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Native Indian cultural centres : a planning analysis Koulas, Heather Marshall 1987

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NATIVE  INDIAN  CULTURAL  A PLANNING  CENTRES:  ANALYSIS  By HEATHER B.A.,  Simon  M A R S H A L L KOULAS  Fraser  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED  University,  IN PARTIAL  THE REQUIREMENTS  1980  FULFILLMENT  FOR THE DEGREE  OF  MASTER OF ARTS in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE School  of  Community  We a c c e p t to  this  the  Regional  thesis  required  THE U N I V E R S I T Y April (c)Heather  and  STUDIES  as  Marshall  conforming  standard  OF B R I T I S H 30,  Planning  COLUMBIA  1987 Koulas,  1987  In presenting degree  this  thesis  in partial  fulfilment  of the requirements  at the University of British  Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference and study. copying  of this  department  or  thesis  for scholarly  by his or  publication of this thesis  purposes  that the Library shall make it that permission  may be granted  her representatives.  It  is  for extensive  by the head  understood  that  of my  copying  or  for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written  permission.  Department of Cj&^WjUswjl\ The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  I further agree  for an advanced  A  ii Abstract: Native on-going rapidly  struggle  the  thesis  native  Makah  stage  of  Indian  Cultural  and  conceptual processes  evolved  as  Six  and  factors  local  the  the  outlining  and  indicated to  and  that  local  found  successful  to  native  Indian  and and  been  the  have  economic  funded  primarily  viability.  sufficient  each  access  centre.  MCRC  cultural  mobilization,  control,  each  cultural,  each  cultural  of  and  unplanned  and  collectively  social  Village  function of  c u l t u r a l and  development  are  (MCRC)—through  'Ksan  than  the  two N o r t h w e s t  'Ksan  operating  and have  be  and  historical,  form  of  revitalization.  e v o l u t i o n of  planned  economic r a t h e r  were  cultural  the  the  the  opportunities of  native  Research Centre  c u l t u r a l knowledge,  relevance,  for  in building  a response  basis  promote  has  grown out  self-determination  context,  development involved  pressures the  native  have  cultural centres--the and  social  Analysis  Centres  investigates  development,  economic  on  for  becoming a focus  This Coast  Indian Cultural  to  to centre:  local  resources  project and  common m o t i v a t i o n a l g r o u n d . The  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  specialists allowing  their  positively  step  in  changing.  non-native  interpret  native  is  the  Native  specialists  heritage  re-inforced  Indian  native  and  that  on-going native  people to  'Ksan  has  are  define and  change.  c u l t u r a l centres  Indians  and no  their  the  MCRC  non-native  longer culture have  The d e v e l o p m e n t p r o v i d e d an  struggle  for  and  of  important  self-determination  by p r o v i d i n g  a f o c u s and/or  identity  is likely  and  forum f o r n a t i v e  to continue  cultural  i n the f u t u r e .  iv Table  of  Contents:  page  List  of  Tables  List  of  Figures  ix  Acknowledgement  x  Chapter  1:  viii  Introduction  1.1  Purpose  1.2  Thesis  Rationale  1.3  Thesis  Focus  1.4  Thesis  A p p r o a c h and  1. 5 S t u d y 1.6  Chapter  1  2  The  Social  of  and  Evolution  The M e a n i n g o f Roles  in Native  2.4  The  2.5  C u l t u r a l Centre  2.6  The  3.1  Native  Culture  The F o c u s  of  Native  Evolution  Native  Native C u l t u r a l Centres  of  2.3  Role of  of  Cultural and  the  Native  People  Organizations...8-12  Cultural Preservation  Social  Development  Native C u l t u r a l Centres  and 12-13 13-14 14-18  Activities  C u l t u r a l Centres  Indian  of  in  Cultural Preservation  18 in  the  Development  Society  Tsimshian C u l t u r a l  Context  4  C u l t u r a l Re-Development  2.2  3:  2-3  Thesis  Role of  The  Chapter  Methods  3  2.1  their  Research  Area  Organization  2:  1-2  of 18-19  Disintegration 20-22  V 3.2  Governmental  Intervention:  Stage  I,  Paternalism 3.3  2 2-27  Christian Intervention:  Stage  I,  Spiritual  Paternalism 3.4  27-28  Governmental  Intervention:  Stage  II,  Assimilation 3.5  28-31  Christian Intervention:  Stage  II,  Spiritual  Assimilation 3.6  Native  '  Indian  Resistance:  Stage  I,  Non-institutional 3.7  Governmental  31-33  Intervention:  Stage  III,  Canadian  Sovereignity 3.8  3.9  Chapter  Native  31  33-34  Indian  Resistance:  Stage  II,  Institutional  34-36  Chapter  36-38  4:  Summary  Gitksan Cultural  Planning  R e v i t a l i z a t i o n and  and  Development  4.1  Ethnographic  Development  4.2  Developmental 4.2.1  Skeena  4.2.2  'Ksan  4.2.3  and  of  the  Village 41-48  Operational  Treasure  'Ksan  the  Planning  House  48-50  Houses  50-53  4.2.2.1  The F r o g  House  of  the  4.2.2.2  The W o l f  House  of  our  4.2.2.3  The F i r e w e e d H o u s e  of  4.2.2.4  The T o d a y House  Sales  Gitksan Dancers  48  of  Distant  Past....53  Grandfathers.53-54 Treasures  54 54 54  vi 4.2.4  Kitanmax School  of  Northwest  Coast  Indian  Art 55-57  4.3  Chapter  4.2.5  Book  4.2.6  Northwest  Chapter  5:  Builders  57  National Exhibition  Centre  57-61  Summary  Westcoast  61-63  Cultural  Disintegration  5.1  Government  Intervention:  Stage  I,  5.2  Government  Intervention:  Stage  II,  67-71  Paternalism...71-72 Treaties  Assimilation 5.3  Government  72-80  Intervention:  Stage  III,  Limited  Self-government 5.4  Native  Indian  80-83  Resistance:  Stage  I,  Non-institutional. 5.5  5.6 Chapter  Native  Indian  83-84  Resistance:  Stage  II,  Institutional  84-86  Chapter  86-88  6: and  Summary  Makah  Cultural  Development  Research  of  R e v i t a l i z a t i o n and  the  the  and  Makah  Ethnographic  6.2  Developmental Planning  Development  6.2.1  Initial  6.2.2  Secondary .Planning  Operational 6.3.1  Cultural  Planning  Centre  6.1  6.3  and  Planning  Development  A d m i n s t r a t i v e Development  90-93 93 93-96 96-100 100 100-104  vii 6.3.2  Museum D i s p l a y  104-105  6.3.3  Programmes and S e r v i c e s  105-106  6.4  Chapter  7: C o m p a r i s o n s ,  Chapter  106-109  Summary...  7.1  Regional  7.2  Facilities  Conclusions  Historical  115-117  7.2.2  Social  7.2.3  Local  7.2.4  Native  Indian  7.2.5  Access  t o Resources  7.2.6  Common M o t i v a t i o n a l  7.3  Conclusions  7.4  Implications  I: Gitksan  118-120  Project  120  Relevance  120-121  Control  121-122 122-123  Ground  123 123-125  History  1870-1920  Estimates  1-33-134  1790-1984  Summary o f MCRC Budget  References Cited  117-118  Knowledge  Mobilization  Makah H i s t o r y  III:  114-115  Comparison  Local Cultural  II:  Implications  Comparison  7.2.1  Appendix  and  135-136 and G r a n t  and Income S o u r c e s  Cost 137-138 .  126-132  viii List  of  Tables: page  Table  I:  Case  Study  Selection  Table  II:  Tsimshian  Tribes  Table  III:  Tsimshian  Regional  Table  IV:  The  Table  V:  Organizational  Table  VI:  Westcoast  Geographical  Table  VII:  Westcoast  Regional  Table  VIII:  Potential  MCRC S i t e s  Table  IX:  MCRC A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Table  X:  MCRC P l a n n i n g  Six Projects  and  7 Bands  23  History  39-40  of  'Ksan  Chart  ofKsan  64 Association  Divisions  History  Stages  66 69 89 99  Organization  102 109  ix List  of  Figures: page  Figure  1:  North  American A b o r i g i n a l D i v i s i o n s  Figure  2:  Northwest  Figure  3:  Traditional  Major  Figure  4:  Traditional  Tsimshian  Figure  5:  The  Figure  6:  Westcoast  Coast  Culture  'Ksan V i l l a g e  Groups  Tsimshian Trade  and  6  Villages  21  Routes  24  Complex  Geographic  5  65 Linguistic  Subdivision  68  Figure  7:  Olympic Penninsula  70  Figure  8:  Makah R e s e r v a t i o n  74  Figure  9:  Neah  Bay S i t e  Plan  1  110  Figure  10:  Neah  Bay  Plan  II  I l l  Figure  11:  MCRC F l o o r  Plan  1  112  Figure  12:  MCRC F l o o r  Plan  II  113  Site  Acknowledgements:  V^CA C»rtfck>i  I would Peter  t w s O *"' Sgjfe**<»<^fb> 7  also  like  t o thank t h e members  o f my  committee:  B o o t h r o y d , James H a g g a r t y and M i c h a e l Ames f o r t h e i r  continued  effort  Equally  i n the development  important  o f my  thesis.  are the c o n t r i b u t i o n s  Arnold,  Polly  S a r g e n t , Eve Hope and o t h e r  sharing  i n the development  of t h i s  of Greig  individuals  research.  I Chapter  1:  1.1  Introduction  Statement  The p u r p o s e cultural of  centres  native  to  provide  and  Two c a s e s  and  are  British  Research  Centre  Makah p e o p l e form  of  have  been  may  resources, 1.2  Thesis  Native struggle  for  defined  as  native  the  to  of  to  these  and  development  and  six  Village  the and  the  Case  studies  variables  leading  centres  themselves.  factors  and  The  processes of  the  social mobilization,  Indian  common m o t i v a t i o n a l  thesis  pressures  the  in  and  G i t k s a n and  implementation  knowledge, native  'Ksan  response.  clearly  cultural  compares  cultural  that  on  activities.  This  responses  which  and/or  focus  Makah C u l t u r a l  the  the  museums  cultural  on  understand  Native  community.  which  thesis—the  in  which  facilities  Indian  of  re-development  Indian  programmes  involved  role  re-development.  a native  this  the  factors  pressures  relevance,  and  for  in  their  identifies  project  the  i n Neah B a y , W a s h i n g t o n .  and  centres—local  be  analyse  cultural  involve native  cultural  the  may  to  and  that  C o l u m b i a and  chosen  in  of  organized  development  involved  is  identify  focus  development  thesis  to  studied  the  social  contemporary  Hazelton  describes  thesis  success  housing  traditional  local  the  centres  centres  facilities  the  in  a cultural  Cultural  to  this  the  cultural  Purpose  of  peoples  contribute Indian  of  control,  access  to  ground.  Rationale  cultural native  centres  have  grown  self-determination  out and  of are  the  on-going  rapidly  2 becoming Despite such  a focus this  fact,  centres  in  literature. as  reported  each a) b) c) d) e) f)  of  the  little  the  in  of  cultural revitalization.  appears  planning  this  Thesis  This  native  Results  implementation 1.3  for  of  and  research  thesis,  future  may  to  been  written  on  anthropological on  cultural centres,  aid  native  have  in  the  cultural  planning  such and  facilities.  Focus  thesis  poses  the  following  two c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s  questions  regarding  studied:  What i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s have e v o l v e d ? What were t h e f o r c e s w h i c h c r e a t e d t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s ? Why d i d t h e y e v o l v e i n t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e facilities? What were t h e s t a t e d g o a l s o f t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s ? What needs o r f u n c t i o n s have t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s actually fulfilled? What were t h e n e g a t i v e consequences? What were t h e p l a n n e d and u n p l a n n e d p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the c u l t u r a l centres? W h a t l e s s o n s c a n be d r a w n f r o m t h e c a s e studies? 1  •  Thesis  4  In  order  centre, case  A p p r o a c h and to  a regional  study.  a basis  involved  in  study  rather  than  The gather  the  for  understanding  has  cursary  following  centres:  interviews cultural  with  centres  is  for  each  included for  each  of  been  the  chosen  the  goals  and  objectives  cultural centres. to  provide  in  The  depth  analysis. methods  i n f o r m a t i o n on  cultural  history  context  regional historical description  development  approach  Methods  developmental  development  In depth  provides  case  show t h e  Research  a)  the  of  i n v e s t i g a t i o n were  planning  intensive,  and  operation  personal,  on  analysis,  b)  extensive  of  to  the  site,  individuals d i r e c t l y associated under  used  with  the  telephone  3 interviews private  and  and  public  manuscripts  Study  Within  museums  given  to  and  will  Southwest,  Basin,  Plains,  1,  page  several  division,  for  and  not  of  unpublished  cultural  appear  centres.  individuals, in  Sub-arctic,  5)  (Price  sub-divisions  example,  can  be  this  text.  culture  areas  Coola,  Salish  contain  and  several  Prairie,  Arctic  exist.  Coast  languages  California,  Northwest  Within  each  The N o r t h w e s t  Tlingit,  West  and  1978:37).  sub-divided  groups—Haida,  Kwagiutl,  aboriginal  Northeast,  ethno-linguistic  groups  and  analysis  me b y n a t i v e  11 b r o a d  Southeast,  Plateau,  division,  Most  c)  Area  North America,  (figure  and  published  native  confidential  exist:  Coast  to  information,  considered 1.5  correspondence  documents,  related  Certain is  lengthy  into  7  major  Tsimshian, (figure  and  many  has  been  Coast  2,  Bella  page  6).  different  dialects.  this  The N o r t h w e s t  Coast  culture  study  it  accessible  author. native  because  Within cultural  Nuumbalees  this  Society  Skidegate  the  'Ksan V i l l a g e  are  Kwagiutl  Museum  Education  division  centres  the  Native  is  only  Museum  in Hazelton  on  the  8,  medium o r exist.  Queen  (Interior  Salish);  in  Makah C u l t u r a l and  the  large  i n Cape  Charlotte the  (Salish); the  to  for  They a r e  (Kwagiutl)  in Chilliwack  C u l t u r a l Education Centre  chosen  familiar  (Tsimshian);  Secwepemc  the  and  known t o  (Haida)  Centre  area  scale, the Mudge; Islands;  Coqualeetza the  Kootenays Research  Centre  in  4 Neah in  Bay W a s h i n g t o n  Alert  Centre  Bay  (Westcoast);  (Kwagiutl);  and  the  the  U'mista  Cultural  Vancouver Indian  Centre  Education  (Pan-Indian).  Table  1 outlines  the  major  functions  of  The  2 centres  involving  centres  (Table  1,  page  7).  largest  number  of  functions  have  been  chosen  each  of  for  the  6  the  case  study  analysis. 1.6  Organization of  Chapter centres  in  peoples. link  practice centres. into  2 provides  the This  between of  social  the the  this  3 and  6 depict  involved  in  provides  h i s t o r i c a l and  the  development  i m p l i c a t i o n s for  native  each  case  5 outline  Coast  each  facilities  future  clearly  cultural of  native  establish  Indian study the  culture  facilities of  of  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n and  Coast  review,  role  re-development  cultural  two N o r t h w e s t  4 and  and  of  Chapters  chapters  the  included to  two N o r t h w e s t  the  the  cultural  is  theory  Following  of  a overview of  and  chapter  2 chapters.  histories  Thesis  centre.  developments.  is  divided  regional while  processes  Chapter  comparison,  the  cultural  groups  planning  the  7  conclusions  FIGURE N O R T H ' AMERICAN  1 ABORIGINAL  Inoit (Arctic)  DIVISIONS  Basin  ' •.'. Subarctic ::::::: Plateau  Plains  '#CX  California  Prairies  VV  Northwest Coast 'J  Northeast Southeast  FIGURE NORTHWEST * COAST  6  1  CULTURE  GROUPS  7 Table  Cape Mdg.  1:  Case  Skid.  1  Study  Ksan  Selection  Cog.  Sec.  MCRC  U'm VNIEC  Research/ Archives  1  1  2  3  2  2  1  0  Permanent Collection  3  3  3  0  2  3  3  0  Temporary Exhibitions  0  0  3  0  1  1  1  0  Language Arts  1  1  0  3  1  3  2  0  1  1  3  1  1  1  1  2  Life Skills  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  3  Total:  6  6  11  7  7  10  8  5  V i s u a l and Performing Arts  Table No a c t i v i t y Limited activity Moderate activity Major activity  Abbreviations (0) (1) (2) (3)  C a p e M d g . C a p e Mudge Skid. Skidegate Cog. Coqualeetza Sec. Secwepemc U'm U'mista VNIEC Vancouver Native Indian Education Centre  8 Chapter  2:  The  Role  of  Cultural 2.1  as  people  indigenous  subject are  to  changed promoted which  and  were  seen  to  lands  policies  continued  somewhat  milder  limited  aboriginal  1950's,  until  1934  when  produced  1985:10). seen  the  a  it  assume  leadership  few  increase and  of  native  a number roles  new s t r a t e g i e s  of  what  gradually  governments  native  activities of  assimilation  was  today  the  Indian native  opposed  to  changed  in  to  a  in a  assimilate  and  direct  1970's  and  in native United  opposition  1980's,  political  and  States.  published people  a  white  i n Canada.  organizations  in cross-cultural as  of  substantive  Canadian government  status  response,  with  i n Canada  governments  and  active  The 1 9 6 0 ' s ,  rapid  state,  assimilation policies,  administer  but  recognized  the  existing  to  direct  adopted  Canadian  American  of  settlement  efforts  activity  the  European  the  formally  non-native  traditional  and  Organizations  Paternalism  self-government.  cultural  on  through  the  Social Peoples  wards  native  have  1969,  of  ruling  1985:9).  form.  however,  paper  United  complicate  populations  (Dyck  In  States.  populations  native  results  the  continued form of  became  under  (Dyck  Government  from  they  the  Native  were  provisions  abandonment  frontier  contrast,  when  a s s i m i l a t i o n when  the  in  Native Cultural  i n North America  special  to  of  peoples  now C a n a d a  Centres  Re-Development of  The E v o l u t i o n  Native  Cultural  began  relations.  old defensive  As a to  They ones.  9 and  focussed  pan-Indian  on  the  movement  Increasingly groups, public  values  sympathy  in  expedient  governments  to  native  Brotherhood, Paper,  used  to  concern In  discussion  native  groups  educational  native  States,  Indian  the  alliances.  and  causes  Canadian  In  1970,  native  the  for  centres,  the  to  Native  the  made  it  more  National  Indian  government's to  Indians  and  increased  and  of  White  demand  government  establishment  libraries  Indian  toward  the  violence  Liberal  involving  the  and A m e r i c a n  Canada,  in opposition over  to  by m i l i t a n t  c o n c i l i a t o r y gestures  founded  concessions. joint  make  United  for  central  1983:255-259).  protests  the  toward  politically  moderate  beliefs  (Frideres  violent  especially  and  organized  a  provided  native  funds  cultural  publications  or  (Doxtater  1985:24). Evidence relationship  of  between  government  is  aboriginal  and  in  the  the  "Indian,  Committee  of  the  federal  which  includes  (Marshall  and  aboriginal  treaty  as  new  re-definition  rights Inuit  House  of  relationship the  concept  Koulas  and and  greater  and  the  degree  United of  of  entrenched  1972,  recommended  native  Canadian  aboriginal In  "Indian  the  the  Act which  Metis".  called of  and  defined  Commons  people  the  Penner  acceptance  First  of  Nations",  self-government  1985:1).  The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s Canada  people  new C o n s t i t u t i o n  Canada  a  evolving  States  control  of have  over  the  indigenous  been  native  to  peoples  achieve  communities  of  a and  to  10 redefine The  native  first  status  and  rights,  aim r e f l e c t s  the  degree  comprise  political  identity  and  arises  out  concern  economic  of  to  the  channels  political  scene  unilateral one  sided  sometimes  or  and  are  s t i l l  c i t i z e n s h i p and  proudly  the  defend  but  the  of  pursuing  the  notion  land  of  claims  as  relationships  irrelevent  of  national  principle  dismiss  human  include  1985:16).  (Dyck  to  native  Canadian  North American  principles  entertain  of  Historical  regretable  conditions.  to  tend  objective  These  the  methods  communities  local  ones. on  legally.  cultural  The s e c o n d  asserting  opportunistic.  of  translating  decisions  and  local  centres  representation  socio-economic  reluctant  in  innovative  v i e w e d as  as  which  international  court  states  and  well  to  opportunity.  of  international Nation  as  difficulty  national  existing  and  units  politically  to  are  current  governments  rights,  remaining  aboriginal title  (Dyck  1985:11-13). The p o l i t i c a l  and  economic  and  the  indigenous  peoples  increasing  attention  South  American  Saami  and  of  their  the  to  and  within  deal to  of  has  international  with  survive  nation  traditional  state  encompassing received  arena.  Australian Aborigines,  economically marginal  members  nation  a b o r i g i n a l groups  lands,  affairs  populations weak  Indians,  other  traditional  in  problems  as  culturally These  culturally  societies.  and  Scandinavian  struggling  governmental  states. and  are  North  to  retain  administration distinct  groups  are,  stigmatized  11 Together  they  comprise  "Fourth  World"  what  (Graburn  has  come  1981:68,  to  Dyck  be  known as  1985:1,  the  Berger  1985:176). Noel  Dyck  Nation-state", minority  within  recognized  balance  of  the  aboriginal the  the  different  from  national  population  by  of  and  demise,  and  Appeals and  extension  nation  scale.  made  virtue  The as  tend  as  loss  well  as  at  the  lower  In  the  face  claim  heritage  to  well of  as  end  of  audiences,  indigenous  operate  and  may  in  against  the  nation  peoples turn state  The U n i t e d N a t i o n s ,  an  (Dyck to  such  developed  economic  to  their  as  the  United  represent within  activity,  additional  generate  left  1985:236).  international  Supranational  has  and  rights  other  tension  lack  the  bodies  political  a  and  reasons,  cultural  special (Dyck  from  traditional  other  of  from  social  international  societies.  the  peoples  suffer  to  the  who  their  Aboriginal  states power  people  economic  to  of  democratic offers  populations.  populations  societies;  socio-economically distinct  economic  aboriginal  cultural  Nations  are  of  ever  ethnically  and  socio-economic  of  the  a group  being  as  activities,  aboriginal  no hope  as  national  stigmatization.  subsistence  World'  and  respective  contemporary  cultural  'Fourth  People  their  status;  political  "Aboriginal  who h a v e  immigrant/settler  within of  article  defines  populations  prevailing are  in his  forum  such  liberal as  in which  international  pressure  1985:19).  which Canada  and  the  an  United  this, to  12 State  belong,  officially  self-determination General  of  Assembly of  affirms  the  indigenous  the  policy  peoples.  United Nations  Covenant  on C i v i l  International  Covenant  on C u l t u r a l R i g h t s  to  self-determination  UN a u t h o r i z e d aboriginal racial 1975  a study  peoples  p r i n c i p l e was  Helsinki  Accords.  Canadian  native  entitled  to  that  asserting  the  In  1971,  the  issues  of  in Article  VIII  by  Pope  John  stating  Paul  that  II  and  adequate  resources  In  of  the  addressed  native  self-determination  the  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of  reaffirmed  measure  Indians  were  of for  a  viable  1985:176).  The M e a n i n g o f and  the  peoples.  equitable  2.2  both  and  aboriginal  and  (Berger  the  of  1984,  people  separating  just  economy  a  In  the  the  Rights  1985:179).  investigate  from  1966,  Political  (Berger  explicitly  discrimination  this  to  In  approved  International  right  and  of  their  Roles  Culture in  and  Native  Cultural Social  Preservation  Development  "We h u m a n s a r e s o c i a l a n i m a l s . We d e f i n e ourselves b y k n o w i n g o u r own p e o p l e , o u r l a n g u a g e , o u r customs, our t r a d i t i o n s . Culture i s a comprehensive summary o f s t a n d a r d s , v a l u e s , p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r , common a t t i t u d e s , ways o f l i f e . C u l t u r e must have a m a t e r i a l basis" (Berger 1985:176). According or  ethnic  to  group  literature,  as  is  a membership  by o t h e r s  as  (1969:10-11)  generally  a population  self-perpetuating; has  Barth  shares which  the  understood, which  is  fundamental  identifies  distinguishable.  in  cultural  anthropological  largely  biologically  cultural  itself,  Isajiw  term  and  (1979:25)  values is  and  identified concurs  by  13 defining share  ethnicity  the  identify  same  as  culture  themselves  belonging  to  the  according  to  Isajiw  observable and by  symbols  which  society  as  striving (1985)  to  and/or  same  of  descendents  are  not  a whole defines  for  differences  as  Abner a  through  identity,  images,  is  the  Cohen  function  political  groups  as  ideas  characterized  behavioural patterns in  same  and  manner,  (1974:ix),  of  power.  or  who  internal  identity  'multiplicity' ethnic  who  people  Ethnic  external  characterized,  e c o n o m i c and  motivates  and  ethnic  ethnicity  people  such  encompasses  (1981:2-3).  that  of  involuntary group".  (1975:129)  of  i d e n t i f i e d by o t h e r s  common v a l u e s ,  are  argues  society  or  To I s a j i w ,  sharing  contrast,  " i n v o l u n t a r y group  behavioural patterns  attitudes. the  an  by  in  minority  groups  Anthony P.  Cohen  pluralism  within  to  reaffirm  their  cultural  s y m b o l i c means  enhanced  i n ceremonies  or  rituals. Epstein important energy and  (1978)  component  and  provides  suggests in  the  for  values  are  transferred  new s o c i a l views  the  individual 2.3 In  and  group  Focus o f  group  to  of  are  or  is  developed  ethnicity  of  its  situations  the  ethnic past  Traditional  (1978:39).  as  an  c u l t u r a l or  elders.  contemporary  where  a  Epstein  foundation  for  identity.  Native Cultural  a multi-ethnic nation  development  of  becomes  a perception  ancestors  significance maintenance  history  maintenance  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with  that  largely  Preservation  problems  defined  by t h e  of  political  nature  and  extent  of  14 political  development  development from  the  of  an  within  ethnic  development  of  an  individual  group,  however,  a nation  state.  example,  the  ethnic  or  c u l t u r a l group  cultural  attributes  to  a greater  Ethnic  groups  political matters  are  bonded  appeals  of  and  language,  goals  are  The  differs  somewhat  For  is  extent  by c u l t u r a l  group.  defined than  by  is  its  the  nation.  s i m i l a r i t i e s and  consequently  s p i r i t u a l i t y and  social  concerned mores  with  (Enloe  1973:159-160). Therefore, and  cultural  North  the  more  native  alienation  America,  became  as  the  dominant.  1986:47).  consecutive  identity  than  ethnic  the  food,  support  of  Isajiw  within  ethnic  festivities  ethnic  were  identity  and  (1981:85)  depended  of  the  ethnic  cultural  in  an  more  c o m m u n i t y as  possession  ceremonial  evolved over  E t h n i c symbols  generation  cultural  political,  e v o l u t i o n of  re-establishment  (Miller  Indian  became  found  on t h e  social  centuries  that  also  family  each  ethnicity group  skills  symbols  successive  or  rather  Consumption of  the  in  identity with  group,  language  in  important  individual  ethnic  among  past  rediscovery  a whole.  art  economic,  ethnic  and necessary  generations  to  (Isajiw  1981:42). 2.4  The E v o l u t i o n  Since collected of  the by  curiosity.  policies  had  1700's,  traders, By t h e taken  of  Native Cultural  native  Indian  missionaries late  their  19th  toll  objects  and  have  settlers  Century,  and  Centres  as  been objects  assimilationist  c u l t u r a l objects  were  15 collected  i n an a t t e m p t  tradition. society  At this  and  twentieth  culture  as  'dying'  the r e v i v a l possible  Century  static  a  cultural  of native  culture  and  or p o s s i b l y not  museum e x h i b i t s  depicted  c o l l e c t i o n s of t r a d i t i o n a l  images  objects. From  other of  time,  was n o t c o n s i d e r e d  considered. native  to record  1900 t o t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s ,  cultural  traditional  revival  institutions native  Indian  Rochester  Museum o f A r t s  programme  among  revitalization  were  culture  of traditional  some  non-native  so c o n c e r n e d  that  some  Iroquois  of t r a d i t i o n a l  i n the  employing  master  new o n e s .  By d o i n g  artistic  forms  processes, and  carvers  native  however,  Indian  Indian  native  of  of  became  culture  were c a r v i n g by  and  create  traditional  these the  arbitrators  and s o c i e t y  (Ames  1985:22-23). have  benefitted  cultures.  benefitted  from  accessible  (Ames 1 9 8 5 : 3 ) .  Anthropologists  State  o l d poles  As a r e s u l t  the  Provincial  knowledge  anthropologists  of native  Doxtater  native  of the  a  an a r t  In the 1950's  Columbia  to replicate  s o , some  Anthropologists into  art.  of t r a d i t i o n a l  was r e t a i n e d .  interpreters  1981:13,  revival  loss  I n 1938 t h e  established  a n d t h e B u r k e Museum i n W a s h i n g t o n  instrumental  the  to a i d the  UBC M u s e u m o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , B r i t i s h Museum  with  and  a c t i v i t y promoted  technologies.  and S c i e n c e s  the Seneca  museums  Native  the volume o f data  and n a t i v e  greatly Indians,  compliled  from  as w e l l ,  have  a n d made  But the r e l a t i o n s h i p peoples  research  is changing.  between No l o n g e r  16 are  native  define  Indians  their  willing  to  allow  non-native  Indianness  and  interpret  their  1985:3).  Native people  are  demanding  the  as  has  Berger  standards, and  ways  said,  values,  of  life  their  of  (1985:176). and  balanced.  specifically,  more  active  as  their  Columbia  The  Provincial  resources  to  the  familities  at  ceremonial  objects  potlatches  recently of  culture.  removal Doxtater of  of  and  received the  or  conflicts  the in  have  of  to  become for  the  native  British  native  native  loans  for  more  considerable  Indian  contemporary  special  events  Anthropology  curators  have  in  such  has  the  begun  notification of  production  establish  (Ames  confrontations re-interment  their various  and  the  1981:13,  over of  of  from  objects  displays  the  to  interpretations  return  museum  Public  becoming  1985:5).  communities  insensitive  important  native  (Ames  requesting  s p i r i t u a l objects  were  with  ideologies  1985:21).  groups  of  between  contemporary  available  define,  attitudes  battle  devotes  The BCPM a l s o  Museums h a v e  groups  on-going  UBC Museum o f  native  own museum  native  the  of  is  native  exhibitions  Meanwhile their  and  to  collaborated  museum  (BCPM)  which  no c o s t .  is  Ethnology Division  documentation  activities  relationship employers  the  to  common  to  (Ames  summary  anthropologists  in  Museum  ceremonial  as  native  consultants  self-determination.  right  behaviour, The  anthropologists More  culture  own c o m p r e h e n s i v e  patterns  specialist  the  removal  burial  establishment  of  the  items native  17 Indian  museum  Another native their Idea  (Hanson  1980:49,  important  factor  museums cause.  has been  Museums", early  20th C e n t u r y .  Indian  museums  governments them  were  A number such  developed  It  of native  as t h e Osage  formed  the North American  at  By native  (Hanson  potential however,  begun  but  native  that to  accept  Native  museums  evolved,  revenue.  which  I n 1978,  20  t h e S m i t h s o n i a n and  Indian Association  were  represented  at  i n 1979 a n d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n information  125 n a t i v e tribes  Indian  the  first  i s now  t o t h e museum  museums  and urban  American  of native  having  to e x p l i c i t l y  were  community  established  reports  financial  internal  on t h e Most  and 1970's tourism  museums,  independence.  financial  by  Feasibility  i n t h e 1960's  facilities.  avoided  develop  groups.  museums  cultural  not achieved  museums,  have  Museum i n O k l a h o m a  met a t  impressively optimistic  have  that  i n the  1980:50).  on n a t i v e  returned  tribal  meeting  American  studies  native  professional  1980,  was f o r w a r d e d  generated  museum d i r e c t o r s  Fifty  large  Iroquoian  not ready  museums  Tribal  internally  Indian  presenting  of the  to develop  Indian  native  NANIA a n n u a l  toward  1985:24-25).  through  (NANIA).  sympathy  was n o t , t h e r e f o r e ,  not ready  run  i n her a r t i c l e "The  museums  and p u b l i c o p i n i o n were  (Doxtater  however,  to Doxtater,  of native  of native  of public  and the Development  the concept  1985:24-25).  i n the r i s e  t h e wave  According  of the Indian  Doxtater  Many  difficulties,  revenue  sources  have  to  support  Others  their  have  advisory  c o n s c i o u s l y embraced  and  Native British  financial  support  C a n a d i a n museums  Columbia,  American of  c u l t u r a l centres  Alberta  counterparts,  2.5  Cultural  Cultural were  things  galleries Many  happen"  exhibit  objects  are  beginning and,  contributed  as  often  opposed  to  as  1980:45-47).  to  establish  and  with  the  in  their  strengthening  understanding.  objects  from  defined  as  "places  t r a d i t i o n a l museums  lost  however,  repatriation,  been  to  or  are  museum p h i l o s o p h i e s  through  (Hanson  community  Activities  have  cultural centres,  contemporary  groups  18 basis.  term  non-native  extra-cultural  Centre  centres  the  and O n t a r i o  have  i n t r a - c u l t u r a l and  on a l o n g  ancient  where  cultures.  incorporating  and  are  obtaining  cultural  archaeological excavation  or  donation. Museums often  seen,  native local  involved by n a t i v e  group  to  cultural, centres and  programmes 2  •  6  often  protect addition include  and  visual  Native  According  to  of  and  as  and to  an o p p o r t u n i t y  interpret  training  educational  Centres  Indian  Society  Hanson  (1980:47)  their  museological  performing  Cultural  c u l t u r a l centres  language  archival resources,  The R o l e of  In  Indian  individuals,  gather,  collections.  research  in native  are  for  the  own  functions, centres,  and c u r r i c u l u m  arts. i n the  Re-development  c u l t u r a l centres  and  19 their  programmes  Cultural  programmes  increased provides  the  sense  a sense  ethnologist  with  director  the  of  Reservation and  provide  the  schools,  of  self  the  Museum o f  wrote  the  emerges  for  ancestors,  membership (from  continue well  as  native  broaden  John and  Indian  on  C.  Ewers,  former  the  N a t i o n a l Museum o f  Frenchman  his  Blackfeet History  the  1980:  skill  and  or  the  Italian  in his  own  country,  museum  with  and  admiration  beauty,  for  of  greater  ingenuity their  a greater  decendants  his  craftmanship  pride  these  of  in his  own  people"  51).  Indian  providing a  development.  from  courage,  among  Hanson  Thus  the  a greater of  have  individuals  Institution  h i s t o r i c a l museum  the  a sense  the  security.  reserves,  security.  Plains  and  that  an  and  and  off  in native  and  the  stability  on and  Smithsonian  who v i s i t s  respect  of  worth  stability  Englishman,  Indian  sense  in  i n Montana  Technology "Like  of  a  cultural  focus  for  contemporary  centres  native  social,  are  Indian  likely  to  ethnicity  political  and  as  economic  20 Chapter  3;  This  Tshimshian C u l t u r a l chapter  disintegration provide the  motivation perceived  or  for  the  1)  three  3)  Government  been  involved in  society  cultural continue  Native  divided  Stage  Intervention: Resistance:  the  Indian  into  I,  Stage  Stage  Stage  Assimilation:  the  in order  to  revitalization  in  by  indicating  realization  I,  the  the  of  these  following  Stage  I,  Spiritual  II,  II,  Stage  Resistance:  Paternalism; Paternalism;  Assimilation;  4)  Non-institutional;  5)  Spiritual Assimilation;  III,  Stage  Canadian II,  Sovereignity;  Institutional.  Context  The T s i m s h i a n o f occupied  the  tributaries  Douglas  comprised the  Nass  the  the  Wingert  1951:6) are  Skeena  the or  and  (Table  and  page  linguistic  area;  similar  3,  II,  Coast  Nass  commonly  Tsimshian proper of  the  estuaries  (Figure  3 major River  Northwest of  language,  reaches  dialects  and  Channel  of  the  territories  The T s i m s h i a n  and  and  Intervention:  Intervention:  Government  in  for  will  Intervention:  Indian  Christian  of  processes  involved in  Government  Christian  their  need  incentive  two has  2)  3.1  the  needs.  sections:  7)  outline  Tsimshian culture  Chapter  Chapter  Native  of  a basis  region.  will  Disintegration  the  Skeena rivers  21),(Sequin  known as  Rivers, and  Coast  on  Penutian,  the  Tsimshian,  adjacent  coast  23).  in grammatical  and  Upper on  is Nishga, Skeena;  the  (Garfield  The  Islands  1984:ix).  sub-divisions—the  Gitksan,  page  and  traditionally  lower and  3 Tsimshian  semantic  structure  6)  21  22 and  a large  Tsimshian  part  Salish  and  to  3•2  Haida  the  was  groups, to  South  Government  In  their  territory  and A t h a p a s k a n Kwagiutl  of  1670,  the  a policy  native  persons  appointed  to  time  European  Tsimshian and the  wards  of  the  lay  unofficially (Kehoe  trail Lake  ran to  north  the  heads  eulachon  its  (Figure from  the  S t i k i n e , where 1825) south  fishing  and L a k e A t l i n from  the  grounds  Skeena  with  the  to  of  isolating  of  native At  in  groups  traders  the  the  (Garfield had  reached  posts  B a y Company  in  the  and  Company) followed  The m a j o r  north-south  Nass,  Meziaden  trails  to  In  were  policy  trails  the  promote  1983:21).  N o r t h West  and  first  legislation  trading  24). to  its  resources  trading  cross  Paternalism  1983:17).  Hudson's the  Interior  1984:x).  agents  British  Skeena  and  sought  by n a t i v e  page  Northern  a policy  established the  the  (Frideres  important  rival,  4,  and  (Frideres  Established  valleys  (established trail  through  1971:430).  interior  through  East,  This  Canada's  By 1793 and  I,  Indian  unclaimed  1951:14).  (officially  no  Tlingit  enacted  designed  state  contact,  Mackenzie overland  region  paternalism  reservations.  economy  Wingert  Stage  Christianity  the  Coast  Indians.  formally establish  as  the  by  6),(Sequin  Parliament  government  on  Indians of  to  identical. north  the  page  native  of  to  and  2,  is  the  Carrier West  British  conversion  on  Intervention:  established  English  the  (Figure  concerning  1755 t h e  bounded  the  legislation  native  vocabulary  linked  the  Fort  Yukon  Kitimat,  middle  past  River.  thus  Skeena  Wrangel The  joining  (McDonald  2  23  Tsimshian  Table II T r i b e s and  Bands:  Culture Group  Tribes and Bands (1850)  Reserve Name ( 1 9 1 6 )  Present Name(1963)  Coast Ts i m s h i a n  Kitasoo  Kitasoo (or C h i n a Hat) Kitahta Kitkatla  Kitasoo  Gitzaklath Gitsee Ginakangeek Ginadoiks Gispakloats Gilutsau Gitlan  Port Simpson Metlakatla  Port Simpson Metlakatla  Kitsumkalum  Ki tsumkaylum  Kitsumkalum  Kitwanga Kitwancool Kitsegukla Kitanmaks Kispiox Kisgegas  Kitwanga Kitwancool Kitsegukla Hazelton Kispaiox Kisgegas  Kuldoe  Kitwanga Kitwancool Kitsegukla Hazelton Kispiox (joined Hazelton  Kuldoe  Gikateen  Nass Kincolith & Lachkaltsap Gitwunksithk Kitladamax Aiyansh  Kitkiata Kitkatla  Gitksan  Nishga  Gitgigenik Gitlakdamiks  H a r t l e y Bay Kitkatla  Lakelse  Adapted  H  from  II  ^  Kincolith Lakalzap Canyon C i t y Gitlakdamix  Duff  1964:18-20  25 1984: 7 6 ) . During largely  on  this  fishing,  production. Legaic  and  trading  With other  (Fisher  trade,  and  the  (HCB) men h a d  although  HCB r e p o r t s chiefs'  incorporated  into  were  trading  Tsimshian arrived  for  from  surplus as  the  east  most  upper and  groups  estuary  of  in  far  traded  while west  with  ( G a r f i e l d and  The h i g h l y  1984:42).  as the  Indian  structured  bands  markets  with  when  for  at  world  of  the  village  traded  interior  Tsimshian Charlotte  who came  the  traders  Metlakatla  to  1951:16),  Coast  the  Trail  Tlingit  example,  HCB's  The N i s g h a  Queen  chiefs'  1984:42).  occurred  Coast  to  were  the  the  Bay  medicine  o i l .  the  Wingert  prices  especially  As the  The G i t k s a n ,  the  fur  innoculations  T s i m s h i a n from  Grease  League  smallpox  the  1832,  (Garfield  regulate  disease,  (McDonald  eulachon  Skeena, as  Coast  in  their  market Legaic  extent,  production  the  the  distributing  1826  Simpson  Hudson's  to  inland  trade  expanded  European  commodities  of  the  o i l across  Kitkatla Both  at  quickly  based  population.  network.  The N i s g h a and  produced  Indian  was  and  Fort  period,  additional  the  Specialization level.  some  (McDonald  European the  to  access  only  of  monopolies,  mention  expanded,  already  domestic  the  During this  Company  monopolies  include  large  decimated  'friendly  and  establishment  to  1977:30).  smallpox,  T s i m s h i a n economy  Tsimshian chiefs  Through  control  the  hunting,  the  privileges  1939:183). could  period  to  (Figure  as  traded  far o i l  to  Islands. the 4,  Tsimshian  Nass page  was  24).  26 radically Early  contacts  affect in  were  useful  first  with  traditional  trade  were  transformed  in  the  of  in  1831  from sea  Massive  wealth  a ready  of  people  around  (Sequin  smallpox, (Fisher to  measles  Due t o with  rank  away  at  (Kehoe a  competitive  interior  could  forts  the  in  tools  centre Port  of  land  economy  but  destablized posts.  at  trade  animals. the  new v i l l a g e s  Old World  disease  were  As l o n g  to  money to as  (Fisher  led  traders  further  1984:xv).  be m e m o r i a l i z e d , blankets,  validate trade  of  their  routes  prices,  a degree  furs  and  prevalent  Tsimshian  (Sequin  into  stimulated  maintain  scarce  to  persons be  remained  the  given  lineage  Indians  independence  1977:33).  of  mortality  diseases  the  traders  greater  respiratory  a l c o h o l to  was  established  as  to  the  Simpson),  desease  potlatches,  when  mouth  Staggering  exposure  and  the  from  permitted  Traditional  deaths  acquired  culture  venereal  their  territory  goods  prestige,  to  that  relationships  market  as  severely  to  record  1981:433).  1834  addition  and  converted  massive  or  Competition for  social the  d i d not  traditional  trading  to  trading  and  firearms  complicating  population.  Tsimshian t e r r i t o r y  native  were  In  1977:45).  supply  the  increased  1984:xv).  the  in  in  iron  rank  from  post  carvers.  of  ensued  traders  technology  furs  entered  relationships  rates  into  (moved  otter  among  formed  and  traditional  supply  productivity  of  trading  at  and  explorers  terms  shifted  Euro-Canadian  socio-economic patterns  established Nass  the  incorporated  permanent  the  by  open of  from  Meanwhile,  rank and the the the  27 Crown  Lands  Protection  Crown  control  of  1849,  and  arrival  the  for  government  the  fur  the from  Fort  passed  provided  an  of  end.  after,  colony, Hudson's  on  of  for  on  the rule  was  the  saw  Indians (Frideres Hudson's  condition  act  he  sever  Crown  passed.  The  In  1857  of  his  act  societies the  recommended  should  governorship  that  was  Gradual  B a y Company had  the  with  Indians  tribal  Island  of  the  1983:22).  on V a n c o u v e r  offered  an  in  purchase  without  i n Canada leave  and  11 t r e a t i e s  an A c t f o r  to  During  Indians  2 with  land  need  develop  the  By 1 8 5 0 ,  Indian  Tribes  to  for  and  no  Bay Company  signed  area  1977:66).  sale  enfranchized  Company's  but  Douglas  Victoria  Indian  inducements  made  Before  been  between  Hudson's  be  ensure  society.  necessary  the  fifty-seven  the  Douglas  to  arrangement  (Fisher  Committee  the  3.3  wrote  Fort  Eighteen  become  that  that  the  been  had  Indian  avoid h o s t i l i t i e s  d i s a l l o w i n g the  Civilization  Select  to  Rupert  consent.  and  had  to  1983:22).  there  it  Shortly of  colonists,  period  Douglas  land.  Indians  of  i n 1839  (Frideres  re-arrange  requesting  Indian  lands  to  designed  non-Indians. 1849  Indian  passed  measure  trading  policies  A c t was  come  the  ties  to  new with  the  Bay Company. Christian  Intervention:  Stage  I,  Spiritual  Paternalism Other  influences  mission  to  in  ( G a r f i e l d and  1847  William  reach  the  D u n c a n came  complicated G i t k s a n was  to  Wingert the  the  established  1951:9).  Fort  situation.  In  at  1857  Simpson area  to  The Fort  first Babine  Reverend preach  28 Christianity began  to  to  build  a  acculturation worked  at  the  Tsimshian.  school  (Fisher  Fort  He c l a i m e d  teachings  of  eventually community  (in his  influx  critical result  the  of  miners,  areas  influx  of  (Fisher Bay  In  to  via  from and  McDonald a  Coast  was to  renamed their  situation  By t h e  industrial  may  the  the  able  build  a  new  proved  demanded  their  regime  bringing  was  and  wage  freighting  the  1858,  rendered  1981:432). influx  been  of  the  industry  Hudson's  on  (Large the  its  river  trading  Skeena  waterway,  way  1957:24 Gitksan  dominated  Fraser  was  (McDonald  Telegraph,  to  the  over,  government  labour  the  transitory  Europe  taking  region  Had  after  only of  As a  of  Columbia.  representative  the  When t h e  in  Assimilation  primacy  entered  of  and  rapid  have  Siberia,  favour  in  He was  II,  British  Union  Tsimshian. in  the  Western  river  considerable  interest  (Kehoe  the  1984:44)  of  Duncan  original condition  1860's  economic  1865,  lucrative  abandoned  settlers,  by c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y  1984:44). England  and  Stage  by  the  time  with  groups  caused  a new  accompanied  nearby  disruption  as  met  he  element  New M e t l a k a t l a  land  the  important  Tsimshian  Indian  1977:96).  and  the  1858  1984:xv).  miners  returned  of  1977:129).  of  miners  Company  ending  of  had  Intervention:  New C a l e d o n i a  mining  and  (Sequin  question  the  of  an  a quickening  (Fisher  many  view)  Governmental  The  mission  detect  summer  D u r i n g the  New M e t l a k a t l a .  own m i s s i o n a r i e s 3.4  to  convert  called  successful  1977:129).  Christianity  to  the  w h i c h became  Simpson h i s  success.  In  by  route  Hazelton  the was  was  29 established Wage second  as  a major  labour  half  of  individuals  became  the  were  found  mill  service,  longshoring,  forms  provided part,  one  Indian  this  Board  was  Territories. operations, industry  basis 10. the  time  The  and  fact,  was  (Fisher  year,  recommended  Columbia's  the  grievances Papers  was  the  land  take  Connected  Mills  Indian  A c t was  Indian  opened sawmill  In  to  1873 on  the  favoured  look  into  steps In  with  1873,  Northwest  Columbia  Indians.  policy  In  allocated  assigned  province of  Indian  administer  which c o n s t i t u t e d  Indian  comprehensive  British  giving  1872-1873  logging,  be  Simpson  most  to  (Knight 1978:115).  committee  1850-1875  in  to  for  but  the  the  thought  Georgetown  labour  and  1977:30).  C o l u m b i a and  family  published  for  work,  domestic  Fort  1977:178).  established  per  redress  Question,  In  reserves  committee  first  vote  British  An i n v e s t i g a t i v e problem  no  Indian  80 a c r e s  was,  been  that  to  The  the  crews,  s p e c i f i c a l l y excluded  employment  suggested  British  to  cannery  1984:46).  but  the  Tsimshian  construction  HBC ( F i s h e r  vote.  following  necessary  Land  the  during  fishing,  railroad  had  hiring Tsimshian  related  of  the  Local  steamer  (McDonald  there  passed  in Manitoba,  mining,  employment  Commissioners  Affairs  freighting,  service  from g a i n i n g  of  Ottawa  of  1984:44).  important  century.  packing,  population  legislation persons  to  in  labour  source  (McDonald  increasingly  sealing,  wage  designed During  .the  work,  of  depot  nineteenth  logging,  other  supply  1875  the  the  Indian  an  indictment  (Fisher  1977:181).  designed  i n 1876  of  to  a  30 consolidate statute to  the  books  (Frideres  a decision  had  given  largely the  up  due  disparate  on  the  the to  establishment  1877,  a great  influx  of  the  labour  necessary.  help  of  his  unpleasant  wage  Tsimshian  wife  if  expense  first  conditions  the  on  was had  not  local  the  province  came  government  land  title,  1977:188).  the  Skeena  With in  developed. an  advantage  in addition,  preferred  of  (Fisher  labour  He c o u l d , she  Indian  cannery  fisherman  the  on  The d o m i n i o n  extinguishing  the  Initially, was  of  existing  By 1876  question.  enormous of  already  1983:23).  land  idea  its  laws  to  enlist  work  cannery  as  in  their the  the  (McDonald  1984:47). In  an  increased  effort the  innovations fish  fishing  and  controlled  the  use  of  company  drafted  in  the  and  away  and  to  process  to  working conditions  found This  it  difficult  situation  number  of  was  the  1984:47).  packing poor  in  the  to  from  the  to  quickly on  by  began  river  licences,  to  mouths  requiring  regulations  were  the  company  position.  fish,  thereby  increasing  Tsimshian  the  remedied, were  in  the  women d o m i n a t e d  segregated  canneries.  canneries,  a steady  boats  continual  they  Tsimshian position  within  maintain  companies  crowded  fishing  ethnically  women p u l l e r s  As w e l l ,  strengthen  encouraged  fishing  operations  Government  weakening  (McDonald  their  Indian  gear.  1890's  men w e r e  competition fisheries  rival  of  techniques.  further  and  Non-native  maximize p r o f i t ,  productivity  in  further  to  flow  however, reduced  of  the Due  companies workers.  when and  the native  31 fishermen in  the  were  hired  canneries  3.5  to  ensure  (McDonald  that  their  wives  would  work  1984:47).  Christian Intervention:  Stage  II,  Spiritual  Assimilation Despite  the  government  to  continued  with  multi-family Indian  life  end  lineage  houses  induced  missionaries  bringing group" in the  which  an  a  ban  "was  actor  performers,  missionaries  on  that  (Kehoe 1 9 8 1 : 4 3 3 ) .  virtually  unenforceable  example  of  the  settlers  passing  of  the  anti-potlatch  while others  belief  1884, the  of  at  quietly  The  importance the  staged  tear  of  social performances  the  flesh  of  persuaded  Indians  it  many  1880  human  were  indeed  potlatch stood  as  in acculturation.  law,  the  (man-eating)  the  dominion of  1880's  and  of  amend  of  A l t h o u g h the the  By  the  audience,  Coast  feasts  that  a allegory  actually  large  potlatching.  of  skillfully  the  Northwest  in  is)  the  to  in  to  native  feasts  1880's  for  to  enactment  The  cannibals  vigorously  only  meaning  (and  appeared  planted  the  the  under  (Kehoe 1 9 8 1 : 4 3 3 ) . an  kept  the  1981:434-435).  unforgettable  p h y s i c a l power  which  by  Canadian o f f i c i a l s  misunderstood  development,  were  the  ceremonial  However,  (Kehoe  include  dance,  winter  economically assimilating  settler  Act to  Hamatsa  potlatching, force.  Euro-Canadian  Indian  from M i s s i o n a r i e s and  great  was  missionaries  pressure  Indian  disobeyed  the  law a  was  blatant  With  the  protested law  (Fisher  1977:207-208). 3.6 By  Native 1862,  Indian the  pace  Resistance: of  change  Stage had  I,  Non-institutional  outstripped  the  Indians  32 ability  to  proved  cope  with  ineffective were  crisis.  British  incorporating  canneries grounds, when to  have  at  been  1977:200). government its  Tsimshian out  during  1880's  and  the  1884:117  of  from  people  of  Fisher  1977).  the  Skeena  for  the  without  Fisher  Port  fishing  early  1880's,  a company  felt  (Fisher  the  region,  S i m p s o n when  The  the  under  1884,  the  again.  In  Simpson  N o r t h West did  great  Greenville  and of  agent  the  to  had  Nishga  native toward  grow,  and  refused  to  Agency  (DIA  successfully  protest  from  (DIA 1 8 8 9 : x c i  Gitksan the  northern  Hostility  continued  Port  Rifles"  A government  Tsimshian  made  Tsimshian  Company o f  consideration  Also  once  of  the  of  in  An a g e n t  1888  under  conflict  and  River  nets  and  1977:204-205).  to  1867  Canadian  Simpson in  Affairs  1870's  bitter.  and  in  the  coastal  1977). in  passed  on T s i m s h i a n  1879:112).  much  mortality  The d e v e l o p m e n t  "Volunteer  (Fisher  assigned  himself  the  social  by  Port  Metlakatla  agent  established  a  form of  fisheries  p r o v i n c i a l goverments  villages  accept  at  cures  purchased  potential  becoming  society  and  late  village  Interior  also  any  Indian  confiscated  duty  the  reserves  dominion the  of  the  a gunboat,  organized  were  the  culture  of  of  encroachment  in  the  control  had  (Department  laid  1879  European  with  1957:32).  the  unrest  round  residents  with  abusing  to  first  (Large  Kitkatla  In  and  deal  administration  coupled  chiefs  to  and  N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t was  Act  created  smallpox  inadequate  the  Enfranchisement  Traditional  against  organization The  it.  threatened  same y e a r ,  the  the from to  close  Port  33 Essington  people,  appropriation, tasks  angered  stopped  (DIA 1884:282  height  of  occupied result  the the  the  peace  the  process  surveyors  from F i s h e r  controvery  the  HMS C o m o r a n t  Government  of  land  from c a r r y i n g 1977).  In  out  1885,  M e t l a k a t l a people  Christian Missionary arrived  (DIA 1 8 8 6 : x i - x i i  3.7  by  Society  on  the  from F i s h e r  Intervention:  their  at  the  forceably  building.  scene  to  As a  keep  the  1977).  Stage  III,  Canadian  Sovereignty By  the  late  longer  treated  people  of  a  by  under the  and  the  British  sovereign  nation.  Nisgha  had  of  the  could  than  bands  or  were  registered  projects (Duff  find  were  Indian its  claim  no  the  to  various  system  funds,  levels  as  to  and  be  handled  and at  came  None o f the  government the  atomistic  Canadian work w i t h  189 b a n d s  administration  a l l matters  to  of of  the  group  the  each  Tsimshian groups  Canadian government, of  entered  allocatedto  grew out  system  one  a  (Sequin 1984:xv).  effective  of  were  as  no  Columbia  aborigional title  To t h e  members  land  Act  political  tribes.  Lands,  of  were  government  When B r i t i s h  consent  The b a n d  native  government  Columbia.  the  their  1984:xv). of  native  abandoned  pressed  (Sequin nature  without  Tsimshian Indians Columbia  small reserves  aegis  groups  century,  the  confederation, village  19th  in  other  Indians British  community the  band  level  1964:106). Tsimshian  up--prices  commercial interests  only grudgingly  accepted  drove by  the  freighting Hudson's  prices Bay  34 Company. its  At the  same  transportation  transportation operations operated  Additional  of  operations  result  (McDonald began,  by  the  foreign and back  to  3.8  the  1906,  the  Indian  the  appropriation  sources.  but  of  Resistance  over  job  the  increased  at  end  to  the  the  Indian  land  (Frideres had and  included  been other land  and  II,  As a  power  loss  dependency owned  transport  start  Stage  the  boats,  to  was  River  local  (McDonald  administer  there  Skeena  Politically  who p r o v i d e d  introduced decade  1978:115).  i n 1891.  Resistance:  to  Port  B a y Company s t e a m e r  the  at  forestry  from  (Knight  and  and  Hazelton  industrialists,  amendments  impossible  A c t was  Over  homes  houses,  crews  passage  control  and Bay,  manufacture  to  workers  to  Hartley  When w h i t e  mills  (DIA 1 8 9 1 : 1 6 5 ) .  families  the  nets,  logging the  owned  1978:60-61).  boats,  steamer  lost  colonial  Native  virtually Indian  supply  native  Kincolith,  included  fish  its  Tsimshian also  1984:45-46).  Hudson's  migrant  their  By  to  intensive  (Knight  independent  Tsimshian  and  their  The  revolutionizing  capitalizing  labour  Aiyansh,  areas  Tsimshian chiefs  Tsimshian  the  the  successful  transportantion hindered  in  o i l , canoes,  first  achieved  heavily  1984:45).  Hazelton  organized  The  and  C o m p a n y was  commercial ventures  items  Simpson  the  undercut  stores  and  marketing  system  (McDonald  many  Lakalsap,  craft  to  time  of  by  on the  workers  the  season  and  1984:45). Institutional  A c t had a new  made  it  consolidated  1983:25). a growing  resistance  resources  by  claims,  to  foreign  agitation  for  the  35 recognition  of  militant  trade  response  to  resource union  employment. attempt  such  as  as  and  well  as  rights  These  maintain  newspapers,  the  result  control  and  at  issues  times  were  of  wage  threats  labour of  methods  territorial  delegations, of  in  (often  a variety  over  petitions,  occupations  and  commercial values  The T s i m s h i a n e m p l o y e d to  blockades,  human  activity.  traditional  simultaneously)  an  and  in  resources,  strikes,  violence  (McDonald  1 9 8 4 : 51) . An e f f e c t i v e Brotherhood,  was  organization, after  to  members  the  undeniable  Nisgha  land  Tribes  of  of  Committe  title of  to  first  these  Columbia  (NBBC).  appropriation sources.  was  of  form of  goals  they  native  and  for  an  organization;  1913 and  declared  the  the  i n 1927.  soon  spurred other  included  formed  Columbia.  an  The  Allied  by  the  resources  land  claims,  question  As a  to  of  the  1964:106).  appear.  The  British  Alaska by  of  result  (Duff  began  Native Brotherhood  land  soon  (Kehoe  became  Columbia dissolved  1931,  formed  1916.  closed  In  Resistance  in  was  were  in British  organization the  A parallel  their  group,  formed  land  Native  Sisterhood,  Committee  British  new n a t i v e  1912.  organizations  groups  was  Alaska  toward  Columbia in  However, of  work  a new  Senate-House  Tribes  in  culture  by n a t i v e  British  aborigional Allied  Tlingit  the  Native  women t o  example  noted  The  Alaska  Although these  of  example  established  the  enable  1981:436).  organziation,  Native  the  foreign  agitation  for  the  36 Brotherhood,  Tsimshian chiefs  organized  inter-tribal  organization  British  continued  meet  to  1964:106). and  In  yearly  1936,  Gitksan Native  response By  to  (Ashwell (NTC)  the  the  1930's  Gitksan Native  Sisterhood  and  and  formed.  in  1955  T h e NTC h a d  The  formed  had  climbed  in  Aiyansh  and  replaced  Nishga  Land  Committee.  Its  purpose  was  to  Indian  welfare  question  (Duff  to  European  century,  significant  the  of  their  British  interest  River  area  until  interior  1670 w i t h  regarding  neighbours  economic  the  in  native  of  was  the  for  general  the  land  first  Northwest  the seen  south by  government, coast  the  European  government enactment  Paternalism  Tsimshian and  the  Unknown  Coast, British  Indians.  the  in  1600's.  Northwest the  began  government  late  British  the  trade of  the  affected to  and  development  begin  in  paternalism  Canadian  exploration  essential,'by  vested  Skeena  not  began  legislation  considered  in  did  T s i m h i a n , on  intervention  settlement  former  Summary  Although  intervention  work  the  1964:107).  3 . 9 Chapter  16th  the  4,802  Kincolith,  and  for  to  Council  Canyon C i t y  press  (GNB)  hardship.  Greenville,  and  NBBC  in  Nishga T r i b a l  branches  similar  (Duff  cultural  the  a  Brotherhood  (GNS) w e r e  economic  develop  Columbia.  Tsimshian population  1977:27)  was  through  the  regional  1954  for  to  due  fur  less  south  traders  was to  trade. than  west as  their as  the  secondary  importance.  Government  paternalism  changed  to  assimilation  by  1858  37 nen  tne  influx  and  economic  far  more  of  climate.  despite  the  Assimilation  repealed form—has  in  the  Spiritual Reverend into the  to  policies  yet  between of  government  influence  remains  Although sporadically informal  early  resistance  external  non-native  continued  until  to  form.  the  years  development  of  the  to  be  Tsimshian.  British  Columbia  relatively  anti-potlatch  law  in a  was  limited  with  the  Fort  Babine  to  assimilation. introduction  area  and  of  evolved  pressures  until  A strong  forced  anti-potlatch 1951 when  the  Christian  resistance  Skeena have  River  begun  destruction  persons.  of  region,  variety  local  centres  and  forms  the  Gitksan  properties  by  resistance  organizations  resistance  of  major  i n 1872 when  political  institutional on a  was  Non-institutional  when n a t i v e  cultural  the  devastating  Indian  the  seems  Native  and  1847  continued  intervention  region.  in  the  government  paternalism  the  native  taking  as  when m i s s i o n a r y  the  1912  of  repealed.  recorded  protested  over  to  1884  in  of  in  institute  residents  began  began  l a w was  proved  paternalistic  continued  stages  Spiritual assimilation  anti-potlatch  political  achieved.  Duncan  to  earlier  increased has  the  assimilation  isolation  spiritual  in  changed  self-government—even  the  paternalism William  miners  A l t h o u g h the  been  assimilation  law.  and  year,  periods  the  relative  1951.  this  not  Wedged were  than  confederation  consistently  and  Government  debilitating  policies  entered  settlers  has  evolved  including  forwarding  of  the land  38 claims. It  i s c l e a r , from  protracted society  has  taken p l a c e .  behaviour,  be  easily  of  the  native  c u l t u r e and objects,  as  has  been  of  be  by  found  with  can  no  i t an  objects  society.  eventually  in  other  the  symbols  ideas  of  discussed  i n the  and  a  i t s expression  r e s t o r a t i o n and  erosion  the  Increased  the  'Ksan.  between c u l t u r a l  development w i l l  cultural  c e r e m o n i e s and  Skeena totem p o l e  development link  patterns  identity  brought  were f u r t h e r s p a r k e d  i n d i v i d u a l and  such p r o j e c t s  life"  and  words,  values,  ethnic  activity  p o t e n t i a l r o l e of  heritage  persuasive  The  political  in cultural  ethnic  initial  where c u l t u r a l  culture  in Berger's  standards,  a  achieved.  Indian  of  summary of  or  or  longer  realization  Culture,  that  native  point  the  awareness o f  traditional  ways of  to  Native  chapter,  common a t t i t u d e s and  eroded  interest  preceeding  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of  "...the comprehensive of  the  cultural  following  chapter.  in  39 Table Tsimshian 1670 1675 1680 1685 1690 1695 1700 1705 1710 1715 1720 1725 1730 1735 1740 1745 1750 1755 1760 1765 1770 1775 1780 1785 1790 1795 1800 1805 1810 1815 1820 1825 1830 1835 1840 1845 1850 1855 1860 1865 1870 1875 1880 1885 1890 1895 1900 1910 1915 1920  III  Regional History  G.I. I 16701855 Table: G.I. C.I. N.R.  Government I n t e r v e n t i o n Christian Intervention Native Indian Resistance  C.I. I 18471884 N.R. I 18621905 C.I. II 18841951  G.I. Ill 18901987  N.R. II 1906-'87  40 Table  1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985  III  continued  G.I. Ill 1890 to 1987  N.R. II 1906 to 1987  41 Chapter  4:  G i t k s a n C u l t u r a l R e v i t a l i z a t i o n and and  Development  The p r e v i o u s disintegration following  Operational 4.1  ^tribes  and  the  outlined  This  and  the  resultant section and  the  Victoria  field  social  under  cultural  development  of  the  Developmental  1.  and  ethnographer  the  Skeena—a  those  Two o f  these  now a m a l g a m a t e d (a m o d e r n  II,  page  junction  d w i n d l i n g i n numbers.  The  at  to  Mines  1923  Jenness, British  and  the  appeared  Babine  in  of  of  Hazelton tribe,  Skeena  headquarters be  5  and  villages  and  to  The  Qualo  and  on  region  distance  The K i t s e g a s  was  time,  of  the  settlement)  23).  River  tribes,  with  National  Marius Barbeau  of  were  near  of  the  Gitksan people.  situated  this  (now  the  (Table the  Museum  of  Vowell  research.  'Ksan  into:  organization  study  Glen  Westcoast  divided  Skeena  Kispiox,  Diamond  been  the  have  Between  The  to  Anlagasemdek,  (Department  society.  expedition  200 m i l e s .  Gitksan,  protracted  of  Memorial  sent  approximately  also  the  processes  has  2.  Village  Development  Civilization)  (Kitanmax),  'Ksan  Planning  Planning.  extensive the  has  outline  Development;  1920,  Museum o f  study  will  Ethnographic  In  the  Gitksan culture  projects.  Ethnographic  an  of  chapter  revitalization Village  chapter  of  the  of  Rivers, the  Kitanmax  1920:20). 1925  the  Harlan Smith Columbia to  Marius Barbeau  Victoria and  Memorial  Marius Barbeau  continue  continued  the  Museum  sent  to  ethnographic research  previously  42 undertaken  i n 1920,  Columbia.  R e s e a r c h was  Kitwancool,  Kitwanga  organization  added were a  to  view  the  to  an  time the to was  were  the  to  of  restoration important  project the  to  was m e t local  government in  1925 t h e  of  the  Indian  The  tribes  songs  were  Over  Kispiox,  preparation totem  (Department  thought  the  of  poles Park  social  were  poles  as  the  imminent.  however,  the  with  a great  Gitksan  people.  and  local  Victorial  native  Affairs,  The D e p a r t m e n t  began of  of  deal  Mines  native  the  establishment at  this  by t h e culture  of  persons  and  government, and  society  historical pole  restoration  s u s p i c i o n and  Friction  between  confusion  the  ultimately subsided,  Museum, and  restoration  annual  with  Ethnographic research  government's  Railway  the  The  for  contemplated  Due t o  Memorial  Canadian National  been  were  Hagwelget  report  considered,  demise  and  Investigations  and  graves.  1920).  was  studied  400 p h o t o g r a p h s  Kitanmax  and  Kitsemgalem,  recorded  a detailed  had  Mines,  of  be  of  British  Kitselas,  Kitsegyukla.  taken.  Indian National  be  at  northern  Museums e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i o n s .  circumstances,  by  and  Gitksan  extended  conservation of  Sixty  notes  later  conducted  and m y t h o l o g y o f  intensively. linguistic  among T s i m s h i a n o f  report  with  the  and  cooperation  the  Department  of  of  16 G i t k s a n  poles.  for  1927  indicates  that: The a w a k e n i n g i n t e r e s t o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e u n i q u e t o t e m p o l e a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f two members o f the d i v i s i o n , M r . S m i t h and M r . B a r b e a u . . . . I n 1925 M r . S m i t h , a c t i n g u n d e r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s from the i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l committee r e p r e s -  43 e n t i n g t h e D e p a r t m e n t of I n d i a n A f f a i r s , t h e P a r k s B r a n c h o f t h e Department o f t h e D e p a r t ment o f the I n t e r i o r , and t h e Department o f M i n e s , and w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y , s u p e r v i s e d the r e s t o r a t i o n o f totem p o l e s a t K i t w a n g a . . . . In 1926...he r e s t o r e d 9 p o l e s i n t h e same v i l l a g e " (1927:33). Before  the  i n c e p t i o n of  many n a t i v e  and  non-native  the  continuing  persons  were  ceremonial time,  loss  the  pole  individuals  seemed  o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e and  i n c r e a s i n g l y donating  regalia  r e s t o r a t i o n programme,  or  resigned  society.  selling  native person,  (Laranitz),  opened h i s house t o t h e  traditional  Gitksan  ceremonial  John  Native  their  to e s t a b l i s h e d c u r i o shops.  however, a l o c a l  to  At  the  same  Laknitz  p u b l i c as a museum f o r  regalia  (Department o f  Mines  1926:81). In 1936  a disasterous  displacement the  region  year  or d i s t r u c t i o n (Dawn 1 9 8 1 : 5 0 ) .  earlier,  launched  development of  the G i t k s a n  with  Native  interest  an  a second  attempt, coupled  native  the  c u l t u r e continued intensity.  were r e s t o r e d and  in  this  appeal  17  located  in  Smith, having  retired  one  t o Ottawa r e q u e s t i n g  r e s t o r a t i o n programme.  energy behind  a noted  The  and  the  pole  from  1936  poles  carved  that poles  sparked  of  of  local  traditional  with  1952,  notably  11 o l d  poles  (Dawn 1 9 8 1 : 5 5 ) .  anthropological scholar  region, reported  This  r e s t o r a t i o n and  t o 1939 and  the  development  Sisterhood  revitalization  Between 1930 new  the  the  poles  in native controlled  Gitksan  Duff,  o f many of  Brotherhood  (Dawn 1 9 8 1 : 5 1 ) .  Wilson  resulted in  Harlan  pole  carving  increasing  flood  and  researcher  were r e - e r e c t e d  with  a  44 similar  notion of  rights,  names,  centuries  within  larger,  more  ceremonies  at  the  crests,  (1952).  planned  regional  re-affirming  Small  1939  RCMP a n d  of  and  (Dawn  Bureau  of  report  on a s u c c e s s f u l  craft  training  indicated  as  traditional  legal  bounds  1942 c a u g h t  the  in  previous  festivities  were  replaced  Large  attention was  by  scale of  the  confiscated  1981:64).  the  Native Arts  Indian  prestige  ceremonial gatherings.  approximately  supervisor  hereditary  ceremonial paraphernalia  1942 e v e n t  At  and  scale  'acceptable'  overt  in  status  traditional  Affairs  same and  time Crafts  in Alaska,  government  and m a r k e t i n g  Virgil for  Farrell,  the  issued  an  sponsored  programme.  United  The  States  influential  native  art  and  report  that:  W i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t o f the n a t i v e s i n t h e i r c r a f t w o r k we e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d the need t o f i n d m a r k e t s f o r t h e i r o u t p u t . One o f o u r f i r s t s t e p s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n was t o s e t up a t J u n e a u a c e n t r a l c l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r n a t i v e c r a f t p r o d u c t s s e l l i n g on a w h o l e s a l e b a s i s o n l y . . . . T h e craftsmen v o l u n t a r i l y sent t h e i r craft work on a c o n s i g n m e n t b a s i s t o t h e c e n t e r and as t h e goods s o l d they were i n t u r n p a i d . In the first y e a r o f i t s o p e r a t i o n a t o t a l o f $ 3 2 , 7 4 7 [US] h a d i n c r e a s e d t o $ 2 0 0 , 4 9 0 o r an i n c r e a s e i n seven y e a r s o f 6 1 2 % . . . . I n o r d e r t o keep s t e p w i t h g r o w t h o f t h e C l e a r i n g H o u s e i t was necessary to develop markets. Our f i r s t s t e p was t o c o n t a c t a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g o u t l e t s , n a m e l y museums, g i f t s h o p s , c u r i o s h o p s , e t c In o r d e r t o f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e t h e m a r k e t s , two i l l u s t r a t e d c r a f t c a t a l o g u e s and w h o l e s a l e p r i c e l i s t s were p u b l i s h e d i n 1939 (Hawthorn et a l 1955:535). In (BCAWS)  1948 t h e was  set  British up  under  Columbia the  aegis  Arts of  and W e l f a r e the  British  Society Columbia  45  Provincial issues  of  Museum i n V i c t o r i a . native  exhibitions, other  Dr.  of  and  UBC Museum o f potential  Farrell  of  Report  of  regional  traditional  arts  contemporary for  National  1940's  1981:434). was at  formed the  Columbia  in  By 1954, through  University  degree,  in  large decade. to  the  by  Arts,  Royal  and  in  the  the  these or  expression formed  Commission  Letters,  on  the  Hawthorn Report the  the  school  in  for  of  of  based  establish  preparation 1948  given  Columbia.  Included  students  and  the  on  Sciences  in  1955:515). the  potlatch  1951 the further  pole  the  efforts  of  British  law lessened  l a w was  a  of  Provincial  The s t a f f President  as  The  enforce  and  a  native  requested  al  in British  proposals  train  ones.  (Hawthorn et  the  the  well  Development  to  to  problems  and  the  report  revival  previous  to  as  a study  Efforts of  were  workshops  craft  made,  the  at  UBC D e p a r t m e n t  the  the  BCAWS  Hawthorn, Honorary Curator  native were  the  Affairs  An i m p o r t a n t the  on  publications  same y e a r ,  Indian  Columbia.  Audrey  the  recommendations  1951  the  Anthropology, outlined  Recommendations  basis  In  focussed  conferences,  demonstrations,  on n a t i v e  British  society  through  Henry Hawthorn, D i r e c t o r of  Anthropology  of  culture  (Dawn 1 9 8 2 : 6 4 ) .  a conference  University by  and  scholarships,  media  sponsored  arts  The  repealed  Columbia  and  the  the  (Kehoe  restoration  interested  at  committee  individuals, British  Museum.  of the Department N . M . Mackenzie of  o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and the U n i v e r s i t y of  end  46 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as w e l l as t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum s t a f f , were a l l c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e r e m a i n i n g p o l e s s t i l l s t a n d i n g — a n d d e c a y i n g — i n deserted v i l l a g e s . H.R. M a c M i l l a n was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e s e s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d , and where p o s s i b l e , s a v e d . He i n s t i g a t e d t h e Totem P o l e C o n s e r v a t i o n [ s i c ] Committee, c h a i r e d by Henry Hawthorn....(BCPM 1973: B21-B22 from Hawthorn 1 9 5 5 ) . M i c h a e l Ames, i n h i s a r t i c l e Art  of A c c u l t u r a t i o n  in British  museum a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s industries Northwest Coast  through  have  artists,  1956  7 Northwest art  and  exhibitions  of  by  and  and museums  include  t h e Raven" VAG,  C e n t e n n i a l Museum  "100  1967;  1969;  Northwest  from  1971-1980 In  Kwagiutl  1959, artist  C o a s t " Man  1986).  Henry  and  Audrey  Mungo M a r t i n  Northwest  in  These  Vancouver  A r t " VAG,  1958;  Art "Arts  Vancouver  Martin  Speck"  New  Design,  and H i s W o r l d "  Hawthorn  1970,  i n major  Twenty s i x more e x h i b i t i o n s (Ames  of  1981:4).  o f Edenshaw"  "Henry  craft  relationship  Columbia.  (VCM), 1968-70; "Mungo  unknown, 1969;  (Ames 1981:10).  were h e l d  Y e a r s o f BC "Age  a r t and  'Ksan V i l l a g e  in B r i t i s h  Retrospective" "The  the  the  that  legitimating  "People of the P o t l a t c h "  1956;  and  o f the meaning  inverting  t o the o p e n i n g o f t h e  (VAG),  and  and  states  Indian  I n d i a n s (Ames  Coast e x h i b i t i o n s  galleries  Gallery  influenced  the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  between a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s From  Columbia,"  C o a s t a r t , by p r o m o t i n g  a r t and  "Anthropologists  were  1969-70 opened  commissioned  to carve r e p l i c a s  of 2  47 Northwest to  1962,  Douglas the  Coast memorial posts Haida  Cramner  Haida In  Wilson  were  houses  the  River  intense  desire  of  restoration  and  site  by s i t e  area'  (Duff  detailed  Kitsequcla,  local  the local  group  the  elders,  was  restoration funding. riding,  In made  were  1964  out  funds,  the  and  was made  data  appeal  a  noted  in  local  and  chiefs  pole  this  to  prepare  Within  towns  were  the  compiled a  poles.  Kitwancool,  Little,  he  the  Island  continue  of  village  of  Hazelton.  recorded and  on  110  village  1981:116). involving  a 57 p a g e  immediate  Duff  gathered  visited  and  restoration  Vancouver  time,  region  submitted  request  pole  remaining  hereditary  was  Dudley  the  Islands,  River  (Dawn  construct  anthropologist  scale  1963 a g r o u p  research,  an o f f i c i a l  of  matching  field  proposal,  Within  full  poles  diagrams  canvassed  carried  for  the  of  Museum  At t h i s  volunteers  opinions  legislature days  of  1957  artist  and  i n d i v i d u a l s to  Kitwanga,  poles  design  From  Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y .  inventory of  of  Kispiox,  Additional  Skeena  Skeena  photographs  councellors  a  Kwagiutl  In August 1962,  In March  Sketches, and  for  region.  inventory  the  the  conservation.  from  and  BC P r o v i n c i a l  plans  1962:1).  individuals  for  Queen C h a r l o t t e  Skeena  two d a y s  poles  prepared  i n the  Reid  commissioned to  and  the  a more  Bill  same y e a r ,  Duff  programme and  artists,  (Kehoe 1 9 8 1 : 4 4 3 ) .  to  report,  the  funding  the  for  the  for  Skeena  River  provincial of  the  $20,000 g r a n t ,  available  native  outlining  Victoria  MLA f o r to  local  the  project. requiring  pole  restoration  48 project.  The  officially  Skeena  Totem  Pole  Restoration Project  i n c o r p o r a t e d as a s o c i e t y and began  was  work i n  1964. Various activities and  committees  of the s o c i e t y ,  administration  reconstruction Kitwancool  began  i n 1967  interest  developed  •^  Village in  conception,  4.2.1 Although museum was  Planning  o f s i x major  evident  non-native  museum  Skeena  Treasure  House  (STH)  to a s s i s t  as 1919,  National in turn.  to develop  d i d n o t emerge u n t i l  i n the development The  Northwest  of a l o c a l  plans  in Hazelton,  (Dawn 1 9 8 1 : 8 9 ) .  House,  House  members o f t h e Amalgamated  students)  of  be d i s c u s s e d  i n the development  as e a r l y  involved  Treasure  School  'Ksan  local  the Northwest  Each p r o j e c t w i l l  interest  In 1952  intention art  The  Treasure  1950's.  'Ksan.  G i t k s a n D a n c e r s , Kitanmax  Centre.  this  and  from t h e p r o c e s s e s  implementation  in  Interest in  and o p e r a t i o n o f the  I n d i a n A r t , Book B u i l d e r s and  Exhibition  and  and  initial  work b e g i n n i n g  the c o n c e p t i o n  Operational  evolved  1965,  These p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e t h e Skeena  'Ksan Houses,  Skeena  other  p r o j e c t s of  development  a p p e a r s t o have  projects.  By  finance  w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n and  gradually into  o f the i n i t i a l  the p l a n n i n g  Coast  i n K i s p i o x with  D e v e l o p m e n t a l and  The  1964:1-10).  continued  the  conservation,  (Dawn 1981:123-124).  development  development  to c o o r d i n a t e  including  (Sargent  cultural  4  were formed  initial  native the  the  School  (native  announced i t s of a n a t i v e step  i n the  Indian  49 development support  of  of the  Ceremonial  that  available  and  being  a proposal,  regional  regalia  condition  items  such  Gitksan  would o n l y  repossession that  ('Ksan  be  in  Sargent  the  Village  the  to  Hazelton  development year,  the  and  a  government, the  for  of  development  successfully  (a  of  $.40  per  Commission.  At t h i s  project. was  for  subject  per  capita,  granted  (community-provincial)  funding  basis  Together (Sargent, 1959 a by  the  variety 1959 Mrs.  $.60  these  grants  personal Hazelton of  totalled  fund-raising  (BC C e n t e n n i a l Sargent's  a  (Dawn  activities  objectives  in  the and  tourist  of funding  approval  of  the  special qualified  for  matched  $600.00  (HCC) was  1959:296  same  by  Between  and  the  1981:92).  approximately  Committee  stated  on  Committee  in  project  Under  1987).  time  the  town  library/museum  communication: Centennial  the  1974:9).  the  (Polly)  cultural, The  to  for  coordinating  Centennial  Hazelton  additional  During  of  be  interest  established  the  an  provisions  an  the  Hazelton  Margaret  purpose  ('Ksan  of  on  would  given  elected  (Dawn 1 9 8 1 ) .  capita)  museum  purposes  town  historical,  applied  G i t k s a n community  project  the  the  w o u l d be  The  and  Committee  construction  Hazelton  local  1956  library/museum  BC C e n t e n n i a l  industrial  total  to  L i b r a r y Association reported of  provincial financing  Hazelton  fee  and  Band C o u n c i l s .  ceremonial  1974:9).  incorporated  acceptance  loaned  rental  officially  the  (Carrier)  for  a small  loaned  was  1956  involved  collected f r o m Dawn the  and in  $5,658.24 1981).  development  of  50 the  STH p r o j e c t  remaining economic  local  native  3.  to  promote  and  non-native  During land  that  dissolved  and  In  museum, to  British  of  of  of  of  (Sargent,  Columbia  In  the  was  the  cultural  the  local  personal  was p r o m o t e d chosen  1959  the  again  Skeena not  Treasure  only  e x h i b i t i o n as Native art  a  gained  value  through  of  forum  Northwest  was this  (STHA).  The  (a museum  the  of  cultural  for  Gitksan  associated  this  the  funding  officially  sales,  d r a m a t i c a l l y over  as  HCC was  House  reaffirmed but  for  replaced,  House A s s o c i a t i o n  Gitksan people,  museum  the  Board  1960,  in  the  the  Treasure  opening  attention  period,  opening  Coast  art  with  due  and  the  largely  growing  elsewhere  in  province. 4.2.2 In  to  1960  increased  media  native  cohesion  (Dawn 1 9 8 1 ) .  expression.  awareness the  period  Skeena  incorporated cultural  the  communities  image  culture)  traditions  through  develop  a new H a z e l t o n C e n t e n n i a l B o a r d  established.  Gitksan  2.  a n d many C o m m i t t e e p r o j e c t s  reflected  ceremonial  region  highlight  1987).  this  1  by t h e  and  cultural objects, the  communication:  time  safeguard  of  and  'totem  to  potential  recognition native  1.  were:  The  1953,  construct  'Ksan  Houses  Victoria a Haida  Mayor  style  Museum c o l l e c t i o n s h o u s e d Although  the  project  concepts  revealed  building in  d i d not  i n the  C l a u d e H a r r i s o n announced  plan  the come  for  the  Parliament to  were,  pass,  plans  BC P r o v i n c i a l Buildings. many o f  coincidentally,  the  51 reflected  i n the eventual  influencing  factor  design  i n the design  o f 'Ksan.  1966,  the  Skeena P o l e  the  provincial  for  'Ksan  Dudley L i t t l e ,  having  previously  (Dawn 1 9 8 1 : 1 3 7 ) . .  i n an a t t e m p t Largely  Houses p r o j e c t became A g r i c u l t u r a l project  at B a r k e r v i l l e .  R e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t , appealed legislature  concrete  o f 'Ksan was t h e f u n d i n g o f  a d e v e l o p m e n t o f an o u t d o o r museum February  A more  supported  once a g a i n t o  to raise  as a r e s u l t , and R u r a l  In  funding t h e 'Ksan  Development A c t  no. 39002. W i t h i n t h e Skeena B u l k l e y R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t a r e a i t i s p r o p o s e d t o have d e v e l o p e d with I n d i a n l a b o r a h i s t o r i c I n d i a n V i l l a g e as a tourist attraction. A s s o c i a t e d with t h i s w i l l be f a c i l i t i e s f o r making and s e l l i n g I n d i a n h a n d i c r a f t s t h u s p r o v i d i n g income and j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r underemployed p e r s o n s mainly Indians. A l s o r e l a t e d t o t h i s phase w i l l be t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and m a i n t e n a n c e o f a campground by n a t i v e I n d i a n s on I n d i a n l a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h P r o v i n c i a l Park s t a n d a r d s (ARDA 1 9 6 7 ) .  In 1967 a committee coordinate Ward, C h i e f advisor  t h e 'Ksan Houses p r o j e c t . Conservator  was formed t o A r e p o r t by P h i l i p  o f t h e BC P r o v i n c i a l  t o the group o f v o l u n t e e r s ,  information  o f t h e Skeena T r e a s u r e  the 6 years  o f t h e STH t h e y  Museum and  indicated that  r e l e v a n t t o 'Ksan was g a i n e d  implementation during  of volunteers  through the  House.  had l e a r n e d  He s t a t e s  that  that:  (a) t h e Museum i s n o t b i g enough t o t r u l y d e p i c t I n d i a n l i f e as i t was i n t h e o l d d a y s ; (b) t h e r e i s a g r e a t demand f o r g e n u i n e I n d i a n h a n d i c r a f t , which t h e Museum s e l l s ; (c) t h e r e i s a g r e a t t o u r i s t i n t e r e s t i n ancient Indian lore....(d) the demand f o r h a n d i c r a f t s and t h e r e s u l t i n g s a l e s has made t h e Museum c o m p l e t e l y s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g (ARDA 1 9 6 7 ) .  52  The  initial  cost  estimates  h o u s e s was $ 2 2 0 , 0 0 0 . was  designated  adjacent  village  f o r the campsite  i t was d e s i g n e d of Hazelton  $30,000  from  the c o s t ,  from  The  basis  from  formed  ('Ksan 1 9 7 4 : 1 2 ) .  (Skeena  The  was, and i s , The  60's was o f f i c i a l l y  i n the e a r l y  i n May 1968. i n t o 4 separate  F r o g House o f t h e D i s t a n t  Our G r a n d f a t h e r s  as i t s s h a r e  t h e G i t k s a n Band C o u n c i l .  'Ksan Houses a r e d i v i d e d  Treasures  offered,  (Dawn  House b u i l d i n g and p a r t o f  a $15,000 g r a n t  as a s o c i e t y  houses—the  the f e d e r a l  t h e 'Ksan Houses a r e b u i l t  'Ksan A s s o c i a t i o n ,  The  t h e p r o v i n c i a l government and  The town o f H a z e l t o n  on a y e a r l y  registered  from  t o the  o f 'Ksan  'Ksan v i s i t o r s .  $60,000  t h e Skeena T r e a s u r e  upon which  full  was t o be t r a n s f e r r e d  to service  received  c o l l e c t i o n s and  leased  of  campground  Upon c o m p l e t i o n ,  t h e H a z e l t o n m u n i c i p a l government  1981:144-145).  land  federal dollars  o f a 30 u n i t  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  government, $30,000  its  thousand  of the  G i t k s a n band c o u n c i l and d i d n o t become p a r t  although  of  One h u n d r e d  t o t h e museum f a c i l i t i e s .  responsibility local  for  for the construction  (Feast  Treasure  Past,  t h e Wolf  House), the Fireweed  House  House o f  H o u s e ) , and t h e Today House o f  Sales. The August  'Ksan Houses o f f i c i a l l y  12,  festivities  1970  ('Ksan 1 9 7 4 : 1 7 ) .  o f t h e Skeena T r e a s u r e  'Ksan Houses r e - a f f i r m e d ceremonies.  opened  As i n t h e o p e n i n g House, t h e o p e n i n g  traditional  W.A.C. B e n n e t t  t o t h e p u b l i c on  pole  officiated  of  the  raising  t h e ceremony  and gave  53 'Ksan  funds  for  the  commemorate  the  occasion.  in  October  School  of  1970 and  The F r o g before  settlement. supported  display  various  8 foot  a  of  slave.  dishes  the  Frog  ladles  and  4.2.2.2  in  60 f o o t  include for  clan. from  the  weaving;  and  are  clad  On  in  the  devised as  well  to as  12  Gitksan  a  and  drying  Shaman his  playing a traditional are  Split  w e a v i n g and  a chief  log  posts  articles  traditional  or  wife;  stick  a game;  reconstructed  surrounded  by b e n t  boxes,  food  furs. House o f  A wide p l a t f o r m  around  the  a massive  Wolf  our  immediately  housing  style  household  period  stage,  of  been  the  a  or  Gitksan  and  has  the  on  exploration  phratry  house,  focusses  represents  wooden p l a t f o r m  a patient;  The W o l f  The s e c o n d  Past  Past  roof.  figures  clothing  Distant  the  activities  completed Kitanmax  form  gamblers The  the  constructed  different  portraying  and  was  t r a d i t i o n a l l y carved  in preparation  a helper  traditional  the  European  pre-contact  These  wool  small, group and  wide  figures  activities.  Halayt,  of  of  are  for  to  Art.  Distant  of  house  House  new home  Gitksan architecture,  an  goat  the  somewhat  inside,  wild  House  by  a carving  Indian  beams  end  crests  planks,  size  roof  on each  traditional  life  of  advent  The  representing cedar  House  the  the  Coast  The F r o g  of  The C a r v i n g  became  Northwest  4.2.2.1  life  building  House  inside painted  Grandfathers of  the  following w a l l s has screen,  Grandfathers, the been  has  fur  trade.  formed  been  and  built  to  54 provide  a structure  for  ceremonial  house.  Two f i g u r e s  are  draped  especially figures  for  the  i n the  button  Frog  House,  in ceremonial  although, these  are  in  regalia  unlike  people  held  the  the  (made  other  clothed  in  the  blankets. 4.2.2.3  The  modern  The F i r e w e e d H o u s e  third  relatively  house,  It  depicted  directly  the  contemporary  period.  periods  or  exhibit)  performances  is  in  historical  Gitksan artifacts  the  houses  of  categories  The T o d a y H o u s e  The T o d a y H o u s e  of  Sales  to  note  'Ksan  Treasures  houses  from  the  most  that  a l l  three  have  outlined  interpretations i n the  of  been  in  taken  ethnological  Sales  offers of  non-Gitksan  art  made  also  the  administrative  houses  of  literature.  4.2.2.4  contemporary  Treasures  F i r e w e e d House  interesting  from academic  of  high  quality  traditional  Gitksan  Hazelton area. office  of  and  The s a l e s  the  house  Director  of  the  'Ksan A s s o c i a t i o n . 4.2.3  The G i t k s a n o r  The G i t k s a n D a n c e r s relationship Sargent. recorded travelled recently have songs  and  local  now t o t a l  nationally performed begun  dances  over  and  at to  Dancers  evolved gradually  T r a d i t i o n a l songs  recently and  between  'Ksan  native and  elders  dances  400.  and  were  interpret  i n contemporary  a  trust  Mrs.  Polly  eventually  The G i t k s a n D a n c e r s  internationally  Vancouver's  from  Expo  and  '86.  traditional forms.  have The  have  most Dancers  native  Indian  55 4.2.4  The K i t a n m a x S c h o o l  Funding Northwest of  the  Coast  Art  1967  the  year  for  development (KSNA)  was  ARDA a g r e e m e n t  programme  in  of  Northwest of  Indian  Kitanmax School  established  which  leadership  the  Coast  under  the  of  terms  $30,000 f o r  provided  Art  a  2  training.  . . . i n order t h a t the q u a l i t y of genuine I n d i a n h a n d i c r a f t s c a n be m a i n t a i n e d i n s u f f i c i e n t v o l u m e t o meet a n t i c i p a t e d demand, i t i s c o n s i d e r e d necessary to conduct a program of t r a i n i n g for p o t e n t i a l I n d i a n a r t i s a n s and f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e h a n d i c r a f t s k i l l s a n d t e c h n i q u e s o f t h o s e who h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d a b i l i t y (ARDA 1970).  Initial carving, Ward, the of  lessons  painting  Chief  School  at  artistic  at  expressed  styles.  non-Gitksan  art  Kitanmax School  and m e t a l  Conservator and  the  In  engraving. the  his  Museum,  regarding  report,  Ward  on  1968,  In June  BC P r o v i n c i a l  concern  1968  a  centered  the  states  Philip visited  melding that  instructors:  a r e v e r y p r o n e , when w o r k i n g i n t h e s t y l e o f another t r i b e , t o i m p o s e t h e i r own i r r e p r e s s i b l e p e r s o n a l i t y on e i t h e r t h e work o r t h e m a n . . . I n t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h e x i s t s a t ' K s a n , t h e d a n g e r w i l l be e x t r e m e w h a t e v e r t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r s . . . . The d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s because the t e a c h e r s cannot p o s s i b l y teach techniques without demonstrating their own s t y l e s , w h i c h a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e styles o f t h e G i t k s a n . . . i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e new g e n e r a t i o n of a r t i s t s p r o d u c e d by ' K s a n w i l l work n a t u r a l l y o n l y i n t h e K w a k i u t l [ s i c ] s t y l e o f Tony H u n t , the H a i d a s t y l e o f Bob D a v i d s o n , the T l i n g i t s t y l e o f B i l l Holm or more p r o b a b l y a f o r m l e s s m i x t u r e o f them a l l ( W a r d 1968:7-8).  Gitksan effects  of  to  that  note  art  did,  pan-Indian with  in  fact,  initially  influences,  artistic  suffer  although  maturity  the  it  artists  from is  the  important ability  to  56 create  rather  In from  1969,  than  copy  increased.  the Kitanmax  the newly e s t a b l i s h e d  Thirty-eight that,  thousand  School First  dollars  $3,000 was s e t a s i d e  additional  Citizen's  funds  Fund.  was a l l o t t e d  to  'Ksan  and, of  f o r t h e c a r v i n g o f p o l e s by  apprentice  carvers  the  i n 1969 a n d r e p o r t e d  School  (Dawn  received  1981:178).  Philip  Ward  returned  to  that:  The n o n - I n d i a n i n s t r u c t o r s h a d b e e n b y f a r more s u c c e s s f u l and t h e y , a l o n e , have r i s e n t o t h e c h a l l e n g e o f l e a r n i n g a n d a t t h e same t i m e , t e a c h i n g the G i t k s a n s t y l e . The w o r k o f B i l l Holm a n d Duane P a s c o was i m m e d i a t e l y i m p r e s s i v e i n t h i s r e s p e c t and i t became q u i t e o b v i o u s t h a t t h e y h a d by f a r t h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t upon t h e i r p u p i l s (1969:2).  During and  the winter  ARDA f u n d i n g e x t e n d e d .  applications accredited Kitanmax  support  were  under  School  vocational  were  In the s p r i n g of  t o have  the p r o v i n c i a l was o f f i c i a l l y  f o r the Department continued  and  i n 1971,  was  incorporated  previous  made  courses  Kitanmax Trade  School  opened  as a  under  o f Manpower  ARDA a g r e e m e n t  Act.  major  components—a  1981:180).  the following  89031,  a publicity  about  'Ksan.  The p u b l i c i t y  cataloque,  Of t h e $16,600  project  a p u b l i c a t i o n and a (shared  $3,500 was d i r e c t e d  The  for additional  to maximize the economic e f f e c t s  2 ARDA a g r e e m e n t s .  the p r o j e c t ,  officially  registered  (Dawn  to formalize over  formalized  1970,  School  s c h o o l i n 1970 a n d h a d q u a l i f i e d  Instruction  to  o f 1969-70,  expenditure) toward  the  year project  of the involved film allotted  3  57 (Dawn 1 9 8 1 : 1 8 3 ) .  catalogue promote  the s a l e of a r t pieces  ARDA T r a i n i n g distribute outlets  The c a t a l o g u e  Project.  group of a r t d e a l e r s ,  top q u a l i t y a r t both  architects  using  cultural  of  In t h e f o l l o w i n g  with  the a s s i s t a n c e  year,  a magazine  of the B e a u t i f u l B r i t i s h  on 'Ksan  design  (Dawn  i n 1973 and won a v a r i e t y  was r e l e a s e d  North American a r t i c l e s  was  published,  Columbia  f o r p u b l i c a t i o n of 1981:185).  (Dawn  t h e same d e c a d e , t h e 'Ksan P u b l i c i t y P r o j e c t was  supplemented Kitanmax  by a major  artists  Ottawa  accompanying  e x h i b i t i o n on t h e work o f  which c o i n c i d e d  'Ksan D a n c e r s a t t h e N a t i o n a l and  in interior  A n o t h e r $ 2 , 5 0 0 was s e t a s i d e  Magazine.  In  was a l s o made a v a i l a b l e t o  motifs  The f i l m  museums and  n a t i o n a l l y and  The c a t a l o g u e  1981:1985). awards.  p r o d u c e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e  The c a t a l o g u e was d e s i g n e d t o  to a selected  internationally.  was d e s i g n e d t o  book,  with  the performance of  A r tCentre.  entitled  The e x h i b i t i o n  "'Ksan: B r e a t h  of our  G r a n d f a t h e r s , was p r o d u c e d by t h e N a t i o n a l  Museum o f  Man.  including  for  Several  l a r g e r Commissions  t h e R o y a l Bank o f Canada  followed,  the  ones  and t h e UBC Museum o f  Anthropology. 4.2.5.  The Book  Builders  The Book B u i l d e r s and  write  articles. 4.2.6. In  local  were e s t a b l i s h e d  knowledge  At present,  as w e l l  5 titles  i n 1970 t o r e s e a r c h  as p u b l i s h  have  The N o r t h w e s t e r n N a t i o n a l  been  books and  published.  Exhibition  Centre  1973 an a p p l i c a t i o n f r o m t h e 'Ksan A s s o c i a t i o n was  58 submitted, build the  to  the  a museum  other  of  'Ksan  protected  from  the  Gitksan objects  Houses. loss  communication: from  N a t i o n a l Museums o f  These  through  1985).  In  library/museum  a temporary  holding  After  discussions  with  and  correspondence  Policy,  $75,000  construction accepting fulfil total  the  the  with  Exhibition the  the  some  building  the  operational  seed  time,  return  managed  According  to  to  operations  Exhibition operating  Hazelton NNEC a t  John  Committee costs  (Heath  (and  'Ksan.  advisor  the  1980:4).  A s s o c i a t i o n agreed  $251,000—$121,000 the  remainder  (Heath  In to  paid paid  1980:4).  money  for  the  and  not  adequately  was  NNEC a l m o s t to  financially  Heath  in his with  and  funding  1976 a m e e t i n g  Centre funds  NNEC, had of  S o c i e t y was were  but,  made  in  footing. report  the  provisions  not  been  the  the  for.  1980 c o n s u l t a n t ' s  the  the  the  'Ksan  solid  by by  planned  bankrupt  The  Although of  physical  Kyte,  o n Museum  toward  construction  administration 17,  locations  the  associated  On F e b r u a r y  $20,000 o f  the  Terrance  problems  National  Centre  personal  for  requirements of  museums  capital  'Ksan  was  money  The c o n s t r u c t i o n  out.  for  sources  remaining  the  in  N a t i o n a l Museums C o r p o r a t i o n .  Centre  private  to  to  well  (Hope,  in central  funding  housed  not  STH c h a n g e d  Consultative  the  the  and  NNEC h a d  the  the  for  not  were  theft  facility)  granted  of  the  Museums C o r p o r a t i o n a n d  provincial  on  1976  or  provincial  funding,  of  fire  was  goals  cost  National  of  currently  objects  building  later  Canada,  for  spelled  Northwestern  called.  available  In to  1976-77, the  59  Exhibition involved  Centre.  in  the  T h e new  A s s o c i a t i o n and  'Ksan  was  the  located  the  on.  Northwestern  band  These  opened  i n October  January  1977 a  joint  the  NNEC was h e l d  payment  council  problems  and  1976  meeting  the  two m o t i o n s  of  rent  remained  to  land  unresolved (NNEC)  1980:5).  'Ksan  the  the  Centre  (Heath  of  immediately  who o w n e d  National Exhibition  officially 4,  became  complex problem of  'Ksan  but  society  On  A s s o c i a t i o n and  passed.  1. T h a t ' K s a n t a k e o v e r t h e f i n a n c i a l management o f t h e E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e b u i l d i n g , and 2 . T h a t t h e E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e o p e r a t e t h e e x h i b i t i o n room and t h e r e c e i v i n g room u n d e r a b u d g e t e s t a b l i s h e d between ' K s a n and the E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e G r o u p . The NNES was d i s b a n d e d a t t h i s t i m e (NNES m i n u t e s : 1 9 7 7 ) . The p u r p o s e then of  Acting  of  Director  Canadian c u l t u r a l  northern manner  British (Heath  the  Exhibition  Eve Hope, life  and  Columbians  covered  the  floor  located  on  the  main  to  the  show  variety  lively  and  expressed many  of  art  by  facets forms  to  imaginative  1980:7).  building  in  as  a wide  in a  The N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n  main  was  Centre,  i n cedar  of  that  The  is  occupies  building.  in a separate floor.  and  Centre  The  576 s q u a r e remainder  of  a  two s t o r e y  1,600 'Ksan  foot the  cement  square Treasure  area  which  building  is  feet  of  House is  also  60  comprised  of  a 2,041  square  foot  storage  square  foot  workshop  space.  This  of  main  floor  used  the  the  and  the  room  'Ksan  is  Dancers.  located  T h e NNEC  is  on  is  second  administered  of  'Ksan  Centre  is  a non-voting  member  act  (Heath  by a  9 member  Centre  is  not  a  Association  (Heath  1980:8).  NNEC,  as  by  Centre's  the  the  the  2 other  The  separate  The o b j e c t i v e Director  of  and  Centre.  society  Museum  executive  executive  to  rear  1980:6).  member  the  the  lecture/meeting  The d i r e c t o r  'Ksan  outlined  at  Association. of  1,148  a  Centre,  foot  floor  informal advisors  Museum/Education  square  and  located  Exhibition  1,456  A  the  committee  as  the  by  space,  area  from of  the  the  is:  1. t o p r e s e n t a n u m b e r o f g o o d q u a l i t y l o c a l , r e g i o n a l a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x h i b i t i o n s , 2. t o i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r s s u c h as h i s t o r y , s c i e n c e a n d a r t a n d 3. t o p r e s e n t i n t e r p r e t i v e programming r e l a t e d to the e x h i b i t i o n s (Hope, p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1985). In to  1980 T e r r a n c e  b e made  changes  to  maintain  Heath the  concluded viability  that of  the  two c h a n g e s NNEC.  had  These  were: 1.  The r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e - b u d g e t i n g o f t h e C e n t r e as a N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e o r 2. T h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e f a c i l i t y s o l e l y i n t o a museum.  61 Although the  budgetary  had  not  seen  NNEC a n d  funding power  to  only  later for  implement  a n d NNEC  funds  believed of  This  the  data  cultural  need  backdrop  for  The  variety  developed  and  of  the  a  for  has  Heath  the  initial  'Ksan  it  of  the  been Report  the  to  perception  Indian  culture.  of  Most  money b u t  the  the  and  region.  political economic  and  appropriate  'Ksan.  the  has  or  evolved  implementation of A l l the  through  the  have  maintained  projects  of  required a level  a  local  interpretation  projects  have  positive  a strident  created  and n o n - n a t i v e  literature  within  cultural projects. been  Significant  cultural  'Ksan V i l l a g e  through  demise  regalia.  p r o v i d e d an  projects  time,  have  and  the  record  ceremonial  growing  widely  that  inevitable. groups,  region  the  was  reactions—both  development,  over  seed  Association  'Ksan.  circles  body o f  native  government  the  c u l t u r a l development  within for  was  collect  local  e c o n o m i c and at  of  on  financial  however,  i n 1942,  academic  society  and  development  of  on t h e  Nothing,  Report  coupled with  incrementally,  based  responsible  draw h e a v i l y on  produced  a series  sophistication  took  by n o n - n a t i v e  only  reaction,  to  NNEC,  A s s o c i a t o n , the  recommendations  and  negative—regarding This  the  financially  NNEC.  Farrell  made,  not  evoked  as  for  Summary  anthropological  but  the the  culture  were  'Ksan  explicitly  i n government  native  efforts  to  obtained  the  continue  4 •^ Chapter Prior  of  themselves  responsibility done  was  of  native  62  self-sufficiency The separate a)  within  six projects  of  categories.  These  Internal—local  actors  involved  Treasure b)  knowledge  Internal  in  the  Coast  'Ksan  local  (Northwestern  non-local  and  the  'Ksan  local  and  knowledge  in  the  three  local  Builders);  local  and  Centre,  and  local  (Skeena  non-local  development  Exhibition  process  into  and  process  Book  incentive,  and  whole.  fall  process  'Ksan  External—local incentive,  knowledge  a  are:  Dancers  actors  as  Village  developmental  National  development  Houses)  local  and  non-local actors  (Kitanmax School  of  and  involved  Northwest  Indian A r t ) . The  nature  developed Skeena  varies  other  developed  with  museological  House,  than an  history  and  a  of  state  displayed art  'Ksan  and  have  in  art  the  gallery  and  and  component  access  cultural  adopted  strong  of  of of  have  external has  combination of  knowledge.  The  contemporary pre  native  the  The  in contrast,  and  post  reference  local  have  Builders to  to  Indian  native NNEC  is  contact  local  The museum c o m p o n e n t  exhibit  context  Book  effective  concerning  without  projects  classifications.  The N N E C ,  local  prehistory. the  these  Dancers  interesting  thought  cultures,  which  funding.  however,  anthropological  to  i n t e r n a l l y without  thought  Houses,  native  degree  markedly between  completely  resources  'Ksan  and  Treasure  evolved  The  the  Plus—local  and  'Ksan V i l l a g e  incentive,  in  House,  Internal  c)  the  of  native  the  cultural  NNEC  objects  interpretation. a  is  complementary,  63 yet  distinctive  managed  to  artistic  use  element  of  technical  technique  and  of  Gitksan  According  to  the  populations provided, economic  in  the with  knowledge  eventually  interpretation  interviewed,  "Ksan.  of  a cultural  turn,  cultural  development  and  on N o r t h w e s t evolve  their  has  Coast own  style.  various  projects  The K i t a n m a x S c h o o l  native 'Ksan  and  have  non-native provided  persons  the  local  and  economic  focus  and  artistic  recognition,  personal  satisfaction  which  and  has  identity.  64 Table The  1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1963 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987  Skeena Treasure House  IV  Six Projects  of  'Ksan  'Ksan Houses  Gitksan Dancers  Kitanmax School Book Builders  FIGURE KSAN  VILLAGE  5 COMPLEX  ON  Organizational  TABLE S C h a r t of the  'Ksan  Association  Conunittttl Proliant GraunJi  Museum  CW-  CJ.7-  Camwiitu.  Wei.  Pniiatnt  Stcrcttry  TriA»i*rtr  •f  Ltfornu  FVrf •rating  Office  Art,  VcUlWTMW PuiTlMS  (Up.  fWIM  tv,t»  lv.t.  GreurJl I I  H.^ltw.  I  Nw  Rt*.  H*uJt  M  1  iff*  lv.t.  1 ».tt  Ink  t*.—.:+t.»  0\ftirpcr«oa Htmlx/i  bp. l.oV  a  whi  r  'K**ft  fVcitct  Dir»&t»r  7t«tf«r«ry Cf»ftnpi^fl«  7 WHO  67 Chapter  5: W e s t c o a s t  Cultural  The M a k a h p e o p l e the  West  group.  Coast  of the Northwest  culture  group  Quileute  and  linguistically similar  Island  of Washington  (Figure  The  6,  page  territories  approximately Vancouver  distinct  of Barkley  Pachena  Northern Chicklisit, Moachat ranged  Ucluelet,  of  British  Washington  Sound,  o f Vancouver  tribes  range  the western  from Cape  Cook  Within  2)  Cape  Nitinat  people  portion of  this  a  to Ozette area,  in  three  Ehatisat,  tribes  Central  (Drucker  West  of the  M u c h a l a t and Coast  tribes  t o B a r k l e y Sound and  Ahousat,  Kelsemat,  Hopachisat,  included  (Duff  Flattery.  consisted  Nuchatlet,  Penninsula  Uchucklisat,  Eastern  (central)—encompassing  o f Cape  traditionally  In c o n t r a s t ,  Cook t o t h e  a n d 3) M a k a h  by t h e p e o p l e  Columbia, State  are s o c i a l l y  spoken:  the Hesquiat,  Southern  along  (northern)—from  Kyuquot,  Toquat,  Coast  1983:1).  were  from H e s q u i a t  encompassed  Ohiaht.  (Arima  tribes  tribes.  t h e Makahs  68).  direction  and N i t i n a t  (southern)--spoken  linguistic  and t h e O l y m p i c P e n i n s u l a — i n  languages  Nootka proper  shore the  State  a r e members o f  t o the C l a l l a m and  to the N i t i n a t  o f t h e West  northwest-southeast Washington  closer  State,  300 k i l o m e t e r s  Island  Coast  and t h e Wakashan  Although geographically  the  1)  Disintegration  1951:1).  Tsishaat  the N i t i n a t  1964:23-24)  Clayoquot, and  and P a c h e n a t ,  and t h e Makah o f  69  West  Coast  Ethnic Division  Regional Groups  West Coast  Northern  Central  Southern  Table V i Geographical  Divisions  Reserve Name ( 1 9 1 6 )  Present Name  Chickliset  Checkleset  Kyuquot Ehatisat Nuchatlet Muchalat  Kyuquot Esperanza Esperanza Nootka  Moachat  Nootka  (joined Kyuquot) Kyuquot Ehattesaht Nuchatlaht (joined Nootka) Nootka  Hesquiat Ahousat Kelsemat  Hesquiat Clayoquot Clayoquot  Clayoquot Ucluelet Toquat Uhucklisat Hopachisat Tsishaat Ohiat  Clayoquot Ucluelet Toquart Uhuckles i t Opitchisaht Seshart Ohiet  Hesquiaht Ahousaht (joined Ahousaht) Clayoquot Ucluelet Toquaht Uhucklesaht Opetchesaht Sheshaht Ohiet  Nitinat Pachena  Nitinat Pacheena  Nitinaht Pacheenaht  Tribes & Band  Neah Bay Ba-a-da Wa-atch Tsoo-yas  Makah Makah Makah Makah  A d a p t e d f r o m D u f f , V o l . 1, and D r u c k e r 1951:22  1964:24  FIGURE OLYMPIC  7  PENINSULA  71 5.1  Government Fur  In  Stage  an  civil  act and  was  passed  criminal  in  of  North /America.  Shortly  grant  of  exclusive  with  the  Hudson's  Company and Hudson's  the  wealth.  to  The of  practice between  in  United  the  Pacific  adapt  Puget  slaves  Sound  and  what  1882 t h e  the  In  made  a  America  Northwest  form  1827  the  the  Britain,  Northwest,  to  certain  North  to  and  Forty  after  was  the  49th  1849,  transferred Interior  from  new earlier  concerning  renewed  became a  the  and of  tribes  and  became  (Hoonan  slaves  as  into  wealth.  the  a the  Warfare  increased began  territory.  the  to  By  boundary  a political  slogan  focus.  Canadian-US border  In was  1964:15).  Bureau of  Department  found  evolved  Washington  negotiations,  new  other  A few p i o n e e r s  flood  (Taylor 1983:73).  Makahs and  taking  1977:38).  American the  of  objects  Canadian  Fight"  parallel  the  the  escalated  become  or  lengthy  activity  as  Jr.  later  t r i c k l e had  "Fifty-four,  the  States  practice  conflicts  taking  i n to  By  the  parliament  King  of  time  s i g n i f i c a n t l y to  traditional  tribal of  trading  filter  at  Indians  At this  the  (Deloria  set  the  (Swan 1 9 7 2 a : 3 7 8 ) .  tremendously  1846,  British  Hudson Bay Company merged  increased  began  result  and  1964:15).  With tribes  the  after,  the  Bay Company.  between  occupancy  (Hoonan  trade  Bay Company  convention joint  Paternalism  jurisdiction within  parts  to  I:  Trade  1821,  establish  Intervention,  of  Indian  War t o  By 1 8 5 0 ,  Affairs  the 500  was  Department American  of  72 settlers year,  had  the  Indian  Congress,  of  the  to  Jr.  not  land  over  in other  on  West  white  oil  the  5.2  land.  of  The  to  In the  get of  1850's  most  to  the  the  had  northwest  the  history  non-native the  westcoast  general  development  west  same  American  on  of  the  formal  increasing  due  the  by  tribes  an  of  towns  and  increasing  affect  1983:  140).  stimulated  trade  production  and  sale  of  dogfish  West  activity  in  the  Coast  p r i n c i p a l l y used helping  (Swan  Government  of  (Arima  a major  w h i c h was  the  While  the  products  into  contruction  by  one  people  T h e o i l was  machinery  is  economy.  developed  1850's.  for  native  passed,  From the  farming,  Coast  in  cessions  areas  northwest.  United States  by s e t t l e r s  for  cities  for  the  native  the  A c t was  coast  occupied  demand  in  1977:50-53).  unsuitability  the  land  Treaty  northwest  influence was  up  requiring  agreements (Deloria  taken  to  meet  to  the  Increased and  employment  lubricate demand  for  lumber  1870:32).  Intervention,  Stage  II:  Treaties  and  Assimilation The  tribes  of  the  Puget  about  the  of  wholesale  massacres  of  miners.  The  situation  grew  intense  to  the  confusion,  abait  territory region Stevens  and  appointed  (Deloria Jr. was  directed  to  the  area  concerned south  settlers  Sound  more  Congress  sign  becoming  more  when w o r d a r r i v e d Indian  to  the  bring  Governor treaties  villages  and,  declared  a governor  1977:53). to  area  were  by  an  the  attempt  northwest  calm to  Isaac  with  in  from  a  the  Ingalls tribes  of  73  the  new  territory  transcontinental United  26,  interpreter  In  1854  1977:55-57).  1854 the  Colonel  agreement  signed  the  was  Hoko R i v e r ,  Flattery; to  given  the  land  ceded  to  of  first  on  the  of the  protect  and  traditional rights,  right  fish  the  at  by  the  states  that  accustomed  the  Makah d e f i n i t i o n  'stations'  The political villages  treaty  also  began  organization into  one  body.  to  leading  to  the  over  the  entire  group,  them.  With  the  establishment  of  along  the  8,  page  this of  treaty  the  treaty, the  'stations'. however,  was of  1977:63).  a new  form  coalescence  of of  appointed  village  the  tribe  included patches  Stevens  with  of  tribe  understand,  promote  the  Cape  Makah have or  an  mouth  north  4,  and  and  Quileute  that  (Deloria Jr.  Governor  chiefs  to  the  'grounds'  that  groups  chief  treaty  the  Clallam  the  didn't  lineage  by  Article  American government  by  west  Makah f e l t  the  owned  at  Jr.  Simmons  1899:800),(Figure  What  ocean  Mike  mountains;  rights.  of  Stevens,  the  on  (Deloria  this  area  occupied  the  In  of  and  a Makah c h i e f ,  Fuca;  Range  began  agent  the  of  a  section  signed  1964:19).  land  for  Governor  Se-Kowthl,  United States  fishing  to  1855,  Straits  securing  was  territorial  Coast  Stevens  northern  M a k a h was  the  the  the  treaty  31,  with  the  route  negotiations  American Ethnology,  Governor  would  treaty  (Hoonan  along  summits  (Bureau 74)  east  to  a new  across  Shaw,  men m e t  area  survey  On J a n u a r y  12 a d d i t i o n a l  total  to  railroad  States.  December  and  Indian  chiefs agency,  the head  under a l l  5  FIGURE MAKAH  8  RESERVATION  75 villages  were  traditional by  placed  village  under and  common o w n e r s h i p o n After  the  Treaty  the  to  region  of Washington State  United  States.  non-native between from  the  the  committments. ratified  in  near  of  1857  after  he  school  at  Neah B a y .  tended  to  rigidly  assimilation potlatching  of  to  N e a h B a y was  Jr  1977:57).  successive to  native  ceremonial  abolished  by f e d e r a l  ceremonies  were  alive  areas and  of  the  reserve,  but  t r a d i t i o n a l customs  of  by  began  its  area. first  agent,  For  Indian however, the  meetings  die  dances,  events some  men, Shortly  governing  social  treaty  654 Makah  social  order.  secret  to  stemmed  The K l o q u a l l y  and  constant  and  have  the  Indian  people.  native  conflicts  Flattery  regulations  officially  kept  Cape  the  officially  indicating that the  to  fulfill  of  superintendent  The  and o t h e r  Subsequent  States  in  situation  ceded  between  United  adhere  the  formally out  replaced  southwestern  people  a census  appointed  political  native  (Deloria  were  1953:76).  i n the  never broke  The  land  the  children lived was  was  and  the  to  (Colson  Land  Seattle.  The T r e a t y  Swan p r e p a r e d women a n d  rapidly.  government  failure  reserve  1856 a war  persons  claims  Neah B a y , t h e  seemed  In  jurisdiction.  lineage  of  deteriorate  one  were  time  in  these  remote  pressure  away q u i e t l y  prevailed (Hoonan  1964:23). A board President Department  in of  of  Indian  1869 the  to  commissioners  control native  Interior  (Taylor  was  appointed  affairs 1983:65).  jointly  by  the  with  the  76 In  1872,  school  the  was  first  opened  permitted  students  were  daily  in  taught  attempted  to  wean  customs.  Attendance  imprisoned  until  Many o f in  the  generation brought by  the  Indian  with late and  them  the  their  to  1887  to  support  assumption  of  many  assignment  of  maintenance governing  of  and  the  l a w and  Indian  native  Sound  of  one  and  canning  developed  Indians the  Jr.  and  between  1977:102).  in  1871,  passage of  the of  traditional  adequately  tribal  area  Scandinavians  fishing  inability  themselves  and  often  Puget  The  (Deloria  the  and  missionaries,  the  had  with  aspects  resulted  government  in  by  number  of  government  officials  reservations  to  administer  the  allotments  of  i n church  1953:20).  reservations,  An i n c r e a s e d to  of  fishermen  groups  dispatched  in  conflict  treaty-making  Indians  Agents.  to  compulsory  homeland.  knowledge  serious  Allotment Act in  Indian were  of  settling  their  Scandinavian of  exposed  c h i l d r e n were  (Colson  and  dress,  S c a n d i n a v i a n decent—many  from  1880's  confinement  hunting  relented  of  removed  their  only  traditional  s c h o o l was  send  Europeans  were  The c e s s a t i o n  the  they  the  1880's  to  the  of  were  from  the  dormitories  qualified  pupils  at  or  attendance  often  residential  was  standards  mandatory  their  who r e f u s e d  English  Students  Teachers,  Affairs  classrooms  American  through  prayer.  parents  the  and manners.  Christianity  Indian  i n Neah B a y .  language  cleanliness  Bureau of  of  order  land, and  communities  disbursement other  duties  of  rations,  related  (Taylor 1983:66).  to  Indian  the  77 agents and  recognized  promoted  the n a t u r a l formation  t h e c o u n c i l s as a r e g u l a r f e a t u r e o f r e s e r v e  By t h e mid 1880's a l l r e s e r v a t i o n s had t h e i r own  life.  councils, heard  police  cases  agents. evolve  f o r c e and a s y s t e m  and were s u b j e c t  Thus  i n Alaskan  Neah Bay t r e a t y . violating  for native as 1 8 1 7 .  as e a r l y  receiving  citizenship  responsibility The  ritual  prohibited.  the k i l l i n g  would  reach  nature  were e i t h e r  by R u s s i a  A c t o f 1887  o f l a n d would  (Taylor  of native Activities  discouraged  jail  provided  become to provide  f o BIA's  trust  1983:66). Indian  life  was b e i n g  of a ceremonial or or completely  inspected the housekeeping of of giving  of c l e a n l i n e s s  i n the l o c a l  In t h e w i n t e r  had been c o n f e r r e d by  on t e r m i n a t i o n  sometimes  h i s standards  imprisonment  States  terms were ammended  accrue  for the land  Agents  Indians  women and one made i t a p r a c t i c e to  of f u r seals w i t h i n  to the United  allotments  on a l l f r o n t s .  nature  the  and impounded f o r  The A l l o t m e n t  but these  traditional  suppressed  v e s s e l and  1977:105).  American c i t i z e n s that  97-98).  the p r o v i s i o n of  The s h i p was c a p t u r e d  Citizenship  Indians  which  of Indian  a whaling  w a t e r s under  an a c t p r o h i b i t i n g  (Deloria J r .  courts  ( D e l o r i a J r . 1977:  purchased  the w a t e r s p r e v i o u s l y ceded  treaty  to the appeal  some form o f government  went s e a l i n g  of t r i b a l  i t was p o s s i b l e f o r t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s t o  In 1889 a Makah f i s h e r m a n  that  of informal c o u n c i l s  (Arima  women who  failed  a few days 1983:144).  o f 1888 a whooping cough  and m e a s l e s  78 epidemic Sound  swept  area,  severly  Penninsula. following reduced  through  of  the  interpretation commissioner Department  of  of  of  to  all  ages  schools  on  the  the  the  Puget  Olympic  perished of  in  and  area  by  was  the drastically  1977:95).  When W a s h i n g t o n began  pupils  population  (Deloria Jr.  questions  government  hitting  Indians  spring  the  was  recognized  as  arise  concerning  j u r i s d i c t i o n over  treaties.  In  Indian  fisheries  Fisheries  was  was  created  a  state  in  February and  established  1889, the  1890,  shortly  (Deloria  a  after  a  Jr.  1977:101-105). In  1893 an  Cleveland separate the of  set from  executive  aside that  700 a c r e s of  j u r i s d i c t i o n of the  timber  the  eventually  (Daugherty  Affairs  attend  a Bureau  Ozette  had  ceased  case  administration  1893  be  required  before  as to  be  Judge  rights.  of  not  under  went  into  the  hands  an  part  of  school  issue  After  the  the by  age  By t h e  Hanford,  rights  under  A decision a l l  reservation  land  a permanent  Hanford decided  equality  as  as  the  came  i n Neah B a y .  used  continued  Makah t r e a t y  o n l y an  1976:73).  school  to  came  Neah B a y , Judge  secured  in  run  Jurisdiction  of  Most of  and  Park  concerning  Makah.  Grover  land  companies  National  1892 a  Ozette  reservations  Service  in  of  President  two  Park  Indian  of  the  National  of  order  the  Bureau  Ozette  early  village in  Olympic  the  1920's site.  1890's  a federal  and  judge,  reviewing  the  the  Treaty  Neah Bay  and  privileges—in  of  to  Treaty  79 fishing, the  w h a l i n g and  United  rights next  or  States  Yakima  abrogation to  the  did  of  of  support  (Deloria  Jr.  and  tribes  the  their Court  and  favour  the  of  treaties.  i n 1905 a  Indian  Interior  was  authorized  to  determine  number  persons  home  lands.  passed failure  of  (Deloria As  Jr.  twentieth their  sealing  of  As f i s h  appealed was  1906  send  an  Washington  to  living  were  in  found  ratify  traditional  and  compensate  them  their  the  Congress for  the  treaties  native  Indian  'civilization'  of  to  of  land.  stocks  to  decade  of  the  commercial fishing  declined,  equipment  was In  provide  the  industrial  first  turned  quarter  Affairs  matters.  B I A was  and  the  became  as  non-native more  elaborate  1983:144).  first  Indian  improvement  to  in  many men  (Arima  the  Bureau  medical,  ended  consolidated  expensive  the  States  to  was  the  1977:151).  century,  During  that  United  s t i l l  Makah  who saw  In  to  the  the  decision  band.  and  number  appropriation  livelihood.  companies and  the  fur  Oregon  A considerable  a special  strong  the  of  affect  case  of  superior  Within  northwest  of  committee  the  to  The Y a k i m a  investigating  for  1977:106). were  other  a l l citizens  a claim  decisions  down i n  Secretary  not  Hanford's  Supreme  brought  and  privileges  5 years,  Lummi,  s e a l i n g — i n common w i t h  of the  1921,  the  primary the  general  Indians  assistance  20th  The B u r e a u ,  agency Act  support  and  education,  the then,  management was  a  the  involved  Snyder  through and  century,  indicated  welfare, and  composite  in  of  federal,  Indians  state  as w e l l  resources In  and l o c a l  as  trustees  (Taylor  1923,  for Indian  for  reservation  l a n d and  1983:66).  the A s s o c i a t i o n on A m e r i c a n I n d i a n  (AAIA)  was formed  native  communities  social  and c i v i l  mobilizing  governments  to assist  American Indians  in efforts  equality,  federal,  state  to achieve  and l o c a l  and A l a s k a  full  and t o defend  Affairs  economic,  their  resources  rights  by  (Taylor  1983:140-141). As the  a result  of native  American Congress  native born  individuals,  participation  conferred  not already  w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r i a l  States 1926,  (Taylor  1983:66).  t h e Makah p e o p l e  citizenship  with  celebration  formally  state  (Hoonan  mainstream paved  celebrated  first  Neah  Prior  on August  time,  26,  American Makah  as wards  B a y was i s o l a t e d  Angeles  to that  their  until  been  of the United  later,  7 decades  W a r 1,  on a l l  having  of a continuing  ending  Port  citizens,  Two y e a r s  1964:23).  from  citizenship  boundaries  of the population  highway  completed.  the  i n World  1931 w h e n  Days  of  the  from  the  the  first  t o t h e v i l l a g e was a l l contact  w a s made b y  boat. 5.3  Government  Intervention,  Stage  III:  Limited  o f t h e 1930's  brought  Self-determination Although hardship, New  the depression  government  Deal offered  programmes  employment  created  as p a r t  on the r e s e r v a t i o n .  of the During  81 this  time  place. to  a notable  Until  then  the  native  teach  eventual  reversal official  After  the  turn  funds  and  government  to  administer  Roosevelt  organize  the  meant  affairs.  In  allowing  reservations  Indian  R e o r g a n i z a t i o n A c t , sometimes  the  could  provision  purchase  having  lost  policy  (Deloria  was  the  its  regulate order  Jr.  Secretary  return  them  previous  relations;  and  jurisdiction  tribal  native  Makah  to  Indian of  populations  and  tribes  in  the  right  Act  to  constitution;  tribal  the  act  Indian  the  (Colson  the  Interior  membership;  administer  Reorganization Act reversed  of  the  a  the  the  of  adopt  and  was  section  had  determine  to  known as  that  powers—to  ability  President  policy  decades  tribe  of  corporations  Inherent  each  government  tribes  this  notable  their  Collier  19 7 7 : 1 5 1 - 1 5 3 ) .  inherent  tribal  law  and  1953:21). trend  emphasized  The  to the  concept  government.  Due t o the  and  during  domestic  assimilate of  the  own g o v e r n m e n t ;  under  Indian  lands  land  a l l  The m o s t  that  recognition  exercise adopt  Act.  law behind  of  1934,  federal  themselves.  was  The  as  been  society.  loss  Indian  govern  Wheeler-Howard  a  had  ensure  non-native  Commissioner John  a new p o l i c y  and  a reduction  employees,  Indian  their  local  took  policy  agriculture  century,  reservation  and  formulated  of  Indian policy  government  Indians  assimilation into  of  an  impending court  Tribal  Council  held  case  over  a meeting  fishing to  rights  determine  a  82 formal  list  of a l l landmarks  pre-treaty  days.  that  territory  Makah  Johnson  During strategic  World  II,  t h e US Army  and  concrete  Neah the to  War I ,  rock  project  placed  down  i n 1942  time,  a radar  ruled  were  time,  at  Trust  Fund  W o r l d War Point B y 1942,  intended  to  take  for the duration o f  people  earned  and a  Sooes  leased  t o a company  Makah  and t h e money  centre  installed.  t h e Makah  land  a  During  unit  a l l civilians  from Makah  i n the T r i b a l  Straits.  f o r t i f i c a t i o n s had  the government  i n Neah B a y .  claimed  Cape  on the  as a s u p p l y  At this  that  from  Neah Bay had assumed  gun emplacements  A t t h e same  quarry  Point  on t h e r e s e r v a t i o n .  Bay and t o e v i c t war.  the C o u n c i l  in  1953:24-25).  stationed  had a r i s e n  breakwater the  (Colson  location.  t o be b u i l t  rumours  brought  m i l i t a r y importance  geographic begun  to Eagle  however,  t h e Makah  document,  p r e v i o u s l y extended  on the P a c i f i c  The d e c i s i o n , against  In t h i s  c l a i m e d by t h e Makah  from  were  the  right  building employed  the lease  a in  was  (Hoonan 1964:25,  Colson  1953:124). World across  the United  participate government arrange and  War I I v i r t u a l l y States.  workers  were  leases  kept  1951 C o m m i s s i o n e r s J o h n  programmes encouraged  and a s k e l e t o n on t o s e l l  (Deloria  the o b j e c t i v e  Indian  N a t i v e men w e r e  i n t h e war e f f o r t  timber  reaffirmed  devasted  Jr.  Collier  of step  force of  lands and  1977:115). and D i l l o n  by s t e p  to  I n 1943 Myer  transfer  of BIA  functions  to  native  Secretary  of  the  statement  and  declared same  as  1983:106).  to  are  and and  Eligability  could  persons compete  Catches  controlling fishing  spawning  native and  meant  game  native  made  to  purchase  madeof  resentment  I:  from  Non-institutional  of  however,  realistic industry and  boats  began  new  fish  Indian  fishing.  a concentrated fishing  without  over  fish  and  sites,  fish  gain  to  and  rapidly  that  conservation  effort  game  of  They c o m p l a i n e d  licences  increased  for  reaching  number  supervision.  licences  such  for  were  to  r u i n i n g government without  decline  techniques  fishing  determined  fishermen.  to  increasing  traditional  many  which  measures  and  fewer the  enabled  non-indian  became  Tension grew  were  deepwater  With  fishing  Indians  1977:157).  few  using  state  services,  benefits  catches  fewer  was  Washington  Stage  veteran's  fishing  over  by  (Taylor  tranferred  1950's,  officials  programmes  the  citizens  order  grounds.  fishing  to  law and  the  that  jurisdication  subject  1953,  social  were  fishermen  other  in  education,  purchase  the  the  be  that  1950's,  for  with  There  echoed  Resolution,  should to  Assistant  counties.  to  during  rapidly.  the  Indians  Native Resistance,  native  governments.  Orme L e w i s ,  applicable  By t h e  states  5.4  Interior,  native  transportation BIA  other  a House C o n c u r r e n t  that  laws  and  The s t a t e  force  Indians  arrests  (Deloria as  were Jr.  native  officals'  tactics.  of  84 resistance  grew,  October  1963,  prevent  native  in  January  an  injunction  below  the  Indians  persons  civil  state.  In  Puyallup  people  Attorney  General  courts.  the  Indians  helped.  1967  organized  had  a  The  the  of  fishery  including  social  education,  civil  Green R i v e r ,  Superior  Court  issued  confiscaton  of  their  Modeling the  protest a group  the of  had  action  action'  a  of  the  and  to  the  i n cases  refused  to  assistance  saw  tactic  Nisqually  for  previous  their  Indians  assistance  October  river the  I.  the  US  before assist  had  most  to  and  of  Department  smaller  and away  Stage tribes  called  (STOWW)  1960's  injunction  not  violent  years.  drifted  Nisqually  an  In  most  'petition  that  following  Department  the  requesting  a group  Washington  the  to  1965,  sent  in  at  oppressive.  N i s q u a l l y — c l o s i n g the  Native Resistance,  By  County  movements,  1964  stating  The  fishing  War  The J u s t i c e  confrontation  State  World  in  obtained  reservation—where  February  the  the  rights  early  from  following  during  became more  State  Pierce  against  Nisqually  'fish-in'  5.5  the  had moved  other  power  Washington  1964,  reservation on  state  Small  by  the  from  exist  brought  Institutional the  Tribes fall  of  Puget of  the  (Deloria Jr.  many  Sound  Washington  policies  1977:163-196).  to  such  concerns  poverty,  and  off-reservation  changes as  area  Western  1969,  strict  allowed  legislation rights,  of  their  Fisheries to  II:  American  housing,  society  for  workers  85 training  and  economic development  Meanwhile, non-native animosity  fishing on b o t h  provocative sides  of  United Court  the  Judge  could  fish  native  Boldt  on  for  and  by  Boldt  held  to  of  were  that  the leaving Judge  based  qualified  were  and  for  ruled  fishermen.  be  p o l i c e powers  suit  native  sites  He a l s o  rights  not  for  both  that  commerical purposes,  could  necessary  by  District  50 p e r c e n t  fishing  and  own r e s e r v a t i o n s ,  traditional  non-native  native  were  and  for  distrust  increased  decided  purposes.  entitled  and  a c t i v i t i e s on  their  at  native  a d e c i s i o n on t h e  Judge  fish  fish  treaties  reasonable  by  on  the  considered  off-reservation  fishing  1983:45-47).  After Citizens 156,000  the  Boldt  United  inequalities  in  the  Resource  and  to  Boldt  the  brought  Emergencies  petitioning  reaffirmed  modifying  subsistence  d e c i s i o n was  delegation  however,  although  for  signature  Congressional  Court,  to  were  that  except  (Taylor  1974,  Boldt.  50 p e r c e n t  previous  In  1983:69).  deepening  illegal  subsistence  the  with  W a s h i n g t o n was  free  of  between  T e n s i o n had  off-reservation  ruled  state,  sides.  George  persons  another  continued  sometimes  v.  and  remainder  controversy  dispute.  were  religious  a  and  States  persons  the  (Taylor  the  the  decision.  decison  ceremonial needs.  (CURE)  gathered  perceived  T h e US S u p r e m e  Boldt to  the  states'  correct  the  down  decision  provide As a  in  1979  for  result  of  the  86 Boldt was  decision  the  established,  Affairs. was  the  funded  The C o l u m b i a  also  tribes,  Northwest  formed  with  the  1983:120). Act of  Review  The  with  1975 and  5.6  the  the  Chapter  In  1977  began  British  regulating  Pacific  settlement  the  the  assimilation  Although  The  with  resource  of  and  the  Indian  philosophy  behind  Indian  Policy  by C o n g r e s s reviewing  the  the  native  and the  people  and  policy  of  161).  automony  and  the  policy  organize  until  and  continues  to  Christian influence  of  the  from  colonial  negotiation. 1934  when  allowing  govern the  the  designating  changed  in treaty  passed  of  government  i n 1854 when  interest  to  passage  trade  p o l i c i e s continued  tribes  limited  report  government's  fur  R e o r g a n i z a t i o n A c t was  recognized  quides  fishery  1983:  Government  provided  Assimilation  and  the  j u r i s d i c t i o n to  Northwest. to  (Taylor  i n 1821 w i t h  criminal  paternalism  between  State,  paternalism  and  treatied  Summary  Washington  act  Alliance  Self-Determination  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  government  from  the  established  relationship  Federal  This  Indian  Indian  Fisheries  packers  Re-organization Act.  historical  Indian  Basin  preserving  C o m m i s s i o n was  charged  civil  Bureau of  Review Commission endorsed  Indian  the  River  commercial fishermen,  Education Policy  the  F i s h e r i e s Commission  representatives  o v e r r i d i n g aim of  (Taylor  by  Indian  the  federally  themselves.  present  i n Washington  day. State  seems  to  be  significant,  and  flow  of  government  not  constitute  seen  as  in  a notable  way,  heightened. noticably  the  violent began  thoughout  state,  the  institutional of  1934  native  and  cultural impact  of  increased the to  the  Indians  increased  providing  growing of  of  disintegration. cultural  as  State  Native  to  legal  when  rights  period  native  was native  groups, and  of  of  an Westcoast  awareness  of  brought,  revitalization resistance and  Act  the  brought  impact  has  institutional  a response  1950's  By 1969  have  negative  cultural  began,  Reorganization  Increased  for  be  treaty  awareness  distintegration  incentive  the  political  Indian  political  the  should  this  Canada.  increased  Washington  awareness  region. evolve  form  The  in  during  in  leverage.  does  resistance  native  than  with  ebb  spiritual  State  concerning  to  the  people.  resistance  organizations  it  non-institutional  disputes  more  follow  Although i t  the  i n Washington  Native  to  category  as  Tsimshian  native  jurisdictional  time  debilitating  of  Cohesive  appears  intervention.  a separate  equally  intervention  it  the in  turn,  within  continues  political  disputes. Academic provided  research  information  revitalization. processes  The  involved  Makah p e o p l e  and  in  along  and  a  the  focus  following the  Olympic for  within this  cultural  chapter  cultural  Penninsula  will  outline  revitalization  context  the  planning  the  of and  the  development  of  the  Makah  Cultural  and  Research  Centre.  89 Table Westcoast  1820 1825 1830 1835 1840 1845 1850 1855 1860 1865 1870 1875 1880 1885 1890 1895 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985  VII  Regional  History  G o v ' t and Christian Inter. Stage I 1821 t o 1854 G o v ' t and Christian Inter. Stage I I , 1854 t o 1932  Gov't Inter. Stage I I I , 1934 t o present  Native Res i s t a n c e Stages I to I I , 1950-'69, 1969-now  90 Chapter  6:  Makah C u l t u r a l R e v i t a l i z a t i o n and Planning  and  The d e v e l o p m e n t distinct  Operational 6.1  of  components.  Development;  2.  1960's  began  work  communication: the  presence  from  the  Several  catastrophic  and  Well  conjunction  the  provided  reconstruction  site  3  3.  extensive to  the  cultural organic  of  30  investigation deposits  pre-historic had  covered  and  natural  opportunity  of  (Daugherty,  materials  traditional  a team  cultural  c u l t u r a l l y modified  a rare  Roald  previously  Initial  clayslides  preserved with  of  and  i n 1947  1986).  historic  freezing  Rice  Ozette—a  Richard Daugherty  ranging  shell  into  Ethnographic  Planning  Harvey  at  personal  time.  1.  divided  Richard Daugherty,  Gustafson,  by  virtually  are:  MCRC  Development  surveyed  indicated  the  MCRC may be  Developmental  late  Carl  excavators  of  Development.  the  Frywell,  the  These  Ethnographic  In  Development  the  Ozette, materials  found  stone,  for  period.  in  in  bone  and  in-situ  Makah c u l t u r e  (Gleeson  1980:9). Although title  to  the  the land,  rightly  belonged  Affairs  requested  Ozette Neah  once  Makah p e o p l e they  to  remained  them.  In  evidence  belonged  Bay e x p l i c i t l y  had  to  them.  bore  the  convinced  1968  from  relinquished  the  the  that  Bureau  official it  of  Makah p e o p l e  A l t h o u g h the signature  of  Indian that  Treaty  the  Chief  of of  the  Ozettes,  the  Makah  Tribal  for  the  B I A , the  Makah  claim  MTC r e g a i n e d October  21,  official  title  1 9 7 0 b y way o f  Council to  to  the the  (MTC)  Ozette Ozette  established, land.  site  Congressional B i l l  The  on (Hughes  1978:8). By the  1970,  Ozette  revealed bank,  the  MTC r e c e i v e d  site.  that  A quick  the  formerly hidden  artifacts  had  digging  request  the  site  of  i n an  cultural  the  continued to  took  part  in  1978.  the  crew  and  more  permanent  excavation  laboratory  Preservation wet  prevent  clay  the  of  decay  of  materials.  Powerful  the  surface  sterile  hoses  were  Articles  used  removed  to  the  At  returned  further  to  destruction  A temporary  of  i n 1970  and  shelter  was  laboratory  space.  students  actively  Makah  elders  proved  surface  visited  and  were  smaller, the  remarkable  of  c u l t u r a l and  excavate  from  (Gleeson 1980:10).  and Makah  waterhoses clay  cultural  the  i n Neah B a y .  the  the  the  the  unauthorized  provide  artifacts  covering  site  unprotected  Daugherty  excavation period  at  eroded  e x c a v a t i o n began  into  the  by  prevent  Rescue  the  deeply  These  site  late  protect the  the  to  vandalism  exposing  eroded  MTC, R i c h a r d  attempt  until  Throughout  heavy  at  materials.  had  below.  further  (pothunting)  the  built  been  storms  m i d d e n and  materials  of  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  high winter  undercutting  reports  the  the  helped  natural used  to  less  cultural  deposits  site  as  were  flush  away  powerful,  layers. quickly  washed  and  placed  artifacts Bay  for  i n a s o l u t i o n of were  final  (Daugherty  then  by  by  G u a r d and  flying  of  the  grant  Parks  MTC a n d  and  The  would  yield  up  to  eight  year  period  eight  houses  constant  in  Neah  storage  were  well  Ozette.  The  Research  reoccupation  of  and of  done  Ozette  the  was  was  site  funded  they  by  by  received  the for  the  congressional ended  i n 1978  decided  that  information 50,000  were  three  drainage the  over  of  had  when further  and  might  artifacts  found  remains  at  the  administered  Both  Over  old,  A complex s e r i e s found.  new  years  discovered  to  which  as  jointly  site.  aided  responsible  excavation  the  at  (for  little  2,000  and  budget).  as  archaeologists  220 t y p e s ,  been  and  materials  MTC w e r e  application  damage  also  The  laboratory  A i r Reserves  basis  Service  the  unnecessarily  excavated.  and  operating  reports.  excavation  Marine  supplies  the  archaeologists  committee  analysis  on a y e a r l y  National  10 p e r c e n t  yearly  main  The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t  US C o n g r e s s the  the  glycol.  1976:74).  helicopter. the  to  conservation,  The C o a s t project  flown  polyethylene  within  of an  at  least  been  fully  features  site  had  revealed  time  (Gleeson  seen  as  one  of  archaeological discoveries  in  the  history  1980:15). The most of and  excavation  important  the  Northwest  preservation  at  Coast.  Ozette  can  be  The t e c h n i q u e s  developed  at  the  site  of have  the  excavation been  a  major  contribution Makah  to  history  6.2  Northwest  and  pre-history,  Developmental  into  initial  development—and administrative 6.2.1 The  proposal  for  Ozette  space  impressive  for  the  the  care  remain urban  in  planning  that be  and yet  also  establishment  academics fragile  a  felt  involved  the  Bay. to  After support  time,  a proposal  the  and school  Neah Bay The  to  Makah  responsible  at to some  a  distant  the where  on  the  communication:1986).  of  positive  such  a decision for  became  storage  to  than  museum  potential  establishment  some  and  c o l l e c t i o n should  pointed  small native  Discussions  the  in  cultural  the  rather  personal  it  jointly  the  that  (Arnold,  of  funding  Tourists,  came  felt of  reservation  effects  and  MCRC b e g a n  collection.  A l l discussions of  for  required.  Neah Bay a r e a  museum.  the  additional  maintenance  They  the  concept  progressed  archaeologists  and  collection.  be  training.  would  see  and  of  involved  researchers  people  MCRC c a n  planning—physical  excavation  groups, the  the  preliminary proposals  a l l  laboratory  of  Development  process  secondary  to  and  particular.  planning—detailed  Initial  the  evident  in general,  planning.  initial  the  in  component  secondary  1970 w i t h  As  culture  Planning  The d e v e l o p m e n t a l divided  Coast  a museum  was m a d e ,  a carefully  and  by  planned  negative  i n Neah the MTC, local  94 native  museum  In a  (Arnold,  1970,  Dr.  Daugherty  p r e l i m i n a r y museum  Indian the  Affairs.  MTC, an  facility. Council  The B u r e a u  A l t h o u g h the approval,  it  (Hughes  project  at  funding  from  (EDA).  In  1971,  applied  to  EDA f o r  impressed  with  project  impounded  to  Appropriations project In George Museum,  the  plan  for  the  d i d not  included  the  Tribal  (Hughes of  regarding  the  in  to  seek  of  the MTC,  favourably  the  the  National  development to  EDA f u n d s  of  the  of museum  were  Richard  House  hope  the  Daugherty  of receiving  museum  1978:19).  of  Dr. the  Daugherty Thomas  p o s s i b i l i t y of  Programme  B u r k e Museum, the  the  fund  Administration  directed  Dr.  Federal  1973,  Quimby, D i r e c t o r  when  funding  Council  Assistance  relief.  Committee  spring  MTC i n  to  Tribal  to  chairman  and  of  museum  with  B I A , unable  plans.  the  proposed  meet  EDA was  the  Bureau  w i t h museum  Lawrence,  however,  before  funding  Makah TEaeararg The  assist  hurricane  testified  submitting,  application  halted,  for  by  funding.  the  sent  responded  Economic Development Joseph  Council  the  advised  architectural  was  Tribal to  1978:17).  time,  the  Service  alternate  then  this  the  1986).  proposal  plan  was  communication:  and  funding  architectural  applications  Parks  personal  (MTP) a t  the  approached  Burke  Memorial  establishing  B u r k e Museum.  o n l y museology  training  U n i v e r s i t y of  Washington  State,  was  located  Washington  campus  and  was  on  the  relatively  a  close  centre  in  to  Neah B a y .  and of  selected the  Burke  in a  degree  system  training (Hughes  In museum  1974,  with  the  of  the  the  Federal  and  private  funds  month had  to  secured the  secure the  Shortly  Makah  a Bachelor of  Arts  prepared  mandate  was  to  to  consider  fund  the  Makah  economically  projects.  M a k a h Museum  With  Project  1985).  Shortly  after,  to  $800,000  it  be  willing  project  on  the  of  end  intent  of  EDA's  agencies  letters.  remaining  intent  were  year.  investigated  the  due  A t the period  required  Makah  of  time  with  the  3  t h e MTC  t h e MTC and EDA p r o v i d e d  funding.  5 students—Lance  aid  funding.  end of  within the  s o l i c i t e d along  Shortly after  funding  the  the  portion  With  Norm D o w n s ,  were  fund  condition that  the  fiscal  foundations.  preliminary after,  of  planner,  EDA e x t e n d e d the  for  letters  aggressively  and  (MCRC)  would  additional  necessary  to  a 3 year  the  communication,  state  period,  again  These  Council  leading  MTC a n d  Centre  MTC p r o g r a m m e  Tribal  meeting  funds—BIA, of  details  Research  letters  at  matching  the BIA  the  The  implementation  and  that  budget.  3 months  programme.  economically viable  $1.25 m i l l i o n  MTC s e c u r e  discuss  MTC r e n a m e d  Cultural  EDA s t i p u l a t e d  of  the  EDA's  i n mind the  the  of  EDA was  (Arnold:personal  of  the  MTC t o  with  1978::21-23).  areas  Makah  later  programme  funding.  depressed  of  Q u i m b y met  museology  Museum--for  student  this  members  proposed  resulted  the  Professor  Wilkie,  Scott  Tyler,  Joseph  Arnold—were programme. BIA,  and  chosen Each  for  of  Professor  arts  degree  long  programme  students  traditional  workshop  i n Neah B a y .  renowned  Northwest  retained  as  project.  the  Canoe and  MCRC,  desire  formed  the  basis  the  return  to  help  for  an  in  the canoes  a protoge Bill  summer  to  a  home  the from of  a  the  Holm,  was  second  were  school the  and  training  for  canoes  in  at  years.  teach  continued  sealing  3  in  September  designing credit  of  course  the in  design.  6.2.2  Secondary  1974  prepared framework  programme  Dr.  Development  James  Nason,  a preliminary of  M u s e u m be  specific  An  to  the  In  for  construction sized  in  specialist,  the  year  techniques  Brown,  art  a 4  Coast  to  to  living  interested  carving  instructor  Hesitation  completed  devised  Steve  with  exhibit  the  canoe  as  Northwest  was  training  and  designed  been  Greig  applications  tuition  be  of  Coast  2 medium  completed.  for  to  and  Makah s t u d e n t  was  construction  credit  Arnold  submitted  funding  Quimby had  traditional  coupled  the  The programme  bachelor  summer  Coralee  student  received  expenses.  summer  McGimpsey,  the  positions  MCRC B o a r d o f  proposal  MCRC f a c i l i t y .  headed  planner  of  by  such and  the as  for  B u r k e Museum, the  administrative  Nason suggested  Tribal  Council  executive  business  Trustees  the  that  within  which  secretary,  officer  w o u l d be  held.  would answer  directly  to  the  Tribal Council  and would  be composed  museum and t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s leaders. Trustees  An e x e c u t i v e would  situations that  developed specific is  when n e c e s s a r y . board  responsible  ofthe  community  t o handle  specific  D r . Nason a l s o  suggested  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s and a c a d e m i c s be  forspecialized aspects  and n a t i v e  information  MCRC.  concerning  The d i r e c t o r o f t h e MCRC  f o r the s t a f f ,  volunteers  and p r o j e c t s  within  t h e Museum and i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e  Tribal  Council.  Two s t a f f i n g administrative Dr.  proposal.  educator,  personnel.  preparator,  positions—director,  maintenance security  of  p r e f e r r e d by  p r o p o s e d 12 curator,  exhibit designer,  preparator, (2) and  shop c l e r k s  The p r o p o s e d  administrative  i n t o 9 c a t e g o r i e s , with  In December gathered  plan  and e n g i n e e r ,  and n a t u r e  plan,  and m a i n t e n a n c e  registrar,  personnel.  was d i v i d e d priority  (2)  The f i r s t  6 positions—director, registrar,  The s e c o n d  educator/archivist,  to the  were o u t l i n e d i n t h e 1974  plans  Nason, p r o p o s e d  curator,  officers,  committee o f t h e Board of  be d e v e l o p e d  an a d v i s o r y  of t r i b a l  o f department  funding  (Nason  budget  according to  1975).  1 9 7 4 , EDA, MTC and t h e Burke Museum  to discuss  the necessary  t h e MCRC f a c i l i t y .  Museum were d e t e r m i n e d  Necessary  physical divisions  t o be o f f i c e  space,  requirements within the fumigation  area,  exhibition hall,  archival Before site  areas,  section  architectural  selection  Sites  shop  had  Advisory  chairman,  Programme  and  region--were  A meeting project  control  the  humidity,  and  to  project  and  and be  air  In design  failure  project  of  or  failed  committee  the  the to  members  the  sites  .  communicate. to  mechanical  important  contract  however,  engineers  required. an  exhibit  section  took  After  to  Temperature  the  a cross  interests  MCRC  officials,  unsuccessful,  A meeting  out  a l l  and  the  necessary  capacity  of  (Greg  for  with  system  was  hill,  Yatata  site  MTC d e s i g n a t e d  various  set  The  environment.  space  the  BIA  B u r k e Museum  in place  consisting  members  when  not  1975,  committee  committee in  determine  June  the  c o n d i t i o n i n g were  were  plans  were  Centre  best  as  tribal  Training  sites  dealing  interior  the  triangle,  the  firm  as  not  Makah  Tribal  between  The m e e t i n g  could  the  chosen  a  up,  archaeologist,  possible  considerations. exhibit  however,  drawn  up o f  determine  Museum's  and  be  ( S A C ) made  to  held  architects  considerations,  shop.  communication:1986).  was  and  T h e MTC d e s i g n a t e d  Bahdbohosh,  eventually  storage  a mechancial  sites—Yatata  considered  was  space,  arranged.  Eleven  five  and  could  planner,  personal  Triangle  be  consultant  Point,  Arnold,  to  students.  considered Koitlah  plans  Committee  project  architectural  laboratory  place  but  involved the a  of  other ended  in  the  meeting, professional  99  Table  VIII  P o t e n t i a l MCRC S i t e s  * 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  B.I.A. H i l l T r i b a l Centre Area YaTaTa T r i a n g l e B a y f i s h Dock ( o r i g i n a l s i t e ) V i l l a g e Creek H i l l Koitlah Point Waatch P o i n t Hobuck Lake o v e r l o o k i n g Waatch Hobuck Lake Road o v e r l o o k i n g beach Bahdohosh P o i n t o v e r l o o k i n g t h e mouth o f T s o o e s Tatoos I s l a n d  Shortlist  1. 2. 3. 4.  f o r MCRC S i t e s  Yatata Triangle B.I.A. H i l l (Neah Bay) Koitlah Point T r i b a l C e n t r e A r e a (Neah Bay)  exhibit After  designer  forthis  i n c r e a s i n g l y complex  a series of interviews  Andre—an  e x h i b i t designer  Provincial  Museum  task.  and d i s c u s s i o n s , J e a n  from  the B r i t i s h  (BCPM)—was h i r e d  Columbia  (Arnold,  personal  communication:1985). J e a n Andre from  formulated final The  and a s p e c t s  eight  a museum  and e x c e l l e n t  e x h i b i t designs  from each d e s i g n  were  were melded  e m p h a s i s o r theme o f t h e d e s i g n of the various  (Arnold,  Although  into  personal  aspects  was on t h e o f Makah c u l t u r e  communication:1985).  t h e Museum was p l a n n e d  in its entirety,  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t was t o be r e a l i z e d i n  stages. 1977  The f i r s t s t a g e  and ended  stage  o f c o n s t r u c t i o n began  i n J u n e 1979.  o f t h e MCRC t o t a l l e d  contributed  $500,000  6•^ O p e r a t i o n a l The can  to build  design.  society  the  that  o u t was a r a r e  Therefore  interrelatedness and  strongly  the e x h i b i t area  opportunity.  the  felt  $2,500,000 o f which  (Hughes  i n t o 3 main  o f t h e MCRC p l a n n i n g  process  components—Administration,  and Programmes  component w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d  The  t h e MTC  1978).  Museum D i s p l a y  6.3.1  planning  Planning  o p e r a t i o n a l stage  be d i v i d e d  The d e v e l o p m e n t a l  i n March  and S e r v i c e s .  Each  below.  Administration  Makah T r i b a l  Council  appoints  10-12 members t o  the  MCRC B o a r d  currently section  Trustees  composed  of  advisory  of  of  each  12 m e m b e r s  t r i b a l members.  body  year.  is  ulimately  T h e MCRC d i r e c t o r  is  responsible  administration  the  Museum.  to  MTC a n d  permanent,  subject  Association structure  (IMA) f u n d i n g .  has  operations  remained  (Table  The g o a l s Research Arnold the  Ozette  forum  and  Centre  are:  for  9,  1.  as  the  to  day  international  This  cross as  a  the MTC. to  MCRC p o s i t i o n s  objectives defined  day  are  Museums  administrative for  the  7 years  of  the  Makah  of  MCRC  Cultural  b y MCRC D i r e c t o r safe  C o l l e c t i o n s ; and cultural  a  101).  To p r o v i d e  Makah  for  is  functions  responsible  constant  page  representing  The B o a r d  and  of  The B o a r d  and  2.  to  adequate provide  identity  both  a  and  Greig housing focus  for  or  internally  a  and  externally. T h e MCRC i s on a  a  4 acre  50 c a r / 4  picnic  parcel bus  area.  wheelchair  accessible  space  an  (Arnold,  lot,  area,  additional  the  4,200  personal  foot  Exterior and  situated  facilities  include  landscaped  and  entrances  are  n.d.).  include  10,000  350 s q u a r e facility,  square  building  a 1 acre  facilities  (Renker  facilities  exhibit  is  land.  parking  permanent  Museum,  of  square  A l l exterior  Interior  and  a 23,000  foot  feet not  square of  communication:1985).  of  archival  adjacent  laboratory  feet  to  space  the  Table  IX  MCRC A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Tribal  Organization  Council  Tribal Officers Executive Secretary Programme P l a n n e r Business Officer  MCRC B o a r d o f Directors Tribal Council Tribal Officers Museum a n d T e c h n i c a l Assistance Community L e a d e r s  MCRC B o a r d  of Directors—Executive Committee T r i b a l C o u n c i l Chairman A d d i t i o n a l T r i b a l C o u n c i l Member E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y or T r i b a l O f f i c e r Museum S p e c i a l i s t T e c h n i c a l or G e n e r a l Community P e r s o n  Board of T e c h n i c a l Advisors V a r i a b l e membership a p p o i n t e d by Executive for specific tasks  MCRC D i r e c t o r MCRC S t a f f Adapted  from  Nason  1974  Primary, form  of  non-federal  Museum a d m i s s i o n  generated  from average  approximately generated  from  Art sales  per  is  and  new e x p o r t  significantly  is  on  writers  journalists  awareness Trustees  of  the  take  Development breadth  of  part  Tribal  financial  Council  required all to  but be  by  strong.  recommended  quarterly  in order  the  Clallam  incurred These  of  and $38,900 This  sales  T h e MCRC  regularly  to  by  reputable  expand  public  and  facilities.  MCRC  County Economic to  increase  deficit  are  the  Indian  financial  management to  MCRC c a s h  1985:43). O v e r b y and  was the  available  the  Director  (Arnold  time,  considered  audit  handling  Moore and  Museum a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Makah  At t h i s  MCRC a c c o u n t s  for  by  its  an A - l a u d i t  Affairs.  assigned  since  covered  spreadsheets to  is  future.  T h e MCRC u n d e r w e n t  m o d i f i c a t i o n of  by B a k e r ,  equals  increase  a yearly  Accountants  (Arnold  the  attempt  deficits  Bureau of  area  to  in  the  support.  funds.  the  one  procedures  rise  A s s o c i a t i o n i n an  i n 1979.  $3,000  in  Revenue  attendance  p u b l i c i t y offered  in  sales.  approximately  MCRC c o l l e c t i o n s  The MCRC h a s opening  average to  MCRC i s  contributions  1985:40).  capitalizes and  the  shop  paid  expected  (Arnold free  craft  tours,  expected  policy  for  An a d d i t i o n a l  memberships. annum  and  yearly  $24,500.  annually  funding  are  monthly  are  1985:44).  made  prepared  Twelve  permanent  MCRC—director, (2),  Rangers  maintenance,  pre-school  language  instructor  (5)—all  held  Summer Y o u t h permanent  Corp  performances The  qualified  for  MCRC a d o p t e d  series  of  The p l a n  fluctuations 5 year the  which  in  the  plan w i l l  MCRC a n d 6.3.2 One  be  its  Museum  percent  remainder  of  number  of  the  display. to are  the  to  a  desired  in  funding  i n 1989 b y  in  reduced  economy and  the the  the  sources.  the  The  director  of  archaeological collection MCRC e x h i b i t g a l l e r y . is  to  housed  in  researchers  MCRC d i r e c t o r .  the by  Due t o  is  on  The  laboratory  prior the  vast  collected in archaeological  only  to  plan  accommodate  in  the  Loans of  available  ensure  functions.  Display  objects  institutions  public  to  collection  with  excavations,  lend  designed  readily available  arrangement  the  instruction,  13 c a t e g o r i e s ,  evaluated  of  display  is  members.  staff.  permanent  and  tribal  development  when t a k e n  is  personnel  supplement  carving  5 year  a  The p l a n e n c o m p a s s e s  results.  Makah  community or  1984.  steps,  resource  Ozette  elementary  C o m m u n i t y members  tours,  and o t h e r  the  instructor,  employees  positions.  within  secretary/archivist,  general  student  support  exist  language  and  by w e l l  staff  additional  positions  most  dramatic  materials  are  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s are  and the  95 p e r c e n t public.  of  a l l archival  Only  15 p e r c e n t  on made  materials of  the  ethnographic 6.3.3  collection  Programmes  Education according and  to  years  the  archives, held  for  the  Anne  Renker,  guided  Centre,  and  the  linguist  at  described  the  culture  Makah p e o p l e " projects  The  centre's  and  other  are  and  photographs  the  ethnographic and  depicting  tools  cultural  (Arnold,  this  of  Makah Days  programmes  education  permanent goal  in the  collections;  the  personal  and  "tribal  include:  tapes,  baskets,  for  library,  the  Makah c u l t u r e of  Makah  services  coordinates  articles,  collections  Makah  Makah C u l t u r a l  collections  books,  the  2  and  research  with  Makah a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  past  the  and  The M u s e u m ' s  designed  permanent  for  and  MCRC a s  the  community  the  elementary  the  and  and  (n.d.).  archives—containing  vessels  Over  festivities  the  which  developed  Makah  2 programmes  tours,  which oversees  ongoing  area.  Programmes  organization  the  MCRC a r e  pre-school,  exhibits  summer.  affect  the  2 groups—the  students.  each  Research  of  provided  include  and  at  Makah w o o d w o r k i n g c l a s s  school  visitor  display.  Services  outside  MCRC h a s  classes  secondary the  needs  from  community—the language  and  on  programmes  the  visitors  is  and  of and  mind. Ozette Makah  documents society;  sculptures,  communication:  1985) . Visitors within  4 major  to  the  MCRC a r e  population  generally  seen  groups—interested  to  be  public,  and  J06 school The  groups,  largest  researchers  group,  reservation  general  comprise  Museum v i s i t a t i o n . university  groups  Researchers, and  the  estimates spent  time  consuming  Makah  the  total  visitor  in  a wider  range  communication: T h e MCRC operation  ways  open  and  Greig  of  (Arnold,  his of  time  to  is  these  The t h i r d  up o n l y  tend  are  Arnold,  5 percent  but  and  professionals  group  make  throughout  according  15,  10:00  5:00  is  this  MCRC p e r s o n a l l y .  population  total  college  students,  that  of  percent.  20 p e r c e n t  residents,  of  is  1-September  Museum  10  the  and  5 percent  use  the  of  Museum  personal  1986).  vary  am t o  the  and  from o u t s i d e 85 p e r c e n t  group.  approximately  visit  group,  in  members.  secondary,  another  included  researchers  researchers final  approximately  total  tribal  visitors  Elementary,  are  that  with  Makah  including graduate  academics,  usually  and  open  the pm.  to  the  Museum i s From  the  year,  time  open  of  year.  7 days  September  from Wednesday-Sunday,  but  per  hours  of  From  June  week  16-May  31  from  10:00  from  the to  5:00  pm. 6•4  Chapter  The m o s t the  MCRC  regional  is  Summary  significant  the  aspect  of  overwelming c u l t u r a l  academic  communities.  the and  development social  The n a t u r e  and  of  impact extent  of  107 the  Ozette  the  growing  political  excavation  MCRC was  technical of  the  the  of  the  facility  programming. involving  MCRC h a s rather  than  interpretation—shown  exhibition  of  contributed  economically contributions  to  to  society.  Positive  provides  the  a basis  the  the  self-determination.  the  of  and  development  basis  display  of  or  in  of  the  thought—seen  of  cultural  local  text  the  component  of  art  museum native  displays—and in  the  themselves. and  operation  socially, of  T h e MCRC h a s  the  of  native  native  MCRC  and  Cultural a  facility culture  identification,  on-going  of  politically  Neah B a y .  development  cultural the  the  development,  research  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of  for  capital  combination  the  for  academic  the  people  include  white  viability.  development  the  by  of  culturally,  dedicated  degree for  the  the  p h y s i c a l development  a state  objects  The p l a n n i n g , has  is  museological the  and  on  on  with  of  groundwork  operational  been  T h e MCRC  handling  p r i m a r i l y on  to  coupled  MCRC.  cultural  a effective  contemporary  the  a large  granted than  the the  Funding  From c o n c e p t u a l focus  set  of  to  advisors.  rather  in  conceptual  aided  MCRC was  economic  has  development  The d e t a i l e d the  collections  sophistication  techniques  conceptual  and  in  stuggle  increased  and  turn, for  community  108  pride  and  sense of  have a l s o a c c r u e d  accomplishment. through increased  Economic tourism  benefits t o the  area.  109 Table X MCRC P l a n n i n g  Ethnographic 1855 1893 1920 1947 1966 1968 1970  Development  T r e a t y o f Neah Bay signed Executive Order of P r e s i d e n t Grover Cleveland F a m i l i e s move f r o m O z e t t e t o N e a h B a y A r c h a e o l o g i c a l survey of Washington coast P r e l i m i n a r y a r c h a e o l g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n at Ozette BIA r e q u e s t f o r e v i d e n c e o f Makah l i n k to Ozette MTC r e p o r t s v a n d a l i s m a t O z e t t e ; r e s c u e excavation begins  Developmental 1974  1975 1977 1979  Planning  P r e l i m i n a r y p r o p o s a l for the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework P h y s i c a l p l a n s cons i d e r e d S i t e s e l e c t i o n made E x h i b i t d e s i g n began C o n s t r u c t i o n began Construction conpleted  Operational 1979 1982 1983  Stages:  Development  MCRC o f f i c i a l l y opened MCRC e x h i b i t l a b e l s m o u n t e d Language programme d e v i s e d  MCRC  110  111 FIGURE NEAH  BAY  SITE  lO PLAN  II  a*tc/ yS$4e>c*a&6  1975  FIGURE THE  MCRC  II  FLOOR  PLAN  I  FIGURE THE  Bottom  Floor  MCRC  12  FLOOR  PLAN  II  114 Chapter  7:  Case  Before comparison  Study  overall conclusions of  the  data  undertaken.  The  historical  contexts  peoples  well  the  as  members  of  as  of  the  the  notably  in  the  drawn,  case  Implications a  brief  studies  should  include  the  regional  T s i m s h i a n and  the  Westcoast  facilities  native  markedly  Northwest  different. and  paternalism  development  of  'Ksan  be  and  and  the  assimilation—with  of  centres  however,  lost  considerable the  period  Westcoast  people  of  political  which, Makah  in  turn,  cultural Although  have  of  their  cultures  histories  have  in- the  the  social, of  experienced  form  resultant have  State  of evolution  done  so  trade.  the deal  Increased  development  increased  to  of  River  were  economic  with  organizations  have  Skeena  assimilation.  responded  the  the  European  individuals. to  of  Washington  the  contributed  area,  both  in  ways.  people  and  are  resistance—they  from  institutions  both  Tsimshian people  during  peoples  culture  intervention  isolated  native  Westcoast  While  institutional  Westcoast  control  Comparison:  Coast  religious  different  Both  has  may be  will  T s i m s h i a n and  the  government  the  comparison  Regional Historical  Although  of  found  Conclusions,  MCRC. 7.1  are  Comparison,  area  relatively Both  and  groups,  cultural  Tsimshian  gradual with  cultural  and  development non-native  political  contemporary  and  identity  facilities  Gitksan  and  identity. the  G i t k s a n have  not  relinquished  aboriginal  115 rights not  to  lands  recognize  have  and  the  aboriginal t i t l e .  reinforced  others,  resources,  certain  through  the  Government  The M a k a h ,  of  in  Canada contrast,  aboriginal claims, while  Treaty  of  Neah Bay and  does  limiting  contemporary  litigation. As  native  the  late  19th  was  expended  Since  the  to on  have  non-native been  and  mid 20th the  Farrell  movements  have  culture  society  centuries,  recording  Report  gained  of  of  momentum.  institutional relationship  to  roles. between  has  native  dying  much n o n - n a t i v e  in effort  data.  cultural revitalization So much s o ,  in  fact,  that  anthropological collections  re-evaluate  This  v i e w e d as  anthropological  1942,  museum h o l d i n g n a t i v e challenged  was  their  resulted  Indians  contemporary  i n a change  and  in  non-native  specialists. 7.2 Facilities While series and  of  the  Comparison  'Ksan  individual  objectives,  the  development  moderate  amount  The  stated  highlight b)  to  native  develop  the  communities.  focussed  'Ksan  efforts  museum w h i c h  'Ksan  native  native  grew,  its  related  a  goals  on  the  provides  a  programming.  r e c o g n i t i o n ; and local  i n c r e m e n t a l l y as  somewhat  were  its  to  a)  safeguard  and  ethnological collections;  economic p o t e n t i a l  between As  local  of  evolved  with  a native  objectives  cultural  cooperation  of  cultural  remaining  has  projects MCRC h a s  singular  of  Village  c) and  of to  the  region  promote  through  the  non-native  new p r o j e c t s  developed  116 goals  and o b j e c t i v e s  evolved songs  as  a effort  and d a n c e s  and  is  to  provided  The a)  to  local  goals  provide  of  and  without  Tribal  School  contemporary as  Northwest Coast  e v o l u t i o n of Builders  art  traditional  developed  Northwest  have  i n f o r m a t i o n and  the  and  for  facility  an  been the  for  confidence,  needs  native native  an  Indian  art  Coast  successful NNEC  in  has  permanent  and  empirical  cultural  identity  cultural  centre  Although studied, funds  operational  to  the  and  Both the  the  and  'Ksan  was  plan while  process  of  the  a  however,  of  funding  recruited.  with  a public  centres,  were  Ozette  society.  preparation  k n o w l e d g e and  evolved  the  provide  perceived,  were  in contrast,  for  development  plan.  were  MCRC,  housing b)  throught  volunteers  the  culture  oversaw  significantly  and  and  explicit  development  development—as  of  adequate  Makah  Council  consultant's  capital  the  collection;  developed  available  perform  now a t t e m p t i n g  objectives  safe  focus  cases  in  Gitksan  community  evolved  are  and  Dancers  collections.  archaeological  Makah  record  The Book  a state  temporary  o w n . The G i t k s a n  r e v i t a l i z e and m a r k e t  style.  recording  their  The K i t a n m a x  now a c t i v e  artistic  to  and  interpretations. attempt  of  became  Practical  a stronger development  skills,  sense of  of  the  itself.  negative  outcomes  were  developmental problems were  granted  funding.  with  At the  limited at  i n both  'Ksan  no t h o u g h t  MCRC n e g a t i v e  arose  given  of  the  when  to  outcomes  are  not  117 reported the  although  MCRC a r e  related  is  not  form,  interesting  originally  the  imagined.  have  most  study  taken  of  cultural  c)  local  project  operation  l a n d c l a i m s and  factor  As  indicated  fundamental  gradual on-going  and  and  of  other  This  of  the  re-development  development  introduction  the  of  of  the  MCRC. b) d)  f)  from  Village  conception  to  originally  language  community need  of  be  drawn  factors in  These  social native  in  for  exist  the  which,  successful  factors  include:  mobilization; Indian  control;  e)  ground.  studies,  a certain  has  retained  been  to  a)  cultural  the  projects  with  region,  of the  'Ksan. area,  degree in  the  organizations  native  Mrs. Sargent  the  turn.  coupled  in  from  Knowledge  political  research the  to  common m o t i v a t i o n a l  case  factor  native  academic  and  'Ksan  contemporary  than  instrumental  Cultural  in  as  certain  Tsimshian culture  River.  development  that  addressed  Local  its  scale  comparison  knowledge;  be  the  museum g o a l  research  relevance;  will  while  comprise  larger  been  resources;  7.2.1  the  for  the  perceived.  is  'Ksan  local  Skeena  support  that  developed  was  have  a)  Each  on a  been  analysis  development  to  to its  significant  together,  access  note  Museum a r c h i v e s ,  development The  to  planned  although  programming  case  to  available  MCRC m a i n t a i n e d  completion,  their  longer  now u s e d  litigation.  It was  no  funds  the  effective (and  thus  identity) set  the  With the  of  and  stage the  initial  the b) for  118 projects  of  'Ksan  The p e o p l e general  sense  substantial cultural native the  were  of  of  Neah B a y ,  cultural  knowledge  awareness  political  rare  conceptualized.  awareness  about  was  their  of  and  rather  by  was  material  maintained than  culture.  intensified  movements,  collection  in contrast,  the  a  This  sense  development  further  culture  a  of of  intensified  excavated  by  at  Ozette. It  is  important  to  note,  however,  certain  retention  of  Gitksan  and Makah  i n d i v i d u a l s were  lifestyles In  at  addition,  the the  awareness  was  (by  native  local  1940's  and  knowledge one  of  As  significant  'Ksan  Village  cross  development  to  the  may  individual, or  indicated,  during latent  could  factors  and  the  the  late  cultural  be in  extensive  retrieved,  is  the  MCRC.  Mobilization  to  event  or  s i g n i f i c a n t or  and  many  activities.  knowledge  which  a  non-native  native  persons)  exist  incentive  This  as  to  may be  development.  particular  seen  mobilization  the  charismatic  the  Social  Social  for  most  awareness,  adopting  cultural  The d e g r e e did  or  traditional  non-native  awareness  of  7.2.2  desire  and  despite  knowledge  of  generally  single  development  of  retention  1950's.  the  provides  expense  not  and  cultural  that  involve the  defined from  actual the  the  of  process  perceived  process  significant  development  the  need  of  leadership  a combination of the  as  of  impact  a  of  a  both. the  'Ksan  Village  which or  119 evolved  over  Sargent, 1940's, and  a  relatively  a non-native and  instrumental  in  the  Project  Canada)  the  and  of  the  keen  native  success  of  In  and  found  to  the  greatly  to  Ozette  draw  is  the  and  the  the  Makah the  community  comparing  individual MCRC,  'Ksan  different  and  project.  It  the  skills  the  native was  Pole  and  which  has  projects  in contrast,  of  developed  skills  of  has  general extent  the  Order is  of  Polly  knowledge  aided  in  the  Tribal  to  the  between  Council  evidence  cultural  It  is  Dr.  contributed  and  collections  material of  of  Centre.  excavation  the  cultural  community  Research  the  the  MCRC  found  at  needed  heritage  to  and  and  evolved c u l t u r a l l y .  the  MCRC i t  social  in  related  developed  becomes  evident  m o b i l i z a t i o n have  through  resulting with  and  and  sense  and  forms  the  relationship  concrete  their  knowledge  the  House  in  Mrs. Sargent  awarded  on  people,  challenged  'Ksan  the  was  Makah  general  place.  with  she  motivated  positive  their  two v e r y  Hazelton  Skeena  that  Cultural  complement  In  to  the  nature  development  provided  area.  communities  clear  Ozette  the  Daugherty  For  moved  Polly  of  Treasure  with at  Richard  itself.  it  Makah  the  time.  projects.  collection  that  the  which  to  of  relationship  of  non-native  these  coupled  clear  (for  ability  awareness  also  trust  development  Skeena  Neah B a y ,  develop  a  populations  Restoration  Sargent's  from A l b e r t a ,  developed  non-native  long period  a constant  the goals  that  taken  nurturing  of  u n r a v e l l i n g of and  objectives.  from profound  cultural  The  findings  which  development  of  7.2.3 Each nature  of  Hazelton through and  of  the  local  the  projects  adaptation  c u l t u r a l objects  processes  new r e a l i t y .  involved to  in  the  'Ksan  day  existence,  i n the  economic  That  theoretical  to  say  Although  Native the  the  project  long  that this  identify,  in  to  Indian  terms  took  local  residents of  projects  rather  of  their was  of  have  deeply  the  than  analysed.  Control 1  do not  of  of  MCRC w o u l d  cultural potential  were  extent  feeling  which  Gitksan-Wet suwet'en Tribal  Council  and  native  prolonged the  in  that  local  degree  of  practical  to  locally  felt  this  the  proposed  need,  ideas  were  nature  The d e g r e e  that  considerations  7.2.4  Band  is  until  in  primarily  non-native  remain  development  and  the  externally.  have  should  the  grown from  projects  relevance,  with  and  sought  Without  sustain.  has  external  was d i s c o v e r e d  and Neah Bay c o u l d  projects.  Gitimax  however,  collection  difficult  rooted  not,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n or  Hazelton  of  in contrast,  a stunning  120  conceptual  created  native  people,  Ozette  to  local  A l l of  'Ksan  were  Makah  was  the  socio-cultural situation  sometimes  It  cultural  and  funding  hands.  been  Local  of  with  native  the  economic  r e a l i z a t i o n of  local  for  Relevance  projects  community needs.  The  impetus  Project  major  itself.  the  MCRC.  Local  the  the  initiated  day  the  secondarily,  local  on  provided  administer  the  Council  'Ksan  or  the  Association  121 there  is  a strong  sense  Gitksan-Wet'suwet'en when  is  forwarding  Columbia  Supreme  administers native  the  has in  Table  I X , page  is  and  The M T C , o n b e h a l f  of  a  and  variety  of  financially decreasing provide  controls its  treaty  Native reinforced financial  Indian through  to  to  become  7.2.5 'Ksan  has  acquisition hiring  of  the  of  'Ksan,  has  regional  majority  accepted  T h e MTC i s for  legal  the  Centre As shown  Research  Council seed  institutions  support  British  area.  and  Tribal  has  MCRC.  for  Cultural  Makah  MCRC,  control  and  (MTC). money  from  now  currently  MCRC  disputes  i n both  information  the  involved  the  and  in order  to  involving  rights.  important,  which  to  proposed  control.  federal  funds  was  administrative  self-sufficiency.  symbolically  House  Research  Makah  The  fledgling  and  the  the  of  Cultural  by  financial  additional  aboriginal  degree  state  a  'Ksan.  A s s o c i a t i o n which  a broad  the  administered  'Ksan  projects  Makah  101,  Treasure  The  from  financial  was  at  aboriginal claims  various  the  control  Council  Skeena  representation  native  centre  the  Court.  Conversely,  native  Tribal  organization currently  of  but  'Ksan with  Access to utilized seed  non-native  institutions  control  and  to  external  is  not  directly  A s s o c i a t i o n and  clearly  relative  Native control appears  is  the  only  affect  MTC i s  the willing  resources.  Resources external  monies staff.  and  resources  knowledge  not  but  The d i r e c t o r s  of  only  through the  in  the  the  Kitanmax  122 School  of  A r t and  non-native  secondarily  any by  by  well,  as  seed  obtained  local  also  money  for  from  mandate  provide  areas  with  funds  was  additional  were  the  and  in  the  the  have  and  been  only  non-local  museum d e v e l o p m e n t of  for  States  the  process.  MCRC  was  government.  financially  successful  of  concept  EDA's  depressed  Acquisition  o f EDA  a c q u i s i t i o n of  'Ksan  and  was o n e  plans  for  the  of  on t h e  basis  of  MCRC  fiscal  'Ksan  culturally relevant, economic  the restraint,  and  the  MCRC  both  centres  rather  than  were  viability. Common M o t i v a t i o n a l  m o t i v a t i o n of  centres  the  may v a r y  a common o b j e c t i v e  between  certain  United  funding  conceptualization,  cultural for  the  economic c l i m a t e  While  7.2.6 The  activities  development  development  primarily  cultural  non-local  Economic Development  on t h e  e c o n o m i c a l l y and  funded  used  funding.  During  restraint.  local  government.  the  the  the  'Ksan's projects  fundraising  to  of  however,  economically viable projects. dependent  political  members  not,  extent.  the  (EDA) o f  to  has  utilized  Administration was  both  provincial  advisors  largely  are  'Ksan  great  the  MCRC h a s  individuals As  to  largely  The  NNEC  community.  individuals funded  the  these  understanding  or  various  Ground agencies  development  substantially.  in order  of  goals  overall  and  to  individuals  operation It  m o t i v a t i o n a l thread  varying actors the  and  and  is  important  to  ensure  of  exist a  objectives  general of  the  123 project.  Without  project 7.3  may be  this  at  cultural  on-going Native  struggle  political  cultural  of  Indian  native  cultural  self-image,  and  The  in  the  a logical  step  provided  these  with  region a  the  native in  the  centres  and  increased for  centres. provide  fostering  and  local  the According  a  focus  pride,  for  positive  of  to  provide  cultural  stability  objects,  customs.  and of  and  the  economic  regional  which determine,  cultural  primarily  on  viability  and  appear  development the  basis  have to  opportunities  or  local  a response  and  cultural  and  economic nature  extent,  the  itself.  Both  centres  were  economic from  secured  rather  the  Northwest  Coast  continue  native  their  than  existance  their  success.  Indian  cultural  focus  on  the  to  pressures.  large  of  to  as  a  evolved  have  MCRC e v o l v e d  of  funded  cultural of  six  factors  Implications  to  to  extra-cultural  appear  preservation  intensified  foundation  cultural  Cultural centres  nature  conditions  of  coupled  inter-cultural  cultural  the  likely  of  self-determination.  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n by  i n the  development  become  Indian  'Ksan V i l l a g e  regional  7.4  has  leaders,  understanding.  which  identity, research  and  security  has  the  native  native  native  the  for  awareness  development  symbols  indicated,  centres  anthropological  is  development  Conclusions  Indian  It  the  risk.  As p r e v i o u s l y  and  common b o n d ,  centres  are  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of  124 contemporary  native  traditional  nature  systems  been  has  culture of  native  lost,  have  political  organizations  evolution  of  for  native  native  cultural  assessed  in  thesis.  These  if  not  essential,  native  cultural  Of  these  important. centre of  in  however,  these  native  change  are  step  so  an  of  native in  the  too  important  c u l t u r a l centres  should  factors  in  may be  access  outlined  collectively  focus  be  this  sufficient,  development  and  the  Indian  centres,  to  and  of  is  private  funded  by  to  future  the  with  conceptual  agencies the  of  to  the  or  aspect  be  more  easily  even  when  cultural  community.  tribal  band  necessarily  When  organizations, apply.  growing s o p h i s t i c a t i o n non-native and  c u l t u r a l centres Indian  extremely  The e c o n o m i c  likely  do n o t  is  development  considered.  important  deal  resources  operational  context,  groups  in native  cultural  important  provide  successful  restriction  a broader  individuals  cultural  development  consciousness,  development  more  centres  Indian  the  and  by g o v e r n m e n t  cultural  which  six  carefully  c u l t u r a l centre  In  an  economic  centres.  be  are  Indian  factors  Capital  components  been  facilities  the  factors  should  funded  of  of  six  have  of  the  re-development.  native  terms  Although  c u l t u r a l and  As the  political  cultural  Potential  social,  retained.  native  society.  s i g n i f i c a n t pockets  knowledge  should  been  and  agencies  institutional has  communities.  c o m m u n i t y members  provided a In p a r t ,  have  and development significant  through  demanded  with  and  125 achieved,  to  a limited  "comprehensive  standards,  common a t t i t u d e s demand  not  native  cultural  ability  extent,  and  values,  ways  of  resources  interpret  centres,  the  G i t k s a n and  changing  roles  between  the  but  these  right  right  also  to  their  own a n d the  Indians  power  reinforced  and  This  manage  By d e v e l o p i n g  have  own  behaviour,  1985:176).  involves  Makah  native  define of  (Berger  resources.  the  to  patterns  life"  o n l y encompasses  to  the  and these  the  non-native  specialists. While the  p r i n c i p l e of  native the  Canada  and  centres  have  and  self-determination  in  the  through:  a)  struggle  native  foundation  should  upon be  c)  b) the  actors  the  to  provide  native  the  of  economic  development a positive  native  play  an and  of  self-determination.  society  control  for  between  of  positive  native  basis  important  role  development  re-development  continuing  successful  which  in  dismiss  realized.  continue  the  to  cultural  which  changing  reinforcement  asserting  unrealistic,  Indian  of  and  for  of  and  the  projects,  projects,  opportunistic  tend  culture  non-native  the  still  native  Indian  by  are  r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of  and  about  as  may e v e n t u a l l y  centres  native  identity,  a  States  c i t i z e n s h i p and  operation  provided  Cultural  United  unilateral  self-determination  development  role  the  native cultural  brought  Indian the  ongoing  126 References  Cited:  A d a m s , J . 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S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c P a p e r s , No. 14, pp. 1-12, I n s t i t u t e o f S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c R e s e a r c h , M e m o r i a l U n i v e r s i t y of Newfoundland.  Enloe, Cynthia 1973 E t h n i c C o n f l i c t and P o l i t i c a l L i t t l e , Brown and Company. E p s t e i n , A.L. 19 78 E t h o s and I d e n t i t y : Academic P r e s s . Fisher, 19 77  Three  Development.  Boston:  Studies i n E t h n i c i t y .  Robin C o n t a c t and C o n f l i c t : I n d i a n - E u r o p e a n R e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1774-1890. UBC P r e s s .  F r i d e r e s , James S. 1983 Native People i n Canada: Prentice Hall.  Contemporary  Conflicts.  Garfield 1951  V . and P . W i n g e r t The T s i m s h i a n I n d i a n s Mclntyre.  Gleeson, 1980  Paul F. Ozette Woodworking Technology. P r o j e c t Report 3, p p . 1 - 1 5 , L a b o r a t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g y and H i s t o r y , Washington State U n i v e r s i t y , Pullman.  Graburn, 1981  N.H.H. 1,2,3,4...Anthropology and Culture, 1 (1): 66-70.  Gunther, 1972  Erna I n d i a n L i f e on the N o r t h w e s t C o a s t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a as s e e n by t h e E a r l y E x p l o r e r s and F u r Traders D u r i n g the L a s t Decades o f the E i g h t e e n t h Century. U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, London.  Hanson, 1980  James A . The R e a p p e a r i n g 59 ( 2 ) : 44-51.  and  their  the  Arts.  Fourth  Vanishing American.  In  Douglas  World.  and  In  M u s e u m News  H a r t - C r o w s e r and A s s o c i a t e s 1975 S o i l s and F o u n d a t i o n s E n g i n e e r i n g S t u d y : Makah C u l t u r a l a n d R e s e a r c h C e n t r e . U n p u b l i s h e d MS o n f i l e , MCRC, W a s h i n g t o n . Hawthorn, H . B . , C.S Belshaw, S.M. Jamieson 19 55 Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia: A Survey of S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c C o n d i t i o n s , M i n i s t r y o f C i t i z e n s h i p a n d I m m i g r a t i o n R e p o r t , V o l . 1 a n d 2 , UBC P r e s s . Heath, Terrance 19 80 P r o f i l e and P r o b l e m s R e p o r t : N o r t h w e s t e r n National Exhibition Centre. U n p u b l i s h e d MS o n f i l e a t N N E C , 'Ksan.  Horse C a p t u r e , George P . 1981 Some O b s e r v a t i o n s o n E s t a b l i s h i n g T r i b a l M u s e u m s A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S t a t e and L o c a l H i s t o r y , T e c h n i c a l L e a f l e t 134, H i s t o r y News. V o l . 36, No. pp. 1-14, Tennessee. Hughes, 1978  Helen Frances A H i s t o r y o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t of the Makah C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , Neah B a y , W a s h i n g t o n . U n p u b l i s h e d MA t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington.  I s a j i w , W. W. 1975 The P r o c e s s o f M a i n t e n a n c e o f E t h n i c I d e n t i t y : The C a n a d i a n C o n t e x t i n P . M . M i n g u s (ed) Sounds C a n a d i a n L a n g u a g e s and C u l t u r e s i n M u l t i - e t h n i c S o c i e t y , pp. 32-44. 1978 Olga i n Wonderland: E t h n i c i t y in a T e c h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y i n Lo D r i e d g e r (ed) The C a n a d i a n Ethnic M o s a i c : A Quest for I d e n t i t y . Academic P r e s s . 1979  Definitions  1981  Ethnic  L a r g e , G. 1952 River Jenness, 1932  of  Ethnicity.  Identity,  of  Retention  Destiny.  Diamond Indians of  Canada.  Kehoe, A l i c e B 1981 North American Prentice-Hall.  Mitchell  Academic Paper  of  pp.  Toronto  A Comphrehensive  K i r k , Ruth and R i c h a r d D a u g h e r t y 1978 E x p l o r i n g Washington Archaeology. Washington Press. Knight, 19 78  #125:  14-19.  Press.  University  Indians:  Press.  Press.  Account,  University  of  R. I n d i a n s a t W o r k : An I n f o r m a l H i s t o r y o f N a t i v e Indian Labour i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1858-1930. UBC P r e s s .  1  131 , •Ksan 1974  Beautiful  British  Columbia, pp.  'Ksan Association 1977 'Ksan C o n s t i t u t i o n . 'Ksan.  Unpublished  1-34.  MS o n  file  at  ' K s a n H i s t o r i a l Rsshaeobt isrd P e r f o r m i n g A r t s Group 1978 Not Dead, Only S l e e p i n g . Paper p r e s e n t e d to The R o l e o f Museums m t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n o f Indigenous Cultures, Adelaide A u s t r a l i a .  Makah C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h n.d. Operations Manual. Washington.  Centre Unpublished  MS o n  file,  MCRC  Makah C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h Centre n.d. Background Information. Makah H e r i t a g e Association. U n p u b l i s h e d MS o n f i l e , MCCR Washington. Makah T r i b a l C o u n c i l n.d. M a k a h - O z e t t e Museum P r o p o s a l . on f i l e , MCRC, W a s h i n g t o n . Marshall 1985  Mauger, 1979  U n p u b l i s h e d MS  D. and H . K o u l a s N a t i v e H e r i t a g e P a r k s : W h a t t h e y a r e ; Why we n e e d t h e m ; How t h e y may be a c h i e v e d . Paper p r e s e n t e d t o the H e r i t a g e C o n f e r e n c e on P a r k s for Tomorrow, B a n f f , 1985. Jeffrey House A r c h i t e c t u r e and t h e S e a s o n a l R o u n d : A Makah Example. U n p u b l i s h e d MA t h e s i s , W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e University.  M c D o n a l d , James A . 1984 Images o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y Economy o f the Tsimshian. I n The T s i m s h i a n , Images o f t h e P a s t : V i e w s t o t h e P r e s e n t . E d i t e d b y M . S e q u i n , UBC Press. Miller, 1986  Chris M a t e r i a l C u l t u r e and the M a i n t e n a n c e of E t h n i c I d e n t i t y : F i v e Case S t u d i e s , u n p u b l i s h e d MS.  132 N a s o n , James 1974 MCRC P r o p o s a l . ' Burke M e m o r i a l 1975  Preliminary MS on f i l e , Washington.  U n p u b l i s h e d MS on f i l e , Museum, W a s h i n g t o n .  Thomas  P r o p o s a l f o r t h e MCRC. Unpublished Thomas Burke M e m o r i a l Museum,  National 1981  Museums o f Canada O p e r a t i o n s M a n u a l . U n p u b l i s h e d MS on f i l e N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e s , Ottawa.  National 1979  Museum o f Man Skeena R i v e r P r e - h i s t o r y . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f C a n a d a , M e r c u r y S e r i e s , e d i t e d by R i c h a r d I n g l aeid George M c D o n a l d , Paper n o . 87: p p . 4 7 - 5 9 .  P ^ r i c e , J o h n A. 1978 N a t i v e S t u d i e s : A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n McGraw-Hill Ryerson P r e s s .  at  Indians.  R e n k e r , Ann M. and G. W. A r n o l d 1986 The Makah C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e (MCRC): E d u c a t i o n and C u l t u r a l R e s o u r c e Management. U n p u b l i s h e d MS on f i l e , MCRC, W a s h i n g t o n . Sequin, Margaret 1984a The T s i m s h i a n , Images o f t h e P a s t ; V i e w s f o r Present. E d i t e d by M. S e q u i n , UBC P r e s s . 1984b  L e s t t h e r e Be no Salmon Symbols i n T r a d i t i o n a l Tsimshian P o t l a t c h . In The T s i m s h i a n , Images o f t h e P a s t ; Views f o r t h e P r e s e n t . E d i t e d by M. UBC P r e s s .  Swan, J . G. 1870 The I n d i a n s o f Cape F l a t t e r y a t t h e E n t r a n c e the S t r a i t o f F u c a , W a s h i n g t o n T e r r i t o r y . Smithsonian C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Knowledge, Smithsonian Institution. 187 2  the  The N o r t h w e s t C o a s t or Washington T e r r i t o r y .  to  Three Years Residence i n U n i v e r s i t y of Washington  133 Appendix Gitksan 1670 1755 1793 1831 1830 1832 1836 1839 1847 1850 1857  1858 1860 1862 1865 1867 1869 1872 1873 1874 1876 1877 1880 1884 1885 1890  1891 1906 1912  1913 1916  History  1  1870-1920  B r i t i s h Parliament enacted f i r s t l e g i s l a t i o n concerning Indians. Indian agents formally appointed. MacKenzie t r a i l a c r o s s Canada to P a c i f i c charted. F i r s t permanent t r a d i n g post i n T s i m s h i a n area. Continental explorers reach Tsimshian area. L e g a i c League o r g a n i z e d . H u d s o n ' s B a y Company p o s t e s t a b l i s h e d a t l a k e Babine. Crown Lands P r o t e c t i o n A c t p a s s e d . F i r s t m i s s i o n to reach G i t k s a n (Fort B a b i n e ) . Acts passed v e s t i n g Indian land i n Crown. Act for Gradual C i v i l i z a t i o n of Indian T r i b e s passed. W i l l i a m Duncan s e t t l e d i n P o r t Simpson. Gold discovered along F r a s e r . F i r s t HBC c o n t r a c t s a w a r d e d t o I n d i a n s . Second s m a l l p o x outbreak. Western Union Telegraph e s t a b l i s h e d i n Tsimshian area. The B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t p a s s e d . Enfranchisement Act passed. G i t k s a n v i l l a g e r s c l o s e d Skeena i n p r o t e s t . Board of Commissioners e s t a b l i s h e d to administer I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n M a n i t o b a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . Georgetown M i l l s open h i r i n g T s i m s h i a n l a b o u r . Indian Act passed ( c o n s o l i d a t e d and r e v i s e d previous l e g i s l a t i o n ) . F i r s t c a n n e r y on Skeena o p e n e d . Separate Department of Indian A f f a i r s formed. Potlatch officially banned. G i t k s a n p r o t e s t o v e r l a n d a p p r o p r i a t i o n by by g o v e r n m e n t . M e t l a k a t l a people occupied Church M i s s i o n a r y Society building in protest. D u n c a n a n d h i s s u p p o r t e r s e s t a b l i s h New M e t l a k a t l a . Government r e g u l a t i o n s s t r e n g t h e n non-native c o n t r o l over f i s h i n g . Port Essington people continue to hinder government surveyers. F i r s t s u c c e s s f u l p a s s a g e t o H a z e l t o n (HBC s t e a m e r ) . Consolidated Indian Act introduced. Band s y s t e m f l o u r i s h i n g . R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia appointed. Growing r e s i s t a n c e of Tsimshian to c o l o n i z a t i o n of land. Nishga Land Committee established. R e p o r t o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s  134 1920  1923-25 1925 1936 1942 1948 1954 1956-70 1963 1965 1966 1966-67 1967  1968 1969 1969-70 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1976-77 1980  finished. Regulation governing Indian enfranchisement passed. V i c t o r i a M e m o r i a l Museum (VMM) s e n d M a r i u s B a r b e a u to Skeena R i v e r r e g i o n t o conduct ethnographic research. VMM s e n d D i a m o n d J e n n e s s , H a r l a n S m i t h a n d M a r i u s Barbeau t o Skeena R i v e r r e g i o n to c o n t i n u e research. Pole Restoration project begun. Disasterous flood i n region. C e r e m o n i a l r e g a l i a c o n f i s c a t e d from p o t l a t c h by RCMP. Hawthorn Report i s s u e d . Pole R e s t o r a t i o n Committee formed. Seven major N o r t h w e s t Coast e x h i b i t s . Skeena Totem P o l e I n v e n t o r y begun. I n i t i a l pole r e c o n s t r u c t i o n begins at K i s p i o x . Dudley L i t t l e appeals for p r o v i n c i a l funding o f 'Ksan. Hawthorn r e p o r t p u b l i s h e d . Pole reconstruction begins i n Kitwancool. 2 y e a r t r a i n i n g programme e s t a b l i s h e d f o r K i t a n m a x School of Northwest Coast Indian A r t . Committee o f v o l u n t e e r s formed t o c o o r d i n a t e 'Ksan Village Project. 'Ksan c o n s t r u c t i o n begins. ' K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c i a l l y r e g i s t e r e d as a society. Ward R e p o r t o n ' K s a n i s s u e d . A r t s c h o o l c o u r s e s f o r m a l i z e d ; ARDA f u n d i n g granted. 'Ksan o f f i c i a l l y opened t o the p u b l i c . 'Ksan School of Northwest Coast Indian A r t o f f i c i a l l y r e g i s t e r e d as a t r a d e s c h o o l . Funding for 'Ksan p u b l i c i t y project granted. M a j o r O t t a w a e x h i b i t i o n o f work o f K i t a m a x a r t i s t s . 'Ksan f i l m released. 'Ksan catalogue p u b l i s h e d . O p e r a t i n g funds f o r N o r t h w e s t e r n N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e (NNEC) granted. C o n s u l t a n t s r e p o r t i s s u e d o n f u t u r e o f NNEC issued.  135 Appendix I I Makah H i s t o r y 1790 1771 1792 1853 1855 1857 1861 1863 1865 1874 1877 1895 1902 1913 1924 1926 1931 1934  1936 1937 1942 1950 1970 1974  1790-1984  F i r s t recorded c o n t a c t with Europeans. A d d i t i o n a l S p a n i s h s h i p s v i s i t Neah B a y . S p a n i s h f o r t e r e c t e d a t Neah Bay and abandoned t h e same y e a r . W a s h i n g t o n t e r r i t o r y was c r e a t e d by t h e US C o n g r e s s . The T r e a t y o f Neah Bay s i g n e d , J a n u a r y 31 T r e a t y o f Neah Bay r a t i f i e d by C o n g r e s s . G o v e r n o r James Swan c o n d u c t e d f i r s t c e n s u s on t h e Makah r e s e r v a t i o n . F i r s t I n d i a n Agent a p p o i n t e d t o Neah Bay. The BIA day s c h o o l a t Neah Bay opened (young Makah boys a t t e n d ) . Day s c h o o l i n Neah Bay t u r n e d i n t o h o s p i t a l BIA b o a r d i n g s c h o o l c o n s t r u c t e d . C o a s t Guard e r e c t e d a l i f e b o a t s t a t i o n a t Neah Bay and was abandoned 3 y e a r s l a t e r . Neah Bay b o a r d i n g s c h o o l c l o s e d and m a n d a t o r y day s c h o o l opened. W. Washburn opened a t r a d i n g p o s t a t Neah Bay. The l a s t Makah whale hunt took p l a c e . Makah's became A m e r i c a n c i t i z e n s as a r e s u l t o f a C o n g r e s s i o n a l b i l l on June 26. L o g g i n g began on t h e Makah r e s e r v a t i o n . The f i r s t Makah Days c e l e b r a t i o n was h e l d t o c e l e b r a t e American c i t i z e n s h i p . A paved r o a d l i n k i n g Neah Bay t o t h e r e s t o f t h e O l y m p i c P e n n i n s u l a was completed. The I n d i a n R e - o r g a n i z a t i o n A c t was p a s s e d by C o n g r e s s g i v i n g I n d i a n g r o u p s a d e g r e e o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The J o h n s o n - O ' M a l l e y A c t was a l s o p a s s e d g i v i n g t h e BIA a u t h o r i t y t o c e n t r a l i z e c o n t r a c t s with Indian groups. The Makah T r i b e a c c e p t e d t h e I n d i a n R e - o r g a n i z a t i o n A c t and a t r i b a l c o n s t i t u t i o n was a p p r o v e d . The Makah T r i b a l C h a r t e r was a c c e p t e d . The b r e a k w a t e r s h e l t e r i n g Neah Bay was c o m p l e t e d . The Makah A i r F o r c e S t a t i o n was established. The O z e t t e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n began. The B o l d t d e c i s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d t h e t r i b a l supremacy over f i s h i n g r i g h t s .  136 1979 1981  1984  The M a k a h C u l t u r a l a n d R e s e a r c h C e n t r e opened. The O z e t t e e x c a v a t i o n c l o s e d a f t e r d i s c o v e r i n g 55,000 a r t i f a c t . The M a k a h f i s h h a t c h e r y p r o j e c t opened i n A u g u s t . Tu.tu.ts ( T a t o o s h ) and Wa?ad?a (Wah-da) I s l a n d s a r e r e t u r n e d t o t h e Makah t r i b e by t h e U . S . C o n g r e s s .  Appendix  137  III  Summary o f MCRC Budget and G r a n t C o s t  Estimates  A n n u a l Budget E s t i m a t e : i. S a l a r i e s ( S t a f f I Plan) ii. S u p p l i e s and e x p e n d a b l e equipment i i i . Miscellaneous operation costs  II.  I n i t i a l Equipment C o s t s : i. O f f i c e equipment ii. L i b r a r y and a r c h i v a l equipment i i i . S t o r a g e and r e s e a r c h equipment iv. Photographic equipment v. Shop equipment vi. E x h i b i t i o n e q u i p m e n t and m i s c . (plus  t a x and i n f l a t i o n )  (I&II)  III. I n i t i a l Display Costs: i. D i s p l a y cases ii. Display supports i i i . Display graphics  8,000.00 2,000.00 17,000.00 650.00 3,000.00 1,000.00 $32,150.00 $35,200.00  $66,500.00 1,700.00 3,800.00 $72,000.00  ( I I and I I I t o t a l c o s t s p l u s i n f l a t i o n a r y and u n a n t i c i p a t e d  IV.  $56,000.00 8,000.00 4,000.00 $68,000.00  costs)  $107,200.00 36,800.00 $143,000.00  Consulting Costs (for storage, graphics $90,000.00 e x h i b i t s , c a r v i n g , l i g h t i n g and a c o u s t i c s )  TOTAL I N I T I A L COSTS, ITEMS I I , I I I AND I V  Adapted  f r o m Nason  $233,000.00  1974  138 Appendix Summary o f  Admission  Income  III Sources:  Fees  $15,745.00  Sales  10.695.00  Membership Total  4,400.00 $30,880.00  Income:  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s income e q u i v a l e n t t o s l i g h t l y more 44% o f t h e p r o j e c t e d a n n u a l b u d g e t o f $ 7 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 .  than  In the absence of o t h e r income, the T r i b a l Government w o u l d b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g 56%, o r $39,120.00. Adapted  from  Nason  1974  

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