UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Public participation and the preparation of official community plans in British Columbia Gauld, Don 1986

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PUBLIC P A R T I C I P A T I O N AND PLANS THE PREPARATION OF O F F I C I A L COMMUNITY IN B R I T I S H COLUMBIA by DON GAULD B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1982. A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA DECEMBER 1986 © D o n a l d F r a n k G a u l d , 1986. § 2 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for. extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d c o n c e p t a nd an i m p o r t a n t one t o m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s a s t h e y d e a l w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f how t o most e f f e c t i v e l y i n v o l v e c i t i z e n s i n p l a n n i n g . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e c h n i q u e s a n d p r o c e s s e s u s e d t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n a s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s : t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Two p r i n c i p a l m ethods a r e u s e d t o a c h i e v e t h i s p u r p o s e : a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w a n d a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s l o c a t e d i n t h e g r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r r e g i o n w h i c h have r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d o f o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s . D a t a f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s came f r o m m u n i c i p a l d o c u m e n t s , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p l a n n e r s a n d f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n . S i x p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s b a s e d on d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d a s c r i t e r i a o f e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The s i x c r i t e r i a a r e : ( 1 ) A c c e s s i b i l i t y - A l l c i t i z e n s h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y a n d a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e ; (2) T i m i n g - The p u b l i c i s p r o v i d e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p o i n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . (3) I m p a r t i a l i t y - No i n d i v i d u a l o r g r o u p i s p e r m i t t e d t o d o m i n a t e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f o t h e r s ; (4) C o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y - I m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d a n d i s p r e s e n t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t i t i s u n d e r s t o o d by t h o s e whom i t a f f e c t s ; (5) A l t e r n a t i v e s - The p u b l i c i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a r a n g e o f a l t e r n a t i v e s ; (6) E f f i c a c y - P a r t i c i p a t o r s ' v i e w s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n p r o d u c t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The s u i t a b i l i t y o f e a c h p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e a n d c o m b i n a t i o n i i i o f t e c h n i q u e s u s e d i n t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s a s s e s s e d by t h e s e s i x o b j e c t i v e s . N i n e summary o b s e r v a t i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d a s s u g g e s t i o n s t o h e l p p l a n n e r s e f f e c t i v e l y i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n f u t u r e o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n p r o c e s s e s . I t i s f o u n d t h a t e f f o r t t o i n v o l v e c i t i z e n s i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n must go b e y o n d t h e t e c h n i q u e s r e q u i r e d o r s u g g e s t e d by l e g i s l a t i o n . A p u b l i c h e a r i n g a n d an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e an i d e a l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m w i t h a s e t o f s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s t h a t w o u l d be u s e f u l i n a l l c o m m u n i t i e s p r e p a r i n g an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n . H o w e v e r , by d e s i g n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g a p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m t h a t s t r i v e s t o s a t i s f y t h e p r o c e s s -o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s , p l a n n e r s c a n o b t a i n m e a n i n g f u l r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e p u b l i c . A c h i e v i n g t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s d e p e n d s f o r e m o s t on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m mitment. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v TABLES v i i FIGURES v i i i CHAPTER ONE: PURPOSE AND METHODOLOGY 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 1 . 1 PROBLEM STATEMENT 1 1.2 PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES 4 1.3 SCOPE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 5 1.4 STUDY METHODS 6 1.5 ORGANIZATION 7 1.6 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS 8 CHAPTER TWO: PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN PLANNING 10 2.0 INTRODUCTION 10 2.1 RECENT HISTORY 10 2.2 PARTICIPATION IN A REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY 12 2.3 PROS AND CONS OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 15 2 .3 .1 DISADVANTAGES & DIFFICULTIES 15 2 .3 .2 ADVANTAGES & OPPORTUNITIES 16 2.4 DEFINING PARTICIPATION 18 2.5 OBJECTIVES FOR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION 22 2.6 SUMMARY 26 CHAPTER THREE: THE PROCESS OF PREPARING A N O . C . P 28 3.0 INTRODUCTION 28 3.1 LEGISLATION AND OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLANS 34 3 .1 .1 MUNICIPAL ACT 1979 34 3 . 1 . 2 THE MUNICIPAL AMENDMENT ACT 1985 36 3 . 1 . 3 IMPLEMENTATION OF AN O . C . P 39 3 .1 .4 SUMMARY 41 3.2 THE OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLAN PROCESS IN RICHMOND 42 3 .2 .1 THE OVERALL PROCESS 42 3 . 2 . 2 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND THE RICHMOND O . C . P 48 3 . 2 . 3 SUMMARY 51 3.3 THE OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLAN PROCESS IN SURREY 51 3 .3 .1 THE OVERALL PROCESS 51 3 . 3 . 2 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND THE SURREY O . C . P 55 3 . 3 . 3 SUMMARY 59 3.4 THE OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLAN PROCESS IN DELTA 59 3 .4 .1 THE OVERALL PROCESS 59 3 . 4 . 2 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND THE DELTA O . C . P 64 3 . 4 . 3 SUMMARY 67 3.5 THE OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLAN PROCESS IN NEW WESTMINSTER 68 3 .5 .1 THE OVERALL PROCESS 68 3 . 5 . 2 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION £ THE NEW WESTMINSTER O . C . P . 71 3 . 5 . 3 SUMMARY 74 3.6 CONCLUSIONS 75 V CHAPTER FOUR: P A R T I C I P A T I O N TECHNIQUES 77 4.0 INTRODUCTION 77 4.1 INFORMATION-GIVING TECHNIQUES 78 4.1.1 BROCHURE AND BROADSHEET DISTRIBUTION 78 4.1.2 GRAPHIC DISPLAY E X H I B I T S 80 4.1.3 FEEDBACK REPORT 83 4.1.4 DRAFT PLAN 85 4.1.5 BACKGROUND REPORTS 86 4.1.6 MEDIA COVERAGE 87 4.2 INFORMATION-RECEIVING TECHNIQUES 90 4.2.1 SURVEYS 90 4.2.2 QUESTIONNAIRE AND COMMENT SHEETS 92 4.2.3 LETTERS, BRIEFS AND TELEPHONE COMMENTS 94 4.3 INTERACTION TECHNIQUES 96 4.3.1 PUBLIC MEETING 96 4.3.2 PUBLIC HEARING 99 4.3.3 OPEN HOUSES 104 4.3.4 COMMUNITY AND INTEREST GROUP MEETINGS/SEMINARS 105 4.3.5 ADVISORY PLANNING COMMISSION 107 4.3.6 LOCAL AREA PLANNING COMMITTEES AND PLANS 111 4 . 4 SUMMARY 113 CHAPTER F I V E : EVALUATION 115 5.0 INTRODUCTION 115 5.1 EVALUATING PUBLIC P A R T I C I P A T I O N 115 5.2 ANALYSIS 120 5.2.1 R l CHMOND 121 5.2.1.1 A c c e s s i b i l i t y 121 5.2.1.2 T i m i n g 122 5.2.1.3 I m p a r t i a l i t y 123 5.2.1.4 C o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y 124 5.2.1.5 A l t e r n a t i v e s 124 5.2.1.6 E f f i c a c y 126 5.2.1.7 Summary 127 5.2.2 SURREY 128 5.2.2.1 A c c e s s i b i l i t y 128 5.2.2.2 T i m i n g 129 5.2.2.3 I m p a r t i a l i t y 130 5.2.2.4 C o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y 131 5.2.2.5 A l t e r n a t i v e s 132 5.2.2.6 E f f i c a c y 1 32 5.2.2.7 Summary 134 5.2.3 DELTA 1 35 5.2.3.1 A c c e s s i b i l i t y 135 5.2.3.2 T i m i n g 135 5.2.3.3 I m p a r t i a l i t y 136 5.2.3.4 C o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y 136 5.2.3.5 A l t e r n a t i v e s 137 5.2.3.6 E f f i c a c y 138 5.2.3.7 Summary 139 5.2.4 NEW WESTMINSTER 139 5.2.4.1 A c c e s s i b i l i t y 139 5.2.4.2 T i m i n g 140 5.2.4.3 I m p a r t i a l i t y 140 5.2.4.4 C o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y 141 v i 5.2.4.5 A l t e r n a t i v e s 141 5.2.4.6 E f f i c a c y 1 42 5.2.4.7 Summary 143 CHAPTER S I X : CONCLUSIONS 145 LITERATURE REFERENCES 160 PERSONAL REFERENCES 169 v i i TABLES Table I: Techniques Used At Various Staqes in the o r P Process by Four Greater Vancouver Municipf l U i e s ? . . [ 1 1 4 v i i i FIGURES Figure 1: Richmond, Surrey, Delta and New Westminster 29 Figure 2: Surrey Planning Areas 30 Figure 3: Richmond Planning Areas 31 Figure 4: Delta Planning Areas 32 Figure 5: New Westminster Planning Areas 33 Figure 6: The O.C.P. Process in Richmond 46 Figure 7: Richmond's O.C.P. Organizational Chart 47 Figure 8: The O.C.P. Process in Surrey 52 Figure 9: The O.C.P. Process in Delta 62 Figure 10: The O.C.P. Process in New Westminster 72 1 CHAPTER ONE PURPOSE AND METHODOLOGY 1.0 INTRODUCTION P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g h a s been t h e s u b j e c t o f much d i s c u s s i o n f o r t h e p a s t two d e c a d e s a n d r e p r e s e n t s an i m p o r t a n t t o p i c f o r m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s . T h i s s t u d y d e a l s w i t h a s p e c i f i c c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s : t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l i t y - w i d e o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s p r o c e s s i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . As b a c k g r o u n d l e a d i n g up t o t h e p u r p o s e a n d o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e p r o b l e m s f a c i n g p l a n n e r s i n i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c i n an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n p r o c e s s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . S u c h a d i s c u s s i o n i s i m p o r t a n t t o p u t t h e s t u d y i n t o c o n t e x t a n d t o u n d e r s t a n d i t s i m p o r t a n c e . 1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT As d e f i n e d i n t h e M u n i c i p a l Amendment A c t , 1985, an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n i s a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t o f t h e b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s a n d p o l i c i e s o f t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t r e s p e c t i n g t h e f o r m a n d c h a r a c t e r o f e x i s t i n g a n d p r o p o s e d l a n d u s e a n d s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e a r e a c o v e r e d by t h e p l a n ( s u b s e c . 9 4 5 ( 1 ) ) . A l t h o u g h a d o p t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y p l a n s r e m a i n s o p t i o n a l a c c o r d i n g t o l e g i s l a t i o n , o n c e a d o p t e d by a m u n i c i p a l i t y , t h e p o l i c i e s e s t a b l i s h e d must be a d h e r e d t o i n s u b s e q u e n t l e g i s l a t i o n p a s s e d by t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t y u n l e s s c h a n g e d by an 2 amendment t o t h e p l a n . The M u n i c i p a l A c t a l l o w s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o p r e p a r e o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s f o r a r e a s o f a c o m m u n i t y o r t h e w h o l e c o m m u n i t y . A r e a s p e c i f i c o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a d d r e s s n e i g h b o u r h o o d l a n d u s e i s s u e s . I n some c a s e s , n e i g h b o u r h o o d l a n d u se i s s u e s n e e d r e s o l u t i o n t h r o u g h c l e a r l a n d u s e p o l i c i e s b e f o r e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e a r e a c a n p r o c e e d . I n g e n e r a l , o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s f o r a r e a s w i t h i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y a r e q u i t e s p e c i f i c i n n a t u r e , a d d r e s s i n g a r a n g e o f l o c a l i s s u e s . An o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n f o r t h e w h o l e m u n i c i p a l i t y , c o n v e r s e l y , i s much w i d e r i n s c o p e p r o v i d i n g c o m m u n i t y - w i d e g o a l s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o b j e c t i v e s . As a p o l i c y d o c u m e n t , i t s e t s o u t a l a n d u s e management s t r a t e g y f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s g r o w t h a n d o r d e r l y s u p p l y o f s e r v i c e s . O f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s d e a l w i t h c o m p l e x i s s u e s f a c i n g m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s ; c o m p l e x i s s u e s t h a t a f f e c t p e o p l e who l i v e a n d work i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . F r e q u e n t l y t h e i s s u e s d e a l t w i t h i n t h e s e p l a n s a l s o h ave i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t go b e y o n d t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s b o u n d a r i e s a f f e c t i n g t h e b r o a d e r r e g i o n . The p l a n s a r e u s e d by m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s t o g u i d e them i n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s a b o u t d e v e l o p m e n t , z o n i n g a n d p r o v i d i n g t h e s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d t o accommodate g r o w t h . The u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s o f t h e p l a n and e a s e w i t h w h i c h i t c a n be i m p l e m e n t e d d e p e n d s on t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e p u b l i c i s s u e s a r e e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l t w i t h . A c e n t r a l p r e m i s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t one means o f e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l i n g w i t h p u b l i c i s s u e s i s t h r o u g h t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s . E l i c i t i n g m e a n i n g f u l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e 3 p r e p a r a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l i t y - w i d e o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s c a n be d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e p l a n n e r f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s f o r t h e w h o l e c o m m u n i t y a r e b r o a d a n d g e n e r a l i n n a t u r e , s e t t i n g o u t l o n g t e r m g o a l s . I n d e v e l o p i n g p l a n p o l i c i e s , a l o n g t e r m p l a n n i n g h o r i z o n i s u s e d , g e n e r a l l y f i f t e e n t o t w e n t y y e a r s . S e c o n d , m u n i c i p a l i t y - w i d e o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s a r e much b r o a d e r i n s c o p e t h a n t h e more s p e c i f i c n e i g h b o u r h o o d o r l o c a l a r e a p l a n s . T h u s , c o m m u n i t y - w i d e i s s u e s a r e a d d r e s s e d r a t h e r t h a n i s o l a t e d c o n c e r n s . The p r o b l e m f a c i n g t h e p l a n n e r i s t h a t c o m m u n i t y i n t e r e s t i s g e n e r a l l y a t i t s h i g h e s t when an i s s u e i s i m m e d i a t e a n d d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s t h e p a r t i c u l a r c i t i z e n . As A n t h o n y C a t a n e s e e x p l a i n s : One o f t h e most c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s f o r p l a n n e r s a n d p o l i t i c i a n s i s t h a t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g a n d p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t p e o p l e t e n d t o become i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g o n l y when t h e r e i s some s p e c i f i c a n d t a n g i b l e i n t e r e s t f o r them a n d t h e i r g r o u p s ( 1 9 8 4 , 1 2 1 ) . T h e r e f o r e , w h e r e a s t h e i s s u e s d e a l t w i t h i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y - w i d e o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y ' s f u t u r e , t h e y may n o t be p e r c e i v e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n a s b e i n g i m m e d i a t e l y i m p o r t a n t . As a r e s u l t , i n d e v e l o p i n g an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n f o r t h e w h o l e c o m m u n i t y , t h e p l a n n e r i s o f t e n i n a s i t u a t i o n where he must a c t i v e l y s e e k o u t t h e p u b l i c ' s v i e w s more so t h a n f o r a r e a s p e c i f i c p l a n s . U n d e r e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , l o c a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s u n d e r t a k i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n must i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c t h r o u g h a h e a r i n g u n d e r s e c t i o n 7 1 1 ( 2 ) o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . T h i s r e q u i r e d p u b l i c h e a r i n g d o e s n o t r e p r e s e n t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b t a i n m e a n i n g f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m t h e p u b l i c . F o r many s i t u a t i o n s , r e c e i v i n g p u b l i c i n p u t a t 4 t h e f i n a l s t a g e , j u s t p r i o r t o t h i r d r e a d i n g , i s t o o l a t e i n a l o n g p r o c e s s t o c o n s t i t u t e m e a n i n g f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Where i s s u e s a r e c o m p l e x and o p i n i o n i s d i v e r s e , t h e r e i s a n e e d t o i d e n t i f y a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d d e c i d e on c h o i c e s e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s . The p r o b l e m f a c i n g t h e p l a n n e r i s how t o o b t a i n m e a n i n g f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , b e y o n d t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g t e c h n i q u e , when p r e p a r i n g an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n , g i v e n t h e p l a n ' s b r o a d s c o p e . 1 . 2 PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e c h n i q u e s a n d p r o c e s s e s u s e d by m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s t o o b t a i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s . The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s a r e : 1 . To v e r i f y t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 2 . To i d e n t i f y o b j e c t i v e s f o r c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g . 3 . To d e t e r m i n e c u r r e n t p r o c e s s e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s u s e d t o o b t a i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s ; 4. To d e t e r m i n e t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d t o e v a l u a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g ; 5 . To a s s e s s t h e a d e q u a c y o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t s o f f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r r e g i o n ; 6. To p r o v i d e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s t o 5 be u s e d i n f u t u r e o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n p r o c e s s e s . 1.3 SCOPE AND SIG N I F I C A N C E OF THE STUDY T h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s i t r e l a t e s t o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f m u n i c i p a l i t y - w i d e o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s . I t i s n o t d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p h a s e o f t h e p r o c e s s . The s c o p e a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s t u d y emerge f r o m t h e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The l i t e r a t u r e i s e x t e n s i v e r e g a r d i n g t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y a n d a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n p l a n n i n g ( B j u r a n d S i e g e l 1977; Buck 1984; C a t a n e s e 1984; Pateman 1 9 7 0 ) . G e n e r a l l y , c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s v i e w p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f m u n i c i p a l l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g a l t h o u g h t h e y a g r e e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n o t w i t h o u t c o n s t r a i n t s . T h e r e i s l e s s a g r e e m e n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e h o w e v e r , a s t o what c o n s t i t u t e s e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r how t o e v a l u a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m u n i c i p a l l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g . A l s o n o t common i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a r e g u i d e l i n e s f o r s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s t h a t w o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n p r o c e s s . The s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o i n c r e a s e k n o w l e d g e i n t h e a r e a o f c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g by i n v e s t i g a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a n d p r o c e s s e s a n d a s s e s s i n g t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d a d e q u a c y . I n so d o i n g , t h e s t u d y h a s t h e o r e t i c a l a n d p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e o r e t i c a l l y i t b r o a d e n s t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g . P r a c t i c a l l y , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a n d p r o c e s s e s i n a s p e c i f i c c o m munity 6 p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t i s d e t e r m i n e d a nd s u g g e s t i o n s o u t l i n e d f o r u s e by p l a n n e r s i n t h e f u t u r e . W h i l e t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s h a v e p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e f o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , i t i s hop e d t h e f i n d i n g s w i l l be u s e f u l f o r many d i f f e r e n t p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g . 1.4 STUDY METHODS The s t u d y i n v o l v e s a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f f o u r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h a t h a v e d e v e l o p e d o r a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g a m u n i c i p a l i t y - w i d e o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , R i c h m o n d , D e l t a , S u r r e y , a n d New W e s t m i n s t e r h a v e two common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : ( 1 ) t h e y a r e a l l s i t u a t e d i n g r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , a nd (2) t h e y a r e a l l e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e i m p a c t s o f u r b a n g r o w t h . D a t a f o r t h e c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s came f r o m p e r t i n e n t m u n i c i p a l d o c u m e n t s , f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n when p o s s i b l e a n d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p l a n n e r s f r o m e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y . As w e l l , two key c i t i z e n l e a d e r s were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d . The o t h e r p r i m a r y method u s e d f o r t h e r e s e a r c h was a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . The g r o w t h o f c i t i z e n demand f o r an i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g i n t h e l a s t two d e c a d e s h a s l e d t o a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Some o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s s p e c i f i c t o c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g w h i l e much o f i t i s g e n e r i c i n n a t u r e a n d c a n be a p p l i e d t o a number o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d was s e l e c t e d f o r i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 7 1.5 ORGANIZATION C h a p t e r one o f t h e s t u d y h a s p r e s e n t e d a g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s u b j e c t a nd d e s c r i b e d t h e s t u d y m e t h o d s u s e d . C h a p t e r two d e f i n e s t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g . F a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o e f f e c t i v e a n d d e s i r a b l e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e c o n s i d e r e d a n d p r o c e s s -o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g a r e d e t e r m i n e d . R e v i e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e a n d d e t e r m i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t s g i v e s t h e n e c e s s a r y b a c k g r o u n d a n d s t a n d a r d s f o r j u d g i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t s . C h a p t e r t h r e e b e g i n s w i t h an o v e r v i e w o f l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t i n e n t t o t h e o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n p r o c e s s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . D e s c r i b i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e e x p e c t e d t o meet a n d t h e amount o f f l e x i b i l i t y p e r m i t t e d when p r e p a r i n g o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s l e a d s t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s e s t h a t f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o l l o w e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e i r o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s . O u t l i n i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r a n g e o f t e c h n i q u e s a n d p r o c e s s e s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g u s e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s . C a s e s t u d i e s a r e u s e f u l t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h i s n o t s p e c i f i c a s t o what a p p r o a c h e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n p r o c e s s . 8 I n C h a p t e r f o u r , t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s u s e d by t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i d e n t i f y i n g t h e s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s o f e a c h t e c h n i q u e . The s u i t a b i l i t y o f e a c h t e c h n i q u e t o a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g i s e x a m i n e d . I n C h a p t e r f i v e , t h e c o n c e p t o f e v a l u a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d . An a p p r o a c h u s i n g t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s c o m p o s i t e j u d g e m e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o a c h f o r t h i s s t u d y s i n c e t h i s a p p r o a c h i s b a s e d on a v a i l a b l e e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t o r s o f s u c c e s s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e a s w e l l a s t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s own j u d g e m e n t . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e o v e r a l l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t o f e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e i r o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n i s a s s e s s e d u s i n g t h e e v a l u a t i o n a p p r o a c h j u d g e d on t h e a b i l i t y t o meet t h e p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t . D e t e r m i n i n g t h e a b i l i t y o f e a c h m u n i c i p a l e f f o r t t o s a t i s f y t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s i s n e c e s s a r y s i n c e no s i n g l e t e c h n i q u e i s s u f f i c i e n t on i t s own. The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s a n d t h e i r u t i l i z a t i o n a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s i s i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . C h a p t e r s i x s y n t h e s i z e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y p r e s e n t i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s i n t h e f u t u r e . 1.6 C L A R I F I C A T I O N OF TERMS P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n The t e r m s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y a n d do n o t i n d i c a t e any d i f f e r e n c e i n n u a n c e . A d i s c u s s i o n d e f i n i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s h e l d i n 9 c h a p t e r t w o . O f f i c i a l Community P l a n The a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n (O.C.P.) w i l l be u s e d f r e q u e n t l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d a s a r e a - s p e c i f i c , t h e t e r m o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n , w i l l be i n r e f e r e n c e t o an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n f o r a w h o l e m u n i c i p a l i t y . 10 CHAPTER TWO PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN COMMUNITY PLANNING 2.0 INTRODUCTION The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e r o l e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g . A s h o r t h i s t o r y o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g b e g i n s t h e c h a p t e r f o l l o w e d by t h e r o l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a p a r l i m e n t a r y d e m o c r a c y . I m p o r t a n t a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g a r e d i s c u s s e d i n o r d e r t o p u t t h e s t u d y i n t o g r e a t e r c o n t e x t . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e f i n e d and t h e c o n c e p t o f e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d . F i n a l l y , s i x p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e e s t a b l i s h e d w h i c h any p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m i n a m u n i c i p a l l a n d u se p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d s t r i v e t o a c h i e v e . 2.1 RECENT HISTORY The i d e a o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s h a s been a l o n g - s t a n d i n g a n d i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e h i s t o r y o f p l a n n i n g ( C a t a n e s e 1984, 1 2 4 ) . F o r t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , t h e r e was t h e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n t h a t p l a n n e r s h a d t o a s s e s s t h e g o a l s a n d v a l u e s o f t h e p u b l i c i n o r d e r t o d e f i n e i n t e r e s t i n p r o b l e m s . T h i s s e a r c h f o r p u b l i c g o a l s u s u a l l y meant c o n s u l t i n g w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l l e a d e r s h i p . P a r t i c i p a t i o n was s e e n a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l e n d e a v o r i n w h i c h p l a n n e r s d i s c u s s e d p r o b l e m s w i t h d e s i g n a t e d l e a d e r s ( C a t a n e s e 1984, 1 2 4 ) . I n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , t h e n a t u r e o f 11 p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c h a n g e d a s c i t i z e n s became more i n v o l v e d . The g r o w t h o f c i t i z e n demand f o r an i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g i n more r e c e n t y e a r s c a n be r e l a t e d t o t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f o u r s o c i e t y a s w e l l a s t o t h e q u i c k e n i n g r a t e o f c h a n g e i t s e l f . The a c t i v i s m o f t h e 1960's c r e a t e d i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h l e d t o c h a n g e s i n t h e manner i n w h i c h p l a n n e r s v i e w e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g . G e n e r a l l y , t h e a c t i v i s m o f t h e 1960's came a b o u t a s a r e s u l t o f p e o p l e ' s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h t h e e f f e c t s a n d p r o c e s s e s o f p l a n n i n g , h e i g h t e n e d a w a r e n e s s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d e c o l o g i c a l v a l u e s , a n d a l a r m a n d c o n f u s i o n a t t h e s c a l e a n d c o m p l e x i t i e s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y l i f e a l o n g w i t h t h e v a s t a r r a y o f i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h h a v e been c r e a t e d t o c o p e w i t h them ( C u l l i n g w o r t h 1984, 1 ) . C i t i z e n s demanded t o become more i n v o l v e d i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s w h i c h were b e c o m i n g more a n d more removed f r o m them. C r e i g h t o n e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e s y s t e m h ad become t o o c o m p l e x so t h a t t h e l i n e o f a c c o u n t a b i l i t y was b e c o m i n g t o o drawn o u t an d t e n u o u s t o p r o v i d e i s s u e - b y - i s s u e a c c o u n t a b i l i t y ( 1 9 8 3 , 46-4 8 ) . I n t h e 1960's p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o o k t h e f o r m o f p r o t e s t . T h a t a c t i v i s m h a s now been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d a n d become p a r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As B a r r y C u l l i n g w o r t h o b s e r v e s : P h y s i c a l p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t t h e b u l l d o z e r h a v e g i v e n way t o p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , c o m m i s s i o n s o f i n q u i r y , s o c i a l s u r v e y s , c o m m u n i t y m e e t i n g s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t s , a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l s , a n d a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f m e c h a n i s m s f o r a p p e a l i n g o r o b j e c t i n g d e c i s i o n s . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s now p a r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( 1 9 8 4 , 1 ) . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m u n i c i p a l l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g i s now an a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d p r i n c i p l e o f C a n a d i a n d e m o c r a c y . W h i l e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s s t i l l d i s c u s s i s s u e s a n d p r o b l e m s w i t h 12 c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s , o t h e r c i t i z e n s a r e a l s o i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . W h i l e p h y s i c a l p r o t e s t s s t i l l p e r s i s t , o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s e d i n t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f c i t i z e n s i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . 2.2 P A R T I C I P A T I O N IN A PARLIMENTARY DEMOCRACY I n a p a r l i m e n t a r y d e m o c r a c y i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e t h e r i g h t t o v o t e t o e l e c t p e o p l e t o r e p r e s e n t them a n d make d e c i s i o n s , t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s why p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a b r o a d e r s c a l e i s n e c e s s a r y . The i d e a l o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r o o t e d d e e p i n d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y . C l a s s i c a l d e m o c r a t i c t h e o r y e s p o u s e s t h e i n h e r e n t l e g i t i m a c y o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l a n d o t h e r s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s (Pateman 1970, C h a p t . 2 ) . I t i s b a s e d on t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t man's d i g n i t y , a n d i n d e e d h i s g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a s a f u n c t i o n i n g a n d r e s p o n s i v e i n d i v i d u a l i n a f r e e s o c i e t y , i s d e p e n d e n t upon an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n d e c i s i o n s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t h i m ( B a c h r a c h 1967, 9 8 ) . As B j u r a n d S e i g e l e x p l a i n : We a r e h e i r s o f a t h e o r y o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a c y d e s c r i b e d by R o u s s e a u , who b e l i e v e d t h a t f r e e d o m r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e c i t i z e n s h o u l d be a b l e t o e x e r c i s e a f a i r amount o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h o s e who e x e c u t e t h e l a w s , a n d o v e r e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h c i t i z e n c o n t r o l , he a r g u e d , t h e v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n s c r e a t e d t o s e r v e t h e p u b l i c end up e n s l a v i n g us a l l ( 1 9 7 7 , 1 3 5 ) . B a c h r a c h a n d S c h a t t s c h n e i d e r a r e e x a m p l e s o f two modern t h e o r i s t s who b e l i e v e t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l d e m o c r a c y i s t o o s i m p l i s t i c f o r modern t e r m s a n d r e q u i r e s r e d e f i n i n g ( S c h a t t s c h n e i d e r 1960, 129; B a c h r a c h 1967, 9 9 ) . S c h a t t s c h n e i d e r e m p h a s i z e s t h e r o l e o f l e a d e r s h i p a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a d e m o c r a c y w h i l e B a c h r a c h l o o k s t o w a r d s a s p o n t a n e o u s g e n e r a t i o n 13 o f s o m e t h i n g f r o m t h e g r a s s r o o t s . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s c e n t r a l t o S c h a t t s c h n e i d e r ' s w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f d e m o c r a c y : D e m o c r a c y i s a c o m p e t i t i v e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m i n w h i c h c o m p e t i n g l e a d e r s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e f i n e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e p u b l i c c a n p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s ( 1 9 6 0 , 1 4 1 ) . A l t h o u g h p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g c o v e r s a v a r i e t y o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s i n s o c i e t y w i t h i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s f i n d t h e m s e l v e s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c s a n d g o v e r n m e n t i s d i s c u s s e d most f r e q u e n t l y o f a l l ( S o r e n s e n 1981, 3 ) . The g r o w t h o f g o v e r n m e n t a n d i t s i m p a c t on p e o p l e ' s e v e r y d a y l i v e s h a s l e d t o t h r e e m a j o r p r o b l e m s w h i c h h a v e c r e a t e d more t h a n e v e r t h e n e e d f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g : 1. The g r o w i n g m i s a l i g n m e n t o f C a n a d a ' s t h r e e f o r m a l l e g i s l a t i v e l e v e l s , among t h e m s e l v e s and i n c r e a s i n g l y t o t h e p o p u l a c e a s a w h o l e ( C l a g u e 1971, 3 5 ) ; 2. An i n f o r m a t i o n p r o b l e m w h i c h d e p i c t s a s i t u a t i o n where c i t i z e n s , l e g i s l a t o r s a n d b u r e a u c r a t s a r e u n a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f l o w t h a t i n f o r m s , e d u c a t e s and i n s t r u c t s a l l p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d ( C l a g u e 1971, 3 5 ) ; 3. B u r e a u c r a t i c a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power h a s grown i n b o t h i t s r e a c h and s c o p e o f i t s d i s c r e t i o n (Rosenbaum 1979, 1; Thomas 1982, 5 4 ) . Rosenbaum s e e s t h e e x p a n s i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i r e c t c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t a s a n e c e s s a r y a n t i d o t e , an a d a p t a t i o n o f d e m o c r a t i c p r a c t i c e t o modern c o n d i t i o n s ( 1 9 7 9 , 1 ) . L i k e w i s e , C l a g u e b e l i e v e s t h e s c o p e o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o c e s s i s s i m p l y n o t b r o a d e n o u g h t o accommodate t h e p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d i n v o l v e m e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c i t i z e n s i n t o d a y ' s w o r l d ( 1 9 7 1 , 3 6 ) . The f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t T a s k F o r c e on G o v e r n m e n t I n f o r m a t i o n , 1969, summed up t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h i s way: 14 S i n c e g o v e r n m e n t s a r e i n e v i t a b l y i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e d a y - t o - d a y l i v e s o f c i t i z e n s , i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e c i t i z e n s s h o u l d be a b l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r s a y i n what g o v e r n m e n t s d o . . . p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e m o c r a c y s u g g e s t s t h e c i t i z e n ' s c o n t i n u o u s a n d b r o a d l y b a s e d i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o b l e m s o f g o v e r n m e n t ( q u o t e d by C l a g u e 1971, 5 5 ) . The p r o b l e m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d t h e l a c k o f a b i l i t y f o r t h e s y s t e m t o a d e q u a t e l y d e a l w i t h an e v e r g r o w i n g a n d c o m p l e x s o c i e t y p o i n t s t o t h e e x t r e m e d i f f i c u l t y o f d e f i n i n g t h e ' p u b l i c i n t e r e s t ' t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a l l g r o u p s i n a g i v e n s o c i e t y . T h e r e a r e many ways t h a t t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t h a s b e e n d e f i n e d . S t a n b u r y b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i v i d e t h e s e v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s i n t o f o u r g r o u p s , e a c h r e p r e s e n t i n g a more l i m i t e d number o f themes o r c e n t r a l c o n c e p t s ( S t a n b u r y 1979, 2 1 3 - 2 1 6 ) . The p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s s e e n : 1. As r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e a g g r e g a t i o n , w e i g h i n g and b a l a n c i n g o f a number o f . s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s ; 2. I n t e r m s o f t h e common o r u n i v e r s a l i n t e r e s t s w h i c h a l l ( a t l e a s t a l m o s t a l l ) members o f s o c i e t y / n a t i o n / p o l i t i c a l u n i t s h a r e ; 3. From an i d e a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e , s u c h d e f i n i t i o n s j u d g e a l t e r n a t i v e a c t i o n s o r p o l i c i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o some a b s o l u t e s t a n d a r d o f v a l u e s - i n some c a s e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s ; 4. I n t e r m s o f t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h d e c i s i o n s a r e made r a t h e r t h a n t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f some i d e a l o u tcome. C o m m u n i t i e s a r e c omposed o f many p u b l i c s , w i t h a maze o f i n t e r e s t s a n d a t t i t u d e s a b o u t t h e i r l i v i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y no p o l i c y w i l l p l e a s e e v e r y o n e , a n d some w i l l b e n e f i t a t a c o s t t o o t h e r s . Any p r o v i s i o n f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h i g n o r e s t h i s p o t e n t i a l d i v e r s i t y c o u l d r e s u l t i n more b i a s t h a n no p r o v i s i o n a t a l l ( J o h n s o n 1984, 5 ) . 15 2.3 PROS AND CONS OF PUBLIC P A R T I C I P A T I O N W h i l e i t i s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n e e d e d t o complement g o v e r n m e n t d e c i s o n m a k i n g , t h e p r e s e n c e o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n o t a l w a y s c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e by a l l p a r t i e s . The most common d i s a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i m p l e m e n t i n g c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e c i t e d , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f some o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 2.3.1 DISADVANTAGES & D I F F I C U L T I E S (1) T h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o g u a r a n t e e t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a n d p r o g r a m s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The u n i n t e r e s t e d b u t a f f e c t e d p u b l i c ( w h i c h i s a s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y i n most c a s e s ) d o e s n o t p a r t i c i p a t e ( M i l b r a t h 1 981 , 482) . (2) M o st c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n m e t h o d s c a n be m a n i p u l a t e d e a s i l y by p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s t o s u i t t h e i r own p u r p o s e s ( M i l b r a t h 1981, 4 8 ) . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s o f t e n u s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s an i n s t r u m e n t t o a c h i e v e t h e i r own ends p l a c i n g h e a v y r e l i a n c e on " s a f e " m e t h o d s , s u c h a s p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t h a t k e e p p a r t i c i p a t i o n u n d e r c a r e f u l c o n t r o l ( Checkoway a nd V a n T i l 1978, 3 2 ) . (3) T r a d i t i o n a l m ethods u s e d h a v e c o n s i s t e n t l y a t t r a c t e d t h e w e l l - e d u c a t e d , a r t i c u l a t e a n d e x c l u d e d t h e p o o r , i l l - e d u c a t e d a n d a p a t h e t i c ( F o g g 1981, 257; J o h n s o n 1984, 8 ) . (4) E x p e c t a t i o n s o f what p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n do a r e o f t e n t o o b r o a d a n d t o o h i g h t o be r e a l i z e d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s e e n a s a p a n a c e a f o r t h e i l l s o f s o c i e t y ( K w e i t a n d K w e i t 1981, 7 ) . E x p e c t a t i o n s a r e a r o u s e d a n d t h e n n o t met. (5) The a s s u m p t i o n i s o f t e n made t h a t t h e p u b l i c i s a l a r g e 16 homogeneous u n i t , r a t h e r t h a n a p o s s i b l y l a r g e s e t o f p u b l i c s w i t h d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( B oaden e t a l . 1980, 5 2 ) . C e r t a i n p u b l i c s w i l l h a v e more t o s a y on an i s s u e t h a n o t h e r s b u t i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r e v e r y o n e t o have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e . (6) C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e q u i r e s t i m e , e f f o r t a n d money o f t e n d r a w i n g o u t t h e p l a n n i n g p e r i o d . C o n f l i c t i s g e n e r a t e d , and new t i m e a l l o c a t i o n s a n d r e s o u r c e c o m m i t m e n t s a r e n e e d e d when p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . (7) O f t e n p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n d o e s n o t r e s u l t i n c l e a r d e c i s i o n s a s c o n f l i c t s a r i s e among t h e many p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s . Many o f t h e s e c o n f l i c t s a n d d i l e m m a s a r e n o t e a s i l y s o l v e d . The p l a n n e r o r d e c i s i o n maker may h a v e no c r i t e r i o n by w h i c h t o j u d g e among c o m p e t i n g c l a i m s a n d may s e e k an e s c a p e by r e f u s i n g t o l i s t e n t o a l l o r by g i v i n g i n t o t h e l o u d e s t o f t h e c l a i m a n t s ( B u c k a n d S t o n e 1981; 5 5 1 ) . (8) T h e r e i s no one way t o h a n d l e c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t . What w o r k s i n one p l a c e w i l l n o t a l w a y s work i n some o t h e r p l a c e ; c o n t e x t a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a r e i m p o r t a n t . I t i s n o t t h e t e c h n i q u e t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t s o much a s t h e p e o p l e who e m p l o y t h e t e c h n i q u e s a n d t h e i r a t t i t u d e ( P r i s c o l i 1978, 1 0 5 ) . 2.3.2 ADVANTAGES & OPPORTUNITIES (1) P a r t i c i p a t o r y m e c h a n i s m s c a n k e e p p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s h o n e s t an d t h o u g h t f u l a n d a r e u s e f u l i n p r e s s u r i n g a n d p e r s u a d i n g t h e s e a u t h o r i t i e s t o p e r f o r m t h e i r d u t i e s more s e n s i t i v e l y ( F o g g 1981, 2 6 5 ) . (2) P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n be u s e d t o show c o m p e t i n g v i e w s o f t h e p u b l i c w i l l . (3) P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o v i d e s a p r o c e s s t h a t p e r m i t s t h e 17 d e v e l o p m e n t o f i m p l e m e n t a b l e p o l i c i e s . I f i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e h a d a s a y i n a f a i r a n d open p r o c e s s o f p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t t h e n t h e y a r e more w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h e outcome o f t h a t p r o c e s s , e v e n i f i t i s n o t t h e i r p r e f e r r e d outcome ( B u c k 1984, 4 6 9 ) . When p l a n s a n d p o l i c i e s a r e i m p l e m e n t e d t h e r e i s l e s s l i k e l i h o o d o f o p p o s i t i o n b e c a u s e t h e r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h e a c t i o n i s b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d . (4) P a r t i c i p a t i o n i m p r o v e s s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n b e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s o f o n e ' s s u r r o u n d i n g s , i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e w h o l e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m ( B u r k e , 1 9 6 8 ) . (5) P a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o v i d e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p l e a d e r s w h i c h a r e n e c e s s a r y t o b r i d g e t h e gap b e t w e e n t h e p u b l i c , a n d t h e p l a n n e r s a n d d e c i s i o n m a k e r s . (6) P e o p l e a r e e d u c a t e d t h r o u g h e x p o s u r e t o new a n d d i f f e r e n t i d e a s a n d o p i n i o n s a nd t o a v a r i e t y o f p e o p l e . I n summary, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g makes t h e p r o c e s s more c o m p l e x a n d p e r h a p s more c o s t l y a n d t i m e c o n s u m i n g . P a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s c a n be e a s i l y m a n i p u l a t e d by t h e s p o n s o r i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c y , t h e i r w o r t h o f t e n d e p e n d i n g on t h e commitment o f t h e a g e n c y s t a f f . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s n o t g u a r a n t e e d a n d f o r t h o s e t h a t do p a r t i c i p a t e , e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e o f t e n u n r e a l i s t i c . C o n v e r s e l y , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a s s i g n i f i c a n t b e n e f i t s . M u t u a l e d u c a t i o n a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a n o c c u r , p l a n s a n d p o l i c i e s t h a t a r e i m p l e m e n t a b l e c a n r e s u l t a n d a u t h o r i t i e s a r e p r e s s u r e d i n t o p e r f o r m i n g t h e i r d u t i e s more s e n s i t i v e l y . 18 2.4 DEFINING PARTICIPATION G i v e n t h a t b a l l o t - b o x p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o e n s u r e a d e q u a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e , a n d t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d e m o c r a c y f o r an o n g o i n g b a s e d i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e p u b l i c i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , t h e q u e s t i o n s o f how much p a r t i c i p a t i o n and what c o n s t i t u t e s a d e q u a t e o r e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r i s e . A number o f w r i t i n g s on t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a v e f o c u s s e d on t h e p o s s i b l e f o r m s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e o r y a n d p r a c t i c e . T h i s h a s l e d t o v a r i o u s t y p o l o g i e s a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f c i t i z e n o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , e a c h d e v e l o p i n g a h i e r a r c h y o f t h e d e g r e e s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e s e w r i t i n g s a r e u s e f u l t o r e v i e w b e f o r e s e t t l i n g on a d e f i n i t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A " l a d d e r o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n " p r o d u c e d by S h e r r y A r n s t e i n i n 1969 a n d " c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s " o u t l i n e d by Edmund B u r k e i n 1968 r e p r e s e n t t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e what c o n s t i t u t e s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A r n s t e i n v i e w s c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s " t h e means by w h i c h t h e h a v e - n o t s c a n i n d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l r e f o r m w h i c h e n a b l e s them t o s h a r e i n t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y . . . c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a c a t e g o r i z e d t e r m f o r c i t i z e n p o w e r " ( 1 9 6 9 , 2 1 6 ) . L i k e w i s e , B u r k e ' s f i f t h o f f i v e s t r a t e g i e s d e s c r i b e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s c o m m u n i t y p o w e r . A r n s t e i n ' s ' l a d d e r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' , c o v e r s t h e r a n g e f r o m n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( m a n i p u l a t i o n a n d t h e r a p y ) t o d e g r e e s o f t o k e n i s m ( i n f o r m i n g , c o n s u l t a t i o n , p l a c a t i o n ) t o d e g r e e s o f 19 c i t i z e n power ( p a r t n e r s h i p , d e l e g a t e d p o wer, c i t i z e n c o n t r o l ) . T h i s s i m p l i f i e d e i g h t - r u n g l a d d e r i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e many g r a d a t i o n s o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( A r n s t e i n , 1 9 6 9 : 2 1 7 ) . I n h e r b e l i e f t h a t f u l l c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t p o w e r s be r e d i s t r i b u t e d a n d t h a t t h a t power n e e d s t o a f f e c t t h e o utcome o f t h e p r o c e s s l e a d s A r n s t e i n t o d e e p l y c r i t i c i z e t h e l o w e r f i v e ' r u n g s ' o f t h e l a d d e r ; i . e . , m a n i p u l a t i o n up t o p l a c a t i o n . L a w r e n c e S u s s k i n d c o n c e n t r a t e s on a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . He i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e common v i e w s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n : 1. P a r t i c i p a t i o n a s a t i m e - w a s t i n g b u t i n e s c a p a b l e r e q u i r e m e n t ; 2. P a r t i c i p a t i o n a s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p r e s e n t e r s t o p i c k - u p some i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t u n a n t i c i p a t e d o r u n i n t e n d e d s i d e - e f f e c t s ; 3. P a r t i c i p a t i o n a s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o b u i l d s u p p o r t f o r a f a v o u r e d p r o p o s a l ( S u s s k i n d 1977, 3 3 ) . S u s s k i n d w r i t e s a b o u t l a n d - u s e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a n d a s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t e f f o r t s he p r o m o t e s c o n s e n s u s b u i l d i n g a s a more a p p r o p r i a t e m o d el ( 1 9 7 7 , 3 8 ) . The c o n s e n s u s b u i l d i n g m o d e l i s more i n l i n e w i t h A r n s t e i n ' s p a r t n e r s h i p l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s f a r a s t h e d e g r e e o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h e i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n h a s i n i n f l u e n c i n g d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . I n A r n s t e i n ' s ' p a r t n e r s h i p r u n g ' , power i s i n f a c t r e d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n b e t w e e n c i t i z e n s a n d p o w e r h o l d e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o A r n s t e i n , p a r t n e r s h i p w o r k s most e f f e c t i v e l y when t h e r e i s an o r g a n i z e d p o w e r - b a s e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y t o w h i c h t h e c i t i z e n l e a d e r s a r e a c c o u n t a b l e ( 1 9 6 9 , 2 2 1 ) . 20 A t t h e ' d e l e g a t e d power' l e v e l , n e g o t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n c i t i z e n s a n d p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s c a n r e s u l t i n c i t i z e n s a c h i e v i n g d o m i n a n t d e c i s i o n m a k i n g a u t h o r i t y o v e r a p a r t i c u l a r p l a n o r p r o g r a m . A n o t h e r m o d e l o f d e l e g a t e d power i s s e p a r a t e a n d p a r a l l e l g r o u p s o f c i t i z e n s a n d p o w e r h o l d e r s , w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r c i t i z e n v e t o i f d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n c a n n o t be r e s o l v e d t h r o u g h n e g o t i a t i o n . L i k e w i s e , u n d e r ' c i t i z e n c o n t r o l ' , h a v e - n o t c i t i z e n s o b t a i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g s e a t s , o r f u l l m a n a g e r i a l power ( A r n s t e i n 1969, 2 1 7 ) . The f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e l e v e l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a i s e s two i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s : 1. Can e l e c t e d g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s d e l e g a t e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ( p o l i t i c a l ) power t o v o l u n t a r y g r o u p s ? ; 2. How d o e s t h i s d e l e g a t i o n r e l a t e t o t h e i r o f f i c i a l d u t y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s , s i n c e by t h e l a w t h e e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s a r e t h e d u l y e l e c t e d d e c i s i o n m a k e r s i n a d e m o c r a t i c s o c i e t y ? (Head 1971, 20) A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s b e t w e e n S u s s k i n d ' s c o n s e n s u s m o d e l a n d A r n s t e i n ' s d e g r e e s o f c i t i z e n p o w e r . S u s s k i n d r e c o g n i z e s t h a t e l e c t e d o r a p p o i n t e d o f f i c i a l s s t i l l must make t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n s . B u t what S u s s k i n d ' s m e thod d o e s i s make i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t f o r o f f i c i a l s t o c h o o s e an a l t e r n a t i v e b e s i d e s t h e one d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h t h e c o n s e n s u s p r o c e s s ( S u s s k i n d 1977, 4 0 ) . D e f i n i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d d e t e r m i n i n g a t what p o i n t i t becomes " f u l l " o r " m e a n i n g f u l " o r " e f f e c t i v e " i s a r b i t r a r y a n d t h e r e f o r e a f r u s t r a t i n g t a s k . A r t h u r S t i n s o n ' s p r e m i s e i s t h a t t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n i s e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e many d i f f e r e n t a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t what i s i n v o l v e d ( 1 9 8 2 , 1 5 ) . B a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t a b o u t how p e o p l e p e r c e i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d S t i n s o n c i t e s 21 t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p r o b l e m . U n d e r t h e f i r s t p o s i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a p p r o a c h e d f r o m a p a t e r n a l i s t i c p o i n t o f v i e w a n d i s v a l u e d on an a d v i s o r y o r c o n s u l t a t i v e l e v e l . The a d v i s o r s , may be s c r e e n e d o r c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d f r o m among t h o s e p e r c e i v e d t o h a v e s o m e t h i n g " w o r t h w h i l e t o c o n t r i b u t e " . I n t h e s e c o n d p o s i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a p p r o a c h e d a s a method o f d i s t r i b u t i n g p o w er. The i d e a l i s a p a r t n e r s h i p c o n c e p t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n w h i c h c i t i z e n g r o u p s h a v e an a u t h e n t i c r o l e , s h a r e d w i t h g o v e r n m e n t , f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h a f f e c t them. The t h i r d p o s i t i o n , i s b a s e d on t h e nee d f o r s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o a s t y l e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c i t i z e n c o n t r o l . R e l a t i n g t o A r n s t e i n ' s l a d d e r , S t i n s o n a d d s : The p e r s o n a c h i e v e s l i b e r a t i o n t h r o u g h i n t e r -d e p e n d e n c y , a c o n c e p t w h i c h makes i r r e l e v a n t any o t h e r s t e p on t h e " l a d d e r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n " t h a n a u t h e n t i c s e l f - c o n t r o l ( S t i n s o n 1982, 1 5 ) . I n s e t t l i n g on a d e f i n i t i o n f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e B u r e a u o f M u n i c i p a l R e s e a r c h i n T o r o n t o i n c l u d e s t h e two e l e m e n t s w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s t y p o l o g i e s a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s s y s t e m s h a v e i n common: C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s ... a component o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m w h i c h p e r m i t s n o n - e l e c t e d members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y t o e x e r c i s e some c o n t r o l o v e r d e c i s i o n m a k i n g w h i c h g o e s b e y o n d e l e c t i o n s ( S h a l i n s k y 1979, 24) . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t some a u t h o r s see p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s o n l y b e i n g a d e q u a t e o r e f f e c t i v e i f power i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c g r o u p s . As u n d e r s t o o d i n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e t r a n s f e r o f power i s n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o o c c u r . E l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e t a i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l 22 a u t h o r i t y a n d u s e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s a means o f g a i n i n g a n d m a i n t a i n i n g a more i n f o r m e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p u b l i c v a l u e s . 2.5 OBJECTIVES FOR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION T h r e e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e t a k e n f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w up t o t h i s p o i n t . F i r s t , t h e r e i s now g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t among c o m t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s on t h e s u b j e c t o f c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t i n p l a n n i n g t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e a s p a r t o f any d e m o c r a t i c s y s t e m o f g o v e r n a n c e . S e c o n d , w r i t e r s a l s o a g r e e t h a t two m i n i m a l c o n d i t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y w i t h i n any d e f i n i t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n : t h e i n v o l v e m e n t of n o n - e l e c t e d members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d t h a t t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t g o e s b e y o n d t h e f o r m a l e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s e s . T h i r d , t h e r e i s no o v e r a l l a g r e e m e n t a s t o what c o n s t i t u t e s e f f e c t i v e o r a d e q u a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e r e a r e no " g o l d e n r u l e s " o f e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s y e t i d e n t i f i e d ( B e r r y e t a l . 1981, 4 6 6 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no c o n c e n s u s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e i s s u e o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r a d e q u a c y , t h e r e h a s been a number o f s t u d i e s c a r r i e d o u t w h i c h s u g g e s t how t o i m p r o v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t s . B a s e d on what i s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a nd t h e d e m o c r a t i c g o a l t h a t e v e r y c i t i z e n h a s t h e r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t h i s i n t e r e s t s , a number o f p r o c e s s -o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s c a n be p o s i t e d w h i c h an y p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m u n i c i p a l l a n d use p l a n n i n g s h o u l d s t r i v e t o a c h i e v e . T h e s e o b j e c t i v e s s e r v e a s a b a s i s on w h i c h t o j u d g e t h e a d e q u a c y o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The s i x o b j e c t i v e s a r e : a c c e s s i b i l i t y , t i m i n g , i m p a r t i a l i t y , c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y , a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d e f f i c a c y . 23 (1) A c c e s s i b i l i t y - A L L C I T I Z E N S HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY AND ARE ENCOURAGED TO P A R T I C I P A T E . A v a r i e t y o f means t o e n a b l e i n t e r e s t e d a n d c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n s t o become i n v o l v e d a r e p r o v i d e d a t t i m e s a n d l o c a t i o n s c o n v e n i e n t t o them. (2) T i m i n g - THE PUBLIC I S PROVIDED WITH INFORMATION AND OPPORTUNITIES AT CRUCIAL DECISION-MAKING POINTS I N THE PLANNING PROCESS. F a i l u r e t o a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n e a r l y i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c a n s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p i n t e r e s t s i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r c o n c e r n s a nd p r e p a r i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . M o r e o v e r , i f i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t d i s s e m i n a t e d u n t i l l a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , a f t e r s u b s t a n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t s h a v e been made i n t e c h n i c a l a n d o t h e r s t u d i e s by p a r t i e s t o a p r o p o s a l , t h e p l a n c a n g a i n momentum w h i c h e f f e c t i v e l y p r e v e n t s r a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f i t s m e r i t s . Many c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s h a v e c o n c l u d e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n must be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a number o f s t a g e s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( C r e i g h t o n 1983, 127; Boaden e t a l . 1980, 45; B e r r y e t a l . 1984, 17; A l t e r m a n e t a l . 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e r e f o r e a s i n g l e e f f o r t a p p r o a c h t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c e i t h e r e a r l y o r l a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s i n s u f f i c i e n t . (3) I m p a r t i a l i t y - NO INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP I S PERMITTED TO DOMINATE THE PARTICIPATION PROCESS AT THE EXPENSE OF OTHERS. The b a t t l e s a n d d e b a t e s t h a t go on o v e r l a n d u s e a r e a s t r u g g l e among c o m p e t i n g f u n d a m e n t a l v a l u e s a b o u t how l a n d s h o u l d be u s e d 24 a n d t h e l i f e s t y l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t u s e . The demands f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e demands t h a t a g e n c i e s be a c c o u n t a b l e t o a b r o a d e r r a n g e o f a l t e r n a t i v e v a l u e s ( C r e i g h t o n 1983, 4 3 ) . I n o r d e r f o r p l a n n e r s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r a n g e o f v a l u e s h e l d i n t h e c o m m u n i t y a n d i n t u r n , f o r t h e p u b l i c t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n h e l d by t h e p l a n n e r s , e x c h a n g e s a r e n e c e s s a r y w h e r e b y a l l p a r t i e s become e d u c a t e d a s t o o t h e r s ' p o s i t i o n s a n d a b o u t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y p o s s e s s . M u t u a l e d u c a t i o n i s f u n d a m e n t a l i n p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P e o p l e a n d g r o u p s w h i c h c a n be e x p e c t e d t o r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s a n d p h i l o s o p h i e s t h e r e f o r e , must be p e r m i t t e d a n d e n c o u r a g e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . ( 4 ) C o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y - IMPORTANT INFORMATION I S PROVIDED AND I S PRESENTED IN SUCH A WAY THAT IT I S UNDERSTOOD BY THOSE WHOM I T AFFECTS. E f f o r t c o u l d be w a s t e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p r o g r a m i n w h i c h t h e p u b l i c w o u l d h a v e d i f f i c u l t y p a r t i c i p a t i n g b e c a u s e t h e y l a c k u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i s s u e s a n d d e c i s i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , t e c h n i c a l j a r g o n must be a v o i d e d a n d i n s t e a d l a y t e r m i n o l o g y e m p l o y e d where e v e r f e a s i b l e . T e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s g e n e r a t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e r i s k s , c o s t s , a n d u n c e r t a i n t i e s a r e s i m p l y a n d c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d t o a l l o w t h e p u b l i c t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s p r e s e n t e d . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s t h e f u l l d i s c l o s u r e o f a l l r e l e v a n t d a t a a n d a n a l y s i s . The i n f o r m a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d must be s u f f i c i e n t s o t h e p u b l i c w i l l h a v e a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p u r p o s e , d i r e c t i o n a n d e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and o f t h e r o l e o f 25 p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s . The i n f o r m a t i o n must be a c c u r a t e a n d c o m p i l e d i n a u s e f u l f o r m . (5) A l t e r n a t i v e s - THE PUBLIC I S PRESENTED WITH A RANGE OF ALTERNATIVES. The p u b l i c i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e p l a n n e r s ' own a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o b l e m s o r i s s u e s a n d a r a n g e o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s w i t h p e r c e i v e d c o n s e q u e n c e s . I n t u r n c i t i z e n s h ave t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o f f e r t h e i r own o p i n i o n o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d s u g g e s t d i f f e r e n t o n e s . I n o r d e r f o r e x c h a n g e t o o c c u r t h e f l o w o f i d e a s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n i s c y c l i c a l b e t w e e n p l a n n e r s , e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s a n d t h e p u b l i c , i n c l u d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e b a t e a nd d i a l o g u e . (6) E f f i c a c y - PARTICIPATORS' VIEWS ARE CONSIDERED I N PRODUCTS OF THE PLANNING PROCESS. I n o r d e r f o r t h e r e t o be m u t u a l e d u c a t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e p u b l i c be g i v e n an e x p l a n a t i o n a b o u t t h e d e c i s i o n s made, i n c l u d i n g why c e r t a i n s u g g e s t i o n s a n d v i e w s were i n c o r p o r a t e d w h i l e o t h e r s were r e j e c t e d , o r a c o m p r o m i s e was s t r u c k . The o b j e c t i v e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t s i n f l u e n c i n g d e c i s i o n o u t c o m e s i s c o n s i d e r e d v e r y i m p o r t a n t by many c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s ( P o l l a c k 1984, 72; K w e i t a n d K w e i t 1981, 33; K a s p e r s o n a n d B r i e t b a r t q t d . i n Checkoway a n d Van T i l 1978, 3 5 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e o p i n i o n s , v i e w s a nd c o n c e r n s o f t h e p u b l i c t h a t a r e s o l i c i t e d d u r i n g t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s must be r e c o g n i z e d , c o n s i d e r e d a n d , i f a p p r o p r i a t e , h a v e an e f f e c t on s t a f f a n d d e c i s i o n m a k e r s ' o p i n i o n s a n d be i n c o r p o r t a t e d i n t h e outcome a n d p r o d u c t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 26 I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t i n o r d e r f o r any o f t h e ab o v e o b j e c t i v e s t o be met, commitment i s r e q u i r e d on t h e p a r t o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y o r a g e n c y i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I f e f f o r t i s n o t made by t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i n g a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m a n d by p o l i t i c i a n s , t h e n m e e t i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be d i f f i c u l t . Many w r i t e r s p o i n t t o t h e p o l i t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e commitment a s i m p o r t a n t c o n d i t i o n s f o r e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t s ( C a t a n e s e 1984, 129; B e r r y e t a l . 1984, 7; J o h n s o n 1984; 8 ) . 2.6 SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r h a s s u m m a r i z e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community p l a n n i n g . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t w h i l e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n o t w i t h o u t i t s c o n s t r a i n t s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s , i t i s deemed a s an a c c e p t e d a n d i n t e g r a l p a r t o f m u n i c i p a l l a n d u s e p l a n n i n g . C o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s a g r e e t h a t a s minimum c o n d i t i o n s , p u b l i c p a r t i c i a t i o n must i n v o l v e n o n - e l e c t e d members o f t h e p u b l i c a n d t h a t t h a t i n v o l v e m e n t must go b e y o n d t h e f o r m a l e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s e s . T h e r e i s no a g r e e m e n t h o w e v e r , a s t o when p a r t i c i p a t i o n becomes e f f e c t i v e o r a d e q u a t e . B a s e d on d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s a n d s u p p o r t e d by f i n d i n g s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e c h a p t e r h a s c o n c l u d e d w i t h s i x p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . How w e l l a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m a c h i e v e s t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e e f f o r t . The s t e p s t a k e n be e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t h e i r O.C.P. p r o c e s s t o meet t h e s e s i x o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be a s s e s s e d i n c h a p t e r f i v e . B e f o r e g o i n g i n t o e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l p r o c e s s e s , t h e o f f i c i a l 27 community plan process as experienced in four B r i t i s h Columbia municipalities and the techniques they used w i l l be discussed in the next two chapters. 28 CHAPTER THREE THE PROCESS OF PREPARING AN O F F I C I A L COMMUNITY PLAN 3.0 INTRODUCTION The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s : (1) t o p r o v i d e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f o u r m u n i c p a l i t i e s u s e d a s e x a m p l e s i n t h i s s t u d y , (2) t o d e s c r i b e t h e O.C.P. a s c u r r e n t l y d e f i n e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , (3) t o d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s e s t h a t f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s went t h r o u g h i n p r e p a r i n g t h e i r O.C.P. an d (4) t o d e s c r i b e t h e r o l e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p l a y e d i n t h o s e p r o c e s s e s . As m e n t i o n e d i n c h a p t e r o n e , t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c h o s e n f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n a r e a l l s i t u a t e d i n t h e g r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r r e g i o n a n d h a v e r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d , o r a r e c l o s e t o c o m p l e t i n g , an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n . F i g u r e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n o f t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . S u r r e y i s t h e l a r g e s t o f t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i t s 150,000 r e s i d e n t s a n d 32,225 h e c t a r e s . F i g u r e 2 i l l u s t r a t e s S u r r e y ' s p l a n n i n g a r e a s . R i c h m o n d h a s t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h 105,000 p e o p l e r e s i d i n g a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e w e s t s i d e o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . R i c h m o n d ' s t o t a l a r e a i s 13,311 h e c t a r e s . F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s R i c h m o n d ' s p l a n n i n g a r e a s . D e l t a ' s p o p u l a t i o n o f 78,000 l i v e s i n t h e t h r e e d i s t i n c t a n d s e p a r a t e c o m m u n i t i e s o f L a d n e r , S o u t h D e l t a and N o r t h D e l t a . D e l t a ' s t o t a l a r e a i s 18,679 h e c t a r e s . D e l t a ' s p l a n n i n g a r e a s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 4. New W e s t m i n s t e r i s t h e s m a l l e s t o f t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n b o t h a r e a s i z e a n d p o p u l a t i o n . THE LOCATION OP RICHMOND, SURREY, DELTA AND NEW WESTMINSTER IN THE GREATER VANCOUVER REGION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 30 Sourcei (Surrey 1933a, 79) Frasar Rlvar FIGURE 5 NEW WESTMINSTER PLANNING AREAS 1. DOWNTOWN 9. QUEENSBOROUGH 2. QUEEN'S PARK 10. NORTH ARM SOUTH 3. UPTOWN 1 1. CONNAUGHT HEIGHTS 4. BROW OF THE HILL 12. WEST END 5. VICTORY HEIGHTS 13. KELVIN 6. SAPPERTON 14. GLENBROOKE NORTH 7. BRUNETTE CREEK 15. GLENBROOKE SOUTH 8. QUEENSBOROUGH 34 F o r t y t h o u s a n d p e o p l e l i v e on 1565 h e c t a r e s (G.V.R.D. 1 9 8 2 ) . New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s p l a n n i n g a r e a s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d on F i g u r e 5. 3.1 L E G I S L A T I O N AND O F F I C I A L COMMUNITY PLANS I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a l l o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s a r e p r e p a r e d a n d a d o p t e d w i t h i n t h e s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t - o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n p r e s c r i b e s t h e g e n e r a l c o n t e n t o f O.C.P.'s and a l s o s e t s o u t a f o r m a l p r o c e s s f o r a d o p t i n g a p l a n . I n t h e autumn o f 1985, t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e p a s s e d B i l l 6 2 , The M u n i c i p a l Amendment A c t , w h i c h a f f e c t e d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f O.C.P.'s i n a number o f ways. B e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e more p e r t i n e n t c h a n g e s , a summary o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n a s i t e x i s t e d b e f o r e t h e most r e c e n t amendments w i l l be o u t l i n e d . T h i s i s n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e b o t h S u r r e y ' s O.C.P. and New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s O.C.P. were p r e p a r e d b e f o r e t h e 1985 amendments were i n t r o d u c e d . 3.1.1 MUNICIPAL ACT 1979 P r i o r t o t h e 1985 amendments, a c o m m u n i t y p l a n was d e f i n e d i n t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t a s "an e x p r e s s i o n o f p o l i c y f o r any u s e o f l a n d , i n c l u d i n g s u r f a c e s o f w a t e r , o r t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a n d , a n d e i t h e r o r b o t h may a p p l y t o any o r a l l a r e a s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y " ( 1 9 7 9 , S e c . 7 0 9 ) . To become an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n , a c o m m u n i t y p l a n h a d t o be g i v e n b y l a w d e s i g n a t i o n by c o u n c i l ( 1 9 7 9 , S u b s e c . 7 1 1 ( 1 ) ) a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n h a d t o be g i v e n t o : (a ) t h e p r o b a b l e s o c i a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d e c o n o m i c c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p r o p o s e d p o l i c i e s ; 35 (b) t h e s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s , p o l i c i e s a n d p r o g r a m s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t ; ( c ) t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f l a n d f o r v a r i o u s u s e s ; (d) l a n d a r e a r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r u s e s r e l a t e d t o p r o j e c t i o n s o f p o p u l a t i o n a n d e c o n o m i c g r o w t h ; a n d (e) t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f p o l l u t i o n o f a i r , w a t e r a n d l a n d ( 1 9 8 4 , s e c . 7 1 1 ( 2 ) a n d 8 1 0 ( 3 ) ) . A f a i r amount o f f l e x i b i l i t y was p e r m i t t e d i n t h e p r e - 1 9 8 5 A c t . F i r s t , c o m m u n i t y p l a n s c o u l d be e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o r m o f maps, p l a n s , r e p o r t s o r any c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e ( 1 9 7 9 , s e c . 7 1 0 ) . S e c o n d , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y p l a n s was o p t i o n a l ( 1 9 8 4 , s u b s e c . 7 1 1 ( 1 ) ) . H o w e v e r , o n c e a d o p t e d a s an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n , t h e n t h e p l a n became p a r a m o u n t . S u b s e c t i o n 7 1 2 ( 1 ) o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t 1984 s t a t e s : The c o u n c i l o r t r u s t e e s o f an i m p r o v e m e n t d i s t r i c t s h a l l n o t e n a c t a p r o v i s i o n o r u n d e r t a k e a work c o n t r a r y t o o r a t v a r i a n c e w i t h , an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n " . A t t h e same t i m e , s u b s e c t i o n 7 1 3 ( 1 ) e n s u r e d t h a t c o u n c i l was n o t o b l i g a t e d t o do e v e r y t h i n g o u t l i n e d i n t h e p l a n : An o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n d o e s n o t commit t h e c o u n c i l o r a n y o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body t o u n d e r t a k e any p r o j e c t s s u g g e s t e d o r o u t l i n e d i n i t . I f a c o u n c i l d i d n o t want t o ha v e an O.C.P., two o t h e r o p t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e : ( 1 ) t o a d o p t a c o m m u n i t y p l a n by r e s o l u t i o n o r (2) n o t t o h a v e a co m m u n i t y p l a n a t a l l . B o t h o f t h e s e o p t i o n s meant t h e r e was a l e s s e r d e g r e e o f c e r t a i n t y a s t o how f u t u r e c h a n g e w o u l d be managed. P r o v i s i o n s f o r p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s i n c l u d e d two d e v i c e s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s was a p u b l i c h e a r i n g w h i c h was m a n d a t o r y . U nder t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t , 1979, t h e c o u n c i l c o u l d n o t d e s i g n a t e a c o m m u n i t y p l a n a s an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n o r amend an O.C.P. u n l e s s i t h e l d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g ( s u b s e c . 7 1 1 ( 2 ) ) . 3 6 The s e c o n d p r o v i s i o n was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h was o p t i o n a l f o r m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s . I f e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n was t o a d v i s e c o u n c i l on s u c h m a t t e r s c o m i n g w i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g a s r e f e r r e d t o t h e c o m m i s s i o n by t h e c o u n c i l ( M u n i c i p a l A c t 1979, s e c . 7 1 5 ) . 3.1.2 THE MUNICIPAL AMENDMENT ACT, 1985 U n d e r t h e 1985 amendments i n t r o d u c e d i n B i l l 62, a d o p t i o n o f o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s r e m a i n s o p t i o n a l a n d s t i l l r e t a i n s a f a i r amount o f f l e x i b i l i t y . I n t h e M u n i c i p a l Amendment A c t 1985, an O.C.P. i s d e f i n e d a s : a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t o f t h e b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s a n d p o l i c i e s o f t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t r e s p e c t i n g t h e f o r m a n d c h a r a c t e r o f e x i s t i n g a n d p r o p o s e d l a n d u s e and s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e a r e a c o v e r e d by t h e p l a n ( s u b s e c . 9 4 5 ( 1 ) ) . U n d e r s u b s e c t i o n 9 4 5 ( 2 ) , a c o m m u n i t y p l a n must now be i n w r i t i n g a nd may i n c l u d e p l a n s , maps, t a b l e s o r o t h e r g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l b u t must i n c l u d e s t a t e m e n t s a n d map d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r t h e a r e a c o v e r e d by t h e p l a n r e s p e c t i n g (a ) t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l o c a t i o n , amount, t y p e a n d d e n s i t y o f r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e d t o meet a n t i c i p a t e d h o u s i n g n e e d s o v e r a p e r i o d o f a t l e a s t 5 y e a r s , (b) t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l o c a t i o n , amount a n d t y p e o f p r e s e n t a n d p r o p o s e d c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l a n d p u b l i c u t i l i t y l a n d u s e s , ( c ) t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l o c a t i o n a n d a r e a o f s a n d a n d g r a v e l d e p o s i t s t h a t a r e s u i t a b l e f o r f u t u r e s a n d a n d g r a v e l e x t r a c t i o n , ( d ) r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e u s e o f l a n d t h a t i s s u b j e c t t o h a z a r d o u s c o n d i t i o n o r t h a t i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s e n s i t i v e t o d e v e l o p m e n t , (e) t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l o c a t i o n a n d p h a s i n g o f m a j o r h i g h w a y s a n d t r u n k sewer a n d w a t e r s e r v i c e s , ( f ) t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l o c a t i o n a n d t y p e o f p r e s e n t a n d 37 p r o p o s e d p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g s c h o o l s , p a r k s a n d w a s t e t r e a t m e n t a n d d i s p o s a l s i t e s , a n d (g) o t h e r m a t t e r s t h a t may, i n r e s p e c t o f any p l a n , be r e q u i r e d by t h e m i n i s t e r . New p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e M u n i c i p a l Amendment A c t 1985 r e s p e c t i n g O.C.P.'s i n c l u d e : • O.C.P.'s must d e s i g n a t e a r e a s where t e m p o r a r y c o m m e r c i a l / i n d u s t r i a l u s e s w o u l d be p e r m i t t e d b e f o r e s u c h p e r m i t s may be i s s u e d ( s u b s e c . 9 4 5 ( 3 ) ) ; • O.C.P.'s a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o s t a t e m e n t s o f b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s on m a t t e r s o u t s i d e l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n u n l e s s t h e M i n i s t e r h a s r e q u i r e d o t h e r w i s e ( s u b s e c . 9 4 5 ( 5 ) ) ; a n d • O.C.P.'s must d e s i g n a t e where d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s w i l l be r e q u i r e d b e f o r e s u c h p e r m i t s c a n be i s s u e d . A c o m m u n i t y p l a n may d e s i g n a t e s u c h a r e a s f o r t h e (a ) p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , (b) p r o t e c t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m h a z a r d o u s c o n d i t i o n s , ( c ) p r o t e c t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l o r m u n i c i p a l h e r i t a g e s i t e s , u n d e r t h e H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t , o r (d) r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f u r b a n c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s , ( s u b s e c . 9 4 5 ( 4 ) ) . I f a m u n i c i p a l i t y w i s h e s t o i s s u e d e v e l o p m e n t p e r m i t s , t h e r e f o r e , an O.C.P. w h i c h d e s i g n a t e s t h e a r e a s i n q u e s t i o n , must be a d o p t e d f i r s t . P u b l i c h e a r i n g s r e m a i n m a n d a t o r y b e f o r e an O.C.P. b y l a w c a n be a d o p t e d . A new s t i p u l a t i o n r e q u i r e s a c o u n c i l r e f e r t h e p l a n ( o r amendment) t o a d j o i n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a n d t o t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t o f w h i c h i t i s a member f o r comment a t l e a s t 30 d a y s b e f o r e a p u b l i c h e a r i n g ( s u b s e c . 9 4 7 ( b ) ) . The l e g i s l a t i o n now s p e c i f i e s t h a t a h e a r i n g be h e l d a f t e r f i r s t r e a d i n g a n d b e f o r e t h i r d r e a d i n g a n d r e q u i r e s a c e r t i f i e d r e c o r d o f e a c h h e a r i n g be p r e p a r e d a n d made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c ( M u n i c i p a l Amendment 38 A c t 1985, s u b s e c . 9 4 7 ( b ) ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e g u i d e l i n e s s e t o u t f o r p u b l i c h e a r i n g s u n d e r s e c t i o n s 956 t h r o u g h 959 e n s u r e s t h a t a l l p e r s o n s who b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n p r o p e r t y i s a f f e c t e d by t h e p r o p o s e d b y l a w a r e a f f o r d e d a r e a s o n a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o be h e a r d ( a s o p p o s e d t o t h e pre-amendment 1985 A c t " a f f o r d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y " ) o r t o p r e s e n t w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s r e s p e c t i n g m a t t e r s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e b y l a w . " I n t e r e s t i n p r o p e r t y " i s i n t e r p r e t e d w i d e l y t o i n c l u d e any i n t e r e s t p e o p l e h a v e i n how a b y l a w w o u l d a f f e c t them. When a d o p t i n g an O.C.P., i n a d d i t i o n t o r e f e r r i n g a p r o p o s e d p l a n t o a d j o i n i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and i t s r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t a n d h o l d i n g a p u b l i c h e a r i n g , a c o u n c i l m u s t , a f t e r f i r s t a n d b e f o r e t h i r d r e a d i n g , e x a m i n e i t s c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e b y l a w a n d any w a s t e management p l a n o r e c o n o m i c s t r a t e g y p l a n a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e a r e a i n t e r m s o f t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e p l a n . The c o u n c i l may t h e n a d o p t t h e p l a n by g i v i n g i t f o u r t h a n d f i n a l r e a d i n g ( M u n i c i p a l Amendment A c t 1985, s u b s e c . 9 4 7 ) . E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n r e m a i n s o p t i o n a l u n d e r t h e new amended A c t . M e m b e r s h i p h a s been r e s t r i c t e d t o r e s i d e n t s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o r t h e e l e c t o r a l a r e a o f t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t a n d e x c l u d e s o f f i c e r s , e m p l o y e e s , a n d e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ( M u n i c i p a l Amendment A c t 1985, s e c . 9 5 5 ) . To e n s u r e p u b l i c a c c e s s t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d and d e c i s i o n s made by an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n , a new p r o v i s i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t where e v e r a c o m m i s s i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e m i n u t e s o f a l l i t s m e e t i n g s must be k e p t a n d made a v a i l a b l e upon r e q u e s t t o t h e p u b l i c ( M u n i c i p a l Amendment A c t 1985, 39 s u b s e c . 9 5 5 ( 5 ) ) . The l e g i s l a t i o n a l s o r e q u i r e s t h a t any p e r s o n who b e l i e v e s h i s i n t e r e s t i n p r o p e r t y i s a f f e c t e d by t h e m a t t e r b e f o r e t h e c o m m i s s i o n a n d w i s h e s t o a d d r e s s t h e c o m m i s s i o n , must be h e a r d ( s u b s e c . 9 5 5 ( 7 ) ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s " t h i s i n c r e a s e s t h e l e v e l o f l o c a l p u b l i c i n p u t t o a d v i c e r e c e i v e d by t h e b o a r d o r c o u n c i l " ( P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1985, 3 ) . 3.1.3 IMPLEMENTATION OF AN O.C.P. O f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s c a n n o t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t t h e r i g h t s o f l a n d o w n e r s . S e c t i o n 712 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t 1979 s t a t e s t h a t w h i l e t h e c o u n c i l s h a l l n o t e n a c t a p r o v i s i o n o r u n d e r t a k e a work c o n t r a r y t o , o r a t v a r i a n c e w i t h , an O.C.P., t h i s d o e s n o t empower t h e c o u n c i l t o i m p a i r , a b r o g a t e o r o t h e r w i s e a f f e c t t h e r i g h t s a n d p r i v i l e g e s t o w h i c h an owner o f l a n d i s o t h e r w i s e l a w f u l l y e n t i t l e d . S u b s e c t i o n 9 4 5 ( 2 ) o f t h e M u n i c i p a l Amendment A c t 1985, s t a t e s t h a t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l o c a t i o n , t y p e , d e n s i t y , p h a s i n g a n d amount o f t h e v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s a n d map d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r t h e a r e a c o v e r e d by t h e p l a n s h a l l be a p p r o x i m a t e a n d t h e r e f o r e n o t d e t a i l e d . The O.C.P. i s meant t o be c o n c e p t u a l i n t h i s r e s p e c t . T h e r e f o r e , w h e r e a s O.C.P.'s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n t h e management o f d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e y a r e i n e f f e c t i v e u n l e s s t h e r e i s a means t o i m p l e m e n t t h e i r p o l i c i e s a n d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o do s o . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an O.C.P. i n v o l v e s f i n a n c i a l commitment t o c a r r y o u t s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s a n d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n a n d e n f o r c e m e n t o f z o n i n g a n d s u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e p l a n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , z o n i n g a n d s u b d i v i s i o n b y l a w s r e p r e s e n t p o w e r f u l t o o l s w h i c h c a n be u s e d t o i m p l e m e n t 40 I n c o n t r a s t t o an O.C.P., a c o u n c i l by u s i n g i t s z o n i n g b y l a w p o w e r s e x e r c i s e s d i r e c t c o n t r o l o v e r p r o p e r t y r i g h t s i n l a n d i n a z o n e d a r e a . S u b s e c t i o n 9 6 3 ( 1 ) o f t h e M u n i c i p a l Amendment A c t 1985 l e g i s l a t e s t h a t a l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t may, by b y l a w , (a) d i v i d e t h e w h o l e o r p a r t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , a s t h e c a s e may b e , i n t o z o n e s , name e a c h zone a n d show by map o r d e s c r i b e by l e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e z o n e s , (b) l i m i t t h e v e r t i c a l e x t e n t o f a z o n e a n d p r o v i d e o t h e r z o n e s a b o v e o r b e l o w i t , a n d ( c ) r e g u l a t e w i t h i n t h e z o n e s ( i ) t h e u s e o f l a n d , b u i l d i n g s o r s t r u c t u r e s , ( i i ) t h e d e n s i t y o f t h e use o f l a n d , b u i l d i n g s a n d s t r u c t u r e s , ( i i i ) t h e s i t i n g , s i z e a n d d i m e n s i o n s o f b u i l d i n g s a n d s t r u c t u r e s , and ( i v ) t h e a r e a , s h a p e a n d d i m e n s i o n s o f a l l p a r c e l s o f l a n d t h a t may be c r e a t e d by s u b d i v i s i o n u n d e r t h e L a n d T i t l e A c t o r t h e Co n d o m i n i u m A c t . F u r t h e r m o r e s u b s e c t i o n 9 6 3 ( 3 ) s t a t e s t h a t t h e power t o r e g u l a t e u n d e r s u b s e c t i o n ( 1 ) i n c l u d e s t h e power t o p r o h i b i t any u s e o r u s e s i n any z o n e o r z o n e s . The n a t u r e o f O.C.P.'s a n d z o n i n g b y l a w s h a v e n o t c h a n g e d u n d e r t h e new amendments i n t r o d u c e d i n 1985. T h e r e f o r e i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g b e t w e e n an O.C.P. b y l a w a n d a z o n i n g b y l a w , an O.C.P. d o e s n o t b i n d p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s , w h i l e a z o n i n g b y l a w d o e s . An O.C.P. b y l a w by i t s e l f d o e s n o t have t h e l e g i s l a t i v e power t o e n s u r e i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , f o r an O.C.P. t o be e f f e c t i v e , i t s h o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a z o n i n g b y l a w a n d o t h e r d e v i c e s . S u c h a b y l a w h a s t h e l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y t o r e q u i r e l a n d o w n e r s t o c o m p l y w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e z o n i n g d i s t r i c t s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e l o c a t e d . H owever, z o n i n g b y l a w s do n o t a l w a y s r e f l e c t t h e i n t e n t o f 41 an O.C.P.. I n t h e s e c a s e s s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l c a n be u s e f u l i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p l a n . S u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s s u p p l e m e n t z o n i n g b y l a w s by d e s i g n a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t may h a v e t o be met b e f o r e l a n d c a n be s u b d i v i d e d f o r t h e u s e s p e r m i t t e d u n d e r t h e z o n i n g b y l a w . T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y i n v o l v e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s ( B i s h 1984, 2 0 0 ) . B e c a u s e s u b d i v i s i o n i n v o l v e s t r a n s a c t i o n s i n r e a l p r o p e r t y i t i s g o v e r n e d by t h e L a n d T i t l e s A c t a s w e l l a s t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s a n d r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s may d e s i g n a t e an o f f i c i a l " a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r " ( B i s h 1984, 1 9 9 ) . I t i s s t a t e d i n s u b s e c t i o n 7 2 9 ( 3 ) o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t 1979, t h a t : E v e r y a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r s h a l l g i v e r e g a r d t o any o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n when d e a l i n g w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e a p p r o v a l o f a p l a n o f s u b d i v i s i o n . T h e r e f o r e , where z o n i n g b y l a w s a n d O.C.P. l a n d u s e d e s i g n a t i o n s a n d p o l i c i e s c o n f l i c t , t h e s u b d i v i s i o n s a p p r o v i n g o f f i c e r c a n e x e r c i s e h i s d i s c r e t i o n a s t o what i s most a p p r o p r i a t e . T h i s power i s l i m i t e d h o w e v e r , s i n c e c o n t r o l l i n g s u b d i v i s i o n l o t s i z e a n d s e r v i c i n g i s o n l y one a s p e c t o f t h e o v e r a l l c o n c e p t o f an O.C.P.. Two o t h e r p r i n c i p l e methods u s e d t o i m p l e m e n t an O.C.P. a r e t h e t a x a t i o n s y s t e m w h i c h c a n be u s e d s e l e c t i v e l y t o a f f e c t d e v e l o p m e n t a n d , s p e n d i n g power t h r o u g h t h e m u n i c i p a l c a p i t a l b u d g e t w h i c h i s p r e p a r e d t o s e l e c t p r i o r i t i e s f r o m among c o m p e t i n g demands. 3.1.4 SUMMARY I n summary, an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n i s a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t o f t h e b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s a n d p o l i c i e s o f t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t r e s p e c t i n g t h e f o r m a n d c h a r a c t e r o f e x i s t i n g a n d 42 p r o p o s e d l a n d u s e and s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e a r e a c o v e r e d by t h e p l a n . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a l l O.C.P.'s a r e p r e p a r e d a n d a d o p t e d w i t h i n t h e s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . O.C.P.'s p r o v i d e a d e g r e e o f c e r t a i n t y a b o u t t h e l o c a t i o n a n d n a t u r e o f c o m m u n i t y c h a n g e t o r e s i d e n t s a n d l a n d o w n e r s a n d s e r v e a s a q u i d e f o r m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s when t h e y make d e c i s i o n s a b o u t d e v e l o p m e n t , z o n i n g , a n d p r o v i d i n g t h e r e q u i r e d s e r v i c e s t o accommodate g r o w t h . Once a d o p t i n g a p l a n w i t h l a n d u s e d e s i g n a t i o n s , a c o u n c i l c a n r e z o n e f o r u s e s p e r m i t t e d w i t h i n e a c h o f . t h e p l a n d e s i g n a t i o n a r e a s . I f c o u n c i l f e e l s i t w a n t s t o a l l o w a r e z o n i n g t h a t i s n o t p e r m i t t e d u n d e r a l a n d u s e d e s i g n a t i o n , t h e O.C.P. must be amended f i r s t a n d t h e n r e z o n i n g p r o c e d u r e s c a n p r o c e e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p l a n c a n o n l y e n c o u r a g e s e n i o r l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t t o t a k e a c t i o n ; i t c a n n o t f o r c e o r r e q u i r e s e n i o r g o v e r n m e n t s t o a c t . As f a r a s p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r e s a p u b l i c h e a r i n g be h e l d b e f o r e t h i r d r e a d i n g o f t h e O.C.P. b y l a w a nd i t i s l e f t up t o t h e c o u n c i l ' s d i s c r e t i o n w h e t h e r o r n o t t o a p p o i n t an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n . 3.2 THE O F F I C I A L COMMUNITY PLAN PROCESS IN RICHMOND 3.2.1 THE OVERALL PROCESS I n J a n u a r y 1984, R i c h m o n d m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l d i r e c t e d t h e i r p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t t o p r e p a r e an O.C.P. f o r R i c h m o n d . C o u n c i l a p p r o v e d t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t ' s p r o p o s a l t o p r e p a r e t h e O.C.P. i n s i x s t e p s ; r e s e a r c h , a n a l y s i s , d i s c u s s i o n , p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t , a d o p t i o n , a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ( R i c h m o n d 1986, 2 ) . 43 The m a j o r t h r u s t o f t h e r e s e a r c h a n d a n a l y s i s s t a g e s were t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f 24 b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s d e t a i l i n g c o m m u n i t y i s s u e s . The m a j o r i s s u e s i n c l u d e d : a g r i c u l t u r e , e n v i r o n m e n t , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , V a n c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , h e r i t a g e , a n d g r o w t h . T h e s e r e p o r t s were c o m p l e t e d by t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a l l m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s a s w e l l a s o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s a n d c o n s u l t a n t s . A f i n a l r e p o r t e n t i t l e d I s s u e s a n d C h o i c e s was p r e p a r e d t o s u m m a r i z e t h e m a j o r i s s u e s a n d t o p r o p o s e a l t e r n a t i v e s . The p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n s t a g e was h e l d i n May, J u n e a n d J u l y o f 1985 and c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s o f f i v e open h o u s e s w h i c h o p e r a t e d d u r i n g t h e a f t e r n o o n a n d e a r l y e v e n i n g . E a c h open h o u s e was f o l l o w e d by an e v e n i n g p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g . S p e c i a l m e e t i n g s were h e l d w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s , s e n i o r l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t , c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e g r o u p s , f a r m e r s a n d h e r i t a g e g r o u p s . G r a p h i c d i s p l a y s were s e t up a t two o f R i c h m o n d ' s m a l l s , t h e R i c h m o n d p u b l i c l i b r a r y , a n d two c o m m u n i t y e v e n t s . R i c h m o n d r e s i d e n t s were i n v i t e d t o s e n d i n t h e i r comments on q u e s t i o n n a i r e / i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t s made a v a i l a b l e a t t h e d i s p l a y s , open h o u s e s , p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n m e e t i n g s a n d a t t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . A summary f e e d b a c k r e p o r t o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m was p r e p a r e d a n d p u b l i s h e d i n t h e f a l l o f 1985. I n a d d i t i o n , an i n f o r m a t i o n b r o c h u r e , b a s e d on t h e summary r e p o r t o f m a j o r i s s u e s a n d p r o p o s e d o p t i o n s , was s e n t t o e v e r y h o u s e h o l d a n d b u s i n e s s i n R i c h m o n d i n May, m e d i a c o v e r a g e was a c t i v e l y e n c o u r a g e d a nd l e t t e r s a n d b r i e f s were s o l i c i t e d . As w e l l , t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n on t h e p l a n , an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d t o a d v i s e c o u n c i l a n d s t a f f 44 on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e O.C.P. A t t h e p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t s t a g e p l a n n e r s f o r m u l a t e d p o l i c y d e r i v e d f r o m f i v e m a j o r s o u r c e s . The f i v e s o u r c e s i n c l u d e d t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f r a m e w o r k , r e s e a r c h on t h e m a j o r i s s u e s by t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t , l o c a l a r e a p l a n s t h a t were i n p l a c e p r i o r t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e O.C.P. , p a s t a n d p r e s e n t c o u n c i l p o l i c i e s a n d p u b l i c i n p u t . W i t h t h e s e f i v e s o u r c e s , p l a n n e r s d e v e l o p e d a s t r a t e g y f o r t h e p l a n a n d p r e s e n t e d i t a s t h e f i r s t d r a f t o f R i c h m o n d ' s O.C.P.. The p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t o r g a n i z e d a s e c o n d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1986 t o d i s c u s s t h e d r a f t p l a n . The 1986 p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m was s i m i l a r t o t h e 1985 p r o g r a m a nd a l s o i n c l u d e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a b r o a d s h e e t o f t h e d r a f t p l a n . The r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s t h e s i s was c o m p l e t e d a s t h e a d o p t i o n p h a s e o f t h e p r o c e s s was. b e g i n n i n g . P l a n n e r s r e v i s e d t h e f i r s t d r a f t p l a n f o l l o w i n g t h e 1986 p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m . The s e c o n d d r a f t was t h e s u b j e c t o f a m a n d a t o r y p u b l i c h e a r i n g i n t h e autumn a n d w i n t e r o f 1986. I f m a j o r r e v i s i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y by c o u n c i l , t h e n a t h i r d d r a f t o f t h e p l a n w i l l be n e e d e d a nd a n o t h e r p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c h e d u l e d b e f o r e t h e O.C.P. i s p a s s e d a s a b y l a w by c o u n c i l . The f i n a l r e s u l t o f t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s w i l l be a document o f r o u g h l y 50 p a g e s w h i c h o u t l i n e s a l a n d u se s t r a t e g y . The s t r a t e g y i s c o m p r i s e d o f s i x m a j o r p o l i c y a r e a s : a g r i c u l t u r e , j o b s , h o u s i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e n v i r o n m e n t a n d s e r v i c e s . S i x g o a l s o f t h e O.C.P. a r e e s t a b l i s h e d w h i c h a r e meant t o be r e g a r d e d a s a p a c k a g e o f b r o a d t a r g e t s t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y w a n t s t o a c h i e v e by m e e t i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p o l i c i e s 45 which are out l ined in the remainder of the p lan . An O . C . P . land use map, a map ind icat ing development permit areas and a road hierarchy map accompany the writ ten document. A separate document summarizes the background reports providing a community p r o f i l e to complement the p lan . A diagram of the Richmond O . C . P . process can be found in Figure 6. Many d i f f erent players were involved in the development of Richmond's O . C . P . . Figure 7 depicts Richmond's O . C . P . organizat ion , and how the d i f f erent players and committees r e l a t e . The planning department i s responsible for funct ional coordinat ion of research and p o l i c y development proposals . The research and po l i cy development information comes from a var ie ty of sources: outside governmental agencies and m i n i s t r i e s , municipal s taf f and consultants , l o c a l area planning committees and Richmond c i t i z e n s , and the pr ivate sector . Background reports , draft plans and other documentation for the O . C . P . are reviewed by the s ta f f s teering and coordinat ing committee and the advisory planning commission. The s taf f s teering and coordinat ing committee i s made up of representatives from municipal departments, the RCMP and school d i s t r i c t . This committee i s important for inter-departmental l i a i s o n and i s an important medium for t rans fer ing information and reaching consensus on areas of mutual concern. Due to the broad and encompassing scope of the O . C . P . and i t s importance to many municipal departments, t h i s committee i s useful in helping the planning department coordinate the p lan's development. 46 F I G U R E & P U B L I C P A R T I C I P A T I O N AND THE O F F I C I A L COMMUNITY PLAN PROCESS I N RICHMOND COUNCIL APPROVES PLAN'S PREPARATION - J a n u a r y 1984 i BACKGROUND REPORTS -24 r e p o r t s REGIONAL PLANNING FRAMEWORK PAST AND PRESENT COUNCIL P O L I C I E S LOCAL AREA PLANS ADVISORY PLANNING COMMISSION - e s t . May 1984 -comment t h r o u g h o u t p r o c e s s 4, SUMMARY BACKGROUND REPORT - i s s u e s a n d c h o i c e s - b r o c h u r e d e l i v e r y o u t l i n i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d how t o g e t i n v o l v e d i D I S C U S S I O N PHASE -9 p a r t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m - s p r i n g a n d summer 1985 P O L I C Y DEVELOPMENT & DRAFT PLAN - w i n t e r 1986 1 D I S C U S S I O N PHASE -8 p a r t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m - s p r i n g 1986 2n d DRAFT PLAN - 1 s t a n d 2nd r e a d i n a P U B L I C HEARING 1 ADOPTION & IMPLEMENTATION - s c h e d u l e d f o r D e c . 1986 - r e v i s e l o c a l a r e a p l a n s - r e v i s e z o n i n g b y l a w s 47 FIGURE 7 RICHMOND ORGANIZATIONAL CHART FOR THE OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLAN RICHMOND COUNCIL ~* - f i n a l decisions T COUNCIL PLANNING COMMITTEE -recommends OTHER COUNCIL COMMITTEES -review and comment ^ when appropriate STAFF STEERING AND COORDINATING COMMITTEE -review, comment and advise ADVISORY PLANNING COMMISSION -review, comment and advise PLANNING DEPARTMENT -research, coordinate consolidate and produce f * OUTSIDE GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND MINISTRIES -input, comment LOCAL AREA PLANNING COMMITTEES -input, comment MUNICIPAL STAFF AND CONSULTANTS -p o l i c y analysis and development RICHMOND CITIZENS & PRIVATE SECTOR -input, comment 48 The a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n on t h e o t h e r h a n d , c o n s i s t s o f members r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f R i c h m o n d c i t i z e n s . The c o m m i s s i o n ' s p u r p o s e i s t o e x a m i n e r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n and p o l i c y a nd make s u g g e s t i o n s t o m u n i c i p a l s t a f f a nd c o u n c i l . B o t h o f t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s t h e r e f o r e , r e v i e w , comment a n d a d v i s e b o t h t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t a n d c o u n c i l . H o wever, n e i t h e r h a s v e t o power on a n y t h i n g b e i n g p a s s e d t h r o u g h them t o c o u n c i l . T hey a r e welcome t o comment, b u t t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t i s n o t o b l i g a t e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s . I f e i t h e r c o m m i t t e e i s n o t s a t i s f i e d t h a t r e v i s i o n s do n o t meet w i t h t h e i r a p p r o v a l o r i f t h e y d i s a g r e e w i t h a p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , t h e y c a n a d v i s e c o u n c i l o f t h i s . The P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e o f C o u n c i l c o n s i s t s o f f o u r members o f c o u n c i l who a r e r e g u l a r l y a d v i s e d on t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e p l a n . The c o m m i t t e e r e c e i v e s w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l , and r e v i e w s and c o n s i d e r s a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e O.C.P.. T h i s c o m m i t t e e may a s k f o r r e v i s i o n s t o m a t e r i a l b e f o r e i t w i l l e n d o r s e i t and p a s s i t o n t o c o u n c i l . 3.2.2 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND THE RICHMOND O.C.P. PROCESS P a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e p u b l i c was r e p r e s e n t e d i n many ways and a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s i n t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s . The a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n r e p r e s e n t s a c o n t i n u o u s f o r m o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t was r e s t r u c t u r e d i n A p r i l 1984 n e a r t h e s t a r t o f t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s a n d i s s c h e d u l e d t o c o n t i n u e u n t i l a t l e a s t a d o p t i o n o f t h e f i n a l p l a n i n December 1986. The c o m m i s s i o n i s s t r u c t u r e d s u c h t h a t h a l f t h e members r e p r e s e n t a r e a s o f R i c h m o n d , w h i l e t h e o t h e r h a l f r e p r e s e n t s p e c i f i c 49 f i e l d s o f i n t e r e s t s u c h a s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . I n p u t f r o m l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s was an i n d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t t e c h n i q u e . The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s was t o a d v i s e on t h e O.C.P.'s b e i n g p r e p a r e d f o r t h e l o c a l a r e a s . They were n o t d i r e c t l y c o n s u l t e d on t h e R i c h m o n d O.C.P. a l t h o u g h t h e d e c i s i o n s made on t h o s e l o c a l p l a n s h a d an i n h e r e n t a f f e c t on l a n d u s e d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r t h e R i c h m o n d O.C.P.. A l s o , n o t a l l a r e a s o f R i c h m o n d h ad a l o c a l a r e a p l a n i n p l a c e p r i o r t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e R i c h m o n d O.C.P.. I n f a c t , p l a n n e r s p r e p a r e d s e v e r a l l o c a l a r e a p l a n s c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h e R i c h m o n d O.C.P.. F o r t h i s r e a s o n many o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s a n d much i n i t i a l r e s e a r c h was u s e f u l i n t h e d e s i g n o f l o c a l a r e a O.C.P.'s a l t h o u g h d i r e c t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e R i c h m o n d O.C.P.. R e v i s i o n t o e x i s t i n g l o c a l a r e a O.C.P.'s w i l l o c c u r when t h e R i c h m o n d O.C.P. i s a d o p t e d a n d t h e o n g o i n g p r o g r a m o f p r e p a r i n g O.C.P.'s f o r t h o s e l o c a l a r e a s w i t h o u t them, i s s c h e d u l e d t o c o n t i n u e . A t two p o i n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n was a c t i v e l y e n c o u r a g e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h d e l i b e r a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s d e s i g n e d a n d i m p l e m e n t e d . A t h i r d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c i n p u t i n t h e f o r m o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t o o k p l a c e n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e p r o c e s s . E a c h o f t h e two d e s i g n e d p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s w h i c h t o o k p l a c e i n t h e s p r i n g a n d summer o f 1985 a n d a g a i n i n t h e s p r i n g a n d summer o f 1986 i n c l u d e d : - m e d i a c o v e r a g e i n c l u d i n g r a d i o , n e w s p a p e r a nd t e l e v i s i o n a d v e r t i s i n g a n d news c o v e r a g e ; - open h o u s e s a n d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s - g r a p h i c d i s p l a y s a t m a l l s , l i b r a r y , s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s a n d m e e t i n g s ; 50 - m e e t i n g s w i t h c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s a n d g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s - q u e s t i o n n a i r e / c o m m e n t s h e e t s ( S p r i n g 1985 o n l y ) - s o l i c i t a t i o n o f l e t t e r s a n d b r i e f s - f e e d b a c k r e p o r t I n a d d i t i o n , b e f o r e t h e 1985 p r o g r a m , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y p r e p a r e d 24 b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s a n d made them a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g a n d a f t e r t h e 1985 p r o g r a m . I n o r d e r t o s u m m a r i z e t h e k e y p o i n t s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 1985 p r o g r a m , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y s e n t a summary b r o c h u r e o f t h e i s s u e s a n d c h o i c e s t o e v e r y a d d r e s s i n R i c h m o n d . A l s o i n 1986, t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y s e n t a summary b r o a d s h e e t o f t h e d r a f t p l a n t o e v e r y a d d r e s s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . The g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e 1985 p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m were c l e a r l y s t a t e d by t h e p l a n n e r s . The g o a l was: t o d e v e l o p a c o n c e n s u s b u i l d i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m w h i c h d r a w s f r o m a b r o a d s p e c t r u m o f i n d i v i d u a l s , g r o u p s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d p r o v i d e s f o r a v a r i e t y o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t e a r l y i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . ( R i c h m o n d 1985b, 2) The o b j e c t i v e s a s s t a t e d w e r e : 1. To i n c r e a s e t h e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y a n d r e s i d e n t s ; 2. To work w i t h t h e p u b l i c t o c l a r i f y e m e r g i n g i s s u e s a n d c h o i c e s a s t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e c o m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ; a n d 3. To s e e k i n p u t f r o m v a r i o u s ' p u b l i c s ' i n d e t e r m i n i n g i s s u e s , c h o i c e s a n d p r i o r i t i e s ( R i c h m o n d 1985b, 2 - 3 ) . The g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e 1986 p u b l i c p r o g r a m were v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e 1985 p r o g r a m ( R i c h m o n d 1986b, 3 ) . C o n s e n s u s b u i l d i n g was d e f i n e d i n an e a r l i e r R i c h m o n d s t a f f document a s m e a n i n g : a p r o c e s s by w h i c h i s s u e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d , common g r o u n d i s e s t a b l i s h e d , a n d t h o s e a r e a s o f p o t e n t i a l 51 a g r e e m e n t a r e a s c e r t a i n e d ( R i c h m o n d 1984, 1 ) . 3.2.3 SUMMARY I n summary, t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s i n R i c h m o n d was a c l e a r l y p l a n n e d s t r a t e g y w h i c h i n v o l v e d t h e p u b l i c a t t h r e e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s : (1) i s s u e a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d c l a r i f i c a t i o n , (2) comment on f i r s t d r a f t p l a n a n d (3) comment on s e c o n d d r a f t p l a n . As w e l l , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n v o l v e d t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s . P l a n n e r s e s t a b l i s h e d g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e n u s e d a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s t o meet t h e g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s . 3.3 THE O F F I C I A L COMMUNITY PLAN PROCESS IN SURREY 3.3.1 THE OVERALL PROCESS S u r r e y ' s O.C.P. was f o r m u l a t e d o v e r a number o f y e a r s b e g i n n i n g i n t h e l a t e 1970's a n d e n d i n g w i t h p l a n a d o p t i o n i n M a r c h 1985. The r e a s o n f o r t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p r o c e s s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e r a t h e r a d hoc n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s a n d t h e use o f l o c a l a r e a p l a n s t o d e v e l o p t h e O.C.P.. The p r o c e s s i s d e p i c t e d i n f i g u r e 8. 52 FIGURE 8 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND THE OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLAN PROCESS IN SURREY LOCAL AREA PLANS -prepared by l o c a l committees and ratepayers groups -most completed by la t e 1970's PUBLIC SURVEY OPINION ADVISORY PLANNING COMMISSION -appointed May 1982 -comment and edit on 2nd draft ADVISORY PLANNING COMMISSION -disbanded May 1983 BACKGROUND MATERIAL -population projection I DRAFT PLAN -1st and 2nd reading 2nd DRAFT PLAN -published May 1983 -summary boadsheet delivered to residents PUBLIC HEARINGS - i n 10 locations -June-August 1983 REVISIONS TO PLAN PUBLIC HEARINGS -throughout 1984 -revisions to land use designations i ADOPTION -spring 1985 IMPLEMENTATION -yearly public hearings -zoning changes 53 I n 1966, S u r r e y a d o p t e d i t s o r i g i n a l O.C.P. f o l l o w e d by 18 o t h e r c o m m u n i t y a nd i n d u s t r i a l p l a n s c o m p l e t e d by 1982 ( S u r r e y 1983b, 2 ) . The c o m m u n i t y p l a n s o f t h e l a t e 1970's a nd e a r l y 1980's were p r e p a r e d by a v a r i e t y o f a u t h o r s i n c l u d i n g l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s a p p o i n t e d by c o u n c i l ; s e l f - a p p o i n t e d l o c a l p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s who s u b m i t t e d p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s t o c o u n c i l f o r i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; a n d r a t e p a y e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s who p r o d u c e d l o c a l a r e a p l a n s a n d p o l i c i e s on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e , s o m e t i m e s s u p e r s e d i n g t h e work o f c o u n c i l - a p p o i n t e d l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s , a n d s o m e t i m e s e n g a g i n g t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f d e v e l o p e r s a n d p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t s . As w e l l , s e v e r a l l o c a l a r e a p l a n s were p r o d u c e d on t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f c o u n c i l by t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y s u b j e c t e d t o a r e v i e w by l o c a l a r e a c o m m i t t e e s ( S u r r e y 1983a, 3 6 9 ) . T h e s e p l a n s were s u b m i t t e d t o c o u n c i l w h i c h e i t h e r r e c e i v e d them, o r a p p r o v e d them i n p r i n c i p l e s u b j e c t t o m o d i f i c a t i o n s a s n e e d e d t o make them c o m p a t i b l e w i t h e a c h o t h e r a n d w i t h t h e o v e r a l l O.C.P. ( S u r r e y 1983a, 3 6 9 ) . The p r o c e s s o f p r e p a r i n g l o c a l a r e a p l a n s d i d n o t r e p r e s e n t an e f f o r t t o r e a c h c o n s e n s u s o r a c o m p r o m i s e o f t h e r e s i d e n t s i n S u r r e y ' s s u b a r e a s . The l o c a l a r e a p l a n s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e a c h o t h e r a l o n g w i t h t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e l a r g e r O.C.P. i s summed up i n t h e a p p e n d i x o f t h e 1983 d r a f t o f t h e O.C.P.: Some p l a n s a n d t h e l o c a l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s c o v e r o v e r l a p p i n g a r e a s w h i c h i s due t o t h e s o m e t i m e s c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e o f l o c a l a r e a g r o u p s who " c l a i m e d " t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . I n s u c h o v e r l a p a r e a s j u d i c i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c i e s w i l l u s u a l l y a v o i d c o n f l i c t . L e g a l c o n f l i c t d o e s n o t e x i s t s i n c e t h i s A p p e n d i x has no l e g a l s t a t u s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t was e a s i e r t o l e a v e t h e o v e r l a p s t h a n t o d i s c u s s w i t h t h e v a r i o u s l o c a l g r o u p s t h e i r " c l a i m s " ( 1 9 8 3 a , 3 6 9 ) . 54 Concurrent with the development of l o c a l area p l a n s , planners prepared background s t u d i e s and p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s . The background s t u d i e s remained i n t e r n a l documents f o r the planni n g department's use u n t i l they were i n c l u d e d i n the p l a n . The background m a t e r i a l was l a r g e l y s u p e r f i c i a l . There was very l i t t l e data gathered on the c u r r e n t s t a t e of the m u n i c i p a l i t y and a n a l y s i s of the trends f o r the f u t u r e (Caselton i n t e r v i e w ) . Together these two se t s of d e v i c e s , the l o c a l area plans and the background r e p o r t s , represented the re s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s f o r the O.C.P.. Development p o l i c i e s were i n t e g r a t e d and i n May of 1983, the m u n i c i p a l i t y p u b l i s h e d a 427 page d r a f t of the O.C.P.. Copies of the complete d r a f t were made a v a i l a b l e at a l l Surrey l i b r a r i e s and the mun i c i p a l h a l l . In May 1983, the plan n i n g department produced a four page broadsheet summarizing the O.C.P. d r a f t plan h i g h l i g h t i n g the p h y s i c a l p l a n and p o l i c i e s and sent i t to every household i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . A p u b l i c h e a r i n g , adjourned to ten d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s was held i n June, J u l y and August of 1983. R e v i s i o n s to the d r a f t were completed throughout 1984 accompanied by a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c hearings dominated mostly by i n d i v i d u a l land owners re q u e s t i n g changes to the d e s i g n a t i o n of t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s . A l t o g e t h e r , c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the requested changes took approximately eighteen months. F i n a l adoption of the O.C.P. oc c u r r e d i n March 1985. With the exception of a land use d e s i g n a t i o n map d i s p l a y e d at m u n i c i p a l h a l l , no f u r t h e r d r a f t s of the O.C.P. were p u b l i s h e d and made a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c based on the r e v i s i o n s r e s u l t i n g from the h e a r i n g s . The only O.C.P. d r a f t a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c r e f e r r a l remains the May 1983 d r a f t . The 55 f i n a l result i s.a very large O.C.P. document of which two chapters are adopted by bylaw and two chapters by council resolution. Plan designations, land use bylaws and development permit areas are a l l included in the O.C.P. bylaw. The re s i d e n t i a l land-use designations are quite s p e c i f i c breaking the land into three zones: multiple r e s i d e n t i a l , urban r e s i d e n t i a l and suburban r e s i d e n t i a l . The f i r s t two chapters which included a description of the community and a policy plan were adopted by resolution. An interdepartmental committee, c a l l e d the technical planning committee consisting of the municipal manager and the department heads, was responsible for guiding the development of the plan. Due to c o n f l i c t s within the committee, the committee was not as useful as i t could have been. B a s i c a l l y , there was l i t t l e interaction between departments about the plan despite the impact of the plan on such things as servicing c a p a b i l i t y which i s an issue of basic importance to the engineering department (Dickinson interview). 3.3.2 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND THE SURREY O.C.P. Public p a r t i c i p a t i o n was present in Surrey's O.C.P. process in f i v e ways. F i r s t , l o c a l planning committees, both council appointed and se l f appointed and ratepayers associations, were active in the production of l o c a l area plans. These committees can be considered an ind i r e c t link to public p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the development of the O.C.P. since aspects of the l o c a l area plans were used in the development of the O.C.P.. The l o c a l area planning committees, and the general public, however, did not have the opportunity to comment on the aspects of the l o c a l area 56 plans that were incorporated in the Surrey O.C.P.. As well, some of the l o c a l area plans were prepared by special interest groups which did not represent the residents in the area. The membership of many committees that produced l o c a l area plans was r e s t r i c t e d to landowners only. The aspects of the d i f f e r e n t l o c a l area plans that were incorporated into the O.C.P. were decided by the planners and p o l i t i c i a n s . Second, in 1980, the municipality conducted a public opinion survey. The questions s o l i c i t e d opinions on a wide variety of issues relevant to Surrey as well as what preferences residents had.for communicating their opinions. The questions were designed to require only short answers. The municipality intended to deliver the survey to every home in Surrey. However, the delivery system did not work as intended leaving some addresses without delivery (Caselton interview). Only three percent were returned which planners considered a very low response. Surveys of thi s sort usually command a 15-20 percent return rate (Mak interview). Therefore, the results could not be considered an accurate r e f l e c t i o n of public opinion. At least one Surrey planner considered the results unuseable, even as a general indicator of public opinion (Caselton interview). The survey results were used as one means to determine policy questions. Staff were instructed not to formulate policy based on the survey responses alone but rather to consider the responses with other factors such as the l o c a l area plans and the background reports (Dickinson interview). Third, a twelve member advisory planning commission was established in May 1982. Members included representatives from 57 t e n a r e a s i n S u r r e y , t h r e e o f w h i c h h a d been on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e . One member r e p r e s e n t e d t h e s c h o o l b o a r d a n d one member was an a l d e r m a n . The c o m m i s s i o n ' s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e w e re o u t l i n e d by t h e c o u n c i l a n d were i n c l u d e d i n t h e m i n u t e s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s May 20, 1986 m e e t i n g . Among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e t e r m s i n c l u d e d : The C o m m i s s i o n s h a l l meet r e g u l a r l y a t l e a s t o n c e i n e a c h month w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o v e r a l l a r e a o f S u r r e y a n d t o t h e l o n g r a n g e d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , a n d on a l l p l a n n i n g m a t t e r s r e f e r r e d t o i t by t h e C o u n c i l o r t h e P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ; p r o v i d e d h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e C o m m i s s i o n s h a l l n o t d e a l w i t h i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s u n l e s s s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e deemed by C o u n c i l t o a f f e c t t h e o v e r a l l o r l o n g r a n g e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y ( S u r r e y 1 9 8 6 ) . A t t h e same m e e t i n g i t was s t a t e d t h a t one o f t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n was t o comment t o c o u n c i l a b o u t t h e f e e l i n g s o f r e s i d e n t s i n t h e a r e a s t h a t e a c h member was r e p r e s e n t i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n c h a i r m a n , e a c h member t r i e d t o p u t a s i d e l o c a l c o n c e r n f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e o v e r a l l p l a n ( S c h o n i n t e r v i e w ) . The c o m m i s s i o n c r i t i q u e d t h e d r a f t O.C.P. g o i n g t h r o u g h e v e r y c h a p t e r a n d e a c h o f t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n s . The a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n f o u n d t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n s t o be t o t a l l y u n w o r k a b l e a s t h e y were t o o d i v e r s e a n d many were o u t o f d a t e n o t r e f l e c t i n g t h e n e e d s o f t h e t i m e ( S c h o n i n t e r v i e w ) . One i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e p l a n t h e c o m m i s s i o n was n o t a s k e d t o comment on were t h e n i n e d i f f e r e n t a r e a s d e s i g n a t e d " s p e c i a l s t u d y a r e a s " w h i c h a r e d e f i n e d i n t h e p l a n a s " a r e a s o f u n d e t e r m i n e d u s e ; t h e y p o s s e s s e q u a l l y good p o t e n t i a l f o r , o r c o n s t r a i n t s a g a i n s t , two o r more u s e s " ( S u r r e y 1 9 8 3 b ) . The 58 c o m m i s s i o n members w o u l d l i k e t o h a v e had a s a y i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e s p e c i a l a r e a a n d s e e n them d e c l a r e d i n t h e O.C.P. ( S c h o n i n t e r v i e w ) . The a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n was n o t open t o g e n e r a l members o f t h e p u b l i c . T h i s i s c l e a r i n t h e J u n e 15, 1983 m i n u t e s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n when a movement " t h a t members o f t h e p u b l i c be p e r m i t t e d t o a t t e n d t h e J u n e 15, 1983 s p e c i a l m e e t i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e G e n s t a r p r o p o s a l " was d e f e a t e d . S p e c i f i c a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d G e n s t a r were i n v i t e d t o s u b m i t w r i t t e n b r i e f s i n s t e a d . The S u r r e y a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n was n o t r e a p p o i n t e d f o r 1984 a n d t h e c o m m i s s i o n d i d n o t meet a f t e r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i n t h e summer o f 1983. A t no p o i n t d i d t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o comment a f t e r t h e h e a r i n g s e v e n t h o u g h c h a n g e s r e s u l t e d t o t h e p l a n . The May 1983 d r a f t p l a n a n d t h e f o u r page summary b r o a d s h e e t r e p r e s e n t a f o u r t h p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e . Due t o i t s s i z e , t h e d r a f t p l a n was e x p e n s i v e t o p u r c h a s e b u t i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s h a d a c c e s s t o i t a t S u r r e y p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s a n d a t m u n i c i p a l h a l l . The b r o a d s h e e t d e l i v e r e d t o e v e r y home i n S u r r e y d e s c r i b e d t h e p r o p o s e d p l a n i n two s e c t i o n s : t h e l a n d u s e p l a n a n d t h e p o l i c y p l a n . The f i f t h f o r m o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was a s e t o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s w h i c h w ere a d v e r t i s e d i n t h e n e w s p a p e r a n d i n t h e summary b r o a d s h e e t . The i n i t i a l p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were h e l d i n t e n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . A y e a r o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s f o l l o w e d t h e i n i t i a l h e a r i n g s . I n r e v i e w i n g h e a r i n g m i n u t e s i t i s e v i d e n t t h e p l a n n e r s a n d c o u n c i l made 59 changes to the O.C.P. land use designations. The vast majority of changes were landowners wanting their property changed from a suburban designation to an urban designation. Consideration of these changes by the planners including consultation with the engineering department with regard to servicing considerations resulted in an eighteen month delay of adoption of the plan. 3.3.3 SUMMARY In Surrey, the public was involved at two points in the process (1) alternative i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and (2) comment on f i r s t draft plan. The l o c a l area planning committees and the advisory planning commission were used for up to twelve months durations. There was no mechanism in place for continuous involvement during the process. The public p a r t i c i p a t i o n process in Surrey was very much ad hoc. At no point in the process were public p a r t i c i p a t i o n objectives and goals l a i d out and no strategy for public p a r t i c i p a t i o n existed. At no point was the general public's opinion sought except for the survey done of Surrey residents in 1980 and at the public hearings. 3.4 THE OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLAN PROCESS IN DELTA 3.4.1 THE OVERALL PROCESS Between 1961 and 1982, Delta made several attempts to prepare an O.C.P.. None of the attempts were completed because important issues were skirted by the planners and the plans were either too mediocre or too complicated ( C o l l i e r interview). In the past, planners had f a i l e d to take ideas and present them in a simple manner. According to the municipal administrator, past attempts had lacked the creative f l a i r needed when dealing with 60 community g r o u p s ( C o l l i e r i n t e r v i e w ) . D e l t a ' s l a t e s t a t t e m p t i n c o m p l e t i n g an O.C.P. began i n e a r l y 1984 when t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y h i r e d a c o n s u l t a n t t o p e r f o r m t h e t a s k . I t was f e l t t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t d i d n o t have t h e t i m e t o d e v o t e t o s u c h a major p r o j e c t and an e x p e r i e n c e d c o n s u l t a n t w o u l d be more s u c c e s s f u l a t c o m p l e t i n g t h e p l a n . In t h e p l a n ' s p r e p a r a t i o n t h e c o n s u l t a n t u s e d many o u t s i d e s o u r c e s f o r t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g . F o r example p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s were done by a p r o f e s s o r and h i s s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and g r a p h i c s f o r t h e p l a n were c o m p l e t e d a t C o l u m b i a C o l l e g e ( R o g e r s i n t e r v i e w ) . The D e l t a O.C.P. was a d o p t e d i n J a n u a r y 1986. Due t o t h e p a s t a t t e m p t s a t d e v e l o p i n g an O.C.P., t h e p l a n n e r s f e l t t h e i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s had been i d e n t i f i e d and t h e r e f o r e t h e y d i d not seek p u b l i c i n p u t i n t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (Cowie 1985) b u t r a t h e r s o u g h t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o f u r t h e r d e f i n i n g t h e i s s u e s and d e v e l o p i n g p o l i c i e s t o d e a l w i t h them. T h r o u g h o u t 1984, t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y h e l d a p u b l i c m e e t i n g e v e r y month. E a c h m e e t i n g f o c u s s e d on a major i s s u e s u c h a s , c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l l a n d , t h e e x t e n s i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d i n t o t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e by major d e v e l o p e r s i n two l o c a t i o n s , t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l / r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e r f a c e c o n f l i c t , p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n , community and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , h e r i t a g e , and e c o l o g y . The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e m e e t i n g s was t o h e a r t h e p u b l i c ' s c o n c e r n s on t h e s e i s s u e s . F o u r t e e n p o s i t i o n p a p e r s were p r e s e n t e d t o c o u n c i l on t h e major i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d a t t h e s e m e e t i n g s . In A p r i l 1985, a d r a f t p l a n was p r e p a r e d and d e l i v e r e d t o 61 every address in Delta. In May and June 1985, four televised public meetings were held in the communities of Ladner, South Delta and North Delta and at municipal h a l l . Letters and b r i e f s were received by the planning department and the advisory planning commission reported to council on i t s views of the draft plan. Planners made amendments and additions to the plan after receiving the comments from the public and a second draft was prepared by September 1985. This draft was c i r c u l a t e d to adjoining municipalities and regional d i s t r i c t s and passed through f i r s t and second reading by Delta council. In October, 1985, the municipality held a public hearing which resulted in minor amendments. The planner prepared a f i n a l draft incorporating the amendments and thi s plan was given t h i r d reading in January 1986. Figure 9 depicts the Delta O.C.P. process. FIGURE 9 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND THE OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PLAN PROCESS IN DELTA ADVISORY PLANNING COMMISSION -con t i n u o u s term PLANNING CONSULTANT HIRED -winter 1984 -key community l e a d e r s i d e n t i f i e d i COMMUNITY AND SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP MEETINGS AND SEMINARS - d i s c u s s i o n s and workshops on major i s s u e s - a l t e r n a t i v e s c r e a t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n 1 BACKGROUND REPORTS i DRAFT PLAN and BROADSHEET DELIVERY 1 PUBLIC MEETINGS -3 l o c a t i o n s I 2nd DRAFT PLAN I PUBLIC HEARING 1 MINOR AMENDMENTS FINAL DRAFT I ADOPTION -Jan . 1986 4/ IMPLEMENTATION - l o c a l a rea p l a n s 63 P r i o r t o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f D e l t a ' s O.C.P., o n l y two a r e a -s p e c i f i c O.C.P.'s h a d been d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y : t h e D e l t a c i v i c c e n t e r O.C.P. and S o u t h D e l t a C o m m e r c i a l A r e a O.C.P., b o t h a d o p t e d i n 1968. T h e s e b y l a w s were r e p e a l e d w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n o f D e l t a ' s new O.C.P.. A r e a O.C.P.'s h a d n o t been p r e p a r e d f o r D e l t a ' s t h r e e d i s t i n c t c o m m u n i t i e s o f L a d n e r , S o u t h D e l t a a n d N o r t h D e l t a a t t h e t i m e t h e D e l t a O.C.P. was b e i n g d e v e l o p e d . One p o l i c y i n c l u d e d i n t h e O.C.P. i s t o p r e p a r e a r e a p l a n s w i t h p u b l i c i n p u t f o r t h e s e t h r e e c o m m u n i t i e s a s w e l l a s i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s . The a r e a p l a n s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e D e l t a O.C.P.. I n t h e F u t u r e L a n d Use P l a n o f t h e O.C.P., s e v e r a l l a n d s t h a t a r e a d j a c e n t t o d e v e l o p e d l a n d i n L a d n e r a n d S o u t h D e l t a h a v e been d e s i g n a t e d ' u r b a n ' w i t h o u t a p a r t i c u l a r l a n d u s e a g r e e d by c o u n c i l . The number o f h o u s i n g u n i t s a n d f o r m o f r e l a t e d d e v e l o p m e n t i s t o be d e c i d e d on a t t h e t i m e o f z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n . H o w e v e r , p h a s e d d e v e l o p m e n t i s n o t t o p r o c e e d u n t i l an a r e a p l a n h a s been p r e p a r e d f o r t h e g e n e r a l a r e a ( D e l t a 1986, 3 4 ) . D u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e O.C.P., f o u r b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s were r e c o g n i z e d a s t h e b a s i s f o r more s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s . The o b j e c t i v e s were t o : - C o n s e r v e , e n h a n c e a nd i m p r o v e t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ; - C o n s e r v e a n d i n c r e a s e t h e d i v e r s i t y o f c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ; - I m p r o v e a c c e s s t o and e a s e o f movement w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ; - E n c o u r a g e e c o n o m i c g r o w t h a n d p r o t e c t t h e e x i s t i n g t a x b a s e by m a n a g i n g a n d g u i d i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f 64 t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y a s a w h o l e ( D e l t a 1986, 3 0 ) . The m a j o r p a r t o f t h e D e l t a p l a n c o m p r i s e s e x p l a n a t i o n s a n d b a c k g r o u n d f o r s i x t e e n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f c o n c e r n . S i x t e e n s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d w h i c h r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o a n a l y s i s o f e a c h i s s u e . L a n d u se p l a n d e s i g n a t i o n e x p l a n a t i o n s accompany t h e f u t u r e l a n d u s e map c o m p l e t i n g t h e 34 page d o c u m e n t . No s p e c i a l m e c hanisms were e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n t h e m u n i c i p a l h a l l t o d e a l w i t h t h e O.C.P. s p e c i f i c a l l y . A l l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t by e x i s t i n g c h a n n e l s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f c o u n c i l was i d e a l f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p l a n . S i n c e t h e l a t e 1 9 7 0 ' s , D e l t a v o t e r s h a v e e n d o r s e d a c o n s e r v a t i v e / l i b e r a l s p l i t i n t h e s i x a l d e r m a n / 1 mayor c o u n c i l . The s p l i t d u r i n g t h e p l a n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t was t h r e e t o t h r e e w i t h t h e mayor c l a i m i n g no a l l e g i a n c e b u t g e n e r a l l y b e i n g more c o n s e r v a t i v e . T h i s b a l a n c e r e s u l t e d i n much d e b a t e on t h e i s s u e s i n t h e p l a n a t t h e c o u n c i l l e v e l ( C o l l i e r i n t e r v i e w ) . 3.4.2 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND THE DELTA O.C.P. S e v e r a l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s were u s e d by D e l t a w i t h p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t e f f o r t t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y h e l d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s on e a c h o f t h e m a j o r i s s u e s c o v e r e d i n t h e p l a n . D e p e n d i n g on t h e i s s u e b e i n g d i s c u s s e d , t h e s e m e e t i n g s a t t r a c t e d v a r i o u s s i z e c r o w d s o f up t o 200 p e r s o n s ( C o w i e i n t e r v i e w ) . T h e s e m e e t i n g s were a d v e r t i s e d i n n e w s p a p e r s a n d co m m u n i t y g r o u p s were a l s o i n f o r m e d . A l l o f t h e s e i s s u e s - o r i e n t e d m e e t i n g s were h e l d i n S o u t h D e l t a a n d L a d n e r . The o r g a n i z e r s f o u n d i t 65 d i f f i c u l t to a t t r a c t any i n t e r e s t from North D e l t a r e s i d e n t s because the community l e a d e r s had j u s t spent a great d e a l of time over the impact of a major b r i d g e being b u i l t i n t h e i r community (Rogers i n t e r v i e w ) . Some of the meetings took the form of a workshop where p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to draw up t h e i r own s o l u t i o n s and plans and p r i o r i t i z e what was important (Rogers i n t e r v i e w ) . For example, i n the meeting concerning the r e s i d e n t i a l / a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r f a c e i s s u e , p a r t i c i p a n t s were given paper and f e l t pens and asked to draw s o l u t i o n s to the problem of c o n f l i c t and l i s t and p r i o r i t i z e what was important to them. For some meetings, panels were set up to represent v a r y i n g views on an i s s u e . For example, p r o - a g r i c u l t u r e and a n t i -a g r i c u l t u r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s sat on a panel to d i s c u s s and answer qu e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g urban development on the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Reserve. In a d d i t i o n , d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t groups were encouraged to d i s c u s s t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e views with each other. For example, the two major d e v e l o p e r s , Daon Development C o r p o r a t i o n and Genstar were asked by the planner to h o l d open houses on t h e i r plans f o r r e s i d e n t i a l expansion i n Ladner and South D e l t a (Rogers i n t e r v i e w ) . A f t e r the d e l i v e r y of the d r a f t plan to every address i n D e l t a , the m u n i c i p a l i t y h e l d four more meetings at d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s throughout the community. The fourteen p o s i t i o n papers that had been presented to c o u n c i l were a v a i l a b l e at these p u b l i c meetings. F i n a l l y , the m u n i c i p a l i t y h e l d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g before t h i r d r e a d i n g . The l o c a l community s t a t i o n t e l e v i s e d many of the p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n meetings as w e l l as the p u b l i c 66 h e a r i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n , t h e h e a v y r e l i a n c e on t h e v a r i o u s f o r m s o f p u b l i c m e e t i n g s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p l a n n e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p l a n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e was a l a c k o f manpower a v a i l a b l e t o go b e y o n d t h e u s e o f t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g method ( R o g e r s i n t e r v i e w ) . A v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s s u c h a s w o r k s h o p s a n d p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n s were u s e d t o b r o a d e n t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s t h a t w e re h e l d . T h e r e h a s been an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n i n D e l t a s i n c e 1955. I t s p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y h a s been a d v i s i n g on z o n i n g a n d s u b d i v i s i o n m a t t e r s . The t w e l v e c o m m i s s i o n members r e p r e s e n t t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o m m u n i t i e s o f D e l t a . S i x a r e f r o m N o r t h D e l t a , t h r e e a r e f r o m L a d n e r and t h r e e a r e f r o m S o u t h D e l t a . The c o m m i s s i o n d e a l t w i t h s p e c i f i c themes i n t h e O.C.P., made comments o f t h e d r a f t t o c o u n c i l a n d h e l p e d o r g a n i z e t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s on t h e d r a f t p l a n . As a g r o u p t h e y were n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e i n t h e O.C.P.'s d e v e l o p m e n t . However, t h e c h a i r m a n was v e r y a c t i v e a nd w o r k e d v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s . A l o n g w i t h two o t h e r c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s , t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e p l a n n e r g o t t o g e t h e r f o r s e v e r a l i n f o r m a l m e e t i n g s t o d i s c u s s t h e i s s u e s , p r i o r i t i z e a n d "bounce i d e a s o f f one a n o t h e r " ( R o g e r s i n t e r v i e w ) . The m u n i c i p a l i t y a l s o r e c e i v e d a number o f l e t t e r s a n d b r i e f s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p l a n ' s p r e p a r a t i o n . D o c u m e n t a t i o n i n c l u d e s r e s p o n s e s f r o m i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a n d g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . 67 A l l the d r a f t plans were made a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c . The f i r s t d r a f t was d e l i v e r e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y to every address i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . I t s design, a twenty page c o l o u r broadsheet, was intended to a t t r a c t i n t e r e s t i n the p l a n . At no p o i n t i n the process were o b j e c t i v e s l a i d out f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n as part of the p u b l i c r e c o r d although every d r a f t and the f i n a l p lan mentioned the importance of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the o v e r a l l p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n , p u b l i c input i s i n c l u d e d i n the p o l i c y o u t l i n i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n of l o c a l area O.C.P.'s to fo l l o w the D e l t a O.C.P.. 3.4.3 SUMMARY In summary, the O.C.P. process i n D e l t a i n v o l v e d c i t i z e n s from e a r l y i n the pro c e s s . A l i m i t e d number of techniques were used to i n v o l v e the p u b l i c , however, v a r i e t y and i n g e n u i t y were used to broaden t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s . Community l e a d e r s played an important r o l e i n working with the pl a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t i n i d e n t i f y i n g i s s u e s and proposing a l t e r n a t i v e s and a s s i s t i n g i n the p u b l i c involvement component of the program. The M u n i c i p a l i t y of D e l t a i n v o l v e d the p u b l i c at three stages i n the pro c e s s : (1) i s s u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n and a l t e r n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , (2) comment on f i r s t d r a f t p l a n and (3) comment on second d r a f t p l a n . The a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commission was a l s o i n v o l v e d throughout the pro c e s s . 68 3.5 THE O F F I C I A L COMMUNITY PLAN PROCESS I N NEW WESTMINSTER 3.5.1 THE OVERALL PROCESS I n May o f 1980, New W e s t m i n s t e r C i t y c o u n c i l r e s o l v e d THAT C o u n c i l i n t e n d s t o p r e p a r e a n d a d o p t an O f f i c i a l C ommunity P l a n a n d s u c h a p l a n i s i n t e n d e d t o g i v e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n t o g r o w t h a n d c h a n g e w i t h i n t h e C i t y a n d w o u l d t a k e t h e f o r m o f a P o l i c y P l a n (New W e s t m i n s t e r 1 9 8 1 a ) . The c o n c e p t o f o n l y p r o d u c i n g a " p o l i c y p l a n " makes New W e s t m i n s t e r d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The p u r p o s e o f t h e O.C.P. a s s t a t e d , i s t o g u i d e t h e c i t y a n d p r o v i d e p a r a m e t e r s f o r f u t u r e g r o w t h (New W e s t m i n s t e r 1 9 8 2 a ) . The New W e s t m i n s t e r O.C.P. i s a document i n w r i t t e n f o r m o n l y . T h e r e a r e no l a n d u s e p l a n d e s i g n a t i o n s a s t h e r e a r e w i t h t h e O.C.P.'s o f D e l t a , S u r r e y a n d R i c h m o n d . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h i s t y p e o f p l a n w o u l d n o t be p e r m i t t e d u n d e r t h e 1985 amendments t o t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t i n w h i c h a p o l i c y p l a n must be a c c o m p a n i e d by a map o u t l i n i n g l a n d u s e d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r t h e a r e a . The New W e s t m i n s t e r O.C.P. i s s t r i c t l y a p o l i c y document w h i c h o u t l i n e s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s a n d p o l i c i e s o f t h e c i t y . The f u n d a m e n t a l g o a l s o f t h e c i t y a s s t a t e d i n t h e O.C.P. a r e t o : (1) i m p r o v e a n d e n h a n c e t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e , a n d t h e l i v a b i l i t y o f t h e C i t y ; a n d a t t h e same t i m e (2) m a i n t a i n a n d p r e s e r v e t h e o v e r a l l c h a r a c t e r a n d i d e n t i t y o f t h e C i t y ( 1 9 8 2 a , 4 ) . The g o a l s r e p r e s e n t t h e g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s f o r t h e d e s i r e d f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e c i t y . The p o l i c i e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o 69 contribute to the achievement of these general goals and respond d i r e c t l y to the more s p e c i f i c objectives of the plan. The p o l i c i e s represent a set of c r i t e r i a upon which to assess and judge those developments that exist or any p o l i c i e s for change that a r i s e in the future. The objectives and p o l i c i e s relate to r e s i d e n t i a l areas, commercial areas, working areas, community f a c i l i t i e s , transportation, environment and public u t i l i t i e s and services. To begin the process of producing their O.C.P. after receiving d i r e c t i o n from council, the planning department prepared fiv e background reports. Based on the information gathered in these reports as well as past council p o l i c i e s , and other planning documents, two discussion papers were prepared. Together these two documents represented a draft of the .O.C.P.. The f i r s t paper e n t i t l e d "Goals and Objectives: Towards a Community Plan for the City of New Westminster" addressed i t s e l f to the long term directions in terms of the q u a l i t y of l i f e and the environment that the c i t y would aim to achieve through various actions in the future. The second report, " P o l i c i e s : Towards a Community Plan for the City of New Westminster", related d i r e c t l y to the goals and objectives outlined in the f i r s t discussion paper. A summary of the discussion papers was produced in a broadsheet and sent to every household in the c i t y , the public l i b r a r y , community centers and several community organizations in June 1981 (New Westminster 1982b, 1). The document outlined goals, objectives and p o l i c i e s and s o l i c i t e d the public to comment. Citize n s were t o l d that their concerns and ideas were 70 i m p o r t a n t a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e p r o c e s s a n d were a s k e d t o s u b m i t t h e i r v i e w s on t h e g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s a n d p o l i c i e s t o t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . The p u b l i c r e s p o n s e p h a s e l a s t e d s i x months a n d i n c l u d e d s o l i c i t a t i o n o f t e l e p h o n e a n d w r i t t e n comments a n d two community g r o u p m e e t i n g s . The p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t r e c e i v e d t w e n t y - e i g h t comments a n d b r i e f s i n t h i s s i x month p e r i o d (New W e s t m i n s t e r 1 9 8 2 ) . The p l a n n e r r e s p o n s i b l e p r e p a r e d a p a p e r e n t i t l e d "A R e p o r t on Comments" s u g g e s t i n g amendments t o t h e d r a f t p l a n b a s e d on t h e s e t w e n t y - e i g h t comments a n d b r i e f s . The p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s u b m i t t e d a f o r t y page amended p l a n t o c o u n c i l i n A u g u s t 1982. C o u n c i l a d o p t e d t h e amended p l a n by b y l a w i n S e p t e m b e r 1982 a f t e r h o l d i n g a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . No c h a n g e s r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s . S i n c e t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r O.C.P., c o u n c i l h a s a d o p t e d two l o c a l a r e a p l a n s a n d t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t i s p r e p a r i n g two more. The i n t e n t i s t o e v e n t u a l l y h a v e f i f t e e n l o c a l a r e a p l a n s w h i c h w o u l d t o g e t h e r c o v e r a l l o f t h e c i t y . The a r e a p l a n s w o u l d be more d e t a i l e d w i t h l a n d u s e d e s i g n a t i o n s a n d maps. O.C.P. p o l i c i e s w o u l d be a p p l i e d t o t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n s . T h e r e was no s p e c i a l s t e e r i n g c o m m i t t e e t o o v e r s e e t h e p l a n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a s t h e r e s e a r c h f o r t h e p l a n was s t r i c t l y done by t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . The p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t c i r c u l a t e d c o p i e s o f t h e p l a n t o o t h e r m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s a n d t h e p l a n n e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p l a n w o r k e d c l o s e l y w i t h c o u n c i l a n d t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n . New W e s t m i n s t e r i s a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c o m m u n i t y . The p l a n n e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p l a n ' s p r e p a r a t i o n h a d been t h e p l a n n i n g d i r e c t o r f o r a l m o s t 71 twenty years and had a good working relationship with council. New Westminster's O.C.P. process i s depicted in figure 10. 3.5.2 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND THE NEW WESTMINSTER O.C.P. The techniques used in the planning process included background reports, a summary of the draft plan, a report on the comments received, telephone and written submissions, meetings with community groups, a public hearing and an advisory planning commission. The background reports were made available to the public as were the drafts of the O.C.P.. There has been an advisory planning commission established in New Westminster for a number of years to advise council on planning matters referred to i t . The advisory planning commission's role in the O.C.P. was to review and comment on background reports, the discussion papers and the amended plan. According to the planner responsible for the plan, the advisory planning commission was not very interested in the plan and did not offer very much input into i t s development (Chaster interview). Minutes of the commission's meetings are not available to the public. Planners held two meetings with community groups at the request of ratepayers' associations. The planning department did not take minutes or notes of the meetings with the community groups and the feedback obtained at these meetings was not included in the "Report on Comments" outlining the response received from the public on the O.C.P. dra f t . 72 FIGURE 10 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION AND THE OFFICIAL COMMUNITY PROCESS IN NEW WESTMINSTER ADVISORY PLANNING COMMISSION -continuous term -comment COUNCIL APPROVES PREPARATION OF POLICY PLAN -spring 1980 i BACKGROUND REPORTS i DISCUSSION PAPERS -goals and objectives - p o l i c i e s I SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION PAPER PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT PHASE -six months -telephone and written comments -community group meetings 4. FEEDBACK REPORT -summary of comments and minor revisions to plan I DRAFT PLAN PUBLIC HEARING -no comments or changes 4, ADOPTION C> IMPLEMENTATION -Sept. 1982 -15 l o c a l area plans 2 completed by 1986 73 The 28 comments r e c e i v e d by t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t t h r o u g h t e l e p h o n e c a l l s a n d w r i t t e n s u b m i s s i o n s were r e c o r d e d and p r e s e n t e d i n a r e p o r t t o c o u n c i l . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e p o r t , t h e 28 r e s p o n s e s r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l p u b l i c r e s p o n s e . However, p l a n n e r s f e l t t h a t t h e s e r e s p o n s e s gave a g o o d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n (New W e s t m i n s t e r 1 9 8 2 ) . P l a n n e r s a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e comments g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e d v e r y l i t t l e d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e p l a n a n d / o r t h e p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s (New W e s t m i n s t e r 1 9 8 2 ) . A t no p o i n t i n t h e p r o c e s s were g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . H o wever, p l a n n e r s a n d p o l i t i c i a n s a c k n o w l e d g e d i n s e v e r a l d o c u m e n t s s u c h a s t h e p l a n i t s e l f a n d t h e summary d e l i v e r e d t o t h e r e s i d e n t s , t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s . The p u b l i c r e s p o n s e p r o g r a m was c o n s i d e r e d most v a l u a b l e f o r two r e a s o n s : (1) The p u b l i c was g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o v i d e i n p u t t o t h e Community P l a n p r o c e s s ; a n d (2) The s u b j e c t s o f p r i m e c o n c e r n were i d e n t i f i e d by t h e p e o p l e a s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h i t s many f a c e t s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a n d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s (New W e s t m i n s t e r 1982, 2 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t e c h n i q u e s u s e d , i t i s i m p o r t a n t i n New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s c a s e t o e x a m i n e t h e p l a n n e r s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . As m e n t i o n e d , t h e p l a n n e r p r i n c i p a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p l a n h a d w o r k e d as D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g f o r a l m o s t t w e n t y y e a r s a n d h a d a c l o s e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c o u n c i l . The p l a n n e r knew t h e community g r o u p s a n d c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s v e r y w e l l a n d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them f o r m a l l y a n d i n f o r m a l l y . I n f a c t , t h e o r i g i n a l r e a s o n why t h e p l a n n e r s u g g e s t e d t o c o u n c i l t h a t an 74 O.C.P. be done was a result of people in the community stating for many years they would l i k e to have a general plan (Chaster interview). Because New Westminster i s a small and developed community with s i g n i f i c a n t h i s t o r i c a l roots, the planner f e l t he had a good idea of the c i t i z e n s ' various values and views (Chaster interview). Through th i s extended informal and formal contact with the public over the years, i d e n t i f y i n g the issues was made easier. However, new issues not i d e n t i f i e d in the draft plan did emerge through the input that was received. Furthermore, according to one New Westminster planner, more issues would have been i d e n t i f i e d had there been more pa r t i c i p a t i o n in the process (Ing interview). 3.5.3 SUMMARY New Westminster d i f f e r s from the other municipalities in that t h e i r O.C.P. was s t r i c t l y a policy document. The intangible nature of the plan coupled with the planner's perception that he was very aware of the issues and public sentiment and values played a role in the extent to which the public was encouraged to become involved in the process. However, in the limited response received from the public, the planner had new issues brought to his attention. Therefore, the planner's perception that he knew a l l the issues and community values was inaccurate. The City of New Westminster involved the public at two points in the process: ( 1 ) comment on f i r s t draft plan and ( 2 ) comment on f i n a l d r a f t . The advisory planning commission was also involved from the early stages through to plan adoption. 75 3.6 CONCLUSIONS Legisl a t i o n requires that an O.C.P. include statements and map designations that cover a broad range of land use matters. Therefore, municipalities address a number of issues r e l a t i n g to land use and servicing requirements in their plan that are important to the future of the community. Due to the range of issues to be dealt with and the complexity of the task, a minimum of at least two years i s required to complete an O.C.P.. A l l four municipalities d i f f e r e d from one another in the i r O.C.P. processes and in the manner in which the public became involved. Richmond developed a strategy which involved the public at three points in the O.C.P. process as well as engaging the services of an advisory planning commission throughout the preparation of the plan. Richmond's l o c a l area planning program complemented the O.C.P. process but did not serve as the basis of the O.C.P.. Rather, goals and objectives were determined s p e c i f i c a l l y for the Richmond O.C.P. as well as for public involvement in the O.C.P.. Planners used a variety of techniques to meet these goals and objectives. Surrey on the other hand, depended on l o c a l area plans to form the basis of their O.C.P.. Opportunities for the general public to par t i c i p a t e in the development of the plan were limited to a survey and public hearing at two points in the process. Delta, l i k e Richmond, involved the public at three points in the O.C.P. process and also used their advisory planning commission throughout the process. Delta used fewer techniques than Richmond to involve the public. 76 New Westminster d i f f e r s from the other municipalities in that their O.C.P was s t r i c t l y a policy document. With changes to the Muncipal Act in 1985, an O.C.P. l i k e New Westminster's would not be permitted without accompanying maps. The New Westminster process involved the public at two points in the process and planners also used an advisory planning commission. A l l four municipalities went beyond the mandatory public hearing and optional advisory planning commission outlined in the l e g i s l a t i o n to involve the public in the preparation of their O.C.P.'s. Thirteen additional techniques were used. The following chapter w i l l describe the techniques used by the four munic i p a l i t i e s . 77 CHAPTER FOUR PARTICIPATION TECHNIQUES 4.0 INTRODUCTION C o l l e c t i v e l y , t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s u s e d f i f t e e n t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e i r q u e s t f o r p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e i r O.C.P.'s. The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d e s c r i b e t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s a n d t o d i s c u s s t h e m e r i t s a n d c o n s t r a i n t s o f e a c h , b a s e d on t h e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e a n d o b s e r v a t i o n . The a b i l i t y o f e a c h t e c h n i q u e t o a c h i e v e t h e s i x p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n c h a p t e r two w i l l be a s s e s s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h t e c h n i q u e s a r e s u i t a b l e f o r m e e t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t i v e s . The s i x o b j e c t i v e s a r e a c c e s s i b i l i t y , t i m i n g , i m p a r t i a l i t y , c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y , a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d e f f i c a c y . The f i f t e e n t e c h n i q u e s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s : i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g , i n f o r m a t i o n - r e c e i v i n g a n d i n t e r a c t i o n : I n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g - I n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s e d by a g e n c i e s t o c o m m u n i c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d i n c l u d e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y , t h e i s s u e s w h i c h h a v e been i d e n t i f i e d by t h e a g e n c y , t h e p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s o r t h e p r o p o s e d p l a n s e l e c t e d by t h e a g e n c y . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e a g e n c y p o s s e s s e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d s e e k s t o c o m m u n i c a t e i t i n some manner t o t h e p u b l i c . I n f o r m a t i o n - r e c e i v i n g - I n f o r m a t i o n - r e c e i v i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s e d by a g e n c i e s t o a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n h e l d by t h e p u b l i c . The p u b l i c p o s s e s s e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h c o u l d i n c l u d e p u b l i c 78 p e r c e p t i o n s o f n e e d s , p r o b l e m s , v a l u e s , i m p a c t s a n d r e a c t i o n s t o a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h a t t h e a g e n c y n e e d s t o know. I n t e r a c t i o n - W h i l e i n t e r a c t i o n c l e a r l y i n v o l v e s b o t h i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g a nd i n f o r m a t i o n - r e c e i v i n g , i t a l s o s e r v e s t h e a d d i t i o n a l p u r p o s e o f a l l o w i n g p e o p l e t o t e s t t h e i r i d e a s on t h e a g e n c y o r o t h e r p u b l i c s a nd p o s s i b l y come t o m o d i f y t h e i r v i e w p o i n t a s a r e s u l t o f i n t e r a c t i o n ( C r e i g h t o n 1983, 2 4 5 ) . T e c h n i q u e s t h a t were p r i m a r i l y g e a r e d t o w a r d i n f o r m a t i o n -g i v i n g u s e d by t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n c l u d e : b r o c h u r e a n d b r o a d s h e e t d i s t r i b u t i o n , g r a p h i c d i s p l a y e x h i b i t s , b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s , m e d i a c o v e r a g e , f e e d b a c k r e p o r t s , a n d d r a f t p l a n s . T e c h n i q u e s p r i m a r i l y g e a r e d t o w a r d i n f o r m a t i o n - r e c e i v i n g i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a nd comment s h e e t s , s u r v e y s , l e t t e r s a n d b r i e f s a n d , t e l e p h o n e comments. T e c h n i q u e s i n v o l v i n g i n t e r a c t i o n i n c l u d e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , open h o u s e s , c o m m u n i t y a n d s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p m e e t i n g s and s e m i n a r s , a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n s , and l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s a n d p l a n s . 4.1 INFORMATION-GIVING TECHNIQUES 4.1.1 BROCHURE AND BROADSHEET DISTRIBUTION B r o c h u r e s and b r o a d s h e e t s a r e u s e d t o i n f o r m t h e p u b l i c o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i s s u e s i n v o l v e d , a l t e r n a t i v e s t o c o n s i d e r a n d t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e p l a n . I n t h e c a s e o f an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n , a b r o a d s h e e t may i n c l u d e a summary o r a c o p y o f t h e d r a f t p l a n . I n o r d e r t o be u s e f u l , t h e p r o d u c t must be i n l a n g u a g e f a m i l i a r t o t h e p u b l i c f r e e o f j a r g o n and t e c h n i c a l l i n g o . The 79 u s e o f g r a p h i c s and t h e a v o i d a n c e o f an o v e r l y b u r e a u c r a t i c l a y o u t i s c o n s i d e r e d an a s s e t ( C r e i g h t o n 1983, 2 8 5 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , c l e a r i n s t r u c t i o n s p r o v i d e d a s t o how t h e p u b l i c c a n i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e p l a n n e r s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d ( C r e i g h t o n 1983, 285) . T h r o u g h t h e u s e o f p o s t a l w a l k s , t h e o r e t i c a l l y e v e r y h o u s e h o l d a n d b u s i n e s s i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y c a n be r e a c h e d w h i c h p r o v i d e s a d i r e c t means f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o be p a s s e d on t o t h e p u b l i c . The amount of i n f o r m a t i o n i s l a r g e c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r f o r m s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and o f f e r s t h e a d v a n t a g e o f c o n s t a n t r e f e r r a l s i n c e i t i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t c a n be k e p t by t h e r e c i p i e n t . I f t h i s d e v i c e i s u s e d e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s , i t i s recommended t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e s be p r e s e n t e d and d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s be i n c l u d e d ( B o a d e n e t a l . 1980, 5 2 ) . D e s p i t e w i d e s p r e a d d e l i v e r y t h i s t y p e o f document o f t e n g e t s l o s t i n t h e v o l u m e o f o t h e r m a i l o r n e w s p a p e r s d e l i v e r e d t o i n d i v i d u a l homes an d b u s i n e s s e s , o f t e n b e i n g m i s t a k e n f o r an a d v e r t i s e m e n t f l y e r . T h u s , many r e c i p i e n t s d i s c a r d them w i t h o u t n o t e . E v e n v e r y a t t r a c t i v e p u b l i c a t i o n s , w h i c h c a n become b o t h t i m e c o n s u m i n g t o p r e p a r e a n d c o s t l y t o p r o d u c e , do n o t r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n by many r e c i p i e n t s . A l l f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s u s e d t h i s t e c h n i q u e i n t h e i r O.C.P. p r o c e s s . New W e s t m i n s t e r a n d D e l t a s e n t o u t d r a f t p l a n s i n b r o a d s h e e t f o r m a t . R i c h m o n d a n d S u r r e y , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , u s e d a b r o a d s h e e t t o d e l i v e r a summary o f t h e d r a f t p l a n . One o f t h e r e a s o n s S u r r e y u s e d a summary was r e l a t e d t o t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p l a n w h i c h w o u l d h a v e been i m p r a c t i c a l t o r e p r o d u c e f o r w i d e s p r e a d d e l i v e r y . I n a d d i t i o n , R i c h m o n d a l s o u s e d t h i s t e c h n i q u e 80 very early in the O.C.P. process to discuss alternatives concerning the major issue of growth. Direct questions on individuals' opinions on the issue were included in the brochure. A l l four broadsheets and the one brochure included information on how residents could become further involved. With the exception of New Westminster, a l l were produced in colour and used ample graphics. The broadsheet technique can contribute to achieving f i v e of the six objectives for public p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The a c c e s s i b i l i t y objective can be p a r t i a l l y met because of the broad d i s t r i b u t i o n of broadsheets to every address in a municipality which i s very convenient to people. The timing objective is p a r t i a l l y met because a broadsheet delivery of the draft plan occurs at a c r u c i a l decision making point in the process. In Richmond's case, a brochure delivery of a l t e r n a t i v e s for the key issue of urban growth also occured at an important decision making point early in the process: the issue and alternatives i d e n t i f i c a t i o n stage. Thus the alternatives objectives can also be p a r t i a l l y achieved with the broadsheet technique. Because a broadsheet has wide d i s t r i b u t i o n i t does not cater to one group, thereby contributing to the achievement of the i m p a r t i a l i t y objective. This technique can contribute to the comprehensiblity objective by including important information in e a s i l y understood language. 4.1.2 GRAPHIC DISPLAY EXHIBITS Graphic display exhibits are used to make the broad public aware that a plan i s being prepared and to encourage 81 p a r t i c i p a t i o n by d e s c r i b i n g t h e p r o c e s s a n d how c i t i z e n s c a n become i n v o l v e d . I t i s p r i m a r i l y meant a s an e y e - c a t c h e r t o d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n a n d i n s p i r e c u r i o s i t y f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . D i s p l a y s a r e s e t up i n h i g h - u s e p u b l i c a r e a s s u c h a s l i b r a r i e s , s h o p p i n g m a l l s and a t c o m m u n i t y e v e n t s . The d i s p l a y s r a n g e f r o m f i x e d b o a r d s w h i c h p r o v i d e g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c , t o b o o t h s w h i c h a r e manned by p l a n n e r s who a r e a b l e t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s f r o m t h e p u b l i c , o r s o l i c i t p u b l i c comment. E v e n when f i x e d d i s p l a y s a r e u s e d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o h a v e r e s p o n s e f o r m s a v a i l a b l e so t h a t t h e p u b l i c c a n r e s p o n d t o t h e d i s p l a y ( C r e i g h t o n 1983, 2 8 2 ) . T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c a b o u t c o m m u n i t y c o n c e r n s a n d t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , e v e n i f p e o p l e a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u r t h e r . F o r many members o f t h e p u b l i c t h e s i m p l e p r e s e n c e o f some k i n d o f e x h i b i t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i s p r e p a r i n g a c o m m u n i t y p l a n a n d i s w i l l i n g t o go o u t and t e l l p e o p l e a b o u t i t . D i s p l a y s a l s o h ave a v a l u e t o p l a y i n p r o m o t i n g r e t e n t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n (Boaden e t a l . 1980, 4 8 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Boaden e t a l . , r e s e a r c h h a s shown t h a t d y n a m i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s p r o m o t e a l o n g e r - l a s t i n g r e t e n t i o n , i f n o t o f d e t a i l , a t l e a s t t h a t a m essage has been s e n t ( 1 9 8 0 , 4 8 ) . F o r more d e t a i l e d r e t e n t i o n o f e v e n t h e most s i m p l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e e x h i b i t i o n , t a k e - a w a y m a t e r i a l w o u l d seem t o be an i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n s t r u m e n t (Boaden e t a l . 1980, 4 8 ) . I f a p e r s o n d o e s become i n t e r e s t e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e d i s p l a y , t h e d i s p l a y c a n d i r e c t them t o o t h e r more i n v o l v i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . 82 Two p r o b l e m s w i t h g r a p h i c d i s p l a y e x h i b i t s i s t h e m a j o r commitment o f s t a f f t i m e n e e d e d i f t h e y a r e manned a n d t h e c o s t i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . I f t h e y a r e n o t manned a n d one o f t h e g o a l s o f t h e d i s p l a y i s t o p r o m o t e f u r t h e r a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c , t h e n a message e n c o u r a g i n g f u r t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n must be c l e a r . I n t h e i r r e s e a r c h on s t r u c t u r e p l a n n i n g i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , Boaden e t a l . f o u n d t h a t e n c o u r a g i n g f u r t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was n o t w e l l done i n most c a s e s : An i m p o r t a n t g o a l o f many e x h i b i t i o n s w h i c h we h a v e s e e n h a s been t o p r o m o t e f u r t h e r a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f v i s i t o r s - t o f i l l i n comment f o r m s , f o r e x a m p l e , o r t o a t t e n d a p u b l i c m e e t i n g . The g o a l i s u s u a l l y f r u s t r a t e d , h o w e v e r , by m a k i n g i t an a n c i l l a r y component o f t h e t o t a l m e s s a g e . T y p i c a l l y , a c t i o n i s u r g e d on t h e l a s t p a n e l o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n , a t w h i c h p o i n t a t t e n t i o n i s e x h a u s t e d o r t h e p a n e l i s m i s s e d a s t h e e x i t i s s o u g h t (Boaden e t a l . 1980, 4 8 ) . The d e s i g n o f t h e d i s p l a y b o t h s t r u c t u r a l l y a n d i n c o n t e n t i s t h e r e f o r e an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . R i c h m o n d was t h e o n l y m u n i c i p a l i t y o u t o f t h e f o u r e x a m p l e s t o u s e t h i s t e c h n i q u e . A t t h r e e p o i n t s i n t h e R i c h m o n d O.C.P. p r o c e s s , d i s p l a y s were u s e d . P l a n n e r s manned t h e d i s p l a y i n s h o p p i n g m a l l s , a t c o m m u n i t y e v e n t s , open h o u s e s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a n d t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . The d i s p l a y s were l e f t unmanned i n t h e l i b r a r y a n d o t h e r l o c a t i o n s . M a t e r i a l s t h a t c o u l d be t a k e n away were a l s o a v a i l a b l e . I n f o r m a t i o n on ways t h e p u b l i c c o u l d become f u r t h e r i n v o l v e d was p o s t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h o f t h e d i s p l a y s . The g r a p h i c d i s p l a y t e c h n i q u e c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o a c h i e v i n g f i v e o f t h e s i x o b j e c t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I f t h e d i s p l a y i s s e t up i n a v a r i e t y o f l o c a t i o n s , t h e n t h i s t e c h n i q u e c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y , t i m i n g a n d i m p a r t i a l i t y 83 o b j e c t i v e s . The d e s i g n o f t h e e x h i b i t c a n a l s o p a s s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c t h a t i s e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d t h u s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e . The a l t e r n a t i v e s o b j e c t i v e c a n be p a r t i a l l y met i f t h e d i s p l a y o f f e r s a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p u b l i c t o r e s p o n d t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d o f f e r t h e i r own s u g g e s t i o n s . T h i s c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d by m a n n i n g t h e d i s p l a y so i n d i v i d u a l s c a n d i s c u s s i s s u e s w i t h a p l a n n e r o r by o f f e r i n g o t h e r means f o r t h e p u b l i c t o r e s p o n d s u c h a s u s i n g one o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n - r e c e i v i n g o r i n t e r a c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . 4.1.3 FEEDBACK REPORT A f e e d b a c k r e p o r t d o c u m e n t s t h e i n p u t o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e p u b l i c . O f t e n t h e e x t e n t o f m a t e r i a l t h a t i s r e c e i v e d by p u b l i c comment c a n c a u s e a number o f p r o b l e m s i n i t s p r o c e s s i n g ( B oaden e t a l . 1980, 6 4 ) . The p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o r e d u c e p u b l i c comment t o a m a n a g e a b l e f o r m a t o f t e n i n t r o d u c e s c o n t e n t i o u s m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f i t . Some comments may be e x c l u d e d on t h e g r o u n d s o f i r r e l e v a n c e . B u t a s Boaden e t a l . p o i n t o u t , r e l e v a n c e i s r e l a t i v e t o o n e ' s v i e w p o i n t and d e s p i t e how i r r e l e v a n t t h e comments may be j u d g e d t o b e , t h e y may s t i l l d e s e r v e an a n s w e r i f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n o t t o be i n t e r p r e t e d a s a f a c a d e ( 1 9 8 0 , 6 4 ) . I n an e f f o r t t o a v o i d m i s s i n g o u t i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , C r e i g h t o n o u t l i n e s a method o f c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s d e s i g n e d t o c a p t u r e t h e a c t u a l l a n g u a g e o f t h e p u b l i c i n t h e i r comments w h i c h g i v e t h e d e c i s i o n maker a " f e e l " f o r t h e i n t e n s i t y o f l a n g u a g e u s e d , o r t h e c l o s e n e s s o f a r g u m e n t a t i o n ( 1 9 8 3 , 3 6 1 ) . I n o t h e r f o r m s o f a n a l y s i s , comments a r e t y p i c a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d 84 b e i n g g r o u p e d u n d e r a r a n g e o f s u b j e c t h e a d i n g s . T h e s e l a t t e r m e t h o d s , w h i l e h a v i n g t h e a d v a n t a g e o f h a n d l i n g a l a r g e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n , t e n d t o u n d e r m i n e more c o m p l e x r e s p o n s e s t o p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s a s a w h o l e . A l s o , when comments a r e d i s t i l l e d , t h e r e a r e a d d i t i o n a l d a n g e r s o f o m i t t i n g o r m i s r e p r e s e n t i n g p a r t s o f an a r g u m e n t (Boaden e t a l . 1980, 6 4 ) . W h a t e v e r r e p o r t i n g s y s t e m i s u s e d , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e f e e d b a c k be r e c o r d e d a n d made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c so t h a t t h e r e i s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what t h e r a n g e o f v i e w s a r e a n d i n t u r n what e f f e c t t h e y h a v e h a d on s u b s e q u e n t d e c i s i o n s . Some w o u l d a r g u e t h a t t h e f i n a l p l a n a n d d r a f t p l a n s a r e enou g h f e e d b a c k i n t h e m s e l v e s b u t Boaden e t a l . b e l i e v e t h e y a r e n o t t h e i d e a l i n s t r u m e n t . They f o u n d i n t h e i r work t h a t one o f t h e m a j o r l e s s o n s l e a r n e d , i f t h e w i d e r e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e t o be met, i s t h a t t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d r e c e i v e some f e e d b a c k a b o u t r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r comments a n d s u g g e s t i o n s . They p o i n t o u t t h a t t r a c i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e f i n a l p l a n i s d i f f i c u l t a n d may n o t be a good way t o r e p o r t t h e e f f e c t o f i n p u t b a c k t o t h e p u b l i c ( Boaden e t a l . 1980, 4 2 ) . The two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o u s e f e e d b a c k r e p o r t s were R i c h m o n d a n d New W e s t m i n s t e r . R i c h m o n d c o m p l e t e d one a t t h e e n d of e a c h o f t h e two m a j o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p h a s e s i n t h e p r o c e s s . M i n u t e s f r o m a l l m e e t i n g s , comments made a t open h o u s e s , f e e d b a c k f r o m comments a n d l e t t e r s a n d s o on were c o m p i l e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y i n r e p o r t s made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . I n New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t c o m p i l e d a r e p o r t c o v e r i n g a l l comments made t h r o u g h l e t t e r s a n d t e l e p h o n e comments. I n b o t h c a s e s t h e p l a n n e r t o o k c a r e t o i n c l u d e t h e 85 e x a c t l a n g u a g e a nd p h r a s i n g u s e d by t h e p u b l i c when e v e r p o s s i b l e , w h i l e c a t e g o r i z i n g comments f o r e a s e o f r e a d i n g . I n t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r r e p o r t , e a c h comment was f o l l o w e d by an e x p l a n a t i o n o f why a comment was o r was n o t a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e O.C.P. a n d n o t e d any c h a n g e s t o t h e p l a n t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m i t . The f e e d b a c k t e c h n i q u e i s r e l a t e d most c l o s e l y t o t h e e f f i c a c y o b j e c t i v e by s h o w i n g t h e p u b l i c t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . By r e f e r r i n g t o a f e e d b a c k r e p o r t , e f f i c a c y c a n t h e n b e t t e r be j u d g e d a n d r e a s o n s f o r t h e outcome o f t h e f i n a l p r o d u c t a s s e s s e d . The t i m i n g a n d c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e s a r e a l s o p a r t i a l l y a c h i e v e d by t h i s t e c h n i q u e i n p r o v i d i n g i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a t c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p o i n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s . 4.1.4 DRAFT PLAN P r o d u c i n g a d r a f t p l a n t o be made a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c s c r u t i n y c a n be an e x c e l l e n t d e v i c e t o f o s t e r p u b l i c i n t e r e s t a n d r e a c t i o n . As o p p o s e d t o a s k i n g f o r c i t i z e n s ' v i e w s on i s s u e s a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e d r a f t p l a n p r o v i d e s a c o n c r e t e p r o p o s a l o f t h e d i r e c t i o n t o be t a k e n t o w h i c h t h e p u b l i c c a n r e a c t . T h i s t e c h n i q u e c a n p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e f e e d b a c k f o r t h e p l a n n e r a s t o t h e p u b l i c ' s v i e w s . I t i s e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e when i t i s made c l e a r t h e p l a n i s a p r e l i m i n a r y d r a f t p r o d u c e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n p u r p o s e s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f c h a n g e s t o be made a f t e r p u b l i c r e a c t i o n h a s been c o l l e c t e d . O f t e n a m a j o r c o n s t r a i n t e x i s t s due t o t h e s h e e r v o l u m e o f t h e p l a n , m a k i n g i t e x p e n s i v e t o r e p r o d u c e . I n s u c h c a s e s , e f f o r t must be made t o make t h e p l a n a s s e s s a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c i n 86 l i b r a r i e s , s c h o o l s a n d o t h e r n e t w o r k s . The p l a n s h o u l d a l s o be c l e a r l y w r i t t e n i n a f o r m t h a t n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s c a n u n d e r s t a n d . As m e n t i o n e d , two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s e n t o u t a c o m p l e t e d r a f t p l a n a n d i n t h e c a s e o f S u r r e y a n d R i c h m o n d , a summary o f t h e d r a f t p l a n . I n S u r r e y a n d New W e s t m i n s t e r s u b s e q u e n t d r a f t p l a n s were n o t made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . D e l t a a n d R i c h m o n d , c o n v e r s e l y p u b l i s h e d s u b s e q u e n t d r a f t s a n d s e n t them t o com m u n i t y g r o u p s a n d made them r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e a t t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t a n d l i b r a r i e s . I f t h e r e i s w i d e s p r e a d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a d r a f t p l a n , i t s u s e a s a p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o a c h i e v i n g a l l t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s o b j e c t i v e . The a l t e r n a t i v e s o b j e c t i v e w o u l d h a v e t o have been met i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e d r a f t p l a n . 4.1.5 BACKGROUND REPORTS B a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s g i v e t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s a n d d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e s o f i s s u e s . They a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t so t h a t t h e p u b l i c h a s a c c e s s t o i n f o r m a t i o n on w h i c h an i n f o r m e d j u d g e m e n t c a n t h e n be made. B a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h o s e c i t i z e n s who want more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n i s a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h s u m m a r i e s . A c c e s s t o d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n a l l o w s t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e m a t e r i a l a n d d a t a on w h i c h t h e p l a n n i n g a g e n c y i s b a s i n g i t s p r i o r i t i e s a n d d e v e l o p i n g t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s . As w i t h d r a f t p l a n s , t h e s h e e r v o l u m e o f s u c h r e p o r t s c a n make them e x p e n s i v e t o r e p r o d u c e . T h e r e f o r e , e f f o r t h a s t o be made t o make r e p o r t s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . T h i s c a n be 8 7 a c c o m p l i s h e d by p l a c i n g them i n p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s a n d m a k i n g them a v a i l a b l e a t t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . A l l f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s made b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . C e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f f e r e d more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n o t h e r s a n d made them more a c c e s s i b l e e a r l i e r i n t h e p r o c e s s . I n D e l t a , b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s were made a v a i l a b l e a t t h e f o u r p u b l i c m e e t i n g s h e l d a f t e r t h e d r a f t p l a n was p r o d u c e d . I n New W e s t m i n s t e r , b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s were a v a i l a b l e e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s b u t n o t a d v e r t i s e d , e v e n i n t h e d r a f t p l a n b r o a d s h e e t s e n t t o e v e r y home. I n S u r r e y , a l l t h e b a c k g r o u n d m a t e r i a l was i n c l u d e d i n two c h a p t e r s o f t h e d r a f t p l a n w h i c h was a v a i l a b l e f o r s a l e a n d p l a c e d i n S u r r e y l i b r a r i e s . I n R i c h m o n d , b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s were made a v a i l a b l e a t t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t a s t h e y were p r o d u c e d a n d were a d v e r t i s e d i n t h e p r e l i m i n a r y b r o c h u r e a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t d r a f t p l a n b r o a d s h e e t . As w e l l , t h e r e p o r t s w ere d i s p l a y e d a t t h e R i c h m o n d p u b l i c l i b r a r y . B a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e t i m i n g a n d c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e s . B a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s c a n c o n t a i n i m p o r t a n t a n d r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n e a r l y i n t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s w h i c h i s n e e d e d t o make i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n s l a t e r o n . 4.1.6 MEDIA COVERAGE The u se o f m e d i a i s i m p o r t a n t i n t r a n s m i t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c a b o u t i s s u e s a n d b e c o m i n g i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As a p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e i t i s p r i m a r i l y v a l u a b l e f o r i t s i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g c a p a c i t y due t o i t s b r o a d a u d i e n c e . F o r t h e same r e a s o n , i t c a n be u s e d t o s o l i c i t r e s p o n s e . A n o t h e r 88 f u n c t i o n o f t h e m e d i a i s i t s u s e o f a d v e r t i s i n g t o i n f o r m p e o p l e where and how t h e y c a n become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . N e w s p a p e r s , r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n a r e p r i m e i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d f o r t h e s e p u r p o s e s . T e l e v i s i o n h a s t h e c o n s t r a i n t o f b e i n g e x p e n s i v e i f t h e p l a n n i n g a g e n c y h a s t o pay f o r c o v e r a g e . Many c o m m u n i t y c h a n n e l s a r e e x c e l l e n t f o r c o v e r i n g l o c a l e v e n t s i n c l u d i n g f r e e p u b l i c s e r v i c e a n n o u n c e m e n t s . R a d i o i s l e s s e x p e n s i v e w i t h many s t a t i o n s a l s o p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f r e e p u b l i c s e r v i c e a n n o u n c e m e n t s . A t t h e same t i m e , i t i s n o t a l w a y s e a s y t o a t t r a c t m e d i a a t t e n t i o n on many p l a n n i n g i s s u e s w h e t h e r i t be n e w s p a p e r s , r a d i o o r t e l e v i s i o n . I n t h e c a s e o f t e l e v i s i o n c o v e r a g e , v e r y o f t e n t h e o n l y s t a t i o n i n t e r e s t e d i s t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y c h a n n e l . W h i l e c o m m u n i t y s t a t i o n s do n o t k e e p r e c o r d s o f t h e i r v i e w e r s h i p , i t i s e s t i m a t e d an a v e r a g e o f one t o two p e r c e n t o f a l l v i e w e r s w a t c h c o m m u n i t y c h a n n e l p r o g r a m m i n g (Wood i n t e r v i e w ) . W h i l e t h i s f i g u r e i s q u i t e s m a l l , c o m m u n i t y t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m m a n a g e r s b e l i e v e c o v e r a g e o f m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s a n d r e l a t e d c o m m u n i t y c o v e r a g e a r e some o f t h e most p o p u l a r p r o g r a m s a i r e d (Wood i n t e r v i e w ; D a v i d s o n i n t e r v i e w ; D u b b i n i n t e r v i e w ) . The p r i m a r y a d v a n t a g e o f c o m m u n i t y t e l e v i s i o n i s i t s a b i l i t y t o go i n t o g r e a t d e p t h by c o v e r i n g an e n t i r e m e e t i n g o r e v e n t r a t h e r t h a n p r o v i d i n g a summary as i s done i n p r i n t m e d i a . However, p r i n t m e d i a i s p r e d o m i n a n t i n c o v e r i n g l o c a l i s s u e s . I n a s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n 1981 f o r t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on N e w s p a p e r s , n e w s p a p e r s were f o u n d t o be t h e p r e f e r r e d medium o v e r r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n f o r o b t a i n i n g l o c a l c o m m u n i t y news (Canada 1986, 1 0 7 ) . The l o c a l n e w s p a p e r s i n D e l t a 89 a n d R i c h m o n d h a v e c i r c u l a t i o n s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s . R e a d e r s h i p e x c e e d s f i f t e e n p e r c e n t , h o w e v e r , a s n e w s p a p e r s a r e commonly s h a r e d among two o r more i n d i v i d u a l s . I n summary, m e d i a c a n be u s e f u l e s p e c i a l l y i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o e n s u r e a b r o a d a u d i e n c e , i t i s w i s e t o use a m i x t u r e o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f m e d i a t o c a r r y t h e messa g e . Due t o l e g i s l a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y t o a d v e r t i s e a p u b l i c h e a r i n g a t l e a s t t h i r t y d a y s i n a d v a n c e i n a n e w s p a p e r c i r c u l a t i n g a t l e a s t w e e k l y i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ( M u n i c i p a l Amendment A c t 1985, s e c . 9 4 7 ) . T h e r e f o r e , a l l f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s u s e d n e w s p a p e r s t o a n n o u n c e t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g d a t e . D e l t a a n d R i c h m o n d a l s o u s e d t h e l o c a l n e w s p a p e r s a n d r a d i o t o a d v e r t i s e t h e i r p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a n d i n R i c h m o n d ' s c a s e , t h e open h o u s e s . T e l e v i s i o n was u s e d q u i t e e x t e n s i v e l y i n D e l t a w i t h a l l t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a n d t h e h e a r i n g t e l e v i s e d by t h e c o m m u n i t y s t a t i o n . I n R i c h m o n d t h e c o m m u n i t y s t a t i o n c o v e r e d t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g a s w e l l a s s h o r t s e g m e n t s o f some o f t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s . B o t h R i c h m o n d a n d New W e s t m i n s t e r p l a n n e r s were i n t e r v i e w e d a b o u t t h e i r O.C.P. by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l o c a l c o m m u n i t y s t a t i o n s . B e y o n d c o u n c i l m e e t i n g c o v e r a g e , t e l e v i s i o n a n d r a d i o were n o t u t i l i z e d d u r i n g S u r r e y ' s O.C.P. p r o c e s s . The b r o a d u se o f m e d i a c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o a l l o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e u s e o f m e d i a c a n be i m p o r t a n t i n p a s s i n g on r e l e v a n t a n d u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n i n e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d l a n g u a g e a t i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s t h u s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e t i m i n g , 90 a c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e s . I f a m i x t u r e o f m e d i a t y p e s i s u s e d , t h e n no one g r o u p w i l l d o m i n a t e t h i s a s p e c t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d t h e i m p a r t i a l i t y o b j e c t i v e w i l l a l s o be p a r t i a l l y a c h i e v e d . M e d i a c a n a l s o be u s e d t o e x p l a i n a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d r e a s o n s f o r d e c i s i o n s , t h u s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d e f f i c a c y o b j e c t i v e s . 4.2 INFORMATION-RECEIVING TECHNIQUES 4.2.1 SURVEYS S u r v e y s a r e an e f f o r t t o d e t e r m i n e p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s on v a r i o u s i s s u e s . The b a s i c r e a s o n f o r u s i n g a s u r v e y i s t o p r o v i d e a c a r e f u l l y c o n d u c t e d p o l l o f a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n on some i s s u e o r s e t o f i s s u e s ( ACIR 1979, 2 7 6 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e d e s i g n must e n s u r e t h a t t h e s u r v e y d o e s n o t c o n t a i n b i a s a n d t h a t t h e " s a m p l e " o f p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d i s i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ( C r e i g h t o n 1983, 2 8 5 ) . T h u s , a s u c c e s s f u l l y drawn a n d a c h i e v e d s a m p l e h a s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n c l u d i n g members o f many m i n o r i t i e s , t h e i n a r t i c u l a t e a n d n o n - j o i n e r s a n d o f e n s u r i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s e ( Boaden e t a l . 1980, 6 1 ) . When a s u r v e y i s w e l l d e s i g n e d t h e r e s u l t s c a n b e s t be u s e d t o h e l p t o b a l a n c e a d i s t o r t e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c ' s v i e w t h a t may r e s u l t when t h e r e i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m o n l y a t i n y f r a c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c ( M i l b r a t h 1981, 4 8 2 ) : A s u r v e y h a s t h e u n i q u e c a p a b i l i t y o f i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e v i e w s o f t h e u n i n t e r e s t e d b u t a f f e c t e d p u b l i c who w o u l d h a v e no o t h e r f o r m o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ( M i l b r a t h 1981, 4 8 2 ) . C o n v e r s e l y , s u r v e y s a r e n o t w i t h o u t t h e i r c o n s t r a i n t s . F i r s t , a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d s u r v e y i s d i f f i c u l t a n d c o s t l y 91 t o c o n s t r u c t , u s u a l l y i n v o l v i n g t h e n e e d f o r o u t s i d e c o n s u l t a n t s . S e c o n d l y , w i t h o u t c a r e f u l d e s i g n , t h e c o l l e c t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s o f d a t a w i l l l i k e l y be u n r e l i a b l e a n d m e a n i n g l e s s . T h i r d , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w i s v i r t u a l l y u n i - d i r e c t i o n a l f r o m p u b l i c t o p l a n n e r . Few s u r v e y p r o c e d u r e s i n c l u d e an i n f o r m a t i o n p r i m i n g e l e m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d t e n d t o be s i m p l i s t i c ( B o a d e n e t a l . 1980, 6 3 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , h o w e v e r c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d , i t i s a r g u e d t h a t t h i s t y p e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e n d e r s t h e c i t i z e n i n t o a p a s s i v e ' a y e r ' o r ' n a y e r ' t o q u e s t i o n s d e f i n e d by o t h e r s ( A u d a i n 1972, 8 0 ) . T h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s a r e n o t common t o a l l s u r v e y s . I n d e e d , some s u r v e y s i n c l u d e c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a s k q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r i n g t h o u g h t p r o v o k i n g a n s w e r s . R e g a r d l e s s , e v e n i f c i t i z e n s u r v e y s a r e w e l l d e s i g n e d a n d i m p l e m e n t e d , t h e y a r e n o t a d e q u a t e a s an e x c l u s i v e s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e d y n a m i c i n t e r a c t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f i d e a s t h a t c a n o c c u r i n f a c e - t o - f a c e d i s c u s s i o n ( M i l b r a t h 1981, 4 8 7 ) . As p a r t o f a w i d e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m , s u r v e y s c a n be an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t . To o v e r c o m e t h e most common l i m i t a t i o n s o f s u r v e y s , L e s t e r M i l b r a t h s u g g e s t s t h a t a w e l l d e s i g n e d a n d l e n g t h y i n t e r v i e w o f a random s a m p l e o f p e o p l e f r o m a g i v e n r e g i o n o r c o n s t i t u e n c y c a n o b t a i n t h e b e l i e f s a n d a t t i t u d e s o f p e o p l e on a s p e c t r u m o f r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s ( L a n g t o n 1979, 1 0 3 ) . T h i s t y p e o f s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e i s more e x t e n s i v e t h a n t h e t y p i c a l o p i n i o n p o l l w h i c h a s k s p e o p l e w h e t h e r t h e y f a v o r o r o p p o s e a s p e c i f i c i s s u e by r e s p o n d i n g t o s i n g l e q u e s t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o M i l b r a t h , by u s i n g t h i s more e x t e n s i v e a p p r o a c h , a s p e c i f i c p o l i c y b e l i e f u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . . . c a n be s e e n i n p e r s p e c t i v e a s i t i s embedded i n an o v e r a l l 92 set of related b e l i e f s and attitudes. When b e l i e f s are seen "in context", they are more representative than i f they are e l i c i t e d as a s p e c i f i c response to a single question (Langton 1979, 103). Surrey was the only municipality to use a public opinion survey. The survey was designed to get short responses on a wide variety of issues and was mailed to every household in the municipality. Due to the very low response rate, i t could not be considered s t a t i s t i c a l l y v a l i d or a r e l i a b l e indication of public preference. Well designed surveys can be used to achieve the imp a r t i a l i t y objective. Surveys can also contribute to the a c c e s s i b i l i t y , timing, comprehensibility and alternatives objectives. How well i t meets any of these objectives w i l l depend on the implementation and design of the survey. 4.2.2 QUESTIONNAIRE AND COMMENT SHEETS The actual format of questionnaire and comment sheets varies greatly and as Boaden et a l . comment: "the technique i s as simple as the survey i s sophisticated" (1980, 63-64). The comment form is useful when alternative issues and proposals are being explained. Usually s p e c i f i c information w i l l have been previously d i s t r i b u t e d or information accompanies the form. In the evaluation of alt e r n a t i v e s , c i t i z e n s are asked for their preferences, often by both having them give a simple quantitative indication as well as in supporting statements in the respondent's own words. The l a t t e r offers the respondent the opportunity to expand on the alternatives and suggest d i f f e r e n t d irections and concerns. It also ensures that the basis of public preferences i s not i n v a l i d l y assumed by the planner or 93 f o r c i b l y c a s t i n h i s own t e r m s (Boaden e t a l . 1980, 6 3 - 6 4 ) . T h i s t e c h n i q u e o f f e r s t h e r e s p o n d e n t an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f on h i s own t e r m s w h i l e b e i n g g u i d e d by a c o m p a r i s o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . The r e s p o n s e s t h e r e f o r e , t e n d t o be more c l e a r l y f o c u s s e d a n d l e s s v a g u e . As a r e s u l t , t h e s e w r i t t e n comments w i l l u s u a l l y i n c l u d e t h e most d e t a i l e d a nd c a r e f u l l y r e a s o n e d r e s p o n s e s t o p r o p o s a l s w h i c h an a u t h o r i t y w i l l r e c e i v e t h r o u g h any c h a n n e l ( Boaden e t a l . 1980, 6 4 - 6 9 ) . A d d i t i o n a l l y , comment f o r m s h a v e t h e a d v a n t a g e o f e n c o u r a g i n g some k i n d o f a c t i v e r e s p o n s e t o p u b l i c i t y m a t e r i a l w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be t a k e n i n r a t h e r p a s s i v e l y ( B o a d e n e t a l . 1980, 6 4 ) . T h i s p r o m o t e s l e a r n i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e c i t i z e n a nd c a n be an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f an e d u c a t i v e i n t e r a c t i v e d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n t h e p l a n n e r s a n d t h e p u b l i c . C o n v e r s e l y , w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e / c o m m e n t s h e e t t e c h n i q u e , t h e r e i s u s u a l l y no way o f k n o w i n g who r e s p o n d s o r i n p r e v e n t i n g someone o r a g r o u p f r o m f i l l i n g o u t s e v e r a l s h e e t s r e s u l t i n g i n a b i a s e d o u t c o m e . A l s o t h e h a n d l i n g o f t h e w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e p o r t i o n o f t h e comment s h e e t by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s c a n be d i f f i c u l t a n d l e a d t o a number o f d i s t o r t i o n s . T h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s a r e n o t u n i q u e t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d comment s h e e t t e c h n i q u e . P u b l i c m e e t i n g s may be d o m i n a t e d be one g r o u p and s u r v e y s may be m a n i p u l a t e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d comment s h e e t t e c h n i q u e , a s w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d n o t be u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y a n d be g i v e n undue w e i g h t a n d a t t e n t i o n . O n l y R i c h m o n d u s e d t h i s t e c h n i q u e . The p l a n n e r s d i d s o e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s t o g i v e c i t i z e n s a c a p s u l e r e v i e w o f e a c h i s s u e i n e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d l a n g u a g e . C i t i z e n s t h e n h a d t h e 94 opportunity to make choices from a number of alternatives and give additional comments. Well over half of the 1535 comment sheets that were returned included additional comments made by c i t i z e n s expressing their opinion on the issue. This technique was considered very worthwhile as an educational tool for the c i t i z e n s about the issues and as an indication of public preference for the planners. The primary use of questionnaire and comment sheets meets the alternatives objective by representing a range of alternatives and encouraging response and the public's own ideas. Important and relevant information i s provided thus contributing to the achievement of the comprehensibility objective. There is no way to ensure the i m p a r t i a l i t y objective i s met with this technique. The a c c e s s i b i l i t y objective i s not t o t a l l y met by th i s technique although comment sheets can contribute to the achieving of t h i s objective. 4.2.3 LETTERS, BRIEFS AND TELEPHONE COMMENTS The s o l i c i t a t i o n of l e t t e r s , b r i e f s and telephone comments offers members of the public an opportunity to express their views in either written or oral form. The a t t r a c t i o n of l e t t e r s and b r i e f s , both to the planning authority and the members of the public i s that they are a matter of record and are often more detailed, c l e a r l y expressed and c a r e f u l l y argued (Boaden et a l . 1980, 64). Given proper attention, telephone comments can also be methodically recorded and used in analysis as well. This technique, however, has a major l i m i t a t i o n in that in many situations where the public i s invited to submit oral or 95 w r i t t e n comments, o n l y a t i n y f r a c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t e s . T h o s e c i t i z e n s who do comment u s u a l l y have a v e r y s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o p o s a l and may n o t be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e v i e w s o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c ( M i l b r a t h 1981, 4 7 9 - 8 0 ) . C o n v e r s e l y i n s i t u a t i o n s w h ere t h e r e i s s u b s t a n t i a l r e s p o n s e , a number o f p r o b l e m s c a n e x i s t i n p r o c e s s i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . U n l i k e comment s h e e t s , w h i c h d i r e c t r e s p o n d e n t s on how t h e y f e e l on c e r t a i n i s s u e s , t h i s t y p e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s much more open r e s u l t i n g i n more d i v e r s e comments a s f a r a s t o p i c a r e a and i s s u e s a r e c o n c e r n e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , w h i l e p r o v i s i o n s c a n be made t o c o m m u n i c a t e t h e g e n e r a l r e s u l t s b a c k t o t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g p u b l i c , o f t e n t h i s d o e s n o t o c c u r . T h e r e f o r e , i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s i n d i v i d u a l s a r e n o t a b l e t o w i t n e s s o t h e r p o s i t i o n s and a c c o r d i n g l y m o d i f y t h e i r own p o s i t i o n ( F a r r e l l , 3 6 ) . I n D e l t a , R i c h m o n d a n d New W e s t m i n s t e r , l e t t e r s , b r i e f s a n d t e l e p h o n e comments were s o l i c i t e d a l t h o u g h t h e r e was n o t a l a r g e r e s p o n s e . I n New W e s t m i n s t e r , l e t t e r s a n d t e l e p h o n e comments were t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t a n d o n l y t w e n t y - e i g h t r e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d . I n R i c h m o n d , o n l y f o u r l e t t e r s were r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m a n d t h i r t y l e t t e r s i n t h e s e c o n d p h a s e . D e l t a r e c e i v e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 r e s p o n s e s . T h i s f i n d i n g w o u l d t e n d t o s u p p o r t M i l b r a t h ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t o n l y a t i n y f r a c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h i s t e c h n i q u e . I n r e v i e w i n g t h e l e t t e r s , r e s p o n s e i n c l u d e d s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n s a n d r e q u e s t s a s w e l l a s comments o f a more g e n e r a l n a t u r e ( D e l t a 1985c; R i c h m o n d 1985c; R i c h m o n d 1 9 8 6 b ) . T h i s t e c h n i q u e c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y , t i m i n g , 96 a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s o b j e c t i v e s b u t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o meet any o f them w i t h o u t o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s . 4.3 INTERACTION TECHNIQUES 4.3.1 PUBLIC MEETING The p u b l i c m e e t i n g o r town m e e t i n g a s i t i s s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o , i s a s e s s i o n where a u t h o r i t i e s have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d e x p l a i n i s s u e s , a l t e r n a t i v e s and p r o p o s a l s . I n t u r n , c i t i z e n s a r e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s t h e i r c o n c e r n s a n d o p i n i o n s . S u c h m e e t i n g s a r e r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e and p r o v i d e a f o r u m f o r a n y o n e t o comment ( B u r t o n 1977, 1 2 ) . A p r e s e n t a t i o n i s u s u a l l y h e l d f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d . T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s a p p l i c a b l e i n s i t u a t i o n s w here l a r g e amounts o f i n f o r m a t i o n a r e t o be d i s p e r s e d . I t i s a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e t o e d u c a t e t h e p u b l i c and t o s h a r e i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d i n g o b t a i n i n g f e e d b a c k f r o m c i t i z e n s . Two f a c t o r s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n o r d e r t h a t t h e t i m e i s s p e n t w e l l . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s a s k i l l e d c h a i r m a n . The s e c o n d i s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p r e l i m i n a r y i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l , i n c l u d i n g n o t i f i c a t i o n t o t h e r e l e v a n t p u b l i c s w e l l i n a d v a n c e o f t h e m e e t i n g d a t e ( F a r r e l l , 4 1 ) . P u b l i c m e e t i n g s have s e v e r a l d r a w b a c k s . F i r s t , t h e a t m o s p h e r e i s n o t a l w a y s c o n d u c i v e t o e f f e c t i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Many p e o p l e a r e r e l u c t a n t t o s p e a k i n f r o n t o f a l a r g e g r o u p o f p e o p l e a n d t h e r e f o r e a g r e a t number o f p e o p l e who a t t e n d a p u b l i c m e e t i n g do n o t v o i c e t h e i r o p i n i o n s . As w e l l , t h e m e e t i n g f o r m a t d o e s n o t a l l o w f o r an i n d e p t h e x c h a n g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h e a t m o s p h e r e c a n be e m o t i o n a l a n d h o s t i l e when an 97 i s s u e i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l . I n d i v i d u a l s p e a k e r s may a t t e m p t t o be r h e t o r i c a l a n d e m o t i o n a l l y sway t h e a u d i e n c e w h i c h may i n t u r n p o l a r i z e p r e - e x i s t i n g g r o u p s ( F a r r e l l , 4 1 ) . I n many c a s e s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a n d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d one i n t h e same. C a t a n e s e t r a c e s t h e r o o t s of t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g b a c k t o t h e town m e e t i n g ( 1 9 8 4 , 1 2 4 ) , w h i l e C r e i g h t o n c o n s i d e r s p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a s j u s t one t y p e o f p u b l i c m e e t i n g ( 1 9 8 3 , 2 4 4 ) . When t h e two a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , h e a r i n g s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e more f o r m a l and l e s s f l e x i b l e , v e r y o f t e n h a v i n g t o a d h e r e t o l e g i s l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g t h e i r t i m i n g a n d f o r m a t . The p u b l i c m e e t i n g , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , r e p r e s e n t s a more f l e x i b l e m e t h o d u s e d t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c . W h a t e v e r t h e f o r m a t , C r e i g h t o n p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s o f one s o r t o r a n o t h e r , were a s t a p l e o f p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s c l a i m i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by Thomas B u r t o n i n h i s s t u d y o f C a n a d i a n p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s i n w h i c h he f o u n d n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e 96 c a s e s r e v i e w e d made use o f p u b l i c m e e t i n g s ( B u r t o n 1977, 1 9 ) . B u r t o n c o n c l u d e d t h e most p e r s i s t e n t t e c h n i q u e e m p l o y e d i n p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C a nada has b een t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g ( 1 9 7 7 , 1 9 ) . Many o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s a n d m e r i t s o f p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . T h e s e a r e e l a b o r a t e d on i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s e c t i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s . P u b l i c m e e t i n g s were h e l d i n R i c h m o n d a n d D e l t a . B o t h m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a d v e r t i s e d t h e i r m e e t i n g s i n b r o c h u r e a n d b r o a d s h e e t d e l i v e r i e s and a l s o t h r o u g h t h e m e d i a . D e l t a o r g a n i z e r s were n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p u b l i c 98 m e e t i n g s h e l d t o d i s c u s s t h e d r a f t p l a n . A few i n t e r e s t g r o u p s d o m i n a t e d t h e p r o c e e d i n g s r e i n t e r a t i n g t h e same v i e w s a t e a c h m e e t i n g ( R o g e r s i n t e r v i e w ) . The m e e t i n g s were n o t v e r y u s e f u l i n e x c h a n g i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o r i n l e a d i n g t o s u b s t a n t i a l c h a n g e s i n t h e p l a n ( C o l l i e r i n t e r v i e w ) . I n R i c h m o n d ' s c a s e , t h e p r o c e e d i n g s d i d n o t t e n d t o be d o m i n a t e d by s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , a l t h o u g h some o f t h e m e e t i n g s became q u i t e e m o t i o n a l c o n c e r n i n g t h e i s s u e o f w h e t h e r u r b a n e x p a n s i o n s h o u l d be a l l o w e d o n t o a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . O t h e r w i s e , t h e m e e t i n g s were u s e f u l f o r p l a n n e r s t o t r a n s f e r i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c a n d t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s on s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n s . I n t u r n , p l a n n e r s were a b l e t o l i s t e n t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' v i e w s , i d e a s a n d r e a c t i o n s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , a s e a c h m e e t i n g p r o g r e s s e d , t h e y t e n d e d t o t a k e on t h e i r own themes s u c h a s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , o r s e r v i c i n g p o t e n t i a l a n d l o g i s t i c s o r t h e f u t u r e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . P l a n n e r s were f r u s t r a t e d on a c o u p l e o f o c c a s i o n s b e c a u s e r a t h e r t h a n r e c e i v i n g i n p u t f r o m t h e p u b l i c on a w i d e v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e O.C.P., t h e m e e t i n g s t u r n e d i n t o a q u e s t i o n a n d an s w e r p e r i o d w i t h t h e p l a n n e r s g i v i n g o u t i n f o r m a t i o n b u t g e t t i n g v e r y l i t t l e b a c k . C o n v e r s e l y , c e r t a i n m e e t i n g s were more w o r t h w h i l e i n t e r m s o f r e c e i v i n g comments f r o m t h e p u b l i c on a v a r i e t y o f O.C.P. i s s u e s . B a s e d on t h e s e e x a m p l e s , i t i s c l e a r p l a n n e r s were n o t a b l e t o ov e r c o m e a l l t h e c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h a r e common t o p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , h o w e v e r some m e e t i n g s r e s u l t e d i n p r o d u c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n . P u b l i c m e e t i n g s c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d t i m i n g o b j e c t i v e s by p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s 99 f o r c i t i z e n s a t t i m e s a n d l o c a t i o n s c o n v e n i e n t t o them a t i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p o i n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s . The c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e c a n be met and p u b l i c m e e t i n g s p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r e s e n t a r a n g e o f a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e p u b l i c a n d h a v e p e o p l e r e s p o n d w i t h t h e i r own i d e a s . I t i s n o t a l w a y s e a s y t o c o n t r o l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p u b l i c m e e t i n g s and t h e r e f o r e , t h e y c a n become d o m i n a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s . 4.3.2 PUBLIC HEARING A p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s a s p e c i a l , f o c u s s e d m e c h a n i s m f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i c y m a k i n g w h i c h m e e t s s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r o c e d u r e ( B u r t o n 1977, 1 1 ) . A p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o v i d e s a f o r u m where t h e p u b l i c c a n make f o r m a l s t a t e m e n t s t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s a b o u t t h e i s s u e a t h a n d ( F a r r e l l , 4 0 ) . P u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e w i d e l y u s e d i n Canada p a r t i a l l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d by l a w f o r a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s a t t h e f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l a n d l o c a l l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t . A t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , m a n d a t e d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s e x i s t b e f o r e c e r t a i n p l a n s a n d z o n i n g b y - l a w s a r e p a s s e d a s l e g i s l a t i o n . P u b l i c h e a r i n g s have been c r i t i c i z e d h e a v i l y f o r t h e i r l a c k o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s ( C a t a n e s e 1984, 124; Checkoway 1981, 574; C o l e 1984, 415; M i l b r a t h 1981, 479; M a r t i n 1973, 94; E s t r i n 1977, 8 3 ) . P r i m a r i l y t h e m a i n c r i t i c i s m i s t h a t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e h e l d l a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a f t e r m a j o r d e c i s i o n s a n d c h o i c e s h a v e a l r e a d y b een e s t a b l i s h e d . As a r e s u l t , h e a r i n g s a r e s e e n a s a " s a f e " method o f i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c b e c a u s e t h e r e i s l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r 100 c i t i z e n s , o r c h a n c e t h a t c i t i z e n ' s v i e w s , w i l l c h a n g e t h e p r o p o s a l s and have a r e a l i m p a c t on t h e d e c i s i o n s b e i n g made. As a r e s u l t , a s a m e c h a n i s m f o r c h a n g i n g g o v e r n m e n t b e h a v i o r , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s s e e n a s b e i n g l a r g e l y i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l ( C o l e 1984, 4 1 5 ) . I n s t e a d o f i n f l u e n c i n g d e c i s i o n s , t h e y a r e u s e d f o r a number o f o t h e r e n d s . B a r r y Checkoway i d e n t i f i e s f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e p u r p o s e s f o r p u b l i c h e a r i n g s : (1) t o s a t i s f y minimum l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ; (2) t o b u i l d s u p p o r t f o r a g e n c y p l a n s ; (3) t o d i f f u s e a n t a g o n i s m a n d (4) t o l e g i t i m a t e a d e c i s i o n t h a t h a s a l r e a d y b een made ( 1 9 8 1 , 5 7 0 - 1 ) . S p e n c e a n d Y u k u b o u s k y c i t e t h e s c h e d u l i n g o f h e a r i n g s l a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a s a p r i m e means f o r an a g e n c y t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n g a i n i n g l e g i t i m a c y f o r a d e c i s i o n t h a t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n made. They n o t e t h a t by l e a v i n g t h e h e a r i n g u n t i l l a t e i n t i m e , i n most c a s e s , t h e a g e n c y s t a f f w i l l h a v e a l r e a d y p r o d u c e d a p l a n i n s e v e r a l v o l u m e s . Not o n l y d o e s t h i s make i t d i f f i c u l t a n d e x p e n s i v e t o c h a n g e t h e p r o p o s e d c o u r s e o f a c t i o n , b u t t h e p u b l i c may be s h u t o u t o f t h e e a r l y , d e t e r m i n a t i v e s t a g e s o f p l a n n i n g o r l e f t w i t h o u t e nough t i m e t o make an a d e q u a t e r e s p o n s e (Checkoway 1981, 5 7 1 - 2 ) . M i l b r a t h c o n s i d e r s t h i s a common o c c u r e n c e : ... i t i s more common f o r a h e a r i n g t o be h e l d a f t e r a p o l i c y h a s been a g r e e d t o by t h e p a r t i e s most i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e c i s i o n . When a h e a r i n g d o e s o c c u r , i n p u t f r o m t h e p u b l i c c a n h a v e o n l y a m a r g i n a l e f f e c t on t h e t e n t a t i v e a g r e e m e n t t h a t h a s a l r e a d y been w o r k e d o u t ( 1 9 8 1 , 4 7 9 ) . F u r t h e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h i s t e c h n i q u e i n c l u d e s t h e h e a r i n g ' s i n f l e x i b i l i t y a n d l a c k o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Rosenbaum, t h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a r i s e s f r o m t h e u s e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a s t h e p r i m a r y v e h i c l e f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n : 101 C l e a r l y b e c a u s e o f l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e number who c a n m e a n i n g f u l p a r t i c i p a t e a n d t h e l e g a l f o r m a l i t y o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c a n n o t c a r r y t h e m a i n l o a d o f e s t i m a t i n g a g g r e g a t e c o mmunity p r e f e r e n c e (N. Rosenbaum 1976, 5 9 ) . H e a r i n g s a r e o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d i n f l e x i b l e due t o t h e i r f o r m a l n a t u r e . P r o c e d u r a l r u l e s a r e f o l l o w e d a n d h e a r i n g s a r e h e l d i n o f f i c i a l g o v e r n m e n t b u i l d i n g s s u c h a s a c i t y h a l l . W h i l e t h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d good on one h a n d f o r t h e o r d e r a n d f a i r n e s s i t c a n p r o m o t e , i t i s a l s o i n t i m i d a t i n g and i n c o n v e n i e n t on t h e o t h e r . W h i l e p r o c e d u r a l r u l e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o m i n i m i z e u n e q u a l s t a t u s a n d l i m i t t h o s e w i t h s p e c i a l r h e t o r i c a l s k i l l s , t h e y a l s o may i n h i b i t s p e a k e r s u n f a m i l i a r w i t h them. The i m p o s i n g p r e s e n c e of m i c r o p h o n e s , t h e n e c e s s i t y o f w a l k i n g t o t h e f r o n t o f t h e room t o s p e a k , t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f t i m e l i m i t s a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f an a u d i e n c e may i n f r i n g e upon t h e a b i l i t y o f e v e n e x p e r i e n c e d c i t i z e n s t o s p e a k f r e e l y (Checkoway 1981, 5 6 8 ) . N o t a l l s c h o l a r s a g r e e w i t h t h e s e r a t h e r n e g a t i v e v i e w s o f t h e u s e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g a s a p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e ( K u r e 1977; R o s e n e r 1 9 8 2 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , R o s e n e r f o u n d t h a t c i t i z e n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p u b l i c h e a r i n g were s u c c e s s f u l i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ( 1 9 8 2 , 3 4 3 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e a number o f s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r ways p u b l i c h e a r i n g s c a n be i m p r o v e d s o t h a t t h e y a r e more e f f e c t i v e . T h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s i n c l u d e : (1) h o l d i n g m u l t i p l e d e c e n t r a l i z e d h e a r i n g s t o a l l o w g r e a t e r i n t e r c h a n g e b e t w e e n c i t i z e n s a n d p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s (N. Rosenbaum 1976, 59) a n d f o r b e t t e r a c c e s s i b i l t i y a n d c o n v e n i e n c e ; (2) i m p r o v e p r e h e a r i n g p u b l i c i t y (Checkoway 1981, 573) b u t n o t r e l y i n g s o l e l y on l e g a l a n n o u n c e m e n t s i n n e w s p a p e r s ; 102 (3) e n s u r e t h a t s p e a k e r s i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r g r o u p s o r a f f i l i a t i o n ( L o t z 1978, 1 1 ) ; (4) h a v e a d e q u a t e w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e t o s u m m a r i z e what t h e h e a r i n g i s a b o u t and what t h e f a c t s a r e ( L o t z 1978, 1 1 ) ; I n summary, w h i l e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e a s a p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e , e f f o r t s c a n be made t o o v e r c o m e t h e i r c o n s t r a i n t s . I n p a r t i c u l a r : ... t h e f i n d i n g i s n o t t h a t h e a r i n g s a r e w i t h o u t u s e s f o r c i t i z e n s w i s h i n g t o i n f l u e n c e a g e n c y d e c i s i o n s , b u t t h a t h e a r i n g s a l o n e a r e n o t e n o u g h t o a s s u r e s u c h i n f l u e n c e (Checkoway 1981, 5 7 0 ) . I n Rosenbaum's v i e w p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e u s e f u l a s a 'summing up' o r f o r m a l c o n c l u s i o n . He c o n s i d e r s t h e h e a r i n g t o be a s y m b o l i c o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n d i v i d u a l s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o go on r e c o r d w i t h f i n a l c r i t i c i s m s a nd s u g g e s t i o n s (N. Rosenbaum 1976, 5 9 ) ; what R.E. Mann r e f e r s t o a s "a . s a f e t y v a l v e f o r p e n t - u p f e e l i n g s " ( M a c o r 1980, 1 5 9 ) . S u r r e y r e l i e d on t h i s t e c h n i q u e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y f o r p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o t h e p l a n a n d i n so d o i n g p r a c t i c e d many o f t h e s u g g e s t i o n s i n i m p r o v i n g t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . T h a t i s , t h e h e a r i n g was a d j o u r n e d t o t e n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n a n d d a t e s , p r e h e a r i n g p u b l i c i t y was e x t e n d e d and s p e a k e r s i d e n t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s , a n d t h e b r o a d s h e e t s u m m a r i z e d t h e p l a n . S u r r e y , h o w e v e r , f a i l e d t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e i r p u b l i c h e a r i n g w i t h v e r y many o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h e h e a r i n g was h e l d l a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s . I n so d o i n g , t h e S u r r e y p r o c e s s r e f l e c t s t h e m a j o r c r i t i c i s m a p p l i e d t o p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . R i c h m o n d a l s o a d j o u r n e d t h e i r p u b l i c h e a r i n g t o be h e l d on f i v e s e p a r a t e e v e n i n g s o v e r a two week p e r i o d . I n o r d e r t o accommodate a l l t h o s e who w i s h e d t o s p e a k . A l a r g e s c h o o l 1 0 3 a u d i t o r i u m was u t i l i z e d i n o r d e r t o accommodate t h e l a r g e c r o w d s a n t i c i p a t e d . The p u b l i c h e a r i n g was w e l l p u b l i c i z e d i n t h e l o c a l n e w s p a p e r s i n t h r e e l a n g u a g e s . A g r a p h i c d i s p l a y e x h i b i t a n d i n f o r m a t i o n p a c k e t s were a v a i l a b l e t o p e o p l e a t t e n d i n g t h e h e a r i n g a s w e l l . I n New W e s t m i n s t e r a n d D e l t a , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were more o f a f o r m a l i t y , r e q u i r e d by l e g i s l a t i o n . I n D e l t a , n i n e p e o p l e s p o k e on b e h a l f o f a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p a nd s i x t e e n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s made comments, s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e c e i v e d a t t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s . T h i s c l o s e l y f o l l o w s Rosenbaum's v i e w o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a s a "summing up". I n New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g was p u b l i c i z e d t o t h e e x t e n t l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r e d a n d no one a d d r e s s e d t h e O.C.P. a t t h e h e a r i n g w h i c h was h e l d f o r a number o f i s s u e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . P u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e c o n t r o l l e d by p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h e n s u r e a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o e v e r y o n e a n d t h a t e v e r y o n e be h e a r d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e i m p a r t i a l i t y o b j e c t i v e c a n be a c h i e v e d u s i n g t h i s m ethod. H o w e v e r , n o t a l l p e o p l e a r e c o m f o r t a b l e i n a f o r m a l p u b l i c h e a r i n g f o r m a t , s o t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e c a n n o t be f u l l y met by a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . P u b l i c h e a r i n g s a l s o t a k e p l a c e l a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s t h u s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e t i m i n g o b j e c t i v e b u t n o t b e i n g a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . S i n c e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t a k e p l a c e w i t h e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , a n d t h e e v e n t s a r e o f f i c i a l l y r e c o r d e d , t h e p u b l i c i s made aware i f t h e i r v i e w s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e outcome a nd may be g i v e n r e a s o n s why o r why n o t c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n s were made. Thus t h e e f f i c a c y o b j e c t i v e may be s a t i s f i e d u s i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e . 1 04 4.3.3 OPEN HOUSES An open h o u s e i s a d r o p - i n t e c h n i q u e u s e d t o e n a b l e o n e - o n -one i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n c i t i z e n s a n d t h e p l a n n e r . T h i s method o f f e r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s a n d p l a n n e r s t o l e a r n a g r e a t d e a l , i n an i n f o r m a l p e r s o n a l manner. R a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g c i t i z e n s c o m i n g t o a g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e t o d i s c u s s c o n c e r n s , open h o u s e s c a n be s e t - u p where p e o p l e w o r k , s h o p o r r e c r e a t e . T h i s e n c o u r a g e s c i t i z e n s t o t a k e i n t e r e s t a n d p a r t i c i p a t e i n s u r r o u n d i n g s f a m i l i a r a n d c o n v e n i e n t t o them. W h i l e s u c h i n t e r a c t i o n c a n be v e r y u s e f u l f o r b o t h t h e p l a n n e r a n d c i t i z e n i n g a i n i n g k n o w l e d g e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g a b o u t t h e i s s u e s , i t i s n o t a l w a y s v e r y e f f i c i e n t i n t e r m s o f t i m e s p e n t . I t i s v e r y e a s y f o r t h e p l a n n e r t o become i n v o l v e d w i t h one p e r s o n a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t i m e t h a t c o u l d be s p e n t w i t h o t h e r members o f t h e p u b l i c . The m a j o r d r a w b a c k o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s t h e f a c t i t i s e x t r e m e l y t i m e c o n s u m i n g . I n o r d e r t o r e a c h a number o f c i t i z e n s , t h e h o u r s o f o p e r a t i o n must be l o n g a n d f l e x i b l e a n d t h e l o c a t i o n c o n v e n i e n t t o t h e c i t i z e n s . R i c h m o n d was t h e o n l y m u n i c i p a l i t y t o u s e t h e open h o u s e t e c h n i q u e d o i n g so b e f o r e e a c h town m e e t i n g a n d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e d i s p l a y b o a r d s i n m a l l s a n d a t c o m m u n i t y e v e n t s . The open h o u s e s h a d t h e most p a r t i c i p a t i o n j u s t p r i o r t o t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s ' s c h e d u l e d s t a r t i n g t i m e s . J u s t o v e r two h u n d r e d p e o p l e a t t e n d e d f i v e open h o u s e s d u r i n g t h e 1985 p u b l i c p r o g r a m ( R i c h m o n d 1985b, 1 7 ) . The R i c h m o n d p l a n n e r s f o u n d t h e one-on-one e x c h a n g e p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e a n d i n f o r m a t i v e a l t h o u g h t i m e 1 0 5 c o n s u m i n g ( P i c a r d 1 9 8 6 ) . Open h o u s e s c a n c o n t r i b u t e t o m e e t i n g f i v e o f t h e s i x o b j e c t i v e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l u d i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y , t i m i n g , i m p a r t i a l i t y , c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s . 4.3.4 COMMUNITY AND INTEREST GROUP MEETINGS AND SEMINARS The p u r p o s e o f s p e c i a l m e e t i n g s f o r c o m m u n i t y a n d i n t e r e s t g r o u p s i s t o t a r g e t t h e ' p u b l i c s ' w i t h s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n s . V e r y o f t e n t h e v e r y d e t a i l e d a n d n a r r o w n a t u r e o f t h e s e g r o u p s ' c o n c e r n s makes p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o t h e r f o r m s o f t h e p u b l i c p r o c e s s d i f f i c u l t . M a k i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r s p e c i a l m e e t i n g s h a s s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e s . One, s p e c i a l m e e t i n g s a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h g r o u p s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a n p r o v i d e a c o h e r e n t a n d s t r u c t u r e d r e s p o n s e t o p r o p o s a l s f r o m l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e r e p r e s e n t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f i n t e r e s t s , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e o u t l a y o f t i m e a n d r e s o u r c e s on t h e p a r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y ( B o a d e n e t a l . 1980, 6 8 ) . Two, i t i s e a s i e r t o t a r g e t a d v e r t i s i n g f o r t h e s e m e e t i n g s i n c l u d i n g l e t t e r s t o i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s known t o t h e p l a n n e r a s h a v i n g a s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e i s s u e b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . T h r e e , t h e s e m e e t i n g s a r e u s u a l l y s m a l l e r t h a n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i c m e e t i n g a n d t h e r e f o r e a l l o w f o r a more i n d e p t h i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p l a n n e r a n d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a s e m i n a r f o r m a t c a n be u s e d o r o t h e r s m a l l g r o u p e x e r c i s e s . H owever, i f a t t e n d a n c e becomes t o o l a r g e t h e n t h i s t e c h n i q u e s u f f e r s t h e same s e t b a c k s a s l a r g e r p u b l i c m e e t i n g s . F u r t h e r m o r e , b e c a u s e o f t h e v e r y s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f t h e a u d i e n c e , t h i s t e c h n i q u e c a n n o t be r e l i e d on t o r e f l e c t b r o a d 106 c o m m u n i t y c o n c e r n s . The f e e d b a c k o b t a i n e d may be a good i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c ' s t h o u g h t s b u t o t h e r methods s h o u l d be u s e d t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d . D e l t a , R i c h m o n d a n d New W e s t m i n s t e r u s e d s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t m e e t i n g s i n t h e i r p r o c e s s e s . R i c h m o n d p l a n n e r s f o u n d t h i s t e c h n i q u e t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l w i t h c e r t a i n g r o u p s m o s t l y b e c a u s e o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l c o m p o n e n t . T h e s e g r o u p s a r e now aware o f what t h e O.C.P. i s a n d a r e a b l e t o r e f e r t o i t i n s u b s e q u e n t m e e t i n g s w i t h p l a n n e r s ( P i c a r d i n t e r v i e w ) . I n c e r t a i n m e e t i n g s , p l a n n e r s e m p l o y e d s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i q u e s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o c e s s . F o r e x a m p l e , w i t h s o c i a l a n d s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s , t h e R i c h m o n d p l a n n e r s s p l i t t h e m e e t i n g i n t o s m a l l g r o u p s a n d h a d t h e g r o u p s p r i o r i t i z e c o n c e r n s a n d t h e n r e p o r t b a c k t o t h e l a r g e r g r o u p w i t h t h e i r f i n d i n g s . I n D e l t a , t h i s t y p e o f w o r k s h o p f o r m a t was u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y . On c e r t a i n o c c a s i o n s p e o p l e were a s k e d t o do r o u g h d r a w i n g s o f s o l u t i o n s t o c e r t a i n p r o b l e m s . T h e s e were t h e n s h a r e d w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e a t t h e m e e t i n g a n d t h e n t a k e n by t h e p l a n n e r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d . P a n e l s o f e x p e r t s w i t h d i v e r g i n g v i e w s were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d t o d e b a t e a n d a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s . D e l t a o r g a n i z e r s f o u n d t h i s t e c h n i q u e t o be v e r y a d a p t a b l e a n d s u c c e s s f u l ( R o g e r s i n t e r v i e w ) . New W e s t m i n s t e r , c o n v e r s e l y u s e d a more i n f o r m a l q u e s t i o n and a n s w e r m e e t i n g f o r m a t s i n c e i t was t h e c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s who a s k e d t h e p l a n n e r s t o come a n d g i v e them more i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e O.C.P.. T h i s t e c h n i q u e c a n b e s t meet t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s o b j e c t i v e . As an i s o l a t e d t e c h n i q u e , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p m e e t i n g s do n o t 107 meet the i m p a r t i a l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y objec t ives . This technique needs to be supplemented with other techniques to ensure the views of spec ia l interes t groups are balanced with those of the general p u b l i c . 4.3.5 ADVISORY PLANNING COMMISSION Advisory planning commissions are frequently u t i l i z e d by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s for four primary purposes: (1) to function as a sounding board of publ ic concerns and help to bridge the gap between the publ ic and agency (Milbrath 1981, 479; F a r r e l l , 40); (2) to serve as a guidance group monitoring the progress of the planning process and the publ ic involvement program (Creighton 1983, 297); (3) to serve as a channel of communication to and from other ind iv idua l s and interes t groups (Creighton 1983, 297) . (4) to provide a mechanism for sustained publ ic involvement in the planning process (Cull ingworth 1984, 13). In the preparation of O . C . P . ' s , advisory planning commissions are valuable in reviewing background reports , making recommendations on the i r adequacy, a s s i s t i n g in developing and evaluat ing a l t e r n a t i v e s , reviewing written mater ia l p r i o r to release to the general publ ic and a s s i s t i n g in educating the publ ic about the plan and the planning process. Membership to advisory planning bodies i s meant to re f l ec t a broad cross sect ion of the community. Therefore representatives are usual ly chosen from d i f f erent neighbourhoods and spec ia l interest groups. Through such a se lec t ion process, t h e o r e t i c a l l y a wide range of opinions and at t i tudes ex i s t s among the group's members which usual ly number between ten and twenty people. This s ize i s 108 l a r g e e nough t o p r e v e n t d o m i n a t i o n by s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s , a n d s m a l l e nough t o be e f f e c t i v e (N. Rosenbaum 1976, 5 1 ) . I n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f any c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e l i m i t s o f a u t h o r i t y be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d a n d u n d e r s t o o d a s t h e r e i s f r e q u e n t l y c o n f u s i o n a s t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a g r o u p t h a t i s a d v i s o r y a n d a d e c i s i o n m a k i n g body ( C r e i g h t o n 1983, 3 0 0 ) . Once a u t h o r i t y h a s been e s t a b l i s h e d i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o s p e c i f y t h e r o l e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n o r c o m m i t t e e i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h c a n n o t , o r w i l l n o t , be f u l f i l l e d , s i n c e s u c h u n f u l f i l l e d e x p e c t a t i o n s c a n l e a d t o f r u s t r a t i o n among b o t h p l a n n e r s a n d t h e members i n v o l v e d ( K w e i t a n d K w e i t 1981, 1 0 7 ) . A t t h e t i m e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t , i t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o o u t l i n e how l o n g t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s l i f e w i l l be i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p u r p o s e i t w i l l s e r v e . A p r i m a r y a d v a n t a g e o f h a v i n g an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n i s c o n t i n u i t y . M e m b e r s h i p on a c o m m i s s i o n u s u a l l y e x t e n d s f o r a t l e a s t one y e a r . T h e r e f o r e , members h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o become w e l l a q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e i s s u e s a n d a r e more a b l e t o make i n f o r m e d j u d g e m e n t s . The c o n t i n u i t y a l s o a l l o w s f o r members t o g e t t o know one a n o t h e r w h i c h c a n h e l p i n f o r m i n g a w o r k i n g g r o u p w i t h g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o c e s s ( F r e e d 1980, 3 0 ) . A l t h o u g h a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n s c a n s e r v e many u s e f u l f u n c t i o n s a n d be an a s s e t t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , two m a j o r p i t f a l l s h a v e been c i t e d . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e s e g r o u p s h a v e been c r i t i c i z e d a s b e i n g u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d a s b e i n g v u l n e r a b l e t o m a n i p u l a t i o n by a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t a f f (N. Rosenbaum 1976, 5 1 ; M i l b r a t h 1981, 479; S u s s k i n d 1978, 3 3 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o 1 0 9 M i l b r a t h ...a c a r e f u l p u b l i c o f f i c i a l t y p i c a l l y g i v e s a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f a c i t i z e n ' s c o m m i t t e e t o e n s u r e t h a t i t i n t e r f e r e s a s l i t t l e a s p o s s i b l e w i t h h e r o r h i s i n t e n t i o n s on p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s ( 1 9 8 1 , 4 7 9 ) . S u s s k i n d r e f e r s t o many o f t h e s e g r o u p s a s ' b l u e r i b b o n c o m m i t t e e s ' - made up o f c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s ( s u p p o s e d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f key i n t e r e s t s ) t o " a d v i s e " e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s ( 1 9 7 8 , 3 3 ) . A s e c o n d p i t f a l l i s t h a t t h e s e c o m m i s s i o n s , w h i c h c a n l a s t f o r many y e a r s , come t o be v i e w e d by p l a n n e r s a s a s u r r o g a t e p u b l i c ( C r e i g h t o n 1983, 2 9 7 ) . E v e n when an h o n e s t a t t e m p t i s made t o have t h e m e m b e r s h i p r e f l e c t t h e many d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e f o r e v e r y ' p u b l i c ' t o be r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s f o r m o f c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n must be c o m p l e m e n t e d by o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s . A l l t h e e x a m p l e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s u s e d an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n , some more t h a n o t h e r s . I n D e l t a a n d New W e s t m i n s t e r , a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n s were a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d when t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s commenced. B o t h c o m m i s s i o n s c o n s i d e r e d t h e O.C.P. d r a f t s a n d s u p p o r t i n g d o c u m e n t s a l o n g w i t h t h e i r o t h e r f u n c t i o n s o f c o m m e n t i n g on d a y - t o - d a y z o n i n g a n d s u b d i v i s i o n a p p r o v a l s . N e i t h e r were r e p o r t e d a s b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l o r o v e r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e O.C.P. ( C h a s t e r i n t e r v i e w ; R o g e r s i n t e r v i e w ) . The e x c e p t i o n was t h e c h a i r m a n o f D e l t a ' s c o m m i s s i o n who t o o k a v e r y a c t i v e a n d i n s t r u m e n t a l r o l e . C o n v e r s e l y , i n S u r r e y , an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r o n l y f o u r t e e n m onths o f t h e t o t a l O.C.P. p r o c e s s . The c o m m i s s i o n a s s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e O.C.P. d r a f t ' s p r e p a r a t i o n . O v e r h a l f o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s t i m e no was s p e n t r e w r i t i n g t h e d r a f t p l a n i n t o l a n g u a g e t h a t c o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c ( S c h o n i n t e r v i e w ) . The c o m m i s s i o n f e l t i t had some i m p a c t b u t w o u l d h a v e l i k e d more i f c o u n c i l w o u l d h a v e p e r m i t t e d i t ( S c h o n i n t e r v i e w ) . I n R i c h m o n d , a r e s t r u c t u r e d a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d t o d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e O.C.P. a n d l a s t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a n ' s p r e p a r a t i o n . The c o m m i s s i o n was o n l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be p a r t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n i t s f i r s t e i g h t e e n m onths b e c a u s e o f i n t e r n a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n f l i c t s b e t w e e n members t h a t were d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o n c i l e . Some members a l s o h a d d i f f i c u l t y c o n s i s t e n t l y d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s c o n c e n t r a t i n g i n s t e a d on m i n o r p o i n t s s u c h a s grammer. The s t a f f w o u l d h a v e p r e f e r r e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e m i n o r p o i n t s t h e m s e l v e s and u s e t h e t i m e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n t o d i s c u s s more i m p o r t a n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n d p o l i c y i s s u e s . F o u r members were r e p l a c e d p r i o r t o t h e d r a f t p l a n ' s c o m p l e t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o one p l a n n e r , t h e c o m m i s s i o n a c t e d more e f f i c i e n t l y b e c a u s e t h e new members were o f t h e same p h i l o s o p h y a s t h e m a j o r i t y o f c o u n c i l ( P i c a r d i n t e r v i e w ) . T h r o u g h o u t t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s , t h e c o m m i s s i o n was v e r y s u c c e s s f u l i n i m p l e m e n t i n g c h a n g e s t o b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s a n d t h e p l a n . From t h e s e e x a m p l e s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n s a r e q u i t e p o l i t i c a l i n n a t u r e a n d v a r y a s t o t h e q u a l i t y o f i n p u t p r o v i d e d f o r an O.C.P.. The m e m b e r s h i p , w h i l e b e i n g f r o m v a r i o u s g r o u p s a n d i n t e r e s t s c a n s t i l l be m a n i p u l a t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , members must be s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e O.C.P. t h a t t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o d e v o t e t i m e a n d e f f o r t t o t h e p r o c e s s . T h e s e f a c t o r s c o m b i n e d , c o n f i r m t h a t 111 while t h i s technique can be u s e f u l , i t i s g e n e r a l l y d i f f i c u l t to overcome the c o n s t r a i n t s and t h e r e f o r e must be supplemented with other techniques. Advisory p l a n n i n g commissions can h e l p achieve the a l t e r n a t i v e s o b j e c t i v e but as with s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t group meetings, t h i s technique must be used with other techniques to meet the a c c e s s i b i l i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s . A d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commissions can be very u s e f u l i n complementing other techniques to meet the t i m i n g o b j e c t i v e by p r o v i d i n g continuous involvement. 4.3.6 LOCAL AREA PLANNING COMMITTEES AND PLANS S i m i l a r to a m u n i c i p a l i t y - w i d e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commission, pla n n e r s i n v o l v e c i t i z e n s i n l o c a l , area p l a n n i n g . L o c a l area committees are e s t a b l i s h e d under the same g u i d e l i n e s as f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y - w i d e a d v i s o r y commission. These l o c a l committees a s s i s t the l o c a l area or neighbourhood planner i n de v e l o p i n g a community plan f o r t h e i r a r e a . The plans are then c o n s i d e r e d and used i n developing the m u n i c i p a l i t y - w i d e O.C.P.. In a d d i t i o n to the advantages and c o n s t r a i n t s o u t l i n e d f o r the community-wide a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commission, t h i s technique s u f f e r s one more problem. L o c a l area p l a n n i n g committees conc e n t r a t e on t h e i r own ar e a s . They o f t e n do not c o n s i d e r the broader community-wide i s s u e s except when i t d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s t h e i r a r ea. An accumulation of i n d i v i d u a l l o c a l plans can e a s i l y become c o n t r a d i c t o r y and together l a c k a coherent community-wide c o n t e x t . The s o l e use of l o c a l area plans and l o c a l area p l a n n i n g committees i s i n some ways the a n t i t h e s i s of what a 1 12 c o m m u n i t y - w i d e O.C.P. r e p r e s e n t s . T h i s c o n s t r a i n t c a n be ov e r c o m e by i n c l u d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e c o m m u n i t y - w i d e i s s u e s t o b a l a n c e t h e v e r y a r e a - s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n s o f l o c a l a r e a p l a n s a n d l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s . S u r r e y a n d R i c h m o n d b o t h u s e d l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s a n d p l a n s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e O.C.P. p r o c e s s e s . I n R i c h m o n d , t h e l o c a l a r e a t e c h n i q u e was n o t c o n s i d e r e d a m a j o r component o f t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s , b u t r a t h e r s o m e t h i n g t o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c e some l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s h a d been e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s a n d some were a c t i v e w h i l e t h e b r o a d e r O.C.P. was b e i n g p r e p a r e d . The i n p u t f r o m t h e l o c a l a r e a p u b l i c p r o g r a m s , c o m m i t t e e s a n d c o m p l e t e d p l a n s were t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e p u b l i c r e s p o n s e when i t r e l a t e d t o i s s u e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e O.C.P.. S u r r e y c o n v e r s e l y , r e l i e d h e a v i l y on many d i f f e r e n t l o c a l a r e a p l a n s d e v e l o p e d by a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s t o d e v e l o p t h e i r O.C.P.. The l o c a l p l a n s were o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y a n d t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c was n o t c o n s u l t e d on b r o a d e r i s s u e s a n d t h e b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r o f t h e s e p l a n s . S u r r e y p l a n n e r s a g r e e t h a t t h e l o c a l a r e a c o m m i t t e e s t h a t were s e t - u p by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d w o r k e d q u i t e w e l l ( C a s e l t o n i n t e r v i e w ; D i c k i n s o n i n t e r v i e w ; A t i e n z a i n t e r v i e w ) . H o wever, i n t e r m s o f h a v i n g any s a y i n how t h e i r p l a n s r e l a t e d t o o t h e r p l a n s p u t f o r w a r d by r a t e p a y e r s o r o t h e r g r o u p s a n d how t h e p l a n s w o u l d be a f f e c t e d when a l m a l g a m a t e d i n t o an o v e r a l l p l a n , t h e c o m m i t t e e s were n o t c o n s u l t e d d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t many o f t h e p l a n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d by t h e h e a d p l a n n e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e O.C.P.. 1 13 The a l t e r n a t i v e s o b j e c t i v e c a n be p a r t i a l l y a c h i e v e d w i t h t h e u se o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e . As w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s two t e c h n i q u e s , t h i s t e c h n i q u e must be c o m b i n e d w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s t o s a t i s f y t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y a n d i m p a r t i a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s . 4.4 SUMMARY In s u m m a r i z i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e s u s e d by t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m e e t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n c h a p t e r t h r e e i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s b e i n g s t u d i e d i n v o l v e d t h e p u b l i c i n a t l e a s t two o r more p o i n t s i n t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s : (1) i s s u e a n d a l t e r n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , (2) comment on f i r s t d r a f t p l a n a n d (3) comment on s e c o n d d r a f t p l a n . As w e l l , t h r e e o u t o f f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s u s e d an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s a n d S u r r e y u s e d a c o m m i s s i o n f o r t h e t w e l v e month p e r i o d l e a d i n g up t o t h e f i r s t d r a f t p l a n . I t i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i f t e e n t e c h n i q u e s u s e d by t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h a t no one t e c h n i q u e i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t any one s t a g e i n t h e p r o c e s s . T a b l e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g , i n f o r m a t i o n - r e c e i v i n g a n d i n t e r a c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s u s e d a t t h e v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s . 1 14 TABLE I : T e c h n i q u e s U s e d a t V a r i o u s S t a g e s i n t h e O.C.P. P r o c e s s by F o u r G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M u n i c i p a l i t i e s EARLY FIRST DRAFT PLAN SECOND DRAFT PLAN INFORMATION GIVING -media - b r o c h u r e - b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s - f e e d b a c k r e p o r t - g r a p h i c d i s p l a y s -media - b r o a d s h e e t - d r a f t p l a n - g r a p h i c d i s p l a y s - f e e d b a c k r e p o r t - d r a f t p l a n - f e e d b a c k r e p o r t -media INFORMATION RECEIVING - s u r v e y s - l e t t e r s -comment s h e e t s • l e t t e r s INTERACTION - p u b l i c m e e t i n g -open house - i n t e r e s t g r o u p m e e t i n g s - l o c a l a r e a c o m m i t t e e s • p u b l i c meet i n g -open house - i n t e r e s t g r o u p m e e t i n g s - p u b l i c h e a r i n g - p u b l i c h e a r i n g CONTINUOUS - a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n The s t e p s e a c h m u n c i p a l i t y t o o k t o a c h i e v e e a c h p r o c e s s -o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e w i l l be a s s e s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . Knowing how w e l l e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y was a b l e t o s a t i s f y t h e o b j e c t i v e s w i l l l e a d t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t o e f f e c t i v e l y i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s . 115 CHAPTER F I V E EVALUATION 5.0 INTRODUCTION The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o a s s e s s t h e o v e r a l l e f f o r t o f e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f i t s O.C.P.. The s t e p s t a k e n by e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y i n i t s O.C.P. p r o c e s s t o a c h i e v e t h e s i x p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d . A d i s c u s s i o n on e v a l u a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be h e l d f i r s t i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e . 5.1 EVALUATING PUBLIC P A R T I C I P A T I O N T h e r e a r e a number o f a p p r o a c h e s t h a t c a n be t a k e n t o e v a l u a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d i n many, c a s e s i t i s most e f f e c t i v e i f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f m ethods a r e u s e d . W h a t e v e r t h e m e t h o d s u s e d , i t i s g e n e r a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s y s t e m a t i c manner ( R o s e n e r 1981, 5 8 3 ) . I t i s a l s o w i d e l y a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t e v a l u a t i o n i s an e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t p r o c e s s . T h e r e a r e t h r e e p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n e v a l u a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i r s t , a s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r t w o , t h e r e i s no a g r e e m e n t among r e s e a r c h e r s a s t o what i s e f f e c t i v e , a s o p p o s e d t o i n e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S e c o n d , t h e r e a r e no a g r e e d - u p o n e v a l u a t i o n m e t h o d s . T h i r d , t h e r e a r e few r e l i a b l e measurement t o o l s ( R o s e n e r 1 9 8 1 , . 5 8 3 ) . Rosenbaum ( 1 9 7 9 , 83-4) o u t l i n e s t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n a n a l y s t . The f i r s t l e v e l i s t h e l e a s t c o m p l e x an d most common f o c u s s i n g on t h e t e c h n i q u e s u s e d . F o r e x a m p l e , 116 s t a t i s t i c s a n d r e c o r d s o f t h e number o f p e o p l e who a t t e n d e d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a n d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e u s e d a s e v i d e n c e o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y . S i m i l a r l y , some e v a l u a t i o n s e x a m i n e t h e r e c o r d o f a p u b l i c h e a r i n g t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a l l p o i n t s o f v i e w were g i v e n ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x p r e s s i o n . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s o f p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s i s a l s o u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( B e r r y e t a l . 1984, 1 0 ) . A t b e s t , s u c h i n d i c a t o r s c a n o n l y be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e a l o w e r bound on a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Rosenbaum p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h e x c l u s i v e r e l i a n c e upon t h e s e i n d i c e s o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s t h a t what a p p e a r s t o be o b j e c t i v e l y e f f e c t i v e may n o t be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a s i m i l a r s u b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e a c t o r s i n t h e p r o c e s s (Rosenbaum 1979, 8 4 ) . T h i s l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s a l s o c a r r i e s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e c l o s e r p a r t i c i p a n t s come t o r e f l e c t i n g t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a f f e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n , a n d t h e number who p a r t i c i p a t e , t h e more l i k e l y i t i s t h e a c t u a l p o l i c y o u t c o m e s w i l l r e f l e c t t h e p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h a t p o p u l a t i o n ( B e r r y e t a l . 1984, 1 0 ) . The s e c o n d l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s r e l a t e s t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e b u r e a u c r a t s t h e m s e l v e s . Among methods t h a t h a v e been u s e d a r e d i r e c t e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e c o r d s o f d e c i s i o n m a k e r s ' d e l i b e r a t i o n s , and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h key s t a f f members an d d e c i s i o n m a k e r s t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r v i e w s on t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y , f a i r n e s s , and r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s . The p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s l a t t e r a p p r o a c h i s t h a t b u r e a u c r a t s c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o be e n t i r e l y c a n d i d a b o u t t h e i r own m o t i v a t i o n a n d d e c i s i o n m a k i n g s t y l e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Rosenbaum, i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c a n , a t b e s t , y i e l d d a t a w h i c h c a n a s s i s t t h e 117 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s , b u t e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be b a s e d s o l e l y upon t h i s l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s (Rosenbaum 1979, 8 4 ) . T h i s s e n t i m e n t i s e c h o e d by t h e A d v i s o r y C o m m i s s i o n on I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l R e l a t i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w h i c h s t a t e s : ... d e c i s i o n m a k e r s and t h e i r s t a f f s c a n be i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h e i r v i e w s on t h e i m p a c t o f c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t b e c a u s e o f o f f i c i a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t t h o s e v i e w s s h o u l d be u s e d o n l y t o a s s i s t i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s , r a t h e r t h a n s e r v e a s t h e o n l y b a s i s f o r t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (ACIR 1979, 3 0 6 ) . The t h i r d l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s r e l a t e s t o t h e a t t i t u d e s a n d v i e w s o f c i t i z e n s t o w a r d o u t c o m e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m . To Rosenbuam, t h i s l e v e l r e p r e s e n t s t h e most i m p o r t a n t t e s t o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t p r o g r a m ; i . e . , w h e t h e r t h e members o f t h e a f f e c t e d p u b l i c i t s e l f f e e l t h a t t h e i r v i e w s were c o n s i d e r e d e q u i t a b l y , a n d t h a t f i n a l d e c i s i o n s r e f l e c t e d t h e b a l a n c e o f p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s . " W h a t e v e r t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e o t h e r l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s t h e b o t t o m l i n e i s w h e t h e r t h e p e o p l e t h i n k t h e i r r i g h t s were r e s p e c t e d a n d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s r e c o g n i z e d " (Rosenbuam 1974, 8 4 ) . T h i s a p p r o a c h t o e v a l u a t i o n i s t h e most e l a b o r a t e a n d e x p e n s i v e , r e l y i n g by a n d l a r g e , upon o r i g i n a l , l a r g e - s c a l e s u r v e y r e s e a r c h (Rosenbaum 1974, 8 4 ) . A v a r i a t i o n o f Rosenbaum's t h i r d l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s i s t o a n a l y s e t h e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f a g e n c i e s t o t h e p o l i c y demands o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . B e r r y e t a l . r e f e r t o t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o c h a n g e p o l i c i e s a s t h e " b o t t o m l i n e " - t h e most c r u c i a l i n d i c a t o r o f p r o g r a m e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( 1 9 8 4 , 1 0 ) . I t becomes e v i d e n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t h e r e i s a n e e d f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e e v a l u a t i o n of a s many e v e n t s and a c t i o n s a s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a d e q u a c y o f any p u b l i c 118 p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m . An a n a l y s i s o f j u s t one a s p e c t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t . Boaden e t a l . p o i n t o u t t h a t some o f t h e more o b v i o u s c r i t e r i a o f s u c c e s s a r e n o t e a s y t o i n t e r p r e t o r w i l l o n l y become a p p a r e n t a f t e r s e v e r a l y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o be b r o a d i n an e v a l u a t i o n a n d n o t a d o p t t o o r i g o r o u s a r e s e a r c h m o d e l . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e y c i t e t h e p r o b l e m s o f o n l y u s i n g outcome a s a guage o f s u c c e s s : An e x a m i n a t i o n o f any c h a n g e s i n t h e f i n a l p l a n w h i c h may r e s u l t f r o m p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t . I f t h e p l a n n i n g was s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e n a v e r y s u c c e s s f u l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a m p a i g n m i g h t l e a d t o few amendments.(Boaden e t a l . 1980, 1 3 ) . One o f t h e most common e v a l u a t i o n m ethods c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s t o e v a l u a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a n d p r o g r a m s b a s e d on how w e l l g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s a r e met ( R o s e n e r 1 9 8 1 ) . A p r o b l e m t h a t a r i s e s w i t h t h e u s e o f t h i s m ethod r e l a t e s t o w h i c h o b j e c t i v e s a p r o g r a m s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d upon ( W o l f e 1979, 45; A l t e r m a n , H a r r i s a n d H i l l 1984, 1 7 8 ) . P r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s , a n d t h e e x t e n t a n d n a t u r e o f p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e a g e n c y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p r o c e s s . H o w e v e r , o t h e r s e t s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s - t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c o r e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s , may a l s o h a v e i d e n t i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m : E v a l u a t i o n o f a p r o g r a m by an a g e n c y o r i n d e p e n d e n t a u t h o r i t y s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s o f a g e n c y o b j e c t i v e s w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be b i a s e d t o w a r d a f a v o u r a b l e j u d g e m e n t . E v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d i d e n t i f y a n d a s s e s s how w e l l t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f e a c h s e t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e f u l f i l l e d ( W o l f e 1979, 4 5 ) . J u d y R o s e n e r g o e s a s f a r a s t o s a y t h a t when g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s a r e n o t c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d a n d p a r t i c i p a t o r y p a r t i e s 119 h a v e d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f what p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o a c h i e v e , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o m e a s u r e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f any p a r t i c i p a t i o n a c t i v i t y , b e c a u s e t h e r e i s l a c k o f a g r e e m e n t a s t o what t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n t e n d e d t o do ( 1 9 7 8 , 1 1 2 ) . K w e i t a n d K w e i t c o n t e n d t h a t w i t h a c l e a r e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g o a l s p o s i t e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n s h o u l d come a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what c a n be r e a l i s t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h w i l l l e a d t o l e s s c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e s s e s f o r e v a l u a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( 1 9 8 1 , 4 1 ) . The u s e o f g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s i n e v a l u a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e when g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s h a v e been d e f i n e d f r o m t h e o u t s e t a n d a r e e x p l i c i t . D a v i d G o d s h a l k p o i n t s o u t h o w e v e r , t h a t t y p i c a l l y , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s u b s i d i a r y t o a f u n c t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m s u c h a s l a n d u s e a n d t h u s r a r e l y h a s f o r m a l l y s p e c i f i e d g o a l s o f i t s own ( 1 9 8 1 , 5 9 8 - 9 ) . T h e r e f o r e , where g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s v a r y w i d e l y among s e t s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d a r e n o t made e x p l i c i t , i t becomes i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y h a v e been a c h i e v e d . H o w e v e r , a s o u t l i n e d i n c h a p t e r t w o , c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d w h i c h a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t t o a c h i e v e . I n d e v e l o p i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r a p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m , t h e m a j o r p i t f a l l o f u s i n g g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s a s R o s e n e r d e s c r i b e s i s a v o i d e d ; t h a t i s , w h i c h g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s t o u s e . The o b j e c t i v e s s e t o u t i n t h i s s t u d y a r e a l l -e n c o m p a s s i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . They a r e n o t o b j e c t i v e s f o r any s p e c i f i c g r o u p o r c o m m u n i t y . T h a t i s , t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d a s p a r t o f t h e o r e t i c a l r e s e a r c h a n d d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s a n d n o t 120 d e t e r m i n e d by t h e c o m m u n i t y o r p o l i t i c i a n s . A d e q u a c y o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s d e f i n e d by t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . I n o r d e r t o be b r o a d a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n e v a l u a t i n g i f t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n were met by e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y , an a p p r o a c h i d e n t i f i e d by B e r r y e t a l . w i l l be u s e d w h i c h f o c u s e s on t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s c o m p o s i t e j u d g e m e n t w h i c h r e f l e c t s h i s o r h e r o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n a s t o t h e s u c c e s s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o c e s s ( 1 9 8 4 , 1 0 ) . T h i s m e thod i n c o r p o r a t e s o t h e r e x p l i c i t s t a n d a r d s o f s u c c e s s , a s w e l l a s t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s i n t e r n a l b i a s e s , h i s o r h e r s u b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f what was r e a l i s t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e i n t h e p r o g r a m , a n d w h a t e v e r " h i d d e n a g e n d a " c r i t e r i a were o r a r e o p e r a t i v e ( 1 9 8 4 , 1 0 ) . 5.2 ANALYSIS The l i t e r a t u r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n d e s c r i b i n g what p r o c e s s e s o r s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r e p a r t i o n o f an O.C.P.. H a v i n g i d e n t i f i e d t h e b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s f o r a d e q u a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e p r o c e s s e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y went t h r o u g h t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c c a n be a s s e s s e d . A s s e s s i n g t h e s t e p s e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y t o o k t o a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t s a n d t h e r a n g e o f t e c h n i q u e s u s e d i n t h e f o u r d i f f e r e n t O.C.P. p r o c e s s e s . 121 5.2.1 RICHMOND 5.2.1.1 A c c e s s i b i l i t y I n R i c h m o n d , t h e r e was a d i v e r s e e f f o r t t o e n c o u r a g e a l l c i t i z e n s i n t e r e s t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e a n d a number o f t e c h n i q u e s p r o v i d e d so t h a t t h e y c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e . C i t i z e n s were e n c o u r a g e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e t h r o u g h two m u n i c i p a l i t y - w i d e m a i l d e l i v e r i e s . The f i r s t was a b r o c h u r e e x p l a i n i n g t h e i s s u e s a n d p r o p o s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d t h e s e c o n d , a b r o a d s h e e t s u m m a r i z i n g t h e d r a f t p l a n . I n t h e s e home d e l i v e r i e s , f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e were a d v e r t i s e d s u c h a s open h o u s e s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a n d s o l i c i t a t i o n o f l e t t e r s a n d b r i e f s . F i v e open h o u s e s f o l l o w e d by p u b l i c m e e t i n g s were o r g a n i z e d a t two p o i n t s d u r i n g t h e p l a n ' s p r e p a r a t i o n . M e e t i n g s t o o k p l a c e i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y on a week n i g h t e v e n i n g . P l a n n e r s o r g a n i z e d t h e f i r s t s e t o f m e e t i n g s a r o u n d d i s c u s s i n g t h e i s s u e s a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 250 p e o p l e a t t e n d e d f i v e m e e t i n g s . I n t h e s e c o n d s e t o f m e e t i n g s , a t t e n d e d by a l m o s t t h r e e h u n d r e d p e o p l e , d i s c u s s i o n c e n t e r e d on t h e f i r s t d r a f t p l a n . M e d i a c o v e r a g e was a c t i v e l y s o l i c i t e d by t h e p l a n n e r s a b o u t t h e O.C.P. i s s u e s a n d t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s . W h i l e c o v e r a g e was n o t e x t e n s i v e , a d v e r t i s i n g on r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n a n d n e w s p a p e r s was t h o r o u g h . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y a d v e r t i s e d t h e open h o u s e s and p u b l i c m e e t i n g s i n b o t h m a j o r R i c h m o n d n e w s p a p e r s a n d by p u b l i c s e r v i c e a nnouncement on t h e l o c a l r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n s p r i o r t o a n d d u r i n g t h e i r s c h e d u l e d t i m e s . I n o r d e r t o e n c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s d u r i n g t h e 1985 p u b l i c p r o g r a m , t h e R i c h m o n d p l a n n e r s w r o t e 137 122 p e r s o n a l l e t t e r s t o g r o u p s , c i t i z e n s , a n d g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s t o a s k them t o s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t o r l o c a l c o m m u n i t y g r o u p m e e t i n g s . I n t o t a l , 99 p e o p l e a t t e n d e d s i x d i f f e r e n t m e e t i n g s . I n t h e 1986 p r o g r a m , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y s e n t l e t t e r s w i t h a c o p y o f t h e f i r s t d r a f t p l a n a n d c o m m u n i t y p r o f i l e t o 26 d i f f e r e n t c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s s o l i c i t i n g comments. Comment s h e e t s were a l s o p r o v i d e d d u r i n g t h e 1985 p r o g r a m t o e n c o u r a g e c i t i z e n s t o comment on s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n s a n d i s s u e s . C i t i z e n s r e t u r n e d o v e r 1500 s h e e t s c o m m e n t i n g on p r e f e r r e d a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d c o n c e r n s on f o u r t e e n d i f f e r e n t i s s u e a r e a s . F i n a l l y , a p u b l i c h e a r i n g was h e l d p r i o r t o a d o p t i o n o f t h e O.C.P.. The number o f c h o i c e s o f t e c h n i q u e s a n d t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y t o t h e p u b l i c i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e R i c h m o n d p r o c e s s was v e r y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e p u b l i c a n d t h a t R i c h m o n d s a t i s f i e d t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e . 5.2.1.2 T i m i n g The p u b l i c was e n c o u r a g e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t t h r e e p o i n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s : ( 1 ) i s s u e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n s t a g e , (2) comment on f i r s t d r a f t , a n d (3) comment on s e c o n d d r a f t . I n a d d i t i o n , l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s were a c t i v e f o r l i m i t e d p e r i o d s o f t i m e a n d t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n was i n v o l v e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s . The e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e v e r y e a r l i e s t s t a g e s t o c l a r i f y t h e i s s u e s a n d c h o i c e s , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e a r r a y o f t e c h n i q u e s e m p l o y e d s u g g e s t t h a t i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s h a d a good o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s f r o m t h e e a r l y s t a g e s t h r o u g h t o p l a n a d o p t i o n . T h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n was n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g 123 c o m m i s s i o n b u t i n v o l v e d a commitment t o r e c e i v e v i e w s f r o m a w i d e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t R i c h m o n d met t h e t i m i n g o b j e c t i v e . 5.2.1.3 I m p a r t i a l i t y No one i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p a p p e a r e d t o d o m i n a t e t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The number o f a v e n u e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c t o p a r t i c i p a t e seemed t o be e nough so t h a t v i r t u a l l y a l l p o i n t s o f v i e w c o u l d be c o m m u n i c a t e d . The v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s a l s o a l l o w e d f o r b o t h w r i t t e n a n d o r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n b o t h on a one-t o - o n e b a s i s ( o p e n h o u s e s , t e l e p h o n e comments, comment s h e e t s , f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t s ) a n d i n g r o u p s i t u a t i o n s ( c o m m u n i t y g r o u p m e e t i n g s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s ) . The R i c h m o n d a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n c o n s i s t e d o f a w i d e v a r i e t y o f p e o p l e r e p r e s e n t i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y a s w e l l a s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . H o w e v e r , some o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n m e m b e r s h i p , a s i s t h e c a s e w i t h many c i t i z e n c o m m i t t e e s , was a l t e r e d d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s t o r e f l e c t t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i r e c t i o n o f c o u n c i l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a w i d e v a r i e t y o f v i e w s were e x c h a n g e d a t t h e m o n t h l y m e e t i n g s . F o r e x a m p l e , two o f t h e t w e l v e members v o t e d n o t t o s u p p o r t t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n made i n t h e d r a f t O.C.P. t h a t a l a r g e s e c t i o n o f l a n d i n West R i c h m o n d be removed f r o m t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e . On a n o t h e r m a j o r i s s u e , l a n d u s e u n d e r t h e f l i g h t p a t h o f t h e V a n c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n d i s a g r e e d w i t h many o f t h e p r o p o s e d l a n d u s e d e s i g n a t i o n s p r o p o s e d i n t h e d r a f t p l a n ( R i c h m o n d 1986b, 3 1 - 3 2 ) . D i f f e r e n t v a l u e s and p h i l o s o p h i e s emerged d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s . C l e a r l y , t h e d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s were d e s i g n e d t o 124 s o l i c i t t h o u g h t on d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s a n d t o e n c o u r a g e p e o p l e t o make v a l u e j u d g e m e n t s . The comment s h e e t s a n d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a r e two e x a m p l e s o f t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h f o c u s s e d on what t h e c i t i z e n s f e l t a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s e n c o u r a g i n g p e o p l e t o e x p r e s s t h e i r o p i n i o n s . I t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c h a n g e i n m e m b e r s h i p o f t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n , t h e i m p a r t i a l i t y o b j e c t i v e was a c h i e v e d . 5.2.1.4 C o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y The l a n g u a g e u s e d i n i n f o r m a t i o n p a s s e d o n t o t h e p u b l i c was c l e a r a n d u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . Some o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s were o f a t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e , b u t e v e n i n t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s , t h e r e was an e f f o r t made t o w r i t e i n l a y m a n ' s t e r m s . The b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s w r i t t e n by c o n s u l t a n t s and v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s were a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c a f t e r b e i n g r e v i e w e d by t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n a n d r e c e i v e d by c o u n c i l . T h e s e r e p o r t s , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e b r o c h u r e a n d b r o a d s h e e t d r a f t p l a n m a i l o u t a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d i s p l a y b o a r d s , p r o v i d e d a c c u r a t e a n d u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s f e r t h r o u g h o u t t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s . The c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e was met i n R i c h m o n d . 5.2.1.5 A l t e r n a t i v e s C i t i z e n s h a d many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o meet w i t h p l a n n e r s t o d i s c u s s a n d d e b a t e i s s u e s a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s . T e c h n i q u e s u s e d f o r f a c e - t o - f a c e d i s c u s s i o n s a b o u t a l t e r n a t i v e s i n c l u d e d open h o u s e s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , s t a f f e d d i s p l a y e x h i b i t s i n s h o p p i n g m a l l s a n d a t co m m u n i t y e v e n t s , m e e t i n g s w i t h c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s a n d l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g m e e t i n g s . I n t e r a c t i o n was f a c i l i t a t e d e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s by t h e p l a n n e r s who f o r m u l a t e d a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s t o 125 w h i c h t h e p u b l i c c o u l d r e a c t . R e a c t i o n i n c l u d e d s u p p o r t o r o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s , m o d i f i c a t i o n t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new a l t e r n a t i v e s . On t h e i s s u e o f g r o w t h , t h e p l a n n e r s were p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c i z e d by some p e o p l e d u r i n g t h e 1985 p u b l i c p r o g r a m f o r t h e f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s p r e s e n t e d . The p l a n n e r s were a c c u s e d o f m a k i n g t h e f i r s t and f o u r t h a l t e r n a t i v e s so e x t r e m e t h a t t h e y were u n r e a s o n a b l e , t h u s l e a v i n g o n l y two a l t e r n a t i v e s . H o w e v e r , t h e p l a n n e r s s t r e s s e d i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e p u b l i c t h a t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s s u g g e s t e d f o r t h e v a r i o u s i s s u e s were meant t o s o l i c i t d i s c u s s i o n f r o m w h i c h m o d i f i e d o r new a l t e r n a t i v e s w o u l d emerge. I n f a c t , much d i s c u s s i o n d i d o c c u r a n d m o d i f i c a t i o n t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r p o l i c i e s on g r o w t h e m e r g e d . A s e c o n d m a j o r c o m p l a i n t f r o m c i t i z e n s was t h e l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g how much e a c h o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s w o u l d c o s t i f i m p l e m e n t e d . T h a t i s , i f t h e "no g r o w t h " o p t i o n was c h o s e n , w o u l d t h a t r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d t a x e s a n d i f so how much? Some c i t i z e n s f e l t t h e y were b e i n g a s k e d t o make a c h o i c e w i t h o u t k n o w i n g a l l t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s . P l a n n e r s e x p l a i n e d t o t h e p u b l i c t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e g r o w t h p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s w o u l d be f o r t h c o m i n g . C o m p l e t i o n o f s u c h c o s t e s t i m a t e s a n d f o r e c a s t s was d e l a y e d due t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e t a s k . C o n s u l t a n t s h a d been h i r e d t o p e r f o r m t h e t a s k a n d much c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s was r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e w o r k . R a t h e r t h a n h o l d up t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s , p l a n n e r s f e l t t h e y s h o u l d c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e i r p l a n t o i n i t i a t e a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m a t t h e c r u c i a l a l t e r n a t i v e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d c l a r i f i c a t i o n s t a g e . Where a n d how much u r b a n 126 g r o w t h s h o u l d o c c u r was j u s t one o f many i s s u e s t o be d i s c u s s e d . O v e r a l l , t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s o b j e c t i v e was met i n R i c h m o n d . 5.2.1.6 E f f i c a c y The e f f e c t o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n on t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s i n R i c h m o n d ' s c a s e b e c a u s e t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s h a d n o t b een c o m p l e t e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e R i c h m o n d p l a n n e r s t h e m s e l v e s , p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i d h a v e an e f f e c t on t h e i r o p i n i o n s a n d on t h e p l a n ( J a c k s o n i n t e r v i e w 1986; P i c a r d i n t e r v i e w 1 9 8 6 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , p l a n n e r s r e c e i v e d t h e message f r o m t h e 1985 p u b l i c p r o g r a m t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y s h o u l d p l a y a more a c t i v e a n d s t r o n g e r r o l e t o p r e s e r v e h e r i t a g e s i t e s and t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s message was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f i r s t d r a f t p l a n ( J a c k s o n i n t e r v i e w ) . On c e r t a i n i s s u e s , s u c h a s w h e t h e r u r b a n g r o w t h s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o e x p a n d i n t o t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e , a r a n g e o f o p i n i o n s were e x p r e s s e d by p e o p l e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p u b l i c p r o g r a m s . The p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t r e s p o n d e d by r e t r a c t i n g some p r o p o s a l s t o d e s i g n a t e c e r t a i n A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e p a r c e l s " n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l " . C o n v e r s e l y , i n a n o t h e r h o t l y d e b a t e d i s s u e c o n c e r n i n g a l a r g e p a r c e l o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n w e s t R i c h m o n d c a l l e d T e r r a Nova ( s e e Map 3 ) , t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t recommended i t be d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p u b l i c p r o g r a m were a g a i n s t n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e o f t h e a r e a . W h e t h e r c o u n c i l w i l l s u p p o r t t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e m a i n s t o be s e e n a f t e r c o u n c i l makes a d e c i s i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g . 127 The p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t d i d c h a n g e some p o l i c i e s b a s e d on p u b l i c r e a c t i o n t o t h e f i r s t d r a f t p l a n . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e f i r s t d r a f t p l a n p r o p o s e d c h a n g i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a d i r e c t l y s o u t h o f t h e a i r p o r t t o an i n d u s t r i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n due t o h i g h n o i s e i m p a c t f r o m V a n c o u v e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . L a n d o w n e r s , a s w e l l a s o t h e r c i t i z e n s a n d t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n , e x p r e s s e d t h e i r c o n c e r n t h a t t h i s a r e a be r e t a i n e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s . I n t h e s e c o n d d r a f t p l a n , t h i s a r e a was d e s i g n a t e d r e s i d e n t i a l . F e e d b a c k a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c on t h e i r v i e w s a n d c o n c e r n s a s c o n v e y e d t o t h e p l a n n e r s was e x t e n s i v e i n R i c h m o n d . A l l r e c o r d s o f t h e p u b l i c ' s r e s p o n s e i n c l u d i n g m i n u t e s f r o m p u b l i c a n d c o m m u n i t y g r o u p m e e t i n g s , l e t t e r s a n d b r i e f s , r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e / c o m m e n t s h e e t s a n d comments a t open h o u s e s were c o m p i l e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y i n r e p o r t s made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d r a f t s o f t h e p l a n were made r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o f i n a l l y d e t e r m i n e i f t h e e f f i c a c y o b j e c t i v e was a c h i e v e d i n R i c h m o n d u n t i l t h e O.C.P. i s a d o p t e d . H o w e v e r , j u d g i n g f r o m t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d d r a f t p l a n s , t h e p l a n n e r s i n c o r p o r a t e d many c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d by t h e p u b l i c . 5.2.1.7 Summary I n summary, R i c h m o n d was s u c c e s s f u l i n i n c l u d i n g a d e q u a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s O.C.P. p r o c e s s . V i r t u a l l y a l l o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s were f u l f i l l e d , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was room f o r i m p r o v e m e n t w i t h r e g a r d t o more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t g r o w t h p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d u n d e r t h e 128 o b j e c t i v e o f i m p a r t i a l i t y a s i t r e l a t e d t o t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n . The m a i n f e a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s was a p l a n n e d a n d c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c f r o m t h e e a r l y s t a g e s t h r o u g h t o p l a n a d o p t i o n . The v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d i v e r s e number o f p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d t o become i n v o l v e d , r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a b r o a d s p e c t r u m o f i n t e r e s t s a n d o p i n i o n s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p l a n n e r s f e l t t h e i r own s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n component o f t h e p r o c e s s were a c h i e v e d ( J a c k s o n i n t e r v i e w ) . 5.2.2 SURREY 5.2.2.1 A c c e s s i b i l i t y The o n l y m ethods a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s were p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a n d a p u b l i c o p i n i o n s u r v e y . Due t o t h e low r e s p o n s e a n d an i n a d e q u a t e d e l i v e r y s y s t e m w h i c h d i d n o t work a s i n t e n d e d , t h e s u r v e y c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d an a d e q u a t e i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c ' s v i e w s . A t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a l l i n t e r e s t e d a n d c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n s h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y a n d were e n c o u r a g e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The m u n i c i p a l i t y a d j o u r n e d t h e h e a r i n g s t o t e n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y t o make them more c o n v e n i e n t t o t h e c i t i z e n s a d v e r t i s i n g t h e t i m e s a n d l o c a t i o n s i n a b r o a d s h e e t summary o f t h e d r a f t p l a n a n d i n n e w s p a p e r s . L o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s a n d an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n were u s e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . B o t h t e c h n i q u e s a s i m p l e m e n t e d , h a d l i m i t a t i o n s . The c o m m i s s i o n was a c t i v e f o r a l i m i t e d p e r i o d a n d S u r r e y c o u n c i l d i s m i s s e d t h e members b e f o r e 129 c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . The l o c a l a r e a p l a n s t h a t were p a r t o f p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t d i d n o t , i n most c a s e s , r e p r e s e n t an a t t e m p t on b e h a l f o f p l a n n e r s t o r e a c h a c o n s e n s u s o r c o m p r o m i s e a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e a r e a ' s c i t i z e n s . L o c a l p l a n s were d e v i s e d by d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s w h i c h " c l a i m e d t h e i r t e r r i t o r y " . T h i s p r o c e s s , w h i l e b e i n g e f f e c t i v e i n u n f o l d i n g d i f f e r e n t v i e w s o f r a t e p a y e r s a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d o t h e r i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , d o e s n o t s u b s t i t u t e f o r t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h o f f e r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i s c u s s i o n on c o m m u n i t y - w i d e c o n c e r n s a n d t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n i s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n . T h a t i s n o t t o s a y t h a t a l l t h e l o c a l p l a n s were p a r o c h i a l i n n a t u r e i g n o r i n g t h e w i d e r c o n t e x t . Had c o u n c i l and t h e p l a n n e r s c o m m i t t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s i n t h e l o c a l a r e a s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f b r o a d e r c o m m u n i t y - w i d e i s s u e s a n d o f f e r e d means f o r a l l i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s t o become i n v o l v e d , t h e n u s i n g t h e s e p l a n s t o a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g an o v e r a l l s t r a t e g y a n d p l a n f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , w o u l d h a v e been more p r o d u c t i v e . As i t was c a r r i e d o u t , t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s was d e f i c i e n t i n p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d e n c o u r a g i n g i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e O.C.P.. W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s w h i c h were d e s i g n e d i n s u c h a way t h a t many d e f i c i e n c i e s t h a t t e n d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were o v e r c o m e , t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e was n o t met i n S u r r e y . 5.2.2.2 T i m i n g The g e n e r a l p u b l i c was o n l y c o n s u l t e d o n c e e a r l y i n t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s by way o f a p u b l i c o p i n i o n s u r v e y w h i c h h a d a v e r y l o w r e s p o n s e r a t e a n d d i d n o t r e a c h a l l r e s i d e n t s . O t h e r w i s e , i n f o r m a t i o n was n o t made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c a t 130 t h e c r u c i a l e a r l y s t a g e o f i d e n t i f y i n g i s s u e s . L o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s t o o k p a r t i n l o c a l a r e a i s s u e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e s e c o m m i t t i e s was r e s t r i c t e d , t h e f o c u s o f t h e c o m m i t t e e s ' c o n c e r n s were l o c a l -a r e a r e l a t e d , a n d c o m m i t t e e members were n o t c o n s u l t e d on what a s p e c t s o f t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n s w o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e O.C.P.. D e l i v e r y o f a b r o a d s h e e t s u m m a r i z i n g t h e d r a f t p l a n was a p o s i t i v e s t e p t a k e n by t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t t o c o n v e y i n f o r m a t i o n a t a c r u c i a l s t a g e i n t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s . As w e l l , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t o o k p l a c e a t t h e c r u c i a l t i m e o f c o m m e n t i n g on t h e d r a f t p l a n . The l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o p a r t i c i p a t e e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s i n d i c a t e s t h e t i m i n g o b j e c t i v e was n o t s a t i s f i e d a s much a s w o u l d be d e s i r e d i n S u r r e y . 5.2.2.3 I m p a r t i a l i t y E v e r y o n e h ad an e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . H owever, many o f t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s w ere r e s t r i c t e d t o l a n d o w n e r s t h u s b e i n g b i a s e d a g a i n s t r e n t a l t e n a n t s . O t h e r l o c a l a r e a p l a n s were d e v e l o p e d by s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s w i t h no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o comment. The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s o f v a l u e j u d g e m e n t s was v e r y l i m i t e d a n d r a r e l y e n c o u r a g e d . B e s i d e s t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g c o m m i t t e e s , t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n a nd p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , t h e r e was no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f a c e - t o - f a c e d i s c u s s i o n a n d d e b a t e w i t h p l a n n e r s . Of t h e s e t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s , o n l y t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were open t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a n d t h e y were o n l y a v a i l a b l e a f t e r t h e d r a f t p l a n was p r o d u c e d . A t t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , o n l y 131 changes t o b o u n d a r i e s t o i s o l a t e d l a n d use d e s i g n a t i o n s were a d d r e s s e d . P o l i c y and p h i l o s o p h i c a l i s s u e s were not d i s c u s s e d . O v e r a l l , the i m p a r t i a l i t y o b j e c t i v e was not as a c h i e v e d as much as would be d e s i r e d . 5.2.2.4 C o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y The p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s p e c t of the O.C.P. was not e x p l a i n e d t o the p u b l i c u n t i l t he m u n i c i p a l i t y d e l i v e r e d the broadsheet summary of the d r a f t p l a n t o eve r y home i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Only a t the time of the broadsheet m a i l o u t was the g e n e r a l p u b l i c made aware of the i s s u e s the p l a n was a d d r e s s i n g . T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e the summary was w r i t t e n i n layman's terms and the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e x p l a i n e d i n both the p l a n and i n the br o a d s h e e t , t h e r e was not f u l l d i s c l o s u r e of a l l r e l e v a n t d a t a and a n a l y s i s . Background m a t e r i a l was not a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c e a r l y i n the p r o c e s s and a c c e s s t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c was d e n i e d t o a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commission m e e t i n g s . I n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was g i v e n t o the p u b l i c was done so l a t e i n the p r o c e s s . The l a r g e d r a f t p l a n and accompanying broadsheet was the f i r s t m a t e r i a l g i v e n t o the p u b l i c . A l t h o u g h the d r a f t p l a n was p l a c e d i n p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s , s m a l l e r documents t h a t would be more r e a d a b l e and r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e would have f a c i l i t a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b i l i t y . The p l a n v e r y much had the pre s e n c e of b e i n g an o f f i c i a l document which was not easy t o change. The d r a f t p l a n was a v e r y e x p e n s i v e document t o produce because of i t s s i z e and many c o l o u r e d maps. The f a c t t h a t t h i s same d r a f t remains today as the o n l y one a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c , b oth a t S u r r e y M u n i c i p a l H a l l and a t the p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s , s u g g e s t s i t was not i n t e n d e d t o be changed 132 dramatically. The f i r s t page, which reads "Surrey O f f i c i a l Community Plan By-Law #7600 F i n a l Draft, May, 1983" in bold print gives the impression i t was not meant for major discussion but rather minor amendments. Such a large and complex document i s also intimidating and not e a s i l y accessible to the average c i t i z e n . The summary broadsheet does represent an attempt to reduce information into an understandable and convenient l e v e l by describing the plan and the process and to encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n by attending public hearings. However, besides the public hearings, interaction with the planners was not available for c i t i z e n s to discuss the plan proposal. The comprehensibility objective was not met in Surrey. 5.2.2.5 Alternatives Except for the public opinion survey, at no point in the process were alternatives presented to the public. Rather, the draft plan was published and comment was s o l i c i t e d . Local planning committees dealt with alternatives i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , however these committees had no say in deciding what would be incorporated into the Surrey O.C.P.. The range of alternatives was kept as interdepartmental information. B a s i c a l l y , a plan that was geared toward a concept of f i v e town-centers was proposed in the draft plan with no alternatives offered on that concept or any other issues. The alternatives objective was not met in Surrey. 5.2.2.6 E f f i c a c y Records show that many suggestions offered by the advisory planning commission and at the public hearings were incorporated 1 33 i n t h e f i n a l p l a n . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , t h e c h a n g e s were r e l a t e d t o l a n d u s e d e s i g n a t i o n b o u n d a r i e s o f s p e c i f i c p r o p e r t i e s . F o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e p l a n was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f l o c a l a r e a p l a n s . H o w e v e r , t h e p u b l i c was n o t c o n s u l t e d a s t o how c o m p r o m i s e s may be d e v e l o p e d i n l o c a l a r e a s b e f o r e t h e p l a n s were a m a l g a m a t e d i n t o t h e O.C.P. T h u s , t h e p u b l i c was e x c l u d e d f r o m an i m p o r t a n t s t a g e i n t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n , t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h a n g e s i t s u g g e s t e d were c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s . A l l t h e c h a n g e s were m i n o r . F e e d b a c k was g i v e n t o t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n on i t s s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e f o r m o f a summary r e p o r t f r o m t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t . Some s u g g e s t i o n s were a c t e d upon w h i l e w i t h o t h e r s , t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t e x p l a i n e d why t h e y were i n a p p r o p r i a t e . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c , h o w e v e r , h a d no r e c o r d a v a i l a b l e t o them o f t h e i r i n p u t a n d h a d no way o f g a u g i n g t h e i r e f f i c a c y b e y o n d what was p r o p o s e d i n t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a n d t h e n a c c e p t e d a s amendments t o t h e d r a f t p l a n . An amended p l a n was n e v e r made a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c v i e w i n g . The o r i g i n a l p l a n r e m a i n s t h e o n l y document a v a i l a b l e i n p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s . Due t o t h e a d h o c n a t u r e o f t h e S u r r e y p r o c e s s , c i t i z e n s were n o t made aware o f how t h e y c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e p r o c e s s o r what t h e i r p l a c e was i n t h a t p r o c e s s e x c e p t a s o u t l i n e d i n t h e summary b r o a d s h e e t a d v e r t i s i n g t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g l o c a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p u b l i c was n o t g i v e n any e x p l a n a t i o n o f how o r why i t was d e c i d e d w h i c h a s p e c t s o f l o c a l a r e a p l a n s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e O.C.P. w h i l e o t h e r s were e x c l u d e d . O v e r a l l , no m a j o r s h i f t s i n d i r e c t i o n i n t h e f i n a l outcome 134 o f t h e p l a n r e s u l t e d f r o m p u b l i c comments. M i n o r c h a n g e s d i d o c c u r a n d f o r t h e s e t h e e f f i c a c y o b j e c t i v e was met i n S u r r e y . H o w e v e r , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r m a j o r c h a n g e s and i n f l u e n c e n e v e r a r o s e a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e e f f i c a c y o b j e c t i v e was n o t w e l l t e s t e d i n t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s . 5.2.2.7 Summary I n summary, none o f t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s were t o t a l l y met i n t h e S u r r e y p r o c e s s . The m a j o r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e p r o c e s s r e l a t e t o t h e l a c k o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e d r a f t p l a n . A l t e r n a t i v e s were n o t p u t f o r t h f o r d i s c u s s i o n and t h e r e was a l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n t o t h e p u b l i c p r i o r t o t h e p u b l i s h i n g o f t h e d r a f t p l a n . The d r a f t p l a n i t s e l f was a l a r g e and i n t i m i d a t i n g d o c u m e n t , n o t a s a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a s i n o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e c o u n c i l was q u i t e c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e u s e o f p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a s a t e c h n i q u e and t h e y u s e d i t w e l l , b u t were r e l u c t a n t t o go b e y o n d t h i s means an d e n c o u r a g e o t h e r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r o n l y a s h o r t p e r i o d d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s a n d n o t i n c l u d e d e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e was no e f f o r t t o r e c o n c i l e d i f f e r e n c e s a t t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g l e v e l so c i t i z e n s c o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n f i n a l d e c i s i o n s . On t h e w h o l e , t h e p r o c e s s l a c k e d e f f o r t a n d commitment on b e h a l f o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o e n c o u r a g e t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f c i t i z e n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s a n d e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s . 135 5.2.3 DELTA 5.2.3.1 A c c e s s i b i l i t y The l i m i t e d r a n g e o f t e c h n i q u e s u s e d i n D e l t a d o e s n o t r e p r e s e n t an e x t r a o r d i n a r y e f f o r t t o e n s u r e a s many p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e d a s may have been p o s s i b l e e v e n t h o u g h any p e r s o n who was i n t e r e s t e d was n o t p r e v e n t e d f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g . P u b l i c m e e t i n g s a n d l e t t e r s were t h e o n l y two t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . D e l t a u s e d t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g t e c h n i q u e v e r y w e l l h o w e v e r . F o r e x a m p l e , t o f a c i l i t a t e d i s c u s s i o n a t some p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , p l a n n e r s s e t up p a n e l s a n d w o r k s h o p s . A t t e n d a n c e a t some o f t h e m e e t i n g s on s p e c i f i c i s s u e s r e a c h e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y two h u n d r e d p e o p l e . The f o u r p u b l i c m e e t i n g s o r g a n i z e d t o d i s c u s s t h e f i r s t d r a f t p l a n were h e l d i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y on week n i g h t e v e n i n g s t h u s b e i n g c o n v e n i e n t t o most r e s i d e n t s . A v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s t o s u i t t h e n e e d s o f d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s a n d t o e n c o u r a g e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d h a v e made t h e p r o c e s s more a c c e s s i b l e t h a n i t was. T h e r e f o r e , D e l t a d i d n o t meet t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e a s much a s w o u l d be d e s i r e d . 5.2.3.2 T i m i n g C i t i z e n s h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p o i n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s . M e e t i n g s were h e l d t o d i s c u s s i s s u e s a n d d e v e l o p a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d p o l i c i e s e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s . P o s i t i o n p a p e r s on m a j o r i s s u e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c a f t e r t h e s e i n i t i a l m e e t i n g s t o o k p l a c e . The m u n i c i p a l i t y d e l i v e r e d a d r a f t p l a n t o e v e r y a d d r e s s i n 1 36 D e l t a a n d f o u r t e l e v i s e d p u b l i c m e e t i n g s were h e l d t o d i s c u s s i t . The m u n i c i p a l i t y a l s o s o l i c i t e d l e t t e r s a n d b r i e f s f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s , c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s a n d g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s a nd d e p a r t m e n t s . The p l a n n e r r e s p o n s i b l e p r e p a r e d a s e c o n d d r a f t p l a n w h i c h was a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c . F i n a l l y t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y h e l d a p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r i o r t o a d o p t i n g t h e p l a n . T h e r e f o r e , by p r o v i d i n g t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a c c e s s t o t h e p r o c e s s a t t h r e e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s : (1) i s s u e s a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s d i s c u s s i o n s t a g e , (2) comment on f i r s t d r a f t p l a n , a n d (3) comment on s e c o n d d r a f t a s w e l l a s c o n t i n u e d c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n , D e l t a met t h e t i m i n g o b j e c t i v e . 5.2.3.3 I m p a r t i a l i t y A l l i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s h ad t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and were e n c o u r a g e d t o d e b a t e a n d d i s c u s s i s s u e s w i t h t h e p l a n n e r s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e u s e o f p a n e l s a nd s e m i n a r s w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g t e c h n i q u e e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s t o c l a r i f y i s s u e s a n d d e v e l o p a l t e r n a t i v e s f a c i l i t a t e d t h e s h a r i n g o f d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i e w s a nd o p i n i o n s . H owever, a l l t h e i s s u e - r e l a t e d m e e t i n g s were h e l d i n S o u t h D e l t a o r L a d n e r t h u s b e i n g i n c o n v e n i e n t t o N o r t h D e l t a r e s i d e n t s . A l s o , d u r i n g t h e m e e t i n g s t o d i s c u s s t h e f i r s t d r a f t p l a n , c i t i z e n s f a v o u r i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d d o m i n a t e d t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . The use o f o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s s u c h a s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p m e e t i n g s w o u l d h a v e been u s e f u l t o h e a r a f u l l a n d w i d e r a n g e o f v i e w s and o p i n i o n s . The i m p a r t i a l i t y o b j e c t i v e was n o t met a s much a s w o u l d be d e s i r e d i n D e l t a . 5.2.3.4 C o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y M a t e r i a l s t h a t were d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e p u b l i c were s u i t e d 137 t o t h e c i t i z e n a n d were v e r y a c c e s s i b l e . A l l d r a f t p l a n s were f r e e l y g i v e n t o t h o s e r e q u e s t i n g them a n d a c o m p l e t e c o p y o f t h e f i r s t d r a f t was d e l i v e r e d t o e v e r y a d d r e s s i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n a b r o a d s h e e t f o r m a t . A l s o i n t h e b r o a d s h e e t , t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g s were a d v e r t i s e d a n d p u b l i c comment on t h e d r a f t p l a n s o l i c i t e d . B a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s were p r e p a r e d a f t e r t h e m e e t i n g s on i n d i v i d u a l i s s u e s h a d t a k e n p l a c e b u t were n o t a v a i l a b l e u n t i l t h e m e e t i n g s t o d i s c u s s t h e f i r s t d r a f t p l a n . I f t h e b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s h ad been a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c e a r l i e r i n t h e p r o c e s s , i t w o u l d h a v e f a c i l i t a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s f e r t o t h o s e c i t i z e n s w a n t i n g more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n . O v e r a l l , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y p a s s e d on i m p o r t a n t a nd r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c t h a t met t h e c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e . 5.2.3.5 A l t e r n a t i v e s A l t e r n a t i v e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was done e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s a s e a c h a r e a o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e c o m m u n i t y was d i s c u s s e d a t s e p a r a t e m e e t i n g s . However, s i n g l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d i s c u s s e a c h i s s u e c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t i n p u t i n t o a l t e r n a t i v e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e a l l o f t h e s e m e e t i n g s w ere h e l d i n S o u t h D e l t a a nd L a d n e r n e g l e c t i n g p o p u l o u s N o r t h D e l t a . A l t h o u g h t h e u s e o f p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a n d s m a l l e r s e m i n a r s f a c i l i t a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e p l a n n e r s , o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s w o u l d h a v e been u s e f u l t o b o t h d i s t r i b u t e i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d t o r e c e i v e i n p u t i n t o t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s . The a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n was m a r g i n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s , h o w e v e r a d d i t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s was l a c k i n g . The a l t e r n a t i v e s o b j e c t i v e was n o t met i n D e l t a a s much 138 a s w o u l d be d e s i r e d . 5.2.3.6 E f f i c a c y I n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f i r s t d r a f t p l a n , t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d by t h e p u b l i c d i d h a v e an i m p a c t . The i n i t i a l m e e t i n g s were e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n a f f e c t i n g s t a f f o p i n i o n a t t h i s e a r l y s t a g e . The m e e t i n g s on t h e p r o p o s e d d r a f t p l a n , h o w e v e r , were n o t a l l t h a t u s e f u l i n l e a d i n g t o s u b s t a n t i a l c h a n g e s i n t h e p l a n ( C o l l i e r i n t e r v i e w ) . S e v e r a l c h a n g e s were made b u t a l l o f them were q u i t e m i n o r . As f o r t h e p o l i t i c i a n s , t h e p u b l i c i n p u t c o n f i r m e d t h e i r v i e w s on t h e d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e a n d p e r h a p s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s t h a t t h e a d o p t e d O.C.P. w h i c h a l l o w s f o r two m a j o r e n c r o a c h m e n t s i n t o t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e , was p a s s e d by a f o u r - t h r e e m a r g i n by D e l t a c o u n c i l . T h i s h a s c a u s e d d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t by some p e o p l e and e s p e c i a l l y t h e D e l t a F r a s e r G r o u p who s t a n d f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . D u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e O.C.P., an e l e c t i o n was h e l d a n d a l l t h e c a n d i d a t e s who were e v e n t u a l l y e l e c t e d s a i d t h e y s u p p o r t e d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e ( C o l l i e r i n t e r v i e w ) . R e g a r d l e s s , l e s s t h a n t h r e e months a f t e r b e i n g e l e c t e d , f o u r o f t h e s e v e n c o u n c i l members v o t e d f o r a p l a n w h i c h i n c l u d e d two e n c r o a c h m e n t s i n t o t h e R e s e r v e . E v i d e n t l y , a t e l e c t i o n t i m e , c a n d i d a t e s p e r c e i v e d t h a t more v o t e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f r o m s u p p o r t i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e . C o n v e r s e l y , o n c e i n p o w e r , t a k i n g a l l t h i n g s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , v o t e d o t h e r w i s e . F e e d b a c k was g i v e n t o t h e p u b l i c i n t h e f o r m o f d r a f t p l a n s . A l l d r a f t s were made r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . H owever, no 139 s p e c i a l r e p o r t o u t l i n i n g a l l t h e i n p u t o r i n d i c a t i n g why some i n p u t m i g h t be i n a p p r o p r i a t e was c o m p l e t e d . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e e f f i c a c y o b j e c t i v e was met e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s . H owever, i t i s n o t so c l e a r t h a t t h e f i n a l p l a n r e p r e s e n t e d t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d by t h e p u b l i c d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s on t h e m a j o r i s s u e o f u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l L a n d R e s e r v e . The f i n a l r e s u l t was a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n w h i c h f a v o u r e d some use o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s f o r u r b a n p u r p o s e s . 5.2.3.7 Summary I n summary, t h e D e l t a O.C.P. p r o c e s s i n c l u d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t w h i c h was n o t a s a d e q u a t e a s w o u l d be d e s i r e d . F i v e o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s were n o t f u l l y met. The p l a n n e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p l a n ' s p r e p a r a t i o n showed i n g e n u i t y i n p r o v i d i n g a number o f d i f f e r e n t ways t o u s e t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g t e c h n i q u e f o r i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s a n d g r o u p s t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a p r o d u c t i v e e x c h a n g e o f i d e a s . H o wever, t h e p r o c e s s w o u l d have been more a c c e s s i b l e h a d t h e r e n o t b een s u c h an o v e r r e l i a n c e on p u b l i c m e e t i n g t e c h n i q u e s t o i n v o l v e t h e c i t i z e n s a n d h a d more e f f o r t been made t o i n v o l v e N o r t h D e l t a r e s i d e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e e a r l y p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t s t a g e o f t h e p r o c e s s . W i t h t h e u s e o f a b r o a d e r r a n g e o f t e c h n i q u e s , a l t e r n a t i v e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n c o u l d h a v e been e n h a n c e d w h i c h w o u l d h a v e made f o r e v e n more e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 5.2.4 NEW WESTMINSTER 5.2.4.1 A c c e s s i b i l i t y B e s i d e s a p u b l i c h e a r i n g , a t w h i c h no one c h o s e t o s p e a k 140 about the O.C.P., there was only one other p o i n t i n the New Westminster O.C.P. process when the g e n e r a l p u b l i c had the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e : commenting on f i r s t d r a f t p l a n . At t h i s p o i n t , the only encouragement and technique o f f e r e d to the general p u b l i c to be i n v o l v e d i n the O.C.P. process was to send in w r i t t e n and telephone comments. Two other techniques were employed: an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commission and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t community group meetings. These community group meetings were not a d v e r t i s e d i n the summary broadsheet that was d e l i v e r e d to every home in the c i t y . The meetings were not geared to the general p u b l i c but r a t h e r to s p e c i f i c community and i n t e r e s t groups that took the i n i t i a t i v e to c a l l a meeting to l e a r n more about the O.C.P.. The a d v i s o r y planning commission was minimally i n v o l v e d throughout the process but d i d represent some c o n t i n u i t y i n c i t i z e n input i n t o the plan's p r e p a r a t i o n . H i s t o r i c a l l y , the commission has d e a l t with day-to-day i s s u e s and found the O.C.P. to be too general and a b s t r a c t (Chaster i n t e r v i e w ) . The a c c e s s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e was not met i n New Westminster. 5.2.4.2 Timing The l a c k of techniques a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c to p a r t i c i p a t e as d e s c r i b e d above, a l s o prevented access at important p o i n t s i n the p r o c e s s . In p a r t i c u l a r , there was a l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y to i d e n t i f y i s s u e s and review a l t e r n a t i v e s e a r l y in the p r o c e s s . The t i m i n g o b j e c t i v e was not met i n New Westminster. 5.2.4.3 I m p a r t i a l i t y G e n e r a l l y , no i n d i v i d u a l or group dominated the 141 p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a n yone c o m f o r t a b l e i n w r i t i n g a l e t t e r o r t a l k i n g on t h e phone had an e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The t e c h n i q u e s e m p l o y e d were d e f i c i e n t i n e n c o u r a g i n g o t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c l u d i n g t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c o n c e r n e d g r o u p s w i t h d i v e r s e v i e w s and t h e s e e k i n g o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s . O p p o r t u n i t y was d e f i n i t e l y f o c u s s e d on q u e s t i o n s o f v a l u e s a n d d i f f e r e n t p h i l o s o p h i e s a n d n o t m e r e l y t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s . T h i s c a n be r e l a t e d t o New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s commitment t o a p l a n o f p o l i c y b a s e d on g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s . The i m p a r t i a l i t y o b j e c t i v e was n o t s a t i s f i e d a s much a s w o u l d be d e s i r e d . 5.2.4.4 C o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n p r o d u c e d by t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t f o r t h e p u b l i c was w e l l w r i t t e n a n d e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d . R e l e v a n t d a t a and a n a l y s i s was made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c i n c l u d i n g f i v e . b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s f o r t h o s e who s o u g h t f u r t h e r a n d more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n . I s s u e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was n o t done i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p u b l i c e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s , r a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n was d i s t r i b u t e d o nce g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s a n d p o l i c i e s were f o r m u l a t e d . T h i s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e p l a n n e r f e e l i n g he h a d a good g r a s p o f t h e i s s u e s f r o m p r e v i o u s e x p o s u r e t o t h e p u b l i c and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e c o m m u n i t y . The c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y o b j e c t i v e was n o t a c h i e v e d a s much a s w o u l d be d e s i r e d . 5.2.4.5 A l t e r n a t i v e s B a s i c a l l y , a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c a t one p o i n t i n t h e p r o c e s s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h was g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e p l a n ' s p r e p a r a t i o n . I n s o d o i n g , a l t e r n a t i v e s were n o t i d e n t i f i e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y f r o m w h i c h 142 t h e p u b l i c c o u l d c o n s i d e r a n d o f f e r f e e d b a c k a n d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n o r m a j o r c h a n g e s . I n s t e a d , one s e t o f g o a l s , o b j e c t i v e s a n d p o l i c i e s w h i c h t o g e t h e r c o m p r i s e d t h e d r a f t p l a n were d e v e l o p e d by t h e p l a n n e r s a n d t h e n p r e s e n t e d f o r p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . I n t e r a c t i o n was m i n i m a l i n t h e t e c h n i q u e s u s e d . B e s i d e s t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n a n d s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p m e e t i n g s , p l a n n e r s r e l i e d on f e e d b a c k o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h l e t t e r s a n d t e l e p h o n e c a l l s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c h a d no f o r m a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s k q u e s t i o n s a n d h a v e f a c e - t o - f a c e d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e p l a n n e r s . T h i s r e s t r i c t e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s t o p r e s e n t t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r o r a g a i n s t t h e p l a n a n d p r e v e n t e d p e o p l e f r o m k n o w i n g o t h e r v i e w s a n d o p i n i o n s a n d s h a r i n g i d e a s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o one New W e s t m i n s t e r p l a n n e r , h i s t o r i c a l l y t h e r e h a s been a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t a n d t h e p u b l i c a n d c i t i z e n s know t h a t t h e i r c o n c e r n s w i l l be l i s t e n e d t o by c o m i n g i n t o c i t y h a l l a n d t a l k i n g t o t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f ( S c h e v i n g i n t e r v i e w ) . T h i s open p o l i c y was c a r r i e d o u t t h r o u g h o u t t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s . H owever, due t o t h e a b s e n c e o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s o b j e c t i v e was n o t a c h i e v e d i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . 5.2.4.6 E f f i c a c y I t i s c l e a r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a d an e f f e c t on s t a f f o p i n i o n s a n d t h e f i n a l p l a n . B o t h t h e p l a n n e r s a n d p o l i t i c i a n s t o o k t h e f e e d b a c k t h a t was o b t a i n e d s e r i o u s l y a n d were w i l l i n g t o i n c l u d e s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e f i n a l r e s u l t . B a s i n g d e c i s i o n s on o n l y 28 comments r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h t h e m a i l a n d o v e r t h e phone 143 i s , h o w e v e r , q u e s t i o n a b l e . The f a c t t h a t t h i s s m a l l amount o f r e s p o n s e was t a k e n s e r i o u s l y by t h e p l a n n e r s c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f e e d b a c k w h i c h o f f e r e d l i t t l e d i s a g r e e m e n t t o t h e p r o p o s e d p l a n : O n l y 28 comments a n d b r i e f s were r e c e i v e d . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l p u b l i c r e s p o n s e . However, i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e s e r e s p o n s e s g i v e a good r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c r o s s s e c t i o n o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n . They g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e v e r y l i t t l e d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e P l a n a n d / o r t h e p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s (New W e s t m i n s t e r 1982b, 1 ) . A r e p o r t on t h e f e e d b a c k was p r o d u c e d by t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t b a s e d on t h e 28 l e t t e r s a n d t e l e p h o n e comments r e c e i v e d . D i s c u s s i o n s t h a t were h e l d w i t h s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e p o r t e x c e p t i n t h e o p e n i n g l e t t e r o f t r a n s m i t t a l w h i c h s t a t e d : I n s u m m a r i z i n g a l l t h e i n p u t -- t h e b r i e f s , t e l e p h o n e c a l l s a nd d i s c u s s i o n s -- many o f t h e p r i m e c o n c e r n s a p p e a r t o o v e r l a p a n d c o v e r t h e w h o l e s p e c t r u m o f what we h a v e d e f i n e d a s t h e " l i v a b i l i t y " f a c t o r . I t a p p e a r s t h a t many c i t i z e n s a r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e i s s u e s a n d want t o p r e v e n t f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t a m i n o r c h a n g e s h o u l d be made i n t h e m a j o r t h r u s t o f t h e P l a n a n d t h e p r o g r a m i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s c u r r e n t p u b l i c s e n t i m e n t (New W e s t m i n s t e r 1982b, 2 ) . The c h a n g e d e s c r i b e d a b o v e r e g a r d i n g t h e ' m a j o r ' t h r u s t o f t h e p l a n was made i n t h e f i n a l d r a f t p l a n a l o n g w i t h f o u r o t h e r c h a n g e s t o p o l i c i e s t h a t were s u g g e s t e d i n t h e comments. The r e p o r t a l s o e x p l a i n e d why c e r t a i n s u g g e s t i o n s w o u l d n o t be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e p l a n . O v e r a l l , a l t h o u g h t h e e f f i c a c y o b j e c t i v e was n o t w e l l t e s t e d , i t was met i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . 5.2.4.7 Summary I n summary, t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t 1 44 was n o t a s a d e q u a t e a s w o u l d be d e s i r e d . A c c e s s i b i l i t y , w h i l e b e i n g e q u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o a l l , was o n l y e n c o u r a g e d w i t h l i m i t e d means. The s m a l l number o f t e c h n i q u e s u s e d t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c r e s u l t e d i n a v e r y s m a l l amount o f r e s p o n s e . The c i t i z e n i n p u t t h a t was r e c e i v e d was t a k e n i n good f a i t h by t h e p l a n n e r s a n d d e c i s i o n m a k e r s r e s u l t i n g i n c h a n g e s t o t h e p l a n . I n o r d e r t o i m p r o v e t h e p r o c e s s , more i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i s s u e s a n d more v a r i e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n v o l v e m e n t a t more p l a c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o c e s s w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y . I n a d d i t i o n , a l t e r n a t i v e s w o u l d be p r e s e n t e d f r o m w h i c h t h e p u b l i c c o u l d c h o o s e a n d d e v e l o p new a l t e r n a t i v e s . A t t h e same t i m e i t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r O.C.P. was a p o l i c y d o c u m e n t . W i t h o u t t h e a d o p t i o n o f s u p p o r t i n g maps, p l a n n e r s d i d n o t f e e l t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be v e r y much p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e p l a n r i g h t f r o m t h e s t a r t . A l s o , t h e h e a d p l a n n e r h a d an e x t e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e co m m u n i t y a n d i t s c i t i z e n s f r o m p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e f o r e , w h e r e a s t h e r e was n o t e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s i t s e l f , t h e p l a n n e r h a d a c c u m u l a t e d much k n o w l e d g e t h r o u g h y e a r s o f c o n t a c t s w i t h c i t i z e n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e f e e d b a c k t h a t was r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e p u b l i c i n c l u d e d i s s u e s t h a t were n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l d r a f t . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t i f t h e r e h a d been a g r e a t e r a t t e m p t t o s o l i c i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n e v e n more i s s u e s w o u l d have been i d e n t i f i e d . 145 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS The purpose of t h i s study has been to assess the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of techniques and processes used by m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g departments to o b t a i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the p u b l i c i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of o f f i c i a l community p l a n s . Six o b j e c t i v e s were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the study which flowed from the purpose. The f i r s t o b j e c t i v e was to v e r i f y the importance of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the community p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . I t was found that there i s g e n e r a l agreement among contemporary w r i t e r s that p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e and important as p a r t of any democratic system of governance. The second o b j e c t i v e sought to i d e n t i f y o b j e c t i v e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs i n community p l a n n i n g . T h i s was found to be a more d i f f i c u l t task s i n c e there i s no agreement among contemporary w r i t e r s as to what c o n s t i t u t e s e f f e c t i v e or adequate p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, based on democratic p r i n c i p l e s and supported by f i n d i n g s i n the l i t e r a t u r e , s i x p r o c e s s -o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s were e s t a b l i s h e d which any c i t i z e n involvement program in community p l a n n i n g should s t r i v e to a c h i e v e . These o b j e c t i v e s a r e : (1) A c c e s s i b i 1 i t y - A l l c i t i z e n s have the o p p o r t u n i t y and are encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e . (2) Timing - The p u b l i c i s p r o v i d e d with i n f o r m a t i o n and o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e at c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n making p o i n t s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . (3) I m p a r t i a l i t y - No i n d i v i d u a l or group i s p e r m i t t e d to dominate the p a r t i c i p a t i o n process at the expense of o t h e r s . 146 (4) C o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y - I m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d a n d i s p r e s e n t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t i t i s u n d e r s t o o d by t h o s e whom i t a f f e c t s . (5) A l t e r n a t i v e s - The p u b l i c i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a r a n g e o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . ( 6 ) E f f i c a c y - P a r t i c i p a t o r s ' v i e w s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n p r o d u c t s o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The t h i r d o b j e c t i v e f o r t h e s t u d y a s s t a t e d i n c h a p t e r one was t o d e t e r m i n e c u r r e n t p r o c e s s e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s u s e d t o o b t a i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n f r o m t h e p u b l i c i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f O.C.P.'s. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e g r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r r e g i o n f o u n d t h a t t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s a n d t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s u s e d v a r i e d among t h e f o u r c o m m u n i t i e s . I n t o t a l , f i f t e e n d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s were u t i l i z e d a t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s i n t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s : (1) i s s u e a n d a l t e r n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d c l a r i f i c a t i o n s t a g e , (2) comment on f i r s t d r a f t p l a n s t a g e and (3) comment on s e c o n d d r a f t p l a n s t a g e . As w e l l , i t was common f o r t h e r e t o be some p r o v i s i o n f o r c o n t i n u o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s a l t h o u g h t h i s p r o v i s i o n was p r i m a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d t o a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n s . Of a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e , t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s were u s e d by a l l f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t o f a l l , an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n was e i t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d o r an e x i s t i n g one was c o n s u l t e d . S e c o n d , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s were h e l d b e f o r e t h e d i f f e r e n t p l a n s became b y l a w s . T h i r d , t h e f i r s t c o m p l e t e d r a f t p l a n o r a summary o f t h e p l a n i n a b r o a d s h e e t f o r m a t was s e n t t o e v e r y a d d r e s s i n e a c h o f 1 47 t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Of t h e s e t h r e e d e v i c e s , t h e p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s r e q u i r e d by l e g i s l a t i o n a n d t h e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n i s s u g g e s t e d i n t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . None o f t h e s e t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s meet a l l o f t h e p r o c e s s -o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n s a r e most u s e f u l f o r i d e n t i f y i n g i s s u e s a n d d i s c u s s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t h u s h e l p i n g t o a c h i e v e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s o b j e c t i v e . A l s o an a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n c a n be i n p l a c e f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f an O.C.P. p r o c e s s t h u s a s s i s t i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n m e e t i n g t h e t i m i n g o b j e c t i v e . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g c o m m i s s i o n s a r e r e s t r i c t e d i n m e m b e r s h i p t o a s m a l l number o f c i t i z e n s ( u s u a l l y t e n t o f i f t e e n p e o p l e ) , i t c a n n o t s u b s t i t u t e f o r t e c h n i q u e s open t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . T h e r e f o r e , no p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e c a n be f u l l y a c h i e v e d u s i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e . P u b l i c h e a r i n g s do n o t meet a l l o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . As p o i n t e d o u t i n c h a p t e r f o u r , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a l o n e c a n n o t f u l f i l l t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y o r t i m i n g o b j e c t i v e s . P u b l i c h e a r i n g s a r e a l s o h e l d t o o l a t e i n t h e p r o c e s s t o meet t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s o b j e c t i v e . A summary o f t h e d r a f t p l a n i n a b r o a d s h e e t f o r m a t h e l p s t o s a t i s f y many o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d i n g a c c e s s i b i l i t y , i m p a r t i a l i t y , a n d c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y . I t c a n a l s o be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n m e e t i n g t h e t i m i n g o b j e c t i v e a s f a r a s p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c a t a c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p o i n t i n t h e p r o c e s s . What i s p a r t i c u l a r l y l a c k i n g i n t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s i s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o p a r t i c i p a t e e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s a t t h e i s s u e a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s 148 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s t a g e a n d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f a c e - t o - f a c e o r g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p l a n n e r s a n d o t h e r c i t i z e n s a t a l l s t a g e s o f t h e p r o c e s s . O f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n s d e a l w i t h c o m p l e x i s s u e s t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e u s e o f t h e s e t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s must be s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s i n o r d e r f o r t h e r e t o be o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e p u b l i c t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i s s u e s , t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t e c h n i q u e s a r e u s e d w h i c h a l l o w f o r a r a n g e o f v i e w s t o be e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h a number o f d i f f e r e n t means. T h e r e f o r e , t h e t e c h n i q u e s c h o s e n s h o u l d a l l o w f o r f a c e -t o - f a c e c o n t a c t b e tween t h e p u b l i c a n d p l a n n e r s a s w e l l a s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o t h e r o r a l a n d w r i t t e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n v o l v e m e n t must, b e g i n e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s . F i n d i n g s f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s t u d i e d s u g g e s t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b a c k g r o u n d r e p o r t s f o l l o w e d by e a s i l y r e a d s u m m a r i e s o f t h e m a j o r i s s u e s a n d p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s made w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c c a n b e g i n t h e p r o c e s s o f i n v o l v i n g t h e p u b l i c . W i t h t h i s r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e p u b l i c c a n t h e n e n t e r i n t o d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e p l a n n e r s t o c l a r i f y t h e i s s u e s a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s a n d p r o p o s e new o n e s . Any number o f t e c h n i q u e s c a n be u t i l i z e d a t t h i s s t a g e i n c l u d i n g d i s p l a y e x h i b i t s , comment s h e e t s , p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , s u r v e y s , open h o u s e s a n d co m m u n i t y g r o u p m e e t i n g s . The f o u r t h o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e m e thod t o e v a l u a t e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n co m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g . I t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t e v a l u a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a d i f f i c u l t p r o c e s s . One o f t h e most common method s c i t e d i n 1 49 t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s t o b a s e e v a l u a t i o n on s t a t e d a i m s a n d o b j e c t i v e s . H o wever, d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s a n d p l a y e r s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s h a v e d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s o f what p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o a c h i e v e . As a r e s u l t , t h e i r g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s a l s o v a r y . T h e r e f o r e , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t o b j e c t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h were n o t s p e c i f i c t o any one g r o u p , b u t r a t h e r b a s e d on d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s , w o u l d be u s e d . T h e s e o b j e c t i v e s a r e t h e s i x p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n c h a p t e r two a n d s u m m a r i z e d n e a r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r . A m e thod r e l y i n g on t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s s u b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t a n d w h a t e v e r e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t o r s o f s u c c e s s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e , was i d e n t i f i e d a s an a p p r o p r i a t e means t o d e t e r m i n e how w e l l e a c h o f t h e p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s h a d been met. The f i f t h o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y was t o a s s e s s t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t s o f f o u r g r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s i n a c h i e v i n g t h e p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g s u m m a r i z e s t h e l e s s o n s l e a r n e d f r o m e a c h m u n i c i p a l i t y . I n t e r m s o f o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t , R i c h m o n d was t h e most s u c c e s s f u l m u n i c i p a l i t y i n a c h i e v i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . R i c h m o n d p l a n n e r s d i d so t h r o u g h t h e use o f a p l a n n e d s t r a t e g y d e s i g n e d t o r e a c h i d e n t i f i e d p u b l i c s . P l a n n e r s e s t a b l i s h e d g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n component o f t h e p r o c e s s . The v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s u s e d a n d t h e t i m i n g o f t h o s e t e c h n i q u e s c o m b i n e d so t h a t t h r e e o f t h e p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s were f u l l y a c h i e v e d . Two o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s were v e r y 150 c l o s e t o b e i n g s a t i s f i e d . I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e e f f i c a c y o b j e c t i v e was f u l l y s a t i s f i e d o r n o t a l t h o u g h many c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d by t h e p u b l i c h a d been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e d r a f t p l a n s . Of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n R i c h m o n d , was t h e o p e n n e s s o f t h e p r o c e s s t o t h e p u b l i c a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e O.C.P.. I n p a r t i c u l a r , a t t h e i s s u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n s t a g e , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y a c t i v e l y e n c o u r a g e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d d e b a t e on i s s u e s a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o p r o b l e m s . The t e c h n i q u e s u s e d were v a r i e d a n d a p p l i e d a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s i n t h e p r o c e s s . C e r t a i n t e c h n i q u e s t h a t were u t i l i z e d , a p p r o p r i a t e l y accommodated i d e n t i f i a b l e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s w h i l e o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s were more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e b r o a d e r p u b l i c . S u r r e y ' s p r o c e s s , c o n v e r s e l y , d i d n o t f u l l y meet a n y o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s c a n be r e l a t e d t o a number o f f a c t o r s . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e r e was no p l a n n e d s t r a t e g y on how t h e p u b l i c c o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . P u b l i c s were n o t i d e n t i f i e d a n d a b r o a d r a n g e o f t e c h n i q u e s were n o t a p p l i e d t o e n s u r e f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c was e x c l u d e d f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s s o t h e y t o o k no p a r t i n i s s u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o r c h o o s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s b e y o n d a n s w e r i n g s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c h a d no o p p o r t u n i t y t o be p a r t o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e d r a f t p l a n t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m c u l m i n a t i n g l o c a l a r e a p l a n s . T h e s e f i r s t two f a c t o r s a r e i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e w i t h o u t p a r t i c i p a t i o n e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s a n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e p u b l i c t o l e a r n what t h e p l a n i s a b o u t , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y i s i n c r e a s e d t h a t t h e p l a n w i l l be m i s u n d e r s t o o d . As one S u r r e y p l a n n e r s a i d who h a d been i n v o l v e d i n t h e p l a n f r o m t h e 151 beginning stages: "people are not committed to the feeling of the plan" (Caselton interview). This lack of commitment and understanding led to a number of people demanding changes at the public hearing and after the plan was adopted. In a l l cases, these changes were proposed by property owners who wanted their land changed from one designation to another, usually from suburban r e s i d e n t i a l to urban r e s i d e n t i a l ( i . e . from large to small lot s i z e ) . Much of t h i s could have been avoided through a more complete public p a r t i c i p a t i o n program. As Creighton comments from a planning agency's point of view: One of the major functions of public involvement i s to create s u f f i c i e n t v i s i b i l i t y to the decision making process so that decisions which result from i t are perceived as f a i r and legitimate. While some of the people most d i r e c t l y impacted by a decision may not be impressed by the equity of a decision, their a b i l i t y to undermine the c r e d i b i l i t y of the decision rests on their a b i l i t y to convince the larger public that the decision was u n f a i r l y made. E f f e c t i v e public involvement can establish your c r e d i b i l i t y with the larger public, so that the claims of special interests f a l l on deaf ears (1983, 443). The t h i r d factor related to lack of effectiveness in Surrey's process was the reliance on l o c a l area plans as a basis for the o v e r a l l O.C.P.. Other techniques which would allow for dialogue on the municipality-wide issues were not included except for an public opinion survey which had a low response and an advisory planning commission which was short-lived and quite r e s t r i c t e d on the feedback i t could give to c o u n c i l . It i s not possible to conclude from t h i s study that the use of l o c a l area plans i s not a wise process to pursue in developing a municipality-wide O.C.P.. However, i t can be concluded that l o c a l area plans themselves must be prepared with community involvement with one compatible plan f i n a l l y being 152 adopted for the area which has been through a process of public consultation so everyone has had an opportunity to have a say in the f i n a l outcome and understands i t . Where concensus cannot be reached, the plan needs to consider balancing opposing points of views and values to reach a compromise. Whereas, i t i s acknowledged that consensus i s d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to reach in many cases, compromises have to be made in consultation with the public. Furthermore, the l o c a l plans must r e f l e c t response from the members of the public who have had the opportunity to consider the broader municipality-wide concerns. This did not occur in Surrey. Had i t , then the O.C.P. would probably have been better understood by the public and less time would be spent in making continual amendments to the land use designations of the plan. The use of l o c a l area plans as a basis for their O.C.P. in Surrey was an anomoly among the four mun i c i p a l i t i e s . Richmond used l o c a l area plans, however, the plans did not form the basis for the O.C.P., but rather complemented the ov e r a l l O.C.P. process. Based on interviews with fiv e planners and a community leader (from Delta), a l l agree that the preferable route to take in a community planning process i s from a general to s p e c i f i c nature. Reasons for t h i s include: • The area planning process should not "wag the dog" of the O.C.P. because there i s too much vested interest in a l o c a l area plan (Jackson interview). • Local area planning focuses on s p e c i f i c s and therefore needs a broad framework to relate to and understand how the area f i t s in (Picard interview; Scheving interview). • It i s administratively easier and more e f f i c i e n t to have an O.C.P. in place f i r s t (Caselton interview). 153 • A l l i s s u e s w o u l d n o t be a d d r e s s e d by s i m p l y a m a l g a m a t i n g l o c a l a r e a p l a n s ( R o g e r s i n t e r v i e w ) . • T h e r e i s no p e r f e c t s y s t e m , h o w e v e r , t h e g e n e r a l t o s p e c i f i c r o u t e i s a more r a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h w h i c h c r e a t e s a f r a m e w o r k . V e r y o f t e n c o m m u n i t i e s t h a t do l o c a l a r e a p l a n s f i r s t u s u a l l y n e v e r g e t a r o u n d t o d o i n g an o v e r a l l O.C.P. ( C o l l i e r i n t e r v i e w ) . V e r y o f t e n a m u n i c i p a l i t y h a s no c h o i c e a s co m m u n i t y p l a n n i n g i s a d y n a m i c p r o c e s s . R i c h m o n d , f o r e x a m p l e , was i n a p o s i t i o n where t h e y a l r e a d y h a d some l o c a l a r e a p l a n s i n p l a c e a n d were i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o m p l e t i n g more a t t h e t i m e t h e y s t a r t e d t h e O.C.P.. T h e r e f o r e , l o c a l a r e a p l a n s a n d c o m m i t t e e s h a d an i n f l u e n c e on t h e O.C.P.. S u r r e y h a d numerous l o c a l a r e a p l a n s and a t t e m p t e d t o c o m p l e t e p l a n s f o r e a c h a r e a a n d a l m a l g a m a t e them i n t o one o v e r a l l p l a n . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e r o u t e t h a t i s t a k e n by a m u n i c i p a l i t y , what i s i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f p r e p a r i n g an O.C.P. i s done o p e n l y a n d d e m o c r a t i c a l l y . By p l a n n i n g a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g y w h i c h m e e t s t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , b o t h a p p r o a c h e s c a n work. The f i n a l f a c t o r r e l a t e d t o t h e l a c k o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n S u r r e y was a l a c k o f commitment a t t h e l e a d e r s h i p l e v e l t o g e n u i n e l y i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c . W i t h o u t t h e l e a d e r s , who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l o c a t i n g f i n a n c i a l a n d human r e s o u r c e s b e l i e v i n g i n t h e n e e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s p a r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t d o e s o c c u r c a n e a s i l y become t o k e n a n d l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e . T h i s f a c t o r r e l a t e s back t o t h e l o c a l a r e a p l a n s a s a b a s i s f o r t h e O.C.P.. The S u r r e y e x a m p l e d o e s n o t p r o v e t h a t l o c a l a r e a p l a n s do n o t work a s a b a s i s f o r an O.C.P., b u t r a t h e r t h a t t h e r e h a s t o be commitment t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w h i c h e v e r way t h e p r o c e s s i s s t r u c t u r e d . 154 Delta's O.C.P. process had considerable public involvement which was not as e f f e c t i v e as would be desired in meeting f i v e of the process-oriented objectives. However, o f f i c i a l s were pleased with the f i n a l plan and attributed what they considered a successful process to leadership. According to one Delta o f f i c i a l , the planner hired to prepare the plan was experienced and able to communicate cr e a t i v e l y with the d i f f e r e n t publics ( C o l l i e r interview; Rogers interview). The Delta process suggests that with c r e a t i v i t y a limited number of techniques can be arranged in such a way as to increase their usefulness. Even given limited resources, p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be quite e f f e c t i v e o v e r a l l . The Delta example also portrays the value of id e n t i f y i n g key community leaders who can a s s i s t the planner in the p a r t i c i p a t i o n aspect. The advisory planning commission chairman was instrumental in the O.C.P. process. In New Westminster, the public p a r t i c i p a t i o n e f f o r t was not as e f f e c t i v e as would be desired. A number of observations can be made. F i r s t , the New Westminster example suggests that in order to get people to parti c i p a t e in a policy plan which does not include a map indicating the ramifications of the p o l i c i e s in actual physical form, planners must encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n and design and implement a public p a r t i c i p a t i o n program to meet the process-oriented objectives. There is some debate as to whether policy plans should be accompanied by land use designation maps. Some planners believe an O.C.P. needs land-use designations to t i e p o l i c i e s to their physical ramifications noting that the focus of an O.C.P. i s 155 land use. This results in a plan with more certainty although s t i l l retaining some f l e x i b i l i t y . Conversely, other planners argue that maps decrease the f l e x i b i l i t y of the O.C.P. turning i t into a fixed plan. Maps, they believe, should be reserved for l o c a l area plans. Ultimately, in order for the O.C.P. to be implemented, the O.C.P. p o l i c i e s at some point must be applied to actual physical land use. One planner pointed out that i f l o c a l area plans had already been developed with land-use designations then an O.C.P. developed afterwards would only need to be a policy plan (Jackson interview). The New Westminster example did not offer enough choices to the public to partic i p a t e to know i f i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to s o l i c i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n with a more intangible and broad plan dealing in policy statements without applying them. This question i s not of great importance for the future in the context of o f f i c i a l commuity plans. Leg i s l a t i o n now requires that a land use designation map and other maps be included in a l l O.C.P.' s. Nevertheless, i t i s an interesting question and one that warrants further research. The second observation with regard to the New Westminster example i s related to the planners' perceptions of the community. In smaller communities, where planners are well known and have a history of informal and formal contact with the public, they may have gathered over the years a f e e l for the community's values and range of inte r e s t s . As a r e s u l t , a public p a r t i c i p a t i o n program for a s p e c i f i c plan such as an O.C.P. may not have to be as extensive as in larger communities. However, the planners should never assume they know everything and can 156 p r e d i c t what t h e p u b l i c i s t h i n k i n g o r how t h e y w i l l r e a c t . I t i s s t i l l n e c e s s a r y t o s e e k i n p u t a n d c l a r i f i c a t i o n a n d o f f e r a l t e r n a t i v e s . P r e v i o u s l y u n i d e n t i f i e d i s s u e s emerged f r o m t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l r e s p o n s e r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e p u b l i c i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . The p l a n n e r s a d m i t t e d e v e n more i s s u e s w o u l d h a v e been i d e n t i f i e d i f t h e r e h a d been more e f f o r t t o go t o t h e p u b l i c ( C h a s t e r i n t e r v i e w ; I n g i n t e r v i e w ). T h i r d , d e s p i t e t h e f e e l i n g by p l a n n e r s t h a t t h e p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t i s open a n d c i t i z e n s a r e c o m f o r t a b l e c o m i n g i n t o t a l k a b o u t c o n c e r n s , i t i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r a c t u a l l y g o i n g o u t t o where p e o p l e r e c r e a t e , w o rk, s h o p o r r e s i d e . The s i x t h o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s t u d y was t o p r o v i d e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m s t o be u s e d i n t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s . N i n e summary o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n be d e r i v e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s w h i c h c a n be u s e d t o h e l p g u i d e p l a n n e r s d e s i g n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f an o f f i c i a l c o m m u n i t y p l a n . (1) P l a n n e r s s h o u l d a t a l l t i m e s k e e p i n m i n d t h e p r o c e s s -o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t when d e s i g n i n g a n d i m p l e m e n t i n g a p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o g r a m . (2) Commitment on b e h a l f o f t h e p l a n n e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d c o u n c i l , e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e l e a d e r s h i p l e v e l w h ere f i n a n c i a l a n d human r e s o u r c e s a r e a l l o c a t e d , i s n e c e s s a r y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o h a v e a c h a n c e a t b e i n g e f f e c t i v e . W i t h o u t c o m m i t m e n t , t h e v a r i e t y , c h o i c e o r number o f t e c h n i q u e s i s o f l i t t l e c o n s e q u e n c e . (3) P l a n n e r s s h o u l d n o t t a k e f o r g r a n t e d t h e y know what t h e p u b l i c i s t h i n k i n g o r w a n t s . R e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e o f c o m m u n i t y , 157 e x p e r i e n c e o f s t a f f o r c o n t e x t o f p l a n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n v o l v e t h e c i t i z e n s k e e p i n g i n mi n d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . (4) E f f o r t t o i n c l u d e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e O.C.P. p r o c e s s must go b e y o n d t h a t r e q u i r e d by l e g i s l a t i o n . A p u b l i c h e a r i n g a n d an a d v i s o r y c o m m i s s i o n i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o e n s u r e a d e q u a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an O.C.P. p r o c e s s . (5) I t i s b e n e f i c i a l t o h a v e a p l a n n e d s t r a t e g y f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w hereby g o a l s a n d o b j e c t i v e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d , p u b l i c s a r e i d e n t i f i e d a n d t a c t i c s a r e d e v i s e d t o r e a c h them. (6) L a c k o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n e a r l y i n t h e p r o c e s s c a n l e a d t o l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , a n d commitment t o , t h e p l a n . T h e r e f o r e , p l a n n e r s s h o u l d e n d e a v o r t o i n v o l v e c i t i z e n s i n t h e e a r l y i s s u e s a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p h a s e o f t h e p r o c e s s . ( 7 ) I f l o c a l a r e a p l a n s a r e t o be c u l m i n a t e d i n t o an o v e r a l l p l a n , t h e n t h e r e h a s t o be c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o t h e b r o a d e r m u n i c i p a l i t y - w i d e c o n t e x t . The l o c a l a r e a p l a n s t h e m s e l v e s must be p r e p a r e d u s i n g a c o o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t t o i n v o l v e t h e p u b l i c i n a g r e e i n g on one p l a n f o r t h e a r e a . T h a t e f f o r t s h o u l d a l s o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d a c h i e v e t h e p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . (8) T h e r e a r e l i m i t a t i o n s a n d c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f any t e c h n i q u e . A w a r e n e s s o f t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l a s s i s t t h e p l a n n e r i n p r e p a r i n g a p r o g r a m t h a t c o m p e n s a t e s f o r t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s . (9) The n e e d f o r a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s t o be u s e d i n an O.C.P. p r o c e s s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t c e r t a i n t e c h n i q u e s a r e g e a r e d t o w a r d one segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a n d / o r a r e b e s t 158 suited to a certain stage in the process. Therefore, when involving the public, planners should ensure that information-giving, information-receiving and interactive techniques are included at important points in the process in order that the process-oriented objectives for p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be achieved. Findings from the four case studies indicate there are three important decision making points in the O.C.P. process: (1) issue and alte r n a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n , (2) comment on f i r s t draft plan and (3) comment on second draft plan. As well, some mechanism for continuity throughout the entire O.C.P. process i s common. The s p e c i f i c techniques used at each stage w i l l depend on the h i s t o r i c a l background leading up to the plan's development, the issues, the communty i t s e l f , the planners' expertise and f a m i l i a r i t y with certain techniques and the resources av a i l a b l e . In conclusion, t h i s study has attempted to deal with public p a r t i c i p a t i o n as i t relates to the preparation of o f f i c i a l community plans. Continued p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the implementation stage of an O.C.P. has not been addressed and i s an area which requires additional study. It has been determined in thi s study that by keeping the process-oriented objectives in mind, planners can develop a public p a r t i c i p a t i o n program for an O.C.P. through which meaningful response can be obtained from the public. However, the a b i l i t y to carry out a program which s a t i s f i e s these objectives depends foremost on administrative commitment. It i s not possible to state an ideal public p a r t i c i p a t i o n program which would meet a l l conditions suitable for a l l communities preparing an o f f i c i a l community plan. The 159 a c t u a l c h o i c e o f t e c h n i q u e s w i l l v a r y a n d a r e n o t l i m i t e d t o o n e s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y . 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