UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Native Indian cultural centres : a planning analysis Koulas, Heather Marshall 1987

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N A T I V E I N D I A N C U L T U R A L C E N T R E S : A P L A N N I N G A N A L Y S I S B y HEATHER MARSHALL KOULAS B . A . , S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1980 A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S S c h o o l o f C o m m u n i t y and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l 3 0 , 1987 ( c ) H e a t h e r M a r s h a l l K o u l a s , 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Cj&^WjUswjl\ A The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) i i A b s t r a c t : N a t i v e I n d i a n C u l t u r a l C e n t r e s h a v e g r o w n o u t o f t h e o n - g o i n g s t r u g g l e f o r n a t i v e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a r e r a p i d l y b e c o m i n g a f o c u s f o r n a t i v e c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e e v o l u t i o n o f two N o r t h w e s t C o a s t n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s - - t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e and t h e Makah C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e ( M C R C ) — t h r o u g h e a c h s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t , o u t l i n i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l , e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c o n t e x t , t h e f o r m and f u n c t i o n o f c o n c e p t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t and t h e p l a n n e d and u n p l a n n e d p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n b u i l d i n g and o p e r a t i n g e a c h c e n t r e . A n a l y s i s h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t ' K s a n and t h e MCRC h a v e e v o l v e d as a r e s p o n s e t o l o c a l c u l t u r a l and e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s and h a v e b e e n f u n d e d p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s o f e c o n o m i c r a t h e r t h a n c u l t u r a l v i a b i l i t y . S i x f a c t o r s w e r e f o u n d t o be c o l l e c t i v e l y s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o m o t e t h e s u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p m e n t o f e a c h c u l t u r a l c e n t r e : l o c a l c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e , s o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n , l o c a l p r o j e c t r e l e v a n c e , n a t i v e I n d i a n c o n t r o l , a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s and common m o t i v a t i o n a l g r o u n d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n a t i v e I n d i a n s and n o n - n a t i v e s p e c i a l i s t s i s c h a n g i n g . N a t i v e p e o p l e a r e no l o n g e r a l l o w i n g n o n - n a t i v e s p e c i a l i s t s t o d e f i n e t h e i r c u l t u r e and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r h e r i t a g e and ' K s a n and t h e MCRC h a v e p o s i t i v e l y r e - i n f o r c e d t h a t c h a n g e . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s h a s p r o v i d e d an i m p o r t a n t s t e p i n t h e o n - g o i n g n a t i v e s t r u g g l e f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g a f o c u s and/or forum f o r n a t i v e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and i s l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e i n the f u t u r e . iv T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s : page L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s i x A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t x C h a p t e r 1: I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 .1 P u r p o s e 1 1 .2 T h e s i s R a t i o n a l e 1-2 1.3 T h e s i s F o c u s 2 1.4 T h e s i s A p p r o a c h and R e s e a r c h M e t h o d s 2 - 3 1. 5 S t u d y A r e a 3 1 .6 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f T h e s i s 4 C h a p t e r 2 : The R o l e o f N a t i v e C u l t u r a l C e n t r e s i n t h e S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l R e - D e v e l o p m e n t o f N a t i v e P e o p l e 2 . 1 The E v o l u t i o n o f N a t i v e C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . 8 - 1 2 2 . 2 The M e a n i n g o f C u l t u r e and C u l t u r a l P r e s e r v a t i o n and t h e i r R o l e s i n N a t i v e S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t 1 2 - 1 3 2 . 3 The F o c u s o f N a t i v e C u l t u r a l P r e s e r v a t i o n 1 3 - 1 4 2 . 4 The E v o l u t i o n o f N a t i v e C u l t u r a l C e n t r e s 1 4 - 1 8 2 . 5 C u l t u r a l C e n t r e A c t i v i t i e s 18 2 . 6 The R o l e o f C u l t u r a l C e n t r e s i n t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f N a t i v e I n d i a n S o c i e t y 1 8 - 1 9 C h a p t e r 3 : T s i m s h i a n C u l t u r a l D i s i n t e g r a t i o n 3 . 1 C o n t e x t 2 0 - 2 2 V 3 . 2 G o v e r n m e n t a l I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I , P a t e r n a l i s m 2 2 - 2 7 3 . 3 C h r i s t i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I , S p i r i t u a l P a t e r n a l i s m 2 7 - 2 8 3 . 4 G o v e r n m e n t a l I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I I , A s s i m i l a t i o n 2 8 - 3 1 3 . 5 C h r i s t i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I I , S p i r i t u a l A s s i m i l a t i o n ' 31 3 . 6 N a t i v e I n d i a n R e s i s t a n c e : S t a g e I , N o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l 3 1 - 3 3 3 . 7 G o v e r n m e n t a l I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I I I , C a n a d i a n S o v e r e i g n i t y 3 3 - 3 4 3 . 8 N a t i v e I n d i a n R e s i s t a n c e : S t a g e I I , I n s t i t u t i o n a l 3 4 - 3 6 3 . 9 C h a p t e r Summary 3 6 - 3 8 C h a p t e r 4 : G i t k s a n C u l t u r a l R e v i t a l i z a t i o n and t h e P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e 4 . 1 E t h n o g r a p h i c D e v e l o p m e n t 4 1 - 4 8 4 . 2 D e v e l o p m e n t a l and O p e r a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g 48 4 . 2 . 1 S k e e n a T r e a s u r e H o u s e 4 8 - 5 0 4 . 2 . 2 ' K s a n H o u s e s 5 0 - 5 3 4 . 2 . 2 . 1 The F r o g H o u s e o f t h e D i s t a n t P a s t . . . . 5 3 4 . 2 . 2 . 2 The W o l f H o u s e o f o u r G r a n d f a t h e r s . 5 3 - 5 4 4 . 2 . 2 . 3 The F i r e w e e d H o u s e o f T r e a s u r e s 54 4 . 2 . 2 . 4 The T o d a y H o u s e o f S a l e s 54 4 . 2 . 3 G i t k s a n D a n c e r s 54 v i 4 . 2 . 4 K i t a n m a x S c h o o l o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n A r t 5 5 - 5 7 4 . 2 . 5 Book B u i l d e r s 57 4 . 2 . 6 N o r t h w e s t N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e 5 7 - 6 1 4 . 3 C h a p t e r Summary 6 1 - 6 3 C h a p t e r 5 : W e s t c o a s t C u l t u r a l D i s i n t e g r a t i o n 6 7 - 7 1 5 . 1 G o v e r n m e n t I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I , P a t e r n a l i s m . . . 7 1 - 7 2 5 . 2 G o v e r n m e n t I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I I , T r e a t i e s and A s s i m i l a t i o n 7 2 - 8 0 5 . 3 G o v e r n m e n t I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I I I , L i m i t e d S e l f - g o v e r n m e n t 8 0 - 8 3 5 . 4 N a t i v e I n d i a n R e s i s t a n c e : S t a g e I , N o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l . 8 3 - 8 4 5 . 5 N a t i v e I n d i a n R e s i s t a n c e : S t a g e I I , I n s t i t u t i o n a l 8 4 - 8 6 5 . 6 C h a p t e r Summary 8 6 - 8 8 C h a p t e r 6 : Makah C u l t u r a l R e v i t a l i z a t i o n and t h e P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e Makah C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e 6 . 1 E t h n o g r a p h i c D e v e l o p m e n t 9 0 - 9 3 6 . 2 D e v e l o p m e n t a l P l a n n i n g 93 6 . 2 . 1 I n i t i a l P l a n n i n g 9 3 - 9 6 6 . 2 . 2 S e c o n d a r y . P l a n n i n g 9 6 - 1 0 0 6 . 3 O p e r a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t 100 6 . 3 . 1 A d m i n s t r a t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t 1 0 0 - 1 0 4 v i i 6.3.2 Museum D i s p l a y 104-105 6.3.3 Programmes and S e r v i c e s 105-106 6.4 Chapter Summary... 106-109 Chapter 7: Comparisons, Conclusions and I m p l i c a t i o n s 7.1 Regional H i s t o r i c a l Comparison 114-115 7.2 F a c i l i t i e s Comparison 115-117 7.2.1 L o c a l C u l t u r a l Knowledge 117-118 7.2.2 S o c i a l M o b i l i z a t i o n 118-120 7.2.3 L o c a l P r o j e c t Relevance 120 7.2.4 Native Indian C o n t r o l 120-121 7.2.5 Access to Resources 121-122 7.2.6 Common M o t i v a t i o n a l Ground 122-123 7.3 C o n c l u s i o n s 123 7.4 I m p l i c a t i o n s 123-125 Appendix I: Gitks a n H i s t o r y 1870-1920 1-33-134 I I : Makah H i s t o r y 1790-1984 135-136 I I I : Summary of MCRC Budget and Grant Cost Estimates and Income Sources 137-138 . References C i t e d 126-132 v i i i L i s t o f T a b l e s : p a g e T a b l e I : C a s e S t u d y S e l e c t i o n 7 T a b l e I I : T s i m s h i a n T r i b e s and B a n d s 23 T a b l e I I I : T s i m s h i a n R e g i o n a l H i s t o r y 3 9 - 4 0 T a b l e I V : The S i x P r o j e c t s o f ' K s a n 64 T a b l e V : O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h a r t o f K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n 66 T a b l e V I : W e s t c o a s t G e o g r a p h i c a l D i v i s i o n s 69 T a b l e V I I : W e s t c o a s t R e g i o n a l H i s t o r y 89 T a b l e V I I I : P o t e n t i a l MCRC S i t e s 99 T a b l e I X : MCRC A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n 102 T a b l e X : MCRC P l a n n i n g S t a g e s 109 ix L i s t o f F i g u r e s : p a g e F i g u r e 1: N o r t h A m e r i c a n A b o r i g i n a l D i v i s i o n s 5 F i g u r e 2 : N o r t h w e s t C o a s t C u l t u r e G r o u p s 6 F i g u r e 3 : T r a d i t i o n a l M a j o r T s i m s h i a n V i l l a g e s 21 F i g u r e 4 : T r a d i t i o n a l T s i m s h i a n T r a d e R o u t e s 24 F i g u r e 5 : The ' K s a n V i l l a g e C o m p l e x 65 F i g u r e 6 : W e s t c o a s t G e o g r a p h i c and L i n g u i s t i c S u b d i v i s i o n 68 F i g u r e 7 : O l y m p i c P e n n i n s u l a 70 F i g u r e 8 : Makah R e s e r v a t i o n 74 F i g u r e 9 : Neah B a y S i t e P l a n 1 110 F i g u r e 1 0 : Neah B a y S i t e P l a n I I I l l F i g u r e 1 1 : MCRC F l o o r P l a n 1 112 F i g u r e 1 2 : MCRC F l o o r P l a n I I 113 Acknowledgements: V^CA C»rtfck>i t w s O *"'7Sgj fe**<» <^ fb> I would a l s o l i k e to thank the members of my committee: Peter Boothroyd, James Haggarty and Michael Ames fo r t h e i r continued e f f o r t i n the development of my t h e s i s . E q u a l l y important are the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of Greig A r n o l d , P o l l y Sargent, Eve Hope and other i n d i v i d u a l s s h a ring i n the development of t h i s r e s e a r c h . I C h a p t e r 1 : I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 .1 S t a t e m e n t o f P u r p o s e The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o a n a l y s e t h e r o l e o f c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s i n t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l r e - d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e p e o p l e s and t o i d e n t i f y t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s u c c e s s o f t h a t r e - d e v e l o p m e n t . N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s may be d e f i n e d as f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h p r o v i d e a c u l t u r a l f o c u s f o r a n a t i v e I n d i a n c o m m u n i t y . C u l t u r a l c e n t r e s may i n v o l v e n a t i v e I n d i a n museums a n d / o r f a c i l i t i e s h o u s i n g o r g a n i z e d p r o g r a m m e s w h i c h f o c u s on t r a d i t i o n a l and c o n t e m p o r a r y n a t i v e c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . Two c a s e s a r e s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s — t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e i n H a z e l t o n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e Makah C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e i n Neah B a y , W a s h i n g t o n . T h i s t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s t h e c u l t u r a l p r e s s u r e s on t h e G i t k s a n and t h e M a k a h p e o p l e and t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e p r e s s u r e s and t h e f o r m o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n v o l v e d i n t h a t r e s p o n s e . C a s e s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c h o s e n t o u n d e r s t a n d c l e a r l y t h e v a r i a b l e s l e a d i n g t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s t h e m s e l v e s . The t h e s i s i d e n t i f i e s and c o m p a r e s s i x f a c t o r s and p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e c e n t r e s — l o c a l c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e , s o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n , l o c a l p r o j e c t r e l e v a n c e , n a t i v e I n d i a n c o n t r o l , a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s , and common m o t i v a t i o n a l g r o u n d . 1 .2 T h e s i s R a t i o n a l e N a t i v e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s h a v e g r o w n o u t o f t h e o n - g o i n g s t r u g g l e f o r n a t i v e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a r e r a p i d l y 2 b e c o m i n g a f o c u s f o r n a t i v e c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . D e s p i t e t h i s f a c t , l i t t l e a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n o n s u c h c e n t r e s i n t h e p l a n n i n g and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . R e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h on c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s , s u c h a s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , may a i d i n t h e p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f f u t u r e n a t i v e c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s . 1 .3 T h e s i s F o c u s T h i s t h e s i s p o s e s t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g e a c h o f t h e two c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s s t u d i e d : a) What i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s h a v e e v o l v e d ? b) What w e r e t h e f o r c e s w h i c h c r e a t e d t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s ? Why d i d t h e y e v o l v e i n t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f a c i l i t i e s ? c ) What w e r e t h e s t a t e d g o a l s o f t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s ? d) What n e e d s o r f u n c t i o n s h a v e t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s a c t u a l l y f u l f i l l e d ? What w e r e t h e n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s ? e) What w e r e t h e p l a n n e d and u n p l a n n e d p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s ? f ) What l e s s o n s c a n be d r a w n f r o m t h e c a s e s t u d i e s ? 1 • 4 T h e s i s A p p r o a c h and R e s e a r c h M e t h o d s I n o r d e r t o show t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o n t e x t f o r e a c h c e n t r e , a r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t h i s t o r y i s i n c l u d e d f o r e a c h c a s e s t u d y . I n d e p t h r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s . The c a s e s t u d y a p p r o a c h h a s b e e n c h o s e n t o p r o v i d e i n d e p t h r a t h e r t h a n c u r s a r y a n a l y s i s . The f o l l o w i n g m e t h o d s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n were u s e d t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p l a n n i n g and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s : a) i n t e n s i v e , p e r s o n a l , on s i t e , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s u n d e r a n a l y s i s , b) e x t e n s i v e t e l e p h o n e 3 i n t e r v i e w s and l e n g t h y c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and c ) a n a l y s i s o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c d o c u m e n t s , p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t s r e l a t e d t o n a t i v e museums and c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s . C e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , g i v e n t o me by n a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s , i s c o n s i d e r e d c o n f i d e n t i a l and w i l l n o t a p p e a r i n t h i s t e x t . 1 .5 S t u d y A r e a W i t h i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , 11 b r o a d a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e a r e a s e x i s t : S o u t h w e s t , S o u t h e a s t , N o r t h e a s t , P r a i r i e , C a l i f o r n i a , B a s i n , P l a i n s , P l a t e a u , S u b - a r c t i c , A r c t i c and N o r t h w e s t C o a s t ( f i g u r e 1, p a g e 5) ( P r i c e 1 9 7 8 : 3 7 ) . W i t h i n e a c h d i v i s i o n , s e v e r a l s u b - d i v i s i o n s e x i s t . The N o r t h w e s t C o a s t d i v i s i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , c a n be s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o 7 m a j o r e t h n o - l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p s — H a i d a , T l i n g i t , T s i m s h i a n , B e l l a C o o l a , K w a g i u t l , S a l i s h and W e s t C o a s t ( f i g u r e 2 , p a g e 6 ) . M o s t g r o u p s c o n t a i n s e v e r a l l a n g u a g e s and many d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s . The N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c u l t u r e a r e a h a s b e e n c h o s e n f o r t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e i t i s a c c e s s i b l e and f a m i l i a r t o t h e a u t h o r . W i t h i n t h i s d i v i s i o n o n l y 8 , medium o r l a r g e s c a l e , n a t i v e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s a r e known t o e x i s t . They a r e t h e N u u m b a l e e s S o c i e t y K w a g i u t l Museum ( K w a g i u t l ) i n Cape M u d g e ; t h e S k i d e g a t e Museum ( H a i d a ) on t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s ; t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e i n H a z e l t o n ( T s i m s h i a n ) ; t h e C o q u a l e e t z a N a t i v e E d u c a t i o n C e n t r e i n C h i l l i w a c k ( S a l i s h ) ; t h e Secwepemc C u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n C e n t r e i n t h e K o o t e n a y s ( I n t e r i o r S a l i s h ) ; t h e M a k a h C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e i n 4 Neah B a y W a s h i n g t o n ( W e s t c o a s t ) ; t h e U ' m i s t a C u l t u r a l C e n t r e i n A l e r t B a y ( K w a g i u t l ) ; and t h e V a n c o u v e r I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n C e n t r e ( P a n - I n d i a n ) . T a b l e 1 o u t l i n e s t h e m a j o r f u n c t i o n s o f e a c h o f t h e 6 c e n t r e s ( T a b l e 1, page 7 ) . The 2 c e n t r e s i n v o l v i n g t h e l a r g e s t number o f f u n c t i o n s h a v e b e e n c h o s e n f o r c a s e s t u d y a n a l y s i s . 1 .6 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f T h e s i s C h a p t e r 2 p r o v i d e s a o v e r v i e w o f t h e r o l e o f c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s i n t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l r e - d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e p e o p l e s . T h i s c h a p t e r i s i n c l u d e d t o c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h t h e l i n k b e t w e e n t h e t h e o r y o f c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n and t h e p r a c t i c e o f t h e two N o r t h w e s t C o a s t n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s r e v i e w , e a c h c a s e s t u d y i s d i v i d e d i n t o 2 c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r s 3 and 5 o u t l i n e t h e r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i e s o f t h e two N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c u l t u r e g r o u p s w h i l e c h a p t e r s 4 a n d 6 d e p i c t t h e f a c i l i t i e s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e a c h c e n t r e . C h a p t e r 7 p r o v i d e s h i s t o r i c a l and f a c i l i t i e s c o m p a r i s o n , c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t s . FIGURE 1 NORTH' AMERICAN ABORIGINAL DIVISIONS Inoit (Arctic) ' •.'. Subarctic ::::::: Plateau '#CX California V V Northwest Coast Basin Plains Prairies Northeast 'J Southeast FIGURE 1 NORTHWEST * COAST CULTURE GROUPS 6 T a b l e 1 : C a s e S t u d y S e l e c t i o n 7 C a p e M d g . S k i d . 1 K s a n C o g . S e c . MCRC U ' m V N I E C R e s e a r c h / A r c h i v e s 1 1 2 3 2 2 1 0 P e r m a n e n t C o l l e c t i o n 3 3 3 0 2 3 3 0 T e m p o r a r y E x h i b i t i o n s 0 0 3 0 1 1 1 0 L a n g u a g e A r t s 1 1 0 3 1 3 2 0 V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 2 L i f e S k i l l s 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 T o t a l : 6 6 11 7 7 10 8 5 T a b l e A b b r e v i a t i o n s No a c t i v i t y L i m i t e d a c t i v i t y M o d e r a t e a c t i v i t y M a j o r a c t i v i t y (0) (1) (2) (3) C a p e M d g . Cape Mudge S k i d . S k i d e g a t e C o g . C o q u a l e e t z a S e c . Secwepemc U ' m U ' m i s t a V N I E C V a n c o u v e r N a t i v e I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n C e n t r e 8 C h a p t e r 2 : The R o l e o f C u l t u r a l C e n t r e s i n t h e S o c i a l and  C u l t u r a l R e - D e v e l o p m e n t o f N a t i v e P e o p l e s 2 . 1 The E v o l u t i o n o f N a t i v e C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s N a t i v e p e o p l e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a were f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d a s i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s when t h e y became w a r d s o f t h e s t a t e , s u b j e c t t o s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s u n d e r t h e g o v e r n m e n t s o f wha t a r e now C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . P a t e r n a l i s m g r a d u a l l y c h a n g e d t o a s s i m i l a t i o n when r u l i n g n o n - n a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t s p r o m o t e d t h e a b a n d o n m e n t o f t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h w e r e s e e n t o c o m p l i c a t e E u r o p e a n s e t t l e m e n t o f f r o n t i e r l a n d s (Dyck 1 9 8 5 : 9 ) . C a n a d i a n a s s i m i l a t i o n p o l i c i e s c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s , e x i s t i n g t o d a y i n a somewha t m i l d e r f o r m . A m e r i c a n a s s i m i l a t i o n p o l i c i e s , i n c o n t r a s t , c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 1934 when i t was c h a n g e d t o a l i m i t e d f o r m o f n a t i v e s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . G o v e r n m e n t e f f o r t s t o a d m i n i s t e r and a s s i m i l a t e a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s p r o d u c e d a c t i v e and d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n f r o m n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s b u t w i t h few s u b s t a n t i v e r e s u l t s (Dyck 1 9 8 5 : 1 0 ) . The 1 9 6 0 ' s , 1 9 7 0 ' s and 1 9 8 0 ' s , h o w e v e r , h a v e s e e n a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n 1 9 6 9 , t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i s h e d a w h i t e p a p e r on t h e s t a t u s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e i n C a n a d a . A s a d i r e c t r e s p o n s e , a number o f n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e g a n t o a s sume l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s . T h e y a d o p t e d new s t r a t e g i e s a s o p p o s e d t o o l d d e f e n s i v e o n e s . 9 a n d f o c u s s e d on t h e v a l u e s and b e l i e f s c e n t r a l t o t h e p a n - I n d i a n movement ( F r i d e r e s 1 9 8 3 : 2 5 5 - 2 5 9 ) . I n c r e a s i n g l y v i o l e n t p r o t e s t s by m i l i t a n t I n d i a n g r o u p s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c s y m p a t h y t o w a r d n a t i v e I n d i a n c a u s e s made i t p o l i t i c a l l y e x p e d i e n t f o r t h e C a n a d i a n and A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t s t o make c o n c i l i a t o r y g e s t u r e s t o w a r d more m o d e r a t e n a t i v e a l l i a n c e s . I n C a n a d a , t h e N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d , f o u n d e d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s W h i t e P a p e r , u s e d c o n c e r n o v e r n a t i v e v i o l e n c e t o demand c o n c e s s i o n s . I n 1 9 7 0 , t h e L i b e r a l g o v e r n m e n t o r g a n i z e d a j o i n t d i s c u s s i o n i n v o l v i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n s and p r o v i d e d f u n d s t o n a t i v e g r o u p s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n a t i v e c u l t u r a l o r e d u c a t i o n a l c e n t r e s , l i b r a r i e s and p u b l i c a t i o n s ( D o x t a t e r 1 9 8 5 : 2 4 ) . E v i d e n c e o f t h e e v o l v i n g r e - d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e and t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t i s t h e new C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t w h i c h e n t r e n c h e d a b o r i g i n a l and t r e a t y r i g h t s and d e f i n e d a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e i n C a n a d a a s " I n d i a n , I n u i t and M e t i s " . I n 1 9 7 2 , t h e P e n n e r C o m m i t t e e o f t h e H o u s e o f Commons r ecommended a c c e p t a n c e o f a new f e d e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p c a l l e d " I n d i a n F i r s t N a t i o n s " , w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e c o n c e p t o f n a t i v e s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t ( M a r s h a l l a n d K o u l a s 1 9 8 5 : 1 ) . The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s o f C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a v e b e e n t o a c h i e v e a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l o v e r n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s and t o 10 r e d e f i n e n a t i v e s t a t u s and r i g h t s , p o l i t i c a l l y and l e g a l l y . The f i r s t a i m r e f l e c t s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s c o m p r i s e p o l i t i c a l u n i t s as w e l l as c e n t r e s o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t y . The s e c o n d o b j e c t i v e a r i s e s o u t o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n t r a n s l a t i n g l o c a l n a t i v e c o n c e r n t o n a t i o n a l o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l o n e s . T h e s e i n c l u d e e x i s t i n g c h a n n e l s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l s c e n e and i n n o v a t i v e m e t h o d s o f p u r s u i n g n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o u r t d e c i s i o n s (Dyck 1985:16). N a t i o n s t a t e s a r e s t i l l a s s e r t i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e o f u n i l a t e r a l c i t i z e n s h i p and t e n d t o d i s m i s s l a n d c l a i m s as one s i d e d and o p p o r t u n i s t i c . H i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e s o m e t i m e s v i e w e d as r e g r e t a b l e b u t i r r e l e v e n t t o c u r r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s . N o r t h A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t s p r o u d l y d e f e n d t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f human r i g h t s , r e m a i n i n g r e l u c t a n t t o e n t e r t a i n t h e n o t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e ( D y c k 1985:11-13) . The p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s e n c o m p a s s i n g i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s and t h e n a t i o n s t a t e h a s r e c e i v e d i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a . N o r t h a n d S o u t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s , A u s t r a l i a n A b o r i g i n e s , S c a n d i n a v i a n S a a m i and o t h e r a b o r i g i n a l g r o u p s a r e s t r u g g l i n g t o r e t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s , t o d e a l w i t h g o v e r n m e n t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e i r a f f a i r s and t o s u r v i v e as c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h i n n a t i o n s t a t e s . T h e s e g r o u p s a r e , weak e c o n o m i c a l l y m a r g i n a l and c u l t u r a l l y s t i g m a t i z e d members o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s . 11 T o g e t h e r t h e y c o m p r i s e wha t h a s come t o be known as t h e " F o u r t h W o r l d " ( G r a b u r n 1 9 8 1 : 6 8 , D y c k 1 9 8 5 : 1 , B e r g e r 1 9 8 5 : 1 7 6 ) . N o e l Dyck i n h i s a r t i c l e " A b o r i g i n a l P e o p l e and t h e N a t i o n - s t a t e " , d e f i n e s t h e ' F o u r t h W o r l d ' a s a g r o u p o f m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s who h a v e no hope o f e v e r p r e v a i l i n g w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e n a t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s ; who a r e r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g e t h n i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n by v i r t u e o f t h e i r a b o r i g i n a l s t a t u s ; and a r e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e i m m i g r a n t / s e t t l e r p o p u l a t i o n s . A b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s w i t h i n c o n t e m p o r a r y n a t i o n s t a t e s t e n d t o s u f f e r f r o m a l a c k o f p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c p o w e r as w e l l as s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l s t i g m a t i z a t i o n . The l o s s o f t r a d i t i o n a l s u b s i s t e n c e a c t i v i t i e s , as w e l l as o t h e r r e a s o n s , ha s l e f t a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n s a t t h e l o w e r end o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s c a l e . I n t h e f a c e o f c u l t u r a l and e c o n o m i c d e m i s e , a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e c l a i m s p e c i a l r i g h t s t o t h e i r c u l t u r a l and e c o n o m i c h e r i t a g e (Dyck 1 9 8 5 : 2 3 6 ) . A p p e a l s made t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o d i e s s u c h as t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and t o o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u d i e n c e s , r e p r e s e n t an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t i e s . S u p r a n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , s u c h as t h i s , o f f e r s i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s an a d d i t i o n a l f o r u m i n w h i c h t o o p e r a t e and may i n t u r n g e n e r a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e a g a i n s t t h e n a t i o n s t a t e ( D y c k 1 9 8 5 : 1 9 ) . The U n i t e d N a t i o n s , t o w h i c h C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d 12 S t a t e b e l o n g , o f f i c i a l l y a f f i r m s t h e p o l i c y o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e s . I n 1 9 6 6 , t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s a p p r o v e d t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o v e n a n t on C i v i l a n d P o l i t i c a l R i g h t s and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o v e n a n t on C u l t u r a l R i g h t s b o t h a s s e r t i n g t h e r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ( B e r g e r 1 9 8 5 : 1 7 9 ) . I n 1 9 7 1 , t h e UN a u t h o r i z e d a s t u d y t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s e x p l i c i t l y s e p a r a t i n g t h e i s s u e s o f r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n f r o m t h a t o f a b o r i g i n a l p e o p l e s . I n 1975 t h i s p r i n c i p l e was r e a f f i r m e d i n A r t i c l e V I I I o f t h e H e l s i n k i A c c o r d s . I n 1 9 8 4 , Pope J o h n P a u l I I a d d r e s s e d C a n a d i a n n a t i v e p e o p l e by s t a t i n g t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s w e r e e n t i t l e d t o a j u s t a n d e q u i t a b l e m e a s u r e o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a d e q u a t e r e s o u r c e s f o r a v i a b l e economy ( B e r g e r 1 9 8 5 : 1 7 6 ) . 2 . 2 The M e a n i n g o f C u l t u r e a n d C u l t u r a l P r e s e r v a t i o n and t h e i r R o l e s i n N a t i v e S o c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t "We humans a r e s o c i a l a n i m a l s . We d e f i n e o u r s e l v e s b y k n o w i n g o u r own p e o p l e , o u r l a n g u a g e , o u r c u s t o m s , o u r t r a d i t i o n s . C u l t u r e i s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e summary o f s t a n d a r d s , v a l u e s , p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r , common a t t i t u d e s , ways o f l i f e . C u l t u r e m u s t h a v e a m a t e r i a l b a s i s " ( B e r g e r 1 9 8 5 : 1 7 6 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o B a r t h ( 1 9 6 9 : 1 0 - 1 1 ) t h e t e r m c u l t u r a l o r e t h n i c g r o u p i s g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t o o d , i n a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , a s a p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h i s l a r g e l y b i o l o g i c a l l y s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g ; s h a r e s f u n d a m e n t a l c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and h a s a m e m b e r s h i p w h i c h i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f , and i s i d e n t i f i e d b y o t h e r s as d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . I s a j i w ( 1 9 7 9 : 2 5 ) c o n c u r s by 13 d e f i n i n g e t h n i c i t y as an " i n v o l u n t a r y g r o u p o f p e o p l e who s h a r e t h e same c u l t u r e o r t o d e s c e n d e n t s o f s u c h p e o p l e who i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s a n d / o r a r e i d e n t i f i e d by o t h e r s as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e same i n v o l u n t a r y g r o u p " . E t h n i c i d e n t i t y , a c c o r d i n g t o I s a j i w ( 1 9 7 5 : 1 2 9 ) e n c o m p a s s e s i n t e r n a l o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s and e x t e r n a l i m a g e s , i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s . To I s a j i w , e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e s h a r i n g o f common v a l u e s , b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s and s y m b o l s w h i c h a r e n o t c h a r a c t e r i z e d , i n t h e same m a n n e r , by s o c i e t y as a w h o l e ( 1 9 8 1 : 2 - 3 ) . A b n e r C o h e n ( 1 9 7 4 : i x ) , i n c o n t r a s t , d e f i n e s e t h n i c i t y as a f u n c t i o n o f m i n o r i t y g r o u p s s t r i v i n g f o r e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l p o w e r . A n t h o n y P . C o h e n (1985) a r g u e s t h a t ' m u l t i p l i c i t y ' o r p l u r a l i s m w i t h i n s o c i e t y m o t i v a t e s e t h n i c g r o u p s t o r e a f f i r m t h e i r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s t h r o u g h s y m b o l i c means e n h a n c e d i n c e r e m o n i e s o r r i t u a l s . E p s t e i n (1978) s u g g e s t s t h a t h i s t o r y becomes an i m p o r t a n t c o m p o n e n t i n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f c u l t u r a l o r e t h n i c e n e r g y and p r o v i d e s f o r t h e g r o u p a p e r c e p t i o n o f i t s p a s t and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a n c e s t o r s o r e l d e r s . T r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s a r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o c o n t e m p o r a r y s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e a new s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s d e v e l o p e d ( 1 9 7 8 : 3 9 ) . E p s t e i n v i e w s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f e t h n i c i t y as t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l and g r o u p i d e n t i t y . 2 . 3 F o c u s o f N a t i v e C u l t u r a l P r e s e r v a t i o n I n a m u l t i - e t h n i c n a t i o n p r o b l e m s o f p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a r e l a r g e l y d e f i n e d by t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f 14 p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f an e t h n i c g r o u p , h o w e v e r , d i f f e r s s o m e w h a t f r o m t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n a t i o n s t a t e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e e t h n i c o r c u l t u r a l g r o u p i s d e f i n e d by i t s c u l t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n i s t h e n a t i o n . E t h n i c g r o u p s a r e b o n d e d by c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d p o l i t i c a l a p p e a l s and g o a l s a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a t t e r s o f l a n g u a g e , s p i r i t u a l i t y and s o c i a l m o r e s ( E n l o e 1 9 7 3 : 1 5 9 - 1 6 0 ) . T h e r e f o r e , a s n a t i v e I n d i a n p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n e v o l v e d o v e r t h e p a s t c e n t u r i e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h e e v o l u t i o n o f e t h n i c r e d i s c o v e r y a l s o became more d o m i n a n t . E t h n i c s y m b o l s became i m p o r t a n t i n t h e r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c u l t u r a l and i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y ( M i l l e r 1 9 8 6 : 4 7 ) . I s a j i w ( 1 9 8 1 : 8 5 ) f o u n d t h a t w i t h e a c h c o n s e c u t i v e g e n e r a t i o n w i t h i n an e t h n i c g r o u p , e t h n i c i t y o r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y d e p e n d e d more on t h e f a m i l y g r o u p r a t h e r t h a n t h e e t h n i c c o m m u n i t y as a w h o l e . C o n s u m p t i o n o f e t h n i c f o o d , p o s s e s s i o n o f e t h n i c a r t l a n g u a g e s k i l l s and c e r e m o n i a l f e s t i v i t i e s w e r e among t h e s y m b o l s n e c e s s a r y t o s u p p o r t e t h n i c i d e n t i t y i n s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n s ( I s a j i w 1 9 8 1 : 4 2 ) . 2 . 4 The E v o l u t i o n o f N a t i v e C u l t u r a l C e n t r e s S i n c e t h e 1 7 0 0 ' s , n a t i v e I n d i a n o b j e c t s h a v e b e e n c o l l e c t e d by t r a d e r s , m i s s i o n a r i e s and s e t t l e r s as o b j e c t s o f c u r i o s i t y . By t h e l a t e 1 9 t h C e n t u r y , a s s i m i l a t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s h a d t a k e n t h e i r t o l l and c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s were 15 c o l l e c t e d i n an a t t e m p t t o r e c o r d a ' d y i n g ' c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e r e v i v a l o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e a n d s o c i e t y was n o t c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e o r p o s s i b l y n o t c o n s i d e r e d . t w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y museum e x h i b i t s d e p i c t e d n a t i v e c u l t u r e as s t a t i c c o l l e c t i o n s o f t r a d i t i o n a l i m a g e s and o b j e c t s . F r o m 1900 t o t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , some n o n - n a t i v e museums and o t h e r c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w e r e so c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l o s s o f t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e c u l t u r e t h a t some a c t i v i t y p r o m o t e d a r e v i v a l o f t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n t e c h n o l o g i e s . I n 1938 t h e R o c h e s t e r Museum o f A r t s and S c i e n c e s e s t a b l i s h e d an a r t p rog ramme among t h e S e n e c a I r o q u o i s t o a i d t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e a r t . I n t h e 1950 ' s t h e UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum and t h e B u r k e Museum i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e r e v i v a l o f t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e c a r v i n g by e m p l o y i n g m a s t e r c a r v e r s t o r e p l i c a t e o l d p o l e s and c r e a t e new o n e s . By d o i n g s o , some o f t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t i c f o r m s was r e t a i n e d . A s a r e s u l t o f t h e s e p r o c e s s e s , h o w e v e r , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s became t h e a r b i t r a t o r s a n d i n t e r p r e t e r s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y (Ames 1981:13, D o x t a t e r 1985:22-23) . A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s h a v e b e n e f i t t e d g r e a t l y f r o m r e s e a r c h i n t o n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e s . N a t i v e I n d i a n s , as w e l l , h a v e b e n e f i t t e d f r o m t h e v o l u m e o f d a t a c o m p l i l e d and made a c c e s s i b l e (Ames 1985:3) . B u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and n a t i v e p e o p l e s i s c h a n g i n g . No l o n g e r 16 a r e n a t i v e I n d i a n s w i l l i n g t o a l l o w n o n - n a t i v e s p e c i a l i s t t o d e f i n e t h e i r I n d i a n n e s s and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r c u l t u r e (Ames 1 9 8 5 : 3 ) . N a t i v e p e o p l e a r e d e m a n d i n g t h e r i g h t t o d e f i n e , a s B e r g e r h a s s a i d , t h e i r own c o m p r e h e n s i v e summary o f s t a n d a r d s , v a l u e s , p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r , common a t t i t u d e s and ways o f l i f e ( 1 9 8 5 : 1 7 6 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and t h e i r n a t i v e e m p l o y e r s i s b e c o m i n g more b a l a n c e d . M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s h a v e become m o r e a c t i v e as c o n s u l t a n t s i n t h e o n - g o i n g b a t t l e f o r n a t i v e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The E t h n o l o g y D i v i s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum (BCPM) d e v o t e s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s o u r c e s t o t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f c o n t e m p o r a r y n a t i v e c e r e m o n i a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i s a v a i l a b l e t o n a t i v e I n d i a n f a m i l i t i e s a t no c o s t . The BCPM a l s o l o a n s c o n t e m p o r a r y c e r e m o n i a l o b j e c t s t o n a t i v e g r o u p s f o r s p e c i a l e v e n t s s u c h as p o t l a t c h e s and t h e UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y h a s r e c e n t l y c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h n a t i v e c u r a t o r s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f museum e x h i b i t i o n s (Ames 1 9 8 5 : 5 ) . M e a n w h i l e n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e b e g u n t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own museum i d e o l o g i e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e i r c u l t u r e . Museums h a v e r e c e i v e d n o t i f i c a t i o n f r o m v a r i o u s n a t i v e g r o u p s r e q u e s t i n g t h e r e t u r n o f o b j e c t s and t h e r e m o v a l o f i n s e n s i t i v e museum d i s p l a y s (Ames 1 9 8 1 : 1 3 , D o x t a t e r 1 9 8 5 : 2 1 ) . P u b l i c c o n f r o n t a t i o n s o v e r t h e r e m o v a l o f s p i r i t u a l o b j e c t s o r t h e r e - i n t e r m e n t o f b u r i a l i t e m s w e r e i m p o r t a n t c o n f l i c t s i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e n a t i v e 17 I n d i a n museum ( H a n s o n 1980:49, D o x t a t e r 1985:24-25) . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e r i s e o f n a t i v e r u n n a t i v e museums ha s b e e n t h e wave o f p u b l i c s y m p a t h y t o w a r d t h e i r c a u s e . A c c o r d i n g t o D o x t a t e r , i n h e r a r t i c l e " T h e I d e a o f t h e I n d i a n and t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e I r o q u o i a n M u s e u m s " , t h e c o n c e p t o f n a t i v e museums was f o r w a r d e d i n t h e e a r l y 20th C e n t u r y . I t was n o t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n museums w e r e n o t r e a d y t o d e v e l o p b u t t h a t g o v e r n m e n t s and p u b l i c o p i n i o n w e r e n o t r e a d y t o a c c e p t them ( D o x t a t e r 1985:24-25) . A number o f n a t i v e I n d i a n museums have e v o l v e d , h o w e v e r , s u c h as t h e Osage T r i b a l Museum i n O k l a h o m a w h i c h d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h i n t e r n a l l y g e n e r a t e d r e v e n u e . I n 1978, 20 n a t i v e I n d i a n museum d i r e c t o r s met a t t h e S m i t h s o n i a n and f o r m e d t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n N a t i v e I n d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n ( N A N I A ) . F i f t y n a t i v e museums were r e p r e s e n t e d a t t h e f i r s t N A N I A a n n u a l m e e t i n g i n 1979 a n d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s now p r e s e n t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e museum c o m m u n i t y a t l a r g e ( H a n s o n 1980:50) . B y 1980, 125 n a t i v e I n d i a n museums were e s t a b l i s h e d b y n a t i v e A m e r i c a n t r i b e s and u r b a n g r o u p s . F e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s on n a t i v e A m e r i c a n museums i n t h e 1960 ' s a n d 1970 ' s r e t u r n e d i m p r e s s i v e l y o p t i m i s t i c r e p o r t s on t h e t o u r i s m p o t e n t i a l o f n a t i v e c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s . M o s t museums , h o w e v e r , h a v e n o t a c h i e v e d f i n a n c i a l i n d e p e n d e n c e . Many t r i b a l museums , h a v i n g a v o i d e d f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , h a v e b e g u n t o e x p l i c i t l y d e v e l o p i n t e r n a l r e v e n u e s o u r c e s 18 t o s u p p o r t t h e i r c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s on a l o n g t e r m b a s i s . O t h e r s h a v e c o n s c i o u s l y e m b r a c e d t h e n o n - n a t i v e c o m m u n i t y as a d v i s o r y and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t g r o u p s ( H a n s o n 1 9 8 0 : 4 5 - 4 7 ) . N a t i v e C a n a d i a n museums a r e b e g i n n i n g t o e s t a b l i s h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a and O n t a r i o a n d , and w i t h t h e i r A m e r i c a n c o u n t e r p a r t s , h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f i n t r a - c u l t u r a l and e x t r a - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . 2 . 5 C u l t u r a l C e n t r e A c t i v i t i e s C u l t u r a l c e n t r e s h a v e o f t e n b e e n d e f i n e d as " p l a c e s w e r e t h i n g s h a p p e n " as o p p o s e d t o t r a d i t i o n a l museums w h e r e g a l l e r i e s e x h i b i t o b j e c t s f r o m l o s t o r a n c i e n t c u l t u r e s . Many c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s , h o w e v e r , a r e i n c o r p o r a t i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y museum p h i l o s o p h i e s and a r e o b t a i n i n g c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s t h r o u g h r e p a t r i a t i o n , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n o r d o n a t i o n . Museums i n v o l v e d i n n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s a r e o f t e n s e e n , by n a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s , as an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e n a t i v e g r o u p t o g a t h e r , p r o t e c t and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own l o c a l c o l l e c t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n t o m u s e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s , c u l t u r a l , c e n t r e s o f t e n i n c l u d e l a n g u a g e t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s , r e s e a r c h and a r c h i v a l r e s o u r c e s , e d u c a t i o n a l and c u r r i c u l u m p r o g r a m m e s and v i s u a l and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s . 2 • 6 The R o l e o f C u l t u r a l C e n t r e s i n t h e R e - d e v e l o p m e n t  o f N a t i v e I n d i a n S o c i e t y A c c o r d i n g t o H a n s o n ( 1 9 8 0 : 4 7 ) c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s and 19 t h e i r p r o g r a m m e s p r o v i d e a s e n s e o f s t a b i l i t y and s e c u r i t y . C u l t u r a l p r o g r a m m e s i n s c h o o l s , on and o f f r e s e r v e s , h a v e i n c r e a s e d t h e s e n s e o f s e l f w o r t h i n n a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s p r o v i d e s a s e n s e o f s t a b i l i t y and s e c u r i t y . J o h n C . E w e r s , e t h n o l o g i s t w i t h t h e S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n and f o r m e r d i r e c t o r o f t h e Museum o f t h e P l a i n s I n d i a n on t h e B l a c k f e e t R e s e r v a t i o n i n M o n t a n a and t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f H i s t o r y and T e c h n o l o g y w r o t e t h a t " L i k e t h e E n g l i s h m a n , t h e F r e n c h m a n o r t h e I t a l i a n who v i s i t s an h i s t o r i c a l museum i n h i s own c o u n t r y , t h e I n d i a n e m e r g e s f r o m h i s museum w i t h g r e a t e r r e s p e c t f o r t h e c o u r a g e , s k i l l and i n g e n u i t y o f h i s a n c e s t o r s , a g r e a t e r a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e i r c r a f t m a n s h i p and a s e n s e o f b e a u t y , and a g r e a t e r p r i d e i n h i s own m e m b e r s h i p among t h e d e c e n d a n t s o f t h e s e p e o p l e " ( f r o m H a n s o n 1 9 8 0 : 5 1 ) . T h u s n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s a r e l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e p r o v i d i n g a f o c u s f o r n a t i v e I n d i a n e t h n i c i t y a s w e l l a s b r o a d e n c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t . 20 C h a p t e r 3 ; T s h i m s h i a n C u l t u r a l D i s i n t e g r a t i o n T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l o u t l i n e t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f T s i m s h i a n c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r t h e n e e d f o r c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n . C h a p t e r t h r e e w i l l c o n t i n u e by i n d i c a t i n g t h e m o t i v a t i o n o r i n c e n t i v e i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e p e r c e i v e d n e e d s . C h a p t e r two h a s b e e n d i v i d e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : 1) G o v e r n m e n t I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I , P a t e r n a l i s m ; 2) C h r i s t i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I , S p i r i t u a l P a t e r n a l i s m ; 3) G o v e r n m e n t I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I I , A s s i m i l a t i o n ; 4) N a t i v e I n d i a n R e s i s t a n c e : S t a g e I , N o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l ; 5) C h r i s t i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I I , S p i r i t u a l A s s i m i l a t i o n ; 6) G o v e r n m e n t A s s i m i l a t i o n : S t a g e I I I , C a n a d i a n S o v e r e i g n i t y ; 7) N a t i v e I n d i a n R e s i s t a n c e : S t a g e I I , I n s t i t u t i o n a l . 3 . 1 C o n t e x t The T s i m s h i a n o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t t r a d i t i o n a l l y o c c u p i e d t h e t e r r i t o r i e s o f t h e N a s s and S k e e n a R i v e r s , t h e i r t r i b u t a r i e s and e s t u a r i e s and t h e r i v e r s and I s l a n d s o f D o u g l a s C h a n n e l ( F i g u r e 3 , p a g e 2 1 ) , ( S e q u i n 1 9 8 4 : i x ) . The T s i m s h i a n l a n g u a g e , c o m m o n l y known as P e n u t i a n , i s c o m p r i s e d o f 3 m a j o r l i n g u i s t i c s u b - d i v i s i o n s — t h e N i s h g a , i n t h e N a s s R i v e r a r e a ; t h e G i t k s a n , on t h e U p p e r S k e e n a ; and t h e T s i m s h i a n p r o p e r o r C o a s t T s i m s h i a n , on t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s o f t h e S k e e n a and a d j a c e n t c o a s t ( G a r f i e l d and W i n g e r t 1 9 5 1 : 6 ) ( T a b l e I I , p a g e 2 3 ) . The 3 T s i m s h i a n d i a l e c t s a r e s i m i l a r i n g r a m m a t i c a l and s e m a n t i c s t r u c t u r e 21 22 and a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y i s i d e n t i c a l . T s i m s h i a n t e r r i t o r y was b o u n d e d on t h e n o r t h by t h e T l i n g i t a n d A t h a p a s k a n g r o u p s , t h e C a r r i e r t o t h e E a s t , t h e N o r t h e r n K w a g i u t l and H a i d a t o t h e W e s t and t h e C o a s t and I n t e r i o r S a l i s h t o t h e S o u t h ( F i g u r e 2 , page 6 ) , ( S e q u i n 1 9 8 4 : x ) . 3•2 G o v e r n m e n t I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I , P a t e r n a l i s m I n 1 6 7 0 , t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t e n a c t e d i t s f i r s t l e g i s l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g n a t i v e I n d i a n s . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d a p o l i c y o f p a t e r n a l i s m and s o u g h t t o p r o m o t e n a t i v e c o n v e r s i o n t o C h r i s t i a n i t y ( F r i d e r e s 1 9 8 3 : 2 1 ) . I n 1755 t h e E n g l i s h g o v e r n m e n t d e s i g n e d a p o l i c y o f i s o l a t i n g n a t i v e p e r s o n s on r e s e r v a t i o n s . I n d i a n a g e n t s w e r e a p p o i n t e d t o f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h C a n a d a ' s p o l i c y o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s as w a r d s o f t h e s t a t e ( F r i d e r e s 1 9 8 3 : 1 7 ) . A t t h e t i m e o f E u r o p e a n c o n t a c t , no i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e s i n t h e T s i m s h i a n economy l a y u n c l a i m e d by n a t i v e g r o u p s ( G a r f i e l d and W i n g e r t 1 9 5 1 : 1 4 ) . By 1 7 9 3 B r i t i s h t r a d e r s h a d r e a c h e d t h e M a c k e n z i e o v e r l a n d and e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i n g p o s t s i n t h e r e g i o n ( o f f i c i a l l y t h r o u g h t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company and u n o f f i c i a l l y t h r o u g h i t s r i v a l , t h e N o r t h Wes t Company) ( K e h o e 1 9 7 1 : 4 3 0 ) . E s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i n g t r a i l s f o l l o w e d i n t e r i o r v a l l e y s ( F i g u r e 4 , p a g e 2 4 ) . The m a j o r n o r t h - s o u t h t r a i l r a n n o r t h f r o m t h e S k e e n a t o t h e N a s s , p a s t M e z i a d e n L a k e t o t h e S t i k i n e , w h e r e c r o s s t r a i l s l i n k e d F o r t W r a n g e l ( e s t a b l i s h e d 1825) a n d L a k e A t l i n and t h e Y u k o n R i v e r . The t r a i l h e a d s s o u t h f r o m t h e S k e e n a t o K i t i m a t , t h u s j o i n i n g 2 e u l a c h o n f i s h i n g g r o u n d s w i t h t h e m i d d l e S k e e n a ( M c D o n a l d 23 T a b l e I I T s i m s h i a n T r i b e s and B a n d s : C u l t u r e T r i b e s and R e s e r v e P r e s e n t G r o u p B a n d s (1850) Name (1916) N a m e ( 1 9 6 3 ) C o a s t K i t a s o o K i t a s o o (o r K i t a s o o Ts i m s h i a n C h i n a H a t ) K i t k i a t a K i t a h t a H a r t l e y B a y K i t k a t l a K i t k a t l a K i t k a t l a G i t z a k l a t h P o r t S i m p s o n P o r t S i m p s o n G i t s e e M e t l a k a t l a M e t l a k a t l a G i n a k a n g e e k G i n a d o i k s G i s p a k l o a t s G i l u t s a u L a k e l s e G i t l a n K i t s u m k a l u m K i t s u m k a y l u m K i t s u m k a l u m G i t k s a n K i t w a n g a K i t w a n g a K i t w a n g a K i t w a n c o o l K i t w a n c o o l K i t w a n c o o l K i t s e g u k l a K i t s e g u k l a K i t s e g u k l a K i t a n m a k s H a z e l t o n H a z e l t o n K i s p i o x K i s p a i o x K i s p i o x K i s g e g a s K i s g e g a s ( j o i n e d H a z e l t o n K u l d o e K u l d o e H II ^ N i s h g a G i k a t e e n N a s s K i n c o l i t h & K i n c o l i t h L a c h k a l t s a p L a k a l z a p G i t g i g e n i k G i t w u n k s i t h k C a n y o n C i t y G i t l a k d a m i k s K i t l a d a m a x G i t l a k d a m i x A i y a n s h A d a p t e d f r o m D u f f 1 9 6 4 : 1 8 - 2 0 25 1 9 8 4 : 7 6 ) . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e T s i m s h i a n economy was b a s e d l a r g e l y on f i s h i n g , h u n t i n g , and d o m e s t i c and t r a d e p r o d u c t i o n . W i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f F o r t S i m p s o n i n 1 8 3 2 , L e g a i c and o t h e r T s i m s h i a n c h i e f s q u i c k l y e x p a n d e d t h e i r t r a d i n g p r i v i l e g e s t o i n c l u d e t h e E u r o p e a n m a r k e t ( G a r f i e l d 1 9 3 9 : 1 8 3 ) . T h r o u g h l a r g e m o n o p o l i e s , t h e L e g a i c L e a g u e c o u l d c o n t r o l t r a d e , and t o some e x t e n t , r e g u l a t e f u r p r i c e s ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 3 0 ) . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , d i s e a s e , e s p e c i a l l y s m a l l p o x , d e c i m a t e d t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . H u d s o n ' s B a y Company (HCB) men h a d a c c e s s t o s m a l l p o x i n n o c u l a t i o n s a l t h o u g h HCB r e p o r t s m e n t i o n d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e m e d i c i n e t o ' f r i e n d l y c h i e f s ' o n l y ( M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 4 2 ) . A s t h e c h i e f s ' m o n o p o l i e s e x p a n d e d , a d d i t i o n a l I n d i a n b a n d s w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e n e t w o r k . The G i t k s a n , f o r e x a m p l e , w e r e a l r e a d y t r a d i n g a t i n l a n d m a r k e t s w i t h t h e C o a s t T s i m s h i a n f o r E u r o p e a n c o m m o d i t i e s when t h e H C B ' s t r a d e r s a r r i v e d f r o m t h e e a s t i n 1826 ( M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 4 2 ) . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n o c c u r r e d a t t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l . The N i s g h a and C o a s t T s i m s h i a n f r o m M e t l a k a t l a p r o d u c e d m o s t o f t h e e u l a c h o n o i l . The N i s g h a t r a d e d s u r p l u s o i l a c r o s s t h e G r e a s e T r a i l t o t h e i n t e r i o r as f a r a s t h e u p p e r S k e e n a , w h i l e t h e C o a s t T s i m s h i a n t r a d e d o i l t o K i t k a t l a and a s f a r w e s t as t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . B o t h g r o u p s t r a d e d w i t h t h e T l i n g i t who came t o t h e N a s s e s t u a r y ( G a r f i e l d and W i n g e r t 1 9 5 1 : 1 6 ) , ( F i g u r e 4 , p a g e 2 4 ) . The h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d w o r l d o f t h e T s i m s h i a n was 26 r a d i c a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d by t h e E u r o - C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . E a r l y c o n t a c t s w i t h e x p l o r e r s and t r a d e r s d i d n o t s e v e r e l y a f f e c t t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p a t t e r n s as g o o d s a c q u i r e d i n t r a d e w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e a n d w e r e u s e f u l i n t e r m s o f t e c h n o l o g y o r p r e s t i g e , b u t when t h e f i r s t p e r m a n e n t t r a d i n g p o s t i n T s i m s h i a n t e r r i t o r y was e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t r a d i n g c e n t r e a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e N a s s i n 1831 (moved i n 1834 t o P o r t S i m p s o n ) , t r a d e s h i f t e d f r o m s e a o t t e r f u r s t o t h a t o f l a n d a n i m a l s . M a s s i v e w e a l t h e n t e r e d t h e n a t i v e economy f r o m t h e t r a d e r s a n d a r e a d y s u p p l y o f i r o n t o o l s p e r m i t t e d g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i v i t y among c a r v e r s . T r a d i t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f r a n k w e r e d e s t a b l i z e d as new v i l l a g e s o f p e o p l e f o r m e d a r o u n d t r a d i n g p o s t s . S t a g g e r i n g m o r t a l i t y r a t e s e n s u e d f r o m i n c r e a s e d e x p o s u r e t o O l d W o r l d d i s e a s e ( S e q u i n 1 9 8 4 : x v ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o v e n e r e a l d e s e a s e and s m a l l p o x , m e a s l e s and r e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a s e s w e r e p r e v a l e n t ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 4 5 ) . C o m p e t i t i o n f o r s c a r c e f u r s l e d t r a d e r s t o s u p p l y f i r e a r m s and a l c o h o l t o t h e T s i m s h i a n f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( S e q u i n 1 9 8 4 : x v ) . Due t o t h e r e c o r d d e a t h s t o be m e m o r i a l i z e d , p e r s o n s w i t h r a n k c o n v e r t e d t h e i r money i n t o b l a n k e t s , t o be g i v e n away a t m a s s i v e p o t l a t c h e s , t o v a l i d a t e t h e i r l i n e a g e r a n k ( K e h o e 1 9 8 1 : 4 3 3 ) . A s l o n g as t r a d e r o u t e s r e m a i n e d o p e n a n d a c o m p e t i t i v e m a r k e t s t i m u l a t e d p r i c e s , t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e i n t e r i o r c o u l d m a i n t a i n a d e g r e e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m t h e f o r t s i n t h e t e r r i t o r y ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 3 3 ) . M e a n w h i l e , t h e 27 C r o w n L a n d s P r o t e c t i o n A c t was p a s s e d i n 1839 t o e n s u r e C r o w n c o n t r o l o f I n d i a n l a n d s ( F r i d e r e s 1 9 8 3 : 2 2 ) . B e f o r e 1 8 4 9 , and t h e a r r i v a l o f c o l o n i s t s , t h e r e had b e e n no n e e d f o r g o v e r n m e n t m e a s u r e t o r e - a r r a n g e I n d i a n s o c i e t y . D u r i n g t h e f u r t r a d i n g p e r i o d i t had b e e n n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p p o l i c i e s d e s i g n e d t o a v o i d h o s t i l i t i e s b e t w e e n I n d i a n s a n d n o n - I n d i a n s . D o u g l a s w r o t e t o t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company i n 1849 r e q u e s t i n g t h a t a r r a n g e m e n t be made f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f I n d i a n l a n d . S h o r t l y a f t e r , D o u g l a s s i g n e d 11 t r e a t i e s w i t h t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e F o r t V i c t o r i a a r e a a n d 2 w i t h I n d i a n s f r o m F o r t R u p e r t ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 6 6 ) . B y 1 8 5 0 , an a c t was p a s s e d d i s a l l o w i n g t h e s a l e o f I n d i a n l a n d w i t h o u t C r o w n c o n s e n t . E i g h t e e n f i f t y - s e v e n saw an A c t f o r t h e G r a d u a l C i v i l i z a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n T r i b e s i n C a n a d a p a s s e d . The a c t p r o v i d e d i n d u c e m e n t s f o r I n d i a n s t o l e a v e t r i b a l s o c i e t i e s and become e n f r a n c h i z e d ( F r i d e r e s 1 9 8 3 : 2 2 ) . I n 1857 t h e S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e on t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company h a d r ecommended t h a t t h e C o m p a n y ' s r u l e o n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d s h o u l d come t o a n e n d . D o u g l a s was o f f e r e d t h e g o v e r n o r s h i p o f t h e new c o l o n y , b u t on t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t he s e v e r h i s t i e s w i t h t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y C o m p a n y . 3 . 3 C h r i s t i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I , S p i r i t u a l  P a t e r n a l i s m O t h e r i n f l u e n c e s c o m p l i c a t e d t h e s i t u a t i o n . The f i r s t m i s s i o n t o r e a c h t h e G i t k s a n was e s t a b l i s h e d a t F o r t B a b i n e i n 1847 ( G a r f i e l d and W i n g e r t 1 9 5 1 : 9 ) . I n 1857 R e v e r e n d W i l l i a m D u n c a n came t o t h e F o r t S i m p s o n a r e a t o p r e a c h 28 C h r i s t i a n i t y t o t h e T s i m s h i a n . I n t h e summer o f 1858 he b e g a n t o b u i l d a s c h o o l w h i c h became an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 1 2 9 ) . D u r i n g t h e t i m e D u n c a n w o r k e d a t F o r t S i m p s o n h i s m i s s i o n had met w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s . He c l a i m e d t o d e t e c t a q u i c k e n i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e t e a c h i n g s o f C h r i s t i a n i t y ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 1 2 9 ) . He was a b l e e v e n t u a l l y t o c o n v e r t many o f t h e T s i m s h i a n and b u i l d a new c o m m u n i t y c a l l e d New M e t l a k a t l a . New M e t l a k a t l a p r o v e d s u c c e s s f u l ( i n h i s v i e w ) and n e a r b y g r o u p s demanded t h e i r own m i s s i o n a r i e s ( S e q u i n 1 9 8 4 : x v ) . 3 . 4 G o v e r n m e n t a l I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I I , A s s i m i l a t i o n The i n f l u x o f m i n e r s and s e t t l e r s , i n 1 8 5 8 , r e n d e r e d c r i t i c a l t h e q u e s t i o n o f I n d i a n l a n d (Kehoe 1 9 8 1 : 4 3 2 ) . As a r e s u l t o f t h e d i s r u p t i o n c a u s e d by t h e r a p i d i n f l u x o f m i n e r s , New C a l e d o n i a was r e n a m e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Had t h e m i n i n g a r e a s r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n a f t e r t h e i n f l u x o f m i n e r s t h e s i t u a t i o n may have b e e n o n l y t r a n s i t o r y ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 9 6 ) . By t h e 1 8 6 0 ' s t h e p r i m a c y o f t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company as t h e e c o n o m i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f E u r o p e was e n d i n g and a new i n d u s t r i a l r e g i m e was t a k i n g o v e r , a c c o m p a n i e d by c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y and g o v e r n m e n t ( M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 4 4 ) . I n 1 8 6 5 , t h e W e s t e r n U n i o n T e l e g r a p h , on i t s way t o E n g l a n d v i a S i b e r i a , e n t e r e d t h e r e g i o n ( L a r g e 1 9 5 7 : 2 4 f r o m M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 4 4 ) b r i n g i n g wage l a b o u r t o t h e G i t k s a n a n d a l u c r a t i v e r i v e r f r e i g h t i n g i n d u s t r y d o m i n a t e d by t h e C o a s t T s i m s h i a n . When t h e F r a s e r r i v e r t r a d i n g r o u t e was a b a n d o n e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e S k e e n a w a t e r w a y , H a z e l t o n was 29 e s t a b l i s h e d as a m a j o r s u p p l y d e p o t ( M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 4 4 ) . Wage l a b o u r became i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . L o c a l T s i m s h i a n i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e f o u n d i n f r e i g h t i n g , f i s h i n g , c a n n e r y w o r k , l o g g i n g , m i l l w o r k , s e a l i n g , m i n i n g , s t e a m e r c r e w s , d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e , l o n g s h o r i n g , p a c k i n g , r a i l r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d o t h e r f o r m s o f wage l a b o u r ( M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 4 6 ) . F o r t S i m p s o n p r o v i d e d one s o u r c e o f e m p l o y m e n t b u t w a s , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , d e s i g n e d t o s e r v i c e t h e HBC ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 3 0 ) . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h e r e h a d b e e n no t h o u g h t t o g i v i n g . t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n t h e v o t e . I n f a c t , i n 1 8 7 2 - 1 8 7 3 l e g i s l a t i o n was p a s s e d t o s p e c i f i c a l l y e x c l u d e d I n d i a n p e r s o n s f r o m g a i n i n g t h e v o t e ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 1 7 8 ) . I n 1 8 7 3 , a B o a r d o f C o m m i s s i o n e r s was e s t a b l i s h e d t o a d m i n i s t e r I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n M a n i t o b a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r , G e o r g e t o w n M i l l s o p e n e d o p e r a t i o n s , h i r i n g T s i m s h i a n l a b o u r f o r l o g g i n g , s a w m i l l i n d u s t r y r e l a t e d e m p l o y m e n t ( K n i g h t 1 9 7 8 : 1 1 5 ) . I n 1873 O t t a w a s u g g e s t e d t h a t I n d i a n r e s e r v e s be a l l o c a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f 80 a c r e s p e r f a m i l y b u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f a v o u r e d 1 0 . An i n v e s t i g a t i v e c o m m i t t e e was a s s i g n e d t o l o o k i n t o t h e p r o b l e m and r ecommended t h e p r o v i n c e t a k e s t e p s n e c e s s a r y t o r e d r e s s g r i e v a n c e s o f I n d i a n s . I n 1 8 7 5 t h e c o m m i t t e e p u b l i s h e d t h e P a p e r s C o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e I n d i a n L a n d Q u e s t i o n , 1 8 5 0 - 1 8 7 5 w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d an i n d i c t m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s I n d i a n l a n d p o l i c y ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 1 8 1 ) . The f i r s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e I n d i a n A c t was d e s i g n e d i n 1 8 7 6 t o 30 c o n s o l i d a t e t h e d i s p a r a t e l a w s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g on t h e s t a t u t e b o o k s ( F r i d e r e s 1 9 8 3 : 2 3 ) . B y 1876 t h e p r o v i n c e came t o a d e c i s i o n on t h e l a n d q u e s t i o n . The d o m i n i o n g o v e r n m e n t h a d g i v e n up t h e i d e a o f e x t i n g u i s h i n g I n d i a n l a n d t i t l e , l a r g e l y due t o i t s e n o r m o u s e x p e n s e ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 1 8 8 ) . W i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e f i r s t c a n n e r y on t h e S k e e n a i n 1 8 7 7 , a g r e a t i n f l u x o f wage l a b o u r was d e v e l o p e d . I n i t i a l l y , t h e T s i m s h i a n f i s h e r m a n h a d an a d v a n t a g e as t h e i r l a b o u r was n e c e s s a r y . He c o u l d , i n a d d i t i o n , e n l i s t t h e h e l p o f h i s w i f e i f she p r e f e r r e d n o t t o work i n t h e u n p l e a s a n t c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e l o c a l c a n n e r y ( M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 4 7 ) . I n an e f f o r t t o m a x i m i z e p r o f i t , f i s h i n g c o m p a n i e s i n c r e a s e d t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s by c o n t i n u a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n f i s h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . A s w e l l , t h e y b e g a n t o f i s h f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r away f r o m t h e c r o w d e d r i v e r m o u t h s a n d c o n t r o l l e d r i v a l and I n d i a n f i s h i n g l i c e n c e s , r e q u i r i n g t h e u s e o f company g e a r . G o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e d r a f t e d i n t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e company p o s i t i o n . N o n - n a t i v e men w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o f i s h , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n and w e a k e n i n g t h e T s i m s h i a n p o s i t i o n i n t h e f i s h e r i e s ( M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 4 7 ) . T s i m s h i a n women d o m i n a t e d t h e p a c k i n g p r o c e s s i n t h e e t h n i c a l l y s e g r e g a t e d c a n n e r i e s . Due t o p o o r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e c a n n e r i e s , c o m p a n i e s f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n a s t e a d y f l o w o f w o r k e r s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n was q u i c k l y r e m e d i e d , h o w e v e r , when t h e number o f women p u l l e r s on b o a t s w e r e r e d u c e d a n d n a t i v e 31 f i s h e r m e n w e r e h i r e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i r w i v e s w o u l d w o r k i n t h e c a n n e r i e s ( M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 4 7 ) . 3 . 5 C h r i s t i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I I , S p i r i t u a l  A s s i m i l a t i o n D e s p i t e t h e p r e s s u r e f r o m M i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o end p o t l a t c h i n g , w i n t e r c e r e m o n i a l f e a s t s c o n t i n u e d w i t h g r e a t f o r c e . H o w e v e r , by t h e 1 8 8 0 ' s l a r g e m u l t i - f a m i l y l i n e a g e h o u s e s w e r e k e p t o n l y f o r f e a s t s a n d I n d i a n l i f e was e c o n o m i c a l l y a s s i m i l a t i n g t o t h a t o f t h e E u r o - C a n a d i a n s e t t l e r ( K e h o e 1 9 8 1 : 4 3 4 - 4 3 5 ) . By 1 8 8 4 , m i s s i o n a r i e s i n d u c e d C a n a d i a n o f f i c i a l s t o amend t h e 1 8 8 0 I n d i a n A c t t o i n c l u d e a ban on t h e n a t i v e p o t l a t c h i n g . The m i s s i o n a r i e s m i s u n d e r s t o o d t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e ( m a n - e a t i n g ) H a m a t s a d a n c e , w h i c h "was (and i s ) a a l l e g o r y o f human d e v e l o p m e n t , an u n f o r g e t t a b l e e n a c t m e n t o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b r i n g i n g p h y s i c a l p o w e r u n d e r t h e d o m i n i o n o f t h e s o c i a l g r o u p " (Kehoe 1 9 8 1 : 4 3 3 ) . The s k i l l f u l l y s t a g e d p e r f o r m a n c e s i n w h i c h an a c t o r a p p e a r e d t o a c t u a l l y t e a r a t t h e f l e s h o f t h e p e r f o r m e r s , p l a n t e d i n t h e a u d i e n c e , p e r s u a d e d m i s s i o n a r i e s t h a t N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n s were i n d e e d c a n n i b a l s (Kehoe 1 9 8 1 : 4 3 3 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e p o t l a t c h l a w was v i r t u a l l y u n e n f o r c e a b l e i n t h e 1 8 8 0 ' s i t s t o o d as a b l a t a n t e x a m p l e o f t h e s e t t l e r s b e l i e f i n a c c u l t u r a t i o n . W i t h t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e a n t i - p o t l a t c h l a w , many I n d i a n p r o t e s t e d v i g o r o u s l y w h i l e o t h e r s q u i e t l y d i s o b e y e d t h e l a w ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 2 0 7 - 2 0 8 ) . 3 . 6 N a t i v e I n d i a n R e s i s t a n c e : S t a g e I , N o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l By 1 8 6 2 , t h e p a c e o f c h a n g e h a d o u t s t r i p p e d t h e I n d i a n s 32 a b i l i t y t o c o p e w i t h i t . T r a d i t i o n a l and E u r o p e a n c u r e s p r o v e d i n e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t s m a l l p o x and a n y f o r m o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w e r e i n a d e q u a t e t o d e a l w i t h t h e m o r t a l i t y c r i s i s . The B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t was p a s s e d i n 1867 i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s u n d e r t h e E n f r a n c h i s e m e n t A c t ( L a r g e 1 9 5 7 : 3 2 ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f c a n n e r i e s c o u p l e d w i t h t h e e n c r o a c h m e n t on T s i m s h i a n f i s h i n g g r o u n d s , c r e a t e d u n r e s t i n t h e l a t e 1 8 7 0 ' s and e a r l y 1 8 8 0 ' s , when c h i e f s a t K i t k a t l a c o n f i s c a t e d n e t s o f a company f e l t t o h a v e b e e n a b u s i n g t h e v i l l a g e f i s h e r i e s ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 2 0 0 ) . I n 1879 a g u n b o a t , p u r c h a s e d by t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t t o c o n t r o l p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t i n t h e r e g i o n , made i t s f i r s t r o u n d o f d u t y a t P o r t S i m p s o n when T s i m s h i a n r e s i d e n t s had o r g a n i z e d a " V o l u n t e e r Company o f R i f l e s " ( D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r 1 8 7 9 : 1 1 2 ) . The n o r t h e r n T s i m s h i a n w e r e a l s o b e c o m i n g b i t t e r . A g o v e r n m e n t a g e n t h a d l a i d o u t r e s e r v e s f o r t h e c o a s t a l T s i m s h i a n and t h e N i s h g a d u r i n g t h e 1 8 8 0 ' s w i t h o u t much c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y ( F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 : 2 0 4 - 2 0 5 ) . H o s t i l i t y t o w a r d d o m i n i o n and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r m e n t s c o n t i n u e d t o g r o w , a n d t h e v i l l a g e s o f M e t l a k a t l a and P o r t S i m p s o n r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t t h e a g e n t a s s i g n e d t o t h e N o r t h W e s t A g e n c y (DIA 1 8 8 4 : 1 1 7 f r o m F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 ) . An a g e n t d i d s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f i n 1888 u n d e r g r e a t p r o t e s t f r o m t h e p e o p l e o f P o r t S i m p s o n and G r e e n v i l l e (DIA 1 8 8 9 : x c i f r o m F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 ) . A l s o i n 1 8 8 4 , t h e G i t k s a n t h r e a t e n e d t o c l o s e t h e S k e e n a R i v e r o n c e a g a i n . I n t h e same y e a r , t h e P o r t 33 E s s i n g t o n p e o p l e , a n g e r e d by t h e p r o c e s s o f l a n d a p p r o p r i a t i o n , s t o p p e d s u r v e y o r s f r o m c a r r y i n g o u t t h e i r t a s k s ( D I A 1 8 8 4 : 2 8 2 f r o m F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 ) . I n 1 8 8 5 , a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e c o n t r o v e r y t h e M e t l a k a t l a p e o p l e f o r c e a b l y o c c u p i e d t h e C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y b u i l d i n g . A s a r e s u l t t h e HMS C o m o r a n t a r r i v e d on t h e s c e n e t o k e e p t h e p e a c e (DIA 1 8 8 6 : x i - x i i f r o m F i s h e r 1 9 7 7 ) . 3 . 7 G o v e r n m e n t I n t e r v e n t i o n : S t a g e I I I , C a n a d i a n  S o v e r e i g n t y By t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , T s i m s h i a n I n d i a n s were no l o n g e r t r e a t e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g o v e r n m e n t as a p e o p l e o f a s o v e r e i g n n a t i o n . When B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n t e r e d c o n f e d e r a t i o n , s m a l l r e s e r v e s o f l a n d w e r e a l l o c a t e d t o e a c h v i l l a g e and w i t h o u t n a t i v e c o n s e n t t h e T s i m s h i a n g r o u p s came u n d e r t h e a e g i s o f t h e I n d i a n A c t ( S e q u i n 1 9 8 4 : x v ) . None o f t h e g r o u p s h a d a b a n d o n e d i t s a b o r i g i o n a l t i t l e and t h e N i s g h a p r e s s e d t h e i r c l a i m t o v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t ( S e q u i n 1 9 8 4 : x v ) . The band s y s t e m g r e w o u t o f t h e a t o m i s t i c n a t u r e o f t h e n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m as t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d f i n d no e f f e c t i v e g r o u p t o work w i t h o t h e r t h a n b a n d s o r t r i b e s . To t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t , I n d i a n s w e r e r e g i s t e r e d members o f one o f t h e 189 b a n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L a n d s , f u n d s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o m m u n i t y p r o j e c t s w e r e a l l m a t t e r s t o be h a n d l e d a t t h e b a n d l e v e l ( D u f f 1 9 6 4 : 1 0 6 ) . T s i m s h i a n c o m m e r c i a l i n t e r e s t s d r o v e f r e i g h t i n g p r i c e s u p - - p r i c e s o n l y g r u d g i n g l y a c c e p t e d by t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y 34 C o m p a n y . A t t h e same t i m e t h e Company was r e v o l u t i o n i z i n g i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m and h e a v i l y c a p i t a l i z i n g i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o u n d e r c u t t h e l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e n a t i v e o p e r a t i o n s ( M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 4 5 ) . The T s i m s h i a n a l s o owned a n d o p e r a t e d many s t o r e s i n t h e A i y a n s h , K i n c o l i t h , H a r t l e y B a y , L a k a l s a p , and H a z e l t o n a r e a s ( K n i g h t 1 9 7 8 : 6 0 - 6 1 ) . A d d i t i o n a l c o m m e r c i a l v e n t u r e s i n c l u d e d t h e m a n u f a c t u r e and m a r k e t i n g o f o i l , c a n o e s , f i s h b o a t s , n e t s , h o u s e s , a n d c r a f t i t e m s ( M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 4 5 - 4 6 ) . When w h i t e f o r e s t r y o p e r a t i o n s b e g a n , i n d e p e n d e n t l o g g i n g c r e w s f r o m P o r t S i m p s o n o r g a n i z e d t o s u p p l y t h e m i l l s ( K n i g h t 1 9 7 8 : 1 1 5 ) . The f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l s t e a m e r p a s s a g e t o H a z e l t o n was a c h i e v e d by t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company s t e a m e r i n 1 8 9 1 . A s a r e s u l t t h e T s i m s h i a n l o s t c o n t r o l o v e r S k e e n a R i v e r t r a n s p o r t a n t i o n (DIA 1 8 9 1 : 1 6 5 ) . P o l i t i c a l l y t h e power l o s s h i n d e r e d T s i m s h i a n c h i e f s b u t i n c r e a s e d l o c a l d e p e n d e n c y o n T s i m s h i a n m i g r a n t w o r k e r s who p r o v i d e d b o a t s , owned by t h e f o r e i g n and c o l o n i a l i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , t o t r a n s p o r t w o r k e r s a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o t h e j o b a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e s e a s o n and b a c k t o t h e i r homes a t t h e end ( M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 4 5 ) . 3 . 8 N a t i v e I n d i a n R e s i s t a n c e : S t a g e I I , I n s t i t u t i o n a l B y 1 9 0 6 , amendments t o t h e I n d i a n A c t had made i t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o a d m i n i s t e r and a new c o n s o l i d a t e d I n d i a n A c t was i n t r o d u c e d ( F r i d e r e s 1 9 8 3 : 2 5 ) . O v e r t h e d e c a d e t h e r e h a d b e e n a g r o w i n g r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f l a n d and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s by f o r e i g n s o u r c e s . R e s i s t a n c e i n c l u d e d l a n d c l a i m s , a g i t a t i o n f o r t h e 35 r e c o g n i t i o n o f r e s o u r c e and human r i g h t s and a t t i m e s m i l i t a n t t r a d e u n i o n a c t i v i t y . T h e s e i s s u e s were i n r e s p o n s e t o t r a d i t i o n a l and c o m m e r c i a l v a l u e s ( o f t e n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ) a s w e l l as t h e r e s u l t o f wage l a b o u r e m p l o y m e n t . The T s i m s h i a n e m p l o y e d a v a r i e t y o f m e t h o d s i n an a t t e m p t t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o v e r t e r r i t o r i a l r e s o u r c e s , s u c h as n e w s p a p e r s , p e t i t i o n s , d e l e g a t i o n s , s t r i k e s , b l o c k a d e s , o c c u p a t i o n s and t h r e a t s o f v i o l e n c e ( M c D o n a l d 1 9 8 4 : 51) . An e f f e c t i v e o r g a n z i a t i o n , t h e A l a s k a N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d , was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 1 2 . A p a r a l l e l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e A l a s k a N a t i v e S i s t e r h o o d , was f o r m e d s o o n a f t e r t o e n a b l e women t o w o r k t o w a r d t h e i r g o a l s (Kehoe 1 9 8 1 : 4 3 6 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e f o r m e d f o r members o f t h e T l i n g i t c u l t u r e g r o u p , t h e y became an u n d e n i a b l e e x a m p l e o f a new f o r m o f n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n ; a n e x a m p l e n o t e d by n a t i v e g r o u p s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The N i s g h a l a n d C o m m i t t e was f o r m e d i n 1 9 1 3 and t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1 9 1 6 . The S e n a t e - H o u s e C o m m i t t e e d e c l a r e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f a b o r i g i o n a l t i t l e t o l a n d c l o s e d i n 1 9 2 7 . A s a r e s u l t t h e A l l i e d T r i b e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d i s s o l v e d ( D u f f 1 9 6 4 : 1 0 6 ) . H o w e v e r , new n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o o n b e g a n t o a p p e a r . The f i r s t o f t h e s e was t h e N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( N B B C ) . I n 1 9 3 1 , s p u r r e d by t h e A l a s k a N a t i v e t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f l a n d and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s by f o r e i g n s o u r c e s . R e s i s t a n c e i n c l u d e d l a n d c l a i m s , a g i t a t i o n f o r t h e 36 B r o t h e r h o o d , T s i m s h i a n c h i e f s o r g a n i z e d t o d e v e l o p a s i m i l a r i n t e r - t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The NBBC c o n t i n u e d t o mee t y e a r l y t h r o u g h t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s ( D u f f 1 9 6 4 : 1 0 6 ) . I n 1 9 3 6 , t h e G i t k s a n N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d (GNB) a n d G i t k s a n N a t i v e S i s t e r h o o d (GNS) w e r e f o r m e d i n r e s p o n s e t o r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l h a r d s h i p . B y 1 9 5 4 t h e T s i m s h i a n p o p u l a t i o n h a d c l i m b e d t o 4 , 8 0 2 ( A s h w e l l 1 9 7 7 : 2 7 ) and i n 1 9 5 5 t h e N i s h g a T r i b a l C o u n c i l (NTC) was f o r m e d . The NTC h a d b r a n c h e s i n K i n c o l i t h , G r e e n v i l l e , C a n y o n C i t y and A i y a n s h and r e p l a c e d t h e f o r m e r N i s h g a L a n d C o m m i t t e e . I t s p u r p o s e was t o work f o r g e n e r a l I n d i a n w e l f a r e and p r e s s f o r t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e l a n d q u e s t i o n ( D u f f 1 9 6 4 : 1 0 7 ) . 3 . 9 C h a p t e r Summary A l t h o u g h E u r o p e a n e x p l o r a t i o n and t r a d e b e g a n i n t h e 1 6 t h c e n t u r y , s i g n i f i c a n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n d i d n o t b e g i n u n t i l t h e l a t e 1 6 0 0 ' s . Unknown t o t h e T s i m h i a n , on t h e i n t e r i o r N o r t h w e s t C o a s t , g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n b e g a n i n 1 6 7 0 w i t h t h e f i r s t B r i t i s h e n a c t m e n t o f l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g n a t i v e I n d i a n s . P a t e r n a l i s m was c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l , ' b y t h e B r i t i s h g o v e r n m e n t , due t o t h e i r v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e N o r t h w e s t c o a s t f u r t r a d e . B r i t i s h p a t e r n a l i s m a f f e c t e d t h e T s i m s h i a n l e s s t h a n t h e i r C a n a d i a n n e i g h b o u r s t o t h e s o u t h and t h e s o u t h w e s t as t h e S k e e n a R i v e r a r e a was s e e n by E u r o p e a n t r a d e r s as s e c o n d a r y i n e c o n o m i c i m p o r t a n c e . G o v e r n m e n t p a t e r n a l i s m c h a n g e d t o a s s i m i l a t i o n by 1858 37 n e n t n e i n f l u x o f s e t t l e r s and m i n e r s c h a n g e d t h e p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c c l i m a t e . G o v e r n m e n t a s s i m i l a t i o n p r o v e d t o be f a r more d e b i l i t a t i n g t h a n t h e e a r l i e r p a t e r n a l i s t i c p o l i c i e s d e s p i t e t h e r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n o f t h e T s i m s h i a n . A s s i m i l a t i o n p o l i c i e s i n c r e a s e d as B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n t e r e d c o n f e d e r a t i o n and h a s c o n t i n u e d r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t l y t o 1 9 5 1 . A l t h o u g h t h e a n t i - p o t l a t c h l a w was r e p e a l e d i n t h i s y e a r , s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t — e v e n i n a l i m i t e d f o r m — h a s n o t y e t b e e n a c h i e v e d . Wedged b e t w e e n t h e s t a g e s o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n w e r e t h e p e r i o d s o f s p i r i t u a l p a t e r n a l i s m and a s s i m i l a t i o n . S p i r i t u a l p a t e r n a l i s m b e g a n i n 1847 w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f R e v e r e n d W i l l i a m D u n c a n t o t h e F o r t B a b i n e a r e a and e v o l v e d i n t o a s s i m i l a t i o n i n 1884 when m i s s i o n a r y p r e s s u r e s f o r c e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o i n s t i t u t e t h e d e v a s t a t i n g a n t i - p o t l a t c h l a w . S p i r i t u a l a s s i m i l a t i o n c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 1951 when t h e a n t i - p o t l a t c h l a w was r e p e a l e d . A s t r o n g C h r i s t i a n i n f l u e n c e r e m a i n s i n t h e r e g i o n . A l t h o u g h e a r l y n a t i v e I n d i a n r e s i s t a n c e was s p o r a d i c a l l y r e c o r d e d i n t h e S k e e n a R i v e r r e g i o n , m a j o r i n f o r m a l r e s i s t a n c e seems t o h a v e b e g u n i n 1 8 7 2 when G i t k s a n r e s i d e n t s p r o t e s t e d t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f l o c a l p r o p e r t i e s b y e x t e r n a l n o n - n a t i v e p e r s o n s . N o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 1912 when n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e g a n t o f o r m . N a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e h a s e v o l v e d o v e r t h e y e a r s t a k i n g on a v a r i e t y o f f o r m s i n c l u d i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s and t h e f o r w a r d i n g o f l a n d 38 c l a i m s . It i s c l e a r , from the preceeding chapter, that a p r o t r a c t e d d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y has taken p l a c e . C u l t u r e , or i n Berger's words, "...the comprehensive summary of standards, values, p a t t e r n s of behaviour, common a t t i t u d e s and ways of l i f e " has been eroded to the p o i n t where c u l t u r a l or e t h n i c i d e n t i t y can no longer be e a s i l y achieved. Native Indian p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y brought with i t an awareness of the p o t e n t i a l r o l e of c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of n a t i v e c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . Increased i n t e r e s t i n c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s , ceremonies and other symbols of e t h n i c h e r i t a g e were f u r t h e r sparked by the ideas of a p e r s u a s i v e i n d i v i d u a l and e v e n t u a l l y found i t s e x p r e s s i o n i n such p r o j e c t s as Skeena totem pole r e s t o r a t i o n and the i n i t i a l development of 'Ksan. The l i n k between c u l t u r a l e r o s i o n and c u l t u r a l development w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. 39 T a b l e I I I T s i m s h i a n R e g i o n a l H i s t o r y 1 6 7 0 1 6 7 5 1 6 8 0 1 6 8 5 1 6 9 0 1 6 9 5 1 7 0 0 1 7 0 5 1710 1 7 1 5 1720 1 7 2 5 1730 1 7 3 5 1 7 4 0 1 7 4 5 1 7 5 0 1 7 5 5 1 7 6 0 1 7 6 5 1 7 7 0 1 7 7 5 1780 1 7 8 5 1 7 9 0 1 7 9 5 1 8 0 0 1 8 0 5 1810 1 8 1 5 1820 1 8 2 5 1 8 3 0 1 8 3 5 1 8 4 0 1 8 4 5 1 8 5 0 1 8 5 5 1 8 6 0 1 8 6 5 1 8 7 0 1 8 7 5 1 8 8 0 1 8 8 5 1 8 9 0 1 8 9 5 1 9 0 0 1 9 1 0 1 9 1 5 1920 G . I . I 1 6 7 0 -1 8 5 5 T a b l e : G . I . G o v e r n m e n t I n t e r v e n t i o n C . I . C h r i s t i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n N . R . N a t i v e I n d i a n R e s i s t a n c e C . I . I 1 8 4 7 -1884 N . R . I 1 8 6 2 -1 9 0 5 C . I . I I 1 8 8 4 -1 9 5 1 G . I . I l l 1890-1987 N . R . I I 1 9 0 6 - ' 8 7 T a b l e I I I c o n t i n u e d 40 1 9 2 5 1 9 3 0 1 9 3 5 1 9 4 0 1 9 4 5 1 9 5 0 1 9 5 5 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 G . I . N . R . I l l II 1890 1906 t o t o 1987 1987 41 C h a p t e r 4 : G i t k s a n C u l t u r a l R e v i t a l i z a t i o n and t h e P l a n n i n g  and D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r h a s o u t l i n e d t h e p r o t r a c t e d d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f G i t k s a n c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l o u t l i n e t h e p r o c e s s e s o f c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n and t h e r e s u l t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e p r o j e c t s . T h i s s e c t i o n h a s b e e n d i v i d e d i n t o : 1. E t h n o g r a p h i c D e v e l o p m e n t ; a n d 2 . D e v e l o p m e n t a l and O p e r a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g . 4 . 1 E t h n o g r a p h i c D e v e l o p m e n t I n 1 9 2 0 , t h e V i c t o r i a M e m o r i a l Museum (now t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f C i v i l i z a t i o n ) s e n t e t h n o g r a p h e r M a r i u s B a r b e a u on a n e x t e n s i v e f i e l d e x p e d i t i o n t o t h e S k e e n a R i v e r r e g i o n t o s t u d y t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e G i t k s a n p e o p l e . The 5 ^ t r i b e s u n d e r s t u d y w e r e t h o s e o f t h e S k e e n a — a d i s t a n c e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 m i l e s . Two o f t h e s e t r i b e s , Q u a l o a n d A n l a g a s e m d e k , h a v e now a m a l g a m a t e d w i t h t h e v i l l a g e s o f K i s p i o x , G l e n V o w e l l (a m o d e r n s e t t l e m e n t ) and H a z e l t o n ( K i t a n m a x ) , ( T a b l e I I , page 2 3 ) . The K i t s e g a s t r i b e , s i t u a t e d n e a r t h e j u n c t i o n o f t h e B a b i n e a n d S k e e n a R i v e r s , was a l s o d w i n d l i n g i n n u m b e r s . The h e a d q u a r t e r s o f t h e G i t k s a n , a t t h i s t i m e , a p p e a r e d t o be i n K i t a n m a x ( D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s 1 9 2 0 : 2 0 ) . B e t w e e n 1923 and 1 9 2 5 t h e V i c t o r i a M e m o r i a l Museum s e n t D i a m o n d J e n n e s s , H a r l a n S m i t h and M a r i u s B a r b e a u t o W e s t c o a s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o c o n t i n u e e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h . M a r i u s B a r b e a u c o n t i n u e d t h e r e s e a r c h p r e v i o u s l y 42 u n d e r t a k e n i n 1 9 2 0 , among T s i m s h i a n o f n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R e s e a r c h was c o n d u c t e d a t K i t s e l a s , K i t s e m g a l e m , K i t w a n c o o l , K i t w a n g a and K i t s e g y u k l a . The s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and m y t h o l o g y o f t h e t r i b e s were s t u d i e d i n t e n s i v e l y . S i x t y G i t k s a n s o n g s w e r e r e c o r d e d and l i n g u i s t i c n o t e s w e r e t a k e n . O v e r 400 p h o t o g r a p h s w e r e a d d e d t o t h e Museums e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i o n s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s w e r e l a t e r e x t e n d e d t o K i s p i o x , K i t a n m a x and H a g w e l g e t w i t h a v i e w t o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a d e t a i l e d r e p o r t f o r t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t o t e m p o l e s and g r a v e s . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an I n d i a n N a t i o n a l P a r k h a d b e e n c o n t e m p l a t e d a t t h i s t i m e ( D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s , 1 9 2 0 ) . E t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h a n d t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f p o l e s was c o n s i d e r e d , by t h e g o v e r n m e n t , t o be i m p o r t a n t as t h e d e m i s e o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y was t h o u g h t t o be i m m i n e n t . Due t o h i s t o r i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , h o w e v e r , t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l e r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t was met w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f s u s p i c i o n and c o n f u s i o n by t h e l o c a l G i t k s a n p e o p l e . F r i c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t and l o c a l n a t i v e p e r s o n s u l t i m a t e l y s u b s i d e d , and i n 1925 t h e V i c t o r i a l M e m o r i a l Museum, w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y and t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , b e g a n t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f 16 G i t k s a n p o l e s . The D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s a n n u a l r e p o r t f o r 1 9 2 7 i n d i c a t e s t h a t : The a w a k e n i n g i n t e r e s t o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e u n i q u e t o t e m p o l e a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f two members o f t h e d i v i s i o n , M r . S m i t h and M r . B a r b e a u . . . . I n 1925 M r . S m i t h , a c t i n g u n d e r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e r e p r e s -43 enting the Department of Indian A f f a i r s , the Parks Branch of the Department of the Depart-ment of the I n t e r i o r , and the Department of Mines, and with the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway, sup e r v i s e d the r e s t o r a t i o n of totem poles at Kitwanga.... In 1926...he r e s t o r e d 9 poles i n the same v i l l a g e " (1927:33). Before the i n c e p t i o n of the pole r e s t o r a t i o n programme, many na t i v e and non-native i n d i v i d u a l s seemed resigned to the c o n t i n u i n g l o s s of n a t i v e c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . Native persons were i n c r e a s i n g l y donating or s e l l i n g t h e i r ceremonial r e g a l i a to e s t a b l i s h e d c u r i o shops. At the same time, however, a l o c a l n a t i v e person, John L a k n i t z ( L a r a n i t z ) , opened h i s house to the p u b l i c as a museum f o r t r a d i t i o n a l G i t k s a n ceremonial r e g a l i a (Department of Mines 1926:81). In 1936 a d i s a s t e r o u s f l o o d r e s u l t e d i n the displacement or d i s t r u c t i o n of many of the poles l o c a t e d i n the region (Dawn 1981:50). Harlan Smith, having r e t i r e d one year e a r l i e r , launched an appeal to Ottawa requ e s t i n g the development of a second pole r e s t o r a t i o n programme. This attempt, coupled with the energy behind the development of the G i t k s a n Native Brotherhood and S i s t e r h o o d sparked l o c a l n a t i v e i n t e r e s t i n n a t i v e c o n t r o l l e d pole r e s t o r a t i o n and c a r v i n g (Dawn 1981:51). The r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l G i t k s a n c u l t u r e continued from 1936 to 1939 with n o t a b l y i n c r e a s i n g i n t e n s i t y . Between 1930 and 1952, 11 o l d poles were r e s t o r e d and 17 new poles carved (Dawn 1981:55). Wilson Duff, a noted a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s c h o l a r and researcher i n t h i s r e g i o n , reported that poles were r e - e r e c t e d with a 44 s i m i l a r n o t i o n o f r e - a f f i r m i n g t r a d i t i o n a l h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t s , n a m e s , c r e s t s , s t a t u s and p r e s t i g e as i n p r e v i o u s c e n t u r i e s ( 1 9 5 2 ) . S m a l l s c a l e t r a d i t i o n a l f e s t i v i t i e s p l a n n e d w i t h i n ' a c c e p t a b l e ' l e g a l b o u n d s were r e p l a c e d by l a r g e r , more o v e r t c e r e m o n i a l g a t h e r i n g s . L a r g e s c a l e c e r e m o n i e s i n 1939 and 1942 c a u g h t t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n a l RCMP and c e r e m o n i a l p a r a p h e r n a l i a was c o n f i s c a t e d a t t h e 1 9 4 2 e v e n t (Dawn 1 9 8 1 : 6 4 ) . A t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same t i m e V i r g i l F a r r e l l , s u p e r v i s o r o f N a t i v e A r t s and C r a f t s f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n A l a s k a , i s s u e d an i n f l u e n t i a l r e p o r t on a s u c c e s s f u l g o v e r n m e n t s p o n s o r e d n a t i v e a r t and c r a f t t r a i n i n g and m a r k e t i n g p r o g r a m m e . The r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t : W i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t on t h e p a r t o f t h e n a t i v e s i n t h e i r c r a f t work we e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d t o f i n d m a r k e t s f o r t h e i r o u t p u t . One o f o u r f i r s t s t e p s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n was t o s e t up a t J u n e a u a c e n t r a l c l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r n a t i v e c r a f t p r o d u c t s s e l l i n g on a w h o l e s a l e b a s i s o n l y . . . . T h e c r a f t s m e n v o l u n t a r i l y s e n t t h e i r c r a f t work on a c o n s i g n m e n t b a s i s t o t h e c e n t e r and as t h e g o o d s s o l d t h e y w e r e i n t u r n p a i d . I n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f i t s o p e r a t i o n a t o t a l o f $ 3 2 , 7 4 7 [US] h a d i n c r e a s e d t o $ 2 0 0 , 4 9 0 o r an i n c r e a s e i n s e v e n y e a r s o f 6 1 2 % . . . . I n o r d e r t o k e e p s t e p w i t h g r o w t h o f t h e C l e a r i n g H o u s e i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p m a r k e t s . Our f i r s t s t e p was t o c o n t a c t a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g o u t l e t s , n a m e l y m u s e u m s , g i f t s h o p s , c u r i o s h o p s , e t c I n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e t h e m a r k e t s , two i l l u s t r a t e d c r a f t c a t a l o g u e s and w h o l e s a l e p r i c e l i s t s w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n 1939 ( H a w t h o r n e t a l 1 9 5 5 : 5 3 5 ) . I n 1948 t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r t s and W e l f a r e S o c i e t y (BCAWS) was s e t up u n d e r t h e a e g i s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 45 P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a . The s o c i e t y f o c u s s e d on t h e i s s u e s o f n a t i v e a r t s and c u l t u r e t h r o u g h c o n f e r e n c e s , e x h i b i t i o n s , s c h o l a r s h i p s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , p u b l i c a t i o n s and o t h e r m e d i a (Dawn 1 9 8 2 : 6 4 ) . I n t h e same y e a r , t h e BCAWS s p o n s o r e d a c o n f e r e n c e on n a t i v e I n d i a n A f f a i r s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . An i m p o r t a n t r e p o r t g i v e n b y D r . H e n r y H a w t h o r n , D i r e c t o r o f t h e UBC D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and A u d r e y H a w t h o r n , H o n o r a r y C u r a t o r o f t h e UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , o u t l i n e d t h e p r o b l e m s and p o t e n t i a l o f t h e n a t i v e c r a f t r e v i v a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e made , t o a l a r g e d e g r e e , b a s e d on t h e F a r r e l l R e p o r t o f t h e p r e v i o u s d e c a d e . I n c l u d e d i n t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e t h e p r o p o s a l s t o e s t a b l i s h s c h o o l o r r e g i o n a l w o r k s h o p s t o t r a i n n a t i v e s t u d e n t s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a r t s as w e l l as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f c o n t e m p o r a r y o n e s . The 1948 H a w t h o r n R e p o r t f o r m e d t h e b a s i s f o r a s t u d y r e q u e s t e d by t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e A r t s , L e t t e r s , and S c i e n c e s i n 1 9 5 1 ( H a w t h o r n e t a l 1 9 5 5 : 5 1 5 ) . E f f o r t s t o e n f o r c e t h e p o t l a t c h l a w l e s s e n e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e 1 9 4 0 ' s and i n 1 9 5 1 t h e l a w was r e p e a l e d (Kehoe 1 9 8 1 : 4 3 4 ) . B y 1 9 5 4 , a f u r t h e r p o l e r e s t o r a t i o n c o m m i t t e e was f o r m e d t h r o u g h t h e e f f o r t s o f i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s , a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum. The s t a f f o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d P r e s i d e n t N . M . M a c k e n z i e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f 46 B r i t i s h Columbia, as w e l l as the P r o v i n c i a l Museum s t a f f , were a l l concerned with the p o s s i b l e c o l l e c t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n of the remaining poles s t i l l s t a n d i n g — a n d d e c a y i n g — i n deserted v i l l a g e s . H.R. MacMillan was determined that these should be assessed, and where p o s s i b l e , saved. He i n s t i g a t e d the Totem Pole Conservation [ s i c ] Committee, c h a i r e d by Henry Hawthorn....(BCPM 1973: B21-B22 from Hawthorn 1955). Michael Ames, i n h i s a r t i c l e " A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and the A r t of A c c u l t u r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia," s t a t e s that museum a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have i n f l u e n c e d Indian a r t and c r a f t i n d u s t r i e s through the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the meaning of Northwest Coast a r t , by promoting and l e g i t i m a t i n g Northwest Coast a r t and a r t i s t s , and by i n v e r t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and Indians (Ames 1981:4). From 1956 to the opening of the 'Ksan V i l l a g e i n 1970, 7 Northwest Coast e x h i b i t i o n s were held i n major a r t g a l l e r i e s and museums in B r i t i s h Columbia. These e x h i b i t i o n s i n c l u d e "People of the P o t l a t c h " Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y (VAG), 1956; "100 Years of BC A r t " VAG, 1958; " A r t s of the Raven" VAG, 1967; "Age of Edenshaw" Vancouver C e n t e n n i a l Museum (VCM), 1968-70; "Mungo Martin R e t r o s p e c t i v e " unknown, 1969; "Henry Speck" New Design, 1969; and "The Northwest Coast" Man and His World" 1969-70 (Ames 1981:10). Twenty s i x more e x h i b i t i o n s were opened from 1971-1980 (Ames 1986). In 1959, Henry and Audrey Hawthorn commissioned Kwagiutl a r t i s t Mungo Martin to carve r e p l i c a s of 2 47 N o r t h w e s t C o a s t m e m o r i a l p o s t s (Kehoe 1 9 8 1 : 4 4 3 ) . F r o m 1957 t o 1 9 6 2 , H a i d a a r t i s t s , B i l l R e i d and K w a g i u t l a r t i s t D o u g l a s C r a m n e r w e r e c o m m i s s i o n e d t o d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t t h e H a i d a h o u s e s and p o l e s f o r t h e Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . I n t h e same y e a r , BC P r o v i n c i a l Museum a n t h r o p o l o g i s t W i l s o n D u f f p r e p a r e d p l a n s f o r a f u l l s c a l e p o l e r e s t o r a t i o n p rog ramme i n t h e Q u e e n C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and t h e S k e e n a R i v e r r e g i o n . I n A u g u s t 1 9 6 2 , D u f f n o t e d t h e i n t e n s e d e s i r e o f l o c a l S k e e n a i n d i v i d u a l s t o c o n t i n u e p o l e r e s t o r a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n . A t t h i s t i m e , he c o m p i l e d a s i t e by s i t e i n v e n t o r y o f t h e p o l e s r e m a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a ' ( D u f f 1 9 6 2 : 1 ) . I n M a r c h 1963 a g r o u p o f l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m t h e S k e e n a R i v e r r e g i o n g a t h e r e d t o p r e p a r e a more d e t a i l e d l o c a l i n v e n t o r y o f v i l l a g e p o l e s . W i t h i n two d a y s t h e g r o u p o f v o l u n t e e r s v i s i t e d t h e t o w n s o f K i t s e q u c l a , K i s p i o x , K i t w a n g a , K i t w a n c o o l , and H a z e l t o n . S k e t c h e s , p h o t o g r a p h s d i a g r a m s and d a t a w e r e r e c o r d e d on 110 p o l e s and t h e o p i n i o n s o f h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f s and v i l l a g e c o u n c e l l o r s w e r e c a n v a s s e d (Dawn 1 9 8 1 : 1 1 6 ) . A d d i t i o n a l f i e l d r e s e a r c h , i n v o l v i n g l o c a l n a t i v e e l d e r s , was c a r r i e d o u t and a 57 p a g e r e p o r t , o u t l i n i n g t h e r e s t o r a t i o n p r o p o s a l , was s u b m i t t e d t o V i c t o r i a f o r f u n d i n g . I n 1964 D u d l e y L i t t l e , MLA f o r t h e S k e e n a R i v e r r i d i n g , made a n o f f i c i a l a p p e a l t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e f o r t h e i m m e d i a t e f u n d i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t . W i t h i n d a y s o f t h e r e q u e s t a $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 g r a n t , r e q u i r i n g m a t c h i n g f u n d s , was made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p o l e r e s t o r a t i o n 48 p r o j e c t . The Skeena Totem Pole R e s t o r a t i o n P r o j e c t was o f f i c i a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d as a s o c i e t y and began work i n 1964. Various committees were formed to c o o r d i n a t e the a c t i v i t i e s of the s o c i e t y , i n c l u d i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n , f i n a n c e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Sargent 1964:1-10). By 1965, i n i t i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n began i n K i s p i o x with other work beginning i n Kitwancool i n 1967 (Dawn 1981:123-124). I n t e r e s t i n c u l t u r a l development continued w i t h i n the region and t h i s i n t e r e s t developed g r a d u a l l y i n t o the conception and development of the i n i t i a l p r o j e c t s of 'Ksan. 4 • ^ Developmental and O p e r a t i o n a l Planning The co n c e p t i o n , development and o p e r a t i o n of the 'Ksan V i l l a g e appears to have evolved from the processes i n v o l v e d i n the planning and implementation of s i x major l o c a l p r o j e c t s . These p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e the Skeena Treasure House, 'Ksan Houses, Gitksan Dancers, Kitanmax School of Northwest Coast Indian A r t , Book B u i l d e r s and the Northwest N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n Centre. Each p r o j e c t w i l l be disc u s s e d i n t u r n . 4.2.1 The Skeena Treasure House Although i n t e r e s t i n the development of a l o c a l n a t i v e museum was evident as e a r l y as 1919, plans to develop the Skeena Treasure House (STH) d i d not emerge u n t i l the 1950's. In 1952 members of the Amalgamated School ( n a t i v e and non-native students) i n Hazelton, announced i t s i n t e n t i o n to a s s i s t i n the development of a n a t i v e Indian a r t museum (Dawn 1981:89). The i n i t i a l step i n the 49 d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h a p r o p o s a l , was t h e a c c e p t a n c e and s u p p o r t o f t h e r e g i o n a l G i t k s a n ( C a r r i e r ) B a n d C o u n c i l s . C e r e m o n i a l r e g a l i a w o u l d o n l y be l o a n e d t o t h e museum on t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t r e p o s s e s s i o n f o r c e r e m o n i a l p u r p o s e s w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e and t h a t a s m a l l r e n t a l f e e w o u l d be g i v e n f o r t h e i t e m s b e i n g l o a n e d ( ' K s a n 1 9 7 4 : 9 ) . The t own o f H a z e l t o n o f f i c i a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1956 and e l e c t e d M a r g a r e t ( P o l l y ) S a r g e n t t o t h e H a z e l t o n V i l l a g e C o m m i s s i o n . A t t h i s t i m e t h e H a z e l t o n L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n r e p o r t e d an i n t e r e s t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l i b r a r y / m u s e u m p r o j e c t . D u r i n g t h e same y e a r , t h e BC C e n t e n n i a l C o m m i t t e e was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o o r d i n a t i n g and f i n a n c i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l , t o u r i s t and i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t (Dawn 1 9 8 1 ) . The t own o f H a z e l t o n s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d f o r C e n t e n n i a l p r o j e c t f u n d i n g (a t o t a l o f $ . 4 0 p e r c a p i t a ) s u b j e c t t o t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e l o c a l G i t k s a n c o m m u n i t y ( ' K s a n 1 9 7 4 : 9 ) . U n d e r s p e c i a l p r o j e c t p r o v i s i o n s t h e H a z e l t o n l i b r a r y / m u s e u m q u a l i f i e d f o r an a d d i t i o n a l $ . 6 0 p e r c a p i t a , g r a n t e d on a m a t c h e d ( c o m m u n i t y - p r o v i n c i a l ) f u n d i n g b a s i s (Dawn 1 9 8 1 : 9 2 ) . T o g e t h e r t h e s e g r a n t s t o t a l l e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 6 0 0 . 0 0 ( S a r g e n t , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : 1 9 8 7 ) . B e t w e e n 1956 a n d 1959 t h e H a z e l t o n C e n t e n n i a l C o m m i t t e e (HCC) was i n v o l v e d i n a v a r i e t y o f f u n d - r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s and c o l l e c t e d $ 5 , 6 5 8 . 2 4 by 1959 (BC C e n t e n n i a l C o m m i t t e e 1 9 5 9 : 2 9 6 f r o m Dawn 1 9 8 1 ) . M r s . S a r g e n t ' s s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f 50 t h e STH p r o j e c t w e r e : 1. t o s a f e g u a r d and h i g h l i g h t r e m a i n i n g l o c a l n a t i v e c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s , 2 . d e v e l o p t h e e c o n o m i c p o t e n t i a l o f t h e r e g i o n t h r o u g h n a t i v e c u l t u r a l r e c o g n i t i o n and 3. t o p r o m o t e t h e c o h e s i o n o f t h e l o c a l n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s ( S a r g e n t , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : 1987) . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was p r o m o t e d as ' t o t e m l a n d 1 and many C o m m i t t e e p r o j e c t s c h o s e n f o r f u n d i n g r e f l e c t e d t h a t image (Dawn 1 9 8 1 ) . I n 1959 t h e HCC was d i s s o l v e d and a new H a z e l t o n C e n t e n n i a l B o a r d was e s t a b l i s h e d . I n 1960 t h e B o a r d was a g a i n r e p l a c e d , t h i s t i m e by t h e S k e e n a T r e a s u r e House A s s o c i a t i o n ( S T H A ) . The c e r e m o n i a l o p e n i n g o f t h e S k e e n a T r e a s u r e H o u s e (a museum o f G i t k s a n c u l t u r e ) i n 1960, n o t o n l y r e a f f i r m e d t h e c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e G i t k s a n p e o p l e , b u t o f f i c i a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d museum e x h i b i t i o n as a f o r u m f o r G i t k s a n c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n . N a t i v e a r t s a l e s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e museum, i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y o v e r t h i s p e r i o d , due l a r g e l y t o m e d i a a t t e n t i o n g a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e o p e n i n g and g r o w i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e v a l u e o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a r t e l s e w h e r e i n t h e p r o v i n c e . 4 . 2 . 2 The ' K s a n H o u s e s I n 1953, V i c t o r i a M a y o r C l a u d e H a r r i s o n a n n o u n c e d p l a n s t o c o n s t r u c t a H a i d a s t y l e b u i l d i n g f o r t h e BC P r o v i n c i a l Museum c o l l e c t i o n s h o u s e d i n t h e P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o j e c t d i d n o t come t o p a s s , many o f t h e c o n c e p t s r e v e a l e d i n t h e p l a n w e r e , c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , 51 r e f l e c t e d i n the eventual design of 'Ksan. A more concrete i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n the design of 'Ksan was the funding of a development of an outdoor museum at B a r k e r v i l l e . In February 1966, Dudley L i t t l e , having p r e v i o u s l y supported the Skeena Pole R e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t , appealed once again to the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e i n an attempt to r a i s e funding f o r 'Ksan (Dawn 1981:137) . . L a r g e l y as a r e s u l t , the 'Ksan Houses p r o j e c t became A g r i c u l t u r a l and Rural Development Act p r o j e c t no. 39002. Within the Skeena B u l k l e y Rural Development area i t i s proposed to have developed with Indian labor a h i s t o r i c Indian V i l l a g e as a t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n . A s s o c i a t e d with t h i s w i l l be f a c i l i t i e s for making and s e l l i n g Indian h a n d i c r a f t s thus p r o v i d i n g income and job o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r underemployed persons mainly Indians. A l s o r e l a t e d to t h i s phase w i l l be the development and maintenance of a campground by n a t i v e Indians on Indian land i n accordance with P r o v i n c i a l Park standards (ARDA 1967). In 1967 a committee of vo l u n t e e r s was formed to coor d i n a t e the 'Ksan Houses p r o j e c t . A re p o r t by P h i l i p Ward, Chief Conservator of the BC P r o v i n c i a l Museum and advisor to the group of v o l u n t e e r s , i n d i c a t e d that i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t to 'Ksan was gained through the implementation of the Skeena Treasure House. He s t a t e s t h a t during the 6 years of the STH they had learned t h a t : (a) the Museum i s not big enough to t r u l y d e p i c t Indian l i f e as i t was i n the o l d days; (b) there i s a great demand f o r genuine Indian h a n d i c r a f t , which the Museum s e l l s ; (c) there i s a great t o u r i s t i n t e r e s t i n anc i e n t Indian l o r e . . . . ( d ) the demand f o r h a n d i c r a f t s and the r e s u l t i n g s a l e s has made the Museum completely s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g (ARDA 1967). 52 The i n i t i a l c o s t estimates f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the houses was $220,000. One hundred thousand f e d e r a l d o l l a r s was designated for the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a 30 u n i t campground adjacent to the museum f a c i l i t i e s . Upon completion, f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the campsite was to be t r a n s f e r r e d to the l o c a l Gitksan band c o u n c i l and d i d not become p a r t of 'Ksan although i t was designed to s e r v i c e 'Ksan v i s i t o r s . The v i l l a g e of Hazelton r e c e i v e d $60,000 from the f e d e r a l government, $30,000 from the p r o v i n c i a l government and $30,000 from the Hazelton m u n i c i p a l government (Dawn 1981:144-145) . The town of Hazelton o f f e r e d , as i t s share of the c o s t , the Skeena Treasure House b u i l d i n g and par t of i t s c o l l e c t i o n s and a $15,000 grant ('Ksan 1974:12) . The land upon which the 'Ksan Houses are b u i l t was, and i s , leased on a y e a r l y b a s i s from the Gi t k s a n Band C o u n c i l . The 'Ksan A s s o c i a t i o n , formed i n the e a r l y 60's was o f f i c i a l l y r e g i s t e r e d as a s o c i e t y i n May 1968. The 'Ksan Houses are d i v i d e d i n t o 4 separate h o u s e s — t h e Frog House of the D i s t a n t Past, the Wolf House of Our Grandfathers (Feast House), the Fireweed House of Treasures (Skeena Treasure House), and the Today House of Sa l e s . The 'Ksan Houses o f f i c i a l l y opened to the p u b l i c on August 12, 1970 ('Ksan 1974:17) . As i n the opening f e s t i v i t i e s of the Skeena Treasure House, the opening of the 'Ksan Houses r e - a f f i r m e d t r a d i t i o n a l pole r a i s i n g ceremonies. W.A.C. Bennett o f f i c i a t e d the ceremony and gave 53 ' K s a n f u n d s f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f a c a r v i n g h o u s e t o commemora t e t h e o c c a s i o n . The C a r v i n g H o u s e was c o m p l e t e d i n O c t o b e r 1 9 7 0 a n d became t h e new home f o r t h e K i t a n m a x S c h o o l o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n A r t . 4 . 2 . 2 . 1 The F r o g H o u s e o f t h e D i s t a n t P a s t The F r o g House o f t h e D i s t a n t P a s t r e p r e s e n t s G i t k s a n l i f e b e f o r e t h e a d v e n t o f E u r o p e a n e x p l o r a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t . The r o o f beams a r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f 60 f o o t l o g s u p p o r t e d on e a c h e n d by t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a r v e d p o s t s r e p r e s e n t i n g c r e s t s o f t h e F r o g p h r a t r y o r c l a n . S p l i t c e d a r p l a n k s , somewha t d i f f e r e n t i n s t y l e f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l G i t k s a n a r c h i t e c t u r e , f o r m t h e r o o f . On t h e i n s i d e , an 8 f o o t w i d e wooden p l a t f o r m h a s b e e n d e v i s e d t o d i s p l a y v a r i o u s p r e - c o n t a c t h o u s e h o l d a r t i c l e s as w e l l a s 12 l i f e s i z e f i g u r e s p o r t r a y i n g t r a d i t i o n a l G i t k s a n a c t i v i t i e s . T h e s e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e w e a v i n g and d r y i n g w i l d g o a t w o o l i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r w e a v i n g ; a Shaman o r H a l a y t , a h e l p e r and a p a t i e n t ; a c h i e f and h i s w i f e ; a s m a l l , g r o u p o f g a m b l e r s p l a y i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l s t i c k game; and a s l a v e . The f i g u r e s a r e c l a d i n r e c o n s t r u c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l c l o t h i n g and a r e s u r r o u n d e d by b e n t b o x e s , f o o d d i s h e s l a d l e s and f u r s . 4 . 2 . 2 . 2 The W o l f H o u s e o f o u r G r a n d f a t h e r s The s e c o n d h o u s e , t h e W o l f H o u s e o f t h e G r a n d f a t h e r s , f o c u s s e s on t h e p e r i o d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e f u r t r a d e . A w i d e p l a t f o r m a r o u n d t h e i n s i d e w a l l s h a s b e e n f o r m e d and a s t a g e , h o u s i n g a m a s s i v e p a i n t e d s c r e e n , h a s b e e n b u i l t t o 54 p r o v i d e a s t r u c t u r e f o r c e r e m o n i a l p e r f o r m a n c e s h e l d i n t h e h o u s e . Two f i g u r e s a r e d r a p e d i n c e r e m o n i a l r e g a l i a (made e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e e x h i b i t ) a l t h o u g h , u n l i k e t h e o t h e r f i g u r e s i n t h e F r o g H o u s e , t h e s e p e o p l e a r e c l o t h e d i n t h e b u t t o n b l a n k e t s . 4 . 2 . 2 . 3 The F i r e w e e d House o f T r e a s u r e s The t h i r d h o u s e , t h e F i r e w e e d H o u s e o f T r e a s u r e s h o u s e s r e l a t i v e l y c o n t e m p o r a r y G i t k s a n a r t i f a c t s f r o m t h e m o s t m o d e r n p e r i o d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t a l l t h r e e p e r i o d s d e p i c t e d i n t h e h o u s e s o f ' K s a n h a v e b e e n t a k e n d i r e c t l y f r o m a c a d e m i c c a t e g o r i e s o u t l i n e d i n e t h n o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . 4 . 2 . 2 . 4 The T o d a y H o u s e o f S a l e s The T o d a y H o u s e o f S a l e s o f f e r s h i g h q u a l i t y c o n t e m p o r a r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t r a d i t i o n a l G i t k s a n and n o n - G i t k s a n a r t made i n t h e H a z e l t o n a r e a . The s a l e s h o u s e a l s o h o u s e s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e ' K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n . 4 . 2 . 3 The G i t k s a n o r ' K s a n D a n c e r s The G i t k s a n D a n c e r s e v o l v e d g r a d u a l l y f r o m a t r u s t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l o c a l n a t i v e e l d e r s and M r s . P o l l y S a r g e n t . T r a d i t i o n a l s o n g s and d a n c e s w e r e e v e n t u a l l y r e c o r d e d a n d now t o t a l o v e r 4 0 0 . The G i t k s a n D a n c e r s h a v e t r a v e l l e d n a t i o n a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y and h a v e m o s t r e c e n t l y p e r f o r m e d a t V a n c o u v e r ' s E x p o ' 8 6 . The D a n c e r s h a v e r e c e n t l y b e g u n t o i n t e r p r e t t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e I n d i a n s o n g s and d a n c e s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y f o r m s . 55 4 . 2 . 4 The K i t a n m a x S c h o o l o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n A r t F u n d i n g f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e K i t a n m a x S c h o o l o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t A r t (KSNA) was e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e t e r m s o f t h e 1967 ARDA a g r e e m e n t w h i c h p r o v i d e d $30,000 f o r a 2 y e a r p rog ramme i n l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g . . . . i n o r d e r t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f g e n u i n e I n d i a n h a n d i c r a f t s c a n be m a i n t a i n e d i n s u f f i c i e n t v o l u m e t o mee t a n t i c i p a t e d d e m a n d , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o c o n d u c t a p r o g r a m o f t r a i n i n g f o r p o t e n t i a l I n d i a n a r t i s a n s and f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e h a n d i c r a f t s k i l l s and t e c h n i q u e s o f t h o s e who h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d a b i l i t y (ARDA 1970). I n i t i a l l e s s o n s a t t h e K i t a n m a x S c h o o l c e n t e r e d o n c a r v i n g , p a i n t i n g and m e t a l e n g r a v i n g . I n J u n e 1968, P h i l i p W a r d , C h i e f C o n s e r v a t o r a t t h e BC P r o v i n c i a l Museum, v i s i t e d t h e S c h o o l and e x p r e s s e d h i s c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g t h e m e l d i n g o f a r t i s t i c s t y l e s . I n a 1968 r e p o r t , Ward s t a t e s t h a t n o n - G i t k s a n a r t i n s t r u c t o r s : a r e v e r y p r o n e , when w o r k i n g i n t h e s t y l e o f a n o t h e r t r i b e , t o i m p o s e t h e i r own i r r e p r e s s i b l e p e r s o n a l i t y o n e i t h e r t h e work o r t h e m a n . . . I n t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h e x i s t s a t ' K s a n , t h e d a n g e r w i l l be e x t r e m e w h a t e v e r t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r s . . . . The d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s b e c a u s e t h e t e a c h e r s c a n n o t p o s s i b l y t e a c h t e c h n i q u e s w i t h o u t d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i r own s t y l e s , w h i c h a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e s t y l e s o f t h e G i t k s a n . . . i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e new g e n e r a t i o n o f a r t i s t s p r o d u c e d b y ' K s a n w i l l work n a t u r a l l y o n l y i n t h e K w a k i u t l [ s i c ] s t y l e o f Tony H u n t , t h e H a i d a s t y l e o f B o b D a v i d s o n , t h e T l i n g i t s t y l e o f B i l l H o l m o r more p r o b a b l y a f o r m l e s s m i x t u r e o f them a l l (Ward 1968:7-8). G i t k s a n a r t d i d , i n f a c t , i n i t i a l l y s u f f e r f r o m t h e e f f e c t s o f p a n - I n d i a n i n f l u e n c e s , a l t h o u g h i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t w i t h a r t i s t i c m a t u r i t y t h e a r t i s t s a b i l i t y t o 56 c r e a t e r a t h e r t h a n c o p y i n c r e a s e d . I n 1969, t h e K i t a n m a x S c h o o l r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s f r o m t h e n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d F i r s t C i t i z e n ' s F u n d . T h i r t y - e i g h t t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s was a l l o t t e d t o ' K s a n a n d , o f t h a t , $3,000 was s e t a s i d e f o r t h e c a r v i n g o f p o l e s by a p p r e n t i c e c a r v e r s (Dawn 1981:178) . P h i l i p Ward r e t u r n e d t o t h e S c h o o l i n 1969 a n d r e p o r t e d t h a t : The n o n - I n d i a n i n s t r u c t o r s h a d b e e n by f a r more s u c c e s s f u l and t h e y , a l o n e , h a v e r i s e n t o t h e c h a l l e n g e o f l e a r n i n g and a t t h e same t i m e , t e a c h i n g t h e G i t k s a n s t y l e . The w o r k o f B i l l H o l m and Duane P a s c o was i m m e d i a t e l y i m p r e s s i v e i n t h i s r e s p e c t and i t became q u i t e o b v i o u s t h a t t h e y h a d b y f a r t h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t upon t h e i r p u p i l s (1969:2) . D u r i n g t h e w i n t e r o f 1969-70, c o u r s e s w e r e f o r m a l i z e d a n d ARDA f u n d i n g e x t e n d e d . I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1970, a p p l i c a t i o n s w e r e made t o h a v e K i t a n m a x S c h o o l o f f i c i a l l y a c c r e d i t e d u n d e r t h e p r o v i n c i a l T r a d e S c h o o l A c t . The K i t a n m a x S c h o o l was o f f i c i a l l y o p e n e d as a r e g i s t e r e d v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l i n 1970 a n d h a d q u a l i f i e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Manpower (Dawn 1981:180) . I n s t r u c t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o f o r m a l i z e o v e r t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r and i n 1971, u n d e r ARDA a g r e e m e n t 89031, a p u b l i c i t y p r o j e c t was i n c o r p o r a t e d t o m a x i m i z e t h e e c o n o m i c e f f e c t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s 2 ARDA a g r e e m e n t s . The p u b l i c i t y p r o j e c t i n v o l v e d 3 m a j o r c o m p o n e n t s — a c a t a l o q u e , a p u b l i c a t i o n and a f i l m a b o u t ' K s a n . Of t h e $16,600 ( s h a r e d e x p e n d i t u r e ) a l l o t t e d t o t h e p r o j e c t , $3,500 was d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e 57 catalogue (Dawn 1981:183) . The catalogue was designed to promote the s a l e of a r t p i e c e s produced as a r e s u l t of the ARDA T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t . The catalogue was designed to d i s t r i b u t e to a s e l e c t e d group of a r t d e a l e r s , museums and o u t l e t s top q u a l i t y a r t both n a t i o n a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . The catalogue was a l s o made a v a i l a b l e to a r c h i t e c t s using c u l t u r a l m o t i f s i n i n t e r i o r design (Dawn 1981:1985). The f i l m was r e l e a s e d i n 1973 and won a v a r i e t y of awards. In the f o l l o w i n g year, a magazine was p u b l i s h e d , with the a s s i s t a n c e of the B e a u t i f u l B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine. Another $2,500 was set aside f o r p u b l i c a t i o n of North American a r t i c l e s on 'Ksan (Dawn 1981:185) . In the same decade, the 'Ksan P u b l i c i t y P r o j e c t was supplemented by a major Ottawa e x h i b i t i o n on the work of Kitanmax a r t i s t s which c o i n c i d e d with the performance of the 'Ksan Dancers at the N a t i o n a l A r t Centre. The e x h i b i t i o n and accompanying book, e n t i t l e d "'Ksan: Breath of our Grandfathers, was produced by the N a t i o n a l Museum of Man. S e v e r a l l a r g e r Commissions f o l l o w e d , i n c l u d i n g ones f o r the Royal Bank of Canada and the UBC Museum of Anthropology. 4 . 2 . 5 . The Book B u i l d e r s The Book B u i l d e r s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1970 to research and write l o c a l knowledge as w e l l as p u b l i s h books and a r t i c l e s . At present, 5 t i t l e s have been p u b l i s h e d . 4 . 2 . 6 . The Northwestern N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n Centre In 1973 an a p p l i c a t i o n from the 'Ksan A s s o c i a t i o n was 58 s u b m i t t e d , t o t h e N a t i o n a l Museums o f C a n a d a , f o r f u n d i n g t o b u i l d a museum o f G i t k s a n o b j e c t s c u r r e n t l y n o t h o u s e d i n t h e o t h e r ' K s a n H o u s e s . T h e s e o b j e c t s w e r e n o t w e l l p r o t e c t e d f r o m l o s s t h r o u g h f i r e o r t h e f t ( H o p e , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : 1 9 8 5 ) . I n 1976 t h e STH c h a n g e d l o c a t i o n s f r o m t h e l i b r a r y / m u s e u m b u i l d i n g i n c e n t r a l H a z e l t o n (and l a t e r a t e m p o r a r y h o l d i n g f a c i l i t y ) t o t h e NNEC a t ' K s a n . A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h p r o v i n c i a l museums a d v i s o r J o h n K y t e , a n d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t h e C o n s u l t a t i v e C o m m i t t e e on Museum P o l i c y , $ 7 5 , 0 0 0 was g r a n t e d f o r c a p i t a l c o s t s t o w a r d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e ( H e a t h 1 9 8 0 : 4 ) . I n a c c e p t i n g t h e f u n d i n g , t h e ' K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n a g r e e d t o f u l f i l t h e g o a l s o f t h e N a t i o n a l Museums C o r p o r a t i o n . The t o t a l c o s t o f t h e C e n t r e was $ 2 5 1 , 0 0 0 — $ 1 2 1 , 0 0 0 p a i d by t h e N a t i o n a l Museums C o r p o r a t i o n a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r p a i d by p r o v i n c i a l and p r i v a t e s o u r c e s ( H e a t h 1 9 8 0 : 4 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e NNEC h a d some s e e d money f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g t h e r e m a i n i n g money f o r t h e p h y s i c a l a n d o p e r a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s was n o t a d e q u a t e l y p l a n n e d f o r . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e NNEC a l m o s t b a n k r u p t ' K s a n b u t , i n t i m e , managed t o r e t u r n t o f i n a n c i a l l y s o l i d f o o t i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o T e r r a n c e H e a t h i n h i s 1980 c o n s u l t a n t ' s r e p o r t o n t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e N N E C , t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r o p e r a t i o n s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f u n d i n g had n o t b e e n s p e l l e d o u t . On F e b r u a r y 1 7 , 1 9 7 6 a m e e t i n g o f t h e N o r t h w e s t e r n N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e S o c i e t y was c a l l e d . I n 1 9 7 6 - 7 7 , $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 o f o p e r a t i n g f u n d s w e r e made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e 59 E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e . The new s o c i e t y became i m m e d i a t e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o m p l e x p r o b l e m o f p a y m e n t o f r e n t t o t h e ' K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e b a n d c o u n c i l who owned t h e l a n d ' K s a n was l o c a t e d o n . T h e s e p r o b l e m s r e m a i n e d u n r e s o l v e d b u t t h e N o r t h w e s t e r n N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e (NNEC) o f f i c i a l l y o p e n e d i n O c t o b e r 1976 ( H e a t h 1 9 8 0 : 5 ) . On J a n u a r y 4 , 1977 a j o i n t m e e t i n g o f t h e ' K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e NNEC was h e l d and two m o t i o n s p a s s e d . 1. T h a t ' K s a n t a k e o v e r t h e f i n a n c i a l management o f t h e E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e b u i l d i n g , and 2 . T h a t t h e E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e o p e r a t e t h e e x h i b i t i o n room a n d t h e r e c e i v i n g room u n d e r a b u d g e t e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n ' K s a n and t h e E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e G r o u p . The NNES was d i s b a n d e d a t t h i s t i m e (NNES m i n u t e s : 1 9 7 7 ) . The p u r p o s e o f t h e E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e , a s e x p r e s s e d by t h e n A c t i n g D i r e c t o r E v e H o p e , was t o show t h e many f a c e t s o f C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l l i f e a n d a w i d e v a r i e t y o f a r t f o r m s t o n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s i n a l i v e l y and i m a g i n a t i v e m a n n e r ( H e a t h 1 9 8 0 : 7 ) . The N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e i s a two s t o r e y c e m e n t b u i l d i n g c o v e r e d i n c e d a r and o c c u p i e s 1 , 6 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t o f t h e m a i n f l o o r o f t h a t b u i l d i n g . The ' K s a n T r e a s u r e H o u s e i n l o c a t e d i n a s e p a r a t e 576 s q u a r e f o o t a r e a w h i c h i s a l s o on t h e m a i n f l o o r . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e b u i l d i n g i s 60 c o m p r i s e d o f a 2,041 s q u a r e f o o t s t o r a g e a r e a and a 1,148 s q u a r e f o o t w o r k s h o p s p a c e . T h i s s p a c e , l o c a t e d a t t h e r e a r o f t h e m a i n f l o o r i s u s e d by t h e E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e , Museum and t h e ' K s a n D a n c e r s . A 1,456 s q u a r e f o o t l e c t u r e / m e e t i n g room i s l o c a t e d on t h e s e c o n d f l o o r ( H e a t h 1980:6) . The NNEC i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a 9 member e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e o f t h e ' K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n . The d i r e c t o r o f t h e C e n t r e i s a n o n - v o t i n g member o f t h e e x e c u t i v e a n d 2 o t h e r member a c t as i n f o r m a l a d v i s o r s t o t h e C e n t r e . The M u s e u m / E d u c a t i o n C e n t r e i s n o t a s o c i e t y s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e ' K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n ( H e a t h 1980:8 ) . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e N N E C , as o u t l i n e d by t h e C e n t r e ' s D i r e c t o r i s : 1. t o p r e s e n t a number o f g o o d q u a l i t y l o c a l , r e g i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x h i b i t i o n s , 2. t o i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r s s u c h as h i s t o r y , s c i e n c e and a r t and 3. t o p r e s e n t i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o g r a m m i n g r e l a t e d t o t h e e x h i b i t i o n s ( H o p e , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1985). I n 1980 T e r r a n c e H e a t h c o n c l u d e d t h a t two c h a n g e s h a d t o be made t o m a i n t a i n t h e v i a b i l i t y o f t h e N N E C . T h e s e c h a n g e s w e r e : 1. The r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e - b u d g e t i n g o f t h e C e n t r e as a N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e o r 2. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e f a c i l i t y s o l e l y i n t o a museum. 61 A l t h o u g h f u n d i n g was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e N N E C , b a s e d on t h e b u d g e t a r y power o f t h e ' K s a n A s s o c i a t o n , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n h a d n o t s e e n t h e m s e l v e s as f i n a n c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e NNEC and o n l y l a t e r e x p l i c i t l y t o o k on t h e f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e N N E C . N o t h i n g , h o w e v e r , h a s b e e n done t o i m p l e m e n t t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e H e a t h R e p o r t a n d NNEC f u n d s c o n t i n u e t o d r a w h e a v i l y on ' K s a n . 4 • ^  C h a p t e r Summary P r i o r t o t h e F a r r e l l R e p o r t i n 1 9 4 2 , i t was w i d e l y b e l i e v e d i n g o v e r n m e n t and a c a d e m i c c i r c l e s t h a t t h e d e m i s e o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e a n d s o c i e t y was i n e v i t a b l e . S i g n i f i c a n t e f f o r t s w e r e m a d e , by n o n - n a t i v e g r o u p s , t o r e c o r d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l d a t a and c o l l e c t c e r e m o n i a l r e g a l i a . T h i s n o t o n l y p r o d u c e d a b o d y o f c u l t u r a l l i t e r a t u r e b u t e v o k e d a s e r i e s o f l o c a l r e a c t i o n s — b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e — r e g a r d i n g c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . T h i s r e a c t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e g r o w i n g p o l i t i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n and a s t r i d e n t e c o n o m i c a n d c u l t u r a l n e e d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t , p r o v i d e d an a p p r o p r i a t e b a c k d r o p f o r t h e i n i t i a l p r o j e c t s ' K s a n . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e h a s e v o l v e d i n c r e m e n t a l l y , o v e r t i m e , t h r o u g h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s . A l l t h e p r o j e c t s d e v e l o p e d a t ' K s a n h a v e b e e n c r e a t e d t h r o u g h t h e l o c a l n a t i v e a n d n o n - n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e . M o s t o f t h e p r o j e c t s h a v e r e q u i r e d g o v e r n m e n t s e e d money b u t h a v e m a i n t a i n e d a l e v e l o f 6 2 s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y w i t h i n t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e as a w h o l e . The s i x p r o j e c t s o f t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e f a l l i n t o t h r e e s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s . T h e s e a r e : a) I n t e r n a l — l o c a l i n c e n t i v e , l o c a l k n o w l e d g e and l o c a l a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s ( S k e e n a T r e a s u r e H o u s e , ' K s a n D a n c e r s and Book B u i l d e r s ) ; b) I n t e r n a l P l u s — l o c a l i n c e n t i v e , l o c a l and n o n - l o c a l k n o w l e d g e and l o c a l a c t o r s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s ( N o r t h w e s t e r n N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e , ' K s a n H o u s e s ) a n d c ) I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l — l o c a l i n c e n t i v e , l o c a l a n d n o n - l o c a l k n o w l e d g e and l o c a l a n d n o n - l o c a l a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s ( K i t a n m a x S c h o o l o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n A r t ) . The n a t u r e and d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e s e p r o j e c t s h a v e d e v e l o p e d v a r i e s m a r k e d l y b e t w e e n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The S k e e n a T r e a s u r e H o u s e , ' K s a n D a n c e r s and Book B u i l d e r s h a v e e v o l v e d c o m p l e t e l y i n t e r n a l l y w i t h o u t a c c e s s t o e x t e r n a l r e s o u r c e s o t h e r t h a n f u n d i n g . The N N E C , i n c o n t r a s t , h a s d e v e l o p e d w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n g and e f f e c t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n o f m u s e o l o g i c a l t h o u g h t and l o c a l c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e . The ' K s a n H o u s e s , h o w e v e r , h a v e a d o p t e d c o n t e m p o r a r y a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t h o u g h t c o n c e r n i n g p r e and p o s t c o n t a c t n a t i v e c u l t u r e s , w i t h o u t s t r o n g r e f e r e n c e t o l o c a l n a t i v e h i s t o r y and p r e h i s t o r y . The museum c o m p o n e n t o f t h e NNEC i s a s t a t e o f t h e a r t e x h i b i t o f n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s d i s p l a y e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f l o c a l n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The a r t g a l l e r y c o m p o n e n t o f t h e NNEC i s a c o m p l e m e n t a r y , 63 y e t d i s t i n c t i v e e l e m e n t o f " K s a n . The K i t a n m a x S c h o o l ha s managed t o u s e t e c h n i c a l k n o w l e d g e o n N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a r t i s t i c t e c h n i q u e and e v e n t u a l l y e v o l v e t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f G i t k s a n s t y l e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e v a r i o u s n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d , t h e p r o j e c t s o f ' K s a n h a v e p r o v i d e d t h e l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h a c u l t u r a l a n d e c o n o m i c f o c u s w h i c h h a s p r o v i d e d , i n t u r n , c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c r e c o g n i t i o n , e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and i d e n t i t y . T a b l e I V  The S i x P r o j e c t s o f ' K s a n 64 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1963 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 S k e e n a T r e a -s u r e H o u s e ' K s a n H o u s e s G i t k s a n D a n c e r s K i t a n -max S c h o o l B o o k B u i l d e r s FIGURE 5 KSAN VILLAGE COMPLEX ON TABLE S Organizational Chart of the 'Ksan Associat ion Conunittttl Ltfornu O f f i c e FVrf •rating A r t , (Up. Camwiitu. GraunJi C W -Museum CJ.7-f W I M Pro l i ant Wei. Pn i i a tn t Stcrcttry •f TriA»i*rtr tv,t» l v . t . i f f * 1 ».tt lv.t. Ink VcUlWTMW PuiTlMS I H .^ l tw. Rt*. I N w H * u J t M b p . a whi GreurJl t*.—.:+t.» I 0\ftirpcr«oa 1 H tmlx / i l .oV 'K**ft fVcitct Dir»&t»r Cf»ftnpi^f l« 7t«tf«r«ry r 7 WHO 67 C h a p t e r 5: W e s t c o a s t C u l t u r a l D i s i n t e g r a t i o n The Makah p e o p l e o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a r e members o f t h e W e s t C o a s t c u l t u r e g r o u p and t h e W a k a s h a n l i n g u i s t i c g r o u p . A l t h o u g h g e o g r a p h i c a l l y c l o s e r t o t h e C l a l l a m a n d t h e Q u i l e u t e o f W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e , t h e M a k a h s a r e s o c i a l l y and l i n g u i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h e N i t i n a t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d ( F i g u r e 6, p a g e 68 ) . The t e r r i t o r i e s o f t h e W e s t C o a s t t r i b e s r a n g e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 300 k i l o m e t e r s a l o n g t h e w e s t e r n p o r t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and t h e O l y m p i c P e n i n s u l a — i n a n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t d i r e c t i o n f r o m C a p e Cook t o O z e t t e i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e ( A r i m a 1983:1) . W i t h i n t h i s a r e a , t h r e e d i s t i n c t l a n g u a g e s w e r e s p o k e n : 1) N o o t k a p r o p e r ( n o r t h e r n ) — f r o m Cape Cook t o t h e E a s t e r n s h o r e o f B a r k l e y S o u n d , 2) N i t i n a t ( c e n t r a l ) — e n c o m p a s s i n g t h e P a c h e n a and N i t i n a t p e o p l e a n d 3) Makah ( s o u t h e r n ) - - s p o k e n by t h e p e o p l e o f C a p e F l a t t e r y . N o r t h e r n t r i b e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f t h e C h i c k l i s i t , K y u q u o t , E h a t i s a t , N u c h a t l e t , M u c h a l a t and M o a c h a t t r i b e s . I n c o n t r a s t , C e n t r a l W e s t C o a s t t r i b e s r a n g e d f r o m H e s q u i a t P e n n i n s u l a t o B a r k l e y S o u n d and e n c o m p a s s e d t h e H e s q u i a t , A h o u s a t , K e l s e m a t , C l a y o q u o t , U c l u e l e t , T o q u a t , U c h u c k l i s a t , H o p a c h i s a t , T s i s h a a t and O h i a h t . S o u t h e r n t r i b e s i n c l u d e d t h e N i t i n a t a n d P a c h e n a t , o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( D u f f 1964:23-24) and t h e Makah o f W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e ( D r u c k e r 1951:1) . 6 9 T a b l e V i W e s t C o a s t G e o g r a p h i c a l D i v i s i o n s E t h n i c R e g i o n a l T r i b e s R e s e r v e P r e s e n t D i v i s i o n G r o u p s & B a n d Name (1916) Name W e s t N o r t h e r n C h i c k l i s e t C h e c k l e s e t ( j o i n e d C o a s t K y u q u o t ) K y u q u o t K y u q u o t K y u q u o t E h a t i s a t E s p e r a n z a E h a t t e s a h t N u c h a t l e t E s p e r a n z a N u c h a t l a h t M u c h a l a t N o o t k a ( j o i n e d N o o t k a ) M o a c h a t N o o t k a N o o t k a C e n t r a l H e s q u i a t H e s q u i a t H e s q u i a h t A h o u s a t C l a y o q u o t A h o u s a h t K e l s e m a t C l a y o q u o t ( j o i n e d A h o u s a h t ) C l a y o q u o t C l a y o q u o t C l a y o q u o t U c l u e l e t U c l u e l e t U c l u e l e t T o q u a t T o q u a r t T o q u a h t U h u c k l i s a t U h u c k l e s i t U h u c k l e s a h t H o p a c h i s a t O p i t c h i s a h t O p e t c h e s a h t T s i s h a a t S e s h a r t S h e s h a h t O h i a t O h i e t O h i e t S o u t h e r n N i t i n a t N i t i n a t N i t i n a h t P a c h e n a P a c h e e n a P a c h e e n a h t N e a h B a y M a k a h B a - a - d a M a k a h W a - a t c h M a k a h T s o o - y a s M a k a h A d a p t e d f r o m D u f f , V o l . 1 , 1 9 6 4 : 2 4 and D r u c k e r 1 9 5 1 : 2 2 F I G U R E 7 OLYMPIC PEN INSULA 71 5 . 1 G o v e r n m e n t I n t e r v e n t i o n , S t a g e I : P a t e r n a l i s m and t h e  F u r T r a d e I n 1 8 2 1 , an a c t was p a s s e d i n t h e B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t t o e s t a b l i s h c i v i l and c r i m i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h i n c e r t a i n p a r t s o f N o r t h / A m e r i c a . S h o r t l y a f t e r , t h e K i n g made a g r a n t o f e x c l u s i v e t r a d e w i t h t h e I n d i a n s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a t o t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y C o m p a n y . A t t h i s t i m e t h e N o r t h w e s t Company and t h e H u d s o n B a y Company m e r g e d t o f o r m t h e new H u d s o n ' s B a y Company (Swan 1 9 7 2 a : 3 7 8 ) . I n 1827 t h e e a r l i e r c o n v e n t i o n b e t w e e n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t a i n , c o n c e r n i n g j o i n t o c c u p a n c y i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , was r e n e w e d ( H o o n a n 1 9 6 4 : 1 5 ) . W i t h i n c r e a s e d t r a d i n g a c t i v i t y t h e M a k a h s and o t h e r t r i b e s b e g a n t o a d a p t s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e new f o u n d w e a l t h . The t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e o f t a k i n g s l a v e s as a r e s u l t o f t r i b a l c o n f l i c t s e s c a l a t e d and e v o l v e d i n t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f t a k i n g s l a v e s as o b j e c t s o f w e a l t h . W a r f a r e b e t w e e n P u g e t Sound and C a n a d i a n t r i b e s i n c r e a s e d t r e m e n d o u s l y ( D e l o r i a J r . 1 9 7 7 : 3 8 ) . A few p i o n e e r s b e g a n t o f i l t e r i n t o wha t l a t e r became W a s h i n g t o n t e r r i t o r y . B y 1 8 8 2 t h e t r i c k l e h a d become a f l o o d and t h e b o u n d a r y s l o g a n " F i f t y - f o u r , F o r t y o r F i g h t " became a p o l i t i c a l f o c u s . I n 1 8 4 6 , a f t e r l e n g t h y n e g o t i a t i o n s , t h e C a n a d i a n - U S b o r d e r was s e t a t t h e 4 9 t h p a r a l l e l ( H o o n a n 1 9 6 4 : 1 5 ) . B y 1 8 4 9 , t h e A m e r i c a n B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s was t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f War t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r ( T a y l o r 1 9 8 3 : 7 3 ) . B y 1 8 5 0 , 500 A m e r i c a n 72 s e t t l e r s had t a k e n up l a n d i n t h e n o r t h w e s t . I n t h e same y e a r , t h e I n d i a n T r e a t y A c t was p a s s e d , by t h e A m e r i c a n C o n g r e s s , r e q u i r i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o g e t f o r m a l a g r e e m e n t s t o l a n d c e s s i o n s by t h e t r i b e s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t ( D e l o r i a J r . 1 9 7 7 : 5 0 - 5 3 ) . F r o m t h e 1 8 5 0 ' s on t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t i s one o f i n c r e a s i n g n o n - n a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o v e r n a t i v e l a n d . W h i l e m o s t o f t h e w e s t c o a s t was n o t o c c u p i e d by s e t t l e r s due t o t h e g e n e r a l u n s u i t a b i l i t y f o r f a r m i n g , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t o w n s and c i t i e s i n o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e w e s t had an i n c r e a s i n g a f f e c t o n t h e W e s t C o a s t p e o p l e ( A r i m a 1 9 8 3 : 1 4 0 ) . I n c r e a s e d demand f o r n a t i v e p r o d u c t s s t i m u l a t e d t r a d e and e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e w h i t e e c o n o m y . The p r o d u c t i o n and s a l e o f d o g f i s h o i l d e v e l o p e d i n t o a m a j o r Wes t C o a s t a c t i v i t y i n t h e 1 8 5 0 ' s . The o i l was p r i n c i p a l l y u s e d t o l u b r i c a t e m a c h i n e r y w h i c h was h e l p i n g t o meet t h e demand f o r l u m b e r f o r c o n t r u c t i o n (Swan 1 8 7 0 : 3 2 ) . 5 . 2 G o v e r n m e n t I n t e r v e n t i o n , S t a g e I I : T r e a t i e s a n d  A s s i m i l a t i o n The t r i b e s o f t h e P u g e t Sound a r e a were b e c o m i n g m o r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t s e t t l e r s t o t h e a r e a when w o r d a r r i v e d f r o m t h e s o u t h o f w h o l e s a l e m a s s a c r e s o f I n d i a n v i l l a g e s by m i n e r s . The s i t u a t i o n g r e w more i n t e n s e a n d , i n an a t t e m p t t o a b a i t t h e c o n f u s i o n , C o n g r e s s d e c l a r e d t h e n o r t h w e s t a t e r r i t o r y and a p p o i n t e d a g o v e r n o r t o b r i n g c a l m t o t h e r e g i o n ( D e l o r i a J r . 1 9 7 7 : 5 3 ) . G o v e r n o r I s a a c I n g a l l s S t e v e n s was d i r e c t e d t o s i g n t r e a t i e s w i t h t h e t r i b e s o f 73 t h e new t e r r i t o r y and t o s u r v e y a new r o u t e f o r a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l r o a d a c r o s s t h e n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n 1 8 5 4 t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n s b e g a n and on D e c e m b e r 2 6 , 1854 t h e f i r s t t r e a t y was s i g n e d ( D e l o r i a J r . 1 9 7 7 : 5 5 - 5 7 ) . On J a n u a r y 3 1 , 1 8 5 5 , G o v e r n o r S t e v e n s , c h i e f i n t e r p r e t e r C o l o n e l S h a w , t e r r i t o r i a l a g e n t M i k e S immons a n d 12 a d d i t i o n a l men met w i t h S e - K o w t h l , a M a k a h c h i e f , and an a g r e e m e n t was s i g n e d ( H o o n a n 1 9 6 4 : 1 9 ) . I n t h i s t r e a t y t h e t o t a l a r e a g i v e n t o t h e M a k a h was t h e a r e a a t t h e m o u t h o f t h e Hoko R i v e r , on t h e S t r a i t s o f F u c a ; w e s t t o Cape F l a t t e r y ; e a s t a l o n g t h e l a n d o c c u p i e d by t h e Q u i l e u t e t r i b e t o t h e s u m m i t s o f t h e C o a s t Range m o u n t a i n s ; n o r t h a l o n g t h e l a n d c e d e d t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s by t h e C l a l l a m t r i b e ( B u r e a u o f A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y , 1 8 9 9 : 8 0 0 ) , ( F i g u r e 8 , p a g e 74) G o v e r n o r S t e v e n s and t h e M a k a h f e l t t h a t t h i s t r e a t y w o u l d p r o t e c t t r a d i t i o n a l r i g h t s . A r t i c l e 4 , o f t h e t r e a t y , s e c u r i n g f i s h i n g r i g h t s , s t a t e s t h a t t h e Makah have t h e r i g h t t o f i s h a t t h e a c c u s t o m e d ' g r o u n d s ' o r ' s t a t i o n s ' . What t h e A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d , h o w e v e r , was t h a t t h e Makah d e f i n i t i o n o f ' s t a t i o n s ' i n c l u d e d p a t c h e s o f o c e a n owned by l i n e a g e g r o u p s ( D e l o r i a J r . 1 9 7 7 : 6 3 ) . The t r e a t y a l s o b e g a n t o p r o m o t e a new f o r m o f p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n l e a d i n g t o t h e c o a l e s c e n c e o f t h e 5 v i l l a g e s i n t o one b o d y . G o v e r n o r S t e v e n s a p p o i n t e d h e a d c h i e f s o v e r t h e e n t i r e g r o u p , w i t h v i l l a g e c h i e f s u n d e r t h e m . W i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e I n d i a n a g e n c y , a l l FIGURE 8 M A K A H RESERVATION 75 v i l l a g e s w e r e p l a c e d u n d e r one j u r i s d i c t i o n . The t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e and l i n e a g e c l a i m s t o l a n d w e r e r e p l a c e d b y common o w n e r s h i p on t h e r e s e r v e ( C o l s o n 1 9 5 3 : 7 6 ) . A f t e r t h e T r e a t y o f Neah B a y , t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n seemed t o d e t e r i o r a t e r a p i d l y . L a n d i n t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n r e g i o n o f W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e was n e v e r f o r m a l l y c e d e d t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n 1856 a war b r o k e o u t b e t w e e n n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e p e r s o n s n e a r S e a t t l e . S u b s e q u e n t c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t and t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e h a v e s temmed f r o m t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o f u l f i l l i t s t r e a t y c o m m i t t m e n t s . The T r e a t y o f Neah B a y was o f f i c i a l l y r a t i f i e d i n 1857 ( D e l o r i a J r 1 9 7 7 : 5 7 ) . Swan p r e p a r e d a c e n s u s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t 654 M a k a h men , women and c h i l d r e n l i v e d i n t h e Cape F l a t t e r y a r e a . S h o r t l y a f t e r he was a p p o i n t e d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f t h e f i r s t I n d i a n s c h o o l a t Neah B a y . The s u c c e s s i v e I n d i a n a g e n t , h o w e v e r , t e n d e d t o r i g i d l y a d h e r e t o r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e . The K l o q u a l l y d a n c e s , p o t l a t c h i n g a n d o t h e r c e r e m o n i a l and s o c i a l e v e n t s w e r e o f f i c i a l l y a b o l i s h e d by f e d e r a l o r d e r . F o r some t i m e t h e s e c e r e m o n i e s w e r e k e p t a l i v e by s e c r e t m e e t i n g s i n r e m o t e a r e a s o f t h e r e s e r v e , b u t c o n s t a n t s o c i a l p r e s s u r e p r e v a i l e d a n d t r a d i t i o n a l c u s t o m s b e g a n t o d i e away q u i e t l y ( H o o n a n 1 9 6 4 : 2 3 ) . A b o a r d o f I n d i a n c o m m i s s i o n e r s was a p p o i n t e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t i n 1869 t o c o n t r o l n a t i v e a f f a i r s j o i n t l y w i t h t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r ( T a y l o r 1 9 8 3 : 6 5 ) . 76 I n 1 8 7 2 , t h e f i r s t B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l was o p e n e d i n Neah B a y . E n g l i s h was t h e o n l y l a n g u a g e p e r m i t t e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s o r d o r m i t o r i e s and s t u d e n t s w e r e t a u g h t A m e r i c a n s t a n d a r d s o f d r e s s , c l e a n l i n e s s a n d m a n n e r s . S t u d e n t s w e r e e x p o s e d t o C h r i s t i a n i t y t h r o u g h m a n d a t o r y a t t e n d a n c e i n c h u r c h a n d d a i l y p r a y e r . T e a c h e r s , o f t e n q u a l i f i e d m i s s i o n a r i e s , a t t e m p t e d t o wean t h e i r p u p i l s f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e c u s t o m s . A t t e n d a n c e a t t h e s c h o o l was c o m p u l s o r y and p a r e n t s who r e f u s e d t o s e n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n were o f t e n i m p r i s o n e d u n t i l t h e y r e l e n t e d ( C o l s o n 1 9 5 3 : 2 0 ) . Many o f t h e E u r o p e a n s s e t t l i n g i n t h e P u g e t Sound a r e a i n t h e 1 8 8 0 ' s w e r e o f S c a n d i n a v i a n d e c e n t — m a n y one g e n e r a t i o n r e m o v e d f r o m t h e i r h o m e l a n d . The S c a n d i n a v i a n s b r o u g h t w i t h them t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f f i s h i n g and c a n n i n g and by t h e l a t e 1 8 8 0 ' s s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t had d e v e l o p e d b e t w e e n I n d i a n a n d S c a n d i n a v i a n f i s h e r m e n ( D e l o r i a J r . 1 9 7 7 : 1 0 2 ) . The c e s s a t i o n o f t r e a t y - m a k i n g w i t h I n d i a n s i n 1 8 7 1 , t h e c o n f i n e m e n t o f I n d i a n s t o r e s e r v a t i o n s , t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e A l l o t m e n t A c t i n 1887 and t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t r a d i t i o n a l h u n t i n g g r o u p s t o s u p p o r t t h e m s e l v e s a d e q u a t e l y r e s u l t e d i n t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f many a s p e c t s o f t r i b a l g o v e r n m e n t by I n d i a n A g e n t s . An i n c r e a s e d number o f g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s w e r e d i s p a t c h e d t o t h e r e s e r v a t i o n s t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e a s s i g n m e n t o f a l l o t m e n t s o f l a n d , d i s b u r s e m e n t o f r a t i o n s , m a i n t e n a n c e o f l a w and o r d e r and o t h e r d u t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e g o v e r n i n g o f I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s ( T a y l o r 1 9 8 3 : 6 6 ) . I n d i a n 77 agents recognized the n a t u r a l formation of in f o r m a l c o u n c i l s and promoted the c o u n c i l s as a re g u l a r f e a t u r e of reserve l i f e . By the mid 1880's a l l r e s e r v a t i o n s had t h e i r own c o u n c i l s , p o l i c e f o r c e and a system of t r i b a l c o u r t s which heard cases and were s u b j e c t to the appeal of Indian agents. Thus i t was p o s s i b l e f o r the vari o u s groups to evolve some form of government ( D e l o r i a J r . 1977: 97 -98) . In 1889 a Makah fisherman purchased a whaling v e s s e l and went s e a l i n g i n Alaskan waters under the p r o v i s i o n of the Neah Bay t r e a t y . The sh i p was captured and impounded f o r v i o l a t i n g an act p r o h i b i t i n g the k i l l i n g of fur se a l s w i t h i n the waters p r e v i o u s l y ceded to the United States by Russia ( D e l o r i a J r . 1977:105) . C i t i z e n s h i p for n a t i v e Indians had been c o n f e r r e d by t r e a t y as e a r l y as 1817. The Allotment Act of 1887 p r o v i d e d that Indians r e c e i v i n g a l l o t m e n t s of land would become American c i t i z e n s but these terms were ammended to provide that c i t i z e n s h i p would accrue on t e r m i n a t i o n fo BIA's t r u s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the land (Taylor 1983:66) . The t r a d i t i o n a l nature of n a t i v e Indian l i f e was being suppressed on a l l f r o n t s . A c t i v i t i e s of a ceremonial or r i t u a l nature were e i t h e r discouraged or completely p r o h i b i t e d . Agents sometimes i n s p e c t e d the housekeeping of women and one made i t a p r a c t i c e of g i v i n g women who f a i l e d to reach h i s standards of c l e a n l i n e s s a few days imprisonment i n the l o c a l j a i l (Arima 1983:144) . In the winter of 1888 a whooping cough and measles 78 e p i d e m i c s w e p t t h r o u g h t h e g o v e r n m e n t s c h o o l s i n t h e P u g e t S o u n d a r e a , s e v e r l y h i t t i n g p u p i l s on t h e O l y m p i c P e n n i n s u l a . I n d i a n s o f a l l a g e s p e r i s h e d and by t h e f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e a r e a was d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d ( D e l o r i a J r . 1 9 7 7 : 9 5 ) . When W a s h i n g t o n was r e c o g n i z e d as a s t a t e i n 1 8 8 9 , q u e s t i o n s b e g a n t o a r i s e c o n c e r n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f I n d i a n t r e a t i e s . I n F e b r u a r y 1 8 9 0 , a c o m m i s s i o n e r o f f i s h e r i e s was c r e a t e d and s h o r t l y a f t e r a D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s was e s t a b l i s h e d ( D e l o r i a J r . 1 9 7 7 : 1 0 1 - 1 0 5 ) . I n 1893 an e x e c u t i v e o r d e r o f P r e s i d e n t G r o v e r C l e v e l a n d s e t a s i d e 700 a c r e s o f O z e t t e l a n d as r e s e r v a t i o n s e p a r a t e f r o m t h a t o f t h e M a k a h . M o s t o f t h e l a n d n o t u n d e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e two r e s e r v a t i o n s w e n t i n t o t h e h a n d s o f t h e t i m b e r c o m p a n i e s and e v e n t u a l l y came u n d e r t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as p a r t o f t h e O l y m p i c N a t i o n a l P a r k ( D a u g h e r t y 1 9 7 6 : 7 3 ) . A d e c i s i o n by t h e B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n 1 8 9 3 r e q u i r e d a l l s c h o o l age O z e t t e t o a t t e n d a B u r e a u r u n s c h o o l i n Neah B a y . By t h e e a r l y 1 9 2 0 ' s O z e t t e h a d c e a s e d t o be u s e d as a p e r m a n e n t v i l l a g e s i t e . J u r i s d i c t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o be an i s s u e i n t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s a n d i n 1 8 9 2 a c a s e came b e f o r e J u d g e H a n f o r d , a f e d e r a l j u d g e , c o n c e r n i n g Makah t r e a t y r i g h t s . A f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e T r e a t y o f Neah B a y , J u d g e H a n f o r d d e c i d e d t h e T r e a t y o f Neah B a y s e c u r e d o n l y an e q u a l i t y o f r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s — i n 79 f i s h i n g , w h a l i n g and s e a l i n g — i n common w i t h a l l c i t i z e n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and d i d n o t s u p p o r t a c l a i m f o r s u p e r i o r r i g h t s o r p r i v i l e g e s ( D e l o r i a J r . 1 9 7 7 : 1 0 6 ) . W i t h i n t h e n e x t 5 y e a r s , H a n f o r d ' s d e c i s i o n s w e r e t o a f f e c t t h e M a k a h L u m m i , Y a k i m a and o t h e r t r i b e s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t who saw t h e a b r o g a t i o n o f t h e i r t r e a t i e s . The Y a k i m a c a s e was a p p e a l e d t o t h e Supreme C o u r t and i n 1 9 0 5 a s t r o n g d e c i s i o n was b r o u g h t down i n f a v o u r o f t h e I n d i a n b a n d . I n 1906 t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r was a u t h o r i z e d t o s e n d an i n v e s t i g a t i n g c o m m i t t e e t o O r e g o n and W a s h i n g t o n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e number o f p e r s o n s s t i l l l i v i n g i n t r a d i t i o n a l home l a n d s . A c o n s i d e r a b l e number w e r e f o u n d and C o n g r e s s p a s s e d a s p e c i a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n t o c o m p e n s a t e them f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o r a t i f y t h e i r t r e a t i e s ( D e l o r i a J r . 1 9 7 7 : 1 5 1 ) . A s f u r s e a l i n g e n d e d i n t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , many men t u r n e d t o c o m m e r c i a l f i s h i n g as t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . A s f i s h s t o c k s d e c l i n e d , n o n - n a t i v e c o m p a n i e s c o n s o l i d a t e d and e q u i p m e n t became more e l a b o r a t e and e x p e n s i v e ( A r i m a 1 9 8 3 : 1 4 4 ) . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t q u a r t e r o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y , t h e B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s was t h e p r i m a r y a g e n c y i n v o l v e d i n n a t i v e I n d i a n m a t t e r s . I n 1 9 2 1 , t h e S n y d e r A c t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e B I A was t o p r o v i d e g e n e r a l s u p p o r t and ' c i v i l i z a t i o n ' o f t h e I n d i a n s t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n , w e l f a r e , m e d i c a l , i n d u s t r i a l a s s i s t a n c e and t h e management a n d i m p r o v e m e n t o f l a n d . The B u r e a u , t h e n , was a c o m p o s i t e o f f e d e r a l , s t a t e and l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s f o r r e s e r v a t i o n I n d i a n s as w e l l as t r u s t e e s f o r I n d i a n l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e s ( T a y l o r 1983:66) . I n 1923, t h e A s s o c i a t i o n on A m e r i c a n I n d i a n A f f a i r s ( A A I A ) was f o r m e d t o a s s i s t A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s and A l a s k a n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s i n e f f o r t s t o a c h i e v e f u l l e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l a n d c i v i l e q u a l i t y , and t o d e f e n d t h e i r r i g h t s by m o b i l i z i n g f e d e r a l , s t a t e and l o c a l r e s o u r c e s ( T a y l o r 1983:140-141) . A s a r e s u l t o f n a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n W o r l d War 1, t h e A m e r i c a n C o n g r e s s c o n f e r r e d c i t i z e n s h i p on a l l n a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s , n o t a l r e a d y c i t i z e n s , h a v i n g b e e n b o r n w i t h i n t h e t e r r i t o r i a l b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( T a y l o r 1983:66) . Two y e a r s l a t e r , on A u g u s t 26, 1926, t h e M a k a h p e o p l e c e l e b r a t e d t h e i r A m e r i c a n c i t i z e n s h i p w i t h t h e f i r s t o f a c o n t i n u i n g M a k a h D a y s c e l e b r a t i o n f o r m a l l y e n d i n g 7 d e c a d e s as w a r d s o f t h e s t a t e ( H o o n a n 1964:23) . Neah B a y was i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n u n t i l 1931 when t h e f i r s t p a v e d h i g h w a y f r o m P o r t A n g e l e s t o t h e v i l l a g e was c o m p l e t e d . P r i o r t o t h a t t i m e , a l l c o n t a c t was made by b o a t . 5.3 G o v e r n m e n t I n t e r v e n t i o n , S t a g e I I I : L i m i t e d  S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n A l t h o u g h t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e 1930 ' s b r o u g h t h a r d s h i p , g o v e r n m e n t p r o g r a m m e s c r e a t e d as p a r t o f t h e New D e a l o f f e r e d e m p l o y m e n t on t h e r e s e r v a t i o n . D u r i n g 81 t h i s t i m e a n o t a b l e r e v e r s a l o f I n d i a n p o l i c y t o o k p l a c e . U n t i l t h e n o f f i c i a l g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y h a d b e e n t o t e a c h t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s a g r i c u l t u r e and e n s u r e t h e i r e v e n t u a l a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o l o c a l n o n - n a t i v e s o c i e t y . A f t e r t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , a r e d u c t i o n o f g o v e r n m e n t f u n d s and g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e s , mean t a l o s s o f a b i l i t y t o a d m i n i s t e r r e s e r v a t i o n a f f a i r s . I n 1 9 3 4 , P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t and I n d i a n C o m m i s s i o n e r J o h n C o l l i e r f o r m u l a t e d a new p o l i c y a l l o w i n g I n d i a n t r i b e s t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s as f e d e r a l c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d g o v e r n t h e m s e l v e s . The l a w b e h i n d t h i s p o l i c y was t h e I n d i a n R e o r g a n i z a t i o n A c t , s o m e t i m e s known as t h e W h e e l e r - H o w a r d A c t . The m o s t n o t a b l e s e c t i o n o f t h e a c t was t h e p r o v i s i o n t h a t t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r c o u l d p u r c h a s e l a n d s and r e t u r n them t o I n d i a n t r i b e s h a v i n g l o s t l a n d d u r i n g p r e v i o u s d e c a d e s o f I n d i a n p o l i c y ( D e l o r i a J r . 19 7 7 : 1 5 1 - 1 5 3 ) . I n h e r e n t i n t h e A c t was t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t e a c h t r i b e h a d t h e r i g h t t o e x e r c i s e a l l i n h e r e n t p o w e r s — t o a d o p t a c o n s t i t u t i o n ; a d o p t i t s own g o v e r n m e n t ; d e t e r m i n e t r i b a l m e m b e r s h i p ; r e g u l a t e d o m e s t i c r e l a t i o n s ; a n d a d m i n i s t e r l a w and o r d e r u n d e r t r i b a l j u r i s d i c t i o n ( C o l s o n 1 9 5 3 : 2 1 ) . The I n d i a n R e o r g a n i z a t i o n A c t r e v e r s e d t h e t r e n d t o a s s i m i l a t e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s and e m p h a s i z e d t h e c o n c e p t o f t r i b a l g o v e r n m e n t . Due t o an i m p e n d i n g c o u r t c a s e o v e r f i s h i n g r i g h t s t h e M a k a h T r i b a l C o u n c i l h e l d a m e e t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e a 82 f o r m a l l i s t o f a l l l a n d m a r k s c l a i m e d by t h e M a k a h i n p r e - t r e a t y d a y s . I n t h i s d o c u m e n t , t h e C o u n c i l c l a i m e d t h a t Makah t e r r i t o r y p r e v i o u s l y e x t e n d e d f r o m C a p e J o h n s o n on t h e P a c i f i c t o E a g l e P o i n t on t h e S t r a i t s . The d e c i s i o n , h o w e v e r , b r o u g h t down i n 1942 r u l e d a g a i n s t t h e M a k a h ( C o l s o n 1953:24-25) . D u r i n g W o r l d War I , Neah B a y had a s s u m e d a s t r a t e g i c m i l i t a r y i m p o r t a n c e a s a s u p p l y c e n t r e and a g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n . A t t h i s t i m e , f o r t i f i c a t i o n s h a d b e g u n t o be b u i l t on t h e r e s e r v a t i o n . D u r i n g W o r l d War I I , t h e US Army s t a t i o n e d a r a d a r u n i t a t S o o e s P o i n t and c o n c r e t e g u n e m p l a c e m e n t s w e r e i n s t a l l e d . B y 1942, r u m o u r s h a d a r i s e n t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n t e n d e d t o t a k e Neah B a y and t o e v i c t a l l c i v i l i a n s f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e w a r . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e M a k a h l e a s e d t h e r i g h t t o q u a r r y r o c k f r o m M a k a h l a n d t o a company b u i l d i n g a b r e a k w a t e r i n N e a h B a y . M a k a h p e o p l e w e r e e m p l o y e d i n t h e p r o j e c t and t h e money e a r n e d f r o m t h e l e a s e was p l a c e d i n t h e T r i b a l T r u s t F u n d ( H o o n a n 1964:25, C o l s o n 1953:124) . W o r l d War I I v i r t u a l l y d e v a s t e d I n d i a n p r o g r a m m e s a c r o s s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . N a t i v e men were e n c o u r a g e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e war e f f o r t and a s k e l e t o n f o r c e o f g o v e r n m e n t w o r k e r s w e r e k e p t on t o s e l l l a n d s a n d a r r a n g e t i m b e r l e a s e s ( D e l o r i a J r . 1977:115) . I n 1943 a n d 1951 C o m m i s s i o n e r s J o h n C o l l i e r and D i l l o n M y e r r e a f f i r m e d t h e o b j e c t i v e o f s t e p by s t e p t r a n s f e r o f B I A f u n c t i o n s t o n a t i v e and o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t s . A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r , Orme L e w i s , e c h o e d t h a t s t a t e m e n t and a H o u s e C o n c u r r e n t R e s o l u t i o n , i n 1 9 5 3 , d e c l a r e d t h a t n a t i v e I n d i a n s s h o u l d be s u b j e c t t o t h e same l a w s as a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r c i t i z e n s ( T a y l o r 1 9 8 3 : 1 0 6 ) . By t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s , e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and l a w and o r d e r w e r e t r a n f e r r e d f r o m B I A t o s t a t e s and c o u n t i e s . 5 . 4 N a t i v e R e s i s t a n c e , S t a g e I : N o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l E l i g a b i l i t y f o r v e t e r a n ' s b e n e f i t s e n a b l e d many n a t i v e p e r s o n s t o p u r c h a s e d e e p w a t e r b o a t s w h i c h c o u l d c o m p e t e w i t h t h e c a t c h e s o f n o n - i n d i a n f i s h e r m e n . C a t c h e s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s , h o w e v e r , b e g a n t o d e c l i n e r a p i d l y . T h e r e w e r e few r e a l i s t i c m e a s u r e s f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y and new t e c h n i q u e s f o r f i s h i n g mean t t h a t f e w e r and f e w e r f i s h were r e a c h i n g t h e s p a w n i n g g r o u n d s . W i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g number o f n a t i v e f i s h e r m e n u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l f i s h i n g s i t e s , f i s h and game o f f i c i a l s became d e t e r m i n e d t o g a i n j u r i s d i c a t i o n o v e r I n d i a n f i s h i n g . They c o m p l a i n e d t h a t n a t i v e f i s h i n g was r u i n i n g g o v e r n m e n t c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s by f i s h i n g w i t h o u t s u p e r v i s i o n . The s t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n made a c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t t o f o r c e I n d i a n s t o p u r c h a s e s t a t e f i s h i n g l i c e n c e s and a r r e s t s w e r e m a d e o f I n d i a n s w i t h o u t s u c h l i c e n c e s ( D e l o r i a J r . 1 9 7 7 : 1 5 7 ) . T e n s i o n i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y as n a t i v e r e s e n t m e n t g r e w o v e r f i s h and game o f f i c a l s ' t a c t i c s . 84 r e s i s t a n c e g r e w , s t a t e p o w e r became more o p p r e s s i v e . I n O c t o b e r 1 9 6 3 , W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e o b t a i n e d an i n j u n c t i o n t o p r e v e n t n a t i v e p e r s o n s f r o m f i s h i n g a t G r e e n R i v e r , and i n J a n u a r y 1 9 6 4 , t h e P i e r c e C o u n t y S u p e r i o r C o u r t i s s u e d a n i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e N i s q u a l l y — c l o s i n g t h e r i v e r b e l o w t h e N i s q u a l l y r e s e r v a t i o n — w h e r e m o s t o f t h e I n d i a n s h a d moved f o l l o w i n g t h e c o n f i s c a t o n o f t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n d u r i n g W o r l d War I . M o d e l i n g t h e i r t a c t i c o n o t h e r c i v i l r i g h t s m o v e m e n t s , t h e I n d i a n s had a ' f i s h - i n ' e a r l y i n 1964 t o p r o t e s t t h e a c t i o n o f t h e s t a t e . I n F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 5 , a g r o u p o f N i s q u a l l y and P u y a l l u p p e o p l e s e n t a ' p e t i t i o n f o r a c t i o n ' t o t h e US A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l r e q u e s t i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n c a s e s b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s . The J u s t i c e D e p a r t m e n t r e f u s e d t o a s s i s t t h e I n d i a n s s t a t i n g t h a t p r e v i o u s a s s i s t a n c e h a d n o t h e l p e d . The f o l l o w i n g O c t o b e r saw t h e m o s t v i o l e n t c o n f r o n t a t i o n i n y e a r s . 5 . 5 N a t i v e R e s i s t a n c e , S t a g e I I : I n s t i t u t i o n a l B y 1 9 6 7 t h e s m a l l e r t r i b e s o f t h e P u g e t S o u n d a r e a o r g a n i z e d a g r o u p c a l l e d S m a l l T r i b e s o f W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n (STOWW) a n d by t h e f a l l o f 1 9 6 9 , W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e h a d d r i f t e d away f r o m t h e i r s t r i c t p o l i c i e s a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a l l o w e d t h e o f f - r e s e r v a t i o n N i s q u a l l y f i s h e r y t o e x i s t ( D e l o r i a J r . 1 9 7 7 : 1 6 3 - 1 9 6 ) . The 1 9 6 0 ' s b r o u g h t many c h a n g e s t o A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n s u c h as c o n c e r n s f o r e d u c a t i o n , c i v i l r i g h t s , p o v e r t y , h o u s i n g , w o r k e r s 85 t r a i n i n g and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t ( T a y l o r 1 9 8 3 : 6 9 ) . M e a n w h i l e , t h e c o n t r o v e r s y b e t w e e n n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e f i s h i n g c o n t i n u e d w i t h d e e p e n i n g d i s t r u s t and a n i m o s i t y on b o t h s i d e s . T e n s i o n had i n c r e a s e d by p r o v o c a t i v e and s o m e t i m e s i l l e g a l a c t i v i t i e s on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e d i s p u t e . I n 1 9 7 4 , a d e c i s i o n on t h e s u i t U n i t e d S t a t e s v . W a s h i n g t o n was d e c i d e d by D i s t r i c t C o u r t J u d g e G e o r g e B o l d t . J u d g e B o l d t h e l d t h a t n a t i v e p e r s o n s w e r e f r e e t o f i s h on t h e i r own r e s e r v a t i o n s , and c o u l d f i s h o f f - r e s e r v a t i o n a t t r a d i t i o n a l s i t e s f o r r e l i g i o u s and s u b s i s t e n c e p u r p o s e s . He a l s o r u l e d t h a t n a t i v e p e r s o n s w e r e e n t i t l e d t o 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e f i s h f o r c o m m e r i c a l p u r p o s e s , l e a v i n g a n o t h e r 50 p e r c e n t f o r n o n - n a t i v e f i s h e r m e n . J u d g e B o l d t r u l e d t h a t n a t i v e f i s h i n g r i g h t s w e r e b a s e d on p r e v i o u s t r e a t i e s and c o u l d n o t be q u a l i f i e d by t h e s t a t e , e x c e p t w e r e p o l i c e p o w e r s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d r e a s o n a b l e and n e c e s s a r y f o r o f f - r e s e r v a t i o n f i s h i n g ( T a y l o r 1 9 8 3 : 4 5 - 4 7 ) . A f t e r t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n was b r o u g h t down t h e C i t i z e n s U n i t e d f o r R e s o u r c e E m e r g e n c i e s (CURE) g a t h e r e d a 1 5 6 , 0 0 0 s i g n a t u r e p e t i t i o n i n g t h e s t a t e s ' C o n g r e s s i o n a l d e l e g a t i o n t o c o r r e c t t h e p e r c e i v e d i n e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n . The US Supreme C o u r t , h o w e v e r , r e a f f i r m e d t h e B o l d t d e c i s i o n i n 1979 a l t h o u g h m o d i f y i n g t h e d e c i s o n t o p r o v i d e f o r s u b s i s t e n c e and c e r e m o n i a l n e e d s . As a r e s u l t o f t h e 86 B o l d t d e c i s i o n t h e N o r t h w e s t I n d i a n F i s h e r i e s C o m m i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d , f u n d e d by t h e B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . The C o l u m b i a R i v e r B a s i n F i s h e r i e s A l l i a n c e was a l s o f o r m e d w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m t r e a t i e d t r i b e s , c o m m e r c i a l f i s h e r m e n , p a c k e r s and q u i d e s w i t h t h e o v e r r i d i n g a i m o f p r e s e r v i n g t h e f i s h e r y r e s o u r c e ( T a y l o r 1 9 8 3 : 1 2 0 ) . The I n d i a n S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n and E d u c a t i o n A c t o f 1 9 7 5 and t h e 1977 r e p o r t o f t h e I n d i a n P o l i c y R e v i e w C o m m i s s i o n e n d o r s e d t h e p h i l o s o p h y b e h i n d t h e I n d i a n R e - o r g a n i z a t i o n A c t . The I n d i a n P o l i c y R e v i e w C o m m i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d by C o n g r e s s and c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f r e v i e w i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e and t h e F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ( T a y l o r 1 9 8 3 : 1 6 1 ) . 5 . 6 C h a p t e r Summary I n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e , t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y o f p a t e r n a l i s m b e g a n i n 1 8 2 1 w i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e B r i t i s h a c t r e g u l a t i n g t h e f u r t r a d e and d e s i g n a t i n g c i v i l and c r i m i n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t . G o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y c h a n g e d f r o m p a t e r n a l i s m t o a s s i m i l a t i o n i n 1 8 5 4 when c o l o n i a l s e t t l e m e n t p r o v i d e d i n t e r e s t i n t r e a t y n e g o t i a t i o n . A s s i m i l a t i o n p o l i c i e s c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 1934 when t h e I n d i a n R e o r g a n i z a t i o n A c t was p a s s e d a l l o w i n g f e d e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t r i b e s t o o r g a n i z e and g o v e r n t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s l i m i t e d a u t o m o n y c o n t i n u e s t o t h e p r e s e n t d a y . A l t h o u g h C h r i s t i a n i n f l u e n c e i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e seems t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , i t a p p e a r s t o f o l l o w t h e ebb and f l o w o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n . A l t h o u g h i t d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e a s e p a r a t e t i m e c a t e g o r y i t s h o u l d be s e e n a s e q u a l l y d e b i l i t a t i n g as t h e s p i r i t u a l i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e T s i m s h i a n p e o p l e . C o h e s i v e n a t i v e n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e b e g a n , i n a n o t a b l e w a y , i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s when j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s c o n c e r n i n g n a t i v e t r e a t y r i g h t s h e i g h t e n e d . N a t i v e r e s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was n o t i c a b l y more v i o l e n t t h a n i n C a n a d a . B y 1969 n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e g a n t o f o r m p r o v i d i n g n a t i v e g r o u p s , t h o u g h o u t t h e s t a t e , w i t h i n c r e a s e d p o l i t i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e r a g e . The I n d i a n R e o r g a n i z a t i o n A c t o f 1934 and t h e g r o w i n g p o l i t i c a l a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s o f W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e h a v e b r o u g h t an i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n e g a t i v e i m p a c t o f W e s t c o a s t c u l t u r a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . I n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i m p a c t o f c u l t u r a l d i s t i n t e g r a t i o n ha s b r o u g h t , i n t u r n , i n c r e a s e d i n c e n t i v e f o r c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . N a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e c o n t i n u e s t o e v o l v e a s a r e s p o n s e t o l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l d i s p u t e s . A c a d e m i c r e s e a r c h a l o n g t h e O l y m p i c P e n n i n s u l a p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n and a f o c u s f o r c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l o u t l i n e t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e M a k a h p e o p l e and w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h e p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e M a k a h C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e . 89 T a b l e V I I W e s t c o a s t R e g i o n a l H i s t o r y 1820 1 8 2 5 1 8 3 0 1 8 3 5 1 8 4 0 1 8 4 5 1 8 5 0 1 8 5 5 1 8 6 0 1 8 6 5 1 8 7 0 1 8 7 5 1 8 8 0 1 8 8 5 1 8 9 0 1 8 9 5 1 9 0 0 1 9 0 5 1 9 1 0 1 9 1 5 1 9 2 0 1 9 2 5 1 9 3 0 1 9 3 5 1 9 4 0 1 9 4 5 1 9 5 0 1 9 5 5 1 9 6 0 1 9 6 5 1 9 7 0 1 9 7 5 1 9 8 0 1 9 8 5 G o v ' t and C h r i s t i a n I n t e r . S t a g e I 1 8 2 1 t o 1854 G o v ' t and C h r i s t i a n I n t e r . S t a g e I I , 1 8 5 4 t o 1 9 3 2 G o v ' t I n t e r . S t a g e I I I , 1934 t o p r e s e n t N a t i v e Res i s t a n c e S t a g e s I t o I I , 1 9 5 0 - ' 6 9 , 1 9 6 9 - n o w 90 C h a p t e r 6 : M a k a h C u l t u r a l R e v i t a l i z a t i o n and t h e  P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e MCRC The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e MCRC may be d i v i d e d i n t o 3 d i s t i n c t c o m p o n e n t s . T h e s e a r e : 1. E t h n o g r a p h i c D e v e l o p m e n t ; 2 . D e v e l o p m e n t a l P l a n n i n g and 3 . O p e r a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t . 6 . 1 E t h n o g r a p h i c D e v e l o p m e n t I n t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 ' s R i c h a r d D a u g h e r t y , R o a l d F r y w e l l , C a r l G u s t a f s o n , H a r v e y R i c e and a t eam o f 30 e x c a v a t o r s b e g a n work a t O z e t t e — a s i t e p r e v i o u s l y s u r v e y e d by R i c h a r d D a u g h e r t y i n 1 9 4 7 ( D a u g h e r t y , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : 1 9 8 6 ) . I n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f e x t e n s i v e c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s r a n g i n g f r o m t h e h i s t o r i c t o t h e p r e - h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . S e v e r a l c a t a s t r o p h i c c l a y s l i d e s had c o v e r e d O z e t t e , v i r t u a l l y f r e e z i n g t h e c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s i n t i m e . W e l l p r e s e r v e d o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s f o u n d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c u l t u r a l l y m o d i f i e d s t o n e , bone a n d s h e l l p r o v i d e d a r a r e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n - s i t u r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l Makah c u l t u r e ( G l e e s o n 1 9 8 0 : 9 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e M a k a h p e o p l e h a d r e l i n q u i s h e d o f f i c i a l t i t l e t o t h e l a n d , t h e y r e m a i n e d c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t r i g h t l y b e l o n g e d t o t h e m . I n 1968 t h e B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s r e q u e s t e d e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e Makah p e o p l e t h a t O z e t t e o n c e b e l o n g e d t o t h e m . A l t h o u g h t h e T r e a t y o f N e a h B a y e x p l i c i t l y b o r e t h e s i g n a t u r e o f t h e C h i e f o f t h e O z e t t e s , t h e M a k a h T r i b a l C o u n c i l (MTC) e s t a b l i s h e d , f o r t h e B I A , t h e Makah c l a i m t o t h e O z e t t e l a n d . The MTC r e g a i n e d o f f i c i a l t i t l e t o t h e O z e t t e s i t e on O c t o b e r 2 1 , 1970 by way o f C o n g r e s s i o n a l B i l l (Hughes 1 9 7 8 : 8 ) . By 1 9 7 0 , t h e MTC r e c e i v e d r e p o r t s o f v a n d a l i s m a t t h e O z e t t e s i t e . A q u i c k i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s i t e r e v e a l e d t h a t h i g h w i n t e r s t o r m s h a d d e e p l y e r o d e d t h e b a n k , u n d e r c u t t i n g t h e m i d d e n and e x p o s i n g t h e c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s f o r m e r l y h i d d e n b e l o w . T h e s e u n p r o t e c t e d a r t i f a c t s h a d b e e n f u r t h e r e r o d e d by u n a u t h o r i z e d d i g g i n g ( p o t h u n t i n g ) a t t h e s i t e ( G l e e s o n 1 9 8 0 : 1 0 ) . A t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e M T C , R i c h a r d D a u g h e r t y r e t u r n e d t o t h e s i t e i n an a t t e m p t t o p r e v e n t f u r t h e r d e s t r u c t i o n o f c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l s . R e s c u e e x c a v a t i o n b e g a n i n 1 9 7 0 a n d c o n t i n u e d u n t i l l a t e i n t o 1 9 7 8 . A t e m p o r a r y s h e l t e r was b u i l t t o p r o t e c t t h e c r e w and p r o v i d e l a b o r a t o r y s p a c e . T h r o u g h o u t t h e e x c a v a t i o n p e r i o d M a k a h s t u d e n t s a c t i v e l y t o o k p a r t i n t h e e x c a v a t i o n and M a k a h e l d e r s v i s i t e d t h e more p e r m a n e n t l a b o r a t o r y i n Neah B a y . P r e s e r v a t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s p r o v e d r e m a r k a b l e as t h e h e a v y we t c l a y c o v e r i n g t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e s i t e h e l p e d p r e v e n t t h e d e c a y o f t h e c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s . P o w e r f u l w a t e r h o s e s w e r e u s e d t o f l u s h away t h e s t e r i l e s u r f a c e c l a y and s m a l l e r , l e s s p o w e r f u l , h o s e s w e r e u s e d t o e x c a v a t e t h e c u l t u r a l l a y e r s . A r t i c l e s r e m o v e d f r o m t h e d e p o s i t s w e r e q u i c k l y w a s h e d and p l a c e d i n a s o l u t i o n o f p o l y e t h y l e n e g l y c o l . The a r t i f a c t s w e r e t h e n f l o w n t o t h e m a i n l a b o r a t o r y i n Neah B a y f o r f i n a l c o n s e r v a t i o n , a n a l y s i s and s t o r a g e ( D a u g h e r t y 1 9 7 6 : 7 4 ) . The C o a s t G u a r d and M a r i n e A i r R e s e r v e s a i d e d t h e p r o j e c t by f l y i n g s u p p l i e s and m a t e r i a l s t o t h e s i t e by h e l i c o p t e r . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t was f u n d e d by t h e US C o n g r e s s on a y e a r l y b a s i s and was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s S e r v i c e ( f o r w h i c h t h e y r e c e i v e d 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e o p e r a t i n g b u d g e t ) . B o t h t h e a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and t h e MTC w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e y e a r l y g r a n t a p p l i c a t i o n as w e l l as c o n g r e s s i o n a l c o m m i t t e e r e p o r t s . The e x c a v a t i o n e n d e d i n 1 9 7 8 when t h e MTC and a r c h a e o l o g i s t s j o i n t l y d e c i d e d t h a t f u r t h e r e x c a v a t i o n w o u l d y i e l d l i t t l e new i n f o r m a t i o n and m i g h t u n n e c e s s a r i l y damage t h e s i t e . O v e r 5 0 , 0 0 0 a r t i f a c t s o f 220 t y p e s , up t o 2 , 0 0 0 y e a r s o l d , w e r e f o u n d w i t h i n an e i g h t y e a r p e r i o d a t O z e t t e . The r e m a i n s o f a t l e a s t e i g h t h o u s e s w e r e d i s c o v e r e d and t h r e e had b e e n f u l l y e x c a v a t e d . A c o m p l e x s e r i e s o f d r a i n a g e f e a t u r e s h a d a l s o b e e n f o u n d . R e s e a r c h d o n e a t t h e s i t e r e v e a l e d c o n s t a n t r e o c c u p a t i o n o f O z e t t e o v e r t i m e ( G l e e s o n 1 9 8 0 : 1 5 ) . The e x c a v a t i o n a t O z e t t e c a n be s e e n as one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . The t e c h n i q u e s o f e x c a v a t i o n a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n d e v e l o p e d a t t h e s i t e have b e e n a m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l , and M a k a h h i s t o r y and p r e - h i s t o r y , i n p a r t i c u l a r . 6 . 2 D e v e l o p m e n t a l P l a n n i n g The d e v e l o p m e n t a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e MCRC c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g — d e t a i l e d c o n c e p t d e v e l o p m e n t — a n d s e c o n d a r y p l a n n i n g — p h y s i c a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p l a n n i n g . 6 . 2 . 1 I n i t i a l D e v e l o p m e n t The i n i t i a l p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g t h e MCRC b e g a n i n 1970 w i t h t h e p r e l i m i n a r y p r o p o s a l s f o r f u n d i n g and t h e s e c o n d a r y p r o p o s a l f o r t r a i n i n g . A s t h e O z e t t e e x c a v a t i o n p r o g r e s s e d i t became e v i d e n t t o a l l i n v o l v e d t h a t a d d i t i o n a l s t o r a g e and l a b o r a t o r y s p a c e w o u l d be r e q u i r e d . T o u r i s t s , s c h o o l g r o u p s , r e s e a r c h e r s a n d a c a d e m i c s came t o Neah B a y t o s e e t h e i m p r e s s i v e y e t f r a g i l e c o l l e c t i o n . The M a k a h p e o p l e and t h e a r c h a e o l o g i s t s f e l t j o i n t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c a r e and m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e c u l t u r a l c o l l e c t i o n . T h e y a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e c o l l e c t i o n s h o u l d r e m a i n i n t h e Neah B a y a r e a r a t h e r t h a n a t a d i s t a n t u r b a n museum. A l l d i s c u s s i o n s p o i n t e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s m a l l n a t i v e museum some w h e r e on t h e r e s e r v a t i o n ( A r n o l d , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : 1 9 8 6 ) . D i s c u s s i o n s i n v o l v e d t h e p o t e n t i a l p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s u c h a museum i n N e a h B a y . A f t e r some t i m e , a d e c i s i o n was made , by t h e M T C , t o s u p p o r t a p r o p o s a l f o r a c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d l o c a l 94 n a t i v e museum ( A r n o l d , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : 1 9 8 6 ) . I n 1 9 7 0 , D r . D a u g h e r t y and t h e T r i b a l C o u n c i l s e n t a p r e l i m i n a r y museum f u n d i n g p r o p o s a l t o t h e B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . The B u r e a u r e s p o n d e d by s u b m i t t i n g , t o t h e M T C , an a r c h i t e c t u r a l p l a n f o r t h e p r o p o s e d museum f a c i l i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e p l a n d i d n o t meet w i t h T r i b a l C o u n c i l a p p r o v a l , i t was i n c l u d e d w i t h museum f u n d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s ( H u g h e s 1 9 7 8 : 1 7 ) . B I A , u n a b l e t o f u n d t h e p r o j e c t a t t h i s t i m e , a d v i s e d t h e T r i b a l C o u n c i l t o s e e k f u n d i n g f r o m t h e E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( E D A ) . I n 1 9 7 1 , J o s e p h L a w r e n c e , c h a i r m a n o f t h e M T C , a p p l i e d t o EDA f o r f u n d i n g . EDA was f a v o u r a b l y i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n and d i r e c t e d t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s S e r v i c e t o a s s i s t t h e MTC i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l t e r n a t e a r c h i t e c t u r a l p l a n s . A s s i s t a n c e t o t h e museum p r o j e c t was h a l t e d , h o w e v e r , when EDA f u n d s w e r e i m p o u n d e d f o r h u r r i c a n e r e l i e f . D r . R i c h a r d D a u g h e r t y t h e n t e s t i f i e d b e f o r e t h e F e d e r a l H o u s e o f A p p r o p r i a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e i n t h e hope o f r e c e i v i n g museum p r o j e c t f u n d i n g (Hughes 1 9 7 8 : 1 9 ) . I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 7 3 , D r . D a u g h e r t y a p p r o a c h e d G e o r g e Q u i m b y , D i r e c t o r o f t h e Thomas B u r k e M e m o r i a l M u s e u m , r e g a r d i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a M a k a h T E a e a r a r g P r o g r a m m e (MTP) a t t h e B u r k e M u s e u m . The B u r k e M u s e u m , t h e o n l y m u s e o l o g y t r a i n i n g c e n t r e i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e , was l o c a t e d on t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n campus and was r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e t o N e a h B a y . P r o f e s s o r Q u i m b y met l a t e r w i t h t h e B I A and s e l e c t e d members o f t h e MTC t o d i s c u s s t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e p r o p o s e d m u s e o l o g y p r o g r a m m e . The m e e t i n g r e s u l t e d i n a s y s t e m o f m a t c h i n g f u n d s — B I A , MTC and t h e B u r k e M u s e u m - - f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a 3 y e a r M a k a h s t u d e n t t r a i n i n g p rog ramme l e a d i n g t o a B a c h e l o r o f A r t s d e g r e e (Hughes 1 9 7 8 : : 2 1 - 2 3 ) . I n 1 9 7 4 , EDA was a g a i n p r e p a r e d t o c o n s i d e r M a k a h museum f u n d i n g . E D A ' s m a n d a t e was t o f u n d e c o n o m i c a l l y d e p r e s s e d a r e a s w i t h e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e p r o j e c t s . W i t h t h i s i n m i n d t h e MTC r e n a m e d t h e M a k a h Museum P r o j e c t t h e Makah C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e (MCRC) ( A r n o l d : p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , 1 9 8 5 ) . S h o r t l y a f t e r , EDA s t i p u l a t e d t h a t i t w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o f u n d $ 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 o f t h e $ 1 . 2 5 m i l l i o n p r o j e c t on t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e MTC s e c u r e l e t t e r s o f i n t e n t f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g p o r t i o n o f t h e b u d g e t . T h e s e l e t t e r s o f i n t e n t w e r e due w i t h i n 3 m o n t h s a t t h e end o f E D A ' s f i s c a l y e a r . W i t h t h e a i d o f t h e MTC p rog ramme p l a n n e r , Norm D o w n s , t h e M a k a h T r i b a l C o u n c i l a g g r e s s i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d f u n d i n g . F e d e r a l and s t a t e a g e n c i e s w e r e s o l i c i t e d a l o n g w i t h p r i v a t e f u n d s and f o u n d a t i o n s . A t t h e end o f t h e 3 m o n t h p e r i o d , EDA e x t e n d e d t h e p e r i o d o f t i m e t h e MTC h a d t o s e c u r e t h e l e t t e r s . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e MTC s e c u r e d t h e a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g r e q u i r e d and EDA p r o v i d e d t h e n e c e s s a r y p r e l i m i n a r y f u n d i n g . S h o r t l y a f t e r , 5 s t u d e n t s — L a n c e W i l k i e , S c o t t T y l e r , J o s e p h M c G i m p s e y , C o r a l e e A r n o l d and G r e i g A r n o l d — w e r e c h o s e n f o r t h e M a k a h s t u d e n t t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m m e . E a c h s t u d e n t s u b m i t t e d a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t h e B I A , and r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g f o r t u i t i o n and l i v i n g e x p e n s e s . The p rog ramme was d e s i g n e d as a 4 y e a r b a c h e l o r o f a r t s d e g r e e t o be c o m p l e t e d i n 3 y e a r s . P r o f e s s o r Q u i m b y h a d l o n g b e e n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c a n o e s and summer c r e d i t p rog ramme was d e v i s e d t o t e a c h t h e s t u d e n t s t r a d i t i o n a l c a n o e c a r v i n g t e c h n i q u e s f r o m a w o r k s h o p i n N e a h B a y . S t e v e B r o w n , a p r o t o g e o f t h e r e n o w n e d N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a r t s p e c i a l i s t , B i l l H o l m , was r e t a i n e d as t h e i n s t r u c t o r f o r t h e summer t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t . C a n o e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t i n u e d f o r a s e c o n d summer and 2 m e d i u m s i z e d s e a l i n g c a n o e s w e r e c o m p l e t e d . H e s i t a t i o n t o r e t u r n t o s c h o o l i n S e p t e m b e r c o u p l e d w i t h t h e d e s i r e t o h e l p i n t h e d e s i g n i n g o f t h e M C R C , f o r m e d t h e b a s i s f o r an a t home c r e d i t c o u r s e i n e x h i b i t d e s i g n . 6 . 2 . 2 S e c o n d a r y D e v e l o p m e n t I n 1974 D r . J ames N a s o n , o f t h e B u r k e M u s e u m , p r e p a r e d a p r e l i m i n a r y p r o p o s a l f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e MCRC f a c i l i t y . N a s o n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e Museum be h e a d e d by t h e T r i b a l C o u n c i l w i t h i n w h i c h s p e c i f i c p o s i t i o n s s u c h as e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y , p r o g r a m m e p l a n n e r and b u s i n e s s o f f i c e r w o u l d be h e l d . An MCRC B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s w o u l d a n s w e r d i r e c t l y t o t h e T r i b a l C o u n c i l and would be composed of t r i b a l o f f i c e r s , museum and t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s and n a t i v e community l e a d e r s . An executive committee of the Board of Trustees would be developed to handle s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s when necessary. Dr. Nason a l s o suggested that an adv i s o r y board of p r o f e s s i o n a l s and academics be developed f o r s p e c i a l i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n concerning s p e c i f i c aspects o f t h e MCRC. The d i r e c t o r of the MCRC i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s t a f f , v o l u n t e e r s and p r o j e c t s w i t h i n the Museum and i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the T r i b a l C o u n c i l . Two s t a f f i n g plans were o u t l i n e d i n the 1974 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o p o s a l . The f i r s t p l a n , p r e f e r r e d by Dr. Nason, proposed 6 p o s i t i o n s — d i r e c t o r , r e g i s t r a r , c u r a t o r , educator, p r e p a r a t o r , and maintenance p e r s o n n e l . The second p l a n proposed 12 p o s i t i o n s — d i r e c t o r , r e g i s t r a r , c u r a t o r , e d u c a t o r / a r c h i v i s t , e x h i b i t d e s i g n e r , p r e p a r a t o r , maintenance (2) and engineer, shop c l e r k s (2) and s e c u r i t y p e r s o n n e l . The proposed a d m i n i s t r a t i v e budget was d i v i d e d i n t o 9 c a t e g o r i e s , with funding according to p r i o r i t y and nature of department (Nason 1975). In December 1974, EDA, MTC and the Burke Museum gathered to d i s c u s s the necessary p h y s i c a l requirements of the MCRC f a c i l i t y . Necessary d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the Museum were determined to be o f f i c e space, fumigation a r e a , e x h i b i t i o n h a l l , l a b o r a t o r y s p a c e , s t o r a g e and a r c h i v a l a r e a s , s h o p s e c t i o n and a m e c h a n c i a l s h o p . B e f o r e a r c h i t e c t u r a l p l a n s c o u l d be d r a w n u p , h o w e v e r , s i t e s e l e c t i o n had t o be a r r a n g e d . The MTC d e s i g n a t e d S i t e s A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e (SAC) made up o f t h e t r i b a l c h a i r m a n , p r o j e c t p l a n n e r , p r o j e c t a r c h a e o l o g i s t , a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n s u l t a n t and t h e M a k a h T r a i n i n g P r o g r a m m e s t u d e n t s . E l e v e n p o s s i b l e s i t e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d and f i v e s i t e s — Y a t a t a t r i a n g l e , B I A h i l l , K o i t l a h P o i n t , B a h d b o h o s h , a n d T r i b a l C e n t r e r e g i o n - - w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e b e s t s i t e s ( G r e g A r n o l d , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : 1 9 8 6 ) . The Y a t a t a T r i a n g l e was e v e n t u a l l y c h o s e n as t h e s i t e f o r t h e MCRC A m e e t i n g was h e l d b e t w e e n B u r k e Museum o f f i c i a l s , p r o j e c t a r c h i t e c t s and a f i r m d e a l i n g w i t h m e c h a n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s y s t e m n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t r o l t h e M u s e u m ' s i n t e r i o r e n v i r o n m e n t . T e m p e r a t u r e h u m i d i t y , and a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g were a l l i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The m e e t i n g was u n s u c c e s s f u l , h o w e v e r , a s e x h i b i t p l a n s w e r e n o t i n p l a c e and t h e e n g i n e e r s c o u l d n o t d e t e r m i n e t h e s p a c e c a p a c i t y r e q u i r e d . I n J u n e o f 1 9 7 5 , t h e MTC d e s i g n a t e d an e x h i b i t d e s i g n c o m m i t t e e c o n s i s t i n g o f a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f o t h e r c o m m i t t e e o r members . A m e e t i n g t o o k p l a c e b u t e n d e d i n f a i l u r e when t h e v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o j e c t f a i l e d t o c o m m u n i c a t e . A f t e r t h e m e e t i n g , c o m m i t t e e members s e t o u t t o c o n t r a c t a p r o f e s s i o n a l Table V I I I P o t e n t i a l MCRC S i t e s 9 9 * 1. B.I.A. H i l l 2. T r i b a l Centre Area 3. YaTaTa T r i a n g l e 4. B a y f i s h Dock ( o r i g i n a l s i t e ) 5. V i l l a g e Creek H i l l 6. K o i t l a h P o i n t 7. Waatch P o i n t 8. Hobuck Lake o v e r l o o k i n g Waatch 9. Hobuck Lake Road o v e r l o o k i n g beach 10. Bahdohosh P o i n t o v e r l o o k i n g the mouth of Tsooes 11. Tatoos I s l a n d S h o r t l i s t f o r MCRC S i t e s 1. Yatata T r i a n g l e 2. B.I.A. H i l l (Neah Bay) 3. K o i t l a h P o i n t 4. T r i b a l Centre Area (Neah Bay) e x h i b i t designer f o r t h i s i n c r e a s i n g l y complex task. A f t e r a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s and d i s c u s s i o n s , Jean A n d r e — a n e x h i b i t designer from the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum (BCPM)—was h i r e d (Arnold, p e r s o n a l communication:1985). Jean Andre f e l t s t r o n g l y that to b u i l d a museum from the e x h i b i t area out was a rare and e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y . Therefore e i g h t e x h i b i t designs were formulated and aspects from each design were melded i n t o the f i n a l d e s i g n . The emphasis or theme of the design was on the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of the va r i o u s aspects of Makah c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y (Arnold, p e r s o n a l communication:1985). Although the Museum was planned i n i t s e n t i r e t y , the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the p r o j e c t was to be r e a l i z e d i n stages. The f i r s t stage of c o n s t r u c t i o n began i n March 1977 and ended i n June 1979. The developmental planning stage of the MCRC t o t a l l e d $2,500,000 of which the MTC c o n t r i b u t e d $500,000 (Hughes 1978). 6•^ O p e r a t i o n a l Planning The o p e r a t i o n a l stage of the MCRC planning process can be d i v i d e d i n t o 3 main c o m p o n e n t s — A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Museum D i s p l a y and Programmes and S e r v i c e s . Each component w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below. 6.3.1 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The Makah T r i b a l C o u n c i l appoints 10-12 members t o t h e MCRC B o a r d o f T r u s t e e s e a c h y e a r . The B o a r d i s c u r r e n t l y c o m p o s e d o f 12 members r e p r e s e n t i n g a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f t r i b a l m e m b e r s . The B o a r d f u n c t i o n s as a a d v i s o r y b o d y and i s u l i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e M T C . The MCRC d i r e c t o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d a y t o day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e M u s e u m . MCRC p o s i t i o n s a r e p e r m a n e n t , s u b j e c t t o MTC and i n t e r n a t i o n a l Museums A s s o c i a t i o n ( IMA) f u n d i n g . T h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e h a s r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t f o r t h e 7 y e a r s o f MCRC o p e r a t i o n s ( T a b l e 9 , p a g e 1 0 1 ) . The g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e M a k a h C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e a s d e f i n e d by MCRC D i r e c t o r G r e i g A r n o l d a r e : 1. To p r o v i d e s a f e and a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g f o r t h e O z e t t e C o l l e c t i o n s ; a n d 2 . t o p r o v i d e a f o c u s o r a f o r u m f o r M a k a h c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y b o t h i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y . The MCRC i s a 2 3 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e f o o t b u i l d i n g s i t u a t e d on a 4 a c r e p a r c e l o f l a n d . E x t e r i o r f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e a 50 c a r / 4 b u s p a r k i n g l o t , and a 1 a c r e l a n d s c a p e d p i c n i c a r e a . A l l e x t e r i o r f a c i l i t i e s and e n t r a n c e s a r e w h e e l c h a i r a c c e s s i b l e ( R e n k e r n . d . ) . I n t e r i o r f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e 1 0 , 0 0 0 s q u a r e f e e t o f p e r m a n e n t e x h i b i t a r e a , 350 s q u a r e f e e t o f a r c h i v a l s p a c e and an a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t y , n o t a d j a c e n t t o t h e M u s e u m , i s t h e 4 , 2 0 0 s q u a r e f o o t l a b o r a t o r y s p a c e ( A r n o l d , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : 1 9 8 5 ) . T a b l e I X MCRC A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n T r i b a l C o u n c i l T r i b a l O f f i c e r s E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y P rog ramme P l a n n e r B u s i n e s s O f f i c e r MCRC B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s T r i b a l C o u n c i l T r i b a l O f f i c e r s Museum a n d T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e C o m m u n i t y L e a d e r s MCRC B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s — E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e T r i b a l C o u n c i l C h a i r m a n A d d i t i o n a l T r i b a l C o u n c i l Member E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y o r T r i b a l O f f i c e r Museum S p e c i a l i s t T e c h n i c a l o r G e n e r a l C o m m u n i t y P e r s o n B o a r d o f T e c h n i c a l A d v i s o r s V a r i a b l e m e m b e r s h i p a p p o i n t e d by E x e c u t i v e f o r s p e c i f i c t a s k s MCRC D i r e c t o r MCRC S t a f f A d a p t e d f r o m N a s o n 1974 P r i m a r y , n o n - f e d e r a l f u n d i n g f o r t h e MCRC i s i n t h e f o r m o f Museum a d m i s s i o n and c r a f t s h o p s a l e s . R e v e n u e g e n e r a t e d f r o m a v e r a g e y e a r l y p a i d a t t e n d a n c e e q u a l s a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 2 4 , 5 0 0 . An a d d i t i o n a l $ 3 , 0 0 0 i s g e n e r a t e d a n n u a l l y f r o m t o u r s , c o n t r i b u t i o n s and m e m b e r s h i p s . A r t s a l e s a v e r a g e a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 3 8 , 9 0 0 p e r annum and i s e x p e c t e d t o r i s e i n t h e f u t u r e . T h i s new e x p o r t p o l i c y i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e s a l e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( A r n o l d 1 9 8 5 : 4 0 ) . The MCRC r e g u l a r l y c a p i t a l i z e s on f r e e p u b l i c i t y o f f e r e d by r e p u t a b l e w r i t e r s and j o u r n a l i s t s i n o r d e r t o e x p a n d p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s o f t h e MCRC c o l l e c t i o n s and f a c i l i t i e s . MCRC T r u s t e e s t a k e p a r t i n t h e C l a l l a m C o u n t y E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t A s s o c i a t i o n i n an a t t e m p t t o i n c r e a s e t h e b r e a d t h o f f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . The MCRC h a s i n c u r r e d a y e a r l y d e f i c i t s i n c e i t s o p e n i n g i n 1 9 7 9 . T h e s e d e f i c i t s a r e c o v e r e d by M a k a h T r i b a l C o u n c i l f u n d s . The MCRC u n d e r w e n t an A - l a u d i t r e q u i r e d by t h e B u r e a u o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . A t t h i s t i m e , a l l b u t one a r e a o f f i n a n c i a l management was c o n s i d e r e d t o be s t r o n g . A c c o u n t a n t s a s s i g n e d t o t h e a u d i t r ecommended m o d i f i c a t i o n o f MCRC c a s h h a n d l i n g p r o c e d u r e s ( A r n o l d 1 9 8 5 : 4 3 ) . MCRC a c c o u n t s a r e p r e p a r e d q u a r t e r l y by B a k e r , O v e r b y and M o o r e and m o n t h l y s p r e a d s h e e t s f o r Museum a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e D i r e c t o r ( A r n o l d 1 9 8 5 : 4 4 ) . T w e l v e p e r m a n e n t p o s i t i o n s e x i s t w i t h i n t h e M C R C — d i r e c t o r , m a i n t e n a n c e , s e c r e t a r y / a r c h i v i s t , O z e t t e R a n g e r s ( 2 ) , p r e - s c h o o l l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t o r , e l e m e n t a r y l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t o r and g e n e r a l r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l ( 5 ) — a l l h e l d by w e l l q u a l i f i e d M a k a h t r i b a l m e m b e r s . Summer Y o u t h C o r p s t u d e n t e m p l o y e e s s u p p l e m e n t t h e p e r m a n e n t s t a f f p o s i t i o n s . C o m m u n i t y members l e n d a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r t o u r s , c a r v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , p e r f o r m a n c e s and o t h e r c o m m u n i t y o r p u b l i c f u n c t i o n s . The MCRC a d o p t e d a 5 y e a r d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n i n 1984. The p l a n e n c o m p a s s e s 13 c a t e g o r i e s , r e d u c e d t o a s e r i e s o f s t e p s , w h i c h when t a k e n e n s u r e t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . The p l a n i s d e s i g n e d t o a c c o m m o d a t e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e e c o n o m y and i n f u n d i n g s o u r c e s . The 5 y e a r p l a n w i l l be e v a l u a t e d i n 1989 b y t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e MCRC and i t s s t a f f . 6.3.2 Museum D i s p l a y One p e r c e n t o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n i s o n p e r m a n e n t d i s p l a y i n t h e MCRC e x h i b i t g a l l e r y . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n i s h o u s e d i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y a n d i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o r e s e a r c h e r s by p r i o r a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h t h e MCRC d i r e c t o r . Due t o t h e v a s t number o f o b j e c t s c o l l e c t e d i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n s , o n l y t h e m o s t d r a m a t i c m a t e r i a l s a r e o n d i s p l a y . L o a n s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s a r e made t o i n s t i t u t i o n s and 95 p e r c e n t o f a l l a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . O n l y 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n i s on d i s p l a y . 6.3 .3 P r o g r a m m e s and S e r v i c e s E d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s a t t h e MCRC a r e d e v e l o p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e n e e d s o f 2 g r o u p s — t h e Makah c o m m u n i t y a n d v i s i t o r s f r o m o u t s i d e t h e a r e a . O v e r t h e p a s t 2 y e a r s t h e MCRC h a s p r o v i d e d 2 p r o g r a m m e s f o r t h e M a k a h c o m m u n i t y — t h e M a k a h w o o d w o r k i n g c l a s s and t h e Makah l a n g u a g e c l a s s e s f o r p r e - s c h o o l , e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . P r o g r a m m e s and s e r v i c e s f o r t h e v i s i t o r i n c l u d e g u i d e d t o u r s , r e s e a r c h l i b r a r y , a r c h i v e s , and e x h i b i t s and t h e f e s t i v i t i e s o f Makah D a y s h e l d e a c h summer . A n n e R e n k e r , l i n g u i s t a t t h e M a k a h C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , d e s c r i b e d t h e MCRC as t h e " t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h o v e r s e e s and c o o r d i n a t e s p r o g r a m m e s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e c u l t u r e and t h e c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e M a k a h p e o p l e " ( n . d . ) . The M u s e u m ' s p e r m a n e n t and o n g o i n g p r o j e c t s a r e d e s i g n e d w i t h t h i s g o a l i n m i n d . The c e n t r e ' s p e r m a n e n t c o l l e c t i o n s i n c l u d e : t h e O z e t t e and o t h e r M a k a h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s ; t h e M a k a h a r c h i v e s — c o n t a i n i n g b o o k s , a r t i c l e s , t a p e s , d o c u m e n t s and p h o t o g r a p h s d e p i c t i n g Makah c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y ; a n d t h e e t h n o g r a p h i c c o l l e c t i o n s o f b a s k e t s , s c u l p t u r e s , v e s s e l s and t o o l s ( A r n o l d , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : 1985) . V i s i t o r s t o t h e MCRC a r e g e n e r a l l y s e e n t o be w i t h i n 4 m a j o r p o p u l a t i o n g r o u p s — i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c , J06 s c h o o l g r o u p s , r e s e a r c h e r s and Makah t r i b a l m e m b e r s . The l a r g e s t g r o u p , g e n e r a l v i s i t o r s f r o m o u t s i d e t h e r e s e r v a t i o n c o m p r i s e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 85 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l Museum v i s i t a t i o n . E l e m e n t a r y , s e c o n d a r y , c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y g r o u p s t o t a l a n o t h e r 10 p e r c e n t . R e s e a r c h e r s , i n c l u d i n g g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s a n d a c a d e m i c s , a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s g r o u p and a r e u s u a l l y t h e t i m e c o n s u m i n g g r o u p . G r e i g A r n o l d , e s t i m a t e s t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 p e r c e n t o f h i s t i m e i s s p e n t w i t h r e s e a r c h e r s and t h a t 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s v i s i t t h e MCRC p e r s o n a l l y . The t h i r d a n d f i n a l g r o u p , Makah r e s i d e n t s , make up o n l y 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l v i s i t o r p o p u l a t i o n b u t t e n d t o u s e t h e Museum i n a w i d e r r a n g e o f ways ( A r n o l d , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n : 1 9 8 6 ) . The MCRC i s o p e n t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r , b u t h o u r s o f o p e r a t i o n v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t i m e o f y e a r . F r o m J u n e 1 - S e p t e m b e r 1 5 , t h e Museum i s o p e n 7 d a y s p e r week f r o m 1 0 : 0 0 am t o 5 : 0 0 pm. F r o m S e p t e m b e r 1 6 - M a y 31 t h e Museum i s o p e n f r o m W e d n e s d a y - S u n d a y , f r o m 1 0 : 0 0 t o 5 : 0 0 pm. 6 •4 C h a p t e r Summary The m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e MCRC i s t h e o v e r w e l m i n g c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l i m p a c t r e g i o n a l a c a d e m i c c o m m u n i t i e s . The n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f 107 t h e O z e t t e e x c a v a t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n s c o u p l e d w i t h t h e t h e g r o w i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n t h e h a n d l i n g o f w h i t e p o l i t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s h a s s e t t h e g r o u n d w o r k f o r t h e c o n c e p t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e M C R C . The d e t a i l e d c o n c e p t u a l and p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e MCRC was a i d e d t o a l a r g e d e g r e e by a c a d e m i c and t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s . F u n d i n g f o r t h e c a p i t a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e MCRC was g r a n t e d p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s o f e c o n o m i c r a t h e r t h a n c u l t u r a l v i a b i l i t y . F r o m c o n c e p t u a l t o o p e r a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e f o c u s o f t h e MCRC h a s b e e n on t h e d i s p l a y c o m p o n e n t o f t h e f a c i l i t y r a t h e r t h a n on r e s e a r c h o r c u l t u r a l p r o g r a m m i n g . The MCRC i s a s t a t e o f t h e a r t museum i n v o l v i n g a e f f e c t i v e c o m b i n a t i o n o f l o c a l n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n — s h o w n i n t h e t e x t o f t h e d i s p l a y s — a n d c o n t e m p o r a r y m u s e o l o g i c a l t h o u g h t — s e e n i n t h e e x h i b i t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t s t h e m s e l v e s . The p l a n n i n g , d e v e l o p m e n t and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e MCRC h a s c o n t r i b u t e d c u l t u r a l l y , s o c i a l l y , p o l i t i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y t o t h e p e o p l e o f Neah B a y . C u l t u r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n c l u d e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a f a c i l i t y d e d i c a t e d t o t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . P o s i t i v e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , i n t u r n , p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r t h e o n - g o i n g n a t i v e s t u g g l e f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The MCRC h a s i n c r e a s e d c o m m u n i t y 108 p r i d e and sense of accomplishment. Economic b e n e f i t s have a l s o a ccrued through i n c r e a s e d t o u r i s m t o the a r e a . 109 T a b l e X  MCRC P l a n n i n g S t a g e s : E t h n o g r a p h i c D e v e l o p m e n t 1 8 5 5 T r e a t y o f Neah B a y s i g n e d 1 8 9 3 E x e c u t i v e O r d e r o f P r e s i d e n t G r o v e r C l e v e l a n d 1920 F a m i l i e s move f r o m O z e t t e t o Neah B a y 1947 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y o f W a s h i n g t o n c o a s t 1966 P r e l i m i n a r y a r c h a e o l g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n a t O z e t t e 1968 B I A r e q u e s t f o r e v i d e n c e o f Makah l i n k t o O z e t t e 1970 MTC r e p o r t s v a n d a l i s m a t O z e t t e ; r e s c u e e x c a v a t i o n b e g i n s D e v e l o p m e n t a l P l a n n i n g 1974 P r e l i m i n a r y p r o p o s a l f o r t h e MCRC a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r a m e w o r k P h y s i c a l p l a n s c o n s i d e r e d S i t e s e l e c t i o n made 1 9 7 5 E x h i b i t d e s i g n b e g a n 1977 C o n s t r u c t i o n b e g a n 1979 C o n s t r u c t i o n c o n p l e t e d O p e r a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t 1979 MCRC o f f i c i a l l y o p e n e d 1 9 8 2 MCRC e x h i b i t l a b e l s m o u n t e d 1 9 8 3 L a n g u a g e p rog ramme d e v i s e d 110 F I G U R E lO NEAH B A Y S ITE PLAN II 111 a*tc/ yS$4e>c*a&6 1975 THE F I G U R E II MCRC FLOOR PLAN I F I G U R E 12 THE MCRC FLOOR PLAN II Bottom Floor 114 C h a p t e r 7 : C a s e S t u d y C o m p a r i s o n , C o n c l u s i o n s , I m p l i c a t i o n s B e f o r e o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n s may be d r a w n , a b r i e f c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e d a t a f o u n d i n t h e c a s e s t u d i e s s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n . The c o m p a r i s o n w i l l i n c l u d e t h e r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t s o f t h e T s i m s h i a n and t h e W e s t c o a s t p e o p l e s as w e l l a s t h e f a c i l i t i e s d e v e l o p m e n t o f ' K s a n a n d t h e M C R C . 7 . 1 R e g i o n a l H i s t o r i c a l C o m p a r i s o n : A l t h o u g h T s i m s h i a n and W e s t c o a s t p e o p l e s a r e b o t h members o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t c u l t u r e a r e a , t h e i r h i s t o r i e s a r e n o t a b l y d i f f e r e n t . W h i l e b o t h c u l t u r e s have e x p e r i e n c e d g o v e r n m e n t and r e l i g i o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n i n - t h e f o r m o f p a t e r n a l i s m and a s s i m i l a t i o n — w i t h t h e r e s u l t a n t e v o l u t i o n o f n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e — t h e y h a v e done s o i n m a r k e d l y d i f f e r e n t w a y s . B o t h t h e T s i m s h i a n p e o p l e o f t h e S k e e n a R i v e r a r e a a n d t h e W e s t c o a s t p e o p l e o f W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e were r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e c e n t r e s o f E u r o p e a n t r a d e . B o t h g r o u p s , h o w e v e r , l o s t c o n s i d e r a b l e s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l c o n t r o l d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f a s s i m i l a t i o n . T s i m s h i a n and W e s t c o a s t p e o p l e h a v e r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e g r a d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o d e a l w i t h n o n - n a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s . I n c r e a s e d p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y h a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h , i n t u r n , h a v e i n c r e a s e d c o n t e m p o r a r y G i t k s a n and M a k a h c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e G i t k s a n h a v e n o t r e l i n q u i s h e d a b o r i g i n a l 115 r i g h t s t o l a n d s and r e s o u r c e s , t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a d o e s n o t r e c o g n i z e a b o r i g i n a l t i t l e . The M a k a h , i n c o n t r a s t , h a v e r e i n f o r c e d c e r t a i n a b o r i g i n a l c l a i m s , w h i l e l i m i t i n g o t h e r s , t h r o u g h t h e T r e a t y o f Neah B a y and c o n t e m p o r a r y l i t i g a t i o n . As n a t i v e c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y was v i e w e d as d y i n g i n t h e l a t e 1 9 t h t o m i d 2 0 t h c e n t u r i e s , much n o n - n a t i v e e f f o r t was e x p e n d e d on t h e r e c o r d i n g o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l d a t a . S i n c e t h e F a r r e l l R e p o r t o f 1 9 4 2 , c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n movemen t s h a v e g a i n e d momentum. So much s o , i n f a c t , t h a t n o n - n a t i v e museum h o l d i n g n a t i v e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s h a v e b e e n c h a l l e n g e d t o r e - e v a l u a t e t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r y i n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e s . T h i s h a s r e s u l t e d i n a c h a n g e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n a t i v e I n d i a n s and n o n - n a t i v e s p e c i a l i s t s . 7 . 2 F a c i l i t i e s C o m p a r i s o n W h i l e t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e h a s e v o l v e d i n c r e m e n t a l l y as a s e r i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s w i t h somewhat r e l a t e d g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s , t h e MCRC h a s f o c u s s e d i t s e f f o r t s on t h e s i n g u l a r d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n a t i v e museum w h i c h p r o v i d e s a m o d e r a t e amount o f c u l t u r a l p r o g r a m m i n g . The s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s o f ' K s a n w e r e t o a) s a f e g u a r d a n d h i g h l i g h t r e m a i n i n g l o c a l n a t i v e e t h n o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s ; b) t o d e v e l o p t h e e c o n o m i c p o t e n t i a l o f t h e r e g i o n t h r o u g h n a t i v e c u l t u r a l r e c o g n i t i o n ; a n d c ) t o p r o m o t e t h e c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n l o c a l n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s . A s ' K s a n g r e w , i t s new p r o j e c t s d e v e l o p e d 116 g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e i r o w n . The G i t k s a n D a n c e r s e v o l v e d as a e f f o r t t o r e c o r d and p e r f o r m t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e s o n g s and d a n c e s and a r e now a t t e m p t i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The K i t a n m a x S c h o o l d e v e l o p e d as an a t t e m p t t o r e v i t a l i z e and m a r k e t N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n a r t and i s now a c t i v e i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t a r t i s t i c s t y l e . The B o o k B u i l d e r s h a v e b e e n s u c c e s s f u l i n r e c o r d i n g l o c a l G i t k s a n i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e NNEC h a s p r o v i d e d a s t a t e o f t h e a r t f a c i l i t y f o r p e r m a n e n t and t e m p o r a r y c o l l e c t i o n s . The g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e M C R C , i n c o n t r a s t , w e r e a) t o p r o v i d e s a f e and a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g f o r t h e O z e t t e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n ; a n d b) t o p r o v i d e a p u b l i c and c o m m u n i t y f o c u s f o r M a k a h c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . ' K s a n was d e v e l o p e d w i t h o u t an e x p l i c i t d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n w h i l e t h e M a k a h T r i b a l C o u n c i l o v e r s a w t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a c o n s u l t a n t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . B o t h c e n t r e s , h o w e v e r , e v o l v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h r o u g h t t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t — a s n e e d s w e r e p e r c e i v e d , f u n d i n g became a v a i l a b l e and v o l u n t e e r s w e r e r e c r u i t e d . P r a c t i c a l s k i l l s , c o n f i d e n c e , e m p i r i c a l k n o w l e d g e and a s t r o n g e r s e n s e o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y e v o l v e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e i t s e l f . A l t h o u g h n e g a t i v e o u t c o m e s w e r e l i m i t e d i n b o t h o f t h e c a s e s s t u d i e d , d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o b l e m s a t ' K s a n a r o s e when c a p i t a l f u n d s w e r e g r a n t e d w i t h no t h o u g h t g i v e n t o o p e r a t i o n a l f u n d i n g . A t t h e MCRC n e g a t i v e o u t c o m e s a r e n o t 117 r e p o r t e d a l t h o u g h f u n d s now u s e d t o s u p p o r t t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e MCRC a r e no l o n g e r a v a i l a b l e f o r l a n d c l a i m s and o t h e r r e l a t e d l i t i g a t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t w h i l e t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e was n o t o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d t o c o m p r i s e i t s c o n t e m p o r a r y f o r m , t h e MCRC m a i n t a i n e d i t s museum g o a l f r o m c o n c e p t i o n t o c o m p l e t i o n , a l t h o u g h on a l a r g e r s c a l e t h a n o r i g i n a l l y i m a g i n e d . Museum a r c h i v e s , r e s e a r c h and l a n g u a g e p r o g r a m m i n g h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d as t h e c o m m u n i t y n e e d f o r t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t was p e r c e i v e d . The m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p a r i s o n t o be d r a w n f r o m t h e c a s e s t u d y a n a l y s i s i s t h a t c e r t a i n f a c t o r s e x i s t w h i c h , t a k e n t o g e t h e r , h a v e b e e n i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p m e n t o f ' K s a n and t h e M C R C . T h e s e f a c t o r s i n c l u d e : a) l o c a l c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e ; b) s o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n ; c ) l o c a l p r o j e c t r e l e v a n c e ; d) n a t i v e I n d i a n c o n t r o l ; e) a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s ; a n d f ) common m o t i v a t i o n a l g r o u n d . E a c h f a c t o r w i l l be a d d r e s s e d i n t u r n . 7 . 2 . 1 L o c a l C u l t u r a l K n o w l e d g e A s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e c a s e s t u d i e s , a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f f u n d a m e n t a l T s i m s h i a n c u l t u r e h a s b e e n r e t a i n e d i n t h e S k e e n a R i v e r . T h i s f a c t o r c o u p l e d w i t h a) t h e e f f e c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s (and t h u s t h e g r a d u a l r e - d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y ) and b) o n - g o i n g a c a d e m i c r e s e a r c h i n t h e r e g i o n , s e t t h e s t a g e f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t s o f ' K s a n . W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f M r s . S a r g e n t t o t h e a r e a , t h e i n i t i a l 118 p r o j e c t s o f ' K s a n w e r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . The p e o p l e o f Neah B a y , i n c o n t r a s t , m a i n t a i n e d a g e n e r a l s e n s e o f c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s r a t h e r t h a n a s u b s t a n t i a l k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e i r c u l t u r e . T h i s s e n s e o f c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s was i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l m o v e m e n t s , and was f u r t h e r i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e r a r e c o l l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e e x c a v a t e d a t O z e t t e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t d e s p i t e a c e r t a i n r e t e n t i o n o f c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e o r a w a r e n e s s , many G i t k s a n and M a k a h i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e a d o p t i n g n o n - n a t i v e l i f e s t y l e s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e t e n t i o n o f c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e o r a w a r e n e s s was n o t g e n e r a l l y s e e n as s i g n i f i c a n t o r e x t e n s i v e (by l o c a l n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e p e r s o n s ) d u r i n g t h e l a t e 1 9 4 0 ' s and 1 9 5 0 ' s . The d e g r e e t o w h i c h l a t e n t c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e and a w a r e n e s s d i d e x i s t and c o u l d be r e t r i e v e d , i s one o f t h e s i n g l e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e and t h e M C R C . 7 . 2 . 2 S o c i a l M o b i l i z a t i o n S o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n may be d e f i n e d as t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e i n c e n t i v e t o c r o s s f r o m t h e p e r c e i v e d n e e d o r d e s i r e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t t o t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s may i n v o l v e t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f a c h a r i s m a t i c i n d i v i d u a l , t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t o f a p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h . A s i n d i c a t e d , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e ' K s a n V i l l a g e 119 e v o l v e d o v e r a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e . P o l l y S a r g e n t , a n o n - n a t i v e f r o m A l b e r t a , moved t o H a z e l t o n i n t h e 1 9 4 0 ' s , and d e v e l o p e d a t r u s t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s o f t h e a r e a . M r s . S a r g e n t was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e S k e e n a P o l e R e s t o r a t i o n P r o j e c t ( f o r w h i c h s h e was a w a r d e d t h e O r d e r o f C a n a d a ) a n d t h e S k e e n a T r e a s u r e H o u s e p r o j e c t . I t i s P o l l y S a r g e n t ' s k e e n a b i l i t y t o d r a w on t h e s k i l l s and k n o w l e d g e o f t h e n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h a i d e d i n t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s . I n N e a h B a y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s c o u p l e d w i t h t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n f o u n d a t O z e t t e m o t i v a t e d t h e c o m m u n i t y t o d e v e l o p t h e M a k a h C u l t u r a l a n d R e s e a r c h C e n t r e . I t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t t h e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n D r . R i c h a r d D a u g h e r t y and t h e M a k a h T r i b a l C o u n c i l c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e x c a v a t i o n and t h e MCRC i t s e l f . F o r t h e Makah p e o p l e , t h e c o l l e c t i o n s f o u n d a t O z e t t e p r o v i d e d t h e c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l e v i d e n c e n e e d e d t o c o m p l e m e n t t h e i r g e n e r a l s e n s e o f c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e and a n d c h a l l e n g e d t h e i r c o m m u n i t y t o e v o l v e d c u l t u r a l l y . I n c o m p a r i n g ' K s a n and t h e MCRC i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t two v e r y d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f s o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n h a v e t a k e n p l a c e . ' K s a n ha s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h a c o n s t a n t n u r t u r i n g o f k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s r e s u l t i n g i n t h e u n r a v e l l i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s w i t h r e l a t e d g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . The M C R C , i n c o n t r a s t , h a s d e v e l o p e d f r o m p r o f o u n d c u l t u r a l 120 f i n d i n g s w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e i m p e t u s f o r t h e c o n c e p t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e M C R C . 7 . 2 . 3 L o c a l P r o j e c t R e l e v a n c e E a c h o f t h e m a j o r p r o j e c t s o f ' K s a n h a s g r o w n f r o m t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l o c a l e c o n o m i c and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n i n H a z e l t o n i t s e l f . L o c a l p r o j e c t s w e r e c r e a t e d p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f l o c a l n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e n e e d , and s e c o n d a r i l y , t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f e x t e r n a l p r o j e c t i d e a s t o l o c a l c o m m u n i t y n e e d s . A l l o f ' K s a n p r o j e c t s were l o c a l l y i n i t i a t e d w i t h f u n d i n g s o m e t i m e s s o u g h t e x t e r n a l l y . The Makah p e o p l e , i n c o n t r a s t , h ave l o n g f e l t t h a t l o c a l n a t i v e c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s s h o u l d r e m a i n i n l o c a l n a t i v e h a n d s . I t was n o t , h o w e v e r , u n t i l t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e O z e t t e c o l l e c t i o n was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h i s f e e l i n g t o o k o n a s t u n n i n g new r e a l i t y . W i t h o u t t h i s d e g r e e o f l o c a l c u l t u r a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o r r e l e v a n c e , t h e p r o l o n g e d p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e MCRC w o u l d have b e e n d i f f i c u l t t o s u s t a i n . The d e g r e e t o w h i c h r e s i d e n t s o f H a z e l t o n and N e a h B a y c o u l d i d e n t i f y , i n t e r m s o f t h e i r d a y t o d a y e x i s t e n c e , w i t h t h e p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t s was d e e p l y r o o t e d i n t h e e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l o f t h e p r o j e c t s . T h a t i s t o s a y t h a t p r a c t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w e r e a n a l y s e d . 7 . 2 . 4 N a t i v e I n d i a n C o n t r o l A l t h o u g h t h e G i t k s a n - W e t 1 s u w e t ' e n T r i b a l C o u n c i l o r t h e G i t i m a x B a n d C o u n c i l d o n o t a d m i n i s t e r t h e ' K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n 121 t h e r e i s a s t r o n g s e n s e o f n a t i v e c o n t r o l a t ' K s a n . The G i t k s a n - W e t ' s u w e t ' e n T r i b a l C o u n c i l was a f l e d g l i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n when t h e S k e e n a T r e a s u r e H o u s e was p r o p o s e d and i s c u r r e n t l y f o r w a r d i n g a b o r i g i n a l c l a i m s t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Supreme C o u r t . The ' K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h a d m i n i s t e r s t h e v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s o f ' K s a n , h a s m a j o r i t y n a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m a b r o a d r e g i o n a l a r e a . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e Makah C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e h a s n a t i v e f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l . A s shown i n T a b l e I X , p a g e 1 0 1 , t h e M a k a h C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h c e n t r e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e M a k a h T r i b a l C o u n c i l ( M T C ) . The M T C , on b e h a l f o f t h e M C R C , h a s a c c e p t e d s e e d money f r o m a v a r i e t y o f s t a t e and f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and now f i n a n c i a l l y c o n t r o l s t h e M C R C . The MTC i s c u r r e n t l y d e c r e a s i n g i t s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e MCRC i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s f o r l e g a l d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g a b o r i g i n a l t r e a t y r i g h t s . N a t i v e I n d i a n c o n t r o l i n b o t h i n s t i t u t i o n s i s c l e a r l y r e i n f o r c e d t h r o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t r o l and r e l a t i v e f i n a n c i a l s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . N a t i v e c o n t r o l i s n o t o n l y s y m b o l i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t , b u t a p p e a r s t o d i r e c t l y a f f e c t t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e ' K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e MTC i s w i l l i n g t o become i n v o l v e d w i t h e x t e r n a l r e s o u r c e s . 7 . 2 . 5 A c c e s s t o R e s o u r c e s ' K s a n h a s u t i l i z e d e x t e r n a l r e s o u r c e s n o t o n l y i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s e e d m o n i e s and k n o w l e d g e b u t t h r o u g h t h e h i r i n g o f n o n - n a t i v e s t a f f . The d i r e c t o r s o f t h e K i t a n m a x 122 S c h o o l o f A r t and t h e NNEC a r e b o t h members o f t h e l o c a l n o n - n a t i v e c o m m u n i t y . ' K s a n h a s n o t , h o w e v e r , u s e d n o n - l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l s t o any g r e a t e x t e n t . ' K s a n ' s p r o j e c t s h a v e b e e n f u n d e d l a r g e l y by l o c a l f u n d r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s and o n l y s e c o n d a r i l y by t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . The MCRC h a s a l s o u t i l i z e d c e r t a i n n o n - l o c a l i n d i v i d u a l s as a d v i s o r s t o t h e museum d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . As w e l l , s e e d money f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e MCRC was o b t a i n e d l a r g e l y f r o m t h e E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (EDA) o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t . E D A ' s m a n d a t e was t o p r o v i d e f u n d i n g f o r f i n a n c i a l l y d e p r e s s e d a r e a s w i t h e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e p r o j e c t s . A c q u i s i t i o n o f EDA f u n d s was d e p e n d e n t on t h e s u c c e s s f u l a c q u i s i t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g . D u r i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f ' K s a n and t h e MCRC t h e p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c c l i m a t e was one o f f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t , r e s t r a i n t . W h i l e t h e c o n c e p t p l a n s f o r ' K s a n and t h e MCRC w e r e e c o n o m i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t , b o t h c e n t r e s w e r e f u n d e d p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s o f e c o n o m i c r a t h e r t h a n c u l t u r a l v i a b i l i t y . 7 . 2 . 6 Common M o t i v a t i o n a l G r o u n d The m o t i v a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , d e v e l o p m e n t and o p e r a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s may v a r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r a common o b j e c t i v e o r m o t i v a t i o n a l t h r e a d t o e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e s e v a r y i n g a c t o r s i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e a g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o v e r a l l g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e 123 p r o j e c t . W i t h o u t t h i s common b o n d , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t may be a t r i s k . 7 . 3 C o n c l u s i o n s As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s h a s become a l o g i c a l s t e p i n t h e o n - g o i n g s t r u g g l e f o r n a t i v e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . N a t i v e p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y , c o u p l e d w i t h i n t e n s i f i e d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h e r e g i o n and i n c r e a s e d l o c a l c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s h a s p r o v i d e d a f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s . A c c o r d i n g t o n a t i v e I n d i a n l e a d e r s , t h e s e c e n t r e s p r o v i d e a f o c u s f o r n a t i v e c u l t u r a l r e v i t a l i z a t i o n by f o s t e r i n g p r i d e , p o s i t i v e s e l f - i m a g e , and i n t e r - c u l t u r a l and e x t r a - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . C u l t u r a l c e n t r e s a p p e a r t o p r o v i d e s t a b i l i t y a n d s e c u r i t y i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l o b j e c t s , s y m b o l s and c u s t o m s . The ' K s a n V i l l a g e a n d t h e MCRC e v o l v e d as a r e s p o n s e t o r e g i o n a l c u l t u r a l and e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s and p r e s s u r e s . I t i s t h e n a t u r e o f r e g i o n a l o r l o c a l c u l t u r a l and e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t i t s e l f . B o t h c e n t r e s w e r e f u n d e d p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s o f e c o n o m i c r a t h e r t h a n c u l t u r a l v i a b i l i t y and h a v e e v o l v e d f r o m t h e e x i s t a n c e o f s i x f a c t o r s w h i c h a p p e a r t o h a v e s e c u r e d t h e i r s u c c e s s . 7 . 4 I m p l i c a t i o n s N o r t h w e s t C o a s t n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s a r e l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r f o c u s on t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f 124 c o n t e m p o r a r y n a t i v e c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . A l t h o u g h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n a t u r e o f n a t i v e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s h a s b e e n l o s t , s i g n i f i c a n t p o c k e t s o f c u l t u r a l k n o w l e d g e h a v e b e e n r e t a i n e d . A s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e b e e n an i m p o r t a n t s t e p i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f n a t i v e p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , s o t o o s h o u l d n a t i v e c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e an i m p o r t a n t f o c u s f o r n a t i v e c u l t u r a l r e - d e v e l o p m e n t . P o t e n t i a l n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d i n t e r m s o f t h e s i x f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . T h e s e s i x f a c t o r s may be c o l l e c t i v e l y s u f f i c i e n t , i f n o t e s s e n t i a l , i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p m e n t o f f u t u r e n a t i v e c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s . Of t h e s e f a c t o r s a c c e s s t o r e s o u r c e s i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . C a p i t a l and o p e r a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c e n t r e s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d . The e c o n o m i c a s p e c t o f c u l t u r a l c e n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t i s l i k e l y t o be more e a s i l y f u n d e d by g o v e r n m e n t and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s e v e n when c u l t u r a l c o m p o n e n t s a r e more i m p o r t a n t t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . When c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s a r e f u n d e d by t r i b a l o r b a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a p p l y . I n a b r o a d e r c o n t e x t , t h e g r o w i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w i t h w h i c h I n d i a n g r o u p s d e a l w i t h n o n - n a t i v e a g e n c i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e c o n c e p t u a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s h a s p r o v i d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n n a t i v e I n d i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . I n p a r t , t h r o u g h c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s , c o m m u n i t y members have demanded and 125 a c h i e v e d , t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , t h e r i g h t t o d e f i n e t h e i r own " c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t a n d a r d s , v a l u e s , p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r , common a t t i t u d e s and ways o f l i f e " ( B e r g e r 1 9 8 5 : 1 7 6 ) . T h i s demand n o t o n l y e n c o m p a s s e s t h e r i g h t t o own and manage n a t i v e c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s b u t a l s o i n v o l v e s t h e power and a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . By d e v e l o p i n g t h e s e c e n t r e s , t h e G i t k s a n and t h e M a k a h h a v e r e i n f o r c e d t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e s b e t w e e n n a t i v e I n d i a n s and n o n - n a t i v e s p e c i a l i s t s . W h i l e C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e s t i l l a s s e r t i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e o f u n i l a t e r a l c i t i z e n s h i p and t e n d t o d i s m i s s n a t i v e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n as o p p o r t u n i s t i c and u n r e a l i s t i c , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and o p e r a t i o n o f n a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s h a v e p r o v i d e d a f o u n d a t i o n u p o n w h i c h n a t i v e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n may e v e n t u a l l y be r e a l i z e d . C u l t u r a l c e n t r e s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f n a t i v e c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y t h r o u g h : a) t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e b e t w e e n n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e a c t o r s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e I n d i a n p r o j e c t s , b) t h e r e - d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o s i t i v e c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , and c ) t h e c o n t i n u i n g e c o n o m i c c o n t r o l b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e s u c c e s s f u l d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e I n d i a n p r o j e c t s , w h i c h p r o v i d e a p o s i t i v e b a s i s f o r t h e o n g o i n g s t r u g g l e f o r n a t i v e s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . 126 R e f e r e n c e s C i t e d : A d a m s , J . W. 197 3 The G i t k s a n P o t l a t c h : P o p u l a t i o n F l u x , R e s o u r c e  O w n e r s h i p and R e c i p r o c i t y . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n o f C a n a d a . A m e s , M i c h a e l M . 1981 Museum A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and t h e A r t s o f A c c u l t u r a t i o n on t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . I n BC S t u d i e s , N o . 4 9 , S p r i n g : 3 - 1 3 . A m e s , M i c h a e l M . 1986 I n d i a n s as R e s o u r c e s : The C h a n g i n g R e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n I n d i a n s and A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . I n W i c a z o  Sa R e v i e w , V o l I I , N o . 1, S p r i n g : 1 0 - 1 3 . A r i m a , E . Y . 1983 The W e s t C o a s t ( N o o t k a ) P e o p l e . BC P r o v i n c i a l Museum S p e c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n , N o . 6 . A s h w e l l Reg 1977 I n d i a n T r i b e s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t . H a n c o c k H o u s e , B a r b e a u , C . 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H o r s e C a p t u r e , G e o r g e P . 1981 Some O b s e r v a t i o n s on E s t a b l i s h i n g T r i b a l Museums A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S t a t e and L o c a l H i s t o r y , T e c h n i c a l L e a f l e t 1 3 4 , H i s t o r y N e w s . V o l . 3 6 , N o . 1 p p . 1 - 1 4 , T e n n e s s e e . H u g h e s , H e l e n F r a n c e s 1978 A H i s t o r y o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e M a k a h C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , Neah B a y , W a s h i n g t o n . U n p u b l i s h e d MA t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n . I s a j i w , W. W. 1 9 7 5 The P r o c e s s o f M a i n t e n a n c e o f E t h n i c I d e n t i t y : The C a n a d i a n C o n t e x t i n P . M . M i n g u s (ed) S o u n d s C a n a d i a n L a n g u a g e s and C u l t u r e s i n M u l t i - e t h n i c S o c i e t y , p p . 3 2 - 4 4 . 1978 O l g a i n W o n d e r l a n d : E t h n i c i t y i n a T e c h n o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y i n L o D r i e d g e r (ed) The C a n a d i a n E t h n i c  M o s a i c : A Q u e s t f o r I d e n t i t y . A c a d e m i c P r e s s . 1 9 7 9 D e f i n i t i o n s o f E t h n i c i t y . A c a d e m i c P r e s s . 1 9 8 1 E t h n i c I d e n t i t y , R e t e n t i o n P a p e r #125 : p p . 1 4 - 1 9 . L a r g e , G . 1952 R i v e r o f D e s t i n y . M i t c h e l l P r e s s . J e n n e s s , D i a m o n d 1932 I n d i a n s o f C a n a d a . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s . K e h o e , A l i c e B 1 9 8 1 N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s : A C o m p h r e h e n s i v e A c c o u n t , P r e n t i c e - H a l l . K i r k , R u t h and R i c h a r d D a u g h e r t y 1978 E x p l o r i n g W a s h i n g t o n A r c h a e o l o g y . U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s . K n i g h t , R . 19 78 I n d i a n s a t W o r k : An I n f o r m a l H i s t o r y o f N a t i v e I n d i a n L a b o u r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1 8 5 8 - 1 9 3 0 . UBC P r e s s . • K s a n 1974 B e a u t i f u l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p p . 1 - 3 4 . 131 , ' K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n 1977 ' K s a n C o n s t i t u t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d MS on f i l e a t ' K s a n . ' K s a n H i s t o r i a l R s s h a e o b t i s r d P e r f o r m i n g A r t s G r o u p 1978 N o t D e a d , O n l y S l e e p i n g . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d t o The R o l e o f Museums m t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n o f I n d i g e n o u s C u l t u r e s , A d e l a i d e A u s t r a l i a . M a k a h C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e n . d . O p e r a t i o n s M a n u a l . U n p u b l i s h e d MS on f i l e , MCRC W a s h i n g t o n . M a k a h C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e n . d . B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n . Makah H e r i t a g e A s s o c i a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d MS on f i l e , MCCR W a s h i n g t o n . M a k a h T r i b a l C o u n c i l n . d . M a k a h - O z e t t e Museum P r o p o s a l . U n p u b l i s h e d MS on f i l e , MCRC, W a s h i n g t o n . M a r s h a l l D . and H . K o u l a s 1985 N a t i v e H e r i t a g e P a r k s : What t h e y a r e ; Why we need t h e m ; How t h e y may be a c h i e v e d . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d t o t h e H e r i t a g e C o n f e r e n c e on P a r k s f o r T o m o r r o w , B a n f f , 1 9 8 5 . M a u g e r , J e f f r e y 1979 House A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d t h e S e a s o n a l R o u n d : A M a k a h E x a m p l e . U n p u b l i s h e d MA t h e s i s , W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . M c D o n a l d , J ames A . 1984 Images o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y Economy o f t h e T s i m s h i a n . I n The T s i m s h i a n , Images o f t h e P a s t : V i e w s t o t h e P r e s e n t . E d i t e d by M . S e q u i n , UBC P r e s s . M i l l e r , C h r i s 1986 M a t e r i a l C u l t u r e and t h e M a i n t e n a n c e o f E t h n i c I d e n t i t y : F i v e C a s e S t u d i e s , u n p u b l i s h e d M S . 132 Nason, James 1974 MCRC P r o p o s a l . Unpubl i shed MS on f i l e , Thomas ' Burke Memoria l Museum, Washington. 1975 P r e l i m i n a r y P r o p o s a l fo r the MCRC. Unpubl i shed MS on f i l e , Thomas Burke Memorial Museum, Washington. N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada 1981 Operat ions Manual. Unpubl i shed MS on f i l e at N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e s , Ottawa. N a t i o n a l Museum of Man 1979 Skeena R iver P r e - h i s t o r y . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Mercury S e r i e s , e d i t e d by R i chard Ing l aeid George McDonald, Paper no. 87: pp. 47-59. P^rice, John A. 1978 Nat i ve S t u d i e s : American and Canadian I nd i ans . McGraw-H i l l Ryerson P r e s s . Renker, Ann M. and G. W. Arno ld 1986 The Makah C u l t u r a l and Research Centre (MCRC): Educat ion and C u l t u r a l Resource Management. Unpubl i shed MS on f i l e , MCRC, Washington. Sequ in , Margaret 1984a The T s imsh i an , Images of the Pa s t ; Views f o r the  P re sen t . E d i t e d by M. Sequ in , UBC P r e s s . 1984b Les t there Be no Salmon Symbols in T r a d i t i o n a l Ts imsh ian P o t l a t c h . In The T s imsh i an , Images of  the Pa s t ; Views f o r the P r e s e n t . E d i t e d by M. UBC P r e s s . Swan, J . G. 1870 The Indians of Cape F l a t t e r y at the Entrance to the S t r a i t of Fuca , Washington T e r r i t o r y . Smithsonian C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Knowledge, Smithson ian I n s t i t u t i o n . 187 2 The Northwest Coast or Three Years Res idence i n  Washington T e r r i t o r y . U n i v e r s i t y of Washington 133 A p p e n d i x 1 G i t k s a n H i s t o r y 1 8 7 0 - 1 9 2 0 1 6 7 0 B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t e n a c t e d f i r s t l e g i s l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g I n d i a n s . 1 7 5 5 I n d i a n a g e n t s f o r m a l l y a p p o i n t e d . 1793 M a c K e n z i e t r a i l a c r o s s C a n a d a t o P a c i f i c c h a r t e d . 1 8 3 1 F i r s t p e r m a n e n t t r a d i n g p o s t i n T s i m s h i a n a r e a . 1830 C o n t i n e n t a l e x p l o r e r s r e a c h T s i m s h i a n a r e a . 1 8 3 2 L e g a i c L e a g u e o r g a n i z e d . 1836 H u d s o n ' s B a y Company p o s t e s t a b l i s h e d a t l a k e B a b i n e . 1839 C r o w n L a n d s P r o t e c t i o n A c t p a s s e d . 1847 F i r s t m i s s i o n t o r e a c h G i t k s a n ( F o r t B a b i n e ) . 1850 A c t s p a s s e d v e s t i n g I n d i a n l a n d i n C r o w n . 1857 A c t f o r G r a d u a l C i v i l i z a t i o n o f I n d i a n T r i b e s p a s s e d . W i l l i a m D u n c a n s e t t l e d i n P o r t S i m p s o n . 1858 G o l d d i s c o v e r e d a l o n g F r a s e r . 1860 F i r s t HBC c o n t r a c t s a w a r d e d t o I n d i a n s . 1862 S e c o n d s m a l l p o x o u t b r e a k . 1 8 6 5 W e s t e r n U n i o n T e l e g r a p h e s t a b l i s h e d i n T s i m s h i a n a r e a . 1 8 6 7 The B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t p a s s e d . 1869 E n f r a n c h i s e m e n t A c t p a s s e d . 1 8 7 2 G i t k s a n v i l l a g e r s c l o s e d S k e e n a i n p r o t e s t . 1873 B o a r d o f C o m m i s s i o n e r s e s t a b l i s h e d t o a d m i n i s t e r I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n M a n i t o b a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s . 1 8 7 4 G e o r g e t o w n M i l l s o p e n h i r i n g T s i m s h i a n l a b o u r . 1876 I n d i a n A c t p a s s e d ( c o n s o l i d a t e d and r e v i s e d p r e v i o u s l e g i s l a t i o n ) . 1877 F i r s t c a n n e r y on S k e e n a o p e n e d . 1880 S e p a r a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r m e d . 1884 P o t l a t c h o f f i c i a l l y b a n n e d . G i t k s a n p r o t e s t o v e r l a n d a p p r o p r i a t i o n by by g o v e r n m e n t . 1 8 8 5 M e t l a k a t l a p e o p l e o c c u p i e d C h u r c h M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y b u i l d i n g i n p r o t e s t . D u n c a n a n d h i s s u p p o r t e r s e s t a b l i s h New M e t l a k a t l a . 1890 G o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s s t r e n g t h e n n o n - n a t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r f i s h i n g . P o r t E s s i n g t o n p e o p l e c o n t i n u e t o h i n d e r g o v e r n m e n t s u r v e y e r s . 1891 F i r s t s u c c e s s f u l p a s s a g e t o H a z e l t o n (HBC s t e a m e r ) . 1906 C o n s o l i d a t e d I n d i a n A c t i n t r o d u c e d . B a n d s y s t e m f l o u r i s h i n g . 1 9 1 2 R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a p p o i n t e d . G r o w i n g r e s i s t a n c e o f T s i m s h i a n t o c o l o n i z a t i o n o f l a n d . 1 9 1 3 N i s h g a L a n d C o m m i t t e e e s t a b l i s h e d . 1916 R e p o r t o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s 134 f i n i s h e d . 1920 R e g u l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g I n d i a n e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t p a s s e d . V i c t o r i a M e m o r i a l Museum (VMM) s e n d M a r i u s B a r b e a u t o S k e e n a R i v e r r e g i o n t o c o n d u c t e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h . 1923-25 VMM s e n d D i a m o n d J e n n e s s , H a r l a n S m i t h and M a r i u s B a r b e a u t o S k e e n a R i v e r r e g i o n t o c o n t i n u e r e s e a r c h . 1925 P o l e R e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t b e g u n . 1936 D i s a s t e r o u s f l o o d i n r e g i o n . 1942 C e r e m o n i a l r e g a l i a c o n f i s c a t e d f r o m p o t l a t c h by R C M P . 1948 H a w t h o r n R e p o r t i s s u e d . 1954 P o l e R e s t o r a t i o n C o m m i t t e e f o r m e d . 1956-70 S e v e n m a j o r N o r t h w e s t C o a s t e x h i b i t s . 1963 S k e e n a T o t e m P o l e I n v e n t o r y b e g u n . 1965 I n i t i a l p o l e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n b e g i n s a t K i s p i o x . 1966 D u d l e y L i t t l e a p p e a l s f o r p r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g o f ' K s a n . 1966-67 H a w t h o r n r e p o r t p u b l i s h e d . 1967 P o l e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n b e g i n s i n K i t w a n c o o l . 2 y e a r t r a i n i n g p rog ramme e s t a b l i s h e d f o r K i t a n m a x S c h o o l o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n A r t . C o m m i t t e e o f v o l u n t e e r s f o r m e d t o c o o r d i n a t e ' K s a n V i l l a g e P r o j e c t . 1968 ' K s a n c o n s t r u c t i o n b e g i n s . ' K s a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c i a l l y r e g i s t e r e d as a s o c i e t y . 1969 Ward R e p o r t on ' K s a n i s s u e d . 1969-70 A r t s c h o o l c o u r s e s f o r m a l i z e d ; ARDA f u n d i n g g r a n t e d . 1970 ' K s a n o f f i c i a l l y o p e n e d t o t h e p u b l i c . ' K s a n S c h o o l o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n A r t o f f i c i a l l y r e g i s t e r e d as a t r a d e s c h o o l . 1971 F u n d i n g f o r ' K s a n p u b l i c i t y p r o j e c t g r a n t e d . 1972 M a j o r O t t a w a e x h i b i t i o n o f work o f K i t a m a x a r t i s t s . 1973 ' K s a n f i l m r e l e a s e d . 1974 ' K s a n c a t a l o g u e p u b l i s h e d . 1976-77 O p e r a t i n g f u n d s f o r N o r t h w e s t e r n N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n C e n t r e (NNEC) g r a n t e d . 1980 C o n s u l t a n t s r e p o r t i s s u e d on f u t u r e o f NNEC i s s u e d . 135 Appendix II Makah H i s t o r y 1 7 9 0 - 1 9 8 4 1 7 9 0 F i r s t recorded c o n t a c t with Europeans. 1 7 7 1 A d d i t i o n a l Spanish ships v i s i t Neah Bay. 1792 Spanish f o r t e r e c t e d at Neah Bay and abandoned the same year. 1 8 5 3 Washington t e r r i t o r y was created by the US Congress. 1 8 5 5 The Treaty of Neah Bay signed, January 31 1857 Treaty of Neah Bay r a t i f i e d by Congress. 1 8 6 1 Governor James Swan conducted f i r s t census on the Makah r e s e r v a t i o n . 1863 F i r s t Indian Agent appointed to Neah Bay. 1865 The BIA day school at Neah Bay opened (young Makah boys a t t e n d ) . 1874 Day sc h o o l i n Neah Bay turned i n t o h o s p i t a l BIA boarding school c o n s t r u c t e d . 1877 Coast Guard er e c t e d a l i f e b o a t s t a t i o n at Neah Bay and was abandoned 3 years l a t e r . 1895 Neah Bay boarding school c l o s e d and mandatory day school opened. 1902 W. Washburn opened a t r a d i n g post at Neah Bay. 1913 The l a s t Makah whale hunt took p l a c e . 1924 Makah's became American c i t i z e n s as a r e s u l t of a C o n g r e s s i o n a l b i l l on June 2 6 . 1926 Logging began on the Makah r e s e r v a t i o n . The f i r s t Makah Days c e l e b r a t i o n was held to c e l e b r a t e American c i t i z e n s h i p . 1 9 3 1 A paved road l i n k i n g Neah Bay to the r e s t of the Olympic Penninsula was completed. 1934 The Indian R e - o r g a n i z a t i o n Act was passed by Congress g i v i n g Indian groups a degree of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The Johnson-O'Malley Act was a l s o passed g i v i n g the BIA a u t h o r i t y to c e n t r a l i z e c o n t r a c t s with Indian groups. 1936 The Makah T r i b e accepted the Indian R e - o r g a n i z a t i o n Act and a t r i b a l c o n s t i t u t i o n was approved. 1937 The Makah T r i b a l Charter was accepted. 1942 The breakwater s h e l t e r i n g Neah Bay was completed. 1950 The Makah A i r Force S t a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d . 1970 The Ozette a r c h a e o l o g i c a l excavation began. 1974 The Boldt d e c i s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d the t r i b a l supremacy over f i s h i n g r i g h t s . 136 1979 The Makah C u l t u r a l and R e s e a r c h C e n t r e o p e n e d . 1 9 8 1 The O z e t t e e x c a v a t i o n c l o s e d a f t e r d i s c o v e r i n g 5 5 , 0 0 0 a r t i f a c t . The M a k a h f i s h h a t c h e r y p r o j e c t o p e n e d i n A u g u s t . 1984 T u . t u . t s ( T a t o o s h ) and W a ? a d ? a (Wah-da) I s l a n d s a r e r e t u r n e d t o t h e Makah t r i b e by t h e U . S . C o n g r e s s . Appendix I I I 137 Summary of MCRC Budget and Grant Cost Estimates Annual Budget Estimate: i . S a l a r i e s ( S t a f f I Plan) $56,000.00 i i . S u p p l i e s and expendable equipment 8 ,000.00 i i i . M i s c e l l a n e o u s o p e r a t i o n c o s t s 4 ,000.00 $68,000.00 I I . I n i t i a l Equipment Costs: i . O f f i c e equipment 8 ,000.00 i i . L i b r a r y and a r c h i v a l equipment 2 ,000.00 i i i . Storage and research equipment 17,000.00 i v . Photographic equipment 650.00 v. Shop equipment 3 ,000.00 v i . E x h i b i t i o n equipment and misc. 1 ,000.00 $32,150.00 (plus tax and i n f l a t i o n ) (I&II) $35,200.00 I I I . I n i t i a l D i s p l a y C o s t s : i . D i s p l a y cases $66,500.00 i i . D i s p l a y supports 1 ,700.00 i i i . D i s p l a y g r a p h i c s 3 ,800.00 $72,000.00 (II and I I I t o t a l c o s t s $107,200.00 p l u s i n f l a t i o n a r y and u n a n t i c i p a t e d costs) 36,800.00 $143,000.00 IV. C o n s u l t i n g Costs (for storage, g r a p h i c s $90,000.00 e x h i b i t s , c a r v i n g , l i g h t i n g and a c o u s t i c s ) TOTAL INITIAL COSTS, ITEMS I I , I I I AND IV $233,000.00 Adapted from Nason 1974 138 A p p e n d i x I I I Summary o f Income S o u r c e s : A d m i s s i o n F e e s $ 1 5 , 7 4 5 . 0 0 S a l e s 1 0 . 6 9 5 . 0 0 M e m b e r s h i p 4 , 4 0 0 . 0 0 T o t a l I n c o m e : $ 3 0 , 8 8 0 . 0 0 T h i s r e p r e s e n t s i n c o m e e q u i v a l e n t t o s l i g h t l y more t h a n 44% o f t h e p r o j e c t e d a n n u a l b u d g e t o f $ 7 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f o t h e r i n c o m e , t h e T r i b a l G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g 56%, o r $ 3 9 , 1 2 0 . 0 0 . A d a p t e d f r o m N a s o n 1974 

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