  Acadian  No.  of families  No.  of different  % of families most  80  15  32  15  with the  common s u r n a m e  % of families of  surnames  Other  with  12.5 one  t h e 7 m o s t common s u r n a m e s  % of families with unique surname  56.25  a  Based on t h e nominal PANS.  2 census  27  of Arichat,  1811,  100 RG/333/84-98  Table  1.2  Occupation o f heads o f households a t A r i c h a t and n e i g h b o u r i n g f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , 1811  Occupation  Arichat  fisherman mariner yeoman  8 56 13  blacksmith shoemaker tailor  2 1 2  priest trader merchant innkeeper customs o f f i c e r civil officer doctor  1 2 2 2 1 1 1  Occupation  ' -  St.Peter's  4 5  1  8 5 1  Occupation  Up.Arichat  10 32 7  Barrachois  fisherman mariner yeoman  fisherman mariner yeoman  W.Arichat  P. d e G_^ 19 6 2  R.Bourgoise 14 2 3  D 'Escousse 13 11 5  G.Digue 1 12 ' 1  L'Ardoise 8 19 3  Based on the nominal census of A r i c h a t , Little Arichat, Upper A r i c h a t , B a r r a c h o i s , P e t i t de G r a t , D ' E s c o u s s e , G r a n d Digue, River Bourgoise, St. Peter's, and L ' A r d o i s e , 1811, RG1/333/84-98 PANS.  28  other  employment.  carrying Island  trade,  particularly  farmers with  building. only  F i s h merchants  Tremain  respectable  exported Sydney were  coal, with  participated i n the local  of coal  to  seed and stock, & Stout,  merchants sold  "the principle i n Sydney,"  dried fish  interest.among  all-purpose others.  merchants with  exporting  c o d t o H a l i f a x and r e t u r n i n g w i t h  were  often  two  of potatoes that  hunted  and trapped  The  surrounded  resident  stratified. the  cultivating  and p a s t u r i n g  ground  game i n t h e n e a r b y like  of trade  Kavanagh,  merchant  resident  on Cape B r e t o n ,  qtls.  of  c o d i n 1796 ( s e c o n d  owned  an  ocean-going  Catholic Planters, capital,  St.Peter's,  t o take  a seat  vessel,  tied  flour,  molasses,  the  on t h e  was  most  exported  or  rough also  sharply  important  almost  to the Janvrin a  become t h e  i n t h e Nova  Scotia  3,3 00  Company),  "magnificent first  Roman 53  legislature.  and fishermen,  up i n f i s h i n g  acre  i n v e s t o r s i nthe  and would  29  Fishermen  were t h e merchants,  possessed  midway between m e r c h a n t s usually  merchants,  forest.  probably  only  one  i nthe  No d o u b t , m a n y  and t h e g r e a t e s t  Lawrence  at  as small  the migratory,  fishery.  estate"  involved  a few l i v e s t o c k  the settlements.  fishery,  as  a rock-bound  At the top of the hierarchy  facilitators  and  f o r s a l e on Cape B r e t o n .  part-farmers,  mines,  fishing  t o o ,were  a n d many m u s t h a v e a c t e d  articles  the  supplied 52 provisions. They  trade  and other  ship-  ran the coal  carrying  rum,  i n  and indeed  to Halifax,  Planters,  supplied  and i n v e s t e d  most o f i t s d r y goods and  general,  Halifax,  boats which  h a d some gave  them  some  independence  Fishermen  had l i t t l e  Island  or  Rather  like  England, at  local  fish  this  catch. poor to  supplied  best,  effectively  many  and sank  found  rarely  the price  i n 1819 o b s e r v e d :  the  of the merchants, 55 ...."  to  fishery,  allowed  fishing  i n arrears  after  or supplies newly  treat  a  needed  summer. to  At argue  and  they  appointed t o a r e deep  them w i t h  planters  stations  of  the  the fishermen considerable  probably helped diffuse 56  system. '  Work was  less  must have k e p t  merchants  had l i t t l e  outfitted  beyond  equipment  was  worked  who  future  i n  horrible  t h e ' p u t t i n g - o u t ' method o f p r o d u c t i o n , i n c o n t r a s t  the, f a c t o r y - l i k e  which  their  "Most o f t h e p e o p l e  books  Yet  of  "truck."  forprovisions  As a p r i e s t  Arichat  scarce,  or  i n a position  of f i s h  needed  specie  t h e w i n t e r and f o l l o w i n g were  i n  i n t h e form o f  on c r e d i t  i n debt  Channel 54 outfit.  what t h e y  With  themselves  crews.  manufacture  payment  on t h e c r e d i t  further  fishermen about  fishing  of cloth  and c o l l e c t e d  a l l power when i n d e b t .  tyranny  their  fishermen with  supplies  them t h r o u g h  the  for  fishing  and depended on  o f p r o d u c t i o n depended  Inevitably, season  lost  merchants  their  a t t h e end o f t h e season.  bought  carry  over  o r no c a p i t a l  of fishing  system  Fishermen  power  the p u t t i n g - o u t system  merchants  the start  dried  and  lost  rigorously a close  direct  the  tension  o r damaged.  as they p l e a s e d ,  of  30  of the financial  As  conforming  by t h e t r u c k  supervised.  control  threat  independence,  generated  eye on t h e i r  a  migratory  Although  fishing  crews,  fishermen penalties  result,  t o no r o u t i n e  they i f  fishermen laid  down  by  a merchant and s u p e r v i s e d by an o v e r s e e r .  separated Jobs,  from  too,  were  p r o d u c t i o n was do  a  'life'  variety  responsibility  of  fathers  handline,  families,  lay the fish  was  were  1.3).  worlds  of  trading itinerant probably  a  men  been  fishery.  of  the  helped  Wives and  tended  them  In  these  fishing.  life,'  sole larger  Sons i t .  of  had t o  i n t h e much  o u t t o d r y and  'way  The  merchants,  rather  either  than  knew  two groups  of Halifax voyage  to  missionary  a  positions  cases  language,  Irish  fishermen  including  were absent,  and o f f i c i a l s  i n  the  Apart  from  Halifax  mass  celebrated  from  Quebec,  o f power by  ethnicity,  and e s p e c i a l l y  f o l d e d i n on t h e i r  31  village. religion,  by p o v e r t y , families  colonial  the occasional  the fishing  their  social  overlapped.  and Sydney. and  the  Catholic  the  rarely  few  British  a n d Roman  probably  had few c o n t a c t s beyond  from  the  were m o s t l y  or Irish  churches  each other  with  The f i s h e r m e n ,  Acadian  Although  these  along  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s ,  and P r o t e s t a n t .  (Table  capitals  individuals  have  were o u t  unit  d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o u t p o r t s were r e f l e c t e d i n  officials  Loyalists  Merchants  the  l a n d t h e c a t c h , and process  divisions.  planters,  t h a t would  fishery.  employment.  Economic  or  Because  of the migratory  'work'  government  migratory  often the family,  d a y w h e n t h e men  contractual  social  demarcated.  tasks  helped  the  i n the  o f one o r two s k i l l e d  stations  during  not  small,  fishing  daughters  a s i t was  'Work' was n o t  by  an  population Shut  out  i n  many  the Acadian  and  and f r i e n d s ,  the  Table  1.3  O c c u p a t i o n s o f h e a d s o f h o u s e h o l d s o n I s l e Madame and n e i g h b o u r i n g f i s h i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , 1811  Occupation  Acadian  Others  79 139 30  2 8 10  blacksmith shoemaker tailor  1  1 1 2  priest trader merchant innkeeper customs o f f i c e r civil officer doctor  1  fisherman mariner yeoman  2 3 2 1 1 1  Based on the nominal census of A r i c h a t , Little Arichat, Upper A r i c h a t , B a r r a c h o i s , P e t i t de G r a t , D ' E s c o u s s e , G r a n d Digue, R i v e r B o u r g o i s e , S t . P e t e r ' s , and L ' A r d o i s e , 1811, R G l / 3 3 3 / 8 4 - 9 8 PANS.  32  most  basic  support  networks  planters,  and fishermen  engagement  were  The  Industries: Coal  Staple  The Harbour  i n  establishment  garrisons coal  deposits  government  at first  it  to local  of  royalties  main  over  profitable  to  take  production  Sydney  and  after  from  Crown,  As t h e  the  t h e mine,  colonial  t h e annual  9,000  &  leasing  consisting  t h e government Tremain  the  t o supply the 57  b u t i n 1788 b e g a n  raised  coal  and s m a l l the  and  with  Stout,  output  i t s the  from was  a  tons,  t h e mine  lease,  t h e government, had  relying  consumed  about  trade  markets.  total  the lack 59  shipping.  markets,  the  the  Yet although  the  of  "extravagant"  of  of  not  the operation.  costs  four-fifths  side  was r e o p e n e d  and a t t h e end o f t h e i r 58  over  of  century,  provided  t o almost  Essentially,  price  by  Rent  1791-99,  2,000  on t h e n o r t h  r a n t h e mine,  on c o a l . s a l e s ,  between  little  claimed  of revenue.  t h e terms o f  a t H a l i f a x and St.John's.  entrepreneurs.  source  tenants  coal  t h e mine  yards  were  merchants,  Mining  eighteenth  o f Sydney  and naval  When  unequal.  had mined  the early  Breton.  met i n t h e w o r k - p l a c e ,  extremely  French  on Cape  Wage  expense,  were  considered  T h e I s l a n d was  distant  three-quarters  of output  one o b s e r v e r  thought  high  comprising  freights  local  from  costs,  of return  i n s t e a d on minor,  r e s t ) which  suffered  raised  from  demand  the  major  (Halifax  and St.John's  much  had " a t t a i n e d i t s  60 medium...." of  Even  Sydney  coal  coal  shipped With  Sydney  from  a  excess  had  beach  underground were  dragged  i n tubs  the  sunk  into  roof.  Coal  to the by  waggons  mining  was  simple  of  and  a n i m a l s and  log  1800  and  a  the  barracks  coal  was  rudimentary,  an  settlement  easily at  a  couple  of  sheds  barrack.  The  miners  were  bunk-beds  lined  summer  many  facilities  men  framehouse,  and  slept  which  a  and  was  left  to and  raised  into  horse-  tipped  Mines  wharf. on  the  Such muscle 61  consisted  l o g and  .stables,  fire  outside.  or  i t was  shipping  dozen  were  Rooms  shovels,  There,  accommodated  the walls  off  accessible technology.  Sydney a  driven  shortened  were  and  dependent  colliery  drained  draught.  picks  trade,  Adits  surface  'pillars'  to the  half  Washing  a  double-horse gin,  on  British  The  and  the  shaft-bottom.  cookhouses,  grate..  from  and  or  framehouse,  seams  cut with  transported and  capital.  provided  the  price  coal  pre-industrial.  shafts and  against  profitable  much  while  surface  In  scarcely  attracted  high  ballast.  to the  drawn  men  as  and  the  competitive  access  cut  the  markets,  gave  haulage  support  to  not  and  primitive,  water,  'bords'  i t barely  trifling  small,  the  made  to North America  Mines  remained  i n these nearby  sod  i n the  considerably  a  a  hay  cookhouses:  non-existent agent  two  huts,  and  occupied  The  of  a  central  and  in  the  lived  in  the  damaged  by  local  62 subsidence. lay  the  Beyond  forest;  the  a  burnt-over area mining  camp  around  backed  the  buildings  straight  into  Some h a d  wives  wilderness. About  50  men  worked  at  Sydney  Mines.  63  and  families  probably  living,  most  Newfoundland temporary, work,  spring  and  was  were young or  and  sons of  confined  other  i n cabins  to  usually 64  fall.  than  a week, and  cutters  only  workforce  was  not  tubs  S e p t e m b e r and  24  for  2.5  cutter,  for  and  October  1807,  13.5  and  2/-  days work.  several  jobs,  There  "conducter  of  even  overseer coalery  job, In or  these was  in  pits"  i n the  vessels  ,levels.  In  same  the  for  £1.16.  coal  not  in mine  and  on less  Between  period,  to  a  for  the  and  work,"  also  and  did  loading  surface,"  carpenter,  "bred  1/2  another  "water  wharf  on  4/4  25  chaldrons,  labourers  the  Coal-  hauling,  particularly  have been 67  and  a  cook.'  skilled;  a blacksmith  a  the  near  a  England...." were p a i d  but  some e s t i m a t e  about  had  to  James Cann e a r n e d  "overseer  were  Wages  1794,  the  Surface  an  said to  attended  of  was  Men  specialised.  2/6  underground,  men  from  month, o t h e r s  coal,  chaldrons, 66  was  season.  £ 1 . 4 . 6 f o r c u t t i n g 14  transporting  vessels.  But  one  of  earned  for hauling 2  days per 65  timbered  13/6  Irish  summer, w o r k arrival  but  Employment  they  particularly  25.75 d a y s work.  for  the  camp,  part-days.  chaldrons  George Long,  the  thirty  few  hauled  £2.11.6  worked a  cutting  which  Even d u r i n g  Some men  The  Loyalists.  farming,  on  the  either  summer s h i p p i n g  i n t e r m i t t e n t , dependent  orders.  from  single,  local  the  away  the 32/-  wages o f stlg.;  at  piece-rates of  a  and  varied  a workman's e a r n i n g s  "common l a b o u r e r "  t h o s35e  of  a  were  c u t t e r between  from can $8 $8  job  to  be  made.  per  month  to  $10,  sometimes  $12  wage  about  was  or  about 48/-  English  mining  largely  because of  living,  the  left  few  engineer,  miners  shortage  the miners  their  s u p p l i e s and stores  considered of  operated  w i t h much  outlet,  the  the  t r u c k system  retail  in  68 stlg. In 69 stlg. Although 40/-  were a l l o w e d  until  the  wages.  goods recouped James M i l l e r  was  James these  wages  by  colliery  the With  monthly  Miller,  and  high  no  high,  cost  of  & Stout  much o f  the  assured  by  &  for  account  settlement; little  of  tenants  "to have a r u n n i n g  time  an  alternative  upon Tremain  notwithstanding t h e i r h i g h w a g e s ... 70 them." The large premium Tremain imported  the  labour  income. depended  1807,  when,  remains  due  to  Stout  charged  on  money t h e y  p a i d out  in  S e v e r a l o f t h e c o l l i e r s . . . [ t h a t ] t h e y w o u l d be c o n t e n t e d w i t h one f o u r t h l e s s a l l o w a n c e , w e r e t h e y t o be p a i d r e g u l a r l y i n c a s h , t o buy their n e c e s s a r i e s w h e r e t h e y p l e a s e , & be p e r m i t t e d t o maintain themselves.71 Yet,  given  was  unobtainable  the mine  the  and  no  summer a f t e r  Agriculture  on  Apart developed perhaps  merchant-employer monopoly,  Cape  from  d o u b t many men  depended  Loyalist  people,  the  were t i e d  by  debt  to  Breton  the  primarily  independence  summer.  plantation,  somewhat i n a d v e r t e n t l y on 750  such  a third on  of  seasonally  in  mine  or  agricultural  c o n c e n t r a t i o n was  Cape B r e t o n .  the  farming,  and  the around  farming  Island's many o f fishery. Sydney  In  had 1800,  population, them  worked  The  main  Harbour,  where  t h e r e were 80-100 L o y a l i s t 10 a t B a d d e c k R i v e r farmers  ( F i g . 1 . 3 ) . T h e r e were a l s o some  Acadian  the Cheticamp  e n c o u r a g e d by a m a r k e t n e a r b y  Highland  Breton  another  a t M a r g a r e e H a r b o u r and a l o n g  probably the  f a r m s . P e r h a p s t h e r e were  shore,  i n the f i s h e r y ;  Scots  settled  along  t h e west  were f a r m e r s ,  as t h e y  had b e e n b e f o r e  coast  and  of  arriving  Cape  on t h e  Island. On Cape B r e t o n , potential  farmland  climate, terrain, to the i n t e r v a l e s  coast  ( F i g . 1.4).  only  f o r rough p a s t u r e  and h a y .  was n e e d e d t o c o u n t e r a c t  soil.  The  range from  potatoes, pigs  tons  Europe:  hay,  the  summer p a s t u r e  crops,  a milch  of  to  coarse  Cattle,  the hardy  grains,  s h e e p , and  but large q u a n t i t i e s  s e v e n months t h e y  For that period,  were h o u s e d  during  cow r e q u i r e d a b o u t  of the  three  o f hay. Markets,  too,  from  export  only  100 b u s h e l s  shipped  to 72  St.John's. Within  these  were  limited.  m a r k e t s and l o c a l of potatoes,  Halifax There  Cape B r e t o n ,  settlements in  northern  was l i m i t e d  the  suitable  the natural a c i d i t y  t u r n i p s , and some v e g e t a b l e s .  for  winter.  and some p a r t s o f  F o r more demanding  of p o s s i b l e crops  needed n o t o n l y  fodder  l i m i t e d the  E v e n t h e r e , much o f t h e l a n d was  liming  varieties  and s o i l s  and  were  4 oxen, bushels other  b u t many  settlements  37  was  ones were s m a l l .  the p r i n c i p a l  and Sydney, small  no  64  Cape B r e t o n  and 80 of  distant In  sheep potatoes  agricultural  1796, were to  exports.  m a r k e t s were t h e f i s h i n g fishermen  grew t h e i r  and t o w n s p e o p l e  own r o o t  crops  and  F i g u r e 1.4  D i s t r i b u t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l land on Cape Breton.  A f t e r map i n D.B. Cann, J . I . MacDougall, and J.D. H i l c h e y , S o i l Survey of Cape Breton I s l a n d Nova S c o t i a p . 5 7 .  38  kept  dairy  cows.  Crown Land Grants bona  regulations  i n f e e simple fide  American acres  were o n l y  Loyalists, War.  f o r each  rank.  merchants, after  L o y a l i s t s and s o l d i e r s were e n t i t l e d family  commissioned  their  available to fish  and s o l d i e r s demobilised  head and a f u r t h e r  member o f t h e h o u s e h o l d . to  further discouraged agriculture.  Additional  land  and non-commissioned  Other  settlers,  the  to  100  50 a c r e s  for  was a l s o  available  officers  however, could  each  according  only  to  lease  land 73  from  t h e Crown and were  government r e p o r t  noted  liable  to eviction "at  i n 1814 t h a t  will."  A  tenants  ...finding they can neither dispose o f , or bequeath [ l a n d ] , w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s , have become c a r e l e s s i n t h e i r c u l t i v a t i o n , a n d a r e not i n c l i n e d t o l a b o r , b u t f o r a mere s u b s i s t a n c e . 7 4 Few  wanted In  t o improve  these  primarily some  subsistent.  and  regular, butter,  food an  a t Cheticamp,  commercial  surplus,  surpluses.  of  several land,  had farms most  to thirteen  acres wheat.  o r two were i n oats, An a r e a  "raising  salted  of farmers  a  beef,  had  farms  only  produced  farms were s m a l l  acres  according and  sown i n p o t a t o e s  and  roughly  of  produced  arable  barley,  were  t o Sydney and  that  likely  on t h e s e  made i n 1 8 1 3 - a n d c o m b i n e d  Perhaps an acre  on Cape B r e t o n  Essentially their  Clearances  nine  t o them.  known f o r t h e i r  and oats; b u t t h e m a j o r i t y 75  f o ra family.  estimate  farms  A few L o y a l i s t s c l o s e  of grain,  average  d i d not belong  most  growing  lard,  occasional  that  circumstances,  Acadians  cattle"  land  and on f e r t i l e , equivalent  -  to  an 76  pasture. vegetables, new  burnt  t o the arable  was  in  grass.  pig,  Probably t h e r e were s i x c a t t l e , a dozen sheep, a 77 a horse. . I n a d d i t i o n , game, fish, and b e r r i e s  and  were t a k e n  from nearby  Agricultural between.  In  encouraged  hardly  processing  the  stream.  i n d u s t r i e s were  larger outports,  merchants  C h e t i c a m p had  f o r e s t and  three  justified  and  farmers 78  mills. such  the  to  local  and  far  market  had  invest in grist  Elsewhere,  services.  few  In  mills;  subsistent 1801,  the  farming governor  complained that T h e w a n t o f g r i s t m i l l s i s ... [ a ] g r i e v a n c e t o the c u l t i v a t o r of the s o i l , the general poverty of the country having h i t h e r t o d e p r i v e d the s e t t l e r s of these e s s e n t i a l conveniences, and t h e r e n o t b e i n g any p r o v i n c i a l r e v e n u e t o s u p p l y the defect.79 Most pay  farmers the  high  probably cost  of  Agricultural of  dispersed  weakness  of  nucleated  the  parallel  lots,  On by  lots  several  Squatter  Where  running a  was  for  land  back  yards  need had  been  settlements  i n s h a p e and from the  farmhouse,  hundred  of  no  and  such  orderly, just  as  shore  separate perhaps those  ragged  along patches  mill.  land  and  the  clustered, granted  and  consisted  of  between  100-200 80  or  bank.  river  from i t s by  than  straggling lines  availability  Harbour,  rectangular  stood  less  the  hand r a t h e r  a distant grist  c o n s i s t e d of  there  Sydney  settlements,  Canso were amid the  market,  around  in size,  most  Given  g r a i n by  i t to  settlements  settlements. as  their  shipping  farms.  surveyed,  acres  ground  neighbours  uncleared the of  bush.  Straits cleared  of land  forest.  Farmhouses v a r i e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , 40  style,  and  comfort.  Pioneer  shanties,  usually  constructed  corners, turf  their  from  substantial,  squared  round  logs  cross  In the  logs,  were  with  shingles.  t o be  would  u s u a l l y be a r o o t  ground  floor  Inside  cellar,  the  covered  with  floor  and more  probably  constructed and t o have  such  a  two o r t h r e e  and f u r t h e r accommodation  at  were  dovetailed at the corners  covered  were  settlements,  houses  more l i k e l y  roofs  notched  had a d i r t  Loyalist  second-generation They  Scots,  from battens  The one-room i n t e r i o r  furnishings.  numerous.  among t h e H i g h l a n d  single-slope roofs  or bark.  minimal  common  from gable-  house  there  rooms on  i n the attic.  the A few  farm houses might even have been o f frame c o n s t r u c t i o n shingle door. in  or clapboard Certainly,  sides  several 81  such  the  central  frame-houses had been  built  Sydney by t h e 1790 ' s . Economic  differentiation  communities.  To be s u r e ,  as  more  much  as  relatively parity  more  marked.  preventing  frontiers,  and encouraged  settlements, been b u i l t  and social  settlers,  Gaelic  i t .  and  the  marked  and  achieved  among  Acadians  a  the rough  farming  isolated  intermingling  the preservation among t h e were  Scots.  hardly  groups  common  on  of many  of French  among  Within  these  few. Churches  and m i s s i o n a r i e s were i n f r e q u e n t  41  these  S o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s were  forest  institutions  i n  had n o t but  Subsistence  or supported Distance  not  squatters  Loyalists  settlers,  Acadians  pioneer  prevailed.  wealth  was  established  long-settled  probably  attracted  the  and a pediment over  with  visitors  had n o t to  the  Island.  The  only  r e s i d e n t clergyman,  an A n g l i c a n , l i v e d  i n  82 Sydney. no  L o c a l g o v e r n m e n t was' s i g n i f i c a n t  taxes  Assembly  appear t o have been  raised  i n  there  the  representation. around were  the  Highland lives,  among L o y a l i s t 83  Scots.  constraints  Cape  most  from  lived  little  bearing  had  ties  already  true  of  closely  or  the  bounded of  environments  merchants.  agriculture.  The,  London were  f a r more r e l e v a n t .  tenants  fiscal  politics;  Office  administration,  improving that  appears  Coal  exports  charges,  were  Though farms relayed  to stop  it.  t o have  were  taxed  settl'ers  the  i n and  short-  location  and o f f i c i a l s Low  been  fashioned  decisions  through  The  largely  but the  some  by  Cape  economies  trade,  trade policies  squatting continued  powerless  colonial  had more t o do w i t h t h e i r 84  impositions. from  cod  commercial,  l o b b i e d f o r lower  comings o f the mines  of  on t h e I s l a n d ' s s t a p l e  local  almost  close  isolated  superstructure  by  Colonial  farmers  government  unaffected  discouraged  1800,  revolved  Breton  subsistent  colliery  have  as they  of  political  had more t o do w i t h t h e demands  administrative had  must By  House  no  d o u b t t h e same was  and h i g h l y  were  world  families,  international  with  was  subsistence i n forest-bound,  The Breton  No  Although  with pressures  Colonial  or  settler's  Acadians.  the  everyday than  The  i t s absence:  and w i t h no  f a m i l y and c l o s e n e i g h b o u r s . forming  among  colony  by  i n  than were the  Island's i n Sydney  v a l u e -of t h e  land  hardly the  justified  colonial  capital; the  i n 1801,  with  the  owing  to  cost  the  a  eviction.  town  had  on  of  the up  [was]  want of  depended  reached  held  settlements  total  Sydney  survey  O f f i c e was  out  the  of  government r a r e l y  Colonial  1795,  the  Island  so  and  c l e r k of  for submission "the  difficult 85  ( S y d n e y M i n e s was were  employed  three  ten  i n business  merchants,  shoemakers,  a  a  as  In  emigrate  United  The  the  town  jutting  out  according governor  to  precarious  colonial  capital. whom 86  (Fig.  cross-streets George to of Ten  be  a  years  layout.  sited  Sydney  A  bearing  Edinburgh with  of  on  Elsewhere,  trade  shore),  few  two  or  blacksmiths, publicans,  two and  a  them were t h r e a t e n i n g  to  a d e f e n s i b l e neck  Harbour, formal  such  was  plan  s e r i e s of  revival,  later,  Officials clerk of  commercial  opposite  two  planned  two  birch  43  d r a w n up  grandiloquent  hallmark  only  laid  of  land  out  in  1785  by  the  first  names  Street.  town a k i n  as Sydney  to  the  r o y a l t y stamped  s t r e e t s kept forest  of  wide avenues i n t e r s e c t e d  P r i n c e W i l l i a m Henry  the  had  States.  1.5).  classical  the  two  butcher,  ambitious,  S t r e e t and  little  In  50  service occupations:  several  itself,  an  away on and  a  1796,  into  With  carpenter,  baker,  brothel-owner. to  miles  to  intercourse &  i n h a b i t a n t s of  council.  of  i t s peninsular  " o n l y s a l a r i e s t o depend upon f o r s u b s i s t e n c e . " included the governor, chief justice, auditor, 87 crown,  sway  ...."  i t s role 120  beyond  because  roads  about  O v e r a l l , the  to  covered  the  Great was  New  Town  over  i t .  original  proposed  city  Figure  1.5  Sydney,  1795.  After 'Map o f t h e Town Sydney/1795 VAC.  o f Sydney,  A A  10  July  1795.'  H3/240/  blocks  and  a cattle  straight-lined  to  and  buildings,  d i s t o r t e d what were t o have  one  visitor  deserted  paid  than  f o r by  t o Sydney,  inhabited  British  t h e r e were 88  houses.  money, b u i l t  reflecting  European  architectural styles,  impressive  buildings  i n t h e town  governor's  residence  was  with The  a central, five garrison  consisted headed It the  o f a nave  constructed  sixty  feet  garrison  lent  such as  within was  population affected  diary, long  some  most  Island.  The  of f i f t e e n a  A  style,  s i x round-  salvaged  few to  bays 89  pediment.  l i t by  ashlar  dignity  i t was,  revolved  sight  stationed  and  expanded  of  New an  end. from  England otherwise  lace  lain  cap  i t  was  useless  the social  i s  once  drawers  metamorphosed  Governor.  dinner 91 forest.  t h e army added circle.  "Charlotte  after altering  i n my  the  dances, and  i n t h e town,  old point  around  "Great.thaw o f deep  uncleared  provincial fashions:  "-  fashion  long,  at Louisbourg.  c a r r i e d guests over the  held  my  the  a V e n e t i a n window a t t h e e a s t  Government House where b a l l s ,  home  by  and  town.  sedan  were  the  surmounted  t h e army,  were  design  from r o u g h - s t o n e and 90  also  Society,  to  on  by  more Public  i n the p r e v a i l i n g c l a s s i c a l  about  fortress  frame-houses foresaken  block  and  and  a classical  church, also  ruined  His  bay  side-windows  was  been  avenues.  According ruined  track  into a 45  i t " one my  call'd  lady  by  parties When to  a the  O f f i c e r s ' wives &  noted  poor mother's  b u t now  mud"  brought in that  her had  the v a r i a t i o n of 92 handsome head dress."  Such  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y r e f l e c t e d the i s o l a t i o n of the  2,500 m i l e s in  from B r i t a i n ,  s e v e r a l days from H a l i f a x , hemmed  by f o r e s t and winter i c e ,  insular  to  officials soldier, "passed  many  bickered recently a  of  town.  its  Sydney appeared detached inhabitants.  and army o f f i c e r s grew a r r i v e d i n 1789,  great p a r t of my l i f e  and  Self-important 93 morose.  One  r e f l e c t e d that  having  i n America  and  been  in  many unpleasant and d i s a g r e e a b l e situations ... I so declare without e x a g g e r a t i o n t h a t I t h i n k Sydney by f a r the 94 * worst ...." S t r a t e g i c a l l y unimportant and p e r i p h e r a l t o the  f i s h i n g economy o f the I s l a n d ,  enclave of government amid the bush.  46  Sydney i n 1800  was  an  2  The  Scottish  Immigrants  In  1802,  Britain open  to  shipping, were  emigrants  eastern  Nova  largely  passed  the  onboard,  years,  When  overseas, the  first  3,000 p e o p l e the  early  subsequent Island's Perhaps  but quite Scots  America.  Island,  they  to had  d e t e r r e d by t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s  Friends,'  with  however, 340  the  t h e r e were  Breton.  fewer  trickled  55,000.  than  i n during  Immigration and  rapidly  changed, i t s  arrive  movement o f B r i t i s h 2  enough t o t r a n s f o r m Cape  had  first  Over t h e next  20,000 H i g h l a n d e r s w o u l d  o f t h e massive  the  Highland  i n Sydney Harbour,  disembarked,  and  carrying 1  North  1802,  increase  peace  had been e m i g r a t i n g  Edward  1840 ' s , t h e r e were a l m o s t  population  safely  the  Scotland  i n t h e c o l o n y ; when t h e l a s t  natural  of  Scotland t o the Colony.  a fragment  between  again  I n August  arrived  approximately  the Island,  people  from  of  to British  and P r i n c e by,  was  a few weeks  t h e war H i g h l a n d e r s  'Northern  sailing  Atlantic  t h e West C o a s t  Cape B r e t o n  ship,  passengers  on  within  Highlands  Scotia  Breton  o f /Amiens e n d e d t h e w a r  granting of land.  emigrant  direct  and  the  before  t o Cape  The N o r t h  leaving  from  Although  forty  Treaty  and France.  vessels  on  the  Background o f  ethnic  enlarged  the  composition.  S c o t s made u p a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n 47  by  the  1820's.  By  1871  Scottish origin,  50,000 of the 75,000 I s l a n d e r s outnumbering  were  of  by two t o one the descendants  of Acadian,  I r i s h , and L o y a l i s t f a m i l i e s who 3 Cape Breton b e f o r e 1800.  had s e t t l e d  on  The P l a c e of O r i g i n Throughout Breton  the p e r i o d of immigration, o f f i c i a l s  reported  Highlands  of  t h a t the s e t t l e r s came from  Scotland"  observations  "Western 4 Islands." Such  and the "Western  the  are confirmed by g e n e a l o g i c a l r e c o r d s  male s e t t l e r s i n Inverness County of  and tombstone  most  immigrants came from northwest  Inverness-shire,  Wester  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  of  510  inscriptions  301 male and female s e t t l e r s on Cape Breton,  that  on Cape  which show  Argyll,  western 5  Ross, and the Hebrides ( F i g . 2.1).  those from the mainland l e f t the c o a s t a l  p a r i s h e s between Loch Linnhe i n A r g y l e and Loch T o r r i d o n Wester  Ross:  Ardnurmurchan,  Arisaig,  Moidart,  K i n t a i l , Loch A l s h , Loch Carron, and A p p l e c r o s s . the i s l a n d s came mainly from C o l l , Canna, the  Skye,  Uists,  Hebrides.  and Raasay Benbecula,  Glenelg, Those  from  T i r e e , Rhum, E i g g , Muck,  i n the Inner H e b r i d e s , Harris,  in  and  Lewis  in  and  Barra,  the  Outer  A few o t h e r s came from a d j a c e n t areas such as the  i s l a n d of M u l l , of G l e n g a r r y ,  Gairloch,  and the c e n t r a l Highland v a l l e y s  Strath Glass,  and Glen Orchy;  but  virtually  none came from S u t h e r l a n d or from L o m e t o the south of Loch Linnhe.  The  distribution 48  was  remarkably c o n f i n e d  to  a  N Uist  SUist  Barra Emigrants  • Fort William  Lochaber  Male emigrants to Inverness County 510 out of 529 cases shown Male and Female emigrants to Cape Breton 301 out of 364 cases shown —  Figure  Miles  30 _l  — Lochaber district  2.1  O r i g i n o f S c o t t i s h Immigrants  Data from J . L . MacDougall, H i s t o r y and Ferguson Mss. B l .  49  t o Cape B r e t o n .  of Inverness County  triangular Fort  wedge o f t e r r i t o r y  William  i n Lochaber,  north-western  Economic  and S o c i a l  agricultural  rural  to  society  Cape  lived  Breton  were  o n some o f t h e 6 Isles. In 1821,  i n t h e Western Highlands  on t h i n  coastal  from  huddled  land 'i n t h e B r i t i s h  people  settled  a t B a r r a andi t s  Background  immigrants  overwhelmingly  most  i t ssouth-western  at  a t Lewis.  Scottish  85,000  t h a t had i t se a s t e r n p o i n t  margins  and  squeezed  an  worst about  Islands,  between  rough,  7  glaciated people  upland  and t h e s e a .  p e r square  much  higher  especially Barra,  m i l e w e r e common,  i n  some  limited.  settled  congested  coastal  agriculture.  parishes  There were  66 p e o p l e  on Skye,  parish  Considerable  by g l a c i a t i o n ,  common.  Only  Atlantic  there warm  tracking cloudy exceeds  the  areas  of  a l o n g t h e sandy machairs  from  bare  weather; 60  the  rainfall  i n c h e s p e r annum.  50  land  was  mile  the  Within  rock  had soils  (shell-sand  and  fertility.  the Atlantic  c o u l d be  per square  bog and a c i d i c  coasts of the islands  forty  on  most these  l a n d was u n s u i t a b l e f o r  the  Although  t h e G u l f Stream keeps w i n t e r s in  where  Hebrides.  much  and peat  land of reasonable and  i n  or  they  a n d 139 o n T i r e e ,  settlements,  exposed  the  although  island  63 i n K i l m u i r  densely  Densities of thirty  were  dunes) o f  mainland summers  mild,  been  was are  depressions  frequently  bring  along  the  mainland  People  lived  at  wet  the  and coast very  margin  of arable  were p o t a t o e s , In was  such  cultivation.  oats,  barley,  conditions  The f e w c r o p s  and hardy  land,  owned  A handful  the e n t i r e area;  encompassed an i s l a n d o r two, to Macdonald  of Clan  Ranald,  their while  d i d well  roots. .  the key t o wealth  a t a p a r t i c u l a r premium.  chiefs  that  and s t a t u s ,  of heriditary clan  vast  estates  the largest,  comprised  several  often  belonging  islands  and a  8 couple  of mainland  'tacksmen, '  old  parishes. clan  lieutenants  tenants,  most  'crofters'  (small-holders).  portions who made 9 parish. tenants  was  l e t to  large  Apart  settled  of  i n  landlords  from t h e sheep farmers, leases  let to  i tt o  lesser  farmers  or  i n turn,  to  sub-let poor of a  few i f any o f  and tenants without  t h e c r o f t e r s and  coastal  between  crofting  the  leases  settlements,  settlements  i n  townships  partially included  townships  laid  were  and  the arable collective  rules  been  by  The  the or  runrig  of stone  and  infield,  commons  or sheilings.  and  had  agricultural  cultivated  and pasture,  from  out  Islands.  and surrounding  distant hil1-grazings,  came  o l d 'runrig'  of an i r r e g u l a r grouping  cultivated outfield,  by  They  traditional 10  s e t among a p e r m a n e n t l y  i n both  protected  cotters.  the  the Highlands  consisted  hovels  t o Cape B r e t o n  1790 a n d 1820 t o r e p l a c e  open-field  shares  sheep  was  to eviction "at w i l l . "  ranks  turf  sub-let  The c r o f t e r s ,  Almost a l l S c o t t i s h emigrants the  who  some l a n d  of their holdings t o 'cotters,' the landless up b e t w e e n 30 a n d 7 0 % o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n  had w r i t t e n  subject  Although  a  which  Tenants  had  and these  rights  were  practices.  Both  the  infield  and o u t f i e l d were d i v i d e d i n t o s t r i p s and  allotted  t o tenants a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l s h a r e - h o l d i n g . strips  covered  a  v a r i e t y of t e r r a i n  and  soils,  l o t t i n g them tenants were assured o f some good tenant  also  had  the  r i g h t t o pasture  commons a c c o r d i n g t o h i s share. farmers  raised  potatoes; them  on  subsistence  The  and by  land.  livestock  Each on the  From the o p e n - f i e l d s , the  crops  of  barley,  oats,  and  and  sold  the commons they kept b l a c k c a t t l e  t o southern drovers - the market c o n n e c t i o n t h a t  paid  the r e n t . Nevertheless,  in  the  late  eighteenth  and  early  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , l a n d l o r d s i n the Western Highlands and Islands,  seeking  influenced moved  by  higher  rents  the a g r i c u l t u r a l  from  improvers  t o reform t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s .  income  from  runrig  townships  their  estates  i n the  Instead o f  t h e b l a c k c a t t l e economy,  they  and  Lowlands,  drawing cleared  i n t h e i n t e r i o r v a l l e y s t o make  an the  way f o r  l a r g e , more p r o f i t a b l e sheep farms, w h i l e those w i t h c o a s t a l p r o p e r t i e s began t o encourage the k e l p the  alkali  alkali,  r a p i d l y d u r i n g the 1790 's when f o r e i g n s u p p l i e s o f were  beginning  was  Kelping,  g a t h e r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g o f seaweed t o produce  expanded  sent  industry.  of  c u t o f f by the war with  the n i n e t e e n t h century l a r g e  south t o manufacturers labour-intensive,  workforce  France,  needed  by the  shipments  of soap and g l a s s .  landlords  and  a  were  As k e l p i n g large,  cheap  and attempted t o r e t a i n the tenants d i s p l a c e d from  the r u n r i g townships.  F o l l o w i n g the advice of a g r i c u l t u r a l  52  improvers, they  who  stressed  consolidated  fields  and d i v i d e d  crofts  f o r their  the value  the scattered the land  of individual  arable  i n t o small  dispossessed  strips  holdings,  of the  individual  tenants.  The  open-  farms  or  old  common  and  up  11 pastures  and h i l l  Individual five  bore  crofting  any r e l a t i o n  i n  superimposed (Fig.  while  pasture. were  the  Apart  crops  pastures.  the  soils  baulk  of t h e Outer  53  removed  f e e t wide and between  arable  openarable  strips  cultivated: o f each  according  tended Hebrides  the  and f o r  the township  proportions  t o township  More b a r l e y  and drainage  earth  four  strips  c o n s t i t u t e d an  the  The r e l a t i v e  from township  and t e r r a i n . sandy  ridges  of  over t o  arable  enclosed,  divided On  were pasture  was t u r n e d  an e a r t h  s t i l l  lots  and h i l l  a Lord  almost e n t i r e l y  o f t h e H i g h l a n d s were  and potatoes. varied  from  for  thin  arable,  (corrugated  'dyke' o r w a l l  common  Skye  to  layout  Harrapool,  was e s p e c i a l l y w e t ,  as f a l l o w grazing  stone  traditional  .light,  bog),  i fany o f t h e c r o f t s were  such  the  quality  long,  a n d were commonly a b o u t  length.  A  grown  (peat  regular  At  i n S t r a t h on  1800's,  t o 'lazy-beds'  few  purposes  barley,  out  The beds were b u i l t - u p f r o m  varying  from  2.3). Their  t o the terrain.  early  Where t h e s o i l  the ditches  field.  (Fig.  much o f t h e o l d r u n r i g a r a b l e  ditches).  fields,  (Fig.2.2).  Some c r o f t s w e r e c o m p o s e d  reduced 12  from  laid  upon moss  2.2).  bog,  i n size  township  MacDonald  survived  c r o f t s were u s u a l l y r e c t a n g u l a r  o r s i x acres  rarely  of  grazings  to  the oats, crop soil  t o be grown on t h e than  on t h e heavy  a c  i  ,o c  Figure After  2.2 Plan  Crofting  Township  of Harraple  RHP  at Harrapool,  5998/16  SRO.  Skye.  Figure  2.3  After Sketch RHP 5998/18  Croft  at  of Lots SRO.  Harrapool, 1 and  13  Skye,  Harraple  1854. -  Broadford  1854  13 clay  and  peat  soils  of  the  mainland.  potatoes  gradually  displaced  value  recognised  and  was  1 8 4 0 ' s , many at  least  become  only  an  buttress  to  members  did  planting,  weather  usually  had  families for  spring  quickly  and to  owned  too,  or was  caschroms  could  could  extremely  be  labour-intensive yields  than  on  necessary  t i l l  were the  done  acre  a  productive.  part  of  improved  most farms 56  the  areas  (crooked  crofts, i n the  Twelve  in  co-  variable had  to  be  crofters for  few  dhireach  men  -  and  using  agriculture the  produced  Lowlands.  the  family  spade)  patches,  often  their  unsuitable  cas  Intensive  Potato  the  ploughing,  well,  i n teams. 16  on  done  e i t h e r the  day.  before  and  reaping  As  In  was  Although  plough-team,  caschrom  often  an  -  with  adding  strips  and  horses. used  year  pastured  Given  many h a n d s . a  had  fields  frequently  assemble  crop  sea-shells,  digging,  planting  spades  spade)  spadework,  weeding,  fall,  to  the  own  township.  required  had  manuring  muck,  planting,  i n the  and  the  on  their  were  Islands  after  intensive.  for  the  share  ploughing,  (straight  was  harvesting others  year  l i v e s t o c k were  Labour  the  existence.  byre  before  By  the 14  fertility;  and  nutritional  and  i n potatoes;  spread  however,  smaller.  Intensive  a l l  of  their  Highlands  cultivated  addition,  much  with in  soil  general,  rotation.  responsible  and  operation  fallow  as  became  crofter's  usually  soil.  were  crofts  ground  harvesting  the  grains  Western  the  were  In  after  crofters  done  were  thatch 15  to  of  maintain  ploughing. strips  i n the their  occasional  old  dung  of  strips  required and  half  the  The  crofts  as  In  most higher  Eight  or  17 nine less  barrels effort  usually  f o r one  and  two  or  fertilizer, three  According crofter  was  general,  croft.  or  share  these  1827  cows,  crofters  and  under-fed, pure  and  that  spring  that  outside  to  environment,  the  tenants,  to  the  or  average  who  3  crofters,  the  winter  t o be  two.  stubble 20  "to the  3  rent, of  landless cotters 19  who  The  goats  ponies,  belonging  indeterminate  of  allowed fodder  fattened.  out.  Of  quick,"  one  so  to  breed,  winter  were o f t e n  carried  and  Some  and  fully  who  5 cows,  Common p a s t u r i n g h a r d l y  were never  per  young  p a i d £4-5  or  i t s  livestock  2 or  crofters.  sheep,  cow  In  livestock  4 or  a perennial shortage  had  gnaw t h e  Living  Natural  they  a dozen  3 ponies,  from  scraggy.  through  one  3 cows and  belonged  each  common p a s t u r e .  a young beast  cattle,  animals  indoors  a normal  roughly  small:  holding,  More p r o s p e r o u s  poorer  rights  and  housed  in  to  c o t t e r s were u s u a l l y of  breeding  ensured  the  3 ponies,  however,  horned  of  f o r example,  while  pasturage  arable  about h a l f  2 cows and  livestock,  milch  out  u s u a l l y had  received  were p i t i f u l l y 18 sown.  his  share  olds.  Grains  yields  of  worked  were  cattle;  ponies,  purchased  size  arable acre,  £10-12 r e n t ,  2  and  f o r one  to a  u s u a l l y year  4 young  had  the  South U i s t ,  in  cattle,  seeds  entitled  per  On  holdings  paid  to  this  equivalent  s o w n w e r e common.  Cattle weak  by  those  left  in five  died  winter. on  tiny  crofters  grasses  farms  in  a  exploited local  were cut  marginal resources  agricultural to  the  f r o m g r e e n meadow t o p r o v i d e 57  full. winter  livestock peat  fodder;  was d r i e d  fished fish;  reeds  f o rfuel;  lakes,  rivers  and  f o r salmon and t r o u t ; beaches were and c l i f f - t o p  Seaweed,  nests  source  industry  and s t i f f  kelp  who  applied  when p o t a t o e s  year  year.  after Kelping  itself  and  Growing  Atlantic  storms,  rocky  islets,  After  cutting,  then  taken  a  to that  the kelp  thrown  by c a r t s  constraint  or creels  employing of  tidal  the  men,  August.  sounds o r  dangerous-  on t h e beach  to  plot  up on t h e b e a c h e s  and o f t e n  was s p r e a d  crofters  g r o w n o n t h e same  s o i t h a d t o be c u t f r o m bitterly-cold  for shell-  serious  e a r l y May t o t h e e n d  weed was p r e f e r r e d  were  was r e s e r v e d f o r  was l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e ,  c h i l d r e n from  streams  l e v i e d on  - a  were being  thatch;  f o reggs and s e a b i r d s .  f i n e s were  fields  for  scoured  of f e r t i l i s e r ,  i t to their  especially  women,  were r a i d e d  a possible  the  by  and h e a t h e r were used  task.  t o d r y , and  kilns,  long,  low  21  constructions  of loose  it  until  was b u r n t  for  export  was  going  choked the  building  reduced  built  with  farming  weeds, and  was o f t e n  unattended  tasks  such  folds f o rcattle,  on t h e beach.  t o an a s h ,  t o one o f t h e s o u t h e r n on,  crops,  stone,  w h i c h was  ports.  While  neglected:  cattle  There, collected this  work  fields  became  made d e p r e d a t i o n s  as c u t t i n g  peat,  repairing thatch  making  and w a l l s  on hay,  had t o 22  be h u r r i e d Although of  i n t h e autumn the landlords  when t h e w e a t h e r was o f t e n had designed  k e l p i n g , t h e two a c t i v i t i e s Wages f r o m k e l p i n g ,  subsistence  farming,  sales  enabled 58  crofting  were b a r e l y of cattle,  poor.  as an  adjunct  compatible. and t h e produce o f  crofters t o obtain  a  meagre  living. rents  Most  of  their  were u s u a l l y  1827  481  average paid  less than  £5  in 23  rent,  a year.  On  although  South  Uist  in  crofters paid  r e n t s b e t w e e n £4 a n d £13 with an 24 a b o u t £6.10/-. E s s e n t i a l l y these rents were  of  from  Ranald's  income went out  kelp  earnings  f a c t o r on  South  rather  Uist  than  farming.  As  Clan  explained,  I f t h e k e l p i s g i v e n up s m a l l t e n a n t s cannot c o n t i n u e t o pay t h e p r e s e n t r e n t s b e c a u s e t h e work t h e y g o t e n a b l e d them t o pay r e n t s f o r p o r t i o n s of g r o u n d so s m a l l t h a t t h e y c o u l d pay nothing from the produce.25 Although  tithes  tenants  use  the  Anyone  found  estate using  dumped i n t o t h e income  were not  when t h e  p r i c e of  in  f a c i n g the  debt,  of  land.  In  kelp  and  charged  good y e a r s ,  or  to  cattle  the of  salt,  but  heavy m i l l i n g f i n e d and  by,  fell,  but  the  spare  d i e t was  stone  sufficient  many f o u n d  lived  fees.  i n bad  possessions  crofters their  stipulated that  c r o f t e r s had  get  c o n f i s c a t i o n of  Most  imported meal  and  exactions  Clearly,  destitution.  mill  landlords  a h a n d - q u e r n was  sea.  a f t e r these  levied,  on  years,  themselves  and  the  the  income  was  generally  loss  edge  of  spent  on  poor:  usually  some c o m b i n a t i o n o f m i l k , cheese, oatmeal, potatoes, 26 fish. R e d m e a t was r a r e l y e a t e n , e x c e p t when c a l v e s lambs rear  had  to  them.  be  killed  because  S c u r v y was  a  there  constant  was  a  lack  threat;  of  and or  milk  to  to  the  visitors 27  Highlands  noted  Crofters' shelters inside,  people were  houses  about and  that  40  not  or  - the 50  feet  and  "blackhouses" in length,  much more t h a n  59  small  a man's  underfed. - were 10  to  12  height.  unadorned feet 28  wide Their  construction minutely The  made  the  adjusted  dry-stone  with  an  were  often  to  walls  made  from  the  overlapping  slabs straw.  fastened  to  stones.  family  poultry; potatoes,  any,  these  and  easy  to  fitted  were  made o f family  chairs,  a  byre  was for  the  rear  and  threshed  floor  for  usually  The  i f the  few  lease  spinning  spade,  and  flail  also a -  buoys much  wheel;  have  a  straight some -  and more  creels  a  than  possessions.  60  where  pigs,  One  help  and  barley, door  were  ended.  space  and  a  There table;  scythe,  gear  -  the  Several would a  gave  few,  drain  i f away  members be  a  few  pot  and  chests.  sickle,  handlines,  scanty,  and  of  a  implements  carrying kelp  these  were  mattresses  cooking and  agricultural  for  room  Beds  bed.  spade,  ropes  suddenly  wool-basket;  few  fishing  to  ferns,  functional  heather.  benches;  with  heather  living  and  f u r n i s h i n g s were  or  and  wall  rushes,  there  sloped  and  covered  cattle,  and  area.  resistance.  inner  fodder.  ferns  i n one  the  storing oats,  straw,  sleep  the  a  often  double-skinned  down by  save  crooked  had  lashed  was  insulation  made o f  to  would  Few  were  walls  crofter  sheepskin  which  i n t o the  would  a  on  there  of  wind  rested  compartments  muck.  stools,  utensils;  a  The  remove  often  the  at  various  byre  was  slept;  barn  windows.  lessen  Inside,  and a  to  thatch  and  usually  end  or  roof  were  provide  members  The  conditions  to  driftwood,  turf  resources  core  each  s a l t e d food,  to  slops and  ate  and  at  local  house  earth  of  or  of  physical  the  roof  heather,  access  of  rounded  supported  the  the  intervening  Couples,  most  a  nets,  The -  a  rake, and  potatoes. utilitarian  Yet the  the  cotters  derive  from  patch  of  cow  on  few  had  the  to  grass  fowls,  a  "no  tenants grow  on  sweaters  n u t r i t i o u s than  than  milk, too,  firm  hold  on  and  stone  land,  of  were  to  and  the  paid  right rents  kelping),  also  derived  to in  for  pasture the  money, some  they  a  form  or  of  kind  income  a  (a  from  farms; begging, scavaging, 30 sale. T h e i r d i e t must have been  for that  they  of  the  crofters';  oatmeal,  lived  and  less  in  driftwood,  off  firmly within  family  Their  substantial.  the  With  heather 31 beggars.  "Celtic  with  and  f r i n g e , " the  no  earth  ground,  with  than  the  more  shell-fish.  into  covered  better  scarcely  hurriedly-constructed  p a r t l y burrowed  hardly  Although  and  considerably  hovels,  made  Cotters  was  compared  Lowland  potatoes,  housing,  off  s u b s i s t e n c e but what 29 relatives." In r e t u r n  cotters  They  well  of  potatoes  sheep).  less  roofs  their  ploughing,  harvesting  knitting  relatively  means  border,  (weeding,  kelping; and  who  soil a  labour  c r o f t e r s were  turf.  nuclear  appears t o have been the most b a s i c u n i t of c r o f t i n g 32 society. Parents and c h i l d r e n formed the majority of ;  households, that  while  included  Within  earthly  to  holdings the  anxiety  possessions ensure  townships,  their  According  this,  remainder  grandparents  crowded  maintain  the  and  and  to  keep  newly  crofting and  minister  was  comprised  pay  their of  their  their  61  rights  rents,  families  f a m i l i e s depended  on  married  families  North  the  nuclear  to  Uist,  groups  children.  struggled the  to  commons.  their  "chief  retain their small 33 about rules  them." governing  To the  collective  use  o f t h e commons.  elected  to  checked  over-stocking  peat  protect  rights,  of the grazings  constable  and  he  was  rigorously  and t h e  cutting  of  o n t h e commons. Beyond  support over  the nuclear  family,  of l a r g e r k i n groups.  the  generations  developed. the  crofters'  A township  One  population  assistance  Families  had become  and consanguineous  i n such  between  clan  Almost  a l l the  relatives  chief  would  a community. was  chiefs  on t h e i r  were  estates  had  no i n t i m a t e  Most  o f t h e few tacksmen  mutual  often  a i dand  were  Lowlander,  the  and probably  bonds  who  a  with  of  vanished.  landlords  connections  had  f o r most  had l o n g - s i n c e  poor  linked  the personal  by a f a c t o r ,  were  on t h e  communities  Although  absentee  personal  count  account  common,  and h i s tenants  who  their  could  o r two surnames  between  represented  crofters  people.  detested  by  tenants. In  the late  took  considerable  the  face  eighteenth interest  century  i n their  Roman  Catholic  pastoral  priests  charges,  and i n  of l a n d l o r d h o s t i l i t y frequently encouraged their 34 congregations t o emigrate. Presbyterian ministers, for the  most  part,  were  on t h e s i d e  of laird  and f a c t o r ,  rather  35 than for  crofter. financial  1820's  and  farms. the  religion"  1830's,  a n d some,  acted  i n 1824,  i n general  and o f t e n  lacked  depended at least  as e s t a t e  t o a statement  of Scotland were  frequently  support  According  Church  Highlands  They  on t h e i n Skye  landlords i n  f a c t o r s and r a n  t o the General the clergy  sheep  Assembly  of  of the northwest  "inattentive to the interests a working  the  knowledge  of  of 36 Gaelic.  Evangelicals  exploited  Established circulating and  Church Gaelic  .s p i r i t u a l  the  by  lack  preaching  Bibles.  support  They  of i n  interest the  at least  t o a people  of  the  townships  offered  struggling  and  some  moral  t o eke o u t  a  livelihood.  The  Clearances  There Breton.  were  two p e r i o d s  The f i r s t ,  between  from  old runrig  townships  own  volition,  before  colder. and,  The second,  consisted  cleared  from  passage  the  The  first  paid  period  Amiens  and c l o s e d  1827.  In general,  the  "people's  deciding  to 37  landlords. switch feared On  Lord  surveyor in  they  began  the collapse emigration  than  much  blew larger  cotters their  the treaty  i n  c a n be c h a r a c t e r i s e d  as  were  consciously  pushed  were  and r i g h t s on  Skye,  off  reacting  i n the for  o u t t h e new  "adherence  of  industry  by  the  to  the  t o c r o f t i n g and k e l p i n g ,  for laying  63  of their  because  of the kelp  being  leaving  estate  the tenants'  tenants  and  with  f o r Highlanders  land  Cape  landlord.  agriculture  responsible  crofters  emigrating  of emigration  lose  mostly  1 8 2 7 a n d 1 8 4 5 , was  of those  MacDonald's  1799 t h a t  by t h e  rather  would  to  o f a g r i c u l t u r a l change  often  clearance,"  runrig  leaving,  of destitute  this  leave  were  between  with  Many  from  who  land,  emigration  1802 a n d 1 8 2 7 , c o m p r i s e d  the wind  mainly  had been  of Scottish  and  transition.  example,  crofts  to inveterate  the  reported opinions  and  old  uncorrected  customs  operates  powerfully  against  38 improvements Uist,  they  or  even  were  alterations."  "equally averse  Similarly,  to  settle  on  North  in situations  for  39 villages  or  1802,  Highland  one  to  take  moor  crofts  clergyman  for  improvements."  concluded  In  that  T h i s p l a n o f improvement has put t h e whole Highlands i n t o commotion. T h e y who a r e d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s ... f e e l a r e l u c t a n c e i n s e t t l i n g anywhere e l s e , c o n c e i v e a d i s g u s t a t t h e i r c o u n t r y , a n d t h e r e f o r e p r e f e r l e a v i n g i t ... and t h e c o n n e c t i o n o n c e b r o k e n t h e y c a r e n o t where they go.40 Most  of  those  1802  and  1803  was  affecting  the  outbreak  early,  when  the  the of  voluntary emigrants  full  Western  war  onslaught Highlands  i n 1803.  In  of and  two  left  between  agricultural  change  I s l a n d s and  before  years,  nearly  7,000  41 Highlanders were  so  cheap  sailed  alarmed  labour  joined  for British  that their  for  the  humanitarians  America.  e s t a t e s would  kelp to  North  industry  lobby  be  Landlords  depopulated  disappear  for  an  act  that to  and they  improve  42 conditions  on  emigrant  emigrant  t r a d e would,  and  stem  so  passed  i n May  France  in  the  outflow.  The  the  boom  kelp  between  1803  of  the  outbreak  disruption  and  1812  raise  Although  same m o n t h  reduced  Stricter  course,  exodus.  1803,  the  ships.  of  probably of  about  price  of  Passenger  renewed  berth was  hostilities  with  to  army  curtail  recruiting,  flow  2,500  a  the  Act  d i d more  emigrant  only  the  the  shipping,  the  r e g u l a t i o n s on  to people  a  the and  trickle; left  the  43 Highlands war, across  for British  emigration the  North  resumed  Atlantic  America.  again  ( F i g . 2.4).  with  After several  the  end  of  thousand  the  sailing —  Many  of those  in  e a s t e r n Nova  and  i n Prince  'Northern  who  Scotia,  Edward  Friends,'  difficult  to  those  came  Many Scotland,  382  Seaforth tenants"  Barra Tell'  t h e mass  estate would  and c o n c l u d e d  the  b e s t & most 46  weak  behind."  should "the  most  5,000 some  a  h a d some after  1803  family  of five  under  suggests  were  that  the  needed  of  best  of a  fixed  ... e m i g r a t i o n i s  go & l e a v e t h e p o o r  sponsored  by  government,  the right  to select and  the  of the  Uist  wealthy  7.  I n 1827,  on South  factor  the  relatively  the factor  of  the  adult 45  of  leaving.  "several  "the e v i l  the  onboard  age  got "tenures  tenants  when  f o r each  the that  i n  I n 1817,  a t Sydney  8 guineas  they  capital  sentiments  65  of land  similar  Ranald's  have  than  restrictive  arrived  same y e a r ,  e m i g r a t i o n was  proprietors otherwise  That  that  active  more  the Atlantic.  feared  unless  the  b u t numbers a r e  when 44  c l e a r a n c e s began,  emigrate  onboard  1827 a n d  the destitute  that  i f  no  Antigonish,  before  then  child  on Lewis  by C l a n  Breton,  have  had p a i d  further  duration,"  that  who  each  than  those  coming  to cross  comment  like  arrived  left.  must  those  for  rather  expressed  soon  i n force;  from  guineas  before  1817,  i n force,  'William  Contemporary  just  before  were  passengers  prosperous  Breton  period  and  Perhaps  Cape  £30 o r £40 j u s t  6  i n Cape  first  Pictou  Some,  the emigrants  Acts  'Hope' a n d  and  Island.  especially  Passenger about  were of  especially  estimate.  reached  regulations  during this  arrived  Highlanders who  left  the  who  the  industrious  &  were  thought the  emigrants of  our  Total passengers Nova Scotia Cape Breton  1850 Years  Figure  2.4  I m m i g r a t i o n t o Nova S c o t i a and Cape from S c o t t i s h p o r t s , 1815-1850.  Breton  Data from J.S. M a r t e l l ' i m m i g r a t i o n t o and E m i g r a t i o n f r o m N o v a S c o t i a 1 8 1 5 - 1 8 3 8 ' a n d R.G. F l e w w e l l i n g A p p e n d i x t o ' i m m i g r a t i o n t o and E m i g r a t i o n f r o m Nova S c o t i a 1839-1851' (Mss. i n PANS).  66  II  population 47 dregs.  will  emigrate,  second  emigration  and  we  will  be  left  with  the  1 1  The the  landlords.  crofting  economy  collapsed since ton,  1808  plummeted  soap  of  tariffs  on  petitioned  f o r the  import  1827,  Kelp  in  1826,  the  Uist  and  had  in  been  of  that  brought  was  on  i n 1827, than  throughout  the  failed.  That  year,  and  kelp  per  the  1825  of  Coast  glass  lowering became  the  the  in  also early  salt  tax  swift 1823  in  and  fell 48  1828.  Ranald's  and  islands  factor  on  to  In  production and  the  per  'they  was  ton  cost  1813  In  £3.13/-  West  Clan  tax. in  £20  salt  prices  and  of  alkali,  salt  of  Islands,  for a  as  of  £9.4/-  lower  high  on  declining  After  and  the  and been  campaigning  lowered  effect  had  1820 ' s .  making  abolition  underpinning  all-time  alkali,  the  £4.14/-  an  directly  Highlands  prices  late  The  price  transport, industry  i n the  d u t i e s were  abolished.  dramatic.  Kelp  foreign  used  the  Western  reached  manufacturers  increasingly  £6.16/-  the  they  much m o r e  industry,  1820 ' s .  when  and  1820 ' s ,  kelp  in  i n the  then  was  The  depended  the South  reported: owing t o the f a l l i n the p r i c e of k e l p i t would be c o n v e n i e n t t o d i s c o n t i n u e t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f t h a t i n f e r i o r k e l p f o r a s e a s o n ... i n f e r i o r k e l p w i l l n o t a g a i n be s a l e a b l e a t any p r i c e . 4 9  By  1830,  West  the  production  Coast  -  stopped  Ardnamurchan,  highest  grades  During  those  crofters'  had  other  were same  main  being  i n the  Sunart,  staple,  67  and  produced  years, were  kelp  on  areas  Morvern  the  along -  the  and o n l y 50  islands.  prices  for  cattle,  also  falling.  In  the line  with  the  Britain had  since  fallen  £3.10/as  general  in  the  great  was,  the  the  one  inflated  rented  by  to  and  off  on  their  the  to  Clan  that  [the]  ...  altogether  i t  a  by  change  1839:  to  slack  about as  high  created  in  by  could  only  of  to  kelp;"  "The  68  go  on  on  South  a  and  of  living the  extreme  a  had  the  the  became  and  so  long.  to  North  in  arrange the  north,  of  made  financial  reported  from  paid  drains  were  reached  value  time  others  sound  Uist  revenue to  as  moves  by  present  rents  for  necessary  i n the  management  of  bridges,  them  factor  fall  Few  while  crumble,  draw  1830.  "without  these  their was  increasingly,  roads,  put  at  example, 53  forego  1817,  f a c t o r on  as  can  the  and  in  property,  to  set  for  arrears,  began  the  i n the  the  standard  I  "absolutely  estate,  prices  likely that 52 lost." As i t  £3,000  their  lost  work  Ranald's  independent  cattle 1810  stable,  Yet  into  estates  so  seized  continued  been up  had  " i t is  Uist,  and  MacDonald 54  fell  was  in  1823,  impossible  finances  estates  MacDonald's conclusion  South  improving  the  old  have  affairs."  Such  reorganise  in  remained  Some t e n a n t s  landlord  1827  ...  my  War,  prices  take  jeopardise  Lord  d e b t s by 55  footing.  not  1811  "It is  estate.  As  in  tenants  fictitious.  the  that  industry.  rents  to  complained  went  year  would  levels.  rents;  inconvenience  "Had  could  kelp  while  wished  lowering rent"  the  £2,408  landlords  Napoleonic  three  arrears  war-time  at  the  for a 51 's.  trade  of  the  of  depression  factor reported of  cattle  collapse  £6  1830  sums  All  end  from  formerly"  no  the  agricultural  lands  on  Lord  the  same  kelp Uist  renders estate  56 necessary."  There  sheep.  Sheep  Western  Highlands  into  region  the With  throughout when  the  late  on  the  region.  and  and  according  while  of  to  estate  measure  other  been  of 59  the  removed." first  two  areas  of  within  decades the  the  In  1821,  it  was  of  Bracadale's  1,769  "solely  has  f o r some into  dispossessing Similar  the  Dunvegan  parish  was  farms  of  on  and to  the be  time one  13  the  p o p u l a t i o n was decrease,  adopted,  setting  "in  Harris  soon  parts sheep  a  parish  of  on  small Barra,  and  to  be  in  the  Large of  i t  farmers. later,  minister,  farming a  a  what  decade  sheep  the  1837,  which  throwing  [lease] for  taking place 69  the  the  viz.  along  unabated.  2,103;  system  adrift  of  by  l e t to  reported the  had  c l e a r a n c e s , begun  were  the  By  likely  especially  on  in  settlements 58  continued  the  occurred  removed  coast  very  began  I s l a n d and  evictions  were  west  [were]  Bracadale,  were  the  i n contemplation  century,  large tack  occurrences  the the  estate,  been  of  evicted  cleared in  population  Skye,  the  swept  process  factor,  ascribed to  and  rest  the  cleared.  population  to  of  were  were  H a r r i s some  [were]  Meanwhile  Uist,  Similar  from  turn  1800 ' s ,  I s l a n d were  removed  to  borders  people  settlements  on  the  arrangements  remains  28  coast the  the 57  the  early  townships  on  but  1830 ' s .  South  1830 ' s .  about  1830's,  i n the  and  northern  early  reached  sheep,  On  continued  where  west  great  and  Islands  of  alternative  had  1820 's  coming  i n the  Lewis  the  i n the  little  which  and  the  1820's  1820's  farming,  central  Benbecula  was  which  number  grazing  of and 60  tenants." Coll,  and.  the  coastal parishes Some o f t h o s e  out  on r o c k y  often  to  tenements  join  others  o f Glasgow,  of  over  Britain  labour  Hamilton,  1815, c o n c e r n  "overpopulation."  diffused  tension  unemployed few  weavers  later  small-holders  after  1827,  the Passenger  established  Lowland  between  provided  returning i n ballast. industry,  Western  similar  of the  the A t l a n t i c  emigration  could  Highlands  and I s l a n d s  crofters  had t h e ready  seen  by  North  cure  helping  America,  potato  With  And w i t h  was  unrest,  as a  assistance  and her North  ships kelp  to British  Britain  across  and c i v i l  towns  repealed.  passages  emigrated  1820 ' s , t h e g o v e r n m e n t  A c t was  cheap  the  i n the rest  advocated  textile  the failure  i n  Many  mounting  being  laid  t o the Lowlands,  or Paisley.  was  crofts  and l i v e  pauperism,  t o emigrate  years  force  In the early  i n  o n new  south  had been  unemployment,  b y t h e 1 8 2 0 's e m i g r a t i o n 61  for  resettled  trudged  an i n d u s t r i a l  Since  a  e v i c t e d were  moorland;  overseas.  and  of the mainland.  to  Irish  crop.  In  the timber  American be had  trade  colonies, on  timber  the collapse of  by most  as t h e o n l y  landlords option  and  the  i n the  for  their  tenantry. Few  landlords, arrears of Uist  keen  to allow  livestock thought  emigrate  on  believed  the  On  Eigg,  to  clear  tenants  their  most  their  the  whole  arrears  would  "Tenants  some  Clan  of those  70  capital  up  on t h e s e  much  from  factor  t o be e v i c t e d  given  emigrate  but  i n  many  abolished  Ranald's  about  being  are very  t o emigrate,  estates,  to raise  and equipment. that  cash  indeed  rent  the sale on  South "would i t i s 62  conditions."  arrears  and  the  recovery  of  reported a  these  arrears  the factor  memorial  to  i s i n many  instances  i n 1827, b u t " t h e t e n a n t s  the  Trustees  [of  Clan  hopeless"  have  presented  Ranald's  estate]  proposing due  t o e m i g r a t e on b e i n g a l l o w e d t o r e t a i n t h e a r r e a r s 63 by them." Abatements t o cover t h e c o s t o f t h e passage  were  often  implemented.  Some had On  been  tenants waived  Sanday,  "even were  for  arrears 64  emigrate." the  the  season landed  getting Coll  North  than  cancelled,  been  sent  were  would  between  numbers about  paying re-let  an i n c r e a s e  Lord  also  leaving  1,300 p e o p l e  the following  who  year 71  have  come  out of  means  of  I n 1826,  MacLean o f  h i s Rhum  estate  for  £500.  each  to  adult for  Elsewhere, 1,300  people on  on to  South 67  by t h e p r o p r i e t o r .  considerable.  over  newspaper  a n d some o f t h o s e  left  to  was  a t t h e expense  about  assisted  were  assistance  as a s i n g l e sheep-farm 66  helped  1838 a n d 1 8 4 3 ,  be u n a b l e  Scotian  £5.14/-  of about  MacDonald  were  still  be  on E i g ; "  economical  from  sell.  reported to  landlord  as t h e most 65  arrears to  of Cliadel  one Nova  shipped  when  posessions  population."  was  even  t o our shores  America,  and Benbecula  America;  "they  I n 1831,  The I s l a n d  1827,  those  circumstances,  300 p e o p l e  p e r annum,  The and  have  North  emigrate  Uist  condition  proprietors,  Uist,  sufficient  "A g r e a t n u m b e r o f t h o s e  had about  passage.  that  the tenants  r i d o f a pauper  British  £800  lacked  recourse. that  so d e s t i t u t e  example,  In such  only  reported this  they  i n a worse their  were  Skye  for  600'left  Between British  North  Uist  1826 North a n d 6-  68 800  left  from  South  shows,  Harris. Uist  and  of  these  many  particularly Custom  There  on  House  Barra  at  also  the  emigrants  Cape  in  were  Sydney  same  were  Breton.  Between  recorded  in  1828  numbers  considerably  underestimated  admitted  alone,  in  emigrations  As in  1827  the  passengers;  officers  time.  arriving  Scottish  customs  substantial  Figure Nova  and  the  Scotia,  1832,  arrival  2,600  2.4  the  of  7,300  arrived.  inflow,  These  for  as  the  1831,  ... s e v e r a l vessels arrive annually and land their passengers on the Western shore of t h i s I s l a n d , the M a s t e r s n e g l e c t i n g t o make any report o f t h e number, i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f an o f f i c e r not being s t a t i o n e d at Ship Harbour [Port Hawkesbury].69 After were 1840  1832,  numbers  further  large  's.  blight  Breton,  as  Islands  of  of  on  people  the  -  to  Port  to  late  famine  do  1830  ceased  in  from  'St.  the  immigrants  Islands  charted  probably  the  the  in  's  and  1845  early  when  conditions Western  there  on  the Cape  Highlands  and  Migration  families  registered  near  soon  most  and  overseas,  in  although  Scotland.  Probably Highlands  considerably  virtually  produced  i t was  Condition  the  influxes  Immigration  potato  The  declined  a  in  In  Lawrence'  carried  inhabitants  Hawkesbury.  Of  13  72  to  paid  kin  the  Breton  When  and  extended  vessels.  last  Cape  families.  township  and  to  208  of  the  removed  their  passage  embarked  together  1828,  the  passengers  cleared  surnames  landlord  for  groups  summer  be  a  left  from  listed,  4  Leith-  from  Rhum  -  that  island  (McKinnon,  McLean, of  McKay,  and McMillan)  accounted  the t o t a l .  under  65 o f t h e p a s s e n g e r s 70 a n d 20 w e r e 60 o r o v e r .  Even  when  migration  was  f o r 170 p e o p l e ,  were  15 y e a r s  wholesale  clearance d i d not  probably  common.  As  o f age o r  occur,  one  81%  family  contemporary  observed, The f o l l o w i n g v e r y p r u d e n t p l a n h a s l o n g p r e v a i l e d i n S c o t l a n d . . . . When a f a m i l y , o r a f e w f a m i l i e s , d e t e r m i n e o n e m i g r a t i n g , some o f t h e s o n s o r r e l a t i o n s t h a t a r e grown up, a r e s e n t f o r w a r d t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e r e c e p t i o n o f t h e f a m i l i e s , who a r e to follow afterwards. I t often occurs that the y o u n g men t h u s s e n t t o A m e r i c a h a v e , f o r t w o o r t h r e e y e a r s , t o e a r n money, w h i c h t h e y r e m i t t o pay t h e p a s s a g e s o f t h e i r f r i e n d s . 7 1 After  witnessing  1780 ' s , the  Mrs.  "people,  others,  them. help  as  They  settler,  once  they  a r e now  of  coming  at  Tunk  they  who  a chain  probably  such'  links  Knoydart  Morar  i n Canada, b y some  towards  had a r r i v e d  i n  reckoned will  o r any o t h e r  factor  when  i t would  on South  h e was  estate's tenants:  you would  be b e t t e r  all  or  Uist  must  taken  go t o Cape B r e t o n , and no where 74 it." Even those emigrants c a r r i e d  73  still  o f Lewis  preparing the emigration from else  this  late  think being 73  Harris." note  of  o f many  of  country  i f they  beyond  One  congested  f o r you than  have  ties  i n the  part  "the people  before  Breton.  on t h e I s l a n d  "I wish  that  Family  Cape  Cape  the  encourage  friends 72  of emigration."  stream  o f Tong:  I know  [Tong]  Ranald's  from  i n 1830 t o h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w i n t h e  on t h e A i r d when  settle  encouraged  the migration  Clan  the  form  emigration  of Glenmeddle,  when  1820 ' s , w r o t e township  large  Macdonell  will  direct  a  can Breton  will help by  timber  ships•  Miramichi friends  struggled  and  little  passengers; purchase  land  landed  at  arrivals  Cape were  still  John, to  or  settle  i n 1832,  were  isolated  their  coves  to start Breton.  destitution retained  the with  "appeared  rarity. 1827,  toll;  miles  with,  Frequently  With  emigrant  a n d many their  were  those  1827  the  the  i n  onwards  passenger  s h i p s were  usually  small-pox  intended  i n "great  i n  persons  passengers  destitute  to  passengers  be  and u n s a n i t a r y ;  from  many  568  from  the  capital Even  to  Breton,  among  some  reported that  although 76  a  relaxed after  took  t o Cape  s u p p l i e s on t h e I s l a n d .  under-provisioned,  ship-fever  Poor  many  to  circumstances  regulations  Saint  the Island  one newspaper  Sydney  comfortable  in  to  reference  and  period,  crowded,  Halifax,  period of immigration  possibly  second  such  back 75  the f i r s t  i s  to  relatives.  During there  returning  were  and  dropped  destinations.  when  they  poverty  &  reached distress"  "thrown  o n s h o r e ... incapable of procuring their 77 subsistence." Some were supported by friends  relatives; had Nova  others  no one t o h e l p Scotia  by government them  government's  instituted 78  a head-tax  outlay.  This  the  t a x was  for  the Act's  Assembly  on t h e i r  on immigrants  passed  repeal,  declared that  he had  74  t o recoup  on t o t h e Breton seen  So g r e a t  on a i d , t h a t  the poverty  one Cape  b u t no d o u b t  arrival.  expenditure  exacerbated  usually  relief;  own and many  was t h e  i n 1832 i t  some  of i t s  o f t h e immigants  passengers. member  as  Arguing  o f t h e House o f  . . . t h e b e d d i n g s o l d f r o m u n d e r a p o o r woman, t o r a i s e t h e m o n e y t o p a y back, t o t h e s h i p m a s t e r t h e amount o f t h a t t a x - and he h a d s e e n p o o r children b e g g i n g t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f S y d n e y f o r t h e means o f p a y i n g t h a t e x a c t i o n t o w h i c h t h e y become l i a b l e , by v e n t u r i n g f r o m o n e p a r t o f t h e E m p i r e t o a n o t h e r . 7 9 Similar of  the  period  Justices "to  o f 1844,  In  potatoes  and  wilderness  lands,  government  for  the  destitute The  oats  nineteenth  century  implemented immigrants  exercise  year  from  had been  had  left  before  to  preserve  that  most  choice.  They  "shovelled  o u t " t o t h e New  from  profits  the  Almost the  the nearest North  route  of returning  destination.  By  timber  1829,  as 75  last  such  failed  and  the  early  way  h a d made  of l i f e  from  landfall Cape  a  to  the land  and  often  was  of  paid  farming.  t o Europe  the immigration  new  means  sheep  Breton  few  carried  i n  passages  from  A  been  sufficient  their  changes  estates. had  the  elsewhere.  during  cleared  ships,  the  directed  their  lacked  American  occupying  by a g r i c u l t u r a l  their  were  Highlands purchasing  crop  t h e changes  World,  landlords  arrived  petitioned  among  Breton  on  the of  aid  In the  their  potato  uprooted  landlords  but  from  which  S c o t l a n d were  t o ' Cape  example,  o f newly 80  no means  were  the  the  overseas;  with  They  for  end  f o r government  unavailing,"  by  hoping  emigrants  be  the  and passengers."  "without  relief.  following  applied  seamen  until  1842,  f o r the relief  had a r r i v e d  immigrants  setting  ...  would 81  emigrants  through,  a t Sydney  "300 o d d p o o r who  cases;  immigration.  and shipwrecked  Scotland,"  seed  continued  a building  emigrants,  of  of  of destitution  o f t h e Peace  erect  spring  scenes  and on a  cheap  destitute  people  was  a t i t s peak,  contempories  recognised that 82  Breton  had  become  "a r e f u g e  76  f o r the  poor."  Cape  3  Agricultural the  The the  Early  population of  early  nineteenth  Settlement  Nineteenth  Cape  Breton  century.  in  Century  increased rapidly  From  2,500  during  i n 1801,  i t grew  1 to  nearly  19,000  35,000,  and  accounted  f o r much  cotters  had  in  Irish  Virtually  a l l of  vacant  they  had  Sydney,  the  of  was  this from  the  and Some  the  of  but  the  Louisbourg  and  Main  interested  i n the  separate were decade  enclaves  no  longer of  the  a  influx on  the  the  at  Sydney  Mines  were  were  Baddeck  probably  By  the the  and Cape  others at  settlers  left  shores.  's  among  and  few  up  1820  almost  maintain  e t h n i c group.  Scots  the  settled  relatively  Gulf  a 3  took  populations  to  and  perhaps  in rural  and  and  crofters  By  position  continued  Immigration  quickly  Island.  Acadians  Atlantic  77  and  than  Newfoundland.  farmers  With  and  i n from  fishing  the  largest  century,  at  more  and  communities  were  Dieu.  20,000  Scotland,  the  Irish  fishery,  the  on  worked  existing  Some  dominant  Irish  many  i t was 2 55,000.  farmers  Loyalist  the  by  were  a  1838,  drifted  land  augmented  untouched  Western  established  Scots,  growth.  Scots  agricultural  By almost  l a b o u r e r s had  enveloped  Breton.  1827-30.  1851  arrived  thousand  the  in  But  their they second  dominant  group as  on Cape  Breton,  the Island's The  1802  first  and  1827  agricultural land  frontland  economic  and  occupied  the  to cultivate.  Only  Soils free  the intervales,  needed early  dyking  river  quickly  been  granted  along  and  Inhabitants  much  Bay,  and  land  was  Arriving  o f t h e west  coast  and on t h e e a s t  flooding,  capital,  1820,  between  coast  and  well-drained.  some By  rolling  moderately  t o seasonal  out grants.  best  accessible  deep,  with  between  o r meadow  gently  and u s u a l l y  are subject  took  fishery  Island's  intervale  are relatively  and drainage.  settlers  this  arrived  the  of rich  of stones,  which  'o f  valleys  the coasts,  largely  much  Consisting  major  the  activity.  of Scottish settlers  around  textured,  had d i s p l a c e d  wave  land.  along  easy  main  and farming  the  land  had  Cheticamp  around  t h e arms  4 of  Sydney  existed Bay. of  Harbour  on t h e e a s t  Away  from  coast  McNab's much  and  were  on t h e Bras  Margaree valley  land  rivers,  extended and i n t o  of  Middle  River.  coast  were  also  granted.  Island  was  now  Mira  had been  granted  along  much  patches  farther the broad,  Much  taken.  78  Baddeck,  and Mira  at East  Bay  In the next  alienated.  Many  also  and  d'Or Lake. was  land  Lingan,  smaller  more o f t h e i n t e r v a l e granted  land  of granted  North,  Mabou, M a r g a r e e ,  there  Cove  Pockets  a t Cape  the coasts,  the Inhabitants,  valleys,  of  ( F i g . 3.1).  By  along  of the best  and  decade,  1830, t h e a r e a the  Mabou  previously  o f t h e gaps  river  along land  and  untouched the on  west the  Figure  3.1  Crown  land  grants  on  Cape  Breton,  1786-1820.  D a t a f r o m t h e R e c o r d s o f t h e C r o w n L a n d s O f f i c e , 1738 t o 1 9 6 2 , RG 2 0 / A / 3 PANS, a n d t h e C r o w n L a n d I n d e x S h e e t s 108-12, 114-33, a n d 135-40, Nova S c o t i a D e p t . o f L a n d s and F o r e s t s .  79  The largely 1827  second of  settlers grant  1845  and  the  remaining  areas  of  squatted the  the  Bras  and  Basin  Lake,  grants  Bridge,  was  and  taken  Channel  The  and  granted  Ann's,  Bridgeport,  was  too  pushed up and Land and  rocky into  land along was River  at  for  the  as  of  but  Pleasant  to  Aspy  River  at  Shore,  along  Denys.  80  along  Morien.  Much  head which the  of of  the the  flows  end  of  the  East  Bay  and  Washabuck  was  the  little took  up  north  of  untouched, Dundas  River,  of  south  Inland,  Northwest  i n t e r v a l e s of  St. coast  settlers  intervales,  into  St.  end  North,  the  of  River  North  settlement.  reaches the  Cape  Bras  of  settlers  Bay  The  Bay,  Narrows,  relatively  0'Law B r o o k granted  east  There  coast,  at  parts  sides  Grand  west  a 3.2  the  West  still  Port  at  at  of  was  North  farthest  the  both  the  these  Figure  the  along  along  agricultural  Kingross  also  River  along  and  head  and At  Gulf  coast  Ingonish,  the  of  obtain  around  At  Boularderie.  the  east  at  at  Bay.  well  and  Anse  Brook  out  as  along  Grand  was  granted  not  and  settlement.  lay mainly valleys.  land  many  did  of  between  good  century,  extent  Malagawatch,  Cheticamp. land  river  often  the  the  Whycocomagh  were  of  consisting  arrived  Because  and  settled  minor  land  left  along  land  half  were  Baddeck,  frontland  backland.  Crown  second  along  Andrew's  land  on  Channel,  Denys  St.  poorer  that  d'Or,  George's  occupied  underestimates  tracts  Lake  immigrants,  cotters,  considerably  d'Or  Scottish and  until  fertile  of  destitute crofters  and  extensive  wave  taking Margaree  Middle Grand  River. River  Figure  3.2  Crown  land  grants  on  Cape  Breton,  1786-1850  D a t a f r o m t h e R e c o r d s o f t h e C r o w n L a n d s O f f i c e , 1738 t 19 6 2 , RG 2 0 / A / 3 PANS, a n d t h e C r o w n L a n d I n d e x S h e e t s 108-12, 114-33, and 135-40, Nova S c o t i a D e p t . o f L a n d s and F o r e s t s .  81  When settlers lots.  these were  i n  plateau  Much  of  the  influx The  County  on  Frenchvale Lake  knobby  Red  Islands  on  South  settlement  There on  Land  took  place  Skye  w e r e many  alluvial  on  Salmon County, land  River  usually  patches  clustered  land  i n  Mira  scale Cape  Road, and County,  West  Bay and  overlooking o f Lake  on  between  Inverness  of backland  Lake  occurred  Cove  stream  were  overlooking  between  parts  or  Breton  Framboise,  t h e Lewis  along  on  i n Cape  between  the Creignish Hills  small  of the  settlement  strip  and around  pasture  Hills  behind  along  and  are thin  immigrants  were  Coxheath  on t h e t h i n  Glen,  was  rough  a measure  To t h e n o r t h ,  other  soil  to  of agricultural  and  Lomond,  hillsides  o r a r e t o o wet t o d r a i n .  of settlement  I n Richmond  Mountain.  River  Ainslie. settlement  valleys  where  available.  Policy  Although Cape  areas  and Loch  the Island,  some  by m i d - c e n t u r y ,  and lake-strewn  along  suited  glaciated  Soils  many o f t h e l a t e r  and along  Mountain,  Denys,  quickly  best  Boisdale  Brook,  Uist.  the  North  erode  range o f  the rocky,  i n the north.  and meagreness  the  from  occupied,  the first  of the Island t o the  i s  main  had been  behind  varies  Nevertheless,  Breton.  and  land  areas  backland  o f the uplands  on b a c k l a n d  the  fertile  topography  and e i t h e r  forestry. settled  onto  the south  summits  stony,  of  forced  Backland  lowlands  and  relatively  Breton  l a r g e numbers after  1802,  82  o f immigrants settlement  began was  arriving  on  officially  discouraged order  on  force:  until  the granting  land  Loyalists ,5  could and  will.  regulations powerless  Council  only  to stop  the  that  land,  issued  be  granted  the  them.  few  But and  Colonial  or  leased  Office  restraining remained t o bona  ignored  government were  satisfied  lobbied  and  was  i n  fide  to tenants  simply  tenants  grants,  the  i n 1790,  however,  squatted;  permanent  period,  i n fee simple  soldiers,  Squatters  for  During  settlers, and  situation.  of  disbanded  Many  warned  1817.  at  the almost  with  the  the  Governing  government  officials  of the d r i f t  of  dissatisfied  6 settlers  to the United  Eventually, the  British  t h e r e g u l a t i o n s were  government,  social  unrest  valve"  for  a t home,  emigration  Colonial  Office t o adopt  paying  £3-5  grant  and  acres  subject after  t o an two  to  e r e c t a house,  and  place  Breton,  3 neat  when joint  Nova  annual  cattle  on  Scotia  grants  land  the  settler  cultivate land  resumed  to three, 83  in  Office  quit-rent of  and  four,  In  fee  to  1817,  the  2/The  of  the 7  simple.  per  100  settler  three  jurisdiction or five  Cape  the  acquire  3 of every  within  of  for filing  could  and  began  regulations  grants  of occupation.  clear  1815,  safety  the government  Lands a  "a  and  settlement.  issue  the l o t ,  years  population  flexible  and  After  economic d i f f i c u l t i e s  instructed  t o t h e Crown  surveying  loosened.  t o t h e c o l o n i e s as  overseas  t h e more  After  by  surplus  i n London  colonies  1820,  looked  and  neighbouring  payable  worried  the country's  encourage  Breton  States.  200 acres  also 50  had  acres,  years. over  applicants  In Cape were  permitted  to  settlement  "as  Although  fees  collected  For  for  taking.  were  A  most  of  Many  few  pounds, a  1817  on  rent  the  through  first  his  farm;  but  employment early  few  with  in  the  settlers  be  200  acre  more  there  almost  the  about  the  croft  5  acre  took  out  land  acres  land  needed  had  on  to  some  savings  and  on  farms,  successfully  in  the  grants. been  the  carry  Breton  on  for  a  other  was  stringent  of  Cape  never  lot  when  on  or  were  crofters arriving  years  mines  became  poor  for  intervale  more money w o u l d  make 8 settlers."  purchased  229,220  Considerably his  was  so  be  quickly  best  and  quit-rents  182 7  l o t could  comprising  to  Scottish  land  annual  survey  forested  and  settlers  grants  them  possible  prosperous  the  of  as  effect, 9 than £5.  acre  as  Highlands.  cost  introduced,  200  541  a  between  amount  1820,  in  relatively  regulations  same  were  less  Breton  the  easy  and,  available  Cape  reduce  and  By  issued, 10  Island. the  settler  to  improve  perhaps many  seasonal of  these  established. 11  In  1827  attempt  to  British  and  auction. per  acre  from  about  and  Office free A was £5  the  to  grants  reserve set, to  paid  in  time  sale  and  dispersal  the  with or  four the  a  a  upset  pushing  £25,  were  encourage  replaced  m o n e y was of  regulations  standardise  colonies  Colonial rents  new  up  rest 84  of  Crown  settlers  of  land  price  of  between  price  of  a  yearly  2/3  200 The  the  in  the  of  quit-  at  public  and  2/6  acre  lot  purchase-  first  intervals.  an the  capital,  sales  increase.  installments, at  with  system  the  In  land  i n e f f e c t u a l system  five-fold  equal  'introduced.  at  the  Although  this  gave  was  completely  ordered day  that  of sale The  of  poorer  them at  Cape  too poor  General the  little  capital  rate.  As  Office  caught  few  hundred  grants  were  there  were  in  1839  land,  were  changed  and o n l y the  t o comply  22  issued during  i n 1837.  overwhelming In 1837,  about  the Island's  majority  Crawley  of  poverty-  1832  Surveyor  Island 13  years the  A (Fig.  purchase  60 w e r e  to  immigrants  p o p u l a t i o n were  the  directive.  Unable  that  under  that  on t h e  Fewer t h a t 14  estimated  of land  settlement  after  of  many  the  those  any  soon  purchase  Crawley,  the following year.  squatters. half  l e t alone  the situation  hardly  was  on t h e I s l a n d ,  t h e new  on t h e  the opportunity  not u n t i l  with  Office  paid 12  and t h i s  to allow  this  days.  thousands  H.W.  was  up w i t h  Crawley  but  land,  I n 1827,  It  ordered  regulations  Colonial  fourteen  continued  and  3.3),  had t o be  t o buy  a result,  regulations.  Colonial  money  themselves  o f Cape B r e t o n ,  old  the  began a r r i v i n g  t o support  land,  when  within  Breton.  immigrants  t h e new  of buying  regulations severely restricted  on  stricken  chance  i n 1837  and t h e balance  with  obvious  dashed  some  10% o f t h e p u r c h a s e  new  those  settlers  20,000  made  afford became  people  s q u a t t i n g on  or  Crown  15 land. acres, because without the  Seven found  years  later,  i t impossible  "the country  Crown  to find  i s overspread  permission  vacant  one army  obtained 16 Lands."  85  officer,  a complete with  ... o r c h o s e n  granted tract  persons  wh®  of  500 land  have,  f o r themselves a l l  Figure  3.3  Number a n d a c r e a g e o f C r o w n Cape B r e t o n , 1828-1850.  Land  Data f r o m A n n u a l Nova S c o t i a B l u e Books and of t h e House o f Assembly o f Nova S c o t i a .  86  Grants  Journals  on  There prevent  huge  land.  of As  scale.  a result,  "Every  Crawley  body  complained  land  vast  do  to  hardly covered the  lay  the regulations  policing  could  t h e government  Crown  effect,  Office  of land  and w i t h  monies,  expense  worthless  Lands"  In  Lands  The few s a l e s  extra  unprotected.  massive  t h e Crown  of the surveyors  provide  the  little  squatting.  salaries to  was  unwilling  practically  had foundered  areas  .of  t h e l a w was  on  virtually  flouted  i s against protecting  on  a  t h e Crown  i n 1844,  a l l b e i n g i n t e r e s t e d , i n some w a y , i n t h e p l u n d e r . The l a w y e r s a r e no e x c e p t i o n - Mr. Dodd h i m s e l f [the I s l a n d ' s C h i e f J u s t i c e ] has openly a d v e r t i s e d and s o l d l o t s o f t h e Crown Lands, and I have no d o u b t h a s e x e c u t e d many a c o n v e y a n c e f o r p e r s o n s whose o n l y c l a i m was i l l e g a l possession.17 With for  t h e I s l a n d ' s law o f f i c e r s land,  i t was  people  hardly  learn  participating  surprising  t o look  upon  i n the  scramble  that  the orders  of the  Govt.  as mere m a t t e r s o f form, a n d c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e y may d o a s t h e y p l e a s e , a n d t h a t t h e s u r e s t way of o b t a i n i n g l a n d i s t o t a k e i t , w i t h o u t t h e delay of asking leave, and t o plunder a t pleasure.18 The  s u r v e y o r s were  surveyor  for  almost  Richmond  powerless.  County,  while  boundaries  of  l o t 9 a t Red I s l a n d s  confronted  by  a squatter,  warned  "the f i r s t  that  fields,  leave  for  these  advised "fire and  the  by  a gaggle  arms  concealed  that  person  purpose  fields  a rencounter  "armed who  would  o f making 19  alive."  of neighbours and a p a r t y would  87  new a  bludgeon,"  enter  ready  certainly  the the was who  ... h i s f e n c e d would  surveyor,  that  out  owner,  a survey,  The  18 4 0 ,  marking  fora with  In  the t o make  never  earnestly  squatter  had  u s e o f them,  be a t t e n d e d  with  fatal  consequences,"  hastily  same  h a d no more s u c c e s s  surveyor  laying  out lots  encountered language assuring  to  make  help  me  that  of  There,  h e was  a year  the  end  21,  the from  crofting  on Skye  the  island  of  recommendation of  years of  with  elapsed  the  l o t  Born  years  fighting  to  t h e War  petitioned  part 88  i n  against  The  i n  1754,  Colonies.  i n Virginia. Scotland spent  Breton.  Richmond  Surveyor  marked  o f each  side.  a  left  letter a  free  acres,  County. out the Soon  was  middle  76, he  Given  200  At  and  his  authorising for  of  the Americans  w h e n h e was  Office  unable  Regiment o f  f o r the Thirteen  f o r i n 1830,  and a small  or  21 him."  i s left 22  He p r o b a b l y  a Crown  assist,  "the strongest  i n t h e 76th  he r e t u r n e d  t h e Kempt Road  to  ownership  observed,  enlisted  Campbell  before  as  a s a p r i s o n e r o f war  from  me  requested  reluctant,  what  h i s f a m i l y f o r Cape  land,  beside  takes  t h e army.  enable  jurisdiction.  Crawley  and a h a l f  War,  no i l l  o f t e n h a d no d e f e n c e  and s a i l e d  five  declined  he  yet firmly  would  i s illustrative.  Campbell  and a h a l f of  discharged  areas  of  surveyor  important  settlers  Campbell  i n Skye,  and  settled  they  when  There,  use  force  The.  later  respectfully  the  their  as  a n d t h e weak  he s p e n t  grant  matters  I n many  Samuel  when  years  i n  himself  probably  "made  Although  magistrates,  legitimate  trespassers. helps  who  but physical  ...."  report.  County.  t h e f o r c e s o f law and o r d e r  property,  Foot  nothing 20  the local  intervene  case  squatter  his  a few y e a r s  Victoria  t h e d i s p u t e was b e y o n d  With to  Bay,  t o make  o r any t h r e a t s beyond  a survey  from  saying  a t Aspy  another  t o me  withdrew  and Three front  after,  trespassers First,  one  began Alan  the  to  strip  McDonald  with  rear  of  took  away m o r e  and  Archibald McLelland,  land  for cultivation.  McDonald, joined  property; timber.  "a  cousins  squatters  on  Governor  Campbell  l o t , and  Within  this  while  his  parcel.  Aged  squatters  were  take  possession  of  credit  in a  Governor are than  more by  kept the  1837,  under  frost  although  he  would  him  but  one  and  my  aged  by  and  the the  employ  milk  cow  wife  f o r him  "that  his  a  the  the  fenced  to  die  lot.  of  lawyer,  was  called  the  he  only  support  He  asked,  survey  the  I  another  and  to  then  his  this  only  Island  surveyors  "nothing  have  that  Lieutenant  potatoes," had  acres  would land  of  year.  seven  and  to  of  Lieutenant  held  With  off  and  correctly,  lawyers  i n the  warn  following  doubt  men  families  i n h a b i t a n t s of  quirk  alive."  to  complete  complained  decay  two  McFarland, no  five  McDonald  house,  the  the  stump-strewn  petitioned  had  felt,  Campbell  a  with  in April  Dugald  of  the  managed  for a  McLelland  rest  law-suit,  i n June  1836,  waiting  with  Malcolm  built  Faced  completed  the  men,  Campbell  Campbell  McLeod  timber.  logged  Romancatholiks  own."  uncle,  e i g h t men  Campbell  ignorant  lot,  the  of  preparing  put,  i n August  83,  two  began  his  i t s valuable  Murdoch  Another  of  was  wife's  one  land,  Campbell's  gang  Although  of  his  l o t of  a  stayed  tribe  McCormicks  the  then  McLelland  by  the  and  that  to  give  keep  therefore,  myself  for  the  Government's c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Squatters, neighbours,  as  too, the  were  often  situation  89  of  threatened one  John  by  encroaching  McPherson  in  Inverness  County  McPherson  served  and  emigrated  weake and  and  one  to  poor  backland  Mabou  as  private  Cape  and  near  River;  Breton  the  his  and  he  family  within  had to  McPherson, adding  "in  more  woods  and  planting  to  With  McPherson's  Nova  15  acres,  1835,  on  "Poor  Mr.  the  said  by  and  asked  "ought  government  to  lawlessness  be  encouraged,  legislature  suggestion  of  1/-  following and  only  year, 44  they  Office no  as  Family the  ... local than  grant  who  one  applications  realities  insisted  had had  90  sympathetic  attempted  of  Colonial  well  for a  and  reduce  the  the  and  to  by  and  "of "Fine  claim worthier  moved  their  as  McDonald,"  to  but  MacDonald,  intimidating  land,  regulations closer 24 colony. I n 1840, land,  himself  to  holding.  widespread  Scotia  the  for  of  years  destroying  McPherson  McPherson's  the  conjectured,  began  John  of  four  John  began  MacPherson's  pox"  holdings  enough  however,  MacDonald  regarded  confirm  the  After  In  lot."  polls"  McDonald's,  who  his  John.  "a  squatted  branch the  son,  Foot  small  l o t l a y between  neighbours'  of  settler  East  hopes,"  clearly  with  South  the his  i n the  of with  money," M c P h e r s o n  married,  barbarously  Faced  the  Regiment Arriving  a l l lying  about  on.  1831.  of  Inverness-shire,  51st 23  getting  fence  magistrate  and  in  of  crops.  treated  that  subsist  of  acre  improved  months  in  ...  head  100  Born i n the  destitute  A r c h i b a l d MacDonald  labour,  the  a  clear.  helpless family  "being  on  makes  of  on  made  to  molested," bring  settlement the  per  land i n the  the  in  minimum  acre 25  2/6.  applied for been  not  was  By on  to  price  rejected  early Cape  rest  the  of  the  Breton Nova  26 Scotia.  It  regulations Governor auction  1/9  were  should  the  to  payment  these  beginning  culminated  the  dispensed  and  of  increasingly  unworkable,  be  acre,  acceptance  which  becoming  proposed  per  marked  was  in  and  the  the  1842  Colonial with,  made  proposals of  in  by  winning  of  the  the  Lieutenant-  that  sale  by  upset  price  fixed 27  at  the  time  the  transfer  that  Office  the  at  clear  of  sale.  Imperial  of  power  Government  to  responsible  The  Nova  Scotia  government  in  1848. Another purchase usually the  way  Crown more  of land  had  than  buying  improved.  Dyked  expensive  had  been  example,  was  valued  with 28  more. 1830  50  In  's  needed  after  land  that  land  farm  acquiring  at  £1-5  cleared  other the  acres  words, best  considerable  an  on  been  Cape  alienated.  Crown or  acre  in  could  land,  cleared 1850,  This  to was  especially i f intervale,  and  a  for  frontland  £50-75,  perhaps  who  arrived  in  a g r i c u l t u r a l land to  was  cost  immigrants  capital  Breton  had  settle  in  been a  the  granted, frontland  district.  Agricultural  Although agricultural relatively the  Cape  the  Breton  offered  opportunity,  small.  fishery,  probably  Markets  and most  The the  most  markets  domestic farms.  important.  91  market Of  settlers for  Although  meagre  .produce  comprised  these,  a  the few  the  were towns,  fishery vessels  was were  fitted-  out  population oatmeal, Society  for  long voyages  provided  a  market  and p o t a t o e s . reported that  to  the  Banks,  f o r salted  the  beef  I n 1842, t h e Richmond  t h e demand  fishing  and  pork,  Agricultural  was  more t h a n o u r f a r m e r s c a n f u r n i s h , s o t h a t a c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e amount o f f l o u r , p o r k , e t c i s a n n u a l l y i m p o r t e d b y o u r m e r c h a n t s - a l s o many cargoes o f potatoes e t c from P r i n c e E. I s l a n d . a r e s o l d every season i n A r i c h a t and t h e a d j a c e n t f i s h i n g stations.29 Those  best  farmers coast more  had  than  Cheticamp. a thousand  Sydney,  farmers  sold  near  people  oats,  outlet.  They  and l i v e s t o c k  frontland  for  these  example,  oats,  sold  oatmeal,  and  veal  return,  they  either  In  Cape  the early  only  crop  but  i t was never  able  t o bear  grown became  with  were  Nevertheless,  flour,  farmers  cash,  Harbour  hay,  near  century,  i n  surplus  North  Sydney,  and  were wheat  moderate  92  turnips, 30 In  f o rhim.  few and f a r between. was  success  export  straw,  tradesmen.  virtually  the costs of long-distance  an important  were  potatoes,  potatoes,  o r worked  markets  only  probably  farmers  usually  farmer  and  a n d many  o f h i s s u r p l u s hay,  barley  Breton,  nineteenth  which  part  t o other paid  cows.  Backland  frontland  Sydney,  on t h e I s l a n d ,  short of  the  the Inverness  Baddeck,  markets. often  were  smaller f o r not  Sydney  large  barley,  butter,  Beyond  a  i n  was  and around  were  One  market  towns  fishery  and a l o n g  and m i l c h  products  farms.  the  County  lived  pigs,  Baddeck  i n  from  The urban  the principal  produce  another  and  Richmond  k i t c h e n gardens,  some  on  to benefit  i n Southwest  near  North  placed  the  transport,  on Cape  commodity.  Breton 31  The  Island's  principal  value,  bulk  of  Lawrence.  St.  might  have  perished produce 80%  items  on  of  rest  More  shipped  went  went these  the  farming  outlets  livestock  for their  Breton.  Only  export  Prince  Edward  own  the c i t i e s  markets.  exports  dairy  products:  cattle  Probably  most  of the trade  went of beef  Halifax,  to St. and  while  John's.  pork,  43  of potatoes,  to Halifax,  and  In kegs  made  much  up  and Cape the  and  low. livestock and  96.5%  of that  1,000  of  mainland  for  pork,  of a l l  i n 1843,  1814, and  Scotia  with  beef  Scotia  entered  shipped  salted  Nova  Scotia  products  and  farmers  were  outside  Nova  bushels  Breton  sheep,  Island  prices  exports later.  1,050  and  from  have kept Cape  3.1).  the fisheries  These  years  barrels  from  the  John's,  3.1).  ten  province  must  of  supplied  Breton  Yet competition  the  butter,  St.  and  Cape  of  Nova  hay,  Brunswick,  provided  principal  agricultural  and  of  than  (Table  Edward  and  which  more  Much  occasion  of Halifax  New  while outside  Brunswick  Gulf  l a r g e amount  i n the Gulf Prince  low  frequently  colonies.  potatoes,  Island produce  (Table  a  Scotia,  needs and on  The  butter  were  oats,  and Miquelon  small  and  o f New  of northern  Pierre  islands  the  livestock,  exports  limited.  districts  camps  Nova  around  costs,  a result,  agricultural  were  and  shipping  As  and hay, were  markets  butter  to the neighbouring  sufficient  St.  high 32  t o mainland  produced  lumber  valuable  to the French  But  potatoes,  to local  voyages.  the Island's  province  oats,  confined  withstood  long  was  crops,  and  to  90%  mainland  outside the example,  7  l b s . of butter,  585  bushels  of oats  232  cattle,  95  and  sheep,  8  barley horses,  400 to  bushels of  oats, 33 John's. In  St.  and  29  kegs  of  subsumed  shipments likely  of  during  from  and  and  1848,  sheep,  shipped  sheep  a  include  inconsiderable. the  average  34  sheep  of  nearly  1,500  Halifax, nearly each  butter  to  St. grew  while  the  farm  rapidly  agricultural September,  received  cattle  and  Port 35  pork  100  Hood;  sheep and  32  1842  nearly  1,400  in barrels  were 36  3.2).  are  generously  per  capita  was  173  Between  (Table  farmers  most  John's  John's  year  6,000  Province,  and  cattle,  of  amounts  94  the  Harbour.  quantity  i f these  from  of  from  even  exported  Halifax  122  each  With  to  exports  trade  Newfoundland  exports to  of  St.  Margaree  considerable  to  Chaleur  In August,  Arichat;  and  from  average  Nevertheless, to  from  cattle  sheep  and  century,  f o r example,  pork,  the.Gaspe,  Newfoundland  1828,  an  and  the  and  fishing  the  of  beef  sent  as  potatoes, oats,  Certainly,  of  of  probably  coastwise trade  B r e t o n expanded.  45  5  records  sheep,  half  p o t a t o e s were  barrels  Islands,  1820  the  51  Cape  185  Sydney;  cattle and  on  bushels of  shipped,  population  first  October  cattle  in  The  production and  after  continued.  the  were  Magdalen  cattle,  increased.  500  addition,  butter  supplies, to the 34 Bay. Although were  and  at  about  doubled  trade  was  mid-century, one  animal.  Table  3.1  Agricultural 1853  Exports outside  Nova  Scotia,  1843  and  1843 Great Britain £ Beef Bread Butter Cattle Horses Oats Potatoes Sheep  West Indies  British N.America  U.S.A.  Other  stlg. 4  239 125 3,693 13,955 156 167 211 1,256  10  48  41 18  1853 Beef & Pork Bread Butter Cattle Horses Oats Potatoes Sheep Other  Data House  from Annual of Assembly  999 23  7  1,716 47 6,457 3 ,188 185 634 51 655 294  Nova S c o t i a B l u e o f Nova Scotia.  Books  4  360  15  501 965  375 11  18 222 36  and  Journals  of the  Table  3.2  Exports of Cattle, S c o t i a , 1842-1848  Sheep,  and B u t t e r  outside  Nova  Cattle Great Britain  West Indies  Quantity 1842 3 4 5 6 7 8  B.N.A.  £  Other Colonies  U.S.A.  Other  stlg.  750 h e a d 2,416 2,111 1,206 1,290 1,303 1,246  4,850 13,955 8,714 5,556 5,940 6,274 4,983  663 h e a d 1,966 1,781 1,126 1,599 1,587 1,004  358 1,256 975 654 788 756 456  96 150 125 413 150 303  Sheep 1842 3 4 5 6 7 8  30 18 26 10 66 31  Butter 1842 3 4 5 6 7 8  Data  715 t u b s 1,894 2,653 2,887 3,725 1,665 1,615  from  Annual  36 10 12 19  Nova  1,617 3,693 5,261 5,685 7,204 3,265 3,011  5  Scotia  96  Blue  Books.  48 50 60 34 46 49  9 36 60  The  Developing  Those markets on  most  were  transport.  many  good At  the  Inverness (Fig.  settlements  in  form,  land  cleared  only  on  Inverness  County  least  acres  and  37.5 around  ranging land  40-50 land  from  and  Although  the  was  good  Market Cape  Breton  were  some  1,600 37  frontland  intervale.  taken  Bras  d'Or  the  and markets demand  and  encouraged  some  at  East  Bay,  intervales  The  whereas  agricultural land.  frontland  and  and o c c u p i e r s  common  in  cleared  land,  at  the west  a reflection  were  Sydney  coast  smaller,  of the  around  the census,  around  of  farms  clearances  from  are  intervale  along  settlement  of  Rivers  of the best  both  clearance  the  on f r o n t l a n d  oldest  t h e most  acres,  probably  to  and Margaree  include  Lake  to verify  then,  c a n b e made o f t h e a m o u n t  had  of  place  the  water-  By  According  t h e Mabou  3.5),  recency  were  to  occupying  probably  they  close  along  among  were  also  f r o n t l a n d farms.  impossible  acres  and  estimates  (Fig.  only  particularly  f o r land  12.6-37.5  the  had  sub-districts  and t h e d a t a  Not  regional  were  prime  Lake,  were  backland,  and  improvements.  the Island,  the census  summary  on  especially  These  on  there  Baddeck,  County,  local  frontland.  clearance  d'Or  and  3.5).  Because  o f them  most  the  but they  substantial  Bras  Washabuck,  on  land,  450  o f 1851,  around  to exploit  mid-century  about  h a d made  census  able  the s e t t l e r s  relatively  farmers,  Frontlands  the  poorer Lake.  clearances Harbour  of  where  were a c c e s s i b l e . the problems  of growing  f r o n t l a n d farmers  to  cereals  on  specialise  in  /  Figure  3.4  Census  districts  98  on Cape B r e t o n ,  1851.  Acres 15.000  Km  Figure Data  3.5  Improved  land  on Cape  f r o m t h e C e n s u s o f 1851,  99  RG  Breton, 1/453  1851.  PANS.  38 livestock  raising.  main  products,  cash  pasture farm  and  (Fig.  3.6).  cattle  a  pastures  had  an  were  average  variety  of  had  animals and  of  were  one  or  winter  rough  mixed  intensive  They of  good  2.6-5  frontland  of on  less  had  cattle two  land  at the  and the  the  had  clearings 6-10  h o r s e s , two  of  the of  d'Or  Lake  pastures  and  than  the  Bras  smaller; sheep.  or  in  areas  more  Around  the  was  back  Bras  best  usually  and  were  principal  sheep.  and  butter  improved  The  farms  number  against  on  shortage  the  and  three  10 d'Or  farmers Frontland  pigs,  and  a  fowl.  Measured livestock  of  of  intervales  stock.  similar  Lake  also  the  Intervale  t h e most  farmers  much  forage.  were  supported  sheep,  U n c l e a r e d woodland  extra  raising  and  and  grass.  provided  livestock  Cattle,  breeds,  farms  not  land  meant  breed.  and  But  by  the  fattened  on 39  local  from  the  to  before  The  pasturing  of  were  scraggy  encouraged  Newfoundland  that  t h e y were  John's they in  of  high.  hardly  St.  sea-voyage,  farms  quality  livestock  market  consignments  long  common  most  the  the  especially  the  that  Returns  many  weakened  was  f o d d e r and  breeding.  low,  improved  trade  were  so  to  be  had a  marketable  condition. Yet more  by  the  1 8 4 0 's some  prosperous farmers to  Provincial  Board  agricultural  societies,  Prince  Edward  of  Island  attempt  improve  their  Agriculture improved and  the  100  was  in  made  stock. Halifax  breeds  Canadas  being  were  by  Through and  imported  to cross  with  the the local from local  Cattle  Sheep — —  4000 2000 1000  Cattle or sheep per family More than 10  Figure Data  3.6  from  Distribution t h e Census  of livestock  o f 1 8 5 1 , RG  101  1/453  on Cape B r e t o n , PANS.  1851  40 livestock. imported rams,  In  1841,  three  South  crossed  them  produce  "a  suitability  very  the  Cape  Down r a m s with fine  Breton  and  the  Agricultural  three  best  of  stock...,"  large  the  New  local  and  Society Leicester  variety  to  pronounced  the  of  t h e S o u t h Downs a n d C h e v i o t s f o r U p l a n d P a s t u r e s , a n d t h e New L e i c e s t e r s , f o r the r i c h I n t e r v a l e s - The two f o r m e r a r e by n a t u r e hardy, can t h r i v e w e l l upon s h o r t h e r b a g e and t r a v e l f a r f o r Food, y i e l d i n g a s u p e r i o r d e s c r i p t i o n of wool and f i n e l y f l a v o u r e d meat - The L e i c e s t e r s produce an immense c a r c a s s , and a h e a v y (Long Wool'd} F l e e c e - but r e q u i r e a r i c h b i t e , always c l o s e a t hand-.41 In  1845,  the  that  "the  and  beauty  benefit were and  off spring  of  of  the  of  the  the  society  of  steers  stock  and  most  the  other  was  important  Ainslie,  butter  along  Mabou  and  Broad  & 42  bull  heifers  But  farmers  cash  producers  Cove  Margaree  had  reported the  size  showed  such  the  experiments  scrub  Valleys  good-quality  production.  farmers  produced  than  1,000  With  the  according to quality were  often  sent  were  was  and  too  102  those  and  small  cattle  limited most  of  1851,  to  But  support most  demand,  containing  Lake through  like  the  large-  frontland  b u t t e r and  b u t t e r was  the  around  especially  Probably lbs.  t o market  grades.  In  ( F i g . "3.7).  scale,  enormously.  market  less 43  product.  Intervale,  trade,  varied  the  main  cattle  Tubs  durham  ...."  frontland  Cove  sheep.  most  paid  at Broad  [imported]  yearling  change  limited,  Butter  the  agricultural  quality  few  merchants  left  unsorted.  a  variety  of  Pounds  Km  F i g u r e 3.7  D i s t r i b u t i o n of butter production Breton, 1851.  Data from the Census of 1851, RG 1/453 PANS.  on Cape  Hay farms,  was  through  milch  cows  about  2 0-25  of  most  important  often determining  supported  farms  the  were  hay  and  a  late  "  will and  such appear  required  warned  farmers  A  frontland  that farm  f o r example, Even  a  to  have  i t "an every  would  need  intervale Shortages  common;  axiom  the  that  fourth  about  be  four  prime  been  could with  requirement.  considered  be  on  animals  winter.  fodder.  spring  Agriculture hay  year  winter  grown  of  cattle,  s t r e t c h e d t o meet  of  surplus  of  number  seven-month  s i x horned  tons  during  Board  the  the  crop  or  carrying  fifth  too  many  on  many  44 cattle.  Clover  frontland  farms,  intervales, Margaree, The oats,  timothy  and  the  particularly  Middle other  supplemented  River, crops  barley,  the  winter,  family  diet.  some  farmers  Nova  Scotian of  Oats  on  Mabou, 45 River.  and  and  barley provided  so  an  improver  that  Broad  the Cove,  farms  fed  to  important  During  John  dependence  of  the  flour,  and  the  Young  on  livestock  part  coarse  grow wheat.  agricultural  on  consisted of 46 potatoes. The r o o t s  were  to  were  at  often being also  sown  yields  frontland  turnips, crop,  were  and  attempted  wheat  highest  Black  grown  hay  grasses  those  and  wheat, the  during  cultivation  and  1820's,  urged  imported  the  American  47 flour  could  exported harvest  from  be  lessened.  Cape  weather,  Breton. and  48  the  In  that  But  early  decade, frosts,  wheat  was  inclement  depredations of the f l y soon 49 tempered the enthusiasm f o r wheat. At mid-century, wheat 50 accounted f o r o n l y 6% o f c r o p s b y v o l u m e ( e x c l u d i n g h a y ) .  104  Kitchen  gardens  vegetables and  -  peas,  onions  shores  -  and  berries,  supplied  and  beans, apple  made m a p l e to  trees  sugar,  labour  short-supply,  more  the  farmers  practised  Fertile,  new  was  burnt  cropped  became  It  planted.  Manure  left  to  counter-act the  early  society  the years  at  encourage later  browse  in  year  the  of  the  after  not  while was  use  of  "principally 53  competition  lime,  because  A  prize i t was  for  labour  husbandry.  high  yields  and  a  new  needed  to  common  in  agricultural  £2.10/-  in  offered  summer  soil  livestock  not  the  and  the  applied;  excited  was  frontland 52  liming,  not  [ i t ] had  prize  farm  probably  of  and  cultivation  until  Although  were  abundant  fallow  usually  picked  farms  Many  year  left  cultivation. a  also  convertible  soil,  Sydney . o f f e r e d  with;  produced  lake-  fished.  land.  woods,  a c i d i t y of  and  of  beets,  along  frontland  then  was  planted  labour-intensive  of  was  variety  parsnips,  relatively  initially  continually  exhausted.  clearing were  land  game,  clearing  form  a  Farmers  dispensed  to  a  often 51  land  the  was  applied  carrots,  Scotland, With  Highlands  usefully  hunted  Western  cultivated.  in  were  with  slopes.  extensively in  farmer  cabbage,  south-facing  Compared  common  the  1822 two  little  fallow  to years  or  was  no  also  discontinued. Nevertheless, arable were be  land  possibly  introduced.  had in  by  been  the  1840  cleared  's, on  decline,  more  According  to  105  when  much  frontland intensive  Hiram  of  the  farms  and  practices  Blanchard,  the  potential yields began  to  Secretary  of  t h e P o r t Hood  Agricultural  Society,  farmers  had noted t h e  advantages t o be d e r i v e d from a j u d i c i o u s r o t a t i o n o f c r o p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e now f r e q u e n t p l o u g h i n g o f g r a s s l a n d s , which were f o r m e r l y mowed a s l o n g a s a n y h a y c o u l d b e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e m , f r e q u e n t l y f o r 14 o r 15 years successively.54 Rotations  and f a l l o w  data  lacking  are  probably  p e r i o d s became  on t h e p r e c i s e  planted oats left  the land  attention  was  also  application Broad  to  be  farmers land,  farms  hoes,  o f them  Plough,  perhaps  rudimentary.  During  the  Pictou,  a n d more  1840 ' s ,  forks  mould board  ploughs,  i n from  the  proves 55  place." and to 56  other  provide  used  made  spades,  antecedents.  common.  such But  were  implements,  Wooden  as as  improved  new t o o l s  on  were u b i q u i t o u s ,  and s c y t h e s were  sophisticated  this  Locally  the use of  elsewhere,  "lime  the tools  mould boards,  and  of  & hay  on S c o t t i s h  also  Report  swamps  s c y t h e s , and f l a i l s  probably  widespread  the  of  of settlement,  based  capital  particularly  useless,"  of crops  and More  that  to drain  thought  best  iron-plated  were  shipped  years were  became  were  ...  observed  farmers  o r two.  the Annual  the soil  starting  sickles,  with  accumulated  double  also  yielding  the early  frontland  ploughs  to suit  "formerly  fields  In  forks,  were  Society  the  clover,  f o r a year  manuring,  I n 1846,  t h e b e s t manure  "fertile  some  lime.  Cove A g r i c u l t u r a l  Some wet  of  to  used,  f o l l o w e d by  i n pasture  paid  Although  rotations  and b a r l e y ,  afterwards  common.  Small's farmers  implements introduced.  imported  such  as  from  cast-iron  winnowing machines, and harrows, 57 Boston. Often these imports served 106  as  prototypes  craftsmen. rakes, during done  Apart  the early  by h a n d .  plant  from  labour-saving  family.  A  Much  10-12  area,  basis;  devices  from  acres.  few  few  horse-  rare  frontland  farms  on  most  was  tasks  were  s u p p l i e d by  on a  employed  still  the  farm-  and c h i l d r e n  hands were  usually hired  farmers  local  and a  h i s wife  Extra  by  ploughs  century;  help 58  and were very  were  of the labour  with  of duplicates  horse-drawn  nineteenth  farmer  about  larger time  f o r the fabrication  needed  seasonal  labourers  could for  or  a  part-  throughout  59 the  year. Frontland  crofting  townships  availability acres,  of  a  few  lots  that  had been  acre  lots  the lots  to  length  river,  of  were  400  and  blackhouses  of  were  allocation acres,  granted  and  fronted  Scotland, available,  107  with  first  the 200 were  amount, some  100  Virtually  a ratio  coast,  of  width  lakeshore,  d i d not exist,  a  or shore-line.  the front  and  of  There  range  farm-buildings.  substantial  the  permitted  roads  a river  o r so along  The  men.  men.  a  than  usually  o f f i c e r s , and 60  to single  Where  alongside  tenure.  army  (usually  3.8).  were  larger,  to married  to retired  Western  much  t h e maximum  associated  materials secure  farms  1:5),  yards  more  had  Because  rectangular  left  considerably  and  Scotland.  (Fig.  was  farmhouse  building  of Western  had been  or road  Every  dispersed  500  of about  reservation  much more  granted  that  all  were  land,  the standard  also  a  settlements  of lots These  comfortable mainly farmers  house  than  because  were  was were the more  better o f f ,  - a rough,  quickly  Farm house  gure 3.8  Hypothetical pattern of frontland on Cape Breton.  108  settlement  made,  log  shanty  comfortable of  dwelling.  t h e house  at  were  floors  there and  an  be  the  Cape  Cod house-type  one  and a h a l f  a  living  rooms,  comprising  a kitchen  usually  divided  had  chimney  variant a  corridor  chimney  from  dormer  window  space.  Most  crops-  Furnishings  dresser, brought  trunks, from  two-bay  notched  built  Inside,  rooms  a t t h e back  were  frontland  was  similar to  the  a store-room  the front  also  side  t o t h e back inserted  box-beds,  rooms  staircase which  was  bedroom.  and  a  A  central  o f t h e house.  for  of tables,  two  i n t h e 1 8 4 0 's  t o open  had a c e l l a r  consisted  three  attic  wall  disposed were  box  appeared  was o f covered  were  and another  that  on e i t h e r  too,  two o r  gave  to  boarded  many  At the front  A tight  house-type  shingles.  battens  and bedrooms. access  dove-tailed  with  I t , from  more  the walls  with  t h e rooms  chimney.  frequently  houses  up t h e storing  A  roof root  chairs,  settle,  and a spinning-wheel,  perhaps  Scotland.  Livestock  a  was  logs  covered  England.  b u t was  placed  running  squared  roof  and  stories,  mid-century,  o f New  between  of this  larger  f i n i s h e d house t h a t 61  central  while  the  later  a more  or shingles.  beside  from  By  stories,  large,  by a  two o r t h r e e  attic.  had b u i l t  around  made  and t h e gable might  clapboard  replaced  Of one a n d a h a l f  settlers  with  soon  usually  the corners,  Inside,  - was  or  were  housed  i n a separate 62  'English' barn.  at the corners,  or from  109  Built  building,  from  sawn-timber  and  commonly  round  logs  shingles,  the  two-bay  front  barn  and back  was  a  were  used  was  large  bay e i t h e r  /Animal  rectangular enough  side  were  separating  the  accessible  by  'English'  barns  grain,  usually  bay a  t o take  from  small were  c e n t r a l doors  carts.  the  floor  which  door  ideally  or livestock.  against  threshing  a  suited  partition  floor  i n the corner  the there  implements,  built  at  Inside,  of a central threshing  f o r s t o r i n g hay, pens  with  of  and  were  the  t o t h e mixed  barn.  farms  on  frontland. By m i d - c e n t u r y , most and  frontland stocked sheep,  timber  each  army  also  year earn  of  the  exactions, pay. Crown's Office  butter,  provided  crofters'  the farmer  attempted  trifling will  taxes,  occasion 63  ...." enjoyed Scotland.  With a  labouring,  o f Nova  the rents Scotia  endless  ...  When  during  the collection  more d i s p o s a b l e  higher  standard  Living  conditions 110  and  income, of  living  were  a  a  and He  retired  Scotland,  where  and  other  or taxes  to  and t h e  the Colonial  t h e 1820 ' s , t h e that  o f any k i n d  litigation  few  free-holders,  reported  half  income.  and a  collected.  t o pay r e n t s  that  cattle,  had no r e n t  were  effort,  well-cleared  out i n rent  Breton  of  vegetables,  Unlike  income went  a l lthe settlers  so unaccustomed  potatoes,  pensions.  to collect  on  of the farmer's  from  never  years  o f two o r t h r e e  most  on Cape  q u i t - r e n t s were  twenty  established  oats,  had h a l f - p a y  Lieutenant-Governor are  were  some m o n e y  Virtually  at least  The s a l e  some  officers  much  settlers  farms.  dozen  might  after  or  "the people even  most  of the Quit  Rents  great  irritation  the frontland than  superior,  i n  farmer Western  and d i e t  was  better.  Besides  Highlands), in  the  a  flour  homes  varied,  and  luxury  In  Scotland,  wrote  wealthier was  I  more  no  and  drew am  fuel,  settler  in  1830  so  to  a  meat  Scotland coming  relative  on  more  less  was  in  were  Cape  this  of  freely  regulated  to  to  oatmeal  was  keeper,  carefully  the  were  improvements  from for  a  in  replaced  Red  by  Such  pleased  life  Vegetables  guarded  emigrants  of  probably  accessible.  longer  well  staff  farmers.  plentiful.  that  God  (the  common  addition,  was  one  was  game,  available.  "Thank  of  fruit  and  attraction  oatmeal  the  Breton. country"  Lewis,  as I f i n d m y s e l f q u i t e e a s y , h a v i n g occupied l a n d c a l l e d my own f r e e from a l l burdens whatsoever. I g o o u t a n d i n a t my pleasure, n o s o u l l i v i n g f o r c e s me t o d o a t u r n a g a i n s t my w i l l , n o l a i r d , n o f a c t o r , h a v i n g no r e n t , n o r any t o i l s o m e work b u t what I do m y s e l f . 6 4 After home  years for a  larger to  of  family.  brother  apace,  a l l my  tho'  not  "I d i d  possessions  his  ever;  back-breaking  such  not  in  on  at  was  Uist,  and  my  not  to  settlers  i n the  home" w r o t e  North  own,  work,  one  "as  pass  my  to  consolation, 65  with  marked  f r o n t l a n d communities.  landowners  in  the as  Nearly  a l l the  owned  less  particularly  even  was  your McNeil  improving  successors  living,  a  in  for  comfort,  luxury." to  and  a  &  farm,  Donald  property kins  a  envy  Captain  my  Compared  land  least  had  Western  Scotland,  weakness much  as  i t  of  500  those  on  acres.  encouraged  To  intervale,  were be  economic The  markets  frontland settlers  than  the  range  availablity  discouraged small  probably  a had  of  large  family-farms.  free-holders  sure,  was  few at  and  most  farmers, least  100  acres  of  were  much  or  cleared less  merchants  frontland were  land  wealthy engaged  farmers  very  wealthy.  Such  an  implications  church,  or  the  bottom  for  to  minority  were  had  included  in  a  of  the  elderly  As  a  result,  of  kin,  the  nuclear and  new  Island.  parent-child  grandparents  the  overpowering  consisted  on  in  transferred  the  of  no  established  was  not  web  was  support,  society  developed  comprised  there  system, was  few  considerable  While  settlements  enmeshed  that  had  estate  but  Scotland  but  there  Breton,  in  they  sufficiency,  crofting families.  Frontland  often  households  for  but  Overall,  society.  Scottish  1850,  codfishery.  structure  crofting  Cape  above.  institutions  Island's  constable,  of  by  sheep-farmers  comfortable  the  land,  layer  families,  the  a  herds  tenant  frontland  available  hierarchy  in  township  successfully  than  had  for  support  of  sizeable  economic  economic  form  and  Most  group,  and  and  a  newly-wed  66 children. were Many  Beyond  often  close,  land  was  side.  In  1817,  Corbet, acres left  David each  another  would  settlement  in  families  available John  family,  Grand  together be said  on  among  had Cape  Mathewson,  Corbet,  along  Scotland  nuclear  particularly  interrelated  where  the  and  tempted place  112  so  the  Farquhar McCoy  "that  wishing  with  relatives  Scottish  settlers.  Scotland  Breton,  Robert  River and  left  ties  together  settled  side  by  Mathewson,  William  petitioned  for  Petitioners to  and  settle  300  having  near  one  to endeavour to make a 67 S e t t l e r s sent l e t t e r s  good back  to  Scotland  Campbell,  a  that  you  and  what  you  I  Where  clusterings along  t i l l  families  a l l  a  series  where  related  lots,  they  of  families  had  the  the  seven  32.5%  had  of  the  three  occured  at  Cove, one  these of  the  the  settlers  Interspersed individual  Irish  settlers  listed  a  surname.  unique  as  give  you  to  nearby.  and  common  on  more  been  on  among  the  the  3.3  were  113  and  Moidart, Even  continguous  the  27%  Gulf of and  3.3).  68%  At  Lake.  for  Scottish  Irish for  the  and  than  the  a  66%  of some  year. were  "other"  majority  example,  70%  figures  settlers a l l  and  Broad  None  old,  less  had  and  Similar high  generation  shore,  Scottish  (Mclsaac),  d'Or  and  3.9).  occupy  (Table  Cove,  settlement  MacLellans,  Virtually  McNab's  the  (McDonald),  Island  these  families.'  i n Table  a  should 68  distinctive  Along  Bras  than  or  part  highly  (Fig.  surname  and  welcome."  Judique,  surname  inducement  house  Morar  to  by  quite  Gillises,  managed  him  occupied  wish  1820's,  groups  Lake,  with  an  a  your  are  common n a m e s .  Cove  At  land  common n a m e s  most  were  had  not  common  most  McNab's  settlements  had  Point  most  own  Donald  d'Or  sailed now  late  kin  Bras  but  you  of  settled  most  not  C a t h o l i c s from  related  often  McKinnon's  of  Margaree  the  together,  the  them.  me  place  settled In  settlers  were  a  join  of  had  will  f o r ever  Roman  between  one  find  land  his  I  to  side  near  of  come  you  Southwest  MacDonalds, produced  lands  emerged.  the  north  brother-in-law  have  u p o n my  related  the  " I f you  have  stop  relatives  offered part  emigrate:  of  on  his  would  others," to  encourage  settler  regretted "as  to  of  had the  Figure  3.9  S e t t l e m e n t a l o n g t h e S.W. M a r g a r e e R i v e r , Inverness County, showing land granted, 18 3 1 - 3 6 , a n d t h e name a n d p l a c e o f o r i g i n of t h e s e t t l e r s .  D a t a f r o m R e c o r d s o f t h e Crown L a n d s O f f i c e , 1738 t o 1 9 6 2 , RG 2 0/A/3 P A N S ; C r o w n L a n d I n d e x S h e e t s 1 1 4 - 1 5 D e p t . o f Lands and F o r e s t s , Nova S c o t i a ; and J . L . M a c D o u g a l l H i s t o r y o f I n v e r n e s s County, pp.385-420.  114  Table  3.3  Surnames  District  No. o f families  on Cape  Breton,  1818  McKinnon's P t . t o G. J u d i q u e  Broad  Scots  Scots  Other  Cove  McNab's  Other  Scots  Cove  Other  160  43  63  21  No. o f different surnames  25  11  17  17  % of families w i t h t h e most common name  27  32.5  30  % of families w i t h one o f t h e 7 m o s t common surnames  68  70  76  14  11  66.5  % of families with unique surname  50  (3 names)  11.5  Based on t h e nominal c e n s u s o f Cape B r e t o n I s l a n d , 1818. P r i n t e d i n H o l l a n d ' s D e s c r i p t i o n o f Cape B r e t o n Island, e d . D.C. H a r v e y , PANS P u b l i c a t i o n N o . 2 , A p p e n d i x B, pp.147-168.  115  Irish left  families  Newfoundland  settled ties  had a unique  i n small  had n o t been  forged  from  institutions nineteenth government absent.  or i n nuclear  groups  Breton.  on Cape  generation  t h e extended  of  family,  Formal  and t h e church,  Colonial  sent  Society,  families,  they  there  were  f o r much  organisations,  were  probably and  family  were  being  settlers.  i n f r o n t l a n d communities century.  had  Extensive  transferred t o the Island;  One m i s s i o n a r y ,  Glasgow  The I r i s h  as individuals  by t h e f i r s t  Apart  surname.  either  very  t o Cape  reported  few  of the early  such weak  Breton  social  as  local  or entirely  i n 183 7 b y t h e  meeting  many p e r s o n s g r o w n u p t o b e men a n d women who n e v e r saw t h e f a c e o f a c l e r g y m a n b e f o r e . M u l t i t u d e s even o f a d u l t s were u n b a p t i z e d , and t h o u s a n d s t o whom t h e s a c r e d r i t e h a d b e e n a d m i n i s t e r e d sunk i n t h e most d e p l o r a b l e s t a t e . 6 9 With  few o f f i c i a l  their  own c o m p e n s a t i n g  where and  settlers erect  missionary to  fell  would  rum and  being  groups.  buildings, observed  a frolic  t o help  had  "bee" o r  one another  "frolic,"  clear  land One  "...when a h o u s e was e r e c t e d ,  trees  collected  parting 70  the entertainment." where  t h e most  formed  common.  before  congregated 71  settlers  The work  the neighbours  a n d swap g o s s i p ;  settlers  to,  was p r o b a b l y  that  'tucking' frolics  cloth,  t o turn  got together  and burn,  have  bodies  ...  There  to  dancing  were  t o worship,  "house  sing  and  and d r i n k i n g  also  women m e t t o s p i n  and i n f o r m a l  assist,  'spinning'  thread,  beat  churches"  where  psalms,  and  read  reflected  the  scripture. The social  formal and  organisations  economic  order  of  116  that the  developed  frontland  settlements.  With of  no g e n t r y  t o support  Scotland  churches  had  that  landlords  were  The  transferred  church,  t h e Church  sway  Breton.  Instead,  had s c a r c e l y  but  flourished.  little  the established  to  Cape  any r e c o g n i t i o n  the s p i r i t u a l  Roman Cape  presbyterianism.  on  Catholic  Breton;  Some  from  Scottish  support  o f many  crofters  Church  was  so,  settlers  had  evangelical  revivals  i n the Western  1820  1830 ' s ,  while  's  and  hardships  of  pioneering,  too,  was  evangelical  experienced  Highlands  others, were  successfully  after  perhaps  the  during the  the  material  attracted  by  the  ascetism took  of Calvinism. Certainly, the evangelical church 72 hold. By t h e l a t e 1 8 3 0 's a n d e a r l y 1 8 4 0 ' s , open-air  services when  were  the  Breton  disruption  joined  and  societies  Judique, in  As e a r l y  grants  1825,  By  from had  Scotland,  been  when  Nova  formed 74  Hood.  government  i n t h e 1 8 4 0 's w h e n  Societies  opened  Margaree  were  there  each  1843,  on  Cape  were  five  with  several  a t Richmond,  organised  Scotia at  Board  Sydney,  they  support  by  the Central Port  Hood,  to  of  initiatives Agriculture,  probably  Arichat,  collapsed  withdrawn,  Board  sheep  frontland  Mabou,  was  i n 1843; t h e Gut o f Canso 117  of wealthy  i n response  Although  reformed  1841;  1850,  the preserve  a s t h e 1820 ' s , the  and Port  i n  presbyterians  on t h e I s l a n d ,  societies,  i n Western  farmers.  Church.  and  to.  Agricultural farmers  most  ministers 73  t o attend  of people  occurred,  the Free  Presbyterian  churches  a t t r a c t i n g hundreds  was  and Broad and M i d d l e  many  revived. Cove i n River  i n  1845; for  Baddeck  i n 1848;  the government  annum,  usually  and  grant,  bar  relatively  well-off.  to  of  t h e Richmond  of  t h e most  backland As  the  this  Society,  Sydney  society  first  i n 1854. had  membership farmers.  farmers,  t o become  To  qualify  t o p u t up  £10  subscriptions Most  the Secretary  Agricultural Society  influential  among  each  c o l l e c t e d from  effective  were  North  members  of the Arichat put  members  and  the  -  an  were branch'  i t i n 1841,  throughout  per  "many  Country,  Office Bearers  of  and  t h e i r example and i n f l u e n c e has been felt 75 appreciated." Among t h e Society's vice-presidents  were  several  o f t h e most  DeCarteret, were  Janvrin,  probably  reflected and  backland  Western  Belam,  the f i r s t  was  estate  wealthier  also  more  t o be  farmers  In  individual  initiative but  and  Isle  Such Cape  Madame:  societies  Breton  between  on  that  frontland  stifled  allowed  than  church  office  few  Breton  government.  established  and  i n  With absent,  became  tax  census  takers,  and  crofters  attained  such  the settlement and  Cape  i n local  for local  Scotland,  Overall,  the  on  i n wealth  inspectors,  positions.  The  Brymer.  opportunity  involved  ran  school  magistrates.  Western  and  insititutions  structure  assessors,  of  m e r c h a n t s on 76  farmers.  Scotland  flourish,  prominent  the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  There  the  and  o f Cape  voluntary  some o f t h e m o r e  Breton  released  associations  formal  to  institutions  Scotland. relatively  weakness  manufacturing  small  number  of  frontland  o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l economy and  services. 118  In  1851  farmers  and  discouraged  rural  there  1,046  were  mechanics Island  and  (Table  settlements 400  about  are  If  excluded  and  mechanics  carpentry,  people  3.4).  mechanics  the  300  and  occupations  were mostly  doctors  clergy.  and  frontland At  220  fishing  the  in  Virtually  and  hub  of  the  local  economy  storekeepers,  the  trade.  They  middle-men,  retailed  were  to  wholesaled  the in  the  variety  the  the  they  of  in sold  country  hardware,  or  potatoes,  of  wood  small a  (spars  mackerel,  service  with  a  few  merchants  or  one  wide  facilitators  of  The  clothes, drugs,  of  timber);  and  cow  fish  q u i n t a l of  dried  transactions  were  in  the  the  most  came  acceptable  from  although  within  water  form a  day's  transport  119  of  produce  to  be  St.  was  stock  of  or  (a  shortage  bushel  of  often  merchant of  of  oats  quantities herring  Although  payment. overland  typical  bed-linen, The  (a b a r r e l  and  purchased a  sheep);  cod).  John's.  small  and  groceries.  half  cash,  be  goods  surpluses a  to  millinery,  and  butter,  of  goods  and  commodity range  agricultural  firkin and  a  and  importing  a  store,  in  as  in  the  Halifax  produce.  haberdashery,  produce  of  lived  exporting  .of  any  included  the  and  markets  countrystore  barter  Most  people  were  organisers  settlers  trade  intermittent,  collected  about  such  those  merchants,  a l l these  country  a  were  trades  while  the  settlements. the  Because  there  small  on  coal-mining  in services.  milling;  traders  and  total,  people  engaged  smithing,  service occupations  the  from  nearly  were  in  specie  or  some made  Most  of  the  journey  of  the  expanded  a  merchant's  Table  3.4  Occupational  Occupation  S t r u c t u r e on  Cape B r e t o n Total  Farmers Fishermen Lumberers  5,884 2,669 74  Mechanics Seamen  1,046 1,054  Clergymen Doctors Merchants Traders  Data  from  Cape  Breton,  Farming Total  Districts  5,229  804  34 13  26 9  259  182  &  Census  of  1851,  RGl/453  120  PANS.  1851  influence.  Some  particularly  i f  settlement, demand. supplier, store, mill, a  or  the or  be  to  exemplifies business  later, on  his  to  St.  as  an  purchases;  87%  cash,  cattle, livestock butter, the  most  as  a  town  to  a  locally, or  main  fishing centre  merchant's In  local  to  his  mill,  saw  farmers.  In  interests  had  grist  banker  for his  of  wholesale  addition  environment,  merchant  Island  in  by  Dealer  That  year,  of  Flour  or or  mix  his 69%  13%.  milch  important  and  of  by  much  of  crop.  heifers horses the  firms  rest Among  though,  of  the  Goods,  a  country worth  $787.81  up  18%  (horned  foals,  jobs  of  goods,  79%  consisted the  or  bartered  products  and  Boots  Produce,  $4,403  made  was  himself  Dry  Country  barter,  livestock  and  Halifax  Clothing,  records  Of  first then  Meal,  trade  i t in  at  described  Readymade  i n work.  cows,  fodder  he  entered  and  trade,  and  ledger of  followed  pork);  with  Crockeryware,  l i v e s t o c k or  total,  1880,  's,  in Arichat  export  Island,  He  1830  dealing  Stationery,  typical  $574.33  of  Caps,  the  merchants  By  and  Christmas 77  storekeeper.  Much  and  at  country  Newfoundland.  steers,  and  acted  a  the  consisted  the  the  established,  $3,041.66  and  to  agent.  his  Hats  storekeeper.  consumed  sea  owned  trading  Hardware,  -  by to  of  "Importer  Shoes,  and  supplied was  John's,  etc.,etc.,"  in  often  Christmas  account.  Groceries, and  commission  typical  goods  own  close  shipped  MacDougall,  he  were  be  general.  the  when  might  consigned  stable,  and  at  retailing  a  marginal  Malcolm  was  i t was  livery  varied  store  most  merchant  frequently  to  the  but  There,  produce  of  the  sheep, of  hay,  done  for  MacDougall  were  shoemaking, Most  of  parts and  ploughing,  the  although  produce  water  of  the  East  forwarded  hauling, and came  transport Bras  d'Or  Bay.  From  either  to  repairing driving  a  cattle  from  around  allowed  farmers  Lake,  to  butchering, North  Sydney.  Christmas  Island,  to  ship  from  particularly  from  Malagawatch  Christmas  Cape  barn,  Island,  the  Breton  towns  or  to  store, 78  there  were  other  produce  St.  was  John's  and  Halifax. Apart  from  industries work  to  Cape  the  (Table  tanners;  Breton  supplied Mines;  Valley,  districts  on  Gut  most  of  the  Canso,  settlers  spinning demand  wool  mills  Although capital  to  to  until  on  inhabitants build  1851,  grist  there  and  Sydney;  Island; Port  livestock  the  and  the  Hood,  make  "home-spun"  farmers  1820's of  to  Sydney  mills,  wheels  oats,  invest  in  stating  122  to  Sydney  hides  North  only seven few  flour  on  tanneries  in  the  raising  distributed  the  p e t i t i o n e d the  some  tanneries  cattle  and  were  employing grew  gave  among  Shore.  hand-looms  clothing, there  there  Island,  were  and  processing  Three  processed  rest  spinning  the  fourteen  principal  Mabou,  1851,  few  trade  men.  three  of  a  leather pulleys  had  in  were  twenty-three  one  most the  The  jackets,  f o r weavers;  carding  the  in  served  Margaree  the  3.5).  employing  boots, two  local  was  As for  little  s i x weaving  and  people. had  sufficient  mills.  government  In for  1824, aid  Table  3.5  Manufacturing  Number  Establishments  Value £  on  Hands Employed  Tanneries  14  1,576  Grist  75  12,012  107  6  900  7  Mills  30  2,741  70  Foundries  1  3,500  5  Other Factories  6  976  19  Mills  Weaving Carding Saw  Data  & Mills  from  Census  of  1851,  RGl/453  123  Cape  23  PANS.  Breton,  1851  That throughout the ... C o u n t y [ I s l a n d o f C a p e B r e t o n ] much i n c o n v e n i e n c e i s e x p e r i e n c e d f r o m t h e w a n t o f g r i s t m i l l s , t h e r e b e i n g many settlements where the i n h a b i t a n t s a r e obliged to t r a n s p o r t t h e i r g r a i n , the q u a n t i t y of which i s every year i n c r e a s i n g , a d i s t a n c e of fifty m i l e s , o r m o r e ... t o t h e m i l l , w h e r e a l s o , in consequence of the q u a n t i t i e s of g r a i n brought, a n d t h e i n s u f f i c i e n c y o f t h e ... m i l l e r , t h e p e o p l e a r e k e p t w a i t i n g an u n r e a s o n a b l e t i m e , t o t h e i r great l o s s and injury.79 The  p e t i t i o n claimed  flood  waters,  operation around being  "there  ...  the  in  Bras  made  to  resources  a  is  the  Central  the  James  facilitate erection it  is  our of  in 82  grain." Hood  oat vain  A  and  here"  could  drawing 1824, granted  so the £20  encourage letter  for  their  which  John  each  of  was  we  sent  one  shilling  per  "converted in part  Assembly, for  124  the  financial  to  erection  would  than  the  manufacture of  that from  bushel  from  the  Secretary  "instead  prevent  of  "nothing  more  into  bowing  Other  for  Young  farmers  same a r t i c l e  county  to  were  limited  Young,  can  in  attempts  that  the  Port selling  to  traders and  sold  French 83  from  Halifax." such of  oats  useful  of  flour, the  by  miles"  Secretary  growth  that  grain  the  the  out  would  of  House to  to  t i l l  to  much  the  mills  wheat]  Arichat,  Doyle,  and  mill  whose 81 completion."  explaining  ...  mill  hundred  government  wrote  a  persons  pursuits  pointing  get  two  agricultural  similar  Society,  [oats  in  Board,  "by  of  grist  Nevertheless,  their  Mabou A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y , of  single  about  even  lobbied 1824,  destruction  a  of  prevented  In  the  not  build mills,  farmers  assistance.  after  circuit 80 Lake.  d'Or  ...  frontland  that  oat  In  pressure, mills  and  a  couple 84 Breton.  of  years  Further 1840 's more  government  when  the  oats.  the  i t  frontland Cove,  potato  blight  sum  of  of  oat  mills  appears  much  of  County;  Middle  River  and  Mira  River  i n Cape  and  building grist  programme,  mills  farmers,  on  a  Cape  and  reflection  of  t o each and  of  money  this  to  Margaree  the  and  were or  weakness  to  grow  were  for  in  Broad  the  Northeast  in  Inverness  County;  and  Despite only  one of  late  spent  benefit  County.  i n 1851,  the  government  was  Rivers  there  Cape  county  from  in Victoria  Breton  on  settlers  kilns,  areas  however,  built  during  many  granted  Baddeck  Breton  provided  Inhabitants,  branches  Bay  being  forced  and  River  Mabou  were  was  Among  Denys, the  £30  that 85  districts.  River  two  a i d was  The  building  accounts  later,  75  this  oat  f o r every the  Cow  and  eighty  agricultural  86 economy. Frontland  settlements  manufacturing  industries.  the  milling  day-to-day  planks, logs  and  into  listed  in  f o r the  the  1851  implements,  carriages,  small  and  market  hardly greatest Island the  coal  the  encouraged single was  the  Thirty  requirements  shingles,  deals  supported  and  capital foundry  of  export  market.  census  diverse  at  Lingan  mines. 125  handled boards,  processed  squared  other  and  candles.  industries.  supplied  The  manufacturers  i n manufacturing  which  factories  agricultural  overseas  consumer  investment  mills  simple soap  from  other  for  Six  made  furniture,  saw  few  settlers  occasionally  competition  more  small  a  on  ironwork  The the to  All mills, few  these  t a n n e r i e s , the  men,  making  attracting owned  little  capital  invested, largest  mill and  at  the  were  and was  Saw  extremely  small.  specific  orders  and  to  local  or  men,  were  familywith  than  £200 87  often  a  I s l a n d was  which  employed  to  dependent  on  water-power,  when  runs  extremely  or  were  they  Shoemakers one  two  market  worked  was  or  and  enterprises only  production  than  then,  Production  out  men  Even  winter-freeze.  turned  20  Other  one  seasons  material.  saw  Madame.  hands. the  a  smaller 88  f a t h e r and  hired  tied  farm.  the  Isle  and  farmer  more  considerably  nearby  of  items,  frontland had  saw  employing  cleared frontland  business  sufficient  year;  a  County,  on  mills,  of  Most  Few  a  carriage-makers  each  number  by  f o r example,  the  flour  small-scale,  e n t e r p r i s e on  couple  Many  order,  buggies  fewer  mills,  up  of  intermittent,  closed during  boots  set  value  a  -  investment.  stations  a  were  merchant.  £850;  fishing  sons  demand.  at  -  limited  Richmond  employed  employment  a  manufacturing  Jersey  grown  by  average  valued  businesses  a  perhaps  St.Peter's,  was  foundry  capital  or  the  establishments  only  businesses,  spare  The  various  two  had made  carts  sensitive  to  demand. Most  located  of by  these a  or  to  surrounding  them  and  market  Often  these  shop,  perhaps  depended  stream  connected with  industries  the  demand,  river.  other  Tracks  merchant's  a  and 126  a  water-power and  countryside  services  included a tannery,  on  livery  grew  store, stable.  a  then and, up  and roads  in  time  nearby.  blacksmith's Eventually,  a  church  and  planning  to  buildings small  school  on  Cape  Breton  and  Sydney, Port  the  were  some  also  many  had  had  and  such  as w e l l  service  Arichat,  fisheries  as Port  prominent  for their  as s e r v i c i n g  important  their  t o emerge  t h e most  and depended  of  purchased  built  beginning  were  formal  small  Baddeck,  a n d Mabou  no  thickening  tradesmen  Sydney,  trade  was  a  farmers  were  a l l ports  import-export  farmers;  where  some w e r e  North Hood,  There just  the neighbouring there  They  built.  road  18 5 0 ,  Hawkesbury,  on  farm  By  dominant.  centres.  be  settlements,  a  from  premises. centres  these  along  lots  might  success  the  local  and  ship-  building . Few  merchants  frontland McKeen  trade.  One  o f Mabou,  were  Island,  the  or manufacturers  but they  staple  industries. other  wealthier  frontland  supporters  of the local  i t s  building,  society.  Compared  that  neighbouring  t h e most  rivalled  tradesmen, farmers. church,  and  members  or  farmers.  127  out  wealth.from  such  as  the small  were They  William  men  the merchants  were  merchants, to  probably  contributing  of the  local  frontland  the  staunch  perhaps  social  on t h e  engaged i n  comparable  and c o a l - m i n e s ,  marked  much  prosperous  to the well-developed  of the f i s h e r y  separated  merchants,  In g e n e r a l ,  and  hierarchy  among  scarcely 89  millers,  to  o r two  gained  funds  agricultural and  economic  t h e r e was tradesmen  little from  The  Struggling  During of  Cape  1850,  the  farmers  the  were  the  hillside  the  Great  had  mixed  of  needs  ground  in  the  used  for  mid-century, An  slopes near  average of  the  North  farmers  of  Sydney;  County  and  pastoral  the  settler.  pasture,  a  i n crops.  pasture  and  half  was  The  to had  in  the  acres  on  Such  Red farms  reflecting  Perhaps  quarter  acres  rocky  3.5).  land-use,  ten  overlooking  i n the  (Fig.  quarter  of  eleven  acres  small,  Hills  and  by  of a l l  had  fourteen  Boisdale  and  72%  clearances  fourteen  Richmond  backlands  the  the  cleared  in  grass,  sown  woods  were  also  forage. sparser were  Backland  farmers  horned  Bridge;  these  about  and  rough  holdings  average  farmers,  of  the  settlement  Harbour  of  remaining  With  four  4,200  of  's,  St.Ann's  arable  subsistence  brunt  1830  around  d'Or;  district  early  Most At  the  farms  Bras  was  full  some 90  district  Islands  and  the  and  common.  on  Bridge  's  Island.  improved  a  bore  operations.  acres  Ball's  1820  supported  on  subsistent  been  late  Breton  they  twenty  Backlands  considerably  and  holdings'were nine  cattle  cattle  and  seven  rocky  pastures  the  winter  were  usually  by  smaller  u s u a l l y had  cattle,  sheep during  scanty  small  and  one  six  four and at  poorer  to  or  seven Red  the  of  two  and  sheep  Islands  summer  feeds  than  eight  cattle  hay  and and  undernourished.  128  hay  crops, on  seven at  frontland  milch  sheep.  livestock  cows, In  sheep  St.Ann's;  farms.  three  1851, at  or the  Ball's and  four  ( F i g . 3.6).  Grazed  on  barely  alive  in  kept  potatoes,  livestock  Only farms. were  the  hardiest  Wheat,  barley,  u n s u i t a b l e , and to  expensive  staple  of  backland  on  the  blazed  trail  the  mid-1840 's,  c o u l d be  turnip's,  most  alternative crop  crops  and  farmers  from  many  types  depended  American areas.  grown  flour,  Narrows  to to  backland  of  vegetable  oats,  and  According  Little  on  on  the  only  potatoes,  the  farmers Lake  settled  Ainslie  in  i t i s a w e l l known f a c t t h e p o t a t o e i s t h e o n l y a r t i c l e o n w h i c h a p o o r man and f a m i l y have t o l i v e u p o n f o r y e a r s o n new b a c k l a n d f a r m s i n t h e I s l a n d o f Cape Breton.91 Essentially, crops  as  backland  those  grown  settlers  i n Western  were  subsisting  on  the  same  Scotland. 92  Farming were- n o t  rotated,  extensive same  spade  There  of  patch for  cutting  the  farming  patch  cleared  appeared  and  until  sown.  also  soil. farms,  Channel,  a  be  a  yields Farmers  and  r e p o r t e d i n the  observers.  fields  and  left  settlement  in  on  declined,  and  then  a  had a a  a  few  basic  sickle  scythe  such  unknown. in  1840's  and  for  as  for  a for hay.  scratching  those  found  on  St.Patrick's  Victoria that  new  tools:  mowing  At  the  flail  there  a want o f improved a g r i c u l t u r a l implements; such a t h i n g as a good harrow, p l o u g h , cart, etc ... i s n o t t o b e s e e n ; w h i l s t a d r i l l machine, h o r s e hoe, d o u b l e moulded p l o u g h , and t h e i m p l e m e n t s o f t h e most o b v i o u s u t i l i t y , a r e n o t e v e n known by name.93  129  fallow;  sown  wooden- p l o u g h  virtually  Crops  were  implements,  early  to  hay  potatoes,  Improved  backland  or  Oats  primitive  were  ready  applied,  threshing oats,  •frontland  surveyor  and  prevailed.  cultivating  might  stony  manure  land was  rough  County, was  a  Much  of  the labour  provided  by  Few 1850,  the family with  backland  and most  settlement patches hired  farmers  holdings  small,  help had  subsistent  from  legal  remained  land  cleared  unofficial illegal  from  title  unsurveyed.  markers  t o mark  on boundary  deterring  trespassers  and i m p r e s s i n g  but  ruses  usually  such  backland  settlers,  agreement  with  Although the  houses  than  those  common  there  on  to  the  covered a  holdings, of  surveyors,  For  lines  on  mutual  on b a c k l a n d  houses,  depended  were  and  and  was  and  a  most  caulked  with  with  a dirt few  had  between were  with  The  The  rough-hewn larger,  interior living  housed 130  and  i n a  or  or  dry  spruce from  interior  perhaps  a  was  window  furnishings.  most  rather  a gable likely  sleeping  separate  A  comfortable  round  and had was  logs  built  more  from  clay,  clay  i t was  floor,  still  round  birch  one-room  built  substantial  probably  from  covered  probably  shingles.  less  built  had a chimney,  caulked  livestock  data  were and  rafters  probably  partition  Although  They  there  light,  These  with  had  i n t h e hope  s h a n t i e s were  field-stone.  spartan;  logs  settlers  t h e Crown 94  smaller  Log  shanty  settlers  squared  much  the corners  available  dwellings.  by  at  l e t i n some  few  probably  mid-century.  If  and  irregular  ineffectual.  i s virtually,no  and r o o f e d w i t h  locally small  boundary  frontland.  cross-notched  bark.  on  neighbours.  were  at  moss,  were  by  pattern of  their  trees,  land  The  Some  out  was  at harvest.  to their  the forest.  surveyors  farms  neighbours  c o n s i s t e d of dispersed farmsteads  of  blazing  on t h e s e  than roof  divided  quarters.  shanty,  these  log of  d w e l l i n g s were Western  summer  they  most  average  the  fall,  wage  included.  made  i n produce  labour  family  o f 2/9  a t cash  stlg.  he  prices.  surplus  as coming  and p a r t l y  by work  bushels  4 cwt.  of oats,  September, 9/9,  Beaton oatmeal  a  farm  of straw,  mostly  the value  o f 57  lbs.  t o p a y o f f 8/9, 2 dozen  farmers  herring.  supplemented  North  local  farmers  paid  and  partly Neil  In June  f o r several  of 96  Sydney.  and 2  and  early  to  pay  of barleyflour;  while  John  the cost  barrel  Through  days  i n  McKay  of potatoes,  by work.  worked  generally  of this  I n May,  i n  lodging  transactions  land,"  23 b u s h e l s  expect  and  t o numerous  "back  and  a n d 3/6  were  near  on t h e f a r m .  Ferguson  and  backland  produce  Murdoch  worked  farmer  probably  might  i f board  i n the  the  planting  labourer  though,  seen  from  and p a i d  at  many  during  farms  The workings  a frontland  sold  i t  Frontland  payments,  listed  purchased  blackhouses  p e r day i n s p r i n g  c a n be c l e a r l y  B e l c h e r Moore,  three,  t o tend  particularly  1840's,  These  market  1856,  on t h e  s u b s i s t e n c e farm,  o r 2/- a n d 3/- r e s p e c t i v e l y 95  were  cash  their  employment,  In the early  an  off  left  a small  and l o o k e d f o r o t h e r work.  harvest.  In  had c l e a r e d  farmers  offered  John  an improvement  Scotland.  After backland  hardly  o f 1/4 such  the produce  casual of  of  work,  their  own  farms. Fishing settlement fishing  and c o a l  expanded  with  mining  around  offered  further  the coasts,  part-time farming. 131  many  After  employment. farmers  the failure  As  combined of  the  potato  crop  County  i n the  thought  i t "very  woodland  farm  distance  from  backland  farmers  a  local  were  stations  employed  Labouring  Some to  two the  hewing  to  timber was  gear  worked  on  as  in  and  any few from  at  the  i n the coal  mines,  the  work  when  at  few 98 Gulf.  in  found  new  credit  hands  the  i n d u s t r y expanded labourers  a  Perhaps  schooners  available  hundred  calling  each  up  reported  are  shortly  to  a  1830 ' s .  hauling  trade  leave  complaint  ...  wood...."  at  available the  within a harbours  was  export years,  around  the  coal busy,  Most  likely,  s q u a t t e r s had Crown  depredations carried  nothing  on to  to  day Few  on  the  in  to  Lands  s q u a t t e r s were  d'Or  ever  Lake  stripped  much  1837,  Crawley  Lands  and  threatens  Even  settlers  their  timber;  which  and  ships  the  that  Office,  t r e s s p a s s i n g ...  to  for  Crown  guard  1851,  timber  several  In  extent 100 plunder."  L'Ardoise Crown  land.  of  boards  an  from  the  and  Island's  Bras  deals,  i t difficult  every 101  few  the  timber,  found  to  first  in  of  "the  grants  "persons  and  year  openly  many  1818,  o f f unprotected  that  timber  some w o r k In  cargoes 99  timber  this  also  recorded  of  the  the  on  security,  shallops.  mackerel  also  trade.  market.  for  inshore  settler  little  most  Richmond  particularly  fishing  s h i p p i n g wharves  was  British  one  With  a  for  underground.  pick  with  was  or  the  American  three  heaps  Liverpool were  on  surveyor  exist,  purchase probably  on  after  to  There small  and  the  d o u b t f u l whether  could  or  work  particularly  1840 ' s ,  could possibly 97 the sea."  merchant,  fishing  late  can  stand  spoke  of  destroying a l l convicted  of  trespassing, it  was  Crown  virtually land  provided or  f o r once  or  the  been  cut  and  to  identify logs 102 lot. Such  settler's  also  lumberers  with  a  merchant,  at  1/8.  few  sold  codfish  wooden  with  his  removed,  taken  from  depredations  pounds  in  cash  He  Ferguson  finished  the  of  the  place,"  the  need  insecurity  employment, most  the of  McKay,  a local 103  provisions.  In and  2  for  2 days  at  i n August,  when  he  l b s . of  for a  day  1/3  potatoes at  Another  2/-  and  along  son,  John,  Ferguson  himself hauling  the  month  2  catch of  by  1/2  haddock. still  owed  3  days  work  Despite  this  McKay  £7.15.5  year. to  Cape of  Breton  farming  for additional of  backland income  must  have  133  chastised  agriculture,  relegated  annual them  near  Lake  with  employment  which  12  3/-.  Ferguson  travellers  "mixed  lumbering" 104  a  employment,  end  their  salting  Little  worked  came  as  earned  f o r 4 days  and  well  John  labouring at he  McKay  laboured  who  and  month,  as  also  Angus,  Although  paltry;  oil,  at  odd-jobs.  f o r John  5 days  with  timber  intermittent  economic  cod  block.  splitting  at  following  dealing  and  son,  shipped tons.  next  worked  did  for  farmer  for supplies  Ferguson The  His  backland  County  return  1844,  2/-.  a  Richmond  in  February days  s c r a t c h e d around  f o r example,  L'Archeveque,  for  a  had  store-credit.  Ferguson,  1/4  timber  impossible  backland  Settlers  a  the  of  work  to  was  farmers. many  seen  no  fishing, "a  Even  of  with  must  from  and  secondary  a measure  farmers cash  settlers  extra  have  one  the  been  year  to  the  next.  almost many  lived A  West  for a  me  the only  dwellings weeks  on  Starvation years  the  milk a  bad,  destitute.  from  Scotland"  four  miles  from  only  to  least  of  a  eight  the  them  of  After  wither  was  i n the  fall  to  of  in were  completely  settlers  clothing  place"  to  at  typical.  or  "remote  managed  food."  probably  things  for 106  1830's  money  in a  had  reality  settlers  of  "many  they  a  about  encounter  raise 18 3 3 ,  a  few  in  crops  leaving  f a m i l i e s "poor and i n d i g e n t w i t h o u t means 107 subsistence." Indian meal, rye, f l o u r , and c a s h had be  a  have  lived  other  backland  County  settled  family any  for  "could  early  recent  "destitude  sea.  a  and  missionary  became  The  many  Richmond  and  with  without  t h r e a t and  fortunate,  the  of  reported  gaspereaux  himself  Elsewhere,  land,  extremely  County  but  were  their  often  Inverness  staying  cow,  left  [them]selves", see  was  families  owned  was  nothing  s i x or  arrived  ...  supporting  on  experience  Channel,  they  Bay,  failure.  and  diet  considered  constant  The  St.George's  lived  many  settlers  their  f a m i l y he 105 milk."  harvest  particularly  1829,  had  where  was  of  at  week,- b u t  earlier  five  In  he  and  backland  missionary  potatoes  "seen  Few  and  that  offered  widespread,  in shanties,  18 34  week  was  destitute.  meagre. in  Debt  twenty  at of to  distributed  Breton  that  completely recent  by t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o some parts of Cape 108 year. I n J u l y 1836, a severe frost almost  destroyed  settlers  the  without  potato  and  grain  s u p p l i e s f o r the  following  spring, t h e r e was 110 settlers." James F r a z e r ,  134  widespread a  crop, 109 winter.  "distress  missionary  who  had  leaving By  the  among  the  spent  time  in  some  that  o f t h e most  he h a d " n e v e r 111  congested  witnessed  crofting  such  townships,  destitution  reckoned  i n any  part  of  Scotland." With there  most  was  backland  little  manufacturing farmers, local  the  distinction  and  i f  they  store,  had  settlements, data  nuclear  services  to  often  a  families such  missionaries  traversed  terrain,  with  as the church  ground  the.  detached  most  d i s t a n c e , and  to  and  from  the  the  frontland  journey.  Although  relatives  consisted  settled  largely areas.  close  absent  lived  community  of by.  although  Compared  farmer  much  Rural  non-existent  households  were  level,  wealth.  or supplies  way  backland from  to  laborious  the backland  settlers, life,  and  perhaps  at subsistence  virtually  their  probably  Institutions  isolated  were  make long  living  according  needed g r a i n  are lacking,  frontland  farmers  to the a  more  activity  by  poverty.  Perspective  Located to  her North  first  close  t o the main  American  land  sighted  destination  f o r poor  after  found  colonies, by  mainly  themselves  abundant  by  Cape  returning  emigrants.  t h e end o f t h e Napoleonic  quickly,  shipping lanes  displaced  on an  but a g r i c u l t u r a l  island  timber As  was  ships  Britain  almost  and  a  the Island  Highlanders. where were  was  The  land  was  small  and  the cheap  emigration gathered  Wars,  markets  135  Breton  from  pace  settled settlers  relatively distant;  a  setting  that  result,  land  government Many  hardly  settlers  putting 50 0  a  was  to  were  their  money  to  wealth  so  invest  left  Private  in  sufficient  squat  land  supported  cheap,  on  investors, in  or  too,  and  few  fact,  money  Crown  i t .  to  land  were  As  that  the  protect i t .  untroubled  discouraged  settlers  a  owned  by from  more  than  acres. Yet  although  short  growing  agricultural sufficient, In  cheap;  refused  authority.  attracted  Western  turn  the  the  season,  physical  Scotland,  specialised  and  sheep  on  was  potential.  remote  existed  land  Cape  relatively and  distant  If  the  market  ranches,  Breton.  might  demand land  of  but  markets  market  handicaps  rugged  plentiful,  Markets  demand  have  the  Highlands  been  overcome.  strong  enough  into  small  and  to  highly  comparable  were  its  had  been  been  such  soils,  limited  had  no  poor  market  costly  to  reach. Nevertheless, settlers  considerably  crofting  townships  frontland that  But  was  through  standard  the  of  Island, once  Destitute  winters.  sales  of  Breton  opportunity  Western and  offered  in  time  l i v e s t o c k and No-one  but  least offered  i t at meagre  baliffs They  had  on  farm  frontland  acidic  toe-hold  soils, in  the  from  for  they  rock, New  fertile created a  been  World,  on 112  taken,  curtailed.  had  and  modest  family.  drastically that  the  farming  a  had  early in  be  produced  support  found  existed  could  butter  became  backland  for a  of  few  Relatively  made m u c h m o n e y  amount  opportunities  a  the  than  Scotland.  living.  settlers  and  of  more  available  the  agricultural  factors  Cape  exchanged  seven but  month nothing  more.  They  fell  supported  them  oats,  cow,  a  available. means,  The  and  in  back on t h e means  i n Scotland: and  of  potatoes,  whatever  a  employment  purchase o f land was beyond some  years,  when  the  trans-Atlantic  m i g r a t i o n had  that  a meagre crop  additional  s u b s i s t e n c e q u i c k l y turned t o s t a r v a t i o n . settlers  subsistence  their  137  was  scanty  harvest  failed,  For many  backland  changed  little;  t h e i r m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s were h a r d l y d i f f e r e n t t o those the p o o r e s t c r o f t e r s and c o t t e r s .  of  of  4  The  Staple  Early  The early  expansion  nineteenth  industries  of  Scotian  capital  process,  and  quarter  of  fishing  and  mining  position,  organising  Atlantic  dried rim.  industrial  Breton working  had  the  old  and  of  commercial  staples, were  coal  staple  138  around  's,  gave  Among  the  the  new  North was  way  to  earliest the  Cape  technologies,  capital  investment  firmly  established cod  and  there  America,  the  in  mercantile  of  the  the  mines  North  a  dominant  the  decade  of  In  however,  the  of  than  transportation,  1820  using  Nova  employed  its  British  was  still  staple  extract,  more  maintained  Britain.  third  and  the  and  to  3.4).  in  in  older  (Table  late  forms  the  invested  industry,  the  from  the  be  i n markets  restructured  By  staple  fish  Breton  British  production,  involved  in  Cape  mining.  mid-century  In  the  undermine  to  mining  been  on  workforce  the  the  patterns,  industrialism.  coal  capital  enterprises were  not  Island's  pickled  capital  mines  industrial  at  change.  that  industrial  and In  considerable capital  the  Island's  mercantile  of  and  continued  fishery,  sale  did  in  Century  agriculture  century  market the  Nineteenth  of  fishing  Industries  the  century,  fishery  of the  alongside and  an  extensive,  agricultural  empire  of  semi-subsistent  family  farms. .  The  Cod  Fishery  In Cape  the  early  Breton  resident  nineteenth  continued  fisheries.  migratory  fishery  on  f i r m s managed 1 dominant position. Sydney  by  depend  Although  Island  from  to  century, upon  the  Napoleonic on  to  war  weather &  the  Co.  perhaps  a  cod  both  Newfoundland,  Remon  1814,  the  Cape  victim  of  and  Wars  the  ended  Channel  maintain  to  of  migratory  Breton  and  appear  fishery  have  the  their  withdrawn  war,  but  the  2 Robin  and  J a n v r i n companies  joined  on  Isle  Jersey  firm,  Madame who  by  stayed  i n business.  DeCarteret  opened  an  &  They  LeVesconte,  establishment  at  were  another  D'Escousse  in  3 the  early  1800 ' s .  second  only  Moullin  &  Madame  area  resident &  Co.,  from  station  at  a  migratory  an  in  firm,  early 4 1836. In Scotland the  last  year  three  British  Robertson  16,589  Co.)  qtls.  to  fishery  hardly  company  of  also  dried  probably  fish.  Thoume  but  i n the  sold  Robertson,  appear  have  to  decade  complete  companies exported  Spain  and  300  patterns . of  of  the the  are  Robin,  and  Breton's 6  to  Jersey.  Cape  early  Forsyth  data  Cape  qtls.  a  fishing 5 century.  the  (Janvrin,  to  a  export  57%  during  had  of  Isle  out  addition,  second  changed  was  operated  1830 ' s ,  that  &  well-established  the  exporter  the  Greenock,  the  fish: The  as  Guernsey  during  the  available, Forsyth,  mid-century,  Arichat during  1814,  dried  Robin  merchant  Co,  In.  to  By  Breton  nineteenth  century. to  Companies  send  supplies,  fishing dried  based  stations  fish  on  capital,  on  directly  the  to  the  Channel  Islands  continued  and  skilled  labour  to  island  markets  each  year,  i n Southern  and  their  to  export  Europe,  the  West  Links  were  also  7 Indies,  and,  developed either  that  this  with  end  exported  from  the  both  cheaper  The  dealings  arrived  at  cordage,  of  to of  Dried  in return  buy  Brazil.  Montreal,  Gulf.  trade.  Each with  crockery  metropolises  pickled  flour  and  fish  at were  other  items  America. &  LeVesconte  s p r i n g , the  salt,  to  the  and  for  i n North  DeCarteret  D'Escousse and  and  places  were  pattern  1820 ' s , t o  Halifax  of  to  the  well  Jersey  provisions,  f i t out  the  exemplify  supply  iron,  fishing  ship  nails,  boats  and  8 shallops  and  were  bought  April  1842,  retail from  to  the  fishermen.  Creighton  DeCarteret  and  Further  Grassie  supplies  in Halifax;  on  22  ordered:  30 K e g s H o g s l a r d , 1 H h d . R i c e , 1 Dz. o i l e d J a c k e t s & T r o u s e r s , 2 D z . Common S o u t h w e s t e r s H a t s f o r f i s h e r m e n , 2 d z . W o o l C a r d s , 25 P e p p e r , 1 H h d . lime, 6 d z . T i n P i n t s , 2 K e g T o b a c c o , 2 C h e s t T e a ... t o s u p p l y f o r t y o r f i f t y S h a l l o p s t o go a f i s h i n g . 9 In  return,  same in  time,  promised  he  dealt  Montreal,  summer in  he  the  such  as  buying  fall 10 spring.  to  pay  The  Nicholas fish  with  sending  and  500-600  qtls.  Donald  Frazer,  him  cargoes  for  shipments  firm  also  of  of  traded  of  Joseph  Wilson  for export  and  timber  for  LeVesconte's  140  main  at  cod.  At  commission  fine  with  and  &  a  pickled  Paint  DeCarteret  dried  fish flour  local  in  the  agent the  received  merchants,  Port  Hawkesbury, 11 shipbuilding.  commerce,  however,  was  with  the  Caribbean,  Every  fall,  dried  and  various  two  South America,  or t h r e e s h i p s loaded w i t h  p i c k l e d f i s h were despatched  markets,  hopefully  f i s h from H a l i f a x , S t . John's, At  each p o r t ,  1840's,  to  Europe.  the  season's  each  of  these  a r r i v i n g b e f o r e the i n f l u x and the Gaspe lowered  the f i r m d e a l t with a commission  arranged t o s e l l the  and Southern  prices.  agent  the f i s h and f i n d a r e t u r n f r e i g h t .  these  agents  included  McCulmot  of  who  During  &  Co.  in  Pernambuco, M u l l e r & Co. i n Bahia and Rio de J a n e i r o , A g u i r e and Borando i n B i l b a o , Arnot & Co.  i n Barbados, and Graham &  1*  Taylor  in  America,  Liverpool. the  ships  In  the  West  loaded sugar,  Indies  molasses,  to  for  In  Southern  s h i p s took on a cargo of s a l t or s a i l e d i n  ballast 13  J e r s e y where they p i c k e d up s u p p l i e s f o r Cape  Such  South  , and rum  e i t h e r the European market or f o r Cape Breton. Europe,  and  trans-Atlantic  movements  had  to  Breton.  be  synchronized t o ensure t h a t a t l e a s t one D'Escousse by late August to carry the 14  carefully  vessel was first fish  at to  market. The r e s i d e n t f i s h e r y c o n t i n u e d t o be o r g a n i s e d by merchants supplies  dependent and  seal skins, all and  upon l a r g e r H a l i f a x houses  market c o n n e c t i o n . country produce,  for  their  D r i e d and p i c k l e d  fish,  and the o c c a s i o n a l v e s s e l were  shipped t o H a l i f a x t o pay f o r s a l t , manufactured  goods.  merchant, Joseph Wilson,  flour,  The commerce of  Cape  Breton  i n 1836  provisions,  Port  Hawkesbury  i l l u s t r a t e s the p a t t e r n .  unsuccessful business p a r t n e r s h i p i n H a l i f a x , to  local  and s e t t l e d  at  Port  After  Wilson  an  moved  Hawkesbury,  probably  purchasing  a  fishing  merchants,  Thoume, M o u l l i n  the  of  Strait  resident  Canso,  fishermen  neighbouring passing  through  the  far  as  St.  he  was  he  Mabou  with  Halifax,  provisions  Situated  half  placed  County,  well  as  to  Cape  to  fish  in  dealt  with  fishermen  and  Isle  Guernsey  way  the  the  Breton  and  schooners  Gulf  Madame,  of  who  St.  lived  while in  along  supply  American  merchant-wholesalers  (hooks,  turpentine,  and  pitch,  and 17  creditor. credit  ships They  of  as  farther  Halifax  and  Wilson  with  under  fish In  fish,  lumber,  fish  St.  o i l ,  John's,  he  fishermen  for  had  'Perseverence, '  the  insured received  for  cattle the  a  and  boat  and  ships  Pryor  and  in  the  be  sold  gear  acted  fishing principal  spring  on  cash  dried  and in  fishery  a  ton  40  With  142  his  ( i n August  pink-sterned  f i s h i n g voyage  in  country  the  the for  pickled 19 Halifax.  with  vessel  dry  (putty,  also  his  extra  sent to  fishing  cargoes,  -  provided  tea);  materials  Wilson's  Wilson  and  S t e w a r t & Co., sending 20 butter. Locally, he f i t t e d  and  two m o n t h . 2 1 fish in return.  rum,  cloth);  merchandise  and  dealt  of  and  construction  return,  shipments  sugar,  shipbuilding 16 and r i g g i n g ) .  insuring  shipbuilding.  supplied  and  supplied  fall 18  Sons  glass,  pumps, -  and  molasses,  nets);  underwriter  vessels,  Pryor  (earthenware,  lines,  an  William  ( f l o u r , meal,  merchandise  In  the  well  Inverness as  from  John's. In  as  Cape  traded  Wilson  Strait  Certainly,  afield  Co.  Scotia,  Lawrence. apart  &  of  Nova  station 15  1842  out he  vessel,  Gulf)  trade  them  and  and his  shipbuilding business, of  many  pivotal  resident  fished  fisheries, way.  from  boats  boat  fishermen  used,  and  most  1851,  the  largest  off  Cheticamp,  and  Howley's  developed landed, on  dry.  There  the  Gulf  of  Islands,  fishery  Bras  were  there  were 22  4.1).  were  also  of about  from  offAnticosti voyage  four  also 23  o f Cape  shallops  and  made  Breton  also  catch  was  salted,  and  hard  than were  25  tons  used  fishery  around  the  also  i n  the North  Shore.  the Straits  had  to  the  Magdalen  only  "The deep  collect  of  mixed  i s not flourishing, more  i n  (Table 4.1).  bank  trips  and  DeCarteret,  reported that  at Chetican 143  less  through  i n  had  were  trading  and along  Such Robin  lightly  which  s t i l l  Louisbourg,  the  they  and  Madame a n d  cod fishery  mostly men,  shallops  waters;  Gabarus,  until  particularly Island,  J.W.  i nthe  were  Isle  After  Robin  Labrador.  on t h e c o a s t  at  f o r the small  was  and  1,400 b o a t s  around  A minor  days  small  inshore  gutted,  including  Lawrence,  and cured  some  and f o r c o a s t a l  St.  i n 1853,  made  194 v e s s e l s ,  few v e s s e l s  the migratory  Handlines  d'Or Lake.  headed,  cod fishery  two d e c k e d  of the rest  f o r several  crews  to  typical  three-quarters of a l l fishermen  (Table  a  Isle  success;  keep  were  occasional  Belle  than  smaller hauls  merchants,  outfitted  and  t o be c a u g h t  ( F i g . 4.1).  flakes  inshdre  of the area,  of both  catches  the  and with  Several  An  Ferry  the fish  dried  varied  o f t h e c a t c h came f r o m  with  i n  and  interest  1851,  2,500  busy  Breton.  a n d many  i n  a  on Cape  continued More  schooners;  had  t o t h e commerce  the principal  traditional  each  Wilson  outport merchants  Cod,  and  interests,  sea we our  Table  4.1.  County  B o a t s and  vessels  on Cape  Breton,  Boats  1851  Vessels  No.  Men  No.  Richmond  522  860  99  2,197  22  456  Inverness  247  379  74  1,007  13.5  264  Cape B r e t o n & Victoria  654  1,298  21  463  1 ,423  2,537  194  3,667  Total  Data  from t h e Census  of  1851,  144  RG  Tonnage  1/453  Av.  Tonnage  22  18.8  PANS.  Men  83  194  Figure  Data  4.1  from  Production of dried Cape B r e t o n , 1851. the Census  of  1851,  145  and  pickled  RGl/453  PANS.  fish  on  24 fish  than  trips,  the  good  they  do a  fishing  the fish  were  processed  onboard  preserve  them  thoroughly  washed  Both  the  involved caught  on  until  i n  where  the fish  Bras  nets,  Indies  and,  pickled  the  government merchants Harbour,  and  1 8 3 0 's  although  than  40 t o n s ,  1 8 3 5 , 15 C a p e  was  hauls  were  attracted  Most  The s e a l i n g  Breton  ships, 1 4fi  sent  ranging  Harbour,  the  the West  expanding  most  of i t s  f o r re-export.  was  at Arichat  i n t h e summer  fishermen  the  particularly encouraged  a t Cheticamp  s h i p s were  i n the  fishery,  of the investment  some m e r c h a n t s  Breton  t o . deep  to  for  Bay  Cape  Cape  by boat  interest, i t  were  were  prosecuted  exported  Halifax  still  around  a t Margaree  t o Montreal  to  were  migrated  also  were  a n d 1 8 4 0 's w h e n 28  and used  then  mackerel  In the migratory  and p l a n t e r s r e s i d e n t  involved.  and  t o be c a u g h t  salmon,  still  were  to  George's  while  as they  fishery  mackerel  bounties.  also  and i n S t . 25  The r e s i d e n t - f i s h e r y  too,  salted  herring  and o f f e a s t e r n  the coast  including  Sealing, during  o f Canso  increasingly, 27  fish,  Some  of herring  continued  market.  They  fisheries  trade.  Islands  and Gabarus.  herring  domestic  fish  and t h e l a r g e s t 26  a Dieu,  pickled  and r e s i d e n t  pickled  Salmon  docked.  banking  out to dry.  catches  trimmed  small  and h e a v i l y  o f Newfoundland,  the Strait  d'Or.  using  Main  A  coast  largest  along  water.  ship  the Magdalen  taken  In  migratory  t h e southwest the  and l a i d  the pickled  around  Breton  the  On  came  and  from  Margaree  and Sydney  usually  by  small,  were less  f o r the cod  fishery.  i n size  26 t o 43  from  tons a  (average  Sydney  tons),  merchant  scale"  and  Encouraged  return.  By  pursuing  £14,000  his  year  disasters  withdrawal  of  ship  on  success,  22  ships  caught  nearly  25  ships,  hunt.  at  in bounties.  a  and  seal  a  £269  from  1845,  the  received  outfitted  made by  following  that  36  But  sea,  the  the  the  week  went  with  4  to  i n subsequent high  bounty  cost  caused  voyage.  the  ice  seals,  over  of  50  an  the ample  tons,  years  i t  outfit,  the  1842,  "Newfoundland  three  10,000  In  seal  were  appears  and  the  fishery  to  American  fishery  for  schooners  had  contract. Many  fishermen  supplies  and  fishing and  fishery  turned  employment.  close  their  also  to  Nova  numbers  developed  to  the  American  Scotia since  increased i n the  the  eighteenth  d r a m a t i c a l l y as  Gulf  of  St.  century  the  Lawrence  been  mackerel  i n the  early  29 1830 ' s . 700  In  and  800  fishermen of  200  on  Cape board  many m o r e  vegetables  i t was  estimated  American  from  men  Probably  1843,  with  vessels 30 Breton.  in  ...  the  traded the  clothing,  boots  and  smuggling  helped  Cape  the  In  from  bait,  Breton  there  Gulf,  1851,  fish,  and  for  of  were  Canso  "upwards 31 alone." and  spirits, 32  money.  their  by  salt,  tobacco,  and  between  manned  barrels,  sometimes  fishermen  were  many  there  Straits  Americans  shoes,  that  Such  families  to  subsist. In into  a  the  early  major  i n d u s t r y on  schooners,  brigs,  1851,  ships  216  nineteenth  century,  the  s h i p b u i l d i n g developed 33 Island. Several hundred  b r i g a n t i n e s , and were  on  the  147  stocks  barques  were  totalling  launched;  14,316  tons.  in 34  Although the and  shipyards  industry  could  be f o u n d  was c o n c e n t r a t e d  t h e Gut of Canso; 73%  and  i n the Liverpool  Some  sale  and  under  market,  (particularly  ocean-going  Breton  t h e tonnage  trade.  merchants  Both  invested  co-operation.  Peter  DeCarteret  began  'Lady  Falkland, '  contracting 36  backland and  for  across  Isle  Madame.  four  carpenters ready  partner, will  answer  vessels  built  River  built  was  a t work,  laid  f o rthe following LeVesconte  i n August  DeCarteret fall.  fishing, Cape i n  example,  149  ton  brig  Wilson  of  Port  from  the  cut  into  planks,  a t D'Escousse 1841  expected In a  and  for  sawn  shipyard  for  sometimes  were  Inhabitants,  Cape  used  Island  Joseph  were  f o r export  trade),  o f 1840,  Trees  Madame  on  were  industry,  with  t o DeCarteret's  The k e e l  Peter  on I s l e  the building of the  timber.  f o r e s t s around  shipped  vessel  the  were  t h e Channel  In the spring  inlets,  i n the area  b u t most  i n the  and  construction  i n the coal  close  Hawkesbury  shipyards  of the larger vessels  coasting  creeks  overwhelmingly  i n 1851,  building 35 Breton.  local  of  on most  and,  t o have  letter  i n Jersey,  us f o r t h e West  Indies  he r e c k o n e d 37 t r a d e ...."  by t h e Channel  Island  companies,  on  with the  to his that Like  s h e was  "She many later  38 transferred most  t o Jersey.  important  provided  backward  considerable  merchants carpenters,  and and  Throughout  gave  The s h i p b u i l d i n g linkage  of the fishery  opportunities  employment  industry  to  to local  and  - the  obviously foreign  lumberers,  sawmillers,  of the century,  the Channel  shipwrights. the f i r s t  part  148  Island  companies  Madame range  and of  at  fish  carpenter  Jersey.  during  In  Breton,  1837,  employed  addition,  outfitted  by  the  the  from  t o . 13,500. outports 1851, and  the  Arichat the  of  fishery.  Hood,  probably small  outports  consisting  the  Cove,  also  outports of  for  houses,  the most  and  the  labour  from  on  Cape 39  shipbuilding. (most  of  the  Cheticamp) . 40  on  fishery  in  from  were  at  were  Cheticamp,  south  1800,  Ferry.  appear  The and to  mackerel  outbuildings,  century;  in  Madame,  (Fig.  4.2).  engaged  in  majority  were  such  Port  as  fishermen  have (Fig.  wharfs/  2,000  in  East  straggling  and  settled  place the  1851,  Isle  shore  populous  Breton  about  eighteenth  Bridge, they  Cape  2,700  fishermen,  loose,  149  by  workers  and  some  late  h e r r i n g , and  were  resident  fishermen  Howley's  Ball's  lofts,  staffed  fishermen  established since and  cod,  the  remaining  farmers, of  the  sail  for  migrant  to  lived  along  be  Washabuck,  catches The  to  outports  Broad  Baddeck,  i n the  stores,  companies.  1800  these  of  and  a  bunkhouses  fishermen  Most  fish  seasonal  Madame  upon  Of  180  Island  a l l fishermen  other  in  Isle  in  dried  processing,  dependent  continued  settled  were  by  resident  400  established  58%  and  summer,  resident  about  population 41  shops,  Isle  consisted of  rigging  the  of  of  stages,  s t a t i o n s were  660  s t a t i o n s on  stations s t i l l  The  Channel  number  fishing  stores,  fishing,  some  workforce  increased  salt  there  in  Acadian  The  The  blacksmith  fishermen.  and,  their  buildings:  stores,  and  migratory  In  Cheticamp.  specialised  pickled  agents  maintained  at  Bay  were  made  only  4.1).  .settlements, and  flakes  Figure Data  4.2  from  Distribution the  Census  of  of  fishermen  1851,  15.0  RG  1/453  on  Cape  PANS.  Breton,  1851.  dispersed  around  sheltered  fishermen  had small  'gardens'  and  potatoes  and  6-10  browse  the  animals and  pastured  forest  were  cheese,  some  fishermen  also  picked  fringe  with red  meat,  their  to  reported  to  bad  supplies  times  ... they  Left  i n a monopoly  had worth ...  spent  t o supply  much  drawn  done  away  fisherman butter, Many forest,  remained the  most  and t h e Cheticamp could  local  that  and  ride  to  out  extend  merchants  had  and  frequently  1842,  DeCarteret  the  fishermen  " i n  go t o any  the fisherman  two months  were  they  In  other person for 44 to us." At that time,  "the only  position,  crops  to  building.  such a burden 43  t o come  were  of the f i s h  of business i s  have  & LeVesconte  have  cannot  cattle  spinning.  and c o n t i n u e  downturn.  oats,  left  outports  Madame a r e a  i n Jersey  or  milk,  and  the  small,  to carry  a  Many  i n the nearby  for fuel  i n trade The  h i s partner  that  controlled  game  for  considerable capital,  i n  so t h a t  DeCarteret  the Isle  capital  credit  these  Island  depressions  withdrew  wool  and hunted  fishermen.  insufficient  oatmeal,  ,merchants  dominating  periodic  and  land  supplying the  Channel  powerful,  coves.  These  i n  The  credit  3.6).  stratification  marked.  the  (Fig.  and c u t timber  Economic  With  improved  vegetables,  trapped  berries,  coast.  on t h e i r  f o r subsistence use,  h i s family  or  i n which t h e y grew hay, 42 crop. T h e y a l s o h a d 1-5  - the staple  sheep  harbours  house  [sic]  t h e Channel  trade;  [at. D'Escousse] 45  i n  full  Island  companies  i n 1839, a t r a v e l l e r  at Arichat  noted  that  there  year,  "a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t  t o be  each spent  elsewhere,  of the  who  by  £80,000  merchants  residing  the  i n Jersey,  fall  Charged for  with high  their  prices  fish,  knowledgeable  of  fishermen  Cape  fisherman's  were  left  Sabine,  commentators  and depart i n 46 labour."  s u p p l i e s and p a i d  Lorenzo  America"  i n the spring  the  for their  many  considered  British  arrive  the fruit  poverty-stricken.  fishery,  who  on  one  the  Breton  prices  indebted of  and  the  American  t o be  a n d knew A m e r i c a n  low  most  east  "the poorest  c a p t a i n s who  coast  part had  of seen  families covered with scurvy, a p p l y i n g f o r medicine, and a l t h o u g h t h e y o b t a i n e d i t , were i n f o r m e d by t h e d o c t o r t h a t i t was f r e s h a n d w h o l e s o m e p r o v i s i o n s t h e y wanted most; a t which time one o f t h e p a r t i e s a d m i t t e d t h a t h i s s t o c k was r e d u c e d t o some h e r r i n g s and a few p o t a t o e s . 4 7 Such  destitution,  fishermen In  older  o f Cape  general,  ethnic  continued  Sabine  the influx  distribution  to  dominate  and  communities  a t Gabarus,  Hood,  and  around  majority. Irish and  the  many  of  of Scots  had n o t d i s t u r b e d 49  the  i n  outports.  "general  Cove, Bras  on Cape  and  d'Or,  Breton  into  over  Acadians  River  the  Louisbourg,  North  the Scots  the  Madame,  Elsewhere,  largely  coming  the  Isle  By m i d - c e n t u r y ,  had been  immigration blood  Broad  among  Cheticamp,  important.  Port  was  Breton."  L'Ardoise,  still  reckoned, 48  Irish  Bourgoise, and  and Main  a Dieu  a t Gut o f Canso, Shore,  Howley's  Scots  were  the  f o r three  f o r at least by t h e 1830's,  the fishing  villages  Sydney,  overwhelming  Loyalists,  generations a  and  was most  and  o r more,  generation. there  were  Creignish,  Ferry,  the  Acadians,  Loyalist  little  With new  families  were  becoming As  the  support  increasingly  population  a  inter-related.  i n c r e a s e d , many  resident  priest  or  Catholic  churches  outports  minister,  were  and  to  able  to  build  a  50 church. at  Arichat,  the  Highland  Margaree.  River  Bourgoise,  Scots  at  The  Presbyterian Shore, the  and  Presbyterian,  and  leaders  in  1829,  Father  of  fishermen  had  been 51  With  support  to  who  had of  friends  the  economy had  and  i n economic  expanded  multiplied  at  the  Economic  I s l a n d companies  r e s i d e n t merchants. subsistence  government  clergy  level,  153  behalf but  bounty  offered  on  some  need. century,  Cape The  a  staple power  was  remained to  a  Most  of  the  with  Even  and so,  distributed  i n the  lesser  hands  extent,  fishing  little  of  fishing  coast,  s t i l l  and  and  the  Breton's number  industry.  generated  on  planters  major  the  lived  with  often  disputes;  of  into  of  local  much  developed  those  were  five-fold,  had  Channel  Catholic,  than  shipbuilding  the  were  more around  the  where  considerably.  spread  unequally.  among  intervened  the  nineteenth  had  highly  the  and  Louisbourg,  Clergy  shares' of  Cove,  North  there  relatives,  by  and  and  Ferry,  arbitrated  share  Broad  Howley's  Cheticamp  settlements  wealth  entrenched  Dieu  'on  Cheticamp,  well  churches.  at  and  population  Hood,  diverse,  fished  early had  a  sometimes  their  Acadian  Port  River,  Anglican  fishermen  During  more  and  was  Main  Courteau  deprived  cod.  At  was  community  fishermen  Grand  Gabarus.  population  fishing  Church  at  the  L'Ardoise,  Creignish,  Free  Scots  served  of in  population  prospect  of  improvement the  United  on  Cape B r e t o n , 52 States.  The E s t a b l i s h m e n t 1827-1857  Until  mining  the  late  operation  continued  to  sufficient develop  one  to  New  England,  year,  No  outcropped  attempt  and to  and  operations  with  waggons  the  to were  rest  single,  short  than one  made  to  annual  and  amounts  each  to  be  many  Scots.  to  raised  shipments and  seams  Bay,  St. that  although use  remained  and pre-  pick  and  shovel  gear  and  pulling  Probably  Highland  continued  other  Mining  summer,  were  f o r domestic  turning winding  the  not  Halifax  Mira  simple  shipping wharf.  but  or  the  in  investing  tons  to  to  entrepreneurs  13,000  mine  Harbour  small  change  going  two  away  Mining,  leases,  limited  scale:  and  little  diggings  from  slipped  Local  traders.  horses  employed  men  dug  American  Loyalists the  the  more  Sydney  small  on  remained  was  farmers  industrial  the  exports  was 53  Mines.  keep  apart  number  Staple; Coal  there  mine  No  and  between  sale  miners  the to  growing  Industrial  Sydney  further.  any  fishermen  at  capital  them  John's.  an  1820 ' s ,  run  in  for  of  a  no  of  more  than  50  them  Irish,  and  Mostly  young  and  accommodated  in  dilapidated  bunkhouses. In  1827 54  development. the  rest  company,  of the  the  The the  coalfield  lease  coalfield  General  of  the  were  Mining  entered  a  mine  rights  taken  and over  Association.  154  by  new  a  phase  to  of  exploit  British-based  Within  a  few  years  and  after  been  greatly  railways a  massive  highly  steam-power  industrial  constructed,  t o Cape  opened  a mining  workforce  introduced. i n Nova Breton,  a t Sydney at  Bridgeport,  village  recruited  This,  the largest  Scotia,  brought  a portent  Mines had  laid  from  out,  Britain,  investment  the  of future  of  industrial  developments  the Island. The  coal  involvement  mines  1826,  of  creditors,  and  Rundell.  set  seams were  up  jewellery  t h enature  already  grant,  being  monopoly  of  Experienced  British  t h edevelopment  Smith,  the  G.M.A.  mining  engineer,  return  t o England  i n Nova  County,  re-organised i n 1834,  Sydney  Samuel  and Rundell Mining  not  of the  included  the leases  as they  Association Nova  had  a  Scotia.  and sent  out t o  o f t h emines.  Richard  Scotia,  while  mineral  A s some  i n  to  Bridge,  General  hired  and operation  agent  i nPictou  were  mineral  the  Bridge,  development  managers  of  and thus  the  the  therights  reserves.  worked  In  brother,  of Rundell,  the  By 1828,  a l lmineral  oversee  developments  sub-let  t h e G.M.A. p u r c h a s e d  f o r renewal.  his  and extent  thecoal  i n the  a l l unworked  firm  company,  capital  inadvertent.  gave  established, Rundell,  t o develop  t h e Duke's  came  t h e London  of  T h e Duke  joint-stock  Association,  somewhat  lease  Scotia.  After  a  was  industrial  prerogative  60-year  had been  up  best  a  i n Nova  his  resources  Breton  IV by r o y a l  York,  resources  of British  o f Cape  George  Duke  in  production  a new m i n e  skilled  capital  revolution on  expanded,  and wharves  larger,  and  investment,  supervised  Richard 55 Mines.  Cunard,  Brown,  After rising  a  the young  Smith's  merchant-  prince  of  leases,  theMaritimes  was  appointed  director.  By  developing 56 Pictou.  the  The  best York,  and  American advantage  coal  industry  attempted suffered  as  from  only with  4.3). Treaty for for  from  use,  a  coal  company  some  £300,000  coalfield  losses.  at  by s e a .  from  the  Pennsylvania.  the  demand,  t h e smoky  went  averaging  G.M.A. i t  t o o , was bituminous  longer _ burning  As a r e s u l t ,  shipments  emerging  price-cutting,  cleaner,  of exports  out the  the  Although by  New  t o develop i t s  and protect  Market  switched  a third  accessible  introduced t o cancel  thetariffs  to  and Boston,  was b e g i n n i n g  Pennsylvania.  annual  and  and t h e  easily  were  Breton  about  the  was t o d e v e l o p an 57 States. Sydney c o a l was  transport  consumers  Cape  anthracite  market,  tariffs  considerable  lessening  1854,  were  t o circumvent  for  had spent  household  t h e G.M.A.  i n  agent  Breton  theUnited  o f water  bidder  o f t h e G.M.A.  Philadelphia  cost  coal  object"  as  G.M.A.  o n Cape  f o r domestic,  Nevertheless, mines,  mines  trade with  fitted  provincial  1846, t h e  "chief  extensive  and a f a i l e d  between to  1830  the  and  American  22,000  tons ( F i g .  Although  exports  increased  after  the  Reciprocity  was s i g n e d  i n 1854,  shipments  were m a i n l y  of gas-coal  use by c i t y domestic The  markets,  rather  than  bituminous  consumption.  failure  successfully,  gas-manufacturers,  to  forced  principally  penetrate  the  t h e company i n  Nova  156  New  to sell  Scotia  England to  and  small,  market  local 58 Newfoundland.  Figure  4.3  Production 1827-1857.  D a t a f r o m R. B r o w n T h e I s l a n d o f Cape B r e t o n ,  and  export  Coal Fields p.76.  15?  of coal  and  from  Coal  Cape  Trade  Breton,  of the  Most  of  the  coal  householders, were of  kept the  shipments far  small  low  two  went  to  to  rising  1842,  rapidly  increased markedly  Samuel  reduction  the  G.M.A.  Cunard,  in  the  the  John's  the  and  royalties  the  4.3).  lobbying the charged  on  populations  Even  unremunerative  1840 ' s ,  so,  supply  trade  i t s  to  the  costs.  government  coal  by  Prices  1830 's a n d  barely covered  while  f o r use  garrisons.  with  i n the  (Fig.  with  St.  and  s t i m u l a t e demand,  cities  States,  and  industries,  o u t s t r i p p e d demand;  United  Halifax  In  for  sales,  a  stated 59  that the  "no late  their  interest  or  1840's,  the  original  committee  Coal  Industry,  "the  association  have  expended  have  reaped  no  having 61  ever  yet  been  company s h a r e s were 60 value, and in 1853,  the  never  on  r e t u r n has  adequate as  yet  Richard an  return,  been  paid."  trading  at  before  a  Brown  enormous  By 65%  select  reported  that  sum  of  money,  i n consequence  of  the  nearly equal  to  their  of  and  demand  ability  to  supply." As  the  and  1830's,  tons  in  when  the  of  Mines, "1827  by  picked  the  was  1829,  the  13,425  1847-49,  of  most  tons.  next at  reached  in 16  the  late 1827  1820  to  annual  70,000  American  126,000  (Fig.  tons, market,  tons  came  in  from  4.4).  1857. Sydney  Between  average  annual  output  of  1837-39,  i t was  49,700  tons;  Although  other  158  mines  's  68,000  years,  around  years  investment  By  i n the  tons  opened  those  triennial  tons.  75,493  and  during  the  stable  Treaty  again  output  12,000  Over  roughly  up  focus  developed  from  4.3).  Reciprocity  the  and  Mines  (Fig.  being  rose  remained  production Much  were  output  1837  production but  mines  were  Sydney and  opened  between  1830 a n d 1 8 5 7 ,  principal mines:  colliery  the  works  exploratory each  and  year;  Breton.  at Little  Bras  only  more  produced  w a s t h e G.M.A.'s  mine,  was o p e n e d  At were  a  Mines,  near  and during major  mine;  G.M.A.'s  four  other  Aconi  tons  were  of  Indian  t h e 1830  coal  Bay,  's  Lingan,  was  and e a r l y a  gas-coal  of free-trade  to the  the o l dadits, A  series  greater  a n d 400 f e e t  pair  a few hundred mine  other  were  d'Or and P o i n t  G.M.A.'s g a s - c o a l 62  rationalised.  1834,  There  the  United  and  States  4.5).  Sydney  progressively  remained  i n 1854 i n a n t i c i p a t i o n  a l l the  4.4 a n d  a  productive  1840's  (Figs.  Mines  on Cape  Bridgeport,  considerably  supplied  Sydney  of levels  depths: 63 i n 1854.  were  driven  shafts,  o f new s h a f t s 200 f e e t  and tunnels  were  sunk  at  i n 1 8 3 0 , 320 f e e t i n  A t t h e bottom i n either  o f each  direction  shaft,  along  the  seam's  d i p , one f o r haulage and t h e other f o r miners' 64 access. E v e r y 60 t o 2 0 0 y a r d s , t h e l e v e l s were c o n n e c t e d by  gate  o r horse  of  coal  were  a  then  worked-out  had  been  and  safer  driven  mined  space  used  As  roads  on t h e u p - s i d e  o r bord.  Although  i n the earlier  i n t h e G.M.A. underground  at right-angles.  of the road, pillar  diggings,  workings  became  efficient  methods  and  were  needed.  Steam-engines  the  Mines small  and Lingan Bridgeport  creating mining  organised  pits.  more  Sydney  blocks  and bord  i t was m o r e  extensive, haulage  The  of drainage,  f o rpumping mine  159  was  deeper  and  were  and  ventilation,  introduced  winding,  drained  by  more  an  at  although 65 adit.  120.000 - i  Coal (Tons)  1827  1830  1835  1840  1845  •  1850  1855  Years  Figure  4.4  Coal production a t t h e p r i n c i p a l Cape B r e t o n , 1 8 2 7 - 1 8 5 7 .  D a t a f r o m R. B r o w n T h e C o a l F i e l d s Is l a n d o f Cape B r e t o n , p . 7 6 .  160  and Coal  mines on .  Trade o f t h e  Figure  4.5  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o a l m i n e s on Cape t h e i r maximum o u t p u t , 1827-1857.  D a t a f r o m R. B r o w n T h e I s l a n d o f Cape B r e t o n ,  Coal Fields p.76.  and  Coal  Breton  Trade  and  of the  Ventilation base  of  was a s s i s t e d  an  downcast  upcast  shaft  shaft,  and  sackcloth  stretched  deflected  the  introduced on  underground  steam  haul  too,  North  were  Bar  the  over  the  t o haul  were  tubs  along  mines  waggons  imported  improved.  t o serve  frames  Ponies  while  t o wharves.  from  Horses  1 8 5 3 , when 67  two  England.  Coal  a new w h a r f  Mines  were  thelevels,  until  I n 1835,  Sydney  at the  ('bratticing')  workspaces.  linked  thecoal  Positioned  f u r n a c e drew a i r from t h e 66 levels. Partitions of  wooden  tramways  locomotives  wharves, at  to  the  around  a i r into  thesurface,  continued  by f u r n a c e s .  with  was  built  facilities  f o r  68 direct were  loading  built As  the ships' holds. 69 a t Bridgeport and Lingan.  the  into  bituminous  highly , friable  and l i a b l e  G.M.A. i n t r o d u c e d had  been  which or for  1832,  to shatter  screening  Mines  small  pieces,  into  a t thepit-head. iron  separated  out the small  coal  or slack  coal.  The l a r g e c o a l  while  domestic  production the  September  G.M.A. 1838,  Mines,  and  steady  trade,  t o take  employed there  were  162  or gratings large  was s t o r e d o r ' b a n k e d '  ready  into  from  the coal  nut coal  forthe  was c a r r i e d t o t h e " d u f f 70 spontaneously.  theworkforce  was e n l a r g e d . 71 174 men a t S y d n e y Mines; 3 7 2 men a n d 37 b o y s 72  143 men a n d 13 b o y s t h eworkforce  screens  the  which  fire  expanded,  After  was  the  t h e s l a c k was d i v i d e d use and dust  wharves  Sydney  over  and allowed As  from  i t was p a s s e d  sale,  heap"  mined  raised,  round  miners'  coal  Similar  a t Bridgeport.  remained  roughly  at  by  Sydney  With  t h e same  In  the size  for  the  men  next  and  summer  70 at  twenty boys  with  the  hewers  to  each  about or  or  the  There, and  doors  to  passed as  timbering the  were  and  and  pit-head, the tubs  coal  earlier)  miners  the  Boys  as  were  or  and  was  "wise storing  operated  the  that  the  amount  i n the  late  s u p e r v i s e d by  ensure  steam-traction,  fair  drivers  A  each  to  the  ventilation their  nine  ten  were  as by  or  drivers. road  between  unskilled  labourers  yard. and  The  makers.  f i l l i n g the  coal  company  ponies  and  coal  At  the  off-loaded  official  weighed  the  miner's  tally;  an  nineteenth century a checkweighman 75  the  their  Most  the  Before  putters.  slope  men." coal,  pulled  drivers  worked  divided 74  or  the  and  fillers  then  and  winding-gear  against  play. took  as  maintained  banksmen  cage.  the  young  teenagers  workforce  the  as  assigned  or  haulers  the  was  cutting  were  drivers  levels  around  was  to  and  odd-jobs  from  the  trappers operated  and  hauling  entered  operation  323  face-workers,  Loaders  along  doing  tubs  and  roads  mechanics  employed  waggons,  or  or  the  for  by  by  hierarchy  h i s b u t t y were  which  levels  bottom  throughways  surface,  tubs  collected  keepers  trappers,  and  coal.  the  main  through.  and  labourers  the  to  the  serving  responsible  shaft  the  hewer  of  were  the  Door  employed  t h e r e were  underground  workers  A  left  to  An  the  coal  tubs  between  ponies  On  and  the  the  surface.  half  colliers.  roads  taken  4.2).  riddling  transferred along  1858,  at  (Table  bord  grading  i n December  S y d n e y M i n e s a n d a b o u t 50 men d u r i n g t h e 73 Lingan. T h i s w o r k f o r c e had a l s o become more  specialised formed  years;  the  (and  possibly  employed  by  introduction  horse-hauled  waggons  to  the  of the  Table  4.2  Workforce September  Description  employed 1838  at  Sydney Mines  Sydney  Mines  and  Bridgeport,  Bridgeport  Colliers Coal Fillers & Haulers Horse D r i v e r s (Boys) Door K e e p e r s (Boys) Road Makers & Wastemen On s e t t e r s  112 57  69 10  28 9 12  13  Labourers Banksmen Wharf B u i l d e r s Lightermen  123 6 6 7  45  Resident Agent Clerks Overseers Blacksmiths Carpenters Sawyers Masons Iron Moulders Engineers Ostlers Pilots  1 2 4 7 10 2 4 2 10 2  1  4  4  2 3 3 2  2 2  D a t a f r o m S t a t e m e n t o f Men, H o r s e s , ' a n d M a c h i n e r y , e m p l o y e d at Sydney Mines and B r i d g e p o r t Mines i n September 1838, RG 1 / 4 6 3 / 3 2 - 3 3 P A N S .  164  wharf  where  "wise  lightermen o r trimmers  men"  included  blacksmiths,  and i r o n  carpenters,  moulders  maintenance  of thep i t ,  buildings.  There  pumps  were  and winches,  Supervising  efficient  running  overmen the  As  few,  for the  wharves,  e n g i n e e r s who l o o k e d a f t e r  this  who s t a b l e d  workforce  of thecolliery  i f any,  Cape  skilled,  i nBritain.  coalfields  brought  masons,  responsible  waggons,  theponies  and  was t h e  responsible  The  ensuring  management, t o Richard  and the and the the  Brown,  agent.  particularly  the  also  a n d d e p u t i e s , who w e r e  company  miners  tramways,  thevessels. sawyers,  who w e r e  and o s t l e r s  horses.  loaded  out  before  t h e G.M.A. h a d t o r e c r u i t Men f r o m  of  to  Breton miners  Breton  t o form  and South a  Wales  cadre  were  experienced  t h e t i n - m i n e s of' C o r n w a l l  northern England  Cape  1827  of  and were  skilled  76 miners.  During  t h e 1830 ' s ,  "distressed  o f England,  came  By 1850,  from  from from  Scotland, other  skilled are  parts  that  former  later  from t h e immigrants  o f miners  were  from  t h e n o r t h o f England,, and a few 78 of Britain. By t h e n , the immigration o f to a trickle. each  an American  mining  engineer,  effort  year  "A f e w e m i g r a n t s  from  Great  skilled  a specialised, between  men f r o m  full-time  the  165  mines  Britain"  "but I d i d n o t  was made b y t h e A s s o c i a t i o n  By r e c r u i t i n g  ties  hired  themajority  arrive  created  men w e r e  although  to  much 79  them."  some  men h a d b e e n r e d u c e d  .understood  reported  had  districts" 77 Scotland.  more  Britain,  mining and  to  introduce  t h e G.M.A.  workforce.  the  learn  The  surrounding  countryside expect they  to  had  combine  competed  summer.  been  part-time  for  When  low-paid  they  augmenting  the  ranks' o f  full-time  rural  a  Cape In  about  200  late  days  similar  period  was  highly  a  production season  on  months,  done  gear,  tramways,  woodlots  usually  did  not  start  When  the  s i x days  January the  were  available  in  the  positions,  they  joined  their  the  links  with  the  for  summer.  In  February,  employed  cutting  market or  and  early  i f trade  opening time, of  of  little  Mining  or  repairing  tubs;  but  March  with  p i t -  company most  the  coal mining  late  May  labourers, from  working usually  until  in  or the  harvest  stopped  men  mining  depressed,  navigation in  no  blocked  from  was  busy  winter  promising,  unskilled them  the  timber  looked  where  the  were  a  mining  Britain fuel,  for  for  Certainly,  s h i p p i n g wharves  and  operated  worked  Unlike  buildings,  most  they  demand  and  February  this  mines  1840 ' s .  probably  the  the  in late  January.  mines a  and  during  August.  early  instead,  and  likely  winter  shipment;  hired,  and  or  late  At  were  July  December  or  was  If  until  June.  country late  the  wharves,  off. in  hewing;  skilled  the  activity.  because  f o r summer  early  with  and  most  1830 's  for pit-props, 81  began  settlers  hewers,  proletariat  year;  Some men  laid  banked  each  Breton  ice.  more  immigrant  seasonal  with  into  nineteenth century, 80  peaked  was  with  could  diminished.  i n the  Cape  longer  labouring jobs  mining  particularly  mining  were  of  No  farming  moved  numbers  Breton  the  loosened.  week,  were .and  fully the 166  operational, G.M.A.  men  expected  worked  regular  five time-  keeping  to  working  and unscheduled  the  uninterrupted  G.M.A. t o o k - o v e r  Scots  and  religious Sydney Gin  of  ensure  Irish  Mines  pits  t h e morrow  "none  with  By  they  used  Christmas  coal  was r a i s e d  St.  "from  miners  f o r at and  account  On t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y ,  were  back  Saint's  t h e " t w e l f t h day,"  Pillar  o f f on  a n d some  "The g r e a t e r  for other  o f f  an overseer  t h e sawyers  t h eday a f t e r ,  t h e G.M.A. t h r e a t e n e d  1830,  When  the Catholic  time  t h e men l e f t 82  Patricks." except  that  to taking  that  stoppages  until  found  March  - when  Irregular  discouraged.  16th  and a l l t h emechanics"  further  were  On  o f t h e men a t w o r k  colliers  were  3 o'clock  being  carpenters."  Day,  miners  reported  until  stoppages  t h emines,  holidays.  production.  Easter with  at Days  of the  part  of the  work.  Faced  as  well  as  Day, a n d A s c e n s i o n  dismissal.  In  1830,  R. B [ r o w n ] . b e i n g i n f o r m e d t h a t S a t u r d a y next w o u l d b e k e p t a s a h o l y d a y b y t h e men i n f o r m e d t h e m t h a t e v e r y man who d i d n o t a t t e n d h i s w o r k on t h e d a y s h o u l d b e d i s c h a r g e d . A u g u s t 17, Monday. S e v e r a l o f t h e men h a v i n g been i d l e on Saturday c o n t r a r y t o o r d e r s 9 d i g g e r s a n d 4 h a u l e r s were d i s c h a r g e d t h i s morning b u t 2 o f t h e l a t t e r were a l l o w e d t o go t o work o n a c c o u n t o f h a v i n g r e a s o n a b l e excuses for absence. The  i m p o s i t i o n o f w o r k - d i s c i p l i n e went  introduction The Lingan  o f t h e new p r o d u c t i v e  mining were  villages  larger,  earlier,  workcamp.  colliers  from  and  provided  mines.  a t Sydney  more After  hand i n hand 83  system. Mines,  elaborate t h e expense  Bridgeport,  settlements  t h e G.M.A.  was k e e n  relatively  comfortable  accommodation  built  b y t h e G.M.A. 167  than  of recruiting  Britain,  Although  with the  and the  skilled  to retain  them  around t h e  o n i t s own l a n d ,  the  v i l l a g e s had no formal p l a n  ( F i g . 4.6). Rows o f houses were  l a i d out e i t h e r along a road l e a d i n g t o the mine, side  of  the c o l l i e r y railway.  o r by the  The a v a i l a b i l i t y  of  land  allowed t h e rows t o be more d i s p e r s e d than was common the  p i t villages  construction Probably  of  i n Britain,  t h e houses  because  although  followed  the  British  among  plan  practice.  R i c h a r d Brown and the imported  craftsmen  had no e x p e r i e n c e of timber-frame c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  the  were  built  i n b r i c k and l a i d out i n t e r r a c e s , 84  exactly  they  would  have  been i n England.  The  and  houses  exteriors  as were  u n i f o r m l y p l a i n , w h i l e the i n t e r i o r s were s m a l l , u s u a l l y one room and a k i t c h e n ,  perhaps two or t h r e e rooms, 85  and s l e e p i n g space i n the a t t i c .  a kitchen,  Most houses had an e a r t h  c l o s e t , and a garden a t t a c h e d a t the back. The  rest  o f the mining v i l l a g e c o n s i s t e d  of  service  b u i l d i n g s f o r t h e mine or f o r t h e mining p o p u l a t i o n .  Around  the p i t - h e a d c l u s t e r e d the f u r n a c e s h a f t and and winding engine-houses, blacksmith's  shop.  stables,  Elsewhere,  magazine and a r e t a i l  store.  and  and  Roman  Catholic  conformists  from  those  employed  with  scrub  foreman's  the  office,  company had a  churches  and  powder  for  the  and a Methodist chapel f o r non-  n o r t h e r n England and South  a t the mines l i v e d i n the  forest  pump  There was a l s o a school-house  Presbyterian  S c o t t i s h and I r i s h miners,  chimney,  around  the  168  company  settlement,  p o p u l a t i o n was both p h y s i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y  Wales.  Only  village;  the  isolated.  mining  Figure  4.6  The G e n e r a l M i n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n ' s v i l l a g e and p i t s a t Sydney Mines, Cape B r e t o n County, c.1864.  A f t e r A.F. Church T o p o g r a p h i c a l B r e t o n C o u n t y Nova S c o t i a .  169  township  map  of  Cape  Demographically,  than  the e a r l i e r  were  married  Cornwall, Scotland,  t h e Cape  in  the mining  with  villages  Probably  families.  Breton  as  from  mining  villages  rural  With  Cape  villages  where  most  o f t h e men  exact  British  were  from  balanced  miners  drawn  from  and t h e Lowlands  Scotland,  varied  than  the routines  survived  of  the population  much more  Perhaps  of the Lanarkshire c o a l f i e l d  more  people  Breton,  was  of B r i t a i n .  were  a majority of  Wales, northern England,  as w e l l  of  terms  workcamp.  men  South  the mining 86  longer  and  i n mines  b u t t h e r e were  equivalents of the p i t v i l l a g e s  on  Cape  no  Breton  Island. In  an  industry  most  employees,  differences  clearly  I n 1850,  agent  economic 87 drawn.  where  o f t h e G.M.A.  most  likely expect  while  overmen  additional average as  Charges reduce were  free.  their  again,  5/-  annual  t o about  the average  men  about  to  a  a  £72  stlg.  no  by  a  former  o f £800  stlg.;  Overseers  with  and  the piece,  wages i n Cape  in  be  about  and  the  Breton  same b u t an  as  £50  schooling  but fuel  fuel;  the  (but could  doctor,  were  a house and  earnings  £40 s t l g . ,  earnings  a n d men  salary.  stlg.  paid  gross  the  salary  including  were  full-time  reported that  such  about  powder,  Compared  a s much  drew  'Miners  w a g e was  sum  i t was  stlg.,  paid  for lights, that  skilled  were  making  coalfield, half  £144  benefits.  daily  8/-),  about  were  between masters  had been p a i d  R i c h a r d Brown  could  miners  much stlg. would  housing  Lanarkshire  were  at  least  doubt a r e f l e c t i o n of the shortage of 88 on t h e I s l a n d . Labourers could expect about  170  2/6  stlg.  or  £12  sure,  p e r day, making - not  but a useful Although  Scotland,  imported usually  "Our  wages  house  with  enough  the miner's  pig,  in  a poor  Some  to  miners  bacon,  garden  raised.  depended could  sugar, items  made  up  have  have  declared  victualling been  work  drawn  store  a  during the  forcredit  easily  fail  t o pay o f f t h e i r  after  year  and were  year  stored  a cow, c h i c k e n s ,  Yet without  on t h e company  the  credit,  a well  and o t h e r  where  i n  g o t by, though  one m i n e r  would  be  h a d t o be  s t o r e on  miners  a n d we  to  than  foodstuffs  I n 1835,  of these  were  i n debt 90  and  arrears.  effectively  tied  t h e company. Working  industry, miners  i n  the  turned  Master"  "We  he b e l i e v e d  told  us t h a t  to  with  ...  Brown  group  collective  met w i t h wrote  we w e r e  This  i n  a  t h e dominance action  cross  looks  sharply  a l l combined  to  and angry  plainly also  on t h e c o n c e r n  was  complaining  appear  t o have  been  "several  us  from  He  a great  that  their  words  a g a i n s t him.  o f t h e men  many  improve  h a s made  reported  stratified  o f t h e G.M.A.,  i n 1835, "and he t o l d  the greater part  Strikes Richard  large  one miner  that  debt 91  a  and f a c e d  conditions.  in  -  year  £11  farmers.  probably  most  about  Breton  t h e company  tolerable;  Some  on Cape  staple  Probably  well-tended  summer  were  through  beef,  and potatoes  winter,  f o r subsistence  living  t o spare.  been  flour, 89 commodities." from  sold  earnings  on f o r t h e whole  higher  of  prices.  have  seasonal  o f the miner's  and were  little  were  cost  Most  at high  to live  supplement  wages  the  difference.  with  enough  their  a m o n g t h e men  common.  of the cutters  In  1830,  remained  92 idle  owing  year  later,  forge  a n d two sawyers  in  to their  wages,  weeks,  being  a l l t h eminers  but although  one  have  Emigration recourse.  a  thestrike  sometimes  with  and  month,"  "gone  G.M.A.  agent  three  Welsh  Davis, men life  just  miners,  were of  later mining This  and r i s k i n g  Mines  Jones,  "on t h e l a n d , " for similar  illustrated i n 18 35  official  writing  "absent  arrest.  the  whole  leaving  I n 1832, t h e  t o look Lewis,  outf o r a n d James 96  currency. b u t most work  i n  by a l e t t e r  These  - born the  written  to a  United by  a  t o h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w who h a d  t o Pennsylvania:  i t made o u r h e a r t s g l a d t o h e a r y o u w e r e d o i n g so w e l l i n t h e m i n e s , a n d t h a t t i m e s were s o prosperous about P i t t s v i l l e and v i c i n i t y . - S i n c e I l a s t wrote s e v e r a l l have l e f t this p l a c e f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .... Indeed t h e Mines i s t h i n o f p e o p l e t o what i t u s e d t o b e . There i s o n l y a b o u t 12 h o u s e s t h a t p a y r e n t o c c u p i e d . A n d some o f t h e s h a n t e e s a r e d e s e r t e d . Letters has been r e c i v e d from most o f them, a n d t h e y a l l send good a c c o u n t s . Peppet and W i l s o n has both  172  terse  Donovan,  absconded,  David  o f £38.19.1.  - looked  other 94  effective  Conway,  was i n s t r u c t e d  debts  i swell  a t Sydney moved  as C a h i l l y , t h emines,"  Thomas  spotted  a  Irish,  Some men  Halifax  who h a d l e f t  States. hewer  at  store  i n new  and  G.M.A.  Maghan,  a t t h e company  scab  1832,  a l o n g s i d e names  to Halifax."  A  twenty-three 93 labour. In  more  comments  "left  for  "'strikes'  t h e e m i g r a t i o n o f Newfoundland  Nowlan:  smiths  t h eminer's  for  such  fuel."  occurred" a t t h e mines.  probably  time-book  &  o u t f o r an i n c r e a s e  lasted  recorded  debts  rent  sinkers,  reported that  was  In  "except  by c o n t r a c t o r s  observer  irregularities,  with  a t t h e whf." stood  i t was b r o k e n  1849,  charged  gone t o Boston. Most o f t h e o t h e r s went t o B o s t o n . James Andrews and R i c h a r d R i c h a r d s i s w o r k i n g a t a t u n n e l 6 m i l e s f r o m New Y o r k a t 1 d o l l a r and h a l f p e r d a y a n d 30 m o r e men i s wanted. A letter has b e e n r e c i e v e d f r o m I s a a c B r o w n he i s a t a p l a c e c a l l e d S e m p l e s L a n d i n g i n O h i o l d . 1/4 p e r day. J o h n Hay i s at P i t t s b u r g h , a l s o David Flowers John D a v i e s and B a s o n and J o h n James. Henry Anderson i s gone t o the M e s s o u r e e T e r r i t o r y . - You w i l l persieve from t h e s e t h i n g s t h a t g r e a t c h a n g e s has t a k e n p l a c e a t Sydney M i n e s . And i t i s l i k e l y t h a t numbers more w i l l leave i n the s p r i n g . Mr. B r o w n i s g r o w i n g a h a r d m a s t e r , he i s p i n c h i n g o f a t e v e r y end.97 In  1850,  a  "several  times  ...working  meaning that  of  "of  the  course a  by  l a b o r i n g men,  could  good  at  cost  the  get  a  wages.  of  the  miners,  Another  1 1  families that of  engineer  ' c h a n c e ' now 98  the  were  The  .. . ."  Very  greater  few  was  and  ' i n the  recently only  number  miners  asked  others,  reported brought  a  few  to  have  embarked  ever  i f  States,'  observer  Association  country. 99  States  mining  returned  for  to  Breton. By  1857,  capitalism  the  along  not  expanded  to  the  burgeoning  industry than  mines  and  5%  and  far.  of  by  of  had  and  nothing  industry  had  contributed  Nevertheless,  but  an 173  Cape  were  tied  the  up  in at  the  the  coal  markets. at  imported.  built  industrial  staple  employed  the  Traders company  considerable  A l l in a l l , to  County  coal  colonial  specially  much  Breton  States,  small  coal.  industrial  h i t c h the  United  railways,  carried  Island.  to  workforce  been  expense,  not  the  m i n e r s ' wages  wharves  British  eastern  supplying  Island's  them to  of  of  Unable  economy  the  access the  shores  along  of  most  little  store,  very  limped  Less  beach-head  the  had  had  American  number  in  United  .Cape  ...  people  mines  remained  the  visiting  economy system  the  coal  of  the  had  been  established,  and  termination  of  industry  on  was  the the  with  the  G.M.A. verge  of  174  Reciprocity monopoly massive  in  Treaty 1857,  expansion.  and the  the coal  The  By  the  ebbing  mid-1840 's,  away  towards  from  the  settlement  Cape  Canadas  at  the  The  and  becoming  prices  best  rose.  the  and  land  on  margin  very  failures  of  the  1830 's h a d  reduce  many  ironically start,  had  this  Scottish  the  the  Cape  farmers  the  to  of  Most  The  of  and  of  An  open  of  century  shown  blight a  to  parallel  time  Cape  how  that  level  i t s closest from  frontier now  long  buy  as  land on  the  crop  precarious  such  in  1845  destitution  i n Western  Breton,  taken  survive  began  of  for  virtually  been  to  was  Maritimes  arable cultivation;  potato to  had  struggling  already  farmers  the  was  difficult  were  emigration  rest  Breton  increasingly  be.  1845-1849  Australia.  at  could  tide  Breton  backland  farming  Famine,  beginning  closed. was  Potato  that  Scotland,  another  was  round  and of  emigration. First  observed  infestans) northern  i s one  rapidly,  Warm,  moist  disease  of  1843, the  hemisphere.  spread  potato  in  plants appear  most  Now  especially  breezes  can  potato  serious  blight plant  r e c o g n i s e d as i n the  right  d i s p e r s e the  i n minutes; as  the  the  dark' brown  -  a  (phytophthora  diseases fungus,  weather  spores  tell-tale  black  stains  on  i t  the can  conditions.  over  first  in  fields  signs the  of  of the  leaves  and  stems.  1  I f the tops of t h e p l a n t s are c u t and  the spread of t h e d i s e a s e may be checked, unharmed.  leaving the tubers  But once the fungus has taken h o l d , the potatoes  t u r n mushy and brown, they  burnt,  are  raised.  overpowering  u s u a l l y r o t t i n g i n the ground  before  A n o t a b l e e f f e c t of the d i s e a s e i s the  stench;  f i e l d s of r o t t i n g p l a n t s  produced  a  2  smell so " s i c k e n i n g " t h a t many commented on i t . Potato 1845.  blight  appeared  on Cape Breton i n l a t e  August  In t h e humid days of l a t e summer, t h e d i s e a s e spread  quickly  from  the Gut o f Canso,  the n e a r e s t p o i n t  t o the  3  mainland,  along the c o a s t s and i n t o the i n t e r i o r .  Hood,  the p o t a t o crop s u f f e r e d s e v e r e l y ;  coast  at  as  bad  "cannot  Cove,  i t was a  f a r t h e r along the  failure; while i n 4 Margaree, t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the crop was l o s t . Inland, at Middle R i v e r , the potatoes were completely d e s t r o y e d , and f a r t h e r e a s t i n Cape Breton County, o n l y h a l f the crop was 5 raised. No one had much i d e a about the cause. One farmer observed:  Broad  A t Port  total  "The  r i c h e r t h e ground the worst - Highlands not .6 as I n t e r v a l e . " Others thought t h a t the d i s e a s e be accounted  f o r by any r e f e r e n c e t o the d e s r i p t i o n  of seed - p e c u l i a r i t y of the s o i l or nature of c u l t i v a t i o n all  where  suffered  the alike  disease 7 ...."  had  i t s appearance  Some even saw i t  i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t h e Almighty man f o r h i s presumption  made  as  the  having "direct  .... a punishment i n f l i c t e d upon  i n attempting t o i n t r o d u c e  disorder  i n t o the economy of Nature by g i v i n g undue prominence t o the 8 p o t a t o ... . "  176  Frontland Apart  from  farmers weathered such  the  l o s s of t h e i r  r e l a t i v e l y good h a r v e s t :  "punishment"  potatoes,  i n Margaree,  lightly.  they, enjoyed  t h e r e was  crop of oats and an above average crop of hay;  a  an average  a t Port Hood,  9  the  harvest  was  "uncommonly good."  product of f r o n t l a n d farms, although  some  died  Cattle,  the  staple  were u n a f f e c t e d by the d i s e a s e ,  i n Margaree a f t e r they  had  been  fed  10 diseased  potatoes.  Newfoundland  left  The  fall  frontland  sales  farmers  of  stock  to.  well-prepared  for  w i n t e r , and a few,  " h a p p i l y f o r themselves removed above the  consequences"  the b l i g h t ,  sell  of  bought up sound potatoes 11  to  a t high p r i c e s i n the s p r i n g . Fishermen  completely  and  upon  backland  potatoes  farmers,  who  depended  almost  and would bear the brunt  s p e c u l a t i o n i n the crop, were i n f a r more d i f f i c u l t  of  any  straits.  They u n s u c c e s s f u l l y p e t i t i o n e d the government f o r an embargo on p o t a t o e x p o r t s , and soon were s t r u g g l i n g to f i n d enough 12 to eat. They had few other crops and l i t t l e money t o buy potato seed and p r o v i s i o n s . A f t e r the f a i l u r e of the summer herring and fall mackerel fisheries, fishermen at St. 13 Peter's land for  and  Red  I s l a n d s had no income a t a l l .  grants t h a t c o u l d be o f f e r e d t o merchants as winter c r e d i t ,  As backland  fall  turned to winter and the January  condition,"  class" while  were r e p o r t e d t o be i n on  the  their  resource.  s e t t l e r s r a p i d l y ran out of food.  "poorer  had  security  and many were l o a t h e t o p a r t w i t h  cattle, virtually their last  the  Few  south  side  of  snows  fell,  In Broad  Cove,  "a St.  deplorable Patrick's  14 Channel,  settlers  response  to  road  specially  grant,  appointed  magistrates,  who  distribution expected during the  largest  and  needy  repay  although  settlers blight  That  Such  was  £233.  fields  destroyed.  Breton average  In  around  and other  to Halifax. County, crop  there  River, the 17 usual." Frontland  roads  drew  £500,  £486;  starvation,  brown  smudges  days  the crop  entire  was  a  only  the half  crop  was  a crop  was  however, and  crops  "crops  of  farmers  again  178  also  crop  grain  total  i n the ground, not  blighted,  large  the  needed.  Other  and a v e r y  many  that  "considerable quantities"  an average  and  n o t be  within  River,  were  were  the  ports  was  of oats,  from  year,  Sydney,  for  subsistence,  rotted  were  on  would  Cove,  i n Middle  and  optimistic  p l a n t s and  the potatoes  clergy  County,  many  that  of  cornmeal  County  Breton  were  hands  recipients  by working  relief  In Broad  while  and  meagre  Later  Not a l l t h e p o t a t o e s  Sydney  shipped  Middle  lost;  a  local  The  saved  further  t h e seed;  i n the  Inverness  officials  potato  i n Margaree,  completely 16 raised. from  the  yielding  flour  Cape  only  not t o be.  on  even  year,  Relief  and t h a t  reappeared were  rye  share;  i t provided  over  placed  settlers.  and government  was  failure;  b y summer.  usually  t h e government  provincial  County,  was  commissioners, purchased  to  to  t h e money  t h e summer.  Richmond  t o be s t a r v i n g  petitions foraid, t h e g o v e r n m e n t made money 15 for relief. L a r g e l y drawn from each county's  available annual  expected  good.  of hay, crop  [were]  avoided  ' were  I n Cape an  above  o f wheat. as  the f u l l  In  good  as  brunt  of  the  disease which By  out  the  of  end  of  food.  and  rear  early  February, -  the  In  front  farms"  fell,  of  St.  the  complained  season's  allocation state."  Loch  Lomond  seed  potatoes  many  January  new  road  that of  Channel  from  they  be  110  " a l l new  Later  to  backland  backland  had  that  settlers  had  run  families  at 18  the  settlers  missed and  by  on  to  the  were  In  woodland  Narrows  month,  destitute  farmers. .  required aid.  Little  provisions  19  expected  -  on  1847,  Patrick's  families  Ainslie  "deplorable  before,  year,  late  28  along  as  Lake  previous  now  in  settlers  spring,  a  around  and  had  no 20  The yet.  Spring  was  MPP  "The  winter  does  not long. 21  remained time  has  the the  of  being  kept  many  were  to  and  starved  to  the  even  to  could by  week  Lake  many  at  that  of  i n the  ground.  would  grow  Cattle,  the  snow  still  feet  and  of  May,  some  end  cattle"  Skye  forage seed  and  of  of  were  cattle Glen,  the  Lake  by  were  potatoes;  Whycocomagh,  numbers  500  of  half-starved  last  sheep  and  ground  the  of  Ainslie, 24 farmers.  the  oh  south  inhabitants  snow on  to  "great  that  severe  out  . At  8 April  so  usually  summer.  Arthur  winter  put  feeding  at  on  oldest  of  two  worse  L'Ardoise,  the  feet  May,  be  the  seen  three  not  before  while  settlers  have  is still  number  second  of  severe  week 22 uplands.  die  put  County, ' r e p o r t e d  first  death;  Whycocomagh, capital  so  alive  to  in arriving:  Malagawatch,  considerable By  been  kind  backland  late  year,  only  Denys,  any  f o r Richmond  There  on  of  of  recollect  By  that  grain  situation  Brymer,  and  or  River beasts"  Ainslie,  also had wiping  "a 23  lost. died  at  out  the  Without  cattle  credit  from  faced  starvation.  destitute  seed  but  merchants  of  food  nothing  Malagawatch, inhabitants  relief Some  "to  in  Ainslie,  a  completely avert the  At  Arichat,  and  seed 25  the  allocated  by  provisions  and  will  be  supplies  of  some  potatoes,  At the  families  another  Whycocomagh, Peace,  consequently,  200  while  obtain  River  were  200  had  Denys,  and  freeholders,  and  other  p e t i t i o n the  government  calamity  of  a  famine  required  seed  of  gradual  carried other  threatened and  100  were  starvation."  out  in  early  inhabitants  Around  May  by  found  has  already  been  Lake  merchants,  300  headed  unanimously  resolved  government "Altho  for  by  road  this  scantily" explained  the  families  and  will  Janvrin  fish  spend bridge  give to  "to ... 27  effect  leading to  for 26  "literally  R e l i e f was needed immediately actual starvation, of which  magistrates,  seed.  and  not  to  least,  the  could  April  destitute. progress of  Janvrin,  only  state  farmers  L'Ardoise,  late  the  at  winter  eat.  survey  death,  John  in  a  magistrates,  one  and  families  suffering  for  Justices met  security,  At  to  avert  3 0,0  as  merchant  the  monies  repair  on  assistance,  i t  the  Provincial  Secretary: t h e d i s t r e s s i s v e r y g r e a t and t h e c a l l s are m o s t u r g e n t , many f a m i l i e s a r e i n a s t a t e o f s t a r v a t i o n , t h e i r accounts of t h e i r s u f f e r i n g s are i n d e s c r i b a b l e , d a i l y the back land settlers a r r i v e h e r e i n numbers o f 2 0 and more, demanding a s s i s t a n c e ... y o u may suppose the d i s t r e s s must be g r e a t , w h e n t h e s e p o o r i n d i v i d u a l s t r a v e l f r o m t h e i r h o m e s t h e d i s t a n c e o f 40 t o 50 m i l e s to o b t a i n 1/4 o r 1/2 barrel flour.28 In  the  second  week  of  May,  180  Justices  of  the  Peace  in  Inverness new  County  settlements"  provisions  or  also  petitioned  they seed  declared, their  for aid. "the  cattle  people  dying  and  "In  many  are  now  no  of  the  without  prospect  by  29 which need  they were  River  can the  Broad  the  Mountain,  Skye  Cape  River.  Governor  Harvey of  though  coloured, allowed  is to  hazards  to  In  of  Meeting  about  recommend settlement,  ineffective."  should  be  set  Breton aside  i n the the  where  of  Cape  i n no  manner 31  and  and  was  of  Mabou  Margaree of  Lieutenantthat  provisions  people  that  be  and  highly  must  not  ought  at  be a l l  increasingly f o r the  but  the  to the  an  that  had  they  pervaded  extent  almost  ordinary  modes  c o n d i t i o n s were  i n Cape  and  Committee  felt  distress  renders  Relief  destitution  relief,  Committee  for relief 181  the  "convinced  Committee  of  Ainslie,  of  to  "seed  i t prevails  the  of  becoming  "where  Such  and  " l e a d i n g men"  province,  that  Canada  crop."  doubt  cost  a i d except  and  on  in a  "The  the  the  distance to  ensuing  i n March,  widespread  both  ... 30  government  was  the  Canso,  Lake  branch  petitions,  continued,  universal,  exist  at  f o r the  New  wrote  destitution  overcharged."  concerned  relief  the  not  members,  whole  of  MPP  in greatest  of  settlement  r e p o r t s from  appear  the  around  back  may  was  not  the  areas  Strait  Southeast  i t  provided  the  Whycocomagh,  W i l l i a m Young  absolute  suffering  the  and  Distressed Settlers  could  the  i n support  Halifax,  concerned.  Glen,  of  s t a r v e " he be  the  country  receiving  County,  picture  seed,  head  Mabou,  After  Inverness  the  the  Among  settlements of  road,  Cove,  River,  sustained."  back  Denys  Campbell  be  proposed Breton  judged  to  that  £600  County,  £350  for  Inverness On  County,  and £300  Cape  Breton  supplies  from  Halifax.  Arichat  ordered  Fairbanks  supplies wants  the Commissioners  a  Late  200  and A l i s o n  requested  t o be  i n May,  o f the poor"  "forwarded  ordering  meal  from  and so urgent  reported Janvrin,  that  "we  at  Messrs.  immediately," 32  of rye flour.  "so eager  relief  the magistrates  of corn  50 b a r r e l s  County.  began  in April,  barrels  further  arrived  f o r Richmond  and  soon  When  the  [were] t h e  had  to  use  33 force  t o prevent  provisions oats by  were  week  these  plunging  first  They  week  the  a state  were  thus  food  so  that  Elsewhere,  supplies  barrels  Whycocomagh,  were  quarter consumed.  the  want,  of  of flour River  As  also  barrel they  during  "They  were  cannot  declared, and  the rigours  f o r I n d i a n meal  running  out.  supplied  family  (49 l b s . ) o f looked forward 182  used  now  "without hopeless  to "choosing  be  gone  subsisting  between almost  of a  Cape  to  the  c o u l d be p l a n t e d up  Malagawatch,  Each  May  of the  o r t h e a p p a l i n g and  could  and meal  Denys, 35  exhausted. a  potatoes  Such  most  were  of immediate  petitioned  were  families  reduced  i t . "  Lomond,  i n late  settlers'  into  they  upon  f o r seed.  As p o t a t o e s  of July,  A t Loch  a n d many  prospect of starvation . 34 winter."  forceably  Arichat  set aside  h o r r o r s o f immediate  Breton  from  o f June  themselves  certain  Glen  sent  potatoes"  destitution." the  seizing  exhausted.  t h e few p o t a t o e s  plant  200  soon  and I n d i a n meal  the second  on  their  or other  for  seed.  By m i d - J u n e , t h e  to the settlers  Indian Rear,  had meal  received which  and  at Skye  only  a  was  soon  "to the length of  time  before  us,  ere  we  r e c e i v e succour  toils,"  they  staring  us  in  the  died  the  few  surviving  and  state, they day,  as  to  yield  will  do  so  the  that  could  ...."  In  late  Margaree, potatoes River,  sown the  of on  new  to  had  been  flattened;  oats,  while  last  most  the  crop burnt  barley  no  With  the  cattle were  thankful to  was land  stored  until  the  around  seed  had  not  meal  thing  again.  on  In  Sydney,  and  in  with  only Middle  the  rot  there  wheat relief, the  a  stating  was  Moreover,  i s s u e d as matured  likely  any  while  rain:  had  feeble  for aid,  spring.  from  scanty  potatoes, 36  heavy  a  is i t  struck  average  the  by  one  survived;  f a r below  awfully  "such  nor  our  sheep  receive  blight lost;  and  in  milk, only  of  death  government  potato  damaged grown  or  season."  was  through  insufficient  light;  the  crop  spreading  crops  be  summer  much  livestock  little  fruit  but  Most  petitioned  "would  eatable  "nothing  face  ...  this  settlers  they  see  f o r the  other  had  been  were  very  poor  upland  soils. Hopes admit  that  through  Middle  dashed  "poverty,  the 37  degree." of  were  Island In  River  late  and  the  government  wretchedness of  Cape  November,  reported  that  and  Breton the  was  misery ...  forced have  spread  to  an  alarming  magistrates  and  minister  the  f a i l u r e i s m o r e e x t e n s i v e & some o f t h e p o o r p e o p l e s e t t l e d on r e a r l o t s h a v e n o t a b u s h e l of p o t a t o e s i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n a t t h i s time .... We c a l l e d a m e e t i n g o f t h o s e who w e r e r e a l l y i n n e e d l a s t week w h e r e f o r t y f i v e h e a d s o f families came f o r w a r d some d e c l a r i n g t h a t t h e y h a d no p o t a t o e s a t a l l - o t h e r s o n l y a few b u s h e l s & t h e  183  to  r e s t n o t s o much a s w o u l d k e e p t h e i r families a l i v e t i l l May. T h e s e d e a r S i r a r e c h i e f l y new s e t t l e r s who h a v e v e r y l i t t l e g r a i n & n e i t h e r c a s h nor produce nor c r e d i t t o procure provisions otherwise.38 Their in  petition  need  North,  f o r a i d joined  a t Grand  Narrows,  49 f a m i l i e s  many  others:  upwards  a t Ingonish,  of  300 f a m i l i e s  100 f a m i l i e s  a n d 48 f a m i l i e s  were  a t Cape  a t Gabarus  39 and  Grand  Mira. 40  More to  government  t h e sums a l r e a d y  Richmond with  County  the  ordered,  £600  granted,  £1,800;  850 b a r r e l s  families  Grand  Narrows,  Bay,  and Sydney.  Narrows,  Y e t t h e Committee  increasingly  concerned  of labour  leading  t h e Committee  to deprecate  Cape  Charles  County, the  held  Provincial  Government  abundance taken  i t upon  themselves,  inspect  season  home."  During  himself  t o warn  rather that  the  than  rely  two c o m p e t e n t  homes  of  those 184  River,  had been  abused  MPP  t h e summer people  for  claiming  Richmond  charity  fall,  they  be  relief  of  ...  relief,  to the  many  who h a d he  had t o  on t h e government. individuals  welfare.  he r e p o r t e d  and  that  No  submitted,  shamefully  the public  East  Settlers  a system of free  the vigilant  sought and o b t a i n e d at  .suggest  last  1,700 a n d  repayment.  I n December,  "that  supplies  f o r Distressed about  do  Boularderie,  Middle  Harrington, 41  view.  Secretary  was  individuals  to  a similar  made  the  f o r between  p e r f o r m e d on t h e roads  Breton,  £3,879;  County  Among  Baddeck,  addition  drew  a t St.Ann's,  returns  On  Breton  - enough  distributed  Little  becoming  Cape  In  County  provided.  o f meal  - were  available.  Inverness  while  previously  3,400  was  a i d was made  had help  He w e n t  appointed and  make  on to a  return,  verifying  provisions.  This  magistrates again  or  or  that  month,  of  the  he  no  April,  to  received partial the  particularly  in  the  Bras  Isle  Madame.  the  family  old  daughter  the to  time  potatoe Indian after (Peter large  -  of  dogs  on ."  meal  the  had  their  past  Yet  to  one  inhabitants kill  felt  number  and  areas  Edward died Isle and  of  them  warehoused enquiry"  barrels  at  in -  codfish  Simon  Isle  on and by  -  rooting  out  backlands  settlement  on  relief."  In  a  lived  20  300  Justices Hector for  year while "had  for  some  bread  or  barrels  of  without  enough  relief, existed,  the  d i s t r i b u t e d to  and  by  instances,  have  request  three  Donovan,  185  to  had  "altho'  privation;"  several  -  for  that  Peter's,.,  others  part  areas  unneeded  "immediate  only  ordered  in  Petabe  St.  Later  some  by  zeal  " e f f e c t s of  went  In  Peter's,  the  1st.  application  for  St.  further  greatest  of  Petabe, eat  the 42  get  his  not  before  destitution  required  the  He  that  Carter  of  of  applying  part  Lake,  "the. s t r i c t e s t DeCarteret,  spite  the  should  districts  now  and  to  suggestion.  any  several  would  of  lower  fresh  be  advised,  distributed  upmost  admit  Harrington to  entrusted  situation.  that  in  livestock,  provisions.  be  the  relief  These of  he  or  [the]  and  d'Or  be  t r a v e l l e d through  villainy"  had  of  to  suffering."  Harrington  who,  should  ascertain  government  "infamous  to  potentially disastrous  "discouraged ..."  people,  not  funds  Harrington  County  provisions  was  relief a  of  Janvrin,  public  that  March  number  task  John  control  proposed  the  the of  needy,  the  Peace  McDonald).  The  between  and  600  1,200 -  families  suggests  than  ( 3 5 % t o 70%  that  Harrington As  the  the extent was  new  year  January  1848,  side  them  on  rear  further  on  mills  to  pointed and  starvation  t i l l  reside  the  so  ...." much  more  than  late  destitute  further was  Alexander James  year  on  February  36  of  t i l l money  as  of  them and  we  could would  affected  needed The procure prevent  on  who  side  surrounding  settlers  the  o f us  of the east  of  had  accompanying  the majority  the  of the  spring.  what  lots  late  f a m i l i e s , most  the f a l l  letter  "that  In  inhabitants  are  people backland  frontland. barrels  o f meal  around  Baddeck  had  over  Farquharson,  Frazer,  i n a  ...  particularly Just  Halifax.  t h e 100  settlers  relief, 44 needed.  and  the b l i g h t  those  since  greater  intensified,  Many  " h a d we  concession  of this  Clearly,  By the  badly  that 43  through  Providence  first  on  t h r i v i n g farmers  summer,"  blessed  not  them  far  winter  destitute.  out that  among  petition, on  reported  were  carry  and  county)  admit.  and other  government r e l i e f  aid  petitioners in  lots,  to  t o descend  the freeholders  of Lake A i n s l i e  subsisted  prepared  arrived  f o r a i d continued  of the  o f d e s t i t u t i o n was  at f i r s t  requests  east  of the population  oat,  three  the minister  the minister  been  wheat,  weeks  distributed to exhausted  and  later,  in  of Middle  of Boularderie,  potato  seed,  mid-March, River,  reported  that  p o o r p e o p l e ... h a v i n g consumed a l l t h e p r o v i s i o n they could get, h a v e now a l m o s t o r altogether slaughtered t h e i r c a t t l e & sheep. Starvation s t a r e s t h e m i n t h e f a c e ... a n d , w h a t i s t o be done i n t h e meantime, t o b r i n g them t h r o u g h t i l l t h e summer b r e a k s i n , we c a n n o t t e l l . 4 5  186  and  and the  They  went  on  destitution  to  plead  for  imperatively  more  calls  supplies:  for  immediate  exertions;  without  which,  famine  &  their  work."  At  Ann's,  the  last  complained of  Indian  without  to  Lieutenant-Governor  Meal  sent  further  established  St.  as  relief  supplies  settlers, 46  starvation."  At  many  would  Little  &  pestilence  been  that  the  the  barrels  very  dull  -  moreso  that  I  them  before  stareing  many  in  that  had  Farther  north  i n Margaree,  petitioned  for  the  of  request  families  is  assistance, some  were  oats,  barley,  there  i s not  an  of  the  the  local  food  wheat,  and  and  that  potato  done"  he  have  more  the  "Times  not  are  known 47 ...."  previously  minister,  reported  were  and  of  face  provisions  seed  as  ever  the  Baptist  inhabitants,  without  something  area  that  secretary  in mid-April,  starvation  and  suffering  reported  quarter  50  well  agricultural society this  done  McLeod,  local  in  have  Norman  as  "dismal  Baddeck,  extraordinary  insufficient  newcomers, face  existing  will  Reverend  Harvey  had  "The  that as  at many  well  as  required.  concluded,  "death  "If  must  be 48  the  consequence  as  their  neighbours  cannot  supply  them." 49  In It sum  April,  placed of  county  at  for  placed  purchase settlers." and  £50  the  £1,700  agricultural and  the  of  the  to  disposal be  in  with  seed, Richmond  respectively  moved  of  of  the  seed. Treasury  Harvey to  "to  be  and  be  avert  £100  the  187  a  disaster. Harvey  amounts  It  also  or  in  at  once  distributed  Inverness  from  to  Lieutenant-Governor  distributed in  purchase  monies them  Government  to  appropriated  the  Central  expended among  Counties  drew  A g r i c u l t u r a l Grant  a  each any Board  in  the  distressed £41.13.6 for  the  purchase  of  In  seed.  August  consecutive at  digging  at  Baddeck,  River,  the  and d i s e a s e :  failure;  the potatoes Other  wheat  about  crops  was  appeared  while very  were  damaged  average,  fourth sound  cellars; at  Middle  early  and  affected  by r u s t ,  and green  by oats  crops  were  indifferent.  from  government for  Cape  Andrews  getting  through  drawn  Narrows) 51  settlers years,  the  clergy,  for  relief  supplies  s u p p l i e s must  large  sums w e r e  The government  special Breton from  until  still  Halifax  requested  school  grant  1849,  each  During  the potatoes were  1849,  and  renewed  counties  harvest  affected  when,  reported  also grant.  being special  Grant,  and  county  £150  grants,  spent  while  £438.10/- and  Such  from  spent  relief time  disease.  but generally the crop 188  been  still the  77  Cape  f o r the f i r s t free  have  St.  f o r the three  agricultural  the school  were  this  of  the annual 52  and Cape  over  January  for  i n  appropriated the Agricultural  the  respectively  prepared  for aid arrived  Elsewhere,  counties.  Inverness  been  "respectable inhabitants"  and c e r t a i n l y ,  half  from  early  other  o f £1,700,  Breton  In  provisions.  aside  t o have  one p e t i t i o n  families.  on  grant  and  (Grand  destitute  spent  only  appears  Breton.  magistrates,  areas  of the crop.  f o r the  to r o t i n the root  a complete  attacked  h a y was 50  reappeared the potatoes  started  was  disease  slight,  failure,  £250  b u t soon  much  The  set  the blight  In Margaree,  the crop  weather  were  very  year. time  destroyed poor  1848,  was  tided  i n five Some sound.  The  Central  report  Board  that  "confidence  restored  t o induce  Although  small  early  Breton  people  despite had  outbreaks  death.  In addition,  fished,  birds  scoured  and  keep  beaches  some  were  worse  families  was  that  most  the  and  very  had  acted  relief mass  coasts,  swiftly,  funding,  and  starvation  and  enough  families  cod  some  game  hunted  with  Inland, and  a  and t r o u t 56 It  f o r a i d were  to had  combined  nutrition.  was  food  and probably  few  of  the  sent  - and  famine  had emerged  - no p e t i t i o n s  from  were  few would  was  from  and where  no d o u b t  starkly  on t h e p o t a t o ,  crops  such 189  as oats  many  exposed, but also and  had  been  the  ever  B u t on t h e b a c k l a n d s  had been  reliance  other  impact farmers  prices.  agriculture  raise  severe  f o r several years.  most,petitions  settlements  overwhelming to  going  unscathed  grain  less  but an o c c a s i o n a l r a b b i t  Frontland  relatively  There  the  needed.  Undoubtedly selective.  off.  i n  Cape  for shellfish, 55  provided  relief  arable  the  least  areas  rising  Along  at  fish,  sufficiently 53 culture."  on  had s c r a t c h e d  A  these  intervale  settlers  annual  the famine  to prevent  eggs.  freshwater  not  food  collected  vegetables settlers  large-scale  alive.  i s  i t s  reoccurred  much  The government  sufficient  themselves  likened i t was  r e s e r v a t i o n s about  provided  keep  of the disease 54 was o v e r .  on I r e l a n d ,  had d i e d .  crop  i n  r e t u r n t o extended  contemporaries  to that  concluded  i n the potato  a speedy  1850 ' s , t h e b l i g h t Although  few  of Agriculture  crisis  sent  from  profited  from  the  limits  of  not only  by t h e  by t h e  failure  barley.  Despite  grants  to  build  oat  backland  farmers)  harvests  dependent  would  always  frequently  and  many  during they  the  years  (more  thin  soils  and  a  by to  short  Moreover,  out  of  the  work died,  of  famine.  One  W i l l i a m McKeen,  principal  merchant  farms  totalling  For  families  1,757  c l e a r e d from  blow:  as  the  County  reflected  crofts,  Commissioners i n June  deep  acres  season  blight  for  there  at  from  merchants  noted  that  [sic]  lands  Mabou,  outstanding another  organising relief  of  mortgaged,  Between  i t was  had  years  been  contemporary  liquidate  ten  growing  loans  to  go  "so  off  grain,  twenty  had  than  more  the  to  that 57 them."  must  i n debt  ten land  pay  frontland  grow  precarious.  struggled to  often  used  encouragements  L i v e s t o c k had  settlers  or  1852,  on  wiped  were  have,  and  be  pioneering.  mills  in  1849  and  took  over 58 debts.  crushing Inverness  1847,  The p r o s p e c t s o f e m i g r a n t s [from S c o t l a n d ] were t h a t a t l a s t t h e y s h o u l d t r i u m p h and r e s t even in a foreign grave, t h e r e a f t e r t h e i r successors t o r e f l e c t o f t h e v a s t f i e l d h e l d b e f o r e them f o r i n d u s t r y and c u l t i v a t i o n - A l a s ' t h e y a r e now n e a r l y d i s c o u r a g e d - Times have f a i l e d . 5 9 After  losing  emigrate  once  their  land,  there  more.  190  was  little  a l t e r n a t i v e 'but  to  6  Agricultural  Settlement i n  the Late Nineteenth  Although  the  Century  p o t a t o famine marked  population  c o n t i n u e d t o i n c r e a s e d u r i n g the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h  by  Breton,  From 55,000 people i n 1851, 1  and t o 87,000 i n 1891.  the  mid-1840's,  accounted  the  of  emigration  1871,  Cape  beginning  extensive  century.  from  the  Island's  i t rose t o 75,000 i n  With immigration l a r g e l y  virtually  all  of  f o r by a h i g h r a t e of n a t u r a l  the p r o p o r t i o n of n a t i v e - b o r n people.  this  over  growth  increase, By 1871,  was  swelling  87% of the 2  I s l a n d ' s p o p u l a t i o n had been born i n Nova S c o t i a . personal  ties  population Acadians, 6.1).  with  S c o t l a n d had  loosened,  were of S c o t t i s h o r i g i n ; Irish,  The  especially  Scots in  and  families  occupied  much  largest  eastern the  Cape Breton County.  Bourgoise, at  i n the towns  of  of L o y a l i s t descent of  rural  Cape  Inverness and V i c t o r i a Counties  group  southwest  most  the  the r e s t c o n s i s t e d  comprised more than 75% of the p o p u l a t i o n . the  Although  and  Breton, they  They a l s o formed  mining  villages  in  lived in  Madame,  River  and L ' A r d o i s e , as w e l l as on the northwest  coast  Cheticamp,  B e l l e Cote,  1 9 1  Isle  (Fig.  where  Most of the Acadians  corner of the I s l a n d a t  of  and the n o r t h s i d e of  Margaree  Km  Figure  6.1  Origin  Data from Census Agriculture.  of population  of Canada,  1871,  192  o f Cape Canada  Breton, Dept.  of  1871.  Harbour. and  There  Sydney  Scottish  settlers and  particularly  Neil's the  peopled  grew  urban  population  be  a n d some  some  and  several  labourers,  rest  and  of this eked  out a  Since growing  shortage  nineteenth simply  no  population, early  the late  century, frontland  on t h e  less  families  than  Hood. and In  largest  s t i l l  lived  of eastern  20%  people  of  upon  were  left  .the  the total  continued  to  farming;  i n  were  farmers  farm-servants,  6.1).  settled  Cape  century,  population  Perhaps  on f r o n t l a n d ,  a the  backlands. frontland land  situation to  was  farmers and  was  land  sold  expensive  had f a c e d by  acute.  accommodate  land  193  the  Ingonish  nineteenth  agricultural  intervale  among  and Port  55% o f t h e w o r k f o r c e ,  the  Acadians,  the second  tradesmen'(Table  and improved  1860 ' s ,  the late  1820 ' s ,  of  at  Newfoundland.  villages  p o p u l a t i o n was  living  by  of the outports.  more  country  rural  formed  and dependent  14,000 p e o p l e ,  and  at  from  d'Or  dominant the  Ainslie,  The I s l a n d ' s  thousand  among  Loyalist  comprised 3  rural  still  existed  and mining  during  overwhelmingly  third  the Irish  i n 1891.  1881,  also  the Scots.  rapidly  Lake  Bras  outnumbered  Madame,  by immigrants  t h e towns  Breton  were  out niches  settlements  Baddeck,  population  a Dieu,  East  at Little  although  Bay on I s l e  Forks,  after  Although  Irish,  a t Main  villages,  group  Sydney,  The  Rocky  Irish  mining  ethnic at  at  Harbour,  a few A c a d i a n s  had c a r v e d  a t Margaree  Important  also  Mines.  Louisbourg  Scots  were  a  the  late  There  was  the t o buy.  f o r £1-3 an a c r e ,  rising In the and a  Table  6.1  Principal  Occupations  on  Occupation  Number  Farmers Fishermen Miners  1 4 , 536 3, 190 1, 043  Blacksmiths Boot & Shoe makers Carders & Weavers Carpenters & Joiners Coopers Dressmakers & M i l l i n e r s Engineers & Machinists Millers Ship-builders Stone masons Tailors & Clothiers  of  Breton,  313 155 79 648 157 68 80 89 109 71 124  Clergymen Commercial clerks Dealers & Traders Government employees Labourers Mariners Merchants Servants Shopkeepers Teachers Teamsters & Drivers  Data from Census Agriculture.  Cape  69 154 58 95 811 1, 357 242 1, 243 116 433 73  Canada,  1881,  194  Canada  Dept.  of  1881  partially  cleared  farm  o f 100  acres  on  reasonably  fertile  4 soil by  cost  £50-75.  the  between  Several  by  and  causing  18 4 a c r e s . on  Cape  By  The from  acres all (Fig.  and  56% 22%  total  area  perhaps  on  Loch  Lomond  Mountain  and  There  Almost As  Department  acres.  was  still  land  acres  on  occurred  behind  some  along  Mira  River,  Uist,  The Lake  and  Cape  on  South  settlement,  were  a l lof this  newly-settled  early of  as  1861,  Crown  left  H.W.  Lands  195  Crawley,  most (Table than  for  expansion.  Breton  increased  nearly 6  1,128,000  Virtually settlements  settlements East  Bay,  (not  around  and  and  River,  land  to  farming  less  Mountain  largely  f o r over  were  Highlands  and M i d d l e  208  1891  existing  behind  161 land 5  in  i n 1891.  squatter  Breton  Ainslie  to  acres  from  size  and  Cape  to  farms.  important  room  for  the increase i n  farm  i n 1851  two  to fall  1871  50  141  occupied  i n the County  also  Hills.  agricultural  between  were  and Lake 7  between  size  t h e most  t o 1,184,000  expansion  F i g . 6.2)  Creignish  there  1,000,000  6.2).  shown  than  from  of  only  River,  f o r perhaps  average  fell  of occupied  i n 1871, of this  County,  of holdings  the backlands  the area  farm  the  less  Middle  t o accommodate  the average  districts  accommodated  increased  enough  subdivided  Breton,  1891,  acres, On  acres,  In Inverness  agricultural 6.2).  whereas  be  In  of occupiers  205  were  could  holdings.  1891,  only  farms  occupiers,  area  number  1871  expanded  bad.  farmers  subdividing existing  example,  100  New  the  Gairloch  too high f o r  untouched. was  wretchedly  retired  a decade  but  from with  the a  Table  6.2  Landholdings  i n Inverness  1871-1891  District  Year  R.  1871 1891  154 170  20,508 30,021  133 176  1871 1891  114 137  20,318 21,179  178 154  1871 1891  163 178  31,074 32,794  190 184  1871 1891  258 278  35,918 32,946  139 118  Inhabitants  North  R.  Mountain  Denys  Judique  Number o f Occupiers  County,  Acres Occupied  Acres ; Occupii  W.  Lake  Ainslie  1871 1891  61 62  8,772 8,530  143 137  E.  Lake  Ainslie  1871 1891  112 108  16,986 15,558  151 144  Broad Cove Intervale  1871 1891  200 231.  26,783 25,153  133 108  Broad Cove District  1871 1891  129 156  18,488 15,880  143 101  Margaree  1871 1891  227 252  25,958 22,864  114 90  N.E.  Margaree  1871 1891  207 232  22,232 30,208  107 130  S.W.  Margaree  1871 1891  139 160  22,961 22,864  165 142  1871 1891  339 556  52,340 80,527  154 144  Whycocomagh  Data 1891,  f r o m C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , 1871 a n d C e n s u s Canada Dept. o f A g r i c u l t u r e .  196  o f Canada,  Figure  6.2  Crown  land  grants  on  Cape  Breton,  1786-1880.  D a t a f r o m t h e R e c o r d s o f t h e Crown L a n d s O f f i c e , 1738 t o 19 6 2 , RG 2 0 / A / 3 PANS, a n d t h e C r o w n L a n d I n d e x S h e e t s 108-12, 114-33, and 135-40, Nova S c o t i a D e p t . o f Lands and F o r e s t s .  197  lifetime  of  reckoned  that  experience "little  of  settlement  o r no good  land  on  Cape  Breton, 8 unoccupied."  remains  Crown  surveyors c o n s i d e r e d a v a i l a b l e land t o be 9 "barren." I t was t h i n s o i l e d , s t o n y , a n d o f t e n  wet. a  On h i g h  ground,  these  short  growing  season.  very  settle  the uplands,  1880 ' s , about  an  attempt  1,200  Margaree. and  [sic] and  Roads  u p o u r own  occupy by  the fertile  "many  of those  weary  Agricultural physical  may  state  of the effort  Cape  the  States  Fielding  to  i n  back 10 Colony."  Breton  a  Lands,  the  had  1888,  come  enthusiastic  from  there  to return  had d i s s i p a t e d  o f Crown  and removed  on  that  o f them w i l l  most  and side  are writing  of settlement  lying  either  one o f f i c i a l  t h e Commissioner  settlement  here  of the  late  St.Ann's  from  a number  who w e r e  to  the area  wrote  valleys  w e r e made  the plateau  i n the United  country"  are that  ago" e x p l a i n e d  grown  "We  by  In the  between  and Baddeck  1892, t h e r e a l i t i e s  optimism: time  off.  are at present  the prospects  and  Land  laid  excessively  compounded  failed.  to colonize  driven into  were  attempts  sea-level  i n Margaree  who  build  was made  were  When  invariably  above  lots  both  sons  "and  But  feet  . 200 a c r e  farmers  they  shortcomings  completely  such short "have 11  scene."  reached  i t s  limit.  Policy  Many earlier  of these  backland  new  settlers  settlers  a n d a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f  continued  198  t o squat  on Crown  land,  too  poor  to  reckoned County less  pay  that  for  there  (about  1500  well.  of  years  Property  estimated  occupied  land  government  on  The  being  on  flouted  unprotected  by  not  squatters  full  With  the  control  Act  the to  had  on  the  applied  grants  for  occupied appointed  of  during  similar  Counties  Committee  on  as Crown  half  of a l l 13  held  by  squatters.  For  situation  legal  while  his  was  authority  against  hardly  was  the  still  squatter,  trespassers  improvements s t a k e on 14  and  to  the  his  Island,  emigrate.  responsible land  confirming  likely  least  defence  the  County  at  the  to  Breton  -  permanent  tackle  grants further Crown  holdings in  the  "not  government in  1851,  squatter in  the  fee  in  the  1848  Nova  problem.  simple  colonial  and Scotia  In  1850,  a l l leases regime  and  on  Cape  l a t e r , a n o t h e r A c t was passed settling 16 Island. S e t t l e r s i n possession of land, who  without  Department  no  p r i c e of  titles issued 15 Breton. Four years  and  Victoria  scale,  tempted  other  titles  was  alike,  little  passed  -  bequeath  of  population),  Most  acres  surveyors Inverness  i n Cape 12  1860,  500,000  had  winning over  was  in  massive  easily  Legislature.began an  a  the  and  government's  law,  were  With  later,  legally  successors.  of  Crown  families in  population).  squatter  satisfactory.  squatter  i n Richmond  that  18 57  squatting  Cape B r e t o n  and  In  quarter  the  existed  Three  could  a  752  families"  two-thirds  proportions  grant.  were  (approximately than  a  each  and  paid  charge  Lands  on  was  the  county  to 199  the for  fees, a  were  survey.  instructed to 17 Island. assess  entitled In  1859,  survey  a l l  Commissioners claims  to  Crown  to the the  were land,  settle of  l o tlines,  Crown  After  Lands  take  a  year.  had been  out grants  Yet grants, time.  though  few  could  many find  were  notes.  McDonald  surveyed,  at a price  even  Deposits  pathetic  a l l disputes  f o r a d j u d i c a t i o n by t h e  holdings  to  and r e f e r  " I am  of Catalone  squatters  sent  Governor-in-Council.  squatters  o f 1/9  the f u l l  per acre  were  poor  were  within often  man"  requested  payable  willing  amount  to Halifax,  a very  t o t h e Commissioner  within  t o pay  for  the allotted  accompanied  wrote  one  by  Donald  i n March 1867,  with a l a r g e and h e l p l e s s f a m i l y c o n s i s t i n g o f e i g h t c h i l d r e n n e a r l y a l l g i r l s a n d am a t p r e s e n t u n a b l e t o make u p t h e p r i c e o f t h e G r a n t . However I send e n c l o s e d e i g h t d o l l a r s $8.00, a n d i n t h e s p r i n g a s s o o n a s s o m e o f my c a t t l e a r e i n o r d e r to. d i s p o s e o f , I w i l l m a k e u p t h e d i f f e r e n c e . Y o u w i l l v e r y m u c h o b l i g e me b y a c c e p t i n g t h i s s u m at p r e s e n t , and I w i l l be p u n c t u a l t o send t h e b a l a n c e e a r l y n e x t summer a s p o s s i b l e , a s , i f I l o s e my l a n d , m y s e l f a n d f a m i l y w i l l b e u t t e r l y ruined. A n d I f e a r I w i l l n e v e r a g a i n r e g a i n my loss.18 Very  often  people up  no  s t i l l  the  utter  the balances owed  payments  $55,706  Breton  never  paid.  on t h e i r  land.  entirely,  hopelessness  effort  were  of being  while able  at a l l , putting their  surveyor,  in  "the  In  others,  t o make faith,  exertions  1867,  2,075  Many h a d  given  faced  with  "the  t h e payments,"  according of  made.  t o one Cape  their  political 20  friends  to free  Such passed  pressure  reducing 21  period. December  them  from soon  the  Provided 1871,  any payments began  price  the  to tell.  o f Crown  land  the settler  200  paid  whatever." I n 1870 a n A c t was land  for  was  purchased  only  20 c e n t s  a  limited  before an  acre,  31 a  considerable After  that  date,  30  cents  1872,  thereafter. a  reduction  large  1872,  trade  of not  depression  number  of  grants  new  began  to  grants  outstanding.  Island  Cape  of  as  Yet  remained  Breton"  cents  44  of  first  made  the  25  out  to  have  1872,  hold  plummeted  as  on and  cents  1870  and  Crown  Lands  world-wide Breton,  the  considerable  "Of  the  large  sum  wrote  the  Attorney  ...  in  for  the  Cape  cents  worked  between of  cents.  44  and  Department  after take  1874,  in  at  were  a s many 22  price  progressively:  appears  6.3).  (Fig.  regular  rose 35  tactic  number  the  price  1873,  in  This  although  expected  the  on  due  General  sums  in  the  1879,  in  i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o make s p e e d y c o l l e c t i o n ; the c l a i m s are mostly of long s t a n d i n g t h e s e t t l e r s who owe these arrears are, i n v e r y , many c a s e s , p o o r , a n d i n n u m e r o u s i n s t a n c e s the o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a n t s have d i e d a n d l e f t w i d o w s a n d c h i l d r e n who occupy the l a n d , b u t o f whom i t i s u s e l e s s t o s e e k m o n e y . 2 3 That  y e a r 'another  take  out  grants.  18 8 0 ,  land  could  be  combined induce the  attempt  that  had  occupied  been  20  purchased  for  with  "energetic  the  the  settlers  occupation  was  to  reduced 26  further year.  regulations  were  settler  had  who  to  the  to  an  acre.  efforts  surge  introduced  201  This  the  the the  and  Act  than  in  5  years  used  and  to of  grants  length  was  f o l l o w i n g year  f o r more  May  provisions  th.e A c t  to  reduction  on  lapsed  1  15  were  restriction  years  land  before than  which of  squatters  in applications  the 2  paid  f o r more 24  themselves  After  occupied  encourage  m o n e y was  cents  avail  Act"  a  made  Provided  led to another 25 (Fig.6.3). In 1880,  for  was  of  extended  1881, whereby years,  new any paid  Acres  Numbers  "1 1850  1  '  1  '  I —i—•—•—|—•—i—•—i—|—i—i—»—i—|—i—i—•—• | • i—i—i—| i i 1855 1860 1865 1870 1875 1880 1  i—i—|—i—i—<—i—(-0 1885 1890  Years  Figure  Data  6.3  from  Number a n d a c r e a g e o f Crown Cape B r e t o n , 1850-1890. Journals  o f t h e House  202  Land  o f Assembly  Grants  o f Nova  on  Scotia.  27 only  20  cents  inducements numbers As  and  only  some  incident 28  Cape  farmers markets  domestic  concentrated  Island  from  oats,  lard, to  (Fig.6.3). i n  for their their  1887, the  lands  when  holdings  i n  even  i n the  early  o f much  sale  limited  settlers. Baddeck,  i n North 30  while  and s a l t e d  the fishery beef  o f Canso  and pork. supplied 203  to  Port  of  or f o r  settlers  the  towns,  urban  Cove  of  still  an o u t l e t  t h e American  some dairy  also  shipment  In addition,  Port  comprised  and  the  market,  Hawkesbury,  were  late  producers.  quantities  as Broad  fertile  from  the  villages,  provided  of  American  Cattle  Sydney  Backland  and,  The  and absorbed 29  a s f a r away  market.  the Straits  from  and v e g e t a b l e s .  places  shortage  produce,  and t h e mining  i n 1891,  oats,  a growing  still  backland  people  for  was  at Arichat,  Newfoundland and  the  slowly,  of the continuing poverty  competition  the Sydneys,  overland  puts  very  of squatting,  for their  market  and  produce,  or grant  small  admitted  accomplished  which  faced  increasing  17,000  Lands  land,  Markets  small  Hood,  remained  of  special  Breton.  Island  fishery,  Crown  happens  a l l these  of the price  year  the patent  a measure  Agricultural  The  of  The p r e v a l e n c e  was  1860 ' s ,  each  " i s being  seeking  jeopardy." 1890 ' s ,  issued  of land  people  But despite  lowering  Commissioner  granting  land,  the  of grants  the  rural  an a c r e .  driven  Christmas to  needed  the  hay  f o r butter,  farmers  close  mackerel  fleet  with in  fresh  the  produce  late  swine,  from  the  one  of  Cape  be  Island, 33 dairying.  to  the  -  two  small  fishery  are  and  by  dragging  Breton  farmers  competed  prices,"  the  produce  from  Island, the  with  Western  cattle  east,  largely  milk,  local  and  end  beef  of from  beef  with  the  1893,  sector  the  complaining for  industry dying  204  is  their  Cape  for  of  that  were  a l l ,  the  regional  Cape  the Breton  reported  that  markets  are  local  products;  languishing 34 existence."  in  squeeze  observer  on  Breton  them  increasing to  one  farmers  A l l in  combined  was  specialise  insulated markets  was  raising  forcing to  population.  and  In  a  Pierre sheep,  After  of  St.  butter,  Edward  low  commercial  out  Prince  1890  in  unimportant  that  with  By  agriculture  everywhere  markets  and  p r i n c i p a l a g r i c u l t u r a l exports  urban  economy.  Cape  competition  West  of  cattle,  they  distance and  restricted  consequence,  1865,  others  the  agricultural  island  mackerel  John's,  Newfoundland.  The  butter  of  small  in  Although  specialisation  too  on  paralized  like  American  "farmers  the  6.3).  from  disastrous.  the  already  War 32  Breton's  "to  opening  these  Scotia,  West.  particularly  limited  of  St.  of  (Table  in  Valley  Civil  American  from  Nova  Codroy  the  Halifax,  barley  compete  of  American  reported  Island,  and  to  parts  decline  p r i n c i p a l exports  oats,  other  the  the  the  continued  the  186 0 ' s .  Beyond consumed  until 31  a l l  and over  as  a the  Table  6.3  Product  Principal Agricultural S c o t i a , 1864-1865  Year  N.  Nfld.  B'swick  Exports  St.  outside  Pierre  Nova  Othe;  $  $  $  $  1864 1865  106 130  4,044 3,040  20 22  350 202  1864 1865  6,103 320  50,542 33,827  615 200  Cattle  1864 1865  5,916 7,021  37,741 33,812  2,928 1,460  Grain  1864 1865  65 58  366 1,360  24 85  Beef Pork  &  Butter Lard  &  Horses  1864 1865  Potatoes & Turnips  1864 1865  528 888  550 754  92 255  Sheep Swine  1864 1865  1,329 1,045  4,641 6,022  570  Data  &  from Journals  240 4,610  1,200  740 436  of  t h e House o f Assembly  205  o f Nova ;  The  Commercial  Small  markets  commercial farmers  were  at  (Table  least  settlements  along  Apart  Cape  Mabou  Breton  and  Sydney,  half  of  a l l  12  of  cleared These  1871  (11% and  among  agricultural farms. much in an  1871,  herds  farmers  Nevertheless,  of  26  (Fig. with  American  Port than  more  been  cleared  by  acres  of  6.5).  than  200  on  to  at  be  1891.  land  cleared  The  nominal  Along  clearances and  a  competition  206  10  of  acres  of  (Table  6.5).  Island's  main  product cattle,  the more  of  frontland  and  some  Southwest than  few. o w n e d was  River  Breton. the  cash  least  6.6).  acres  Cape  major  than  New  of  100  the  cattle,  towns  more  farms  had  the  had  more  place  Narrows,  (Fig.  in  Boularderie,  Margaree  had  farmers  taken  Southwest  4  and  fishing  Grand  37.6  1891  villages  had  to  these  the  total)  best  In  along  the  export,  average  acres  continued  Most  larger  that  least  close  c l e a r e d by  mining  around  had  land  populated  frontlands at  land  50  was  clearance  At  commercial  market.  land  of  intervales,  good  most  Sydney.  at  and  the  and  had  few  and  of  the  Livestock  the  The  densely  Narrows,  than  shows  land  were  on  occupied  more  the  development  the  local  occupied  County,  North  occupiers  farmers  the  the  on  coast,  important  Madame  Grand  and  some h a d  census  Isle  Island.  the  from  intervale,  Hood,  Individual  of  hamper  concentrated  most  35%  on  Campbellton,  and  the  to  the  frontland along  6.4).  eastern  on  still  Sydneys,  areas,  continued  agriculture  favourable the  Frontlands  100  Margaree acres  3 0-40  putting  had  these  had  animals. farmers  under  severe  pressure.  were  so f a r from  beef  for dairy  and  Victoria  urban  markets  cattle.  Along  Counties,  the  herds  i n 1891  was  there  sufficient  many  farmers  markets,  most  number  o f improved  government  farmers  they  could not  abandon  formed  Faced  bothered  sheep,  t o keep  although  animals.  Like  improved  other  also  the  i n  particularly frontland  had  livestock, such  had been  were  143  Downs,  were  around  were  invested  product  Sydney on still  small; 38  i n a creamery.  t h e ' b u t t e r was  found main  difficult  6.7) at  by  207  farmers  Breton. on  and  farms.  I t  these  500  export, was  a and  areas,  lbs.  These Island  the quality was  but  Cotswolds, 37  1890 no o n e o n t h e  much  60-70  intervale  i n  As a r e s u l t ,  20-30  as  agricultural  least  to control,  and  pure-bred,  o n some  o f farms  (Fig.  average  frontland  Leicesters,  i n e a s t e r n Cape  important  registered  Ayrshires,  were  by  considerable  h a d a s many  few sheep New  small  Flocks averaged  farmers  as  their  imported  there  6.6).  limited  The  a  Island's other  demand  produced  quantities  (Fig.  there,  improve 35  animals.  of  Breton  such  with  intervale  and South  Butter,  farmers  some  strains,  Shropshires,  was  sheep  with to  thorough-breds, mostly Short-Horns, 36 Jerseys. In addition to c a t t l e , most continued  55%  farming;  usually  1892  Inverness  i n e a s t e r n Cape  on t h e I s l a n d  In  of  at least  f o r dairy  scrub  societies^  subsidy.  frontland  Only  demand  were  breeds  agricultural  cattle  farmers  cattle  many  the intervales  to dairying.  frontland  and  that  6.6).  market  switched  few  beef  (Table  stock  the  Moreover,  greasy  of and  39 hardly  f i t f o r consumption.  Most (Table  cleared  6.7).  Margaree, of  l a n d was  At  River  a l l improved  Broad  was  remainder  of the land  potatoes,  turnips,  although  Timothy  and C l o v e r  lime,  and  were  from  frontland  mechanisation.  Many  in  horse-drawn  threshing saving  machinery  29  reapers  mills,  i n labour  was  example,  could  man  tewnty-one  took  agricultural a  as  society'were  horse-rake,  many  as  commercial machines farmers  mower,  farmers  by t h e l a s t helped  with  on  mills  of grass 42  the  123  century  was  individually invested By 1 8 7 1 ,  on t h e I s l a n d .  i n four  from  change  horse-rakes, 41  to  could  on f r o n t l a n d  by  to  a  an  another,  be used  Probably  of the century.  The  whereas  purchased  o n e member  56  mower, f o r  hours,  t h e I s l a n d had access  208  "top-dressed"  A horse-drawn  i n a season.  the harvest  still  grasslands.  society,  As implements  quarter  were  either  o r t h r e s h i n g machine 43  50 f a r m e r s  wheat, f o r farm  productivity.  mowers,  passed  The  mostly  nineteenth  agricultural  considerable.  hours.  1891.  the greatest  farmers,  t o improve  c u t an a c r e  80%  manure.  the late  a n d 528 f a n n i n g  Southwest  spring  techniques over  meadow  at least  i n  grown  to dairying,  and  River  barley,  taken  and s t a b l e  their  and  and t h e grass 40  commercial  i n conjunction with  were  sown,  during  or  there  farming was  and hay  or grass  vegetables,  the d r i f t  farms  and Middle  i n oats,  more c a r e  swamp m u c k ,  Apart on  was  pasture  Northeast  i n pasture  Extensive  common,  with  Cove,  Inhabitants, land  consumption.  i n rough  by  a l l the improved  Fewer  backland  farms,  and t h e  .  Table  County  6.4  Improved  land  District  on  Cape  Breton,  Improved Land %_ o f O c c u p i e d  Inverness P l a i s t e r Cove River Inhabitants North Mountain R i v e r Denys Judique P o r t Hood Mabou W. L a k e A i n s l i e Broad Cove I n t e r v a l e B r o a d Cove D i s t r i c t Margaree Cheticamp Northeast Margaree Young's B r i d g e E. L a k e A i n s l i e Whycocomagh  25.8 21.8 2 4.8 3 2.0 3 7.7 4 8.2 4 3.1 28.5 33.3 36.0 2 6.3 31.1 3 2.3 2 4.3 25.6 31.2  Victoria Grand Narrows L i t t l e Narrows Middle River Baddeck Boularderie New C a m p b e l l t o n E n g l i s h t o w n & N. South Gut North Shore Ingonish Cape N o r t h Bay S t . L a w r e n c e  River  .  209  3 8.6 2 6.9 2 9.5 3 4.3 42.5 4 7.7 2 7.3 26.7 2 2.7 17.5 2 7.4 2 4.9  1891  as a Land  Table  6.4  continued:  %_ o f O c c u p i e d  Cape  Land  Breton  Boularderie N. S y d n e y B a l l ' s Creek Boisdale Grand Narrows E a s t Bay Sydney Forks Bridgeport, Lingan G l a c e Bay Cow B a y Mira Main a Dieu Louisbourg Gabarus L o c h Lomond  41.1 43.9 45.5 26.7 5 3.0 34.7 2 9.1 & 41.1 42.1 25.6 3 5.5 27.6 18.0 2 7.5  Richmond Framboise L o c h Lomond Red I s l a n d s Grand R i v e r L'Ardoise St. Peter's Black River River Inhabitants River Bourgoise D'Escousse & P e t i t Arichat  Data from Census Agriculture.  13.9 19.4 28.0 2 4.3 2 0.0 21.7 25.0 31.8 3 0.2 53.6 18.6  de G r a t  o f Canada,  1891  210  Canada  Dept.  Table  6.5  Southwest  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f i m p r o v e d l a n d and a v e r a g e h o l d i n g s of l i v e s t o c k i n Southwest Margaree and Red I s l a n d s , 1871  Margaree  Improved Acreage  0-25  Horses  Milch Cows  Horned Cattle  Sheep  Swine  36 33%  1.1  3.25  3.8  13.0  2.8  26-50  35 32%  1.6  4.8  5.0  18.0  3.2  51-100  25 23%  1.8  5.9  6.5  23.7  3.5  101+  12 11%  2.7  9.25  16.7  36.0  5.75  0-25  71 78%  1.0  3.1  2.2  8.5  0.8  26-50  20 22%  1.3  4.3  3.1  11.6  1.8  Red  acs.  Farmers  Islands  Data from Census Agriculture.  of Canada,  1871  211  Canada  Dept.  of  Table  6.6  Numbers o f l i v e s t o c k i n s e l e c t e d  District  Broad  Number o f M i l c h Cows  Cove  %  districts,  Number o f Horned C a t t l e  1891  %  681  45.5  812  54.5  N.E.  Margaree  874  43.4  1,142  56.6  S.W.  Margaree  703  39.0  1,101  61.0  Inhabitants  812  43.7  1,044  56.3  743  39.7  1,130  60.3  Boularderie ( V i c t o r i a Co.) Boularderie (Cape B r e t o n Co.) Bridgeport  816  56.2  637  43.8  811  54.5  673.  45.5  195  66.8  97  33.2  Cow  436  63.5  249  36.5  Sydney  191  87.1  28  12.9  Town  275  76.5  84  23.5  R.  Middle  River  Bay  North Sydney Sydney  Forks  666  59.6  449  Sydney  Mines  207  87.0  31  Data from Census Agriculture.  o f Canada,  1891 C a n a d a  212  Dept. o f  40. 4 13.0  Table  6.7  Arable, pasture, d i s t r i c t s , 1891  District  Broad  Cove  and hay  %  Pasture Acreage  Arable Acreage  land  %  i n selected  Hay Acreage  %  2,635  46  3,064  54  1,920  34  N.E.  Margaree  5,067  52  4,611  48  2,965  30  S.W.  Margaree  2,377  43  3,145  57  1,811  33  Inhabitants  2,767  42  3,773  58  2,513  38  4,539  52  4,165  48  3,078  35  3,202 Boularderie ( V i c t o r i a Co.) Boularderie 4,410 (Cape B r e t o n Co. )  35  6,031  65  1,454  16  61  2,851  39  1,272  17  R.  Middle  River  Data from Census Agriculture.  o f Canada  1891, Canada  213  Dept.  of  Figure  6.4  Census  districts  214  on  Cape  Breton,  1891.  Acres  Figure  6.5  Improved  Data from Census Agriculture.  land  o f Canada  on  Cape  1891,  215  Breton, Canada  1891.  Dept.  of  Cattle — — —  4000 2000 1000  Cattle or sheep per occupier More than 10  Figure  6.6  Distribution  Data from t h e Census Agriculture.  of livestock  o f Canada  216  on Cape B r e t o n ,  1891, Canada  Dept.  of  1891  Pounds  Figure  6.7  Distribution of butter B r e t o n , 1891..  Data from Census Agriculture.  of Canada  1891,  217  production  Canada  Dept.  on  of  Cape  wages of  f r o n t l a n d farmers  the  machine.  allowed  the  An  saved  were  used  increasingly  commercial  farmer  to  to  pay  efficient put  off  the  cost  harvest  also  much, m o r e  land  under  grass. With fences on  a  the  forest  separating  settled  never  of as  pushed  fields  appearance  population  density  the  the  grew  i n the  and  river  frontages  (Fig.  but  vernacular was  6.8).  windows  inserted  introduced late  into  1830's,  storey faced  and  was  structure, the  road.  dining-room, bedrooms.  and Like  balloon-frame clapboard. but  some  and  gable  Few  in  the  first  being  the  the  from  the  displayed  the  sub-division  was  or  on  1870  's  Second  218  A  on the  with  Gothic and  now  in  'Maritime  the  century,  with  dormer  'temple'  house,  States  the  rectangular,  two-  hall, first  either trim  or  usually parlour,  floor  Island,  1880 's d i d  Empire  lived  in  a  the  along  neighbours  'temple-front' was  along  numerous  often  common.  construction covered  with  the  of  United  As  subdivided,  between  The  while  houses  i n the  century.  The  built,  groundfloor  kitchen,  houses  were  half  roof.  becoming  other  farmers roofs  nineteenth  distance  i t s gable-end On  taken  f r o n t l a n d farmers 44  Scotia  also  f r o n t l a n d s had  farmhouses.  still  Nova  rail  became more  the  Most  into  and  long-settled seigneuries  and  house, ' b u i l t  post  Although  houses  comfortable  widespread  and  the  late  extreme  Lawrence,  modest  the  increased.  St.  lessened  farms,  settlement as  back  f r o n t l a n d farms  lower  road  and by  and  well  i t  was  shingles  were of or  gingerbread, replace  'mansard'.  hip  •  Figure  6.8  Farm house  H y p o t h e t i c a l p a t t e r n o f f r o n t l a n d and s e t t l e m e n t on Cape B r e t o n .  ? i o.  backland  Although the  combination  still  frontland  of  a  provided a  century.  Take  quarters horned 6  few  of  sheep,  and  year  living a  about  lbs.  i n the 45 $62.50.  early  would  bring  perhaps  80.  Although  oats,  wheat  usually  the size  farmer  would  costing  of  would  manufactured enough The on  good  of  those  Moore miles  need  be  items,  income  few  more  North  over  the  of  West  farm  possession  other  in  f o r 60  land  or  benefitted  southwest  the  to  and  of  1853,  commercial to  local  Sydney  Sydney the  years.  at  100  to  be  about timber  of  $70-  bushels  be  of  purchased, Assuming  children),  Such  per  a the  year,  some  foodstuffs,  farmers  rarely  children. farmers  markets  lived  markets. was  farmer  either Typical  John who  Belcher lived  two  Jacksonville over-looking 47  p r o p e r t y had  220  each  expenditure,  local  Harbour.  Moore's  farm  total  essential  for their  cow,  and  flour  that  third-generation  North  Arm  of  stock.  close  from  least  four  six barrels 46  buy  a  7  1  would  milk,  making  and  (threecows,  o f f the  families.  After  buy  a  most  nineteenth  cattle,  income  at  markets  milch  f l o u r .had  $50.  land  (1823-1897),  and  parents  prosperous  intervale who  produced  seed,  to  sold  $10-20,  of  about  left  were  money,  acres  2 beef  farmer's  grown  late  6  vegetables,  farm  (two  approximately  $20-30  had  six  grass),  butter  outlay  i n the  If  much  t o modest  cleared  sheep.  further a  access  50  and  crops,  rarely  major  family  of  a  such  was  23  were making  family  with  1880 ' s , t h e  Sales of  and  for a  i n pasture  and 50  farm  farmer  them  cattle,  good  farmers  When been  Moore  i n the  grandfather,  took  family's  Adam,  had  come  to  the  emigrating  predominantly  from  Aberdeenshire  time,  settlement  decade  old  and  land  was  an  from  the  80  Its  sandy-loam  t i l l .  Harbour,  principal  management:  when  death,  the  £3 00,  three  received  miles  sisters.  tools  away,  a  that  18 7 1 ,  At  that  pasture  and  12  cattle,  4  easily  200  the  grow,  advantages  purchased valued  £15.  By  this  improved added  date,  50 of 2  at  and  Island's  addition,  George's from  house-hold  independent  family  valued  Personal  £15,  with  father's  and  at  he  River, his  four  property furniture  blacksmith's  i n h e r i t a n c e , Moore,  and  living;  then  30,  i t  was  considerably. a  further  land  horses, 221  coast,  his  In  £50.  worth  acres  hay  the  careful  remainder  £64.14/-,  secure  had  the  above drained  the  after  at  back  across  o u t b u i l d i n g s were 49  woodlot  ran  Combined  was  inherited  and  implements  sheep,  along to  Moore  feet  capital  a  Adam  well  accessible.  acre  worth  acres  stony,  than  good,  and  100  that  area,  1794,  about  after At  more  i n the  Is land . average.  l o t was  Moore  farm.  neat  and  he  destined  barn,  a  relatively  patrimony By 50  of  miles  no  southeast  colony's  Belcher  the  farming worth  the  1790 ' s .  In  moderately  physical  livestock  also  acquired a  acres  £40,  a  five  John  times  That  included  was  l o t , house,  50  Lake,  community  was  people  Pottle's  were  and  800  faced  Sydney  markets  Harbour  available.  With  North  early  lot that  Mines  locational  worth  to  soil 48  Sydney  neighbouring  three  acre  foreshore  than  still  farming  i n the  Sydney  fewer  was  sea-level.  these  around  with  accessible granted  Loyalist  were  70  to  the  32  acres  of  7 milch  cows,  5  improved:  supported and  acres  a  pig.  The  census  home  also  records  that  slaughtered  2  cattle,  or sold  land  consisted  acres  i n potatoes, oats,  arable  component,  towards  livestock.  butter was  the  probably  sent  wheat,  oats,