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The impact of the B.C. enterprise development centres on local economic development MacDonald, Ann 1987

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THE IMPACT OF THE B.C. ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT CENTRES ON LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT by ANN MACDONALD B.A. Honours, Car leton Un i ve r s i t y , Ottawa, 1984. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES The School of Community and Regional Planning We accept th i s thes i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY 1987 (5) A n n M a c D o n a l d , 198 7 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Q Q ^ ^ \ T V - \ JcE"klQKs.p. i, f L - A ^ ^ > ^ 6 Q The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 2 , \c^%Pi , DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT The t h e s i s i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t r i n s i c t o a p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development. Intended as a p r o -a c t i v e and endogenous p r o c e s s , l o c a l economic development seeks t o reduce a r e g i o n ' s r e l i a n c e on e x p o r t e d p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e s and e x t e r n a l economies. S t r a t e g i e s i n t e n d e d t o encourage the p r o c e s s f r e q u e n t l y a d d r e s s two f a c t o r s : how c a p i t a l l e a k a g e s can be d e c r e a s e d and how the v a l u e of e x p o r t s can be i n c r e a s e d . The t h e s i s a d d r e s s e s two v a r i a b l e s i n l o c a l economic development. One i s the r o l e of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v e n t u r e s f a c i l i t a t e new t e c h n o l o g i e s and s e r v i c e s , p r o v i d e c o m p e t i t i o n t o e x i s t i n g companies and c r e a t e new j o b s which a r e l o c a l l y based and owner-operated. A second v a r i a b l e i s the t w o f o l d r o l e p l a y e d by e d u c a t i o n and the c o l l e g e s i n p a r t i c u l a r i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an environment which i s c o n d u c i v e t o e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . As l e a r n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , the c o l l e g e s have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n the promotion of a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s r e q u i r e d t o encourage e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v e n t u r e s . A second r o l e i s t o i d e n t i f y and a d d r e s s r e g i o n a l economic development o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I n f o r m a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s , i n the form of poor a c c e s s t o b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , r e s t r i c t the numbers of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v e n t u r e s i n the p r o v i n c e and c o n t r i b u t e t o h i g h numbers of b u s i n e s s f a i l u r e s . A c o l l e g e - b a s e d e n t e r p r i s e development c e n t r e i s i n t r o d u c e d i n the t h e s i s as a n o v e l way t o overcome t h e s e b a r r i e r s and a d d r e s s the needs of the e n t r e p r e n u e r and the s m a l l b u s i n e s s o w n e r / o p e r a t o r . In t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the c o l l e g e s , t h e s e c e n t r e s c o u l d a l s o s e r v e t o i i i p r o m o t e a t t i t u d e s a n d v a l u e s w h i c h make e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p a n d s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t a f e a s i b l e o p t i o n i n t h e m i n d s o f c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . The t h e s i s i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s f o r a c o l l e g e - b a s e d e n t e r p r i s e d e v e l o p m e n t c e n t r e : t o d e l i v e r h i g h l y r e s p o n s i v e a n d f l e x i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r ; t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e a n d i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e c o l l e g e a n d t h e s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r i n o r d e r t o e n c o u r a g e e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g a n d e n h a n c e d l e v e l s o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p among t h e s t u d e n t s , a n d t o i d e n t i f y a n d f a c i l i t a t e t h e t r a i n i n g f o r l o c a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h e s e o b j e c t i v e s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n a m o d e l EDC w h i c h i s u s e d a s a y a r d s t i c k t o e v a l u a t e e i g h t e n t e r p r i s e d e v e l o p m e n t c e n t r e s e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e c o l l e g e s i n B . C . v i a t h e L o c a l E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t a n d R e n e w a l F u n d ( L E R D ) . F o u r p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t c o n s t i t u t e t h e b a s i s o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n : t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e c e n t r e s a r e e n g a g e d i n a p r o c e s s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e s t o l o c a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e c r e a t i o n o f new w e a l t h ; t h e f l e x i b l e d e l i v e r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r ; t h e p r o m o t i o n o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p ; a n d t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e c e n t r e s w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e s . The m o s t d o m i n a n t i m p a c t o f t h e B . C . e n t e r p r i s e d e v e l o p m e n t c e n t r e s a p p e a r s t o be i n t h e d e l i v e r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . The c e n t r e s p r o v i d e o n e - t o - o n e c o u n s e l l i n g a n d b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s i n a way w h i c h i s f l e x i b l e a n d r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . T h e y a r e a l s o a c t i v e l y p r o m o t i n g e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i n t h a t t h e y h a v e i v h e l p e d t o e s t a b l i s h s u p p o r t a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l n e t w o r k s f o r new e n t r e p r e n e u r s . Two p r i m a r y w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e e x i s t i n g B . C . s t r u c t u r e a r e t h e r e a c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e c e n t r e s ' a c t i v i t e s a n d t h e i r weak a n d p o o r l y i n t e g r a t e d l i n k s t o t h e c o l l e g e s . Two o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n s a r e d r a w n . O n e , a s few r e g i o n a l p o l i c i e s a p p e a r t o be i n p l a c e t o e n c o u r a g e t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a r e g i o n a l s t r a t e g y , t h e t h e s i s c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e LERD f u n d i s n o t r e f l e c t i v e o f r e n e w e d s u p p o r t f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p r o v i n c e . A l s o , t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n e f f o r t i n t e n d e d t o c r e a t e more l o c a l a u t o n o m y a n d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e c o l l e g e s i s o c c u r r i n g . A s e c o n d c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e c o l l e g e s a r e n o t b e i n g r e s t r u c t u r e d i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may become more p r o - a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n a p r o c e s s o f l o c a l e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS '.TV CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION. 1.1. Purpose of the T h e s i s 1 1.2. Background and Context of the T h e s i s . . . 1 1.3. B r i e f Overview of the T h e s i s 3 CHAPTER 2. THE ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT CENTRE CONCEPT. 2 .1. L o c a l Economic Development 5 2.2. Reg iona l Development T h e o r i e s 11 2.3. The Role of E n t r e p r e n u e r s h i p in LED 22 2.4. E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , Educa t i on and the C o l l e g e s 27 2.5. The E n t e r p r i s e Cent re Concept 38 2.6. A Model EDC f o r L o c a l Economic Development 42 CHAPTER 3. THE METHOD. 3.1. P o t e n t i a l Methods f o r Program E v a l u a t i o n . . 56 3.2. The Method f o r E v a l u a t i o n in the T h e s i s . . . 59 CHAPTER 4. THE BRITISH COLUMBIA DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK. 4 .1 . The LERD Fund 63 4 .2 . Reg iona l Development In B.C 71 4 .3 . The C o l l e g e Concept i n B.C 75 4 .4 . The I n c o n s i s t e n c i e s 80 CHAPTER 5. A REVIEW OF THE FINDINGS. 5.1. A F u n c t i o n a l Overview of the EDC 83 5.2. Rev iew of each of the E i g h t EDC 85 5.3. A n a l y s i s of the E x i s t i n g S t r u c t u r e 103 v i CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSIONS 6.1. Summary 120 6.2. O v e r a l l C o n c l u s i o n s 123 6.3. P o l i c y I m p l i c a t i o n s 127 LIST OF TABLES Ta b l e 1 . The Model 54 Ta b l e 2a. L o c a l Economic Development 104 Tab l e 2b. S m a l l B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s 105 Tab l e 2c. The Promotion of E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p ... 106 Tab l e 2d. C o l l e g e I n t e g r a t i o n 107 APPENDICIES. 1. Q u e s t i o n S e t s 129 2. P e r s o n a l C o n t a c t s 131 3. Funding A l l o t m e n t s 132 BIBLIOGRAPHY 134 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to extend a very warm thank-you to a number of people whose support, i n t e r e s t and p a t i e n c e g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d i n the completion of t h i s t h e s i s . P r i m a r i l y , P r o f e s s o r s C r a i g Davis, Peter Boothroyd and Brahm Wiseman of the School of Community and Regional P l a n n i n g , and P r o f e s s o r John Dennison of the Department of Higher Education a l l p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e h e l p in d e v e l o p i n g the t h e s i s and g e t t i n g i t done. I would a l s o l i k e to thank Lome Thompson of the M i n i s t r y of Advanced Education and Job T r a i n i n g f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g the funding f o r the re s e a r c h , f o r h i s i n t e r e s t , and f o r opening many doors. Marianne M a n v i l l e and Glenn Gray provided support and immeasurable amounts of comic r e l i e f during the two years we were a l l together at SCARP. A l s o , many thanks to Dr. Lakshmi J a y a n t i Bhagavatula f o r her f a i t h , humour and j u s t p l a i n b r i l l i a n c e . A f i n a l thanks goes to Bob Kuiper f o r a l l of the above, p l u s much more. 1 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. The Purpose of the T h e s i s . The purpose of the t h e s i s i s t h r e e f o l d . One purpose i s t o i d e n t i f y the r o l e and o b j e c t i v e s of a c o l l e g e - b a s e d E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e (EDC) i n v o l v e d i n a p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development i n B.C. A second purpose i s t o c o n s t r u c t a model EDC which meets th e s e o b j e c t i v e s . A t h i r d purpose i s t o e v a l u a t e e i g h t EDCs r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia community c o l l e g e s t o det e r m i n e the e x t e n t t o which t h e s e c e n t r e s r e l a t e t o those o b j e c t i v e s s p e c i f i e d i n the model. Some c o n c l u s i o n s as t o the l o n g term i m p l i c a t i o n s of the EDC concept f o r the c o l l e g e s and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g w i l l a l s o be drawn. 1.2. The -Research T o p i c and C o n t e x t . In June, 1985 the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n c r e a t e d a L o c a l Economic Renewal and Development Fund (LERD) of 5.8 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . The purpose of the fund was t o enable the c o l l e g e s and i n s t i t u t e s i n B.C. t o become i n v o l v e d i n p r o j e c t s which d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o l o c a l economic development. Many of the c o l l e g e s e s t a b l i s h e d E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e s (EDCs) w i t h money from t h i s fund. Few g u i d e l i n e s were i s s u e d a l o n g w i t h the f u n d i n g and t h e EDCs s u b s e q u e n t l y r e f l e c t s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t o p e r a t i o n a l and f u n c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . They a r e , however, u n i f i e d i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s and p o t e n t i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . The fund i s of i n t e r e s t t o r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r s on a t l e a s t 2 two a c c o u n t s . One, the p r o v i s i o n of development money t o an i n s t i t u t i o n which i s r e g i o n a l by mandate s u g g e s t s t h a t some r e g i o n a l development t h e o r i e s and c o n c e p t s w i l l be e n countered i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h a t f u n d . Does t h i s fund imply renewed support f o r a r e g i o n a l approach t o p l a n n i n g and development i n the p r o v i n c e ? P r o v i n c i a l support f o r the concept of l o c a l economic development i s a l s o r e f l e c t i v e of a new t r e n d i n p u b l i c p o l i c y ; a s h i f t away from the c e n t r a l i z e d "mega-project" approach t o r e g i o n a l development i n r e c o g n i t i o n of the r e g i o n s as s u s t a i n a b l e and s e l f d i r e c t e d economies. Two, w h i l e t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c a p a c i t y of a r e g i o n has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d as an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n r e g i o n a l development, 1 i t has gone l a r g e l y w i t h o u t n o t i c e i n r e g i o n a l development t h e o r i e s . 2 The p o l i c y would a l s o appear t o r e f l e c t a new r o l e f o r the c o l l e g e s i n terms of t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l mandates. In the p a s t , the community c o l l e g e s have assumed an i n d i r e c t r o l e i n economic development; programs and c u r r i c u l a a d d r e s s e d employment needs g e n e r a l l y , and c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s demonstrated the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s by g e t t i n g j o b s and c o n t r i b u t i n g t o l o c a l economic a c t i v i t y . P r o v i n c i a l support f o r a more p r o -a c t i v e r o l e f o r the c o l l e g e s would now appear t o be e v i d e n t . 1See, f o r example, K i l b y , P. "An E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l Problem", American Economic Review, 73, 2 1983, pp. 118-122; Hagen, E. How Economic Growth B e g i n s : A Theory of S o c i a l Change" i n E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p and Economic Development 1971. 2 C o f f e y W. & P o l e s e , M. " L o c a l Development: C o n c e p t u a l Bases and P o l i c y I m p l i c a t i o n s " , R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e V o l . 19, No. 2. 1985. 3 1.3. B r i e f Overview of the T h e s i s . The t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o s i x c h a p t e r s . Chapter two d e f i n e s the c o n c e p t s and v a r i a b l e s i n t r i n s i c t o the t h e s i s . P r i m a r i l y , t h e p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development i s d e f i n e d and d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the more n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d concept of economic growth. The l o c a l i z e d and endogenous n a t u r e of t h i s p r o c e s s i s emphasized w i t h s t r u c t u r a l change and economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n c i t e d as d e s i r a b l e end r e s u l t s . The r o o t s of t h i s concept a r e t r a c e d t o t h a t of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , and a r e g i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e which a d v o c a t e s broad s t r u c t u r a l changes t o encourage investment and development s t r a t e g i e s i n fa v o u r of the r e g i o n s i s r e v i e w e d . The c h a p t e r i d e n t i f i e s and d e f i n e s e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p as a v a r i a b l e i n l o c a l economic development. I t a l s o r e v i e w s some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may be u s e f u l i n the promotion of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s . A second v a r i a b l e ; t h a t of the r o l e of e d u c a t i o n i n the promotion of t h e s e v a l u e s , i s a l s o e x p l o r e d . The concept of an EDC i s i n t r o d u c e d and reviewed i n s e c t i o n 2.5. A model EDC d e s i g n e d t o f o s t e r . a p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development i s d e s c r i b e d a t the c o n c l u s i o n of the c h a p t e r . Chapter t h r e e r e v i e w s the method and c r i t e r i a t o be i n c l u d e d i n the e v a l u a t i o n . Keeping i n mind the o b j e c t i v e s of the EDC, as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Two, f o u r s e t s of q u e s t i o n s a re s e t f o r t h and used t o i d e n t i f y f o u r a r e a s of f o c u s f o r the e v a l u a t i o n . The a d m i n i s t e r i n g of thos e q u e s t i o n s t o key i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the communities of the e i g h t EDCs chosen as case s t u d i e s , c o n s t i t u t e the b a s i s f o r the c o n c l u s i o n s of the 4 t h e s i s . Chapter f o u r i n t r o d u c e s the EDC concept i n B.C. S e c t i o n 4.1. d i s c u s s e s the o b j e c t i v e s and background h i s t o r y of the LERD fund. The remainder of the c h a p t e r r e v i e w s the r e g i o n a l development framework c u r r e n t l y e x i s t i n g i n the p r o v i n c e as w e l l as the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and g o v e r n i n g s t r u c t u r e of the c o l l e g e c o n c e p t . A s e r i e s of i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s a t the c o n c l u s i o n of the c h a p t e r r e f l e c t the degree t o which the case s t u d i e s can be e x p e c t e d t o v a r y from the model. The f i n d i n g s from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the f o u r s e t s of q u e s t i o n s i n c h a p t e r t h r e e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r f i v e . The o p e r a t i o n s of the e i g h t EDCs a r e then compared t o t h e model. The f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s a r e re v i e w e d i n c h a p t e r s i x . 5 CHAPTER TWO THE ENTERPRISE CENTRE CONCEPT 2.1. The Concept of L o c a l Economic Development. S e v e r a l c o n c e p t s and v a r i a b l e s r e q u i r e d e f i n i t i o n a t the onset of t h i s t h e s i s . P r i m a r i l y , the concept of l o c a l economic development i n c l u d e s some r a t h e r d i s t i n c t f e a t u r e s , i n s o f a r as economic development s t r a t e g i e s a r e d e f i n e d . 3 Economic development may be d e f i n e d as s u s t a i n a b l e and b e n e f i c i a l economic growth which accompanies, t o a q u a n t i f i a b l e d egree, an i n c r e a s e i n income per c a p i t a f o r a g i v e n r e g i o n . The concept was w e l l d e f i n e d by the American Economic Development C o u n c i l , (AEDC) 4 Economic Development: the p r o c e s s of c r e a t i n g w e a l t h t h r o u g h the m o b i l i z a t i o n of human, f i n a n c i a l , c a p i t a l p h y s i c a l and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s t o generate m a r k e t a b l e goods and s e r v i c e s . The economic d e v e l o p e r ' s r o l e i s t o i n f l u e n c e the p r o c e s s f o r the b e n e f i t of the community t h r o u g h expanding j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the t a x base. The concept of l o c a l economic development, however, assumes a broader d i m e n s i o n and a more comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n . Hunker has p r o v i d e d the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n . 5 3The c o n c e p t , i n c l u d i n g example p r o j e c t s , has been w e l l r e v i e w e d by Wismer, S. & D a v i d P e l l , Community P r o f i t : Community Based  Economic Development i n Canada. I s F i v e P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1981. A s l o , r e f e r t o C. J . Dorsey & E. T i c o l l , (eds.) The Nuts and  B o l t s of Community Based Economic Development Edmonton S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l , Edmonton. 1984. " T h i s was the o p e r a t i n g d e f i n i t i o n used by the Committee on Emerging O p p o r t u n i t i e s , American Economic Development C o u n c i l , F a l l C o n f e r e n c e , 1983. 5Hunker, Henry. I n d u s t r i a l Development 1975. L e x i n g t o n , Mass. L e x i n g t o n Books, 1980. 6 H i s t o r i c a l l y , much of what i s termed economic development may more s p e c i f i c a l l y have been an a s p e c t of i n d u s t r i a l development, i . e . f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n upon the a t t r a c t i o n of i n d u s t r y ( m a n u f a c t u r i n g ) t o a community or r e g i o n . I n c r e a s i n g l y , h o w e v e r , t h i s i s not enough. A l l elements r e l a t e d t o the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c w e l l b e i n g of a r e g i o n must be brought i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Thus, a s e r i e s of s t r u c t u r a l and s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a r e assumed t o n e c e s s a r i l y accompany the p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development. 6 The c o n c e p t , as the name s u g g e s t s , i m p l i e s these s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s and economic g a i n s o c c u r i n a sub-n a t i o n a l or s u b - p r o v i n c i a l a r e a . Some s p a t i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s or t e r r i t o r i a l l i m i t s , i n c l u d i n g some degree of s e l f government, a r e i n h e r e n t i n the term. An i n c r e a s e i n the economic a c t i v i t i e s of a r e g i o n i s f r e q u e n t l y measured by i n c r e a s e s i n the Gross R e g i o n a l P r o d u c t (GRP). T h i s r e f e r s t o an i n c r e a s e i n the t o t a l amount of goods and s e r v i c e s produced i n a l o c a l economy. W h i l e t h i s f i g u r e i s u s u a l l y c a l c u l a t e d on a r e g i o n a l or n a t i o n a l s c a l e , i n t h e o r y i t c o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d f o r a community or r e g i o n a l economy and used t o measure both i n c r e a s e s or d e c r e a s e s i n economic a c t i v i t y and i n t e r a c t i o n s . GRP i s f r e q u e n t l y d i s a g g r e g a t e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g n a t i o n a l income a c c o u n t i n g c a t a g o r i e s : 6 C o f f e y W. And P o l e s e , M. "The Concept of L o c a l Development: A Model of Endogenous R e g i o n a l Growth", Papers of the R e g i o n a l  S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , 54, 1984. 7 GRP = C + I + G + E - M where; C = consumption I = investment G = government e x p e n d i t u r e s E = e x p o r t s from the r e g i o n M = i m p o r t s i n t o the r e g i o n . A p o s i t i v e impact on a l o c a l economy would t h e r e f o r e r e s u l t from an i n c r e a s e (or decrease i n the case of i m p o r t s ) of one of those f a c t o r s . For example, a r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g boom would l i k e l y produce an i n c r e a s e i n a r e g i o n i n terms of i n v e s t m e n t , and s u b s e q u e n t l y r a i s e the GRP. As w e l l , a f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l t a x r e d u c t i o n may r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d consumption a l s o r a i s i n g the GRP. Other examples i n c l u d e i n c r e a s e d highway c o n s t r u c t i o n or a new h o s p i t a l -or s c h o o l , a l l of which a r e f e l t as i n c r e a s e d government e x p e n d i t u r e s and b e n e f i t s t o the GRP. A -sudden i n c r e a s e i n the v a l u e of e x p o r t s w i l l a l s o r e s u l t i n a p o s i t i v e • impact. C o n v e r s e l y , the more money a r e g i o n l o s e s through i m p o r t s , the lower the GRP w i l l be as a pe r c e n t a g e of t o t a l d o l l a r s and c e n t s b e i n g c i r c u l a t e d i n the r e g i o n a t any g i v e n t i m e . L o c a l economic development s t r a t e g i e s f r e q u e n t l y b e g i n by i d e n t i f y i n g and a d d r e s s i n g two f a c t o r s of the GRP model: where the money i s l e a k i n g out of a community through i m p o r t s , and how the v a l u e of e x p o r t s can be i n c r e a s e d . A f r e q u e n t o b j e c t i v e i s t h e r e f o r e t o r e v e r s e the f l o w of income l e a v i n g a community and to r e d i r e c t the f l o w of money w i t h i n a community w i t h fewer l e a k a g e s . S u c c e s s f u l s t r a t e g i e s a r e thus b u i l t on s t r e n g t h e n i n g 8 the l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and r e d u c i n g the l e a k a g e s of c a p i t a l . 7 C e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a r e assumed t o e x e r t a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on a p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development. F i r s t , an extended i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the term l o c a l i s i n c l u d e d t o suggest an endogenous or n a t i v e d i m e n s i o n of the p r o c e s s which i n i t i a t e s the a c t i v i t y or development. I t i s assumed t h a t the prime impetus of the p r o c e s s comes from w i t h i n r a t h e r than from an e x t e r n a l s t i m u l u s . 8 Thus, the degree t o which a community i s a b l e t o induce l o c a l economic development i s l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n of the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c a p a c i t i e s and s k i l l s of i t s p o p u l a t i o n . A second c o n d i t i o n assumes t h a t l o c a l c o n t r o l and o w n e r s h i p of the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n g e n e r a t e h i g h e r r e t u r n s l o c a l l y than would occur i n a s i t u a t i o n of e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l and o w n e r s h i p . T h i s i s because l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d f i r m s , f o r the sake of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l o g i s t i c a l ease, not t o mention the c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h space and d i s t a n c e , are assumed t o e s t a b l i s h p u r c h a s i n g p a t t e r n s and make inve s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s which b e n e f i t the community i n which t h e y a r e l o c a t e d . Thus, t h e concept of l o c a l economic development assumes t h a t , t o as l a r g e 7Many r e g i o n a l s c i e n t i s t have d e v e l o p e d s t r a t e g i e s of l o c a l economic development which t r a n s c e n d the c o n t e x t of the mixed market economy. Fr.iedmann and Weaver (1979) f o r i n s t a n c e have s t r e s s e d the need f o r fundamental change i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y . O t h e r s , such as S t o h r and T a y l o r , (1981) have encouraged the c r e a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e and p a r a l l e l economic systems, community owned development c o r p o r a t i o n s and non-market t r a n s a c t i o n s , e t c . For the most p a r t , r e f e r e n c e s t o l o c a l economic development w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s s t u d y w i l l be c o n f i n e d t o the concept of economic development w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g market s t r u c t u r e and c a s h economy. 8Terms such as development from below, bottom up development and g r a s s r o o t s development a r e o t h e r terms which e x p r e s s s i m i l a r p r o c e s s e s . See T a y l o r and S t o h r , 1981. 9 an e x t e n t as p o s s i b l e , c o n t r o l and ownership of the b u s i n e s s or e n t e r p r i s e s h o u l d remain a t the l o c a l l e v e l . T h i r d , the p r o c e s s d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from o t h e r models of economic development which assume t h a t a l l economic s t i m u l i a r e e x t e r n a l . F r e q u e n t l y , l o c a l economic development s t r a t e g i e s r e l y on a s u p p l y based model of growth and a v i g o r o u s m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y of the r e g i o n ' s a m e n i t i e s . 9 The p r o c e s s assumes an inward d i m e n s i o n as dependencies on e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s a r e reduced and e f f o r t s a r e made t o f o s t e r a g r e a t e r degree of s e l f r e l i a n c e w i t h i n the community. T h i s o c c u r s as the community or r e g i o n b e g i n s t o r e s t r u c t u r e and u t i l i z e e x i s t i n g consumption p a t t e r n s and consumer markets i n a way which keeps more of the e x i s t i n g c a p i t a l w i t h i n the r e g i o n . 1 0 A p r o c e s s of economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i s a l s o f r e q u e n t l y assumed both t o i n i t i a t e and t o emerge as a r e s u l t of a p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development. D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the l a b o u r f o r c e , f a v o u r i n g the development of a secondary and t e r t i a r y s e c t o r and complementing employment i n the p r i m a r y s e c t o r i s seen as a d e s i r a b l e o b j e c t i v e of l o c a l economic development. The l e s s dependent an economy i s on e x t e r n a l l y demand-based p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e s , the more b u o y a n t l y i t w i l l r i d e out a market d e c l i n e or change i n demand f o r t h a t p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e . A f i n a l c o n d i t i o n i s t h a t some s t r u c t u r a l changes, w i t h 9See Webster, D. & G o l d b e r g , M. "The A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s : Canada's New Amenity Region" C o n t a c t (1978) pp.91-111 f o r a r e v i e w of t h i s c o n c e p t . 1 0 S e e Jane J a c o b s , " C i t i e s and the Wealth of N a t i o n s " The  A t l a n t i c M onthly V o l . 2 5 3 No.3, March 1984. 10 r e s p e c t t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power and w e a l t h i n a r e g i o n , a r e assumed t o e x e r t a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on a l o c a l p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 1 T h i s f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r s i n the form of i n c r e a s e d w e a l t h per c a p i t a , f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e t o p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l needs, the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of p r e v i o u s l y d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d m i n o r i t i e s i n t o the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o the i n s t i t u t i o n s , and l o c a l c o n t r o l t h e r e o f , or i n c r e a s e d economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s e c t o r s . L o c a l economic development v e n t u r e s or i n i t i a t i v e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y d e l i v e r e d v i a a new or i n n o v a t i v e community t o o l : the community development c o r p o r a t i o n ( C D C ) . 1 2 T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n i t i a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of b u s i n e s s and development s t r a t e g i e s and f r e q u e n t l y e x h i b i t the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : f l e x i b i l i t y , adequate f u n d i n g and s t r o n g , c r e a t i v e and committed l e a d e r s h i p . 1 3 In t h e i r f l e x i b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o respond t o c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the CDC's a r e a b l e t o c a p i t a l i z e on the o p p o r t u n i t e s w i t h i n t h e i r a r e a s as they a r i s e . E f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i s e s s e n t i a l and i n c l u d e s some v i s i o n of the lo n g term needs of the community. In i t s c a t a l y t i c r o l e , the CDC s t r i v e s t o g a i n s u p p o r t of the community i n c l u d i n g 1 1 M y r d a l , Gunnar, "What i s Development?" E k i s t i c s V o l . 237, August 1975. Pp. 84-87. 1 2Wismer & P e l l , o p . c i t . p.63. A l s o , Brohhead, e t . a l . , i n d i s c u s s i n g the LDO's, r e v i e w s t h i s c o n c e p t . Community Based  Development: A Development System f o r the 1980's T e c h n i c a l Study 3, Task F o r c e on Labour Market Development, Ottawa, J u l y , 1981. 1 3 M a l i z i a , E m i l , E. L o c a l Economic Development: A Guide t o  P r a c t i c e P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1985. pp.60-64. 1 4 S e e M a l i z i a , o p . c i t . p.62, f o r a l i s t of e f f e c t i v e CDC's. 11 the b u s i n e s s community, the bankers and the p o l i t i c i a n s . 1 " The p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development d i f f e r s from a mere p r o c e s s of economic growth, where a p a r t i c u l a r i n vestment o c c u r s , or a new market f o r an e x p o r t p r o d u c t i s d e v e l o p e d . The endogenous n a t u r e of the p r o c e s s seeks t o emphasize a community of v a l u e s , s p a t i a l b o u n d a r i e s and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and dependencies, a l l of which a r e deemed t o be d e s i r a b l e and worthy of p r e s e r v a t i o n . 2.2. R e g i o n a l Development T h e o r i e s The concept of l o c a l economic development, i n t h a t i t a d v o c a t e s a more b a l a n c e d and l o c a l i z e d approach t o development, i s c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h the i d e o l o g i c a l r o o t s , v a l u e s and b e l i e f s put f o r t h by e a r l y r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r i s t s . R e g i o n a l development t h e o r i e s and s t r a t e g i e s advocate the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s and c a l l f o r s t r u c t u r a l changes to the e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s of economic development. A r e g i o n a l approach seeks t o p r o v i d e a b a l a n c e d development p o l i c y which w i l l e nable a r e g i o n t o d e v e l o p and u t i l i z e i t s r e s o u r c e base s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t l y . F r e q u e n t l y , however, p a t t e r n s of growth emerge which r e f l e c t v a s t i m b a l a n c e s between the r e g i o n s and t h e i r urban c o r e and a number o f ' t h e o r i e s e x i s t t o e x p l a i n why t h i s i s so. A l a r g e l i t e r a t u r e , r e v i e w e d as f o l l o w s , s u p p o r t s the view t h a t some s t r u c t u r a l changes a r e r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a p r o c e s s of s p a t i a l l y b a l a n c e d growth can o c c u r . The concept of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g emerged a l o n g the n o r t h e a s t c o a s t of the U.S. d u r i n g the e a r l y 1920's. Urban i n d u s t r i a l development was i n c r e a s i n g a t a pace which t h r e a t e n e d e a r l i e r 12 p a t t e r n s of human s e t t l e m e n t and r u r a l / u r b a n s e t t l e m e n t . A group of p r o g r e s s i v e r e f o r m e r s i n c l u d i n g P a t r i c k Geddes, C l a r e n c e S t e i n , L ewis Mumford and Howard Odum e s t a b l i s h e d the R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of America (RPAA) i n an e f f o r t t o s t o p the " f l o o d of m e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n of the growth of d i n o s a u r c i t i e s . 1 5 The group l o b b i e d f o r sup p o r t f o r a r e g i o n a l economic development s t r a t e g y which i n c o r p o r a t e d r e g i o n a l v a l u e s . The RPAA f e a r e d t h a t the sp r e a d of c o n u r b a t i o n s , and subsequent d e s t r u c t i o n of s t a b l e human and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s would accompany the c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r i a l movement e v e n t u a l l y d r a i n i n g a l l s o c i a l l i f e and a c t i v i t i e s i n t o the c a n c e r o u s m e t r o p o l i s , d e t e r i o r a t e the b a l a n c e between c i t i e s and t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n s w i t h the e v e n t u a l d e c l i n e of an a c t i v e and d e c e n t r a l i z e d c u l t u r a l l i f e . 1 e N e a r l y s i x t y y e a r s l a t e r , d i s p a r i t i e s among h i n t e r l a n d s , r e g i o n s and the urban c e n t r e s g i v e support t o the f e a r s of these e a r l y r e f o r m e r s . Indeed, the Canadian economy has been d e s c r i b e d as one of the most fragmented and r e g i o n a l i z e d i n d u s t r i a l market e c o n o m i e s . 1 7 I n s t e a d of a b a l a n c e between c i t i e s and t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n s , huge imbalances e x i s t i n terms of i n v e s t m e n t , s t a n d a r d s of l i v i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l and employment 1 5Weaver, C. 1979. P.58. P a r a p h r a s i n g Lewis Mumford, "The r e g i o n a l p l a n number" Survey G r a p h i c 54 May, 1925. 1 6 I b i d . p.58. 1 7 S a v o i e , Donald, R e g i o n a l Economic Development: Canada's Search  For S o l u t i o n s . U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1986. p.4. 1 3 o p p o r t u n i t e s and l e v e l s of i n c o m e . 1 8 No b e t t e r example e x i s t s of the phenomenon of r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s than t h a t of the r e s o u r c e based h i n t e r l a n d s of B r i t i s h C olumbia. Marchak has t r a c e d the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l impacts of unbalanced r e g i o n a l growth i n many of the f o r e s t r y based communities of B.C. 1 9 Her f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t the comprehensive "shopping l i s t of s p e c i a l problems" which Robinson has c i t e d as as the f a t e of t y p i c a l r e s o u r c e towns a l o n g Canada's f r o n t i e r . 2 0 These problems i n c l u d e a sense of impermanence, unbalanced demographic s t r u c t u r e s , s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n , and economic i n s t a b i l i t y , a l l of which s e r v e as b a r r i e r s i n e f f o r t s t o f a c i l i t a t e a h o l i s t i c p r o c e s s of development. W h i l e no consensus e x i s t s as t o an a p p r o p r i a t e t h e o r e t i c a l approach t o t h e problem, t h e r e have been a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p a p a r a d i g m a t i c p o l i c y approach t o the phenomenon of r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s and development s t r a t e g i e s . R i c h a r d L i p s e y has perhaps s t a t e d i t b e s t ; "For a l l the concern about r e g i o n a l a r e a development and r e g i o n a l problems, i n Canada, we don't r e a l l y have an u n d e r l y i n g t h e o r y . We don't know what we would have t o do, what a r e the c o n d i t i o n s under which t h e r e would be r e g i o n a l 1 8 T h e e x t e n t t o which t h e s e d i s p a r i t e s e x i t s i n Canada has been w e l l documented. See L i v i n g T o g e t h e r : A Study of R e g i o n a l  D i s p a r i t i e s . Economic C o u n c i l of Canada, 1977, and L i t h w i c k , N. "Dimensions of Canadian R e g i o n a l D i s p a r i t i e s " i n R e g i o n a l  Economic P o l i c y : The Canadian e x p e r i e n c e 1978. 1 9 M a r c h a k , P. Green G o l d . UBC P r e s s , 1983. 2 0 R o b i n s o n , I r a , "New Resource Towns on Canada's F r o n t i e r : S e l e c t e d Contemporary I s s u e s . " In Resource Communities: A Decade  of D i s r u p t i o n . Detomasi, D. And G a r t r e l l , J . , eds. pp.1-7. 2 1 S a o v i e , D. op. C i t . P.5. 14 e q u a l i t y , however we d e f i n e e q u a l i t y . " 2 1 The Economic C o u n c i l of Canada, a f t e r s p o n s o r i n g s e v e r a l s t u d i e s i n t e n d e d t o d e f i n e some a n a l y t i c a l framework f o r r e g i o n a l development, produced i t s most s o p h i s t i c a t e d work on t h e s u b j e c t , L i v i n g Together w i t h o u t the hoped f o r t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e . 2 2 Much government money has been spent t r y i n g t o enhance the economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n a r e a s of r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s . For the most p a r t , t h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s have been based on N e o - c l a s s i c a l or K e y n e s i a n frameworks. The N e o - c l a s s i c a l model of r e g i o n a l economic adjustment p o s i t s t h a t l a b o u r w i l l m i g r a t e from r e g i o n s of low r e l a t i v e demand and wage r a t e t o a r e a s of h i g h r e l a t i v e wage r a t e s and demand. S t r a t e g i e s based on t h i s model thus encourage and f a c i l i t a t e t hese m i g r a t i o n p a t t e r n s through r e -s e t t l e m e n t f u n d i n g , tax a l l o w a n c e s f o r r e l o c a t i o n , and i n c r e a s e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 2 3 The K e y n e s i a n framework r e c o g n i z e s the market's i n a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e f u l l employment and thus f a v o u r s some government i n t e r v e n t i o n . 2 " Such s t r a t e g i e s as growth p o l e s and growth c e n t r e s a r e based on t h i s c o n c e p t . 2 5 Based on the work of F r e n c h economist F r a n c o i s P e r r o u x , the growth p o l e t h e o r y assumes t h a t 2 2 E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l of Canada, L i v i n g Together 1977. pp.215-216. 2 3 C o u r c h e n e , Thomas, J . "Avenues of Adjustment: The T r a n s f e r System and R e g i o n a l D i s p a r i t i e s " , Canadian C o n f e d e r a t i o n a t the  C r o s s r o a d s : The Sear c h f o r a F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l B a l a n c e . Vancouver, F r a s e r I n s t i t u t e , 1978. pp.145-186. 2"Keynes, John Maynard, The G e n e r a l Theory of Employment,  I n t e r e s t and Money London, M a c m i l l a n , 1936. 2 5Cameron, Gordon, "Growth A r e a s , Growth C e n t r e s and R e g i o n a l C o n v e r s i o n " , S c o t l a n d J o u r n a l of Economics V o l . X V I I , 1970 pp.19-38. 15 growth o c c u r s i n c e r t a i n f o c a l a r e a s , and then spreads through d i v e r s e c h a n n e l s . P o l i c i e s which i n i t i a t e t h e s e f o c a l a r e a s i n slow growth a r e a s a re d e s i g n e d t o i n i t i a t e a p r o c e s s of s e l f -s u s t a i n i n g growth. The s t r a t e g y has been the b a s i s f o r many of the e a r l y p o l i c y and program s t r u c t u r e s of the former f e d e r a l r e g i o n a l development department, the Department of R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n . Some t h e o r i s t s have c o n c l u d e d t h a t the impac t s of many of the p o l i c i e s i n t e n d e d t o f o s t e r growth i n l a g g i n g r e g i o n s , have f a i l e d t o produce e i t h e r the i n t e n d e d or s u b s t a n t i a l r e s u l t s . A l l e n P r e d , f o r example, has c o n c l u d e d t h a t d e s p i t e the " f o o t l o o s e " n a t u r e of many f i r m s ' r e s e a r c h and p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n s , and g i v e n the e x i s t i n g b i a s f o r f i r m s t o r e i n v e s t i n the r e g i o n s i n which they a r e l o c a t e d , a s i t u a t i o n of l o c a t i o n a l i n t e r t i a r e s u l t s . 2 6 He c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h o s e who do r e l o c a t e t o l a g g i n g r e g i o n s a r e mature, low waged and slow growth t y p e s of i n d u s t r i e s w i t h low m u l t i p l i e r s t o encourage f u r t h e r economic development i n the r e g i o n . Other t h e o r i s t s c l a i m t h a t i t i s the u n f e t t e r e d market f o r c e s which promote t h i s imbalance i n r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e use and development. The s e m i n a l work of economic h i s t o r i a n H a r o l d I n n e s , w i t h h i s s t a p l e t h e o r y of development, has i n t r o d u c e d much of t h i s r e g i o n a l t h e o r y . 2 7 Innes t h e o r i z e d t h a t the Canadian economy was based on the 2 6Weaver & Gunton, o p . c i t . p.89. 2 7 I n n e s , H . Problems of S t a p l e P r o d u c t i o n i n Canada Ryerson P r e s s , T o r o n t o . 1933. 124p. 16 demand f o r i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and thus e x t e r n a l demand was the p r i m a r y g e n e r a t o r of economic growth. The t h e o r y assumes t h a t as demand and e x p o r t s i n c r e a s e , the s a v i n g s d e r i v e d from t h e s e e x p o r t s a r e r e - i n v e s t e d back i n t o the r e g i o n s . E v e n t u a l l y " f o r w a r d " , "backward" and " f i n a l demand" l i n k a g e s emerge, c r e a t i n g a much more d i v e r s i f i e d economy. Then, i n i t s a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e more of the f u n c t i o n s i n the p r o d u c t i o n of the p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e the r e g i o n ' s o v e r a l l economy becomes more d i v e r s i f i e d and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , and l e s s r e l i a n t on e x t e r n a l demands. T h i s t h e o r y has been w i d e l y i n t e r p r e t e d and expanded; many t h e o r i s t s now support the view t h a t a s e r i e s of o b s t a c l e s e x i s t and impede the development of t h e s e linkages., and the r e g i o n s c o n t i n u e t o be almost e x c l u s i v e l y dependent on the e x t r a c t i o n f u n c t i o n s of r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 8 Other t h e o r i e s i d e n t i f y the r o o t of the p r o b l e m as b e i n g the r e g i o n ' s i n a b i l i t y t o a t t r a c t investment t o the r e g i o n . Marchak has a t t r i b u t e d many of the r e g i o n a l problems t o the c o r p o r a t e p r o c e s s of v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n . 2 9 A v e r t i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d c o r p o r a t i o n i s one which owns many of the p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n s which p r o v i d e the raw m a t e r i a l s , s e r v i c e the p r o d u c t i o n and s e l l the p r o d u c t . The investment and l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s of such a c o r p o r a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y r e s u l t i n a c l u s t e r i n g of the i n v e s t m e n t s and development f u n c t i o n s near the 2 8 S e e W a t k i n s , M. "A S t a p l e Theory of Economic Growth", Canadian  J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e V o l . 29, May 1963. pp.141-158. 2 9 M a r c h a k , P a t r i c i a M. I d e o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on Canada M c G r a w - H i l l Ryerson L i m i t e d , 1981. pp.58-62. 17 c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d head o f f i c e , a p r a c t i c e which c l e a r l y does not f a v o u r the r e g i o n s where the r e s o u r c e s are e x t r a c t e d i n the f i r s t p l a c e . N e o - M a r x i s t t h e o r y c l a i m s t h a t i t i s the i n a b i l i t y of the market t o a l l o c a t e r e s o u r c e s . e f f i c i e n t l y which causes unbalanced r e g i o n a l development. N e o - M a r x i s t t h e o r i s t s argue t h a t assumptions of p e r f e c t c o m p e t i t i o n a r e u n r e a l i s t i c , thus r e n d e r i n g the hidden hand unable t o e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e the b e n e f i t s . 3 0 H o l l a n d has argued t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l market f o r c e s l e f t u n f e t t e r e d w i l l r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d r e g i o n a l d i s p a r i t i e s . B u i l d i n g on M y r d a l ' s t h e o r y of c i r c u l a r and c u m u l a t i v e c a u s a t i o n , 3 1 H o l l a n d has argued t h a t h i g h growth f i r m s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o expand i n h i g h growth r e g i o n s where they a r e c u r r e n t l y l o c a t e d . 3 2 Moreover, w h i l e l a b o u r may m i g r a t e t o r e a l i z e i n t e r r e g i o n a l wage i n c e n t i v e s , they w i l l not do so q u i c k l y enough t o m a i n t a i n a b a l a n c e between demand f o r , and s u p p l y of l a b o u r . 3 3 P e r r o u x has argued t h a t w h i l e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of growth p o l e s may i n i t i a t e a growth p a t t e r n and t h u s a t t r a c t the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n and t r a d e t o a c e r t a i n a r e a , i t w i l l a l s o 3 0Weaver, C. And Gunton, T."From Drought A s s i s t a n c e t o Mega-P r o j e c t s : F i f t y Y e a r s of R e g i o n a l Theory and P o l i c y i n Canada." The Canadian J o u r n a l of R e g i o n a l S c i e n c e Volume V. S p r i n g 1982. No.1. 3 H o l l a n d , S. C a p i t a l V e r s u s the Regions M a c m i l l a n P r e s s L t d . New York, 1976. pp.47-49. 3 2Weaver & Gunton, o p . c i t . p.20. 3 3 I b i d . p.47-49. 18 c o n t r i b u t e t o a p o l a r i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n t h a t o t h e r a r e a s w i l l l o s e these f a c t o r s and t r a d e t o t h e s e f a s t e r growing a r e a s . He t h u s c o n c l u d e d t h a t p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s s h o u l d e s t a b l i s h c o u n t e r -p o l e s to those b e i n g c r e a t e d by the market, i n o r d e r t o h e l p reduce the p o l a r i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n f a v o u r of the l e s s developed r e g i o n s . 3 ' Pred s u g g e s t s t h a t a u s e f u l r e g i o n a l s t r a t e g y would be t o encourage the r e l o c a t i o n of q u a t e r n a r y s e c t o r employment such as r e s e a r c h and development and head o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s , both of which e n t a i l h i g h e r m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t s w i t h i n t h e l a g g i n g r e g i o n s . 3 5 Many o t h e r s have endorsed e x p l a n a t i o n s and development s t r a t e g i e s which a r e based on more s u b s t a n t i a l s t r u c t u r a l changes. Gunton, f o r example, i n documenting the l e a k a g e s of r e s o u r c e r e n t s out of the r e g i o n s and the p r o v i n c e of B.C., a g r e e s t h a t the B.C. economy i s s t a p l e - t r a p p e d . 3 6 He argues t h a t o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l changes, which i n c l u d e a s e r i e s of r e g i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m of r e s o u r c e r o y a l t i e s , w i l l r e s u l t i n an e q u i t a b l e and a c c o u n t a b l e i n d u s t r i a l s t r a t e g y . A l l e n a l s o p o i n t s out the i n h e r e n t weakness of h e a v i l y r e s o u r s e based economy and argues f o r a p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y which i n c l u d e s d e v e l o p i n g programs t o ease the adjustment of r e s o u r c e based-towns impacted by c h a n g i n g t e c h n o l o g y , and an ^ H o l l a n d , S. op. c i t . p.50 3 5Weaver & Gunton, o p . c i t . p.22. 3 6 G u n t o n , T. Reources, R e g i o n a l Development and P r o v i n c i a l  P o l i c y : A Case Study of B r i t i s h Columbia Canadian C e n t r e f o r P o l i c y A l t e r n a t i v e s , Ottawa, 1982. 19 e x p a n s i o n and improvement of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s o u t s i d e the lower m a i n l a n d t o enhance the employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the r e g i o n s . 3 7 The essence of the "new development t h e o r y " i s t h a t r e g i o n s can best c o n t r o l t h e i r development t h r o u g h the r e t e n t i o n of s u r p l u s r e n t s d e r i v e d from s t a p l e e x t r a c t i o n . 3 8 The i n t e n t b e h i n d the s t r a t e g i e s d e s i g n e d w i t h the o b j e c t i v e of c a p t u r i n g the economic r e n t s i n v o l v e r o y a l t i e s and the t e c h n i q u e of c o m p e t i t i v e b i d d i n g . 3 9 In sum, d e s p i t e much r e s e a r c h and much government e x p e n d i t u r e , i t i s not c r y s t a l c l e a r j u s t how the i s s u e of r e g i o n a l economic d i s p a r i t i e s can b e s t be a d d r e s s e d . W h i l e some t h e o r i s t s have argued t h a t o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l changes t o the way i n which we conduct our economic b u s i n e s s w i l l l e a d t o b a l a n c e d growth i n the r e g i o n s , o t h e r s have c l a i m e d t h a t e f f o r t s by governments t o i n t e r f e r e have a l r e a d y l e d t o u n i n t e n d e d r e s u l t s . I t does seem u n l i k e l y , however, t h a t market f o r c e s , l e f t u n f e t t e r e d , w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the degree of b a l a n c e d and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t growth i n h e r e n t i n the p r o c e s s of 3 7 A l l e n , R obert The B.C. Economy: P a s t , P r e s e n t , F u t u r e . B r i t i s h Columbia Economic P o l i c y I n s t i t u t e . UBC, 1985. 3 8 T h e term "new development s t r a t e g i e s " and "new development l i t e r a t u r e " i s used i n t h i s c o n t e x t by Weaver, C. In "From Drought A s s i s t a n c e t o M e g a - P r o j e c t s : F i f t y Y e a r s of R e g i o n a l Theory and P o l i c y In Canada" The Canadian J o u r n a l of R e g i o n a l  S c i e n c e Volume V, S p r i n g 1982, No. 1. pp.25-28. 3 9 S u c h s t r a t e g i e s have been r e v i e w e d f o r B r i t i s h Columbia from many d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s . See f o r example, Mead, W, (ed.) Timber P o l i c y I s s u e s Vancouver, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1978. A l s o , G a f f n e y , M. (ed.) M i n e r a l L e a s i n g as an  I nstrument of P u b l i c P o l i c y Vancouver, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s . 20 l o c a l economic development. P o l i c y makers i n v o l v e d i n r e g i o n a l economic development s t r a t e g i e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y l i m i t e d i n what they can do by the need t o meet the d u a l and somewhat p o l a r i z e d p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s of e f f i c i e n c y v e r s u s e q u i t y , or p l a c e - p r o s p e r i t y v e r s u s p e o p l e -p r o s p e r i t y . " 0 • R e g i o n a l economic development p o l i c i e s a re a c t u a l l y s t a t e m e n t s of p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s and p o l i t i c a l change. The degree t o which p o l i c y makers can d e v i a t e from e i t h e r of the i d e o l o g i c a l d i c t a t e s of e f f i c i e n c y or e q u i t y i s based on the u n d e r l y i n g p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s and p r e m i s e s . Thus, v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s towards change must be examined. Most d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l b o d i e s i n our s o c i e t y d e r i v e t h e i r i d e o l o g i c a l r o o t s and v a l u e s from one of two somewhat d i s t i n c t , a l b e i t r e l a t e d s c h o o l s of the c o n s e r v a t i v e or l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t s . " 1 C o n s e r v a t i v e democrats, l e d by such t h e o r i s t s as Edmund Burke, James Madison, and John Calhoun b e l i e v e t h a t a l l p e o p l e s h o u l d be g i v e n an e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y i n s o c i e t y . Thus a t h r i v i n g c a p i t a l i s t system, based on c o m p e t i t i o n among i n d i v i d u a l s i s encouraged and assumed t o f o s t e r a s o c i e t y i n which a l l i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be g r a n t e d e q u a l a c c e s s t o o p o r t u n i t i e s and g a i n s . Proponents of t h i s s c h o o l of thought *°Refer t o Matthews, R a l p h , " Economic V i a b i l i t y v s . S o c i a l V i t a l i t y i n R e g i o n a l Development" i n P e r c e p t i o n s of Development S. Wallman, (ed.) 1977. Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge. A l s o , W i n n i c k , L o u i s , " P l a c e P r o s p e r i t y v s . P e o p l e P r o s p e r i t y : W e l f a r e C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the Geographic R e d i s t r i b u t i o n of Economic A c t i v i t y " i n E s s a y s i n Urban Land Economics U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , R e a l E s t a t e R e s e a r c h . fl1Baradat, Leon P. P o l i t i c a l I d e o l o g i e s : T h e i r O r i g i n s and  Impact P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Englewood C l i f f s , N.J. 1979. 21 a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t the freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l i s b e s t ensured when government r e s t r a i n t i s m i n i m a l . W h i l e c o n c e d i n g t h a t the market f a i l s t o o p e r a t e p e r f e c t l y a l l the t i m e , they do f a v o u r some i n v o l v e m e n t , a l b e i t m i n i m a l , i n the economy. L i b e r a l democrats, on the o t h e r hand, view t o t a l freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l as e x p l o i t a t i v e and o p p r e s s i v e , and t h u s f a v o u r some governmental a c t i o n t o p r e v e n t o p p r e s s i o n by t h o s e who own the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n . The L i b e r a l democrats, b o t h p a s t and p r e s e n t , a r e c o n f i d e n t t h a t humans, as i n t e l l e g e n t and r a t i o n a l c r e a t u r e s , can d e v i s e and s o c i a l l y e n g i n e e r t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s t o meet t h e i r c hanging needs. U n l i k e the c o n s e r v a t i v e democrats, who more r e a d i l y support moves which may r e - i n s t a t e v a l u e s , t e n e t s and i n s t i t u t i o n s of the p a s t , L i b e r a l democrats respond more f a v o u r a b l y t o f a s t and e x t e n s i v e s t e p s which encourage new i n s t i t u t i o n s or v a l u e s . R e g i o n a l economic development s t r a t e g i e s a r e r e l a t e d t o b o t h of t h e s e s c h o o l s of thought i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o endorse government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h o s e a r e a s where the market has f a i l e d . They d i f f e r , however, i n the e x t e n t t o which they r e c o g n i z e market s h o r t c o m i n g s and i n how much and i n what d i r e c t i o n they a r e w i l l i n g t o s h i f t s o c i e t y away from the s t a t u s quo. L o c a l economic development was t o u t e d as a development s t r a t e g y which r e f l e c t e d "a b l e n d of i d e o l o g i e s " , and one which " t r a n s c e n d e d a l l i d e o l o g i c a l or p o l i t i c a l bounds"." 2 In i t s fl2Mel C o u v e l i e r , P a n e l i s t , C o n f e r e n c e on Community Economic Development, P r i n c e George, November 30,1985. 22 a t t e m p t s t o h a r n e s s the e x i s t i n g w e a l t h w i t h i n a community v i a import replacement and s u p p l y based models of growth, l o c a l economic development s t r a t e g i e s t h u s o f f e r a v i a b l e s o l u t i o n t o the dilemma of e f f i c i e n c e y v e r s u s e q u i t y . The con c e p t of l o c a l economic development has r e c e i v e d much a t t r a c t i o n from both groups. I t g a i n s f a v o u r from both i d e o l o g i e s i n t h a t i t does not d e v i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y from market d r i v e n f o r c e s , and i n t h a t i t ad d r e s s e s s o c i a l and economic needs. 2.3. The Role of E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i n L o c a l Economic Development. An i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n the p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development i s e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . G i v e n the endogenous n a t u r e of the p r o c e s s , t h e e x t e n t t o which l o c a l economic development can occur i s a c t u a l l y a f u n c t i o n of t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c a p a c i t i e s of the r e g i o n i t s e l f . I t i s u n c l e a r , however, as t o how t h i s t y p e of b e h a v i o r can be encouraged i n a n a t i o n a l or r e g i o n a l s e t t i n g . Are e n t r e p r e n e u r s made or born? What k i n d s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s do they share? And what m o t i v a t e s someone t o r i s k an e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v e n t u r e ? T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l a d d r e s s t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . An e n t r e p r e n e u r has been d e f i n e d as "a b e a r e r of u n i n s u r a b l e r i s k " . " 3 E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , the c r e a t i o n of new, independent b u s i n e s s , i s v a l u e d i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s c o m p e t i t i o n t o e x i s t i n g companies, encourages q u a l i t y improvement, l e a d s t o p r i c e r e d u c t i o n s and a c c e l e r a t e s t h e development and " 3 K i l b y , P e t e r , "Hunting the Heffalump" i n E n t r e p r e n u e r s h i p and  Economic Development New York, The Free P r e s s , 1971. p.2. 23 d i s s e m i n a t i o n of new t e c h n o l o g i e s , p r o d u c t s and s e r v i c e s . In a d d i t i o n t o i m p r o v i n g the q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r s o c i e t y , t h e s e v e n t u r e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c r e a t i o n of new j o b s . As more i n d i v i d u a l s become s e l f - e m p l o y e d and o w n e r / o p e r a t o r s of t h e i r own e n t e r p r i s e s , a p r o c e s s of economic d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s a l l e g e d t o o c c u r , whereby the power and w e a l t h of s o c i e t y i s d i s t r i b u t e d i n a more d e m o c r a t i c way. 0* When t h i s o c c u r s i n a r e g i o n a l or l o c a l a r e a , a p r o c e s s of development o c c u r s i n c l u d i n g economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , l o c a l c o n t r o l over the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n , l o c a l autonomy over the i n s t i t u t i o n s , and so on. E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i s the s u b j e c t of renewed a t t e n t i o n p r i m a r i l y because the r o l e of s m a l l b u s i n e s s and s e l f employment i s i n c r e a s i n g . A n a l y s t s have g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d a s h i f t from a p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y t o an i n f o r m a t i o n and s e r v i c e based economy where s m a l l and medium s i z e d b u s i n e s s e s are seen t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e . " 5 A 1981 study c o n d u c t e d a t the M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e of Technology, f o r example, found t h a t between 1969 and 1 976,. n e a r l y 2/3 of a l l j o b s c r e a t e d were formed by f i r m s employing l e s s than 20 i n d i v i d u a l s . 4 6 A s i m i l a r t r e n d was 4 " V e s p e r , K. E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p and N a t i o n a l P o l i c y W a l t e r H e l l e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r S m a l l Bus ines s P o l i c y P a p e r s , C a r n e g i e - M e l l o n Graduate S c h o o l of I n d u s t r i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1983. 4 5 C o h e n , Dian,& Shannon, K r i s t i n , K. The Next Canadian Economy M o n t r e a l , Eden P r e s s , 1985. 4 6 M i h a i l o , T e m a l i , Candice C a m p b e l l , B u s i n e s s I n c u b a t o r P r o f i l e s : A N a t i o n a l Survey, Hubert H. Humphrey I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c A f f a i r s , U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a , M i n n e a p o l i s , M.N., 1984. p.2. 24 e v i d e n t i n B.C.; by 1985 17 p e r c e n t of a l l employed persons i n the p r o v i n c e were s e l f employed, up from 11 p e r c e n t i n 1975." 7 The o u t p u t s of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , however, appear t o be more e v i d e n t than the i n p u t s r e q u i r e d t o f a c i l i t a t e such b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s . P i a t t c l a i m s t h a t Canadians have never e x h i b i t e d s t r o n g e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l t r a i t s as a n a t i o n , and somewhat i n c o n t r a s t , have never been o v e r l y opposed t o d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n by g o v e r n m e n t . 4 8 T h e o r i e s t o e x p l a i n t h i s n a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e have been o f f e r e d from an h i s t o r i c a l , g e o g r a p h i c , and a c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e ; however, perhaps none more complete than the p o l i t i c a l - c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e a r t i c u l a t e d by P r e s t h u s . " 9 He a r g u e s : B r i t i s h l e g a c y had mixed consequences. Among i t s p o s i t i v e ones i s s u r e l y a p e r v a s i v e r e s p e c t f o r law and o r d e r , which on the whole ensured more s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y than found i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . R e i n f o r c i n g t h i s advantage i s an o r g a n i c p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , m a n i f e s t i n a c o l l e c t i v i s t a t t i t u d e toward s o c i e t y , c o n t r a s t i n g s h a r p l y w i t h the c o m p e t i t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i s m of American l i f e . . . ( p . 1 2 ) . and...compared w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s , which has...had a l a i s s e z - f a i r e r a t i o n a l e . . . ( p . 1 2 ) . T h i s would suggest t h a t s u p p o r t does e x i s t f o r a reduced l e v e l of government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the hopes t h a t i t may f o s t e r " ^ C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s Bureau, S t a t i s t i c s Canada, u n p u b l i s h e d e s t i m a t e s . ft8Platt, H a r l a n D. Why Companies F a i l : S t r a t e g i e s f o r d e t e c t i n g ,  a v o i d i n g and p r o f i t i n g from b a n k r u p t c y L e x i n g t o n Books, Mass. 1985. " • 9 P r e s t h u s , R o b e r t , " E v o l u t i o n oand Canadian P o l i t i c a l C u l t u r e : The P o l i t i c s of Accommodation" paper p r e p a r e d f o r the B i -C e n t e n i a l Conference on R e v o l u t i o n and E v o l u t i o n : T h e Impact of the R e v o l u t i o n a r y E x p e r i e n c e of the U n i t e d S t a t e s Compared w i t h t h e Development of Canada S o l e l y by E v o l u t i o n " . N o r t h C a r o l i n a U n i v e r s i t y , Canadian S t u d i e s C e n t r e , 1976. 25 g r e a t e r l e v e l s of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and r i s k t a k i n g . S t u d i e s have a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . A composite p r o f i l e of an e n t r e p r e n e u r has been p r o v i d e d by B r o c k h a u s . 5 0 H i s s t u d i e s i d e n t i f y the t y p i c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : non-c o n f o r m i t y , a g r e a t need f o r achievement and s a t i s f a c t i o n , h i g h l e v e l s of energy and a d i s l i k e f o r l o n g term commitment t o s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s . 5 1 As w e l l , e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n g e n e r a l , have l e s s f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n than those who r i s e t o t h e t o p of l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s ; 5 2 and f r e q u e n t l y have p a r e n t s who a r e e n t r e p r e n e u r s . S t u d i e s i n Canada and the U.S. have found t h a t over one h a l f of the e n t r e p r e n e u r s s t u d i e d came from homes where a p a r e n t was s e l f - e m p l o y e d . 5 3 Vesper has i d e n t i f i e d a s e r i e s of pushes and p u l l s which e x i s t , and e i t h e r induce or p r o v i d e a b a r r i e r t o the development of an e n t r e p r e n u e r i a l v e n t u r e . 5 " He has i d e n t i f i e d b o th pushes; those n e g a t i v e f o r c e s e x i s t i n g i n the e n t r e p r e n e u r s c u r r e n t 5 0 B r o c k h a u s , S r . Robert H. "The P s y c h o l o g y of the E n t r e p r e n e u r " i n C a l v i n A. Kent, e t . a l . (eds.) E n c y c l o p e d i a of  E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 982. 5 1 M c C l e l l a n d , D, "Achievement M o t i v a t i o n Can Be Developed", H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s Review No.6, November-December, 1965. 5 2 J e n n i n g s , W i l l i a m , E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p : A Pr i m e r f o r Canadians Canadian F o u n d a t i o n f o r Economic E d u c a t i o n , Ottawa, 1985. p.27. 5 3 L i t v a k , I.A. & C.J. Maule, P o l i c i e s and Programmes f o r the  Promotion of T e c h n o l o g i c a l E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i n the U.S. And  U.K.; P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r Canada Ottawa, Department of I n d u s t r y , Trade and Commerce, 1975. pp.93. 5 " V e s p e r , K. op. c i t . pp.41-49. 26 employment s i t u a t i o n , and p u l l s ; those p o s i t i v e f o r c e s which induce one to pursue a new i d e a , occupation or o p p o r t u n i t y . F r e q u e n t l y , f o r i n s t a n c e , a t r a g i c or unpleasant circumstance encourages e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t y . The death of a f a m i l y member, an un d e s i r e d t r a n s f e r or unemployment have been c i t e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e c i s i o n to make a change i n l i f e s t y l e . In a s i m i l a r model, Smilor and B i l l have i d e n t i f i e d four c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s i n the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l p r o c e s s : t a l e n t , technology, c a p i t a l and business know-how. 5 5 In sum, s e v e r a l f a c t o r s would appear to be evident i n the encouragement of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p as a value i n our s o c i e t y . P r i m a r i l y , an environment which i s achievement o r i e n t e d may serve to n o u r i s h an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - b e l i e f and encourage r i s k t a k i n g . T h i s environment should a l s o be dynamic and f l e x i b l e enough to accommodate the entrepreneurs sense of " i n d i v i d u a l i s m " . A second important requirement appears to be exposure to other entrepreneurs who act as mentors or r o l e models. An i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l l i f e circumstances may a l s o be conducive to t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to assume a r i s k or change i n employment s t a t u s . F i n a l l y , knowledge of business s k i l l s , the r e c o g n i t i o n of an o p p o r t u n i t y , access to c a p i t a l and technology are a l s o i n t e g r a l to the s u c c e s s f u l e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l venture. 5 5 I b i d . pp. 19-41. 27 2.4. E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , E d u c a t i o n and the C o l l e g e s . E d u c a t i o n as a v a r i a b l e i n the l o c a l economic development p r o c e s s a l s o r e q u i r e s d e f i n i t i o n . P r i m a r i l y , e d u c a t i o n and c o l l e g e s i n p a r t i c u l a r have a t w o f o l d r o l e t o p l a y i n f a c i l i t a t i n g an environment which i s c o n d u c i v e t o l o c a l economic development and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . G e n e r i c a l l y , as an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , t he c o l l e g e p l a y s a major r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s about the w o r l d around i t . As changing a t t i t u d e s i n f a v o u r of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l e a r n i n g e x e r c i s e , the f u n c t i o n i s w e l l p l a c e d w i t h i n the l e a r n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . A second r o l e e v o l v e s as a f u n c t i o n of the c o l l e g e s ' r e g i o n a l mandate. Gi v e n t h e i r r o l e t o p r e p a r e young a d u l t s f o r the w o r k f o r c e , and i n t h a t they e v o l v e d w i t h an e x p l i c i t l y l o c a l f o c u s , these i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e w e l l equipped t o p r e p a r e t h e i r c l i e n t s t o i d e n t i f y and t o respond t o l o c a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l r e v i e w both of the s e r o l e s . 2.4.1. The Promotion of A t t i t u d e s and V a l u e s T h e o r i s t s have l o n g r e c o g n i z e d a g e n e r i c r o l e of e d u c a t i o n i n r e g i o n a l a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . Indeed, many of the g r e a t names of p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y ; P l a t o , L ocke, Rousseau and Dewey, a r e a l s o r e s p e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s . John Dewey b e l i e v e d t h a t an educated p o p u l a c e w i t h a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the l o c a l environment would encourage change w i t h i n the p u b l i c d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . P a t r i c k Geddes, a co - f o u n d e r of the R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n of A m e r i c a , b e l i e v e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n would c r e a t e a sense of r e g i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n the 28 c i t i z e n r y and encourage a more e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e and g o a l o r i e n t e d approach t o r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 5 6 Others have d i s c u s s e d the m e r i t s of e d u c a t i o n i n the c o n t e x t of a f a r more u t i l i t a r i a n d e f i n i t i o n . E d u c a t i o n , or perhaps more a c c u r a t e l y s c h o o l i n g was v a l u e d i n the e a r l y y e a r s of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n as a u s e f u l agent of s o c i a l change. Indeed, " i t was no easy matter t o t u r n men and women who were used t o an a g r a r i a n rhythm i n t o p e o p l e who would govern themselves by c l o c k and b e l l . " 5 7 S c h o o l i n g was d e s i g n e d t o meet the d i s c i p l i n a r y and t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e a r l y e n t r e p r e n e u r s of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . 5 8 I t was a l s o d e s i g n e d t o d i m i n i s h the p r e v i o u s l y c h e r i s h e d v a l u e of f r e e t i m e . As e a r l y as 1681, f o r example, the problem of S t . Monday, a handy t e c h n i q u e used by workers t o e x t e n d t h e i r weekends, was b e i n g commented o n . 5 9 When the framework k n i t t e r s or makers of s i l k s t o c k i n g s had a g r e a t p r i c e f o r t h e i r work, they have been o b s e r v e d seldom t o work on Mondays and Tuesdays but t o spend most of t h e i r time a t t h e al e - h o u s e or n i n e - p i n s - The weavers, ' t i s common w i t h them t o be drunk on Monday, have a head-ache on Tuesday, and t h e i r t o o l s out of o r d e r on Wednesday. 5 6Weaver, C. R e g i o n a l Development and the L o c a l Community:  P l a n n i n g , P o l i t i c s and S o c i a l C o n t e x t John W i l e y & Sons, New York, 1984, d i s c u s s e s t h e s e i d e a s , as they r e l a t e t o r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , and the e a r l y R e g i o n a l P l a n n e r s A s s o c i a t i o n of America (RPAA). pp.29-41. 5 7 0 s b o r n e , Kenneth, "The P l a c e of V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n i n a Comprehensive C u r r i c u l u m : An Address t o the V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n of Ma n i t o b a " , C.V.A./A.C.E.P. J o u r n a l V o l . 19, No. 2. August 1983. 5 8 i b i d . p.23 5 9 C i t e d i n E.P.Thompson, "Time, W o r k - D i s c i p l i n e and I n d u s t r i a l C a p i t a l i s m " , P a s t and P r e s e n t 38, December 1967. I b i d . p.23. 29 S c h o o l i n g was thus r e c o g n i z e d as an e f f e c t i v e way t o get r i d of the c u l t u r a l baggage of the European i m m i g r a n t s . W i l l i a m Temple wrote of c h i l d r e n i n 1 770. 6 0 There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e use i n t h e i r b e i n g , somehow or o t h e r , c o n s t a n t l y employed a t l e a s t t w e l v e hours a day, whether they earn t h e i r l i v i n g or n o t ; f o r by the s e means we hope t h a t the r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n w i l l be so h a b i t u a t e d t o c o n s t a n t employment t h a t i t would a t l e n g t h prove a g r e e a b l e and e n t e r t a i n i n g t o them... G a l i e n i wrote i n 1 802 : 6 1 E d u c a t i o n i s the same t h i n g f o r man and b e a s t . I t can be reduced t o two p r i n c i p l e s , t o l e a r n t o put up w i t h i n j u s t i c e t o l e a r n t o endure e n n u i . What does one do when one breaks i n a horse? L e f t t o h i m s e l f , the horse ambles, t r o t s , g a l l o p s , w a l k s , but does i t when he w i s h e s , as he p l e a s e s . We t e a c h him t o move thus and t h u s , c o n t r a r y t o h i s own d e s i r e s , a g a i n s t h i s own i n s t i n c t - t h e r e i s the i n j u s t i c e : we make him keep a t i t f o r a c o u p l e of hours - t h e r e i s the e n n u i . I t i s j u s t the same when we make a c h i l d l e a r n L a t i n or Greek or F r e n c h . The i n t r i n s i c u t i l i t y o f i t i s not the main p o i n t . The aim i s t h a t he s h o u l d h a b i t u a t e h i m s e l f t o ano t h e r person's w i l l . Compulsory s c h o o l i n g was r e c o g n i z e d as a u s e f u l agent w i t h which t o i n s t a l l the v a l u e s of p u n c t u a l i t y , d i l i g e n c e , obedience and p o l i t e n e s s , a l l of which were e s s e n t i a l i n the p r o c e s s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . W h i l e not t o undermine the honour of the s e p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e s , a d i f f e r e n t s e t of v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s a r e r e q u i r e d i n the l o c a l economic development p r o c e s s . E d u c a t o r s have argued t h a t our c u r r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s and methods of s c h o o l i n g s o c i a l i z e 6 0 C i t e d i n E.P. Thompson, op. c i t . P.84, i n Osborne, 1983. Op. c i t . P. 23. 6 1 Boyd, W. The E d u c a t i o n a l Theory of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1963. pp.306-307. 30 away o t h e r w i s e l a t e n t e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l t r a i t s . 6 2 In r e c o g n i t i o n of the r o l e of e d u c a t i o n i n the encouragement of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l b e h a v i o r s , e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s a r e a r g u i n g f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of new c o n c e p t s w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l u m . 6 3 Two dimensions of change a r e r e q u i r e d t o the c u r r i c u l u m : the i m p l i c i t a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s b e i n g promoted i n the c u r r i c u l u m , and the methods by which the c u r r i c u l u m i t s e l f i s d e l i v e r e d . They w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . E d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s have i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e s e p a r a t e domains of l e a r n i n g : the c o g n i t i v e , the a f f e c t i v e , and the s k i l l a t t a i n m e n t p r o c e s s . In o r d e r t o e f f e c t changes t o the l e v e l of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a t t i t u d e s , a l l t h r e e domains must be tapped by e d u c a t o r s . The c o g n i t i v e domain r e f e r s t o t h o s e i n t e l l e c t u a l b e h a v i o r s which a r e a f u n c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n r e c a l l , such as the b a s i c t r a n s f e r of knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n . 6 4 S i m p l y t o un d e r s t a n d the i n f o r m a t i o n and have knowledge, does not e f f e c t an a t t i t u d i n a l s h i f t . One may know t h a t the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f employment e x i s t s , but may never r e a l l y c o n s i d e r i t as a v i a b l e or r e a l i s t i c c o u r s e of a c t i o n f o r ones s e l f . I t may f i r s t r e q u i r e an a t t i t u d i n a l s h i f t on b e h a l f of 6 2 K o u r i l s k y , M. And J . H i r s c h l e i f e r , " M i n i - S o c i e t y v s . Token Economy: An E x p e r i m e n t a l Comparison of the E f f e c t s of L e a r n i n g and Autonomy of S o c i a l l y Emergent and Imposed B e h a v i o r M o d i f i c a t i o n " , The S o c i a l S t u d i e s J o u r n a l J u l y / A u g u s t , 1976, pp.376-381. 6 3 H a i g h t , G r e t c h e n , "The B u s i n e s s of T a l e n t v i l l e " , A c r o s s the  Board Septempber 1986. pp.44-51. 6 " D a v i d R. K r a t h w o h l , Benjamin Bloom and B e r t r a m M a s i a , ( e d s . ) , Taxonomy of E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s : The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  E d u c a t i o n a l G o a l s , Handbook, Volume 1, C o g n i t i v e Domain. D a v i d Mckay Co., I n c . , New Y o r k , For a b r i e f p e r i o d of t i m e , l a r g e s c a l e p l a n n i n g d i d 1964. 31 t h a t i n d i v i d u a l ' s w o r l d v i e w , t h a t s e l f employment i s an o p t i o n . An a t t i t u d i n a l change, or impact t o the a t t i t u d i n a l domain, i s r e q u i r e d . In o r d e r t o demonstrate an a f f e c t i v e or a t t i t u d i n a l change the l e a r n e r must go through a s e r i e s of f i v e l e a r n i n g s t e p s d u r i n g which the l e a r n e r becomes g r a d u a l l y a p p r e c i a t i v e of why the o p t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r . 6 5 F i r s t , h a v i n g l e a r n e d the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of economics, the l e a r n e r becomes s e n s i t i z e d t o the e x i s t e n c e of the b a s i c phenomenon, f o r example, the concept of s h i f t i n g g l o b a l markets, and the e f f e c t on the demand f o r lumber. Two, the l e a r n e r responds t o t h i s phenomenon, e.g. as an employee of a l o c a l s a w - m i l l , a l a y - o f f seems t h r e a t e n i n g . T hree, the v a l u e of the concept i s a p p r e c i a t e d by the l e a r n e r , e.g. t h e r e a r e few o t h e r j o b s i n town. Fo u r , t h i s v a l u e i s o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n h i s / h e r mind, and w i t h i n o t h e r v a l u e s e t s , e.g. the l e a r n e r l i k e s t h i s town, owns a home h e r e , has r o o t s here and moving i s not a p p e a l i n g . F i v e , the l e a r n e r b e g i n s t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s v a l u e w i t h i n t h e i r n i c h e of o t h e r v a l u e s , e.g. I may be v u l n e r a b l e t o c h a n g i n g g l o b a l economic t r e n d s , and t h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y t h r e a t e n s my most d e s i r e d v a l u e s and wants. At t h i s p o i n t , t h e l e a r n e r undergoes an a t t i t u d i n a l s h i f t , r e a l i z i n g the need f o r p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e m e n t and i n p u t i n t o c r e a t i n g a j o b i n s t e a d of w a i t i n g f o r some o t h e r chance a t employment. The t h i r d domain of l e a r n i n g o c c u r s i n the form of an 6 5 I b i d , Volume 2, A f f e c t i v e Domain 32 a c q u i r e d s k i l l . C l e a r l y , t e a c h i n g i n d i v i d u a l s the e t h i c s of e n t r e p r e n u e r s h i p i s one t h i n g ; however, b u s i n e s s s k i l l s , d a t a p r o c e s i n g , t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s and w r i t t e n and o r a l communication s k i l l s a r e o b v i o u s a n c i l l a r y s k i l l s r e q u i r e d t o implement the s t r a t e g y . 6 6 In o r d e r t o advance the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c a p a c i t y of a r e g i o n , t h e r e f o r e , the e d u c a t i o n system has an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n the promotion of c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , a l l of which a r e r e q u i r e d t o f o s t e r an e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c l i m a t e . A second way f o r the c o l l e g e s t o a s s i s t i n the c r e a t i o n of an environment which i s c o n d u c i v e t o e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i s t o make themselves more a c c e s s i b l e t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . Many s t u d i e s i n the U.S. have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h r o u g h t r a d i t i o n a l d e l i v e r y methods, have not been c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the l e v e l of s k i l l r e q u i r e d by s m a l l b u s i n e s s m a n a g e r s . 6 7 R a t h e r , i t i s argued, the b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n programs appear t o p r e p a r e the i n d i v i d u a l f o r employment w i t h i n a l a r g e r c o r p o r a t e s t r u c t u r e . These f i n d i n g s have been s u p p o r t e d by many s u c c e s s f u l e n t r e p r e n e u r s who have r a t e d the o v e r a l l v a l u e of e d u c a t i o n as low, c l a i m i n g i t f a i l e d t o f i l l t he r e q u i r e d gap between i d e n t i f y i n g the r e q u i r e d management t e c h n i q u e s and o u t l i n i n g 6 6 G r y p h o n House, The Psychomotor Domain N a t i o n a l S p e c i a l Media I n s t i t u t e , Washington, D.C. 1972. 6 7 W i l l i a m s , I v a n , R. "A Gap i n the E d u c a t i o n Needs of E n t r e p r e n e u r s " , J o u r n a l f o r E d u c a t i o n f o r B u s i n e s s , V o l . 61, No.5, pp.226-230. 33 some s t r a t e g y f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 6 8 As w e l l , many p o t e n t i a l s m a l l b u s i n e s s o w n e r / o p e r a t o r s have r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s t o the s t r u c t u r e d form of b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n because of time and c o s t c o n s t r a i n t s . P o t e n t i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s may a l s o be i n t i m i d a t e d by the c o l l e g e s t r u c t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they have l i t t l e or no p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . 6 9 The second r o l e t h a t the c o l l e g e s may have i n the p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development, t h e r e f o r e , i s t o make t h e i r s e r v i c e s more a v a i l a b l e t o those i n d i v i d u a l s i n the community who a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o g e n e r a t e w e a l t h by t h e i r own e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v e n t u r e s . More f l e x i b i l i t y i s t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d i n the d e l i v e r y of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o the b u s i n e s s community. The d u a l f u n c t i o n s of the p r o m o t i o n of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a t t i t u d e s , and the more f l e x i b l e d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e s can be e a s i l y i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n the o p e r a t i o n s of t h e c o l l e g e by u s i n g the c o l l e g e ' s r e s o u r c e s , ( i . e . the s t u d e n t s and the i n s t r u c t o r s ) , t o a d d r e s s the s m a l l b u s i n e s s needs i n t h e i r own communities. Such a p r o c e s s would e n t a i l c o m b i ning the s t u d e n t s c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s w i t h p r a c t i c a l l e a r n i n g e x e r c i s e s w hich a r e a l s o d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e some a s s i s t a n c e t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . Many U.S. examples e x i s t s whereby e f f o r t s have been made t o combine an e x p e r i e n t i a l and c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g a c h a l l e n g i n g and r e l e v e n t work e x p e r i e n c e f o r s t u d e n t s , e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s c o n t r i b u t e t o an 6 8 I b i d . p.229. 6 9 K e l l y , L. " S m a l l B u s i n e s s ' s B i g T r a i n i n g Needs", T r a i n i n g and  Development J o u r n a l June 1984, Volume 38, No. 6. P. 39. 34 a f f e c t i v e change w i t h i n the l e a r n e r and can r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e d l e v e l of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . The p r a c t i c e a l s o e n a b l e s the c o l l e g e s t o r e a c h the b u s i n e s s community a t an e f f e c t i v e l e v e l . A number of t h e s e examples a r e r e v i e w e d as f o l l o w s . S t u d e n t s a t B a l l S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y i n Muncie, I n d i a n a a r e exposed t o b o t h an e x p e r i e n t i a l and c o g n i t i v e approach t o e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p and b u s i n e s s s k i l l s . In a d u a l p r o g r e s s i o n of l e a r n i n g , teams of s t u d e n t s accompanied by a p r o f e s s o r v i s i t a p a r t i c u l a r b u s i n e s s recommended by the f e d e r a l S m a l l B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , (SBA). The group p r e p a r e s a r e p o r t f o r the customers and the SBA on the b u s i n e s s problems and some s t r a t e g y f o r improvement. The b e n e f i t s of t h i s o p e r a t i o n a r e s i g n i f i c a n t and w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d . The company r e c e i v e s the r e p o r t , w i t h o u t a f e e ; the c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e a r e a l w o r l d e x p e r i e n c e ; and the c o l l e g e r e c e i v e s a $400.00 fee per completed case from SBA. T h i s " S m a l l B u s i n e s s I n c e n t i v e Program" i s h i g h l y r e g a r d e d by SBA as an e f f e c t i v e means t o h e l p s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s w i t h p r o b l e m s . 7 0 In the town of Onaga, I l l i n o i s , a new highway was b u i l t which by-passed the community. In an e f f o r t t o s t i m u l a t e the d y i n g downtown b u s i n e s s c o r e , a p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d by a l o c a l community group. S t u d e n t s from the I l l i n o i s S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y were i n c l u d e d and used t o a p p l y a v a r i e t y of i m p o r t a n t b u s i n e s s 7 0 A S m a l l B u s i n e s s Management E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p C u r r i c u l u m : A Dual P r o g r e s s i o n E x p e r i e n c e " , J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n f o r B u s i n e s s V o l . 61, No. 6. 1984. 35 and community c o n c e p t s t o an a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n . 7 1 Many c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , have e s t a b l i s h e d s t u d e n t c o n s u l t i n g o p e r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s . 7 2 T y p i c a l l y , a c o n s u l t i n g assignment i s i n c l u d e d as a p a r t i a l r e quirement f o r a c r e d i t c o u r s e , such as s m a l l b u s i n e s s e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . Student r e s o u r c e s are then a v a i l a b l e as legwork f o r the b u s i n e s s p e r s o n . Such work would i n c l u d e book-keeping, cash f l o w a n a l y s i s , or d e v e l o p i n g a l i s t of market l e a d s . Other departments can a l s o be i n v o l v e d i n a r e a s such as m a r k e t i n g and a d v e r t i s i n g . At a more advanced l e v e l , s t u d e n t s can c o n t r i b u t e as an independent c o r p o r a t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i n g p r o f e s s o r s or i n s t r u c t o r s . In a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g a c h a l l e n g i n g and r e l e v a n t p r a c t i c a l work e x p e r i e n c e f o r s t u d e n t s , the c o l l e g e i s a b l e t o r e a c h the b u s i n e s s community a t an e f f e c t i v e l e v e l . Moreover, s t u d e n t s a r e exposed t o a c l i m a t e which enhances t h e i r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c a l b u s i n e s s s k i l l s . S t u d e n t s have a l s o c o n d u c t e d market r e s e a r c h f o r a new i n v e n t i o n or pr o d u c t i d e a , f o r example, a t the Oregon I n n o v a t i o n C e n t r e a t U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon. The c e n t r e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1973 as p a r t of a N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n experiment t o t e s t f o r v a r i o u s i n c e n t i v e s and t o s t i m u l a t e n o n - c o r p o r a t e t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . A s i g n i f i c a n t component of the program i n v o l v e d s t u d e n t and p r o f e s s o r a p p l i e d 7 1 " T e a c h i n g S m a l l B u s i n e s s Through E x p e r i e n t i a l L e a r n i n g " J o u r n a l of e d u c a t i o n f o r B u s i n e s s V o l . 61, No. 5. 1984. pp.224-225. 7 2 R a g a t , M. " S e t t i n g up a Student C o n s u l t i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n " , J o u r n a l of S m a l l B u s i n e s s and E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , Volume 3, Number 1, Summer 1985, pp. 23-29. 36 r e s e a r c h . Once completed, the s t u d e n t r e p o r t s were g i v e n t o the c l i e n t who i n t r o d u c e d the i n n o v a t i o n t o the c e n t r e , and the s t u d e n t was marked a c c o r d i n g l y . 7 3 As a v a r i a b l e i n the p r o c e s s of l o c a i economic development and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p , t h e r e f o r e , e d u c a t i o n p l a y s a t w o f o l d r o l e . In i t s a b i l i t y t o impact the s t u d e n t s a t an a t t i t u d i n a l l e v e l , the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s can encourage e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p and s e l f employment as an o p t i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e s can a l s o become more f l e x i b l e and a c c e s s i b l e t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s community i n o r d e r t o enhance the g e n e r a l s k i l l s l e v e l . A c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e s e two r o l e s would f a c i l i t a t e a v a l u a b l e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s f o r the s t u d e n t s w h i l e a t the same time p r o v i d i n g v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . 2.4.2. The C o l l e g e as a R e g i o n a l A c t o r . The second r o l e of the c o l l e g e s i n l o c a l economic development r e l a t e s t o i t s mandate as a r e g i o n a l a c t o r . An i m p o r t a n t v a l u e i n the l o c a l economic development p r o c e s s i s the r e c o g n i t i o n of the r e g i o n as a c o h e s i v e and s p a t i a l l y bound economic a c t o r . T h i s may i n c l u d e t e a c h i n g t h o s e s k i l l s which d i r e c t l y r e l a t e t o the b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r i a l needs of the community as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o e n able the development of t h o s e i n d u s t r i e s or s e c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d as o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n an o v e r a l l community economic development s t r a t e g y . 7 3 U d e l l , G, e t . A l . The Oregon I n n o v a t i o n C e n t r e E x p e r i m e n t :  1973-1978. I n n o v a t i o n E v a l u a t i o n System, I , I I , I I I . 37 For i n s t a n c e , f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t and u t i l i z a t i o n of the a r e a ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s may be f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n . In a r e a s where f i s h i n g has been the t r a d i t i o n a l m a i n s t a y , an e f f o r t can be made t o s e t p r i o r i t i e s t o d e v e l o p i n d u s t r i e s i n the m a r i c u l t u r e , and f i s h f a r m i n g s e c t o r . F o r e s t r y r e g i o n s can encourage v a l u e added t y p e s of i n d u s t r i e s which produce new wood p r o d u c t s and u t i l i z e l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e and abundant c a r p e n t e r s k i l l s . For an a rea where much of the economic a c t i v i t y has been based on n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , t h e r e may a l s o be an abundant and a v a i l a b l e s k i l l e d l a b o u r f o r c e . In a r e a s eager t o enhance the t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y t o u r g u i d e s , l o c a l n a t u r a l i s t s , h i s t o r i c a l g u i d e s , k a y a k i n g l e a d e r s , wine t o u r g u i d e s , e t c . can be t r a i n e d . D e c i s i o n s can a l s o be made t o p r o v i d e g e n e r a l i n s i g h t s i n t o the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r y , such as h o s p i t a l i t y , f o r example. To sum, an i m p o r t a n t r o l e f o r a c o l l e g e i s t o encourage the development of a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s which a r e deemed t o be c o n d u c i v e t o a p r o d u c t i v e s o c i e t y . In the p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development t h i s i n c l u d e s the p r o m o t i o n of such e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k i l l s as r i s k - t a k i n g , b u s i n e s s know-how, and c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . The c o l l e g e s have a r o l e t o p l a y i n a d d r e s s i n g t h e s e needs. A second r o l e i n c l u d e s the p r o v i s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s which a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e c o l l e g e ' s l o c a l economic environment. 2.5. The E n t e r p r i s e C e n t r e Concept S t u d i e s have shown t h a t a s e r i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n a l and s i t u a t i o n a l , b a r r i e r s e x i s t and c o n s t r a i n the emergence of s m a l l 38 b u s i n e s s . 7 " The purpose of an EDC i s t o a s s i s t i n overcoming some of the s e b a r r i e r s . C o n c e p t u a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , the e n t e r p r i s e development c e n t r e i s a t o o l t h r o u g h which t o p r o v i d e some e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k i l l s and b u s i n e s s know-how. A v a r i e t y of models e x i s t , a l l of which a r e a r e i n t e n d e d t o o f f e r s m a l l b u s i n e s s a s s i s t a n c e and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k i l l s i n a way which i s more f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e than the t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . One of the e a r l i e s t models of d e l i v e r y was t h a t produced by the Haw a i i E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p T r a i n i n g and Development I n s t i t u t e and i s known as the HETADI M o d e l . 7 5 T h i s model i n c l u d e s e l e v e n p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t a r e a s as f o l l o w s ; (1) The B u s i n e s s P l a n , (2) The E n t r e p r e n e u r ' s Environment, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and M o t i v a t i o n . (3) S e l e c t i n g a B u s i n e s s (4) Market Research and A n a l y s i s (5) Market S t r a t e g y (6) O r g a n i z a t i o n a l P l a n (7) Bookkeeping and F i n a n c i a l P r o j e c t i o n s (8) T a x a t i o n (9) O b t a i n i n g C a p i t a l (lO)Law and R e g u l a t i o n s (11) F u n c t i o n s of Management. The HETADI Model has g a i n e d s u c c e s s w o r l d wide and c l a i m s a 40% s u c c e s s r a t e f o r hard c o r e unemployables, and a h i g h e r r a t e f o r more m o t i v a t e d u s e r s . 7 6 Perhaps the second most reknown model f o r the d e l i v e r y of thes e s k i l l s i s the M i n n e s o t a Model. Developed by t h e Minnesota 7 " V e s p e r , o p . c i t . p.22. 7 5 S k a n a n h e l e , G., Gene Ward & R i c h a r d Kennedy, The  E n t r e p r e n e u r ' s Handbook Haw a i i E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p T r a i n i n g and Development I n s t i t u t e , U n i v e r s i t y of H a w a i i , 1979. 7 6 W i t t e r , G. E n t e r p r e n e u r s h i p Program C o - o r d i n a t o r , Vancouver Community C o l l e g e , P e r s o n a l Communication, Vancouver, October 23, 1986. 39 I n s t i t u t e of Management S t u d i e s , as a c o s t - r e c o v e r a b l e program, the M i n n e s o t a Model i n v o l v e s a d i r e c t r e c r u i t m e n t - l i k e p r o c e s s where the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the model go d o o r - t o - d o o r w i t h i n a community t o t o s e l l the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . E s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s p e o p l e are encouraged t o s i g n up f o r the program (at an approximate c o s t of $100.00 per month f o r a two year p e r i o d ) and d i s c u s s problems t h a t they themselves i d e n t i f y as b e i n g r e l e v e n t t o t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s , ( i . e . cash f l o w a n a l y s i s , i n v e n t o r y , e t c . ) The program i s e q u a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s ; f i f t y p e r c e n t of the program c o n t e n t r e l a t e s , t o p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l i s s u e s f a c i n g the new e n t r e p r e n e u r , and f i f t y p e r c e n t r e l a t e s t o p r o f e s s i o n a l competence. E f f o r t s have been made t o i n c o r p o r a t e the f l e x i b i l i t y and r e s p o n s i v e n e s s of th e s e d e l i v e r y models w i t h i n the f u n c t i o n s of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The r e s u l t has been the c r e a t i o n of a number of c o l l e g e - b a s e d e n t e r p r i s e development c e n t r e s . A good, and i n f a c t the f i r s t , example of an e n t e r p r i s e development c e n t r e c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h the community c o l l e g e i s a t Lane Community C o l l e g e i n the S t a t e of Oregon. In 1982, the economic c l i m a t e of Oregon rang a f a m i l i a r t u n e : double d i g i t unemployment, h i g h numbers of b u s i n e s s f a i l u r e s , and a d e v a s t a t i n g d r o p i n s t a t e revenues due t o a weak wood p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y . R e c o g n i z i n g the r o l e t h a t a v i b r a n t b u s i n e s s community c o u l d p l a y , Lane Community C o l l e g e e s t a b l i s h e d a B u s i n e s s A s s i s t a n c e C e n t r e , (BAC). The c o l l e g e combined e x i s t i n g programs and r e s o u r c e s , added a few new management s e r v i c e s c o u r s e s , and now o p e r a t e s the c e n t r e as a l e a d i n g community r e s o u r c e , h i g h l y i n v o l v e d w i t h 40 o t h e r economic development o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The BAC o f f e r s s h o r t term l e a r n i n g c o u r s e s , b u s i n e s s c o u n s e l l i n g and l o n g term e d u c a t i o n a l programs. The c e n t r e has been h i g h l y a c c l a i m e d by i t s u s e r s . P a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t i n c r e a s e d s a l e s , i n c r e a s e d employment and i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t i e s t o o b t a i n f i n a n c i n g . 7 7 I t i s a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t 16% of the BAC c l i e n t s s t a r t e d a new b u s i n e s s a f t e r r e c e i v i n g c o u n s e l l i n g a t the c e n t r e . Other c l i e n t e l e r e p o r t e d a 6% net employment g a i n , 44% i n d i c a t e d an i n c r e a s e i n s a l e s and p r o f i t s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the b u s i n e s s c o u n s e l l i n g , and 13% of the c l i e n t s o b t a i n e d f i n a n c i n g as a r e s u l t of the c o u n s e l l i n g . 7 8 In 1983, r e c o g n i z i n g the s u c c e s s of the Lane Community C o l l e g e model, the Oregon L e g i s l a t u r e p r o v i d e d f u n d i n g and d i r e c t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h a network of c e n t r e s , m o d e l l e d a f t e r the BAC a t Lane. The Oregon Department of E d u c a t i o n a l s o formed a S m a l l B u s i n e s s A s s o c i a t i o n C o u n c i l . L a t e r , the n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the American A s s o c i a t i o n of Community and J u n i o r C o l l e g e s , f o r m a l i z e d a r o l e i n Management T r a i n i n g and S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development through the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the S m a l l B u s i n e s s T r a i n i n g Network. The Network a c t s as a d i r e c t l i n k between the F e d e r a l S m a l l B u s i n e s s A s s o c i a t i o n and the 1,234 community and j u n i o r c o l l e g e s . 7 9 T h i s p r a c t i c e p r o v i d e s f o r 7 7 C u t l e r , Edward, "Open f o r B u s i n e s s " , American A s s o c i a t i o n of  Community and J u n i o r C o l l e g e s Nov. 1984. pp.28-30. 7 8 I b i d . P.30. 7 9 J e l l i s o n , H o l l y M. " S m a l l B u s i n e s s T r a i n i n g : A Guide f o r Program B u i l d i n g " Washington, D.C. S m a l l B u s i n e s s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1983. P.3. 41 a s s i s t a n c e t o s m a l l b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a t t i t u d e s among s t u d e n t s . The Northwest E n t e r p r i s e C e n t r e a t C o n f e d e r a t i o n C o l l e g e i n n o r t h w e s t e r n O n t a r i o , i s O n t a r i o ' s f i r s t e n t e r p r i s e c e n t r e . I t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1985 w i t h f u n d i n g a s s i s t a n c e from the O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of I n d u s t r y , Trade and Technology and the M i n i s t r y of N o r t h e r n Development and M i n e s . The c e n t r e i s viewed as a l e a d e r i n the development of m a r k e t i n g and d e l i v e r y of n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l educat i o n . 8 0 The S m a l l B u s i n e s s Owner Development Program i s the main v e h i c l e of t h e c e n t r e ' s a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s program was e s t a b l i s h e d i n an e f f o r t t o improve t h e performance of those i n the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r , lower the b u s i n e s s f a i l u r e r a t e and a c c e l e r a t e the r a t e a t which s m a l l b u s i n e s s owners mature as e n t r e p r e n u e r s . The c e n t r e r e c e i v e s g u i d a n c e i n terms of p o l i c y and program d i r e c t i v e s from a c o u n c i l of f o u r t e e n members made up of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from s m a l l b u s i n e s s , l a r g e i n d u s t r i e s , l a b o u r and the p u b l i c s e c t o r from a c r o s s the r e g i o n . The c e n t r e has a s e r i e s of programs f o r which the c l i e n t s a r e r e c r u i t e d by the program a d v i s o r s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each program i n c u r s some c o s t s t o the c l i e n t s and g e n e r a t e s some revenue f o r t h e c e n t r e and the a d v i s o r . In sum, the concept of an EDC has e v o l v e d i n response t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s community's need f o r f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e B 0 N o r t h w e s t e r n E n t e r p r i s e C e n t r e , Thunder Bay, 1986. U n p u b l i s h e d M a n u s c r i p t , 42 t r a i n i n g . A s e r i e s of models have been d e s i g n e d t o d e l i v e r t h e s e s e r v i c e s . The e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n an e f f o r t t o mimick t h e i r f l e x i b i l i t y , have adopted many of these models. 2.6. A NORMATIVE MODEL EDC FOR LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT As the c o n c e p t s and v a r i a b l e s have now been d e f i n e d , the next s t e p i n i d e n t i f y i n g the r o l e of a c o l l e g e - b a s e d EDC i s t o d e s c r i b e the model. T h i s model can then be used as a y a r d s t i c k t o measure the o r g a n i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n s of the e i g h t e n t e r p r i s e development c e n t r e s . 2.6.1. The O b j e c t i v e s of the Model. Three o b j e c t i v e s of a c o l l e g e - b a s e d EDC have been i d e n t i f i e d . One i s t o p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n the GRP of a r e g i o n , e i t h e r t h r o u g h i n c r e a s i n g the v a l u e of e x p o r t s o r by r e d u c i n g the f l o w of i m p o r t s . A second o b j e c t i v e i s t o p r o v i d e h i g h l y r e s p o n s i v e and f l e x i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . The t h i r d o b j e c t i v e i s t o enact some changes t o the c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l u m and methods of d e l i v e r y i n o r d e r t o encourage e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p among the s t u d e n t s . A d i s c u s s i o n of th e s e o b j e c t i v e s f o l l o w s , a l o n g w i t h a review of the r o l e and the s t r u c t u r e which may h e l p f a c i l i t a t e the o b j e c t i v e s . 2.6.2. A s s i s t i n g i n the G e n e r a t i o n of New Wealth. The most d i r e c t way f o r the EDC t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r l o c a l economies may be t o become i n v o l v e d i n p r o j e c t s which e i t h e r reduce the v a l u e of i m p o r t s i n t o a community or i n p r o j e c t s which attempt t o i n c r e a s e the v a l u e of e x p o r t s from the 43 community. T h i s i m p l i e s s e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s i n terms of s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s , b u s i n e s s e s and p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t s or s e r v i c e s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of such e n t e r p r i s e s and p r o d u c t s would r e q u i r e a study of l o c a l consumption p a t t e r n s t o i d e n t i f y the l e a k a g e s from the r e g i o n . The c e n t r e c o u l d then f o c u s i t s . e f f o r t s on i n t r o d u c i n g new p r o d u c t s t o the market which do not d i s p l a c e or compete w i t h e x i s t i n g companies. 2.6.3 F l e x i b l e and Responsive E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s . The second o b j e c t i v e of o f f e r i n g more r e s p o n s i v e and f l e x i b l e d e l i v e r y s e r v i c e s t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r can be f a c i l i t a t e d by o f f e r i n g c o n s u l t i n g s e r v i c e s and e x p o r t development a s s i s t a n c e t o e n t r e p r e n e u r s w a n t i n g t o d e v e l o p t h e s e key e n t e r p r i s e s . T h i s i n c l u d e s p r o v i d i n g s t e p by s t e p guidance and a s s i s t a n c e t o i t s c l i e n t s t o ensure t h a t a l l a s p e c t s of the p r o p o s a l a r e sound and t h a t the investment w i l l r e p r e s e n t the bes t p o s s i b l e r e t u r n t o tho s e f i n a n c i n g the p r o j e c t . A s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n f o r f u n d i n g would p o t e n t i a l l y r e s u l t i n more money coming i n t o the community i n the form of investment as w e l l as the c r e a t i o n of a s m a l l b u s i n e s s which may c r e a t e l o c a l j o b s . Other d i r e c t b e n e f i t s i n c l u d e the i n f u s i o n of new c a p i t a l i n t o the r e g i o n . The EDCs can a s s i s t i n drawing more c a p i t a l i n t o the r e g i o n by a s s i s t i n g i t s c l i e n t s i n g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o s o u r c e s of f u n d i n g . T h i s i n c l u d e s p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n about government g r a n t s and l o a n s , p o t e n t i a l f u n d i n g s o u r c e s , and s p e c i f i c f i n a n c i a l p o l i c i e s d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t i n the c r e a t i o n of s m a l l b u s i n e s s . 44 B e n e f i t s a l s o a c c r u e a t an i n d i r e c t l e v e l . The c e n t r e s can i n i t i a t e a v a l u a b l e network among p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t o r s and e n t r e p r e n e u r s by o f f e r i n g match-making s e r v i c e s . An i n v e s t o r i s thus o f f e r e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o g a i n an i n t e r e s t i n a p r o j e c t which bears the b e n e f i t and a p p r o v a l of the c e n t r e ' s e x p e r t i s e . The r o l e of the c e n t r e would be t o a s s i s t i n the c o m p i l a t i o n of a s t r o n g and v i a b l e b u s i n e s s p l a n . The s e a l of a p p r o v a l would then r e p r e s e n t the c o l l e c t i v e e x p e r t i s e of the r e l e v e n t c o l l e g e s r e s o u r c e s . Such a s e r v i c e , i n a d d i t i o n t o the c r e a t i o n of a t l e a s t one new j o b , c o u l d m a i n t a i n l o c a l c o n t r o l of investment c a p i t a l . T h i s n e t w o r k i n g f u n c t i o n may a l s o be extended t o the c l i e n t s and u s e r s of the c e n t r e , f o r whom such an o p p o r t u n i t y would p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e forum f o r c r e a t i v e exchanges and t o e s t a b l i s h s u p p o r t networks. Other p o t e n t i a l r o l e s f o r the EDC i n c l u d e the p r o v i s i o n of c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s , such as i n c u b a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r young growing f i r m s . I n c u b a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e the p r o v i s i o n of a s h e l t e r e d n u r t u r i n g environment w i t h d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h a f f o r d a b l e r e n t s and s e r v i c e s , ( i . e . p h o t o - c o p y i n g , t y p i n g , e t c . ) , and i n d i r e c t a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h the s o c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l n e t w o r k i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the e n v i r o n m e n t . 8 1 2.6.4. The Promotion of E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . 8 ' A l l a n , D. & Rahman, S. " S m a l l B u s i n e s s I n c u b a t o r s : A P o s i t i v e Environment f o r E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p " , J o u r n a l of S m a l l B u s i n e s s  Management, V o l . 2 3 , Number 3, J u l y 1985. pp. 12-22. 45 The EDC can a l s o c o n t r i b u t e by enhancing the l o c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c a p a c i t y of the community and the s t u d e n t s . W h i l e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o measure the degree t o which the EDCs have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l base, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o measure a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of some e f f o r t t o upgrade the l e v e l of b u s i n e s s knowledge and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k i l l s w i t h i n the l o c a l a r e a would i d e a l l y be i n c l u d e d . The f a c t t h a t the c e n t r e s o p e r a t e as a d j u n c t s t o the c o l l e g e a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t t h i s would i d e a l l y o c c u r as an e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of the c o l l e g e , v e r s u s the s i m p l e p r o v i s i o n of such s e r v i c e s . T h i s would imply a f o r m a l i z e d r o l e f o r the f a c u l t y and the s t u d e n t s i n the c e n t r e on a day t o day b a s i s . T h i s p o t e n t i a l can be r e a l i z e d by e n c o u r a g i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between s t u d e n t s and s u c c e s s f u l e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n the l a t t e r ' s own environment. Support can a l s o be r e c r u i t e d among the i n s t r u c t o r s of the c o l l e g e t o both encourage t h e i r involvement i n o p e r a t i o n s at the EDC, and the development of some degree of o v e r l a p or c o m p a t i b i l i t y between c o u r s e s t a u g h t i n the c o l l e g e and p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s b e i n g employed i n the c e n t r e . 8 2 T h i s f u n c t i o n s e r v e s t o c r e a t e a p o s i t i v e e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l environment i n t h a t the s t u d e n t i s exposed t o bo t h e x p e r i e n t i a l and c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g e x e r c i s e s , a mentor or r o l e model i s p r o v i d e d by the s m a l l b u s i n e s s o w n e r / o p e r a t o r , and some p r a c t i c a l and 8 2 R e f e r t o L u c h s i n g e r , L & L u c h s i n g e r V, "New Trends i n E d u c a t i o n a l Programs O r i e n t e d t o S m a l l B u s i n e s s " , J o u r n a l of  S m a l l B u s i n e s s Management, 15, No. 1, January 1977, pp. 43-47 and Braunen, W. & Bond, K. "What s t u d e n t s say about s m a l l b u s i n e s s m a r k e t i n g " J o u r n a l of S m a l l B u s i n e s s Management 17,No.4, October 1979, pp.48-54. 46 r e l e v a n t b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s g a i n e d . 2.6.5. The Need For B a l a n c e . There a r e , however, some c a v e a t s i n v o l v e d i n the i n c l u s i o n of combining the b u s i n e s s communities' needs w i t h i n those f u n c t i o n s of the c l a s s r o o m . C l e a r l y , too much of good t h i n g , a t the e x c l u s i o n of o t h e r f a c t o r s , can be damaging t o the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s of t h e c o l l e g e . S i n c e the t r e n d towards i n c r e a s i n g c o - o p e r a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n and i n d u s t r y has become somewhat of an e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e i n the U.S., we, the Canadian n o v i c e s , can l o o k t h e r e t o g a i n some i m p o r t a n t i n s i g h t s . In the S t a t e of N o r t h C a r o l i n a , f o r example, more than 70% of t h e budgeted e n r o l l m e n t w i t h i n the c o l l e g e system i s i n s p e c i f i c j o b t r a i n i n g . 8 3 The communities p o i n t w i t h p r i d e t o p o t e n t i a l and e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i e s , "When you open your doors f o r p r o d u c t i o n , our community c o l l e g e system w i l l have people t r a i n e d t o your s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , ready f o r employment." 8" T r a i n i n g programs, c a l l e d "pre-employment t r a i n i n g " , are o f f e r e d a t the c o l l e g e a t l i t t l e or no c o s t t o the companies. Graduates then go i n t o the s t a t e - p r o v i d e d t r a i n i n g c e n t r e , a microcosm of the main p l a n t , even t o the e x t e n t of r e p l i c a t e d machinery. Once h i r e d , i n d i v i d u a l s r e t u r n t o the t r a i n i n g c e n t r e t o r e f r e s h t h e i r s k i l l s , or t o l e a r n how t o use d i f f e r e n t machinery. A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s i n the s t a t e of I l l i n o i s , where 8 3 H o l d s w o r t h , R. "No S h r i n k i n g V i o l e t " , J o u r n a l of American  A s s o c i a t i o n of Community and J u n i o r C o l l e g e s November, 1984. 8 " S c o t t , R o b e r t , P r e s i d e n t of N o r t h C a r o l i n a Department of Community C o l l e g e s , I b i d . P. 33. 47 an e x c e s s of 1,200 c o u r s e s under c o n t r a c t w i t h 700 f i r m s f o r over 45,000 employees were p r o v i d e d w i t h i n the p e r i o d of January 1982 t o August 1983 by the c o l l e g e . 8 5 Courses such as computer l i t e r a c y f o r s m a l l b u s i n e s s , r o b o t i c s t r a i n i n g f o r G.M. employees and o t h e r m a n u f a c t u r i n g companies were a l s o o f f e r e d . The community c o l l e g e s i n t h i s s t a t e a re e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d as p l a y i n g an i n t e g r a l r o l e i n economic development, a l o n g w i t h government, l a b o u r and b u s i n e s s . A l l 39 c o l l e g e d i s t r i c t s o p e r a t e b u s i n e s s c e n t r e s or economic development o f f i c e s , whose p r i m a r y purpose i s t o c o - o r d i n a t e c u s t o m i z e d j o b t r a i n i n g programs f o r new and e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r y , " t a i l o r made t o meet the b u s i n e s s ' s p e c i f i c n e e d s " . 8 6 Thus, community c o l l e g e s i n bo t h the U.S. and Canada a r e becoming more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r economic e n v i r o n m e n t s . C o l l e g e s i n the U.S. have c l e a r l y w i t n e s s e d a v a s t i n c r e a s e i n the amount of l e g i s l a t i o n e n c o u r a g i n g t h i s i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y between i n d u s t r y and e d u c a t i o n , and the move i s t o some e x t e n t v iewed, as a p o s i t i v e one by e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s : " i t c r e a t e s a new l i m e l i g h t f o r e x p r e s s i o n and r e c o g n i t i o n of the commitment th e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s have t o s e r v i n g l o c a l b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y n e e d s . " 8 7 E d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t s have wasted no t i m e , however, i n 8 5 B u r g e r , L. "The P r o g r e s s of P a r t n e r s " , The American  A s s o c i a t i o n of Community and J u n i o r C o l l e g e s , November, 1984, p. 36-39. 8 6 B u r g e r , L. op. c i t . p. 38. 8 7 M a r t o r a n a , S., & G a r l a n d , P. " P u b l i c P o l i c y f o r Economic Development: The Two Edged Sword." Community and J u n i o r C o l l e g e  J o u r n a l November 1984, p.18. 48 p o i n t i n g out the i n h e r e n t dangers i n the U.S. approach. As Inman a r g u e s , some v e r y b a s i c i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s of s o c i e t y have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been r e p r e s e n t e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . 8 8 The p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n t e r e s t s , i n c o n t r a s t , a r e p r o f i t d r i v e n and i n v e s t m e n t s a r e thus s e l f - s e r v i n g . Inman has argued t h a t w h i l e c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t s between the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r a r e worthy of encouragement because of the e x t e n t t o which they c o n t r i b u t e t o the f i n a n c i a l base of the i n s t i t u t i o n , m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s as t o the purpose and r o l e of e d u c a t i o n , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h e r e o f , and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r improvement and f i n a n c i n g can and f r e q u e n t l y do o ccur because of the t r a d i t i o n a l l y poor l i n e s of communication between b u s i n e s s and e d u c a t i o n . 8 9 As w e l l , M a r t o r a n a r e c o g n i z e s t h i s move as a p o s i t i v e one o n l y i n s o f a r as the a c t i o n s s u p p o r t the a c t i v i t i e s and programs of community c o l l e g e s , and f u r t h e r promote the autonomy and a b i l i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n s t o meet the needs of i t s s e r v i c e a r e a . 9 0 He a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t a p o l i c y which a t t e m p t s t o mandate programs, or r e s u l t s i n more c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l over p r i o r i t i e s , funds or c l i e n t e l e s e r v e d u l t i m a t e l y erodes the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s f l e x i b i l i t y and a b i l i t y t o respond t o the needs of i t s community. In 1982, the Committee f o r Economic Development d e f i n e d the n a t u r e of t h e s e c o l l a b o r a t i v e v e n t u r e s as "a p u b l i c - p r i v a t e 8 8 I n m a n , D. " B r i n g i n g E d u c a t i o n t o I n d u s t r y : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F i n a n c i n g E d u c a t i o n " . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n F i n a n c e V o l . 10. F a l l 1984, p. 277. 8 9 I b i d . P. 274. 9 0 M a r t o r a n a , S. E t . a l . o p . c i t . p.18. 49 p a r t n e r s h i p which means c o - o p e r a t i o n among i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r f o r mutual b e n e f i t " . A framework of r e c i p r o c i t y and gains to both s i d e s i s assumed to be inherent i n m u t u a l i t y . T h i s would imply a framework of p u b l i c consensus on community and i n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e s and a c l e a r s t r a t e g y f o r a c t i o n . In sum, the degree to which the c e n t r e s c o n t r i b u t e to l o c a l economic development i s c l e a r l y a f u n c t i o n of two f a c t o r s ; one, the degree to which the c e n t r e s are able to i n c o r p o r a t e a l l of the resources of the c o l l e g e w i t h i n t h e i r day to day a c t i v i t i e s ; and two, the extent to which the a p p l i c a t i o n of these resources addresses the o v e r a l l g o als and i s s u e s at l a r g e w i t h i n the communities they serve. E s s e n t i a l l y , the cumulative value of these resources represent a v a l u a b l e community i n s t i t u t i o n and community t o o l . There are a l s o some p o i n t s to ponder from the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . C l e a r l y , i t i s not the sheer number of new businesses being c r e a t e d which c o n s t i t u t e s development but r a t h e r some d i s t i n c t i o n s have, to be made as to what types of businesses are being c r e a t e d . Using a s e r i e s of c r i t e r i a , Vesper has t r i e d to i d e n t i f y which types of new business s t a r t up can c o n t r i b u t e the most, in terms of long term employment, i n n o v a t i o n , and economic a c t i v i t y . 9 1 He has d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between both the long and short term impacts that v a r i o u s types of new businesses have on an economy. F u r t h e r , i t i s not c l e a r that an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n the 9 1 V e s p e r , o p . c i t . pp. 8-15. 50 number of owner/operator s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s c o n s t i t u t e more w e a l t h w i t h i n a r e g i o n . The un i o n of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers Of Amer i c a , I.W.A. has r e p o r t e d , f o r example, t h a t i n many c a s e s , those i n d i v i d u a l s now c a l l e d o w n e r / o p e r a t o r s of s m a l l b u s i n e s s a r e a c t u a l l y i n a l e s s f o r t u n a t e p o s i t i o n than as employees. For example, t r u c k d r i v e r s i n l a r g e companies have been l a i d o f f and encouraged t o purchase the t r u c k from the company. They a r e then r e - h i r e d on a c o n t r a c t b a s i s t o do the same j o b . The somewhat d i s t u r b i n g d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h i s i n d i v i d u a l now has assumed a l l of the r i s k , the c a p i t a l d e f i c i t f o r the t r u c k , and i n t h i s new s t a t e of "self-employment" has fewer b e n e f i t s i n terms of unemployment i n s u r a n c e , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e b e n e f i t s , a p e n s i o n p l a n , and o v e r a l l j o b s e c u r i t y . 9 2 To c a r r y t h i s p o i n t one s t e p f u r t h e r , s t a t e f u n d i n g of these e n t e r p r i s e development c e n t r e s , which f a c i l i t a t e and encourage t h i s i n c r e a s e of owner/operator t y p e s of s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s , i s i n many r e s p e c t s a new and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d form of s u b s i d i z i n g q u a s i - v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . I t i s thus a somewhat d i s g u i s e d t e c h n i q u e f o r a c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y t o promote p r o f i t t a k i n g by the l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n t h r o u g h lower l a b o u r c o s t s . 9 3 As w e l l , f o r a number of r e a s o n s , i t i s not al t o g e t h e r -c l e a r t h a t t h i s sudden i n c r e a s e i n the sheer number of s m a l l 9 2 P e r r y , C l a y , L e g i s l a t i v e D i r e c t o r , P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s O f f i c e r , I.W.A., P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w , January 06, 1987, Vancouver. 9 3 T h i s c oncept has been w e l l r e v i e w e d i n the c o n t e x t of v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n by Baran, P.A. And Sweezy, P.M. Monopoly  C a p i t a l New York, Monthly Review P r e s s , 1966. b u s i n e s s e s i n our s o c i e t y , r e f l e c t s an a c t u a l i n c r e a s e i n w e a l t h . M a r j o r i e O d l e , a c o n s u l t a n t t o the S m a l l B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e U.S. has suggested t h a t w h i l e the number of new f i r m s i s up, the r o l e of s m a l l b u s i n e s s as the economy's c u t t i n g edge, may be g r e a t l y e x a g g e r a t e d ; " S m a l l b u s i n e s s e s ' share of new j o b s depends upon how b i g b u s i n e s s i s p e r f o r m i n g . The share of j o b s c r e a t e d i s a much-touted s t a t i s t i c , but i t i s n ' t v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . " 9 " Odle f u r t h e r argues t h a t w h i l e s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s have c r e a t e d the m a j o r i t y of new j o b s i n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e i r r e l a t i v e performance i s more s i g n i f i c a n t of the woes of l a r g e m a n u f a c t u r e r s than t o the achievements of e n t r e p r e n e u r s . These c a v e a t s i n many ways r e f l e c t the d i s t a n c e t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e s have m a i n t a i n e d from the " r e a l w o r l d " . C l e a r l y , any p o l i c y which seeks t o move the two c l o s e r t o g e t h e r evokes some response from the c r i t i c s . At the same t i m e , however, e d u c a t i o n and b u s i n e s s have c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t m o t i v e s and w h i l e some c o l l a b o r a t i o n may be p o s s i b l e , the two remain on s e p a r a t e t r a c k s i n terms of t h e i r purposes and o b j e c t i v e s . 2.6.6. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Model. The model EDC would c o n t r i b u t e t o a p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development i n a t l e a s t t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s . One, i n the p r o v i s i o n of a f f o r d a b l e and u s e f u l e d u c a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s community, the c e n t r e would o f f e r b u s i n e s s 9 " L e v i n s o n , Marc, " S m a l l B u s i n e s s : Myth and R e a l i t y " , Dun's  B u s i n e s s Month S p e c i a l Repor:,, September, 1985. p.32. 52 a s s i s t a n c e and know-how t o the i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . Two, i n t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the c o l l e g e s , the c e n t r e s c o u l d be p i v o t a l i n the development of a s t u d e n t body w i t h e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a t t i t u d e s and enhanced b u s i n e s s s k i l l s . Three, i n t h a t the c o l l e g e s a r e r e g i o n a l a c t o r s r e p r e s e n t i n g s p a t i a l b o u n d a r i e s , a community of v a l u e s , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and economic i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s , the EDC would a s s i s t i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the r e g i o n and f a c i l i t a t e the t r a i n i n g t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h o s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Based on what we know from the p a s t , U.S. e x p e r i e n c e and the o b j e c t i v e s noted e a r l i e r , a model EDC f a c i l i t a t i n g l o c a l economic development would e x h i b i t the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s summarized i n F i g u r e 1. 1. A s t r o n g community based model of o p e r a t i o n w i t h an a c t i v e Board of D i r e c t o r s w i t h a p o l i c y making c a p a c i t y . An a c t i v e community l a y or a d v i s o r y board would a l s o be a v a i l a b l e f o r the c e n t r e s t a f f and the c l i e n t groups. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h a t c o l l e g e s r e p r e s e n t a r e g i o n . The board would p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n the r e g i o n t o e x p r e s s t h e i r economic needs. 2. The c e n t r e would be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h o t h e r a c t o r s and a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n l o c a l economic development on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . I d e a l l y , t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n would have o c c u r r e d p r i o r t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the c e n t r e thus e s t a b l i s h i n g a c l e a r r o l e f o r the c e n t r e . 3. In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s group, the c e n t r e would have d e v e l o p e d an assessment of community needs and an economic development s t r a t e g y o u t l i n i n g key i n d u s t r i e s , o p p o r t u n i t e s f o r f u t u r e growth, and p r i o r i t i e s . 4. As the c o l l e g e s a r e r e g i o n a l a c t o r s , the s t r a t e g y would i n c o r p o r a t e p l a n s f o r b e s t u t i l i z a t i o n and f u r t h e r development of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s and l i n k a g e s , n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and demographic t r e n d s . 5. The c e n t r e ' s r o l e w i t h i n the community would be h i g h l y p r o -a c t i v e and the manager would have a c l e a r i d e a of what t y p e s of i n d u s t r i e s or a c t i v i t i e s were b e i n g pursued by t h e r e s p e c t i v e communities a t l a r g e . 6. The c e n t r e would o f f e r h i g h l y f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e 53 e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g c o u n s e l l i n g , n e t w o r k i n g , and an o u t r e a c h program t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s community. 7. The c e n t r e would have d e v e l o p e d a c l e a r market p l a n , a t i m e t a b l e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and an s e l f - e v a l u a t i v e t e c h n i q u e . 8. The c e n t r e would have a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d t a r g e t group or market, and a c l e a r i d e a of how t h a t group c o u l d best be reached. 9. A h i g h degree of i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h r e g u l a r c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l a . T h i s would i n c l u d e the r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n of c o l l e g e f a c u l t y , i n s t r u c t o r s , s t u d e n t s , c e n t r e s t a f f and c l i e n t s . FIGURE 1: THE MODEL LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Import Replacement Product Development Financial Matchmaking Target to Help/ Not Help Community Support With Expression of Some Community Goals Regional Support and Input MODEL - Consumer linkages study - Identification of products and services now imported which could be produced locally - Networking club . - Investors matchmaking process for local investors and local entrepreneurs - Specific industries, products cited as locally viable - Further processing of primary resource - Efforts to identify and reach group with high disposable income, savings, etc. - CDC with set of measur-able objectives - Identification of oppor-tunities, special needs group - Recognition of local institutions as local and regional tools - Some effort to use the institutions to address local needs (ie: new college program) - Regional committee to develop regional develop-ment strategy, ie: common tourism theme, vs each community having an individual strategy SMALL BUSINESS EDUCATIONAL SERVICES PROMOTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP Dynamic and Flexible Delivery of Educational Services Needs Assessment Specific Client Services Investment Club Business Skills, Exposure to Role Models Training and Development Reference Materials - One-to-one counselling - Business seminars - Detailed review of community needs - Topic or need oriented training using student/ instructor exercises - Learning situation for entrepreneur vs service situation - Forum for social and pro-fessional networking - Entrepreneurs club, networking club - Access to other entrep-reneurs through review panel, networking club - One-to-one counselling - Business seminars - Library access - Certain classes COLLEGE INTEGRATION Curriculum Development Course Advisory Committee Involvement with Centre Faculty Involvement Student Role - Input from community, centre manager to curric-ulum development/ enhancement, programs which reflect local eco-nomic development oppor-tunities - Centre manager member of business courses and other relevant course advisory committees - Interaction between courses -lectures, and students' assignments and small busi-ness skills, ie: marketing plans for company feasi-bility study, cash flow analysis Practical and experien-learning exercises, exposure to entrep-reneurs in the latter's own environment Awareness of oppor-tunities, strategies, import replacement, etc. - 54 -55 Summary The c h a p t e r has i d e n t i f i e d a r o l e f o r a c o l l e g e - b a s e d EDC. The c e n t r e ' s p r i m a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development i n c l u d e s enhanced s m a l l b u s i n e s s s k i l l s and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . In i t s r e c o g n i t i o n of the r e g i o n as a c o h e s i v e economic a c t o r , t h e c e n t r e c o u l d a l s o p l a y a c a t a l y t i c r o l e w i t h o t h e r community members i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of import replacement s t r a t e g i e s and i n p r o d u c t or e x p o r t development o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Three o b j e c t i v e s f o r the c e n t r e s have been i d e n t i f i e d as f o l l o w s ; t o d e l i v e r h i g h l y r e s p o n s i v e and f l e x i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r ; t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e and i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c o l l e g e s and the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r i n o r d e r t o encourage e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g and enhanced l e v e l s of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p among the s t u d e n t s , and t o i d e n t i f y and f a c i l i t a t e the t r a i n i n g f o r l o c a l economic development o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The community and r e g i o n a l f o c u s of the c o l l e g e render i t a u s e f u l community t o o l and an i d e a l agency t h r o u g h which t o l o c a t e an e n t e r p r i s e development c e n t r e . The c h a p t e r c l o s e s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of a model EDC and a summary of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and o b j e c t i v e s of t h a t model. 56 CHAPTER THREE THE METHOD AND CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION. Having e s t a b l i s h e d a r o l e and a c l e a r s e t of o b j e c t i v e s f o r a c o l l e g e - b a s e d EDC, the reminder of the t h e s i s w i l l be c o n c erned w i t h an e v a l u a t i o n of e i g h t EDC r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d by the c o l l e g e s of B.C. The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o i d e n t i f y the method and c r i t e r i a f o r the e v a l u a t i o n . 3.1. P o t e n t i a l Methods of Program E v a l u a t i o n . The e v a l u a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r program i n v o l v e s a r e t r o s p e c t i v e r e v i e w of t h a t program i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e some gu i d e t o the f u t u r e . I t q u e s t i o n s the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the program, the e x t e n t t o which i t has a c h i e v e d i t s o b j e c t i v e s and a t what c o s t s . The p r o c e s s i s u s e f u l i n t h a t f u t u r e such programs, perhaps d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s s i m i l a r problems, can l e a r n from p a s t program e f f o r t s . In the case of p u b l i c s e c t o r programs, i t i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l i f p o l i c y makers a r e t o remain a c c o u n t a b l e . P o l a n d has i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e main themes i n program e v a l u a t i o n ; 9 5 the use of c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a r e s e a r c h d e s i g n ; an e v a l u a t i o n of c o s t -e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h an e x p l i c i t f o c u s on program o b j e c t i v e s ; and the use of secondary c r i t e r i a , which measures the i n p u t s , o u t p u t s and the p r o c e s s of t h e program. S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s f a c e l i m i t a t i o n s i n making program 9 5 P o l a n d , O r v i l l e , "Program E v a l u a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Theory", P o l i c y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Review August, 1974. pp.333-338. 57 e v a l u a t i o n s g i v e n t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o undertake c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t s . As a r e s u l t , even when i n t e n d e d changes do emerge and are thought t o be a r e s u l t of a p a r t i c u l a r program, a n a l y s t s a r e h a r d p r e s s e d t o show w i t h s o c i a l s c i e n c e methods t h a t the program i t s e l f e f f e c t e d the d e s i r e d change. A c l a s s i c example of t h i s problem i s the i m p o s i t i o n of a lower speed l i m i t t o reduce the number of a u t o m o b i l e a c c i d e n t f a t a l i t i e s . F o l l o w i n g such an i m p o s i t i o n i n C o n n e c t i c u t , the number of such f a t a l i t i e s d i d i n f a c t d e c l i n e from 324 t o 284; however, a c a r e f u l s t a t i s t i c a l s t udy was unable t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h i s d e c l i n e was i n f a c t caused by a lower speed r a t e . 9 6 W h i l e a n a l y s t s concur t h a t t h e sheer number of exogenous and non-r e l a t e d f a c t o r s may m i n i m i z e the p o t e n t i a l impact any government program may have, they a r e a l s o agreed t h a t s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t a r e l i m i t e d i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e u s e f u l program e v a l u a t i o n s . 9 7 An a n a l y s i s based on the r e a l i z a t i o n of g o a l s , r e l a t i v e t o the c o s t i s e q u a l l y c o n s t r a i n e d . In a s i t u a t i o n of m u l t i p l e g o a l s , the p r o c e s s of d i s e n t a n g l e m e n t , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and the subsequent weight assignment of each g o a l i s a t e d i o u s one which may a l s o be f r a u g h t w i t h e r r o r s and misjudgements. S c i e n t i s t s e mploying t h i s method a r e f r e q u e n t l y f o r c e d t o w r e s t l e w i t h q u e s t i o n s of e f f i c i e n c y v e r s u s e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and a s i n g l e 9 6 C a m p b e l l , D.& L. Ross, "The C o n n e c t i c u t Crackdown on S p e e d i n g : Time S e r i e s Data i n Q u a s i - E x p e r i m e n t a l A n a l y s i s " Law and S o c i e t y  Review August 3, 1968, pp.33-53. 9 7 W i l l i a m s , W a l t e r , S o c i a l P o l i c y Research and A n a l y s i s New York, E l s e v i e r P r e s s , 1971. A l s o , Y e h e z k e l D r o r , V e n t u r e s i n  P o l i c y S c i e n c e New Y o r k , E l s e v i e r P r e s s , 1971. 58 s o l u t i o n may r a t e v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y i n each of t h e s e c r i t e r i a . For example, a program may be h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e , say, i n terms of i t s g o a l of k e e p i n g the s t r e e t s c l e a n ; however, i t may l a c k e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n terms of c o s t s . A l l s o r t s of q u e s t i o n s must then be a d d r e s s e d , such as a p p r o p r i a t n e s s , d e s i r a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s , and so on. The t h i r d theme i n program e v a l u a t i o n i n v o l v e s the use of secondary c r i t e r i a . In t h i s method, the a n a l y s t uses c r i t e r i a which c o r r e l a t e s w i t h t h a t which one wishes t o e v a l u a t e i n terms of o u t p u t s and the p r o c e s s of the p r o g r a m . 9 8 One may wish t o e v a l u a t e a program f o r e f f i c i e n c y but be unable t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e and measure e f f i c i e n c y o u t p u t s . Thus, o t h e r c r i t e r i a which c o r r e l a t e s t o e f f i c i e n c y i s used. I t i s a common t e c h n i q u e f o r e v a l u a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l programs. For example, s c h o o l systems are e v a l u a t e d not i n terms of net o u t p u t , f o r t h a t i s o b v i o u s l y v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o measure, but i n terms of c r i t e r i a c o r r e l a t e d to o u t p u t s , such as s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r a t i o s , t h e v a l u e of the j o b s o b t a i n e d by g r a d u a t e s , the number of books i n the l i b r a r y , and so f o r t h . S i m i l a r l y , the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i s e v a l u a t e d i n terms of the s t r u c t u r e of the c l a s s and c u r r i c u l a and the a b i l i t y t o r e t a i n s t u d e n t s . 9 8 Y e h e z h k e l D r o r , V e n t u r e s i n P o l i c y S c i e n c e s New York E l s e v i e r P r e s s , 1971. 59 3.2. Methods For E v a l u a t i o n i n the T h e s i s . The e v a l u a t i v e framework f o r t h i s t h e s i s l i e s p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of t h i s t h i r d program e v a l u a t i o n theme. R e s u l t s from a c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t , measuring the s u c c e s s r a t e of EDC sponsored new b u s i n e s s e s , r e l a t i v e t o t h o s e not r e c e i v i n g c o u n s e l l i n g would c l e a r l y be l i m i t e d : t h e r e a r e t o o many v a r i a b l e s which c o u l d not be a c c o u n t e d f o r , and not enough time has e l a p s e d f o r impacts t o be measurable. An economic e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d be done; however, more time s e r i e s d a t a i s r e q u i r e d . Such a measure would r e f l e c t new b u s i n e s s s t a r t u p s , c a l c u l a t e the i n c r e a s e i n s a l e s of e x i s t i n g c o u n s e l l e d b u s i n e s s e s , new j o b s , i n c r e a s e d p r o f i t s , or new i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l . A more comprehensive economic e v a l u a t i o n would i n c l u d e some measure of i n d i r e c t or i n d u c e d b e n e f i t s and c o s t s . " A g a i n , more time i s needed f o r t h e s e e f f e c t s t o be e v i d e n t . More i m p o r t a n t l y , g i v e n the n a t u r e of the e d u c a t i o n a l and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s b e i n g o f f e r e d by the EDCs, i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o c o r r e l a t e the hours of c o u n s e l l i n g t o the c r e a t i o n of a new b u s i n e s s . P r i m a r i l y , a t what stage i n the c o u n s e l l i n g of an e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v e n t u r e can a c e n t r e t a k e c r e d i t f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h a t new b u s i n e s s : one hour? F i v e hours? F i f t e e n hours? A l i s t of new b u s i n e s s e s and new j o b s c r e a t e d f o r " I n d i r e c t b e n e f i t s , i n c l u d e t h o s e changes i n the v a l u e of l o c a l p r o d u c t i o n g e n e r a t e d by the c e n t r e s t h r o u g h the s a l e s and p u r c h a s i n g l i n k a g e s of the newly c r e a t e d b u s i n e s s e s as w e l l as i n d u c e d b e n e f i t s by newly c r e a t e d j o b s . I t would a l s o i n c l u d e a measure of the d i s p l a c e m e n t c o s t s such as t h o s e b u s i n e s s e s d i s p l a c e d by newly c r e a t e d ones, or' j o b s c o n s i d e r e d redundant because of new t e c h n o l o g y , and so on. 60 each hour of c o u n s e l l i n g would thus be m i s l e a d i n g and non-r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t the mere e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a new b u s i n e s s , as a s o l e c r i t e r i o n , i s an inadequate measure f o r su c c e s s of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r program; some measure of m o r t a l i t y , p r o f i t margins and d i s p l a c e m e n t of o t h e r b u s i n e s s e s must a l s o be taken i n t o a c c o u n t . A l l of t h e s e measures may be p o s s i b l e ; however, too l i t t l e time has e l a p s e d f o r such an e v a l u a t i o n . A more e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y t o e v a l u a t e the impact and a c t i v i t i e s of the c e n t r e s a t t h i s time may be t o f o c u s on the a c t i v i t i e s of the c e n t r e s and t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . A l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h was conducted t o d e t e r m i n e (a) the r o l e and o b j e c t i v e s of an EDC, (b) the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s of the LERD fund, and (c) the e x t e n t t o which p r a c t i c a l and a p p l i e d l e a r n i n g e x e r c i s e s can be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n the f u n c t i o n s of a l e a r n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was used t o c o m p i l e the so c a l l e d secondary c r i t e r i a , which was then assembled i n the form of a model c o l l e g e - b a s e d e n t e r p r i s e development c e n t r e w hich h e l d l o c a l economic development as an o b j e c t i v e . Some assessments as t o the degree t o which the EDCs i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y resemble t h i s i d e a l model, c o n s t i t u t e the b a s i s of the c o n c l u s i o n s of the t h e s i s . The model i d e n t i f i e d f o u r p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s of f o c u s ; the p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development and the c r e a t i o n of new w e a l t h , t h e d e l i v e r y of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e s m a l l b u s i n e s s community, the i n t e g r a t i o n of the c e n t r e s t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e s , and the pro m o t i o n of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . Some assessments as t o the e x t e n t t o which the day t o day a c t i v i t i e s 61 of the c e n t r e s c o n t r i b u t e t o tho s e f o u r a r e a s c o n s t i t u t e s the b a s i s of the e v a u a t i o n . Four s e t s of q u e s t i o n s were dev e l o p e d and used i n a s e r i e s of s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d , open ended i n t e r v i e w s . (These q u e s t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d as Appendix I ) . The i n t e r v i e w s were conducted between the months of September and December of 1986 and i n c l u d e d f i e l d v i s i t s t o the f o l l o w i n g e i g h t e n t e r p r i s e development c e n t r e s . 1. C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e , N o r t h Vancouver. N o r t h Shore Development C e n t r e . 2. C a r i b o o C o l l e g e , Kamloops. B u s i n e s s Development C e n t r e . 3. C o l l e g e of New C a l e d o n i a , P r i n c e George. S m a l l B u s i n e s s Resource C e n t r e . 4. Douglas C o l l e g e , New We s t m i n s t e r . C e n t r e f o r E n t e r p r i s e Development. 5. E a s t Kootenay Community C o l l e g e , C a s t l e g a r . B u s i n e s s and I n d u s t r y Development C e n t r e . 6. F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e , C h i l l i w a c k , The E n t e r p r i s e C e n t r e . 7. M a l a s p i n a C o l l e g e , Nanaimo. Nanaimo E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e . 8. S e l k i r k C o l l e g e , Cranbrook. West Kootenay E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e . Those i n t e r v i e w e d i n c l u d e d the c e n t r e managers, p o l i c y makers w i t h i n t h e M i n i s t r y of Advanced E d u c a t i o n , and community members w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n the e n t e r p r i s e c e n t r e s , b a n k e r s , members of the c e n t r e s ' b o a r d s , and members from the s m a l l b u s i n e s s community. ( R e f e r t o Appendix I I f o r a complete l i s t of thos e i n t e r v i e w e d ) . The c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n of t h e s e e i g h t c e n t r e s out of a p o s s i b l e f i f t e e n was t w o f o l d . As a prime impetus of the stud y was a g e n e r i c i n t e r e s t i n r e g i o n a l development t h e o r i e s 62 and s t r a t e g i e s , an attempt was made t o i n c l u d e c e n t r e s which were l o c a t e d w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l , h i n t e r l a n d c o n t e x t v e r s u s an urban c o r e such as the lower m a i n l a n d . An e f f o r t was a l s o made to p r o v i d e some s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c e n t r e s around the p r o v i n c e as opposed t o s e l e c t i n g c e n t r e s from the lower m a i n l a n d where a t o t a l of seven EDCs e x i s t . Second, o n l y t h o s e c e n t r e s which had been o p e r a t i n g f o r a t l e a s t s i x months were i n c l u d e d . 63 CHAPTER FOUR THE BRITISH COLUMBIA FRAMEWORK In an i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework des i gned to f a c i l i t a t e a r e g i o n a l approach to p l a n n i n g and l o c a l economic development, s e v e r a l po l i c y , concepts would be e v i d e n t . P r i m a r i l y , an e x p l i c i t i n t e n t would be ev iden t to enab le c o - o r d i n a t e d d e c i s i o n s among m u n i c i p a l i t i e s shar ing a s u b - r e g i o n a l or r e g i o n a l a r e a . In that the l o c a l c o n t r o l over the i n s t i t u t i o n s i s i n t r i n s i c to the concept of l o c a l economic development, an e f f o r t to d e c e n t r a l i z e the i n s t i t u t i o n s would be a l s o be e v i d e n t . The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to examine the B.C. development and p l a n n i n g framework, as w e l l as the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and govern ing l e g i s l a t i o n of the community c o l l e g e s in order to a s c e r t a i n i f such a r e g i o n a l and l o c a l development framework e x i s t s . The chapter beg ins with a review of the background h i s t o r y l e a d i n g up to the e s t ab l i shment of the LERD fund. 4 .1 . The Background and O b j e c t i v e s of the LERD Fund. A s e r i e s of r e p o r t s and events were i n s t r u m e n t a l in the were i n s t r u m e n t a l in the e s t ab l i s hment of the LERD fund. P r i m a r i l y , a c t i v e community groups, i n c l u d i n g some of the c o l l e g e s , exposed the need f o r i n c r e a s e d c o l l e g e involvement in l o c a l economic development i s s u e s . T h i s need was con f i rmed by an a d v i s o r y committee set up to d i s c u s s the r o l e of c o n t i n u i n g educa t i on in economic development and youth unemployment. A t h i r d i n c e n t i v e f o r the development of the p o l i c y was the i n c r e a s i n g r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l needs of a s i g n i f i c a n t economic s e c t o r , i . .e. sma l l b u s i n e s s , were not 64 b e i n g a d d r e s s e d . These i n c e n t i v e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . 4.1.1. L o c a l Community A c t i o n Groups. Two p a r t i c u l a r community o r g a n i z a t i o n s p l a y e d a key r o l e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the framework f o r the e v e n t u a l LERD fund, and i n both s i t u a t i o n s the community c o l l e g e s were a c t i v e p l a y e r s i n the p u r s u i t of an economic development s t r a t e g y . The f i r s t , the R o y a l C i t y Development O r g a n i z a t i o n , was e s t a b l i s h e d i n J a n u a r y , 1984. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s b u s i n e s s community, c i t i z e n ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s , i n d u s t r y , e d u c a t i o n , l a b o u r , and p r o f e s s i o n a l groups met, formed a l o c a l p l a n n i n g group, and adopted the f o l l o w i n g m i s s i o n s t a t e m e n t : ...the achievement of a s u s t a i n e d growth of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n the R o y a l C i t y , t h r o u g h a community s u p p o r t e d economic development program. The group a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c community based p r o j e c t s which would enhance the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the a r e a t h r o u g h s u p p o r t from government, the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , v o l u n t e e r s and community groups. Support was a l s o o f f e r e d by Douglas C o l l e g e i n the form of c o l l e g e r e s o u r c e s . Committees were s t r u c k and an economic development s t r a t e g y proposed which i n c l u d e d new growth p r o s p e c t s and m a r k e t i n g needs. A l o c a l " j o b c l u b " and an unemployment a c t i o n c e n t r e were e s t a b l i s h e d . 1 0 0 The second group was the Nanaimo Downtown Redevelopment O r g a n i z a t i o n . Community members s i m i l a r l y formed a l o c a l p l a n n i n g group t o a d d r e s s the i s s u e s of a d e c l i n i n g downtown 1 0 0 M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , C o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r L o c a l Economic  Development: The R o l e of P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s . V i c t o r i a , 1985. 65 c o r e . In b oth the Nanaimo and New Westminster s i t u a t i o n s , the community c o l l e g e s were a c t i v e p l a y e r s i n the p u r s u i t of an economic development s t r a t e g y . As t h e s e community groups proceeded t o d e v e l o p the s t r a t e g i e s , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t t r a i n i n g component was r e q u i r e d f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the s t r a t e g y . The c o l l e g e s r e c o g n i z e d the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and were i n t e r e s t e d , y e t c o n s t r a i n e d because of f i n a n c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s . The o n l y a v a i l a b l e o p t i o n was t h a t of d i v e r t i n g s t a f f from o t h e r t e a c h i n g d u t i e s but which at t h a t time d i d not appear as f e a s i b l e . 4.1.2. P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n and L o c a l Economic Development. In March of 1985, the A d v i s o r y Committee on C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n ' s R o l e i n Economic Development and Youth Employment s u b m i t t e d a f i n a l r e p o r t t o the Deputy M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , C o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r L o c a l Economic Development: The R o l e of P u b l i c  E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s . 1 0 1 The r e p o r t c i t e d f o u r t r e n d s i n the c u r r e n t economic c l i m a t e : the i n c r e a s i n g importance of medium and s m a l l s i z e b u s i n e s s e s i n j o b c r e a t i o n ; the importance of l o c a l l y based d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ; the l o c a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r import r e p l a c e m e n t ; and the r equirement f o r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n i t i a t i v e s i n economic t r a n s i t i o n . The committee argued t h a t c o l l e c t i v e l y , t h e s e t r e n d s j u s t i f i e d and r e q u i r e d t h e i nvolvement of the p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s 1 0 1 M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , C o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r L o c a l Economic  Development: The R o l e of P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s . V i c t o r i a , 1 3 8 5 . 66 i n l o c a l economic development. The r e p o r t i n c l u d e d s p e c i f i c examples of the r o l e that e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s had p l a y e d i n l o c a l economic development i n i t i a t i v e s a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e to date. I t a l s o appealed f o r support f o r a more f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l d e l i v e r y system, a r g u i n g that the t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r i n g and s c h e d u l i n g of business courses and programs d i d not address the e x i s t i n g community demands. 1 0 2 Rather, short c o u r s e s , seminars, workshops and e n t e r p r i s e s p e c i f i c programs were suggested. Four s p e c i f i c recommendations were proposed f o r the M i n i s t r y to c o n s i d e r : 1. The M i n i s t r y a f f i r m the l o c a l economic development a c t i v i t i e s of the p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and the mandate for community access to these i n s t i t u t i o n s . 2. The M i n i s t r y promote the p u b l i c educational- i n s t i t u t i o n s ' n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e ( i . e . non-classroom based) i n l o c a l communities by changing the f i n a n c e formula i n ways to give-r e c o g n i t i o n to and allow f o r f l e x i b l e programming responses to meet s p e c i f i c needs of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n v o l v e d i n l o c a l economic development. 3. The M i n i s t y of Education approach other M i n i s t r i e s to o u t l i n e the concepts and p r a c t i c e s d e t a i l e d i n t h i s r e p o r t with the o b j e c t i v e s o f : (a) seeking i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l r e c o g n i t i o n f o r p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ' r o l e s as c r e a t i v e working p a r t n e r s i n the c u r r e n t s t r a t e g y f o r p r o v i n c i a l economic renewal and employment c r e a t i o n ; and (b) c r e a t i n g a funding category f o r L o c a l Economic Development from which p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s might draw funds f o r i n n o v a t i v e c o l l a b o r a t i v e p r o j e c t s that would enhance i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a p a c i t y to serve l o c a l economic development o b j e c t i v e s . 4. The M i n i s t r y e s t a b l i s h a c o n s u l t a t i v e committee whose f u n c t i o n would be t o : (a) prepare s p e c i f i c elements, c r i t e r i a and c a t e g o r i e s f o r i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the f i n a n c e formula as suggested i n these recommendations; and (b) prepare a d e t a i l e d prospectus f o r the L o c a l Economic Development Fund as suggested 1 0 2 M i n i s t r y of Education, o p . c i t . p.9. 67 i n these recommendations. Two comments in the r e p o r t are p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy. F i r s t , the committee r e c o g n i z e d the importance of the degree to which a community based, p a r t i c i p a t o r y form of development was o c c u r r i n g . E n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n i t i a t i v e s that are underway c u r r e n t l y i n communities throughout the p r o v i n c e i n c l u d e some that are f o r g i n g new forms of c o l l a b o r a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n among bus i n e s s , e d u c a t i o n a l , s o c i a l and government i n t e r e s t s . Second, the r e p o r t encouraged the M i n i s t r y to support the l o c a l economic development a c t i v i t y of the c o l l e g e and school d i s t r i c t s through f i s c a l formula r e c o g n i t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l component of these e f f o r t s . 4.1.3. The E d u c a t i o n a l Requirements of the Small Business Sector A t h i r d i n c e n t i v e f o r the establishment of t h i s fund emerged as a r e s u l t of the s l u g g i s h economic c l i m a t e i n the p r o v i n c e . R i s i n g unemployment and a s w e l l i n g trade d e f i c i t were c l e a r symptoms of s t r u c t u r a l problems. As w e l l , the t r a d i t i o n a l and e x c e s s i v e r e l i a n c e on the narrow export base of f o r e s t products had, i n the face of a d e c l i n i n g export market, r e s u l t e d i n a f u t u r e outlook f o r growth which was c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than that experienced i n the p a s t . While s t i l l important, i t was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y e vident that l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s and resource i n d u s t r y concerns would no longer dominate the economic landscape to the extent that they had i n the p a s t . Small business f a i l u r e r a t e s , however, continue t o be h z : h and s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l and economic l o s s e s to s o c i e t y have accrued as a r e s u l t . S t u d i e s i n the U.S. c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f y 68 the prime weakness as the l a c k of e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l and b u s i n e s s s k i l l s . 1 0 3 The number of s m a l l b u s i n e s s management c o u r s e s o f f e r e d t h r o u g h the v a r i o u s p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s has i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y ; however, b u s i n e s s f a i l u r e s r a t e s have not a p p r e c i a b l y d e c l i n e d . 1 0 " Thus, w h i l e the importance of s m a l l b u s i n e s s t o the p r o v i n c i a l ' e c o n o m y as a whole c o n t i n u e s t o i n c r e a s e , the gap between the r e q u i r e d l e v e l of i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l i n the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r remains. A t h i r d purpose f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the LERD fund, t h e r e f o r e , was t o enable the c o l l e g e s t o accommodate and a d d r e s s the needs of t h i s v i t a l s e c t o r of the economy i n a more f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e way. 4.1.4. The E s t a b l i s h m e n t of the LERD Fund. In June, 1985, then M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n J a c k H e i n r i c h announced a $5.8 m i l l i o n fund which was t o f i n a n c e the invol v e m e n t of c o l l e g e s and i n s t i t u t e s i n p r o j e c t s which c o n t r i b u t e d t o economic development i n t h e i r a r e a s . 1 0 5 In announcing the fund , H e i n r i c h noted: 1 0 3 M c M u l l a n , W, " U n i v e r s i t y I n n o v a t i o n C e n t r e s and the E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p Knowledge Gap", The J o u r n a l of S m a l l B u s i n e s s  Canada Volume 2, Number 4, S p r i n g 1985. pp. 3 - 16. 1 0"Dainow, R o b e r t , " T r a i n i n g and E d u c a t i o n of E n t r e p r e n e u r s : The C u r r e n t S t a t e of the L i t e r a t u r e " , The J o u r n a l of S m a l l B u s i n e s s  and E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p V o l . 3, No. 4. S p r i n g 1986. pp. 10-23. 1 0 5 A r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of government f u n c t i o n s i n March 1986 r e s u l t e d i n t h e s p l i t t i n g of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h i s M i n i s t r y between two departments: the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n and the M i n i s t r y of P o s t - Secondary E d u c a t i o n . The l a t t e r was then r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s fund. The new c a b i n e t of November 1986 has renamed t h i s M i n i s t r y t o t h a t of Advanced E d u c a t i o n and Job T r a i n i n g . 69 Our aim i s t o encourage c r e a t i v e development programs t h a t w i l l a l l o w c o l l e g e s and i n s t i t u t e s t o b u i l d on t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s t r e n g t h s and e x p e r t i s e m a t c h i n g them w i t h the needs of l o c a l i n d u s t r y and b u s i n e s s . The i n s t i t u t i o n s were encouraged t o a c c e s s the fund through p r o p o s a l s which i n c l u d e d s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g t o r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s , p r o j e c t s t h a t would h e l p i n the t r a n s f e r of s k i l l s and t e c h n i q u e s t o the b u s i n e s s community, and p r o j e c t s t h a t would improve the p r o d u c t i o n of goods and s e r v i c e s . As w e l l , p r o p o s a l s which e n t a i l e d the invol v e m e n t of m u n i c i p a l government, the p r o v i n c e ' s s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r and e n t r e p r e n e u r s were sug g e s t e d . D u r i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n p e r i o d n e a r l y two hundred and f i f t y p r o j e c t s were proposed w i t h a t o t a l v a l u e i n e x c e s s of 40 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s r e q u e s t e d . S i x t y one p r o j e c t s were e v e n t u a l l y approved, w i t h a t o t a l of $5,518,400.00 a l l o c a t e d . C e r t a i n s t i p u l a t i o n s , however, were i s s u e d a l o n g w i t h the LERD money. P r i m a r i l y , the funds were t o be r e g a r d e d as seed money t o en a b l e the c o l l e g e s t o become i n v o l v e d w i t h l o c a l economic development i n i t i a t i v e s . The i n t e n t was t h a t t h e s e i n i t i a t i v e s would u l t i m a t e l y become s e l f s u p p o r t i n g . L o c a l economic development v e n t u r e s , however, were not t o be i n d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . F i n a l l y , a l l of the monies i n the fund were t o be a l l o c a t e d by the end of the f i s c a l y e a r . T h i r t e e n of the twenty c o l l e g e s and i n s t i t u t e s i n i t i a t e d E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e s under t h i s fund. These development c e n t r e s were p e r c e i v e d t o be an immediate and v i s i b l e way f o r the c o l l e g e t o a d d r e s s some of the economic needs of t h e i r communities. 70 The f i r s t i n a s e r i e s of two f u n d i n g a l l o c a t i o n s were made f o r 1985/86 under the LERD g r a n t . The amounts ranged from $117,000 t o $184,000, depending on the amount r e q u e s t e d i n the r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e ' s p r o p o s a l . An a d d i t i o n a l $80,000 was a l l o c a t e d under the E x c e l l e n c e i n E d u c a t i o n fund i n the f o l l o w i n g f i s c a l y e a r . ( R e f e r t o Appendix 1 f o r the e x a c t a l l o t m e n t of f u n d s ) . T h i s second a l l o t m e n t of funds was p r o v i d e d t o a s s i s t the EDC i n a c h i e v i n g s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y w i t h i n , i t was tho u g h t , s i x months. Si m u l t a n e o u s t o t h e s e e v e n t s , the M i n i s t r y of I n d u s t r y and S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development had de v e l o p e d a p r o p o s a l r e q u e s t i n g $12 m i l l i o n t o e s t a b l i s h twenty b u s i n e s s development c e n t r e s a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e . 1 0 6 The proposed l o c a t i o n s were v e r y s i m i l a r t o those e s t a b l i s h e d l a t e r on; however, the p r o j e c t e d p e r i o d f o r t h e i r c o s t - r e c o v e r a b l e s t a t u s was t h r e e y e a r s . T h i s p r o p o s a l , by t h a t p o i n t a c a b i n e t document, was r e j e c t e d on the b a s i s of "too much too l a t e " . 1 0 7 When the EDCs were e s t a b l i s h e d under the M i n i s t r y of P o s t -Secondary E d u c a t i o n , i t was assumed t h a t they would a c h i e v e two p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s . F i r s t , d u r i n g the p e r i o d of r e s t r a i n t and c u t b a c k s , the c o l l e g e s , i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o " s t a y a l i v e ' t i l l 85", had assumed something o"f an i n t r o s p e c t i v e r o l e . The h i g h l y v i s i b l e and d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i v e EDC would p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y 1 0 6 T h i s M i n i s t r y has s i n c e been renamed the M i n i s t r y Of Economic Development. 1 0 7 B l a n e M c i n t o s h , Former C o - o r d i n a t o r of B u s i n e s s Programs, M i n i s t r y of Pos t - S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , P e r s o n a l Communication, September 16, 1986. V i c t o r i a . 71 f o r the c o l l e g e s t o i n i t i a t e some community a c t i o n . The second g o a l was more l o n g range. I t was assumed t h a t the f u n c t i o n s of the c e n t r e would be broadened t o i n c l u d e and complement th o s e c o u r s e s and programs b e i n g o f f e r e d i n the r e g u l a r c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l u m . As w e l l , i t was assumed t h a t f a c u l t y members from a l l c o r n e r s of the c o l l e g e would e v e n t u a l l y become i n v o l v e d . In sum, t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s a re e v i d e n t i n the p o l i c y t o fund the c o l l e g e s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n l o c a l economic development a c t i v i t i e s . P r i m a r i l y , two community based a c t i o n g r o u p s , i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o r e v i t a l i z e t h e i r community's economic base, r e v e a l e d an i m p o r t a n t need f o r t h e involvement of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e s . Second, an a d v i s o r y committee w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e members from the c o l l e g e s and the e d u c a t i o n a l community a t l a r g e c o n f i r m e d t h i s need and r e q u e s t e d f i s c a l r e c o g n i t i o n . F i n a l l y , the t r a d i t i o n a l s m a l l b u s i n e s s programs w i t h i n the c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l a were c o n s i d e r e d t o be an inadequate method by which t o meet the needs of t h i s i n c r e a s i n g l y v i t a l economic s e c t o r . I t was hoped t h a t money from t h i s fund c o u l d be used t o p r o v i d e a more f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e d e l i v e r y system f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l needs of t h i s s e c t o r . 4.2. Recent R e g i o n a l Development P o l i c i e s . As noted a t the onset of the t h e s i s , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the LERD fund was somewhat i n n o v a t i v e i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e d development funds t o an agency w i t h a r e g i o n a l mandate. The f o l l o w i n g b r i e f r e v i e w of changes t o r e g i o n a l development p o l i c y i n the p r o v i n c e w i l l r e f l e c t why the LERD fund i s p o t e n t i a l l y 72 noteworthy. For a b r i e f p e r i o d of t i m e , l a r g e s c a l e p l a n n i n g d i d occur i n B.C. and was a d m i n i s t e r e d v i a the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s . I t was an attempt t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r d e t a i l e d p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r investment and management d e c i s i o n s . The r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s was a u s e f u l v e h i c l e : 1 0 8 "To examine a l l f a c e t s and development o p t i o n s f o r an a r e a , t h e r e b y m a x i m i z i n g economic and o t h e r b e n e f i t s , t o a l l o w f o r a c h o i c e of development a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the s u b - r e g i o n , t o encourage c o - o r d i n a t e d d e c i s i o n s among m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and and r u r a l a r e a s towards achievement of a common common g o a l , t o r e c o g n i z e t h e economic, s e r v i c e , e n v i r o n m e n t a l l i n k s and i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s between r u r a l a r e a s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t o a l l o w f o r b e t t e r d e c i s i o n s by i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h i n a l a r g e r c o n t e x t sound l a n d use and development o p t i o n s . Some p o s i t i v e i n i t i a t i v e s were e v i d e n t i n 1977, d u r i n g the-days of the R e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Development Committee. T h i s program was a j o i n t p r o v i n c i a l ( M i n i s t e r of I n d u s t r y and S m a l l B u s i n e s s ) and f e d e r a l v e n t u r e . Funding was p r o v i d e d on a t h r e e year b a s i s on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s , a d h e r i n g t o the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s . In 1983 the Bennett government i n t r o d u c e d a s e r i e s of i n i t i a t i v e s which r e s t r u c t u r e d the p r a c t i c e of r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e . Most e v i d e n t was the e l i m i n a t i o n of the Community and R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committees. These f o r m a l c o o r d i n a t i n g and p o l i c y development b o d i e s a t t e m p t e d t o r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l and t o promote r e g i o n a l 1 0 8 M a c N e i l , G.E. P l a n n i n g Program D i r e c t i o n s and I s s u e s A r i s i n g  from B i l l No. 9. R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f ^ C e p t r a l Kootenay, March 1984. " " ' 73 and community development which was based on a c o - o p e r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e . W i t h i n t h i s r e s t r u c t u r i n g p r o c e s s B i l l 9 was i n t r o d u c e d , which removed the r e g u l a t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n s and many o t h e r powers of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . 1 0 9 A p l e t h o r a of ad hoc and c e n t r a l i z e d development p o l i c i e s f o l l o w e d . F i r s t was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the B u s i n e s s I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e s . They were i n t e n d e d t o be one s t o p i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e s which o f f e r e d a l l of the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d by an i n v e s t o r p r i o r t o making an investment d e c i s i o n . Under t h i s program, money was g i v e n t o the l o c a l Chamber of Commerce t o a s s i m i l a t e and make t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . L a t e r came the P a r t n e r s i n E n t e r p r i s e program i n t r o d u c e d i n 1985 by B i l l R i t c h i e , M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . The PIE program p r o v i d e d money under a c o s t s h a r i n g f o r m u l a based on p o p u l a t i o n s t r i c t l y on a m u n i c i p a l b a s i s . Many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were e n t i c e d t o break away from the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and a p p l y f o r economic development f u n d i n g under t h i s program. T h i s l o s s of revenue f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d the c a p a c i t i e s of t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . 1 1 0 A s e r i e s of b r o c h u r e s , l i t e r a t u r e , and d o - i t - y o u r s e l f -manuals, t e a c h i n g the b a s i c s of l o c a l or community economic 1 0 9 " E n d i n g P l a n n i n g : A Step Backward" T i m e s - C o l o n i s t V i c t o r i a , e d i t o r i a l page, August 3, 1983. 1 1 0 R i n o E l v e r h o y , Economic Development o f f i c e r , Thompson-Nicola R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w , Kamloops, October 21, 1986. 74 development appeared on the s c e n e . 1 1 1 They were aimed a t the layman, l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s and the m u n i c i p a l i t e s and were p r e p a r e d and d e l i v e r e d by v a r i o u s M i n i s t r i e s v i a one day seminars i n an e f f o r t t o f o s t e r the p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development. An e x i s t i n g framework f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , p r i o r i t y s e t t i n g and c o - o p e r a t i v e development i s thus n o n - e x i s t e n t i n the p r o v i n c e a t p r e s e n t . In i t s a t t e m p t s t o f o s t e r a v i g o u r o u s c o m p e t i t i v e market, the s p i r i t of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w o r k i ng t o g e t h e r on development s t r a t e g i e s has, by n e c e s s i t y and i n c o m p e t i t i o n f o r p r o v i n c i a l d o l l a r s , a l l but d i s a p p e a r e d . The impacts of such a s t r a t e g y may best be u n d e r s t o o d i n the c o n t e x t of the t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y . Many communities i n the i n t e r i o r a r e competing t o a t t a i n the p r o v i n c i a l l y l a b e l l e d " t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t s " . Such an honour p r o v i d e s f o r p r o m o t i o n a l b e n e f i t s , p r o v i n c i a l endorsement and o t h e r f i n a n c i a l a dvantages. C l e a r l y , not a l l communities can snag t h i s t i t l e , y e t the v a l u e of d o i n g so i s h i g h enough t h a t few can a f f o r d t h e r i s k s i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g a r e g i o n a l and c o - o p e r a t i v e approach t o d e v e l o p i n g the i n d u s t r y . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s , most p o i n t e d l y , the c o a l i n d u s t r y . 1 1 2 In sum, a r e g i o n a l approach t o p l a n n i n g and development i n c l u d e s the p r o v i s i o n of p o l i c i e s which attempt t o c o - o r d i n a t e 1 1 1 T h e y were, f o r example, P r a c t i c a l Approaches For M u n i c i p a l  Economic Development 1985 produced as a j o i n t e f f o r t by the Economic D e v e l o p e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , of The M i n i s t r y of I n d u s t r y and S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development and The M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . A l s o , the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s produced and d i s t r i b u t e d a "how t o " account of economic development. 1 1 2 G i o b b i n s , R. & L. D i Marzo, C o a l and P u b l i c P o l i c y : A  Framework For U n d e r s t a n d i n g Canada West F o u n d a t i o n , June 1979. 75 d e c i s i o n s among m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s h a r i n g the same s u b - r e g i o n a l or r e g i o n a l a r e a , i n o r d e r t o maximize the net b e n e f i t s and development o p t i o n s f o r t h a t s u b - r e g i o n . The e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s towards development do not encourage or f a c i l i t a t e a r e g i o n a l approach. Indeed, the s p i r i t of these p o l i c i e s c o u p l e d w i t h the e x i s t i n g c e n t r a l i z e d approach tends t o d i s c o u r a g e such forms of development. 4.2. The C o l l e g e Concept i n B.C. A more r a t i o n a l i z e d and c e n t r a l i z e d p o l i c y towards e d u c a t i o n has a l s o p r e v a i l e d and accompanied t h i s c e n t r a l i z e d approach t o p l a n n i n g i n the p r o v i n c e i n r e c e n t y e a r s . C o n s i d e r the e v o l u t i o n of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , o r i g i n a l l y community based and o r i e n t e d , t o i t s c u r r e n t s t a t e of f u n c t i o n i n g and government. As e a r l y as 1932 con c e r n was b e i n g e x p r e s s e d over the few o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o the approximate 66% of those s t u d e n t s who d i d not f i n i s h h i g h s c h o o l , or seek f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . 1 1 3 At t h a t t i m e , t h e o n l y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e were UBC and V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e ( the f o r e - r u n n e r of tod a y ' s U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a ) , a perhaps f o r m i d a b l e o p t i o n f o r th o s e l i v i n g i n the r u r a l p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e . Concerns over r e g i o n a l e d u c a t i o n d i s p a r i t i e s were a g a i n r a i s e d i n 1945 by Dr. Maxwell Cameron. " E x p e n d i t u r e , a b i l i t y and e f f o r t s of r u r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by extreme 1 1 3 K n o t t s , J . M.A. T h e s i s , The J u n i o r C o l l e g e i n B r i t i s h  C o l umbia, S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1932. p.46. 76 i n e q u a l i t y ; i n e q u a l i t y . . . o f o p p o r t u n i t y a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e s our s c h o o l s y s t e m . " 1 1 " F o l l o w i n g h i s appointment as P r e s i d e n t of UBC, John Macdonald, a l o n g w i t h s e v e r a l f a c u l t y members, commenced a study t o d e t e r m i n e the l o n g term needs of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i n B . C . 1 1 5 The f i n d i n g s of the study were c a t a l y t i c i n the e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n which f o l l o w e d . Macdonald i d e n t i f i e d two r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h s t a n d i n g i n B.C.: s e l f government, i n terms of p l a n n i n g and programming, and t o p i c a l and s p a t i a l d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . The f i r s t e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n ensured l o c a l autonomy. The 1963 P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t Amendment e n a b l e d the s c h o o l boards t o e s t a b l i s h , m a i n t a i n , o p e r a t e and govern the c o l l e g e s . As w e l l , a community f o c u s was e nsured by r e q u i r i n g t h a t a l o c a l referendum w i t h a commitment of l o c a l f i n a n c i n g , be p a s s e d . By 1975 t h e r e were 14 c o l l e g e s , and t h e i r community f o c u s was c l e a r l y e x p l i c i t . They b u i l t t h e i r own b u i l d i n g s , d e s i g n e d t h e i r own programs and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r own d i r e c t i v e s . 1 1 6 A p o l i c y of comprehensive c u r r i c u l a and an open door a d m i s s i o n p o l i c i e s were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d . In the e a r l y 1970's, the v o c a t i o n a l and t r a d e i n s t i t u t i o n s were merged w i t h i n the c o l l e g e f u n c t i o n s . The c o l l e g e s i n B.C. a l s o o f f e r s t u d e n t s the 1 1"Cameron, M. A r e p o r t of the Commission of I n q u i r y i n t o  E d u c a t i o n a l F i n a n c e . P.12. 1 1 5 M a c d o n a l d , J . H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and a P l a n  f o r the F u t u r e . UBC P r e s s , Vancouver 1962. 1 1 6 D e n n i s o n , J . & P. G a l l a g h e r , Canada's Community C o l l e g e s : A  C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s . UBC P r e s s , 1986. p.91.. 77 f i r s t two y e a r s of a u n i v e r s i t y degree program i n a U n i v e r s i t y T r a n s f e r Program, (UTP). The i n s t i t u t i o n s were, t h e r e f o r e , f u l l y c omprehensive; i . e . , c o l l e g e programs were a v a i l a b l e i n a wide v a r i e t y of a r e a s w i t h i n a s i n g l e i n s t i t u t i o n , i n c l u d i n g c a r e e r / t e c h n i c a l , academic, v o c a t i o n a l and b a s i c u p g r a d i n g . They were by a l l a c c o u n t s an overwhelming s u c c e s s . 1 1 7 G r a d u a l l y , the c o l l e g e s began t o e x p e r i e n c e s h o r t a g e s of b o t h c a p i t a l and o p e r a t i n g money, and the p r o v i n c i a l governments i n c r e a s i n g l y assumed more of the share of t h e s e c o s t s . They a l s o imposed i n c r e a s i n g r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l w i t h a l a r g e r c o l l e g e b u r e a u c r a c y t o m o n i t e r c o l l e g e d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 1 8 The c o l l e g e s were b e g i n n i n g t o l o s e t h e i r independence and l o c a l autonomy. The C o l l e g e and P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e Act was passed i n September 1977. I t e s s e n t i a l l y p r o v i d e d 100% government f u n d i n g t o the c o l l e g e s and c e n t r a l i z e d such t h i n g s as c u r r i c u l u m development and f i n a n c i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . L a t e r , l e g i s l a t i o n was passed which r e s u l t e d i n a l l members of the c o l l e g e and i n s t i t u t e board b e i n g a p p o i n t e d by O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l t o s e r v e d u r i n g p l e s u r e of the M i n i s t e r . T h i s f u r t h e r reduced community invol v e m e n t i n the governance of t h e i r c o l l e g e s . In the 1982-1987 Statement of G o a l s and O b j e c t i v e s r e l e a s e d by the M i n i s t r y , a somewhat r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e became e v i d e n t . 1 1 9 1 1 7 D e n n i s o n , J . The Impact of Community C o l l e g e s : a study of the  c o l l e g e concept i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B.C. R e s e a r c h , 1975. 1 1 8 G a l l a g h e r , P. "The Reshaping of B r i t i s h Columbia C o l l e g e s " C o l l e g e Canada September, 1984. 1 1 9 M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , I n t e g r a t e d F i v e Year P l a n n i n g f o r the  B r i t i s h Columbia C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e System. 1982-1987. 78 The c o l l e g e s were g r a d u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as a "system" and a new concept of " r e g i o n a l comprehensiveness" was i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s i m p l i e d t h a t a c o u r s e or c o l l e g e program would now be a v a i l a b l e somewhere w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d r e g i o n a l a r e a , which may have i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l c o l l e g e r e g i o n s . Under the wording i n the statement of g o a l s , i t would thus be p o s s i b l e t o remove one of the f o u r b a s i c program a r e a s , ( i . e . c a r e e r / t e c h n i c a l , academic, v o c a t i o n a l , or b a s i c u p g r a d i n g ) , from one i n s t i t u t i o n . Between the y e a r s of 1982 t o 1985 s i g n i f i c a n t changes were a l s o made i n the ways i n which the c o l l e g e s were funded. P r i m a r i l y , the o v e r a l l base budgets were reduced, and the d i s c r e t i o n a r y s pending power of the c o l l e g e s was reduced. Between 1982 and 1985, a c o l l e g e and i n s t i t u t e budget c u t of about 8% was imposed. T h i s o c c u r r e d i n a p e r i o d when i n f l a t i o n a r y c o s t s had i n c r e a s e d by about 17% and s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t f i g u r e s c l i m b e d by 11.4 % i n the p r o v i n c e . 1 2 0 The i n t r o d u c t i o n of f u n d i n g the c o l l e g e s v i a a complex f o r m u l a f u r t h e r compounded the f i n a n c i a l problems f o r some c o l l e g e s . In 1983, s t u d e n t s i n B.C. c o l l e g e s were c o n v e r t e d t o f u n d i n g u n i t s , whereby each i n s t i t u t i o n was funded i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the number of the u n i t s i t p r o c e s s e d . F u n d i n g t o the i n s t i t u t i o n s were thus e n r o l l m e n t d r i v e n , u s i n g a w e i g h t i n g system. For i n s t a n c e , a f u n d i n g u n i t i n a u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r program i s v a l u e d a t 1.2 i n the f o r m u l a ; a f u n d i n g u n i t i n a c a r e e r or v o c a t i o n a l program i s worth 2.3. The d i s c r e t i o n as t o 1 2 0 K i l i a n , C. S c h o o l Wars: The A s s a u l t on B.C. E d u c a t i o n . New S t a r Books, Vancouver. 1985. p.140. 79 how many of each type of u n i t a c o l l e g e p r o c e s s e s i s c l e a r l y a d e c i s i o n of the c o l l e g e s ; however, f u n d i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y a f u n c t i o n of t h i s f o r m u l a . 1 2 1 N o n - c r e d i t , community o r i e n t e d t y p e s of c o u r s e s were not g i v e n any c r e d i t i n the f o r m u l a , and thus most c o l l e g e s have reduced or a l l t o g e t h e r c a n c e l l e d the number of c o u r s e s o f f e r e d t h r o u g h community e d u c a t i o n departments. As a r e s u l t , a l l but one c o l l e g e e l i m i n a t e d the p o s i t i o n of Dean of Community S e r v i c e s , and blended these reduced f u n c t i o n s w i t h those of a n o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t . 1 2 2 The 1982-1987 m i s s i o n statement a l s o r e f l e c t e d a d i m i n i s h e d importance p l a c e d upon academic e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o U T P . 1 2 3 As w e l l , a sudden i n t e r e s t i n program r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n was a p p a r e n t . The t r a n s f e r of what were i d e n t i f i e d as redundant programs o c c u r r e d , and a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s o c c u r r e d . Indeed, the c o l l e g e s were c o g n i z a n t of t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g v u l n e r a b i l i t y . "The t h i r d c o l l e g e s t r a t e g y has been t o a c c e p t t h a t sound and f u r y a r e not the o n l y ways t o produce change. C o l l e g e s noted q u i c k l y t h a t p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m of government o f t e n produced r e t a l i a t o r y c r i t i c i s m — w i t h more heat than l i g h t . The 1 2 1 T h i s MUCH s i m p l i f i e d account of the f i n a n c e f o r m u l a was p r o v i d e d by K i l i a n , o p . c i t . Pp.124-46. 1 2 2 D o u g l a s C o l l e g e i n New Westminster c o n t i n u e s t o m a i n t a i n a Dean of Community S e r v i c e s . 1 2 3 J o h n W a t t e r s , C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e E d u c a t o r s A s s o c i a t i o n , P r e s i d e n t , I n t e r v i e w , November 10, 1986, Vancouver. 80 c o l l e g e s a r e v e r y aware of t h e i r v u l n e r a b i l i t y . 1 2 " A new M i s s i o n and G o a l s Statement was i s s u e d i n November, 1 9 8 6 . 1 2 5 I t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the concept of r e g i o n a l comprehensiveness was weak. S t u d e n t s unable t o o b t a i n the programs of t h e i r c h o i c e w i t h i n t h e i r own r e g i o n were w i l l i n g t o r e l o c a t e t o g a i n a c c e s s t o the program. However, they r e l o c a t e d t o Vancouver r a t h e r than t o a n o t h e r c o l l e g e w i t h i n the r e g i o n a l c l u s t e r . Thus, the concept of r e g i o n a l c l u s t e r i n g was dropped and the concept of system comprehensiveness e n d o r s e d ; c o u r s e s were now r e q u i r e d t o be a v a i l a b l e somewhere i n t h e system. I n c l u d e d i n t h i s statement was an e x p l i c i t commitment of system r e s o u r c e s t o economic development and r e n e w a l . "Goal D: O c c u p a t i o n a l and Economic Development. The system, i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s ( b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e ) , w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the p r o c e s s of economic renewal and development w i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e . " 1 2 6 Gone was the p r e v i o u s l y e x p l i c i t emphasis on l i f e - l o n g l e a r n i n g , which had p r e v i o u s l y been a f r e e s t a n d i n g g o a l . 4.4. The I n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . In sum, t h i s c h a p t e r has r e v i e w e d the r e c e n t p o l i c y endorsement f o r a p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development. As n o t e d , t h i s p r o c e s s e n t a i l s d e c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l and l o c a l autonomy over the i n s t i t u i o n s and r e c o g n i t i o n of the r e g i o n s as 1 2 " G a l l a g h e r , P a u l , "The V a n i s h i n g V i s i o n " Vancouver Sun Monday F e b r u a r y 04, 1985. p.A5. 1 2 5 M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , I n t e g r a t e d F i v e Year P l a n n i n g f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia C o l l e g e and I n s t i t u t e System. System  O b j e c t i v e s , 1986-1991.  1 z 6 I b i d . pT9~; 81 c o h e s i v e economic a c t o r s . T h i s endorsement would appear t o be e v i d e n t i n the o b j e c t i v e s of the LERD fund which was i n t e n d e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t he c o l l e g e s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e i r l o c a l economic e n v i ronments. At the same t i m e , however, r e c e n t p o l i c y changes t o the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements g o v e r n i n g r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and the community c o l l e g e s have c r e a t e d a d e c i s i o n making framework which i s h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d and a f f o r d s l i t t l e l o c a l c o n t r o l over the r e s o u r c e s , economic r e n t s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . The community f o c u s of the c o l l e g e has been r e s c i n d e d and r e p l a c e d w i t h a concept known as the " c o l l e g e system" which e n t a i l s i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s d e c i s i o n making a u t h o r i t y and l o c a l autonomy. Thus, the i n s t i t u t i o n which emerged as an agent t o p r o v i d e s p a t i a l and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c democracy, i n terms of a c c e s s t o p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , has been revamped t o r e f l e c t a more e f f i c i e n t and r a t i o n a l i z e d s e r v i c e . 82 T h i s r a i s e s a number of i n c o n s i s t e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r e c e n t endorsement of l o c a l economic development and may suggest one of s e v e r a l p o i n t s . One, u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the concept as i t i s d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e and reviewed h e r e i n . Two, a renewed i n t e r e s t i n d e c e n t r a l i z i n g t h e s e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f u n c t i o n s t o the l o c a l l e v e l w i t h s u p p o r t f o r a b l e n d i n g of the i n s t i t u t i o n s , s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s and economic g o a l s , and a commitment t o p r o - a c t i v e p l a n n i n g and p r i o r i t y s e t t i n g . Three, the d e c i s i o n t o fund the c o l l e g e s a c t i v i t i e s i n l o c a l economic development, w h i l e s u p e r f i c i a l l y h o n o u r a b l e , i s i n e f f e c t u a l and v a i n i n the absence of the r e q u i r e d l e g i s l a t i v e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s w i l l attempt t o i d e n t i f y w hich of the t h r e e s c e n e r i o s a p p l y . 83 Chapter F i v e A REVIEW OF THE FINDINGS. 5.1. A F u n c t i o n a l Overview of the C e n t r e s . i . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e . From a f u n c t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the EDCs share many c o m m o n a l i t i e s i n terms of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and the s e r v i c e s t hey o f f e r . With the e x c e p t i o n of one, a l l of the c e n t r e s o p e r a t e as d i v i s i o n s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e s . At Douglas C o l l e g e , the Ce n t r e f o r E n t e r p r i s e Development has been e s t a b l i s h e d as an independent, n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y . In most c a s e s , an i n d i v i d u a l has been h i r e d on a c o n t r a c t b a s i s t o manage and d i r e c t the f u n c t i o n s of the c e n t r e . In one c a s e , ( S e l k i r k C o l l e g e ) , a f a c u l t y member from the b u s i n e s s department, was seconded t o manage the c e n t r e . In a n o t h e r , ( C o l l e g e of New C a l a d o n i a ) , a f u l l time f a c u l t y member i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the management of the c e n t r e , as w e l l as a p a r t -t i me t e a c h i n g l o a d i n the b u s i n e s s department of the c o l l e g e . A l l c e n t r e managers are e x p e r i e n c e d i n b u s i n e s s , most as s m a l l b u s i n e s s o w n e r / o p e r a t o r s , i i . S e r v i c e s . P r o j e c t s e s t a b l i s h e d under the LERD g r a n t , as noted e a r l i e r , were r e q u i r e d t o adhere t o two g u i d e l i n e s ; they were not t o compete w i t h the p r i v a t e s e c t o r , and the money was t o be re g a r d e d as seed money, t o en a b l e the v e n t u r e s t o get o f f the ground and on the road t o s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . Most of the c e n t r e s have opted t o f u l f i l l t he former of t h e s e g e n e r a l l y m u t u a l l y 84 e x c l u s i v e g o a l s . 1 2 7 They o f f e r c o n s u l t i n g s e r v i c e s t o h e l p p o t e n t i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s d e v e l o p b u s i n e s s i d e a s from the f i r s t s t e p of f o c u s i n g the b u s i n e s s i d e a , t o b u s i n e s s p l a n n i n g and f i n a n c i n g , and e v e n t u a l l y t o b u s i n e s s s t a r t - u p . These s e r v i c e s a r e , f o r the most p a r t , o f f e r e d w i t h o u t charge t o p o t e n t i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s . The c e n t r e s a l l e g e d l y c a t e r t o c l i e n t s who are not i n the f i n a n c i a l or c o n c e p t u a l p o s i t i o n t o engage the s e r v i c e s of an a c c o u n t a n t , lawyer or p r i v a t e s e c t o r b u s i n e s s c o n s u l t a n t . The c e n t r e managers spend between 75-90% of a l l of t h e i r time i n v o l v e d i n c o u n s e l l i n g . The c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a r e l a r g e l y on a one-to-one b a s i s , between the c e n t r e manager and the c l i e n t . S e r v i c e s a r e a l s o o f f e r e d t o e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s w i s h i n g t o expand, and t o e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s e s i n t r o u b l e . Most c e n t r e s d e s i g n e d a s e r i e s of seminars and workshops; however, many d i s c o n t i n u e d these seminars because of a l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n the community, i i i . L o c a t i o n W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h r e e EDCs, ( M a l a s p i n a , Douglas and E a s t Kootenay C o l l e g e ) , a l l of the EDC a r e l o c a t e d o f f campus. The d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e t h e f a c i l i t i e s i n a downtown, b u s i n e s s environment was a d e l i b e r a t e attempt t o merge the f u n c t i o n s of the c e n t r e s w i t h the r e s p e c t i v e b u s i n e s s communities. Of the t h r e e on-campus c e n t r e managers, one ( M a l a s p i n a ) f e l t the needs 1 2 7 I n the case of one, (CNC) most of the a c t i v i t i e s of the c e n t r e appear t o be revenue o r i e n t e d . A l s o , the E a s t Kootenay Community C o l l e g e has been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the p u r s u i t of revenue g e n e r a t i n g c o u r s e s . The d e t a i l s a r e c o v e r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g pages. of the community would be b e t t e r s e r v e d i f the f a c i l i t i e s were r e l o c a t e d downtown. 5.2. A Review of the E i g h t E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e s . 1. N o r t h Shore E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e ,  C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e , N o r t h Vancouver. The N o r t h Shore E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e (NSEDC) was e s t a b l i s h e d by C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e i n May, 1986. The c e n t r e i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the N o r t h Vancouver b u s i n e s s a r e a and i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o an a d v i s o r y board c o n s i s t i n g of s i x t e e n members. The members ar e drawn from l o c a l b u s i n e s s e s , l o c a l government, the N o r t h Vancouver Chamber of Commerce, the l o c a l f i n a n c i a l community and C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e . The purpose of the board i s t o p r o v i d e o v e r a l l d i r e c t i o n t o the c e n t r e and t o r e v i e w and approve the p l a n s and budgets p r e p a r e d by the c e n t r e manager. A w o r k i n g committee of f i v e board members p r o v i d e s day t o day d i r e c t i o n as r e q u i r e d . The board has made a f i r m commitment t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e o n l y t o t h o s e b u s i n e s s e s i n t e r e s t e d i n l o c a t i n g on t h e n o r t h s h o r e . 1 2 8 The c e n t r e has i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g g o a l s : 1. To p r o v i d e guidance and c o n s u l t a t i o n t o would-be e n t r e p r e n e u r s who a r e c o n s i d e r i n g d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own b u s i n e s s e s . 2. To d e v e l o p a d i r e c t o r y of r e l e v a n t s e l f - h e l p m a t e r i a l s f o r would-be e n t r e p r e n e u r s . The c e n t r e p r o v i d e s one-on-one a s s i s t a n c e t o c l i e n t s , 1 2 8 B e l l , Susan, C e n t r e Manager, NSEDC, P e r s o n a l Communication, N o r t h Vancouver. November 1986. 86 i n c l u d i n g b u s i n e s s c o u n s e l l i n g and p l a n n i n g . A s e r i e s of b u s i n e s s development workshops have been deve l o p e d t o b r i n g a s m a l l group of p o t e n t i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s t o g e t h e r i n an e f f o r t t o " p i p e l i n e " them through a s e r i e s of workshops and se m i n a r s . The o b j e c t i v e of the workshop i s t o h e l p these c l i e n t s produce a v i a b l e and p r o f e s s i o n a l b u s i n e s s p l a n . The c e n t r e has sponsored a s e r i e s of b u s i n e s s seminars of i n t e r e s t t o thos e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g a s m a l l b u s i n e s s . These seminars were p r e s e n t e d by members of the n o r t h shore p r o f e s s i o n a l community. In a d d i t i o n , the c e n t r e has e s t a b l i s h e d a r e v i e w p a n e l . I t c o n s i s t s of a group of p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s , l a w y e r s , bankers and c o n s u l t a n t s who r e v i e w , a t no ch a r g e , completed b u s i n e s s p l a n s . T h i s p a n e l then p r e p a r e s w r i t t e n feedback about the p l a n w i t h a d v i c e and s u g g e s t i o n s , as a p p r o p r i a t e . The c e n t r e has dev e l o p e d a r e a d i n g room and s e l f - h e l p d i r e c t o r y . I t c o n t a i n s r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s , books and a r t i c l e s s p e c i f i c t o e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p and s m a l l b u s i n e s s development. I t c o n t a i n s some da t a and s t a t i s t i c s , e.g. h o u s e h o l d s , p o p u l a t i o n , e t c . , r e l e v a n t t o the n o r t h shore and the g r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . C l i e n t s of the NSEDC are a b l e t o u t i l i z e o f f i c e space f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g and meeting w i t h b a n k e r s , p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s , e t c . , As w e l l , s p e c i a l arrangements can be made t o en a b l e a c l i e n t t o b r i n g i n t h e i r own computer, have m i n i m a l a c c e s s t o a phone, use the o f f i c e s as a m a i l i n g a d d r e s s , or have m a i l sent o u t . The c e n t r e i s a l s o p l a n n i n g t o i n c l u d e s t u d e n t s from t h e c o l l e g e on an on g o i n g , day-to-day b a s i s . One member from the 87 c o l l e g e has been seconded from the b u s i n e s s department t o i d e n t i f y ways i n which the c o l l e g e f a c i l i t i e s can l i a i s o n w i t h the f u n c t i o n s of the c e n t r e . 2. C a r i b o o B u s i n e s s Development C e n t r e  C a r i b o o C o l l e g e , Kamloops The C a r i b o o B u s i n e s s Development C e n t r e (CBDC) was e s t a b l i s h e d i n June 1986 by C a r i b o o C o l l e g e . The c o l l e g e r e g i o n c o m p r i s e s the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s of Kamloops, North-Thompson, C a r i b o o - C h i l c o t i n , L i l l o o e t and South C a r i b o o . The CBDC i s l o c a t e d i n downtown Kamloops i n s h a r e d f a c i l i t i e s w i t h the Chamber of Commerce and the Thompson-Nicola M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n . By October 1986 the c e n t r e had a c l i e n t base of 50 p e o p l e w i t h a t o t a l of 143 v i s i t s . 1 2 9 The c e n t r e i d e n t i f i e s the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s : 1 3 0 1. To p r o v i d e a r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e "onestop" f a c i l i t y f o r p r o s p e c t i v e b u s i n e s s e s . T h i s would i n c l u d e p r o v i d i n g ; temporary f a c i l i t i e s f o r c a r r y i n g out the n e c e s s a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the a r e a , r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s and e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d t o conduct economic r e s e a r c h , a v e h i c l e f o r a c c e s s t o and a s s i s t a n c e by those i n d i v i d u a l s or b o d i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r development d e c i s i o n s such as p e r m i t s and i n c e n t i v e s f o r b u s i n e s s development i n the Kamloops r e g i o n . 2. To f a c i l i t a t e the development of the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o o p t i m i z e the s u r v i v a l and growth of e x i s t i n g and new b u s i n e s s e s i n the a r e a . 3. To a s s i s t i n b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r the economic development r e s o u r c e s of C a r i b o o C o l l e g e and the C i t y of Kamloops i n a unique and f a r more e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g y , aimed a t both s m a l l b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n i n Kamloops. 1 2 9 A c l i e n t i s d e f i n e d throughout as any i n d i v i d u a l who has c o n t a c t e d the c e n t r e w i t h a b u s i n e s s i d e a or q u e s t i o n and who has spent a t l e a s t one hour on a t l e a s t one o c c a s i o n . 1 3 0 C a r i b o o B u s i n e s s Development C e n t r e , S t a t u s R e p o r t , September 27, 1986. 88 4. To p r o v i d e a f l e x i b l e b u s i n e s s l e a r n i n g c e n t r e w i t h an e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l atmosphere, where b u s i n e s s p e o p l e w i t h common problems can make c o n t a c t w i t h those who may have s o l u t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n t o these c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , the c e n t r e i d e n t i f i e s the Computer A n a l y s e d Market P o t e n t i a l , CAMP, as t h e i r most i m p o r t a n t a c t i v i t y . CAMP i s a database which, i n t e n d e d as a d e c i s i o n making t o o l , i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e market r e s e a r c h d a t a f o r new b u s i n e s s s t a r t u p s . I t w i l l h o l d census d a t a , b u s i n e s s l i c e n s e s i n f o r m a t i o n , m u n i c i p a l i n f o r m a t i o n and s e r v i c e s and r e t a i l s a l e s . The purpose of the s e r v i c e i s t o a s s i s t e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n p r o d u c i n g an a c c u r a t e f i n a n c i a l p i c t u r e of the p r o d u c t . I n a d d i t i o n , the database can be used t o s y n t h e t i c a l l y model the market t o produce a s e r i e s of f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s based on v a r y i n g market c o n d i t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the i n f o r m a t i o n , i s p r o v i d e d i n a s i n g l e s p o t , a t the c e n t r e , t h u s s p a r i n g the c l i e n t the time t o d i g i t out from a s e r i e s of government s o u r c e s and c a t a l o g u e s . The c e n t r e has been an a c t i v e p l a y e r w i t h the former M i n i s t r y of Lands, Par k s and Housing t o d e v e l o p a l a r g e r i v e r f r o n t p r o p e r t y . The 600 a c r e former h o s p i t a l s i t e i n the c i t y of Kamloops i s known as T r a n q u i l l e . The p l a n i s t o e s t a b l i s h t he ar e a as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l A s i a n m a r k e t i n g c e n t r e w i t h f l y i n t o u r s , c o n v e n t i o n s and h o l i d a y e r s from the A s i a . The c e n t r e ' s r o l e i n t h i s s t r a t e g y i s t o f i n d and a t t r a c t r e s e a r c h and development-type t e n a n t s f o r the complex. The c e n t r e has a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e an inve s t m e n t match-making s e r v i c e i n an e f f o r t t o l i n k p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t o r s w i t h e n t r e p r e n e u r s w i t h a v i a b l e b u s i n e s s p l a n . A mass m a i l i n g 89 l i s t has been e s t a b l i s h e d and can be made a v a i l a b l e t o any c l i e n t w i s h i n g t o s o l i c i t r e s e a r c h and development money. The c e n t r e i s a b l e t o m a i l out a b r i e f l e t t e r which e x p l a i n s the p r o d u c t or s e r v i c e t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 250 p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t o r s w i t h i n a two hour framework at t h e . c l i e n t s ' r e q u e s t . The c e n t r e has a l s o c o - s p o n s o r e d , a l o n g w i t h the Thompson-N i c o l a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , the Kamloops D i s c o v e r y C l u b . Intended as a forum f o r i n n o v a t o r s and i n v e s t o r s , the c l u b h o s t s s e m i n a r s , m e e t i n g s , c o n f e r e n c e s and s p e c i a l s p e a k e r s i n an e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o new e n t r e p r e n e u r s and e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s e s . I t i s a l s o i n t e n d e d t o e s t a b l i s h a v a l u a b l e network f o r p o t e n t i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s and i n v e s t o r s w i t h i n the c i t y of Kamloops. 3. The E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e  C o l l e g e of New C a l e d o n i a , P r i n c e George The EDC a t the C o l l e g e of New C a l e d o n i a (CNC) was e s t a b l i s h e d i n March of 1986 and i s l o c a t e d i n l e a s e d f a c i l i t e s i n downtown P r i n c e George. The o r i g i n a l purpose of the c e n t r e was t o e s t a b l i s h a j o i n t u n d e r t a k i n g among p r i v a t e s e c t o r and p u b l i c s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s which c o u l d a c t as a f o c a l p o i n t t o encourage e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t y and a s s i s t a n c e i n the f o r m a t i o n and maintenance of s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s e s i n the P r i n c e George r e g i o n . The c e n t r e i s managed by a f u l l - t i m e b u s i n e s s i n s t r u c t o r from the c o l l e g e who has been g r a n t e d 40% l e a v e from the c o l l e g e . The c e n t r e i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t from most o t h e r s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s tudy f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . P r i m a r i l y , the P r i n c e George R e g i o n a l Development C o r p o r a t i o n (PGRDC) has been c o n t r a c t e d by t h e c o l l e g e t o assume o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the o p e r a t i o n 90 of the c e n t r e . 1 3 1 A ten member sta n d i n g committee has been e s t a b l i s h e d to provide o v e r a l l review and d i r e c t i o n , w i t h committee members r e p r e s e n t i n g the PGRDC, the FBDB, the business community at l a r g e and the Northern I n s t i t u t e f o r Resource S t u d i e s . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r EDC,therefore, the r o l e of the c o l l e g e i s even more l i m i t e d than that of the other c e n t r e s . A second f a c t o r renders t h i s c e n t r e unique. While an o b j e c t i v e of the c e n t r e i s to a s s i s t i n the c r e a t i o n of small business, a minimum of d r o p - i n c o u n s e l l i n g i s encouraged. Instead, the c e n t r e has attempted to focus i t s e f f o r t s on s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . The nature of these a c t i v i t i e s r a i s e the t h i r d unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c e n t r e . While as noted, most c e n t r e s have not yet r e s o l v e d the d i r e c t i v e of the M i n i s t e r to achieve s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y , the EDC at CNC has focused most of i t s e f f o r t s on revenue ge n e r a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a l l y , i t would appear as though the c e n t r e has implemented a d e t a i l e d model of o p e r a t i o n based on an assessment of community needs. These a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . P r i o r to i n i t i a t i n g any a c t i v i t i e s , the c e n t r e conducted a d e t a i l e d needs and s i t u a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of the business community of P r i n c e George. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was developed and c i r c u l a t e d to a l l businesses to determine what the business t r a i n i n g needs were in the c i t y . From the r e s u l t s of the survey, 1 3 1 T h e CNC, however, r e t a i n s ongoing t i t l e to a l l of the c a p i t a l a s s e t s . 91 a l i s t of f o u r s e r i e s of t r a i n i n g seminars was d e v i s e d and p l a n n e d f o r the f u t u r e . The Management S k i l l s f o r S u p e r v i s o r s Program, p r e v i o u s l y c o n t r a c t e d out by the c o l l e g e , i s now o f f e r e d a t the c e n t r e . The same s e r v i c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e ; however, the program i s now sponsored by a p a r t i c u l a r company. P r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s , companies or c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e i n v i t e d t o make a p p l i c a t i o n t o u t i l i z e the c e n t r e s f a c i l i t e s t o sponsor management t r a i n i n g . The c e n t r e has e s t a b l i s h e d a Micro-Computer Lab from which i t c o n d u c t s workshops and s e m i n a r s . S i m i l a r t o the Management S k i l l s f o r S u p e r v i s o r s Program, the f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o an i n d i v i d u a l o r group. In both c a s e s , a c o n t r a c t employee of the c e n t r e c o n d u c t s the t r a i n i n g . The c e n t r e has a l s o been i n v o l v e d i n c o n d u c t i n g c u s t o m i z e d seminars f o r p a r t i c u l a r companies. For example, a l a r g e IBM computer package has j u s t been p u r c h a s e d by the C o u n c i l of F o r e s t I n d u s t r i e s o f f i c e l o c a t e d i n P r i n c e George. The C o u n c i l c o n t r a c t e d w i t h the c e n t r e t o conduct the t r a i n i n g of t h e i r employees on t h i s equipment. The c e n t r e i s a l s o a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the attempt t o d e v e l o p e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k i l l s among the c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . A s t u d e n t account has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the two y e a r B u s i n e s s s t u d e n t s a t CNC. A sum of $6,000 was r a i s e d by the. f i r s t year s t u d e n t s by c o m p l e t i n g an 8-10 month f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y . In the c o u r s e of d o i n g the f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y , s t u d e n t performance was a l s o e v a l u a t e d and c r e d i t earned i n a degree program. Money from t h i s fund was used t o send s t u d e n t s from the second year t o the an n u a l c o n f e r e n c e of the A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g i a t e 92 E n t r e p r e n e u r s , ACE i n Los A n g e l e s . 1 3 2 The N o r t h West Venture C l u b has been e s t a b l i s h e d by the c e n t r e . I t was i n t e n d e d t o be a forum t o i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l b u s i n e s s e s and economic v e n t u r e s which a re f e a s i b l e f o r the r e g i o n . The c e n t r e has a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a young b u s i n e s s c l u b of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12-20 young e n t r e p r e n e u r s who meet monthly. On J a n u a r y 9, 1987 the c e n t r e h o s t e d one of N o r t h America's most p o p u l a r b u s i n e s s s p e a k e r s , Tom P e t e r s , c o - a u t h o r of In  Searc h of E x c e l l e n c e and A P a s s i o n f o r E x c e l l e n c e . T i c k e t s f o r the event were s o l d by the second year m a r k e t i n g s t u d e n t s who were p a i d - i n - k i n d : a $10.00 commission went t o the s t u d e n t account towards the t r i p t o the upcoming ACE c o n f e r e n c e . A p a r t from the noted l i n k s t o the b u s i n e s s program, f a c u l t y from w i t h i n the c o l l e g e do not appear t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s of the c e n t r e . 1 3 3 There i s v e r y l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n t h r o u g h the c o u r s e a d v i s o r y committees or the d i r e c t o r of the b u s i n e s s department, who the c e n t r e manager c l a i m s not t o have met. When q u e s t i o n e d as t o why an a c t i v e r o l e f o r the c o l l e g e was not pursued by the c e n t r e , the c e n t r e manager responded t h a t the q u a l i t y of peopl e i n the b u s i n e s s department does not f a c i l i t a t e t h i s t y pe of b e h a v i o r . 1 3 2 A C E i s a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the U.S. I t i s d e d i c a t e d t o b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r the r e s o u r c e s and i n f o r m a t i o n of the w o r l d ' s " e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l l y minded young p e o p l e " . 1 3 3 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was communicated d u r i n g a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h the P r e s i d e n t of the F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n a t CNC, P r i n c e George, December 13, 1986. A l s o , comments made i n A s t e r i s k the n e w s l e t t e r of the CNC F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n , 10 October 1986, Volume 6, No. 10. p.4. 93 4. The Douglas C e n t r e For E n t e r p r i s e Development  Douglas C o l l e g e , New Westminster The Douglas C e n t r e f o r E n t e r p r i s e Development, l o c a t e d on the Douglas C o l l e g e campus, was opened i n January 1986. The c e n t r e i s a n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y and i s governed by a Board of D i r e c t o r s . The Dean of Community S e r v i c e s a t the c o l l e g e i s the p r e s i d e n t of t h i s b o a r d . The c e n t r e s ' l e g a l s t a t u s i s seen t o be s i g n i f i c a n t f o r two r e a s o n s . One, as a n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y , the c e n t r e i s s e t i n an e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l r a t h e r than an academic c l i m a t e . And two, as a s e p a r a t e l e g a l e n t i t y , more p r o t e c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d t o the c o l l e g e i n terms of l i a b i l i t y . The c e n t r e manager has i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g g o a l s f o r the c e n t r e : 1. To h e l p p o t e n t i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s get i n t o b u s i n e s s . 2. To h e l p s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e overcome t h e i r problems. 3. To h e l p s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s expand. 4. To i n c r e a s e economic a c t i v i t y and employment. The c e n t r e c u r r e n t l y has an a c t i v e c l i e n t base of 515. A t o t a l of 27 of t h o s e have s t a r t e d b u s i n e s s e s and a t o t a l of 971 have a t t e n d e d awareness s e m i n a r s . The t o t a l number of c l i e n t s of the c e n t r e s ' m a i l i n g l i s t i s 1,700. The c e n t r e has d e s i g n e d a S e l f - A s s e s s m e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t i s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o new c l i e n t s t o a s s e s s t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y as e n t r e p r e n e u r s b e f o r e they b e g i n t o d e v e l o p a b u s i n e s s p l a n . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s a r e a s such as p e r s o n a l g o a l s and needs, e x p e r i e n c e , s k i l l s and a p t i t u d e s and p e r s o n a l s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. In a d d i t i o n t o these c o u n s e l l i n g and seminar s e r v i c e s , the c e n t r e has been a c t i v e i n the development and e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a 94 program c a l l e d BC F i r s t , a p r o v i n c i a l import replacement s t r a t e g y . The BC F i r s t p r o j e c t i s an e f f o r t t o l i n k t o g e t h e r companies which a r e i m p o r t i n g p r o d u c t s and s e r v i c e s from o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e w i t h o t h e r b u s i n e s s e s which a r e c a p a b l e of p r o d u c i n g t h e s e same goods and s e r v i c e s . The c e n t r e has h i r e d two i n d i v i d u a l s whose p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e t o i d e n t i f y b u s i n e s s e s where these l i n k s can be made. The c e n t r e a l s o has a r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e f o r i n v e s t o r s and e n t r e p r e n e u r s . T h i s match-making s e r v i c e has i d e n t i f i e d over one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n v e n t u r e c a p i t a l money; however, no a c t u a l matches have been f i n a l i z e d t o d a t e . 5. The E n t e r p r i s e C e n t r e F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e , A b b o t s f o r d The F r a s e r V a l l e y E n t e r p r i s e C e n t r e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n J a n u a r y , 1986 as p a r t of the F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e . The c o l l e g e r e g i o n i n c l u d e s A b b o t s f o r d , C h i l l i w a c k , Hope, M i s s i o n and M a t s q u i . Two campuses s e r v e t h i s r e g i o n i n C h i l l i w a c k and A b b o t s f o r d , and two c e n t r e s i n M i s s i o n and Hope p r o v i d e f u r t h e r o u t r e a c h s e r v i c e s . The purpose of the c e n t r e i s t o a s s i s t those p e o p l e p l a n n i n g t o e n t e r b u s i n e s s or an e x i s t i n g b u s i n e s s , i n making b e t t e r d e c i s i o n s . The c e n t r e i s l o c a t e d i n a downtown C h i l l i w a c k l o c a t i o n i n an e f f o r t t o b l e n d the c e n t r e s ' a c t i v i t i e s w i t h those of the b u s i n e s s community. At the time of the i n t e r v i e w , October 1986, the c e n t r e had a c l i e n t base of 160, and c i t e d involvement i n 14 new b u s i n e s s s t a r t ups. The c e n t r e manager i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r i e s of c l i e n t s ; - (1) the d e t e r m i n e d e n t r e p r e n e u r / p r o m o t e r , (2) a 95 s k i l l e d but l a i d - o f f c o n t r a c t employee who now s e r v e s a s i n g l e customer, and (3) o l d e r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h few r e s o u r c e s and no o t h e r c h o i c e of employment. The c e n t r e manager f e e l s t h a t the l a r g e s t number of c l i e n t s v i s i t i n g the c e n t r e a r e t h o s e i n the second c a t e g o r y , w i t h those i n the t h i r d f o l l o w i n g . The e n t r e p r e n e u r / p r o m o t e r i s the l e a s t predominant type of c l i e n t . The c e n t r e has no f o r m a l board s t r u c t u r e , a l t h o u g h some i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n does e x i s t w i t h o t h e r economic development a c t o r s . The c e n t r e manager r e p o r t s t o the Dean of I n s t r u c t i o n a t F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e and i n d i r e c t l y t o the C o l l e g e Board. 6. The E a s t Kootenay B u s i n e s s And I n d u s t r y Development And  T r a i n i n g C e n t r e E a s t Kootenay Community C o l l e g e , Cranbrook The c e n t r e i s l o c a t e d on the campus of e a s t Kootenay C o l l e g e a t Cranbrook. The c e n t r e , e s t a b l i s h e d i n October 1985, has a c l i e n t base of 60. The c e n t r e has been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n s t a r t i n g f i v e new b u s i n e s s e s . T h i s c e n t r e i s somewhat unique t o the o t h e r s i n t h a t i t f o l l o w s a more . s y s t e m a t i c and perhaps t r a d i t i o n a l - t r a i n i n g program approach. An o v e r a l l g o a l of the c e n t r e i s t o " t o f a c i l i t a t e the economic growth and renewal of the r e g i o n by p r o v i d i n g t r a i n i n g programs, t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e and an i n f o r m a t i o n bank n e c e s s a r y f o r a s k i l l e d l a b o u r management f o r c e i n b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y . " 1 3 * The main f u n c t i o n of the c e n t r e i s the development of new 1 3 " E a s t Kootenay B u s i n e s s and I n d u s t r y Development And T r a i n i n g C e n t r e . 96 t r a i n i n g programs t o meet the needs of the community and the Canada Employment amd I m m i g r a t i o n Commission. The most a m b i t i o u s p r o j e c t i n i t i a t e d by the c e n t r e i s the S m a l l B u s i n e s s S k i l l Development Program which i s a s e l f - p a c e d and f u l l y m o d u l a r i z e d t r a i n i n g program. C l i e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o p urchase the seven p a r t modules and upon c o m p l e t i o n , are p l a c e d i n a s m a l l b u s i n e s s w i t h i n the E a s t Kootenay r e g i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s a r e exposed t o a l l a s p e c t s of r u n n i n g a s m a l l b u s i n e s s and r e c e i v e d a i l y s u p e r v i s i o n by the b u s i n e s s owner. Fund i n g under the Canadian Job S t r a t e g y program i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g p r o v i d e d i n the form of a s a l a r y . There a r e no academic r e q u i r e m e n t s ; however, the a p p l i c a n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o p o s s e s s at l e a s t one i d e n t i f i a b l e s k i l l s u i t a b l e f o r a s m a l l b u s i n e s s . As w e l l , i n October 1986, the c e n t r e h o s t e d a t o u r i s m and h o s p i t a l i t y workshop. A group of l o c a l o w n e r / o p e r a t o r s from w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y were i n v i t e d t o go over a suggested Tourism and H o s p i t a l i t y T r a i n i n g Program i n o r d e r t o e n l a r g e on or e l i m i n a t e c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the program. The o b j e c t i v e of the workshop was t o get i n p u t from the p r a c t i t i o n e r s and i d e n t i f y the s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o d e v e l o p a v i b r a n t t o u r i s m i n d u s t r y . One f a c u l t y member from the c o l l e g e , p r e s e n t a t the workshop, i s working on the development of such a degree program d u r i n g a c u r r e n t s a b b a t i c a l y e a r . An a c t i v e p u r s u i t has been l a u n c h e d by the c e n t r e i n an e f f o r t to t r a n s f e r a s e r i e s of F i r e F i g h t i n g T r a i n i n g Programs from the M i n i s t r y of F o r e s t s t o the c e n t r e . The p l a n i s t o h i r e p a r t - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s under the Canadian Job S t r a t e g y and t o t r a i n employees of the f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r y . The p o t e n t i a l i s 97 expected to be great as there are approximately 3,000 employees as well as 3-400 contractors in the industry, a l l of whom are required to undergo th i s type of t r a in ing . A future goal of the centre is to es tab l i sh a Guiding and Ou t f i t t i n g Course. In an e f fo r t to a s s i s t l o ca l entrepreneurs in es tab l i sh ing a tour guide or o u t f i t t e r s business, the course is intended to foster such tourism re lated businesses in the East Kootenay. The program is to be modelled a f ter the course formerly of fered at Northwest Col lege, which was recently discont inued. This plan i s current ly in the prel iminary stages. The centre is a lso f a c i l i t a t i n g a service or iented course for the Fort Steele H i s t o r i c a l Society. The short, (two week) comprehensive course includes t r a in ing in l o g i s t i c a l and administrat ive areas, such as operating a cash reg i s te r , e tc . in an attempt to streamline the t r a in ing period for the seasonal, and for the most part young, student employees at th i s l oca l tour i s t a t t r a c t i o n . 7. The Nanaimo Enterpr ise Development Centre  Malaspina Col lege, Nanaimo The Nanaimo Enterpr ise Development Centre, (NEDC) was establ i shed as a jo in t e f f o r t by the C i ty of Nanaimo and Malaspina College to stimulate new business formation in the Nanaimo area. The centre was designed to accomplish three object ives : 1. To co l laborate with a l l resources of Malaspina Col lege, . . . t o e f f e c t i v e l y channel appropriate resources for for enterpr i se and economic development; 2. To encourage new business formation by a s s i s t ing entrepreneurs with advice, information, t ra in ing and contacts within the College and the community; 98 3. To p a r t i c i p a t e i n the economic devlopment o p p o r t u n i t i e s by i n v e s t i g a t i n g p o t e n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; 4 . To i n v e s t i g a t e and d e v e l o p an a p p r o p r i a t e p h y s i c a l s u p p o r t f a c i l i t y . . . " b u s i n e s s i n c u b a t o r " t o s t i m u l a t e l i g h t m a n u f a c t u r i n g and f a b r i c a t i o n . The c e n t r e i s l o c a t e d on campus and houses s e v e r a l o t h e r c o l l e g e a c t i v i t i e s which are f o c u s e d on l o c a l economic development such as the F a s t Track T r a i n i n g Program and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . The f a c i l i t e s a l s o i n c l u d e f o u r s m a l l o f f i c e s f o r c l i e n t use on a s h o r t term b a s i s . The c e n t r e i s j o i n t l y funded by the C i t y of Nanaimo and M a l a s p i n a C o l l e g e . The c e n t r e manager r e p o r t s weekly t o a community based Managment Board, which a c t s as a l i a i s o n between the c o l l e g e and the Nanaimo c i t y c o u n c i l . W h i l e many of the board members were p r e v i o u s l y i n v o l v e d i n l o c a l economic development i s s u e s and a c t i v i t i e s the c e n t r e has, t o some e x t e n t , f o r m a l i z e d these i n t e r a c t i o n s . The board c o n s i s t s of two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the c o l l e g e and two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the c i t y . In a d d i t i o n , the c e n t r e r e p o r t s t o a t h i r t e e n member community a d v i s o r y board which c o n s i s t of b a n k e r s , s m a l l b u s i n e s s p e o p l e , and l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . T h i s board p l a y s a c o n s u l t a t i v e and a d v i s o r y r o l e i n the o p e r a t i o n s of the c e n t r e . The c e n t r e manager i s a member of the B u s i n e s s and P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n F a c u l t y and has done some t e a c h i n g i n the department i n the S t a r t i n g a S m a l l B u s i n e s s Program. In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r members of t h i s department, an e i g h t month New E n t e r p r i s e Management C e r t i f i c a t e program was d e v e l o p e d . As w e l l , some i n t e r a c t i o n s have been e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h 99 o t h e r departments such as E n v i r o n m e n t a l S c i e n c e s , Greenhouse Technology, A q u a c u l t u r e and the V o c a t i o n a l D i v i s i o n . The c e n t r e has i d e n t i f e d two p r i o r i t y a r e a s f o r f u t u r e b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e s : wood r e m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s and a q u a c u l t u r e f e e d and equipment, and r e s e a r c h has been done by the c e n t r e t o examine the p o t e n t i a l f o r t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s i n the r e g i o n . A d e c i s i o n has been made t o not encourage the development of new r e t a i l b u s i n e s s e s i n the the a r e a . The c e n t r e has conducted a d e t a i l e d s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n of the r e s u l t s and a c t i v i t i e s of the c e n t r e . The c l i e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d t o d e t e r m i n e j u s t what s e r v i c e s were b e i n g most f r e q u e n t l y r e q u e s t e d , how s a t i s f i e d t h e i r c l i e n t e l l e was and what t h e i r unmet needs were. The c e n t r e i s p l a n n i n g t o expand both the f a c i l i t e s and the t y p e s of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e . An I n n o v a t i o n P l a c e i s i n the p l a n n i n g phase, and i t i s i n t e n d e d -to be a c e n t r e which f o s t e r s r e s e a r c h and development and knowledge based i n d u s t r i e s . The f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e t o l i k e - m i n d e d t e n a n t s i n v o l v e d i n r e l a t e d r e s e a c h , and w i l l o f f e r i n c u b a t i o n s l i k e s e r v i c e s , i n terms of shared computer f a c i l i t i e s , space, e t c . 1 3 5 8. The West Kootenay E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e ,  S e l k i r k C o l l e g e , C a s t l e g a r . S e l k i r k C o l l e g e i s a multi-campus c o l l e g e which s e r v e s the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s of N e l s o n , C a s t l e g a r , Arrow L a k e s , T r a i l and Grand F o r k s . Three campuses e x i s t a t C a s t l e g a r , N e l s o n and 1 3 5 N a n a i m o E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e , Annual R e p o r t , J u l y 1985- March 1986. 100 Rosemont. The r e g i o n has e x p e r i e n c e d severe economic d i f f i c u l t y d u r i n g the 1981-1986 p e r i o d . Cominco, the r e g i o n ' s l a r g e s t employer, has modernized and s t r e a m l i n e d i t s o p e r a t i o n s , and the employed l a b o u r f o r c e has s u b s e q u e n t l y d e c l i n e d from a h i g h of 11,080 i n 1981 t o an e s t i m a t e d 6,500 i n 1986, w i t h f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n s e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r . 1 3 6 The c o m p l e t i o n of major hydro-dam p r o j e c t s , the c l o s u r e of a major p l a n t and r e s t r a i n t and d o w n s i z i n g of the p u b l i c s e c t o r has a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o what amounts t o h i g h unemployment. There a r e a number of l o c a l l y o r i e n t e d , two year c o l l e g e programs. They i n c l u d e F o r e s t r y R e s o u r c e s , W i l d l a n d R e c r e a t i o n , G r a p h i c Communications, and Computer I n f o r m a t i o n Systems. A number of pre-employment programs a l s o e x i s t s , i n c l u d i n g F i n e Woodworking and C a r p e n t r y , S k i R e s o r t O p e r a t i o n and Management, T e c h n i c a l D r a f t i n g and W e l d i n g . In many of these programs, however, which have a d i r e c t o r i e n t a t i o n t o the l o c a l economy, o n l y the f i r s t year of the two year program i s o f f e r e d a t S e l k i r k , w i t h the second year b e i n g o f f e r e d a t BCIT i n Vancouver. Examples i n c l u d e the E l e c t r o n i c s and F o r e s t r y Programs. The M i n i n g Technology program, c l e a r l y a l o c a l l y r e l e v a n t program, i s not o f f e r e d i n the Kootenay r e g i o n a t a l l . There a r e s e v e r a l economic development a g e n c i e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . In the e a r l y 1970's the communities of T r a i l , W a r f i e l d , R o s s l a n d , C a s t l e g a r , Montrose, F r u i t v a l e and Salmo 1 3 6 E c o n o m i c Development Commission, G r e a t e r T r a i l Region  Economic Development S t r a t e g y 1986. S e c t i o n 3.2. 101 c o l l e c t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d the Kootenay I n d u s t r i a l Development A s s o c i a t i o n (KIDA). I t was l a t e r r e p l a c e d w i t h the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Economic Development Commission. In 1985, the g r e a t e r T r a i l r e g i o n e n t e r e d i n t o a P a r t n e r s - I n - E n t e r p r i s e program w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l government. The r e g i o n has a l s o been d e s i g n a t e d as a F e d e r a l Community F u t u r e s r e g i o n . In F e b r u a r y , 1986, e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s from m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the e a s t and west Kootenays, a l o n g w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the major employers i n the r e g i o n met t o d i s c u s s the economic c o n d i t i o n s of the r e g i o n . I n May, 1986 the c o l l e g e o r g a n i z e d an open p u b l i c meeting t o form a Kootenay Development Board. The c e n t r e manager has s i n c e been c o n t r a c t e d t o w r i t e the Economic Development S t r a t e g y f o r the C i t y of C a s t l e g a r , and e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s I and J . In N e l s o n , the Kootenay R e g i o n a l Employment Development A s s o c i a t i o n , KREDA, funded by the Canada Employment and Im m i g r a t i o n Commission o p e r a t e s as a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n . Some of the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d here a r e remark a b l y s i m i l a r t o those of the of the EDC: c l i e n t c o u n s e l l i n g , b u s i n e s s s e m i n a r s , b u s i n e s s a d v i c e , and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n on government programs and s e r v i c e s . KREDA a l s o has an investment arm, the KREDA Investment C o r p o r a t i o n which o p e r a t e s as a v e n t u r e c a p i t a l c o r p o r a t i o n t o p r o v i d e f u n d i n g t o v i a b l e e n t e r p r i s e s w i s h i n g t o l o c a t e w i t h i n t h e i r d e f i n e d b o u n d a r i e s . 1 3 7 1 3 7 T h e s e b o u n d a r i e s c o i n c i d e v e r y c l o s e l y t o those of the C e n t r a l - K o o t e n a y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . 1 02 The West Kootenay E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n J a n u a r y , 1986. I t c u r r e n t l y has a c l i e n t d ata base of 180 peopl e who a r e or have been a c t i v e l y w o r k i n g on a b u s i n e s s p l a n . The purposes of the c e n t r e a r e t o p r o v i d e support t o t he economic development a c t i v i t i e s of the west Kootenay m u n i c i p a l a g e n c i e s and t o s e r v e the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l development needs of the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . The c e n t r e has i d e n t i f i e d two p a r t i c u l a r ways i n which t o a c h i e v e t h e s e p u r p o s e s : 1 3 8 1. By p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e t o e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of b u s i n e s s p r o p o s a l s . 2. By p r o v i d i n g a v a r i e t y of su p p o r t s e r v i c e s t o e n t r e p r e n e u r s . In a d d i t i o n t o the c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , the c e n t r e has a l s o i n i t i a t e d or been a c t i v e i n s e v e r a l o t h e r p r o j e c t s as f o l l o w s . The Immersion Program i s a two week, i n depth e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i n t e n d e d t o g i v e the s t u d e n t s comprehensive exposure t o t h e s i t u a t i o n of s e l f - e m p l o y m e n t . D u r i n g the program, t h e s t u d e n t s do 120 hours of work, 12 hours a day f o r 5 days a week. T o p i c s t o be c o v e r e d i n c l u d e management, p e r s o n n e l , f i n a n c e , m a r k e t i n g , o p e r a t i o n s , bookkeeping, computer a p p l i c a t i o n s , t a x b e n e f i t s , e t c . A number of "case s t u d i e s " w i l l a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n the program. For example, a s i m u l a t e d o f f i c e a c c i d e n t w i l l occur i n the m i d s t of t h e w o r k i n g day. At t h a t p o i n t , emergency f i r s t a i d w i l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d , the r e q u i r e d Workers Compensation Board papers w i l l have t o be f i l l e d out and the a s s o c i a t e d l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the f i r m w i l l be 1 3 8 R e p o r t t o Program S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n on the S e l k i r k C o l l e g e . West Kootenay E n t e r p r i s e Development C e n t r e , March 25, 1986. 103 c o v e r e d . The program i s b e i n g o r i e n t e d t o r e s i d e n t s of the communities who are not c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n a c o l l e g e program. Some s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s i s e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r ; however, the c r i t e r i a t o be used i n the p r o c e s s were not a v a i l a b l e a t the time of the i n t e r v i e w . 5.3. A n a l y s i s of the E x i s t i n g S t r u c t u r e T a b l e 2 summarizes the a n a l y s i s of the c e n t r e s i n t o the f o u r main a r e a s of i n t e r e s t . I t i s i m m e d i a t e l y e v i d e n t t h a t the most dominant impact of the c e n t r e s i s i n t h e i r d e l i v e r y of a s s i s t a n c e and s k i l l s t o t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . In a d d i t i o n t o d i s c u s s i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s dominant f o c u s of the c e n t r e , t h i s s e c t i o n summarizes the impacts of the c e n t r e s t o each of the f o u r a r e a s of i n t e r e s t . FIGURE 2.A. LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Import Replacement Product Development Financial Matchmaking Target to Help/ Not Help Community Support With Expression of Some Community Goals Regional Support and Input MODEL - Consumer linkages study - Identification of products and services now Imported which could be produced locally Networking club Investors matchmaking process for local Investors and local entrepreneurs Specific industries, products cited as locally viable Further processing of primary resource Efforts to identify and reach group with high disposable income, savings, etc. CDC with set of measur-able objectives Identification of oppor-tunities, special needs group Recognition of local Institutions as local and regional tools Some effort to use the institutions to address local needs (Ie: new college program) Regional committee to develop regional develop-ment strategy, Ie; common tourism theme, vs each community having an Individual strategy CAPILANO Committed to helping only - Strong commitment to those locating on the north centre given by board shore CARIBOO - Investment matchmaking CNC PGRDG has policy making role for centre DOUGLAS BC First - Financial matchmaking - Community-based board - Regular meetings - Policy makers Centre recognizes entire province as being within their mandate EKCC Centre manager spends a lot of time travelling to the different communities MALASPINA Decision to facilitate wood remanufacturing, aquaculture Not to help start more retail businesses City of Nanaimo contribu-ting funding to centre Advisory Board - weekly meetings with community actors SELKIRK Centre manager writing the City of Castlegar Economic Development Strategy Weak board structure Regional fragmentation FIGURE 2.B. SMALL BUSINESS EDUCATIONAL SERVICES Dynamic and Flexible Delivery of Educational Services Needs Assessment Specific Client Services M O D E L One-to-one counselling Business seminars Detailed review of community needs Topic or need oriented training using student/ instructor exercises Learning situation for entrepreneur vs service situation C A P I L A N O One-to-one counselling Business seminars Cash flow analysis, business planning Some office/secretary services C A R I B O O One-to-one counselling Business seminars Business planning Cash flow analysis Mass mail-out Camp Entrepreneurs quiz C N C One-to-one counselling Business seminars Detailed needs assess-ment of the business community's needs - Tom Peters' seminar D O U G L A S One-to-one counselling Business seminars Cash flow analysis Business planning Self-assessment questionnaire Short workshops E K C C One-to-one counselling Business counsel Cash flow analysis Business planning F V C One-to-one counselling Business seminars Centre manager travels to place of business to assist in business planning, cash flow analysis M A L A S P I N A One-to-one counselling Business seminars Self-assessment, eval-uation of client Cash flow analysis Business planning S E L K I R K - One-to-one seminars - Business seminars - Immersion program - Cash flow analysis - Business planning FIGURE 2.C PROMOTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP Investment Club Business Skills, Exposure to Role Models Training and Development Reference Materials M O D E L Forum for social and pro-fessional networking Entrepreneurs club, networking club Access to other entrep-reneurs through review panel, networking club One-to-one counselling Business seminars Library access Certa in classes C A P I L A N O Review panel Open house several times per year One-to-one counselling Business seminars Library in the centre Office space Reading room C A R I B O O - Kamloops Discovery Club Networking Counsel with manager One-to-one counselling Business seminars F B D B videos Other videos C N C One-to-one counselling Business seminars Reference materials at the centre Videos D O U G L A S Matchmaking services Networking club - Inventors show - Networking - Counselling One-to-one counselling Business seminars Some printed material Reference library E K C C Counsel with manager One-to-one counselling F B D B material , videos F V C Counsel with manager Cash flow analysis Business planning L imi t ed reference material M A L A S P I N A Informal review panel (via referral) One-to-one counselling Business planning L imi t ed reference material S E L K I R K Counsel with Manager Immersion program One-to-one counselling Business seminars Large reference room/ reading room FIGURE 2.D COLLEGE INTEGRATION Curriculum Development Course Advisory Committee Involvement with Centre Faculty Involvement Student Role MODEL Input from community, centre manager to curric-ulum development/ enhancement, programs which reflect local eco-nomic development oppor-tunities Centre manager member of business courses and other relevant course advisory committees Interaction between courses lectures, and students' assignments and small busi-ness skills, ie: marketing plans for company feasi-bility study, cash flow analysis Practical and experien-learning exercises, exposure to entrep-reneurs in the latter's own environment Awareness of oppor-tunities, strategies, import replacement, etc. C A P I L A N O - Faculty member seconded - Centre manager has plans to identify roles, ways to integrate CARIBOO C N C Centre manager has 60% teaching duties - A C E program - Ticket selling for Tom Peters' seminar D O U G L A S E K C C Coristitutss ths strong&st degree of centre's ac t iv i -ties Fire-fighting courses, 7-part modular learning program Guiding and outfitting program planned Tourism, hospitality work-shop Centre manager, 1 faculty member, 1 programmer, working on developing a tourism and hospitality credit program F V C M A L A S P I N A SELKIRK 108 5.3.1. The L o c a l Economic Development P r o c e s s L o c a l economic development i s a p r o - a c t i v e p r o c e s s which i n c l u d e s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the f o r m u l a t i o n of a s t r a t e g y t o a d d r e s s those o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The s t u d y has shown, however, t h a t few communities appear t o be w i l l i n g or a b l e t o f o r m u l a t e s t r a t e g i e s i n t e n d e d t o i n i t i a t e key i n d u s t r i e s or r e p l a c e i m p o r t s . W h i l e the communities and c e n t r e s a r e , i n t h e o r y , s u p p o r t i v e of i n d u s t r i e s which r e p l a c e p r e v i o u s l y imported p r o d u c t s , and w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l BC F i r s t program i n i t i a t e d by the Douglas C e n t r e f o r E n t e r p r i s e Development, no e f f o r t s appear t o be e v i d e n t t o i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l l y v i a b l e n o n - d i s p l a c e m e n t type of i n d u s t r i e s . T h i s would seem t o be a f i r s t s t e p i n such a p r o c e s s , and t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s not o c c u r r i n g q u e s t i o n s the e x t e n t t o which l o c a l economic development i t s e l f i s o c c u r r i n g . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of new b u s i n e s s e s i n a community may or may not produce new " w e a l t h " i f o t h e r b u s i n e s s e s , r e n d e r e d l e s s c o m p e t i t i v e i n comparison, a r e f o r c e d out of b u s i n e s s . Moreover, a p r o c e s s .of l o c a l economic development, as • r e v i e w e d a t the onset of t h i s r e p o r t i s not j u s t t o f a c i l i t a t e h i g h e r incomes but r a t h e r t o p r o v i d e employment f o r those c u r r e n t l y under or unemployed. C l e a r l y , not a l l of those who a r e c u r r e n t l y unemployed w i l l have the s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s or r e s o u r c e s t o s t a r t t h e i r own b u s i n e s s e s . A s t r a t e g y d e s i g n e d t o a d d r e s s t h e needs of such a group s h o u l d thus attempt t o i d e n t i f y and a s s i s t t h a t v e r y c o n s t i t u e n c y . W h i l e a p r o c e s s of a s s i s t i n g i n the p r o d u c t i o n of a r e f i n e d b u s i n e s s p l a n , which i s a c c e p t a b l e t o the l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t e s 109 would c l e a r l y enable an i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r a b e t t e r chance f o r s u c c e s s when c a l l i n g , w i t h hat i n hand a t the bank, and i n t h a t r e s p e c t c o n t r i b u t e i n terms of new c a p i t a l i n the r e g i o n , t h i s model does not a c t i v e l y s o l i c i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n from w i t h i n the community. No e f f o r t i s made t o encourage d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d or unemployed groups t o assemble what c a p t i a l or f u n d i n g s o u r c e s they have t o e s t a b l i s h an e n t e r p r i s e or c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e . In i t s c l e a r l y n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t and r e a c t i v e n a t u r e , t h i s s t r u c t u r e m i s s e s out on s e v e r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n v o l v e m e n t . For the most p a r t the concept of an EDC, i n i t s c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e , does not r e f l e c t any i d e o l o g i c a l growth on b e h a l f of the p o l i c y makers. The c e n t r e s a r e , i n many ways, the p h y s i c a l embodiment of a l a i s s e z - f a i r e economic development s t r a t e g y . They f u n c t i o n i n a r e a c t i v e and n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t way, showing an utmost f a i t h i n the powers of the market t o r e j u v e n a t e the communiti s they s e r v e . As w e l l , many of the i s s u e s r a i s e d by the r e g i o n a l t h e o r i s t s and re v i e w e d i n the t h e s i s c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t and undermine the e x t e n t t o which the market f o r c e s can i n i t i a t e a p r o c e s s of economic development. There a r e no apparent e f f o r t s b e i n g made t o i n i t i a t e any s t r u c t u r a l changes w i t h r e s p e c t t o c a p t u r i n g any of the r e s o u r c e r e n t s , e n c o u r a g i n g more p r o g r e s s i v e forms of b u s i n e s s o w n e r s h i p , such as community owned c o r p o r a t i o n s or n o t - f o r - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n s . Even the most c a r e f u l l y g u i d e d and w e l l c o n c e i v e d b u s i n e s s p l a n w i l l come t o a g r i n d i n g h a l t i n the absence of a c c e s s t o v e n t u r e c a p i t a l . At the same t i m e , massive c a p i t a l o u t f l o w s and l e a k a g e s c o n t i n u e t o occ u r i n the form of r e s o u r c e r e n t s . 1 10 The r e a c t i v e n a t u r e of the c e n t r e s would suggest t h a t the o n l y reason why a d i v e r s i f i e d and v i b r a n t s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r has not emerged i n t h e s e r e g i o n s i s the l a c k of b u s i n e s s s k i l l s . O b v i o u s l y , o t h e r f a c t o r s such as a c c e s s t o v e n t u r e c a p i t a l f u n d s , and the a b i l i t y t o produce some s e r v i c e of v a l u e has t o be e v i d e n t . The c e n t r e s r e l y e n t i r e l y on the a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l s t hemselves t o i d e n t i f y o p p o r t u n i t i e s and do not put f o r t h an e f f o r t t o a v o i d d i s p l a c i n g o t h e r b u s i n e s s e s . From a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , w h i l e some of the c e n t r e s have c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d and f o r m a l i z e d l i n k s w i t h t h e i r communities t h r o u g h a d v i s o r y or p o l i c y b o a r d s , o t h e r s appear t o be somewhat i s o l a t e d from any community s t r u c t u r e . The b e s t examples of f o r m a l i z e d i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e the c e n t r e s a t M a l a s p i n a , C a p i l a n o and Douglas C o l l e g e s ; t h e s e c e n t r e s a l s o have a more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d s t r a t e g y of the i n d u s t r i e s t hey a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o f o s t e r and d e v e l o p , and a more p r o - a c t i v e r o l e i n g e n e r a l . Given the way i n which the c e n t r e s f u n c t i o n i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n s , however, t h e r e appears t o be v e r y l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r the concept of t h e r e g i o n as a c o h e s i v e economic u n i t , one where a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s and c a s h t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g p a r t of a l a r g e r whole. There i s , t h e r e f o r e , l i t t l e s u p p o r t f o r the concept of r e g i o n a l development and b a l a n c e d growth. The e x t e n t t o which t h i s s u p p o r t i s l a c k i n g i s e v i d e n t i n two r e c e n t e v e n t s : the p o t e n t i a l s a l e of West Kootenay Power and L i g h t Company t o a n o n - l o c a l and f o r e i g n company, and the s a l e of the Bank of B.C. t o a f o r e i g n c o n s o r t i u m . In b o t h i n s t a n c e s , a p o t e n t i a l l y v a l u a b l e l o c a l r e s o u r c e and i n s t i t u t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , were s o l d t o the h i g h e s t b i d d e r , r a t h e r than b e i n g 111 p r e s e r v e d as l o c a l r e s o u r c e s . We have seen o t h e r examples of p o l i c i e s i n the p a s t where governments have p r o v i d e d p o l i c y and/or f i s c a l s u p port i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n l o c a l or n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l of both r e s o u r c e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Such p o l i c i e s i n c l u d e the N a t i o n a l Energy P o l i c y and the F o r e i g n Investment Review Agency, two former f e d e r a l p o l i c e s . The u n w i l l i n g n e s s of the c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l government t o i n i t i a t e s i m i l a r s t e p s s u g g e s t s t h a t i t i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y s u p p o r t i v e of t h o s e v a l u e s i n h e r e n t i n l o c a l economic development. 5.3.2. A s s i s t a n c e t o S m a l l B u s i n e s s A second a r e a of f o c u s i n c l u d e d a r o l e f o r the c e n t r e t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e t o s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s . An o b j e c t i v e was t o o f f e r h i g h l y f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r and the c e n t r e s c l e a r l y have d e l i v e r e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Newly e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s e s and i n d i v i d u a l s a t t e m p t i n g t o d e v e l o p an e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i d e a a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h a s s i s t a n c e and guidance i n d e v e l o p i n g a b u s i n e s s i d e a t o the r e q u i r e d b u s i n e s s p l a n format and a r e d i r e c t e d t o p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e s of f i n a n c i n g . F i r s t - t i m e e n t r e p r e n e u r s who, perhaps f o r reasons of c o l l e g e i n t i m i d a t i o n or t i m e , have not had a c c e s s t o the t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l c h a n n e l s are a b l e t o g a i n m a n a g e r i a l s k i l l s and t e c h n i q u e s which e n a b l e them t o expand t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s or d e v e l o p h i g h e r p r o f i t m a r g i n s . In a d d i t i o n t o the c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , many c e n t r e s have i n i t i a t e d a s e r i e s of s t r a t e g i e s t o s t i m u l a t e economic development a c t i v i t y i n t h e i r communities. The c o m p i l a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s , r e l e v e n t l o c a l d a t a and 112 s t a t i s t i c s , i nvestment matchmaking s e r v i c e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l n e t w o r k i n g a r e a l l examples of the ways i n which the c e n t r e s a r e n u r t u r i n g any l a t e n t e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l t a l e n t s . The p r o c e s s by which these s e r v i c e s are o f f e r e d , however, q u e s t i o n the e x t e n t t o which they a r e e d u c a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e or a r e merely the p r o v i s i o n of such s e r v i c e s . For one t h i n g , a v e r y l i m i t e d c l i e n t d a t a base i s kept and t h e r e f o r e v e r y l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l s t a t e m e n t s can be made about the c l i e n t group as a whole. N e i t h e r the concept nor p r a c t i c e of a s s i s t i n g s m a l l b u s i n e s s a r e a l t o g e t h e r new ones and t o some e x t e n t , t h e r e f o r e , the s e r v i c e s and a c t i v i t i e s of the c e n t r e d u p l i c a t e o t h e r e f f o r t s . The F e d e r a l B u s i n e s s Development Bank, w i t h i t s CASE program, ( C o u n s e l l i n g A s s i s t a n c e t o S m a l l E n t e r p r i s e ) and the M i n i s t r y of Economic Development, t h r o u g h Program A s s i s t a n c e t o S m a l l B u s i n e s s , p r o v i d e one-to-one c o u n s e l l i n g t o new or e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s e s . As w e l l , t h e YMCA, i n a r e c e n t l y n e g o t i a t e d aggreement w i t h the F e d e r a l Canadian Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n Commission, CEIC, has been funded t o open e i g h t Youth E n t e r p r i s e C e n t r e s a c r o s s the c o u n t r y , one of which w i l l be i n Vancouver. The Vancouver c e n t r e w i l l r e c e i v e $1.62 m i l l i o n i n an e f f o r t t o h e l p c r e a t e 110 new b u s i n e s s e s . A l s o , TIEM Canada, I n c . , a p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n i t i a t i v e p r o v i d e s one-on-one c o u n s e l l i n g t o p o t e n t i a l and e s t a b l i s h e d e n t r e p r e n u e r s . W h i l e t h e c e n t r e s a r e an improvement i n terms of s p a t i a l a c c e s s a b i l i t y and because t h e r e a r e s i m p l y more of them, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how the a c t u a l s e r v i c e s of the c e n t r e a r e much 113 d i f f e r e n t . 1 3 9 S i n c e they a r e s i m i l a r t o o t h e r s e r v i c e s and s i n c e t h e s e o t h e r a g e n c i e s do not have a s p e c i f i c mandate t o educate, i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e as t o whether such a r o l e b e l o n g s i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . Moreover, some of the p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n i t i a t e d by the c e n t r e s appear as redundant t o tho s e b e i n g o f f e r e d by o t h e r a g e n c i e s . One example i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of government i n f o r m a t i o n and l i t e r a t u r e , p r e v i o u s l y a f u n c t i o n of the B u s i n e s s I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e s . S i m i l a r l y , the a s s i m i l a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of a "data base" w h i l e u s e f u l , i s not a l l t h a t d i s s i m i l a r from the d a t a base a c t i v i t i e s p r e v i o u s l y c a r r i e d out by the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s . T h i s problem of redundancy i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n the Kootenay r e g i o n where we have the EDC i n C a s t l e g a r s e r v i c e T r a i l , N e l s o n and C a s t l e g a r ; the KREDA p r o v i d i n g b u s i n e s s a d v i c e t o c l i e n t s from the r e g i o n w i t h i n s i m i l a r b o u n d a r i e s ; an Economic Development Commissioner i n T r a i l p r o v i d i n g , among o t h e r s e r v i c e s , b u s i n e s s a d v i c e t o new b u s i n e s s e s , ( I n c i d e n t a l l y , not too p l e a s e d by t h e emergence of the EDC on the scene, t h i s person r e g a r d s the c e n t r e as c o m p e t i t i o n , and a p l a c e t o which he can d i r e c t h i s o v e r f l o w b u s i n e s s : t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g a d v i c e whom he cannot accommodate due t o time.) 1 3 9 0 n e i s reminded of t h e pre-DREE (Department of R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion) days when a p l e t h o r a of F e d e r a l programs and p o l i c i e s e x i s t e d i n an e f f o r t t o f o s t e r r e g i o n a l development. DREE was s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v i s e d t o c o - o r d i n a t e a l l of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . 1 1 4 5.3.3. The Promotion of E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p In t h a t the c e n t r e s a r e managed by h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d , achievement o r i e n t e d e n t r e p r e n e u r s , an impact may be f e l t i n the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l environment of the community. The c e n t r e managers have e n t e r e d the economic development p i c t u r e and w i t h v e r y l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n or guidance have i n t r o d u c e d a s e r i e s of c r e a t i v e i d e a s and methods by which t o encourage the market f o r c e s . They have e s t a b l i s h e d a s e r i e s of " i n v e s t m e n t " or " n e t w o r k i n g " c l u b s which a r e i n t e n d e d t o f o s t e r the exchange of c r e a t i v e i d e a s , and t o p r o v i d e a support network f o r budding e n t r e p r e n e u r s . These exchanges a l s o p r o v i d e the e n t r e p r e n e u r w i t h exposure t o a mentor or r o l e model. The f l e x i b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s and seminars are a l s o c o n d u c i v e t o the emergence of new e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l v e n t u r e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, t h e r e i s o n l y one example of where the s t u d e n t s from the c o l l e g e have been i n c l u d e d i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the c e n t r e i n such a way as t o enhance t h e i r e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k i l l s . 5.3.4. C o l l e g e I n t e g r a t i o n A prime weakness of the c e n t r e s ' e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s i s t h a t they a r e p o o r l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the c o l l e g e s i n terms of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , l o g i s t i c a l or f u n c t i o n a l l i n k a g e s . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h r e e , a l l EDCs a r e l o c a t e d o f f campus i n an attempt t o f o s t e r g r e a t e r l i n k s w i t h the b u s i n e s s community. There appear t o be few i n s t a n c e s where f a c u l t y members from w i t h i n the c o l l e g e have been r e c r u i t e d t o t e a c h a c o u r s e or g i v e 1 15 i n p u t , i n any s t r u c t u r e d way, i n t h e EDC. Many reasons were c i t e d as t o why t h i s was the c a s e . The p e r s p e c t i v e of the c e n t r e managers i s t h a t f a c u l t y members, w h i l e competent from an academic and i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r s p e c t i v e , l a c k r e a l l i f e b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e , and thus e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k i l l s . I n s t r u c t o r s , on the o t h e r hand, c l a i m t h a t heavy t e a c h i n g l o a d s and i n c r e a s e d c l a s s s i z e s p r e c l u d e t h e i r i nvolvement i n much committee work a t a l l . They a l s o f e e l shut out of the c e n t r e s ' a c t i v i t i e s , and have l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what they do, who they se r v e or what t h e i r r o l e , as f a c u l t y members, may p o t e n t i a l l y be. They a l s o f e e l t h a t few e f f o r t s have been made t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e i r s k i l l s or e x p e r t i s e . A prime concern among the f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s i s t h a t work which l e g i t i m a t e l y b e l o n g s w i t h i n t h e c o l l e g e i s b e i n g p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h o t h e r arrangements. They p e r c e i v e the p r a c t i c e of c o n t r a c t i n g out or u s i n g p a r t time s t a f f t o d e l i v e r e d u c a t i o n a l programs t o r i s k j o b s e c u r i t y and a l o s s of c u r r i c u l u m c o n t r o l . The c e n t r e s t a f f a r e , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , not members of the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t , and t h u s r e p r e s e n t a c o u n t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n t o the o t h e r f a c u l t y members. 1" 0 Two p a r t i c u l a r f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n s have e x p r e s s e d p o s s i b l e p l a n s t o l a y g r i e v a n c e s under the c o l l e c t i v e agreement i n r e s p e c t of the EDCs. On a more p o s i t i v e n o t e , a s e r i e s of programs and e d u c a t i o n a l packages has been put t o g e t h e r , such as the 1"°The c e n t r e manager a t M a l a s p i n a C o l l e g e i s a member of t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n ' s f a c u l t y a s s o c i a t i o n . 116 Immersion Program a t S e l k i r k , the H o s p i t a l i t y program a t E a s t Kootenay and the New E n t e r p r i s e Management C e r t i f i c a t e program a t M a l a s p i n a . The f u t u r e p l a n f o r an o u t f i t t i n g program a t E a s t Kootenay C o l l e g e i s a l s o v e r y p r o m i s i n g . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say i f the EDCs a r e d i s p l a c i n g any of the c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s o f f e r e d i n the c o l l e g e . The EDCs a r e working d i r e c t l y w i t h s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s and p o t e n t i a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s , whereas the b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s o f f e r e d t h r o u g h t h e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n departments a r e s t r u c t u r e d s h o r t term c r e d i t and n o n - c r e d i t c o u r s e s . As no f i s c a l r e c o g n i t i o n was g i v e n f o r the s e t y p e s of c o u r s e s w i t h i n the f o r m u l a f u n d i n g , most c o l l e g e s have c u t back c o n s i d e r a b l y on t h e i r community o r i e n t e d c o u r s e s . The c e n t r e - s p o n s o r e d e v e n i n g seminars on s t a r t i n g a s m a l l b u s i n e s s , t a x e s , e x p o r t s , e t c . , however, appear t o be v e r y s i m i l a r i n terms of c o n t e n t t o t h o s e c o u r s e s o f f e r e d t h r o u g h c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . The p r o c e s s by which t h e c e n t r e s a re b e i n g funded e x a c e r b a t e t h e s e c o ncerns among f a c u l t y . C o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d f u n d i n g , where sums of money a r e i s s u e d t o the c o l l e g e f o r s p e c i f i c e x p e n d i t u r e s i s viewed as a f o r c e which weakens the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s a b i l i t y t o r e s t r u c t u r e , s e l f - b u d g e t and s e t p r i o r i t i e s . There i s a l s o concern w i t h i n the e d u c a t i o n a l community over r e c e n t f i n a n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i n c e n t i v e s e n c o u r a g i n g e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l b e h a v i o r w i t h i n the c o l l e g e o p e r a t i o n . Under the Canadian Job S t r a t e g y program, f o r i n s t a n c e , F e d e r a l c o n t r a c t s a r e a v a i l a b l e on a c o m p e t i t i v e b a s i s t o p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s f o r c e s the c o l l e g e t o compete w i t h the p r i v a t e 1 17 s e c t o r t o p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g . A p r o c e s s of "creaming" can p o t e n t i a l l y o c c u r , whereby c o l l e g e s , because of the c o s t s of m a i n t a i n i n g a v a r i e t y of support s e r v i c e s a r e unable t o submit the l o w e s t b i d . F r e q u e n t l y , the c o l l e g e s a r e f o r c e d t o a c c e p t a s u b - c o n t r a c t f o r the same t r a i n e e program, a t a lower p r i c e . There i s c o n c e r n t h a t such a p r a c t i c e w i l l r e s u l t i n a d i m i n i s h i n g l e v e l of c o l l e g e autonomy, q u a l i t y and s t a n d a r d s . G i v e n the l i m i t e d r o l e s f o r c o l l e g e f a c u l t y i n the c e n t r e s , i t i s no s u r p r i s e t o d i s c o v e r t h a t the s t u d e n t s themselves have no s t r u c t u r e d r o l e w i t h i n the c e n t r e s . In some i n s t a n c e s , s t u d e n t s have been h i r e d t o do computer work, t y p i n g , r e c e p t i o n i s t work and o t h e r day-to-day t a s k s ; however, o n l y one example c o u l d be found of where a f o r m a l agreement e x i s t e d between a f a c u l t y member and the c e n t r e manager t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r e f f o r t s and i n c o r p o r a t e the s t u d e n t s i n a s c e n a r i o s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 2.4. The ACE program a t CNC i s the one example. At CNC, i t may be i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e , the c e n t r e manager c o n t i n u e s t o t e a c h and run the c e n t r e ; t h i s type of arrangement may f a c i l i t a t e s t r o n g e r i n t e r a c t i o n s more r e a d i l y . A prime weakness of e x i s t i n g EDC s t r u c t u r e s , t h e r e f o r e , l i e s i n the e x t e n t t o which the c e n t r e s a r e i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e s . The method by which the c e n t r e s a r e funded i s h i g h l y r e f l e c t i v e of c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l w i e l d e d by the government over the i n s t i t u t i o n s . Both p o i n t s undermine the e x t e n t t o which one can argue t h a t such a p o l i c y f a c i l i t a t e s l o c a l development. In sum, some o b j e c t i v e s of t h e c e n t r e s do appear t o have been met: the c e n t r e s o f f e r a s s i s t a n c e t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s 118 s e c t o r i n the form of b u s i n e s s p l a n n i n g , b u s i n e s s seminars and one t o one c o u n s e l l i n g . As the c e n t r e s a r e c l o s e l y a l i g n e d t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r , i t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t they have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s p i r i t of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i n t h e i r communities. They have e s t a b l i s h e d n e t w o r k i n g and e n t r e p r e n e u r c l u b s which expose budding and e x i s t i n g e n t r e p r e n e u r s t o a p o s i t i v e and s u p p o r t i v e network. The c e n t r e managers have a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o open up the l i n e s of communication w i t h o t h e r economic development a c t o r s i n the p r o v i n c e . On the o t h e r hand, however, t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t a p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development, as d e f i n e d i n the t h e s i s , i s b e i n g f o s t e r e d i n the p r o v i n c e . Few p o l i c y i n c e n t i v e s e x i s t t o encourage a r e g i o n t o c o l l e c t i v e l y d e c i d e on a development s t r a t g e y and then t a k e s t e p s t o implement t h a t s t r a t e g y . W i t h l i m i t e d e x c e p t i o n s , the c e n t r e s themselves do not attempt t o make any d i s t i n c t i o n s as t o who uses t h e i r s e r v i c e s f o r what p u r p o s e s , and no p r i o r i t i e s e x i s t as t o the t y p e of i n d u s t r y or b u s i n e s s e s , such as import replacement s t r a t e g i e s or p r o d u c t development. 119 As w e l l , the c e n t r e s have not i n t e g r a t e d t hemselves w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e s . Due t o an o v e r a l l r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s which encourages a "system" of c o l l e g e s v e r s u s a community f o c u s , i n many ca s e s the c o l l e g e s t hemselves are not a d d r e s s i n g l o c a l economic development o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l a and programs. There i s a l s o l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t the c o l l e g e s as i n s t i t u t i o n s a re b e i n g r e s t r u c t u r e d t o be used as community t o o l s t o a d d r e s s r e g i o n a l economic development o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 120 Chapter S i x CONCLUSIONS 6.1. Summary The t h e s i s has i d e n t i f i e d a t w o f o l d r o l e f o r a c o l l e g e -based e n t e r p r i s e development c e n t r e i n v o l v e d i n l o c a l economic development: t o enhance the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s k i l l s and l e v e l of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i n the c o l l e g e r e g i o n , and t o i d e n t i f y and ad d r e s s l o c a l economic development o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Three p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e c e n t r e s were a l s o d e f i n e d : t o d e l i v e r h i g h l y r e s p o n s i v e and f l e x i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r ; t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e and i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o l l e g e and the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r i n an e f f o r t t o encourage e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p among the s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y ; and t o i d e n t i f y and f a c i l i t a t e the t r a i n i n g f o r l o c a l economic development o p p o r t u n i t i e s . A model EDC has been c o n s t r u c t e d which r e f l e c t s the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s of the LERD f u n d , the c o n c e p t s i m p l i e d i n the p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development and the above mentioned r o l e and o b j e c t i v e s . In summarizing the e x t e n t t o which the e i g h t EDCs s e l e c t e d as case s t u d i e s compare t o t h a t model, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e v i e w s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s . L o c a l economic development, as r e v i e w e d i n t h e t h e s i s , e n t a i l s a m a t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s i n which a l l elements of a r e g i o n ' s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c w e l l b e i n g a r e a d d r e s s e d . I t i s d i s t i n q u i s h e d from the more n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d and t r a d i t i o n a l p r o c e s s of economic growth by the s p a t i a l , p r o - a c t i v e and endogenous n a t u r e 121 of the p r o c e s s . Through such s t a t e g i e s as import replacement and pro d u c t development, an o v e r a l l g o a l of the p r o c e s s i s t o c r e a t e a more d i v e r s i f i e d and s e l f - r e l i a n t economy. Other g o a l s i n c l u d e i n c r e a s e d l o c a l o wnership of the f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n and more autonomy and l o c a l c o n t r o l over i n s t i t u t i o n s . E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i s an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e g i v e n the endogenous n a t u r e of the p r o c e s s . The l i t e r a t u r e i d e n t i f i e s a number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common among e n t r e p r e n e u r s : they a r e h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d , e n e r g e t i c , a c h i e v e m e n t - o r i e n t e d , c r e a t i v e and i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k e r s . I n t h a t they a r e not born but made, c e r t a i n e nvironments a r e more c o n d u c i v e t o the development of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A number of f a c t o r s , such as exposure t o r o l e models, s o c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s u pport and n e t w o r k i n g groups, and r e l e v a n t and c u r r e n t s m a l l b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s c o n t r i b u t e t o such an environment, t h e r e b y e n c o u r a g i n g a more e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l c l i m a t e . E d u c a t i o n and the c o l l e g e s have a t w o - f o l d r o l e t o p l a y i n f o s t e r i n g e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . One r o l e i s t o d e v e l o p e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g e x e r c i s e s which p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e the s t u d e n t s ' e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . E n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a t t i t u d e and c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s i s a l e a r n i n g e x e r c i s e which i s w e l l p l a c e d w i t h i n t h e l e a r n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . As r e g i o n a l a c t o r s , a second r o l e f o r the c o l l e g e s i s t o a s s i s t i n i d e n t i f y i n g l o c a l economic development o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t o f a c i l i t a t e the t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r development. The EDC concept i s i n t r o d u c e d i n the t h e s i s as a v e h i c l e which can b o t h encourage e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t y among s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y as w e l l as p r o v i d e f l e x i b l e e d u c a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e 122 t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . These c o n c e p t s and v a r i a b l e s form the b a s i s of the c o l l e g e - b a s e d EDC model c o n s t r u c t e d i n the t h e s i s . The model i s then used as a y a r d s t i c k t o measure the e i g h t EDCs used as case s t u d i e s . Four p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s c o n s t i t u t e the b a s i s f o r the e v a l u a t i o n : the e x t e n t t o which the c e n t r e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n a p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development, t h e i r d e l i v e r y of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r , the promotion of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p and the e x t e n t t o which they a r e i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e s . The EDC s t r u c t u r e which c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s i n the p r o v i n c e c o n t r i b u t e s t o l o c a l economic development i n two of the f o u r a r e a s of i n t e r e s t : they do p r o v i d e f l e x i b l e and r e s p o n s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o the s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . As w e l l , a s e r i e s of investment and n e t w o r k i n g c l u b s has been dev e l o p e d by the c e n t r e s which p r o v i d e budding e n t r e p r e n e u r s w i t h some exposure t o r o l e models and support networks, a l l of which promote e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . There a r e two p r i m a r y weaknesses of the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e . One i s t h a t they a r e v e r y p o o r l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e s . There are o n l y a few examples whereby a c e n t r e had e s t a b l i s h e d a f o r m a l i z e d r o l e f o r e i t h e r the f a c u l t y or the s t u d e n t s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s l i m i t e d degree of c o l l e g e i n t e g r a t i o n , the c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e and n a t u r e of the a c t i v i t i e s of the c e n t r e s appear more t o r e f l e c t the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s than a g e n e r i c e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e . Thus, the prime b e n e f i c i a r i e s of the 1.4 m i l l i o n d o l l a r e x p e n d i t u r e appear t o be the s m a l l b u s i n e s s community, a group f o r whose needs one does not 1 23 n o r m a l l y d i r e c t e d u c a t i o n a l d o l l a r s . As v a l u a b l e and u s e f u l as t h e s e s e r v i c e s may be, i t i s u n c l e a r as t o why they s h o u l d be funded w i t h money from the c o l l e g e s ' budgets, i n s t i t u t i o n s which have a l r e a d y been r a t i o n a l i z e d and c u t - b a c k , r a t h e r than from a n o t h e r M i n i s t r y or agency. The second weakness l i e s i n the r e a c t i v e r o l e the c e n t r e s have adopted. No e f f o r t s a r e made t o i d e n t i f y a r e a s where c a p i t a l i s l e a k i n g from a community through i m p o r t s or t o i d e n t i f y s e r v i c e s or p o t e n t i a l s f o r the g e n e r a t i o n of new w e a l t h , i . e . p r o d u c t s which may be produced l o c a l l y w i t h o u t d i s p l a c i n g o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s . Another c r i t e r i o n of l o c a l economic development, t h a t of e q u i t y and the attempt t o i n c o r p o r a t e d i s e n f r a n c h i s e d groups ( i . e . unemployed) i n t o the d e c i s i o n making and p r o d u c t i o n framework, i s a l s o o v e r l o o k e d i n the e x i s t i n g EDC s t r u c t u r e . I t i s assumed t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s s t a n d an e q u a l chance a t b e n e f i t t i n g from the s e r v i c e , t h a t anyone can s t a r t a b u s i n e s s . Some i n d i v i d u a l s do b e n e f i t ; however, many remain unemployed and unemployable, and enj o y no g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o the i n s t i t u t i o n s or p o l i c y making p r o c e s s . 6.2. O v e r a l l C o n c l u s i o n s . Two broad q u e s t i o n s were posed a t the onset of the t h e s i s . P r i m a r i l y , does the LERD p o l i c y , i n i t s endorsement of l o c a l economic development, r e f l e c t renewed support f o r r e g i o n a l development and p l a n n i n g ? S e c o n d l y , does t h i s p o l i c y r e f l e c t s u p p o r t f o r a more p r o - a c t i v e r o l e f o r the c o l l e g e s i n l o c a l economic development? 1 24 In r e f e r e n c e t o the f i r s t q u e s t i o n , the t h e s i s has uncovered v e r y l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t b a l a n c e d r e g i o n a l development, f a v o u r i n g the r e g i o n as a c o h e s i v e economic u n i t , i s b e i n g encouraged a t a p o l i c y l e v e l . Former i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements which may have encouraged such a c t i v i t i e s , such as the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , the R e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Development Committees and the Community and R e g i o n a l Resource Management Committees, have a l l been a b o l i s h e d and r e p l a c e d w i t h p o l i c i e s such as the P a r t n e r s i n E n t e r p r i s e Program and B u s i n e s s I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e s . These c e n t r a l i z i n g p o l i c i e s have tended t o fragment the r e g i o n s and encourage c o m p e t i t i v e r a t h e r than c o o p e r a t i v e r esponses t o the p o l i c y i n c e n t i v e s among communities w i t h i n a s i n g l e r e g i o n . As f o r the second q u e s t i o n , the f i n d i n g s do not suggest t h a t the c o l l e g e s a r e b e i n g r e s t r u c t u r e d t o become p r o - a c t i v e and l o c a l t o o l s i n a p r o c e s s of l o c a l economic development. A s i m i l a r p r o c e s s of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n has o c c u r r e d w i t h the l e g i s l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g the c o l l e g e s . Whereas a community f o c u s was an i n t e g r a l element of t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s a t the time of t h e i r e v o l u t i o n , p o l i c i e s such as f o r m u l a f u n d i n g , government appointment of board members and l i m i t e d l o c a l c o n t r o l over programmming and f u n d i n g have r e s u l t e d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s becoming p r o v i n c i a l government t o o l s v e r s u s l o c a l t o o l s . T h i s r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s has c r e a t e d a p r o v i n c i a l "system" of c o l l e g e s a t the expense of a s p e c i f i c a l l y "community" c o l l e g e . As w e l l , some b a s i c programs and c u r r i c u l a w i t h a d i r e c t l o c a l o r i e n t a t i o n a r e no l o n g e r o f f e r e d i n the r e g i o n s . There i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o assume, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e 1 25 b e i n g r e s t r u c t u r e d i n o r d e r t h a t they may become p r o - a c t i v e t o o l s i n the achievement of l o c a l o b j e c t i v e s . W h i l e a move t o c e n t r a l i z e c o l l e g e f u n c t i o n s i s c l e a r l y not r e f l e c t i v e of i n c r e a s i n g l o c a l autonomy, the t h e s i s does r a i s e s e v e r a l p o i n t s r e l e v a n t t o the f u t u r e r o l e of the c o l l e g e s i n the p r o v i n c e . P r i m a r i l y , the e x t e n t t o which the c e n t r e s o p e r a t e as n o n - i n t e g r a t e d , s e r v i c e - o r i e n t a t e d a g e n c i e s s u g g e s t s a new r o l e f o r the c o l l e g e s . One can assume, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t a t the v e r y l e a s t some c o s t r e c o v e r y methods w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be put i n p l a c e a t the c e n t r e s , and p o s s i b l y more e l a b o r a t e s t r a t e g i e s of revenue g e n e r a t i o n w i l l be d e v i s e d . Does t h i s i m p l y a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of M i n i s t e r i a l o b j e c t i v e s i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p departments of the c o l l e g e s which a r e revenue o r i e n t e d ? • The f i n d i n g s a l s o i n d i c a t e a need f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o become as dynamic as the w o r l d around them i f they a r e t o c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e and r e l e v a n t s e r v i c e s i n s o c i e t y . T h i s i m p l i e s becoming more r e s p o n s i v e which i n t u r n i m p l i e s more f l e x i b i l i t y and a d a p t a b i l i t y on b e h a l f of the i n s t r u c t o r s . An i n c r e a s e i n the use of p a r t - t i m e and s e s s i o n a l l e c t u r e r s who a r e a l s o employed i n a non-academic s e t t i n g may c o n t r i b u t e t o c u r r i c u l a which a r e r e l e v a n t and o f f e r " s t a t e of the a r t " i n f o r m a t i o n . At the same t i m e , however, the i n c r e a s e d use of p a r t - t i m e f a c u l t y may have an impact on the day-to-day f u n c t i o n i n g of the c o l l e g e ; p a r t - t i m e f a c u l t y members, w h i l e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r f i e l d s of e x p e r t i s e , a r e l e s s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n t o s t u d e n t s and f o r non-r e m u n e r a t i v e work such as v o l u n t e e r committees, i n t e r n a l s t u d i e s and e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . 126 There a r e a l s o some r a t h e r i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o l l e g e s i n terms of how they have f u n c t i o n e d i n our s o c i e t y i n the p a s t . The f u t u r e endorsement of o f f e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n the c o l l e g e by p e r s o n n e l who are not p a r t of the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s , and thus not c o v e r e d by the c o l l e c t i v e agreement i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t t h r e a t e n s the concept of academic freedom. C o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r s , ensured i n a t e n u r e d p o s i t i o n , have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n s o c i e t y i n terms of t h e i r e d ucated and c r i t i c a l a n a l y s e s of government p o l i c e s and o p t i o n s . A t r e n d towards i n c r e a s i n g numbers of p a r t - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s and s e s s i o n a l l e c t u r e r s t h r e a t e n s t h i s p r o c e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , and of e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e , the s e r v i c e s of the c e n t r e s would appear t o expand the concept of e d u c a t i o n i n ways which are v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t which we have f o s t e r e d i n the p a s t . There a r e no l i n k a g e s t o o t h e r a r e a s of c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l a , l i m i t e d i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r f a c u l t y members and c o u r s e a d v i s o r y committees, and the t r a i n e r s themselves a r e not t r a i n e d as e d u c a t o r s . T h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a bad t h i n g ; however, the endorsement of t h i s p r a c t i c e would appear t o b r i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n s e v e r a l a s p e c t s of our e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i n g e n e r a l . 6.3. P o l i c y I m p l i c a t i o n s . In c o n c l u s i o n , the model used i n the t h e s i s encourages a b l e n d i n g of i d e o l o g i e s : the a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a k e r i s k s comes from the t e n e t s of f r e e e n t e r p r i s e , and the w i l l i n g n e s s t o s u pport the r e g i o n as a c o h e s i v e economic a c t o r comes w i t h r e c o g n i t i o n of the market's s h o r t c o m i n g s . Given the development b i a s of the c u r r e n t p o l i c y - m a k e r s i n the p r o v i n c e of 127 B.C., one which i s v e r y much based on l a i s s e z - f a i r e economics, i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t the development model used i n the t h e s i s would g a i n much f a v o u r . A number of p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s can be i d e n t i f i e d , however, which t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , would be a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g y . I f d e v e l o p e d , the f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e s c o u l d a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g an EDC whose mot i v e s more c l o s e l y resemble those i m p l i e d i n the t h e s i s . P r i m a r i l y , a p o l i c y which a d v o c a t e s p r o - a c t i v e and endogenous b e h a v i o r must, i n i t s e l f , be p r o - a c t i v e . An o v e r t e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o i n c o r p o r a t e a broad range of i n t e r e s t s from w i t h i n the community. In the c o n t e x t of t h e EDCs, t h i s c o u l d be done by e s t a b l i s h i n g a community and r e g i o n a l l y - b a s e d board of d i r e c t o r s w i t h some p o l i c y making c a p a c i t y . T h i s group would i d e a l l y r e p r e s e n t a broad range of i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d i n g b u s i n e s s , l a b o u r , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s , m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s and e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n s . Those c o n c e p t s i n c l u d e d i n l o c a l economic development would be more l i k e l y t o occur i f t h i s board adopted a p r o - a c t i v e r o l e t o i d e n t i f y c a p i t a l l e a k a g e s and s t r a t e g i e s of import r e p l a c e m e n t . Such a forum c o u l d a l s o i d e n t i f y and attempt t o a d d r e s s s p e c i f i c community needs. A number of p o l i c i e s c o u l d a l s o be i n t r o d u c e d t o encourage more e f f e c t i v e c o l l e g e i n t e g r a t i o n . P r i m a r i l y , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a f a c u l t y committee from the r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e g e s c o u l d h e l p i n i d e n t i f y i n g p o t e n t i a l l i n k a g e s between the c o l l e g e s and the c e n t r e s . The c r i t e r i o n of b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e or a p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the b u s i n e s s community, as a s o l e c r i t e r i o n i n s e l e c t i n g 128 a c e n t r e manager may e x a c e r b a t e the e x i s t i n g narrow f o c u s of the c e n t r e s . Thus, more e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o d e v e l o p a d i v e r s i t y of c o l l e g e i n t e r e s t s and e x p e r t i s e . The c e n t r e manager c o u l d a s s i s t i n n u r t u r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b u s i n e s s and the c o l l e g e a c t i v i t i e s by a t t e n d i n g some of the Course A d v i s o r y Committee m e e t i n g s . In a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y t o i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l a r e a s of i n t e g r a t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y , a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e s e r e g u l a r meetings would h e l p the c e n t r e manager t o u n d e r s t a n d the needs of t h o s e d e v e l o p i n g the c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l a and t o d e v e l o p a f i r m sense of commitment and a sense of b e l o n g i n g t o the c o l l e g e o r g a n i z a t i o n . F i n a l l y , p o l i c y changes t o the community c o l l e g e l e g i s l a t i o n may a l s o r e s u l t i n a s t r o n g e r r o l e f o r the c o l l e g e s i n a p r o c e s s of r e g i o n a l development. For example, a renewed emphasis on i n s t i t u t i o n a l c omprehensiveness, v e r s u s r e g i o n a l or system comprehensiveness, would p r o v i d e g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o a w i d e r v a r i e t y of programs and c o u r s e s i n the r e g i o n s . The f i s c a l commitments a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such a p o l i c y would suggest a w i l l i n g n e s s t o support and s u s t a i n communities t h r o u g h the p r o v i s i o n of g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o a wide v a r i e t y of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . 129 APPENDIX 1 Q u e s t i o n S e t s 1.0. ESTABLISHING THE OBJECTIVES OF THE POLICY. 1.1. What were the o b j e c t i v e s of the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the development c e n t r e s ? 1.2. What do the EDC d e f i n e as t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s ? 1.3. What were the o b j e c t i v e s of the c o l l e g e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the EDC? 2.0. THE DELIVERY OF BUSINESS SKILLS AND THE PROMOTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP. 2.1. Who i s u s i n g the c e n t r e and f o r what purpose? 2.2. What t y p e s of s e r v i c e s a r e b e i n g o f f e r e d ? How do t h e s e s e r v i c e s r e l a t e back t o the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s ? 2.3. What a r e the b i g s u c c e s s e s of the EDC? (pending or r e a l i z e d . ) 2.4. Has the c e n t r e f o r m u l a t e d some t e c h n i q u e f o r s e l f -e v a l u a t i o n or measurment of i t s s u c c e s s ? (busuness p l a n , market, o p p o r t u n i t i e s , e t c . ) 2.5. How does the c e n t r e manager spend time? (% of time r e v i e w i n g c l i e n t ' s p r o p o s a l , working w i t h the community, o t h e r economic development a c t o r s , the c o l l e g e , e t c . 2.6. What k i n d of c l i e n t d a t a base i s kept? 2.7. What i s the l e g a l s t a t u s of the c e n t r e ? R a t i o n a l e ? 3.0. SUPPORT FOR THE CONCEPT OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND REGIONAL PLANNING. 3.1. Does the EDC o p e r a t e w i t h a l a y or Community A d v i s o r y Board? How i s the board c o n n e c t e d t o t h e community? 3.2. To what e x t e n t were tho s e members i n t e r a c t i n g t o d i s c u s s economic development i n i t i a t i v e s p r i o r t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the c e n t r e ? 3.3. I n what w a y s a r e t h e EDC p r o v i d i n g s u p p o r t t o the community i n meeting t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s and i s s u e s ? 3.4. What a r e the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the development c e n t r e s i n t h e community? What i s s u e s have emerged s i n c e t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t ? 3.5. What a r e the o b j e c t i v e s of the community i n terms of p o t e n t i a l s t r a t e g i e s f o r economic development and growth a r e a s ? 3.6. Are any of the o u t s t a n d i n g economic i s s u e s i n the community ( i . e . youth unemployment, d i s p l a c e d r e s o u r c e w o r k e r s , u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r s , e t c . ) b e i n g a d d r e s s e d by the c e n t r e ? 130 4.0. DETERMINING THE LEVEL OF COLLEGE INTEGRATION. 4.1. To what e x t e n t do the s t u d e n t s from w i t h i n the c o l l e g e become i n v o l v e d i n the f u n c t i o n s of the c e n t r e ? 4.2. Are i n s t r u c t o r s r e c r u i t e d from w i t h i n the c o l l e g e t o t e a c h or g i v e i n p u t i n t o the c e n t r e ? 4.3. Do the c e n t r e s use the f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s of the c o l l e g e ? 4.4. How a c c e s s i b l e a r e the o t h e r c o l l e g e s e r v i c e s t o the n o n - c o l l e g e u s e r s of the c e n t r e ? ( i . e . l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s , c o u r s e s , e t c ) . To what e x t e n t are the use of t h e s e s e r v i c e s encouraged? 4.5. To what e x t e n t do the c o u r s e s o f f e r e d i n the EDC r e p l a c e or d i s p l a c e c o u r s e s p r e v i o u s l y o f f e r e d by the c o l l e g e i t s e l f ? 4.6. Are t h e r e any l i n k a g e s between the t y p e s of c o u r s e s b e i n g o f f e r e d i n the c o l l e g e ( i n terms of programs and c i r r i c u l u m ) and t h o s e s k i l l s b e i n g taught i n the EDC? 4.7. What b e n e f i t s , i f any, do the c e n t r e s d e r i v e from t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the c o l l e g e s ? 4.8. What b e n e f i t s , i f any, do the c o l l e g e s d e r i v e from t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the c e n t r e s ? 4.9. L o c a t i o n . R a t i o n a l f o r t h a t l o c a t i o n ? 4.10 Course a d v i s o r y committes - who are t hey f o r the b u s i n e s s program? How do they r e l a t e t o the c e n t r e ' s f u n c t i o n i n g ? 4.11 What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c o l l e g e ? How does the c e n t r e r e p o r t t o the c o l l g e board? How o f t e n ? R e p o r t s ? 131 APPENDIX 2. PERSONAL CONTACTS The fol lowing people, e i ther through personal interviews, or during conference presentat ions, gave invaluable input into the thes i s . Their time and e f f o r t s are g ra te fu l l y acknowledged. Pam A i t k i n , President of Douglas Col lege Faculty Assoc ia t ion. Randy Arch iba ld , Economic Development O f f i c e r , Cranbrook. Don Anderson, V/P Academic Services, CNC. Prince George. Robert Amussen, Course Designer, Open Learning In s t i tu te . Vancouver. Whitney Buggey, Director Of the Kalamalka Centre, Okanagon Col lege, Vernon, B.C. Randall Black, General Manager, Thompson-Nicola Manufacutrers Assoc ia t ion. Kamloops. Susan B e l l , Manager, North Shore Enterpr ise Development Centre. North Vancouver. Bruce Borden, Planner, Regional D i s r i c t of Kootenay-Boundary. Dick Bate, Dean of Ins truct iona l Serv ices. Fraser Va l ley Col lege. John Blackhouse, Mayor, Prince George. Peter Boothroyd, Ass istant Professor, U.B.C. Bryan Brooking, Former Centre Manger, North Shore E.D.C. • Vancouver. Peter Chitam, Counsel ler, Min i s t ry of Economic Development, Vancouver. Andy Cichos, Manager, Canada Employment and Immigration, Kamloops. David Cox, Van C i ty Credit Union, Vancouver, Dale Colton, D i rector of Planning, Regional D i s t r i c t of East Kootenay. Linda Charles, Community Futures Program, Employment and Immigration Canada, Vancouver. Randi Duke, Community Resource Development O f f i c e r , Douglas Col lege, New Westminster. Chris D'Arcy, M.L.A. T r a i l , B.C. B i l l Day, Pres ident, Douglas Col lege, New Westminster. Peter Diemart, Northern Lights Col lege, Entrepreneurship Coordinator. . Craig Davis, Professor, U.B.C. Ken Danchuck, Manager, Business Development Centre, Cariboo Col lege, Kamloops, B.C. Dr. John Dennison, Professor, U.B.C. Rino Elverhoy, Economic Development O f f i c e r , Thompson-Nicola Regional D i s t r i c t . Kamloops. Doug Glover, D i rec tor , West Kootenay Enterpr ise Development Centre, Se lk i rk Col lege, Cast legar, B.C. Peter de L. Harwood, D i rector , Small Businesses Services Branch. Martin Harvey, Industr ia l Development Associat ion of Canada. 1 32 Don H a r r i s o n , P l a n n e r , R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of C e n t r a l Kootenay. J a n i n e Huot, S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development C e n t r e , Vancouver V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e . G a y l e J a c k s o n , S e n i o r O f f i c e r , P l a n n i n g and Development, C i t y of Nanaimo. Doug K e r l e y , V i c e - P r e s i d e n t and R e g i o n a l G e n e r a l Manager, F e d e r a l B u s i n e s s Development Bank. Vancouver. Mike K a r t a s h e f f , D i r e c t o r , B u s i n e s s Development and T r a i n i n g C e n t r e , E a s t Kootenay Community C o l l e g e . Gene Kropp, Manager, C e n t r e f o r E n t e r p r i s e Development, CNC, P r i n c e George. Marten K r u y s s e , Economic Development Commission, T r a i l , B.C. Rob K l o s t e r , A n a l y s t . C a r i b o o B u s i n e s s Development C e n t r e . S t e v e l a n e , P r e s i d e n t , M a l a s p i n a C o l l e g e F a c u l t y A s s o c i a t i o n . E r n i e Levesque, Community Development Manager. C i t y of Kamloops. Nancy Levesque, L i b r a r y S e r v i c e s , C a r i b o o C o l l e g e , Kamloops. Dr. M i l t M c C l a r e n , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , S.F.U. B i l l M i l l a r , TIEM Canada, I n c . Vancouver. Dr. B a r r y Moore, former P r e s i d e n t , F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e . 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