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Charismatic leadership : effects of leadership style and group productivity on individual adjustment… Howell, Jane Mary 1986

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CHARISMATIC  LEADERSHIP:  E F F E C T S OF LEADERSHIP S T Y L E AND CROUP  PRODUCTIVITY  ON INDIVIDUAL ADJUSTMENT AND PERFORMANCE  By  JANE MARY B.A.,  HOWELL  The University of British Columbia, 1976  M . A . , The University of Western Ontario, 1980  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN P A R T I A L  OF T H E REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR OF  FULFILLMENT  FOR T H E DEGREE OF PHILOSOPHY  in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1986 © Jane Mary Howell, 1986  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  of  University of  British  Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference and study. copying  of  department  this or  thesis by  for scholarly  his  publication of this thesis  or  her  the  requirements  I further agree that permission  purposes  may  representatives.  It  be is  granted  DE-6(3/81)  by the head  understood  Commerce and Business Admi n i s t r a t i on  February 23, 1986  advanced  for extensive  that  for financial gain shall not be allowed without  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  an  that the Library shall make it  permission.  Department of  for  of  my  copying  or  my written  ii  ABSTRACT  The present (charismatic,  study examined  structuring,  and  the effects of three  considerate)  and  two  leadership styles levels  of  group  productivity (high and low) on individuals' adjustment to and performance on an ambiguous decision making task.  One hundred and forty-four Commerce undergraduates participated in a simulated organization (The Mackenzie Institute) which was designed  to assess their  practical business skills.  in-basket  exercise directed by a manager  obstensibly  They completed an  (an experimental  confederate)  who portrayed a charismatic, structuring, or considerate leadership style. Participants individually worked on the exercise in the presence of two other Commerce students (also experimental confederates) who advocated to them  either  subsequently  high  or  low  productivity  on  the  task.  The  participants  completed a questionnaire measuring their adjustment to the  task, the manager, and the two student confederates.  Univariate analyses of variance generally with charismatic leaders adjustment,  had significantly  and adjustment  to the  indicated that individuals  higher task performance,  task  leader when compared to individuals  with considerate or structuring leaders.  The group productivity data indicated that individuals in the high productivity group reported a significantly greater task satisfaction,  lower  role conflict and higher adjustment to the group than individuals in the low productivity group.  Croup  productivity  effect on individual task performance.  norms  had  no  significant  iii  The interaction between leadership style and group productivity revealed that charismatic leadership, regardless of the directionality of group productivity  norms,  produced  high  individual  task  performance,  adjustment, and adjustment to the leader and to the group.  In contrast,  the impact of structuring leadership on individuals' task adjustment modified by group productivity norms:  task  was  individuals who worked with a  structuring leader and in a high productivity group reported higher task satisfaction  and lower role conflict than individuals who worked with a  structuring leader and in a low productivity group. considerate  leader  and  higher task satisfaction  in a high  Individuals with a  productivity group  had  significantly  than those with a considerate leader and in a low  productivity group.  Multivariate analyses of the data revealed a similar pattern of results.  Explanations  and  implications  of  the  directions for future research are presented.  results  are  discussed  and  iv  To CAMERON, for his continual support and encouragement.  V  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Page ABSTRACT  ii  DEDICATION  iv  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  v  LIST  OF  TABLES  LIST  OF  FIGURES  LIST  OF  APPENDICES  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xiv  CHAPTER  I -  S C O P E OF  ix x  THE  STUDY  AND  LITERATURE  REVIEW  Introduction O v e r v i e w of the Present S t u d y Organization of the Dissertation A L i t e r a t u r e Review of L e a d e r s h i p S t y l e Overview T h e o r y a n d R e s e a r c h R e l a t e d to C h a r i s m a t i c L e a d e r s h i p Overview Weber's C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of C h a r i s m a t i c A u t h o r i t y A n Evaluation of Weber's Conceptualization of Charismatic Authority Political Science Views of Charisma Sociological Views of Charisma Situational Circumstances Fostering Charisma T h e E x i s t e n c e a n d D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h a r i s m a in Organizations Psychological Views of Charisma H o u s e ' s T h e o r y of C h a r i s m a t i c L e a d e r s h i p A n O v e r v i e w of the T h e o r y Research Evidence B a s s ' T h e o r y of T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p • A n O v e r v i e w of the T h e o r y Research Evidence T h e o r y a n d R e s e a r c h R e l a t e d to S t r u c t u r i n g a n d C o n s i d e r a t e Leadership Styles The Behavioural Approach T a s k O r i e n t e d and Socioemotional Oriented Leadership Initiating Structure and Consideration The Contingency Approach Fiedler's C o n t i n g e n c y T h e o r y of L e a d e r s h i p House's Path-Goal T h e o r y of Leadership L e a d e r s h i p U n d e r Conditions of S t r e s s  1 5 6 7 7 12 7 14 17 20 25 26 30 32 36 36 37 41 41 45 48 48 49 50 53 53 56 61  vi  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  (continued) Page  A  L i t e r a t u r e Review of C r o u p P r o d u c t i v i t y Overview T h e I n f l u e n c e of t h e Work G r o u p on N e w c o m e r s ' A d j u s t m e n t to t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n Group Norms for Productivity D e t e r m i n a n t s of C o n f o r m i t y to P r o d u c t i v i t y N o r m s Low P r o d u c t i v i t y Norms High Productivity Norms Performance Adjustment Task Adjustment Interpersonal Adjustment D e f i n i t i o n of T e r m s Experimental Hypotheses Main Effects Leadership Style Task Performance and Task Adjustment A d j u s t m e n t to the L e a d e r Croup Productivity Task Performance A d j u s t m e n t to the T a s k a n d to the G r o u p Interaction Effects Leader Charismatic Behaviour and Group Productivity Leader Structuring Behaviour and Group Productivity Leader Considerate Behaviour and Croup Productivity  CHAPTER  II  -  64 64 65 67 68 71 73 74 76 76 78 80 82 83 83 83 86 88 88 88 90 90 90 91  METHOD  Experimental Design A Note on L a b o r a t o r y S t u d i e s Experimental Design Experimental Task Operational Definitions of the Independent V a r i a b l e s Leadership Style Charismatic Style Considerate Style Structuring Style Group Productivity High Productivity Condition Low P r o d u c t i v i t y C o n d i t i o n Experimental Scripts Manipulation Checks Operational Definitions of the Dependent V a r i a b l e s Task Performance Task Adjustment Interpersonal Adjustment  94 94 98 100 102 102 102 106 107 108 110 111 112 112 113 113 117 120  vii  T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S  (continued) Page  Operational Definitions of the Individual  Difference Variables  Need for Achievement Tolerance for Ambiguity Need for Affiliation Experimental Procedure Confederates Selection of Leaders Selection of Co-workers, Secretary, and Interviewer Training Validity Checks on the Confederates' Performances Participants Experimental Setting Experimental Procedure Administration of the Dependent Measures Demand Characteristics CHAPTER  III  121 121 122 123 125 125 125 127 128 130 134 136 137 143 143  - RESULTS  Overview of Statistical Analyses Data Screening Preliminary Analyses Instrumentation for the Independent Variables Instrumentation for the Dependent Variables Task Performance Task Adjustment Interpersonal Adjustment Manipulation Checks Univariate A N O V A s Post Hoc Analyses Leadership Style Group Productivity Leadership Style x Group Productivity MANOVA Discriminant Analysis Leadership Style Group Productivity Leadership Style x Group Productivity Supplemental Analyses Individual Differences Participant Gender Performance of the Optional Task  146 149 152 152 153 154 156 159 160 164 170 170 172 172 176 179 179 183 186 189 189 190 191  viii  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  (continued) Page  CHAPTER  IV  -  DISCUSSION  OF  RESULTS  T e s t s of Hypotheses Based on U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s e s An Overview Leadership Style Task Performance and Task Adjustment A d j u s t m e n t to t h e L e a d e r Group Productivity Task Performance A d j u s t m e n t to the T a s k a n d to the G r o u p Leadership Style x Group Productivity Nonsignificant Results Multivariate Analyses Leadership Style Group Productivity Leadership Style x Group Productivity Supplemental Results Individual Differences Participant Gender P e r f o r m a n c e of the Optional T a s k  CHAPTER  V  -  192 192 194 194 205 213 213 216 219 227 229 234 236 237 239 239 239 240  CONCLUSION  A S u m m a r y of the P r e s e n t S t u d y Implications and Speculations Leadership Style Charismatic Leadership Structuring and Considerate Croup Productivity Validity Issues Internal Validity External Validity Directions for Future Research Concluding Comments  Leadership  241 248 249 249 253 256 257 258 259 261 268  REFERENCES  269  APPENDICES  297  ix  LIST  Table  OF  TABLES  Description  Page  1  Experimental Design  2  O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n of L e a d e r s h i p  3  Operational Definition of C r o u p  4  Experimental Procedure  124  5  Scale C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Means, Standard Deviations and Reliabilities for the Dependent and Individual Difference Measures  161  Pearson Correlation Coefficients for the Measures  162  6  7  Means and  8  Cell Means and Measures  9  10  11  12  13  14  Standard  99  Deviations  Standard  Styles  Productivity  109  Dependent  for the Dependent  Deviations  for the  Measures  165  Dependent 166  A n a l y s e s of V a r i a n c e Summary Measures  Table for the  M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Summary the Dependent Measures Standardized Discriminant Leadership Style  103  Dependent, 167  Table  for 178  Function Coefficients for 180  Roy-Bose Confidence Intervals for Pairwise Comparisons of the Mean S t a n d a r d i z e d Discriminant Scores  182  Standardized Discriminant Croup Productivity  184  Function Coefficients for  Standardized Discriminant Function Coefficients for Leadership Style by Croup Productivity  187  LIST OF FIGURES  Description  Interaction Effect for Leadership Style and Group Productivity on Role Conflict  Interaction Effect for Leadership Style and Croup Productivity on General Satisfaction  Interaction Effect for Leadership Style and Group Productivity on Specific Satisfaction  Typology of the Centroids in Discriminant Space for Leadership Style  Typology of the Centroids in Discriminant Space for Group Productivity  Typology of the Centroids in Discriminant Space for Leadership Style by Group Productivity  xi  LIST  OF  APPENDICES  Appendix  Page  A  The  In-Basket Exercise  297  B  Experimental S c r i p t s for the S e c r e t a r y , Co-Workers and Interviewer  C  Leadership  D  Individual  E  General Satisfaction Scale  352  F  Job Descriptive  354  G  Role A m b i g u i t y  H  Role C o n f l i c t Scale  I  Job  J  A d j u s t m e n t to t h e L e a d e r  K  Group  L  Process  M  Diary  N  Need  O  Tolerance for Ambiguity  P  Need  Q  Summary Tables  386  Q1  Pilot T e s t for Differences Between A c t r e s s 1 and A c t r e s s 2 on the Leadership Style Manipulation C h e c k s  387  Q2  Pilot T e s t Manipulation C h e c k s Style Conditions  for the Leadership  388  Q3  Varimax Rotated Factor Matrix Style Manipulation Checks  for the Leadership  389  Q4  Unrotated Factor Matrix for the Self-Rated P e r f o r m a n c e S c a l e Items  391  Q5  Varimax Rotated Factor Matrix for the Task Performance Dependent Measures  392  Q6  Unrotated Factor Matrix S c a l e Items  393  Q7  U n r o t a t e d Factor M a t r i x for the Role C o n f l i c t S c a l e Items  394  Q8  U n r o t a t e d Factor M a t r i x for the Role Conflict S c a l e Items 2 a n d 4 to 8  395  Leaders,  Style Manipulation Checks Self-Rated  Performance Scale  Index:  Job Satisfaction Subscale  Scale  Index  361 Scale  364  Scale  366 the C o - w o r k e r s  the Participant  for Achievement Scale  for Affiliation  349  356  Measure Completed by  Completed by  345  358  Related Tension  Atmosphere  330  368 374 376  Scale  380  Scale  382  for the Role A m b i g u i t y  XII  LIST  OF  APPENDICES  (continued)  Appendix  Q9  Unrotated Factor Matrix S c a l e Items 4 to 8  for the Role  Conflict  Q10  Unrotated Factor Matrix T e n s i o n S c a l e Items  for the Job  Q11  Varimax Rotated Factor Matrix for the Adjustment Dependent Measures  Q12  Unrotated Factor Matrix t h e L e a d e r S c a l e Items  for the Adjustment  Q13  Unrotated Factor Matrix S c a l e Items  for the C r o u p  Q14  Varimax Rotated Factor Matrix for the Adjustment Dependent Measures  Q15  Student's t Tests for Differences Between Actress 1 a n d A c t r e s s 2 on the L e a d e r s h i p S t y l e Manipulation Checks  Q16  G r o u p Means and Standard Deviations Leadership Style Manipulation Checks  Q17  Manipulation Checks Conditions  Q18  Manipulation Productivity  Q19  A S u m m a r y T a b l e of N e w m a n - K e u l s Post Hoc T e s t s for Significant Leadership Style Main Effects  Q20  A Summary T a b l e of Newman-Keuls for Significant Leadership Style by Productivity Interactions  Post Hoc Croup  Tests  Q21  M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e for the Dependent Measures  Summary  Table  Q22  S t u d e n t ' s t T e s t s for D i f f e r e n c e s Between Male and Female P a r t i c i p a n t s ' P e r c e p t i o n s of the Leadership Styles  Q23  F r e q u e n c y T a b l e f o r P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Compliance With t h e L e a d e r ' s - R e q u e s t to P e r f o r m an O p t i o n a l T a s k  Q24  F r e q u e n c y T a b l e f o r P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Compliance With the L e a d e r ' s R e q u e s t to P e r f o r m an Optional T a s k in the P r e s e n c e of C r o u p P r o d u c t i v i t y E f f e c t s  Related  for the Leadership  C h e c k s for the High Conditions  and  Task to  Atmosphere Interpersonal  for  the  Style Low  Croup  xiii  LIST  OF APPENDICES  (continued)  Appendix  Page  R  Recruitment of Experimental Participants: A Description of the Management T r a i n i n g Project by the Course Co-ordinator  414  S  Photographs  of the Experimental Setting  417  T  Demographic  Data  421  U  Interview  Form  Questions  423  xiv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I time,  wish  to  express  expertise,  and  e x e c u t i o n of t h i s  and  for  appreciation  support  greatly  to  Professor  always  inspiration.  being  Peter's  Peter  special and v e r y  To thesis  Professors  me  to  my  pursue  G.  methodology;  thesis  university  his  Dutton,  doctorate. valuable  me  reassurance,  To the data  through and  Professor  my  in  education,  and  more f u l l y t h e s u b t l e t i e s a n d guiding  to  the  persons,  whose  development  with  the  chairman  encouragement,  of  my  and  To  and  copious  this dissertation experience  was  me.  Gerry  Gorn,  and  Vance  F.  particular. for  To  believing  Gerry,  stimulating  for  Don, in  Mitchell,  my  me a n d  teaching  me  the  i n t r i c a c i e s of e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n .  To  and  thesis  with  to  my  mentor  encouraging  me  programme  comments  as  made  doctoral  thesis  understanding,  each of whom c o n t r i b u t e d in a special way  and  my  Frost,  ensured  meaningful for  Don  programme  throughout  following  time, dedication, creative energies,  committee members,  doctoral  the  contributed  J.  there...  knowledge of the research process very  to  thesis.  Especially, committee,  my  art  of  appreciate Vance,  sage  for  advice,  caring.  Walter  Boldt  for  his  patient and  excellent guidance  analyses.  To Sankar for his competent assistance  in a n a l y z i n g the d a t a .  in  XV  To Training  To their  David  Cawood  for  his  willing  sponsorship  of  the  Management  Project.  my  actors  and  actresses  for  their  dedication  to  the  project  and  p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m in e n a c t i n g t h e i r r o l e s .  To  Shaun  Taunessee  for  his  technical  expertise  and  assistance  in  videotaping.  To  Anna  C u r r i e , Jean  competent p r e p a r a t i o n of the  To B.  the  Industrial  Weinberg  throughout  To Dorothy  my  for  my d o c t o r a l  husband,  Howell,  endeavour.  the  for  Fish,  Betty  Kersey,  and  Ken  Woytaz  for their  manuscript.  Relations Management stimulating  learning  faculty and experience  Professor they  Charles  provided  me  programme.  Cameron their  Spooner,  encouragement  and and  my  parents,  support  John  and  throughout  this  -  1  -  CHAPTER  SCOPE OF  THE  STUDY  AND  I  LITERATURE  REVIEW  Introduction  Charismatic potentially James  and  important  MacCregor  exchange  transcend In  some  point  Search in  for  leaders  example, who  transformational for  their  leaders  excitement.  at  leaders  Trice  helm  and  to  Beyer  institutionalization of charisma  Alcoholics Anonymous and  book  is p r o v i d e d  Leadership  transformational beyond  and  who  for  inspire  In  their  (1984).  (1982) o b s e r v e  that at  companies  present  Performance  leadership  is  Finally,  shape a  Beyond  necessary  to  leaders  Bass  rich  have  had  values,  and  description  organizations: An  in-depth  in t h e  twentieth  (1985),  Expectations, promote  to  selling  the National C o u n c i l on A l c o h o l i s m .  Willner  followers best  purpose,  political  reaching  follower  in h i s  recent  argues  that  performance  the o r d i n a r y ' limits.  The of  by  followers  in two social movement  exploration of the evolution of charismatic century  between  managed  (1984)  as  distinguishes  goals.  instill  emerged  scholars.  Waterman  successfully  the  recently leadership  reward  superordinate  history  have  organizational  of E x c e l l e n c e , Peters and  transformational  of the  transactional  interests  leadership  among  (1978),  objectives and their  book.  concepts  Burns  oriented  established  engender  transformational  pursuit  charismatic  of empirical knowledge  leadership  in  regarding  organizations  may  the be  nature  justified  and  effects  on  several  -  grounds.  First,  organizational to  produce  Beyer,  change  this  their the  represents  who  are  attainment  of  components  creating  new  sets  leaders  1984;  1985;  Schein,  Ulrich,  Peters  Finally, academic  (e.g..  in  be  Jim  Martin  a  fact,  some  organizational  and  strong  Bennis,  as life  a  facet of  (Trice  and  &  beliefs new  devotion  of  advantage  in  1982;  Smircich  the  Bennis  for  1979;  S  expressive  Beyer,  cultures  Pettigrew,  &  Morgan,  and  1984).  their  By  followers,  (e.g.,  Sashkin  received widespread  press.  They  radical,  Luther  Defano in  King)  Roosevelt, military  institutions  organizations  (e.g.,  1985;  have  (e.g.,  been  large and  Moore  £  1982;  &  Fulmer, Tichy  S  Trice & Beyer,  emerged  (e.g..  in in  lacocca, Mary 1984).  change political religious  General  Morgan  the  of social  societal  Castro),  President Lee  attention in  founders  scale  have  Fidel  settings  (e.g..  in business  Bass,  (e.g.,  shape  have  promoting  Jones),  have  &  charismatic  In  and  Trice  1984).  popular  educational  DeLorean)  and  1957;  leaders  Chandi,  to  1984;  change.  for  mechanisms  (1947),  loyalty  need  1983).  1982;  Selznick,  Weber  for  appear  values,  Waterman,  Ulrich,  charismatic  regarded  construct  Franklin  (e.g.,  College), and John  may S  the  &  organizations  success  meanings,  organizations  arenas  Patton),  of  that  organizational  charismatic  Mahatma  mechanism  would  Trice & Beyer,  (e.g.,  spheres  of  literature and  movement  of Max  Zaleznik,  may  1985;  1984;  writings  organizational 1972;  to e x p l o r e all p o s s i b l e Tichy  capture  followers  cultural  need  contend  charisma  Beck,  the  recognition of the critical  1983;  potent  to  Oberg,  Second,  charismatic  a  able  and  1985;  scholars  on  -  increased  (Kanter,  theorists  members  Nanus,  and  Drawing  contemporary leaders  is an  change  1984).  authority  there  2  of  George Antioch  Kay  Ash,  - 3 -  Despite  the  phenomenon  in  empirically.  social  effects  laboratory  or  should  able  be  interaction  in  of  Weiss,  relative  to  leaders  work  of  on  the  followers March  the  16,  and  concept  to  whether  reproduced  have  argued in  1984).  in  the  that  we  the  1981;  dynamic  House,  1977;  Accordingly,  charismatic  dimensions  individuals'  as  elements  of  charismatic  unexplored  (Bass,  impact  the  debate  researchers  researched  behaviours,  and  members  p.107).  "The  goals  strongly  affects  turn,  the  of  the  leadership,  considerate  adjustment  norms  and  and  and  performance  leader-group  a  an  leader  interdependence  (Schriesheim,  d e f i n i t i o n of its t a s k ,  what  goals"  in a social v a c u u m ;  of g r o u p s  group's  leader often has  leadership  assess  does not occur  leaders  of  their  communication,  1979,  context  with  largely  some  some  of  setting.  Leadership  group's  study  a  operationally  several  traditionally  leader  been  captured  to  pervasiveness  remained  has  and  attempted  the  structuring  between  distill  personal  study  be  and  has  simulation,  such  present  in a new  to  it  there  could  a  potency  life,  Although  charismatic  H.  apparent  can  Mowday,  goals,  accomplish  in  impact on g r o u p outcomes  (Bass,  relations  1981, needs  p.429). to  be  and the  by  & Stogdill, paths  to  group.  in  the  its In  influencing  Therefore,  recognized  exists  the  social  analyses  of  several  dimensions  of  drive,  arousal,  effectiveness.  Recent  leadership  leader-group  relations  performance  (Greene  Schriesheim,  1980).  influence  members'  on  literature  context remains  to be  has  including &  cohesiveness,  Schriesheim,  However, attitudes explored.  the and  investigated  1980;  normative  Podsakoff structure  performance  within  & of  Todor, groups  the  and 1985;  and  its  leader-group  _n A  particularly  referent  for  critical  appropriate  productivity.  Groups  types can  objectives  by  advocating  objectives  by  encouraging  on  member  group  impact.  productivity  also examined  Finally, is  norms  in t h i s  one  individual  quantitative Beehr  &  1969;  important outcome Given  the  transitions  organizations considered adjustment group  that  1979;  a  productivity.  normative  the  leader's  against  weakened,  or  adjustment  and  level  aims  these  Further,  both  laboratory  researchers  aspects  Greene,  of  aims  group  of and and  effects  unchanged  by  style  and  performance  performance  Schriesheim,  Mowday,  &  Stogdill,  is  adjustment  levels  of  was  and  mergers  and  performance  1980a;  and  appropriate outcomes  in  to this  studies on  Lowin,  both  An  work  Therefore,  investigation  of  role.  change,  of life in  both  &  equally  of a new  acquisitions,  examine  the  Cilmore,  technological  1984).  of  Hrapchak,  1979).  important aspect  Nicholson,  research  (e.g.,  to t h e demands  mobility,  a prevalent and  Louis,  necessary  labour  field  focused  1977;  individuals'  leadership  and  have  job  in  Katz,  become  behaviour.  a  1979;  (e.g.,  and  productivity or  is t y p i c a l l y e x a m i n e d In  retrenchments,  have  as  especially  with  augmented,  act  study.  interactions,  high  organizational  to  behaviour,  individuals'  qualitative  Richter,  is  the i n t e r a c t i v e i n f l u e n c e of l e a d e r s h i p  performance.  and  Kavanagh,  be  group  concert  work  on  outcome  leader-subordinate  in  work  may  the  work  act  low  Thus  of  of  high  performance  the leader's  role  role  modern it  was  individual leader  and  - 5 -  Overview  The  purpose  leadership  styles  levels of g r o u p productivity) ambiguous  of the  Present  study  charismatic,  productivity  (i.e.,  participants'  decision  following  present  (i.e.,  on  of the  making  was  Study  to e x a m i n e  structuring, low g r o u p  to  and  Specifically,  this  significance  represents  charismatic  a  both  portrayed  The  participants (also  productivity  a  study  group on  an  addressed  the  First,  attempt  to  investigate  the  of  The  the  recognized  experimental task.  to  to  exercise  confederates) At  the  in  (an  or in who  present  social  group  of  context members.  aspects  of  performance.  Business a  assessing  in-basket  experimental  considerate the  of  confederate)  of  two  e i t h e r low o r the  their  exercise  leadership  presence  advocated  conclusion  Administration  project  completed an  manager  structuring,  the  understudied  and  participate  the  phenomenon  including  adjustment,  participants  the  Second,  by  in addition  project  on  setting.  Commerce  recruited  worked  the  threefold.  study.  a charismatic,  on  is  laboratory is  norms facilitate a new organi-  question  interpersonal  skills.  direction  who  students  and  were  business  the  in  present  undergraduates  under  pioneering  life, are examined  the  practical  this  relations  task  organizational  In  of  leadership  leader-follower  Finally,  high  two  question:  The  of  and  three  and  performance  How do l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e a n d g r o u p p r o d u c t i v i t y individuals' adjustment to a n d performance in zational setting?  study  considerate)  productivity  adjustment  task.  and  t h e e f f e c t s of  exercise,  style. other high the  - 6 -  participants  rated  their  adjustment  to  the  task,  the  manager,  and  the  other students.  Organization of the Dissertation  The organization of this dissertation is as follows. Chapter  I  is  composed of  six  sections.  The  first  The remainder of  section  reviews  literature relevant to charismatic, structuring, and considerate styles.  The group productivity  high group outlines  productivity  the  use  of  outcome measures. task  and  definitions  qualitative  and  examined. The  quantitative  task  third  and  section  performance  as  In the fourth section, two components of adjustment -  interpersonal of  leadership  dimension - low group productivity  - is subsequently  the  the  terms  -  are used  described. in  the  The  study.  fifth In  section  the  sixth  presents section,  hypotheses concerning leadership style and group productivity are deduced from the previously reviewed theories and empirical research.  Chapter II outlines the experimental design and procedure. of  the  results  study in  are  light  described of  in  previous  Chapter research.  regarding the study's findings, validity research are presented in Chapter V .  III.  Chapter Implications  IV and  Findings  discusses  the  speculations  issues, and directions for  future  -  A  LITERATURE  7  REVIEW  -  OF  LEADERSHIP  STYLE  Overview  The  study  (Bass,  1981;  provide  a  this  of  organizational  Chemers,  contextual  study,  1984;  leadership Hunt,  understanding  the evolution  has  1984;  of  the  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  evolved  Yukl, leader  over  1981).  many In  behaviours  leadership  years  order  to  examined  in  approaches  is  briefly  traced.  The  earliest leadership  concerned leaders  with  and  leaders  the  echelons  echelons  (Chemers,  While major r e v i e w s certain  salient  (e.g.,  Gibb,  (1979,  p.349)  and  recognized  to  Zaccaro,  &  1959; that  leadership and  that  leadership  Baetz,  the  several  relevant  variability  approaches  their  personality 1983).  behaviour traits  in  that and  as  It  1979;  traits  Stogdill,  (Kenny  knowledge.  perceive  1983;  may  producing  leader  be  or  lower 1974). that  leadership and  Baetz  consistently  high  dominance,  self  recent  situations  variations  accordingly  1948,  House  More  group  at  the premise  1974),  £ Zaccaro,  leaders,  for effective  showed  between  to t h o s e  intelligence,  of  primarily  discriminated  compared  1948,  was  ineffective  essential  including  task  traits.  f a i l e d to s u b s t a n t i a t e  Stogdill,  a b i l i t y to a c c u r a t e l y  adjust  traditional  House  Mann,  observed  energy,  leaders'  leaders  in t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  1984;  1969;  confidence,  Thus  effective  on  traits  leader characteristics were  with  different  focused  of  of trait research  associations  have  identification  nonleaders,  at h i g h  approach  writings  necessitates  Schneider, in  more  group  situations  important  effectiveness  1985).  than  (Kenny  &  - 8 -  When  it became  evident  that  personality  characteristics  behavioural  c o r r e l a t e s of e f f e c t i v e  leadership leader  group  behaviour:  concern  for  facilitation, In a widely  and  leader  of  of  related  review  behaviour  stable  University which  an  contingency desired  reflected use  s t r u c t u r e which (e.g.,  patterns  and  group  style  them  contingency  of  dissatisfaction  or  behaviour by  can  altering  compatible  with  theory.  House's  a  theory,  and  contingency  paradigm  the  however,  this paradigm. sterile;  it  is  researchers  &  of  goal  1962). between  as p r o d u c t i v i t y  approach,  T h e s e models s u g g e s t by  adopting  in the  the  work  theory,  Blanchard's  that  appropriate  environment Fiedler's  Vroom  and  to  (1967) Yetton's  (1977) situational  (1981) multiple l i n k a g e model of l e a d e r s h i p  has  been  the  models.  dominant  approach  p.114).  have increasingly questioned  incomplete  Peters,  behavioural  leadership style.  Some a r g u e that the p a r a d i g m an  directives,  relationship  l e a d e r s h i p r e s e a r c h e r s s i n c e the late 1960s ( H u n t , 1984, years,  dimensions  two-way  e f f e c t i v e n e s s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of c u r r e n t c o n t i n g e n c y  The  the  participative  the  (1971) path-goal  Yukl's  by  ( K o r m a n , 1966).  with  H e r s e y and  the  warmth,  outcomes s u c h  elicited  particular  two  Fleishman  contingencies  (1973) n o r m a t i v e d e c i s i o n t h e o r y , leadership  be  explored  conducted  reflected  of s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g  invariant  interpersonal  of  l e a d e r s h i p models were d e v e l o p e d .  subordinate  leadership make  outgrowth  Studies  identified  and  feedback  situationally  researchers  leadership.  s a t i s f a c t i o n , mixed r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d  As  and  leaders,  subordinates,  initiation  task  cited  State  consideration  and  and  identified  Ohio  feelings  communication  these  at  no  among  In r e c e n t  the a d e q u a c y  is r e d u c t i o n i s t i c , s t a t i c ,  representation  of  the  numerous  of and  other  - 9 -  components  of  Mintzberg 1978)  (1973),  the  the  leadership Weick  have o b s e r v e d ,  complexity, by  the  and  wider  myths a n d 1978).  (1978)  the  task  technology,  predictive  of  in  Moreover,  permeate the the  terms  Mitroff,  which  and  so  they on,  1978;  and  are  individual  Vaill, variety,  including  as &  concern  As  influenced  well  (McCall  model  by  operate, as  organization  group  1978).  is c h a r a c t e r i z e d  contingency  of  Lombardo,  leaders' a c t i o n s  within  unions  &  (e.g.,  leadership  labour  c r i t i c i s m s of  accuracy  (McCall  others  context  traditions which  Other  and  fragmentation.  environmental  economy,  process  by  the  Lombardo,  its v a r i a b l e  outcomes  (Hunt,  1984).  In  response  organizational increasing involving  leadership  oscillating  Fulk  1981).  The  &  of  reciprocal  1977;  (e.g.,  exchange  reinforcement subordinates  reinforcement  proposed.  leadership of  1984;  is  Wofford  linkage  This  theory  theory  of  1977).  These  leadership  in  responses  avoid  developed  George Graen  Graen  the  Ford,  in  leader's  operant Scott,  structures such  to stimuli in o r d e r consequences  This  1977;  leader  environment  the  and  Cashman,  subordinates.  £  influence  & Wolf,  develop different  Mawhinney  undesirable  followers  &  reflected  that  is  process  Zahn  is f u r t h e r  work  (Sims, 1977).  by  leaders  different  there  and  1983;  & Haga, 1975; that  studying  influence  leaders  Srinivasan,  responses  subsequently  contingencies  6  to  example,  reciprocal  propose  the  in a p p r o p r i a t e or  (e.g.,  theories  contingencies engage  with  For  between  suggests  relationships notion  a  interaction  Dansereau, Graen,  consequences  Subordinates'  alternative approaches  been  t h e o r i e s of l e a d e r s h i p  Sims,  desired  that  dyad  exchange  conditioning  have  Cummings,  is i l l u s t r a t i v e .  types  criticisms,  cycles  vertical  associates  1975)  these  recognition  (e.g.,  his  to  (Hunt,  to  that elicit 1984).  a l t e r a t i o n of  - 10 -  Other the  researchers  leader-follower  subordinates Salancik,  to  gain  multiple while  Calder,  to  resource  to  processes,  group  of  1982).  These  both  macro  and  combination  with  from  1975;  and  Cast,  1984;  Stewart,  1982;  to  be  responsive  Similarly, Gast to  mobilize  actions policies,  (1984)  their  are  order  argues  authority  restricted  structural  to  by  and social  limitations,  on.  scholars  generation"  has  focused  (Hunt,  influence (size a n d  on  variables 1984).  model  of  technology),  expanding  Hunt S Osborn,  contingency  environmental  performance  environmental, contextual  focus  superiors,  (e.g..  needs  in l e a d e r s h i p models ( e . g . .  multiple  required  peers,  the  (1984) s u g g e s t s that in  leader  such  of  Conway,  leaders  others,  leadership  micro  (1982)  enable  "second  superior-subordinate  affects  S  organizational so  considered  the  to e x t e n d  embedded  expectations.  influence  Tosi,  Osborn's  is  Leblebici,  role  c o n s t r a i n t s and  contingencies  network  leader  effectiveness,  constituencies'  Another  need  i n s t a n c e , the work of T s u i  reputational  political  the  social  the  Rowland,  For  power  the  which  discretionary actions  personal and  dyad  within  T s u i , 1984).  have recognized  models that  For  and  and  discretionary  leader  such  b e h a v i o u r s to  i n f l u e n c e work  1982;  incorporate  jointly  example.  leadership  the  affect  Hunt  asserts  and that  s t r u c t u r a l complexity  behaviours unit  and  operates  performance  in and  s a t i s f a c t i o n r e l a t e d outcomes.  Despite contingency  these  suggested  leadership  refinements  paradigm,  overlooking  the  a  different perspective,  radically  e s s e n c e of the  some  leadership  and  extensions  scholars  contend  phenomenon  in Hunt's  and  of  the that  current we  h a v e called  (1984) t e r m s , f o r a  are for  paradigm  -  shift.  One  controversial  suggests  that  inference  based  (e.g., &  leadership  Calder,  Dukerich,  and  but  observed  1977;  Lord  outcomes,  levels  of  1977).  romanticized, al.'s  heroic  outcomes 1981).  (e.g..  Smith,  leadership  and  view  leaders  Specifically,  of  several his  Weiner  that  effective  to  have  evolved.  Alexander,  Mahoney  over  a  19  1984;  year  leaders  have a  a  empirical on  high highly  period,  et  evidence  organizational  their  in o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  longitudinal  events  excessively  Weiner  in  organizational factors.  presented  understand  However, Meindl  effects  (1981),  Ehrlich, colleagues  Accordingly,  substantive  6  his to  an  leadership  organizational  ascribe  leaders.  for more v a r i a n c e  (1984)  ambiguous  has  it is  Meindl,  preferences  r e c o n c i l e d with c o n v i n c i n g  and  or  1982;  example, Meindl and  tendency  theory,  construct;  as e v i d e n c e of  McElroy,  and  to  attribution  perceptual  to biased  leadership  Carson,  environmental  associates  hypothesis  can  organizations  accounted  a  influence  that  manufacturing  did  that due  (1985) v i e w s n e e d to be  suggesting  For  indeterminant  and  on  behaviour accepted  individuals have  control  a  & Smith, 1983;  Pfeffer,  causally  based  is e s s e n t i a l l y  (1985) h a v e r e c e n t l y a r g u e d important  -  perspective,  on  1985;  11  S  Mahoney,  study  of  reported  193 that  performance  than  More r e c e n t l y . Smith  data  p o s i t i v e impact  supportive on  of  the  organizational  performance.  The  symbolic a s p e c t s of l e a d e r s h i p are  thrust  in o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  import  of  tations  of  language, leaders  leadership  leadership.  lies  in the  organizational rituals,  develop  drama,  social  events  ability and  stories,  consensus  This  i l l u s t r a t i v e of the o t h e r perspective  to  shape  activities. myths,  around  the  and  suggests  meanings  and  Through other  activities  that  the  interpre-  the  symbolic being  recent  use  of  forms,  undertaken  -  and  produce  1981;  Pondy,  Martin, are  organized 1978;  Pondy,  1^984; S m i r c i c h  especially  through  skilled  their  use  collective  conclude,  incorporates their  Frost,  (e.g.,  Morgan,  in c r e a t i n g a n d  of  evocative  the  &  Pettigrew,  1979;  Pfeffer,  Dandridge,  1983;  Siehl  In p a r t i c u l a r , c h a r i s m a t i c  managing  imagery,  meanings  compelling  as  contingency  of c o n s i d e r a t i o n  has become a r e c o g n i z e d  charisma.  leadership  was  Accordingly,  examined  visions,  approach,  and  research  in t h e  in  the  context  following s e c t i o n s review related  styles and new  work  to c h a r i s m a t i c ,  t h e i r e f f e c t s on  expressive  which  initiating  and entrenched  present  of t h e  d i m e n s i o n s of c o n s i d e r a t e a n d s t r u c t u r i n g leader  The  leaders  in o r g a n i z a t i o n s  view  or  of o r g a n i -  perspectives  study,  charismatic  traditionally  researched  behaviour.  the theoretical s t r u c t u r i n g , and  individual  often  structure  zational l e a d e r s h i p a n d o f f e r s a point of comparison f o r newer such  &  skills.  traditional  the d i m e n s i o n s  analogues,  action  S M o r g a n , 1982).  language, and dramaturgical  To  -  12  performance  literature  and  considerate in a n d  empirical leadership  adjustment  to a  setting.  T h e o r y a n d R e s e a r c h Related  to C h a r i s m a t i c  Leadership  Overview  A  r e c e n t a n d often repeated  researchers  have focused  theme  in t h e l e a d e r s h i p l i t e r a t u r e is that  on the more mundane, r e a d i l y o b s e r v a b l e  leader-  -  subordinate to be &  r e l a t i o n s and  13  -  have ignored  the  seen in the c h a r i s m a t i c movers and  Bass,  1978;  1985;  Tosi,  Bass,  1981,  1982).  academic l i t e r a t u r e and  popular  Dubin,  finds  press  aspects  s h a k e r s of o u r  p.609, 1985;  C e r t a i n l y one  profound  1979;  copious  of l e a d e r s h i p  time ( e . g . , McCall  &  references  to the p e r v a s i v e  Lombardo,  in  both  in s o c i e t y .  scholarly  p r e c i s e a p p l i c a t i o n of the  of  charisma  (Tucker,  emerged  on  1970).  Moreover  i n d i s c r i m i n a n t l y a p p l i e d to any possesses personal  charm.  the  individual  Such  the who  To  term  the  i n f l u e n c e of c h a r i s -  matic l e a d e r s in formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o n s e n s u s has  Avolio  date,  however,  charisma  is immensely  concept  has  popular  e r r o n e o u s a p p l i c a t i o n of the  no  been or  term  who  serves  to d i l u t e its p o t e n t i a l , to o b s c u r e its meaning, and  to d e b a s e its powerful  effects  paucity  (Apter,  1968).  t h e o r e t i c a l work and has its  been  examined  function  In  addition,  empirical s t u d i e s on as  and  political  p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n s and  into  the  empirical  the  nature  dissertation  is  organizational  from  can  examination  to p r o v i d e  the  the  of  r e l e v a n t t h e o r e t i c a l and science and seminal  sociology.  ideas  on  of  leaders  However, in o r d e r discussion  be  and  the  has  from  been  and  Charisma  social  change;  explored;  existing  disciplines. behaviour  from  a  the a p p r o p r i a t e  psychological  integrated  and  its  discussed.  fractionated inquiries, insights  gleaned  several different  charismatic  of  p s y c h o a n a l y t i c o r i g i n s h a v e been  of c h a r i s m a  the  a  charismatic leadership.  spheres  definitional ambiguity  literature  is  a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r in h i s t o r i c a l  in r e l i g i o u s  Despite  there  view,  and  theoretical  The  t h r u s t of this  effects  psychological background  of  intra-  perspective.  and  it is n e c e s s a r y  and  to  context  for  review  the  empirical l i t e r a t u r e from the d i s c i p l i n e s of political A  fruitful beginning  charismatic  authority.  f o r t h i s review is Max Accordingly,  these  Weber's  ideas  are  _ 14  presented  and  evaluated  below.  r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e s will be  Subsequently,  for  Weber's c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  most  writers  writing. The three  an  examination  concerned  with  T h e o r y of Social and  of C h a r i s m a t i c  of c h a r i s m a s e r v e s charismatic  as the  leadership.  Economic O r g a n i z a t i o n ,  charismatic.  Traditional authority  the  of  immemorial  under  legal  on  patterns under  of  tradition  rules  flows  impersonal  and  or  of  to  from  issue  stable.  In  qualities.  enacted  position  These or  the  custom  authority,  those  (Weber,  or  dignity,  but  of  classic  postulated legal,  the  the  1947, of  and  status  of  Rational  or  'legality'  of  to  authority  p.328).  Thus  an  office;  it is  authority  breaks  with  and  revolutionary.  followed  special  their  Weber  elevated  i n d i v i d u a l s are  claim  in  dynamic,  their  his  p.328).  occupancy  charismatic  induce,  individuals  1947,  "belief  r i g h t of  it is p e r s o n a l ,  traditional  ( T u c k e r , 1970). A c c o r d i n g  (Weber,  In  e s t a b l i s h e d belief in  legitimacy  established  contrast,  special t r u s t t h e y  unique  them"  s t a r t i n g point  rational or  from "an  the  commands"  traditional  in c h a r i s m a t i c a  an  r u l e s and  rational norms;  Specifically, because  based  normative  such  authority  is  is d e r i v e d  traditions and  those e x e r c i s i n g a u t h o r i t y authority  the  Authority  ideal t y p e s of legitimate a u t h o r i t y : t r a d i t i o n a l ,  sanctity  of  conducted.  Weber's C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  Max  -  powers,  authority  owing  and  to  not  gifts  obeyed  and  their  through of  to Weber (1947, pp.358-359), c h a r i s m a i s :  a c e r t a i n q u a l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y b y v i r t u e of w h i c h he is set a p a r t from o r d i n a r y men and t r e a t e d as endowed with supernatural, s u p e r h u m a n , o r at least s p e c i f i c a l l y exceptional powers o r q u a l i t i e s . T h e s e a r e s u c h as are not a c c e s s i b l e to the  grace  -  15  -  o r d i n a r y p e r s o n , b u t are r e g a r d e d e x e m p l a r y , and on the basis of them t r e a t e d as a leader.  Weber b e l i e v e d that the  rise of c h a r i s m a t i c  at times of c r i s i s in w h i c h the the  society  order  were  fragmented appear  and  to be  basic values,  in q u e s t i o n .  i n c r e a s e s the  as of d i v i n e o r i g i n or as the i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n e d is  A  major  leaders was  most a p p a r e n t  i n s t i t u t i o n s , and  breakdown  legitimacy of  in social  and  political  likelihood that people will feel h e l p l e s s , d i s t u r b e d ,  will t h e r e f o r e e a g e r l y  uniquely  qualified  accept  to lead  the  them  a u t h o r i t y of l e a d e r s  out  T h i s potential f o r s a l v a t i o n from d i s t r e s s c r e a t e s  of t h e i r acute  and who  distress.  the  special emotional i n t e n s i t y of the charismatic response.... Followers respond to the charismatic leader with passionate loyalty b e c a u s e the s a l v a t i o n , or promise of i t , that he a p p e a r s to embody represents the fulfillment of u r g e n t l y felt needs ( T u c k e r , 1970, p.81).  In  particular,  by  espousing  "explosively novel" overcoming as  a transcendent  innovation  ( S h i l s , 1965,  goal,  inspirational  mission,  or  p.199) as p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s f o r  distressful conditions, charismatic  leaders come to be  regarded  saviours.  While qualities necessary  charisma  of  may  be  individuals and  f o r these  partially to  the  i n d i v i d u a l s to  attributed  context be  of  to  their  acknowledged  the  extraordinary  mission, as  it is also  exceptional  following.  What is alone important is how the i n d i v i d u a l is a c t u a l l y r e g a r d e d by those s u b j e c t to c h a r i s m a t i c a u t h o r i t y , by h i s 'followers' or 'disciples', ... It is the r e c o g n i t i o n on the p a r t of those subject to a u t h o r i t y w h i c h is d e c i s i v e f o r the v a l i d i t y of charisma (Weber, 1947, p.359).  by  a  16  -  Consequently  the  sole s o u r c e  lies in the r e g a r d followers' 1970;  Tucker,  leadership  is  of legitimate a u t h o r i t y f o r c h a r i s m a t i c  of t h e i r f o l l o w e r s .  perceptions  of  1970;  and  T h u s charisma is d e f i n e d  responses  Willner,  dependent  -  1984).  upon  to  such  Indeed,  fulfilling,  in  leaders  the a  c h a r i s m a t i c l e a d e r s to p r o v e t h a t they  In  summary,  several  according  interrelated  to  Weber's  components  Rustow,  maintenance  manner, the e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . T h u s t h e r e for  in terms of  (e.g.,  relevant  and  of  crisis;  inspirational  followers  mission  who,  out  willingly  subscribe  repeated  demonstration  is a c o n t i n u a l need  a r e the c h o s e n o n e s .  conception,  charisma  including extraordinary  charisma  1970). leader  is the  It is not to  be  w h i c h o f f e r s the love,  to c h a r i s m a t i c of  consists  personal  that  qualities course  devotion  and  the  and  leader  t h e i r missions; powers  is e s s e n t i a l  in  perceptions is b u t  of  what  fostering  of  in o r d e r  the  the  the  the  enthusiasm, and  leaders'  to  maintain  In a d d i t i o n , Weber s t r e s s e s that the c r u c i a l  response  what  charismatic  of  hope of s a l v a t i o n from  passionate  leaders and  their  t h e i r followers' d e v o t i o n . of  of  their  acceptable  of l e a d e r s ; a social c r i s i s or s i t u a t i o n of d i s t r e s s ; a t r a n s c e n d e n t action or  leaders  followers  test  (Tucker,  followers p e r c e i v e charismatic  the  relationship  (Willner, 1984).  Weber (1947, p.364) a c k n o w l e d g e s that " i f [ c h a r i s m a ] is not to remain a  purely  transitory  phenomenon,  p e r m a n e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p forming character through attributed  of the to  charismatic process an  of  office,  but  to  take  on  the  character  a stable community.. . i t is n e c e s s a r y  authority  to  become  routinization, lineage,  or  radically  charisma  clan.  Charisma  is no  a  f o r the  changed".  becomes  of  Thus,  modified  and  longer  pure  - 17 -  charisma  in the  extraordinary authority  and  sense d i s c u s s e d  purely  s t r u c t u r e that  charismatic the  original  qualities  personal  is no  in the  established  traditional  domination, (Bensman  which,  in the  £ Civant,  An  or  1975,  in  the  leader  "provides  the  rational-legal of  relevance  of  science,  its power  charisma cited  religious,  situations.  Others,  to c o n t e m p o r a r y  in T u c k e r ,  restrictive  (1961) c o n t e n d s  secular and Tucker  1970).  social For  interpretation  has  social s i t u a t i o n s .  life  of  a transcendent  argued  for  device have  (e.g.,  psychological,  for  analyzing  Friedrich,  Since  the  call b y  a divine  of the  term  to  has term  being, include  However,  secularization  power in a n a l y z i n g  the 1961;  (1961)  is i n a p p r o p r i a t e . the  scholars  questioned  Friedrich  charisma.  that Weber's b r o a d e n i n g  persuasively  a  example,  c o n c e p t of c h a r i s m a c i t i n g its g r e a t e x p l a n a t o r y and  as  considerable  (1970), some  however,  n o n t r a n s c e n d e n t t y p e s of c a l l i n g s  (1970)  of  of  sociological,  to T u c k e r  potentiality  o r i g i n a l l y meant l e a d e r s h i p b a s e d on Friedrich  for newly  conservative"  a u t h o r i t y h a v e stimulated  or  leadership  Thus  systems  charismatic  impressed  historical  and  Authority  are  a  legitimacy  hierarchies  personal  p.91).  Charismatic  According  for  basis and  1970,  an  established  upon  r o u t i n i z a t i o n , become  organizational literatures.  argued  (Tucker,  from  p.580).  political  with  an  necessarily dependent  and  Lowenstein,  into  E v a l u a t i o n of Weber's C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  Weber's w r i t i n g s on discussion  longer  process  it is t r a n s f o r m e d  relationship  incumbent  r o u t i n i z a t i o n of c h a r i s m a  above;  of  the  political  -  -  18  O t h e r c r i t i c s of Weber's c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of charisma point to the of c l a r i t y of the term and in  practice  Two  (e.g.,  Madsen  &  difficulty Snow,  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d c r i t i c i s m s are  basis  of  between  Weber's leaders  (Ratnam, 1964; provided  no  Tucker, leaves  various who  1983;  Tucker,  are  1970).  1970;  it  is  charismatic  difficult  and  Thus  leaders  the  and  Another  Weberian  of c h a r i s m a arise.  criticism  to modern  Several  Friedland, specify  1964;  the  example,  Blau  the  movements to i n c r e a s i n g historical  (e.g.,  conditions  p.309)  conditions  Apter,  states  historical  that  give  that  does not to  Weber  (Ratnam, of  1964;  charisma  t h e y become so  which  from  i n c l u d e an  charismatic  may  Dow,  1969;  adequately  authority.  theory  lead  concept  charisma  1963;  charismatic  that  not  leaders  a p p l i c a t i o n of the  Weber's  processes  rise  how  Blau,  of  that  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and  are  that Weber d i d not  genesis  the  so.  under  1968;  have argued  f o s t e r i n g the  (1963, only  contemporary  s o c i e t y is the  Willner, 1984)  elements  "encompasses  of the  scholars  who  conceptualization  what it is e x a c t l y that makes them  key  on  q u a l i t i e s in c h a r i s m a t i c  some d o u b t as to w h i c h l e a d e r s are c h a r i s m a t i c ,  designated,  First,  Second, critics have o b s e r v e d personal  1984).  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  special emotional b o n d with t h e i r followers  p.732).  a p p l y i n g it  Willner,  of p a r t i c u l a r importance.  c l e a r statement of the  1970,  in o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g and  formulations,  really  Tucker,  w h i c h c r e a t e the  the  the  lack  of  For  charisma charismatic  a n a l y s i s of  eruptions  in  the  social s t r u c t u r e . "  A that  f u r t h e r and  charismatic  rationalized,  or  very  fundamental c r i t i c i s m c o n c e r n s Weber's p r o p o s i t i o n  authority a  ultimately  combination  of  becomes  both"  "either  (Weber,  1947,  traditionalized p.364).  or  Many  -  contemporary argue  that  sociologists,  charismatic  organizations 1978;  (e.g.,  Oberg,  particular,  Edward  emphasizing  the  psychologists,  leadership  Dow,  1972;  -  19  1969;  Parsons,  can  and  and  Etzioni, 1937;  does  1961;  C o n c e r n i n g Weber, he  in  charisma  1965; the  that  exist  in  behaviourists  formal  House, 1977;  Shils,  S h i l s attempts to r e f o c u s  elements  organizational  complex  Katz  Tucker,  £  Kahn,  1970).  In  d i s c u s s i o n of c h a r i s m a  link  it to  established  by  orders.  argues:  He did not consider the more widely dispersed, unintense o p e r a t i o n of the c h a r i s m a t i c element in c o r p o r a t e b o d i e s g o v e r n e d by the r a t i o n a l - l e g a l t y p e of a u t h o r i t y . . . .Weber had a pron o u n c e d t e n d e n c y to s e g r e g a t e the object of a t t r i b u t e d c h a r i s m a , to see it almost e x c l u s i v e l y in its most c o n c e n t r a t e d a n d intense forms, and to d i s r e g a r d the p o s s i b i l i t y of its d i s p e r s e d and attenuated existence. He t e n d e d indeed to d e n y the p o s s i b i l i t y that c h a r i s m a can become an i n t e g r a l element in the p r o c e s s o f s e c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n ( S h i l s , 1965, p.202).  Thus  Shils  izations  suggests  but  may  This  contention  that  charismatic  in has  refined,  emerge  -  theoretically  political and  exists  writings,  modified  authority.  In  is not in  supported  R o b e r t s , 1984;  Weber's initial  charismatic  reviewed.  fact  authority  elaborated,  literature  charisma  been  A v o l i o £ B a s s , 1985;  Since  that  and,  the  science,  any  type  by in  confined of  to c h a r i s m a t i c organizational  empirical  evidence  bureaucratic  organsetting.  demonstrating  organizations  (e.g.,  S c o t t , 1978).  scholars  from  in some cases,  following  the  and  disciplines  challenged  sections three  sociology,  e m p i r i c a l l y examined  several  charismatic  his views  different  psychology  have  -  bodies  which  phenomenon  on of  have  will  be  - 20 -  Political S c i e n c e V i e w s of  The  investigation  science  of  p e r s p e c t i v e has  example,  the  the  charismatic  proceeded  concept  of  of  charisma  has  in  been  has  totalitarian invoked  political d e v e l o p m e n t in ex-colonial new 1970;  Willner  &  Willner,  historical  tracing  transition  from  of  the  colonial  modern s o c i e t y .  1965).  ruled  Lenin  leader  More  founder  recently,  consequences  and  Schweitzer of  as  political  components  of  routinization structural among  twentieth  sought  disruptive  (1983)  youth, and  have  charisma  denial  of  nationalism a n d focused  based  on  the  on  the  case  independent  been a p p l i e d in (1970) s t u d y  revolutionary  to e x p l a i n  leadership  the  under  of  movement. causes  two  and  different  dictatorship.  have  For  century  has  in T u c k e r ' s  has  five  Rustow,  analyses  to politically  of c h a r i s m a  illustrated  formulation  isolated  these  and  the  (1984)  charisma.  model,  34  following,  of  modernization  charismatic leaders d u r i n g society  charismatic  in  the  Bolshevik  scientists  Weber's  applied  is  the  political s y s t e m s - d e m o c r a c y a n d  Other  of  For  S p e c i f i c a l l y , Weber's of  of  of  successful  political  directions.  fruitfully  regimes.  thrust  In a d d i t i o n , the c o n c e p t regimes  been  a  states ( e . g . , A p t e r , 1968;  traditional  analyses of totalitarian as  role  from  different  in a n a l y s e s  The  critical  phenomenon  several  charisma  examinations of post-colonial a n d notion  Charisma  systematically such  as  example.  situational heads  leader's  of J u a n  in  Cell  state: access  nationalistic stages  situational  factors  of  national  and  the  social  Madsen of  a  the social  f o r charisma  following,  process  and  using  to a c c o u n t  to  specific  events  (1974),  movements.  the  Peron  investigated  crisis, prepower  and  Snow  routinization  Peronist  of  movement in  - 21 -  Argentina.  Two  charismatic  stages  leader and  in  the  evolution  bond  between  1.  The  2.  T h e d i s p e r s i o n of a mass c h a r i s m a t i c r e s p o n s e a c r o s s s t r u c t u r e and its h i g h e r level p e r s o n n e l .  charismatic twentieth of two  d e v e l o p m e n t of a s t r u c t u r e within the movement  phenomenon  century  political  as  utilizing  rich  between  two  i n q u i r y is i n - d e p t h  charismatic  illustrations.  scientists:  Of  the  t y p e s of l e a d e r s :  political  and that  analyses  of  leaders  in  p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t is the  James M a c G r e g o r  his i n c i s i v e a n a l y s i s of political  B u r n s and  leadership,  Burns  t r a n s a c t i o n a l and  actional political l e a d e r s " a p p r o a c h followers with thing  the  h i s / h e r mass following were i d e n t i f i e d :  A n o t h e r t h r u s t of political s c i e n c e  In  of  Ann  Ruth  the work  Willner.  (1978) d i s t i n g u i s h e s  transformational. an  the  eye  Trans-  to e x c h a n g i n g  one  f o r a n o t h e r : jobs f o r v o t e s , or s u b s i d i e s for campaign c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  S u c h t r a n s a c t i o n s c o m p r i s e the b u l k followers, p.4).  e s p e c i a l l y in g r o u p s ,  Thus  the  relationship  followers is e n t r e n c h e d exchange scribed;  pursue  their  be  met  provided.  As  occurred,  it is not  mutual and  related as  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among leaders  legislatures, between  in a b a r g a i n i n g  it is maintained  follower can  of the  as  process  the  parties"  transactional  purposes.  long  and  (Burns,  leaders  and 1978,  and  their  w h e r e i n both p a r t i e s to the  This  relationship  respective  needs  of  is  circum-  leader  and  t h r o u g h a r e c i p r o c a l e x c h a n g e of r e w a r d s f o r s e r v i c e s  Burns  continuing  (1978, one  p.20)  that  observes,  "binds  leader  p u r s u i t of a h i g h e r  while and  a  leadership  follower  purpose".  act  together  has in  a  -  In c o n t r a s t the  higher  leader  values  that  (Burns,  encompass  1978,  transcend  their  for potential motives  into l e a d e r s and  transformational followers  p. 42).  more  may  leaders  posits that  in f o l l o w e r s ,  followers'  self i n t e r e s t s a n d  are  convert  appeal  fundamental  Accordingly,  immediate  (1978, p.4)  seeks The  is a r e l a t i o n s h i p of mutual stimulation  followers  Therefore  Burns  e n g a g e s the full p e r s o n of the follower.  leadership  e l e v a t i o n that c o n v e r t s agents".  "looks  n e e d s , and  r e s u l t of t r a n s f o r m i n g  moral  -  to t r a n s a c t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p .  transformational  to s a t i s f y  22  and  goals focused  to  and  leaders  into  higher  order  enduring  needs  and on  aspirations the  collective  origins and  develop-  purpose.  A ment  comprehensive of  Willner point  charismatic (1984)  of  in  selected  Castro,  her  the to  she  The  purpose  doctrines, and  charismatic  offer  Mussolini,  attributes and of  messages, vision  a p p e a l s and  catalyze charisma.  initiator  a  charismatic  f o r the  perceptions.  which foster charismatically oriented  Four  and  and  a  leaders  phenomenon: Khomeini.  restore  psychic of  followers' s u s c e p t i b i l i t y  to  nor  a combination  presentation, catalytic  can  factors  a  In  sense  necessary  impressions.  as  by  political  political  charismatic  which  through  mode of p u b l i c  charismatic  Sukarno,  neither  leader,  work  that social c r i s i s and  missions future;  of  presented  Weber's  charismatic  Roosevelt,  or  recently  Using  genesis  Seven  domination are  and  been  it is a r g u e d  of the  R a t h e r , the  actions  the  explanation  c o n t r a s t to Weber's f o r m u l a t i o n , distress;  on  century.  the  has  Spellbinders.  focuses  twentieth  Hitler,  a n a l y s i s of the  leadership  book  illustrate  Gandhi,  insightful  political  departure,  leadership are  in  and  sufficient of be are  to  personal an  active  outlined  - 23  First, cultural  charismatic  political  myths that a r e  legendary  heroes,  -  leaders fortuitously  " l i n k e d to its s a c r e d  and  to  triumphs"  (Willner, 1984,  associated  in the  its  hearts  and  In so  agreement  idolized and  charismatic Willner  image  (1984)  perceptions the  Benito  To  a  of major  Mussolini,  for  o b s t a c l e s , and example,  r i g h t s and  his successful handling illustrate,  in  the  Yugoslavian  governments  settlement,  Mussolini  incorporating Yugoslavia  A  Fiume  elements  and  become  illustrious the  memory  independence,  pp.72-74).  precipitating or  which  the  h e r o i c feat.  contribute  to  s u c h as the a p p a r e n t r i s k e n t a i l e d , the  suspense the  surrounding  reputation  act.  r e s t o r e r of Italian h o n o u r and  prestige"  as  dispute the  seemingly as  (Willner, 1984,  between  control  well  of  the  "fearless  the  Italy  and  a  standing  attained  of  the  Italian  Fiume,  an  impossible:  striking  an  p.104). and  Adriatic officially  alliance  with  (Willner, 1984).  third  dimension  of c h a r i s m a t i c  possession  of e x c e p t i o n a l  followers'  perceptions  political  the  such  extraordinary  of  gained  regarding  into  of an  factor  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s  long  leaders  f a t h e r of C u b a n  second  multitude  a c t as e x t r a o r d i n a r y  champion of Italian by  performance  describes  charismatic  d e e d s (Willner, 1984,  the  invoke  ordeals  deliberately invoked  revered  Weber,  is the  of an  existence  with  legendary  minds of t h e i r followers with  t h r o u g h h i s s p e e c h e s , symbols, and  In  and  doing,  c u l t u r a l h e r o e s . F o r example, Fidel C a s t r o of Jose M a r t i , the long  intentionally  f i g u r e s , to its h i s t o r i c a l  historical  p.62).  or  leaders  may  personal  of arise  the from  legitimation is the  attributes.  superhuman leaders'  p r o j e c t i o n of  Willner (1984) a r g u e s endowments  actual  of  manifestation  the  while  charismatic of  specific  - 24  supernatural  attributes,  they  can  notions of s u c h e x t r a o r d i n a r y occur  whereby charismatic  mythical  h e r o e s or who  personal  powers  According a  do  not  notions  leader  of the His  who,  feats may  or  display  and  through  actions, and  ideal  collectively  a  (Willner, 1984,  self confidence; the  to  is the  of  p.129).  of  qualitites,  followers'  of  matches  energy,  accomplishments;  ideals of beliefs  a  superhuman  intellect,  his remarkable  highest  or  best exemplar of  perceptions  qualities  may  historical  a s t y l e of life that closely  personal  contributed  generalized  also be c r e d i t e d with  combination  person, generated  h i s e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n of some of  followers'  become a s s o c i a t e d with  possess  prodigious  composure,  lifestyle  from  T h a t i s , a spillover effect  perform outstanding  they  century  endowments.  and  arise  capabilities.  leaders who  s y n d r o m e of a t t r i b u t e s a n d  stamina,  also  to Willner (1984, p.130) Mahatma G a n d h i  twentieth  cultural  -  Hinduism  in h i s  in  his  outstanding  perceptions  is  outstanding  powers.  The  final  oratorical  factor  skills.  The  charismatic  l e a d e r s can  followers.  According  such  as  promoting  similes,  charismatic  eloquent create to  and  i n c r e d i b l e emotional  Willner  metaphors,  spellbinding  (1984),  and  the  to  attributions associated Delano  charismatic is  the  affect.  invocation  emotions t h r o u g h  Roosevelt,  Of of  particular selected  "in rhetorically  presenting  p.154).  language  and  cadences  in  his  major  employed  on  the  figurative of  by  part  of  language,  rhetorical  devices  alliteration, are strongly  importance  cultural  figurative expressions.  c r u s a d e of the common people a g a i n s t f e a r and Biblical  of  and  related to s o u n d , s u c h as r h y t h m , r e p e t i t i o n , and conducive  fervour  use  analogies,  rhetoric  symbols  For  himself  for  charismatic and  their  instance. Franklin  as  the  leader  want, ... employed addresses"  of  a  elevated  (Willner,  1984,  - 25 -  O v e r a l l , Willner e n r i c h e s  our understanding  o f t h e elements c r i t i c a l to  the c r e a t i o n o f c h a r i s m a t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d p e r c e p t i o n s  o f political  leaders.  recognizing  catalyzing  and  the  followers'  role  charismatically  substantive beyond  active  of  the  oriented  in  perceptions  and  symbolic  means,  Weber's  original  conception  carefully documenting  leader  Willner's of  h e r a n a l y s i s with  through  intensive  charisma.  a  shaping  myriad  analysis In  By  moves  particular,  of us by  examples from t h e c a r e e r s o f noted  charismatic  political h e a d s o f state, t h e complexity  charismatic  phenomenon is f u r t h e r u n d e r s c o r e d .  of the generation  o f the  Sociological V i e w s of C h a r i s m a  From  the  phenomenon  sociological  perspective,  has p r i m a r i l y c e n t r e d  circumstances  fostering charisma  discussion  of  the  charismatic  on two major themes: 1. t h e situational a n d 2. t h e e x i s t e n c e  and distribution of  c h a r i s m a within i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s .  Prior that  to r e v i e w i n g  several  wide  scholars  Utopian  year  data  period,  While  (Kanter,  obtained compared  movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s : Alcoholism.  social  be  underscored  the routinization of charisma movement  organizations  in a  (Trice 6  & A s h , 1966), in liberal a r t s colleges ( C l a r k , 1970), a n d  communities  (1984), u s i n g 20  h a v e also s t u d i e d  variety of settings including  B e y e r , 1984; Zald in  these two major themes, it s h o u l d  1968).  p r i m a r i l y from the  F o r example.  Trice  participant observations  routinization of charisma  in two  A l c o h o l i c s A n o n y m o u s a n d t h e National  the organizations  and  differed  markedly  in t h e i r  Beyer over a social  C o u n c i l on d e g r e e of  - 26 -  routinization, their of  both  respective  their  had  rites  throughout  In  addition.  a n d ceremonials  the organization  perpetuate  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  missions a n d , i n that  founders.  elaborate  created  sense,  strong  t h e charismatic's m i s s i o n .  nineteenth  century  American  to implement  had routinized  the charisma  Alcoholics  to d i f f u s e  and  structure  Anonymous  the charisma  written  Kanter  Utopian  Kanter's  ideological meaning  (1968,  systems  p.514) and  structural  to t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  social s y s t e m .  These  a  moral  of  to t h e  as " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d awe". awe  which  "consists  order  and  t h i s o r d e r a n d meaning  of  give  to t h e  f o r meaning,'  certainty, a n d conviction.. .that  commitment  evaluative  referred  t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s 'need  o f Tightness,  t r a d i t i o n s to  in h e r s t u d y  institutionalized  life a n d attach  developed  of i t s f o u n d e r  oral  communities,  arrangements  not only satisfy  ...but also p r o v i d e a sense promotes  analysis,  and  (1968),  d i s p e r s i o n o f c h a r i s m a t h r o u g h o u t t h e community In  had  and  surrender  to  collective  authority".  S i n c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s into t h e r o u t i n i z a t i o n o f c h a r i s m a a r e not d i r e c t l y relevant  to t h e p r e s e n t  section  will  address  discussion  of charisma,  t h e two major  themes  t h e remainder  occurring  of this  in t h e sociological  literature.  Situational C i r c u m s t a n c e s F o s t e r i n g In a c c o r d a n c e that  charismatic  upheaval (e.g.,  which  Barnes,  with  Charisma  Weber's c o n c e p t i o n , some s c h o l a r s  leaders  have typically  causes  distress  1978; T u c k e r ,  emerged  a n d agitation  1970).  have reported  d u r i n g a period among  F o r example,  a group Barnes  of social o f people  (1978),  in a  historical study of charismatic religious leaders, found they existed d u r i n g  -  an  era  of  beliefs was  In  Dow,  are  to  this  oriented  necessarily 1969;  social  change  in w h i c h  a  new  formulation  of  religious  possible.  contrast  charisma not  radical  -  27  position, others  towards  part  of  the  E i s e n s t a d t , 1968;  F o r example, b a s e d on  social  have  argued  situations,  situation  the  while  the  presence  roots  of  of c r i s i s  is  (e.g.,  Berger,  1963;  Clark,  F r i e d l a n d , 1964;  Ceertz,  1977;  Shils,  empirical data of the f o u n d i n g  u n i o n s in T a n g a n y i k a , F r i e d l a n d (1964, p.25)  1970; 1965).  of political and  trade  observed:  In a n y social s i t u a t i o n t h e r e can be f o u n d i n c i p i e n t c h a r i s m a t i c s . B e f o r e i n c i p i e n t c h a r i s m a t i c s can emerge as g e n u i n e , the social s i t u a t i o n must e x i s t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e i r message is r e l e v a n t and m e a n i n g f u l to people.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , he  suggests that:  Charisma appears in s i t u a t i o n s where (a) leaders formulate inchoate sentiments d e e p l y h e l d b y masses; (b) the e x p r e s s i o n of such sentiments is seen as hazardous; (c) s u c c e s s . . . is r e g i s t e r e d ( F r i e d l a n d , 1964, p. 18).  Therefore,  according  circumstances recognized  In  an  Antioch, conditions both  are  and  to F r i e d l a n d ' s (1964) i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a p p r o p r i a t e necessary  potentially  charismatic  leaders  to  be  heeded.  historical Reed, which  intense  for  social  and  and  analysis of  three  Swarthmore  "cause  high  concentrated  and  -  distinctive  Clark  low  liberal  (1970,  p. 241)  probabilities  charisma  as  well  of  as  the  arts colleges describes occurrence  its a t t e n u a t e d  the of and  - 28  dispersed  expressions."  organizations  According  is p a r t i a l l y  inappropriate  for  Hence, they are  the not  to him,  controlled  appear strongly charismatic  may  be  stability  and  -  by  the  o c c u r r e n c e of c h a r i s m a in  choice.  j u d g e d as  That  is, individuals  too u n s e t t l i n g and  continuity  of  selected for positions within  the the  existing  who  therefore structure.  organization  (Clark,  1970).  Consistent charisma  can  qualities  of the  with  be  Weber's  c o n t r o l l e d by charismatic  (1970)  occurrence  of  precipitates  further  charisma.  charisma.  ordinary  personal  renewed  purpose  (1970)  also  argues  If c h a r i s m a  is not  that  personal  a t t r i b u t e d to  the  the leader does not h a v e it ( C l a r k , 1970).  outlines First,  in  three  qualities  and  conditions  accordance  Charismatic  into the  Clark  followers' denial of the e x c e p t i o n a l  leader.  leader, t h e n in that c o n t e x t ,  Clark  formulation,  leaders,  by  inspirational  organization  and  with  sense  which  facilitate  Weber's  virtue  of  view, their  of mission,  mobilize  crisis extra-  can  collective  the  infuse  effort  and  resources.  The  second  c r e a t i o n of a new phase,  a  The set  of  fostering  organization  charismatic  position in o r d e r the new  condition  leader  to b u i l d a n d  organization  (Clark, may  be  the  emergence  1970). selected  In the for  s h a p e the c h a r a c t e r ,  of  charisma  initial  the  top  is  the  establishment administrative  purpose, and  image of  ( C l a r k , 1970).  final s i t u a t i o n c o n d u c i v e to the d e v e l o p m e n t of c h a r i s m a entails "a evolving  conditions  in  which  the  charismatic  figure  picks  up  - 29  support, leeway Clark  gains  in  power,  for personal  sets  the  i n f l u e n c e on  -  d i r e c t i o n of c h a n g e ,  p o l i c y and  events"  and  (Clark,  extends 1970,  the  p.244).  (1970, pp.244-245) c o n c l u d e s :  T h u s new o r g a n i z a t i o n is o p e n to c h a r i s m a , and c r i s i s helps to create i t , but n e i t h e r is a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n . Potentially charismatic men can enter successful and relatively stable organizations and e n c o u r a g e the c o n d i t i o n s that realize t h e i r charisma. What is initially required is an opening for l e a d e r s h i p , u s u a l l y manifested by a w i l l i n g n e s s to improve. The potentially c h a r i s m a t i c f i g u r e who w o r k s without the b e n e f i t of new o r g a n i z a t i o n o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c r i s i s is u s u a l l y f o r c e d to s t r i n g out his b r e a k with t r a d i t i o n . His c h a r i s m a is s h i e l d e d by patience. However, that h i s impact is more e v o l u t i o n a r y need not d i m i n i s h the m a g n i t u d e of the c h a n g e or the e f f e c t u p o n o t h e r s a n d u p o n the initiation of a l e g e n d .  In  summary,  thinking  regarding  of c h a r i s m a . in c r i s i s , contexts  recent  In  the  conceptual  (e.g.,  empirical  situational circumstances  contrast  it is a r g u e d  and  to the  1970;  has  facilitating  advanced the  Dow,  grounded  emerge in a wide r a n g e of  1969;  Eisenstadt,  1968;  our  expression  r e s t r i c t i v e view of c h a r i s m a as  that c h a r i s m a can  Clark,  work  social  Shils,  1965;  T r i c e & B e y e r , 1984). In Geertz's (1977, p.152) w o r d s , c h a r i s m a "does appear only if  in e x t r a v a g a n t forms a n d  combustible,-  flame."  aspect  Moreover,  sociologists  also  development  of  individual,  and  Trice & Beyer,  of  social  consistent recognize  charisma the  ideas  1984).  life  with that  including s/he  f l e e t i n g moments, b u t that  occasionally  Winner's a  (1984)  confluence the  social  espouses  (e.g.,  of  bursts  view,  1969;  abiding, into  open  contemporary  forces  context, Dow,  in an  not  spawns  the  the  exceptional  Geertz,  1977;  - 30 -  The  E x i s t e n c e and As  discussed  contention  earlier,  many  (e.g.,  Etzioni,  Barnes,  1961;  1978;  Parsons,  charismatic  extending  Thus,  have  challenged  in Shils'  expression  beyond (1965,  element in the p r o c e s s  B a s e d on  the  Berger,  Shils,  exists.  Blau  &  1965;  By  Scott,  Tucker,  v i r t u e of t h e i r  l e a d e r s can  their  p.  1963;  or r a t i o n a l - l e g a l s t r u c t u r e s the  exemplary qualities, charismatic actions  sociologists  1937;  a r g u e that w i t h i n b u r e a u c r a t i c personal  Organizations Weber's  that c h a r i s m a is a f o r c e w h i c h must e x i s t o u t s i d e of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  structures 1969;  D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h a r i s m a in  202)  of s e c u l a r  Dow,  1970).  They  potential f o r personal  offices  "charisma  (Dow, can  1969,  p.311).  become an  integral  institutionalization."  premise that c h a r i s m a e x i s t s within complex  institutional  s t r u c t u r e s , s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s h a v e s o u g h t to e x p l i c a t e its d i s t r i b u t i o n organizations. echelons Etzioni  of  While some a r g u e  an  (1961),  actually  suggest  developed  the top o n e s . of an  organization  actor  in a  According  to e x e r c i s e  that  and  c r e a t e a f u r t h e r legitimacy for  stipulated words,  1962;  that  (e.g.,  charisma Katz  charisma  &  p r i m a r i l y e x i s t s in the  Kahn,  others,  notably and  large v a r i e t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s , not  just  (1961, p.203), c h a r i s m a is the  d i f f u s e and  o r i e n t a t i o n s of o t h e r a c t o r s . "  be  1978),  top  functionally required  to E t z i o n i  may  within  intense  influence over  the  In h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e r e are t h r e e  "ability  normative  major forms  of d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h a r i s m a w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s : at the top o n l y , in all line positions, or is  related  in one  to  the  organizations organizations pure  have tend  normative  or  more r a n k s o t h e r  compliance no to  organizations  charisma are  the  top.  of  the  organization:  structure  charismatic have  than  organizational concentrated  likely  to  have  positions; in  a  This  top  line  distribution coercive utilitarian  positions  concentration  only; and  - 31  social  normative  Etzioni  the  concentration  suggests  expressive  activities  (3)  decisions  trolled,  and  the  there  are  For  of  among  control  determinants  structures:  made, of  various  over  organizational  is  the  coercive),  instrumental  and  "Positions  performances  subordinates  (1)  organizational  positions.  expressive  activities are.controlled and  subordinates  is  not  effective  performance:  (Etzioni,  1961,  p.211).  (1961) a n a l y s i s  of  central  are  necessary,  in  con-  requires  p o s i t i o n s in w h i c h d e c i s i o n s about means are made, from  which instrumental  Etzioni's  are  involvement  pp.208-209).  (moral v e r s u s c a l c u l a t i v e or  various  ends  three  1961,  in these o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  distribution  among  about  moral  charismatics.  4  (Etzioni,  d i s t r i b u t i o n of means-ends d e c i s i o n s and  which  that  involvement required  positions,  range  rank  d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h a r i s m a  n a t u r e of the  of  a  (1961) f u r t h e r  of the  (2)  have  -  organizational  necessary, their  charismatics  presence  Therefore, suggests positions  in w h i c h moral  in  that  may  contrast  is  not  even  charisma  and  are  may  required  be  to  involvement  dysfunctional"  Weber's originate  compatible  for  with  theorem, in a  wide  established  organizational s t r u c t u r e s .  To  d a t e , the  discussion  of c h a r i s m a  sociological s p h e r e s of i n q u i r y . insights social  into the  n a t u r e and  movements.  existence  and  These perspectives  the  appreciate,  however  focal  of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , a  point  sociological  d i s t r i b u t i o n of c h a r i s m a  to this p e r s p e c t i v e  the  that we  focused  e f f e c t s of c h a r i s m a  Moreover,  f  has  on  the  political  have provided  valuable  in l a r g e scale political view  has  discussed  in o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s .  To  phenomenon of c h a r i s m a within o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  now  psychological  turn.  and  focus  is n e c e s s a r y .  or the  fully the It is  - 32 -  P s y c h o l o g i c a l V i e w s of C h a r i s m a  The  p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e has  characteristics on  followers  structure  of c h a r i s m a t i c  within  and  multiple p e r s p e c t i v e s Rutan  &  Rice,  charisma  external what  1981;  "the  force.  The  is the  real  force which  aura  to be  the  the  inner  consensus  b o n d s with leaders  their  who  faces  of c h a r i s m a .  whelming and  (1975) has  loyal  authority  socialized  goals and  expressing  strengthen  and  been  reality  from and  the  the the  the  Personalized and  personal in  their  charismatic confidence  dominance, followers  leaders,  of  an  between  unconscious  leaders outer  who  thought  p.902).  In  establish  interest  leaders, evoke  vividly  strong  d i r e c t e d p e r s o n a l i t y of groups the  to  reach  power motive, and  through  1975,  expressing  socialized  their  f e e l i n g s of  (McClelland, by  that i s ,  resonance  h i s w o r k on  charismatic  viewpoint,  guise  1970,  1942;  (1974) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between  diverse  F i n a l l y , b a s e d on  in  from  Redl,  unconscious,  (Mcintosh,  Zaleznik  personality  psychoanalytic  awareness  effects  described  a  springs  among  the  d i s t i n g u i s h e d between the p e r s o n a l i z e d  submission  contrast,  have  externalized  followers and  negotiate  example,  their  From  experience"  traits,  and  M c i n t o s h , 1970;  into  external  the p e r s o n a l i t y  1975;  d i r e c t e d p e r s o n a l i t y of c h a r i s m a t i c  satisfactory agreements. McClelland  magic  s o u r c e of the  examination of l e a d e r s h i p  the  slip  of  his  emotional  of  For  leaders  1974).  on  behaviours,  settings.  charismatic  Zaleznik,  tendencies  is p e r c e i v e d  which  of  their  (e.g., McClelland,  designates  unconscious  leaders,  organizational  dynamics  primarily focused  over-  obedience  p.259).  In  meaningful  in followers' abilities to attain these g o a l s ,  inspirit their followers.  - 33  Other researchers leader  behaviours  example.  Day  service  program  studied  a school  have conducted  in  (1980)  diverse described  by  a  district  climate  change  and  field  study  charismatic, and  two  the  of  wide  range  studies revealed reported.  of  was  a  of a  maternity who  roles.  radically  new  social  Roberts  (1984)  a c a t a l y s t in in d e v e l o p i n g  charismatic,  American business contexts  and  For  introducing  a  (1985)  Conger  highly  and  home.  was  Finally,  three  organizational  settings  instrumental  innovation. of  e x p l o r a t i o n s of c h a r i s m a t i c  development  noncharismatic  high  In sum,  the  superintendent  to the d i s t r i c t and  exploratory  in-depth  organizational  director  innovations for  -  supportive  conducted  three  moderately  executives.  Despite  p o s i t i o n s examined,  c o n v e r g e n c e among the c h a r i s m a t i c  an  leader  these  behaviours  the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e h a v i o u r s of the c h a r i s m a t i c  leaders  were the c r e a t i o n a n d  a r t i c u l a t i o n of a m e a n i n g f u l v i s i o n ; a c t i v e campaign-  ing  unconventional  for  the  practices;  vision;  captivating  h i g h e n e r g y and  Further B e n n i s and 10  their of  Nanus  r e s u l t s , "the  component p.33).  which  into  (1985)  interviews  affairs"  in t h e i r  ability  to  behaviours  excite  or  and  and  others;  communicate  their  vision  empowers  the  use  to  power  officers transmitted  induce  the  leaders.  and  offered officers  is  (Bennis symbols,  a S  commitment  of  fundamental 1985,  ceremonies  In a d d i t i o n , these  to  state  Nanus,  their vision  by and  According  image of a d e s i r e d  followers  of m e t a p h o r s ,  to t h i s v i s i o n .  are  chief executive  innovative  transformative  chief executive commitment  of 80  study  behaviours  to r e l a t e a compelling  involves  subordinates'  leader  successful  capacity  of c h a r i s m a t i c  the  the  charismatic  with  Moreover, through  insignia,  style;  countercultural  dynamism.  insights  in-depth  speaking  or  and  fostered  leaders their  and  could  multiple  - 34 -  constituencies. zation's  Persistence  course,  and  especially  consistency  in  competencies o f t h e s e l e a d e r s .  adverse  Yet they  in maintaining  circumstances,  t h e emotional tone of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  He  argues  custodial  creates  that  mode  generates  just that  as  excitement. First,  leadership  generates  satisfaction,  outlined.  further  to c h a n g e  conditions.  neutrality  it should  now  leaders  value  related  opportunities  leaders  own  service,  mode  that  to t h e c h a r i s m a t i c  mode  that  d e s t i n i e s , both  individually  rewarding  collaboration, creating success  behaviour are  vision  r e l a t e d to  Second, they discover or create within  the framework  stronger  Finally,  experiences,  charismatic  a n d more in c o n t r o l o f  and collectively,  effective  of the  i n c l u d e self r e l i a n c e ,  citizenship.  feel  leader  a common  Focal v a l u e s  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l members  expectations,  to t h e management  activities  of the organization.  excellence,  make  and  (1974). the  develop  b y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l members.  community,  advanced  T h r e e components of c h a r i s m a t i c  charismatic  a n d goals  has  b y Berlew  beyond  move  shared  mission  is p r o p o s e d  theory  values  high  new  organi-  i n t e r e s t i n g a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t y p e s o f l e a d e r s h i p  and  their  were  also h a d t h e c a p a c i t y  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d its members when faced with  An  the  by  communicating  performance,  encouraging  and providing  assistance  when  requested.  A  more e n c o m p a s s i n g  of a c h a r i s m a t i c Oberg  (1972).  ization private,  examination o f t h e development a n d maintenance  a s s o c i a t i o n within He  of charisma  proposes  five  in o p e r a t i n g  in c o n t e m p o r a r y  Western  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s is p r e s e n t e d sets  of conditions  large  for the institutional-  organizations,  society.  First,  by  four  both  public  personal  and  qualities  - 35 -  that are indispensible f o r charismatic the  prestige  with,  and  of demonstrated communicate  followers,  achievement,  their  (3) the a b i l i t y  leaders are d e s c r i b e d (2) the a b i l i t y  understanding  of,  others.  The  institutionalized  second  set o f  charisma  involves  follow t h e i r c o n s c i o u s A  decisions  the  leader  involving  either unclear  candidate  for charismatic  making  third  the charismatic  requirements  f o r the  organizational  set of conditions is called goals  on  of  their  attachment  development  members'  leadership.  building  relates  to make  or unclear  of charisma  or charisma  needs  of  w i l l i n g n e s s to  o r u n c o n s c i o u s d e s i r e f o r c h a r i s m a t i c attachment a n d  dependency.  institutionalization  the  to empathize  to look a n d a c t t h e p a r t , a n d (4) t h e p o s s e s s i o n  of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s w h i c h permit them to a c c e p t of  i n c l u d i n g : (1)  A  involves efforts  to t h e n a t u r e  and/or  means  o r both  fourth four  execute.  of the Decisions  a r e the likeliest  set of conditions kinds  including:  of  for the  deliberate  (1) c h a r i s m a  myth  facilitating  policies a n d p r a c t i c e s , (2) t h e u s e o f symbols o f p r e s t i g e a n d s t a t u s , (3) the  use of ritual,  corporate  charter,  a n d (4) the u s e o f e x e c u t i v e creed,  o r ideology  dramaturgy.  can contribute  F i n a l l y , the  to c h a r i s m a .  Oberg  (1972) c o n c l u d e s that o r g a n i z a t i o n s  w h i c h a r e able  the c h a r i s m a t i c  o f t h e i r members would a p p e a r to h a v e  loyalty a n d d e v o t i o n  to d e v e l o p a n d s u s t a i n  a s t r o n g a d v a n t a g e in t h e s t r u g g l e f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l .  Further reviewing  i n s i g h t s into i n t r a o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r i s m a  two t h e o r i e s o f c h a r i s m a t i c  charismatic  leadership  leadership. understanding Accordingly,  These  and  theories  of charismatic these  Bass'  theories  examined in detail below.  leadership: (1985)  represent leadership  a  by  House's (1977) t h e o r y o f  theory major  within  c a n be g l e a n e d  of  transformational  contribution  an organizational  and the accompanying  research  to  our  setting.  evidence are  36  -  -  House's T h e o r y of C h a r i s m a t i c  An  O v e r v i e w of the Drawing  literatures. within  on  House  behaviour,  their  to  the  He  of  describes  personal  self  effects  pp.193-194).  the On  on  also  advances  followers,  of  and  charismatic  numerous  charismatic situational  leaders  dominance,  need  righteousness  of  of  that  for  leaders.  character,  and  speech  their  associated  With  regard  exceedingly  influence, beliefs  leaders  leadership  propositions  factors  have  their  charismatic  psychological  leaders,  and  on  strong  his  possess  fluency  high  (House,  b a s i s of Sashkin's (1977) commentary  acknowledges integrity  and  social  of c h a r i s m a t i c  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c h a r i s m a t i c  moral the  a theory  characteristics  confidence,  in  fortitude,  advanced  characteristics,  conviction  House  (1977) has  e m e r g e n c e and  personal  levels  political s c i e n c e , s o c i o l o g i c a l , a n d  organizations. the  with  Theory  the  regarding  Leadership  1977, theory.  intellectual  (Sashkin,  1977,  p.214).  The  b e h a v i o u r of c h a r i s m a t i c l e a d e r s encompasses the a r t i c u l a t i o n of a  transcendent the  goal in o r d e r  communication  exhibition  of  of h i g h  confidence  c o n v e y a n c e of messages accomplishment; engagement  to p r o v i d e  the  in  meaning and  performance their  expectations  ability  These  followers  including  to  meet  f o r followers and  such  that a r o u s e motives e s p e c i a l l y  role  modelling  of  in image b u i l d i n g to c r e a t e  success.  to g e n e r a t e excitement;  behaviours  are  followers'  linked  trust  in  values the  to  and  impression charismatic  the  b e l i e f s , s i m i l a r i t y of followers' beliefs to those  expectations; r e l e v a n t to beliefs;  and  leaders' e f f e c t s of  of the l e a d e r ,  the  the  mission  of competence  correctness  the  the and on  leader's  unquestioning  - 37  acceptance obedience emotional  of the to  the  leader,  loyalty  to and  identification  involvement of followers  followers,  and  the  to accomplish 1977,  leader,  or  p.191).  feeling  on  contribute Finally,  -  with  in the  the  and  of  the  heightened  circumstances  o r i e n t a t i o n are  of the  and  goals  situational  of  the  are  mission  work  willing leader,  followers that t h e y  accomplishment  stressful  leader,  emulation  mission,  p a r t of the  to the  c o n d u c i v e to ideological v a l u e  a f f e c t i o n f o r the  able  (House,  roles  that  are  factors facilitating  followers' r e c e p t i v i t y to ideological a p p e a l s .  Research To  Evidence date,  (1977) t h e o r y House's from  three  of c h a r i s m a t i c  (1977)  a  noncharismatic  that  leaders  broad  based  leaders  have  on  highly leader,  to p r o v i d e  were  whom t h e y subordinate  held  of each  leaders  following  the  strategy, from  researcher  the  similar position as to be  effective  nominated  leaders  b a s i s of scaled  identified  addition,  analysis could  dimensions:  of  leader  be  the  a  on  30 wide  House's  (1982) t e s t e d  be  differentiated  subordinate  responses.  charismatic range  of  and  formal  a s k e d full-time employed knew  p e r s o n a l l y and  students  the  nominated  but  bear  can  same  not  in the  sample  from the  from  dynamism,  self  a  The a  second leader,  immediate question-  theory.  responses  indicated  noncharismatic esteem  work  evening  charismatic  completed  30  considered  identified  charismatic.  questionnaire  distinguished  leader  which  example. Smith  18 d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r u c t s d e r i v e d  Discriminant  the  In  considered  naire measuring  charismatic  a  For  names of l e a d e r s t h e y  charismatic. who  conducted  charismatic  nomination  o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the students  been  leadership.  proposition  noncharismatic  Using  studies  of  leaders  that on  subordinates.  -  experienced  meaningfulness  disclosure  to  the  subordinates. between  the  empirically  leader,  This  identified  theoretical  effects  on  Thus, the  on  the  charismatic  back-up  length  demonstrates a  from  and  high  the  That  degree  reputedly  performance,  of  Smith's  phenomenon  i s , in  of  charismatic  and  can  and  be  the  with  and  (1982) f i n d i n g s , it can  exists  ratings  of  be  reliably  above  House's  leaders  trust,  self  correspondence  accordance  motivation,  leader,  performance  a r t i c u l a t e d in House's (1977) t h e o r y  proposition,  basis  felt  week  dimensions.  followers'  -  work,  work  study  constructs  (1977)  of  38  do  self  have  esteem.  concluded  that  measured  with  r e s p e c t to i n t r a o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e a d e r s .  Further leadership four  empirical  is p r e s e n t e d  studies  leaders  engaged  analysis  particular of  House's  (1977)  in  unit  critical to  the  to b u i l d  The  Van  types  (1982).  theory  pep  and  the  They  conducted  extent  behaviour  two  charismatic  to  and  (Yukl  &  discussion which  (House,  reflective  of  good that  both  leader  making (Yukl  two  used  1982). Van  Of  Fleet's  derived  According  morale;  combat  and  partially  personal  performance in  is Y u k l  inspiration  providing and  Fleet,  1984).  t a l k s to b u i l d  confidence;  Van  was  which  noncombat s i t u a t i o n s .  - c o r r e l a t i o n a l methodology and  present  results indicated  e f f e c t s of  leader  combat,  behaviour;  complimenting  the  Fleet  of  incidents  behaviours  his/her  to  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  leadership"  charismatic  h i s / h e r own  by  and  simulated  individuals; using  subordinate  p.98).  of  leader  example by  their  Yukl  specific  "inspirational  formulation,  pertaining  a questionnaire  relevance  measure  pride  in  in combat,  studies used  content  by  i n v e s t i g a t i n g the  effectiveness Two  evidence  to  from their  include  instilling  setting a  personal  e n c o u r a g e m e n t to a cadets &  and  Van  feel  proud  Fleet,  noncombat  of  1982, situa-  - 39  tions,  inspiration,  discipline regard  leader  performance  confidence, succeed  formidable  situations,  motivation  to  commitment  to  that  a  sacrifices" and  Van  odds  S  drill  F l e e t , 1982,  Van  (1982) lend  support  leader  the use  of multiple methods and s i t u a t i o n s .  leadership state.  via  Based  political  House  both  historians'  (1985a)  popular  noncharismatic,  judgements,  a  selected.  subordinates  were  needed  p.101).  "built  of The  of  or  his  Canadian  the  history  heads  of  equivocal.  findings  unequivocally  were the  charismatic  utilizing  biographies  classified  and  from  heads  of  t h e i r e f f e c t s on selected  cabinet  f o r t h e s e r e l a t i o n s was  particular  issue  each  member  pairing.  A  content  during  the  analysis  term of  the  of  leader  relevant  as  noncharismatic  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the domain of o b s e r v a t i o n arose  of  these  members.  that  of  prominent  basis  b e h a v i o u r of these leaders a n d  examined  and  given  theory  American  literature  On  and  subordinate  charismatic  state  In  (1977) p r o p o s i t i o n  enhance  and  to  strong  personal  Thus  House's  self  subordinates'  and  p.101).  tested  political  judgements,  sample  has  analysis  charismatic,  l e a d e r s was  1982,  substantial  to  promotes  r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y are e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  biographical on  effort  increased  b e h a v i o u r can  M o r e o v e r , the  recently.  Fleet,  involves  effort.  More  extra  routines  6  ideals,  builds subordinates'  leadership  that  i n s p i r a t i o n a l or c h a r i s m a t i c  and  the  Van  career  (Yukl  Fleet  (Yukl  monotonous  military  values  to e x p e n d  inspirational  perform  group  its p u r p o s e , and  subordinates  noncombat  economic  subordinates'  the g r o u p and  motivated  against  to  to  criticism-  leader  appeals  related  and  to i n s p i r a t i o n , u n d e r combat c o n d i t i o n s e f f e c t i v e i n s p i r a t i o n a l that  were  role c l a r i f i c a t i o n ,  With  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with  of Y u k l  emphasis,  performance.  behaviour  behaviours  -  and  literature  a  cabinet (i.e..  - no  autobiographies, biographies) was  collections  to  noncharismatic  determine  e f f e c t s and  The  preliminary  leaders,  charismatic  effects,  trust no  of  results  negative  the  positive  For  exhibited  to  leaders  had  and  were  more  leaders.  affect  charismatic and  toward  the  leaders  may  f e a r among o p p o n e n t s . A n  Craen  and  may  be  Cashman's charismatic  generating  neutral i t may  noncharismatic  confidence,  higher  With r e g a r d  noncharismatic  obedience,  had  to  leaders,  more p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s a b o u t  self confident.  be  or  leader may  be  than  A  particularly  and  negative  tentatively  be  towards  polarize  concluded  of  followers; and  non-  finding.  commanding  generating  hatred,  alternative explanation  advanced  selectively charismatic.  That is,  and  "entrusted  noncharismatic affect.  followers  greater  posited for t h i s  (1975) i n - g r o u p  r e c e i v e d empirical s u p p o r t  behaviours  of  loyalty among s u p p o r t e r s  positive affect  and  higher  Several explanations  generating  has  self  to  is that followers of c h a r i s m a t i c l e a d e r s e x h i b i t e d  (1985a) is that l e a d e r s may  theory  greater  p o s i t i v e and  by  analyzed,  or  and  negative  leaders  charismatic  leader; made more p o s i t i v e statements a b o u t the mission  and  tion,  of  in comparison  followers  animosity,  on  absence  more p o s i t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  comparison  allegiance, reverence  drawing  or  and  example,  House  official  acceptance,  finding  and  charismatic  and  that  statements about the mission;  situation;  intriguing  in  diaries,  to the leader-member r e l a t i o n s h i p  presence  suggest  leaders  charismatic  in t h e i r  the  papers,  behaviours.  performance expectations,  followers  personal  p e r t a i n i n g to this issue a n d  performed  leader  of  -  While that  out-group  distinc-  lieutenants"  thereby  "outcasts"  thereby  towards the  data  House's  t h u s f a r , with  of c h a r i s m a t i c political heads of state.  are  still  being  (1977) c h a r i s m a t i c  r e s p e c t to the  effects  -  41  -  Bass' T h e o r y of T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  An  O v e r v i e w o f the T h e o r y Drawing  formational  on  the  penetrating  leadership  proposed  analysis  by Burns  d e v e l o p e d a model o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l He  argues  that  the c u r r e n t  and  operant  leadership receive  conditioning  is c o n c e i v e d rewards  for  transactional  leaders,  subordinates'  confidence  accomplishing  subordinates' the  their  effort.  how  In e s s e n c e ,  leadership  process  task  In  in w h i c h  requirements  Specifically, contribute  leaders  this  process  also  reflects  in e x p e c t e d  to  can succeed recognize  these needs can be met i f t h e y  ( A v o l i o & B a s s , 1985). A c c o r d i n g results  models,  subordinates  objectives.  Transactional  linkage,  these  that with some d e g r e e o f e f f o r t t h e y assignments.  reinforcement  transactional  clarifying  needs and clarify  necessary  contingent  by  emphasized  vertical dyad  leadership).  established  trans-  (1985) has r e c e n t l y  has h e a v i l y  path-goal,  of  and  in o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s .  literature  exchange  reaching  transactional  (1978), B a s s  (e.g.,  theories  of an  of  leadership  leadership  t r a n s a c t i o n a l models o f l e a d e r s h i p  in  Leadership  exert  leadership to B a s s  by  (1985),  e f f o r t a n d p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e  part of followers.  Consistent  with B u r n s ' (1978) p a r a d i g m , B a s s (1985, p.11) p o s i t s that  transformational  leaders  goals a n d f o r h i g h e r their  immediate  self  transformational from  rather  than  order  from  who  followers  to  strive  for  transcendental  s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs r a t h e r than f o c u s i n g  interests.  leaders  subordinates  motivate  In  a r e more receive  external  comparison  likely  self  to obtain  reinforcement  rewards  to t r a n s a c t i o n a l  (Avolio  higher from &  levels  leaders, of effort  performing  Bass,  on  1985,  a  task  p.7).  - 42  Therefore,  through  transformational  exert extraordinary  effort.  -  leadership,  In a d d i t i o n to h e i g h t e n e d  also form a deep emotional attachment to t h e i r  Based  on  both  followers  q u a l i t a t i v e and  are  inspired  motivation,  followers  leader.  quantitative procedures,  Bass  s o u g h t to determine the b e h a v i o u r s and  e f f e c t s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  Adopting  transformational  Burns'  (1978)  definition  (1985)  surveyed  70  leaders  they  encountered  and  on  a  comprehensive  describing Eleven  had  transformational transactional,  factor  review  were  their  of  and  to  the  transactional  using  or  selected  can't for  Questionnaire  item  leaders  to one  say.  Items  inclusion  -  MLQ)  each  leadership  factor analysis  five  leadership  variance.  a n a l y s i s of  with  360  a  varimax  factors  a  have  managers' q u e s t i o n n a i r e  survey items  generated.  transactional  of t h r e e which  and  categories:  raters  could  questionnaire  (The  to  Results  176  of  the  73  military  frequently a  principal  final  for approximately  emerged  Bass  142  r e s p e c t to how  rotation of  accounted  this  were  administered  characteristic.  factors which  Identical  in  on  literature,  d e t a i l e d d e f i n i t i o n s of each  leaders.  transformational  Based  leadership  (1985)  leadership,  describe  career.  rated t h e i r immediate s u p e r i o r s with  component  total  during  transformational,  exhibited  yielded  executives  leadership, assigned  Leadership  o f f i c e r s who  the  students,  categorize  Multifactor  they  senior  transformational  graduate  reliably  male  of  to  in  responses  an  items 90%  of  independent  (Avolio  8  Bass,  1985).  Two reward 6.3%  of  leadership and the  factors,  labelled  management-by-exception. variance)  r e f e r s to  the  as  transactional,  Contingent leader  reward  were  contingent  (accounting  instructing subordinates  for what  - 43  to  do  to  attain  a  desired  exception  (accounting  providing  direction  subordinates  reward  f o r 3% if  for  of the  doing  their  variance)  customary  to c o n t i n u e  -  ways  t h e i r job as  efforts. entails  are  Management-by-  the  leader  working  long  as  and  avoiding  permitting  p e r f o r m a n c e goals  are  met.  T h r e e transformational factors - charisma, individualized  consideration  65% of the v a r i a n c e ) captivating part  of  vision;  him/herself.  inspire  and  to  Intellectual  encompasses  the  were  identified.  Charisma  (accounting  leader's  and  instill  encourage respect,  stimulation ability  to  higher  faith,  (accounting suggest  order  effort  loyalty, for  6%  of  c r e a t i v e , novel  on  the  and  trust  in  the  variance)  ideas  which  r e s u l t in a d i s c r e t e leap in followers' c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , c o m p r e h e n s i o n , discernment  of the  Individualized  nature  consideration  of p r o b l e m s a n d (accounting  the leader's developmental and The  leader  provides  individual  basis  motivation  (Bass,  to  f o r 6%  of the  exhibited  Bass by  the  variance)  and  them  assigns  tasks  significantly  to  alter  effort,  refers  followers  their  on  abilities  and  (1985) same  transformational  argues  that  individual  these  as a f i v e f a c t o r  leadership two  to d i f f e r e n t  effectiveness, and  satisfaction  are  leadership degrees.  model, " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p will c o n t r i b u t e in an extra  1985). to  an and  1985).  transactional  distinct,  solutions (Bass,  and  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d s followers.  examples help  their  In Bass' (1985) view, l e a d e r s h i p is c o n c e i v e d While  for  r e f e r s to the leader's a b i l i t y to e f f e c t i v e l y a r t i c u l a t e a to  followers;  -  intellectual s t i m u l a t i o n , and  with  the  profile.  conceptually styles  can  be  According  to  his  incremental  way  to  leader as  well as  to  _ nn -  appraised butable  subordinate to  transactional  transformational  p.54), aspects  by  House  House's of  beyond  leadership"  expectations  (Bass,  1985,  that  to compare and  (1977) and  (1977)  by  theory  charisma.  p.229),  In  contrast  Bass  (1985).  focuses  order  to  the  meaningful and  by  using  vivid,  symbols a n d  adventure  on  capture  colourful,  imagery, and  surrounding  f e e l i n g s , s e n t i m e n t s , and  the the  As  stated by  more full  the  persuasive  by  mission,  charisma  represents  According  to A v o l i o a n d  formulations Bass  observable, flavour  of  (1985, rational  charisma,  emphasized.  l a n g u a g e , by  employing  generating  a sense of excitement  charismatic  leaders  appeal  to  the  emotions of t h e i r followers.  B a s s (1985) f u r t h e r e x p a n d s House's (1977) model by  transformational  attri-  Therefore,  theoretical  B a s s (1985) c o n t e n d s that the emotional components need to be Specifically,  are  l e a d e r s h i p augments t r a n s a c t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p .  It is informative proposed  performance  one  component  Bass  of  the  recognizing  transformational  (1985, p.16), the p r o c e s s  that  process.  of c h a r i s m a t i c  l e a d e r s h i p d i f f e r s in that:  The transformational leader excites subordinates, but goes f u r t h e r in c o a c h i n g them to t h i n k on t h e i r own and to d e v e l o p new v e n t u r e s w h i c h will f u r t h e r the group's goals while also d e v e l o p i n g the s u b o r d i n a t e in h i s / h e r own right. A l t h o u g h the outcomes may be identical in the short term, it is the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l leader who b u i l d s within the s u b o r d i n a t e the w i l l i n g n e s s a n d motivation to q u e s t i o n f u t u r e s y s t e m s and r u l e s that the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l leader n e v e r dreamed of in h i s / h e r original vision. -  and  - 45 -  Research  Evidence  B a s s a n d h i s associates Bass,  (Avolio  £ Bass,  £ E i n s t e i n , 1985) have c o n d u c t e d  effects  of  group,  and  results  from  istrators,  transformational organizational surveys  45  revealed  of  256  the  with  three  perceived  transactional  business and  176  leadership  As  senior  effectiveness  23  e x a m i n i n g the on  reported  managers,  transformational unit  1985; Waldman,  a series of studies  effectiveness.  professionals,  that  correlated  and  1985; B a s s ,  in B a s s  (1985),  education  admin-  army  officers  factors  were  and  individual,  consistently more  subordinate  highly  satisfaction  with t h e leader t h a n t h e two t r a n s a c t i o n a l f a c t o r s .  The actional was  incremental leadership  recently  study,  of  transformational  in p r e d i c t i n g  investigated  rated  MLQ.  An  b y Waldman,  extra  effort  f i r m a n d 261  manufacturing evaluations  questionnaire effectiveness.  developed  and  and  performance  completed  officers  effectiveness by  and  superiors  administration  approximately constituted  While t h e p r o b l e m  o f common  v a l i d i t y of t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d  In t h i s from t h e  measure o f  the participants.  sample, t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e a p p r a i s a l by  trans-  immediate s u p e r v i s o r s , on t h e  of individual performance  were  effort  over  B a s s a n d E i n s t e i n (1985).  the behaviour of their c u r r e n t  index  leadership  i n d i v i d u a l work  256 m a n a g e r s from a m a n u f a c t u r i n g  military  on  effect  six  the  months  index  method  For the  score  prior  of  variance  based to  the  performance threatens  that t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  the  leadership  f a c t o r s were more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d with followers' e f f o r t a n d job a n d work g r o u p p e r f o r m a n c e than were t r a n s a c t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p further variance  i n d i c a t e d that t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i n followers  1  effort and  leadership  performance  factors.  T h e results  factors predicted  beyond  that  unique  of t r a n s a c t i o n a l  - 46 -  leadership  factors.  formational  Thus,  leadership  in a c c o r d a n c e with  augmented  the  Bass'  motivational  (1985) model,  trans-  e f f e c t s of t r a n s a c t i o n a l  leadership rather than substituting for i t .  Avolio, 1985)  Waldman,  E i n s t e i n , and  Bass  (1985) (cited  in A v o l i o  h a v e f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l  group  performance.  Business  A t the b e g i n n i n g  Administration  students  of a school  were  randomly  teams to p a r t i c i p a t e in a management simulation p r o c e d u r e was  the  leader, a n d  data  consisted  having  of a v a r i e t y of financial  of p e r f o r m a n c e .  higher  ratings  performance,  The of  higher  since  possible  the  that  erroneously  leader  revealed  transformational  that  had  with  by  virtue  of  their  successful  attributed transformational  to r e s o l v e t h i s i s s u e t h r o u g h post leader  ratings and  team  performance  theory provides  a  definitive  remains support  to be  test  of  conducted,  f o r two  Bass  o f the  leaders  leader,  and  (1985) point  semester, team  it is  members  q u a l i t i e s to t h e i r l e a d e r s .  during  full  significantly  their  performance,  hoc a n a l y s e s  the semester h a v e led to c o n f l i c t i n g  While  at the e n d  with  Performance  teams with  leadership  of s a t i s f a c t i o n  ratings occurred  of the  satisfaction  the g r o u p .  g r e a t e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as l e a d e r s . However, as A v o l i o a n d out,  nomination  i n d i c a t o r s measured o v e r e i g h t  findings  levels  member  A t the end  member r a t e d t h e leader on the MLQ,  leader e f f e c t i v e n e s s in managing  higher  peer  on  Master o f  to nine  A  u s e d to select the leader f o r each team.  semester, each g r o u p  quarters  game.  Bass,  leadership  semester, 162  assigned  &  Attempts  o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the initial  and  latter  p a r t s of  results.  Bass' the  postulations.  (1985) research First,  transformational  leadership  evidence discussed transformational  above  leadership  - 47  can  significantly  transactional positive  contribute  to s u b o r d i n a t e  leadership.  impact on  -  Second,  i n d i v i d u a l and  p e r f o r m a n c e a b o v e and  transformational  group  beyond  leadership  p e r f o r m a n c e and  has  satisfaction  a  in a  v a r i e t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s .  To  conclude,  logical,  and  foregoing  psychological  multifaceted succinctly  the  nature  of  review  of  literatures  charismatic  the  has  political  science,  underscored  leadership.  As  Dow  the  socio-  complex,  (1969,  p.315)  summarizes:  T h e r e is no s i n g l e c h a r i s m a t i c temperament or p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e , but t h e r e is a c h a r i s m a t i c phenomenon w h i c h can be t h e o r e t i c a l l y and e m p i r i c a l l y isolated as an i n d e p e n d e n t form of a u t h o r i t y . B a s i c a l l y , it i n v o l v e s a d i s t i n c t social r e l a t i o n s h i p between leader a n d follower, in w h i c h the leader p r e s e n t s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y idea, a transcendent image or ideal w h i c h goes b e y o n d the immediate, the p r o x i m a t e , or the reasonable; while the follower a c c e p t s t h i s course of a c t i o n not because of its rational likelihood of s u c c e s s . . .but b e c a u s e of an a f f e c t i v e belief in the e x t r a o r d i n a r y q u a l i t i e s of the l e a d e r . T h u s the leader a p p e a l s n e i t h e r to intellectually c a l c u l a b l e r u l e s , nor to t r a d i t i o n , but to the r e v o l u t i o n a r y image and h i s own e x e m p l a r y q u a l i t i e s with w h i c h the follower may i d e n t i f y . If s u c h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o c c u r s , that i s , if these r e c i p r o c a l role e x p e c t a t i o n s are met, the r e l a t i o n s h i p is c h a r i s m a t i c . T h i s a p p l i e s in small g r o u p d y n a m i c s as well as in l a r g e - s c a l e social movements.  In focuses  particular, our  leaders,  attention  their  organizations Moreover, that  viewing  the  on  leaders.  the  behaviours, which  are  current  intraorganizational  followers'  charisma  effort, Therefore  personality and  their  modernized,  a  effects  charismatic  leaders  s t u d y of the  on  bureaucratic,  and  and  psychological  perspective  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  theoretical  performance the  from  empirical  affective  can  followers and  within  conventional.  literature profoundly  responses  b e h a v i o u r s and  charismatic  suggests influence  towards  e f f e c t s of  such  charismatic  - 48 -  leaders  within  organizational  settings  would  appear  to  be  a  worthwhile  endeavour.  T h e o r y and  R e s e a r c h Related  Considerate  This  section  considerate on  and  reviews  leadership  research  are d i s c u s s e d :  a p p r o a c h , and  of  assumption  1976, task with  p.1530). oriented  literature  related  t h e i r e f f e c t s on  Behavioural  approach  effective  that  these  Styles  to  structuring  subordinate  approach,  and  performance  T h r e e major a r e a s of  (1) the b e h a v i o u r a l  "knowledge  behaviour This and  has  (2) the  leadership  contingency  of the  Approach  focused  leadership.  e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s would p r o v i d e to instill  and  (3) l e a d e r s h i p u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s of s t r e s s .  behavioural  correlates  the  ambiguous t a s k .  The  The  Leadership  s t y l e s and  adjustment to an  to S t r u c t u r i n g  This  on  identifying  approach patterns  based  on  the  characterize  a rational b a s i s f o r the d e s i g n  of p r o g r a m s  in actual or  potential l e a d e r s "  section r e v i e w s experimental  socioemotional  initiating s t r u c t u r e and  behavioural  which  patterns  behaviour  was  the  leadership  consideration.  and  (Vroom,  findings concerned field  studies  with  associated  - 49 -  T a s k Oriented and Based  on  experimental Bales  &  Socioemotional  observational  studies  Leadership  of  role  d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s . Bales and  Couch,  1954;  Bales  specialized  leadership  directing,  summarizing,  &  roles:  frustrations  and  has  Slater,  and  h i s colleagues  1955;  providing  Bales,  ideas  the  (socioemotional  conditions  under  in  (e.g.,  1958)  (task  o f t h e group's social  disappointments  examined  differentiation  Borgatta,  group  oriented)  r e l a t i o n s by  task  Under members  Custafson,  conditions  or  members  where were  task o r i e n t e d leader was less need  1968;  tasks  highly  Custafson  were  necessary  oriented  the task  resented  compensate on  this  and  for this  issue.  He  counter  tation  and  social  allow  such  was  (House  1970).  satisfying  the  under  that  A  study  such  to  group  1968;  leader  Verba,  c o n d i t i o n s was  Bales  was  1961).  likely  needed  (1958) b e a r s  to to  directly  to r a i s e o b j e c t i o n s , q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,  questions,  no  H o w e v e r , f o r those relationship  leaders  was  permitted  was  oriented  In  who  there  for task  p.358).  to g r o u p members o r  leadership  by  1979,  socioemotional  (Gustafson,  socioemotional  resentment. found  task,  leader  & Baetz,  dissatisfying  satisfaction  therefore  f e e d b a c k , the  negative.  to t h e  oriented  suggestions,  liking.  satisfaction  was  members to g i v e f e e d b a c k a n d and  and  deemed as c r i t i c a l to g r o u p s u c c e s s a n d t h e r e  commitment  to p r o v i d e  Apparently, be  low  (2)  the  leadership  to t a s k  and  by  accomplishment,  f o r socioemotional  had  intrinsically  committed  c o n t r a s t , w h e r e t a s k s were i n t r i n s i c a l l y members  & Harrell,  task  Subsequent  socioemotional o r i e n t e d l e a d e r s i n f l u e n c e g r o u p p e r f o r m a n c e a n d ( e . g . . B u r k e , 1967;  two  alleviating  oriented).  which  small  identified  (1) a c h i e v e m e n t of a s p e c i f i c  maintenance o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g  research  Oriented  relationship task  oriented  between  task  between  task  l e a d e r s who  oriend i d not  orientation and  liking  - 50  In  summary,  the  above  -  findings  suggest  the  following  empirical  generalizations:  1.  Task oriented leadership is p e r f o r m a n c e in all w o r k g r o u p s .  2.  A c c e p t a n c e of task o r i e n t e d l e a d e r s h i p r e q u i r e s that s u c h leaders permit group members to respond by giving f e e d b a c k , making o b j e c t i o n s , and q u e s t i o n i n g the l e a d e r .  3.  Socioemotional o r i e n t e d l e a d e r s h i p is r e q u i r e d in a d d i t i o n to task o r i e n t e d l e a d e r s h i p when g r o u p s are not p e r f o r m i n g s a t i s f y i n g o r ego i n v o l v i n g t a s k s (House £ B a e t z , 1979, p.359).  Initiating S t r u c t u r e and Initiated Ohio  State  analysis  in the  late 1940s, the began  dimensions  behaviour.  Two  structure.  Consideration  likely  subordinates'  ideas,  his £  related  those  task  to  attempting to  were  "the  Peters,  those 1962,  to w h i c h an of  his  labelled by  Bales  to  by  their  through  factor  differences  which  in  and  an  initiating  i n d i v i d u a l is  mutual t r u s t , r e s p e c t f e e l i n g s " while  toward  goal  T h e s e d i m e n s i o n s are  (1958) as  socioemotional  the  leader  for  initiating  i n d i v i d u a l is likely to d e f i n e  subordinates  pp.43-44).  at  consideration  extent  of  research  identify  characterize  consideration  extent  to  identified:  reflects  and  role a n d  (Fleishman  effective  p r o g r a m of l e a d e r s h i p  relationships characterized  s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t s "the structure  by  needed  dimensions  to h a v e job  for  Consideration  University  the  necessary  and  attainment" conceptually  oriented  and  oriented.  Over leader  50  published  initiating  studies  s t r u c t u r e and  have  assessed  consideration  of leader e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c l u d i n g s u b o r d i n a t e s '  the  relationship  b e h a v i o u r and  between  various  s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r  criteria leader  - 51 -  and  their job, performance, t u r n o v e r ,  (House major  &  Baetz,  1979,  conclusions  sideration tend Harris,  &  Fleishman leader  be  Burtt,  drawn.  1955),  & H a r r i s , 1962)  and 1966;  with  to  the  frustrating,  turnover  1975;  House,  the  than  findings  However, and  there  show  high  grievance  1973;  those on  con-  Fleishman,  rates  on  &  two  on  (e.g.,  t h e i r job and  Halpin  low  their  Winer,  1957;  consideration.  socioemotional  subordinates (e.g.,  Dessler,  who  In  leadership,  work  Downey,  1974;  dissatisfying  task  on  a  stressful,  Sheridan,  Stinson  a b s e n c e of a s s o c i a t i o n between under  mixed,  that leader c o n s i d e r a t i o n is p o s i t i v e l y  tasks S  performance  are  morale  &  S  Slocum,  Johnson,  1975).  leader c o n s i d e r a t i o n conditions  (House  &  1979).  The leader  House  is an  subordinate  Baetz,  of  dissatisfying 1971;  and  Fleishman,  1974)  satisfaction  or  who  been  and  with fewer a b s e n c e s ( e . g . ,  multitude of field s t u d i e s h a v e f o u n d related  leaders  g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n with  Stogdill,  consistent  absenteeism  f i n d i n g s have  First,  lower  Anderson,  et a l . , 1969;  addition,  While the  to h a v e s u b o r d i n a t e s  (e.g.,  Lowin  may  p.360).  grievances,  second  major c o n c l u s i o n to be  initiating considerable  negative  structure  and  variability  relationships (e.g.,  H a r r i s , 6 B u r t t , 1955;  The  lack  correlates  of  of  initiating  used  to  measure  Kerr  (1976), the  this  subordinate  with  Anderson,  more  dimension.  1966;  1979;  been  and  performance  r e p o r t s of p o s i t i v e , Chemers,  1984;  zero,  or  Fleishman,  Korman, 1966).  consistent  s t r u c t u r e has  is that c o r r e l a t i o n s between satisfaction  numerous  Cilmore et a l . ,  stronger,  drawn  results  traced  According  to  with  to the  respect particular  Schriesheim,  Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire  to  the  scales  House,  and  ( L B D Q ) forms  -  are  comprised  icates  with  mainly  of  items  subordinates,  structures  the  subordinates  work  of  52  -  describing  facilitates his/her  a  leader  information  actively  exchange,  subordinates  in t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e of work.  who  and  In c o n t r a s t ,  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( S B D Q ) is c o m p r i s e d  describing  production  highly  oriented  leader  designs  relationships  Behaviour Description a  commun-  the  and  among  Supervisory  p r i m a r i l y of items  who  is  autocratic  and  punitive.  Schriesheim initiating this  his  s t r u c t u r e and  scale  findings First,  and  when  generally  decreased measured  related  to  positively  manufacturing  (1976)reviewed  examined the  independently.  were  negatively  colleagues  and by  three  the  related  to  infantry  for  non-manufacturing  tasks.  exhibited  employees  performing  with  subordinate  employees react  more  instrument  engaged  used  routine  in n o n r o u t i n e , to  leader  (Schriesheim  air  workers  has  a  very  Finally, creative, initiating  et a l . , 1976,  with  was  performing  of  is of  work regard  officers.  L B D Q , initiating  A found  routine  structure  nonmanufacturing  weak p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p high  or  their  relationships  supervisors  while  superiors of  force  clerical revised  by  supported  of  the  tasks  and  the  drawn.  structure,  ratings  pattern  first-level  ' satisfaction.  favourably  of  by  to  were  in  subordinates,  ratings  were f u r t h e r  weaker,  supervisors  by  initiating  supervisor's  and  officers  S e c o n d , when m e a s u r e d  behaviour  the  inconsistencies  generalizations  leader  supervisors  considerably  apparent  performance  to  yet  of  of  These findings  consistent,  r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from each v e r s i o n  empirical  group's p e r f o r m a n c e . noncommissioned  to  SBDQ,  satisfaction  first-level  pertaining  Consequently,  studies  occupational  analytic work  structure  consistently  irrespective  pp.301-302).  level  T h u s , as  of  the  House  - 53 -  and  Baetz  leader  (1979, p.  initiating  research  362)  c o n c l u d e , the  structure  regarding  are  congruent  task o r i e n t e d  leadership.  The  There that  are  leader  leader  theory  several contingency  a t t r i b u t e s with  especially  is  the  (Chemers  relevant  and  Contingency  effectiveness  environment  to the  Rice,  on  extensive  characteristics, contingency  and  of  small  group  (1)  which  postulate  the  group,  contingency  certain  task,  and  theories  are  F i e d l e r ' s (1967) c o n t i n g e n c y  theory.  Leadership  research  leadership  situational  of  i n t e r a c t i o n of  of  Two  study;  on  F i e d l e r (1967) and  theory  the  parameters  (2) House's (1971) path-goal  Based  upon  1974).  present  those  t h e o r i e s of l e a d e r s h i p  specific  £  with  s t u d i e s of  Approach  contingent  Fiedler's C o n t i n g e n c y T h e o r y of  structure  f i n d i n g s from most field  personality  Fiedler and which  variables  Chemers  postulates  group  (1974) p r o p o s e d  that  f a v o u r a b i l i t y i n t e r a c t to  and  leader  predict  a  motivation  effective  and  ineffective leaders.  The  leader's  Co-worker co-worker  (LPC) in  relationship co-worker motivated.  motive  hierarchy  scale.  Leaders  positive  motivated in An  negative  terms and  who  (high those  terms  extensive  is m e a s u r e d  body  (low  describe  LPC who  LPC  by  the  Least  Preferred  their  least  preferred  leaders) describe  leaders)  of l i t e r a t u r e  are their  are  assumed least  assumed  to  be  preferred to  be  task  i n d i c a t e s that the r e l a t i o n s h i p  - 54 -  motivated  leader  dynamics,  more  morale,  and  manner. task  manner  likely  of the behave  (e.g.,  attentive with  to  c o n t r a s t , the  aspects to  more  concerned  more  In  inclined  is  task  in  conflict a  motivated  more  1984;  leader  and  with  1967;  and  task  and  interpersonal  maintaining  is more  directive,  Fiedler,  to  participative  concerned  structuring,  Chemers,  responsive  avoiding  behave  situation, in a  and  high  considerate  focused  on  success,  the  and  is  somewhat a u t o c r a t i c  Fiedler  S  Chemers,  1974;  R i c e , 1978).  Situational situation  enables  performance the  favourability the  (Fiedler,  quality  of  leader  1967).  followers g i v e the  goals  and  procedures  formal  eight  octants.  to  each  distinct  According  leader has  or  The low  effective;  for  (the  accomplishing  reward of  these  and  punish  situation of  to  which  over  of t h r e e  degree  the  the  subordinate variables:  of t r u s t  group's  followers) variables,  leadership  and  task  is lowest  theory  (1)  support  are  (Fiedler,  Fiedler  situations  clearly  the  task  when  leader-member  the leader has  1).  (Octant  the  eight  is h i g h e s t when  Alternatively,  the  situational  relations a r e p o o r , the t a s k is  task  in s i t u a t i o n s of moderate f a v o u r a b i l i t y  the r e l a t i o n s h i p motivated  derived  defined  little position power ( O c t a n t 8)  8)  the By  is h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d , and  p o s t u l a t e s t h a t in s i t u a t i o n s of h i g h  favourability  1967).  (1967)  which  to the t h e o r y , situational f a v o u r a b i l i t y  relations a r e g o o d ,  u n s t r u c t u r e d , and  3)  combination  relations  extent  influence  s u b s t a n t i a l position power ( O c t a n t  favourability  1967).  exert  the  l e a d e r ) , (2) task s t r u c t u r e (the d e g r e e to w h i c h  combinations  leader-member  to  as  (3) position power ( t h e d e g r e e to w h i c h the leader has  authority  dichotomizing  defined  It is a  leader-member  which  specified), and  is  (Octants  motivated (Octants  leader is more e f f e c t i v e .  (Fiedler, 1,2,  leader 4,  5,  is  6 and  and most 7),  - 55 -  The (e.g.,  contingency  Ashour,  the  1973;  has  Controversy  conceptual  theory Graen,  Orris,  the  surrounded of the  meaning  l e a d e r s h i p has  of  LPC  Graen, A l v a r e s , O r r i s ,  House  &  1983).  Baetz, Fiedler  criticisms and  measure,  the  hypothesized supporting  years  (e.g.,  1973,  evidence  for  published  Vecchio  1977;  1975)  the  the  for  multitude  and  failed  of  1970;  number  various  Green  the  Chemers & Rice,  &  Nebecker,  Shiflett, replied  1972;  by  1973;  to  most  At  tests  the  (1979,  have  investigations applied  (e.g.,  1977; Singh, of  the  S  Orris, model.  support  of  the  &  & O'Brien, Shiflett  &  there  Baetz,  and  found  both  llgen,  1969;  1974;  Rice &  Nealey,  are  1979).  Alvares  However,  have  the  1972)  only  three  While  the model in s e v e n  manipulations  p.381)  assessed  have  O'Brien,  present,  (House  Graen,  that  llgen  have  and  (1972) s u p p o r t e d  support  Baetz  studies  Fielder,  1971;  model.  Skrzypek  of  octants  non-supporting  to  and  partial  recent  effectiveness  specification  has  v a r i o u s o c t a n t s , that the t h e o r y has  More  the  and  1977)  H u n t , 1967,  studies  House  of  model,  1973,  t h e s e f a i l u r e s to methodological  theory.  contingency  1977;  1967,  contingency  octants,  (1977)  attributed  of the  Kerr,  complete t e s t s of the t h e o r y  eight  1973).  S  large  Fiedler,  f i n d i n g s of C h e m e r s a n d the  a  relationships  & Nebecker,  Chemers,  Martella,  1971b,  Shiflett,  1971;  ( e . g . , A s h o u r , 1973;  Schriesheim  (1971a,  debate  the d e b a t e o v e r h i s model c o n t i n u e s .  Through  Green  1979;  S  intense  Alvares,  basic validity  situational f a v o u r a b l e n e s s dimension 1974;  &  generated  (1971)  the of and  Fiedler  (1978)  inadequate  to test  concluded,  theoretical  given  the  predictions for  some p r e d i c t i v e power.  the  meta-analytic  contingency techniques  theory to  of  various  leader Fiedler  - 56 -  based  studies.  meta-analysis  For  of the  instance,  Strube  and  Garcia  (1981),  in  contingency  model,  found  all b u t  octants  three  s e v e n were f u l l y s u p p o r t e d However, V e c c h i o in  selection  not be  data from both criticized  based  found  theory.  this  interpretation  Fiedler  (1984)  the  She  in  that  the  procedure  should  be  and  of  the  studies  conflicting  r a t h e r the  recommended  standardized  a  individual  majority that  In  ways  of biases  more  rigorous  o c t a n t s of only  the  partially  evidence  substantial  some  and  field s t u d i e s .  for a variety  results.  studies testing  concluded  its t e s t i n g  laboratory and study  of  a f u n c t i o n of the model i t s e l f b u t  inconsistency testing  of 38  Crehan  supported  (1983) has  of s t u d i e s and  meta-analysis model,  by  their  may  amount of  in  which  the  in o r d e r to a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s  the  mode I'.s v a l i d i t y .  House's Path-Goal The affects  T h e o r y of  path-goal the  theory  motivation  Leadership  of l e a d e r s h i p f o c u s e s  and  satisfaction  t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s of E v a n s House and  of  (1970),  his associates (House,  on  leader  subordinates.  the t h e o r y  1971;  how  House  &  has  Based  behaviour on  the  been e x t e n d e d  Dessler,  1974;  by  House  &  M i t c h e l l , 1974).  The  theory  behaviour they to  see  is a c c e p t a b l e it as e i t h e r an  future  "leader  satisfaction"  behaviour  satisfaction (2)  consists  will  and  the  two  basic  satisfying  (Filley, be  &  motivational  to  Kerr, the  contingent  environment  First,  to the  of s a t i s f a c t i o n o r as  House,  needs  propositions.  to s u b o r d i n a t e s  immediate s o u r c e  of s u b o r d i n a t e  i t complements  of  of  on  1976,  extent  effective  subordinates  extent  by  that  instrumental  p.254). that  "leader  (1)  Second, it makes  performance  and  providing  the  - 57  coaching, effective  guidance,  support,  p e r f o r m a n c e and  o r in t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t " to House  those  (Filley,  (1971, p. 324),  personal  payoffs  which  and  rewards  may  otherwise  by  clarifying  is composed  subordinate  subordinate  and  utilized  the  two of  version  theory  leader  of the  behaviour:  oriented. lead  to  the  task  leader's  to  motivation  subordinates  p.254).  According  the and  to make the  reducing  interactive  satisfaction:  the  path  barriers,  components leader  variables.  initial  initiating  to and  which  behaviour,  Each  of  these  behaviour  and  (House,  1974)  directive,  theory,  statement of path-goal  structure  & Mitchell,  supportive,  According  1976,  for  below.  of  (House  three  and  Although  dimensions  representative  l a c k i n g in  it and  situational  components is b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d  behaviour.  necessary  satisfaction.  of  motivation  perceptions,  Leader  are  f o r goal attainment,  to i n c r e a s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e r s o n a l  influence  be  House, & K e r r ,  to s u b o r d i n a t e s  theory  which  the leader's motivational f u n c t i o n s a r e to i n c r e a s e  p a y o f f s e a s i e r to t r a v e l  Path-goal  -  subordinate  of  consideration  1971),  the  as  current  i n c l u d e s f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of  participative,  each  theory  these  and  achievement-  leadership  satisfaction  under  styles  different  will task  structures.  Subordinate path-goal  theory,  expectancy, choosing ates  Serving  subordinate  the  maximal  work  probability  as  perceptions  performance-to-reward  between  assess  perceptions.  intervening  c o n s i s t of  expectancy, and  effort  that  the  a  and given  minimal level  variables  in  effort-to-performance valence.  work of  That  effort,  effort  will  i s , in  subordinlead  to  - 58 -  s u c c e s s f u l task completion expectancy), desirable  the  p. 145).  probability  outcomes  expectancy),  and  The  effort and  the  theory  perceptions  and  moderate the satisfaction  to  Kerr,  that  proposes and  variables.  relationship  and  with satisfy  1977).  between  their  outcome  i f the  can  (Yukl,  to  1981,  increase  valence  probabilities,  greater  factors  are  hypothesized  the e f f e c t s of leader b e h a v i o u r  and  (2)  These  are:  (1)  cope  the  House,  S  to accomplish  Kerr,  1976;  i n c l u d e needs  extrinsic rewards), experience)  the  personal  work  task goals  Schriesheim  (e.g.,  &  needs f o r  a b i l i t y to p e r f o r m  and  to  and  the work e n v i r o n m e n t and  must  characteristics  ( e . g . , job s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e , a n d  (valence)  expectancy  situational  (Filley,  achievement, a f f i l i a t i o n , and  lead  result.  subordinate  Subordinate  will  (performance-reward  leader  of s u b o r d i n a t e s .  needs  (effort-performance  completion  outcomes  of each  increase  subordinate the  s u c c e s s f u l task  that  Two  motivation  which  of task goals  undesirable  desirability  clarify  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  and  and  attainment  h i g h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n will  Situational  demands  and  the task  personality traits  (e.g.,  locus of c o n t r o l , self esteem).  The  e n v i r o n m e n t i n c l u d e s f a c t o r s not within s u b o r d i n a t e s ' c o n t r o l ,  which n e v e r t h e l e s s a f f e c t t h e i r a b i l i t y to p e r f o r m t h e i r n e e d s ( H o u s e & D e s s l e r , 1974). in  the e n v i r o n m e n t a r e the task  the o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d  In e s s e n c e , by  the  the p r i m a r y  path-goal  characteristics  theory of  e f f e c t i v e l y and  T h r e e important  but  to s a t i s f y  contingency  factors  s t r u c t u r e , the formal a u t h o r i t y system  of  work g r o u p .  suggests  subordinates  that leader b e h a v i o u r , and  the  work  modified  environment.  - 59 -  influences subordinate can  result  in  higher  p e r c e p t i o n s of v a l e n c e a n d motivation  and  expectancies,  satisfaction.  Based  on  which this  then  theory,  s e v e r a l h y p o t h e s e s h a v e been a d v a n c e d .  The  p r e p o n d e r a n c e of s t u d i e s h a v e f o c u s e d  d e r i v e d from the t h e o r y . task  structure  (task  oriented,  satisfaction complex,  and  and  to c l a r i f y and  the  more  expectancies.  That  S Slocum,  Kerr, 1980;  1977; Sims  However, i t s h o u l d  be  &  noted  1975;  and  between and  i s , when  tasks  are  received  help  G r e e n e , 1979; &  Szilagyi,  1975;  mixed  Stinson  (e.g.,  Greene,  1979;  House,  £  Johnson, support  is an  individual 1971;  (e.g., 1974;  Schriesheim  that s e v e r a l s t u d i e s p r o v i d e  leadership and  satisfaction  S Dessler,  1976;  that u n d e r ambiguous t a s k c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e  performance  subordinates  support  House  Murphy,  task  nonrepetitive,  i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r job  has  the  instrumental  subordinate  l e a d e r s h i p would  Schriesheim  r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n s i d e r a t e  hypotheses  p r o p o s e s that the lower  behaviour  thereby  hypothesis  t e s t i n g two  relationship  instrumental  relationships, This  Downey, S h e r i d a n ,  postulation  the  leader  expectancies.  Schriesheim,  positive  ambiguous,  &  first hypothesis  structuring)  path-goal  Schriesheim  The  on  &  1975). f o r the  a b s e n c e of a  task  satisfaction  House  &  Dessler,  1974).  The  theory  subordinates more  are  f u r t h e r p r o p o s e s t h a t , when t a s k s are h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d , likely  s t r u c t u r e (House  viewed  as  satisfaction  being to  to &  resent  Dessler,  their 1974).  excessively directive the  subordinate  p e r f o r m a n c e leads to r e w a r d s  s u p e r v i s o r s ' attempts  and  and  (House  Further  task  restrictive,  lower  S Dessler,  initiate  s t r u c t u r e may resulting  expectancy 1974).  to  This  that  in  be  lower  his/her  leads to  the  - 60 -  second  hypothesis:  emotional  oriented,  positively  related  structured (e.g.,  under  Sheridan,  leadership  to s u b o r d i n a t e  satisfaction  Downey,  conflicting  structure  on  satisfaction  hypothesis  Sheridan S  J o h n s o n , 1975; S z i l a g y i  The  S  tasks,  supported  than  &  different  Szilagyi,  findings  regarding between  expectancies  theory's They  Von  may  1975; S t i n s o n  t h e moderating structuring  be  path-goal  1977). of  and  Von  and its derivatives  c o n s t r u c t s than  concluded  research  Glinow,  Schriesheim  scale  that  is n e e d e d theory  the other better  due  to  effects  leader the  in o r d e r  have  nonsupportive  In a n examination  path-goal Glinow were  scales,  £  and  both  and  inadequacies  and  o f t h e e f f e c t s of  found  that  behaviour the  evaluate  research  SBDQ of the  and the LBDQ-XII.  adequately  operational ized  the merits  utilizing  of the  appropriate  d e p e n d e n t , a n d moderator  (Greene,  (Schriesheim £ Schriesheim,  variables  operationalizations  independent,  supportive  o f task  behaviour  leader  the L B D Q  to s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  More r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g (task feedback,  (1977)  of leadership. Subsequent  yielded  theory's  poorer  designed  o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e theory's variables  1974;  £ Sims, 1974).  operationalizations  constructs, structure  £  under  Dessler,  d i f f e r e n c e s in o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s o f t h e theory's leader b e h a v i o u r (Schriesheim  more  in s e v e r a l s t u d i e s  House  £  (socio-  to be  and expectancies  1975;  1975; Sims  supportive  is h y p o t h e s i z e d  has been  Slocum,  Slocum,  the relationship and  structured  considerate)  tasks. This  Downey,  highly  1979; J o h n s ,  1978) a n d  1980) r e s u l t s . .  a broader  r a n g e o f task  dimensions  t a s k v a r i e t y , o p p o r t u n i t y to deal with o t h e r s ) ( S c h r i e s h e i m  £ D e N i s i , 1981) a n d o f leader b e h a v i o u r s  (upward  influencing,  achievement  - 61  oriented, 1982) of  contingent  approval,  have yielded results  path-goal  concluded  theory.  that  merit and  "the  Accordingly, basic  s t r e s s in the  to  job  logic  (e.g.,  Quinn,  Lirtzman, appropriate  reported  conflict LaRocco  job  when  role  and  subordinates  greater  job  conflict  in  was  departments findings  styles  people  were  feel  to  (1981,  p.595)  have s u b s t a n t i a l  buffer  3725  in a  United  that  self  Finally,  to  and  Katz  (1977)  the  & the  negative (1976)  situation,  task  study  role  Navy  support,  a  greater found  behaviour  department  subsequent  House,  of  personnel, defined  as  p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with  esteem,  structuring  a  States  leader  Kahn,  Murphy  job In  the  discovering  and  their  reduced  1975;  Rizzo, on  been  leaving  alleviate  performance.  work g o a l s , was  related  or  Schriesheim about  of  1976;  focused  has  anxiety,  & Stinson,  Miles, has  anxious  leader  and  likelihood  Johnson  might  concluded  higher  role a m b i g u i t y  tension  1964;  with  to a c h i e v e  confirmed  1972;  among  (1978)  directly  seems  and  greater  example,  organization.  was  a  research  positively  present,  DeNisi  premises  e x p l a i n i n g l e a d e r s h i p phenomena."  related  that  For  satisfaction, the  job  Rizzo,  ambiguity  Jones  Wendler,  underlying  and  theory  conflict  Rosenthal,  stress.  helping  remain  the  role  Considerable  correlates and  &  &  leadership  that  direction  of  and  House  Snoek,  1970).  of  form  effectiveness  organization  effects  of  S  punitive)(Fulk  U n d e r C o n d i t i o n s of S t r e s s  dissatisfaction,  performance  and  Schriesheim  u s e f u l n e s s in p r e d i c t i n g and  Job  Wolfe,  arbitrary  s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t i v e of the  Leadership  linked  -  tendency  when in  affective university  effectiveness.  laboratory  experiment  to  in  These which  - 62  students  were  hired  considerate  leaders  Under  affective  high  related be  to task  positively  serves  employee  (e.g..  Vrendenburgh,  The  A  heavy  or  tasks  low  leader  a  source  House,  of  that a f f e c t i v e  increased  equipment with  leader  that  satisfaction &  when of 89  that  the  conflict  high  For  middle-lower  consideration  support  S  example. S e e r s and  his  exhibited  the  and  found  those  with  high  leader job  consideration  support  satisfaction  tended  to a c t as  associated  mitigate the h e i g h t e n e d  The who  organizational  exhibit considerate  t h e i r new  leaders.  with  leaders As  while  it was  Abdel-Halim  a b u f f e r against role c o n f l i c t or  literature  b e h a v i o u r may  work environment.  Hall a n d  a  satisfied those  (1982) o b s e r v e d ,  while  d e t e r i o r a t i o n in  role a m b i g u i t y ,  also  indi-  positive for  f e e l i n g s of a n x i e t y a s s o c i a t e d with  socialization  in a  experiencing  than  consideration  with  considerate  personnel  Midwest  supervisors  role c o n f l i c t  satisfaction  managerial  in  leader  Sheridan  1966;  level of role c o n f l i c t o r role a m b i g u i t y were more i n t r i n s i c a l l y low  was  the  high  with  would  considerate  subordinates'  firm  positively  for  supervisor  manufacturing  conditions.  consideration  and  Kahn,  & Sims, 1974).  agency  or  study.  found  Katz  conflict  u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s of role a m b i g u i t y a n d  similar s t u d y  working  social  1981;  Szilagyi  has  structuring  s t r u c t u r i n g was  for increased  research  under  affective  hypothesis  desire  federal government  behaviour.  viduals  as  1979;  supervisor  large,  high  conditions,  empirical  (1983) f o u n d  large  their  conflict  coding  in e i t h e r the field or l a b o r a t o r y  behaviour  a  under  performance.  Considerable  in  and  perform  r e l a t e d to the  not s u p p o r t e d  colleagues  to  -  intrinsic  it failed  to  role c o n f l i c t .  suggests  that  leaders  facilitate newcomers' i n t e g r a t i o n into Nougaim  (1968), f o r example, f o u n d  63  -  that  the  year  of  primary  concern  employment  organization.  Katz  among  was  young  getting  (1978)  has  -  AT&T  established  also  shown  stage of job  l o n g e v i t y , employees a p p e a r  that  establish  help  reassurance,  and  during  initial  the  supervisory feedback  and  stage  coaching,  helps  solidify  contribution  psychological  scheme of t h i n g s  1976;  (Hall,  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l assimilation p r o c e s s leadership 1976,  climate  displays  work  receptive of  new  to role  personal  job  the  features  acceptance,  environments.  positive  and  by  socialization  Thus process,  interpersonal  sense of c o n t r i b u t i o n a n d  worth,  to f i n d  in  the  Hence  the  when  the  1980;  t h e i r o v e r a l l niche  Van  Maanen, 1976).  proceed  degree  of  more smoothly  consideration  (Van  facilitate role  l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s that s t r u c t u r i n g leader  i n d i v i d u a l s ' task  expectations  s t r e s s f u l job s i t u a t i o n s . has  highly  initial  support,  should  high  in the  first  Maanen,  p.96).  In summary, the can  a  accepted  socialization  and  Katz,  and  their  organizational  newcomers to e s t a b l i s h a acceptable,  that  their  the  to feel more s e c u r e and  within  feelings  within  of  managers d u r i n g  no  effect  on  ambiguous  task  structuring  leader  adjustment.  In  interpersonal  and  adjustment  alleviating  Considerate  behaviour contrast,  adjustment  of  adjustment  The has  anxiety  literature  no  e f f e c t on  considerate  leader  subordinates  as  ( e . g . , A b d e l - H a l i m , 1982;  by  associated  with  and  defining initially  the other  hand,  performance  under  further  suggests  that  individuals' interpersonal behaviour  evidenced  ment of p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s between s u p e r i o r and conditions  performance  leader b e h a v i o u r , on  i n d i v i d u a l s ' task conditions.  and  behaviour  enhances  the  in t h e i r e s t a b l i s h -  subordinate under  S e e r s et a l . , 1983).  stressful  - 64  A  LITERATURE  REVIEW O F  -  GROUP  PRODUCTIVITY  Overview  According  to S c h r i e s h e i m  and  h i s a s s o c i a t e s (1979, p.107):  S u b s t a n t i a l p r o g r e s s in r e s e a r c h on l e a d e r s h i p and management can be facilitated b y g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n to the role of l e a d e r s h i p in the c o n t e x t of small g r o u p s and a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the interdependence w h i c h e x i s t s between l e a d e r s and members of groups.  They  p e r s u a s i v e l y a r g u e t h a t the  is important  to u n d e r s t a n d  groups  are  or  understanding play  a  appointed  role  the g r o u p s t h e y  to  manage  in d e t e r m i n i n g  manage a n d  relationships  within  groups  lead and  they  for several reasons.  of g r o u p p r o c e s s e s  critical  those to  them  and  the  l e a d e r s emerge from  therefore  the  structure, direction,  Finally,  extent  they  l e a d e r s are understand  focussed (Hunt,  effectiveness, recent on  the  Osborn,  consequence  &  of t h i s  Schriesheim, focus  has  dyad  1978; been  be  for including  leadership  leader-subordinate  will  the  an  the  goals  nature  a c c o r d i n g l y ( S c h r i e s h e i m , Mowday, & S t o g d i l l , 1979,  reasons  they  and  influenced by  behaviour  leadership  better equipped  compelling  require  of  maintaining p r o d u c t i v e social  process,  these  groups  in o r d e r to be e f f e c t i v e . S e c o n d , l e a d e r s  in e s t a b l i s h i n g and  groups.  First,  l e a d e r s and  influence  Despite  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  to modify  groups  research rather  Stogdill,  has  than 1974).  separation  of  the One  the  of  this  their  own  p.107).  in s t u d i e s of predominantly work  group  unfortunate  leader-subordinate  relations from t h e i r social c o n t e x t , d e s p i t e well e s t a b l i s h e d e v i d e n c e  of the  - 65 -  importance of g r o u p f a c t o r s in i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o u r Shaw,  1976).  While  group  as  important  Graen  and  (1967)  Cashman's  contingency  group 1985;  an  some  (1975)  theory),  Schriesheim, variables by  The this  research literature  dyad  only  few  The  &  consider  House's  vertical a  present  linkage recent  the  study  the  (1971)  Schriesheim,  investigating  primary  path-goal  theory,  studies  1980;  role of g r o u p  theory, Fiedler's  have  examined  the  &  Todor,  examination  is r e v i e w e d .  influence concept norms  of  the  of g r o u p will  be  the  on  groups  present  is v a s t .  study  A  would  comprehensive  fill  a  volume  Specifically, work  group  norms and  this on  the  section initially organizational  determinants  explicated. Finally,  empirical  discusses  review  in  itself.  of c o n f o r m i t y research  Influence of the Work G r o u p on A d j u s t m e n t to the  Several i n f l u e n c e on (Burns, Hall,  researchers  1955;  1976;  Chadwick-Jones,  Hackman,  1976;  Katz,  the  production to  low  and  described.  Newcomers'  Organization  have observed  newcomers' a d a p t a t i o n  potent  Next,  to  related  present  the  newcomers.  h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e norms in i n d u s t r i a l work g r o u p s will be  The  of  p r o d u c t i v i t y norms in  A c c o r d i n g l y , o n l y the g r o u p l i t e r a t u r e that p e r t a i n s d i r e c t l y to the topic  work  and  Podsakoff  extends  1976;  context.  literature in  theories  (e.g..  Greene  1980).  the l e a d e r - s u b o r d i n a t e  of  factor  variables (e.g.,  group  leadership  {e.g.. H a r e ,  that the  to t h e i r  1964; 1980;  new  Dubin Louis,  work  group  has  a  major  organizational environment et  a l . , 1976;  1980b; V a n  Evan,  1963;  Maanen,  1976,  - 66 -  1978). F o r example, e t h n o g r a p h i c Ceer,  H u g h e s , & S t r a u s s , 1961) a n d of C o a s t  1955) h a v e against and that  vividly  described  t h e extreme  as a s o u r c e peer  groups  newcomer  cushion  influences with  manage  support  V a n Maanen  versions  identity  and  by  according  group  1976;  of "reality  to Feldman  (Becker,  (Dornbush,  can a c t as a accompanying  shock"  defense training  (1968)  note  accompanying  Thus,  helping  t h e work  the  process  them  by  navigate  group  profoundly  providing  individuals  a  path  through  (1978, p.20) notes, l e a r n i n g d u r i n g socialization  to l e a r n  Hall,  recruits  (1969) a n d S c h e i n  strictly  the  1969;  Newcomers  turn  information a b o u t  t h e informal Louis,  "does  on t h e b a s i s of o f f i c i a l a n d available  to o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e in i n t e r p r e t i n g  and  students  ( V a n Maanen, 1976, p.92).  t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , to seek  Graen,  Hall  change.  of job r e q u i r e m e n t s . "  behaviours,  Guard  regimentation  support.  the impact  in a social v a c u u m  work g r o u p by  and  medical  with t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d p r o v i d e role models to help  boundary passage process  not o c c u r  t h e work  t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l socialization  social  As  how  suppression  o f emotional  newcomer's e n c o u n t e r the  s t u d i e s of new  to o t h e r  the role demands  o f the dictated  appropriate attitudes  networks  1980b;  members  (e.g.,  Schein,  Feldman,  1968).  and 1981;  Therefore,  (1981, p.314):  T h e w o r k g r o u p is a p a r t i c u l a r l y important f a c t o r in d e t e r m i n i n g how closely new r e c r u i t s a d j u s t to g r o u p norms a n d v a l u e s . The g r o u p c a n f i l t e r o u t information t h a t c o n t r a d i c t s dominant v a l u e s , so t h a t v a l u e s may be more r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d by newcomers. The w o r k g r o u p c a n also e x e r t some c o n t r o l o v e r t h e amount of information new r e c r u i t s g e t , a n d can a d v i s e r e c r u i t s about t h e credibility of different sources of information.  - 67 -  Thus  newcomers  experience  have  own  personal  their  dependent  upon  to what" a n d  A  who  not  yet  had  maps  of  a  chance  the  members of t h e i r work g r o u p s  particularly  critical  role  of  the  f o r data about  group  is to  In  interactions,  The  a r e often  than  following  productivity  review  Schriesheim  norms  performance  their  are  of  and  the  such  a more  potent  examines  influence  managerial,  "what leads  the  nature  as  p.1512).  a  normative  on  leader-group  p.109) o b s e r v e d  on  or  individual  and  organizational  and  heavily  as levels of o u t p u t  evidence  h i s c o l l e a g u e s (1979,  individual,  section  research  act  through  are  "what's good in the o r g a n i z a t i o n " (Hackman, 1976,  quality.  "group  develop  organization,  r e f e r e n t f o r a p p r o p r i a t e t y p e s of w o r k b e h a v i o u r and  to  determinants  that group  factors". of  group  performance  of its  literature  (e.g.,  norms.  C r o u p Norms f o r P r o d u c t i v i t y  The members  influence is well  A l l e n , 1975; Sherif,  "interaction  behaviour  1952;  and,  in  the  (e.g.,  attitudes  social  has  tends  to  is  made  1960;  the  a d o p t to r e g u l a t e and  Feldman,  1984,  p. 47;  the  produce  p.223). of  Newcomb, 1958,  consistently  decrease  can  1969,  and  psychology  been  extreme,  use  informal r u l e s that g r o u p s behaviour  the  it  (Vroom,  extensive  the  C a r t w r i g h t S Zander,  persons  patterns"  phenomenon,  in  Specifically,  among  behaviour,  upon  documented  Asch,  1936).  of g r o u p s  In  observed  variance highly  of  1976;  in  their  for  group  regularize group  Hackman,  that  standardized  accounting  concept  1961 ;  this  norms, members'  Shaw,  1976;  - 68 -  Vroom, is,  1969).  Norms are created and enforced by group members.  through interaction,  group members acquire and transmit  That  information  concerning the actions which will be rewarded or punished (Vroom, 1969, p.223). Thus norms establish the basis for social control in the group. particular  they  define  the  kind of behaviour  which  is necessary  In  for or  consistent with the realization of goals adopted by the group (Hare, 1976, p.19).  Croup  norms  regarding  within organizations ( e . g . ,  productivity  Lott  S Lott,  have  been  the  1965; Vroom,  primary  focus  1969). Codes with  regard to appropriate levels of production are manifest "in the outcomes of group  activity,  specifically,  limited  within-group  variance  in  individual  performance... as well as in such aspects of the group process as the fact that group members attend to the level of performance of others in their group and consistently reward those performing at appropriate levels while punishing those performing at inappropriate levels" (Vroom, 1969, p.223).  Determinants of Conformity to Productivity  There adherence  are to  characterized  several  circumstances  performance by  norms.  friendliness,  associated  First,  cooperation,  it  is  Norms  with  group  postulated  interpersonal  members'  that  groups  attraction  and  related indications of group cohesiveness exert strong influence upon their members to behave in accordance with work norms and standards 1976, p.201).  (Shaw,  Since members value the interpersonal rewards available  in  highly cohesive g r o u p s , they are unwilling to risk losing these rewards by  -  violating  group  norms  control  the  For  example,  versus  low  c o n d i t i o n s of  in  constructing  of  their  laboratory study  productivity  Specifically,  members  high  conducted  versus  norms were c r e a t e d  groups  cardboard  composed  of  checkerboards,  female  cohesiveness  was  manipulated  by  to a n o t h e r  and  substituting  prewritten  production norms. the  However,  same  that  intercepting  a  effect  for  replication  participants, Berkowitz cohesive  a  (1954) groups  their  both  production  was  manipulated  of  different found than  by  notes  sent  low  high  in  the  task,  and  significantly the  low  d i r e c t i o n of the p r o d u c t i v i t y norm. that the d i f f e r e n t i a l c o n f o r m i t y a f t e r the i n d u c t i o n of norms had  et an  ended.  and  case  of low  of  to The  to h a v e  the high  production  conformity norms,  experiment  extended  was  in  reaching  using  production  conformity  groups,  low  one  designed  in  cohesive  groups  male  period, the  irrespective  M o r e o v e r , the r e s u l t s c l e a r l y  of h i g h  from  norm.  al.  greater  cohesive  on  productivity  production  Schacter  in the  in the case  cohesiveness  and  the  level of p r o d u c t i o n .  of g r o u p  s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y f o r the low  In  undergraduates  sets of notes  i s , increasing production  decreasing  the  direction  high  manipulation.  t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y c r e a t e d norms t e n d e d  norms and  and  his  the c o n g e n i a l i t y of o t h e r g r o u p members, while  i n f l u e n c e members to i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e  effects,  and  cohesiveness  three  norms  hypothesized  behaviour  Schacter  experimental  direction  results indicated  evidence  that  by  regarding  member  so  by  low  instructions of  Some r e s e a r c h  norm.  in a  (1951),  colleagues  p.252).  that h i g h l y c o h e s i v e g r o u p s a r e u s u a l l y able to  behaviour  a p p r o x i m a t e s the g r o u p  -  1981,  (Cummings,  is a v a i l a b l e w h i c h s u g g e s t s effectively  69  high of  the  indicated persisted  - 70 -  Similar  findings  conformance survey  to p r o d u c t i v i t y  techniques.  factory, but,  he f o u n d  as  In  members.  and  a  groups  suggest  that  a  study  fairly  o f 228  highly  between  c o h e s i v e n e s s on  groups  negative  of variance  more  work  in a  machinery  relationship  in t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y  i n low c o h e s i v e  likely  (1954) u s i n g  cohesiveness and productivity,  strong  to w o r k e r s  were  level as t h e i r c o - w o r k e r s .  of group  norms were r e p o r t e d b y S e a s h o r e  t h e amount  In comparison  cohesive  the effects  no r e l a t i o n s h i p  expected,  cohesiveness  high  regarding  to p r o d u c e  between of g r o u p  g r o u p s , w o r k e r s in  at o r about  t h e same  Collectively, these laboratory a n d field  cohesive  groups  are  effective  in  findings  enforcing  the  performance norms adopted by g r o u p s .  In  addition  to g r o u p  cohesiveness, the research  that member a c c e p t a n c e o f g r o u p - s u p p l i e d of  four  greater  interrelated the tendency  information, 1952;  factors.  leading  to g r e a t e r  Hare,  holding  the t a s k , t h e  to r e l y on the g r o u p  as a s o u r c e o f  norms  self  &  Weiss,  a member  a  group  Asch,  Rakestraw  S  is a t t h e t a s k , o r t h e (e.g.,  1981; R o s e n b e r g ,  confidence,  (e.g.,  1969a, 1969b;  i s , the greater the conformity  1976; R a k e s t r a w member  to g r o u p  1957; K i e s l e r ,  t h e less competent  the group  constant  ambiguous  conformity  B l a k e , H e l s o n , S Mouton,  more competent  p e r f o r m a n c e norms is a f u n c t i o n  t h e more  f o r t h e member  Weiss, 1981). S e c o n d ,  1976;  First,  evidence suggests  member  Hackman,  1961). will  Third, t e n d to  a c c e p t g r o u p norms to t h e e x t e n t that s/he p e r c e i v e s t h e g r o u p as b e i n g a credible  source  o f information  (e.g.,  Hackman,  1976; R o s e n b e r g ,  1961)  a n d / o r as h a v i n g a h i g h e r s t a t u s ( e . g . , L e f k o w i t z , B l a k e , & Mouton, 1955; Raven  £  French,  1958).  Finally,  the greater  the unanimity  of  group  members' v i e w s , t h e more a n i n d i v i d u a l will a c c e p t information p r o v i d e d b y  - 71 -  the g r o u p  (e.g., Allen  influence  of  these  goals a n d  standards  a group,  before  tions t h r o u g h  The  S L e v i n e , 1971). A c c o r d i n g  factors may  the  on  member  following  sections  1965;  classic  had  an  on  Roethlisberger  was  opportunity  of t h e i r  group  determined  the  restriction  norms  1939;  at Western  French  1955).  Coch  and  lowered  was  &  1952;  and  Dickson They  productivity  that has  Zander,  French their  no  more  (1958) d e s c r i b e d a  1949;  (1948),  speed  difficult  case  the  norms.  in w h i c h  Roy,  rate and  the  (e.g.,  Whyte,  1952;  former  the g r o u p  had  this  in  the  systematic,  in the  manufacture  describe  in the  S French,  Viteles,  one.  1955).  found  Coch  exerted  Lott  of  (1939)  1953;  how  strong  following a c h a n g e to a new  than  literature  often b e e n c o r r o b o r a t e d  f o r example,  productivity  to t h i s r e d u c e d  to  demonstration  Electric.  of i n d i v i d u a l  in the  of o u t p u t  Roy,  quantitative  Roethlisberger  equipment, a finding  1958;  which  expecta-  related  reported  restriction  Dickson,  first  by  experiments  Dubin,  conformity  to d e v e l o p  research  s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e ( e . g . , A r g y r i s , 1957;  workers  performance  high group productivity  organized &  perhaps provided  course  discuss  productivity  focused  and  of telephone  of  P r o d u c t i v i t y Norms  of g r o u p  have predominantly  phenomenon  has  maintenance o f low and  Observations  The  acceptance  be most p r o n o u n c e d e a r l y in a member's t e n u r e in  Low  Lott,  individual's  ( 1 9 7 6 ) , the  experience.  e s t a b l i s h m e n t and  &  an  to Hackman  a  1948; Whyte,  group  pressure  of for  w o r k method  Similarly,  established a  Newcomb production  -  norm of 50 u n i t s p e r d a y , attempts  to  do  output declined work  group  so  were  b u t one so  -  72  worker  successfully  wanted to e x c e e d quelled  below the 50 u n i t norm. T h e  resulted  in the employee  by  her  subsequent  doubling her  the norm. peers  that  Her her  d i s s o l u t i o n of the  output  within  a  short  time p e r i o d .  The  restriction  "non-formal groups.  behaviour"  Lupton  and  members  has  and  been  as  Burawoy,  through  adherence  group to  of  (1958)  observed  pressures  informal  group  Haraszti,  "quota 1978;  and  by  sanctions  norms. play  1952).  in  called  industrial  controlling  There  of monotonous  secure are  the work  from  many  to hamper management  restriction",  Roy,  has  floor b e h a v i o u r , noted  p r e o c c u p a t i o n s to r e l i e v e the s t r a i n  "goldbricking", 1979;  Dubin  consistently  a c c o u n t s of the v a r i o u s games w o r k e r s such  what  promote a sense of job s e c u r i t y  provide nonwork  tasks,  output  (1976), in h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of s h o p  that work g r o u p s pace,  of  and  "chiselling"  For instance,  in the  their  detailed control (e.g., practice  chiselling:  Work g r o u p s e s t a b l i s h a n d e n f o r c e c o n v e n t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the manner in w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s o u g h t to r e p o r t t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e to management. T h e a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c e . . . i s that 'windfall' g a i n s that result from exploiting easy performance times not be r e p o r t e d as s u c h . T h e u n r e p o r t e d 'windfall' h o u r s a r e 'saved' a n d r e p o r t e d as time s p e n t on d i f f i c u l t t a s k s , where in f a c t little or n o t h i n g has a c t u a l l y been g a i n e d . T h e 'windfall' time also was u s e d to compensate f o r the d i m i n i s h e d o p p o r t u n i t y to e a r n t h a t was due to u n a n t i c i p a t e d a n d u n c o n t r o l l a b l e workflow interr u p t i o n s . . . [ C h i s e l l i n g ] is d e f e n d e d b y w o r k e r s on the g r o u n d that it i r o n s out f l u c t u a t i o n s in t h e i r e a r n i n g s a n d c o n c e a l s from management the e x i s t e n c e o f 'slack' p e r f o r m a n c e s t a n d a r d s , t h u s g i v i n g the w o r k e r s a d e g r e e of f l e x i b i l i t y in s e t t i n g a reasonable schedule (to them) and continuing the apparent overall r e l a t i o n s h i p between e f f o r t a n d r e w a r d . In o r d e r to maintain g r o u p i n f l u e n c e o v e r the level of i n d i v i d u a l e a r n i n g s , it is n e c e s s a r y , as many s t u d i e s h a v e shown, that  - 73 -  [chiselling] be supplemented by group influence o v e r the p r o c e d u r e f o r s e t t i n g work s t a n d a r d s on new jobs a n d on the p r o c e d u r e s f o r a l l o c a t i n g jobs among i n d i v i d u a l s . In s h o r t , work group influence on t h e r e w a r d - e f f o r t r e l a t i o n s h i p has been o b s e r v e d to r e l y f o r i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s , in many cases, on being c o m p r e h e n s i v e in its scope ( L u p t o n , 1976, p. 178).  H i g h P r o d u c t i v i t y Norms  While the  low p r o d u c t i v i t y norms  literature,  exerted  by  Informal  it would  co-workers  norms  can  restriction of output Maier  &  Hoffman,  be  have  fallacious  consistently  induce  a  (e.g., 1964).  For  to assume lead  higher  Coch  received  considerable that  t h e social  to t h e lowering  level  of  attention in pressures  of p r o d u c t i v i t y .  performance  rather  than  & F r e n c h , 1948; L a w r e n c e & Smith, 1955; example,  as  Vroom  (1969,  p.224)  has  observed:  T h e H a w t h o r n e e x p e r i m e n t s in t h e Relay A s s e m b l y room... showed that a small g r o u p o f w o r k e r s p l a c e d in an isolated e x p e r i m e n t a l e n v i r o n m e n t a c h i e v e d a h i g h level o f p r o d u c t i v i t y a n d showed a more o r less c o n t i n u a l i n c r e a s e d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d . While t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l design d i d not permit unequivocal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s f i n d i n g , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s a t t r i b u t e d i t , at least in p a r t , to t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a new set o f norms regarding b e h a v i o u r on the j o b . T h e s e norms were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h , r a t h e r t h a n a n t i t h e t i c a l t o , t h e economic o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e formal o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w h i c h the g r o u p was a p a r t .  In t h e y e a r s s i n c e t h e H a w t h o r n e e x p e r i m e n t s , a long has  added  increasing productivity summarizing Survey group  to t h e e v i d e n c e performance goals  of  that  peer  i f the the  group  system.  some o f t h e f i n d i n g s  Research  Centre,  in p r o d u c i n g  lower  i n f l u e n c e can play  accorded absence  norms For  obtained a  example, in field  highly  rates,  are  a strong  role in  congruent  with  Likert  (1956),  studies  significant  better  line of r e s e a r c h  by  the in  Michigan's  role to t h e work  interpersonal  relations.  - 74 -  more  favourable  productivity company.  attitudes  goals.  facilitation  with  various  collectivity  Seashore  provided measures  performance.  have  Finally,  the  of  employee  Ouchi  orientations  summary,  a  enforcing group  the  powerful  job  and  in  of  peer  (1981)  company,  that  work  on  individual  that  work  can  higher  life i n s u r a n c e  positively and  the  correlated  emphasis  enhances  on  individual  performance.  the  group  can  performance.  impede  and  organizational  strong  groups  importance in task  productivity  norms s u p p o r t i n g  were  satisfaction  suggests  and  s u p p o r t , goal emphasis,  group  notes  Japanese  literature  impact  restriction  (1966) f o u n d  by  f e e l i n g s of p e r s o n a l w o r t h a n d  In  the  In a s t u d y of 40 a g e n c i e s of a leading  Bowers and  work  toward  task  h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y can e n h a n c e  and  Croup  norms  performance, task  does  while  performance.  PERFORMANCE  Laboratory relationship  of  field  between  consideration) performance  and  and  leadership  are  (e.g., Greene,  diverse.  performance,  objective  productivity,  total  group  or  produced  subunit by  have  style  subordinates' 1977;  subordinate performance  actions  studies  Field  as  (e.g.,  behaviour,  an  outcome  studies  have  of  used  measures  and  salary  increase,  performance  (e.g.,  total  the g r o u p ,  initiating  examined  the  structure  and  particularly  their  M c C a l l & Lombardo, 1978). T h e  organizational  sales,  traditionally  measures  leader-subordinate global such  ratings as  the  job  of  interoverall  amount  of  summary  indices  of  work  absenteeism,  number  of  units  d o l l a r v a l u e of the group's o u t p u t ) ,  performance  - 75 -  evaluations by  peers  (e.g., quality  and  or  s u p e r i o r s with  r e s p e c t to a v a r i e t y  p e r c e p t i o n s of e f f o r t toward q u a l i t y a n d Greene,  1979;  Schriesheim,  Downey, & Slocum, 1975;  Measures typically  of  based  H u n t , 1971;  on  i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r f o r m a n c e on 1977;  Vecchio,  (i.e.,  specifications) (1979),  system,  the  task  f o r an  videotaped  the  adjustment  number  number  of  leaderless  task  group  two  1979;  Sheridan,  in  laboratory  an  experimental  of s p a r k  whose  involving  discussions of  Gilmore  three  judges  laboratory dimensions  In  who  of  to  leadership,  subordinate  subordinate behaviour have  the  and  considerable  both  Bales  on  codes  of  both  hour)  and  from  the  associates  i n t e r a c t i o n s in  (1950) (1)  category the  total (2)  the c o n s e n s u s  (quality).  qualitative  and  Thus,  in  quantitative  measured.  performance,  w h i c h h a v e been  bearing  1  his  performance:  correct  of t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e a r e t y p i c a l l y  addition  (e.g.,  f o r all 12 B a l e s c a t e g o r i e s ( q u a n t i t y ) and  determined  studies  are  experimental  deviated  coding  using  task  in  settings  the  task  (1969) m e a s u r e d  the a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e between the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s c o d i n g a n d of  studies  p l u g s a c c o r d i n g to  processed  Similarly,  dimensions  number of i n t e r a c t i o n s c o d e d  Campbell,  Stogdill,  Kavanagh  plugs  plugs  performance.  experimental  measured  of  self  (e.g.,  1979). F o r example, f o r an  specification sheets, Lowin, Hrapchak, and (i.e.,  to  S z i l a g y i & Sims, 1974).  performance  task i n v o l v i n g c l e a n i n g , f i l i n g , a n d  qualitative  S  ability  the j o b ) , a n d  q u a n t i t y of work  Mowday,  S t o g d i l l , 1972;  subordinate  Katz,  quantitative  dimensions  q u a n t i t y of work, d e p e n d a b i l i t y , a t t e n d a n c e ,  g e t a l o n g with o t h e r s , knowledge of work, i n i t i a t i v e on  1977;  of  largely  there  are  other  ignored and  leader-subordinate  aspects  yet which  relationships  of may  (Greene,  76  -  1977). Hence we  now  -  t u r n to a d i s c u s s i o n of s u b o r d i n a t e adjustment to  new  role d e m a n d s .  ADJUSTMENT  According specific stress,  to  Super  adjustments.  (1957),  McCrath  (1976,  adjustment  p.1384),  states that b e h a v i o u r in o r g a n i z a t i o n s  the task a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t a k e n a n d activities  are  relations  within  organizational and  general  performed, which  but those  newcomers,  at a  upon  minimum,  i n t e r p e r s o n a l d e m a n d s in t h e i r new  Task  Discussions by  is c o n t i n g e n t  the  behaviours  these  occur.  of  This  to a d a p t  his/her  Lofquist and  theory,  environment  "harmonious (Lofquist  this  implies  relationship &  characterized  Dawis,  implies  to b o t h  as  being  that  the  task  role.  Dawis  (1969), B h a g a t  individual  correspondence conditions  between  1969,  interpersonal  Adjustment  c o n c e p t of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between an to  role  s e t t i n g s in w h i c h  (1983), and  (1969) d e v e l o p e d a t h e o r y of w o r k adjustment w h i c h  According  of  upon  patterns  need  of  not only  (1976) a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e task adjustment component. Dawis  synthesis  in h i s d i s c u s s i o n  the b e h a v i o u r a l  also  is a  the  p.45).  reciprocally  and  which  can  individual This  suitable,  an be  and  harmonious that  Lofquist  and  is b a s e d on the  his/her  between  Graen  environment.  individual described  the  and as  environment"  relationship  i s , the  a  individual  is is  - 77 -  judged  suitable  by  his/her  environment  and  the environment  is j u d g e d  suitable by the individual.  A  basic  individual  assumption  seeks  to  made  by  achieve  Lofquist  and  maintain  individual enters a work environment is  directed  rewards  towards  of  relationship maintain failing  the  fulfilling  work  between  in this,  If  and  s/he  finds  environment.  when  an  e x p e r i e n c e s the a  the environment,  n o t , s/he seeks to e s t a b l i s h t h e work  each  time, h i s / h e r b e h a v i o u r  i t s r e q u i r e m e n t s . S/he also  him/herself  to leave  (1969) is that  correspondence:  f o r the first  environment.  i t . If s/he does  a n d Dawis  Thus  correspondent s/he  seeks  to  correspondence, or Lofquist  a n d Dawis  s u g g e s t that i n m o n i t o r i n g newcomers' w o r k adjustment we s h o u l d f o c u s on their  satisfaction  their  performance.  A  with  their  role  a n d t h e organization's  satisfaction  similar c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t a s k adjustment has been  Bhagat  (1983)  individual experience  in h i s model  effectiveness of  stressful  o f the e f f e c t s  within life  t h e work events  of stressful  setting. leads  to  He  with  formulated b y life  events  postulates  reduced  levels  on  that the o f job  i n v o l v e m e n t , job p e r f o r m a n c e e f f e c t i v e n e s s , job s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d o t h e r w o r k related b e h a v i o u r  In on  contrast  outcomes.  to L o f q u i s t  a n d Dawis' (1969) a n d Bhagat's  outcome-oriented' v a r i a b l e s ,  adjustment making  i n terms  model,  programs  of process oriented  t h e jobs w h i c h  which  George  must  be  new  Graen  variables.  employees  completed  (1976)  over  (1983) f o c u s  has d i s c u s s e d  task  A c c o r d i n g to h i s role  fill a r e partial  o r incomplete  time  organization's  by  the  - 78  participants. and  M o r e o v e r , the  develops  through  definition  the  participants  behaviour vested  and  process. (Katz  play  interest  immediate  who a  in  those  and  and  concerning  performance. are  the  new  has  role are the  involved  i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s t i t u t e what  the  newcomer's those  with  newcomer,  in  the  been  role  termed  a  his/her definition  the  role  set  S K a h n , 1966).  variables  which  may  impede  newcomer's p e r s p e c t i v e , expectations  specifically, accurately  the  role  t a s k adjustment as  the  r e f e r s to  expectations  set a r e  the  role  to  task,  a  with  at  McCrath given  by  others  (1976,  time  involved  and  process.  of  extent  held  by  the  to  those  role  which  Thus  Craen's  crucial  From  the  concerning set.  the  More  newcomer  in h i s / h e r  to w h i c h the e x p e c t a t i o n s  role  of the  set.  various  (1976) model  views  w h i c h a newcomer's role is d e f i n e d  Interpersonal  relations  the  t h e e f f e c t s of role a m b i g u i t y a n d  According  role c o n f l i c t are  lack of knowledge  members  divergent.  process  and  definition  is a  other  r e f e r s to the e x t e n t  members of the  f o c u s s e s on  by  ambiguity  perceives  the  role a m b i g u i t y  held  role  Role c o n f l i c t  given  new  Thus  T h i s model p o s t u l a t e s that role a m b i g u i t y  the  of  of o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s .  expectations  peers  is s u b j e c t to negotiation  accommodation  in d e f i n i n g h i s / h e r  his/her  supervisor, These  and  hold part  of the job  modification  employee's role e x p e c t a t i o n s The  -  role c o n f l i c t on  this  and  process.  Adjustment  p.1385), place,  in that  "a  person's  is a f f e c t e d  task,  with  by  others  behaviour his  on  a  continuing  present  in t h a t  - 79 -  place, a n d indeed with o t h e r s at  all b u t  'relevant'  component  of  the  (e.g.,  his superior)  to t h e s e t t i n g  newcomer's  and/or  adjustment  the  to  not n e c e s s a r i l y  present  task".  crucial  his/her  Thus  new  a  organizational  e n v i r o n m e n t is the establishment  o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  supervisor  Katz  or  co-workers.  As  (1980) has  pointed  out,  his/her  newcomers  absorb the subtleties of organizational reality - and in particular their role i d e n t i t i e s - t h r o u g h symbolic i n t e r a c t i o n s with o t h e r  individuals; peers  as  that  well  as  superiors.  Van  Maanen  crossing organizational boundaries Thus  colleagues,  superiors,  (1978,  p.20)  is looking  states  the  i n d i v i d u a l who  subordinates,  is l e a r n i n g a new  role."  "any  f o r c l u e s on how clients,  Experienced  other  learning 1976,  norms,  1981 ),  1955),  and  feedback establish  on  in p r o v i d i n g  (e.g.. a  sense  1980;  and  1981).  of contribution  Van  informal  t h e newcomer's  solutions  members a r e seen  and  socializing  adjustment  and  worth,  1976). agents,  to h i s / h e r  D u b i n et a l . , 1976; H a l l , 1976; L o u i s ,  problems and  assistance  their overall niche Maanen,  behaviours  support  This  (e.g.,  positive helps  to feel  behaviours are significantly  Feldman,  (e.g.,  Dornbush,  interpersonal newcomers  more  secure  in t h e scheme o f t h i n g s Thus,  by  serving  as  i n s i d e r s h a v e a major new  organizational  to and  (Hall, primary  influence  role  (e.g.,  1980b; V a n Maanen, 1976).  E m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s that newcomers' initial and  context  1980b; V a n Maanen, 1977), in  f o r work  psychological  House,  a n d to f i n d  Katz,  associates  assumptions,  in p r o v i d i n g  acceptable, 1976;  values,  Louis,  work  confuse, or push  as a p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h s o u r c e of a s s i s t a n c e to newcomers in a c q u i r i n g s p e c i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n schemes ( e . g . ,  person  to p r o c e e d .  and  associates can a n d most often do s u p p o r t , g u i d e , h i n d e r ,  v  own  shaped  by their conceptual  perceptions  schemes o f the  - 80  work  environment  example, assist  demonstrated  newcomers  behaviour Brett  and  to  found  basis  acquire  the  recognizes for  their  getting  interaction.  interaction the  new  help  Evan  time  necessary jobs.  and  for  peers  can  with and  appropriate  Similarly,  seeking  (1963),  out  Feldman  and  information  and  in the o r g a n i z a t i o n were the most f a v o u r e d  coping  employees.  summary,  adjustment  that  social  unstructured  rapidly  from o t h e r s  s t r a t e g i e s of new  In  that  through  attitudes towards  (1983)  reassurance  the  acquired  -  more  distinction the  between  these  multifaceted n a t u r e  accurate  and  precise  various  components  of t h i s c o n c e p t  formulation  of  and  the  of  provides  experimental  hypotheses.  DEFINITION  Based  on  the  preceding  OF  TERMS  literature  d e f i n e d f o r the p u r p o s e s of the p r e s e n t  The  charismatic  leadership style  d i m e n s i o n s i n c l u d i n g the g o a l , to communicate h i g h in  followers' a b i l i t i e s  communicate Bass, on and  1985;  his/her House,  to  is complex.  meet  these  Oberg,  following  terms  are  to v i v i d l y  It encompasses s e v e r a l a r t i c u l a t e an  p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s and  followers i n c l u d e i n s p i r i n g generating  the  study.  leader's a b i l i t y  understanding 1977;  review,  expectations, of  1972).  heightened  his/her The  and  express to  goals and  confidence  empathize  follower's  charismatic  ideological  needs  and  (e.g.,  leader's e f f e c t s  involvement  commitment to the leader ( e . g . . House, 1977).  in the  task  -  The that  considerate  emphasizes  group  participative, 1974;  The that  two-way  The  at  task  labelled  procedures  considerate  of  University by  Bales  "supportive".  and  of  Michigan  regularize group  by  and  1984;  and  his/her  needs,  Chemers  &  and Rice,  the  group,  standards  by  the  £  is the  task and two  goal  facilitative" and  refer  group  and  definition,  to  and  1976;  to  related  developed  the  concepts  "socioemotional", (1974) as  general are  job c e n t r e d  standards  intended  expended Homans,  on  to  or  rules  regulate  a task  1950;  and  to  "instrumental"  of and  (Festinger,  Kiesler,  1969a,  V r o o m , 1969).  to  which  the  individual  copes  social d e m a n d s of h i s / h e r e n v i r o n m e n t  components:  and  Chemers  conceptually  1966),  Mitchell  which  Hackman,  degree  behaviour  ( C h e m e r s , 1984;  Kahn,  members' level of e f f o r t 1950;  leader  1962).  House  £ K e l l e y , 1959;  Adjustment  It has  to  Back,  1969b; T h i b a u t  a d a p t s to the  feelings  behaviour  towards  is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y  (Katz  "task  p r o d u c t i v i t y norms  £  their  s t r u c t u r i n g dimensions are  described  adhered  Schachter,  warmth  (Chemers,  within  £ Peters,  (1958) as  and  Croup  and  c a t e g o r i e s of employee c e n t r e d  behaviours  1972).  assignments  Fleishman  the  conduct  consideration communication  of work  the b e h a v i o u r the  understanding,  leader  & P e t e r s , 1962).  emphasizes  Rice, 1974;  to  is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  s t r u c t u r i n g leadership style  establishment &  strong  Fleishman  -  leadership style  concern,  members,  81  task  and  interpersonal.  Task  with  and  (Matarazzo, adjustment  - 82  refers  to the  and  the  role  conflict,  associated  McGrath, of  individual's capacity  and  1976).  to deal  (i.e.,  role a m b i g u i t y ) Interpersonal  interpersonal  Feldman, 1976,  outcomes  relations  job  on  with  below,  followed  t e s t e d in t h i s  be  Louis,  a  null  recognized  format.  format that  conceptual  as  chosen  present  to  job  task  demands  related  tension,  Lofquist  superior  &  Dawis,  1969;  individual's quality  and  co-workers  (e.g.,  1980b).  HYPOTHESES  major themes from the  p r o d u c t i v i t y reviewed  hypotheses  noted  that  derived  some of the  This  treatment g r o u p s are in  group  the  1976;  new  from  research  literature  earlier are  presented  this  literature  that  are  study.  It s h o u l d hypothesis"  by  satisfaction,  his/her  1981 ; K a t z , 1980;  s t y l e and  his/her  adjustment r e f e r s to the  b r i e f r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the  leadership  with  (Graen,  EXPERIMENTAL  A  -  is,  in  expected.  might the  opposed  be  these  some  cases,  While the  considered  hypotheses to  h y p o t h e s e s are  are  no  posed  in a  differences  "null  between  statement of c e r t a i n h y p o t h e s e s inappropriate,  formulated  statistical  purposes.  hypotheses  following  in  More  it this  needs  manner  specifically,  the  logic  that  since  of  to  the  be for  I have  literature  r a t h e r t h a n to state them in s t a t i s t i c a l terms.  Furthermore, was  conceived  of the  it needs  during  1983,  to be the  underscored  hypotheses  r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e up  to and  this dissertation  were formulated  on  the  basis  i n c l u d i n g 1983.  Therefore,  - 82a  while  the  empirical  preceding work  consideration  literature  conducted  since  in the development  p a r t i c u l a r , r e c e n t work and  review  -  has  1983, and  incorporated  this  work  justification  b y Willner (1984), b y  h i s associates ( e . g . , A v o l i o & B a s s , 1985; B a s s , in the f r a m i n g  of the following  The  between  works  study  relationship  these  is d i s c u s s e d in C h a p t e r  IV.  and  excluded  and from  of the h y p o t h e s e s .  House  1985) is omitted  is  theoretical  (1985a), a n d b y  In  Bass  1985; Waldman et a l . ,  experimental  the empirical  hypotheses.  r e s e a r c h in this  - 83 -  MAIN  EFFECTS  Leadership  T a s k P e r f o r m a n c e and  Sociological  Task  and  Style  Adjustment  psychological  that  vividly  articulating  goal which c l a r i f i e s or s p e c i f i e s a mission f o r followers ( e . g . ,  Dow,  House, high  followers' abilities  Weber,  1947).  to meet these  expectations,  and  ( e . g . . House, 1977;  Smith, 1982).  performance  effective State  research groups  on  performance  leadership  nonroutine,  that  studies  role  task  in work  c o n f i d e n c e in enhance  transcendent  goal  further  adjustment.  emergence  oriented  groups  c r e a t i v e , or a n a l y t i c  simultaneously  charismatic leaders of the  a  A c c o r d i n g l y , charismatic leaders should  leader  found  by  expressing  in s u p p o r t  facilitate followers' task p e r f o r m a n c e a n d  discussion  Moreover,  p e r f o r m a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n s and  followers' motivation  Early  by  recognize  transcendent  communicating  effects  charisma  leaders  1977;  their  of  charismatic  1969;  obtain  treatments  small  l e a d e r s h i p was  (Bales  S  indicated  Slater,  that  necessary  1955).  employees  The  Ohio  engaged  (e.g.,  Schriesheim  theory  Fiedler's  (1967)  favourably  in  i n i t i a t i n g s t r u c t u r e i r r e s p e c t i v e of the l e a d e r s h i p q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d p.302).  more  for  leader  a l . , 1976,  reacted  experimental  to  et  work  in  contingency  p r o p o s e s that task o r i e n t e d l e a d e r s h i p is more e f f e c t i v e when t h e r e is v e r y little  task  ambiguous structuring For  structure.  Similarly,  path-goal  the  task,  the  more  positive  behaviour  and  subordinate  subordinates  with  unclear  role  theory the  task  asserts  relationship satisfaction  perceptions,  and  that  the  between  more leader  expectancies.  structuring  leadership  -  would  help  to  satisfaction stressful  Chemers 1955;  and  or  associated  clarify  unfavourable  with &  path-goal  expectancies  high  Schriesheim  relationships,  (e.g.,  1972;  S  House  situations,  subordinate  Skrzypek,  -  84  task  Fiedler,  & M u r p h y , 1976).  of  adjustment.  that  there  l e a d e r s on  Therefore,  to  found  behaviour  and  under  be  no  considerate an  absence  subordinate  Baetz,  individuals' task  the  &  Burtt, should  r e l a t i v e impact  i n d i v i d u a l s ' task  between  task  leadership, of  performance  it is  s t r u c t u r i n g and  performance and 1979;  &  1975).  Therefore,  i n f l u e n c e on  satisfaction  House, 1971;  suggests  of  State  between  suggested charismatic  considerate  leadership  literature  leaders (e.g.,  considerate  have leader  task c o n d i t i o n s  have  suggest no  that  effect  on  Downey, S h e r i d a n ,  & Dessler, leaders  1974;  should  S  Stinson have  no  adjustment.  reviewed  the following h y p o t h e s e s .  studies  formulations  House  i n d i v i d u a l s ' t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e and  body  Ohio  path-goal  conditions, considerate  Greene,  Johnson,  the  association  Similarly,  Slocum, 1975;  chapter  is  (e.g.,  s t r u c t u r i n g leaders  performance under dissatisfying  1979).  ambiguous  The  Harris,  exploratory hypothesis,  differences  behaviour  adjustment.  l e a d e r s h i p on  as an  F i n a l l y , in  satisfaction  Fleishman,  job  these outcome v a r i a b l e s .  generally  &  charismatic Therefore,  will  Turning  (House  leader  p e r f o r m a n c e and 1967;  increasing  1974).  l e a d e r s h i p l i t e r a t u r e does not d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s  s t r u c t u r i n g and  and  Dessler,  structuring  facilitate s u b o r d i n a t e s ' t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e and  The  thereby  and  discussed  in  this  - 85 -  Hypothesis higher  task  1.  Individuals  performance  working  than will  under  a  charismatic  individuals working  leader  under  a  will  have  considerate  leader.  Hypothesis higher  task  2.  Individuals working  adjustment  than  will  under  a charismatic  individuals working  leader  under  a  will  report  considerate  leader.  Hypothesis higher  task  3.  Individuals  performance  working  t h a n will  under  a  structuring  individuals working  leader  under  a  will  have  considerate  leader.  Hypothesis higher  task  4.  Individuals working  adjustment  than  will  under  a s t r u c t u r i n g leader  individuals working  under  a  will  report  considerate  leader.  H y p o t h e s i s 5. I n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i n g same level o f task leader.  performance  under a charismatic  as i n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i n g  leader will h a v e t h e under  a structuring  1  Hypothesis  6.  the  level  same  structuring  Individuals working of  leader.  task  under  adjustment  as  a charismatic individuals  leader working  will  report  under  a  1  A s noted a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h i s s e c t i o n , these experimental hypotheses were formulated prior to t h e r e c e n t literature on transformational leadership presented b y B a s s a n d h i s associates (e.g., B a s s , 1985; Waldman et a l . , 1985).  - 86  A d j u s t m e n t to the The  is the  charismatic (e.g., the  literature  suggests  extraordinary,  intensely  leader  Bensman  initial  emotional give  Leader  theoretical  charisma  and  and  than  with  leader.  adjustment to the  The  For  and  to  example.  oriented  leadership  resulted  in  1981,  with  and  Bales  researchers  provided  source 1981;  of  social  Seers  et  1970),  based  on  is i n s p i r e d to and  facilitate  of  devotion  subordinates'  and  that  satisfaction a l . , 1983;  considerate leaders should  under  that and  stress  support  Sheridan  &  and  their of  leader  for the  S  an  Vrendenburgh,  Dessler,  which  increase  in  The  O h i o State  was  positively  (e.g.,  stress,  behaviour employee  or  socioemotional  leader role  social  members  leadership  conditions  considerate  that  subordinates.  with  considerate  (House  for g r o u p  considerate  satisfaction  that  subordinates'  satisfaction  satisfaction  frustration  addition,  reported  on  S l a t e r (1955) o b s e r v e d  social  reported  In  have  is  a  scholars  Tucker,  follower  indicates  effects  intrinsic  and  subordinates'  p.382).  1977;  leadership  should  literature  its p r i m a r y  reduction  studies  associated  several  of  to e s t a b l i s h a s t r o n g a f f e c t i v e b o n d  two-way communication between s u p e r i o r and leadership  House,  to  commitment, a f f e c t i o n ,  leaders  empirical  have  maintenance  the  According  in that the  striving  aspect  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  charismatic  loyalty,  by  fundamental  leader.  appears  psychological  of  a  personal  1969;  grounds  charismatic  theoretical  leadership  1974).  rational  Therefore,  subordinates,  Dow,  appeal  obedience,  that  followers.  1975;  continuing  unquestioned  to the  his/her  & Civant,  rather  -  Bass, several  serves  (e.g..  1979).  facilitate i n d i v i d u a l s ' adjustment to t h e  as  a  House,  Therefore, leader.  - 87 -  The of  l e a d e r s h i p l i t e r a t u r e does not d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s  considerate  leader.  and  charismatic  Therefore,  t h e r e will be  no  as  an  leaders  on  exploratory  individuals'  hypothesis,  d i f f e r e n c e between c o n s i d e r a t e  adjustment  to  it is s u g g e s t e d  and  charismatic  the that  leaders  on  t h i s outcome v a r i a b l e .  Turning the  levels  would  of  be  to s t r u c t u r i n g l e a d e r s h i p . Smith  (1982) has  liking,  f o r an  attraction,  moderate.  specific source  Subordinates  of e x t r i n s i c  accomplishment,  rather  evidence  support  lends  relationship possible  between  for  qualifications  and  affection are  rewards they  than  task  group  and  as  to  a  source  this  questions.  to  h a v e n e i t h e r p o s i t i v e nor  Hypothesis  Individuals working  higher  adjustment  structuring  Hypothesis higher  the  of emotional  liking  feedback  leader  support.  Bales  (1958)  for  leaders  and  to  individuals  found  who  raise with  a  will  charismatic  leader  as  a  Empirical no  made it  objections, structuring  n e g a t i v e adjustment to the  under than  leaders  leader.  will  individuals working  report  under  a  leader.  8.  Individuals working  adjustment  structuring  to  as a f a c i l i t a t o r of task  Therefore,  leaders s h o u l d  7.  value  and  such  leader  to  postulation.  give  instrumental  that  attracted  o r i e n t a t i o n and  members  postulated  to  leader. -  the  leader  under than  a  will  considerate  leader  will  individuals working  report  under  a  - 88 -  Hypothesis  9.  Individuals  working  under  a charismatic  leader  the same level o f adjustment to the l e a d e r as i n d i v i d u a l s considerate  leader.  working  report  under a  2  Croup  Task  will  Productivity  Performance As  the  productivity enhances  preceding  condition,  literature  review  t h e group's  role in a d v o c a t i n g  individual task performance.  condition,  t h e group's  exertion  individual task performance.  Hypothesis  10.  Individuals  suggested, task  the  high  accomplishment  In c o n t r a s t , in the low p r o d u c t i v i t y  of quota  restricting  pressures  T h i s leads to t h e following  in h i g h  in  productivity  hypothesis.  groups  t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e than i n d i v i d u a l s in low p r o d u c t i v i t y  impedes  will  have  higher  groups.  A d j u s t m e n t to the T a s k a n d to t h e C r o u p The influence task  and  previously of group  reviewed  literature  productivity  norms  to t h e g r o u p .  However,  some g u i d a n c e in f o r m u l a t i n g For  example,  partners  Berkowitz  (confederates)  does  on  not d i r e c t l y  individuals'  t h e small  group  address the  adjustment literature  h y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e s e two outcome  (1954) better  reported when  that the  participants latter  were  p r o f i c i e n t o n a task than when t h e y were s u p p o s e d l y poor.  to t h e  provides measures.  liked  their  supposedly  Similarly,  A g a i n , i t s h o u l d be noted that t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l h y p o t h e s i s was p r i o r to t h e w o r k of Willner (1984) a n d B a s s (1985).  framed  - 89 -  Zander  (1968) f o u n d  experience other on  satisfaction,  members  which  high  that members  productivity  was  t h e task  and  on  perceive  at h a n d ,  the task.  productivity groups  effort  favourable  the task,  they  Thus their should  o f themselves  to p u r s u e  to t h e e x t e n t co-workers be more  should  their be  less  co-workers  as  satisfied  successfully with  i n d i v i d u a l s in  exerting  with  their  their  minimal  co-workers  with t h e t a s k .  In a d d i t i o n , l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s e x a m i n i n g  the effects  o f social  mation c u e s a b o u t a task on i n d i v i d u a l s ' a s s e s s m e n t o f t a s k are  the activity  satisfied  as  and  i n d i v i d u a l s in  In c o n t r a s t , to t h e e x t e n t  perceive  they  impression  to c o n t i n u e  successful.  groups  c o - w o r k e r s a n d with low  a  of the g r o u p , and wish  the g r o u p  accomplishing  form  of s u c c e s s f u l g r o u p s a r e more likely to  also  relevant  measures.  to t h e framing  These  negative  social  studies cues,  co-workers  result  perceptions  of task  1979).  in  have  of hypotheses  positive higher  social task  characteristics  Collectively,  the  cues  research  Griffin,  evidence  that  adjustment  in c o m p a r i s o n to  provided  satisfaction  (e.g..  characteristics  f o r t h e task  c o n s i s t e n t l y shown  infor-  by  confederate  more  favourable  1983; White  & Mitchell,  and  suggests  the  following  hypotheses.  Hypothesis  11. I n d i v i d u a l s i n h i g h  task adjustment than  Hypothesis  productivity groups  will  report  higher  report  higher  i n d i v i d u a l s in low p r o d u c t i v i t y g r o u p s .  12. I n d i v i d u a l s in h i g h  adjustment to t h e g r o u p than  productivity groups  will  i n d i v i d u a l s in low p r o d u c t i v i t y g r o u p s .  - 90 -  INTERACTION  EFFECTS  Leader Charismatic Behaviour  The  theoretical  leaders,  by  profound  and  House and  force  literature  of  their  and  Croup Productivity  consistently  personal  suggests  qualities,  e x t r a o r d i n a r y e f f e c t s on  are  that capable  of  followers ( H o u s e , 1977,  the l e a d e r , a n d  heightening  followers' c o n f i d e n c e  a goal.  the  of the  Given  potency  o r low g r o u p p r o d u c t i v i t y  norms s h o u l d be  and  I n d i v i d u a l s e x p o s e d to a s t r u c t u r i n g experience  role  loyalty  execute  clarity;  in t h e i r abilities to  role  theory  information will  tend  to i n d u c e role  factory  job  structure task  et  in him/her an  requirements, performance.  the  clearly  leader a n d  individual's  performance,  adjustment to the g r o u p . .  the  in a h i g h  roles  extent  consistently  experience  and  both  in mutually  adjustment,  high  productivity pressures  that  to a  of c e r t a i n t y  movement  essence,  reality task  to  and  effective In  reach  Group Productivity  group-sent  a l . , 1964),  is communicated  his/her  high  (Kahn  and  nullified.  c o n f o r m to these roles will be c o n s i s t e n t with l e a d e r - s e n t r o l e s . to  As  the will of  c h a r i s m a t i c l e a d e r , the e f f e c t s of  Leader S t r u c t u r i n g Behaviour  will  having  p.189).  B a e t z (1979) note, these e f f e c t s i n c l u d e commanding  d e v o t i o n to the l e a d e r , i n s p i r i n g followers to a c c e p t and  group  charismatic  toward the  reinforcing  adjustment  According  required  to  role  focal  p e r s o n , it  with  r e s p e c t to  goals,  leader  to  and ways, the  and  satis-  the  group  l e a d i n g to  leader,  and  - 91  Individuals exposed group  will  conform  experience  to  these  s/he  will  effectively (e.g.,  to a s t r u c t u r i n g leader and role  conflict;  roles will  states that when  the  stress,  than  expectations  1976;  and  Empirical  respect evidence  be d i r e c t l y  and  job  1973;  House  Miles, 1976;  Therefore  on  Rizzo,  senders  these  him/her  role &  role  &  did  not  conflict  conflict  has  group  Sell,  1972;  Brief,  working  will  have  adjustment to t h e leader and  (e.g..  & Schuler,  under low  a  task  to the  1970). trust, stems.  shown  to  induced  i n v e r s e l y related  to  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l commitment,  Brief  Johnson  less  conflict  Lirtzman,  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  performance,  senders  Rizzo,  Van  individuals  productivity  to leave the  to  theory  perform  to r e d u c e t h e i r  whom  contentions;  Role  and  House,  from  pressures  roles.  dissatisfied,  imposed  and  individual are inconsistent  role c o n f l i c t tend  involvement,  a t t i t u d e s toward  1964;  role  supports  propensity  satisfaction,  Organ,  the  roles  related to p s y c h o l o g i c a l w i t h d r a w a l from the g r o u p , job  t e n s i o n , and job  for  of an  become  K a h n et a l . , 1964;  in a low p r o d u c t i v i t y  leader-sent  expected  Moreover, individuals experiencing liking  from  experience  Graen,  group-sent  diverge  behaviours  i f the  -  &  &  Aldag,  Graen, 1981;  1976;  1973;  Yukl  task  Kahn  & Kanuk,  s t r u c t u r i n g leader performance,  Greene  and  &  et a l . , 1981).  in a  low  adjustment,  and  group.  Leader Consideration Behaviour  and  Croup Productivity  Individuals exposed group  will  experience  socioemotional  support,  to a c o n s i d e r a t e leader and  role and  clarity; the  high  the  considerate  in a h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y leader,  productivity group,  by  by  providing encouraging  -  conformance  with  Accordingly,  high  role  group  will  have  adjustment to the leader and  Individuals exposed g r o u p will e x p e r i e n c e information leader,  g r o u p , by  providing advocating  clarify  individuals'  should  increase  role  the  task  to the  perform  less  effectively  performance  priorities.  experience  to be  performance,  et and  Johnson  a l . , 1981). in  a  concern,  that  et  associated  increased  low  adjustment, and  & Stinson,  low  a  Therefore  the  the following e x p e r i m e n t a l  role  will  The low  and  The  and  be  et  evidence  productivity  have  Rizzo under low  with  will  thus This  i n d i c a t e s that  role  involvement, unfavourable  Greene & Organ,  et a l . , 1970; a  ambiguity  a l . , 1970).  and  task  to the  and  and  satisfaction,  anxiety,  1971;  literature  considerate  dissatisfied  B e e h r et a l . , 1976;  will  necessary  theory,  reality,  Rizzo  lower job  Lyons,  hypothesis.  lack the  the  distort  individuals working  theoretical  adjustment,  role.  to  person  adjustment to the leader and  Collectively,  will  and  a l . , 1964;  with  productivity group  high  p e r f o r m a n c e norms, will fail to  will  tension  1975;  in a  in a low p r o d u c t i v i t y  new  According  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s role s e n d e r s ( e . g . , 1973;  leader and  in t h e i r  anxiety,  (Kahn  leader and  manner.  group.  r e c e i v e d empirical s u p p o r t .  tends  complimentary  p e r f o r m a n c e , task  to a c o n s i d e r a t e  probability  will  and  high  c o n f o r m a n c e with  role,  ambiguity  in a  under a considerate  interpersonal  his/her  a r g u m e n t has  act  role a m b i g u i t y ; that i s , t h e y  for effective  by  -  expectations,  individuals working  productivity  92  Van  considerate performance,  Sell  leader task  group.  empirical  f i n d i n g s lead  to  - 93 -  Hypothesis 13. It is expected that leadership style will interact with group productivity such that:  (a)  Individuals  exposed  to  a  structuring  leader  and  in a  high  productivity group will have i) ii) iii) iv)  higher higher higher higher  task performance task adjustment adjustment to the leader and adjustment to the group  than individuals exposed to a structuring leader and in a low productivity group.  (b)  Individuals  exposed  to  a  considerate  leader  and  in a  high  productivity group will have i) ii) iii) iv)  higher higher higher higher  task performance task adjustment adjustment to the leader and adjustment to the group  than individuals exposed to a considerate  leader and in a low  productivity group.  (c)  Individuals  exposed  to  a  charismatic  leader  and  in  a  high  productivity group will have the same level of i) ii) iii) iv) as  task performance task adjustment adjustment to the leader and adjustment to the group  individuals exposed to a charismatic  productivity group.  leader and in a low  - 94 -  CHAPTER  II  METHOD  This (2)  chapter  experimental  studies  is  Details section.  by  task.  individual  the  and  Subsequently, described.  two In  the  variables  the  the  issue  and on  of  While  the  vast  majority  settings  (Hunt,  Osborn,  that  results  are  the  Richter, calls  in  1979; the  on  S  S  literature  of  design  on  and  laboratory  design  and  independent,  of  the  depenaent,  discussed.  dealt  with  of  in  the  performance setting,  second  experimental  are  and is  the  discussed.  procedure  are  addressed.  DESIGN  Schriesheim, and  note  characteristics  leadership  Garland, for  the  are  their  Laboratory  inconclusive  Sashkin  of  training  demand  a  experimental  participants,  EXPERIMENTAL  Note  section,  procedure  checks  experimental  A  the  experimental  subsequently  selection  validity  Finally,  of  is  (1)  first  operationalization  experimental  the  sections:  description  The  Initially,  confederates  a  difference  on  of  procedure.  followed  experimental and  consists  Studies  studies 1978),  confusing  1979).  leadership  Hence  are many  (e.g., there  scholars  to  performed  in  researchers Gilmore, have  been  return  field argue  Beehr,  &  repeated to  true  - 95 -  experimental  designs  understanding causes  conducted  in the l a b o r a t o r y in o r d e r  of the conditions  subordinate  outcomes  under  (e.g.,  which  Hollander,  leader  to s h a r p e n  behaviour  1979; S a s h k i n  &  our  actually Garland,  1979).  Many of  w r i t e r s have  examined  t h e l a b o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h method  F e s t i n g e r , 1971; F r o m k i n This the  method  allows  manipulation  variation interest  that  experiment,  o f causal h y p o t h e s e s ,  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y &  Garland,  unrealistic  1979,  homogeneity  p.  validity  & Garland,  and control  o f s o u r c e s of  method  Properties  of  been  the experimental defended  artificiality  in l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s  et a l . , 1970; 1977,  on  Fromkin  1979).  variables of suggested  include artificiality demand  1957; D i p b o y e  as  of the  characteristics (e.g., A d a i r ,  & Flanagan,  1979;  1979; Weick, 1979).  has  Weick,  a n d c l a r i t y in  to the d e p e n d e n t 67).  1982;  1971; Weick, 1979).  precision  o f t h e sample,  et a l . , 1970; C r o n b a c h ,  behaviour  1979;  related  weaknesses  & Donnerstein,  a n d limited e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e s t u d y  O r n e , 1969; S a s h k i n  Campbell  Berkowitz  1976; S e a s h o r e ,  o f the l a b o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h  Campbell  The  & Streufert,  testing  may  the experiment,  1984;  (e.g.,  a n d measurement o f v a r i a b l e s ,  (Sashkin  weaknesses  of  the strengths and apparent  S  For  method  several  for research  grounds.  The  on  human  criticism  of  has been labelled a false i s s u e ( e . g . , Streufert, example,  1976; S a s h k i n according  to  &  Weick  Garland, (1977,  p. 124):  O n e o f t h e i r o n i e s o f l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n is t h a t p r e s u m e d liabilities t u r n o u t to be c o n c e p t u a l a s s e t s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l researchers. To illustrate, research participants are apprehensive about being evaluated, b u t so a r e ambitious  -  S6  -  employees. L a b o r a t o r y t a s k s r e q u i r e limited s k i l l s , i g n o r i n g the 'rest' of what the p e r s o n b r i n g s to the l a b o r a t o r y , b u t the same holds t r u e with a d i v i s i o n of labour and partial inclusion. Relationships between experimenter and respondent involve asymmetrical power, b u t the same holds t r u e for s u p e r i o r s and subordinates. P a r t i c i p a n t s seldom know why t h e y are doing the t h i n g s t h e y do in l a b o r a t o r i e s b u t employees o f t e n operate u n d e r similar conditions of ignorance and faith. P a r t i c i p a n t s in l a b o r a t o r y g r o u p s seldom know one a n o t h e r intimately, but the same is t r u e in o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h e r e p e r s o n n e l transfers are common, where t e m p o r a r y p r o b l e m s o l v i n g u n i t s are the r u l e , a n d w h e r e impression management is a b u n d a n t . People p a r t i c i pate in e x p e r i m e n t s f o r a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s , b u t the d e c i s i o n to participate in an organization is s i m i l a r l y over-determined. Finally, people are s u s p i c i o u s of what h a p p e n s to them in laboratories but so are employees s u s p i c i o u s as t h e y become a l t e r e d to the r e a l i t y of h i d d e n a g e n d a s and i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c s .  Therefore,  in Weick's (1977, 1979)  v i e w , while  to u n f a m i l i a r l a b o r a t o r y t a s k s a n d  settings, there  t h e i r r e s p o n s e is similar to those in o t h e r  Laboratory most  readily  problem  of  observed  researchers  available  -  have  that college s t u d e n t s  characteristics  associated  students.  Sashkin "may  with  sample  most  a r g u e that business  often  "since  schools,  used  in  this  population  managers studied p.  69).  reason to believe that  p a r t i c i p a n t s who  Although  one  field  day  to  may  than  would  be  studies  of  leadership."  be  managerial  69)  a  have  r e s p e c t to  a  group  They  particularly positions  are  create  p.  more h e t e r o g e n e o u s with  occupy  'managers  w i t h i n one  this  (1979,  l a r g e n u m b e r s of college s t u d e n t s , will  adjust  company or i n d u s t r y , w h i c h is the  v a r i e t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e r e may from  utilized  Garland  leadership  m a n a g e r s s e l e c t e d from w i t h i n one of  and  be  is  to  work s i t u a t i o n s .  typically  college  generalizability,  p a r t i c i p a n t s need  in  of kind  further those in a  wide  greater justification for generalizing  in  general'  'real' o r g a n i z a t i o n "  than  from  (Sashkin  a  sample  & Garland,  of  1979,  - 97 -  Discussions  in the  c o n f i r m the assumption  literature  regarding  subject effects  subject  Berkowitz £  &  Cook,  (evaluation fulfilling  role,  attempting  Donnerstein,  1972).  1982;  Instead,  apprehension)  & Donnerstein,  to  sabotage  concern  more  important  expectancies 1982;  with  Weber  with  the  Silverman,  how  they  than  their  experimenter's  f r e q u e n t l y t h a t t h e i r d e s i r e to a p p e a r competent a n d to  respond  naturally  without  being  influenced  (e.g., Weber  be  judged  will  concern  his/her  them  expectancies,  either  1977;  it  about  hypothesis  & C o o k , 1972). A l t h o u g h induce  to  hypothesis, or a  experiment  or confirming  ally the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d e s i r e to "look g o o d " may accordance  the  K r u g l a n s k i , 1975;  their is  the experimenter's  (Berkowitz  failed  that i n d i v i d u a l s in a l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g adopt  a good s u b j e c t r o l e , s e e k i n g to c o n f i r m the experimenter's subversive  have  occasion-  to r e s p o n d appears  in  more  "normal" i n d u c e s them by  the  experimenter's  e x p e c t a n c i e s (Weber & C o o k , 1972).  With have  regard  argued  narrow, Flanagan,  to the e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y  that  restricted 1979;  scholars  have  provide  for  settings  do  generalizability  to a  small p o p u l a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s & Garland,  1979;  seriously  questioned  the  generalizability  (e.g.,  1979), it is v e r y  Berkowitz  variables  extended  &  were  p e r i o d of time  of  findings  many s c h o l a r s  should  be  (e.g.,  relatively Dipboye  Weber S Cook, 1972). While common  research  Donnerstein,  p o s s i b l e t h a t an  l a b o r a t o r y would not be other  of  experiment,  the  Sashkin  more  of an  belief  that  findings 1982;  effect observed  field  than  Dipboye  to be  S  some  settings  laboratory S  Flanagan,  significant  in the  s u s t a i n e d u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s in w h i c h a multitude of allowed  to  operate  (Sashkin S Garland,  simultaneously 1979).  and  over  an  - 98 -  In summary, external  validity  apparent  of  causal  of  weakness  Moreover,  of  this  suggests  may  hypotheses,  precision  and  methodology  and control  laboratory experimentation  clarity  that  while the  be q u e s t i o n a b l e , o t h e r have  t h e l a b o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h method  measurement o f v a r i a b l e s , Therefore,  review  of l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  sources  confirmed.  the foregoing literature  in  permits  the  of e x t r a n e o u s  failed  be  the testing  manipulation  sources  has a j u s t i f i a b l e  to  and  of v a r i a t i o n .  place in t h e s t u d y  of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p .  Experimental  This  laboratory experiment  leadership  styles  adjustment  and  and  two  equal cell s i z e s was u s e d  examined  levels  performance.  A  Design  the effects  of g r o u p  3 x  of three  productivity  2 factorial  design  on  different  individuals'  (Kirk,  1982) with  (see T a b l e 1 ) .  In o r d e r to maintain as much c o n t r o l as p o s s i b l e o v e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l conditions, two  each  co-workers,  leadership  leadership.  and  treatment  demonstrated  was  of the g r o u p s  a  T o accomplish  the C o n f e d e r a t e  encouraged  being  the  participant. implemented,  structuring,  an experimental  For  the  consisted of four individuals:  this,  confederate  Depending  upon  t h e formally  considerate,  or  the  charismatic  instructed  particular  designated  t h e leader placed in c h a r g e completely  the l e a d e r ,  leader  style  of  of t h e g r o u p  in h e r role.  (See  section on p.125 f o r a complete e x p l a n a t i o n ) .  group  productivity  treatment,  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t to do t h e task  two  co-workers  (high productivity  either  condition) or  - 99 -  Table 1 Experimental  Design  Croup Productivity Treatments High Productivity Charismatic  yi*  Low  Productivity y  2  y  6  Leadership Structuring  y  3  Treatments Considerate  p  5  *average values for adjustment and performance for the participants assigned to the various treatment cells.  -  discouraged  the  condition).  Since  treatment,  from  substantial  doing  control  t h e c o - w o r k e r s were also  Confederate  section on p. 125  Thus, Only  participant  100 -  confederates  the fourth g r o u p  the  was  task  required  experimental  member  in all of t h e treatment  was  an e x p e r i m e n t a l  B y allowing t h e g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p s to v a r y  individual,  more  experimental  c o n d i t i o n s were a t t a i n e d .  author  it should  replications  be  noted  was mindful o f t h e ethical  experiment  was  granted  Committee f o r R e s e a r c h  by  within  that  criteria  and  only  in d e s i g n i n g  in t h e f o u r t h the  the University  of British  study  work  to be  First,  to simulate  satisfied.  situation,  in a d d i t i o n  were  several  had  o f "the r e l a t i v e  to t h e experimental  an u n s t r u c t u r e d  to be r e a l i s t i c a n d h a v e h i g h  task  to a  setting and t h e task  of the present  i n f l u e n c e of l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e  norms on i n d i v i d u a l s ' adjustment  essential  adjustment  to be a m b i g u o u s . M o r e o v e r , to test t h e h y p o t h e s e s  environment,  (B.C.)  Task  that  productivity  the  on Human S u b j e c t s , p r i o r to its implementation.  there  in terms  various  Columbia's  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l members ( i . e . , t h e leader a n d t h e c o - w o r k e r s ) , needed  in each  the experiment  task,  new work  replications.  between  the experimental  completely  (See t h e  participant  designing had  this  issues involved. Ethical approval f o r this  Experimental  In  to accomplish  confederates.  treatment.  Finally,  productivity  f o r a complete e x p l a n a t i o n . )  participated  exact  (low  and  group  to a n d p e r f o r m a n c e in a new  was r e q u i r e d . S e c o n d ,  face v a l i d i t y  t h e task  i n o r d e r to a c c u r a t e l y a n d  -  meaningfully Third, the  portray  in o r d e r  leadership  conducive - the was  events  to permit style  and  the  in  participant  co-worker  to c o n s i d e r a b l e  -  encountered  l e a d e r , the c o - w o r k e r s , and  be  business clear  p r o d u c t i v i t y , the the  s t y l e was  a b o u t the p r e s e n t  to e n s u r e the  needed  In t h i s way,  to  be  group  the  leader  the  participant).  the task  needed  p a r t i c i p a n t s would  w o r k s i t u a t i o n , the t a s k needed  of  the same t o w a r d s  ( i . e . , the c o - w o r k e r s a n d  Finally,  perceptions  experimental  to c o n t r o l f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p r i o r task e x p e r i e n c e ,  u n f a m i l i a r to them.  environment.  task  entire  the p a r t i c i p a n t .  able to d i s p l a y to the p a r t i c i p a n t that h e r  Fourth,  a  to d e v e l o p  i n t e r a c t i o n among  all members of the work g r o u p  to  101  to be  both  think  lengthy  and  developed  by  involving.  Based  on  the  Z e n g e r Miller and (see  Appendix  situational The  test  situation  s o l u t i o n s and 1966).  In  Manager  A).  The  (e.g..  in-basket  Crooks,  relatively  present think  in-basket  with  letters,  making  decisions,  exercising s/he  reports,  good  requesting  the  in-basket as  undertaken.  requested  of  Cogen  exercise  Products  memoranda, further  S/he  has  Division.  to place it in an  an  item  out-basket.  is  completed,  in  record  the  In  items,  delegating, general, everything  p r o v i d e a b r i e f statement of the r e a s o n ( s )  After  the  General  in-basket  and, to  Lopez,  requires  referring,  information  possible  1962;  Marketing  by  1970).  Andrews,  separate  task  realistic  Meyer,  multitude  Rex/Rhonda  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e judgement.  does in w r i t i n g and  actions  and  elaborate, 1962;  a  h i s / h e r a s s u m e d r o l e , the p a r t i c i p a n t must a c t on including  an  experimental  solutions (e.g., F r e d e r i k s o n ,  him/herself the  is  the  Frederikson,  unstructured,  for  exercise  s e l e c t e d as  exercise  1977;  study,  of  Marketing  an  (1975) was  of means to those  to  of  criteria,  Associates  is  the  participant  above  f o r the  participant  is  -  The section  in-basket consisted  minutes. a  exercise  o f 15  T h e second  limits  exercise would  established  a n equal  amount  able  periods.  This  derived  from  a  done  the  so that  o f time  to complete was  with  into  time  two  limit  a time limit f o r completion  were  be  divided  sections.  each  all o f t h e memos  to e n s u r e  that  leader-subordinate  which  none  comprised These  work  on t h e  of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  within  the specified  satisfaction and/or  first o f 45  o f 15 minutes.  p a r t i c i p a n t would  a n d so that  The  f o r completion  s e c t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d an optional task  f u r t h e r 5 memos with  time  was  memos  -  102  ratings  time  would  be  co-workers-subordinate  i n t e r a c t i o n ( s ) r a t h e r t h a n from completion o f t h e t a s k .  Operational  Definitions of the Independent Variables  Leadership  The  values,  paralinguistic  verbal  cues  Charismatic The from  behaviours,  leadership  style  Berlew,  1974; House,  on  literature, hence  Specifically, charisma:  a r e delineated  in T a b l e  2.  below.  operationalization of charismatic  sampled;  interaction style, and  Style  the psychological  this  and nonverbal  f o r each  Each s t y l e is d e s c r i b e d  Style  a  literature  1977; O b e r g ,  t h e domain composite  the charismatic  t h e leader  on  leadership  was p r i m a r i l y  derived  intraorganizational charisma  (e.g.,  1972; Y u k l  of charismatic picture  of a  leadership  articulated an  style  & VanFleet, behaviours  charismatic  1982).  was  selectively  leader  emerged.  was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d  ideological goal  (i.e.,  Based  goal  as  high  in the  Table 2 O p e r a t i o n a l Definition of L e a d e r s h i p  Leadership Style  Styles  Dimensions Orientation  Verbal  Behaviours  Nonverbal  1.  Charismatic  C o n c e r n e d with i n s p i r i n g heightened goals and involvement in the task. Generates followers' commitment and l o y a l t y .  A r t i c u l a t e s an ideological g o a l . G u i d e s p a r t i c i p a n t s in altering their behaviours, ideas, and v a l u e s in o r d e r to perform the t a s k . Communicates h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e expectations and e x h i b i t s c o n f i d e n c e in p a r t i c i p a n t s ' ability to meet s u c h expectations.  A l t e r n a t e s between p a c i n g and s i t t i n g on the e d g e of her d e s k , leans t o w a r d s p a r t i c i p a n t s , maintains d i r e c t eye c o n t a c t , has a r e l a x e d p o s t u r e , animated facial e x p r e s s i o n s .  2.  Considerate  C o n c e r n e d with the social and emotional tensions and needs of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  E n g a g e s in p a r t i c i p a t i v e twoway c o n v e r s a t i o n . Expresses c o n c e r n f o r the p e r s o n a l welfare of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . R e a s s u r e s and r e l a x e s the participants. Emphasizes the comfort, well-being and s a t i s faction of the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Sits on the e d g e of h e r d e s k , leans towards p a r t i c i p a n t s , maintains d i r e c t eye c o n t a c t , has a relaxed posture, friendly facial e x p r e s s i o n s (smiling).  3.  Structuring  C o n c e r n e d with accomp l i s h i n g the t a s k . Results o r i e n t e d .  Emphasizes the meeting of d e a d lines and q u a n t i t y of work to be accomplished. Provides detailed d i r e c t i o n and a s s i s t ance to p a r t i c i p a n t s to g e t the task completed. Schedules the work to be done. Maintains definite s t a n d a r d s of performance.  S i t s on the e d g e of h e r d e s k , has p e r i o d i c d i r e c t eye c o n t a c t , n e u t r a l facial e x p r e s s i o n s .  Table 2 continued Operational  Leadership Style  1.  Charismatic  2.  3.  Definition o f L e a d e r s h i p  Styles  Dimensions Interaction  Style  Paralinguistic  Cues  Projects a p o w e r f u l , d y n a m i c , c o n f i d e n t image. A b i l i t y to emphathize with, a n d communicate h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the needs o f h e r followers ( g e n e r a t e s the feeling "she u n d e r s t a n d s me").  H i g h level o f i n t o n a t i o n : e n g a g i n g v o i c e tone.  captivating.  Considerate  F r i e n d l y , a p p r o a c h a b l e , r e s p o n s i v e to o t h e r s , a p p r e c i a t i v e , willingness to listen.  Considerable intonation: f r i e n d l y v o i c e tone.  warm.  Structuring  Neutral:  Some i n t o n a t i o n : businesslike, factual voice tone.  neither warm n o r c o l d .  -  s e n s e of an  overarching  purpose  performance expectations to  meet  these  expectations,  subordinates. confident, Sashkin,  (i.e.,  The  and  volume,  speech  (Edinger 1980;  conducted  by  (i.e.,  movement ability  charismatic  had  leader was the  and  leader  (e.g..  communicated  in s u b o r d i n a t e s '  with  the  also  projected  House,  empathize  Patterson, &  of  was  1983;  needs  1977;  Riggio,  facial  1981).  his/her powerful,  Oberg,  is an or  1972;  contains  voice,  others.  energy  of  Prince, to  Riggio,  the  the  p a r t i c i p a n t , maintained and  animated  than  a  terms,  some  and  of  high a  with  of  charisma,  voice  the  tone.  n o n v e r b a l ly  direct  the  the e d g e of  eye  expressions  leadership  structure-high  9,9  body  contact,  her and  (Edinger  &  1981).  that c h a r i s m a t i c  elements  communicate  facial  research  Paralinguistically,  s i t t i n g on  &  expressive-  gestures,  charisma,  and  cues  communication  n o n v e r b a l emotional  captivate  and  underscored  (1964)  the  essential characteristic  F r i e d m a n et a l . , 1980,  be  on  t r a i n e d to h a v e a c a p t i v a t i n g , e n g a g i n g  posture  phenomenon  and  ability  of a  high  paralinguistic  According  expressions,  emotion) inspire,  based  Friedman,  his c o l l e a g u e s ,  dynamism  toward  1983;  Mouton's  charisma  intonation)  leader a l t e r n a t e d between p a c i n g  It s h o u l d different  use  move,  relaxed  Patterson,  rate,  &  transmit  to  leaned a  empathized  presence  Friedman  the  capture  desk,  and  confidence  charismatic  F r i e d m a n and  to  charismatic To  exhibited  to s t r i v e ) ,  T r i c e & B e y e r , 1984).  DiMatteo,  the  for w h i c h  o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of n o n v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s and  literature  ness  highly  dynamic  1977;  The  and  -  105  style)  style  consideration,  subordinates,  is a  qualitatively  consideration of that  (in  leadership. i s , an  Blake While  ability  it also encompasses  to  several  -  - 1 0 6  other  leader  behaviours  such  as  articulating  a  compelling  vision  of  d e s i r e d f u t u r e state of a f f a i r s , b u i l d i n g a c o n f i d e n t and  d y n a m i c image  so  structuring  on.  Moreover,  behaviours.  charisma  The  organizing  and  has  minimal  structuring  defining  the  leader  way  work  overlap  with  focusses  strictly  is to  done.  be  c h a r i s m a t i c leader does not e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e the t a s k , an  overarching  goal to s t r i v e f o r and  in the s u b o r d i n a t e ' s  Considerate The  a b i l i t y to r e a c h  of  (Fleishman,  1957),  (Stogdill,  style  1963),  Hrapchak, was  for  expressing  of  leader  task,  contrast,  and  the  provides excitement  on  the  as  welfare  structuring  and  social and  Coons,  1957),  on  the  support,  emotional  as  of  based  of  the  the  task  the  the  for  and  the  the  tensions and  the  1977;  considerate exhibited  engaged  in  well-being,  approachable.  of  the  p a r t i c i p a n t feel  morale. T h u s  leader  participant,  interpersonal aspects making  SBDQ  Katz,  leader  comfort,  friendly  on  LBDQ-XII  The  participant,  emphasized was  (e.g.,  1984).  consideration:  and  considerate  leaders  Tjosvold,  p a r t i c i p a n t , and  importance of h i g h  in the w o r k s i t u a t i o n .  S  1969;  high  was  S t o g d i l l , 1971), items in the  confederates  conversations,  focussed  leadership  operationalizations  Kavanagh,  the  reassurance  1981;  (Hemphill  prior  personal  actually  s t r e s s i n g the  focussed  &  two-way  than  considerate  and  the  satisfaction  Rather  and  o p e r a t i o n a l ized  participative and  LBDQ  in e x p e r i m e n t s u s i n g  concern  the  r a t h e r s/he  confidence  leader  that g o a l .  considerate  d e f i n i t i o n s of c o n s i d e r a t i o n ( B a s s ,  Lowin,  In  and  Style o p e r a t i o n a l ization  behaviour  expresses  on  a  task  the by  at ease,  considerate  leader  needs of the p a r t i c i p a n t «  -  The  on t h e communication 1 9 8 3 ; LaCrosse,  Patterson,  her  voice desk,  had  and counselling  a  tone. leaned  relaxed  p o s i t i v e head  Structuring The  Nonverbally, toward  posture  (with  the exception  1957),  LBDQ  (Hemphill  as  of  confederates 1969;  quantity  direct eye contact, and  expressions  as  should  leadership  (Bass,  Stogdill,  1957)  leaders  (e.g.,  1984).  t h e leader be done  1981;  (i.e.,  and LBDQ-XII leader  smiling,  a n d how  o f w o r k to be a c c o m p l i s h e d  (Fleishman,  within  1963),  and  in e x p e r i m e n t s Hrapchak  &  s t y l e was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d  the nature of the task, it should  on  items in t h e  (Stogdill,  1 9 7 7 ; Lowin,  Katz,  based  items)  behaviour  The structuring  explained  was  1974),  and autocratic  of structuring  Tjosvold,  high structure: what  to h a v e a  s a t on t h e e d g e o f  structuring  of punitive  Coons,  S  operationalizations  detail  Carkhuff,  Style operationalization  Kavanagh,  leader  Edinger  nods).  SBDQ  using  facial  &  was t r a i n e d  maintained  and friendly  definitions of initiating s t r u c t u r e  prior  1 9 7 2 ;Truax  leader  the considerate  participants,  behaviours  literatures (e.g.,  1 9 7 5 ; Mehrabian,  Paralinguistically, the considerate  1967).  warm  -  operationalization of paralinguistic cues and nonverbal  was b a s e d S  107  be done,  d e c i d e d in  emphasized t h e  t h e s p e c i f i e d time p e r i o d , a n d  maintained d e f i n i t e s t a n d a r d s o f w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e .  The structuring  leader  also  the structuring  leader  answered  a n y task  related  questions.  focussed on defining a n d organizing  A  notable  limitation  t h e way work was to be done.  of the leadership  specify the interaction style of s t r u c t u r i n g between  the personality  Thus  traits  literature  leaders.  of structuring  is t h e f a i l u r e to  T h e r e a r e few linkages  leaders  and the behaviours  -  they  display.  aloof,  it is u n c l e a r w h e t h e r s t r u c t u r i n g  warm a n d f r i e n d l y , a n d so o n .  leaders nor  Thus  108 -  acted  cold.  in n e u t r a l  Neutrality  achieved  both  provided  background  aloud, manner.  In t h e p r e s e n t  towards  and  nonverbally.  information  the task,  on  and,  level  of speech  the project,  sat on t h e e d g e o f h e r d e s k , maintained facial  expressions  n o d s ) ( E d i n g e r 8 Patterson,  To  (i.e.,  1983; L a C r o s s e ,  e n s u r e that a n y differences  to t h e manipulation o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p operational  definitions described  attire.  Accordingly,  identical a t t i r e . a professional  neither style  warm was  factually  the instructions in a  businesslike  trained  to have a  eye contact,  o f smiling  and  leader  and had  positive  head  1975).  that were d e t e c t e d c o u l d style variables  be a t t r i b u t e d  in a c c o r d a n c e with t h e  a b o v e , attempts were made to minimize a n y  sources of extraneous variation. One possible leader's  structuring  the s t r u c t u r i n g  intermittent  absence  were  read  was  Nonverbally,  study,  the leader  acted  leader  a r e cool a n d  interaction  Verbally,  in g e n e r a l ,  intonation.  they  leader's  P a r a l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , the s t r u c t u r i n g  moderate  neutral  people:  in the s t r u c t u r i n g  verbally  explained  fashion  leaders  s o u r c e of v a r i a t i o n was t h e  f o r all l e a d e r s h i p  S p e c i f i c a l l y , since  s t y l e s , t h e leaders  the p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p e c t e d  b u s i n e s s manager, t h e leaders  wore  to e n c o u n t e r  wore d a r k c o l o u r e d  conserva-  tive business suits.  Croup  The  values,  paralinguistic Table  verbal  cues  Productivity  and nonverbal  f o r the g r o u p  3. T h e o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n  behaviours,  productivity  of g r o u p  interaction style, and  conditions  productivity  a r e o u t l i n e d in  was b a s e d  on p r i o r  - 109 -  Table 3 Operational  Definition of G r o u p  Productivity  Group  Dimensions High  Productivity  Productivity Low  Productivity  1.  Orientation  1. T o e n c o u r a g e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t to do t h e exercise. Advocate h i g h task p r o d u c t i v i t y .  1. T o d i s c o u r a g e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t from d o i n g the e x e r c i s e . Advocate low task p r o d u c t i v i t y .  2.  Behaviours a) v e r b a l  2. a) E x p r e s s e s c o n s i d e r able i n t e r e s t i n and e n t h u s i a s m about the exercise. Has a s e r i o u s attitude about the project.  2. a) E x p r e s s e s d i s interest in the exercise. Has a casual a t t i t u d e about the project.  b)  nonverbal  3.  Interaction Style  4.  Paralinguistic Cues  b) D i s p l a y s intense involvement in the exercise: r e a d s in a concentrated manner; writes steadily.  c)  Friendly, approachable, i n t e r e s t e d in t h e participant.  Friendly, approachable, i n t e r e s t e d in t h e participant.  4. Warm v o i c e  tone.  D i s p l a y s boredom a n d lack o f i n v o l v e ment i n t h e e x e r c i s e : leans b a c k in h i s / h e r c h a i r , looks o u t of the window, s i g h s , doodles, p l a y s with his/her pen.  4. Warm v o i c e  tone.  -  experimental  operationalizations  performance cues Mitchell, served  & Bell, as  were p r o v i d e d 1977;  models  110  in  -  which  by  positive  confederate  for  appropriate  work  seated  in the same room as the p a r t i c i p a n t and  co-workers The  analyzing  appeared  co-workers  behaviour  p r o d u c t i v e o r minimally  involved  negative  White & M i t c h e l l , 1979). In e s s e n c e ,  highly  which  or  productive behaviour.  business  friendly  by  towards  and  the  In  The  co-workers either  c o - w o r k e r s were t h e i r own  both  interested  White,  exhibiting  w o r k e d on  cases.  (e.g..  task  tasks  conditions  in the  the  participant.  o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of each c o n d i t i o n is d e s c r i b e d below.  High Productivity Condition In task  the  high  productivity  colleagues task  itself  further  and  when  enthusiasm the  reading  the  That  co-workers  advocated  i s , following  task  the  Verbally,  White  high  and  his  the  co-workers  the  in  about doing  to b u i l d  participant  and  co-worker their  they In  To made  essence,  to do in  the the  Moreover,  to p e r f o r m  keen  the  expressed  involvement  writing steadily.  each  with the leader's r e q u e s t .  task,  motivation  exhibited intense  optional t a s k , the c o - w o r k e r s f u r t h e r d e m o n s t r a t e d willingly complying  the  the e x e r c i s e .  participant's  manner a n d  they  r e l e v a n c e of the t a s k .  involvement  statements  in a c o n c e n t r a t e d  leader a s k e d  activity.  a b o u t the n a t u r e a n d  attempted  Nonverbally,  the  participant.  participant's  encouraging  co-workers  task b y  the  completed  facilitate  positive and  task.  to  c o n d i t i o n , the  (1977, 1979), the c o - w o r k e r s made p o s i t i v e comments about  i n t e r e s t in and  the  productivity  interest  an by  -  Low  111  -  Productivity Condition In the  low  productivity  c o n d i t i o n , the c o - w o r k e r s a d v o c a t e d  p r o d u c t i v i t y to the p a r t i c i p a n t . T h a t (1977,  1979), t h e . c o - w o r k e r s  i s , following White and  made n e g a t i v e  not complete t h e task a c t i v i t y . V e r b a l l y , t h e y  and  boredom with the task and  and  relevance  reduce  the  participant's  essence,  motivation  to do  leaning  back  in  their  chairs,  occasionally,  and  p l a y i n g with  the task was  f u r t h e r reflected  when t h e leader r e q u e s t e d  As which  discussed enhance  such  as  having  information, co-worker  and  high  portrayed  usefulness  attempted  out  commitment of  the  Moreover,  to the  window,  their  the task  sighing  disinterest  an  to  in  optional task  t h i s of them.  I, t h e r e  status,  identical  third  of  are  group  acting  roles were d e v e l o p e d  co-workers  and  exercise. Nonverbally,  in t h e i r r e f u s a l to p e r f o r m  acceptance  sharing  pens.  task  d i s i n t e r e s t in  co-workers  in a n d  looking  their  in C h a p t e r  member  the  the  c o - w o r k e r s d i s p l a y e d a lack o f involvement by  expressed  made n e g a t i v e r e m a r k s about the  e x e r c i s e . In  task  his associates  comments about the  did  of the  low  as  several group supplied  credible,  views  of work  a c c o r d i n g l y : (a)  and  fourth  year  characteristics  performance  competent (Hackman,  norms  sources  of  1976).  The  to e n h a n c e t h e i r s t a t u s ,  commerce  students;  (b)  to  a p p e a r c r e d i b l e , the c o - w o r k e r s claimed to have a l r e a d y done the i n - b a s k e t exercise; either  and  high  experimental  There was  (c)  task  to e n s u r e  productivity  treatment  was  male, the  being  opposite other  was  sex  unanimous or  low  views,  task  both  co-workers  productivity,  espoused  depending  on  the  implemented.  pairing  female).  of c o - w o r k e r s  One  (i.e.,  co-worker acted  as  one a  co-worker fourth  year  - 112 -  commerce the  student,  participant's  participant,  and left section  portrayed  a third  5 minutes  Experimental assignment  on year  these  after  slacks  student  the participant's section  on  to  the  attire:  and  to t h e s e c r e t a r y ' s time.  The  co-workers  was  T h e co-workers  wore  co-workers  carried  (See t h e  details.)  female  condition. male  either  wore  jeans  k n a p s a c k ; t h e female c o - w o r k e r s wore s l a c k s o r s k i r t s a n d  sweaters.  or  or a  Scripts  maximize  the  consistency  in  portrayal  c o - w o r k e r r o l e , t h e leader a n d c o - w o r k e r comments prescribed  scripts  co-worker  roles,  manipulation  the  co-worker  briefcase  To  shirts  other  arrival  and  with  a  Experimental  casual  the  The  f o r complete  male  p r i o r to  (See the E x p e r i m e n t a l  reported  scheduled  p. 137  10 minutes  conversation  details.) and  experimental  student  initiated  t h e optional t a s k .  commerce  roles  and  time,  f o r complete  within each  commerce  corduroy  arrival  p. 137  after  counterbalanced typical  first  Procedure of  to t h e s e c r e t a r y ' s office  scheduled  Procedure  office  reported  (see A p p e n d i x the  scripts  of t h e i n d e p e n d e n t  are  of  a  role  or  a  were made a c c o r d i n g to  B ) . F o r t h e leader identical  leader  in c o n t e n t  roles  and  (except  variables) and are approximately  for the for the t h e same  length.  Manipulation As specified perceived  Checks  discussed manner. the  above, To  intended  manipulation c h e c k s  leaders  and  determine treatment,  were made.  co-workers  whether a  the  number  behaved participants of  in a  pre-  correctly  post-experimental  - 113  For  the  leadership  style  manipulation  p e r t a i n i n g to the c o n s i d e r a t e s t y l e , and  11  referring  type  scales (see A p p e n d i x  consisted  of  the  three  b i p o l a r items on productive  to  -  10  charismatic C). The  items  on  -  checks,  31  statements,  p e r t a i n i n g to the s t r u c t u r i n g s t y l e , style,  were  rated  on  5-point  Likert  g r o u p p r o d u c t i v i t y manipulation  the  10  post-experimental  checks  questionnaire:  two  the g r o u p a t m o s p h e r e scale ( e n t h u s i a s t i c - u n e n t h u s i a s t i c ;  nonproductive)  r e c e i v e d incompatible  and  one  item  r e q u e s t s from my  on  the  manager and  role  conflict  the o t h e r  scale (I  students).  O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s of the D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s  Task  Performance Task  performance  was  measured  p e r c e i v e d task competence is an to  a new  job  individual Mott's  (e.g.,  Feldman,  performance  (1972)  Supportive  on  8-item  validity  the  measure  and  in  important  1977;  unit  reliability  ways.  reported  provide  data  a reliability  & Wendler, 1982;  Task exercise  C.  self-ratings  performance according  ( e . g . , B e n t z , 1981; M e y e r , 1970;  of  coefficient alpha Schriesheim,  to  was  1979;  also  dimensions  exercise  using  performance for this  self  (see  measure  Appendix  are  f o r t h i s measure  J . Schriesheim,  from  Hemphill  of D).  reported  by  t h i s measure to have  of .84  by  their  modification  individual  derived  & B y h a m , 1982)  a  their  measured  F r e d e r i k s e n , 1962;  Thornton  since  outcome of s u c c e s s f u l adjustment  Mott (1972). In a d d i t i o n , s t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e modified participants  First,  F i s h e r , 1983), p a r t i c i p a n t s r a t e d  in-basket of  two  performance  etal.,  Fulk  1980).  scoring the  (e.g.,  have  the  empirical 1962;  in-basket literature  Lopez,  as well as d i s c u s s i o n s with  1966;  experts  - 114  in  the  area  January  9,  measure  of  1984;  the  exercise,  the  number  based  was  on  handling with  raters'  the  could  number  this  would  performance  items  of  of  items  items  attempted  measure  the  (Meyer,  by  items  disposed  in a  poor  was  1970).  and  of  in  quality  a  the  way  and  a  general  the  score.  minute  in-basket  subjective  skills  judgement  demonstrated  not  solely  receive a  Therefore, items  in  concerned  an  individual  low  score  to h a n d l e many  s c o r e r e f l e c t s the a b i l i t y to deal with the i n - b a s k e t excellent  45  " i n a p p r o p r i a t e " ways. fail  To  in-basket  the  participants; still  1984).  the  within  It was  the  might i g n o r e or otherwise  also r e s u l t  on  9,  summated.  managerial  addressed  in-basket  were  communication,  p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e on  impressions  items  one  of the  This  all of the  if the  same t o k e n ,  in-basket  personal  communication, J a n u a r y  quantitative  measured.  in-basket  handle  quality  quality  also  the  of  (Bentz,  w i t h i n the 15 minute time p e r i o d was  overall  exercise  centres  Dunnette, personal  participant's  time p e r i o d and  The  assessment  -  a  for  By  the  items,  and  high  quality  in a q u a l i t a t i v e l y  w i l l i n g n e s s to t a c k l e at least the  majority  of  items.  Quality type  scale.  of the A  in-basket  rating  of  performance  one  designated  w h e r e a s a r a t i n g of f i v e d e s i g n a t e d scale  included  five  dimensions  was  rated  poor  on  managerial  e x c e l l e n t managerial of  the  a  quality  of  5-point  Likert  performance  performance. managerial  task  performance: 1.  The  establishment  2.  The relation h a n d l i n g the  of priorities;  to o t h e r items;  items  or  background  information  The  in  - 115 -  3.  T h e systematic organization of s c h e d u l i n g work a n d s e t t i n g u p a  4.  The demonstration of administrative skills such as a p p r o p r i a t e use o f d e l e g a t i o n , o b t a i n i n g more information, d i s c u s s i n g with o t h e r s , o r h a n d l i n g d i r e c t l y ; a n d  5.  T h e p r o v i s i o n o f a rationale f o r t h e d e c i s i o n s .  Three  background  that  me;  use  of delegation  o r c o n s u l t a t i o n with o t h e r s ,  A  established  priorities,  rating  definitely  managerial  skills  of three  indicated  information  scheduled such  as  established when  using  delegating  business  asking  f o r more  hours.  and  items  frequently  good  provided  and  t h e items, s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d and  by  definitely  administrative  respectively,  performance. 20  no rationale f o r  demonstrated  information,  interrelated  skills  a  The  were  his/her  scheduling  such  seven  trained  entire  Further,  background  as  work  meetings,  appropriately  detailed reasons for decisions.  m a n a g e r s (1 male, 1 female) with  approximately  (e.g.,  with minimal  the participant  meetings,  matters to o t h e r s , a n d p r o v i d e d  in-basket  ignored  r a t i n g o f f i v e i n d i c a t e d that t h e p a r t i c i p a n t  provided  excellent  experience  and provided  that  important  priorities,  handling  the calendar  demonstrated  rating  h a d some a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  rationale f o r major d e c i s i o n s . A consistently  A  in t a c k l i n g t h e items, made i n d e f i n i t e p l a n s  let's d i s c u s s ) , p r i m a r i l y h a n d l e d all items h i m / h e r s e l f  decisions.  Two  definitely  the p a r t i c i p a n t d i d not e s t a b l i s h p r i o r i t i e s ,  information  see  by  by  r a t i n g p o i n t s on t h e scale were o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d .  o f one i n d i c a t e d  items,  t h e items calendar;  since  y e a r s and ten years of to  training the  rate  the quality  procedure  rating  of  the  of  required in-basket  e x e r c i s e was c o n d u c t e d o v e r a 3 week p e r i o d , p r i o r to each r a t i n g s e s s i o n , the  judges  consistency  were  retested  on  pilot  data  and reliability of their ratings.  in an  attempt  to maintain  the  116-  -  The  judges' t r a i n i n g  consisted  of  discussing  three  the  After  rated  exercise.  After  exercises,  they  which  they  rating  entire  the  overall  the  judges  not  yet  d e t e r m i n e the  average  reliability  research  (e.g.,  r e l i a b i l i t y on  the  is  excluded  generalizing g i v e s the  A  from these  test  agreement  was  interrater  agreement  be  error  results  defined  observed  expected  on  as  was  for  of  rated  basis  exercise,  rating  the  a  participant,  managerial a  quality  and  met.  the  judges  performance  randomly  ordered  discussed  (2)  on  set  the  of  20  all j u d g e m e n t s  on  unanimous agreement, t h u s a r r i v i n g  (Ebel,  was  on  the  1951).  to  other  This  the  the  at  a  quality  of  significant,  greater  chance.  then  between =  2  than To  7.80, the  in Ebel's  the  possibility Ebel's  of  formula  judges.  performance  x U)  interrater  raters' v a r i a n c e  Further,  was  the  previous  noted that  between  two  scale,  with  average  precludes  1972)  identical ratings  of  the  situations.  Lu,  rating  Consistent  It s h o u l d be  a v e r a g e r a t i n g of the  S  quality  1970),  .87.  term.  a g r e e m e n t was the  performance  a c c u r a c y c r i t e r i o n level was  Meyer,  (Lawlis  for  in-basket  practicing  interrater reliability,  the  in-basket  in-basket.  ratings  the  of  the  (3)  ratings  1984;  r e l i a b i l i t y of the  chi-square  had  computed  quality  agreement  the  and  quality  reached  Bentz,  interrater  that  doing  interrater reliability  was  method of c o m p u t i n g  quality  in-basket  their  master j u d g e m e n t f o r each  To  (1)  scale,  an  compared  had  the  pilot data until a 90%  reading  independently  rating  components:  quality  of p e r f o r m a n c e on  for  the £  conducted scale. two <  on  Interrater  judges. .01,  whether  The  indicating  agreement w h i c h  determine  the  could  interrater  -  agreement was &  Weiss,  In  the  was  addition  taken  judges  After  for a  fairly  high  agreement  and  qualitative  and  unanimous  was  measured.  between  the  number  judges  had  computed  ordered  discussed  set o f  20  of  thus  by  the  two  for  total  exercises, on  arriving  a  each  task  number  of  action  of  actions  compared  they  master  on  in-basket  courses  they  which  at  of  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  different the  all j u d g e m e n t s  agreement,  measures  Specifically,  counted  the  (Tinsley  .78.  quantitative  randomly  computations reached  to  exercise  the  proposed.  =  A  index f o r agreement  the number of c o u r s e s o f action t a k e n  in-basket  exercise,  computed.  obtained, T  performance,  -  h i g h , moderate, or low, the T  1975)  j u d g e s was  117  had  their  not  yet  judgement  for  each i n - b a s k e t .  According action  are  items.  to  Bentz  productive and  action  Task  variety  of  courses  implications  of  performance.  there  performance,  quality  a  many  and  self-rated  see  take  T h e r e f o r e , t h i s measure seems to i n c o r p o r a t e both q u a n t i t a t i v e  summary,  to  who  the  In  tend  individuals  in  qualitative aspects of  the  (1981),  were  four  (2) the  measures  number  of in-basket performance,  of  task  performance:  o f i n - b a s k e t items attempted, and  (4)  the  number  of c o u r s e s  (1) (3) of  suggested.  Adjustment The  oriented  measurement and  process  of  task  oriented  adjustment variables.  incorporated With  regard  to  both the  outcome former.  - 118 -  Lofquist  and  individual's his/her  Dawis work  role.  empirical  specific  the  with  (1971)  E).  To  (Smith, Kendall, Appendix each  F).  item  task.  in  The  cannot  internal  to  been  (e.g.,  this  series  their  scale, of  Smith  the  the  psychometric  extensively  Dunham,  the  monitoring satisfaction  Campbell's  satisfaction  the  general  and  present  study.  Two  from  reactions  is a s k e d  to  with  work  by item  (1969), with  reliability,  generally  Blackburn,  with 1977;  (Smith  the  (JDI)  used  (see  whether  applies  summing  (see  satisfied  Index  if it does not, and  each  satisfaction  Hackman  to c h e c k  adjectives  is computed  (1983)  both  Descriptive  and  with  not  p a r t i c i p a n t s were  Job  an  are  were a d a p t e d  if it does, N  properties,  S  in  employees'  statements  examined,  Smith,  and  responses,  used  colleagues  the  his/her  job  respondent  associated  for  in  s a t i s f a c t i o n with work scale was  short  her  facet  task,  satisfaction  and  of  d e g r e e to w h i c h  1969)  response  consistency  addition,  of  on  satisfaction on  that  Scarpello  were  questionnaire  Work  the  on  many  participants marks Y  to  According  have  In a  of  measure the  focus  measures  o v e r a l l job  6 Hulin,  decide.  assigned  global  measures  particular aspects  suggests  should  based  summation  to tap  Lawler's  Appendix  that  satisfaction  items d e s i g n e d and  we  Accordingly,  to  job  research  adjustment  evidence  equivalent  (1969)  1  to  the  ? i f s/he  the  weights  et a l . , 1969).  corrected  work  scale  and  validity  split-half  is  .84.  In  of the  JDI  highly  favourable  Cillet  £  results  Schwab,  1975;  Imparato, 1972).  With r e g a r d  to-process  oriented  v a r i a b l e s , Graen's (1976) role making  model s u g g e s t s that role a m b i g u i t y a n d the  role d e f i n i t i o n  process.  Thus,  role c o n f l i c t are c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e s in  this study  Lirtzman's (1970) scales of role a m b i g u i t y a n d  adapted  Rizzo,  role c o n f l i c t (see  House,  and  Appendices  - 119  C  and  H,  clarity  respectively).  of  role  behavioural  Role a m b i g u i t y  expectations  outcomes.  incompatible  or  extent  Rizzo  and  from  0.78  which  to  0.84  for  (Schuler,  (House,  items  were  these  &  &  feelings  of  role  ambiguity  performance  feedback,  Quinn,  Snoek's  and  A  and  defined  placed  on  a 7-point  perception  role  role  other  their  task  item  of the  of  the  conflict,  stressful of job by  work  task  overload,  t e n s i o n was  MacKinnon  (1978)  from  .73  has  to .84  by  Wolfe,  adapted  (see  empirically In a d d i t i o n , have  been  ( e . g . , Jamal, 1984).  In summary, t h e r e were f i v e measures of task adjustment:  role c o n f l i c t , a n d  role  inadequate  conditions, Kahn,  related  reliability coefficients ranging  (2)  and  results.  the s t a b i l i t y of the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of t h i s i n d e x .  satisfaction,  character-  role ambiguity  supported  task  ranging  psychometric  response  I).  reported for this index  situations.  r e l i a b i l i t y estimates  Appendix  Cronbach's alpha  study  of  incumbent.  with w h i c h the p a r t i c i p a n t s were b o t h e r e d and  of  true-false response scale,  and  1983)  lack of  predictability  the  the  Brief,  1977)  of  as  Studies  (1964) i n d e x recent  lack  instruments.  Levanoni,  a s s e s s the f r e q u e n c y  in terms of the  d e s c r i p t i v e of  c o n f l i c t scales h a v e y i e l d e d s u p p o r t i v e  To  and  (1970) h a v e r e p o r t e d  Aldag,  Schuler,  is  demands  to i n d i c a t e on  the  is d e f i n e d  demands  conflict  incongruent  h i s colleagues  properties istics  to  and  Role  P a r t i c i p a n t s were a s k e d the  -  specific  task  satisfaction,  (5) w o r k related t e n s i o n .  (3)  role  (1)  general  ambiguity,  (4)  - 120 -  Interpersonal As  Adjustment  discussed  adjustment  to  relationships  Chapter  his/her  with  adjustment may  in  be  new  his/her  I,  a  social superior  indicated  by  crucial  component  reality  is  and  of  the  newcomer's  establishing  co-workers.  The  interpersonal success  of this  three different measures:  1.  The q u a l i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the leader as measured by a s e r i e s of L i k e r t scales a d a p t e d from Tjosvold (1984) (see A p p e n d i x J ) .  2.  T h e q u a l i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the c o - w o r k e r s was m e a s u r e d b y the g r o u p a t m o s p h e r e scale ( F i e d l e r , 1967) (see Appendix K). A c c o r d i n g to F i e d l e r (1962), t h i s scale indicates the perceived pleasantness or stressfulness of the group interaction. The items c o n s i s t e d of a s e r i e s of b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s u s i n g an 8-point semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l t y p e format. S u p p o r t i v e reliability data (corrected split-half reliability is .90) and v a l i d i t y data are p r e s e n t e d by F i e d l e r (1967). In a d d i t i o n , as r e p o r t e d by M a r t i n and H u n t (1980), the g r o u p a t m o s p h e r e items loaded on the same f a c t o r as a s e r i e s of a t t r a c t i o n to g r o u p items d e v e l o p e d b y S e a s h o r e (1954).  3.  The d e g r e e to w h i c h the p a r t i c i p a n t is p e r s o n a l l y committed to and motivated by the leader a n d / o r the c o - w o r k e r s as m e a s u r e d b y h i s / h e r w i l l i n g n e s s to p e r f o r m a s u b s e q u e n t t a s k .  It further  should examine  also the  co-workers  be  noted  that  two  other  p a r t i c i p a n t s ' adjustment  (1)  the  unobtrusively  the  task  (see A p p e n d i x  of  the  Management  L) and  recorded  (2)  Training  the  the  prior  experimental  questionnaire  between  the  author-and  were not  content analyzed for this dissertation.  her  Appendix  committee  t h e i r new  were  utilized  work  participants'  to  situation:  reactions  to  p a r t i c i p a n t s noted t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s  Project  (see  to  measures  to  M).  members,  completing  As  part  these  of  the  process  the  post  contract measures  - 121  Operational "It  D e f i n i t i o n s of the  is g e n e r a l l y  function  of  the  agreed  environmental  situation.  influenced  both  well  as  by  by  setting"  their  (Katz,  As  their  way  a  1980,  the  literature suggests  and  job  that  differences  subordinate Dessler,  follower  1974).  vidual  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that work  a m b i g u i t y , and  attitudes  personality  his  or  are  be  a her  most  likely  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as  with  the  overall  as J o n e s (1983) a n d  continuum.  Moreover,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s need  Katz  performance  Accordingly,  this  influence  situation including  (e.g.,  study the  need  the  to be  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  and  may  to  and  reactions  interactions  tend  work (1980)  d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of i n d i v i d u a l s negotiate  the  attitudes  &  new  how  longevity  House  his/her  and  Therefore,  moderate  work  and  Variables  person  employee  psychological  p.119).  and  the  result,  d e f i n i t i o n s of  along  individual  behaviours  between  a r g u e , it is important to s t u d y their  Individual Difference  that  interaction  -  leadership  examined  since  leadership  style  Chemers,  1984;  measured  several  indi-  i n d i v i d u a l ' s adjustment  f o r achievement,  tolerance  to for  need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n .  Need f o r A c h i e v e m e n t In  examining  concluded higher  that  need  the  there  for  careers.  explanation  ...  more  cycle  up  define with  adept the  for  the  As  is that at  the  such  managerial to s u g g e s t  likely  (1980,  to  their  many  Rather  aspects  of  be  p.  success, that  more  119)  i n d i v i d u a l s are  ladder.  many  aforementioned  are  Katz  handling  managerial  them  of  is some e v i d e n c e  achievement  managerial  are  predictors  their  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ...  successful  more s u c c e s s f u l  than  simply new  may  in  "one  encounters waiting  their  as  they they  for o t h e r s  more a c t i v e  a  possible  because  environments, be  (1976)  i n d i v i d u a l s with  notes,  socialization  Hall  to  managers in  seeking  - 122 -  such  d e f i n i t i o n s or  in d e f i n i n g t h e i r own  and  expectations.  For  example, A b d e l - H a l i m  achievement unaffected Stinson  T h i s contention  11  who by  (1975)  achievement assignment  to  on  levels  role  that  more  be  r e c e i v e d mixed  relatively  high  scope  ambiguity.  military  dissatisfied  In  empirical  or  with  they  when  jobs  high  need  for  to  be  Johnson  high  and  need  perceived  they  support.  seemed  contrast,  officers  when  ambiguous  i n c l u d i n g goals  that m a n a g e r s with  enriched  of  reported  were  has  (1981) f o u n d  worked  high  s e n s e of r e a l i t y ,  for  their  received  task  conflicting  demands from t h e i r role set.  Need  for achievement  Research  Form  combined  (see  measuring maintain  Appendix  of the  is .86)  Tolerance  for Ambiguity  and  found tension  1974; a  Sarbin  significant for  relationship cognition.  put  &  Allen,  classified  was  for  found  In a d d i t i o n , L y o n s  difficult  to  reliability  A  and  dichotomous  attain  B  items  t a s k s , to  excellence.  e x t e n s i v e empirical (corrected  f o r ambiguity  uncertain environment For  between  individuals  effort  forms  odd-even  d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y f o r this scale.  1968).  relationship  using  (1983) p r e s e n t  tolerance  an  scale  (1974) P e r s o n a l i t y  to accomplish  acceptable  by  Jackson's  forth  Ganster  consider  managing the s t r e s s imposed Morse,  to  c o n v e r g e n t and  researchers  by  scale c o n s i s t s of 40  individual  highly  reliability  Several  This  Mayes a n d  demonstrating and  measured  for achievement  N).  standards,  (1974) a n d  evidence  need  the motivation high  Jackson  (PRF)  was  as  (1971),  role  high  individuals  example,  in  need as  in e x p l o r i n g the  essential  (e.g.,  Kahn  ambiguity  classified  as  et  and  for low  Lorsch  al. job  related  need  moderating  &  (1964)  cognition. in  in  No for  effects  - 123 -  of  need  for  tension,  and  clarity job  significantly  and  satisfaction  greater  individuals  Tolerance  as  high  leave,  community  between  in  voluntary  need  hospital  role  for  clarity  clarity  for ambiguity  T o l e r a n c e scale  ambiguity  is d e f i n e d as  u n s t r u c t u r e d , and  was  measured  ( K i r t o n , 1981)  an  nurses,  and  than  for  job  found  turnover  the  relative  settings.  (KR-20 =  by  for  individuals  T h i s 11-item  .71),  relationships  concepts  including  other  dogmatism,  Tolerance for  scale  for  undefined,  has  reasonably  r e p l i c a t e s c l o s e l y on  produces expected  some  Rydell-Rosen  preference  g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n samples, a n d with  revised  {see A p p e n d i x 0 ) .  individual's  ambiguous  internal consistency  theorizing  turnover,  in need f o r c l a r i t y .  Ambiguity  high  to  among  relationships  classified  c l a s s i f i e d as low  propensity  which  inflexibility,  and  consistent  might and  fairly  be  large  negative  expected  conservatism  from  (Kirton,  1981).  Need f o r A f f i l i a t i o n A  number  individuals and  of  high  researchers  in need  have  presented  for affiliation  are  evidence  concerned  For  example,  work a s s o c i a t e s a n d  such  t h e r e f o r e be  c l o s e r to o t h e r s , to l a u g h than  individuals  1959;  Thomas  satisfaction superiors  of  who  with &  individuals  Griffin,  individuals  influenced  more, a n d  weaker  tend  with  by  that  establishing  1974;  McClelland,  interact  more  them, to remain  often  with  physically  to e n g a g e in more r e c i p r o c a l d i a l o g u e  affiliative  1983).  to  show  about  maintaining r e l a t i o n s h i p s with o t h e r s ( e . g . , J a c k s o n ,  1975).  to  needs  (e.g.,  Furthermore,  high  d e m o n s t r a t e warmth a n d  affiliative concern  the  Lansing  &  Heyns,  performance  needs  for others  is  enhanced  (e.g.,  and by  French,  - 124  1955;  House  (1977,  p.  S D e s s l e r , 1974; 203)  has  -  M c K e a c h i e et a l . , 1966).  observed,  "when  task  demands  F i n a l l y , as require  House  affiliative  b e h a v i o u r , as in the case of t a s k s r e q u i r i n g c o h e s i v e n e s s , team work, peer  support,  to p e r f o r m a n c e  Need affiliation scale  people. of  and  scale  using of  to seek As  becomes h i g h l y r e l e v a n t  satisfaction."  for affiliation  consists  individual  the a r o u s a l of the a f f i l i a t i v e motive  and  forms  40  reported by  discriminant validity  measured A  and  dichotomous  and  t h i s scale is .88.  was  maintain Jackson  B  by  combined  items  social  Jackson's  (1974) P R F  (see A p p e n d i x  measuring  relationships  ( J a c k s o n , 1974).  P).  the  motivation  and  to  readily  (1974), the c o r r e c t e d o d d - e v e n  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s scale has  need  for This  of  the  accept  reliability  acceptable convergent  and  -  125  EXPERIMENTAL  -  PROCEDURE  Confederates  Selection of L e a d e r s To group as  accurately  and  realistically  c o n d i t i o n s of i n t e r e s t ,  experimental  confederates.  portray  the  leadership  professional actors and actresses Recruitment  posters  were  placed  styles  and  were h i r e d in v a r i o u s  locations in the U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C.'s T h e a t r e D e p a r t m e n t a n d 30 a c t o r s a n d actresses auditioned  The her  for the confederate  actors and actresses  supervisor.  actresses,  their  T o assess  positions.  were a u d i t i o n e d  in p a i r s b y the a u t h o r a n d  the natural leadership styles of the actors and  improvisation  skills,  and their  in a c t i n g , an a m b i g u o u s e x e r c i s e was d e s i g n e d .  competence a n d  versatility  T h e y were a s k e d to e n a c t  the following s i t u a t i o n :  One o f y o u will assume t h e role o f a manager in a n y o r g a n i z a t i o n of y o u r c h o o s i n g . T h e o t h e r will be a new employee. T h e role of t h e manager is to imagine a task y o u want t h e employee to p e r f o r m . Y o u c a n i n v e n t a task o r draw on y o u r own personal e x p e r i e n c e s . How would y o u go a b o u t g e t t i n g t h e employee to do the task?  They  were  then  asked  to use t h e same job a s s i g n m e n t ,  i n s p i r e t h e employee, to p u t e v e r y t h i n g do  b u t this  time to  on the line to g e t t h i s p e r s o n to  the task.  On portray  t h e b a s i s of t h e s e a u d i t i o n s , s i x a c t r e s s e s were initially c h o s e n to the v a r i o u s l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s .  T o maximally c o n t r o l f o r e x t r a n e o u s  - 126 -  differences across portray  all t h r e e  actresses  was  credibly and  leadership  their  two a c t r e s s e s styles.  adeptness  based the  purely  leader  skill  of actresses  rather  selected  and performance  all t h r e e  pattern  than  actors That  able  on occasion  requirements.  i s , those c h o s e n  Moreover,  the  same  actually only  not b e h a v e  modest,  have  While t h e r e and  leaders  been  1972; Donnell  V i c a r s , 1976; R i c e ,  male  differently  once from  i f a n y e f f e c t s of leader  of t h e leader  (e.g..  reported &  Hall,  Instone,  is mixed  female  according  &  legitimized as a men  (Bass,  (e.g.,  leader,  1981).  Most  gender on subordinates'  (e.g.,  Bartol  been  1980; E s k i l s o n  women often,  perceptions  & Wortman, 1975; Day £ Wiley,  empirical e v i d e n c e attitudes  regarding  1976; O s b o r n  & &  and  L e e , 1975; Petty  S  d i f f e r e n c e s between  expectations Miles,  as  B a r t o l , 1974; B a r t o l  a  function  of  towards  1976),  supervisors  supervisor  style of  individual studies have  their  their  (1981,  no c o n s i s t e n t l y  in t h e s u p e r v i s o r y  minimal d i f f e r e n c e s in s u b o r d i n a t e s '  or  to f u l f i l l t h e  to B a s s  is that  studies have reported task  to p o r t r a y  & Adams, 1984).  subordinates' Petty  ability  roles was  some p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y in  directions." Specifically,  do  Stogdill,  to male l e a d e r s , a l t h o u g h  to f i n d  styles  experience,  f o r t h e leader  on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r  o f d i f f e r e n c e s c a n be d i s c e r n e d  female as c o m p a r e d  leadership  professional acting  499), " t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e  clear  selected to  old) a n d similar p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  on s k i l l a n d p e r f o r m a n c e .  roles were  subsequently  T h e rationale f o r s e l e c t i n g these two  extensive  t h e i r i d e n t i c a l ages (27 y e a r s  choice  were  in p o r t r a y i n g  and consistently, their  The  p.  actresses,  a  female  majority  satisfaction  the gender  of with  of t h e  & Wortman, 1975, 1979; O s b o r n  &  Vicars,  1976;  Petty  S  Bruning,  Furthermore,  results,  leader  generally  gender  performance (e.g.,  The within and  context  is not  fore,  as  evidence  a  have  being  realistically  co-worker advanced had 28  six  (1984,  female  (M  is  For  reflect  actors  and  These  students  in the  = 21.1  years,  participant  SD  secretary  and  p.  regard  suggest  determining  examined  that group  leader  d i m e n s i o n s of  gender  considerate  to c h a r i s m a t i c  Trice £  57)  the  request  and  have  leadership,  Beyer,  1984).  concluded,  There-  "there  barrier  to  is  no  being  a  six  actresses  confederates  and were  were  the  Commerce  selected  either  to  student  assume  graduates  the  from  or  U n i v e r s i t y of B.C.'s T h e a t r e D e p a r t m e n t and all The  co-worker's ages r a n g e d  from  19  to  = 2.47).  role,  an  him/her  individual to  office.  role  additional  Interviewer  workplace  to g r e e t a n d  experimental  in  insurmountable  difference measures and An  researched  1984;  an  stage experience.  the  factor  1985).  leader."  roles.  extensive  Haccoun,  case s t u d i e s of e f f e c t i v e female c h a r i s m a t i c  Selection of C o - w o r k e r s , S e c r e t a r y ,  population,  &  stu