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The roles of power and gender as determinants of affective responses to intimate conflict Strachan, Catherine Elizabeth 1987

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THE ROLES OF POWER AND GENDER AS DETERMINANTS OF AFFECTIVE RESPONSES TO INTIMATE CONFLICT By CATHERINE ELIZABETH STRACHAN B.Sc., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES < Department of Psychology > We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1987 <2> Catherine E. Strachan, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT There i e a paucity of research studying variables which influence emotional reactions i n response to c o n f l i c t between intimates. The present study examined the ro l e s of power and gender as determinants of a f f e c t i v e response to audiotaped scenarios of intimate c o n f l i c t . Sixty male and 60 female subjects were randomly assigned as ei t h e r a group leader (high power condition) or group member (low power condition) f o r the performance of a group task. After receiving t h e i r group assignments, subjects completed an af f e c t check l i s t and then l i s t e n e d to an audiotape of a heated c o n f l i c t between a man and a woman concerning sexual jealousy. Two tapes were presented to control f o r gender of i n i t i a t o r ( i . e . , who started the c o n f l i c t ) so that subjects heard e i t h e r a male-initiated or a female-initiated c o n f l i c t . After exposure to the c o n f l i c t stimulus, subjects again completed an a f f e c t check l i s t . I t was hypothesized that subjects i n the high power condition would report more anger than those i n the low power condition. In addition, p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the low power condition would report more anxiety than part i c i p a n t s i n the high power condition. Also, men were predicted to report more anger than women and women more anxiety than men. The highest anger ratings were found f o r pa r t i c i p a n t s i n the low power condition l i s t e n i n g to a person of the opposite gender i n i t i a t e the c o n f l i c t . This difference was i l l s i g n i f i c a n t f o r females, although a s i m i l a r pattern f o r males was not. Furthermore, an in t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was found, v i t h females who had l i s t e n e d to a female-initiated c o n f l i c t i n the high power condition reporting more anger than those i n the low power condition, a response pattern that was i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n to the other three groups. A main e f f e c t was found f o r power, with pa r t i c i p a n t s i n the low power condition reporting more anger than t h e i r high power counterparts. In addition, the r e s u l t s p a r t i a l l y supported the hypothesis-regarding anxiety, with subjects i n the low power condition reporting s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anxiety than those i n the high power condition. These re s u l t s , however, were li m i t e d to the male-initiated c o n f l i c t . A s i g n i f i c a n t gender difference was found f o r both the anger and anxiety ratings with women reporting more of both a f f e c t c l u s t e r s than men. The r e s u l t s support the basic contention that power and gender are important determinants of a f f e c t i v e responses to intimate c o n f l i c t . The r e s u l t s are discussed i n terms of the expectations and cognitions created by power and gender stereotypes and t h e i r influence on the process of l a b e l l i n g emotions within the context of intimate c o n f l i c t . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i L i s t of Tables. v i L i s t of Figures v i i Acknowledgement v i i i Introduction 1 Cognition and Emotion 2 Anxiety and Anger.. 6 Sex Role Consonance 11 Power 13 Hypotheses 18 Method 22 Subjects 22 Measures 22 Affect Checklist 22 Interpersonal Adjective Scale. 22 Manipulation Check Questionnaire 23 Apparatus and Film Selection.- 24 Design and Procedure 27 Power Manipulation 28 Audiotape Exposure 29 Results • 31 Power Manipulation 31 Audiotape Ratings 31 P r e c o n f l i c t Affect Ratings 33 V Anger Cluster Ratings 34 Anxiety Cluster Ratings 36 IAS Data 38 Discussion 39 E f f e c t s of Power. 39 E f f e c t s of Gender 44 The Interaction of Power and Gender 46 Limitations and Implications 50 References 52 Appendix A 66 Appendix B 70 Appendix C 72 Appendix D 74 Appendix E 76 Appendix F 78 v i LIST OF TABLES 1. Rank Order of Pr e c o n f l i o t Mean Ratings f o r Affect Items by Gender 56 2. Rank Order of P o s t c o n f l i c t Mean Ratings f o r Affect Items by Gender .....57 3. Analysis of Covariance Results f o r Anger Cluster Ratings 58 4. Analysis of Covariance Results f o r Anxiety Cluster Ratings 59 v i i LIST OF FIGURES 1. Anger Cluster Ratings as a Function of Power Condition, Tape and Gender . . 60 2. Anxiety Cluster Ratings as a Function of Power Condition and Tape 62 3. Design Summary. 64 vi±± ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I vould l i k e to thank the members of my committee f o r t h e i r contributions and guidance i n the preparation of t h i s t h e s i s : Dr. Demetrios Papageorgis f o r h i s conceptual and s t a t i s t i c a l suggestions and Dr. James Russell f o r sharing h i s expertise i n the area of a f f e c t and i t s measurement. I vould l i k e to express s p e c i a l appreciation to my supervisor, Dr. Donald Dutton, f o r h i s encouragement and support i n addition to hi s academic contribution. I would also l i k e to thank Pat Fairey f o r her patience with my s t a t i s t i c a l questions,- Barbara McGregor f o r her help i n preparing t h i s manuscript, and Jessica McFarlane f o r her e d i t o r i a l comments. And to a l l these people, my friends and family, thank you f o r keeping your sense of humour throughout t h i s process. 1 INTRODUCTION C o n f l i c t i s a p e r v a s i v e aspect of human i n t e r a c t i o n (Holmes & M i l l e r , 1976). T h i s appears e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which are r e c o g n i z e d as more v o l a t i l e and prone t o c o n f l i c t (Straus, G e l l e s , & Steinmetz, 1980). Although a common o b s e r v a t i o n , the c o n f l i c t i v e nature of i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s has only r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d e m p i r i c a l v a l i d a t i o n (Holmes & M i l l e r , 1976; Petersen, 1983). In a r e c e n t study of married couples, A r g y l e and Furnham (1983) found t h a t s u b j e c t s r a t e d t h e i r i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s as s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the most s a t i s f y i n g and the most c o n f l i c t e d . A d d i t i o n a l evidence i s found i n crime s t a t i s t i c s on domestic a s s a u l t and homicide which a t t e s t t o the frequency of severe c o n f l i c t between i n t i m a t e p a r t n e r s and the sometimes t r a g i c consequences (Daly, Weghorst, & Wilson, 1980). T h e o r i s t s e x p l a i n t h i s p a r a d o x i c a l behaviour between i n t i m a t e s as a product of the i n t e n s e emotional investment and dependency which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Thus, the p r e v a l e n c e of c o n f l i c t i n i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i r h i g h l y emotional and interdependent nature (Berscheid, 1983; Petersen, 1983). Two i s s u e s i n p a r t i c u l a r appear to c o n s t i t u t e the m a j o r i t y of i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t , t h a t of f i n a n c i a l matters and s e x u a l j e a l o u s y . Research i n the area of i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t (Holmes & M i l l e r , 1976) and wife a s s a u l t (Straus e t a l , 1980) r e p o r t s t h a t these two i s s u e s are the most commonly 2 c i t e d sources of c o n f l i c t between i n t i m a t e s . Consequently, s e x u a l j e a l o u s y i s the i s s u e of c o n f l i c t examined i n t h i s study as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a common i s s u e of i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t . D e s p i t e the importance of emotion i n t h e o r i e s of i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t , l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l a t t e n t i o n has been gi v e n t o the study of a f f e c t w i t h i n t h i s context. I t s p o t e n t i a l c e n t r a l i t y t o c o n f l i c t g e n e r a t i o n and e s c a l a t i o n suggests t h a t an examination of a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s would f u r t h e r our understanding of the dynamics of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the p o t e n t i a l f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n emotional r e a c t i o n s t o i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t , one source of which may be gender. Gender appears to be a p l a u s i b l e source o f v a r i a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from a h i s t o r y o f d i f f e r e n t i a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f males and females (Greenglass, 1982). Men l e a r n t o value independence and achievement, whereas women value emotional e x p r e s s i v e n e s s and s o c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n ( P o l l a c k & G i l l i g a n , 1982). Thus, an important v a r i a b l e i n the study o f i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t may be d i f f e r e n c e s i n a f f e c t i v e responses as a p o s s i b l e consequence of a gender-based d i f f e r e n t i a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . C o g n i t i o n and Emotion The i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o g n i t i o n i n t o t h e o r i e s o f emotion has prompted the n o t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a f f e c t i v e responding as a v i a b l e consequence o f the c o g n i t i v e process. The a r o u s a l - c o g n i t i o n theory of emotion was f i r s t p o p u l a r i z e d i n s o c i a l psychology by Schachter 3 (1955) and h i s s t u d i e s of the a f f e c t i v e l a b e l l i n g of e p i n e p h r i n e - i n d u c e d a r o u s a l (Schachter & Singer, 1962). Schachter contended t h a t f o r a f f e c t to be f u l l y r e a l i z e d , both p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l and a c o g n i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n were necessary. Schachter maintained t h a t emotion i s a r e s u l t of t h i s two-stage process. The f i r s t event i s the onset of a g e n e r a l i z e d s t a t e of p h y s i c a l a r o u s a l f o l l o w e d by a c o g n i t i v e process i n which the s i t u a t i o n a l cues are c o g n i t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d and an a p p r o p r i a t e emotional l a b e l i s a t t a c h e d t o the a r o u s a l . The r o l e of c o g n i t i o n has s i n c e achieved a g r e a t e r importance i n contemporary c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of emotion. Current t h e o r i e s of emotion d i f f e r o n l y i n the emphasis they p l a c e on c o g n i t i o n r a t h e r than i t s r e l e v a n c y ( D i e n s t b i e r , 1978; Izard, 1977; Leventhal, 1977). While the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i o n and a f f e c t v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the p a r t i c u l a r theory, c o g n i t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d by contemporary t h e o r i e s as a necessary component. The s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r a l components of c o g n i t i o n depend on the t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Mandler (1975) e l a b o r a t e s on the c o g n i t i v e p rocesses d e s c r i b e d by Schachter p o s t u l a t i n g t h a t the c o g n i t i v e decision-making process i s based not only on present s i t u a t i o n a l cues but on h i s t o r i c a l l y r e l e v a n t data as w e l l . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s a r e s u l t of h i s or her past e x p e r i e n c e s forming the context w i t h i n which c u r r e n t events are i n t e g r a t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d . D i e n s t b i e r (1978) f u r t h e r 4 contends t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s developmental h i s t o r y , c u l t u r a l norms and r o l e s a l s o c o n s t i t u t e p a r t of the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e and determine the a p p r o p r i a t e s i t u a t i o n s f o r the e x p e r i e n c e and e x p r e s s i o n of a f f e c t . A ccording t o D i e n s t b i e r , c u l t u r a l r o l e s l i m i t the range of emotional responses and, t h e r e f o r e , d i f f e r e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e the e x p e r i e n c e of emotion. L e v e n t h a l (1977) concurs t h a t the i n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l norms and v a l u e s i n t o the c o g n i t i v e system has a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a f f e c t i v e responses. A f f e c t i v e l a b e l l i n g , t h e r e f o r e , may be a f a r more complex and i d i o s y n c r a t i c p r ocess than Schachter's theory i m p l i e s . The importance of c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s i n determining a f f e c t has r e c e i v e d growing r e c o g n i t i o n i n the c l i n i c a l area where the change i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a f f e c t i v e s t a t e i s o f t e n the major o b j e c t i v e of treatment. A v a r i e t y of c l i n i c a l t h e r a p i e s are based on c o g n i t i v e l y o r i e n t e d treatment models (see Dobson & Block, 1985). Perhaps the most popular c l i n i c a l model of c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o emotion i s t h a t proposed by Aaron Beck (Beck, Rush, & Shaw, 1981) f o r the treatment of d e p r e s s i o n . Beck's model of c o g n i t i o n i s d e f i n e d i n terms of t h r e e components: past experiences, the b e l i e f s and v a l u e s of the i n d i v i d u a l , and c u r r e n t events. Beck sees these b e l i e f s and v a l u e s as the i n d i v i d u a l ' s unique t h e o r i e s of l i f e and the b a s i s f o r the automatic maladaptive thoughts t h a t are c e n t r a l to the o ccurrence of d e p r e s s i o n . In a d d i t i o n , these b e l i e f s or 5 t h e o r i e s of l i f e are the product of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s developmental h i s t o r y . These components comprise the c o g n i t i v e framework f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c u r r e n t events and the c h o i c e of a f f e c t a s s o c i a t e d with t h a t event. According t o Beck, t h e r e f o r e , c o g n i t i o n s determine a f f e c t . Consequently, the main o b j e c t i v e of therapy i s t o a l t e r the c l i e n t ' s c o g n i t i o n s so as to cause an u l t i m a t e change i n a f f e c t . Numerous outcome s t u d i e s have demonstrated the e f f i c a c y of t h i s model i n the treatment of u n i p o l a r d e p r e s s i o n (Sacco & Beck, 1985). The s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s model i n the treatment of an a f f e c t i v e d i s o r d e r i s s t r o n g support f o r the importance of c o g n i t i o n i n the e x p e r i e n c e of a f f e c t . C o g n i t i v e mediation i n emotion p r o v i d e s a c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n a f f e c t . The i n c l u s i o n of past experiences, b e l i e f s , and v a l u e s as fundamental components of the c o g n i t i v e framework support the c o n t e n t i o n of D i e n s t b i e r (1978) and L e v e n t h a l (1977) t h a t the e d i c t s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n are r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e . The process of sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n may i n s t i l l w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l c e r t a i n b e l i e f s r e g a r d i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l sex r o l e s which, i n turn, i n f l u e n c e h i s or her a f f e c t i v e responses. S i m i l a r l y , past e x p e r i e n c e s o b s e r v i n g and e n a c t i n g sex r o l e consonant behaviours, e s p e c i a l l y those which have r e c e i v e d p o s i t i v e s o c i a l reinforcement, may a l s o i n f l u e n c e f u t u r e c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l s and the r e s u l t i n g a f f e c t i v e l a b e l s . In a d d i t i o n , f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s of emotion have i s o l a t e d a dimension which corresponds to sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Svensson ( c i t e d i n R u s s e l l , 1980) i d e n t i f i e d a dimension he d e s c r i b e d as s o c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n which accounted f o r a s m a l l but s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the v a r i a n c e of a f f e c t . S i m i l a r l y , R u s s e l l and Mehrabian' (1974) circumplex model of a f f e c t i n c l u d e s a dimension of dominance-submissiveness, a d i s t i n c t i o n which i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with male and female sex r o l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y (Doyle, 1985; Greenglass, 1982; Huston, 1983) The i n c l u s i o n of sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o the framework of c o g n i t i o n generates an h y p o t h e s i s of gender-based d i f f e r e n c e s i n a f f e c t i v e responses. In view of l e a r n e d b e l i e f s and v a l u e s r e g a r d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e sex r o l e behaviours combined with repeated e x p e r i e n c e of such behaviours, men may l a b e l t h e i r a f f e c t a c c o r d i n g t o the a p p r a i s a l of a "masculinized 1* c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e . Conversely, women who have i n t e r n a l i z e d the female sex r o l may respond t o a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n with a d i f f e r e n t a f f e c t i v e l a b e l as a r e s u l t of a " f e m i n i z e d " c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l . The e f f e c t s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n on a f f e c t i v e l a b e l l i n g are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n r e f e r e n c e t o the emotions of a n x i e t y and anger, as these two a f f e c t i v e responses are commonly a s s o c i a t e d with c o n f l i c t generated a r o u s a l (Holmes & M i l l e r , 1976). Anxiety and Anger Anxiety i s u n i f o r m l y r e c o g n i z e d as a f e a r - r e l a t e d emotion, an e x p r e s s i o n of apprehension, or the e x p e c t a t i o n 7 of f e a r without a s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t r i b u t e d cause ( D i e n s t b i e r , 1978). The v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s are c o n s i s t e n t i n proposing t h a t the experience of a n x i e t y r e q u i r e s some form of c o g n i t i v e i n t e r p l a y , whether through an i n t e r a c t i v e feedback m o d i f i c a t i o n process or a d i r e c t dependency on c o g n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l . D i f f e r e n t i a t e d emotions theory p o s t u l a t e s t h a t the primary emotion of f e a r must f i r s t be aroused. Anxiety i s then c r e a t e d by the c o g n i t i v e p a i r i n g of f e a r with another primary emotion such as anger. The c h o i c e of the second a f f e c t depends on a c o g n i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n and determines the type or q u a l i t y of the a n x i e t y experienced (Izard, 1978). The a r o u s a l - c o g n i t i o n t h e o r i e s contend t h a t an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a r o u s a l o c c u r s which r e q u i r e s the c o g n i t i v e - i n t e r p r e t i v e system t o a p p r a i s e and l a b e l the a r o u s a l as a n x i e t y (Mandler, 1975). In sh o r t , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e o r e t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e , the experi e n c e of a n x i e t y i s hypothesized t o be i n some way i n f l u e n c e d by c o g n i t i o n s and, thus, by the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , anger i s commonly conceived as a product of c o g n i t i v e events. (See, f o r example, Novaco, 1976 and A v e r i l l , 1978). A v e r i l l i s among the s t r o n g e s t proponents of t h i s p o s i t i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t anger, l i k e a l l emotions, i s a " s o c i a l construction...whose meaning can only be f u l l y understood by i n c l u d i n g a s o c i a l l e v e l of a n a l y s i s " (p. 8). While A v e r i l l concedes t h a t p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l may be present, i t p l a y s a s m a l l and unimportant r o l e as a 8 p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r . According t o A v e r i l l , acute anger, as opposed t o c h r o n i c anger, performs a s o c i a l f u n c t i o n by r e g u l a t i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s through the t h r e a t of r e t a l i a t i o n f o r p e r c e i v e d wrongs. The p r o h i b i t e d behaviours or wrongdoings, which j u s t i f y anger are a r e f l e c t i o n of s o c i a l v a l u e s and norms concerning a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r p e r s o n a l behaviour. The e x p r e s s i o n o f anger i n response t o s o c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d v i o l a t i o n s i s hypothesized t o i n h i b i t f u t u r e v i o l a t i o n s and i s , t h e r e f o r e , viewed as a p o s i t i v e a d a p t i v e response f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . Consequently, the p r o v o c a t i o n of anger a r o u s a l i s dependent upon a c o g n i t i v e process of e v a l u a t i o n t h a t has i n t e g r a t e d c u l t u r a l norms and values. In a survey conducted by A v e r i l l (1978), respondents were asked t o i d e n t i f y s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s which were most commonly a s s o c i a t e d with t h e i r e xperience of anger. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the v a r i a b l e s t h a t were most f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d with anger a r o u s a l are r e l e v a n t t o i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t . For i n s t a n c e , A v e r i l l found t h a t 50'/. of the respondents' anger was d i r e c t e d at a l o v e d one or f r i e n d and 28V. at an acquaintance, as opposed t o 22V. at a s t r a n g e r or someone who i s known w e l l and d i s l i k e d . From t h i s A v e r i l l concludes t h a t while anger i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with hate, "...the data suggest t h a t anger i s more o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with l o v e " (p. 44). In a d d i t i o n , h a l f o f the s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d t h a t the i n s t i g a t i o n was of a v o l u n t a r y and u n j u s t i f i e d nature s u g g e s t i n g an element of moral f a u l t 9 or blame, a p e r c e p t i o n which i m p l i e s the r i g h t t o judge the o t h e r ' s moral behaviour and i n t e n t i o n s . Although f r u s t r a t i o n was the most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned i n s t i g a t o r , i t d i d not appear s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s e l f t o generate anger. The cause of the f r u s t r a t i o n appeared t o be the necessary f a c t o r . Seventy-three percent of s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d the cause of f r u s t r a t i o n as the v i o l a t i o n of important p e r s o n a l wishes and e x p e c t a t i o n s . The second most common cause of f r u s t r a t i o n was the v i o l a t i o n of s o c i a l l y accepted ways of behaving, while the t h i r d - r a n k e d cause was the l o s s of p e r s o n a l p r i d e or s e l f - e s t e e m . O v e r a l l , A v e r i l l ' s r e s u l t s suggest t h a t i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s are the most p r e v a l e n t cause of anger a r o u s a l which i s c o n s i s t e n t with the n o t i o n t h a t i n t i m a t e p a i r i n g s are a l s o the most c o n f l i c t e d . The m o t i v a t i o n f o r anger, which has t y p i c a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d as d e s t r u c t i v e and a n t a g o n i s t i c , may be l e s s malevolent than p r e v i o u s l y thought ( T a v r i s , 1982). A v e r i l l ' s s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d t h a t the most f r e q u e n t motive f o r anger was t o a s s e r t t h e i r a u t h o r i t y or independence or to improve t h e i r image and, secondly, to s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the i n s t i g a t o r . Novaco (1976) concurs t h a t image management and improved r e l a t i o n s are two of s e v e r a l p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n s of anger. In h i s work on the r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l of anger, Novaco d e s c r i b e s anger as an e n e r g i z i n g experience t h a t i n v i g o r a t e s i n d i v i d u a l s ' a c t i o n s and behaviours and s t r e n g t h e n s t h e i r r e s o l v e to act. In a d d i t i o n , Novaco s t a t e s t h a t h e a l t h y r e l a t i o n s h i p s 10 r e q u i r e the a p p r o p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n of anger between p a r t n e r s r a t h e r than s u p p r e s s i n g these f e e l i n g s , a l l o w i n g them to accumulate and p o s s i b l y erupt at a l a t e r time. As r e p o r t e d by A v e r i l l ' s s u b j e c t s , anger may a l s o have an image-enhancing or s e l f - p r o m o t i o n a l f u n c t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l s who are angry present an image of potency, a s s e r t i v e n e s s , and a w i l l i n g n e s s t o act. These a t t r i b u t e s of a u t h o r i t y and s t r e n g t h are s o c i a l l y valued responses t o p r o v o c a t i o n compared to the response of a n x i e t y manifested by withdrawal or apathy. Hence, angry persons convey a d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l image e s p e c i a l l y when t h e i r anger produces c o n s t r u c t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o the problem. Novaco f u r t h e r argues t h a t anger i n c r e a s e s a person's sense of potency and p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l . When an i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s f e e l i n g s of powerlessness or l a c k of s e l f - e s t e e m , the a r o u s a l of anger may h e l p t o reduce these f e e l i n g s and promote a sense of agency and c o n t r o l which, i n turn, f a c i l i t a t e s attempts t o master the s i t u a t i o n . Thus, anger may a l s o serve a d e f e n s i v e f u n c t i o n by o v e r r i d i n g f e e l i n g s of a n x i e t y and v u l n e r a b i l i t y . A ccording t o Novaco, anger and a n x i e t y are r e l a t e d emotions, i n t h a t an anxious response to a f e a r s t i m u l u s or t h r e a t can be c o g n i t i v e l y r e l a b e l l e d as anger. Consequently, these two emotions would be expected t o be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d i n s e l f - r e p o r t s of a f f e c t i v e responses. Novaco contends t h a t the experience of anger i s p r e f e r a b l e t o a n x i e t y as i t i s the l e s s d i s t r e s s i n g of the two emotions. By p r o j e c t i n g the c o n f l i c t onto an e x t e r n a l 11 source, anger can supplant f e e l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y and h e l p l e s s n e s s with more s o c i a l l y valued f e e l i n g s of potency and c o n t r o l while s i m u l t a n e o u s l y l e s s e n i n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b j e c t i v e d i s t r e s s . Sex Role Consonance The p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s a s s o c i a t e d with anger are a l s o those q u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with m a s c u l i n i t y or the male sex r o l e . The t r a d i t i o n a l male s t e r e o t y p e p o r t r a y s men as dominant, a g g r e s s i v e , a g e n t i c , and nonexpressive (Doyle, 1985; Greenglass, 1980; Hoyenga & Hoyenga, 1979; Stock, 1984). To remain c o n s i s t e n t with s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n o f in e x p r e s s i v e n e s s , men are l i m i t e d i n t h e i r emotional range, e x c l u d i n g emotions which would show v u l n e r a b i l i t y or express i n t e r p e r s o a n l needs (Stock, 1984). Anger, however, i s consonant with the male sex r o l e as i t conveys many of the q u a l i t i e s , such as dominance and agency, t h a t are s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e i n men. P r e d i c t a b l y , a n x i e t y or any e x p r e s s i o n o f f e a r of v u l n e r a b i l i t y i s not c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e male behaviour as i t i n d i c a t e s a weakness or a l a c k of c o n t r o l . Holmes and M i l l e r (1976) p o i n t out t h a t people o f t e n respond t o t h r e a t s with a n x i e t y . S i m i l a r l y , Novaco (1976) notes t h a t people who witness anger o f t e n respond with f e a r . Given a feminine s t e r e o t y p e of p a s s i v e submission, women would be more l i k e l y t o experience a n x i e t y i n response t o t h r e a t or anger than men. S t u d i e s c i t e d by Greenglass (1982) c o n s i s t e n t l y found t h a t g i r l s and young women s e l f -r e p o r t more a n x i e t y than boys and young men. These r e s u l t s , 12 however, c o u l d be a r e f l e c t i o n of the g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s of women t o r e p o r t a n x i e t y as i t i s consonant with t h e i r sex r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s of p a s s i v i t y , obedience, dependence, and ex p r e s s i v e n e s s (Doyle, 1985; Greenglass, 1982; Hoyenga & Hoyenga, 1977). Women are pe r m i t t e d t o express f e a r and v u l n e r a b i l i t y as t h e i r sex r o l e does not r e q u i r e agency or c o n t r o l but r a t h e r the c o n t r a r y behaviours of powerlessness and dependence. In a c o r r e l a t i o n a l study between value p r i o r i t i e s and gender r o l e s . Feather (1984) demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between m a s c u l i n i t y s c o r e s and a g r e a t e r importance assi g n e d t o value s c l a s s i f i e d as a g e n t i c / i n s t r u m e n t a l . Conversely, f e m i n i n i t y s c o r e s were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with a g r e a t e r importance assi g n e d t o va l u e s of a communal/expressive c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Thus, women may not onl y value t h e i r emotional e x p r e s s i v e n e s s but may be ab l e t o express a g r e a t e r range of emotions without f e a r of compromising sex r o l e expectatons. In a review o f gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n a g g r e s s i v e behaviour, F r o d i , Macaulay, and Thome (1977) conclude t h a t t h e r e i s evidence t o suggest t h a t a f f e c t i v e responses t o a g g r e s s i v e cues or p r o v o c a t i o n may d i f f e r i n men and women, with men e x p e r i e n c i n g more anger and women more anxi e t y . In a d d i t i o n , women a l s o appear t o experience more a n x i e t y i n a s s o c i a t i o n with a g g r e s s i v e behaviours than men, which may act as an i n h i h i t o r of female aggression. In a more r e c e n t review, White (1983) supports these c o n c l u s i o n s , adding t h a t s t u d i e s t h a t have found gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n anger a r o u s a l 13 and a g g r e s s i o n suggest t h a t sex r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s may be the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g v a r i a b l e . F u r t h e r evidence f o r gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n a f f e c t was found i n a r e c e n t study by Dutton and Aron (1984). S u b j e c t s responded to c o n f l i c t s c e n a r i o s which d e p i c t e d same-sex dyads i n a Milgram obedience paradigm. Although the study was not designed to t e s t f o r gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n a f f e c t i v e responding, the authors found t h a t i n the high a r o u s a l c o n d i t i o n , males e x h i b i t e d a high p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (.62) between s e l f - r e p o r t s of a r o u s a l and anger but no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between a r o u s a l and a n x i e t y (.24). Conversely, women e x h i b i t e d a high p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between a r o u s a l and a n x i e t y (.71) and no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between a r o u s a l and anger (.19). These p r e l i m i n a r y data suggest the p r o b a b i l i t y of a gendei—based d i f f e r e n c e i n a f f e c t i v e response i n the experience of anger and anxiety, and the u t i l i t y of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h to c l a r i f y the e f f e c t s of sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n as w e l l as r e l e v a n t s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Power One s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e which may i n f l u e n c e the l a b e l l i n g of c o n f l i c t - g e n e r a t e d a r o u s a l i s power. In r e f e r e n c e to i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , Huston (1983) d e f i n e s power "...as the a b i l i t y to achieve ends through i n f l u e n c e " (p. 170). Power may be the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g v a r i a b l e between anger and a n x i e t y (Leventhal, 1977), i n t h a t the p o s s e s s i o n of power may promote anger a r o u s a l while the predominant emotion a s s o c i a t e d with a l a c k of power may 14 be a n x i e t y . Novaco (1976) p o s t u l a t e s t h a t anger and a n x i e t y are a f u n c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of h i s or her c o e r c i v e power r e l a t i v e t o the source of p r o v o c a t i o n . As the p e r c e p t i o n of power decreases r e l a t i v e t o the other, the e x p e r i e n c e of v u l n e r a b i l i t y and i n s e c u r i t y w i l l i n c r e a s e . S i m i l a r l y , Berkowitz ( c i t e d i n R u s s e l l & Mehrabian, 1974) contends t h a t the a f f e c t of f e a r w i l l predominate over anger as a person's f e e l i n g of power over the f r u s t r a t i n g agent l e s s e n s . In t h e i r circumplex model of emotion, R u s s e l l and Mehrabian (1974) have d e f i n e d t h r e e primary dimensions of emotion: pleasure, a r o u s a l , and dominance. While power i s the a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e another f o r p a r t i c u l a r ends, dominance r e f e r s t o a continuous imbalance of power whereby one i n d i v i d u a l maintains a power advantage over another a c r o s s time and events (Huston, 1983). In terms of the t h r e e dimensions, anger i s d e f i n e d as high i n a r o u s a l , low i n pleasure, and high i n dominance. Anxiety i s d e f i n e d as high i n a r o u s a l , low i n pleasure, and low i n dominance. Thus, a c c o r d i n g to t h i s model, anger and a n x i e t y d i f f e r o n l y along the dimension of dominance, being b i p o l a r o p p o s i t e s . S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s were r e p o r t e d i n a study of group h i e r a r c h y p o s i t i o n and emotions. P l u t c h i k and Landau (1973) found t h a t p o s i t i o n s of high dominance w i t h i n the group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with f e e l i n g s of anger and joy, while f e e l i n g s of f e a r and c a u t i o u s n e s s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with p o s i t i o n s of low dominance. These data 15 suggest the r o l e of power as a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r between the l a b e l l i n g of a r o u s a l as anger or a n x i e t y . However, P l u t c h i k and Landau leav e s e v e r a l methodological i s s u e s u n s p e c i f i e d , weakening t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s . The measure of dominance employed was simply the s u b j e c t s ' s e l f - r e p o r t of t h e i r p o s i t i o n on a 10-step l a d d e r i n r e l a t i o n t o the other group members. However, each of the f o u r groups was r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous i n terms of s t a t u s (e.g., two p r o f e s s i o n a l and two n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l groups) and the authors d i d not attempt t o manipulate dominance w i t h i n any of the groups. Furthermore, the purpose of the group and the nature of i t s i n t e r a c t i o n s were not s p e c i f i e d . S e l f - r e p o r t s of a f f e c t were obtained by a d m i n i s t e r i n g an e i g h t emotion index t o p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g the t h i r d s e s s i o n of each group meeting. However, the s u b j e c t s were not responding to any p a r t i c u l a r stimulus, but r a t h e r j u s t r e p o r t i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s at the time. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the authors do not d i s t i n g u i s h between the c h r o n i c i t y or acuteness of the a f f e c t r e p o r t e d . Therefore, i t i s u n c l e a r i f these s c o r e s on anger or f e a r i n d i c a t e a c h r o n i c s t a t e or a s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c response. In a d d i t i o n , while the s e l f -r e p o r t s of a f f e c t were ob t a i n e d i n the t h i r d week of group meetings, p a r t i c i p a n t s d i d not r e p o r t t h e i r s e l f - p e r c e i v e d dominance p o s i t i o n s u n t i l the t w e n t i e t h week of meetings, r e n d e r i n g the c o n n e c t i o n between the two measures q u e s t i o n a b l e . Therefore, any r e l a t i o n s h i p the authors may have found between power and the s e l f - r e p o r t of anger or 16 f e a r remains ambiguous i n l i g h t of these methodological i s s u e s . Power may b i a s the a f f e c t i v e l a b e l l i n g p rocess i n favour of those emotions which are consonant with the e x p e c t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with p o s i t i o n s of power. High power s o c i a l r o l e s may c a r r y with them the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i n the r o l e behave i n an a g e n t i c and a s s e r t i v e manner. Thus, being i n a p o s i t i o n of power may prime an i n d i v i d u a l to use emotional l a b e l s t h a t are c o n s i s t e n t with the e x p e c t a t i o n s of t a k i n g a c t i o n and being i n c o n t r o l . Anger expresses these a g e n t i c and a s s e r t i v e q u a l i t i e s and may be the p r e f e r r e d emotional response f o r i n d i v i d u a l s of high power. Anxiety, however, i s manifested by withdrawal and apathy, behaviours which are i n c o n s i s t e n t and i n a p p r o p r i a t e with e x p e c t a t i o n s of agency. I n d i v i d u a l s i n high power r o l e s may be u n l i k e l y to express a n x i e t y due to i t s i n a p p r o p r i a t e i m p l i c a t i o n s of f e a r and i n d e c i s i v e n e s s . Therefore, power and anger may be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d due to the consonance i n t h e i r b e h a v i o u r a l and a f f e c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s . The u b i q u i t y of power i n i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t c o n s t i t u t e s a f u r t h e r b a s i s f o r gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n f l i c t - g e n e r a t e d a f f e c t . Women have been c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l e g a t e d to p o s i t i o n s of l e s s power r e l a t i v e to men (Doyle, 1985; Greenglass, 1982; L i p s & C o l w i l l , 1978). Although t h e r e have been some changes i n recent years, power r e s o u r c e s such as l e g i t i m a t e , expert, c o e r c i v e , and reward power (French & Raven, 1959) 17 are s t i l l more r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o men than t o women. The remaining r e s o u r c e which has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been w i t h i n the feminine domain, r e f e r e n t power, i s t h a t which bases a woman's power on her s e x u a l i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s . Although women are not without the a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e others, the i n e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of power r e s o u r c e s between men and women has c r e a t e d a power imbalance which has long favoured men. In f a c t , male dominated s o c i e t i e s are so p r e v a l e n t t h a t p a t r i a r c h y i s c o n s i d e r e d a c u l t u r a l u n i v e r s a l (Doyle, 1985). Furthermore, while men possess g r e a t e r power, they a l s o value power i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s more than women ( E l i z a b e t h & Stock, 1982, c i t e d i n Wodom, 1984). Women p l a c e g r e a t e r value on emotional e x p r e s s i v e n e s s , r e v e a l i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s and needs, and thereby i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r v u l n e r a b i l i t y . Consequently, women p l a c e themselves i n a l e s s powerful p o s i t i o n due to t h e i r e x p r e s s i v e n e s s , while men r e t a i n a power advantage i n remaining i n e x p r e s s i v e i n t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I f the l a b e l l i n g of a r o u s a l as anger i s a f u n c t i o n of the degree of power r e l a t i v e t o the other, men may be more l i k e l y than women t o l a b e l a r o u s a l as anger. Women, on the other hand, who are u s u a l l y i n a p o s i t i o n of l e s s power, may be more l i k e l y t o l a b e l a r o u s a l as anxi e t y . Therefore, an imbalance of power, as a r e s u l t o f d i f f e r e n t i a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , may promote gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n a f f e c t i v e responses t o i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t . 18 Hypotheses T h i s study examines power and gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n a f f e c t as a f u n c t i o n o f 1) sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g and 2) i n e q u i t a b l e power d i s t r i b u t i o n . F i v e hypotheses concerning these i s s u e s are addressed. Hypothesis l a : Based on the male sex r o l e as d e f i n e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , anger appears t o be a sex r o l e consonant a f f e c t i v e response f o r men. The female sex r o l e i s , con v e r s e l y , d e f i n e d as l e s s conducive t o anger a r o u s a l . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t men w i l l s e l f - r e p o r t more anger i n response t o an i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t s c e n a r i o than w i l l women. Hypothesis l b : The female sex r o l e i m p l i e s t h a t a n x i e t y i s a sex r o l e consonant response f o r women. However, a n x i e t y i s not compatible with the a g e n t i c aspects of the male sex r o l e . Therefore, i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t women w i l l s e l f -r e p o r t more a n x i e t y i n response t o an i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t s c e n a r i o than w i l l men. Hypothesis I l a : T h e o r e t i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t the balance of power may determine the experience of c o n f l i c t -generated a r o u s a l as anger or anxie t y . Consequently, i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s i n the high power c o n d i t i o n w i l l s e l f - r e p o r t more anger than those i n the low power c o n d i t i o n . Huypothesis l i b : For s u b j e c t s i n the low power c o n d i t i o n the o p p o s i t e a f f e c t i v e response i s p r e d i c t e d . That i s , 19 s u b j e c t s i n the low power c o n d i t i o n w i l l s e l f - r e p o r t more a n x i e t y than those i n the high power c o n d i t i o n . Hypothesis I I I : The i n t e r a c t i o n of gender and power i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t s i n c e the predominance of one v a r i a b l e over the oth e r i s not known. S o c i a l i z a t i o n may have an o v e r r i d i n g e f f e c t due to i t s c h r o n i c and p e r v a s i v e nature which a group s i t u a t i o n may exacerbate by i n c r e a s i n g the s a l i e n c e of sex r o l e a p p r o p r i a t e behaviours. Moreover, changing a s u b j e c t ' s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n of power may not be s u c c e s s f u l l y manipulated through a simple s h o r t term procedure. Overcoming the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n may r e q u i r e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d m anipulations of power reso u r c e s . However, s t u d i e s of l e a d e r s h i p behaviour i n mixed sex groups (Lockheed & H a l l , c i t e d i n L i p s & C o l w i l l , 1978) have shown t h a t women whose power or group s t a t u s has been i n c r e a s e d through p r i o r experience with the group task, show an i n c r e a s e i n l e a d e r s h i p and a s s e r t i v e behaviours. Although these s t u d i e s looked at changes i n behaviour, they suggest t h a t a s i m i l a r power man i p u l a t i o n may a l s o cause changes i n a f f e c t . Thus, i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t a s t r o n g power mani p u l a t i o n may o v e r r i d e s o c i a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t s and r e s u l t i n s i m i l a r anger and a n x i e t y s c o r e s i n both the low and high power c o n d i t i o n s f o r men and women. In a d d i t i o n , gender i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d not onl y as a b i o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n , but, as w e l l , as a r e f l e c t i o n of the s t r e n g t h of sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . The I n t e r p e r s o n a l A d j e c t i v e S c a l e (Wiggins & Holzmuller, 1978) p r o v i d e s a 20 measure of two s t y l e s of i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n , dominance and nurturance, which correspond t o the sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s of m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y r e s p e c t i v e l y (Spence, 1985). S i n c e i n d i v i d u a l s vary w i t h i n gender i n terms of t h e i r sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s , i t may be the case t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s c o r e s on these two s u b s c a l e s c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y with r e a c t i o n s of anger and a n x i e t y d e s p i t e t h e i r b i o l o g i c a l gender. Thus, t h i s s c a l e i s i n c l u d e d as an a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r o l measure with the subsequent p r e d i c t i o n s t h a t s e l f - r a t i n g s on the dominance s u b s c a l e w i l l c o r r e l a t e with those of anger and s e l f - r a t i n g s on the nurturance s u b s c a l e w i l l c o r r e l a t e with those of anxi e t y . The power v a r i a b l e i n t h i s study was manipulated by a s s i g n i n g s u b j e c t s at random t o e i t h e r a group l e a d e r (high power) or group member (low power) c o n d i t i o n . The group l e a d e r was giv e n l e g i t i m a t e power by being h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the completion of a group r e p o r t . In a d d i t i o n , the l e a d e r had c o e r c i v e power by having the f i n a l say as to the content of the r e p o r t and the r i g h t t o r e j e c t the c o n t r i b u t i o n of a group member i f he or she judged i t to be extraneous. The manipulation of c o e r c i v e power i s a necessary a d d i t i o n as Novaco c l a i m s t h a t c o e r c i o n i s the s p e c i f i c type of power t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the experien c e of anger or an x i e t y . However, at t h i s stage of the research, d i s e n t a n g l i n g the v a r i o u s types of power bases and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s remains a secondary concern 21 u n t i l the r e l a t i o n s h i p between power and a f f e c t has been more c l o s e l y examined. The s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s were presented on audiotape r a t h e r than videotape to i n c r e a s e the s u b j e c t ' s involvement, as they r e q u i r e the s u b j e c t to imagine the c o n f l i c t being portrayed. In a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s were t o l d t h a t the c o n f l i c t s were not a d r a m a t i z a t i o n , but a c t u a l arguments taped i n the home of a c o n f l i c t e d couple. These procedures were intended to heighten the s u b j e c t s ' a r o u s a l . Although s u b j e c t s would be l i s t e n i n g to the c o n f l i c t s as a non-i n v o l v e d t h i r d party, p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s u s i n g t h i s format (Browning & Dutton, 1983; Dutton & Aron, 1984) have s u c c e s s f u l l y generated a r o u s a l as w e l l as gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a f f e c t i v e l a b e l s a t t a c h e d to the a r o u s a l . A t h i r d p a r t y o b s e r v a t i o n format a l l o w s f o r the c r e a t i o n of a power-based c o g n i t i v e s e t which i s f r e e from the confounds of i n t e r a c t i o n with another party. Thus, the i n f l u e n c e of t h i s c o g n i t i v e s e t on a f f e c t i v e s e l f - r e p o r t s can be measured independent of the s u b j e c t ' s d i r e c t involvement i n a c o n f l i c t e d i n t e r a c t i o n . 22 METHOD SUBJECTS The p a r t i c i p a n t s were 60 male and 60 female undergraduate students r e c r u i t e d from undergraduate psychology courses who r e c e i v e d course c r e d i t f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The mean age of the s u b j e c t s was 20.0 with a range of 17 to 38 years, with the mean age equal t o 20.00 f o r males and 19.86 f o r females. MEASURES Su b j e c t s were ad m i n i s t e r e d the f o l l o w i n g t e s t s e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n groups d u r i n g a s i n g l e s e s s i o n l a s t i n g approximately one hour. ( A l l t e s t m a t e r i a l s are presented i n Appendices A - F). A f f e c t C h e c k l i s t . P r i o r t o and f o l l o w i n g exposure t o the c o n f l i c t s timulus, s u b j e c t s were ad m i n i s t e r e d an a f f e c t c h e c k l i s t comprised of 16 b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s on a nine p o i n t continuum (Mehrabian & R u s s e l l , c i t e d i n R u s s e l l & Mehrabian, 1974). In order t o o b t a i n more s t a b l e measures of anger and anxiety, r a t i n g s on s p e c i f i c combinations of b i p o l a r p a i r s were averaged t o g i v e s i n g l e , g l o b a l measures f o r anger and an x i e t y . For example, anger was score d by averaging the r a t i n g s of h o s t i l e , annoyed, i r r i t a t e d , and angry. (For a d i s c u s s i o n of the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the s c a l e , r e f e r t o R u s s e l l and Mehrabian, 1974). 2). I n t e r p e r s o n a l A d j e c t i v e S c a l e . A l l s u b j e c t s were adm i n i s t e r e d the s h o r t form of the I n t e r p e r s o n a l A d j e c t i v e 23 S c a l e . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t s of e i g h t s c a l e s t h a t measure dimensions of i n t e r p e r s o n a l behaviour such as dominance and nurturance. These two dimensions have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d as masculine and feminine behaviours r e s p e c t i v e l y . S u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s on these two su b s c a l e s measured t h e i r use of these sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e d behaviours i n an i n t e r p e r s o n a l domain and, thus, were used as an i n d i c a t i o n of adherence t o s t e r e o t y p i c sex r o l e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o r a t e the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of 64 s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e a d j e c t i v e s on an e i g h t - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e ranging from "extremely i n a c c u r a t e " t o "extremely accu r a t e " . A l l of the e i g h t s u b s c a l e s have r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of >.80. (For v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s and a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s , r e f e r t o Wiggins and Broughton, 1985). 3. M a n i p u l a t i on Check Qu e s t i o n n a i r e . The Ma n i p u l a t i o n Check Q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d o f seven qu e s t i o n s . In order to check the power manipulaton, the f i r s t two q u e s t i o n s asked s u b j e c t s t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r group assignment as e i t h e r l e a d e r or group member and, as such, t o r a t e on a nine p o i n t s c a l e how r e s p o n s i b l e they were f o r the outcome of the f i n a l group r e p o r t . V e r b a l feedback from p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a p i l o t study suggested t h a t the term "power" had a s o c i a l l y u n d e s i r a b l e connotation. P a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t r e l u c t a n t t o use the term "power"; ap p a r e n t l y they p r e f e r r e d an e g a l i t a r i a n posture when t h i n k i n g about group l e a d e r s h i p . Although t h e i r thoughts as 24 r e p o r t e d i n t h e i r v e r b a l feedback were c o n s i s t e n t with t h e i r a n t i c i p a t e d r o l e of group leader, they f e l t awkward r e p o r t i n g t h a t they had "power over" the oth e r group members. Therefore, the term r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was chosen i n s t e a d of power i n order t o a v o i d t h i s s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y e f f e c t . The next two q u e s t i o n s asked s u b j e c t s t o r a t e on a nine p o i n t s c a l e how much power the woman had and how much power the man had. Although the i n i t i a t o r provoked the c o n f l i c t with angry a c c u s a t i o n s of i n f i d e l i t y , the tapes were s c r i p t e d so t h a t n e i t h e r p a r t y appeared more powerful or dominant i n terms of v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n or moral stance. Thus, these q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d t o check f o r e q u a l i t y i n a g g r e s s i v e behaviour and moral p o s i t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , f a m i l i a r i t y with the c o n f l i c t was c o n s i d e r e d a p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n t h a t g r e a t e r f a m i l i a r i t y may cause a s t r o n g e r or d i v e r g e n t a f f e c t i v e response. In order t o check f o r the e f f e c t of t h i s i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e , r a t i n g s on p a r t i c i p a n t ' s f a m i l i a r i t y were a l s o obtained. The l a s t two q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s t o r a t e the r e a l i s m of the tape and to i d e n t i f y the c o n f l i c t i s s u e from a l i s t o f f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s . APPARATUS AND FILM SELECTION Four audiotapes d e p i c t i n g c o n f l i c t s c e n a r i o s between he t e r o s e x u a l i n t i m a t e s were developed i n which the couples were p o r t r a y e d by a p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r and a c t r e s s . The s c e n a r i o s were s c r i p t e d a l l o w i n g the experimenter c o n t r o l 25 over a l l a s p e c t s of the c o n f l i c t such as the e x p r e s s i o n of the power dynamics between the dyad, the l e v e l of v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n expressed, and the i s s u e of c o n f l i c t . T h i s was accomplished by monitoring t h r e e aspects of the i n t e r a c t i o n : 1) v o i c e l e v e l , 2) amount of time t a l k i n g , and 3) one p a r t y i n t e r r u p t i n g the other. Both p a r t i e s were approximately equal i n the number of t h e i r i n t e r r u p t i o n s , amount of time t a l k i n g , and i n the l e v e l of t h e i r v o i c e s so t h a t n e i t h e r member would appear dominant by v i r t u e of g r e a t e r v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n . At f i r s t , the two c o n f l i c t i s s u e s of money and s e x u a l j e a l o u s y were chosen based on the f i n d i n g t h a t these t o p i c s c o n s t i t u t e the m a j o r i t y of c o n f l i c t s between i n t i m a t e s (Holmes & M i l l e r > 1976; Straus et al,1980). A p i l o t study was conducted i n order to see i f p a t t e r n s of a f f e c t i v e responses v a r i e d depending on whether money or s e x u a l j e a l o u s y was presented as the c o n f l i c t s t i m u l u s . Four p r e l i m i n a r y , experimental q u a l i t y audiotapes were produced which v a r i e d i n terms of which c o n f l i c t (money or s e x u a l j e a l o u s y ) was p o r t r a y e d and the gender of who i n i t i a t e d the c o n f l i c t . Thus, two of the f o u r tapes d e p i c t e d a c o n f l i c t c o n cerning money matters while the other two were concerned with the i s s u e of s e x u a l j e a l o u s y . Within each c o n f l i c t i s s u e , the tapes v a r i e d as to the gender of the i n i t i a t o r ; i n one scene the man s t a r t e d the argument, i n the o t h e r the woman d i d . P a r t i c i p a n t s were asked t o p r o v i d e t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to l i s t e n i n g t o one of the tapes chosen at random by completing the a f f e c t check l i s t . 26 r e a l i s m r a t i n g s ( i . e . , how r e a l i s t i c the s c e n a r i o was) on a nine p o i n t s c a l e (see Appendix F ), and content r e c o g n i t i o n f o r which s u b j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d the c o n f l i c t i s s u e by i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r c h o i c e from f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s . The r e s u l t s were t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d whether the c o n f l i c t was about money or sex u a l j e a l o u s y . In order t o determine i f type of c o n f l i c t i n f l u e n c e d a f f e c t i v e r e p o r t s , a 2(gender) X 2(tape) between-subjects u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) was conducted. No d i f f e r e n c e s on a f f e c t i v e responses or r a t i n g s of r e a l i s m were found between c o n f l i c t i s s u e s . There were no main e f f e c t s or i n t e r a c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the type of c o n f l i c t i s s u e . S i n c e these p i l o t study r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t a f f e c t i v e r e p o r t s were s i m i l a r f o r c o n f l i c t s about money and s e x u a l j e a l o u s y , and i n order to economize on experimental resources, one t o p i c o f c o n f l i c t , s e x u a l j e a l o u s y , was chosen t o be presented t o p a r t i c i p a n t s . The audiotapes were presented u s i n g a Sony Stereo C a s s e t t e Recorder and f o u r s e t s of i n d i v i d u a l headphones. Both tapes were between two and a h a l f and t h r e e minutes i n d u r a t i o n . Sexual j e a l o u s y was d e p i c t e d i n tape 1 i n which the male i n i t i a t e s the c o n f l i c t by e x p r e s s i n g concern and m i s t r u s t over h i s p a r t n e r ' s f l i r t a t i o u s behaviour at a p a r t y the n i g h t before. Conversely, tape 2 p o r t r a y s the woman as the j e a l o u s p a r t n e r who i n i t i a t e s the same c o n f r o n t a t i o n . A f t e r a grad u a l e s c a l a t i o n o f v e r b a l aggression, the scene ends with the j e a l o u s p a r t n e r l e a v i n g the room. The 27 s c e n a r i o s were s c r i p t e d by the experimenter s p e c i f i c a l l y so t h a t n e i t h e r p a r t n e r i n the scene was p o r t r a y e d as dominant; both the male and the female were approximately equal i n terms of t h e i r v e r b a l aggression, l e n g t h of time t a l k i n g , and v o i c e l e v e l . In a d d i t i o n , n e i t h e r the i n i t i a t o r nor the r e c i p i e n t was p o r t r a y e d as mo r a l l y s u p e r i o r or without f a u l t . P r e t e s t i n g found r a t i n g s of r e a l i s m (M = 7.50) and a r o u s a l (M = 5.58) on a nine p o i n t s c a l e t h a t were s u f f i c i e n t l y high t o warrant t h e i r use as a p p r o p r i a t e s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s . DESIGN AND PROCEDURE The design was a 2 X 2 X 2 f a c t o r i a l with power (high, low), gender (male, female), and tape ( m a l e - i n i t i a t e d , f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d ) as f a c t o r s (see F i g u r e 3). A l l s e s s i o n s were conducted by a female experimenter with s u b j e c t s randomly assig n e d t o one of the f o u r p o s s i b l e power and tape c o n d i t i o n s . S u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n mixed gender groups of t h r e e or f o u r . Upon a r r i v i n g at the l a b o r a t o r y , s u b j e c t s were seated as a group i n a l a r g e common room from which extended f o u r s m a l l e r rooms extended. The experimenter e x p l a i n e d t h a t the study was concerned with people's p e r c e p t i o n s of i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t and th a t they would be r e q u i r e d t o perform t h r e e t a s k s : 1) t o l i s t e n t o a c o n f l i c t between a man and a woman 2) to answer a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s one of which would ask them to d e s c r i b e themselves and the other t o s t a t e 28 t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o the c o n f l i c t and 3) to w r i t e a group r e p o r t about the c o n f l i c t which would c o n s i s t of answering f o u r q u e s t i o n s . Power M a n i p u l a t i o n The experimenter informed the s u b j e c t s t h a t one person out of the group would be assign e d at random t o be the group l e a d e r (high power c o n d i t i o n , see Appendix C). The l e a d e r would have veto c o n t r o l over the contents o f the f i n a l r e p o r t . He or she would decide the order o f t o p i c s t o be d i s c u s s e d as w e l l as the l e n g t h of the d i s c u s s i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the l e a d e r c o u l d a s s i g n a group member to act as the s e c r e t a r y and w r i t e out the f i n a l r e p o r t . I f s u b j e c t s were not ass i g n e d as the l e a d e r but r a t h e r as group members (low power c o n d i t i o n , see Appendix D), they were encouraged t o express t h e i r o p i n i o n s on a l l t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d but to comply with the d e c i s i o n s o f the le a d e r . The s u b j e c t s ' a t t e n t i o n was then drawn t o the f o u r s m a l l rooms which extended o f f the common room. The experimenter e x p l a i n e d t h a t each s u b j e c t would choose an i n d i v i d u a l room i n which he or she would l i s t e n t o the c o n f l i c t . Dn the desk i n each room, s u b j e c t s would f i n d a s e t of headphones and s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The f i r s t sheet of paper would t e l l them t h e i r group assignment as e i t h e r l e a d e r or group member and review t h e i r r o l e as such i n the group d i s c u s s i o n . In t h i s way i t was made apparent t o the s u b j e c t t h a t the assignment of l e a d e r was a random process, determined by the s u b j e c t ' s own room s e l e c t i o n . 29 The power assignment was, i n f a c t , determined by group r a t h e r than by s u b j e c t . That i s , a l l s u b j e c t s w i t h i n each group were given the same power assignment so t h a t a group c o n s i s t e d o f e i t h e r f o u r l e a d e r s (high power) or f o u r group members (low power). S u b j e c t s were not aware of t h i s , however, as they r e c e i v e d t h e i r group assignment when seated alone i n i n d i v i d u a l rooms. The experimenter e x p l a i n e d t o the group t h a t a f t e r l i s t e n i n g t o the c o n f l i c t and answering the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on the desk, they were t o regroup i n the common room and begin t h e i r group r e p o r t . At t h i s time, the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' questions, i f any, were answered and they were gi v e n a consent form to s i g n . The I n t e r p e r s o n a l A d j e c t i v e S c a l e (IAS) was f i r s t a d m i n i s t e r e d t o s u b j e c t s while they were s t i l l seated as a group i n the common room. S u b j e c t s were t o l d t h a t t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e would ask them to g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e themselves. A f t e r completing the IAS, s u b j e c t s were asked to s e l e c t a room and seat themselves at the desk. They were i n s t r u c t e d t o f i r s t read through t h e i r group assignment sheet c a r e f u l l y a f t e r which s u b j e c t s were asked i n d i v i d u a l l y i f they c l e a r l y understood t h e i r r o l e w i t h i n the group. S u b j e c t s were then a d m i n i s t e r e d an A f f e c t C h e c k l i s t . Audiotape Exposure When a l l s u b j e c t s had completed the c h e c k l i s t , the experimenter e x p l a i n e d t h a t they were going to hear an 30 a c t u a l c o n f l i c t between i n t i m a t e s t h a t had been taped i n t h e i r home as p a r t of the m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g t h a t they were r e c e i v i n g at t h a t time. The s u b j e c t s were f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t e d t h a t , a f t e r they had l i s t e n e d t o the c o n f l i c t , they were t o complete the remaining two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s which were turned f a c e down on the desk (the f i r s t of which was a second A f f e c t C h e c k l i s t f o l l o w e d by a M a n i p u l a t i o n Check Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . The experimenter then c l o s e d the doors t o the i n d i v i d u a l rooms and p a r t i c i p a n t s l i s t e n e d t o the taped c o n f l i c t . A f t e r they had completed the two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , s u b j e c t s r e - e n t e r e d the common room and seated themselves again at the t a b l e a n t i c i p a t i n g a group d i s c u s s i o n and the w r i t i n g of a r e p o r t . When a l l s u b j e c t s had reconvened i n the common room, they were informed t h a t the study was now over and t h a t they would not be r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e a group r e p o r t . The experimenter pr o v i d e d a complete w r i t t e n and o r a l d e b r i e f i n g e x p l a i n i n g the nature of the experiment and the minor d e c e p t i o n s i n v o l v e d , and any qu e s t i o n s were answered. 31 RESULTS POWER MANIPULATION. As a check of the power manipulation, s u b j e c t s were asked t o r a t e on a nine p o i n t s c a l e how r e s p o n s i b l e they were f o r the outcome of the f i n a l r e p o r t (see Appendix F). A comparison of the l e a d e r (high power) c o n d i t i o n with the group member (low power) c o n d i t i o n showed a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t , F( 1,118) = 1.95, p< .006. S u b j e c t s i n the high power c o n d i t i o n r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than d i d s u b j e c t s i n the low power c o n d i t i o n with means of 7.05 (SD = 1.70) and 5.95 (SD = 1.22) r e s p e c t i v e l y . AUDIOTAPE RATINGS. A l l s u b j e c t s c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d the t o p i c o f c o n f l i c t as s e x u a l j e a l o u s y f o r both the male-i n i t i a t e d (tape 1) and the f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d (tape 2) s c e n a r i o s . Ratings of r e a l i s m on a nine p o i n t s c a l e d i d not show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between tapes, F(l,118) = 1.27, p=.362, with means of 6.55 f o r the m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t and 7.03 f o r the f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t . S u b j e c t s ' r a t i n g s of i n t e r e s t on a nine p o i n t s c a l e were c o n s i s t e n t l y high on both the p r e c o n f l i c t (M = 7.24) as w e l l as the p o s t c o n f l i c t <M =7.23) measures. Although t h e r e were no gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r e s t r a t i n g s f o r both pre and p o s t c o n f l i c t measures ( p r e c o n f l i c t ; F(1,118) = 1.34, p=.267 and p o s t c o n f l i c t ; F( 1,118) = 1.01, p=.979), the f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t was r a t e d as more i n t e r e s t i n g , 32 F(1,118) = 1.78, p=.029, than i t s male c o u n t e r p a r t . In a d d i t i o n , a main e f f e c t f o r tape, F(1,112) = 35.21, p=.001, was found f o r r a t i n g s of the i n i t i a t o r ' s power. When the m a l e - i n i t i a t e d the c o n f l i c t e x p r e s s i n g j e a l o u s y , the woman was seen as more powerful with means on a nine p o i n t s c a l e of 5.08 and 4.00 f o r the m a l e - i n i t i a t e d and f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i m i l a r l y , r a t i n g s of the man's power showed a main e f f e c t f o r tape, F(1,112) = 57.41, p= .001, with h i g h e r r a t i n g s of the man's power f o r the female-i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t (M = 6.32,) than f o r the m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t ( M = 4.93). Both tapes generated a s i g n i f i c a n t and e q u i v a l e n t i n c r e a s e i n a r o u s a l , F(l,59> = 8.53, p<. 005 f o r tape 1 and F ( l , 5 9 ) = 8.58, p<.005 f o r tape 2. Although s u b j e c t s who l i s t e n e d t o the f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher a r o u s a l p r i o r to exposure to the tape, the mean d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s f o r pre and p o s t c o n f l i c t a r o u s a l d i d not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t (M = 1.10) and the f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t (M = . 89). To summarize, both tapes were r a t e d as comparatively r e a l i s t i c and arousing, c l e a r l y d e p i c t i n g a c o n f l i c t about sexual j e a l o u s y . S u b j e c t s were asked to r a t e the r e l a t i v e power of the man and the woman i n order to c o n f i r m t h a t one was not p e r c e i v e d as more powerful than the other simply because they i n i t i a t e d and/or e s c a l a t e d the argument. The tapes were s c r i p t e d so t h a t both p a r t i e s would appear equal 33 i n terms of v e r b a l a g g r e s s i o n and n e i t h e r p a r t y would appear f e a r f u l of the other. However, s u b j e c t s ' responses t o t h i s q u e s t i o n r e v e a l e d a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the power q u e s t i o n than expected. The i n i t i a t o r of the c o n f l i c t who expressed concern about the f i d e l i t y of the p a r t n e r was seen as l e s s powerful than the spouse. T h i s was t r u e f o r both tapes r e g a r d l e s s of gender of i n i t i a t o r . These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t s u b j e c t s were responding more to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l power dynamics of the c o n f l i c t r a t h e r than t o o v e r t v e r b a l aggression, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the l a t t e r dynamics were not s a l i e n t and, thus, r e l a t i v e l y equal. In a d d i t i o n , s u b j e c t s ' i n t e r e s t r a t i n g s were high on both pre and p o s t c o n f l i c t measures f o r the m a l e - i n i t i a t e d and female-i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t , although the f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t was r a t e d as more i n t e r e s t i n g . PRECONFLICT AFFECT RATINGS. S u b j e c t s ' a f f e c t i v e r a t i n g s p r i o r t o exposure t o the c o n f l i c t s t i m u l i were analyzed f o r p r e c o n f l i c t d i f f e r e n c e s . A 2 X 2 between M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e (MANOVA) with power and gender as f a c t o r s was conducted on the 16 a f f e c t items. No s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s were found f o r gender or f o r the power X gender i n t e r a c t i o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was found, however, f o r power c o n d i t i o n , F<16, 101) = 2.13, p=.012. A s e r i e s of 16 t - t e s t s on the a f f e c t check l i s t items found t h a t one item, h o s t i l i t y , was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , F(1,118) = 1.90, p=.015. S u b j e c t s i n the low power 34 c o n d i t i o n r e p o r t e d higher r a t i n g s on a nine p o i n t s c a l e (M = 2.68) of h o s t i l i t y than d i d those i n the high power c o n d i t i o n (M = 1.95). No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found on other r e l a t e d items such as angry, a g g r e s s i v e , i r r i t a t e d or annoyed. These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t being p l a c e d i n a low power p o s i t i o n generated some n e g a t i v e a f f e c t of h o s t i l i t y but of a minimal amount so as t o i n f l u e n c e the r a t i n g s of only one item and not other items which conveyed a s i m i l a r a f f e c t . These f i n d i n g s a l s o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r support f o r the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the power manipulation. Thus, a f f e c t check l i s t r a t i n g s p r i o r t o exposure to the c o n f l i c t s t i m u l u s d i d not d i f f e r by gender x power or by gender alone. In f a c t , the rank order of mean r a t i n g s of a f f e c t as w e l l as the mean r a t i n g s themselves were very s i m i l a r between gender (see Table 1): men r e p o r t e d means of 1.83 and 5.32 f o r anger and a n x i e t y r e s p e c t i v e l y and women r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r means of 2.02 and 4.88. In a d d i t i o n , p r e c o n f l i c t r a t i n g s on the anger and a n x i e t y c l u s t e r s (as d e s c r i b e d below) d i d not d i f f e r by gender. Thus, s u b j e c t s d i f f e r e d o n l y between power c o n d i t i o n s and, again, only on the one item of h o s t i l i t y . ANGER CLUSTER RATINGS. There was concern about the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the r e l i a n c e on the one anger item i n the check l i s t as the s o l e measure of anger c o u l d be more a r e f l e c t i o n of a p a r t i c i p a n t s ' i d i o s y n c r a t i c use of the "anger" mood l a b e l r a t h e r than the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' g e n e r a l 35 f e e l i n g of anger. To c o r r e c t f o r i d i o s y n c r a t i c or b i a s e d use, i t was decided to f o l l o w the procedure used by R u s s e l l & Mehrabian (1974) t o c l u s t e r items i n o r der to o b t a i n more g l o b a l , s t a b l e , and c o n c e p t u a l l y u s e f u l items. An anger c l u s t e r was o b t a i n e d by computing the average r a t i n g s of f o u r items from the a f f e c t check l i s t : angry, h o s t i l e , annoyed and i r r i t a t e d . These items were chosen u s i n g two c r i t e r i a : 1) the c l u s t e r items must be c o n c e p t u a l l y compatible with anger (e.g., the items e l a t e d and sad were not a p p r o p r i a t e ) and 2) of those c o n c e p t u a l l y r e l a t e d items, the t h r e e which demonstrated the h i g h e s t s i g n i f i c a n t Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s with anger were i n c l u d e d i n the c l u s t e r . Consequently, h o s t i l e , i r r i t a t e d , and annoyed were seen as c o n c e p t u a l l y r e l e v a n t and demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s of r=.67, p=.0001; r = .57, p = .0001; and r=.55, p=.0001, r e s p e c t i v e l y , and, with the anger item, c o n s t i t u t e d the anger c l u s t e r . Anger measures were obtained on both the pre and p o s t c o n f l i c t a f f e c t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . To analyze f o r an i n c r e a s e i n anger a f t e r exposure t o the c o n f l i c t s t i m u l u s , a 2 X 2 X 2 between-subjects U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of Covariance (ANCOVA) with power, gender, and tape as f a c t o r s was performed on the p o s t c o n f l i c t anger s c o r e s (anger2x) with the p r e c o n f l i c t anger s c o r e s (angerlx) as a c o v a r i a t e . S ince the anger c l u s t e r i n c l u d e d a host item t h a t showed a p r e c o n f l i c t d i f f e r e n c e , the ANCOVA design was employed t o c o n t r o l f o r the p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e of p r e c o n f l i c t 36 d i f f e r e n c e s on the p o s t c o n f l i c t anger c l u s t e r r e p o r t s . The r e s u l t a n t ANCQVA summary t a b l e i s presented i n Table 2. A s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was found f o r the c o v a r i a t e angerlx, F(1,110) = 10.17, p=.002, i n d i c a t i n g the i n f l u e n c e of the e l e v a t e d p r e c o n f l i c t h o s t i l i t y s c o r e s . S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were obtained f o r power, F(l,110) = 4.13, p= .045, with low power D(M = 4.91) being g r e a t e r than high power (M = 4.15) i n anger r a t i n g s , and f o r gender as w e l l , F(l,110) = 8.53, p=.004, with female p a r t i c i p a n t s ' anger r a t i n g s (M = 5.00) being g r e a t e r than male p a r t i c i p a n t s ' (M = 4.06). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r tape. A s i g n i f i c a n t t h r e e way i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was a l s o o b tained f o r power x gender x tape, F(1,110) = 7.96, p=.006. T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was f u r t h e r analyzed u s i n g a simple main e f f e c t s procedure. Analyses of the simple main e f f e c t s of power x tape f o r both male and female s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o r males but a s i g n i f i c a n t power x tape i n t e r a c t i o n f o r females, F(1,110) = 5.81, p=.025. F u r t h e r a n a l y s e s of tape i n both the high and low power c o n d i t i o n s r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r tape, F(1,110) = 8.61, p=.005, i n the low power c o n d i t i o n only. Thus, the l o c u s of i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d i n the low power c o n d i t i o n f o r female s u b j e c t s who were exposed to a m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t . These r e s u l t s are presented i n F i g u r e 1. ANXIETY CLUSTER RATINGS. A measure of a n x i e t y was c a l c u l a t e d by c r e a t i n g an a n x i e t y c l u s t e r which averaged the 37 r a t i n g s of f o u r items from the a f f e c t check l i s t : anxious, tense, nervous, and f e a r f u l . The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of items were the same as those f o r the anger measure; 1) c o n c e p t u a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y with a n x i e t y and 2) s i g n i f i c a n t Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n s with a n x i e t y . Tense, nervous and f e a r f u l y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t c o e f f i c i e n t s of r = .54, p=.0001, r=.41, p=.0001 and r=.41, p=.0001, r e s p e c t i v e l y and, thus, t o g e t h e r with the a n x i e t y item, composed the c l u s t e r f o r the a n x i e t y measure. Again, a n x i e t y measures were obtained f o r both the pre and p o s t c o n f l i c t a f f e c t check l i s t . Changes i n a n x i e t y r a t i n g s were analyzed using a 2(power) X 2(gender) X 2(tape) between-subjects U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of Covariance on p o s t c o n f l i c t a n x i e t y r a t i n g s (anxious2x) with p r e c o n f l i c t r a t i n g s ( a n x i o u s l x ) as a c o v a r i a t e . The r e s u l t a n t ANCOVA summary t a b l e i s presented i n Table 3. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t was found f o r gender, F(l,110) = 6.77, p=.011. Females (M = 5.32) r e p o r t e d more a n x i e t y than males (M = 4.52). In a d d i t i o n , a s i g n i f i c a n t power x tape i n t e r a c t i o n was obtained, F( 1,110) = 5.50, p=.021. Simple main e f f e c t s a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r power, F(1,110) = 8.05, p=.01. S u b j e c t s i n the high power c o n d i t i o n r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s a n x i e t y (M = 4.44) than d i d those i n the low power c o n d i t i o n (M = 5.41) when exposed to the m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t . However, a s i m i l a r e f f e c t f o r power was not found f o r s u b j e c t s who 38 l i s t e n e d t o the f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t . These r e s u l t s are presented i n F i g u r e 2. In a d d i t i o n , no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r a t i n g s of f a m i l i a r i t y with the c o n f l i c t and t h e i r s c o r e s on the anger and a n x i e t y c l u s t e r s . IAS data In order to check f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p between dominance and anger and nurturance and anxiety, p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were conducted with the p r e c o n f l i c t anger and a n x i e t y c l u s t e r s p a r t i a l l e d out. A s i g n i f i c a n t but low c o r r e l a t i o n was found between dominance and anger f o r females (r = .26, p = .048) but not f o r males. F u r t h e r a n a l y s e s by gender and power found, again, a s i g n i f i c a n t but low c o r r e l a t i o n between dominance and anger, but o n l y f o r males i n the high power c o n d i t i o n . None of the c o r r e l a t i o n s between nurturance and a n x i e t y was s i g n i f i c a n t . 39 DISCUSSION The purpose of the present study was to determine the r o l e s of power and gender i n i n f l u e n c i n g emotional or a f f e c t i v e responses t o scenes of i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study p r o v i d e p a r t i a l support f o r the hypotheses t h a t the v a r i a b l e s of power and gender generate a s e t of c o g n i t i o n s unique t o t h a t r o l e of high or low power, or of being male or female and, i n so doing, i n f l u e n c e the process by which we determine or l a b e l our emotions. EFFECTS OF POWER The present r e s u l t s , while c o n t r a d i c t i n g the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s u b j e c t s i n the high power c o n d i t i o n , would r e p o r t more anger than those i n the low power c o n d i t i o n support the b a s i c c o n t e n t i o n t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n the amount of power do i n f l u e n c e anger. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t to t h a t hypothesized was found with the low power p o s i t i o n r e p o r t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anger. These r e s u l t s may be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l a c k of involvement i n the c o n f l i c t and the subsequent degree of t h r e a t a s s o c i a t e d with the e x p r e s s i o n of anger. The o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s was developed from a l i t e r a t u r e t h a t assumed t h a t the person of e i t h e r high or low power was one member of the dyad i n c o n f l i c t , ( i . e . , had a d i r e c t or p e r s o n a l involvement i n the c o n f l i c t i t s e l f . ) A p o s i t i o n of high power generates a c o g n i t i v e s e t of dominance, agency, and c o n t r o l which i s consonant with 40 the p r o d u c t i v e and a g e n t i c a s p e c t s of the experience and e x p r e s s i o n of anger. Thus, when d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n a c o n f l i c t , those i n a high power p o s i t i o n are more l i k e l y t o experience t h e i r a r o u s a l as anger and, given t h e i r h i g h e r s t a t u s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r opponent, f e e l i n a s a f e p o s i t i o n t o express t h i s . Conversely, those i n a low power p o s i t i o n assume the c o g n i t i o n s of l e s s c o n t r o l , i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and s u b o r d i n a t i o n , c o g n i t i o n s which are consonant with the experience of a n x i e t y . Although anger may be an a p p r o p r i a t e response to a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n , the t h r e a t of n e g a t i v e consequences from a high power opponent may i n h i b i t the l a b e l l i n g and e x p r e s s i o n of anger and, i n s t e a d , r e c o n f i r m an a n x i e t y response as prompted by c o g n i t i o n s of low power. In the present study, however, s u b j e c t s were not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the c o n f l i c t but, r a t h e r , were uni n v o l v e d t h i r d p a r t y observers who l i s t e n e d t o a c o n f l i c t between an u n i d e n t i f i e d couple. The i n d i r e c t involvement f e a t u r e of the design allowed p a r t i c i p a n t s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o express f e e l i n g s of anger i n a s a f e environment, even when they were i n a low power c o n d i t i o n . Thus, the low power p a r t i c i p a n t s may have f e l t s a f e i n l a b e l l i n g and e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r a r o u s a l as anger as w e l l as a n x i e t y : an a r o u s a l caused i n p a r t by t h e i r f e e l i n g s of i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and l a c k of c o n t r o l when f a c e d with a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , low power p a r t i c i p a n t s were s l i g h t l y angered by r e c e i v i n g a l e s s p r e f e r r e d group assignment as i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r e l e v a t e d p r e c o n f l i c t h o s t i l i t y s c o r e s which may have 41 c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e i r h i g h e r r a t i n g s of anger. These f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t with Novaco's (1976) and D i e n s t b i e r ' s (1978) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the l a b e l l i n g of a r o u s a l as anger or a n x i e t y depends on the p e r c e p t i o n of power r e l a t i v e t o the source of c o n f l i c t . As the p e r c e p t i o n of power l e s s e n s , the experience of a n x i e t y i n c r e a s e s . Thus, due t o t h e i r l a c k of d i r e c t involvement i n the c o n f l i c t , low power s u b j e c t s f e l t s a f e i n l a b e l l i n g t h e i r a r o u s a l as and e x p r e s s i n g f e e l i n g s of, not only anxiety, but anger as w e l l . Had they been d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the c o n f l i c t , r a t i n g s of anger, but not f o r anxiety, f o r t h i s group may have di m i n i s h e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , r e f l e c t i n g the p e r c e p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n as unsafe. In c o n t r a s t , high power s u b j e c t s who were n e i t h e r angered by t h e i r group assignment nor p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the c o n f l i c t responded o v e r a l l with l e s s anger. An a n a l y s i s of the a n x i e t y r a t i n g s found a power x tape i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t with the l o c u s of i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n response to the m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t . S u b j e c t s who l i s t e n e d t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n f l i c t demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t power d i f f e r e n c e with the high power p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t i n g l e s s a n x i e t y than low power p a r t i c i p a n t s as was p r e d i c t e d . C o g n i t i o n s of c o n t r o l , agency, and dominance as a r e s u l t of a high power group assignment may have been s u f f i c i e n t to o f f s e t f e e l i n g s of anxiety, an a f f e c t i v e response incongruent with f u l f i l l i n g the e x p e c t a t i o n s of group leader . Conversely, low power 42 s u b j e c t s with an opposing s e t of c o g n i t i o n s ( i . e . l o s s of c o n t r o l , i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and s u b o r d i n a t i o n ) who were assign e d a p o s i t i o n consonant with the experience and ex p r e s s i o n of a n x i e t y r e p o r t e d more of t h i s a f f e c t . While these r e s u l t s support the hypothesized e f f e c t of power on r e p o r t s of anxiety, t h i s p a t t e r n d i d not hold f o r the f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t . Men r e p o r t e d somewhat l e s s a n x i e t y i n the high power c o n d i t i o n but women d i d not show any a p p r e c i a b l e change i n t h e i r a n x i e t y r a t i n g s a c r o s s power c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s not c l e a r why the power c o n d i t i o n would a f f e c t a n x i e t y r a t i n g s f o r the m a l e - i n i t i a t e d but not the female-i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t the source of an x i e t y d i f f e r e d between c o n f l i c t s c e n a r i o s , one of which generated an a n x i e t y which was amenable t o a power manip u l a t i o n and one which d i d not. The m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t may have generated a n x i e t y due to the p e r c e p t i o n of a male aggressing, a f e a r which may be a l l e v i a t e d by the high power c o g n i t i o n of c o n t r o l and dominance. In c o n t r a s t , the a n x i e t y generated by the f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t may have been l e s s a f e a r response t o a female a g g r e s s i n g than a f e a r f o r the s a f e t y of the woman, the s t a b i l i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , or the s t e r e o t y p i c p e r c e p t i o n of the female as overemotional or h y s t e r i c a l , p e r c e p t i o n s which may be l e s s i n f l u e n c e d by f e e l i n g s of high or low power on the par t o f an observer. T h i s i s s u e of d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s of c o n f l i c t by gender o f i n i t i a t o r or aggressor has a l s o become 43 a concern i n the study of wife a s s a u l t . N a t i o n a l surveys i n both Canada and the United S t a t e s (Kennedy & Dutton, 1987; Straus, 1980) have found t h a t women perform an equal number of v i o l e n t a c t s toward t h e i r spouses i n comparison t o men. The p h y s i c a l consequences of female v i o l e n c e , however, are n e g l i g i b l e i n comparison t o male v i o l e n c e r a i s i n g the q u e s t i o n as t o whether or not female v i o l e n c e i s p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y than male v i o l e n c e . I f d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r c e p t i o n of v i o l e n c e as a f u n c t i o n of the gender of the i n i t i a t o r do e x i s t , t h i s may help t o e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e s i n a n x i e t y r e a c t i o n s i n response to a female versus a m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t r e p o r t e d here. In any event, these data suggest t h a t a n x i e t y - p r o d u c i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of c o n f l i c t may d i f f e r depending on the gender of the i n i t i a t o r and emphasize the importance of t h i s i s s u e f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . In summary, anger responses to c o n f l i c t s t i m u l i as a f u n c t i o n of power may depend, i n part, on the s a f e t y of the s i t u a t i o n f o r anger e x p r e s s i o n as determined by a d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t involvement i n the c o n f l i c t . Furthermore, the e xperience of a n x i e t y appears to be l e s s e n e d by the c o g n i t i o n s of a high power p o s i t i o n but o n l y i n response t o a m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t , s u g g e s t i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s of c o n f l i c t as a f u n c t i o n of the gender of the i n i t i a t o r as a t o p i c f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 44 EFFECTS OF GENDER It was hypothesized t h a t men would r e p o r t more anger than women s i n c e anger i s a consonant a f f e c t with the male sex r o l e of dominance, aggression, and agency. However, the op p o s i t e e f f e c t f o r gender was found with women r e p o r t i n g more anger than men. S i m i l a r l y , women a l s o r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a n x i e t y than d i d men. Although t h i s f i n d i n g was hypothesized, i t was based on the r a t i o n a l e t h a t a n x i e t y i s an a f f e c t consonant with the female sex r o l e . However, i t appears t h a t women r e p o r t e d higher r a t i n g s of both anger and a n x i e t y s u g g e s t i n g that, while the o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s may s t i l l hold, an a l t e r n a t a i v e e x p l a n a t i o n may b e t t e r account f o r these r e s u l t s . There are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s which may account f o r these r e s u l t s . T h i s e f f e c t may be the r e s u l t of a female response b i a s t o express more emotion than men, a p a t t e r n t h a t has been r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Feather, 1984; Hoyenga & Hoyenga, 1977). S t u d i e s have found t h a t women tend t o express more emotion and to p l a c e a g r e a t e r value on the e x p r e s s i o n of emotion than men. The p r e c o n f l i c t data, however, argue a g a i n s t t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i n th a t t h i s response b i a s was not evi d e n t i n e i t h e r s u b j e c t s ' p r e c o n f l i c t r a t i n g s of a f f e c t or i n t h e i r p r e c o n f l i c t anger and a n x i e t y c l u s t e r scores. Nor d i d women e x h i b i t an o v e r a l l b i a s i n s c a l e usage i n the p o s t c o n f l i c t r a t i n g s , demonstrating higher r a t i n g s of a f f e c t only on two out of a p o s s i b l e s i x t e e n items. Thus, women's 45 h i g h e r anger and a n x i e t y r a t i n g s appear t o be a v a l i d f i n d i n g r a t h e r than an a r t i f a c t due t o a b i a s i n response s t y l e . A more p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n may l i e i n the d i f f e r e n t i a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n of men and women i n i n t e r e s t i n or concern f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Women's e l e v a t e d anger and a n x i e t y s c o r e s may, t h e r e f o r e , be a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n these i s s u e s of i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t . However, the data are not s u p p o r t i v e of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s ' r a t i n g s of i n t e r e s t , both pre and p o s t c o n f l i c t , are e q u a l l y high and do not show a d i f f e r e n c e between gender. What may account f o r these r e s u l t s i s a gender d i f f e r e n c e i n s e n s i t i z a t i o n to i s s u e s of c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , women have been as s i g n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and, as a consequence, may be more s e n s i t i v e t o and a t t a c h g r e a t e r importance to these i s s u e s . In t h i s sense, i t i s understandable t h a t women would r e a c t more s t r o n g l y than men to an i s s u e which, by v i r t u e of t h e i r gender, i s giv e n c o n s i d e r a b l e importance. While men may show an i n t e r e s t i n i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t , women may a t t a c h more value and importance t o these i s s u e s and, t h e r e f o r e , show a s t r o n g e r r e a c t i o n i n terms of t h e i r anger and anxiety. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s necessary to a s c e r t a i n whether or not women's e l e v a t e d anger and a n x i e t y responses are s p e c i f i c t o the i s s u e of sex u a l j e a l o u s y , i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t , or c o n f l i c t i n gen e r a l . The r e s u l t s of the I n t e r p e r s o n a l A d j e c t i v e S c a l e (IAS) show only minimal c o r r e l a t i o n s at best between dominance and anger s u g g e s t i n g t h a t sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n i s not an important v a r i a b l e of a f f e c t i v e responses t o i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t . However, one important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n i n t e r p r e t i n g these r e s u l t s i s the nature of the measure i t s e l f . The i n t e n t was to o b t a i n a measure of sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n as i n d i c a t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s c o r e s on the i n t e r p e r s o n a l behaviours o f dominance and nurturance. However, the c o n s t r u c t of sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n may not be f u l l y r e f l e c t e d i n measures of dominance and nurturance. I t may not be p o s s i b l e t o measure sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n at t h i s time. More c u r r e n t a n a l y s e s of oth e r s c a l e s which intended to measure t h i s and s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t s such as the Bern SRI, (1974) and the Spence and Helmreich EPAQ, ( c i t e d i n Spence, 1985) have found that, i n f a c t , these s c a l e s are a c t u a l l y measuring dominance and nurturance i n s t e a d . Thus, i t may be premature at t h i s time t o speak of measuring sex r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n u n t i l f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h can c l a r i f y these c o n c e p t u a l i s s u e s and p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e assessment of t h i s c o n s t r u c t . THE INTERACTION OF POWER AND GENDER There were no power x gender i n t e r a c t i o n s found f o r anxie t y . However, the p a t t e r n of anger responses demonstrated i n t e r a c t i o n between the power c o n d i t i o n and gender of i n i t i a t o r f o r women, but not f o r men. Male 47 p a r t i c i p a n t s demonstrated a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of high e r anger r a t i n g s i n the low power c o n d i t i o n r e g a r d l e s s of the gender of the i n i t i a t o r . The same p a t t e r n h e l d f o r female p a r t i c i p a n t s but onl y when l i s t e n i n g t o a m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t . When women l i s t e n e d t o a f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t the r e v e r s e p a t t e r n was found with h i g h e r anger r a t i n g s i n the high power c o n d i t i o n . Although i t i s not c l e a r why t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group would demonstrate a d i v e r g e n t response p a t t e r n , the combination of v a r i a b l e s suggests s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s : 1 ) p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of a f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t may d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o gender, 2 ) p a r t i c i p a n t s ' degree of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the i n i t i a t o r may d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o gender and/or p e r c e i v e d power of the i n i t i a t o r ( s i n c e a female i n i t i a t o r was p e r c e i v e d as having l e s s power than her spouse, women may be responding d i f f e r e n t l y t o a low power versus a high power female) and 3) women may respond with g r e a t e r empathy toward a female i n i t i a t o r than men respond toward an i n i t i a t o r of t h e i r own gender. U n t i l f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s conducted i n t o any of these a l t e r n a t i v e hypotheses, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine the d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s or responses of empathy t h a t may have caused t h i s unique response p a t t e r n . In a d d i t i o n , i t was found t h a t women i n a low power p o s i t i o n who l i s t e n e d t o the op p o s i t e gender i n i t i a t e the c o n f l i c t ( i . e . the m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t ) r e p o r t e d the hi g h e s t anger r a t i n g s . T h i s p a t t e r n , although not 48 s i g n i f i c a n t , was a l s o found f o r men. That i s , of the male p a r t i c i p a n t s , the h i g h e s t anger r a t i n g s were r e p o r t e d by those men i n a low power p o s i t i o n who l i s t e n e d t o the o p p o s i t e gender i n i t i a t e the c o n f l i c t ( i . e . the female-i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t ) . A p o s i t i o n of low power p l u s an i n i t i a t o r of the o p p o s i t e gender appears t o c o n s t i t u t e the most anger provoking combination of v a r i a b l e s , a f i n d i n g of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t to the study of i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t . P e r c e i v i n g o n e s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n o f low power may not only i n c l u d e c o g n i t i o n s of a l a c k of c o n t r o l and i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s but, w i t h i n the context of an i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t , f e e l i n g s of v u l n e r a b i l i t y and the t h r e a t of l o s s as w e l l . The anger r e p o r t e d by these groups may have been a r e f l e c t i o n of these thoughts and f e e l i n g s which were f u r t h e r exacerbated by t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s of an i n i t i a t o r of the o p p o s i t e gender. The gender of the i n i t i a t o r appears t o be a c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e . The data suggest t h a t an o p p o s i t e gender i n i t i a t o r i s p e r c e i v e d t o be more anger provoking or perhaps t h r e a t e n i n g than an i n i t i a t o r of the same gender. I t may be th a t p a r t i c i p a n t s were l e s s a b l e t o empathize with an o p p o s i t e gender i n i t i a t o r and, thus, were more angered. However, an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n suggests that, w i t h i n the context of i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t s , our p e r c e p t i o n s of t h r e a t may d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o the gender of our opponent. We may simply f e e l more threatened by an o p p o s i t e gender opponent. Why t h i s might occur i s not c l e a r but one c o u l d s p e c u l a t e 49 t h a t more asp e c t s of o u r s e l v e s may be threatened with a mixed gender dynamic such as our s e x u a l i t y and our adequacy as a mate. The exaggerated anger responses t o o p p o s i t e gender i n i t i a t o r s may r e f l e c t t h i s p e r c e p t i o n of g r e a t e r t h r e a t combined with f e e l i n g s of v u l n e r a b i l i t y and a l a c k of c o n t r o l prompted by c o g n i t i o n s of low power. Although the nature of p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s of o p p o s i t e gender i n i t i a t o r s i s not known, these f i n d i n g s may c o n t r i b u t e some i n s i g h t as to why i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t s are o f t e n the most in t e n s e , s u g g e s t i n g that, i n a d d i t i o n to t h e o r i e s of emotional investment, the g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y may be due, i n part, to the i n c r e a s e d t h r e a t posed by an opponent of the o p p o s i t e gender. In summary, the present r e s u l t s suggest t h a t being i n a p o s i t i o n of l e s s e r power while l i s t e n i n g t o an o p p o s i t e gender i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t may generate s t r o n g f e e l i n g s of anger as a r e s u l t of p e r c e p t i o n s of g r e a t e r t h r e a t and v u l n e r a b i l i t y . These f i n d i n g s may c o n t r i b u t e t o our understanding of the dynamics of i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t and appear p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to those of wife a s s a u l t where a s s a u l t i v e men o f t e n r e p o r t f e e l i n g s of powerlessness i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Dutton & Strachan, 1987) yet respond to i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t s with exaggerated anger. When i n c o n f l i c t with t h e i r spouses, these men may p e r c e i v e the s i t u a t i o n as s a f e f o r l a b e l l i n g t h e i r a r o u s a l as anger and u l t i m a t e l y r e s o r t t o p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e to a l l e v i a t e t h e i r f e e l i n g s of powerlessness. S i m i l a r l y , c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s as t o the 50 c e s s a t i o n of domestic v i o l e n c e have con c e n t r a t e d on empowering the v i c t i m (Fagan, 1987), thus, a l t e r i n g the power dynamics such t h a t i t i s no longer " s a f e " t o be p h y s i c a l l y v i o l e n t . What e f f e c t t h i s power s h i f t may have on mens' p a t t e r n s of emotional l a b e l l i n g , i f any, i s not known. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , however, may help t o e l l u c i d a t e the e f f e c t s of power on the process of emotional l a b e l l i n g t o the p o i n t where p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s i n areas such as t h i s may be p o s s i b l e . LIMITATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Although the data support the v a l i d i t y of the i s s u e s being i n v e s t i g a t e d , the s p e c i f i c hypotheses were too s i m p l i s t i c i n t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s and, thus, on the whole, were not supported. One l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s study was the i n d i r e c t involvement of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the c o n f l i c t . While the proposed h y p o t h e s i s concerning anger responses may ho l d t r u e f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n an i n t i m a t e c o n f l i c t , a study of t h i s design p r e s e n t s obvious e t h i c a l and methodological problems. Procedures used by Gottman (1979) where married couples r e c r e a t e d past arguments i n the l a b o r a t o r y approximates a s o l u t i o n to t h i s problem but s t i l l p r e s e n t s the methodological concerns of r e a l i s m and the e f f e c t s of being observed. In a d d i t i o n , m a n i p u l a t i n g s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r spouse's power may be d i f f i c u l t w i t h i n long term r e l a t i o n s h i p s where the power dynamics may be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . 51 The r e s u l t s of t h i s study may be f u r t h e r l i m i t e d to the c o n f l i c t i s s u e of s e x u a l j e a l o u s y . Exaggerated anger responses to o p p o s i t e gender i n i t i a t o r s may p a r t l y r e f l e c t t h i s content i s s u e which made i s s u e s of s e x u a l i t y more s a l i e n t . C o n f l i c t s concerning money matters or c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s may e l l i c i t d i f f e r e n t i a l response p a t t e r n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r anger. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study a l s o suggest s e v e r a l avenues of r e s e a r c h . The gender of the i n i t i a t o r appears t o be a c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e r e s u l t i n g i n d i f f e r e n t i a l response p a t t e r n s depending on the gender of the s u b j e c t and h i s or her power c o n d i t i o n . Without f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t why t h i s would occur yet i t i s an important v a r i a b l e i n the study of i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In a d d i t i o n , f u t u r e r e s e a r c h should examine p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s of a f e m a l e - i n i t i a t e d as opposed to a m a l e - i n i t i a t e d c o n f l i c t . 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Sex and gender i s s u e s i n a g g r e s s i o n r e s e a r c h . In R.G. Green & E.T. Donnerstein (Eds.), Aggression, t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l reviews (pp. 1-26). New York: Academic Press. Wiggins, J.S., & Holzmuller, A. (1978). P s y c h o l o g i c a l androgyny and i n t e r p e r s o n a l behaviour. J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l Psychology, 46, 40-52. Wiggins, J.S., & Broughton, R. (1985). The i n t e r p e r s o n a l c i r c l e : A s t r u c t u r a l model f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h . In R. Hogan & W.H. Jones (Eds.), P e r s p e c t i v e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y , 1, 1-47. Greenwich, CT: JAT Press. 56 Table 1 Rank Order of P r e c o n f l i c t Mean Ratings f o r  Affect Items by Gender Males Females 1) anxious 5. 32 1) anxious 4.88 2) nervous 5. 10 2) nervous 4.73 3) excited 4.87 3) excited 4. 58 4) aroused 4.82 4) -tense 4.62 5) tense 4.67 5) aroused 4. 35 6) elated 4. 23 6) elated 3. 83 7) aggressive • 3.78 7) aggressive 3.40 8) f e a r f u l 3. 05 8) f e a r f u l 3. 22 9) annoyed 2.67 9> i r r i t a t e d 2.73 10) sad 2. 55 10) sad 2. 42 11) fr u s t r a t e d 2.53 11) h o s t i l e 2. 38 12) i r r i t a t e d 2. 52 12) fr u s t r a t e d 2. 37 13) h o s t i l e 2.25 13) annoyed 2. 18 14) humiliated 2.05 14) angry 2. 02 15) angry 1. 83 15) humiliated 1.77 Total N • 120 57 Table 2 Rank Order of P o s t c o n f l i c t Mean Ratincrs For Affect Items by Gender Hales Females 1) anxious 5. 52 1) aroused 6. 03 2) tense 5. 31 2) anxious 5. 87 3) aroused 5. 22 3) tense 5.85 4) aggressive 4.95 4) annoyed 5.65 5) excited 4. 75 5) i r r i t a t e d 5. 50 6) I r r i t a t e d 4.73 6) nervous 5.17 7) annoyed 4. 35 7) sad 5. 13 8) nervous 4. 15 8) excited 5. 03 v 9> sad 4.05 9) fr u s t r a t e d 4.77 10) fr u s t r a t e d 3.77 10) aggressive 4.72 11) h o s t i l e 3.77 11) angry 4.45 12) angry 3. 40 12) h o s t i l e 4. 38 13) elated 3. 18 13) f e a r f u l 4. 38 14) f e a r f u l 3.12 14) elated 3. 25 15) humiliated 2. 65 15) humiliated 2.95 Total N = 120 58 Table 3 Analyais of Covariance Results f o r Anger Cluster Ratlnqa Sum of Mean Source Squares DF Square F P angry l x (covariate) 30. 27 1 30. 27 10. 17 .002 power 12. 28 1 12. 28 4. 13 .045 gender 25. 38 1 25. 38 8. 53 . 004 tape 0.09 1 - 0.09 0. 03 . 866 power x gender 3. 88 1 3. 88 1. 30 . 256 power x tape 4. 21 1 4. 21 1. 42 . 237 gender x tape 9. 34 1 9. 34 3. 14 .079 power x gender x tape 23.68 1 23. 68 7. 96 . 006 error 327.48 110 2. 98 59 Table 4 Analysis of Covarlance Results f o r Anxiety Cluster Ratings Source Sum of Squares DF Mean Square F P angry l x (covariate) 4.89 1 4.89 1.63 . 204 power 7.03 1 7.03 2. 35 . 129 gender 20. 28 1 20. 28 6.77 . 011 tape 0. 02 1 0. 02 0. 01 . 939 power x gender 0. 94 1 0. 94 0. 31 . 578 power x tape 16. 49 1 16. 49 5. 50 .021 gender x tape 4. 11 1 4. 11 1. 37 . 244 power x gender x tape 2. 35 1 2.35 0. 79 . 377 error 329.68 110 3. 00 60 Figure 1 Anger c l u s t e r ratings as a function of power condition, tape and gender. ANGER 7 n 6.5 H 3 -2 .5 -2-1 , — , LOW HIGH POWER CONDITION Legend MALE FIC  MALE MIC FEM FIC MB^ MW m m m FEM MIC 62 Figure 2 Anxiety c l u s t e r ratings as a function of power condition and tape. ANXIETY Legend nc MIC Figure 3 Design summary. 65 Design Summary high pover male-initiated c o n f l i c t female-initiated c o n f l i c t male female male female 15 15 15 15 lower power male-initiated c o n f l i c t f emale-initiated c o n f l i c t male female male female 15 15 15 15 66 Appendix A 67 Male Female Age INTERPERSONAL ADJECTIVE SCALES (revised) (IAS-R) On the page that follows, you w i l l find a l i s t of words that are used to describe people's personal characteristics. For each word i n the l i s t , indicate how accurately the word describes you. The accuracy with whieh a word describes you i s to be judged on the following scale: I 2 3 1 5 6 7 8 Extremely Very Quite. S l i g h t l y S l i g h t l y Quite Very Extremely inaccurate inaccurate inaccurate inaccurate accurate accurate accurate accurate Consider the word BOLD. How accurately does that word describe you as a person? I f you think that this word i s a quite accurate description of you, write the number "6" to the l e f t of the item: 6 BOLD If you think that this word i s a s l i g h t l y inaccurate description of you, write the number "4" next to i t , i f i t i s very inaccurate write the number "2", etc. If you are uncertain of the meaning of a word, consult the d e f i n i t i o n s provided on the opposite page. 68 1 2 3 4 5 Extremely Very Quite S l i g h t l y S l i g h t l y inaccurate inaccurate inaccurate inaccurate accurate .(001) introverted (033 (002) undemanding (034 (003) assertive (035 (004) unauthoritative (036 (005) uncalculating (037 (006) accommodating (038 (007) kind (039 (008) charitable (040 (009) shy (041 (010) uncunning (042 (Oil) cold-hearted (043 (012) ruthless (044 (013) d i s s o c i a l (045 (014) tender-hearted (046 (015) soft-hearted (047 (016) cheerful (048 (017) dominant (049 (018) a n t i s o c i a l (050 (019) iron-hearted (051 (020) enthusiastic (052 (021) self-assured (053 (022) cruel (054 (023) unsparkling (055 (024) cunning (056 (025) meek (057 (026) uncharitable (058 (027) unsly (059 (028) unaggressive (060 (029) j o v i a l (061 (030) crafty (062 (031) boastless (063 (032) domineering (064 6 7 8 Quite Very Extremely accurate accurate accurate unargumentative tender unsympathetic timid unbold forceful unwily extraverted gentle-hearted persistent perky friendly unneighbourly self-confident outgoing boastful bashful firm uncrafty unsociable hard-hearted wily calculating uncheery sly neighbourly warmthless distant cocky sympathetic forceless tric k y 69 IAS-R Glossary of Interpersonal Adjectives 001 INTROVERTED introspective, inward 002 UNDEMANDING not insistent or expectant of others 005 UNCALCULATING not shrewd or cunning 006 ACCOMMODATING obliging, doing favours for others 010 UNCUNNING not sly or wily 013 DISSOCIAL a n t i - s o c i a l , not sociable 018 ANTI-SOCIAL not sociable 019 IRON-HEARTED cruel, hard-hearted 023 UNSPARKLING not l i v e l y or vivacious 025 MEEK timid, submissive 027 UNSLY not crafty or underhanded 029 JOVIAL good-natured, merry 031 BOASTLESS not given to bragging 033 UNARGUMENTATIVE not given to arguing 037 UNB0LD not daring 039 UNWILY not crafty or sly 040 EXTRAVERTED outgoing, sociable 043 PERKY l i v e l y 043 BOASTFUL given to bragging, conceited 051 UNCRAFTY not subtly d e c e i t f u l or s l y 053 HARD-HEARTED lacking i n sympathy, unfeeling 054 WILY crafty, sly 055 CALCULATING shrewd or cunning 056 UNCHEERY not cheerful 059 WARMTHLESS not warm or tender 061 COCKY pert, arrogant 063 FORCELESS weak 70 Appendix B 71 Please indicate how you f e e l at the present time by making a check somewhere on the l i n e between each pair of terms. tense sfigry elated not aggressive not anxious h o s t i l e not aroused nervous not frustrated humiliated not f e a r f u l not sad excited not i r r i t a t e d annoyed interested not tense not angry not elated aggressive anxious not h o s t i l e aroused not nervous frustrated not humiliated f e a r f u l sad not excited i r r i t a t e d not annoyed not interested 72 Appendix C Group Assignment 73 You have been chosen at random to be the group leader. You are responsible for the comnletion of the group report. There w i l l be a time l i m i t of one hour i n which to cormlete the report. In order to keep w i t h i n t h i s time l i m i t : 1) you have veto control over the content of the report. In the event that the grouo cannot come to an agreement, you w i l l "have the f i n a l say as to which opinion w i l l be included i n the report. 2) you may end a discussion i f s u f f i c i e n t time has past i n which to reach a conclusion and move the group on to the next topic. 3) you may assign a group member to act as secretary to record the group's conclusions. You are responsible to hand i n the finished report. Other group members w i l l be informed of your status as group leader and asked to comply with t h i s format. I f you have any Questions, they w i l l be answered once you r e j o i n as a group. 74 Appendix D 75 Group Assignment A group member other than yourself has been assigned at random to be the groun leader. During the preparation of your group report, you are asked to contribute your opinion on a l l topics of discussion. However, i n order to keep within a one hour time l i m i t , the group leader may exercise the following control over the other group members including yourself: 1) the leader has veto control over the content of the report. In the event that the group cannot come to an agreement, the leader w i l l have the f i n a l say as to which opinion w i l l be included i n the report. 2) the leader may end a discussion i f s u f f i c i e n t time has past i n which to reach a conclusion and move the group on to the next t o p i c . 3) the leader may assign a group member to act as secretary to record the group's conclusions. The group leader i s also responsible f o r handing i n the f i n i s h e d report. While you are encouraged to contribute your opinions to the group discussion and t o help i n the completion of the report, you are also requested to comply with the group format as outlined above. I f you have any questions, they w i l l be answered once you r e j o i n as a group. I 76 Appendix E 77 Please indicate how you f e l t while you were li s t e n i n g to the c o n f l i c t by making a check somewhere on the l i n e between each pair of terms. tense angry elated not aggressive not anxious h o s t i l e not aroused nervous not frustrated humiliated not f e a r f u l not sad excited not i r r i t a t e d annoyed interested not tense not angry not elated aggressive anxious not h o s t i l e aroused not nervous frustrated not humiliated f e a r f u l sad not excited i r r i t a t e d not annoyed not interested 78 Appendix F Please indicate by making a check mark somewhere on the line: 79 1. What status have you been assigned for the group discussion? group leader group member 2. Relative to the others, how responsible are you for the f i n a l group report? no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 3 . How familiar you are with the conflict not at a l l familiar very familiar 4. How much power the woman had no power complete power 5. How much power the man had no power complete power 6. How r e a l i s t i c the conflict was to you not r e a l i s t i c very r e a l i s t i c What was the conflict about? child rearing money matters sexual jealousy vacations 

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