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Crime prevention through environmental design : the status and prospects for CPTED in British Columbia Piombini, Marino 1987

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CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: THE STATUS AND PROSPECTS FOR CPTED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA By MARINO PIOMBINI B.A., The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (The School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept th i s thes i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1987 (S) Marino Piomblni, 1987 32 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 28, 1 9 8 7  DF-fin/ft-n ABSTRACT The "Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design" (CPTED) concept promises to reduce the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and fear of crime i n neighbourhoods. By r e d u c i n g the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime, i t i s assumed t h a t people w i l l become l e s s f e a r f u l of moving f r e e l y about t h e i r environment. T h i s assumption r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r study. T h i s t h e s i s reviews the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of CPTED i n eleven m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. Based on a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s with law enforcement and plan n i n g o f f i c i a l s , the t h e s i s examines the promotion, p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e of CPTED. The f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t the promotion of CPTED i s inadequate. A d d i t i o n a l l y , CPTED may c o n f l i c t with other p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . Furthermore, s i n c e the concept only promises t o reduce the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime, e v a l u a t i n g I t s performance i s d i f f i c u l t . As a r e s u l t , o n l y a sma l l number of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have i n c o r p o r a t e d CPTED i n t o t h e i r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The t h e s i s concludes t h a t i n s p i t e of the l i m i t e d success of CPTED to date, r e s e a r c h on the theory and p r a c t i c e of the concept should c o n t i n u e . Recommendations are suggested to f a c i l i t a t e the implementation, e v a l u a t i o n and promotion of CPTED i n the f u t u r e . I i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION General P e r s p e c t i v e 1 Purpose Of The Study 3 Statement Of The Problem 4 D e f i n i t i o n Of Terms 4 Scope Of Study 6 Methodology 7 Overview Of Chapters 8 ENDNOTES 10 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW I n t r o d u c t i o n 11 The Environment And Behaviour 14 s E a r l y P l a n n i n g E f f o r t s 18 Crime As A F u n c t i o n Of Opportunity -Locational Factors 27 -Ease Of Access 28 -Land Use 29 -Time 29 Environmental Uses And P e r c e p t i o n s 3 0 Crime And I t s Pr e v e n t i o n 3 2 The In f l u e n c e Of Oscar Newman 3 5 C r i t i c i s m 0JE_ Newman's Work 40 i v PAGE CPTED And Related Research To The Present -The Concept Of CPTED 45 -CPTED Research In The United States 47 -Crime P r e v e n t i o n In Britain 53 -The Canadian Experience 56 Summary Of L i t e r a t u r e Review 60 ENDNOTES 62 CHAPTER THREE DESCRIPTION OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION ON CPTED I n t r o d u c t i o n 7 0 Channels Of Communication 70 Information On CPTED -Planning P r i n c i p l e s 77 -Information From The Vancouver P o l i c e Department 83 -The C o n t r i b u t i o n s Of The P r o v i n c i a l Government And P u b l i c Agencies 85 ENDNOTES 9 0 CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS FROM INVESTIGATION I n t r o d u c t i o n 9 3 CPTED L e g i s l a t i o n ? 9 3 I n v e s t i g a t i o n Of Eleven  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s In B r i t i s h Columbia -Burnaby .98 -Cogui tlam 101 -De l t a 105 - M u n i c i p a l i t y Of Langley 106 -Maple Ridge 108 -New Westminster 113 - D i s t r i c t Of North Vancouver 115 V PAGE -Richmond 118 -Surrey 120 -Vancouver 122 -White Rock 127 Summary Of CPTED P r o j e c t s Around The  Province -Tumbler Ridge 128 -Langf ord-Col wood 130 -Matsgui . 130 -Burnaby 131 -Richmond 134 CPTED In BC Has Generated I n t e r e s t Across Canada 135 ENDNOTES 137 CHAPTER FIVE ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS The Study Of CPTED -Problems With The T h e o r e t i c a l Aspects 145 - I n s u f f i c i e n t Channels Of Commun i cat ion 147 -How CPTED Has Been Misinterpreted By Planners 149 CPTED In P r a c t i c e - L e g i s l a t i o n 154 -Concerns With Investigation Results 155 ENDNOTES 162 v i PAGE CHAPTER SIX POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS, SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, AND CONCLUSION The Prospects For CPTED In B r i t i s h Columbia -The Inconclusive Evidence 164 -CPTED As A Promising Concept 167 P o l i c y Recommendations For Future  Research And P r a c t i c e Of CPTED -Knowledge 170 - P r a c t i c e 176 - M i t i g a t i o n 178 Summary Of F i n d i n g s -Channels Of Communication 181 -Information On CPTED 182 -CPTED In Practice 182 Co n c l u s i o n 184 ENDNOTES 186 BIBLIOGRAPHY 187 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1: Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y CPTED Course O u t l i n e 203 APPENDIX 2: RCMP Course O u t l i n e And S y l l a b u s For CPTED T r a i n i n g 205 APPENDIX 3: C a l i f o r n i a Crime P r e v e n t i o n I n s t i t u t e CPTED Course O u t l i n e 211 APPENDIX 4: Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s Administered To Community Pl a n n e r s , A r c h i t e c t s , Landscape A r c h i t e c t s And Law Enforcement O f f i c i a l s 215 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Fi g u r e PAGE 1. MODEL FOR CRIME PREVENTION 34 2. GOOD AND BAD EXAMPLES OF INTEGRATING NEW RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS INTO THE SURROUNDING COMMUNITY 59 3. ' EXAMPLE OF INCREASING SURVEILLANCE AND TERRITORIALITY FOR APARTMENT COMPLEXES 80 4. GOOD VS BAD DESIGN FOR APARTMENTS AND HOUSES 81 5. CRIME GENERATION AT ACTIVITY NODES 82 6. MAP OF rSURVEYED MUNICIPALITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 99 7. VANCOUVER'S APPROVAL PROCESS FOR ZONING AND DEVELOPMENT PERMITS 123 8. CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN MATRIX 172 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i I wish to express thanks to my a d v i s o r , Dr. Michael S e e l i g f o r h i s advice and time spent i n commenting upon the m a t e r i a l i n the t h e s i s . My thanks are a l s o extended to Dr. Henry Hightower, who acted as my second a d v i s o r . His suggestions i n c l a r i f y i n g p a r t s of t h i s t h e s i s were most h e l p f u l . I am indebted to S t a f f Sergeant Jim B r a m h i l l , of the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , who g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d my r e s e a r c h . I am a l s o indebted to Mr. Gary Paget, of the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , f o r h i s advice and encouragement. Thanks a l s o to a l l those who were in t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s . In p a r t i c u l a r , my a p p r e c i a t i o n goes to Rich a r d Rabnett, who i n s p i r e d me to conduct a review of the s t a t u s of Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design i n B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s study would not have been p o s s i b l e without the c o o p e r a t i o n of a l l these people. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank my pa r e n t s , r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s f o r t h e i r support and encouragement. I d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s to you a l l . The g l o r i e s of a f r e e society in which man i s l i k e l y to have the g r e a t e s t o p p o r t u n i t y to f u l f i l l h i s d e s t i n y are gains which we should and do value beyond words. The excesses on the fringes are the products of that society which is challenged to find civilized answers against the development of delinquency. John A l d e r s o n "Commumal P o l i c i n g " . D i t e c h i e y Conference on P r e v e n t i v e P o l i c i n g Research Paper,Devon Cornwall March 1977. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION General P e r s p e c t i v e " C i t i e s are designed to make crime easy".! Urban planners, P a t r i c i a Brantingham observes, o f t e n manipulate land use c o n t r o l s to a f f e c t s p e c i f i c s o c i a l and economic g o a l s . One prominent s o c i a l g o a l , crime r e d u c t i o n , has r a r e l y been c o n s i d e r e d by p l a n n e r s . Planners "think of parks and noise l e v e l s , but not of crime".^ Recent r e s e a r c h supports these b e l i e f s , and suggests t h a t planners may be u n w i t t i n g l y c o n t r i b u t i n g to urban crime problems by c r e a t i n g environments t h a t promote crime and fear of crime. Within the past twenty y e a r s , i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n has been given by environmental c r i m i n o l o g i s t s to the r o l e of the man-made environment i n c r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c r i m i n a l behaviour. I t i s c l e a r t h a t many environmental f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the c r e a t i o n of fear and the nature and circumstances of a wide v a r i e t y of c r i m i n a l events. Programs l o o k i n g at how the environment, the c r i m i n a l and the v i c t i m i n t e r a c t have been developed under the l a b e l s of D e f e n s i b l e Space, Comprehensive S e c u r i t y P l a n n i n g , Environmental V u l n e r a b i l i t y , Turf Reclamation, Environmental Design and Management, and Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design (CPTED). T h i s l a s t concept, CPTED 2 (pronounced s e p - t e d ) , has emerged as the most comprehensive and v i a b l e approach to the a n a l y s i s and design of environmentally-based s o l u t i o n s to crime and f e a r w h i l e , at the same time, p r e s e r v i n g the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the a f f e c t e d environments. CPTED h i g h l i g h t s the i n t e r a c t i o n between human behaviour and the p h y s i c a l environment i n the b a t t l e a g a i n s t crime. CPTED aims to reduce the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and fear of crime i n neighbourhoods. By r e d u c i n g the apparent o p p o r t u n i t y f o r crime, people should be l e s s f e a r f u l of moving f r e e l y about t h e i r environment. The assumption u n d e r l y i n g these aims i s t h a t p h y s i c a l changes can have t h e i r maximum impact on crime and the fear of crime o n l y when the user p o p u l a t i o n a c t i v e l y supports and maintains the changes and a i d s i n the d e t e c t i o n and r e p o r t i n g of crimes. Is CPTED e f f e c t i v e ? The success of CPTED can be judged i n terms of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i t s input i n t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In B r i t i s h Columbia, such o p p o r t u n i t i e s do e x i s t . Some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have, i n the past f i v e y e a r s , encouraged the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of p o l i c e agencies In community p l a n n i n g . T h i s has been p o s s i b l e through f e d e r a l government funding of courses conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e (RCMP). Once the p o l i c e o f f i c e r s complete the course, they assume a p o s i t i o n on a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commissions In t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The o f f i c e r s are expected to assess a proposed p r o j e c t ' s l i k e l y impact on crime and human s a f e t y . T h i s t h e s i s examines the promotion, p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e of CPTED i n the Lower Mainland of B.C. The f i n d i n g s from t h i s study w i l l be u s e f u l as a r e f e r e n c e f o r f u r t h e r comprehensive r e s e a r c h on crime p r e v e n t i o n through environmental d e s i g n . Purposes Of The Study The f i r s t purpose of t h i s study i s t o analyze the c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e of CPTED i n B.C. Based on p r e l i m i n a r y r e s e a r c h , i t was learned t h a t ample resources had been devoted to CPTED, but t h a t there i s no i n d i c a t i o n as to i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p r a c t i c e . The second purpose i s to c r e a t e an awareness among planners, i n both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s , because they should c o n s i d e r crime p r e v e n t i o n measures i n the pl a n n i n g process. A p e r u s a l of pl a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y neighbourhood p l a n s , w i l l r e v e a l t h a t crime p r e v e n t i o n i s not a concern f o r urban p l a n n e r s . The reason f o r t h i s n e g l e c t i s rooted i n a gen e r a l lack of knowledge, and the techniques and experience i n a p p l y i n g t h a t knowledge to understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the b u i l t environment and crime. The t h i r d purpose of t h i s study i s to examine where when and how CPTED knowledge i s used and by whom. There ha been e x t e n s i v e funding f o r r e s e a r c h on CPTED, and many promoters of the concept i n B.C., but ve r y l i t t l e i s known 4 as to how CPTED i s be ing implemented. The f i n a l purpose of t h i s s tudy i s t h a t an e v a l u a t i o n of CPTED i s needed a t t h i s time as a next s tep towards making the concept f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l . I f CPTED i s not be ing p r a c t i c e d , then reasons must be found as to why t h i s i s so i n order to r e c t i f y the prob lems. Statement Of The Problem The p re sen t s tudy rev iews the s t a t u s and p ro spec t s f o r CPTED i n community p l a n n i n g i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . The q u e s t i on s t h a t need to be asked f o r conduc t i ng t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i n c l u d e : Who a d m i n i s t e r s CPTED i n f o r m a t i o n and what i s c o n t a i n e d i n the i n f o rmat i on ? How i s t h i s knowledge admin i s t e red ? How, where, when and why i s CPTED used i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g process i n community p l ann ing? Fur thermore , do p l a n n i n g a d v i s o r y commissions know any th ing about CPTED? Is i t important to them? I f no t , why not? Moreover, do the people w i th CPTED exper i ence have any e f f e c t ? I f so , how? Has CPTED been e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g cr imes? D e f i n i t i o n Of Terms S e v e r a l terms p e r t i n e n t to t h i s s tudy shou ld be d e f i n e d . "Cr ime p r e v e n t i o n through env i ronmenta l d e s i g n " , or CPTED, i s a l a b e l a t t a ched to a group of t a c t i c s which can 5 be used i n the de s i g n of b u i l d i n g s , neighbourhoods and c i t i e s t o reduce crime o p p o r t u n i t i e s . "Crime", as used i n t h i s study, w i l l r e f e r to 'crime of o p p o r t u n i t y 1 an a c t which occurs when a p o t e n t i a l o ffender observes an easy t a r g e t and decides a t t h a t moment th a t the p r o b a b i l i t y of success i s high. T h i s i n c l u d e s crime to both person (robbery and a s s a u l t ) and p r o p e r t y (vandalism and b u r g l a r y ) . " D e f e n s i b l e space", a term coined by Oscar Newman, r e f e r s to the combination of r e a l and symbolic b a r r i e r s , d e f i n e d areas of i n f l u e n c e and improved o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e which together b r i n g an environment under the c o n t r o l of i t s r e s i d e n t s . Four l e v e l s of space are rec o g n i z e d p r i v a t e , s e m i - p r i v a t e , s e m i - p u b l i c and p u b l i c . ^ " P r i v a t e space" i s under the t o t a l c o n t r o l of the occupant or r e s i d e n t and not v i s u a l l y or p h y s i c a l l y a c c e s s i b l e t o the p u b l i c (e.g. the i n s i d e of a home, apartment or p r i v a t e o f f i c e ) . ^ "Semi-private space" i s under the c o n t r o l of the occupant or r e s i d e n t , but i s v i s u a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y a c c e s s i b l e to the p u b l i c (e.g. yard area) "Semi-public space" i s under the c o n t r o l or w i t h i n the area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a s p e c i f i c group of occupants or r e s i d e n t s and i s a c c e s s i b l e t o the p u b l i c (e.g. hallways and l o b b i e s of apartment b u i l d i n g s , common r e c r e a t i o n and park i n g areas of m u l t i p l e f a m i l y complexes).'' " P u b l i c space" i s t h a t area of space to which the p u b l i c has access by r i g h t (e.g. s i d e w a l k ) . 6 Scope Of Study The scope of the study i n c l u d e s e i g h t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the Lower Mainland, served by RCMP detachments: Burnaby Coquitlam ( i n c l u d i n g P o r t Coquitlam) Langley ( M u n i c i p a l i t y ) Maple Ridge North Vancouver ( D i s t r i c t ) Richmond Surrey White Rock A d d i t i o n a l l y , three c i t i e s with m u n i c i p a l p o l i c e f o r c e s were chosen. These i n c l u d e : D e l t a New Westminster Vancouver Other communities i n B.C., i n c l u d i n g Tumbler Ridge, Matsqui and Langford-Colwood w i l l a l s o be r e f e r r e d to as they have a c t i v e l y employed CPTED p r i n c i p l e s i n community p l a n n i n g . Secondly, members of a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commissions i n these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were interv i e w e d to determine t h e i r understanding of CPTED. The plans c o n s i d e r e d are those r e l a t i n g to p u b l i c , commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l developments. Methodology F i r s t , an i n t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e review provided a good understanding of CPTED. The sources of i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e books, j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s , conference notes and gen e r a l a r t i c l e s obtained through correspondence with Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , the M i n i s t r y of the S o l i c i t o r General and the p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r i e s of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the At t o r n e y General. Second, the people most knowledgeable of CPTED i n B.C. were contacted to e s t a b l i s h the a v a i l a b l e sources of in f o r m a t i o n ('channels of communication*) f o r t h i s concept (e.g. u n i v e r s i t y courses, RCMP seminars, i n f o r m a t i o n from the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, conferences, i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s ) . T h i s a l s o i n v o l v e d d i s c u s s i o n s with r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the p o l i c e academy (B.C. J u s t i c e I n s t i t u t e ) , RCMP Headquarters (Crime Prevention/Community P o l i c i n g D i v i s i o n ) , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y (Department of C r i m i n o l o g y ) , and f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l government m i n i s t r i e s . T h i r d , i n t e r v i e w s were conducted with a r c h i t e c t s , p r o f e s s o r s , c i v i l s ervants and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , who are most f a m i l i a r w i t h the contents of the RCMP course, f o r the purpose of a n a l y z i n g CPTED i n f o r m a t i o n . Most of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s covered i n the l i t e r a t u r e review, so those aspects t h a t are not Included i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the t h e s i s w i l l need f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , two f i l m s produced f o r p o l i c e departments and RCMP Crime P r e v e n t i o n 8 U n i t s (CPU) were viewed. These i n c l u d e : "The W r i t i n g On The Wal l " (by Oscar Newman, 60-minutes) and "Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design" (Vancouver P o l i c e Department, 20-minutes). F o u r t h , i n f o r m a t i o n from p l a n n e r s , through correspondence, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s and telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n s , was gathered f o r the purpose of l e a r n i n g how plans are approved i n each of the s e l e c t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . F i f t h , p o l i c e o f f i c e r s from m u n i c i p a l p o l i c e f o r c e s and the RCMP, who a c t i v e l y promote CPTED, were i n t e r v i e w e d . The purpose of the i n t e r v i e w s was to determine when, where and how the o f f i c e r s employ CPTED, where they have gained t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n CPTED and how s u c c e s s f u l they have found the concept to be i n p r a c t i c e . F i n a l l y , a l l of the i n f o r m a t i o n gathered was organized and analyzed. Overview Of Chapters The f i r s t chapter of t h i s t h e s i s presented a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n to CPTED and a statement on the b e a r i n g of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The second chapter presents a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on r e s e a r c h l e a d i n g to the emergence of CPTED. F o l l o w i n g t h i s review i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of CPTED and the r e s e a r c h c u r r e n t l y undertaken i n s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s on t h i s concept. The t h i r d chapter p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on CPTED and I t s 'channels of communication' i n B.C. The f o u r t h chapter i n v e s t i g a t e s how CPTED i s used i n p r a c t i c e i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . The f i f t h chapter analyzes a l l of the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , and the f i n a l chapter p r o v i d e s a summary of the t h e s i s and presents p o l i c y recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . ENDNOTES ^ P a t r i c i a Brantingham, 1980, as quoted i n "Environmental Design Added Dimension To P o l i c i n g ? " L i a s o n , V o l . 6, No. 5 (May 1980), p. 2. ^ P a t r i c i a Brantingham, 1980, as quoted i n L i a s o n , p. 2 ^Richard A. Gardiner, "Crime and the Neighbourhood Environment", HUD Challenge, V o l . 7, No. 2 (February 1976), p. 9. 4 J a c k J . Hest ( S t a f f Sgt. RCMP), "Community P o l i c i n g The Environment" ( V i c t o r i a : RCMP Di r e c t i v e s / F o r m s U n i t , 'E 1 D i v i s i o n Headquarters, 1982), no page. ^Hest, n.p. ^Hest, n.p. ^Hest, n.p. ®Hest. n.p. 11 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW I.ntrodu&ti.Qjq "Nanny! I t ' s t e r r i t o r y . That's what e v e r y t h i n g ' s a l l about. T e r r i t o r y . T e r r i t o r y " . ^ Henry E l i o t Howard, the E n g l i s h o r n i t h o l o g i s t who u t t e r e d these words, l a t e r became the f i r s t person to f u l l y d e s c r i b e the concept of ' t e r r i t o r i a l i t y ' behaviour by which an organism c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y l a y s c l a i m to an area and defends i t a g a i n s t members of i t s own s p e c i e s ^ i n h i s book, T e r r i t o r y i n B i r d L i f e , p u b l i s h e d i n 1920. Over h a l f a ce n t u r y l a t e r , s e r i o u s thought i s being given to h i s d i s c o v e r y . T h i s concept appears r e p e a t e d l y when c o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t o r s of space and human behaviour a r e l a t i o n s h i p whose c l a r i f i c a t i o n may be important f o r the p r o v i s i o n of p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l s e c u r i t y . I t i s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t e r r i t o r y and i t s importance to humans t h a t b r i n g s together much of the c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g of those concerned with space, the environment and behaviour. T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y e v i d e n t i n human h i s t o r y when attempts have been made to reduce the r i s k s to s u r v i v a l with whatever means c u l t u r e s and n a t u r a l resources have made a v a i l a b l e . S t r u c t u r e s , such as the Great Wall of China, were e r e c t e d to d e f i n e t e r r i t o r y and defend a g a i n s t Invaders. Medieval c a s t l e s with moats and towers were used to l i m i t access and enhance o b s e r v a t i o n , and the walled towns of medieval Europe p r o t e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n s no l a r g e r than a neighbourhood of a modern North American c i t y . - * The nature of the r e a l and p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t s to s e c u r i t y may have changed over the c e n t u r i e s , but the goal of s e c u r i t y i s s t i l l a p a r t of our l i v e s . Today, I n d i v i d u a l s wage p r i v a t e b a t t l e s a g a i n s t a c t u a l and p e r c e i v e d crime. In Canada, a 1979 survey by Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n (CMHC) placed the crime s i t u a t i o n i n p e r s p e c t i v e . Reducing crime i n the community was seen as the number one l o c a l p r i o r i t y , and the primary c o n d i t i o n f o r which the respondents s t a t e d t h a t they were w i l l i n g to pay higher t a x e s . ^ In terms of r e a l c o s t s , the Insurance Bureau of Canada estimated the t o t a l f i g u r e of a l l i n s u r a n c e - r e l a t e d crime i n 1981 i n Canada at $1.3 b i l l i o n . 5 A l a r g e p o r t i o n of t h i s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s p r o p e r t y l o s s and damage, of which only one h a l f of the cases have been s o l v e d . These, and many s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s have l e d to a q u i c k e n i n g of i n t e r e s t by c r i m i n o l o g i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s and planners i n the use of environmental d e s i g n to achieve s e c u r i t y . CPTED may be the most e f f e c t i v e means of c o n t r o l l i n g the growth of crime i n s o c i e t y . I t attempts to prevent crime by changing the s i t u a t i o n s i n which crime o c c u r s . For example, changes might be made to the d e s i g n of b u i l d i n g s and p u b l i c p l a c e s , to the l a y o u t of s t r e e t s and the p l a n n i n g of c i t i e s , and to the way f a c i l i t i e s are managed. Th i s approach i s encouraging and y e t , a t the same time, c a l l s f o r c a u t i o n i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . I t i s encouraging i n t h a t i t seems to o f f e r the p o s s i b i l i t y of a ra t h e r d i r e c t a s s a u l t on crime with both immediate and p o s s i b l y long-term p a y o f f s . P a r t of i t s appeal l i e s i n the notable lack of success of the more t r a d i t i o n a l crime p r e v e n t i o n approaches, which have been d i r e c t e d t o the s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and economic 'causes' of crime. The r a t h e r p h y s i c a l , pragmatic nature of t h i s approach does, however, r a i s e the danger t h a t i t w i l l be u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i e d , without due regard f o r i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and the needs of the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s i n which i t i s being a p p l i e d . The purpose of t h i s chapter i s t o review the re s e a r c h l e a d i n g to the present-day s t u d i e s on CPTED. The format w i l l be as f o l l o w s : (1) a b r i e f p r e s e n t a t i o n of some t h e o r i e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the environment and human behaviour; (2) a d i s c u s s i o n of some e a r l y p l a n n i n g approaches and models of crime p r e v e n t i o n ; (3) an e x p l a n a t i o n of crime as a f u n c t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y ; (4) a review of the work of Oscar Newman of the Law Enforcement A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (LEAA) d u r i n g the 1970's; (5) a look a t some of the arguments presented by Newman's c r i t i c s ; and (6) an overview of rec e n t r e s e a r c h on CPTED as i t r e l a t e s to community p l a n n i n g . The Environment And Behaviour The environment has f o r so long been a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e component of human experience t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s have tended to ignore the i n t e r a c t i o n between environment and behaviour. However, the f a c t t h a t the environment i s more than merely a context or s e t t i n g i s f i n a l l y being acknowledged. Psychoanalysts s t a t e t h a t behaviour and environment are p a r t of a dynamic process, with the l a t t e r having a p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the nature of the former. Harold S e a r l e s wrote: I b e l i e v e t h a t the a c t u a l importance of the environment to the i n d i v i d u a l i s so great t h a t he dare not r e c o g n i z e i t . U n c o n s c i o u s l y i t i s f e l t , I b e l i e v e , to be not o n l y an i n t e n s e l y important conglomeration of t h i n g s o u t s i d e the s e l f , but a l s o a l a r g e and i n t e g r a l p a r t of the s e l f . 7 The i n t e r e s t i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between human and the environment h a s , i n the past twenty years, l e d to the development of a new academic d i s c i p l i n e 'environmental psychology'. T h i s d i s c i p l i n e i s based on the assumption t h a t there i s a c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between human behaviour and the p h y s i c a l context or environment i n which the behaviour takes p l a c e . H. Proshansky et a l . have put f o r t h a number of p r i n c i p l e s , based on c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s , r e g a r d i n g the nature of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Some of these are p a r t i c u l a r l y important to c o n s i d e r i n l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n s of t h i s approach to crime p r e v e n t i o n . Stated b r i e f l y , these assumptions a r e : — A n i n d i v i d u a l ' s p h y s i c a l surroundings exert c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on h i s behaviour, and t h i s i s tr u e even when he i s l a r g e l y unaware of those surroundings. - - I f the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i s changed i n a way which i s not conducive to an e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n of behaviour, t h a t behaviour w i l l be d i s p l a c e d to another l o c a t i o n . --The behaviour which occurs i n any p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i s a f u n c t i o n of the p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s of t h a t s e t t i n g , and behaviour can be changed by any one of those elements of the s e t t i n g . - - I f a change i s made i n any component of the p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g , i t w i l l have some e f f e c t on a l l other components of the s e t t i n g ( s o c i a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or p h y s i c a l ) , and t h i s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y l e a d to a change i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c behaviour p a t t e r n s of t h a t s e t t i n g as a whole.® From t h i s p o i n t of view, i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t some types of a r c h i t e c t u r a l designs are more l i k e l y than others to p r e c i p i t a t e c e r t a i n types of behaviour and r e s u l t i n a gre a t e r i n c i d e n c e of crime. Adherents of t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e argue t h a t such behaviour i s induced through a process i n which a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e sign i n f l u e n c e s the q u a l i t y of r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t are formed i n an area, which i n t u r n are r e l a t e d to the inc i d e n c e of c r i m i n a l behaviour. Robert Sommer, a l e a d i n g s c h o l a r of environmental psychology, b u i l d s upon the concepts of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y and dominance behaviour and makes the l i n k among p h y s i c a l d e s i g n , human i n t e r a c t i o n and behaviour. He suggests t h a t c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s generate an atmosphere of pe r s o n a l warmth and f a c i l i t a t e communication and p r o d u c t i v i t y , while other arrangements tend to thwart the development and e x p r e s s i o n of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A p p l y i n g t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e to c r i m i n a l behaviour, a number of authors, such as Richard Gardiner, have suggested t h a t through the use of a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s t h a t maximize p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n and i n c r e a s e community cohesiveness, crimes may be reduced. The environmental design approach to crime p r e v e n t i o n ranges from r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l m o d i f i c a t i o n s to e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s , to the l a y o u t d e sign of whole r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s or communities. The work being done at the community l e v e l owes much to the s c h o o l of thought which b e l i e v e s t h a t c u r r e n t r a t e s of crime stem from the breakdown i n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l c o n t r o l s . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s p o i n t of view, c u r r e n t urban forms do not permit the kind of i n t e r a c t i o n between neighbours which i s necessary f o r the development of a sense of "community" an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the e x i s t e n c e of i n f o r m a l s o c i a l c o n t r o l s and maximum e f f e c t i v e n e s s of formal s o c i a l c o n t r o l s . Gardiner, from h i s case s t u d i e s , f i n d s t h a t no one p h y s i c a l element or system causes crime o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Instead, a range of p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n s i n a d v e r t e n t l y s e t up a c a u s a l c o n d i t i o n . Seemingly independent elements and separate human a c t i v i t i e s r e s u l t i n the formation of a 'cause and e f f e c t ' phenomenon where the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r e d a t o r y crime i s being encouraged. In other words, the s t r u c t u r e of the p h y s i c a l environment i n f l u e n c e s how and by whom the environment i s being used and, t h e r e f o r e , the r e s u l t i n g use and p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the environment. This complex phenomenon r e f l e c t s the dynamic interchange between humans and the environment and i s the c r i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p which can a l l o w e i t h e r p o s i t i v e or negative behaviour and use. There i s a d i r e c t l i n k between the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the environment and the o p p o r t u n i t y , and even p r o b a b i l i t y , f o r crime. When c e r t a i n elements or uses are no longer a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s c a l e of the environment, c o n f l i c t i n g uses r e s u l t and provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r 9 c r l m e . J Such a crime-environment c o n d i t i o n can generate a d d i t i o n a l types of crime o p p o r t u n i t i e s l e a d i n g to a f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the neighbourhood. A m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s e t s In causing l o s s of r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s , a lowered q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r the r e s i d e n t s , and the eventual abandonment of the neighbourhood by those who can a f f o r d to escape f o r the assumed s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y of the s u b u r b s . ^ T h i s was one of the r e a c t i o n s by the c i t i z e n s i n l a r g e U.S. c i t i e s d u r i n g the 1950s and 1960s, when crime was c o n s i s t e n t l y e s c a l a t i n g i n the urban neighbourhoods. Other extreme r e a c t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n c r e a s e d purchase of weapons, the use of guard dogs, and a r e l i a n c e on an a l r e a d y overtaxed p o l i c e f o r c e . Remedial e f f o r t s i n c l u d e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs f o r o f f e n d e r s and encouragement by the p o l i c e f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n of alarm systems and dead-bolt l o c k s . T h i s d e f e n s i v e m e n t a l i t y which developed placed the s t r e s s on p r o t e c t i n g one's p r o p e r t y from an offe n d e r r a t h e r than the previous r e l i a n c e on apprehension and punishment of the o f f e n d e r . Thus, i n i t i a l e f f o r t s of p r e v e n t i n g crime through p h y s i c a l design have l e d to an a n a l y s i s of t a r g e t s . Why i s one s i t e more s u s c e p t i b l e to crime than another? Some conceptual models have been developed i n t h i s c e n t u r y which d e a l with the de s i g n of safe environments. These are the Urban F o r t r e s s Model and the Urban V i l l a g e Model the predecessors of CPTED. E a r l y P l a n n i n g E f f o r t s The Urban F o r t r e s s Model r e p r e s e n t s a view of crime p r e v e n t i o n which, as the name Implies, p l a c e s s o l e r e l i a n c e on s e c u r i n g b u i l d i n g s and areas so o u t s i d e r s cannot g a i n access without a p p r o v a l . T h i s view gained widespread acceptance because of i t s p r a c t i c a b i l i t y and seemingly immediate r e s u l t s . In a c t u a l i t y , the Urban F o r t r e s s i s much l e s s a product of a developed d e s i g n p h i l o s o p h y than a marketing s t r a t e g y of manufacturers and r e a l e s t a t e d e v e l o p e r s . ^ wealthy neighbourhoods, with s t r o n g , high fences, s e c u r i t y guards and alarm systems provide an i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s model. The Urban F o r t r e s s i s a v e r y popular concept because i t s s i m p l i s t i c approach appears to work. T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g as h i s t o r i c a l examples a t t e s t to t h i s s f i n d i n g . The d e s i g n of medieval c i t i e s such as Malines, Belgium and the French i s l a n d abbey of Mont-Saint-Michel were e s s e n t i a l l y f o r t i f i e d towns that provided a safe r e t r e a t f o r c i t i z e n s . Contemporary examples of s e c u r i t y d e s i g n have s t r e s s e d the same d e f e n s i v e approach: the r e s i d e n t i s i s o l a t e d from an environment which i s p e r c e i v e d to be h o s t i l e to him. I t i s most e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t b u r g l a r y and other crimes a g a i n s t r e s i d e n c e s . However, t h i s model i s not without c r i t i c i s m . I t i s s a i d t h a t the technique e v e n t u a l l y r a i s e s as many problems as i t s o l v e s . For i n s t a n c e , i t does not promote c o r r e c t i v e d e s i g n concepts and, i n g e n e r a l , makes no r e a l attempt to d e a l with s t r e e t crimes. The model's u n d e r l y i n g assumption i s that the s t r e e t s belong to c r i m i n a l s and are, thus, i n d e f e n s i b l e . Furthermore, s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t p u b l i c space i n these neighbourhoods becomes somewhat h o s t i l e ; there e x i s t s among r e s i d e n t s l i t t l e sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r o p e r t y of others and almost no tendency to s o c i a l i z e . ^ i n a d d i t i o n , the presence of s e c u r i t y hardware a c t u a l l y generates more a n x i e t y by p r e s e n t i n g a f e a r f u l image of p o t e n t i a l danger, and by encouraging the b e l i e f t h a t the r e s i d e n t s are powerless to prevent v i c t i m i z a t i o n . The r e s u l t i s that r e s i d e n t s r e l e g a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r neighbourhood c o n t r o l to the p o l i c e . Aside from these s o c i a l c o s t s , the Urban F o r t r e s s Model i s expensive because some neighbourhoods may r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e environmental c h a n g e s . ^ The Urban V i l l a g e Model, on the other hand, r e f l e c t s an opposite extreme. I t was founded i n the t h e o r i e s developed by Robert Park from the U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, i n the 1925 essay, "The C i t y " . 1 5 Park b e l i e v e d t h a t the c i t y i s not merely a p h y s i c a l mechanism but a product of human nature, and emphasized the human i n t e r a c t i o n dimension i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of c i t i e s . The Urban V i l l a g e Model p o s t u l a t e s t h a t the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n e s s e n t i a l to the achievement of urban s a f e t y , harmony, and f u n c t i o n a l i t y i s p a r t l y a r e s u l t of s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r o x i m i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . I t i d e n t i f i e s s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n as a primary cause of crime, d e f i n i n g i t as the breakdown i n the mechanisms t h a t f o s t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c o o p e r a t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n and morale. T h i s i s best e x e m p l i f i e d by e t h n i c ghettos which appeared i n many c i t i e s i n the mid-1920s. In these communities, i n h a b i t a n t s f i n d p r o t e c t i o n and f a m i l i a r l i f e s t y l e s , as t h i s model makes a st r o n g case f o r r e l a t i n g p h y s i c a l d e s i g n t o the s o c i a l mechanisms of r e c o g n i t i o n , neighbouring and mutual p r o t e c t i o n . U n l i k e the Urban F o r t r e s s Model, the Urban V i l l a g e Model i s inexpensive, as i t does not i n v o l v e major design changes. However, t h i s model i s based on the assumption t h a t p r e - e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t homogeneity f o r a c h i e v i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s necessary. I t does not co n s i d e r the s o c i a l heterogeneous neighbourhoods which are found i n modern c i t i e s . For t h i s reason, the Urban V i l l a g e Model has not stood the t e s t of time. In f a c t , e t h n i c ghettos of the 1920s have r e c e n t l y crumbled as new immigrants have s e t t l e d i n s c a t t e r e d neighbourhoods. ° Furthermore, the model has not recog n i z e d the need f o r a p r o p e r l y s t r u c t u r e d p h y s i c a l environment which would not only a l l o w s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n e i t h e r a homogeneous or heterogeneous neighbourhood, but a l s o reduce the o p p o r t u n i t y fo r crime i n the f i r s t p l a c e . In t h i s way, r e s i d e n t s can b e t t e r develop a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t would encourage and support t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n . As the now-famous K i t t y Genovese murder case so openly demonstrated, n a t u r a l s u r v e i l l a n c e by i t s e l f does not deter crime. These conceptual models seem q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . However, there i s a common theme present i n each approach: t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . The Urban F o r t r e s s e n f o r c e s t e r r i t o r i a l i t y through p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y d e s i g n . The Urban V i l l a g e c r e a t e s t e r r i t o r i a l i t y through c u l t u r a l bonds and s o c i a l behaviour. Each model does see a need f o r r e l a t i n g the design of the p h y s i c a l environment to ac c e p t a b l e human behaviour, but they do not examine how or why crime o p p o r t u n i t i e s occur i n the f i r s t p l a c e , or what d i f f e r e n t types of o p p o r t u n i t y crimes may r e s u l t . Each model i s s u i t e d f o r a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n , but n e i t h e r p r o v i d e s an approach t h a t i s a p p l i c a b l e to the vas t m a j o r i t y of neighbourhoods where there i s a heterogeneous s o c i e t y , mixed land uses, and a l i m i t e d number of r e s o u r c e s . Jane Jacobs, i n The Death And L i f e Of Great American C i t i e s , and E l i z a b e t h Wood, i n Housing Design A Social Theory, went f u r t h e r i n d e a l i n g with crime p r e v e n t i o n 22 through p h y s i c a l d e sign by advocating d i v e r s i t y of land uses to provide a kind of constant s u r v e i l l a n c e c a p a c i t y , planned l o i t e r i n g areas, and the promotion of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A c cording to Jacobs, the most popular s o c i a l response to crimes i s the use of g r e a t e r p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y measures and i n c r e a s e d p o l i c e (both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e ) a c t i v i t y , both of which are, i n the long run, i n a p p r o p r i a t e . As she emphasized, "The f i r s t t h i n g to understand i s t h a t the p u b l i c peace the sidewalk and s t r e e t peace of c i t i e s i s not kept p r i m a r i l y by the p o l i c e , as necessary as p o l i c e a r e . I t i s kept p r i m a r i l y by an i n t r i c a t e , almost unconscious network of v o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l s and standards among the people themselves and enforced by the people t h e m s e l v e s . " 1 7 Jacobs' t h e o r i e s r e f l e c t e d an i n c r e a s i n g concern, e v i d e n t i n most urban c e n t r e s i n the United S t a t e s , with the a r c h i t e c t u r a l and urban p l a n n i n g t r e n d to provide housing i n massive h i g h - r i s e p r o j e c t s , surrounded by u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d areas of open space. Beginning i n the 1930s, t h i s t r end became i n c r e a s i n g l y popular a f t e r World War II and obtained p a r t i c u l a r prominence i n the p r o d u c t i o n of new f e d e r a l l y -s u b s i d i z e d housing. Jacobs claimed t h a t one of the flaws of t h i s urban development trend was the e l i m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a l s u r v e i l l a n c e as a r e s u l t of economic and p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s which (a) r e s t r i c t e d mixed uses (and t h e r e f o r e decreased ongoing s t r e e t a c t i v i t y ) , and (b) encouraged the development of I s o l a t e d h i g h - r i s e housing p r o j e c t s whose p h y s i c a l d e s i g n l i m i t e d a sense of community and c o n s t r a i n e d the p o t e n t i a l f o r m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t r o l of the environment through i n f o r m a l s u r v e i l l a n c e . Jacobs' claims were l a r g e l y based on her p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and experience of urban l i f e , and have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r that reason by more s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , her suggestions on d e s i g n i n g neighbourhoods to i n c r e a s e the s u r v e i l l a n c e and i n f o r m a l c o n t r o l p o t e n t i a l of t h e i r r e s i d e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t to subsequent developments i n CPTED-related i d e a s . 1 8 E l i z a b e t h Wood was more d i r e c t l y concerned with the design and management of the r e s i d e n t i a l environment. Wood, a c o n s u l t a n t to the C i t i z e n s ' Housing and P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l , developed a s o c i a l t heory of housing design which focused on i s s u e s r e l a t e d to the p u b l i c spaces i n high d e n s i t y , h i g h -r i s e p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s , and how these could be designed to make " p o s s i b l e the development of a s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e by means of which people can c r e a t e t h e i r own s o c i a l c o n t r o l s , and do t h e i r own s e l f - p o l i c i n g " . ^ Wood suggested t h a t when d e s i g n i n g indoor and outdoor p u b l i c spaces i n h i g h - r i s e apartment b u i l d i n g s , g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n should be payed to s a t i s f y i n g the v a r i e d needs of the r e s i d e n t s and encouraging the development of a cohesive s o c i a l f a b r i c . She c r i t i c i z e d the design of t y p i c a l h i g h -r i s e apartment p r o j e c t s i n New York and elsewhere i n t h a t they "...seem designed to minimize or to prevent a c c i d e n t a l and c a s u a l communications between people and the i n f o r m a l g a t h e r i n g of people, and to provide minimum f a c i l i t i e s f o r the formal g a t h e r i n g s of people".^° In her view, d e s i g n i n g b u i l d i n g s to accommodate these types of a c t i v i t i e s would not o n l y meet some very r e a l s o c i a l needs of people, but would a l s o c r e a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the s u r v e i l l a n c e and s o c i a l c o n t r o l of otherwise undefined areas of a housing p r o j e c t . F u r t h e r , Wood r e a l i z e d t h a t good de s i g n was not the t o t a l s o l u t i o n to the problems of high d e n s i t y , h i g h - r i s e l i v i n g and emphasized the need f o r e n l i g h t e n e d b u i l d i n g management p r a c t i c e s and a balanced neighbourhood p o p u l a t i o n . ^ 1 Throughout the 1960s, r e s e a r c h e r s from v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s began t e s t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between crime and the urban r e s i d e n t i a l environment i n a more r i g o r o u s manner (Boggs, 1965; Rainwater, 1968). The i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were exp l a n a t o r y i n nature i n t h e i r attempts to document the s p a t i a l and socio-economic c o r r e l a t e s of c e r t a i n crime types. Schlomo Angel, an a r c h i t e c t , was one of the f i r s t r e s e a r c h e r s to propose s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h a t would deter crime. He observed t h a t the Jacobs model f o r s a f e neighbourhoods i s i n a p p l i c a b l e i n many c i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y to Oakland, a s e t t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of more communities than the dense environments of Jacobs' own Greenwhich V i l l a g e . Angel r e p o r t e d t h a t of approximately 1,200 miles of s t r e e t , Oakland had onl y 4 miles of t o t a l frontage f o r establishments which remain open at n i g h t . He then presented the hypothesis t h a t p u b l i c areas become unsafe not when there are e i t h e r j u s t enough people on the scene to a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n of p o t e n t i a l o f f e n d e r s , but when there are not enough people f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e of the area a c o n d i t i o n he l a b e l l e d the ' c r i t i c a l i n t e n s i t y zone'.22 Based on t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , he recommended t h a t p h y s i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s be a l t e r e d to channel p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n to e l i m i n a t e c r i t i c a l i n t e n s i t y zones. His idea i n v o l v e d the use of an 'evening square' or a p u b l i c square equipped with every p o s s i b l e d e sign assurance f o r maximum s a f e t y , t h a t c r e a t e d an optimal d e n s i t y to a v o i d crime d u r i n g the n i g h t hours when ' s t r e e t crimes' were most l i k e l y to occur. The importance of t h i s n o t i o n i s the focus on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y and crime. A l s o , i t t r a n s l a t e d an observable s e t of measurable parameters i n t o an a r c h i t e c t u r a l idea.23 The squares would a l l o w people to congregate i n a den s e l y occupied commercial area, while on neighbouring s t r e e t s the presence of people would dissuade s t r e e t c r i m i n a l s to l i e i n w a i t i n g . T h i s s p a t i a l p a t t e r n , he maintained, would reduce c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e s . The u n d e r l y i n g premise Is that c r i m i n a l decision-making i s based on a r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . C r i m i n a l s t r y to balance the r i s k of d e t e c t i o n a g a i n s t the p o t e n t i a l p a y o f f . In t h i s sense, most and perhaps a l l crimes are r e l a t e d to the co s t of 26 ' o p p o r t u n i t y 1 . Because o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime are not e q u a l l y f a v o u r a b l e i n a l l environments, c e r t a i n areas s u f f e r from higher r a t e s of crime than o t h e r s . The tendency of an i n d i v i d u a l t o commit a crime w i l l at l e a s t i n p a r t be r e l a t e d to the type of o p p o r t u n i t y and the c o s t s (e.g. time spent w a i t i n g ; r i s k s taken) t h a t are i n v o l v e d . ^ T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of crime i s c a l l e d the 'op p o r t u n i t y h y p o t h e s i s ' . Angel's study, though, d i d not o f f e r data to support the a s s e r t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the l a r g e number of crimes i n the ' c r i t i c a l i n t e n s i t y zone'. Furthermore, a l a t e r study on robbery i n Oakland, by Susan Wilcox, determined t h a t the l e v e l of s t r e e t t r a f f i c (both p e d e s t r i a n and v e h i c u l a r ) d i d not appear to i n f l u e n c e the r a t e and p a t t e r n s of s t r e e t or commercial areas. Thus, the study suggested t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n of Angel's ideas would not s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce robbery. N e v e r t h e l e s s , Angel's f i n d i n g s , at the time, sparked f u r t h e r i n t e r e s t i n r e s e a r c h on p a t t e r n s r e l a t e d to crime. He a l s o coined the term 'environmental p r o t e c t i o n ' , which i n a few years had evolved i n t o 'crime p r e v e n t i o n through environmental d e s i g n ' . In subsequent s t u d i e s , the types of crime found to be open to p r e v e n t i o n through environmental design were c l a s s i f i e d as ' o p p o r t u n i s t ' crimes. Opportunist crimes a g a i n s t the person i n c l u d e robbery, p u r s e - s n a t c h i n g and other t h e f t s as w e l l as some a s s a u l t s both v i o l e n t and sexual a s s a u l t s . Crimes a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y i n v o l v e b u r g l a r y 27 (break-and-enter) and vandalism. T h i s r e s e a r c h has o f f e r e d some i n s i g h t s i n t o the dimensions of o p p o r t u n i t y as p e r c e i v e d by the p o t e n t i a l c r i m i n a l . The next s e c t i o n w i l l d i s c u s s the l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s from the o f f e n d e r ' s home to h i s t a r g e t , the ease of access to the t a r g e t , the land use mixture to be found at the t a r g e t area, and the time of day or week when the crime i s committed. Crime As A F u n c t i o n Of Opportunity Locational Factors Research i n t o the geography of crime f i n d s t h a t o f f e n d e r s tend to go f a r enough from t h e i r home to commit a crime so t h a t they w i l l a v o i d r e c o g n i t i o n . However o f f e n d e r s , i n the aggregate, minimize t h i s d i s t a n c e because of convenience, f a m i l i a r i t y (with the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e r e ) , and knowledge of access and escape routes of nearby t a r g e t s . There i s a c o n s i s t e n c y i n d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d to commit a crime based on examples from a l a r g e number of c i t i e s d e s p i t e obvious d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l makeup of these c i t i e s . S tudies conducted i n the l a t e 1960s and e a r l y 1970s (Turner, 1969; P h i l l i p s , 1972; Pyle,1974) show t h a t the average d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d by c r i m i n a l s to commit a crime In l a r g e c i t i e s Is between 1.66 and 2.20 m i l e s . ^ In g e n e r a l , the average d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d to commit a crime depends on the nature of the crime, the age and background ( i n c l u d i n g race and socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) of the p e r p e t r a t o r s , and the forms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to the c r i m i n a l s . C e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s (CBD) are the primary t a r g e t s as they f e a t u r e few r e s i d e n t s and a l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s , such as s t o r e s , merchandise and untended cars. 2** Furthermore, the s t r e e t - p a t t e r n i n g i s such t h a t crime i s f a c i l i t a t e d . Most c i t y s t r e e t s i n the CBD are u s u a l l y organized l i n e a r l y with d i f f u s e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s t h a t d r i f t o f f i n t o dark lanes and daytime commercial areas t h a t are c l o s e d f o r business i n the evening hours. Angel proposed t h a t the squares have a s p a t i a l l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d format with parking l o c a t e d i n the centre of the area so t h a t the band of a c t i v i t y would not get more sparse from the centre t o the p e r i p h e r y . I t i s i n t h i s zone, between the ce n t r e and the p e r i p h e r i e s (parking l o t s l o c a t e d i n remote areas away form the c i t y c e n t r e ) , where p e d e s t r i a n s are most v u l n e r a b l e to v i c t i m i z a t i o n . Ease Of Access There i s a l s o a r e l a t i o n s h i p r e p o r t e d between the s p a t i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of s t r e e t s and blocks and t h e i r impact on crime. Paul and P a t r i c i a Brantingham and Gerald Luedtke show s t a t i s t i c a l l y t h a t s t o r e s and r e s i d e n c e s near a corner are more l i k e l y to be b u r g l a r i z e d than those on the i n t e r i o r of a b l o c k . 2 ^ ^8 Bevis and Nutter (1977) show t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l b u r g l a r i e s are hig h e s t i n most a c c e s s i b l e b l o c k s , f o r example, I n t e r s e c t i n g s t r e e t s (+) as opposed to 'T 1 or 'L' s t r e e t s . They are a l s o h i g h e s t i n census t r a c t s with the h i g h e s t auto t r a f f i c . B r i l l ' s s t u d i e s (1975, 1977) of p u b l i c housing crimes r e v e a l t h a t apartments near parking l o t s , s t r e e t s and r e c r e a t i o n a l areas t h a t o f f e r escape routes to c r i m i n a l s experience higher crime r a t e s . 2 9 3 0 Land Use C e r t a i n land uses are a l s o a s s o c i a t e d with crime. An i s o l a t e d commercial establishment (such as a g r o c e r y s t o r e i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area) i s more v u l n e r a b l e than a s i m i l a r establishment i n commercial a r e a s . 3 1 The same i s t r u e of r e s i d e n c e s c l o s e to commercial d i s t r i c t s . One study f i n d s a high c o n c e n t r a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l b u r g l a r i e s i n blocks c l o s e to commercial s t r e e t s . 3 2 Most CBDs are not designed f o r evening use. Because they o f f e r nighttime entertainment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , they are f i l l e d with unwary t o u r i s t s who do not know the r e p u t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s t r e e t s or zones as i n t i m a t e l y as n a t i v e s . Schools and parks a l s o seem to i n c r e a s e the amount of crime i n t h e i r v i c i n i t y and along t h e i r access r o u t e s . Time S t r e e t r o b b e r i e s and s t r a n g e r - t o - s t r a n g e r a s s a u l t s occur with g r e a t e r frequency at n i g h t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l a t e evening hours i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s . The CBDs a t t r a c t s i n g l e people ( o l d e r c i t i z e n s as w e l l as younger o f f i c e workers) who l i n g e r a f t e r business hours and are good t a r g e t s f o r c r i m i n a l s . Commercial b u r g l a r i e s (e.g. warehouses) occur more f r e q u e n t l y on weekends when most of these e s t a b l i s h m e n t s are c l o s e d . P u r s e - s n a t c h i n g i s more common d u r i n g the middle of the week when housewives tend to do t h e i r s h o p p i n g . 3 3 The ' o p p o r t u n i t y h y p o t h e s i s ' i s the b a s i s f o r crime p r e v e n t i o n programs. I f crime i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y Influenced by the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n a p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g , then It should be p o s s i b l e t o a f f e c t the crime r a t e by modifying the o p p o r t u n i t y s t r u c t u r e . T h i s g o a l can be achieved e i t h e r by i n c r e a s i n g the p e r c e i v e d r i s k or e f f o r t necessary to commit the crime, or by red u c i n g the number of a v a i l a b l e t a r g e t s . Environmental Uses And P e r c e p t i o n s The same environmental f a c t o r s which are seen by of f e n d e r s as s u p p o r t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime w i l l probably be seen by l e g i t i m a t e users of the s e t t i n g as i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r r i s k of becoming v i c t i m s . For example, people tend to be more a f r a i d a t n i g h t . Although, these p e r c e p t i o n s can lead to changes i n behaviour intended to reduce the r i s k of v i c t i m i z a t i o n , they may a c t u a l l y work to make the area more dangerous. That i s , when people a v o i d a s e t t i n g , they remove an element of s u r v e i l l a n c e from I t , and thereby i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t c r i m i n a l s w i l l f i n d i t a c o n g e n i a l environment f o r v i c t i m i z i n g those who do not use the a r e a . 3 4 Again the equation i s not always s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . C i t i z e n s may p e r c e i v e an area to be dangerous while the p o l i c e regard i t as r e l a t i v e l y s a f e . The reason may be ' i n c i v i l i t i e s ' drunkenness, rowdy behaviour or u n t i d i n e s s as opposed to a c t u a l crime. Or a p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n may f e e l i t s e l f to be threatened by another p o p u l a t i o n : teenagers l o i t e r i n g on s t r e e t c o r n e r s , f o r example, are e s p e c i a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g to the e l d e r l y . 3 5 A t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t the neighbourhood i s undergoing changes i n i t s e t h n i c or r a c i a l composition. Areas i n which s o c i a l networks are s t r o n g seem to have lower l e v e l s of crime and f e a r . C e r t a i n environmental f e a t u r e s encourage the development of s o c i a l cohesion and h e l p i n g behaviour: c l e a r l y d e f i n e d communal areas, f o r example, tend to promote s u r v e i l l a n c e and a l s o s e t the stage f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s . On the other hand, when f a c i l i t i e s are shared by too many people they can have the opposite e f f e c t , adding to the d i s t r u s t and anonymity which t h e i r users f e e l . 3 * * Angel found t h a t "...crime i s a f u n c t i o n of opportunism, and t h a t areas of high crime d e n s i t y t y p i c a l l y are both e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o and well-known by the c r i m i n a l , are known to o f f e r high l i k e l i h o o d of f i n d i n g a v i c t i m at a given time and i n v o l v e l i t t l e r i s k of p o l i c e a p p r e h e n s i o n " . 3 ^ 32 Crime And I t s P r e v e n t i o n A s e r i e s of important s t u d i e s have been performed i n the past ten years on the s p e c i f i c b u i l d i n g s chosen by c r i m i n a l s to commit o p p o r t u n i s t crimes, such as b u r g l a r y , robbery, a s s a u l t , and some kinds of l a r c e n y and grand t h e f t . These crimes are t y p i c a l l y committed by o f f e n d e r s t h a t have no p r i o r c o n t a c t with the v i c t i m . They are not o n l y s t r a n g e r s to one another, but they t y p i c a l l y come from d i f f e r e n t communities. T h i s accounts f o r the p a r t i c u l a r l y f r u s t r a t i n g and f e a r - i n d u c i n g nature of these crimes. The s p e c i f i c s i t e s e l e c t e d i s to a great extent a f u n c t i o n of a s e r i e s of cues t h a t are emitted by the area, the c i t y block and i t s b u i l d i n g s and p o r t i o n s of b u i l d i n g s . There are many examples of houses or s t o r e s t h a t are never the t a r g e t of robbery or b u r g l a r y , even though they are l o c a t e d on blocks with other s t o r e s or r e s i d e n c e s t h a t have been t a r g e t e d r e p e a t e d l y . 3 8 The p e r c e p t i o n of t a r g e t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s not always s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d s i n c e one aspect of the s e t t i n g may make i t an a p p e a l i n g t a r g e t while another m i l i t a t e s a g a i n s t t h a t c h o i c e . C r i m i n a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s the r e s u l t of a complex s e t of e v a l u a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g not onl y the weighing of p o s i t i v e and negative f a c t o r s , but a l s o the experience and m o t i v a t i o n of the offender f o r c a r r y i n g out h i s a c t . In g e n e r a l , however, crimes are f u r t i v e a c t s committed under high t e n s i o n . Studies of a c t u a l b u r g l a r i e s show that 50% of r e s i d e n t i a l b u r g l a r s o n l y enter one room, u s u a l l y the bedroom, to commit the c r i m e . 3 9 The amount of time spent i n the premises i s u s u a l l y kept to a minimum. With t h i s i n mind, i t should come as no s u r p r i s e t h a t the o f f e n d e r i s s e a r c h i n g f r a n t i c a l l y f o r a s i t u a t i o n t h a t allows easy e n t r y and egress without being observed. T h i s r e s u l t was a l s o r e p o r t e d f o r s t r e e t crimes by r e s e a r c h e r s from the Law Enforcement A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In the words of one of the r e s e a r c h e r s : The work of Angel i n the l a t e 1960s shed l i g h t on the f a c t t h a t c r i m i n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s can be e l i m i n a t e d through the use of sound a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n and good pl a n n i n g techniques. Though sometimes thought of as a new concept or approach i n law enforcement, crime pr e v e n t i o n ' s e x i s t e n c e can be t r a c e d back to 13th c e n t u r y England, where i t became the major component of the B r i t i s h e f f o r t s to c o n t r o l crime. The E n g l i s h d e f i n i t i o n of 'crime p r e v e n t i o n ' i s : "By f a r , the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i crime and b u r g l a r y i s the r e s u r a t h e r than of c a r e f u l and pro p l a n n i n g " . 4 ^ on of s t r I t of opp f e s s i o n a l eet o r t u n i t y The a n t i c i p a t i o n , r e c o g n i t i o n and a p p r a i s a l of a crime r i s k , and the i n i t i a t i o n of a c t i o n to e i t h e r remove or reduce i t . 4 1 The c l a s s i c a l c o r r e c t i s e n t e n c i n g p o i n t , where i t doe because not enough people are onal system occurs a t the s not have too much e f f e c t sentenced (Figure 1). Crime Figure 1 MODEL FOR CRIME PREVENTION Notes Act ions i Decis ions & Results Mot ivat ion Dec is ion to Commit A Crime Search For A Target Locat ion Of Target Attempt To Commit A Crime Completion Of Cr iminal Act hd W O H3 o 3 4 4 cr H' <D 3 3 P i cr V CD h-cn < CD h jH-3 ^ 0 c+ CD £5 P CD M c+ H» O 3 o 3Apprehension Convict ion Sentencing FROM "Environmental Design Added Dimension To Po l i c ing? L iason, Vo l . 6, No. 5 (May 1980), p. 4. 35 p r e v e n t i o n through environmental design, on the other hand, in t e r v e n e s at the 'search f o r t a r g e t ' p o i n t , where the suspect i s s e a r c h i n g f o r a v i c t i m f o r h i s crime, whether i t Is a person or the p r o p e r t y . The premise i s t h a t by r e d u c i n g the obvious t a r g e t s , people with low m o t i v a t i o n , which are the m a j o r i t y , decide not to take the chance. From 1969, crime p r e v e n t i o n became an i s s u e of consequence i n the United S t a t e s o n l y a f t e r the r e s p o n s i b l e f e d e r a l agencies had accepted t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l apprehension-sentencing focus of the c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system was inadequate as a d e t e r r e n t or c o n t r o l measure. The Department of J u s t i c e , through the Law Enforcement A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (LEAA) and i t s r e s e a r c h arm, the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of Law Enforcement and C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e (NILECJ), s t a r t e d to fund a s e r i e s of e x p l o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . The I n f l u e n c e Of Oscar Newman The f i r s t attempts commissioned by NILECJ were intended to document the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p h y s i c a l d e s i g n of the neighbourhoods and b u i l d i n g s ( u s u a l l y p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s ) and c i t i z e n f e a r of, and v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o , crime. Luedtke, f o r i n s t a n c e , analyzed the crime r a t e s and socio-economic and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of D e t r o i t f o r the purpose of determining what environmental f e a t u r e s (e.g. r e l a t i o n s h i p o£ a d j o i n i n g land use and b u i l d i n g c o n d i t i o n s to crime) caused i n c r e a s e s and decreases i n the crime r a t e s . Researchers, at t h i s time, were i n t e r e s t e d i n b u i l d i n g upon the i n f o r m a t i o n base necessary to make des i g n judgments r a t h e r than to make immediate recommendations on a p p r o p r i a t e design g u i d e l i n e s f o r crime p r e v e n t i o n . 4 2 However, i n 1972, Oscar Newman's work on the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e v e r a l housing p r o j e c t s i n New York C i t y and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to crime r a t e s i n the r e s p e c t i v e areas changed the focus of crime p r e v e n t i o n s t u d i e s through urban d e s i g n . Newman's s t u d i e s recommended r e d e s i g n i n g b u i l d i n g s and neighbourhoods with high crime r a t e s . Through h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , Newman, an urban planner and a r c h i t e c t , developed h i s theo r y of ' d e f e n s i b l e space' t h a t he d e f i n e d as "a model f o r r e s i d e n t i a l environments which i n h i b i t s crime by c r e a t i n g the p h y s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of a s o c i a l f a b r i c t h a t defends i t s e l f " . 4 3 D e f e n s i b l e space d e s i g n i s concerned with u t i l i z i n g the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e s i d e n t i a l environment i n a way t h a t d e t e r s crime: "...the c a p a c i t y of the p h y s i c a l environment to cre a t e p e r c e i v e d zones of t e r r i t o r i a l i n f l u e n c e . . . t h e c a p a c i t y of p h y s i c a l d e s i g n to provide s u r v e i l l a n c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e s i d e n t s and t h e i r agents...the c a p a c i t y of d e s i g n to i n f l u e n c e the p e r c e p t i o n of a p r o j e c t ' s uniqueness, i s o l a t i o n and stigma ...(and) the i n f l u e n c e of g e o g r a p h i c a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n with 'safe zones' on the s e c u r i t y of adjacent a r e a s . " 4 4 Newman's work probably has been the most i n f l u e n t i a l contemporary statement of urban d e s i g n e r s . His a n a l y s i s of the way i n which d e s i g n f a c t o r s such as h i g h - r i s e p u b l i c housing and l a r g e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d open spaces c r e a t e an impersonal environment conducive to crime has been most co m p e l l i n g . He p o i n t s out t h a t when l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l complexes are su b d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l e r components so that each can be c o n t r o l l e d n a t u r a l l y , crime goes down. Newman i l l u s t r a t e d t h i s p o i n t with two adjacent p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s i n New York C i t y , one l o w - r i s e ( B r o w n s v i l l e , b u i l t i n 1947), the other h i g h - r i s e (Van Dyke, b u i l t i n 1955). The number of u n i t s per acre and the types of f a m i l i e s occupying both were v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l . But crime i n the h i g h - r i s e was four times h i g h e r . 4 5 According to Newman, the h i g h - r i s e , surrounded by wide open spaces, leaves the iss u e of t e r r i t o r i a l s o v e r e i g n t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y open which c r e a t e s a b a t t l e f i e l d f o r vandals, muggers and gangs. Since mothers cannot be i n t h e i r apartments and s t i l l s u p e r v i s e outdoor p l a y , they do not l e t t h e i r c h i l d r e n out a t a l l or a l l o w them to go unsupervised. A l l too o f t e n the c h i l d r e n run w i l d . As a r e s u l t , r e s i d e n t s can f e e l no sense of i d e n t i t y with anything i n t h e i r surroundings o u t s i d e t h e i r apartments. The apartment house c o r r i d o r s become l i t t e r e d and fearsome p l a c e s . Newman, i n a BBC f i l m c a l l e d "The W r i t i n g On The Wall", d e s c r i b e s how people respond to i n t r u s i o n s i n hi g h -r i s e b u i l d i n g s . A tape r e c o r d e r , hidden In a hallway of the Van Dyke p r o j e c t , broadcasts an argument between a man and a woman. As the argument becomes louder and more v i o l e n t , r e s i d e n t s f i r s t b o l t t h e i r doors, then t u r n on t e l e v i s i o n s e t s to block the noise out of t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The experiment was then c a r r i e d out a t the B r o w n s v i l l e l o w - r i s e p r o j e c t , where Newman and h i s a s s o c i a t e s had d i f f i c u l t y e n t e r i n g the b u i l d i n g s with a tape r e c o r d e r . They were n o t i c e d and questioned as to t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s . When the tape r e c o r d e r was played, Newman found t h a t r e s i d e n t s appeared at t h e i r doorways to l o c a t e the o r i g i n of the n o i s e . A c c o r d i n g to Newman, the B r o w n s v i l l e p r o j e c t i s designed to c r e a t e ' d e f e n s i b l e space*. There are o n l y s i x or e i g h t u n i t s to a complex and i n each, windows and doors overlook the s t r e e t and the inner c o u r t y a r d . Residents e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e each other and, having v i s u a l access to the s t r e e t , can spot s t r a n g e r s and i n t r u d e r s . Since apartments a l s o look onto a c o u r t y a r d p l a y area, r e s i d e n t s can a c t i v e l y s u p e r v i s e t h e i r c h i l d r e n outdoors. I d e a l l y , s a i d Newman, i f the o p p o r t u n i t y to s t a r t from s c r a t c h e x i s t s , f a m i l y housing should take the form of l o w - r i s e u n i t s t h a t are e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from each other. Doors and windows should look onto s t r e e t s , and each r e s i d e n t ' s zone of i n f l u e n c e should be brought r i g h t up to the sidewalk by means of curbs, landscaping or fences. The s u b d i v i s i o n of space, i n h i s o p i n i o n , w i l l r e i n f o r c e the 39 resident's attitude that he does have a right to prevent intrusion. But, high-rises need not be a l l bad, argued Newman. For example, If e l d e r l y persons are housed in t a l l buildings by themselves, the crime rate within the building i s v i r t u a l l y zero. The e l d e r l y tend to congregate in corridors, providing their own supervision. They go to bed early and can e a s i l y be safeguarded with help from one doorman. To a less s a t i s f a c t o r y degree, high-rises can also work for single people, and working couples without children. Newman's work was very much in the s p i r i t of his time. It re f l e c t e d the growing interest of the arc h i t e c t u r a l profession in the rel a t i o n s h i p between environment and behaviour, with some influence from rather popularized anthropology and ideas of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y drawn from writings on ethnology by authors such as Robert Ardrey. Newman was deeply conscious of the poor condition of many high-rise public housing p r o j e c t s . 4 ^ At the time that Newman's book Defensible Space was published, the dramatic demolition of the infamous Pruitt-Igoe project in St. Louis was taking place. Pruitt-Igoe lacked 'defensible space' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , according to Newman, and together with the depressing socio-economic conditions of the tenants, the buildings e a s i l y became crime-ridden and vandalized. He believed that i t was possible to design future housing projects in such a way that the residents would be able to g a i n c o n t r o l over spaces Immediately adjacent to t h e i r homes and deter s t r a n g e r s and p o t e n t i a l c r i m i n a l s . Instead o£ emphasizing t a r g e t - h a r d e n i n g or the Urban F o r t r e s s m e n t a l i t y , Newman's theory presented a d e s i g n - o r i e n t e d approach f o r a l l o w i n g the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n of the urban v i l l a g e . C r i t i c i s m Of Newman's Work While the concept of d e f e n s i b l e space i s noteworthy, i t s a p p l i c a t i o n has been l i m i t e d to the p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t which may e x h i b i t an i n t e n s i t y of crime problems but does not re p r e s e n t the complexity of other environments such as neighbourhoods. The the o r y does not c o n s i d e r the impact from or on the surrounding neighbourhood, nor does i t de a l with the types and f r e q u e n c i e s of crimes t h a t might be o c c u r r i n g i n the immediate environs which can impact on the p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t . 4 7 Conversely, there i s a l s o the danger t h a t the p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t may have a d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t on the surrounding area. The important p o i n t i s t h a t the l i m i t a t i o n imposed by c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y s i t e boundaries of p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s does not co n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y and presence of s t r e e t crimes and the s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y of the neighbourhood at l a r g e . E s s e n t i a l l y , the d e f e n s i b l e space concept as a p p l i e d to date, i s o l a t e s the r e s i d e n t of the p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t from h i s surrounding neighbourhood and f o r f e i t s the neighbourhood s t r e e t s to p o s s i b l e o f f e n d e r s . Looked at i n t h i s way, the d e f e n s i b l e space concept r i s k s the danger of becoming a f o r t r e s s w i t h i n a neighbourhood, f u r t h e r s t i g m a t i z i n g the p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t r a t h e r than making i t a p a r t of the ne i g h b o u r h o o d . 4 8 Newman's work has been c r i t i c i z e d on other grounds. Some of the concerns are t h a t (1) Newman does not adequately account f o r the socio-economic d i f f e r e n c e s between those l i v i n g i n the p r o j e c t s he s t u d i e d ; (2) there are e r r o r s i n some of h i s c a l c u l a t i o n s ; (3) he does not con s i d e r s e r i o u s l y enough p o s s i b l e b i a s e s i n the crime data he uses; and (4) there i s not enough d e t a i l g i v e n about the desi g n d i f f e r e n c e s between p r o j e c t s which might a f f e c t t e r r i t o r i a l f e e l i n g . Moreover, A.E. Bottoms argued t h a t the types of a n a l y s i s used i n D e f e n s i b l e Space m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s and the comparison of p a i r e d p r o j e c t s were s a i d to be inadequate i n p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between only two housing p r o j e c t s (Van Dyke and B r o w n s v i l l e ) which c o u l d have been chosen because they provided the best r e s u l t s . 4 9 R.I. Mawby presents an important a p p r a i s a l of the t h e o r e t i c a l v a l i d i t y of Newman's concept. In Mawby's o p i n i o n , Newman has f a i l e d to co n s i d e r t h a t the four key elements of d e f e n s i b l e space might c o n t a i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w i t h i n themselves and might i n c l u d e f a c t o r s which t h r e a t e n as w e l l as enhance s e c u r i t y . He proposes, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t i f o p p o r t u n i t i e s are made to in c r e a s e s u r v e i l l a n c e f o r l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and neighbours, then the p o s s i b i l i t y of crime by r e s i d e n t s a g a i n s t other r e s i d e n t s may a l s o be enhanced. Furthermore, b u r g l a r s may not arouse s u s p i c i o n once they are i n p r i v a t e areas and may be given 'cover' t h e r e . I s o l a t e d and d i s t i n c t i v e p u b l i c e s t a t e s which Newman sees as ' s t i g m a t i z e d ' may not so much a t t r a c t o u t s i d e r s as make them f e e l conspicuous. A d d i t i o n a l l y , s i t u a t i n g p u b l i c housing next to 'safe' ( p r i v a t e ) blocks may merely a t t r a c t the c r i m i n a l element from the former to the l a t t e r . 5 ^ T h i s l a s t p o i n t crime displacement deserves some a t t e n t i o n because i t i s a major concern f o r the proponents of crime p r e v e n t i o n through o p p o r t u n i t y r e d u c t i o n . Arguments on displacement are c o n f l i c t i n g . Paul S t a n l e y claims t h a t crime displacement i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t problem. Peter Engstad r e p o r t s t h a t c r e a t i n g o b s t a c l e s through environmental d e s i g n w i l l r e s u l t i n a nominal amount of d i s p l a c e m e n t . 5 1 Thomas Reppetto, on the other hand, has suggested t h a t displacement "looms as one of the major o b s t a c l e s to any s t r a t e g y f o r the c o n t r o l of r e s i d e n t i a l c r i m e " . 5 2 The most r e a l i s t i c assessment of the p o s s i b i l i t y of displacement i s probably t h a t i t i s not an ' a l l or none' phenomenon. Instead, i t depends on the type of crime p r e v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y being used, the type of displacement being r e f e r r e d t o , the type of crime, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the o f f e n d e r s and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a given area or surrounding areas. Each of these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may operate i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n c o n j u n c t i o n with one another. According to Reppetto, there are d i f f e r e n t types of d i s p l a c e m e n t . 5 3 1. TEMPORAL crimes committed at d i f f e r e n t times. For example, i n t e n s i v e p o l i c e p a t r o l at one time may suppress crime at that time, but reappears at a d i f f e r e n t time. 2. TACTICAL u s i n g d i f f e r e n t t a c t i c s , or modus operandi. For example, the i n s t a l l a t i o n of alarms may r e s u l t i n a s h i f t from b u r g l a r i e s i n v o l v i n g a c t u a l b o d i l y e n t r y towards more 'smash and grab 1 b u r g l a r i e s . 3. TARGET-RELATED s h i f t i n g to d i f f e r e n t t a r g e t . For example, an i n c r e a s e i n p o l i c e p a t r o l i n the New York subway r e s u l t e d i n an apparent i n c r e a s e i n bus r o b b e r i e s . 4. SPATIAL s h i f t i n g l o c a t i o n s . For example, t a r g e t - h a r d e n i n g i n one b u i l d i n g may r e s u l t i n a s h i f t to adjacent b u i l d i n g s . 5. FUNCTIONAL the offender changes from one type of crime to another; e.g. from b u r g l a r i e s to s t r e e t r o b b e r i e s and v i c e -v e r s a . Of these types of displacement, Reppetto b e l i e v e s t h a t s p a t i a l displacement i s the most common and, t h e r e f o r e , the most worrisome. In h i s words: "Among v a r i o u s displacement p o s s i b i l i t i e s , i t has been hypothesized t h a t geographic r e l o c a t i o n t o adjacent areas i s most l i k e l y . T h i s suggests t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e crime p r e v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s are those a p p l i e d across f a i r l y l a r g e geographic areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y those where s e r i o u s crimes such as robbery are c o n c e n t r a t e d . The most a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s appear to be those which permit wide area coverage, l e v e r a g i n g of resources and f l e x i b i l i t y " . 5 4 44 The d i f f i c u l t i e s surrounding the implementation of crime p r e v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s on a s u f f i c i e n t l y widespread b a s i s so as to av o i d s p a t i a l displacement are c o n s i d e r a b l e . Newman acknowledges t h i s problem and asks whether a p a t t e r n of u n i f o r m l y d i s t r i b u t e d crime i s p r e f e r a b l e to one i n which crime i s concentrated i n p a r t i c u l a r areas. For him, the second a l t e r n a t i v e i s more d e s i r a b l e and he would l i k e to see crime d i s p l a c e d , i f i t i s i n e v i t a b l e , to the commercial and i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s of the c i t y areas which are more e a s i l y served by formal p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n . He re c o g n i z e s , however, t h a t t h i s would be both d i f f i c u l t to accomplish and would e n t a i l moral i m p l i c a t i o n s . Despite these c r i t i c i s m s , Newman's ideas have had great appeal. For academics, they f i t i n h a p p i l y enough with a c u r r e n t emphasis on the importance of the environment i n d etermining behaviour. For a wider audience, too, Newman's w r i t i n g s are h i g h l y p e r s u a s i v e and have the r e s p e c t a b i l i t y of being backed by ex t e n s i v e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . Moreover, i n choosing to concentrate mainly on b u i l d i n g form, h i s suggestions appear more f e a s i b l e than those of Jacobs or Angel, which would i n v o l v e massive urban d i s l o c a t i o n and changes i n e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s of business a c t i v i t y . 5 5 The f a c t , too, t h a t Newman gave d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a c h i e v i n g d e f e n s i b l e space was an unusual bonus f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s normally given o n l y vague suggestions as to how to d e a l with crime. T h i s may e x p l a i n why he subsequently r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l f e d e r a l sponsorship 45 f o r an e x t e n s i v e program of ' a c t i o n ' r e s e a r c h c a l l e d 'Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design'. CPTED And R e l a t e d Research To The Present The Concept Of CPTED During the mid-1970s, the Westinghouse N a t i o n a l Issues Center conducted four major CPTED demonstration p r o j e c t s with NILECJ funding a s s i s t a n c e . These p r o j e c t s i n H a r t f o r d , C o n n e c t i c u t ; M i n n e a p o l i s , Minnesota; P o r t l a n d , Oregon; and F t . Lauderdale, F l o r i d a were Implemented to evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d e f e n s i b l e space concepts, p r e v i o u s l y a p p l i e d e x c l u s i v e l y to p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s , i n other environments r e s i d e n t i a l areas, commercial d i s t r i c t s and s c h o o l s . These p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e d a more balanced mix of d e s i g n and management s t r a t e g i e s than had been implemented before i n the United S t a t e s , r e f l e c t i n g a growing awareness t h a t the success of p h y s i c a l changes was g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by a t t i t u d i n a l changes i n the people who used or managed a p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t . 5 6 These p r o j e c t s aimed p r i m a r i l y at crimes such as homicide, rape, robbery, a s s a u l t , b u r g l a r y , l a r c e n y , auto t h e f t , arson and vandalism. Excluded from t h i s l i s t were white c o l l a r crimes, such as fraud and embezzlement, crimes a g a i n s t the government, organized r a c k a t e e r i n g , morals o f f e n s e s , f a m i l y o f f e n s e s and d i s o r d e r l y conduct. 46 As d e s c r i b e d by Newman, CPTED i s based on four components: access c o n t r o l , s u r v e i l l a n c e , a c t i v i t y support and m o t i v a t i o n r e i n f o r c e m e n t . Access c o n t r o l means pr e v e n t i n g unauthorized people from e n t e r i n g b u i l d i n g s or neighbourhoods. T h i s can be done by l i m i t i n g the use of s t r e e t s , paths and c o r r i d o r s to t h e i r r e g u l a r and l e g i t i m a t e u s e r s . Real and symbolic b a r r i e r s such as l o c k s and hedges, r e s p e c t i v e l y can inform o u t s i d e r s t h a t the environment i s r e s t r i c t e d . Regardless of i t s form, the o b j e c t i v e i s to put o f f e n d e r s at g r e a t e r r i s k of d e t e c t i o n and apprehension i f they should attempt to engage i n crime. The primary aim of s u r v e i l l a n c e as i n Newman's ' d e f e n s i b l e space' t h e o r y i s to put the offe n d e r under t h r e a t of being observed and, t h e r e f o r e , i d e n t i f i e d and apprehended. S u r v e i l l a n c e can be formal (as when p o l i c e and p r i v a t e s e c u r i t y guards perform r e g u l a r checks of an a r e a ) , mechanical (through e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s used to monitor p u b l i c s t r e e t s ) and i n f o r m a l (as when the l e g i t i m a t e users take note of s t r a n g e r s ) . A l l three forms of s u r v e i l l a n c e can occur s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , s u p p o r t i n g one another. S u r v e i l l a n c e can a l s o be enhanced by improved s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , the e l i m i n a t i o n of v i s u a l b a r r i e r s such as fences, shrubs and w a l l s , and by a p p r o p r i a t e s i t e d e s i g n . A c t i v i t y support i n v o l v e s i n c r e a s i n g human use of an area by making i t more a t t r a c t i v e . I t might be as complex as b u i l d i n g a r e c r e a t i o n center or as simple as p l a c i n g benches o u t s i d e a housing p r o j e c t . A c t i v i t y support enhances s u r v e i l l a n c e because i t i n c r e a s e s the number of people i n an environment. A c t i v i t y support does not c o n s i s t of p h y s i c a l changes alone but can a l s o i n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t f o s t e r a s p i r i t of community among r e s i d e n t s , thus encouraging l e g i t i m a t e users to develop a sense of p r o p r i e t a r y ' r i g h t ' to an area the same f e e l i n g as Newman's n o t i o n of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . M o t i v a t i o n reinforcement has two g o a l s : to encourage r e s i d e n t s and users of an area to have and enact p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s about t h e i r l i v i n g and working environment and to discourage p o t e n t i a l o f f e n d e r s by i n c r e a s i n g the r i s k of apprehension and by r e d u c i n g the payoff of crime. A l t e r i n g the s c a l e of a l a r g e , impersonal environment to c r e a t e one that i s s m a l l e r and more p e r s o n a l i z e d i s thought to give r e s i d e n t s more of a sense of community and s e c u r i t y . Improving the q u a l i t y and a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of houses or changing management p o l i c y i n housing p r o j e c t s are some other examples. A d d i t i o n a l l y , economic and s o c i a l i n c e n t i v e s such as reduced Insurance premiums f o r those who accept c e r t a i n s e c u r i t y measures are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c ategory. Research has shown t h a t a p o s i t i v e neighbourhood image from o u t s i d e the area i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r r e n t to c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o u r . 5 7 CPTED Research In The United States The d i v e r s i t y of ideas t h a t went i n t o the demonstration p r o j e c t s was t h e i r d o w n f a l l from the r e s e a r c h s t a n d p o i n t . Undoubtedly, many of CPTED's components can c o n t r i b u t e to a r e d u c t i o n i n crime i n the a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g , but when they are a l l bundled together i n the same demonstration p r o j e c t i t i s almost impossible to decide those t a c t i c s which are the most e f f e c t i v e and those which should be a p p l i e d elsewhere. Thus, even though the r e s u l t s showed some encouraging s i g n s , a l l four p r o j e c t s presented major problems of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and very few c l e a r f i n d i n g s have emerged. The most noted of these p r o j e c t s , conducted a t Asylum H i l l , which i s a r e s i d e n t i a l area near the business and insurance c e n t e r s of H a r t f o r d ( C o n n e c t i c u t ) , i n c l u d e d a combination of p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l changes aimed a t i n c r e a s i n g the r e s i d e n t s ' sense of c o n t r o l over, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r , what occurred i n t h e i r a r e a. The p h y s i c a l d e s i g n changes were mainly d i r e c t e d to changing automobile and p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c routes and d e n s i t i e s through s t r e e t narrowing and c l o s i n g s . The s o c i a l changes r e f e r r e d to the implementation of Neighbourhood Watch. The H a r t f o r d p r o j e c t i s now viewed by NILECJ as being t e r r i b l y expensive f o r what was o b t a i n e d . 5 8 The p r o j e c t took s e v e r a l years to r e s e a r c h , Implement and evaluate and the r e s u l t s d i d not s a t i s f y the high e x p e c t a t i o n s with which the study had been i n i t i a t e d . The e v a l u a t i o n which took place d u r i n g the year f o l l o w i n g the three-year implementation p e r i o d i n d i c a t e d t h a t there had been a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n i n b u r g l a r y r a t e s and r e s i d e n t s ' f e a r of b u r g l a r y and t h a t a r i s e i n the r a t e s of robbery and purse s n a t c h i n g had been 49 h a l t e d . However, t h i s i n i t i a l success was questioned because crime r e d u c t i o n was a t t r i b u t e d p r i m a r i l y to Increased r e s i d e n t involvement. In the end, the H a r t f o r d p r o j e c t and the other p r o j e c t s proved u n s u c c e s s f u l as r e s e a r c h designs were c o n s i d e r e d inadequate, s t a t i s t i c a l analyses were o f t e n I n a p p r o p r i a t e and the f i n d i n g s produced were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Due to the problems and the c o s t s of these p r o j e c t s , NILECJ decided i n the l a t e 1970s t h a t there was a need f o r more f a c t - f i n d i n g r e s e a r c h s i m i l a r t o the Luedtke and Newman s t u d i e s t h a t I t had commissioned ten years e a r l i e r . The reasoning was t h a t more comprehensive and d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the urban environment was r e q u i r e d before recommendations and g u i d e l i n e s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d as to where CPTED s t r a t e g i e s should be a p p l i e d . NILECJ, i n the 1980s, i s funding s t u d i e s on what f a c t o r s f a c i l i t a t e or discourage c i t i z e n Involvement i n a n t i - c r i m e a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t s a s h i f t from the i n i t i a l emphasis of the r e s e a r c h programs on p h y s i c a l and design changes to a more comprehensive or h o l i s t i c treatment of the t o t a l environment i n which environmental d e s i g n and management s t r a t e g i e s might be implemented. 5 9 In the mid-1970s, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) was a l s o i n v o l v e d i n CPTED r e s e a r c h , but i t s r o l e was l i m i t e d to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e l e v a n t crime i n f o r m a t i o n to m u n i c i p a l housing a u t h o r i t i e s . T h i s changed i n 1978 when HUD and the U.S. Department of J u s t i c e c o o p e r a t i v e l y funded a p u b l i c a t i o n by Richard Gardiner, which drew on the f i n d i n g s r e s u l t i n g from the major demonstration p r o j e c t s to develop "a comprehensive p l a n n i n g process f o r a n a l y z i n g and understanding neighbourhood crime problems and ge n e r a t i n g environmental s o l u t i o n " . 6 0 T h i s manual i s o r i e n t e d toward the community p l a n n i n g and urban d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n s and i s concerned with the t o t a l d e s ign and o p e r a t i o n of neighbourhoods, as opposed to i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s or housing developments. HUD's major involvement came a f t e r 1978 when i t put together a comprehensive Urban I n i t i a t i v e s Anti-Crime Program d i r e c t e d at red u c i n g crime and fe a r of crime i n p u b l i c housing. T h i s was the outcome of s e v e r a l s t u d i e s conducted by W i l l i a m B r i l l f o r HUD d u r i n g the mid-1970s. B r i l l ' s comprehensive "Approach to S e c u r i t y P l a n n i n g " i l l u s t r a t e d an i n c r e a s i n g emphasis g i v e n to improving both p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l elements of the environment, and focused on the importance of dev e l o p i n g a mix of improvements which would have a s y n e r g i s t i c or mutually r e i n f o r c i n g impact. The two main components of a p p l y i n g B r i l l ' s approach i n c l u d e undertaking a ' r e s i d e n t i a l v u l n e r a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s ' aimed a t i d e n t i f y i n g those f e a t u r e s of the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environment t h a t c o n t r i b u t e to r e s i d e n t s becoming v i c t i m s of crime or f e a r f u l of crime, and then p r e p a r i n g a comprehensive plan which addresses the problems i d e n t i f i e d i n the v u l n e r a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s through improvements to the s i t e and b u i l d i n g d e sign and through reinforcements o£ r e s i d e n t s ' s o c i a l defences. HUD's Anti-Crime Program was f u e l e d by the implementation of the Urban I n i t i a t i v e s Program s e t up by the C a r t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , which promoted the development of comprehensive programs f o s t e r i n g c i t i z e n s e l f - h e l p a c t i v i t i e s f o r improving the gen e r a l q u a l i t y of urban l i f e i n c l u d i n g elements c o n t r i b u t i n g to crime and fea r of c r i m e . 6 1 The Urban I n i t i a t i v e s Anti-Crime Program was a seven-point program, mainly f o c u s i n g on management of the environment, i n a new wave of crime p r e v e n t i o n techniques c a l l e d Environmental Design and Management (EDM). Other concerns expressed by HUD i n c l u d e d tenant a n t i - c r i m e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , youth employment and a d d i t i o n a l law enforcement p e r s o n n e l . The e n t i r e program, at a c o s t of $43 m i l l i o n , 6 2 was funded through i n t e r - a g e n c y agreements at the f e d e r a l l e v e l by HUD, the Department of Labour, the Department of J u s t i c e , Department of Health, E d u c a t i o n and Welfare, and the Department of I n t e r i o r . The program c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d the s h i f t i n the U.S. approach to crime p r e v e n t i o n from a p h y s i c a l d e s i g n focus to a balance of des i g n and management s t r a t e g i e s . In a l l , t h i r t y - n i n e p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s had been chosen f o r t a k i n g p a r t i n the program. An o u t s i d e agency was to have e x t e n s i v e l y monitored and evaluated the process and product of the program. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s never came about as the A n t i -Crime Program i t s e l f was terminated mid-stream i n the summer of 1981 by the Reagan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s exemplary of the CPTED experience i n the U.S. The programs have r e q u i r e d much funding, which i m p l i e s f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e and y e t , the a s s i s t a n c e at t h i s l e v e l of government i s v e r y s e n s i t i v e to p o l i t i c a l p r i o r i t i e s . However, concern f o r CPTED at the f e d e r a l l e v e l has had a p o s i t i v e s p i n - o f f e f f e c t . The States of C a l i f o r n i a and Minnesota have e s t a b l i s h e d crime p r e v e n t i o n i n s t i t u t e s which promulgate some CPTED and EDM components f o r crime p r e v e n t i o n and o c c a s i o n a l l y undertake r e s e a r c h . P o l i c e f o r c e s and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g departments i n c i t i e s such as A r l i n g t o n ( V i r g i n i a ) , Chicago and Oakland have developed b u i l d i n g s e c u r i t y codes as w e l l as formal working r e l a t i o n s h i p s (on d e s i g n panels and p l a n n i n g commissions) to ensure t h a t crime p r e v e n t i o n concerns are addressed In new urban d e s i g n and development. These a c t i v i t i e s are l i k e l y to continue and i n c r e a s e as CPTED's p o t e n t i a l becomes more widely r e c o g n i z e d . However, the treatment of crime problems i n e x i s t i n g environments i s more complex and problematic and only the f e d e r a l government has accepted a c l e a r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d d r e s s i n g these problems. The economic and p o l i t i c a l p r i o r i t i e s e s t a b l i s h e d at the f e d e r a l l e v e l w i l l t h e r e f o r e determine whether or not crime p r e v e n t i o n a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be encouraged throughout the U.S. and, i f so, what t h e i r d i r e c t i o n or emphasis w i l l b e . 6 3 Crime P r e v e n t i o n In B r i t a i n At the time t h a t demonstration p r o j e c t s were being developed by Westinghouse i n the U.S., the Home O f f i c e Research U n i t i n London was undertaking a number of c a r e f u l l y designed r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . R.V.G. C l a r k e and P. Mayhew i n De s i g n i n g Out Crime (1980), suggest t h a t ' s i t u a t i o n a l ' crime p r e v e n t i o n i s the best approach to take as the most p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s to crime p r e v e n t i o n have emerged from s t u d i e s of f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to environmental design and management. Cla r k e and Mayhew e x p l a i n t h a t much crime Is r a t i o n a l a c t i o n performed by f a i r l y o r d i n a r y people a c t i n g under p a r t i c u l a r p ressures and exposed to s p e c i f i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s and s i t u a t i o n a l inducements. T h e r e f o r e , crime can best be prevented by manipulating o p p o r t u n i t i e s and inducements. Cl a r k e and Mayhew conclude t h a t the form of the urban environment c r e a t e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime. For example, the use of l a r g e m u l t i - u n i t d e sign forms f o r p u b l i c housing p r o j e c t s c r e a t e s more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime than s i n g l e - f a m i l y homes or row houses. S i m i l a r l y , modern s c h o o l designs which sprawl across a l a r g e campus a l s o c r e a t e more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime than t r a d i t i o n a l , c o ncentrated forms of s c h o o l d e s i g n . Barry Poyner, i n Design A g a i n s t Crime, asks whether d i f f e r e n c e s between design forms i n the U.S. and Europe have a b e a r i n g on the types of crimes committed i n d i f f e r e n t c o n t i n e n t s . For i n s t a n c e , a modern suburban house i n the United S t a t e s i s detached and has unfenced access a l l around whereas i n B r i t a i n , t e r r a c e d and semi-detached houses are more common with back gardens fenced with locked, or b o l t e d , s i d e a c c e s s e s . These c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n de s i g n have not been researched, but i t does seem p o s s i b l e t h a t they c o u l d e x p l a i n a t l e a s t some of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n crime p a t t e r n s f o r d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . 6 4 T h i s may i n d i c a t e why B r i t a i n has l e s s of the robbery and a s s a u l t crimes p r e v a l e n t i n the U.S., but more vandalism, which has been a widespread problem i n both urban and r u r a l areas. In 1973 C o l i n Ward, i n Vandalism, provided both new p e r s p e c t i v e s on the nature of vandalism and v a r i o u s design g u i d e l i n e s f o r p r e v e n t i n g i t s occurrence. The t o t a l d e s i g n of the environment was co n s i d e r e d , along with g u i d e l i n e s r e l a t e d to a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l f i n i s h e s and c o n s t r u c t i o n . d e t a i l s , because of the b e l i e f t h a t a t t a c k i n g "the problem at the o v e r a l l and d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g stages w i l l a l l e v i a t e or even e l i m i n a t e the l a t e r problems encountered In the s e l e c t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e f i n i s h e s , m a t e r i a l s , components and d e t a i l s . " 6 5 Thus, some of the design c o n s i d e r a t i o n s noted, p a r t i c u l a r l y r e g a r d i n g the p r o v i s i o n of s u r v e i l l a n c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the encouragement of the r e s i d e n t s ' sense of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , can be seen to r e l a t e to the design g u i d e l i n e s l a i d out by Newman i n D e f e n s i b l e Space. However, even with such d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s , the concept of 55 e f f e c t i v e l y managing the environment encourages t e r r i t o r i a l i t y and ensures the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and proper maintenance of the t o t a l environment. At present, the B r i t i s h p o s i t i o n on the design and management approach i s best e x p l a i n e d by A l i s o n Ravetz, of Leeds U n i v e r s i t y , who has been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n r e s e a r c h i n g the crime-environment r e l a t i o n s h i p : "Instead of needing more and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d designs to achieve t i g h t e r and t i g h t e r c o n t r o l over t h e i r e f f e c t s , the designer c o u l d regard himse l f as onl y one agent among others p r o v i d i n g b u i l t environment. Though h i s r o l e i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e , improvements i n l e v e l s of use do not devolve on him alone, but might more p r o p e r l y be the concern of users and managers. " 66 B r i t i s h c r i m i n o l o g i s t s , thus, adhere more to EDM than to the CPTED approach. While Mawby and other r e s e a r c h e r s have examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the housing environment and the occurrence of crime, such i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have o f t e n been undertaken i n r e a c t i o n to the 'crude' methodology and re s e a r c h techniques used by Newman i n dev e l o p i n g the ' d e f e n s i b l e space' c o n c e p t . 6 7 Newman's t h e o r i e s , while they r e c e i v e d a great d e a l of a t t e n t i o n i n B r i t a i n , g e n e r a l l y l e f t the B r i t i s h " c o n s p i c u o u s l y under-awed". The reason f o r t h i s , a c c o r d i n g to Reyner Banham, i s that the B r i t i s h have learned from i 1 d II s i nf et owly accumulated e x p e r i e n c e . . . t h a t i t i s e r n a l l y d i f f i c u l t to show any s t a t i s t i c a l , alone c a u s a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e t t e r ign and s o c i a l m e l i o r a t i o n " . 8 es 56 The Canadian Experience In Canada, CPTED has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n at the f e d e r a l l e v e l by the M i n i s t r y of the S o l i c i t o r General, which has commissioned r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s and has a c t i v e l y promoted the d i s s e m i n a t i o n and t e s t i n g of CPTED-r e l a t e d ideas through l e c t u r e s , seminars and courses f o r law enforcement o f f i c e r s . The m i n i s t r y has a l s o Incorporated CPTED t a c t i c s i n the pl a n n i n g of Tumbler Ridge (B.C.), drawing on the combined e x p e r t i s e of Paul and P a t r i c i a Brantingham of Simon Fr a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , the B.C. M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e (RCMP). The RCMP, through i t s Crime P r e v e n t i o n Centre i n Ottawa, has played a key r o l e i n promoting CPTED w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , to m u n i c i p a l p o l i c e f o r c e s and to mu n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g departments. The S o l i c i t o r General's commitment to CPTED i s apparent i n i t s e x t e n s i v e study of the s u b j e c t c a l l e d The Environmental Design and Management (EDM) Approach to Crime Prevention in Residential Environments, which was co-sponsored by the Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n takes the B r i t i s h approach to crime p r e v e n t i o n and g i v e s equal importance to both d e s i g n and management s t r a t e g i e s . However, i n t e r e s t i n CPTED and EDM-related concepts does not appear to be ex t e n s i v e i n the academic f i e l d i n Canada and has g e n e r a l l y been manifested i n c r i m i n o l o g y and other s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . In the a r c h i t e c t u r a l and plann i n g d i s c i p l i n e s t here i s l i t t l e evidence t h a t CPTED has gone beyond the d i s c u s s i o n stage of D e f e n s i b l e S p a c e . 6 9 M u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g departments have long i n s i s t e d t h a t p u b l i c s a f e t y i s a concern t h a t i s co n s i d e r e d w i t h i n v a r i o u s mandates (e.g. P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g Acts) together with other s o c i a l p l a n n i n g and p h y s i c a l design o b j e c t i v e s . A t y p i c a l response from the pl a n n i n g departments, i n t h i s r e gard, i s that provided by the Sudbury P l a n n i n g Department: "many f a c e t s of e f f e c t i v e [CPTED] correspond to c o n v e n t i o n a l land use pl a n n i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s " . 7 0 Planning departments c l a i m t h a t crime p r e v e n t i o n i s con s i d e r e d when judgments are made about some of the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n a l and d e s i g n elements of a r e s i d e n t i a l development: the placement and extent of outdoor l i g h t i n g ; the use of r e a l or symbolic b a r r i e r s d e f i n i n g zones of i n f l u e n c e ; the use of fences, w a l l s , l a n d s c a p i n g , e t c . . . d i s t i n g u i s h i n g r e s i d e n t from non-resident space; and the p r o v i s i o n of pa r k i n g areas, r e c r e a t i o n areas, and garbage f a c i l i t i e s and how these are l o c a t e d to ensure they do not c o n f l i c t with each other or with other uses. These f e a t u r e s are c o n s i d e r e d , to a l a r g e extent, f o r m u l t i -f a m i l y ( i . e . high d e n s i t y ) developments not f o r s i n g l e -f a m i l y developments. Furthermore, re d u c i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between h i g h - d e n s i t y developments and the surrounding area i s an important concern i n the plan-review p r o c e s s . Such recommendations can be found i n the p u b l i c a t i o n co-sponsored by the S o l i c i t o r General and CMHC. Fi g u r e 2 i l l u s t r a t e s how new development should be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the e x i s t i n g community. 7 1 Some Canadian c i t i e s have t r e a t e d crime p r e v e n t i o n as a major concern. The C i t y of Edmonton has a land-use bylaw under which a major development can be reviewed i n terms of " i t s p r o v i s i o n of d e f e n s i b l e space and impact on p o l i c i n g , p u b l i c s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y " . 7 2 The Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department has a l s o developed a bylaw r e l a t i n g to the r e s t r i c t i o n of access to underground parking garages. However, i n most c i t i e s , the issue of crime p r e v e n t i o n i s not r a i s e d as a major p u b l i c concern because there has been no p e r c e i v e d need ( i . e . major crime problems) f o r such a c t i o n . As a consequence, there has been l i t t l e c o o p e r a t i o n and c o n s u l t a t i o n between law enforcement and pl a n n i n g departments. From the p o i n t of view of the p o l i c e , more c o o p e r a t i o n and s h a r i n g of knowledge between o r g a n i z a t i o n s concerned with the safe d e s i g n and o p e r a t i o n of environments r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l w i l l help avo i d major crime p r o b l e m s . 7 3 The RCMP i n B.C. have been a c t i v e l y t r y i n g to 'bridge the gap' between these o r g a n i z a t i o n s through courses on CPTED. 59 Figure 2 GOOD AND BAD EXAMPLES OF INTEGRATING NEW RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS INTO THE SURROUNDING COMMUNITY POOR New Development ~T"T~T 3-Storey Apartment Bldg. S ingle Family \ Houses ^ Single Family \ x Houses Surrounding Community BETTER New Development S ing le Family Houses 2-Storey Townhouses Surrounding Community S ingle Family Houses C o •H CD - P A C EH CD > <D •> u ftPn 3 o 0) E •H o k o rt - P (1) W JS CD O CC rt o o " .c •p co W • P -P +» c i—I O) 3 E CO CD o rt o c C S W) •H T3 CO £ CD i t i J O to f-l CD Q rt P C (D E o •H > o pq H ri CD C CD o-p O H 0^ ft C/> C\J CO 0 ON J C p k o o U s CD -ri CD ftP CD C U -H P n P ?-i CO O -ft c CD CD « CD O r COI CD E a o H > w rH K i H • P CD T3 H C0| 1> « i C H ri rt P P O lo rt rt rt o I<H o o 60 Summary Of L i t e r a t u r e Review There are s e v e r a l important c o n c l u s i o n s which can be drawn from the experiences of these c o u n t r i e s with crime p r e v e n t i o n through environmental d e s i g n . F i r s t , environmental design by i t s e l f w i l l not e f f e c t i v e l y reduce c r i m i n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . In B r i t a i n and Canada, c r i m i n o l o g i s t s r e a l i z e the importance of the r o l e of management i n crime p r e v e n t i o n . T h i s i s a r e s u l t of the much c r i t i c i z e d demonstration p r o j e c t s which took place i n the U.S. i n the mid-1970s. Second, law enforcement and pla n n i n g departments i n these c o u n t r i e s agree t h a t while the CPTED approach makes sense on i t s own terms, i t u s u a l l y takes I t s place In l i n e with a number of other concerns and p r i o r i t i e s (at the f e d e r a l l e v e l ) . For example, while m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g departments appear to be i n t e r e s t e d In CPTED and how i t r e i n f o r c e s other p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , they a l s o have many other d e s i g n and performance c r i t e r i a which must take precedence. U n l i k e CPTED s t r a t e g i e s , the other i n i t i a t i v e s are d e f i n e d and r e q u i r e d by the P r o v i n c i a l P l a n n i n g Act or mu n i c i p a l bylaws. T h i r d , e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of the approach i s not a simple matter. I t r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of the e x i s t i n g or p o t e n t i a l crime problem and of the r e l e v a n t environmental f a c t o r s , and i t demands the involvement of a range of i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y the r e s i d e n t s . F o urth, CPTED b u i l d s on the acknowledgement t h a t every environment i s 61 unique i n terms of i t s crime problem and c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s . T h e r e f o r e , the s e l e c t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e crime p r e v e n t i o n t a c t i c s must vary from one environment to the next. F i n a l l y , the EDM study i n Canada concludes t h a t d e s i g n m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the i n t e r e s t of s e c u r i t y need not imply high or even a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s i f they are implemented i n the i n i t i a l stages of c o n s t r u c t i o n . Having completed a g e n e r a l review of the e v o l u t i o n and c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h on CPTED, i t i s now a p p r o p r i a t e to look at the concept i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l and e v a l u a t e how i t i s p r a c t i c e d i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. 62 ENDNOTES •"•Henry E l i o t Howard, B r i t i s h birdwatcher, to h i s c h i l d r e n ' s nurse c i r c a 1904, as quoted in.U.S. I n s t i t u t e of Law Enforcement and C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e , R e s i d e n t i a l S e c u r i t y (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1972), p. 31. ZE.T. H a l l , The Hidden Dimension (New York: Doubleday, 1966), p. 7. J B a r r y Poyner, Design A g a i n s t Crime: Beyond Defensible Space (London: Butterworths, 1983), p. 5. *Two other i s s u e s , I n f l a t i o n and unemployment, ranked higher o v e r a l l but are not s u s c e p t i b l e to l o c a l c o n t r o l , Gary Paget, "Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design: A L o c a l Government P e r s p e c t i v e " , ( V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . Prepared f o r B.C. Crime P r e v e n t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , Annual Workshop and General Meeting, October 25-26, 1983), no page. 5 N i g e l Dunn, Insurance Bureau of Canada, February 4, 1982, as quoted i n Consortium of Urban Design Consultants and the Research Group, The Environmental Design and Management (EDM) Approach to Crime P r e v e n t i o n i n R e s i d e n t i a l Environments. Report Prepared f o r the S o l i c i t o r General of Canada and CMHC (Ottawa: Queens's P r i n t e r , March 1982), p. 271. ** Henceforth c a l l e d The S o l i c i t o r General's Report. "Paul R.A. St a n l e y , "Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design: A Review" (Ottawa: S o l i c i t o r General of Canada, Research D i v i s i o n , 1977), pp. 2-3. 'Harold F. S e a r l e s , The Nonhuman Environment in Normal Development and Schizophrenia (New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1970), p. 335. 8H. Proshansky, W. I t t e l s o n and L. R i v l i n , "The Influ e n c e of the P h y s i c a l Environment on Behaviour: Some Ba s i c Assumptions", i n Environmental Psychology, ed. by H. Proshansky, W. I t t e l s o n and L. R i v l i n (Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1970), pp. 27-37. ^Richard A. Gardiner, Design For Safe Neighbourhoods (Washington,D.C.: Law Enforcement A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1978), p. 30. 1 0 G a r d i n e r , p. 30. ^ G a r d i n e r , p. 11. 1 2 G a r d i n e r , p. 14. The name, 'Urban F o r t r e s s ' , has been coined i n t h i s c e n t u r y although the concepts have e x i s t e d f o r many c e n t u r i e s . 1 3 S g t . R.E. M o f f a t t , "Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design A Management P e r s p e c t i v e " , Canadian J o u r n a l of Cri m i n o l o g y . V o l . 25, No. 1 (January 1983), pp. 24-25. 1 4 M o f f a t t , p. 25. 1 5 T h e term, "Urban V i l l a g e " , was drawn from Herbert Gans, The Urban V i l l a g e r s (1962). 1 6 M o f f a t t , p. 24. 1 7 J a n e Jacobs, The Death and L i f e of Great American C i t i e s (New York: Random House, 1961), p. 31. 18 The S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 61, 1 9 E l i z a b e t h Wood, Housing Design, A Social Theory (New York: C i t i z e n s Housing and Pla n n i n g C o u n c i l , 1961), p. 6. Wood, p. 5. 01 c±The S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p . 6 1 . 2 2 s c h l o m o A n g e l , D i s c o u r a g i n g C r i m e Through City Planning ( B e r k e l e y : C e n t e r f o r P l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t R e s e a r c h , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 1 6 . 2 3 G e o r g e R a n d , " C r i m e a n d E n v i r o n m e n t : A R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e a n d I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r U r b a n A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d P l a n n i n g R e s e a r c h , V o l . 1 , N o . 1 ( J u n e , 1 9 8 4 ) , p . 5 . 2 4 R a n d , p . 5 . 2 5 R a n d , p . 6 . 2 ^ A n e a r l y s t u d y t h a t r e p o r t e d t h i s f i n d i n g was S . L . B o g g s , " U r b a n C r i m e P a t t e r n s " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , V o l . 30 ( 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 8 9 9 - 9 0 8 . 2 7 P a u l J . B r a n t l n g h a m a n d P a t r i c i a L . B r a n t i n g h a m , " R e s i d e n t i a l B u r g l a r y a n d U r b a n F o r m " , U r b a n S t u d i e s , V o l . 1 2 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 2 7 3 - 2 8 4 . 2 8 G e r a l d L u e d t k e , C r i m e a n d t h e Physical C i t y : Neighbourhood Design Techniques for Crime R e d u c t i o n ( D e t r o i t : G e r a l d L u e d t k e a n d A s s o c i a t e s , J u n e 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 2 0 -2 1 . 2 9 w i l l i a m B r i l l a n d A s s o c i a t e s , " V i c t i m i z a t i o n , F e a r o f C r i m e a n d A l t e r e d B e h a v i o u r : A P r o f i l e o f F o u r H o u s i n g P r o j e c t s i n B o s t o n " ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : L a w E n f o r c e m e n t A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , D e p a r t m e n t o f J u s t i c e , 1 9 7 5 ) . 3 u W i l l i a m B r i l l a n d A s s o c i a t e s , " C o m p r e h e n s i v e S e c u r i t y P l a n n i n g : A P r o g r a m f o r W i l l i a m N i c k e r s o n G a r d e n s " ( L o s A n g e l e s : D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t , O f f i c e o f P o l i c y D e v e l o p m e n t a n d R e s e a r c h , 1 9 7 7 ) . L u e d t k e , p p . 2 0 - 2 1 . 3 2 A l l a n W a l l i s and D a n i e l Ford, Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design (Washington: U.S. Department o J u s t i c e , 1980), p. 10. 3 3 W a l l i s and Ford, p. 10. 3 4 W a l l i s and Ford, p. 11. 3 5 A r t h u r H. P a t t e r s o n , "Fear of Crime and Other B a r r i e r s to Use of P u b l i c T r a n s p o r t a t i o n by the E l d e r l y " , J o u r n a l of A r c h i t e c t u r a l and Pl a n n i n g Research, V o l . 2, No. 4 (Dec. 1985), pp. 277-288. 3 6 0 s c a r Newman, D e f e n s i b l e Space: Design For The Improvement of S e c u r i t y i n Urban R e s i d e n t i a l Areas (New York: MacMillan, 1972), p. 195. °'Schlomo Angel, as quoted i n Stanl e y , p. 12. 3 8Rand, p. 7. 3 9 B a r b a r a B. Brown, " T e r r i t o r i a l i t y , D e f e n s i b l e Space and R e s i d e n t i a l B u r g l a r y " , M.A. T h e s i s , Department of Psychology (Utah: U n i v e r s i t y of Utah, December 1980). 4 0"Community Crime P r e v e n t i o n : An Overview", Law Enforcement A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Newsletter, V o l . 4, No. 3, 1974, as quoted i n St a n l e y , p. 12. 4 1Home O f f i c e Crime P r e v e n t i o n Program, Home O f f i c e Crime P r e v e n t i o n T r a i n i n g Center, S t a f f o r d England, p. 20, as s t a t e d i n B. Windham and G.K. Maenius, "Environmental Design S p e c i a l i z e d Environmental Design Course For Crime P r e v e n t i o n O f f i c e r s " (San Marcos, Texas: Texas Crime P r e v e n t i o n I n s t i t u t e ; Southwest Texas State U n i v e r s i t y , 1975), p. 1-2. 4 2 T h e S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 62. Newman, p. 3. 4 4Newman, p. 50. The D e f e n s i b l e Space Theory: (1) T e r r i t o r i a l i t y the s u b - d i v i s i o n and zoning of communal space i n and around r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s to promote p r o p r i e t a r y a t t i t u d e s among r e s i d e n t s . (2) N a t u r a l S u r v e i l l a n c e the p o s i t i o n i n g of apartment windows to a l l o w r e s i d e n t s to n a t u r a l l y survey the e x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r p u b l i c areas of t h e i r l i v i n g environment. (3) Image the use of b u i l d i n g forms and idioms to avoid the stigma of p u b l i c housing (which Newman sees as a s p e c i f i c a l l y American problem). (4) M i l i e u l o c a t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s to face onto areas of the c i t y c o n s i d e r e d safe (such as h e a v i l y -t r a f f i c k e d s t r e e t s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l areas and government o f f i c e s ) . 4 5 V a n Dyke has had 66% more t o t a l crime i n c i d e n t s , over 2.5 times as many r o b b e r i e s (264%), 60% more f e l o n i e s , misdemeanors and o f f e n s e s , and 72% more r e p a i r maintenance work than B r o w n s v i l l e . Oscar Newman, " A l t e r n a t i v e s to Fear", P r o g r e s s i v e  A r c h i t e c t u r e , V o l . 53, No. 10 (October 1972), p. 102. 4 6 p 0 y n e r , p. 8. 4 7 G a r d i n e r , p. 15. 4 8 G a r d i n e r , p. 15. * yA.E. Bottoms, "Review of "Defensible Space'", B r i t i s h  J o u r n a l of Criminology, V o l . 14, No. 2 ( A p r i l 19 74), p. 20 3. 5 0 R . I . Mawby, " D e f e n s i b l e Space: A T h e o r e t i c a l and E m p i r i c a l A p p r a i s a l " , Urban S t u d i e s , V o l . 14 (19 77), pp. 169-179. 5 1 P e t e r Engstad, paper presented at the American S o c i e t y of Criminology, October 30 November 2, 1975, as quoted i n The S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 37. 5 2Thomas A. Reppetto, R e s i d e n t i a l Crime (Cambridge, Mass: B a l l i n g e r , 1974), p. 87. 5 3Thomas A. Reppetto, 1976, as quoted i n The S o l i c i t o r General's Report, pp. 37-38. 5 4Thomas A. Reppetto, 1976, as quoted i n The S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 39. 5 5 P . Mayhew, " D e f e n s i b l e Space: The Current Status of a Crime P r e v e n t i o n Theory", Howard J o u r n a l of Penology and  Crime P r e v e n t i o n , V o l . 18, No. 3 (1979), p.152. The S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 65. 68 3 ' A t the Clason P o i n t garden houses, Oscar Newman and George Rand transformed the s p a t i a l l y ambiguous a r r a y of blocks of 400-apartment u n i t s i n t o an a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y -i n t e g r a t e d neighbourhood by: (1) c r e a t i n g p u b l i c walking s t r e e t s through the p r o j e c t s i t e to s p e c i f y , a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y , which areas were meant to be used by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and which areas were r e s e r v e d f o r use by r e s i d e n t s and t h e i r v i s i t o r s ; (2) c r e a t i n g l a r g e fenced backyard areas shared by 8-15 r e s i d e n t s and a c c e s s i b l e o n l y from w i t h i n the I n d i v i d u a l garden apartment u n i t s ; (3) r e f a c i n g the b u i l d i n g s to reduce t h e i r u n i f o r m i t y ; r e s i d e n t s s e l e c t e d c o l o u r s and p a t t e r n s of brickwork on t h e i r u n i t s to reduce the stigma of p u b l i c housing and to provide a sense of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l over i n d i v i d u a l housing u n i t s . A f t e r these m o d i f i c a t i o n s , a study showed t h a t the d e s i g n manipulations appeared to have an e f f e c t on crime: (1) a net r e d u c t i o n i n b u r g l a r y , robbery and l a r c e n y r a t e s ; (2) a f i f t y percent r e d u c t i o n i n evening f e l o n i e s , and the l o c a t i o n of crimes s h i f t e d form a uniform d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the p r o j e c t to c e r t a i n areas of the p r o j e c t t h a t remained unsecured. (3) r e s i d e n t s ' r e p o r t s of f e e l i n g s of s a f e t y i n c r e a s e d markedly i n survey r e s u l t s . Rand, p. 10. 3°The Westinghouse r e s e a r c h c o n t r a c t f o r a l l of the CPTED demonstration p r o j e c t s t o t a l e d $4 m i l l i o n ; a d d i t i o n a l funds of approximately $1 m i l l i o n were expended d i r e c t l y by NILECJ on implementation. The S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 65. °^The S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 66. A good example of the new approach to crime p r e v e n t i o n with regard t o the Neighbourhood U n i t i s "Neighbourhood Design and Crime", by Stephanie Greenberg and W i l l i a m M. Rohe. J o u r n a l of the American P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n . V o l . 50, No. 1 (Winter 1984), pp. 48-61. Gardiner, p. 1. 6 1 T h e S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 67. 6 2 T h e S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 68. 6 3 T h e S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 70. 6 4 P o y n e r , p. 14. *>5Alan Leather and Antony Matthews, "What An A r c h i t e c t Can Do: A S e r i e s of Design G u i d e l i n e s " , i n Vandalism, ed. by C o l i n Ward (London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s , 1973), p. 119. ^ A l i s o n Ravetz, 1979, as quoted i n The S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 59. 6 7Mawby, p. 175. c o °°Reyner Banham, " P a r k h i l l R e v i s i t e d " , A r c h i t e c t u r e P l u s , V o l . 2, No. 3 (May/June 1974), p. 109. 7 3 T h e S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 278. 7 0 T h e Solicitor General's Report, p. 286. 7 1 T h i s f i g u r e i s redrawn from a drawing which o r i g i n a l l y appeared i n S e c u r i t y G u i d e l i n e s f o r R e s i d e n t i a l Developments (1979) by the Dept. of Planning f o r the C i t y of Chicago. 7 2 T h e S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 286. 7 3 T h e S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 300. CHAPTER THREE DESCRIPTION OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION ON CPTED Introduction The information ava i lab le on CPTED in B r i t i s h Columbia is reported in th i s chapter, which is organized In the fol lowing manner: (1) a descr ip t ion of the 'channels of communication' who administers CPTED information and how th i s information is conveyed and (2) an explanation of what is included in the information. Channels Of Communication In B r i t i s h Columbia, information on crime prevention through environmental design is ava i lab le from a number of sources. The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC) o f fer s courses in psychology and arch i tecture that cover some aspects of CPTED. Simon Fraser Un ivers i ty (SFU), in the recent past, has of fered undergraduate and graduate courses in criminology deal ing almost exc lus i ve ly with th i s top ic (See Appendix 1 for course desc r i p t i on ) . The RCMP has also of fered courses 1 to i t s members, to municipal po l i ce o f f i c e r s and, occas iona l ly , to other municipal employees,including planners. According to Inspector J.W. Quinn, O f f i c e r - I n - C h a r g e of the Community P o l i c i n g / C r i m e P r e v e n t i o n S e c t i o n , "the Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design (CPTED) course was developed i n 1982 by the T r a i n i n g and Development Branch a t RCMP Headquarters i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. To date there have been three courses, September 13/24, 1982, September 19/30, 1983 and November 26 December 06, 1984. They were a l l h e l d a t Fairmont Academy, 4949 Heather S t . , Vancouver, B.C., which i s a l s o the l o c a t i o n of the RCMP T r a i n i n g Academy f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. The course i s sponsored by the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e and was designed to provide Crime P r e v e n t i o n C o o r d i n a t o r s with the s k i l l s and knowledge to become a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n community p l a n n i n g as i t r e l a t e s to p r e v e n t i n g crime through the p h y s i c a l environment". 2 T h i s two-week course, with i n s t r u c t i o n by p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i t e c t s , p l anners, landscape a r c h i t e c t s and p r o f e s s o r s , o f f e r s c lassroom l e c t u r e s , f i e l d work, student p r e s e n t a t i o n s and f i n a l examinations (See Appendix 2 f o r course d e s c r i p t i o n and s y l l a b u s ) . The course, which pro v i d e s i n s t r u c t i o n to a maximum of 20 studen t s , i s very expensive. RCMP S t a f f Sergeant Jim B r a m h i l l s t a t e d t h a t the t o t a l c o s t fo r a CPTED course i s approximately $60,000. 3 Upon completion of the course, students must: 4 1. demonstrate a good working knowledge of the p r i n c i p l e s of CPTED; 2. p a r t i c i p a t e i n the community p l a n n i n g process as members of a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g groups; 3. i n t e r p r e t b a s i c p l a n drawings which are used i n community development p r o p o s a l s ; 4. i n t e r p r e t l a n d s c a p i n g plans and r e l a t e landscape a r c h i t e c t u r e to crime p r e v e n t i o n ; 72 5. make recommendations for the best use of l i gh t i ng to prevent crime; 6. make recommendations involv ing the app l i ca t ion of the p r inc ip le s of CPTED to community development; 7. a c t i v e l y promote CPTED in the i r communities within establ i shed gu ide l ines . This course was temporari ly discontinued a f ter 1984 because of other p r i o r i t i e s , such as spec ia l t r a in ing in preparation for the 1986 World's Exposit ion in Vancouver. The RCMP po l i cy for CPTED is a lso documented in i t s Operational Manual. " A l l Community Pol ic ing/Crime Prevention Coordinators in " E " D iv i s ion [B r i t i s h Columbia] w i l l be tra ined in the basic p r i nc ip l e s and p r a c t i c a l methods of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design. Our Force through our Detachment Commanders and the i r coordinators, has an ob l i gat ion to ensure community planners are f u l l y aware of the impl icat ions environmental design can have on crime occurrences, demands for po l i ce serv ice and community l i f e s t y l e s . Community P o l i c i n g / Crime Prevention coordinators w i l l f u l f i l l t h i s ob l i ga t ion by: -making the i r spec ia l t r a in ing in CPTED known to municipal o f f i c i a l s ; - a c t i v e l y promoting l i a son with municipal planners; -seeking representat ion on municipal planning committees; -responding to requests for ass istance in community planning as i t re la tes to crime prevention (e.g. a c t i v e l y a s s i s t i ng in conducting a crime ana lys i s , and making spec ia l recommendations); -expressing the o f f i c i a l po l i ce perspective on any proposed environmental changes which may adversely a f fec t the incidence of crime in the community. In conducting these a c t i v i t i e s out l ined or any other a c t i v i t i e s re lated to CPTED in the i r communities, CP/CP Coordinators must keep paramount in the i r minds that they w i l l be act ing as po l i ce o f f i c e r s g iv ing advice and ass istance only, and w i l l not in any way in ter fere with the o f f i c i a l functions of planners, a rch i tec t s and municipal o f f i c i a l s . " 5 This l a s t point i s important to remember. Although RCMP o f f i c e r s can s i t on advisory planning commissions a f ter succes s fu l l y completing the course, " the i r recommendations are not compulsory or binding upon the party who submitted the p l a n s " . 6 Add i t i ona l l y , the RCMP has sponsored seminars. The Richmond Detachment hosted a CPTED t ra in ing programme for mayors, planners and l o ca l po l i ce of surrounding mun i c ipa l i t i e s . The purpose of the programme was to educate planners, mayors and po l i ce in order to f a c i l i t a t e communication between these groups. 7 S im i l a r l y , a workshop on CPTED, hosted by the RCMP " E " D iv i s ion (Headquarters), was held at the B r i t i s h Columbia Inst i tute of Technology in Ju ly 1980, as part of a phone-in, community t e l e v i s i o n program. L i tera ture information from the RCMP is a lso ava i l ab le . Staff Sergeant Jack Hest, stat ioned in Colwood (Vancouver Is land), has written several papers on CPTED which are now used by o f f i c e r s to promote the concept. Sergeant R.E. Moffatt, of the RCMP Crime Prevention Centre in Ottawa, has also produced documents for CPTED instruction, and was the originator of the concept in Canada for the RCMP. The B.C. Justice Institute offers a four-day elective course, called the Crime Prevention Practitioners' Course, which briefly covers CPTED principles on landscaping, lighting and access to and from schools. The course is offered to municipal police officers, in crime prevention units across B.C., who later undertake public relations duties. The officers are expected to talk to citizens with regard to such crime prevention information as security systems, locks and break-and-enter. For municipal police officers, though, the RCMP-sponsored course has been the best source of information on CPTED. The Vancouver Police Department has been active in the area of CPTED. The department produced a 20-minute slide show which illustrates 'good' and 'bad' CPTED design features. Spokesmen from the police department have also met with representatives from the School of Architecture at UBC to promote crime prevention awareness and with Vancouver city planners to discuss the role of CPTED in the planning process. Additionally, Vancouver Police o f f i c i a l s attended planning meetings for the development of B.C. Place and the Expo s i t e . 8 Crime prevention institutes in California and Texas have also offered courses and seminars to law enforcement personnel and planners in B.C. (See Appendix 3 for course contents) . In f ac t , the idea for a CPTED course in th i s province came from a course that had been offered in Sacramento by the C a l i f o r n i a Crime Prevention In s t i tu te , and was attended by Constable Ron Elm (Maple Ridge RCMP) and Ron Boyes (Director of Planning for the Mun ic ipa l i ty of Maple Ridge). There i s , however, a d i f ference in terms of how the courses in C a l i f o r n i a and in B.C. have been or iented. The course In Sacramento focuses on the " t heo re t i c a l aspects" of CPTED, whereas the RCMP course has stressed the " app l i c a t i on " of CPTED s trateg ies to the l o ca l environment. 9 The C a l i f o r n i a and Texas crime prevention i n s t i t u te s today conduct seminars in Canada for po l i ce o f f i c i a l s and planners. Federal and p rov inc i a l government min i s t r ie s are a lso a c t i v e l y involved. The min i s t r ies of the S o l i c i t o r General and Municipal A f f a i r s promote CPTED pr imar i l y through l i t e r a t u r e on the t op i c . The p rov inc i a l M in i s t ry of the Attorney General, on the other hand, has acted in conjunction with the RCMP and other government (prov inc ia l and federa l ) m in i s t r ie s in the i r endeavours. Norm Brown, from the Po l i ce Commission of the Min i s t ry of the Attorney General, took part in developing a set of CPTED guidel ines to be included in the P rov inc i a l Bui ld ing Code in February 1981. By 1985, nine of the fourteen recommendations, perta in ing mostly to target-hardening s t rateg ies such as dead-bolt locks and so l id -core doors, were approved by the B.C. Bui ld ing Standards Branch. 76 Conferences are yet another means for disseminating CPTED information. CPTED gained the support of the RCMP in Canada through the Banff and V i c t o r i a conferences (1980) . 1 0 The Banff conference was sponsored by the Min i s t ry of the S o l i c i t o r General and presented by the C a l i f o r n i a Crime Prevention In s t i tu te . Seminars were designed to "provide law enforcement and c i t y planners with the p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s needed to apply crime prevention theory to the design review planning process, so as to e f f ec t meaningful impact on community p lanning" . 1 The V i c t o r i a conference was a lso sponsored by the Min i s t ry of the s o l i c i t o r General, but was intended pr imar i l y for B.C. po l i ce ch iefs to a l e r t them to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of environmental design in preventive p o l i c i n g . Pr ivate enterpr ises have also covered CPTED at the i r conferences. In the summer of 1986 in Vancouver, the Canadian Society for Industr ia l Secur i ty (CSIS) introduced CPTED as part of the corporate crime prevention programs for a s s i s t i ng business, government and industry. Talks were given by Jim Wise (professor) , Charles Richardson III (Chief of Protect ive Services and Invest igat ions, Publ ic U t i l i t i e s Commission, San Francisco, C a l i f . ) , Jane Durante (Landscape Arch i tect ) and Roy Hughes (Light ing Consultant, B.C. Hydro). The B.C. Hydro Corporation has a c t i v e l y supported CPTED. The corporat ion produces documents with guidel ines on l i gh t i ng for safety and secur i t y . These techn ica l documents, ava i lab le to the publ ic upon request, are used by l i gh t i ng consultants for in s t ruct ion in the CPTED course held by the RCMP. B.C. Hydro l i gh t i n g consultants are also inv i ted to lecture at conferences, such as at the CSIS conference in Vancouver (1986). Add i t i ona l l y , planners are made aware of CPTED in B.C. through l i t e r a t u r e mater ia l . James W. Wilson has written "Planning Safer Communities: An Explorat ion in Burnaby, B.C." (1984) and an a r t i c l e deal ing with CPTED, ca l l ed "Planning Safer Communities" (1986), which appeared in Plan Canada. In 1977, the Burnaby Detachment of the RCMP, in co l l abora t ion with the Burnaby Planning Department, conducted an analys is of se lec t aspects of crime in the munic ipa l i ty for the years 1971 to 1975. The Cornerstone Planning Group, in a 1981 Burnaby case study, attempted to address aspects of the crime prevention through environmental design and management of r e s i d e n t i a l areas. Octagon Consulting Serv ices, with the assistance of the Richmond RCMP, analyzed CPTED in mul t i - fami ly housing in Richmond in 1984. Information On CPTED Planning P o l i c i e s P a t r i c i a Brantingham, in CPTED courses and workshops, i d e n t i f i e s three leve l s of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y : 1 2 1. High-Level T e r r i t o r i a l i t y developing a sense of t e r r i t o r y within the home 2 . Medium-Level T e r r i t o r i a l i t y - - d e v e l o p i n g a sense of t e r r i t o r y outside the home in the yard or in the hallway in front of the apartment 3. Low-Level T e r r i t o r i a l i t y developing a sense of t e r r i t o r y for the s t reet in front of the home or for the neighbour's home. In her opinion, s l i d i n g glass patio doors, low windows, networks of back lanes, combined with the res ident s ' des ire for pr ivacy and anonymity, create the perfect open, i nd i f f e ren t environment for delinquency. "These amateur cr imina ls are l a zy " , she argues. "If we could discourage or red i rec t them, we could el iminate most of the minor o f f e n c e s " . 1 3 CPTED t r i e s to increase fee l ings of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y to make people f e e l , about the s t reet In front of the i r home, the way they f e e l about the i r own yard, or to make them f e e l more responsible and concerned for areas immediately outside the homes. "CPTED uses design techniques to make contro l and surve i l l ance e a s i e r " . 1 4 At the same time, Brantingham be l ieves , CPTED makes potent ia l cr imina ls fee l uncomfortable and less l i k e l y to commit offences. This f ee l i ng of not belonging can be used in the design of apartment complexes. If the apartments are designed around a common courtyard and only a narrow entrance is provided to the court, most people w i l l pu l l back at the entrance and be re luctant to enter (Figure 3 ) . The res idents a l so , because few strangers enter the courtyard, develop stronger feel ings of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . 1 5 79 Surveillance and t e r r i t o r i a l i t y are Increased by positioning buildings for easy watching (Figure 4 ) . Surveillance can also be improved by l i m i t i n g the number of people using a r e s i d e n t i a l area (increases residents' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of other residents) or, in the case of non-r e s i d e n t i a l areas, by increasing the number of people passing through the area. Brantingham believes that planning must play an active role in the prevention of crime. In her opinion, planners should look at who commits offenses, where they come from and where they go to commit crimes. In her words: "...most criminals, as most people, have a r e s t r i c t e d knowledge of a c i t y . They know the area around home, work, school, shopping and entertainment areas. They are also familiar with the paths between these a r e a s " . 1 6 Crimes cluster around these a c t i v i t y nodes and along paths in between (Figure 5). Brantingham recommends the following planning p r i n c i p l e s in reducing opportunities for c r i m e : 1 7 1 . Design roads to minimize through-traffic in r e s i d e n t i a l areas. Road design can be used to funnel non-residents away from the r e s i d e n t i a l area, and to r e s t r i c t movement on a street primarily to residents of the s t r e e t . This tunneling away w i l l help keep non-resident criminals out of the area. Figure 3 EXAMPLE OF INCREASING SURVEILLANCE AND TERRITORIALITY FOR APARTMENT COMPLEXES Apartment Units to -p •H S Centra l Court Narrow Entrance w • H C to •p a) a +» u rt Figure k GOOD VS BAD DESIGN FOR APARTMENTS AND HOUSES 1 Apartments Good Road 2 No Windows Bad Good Road No Windows Bad Road 82 Figure 5 CRIME GENERATION AT ACTIVITY NODES 83 2. Locate schools so students do not f i l t e r through r e s i d e n t i a l areas. Design roads so the flow towards school is natura l , cont ro l led and l im i ted . A rch i tec tu ra l design techniques can be used along the pedestrian flow paths to provide add i t iona l protect ion. 3. Remember parks w i l l always be crime generators, so care must be taken with design. Some separation between park and surrounding residences should be provided. Poss ib ly the park should be surrounded by a s t ree t . Backs of houses with h ighly vulnerable s l i d i n g glass doors should not back on to parks. Paths should be provided so that ch i ld ren and teenagers do not f i l t e r through surrounding r e s i d e n t i a l areas. 4. Night time commercial a c t i v i t i e s should be c lu s tered . With s t reet crime, high a c t i v i t y and low a c t i v i t y (no stores open) are safer than mid-range a c t i v i t y areas. In the mid-range, potent ia l targets are present, but a c t i v i t y is not high enough to produce a sense that someone might intervene or even might witness the crime. A par t i cu la r problem occurs when parking for a sport ing complex or entertainment area s p i l l s over in an i n d u s t r i a l or o f f i c e area. People walking to an from these cars (and the cars themselves) are at r i s k . There are no "watchers", no surve i l l ance po ten t i a l , but a reasonable supply of " t a rge t s " . 5. Reduce the amount of s t r i p development. S t r ip development provides high access to potent ia l c r im ina l s . S t r ip development also has no natural surve i l l ance and is p a r t i c u l a r l y vulnerable i f there are back lanes. Stores in s t r i p developments often experience crime rates far higher than stores in c lustered developments. Information From The Vancouver Po l i ce Department The Vancouver Po l ice Department's major contr ibut ion to CPTED is i t s 20-minute s l ide - tape presentat ion. This presentation i s a concise, wel l -organized Introduction to the p r inc ip le s of CPTED, su i tab le for use as part of a community information program. 1 8 The concept of defensible space is defined and is i l l u s t r a t e d with respect to pr ivate homes, apartments, s t reets and ent i re r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial areas in Vancouver. Viewers are introduced to the notions of pub l i c , semi-publ ic, and pr ivate space, with the i r corresponding d i f ferences relevant to crime prevention. The fact i s emphasized that some t rade-o f f s between pr ivacy or aesthet ics and secur i t y from crime may be necessary, and viewers are shown that ex i s t ing environments can be adapted to promote greater secur i t y . For example, landscaping modi f icat ions, such as symbolic b a r r i e r s , can increase a sense of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y among inhabitants of h igh-density r e s i d e n t i a l areas. A l terat ions to pedestrian t r a f f i c in and out of commercial areas can a lso be e a s i l y a f fected to promote increased observation and c o n t r o l . 1 9 One in teres t ing CPTED p o s s i b i l i t y demonstrated is that commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s can be melded so the interests of each group safeguards the o t h e r . 2 0 The audience is shown an ex i s t ing Vancouver apartment complex with commercial establishments on the ground l e v e l . During the day, as shopkeepers exercise the i r normal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the i r own areas they generate a show of occupancy that deters potent ia l in ter lopers into the apartment complex. S im i l a r l y , at night,the well-designed bay windows of the h igh - r i se apartments a f ford unimpeded 85 surve i l l ance of the s t reets below, discouraging prowlers who might be tempted by the then-deserted s t o r e s . 2 1 The Contributions Of The P rov inc i a l Government And Pub l ic Agencies The Min i s t ry of Municipal A f f a i r s has a c t i v e l y promoted CPTED at the annual workshops and general meetings of the B.C. Crime Prevention Assoc iat ion. At the annual general meeting of the Associat ion in 1983, Gary Paget stated the fol lowing with regard to CPTED: "On the one hand, I'm asking for more research and on the other hand I'm saying we should be humble about what i t is we know. Le t ' s not over se l l beyond our c a p a b i l i t i e s to d e l i v e r . There is promise, but l e t ' s proceed on a step-by-step b a s i s . 2 2 CPTED, according to Paget, i s one component of a strategy which w i l l permit ind iv idua l s , neighbourhoods and communities to po l i ce themselves to a greater extent. In his wr i t ings , he a l ludes to po l i ce cooperation with neighbourhood groups, community planners, s o c i a l workers, community developers and others. "Good planning", Paget wr i tes , " i s planning with a s e n s i t i v i t y to human n e e d s " . 2 3 Since secur i ty i s a basic human need, planning which is s o c i a l l y sens i t i ve helps prevent crime, he argues. While the concept of s t ructur ing i d e n t i f i a b l e neighbourhoods and properly designed shopping areas i s not a new one, i t i s one which has a l l too often been Implemented improperly in the past. Along with Paget*s numerous papers, the ministry has prepared a resource package to provide information to l o ca l governments interested in knowing more about CPTED. The Attorney General 's involvement (through the B.C. Po l i ce Commission) with CPTED has been to co-produce the s l ide - tape f i l m with the Vancouver Po l ice Department, to co-sponsor the RCMP course on CPTED, and to make l i t e r a t u r e materia l a va i l ab le . Add i t i ona l l y , the Min i s t ry has been represented at CPTED conferences, such as the one in V i c t o r i a . Reaction to that conference was mixed. Some o f f i c e r s remarked that po l i c i ng was s u f f i c i e n t l y complex without adding a further complication to the i r task. "Sooner or l a t e r " , Gordon Dalton of the B.C. Po l ice Commission pointed out, "policemen are going to have to stop and say, 'Look, th i s i s n ' t our business*. Otherwise, you're going to need more money for pol icemen'* . 2 4 Dave Cowley of the RCMP in Ottawa, noted that po l i ce serv ices were in a highly t r a n s i t i o n a l state and that the dest iny of po l i ce serv ices was in the hands of the po l i ce themselves. "Is th i s what we r e a l l y want?" he asked. "We need to examine a l l the a l te rnat i ves to enforcement " . 2 5 Tony Hulme of New Westminster f e l t that such cons iderat ion was imperative in preventive p o l i c i n g . "I'm convinced that the future of crime prevention l i e s in environmental d e s i g n " , 2 6 he s tressed, while Bob Peterson suggested: 87 "If we can demonstrate that there is p r o f i t in preventing crime, we w i l l have success. This i s not always easy. CPTED is co s t l y to introduce in areas already b u i l t up, so the key is to become involved before the bu i ld ing has been comp le ted " . 2 7 "Where have we been?" Chief Jim Stewart asked. "Up to now, i t has been the firemen who have taken the i n i t i a t i v e in bu i ld ing code i s s u e s " . 2 8 Stewart, who has been a c t i v e l y involved with both developers and town counc i l in Matsqui, pointed out that the community can inf luence developers by using property taxes as a bargaining t o o l . "We have a mandate as po l ice managers", Stewart concluded, "to have input into the design of our communities and in Matsqui we're going to put together a tour every four months for developers and rea l estate people to show them good and bad environmental design. The development permit can be the too l to contro l what development comes i n " . 2 9 Another publ ic agency, B.C. Hydro, has been a c t i v e l y involved in disseminating CPTED information. B.C. Hydro uses research f ind ings , from studies in the U.S. conducted by Westinghouse and General E l e c t r i c , to ins t ruct at the RCMP course and to lecture at CPTED conferences. The l i t e r a t u r e ava i l ab le from B.C. Hydro also includes de f i n i t i on s of techn ica l terms that w i l l be useful to students of CPTED, l i gh t i ng standards for d i f f e r e n t environments s t ree t s , garages, parking areas, commercial 88 and i n d u s t r i a l areas, paths, parks, bikeways and g u i d e l i n e s on the many uses of l i g h t i n g i n c l u d i n g s u r v e i l l a n c e , p r o t e c t i o n and s a f e t y . 3 0 In g e n e r a l , the type of l i g h t i n g r e q u i r e d depends on the environment i n q u e s t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y with regard to indoor and outdoor f a c i l i t i e s . Where i n t e r i o r spaces are v i s i b l e through doors or windows, improved l i g h t i n g w i l l enhance o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c a s u a l or formal s u r v e i l l a n c e . L i g h t i n g should be even, without deep shadows i n which an i n t r u d e r might h i d e . Store windows should not be blocked by a d v e r t i s i n g or other d i s p l a y s . Where l i g h t i n g f i x t u r e s are a c c e s s i b l e t o passers-by (as f o r sc h o o l s and housing p r o j e c t s ) , these f i x t u r e s should be v a n d a l - p r o o f . 3 1 S t r e e t l i g h t s , perimeter l i g h t s a long fences and w a l l s , and the i l l u m i n a t i o n of outdoor f a c i l i t i e s a l l serve to i n c r e a s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e . In a d d i t i o n , l i g h t i n g may encourage the use of outdoor areas and help channel p e d e s t r i a n s along s e l e c t e d paths. For example, the s i c k l y glow of low-pressure sodium l i g h t i n g i n p u b l i c p l a c e s keeps people moving. " I t ' s good f o r p e d e s t r i a n t u n n e l s and ou t s i d e corner s t o r e s " , s t a t e s Constable Ron Elm of the Maple Ridge RCMP and former member of the ' t e c h n i c a l development committee' i n t h i s m u n i c i p a l i t y , "because i t makes people uncomfortable to s t a y t h e r e " . 3 2 Improved l i g h t i n g a l s o takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n l o c a l concerns and op i n i o n s of the users of the environment. Where c i t i z e n s are f e a r f u l of crime, h i g h - I n t e n s i t y l i g h t s are favoured. In a neighbourhood where the f e a r i s l e s s though the crime r a t e i s the same r e s i d e n t s may ob j e c t to the c o l o u r or i n t e n s i t y of the l i g h t s . F i x t u r e s are a v a i l a b l e which provide good c o l o u r balance and make e f f i c i e n t use of e l e c t r i c i t y . 3 3 ENDNOTES 1RCMP o f f i c e r s , as wel l as municipal po l i ce o f f i c e r s , must take courses during the i r careers as c red i t for promotion purposes. ^Personal correspondence with RCMP Inspector J.W. Quinn, OIC Community Pol ic ing/Crime Prevention Sect ion. 7 August 1986. i n t e r v i e w with RCMP Staff Sergeant Jim Bramhi l l . Fairmont Academy, RCMP Headquarters, Vancouver, B.C. 28 August 1986. 4 Royal Canadian Mounted Po l i ce , Course Tra in ing  Standard: Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Course (Ottawa: RCMP, Tra in ing and Development Branch, August 1982), p. 2. 5 Jack J . Hest (Staff Sergeant RCMP), "Promoting The Concepts of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design" ( V i c t o r i a : RCMP, " E " D i v i s i on , Community Pol ic ing/Crime Prevention, August 1983), pp. 6-7. 6 Quinn, personal correspondence. 7 August 1986. 7 Mar i l yn Ashmore, "Po l i ce Involvement and the i r Major Needs in the Area of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in B r i t i s h Columbia" (Vancouver: Consultat ion Centre, M in i s t ry of the S o l i c i t o r General of Canada, 1982), p. 3. ®Ashmore, p. 20. 9 B r a m h i l l , interview. 28 August 1986. 1 0 B r a m h i l l , interview. 28 August 1986. ^ Informat ion gathered from the O f f i c i a l Conference app l i ca t ion document. 91 1 2 P a t r i c l a Brantingham, 1980, as quoted at the B r i t i s h Columbia Inst i tute of Technology Workshop (on the Knowledge Network), "The Bui ld ing Code: Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design". Burnaby: "E " D iv i s ion RCMP, Ju ly 17, 1980. ^ P a t r i c i a Brantingham, 1982, as quoted in Eleanor Wachtel, "Toward the Perfect Crimeless Town", Maclean's, Vo l . 95, No. 10 (March 8, 1982), p. 52. l 4 P a t r i c i a Brantingham, as quoted at BCIT workshop, Ju ly 17, 1980. ^ P a t r i c i a Brantingham, as quoted at BCIT workshop, Ju ly 17, 1980. ^ P a t r i c i a Brantingham, 1980, as quoted at B r i t i s h Columbia Seminar, "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design". Proceedings of the B r i t i s h Columbia Seminar, in V i c t o r i a , B.C. March 27 and 28, 1980. Page 41. 1 7 P a t r i c i a Brantingham, 1980, as quoted at BCIT workshop, Ju ly 17, 1980. 1 8 B r i a n D. Burke, "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design", Prevention, Vo l . 1, No. 3 (Dec. 1983), p. 18. ^Vancouver C i t y Po l i ce Department, "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design". A 20-minute s l ide-aud io presentation prepared by the Department of Criminology, Simon Fraser Un ivers i ty . Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. ^Vancouver C i t y Po l ice Department, s l ide-aud io presentat ion. 2 1 Burke , p. 18. 2 2 Tom Gies, Prevention, p. 8. 92 2 3 G a r y Paget, "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design: A Local Government Perspect ive" . Prepared for B.C. Crime Prevention Assoc iat ion, Annual Workshop and General Meeting ( V i c t o r i a : Min i s t ry of Municipal A f f a i r s , October 25-26, 1983), no page. 2 4 Gordon Dalton, 1980, as quoted in "Environmental Design Added Dimension To Po l i c ing? " L iason, Vo l . 6, No. 5 (May 1980), p. 7. 2 5 Dave Cowley, 1980, as quoted in L iason, p. 7. 2 6 T o n y Hulme, 1980, as quoted in L iason, p. 7. 2 7 Bob Peterson, 1980, as quoted in L iason, p. 7. 2 8 J i m Stewart, 1980, as quoted in L iason, p. 8. 29 30 Jim Stewart, 1980, as quoted in L iason, p. 8 Def in i t ions of d i f f e ren t l i gh t ing uses: SURVEILLANCE LIGHTING l i gh t ing to detect and observe intruders . PROTECTIVE LIGHTING to discourage the potent ia l acts of c r imina l s . SAFETY LIGHTING to permit safe movement of guards and other authorized persons. Notes from B.C. Hydro on L ight ing Design and Appl icat ion for Crime Prevention, 1986. 3 1 A l l a n Wal l i s and Daniel Ford, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (Washington: U.S. Department of J u s t i c e , 1980), p. 82. 32RCMP Constable Ron Elm, 1982, as quoted in Wachtel, p. 53 . 3 3 W a l l l s and Ford, pp. 82-83. CHAPTER FOUR 93 FINDINGS FROM INVESTIGATION I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s chapter examines when, where, how CPTED i s implemented i n the community pl a n n i n g process, who uses the concept and why. The format i s as f o l l o w s : ( 1 ) a d i s c u s s i o n of the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of CPTED i n the P r o v i n c i a l B u i l d i n g Code and the M u n i c i p a l Act; ( 2 ) an examination of the p r a c t i c e of CPTED i n the eleve n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s through i n t e r v i e w s and correspondence with community pl a n n e r s , a r c h i t e c t s , landscape a r c h i t e c t s and law enforcement o f f i c i a l s (See Appendix 4 f o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) ; and (3) a summary of major CPTED p r o j e c t s and s t u d i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. CPTED L e g i s l a t i o n ? The l o c a l government i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r en s u r i n g a safe environment f o r the r e s i d e n t s of a community. The r o l e played by t h i s government i s s i g n i f i c a n t because of i t s c o n t r o l over the pla n n i n g f u n c t i o n f o r the e n t i r e m u n i c i p a l i t y . Whether or not pla n n i n g takes CPTED i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s h i g h l y dependent on the wishes of c i t y c o u n c i l . In terms o£ creat ing a ' s a fe ' environment, the Charter gives Vancouver the author i ty to include techn ica l regulat ions re lated to the construct ion of bu i ld ings , where the safety of persons or property is concerned. 1 As with other mun i c ipa l i t i e s , Vancouver follows the P rov inc i a l Bui ld ing Code a document s imi lar to the National Bui ld ing Code of Canada 2 but the c i t y has occas iona l ly made changes and addit ions to i t . An example is the design of underground parking s t a i r w e l l s . Ten years ago the C i ty of Vancouver, in response to a major crime committed in the P a c i f i c Centre underground parkade, 3 required that s t a i rwe l l s be v i s i b l y access ib le from the parking garages. As a r e s u l t , s t a i rwe l l s must now be made of w i red-g la s s . 4 A number of other bylaw requirements have contr ibuted to safer parkade environments. The requirements s t ipu la te that a l l unattended parking f a c i l i t i e s in commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l bui ld ings must be secured with doors or regular secur i ty su rve i l l ance ; that l i gh t i ng be improved to meet minimum standards; that access doors to the garage and re la ted entry ways have increased g laz ing to improve v i sua l surve i l l ance for users and secur i ty personnel; that there be b a r r i e r - f r e e design to the greatest extent poss ib le; that there be perimeter landscaping to create growth of greenery for a safe w e l l - l i t environment. 5 These requirements are not in the present P rov inc i a l B u i l d i n g Code. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , on the other hand, are governed by the M u n i c i p a l Act, and do not have the r i g h t to r e g u l a t e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s by i n t r o d u c i n g a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n requirements over and above those o u t l i n e d i n the P r o v i n c i a l B u i l d i n g Code. S a f e t y concerns i n zoning, f o r example, are addressed by the M u n i c i p a l Act: "In making r e g u l a t i o n s under t h i s [zoning] s e c t i o n , the C o u n c i l s h a l l have due regard to h e a l t h , s a f e t y , convenience and we l f a r e of the p u b l i c " . 6 The a c t g i v e s the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the a u t h o r i t y to make b u i l d i n g bylaws, but such bylaws do not d e a l with the r e g u l a t i o n of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s as t h i s i s covered i n the P r o v i n c i a l B u i l d i n g Code. These bylaws are e s s e n t i a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e bylaws, d e a l i n g with matters such as development permit fees and r e q u i r e d b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t i o n s . In some cases, such as f o r s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l , the M u n i c i p a l Act gi v e s the Approving O f f i c e r both the a u t h o r i t y and d i s c r e t i o n i n determining "the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " . A d d i t i o n a l l y , p r o v i n c i a l paramountcy all o w s the province a r i g h t "to a u t h o r i z e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s to pass bylaws a g a i n s t nuisances h u r t f u l t o the p u b l i c h e a l t h as i n c i d e n t a l to mu n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h i s power i s not incompatible with t h a t of Parliament t o enact a gen e r a l law of nuisance as i n c i d e n t a l to i t s r i g h t to l e g i s l a t e on c r i m i n a l law".' 96 Some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have asked f o r i n c r e a s e d powers i n order t o combat crime. The suggestions put forward i n c l u d e the c o n t r o l of business l i c e n c e s , the p r o v i s i o n s of i n c e n t i v e s ( p o s s i b l y through reduced insurance premiums) f o r developments which i n c l u d e approved CPTED measures i n the des i g n , and the expansion of the b u i l d i n g code t o i n c l u d e CPTED-related s t r a t e g i e s . Expansion of the P r o v i n c i a l B u i l d i n g Code i n v o l v e s the c o o p e r a t i o n of the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , through the B u i l d i n g Standards Branch. The i n t e r e s t of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i n CPTED i s c o n s i s t e n t with the M i n i s t r y ' s mandate t o a c t as "the medium of communication between the LGIC (Cabinet) and l o c a l governments i n the p r o v i n c e " . 8 In t h i s sense, the M i n i s t r y i s a c t i n g as a bridge between a p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n s e c u r i t y and order represented by the M i n i s t r y of the A t t o r n e y General and mu n i c i p a l governments. CPTED i s of i n t e r e s t to munic i p a l c o u n c i l s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f o r one important reason: m u n i c i p a l c o s t s . CPTED concepts i n c o r p o r a t e d i n new or e x i s t i n g developments can reduce the amount of p o l i c i n g , and c o s t s r e q u i r e d f o r the a r e a . In 1983, Kelowna Alderman E l i s e C l a r k s t a t e d : " I f the environment i s adapted so t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t y and the temptation to commit crimes are lowered, we may see p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s i n lower crime r a t e s and lower p o l i c i n g costs...The c o s t to Implement the CPTED program would be low and the p o t e n t i a l r e t u r n s to the c i t y are high...Our community has people t r a i n e d i n CPTED. We should use t h i s knowledge arid t r a i n i n g on our de s i g n panel and on our t e c h n i c a l p l a n n i n g committee so we do not continue to make the same mistakes i n b u i l d i n g and environmental d e s i g n over and over a g a i n " . 9 The M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s can do much to help f i g h t crime because CPTED i s c o n s i s t e n t with the department's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The M i n i s t r y has been s u c c e s s f u l i n encouraging community p l a n n i n g by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Through l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e and p r o v i n c i a l support (e.g. revenue s h a r i n g ) , the number of o f f i c i a l community plans i n place has i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y i n the past d e c a d e . 1 0 The pl a n n i n g e f f o r t , i n many r e s p e c t s , can s h i f t from g e t t i n g the pl a n i n place t o p l a n n i n g . The pla n n i n g process review, e v a l u a t i o n , updating and refinement of plans can be a d j u s t e d to i n c l u d e CPTED pr i n c i p l e s . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s have a l s o e x e r c i s e d t h e i r powers, through the M u n i c i p a l Act, f o r implementing CPTED. The Act permits c o u n c i l s t o e s t a b l i s h a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commissions (APC) or a d v i s o r y d e s i g n panels ( A D P ) 1 1 i n order to advise c o u n c i l members on p l a n n i n g - r e l a t e d matters such as zoning, s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l and b u i l d i n g r e g u l a t i o n . By i n v o l v i n g the m u n i c i p a l p o l i c e and RCMP o f f i c e r s with CPTED t r a i n i n g on the committee, c o u n c i l s w i l l be given more accurate Information on the impacts of developments with regard to cr ime. 98 I n v e s t i g a t i o n of Eleven M u n i c i p a l i t i e s In B r i t i s h Columbia Burnaby Burnaby (See Map i n F i g u r e 6) has an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commission made up of ten people i n c l u d i n g a School Board member, a Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission member and i n t e r e s t e d persons chosen by the mayor from the community at l a r g e . 1 2 The APC looks at land use onl y , not plans of i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s . More im p o r t a n t l y , the RCMP does not have any Input i n the APC, or the pl a n n i n g department. Furthermore, i t i s p u r e l y by chance t h a t someone with a s e c u r i t y background s i t s on the APC. 1 3 Though not t r a i n e d i n CPTED, Burnaby planners are aware t h a t crime p r e v e n t i o n programs e x i s t and are a v a i l a b l e to them. I f a p a r t i c u l a r development, such as a bar or di s c o t e q u e , i s recog n i z e d by planners as a p o t e n t i a l 'crime generator' given i t s l o c a t i o n , the pl a n n i n g department w i l l request suggestions and recommendations from the RCMP. Otherwise, a c c o r d i n g to planner Jack Balhouse, "the c i t y c o u n c i l goes on the assumption t h a t the planners are knowledgeable of crime p r e v e n t i o n m a t t e r s " . 1 4 The Burnaby RCMP, though, wants to take p a r t i n pla n n i n g f o r the community and i s w i l l i n g to t r a i n planners i n CPTED. Sergeant Ron Khlon, who i s very f a m i l i a r with CPTED concepts, has o c c a s i o n a l l y been approached by the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s e n g i n e e r i n g and pl a n n i n g departments f o r Figure 6 MAP OF SURVEYED MUNICIPALITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA suggestions on s e c u r i t y matters. The b u i l d e r proposing h i s development (e.g. apartments) w i l l f i r s t a p p l y f o r a b u i l d i n g permit through the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Permits are reviewed by the plann i n g department, and plans f o r the developments with p o t e n t i a l crime problems are forwarded to the RCMP, who make t h e i r recommendations. The recommendations, though, are r a r e l y put i n p r a c t i c e , a c c o r d i n g t o Khlon, because of some a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n making the necessary changes. He argues: "To be e f f e c t i v e , crime p r e v e n t i o n must be implemented from the s t a r t . I t i s going to be expensive, but not as expensive as i t normally would be i f pr e v e n t i o n were needed l a t e r " . 1 5 At present, crimes committed i n underground p a r k i n g garages are a s e r i o u s problem i n Burnaby. The f a u l t , a c c o r d i n g to Sergeant Khlon i s with "improper s a f e t y measures at the p r o j e c t ' s implementation and the f a c t t h a t people are convinced t h a t insurance companies w i l l cover the damages". 1 6 The p l a n n e r s ' r e l u c t a n c e to l e t the RCMP get in v o l v e d i n the pl a n n i n g process has r e l e g a t e d CPTED i n t o the Neighbourhood Watch program, no longer a home-to-home s e r v i c e because i t i s too expensive. Sergeant E r i c Ledwon b e l i e v e s t h a t CPTED s u f f e r s the same problem as other crime p r e v e n t i o n programs. That i s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to evaluate i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Reduced crime r a t e s f o r an area where CPTED s t r a t e g i e s have been implemented may mean t h a t c e r t a i n crimes have been d i s p l a c e d to other a r e a s . 1 7 C o r p o r a l Les Forsythe agrees, and maintains t h a t CPTED *s main goal should be "awareness" of crime o p p o r t u n i t i e s on the p a r t of a l l of the community's c i t i z e n s . 1 8 Coquitlam Coquitlam and P o r t Coquitlam have one a d v i s o r y d e s i g n panel, but the RCMP does not take p a r t . Instead, a l l r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s r e c e i v e d by the l i c e n c i n g i n s p e c t o r f o r Coquitlam and Port Coquitlam are sent to the O f f i c e r - I n -Charge of the Coquitlam detachment of the RCMP, Constable Paul Desbiens. Desbiens, who took the Crime P r e v e n t i o n P r a c t i t i o n e r ' s Course o f f e r e d by the B.C. J u s t i c e I n s t i t u t e ( i n 1982), w i l l look a t the re z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s and accompanying plans f o r new developments, and make s e c u r i t y recommendations i n a notebook. When l o o k i n g a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l drawings, Desbiens does not concern h i m s e l f with t e c h n i c a l data, such as measurements. He o f f e r s a d v i c e on design f e a t u r e s t h a t should be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the development. His recommendations, based on the CPTED course t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c a l law enforcement experience, w i l l i n c l u d e suggestions f o r core doors one-inch deadbolt l o c k s c h a i n - l i n k fences i n order to e s t a b l i s h a sense of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y garage doors i n good working order and with a p p r o p r i a t e l o c k s good l i g h t i n g throughout the development prominently placed t r e e s , shrubs, e t c . good, v i s i b l e access to e n t r a n c e s . 1 9 Desbiens w i l l a l s o v i s i t the l o c a t i o n f o r the proposed development and conduct a s i t e survey, a c c o r d i n g to land-u zoning f o r the l o c a t i o n (e.g. r e s i d e n t i a l RM-1, RM-2; commercial CS -2 , e t c . . . ) . Included i n the survey are comments on crime r i s k s whether the proposed development w i l l be l o c a t e d i n a high, medium or low crime area, based on crime s t a t i s t i c s kept by the Coquitlam RCMP. In Desbiens 1 view, t h i s type of RCMP input i s e s p e c i a l l y important f o r commercial development. 2 0 He then sends the completed forms back to the l i c e n c i n g i n s p e c t o r and h i s comments are e v e n t u a l l y r e l a y e d to the developer. For Desbiens, " t h i s process may be a n t i - p r o d u c t i v e because the p o l i c e recommendations w i l l not always be put to use". But he i s o p t i m i s t i c of CPTED's f u t u r e . On o c c a s i o n , developers have d i r e c t l y asked him, at the de s i g n stage, about to the important d e s i g n f e a t u r e s t h a t should be con s i d e r e d f o r s p e c i f i c developments, such as b e t t e r doors the best types of fences to use, and the c l e a r i n g of t r e e s and shrubs. Sergeant Dave A l d e r s o n , f o r m e r l y s t a t i o n e d i n Coquitlam, a l s o shares Desbiens' concerns. A Coquitlam e n g i n e e r i n g and c o n s u l t i n g f i r m approached then C o r p o r a l Alderson and requested t h a t he comment on the landscaping plans f o r a warehouse which the f i r m was b u i l d i n g i n the Coquitlam a r e a . C o r p o r a l Alderson suggested t h a t a number of the la n d s c a p i n g p r o p o s a l s would f a c i l i t a t e crime and subsequently made recommendations. C o r p o r a l Alderson then forwarded h i s comments, onl y t o d i s c o v e r t h a t the recommendations would be ignored, as Coquitlam C o u n c i l had a l r e a d y approved the p r o j e c t 'as i s * f o r development. 2 2 "The RCMP can only s u b j e c t i v e l y say t h a t CPTED i s e f f e c t i v e i n c u t t i n g down on crime", s t a t e s Desbiens. He r e c a l l s i n c i d e n t s of rowdy youths v a n d a l i z i n g a neighbourhood i n Coquitlam. The problem stemmed from a pool h a l l with a s m a l l a l l e y beside i t . A f t e r d r i n k i n g , the youths became u n r u l y o u t s i d e the h a l l and the RCMP were c a l l e d to the scene. The youths, upon s p o t t i n g the p o l i c e c a r s , would dash down the a l l e y . Thus, two p o l i c e cars were needed to cordon o f f the a l l e y . The i n c i d e n t s were repeated s e v e r a l times before the RCMP approached the owner of the pub and nearby homeowners with the idea of a s t e e l fence placed a t one end of the a l l e y . The fence was t o r n down by the youths soon a f t e r i t was i n s t a l l e d . The next s u g g e s t i o n was to b u i l d a high concrete w a l l a t one end of the a l l e y . Now there i s no longer a problem of u n r u l y youths i n th a t a r e a . 2 3 "Planners are a f r a i d of s a c r i f i c i n g a e s t h e t i c s and m a r k e t a b i l i t y " , s t a t e s Desbiens. " I f people want huge t r e e s , huge t r e e s are given to them. But i s t h i s r e s p o n s i b l e p l a n n i n g ? " 2 4 He b e l i e v e s t h a t c r e a t i n g 104 s u r v e i l l a n c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s may run a g a i n s t a e s t h e t i c s and, thus, become an o b s t a c l e f o r p l a n n e r s . In Desbiens' o p i n i o n , there are a l o t of b e n e f i t s for p r e v e n t i n g crime o p p o r t u n i t i e s from the o u t s e t . He argues: "When pl a n n i n g f o r a new development, there are a host of problems, such as p o l l u t i o n , n o i s e , f i r e and h e a l t h . But the p o l i c e have no v o i c e . The recommendations are very b a s i c and understandable, yet not taken to h e a r t " . 2 5 The example Desbiens uses to I l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t i s of Coquitlam's Medical Centre, b u i l t behind a 7-Eleven convenience s t o r e and near a s c h o o l and park. The h o s p i t a l was b u i l t , d e s p i t e the RCMP's argument t h a t there were no s u r v e i l l a n c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the area, a t the end of a dead-end s t r e e t . Youths, who would assemble o u t s i d e the convenience s t o r e , threw beer b o t t l e s and stones towards the h o s p i t a l , breaking i t s windows, and l i t t e r e d the 7-Eleven p a r k i n g l o t . Operators of the convenience s t o r e , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the RCMP, er e c t e d a t a l l , cement w a l l i n order to d i s p l a c e the l i t t e r problem and, thus, prevent youths from throwing d e b r i s i n the d i r e c t i o n of the medical c e n t r e . The l i t t e r problem moved to a townhouse development s i t e a f t e r I t was b u i l t c l o s e to the convenience s t o r e . The RCMP then stepped i n to recommend the opening up of the roadway i n order f o r t h r o u g h - t r a f f i c to a c t as a s u r v e i l l a n c e f a c t o r . "Band-aids are p o s s i b l e " , says 105 Desbiens, "but the problems on l y grow. Mistakes do not have to be made, but they a r e " . 2 6 D e l t a D e l t a has an a d v i s o r y design panel but p o l i c e input i s not requested by the p a n e l . According to S p e c i a l P r o j e c t T e c h n i c i a n Peter Repin, the plann i n g department i s concerned to a c e r t a i n degree with CPTED, such as the l o c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y areas i n apartment zones, but i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y how a new development w i l l f i t i n with the surrounding a r e a . 2 7 At present, a member of D e l t a ' s crime p r e v e n t i o n u n i t (CPU) s i t s on a s t a f f c o o r d i n a t i n g committee, which a l s o i n c l u d e s p l a n n e r s , engineers and the f i r e c h i e f , i n order to give recommendations f o r both r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l s e t t i n g s . The recommendations, based on the law enforcement experience of the p o l i c e o f f i c e r , u s u a l l y d e a l with t a r g e t - h a r d e n i n g measures and suggestions f o r t r a f f i c flow improvements to the s i t e . The D e l t a CPU r e c e i v e s plans f o r development from the pl a n n i n g department, and a p o l i c e o f f i c e r who has completed the Crime P r e v e n t i o n P r a c t i t i o n e r ' s Course, goes t o the l o c a t i o n and makes recommendations based on per s o n a l experience. D e l t a P o l i c e C hief George Angus s t a t e s t h a t the p o l i c e department has had success i n working with the pla n n i n g department i n the past, but he b e l i e v e s t h a t planners should take more i n i t i a t i v e and i n t e r e s t i n crime 106 p r e v e n t i o n . The p o l i c e f o r c e i n v i t e d s e n i o r m u n i c i p a l personnel, members of c o u n c i l and crime p r e v e n t i o n o f f i c e r s to view Newman's f i l m , "The W r i t i n g On The W a l l " . P o l i c e o f f i c e r s and planners supported the CPTED concepts presented, but agreed t h a t more i n f o r m a t i o n on CPTED must be made a v a i l a b l e before other programs can be d e v e l o p e d . 2 9 Constable Jim Ingram argues t h a t CPTED i s s u c c e s s f u l i n making people more aware of ways to prevent c r i m e . 3 0 M u n i c i p a l i t y Of Langley Langley, a r u r a l community, has an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commission, with two RCMP o f f i c e r s , two aldermen, and f i v e c i v i l i a n s from the community a t l a r g e . But the APC i s not part of the plan-ap p r o v a l p r o c e s s . The members of the committee are mainly concerned with the needs of the community. Designs f o r development are approved by plan n e r s , engineers and the f i r e c h i e f . Senior planner John Gerhearty i n s i s t s t h a t "crime i s not a concern f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y because i t i s not a major p r o b l e m " . 3 1 In h i s o p i n i o n , s e c u r i t y aspects such as improving p a r k i n g l o t s a f e t y are n o n - q u a n t i f i a b l e a c t i o n s . In other words, they are a s u b j e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l on the pa r t of the law enforcement o f f i c i a l . Planners i n Langley have attended seminars on s e c u r i t y , presented by the Langley RCMP, and with t h e i r experience i n s i t e p l a n n i n g , Gerhearty b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s department has ample knowledge of CPTED. 3 2 He contends t h a t design panels would add c o s t l y time delays to the p l a n - a p p r o v a l process. He a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t crime p r e v e n t i o n measures w i l l be ignored by the p u b l i c because a t r a d e - o f f between crime p r e v e n t i o n and p r i v a c y i s not d e s i r e d . At present, a Langley bylaw s t a t e s t h a t there should be no s c r e e n i n g of the f r o n t of a premise by t r e e s or t a l l bushes. Only l a n d s c a p i n g (grass) i s permitted f o r f r o n t yards i n order to improve o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s u r v e i l l a n c e and f u l l y d i s p l a y home addresses (to a s s i s t emergency v e h i c l e s ) . However, Gerhearty has found t h a t people w i l l g e n e r a l l y do the opposite by p l a n t i n g t r e e s and bushes, on the s i d e s of t h e i r homes, which e v e n t u a l l y grow to screen out p a r t of the f r o n t view of the homes. 3 3 Constable Doug Hadley, of the Langley RCMP, had been a CPU member i n Richmond, where he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r overviewing the plans t h a t were sent to him by the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s p l a n n i n g department. He was p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned with access to b u i l d i n g entrances, darkened areas and the crime r a t e f o r the l o c a t i o n s i n q u e s t i o n . His recommendations were based on a combination of p e r s o n a l experience, p e r s o n a l knowledge of c e r t a i n areas of town and the knowledge he gained from the CPTED course. The key, he b e l i e v e s , i s to v i s u a l i z e the f u t u r e impact t h a t the development w i l l make i n the community. "Plans t h a t come i n may look good, but the person i n CPU has to v i s u a l i z e how the development w i l l look now and f o r t y years from now", 3 4 he s t a t e s . In Richmond plans f o r every new development are submitted to the pla n n i n g department and forwarded to the RCMP. Hadley i s d i s a p p o i n t e d t h a t t h i s i s not done i n Langley and f e e l s that community s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y i s ignored i n the pla n n i n g p r o c e s s . Hadley admits that measuring the success of CPTED i very d i f f i c u l t because the RCMP o f f i c e r i n CPU can only a d v i s e . The f i n a l d e c i s i o n r e s t s with the developer (or b u i l d e r ) and the m u n i c i p a l i t y . I d e a l l y , measuring CPTED would i n v o l v e reviewing a l l approved r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s and p r o p o s a l s f o r new development, i n v e s t i g a t i n g whether or not recommendations have been c a r r i e d out, and checking the crime r a t e f o r areas where CPTED has been e x t e n s i v e l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the des i g n of b u i l d i n g s . There i s no r e c o r d of success with CPTED i n Langley In Hadley's o p i n i o n , t h i s i s r a t h e r unfortunate because Langley i s a growing community a good example of where CPTED, i f u t i l i z e d , c o u l d y i e l d the best r e s u l t s . 3 5 Maple Ridge Maple Ridge i s a r a p i d l y growing m u n i c i p a l i t y east of Greater Vancouver. In the e a r l y 1980s, c i t y c o u n c i l was concerned with p r e v e n t i n g crime because i t was a young m u n i c i p a l i t y with good o p p o r t u n i t i e s to implement CPTED. The c o u n c i l minutes from the Mayor-In-Council meeting f o r May 12, 1980 bear t h i s out: Alderman Bates noted, t h a t from the s e r v i c e committee meeting [of t h i s date] i t was point e d out, t h a t there i s need f o r environmental p r o t e c t i o n i n d e s i g n i n g b u i l d i n g s and th a t the committee hoped t h a t the a r c h i t e c t engaged f o r the development of the town-core be cognizant of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . The D i r e c t o r of Plan n i n g , i n company with Constable Elm, r e c e n t l y attended a seminar i n S e a t t l e on Environmental Design and Crime P r e v e n t i o n and brought back c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u b j e c t . Moved by Alderman Bates, seconded by Alderman F r a n k l i n , t h a t the a r c h i t e c t f o r the municipal h a l l and/or any other m u n i c i p a l b u i l d i n g be r e q u i r e d to meet with the D i r e c t o r of Planning and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the RCM P o l i c e i n the p r e l i m i n a r y stages of such d e s i g n . 6 Subsequently, Maple Ridge C o u n c i l approved the formation of a ' t e c h n i c a l development committee' (TDC), c h a i r e d by the d i s t r i c t ' s d i r e c t o r of p l a n n i n g and attended by c o u n c i l members, eng i n e e r s , planners and an RCMP o f f i c e r T h i s multi-agency group reviewed a l l major proposed developments and advised the D i s t r i c t on the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the community. However, the TDC was disbanded a f t e r a few years because i t s members l o s t i n t e r e s t . Since most of the concerns d e a l t with e n g i n e e r i n g and pl a n n i n g matters, the TDC was r e p l a c e d by d a i l y meetings between c i t y engineers and p l a n n e r s . At present, any proposed development plan t h a t r e q u i r e s the a t t e n t i o n of law enforcement personnel i s sent t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s RCMP crime p r e v e n t i o n u n i t as soon as the plan i s submitted to the p l a n n i n g department by the developer. C i t y c o u n c i l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r approving a l l designs f o r proposed developments and i f there are any f u r t h e r crime concerns t h a t c o u n c i l members may have, the plan w i l l again be reviewed by the RCMP. F i n a l l y , the pl a n n i n g department i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d v i s i n g the developer on the recommendations forwarded by the CPU. For example, i f the p l a y areas f o r a proposed townhouse development cannot be e a s i l y s u r v e i l l e d , the developer w i l l be informed. According to the D i r e c t o r of Pla n n i n g f o r Maple Ridge, Ron Boyes, "RCMP recommendations have n e a r l y always been adhered t o " . 3 7 Boyes b e l i e v e s t h a t planners have a knee-jerk r e a c t i o n to the r o l e t h a t the p o l i c e p l a y . "They th i n k the RCMP i s i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n alarms, l o c k s and l i g h t s . But t h i s i s not t h e i r approach at a l l . They look a f t e r some of the pl a n n e r s ' d u t i e s " . 3 8 For t h i s reason, Boyes t h i n k s t h a t a course on CPTED f o r planners i s a good i d e a . Boyes attended the one-week course on CPTED i n Sacramento ( C a l i f o r n i a ) on the advice of Constable Ron Elm, who spearheaded CPTED i n Maple Ridge. Elm f e l t t h a t m u n i c i p a l planners, and c e r t a i n l y the D i r e c t o r of Planning, need to be knowledgeable of crime p r e v e n t i o n . The course seemed " i n t e r e s t i n g " and the d i s c u s s i o n s were " l i v e l y " , Boyes r e c a l l s , but the pl a n n i n g community was not w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d . Only Boyes, and two other planners attended the course. N e v e r t h e l e s s , he f e e l s he has gained v a l u a b l e knowledge from h i s experience i n th a t he i s now more aware I l l of the pla n n i n g tasks t h a t the RCMP are t r y i n g to a c c o m p l i s h . 3 9 Constable Elm, who was one of the i n s t r u c t o r s f o r the CPTED course o f f e r e d by the RCMP, was a l s o the p o l i c e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the TDC. While on the TDC, h i s main concerns were 24-hour b u s i n e s s e s , s t o r e f r o n t s and gas s t a t i o n s , and pa i d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to b u i l d i n g l o c a t i o n and use. He b e l i e v e s t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s are of secondary importance. As an RCMP o f f i c e r f o r Maple Ridge, Elm i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l i c i n g the area of P i t t Meadows. He s t a t e s t h a t he i s f r e q u e n t l y asked to give recommendations f o r developments In P i t t Meadows. He r e c a l l s one example of a major proposed complex t h a t was to house f a m i l i e s i n townhouses, s e n i o r c i t i z e n s i n a b u i l d i n g c l o s e b y and s i n g l e people i n another b u i l d i n g . The problem for Elm was how to best a m e l i o r a t e i n t e r a c t i o n between these g r o u p s . 4 0 Elm b e l i e v e s t h a t CPTED, which was openly d i s c u s s e d d u r i n g the TDC meetings, has been s u c c e s s f u l i n Maple Ridge. Not only were h i s recommendations adhered t o by d e v e l o p e r s , but other members of the TDC became so knowledgeable on CPTED t h a t Elm u s u a l l y d i d not have to say a word a t the meetings. Other members knew beforehand what the crime concerns were and what p o l i c e recommendations would be. Elm s t a t e s t h a t "...when the RCMP member only s i t s In h i s o f f i c e and gi v e s recommendations, i t i s not e f f e c t i v e because he i s not g e t t i n g the message out to other people on the board. The s i t u a t i o n f o r the RCMP i n Coquitlam and 112 Richmond i s mere tokenism. I t i s not e f f e c t i v e because there i s no ongoing d i s c u s s i o n . I t i s a n a r r a t i o n " . 4 1 Since there i s no longer an ongoing l i a s o n between the crime p r e v e n t i o n c o o r d i n a t o r and the plann i n g department i n Maple Ridge, many a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r development are pre-screened from a CPTED p e r s p e c t i v e by the plann i n g department's f r o n t -counter s e c r e t a r y , who had gained knowledge of the concept through her attendance of TDC meetings. A s i m i l a r s p i n - o f f e f f e c t was r e p o r t e d by C o r p o r a l George L e i n , O f f i c e r - I n -Charge of the P r i n c e George Detachment of the RCMP: "My presence on the [ a d v i s o r y design] panel i s v e r y w e l l r e c e i v e d to the p o i n t t h a t i f I miss a meeting f o r some reason, other panel members c o n s i d e r CPTED p r o b l e m s " . 4 2 Elm argues t h a t the major goal of CPTED i s "consciousness r a i s i n g " . The educators should present and educate the s k i l l of CPTED awareness". 4 3 Furthermore, he does not t h i n k t h a t the p o l i c e should a c t i n an a u t h o r i t a r i a n manner, or have s p e c i f i c CPTED l e g i s l a t i o n to back up t h e i r recommendations. "I have managed to operate without an a c t " , 4 4 he r e i t e r a t e s . F i n a l l y , i n Elm's o p i n i o n , CPTED t r a i n i n g f o r planners and law enforcement o f f i c e r s should occur s e p a r a t e l y , with subsequent j o i n t - s e m i n a r s i n order to e s t a b l i s h a b e t t e r a s s o c i a t i o n between the p r o f e s s i o n s and a good understanding of crime p r e v e n t i o n p l a n n i n g . 113 New Westminster Although there are no p o l i c e o f f i c e r s t a k i n g p a r t on New Westminster's P l a n n i n g A d v i s o r y Commission, p o l i c e personnel a r e , from time to time, approached by the p l a n n i n g department on matters r e l a t e d to crime p r e v e n t i o n . In one case, s t a t i s t i c s were needed from the p o l i c e department f o r c o r r e l a t i n g the nature of crimes o c c u r r i n g i n the c i t y ' s downtown to the d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d by the c i t y o ffender from h i s home to the scene of the crime. No d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n was found as many c r i m i n a l s came from Surrey and Coquitlam, with crimes t a k i n g place i n underground garages. In another case, the New Westminster P o l i c e Department was asked to c o n s u l t planners and p r o j e c t managers with regards to the m u l t i - m i l l i o n d o l l a r development along the c i t y ' s w a t e r f r o n t , and recommend changes to the development plans c o n s i s t e n t with CPTED p r i n c i p l e s . However, c o u n c i l members subsequently ignored the recommendations and r e f u s e d to b e l i e v e t h a t the proposed changes would save tax d o l l a r s and reduce c r i m e . 4 5 Community planner A l Ing s t a t e s t h a t a planner's p r i o r i t i e s should be concerns over a e s t h e t i c s , c o s t , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n networks and c o m p a t i b i l i t y of a proposed major development. 4 6 In t h i s way, i t i s hoped t h a t c i t i z e n s w i l l take p r i d e i n t h e i r c i t y and not engage i n c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y . He adds t h a t even though planners are not t r a i n e d i n CPTED, they f e e l as i f they have enough p l a n n i n g 114 experience to be cognizant of crime p r e v e n t i o n measures. He uses the example of the pla n n e r s ' lack of attendance at a CPTED p r e s e n t a t i o n sponsored by the p o l i c e department three years ago, to c h a r a c t e r i z e the pl a n n i n g department's lack of commitment to CPTED. In h i s view, "CPTED has now, i t seems, been pushed on to the p o l i c e department. As a r e s u l t , the p o l i c e are l e f t with t r y i n g to convince others of the importance of grouping b u i l d i n g s , l i g h t i n g , open spaces, e t c . . . 4 7 Constable Bob R e i l l y , of the c i t y ' s p o l i c e department, s t a t e s t h a t the p o l i c e would l i k e to have some a u t h o r i t y f o r approving b u i l d i n g p l a n s , s i m i l a r to the a u t h o r i t y given to the f i r e c h i e f . He maintains t h a t there should be some l e g i s l a t i v e c r i t e r i a f o r deadbolt l o c k s , types of doors, hardware and c l o s e d - c i r c u i t t e l e v i s i o n s u r v e i l l a n c e systems. Being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r reviewing b u i l d i n g permits would a l l o w the p o l i c e to c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r law enforcement e x p e r i e n c e . 4 8 He f i r m l y b e l i e v e s that police-recommended changes to a s i t e a f t e r the development of the p r o j e c t , are a mistake because they w i l l be too expensive. Changes a f t e r - t h e - f a c t may r e q u i r e s h i f t i n g the l o c a t i o n s of t r e e s , l i g h t i n g and access to entrances. "Planners should know more about CPTED", s t a t e s R e i l l y , "but a t the same time, CPTED s t i l l r e g u i r e s p o l i c e input i n the plann i n g p r o c e s s " . 4 9 He b e l i e v e s t h a t the problem f o r the RCMP at present i s the high turnover r a t e 115 w i t h i n the law enforcement agency. "The RCMP course [on CPTED] i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a good course, but i f you do not make use of the knowledge a l l the time, i t may be u s e l e s s . " . 5 0 D i s t r i c t Of North Vancouver In 1983, i n North Vancouver, the mayor of the c i t y wanted someone on the m u n i c i p a l s t a f f to be t r a i n e d i n CPTED. Community planner Paul Hallum expressed an i n t e r e s t and, along with C o r p o r a l Don J e t t e of the North Vancouver RCMP, completed the i n t e n s i v e RCMP course. In the f o l l o w i n g year, two more planners (on a s t a f f of twenty) were t r a i n e d i n CPTED. When a new mayor was e l e c t e d , CPTED was no longer of i n t e r e s t to the l o c a l government. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the d i r e c t o r of p l a n n i n g , Hallum s t a t e s , " i s not enamoured with CPTED and, thus, g i v e s l i t t l e input and backing on the m a t t e r " . 5 1 Community planners are u n c e r t a i n whether the D i r e c t o r would l i k e them to know more about crime p r e v e n t i o n . C u r r e n t l y , plans submitted to the p l a n n i n g department by developers are reviewed by Hallum and f u r t h e r reviewed by C o r p o r a l J e t t e on the A d v i s o r y Design Panel ( D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver), before they are sent to the A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission ( C i t y of North Vancouver), where J e t t e i s a l s o a member. Both planner and RCMP o f f i c e r t r y , a l b e i t s u b j e c t i v e l y , to make improvements to l i g h t i n g , s u r v e i l l a n c e , f e n c i n g , l a n d s c a p i n g and p e d e s t r i a n accesses i n order to prevent c r i m i n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Opportunity crimes, s t a t e s Hallum, account f o r 75 to 85 percent of a l l crimes i n North V a n c o u v e r . 5 2 One example t h a t Hallum uses to i l l u s t r a t e CPTED i s the Indian River Cooperative housing p r o j e c t , where development has been ongoing f o r two y e a r s . The C o o p e r a t i v e , with t a l l t r e e s and bushes around i t , was p r o p e r l y planned, a c c o r d i n g to CPTED p r i n c i p l e s , except f o r pathways connecting the houses. Even though pathways are not p a r t of the accepted p r i n c i p l e s of CPTED, Hallum and J e t t e decided to use them. T h e i r reasoning was t h a t i£ someone wants to hide behind the bushes, i t w i l l not matter t h a t there are pathways to the s i t e . Thus, "there i s a l i m i t to CPTED". Planning must be done "a c c o r d i n g to what the environment p r e s c r i b e s " , s t a t e s H a l l u m . 5 3 But, he and J e t t e made changes to the entrances of the homes by moving them to the opposite s i d e so t h a t they d i d not face the bushes. Hallum b e l i e v e s t h a t i n order f o r CPTED to be s u c c e s s f u l , i t must be c o n t i n u a l l y used as a p l a n n i n g program. The r e s u l t s , however, are never instantaneous. "When you r e p l a c e entrances [ f o r Indian River Co-op], you then have to p l a y a game of 'wait and see'. You need to wait q u i t e a few years to see the [crime] t r e n d s " . 5 4 117 The p l a n n i n g department and the RCMP i n North Vancouver c u r r e n t l y keep an " I - t o l d - y o u - s o - f i l e " f o r a f u t u r e review of s p e c i f i c developments, where CPTED p r i n c i p l e s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d , i n order to analyze trends i n the crime r a t e . Hallum b e l i e v e s t h a t "CPTED w i l l never cure the crime problem. I f i t keeps d i s p l a c i n g crime, maybe i t w i l l d i s p l a c e i t u n t i l i t i s t o t a l l y removed". 5 5 A d d i t i o n a l l y , he maintains t h a t what CPTED needs now i s more i n t e r e s t shown by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and u n i v e r s i t i e s to encourage m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to l e a r n more about crime p r e v e n t i o n . There does not n e c e s s a r i l y need to be p o l i c e input i n CPTED, he s t r e s s e s . C o r p o r a l J e t t e , who can o n l y recommend changes to p l a n s , saw the need to take the CPTED course because of h i s r o l e i n the crime p r e v e n t i o n u n i t . The course was extremely u s e f u l to him, because he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r reviewing a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e z o n i n g , b u i l d i n g permits and plans f o r r e n o v a t i o n and l a n d s c a p i n g . He f e e l s t h a t CPTED has taught him to look at b u i l d i n g s from a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t of view. Before, he had knowledge of t a r g e t hardening through h i s experiences i n crime p r e v e n t i o n . Now, he i s "more aware of environmental a s p e c t s , i n c l u d i n g the l i t t l e t h i n g s such as changing the paving m a t e r i a l f o r pathways". 5 6 However, i t took time f o r J e t t e to g a i n the c r e d i b i l i t y and approval of the design panel and- commission, because of h i s lack of experience i n p l a n n i n g . "Planners do not a p p r e c i a t e policemen coming i n and t e l l i n g them what to do and how to do t h e i r j o b s " , he says. For t h i s reason, he would l i k e to see CPTED t r a i n i n g take p l a c e a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l f o r planners, a r c h i t e c t s and landscape a r c h i t e c t s . Although he admits t h a t the success of CPTED i s d i f f i c u l t to measure, he has a l s o n o t i c e d t h a t CPTED knowledge c r e a t e s crime p r e v e n t i o n "awareness", which can work to reduce the fear of crime. The engineers, a r c h i t e c t s , landscape a r c h i t e c t s , d e v e l o p e r s , b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t o r s , and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the business community whose plans are reviewed by J e t t e , w i l l get to know more about CPTED. In h i s example he s t a t e s how a l o c a l a r c h i t e c t , a f t e r having h i s designs r e j e c t e d a number of times f o r s e c u r i t y reasons, i s now implementing p r a c t i c a l CPTED p r i n c i p l e s i n t o h i s own o r i g i n a l drawings. "This w i l l e v e n t u a l l y make the pl a n a p p r o v a l process much e a s i e r f o r the community",states J e t t e . 5 8 He a l s o notes that landscape a r c h i t e c t s are now more concerned about how l i g h t i n g l e v e l s , shrubbery and landscaping r e l a t e to crime p r e v e n t i o n . Richmond The m u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond has an a d v i s o r y design panel, made up of t h i r t y c i t i z e n s chosen from the community at l a r g e , but the RCMP i s not re p r e s e n t e d . Rather, when a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r rezon i n g and development plans are r e c e i v e d by the Richmond p l a n n i n g department, they are sent to Constable Rick Bouter i n CPU. The a p p l i c a t i o n s , complete with CPTED recommendations, are l a t e r r e t u r n e d to the planni n g department. "The p o l i c e are most concerned about m u l t i - f a m i l y developments", s t a t e s planner Wayne R o b e r t s o n . 5 9 Bouter was i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g the CPTED course because, as member of h i s detachment's CPU, i t was important for him to have t h i s t r a i n i n g . He s t a t e s t h a t there are two processes present f o r reviewing plans. F i r s t , he r e c e i v e s the p r o p o s a l s from the p l a n n i n g department and p e r s o n a l l y i n s p e c t s the s i t e . For each a p p l i c a t i o n , he must a l s o check the crime s t a t i s t i c s , kept by the CPU, and review the crime trends d a t i n g back s e v e r a l y e a r s . From h i s s i t e i n s p e c t i o n and crime data, he then reviews the proposals and, paying p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to ac c e s s e s , f e n c i n g , shrubs and l i g h t i n g , makes h i s recommendations, which the developer need not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w . Secondly, when a homeowner or entrepreneur proposes a new development or i s e x p e r i e n c i n g crime problems a t h i s home or business (e.g. break-and e n t e r ) , Bouter may be approached d i r e c t l y by him i n order to recommend a p p r o p r i a t e crime p r e v e n t i o n measures. T h i s o f t e n leads t o h i s involvement with Neighbourhood Watch and other p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s programs which have been o f f e r e d by the RCMP over the past ten y e a r s . 6 0 According to Bouter, people are not concerned about crime, or p r o t e c t i n g themselves, u n t i l they have been v i c t i m i z e d . In h i s words: " I t i s f r u s t r a t i n g sometimes t h a t my recommendations are not followed up, but you cannot f o r c e the developer to make the changes. When crime does occur, then the developer comes c a l l i n g on the p o l i c e " . 1 As a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n , Bouter would l i k e to see t h a t a l l recommendations not honoured by developers be reviewed by insurance companies to s t i p u l a t e c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s (e.g. higher premiums) on insurance p o l i c i e s . Bouter l i k e s the CPTED course because he has l e a r n e d the t e c h n i c a l terms f o r d e a l i n g with experts i n the f i e l d of l i g h t i n g , l a n d s c a p i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r e . He b e l i e v e s t h a t although a l o t of what CPTED has to o f f e r i s common sense, the course has made him much more aware of the p h y s i c a l d e s i g n problems. The Richmond RCMP have a l s o been a c t i v e i n CPTED by sponsoring seminars to members of the l o c a l government from Richmond and the surrounding m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and i n v i t i n g guest speakers, such as Jim Wise and Richard Gardiner, to promote CPTED. S u r r e y In Surrey, an RCMP r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the a d v i s o r y d e s i g n panel i s i n v o l v e d i n overseeing s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y a s p e c t s , such as proper t a r g e t - h a r d e n i n g measures and adequate l i g h t i n g . Surrey planner Andrew Malczewski s t a t e s t h a t i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to accomplish an e v a l u a t i o n of 121 CPTED. In h i s words: " T e c h n i c a l committees are w e l l aware of 'd e f e n s i b l e space', l i g h t i n g and f e n c i n g . However, nobody has done any r e s e a r c h on whether crime p r e v e n t i v e recommendations of the past have been e f f e c t i v e " . 2 Malczewski b e l i e v e s t h a t although i t i s very important f o r planners to know about CPTED, i t would o n l y be one of the matters t h a t planners must d e a l w i t h . In h i s o p i n i o n , CPTED i s b e t t e r handled through t e c h n i c a l committees. RCMP Sergeant Mike C l a r k , as a former member of the Surrey ADP, reviewed plans f o r a l l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t were to be b u i l t i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . His recommendations then needed to be approved by c o u n c i l . On ra r e o c c a s i o n s , Clark was a l s o asked d i r e c t l y , by develo p e r s , f o r crime p r e v e n t i o n analyses of t h e i r p r o p o s a l s . C l a r k f i n d s t h a t the course has helped him i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l p l a n n i n g problems a t the b l u e p r i n t stage. He s t a t e s : "The course does not give a 'cook book' approach to s o l v i n g problems. T h i s i s done by engineers and p l a n n e r s . The course i s a l s o e f f e c t i v e i n that i t w i l l show the RCMP o f f i c e r t h a t crime does have p a t t e r n s and th a t i t i s p r e d i c t a b l e . I t w i l l a l e r t the o f f i c e r on the generators of crime and f o r c e him to back t r a c k t g the b l u e p r i n t , the root of a p r o b l e m " . 6 3 A d d i t i o n a l l y , he f e e l s t h a t CPTED has been s u c c e s s f u l f o r g i v i n g c r e d i b i l i t y to the o f f i c e r s s i t t i n g on the a d v i s o r y design p a n e l . P o l i c e o f f i c e r s , i n h i s o p i n i o n , w i l l make more c o n v i n c i n g arguments because of t h e i r knowledge of 122 t e c h n i c a l terms fo r l i g h t i n g and landscape a r c h i t e c t u r e , and t h e i r a b i l i t y to converse with 'experts' i n these f i e l d s . Thus, the major hurdle t h a t the person t r a i n e d i n CPTED must overcome i s becoming f a m i l i a r with the t e c h n i c a l a spects of the concept. C l a r k b e l i e v e s t h a t CPTED w i l l not l e a d to a l a r g e decrease i n crime. "What tends to happen i s t h a t crime becomes d i s p l a c e d . What i t does do e f f e c t i v e l y i s i t makes the p o t e n t i a l v i c t i m l e s s l i k e l y to be the burden of o p p o r t u n i s t i c crimes. ! t d e f i n i t e l y has an impact on the t a r g e t " . 4 Vancouver In Vancouver, the process which most zoning and development permits go through i s shown i n s i m p l i f i e d form i n F i g u r e 7. For a p p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g s m a l l development, the p l a n - c h e c k i n g t e c h n i c i a n (or p l a n checker) conducts most of the review p r o c e s s . The plan checker: c o n s i d e r s the proposed use(s) and a l l a p p l i c a b l e r e g u l a t i o n s , p l a n s , p o l i c i e s and g u i d e l i n e s ; reviews the dimensions and c a l c u l a t i o n s shown on the drawings; obtains advice from other c i t y departments, pla n n i n g s t a f f , Urban Design Panel and the p u b l i c as r e q u i r e d ; and r e f e r s the a p p l i c a t i o n , with recommendations, f o r d e c i s i o n . 5 Figure 7 VANCOUVER'S APPROVAL PROCESS FOR ZONING AND DEVELOPMENT PERMITS MAY INCLUDE ADVICE FROM OTHER DEPARTMENTS ADVICE FROM OTHER PLANNING STAFF IF IN SPECIAL STUDY AREA. OR SITE OR DEVELOPMENT HAS HERITAGE IMPORTANCE ADVICE FROM URBAN DESIGN PANEL ADVICE FROM NEIGHBOURS FOLLOWING PUIiLIC NOTIFICATION R L E DEVELOPMENT PERMIT APPLICATION REVIEWED CHECKING BY PLAN-TECHNICIAN* (•Most one- and two-family dwellings permitted outright are dealt with by Permits and Licenses Dept. on behalf of Director of Planning, with advice from Engineer-ing Dept.) REFERRED TO DIRECTOR OF PLANNING OR DEVELOPMENT PERMIT BOARD WITH RECOMMENDATION' DECISION RENDERED AND APPLICANT ADVISED ('Many simple applications are referred directly to the Supervisor, Development Permit Group, for decision (on behalf of the Director of Planning). Certain of these applications, including simple changes of use not requiring parking or loading relaxations, are expedited through the process. Applications for targe-scale or contentious developments are referred to the Development Permit Board for decision). FROM C i t y of Vancouver, Zoning and Development Permits i n Vancouver (Vancouver! C i ty of Vancouver, May 1985). n.p. Such a p p l i c a t i o n s are o r d i n a r i l y decided by the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g or the S u p e r v i s o r , Development Permit group or, i n the case of most one- and two-family d w e l l i n g s , the D i r e c t o r of Permits and L i c e n c e s . A p p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g l a r g e - s c a l e or c o n t e n t i o u s developments are o r d i n a r i l y decided by the Development Permit Board, although the Board, once having g i v e n approval i n p r i n c i p l e to a p r e l i m i n a r y a p p l i c a t i o n , may, on o c c a s i o n , delegate the f i n a l d e c i s i o n on the complete a p p l i c a t i o n to the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g . 6 6 A c c o r d i n g to Douglas Purdy, Deputy D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , s e c u r i t y standards as for underground parkades have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the bylaw and e n f o r c e d by plan-checkers, development s t a f f , the Development Permit Board and Permits and L i c e n s e s s t a f f through the development permit process. In a l e t t e r he s t a t e s : T e c h n i c a l l y , f u r t h e r p o l i c e involvement i s not necessary. [ P o l i c e involvement] a p p l y to commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s . However, the one gap i n the process i s i n the i n s p e c t i o n p r o c e s s . Changes occur between the development permit and b u i l d i n g permit s t a g e s . A developer can, and I presume does on o c c a s i o n , s l i p through t h i s net of approvals to a v o i d doing what he i s r e q u i r e d to d o . 6 7 Purdy goes on to say t h a t i f i t i s recognized t h a t p o t e n t i a l c r i m i n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s may be present i n a p l a n , plan-checkers w i l l n o t i f y an o f f i c e r i n the p o l i c e department, who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g i v i n g recommendations on development p l a n s . T h i s occurs f r e q u e n t l y f o r developments such as l i q u o r o u t l e t s , pubs and n i g h t - c l u b s . The p o l i c e department i s a l s o c o n s u l t e d on planning f o r l a r g e r p r o j e c t s or areas, such as Expo and B.C. Place (North P a r k ) . Purdy s t a t e s : "Their input at the m a c r o - l e v e l i s important and does occur. At the m i c r o - l e v e l of development by the development a p p r o v a l s , s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s are b u i l t i n t o the b y l a w s . . . P o l i c e a l s o have brochures they provide to commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l developers on how to c r e a t e a s a f e r , more b u r g l a r - p r o o f environment. Some are bylaw requirements, others are advice to be taken or ignored. 8 In h i s c o n c l u d i n g remarks, Purdy notes t h a t " . . . s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s i n the p l a n n i n g process seem to be adequate and are r easonably w e l l addressed. That i s not to suggest t h a t improvements cannot be made or are unnecessary. I b e l i e v e the major s e c u r i t y i s s u e s have been or are being addressed i n a reasonably c o o r d i n a t e d f a s h i o n . I am unaware of a hue and c r y from the p u b l i c or the a r c h i t e c t u r a l or development community seeking more s t r i n g e n t or a d d i t i o n a l measures". 9 Purdy's b e l i e f s are indeed shared by some a r c h i t e c t s and p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s i n the c i t y . Ron Dies, an a r c h i t e c t with Z o l t a n K i s s and H a r r i s o n , s t a t e s t h a t the " p e r c e p t i o n of crime i n Vancouver i s not g r e a t " , but acknowledges t h a t i n g e n e r a l a r c h i t e c t s and planners are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r i s e i n c r i m e . 7 0 Dies claims t h a t h i s f i r m has, on o c c a s i o n , used p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t s to oversee the s e c u r i t y matters f o r proposed b u i l d i n g development. He b e l i e v e s t h a t although he i s q u i t e aware of s e c u r i t y 126 c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , he must do what h i s c l i e n t wants, even i f i t means t r a d i n g o f f s e c u r i t y f o r p r i v a c y or a e s t h e t i c s . Jim Moodie, a pl a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t , s i m i l a r l y f e e l s t h a t he knows enough about ' s u r v e i l l a n c e ' s t r a t e g i e s , and i s not i n favour of a CPTED-trained person reviewing plans "because there are a l r e a d y too many steps i n order to o b t a i n p l a n a p p r o v a l " . He s t a t e s : "There are too may concerns with f i r e and e n g i n e e r i n g aspects that cause enough problems a l r e a d y . Besides, the s o c i a l p l a n n i n g department reviews the development permits and i s concerned about crime". 1 In h i s work, Moodie maintains t h a t he i s c o n s i d e r a t e of a p a r t i c u l a r environment, but not to the p o i n t of f i n d i n g out what the crime r a t e i s f o r the area. "Personal p e r c e p t i o n s and knowledge of the area p l a y s a key r o l e " . 7 2 W i l f r e d B u t t j e s , the s e n i o r partner of B u t t j e s and A s s o c i a t e s , argues t h a t as an a r c h i t e c t he i s not f o r c e d by f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l or m u n i c i p a l laws to implement CPTED i n h i s work. Since the N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code of Canada on l y d e a l s with h e a l t h , f i r e and s t r u c t u r a l s a f e t y , he does not f e e l compelled to use CPTED s t r a t e g i e s unless h i s c l i e n t s request them to be implemented. 7 3 On the other hand, those i n the d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n , and with knowledge of CPTED, p r e f e r a s e c u r i t y review of p l a n s . Jane Durante, a landscape a r c h i t e c t , s t a t e s t h a t although she uses CPTED p r i n c i p l e s i n her work ( r e a l and symbolic b a r r i e r s , s u r v e i l l a n c e s t r a t e g i e s , good l i g h t i n g ) , she favours a CPTED review of her plans as pa r t of the p l a n -approval p r o c e s s . 7 4 Don Vaughn, who i s a l s o a landscape a r c h i t e c t and I n s t r u c t o r of the RCMP course on CPTED, b e l i e v e s t h a t " . . . i f you give an a r c h i t e c t some room, i t w i l l a l l o w him to be an a r t i s t . He w i l l be in n o v a t i v e and f o r g e t about s e c u r i t y " . 7 5 In h i s o p i n i o n , there i s a problem with the lack of knowledge of CPTED on the p a r t of a r c h i t e c t s and pl a n n e r s . T h i s problem, he says, stems from a lack of communication between the p o l i c e and RCMP departments i n Vancouver and the c i t y ' s p l a n n i n g department. White Rock In White Rock, an RCMP o f f i c e r p r e s e n t l y takes p a r t on the a d v i s o r y design panel and overlooks the s e c u r i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n development p l a n s . "This review occurs g e n e r a l l y l a t e i n the pl a n n i n g process", s t a t e s planner Dan Janczewski. " A f t e r the RCMP have made t h e i r recommendations, planners w i l l need to review those recommendations". 7 6 He b e l i e v e s t h a t planners do know about CPTED, but are not immediately f a m i l i a r with the p r i n c i p l e s of the concept. In h i s words: " I t would be u s e f u l f o r planners to know more about the content of CPTED. Then the planner and policeman can understand each other much b e t t e r " . 7 7 128 However, he remains s k e p t i c a l t h a t community planners w i l l immediately accept the concept because, i n h i s view, i t s t i l l remains to be seen whether CPTED i s e f f e c t i v e i n p r e v e n t i n g crime. S t a f f Sergeant Stan Nowicki s t a t e s t h a t h i s main d u t i e s , while on the d e s i g n panel, are to review plans i n terms of "the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of an area to crime", and then to "give h i s suggestions based on the type of area i t i s " . 7 8 The plans he sees are f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e n o v a t i o n of apartments and commercial b u i l d i n g s . He b e l i e v e s that the course o f f e r s a l o t of common sense s t r a t e g i e s , f o r p r e v e n t i n g crime, that the o f f i c e r may a l r e a d y be f a m i l i a r with from h i s law enforcement experience. However, CPTED does serve to make the o f f i c e r more aware of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime i n the e x i s t i n g or proposed environment. A d d i t i o n a l l y , Nowicki p r e s e n t l y d i s c u s s e s CPTED s t r a t e g i e s as p a r t of h i s p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s d u t i e s . Summary Of CPTED P r o j e c t s Around The Province Tumbler Ridge In November 1984, the t i t l e of an a r t i c l e appearing i n the J o u r n a l of Commerce read: "Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design G a i n i n g A c c e p t a n c e " . 7 9 I t f e a t u r e d a s t o r y on the implementation of CPTED i n the p l a n n i n g of a town i n B r i t i s h Columbia, c a l l e d Tumbler Ridge. Tumbler Ridge was founded i n e a r l y 1981 i n response to mining 129 o p e r a t i o n s i n the northeast area of the p r o v i n c e . F e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and mun i c i p a l agencies, d e v e l o p e r s , planners and members of the RCMP, and Simon Fr a s e r U n i v e r s i t y formed a pla n n i n g committee to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of d e s i g n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i n g the new town i n c o r p o r a t i n g CPTED p r i n c i p l e s . 8 0 In p l a n n i n g the town, peoples' needs were given p r i o r i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Thought was a l s o g i v e n to the e f f e c t s of r a p i d growth on the f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s of the community and the placement of s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s such as daycare c e n t r e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a s . CPTED s t r a t e g i e s , i n c l u d i n g access c o n t r o l , s t r e e t l a y o u t , s u r v e i l l a n c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t a r g e t - h a r d e n i n g were taken i n t o account i n p l a n n i n g the town s i t e . The concept of community-based p o l i c i n g was a l s o a p p l i e d . RCMP personnel were asked to i d e n t i f y crime problem areas and make recommendations on how to reduce or e l i m i n a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c r i m e . 8 1 Due to immediate c o n s t r u c t i o n demands and the high c o s t of some recommendations, not a l l f a c e t s of the community were c o n s t r u c t e d using CPTED p r i n c i p l e s . As a r e s u l t , e v a l u a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of the CPTED p r i n c i p l e s on the town's crime r a t e w i l l be more d i f f i c u l t than i n i t i a l l y envisaged. Since no other community co u l d be found to provide comparative data and because the RCMP d i d not r e c e i v e s u f f i c i e n t funding, i t was decided to forgo the e v a l u a t i o n and have a summary r e p o r t prepared. T h i s r e p o r t w i l l be completed and r e l e a s e d a t a l a t e r d a t e . 8 2 130 Langford-Colwood Langford and Colwood are two i n c o r p o r a t e d communities l o c a t e d on the urban f r i n g e of Greater V i c t o r i a . The C a p i t o l Regional D i s t r i c t has demonstrated i t s concern for community s e c u r i t y by the appointment of an RCMP r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to the Langford-Colwood A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission four years ago. The p r i n c i p l e d u t i e s of t h i s commission i n c l u d e making recommendations to c o u n c i l on the i m p l i c a t i o n s of p l a n n i n g - r e l a t e d i s s u e s , s p e c i f i c a l l y development permits and zoning bylaws. The i n f l u e n c e of the p o l i c e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on other board members has been n o t i c e a b l e ; they have i n t e g r a t e d CPTED p r i n c i p l e s with t h e i r concerns f o r design q u a l i t y and a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s . 8 3 Other communities i n B.C. where the RCMP have a c t i v e l y promoted CPTED to a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commissions are P r i n c e George, Nanaimo, V i c t o r i a , Vernon, Kamloops, Cranbrook and S a a n i c h . 8 4 Matsqui Matsqui was one of the f i r s t communities i n B.C. to i n i t i a t e p o l i c e input i n community p l a n n i n g . P l a n n e r s , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the p o l i c e , have r e v i s e d zoning d r a f t s and plans f o r m u l t i - f a m i l y housing, and proposed amendments to the zoning bylaw, mainly f o r s e c u r i t y and s a f e t y purposes. 131 The changes i n c l u d e : (1) improved l i g h t i n g f o r above ground and underground p a r k i n g ; (2) s e c u r i t y of underground p a r k i n g areas through the i n s t a l l a t i o n of automatic s l i d i n g doors; (3) p l a y areas f o r c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n apartment b u i l d i n g s (These areas must be i s o l a t e d from t r a f f i c throughways and must be l o c a t e d i n such a manner as to a l l o w fo r c a s u a l s u r v e i l l a n c e ) . 8 5 These changes, which f o l l o w CPTED p r i n c i p l e s , have yet to be approved by Matsqui C o u n c i l . Burnaby Although there i s c u r r e n t l y no a c t i v e RCMP involvement i n pl a n n i n g f o r Burnaby, s e v e r a l s t u d i e s on the Environmental Design and Management (EDM) approach to crime p r e v e n t i o n have been conducted i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . In 1981, the Cornerstone P l a n n i n g Group concluded an e x t e n s i v e EDM a n a l y s i s of crime d a t a . The data were c o l l e c t e d through i n t e r v i e w s , f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n , and a review of a v a i l a b l e r e p o r t and RCMP f i l e m a t e r i a l . Case study crime l o c a t i o n s were then s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of p o l i c e p e r c e p t i o n s of high and low areas. The c o n c l u s i o n s reached suggested that "...high crime areas have the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s i n common: they are l o c a t e d adjacent to major t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s ; they are d i v i d e d by t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s or t r a f f i c flows; they have easy access i n t o the area from any 132 d i r e c t i o n and easy movement through the areas the s t r e e t p a t t e r n In a l l areas i s based on the g r i d ; and they have t r a f f i c generators m a l l s , commercial s t r e e t s , l i q u o r o u t l e t s , e t c . . . As w e l l , [these] areas have high p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s coupled with high t r a n s i e n c y p o c k e t s " . 8 6 On the other hand, f e a t u r e s common to the low crime areas a r e : "socio-economic u n i f o r m i t y ; lack of easy access t o the r e s i d e n t i a l core; and no commercial d evelopments". 8 7 Broad crime p r e v e n t i o n programs, such as Block Parents, Neighbourhood Watch and p o l i c e involvement i n c i t y p l a n n i n g were then suggested. Furthermore, r e s u l t s from a q u e s t i o n n a i r e administered to RCMP personnel suggested t h a t the f o l l o w i n g EDM s t r a t e g i e s are con s i d e r e d t o have the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s a g a i n s t the l i s t e d crimes: Hardware s t r a t e g i e s are e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t Break-and-Enter, Vandalism and a l l t h e f t s . P h y s i c a l d e sign s t r a t e g i e s are e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t Break-and-Enter, A s s a u l t s and a l l t h e f t s . S o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s are e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t Break-and-Enter, Vandalism, A s s a u l t s , a l l T h e f t s , and A s s i s t a n c e o c c u r r e n c e s . 8 8 Three years l a t e r , P r o f e s s o r James W. Wilson, from SFU, s u p e r v i s e d a student p r o j e c t on the same areas i n Burnaby as were analyzed by the Cornerstone P l a n n i n g Group. The study concludes with some recommendations f o r a p p l y i n g EDM s t r a t e g i e s to e x i s t i n g environments. Wilson's approach 133 i s as f o l l o w s : 1. Analyze the crime s i t u a t i o n : Who i s doing what to whom? Where, and from what p o i n t s or o r i g i n ( g e n e r a t i o n ) ? At what times? Approaching and escaping how? 2. What p h y s i c a l elements (land uses, b u i l d i n g s , s t r e e t s , a l l e y s ) are i n v o l v e d and what i s i t about them t h a t permits the crime to take place? 3. What s o l u t i o n s are a v a i l a b l e to change the p h y s i c a l environment? 4. How would these s o l u t i o n s support or f a c i l i t a t e management by p o l i c e and others? 5. Evaluate the s o l u t i o n s / c h a n g e s i n r e l a t i o n to other urban o b j e c t i v e s . For example, a c c e s s i b i l i t y , appearance, p r i v a c y and c o s t -e f f e c t i v e n e s s , r e c o g n i z i n g the v a r i o u s p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . 6. Consult p a r t i e s a f f e c t e d by changes. 7. Make recommendations. 8 9 He then argues t h a t i f EDM i s to have any e f f e c t , the mechanisms a v a i l a b l e f o r implementation would i n c l u d e : (1) b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t i o n (the a p p l i c a b l e s t r a t e g i e s are t a r g e t - h a r d e n i n g , v a n d a l -p r o o f i n g and d e t e c t i o n hardware). (2) s u b d i v i s ion c o n t r o l (the a p p l i c a b l e s t r a t e g i e s are those governing street-cum-l o t t i n g p a t t e r n s , and i t i s noted t h a t the M u n i c i p a l Act g i v e s the Approving O f f i c e r both a u t h o r i t y and a degree of d i s c r e t i o n i n determining "the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ' ) . (3) land use p l a n n i n g (zoning bylaw, community pl a n , comprehensive development, maintenance bylaw). (4) Other Powers ( c o n t r o l of business l i c e n c e s , p r o v i s i o n of i n c e n t i v e s e.g. fee r e d u c t i o n f o r developments which i n c l u d e approved EDM measures i n t h e i r d e s i g n ) . 9 0 134 Richmond In 1984, a study by the Octagon C o n s u l t i n g S e r v i c e s attempted to i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i v e impact of e n v i r o n m e n t a l / s t r u c t u r a l housing f e a t u r e s and the s o c i o -demographic c h a r a c t e r of the development on crime by examining t h i r t y - f o u r housing developments s e l e c t e d from high, medium and low crime areas of Richmond. For each development, data was c o l l e c t e d on housing type and s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , v e h i c l e and p e d e s t r i a n p a t t e r n s , type of park i n g , l a n d s c a p i n g f e a t u r e s , l i g h t i n g type and q u a l i t y , s u r v e i l l a n c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , p r i v a c y b a r r i e r s , type of management, type of r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n (age, SES, d e n s i t y , l e n g t h of occupancy) and type of s e c u r i t y and management p o l i c i e s employed. Data were obtained from the Richmond RCMP on the exact number and type of crime problems experienced by each development d u r i n g the p e r i o d February 15 to December 31, 1983. Contingency a n a l y s i s was conducted between each v a r i a b l e and t o t a l number of crimes per 100 u n i t s per development. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study are i n c o n c l u s i v e p r i m a r i l y because the mu l t i t u d e of environmental and s o c i o -demographic f a c t o r s are complicated and h i g h l y i n t e r -r e l a t e d . Thus, i t i s impossible to d e p i c t p r e d i c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between any s i n g l e f a c t o r , or couple of f a c t o r s , with c r i m e . 9 1 The s t r o n g e s t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s are found between socio-demographic f a c t o r s and crime. Age and type of r e s i d e n t are c o r r e l a t e d with the crime r a t e per 100 u n i t s per housing development. B u i l d i n g s with young a d u l t r e s i d e n t s have a higher crime r a t e than b u i l d i n g s with s e n i o r s or f a m i l i e s . The environmental design f e a t u r e s such as l i g h t i n g , d e f e n s i b l e space and use of symbolic b a r r i e r s (CPTED) are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the o v e r a l l crime r a t e per b u i l d i n g . However, the study shows a very s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f t from autos and the type and s u r v e i l l a b i l i t y of the pa r k i n g a r e a s " . 9 2 CPTED In B.C. Has Generated I n t e r e s t Across Canada Despite the i n c o n c l u s i v e evidence produced by s t u d i e s on Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design i n B.C., the RCMP course on CPTED has been so popular among law enforcement o f f i c e r s t h a t the p o l i c e f o r c e s i n Cal g a r y , Edmonton and Regina have requested p o s i t i o n s , f o r t h e i r own members, on the course. Furthermore, because of the CPTED r e s e a r c h t h a t has taken place i n B.C., more i n t e r e s t has been generated on the t o p i c i n other p a r t s of Canada. For example, some u n i v e r s i t i e s U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , C a r l t o n U n i v e r s i t y and the U n i v e r s i t y of Ottawa have r e c e n t l y o f f e r e d CPTED courses. A d d i t i o n a l l y , more c i t i e s have experimented with CPTED p r i n c i p l e s i n community p l a n n i n g . 9 3 The Regina P o l i c e S e r v i c e , i n c o o p e r a t i o n with the Regina C i t y P l anning Department, has been implementing CPTED 136 s i n c e January 1984. Proposals f o r r e n o v a t i o n s or new b u i l d i n g s , submitted to the p l a n n i n g department by developers and b u i l d e r s , are forwarded to CPU. The p o l i c e are a l s o i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e at s e l e c t e d c i t y p l a n n i n g meetings, to ensure t h a t s a f e t y , s e c u r i t y and crime p r e v e n t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are implemented i n t o designs at the p l a n n i n g stage. ENDNOTES •"•Vancouver Charter, S.B.C, c. 55, P a r t IX, s. 306(a), 1953. P. 93. z S t e v e n Gertsman, as quoted a t B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of Technology workshop (on the Knowledge Network), "The B u i l d i n g Code: Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design". Burnaby: *E' D i v i s i o n (RCMP), M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ( B u i l d i n g Standards Branch), and B r i t i s h Columbia Housing and Management Commission, J u l y 17, 1980. J P e r s o n a l correspondence with G. Douglas Purdy, Deputy D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g f o r the C i t y of Vancouver. 27 August 1986. Purdy, pe r s o n a l correspondence. 28 August 1986. 5Purdy, p e r s o n a l correspondence. 28 August 1986. 6 B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act, R.S.B.C, c. 290, s. 716(2), 1979. P. 201. 'Ian Rogers, The Law of Canadian M u n i c i p a l C o r p o r a t i o n s (1959), as quoted i n " S e l e c t e d Readings i n Law f o r L o c a l P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t o r s " , ed. by W i l l i a m T. Lane (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986),p. VI-8. °Gary Paget, "Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design: A L o c a l Government P e r s p e c t i v e " ( V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . Prepared f o r the B.C Crime P r e v e n t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , Annual Workshop and General Meeting, October 25-26, 1983), no page. ^ E l i s e C l a r k , Kelowna Alderman, "CPTED To Lower P o l i c i n g Costs", The D a l l y C o u r i e r , November 26, 1983. P. 1. 1 0 P a g e t , n.p. ^ A n A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission (APC) oversees the development of the community, area by ar e a . A l l community pla n s , such as s c h o o l s , parks, and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s are reviewed by the APC to determine the l o c a t i o n f o r such developments. The APC can have a major impact on 'paths of convenience' the route t r a v e l l e d by people to and from drawing p o i n t s ( s c h o o l s , arcades, r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s , dance h a l l s , stadiums, e t c . ) . An A d v i s o r y Design Panel (ADP) oversees the f i n a l plans on a l l b u i l d i n g s and s u b d i v i s i o n s . The ADP i s not as e f f e c t i v e as the APC as the scope tends to be much narrower a n a l y z i n g s p e c i f i c s i n g l e b u i l d i n g s . From notes of Sergeant M. J . Cl a r k (RCMP), "B a s i c Knowledge of CPTED Concepts". Notes on p r e s e n t a t i o n of CPTED to students of the RCMP course on CPTED (Vancouver: Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , Headquarters, 1984), no page. 1 2 T h e C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of Burnaby, Bylaw No. 7600, "Burnaby A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission Bylaw, 1980". A Bylaw to e s t a b l i s h an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commission pursuant to s e c t i o n 715 of the M u n i c i p a l Act, R.S.B.C., 1979. 1 December 1980. Page 1. 1 3 I n t e r v i e w with Jack Balhouse, Planner f o r M u n i c i p a l i t y of Burnaby. 7 August 1986. 1 4 B a l h o u s e , i n t e r v i e w . 7 August 1986. 1 5 I n t e r v i e w with Sergeant Ron Khlon. Burnaby Detachment of the RCMP. 25 August 1986. 1 6 K h l o n , i n t e r v i e w . 25 August 1986. 1 7 I n t e r v i e w with Sergeant E r i c Ledwon. Burnaby Detachment of the RCMP. 27 August 1986. •"-"Interview with C o r p o r a l Les For s y t h e , O f f i c e r - I n -Charge of the Burnaby Detachment of the RCMP. 27 August 1986. 139 1 9 I n t e r v i e w with Constable Paul Desbiens. O f f i c e r - I n -Charge of the Coquitlam Detachment of the RCMP. 12 August 1986. 2 0 D e s b i e n s , i n t e r v i e w . 12 August 1986. 2 1 D e s b i e n s , i n t e r v i e w . 12 August 1986. 2 2 M a r i l y n Ashmore, " P o l i c e Involvement and t h e i r Major Needs i n the Area of Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (Vancouver: C o n s u l t a t i o n Centre, M i n i s t r y of the S o l i c i t o r General of Canada, 1982), p. 7. 2 3 D e s b i e n s , i n t e r v i e w . 12 August 1986. 2 4 D e s b i e n s , i n t e r v i e w . 12 August 1986. 2 5 D e s b i e n s . i n t e r v i e w . 12 August 1986. 2 6 D e s b i e n s , i n t e r v i e w . 12 August 1986. 2 7 I n t e r v i e w with Peter Repin, S p e c i a l P r o j e c t T e c h n i c i a n for the M u n i c i p a l i t y of D e l t a . 6 August 1986. 2 8 I n t e r v i e w with George Angus, P o l i c e C h i e f f o r D e l t a . 11 August 1986. 2 9Ashmore, pp. 22-23. ^ " i n t e r v i e w with Constable Jim Ingram, D e l t a P o l i c e Department. 11 August 1986. • ^ I n t e r v i e w with John Gerhearty, Senior Planner f o r the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Langley. 6 August 1986. 3 2 G e r h e a r t y , interview.! 6 August 1986. 3 3 G e r h e a r t y , i n t e r v i e w . 6 August 1986. 140 3 4 I n t e r v i e w with Constable Doug Hadley, Langley Detachment of the RCMP. 13 August 1986. 3 5 H a d l e y , i n t e r v i e w . 13 August 1986. 3 6 M i n u t e s from the Mayor-In-Council meeting i n Maple Ridge f o r May 12, 1980 read by Constable Ron Elm, Maple Ridge RCMP, at the BCIT workshop on J u l y 17, 1980. 3 7 I n t e r v i e w with Ron Boyes, D i r e c t o r of Pl a n n i n g f o r the D i s t r i c t of Maple Ridge. 5 August 1986. 3 8 B o y e s , i n t e r v i e w . 5 August 1986. 3 9 B o y e s , i n t e r v i e w . 5 August 1986. 4 0 I n t e r v i e w with Constable Ron Elm, Maple Ridge Detachment of the RCMP. 22 August 1986. 4 1 E l m , i n t e r v i e w . 22 August 1986. 4 2 P e r s o n a l correspondence with C o r p o r a l George D. L e i n , O f f i c e r - I n - C h a r g e of the Crime P r e v e n t i o n and Community P o l i c i n g U n i t of the P r i n c e George Detachment of the RCMP. 25 August 1986. 4 3 E l m , i n t e r v i e w . 22 August 1986. 4 4 E l m , i n t e r v i e w . 22 August 1986. 4 5Ashmore, p. 22. 4 6 I n t e r v i e w with A l Ing, Community Planner f o r the C i t y of New Westminster. 6 August 1986. 4 7 I n g , i n t e r v i e w . 6 August 1986. 4 8 I n t e r v i e w with Constable Bob R e i l l y , New Westminster P o l i c e Department. 14 August 1986. 141 4 9 R e i l l y , i n t e r v i e w . 14 August 1986. 5 0 R e i l l y , i n t e r v i e w . 14 August 1986. 5 1 I n t e r v i e w with Paul Hallum, Planner f o r the C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. 12 August 1986. 5 2 H a l l u m , i n t e r v i e w . 12 August 1986. 5 3 H a l l u m , i n t e r v i e w . 12 August 1986. 5 4 H a l l u m , i n t e r v i e w . 12 August 1986. 5 5 H a l l u m , i n t e r v i e w . 12 August 1986. 5 6 I n t e r v i e w with C o r p o r a l Don J e t t e , North Vancouver Detachment of the RCMP. 25 August 1986. 5 7 J e t t e , i n t e r v i e w . 25 August 1986. 5 8 J e t t e , i n t e r v i e w . 25 August 1986. 5 9 I n t e r v i e w with Wayne Robertson, Planner f o r the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond. 6 August 1986. ^ " i n t e r v i e w with Constable Rick Bouter, Richmond Detachment of the RCMP. 18 August 1986. 6 1 B o u t e r , i n t e r v i e w . 18 August 1986. 6 2 I n t e r v i e w with Andrew Malczewski, Planner f o r the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Surrey. 5 August 1986. 6 3 I n t e r v i e w with Sergeant Mike C l a r k , RCMP member of the B r i t i s h Columbia J u s t i c e I n s t i t u t e . 20 August 1986. C l a r k , Interview. 20 August 1986. 142 6 5 C i t y of Vancouver, Zoning and Development Permits i n Vancouver (Vancouver: C i t y of Vancouver, May 1985), no page. 6 6 C i t y of Vancouver, Zoning and Development Permits In Vancouver, n.p. 6 7 P u r d y , p e r s o n a l correspondence. 27 August 1986. 6 8 P u r d y , p e r s o n a l correspondence. 27 August 1986. 6 9 P u r d y , p e r s o n a l correspondence. 27 August 1986. 7 0 I n t e r v i e w with Ron Dies, A r c h i t e c t with Z o l t a n K i s s and H a r r i s o n i n Vancouver. 9 J u l y 1986. 7 1 I n t e r v i e w with Jim Moodie, P l a n n i n g Consultant with Jim Moodie Consultants i n Vancouver. 10 J u l y 1986. 7 2 M o o d i e , i n t e r v i e w . 10 J u l y 1986. 7 3 I n t e r v i e w with W i l f r e d B u t t j e s , A r c h i t e c t with B u t t j e s and A s s o c i a t e s i n Vancouver. 14 J u l y 1986. 7 4 I n t e r v i e w with Jane Durante, Landscape A r c h i t e c t with Vaughn and Durante Landscaping i n Vancouver. 8 J u l y 1986. 7 5 I n t e r v i e w with Don Vaughn, Landscape A r c h i t e c t with Vaughn and Durante Landscaping i n Vancouver. 20 August 1986. '"Interview with Dan Janczewskl, Planner f o r the C i t y of White Rock. 5 August 1986. 7 7 J a n c z e w s k i , i n t e r v i e w . 5 August 1986. 7 8 I n t e r v i e w with S t a f f Sergeant Stan Nowicki, White Rock Detachment of the RCMP. 11 August 1986. 7 9 " C r i m e P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design G a i n i n g Acceptance". J o u r n a l of,Commerce. November 19, 1984. P. A5 8 0 R o y a l Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , Reduction of Op p o r t u n i t y f o r Crime: Handbook for Police Officers (Ottawa: Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , 1985), p. 22. 8 1RCMP, Reduction of Opp o r t u n i t y f o r Crime; Handbook for Police Officers, p. 22. ^ 8 2RCMP, Reduction of Opp o r t u n i t y f o r Crime; Handbook for Police Officers, p. 22. 8 3 M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s and the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , "Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design: References f o r L o c a l Government" ( V i c t o r i a : P rovince of B r i t i s h Columbia. Prepared f o r M u n i c i p a l O f f i c e r s A s s o c i a t i o n of B.C. Annual Conference, P r i n c e George, June 1-3, 1983), no page. 84 Ashmore, pp. 3-29. 8 5Ashmore, p. 33 ^^Cornerstone P l a n n i n g Group, "Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design and Management: Case Study, Burnaby,B.C." (Vancouver, B.C.: Cornerstone Planning Group, A p r i l 1981), p. 48. 87 Cornerstone P l a n n i n g Group, p. 58 88 Cornerstone P l a n n i n g Group, p. 82 8 9James W. Wilson, "Planning Safer Communities: An E x p l o r a t i o n i n Burnaby, B.C." (Burnaby: Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1984), p. 44. Wilson, "Planning Safer Communities", p. 44-46. Q 1 Octagon C o n s u l t i n g S e r v i c e s , "Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design i n M u l t i - F a m i l y Housing, Richmond, B.C." (Ottawa: CMHC E x t e r n a l Research Program, August 1984), p. 38. 9 2 O c t a g o n C o n s u l t i n g S e r v i c e s , p. 38. y j I n t e r v i e w with Norm Brown, Crime P r e v e n t i o n Coordinator f o r P o l i c e S e r v i c e s Branch, M i n i s t r y of the A t t o r n e y General i n Vancouver. 31 J u l y 1986. CHAPTER FIVE ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS From the main f i n d i n g s presented i n the two preceding c h a p t e r s , t h i s chapter c r i t i c a l l y analyzes the study and p r a c t i c e of CPTED i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Study Of CPTED Problems With The T h e o r e t i c a l Aspects According to a r c h i t e c t R i chard Rabnett, CPTED p r i n c i p l e s have gone... "almost as f a r as they can u n t i l a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i s c a r r i e d out. We're at a cro s s r o a d s now with regard to some of our b a s i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . We are not t o t a l l y sure they are c o r r e c t . We need some new t o o l s , some new approaches to the problem". 1 But, present c o n d i t i o n s suggest t h a t the t h e o r e t i c a l a spects of CPTED are not immediately a c c e p t a b l e to pl a n n e r s . The pe r c e i v e d problems can be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1 ) There i s no evidence that changing a neighbourhood's p h y s i c a l environment w i l l s u c c e s s f u l l y reduce the crime r a t e . " E v a l u a t i o n i s t r i c k y " , admits Rabnett. For a town b u i l t with crime p r e v e n t i o n p r i n c i p l e s i n mind, "you would have to b u i l d a new town without CPTED p r i n c i p l e s and compare them". 2 146 2) CPTED o b j e c t i v e s o f t e n c o n f l i c t w i th p l ann ing conce rn s , a p o i n t which i s seldom brought up by CPTED e n t h u s i a s t s . CPTED p r i n c i p l e s may run c o n t r a r y to concerns over a e s t h e t i c s , access and m o b i l i t y , f i r e s a f e t y and c o s t -e f f i c i e n c y , as mentioned by p l anner s in t h i s s tudy . Fur thermore , examples used i n CPTED courses are u s u a l l y not p resented w i th the argument tha t p r i o r i t i e s must be e s t a b l i s h e d between cr ime p r e v e n t i o n and other p l a n n i n g conce rn s . 3) There i s a low l e v e l of p e r c e i v e d need and a l a ck of d e t a i l e d data on the a c t u a l need of CPTED in the p r o v i n c e . A l though suppo r te r s of CPTED ma in t a i n t h a t de s i gn p r i n c i p l e s to reduce cr ime o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i l l be wor th le s s i f cr ime becomes a s e r i o u s prob lem, the gene ra l b e l i e f among those i n the p l ann ing and de s i gn p r o f e s s i o n i s t ha t there i s l i t t l e need f o r cr ime p r e v e n t i o n because the s e r i o u s n e s s of cr ime i n Canadian c i t i e s i s not comparable to the l e v e l s of cr ime i n l a r g e U.S. c i t i e s . 4) The e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of the approach i s d i f f i c u l t . CPTED r e q u i r e s not on l y a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of the e x i s t i n g or p o t e n t i a l cr ime problem and of the r e l e v a n t env i ronmenta l f a c t o r s , but i t a l s o demands the involvement of a range of i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y c i t i z e n s and the p o l i c e . Moreover, many of the de s i gn s t r a t e g i e s can be expens ive to implement i n e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s . 5) P l anner s and a r c h i t e c t s argue tha t s t anda rd s , 147 such as r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g g u i d e l i n e s , are needed before the concept can be giv e n some r e c o g n i t i o n . 6) Planners have mistaken CPTED as f o c u s i n g on a • f o r t r e s s ' m e n t a l i t y , because the concept has been s t r o n g l y supported by law enforcement agencies. 7) CPTED has o f t e n been presented and i n t e r p r e t e d as a ' s i n g l e approach' to the p r e v e n t i o n of crime. For a l l the noted reasons, CPTED i n f o r m a t i o n continues to g a i n minimal a t t e n t i o n by plann i n g s c h o o l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s . I n s u f f i c i e n t Channels Of Communication Although CPTED i s supposed to f u n c t i o n as an "awareness" program, the communication channels i n B.C. are not s u f f i c i e n t a t the present time. There are many reasons which help to e x p l a i n the i n s u f f i c i e n t e ducation of CPTED fo r planners i n B.C. 1) There i s a s e r i o u s lack of commitment on the p a r t of the t r a d i t i o n a l knowledge sources, such as p u b l i c educators. At UBC, the School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g and the School of A r c h i t e c t u r e r e j e c t e d p r o p o s a l s , from the RCMP, the Vancouver P o l i c e Department and the M i n i s t r y of the Attorney General, f o r i n t r o d u c i n g a CPTED course i n the u n i v e r s i t y c u r r i c u l u m . 3 The ex p l a n a t i o n s given f o r the r e j e c t i o n were inadequate funding and re s o u r c e s . The RCMP, though, s p e c u l a t e t h a t p u b l i c educators remain unconvinced of the merits of CPTED and c i t e 148 the v o i d i n u n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h on the concept as proof. 2) Funding shortages have minimized CPTED ed u c a t i o n . In the past two years, the RCMP have not been able to o f f e r the CPTED courses because of budget c o n s t r a i n t s . Other programs, such as s e c u r i t y t r a i n i n g f o r Expo 86, decreased the p r i o r i t y g iven to CPTED i n the a l l o t t e d budget. T h i s problem, coupled with the f a c t t h a t there are very few l o c a l resource persons with enough e x p e r t i s e t o l e c t u r e i n the course, has l e d to the RCMP's i n a c t i v i t y i n CPTED s i n c e the f a l l of 1984. T h i s has not onl y h a l t e d e d u c a t i o n f o r the p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , but has a l s o stopped CPTED r e s e a r c h . 3) CPTED programs have not been designed f o r pl a n n e r s . Some i n s t r u c t o r s of the RCMP course experienced c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y with the planners, who were a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r with the plann i n g i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d . Planners were d i s r u p t i v e i n c l a s s e s and tended t o lead the group e x e r c i s e s . Furthermore, there were problems i n o b t a i n i n g commitments from planners as candidates f o r the course. Most had budget problems, while many others saw l i t t l e or not value i n a t t e n d i n g the course. 4) Education has been incomplete because r e s u l t s from l o c a l CPTED s t u d i e s are i n c o n c l u s i v e . The Richmond study and the two Burnaby s t u d i e s serve as examples. These three s t u d i e s s u f f e r e d from the multitude of environmental and socio-demographic f a c t o r s which were complicated and h i g h l y i n t e r - r e l a t e d . Furthermore, because e v a l u a t i o n s of CPTED s t r a t e g i e s implemented i n Tumbler Ridge d i d not take p l a c e , CPTED l o s t some of I t s appeal and c r e d i b i l i t y , even among the pl a n n e r s , a r c h i t e c t s , landscape a r c h i t e c t s and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s that p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the plann i n g processes. S t a f f Sergeant Jack Hest e x p l a i n s : "A l o t of people are coming up now and sa y i n g 'Your Crime P r e v e n t i o n program sure i s n ' t working i n Tumbler Ridge'. O b v i o u s l y they have not read a l l the r e p o r t s where every phase of these r e l a t e d problems i s documented. I have volumes of r e p o r t s t h a t p r e d i c t v erbatim what i s happening now. You cannot take i t i n any s l i c e of time and say the program's a f a i l u r e . You have to look a t the whole p i c t u r e . Down the road i n 15 years Tumbler Ridge may be e n j o y i n g a l o t l e s s community crime per c a p i t a than another community t h a t was designed i n a completely d i f f e r e n t way. I t i s a gamble but i f you do not take these r i s k s now you won't be ahead i n the f u t u r e " . 4 For a l l these reasons, CPTED r e s e a r c h i n B.C. i s now at a s t a n d s t i l l . How CPTED Has Been M i s i n t e r p r e t e d By Planners From these f i n d i n g s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t CPTED has been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by pl a n n e r s . CPTED's inherent f a l l a c y i s th a t i t promises the pr e v e n t i o n of c r i m i n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , yet i t i s d i f f i c u l t to measure whether or not t h i s o b j e c t i v e can be achieved. P a t r i c i a Brantingham foresaw' such dangers t h a t CPTED cou l d encounter at the i n c e p t i o n of the RCMP course. In her words: "There i s a danger t h a t crime p r e v e n t i o n w i l l be o v e r s o l d i n the way s o c i a l welfare programs were o v e r s o l d as 'cures' f o r crime i n the 150 1960s, and then abandoned when i t s performance f a i l s to match f u l l y the promises t h a t were made. There i s a danger t h a t communities w i l l be pressed to mount i n a p p r o p r i a t e , or p o o r l y conceived, or even c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e programs which n e e d l e s s l y r a i s e community f e a r l e v e l s , or which even make the crime problem worse, simply because they are c a l l e d 'crime p r e v e n t i o n ' programs. F i n a l l y , because crime p r e v e n t i o n i s a new f i e l d , we do not f u l l y understand the c o n d i t i o n s under which p a r t i c u l a r types of programs w i l l be e f f e c t i v e i n p a r t i c u l a r communities. There i s a danger t h a t our e v a l u a t i o n s w i l l be too crude, sometimes mi s s i n g e f f e c t i v e programs w i t h i n a broader f i e l d of i n e f f e c t i v e programs, sometimes making sp u r i o u s claims of e f f e c t i v e n e s s out of enthusiasm and m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d a t a " . 5 But, even though a t r u e measurement of CPTED's success i s d i f f i c u l t to a c h i e v e , planners should r e a l i z e t h a t CPTED serves another purpose: to reduce the fear of crime, which i s p e r c e i v e d as being j u s t as important as reducing crime i t s e l f . The r a t i o n a l e f o r g i v i n g ' f e a r ' equal emphasis with crime has two main elements: f e a r can a f f e c t everyone, whether or not v i c t i m i z a t i o n occurs, and fear i s o f t e n exaggerated, b e a r i n g l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to the l e v e l of crime. When an unreasonably high fear of crime i s experienced i n the community, i t i s necessary to analyze f e a r , and i t s r e d u c t i o n , independently of the success i n r e d u c i n g crime. C l e a r l y , planners must take i n t o account t h a t t h e i r knowledge of CPTED w i l l be b e n e f i c i a l not o n l y i n determining whether t h e i r d e c i s i o n s f o r the development of a proposed p r o j e c t w i l l r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d or decreased crime o p p o r t u n i t i e s , but a l s o i n understanding whether or not there i s an i n c r e a s e i n c i t i z e n s ' f e a r of crime. 151 A d d i t i o n a l l y , the implementation of CPTED i s based on the acknowledgement t h a t every environment i s unique i n terms of i t s crime problem and c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s . T h e r e f o r e , the s e l e c t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e crime p r e v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s must vary from environment to environment. While CPTED i n c l u d e s s t r a t e g i e s aimed a t improving the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an environment f o r crime p r e v e n t i o n purposes, i t does not recommend u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n of any one s t r a t e g y . In f a c t , i t may be necessary to depend l a r g e l y on the management s t r a t e g i e s i n the case of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s ( e s p e c i a l l y m u l t i - f a m i l y housing) because design s t r a t e g i e s f o r e x i s t i n g c r i m e - r i d d e n s t r u c t u r e s are expensive to implement. CPTED's o b j e c t i v e s have a l s o been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by p l a n n e r s . The promoters of CPTED maintain that the goal of t h i s approach i s to reduce o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime t h a t e x i s t i n neighbourhoods, e s p e c i a l l y those with b l i n d a l l e y s , u n l i t s t r e e t s and dense shrubbery. I t i s by making the environment seem a t t r a c t i v e and safe t h a t i t g i v e s the people who have a l e g i t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n with t h a t space a f e e l i n g of peace and t r a n q u i l l i t y . Taking t h i s argument one step f u r t h e r , CPTED attempts to b u i l d p r e v e n t i o n i n t o the d e s i g n so t h a t people do not have to thi n k about i t a l l the time. Although t a r g e t - h a r d e n i n g i s a component of CPTED, i t only p l a y s a s m a l l r o l e i n the o v e r a l l approach. Indeed, the d i s t i n c t i o n between CPTED the p r o b a b i l i t y 152 of crime o c c u r r i n g and t a r g e t - h a r d e n i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of crime o c c u r r i n g should be made. When the p r o b a b i l i t y of crime i s reduced, p r e v e n t i o n i s being addressed. When the p o s s i b i l i t y of crime i s reduced, c o n t r o l l i n g crime a l r e a d y accepted as o c c u r r i n g i n the area i s being addressed. Moreover, planners are of the o p i n i o n t h a t CPTED i s a s i n g l e approach to the p r e v e n t i o n of crime. Obviously, t h i s i s not the case. CPTED only o f f e r s d e sign f e a t u r e s t h a t permit c i t i z e n s to f e e l r e s p o n s i b l e and p r o t e c t i v e of t h e i r p a r t of the neighbourhood. But t h i s approach r e s t s on a major assumption: t h a t i t i s o n l y with the conscious and a c t i v e support of the r e s i d e n t s of a neighbourhood i n m a i n t a i n i n g the p h y s i c a l changes i n t h e i r neighbourhood and i n d e t e c t i n g and r e p o r t i n g crimes t h a t crime p r e v e n t i o n through environmental design can work. For t h i s reason, formal r e s i d e n t i a l crime p r e v e n t i o n a c t i v i t i e s should be encouraged i n c o n j u n c t i o n with CPTED p r i n c i p l e s . Neighbourhood Watch and Operation I d e n t i f i c a t i o n are two of the most common. A c l o s e l i a s o n between the p o l i c e and the community i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l . The Crimestoppers t e l e v i s i o n segments h i g h l i g h t the need f o r the p u b l i c ' s a s s i s t a n c e i n r e p o r t i n g crimes. The Crimestoppers program encourages people, who have witnessed a crime, with a reward for anonymously c a l l i n g the p o l i c e department and d i s c l o s i n g important i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l lead to a r r e s t s and c o n v i c t i o n s . In essence, CrImestoppers can be regarded as a 153 p a r t of the 'motivation reinforcement' component the p u b l i c ' s involvement i n crime p r e v e n t i o n of CPTED. Such p o l i c i n g s t r a t e g i e s which increase i n t e r a c t i o n with r e s i d e n t s enhance the s e t t i n g of s e c u r i t y p r i o r i t i e s i n response to community concerns. R i c h a r d Rabnett has openly c r i t i c i z e d RCMP p o l i c y i n Tumbler Ridge f o r p u t t i n g o f f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n programs. He argues: "Along with a p p l y i n g CPTED p r i n c i p l e s , [the RCMP] were to i n s t i t u t e a community p o l i c y p r o j e c t whereby the s e n i o r o f f i c e r would s t a y i n the community f o r a long term, become f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d , be placed on boards, e t c . . . But t h i s has not happened to the extent i t should have. Part of making CPTED work i s through p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a l programs such as Neighbourhood Watch. Ob v i o u s l y the RCMP want to make the programs work and t h e i r i d e a l s are c o r r e c t . But they are u n d e r s t a f f e d . I think they have l o s t 80 percent of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l to i n t e g r a t e . 6 The p o i n t t o be made here i s t h a t CPTED i t s e l f w i l l not lead to the pr e v e n t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t y crimes, as i s sometimes i n t e r p r e t e d by pl a n n e r s . The s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n of CPTED p r i n c i p l e s i n a community, i n f a c t , i m p l i e s t h a t the fu t u r e c o o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e of c i t i z e n s and the p o l i c e i s necessary f o r r e p o r t i n g and pre v e n t i n g crimes. CPTED i s no more a panacea f o r improving the q u a l i t y of l i f e of c i t i z e n s and communities than any of the other crime p r e v e n t i o n programs. I t i s , however, a va l u a b l e approach i n b r i n g i n g together the people who pl a n , l i v e i n and r e g u l a t e the community. 154 CPTED In P r a c t i c e L e g i s l a t i o n Experience r e v e a l s t h a t when the de s i g n of c e r t a i n aspects of the b u i l t environment i s deemed to be c r i t i c a l to the h e a l t h , s a f e t y and w e l l - b e i n g of people, the immediate r e a c t i o n of many i s to look to the p o s s i b i l i t y of l e g i s l a t i n g or r e g u l a t i n g the design and c o n s t r u c t i o n of these aspects through one or more of a v a r i e t y of mechanisms, i n c l u d i n g l o c a l plans and zoning bylaws and n a t i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l b u i l d i n g codes. Some have suggested t h a t many CPTED s t r a t e g i e s should be t r e a t e d i n a s i m i l a r way. Law enforcement o f f i c i a l s i n t e r v i e w e d i n the re s e a r c h f o r t h i s study agreed t h a t the b u i l d i n g codes should be amended to d e a l with the s e c u r i t y of the p u b l i c on matters such as i n t r u s i o n c o n t r o l , f o r two reasons. F i r s t , p o l i c e o f f i c e r s b e l i e v e t h a t the b u i l d i n g codes should address s e c u r i t y standards j u s t as they r e g u l a t e h e a l t h , f i r e and s t r u c t u r a l s a f e t y . Second, the o f f i c e r s b e l i e v e t h a t f o r a r c h i t e c t s and developers to i n c o r p o r a t e CPTED g u i d e l i n e s i n t o t h e i r b u i l d i n g s r e q u i r e s the i n c l u s i o n of CPTED standards i n the b u i l d i n g codes. In B r i t i s h Columbia, crime p r e v e n t i o n i s not given s u f f i c i e n t emphasis by planners and a r c h i t e c t s of new p r i v a t e and p u b l i c developments because e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s have, i n g e n e r a l , not found the need to adopt s e c u r i t y code p r o v i s i o n s or to make i n f o r m a l suggestions i n t h i s regard to 155 d evelopers i n e a r l y design-review stages. The primary reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t there i s no g e n e r a l l y accepted approach to l e g i s l a t i v e p o l i c y on CPTED. The nature of CPTED's a p p l i c a t i o n i s e n v i r o n m e n t - s p e c i f i c and t h e r e f o r e s t a n d a r d i z i n g s t r a t e g i e s i s next to i m p o s s i b l e . In the absence of l e g i s l a t i o n i n the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l b u i l d i n g codes, a r c h i t e c t s and planners consequently do not f e e l compelled to i n c o r p o r a t e crime p r e v e n t i o n measures i n t h e i r work. A d d i t i o n a l l y , because the e s s e n t i a l r o l e of the designer i n s e c u r i t y p l a n n i n g has not been w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d , c l i e n t s are g i v e n the impression t h a t s e c u r i t y i s something to be r e c o n c i l e d a f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n . C l i e n t s , t h e r e f o r e , become d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n s e c u r i t y matters and do not request t h a t d e s i g n e r s p l a n f o r s e c u r i t y . Furthermore, as Michael L l e c h e n s t e i n has argued, "even with good i n t e n t i o n s and e a r l y p l a n n i n g f o r s e c u r i t y on the p a r t of the a r c h i t e c t and h i s c l i e n t , when c o n s t r u c t i o n budgets begin to overrun, adequate s e c u r i t y measures are o f t e n the f i r s t to be abandoned or r e l a x e d " . Concerns With Investigation R e s u l t s Emerging from the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the p r a c t i c e of CPTED i n B.C. are s e v e r a l f i n d i n g s which can now be c r i t i c a l l y assessed. 1) Although one of the purposes of CPTED has been to c r e a t e "community awareness" i n crime p r e v e n t i o n , the program's o b j e c t i v e has o f t e n been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d to be the r e d u c t i o n and eventual e l i m i n a t i o n of 'opportunity' crimes. T h i s , however, i s not the case. Even CPTED e n t h u s i a s t s can only p r o c l a i m t h a t t h e i r goal i s to reduce and e l i m i n a t e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime. The problem which a r i s e s i s th a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to prove whether o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime have been reduced u n t i l a crime i s committed. Thus, CPTED remains untested u n t i l then, and a f t e r a crime i s committed the approach i s c r i t i c i z e d f o r not having been s u c c e s s f u l . At the same time, though, i t i s not a p p r o p r i a t e to simply r e j e c t t h i s approach because i t i s d i f f i c u l t to prove i t s m e r i t s . An e f f o r t should be made to r e s e a r c h how CPTED can b e t t e r be implemented and evaluated i n p r a c t i c e . RCMP sug g e s t i o n s , such as lower insurance premiums f o r those developers who adopt CPTED p r i n c i p l e s i n t h e i r work and keeping an " I - t o l d - y o u - s o " f i l e so t h a t planners and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s can check the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the approach, provide a u s e f u l beginning. 2) There are two d i f f e r e n t systems of CPTED implementation emerging w i t h i n the RCMP. In Richmond and Coquitlam p r o p o s a l s f o r development are sent to the RCMP crime p r e v e n t i o n u n i t s i n those detachments f o r p o l i c e input, whereas i n North Vancouver and White Rock (and for m e r l y i n Surrey and Maple Ridge) the p o l i c e o f f i c e r s a c t i v e l y take p a r t on APCs and ADPs. Although both of these methods may y i e l d s i m i l a r recommendations, the l a t t e r process i s s u p e r i o r because the s e t t i n g f o r crime p r e v e n t i o n concerns v o i c e d by p o l i c e o f f i c e r s allows f o r the education 157 of. other members of the commissions or de s i g n panels, and provides a forum f o r debate. In t h i s way, the "community awareness" of crime p r e v e n t i o n i s f u r t h e r enhanced. As w e l l , i n North Vancouver and Maple Ridge, p o l i c e o f f i c e r s have been i n v o l v e d with planners i n the implementation and monitoring of CPTED i n the communities. But, i n other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s where the CPTED approach i s used, o n l y the p o l i c e o f f i c e r s have been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d . Despite t h i s p o s i t i o n , some p o l i c e o f f i c e r s have asked that more a u t h o r i t y be given to law e n f o r c e r s over the p l a n -approval p r o c e s s . T h i s view, though, i s not shared by S t a f f Sergeant Jim B r a m h i l l , who b e l i e v e s t h a t a mon i t o r i n g system would then be needed to review the RCMP recommendations. 8 In B r a m h i l l ' s o p i n i o n , more involvement i n CPTED on the p a r t of planners would a l l e v i a t e some of the plann i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s now shouldered by the p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . 3) No matter how knowledgeable planners become of CPTED, p o l i c e input w i l l always be r e q u i r e d because of the o f f i c e r s ' crime p r e v e n t i o n experience. Furthermore, CPTED has proven to be b e n e f i c i a l t o p o l i c e o f f i c e r s who c l a i m t h a t they become more aware of the impact of the environment and thus help them i n c a r r y i n g out other r e g u l a r d u t i e s a f t e r completing the RCMP course. But i t i s not suggested t h a t both the planner and p o l i c e o f f i c e r be t r a i n e d c o n c u r r e n t l y . In f a c t , r e s u l t s from an RCMP course e v a l u a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t separate courses f o r planners and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s are needed so th a t the 158 c u r r i c u l a can b e t t e r be organized to s u i t the s p e c i f i c needs of the s t u d e n t s . 9 4) I n s t i t u t i n g a course f o r planners or as k i n g them to work a l o n g s i d e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s i n the plan-ap p r o v a l process i s not an easy task because the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the o b j e c t i v e s of these two p r o f e s s i o n s does not f a c i l i t a t e communication. Of the eleve n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s t u d i e d , i t was found t h a t o n l y planners and RCMP o f f i c e r s i n the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver and Map l e Ridge had maintained a good, working r e l a t i o n s h i p with regards to CPTED. In White Rock and Surrey, where RCMP o f f i c e r s have taken p a r t on the ADPs, l e s s communication has occurred between planners and o f f i c e r s . Although CPTED has been p r a c t i c e d by the RCMP i n Coquitlam and Richmond, i n f o r m a t i o n was not shared i n an e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g by pl a n n i n g departments and crime p r e v e n t i o n u n i t s . In the remaining m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , planners and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s accuse each other of having a lack of p l a n n i n g knowledge. Whereas law e n f o r c e r s b e l i e v e t h a t more CPTED input i s r e q u i r e d f o r p l a n n i n g i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , planners argue t h a t such an approach might produce ' f o r t r e s s communities' governed by f e a r . 1 0 If CPTED were l e f t to the p o l i c e , then planners would indeed have a l e g i t i m a t e concern. But planners should not have problems i n p r a c t i c i n g CPTED because they are accustomed to working with m u l t i p l e o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s t r u e , as some planners have remarked, t h a t c r i m e - o r i e n t e d d e s i g n s t r a t e g i e s w i l l f r e q u e n t l y c o l l i d e with other p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s based on a e s t h e t i c s , c o m p a t i b i l i t y , freedom of movement and c o s t . But, such c o n f l i c t s the community planner takes i n h i s s t r i d e as i n e v i t a b l e and s o l u b l e by one means or a n o t h e r . 1 1 5) While c i t y c o u n c i l s assume t h a t planners are knowledgeable of CPTED and apply the p r i n c i p l e s to t h e i r work, i n r e a l i t y t h i s i s not so. The planners i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s study were not aware of the p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s which p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g can make to crime p r e v e n t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t s from the lack of a body of knowledge and the education and t r a i n i n g e f f o r t s to produce planners s k i l l e d i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of crime p r e v e n t i o n i n the p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Yet, as James Wilson has argued, what i s i n t e r e s t i n g i s the extent to which many CPTED p r i n c i p l e s echo some c l a s s i c p r e s c r i p t i o n s from p l a n n i n g theory: "One i n p a r t i c u l a r looks back to the theory of the neighbourhood, which s t i p u l a t e d an area of l i m i t e d s i z e , p r e f e r a b l y with e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e boundaries, c o n t a i n i n g a few neighbourhood-oriented commercial f a c i l i t i e s and f e a t u r i n g a road p a t t e r n designed to discourage 'through' t r a f f i c a l l of which are now advanced as promoting t e r r i t o r i a l i t y and s a f e t y . Another r e v e r t s back to Buchanan's T r a f f i c In Towns: 'There must be areas of good environment...where people can l i v e , work, shop, look about and move around on f o o t i n reasonable freedom from the hazards of road t r a f f i c , and there must be a complementary network of r o a d s . . . f o r a f f e c t i n g the primary d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c to the environmental areas', t h a t i s , d e f i n e d neighbourhoods s e t i n a network of main roads. [CPTED] may indeed be a r e - b i r t h , but i t has long and deep r o o t s i n p l a n n i n g i d e a s " . 1 2 160 6) Although CPTED e n t h u s i a s t s are encouraged to see th a t the concept has been used In the development of Tumbler Ridge and has been a p p l i e d i n s t u d i e s f o r Richmond and Burnaby, CPTED has not been p r a c t i c e d i n the Lower Mainland to the extent t h a t the RCMP had hoped. Of the pl a n n i n g departments i n eleven m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , f i v e D e l t a , Langley, Vancouver, New Westminster and Burnaby rep o r t e d no involvement with CPTED i n the plann i n g p r o c e s s . Furthermore, the RCMP has found t h a t one-half of the students i n the CPTED course are a l r e a d y members of APCs and ADPs before enrollment, while one-quarter of the t o t a l students become such members o n l y a f t e r g r aduating from the course. J A d d i t i o n a l l y , of 19 graduates from the 1982 course, nine l a t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t the t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d on CPTED was being used on a weekly to monthly b a s i s , s i x s a i d t h a t i t was being used on a d a i l y b a s i s and four r e p o r t e d t h a t i t was onl y being used o c c a s i o n a l l y . 1 4 A l l of these s t a t i s t i c s r e v e a l t h a t the RCMP should, perhaps, r e a s s e s s i t s own involvement i n CPTED and renew i t s c a l l s f o r CPTED t r a i n i n g a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l f o r planners, a r c h i t e c t s and landscape a r c h i t e c t s . With t h i s t r a i n i n g , b e t t e r communication channels between p l a n n i n g departments and crime p r e v e n t i o n u n i t s may permit the inc r e a s e d involvement of p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s i n the pl a n n i n g process and a l l o w crime p r e v e n t i o n concerns to be addressed e f f e c t i v e l y . 7) I t i s i r o n i c t h a t although p l a n n e r s , such as Schlomo Angel and Oscar Newman, were the f i r s t people to r e s e a r c h and promote CPTED p r i n c i p l e s , i t Is the law enforcement agencies t h a t have pursued t h i s p l a n n i n g approach. While p o l i c e agencies remain o p t i m i s t i c t h a t CPTED w i l l prove to be e f f e c t i v e i f i t i s p r o p e r l y researched and implemented, the concept has yet to make s i g n i f i c a n t inroads i n the p l a n n i n g f i e l d . What i s most c r i t i c a l , though, i s t h a t the gen e r a l p u b l i c has been l e f t out of the education process. The RCMP i n B.C. has f a i l e d to f u l f i l l i t s o b j e c t i v e of making CPTED "awareness" a r e a l i t y to r e s i d e n t s i n the p r o v i n c e , and has not r e a l i z e d t h a t the c i t i z e n s through such means as a d v e r t i s i n g campaigns, p u b l i c meetings, debates and survey q u e s t i o n n a i r e s should decide whether or not the approach w i l l , b e pursued by planners i n t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . In t h f u t u r e , p u b l i c support may determine whether there w i l l be an i n c r e a s e i n the p r a c t i c e of 'crime p r e v e n t i o n through environmental d e s i g n ' i n B r i t i s h Columbia. ENDNOTES •'•Richard Rabnett, 1983, as quoted i n Tom Gies, "The Tumbler Ridge Experiment", P r e v e n t i o n , V o l . 1, No. 3 (December 1983), p. 6. 2Rabnett, 1983, as quoted i n P r e v e n t i o n , p. 6. ^Inte r v i e w with Norm Brown, Crime P r e v e n t i o n Coordinator f o r P o l i c e S e r v i c e s Branch, M i n i s t r y of the Attorney General i n Vancouver, B.C. 31 J u l y 1986. 4RCMP S t a f f Sergeant Jack Hest, 1983, as quoted i n Pr e v e n t i o n , p. 7. 5 P a t r i c i a Brantingham, 1983, as quoted i n P r e v e n t i o n , p. 2. ^Rabnett, 19 83, as quoted i n P r e v e n t i o n , p. 6. "^Michael L i e c h e n s t e i n , D e s i g n i n g f o r S e c u r i t y . Rand C o r p o r a t i o n Papers P-4633 (New York: Rand I n s t i t u t e , A p r i l 1971), p. 11. i n t e r v i e w with RCMP S t a f f Sergeant Jim B r a m h i l l . Fairmont Academy, Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e Headquarters, Vancouver, B.C. 28 August 1986. 3 A t the completion of the RCMP course, students were asked to evaluate the m a t e r i a l covered and provide recommendations f o r f u t u r e i n s t r u c t i o n i n CPTED. The responses provided by the students i n d i c a t e t h a t the f o l l o w i n g items need c o n s i d e r a t i o n : more i n s t r u c t i o n r e q u i r e d i n reading blueprints/maps; more pre-course r e a d i n g ( e s p e c i a l l y on l i g h t i n g ) ; a d d i t i o n a l s y n d i c a t e work on l i g h t i n g f o r i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s and shopping m a l l s ; more examples of completed CPTED p r o j e c t s ; some i n f o r m a t i o n on r u r a l p l anning; attendance of ADP or APC meetings or the formation of mock design committees; other uses f o r CPTED (aside from p a r t i c i p a t i o n on APC's and ADP's) should be presented. From RCMP Memo. August 30, 1983. •"•"James W. Wilson, "Planning Safer Communities: An E x p l o r a t i o n In Burnaby, B.C." (Burnaby: Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1984), p. 43. 11 Wilson, p. 43. 12 Wilson 43. 13 RCMP Memo. August 30, 1983. 14 RCMP Memo. August 30, 1983. CHAPTER SIX POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS, SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, AND CONCLUSION Th i s chapter d i s c u s s e s the prospects f o r CPTED i n B r i t i s h Columbia and, i n t h i s r egard, examines p o l i c y recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h and p r a c t i c e of the concept. A summary of the main f i n d i n g s of the t h e s i s and a gene r a l c o n c l u s i o n are then presented. The Prospects For CPTED In B r i t i s h Columbia The Inconclusive Evidence There i s no c l e a r evidence t h a t CPTED has been e f f e c t i v e i n reducing crime l e v e l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia because CPTED i s underdeveloped i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . P l a n n e r s , i n g e n e r a l , remain unconvinced of the merits of CPTED s i n c e e a r l y s t u d i e s have been i n c o n c l u s i v e . Consequently, the promotion of the concept has not been s u c c e s s f u l . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y a disappointment f o r CPTED e n t h u s i a s t s who intended to demonstrate the value and advantages of p o l i c e and planners working together to modify the environment. Despite the e a r l y optimism i n CPTED, l i t t l e r e s e a r c h was conducted l o c a l l y . Much of the work on CPTED i n t h i s province was based on r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s from the United S t a t e s , where s t u d i e s have c u r r e n t l y advanced towards refinement of the theory and p r a c t i c e of CPTED. 165 Instead o£ the a p p l i c a t i o n of CPTED i n the e a r l y s t ages, r e s e a r c h f o r a p p r o p r i a t e implementation of the concept to the l o c a l environment should have been encouraged. Simply t r a n s f e r r i n g the U.S. experience to B.C. was not adequate. Furthermore, the f i n d i n g s from the U.S. were based on s t u d i e s conducted i n major urban c e n t r e s such as New York, H a r t f o r d and Minneapolis and were a p p l i e d d u r i n g the p l a n n i n g stage to the new s m a l l town of Tumbler Ridge. CPTED promoters c l e a r l y f a i l e d to c o n s i d e r t h a t experiences of d e a l i n g with l a r g e c i t i e s are not t r a n s f e r a b l e to sm a l l towns. To assess the extent of changes to the environment which may be j u s t i f i e d and what the nature of the changes should be, s t a t i s t i c a l data i s r e q u i r e d r e g a r d i n g the crime s i t u a t i o n : s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s , number of people i n v o l v e d , nature of v i c t i m s , time of day and of f e n d e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i n c l u d i n g l e v e l of s k i l l ) . Other examples of crime-p r e v e n t i o n i s s u e s which need f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : the extent to which p a r t i c u l a r crimes can be d e f i n e d as 'crimes of o p p o r t u n i t y ' ; the environmental s t i m u l i t h a t a f f e c t a p o t e n t i a l o f f e n d e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of whether or not a p a r t i c u l a r environment i s v u l n e r a b l e ; the most e f f e c t i v e means of m a i n t a i n i n g the i n t e r e s t and involvement of r e s i d e n t s and o c c u p i e r s of environments i n working to prevent crime i n t h e i r communities. 166 These requirements are most s u i t e d f o r b u i l t environments or to proposed development near e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s , where crime data can be obtained from p o l i c e r e c o r d s . For the proposed development of towns, such as Tumbler Ridge, the a p p l i c a t i o n of CPTED w i l l r e l y mainly on s u r v e i l l a n c e , access c o n t r o l and m o t i v a t i o n reinforcement s t r a t e g i e s and the implementation should o n l y take place;once CPTED has been researched l o c a l l y . Planners argue t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to accept CPTED as a v i a b l e crime p r e v e n t i o n program i f i t o n l y works best i n s m a l l e r communities where crime i s not a major problem. Furthermore, planners are not convinced t h a t crime i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the design of the environment. They maintain t h a t peoples' c a r e l e s s n e s s such as l e a v i n g doors and windows open and unlocked may a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e to the urban crime problem. In t h i s case, p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n programs and a d v e r t i s i n g campaigns, which are more c o s t - e f f e c t i v e than m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the environment, are r e q u i r e d . U n t i l r e s e a r c h i s conducted i n B.C. to determine which v a r i a b l e s are most c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with crime, f u t u r e implementation of CPTED i s d i f f i c u l t to accept by p l a n n e r s . Given CPTED's shortcomings, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to know whether or not i t i s a v a l i d concept. Although r e d u c i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime i s an a t t r a c t i v e i d e a , m o nitoring CPTED's e f f e c t i v e n e s s as with any other crime p r e v e n t i o n program i s d i f f i c u l t . But, because CPTED concerns i t s e l f with an important s o c i e t a l i s s u e , attempts to implement the concept and evaluate i t s success should be c a r r i e d out. CPTED As A Promising Concept F i n d i n g s from on-going r e s e a r c h i n the U.S. suggest t h a t CPTED has achieved success i n red u c i n g crime l e v e l s . In a follow-up study of the H a r t f o r d p r o j e c t , R i c h a r d Gardiner found t h a t there was a 42% r e d u c t i o n i n crimes i n the de s i g n a t e d study area, even though there had been a steady i n c r e a s e i n crimes i n the c i t y d u r i n g the same p e r i o d . 1 In St. L o u i s , M i s s o u r i , neighbourhood p r e s e r v a t i o n and redevelopment occurred due to a l o c a l e n a b l i n g law a l l o w i n g r e s i d e n t s on the same s t r e e t to c r e a t e and maintain t h e i r neighbourhood t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . In Oak Park, I l l i n o i s , neighbourhood p r e s e r v a t i o n d e a l t with r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial environments. In both cases, crime was reduced. A l s o noted was heightened community i n t e r a c t i o n and neighbourhood concern, Increased r e s i d e n t use of neighbourhood spaces, and s t a b i l i z e d and c o n s i s t e n t l y higher p r o p e r t y values where c e r t a i n CPTED techniques were employed. 2 In Mi n n e a p o l i s , skypasses from b u i l d i n g to b u i l d i n g i n a one-by-two mile area of the downtown core of the c i t y removed p e d e s t r i a n s from the c i t y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced o p p o r t u n i t y c r i m e s . 3 In Oakland, where a s i m i l a r s t r a t e g y has been used, o p p o r t u n i t y crimes decreased by 97%. 4 Based on these examples, CPTED can work i f the theory of the concept i s thoroughly s t u d i e d f o r the t a r g e t area, 168 and i f CPTED i s given s u f f i c i e n t time to i n t e g r a t e i n t o communities before e v a l u a t i o n takes p l a c e . There i s another f a c t o r crime displacement which suggests t h a t CPTED i s a promising concept f o r r e d u c i n g crime. In crime p r e v e n t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , displacement has been t r e a t e d as a problem with CPTED demonstration p r o j e c t s . Newman acknowledges t h i s and asks whether a p a t t e r n of u n i f o r m l y d i s t r i b u t e d crime i s p r e f e r a b l e to one i n which crime i s conc e n t r a t e d In p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s . He argues t h a t the second a l t e r n a t i v e i s more d e s i r a b l e and would l i k e to see crime d i s p l a c e d , i f displacement i s i n e v i t a b l e f o r some crimes, to the shopping, i n s t i t u t i o n a l and business areas of the c i t y , which are more e a s i l y served by the p o l i c e . He r e c o g n i z e s , however, t h a t t h i s would be both d i f f i c u l t to accomplish and would e n t a i l moral dilemmas. 5 Displacement has remained a r e l a t i v e l y unknown phenomenon. Most authors appear to downplay i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e s p e c t to o p p o r t u n i s t i c c r i m e s . 6 But, the very f a c t t h a t displacement occurs perhaps i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t CPTED has been e f f e c t i v e i n re d u c i n g o p p o r t u n i s t i c crimes. Thus, displacement may not be so much a problem with CPTED as i t i s a product of i t s success. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , there has been l i t t l e a n a l y s i s of o p p o r t u n i t y and crime, and the I m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g displacement. There i s c l e a r l y a need, at t h i s time, f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s r e g ard. 169 A d d i t i o n a l l y , although i t has been d i f f i c u l t to prove t h a t CPTED Is e f f e c t i v e f o r red u c i n g crime, the concept i s a l s o recognized as a program f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g crime p r e v e n t i o n "awareness". A d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commissions have provided a forum f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n CPTED. RCMP o f f i c i a l s c l a i m t h a t once t h e i r recommendations are made, other panel members i n c l u d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the design f i e l d q u i c k l y become aware of the i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t c e r t a i n p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s have on crime l e v e l s . Even though CPTED may not become implemented, as the a p p l i c a n t s of development permits are not bound by the RCMP recommendations, CPTED i s t r e a t e d as another p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e t h a t must be giv e n some c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The e d u c a t i o n a l value of CPTED has been a common f i n d i n g r e p o r t e d by RCMP members of these commissions throughout the p r o v i n c e . Despite these p o s i t i v e aspects concerning CPTED, fu t u r e implementation of the concept i s d i f f i c u l t to accept by p l a n n e r s . Indeed, a seemingly endless c y c l e has emerged where CPTED w i l l not be p r a c t i c e d u n t i l i t i s proven s u c c e s s f u l , and yet i t s success cannot be proven u n t i l i t i s p r a c t i c e d . C l e a r l y , a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h on the theory and p r a c t i c e of CPTED i s r e q u i r e d . F o l l o w i n g are p o l i c y recommendations which, i f implemented, w i l l make e v a l u a t i o n attempts s e n s i b l e i n fu t u r e y e a r s . An e v a l u a t i o n of CPTED w i l l s t i l l be d i f f i c u l t and may prove to be i n c o n c l u s i v e a f t e r these steps are taken, but law enforcement and government o f f i c i a l s f e e l i t should be done. In t h e i r o p i n i o n , even i f CPTED's success can only be determined s u b j e c t i v e l y , the concept i s worth improving to see how i t can best be implemented. P o l i c y Recommendations For Fjoture Research And P r a c t i c e Of CPTED These recommendations have been c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o three groups: knowledge, p r a c t i c e and m i t i g a t i o n . Knowledge Knowledge takes into- c o n s i d e r a t i o n the r e s e a r c h , study and a d v e r t i s i n g of the CPTED concept. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on the theo r y and p r a c t i c e of CPTED i s r e q u i r e d from the RCMP, CMHC, p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l government m i n i s t r i e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . In order to i n v e s t i g a t e the many aspects of CPTED, demonstration p r o j e c t s need to be conducted. The s i z e of the p r o j e c t may determine the degree of complexity and number of p h y s i c a l changes t o be implemented; f o r example, from a l i m i t e d s t r e e t or park p r o j e c t , to a comprehensive neighbourhood r e s t o r a t i o n or urban renewal p r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g p u b l i c as w e l l as p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and i n t e r e s t s . Whatever the d e s i r e d type or s i z e of p r o j e c t , i t should be understood t h a t the a c t u a l study area should i n c l u d e the surrounding e n v i r o n s . I t has been shown t h a t the cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s of o p p o r t u n i t y crime can be the r e s u l t of an 171 environmental framework t h a t i n c l u d e s zone or even c i t y - w i d e systems and generators which provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crimes a t the neighbourhood s e t t i n g . 7 No matter what the p r o j e c t e n t a i l s whether i t i s a neighbourhood p r e s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t , major redevelopment or new development p r o j e c t CPTED w i l l be able to accommodate a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d because of i t s all-encompassing approach. The f o l l o w i n g matrix (Figure 8) o u t l i n e s the CPTED f e a t u r e s t h a t are most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s p e c i f i c environments. For a proposed development, a l l four CPTED s t r a t e g i e s should be u t i l i z e d . S u r v e i l l a n c e , access c o n t r o l and a c t i v i t y support s t r a t e g i e s lead to i n c r e a s e s i n r e a l and p e r c e i v e d r i s k s of d e t e c t i o n . M o t i v a t i o n r e i n f o r c e m e n t , on the other hand, leads to r e a l and p e r c e i v e d r i s k s of apprehension and a r e d u c t i o n i n s u c c e s s f u l crimes. For the b u i l t environment, the most a p p r o p r i a t e and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s are a c t i v i t y support and m o t i v a t i o n r e i n f o r c e m e n t . A c t i v i t y support, as with s u r v e i l l a n c e and access c o n t r o l , leads to a r e d u c t i o n i n attempted crime. A l l four s t r a t e g i e s c o n t r i b u t e to the r e d u c t i o n i n f e a r of cr ime. S u r v e i l l a n c e and access c o n t r o l s t r a t e g i e s can be implemented at the plan-review stage, while m o t i v a t i o n reinforcement i s best enhanced through p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n programs. A c t i v i t y support s t r a t e g i e s , on the other hand, r e q u i r e t h a t m o d i f i c a t i o n s be made to the p h y s i c a l environment. For New And B u i l t Environment For New Development •d CD tr CD I H - 3 CO o CD O P H, CO CD O > O O 2 O M W W C/l O CO tr1 o SU PT w < a M 00 t r 1 — c+ t r 1 > P c+ o CD w trq H -CD CO " T W O P C L H - CDC o 4 C c + H O I - ' c+O H - P H H -H P tSJ c + - " 0 Oc+CD H O (D O do P t > CO Hft° > r* N / trss P. O CD w <; O H -P. CD POT c CD tr o c+ p H " op o c+ CO • c + C H H« • O ^ o 3 • tr 1 pi Man •d CD Man P H j P O CD (TP CD 3 CD CO 3 H -CD C H c+ CD t*J o ts tr o p I—1 H ' t ! H -O O CD H - 5 co CD 3 CO CD c+ 3 O St ,. ^Ha H J p 1—1 H« H3 CD c+ 4 P-CTQ CD CD H * c+ H - o (Tq ia-/ > / | St Bl De £? p. o co 5 o H -p- £ Cfq PR 3 >~i O CO p. O CD CO P . CD JUL CO 3 CD O tr H -o p o o H3 o oo w 0 0 * i J S ) O > » 4 C CD 4 H j CD CD H, c+ CD H - O p - H - P P . H - c+ P-3 o C 3 n C 3 CD C CD CD O \ CD O / CD 3 O CO CD A CD *d CD CO f c+ H j CD P. M Q o p I—1 CO 173 E v a l u a t i o n of the CPTED demonstration p r o j e c t should take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 8 Were the planned environmental changes a c t u a l l y implemented as designed? I f so, can any c o r r e l a t i o n be made between s p e c i f i c changes and s p e c i f i c r e d u c t i o n s i n crime? Has there been a r e d u c t i o n i n crime? I f so, what types of o p p o r t u n i t y crimes were reduced and i n which areas? Is the environment being used d i f f e r e n t l y than was Intended? I f so, by whom, and i n what manner? What, i f any, aspects of the neighbourhood have been i n f l u e n c e d or improved by the CPTED p r o j e c t ? What q u a l i t y of l i f e changes have occurred? Has there been an increase i n the value of r e a l e s t a t e , or i n d i c a t i o n of enhanced p r i d e of ownership? Has there been any crime displacement? In order to answer these q u e s t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and s t a t i s t i c s should be g a t h e r e d : 9 c i t y crime s t a t i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g attempts as w e l l as a c t u a l occurrences; v i c t i m i z a t i o n and f e a r surveys; urban d e s i g n data i n c l u d i n g land use p a t t e r n s , c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n s and volumes, urban q u a l i t y a n a l y s i s , s t r u c t u r a l and maintenance c o n d i t i o n , p u b l i c support system changes, and p r i v a t e development a c t i v i t y ; c i t i z e n survey i n f o r m a t i o n on sense of neighbourhood i d e n t i t y , use of environment, neighbour awareness, s t r a n g e r r e c o g n i t i o n , demographic p a t t e r n s , ownership and frequency or r e l o c a t i o n . T h i s Information should be obtained from both the p r o j e c t s i t e and the surrounding area. I t w i l l a l s o be necessary to s e l e c t and monitor a c o n t r o l s i t e separate from the t a r g e t area and i t s immediate environs i n order to o b t a i n a reasonable comparison of crime r a t e s and changes. Such a c o n t r o l area should be s i m i l a r i n composition and have s i m i l a r o p p o r t u n i t y crime problems, but i t should be s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t a n t from the study area to ensure a v a l i d compar i s o n . 1 0 The study of CPTED should a l s o be i n t r o d u c e d a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l f o r graduates and students of p l a n n i n g , a r c h i t e c t u r e and landscape a r c h i t e c t u r e . I t i s obvious from the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study t h a t people i n the urban design p r o f e s s i o n , and those i n t e n d i n g to pursue c a r e e r s i n the f i e l d , must be made aware of the p o s s i b l e impacts of crime as consequences of t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s . Urban d e s i g n e r s should a l s o be i n s t r u c t e d on how t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e s can c o n t r i b u t e to the r e d u c t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s and fear of crime. L e c t u r e s and seminars f o r planners should focus on the background m a t e r i a l to crime p r e v e n t i o n through environmental d e s i g n , l i g h t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , p e r t i n e n t a r c h i t e c t u r e and landscaping p r i n c i p l e s , and the implementation and promotion of CPTED, with p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s i n v i t e d to conduct the i n s t r u c t i o n . A r c h i t e c t s and landscape a r c h i t e c t s , on the other hand, should become more f a m i l i a r with the community plan n i n g 175 process, as w e l l as crime p r e v e n t i o n , and the implementation, promotion and e v a l u a t i o n of CPTED techniques. P u b l i c seminars and a d v e r t i s i n g campaigns can a l s o i n c r e a s e CPTED knowledge. F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l government m i n i s t r i e s should sponsor seminars f o r both planners and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , to d i s c u s s the p o s s i b l e problems and f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n of the theory and p r a c t i c e of the approach and debate the changes t h a t need to be made i n order t o in c r e a s e i t s r e c e p t i v e n e s s i n the m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g process. These seminars, along with an encouragement from the government m i n i s t r i e s on a f r u i t f u l exchange of CPTED i n f o r m a t i o n and experiences among o f f i c i a l s from p l a n n i n g departments and p o l i c e agencies e.g. RCMP o f f i c e r s i n v i t e d to speak to students and planners i n the sch o o l s of Pl a n n i n g , A r c h i t e c t u r e , Landscape A r c h i t e c t u r e , would c r e a t e b e t t e r communication l i n k s among planners and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . P r i v a t e and p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s should focus on ' p u b l i c ' e d u c a t i o n of CPTED. This study has examined how, i n the past, p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as B.C. Hydro, have made i n f o r m a t i o n on l i g h t i n g f o r crime p r e v e n t i o n a v a i l a b l e to law enforcement o f f i c e r s i n the RCMP course and businessmen at the Canadian S o c i e t y f o r I n d u s t r i a l S e c u r i t y conference, but not to the ge n e r a l p u b l i c . Even a f t e r the RCMP had been i n s t r u c t e d on l i g h t i n g f o r s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y , the i n f o r m a t i o n d i d not get through to the p u b l i c . Thus, both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s should consi d e r u t i l i z i n g c onferences, workshops and l o c a l ( p r i n t and t e l e v i s i o n ) a d v e r t i s i n g to keep the p u b l i c b e t t e r informed. Although p r i v a t e and p u b l i c agencies would r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g funds i n order to implement t h i s recommendation, the c o s t s may e a s i l y be recovered. For in s t a n c e , s i n c e p r i v a t e agencies which are pa r t of the CSIS s e l l s e c u r i t y hardware, a d d i t i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g t o the p u b l i c may r e s u l t i n s a l e s i n c r e a s e s . For p u b l i c agencies, such as the l i g h t i n g c o r p o r a t i o n , i n c r e a s e d a d v e r t i s i n g may u l t i m a t e l y lead to a r e d u c t i o n i n crimes committed and, hence, decreased c o s t s f o r damages caused by o p p o r t u n i s t i c c r i m i n a l s . P r a c t i c e For implementing CPTED i n new developments, the f o l l o w i n g steps are necessary. F i r s t , CPTED s e c u r i t y f e a t u r e s should be r e g u l a t e d . The f e d e r a l government should develop standards f o r implementing CPTED s t r a t e g i e s , such as t a r g e t - h a r d e n i n g and lan d s c a p i n g i n the N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code of Canada. For example, the p r o v i s i o n of more secure l o c k s , doors and windows i s the o n l y CPTED s t r a t e g y which can be d e f i n i t i v e l y judged as e f f e c t i v e i n p r e v e n t i n g crime, and i s a l s o a r e l a t i v e l y simple and inexpensive process i f undertaken d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new developments. Although some t a r g e t - h a r d e n i n g measures a l r e a d y e x i s t i n the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l B u i l d i n g Code, such s e c u r i t y codes should i n c l u d e s p e c i f i c performance standards r a t h e r than depend e n t i r e l y on d e s c r i p t i o n s of the elements i n v o l v e d . With l a n d s c a p i n g , g u i d e l i n e s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n CMHC's R e s i d e n t i a l Standards and can e a s i l y be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code of Canada. Second, the use of CPTED should be encouraged and where p o s s i b l e , there needs to be constant monitoring of the approach i n p r a c t i c e . I n t r o d u c i n g lower insurance premiums fo r developers who employ CPTED i n t h e i r p r o j e c t s and other such i n c e n t i v e s w i l l encourage use of the crime p r e v e n t i o n approach. From the developer's s t a n d p o i n t , d e s i g n i n g crime p r e v e n t i o n i n t o h i s development pro v i d e s s e v e r a l d i s c e r n i b l e b e n e f i t s . U s u a l l y l a r g e urban renewal or new town p r o j e c t s i t e s are i n areas of a c i t y which tend to be run down and prone to crime. I f the crime problems around the p r o j e c t s i t e are s u b s t a n t i a l , the developer faces the problem of o b t a i n i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n f i n a n c i n g . With the i n c l u s i o n of crime p r e v e n t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g and de s i g n , i t can have a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on h i s p o t e n t i a l l e n d e r . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a developer can a n t i c i p a t e g r e a t e r ease i n marketing h i s homes and commercial areas i n a planned safe e n v i r o n m e n t . 1 1 Mounting an a d v e r t i s i n g campaign over the implementation of CPTED i n r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s may not only lead to a r e d u c t i o n i n the fear of crime which i s j u s t as important an i n i t i a t i v e as red u c i n g crime i t s e l f but would a l s o i n c r e a s e the p u b l i c acceptance of CPTED. As w e l l , t h e p r a c t i c e of keeping " I - t o l d - y o u - s o " f i l e s , as i n the 178 D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, for monitoring and e v a l u a t i n g the performance of CPTED on p r o j e c t s designed with crime p r e v e n t i o n p r i n c i p l e s i s a good idea and should be used whenever CPTED i s implemented. T h i r d l y , the CPTED course f o r RCMP and m u n i c i p a l p o l i c e o f f i c e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g on a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commissions should be c o n t i n u e d . There were i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t p a r t of the i n s t r u c t o r s ' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with past CPTED courses was the attendance of m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s , who provided a d i s r u p t i v e i n f l u e n c e because of t h e i r t r a i n i n g and experience i n p l a n n i n g . In the f u t u r e , the RCMP course should o n l y be o f f e r e d to law enforcement o f f i c e r s so t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m can b e t t e r be s u i t e d to t h e i r needs. As requested by recent graduates of the course, more i n s t r u c t i o n and readings should be made a v a i l a b l e on i n t e r p r e t i n g b l u e p r i n t s , maps and l i g h t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , other uses f o r CPTED should be i n v e s t i g a t e d . M i t i g a t i o n M i t i g a t i o n r e f e r s t o what can be done to reduce c r i m i n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s to b u i l t environments. F i r s t , mayors, aldermen and other c o u n c i l members should be made aware of the p o s s i b l e impacts of crime due to community plan n i n g d e c i s i o n s , and shown how CPTED can be implemented i n order to reduce some of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime. I t i s evident i n t h i s study t h a t those m u n i c i p a l governments which were educated on the merits of CPTED c o u n c i l s from the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver and Maple Ridge l a t e r cooperated i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the implementation of crime p r e v e n t i o n i n t o the p l a n n i n g processes of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . CPTED educ a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y important f o r government o f f i c i a l s of s m a l l or developing communities, where t h i s crime p r e v e n t i o n approach could y i e l d b e t t e r r e s u l t s . Second, b e t t e r p o l i c e and l o c a l government p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s programs are needed before crimes are committed. In the p a s t , CPTED has been l e f t as an a f t e r - t h e - f a c t crime p r e v e n t i o n program. Although the BCIT workshop was a good f i r s t s t e p towards i n t r o d u c i n g CPTED to the p u b l i c , i t was never followed up by s i m i l a r programs with more i n -depth i n f o r m a t i o n , such as the conferences h e l d which were fo r planners and p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s o n ly. In the f u t u r e , RCMP and p o l i c e departments, with the c o o p e r a t i o n and support of m u n i c i p a l governments, should mount a campaign to educate the p u b l i c on CPTED through workshops; l o c a l t e l e v i s i o n ; newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g ; p u b l i c debates; seminars; and demonstration programs. These measures may seem c o s t l y , but the p o t e n t i a l savings over prevented crimes are much g r e a t e r . T h i r d , a c t i v i t y support measures can be used to make m o d i f i c a t i o n s to the environment. Improved l i g h t i n g , l a n d s c a p i n g and minor a r c h i t e c t u r a l changes are c o s t l y , but can work to reduce o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r crime to e x i s t i n g environments. Fourth, management s t r a t e g i e s can a l l e v i a t e some e x i s t i n g crime problems. Management s t r a t e g i e s i n c l u d e i n c r e a s e d s e c u r i t y p ersonnel, improved b u i l d i n g image and maintenance, and improved r e n t a l and e v i c t i o n p o l i c i e s . P r i v a t e s e c u r i t y may not be c o s t - e f f e c t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n low-income, p o o r l y designed, c r i m i n a l l y - v i c t i m i z e d housing developments. They appear to be most e f f e c t i v e i n those r e s i d e n t i a l complexes which can a f f o r d to pay f o r q u a l i t y s e r v i c e and which have been designed with a view to c o n t r o l l i n g access and improving s u r v e i l l a n c e . 1 2 improved b u i l d i n g image and maintenance would appear to make good sense from the o v e r a l l viewpoint of improving the p h y s i c a l environment i n which people l i v e , even i f i t s connection to crime p r e v e n t i o n i s not always c l e a r . When people can take p r i d e i n t h e i r surroundings, they are more l i k e l y t o t r e a t those surroundings w e l l and communicate t h e i r p r i d e and sense of t e r r i t o r i a l i t y t o o u t s i d e r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , agencies or i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b u i l d i n g management do not always have the I n t e r e s t or p a t i e n c e to Implement t h i s s t r a t e g y or to encourage r e s i d e n t s to cooperate i n i t s implementation. The major problem a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s s t r a t e g y i s t h e r e f o r e the d i f f i c u l t y of c o n v i n c i n g b u i l d i n g management t h a t , i n the long term, i t i s c o s t - e f f e c t i v e to make s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t s to improve b u i l d i n g image and m a i n t e n a n c e . 1 3 I n s t i t u t i n g improved r e n t a l and e v i c t i o n p o l i c i e s to a v o i d housing tenants with c o n f l i c t i n g needs together or to prevent problem tenants from remaining 181 i n d e f i n i t e l y has obvious problems for both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l a n d l o r d s . However, where there i s a s u f f i c i e n t l y s e r i o u s crime problem r e l a t e d to the e x i s t e n c e of problem tenants, there i s a good argument f o r implementing t h i s p o l i c y i n order to a l l e v i a t e the crime problem and to reduce the fear of crime f e l t by other t e n a n t s . 1 4 Summary Of F i n d i n g s A summary of the major f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the sources, i n f o r m a t i o n and p r a c t i c e of CPTED f o l l o w s . Channels Of Communication Although there are numerous p r i v a t e and p u b l i c agencies which o f f e r i n f o r m a t i o n on CPTED i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of such i n f o r m a t i o n , to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , has been inadequate. At present, funding shortages and a l a c k of commitment on the p a r t of u n i v e r s i t i e s has c r e a t e d a v o i d i n CPTED r e s e a r c h . A d d i t i o n a l l y , there have been some d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the content of the courses o f f e r e d by the RCMP, SFU and American crime p r e v e n t i o n i n s t i t u t e s . Furthermore, while p o l i c e agencies have been t r a i n e d i n CPTED by a r c h i t e c t s , landscape a r c h i t e c t s , planners and l i g h t i n g c o n s u l t a n t s f o r the purpose of a p p l y i n g the knowledge to t h e i r work as s e c u r i t y c o n s u l t a n t s and f o r making the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to r e s i d e n t s i n t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the g e n e r a l p u b l i c has remained r e l a t i v e l y uninformed. What l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on CPTED i s made a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c u s u a l l y occurs a f t e r crimes have been committed when i t i s a l r e a d y too l a t e . Information On CPTED Planners have ignored or r e j e c t e d CPTED i n the past because t h i s approach has c o n f l i c t e d with other p l a n n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , such as a e s t h e t i c s , access and m o b i l i t y , f i r e s a f e t y and c o s t - e f f i c i e n c y . Planners have a l s o c i t e d problems with the nature of the crime p r e v e n t i o n approach f o r being e n v i r o n m e n t - s p e c i f i c , and t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t to s t a n d a r d i z e a s e r i e s of g u i d e l i n e s f o r i t s implementation, which r e q u i r e s the c o l l a b o r a t i o n of a wide range of i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . But, planners have wrongly po r t r a y e d CPTED as advancing a ' f o r t r e s s ' m e n t a l i t y to crime p r e v e n t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , even though the goal of CPTED has been to reduce the ' o p p o r t u n i t i e s ' f o r crime and fear of o p p o r t u n i s t i c crimes, the approach has been i n t e r p r e t e d by planners as a method f o r the r e d u c t i o n and eventual e l i m i n a t i o n of crime. CPTED In Practice CPTED may, i n f a c t , not be e f f e c t i v e i n reducing crime. Since the approach o n l y promises to reduce crime o p p o r t u n i t i e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h an a p p r o p r i a t e e v a l u a t i o n technique. A r c h i t e c t s and planners both c l a i m t h a t because there are no e s t a b l i s h e d laws r e g u l a t i n g the 183 implementation of CPTED, they do not f e e l compelled to in c o r p o r a t e crime p r e v e n t i o n measures i n t h e i r work. Thus, the approach i s now accepted as an "awareness" program, with e d u c a t i o n i n crime p r e v e n t i o n , f o r planners and others i n the d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n , being the o b j e c t i v e . Because of the high turnover r a t e i n law enforcement agencies and because CPTED i s regarded as a plann i n g f u n c t i o n , p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s i n B.C. p r e f e r t h a t planners become more knowledgeable of t h i s crime p r e v e n t i o n approach. But, up to now, the people t r a i n e d i n CPTED have predominantly been RCMP and mun i c i p a l p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . Only a few planners and a r c h i t e c t s are f a m i l i a r with CPTED. More i m p o r t a n t l y , the gene r a l p u b l i c has been l e f t out of the educa t i o n and t r a i n i n g process, and has not been c o n s u l t e d on whether p r o v i s i o n s f o r crime p r e v e n t i o n through environmental design should be inc l u d e d i n the pl a n n i n g of b u i l d i n g s , neighbourhoods and c i t i e s . T h i s study a l s o f i n d s t h a t there i s a gene r a l lack of concern with crime and crime p r e v e n t i o n expressed by planners and mun i c i p a l p o l i t i c i a n s . While s i x of the eleven p l a n n i n g departments surveyed i n the Lower Mainland have r e l i e d on RCMP input i n the past e i t h e r on a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commissions and a d v i s o r y d e s i g n panels or through crime p r e v e n t i o n u n i t s o n l y the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver and Maple Ridge have made s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s towards e s t a b l i s h i n g CPTED as a permanent component of the mu n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 184 C o n c l u s i o n This t h e s i s has attempted to review the s t a t u s of CPTED i n B r i t i s h Columbia, from the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of knowledge sources and channels of communication, to the i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l covered, to the performance of the approach i n p r a c t i c e . From the f i n d i n g s , i t i s c l e a r t h at CPTED i s s t i l l i n i t s i n f a n c y i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . A s t a r t has been made, but the promotion of "crime awareness" needs to be i n c r e a s e d . P o l i c e agencies and m u n i c i p a l governments must p l a n fo r crime p r e v e n t i o n . P l a n n i n g f o r crime c o n t r o l i s as important as p l a n n i n g f o r any other c i t y f u n c t i o n . Crime p r e v e n t i o n , thus, r e q u i r e s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of community planners as i t i s an urban p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . A l l too o f t e n , though, pla n n i n g d e c i s i o n s on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial development, parks and r e c r e a t i o n , and zoning have not been based on the impacts that can d i r e c t l y r e s u l t i n the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r crime and f e a r of crime. There i s need now f o r planners and d e s i g n e r s to c o o r d i n a t e and evaluate p l a n n i n g and design d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t the s e c u r i t y and, t h e r e f o r e , the q u a l i t y of urban l i f e . The l e s s o n to be le a r n e d from CPTED i s an important one: the form of the urban environment c r e a t e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s for crime, which i s not an i s o l a t e d phenomenon. Crime i s b u i l t i n t o a l l elements of everyday l i f e , but i t can be 185 minimized through concerted and imaginative planning e f f o r t . Although i t i s not suggested t h a t r e d e s i g n of the p h y s i c a l environment by i t s e l f i s the key to crime p r e v e n t i o n , i t i s v e r y o f t e n an overlooked a l t e r n a t i v e . ENDNOTES 1 R i c h a r d A. Gardiner, Design For Safe Neighbourhoods (Washington: Law Enforcement A s s i s t a n c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1978), p. 64. 2 G a r d i n e r , p. 64. ^Charles Richardson I I I , 1986, as quoted a t the Canadian S o c i e t y f o r I n d u s t r i a l S e c u r i t y conference i n Vancouver, June 17, 1986. ^Charles Richardson I I I , 1986, as quoted at the CSIS conference i n Vancouver, June 17, 1986. 5 0 s c a r Newman, D e f e n s i b l e Space: Design For The Improvement Of S e c u r i t y In Urban R e s i d e n t i a l Areas (New York: MacMillan, 1972), p. 206. 6The S o l i c i t o r - G e n e r a l ' s Report, p. 40. "^Gardiner, p. 56. 8 G a r d i n e r , p. 51 and 54. ^Gardiner, p. 54. l u G a r d i n e r , p. 54. ^ G a r d i n e r , p. 60. 1 2 T h e S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 155 1 3 T h e S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 158 1 4 T h e S o l i c i t o r General's Report, p. 161 BIBLIOGRAPHY 187 ALDERSON, Dave. Sergeant. 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Davis, C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Center on A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e , A p r i l 1973. WILSON,,James W. "Planning Safer Communities". Plan Canada V o l . 26, No. 3 (May 1986), pp. 64-65; pp. 82-83. . P r o f e s s o r of Geography. Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y . Interview. 29 J u l y 1986. and Regional P l a n n i n g II C l a s s . "Planning Safer Communities: An E x p l o r a t i o n i n Burnaby B.C." Burnaby: Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1984. WILSON, Sheena. "A New Look at Newman". RIBA J o u r n a l . V o l . 88, No. 5 (May 1981), pp. 50-51. . "Updating D e f e n s i b l e Space". The A r c h i t e c t s ' J o u r n a l . V ol 11 (October 1978), p. 674 WINDHAM, B. and G.K. Maenius. "Environmental Design S p e c i a l i z e d Environmental Design Course f o r Crime P r e v e n t i o n O f f i c e r s " . San Marcos, Texas: Texas Crime P r e v e n t i o n I n s t i t u t e , Southwest Texas State U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. WOOD, E l i z a b e t h . Housing Design, A Social Theory. New York C i t i z e n s Housing and Planning C o u n c i l , 1961. Reprinted i n Human I d e n t i t y i n the Urban Environment. E d i t e d by Gwen B e l l and J a c q u e l i n e T y r w h i t t e . B a l t i m o r e , Maryland: Penguin, 1961. Pages 327-351. 203 APPENDIX: 1 Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y CPTED Course O u t l i n e Source: SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY. Cri m i n o l o g y 450-3 Course O u t l i n e (Summer Semester 1983). Obtained From The Department Of Criminology, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby. SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY CPTED COURSE OUTLINE I • INTRODUCTION A. Concept Of Environment And S o c i a l Change B. H i s t o r y Of Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design C. I n t e r v e n t i o n P o i n t s And S t r a t e g i e s D. Primary, Secondary And T e r t i a r y Crime P r e v e n t i o n I I • CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN A. S u b - b u i l d i n g Design Target-Hardening B. B u i l d i n g And B u i l d i n g C l u s t e r Design " D e f e n s i b l e Space" C. Future D i r e c t i o n s In P r e v e n t i o n Through Design D. E v a l u a t i o n Of A r c h i t e c t u r a l Approaches I I I . CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH PLANNING TECHNIQUES A. P h y s i c a l C i t y P lanning B. S e r v i c e D e l i v e r y P l a n n i n g And Programs C. Community Pla n n i n g And Programs D. E v a l u a t i o n And Techniques REQUIRED TEXTS: NEWMAN, OSCAR. D e f e n s i b l e Space, 1972. GARDINER, RICHARD A. Design For Safe Neighbourhoods, 1978. BRANTINGHAM, PAUL AND PATRICIA (eds). Envizonmetal Criminology, 1981. APPENDIX: 2 RCMP Course O u t l i n e And S y l l a b u s For CPTED T r a i n i n g Source: ROYAL CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE. Course T r a i n i n g  Standard:Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design Course. Ottawa: RCMP, T r a i n i n g and Development Branch, August 1982. RCMP COURSE OUTLINE COMMUNITY PLANNING PROCESS: - r o l e of r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s -Functions and Purposes o f . . . The M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s C i t y C o u n c i l s L o c a l Boards A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commissions A d v i s o r y Design Panels - e x p l a n a t i o n s of community permits -the meaning of s u b d i v i s i o n of land - s u b d i v i s i o n of p l a n drawings used i n community development -examination of s e c t i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l Act (sec. 716, 729 and 810) p e r t a i n i n g to r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s , bylaw procedures and r e l a t e d matters. ANALYSES OF PLAN DRAWINGS: Plan Drawings: -setbacks -entrance ways - s i t e l o c a t i n g Viewing Plan Drawings: - " s p a t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e " - " s p a t i a l understanding" -common markings/symbols used - a n a l y s i s of B u i l d i n g Code 207 Plan Drawings Typical to Community Development P r o p o s a l s ; - f l o o r plans - f l o o r l a y o u t -roof -development s i t e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s i t e plans i n c l u d i n g zoning - v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c routes LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE: - c a t e g o r i e s of p l a n t s , ground cover, shrubs, t r e e s -Landscape Plan Drawings: S i t e ( L - l ) P l a n t i n g (L-2) Grading/Drainage (L-3) Dimension Drawing (L-4) C o n s t r u c t i o n D e t a i l (L-5) - P l a n t M a t e r i a l Schedule: Domestic Names Nursery S i z e s F i n a l Shapes/Sizes -Role Of Landscape Architecture In Community Development: Routing P e d e s t r i a n T r a f f i c Designing For A e s t h e t i c s R e s i d e n t i a l Areas (walkways/ entrances) APPLICATION OF CPTED PRINCIPLES FOR: - r e s i d e n t i a l areas - m u l t i - f a m i l y housing -walk-up apartments -high-r i s e s -commercial areas - i n d u s t r i a l areas -open spaces - p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s - p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s - t r a f f i c / p e d e s t r i a n routes PROMOTION OF CPTED: 1. D i v i s i o n a l P o l i c y - r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of crime p r e v e n t i o n c o o r d i n a t o r s -good l i a s o n must be e s t a b l i s h e d with l o c a l planners 2. Advantages Of CPTED t o . . . -ratepayers - r e a l t o r s -developers 3. CPTED Promotion Programs -plan f o r g a i n i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on community planni n g committees -CPTED p r e s e n t a t i o n to the p u b l i c CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN E01CLB013 FAIRMONT ACADEMY, VANCOUVER, B.C. HA NOVEMBER 26 - 84 DECEMBER 06 MUN-tUH. 2t (D^y 1) I U I S - V M * 27 (Day 2) A i U « £ « 28 (Day 3) COMMUNITY PLANNING  PROCESS (Cont'd) i h u R - j f u . 29 (Day 4) BASIC PLAN DRAWINGS f H > - v f « . 30 (Day 5) .FUNDAMENTALS OF GOOD LIGHTING INTRODUCTION - Opening Address - O r i e n t a t i o n - Mutual I n t r o d u c t i o n ^ PRINCIPLES OF  CPTED (Cont'd) PRINCIPLES OF CPTED ( A u d i o / S l i d e : CPTED) Dr. Pat Brantingham COMMUNITY PLANNING PROCESS Dr. Par. Brantingham Cst. Jim H a r r i s o n (Audio/Slide) Pore A l b e r n i P r o j e c t B.C. HYDRO Mr. Paul Young & Owen Stevens LANDSCAPE ARCH. IN CPTED Ms. L o r i S t ap le s Ms. Robyri Addison Ms. L o r i Staples Ms. Robyn Addison Mr. R ichard Rabnett Mr. Don Vaughn CRIME PREVENTION TI1KOUCII ENVIRONMENTAL DESICN //E01CL8013 n FAIRMONT ACADEMY, VANCOUVER, B.C. 84 NOVEMBER 26 - 8A DECEMBER 06 M O N - t u / v . 03 (Day 6) luts-MAK. OA (Day 7) w i D - M f / y 05 (Day 8) UioR-jfu 06 (Day 9) f Rl - VIN. APPLYING PRINCIPLES OF CPTED APPLYING APPLYING PRINCIPLES APPLYING PRINCIPLES PRINCIPLES OF CPTED OF CPTED OF CPTED 1 ( F i e l d Syndicate Exercise) ( F i e l d E x e r c i s e Presenta t i o n ) (Syndicate P r e s e n t a t i o n ) Dr. Pat Brantingham ( F i e l d Study Assignment) (Syndicate Study Assignment) PROMOTING CPTED Panel D i s c u s s i o n Insp. McLay S/Sgt. Ilest C p l . C l a r k e E X A M I N A T I O N COURSE CRITIQUE 211 APPENDIX: 3 C a l i f o r n i a Crime P r e v e n t i o n I n s t i t u t e CPTED Course O u t l i n e Source: CALIFORNIA CRIME PREVENTION INSTITUTE. "Crime P r e v e n t i o n O f f i c e r s Handbook For Seminar On Advanced Crime P r e v e n t i o n Through Environmental Design". Sacramento: C a l i f o r n i a Crime P r e v e n t i o n I n s t i t u t e , October 1979. 212 CALIFORNIA CRIME PREVENTION INSTITUTE CPTED COURSE OUTLINE The Advanced Crime P r e v e n t i o n course, o f f e r e d by the C a l i f o r n i a Crime P r e v e n t i o n I n s t i t u t e , i s a 40-hour course f o r law enforcement o f f i c e r s who have primary crime p r e v e n t i o n d u t i e s , graduated from one of the approved b a s i c crime p r e v e n t i o n courses of 80 hours or more, and have been assigned d u t i e s of reviewing and impacting a l l plans submitted f o r new or a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . T h i s course i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the b a s i c 80-hour CPTED course. I t prov i d e s the o f f i c e r s with the knowledge and s k i l l s necessary to e f f e c t i v e l y f u n c t i o n i n the area of p l a n - r e v i e w i n g . Topics covered i n c l u d e : 1. INTRODUCTION d i s c u s s i o n of the law enforcement o f f i c e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to view h i s / h e r apartment not j u s t as a l i v i n g area, but a l s o as a p o t e n t i a l f o r p o s i t i v e and negative behaviour. 2. THE PLANNING PROCESS d e s c r i p t i o n s of four primary p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s performed by mu n i c i p a l governments: land-use p l a n n i n g , zoning, development review and ap p r o v a l , and b u i l d i n g code development and enforcement. 3. BLUEPRINT READING AND TERMINOLOGY e x p l a n a t i o n of key a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n terms and p r e s e n t a t i o n of b l u e p r i n t examples. VISIBILITY a n a l y s i s of crime p r e v e n t i o n p l a n n i n g techniques f o r b u i l d i n g development and l a y o u t : - f r o n t , r e a r , and of f - g r a d e setbacks -windows (purpose, n e c e s s i t y , s i z e , placement, s h i e l d s and covers, mater i a l s ) -doors (types, placement) - c o n s t r u c t i o n of windows (casements, l o c k s , l i g h t i n g ) and doors ( s t r e n g t h standards, jambs, s t r i k e p l a t e s , n a i l i n g schedule, l i g h t i n g ) STREETS AND SIDEWALKS d e s c r i p t i o n s of c i r c u l a t i o n r o u t e s : -types of p u b l i c s t r e e t s ( a l l e y s , freeways, e t c . ) - p u b l i c s t r e e t standards ( r i g h t of way, i n t e r s e c t i o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ) - p r i v a t e s t r e e t s -crime and de s i g n ( p a t r o l s , f i r e department concerns, neighbourhood i d e n t i t y ) PARKS AND OPEN SPACE d e s c r i p t i o n s of parks i n terms o f : - c i r c u l a t i o n v i s i b i l i t y - l i g h t i n g schedules - r e c r e a t i o n equipment d e s c r i p t i o n s of open space where such space i s -adjacent to housing (problems with t r e s p a s s e r s ) -wilderness area ( a c c e s s i b i l i t y , communicatins and f i r e codes) RESIDENTIAL, COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTS c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f : - s t r e e t d e sign (, - u t i l i t i e s / e a s e m e n t s - a l l e y s and walkways - t r e e s and shrubbery analyses of crime p r e v e n t i v e design changes i n terms o f : - p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s -resources r e q u i r e d - c o s t s f o r m u l t i - f a m i l y housing, h i g h - r i s e s , major commercial and i n d u s t r i a l developments — d i s c u s s i o n of commercial b u r g l a r y i n c l u d i n g i n t e r n a l cargo t h e f t and l e g i s l a t i v e p o l i c y i n t h i s regard 214 8. L I G H T I N G d e f i n i t i o n s of technical l i g h t i n g terms (luminaire, lumen, foot candles) descriptions of general types of outside security l i g h t i n g (continuous, standby, movable, emergency) explanation of the general types of l i g h t i n g sources (incandescent, mercury vapour, metal halide, fluorescent high pressure sodium vapour, low pressure sodium vapour) guidelines to recommending security l i g h t i n g systems 9. P O L I C E B U I L D I N G D E S I G N a design, role-playing workshop model for the process of police involvement in the planning of a major police building. 215 APPENDIX: 4 1. QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTERED TO COMMUNITY PLANNERS, ARCHITECTS AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS 2. QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTERED TO LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS QUESTIONNAIRE ttl ADMINISTERED TO COMMUNITY PLANNERS, ARCHITECTS AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS Does [ t h i s m u n i c i p a l i t y ] have an A d v i s o r y Planning Commission or Design Panel? IF SO, Who i s on the A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission or Design Panel? (name and occupation) How are designs evaluated? How does the i n f o r m a t i o n get through? (planning and decision-making process) Do A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commissions (or Design Panels) know about CPTED? Is CPTED important to members of these commissions? If not, why not? I f so, where d i d they g a i n t h i s knowledge? How was t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n administered? What was contained i n t h i s information? How i s CPTED used i n the decision-making process i n your m u n i c i p a l i t y ? Where i s CPTED used? When i s i t used? In your o p i n i o n , i s CPTED s u c c e s s f u l i n p r e v e n t i n g o p p o r t u n i s t crimes? I f so, how can t h i s be proven? OR Do you thin k CPTED would be s u c c e s s f u l i n p r e v e n t i n g crimes? I f so, how can t h i s be proven? QUESTIONNAIRE #2 ADMINISTERED TO LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS l . ( a ) When d i d you take a Crime P r e v e n t i o n course? (b) Where was i t held? (c) Who was the course sponsored by? (d) Who taught the course? (e) How many seminars are held? (£) Why d i d you take the course? 2. What m a t e r i a l was i n c l u d e d on CPTED? With the knowledge t h a t you have gained from t h i s c o urse... (a) when (b) where (c) and how did/do you put i t i n t o use? Or was i t simply a P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s program? (d) What types of designs ( r e z o n i n g , s u b d i v i s i o n s , new development) do you analyze? (e) How d i f f i c u l t i s i t to read plans? Does i t present a problem f o r you? 4. What do you f e e l you can do with t h a t i nformation? ( i . e . s i t no pl a n n i n g a d v i s o r y committees, c o l l e c t crime i n f o r m a t i o n with s p e c i a l emphasis to the environment...) 5. In your o p i n i o n , has CPTED been s u c c e s s f u l ? I f so, how can t h i s be proven? 

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