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Differences in perceptual abilities in gifted and non-gifted children as measured by the Macgregor perceptual… Collier, Robyn Maree 1985

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DIFFERENCES I N PERCEPTUAL A B I L I T I E S I N GIFTED AND NON-GIFTED CHILDREN AS MEASURED BY THE MACGREGOR PERCEPTUAL INDEX by ROBYN MAREE COLLIER i B.Ed. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f V i s u a l a n d P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA September-^ 985 © R o b y n Maree C o l l i e r , 198 5 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s ( understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date ABSTRACT U n t i l a b o u t 1 9 7 0 , l i t t l e was p u b l i s h e d on r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p e r c e p t u a l a c u i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . T h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n t o p r o v i d e e m p i r i c a l d a t a t h a t m i g h t l e a d t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p , t o r e v i e w r e s e a r c h p e r f o r m e d i n t h e f i e l d s o f b o t h p e r c e p t i o n and g i f t e d n e s s , and t o a s s e s s t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f a n o n - v e r b a l i n s t r u m e n t f o r e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s o f a r t i n d i a g n o s i n g g i f t e d n e s s a t a p e r c e p t u a l l e v e l . The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e , by means o f a p e r c e p t u a l i n d e x t e s t , w h e t h e r o r n o t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n who d i s p l a y a b o v e a v e r a g e i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s , a l s o e x h i b i t a b o v e a v e r a g e p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s . The M a c G r e g o r P e r c e p t u a l I n d e x (MPI) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a g r o u p o f t w e n t y - f o u r g i f t e d and t w e n t y - s i x n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f t e n and t w e l v e y e a r s . C a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d : - p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e , p e r c e p t i o n o f embedded f i g u r e s , p e r c e p t i o n o f s h a p e , p e r c e p t i o n o f s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e v e r t i c a l , p e r c e p t i o n m o d i f i e d by c o n s t a n c y , and p e r c e p t i o n o f c o n t o u r . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s among c h i l d r e n o f s p e c i f i c i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y and a g e s i n how t h e y p e r c e i v e and i n t e r p r e t v i s u a l s t i m u l i . I t was f o u n d t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h above a v e r a g e i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y p e r f o r m e d a t a h i g h e r l e v e l on t h e P e r c e p t u a l I n d e x t e s t t h a n d i d s u b j e c t s d r awn f r o m an a v e r a g e g r o u p . The f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y l e d t o r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The MPI, a n o n - v e r b a l p e r c e p t u a l t e s t , was j u d g e d t o be a r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t f o r d i a g n o s i n g g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . I n t h e s y n o p s i s o f f a c t o r s r e v e a l e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y i m p l y t h a t t r a i n i n g i n p e r c e p t u a l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s may g e n e r a l l y e n h a n c e a c h i l d ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l , and t h u s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 B a c k g r o u n d t o t h e S t u d y 4 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 8 P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y 8 I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 9 T h e o r e t i c a l F r a m e w o r k 10 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 11 R e s e a r c h P r o c e d u r e s 13 P o p u l a t i o n D e f i n e d 13 Sample 13 I n s t r u m e n t U s e d 14 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o c e d u r e 14 D e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 14 I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I n t r o d u c t i o n 16 G i f t e d n e s s a n d P e r c e p t i o n 16 E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e G i f t e d 24 P e r c e p t i o n a n d P e r c e p t u a l P r o c e s s i n g . 32 P e r c e p t u a l T h e o r i e s 3 3 D e f i n i n g P e r c e p t i o n 46 V TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) CHAPTER PAGE The Nature of P e r c e p t i o n 39 S i z e and D i s t a n c e P e r c e p t i o n 45 Space P e r c e p t i o n 4 6 P e r c e p t u a l S t a b i l i t y 49 M u l t i s t a b i l i t y and Ambiguity 49 V i s u a l I l l u s i o n 51 Sta n d a r d i z e d Group T e s t s 55 C u l t u r e F a i r T e s t s 56 I n d i v i d u a l i z e d IQ T e s t s 56 T e s t s f o r S p e c i a l A p t i t u d e s 59 The MacGregor P e r c e p t u a l Index 63 Be h a v i o u r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 64 Summary 67 I I I STUDY PROCEDURES The Methods of the Study 69 Procedures 69 S e l e c t i n g the P o p u l a t i o n 69 P o p u l a t i o n D e f i n e d 70 S e l e c t i o n of the Sample 70 Ob t a i n i n g P e r m i s s i o n to Conduct the Study 71 The Instrument 71 P i l o t Study 72 v i TABLE OF CONTENTS ( C o n t i n u e d ) CHAPTER PAGE A d m i n i s t r a t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r T e s t i n g 72 M o d i f i c a t i o n s t o A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e I n s t r u m e n t 7 4 S t a t i s t i c a l P r o c e d u r e s H y p o t h e s i s T e s t e d R e l i a b i l i t y V a l i d i t y I V ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 82 A n a l y s i s o f t h e D a t a 8 3 A s s u m p t i o n s f o r t h e S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t s 8 3 B r e a k d o w n o f G r o u p s 83 S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l 83 S a m p l i n g D i s t r i b u t i o n 83 M a n n - W h i t n e y U. F o r m u l a 83 C a l c u l a t i o n o f C r i t i c a l V a l u e s .... 85 I t e m A n a l y s i s b y C a t e g o r y 9 4 C a t e g o r y ONE: P e r c e p t i o n o f D i s t a n c e 9 4 C a t e g o r y TWO: P e r c e p t i o n o f Embedded F i g u r e s 9 5 C a t e g o r y THREE: P e r c e p t i o n o f Shape 96 v i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ( C o n t i n u e d ) CHAPTER PAGE C a t e g o r y FOUR: P e r c e p t i o n o f S i m i l a r i t i e s a n d D i f f e r e n c e s 97 C a t e g o r y F I V E : P e r c e p t i o n o f t h e V e r t i c a l 98 C a t e g o r y S I X : P e r c e p t i o n M o d i f i e d b y C o n s t a n c y 99 C a t e g o r y SEVEN: P e r c e p t i o n o f C o n t o u r 100 A n a l y s i s o f R e s u l t s 100 V SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary 102 F i n d i n g s a n d C o n c l u s i o n s 103 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 105 REFERENCES 10 7 APPENDICES A p p e n d i x A 121 C a l c u l a t i o n s f o r T a b l e s 1-8 121 MPI Raw S c o r e T o t a l s 122 P e r c e p t i o n o f D i s t a n c e 123 P e r c e p t i o n o f Embedded F i g u r e s 124 P e r c e p t i o n o f Shape 125 P e r c e p t i o n o f S i m i l a r i t i e s a n d D i f f e r e n c e s 126 v i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) CHAPTER PAGE P e r c e p t i o n of the V e r t i c a l 127 P e r c e p t i o n M o d i f i e d by Constancy .... 128 P e r c e p t i o n of Contour 129 Appendix B 130 The MacGregor P e r c e p t u a l Index T e s t A d m i n i s t r a t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n s (modified) 131 Answer Sheets ( o r i g i n a l ) 137 Answer Sheets (modified) 146 Te s t Booklet 157 Appendix C 184 Responses to the MPI 185 Appendix D 187 A u t h o r i z a t i o n L e t t e r s L e t t e r o f A u t h o r i t y to Conduct the Study to the P r i n c i p a l s 188 L e t t e r s of Permission t o the Parents 189 Appendix E 190 T e s t Schedule 191 Appendix F 19 2 Mann-Whitney U. Table o f C r i t i c a l V a lues 193 i x TABLE OF CONTENTS ( C o n t i n u e d ) CHAPTER PAGE A p p e n d i x G 194 LGA S o c i o - e c o n o m i c I n d i c a t o r S c o r e s ( u s e d t o s e l e c t p o p u l a t i o n ) 195 X LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE MPI Raw Scores Ranked 1 MPI Raw Score T o t a l s 8 6 2 P e r c e p t i o n of D i s t a n c e 87 3 P e r c e p t i o n of Embedded F i g u r e s 88 4 P e r c e p t i o n of Shape 8 9 5 P e r c e p t i o n of S i m i l a r i t i e s and D i f f e r e n c e s 90 6 P e r c e p t i o n of the V e r t i c a l 91 7 P e r c e p t i o n M o d i f i e d by Constancy 92 8 P e r c e p t i o n of Contour 93 MPI Item A n a l y s i s 9 Category ONE: P e r c e p t i o n of D i s t a n c e . 94 10 Category TWO: P e r c e p t i o n of Embedded F i g u r e s 95 11 Category THREE: P e r c e p t i o n of Shape 96 12 Category FOUR: P e r c e p t i o n of S i m i l a r i t i e s and D i f f e r e n c e s 97 13 Category FIVE: P e r c e p t i o n of the V e r t i c a l 98 14 Category SIX: P e r c e p t i o n M o d i f i e d by Constancy 99 15 Category SEVEN: P e r c e p t i o n of Contour 100 x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank my A u s t r a l i a n a d v i s e r Dr. Diana K e n d a l l f o r her encouragement and guidance, Dr. Lawrie K e n d a l l f o r h i s ad v i c e on s t a t i s t i c a l procedures f o r t h i s study, and Ruth Ross f o r the use of her g i f t e d s tudents. Deep a p p r e c i a t i o n to Drs. Ronald MacGregor, James Gray, and Graeme Chalmers f o r t h e i r c o n s t a n t support and concern even over g r e a t d i s t a n c e s . I am g r a t e f u l f o r the t y p i n g e f f o r t s of E l l e n Ewing who deciphered the handwriting i n my d r a f t , and Margaret Schleuss who gave generously o f her time. F i n a l l y , these acknowledgements would be incomplete i f I n e g l e c t e d to mention Penny Gouldstone, Bob S t e e l e , D o r i s L i v i n g s t o n e , Judy Brooks, and my pa r e n t s . I am indebted to you a l l , f o r your c a r i n g has enhanced my p e r c e p t i o n of the world and en r i c h e d my l i f e . CHAPTER I 1. INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Introduct ion Daniel Keating, an American art educator, has observed that in respect to the subject" of ' g i f t e d ' c h i l d r e n , the vast majority of highly academically able ch i ldren and youth are poorly served by the present educational system." (1980, p. 56) Although th i s was written in 1980 the problem i s a current one. Not only are the g i f t ed and talented poorly served, they often ex i s t u n i d e n t i f i e d . U n t i l the 1970s, giftedness was t y p i c a l l y measured by verbal tests of i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . The work of McFee (1970), G u i l f o r d (1972), Torrance (1974) and others has contributed to the development of a broader d e f i n i t i o n of g i f tedness , acknowledging diverse ta lents and a b i l i t i e s . In 1972, Sidney Marland, the former U.S. Commissioner of Education, proposed that g i f t ed and talented ch i ldren had high a b i l i t y in the areas of general i n t e l l e c t , s p e c i f i c academic apt i tude , creat ive or productive t h i n k i n g , leadership a b i l i t y , and v i s u a l and performing a r t s . He claimed that g i f t ed and t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n a r e t h o s e i d e n t i f i e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l l y q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n s who, by v i r t u e o f o u t s t a n d i n g a b i l i t i e s , a r e c a p a b l e o f h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e s e c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s and s e r v i c e s by t h e r e g u l a r p r o g r a m i n o r d e r t o r e a l i z e t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s e i f a n d s o c i e t y . ( M a r l a n d , 1 9 7 2 , p. 10) I n h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n , R e n z u l l i (1983) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e t h r e e c l u s t e r s o f t r a i t s : ' a bove a v e r a g e g e n e r a l a b i l i t y , h i g h l e v e l o f t a s k commitment, and h i g h l e v e l s o f c r e a t i v i t y . H i s d e f i n i t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n a r e t h o s e p o s s e s s i n g o r c a p a b l e o f d e v e l o p i n g t h i s c o m p o s i t e s e t o f t r a i t s and a p p l y i n g them t o any p o t e n t i a l l y v a l u a b l e a r e a o f human p e r f o r m a n c e . C h i l d r e n who m a n i f e s t o r a r e c a p a b l e o f d e v e l o p i n g an i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e s e t h r e e c l u s t e r s r e q u i r e a w i d e v a r i e t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e n o t o r d i n a r i l y p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o g r a m s , ( p . 261) 3 . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n , a l t h o u g h h i g h l y p e r f o r m a n c e - b a s e d , i s s u f f i c i e n t l y d i v e r s e t o i n c l u d e t h e p o t e n t i a l l y g i f t e d and d o e s n o t r e s t r i c t g i f t e d n e s s t o o n l y t h o s e c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s i n g h i g h l e v e l s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , as t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d . H o wever, d i a g n o s t i c p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v i n g g i f t e d c h i l d r e n t e n d t o a c c o u n t more f o r v e r b a l a b i l i t y t h a n p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y . And s i n c e p e r c e p t i o n , a n o n - v e r b a l a b i l i t y , i s a component o f human l e a r n i n g , i t w o u l d seem a p p r o p r i a t e t o m e a s u r e t h i s c a p a c i t y i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . K i r k (1972) a c k n o w l e d g e s a l i n k b e t w e e n p e r c e p t i o n and t h e g i f t e d c h i l d when he d e f i n e s e x c e p t i o n a l c h i l d r e n as b e i n g t h o s e "who d e v i a t e f r o m t h e a v e r a g e i n s e n s o r y a b i l i t i e s . " ( p . 4) P e r c e p t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o H e l d and R i c h a r d s (1972) " i s t h e p r o c e s s o f k n o w i n g o b j e c t s and e v e n t s i n t h e w o r l d by means o f t h e s e n s e s . " ( p . 166) T h i s s t u d y c o n c e n t r a t e s on v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . Hagan and B r e s n a h a n (1984) r e f e r t o v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n a s , " t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f k n o w l e g e a b o u t t h e s i z e , s h a p e , s l a n t , c o m p o s i t i o n , d i s t a n c e , l o c a t i o n , and s e q u e n c i n g o f e v e n t s and t h e i r o b j e c t c o m p o n e n t s t h r o u g h t h e p i c k u p o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s t r u c t u r e d l i g h t t o t h e 4. e y e . " ( p . 32) The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e , by means o f a p e r c e p t u a l t e s t , w h e t h e r o r n o t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n who d i s p l a y above a v e r a g e i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y a l s o e x h i b i t above a v e r a g e p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y . B a c k g r o u n d t o t h e S t u d y I n t h e A u s t r a l i a n C a p i t a l T e r r i t o r y i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e g i f t e d c h i l d has i n c r e a s e d and p r o g r a m s i n s c h o o l s have been d e v e l o p e d . I n o r d e r t o p l a c e c h i l d r e n i n t h e s e p r o g r a m s , m e a s u r e s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y have been u s e d t o d i a g n o s e c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n as b e i n g g i f t e d . D a t a u s e d t o i d e n t i f y g i f t e d n e s s i n c h i l d r e n f o r p l a c e m e n t i n t h e s e s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s r a n g e f r o m s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s s u c h as t h e T o l a 6, and W e s c h l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e ( d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r I I ) t o i n f o r m a l t e a c h e r / p e e r / p a r e n t n o m i n a t i o n s and p r e v i o u s s c h o l a s t i c r e p o r t s . I n g e n e r a l t h e a b o v e c r i t e r i a f o r g i f t e d n e s s f o c u s upon v e r b a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . E v en p a r e n t / t e a c h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s t e n d t o r e f l e c t c o n c e r n f o r v e r b a l s k i l l s and a c h i e v e m e n t . Y e t , s i n c e p e r c e p t i o n i s a c o m p o nent o f human l e a r n i n g , i t w o u l d seem i m p o r t a n t 5. f o r t e s t s t o i n c l u d e t h i s a s p e c t f o r s t u d y and f o r t e a c h e r s t o d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i n c l u s i o n o f p e r c e p t u a l l e a r n i n g i n p r o g r a m s f o r t h e g i f t e d . I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e d e s i g n o f s u i t a b l y c h a l l e n g i n g p r o g r a m s f o r s c h o o l s , t h e M a c G r e g o r P e r c e p t u a l I n d e x ( 1 9 71) was u s e d t o show how t h i s v a l u a b l e g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n t e r m e d " t h e g i f t e d " m i g h t be a s s e s s e d . I n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t t a k e s a c c o u n t o f b o t h v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l l e a r n i n g , l e s s a t t e n t i o n has b een g i v e n t o p e r c e p t u a l l e a r n i n g by e d u c a t o r s t h a n t h a t g i v e n t o c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g . McFee (1961) s t a t e s , "We f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t i n u e v e r b a l e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l y e a r s - b u t we have i g n o r e d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p a r a l l e l v i s u a l e d u c a t i o n . " ( p . 185) P r o g r a m s f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n must a l s o a d d r e s s t h e p r o b l e m o f i n c l u d i n g p e r c e p t u a l l e a r n i n g i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e e d u c a t i o n a l b a l a n c e . A l e x a n d e r (1981) a r g u e s t h a t , " a r t e d u c a t o r s need t o d e v o t e a t t e n t i o n t o d e v e l o p i n g s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e s and t a s k s t o h e l p f i n d g i f t e d y o u n g s t e r s i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e p r o g r a m s f o r t h e g i f t e d may one day be m a n d a t e d much as p r o g r a m s f o r t h e h a n d i c a p p e d a r e now r e q u i r e d " ( p . 4 2 ) . E i s n e r (1972) e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f 6. a s s i s t i n g c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p a r t i s t i c r e a d i n e s s and p e r c e p t u a l l e a r n i n g : L e a r n i n g t o p e r c e i v e what i s s u b t l e , l e a r n i n g t o o v e r c o m e v i s u a l c o n s t a n c i e s , l e a r n i n g t o c o n s t r u c t m e n t a l i m a g e s o f v i s u a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s and l e a r n i n g t o c o n s t r u c t s u c h i m a g e s i n a n o t h e r m a t e r i a l a r e n o t s i m p l e t a s k s . I t i s t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i n c e o f a r t e d u c a t i o n t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f o s t e r i n g t h e s e a s p e c t s o f human a b i l i t y , ( p . 106) As p e r c e p t u a l l e a r n i n g i s p a r t o f e v e r y o n e ' s e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s p a r t o f l e a r n i n g f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . D e s p i t e t h a t f a c t , i n t h e a r t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e i t was n o t u n t i l t h e s i x t i e s t h r o u g h t h e w r i t i n g s o f McFee t h a t s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o t h e a r e a o f p e r c e p t i o n i n human l e a r n i n g . S i n c e t h e n , a r t e d u c a t o r s s u c h as Salome ( 1 9 6 5 ) , E i s n e r ( 1 9 6 6 ) , A r n h e i m ( 1 9 6 9 ) , M a c G r e g o r ( 1 9 7 1 ) , and McFee (1977) have i n c r e a s e d o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d i n t e r e s t i n t h i s a r e a . I n 1971 M a c G r e g o r d e v e l o p e d h i s P e r c e p t u a l I n d e x ( M P I ) . T h i s i n d e x c o n s i s t s o f s e v e n m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h i n c l u d e f a c t o r s o f p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e ; 7. p e r c e p t i o n o f s h a p e ; p e r c e p t i o n o f embedded f i g u r e s , p e r c e p t i o n o f s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s ; p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e v e r t i c a l ; p e r c e p t i o n m o d i f i e d by c o n s t a n c y ; and p e r c e p t i o n o f c o n t o u r . The i n s t r u m e n t was d e s i g n e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s i n f l u e n c e p i c t u r e p e r c e p t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , a p e r s o n ' s a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e f i g u r e f r o m g r o u n d may be an i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e a c o m p l e x p a i n t i n g . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e i n a r t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t h e MPI has been u s e d w i t h g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . One s t u d y u s e d t h e MPI b u t t h i s was w i t h r e g u l a r c h i l d r e n . ( M c C o r d , 1973) S y s t e m a t i c e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e way g i f t e d c h i l d r e n u s e t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t i e s may f a c i l i t a t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f more e f f e c t i v e p r o g r a m s f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e a r t s . M a c G r e g o r s t a t e s " I f he ( t h e a r t e d u c a t o r [ s i c ] ) h a s k n o w l e d g e o f how c h i l d r e n i n t e r p r e t v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , he i s t h e n i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o d e v i s e a r t e x p e r i e n c e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r i n t e r p r e t i v e c a p a c i t i e s . " ( M a c G r e g o r , 1 9 7 5 , p. 54) I n e s s e n c e , t h e a r t e d u c a t o r may o b t a i n i n s i g h t s f o r d e s i g n i n g p r o g r a m s s u i t e d t o t h e n e e d s o f c h i l d r e n a t t h e i r v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f a r t i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t . 8. S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m The p r o b l e m i s t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r p e r c e p t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e p r e s e n t b e t w e e n g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , and w h e t h e r t h e s e c a n be r e l a t e d t o c o g n i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s a l r e a d y d i a g n o s e d b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . T h i s may be s t a t e d as a q u e s t i o n : Do g i f t e d c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y h i g h e r l e v e l s o f p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y t h a n do n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ? The s t u d y i s t h e r e f o r e d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s i n MPI r e s u l t s b e t w e e n t h e s c o r e s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and t h o s e o f n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o e x t e n d k n o w l e d g e o f what c o n s t i t u t e s p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y i n c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as g i f t e d . The u l t i m a t e i n t e n t i o n f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s i s t h e d e s i g n o f c u r r i c u l u m s u i t e d t o t h e i r s p e c i f i c n e e d s . 9. I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e S t u d y T h e r e i s a need f o r v a l i d and r e l i a b l e v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n t e s t s f o r use by t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a l i k e i n t h e d i a g n o s i s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . M a c G r e g o r ( 1 9 7 5 ) has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h r o u g h an i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e v i s u a l s t i m u l i , we as t e a c h e r s may be a b l e t o l e a d c h i l d r e n " t o w a r d a more a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r v i s u a l w o r l d . " ( p . 61) As t e a c h e r s , o u r a i m i s t o e n s u r e t h a t we do what we c a n t o e n a b l e c h i l d r e n t o f u n c t i o n a t t h e i r h i g h e s t l e v e l o f a b i l i t y . S i n c e we a c k n o w l e d g e a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p e r c e p t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , we m i g h t p r e d i c t t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i t h g e n e r a l l y h e i g h t e n e d s e n s o r y a w a r e n e s s m i g h t d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t a w a r e n e s s i n t h e f o r m o f h i g h e r s c o r e s on t h e MPI. F u r t h e r m o r e , i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e how k n o w l e d g e i s g a i n e d a b o u t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and p r o c e s s e d by t h e b r a i n , we must f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t e how o u r s e n s e s p r o v i d e us w i t h t h i s k n o w l e d g e . As G i b s o n (1966) s a y s , t h e s e n s e s may be c o n s i d e r e d as p e r c e p t u a l s y s t e m s . 10. T h e o r e t i c a l Framework A s s u m p t i o n s : A l l c h i l d r e n have p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y i s a d e s i r a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l . H y p o t h e s e s : The v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s c a n be c o n f i r m e d o r d e n i e d by r e c a s t i n g i t i n t h e n u l l f o r m and i n t h i s c a s e s u b j e c t i n g i t t o t h e Mann-Whitney U t e s t o f s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n may f i r s t be s t a t e d i n t h e f o r m o f a h y p o t h e s i s . T h e r e w i l l be a p o s i t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e , i n t h e MPI r e s u l t s , b e t w e e n t h e s c o r e s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and t h e s c o r e s o f n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n , t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i s r e s t a t e d i n t h e n u l l f o r m . H0 T h e r e w i l l be no p o s i t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e , i n t h e MPI r e s u l t s , b e t w e e n t h e s c o r e s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and t h e s c o r e s o f n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . 1 1 . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s a r e u s e d . C o g n i t i o n : d i s c o v e r y o r r e d i s c o v e r y o r r e c o g n i t i o n : t h e s t a t e o f knowing t h r o u g h d i s c o v e r y . ( G u i l f o r d , 1972, p. 351) Memory: means r e t e n t i o n o f what i s c o g n i z e d . ( G u i l f o r d , 1972, p. 351) D i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g : m e n t a l o p e r a t i o n s l e a d i n g t h o u g h t s i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s , sometimes s e a r c h i n g , sometimes s e e k i n g v a r i e t y . ( G u i l f o r d , 1972, p. 351) C o n v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g : m e n t a l o p e r a t i o n s l e a d i n g t o one r i g h t answer or t o a r e c o g n i z e d b e s t o r c o n v e n t i o n a l answer. ( G u i l f o r d , 1972, p. 351) E v a l u a t i o n : m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s u s e d i n r e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n s as t o g o o d n e s s , c o r r e c t n e s s , s u i t a b i l i t y o r adequacy o f what we know, what we remember, and what we p r o d u c e i n p r o d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g . ( G u i l f o r d , 1972, p. 351) F i g u r a l c o n t e n t : c o n c r e t e m a t e r i a l s u c h as i s p e r c e i v e d t h r o u g h t h e s e n s e s . I t does not r e p r e s e n t a n y t h i n g e x c e p t i t s e l f . ( G u i l f o r d , 1972, p. 351) V i s u a l m a t e r i a l : has p r o p e r t i e s s u c h as s i z e , f o r m , • c o l o u r , l o c a t i o n and t e x t u r e . T h i n g s we h e a r o r f e e l p r o v i d e o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f f i g u r a l m a t e r i a l . ( G u i l f o r d , 1 9 7 2 , p. 351) S y m b o l i c c o n t e n t : i s composed o f l e t t e r s , d i g i t s and o t h e r c o n v e n t i o n a l s i g n s , u s u a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n g e n e r a l s y s t e m s e.g. a l p h a b e t o r number s y s t e m . ( G u i l f o r d , 1 9 7 2 , p. 351) S e m a n t i c c o n t e n t : i s i n t h e f o r m o f v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s o r i d e a s , f o r w h i c h no e x a m p l e s a r e n e c e s s a r y . ( G u i l f o r d , 1 9 7 2 , p. 351) P e r c e p t : an i m p r e s s i o n o f an o b j e c t o b t a i n e d by use o f t h e s e n s e s . (McFee, 1 9 6 1 , p. 48) C o n c e p t : an i d e a a b o u t an o b j e c t , g e n e r a l i z e d f r o m p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e o b j e c t . (McFee, 1 9 6 1 , p. 48) P e r c e p t u a l C o n s t a n c y : t h e t e n d e n c y t o c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n what i s known and s e e n . (McFee, 1 9 6 1 , p. 48) C o n c e p t i o n : a p r o c e s s o f u s i n g w o r d s t o c a t e g o r i z e and r e l a t e e x p e r i e n c e s , w h i c h may be d i r e c t s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e s o r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e l a n g u a g e o f o t h e r s . B o t h c o n c e p t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n a r e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . ( M c F e e , 1 9 6 1 , p. 48) P e r c e p t i o n : t h e p r o c e s s o f k n o w i n g o b j e c t s and e v e n t s i n t h e w o r l d by means o f t h e s e n s e s . ( H e l d & R i c h a r d s , 1 9 7 2 , p. 166) 13 . Sensations; p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s when each i n d i v i d u a l r e c e p t o r i s s t i m u l a t e d . (Hochberg, 1964, p. 5 5 ) Memory images: are the r e c o l l e c t i o n s of previous s e n s a t i o n s . (Hochberg, 1964, p. 12) Primary s c h o o l : Within the A u s t r a l i a n school system, these grades are s i m i l a r to those of elementary schools w i t h i n Canada. They e x i s t f o r c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y 5 - 1 2 years of age and c o n s i s t of grades 1 through to 6, though not 7 as i s the case i n some p a r t s of Canada. Research Procedures  P o p u l a t i o n Defined The t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n sampled i s composed of a l l c h i l d r e n from the g i f t e d program at B Primary School i n the ACT and a corresponding number w i t h i n the same age group of c h i l d r e n who responded to approval forms sent home by the p r i n c i p a l from the A Primary School. Sample The sample c o n s i s t e d of 24 prediagnosed g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ( i . e . the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of i d e n t i f i e d g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the ACT): 14 g i r l s and 10 boys from the B Primary School. These c h i l d r e n , a l l age 10 o r 1 1 , c o r r e s p o n d e d t o a s i m i l a r random s a m p l e f r o m A P r i m a r y S c h o o l . I n s t r u m e n t U s e d The M a c G r e g o r P e r c e p t u a l I n d e x was t h e m e a s u r i n g t o o l . The i n d e x c o n s i s t s o f a b o o k l e t w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f 48 b l a c k and w h i t e p h o t o g r a p h s v i e w e d by e a c h c h i l d ; a n s w e r s h e e t s t o be c o m p l e t e d by e a c h c h i l d ; and a s c o r i n g k e y . The s u b j e c t i s r e q u i r e d t o s e l e c t one o f s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e a n s w e r s p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h q u e s t i o n , and i n d i c a t e a p r e f e r r e d r e s p o n s e w i t h a c h e c k mark. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o c e d u r e The p r o c e d u r e was i d e n t i c a l f o r b o t h t h e g i f t e d and t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p s . The t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o g r o u p s o f s i x by t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i t h i n t h e r e s p e c t i v e s c h o o l s o v e r a week p e r i o d . E a c h c h i l d was g i v e n a p e n c i l , a n s w e r s h e e t and t e s t b o o k l e t . The t i m e t a k e n f o r e a c h s e s s i o n was n o t i n e x c e s s o f f o r t y m i n u t e s . D e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e s p o n s e s o f g i f t e d c o m p a r e d t o n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e ; p e r c e p t i o n of embedded f i g u r e s ; p e r c e p t i o n o f s h a p e ; p e r c e p t i o n of s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s ; p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e v e r t i c a l ; p e r c e p t i o n m o d i f i e d by c o n s t a n c y ; and p e r c e p t i o n o f c o n t o u r . The s t u d y f o c u s e d on a r e s t r i c t e d number o f s p e c i f i c p e r c e p t u a l q u a l i t i e s b e i n g m e a s u r e d and t h e t e s t was o f a n o n - v e r b a l n a t u r e . N e i t h e r s a m p l e o f c h i l d r e n was d i a g n o s e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e random s a m p l e o f n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n d i d n o t c o n t a i n u n d i a g n o s e d g i f t e d s u b j e c t s . The A u s t r a l i a n C a p i t a l T e r r i t o r y has an u n u s u a l l y homogenous p o p u l a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e ACT S c h o o l s A u t h o r i t y was o b t a i n e d t o r a n k t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l s o f b o t h s c h o o l s as a f u r t h e r c h e c k t o m i n i m i z e t h e p o s s i b l e c o m p o u n d i n g e f f e c t s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n c e s . CHAPTER II 16. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s chapter deals with an i n t r o d u c t i o n to g i f t e d n e s s and p e r c e p t i o n , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of education programs f o r the g i f t e d . Next, s e l e c t e d aspects of p e r c e p t i o n as these r e l a t e to the instrument used i n t h i s study are d e a l t w i t h , and a f i n a l s e c t i o n examines t e s t s and measures i n a more general context. G i f t e d n e s s and P e r c e p t i o n D e f i n i t i o n s of g i f t e d n e s s have changed over time a c c o r d i n g to e d u c a t i o n a l emphasis. G i f t e d n e s s can vary i n meaning but i s g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d as an a t t r i b u t e of a person h i g h l y capable i n a v a r i e t y of a b i l i t i e s t h a t are a r t i s t i c , i n t e l l e c t u a l , c r e a t i v e , musical or v e r b a l . E a r l y i n t h i s century, W i l l i a m Stern (1914) was one of the f i r s t to o f f e r a d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d general i n t e l l i g e n c e from s p e c i a l i n t e l l e c t u a l t a l e n t s and a b i l i t i e s . He d e f i n e d i n t e l l i g e n c e as, "a general c a p a c i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s l y to adjust h i s t h i n k i n g to new requirements. I t i s g e n e r a l mental a d a p t a b i l i t y to new problems and c o n d i t i o n s of l i f e " , (p. 3) 17 . S t e r n ' s work g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h a t o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t , L e w i s Terman, who d e v e l o p e d t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e . The S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t d e t e r m i n e d t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t as a m e a s u r e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i a l c h i l d r e n w i t h i n s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s . T h i s p r o v i d e d an i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h was w i d e l y u s e d f o r d i a g n o s i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d . The f o r m u l a o f f e r e d a r a t i o o f m e n t a l age t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l age i n t e r m s o f a s c o r e . M e n t a l age X 100 = I n t e l l e c t u a l q u o t i e n t C h r o n o l o g i c a l age A c c o r d i n g t o Terman, B i n e t ' s c h o i c e o f t e s t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e was d i v e r s e . The S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e s c a l e i s b a s e d upon t e s t s o f t i m e o r i e n t a t i o n , o f t h r e e o r f o u r k i n d s o f memory, o f a p p e r c e p t i o n , o f l a n g u a g e c o m p r e h e n s i o n , o f k n o w l e d g e a b o u t common o b j e c t s , o f f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n , o f number m a s t e r y , o f c o n s t r u c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , and o f a b i l i t y t o compare c o n c e p t s , t o see c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , t o c o m b i n e f r a g m e n t s i n t o a u n i t a r y w h o l e , t o c o m p r e h e n d a b s t r a c t t e r m s , and t o meet n o v e l s i t u a t i o n s , ( p . 345) 18. H owever, a l t h o u g h t h i s s c a l e i s c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n i t s m e a sure o f i n t e l l e c t u a l / v e r b a l a b i l i t y , (and i s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d as a b a s i s f o r t h i s p u r p o s e ) , i t t e n d s t o o v e r l o o k n o n - v e r b a l and c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s . The f i r s t i n t e l l i g e n c e s c a l e was r e v i s e d by Terman i n 1 9 1 6 , b a s e d on t h e work o f B i n e t and Simon i n 1 9 1 1 . S i n c e t h e n t h e R e v i s e d S t a n f o r d - B i n e t Forms L & M (19 37) and Form LM (1960) have been f u r t h e r r e f i n e d by Terman and M e r r i l l , and b e a r l i t t l e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e o r i g i n a l 1916 s c a l e . G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n (1962) w r o t e - " I n most s t u d i e s , t h e word ' g i f t e d ' was synonymous w i t h ' h i g h IQ' and t h e t e r m ' g i f t e d c h i l d ' was f o r a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s o n l y a s h o r t h a n d way o f s a y i n g ' c h i l d w i t h a h i g h I Q ' . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a c h i l d w i t h o u t a h i g h IQ r e g a r d l e s s o f o t h e r a c h i e v e m e n t s , was n o t c o n s i d e r e d ' g i f t e d ' " , (p. 23) A l t h o u g h IQ s c o r e s were an i n d i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , t h e y m e a s u r e d v e r b a l and c o g n i t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e , and f a i l e d t o i n c l u d e s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s i n o t h e r a r e a s s u c h as a r t , m u s i c , p e r f o r m i n g a r t s and m e c h a n i c s . B u s s e and M a n s f i e l d ( 1 9 80) s u g g e s t t h a t , " t h e e f f i c i e n c y , q u a n t i t a t i v e n e s s , and a p p a r e n t a b s o l u t e n e s s 19 . o f t h e IQ have f o s t e r e d i t s w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e as t h e s o l e c r i t e r i o n c o n t r o l l i n g e n t r a n c e t o g i f t e d p r o g r a m s " , (p.132) H e r m e l i n and O'Connor (1980) p o i n t o u t t h a t : Work on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h m i g h t be s p e c i f i c t o h i g h l y g i f t e d c h i l d r e n has t e n d e d t o be d o m i n a t e d by t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e IQ. T h i s p r e d o m i n a n c e has o n l y been m a r g i n a l l y a f f e c t e d by r e s e a r c h on c r e a t i v i t y w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o d i s t i n g u i s h an a n a l y t i c o r c o n v e r g e n t f o r m o f i n t e l l i g e n c e f r o m a d i v e r g e n t o r a s s o c i a t i o n a l f o r m . ( p . 180) T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e work o f J . P . G u i l f o r d (1959) who i d e n t i f i e d 120 m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l f a c t o r s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , and l a t e r f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e d d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c o n v e r g e n t and d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g . The c o n v e r g e n t t h i n k e r p r o v i d e s a c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t o d a t a p r e s e n t e d , w h i l e t h e d i v e r g e n t t h i n k e r h a n d l e s d a t a i n a manner w h i c h f o s t e r s a v a r i e t y o f r e s p o n s e s . A c c o r d i n g t o G u i l f o r d , h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e i n d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g t e s t s r e q u i r e s o r i g i n a l i t y , f l u e n c y and f l e x i b i l i t y . G u i l f o r d i n t r o d u c e s e v i d e n c e t h a t h i g h s c o r e r s on IQ t e s t s t e n d t o be c o n v e r g e n t t h i n k e r s . 20 . G u i l f o r d d e v e l o p e d a t h r e e d i m e n s i o n a l model he t e r m e d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n t e l l e c t w h i c h s u g g e s t s an i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n c o n t e n t , o p e r a t i o n s and p r o d u c t ; t h a t i s , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n we t h i n k a b o u t , t h e ways i n w h i c h we t h i n k and t h e outcome o f o u r t h o u g h t s . I n h i s c o n s t r u c t G u i l f o r d o f f e r s f i v e b a s i c o p e r a t i o n s o r p r o c e s s e s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g : c o g n i t i o n , memory, d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n , c o n v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . G u i l f o r d s u g g e s t s t h a t c o g n i t i o n means d i s c o v e r y , r e c o g n i t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r a w a r e n e s s i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s e n s e ; memory means r e t e n t i o n o f what i s c o g n i z e d ; d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g g e n e r a t e s new i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m known and remembered i n f o r m a t i o n i . e . t h i n k i n g i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . T h i s i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g as d e f i n e d by M a c K i n n o n (1963) where e m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d on v a r i e t y and q u a n t i t y o f r e s p o n s e s . C o n v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d s t o one " r i g h t " o r c o n v e n t i o n a l a n s w e r . E v a l u a t i o n i s a j u d g e m e n t p r o c e s s w h i c h i n v o l v e s r e a c h i n g d e c i s i o n s as t o g o o d n e s s , c o r r e c t n e s s , s u i t a b i l i t y , a d e q u a c y o f what we remember, and what we p r o d u c e i n p r o d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g . C h i l d r e n a d e p t i n e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e s s e s may n o t 21. n e c e s s a r i l y p r o d u c e e v a l u a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s . An u n d e r a c h i e v i n g c h i l d may be a b l e t o e v a l u a t e y e t have d i f f i c u l t y i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h i s v e r b a l l y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , h i s / h e r p e r f o r m a n c e d o e s n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o h i s / h e r a c t u a l a b i l i t y . M a c K i n n o n s t a t e s t h a t , t h e c r e a t i v e p e r s o n i s t y p i c a l o f many who make up f o r what t h e y l a c k i n v e r b a l i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t e d n e s s w i t h a h i g h l e v e l o f e n e r g y , a k i n d o f c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y w h i c h e n a b l e s them t o k e e p a t t a c k i n g a p r o b l e m w i t h a v a r i e t y o f a n g l e s , and b e i n g c o n f i d e n t o f t h e i r u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s , t h e y p e r s e v e r e u n t i l t h e y a r r i v e a t a c r e a t i v e s o l u t i o n . T h i s k i n d o f p e r s o n s h o u l d r e m i n d us t h a t g i f t e d n e s s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e q u a t e d w i t h h i g h v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , (p. 3) P a s s o w (1981) i n h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d s a y s t h a t g i f t e d n e s s , i s r e l a t e d n o t o n l y t o s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t e l l i g e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t e s t and o b s e r v a t i o n 22. d a t a , b u t t o t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e r i g h t k i n d s o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n — i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by p e r f o r m a n c e and p r o d u c t w h i c h r e s u l t s i n t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d b e h a v i o u r s , ( p . 9) P a s s o w a c k n o w l e d g e s h o w e v e r , t h a t " n o t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g ' g i f t e d ' p o s s e s s a l l o f t h e c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , p h y s i c a l o r i n t u i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e a s c r i b e d t o g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . " ( p . 9) B a r r o n (1973) a l s o a s s i s t e d i n r e v i s i n g c o n c e p t s o f t h e n a t u r e o f g i f t e d n e s s t o i n c l u d e c r e a t i v i t y as e i t h e r a component o f t a l e n t and g i f t e d n e s s o r a t y p e o f t a l e n t and g i f t e d n e s s t o be i d e n t i f i e d and n u r t u r e d . T o r r a n c e ( 1 9 7 7) a d d e d t o t h e numerous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n . H i s t e c h n i q u e s a r e b a s e d on o b s e r v a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o u r and an a n a l y s i s o f what t h e y p r o d u c e . He s u g g e s t s t h a t s t r e n g t h s i n s u c h a r e a s as t h e a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s e m o t i o n s , f e e l i n g s , a r t i c u l a t e n e s s , e n j o y m e n t , humour, f l u e n c y and f l e x i b i l i t y i n f i g u r a l m e d i a , r e s p o n s i v e n e s s , e x p r e s s i v e n e s s t o be some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h 2 3 . i d e n t i f y e x c e p t i o n a l c r e a t i v i t y . R e n z u l l i , i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n ( R e n z u l l i , 1983) o f g i f t e d n e s s f o c u s e s on t h r e e c l u s t e r s o f t r a i t s . T h e s e a r e : a b o v e a v e r a g e g e n e r a l a b i l i t y , h i g h l e v e l o f t a s k c o m m i t m e n t , and h i g h l e v e l s o f c r e a t i v i t y . He recommends t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s s h o u l d g i v e e q u a l a t t e n t i o n t o a l l t h r e e c l u s t e r s . I n t h i s o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , he c o n t e n d s t h a t g i f t e d n e s s c o n s i s t s o f an i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e s e t h r e e c l u s t e r s and t h a t " m e a s u r e s o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y o n l y a c c o u n t f o r a l i m i t e d p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e common v a r i a n c e w i t h s c h o o l g r a d e s . " ( p . 12) He goes on t o d i v i d e g i f t e d n e s s i n t o two t y p e s : 1) S c h o o l h o u s e g i f t e d n e s s , w h i c h he a l s o r e f e r s t o as t e s t - t a k i n g o r l e s s o n - l e a r n i n g g i f t e d n e s s . T h i s t y p e i s most e a s i l y m e a s u r e d by IQ t e s t s o r o t h e r c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y t e s t s ; and 2) C r e a t i v e / p r o d u c t i v e g i f t e d n e s s , w h i c h d e s c r i b e s " a s p e c t s o f human a c t i v i t y and i n v o l v e m e n t where a premium i s p l a c e d on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l a n d / o r p r o d u c t s t h a t a r e p u r p o s e f u l l y d e s i g n e d t o have an i m p a c t upon one o r more t a r g e t a u d i e n c e s . " ( p . 12) R e n z u l l i e m p h a s i s e s t h e n e e d f o r s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s t o be d e v e l o p e d t o e n c o u r a g e b o t h t y p e s i n d i v i d u a l l y and t o g e t h e r . 24 . C l a r k (1979), Kaplan (1975), and Martinson (1974) c i t e s u p e r i o r problem-solving a b i l i t y as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . T h e i r f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d that there was no c o n c l u s i v e evidence to support the general hypothesis of s u p e r i o r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s i n the g i f t e d . In a study conducted by Ludlow and Woodrum (1982), 20 g i f t e d and 20 average c h i l d r e n (age 11) were t e s t e d on p a t t e r n responses to problem t a s k s . They d e c l a r e d that "the most s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t of the study r e v e a l e d t h a t both g i f t e d and average s u b j e c t s tended to use s i m i l a r problem-solving s t r a t e g i e s across t a s k s " (p. 102). According to Mussen, Conger and Kagan (1974) i t i s apparent that c h i l d r e n use improved problem-solving s t r a t e g i e s with advancing age as a r e s u l t of i n c r e a s e d p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y . N a e l i and H a r r i s (1976) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s process begins i n i n f a n c y . E d u c a t i o n f o r the G i f t e d L e v e l s of i n t e r e s t i n education of the g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d have v a r i e d h i s t o r i c a l l y . As f a r back as 1779 Thomas J e f f e r s o n advocated s p e c i a l l e a r n i n g p r o v i s i o n s 25. f o r c a p a b l e s t u d e n t s as p a r t o f h i s S c h o o l P l a n f o r V i r g i n i a . I n 1890 p u b l i c s c h o o l s i n New J e r s e y d i v i d e d c l a s s e s i n t o g r o u p i n g s b a s e d on a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t , t h e h i g h a c h i e v i n g g r o u p p r o g r e s s i n g more r a p i d l y t h r o u g h t h e c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s was r e f e r r e d t o as t h e T h r e e - T r a c k P l a n . The f i r s t known s e p a r a t e s c h o o l f o r t h e g i f t e d was e s t a b l i s h e d i n W o r c e s t e r , M a s s a c h u s e t t s i n 1 9 0 1 , t h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e b e i n g t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n o f a c a d e m i c p r o g r e s s . The y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d saw an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f s p e c i a l s c h o o l s . However, s u b j e c t s were g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d t o m a t h s , s c i e n c e and f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s . The W h i t e House C o n f e r e n c e R e p o r t (19 31) on G i f t e d C h i l d r e n s t r e s s e d t h a t g i f t e d n e s s meant m e r e l y t h e c h i l d w i t h e x c e p t i o n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , and n e g l e c t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t g i f t e d n e s s m i g h t be e x h i b i t e d i n t h e a r t s , m u s i c and o t h e r a r e a s . I n t h e e a r l y 1 9 5 0 s p o s t - w a r e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n ' s E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n of t h e G i f t e d e m p h a s i z e d t h e need f o r p e r s o n n e l i n t h e s c i e n c e s , a r t s and p r o f e s s i o n s . B u t i t was n o t u n t i l 1958 t h a t t h e US O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n a c c e p t e d a d e f i n i t i o n o f g i f t e d n e s s t h a t 26 . a c k n o w l e d g e d i t s g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n , p u b l i s h e d i n t h e 5 7 t h Y e a r b o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 5 8 ) , r e a d s : A t a l e n t e d o r g i f t e d c h i l d i s one who shows c o n s i s t e n t l y r e m a r k a b l e p e r f o r m a n c e i n any w o r t h - w h i l e l i n e o f e n d e a v o u r . T h u s , we s h a l l i n c l u d e n o t o n l y t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d b u t a l s o t h o s e who show p r o m i s e i n m u s i c , t h e g r a p h i c a r t s , c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g , d r a m a t i c s , m e c h a n i c a l s k i l l s , and s o c i a l l e a d e r s h i p . ( p . 19) C o n g r e s s p a s s e d t h e N a t i o n a l D e f e n c e E d u c a t i o n A c t (1958) a u t h o r i s i n g f e d e r a l f u n d s t o p r o v i d e l o a n s and g r a n t s i n an a t t e m p t t o s t r e n g t h e n e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s i n s c i e n c e , m a t h e m a t i c s and f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . And t h e R o c k e f e l l e r B r o t h e r s F u n d o f 1958 p r o m o t i n g t h e p u r s u i t o f e x c e l l e n c e i n A m e r i c a , s t r e s s e d t h e o p t i m u m a c h i e v e m e n t o f e a c h c i t i z e n w i t h i n s o c i e t y . C a l i f o r n i a , I l l i n o i s and New Y o r k p i o n e e r e d s t a t e r e i m b u r s e m e n t f o r s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s f o r g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . I n 1959 I r v i n g T a y l o r i d e n t i f i e d f i v e l e v e l s o f c r e a t i v i t y . T h e s e were e x p r e s s i v e , t e c h n i c a l , 27 . i n v e n t i v e , i n n o v a t i v e and e m e r g e n t . T a y l o r s u g g e s t s t h a t c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y comes u n d e r t h e h i g h e r l e v e l o f m e n t a l o p e r a t i o n o f d i v e r g e n t and e v a l u a t i v e t h i n k i n g . Gowan, Demos and T o r r a n c e (1967) s u p p o r t t h i s n o t i o n by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t " p r e s e n t i n d i c a t i o n s f a v o u r d i v e r g e n t - p r o d u c t i v e and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l a b i l i t i e s , as t h e o n e s most d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . " ( p . 87) G u i l f o r d (1959) i d e n t i f i e d one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - o n e f a c t o r s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y e m b o d i e d i n a t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l t h e o r e t i c m o d e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e c a l l e d t h e S t r u c t u r e o f I n t e l l e c t . H i s i d e a s f o c u s on two o p p o s i t e s , c o n v e r g e n t and d i v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n . I n t h e s i x t i e s , r e s e a r c h e r s f o c u s e d more and more upon a s p e c t s o f g i f t e d n e s s t h a t i n v o l v e d n o n - v e r b a l f a c t o r s . P r o j e c t T a l e n t was i n a u g u r a t e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n i n 1 9 6 0 , u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f J o h n C. F l a n a g a n . The s t u d y , i n v o l v i n g 440,000 s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s , was i n t e n d e d t o m e a s u r e i n d i v i d u a l t a l e n t s and t h e n r e l a t e them t o a d u l t l i f e p e r f o r m a n c e . G e t z e l s and J a c k s o n (1962) i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h made d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n c r e a t i v i t y and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t o f g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . They d e f i n e d two t y p e s 28. o f c r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s . One was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h h i g h IQ, and e x h i b i t e d c o n v e r g e n t b e h a v i o u r , w h i l e t h e o t h e r , s i g n i f i c a n t on c r e a t i v e m e a s u r e s , was d e s i g n a t e d d i v e r g e n t - o r i e n t e d . T h e i r s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t s t u d e n t s w i t h a v e r a g e i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s may do as w e l l o r b e t t e r t h a n h i g h IQ s t u d e n t s on t a s k s r e q u i r i n g c r e a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s o r s t r a t e g i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g . I t a p p e a r e d t o G r e t z e l s and J a c k s o n t h a t t h e r e i s no c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m e a s u r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e , c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . S i d n e y M a r l a n d ( t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r o f E d u c a t i o n ) u n d e r t h e 1970 mandate o f t h e U.S. C o n g r e s s c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y e v a l u a t i n g t h e s t a t u s o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e n a t i o n ' s g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n . H i s f i n d i n g s , t o g e t h e r w i t h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , g e n e r a t e d n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . He c l a i m e d t h a t , T h e r e a r e h i g h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e and t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s o f c r e a t i v i t y t h a n among t h e i n d i v i d u a l m e a s u r e s t h e m s e l v e s . A l t h o u g h a few s t u d i e s have s u p p o r t e d t h e c r e a t i v i t y - i n t e l l i g e n c e d i s t i n c t i o n , 29 . most have e s t a b l i s h e d s u b s t a n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c r e a t i v i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l a p t i t u d e , (p. 7) In 1958 Lowenfeld and B r i t t a i n d e s c r i b e d f a c t o r s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h g i f t e d from average c h i l d r e n i n the f i e l d of a r t . These i n c l u d e d e x p r e s s i o n , use of media, su b j e c t matter, imagination and p e r s o n a l involvement. Kenneth B e i t t e l and h i s c o l l a b o r a t o r Robert C. Burkhart (1972) p u b l i s h e d an account of a lengthy r e s e a r c h program i n t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n drawing and the drawing context and p r o c e s s e s . They d e f i n e d two a l t e r n a t e s t r a t e g i e s - Divergent, a s t r a t e g y f o r d i s c o v e r i n g ; and Spontaneous, a s t r a t e g y f o r problem s o l v i n g . The r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d that o r i g i n a l t h i n k i n g , or d i s c o v e r i n g a unique phenomenon, i s only one aspect of c r e a t i v i t y and that problem s o l v i n g i s another. The d i s t i n c t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y was r e i n f o r c e d i n r e s e a r c h conducted by Torrance (1972). He i n d i c a t e d that there i s l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and c r e a t i v i t y among c h i l d r e n with an IQ of g r e a t e r than 120. The ERIC Clearinghouse f o r handicapped and g i f t e d c h i l d r e n was e s t a b l i s h e d and operated by the C o u n c i l f o r 30. E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n i n o r d e r t o g a t h e r , e v a l u a t e and d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l a s p e c t s o f t a l e n t e d and g i f t e d e d u c a t i o n . I n 1972 t h e U.S. O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n f o c u s e d n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n on t h e n eeds o f t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d , e s p e c i a l l y r e g a r d i n g l e a d e r s h i p and t h e p r o m o t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r o g r a m s . The C o u n c i l f o r Exceptional C h i l d r e n i n t h e U.S. (1978) r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s f r o m a s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n a l l S t a t e s . F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e was p r o v i d e d t o a g e n c i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o i m p r o v e p r o g r a m s t o meet t h e n e e d s o f g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n . G a l l a g h e r (1979) recommends a r e v o l v i n g d o o r a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m . T h i s a p p r o a c h , s u p p o r t e d by R e n z u l l i ( 1 9 7 9 ) a l l o w s a c h i l d t o move t o and f r o m a c l a s s o f a d v a n c e d l e a r n i n g , and b a c k t o an a v e r a g e c l a s s r o o m d e p e n d i n g on h i s / h e r i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y . R o b i n A l e x a n d e r ( 1 9 81) e m p h a s i z e d t h r e e a r e a s o f c o n c e r n f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d . T h e s e were i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t i c a l l y t a l e n t e d / g i f t e d s t u d e n t , c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n and p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t f o r t h e g i f t e d , and e v a l u a t i o n o f p r o g r a m s f o r t h i s g r o u p . I n r e s p o n s e t o A l e x a n d e r ' s r e s e a r c h r e p o r t , Moody (1981) c o n d u c t e d a N a t i o n a l A r t - T a g S u r v e y t h r o u g h 224 c i t i e s and l a r g e towns o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . U s i n g A l e x a n d e r ' s f i r s t c a t e g o r y , Moody i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be n o m i n a t e d t o a g i f t e d / t a l e n t e d p r o g r a m , w h e t h e r IQ and a c a d e m i c r a n k s h o u l d i n f l u e n c e s e l e c t i o n , what k i n d s o f t e s t s o r d e v i c e s a r e a c c e p t a b l e ( i n f o r m a l o r f o r m a l means, o b s e r v a t i o n s , s i n g l e o r m u l t i p l e c r i t e r i a ) , p e r s o n a l i z e d s t u d e n t a b i l i t i e s a n d / o r d a t a a c c e p t a b l e . The o utcome o f t h e s u r v e y r e s u l t e d i n a book V i s u a l A r t s i n G i f t e d P r o g r a m s . The book d e s c r i b e s 31 p r o g r a m s a d d r e s s i n g t h e c o n c e r n s o f g i f t e d e d u c a t i o n a n d t h a t o f a r t e d u c a t i o n . The f o r e g o i n g d e t a i l s i n t h i s c h a p t e r make i t a p p a r e n t t h a t many d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d c h i l d have been p r o p o s e d a s a means o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . R e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o t h e g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d has o f f e r e d g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r g e n e r a l b e h a v i o u r , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and n e e d s . T h e o r i e s have been d e v e l o p e d t o e x p l a i n t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s . Terman i n 1925 made a u s e f u l s u g g e s t i o n t h a t p r e s e n t l y s e r v e s t o r e i n f o r c e t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s 32. s t u d y : When t h e s o u r c e s o f o u r i n t e l l e c t u a l t a l e n t have been d e t e r m i n e d , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t means may be f o u n d w h i c h w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e s u p p l y . When t h e p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l and c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a r e b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d , i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o s e t a b o u t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n w i t h b e t t e r hope o f s u c c e s s . . . . I n t h e g i f t e d c h i l d , n a t u r e has moved f a r b a c k t h e n o r m a l l i m i t s o f e d u c a b i l i t y , b u t t h e r e a l m s t h u s t h r o w n open t o t h e e d u c a t o r a r e s t i l l t e r r a i n c o g n i t a . I t i s t i m e t o move f o r w a r d , e x p l o r e , and c o n s o l i d a t e . ( T e r m a n , 1 9 2 5 , pp. 16-17) P e r c e p t i o n a n d P e r c e p t u a l P r o c e s s i n g The l i n k b e t w e e n p e r c e p t i o n and o u r e n v i r o n m e n t l e a d s us t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e b e t t e r we u n d e r s t a n d a n d p e r c e i v e t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e more e f f e c t i v e l y we c a n i n t e r p r e t and r e s p o n d t o i t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i f we w i s h t o d e t e r m i n e how k n o w l e d g e i s g a i n e d a b o u t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e n we must f i r s t d e t e r m i n e how o u r s e n s e s p r o v i d e us w i t h t h i s k n o w l e d g e . R e s e a r c h on c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g n e a r l y a l w a y s b e g i n s w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t how l e a r n i n g 3 3 . t a k e s p l a c e . F o r e x a m p l e , "A s m a l l c h i l d , l i k e a g r e a t p a i n t e r , r e a c t s t o h i s e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e a d i n e s s t o r e s p o n d . H i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , c u l t u r e , p e r s o n a l i t y and d e v e l o p m e n t a l l c o n t r i b u t e . H i s p e r s o n a l a r t and h i s r e s p o n e t o t h e a r t o f h i s s o c i e t y a r e b o t h d e p e n d e n t on h i s a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . " ( McFee, 1 9 6 1 , p.183) The e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e s t a t e s o f r e a d i n e s s i m p l i e s v a r i a t i o n and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p e r c e p t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n . Many t h e o r i e s have been d e v e l o p e d i n an a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n a c h i l d ' s r e s p o n s e s t o s u c h v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . P e r c e p t u a l T h e o r i e s E a r l y t h e o r i e s s u g g e s t t h a t p e r c e p t i o n i s l e a r n e d t h r o u g h a s s o c i a t i o n f r o m p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s , and k n o w l e d g e a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h t h e s e n s e s . I n t h e m i d 1 7 t h C e n t u r y , t h e f o u n d e r s o f t h e e m p i r i c a l s c h o o l o f t h o u g h t , H o b b e s , L o c k e , B e r k e l e y , Hume, H a r t l e y and M i l l b e l i e v e d t h a t k n o w l e d g e was a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h t h e s e n s e s and d e r i v e d f r o m p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e . B e r k e l e y ( 1 7 09) c l a i m e d t h a t " t o u c h e d u c a t e s v i s i o n " , w h i c h i s e c h o e d i n t h e c u r r e n t t h e o r y o f Z a c h k o w s k y , Z a c h k o w s k y and M a r t i n e k ( 1 9 8 0 ) , who m a i n t a i n " t h a t movement i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f 34. p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s and t h a t b o t h o f t h e s e s k i l l s a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r c o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g . " (p.78) W e r t h e i m e r ' s p a p e r (1912) on t h e G e s t a l t T h e o r y o f p e r c e p t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e b r a i n s e e s t o t a l i m a g e s o r p e r c e p t u a l w h o l e s r a t h e r t h a n s e e i n g o b j e c t s as t h e sum o f d i r e c t l y o b s e r v e d p a r t s . A t an e a r l y a g e , t h e c h i l d u s e s s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h l i t t l e d e t a i l t o s u g g e s t an i m a g e . T h e s e s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a r e t e r m e d p e r c e p t s , and become more c o m p l e x as t h e c h i l d m a t u r e s . H o c h b e r g (1964) s u g g e s t s t h a t , "The G e s t a l t i s t s g e n e r a l a i m was t o r e - a n a l y s e o u r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d . " ( p . 83) He c r e d i t s W e r t h e i m e r (1920) w i t h e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e G e s t a l t l a w s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h e G e s t a l t i s t s w i t h c o m p i l i n g l i s t s o f f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f s h a p e . B r u n e r and P o s t m a n ' s (1955) D i r e c t i v e - s t a t e t h e o r y s u g g e s t s t h a t s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h n e e d s , a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and o t h e r b e h a v i o u r a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e p e r c e p t i o n . T h i s t h e o r y was f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d i n t o t h e H y p o t h e s i s T h e o r y w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t p e r c e p t i o n and o t h e r c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s a c t as u n c o n s c i o u s h y p o t h e s e s , d r a w i n g " a n s w e r s " f r o m e x p e r i e n c e . The C e l l - A s s e m b l y T h e o r y , most o f t e n l i n k e d w i t h t h e name o f D o n a l d 0. Hebb ( 1 9 4 9 ) , o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r p e r c e p t u a l g r o w t h . Hebb s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f v i s u a l p e r c e p t s i s g r a d u a l l y l e a r n e d t h r o u g h r e p e a t e d e x p e r i e n c e . A s i m p l e p e r c e p t o r c e l l a s s e m b l y i s f o r m e d by f i x a t i o n on p a r t s o f an o b j e c t , w h i c h a c t i v a t e s a number o f n e r v e c e l l s i n t h e c o r t e x . The c e l l a s s e m b l y s y s t e m d e v e l o p s as t h e eye moves f r o m one f i x a t i o n p o i n t t o a n o t h e r . The a s s e m b l i e s f a c i l i t a t e e a c h o t h e r t h r o u g h e l e c t r o c h e m i c a l a c t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n more c o m p l e x p e r c e p t s o r a compound o f c e l l a s s e m b l i e s . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t s e n s o r y f i x a t i o n s ( o r c e l l a s s e m b l i e s ) a r e made p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h movement, t h u s o f f e r i n g g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p e r c e p t u a l c o n s t a n c i e s and v i s u a l c o n c e p t s w h i c h a r e t h e outcome o f p e r c e p t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I n 1959 Doman and D e l a c a t o e m p h a s i s e d t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t c o m p o n e n t s o f p e r c e p t u a l and m o t o r p r o c e s s e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o move, grow and l e a r n . L i k e o t h e r p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r t h e o r i s t s s u c h as H e l d and H e i n (1963) a nd F r o s t i g (1966) t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t movement i s e s s e n t i a l f o r p e r c e p t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t ; b o t h o f w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . 36 . McFee (1961) i n her P e r c e p t i o n - D e l i n e a t i o n Theory suggests s i x stages accounting f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and i d e n t i f i e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l , c u l t u r a l and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s which a f f e c t l e a r n i n g . These stages i d e n t i f y r e a d i n e s s , (the way i n which the c h i l d p e r c e i v e s h i s w o r l d ) , p s y c h o - c u l t u r a l t r a n s a c t i o n with the classroom, v i s u a l - p h y s i c a l environment, i n f o r m a t i o n handling (the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y to organize the i n f o r m a t i o n he r e c e i v e s ) , c r e a t i v e d e l i n e a t i o n (his a b i l i t y to communicate responses), and e v a l u a t i o n of feedback and t r a n s f e r . Each of these stages has up to seven s u b - c a t e g o r i e s f o r more d e t a i l e d i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n . She r e f e r s to these stages or t r a n s a c t i o n s as "a process i n which two or more f a c t o r s i n t e r a c t and i n the process each i n f l u e n c e s the c o n d i t i o n and subsequent behaviour of the o t h e r . " (p. 250) The three kinds of v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s necessary f o r d e v e l o p i n g percepts used f o r t h i n k i n g processes i n c l u d e : -a) the a b s t r a c t a f f e c t i v e q u a l i t y of a r t b) the a b s t r a c t i o n of v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a symbol which can be expressed, and c) the s t r u c t u r e or o r g a n i s a t i o n 37. McFee goes on t o s u g g e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g r e l a t e d t o a r t i s t i c p e r c e p t i o n and b a s i c t o c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s . T h e o r i e s on how c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e what t h e y s e e , seem t o make i t a p p a r e n t t h a t most t h e o r i s t s a c c e p t t h a t p e r c e p t i o n i s l e a r n e d t h r o u g h r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e n s e s , and t h a t p e r c e p t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by p a s t e x p e r i e n c e o f some f o r m o r a n o t h e r . D e f i n i n g P e r c e p t i o n As e a r l y as 1651 Hobbes w r o t e " T h e r e i s no c o n c e p t i o n i n man's, and w h i c h h a t h n o t a t f i r s t , t o t a l l y o r by p a r t s been b e g o t t e n upon t h e o r g a n s o f s e n s e . " ( p . 87) H o c h b e r g (1964) d e c l a r e s t h a t " t h e s t u d y o f p e r c e p t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l " and t h a t i t was n o t " u n t i l t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y , t o e x p l a i n a l l o f t h e p o s s i b l e t h o u g h t s o r i d e a s we have by t h e i r o r i g i n i n p a s t and p r e s e n t s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e . " ( p p . 4,5) S e n s o r y i m p r e s s i o n s a r e r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t s e n s e m o d a l i t i e s s u c h as v i s u a l , a u d i t o r y , t a c t i l e , o l f a c t o r y and g u s t a t o r y . Rock (1975) s u g g e s t s t h a t c e n t r a l p r o b l e m s o f p e r c e p t i o n a r e more c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e i n v i s i o n . I n 1950 H e l d and R i c h a r d s 38. d e f i n e d p e r c e p t i o n as " t h e p r o c e s s o f k n o w i n g o b j e c t s and e v e n t s i n t h e w o r l d by means o f t h e s e n s e s . " ( H e l d & R i c h a r d s , 1 9 5 0 , p. 166) They s u g g e s t t h a t , The p r o c e s s e s upon w h i c h p e r c e p t i o n d e p e n d s a r e g o v e r n e d by c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f l a t e r a l i n h i b i t i o n s , c o n v e r g e n c e and d i v e r g e n c e o f n e u r a l p a t h w a y s , and e n c o d i n g o f i n p u t s i n t o n e u r a l i m p u l s e s w h i c h p r e c l u d e s t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f u n a l t e r e d p a t t e r n s , ( p . 1 6 6 ) S i m p l y s t a t e d , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d by t h e s e n s e s i s p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m r e s u l t i n g i n p e r c e p t i o n . L o v a n o (1969) e x p l a i n s p e r c e p t i o n as " t h e d i r e c t a p p r e h e n s i o n o f o b j e c t s and o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o s i t u a t i o n s and e v e n t s t h a t a r e p h y s i c a l l y p r e s e n t t o t h e s e n s e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f s e n s i n g t h e r e o c c u r s some s u p p l e m e n t i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , i n t e r g r a t i n g and d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g o f s e n s o r y i m p r e s s i o n s . " ( p . 4) R o s i n s k i (1977) s u g g e s t s t h a t " t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n g e s t h a t o c c u r i n p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y a r e t h e r e s u l t o f c h a n g e s i n t h e way s t i m u l u s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p i c k e d up and u s e d . " ( p . 204) A t t n e a v e (1971) s e e s p e r c e p t i o n as 39 b a s i c a l l y "an i n f o r m a t i o n handling p r o c e s s . " (p. 183) T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e c e i v e d on the r e t i n a of the eye, processed by the b r a i n , r e s u l t i n g i n the p e r c e p t i o n of v i s u a l s t i m u l u s . Hubel's (1963) e x p l a n a t i o n of the v i s u a l system suggests t h a t , "An image of the o u t s i d e world s t r i k i n g the r e t i n a of the eye a c t i v a t e s a most i n t r i c a t e proces that r e s u l t s i n v i s i o n : the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the r e t i n a l image i n t o a p e r c e p t i o n . " (p. 148) Rock (1975) suggests that p e r c e p t i o n i s the immediate experience of a stimulus o b j e c t i n terms of i t s p r o p e r t i e s . He s t a t e s that " i n the study of p e r c e p t i o n i t i s the appearance of t h i n g s that i s the focus of a t t e n t i o n r a t h e r than the o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . " (p. 3) Rock e x p l a i n s p e r c e p t i o n as o b j e c t s and events i n the r e a l world being t r a n s f e r r e d to the sense organs (by l i g h t , sound waves, et c . ) and t r i g g e r i n g s i g n a l s to the b r a i n producing r e l e v a n t b r a i n events which i n turn produce the p e r c e p t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . The Nature of P e r c e p t i o n Attneave (1954) i n h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of p e r c e p t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g suggests that "a major f u n c t i o n 40 . o f t h e p e r c e p t u a l m a c h i n e r y i s t o s t r i p away some o f t h e r e d u n d a n c e o f s t i m u l a t i o n , t o d e s c r i b e o r e n c o d e i n c o m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n a f o r m more e c o n o m i c a l t h a n t h a t i n w h i c h i t i m p i n g e s on t h e r e c e p t o r s . " ( p . 189) T h a t i s , e x t r a n e o u s i n f o r m a t i o n i s d i s c a r d e d and t h e r e c o g n i s e d image r e t a i n e d . F r o s t i g (1966) b e l i e v e s p e r c e p t u a l d e f i c i t s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s i n c h i l d r e n . She e m p h a s i s e s t h e n e e d t o d e v e l o p s e v e r a l b a s i c v i s u a l s k i l l s . T h e s e i n c l u d e v i s u a l and m o t o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n , f i g u r e - g r o u n d p e r c e p t i o n , p e r c e p t u a l c o n s t a n c y , p e r c e p t i o n o f p o s i t i o n s i n s p a c e , and p e r c e p t i o n o f s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S u p p o r t i n g t h i s v i e w B a r s c h (1968) c l a i m s t h a t p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s e s ( v i s u a l , a u d i t o r y , t a c t u a l , k i n e s t e t i c , g u s t a t o r y and o l f a c t o r y ) a r e a n t e c e d e n t s t o i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t . The e f f e c t s o f a h u n d r e d y e a r s o f s t u d y i n p e r c e p t i o n may be s e e n i n two d e f i n i t i o n s . The f i r s t , by H e l m h o l t z (1867) s u g g e s t s t h a t a g r e a t d e a l o f what we p e r c e i v e d e p e n d s on o u r b e i n g a b l e t o make r a p i d and a u t o m a t i c i n f e r e n c e ' s . H e l m h o l t z was an e m p i r i c i s t who b e l i e v e d t h a t what a p e r s o n s e e s i s a f f e c t e d by p a s t 41. e x p e r i e n c e . He d e b a t e d w h e t h e r p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t i e s w ere i n n a t e o r a c q u i r e d . H i s v i e w was t h a t we p e r c e i v e c u e s p r e v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an o b j e c t and i n f e r what t h e y s i g n i f y . T h e s e i n f e r e n c e s , he s u g g e s t s , a r e u n c o n s c i o u s and t h u s a u t o m a t i c . They a r e a l s o i n d u c t i v e , b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h e x i s t s i n t h e p a s t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o a p p l y t o t h e p r e s e n t . The s e c o n d d e f i n i t i o n by F r i s b y (1980) s u g g e s t s t h a t i n o r d e r t o encompass a l l f o r m o f p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f s e e i n g i s b e s t t a c k l e d by a c o m b i n e d a s s a u l t u s i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p h y s i o l o g i c a l and c o m p u t a t i o n a l methods i n u n i s o n . . . The p s y c h o l o g i s t p r o v i d e s t h e m e t h o d o l o g i e s f o r s t u d y i n g t h e i n p u t - o u t p u t ( r e t i n a l i m a g e - t o - p e r c e p t i o n ) p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e b e s t v i s u a l s y s t e m s p r e s e n t l y known... t h e p h y s i o l o g i s t s t u d i e s t h e h a r d w a r e o f b i o l o g i c a l v i s u a l s y s t e m s d i r e c t l y , u s i n g m i c r o e l e c t r o d e r e c o r d i n g s and n e u r o a n a t o m i c a l p r o b i n g s . . . and t h e c o m p u t a t i o n a l s c i e n t i s t t a k e s t h e 42 . j o b o f a c t u a l l y t r y i n g t o b u i l d a v i s u a l s y s t e m . He t e n d s t o s t u d y t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r o c e s s i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a g i v e n v i s u a l p r o c e s s i n g t a s k . ( p p . 156-7) and d e t e r m i n e s what s t r a t e g i e s m i g h t s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m . I n s t u d i e s o f p e r c e p t i o n ( B r u n e r , 1 9 5 8 , B r u n e r , Goodnow & A u s t i n , 1956) B r u n e r s u g g e s t s t h a t humans have an e x t e n s i v e and s e n s i t i v e c a p a c i t y f o r m a k i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n a w i d e r a n g e o f s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e s . He c l a i m s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h a p e r c e p t u a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , w h i c h i n v o l v e s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f a g r o u p o f o b j e c t s by common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i s i n f a c t t h e method by w h i c h c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e and r e s p o n d t o a r t t h r o u g h v i s u a l c u e s by d r a w i n g upon v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e f r o m t h e p a s t . " C a t e g o r i z a t i o n " , a c c o r d i n g t o B r u n e r i s "man's a b i l i t y t o r e n d e r d i s c r i m i n a t e l y d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s e q u i v a l e n t , t o g r o u p t h e o b j e c t s and e v e n t s and p e o p l e a r o u n d him i n t o c l a s s e s and t o r e s p o n d t o them i n t e r m s o f t h e i r c l a s s m e m b e r s h i p . " ( p . 1) The f o u r s t a g e s i n v o l v e d w i t h i n t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n c l u d e "1) a p r i m i t i v e s c a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n i n w h i c h an o b j e c t o r e v e n t i s i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e c o m p l e x i t y 43 . of environmental s t i m u l a t i o n ; 2) l e v e l s of cue search i n g where e f f o r t s are d i r e c t e d toward seeking out cues that can be f i t t e d to a v a i l a b l e category s p e c i f i c a t i o n , 3) a t e n t a t i v e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n and an examination of confirmatory cues to check the v a l i d i t y of c a t e g o r i c a l placement, and 4) a f i n a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , c a t e g o r i z e d by a t e r m i n a t i o n of cue s e a r c h . " (p. 15) Here, the i n d i v i d u a l scans a p i c t u r e , r e c o g n i s e s as many f e a t u r e s as he can, then matches these to category s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n order to make a p o s t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . McFee (1966) p r e f e r s to t h i n k of t h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n process i n terms of p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y . A c c o r d i n g l y she argues t h a t , "the primary v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n a b i l i t i e s are o r g a n i s a t i o n a l , s e e i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s , p r o x i m i t i e s , c o n t i n u i t i e s , c l o s u r e s , and f i g u r e and ground; and s p a t i a l , seeing o b j e c t s i n d i f f e r i n g degrees of l i g h t , d i s t a n c e , and viewpoint r e l a t i o n s h i p . " (p. 251) However, she suggests that the i n d i v i d u a l screens v i s u a l input through past experiences and pe r s o n a l a b i l i t i e s . Thus, "the in f o r m a t i o n r e f l e c t e d on the r e t i n a of the eyes i s not t o t a l l y of v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . " (p. 183) The screen McFee mentions, determines what i n f o r m a t i o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l e x t r a c t f r o m h i s v i e w and w i l l c h o o s e t o c a t e g o r i z e i n t o p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d c o n c e p t s . C o n c e p t s a r e d e f i n e d as "an i d e a a b o u t an o b j e c t , g e n e r a l i z e d f r o m p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e o b j e c t " . ( McFee, 1 9 7 0 , p. 148) She s u g g e s t s , " t h a t d e p e n d i n g on w h e t h e r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s t r a i n i n g has been more c o g n i t i v e t h a n v i s u a l , . . . t h e y w i l l r e s p o n d t o t h e i r v i s u a l w o r l d more i n t e r m s o f what t h e y know a b o u t r a t h e r t h a n what t h e y s e e . . . P s y c h o l o g i s t s c a l l t h i s t e n d e n c y t o c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n what i s known and s e e n t h e p e r c e p t u a l c o n s t a n c i e s . " ( p . 184) McFee's d e f i n i t i o n s f o r b r i g h t n e s s and c o l o u r , s i z e , s h a p e and d i s t a n c e and d e p t h c o n s t a n c i e s f o l l o w . " B r i g h t n e s s a n d c o l o u r c o n s t a n c y i s a t e n d e n c y t o s e e o b j e c t s as h a v i n g t h e same c o l o u r and same b r i g h t n e s s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o l o u r o f l i g h t o r s h a d e t h e y a r e s e e n i n a t a g i v e n t i m e . " ( p . 65) "Shape c o n s t a n c y i s a t e n d e n c y t o s e e t h i n g s as b e i n g t h e same sh a p e r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a n g l e f r o m w h i c h t h e y a r e v i e w e d . " ( p . 66) " S i z e c o n s t a n c y i s a t e n d e n c y t o s e e o b j e c t s as b e i n g t h e same s i z e o r as h a v i n g c o m p r o m i s e d s i z e r a t h e r t h a n as t h e a c t u a l c o m p a r a t i v e s i z e , d e p e n d i n g on t h e 45 . d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e o b j e c t and t h e v i e w e r . " ( p . 65) M u n s i n g e r (1971) s t a t e s , The v i s u a l s y s t e m somehow c o n s i d e r s t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e r e t i n a and p l a n e o f v i e w t o c o r r e c t v i s u a l d i s t o r t i o n s . The p e r c e i v e d s t a t e o f o b j e c t s r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t e v e n when t h e i r d i s t a n c e s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e t i n a l i m a g e s v a r y - f o r e x a m p l e , a man does n o t seem t o s h r i n k as he w a l k s away f r o m u s . F u r t h e r m o r e , as t h e v i e w i n g a n g l e o f an o b j e c t , and i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e t i n a l image v a r i e s , t h e o b j e c t i s s t i l l s e e n as t h e same s h a p e , ( p . 89) The c o r r e c t i v e m e c h a n i s m i s w i t h i n t h e p e r c e p t u a l s y s t e m w h i c h c o r r e c t s t h e r e t i n a l p r o j e c t i o n and s t a b i l i z e s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d . S i z e a n d D i s t a n c e P e r c e p t i o n P i a g e t (1969) s u g g e s t s t h a t " c o n s t a n c i e s do seem t o e v o l v e a n d , on t h e w h o l e , ( t o ) i m p r o v e w i t h a g e . " ( p . 206) L a t e r i n r e l a t i o n t o s i z e c o n s t a n c y he s u g g e s t s t h a t , " T h e r e i s no r e a s o n , i n p r i n c i p l e , why a v i s u a l 46 . p e r c e p t i o n shou ld not e x i s t which depends o n l y on v a r i a b l e apparent s i z e s and on d i s t a n c e s . " (p. 229) That i s to say tha t s i z e and d i s t a n c e shou ld be the s o l e v a r i a b l e s i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of an o b j e c t . P i a g e t emphasizes the concept of s i z e and d i s t a n c e c o n s t a n c y . In s imple t erms , t h i s may be d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : I f you were to look down a lane to see a f r i e n d , t h a t f r i e n d would appear very s m a l l . You know t h a t your f r i e n d h a s n ' t d i m i n i s h e d i n s i z e , but i n f a c t , the d i s t a n c e makes him appear s m a l l e r than you know he a c t u a l l y i s . Gregory (1968), i n h i s e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the p r o c e s s of s i z e c o n s t a n c y , suggests t h a t both i l l u s i o n and cons tancy are outcomes of the same c e n t r a l p r o c e s s , a p r o c e s s t h a t determines the s i z e of ambiguous s t i m u l i . Kaufman and Rock (1962) , on the o ther hand, suggest t h a t an apparent change i n s i z e i s caused by an apparent d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t a n c e from the o b s e r v e r . Space P e r c e p t i o n Ra lph Haber (1978) i n h i s a r t i c l e " V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n " d e a l s w i t h t h r e e a r e a s : a) p e r c e p t i o n of 47 . t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l s c e n e s i n c l u d i n g two t h e o r i e s o f s p a c e p e r c e p t i o n , b) p e r c e p t i o n o f p i c t u r e s and f l a t d i s p l a y s i n c l u d i n g v i s u a l i l l u s i o n s , and c ) t h e p e r c e p t u a l c o m p o n e n t s o f r e a d i n g . Hagan and B r e s n a h a n ( 1984) s u g g e s t t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f s t r u c t u r e d l i g h t t o t h e e y e i s p r o c e s s e d t o r e s u l t i n v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . G i b s o n ( 1 9 6 6) r e f e r s t o t h i s s t r u c t u r e d l i g h t as t h e " o p t i c a r r a y " w h i c h o f f e r s i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e o b j e c t s and e v e n t s . G i b s o n (1960) r e p e a t e d l y r e f e r s t o l i g h t s t i m u l u s t o t h e eye p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e r " v i s u a l c l i f f " e x p e r i m e n t s . I n e x p e r i m e n t s c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n f a n t s and a n i m a l s u s i n g a " v i s u a l c l i f f " , G i b s o n and Walk (1960) f o u n d t h a t a c h i l d a v o i d s f a l l i n g o v e r t h e edge o f a " c l i f f " by r e f e r r i n g t o v i s u a l d e p t h c u e s . As an outcome o f t h e " V i s u a l C l i f f " e x p e r i m e n t s , G i b s o n and Walk s u g g e s t t h a t , " H e i g h t p e r c e p t i o n i s a s p e c i a l c a s e o f d i s t a n c e p e r c e p t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e l i g h t r e a c h i n g t h e eye p r o v i d e s s t i m u l i t h a t c a n be u t i l i z e d f o r t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b o t h o f d e p t h and o f r e c e d i n g d i s t a n c e on t h e l e v e l . " ( p . 341) They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h e " V i s u a l C l i f f " e x p e r i m e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e v i t a l r o l e o f v i s i o n i n t h e 48 . s u r v i v a l o f t h e s p e c i e s . I n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d e p t h p e r c e p t i o n , H e l d and R i c h a r d s (1950) s u g g e s t t h a t when one o b j e c t i s i n f r o n t o f o r b e h i n d a n o t h e r , t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n may be c o n v e y e d by many d i f f e r e n t s t i m u l u s c o n d i t i o n s . One o f t h e s e i s r e t i n a l d i s p a r i t y , a s i m p l e r e s u l t o f t h e g e o m e t r y o f t h e l i g h t r a y s c o m i n g f r o m an o b j e c t t o t h e e y e s , w h e r e b y two r e t i n a l i m a g e s o f an o b j e c t d i f f e r s l i g h t l y i n s i z e , s h a p e , and l o c a t i o n . When two o b j e c t s l i e a t d i f f e r e n t d i s t a n c e s f r o m t h e e y e s , t h e h o r i z o n t a l d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e i r i m a g e s on t h e r i g h t r e t i n a d i f f e r s f r o m t h a t o f t h e i r i m a g e s on t h e l e f t r e t i n a . Such a d i s p a r i t y v a r i e s m o n o t o n i c a l l y w i t h t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n d i s t a n c e o f t h e o b j e c t s f r o m t h e e y e s , p r o v i d i n g t h e o b s e r v e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i r d e p t h i n h i s v i s u a l f i e l d , ( p . 233) I n summary, McFee (1970) s u g g e s t s t h a t p e r c e p t u a l c o n s t a n c i e s a r e " t h e t e n d e n c i e s t o d e p e n d upon what i s known a b o u t o b j e c t s r a t h e r t h a n upon t h e d i r e c t s e n s o r y d a t a r e c e i v e d a b o u t them. P e o p l e t e n d t o 'see' t h i n g s i n t e r m s o f t h e c o l o u r , s i z e and shape t h e y know them t o b e , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f v i s u a l i m a g e s t h a t r e s u l t f r o m d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i g h t , d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e o b j e c t , o r t h e v i e w i n g a n g l e o f t h e o b j e c t , " and t h a t " P a s t e x p e r i e n c e v a r i e s t h e ways i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p o n d t o t h e c o n s t a n c i e s " , j u s t as " v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s i n f l u e n c e t h e way o b j e c t s a r e s e e n i n s p a c e . " ( p . 77) P e r c e p t u a l S t a b i l i t y H a b e r (1978) i n h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f p e r c e p t u a l s t a b i l i t y s u g g e s t s two c o m p o n e n t s : 1) how we know t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e v i s u a l w o r l d f r o m s e n s e i n f o r m a t i o n and 2) how t h e v i s u a l w o r l d s t a y s p u t e v e n as we move t h r o u g h i t . Haber a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t "once i t i s g r a n t e d t h a t t h e r e t i n a l image c o n t a i n s s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o c o m p l e t e l y s p e c i f y s p a c e , t h e n i t must c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e o b j e c t s i z e , s h a p e , b r i g h t n e s s , and so f o r t h . " ( p . 39) M u l t i s t a b i l i t y a n d A m b i g u i t y F r i s b y (1980) s u g g e s t s t h a t " E a c h e y e ' s r e t i n a l i m a g e , w h i c h i n i t i a t e s t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s o f s e e i n g , i s i n h e r e n t l y a m b i g u o u s . V a r i o u s m e a s u r e m e n t s a r e t a k e n f r o m i t , and t h e s e a r e i n t e r p r e t e d t o g i v e t h e r e q u i r e d 50 . i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a t t r i b u t e s of the scene." (p. 156) M u l t i s t a b i l i t y of p e r c e p t i o n has been the focus of if s t u d i e s by Attneave (1971) who claims that an ambiguous /\ f i g u r e p r o v i d e s the viewer with two " a l t e r n a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s or d e s c r i p t i o n s of v i s u a l input (which) are e q u a l l y good, the p e r c e p t u a l system w i l l sometimes adopt one and sometimes another." (p. 91) He goes on to e x p l a i n that "under n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s many f a c t o r s co-operate to determine the fi g u r e - g r o u n d r e l a t i o n s h i p , and ambiguity i s r a r e . " (p. 92) The Rubin (1915) r e v e r s i b l e goblet i s f r e q u e n t l y used as an example of fi g u r e - g r o u n d r e v e r s a l . Many of Escher's p i c t u r e s o f f e r e x c e l l e n t examples of fi g u r e - g r o u n d r e v e r s a l s , i n the p o s i t i v e and negative spaces. In r e f e r e n c e to ambiguous f i g u r e s Munsinger (1971) o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n he terms ''perceptual s e t s " . The type of experience one r e c e i v e s j u s t before viewing an ambiguous f i g u r e s t r o n g l y a f f e c t s what he sees. T h i s phenomenom ( c a l l e d p e r c e p t u a l set) i s not w e l l developed i n young c h i l d r e n , (p. 100) The e x i s t e n c e , or l a c k t h e r e o f , of t h i s " p e r c e p t u a l s e t " 51. may o f f e r t h e t e a c h e r as i n d i c a t i o n o f a c h i l d ' s p e r c e p t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t . V i s u a l I l l u s i o n H o c h b e r g (1964) w r i t e s t h a t "What we o b s e r v e i s n e v e r i n e x a c t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n . Some a s p e c t s a r e o m i t t e d , some a d d e d , some d i s t o r t e d . An i l l u s i o n e x i s t s when o b s e r v a t i o n s made w i t h t h e a i d o f a p h y s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t y i e l d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s f r o m t h o s e made w i t h o u t s u c h i n s t r u m e n t s . " ( p . 3) As a n e x a m p l e , H o c h b e r g c i t e s M u e l l e r - L y e r f i g u r e s o f p e r c e i v e d l e n g t h v e r s e s m e a s u r e d l e n g t h . T e s t s & M e a s u r e s P r i o r t o t h e 1 9 5 0 s , t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t was t h e i n s t r u m e n t most u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e v a r y i n g i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . The g u i d e l i n e s s u g g e s t t h a t a g i f t e d c h i l d i s one w i t h an IQ s c o r e o f g r e a t e r t h a n 1 3 0 . H o w e v e r , i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 6 0 s r e s e a r c h e r s and e d u c a t o r s a l i k e began t o q u e s t i o n t h e v a l i d i t y o f s t a n d a r d i z e d m e a s u r e s and t e s t s t o i d e n t i f y g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n . T h e s e t e s t s were t y p i c a l l y v e r b a l , t h u s i d e n t i f y i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t e d n e s s , r a t h e r t h a n s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y i n a r t s , m u s i c , 52. p e r f o r m i n g a r t s , m e c h a n i c s and o t h e r f i e l d s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n o n - v e r b a l a b i l i t y . The work o f G u i l f o r d ( 1 9 7 2 ) , T o r r a n c e ( 1 9 7 4 ) , and R e n z u l l i ( 1 9 7 9) has c o n t r i b u t e d t o m a k i n g a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s , p r o c e d u r e s and i n s t r u m e n t s a v a i l a b l e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n . R e n z u l l i ( 1 9 8 2 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t IQ o r o t h e r a b i l i t y s c o r e s c a n n o t , by t h e m s e l v e s , a c c o u n t f o r c r e a t i v e / p r o d u c t i v e g i f t e d n e s s . He s t r e s s e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f " c r e a t i v i t y and t a s k commitment as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n t h e g i f t e d p e r s o n , and t h e need f o r a more f l e x i b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m . " ( p . 13) G u i l f o r d d e c l a r e s "The S t a n f o r d R e v i s i o n o f t h e B i n e t i n t e l l i g e n c e s c a l e has been t h e s t a n d a r d a g a i n s t w h i c h a l l o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h e m e asurement o f i n t e l l i g e n c e have been c o m p a r e d . " ( p . 350) Maker (1982) c o n t e n d s " J . P. G u i l f o r d ' s ( 1 9 5 9 , 1967) t h e o r y o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f human i n t e l l i g e n c e has no d o u b t had a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e on t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e g i f t e d t h a n any o t h e r t h e o r y o r m o d e l . " ( p . 87) T o r r a n c e (1959) i n an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y o f c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g u s e d a number o f G u i l f o r d ' s t e s t s w i t h g r a d e s f o u r t o s i x . On t h e s i x m e a s u r e s he u s e d , he found no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the high IQ and the h i g h l y c r e a t i v e group. The high IQ group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on best f r i e n d s c r i t e r i o n i n peer nominations. However, both groups were rated e q u a l l y high as l e a r n e r s and t a l k a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s . Torrance (1962) wrote "There has been i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t that t r a d i t i o n a l measures of i n t e l l i g e n c e attempt to assess only a few of man's t h i n k i n g a b i l i t i e s . " (p. 8) C o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s not concerned with c r e a t i v e thought are o f t e n not measured by c o n v e n t i o n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , thus f a i l i n g to take f u l l account of the c r e a t i v e c h i l d . From these r e s u l t s , Torrance developed The Torrance Test f o r  C r e a t i v e T h i n k i n g (1972, 1974) which emphasizes f l u e n c y , f l e x i b i l i t y and e l a b o r a t i o n . Although a number of t e s t s have been designed to measure a r t a b i l i t y or a r t a p t i t u d e , only a few are s t i l l i n p r i n t . These i n c l u d e the Tests i n Fundamental A b i l i t i e s i n the V i s u a l A r t s (1927), the Knauber Art A b i l i t y Test (1935) which measures a r t i s t i c knowledge or p r e f e r e n c e , the Meier Art Test (1937), the Graves Design Judgement Test (1948) and the Horn Art Aptitude Scale (1953). However, most of these t e s t s have become o b s o l e t e . 54 . As e a r l y as 1941 Norman M e i e r was d e v e l o p i n g t e s t s and m e a s u r i n g a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y , w i t h a c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t i n g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . "He i s o l a t e d f a c t o r s w h i c h he f e l t c o n t r i b u t e d t o a r t i s t i c t a l e n t : 1) m a n u a l s k i l l o r ' c r a f t s m a n ' a b i l i t y , 2) e n e r g y o u t p u t and p e r s e v e r a t i o n i n i t s d i s c h a r g e , 3) g e n e r a l and a e s t h e t i c i n t e l l i g e n c e , 4) p e r c e p t u a l f a c i l i t y , 5) c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , and 6) a e s t h e t i c j u d g e m e n t . " ( M e i e r , 1966, o r g i n a l l y 1939) H o w e v e r , A l e x a n d e r ( 1 9 81) o f f e r s c r i t i c i s m o f s e v e r a l o f t h e s e m a j o r f a c t o r s , c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e f i r s t t h r e e a r e p r i m a r i l y h e r e d i t a r y , w h i l e t h e r e m a i n d e r a r e p r i m a r i l y a c q u i r e d b u t i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s i m p o s e d by h e r e d i t y f a c t o r s . F u r t h e r , she c l a i m s t h a t M e i e r ' s t e s t s a r e c u l t u r e bound and i n v a l i d w i t h c h i l d r e n u n d e r 12. P a s s o w (1981) p o i n t s o u t t h a t " t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d p r o v i d e s t h e d i r e c t i o n f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n and use o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and f o r t h e d e s i g n o f e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c u r r i c u l a . I n f a c t , t h e p r o c e d u r e s and t e c h n i q u e s u s e d f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a f f e c t t h e k i n d s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s t o be p r o v i d e d and v i c e v e r s a : i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s v i e w e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f 5 5 . d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . " ( p . 14) Some m e a s u r e s o f i n d i c a t i o n o f g i f t e d n e s s may i n c l u d e s t a n d a r d i z e d g r o u p t e s t s , c u l t u r e f a i r t e s t s , c r e a t i v i t y t e s t s , s p e c i a l a p t i t u d e t e s t s , s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t , p a r e n t a l , t e a c h e r and p e e r and s e l f n o m i n a t i o n s , p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o u r a l c h e c k l i s t s . S t a n d a r d i z e d G r o u p T e s t s T h e s e t e s t s may have l i m i t a t i o n s as t e s t s o f g i f t e d n e s s i n t h a t t h e y a) a r e d e s i g n e d f o r a v e r a g e s t u d e n t s -c e i l i n g s t o o l o w t o d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n b r i g h t and g i f t e d s t u d e n t s b) t o a c h i e v e " o b j e c t i v i t y " by l i m i t i n g r e s p o n s e s t o " c o r r e c t " a n s w e r s , t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g c r e a t i v e r e s p o n s e s . c ) r e l y on p r i n t e d words t h u s j e o p a r d i z i n g h i g h s c o r e s among s t u d e n t s w i t h r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s o r c h i l d r e n f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s . The W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n -R e v i s e d (WISC-R 1974) and t h e S t a n f o r d - B i n e t I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t a r e t h e two most w i d e l y u s e d t e s t s f o r 56 . measuring ge n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y i n c h i l d r e n . The WISC-R determines s p e c i f i c academic a p t i t u d e with three s c o r e s : a v e r b a l IQ, a performance IQ and a t o t a l IQ. The d i v i s i o n of the v e r b a l performance c a t e g o r i e s allows c h i l d r e n poor on v e r b a l a b i l i t y t o show i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r e n g t h on performance IQ. C u l t u r e F a i r T e s t s These t e s t s a v o i d c u l t u r a l b i a s , thus they are useful f o r schools with l a r g e m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s . O f t e n these t e s t s r e l y h e a v i l y on non-verbal q u e s t i o n s and responses e.g. the Columbia T e s t o f Mental M a t u r i t y which, r e q u i r e s i n d i v i d u a l response from s e v e r a l f i g u r a l items. Youngblood (1979) noted t h a t "of the 215 t e s t s and measures r e p o r t e d i n Studi e s i n A r t Education (1973-1974, pp. 57-62), on l y 9% focus on o b j e c t i v e measures of non-verbal a b i l i t y . " (p. 52) Standardized T e s t s and C u l t u r e F a i r T e s t s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e one c o r r e c t answer and t h e r e f o r e f a i l to i n d i c a t e t r a i t s such as d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g commonly a s s o c i a t e d with c r e a t i v i t y . 57. I n d i v i d u a l IQ Tes t s Trie S t a n f o r d - B i n e t and WISC-R are the most widely used and focus on gen e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . These t e s t s do i n f a c t i d e n t i f y " g i f t e d " i n d i v i d u a l s . A disadvantage to the classroom teacher i s th a t these t e s t s need to be administered i n d i v i d u a l l y by t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l . In 197 3 Machen conducted a v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y study o f the S l o s s o n I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t (SIT) wi t h g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and used the WISC f o r a comparison. The SIT was found to be a r e l i a b l e measure f o r dete r m i n i n g g i f t e d n e s s with the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n a t the nine year o l d l e v e l . The SIT then, appears to be a u s e f u l d i a g n o s t i c measure f o r the classroom teacher or u n q u a l i f i e d p e r s onnel who wish t o perform i n i t i a l t e s t i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n . Norma Pearce (1983) conducted a comparative study u s i n g the WICS-R, Raven's Standard P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s , and Meeker's SOI-Screening Form f o r the G i f t e d . These three instruments were used f o r the f o l l o w i n g r easons. The WISC-R i s one of the two most w i d e l y used placement instruments y i e l d i n g both Performance IQ and V e r b a l IQ. I t i s r e s p e c t e d f o r i t s h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t s . The R a v e n ' s S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c i e s w h i c h m e a s u r e s r e a s o n i n g by a n a l o g y , was t h e n o n - v e r b a l i n s t r u m e n t recommended f o r i d e n t i f y i n g u n d e r a c h i e v e r s and d i s a d v a n t a g e d g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . The M e e k e r ' s S t r u c t u r e o f I n t e l l e c t S c r e e n i n g Form f o r t h e G i f t e d i s an i n s t r u m e n t p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 8 0 , w h i c h m e a s u r e s 24 o f G u i l f o r d ' s (1967) i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s . I t s p u r p o s e i s as much a p r e s c r i p t i v e as a d i a g n o s t i c t o o l , m e a s u r i n g a v a r i e t y o f v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s . The r e s u l t s o f P e a r c e ' s r e s e a r c h r e v e a l e d t h a t d i m e n s i o n s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d on a l l t h r e e t e s t s , w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e WISC-R and t h e R a v e n ' s SPM b e i n g t h e s t r o n g e r . The a b o v e m e n t i o n e d t e s t s a t t e m p t t o q u a n t i f y t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y . H o w e v e r , i n o r d e r t o a l l o w f o r p o t e n t i a l g i f t e d n e s s a n d m i n i m i z e t e s t l i m i t a t i o n s i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o v i e w t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a r t w o r k , g a i n o p i n i o n s f r o m o t h e r s i n s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s , and r e v i e w p r e v i o u s r e c o r d s , l e a v i n g t h e IQ measure t o s e r v e o n l y as a g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n o f a b i l i t y . H e r m e l i n and O'Connor (1980) p e r f o r m e d a s t u d y 59 . using an IQ measure to " d i s t i n g u i s h an a n a l y t i c or convergent form of i n t e l l i g e n c e from a d i v e r g e n t or a s s o c i a t i o n a l form" (p. 180) s i m i l a r to f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n Torrance's l i s t f o r c r e a t i v i t y - They que s t i o n e d whether or not "more a b l e people perform b e t t e r on most c o g n i t i v e tasks than l e s s a b l e ones." (p. 180) The outcome of the study r e v e a l e d t h a t "high a b i l i t y on s p e c i f i c tasks can (not) be accounted f o r by a h i g h IQ alone." (p. 185) The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study r e v e a l t h a t w hile a h i g h e r than average IQ i s i n d i c a t i v e of c o g n i t i v e performance, and c e r t a i n l y of g i f t e d n e s s i n c e r t a i n areas of achievement, i t cannot be used as a s o l e measure. T e s t s f o r S p e c i a l A p t i t u d e s There have been t e s t s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to determine c r e a t i v e a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y . C l a r k and Zimmerman (1983) r e p o r t t h a t , d e s p i t e [the] c r i t i c i s m s of s t a n d a r d i z e d a r t t e s t s , the Centre f o r G l o b a l Futures (1981) l i s t s 52 formal instruments c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e f o r use i n i d e n t i f y i n g g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s . Three of these formal instruments are designed as 60 . t e s t s o f a r t a p t i t u d e . The G r a v e s D e s i g n J u d g e m e n t T e s t {1946, 1974, 1978) m e a s u r e s a p t i t u d e f o r t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n o r p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t ; The H o r n A r t A p t i t u d e I n v e n t o r y (1953) t e s t s a p t i t u d e f o r a r t p r o d u c t i o n ; and t h e M e i e r A r t T e s t s (1929, 1942, 1963) m e a s u r e a e s t h e t i c s e n s i t i v i t y . None o f t h e s e t e s t s h o w e v e r , have been p r o v e n r e l i a b l e and v a l i d f o r t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f a r t i s t i c t a l e n t , (p.182) F r o s t i g ' s D e v e l o p m e n t a l T e s t o f V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n (1964), m e a s u r e s d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l s o f a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y i n v a r i o u s t a s k s i n v o l v i n g v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . She c o n t e n d e d t h a t i t was n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o r e c o g n i z e and e v a l u a t e a s i n g l e component o f p e r c e p t i o n . Her t e s t s t h e r e f o r e a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y f i v e d i f f e r e n t a r e a s o f p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l . T h e s e a r e : e y e - h a n d c o o r d i n a t i o n , f i g u r e - g r o u n d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , c o n s t a n c y o f s h a p e , p o s i t i o n i n s p a c e , and s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s t e s t c a n be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a p e r c e p t u a l a g e , p e r c e p t u a l q u o t i e n t and s c a l e d s c o r e s as a w h o l e and f o r e a c h s u b t e s t . H o w e v e r , u n l i k e t h e M a c G r e g o r P e r c e p t u a l I n d e x , w i t h i t s s e v e n s u b t e s t s , F r o s t i g ' s t e s t i s p r i m a r i l y performance based and used to diagnose younger c h i l d r e n with visual-motor handicaps. K e l l o g g (1970) o f f e r s an age-stage sequence that she r e l a t e s to c o g n i t i v e development i n c h i l d r e n ' s a r t , while H a r r i s (1963) b e l i e v e s that the Draw-a-Man Test measures a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e and g e n e r a l i z e about l i k e n e s s and d i f f e r e n c e i n form. Since none of these t e s t s o f f e r a sure means of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , t h i s r e a f f i r m s the notion t h a t many means of measurement should be employed f o r a more accurate i n d i c a t i o n of g i f t e d n e s s . R e n z u l l i (1982) s t r e s s e s the importance of c r e a t i v i t y and task commitment as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the g i f t e d c h i l d , and the need f o r a more f l e x i b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system. He recommends check l i s t s , sociograms, o b s e r v a t i o n s over time, j o u r n a l s by teachers and c h i l d r e n as a means of i d e n t i f y i n g g i f t e d c h i l d r e n ; these he claims to be more v a l u a b l e than c o n v e n t i o n a l t e s t i n g . Munro sums up t h i s idea suggesting t h a t , "By h i g h l y d i v e r s i f i e d set of t e s t or experimental d e v i c e s some a n a l y s i n g work samples, some observing a b i l i t y to remember v i s u a l l y , t o l e a r n a new t e c h n i q u e , t o d e f e n d p r e f e r e n c e s i n t e l l i g e n t l y , and so on — we m i g h t a p p r o a c h t h e c o m p o s i t e o f d i v e r s e a b i l i t i e s known as ' a r t a b i l i t y ' " ( p . 176) R e s e a r c h a p p e a r s t o s u g g e s t t h a t IQ o r o t h e r a b i l i t y s c o r e s c a n n o t by t h e m s e l v e s a c c o u n t f o r c r e a t i v e / p r o d u c t i v e g i f t e d n e s s . A l e x a n d e r (1980) recommends t h a t "new e v a l u a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g i e s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o c o p e w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e g i f t e d c h i l d i n a g i f t e d p r o g r a m . . . . a d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l u m t h a t s a t i s f i e s t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l , a r t i s t i c and c r e a t i v e needs o f g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d s t u d e n t s i s n o t o n l y p o s s i b l e b u t n e c e s s a r y . " ( p . 45) To c o n c l u d e t h i s s e c t i o n , L a r k - H o r o v i t z (1967) p o i n t s o u t t h a t , i t i s n o t mere p r e c o c i t y i n v i s u a l r e a l i s m t h a t we must l o o k f o r as a s i g n o f a r t i s t i c t a l e n t ( t h o u g h t h i s may w e l l o c c u r as one i n d i c a t i o n ) , b u t r a t h e r s u c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as p e r c e p t u a l , i m a g i n a t i v e , e m o t i o n a l a l e r t n e s s , d i r e c t e d by p r e f e r e n c e i n t o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . . . . we must r e a d b e t w e e n t h e l i n e s o f t h e i r ( t e s t ) r e s u l t s , n o t j u d g i n g 6 3 . them f o r o b v i o u s s i g n s o f m a t u r i t y , s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , o r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . R a t h e r we s h o u l d l o o k f o r s i g n s o f t h a t v i t a l i t y , s e n s i t i v i t y , e a g e r n e s s , i n v e n t i v e n e s s , and o r g a n i z i n g power w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e x c e l l e n c e f r o m m e d i o c r i t y a t e v e r y age l e v e l and a t e v e r y s t a g e o f c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . " (p. 178) On t h e s e t e s t s s t u d e n t s n e e d n o t p e r f o r m s p e c i f i c a r t i s t i c t a s k s t o be i d e n t i f i e d a s p o t e n t i a l l y t a l e n t e d . As q u a l i t i e s o f g i f t e d n e s s v a r y t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a n eed t o i s o l a t e and i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f g i f t e d n e s s and u s e t e s t s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e q u a l i t y b e i n g d e f i n e d . The M a c G r e g o r P e r c e p t u a l Index (MPI) The I n d e x u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y i s i n t e n d e d t o i d e n t i f y v i s u a l a s p e c t s o f p e r c e p t u a l e f f i c i e n c y a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . The c h i l d i n t e r p r e t s v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m p h o t o g r a p h s i n o r d e r t o c h o o s e a c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e f r o m v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s . The i n s t r u m e n t i s d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t r e s p o n s e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e , p e r c e p t i o n o f embedded f i g u r e s , p e r c e p t i o n o f s h a p e , 64 . p e r c e p t i o n of s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , p e r c e p t i o n of the v e r t i c a l , p e r c e p t i o n m o d i f i e d by constancy and p e r c e p t i o n o f contour. MacGregor p o i n t s out t h a t the instrument "was designed to pr o v i d e teachers of a r t wit h a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measure of response to v i s u a l s t i m u l i . " (p. 17) The MPI o f f e r s the g e n e r a l i s t elementary teacher an instrument t h a t can be administered without s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g . S c o r i n g i s by means of one c o r r e c t answer, which avoids s u b j e c t i v e marking. Because t h i s i s a non-verbal measure of v i s u a l a c u i t y , i t may i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n with v e r b a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , c h i l d r e n w i t h language b a r r i e r s , or g i f t e d c h i l d r e n not diagnosed by t r a d i t i o n a l v e r b a l t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . MacGregor suggests t h a t through "a d e l i b e r a t e s t r u c t u r i n g of experiences w i t h i n the a r t program" the u l t i m a t e and d e s i r e d g o a l i s to help c h i l d r e n "towards a more adequate understanding of t h e i r v i s u a l world." (p. 61) Be h a v i o u r a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T u t t l e and Becker (1980) have assembled c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviour c h e c k l i s t s and suggest t h a t c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y i n g the g r e a t e s t number of these can be i d e n t i f i e d as a r t i s t i c a l l y g i f t e d . A few t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e f l e c t i n g g i f t e d n e s s i n c l u d e : c u r i o s i t y , p e r s i s t e n c y i n p u r s u i t of i n t e r e s t s and q u e s t i o n s , p e r c e p t i v e of the environment, c r i t i c a l of s e l f and o t h e r s , s e n s i t i v e to i n j u s t i c e s on personal and worldwide l e v e l s , h i g h l y developed sense of humour, j u s t to l i s t a few. (p.13) Teacher, parent, peer and l i b r a r i a n nominations were a l l taken i n t o account when diagnosing the group of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n used f o r the purposes of the author's study. S c h o l a s t i c records r e p r e s e n t i n g l e v e l s of competency a i d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p rocess, but can be m i s l e a d i n g i f i n t e r p r e t e d i n c o r r e c t l y . For example, g i f t e d c h i l d r e n o f t e n have a strange sense of humour, (p. 19) Laughter at an i n a p p r o p r i a t e time may be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by the teacher as d i s r u p t i v e behaviour. Frank C h e t e l a t (1981) looked at the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s of Lowenfeld (1964) f o r i d e n t i f y i n g g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and a l s o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t e d to a r t i s t i c a l l y t a l e n t e d c h i l d r e n by L a r k - H o r o v i t z , Lewis and Luca (1976) and combined t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n with "personal o b s e r v a t i o n , nomination forms and p o r t f o l i o s of artwork. His concern as an a r t s p e c i a l i s t i n an elementary school was to provide a h i g h l y i n t e r e s t i n g 66 . and chal lenging v i sua l arts program for the g i f t ed within the regular art classroom." (p. 156) He advocated s ta t ion learning and focused his f inding on a s p e c i f i c art a c t i v i t y , v i sua l concepts learned, challenges for advanced l earn ing , and responses of i d e n t i f i e d c h i l d r e n . Zet t l e (1979) recommends a number of means of i d e n t i f y i n g the g i f t ed and ta lented , and the p o t e n t i a l l y g i f t ed and talented for se lec t ion into spec ia l programs. He suggests that i n i t i a l screening should include: a) recommendations by s e l f , s t a f f , parent peer and others; b) nominations by s p e c i a l i s t s in the v i sua l and performing arts within and outside the schools; and c) a behavioural c h e c k l i s t . For a f i n a l screening a panel of experts w i l l judge submitted pro jec t s , audit ions and/or interviews. Behavioural check l i s t s and standardized aptitude tests should be used by experts to look for ch i ldren with p o t e n t i a l but undemonstrated t a l e n t . The appropriate placement of students selected for programs in the v i s u a l and performing a r t s s h o u l d be b a s e d upon t h e i r p o t e n t i a l a s w e l l a s t h e i r d e m o n s t r a t e d p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e a r e a o f t a l e n t . (p. 69) Summary T h i s c h a p t e r h a s d e s c r i b e d t h e r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g g i f t e d n e s s i n c l u d i n g t h e d i v e r s e q u a l i t i e s d e f i n e d i n g i f t e d n e s s . I t h a s a l s o d e a l t w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n , how p e r c e p t u a l g r o w t h m i g h t be m e a s u r e d , a nd how a s s e s s m e n t o f g i f t e d n e s s m i g h t be u n d e r t a k e n . R e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o t h e g i f t e d a n d t a l e n t e d h i g h l i g h t s some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d b e h a v i o u r o f c h i l d r e n i n t h i s g r o u p . 68 . CHAPTER THREE STUDY PROCEDURES The Methods of the Study T h i s study focused upon problem-solving processes a s s o c i a t e d with v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , and examined evidence of those, i n the form of scores on the MPI, to determine whether a r e l a t i o n s h i p might e x i s t between v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y i n A u s t r a l i a n primary school c h i l d r e n i n grades f i v e and s i x . T h i s chapter d e s c r i b e s the d a t a - c o l l e c t i n g procedures used i n the study, and the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures employed i n a n a l y z i n g the data. Procedures The main steps used i n ga t h e r i n g data f o r t h i s study were a) s e l e c t i n g the p o p u l a t i o n b) s e l e c t i n g the sample c) o b t a i n i n g p e r m i s s i o n to gather the data and d) a d m i n i s t e r i n g the instrument. S e l e c t i n g the P o p u l a t i o n According to Piaget (1962) and Lowenfeld (1970) p e r c e p t i o n l e v e l s of development have s t a b i l i z e d at about the age of ten. i t t h e r e f o r e seemed a p p r o p r i a t e to t e s t v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to i n t e l l i g e n c e at 69. t h i s age l e v e l . The grouping of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n a v a i l a b l e f o r at r e s e a r c h w i t h i n Canberra occurred^the grade f i v e / s i x l e v e l , and t h e r e f o r e c o n s t i t u t e d an acceptable p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s study. Although a grade four c l a s s was a v a i l a b l e as a g i f t e d group, t h i s group was r e j e c t e d on the b a s i s that they might not have reached a l e v e l of c o g n i t i v e development where comparison with n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n would be p r o d u c t i v e f o r the purposes of t h i s study. P o p u l a t i o n D e f i n e d The p o p u l a t i o n of r e g u l a r classroom c h i l d r e n f o r the study c o n s i s t e d of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of grade f i v e and s i x students who responded to the P r i n c i p a l ' s a u t h o r i z a t i o n form at Primary School A, a copy of which can be found i n Appendix C of t h i s study. The p o p u l a t i o n of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n f o r the study c o n s i s t e d of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of pre-diagnosed g i f t e d c h i l d r e n from grade f i v e and s i x at the Primary School B. S e l e c t i o n of the Sample The sample c o n s i s t e d of two i n t a c t groups; twenty-four s u b j e c t s between the ages of 10-12 from Primary School B and a s i m i l a r sample from Primary 7 0 . S c h o o l A. The r a t i o o f b o y s t o g i r l s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l i n b o t h g r o u p s . S o c i o e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n c e s b e tween s a m p l e s m i g h t have c o n t a m i n a t e d t h e t e s t s c o r e s . An e f f o r t was made t o m i n i m i z e t h o s e d i f f e r e n c e s , by c o n s u l t i n g w i t h t h e S c h o o l s A u t h o r i t y on s o c i o - e c o n o m i c r a n k i n g o f s c h o o l s w i t h i n t h e A.C.T. S i n c e S c h o o l B, c o n t a i n i n g t h e g i f t e d s a m p l e , was a n e c e s s a r y c h o i c e and r a n k e d 32 on t h e S c h o o l s A u t h o r i t y s c a l e , ( i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x F) t h e n e x t o b v i o u s c h o i c e was e i t h e r 31 o r 33. S c h o o l A r a n k e d 3 1 , and was c h o s e n t o p r o v i d e t h e n o n - g i f t e d s a m p l e . O b t a i n i n g P e r m i s s i o n t o C o n d u c t t h e S t u d y As t h e s t u d y i n v o l v e d more t h a n one s c h o o l , p e r m i s s i o n t o c o l l e c t d a t a was r e q u i r e d f r o m t h e A.C.T. S c h o o l s A u t h o r i t y . T h i s was g r a n t e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n and s u p p o r t o f t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s . (See A p p e n d i x C f o r p r i n c i p a l s ' a u t h o r i z a t i o n l e t t e r s s e n t t o p a r e n t s ) . E a c h c h i l d was g i v e n a p e r m i s s i o n s l i p t o t a k e home, f o r p a r e n t a l a p p r o v a l . The I n s t r u m e n t The M a c G r e g o r P e r c e p t u a l I n d e x , s e l e c t e d as t h e i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h i s s t u d y , i s i n t e n d e d t o i d e n t i f y 71. a s p e c t s o f v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l e f f i c i e n c y a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l l e v e l . The c h i l d i n t e r p r e t s v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a s e r i e s o f p h o t o g r a p h s i n o r d e r t o c h o o s e a c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e f r o m v a r i o u s a l t e r n a t i v e s w i t h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : p e r c e p t i o n o f d i s t a n c e , p e r c e p t i o n o f embedded f i g u r e s , p e r c e p t i o n o f s h a p e , p e r c e p t i o n o f s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e v e r t i c a l , p e r c e p t i o n m o d i f i e d by c o n s t a n c y , and p e r c e p t i o n o f c o n t o u r . P i l o t S t u d y P r i o r t o t h e r e g u l a r t e s t i n g s c h e d u l e a s m a l l s e l e c t i o n o f g r a d e 5/6 c h i l d r e n ( n o t i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o be t e s t e d b u t o f t h e same age g r o u p , 10-12= y e a r s ) w e re g i v e n t h e M a c G r e g o r P e r c e p t u a l I n d e x T e s t i n o r d e r t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r w i t h t h e t e s t . T h i s was a d m i n i s t e r e d u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e t o be o b s e r v e d i n t h e t e s t i n g p r o g r a m . E a c h q u e s t i o n was r e a d i n d i v i d u a l l y and t h e c h i l d r e n were g i v e n t h e recommended 10 s e c o n d s t o r e s p o n d . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r T e s t i n g S t u d e n t s w e re s e n t t o t h e a p p o i n t e d room a t an a g r e e d t i m e i n g r o u p s o f no more t h a n s i x . On e n t e r i n g t h e room t h e c h i l d r e n were i n s t r u c t e d t o s i t a t t a b l e s 72. and c h a i r s a r r a n g e d w i t h i n t h e room. Each t a b l e was s e t w i t h a t e s t b o o k l e t , an a nswer b o o k l e t , an e r a s e r and a p e n c i l . The c h i l d r e n were a s k e d t o w r i t e t h e i r name, g r a d e , age and 'B 1 o r 'G' t o d e n o t e w h e t h e r t h e y were boy o r g i r l . They were t h e n t o l d t o l i s t e n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y . The i n s t r u c t i o n s d e l i v e r e d were i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e recommended and u s e d by M a c G r e g o r i n h i s s t u d y . (See A p p e n d i x C f o r t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s , o r i g i n a l and m o d i f i e d a n s w e r s h e e t , and t e s t b o o k l e t as u s e d by M a c G r e g o r and t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . ) To m i n i m i z e d i s r u p t i o n i n s c h o o l r o u t i n e s , t h e t e s t s g i v e n t o t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p were c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g t i m e s when e a c h g r o u p was n o r m a l l y s c h e d u l e d f o r a l i b r a r y s t u d y p e r i o d . T h i s p r o v i d e d one u n i n t e r r u p t e d h o u r f o r f i v e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s on t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e d a y s . A l t h o u g h t h e a u t h o r o f t h e t e s t m a t e r i a l s s u g g e s t e d a p r o c e d u r e t i m e o f t h i r t y m i n u t e s , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t i m e t o be c l o s e r t o f o r t y m i n u t e s . The g i f t e d g r o u p were t e s t e d on t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e d a y s . A l l t e s t i n g was c o n d u c t e d b e f o r e t h e noon h o u r . A t P r i m a r y S c h o o l A, t e s t i n g was c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n t h e m e d i a room. T h i s room was f a m i l i a r t o a l l t h e c h i l d r e n , and was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l e a s a n t l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . R a t h e r t h a n b e i n g a p r e s s u r e p e r i o d , t i m e a s s i g n e d t o t h e m e d i a a r e a i s c o n s i d e r e d e n r i c h m e n t f o r t h o s e keen enough t o t r y s o m e t h i n g new. A t P r i m a r y S c h o o l B, t e s t i n g was c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n t h e c o m p u t e r room ( a n o t h e r a r e a a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e n j o y m e n t ) . M o d i f i c a t i o n s t o A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e I n s t r u m e n t C o n d u c t i n g t h i s s t u d y i n A u s t r a l i a c r e a t e d a d d i t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d t o t h e r e c e i p t o f t e s t m a t e r i a l s , r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s and a d v i c e , t h r o u g h an i n a d e q u a t e p o s t a l s e r v i c e . Due t o i n i t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n a c q u i r i n g f u l l c o p i e s o f t e s t p r o c e d u r e s , b o o k l e t s , and a nswer s h e e t s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r had c a u s e t o m o d i f y t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w ays: 1. P h o t o c o p i e s o f t h e t e s t b o o k l e t were u s e d . T h i s p r o d u c e d p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e p l i c a t i o n o f t o n a l v a l u e i n t h e p h o t o g r a p h s . 2 . Some w o r d i n g on t h e a n s w e r s h e e t had t o be r e v i s e d . 3 . Some v i s u a l m a t e r i a l i n the answer sheets had to be redrawn. 4. The wording of the i n s t r u c t i o n s to the p i l o t group was amended f o r the two t e s t e d groups . 5. The wording of some q u e s t i o n s was a l t e r e d to account f o r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . For example "the apartment b l o c k s " was r e w r i t t e n as "the b l o c k of f l a t s " , " f r e i g h t c a r s " was r e w r i t t e n as " t r a i n c a r r i a g e s " , and "grain e l e v a t o r s " was r e w r i t t e n as ' g r a i n s i l o ' . 6. Answer sheet page numbers and t e s t b o o k l e t page numbers were a l t e r e d to c o r r e s p o n d to the m o d i f i e d answer shee t . S i n c e some o f these r e v i s i o n s might be c o n s i d e r e d a t h r e a t to the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the t e s t , a c o n f i r m a t i o n s t u d y , a d m i n i s t e r e d wi th a complete set of o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l s and a s i m i l a r group of p r e v i o u s l y u n t e s t e d c h i l d r e n , was undertaken f o l l o w i n g the main t e s t i n g p e r i o d . I t r e v e a l e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n both a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s and t e s t r e s u l t s . I n f o r m a l comparison of the o r i g i n a l set of m a t e r i a l s and 75. the m o d i f i e d m a t e r i a l s confirmed t h a t the adapted v e r s i o n s used i n the main t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s were c l o s e to the o r i g i n a l s i n s p i r i t and content. One d i f f e r e n c e noted was t h a t the t e s t took a maximum of f o r t y minutes i n s t e a d o f the de s i g n a t e d t h i r t y minutes with both the o r i g i n a l and m o d i f i e d m a t e r i a l s . T h i s may have been due to the r e a d i n g pace of the t e s t e r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n s , o r i t may have been the r e s u l t of student requests f o r a r e r e a d of an i n s t r u c t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures The f o u r groups i n c l u d e d i n d a t a - c o l l e c t i o n comprised grade f i v e g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d , and grade s i x g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d . T h e i r raw scores were c a l c u l a t e d and the Mann-Whitney U. o n e - t a i l e d t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e was performed to determine i f the r e were any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the fo u r groups on the t o t a l s c o r e , and again w i t h the fou r groups on each of the seven c a t e g o r i e s . In d e t e r m i n i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the raw sco r e s no d i s t i n c t i o n was made between males and females. 76 . The formula used i n a l l c a l c u l a t i o n s was the Mann-Whitney U. U = n^n 2 + n 1 ( n 2 + l ) -2 where U = the c r i t i c a l v a l u e n^ = the number of s u b j e c t s i n Group A n 2 = the number of s u b j e c t s i n Group B R^ = the t o t a l of ranked scores from Group A and U 1 = n 1 n 2 + n 2 ( n 2 + l ) - R 2 2 where = the c r i t i c a l v a l u e n 1 = the number of s u b j e c t s i n Group A n 2 = the number of s u b j e c t s i n Group B R 2 = the t o t a l o f ranked scores from Group B. The Mann-Whitney U. was chosen because the normal p a r a m e t r i c assumptions of the t t e s t are not a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h i s case. The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t the two samples have the same d i s t r i b u t i o n . Hypotheses T e s t e d T h i s study sought to t e s t the n u l l hypotheses t h a t : a) t h e r e w i l l be no p o s i t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t the .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e , i n the MPI r e s u l t s , between the s c o r e s of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and the scores of n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n on the scores f o r the p e r c e p t i o n of d i s t a n c e category; b) t h e r e w i l l be no p o s i t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t the .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e , i n the MPI r e s u l t s , between the sco r e s of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and the scores of n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n on the scores f o r the p e r c e p t i o n of embedded f i g u r e s category; c) t h e r e w i l l be no p o s i t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t the .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e , i n the MPI r e s u l t s , between the sco r e s of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and the scores of n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n on the scores f o r the p e r c e p t i o n of shape category; d) t h e r e w i l l be no p o s i t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t the .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e , i n the MPI r e s u l t s , between the scores of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and the scores of n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n on the scores f o r the p e r c e p t i o n of s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s c a t e g o r y ; e) t h e r e w i l l be no p o s i t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t the .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e , i n the MPI r e s u l t s , between the scores of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and the scores of n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n on the scores f o r p e r c e p t i o n of the v e r t i c a l ; f) there w i l l be no p o s i t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t the .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e , i n the MPI r e s u l t s , between the sco r e s of g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and the scores ot n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n on the scores f o r p e r c e p t i o n m o d i f i e d by constancy; g) t h e r e w i l l be no p o s i t i v e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , a t the .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e , i n the MPI r e s u l t s , between the s c o r e s o f g i f t e d c h i l d r e n and the scores of n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n on the scores of the p e r c e p t i o n of contour. R e l i a b i l i t y A c c o r d i n g to MacGregor, "Pearson product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed f o r s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y , and a Spearman Brown prophecy formula a p p l i e d to the t o t a l sample (N = 240) was .84 . . . Pearson r ' s determining r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y amounted to .85 o v e r a l l (N = 59)." (p. 13) T h i s i n d i c a t e s an a c c e p t a b l e degree of r e l i a b i l i t y , and the 79. instrument was adapted f o r use i n t h i s study without f u r t h e r t e s t i n g . V a l i d i t y MacGregor assessed the v a l i d i t y of the P e r c e p t u a l Index "by o b s e r v a t i o n ot the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the instrument as expressed i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p which each item had with the t o t a l t e s t score; by c o r r e l a t i n g s cores on the P e r c e p t u a l Index wi t h those gained on the Draw-a-Man task i n the Goodenough-Harris Drawing T e s t , and w i t h Non-Language sc o r e s on the C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f Mental M a t u r i t y , and by n o t i n g whether a p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e i n items scored c o r r e c t o c c u r r e d with each i n c r e a s e i n grade l e v e l . " (p. 13) The MPI was used i n a c o r r e l a t i o n study i n 1973 w i t h a s e l e c t i o n of s i x c o g n i t i v e t e s t s p u b l i s h e d by the E d u c a t i o n a l T e s t i n g S e r v i c e i n 1963. Both s e t s of t e s t s t e s t s were compared to v e r b a l , q u a n t i t a t i v e , and non-verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e as estimated by the Houghton M i f f l i n C o g n i t i v e A b i l i t i e s Test (CAT). The f i n d i n g s showed s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s (P .01) between the MPI and the 6 ETS T e s t s . Concurrent v a l i d i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d between the ETS c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r t e s t s w i t h the v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n measures of the MPI. Again, the f i g u r e f o r v a l i d i t y of the instrument was accepted as g i v e n , and assumed to be s u f f i c i e n t l y f i r m f o r the purposes of the p r e s e n t study. 81. CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS OF RESULTS P r e s e n t a t i o n of the data i n t h i s study has been org a n i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: a) The data presented c o n s i s t of the raw scores of the four groups t e s t e d f o r the t e s t as a whole and f o r each of the seven s u b t s e t s of the MacGregor P e r c e p t u a l Index. Included are s t a t i s t i c a l assumptions, ranked s c o r e s , c a l c u l a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l values and a d e c i s i o n on acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . b) The Mann-Whitney U was s e l e c t e d to determine post-hoc procedures of the r e s u l t s . S i e g a l (1956) c o n s i d e r s t h i s one of the most powerful of the non-parametric t e s t s used to determine whether or not two independent groups have been drawn from the same p o p u l a t i o n . c) A commentary on the r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l procedures i s p r o v i d e d . 32. A n a l y s i s o f the Data  Assumptions f o r the S t a t i s t i c a l T e s t s are as f o l l o w s : a) The samples s t u d i e d are i n t a c t and i n d e p e n d e n t . b) O r d i n a l data are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the measurement s c a l e . Breakdown o f Groups; Number of groups i n p o p u l a t i o n : 4 Group A: G i f t e d Grade 5 11 Group B: N o n - G i f t e d Grade 5 13 Group C: G i f t e d Grade 6 13 Group D: N o n - G i f t e d Grade 6 15 T o t a l N 48 S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l : p < . 0 5 Sampl ing D i s t r i b u t i o n : The p r o b a b i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the o c c u r r e n c e under a n u l l h y p o t h e s i s of v a l u e s as s m a l l as an observed U f o r n l , n2 r e q u i r e t h a t s c o r e s of 41 and 62 r e s p e c t i v e l y be a c h i e v e d f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a c c o r d i n g to the Mann-Whitney U . (see Appendix F ) . Mann-Whitney U F o r m u l a : The f o r m u l a used f o r the c a l c u l a t i o n of r e s u l t s : -83. U = n l n2 + n l (n2 + 1) - R l 2 where U = the c r i t i c a l va lue n l = the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n i n the f i r s t group n2 = the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n i n the second group R l = the t o t a l of the ranked s c o r e s i n the f i r s t group and U l = n l n2 + (n2 + 1) - R2 2 where U l = the c r i t i c a l va lue n l = the number of c h i l d r e n i n the f i r s t group n2 = the number of c h i l d r e n i n the second group R2 = the t o t a l of the ranked s c o r e s i n the second group C a l c u l a t i o n o f C r i t i c a l V a l u e s (Refer to Appendix E : Extended t a b l e s o f the Mann-Whitney U . f o r the c r i t i c a l v a l u e s o f U f o r a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t a t . 0 5 . ) T a b l e 1 84. MPI Raw S c o r e s : Groups A , B , C & D Ranked A B C D 33 13.5 20 24 26 27 22 28 35 11.5 27 23 33 22 27 26 35 11.5 30 20 .5 34 20 32 24.5 36 9.5 30 20.5 35 18 32 24 .5 36 9.5 30 20.5 36 14.5 33 22 37 7.5 30 20.5 38 8.5 33 22 38 4.5 31 18 38 8.5 35 18 38 4.5 32 16 38 8.5 35 18 38 4.5 32 16 40 4.5 36 14.5 39 2 32 16 40 4.5 36 14.5 40 1 33 13.5 41 3 36 14 . 5 37 7.5 42 2 37 11.5 38 4.5 43 1 37 11.5 38 8.5 39 6 11 R x 79.5 n 2 13 R 2 220.5* n1 13 R± 142 . n 2 15 R 2 264 * p = < .05 T a b l e 2 85. P e r c e p t i o n o f D i s t a n c e MPI Raw S c o r e s : G r o u p s A, B, C & D R a n k e d A B C D 5 6 5 6 6 2.5 6 2.5 5 6 5 6 5 9.5 6 2.5 5 6 5 6 5 9.5 6 2.5 5 6 5 6 5 9.5 5 9.5 5 6 5 6 5 9.5 5 9.5 5 6 4 14.5 5 9.5 5 9.5 4 14.5 4 14.5 4 18 5 9.5 4 14.5 4 14.5 4 18 5 9.5 4 14.5 3 20.5 4 18 4 18 3 20.5 3 20.5 3 23.5 4 18 3 20.5 3 20.5 3 23.5 4 18 3 20.5 3 23.5 4 18 2 24 2 27 3 2 2 23.5 27 27 n x 11 R 1 120.5 n 2 13 R 2 179.5 n± 13 Rj^ 201.5 n 2 15 R 2 204.5 T a b l e 3 P e r c e p t i o n o f Embedded F i g u r e s  MPI Raw S c o r e s : G r o u p s A, B, C & D R a n k e d A B C D 6 9 6 9 6 12.5 6 12.5 6 9 6 9 6 12.5 6 12.5 6 9 6 9 6 12.5 6 12.5 6 9 6 9 6 12.5 6 12.5 6 9 6 9 6 12.5 6 12.5 6 9 6 9 6 12.5 6 12.5 6 9 6 9 6 12.5 6 12.5 5 18.5 6 9 6 12.5 6 12.5 4 22 6 9 6 12.5 6 12.5 4 22 6 9 6 12.5 6 12.5 4 22 5 18.5 6 12.5 6 12.5 4 22 6 12.5 5 25.5 4 22 6 12.5 5 25.5 4 27 0 28 n x 11 R± 147.5 n 2 13 R 2 152.5 n x 13 R± 162.5 n 2 15 R 2 243.5 T a b l e 4 P e r c e p t i o n o f Shape MPI Raw S c o r e s : Groups A , B , C & D Ranked B C 6 2 5 6 8 1.5 8 1.5 6 2 5 6 6 6.5 6 6.5 6 2 4. 12.5 6 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 4 12.5 6 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 4 12.5 6 6.5 6 6.5 5 6 4 12.5 5 14.5 5 14.5 4 12.5 4 12.5 5 14.5 5 14.5 4 12.5 3 18.5 5 14.5 5 14.5 4 12.5 3 18.5 4 22 5 14.5 3 18.5 3 18.5 4 22 5 14.5 2 22.5 2 22.5 4 22 4 22 2 22.5 4 22 4 22 2 22.5 3 26.5 4 22 3 26.5 2 28 11 R 1 102.5 n 2 13 R 2 197.5* n x 13 R± 114.5 n 2 15 R 2 220.5 * P = < .05 T a b l e 5 P e r c e p t i o n o f S i m i l a r i t i e s a n d D i f f e r e n c e s MPI Raw S c o r e s : G r o u p s A, B, C & D R a n k e d A B C D 5 5 6 1 6 2 6 2 5 5 5 5 6 2 5 5.5 5 5 5 5 5 5.5 4 11.5 4 15 5 5 5 5.5 4 11.5 4 15 5 5 5 5.5 4 11.5 4 15 4 15 4 11.5 4 11.5 4 15 4 15 4 11.5 3 20.5 4 15 4 15 4 11.5 3 20.5 4 15 4 15 4 11.5 3 20.5 3 22.5 4 15 3 20.5 3 20.5 3 22.5 4 15 3 20.5 3 20.5 4 15 3 20.5 3 20.5 2 24 1 28 3 2 2 20.5 26.5 26.5 n± 11 R± 150 n 2 13 R 2 150 n l 13 R ± 156 n 2 15 R 2 250 T a b l e 6 P e r c e p t i o n o f t h e V e r t i c a l MPI Raw S c o r e s : G r o u p s A, B, C & D R a n k e d A B C D 6 1.5 6 1.5 5 3.5 6 1 5 7 5 7 5 3.5 4 11.5 5 7 5 7 5 3.5 4 11.5 5 7 5 7 5 3.5 4 11.5 5 7 4 14 4 11.5 4 11.5 5 7 4 14 4 11.5 4 11.5 5 7 3 18.5 4 11.5 4 11.5 4 14 3 18.5 4 11.5 4 11.5 4 14 3 18 .5 4 11.5 3 22 4 14 2 22 3 22 3 22 3 18.5 2 22 3 22 3 22 2 22 3 22 3 22 1 24 2 27.5 3 3 2 22 22 27.5 n 1 11 R x 104 n 2 13 R 2 196* n1 13 R l 165 n 2 15 R 2 241 * P = <.05 T a b l e 7 P e r c e p t i o n M o d i f i e d By C o n s t a n c y  MPI Raw S c o r e s : G r o u p s A, B, C & D R a n k e d 90 B 9 2 8 6.5 9 3.5 9 3.5 9 2 8 6.5 9 3.5 9 3.5 9 2 7 12 9 3.5 8 12 8 6.5 7 12 9 3.5 8 12 8 6.5 6 16.5 8 12 8 12 8 6.5 6 16.5 8 12 8 12 8 6.5 6 16.5 8 12 8 12 7 12 5 21 8 12 8 12 7 12 5 21 7 21 8 12 7 12 5 21 7 21 7 21 6 16.5 5 21 7 21 7 21 5 21 7 21 6 26 4 24 7 21 6 26 6 26 4 28 n x 11 R L 84.5 n 2 13 R 2 215.5* n x 13 R ! 1 6 7 n 2 15 R 2 239 P = < -05 T a b l e 8 91. P e r c e p t i o n of Contour  MPI Raw S c o r e s : Groups A , B , C & D Ranked  A B C D 6 8.5 6 8.5 6 10 6 10 6 8.5 6 8.5 6 10 6 10 6 8.5 6 8.5 6 10 6 10 6 8.5 6 8.5 6 10 6 10 6 8.5 6 8.5 6 10 6 10 6 8.5 6 8.5 6 .10 6 10 6 8.5 5 17.5 6 10 6 10 6 8.5 5 17.5 6 10 6 10 6 8.5 4 20 6 10 5 21.5 6 8.5 4 20 6 10 5 21.5 4 20 3 22 6 10 5 21.5 2 23.5 5 21.5 4 25.5 2 23.5 4 25.5 4 4 3 25.5 25.5 28 n x 11 R± 100.5 n 2 13 R 2 195* nx 13 R± 157 n 2 15 R 2 251 * p = < .05 A n a l y s i s o f R e s u l t s On the b a s i s of the Mann-Whitney U s c a l e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d f o r the comparison groups A & B (Grade 5), and f o r comparison groups C & D (Grade 6) f o r the raw scores o f the t o t a l t e s t . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n scores by g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d Grade 5 samples and g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d Grade 6 samples, on t e s t r e s u l t s o v e r a l l . Among the Grade 5 groups, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o e v i d e n t i n the c a t e g o r i e s : p e r c e p t i o n o f shape, p e r c e p t i o n of the v e r t i c a l , p e r c e p t i o n m o d i f i e d by constancy and p e r c e p t i o n of contour. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s among the g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d Grade 6 groups w i t h i n any i n d i v i d u a l c a t e g o r y . T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d to " i n c r e a s e i n accuracy of p e r c e p t i o n and awareness of d e t a i l s which reaches a maximum and l e v e l s o f f a t approximately age t e n . " (Burkhart, 1958, p. 160) The Grade 6 group may have reached t h i s p l a t e a u whereas t h e r e may have been l e s s e q u a l i t y w i t h i n the Grade 5 groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of the n o n - g i f t e d . A n a l y s i s o f the answer sheets showed which q u e s t i o n s were t y p i c a l l y answered i n c o r r e c t l y . I t e m A n a l y s i s by C a t e g o r y C a t e g o r y ONE: P e r c e p t i o n o f D i s t a n c e 93. T a b l e 9 C o r r e c t R e s p o n s e s G i f t e d N o n - G i f t e d Q u e s t i o n G r a d e 5 G r a d e 6 G r a d e 5 G r a d e 6 1 12 12 13 14 2 12 12 12 14 3 11 11 9 12 4 4 8 4 6 5 5 7 4 8 6 8 5 7 11 T h e r e was a t o t a l o f 52 r e s p o n s e s t o e a c h q u e s t i o n ; 28 f r o m non-- g i f t e d a n d 24 f r o m g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . I n b o t h q u e s t i o n s 1 a n d 2, a l l 52 r e s p o n s e s w e r e c o r r e c t . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s w e r e d e s i g n e d i n s u c h a way a s t o b u i l d r e s p o n s d e n t c o n f i d e n c e . I n q u e s t i o n s 4 a n d 5 h o w e v e r , t h e r e w e r e f e w e r t h a n 25 c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s i n b o t h c a s e s . When q u e s t i o n e d a f t e r t h e t e s t , t h e c h i l d r e n a d m i t t e d c o n f u s i o n w i t h q u e s t i o n 4. T h e y w e r e u n s u r e i f t h e y w e r e l o o k i n g a t t h e c r a n e f r o m a window o p p o s i t e , o r f r o m t h e g r o u n d b e l o w . C a r e f u l s t u d y o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h s h o w s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e c r a n e o p e r a t o r ' s c a b i n a n d t h e c e m e n t b u c k e t h a n g i n g f r o m t h e c r a n e p r o v i d e c u e s a b o u t t h e r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e o f i t s v a r i o u s p a r t s t h a t r e m o v e s a n y a m b i g u i t y a b o u t t h e v i e w e r ' s 94 . p o s i t i o n . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t M a c G r e g o r i n c l u d e d t h i s q u e s t i o n a f t e r p i l o t i n g o f t h e o r i g i n a l t e s t . C a t e g o r y TWO: P e r c e p t i o n o f Embedded F i g u r e s T a b l e 10 C o r r e c t R e s p o n s e s G i f t e d Non- • G i f t e d Q u e s t i o n G r a d e 5 G r a d e 6 G r a d e 5 G r a d e 6 7 8 13 10 13 8 11 13 13 14 9 11 11 12 12 10 10 13 13 14 11 10 13 12 14 12 11 13 13 13 T h i s c a t e g o r y was h a n d l e d w i t h p e r f e c t s c o r i n g among t h e G r a d e 6 g i f t e d g r o u p . T h i s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e l e v e l s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e a c h e d b y t h e 11 - 12 age g r o u p . M a c G r e g o r (1975) p o i n t s o u t t h a t c h i l d r e n f i n d t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f embedded f i g u r e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y e a s i e r a s t h e y i n c r e a s e i n a g e . ( p . 72) 95. Category THREE: P e r c e p t i o n of Shape Table 11 C o r r e c t Responses G i f t e d Non- •Gifted Question Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 5 Grade 6 13 11 12 10 13 14 3 4 8 7 15 4 3 i 3 2 16 1 3 2 3 17 6 9 1 11 18 3 2 1 4 19 9 11 7 10 20 6 11 6 8 21 9 11 10 12 T h i s category was handled p o o r l y by a l l groups, w i t h o n l y 20% of c o r r e c t responses (evenly d i s t r i b u t e d ) i n q u e s t i o n s 15 ( r a i l w a y c a r r i a g e s ) , 16 (wagon wheels), and 19 ( c l i f f s ) . These q u e s t i o n s were answered w i t h fewer c o r r e c t responses than i n any o t h e r c a t e g o r y . The d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of f i g u r e from ground may have been u n u s u a l l y d i f f i c u l t because of the d e f i n i t i o n l o s s i n the r e p r o d u c t i o n of the t e s t b o o k l e t . Some c l a r i t y may a l s o have been l o s t i n rewording item 15, which d e a l t w i t h f r e i g h t c a r s (or r a i l w a y c a r r i a g e s ) . 96. C a t e g o r y FOUR: P e r c e p t i o n o f S i m i l a r i t i e s and D i f f e r e n c e s T a b l e 12 C o r r e c t R e s p o n s e s G i f t e d N o n - G i f t e d Q u e s t i o n G r a d e 5 G r a d e 6 G r a d e 5 G r a d e 6 22 11 13 13 14 23 8 11 11 14 24 9 10 8 9 25 7 8 9 3 26 9 10 12 9 27 2 2 10 10 Q u e s t i o n 27 i n t h i s c a t e g o r y was t h e m o s t p o o r l y a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n b y t h e g i f t e d g r o u p w i t h o n l y 2 1 . 5 % o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . I n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h r e e a r t s p e c i a l i s t s a n d p r i o r t o t h e a r r i v a l o f a c o r r e c t a n s w e r k e y , no a g r e e m e n t c o u l d be made a s t o w h i c h was t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . M a c G r e g o r (1975) n o t e d d i f f i c u l t y o f s e p a r a t i n g p e r c e p t u a l a n d c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s i n r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . Kow one r e s p o n d s seems t o d e p e n d o n t h e " c o g n i t i v e s e t ' : o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t . C a t e g o r y _FIVE_: P e r c e p t i o n o f t h e V e r t i c a l T a b l e 13 C o r r e c t R e s p o n s e s G i f t e d N o n - G i f t e d Q u e s t i o n G r a d e 5 G r a d e 6 G r a d e 5 G r a d e 6 28 11 13 11 14 29 11 12 , 11 11 30 6 5 11 11 31 4 2 10 9 32 9 11 8 7 33 10 8 10 11 Q u e s t i o n s 30 ( c a r p a r k ) a n d 31 ( f r y i n g pan) h a d f e w e r t h a n 35% o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . T h i s may be i n p a r t a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a m b i g u i t y w i t h i n t h e d i a g r a m s d r a w n f o r t h e A u s t r a l i a n s a m p l e ( n o t t h e e x a m p l e u s e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l MPI) r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e l a c k o f d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a b i l i t y among t h e g r o u p s b e i n g t e s t e d . Category SIX: P e r c e p t i o n M o d i f i e d by Constancy 98. Table 14 C o r r e c t Responses G i f t e d Non-Gifted Question Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 5 Grade 6 34 9 13 12 14 35 11 12 12 12 36 11 13 10 13 37 10 13 11 14 38 9 10 8 8 39 9 11 10 11 40 7 11 5 14 41 11 11 11 13 42 9 9 2 10 Grade 5 n o n - g i f t e d g i r l s seemed to e xperience unusual d i f f i c u l t y w i t h q u e s t i o n 38 ( b u i l d i n g frames). I t was i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t i n two separate i n t e r v i e w s a f t e r the t e s t , two g i r l s - remarked t h a t they were u n f a m i l i a r w i t h b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n . The f a m i l i a r i t y a s p e c t c o u l d be a f a c t o r , as expected. 99. C a t e g o r y SEVEN: P e r c e p t i o n o f C o n t o u r T a b l e 15 C o r r e c t R e s p o n s e s G i f t e d N o n - G i f t e d Q u e s t i o n G r a d e 5 G r a d e 6 G r a d e 5 G r a d e 6 43 10 13 10 12 44 11 13 , 1 0 12 45 10 11 10 12 46 11 13 11 15 47 11 13 10 14 48 11 12 10 12 R e s p o n s e s t o t h i s no l e s s t h a n 8 3% f o r a n y c a t e g o r y w e r e o f t h e g r o u p s g e n e r a l l y c o r r e c t : The g i f t e d g r o u p r e s p o n d e d w i t h o n l y f i v e i n c o r r e c t a n s w e r s . 100. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The purpose of t h i s s tudy was to extend knowledge a b o u t p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y i n c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as g i f t e d . T h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the r e s e a r c h has been based on the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e p r o p o s i t i o n s : 1) There has f o r many y e a r s been a c o n t r o v e r s y among r e s e a r c h e r s on whether a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the c r e a t i v e a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y o f g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . 2) P e r c e p t i o n i n r e c e n t e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e has been i d e n t i f i e d as a f a c t o r i n i n c r e a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s . 3) L i t e r a t u r e suggests those wi th h igh p e r c e p t u a l l e v e l s a l s o tend to d i s p l a y h igh i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s . The rev iew of the l i t e r a t u r e touched on the p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n d e f i n i n g the g i f t e d ; on e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e g i f t e d ; on d e f i n i n g p e r c e p t i o n t o g e t h e r w i t h a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l c o v e r a g e o f i t s development; and on t e s t s a n d m e a s u r e s t h a t a i d i n i d e n t i f y i n g c h i l d r e n i n both a r e a s . Samples f o r t h i s s tudy were drawn from the 1 0 1 . p o p u l a t i o n o f g r a d e 5 a n d 6 s t u d e n t s f r o m C a n b e r r a P r i m a r y S c h o o l s . The i n s t r u m e n t u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y was t h e M a c G r e g o r P e r c e p t u a l I n d e x . The i n s t r u m e n t was a d m i n i s t e r e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f two d a y s a t e a c h s c h o o l w i t h i n t h e month o f A p r i l , t o a G r a d e 5 and a G r a d e 6 s a m p l e o f g i f t e d s t u d e n t s , a nd t o a G r a d e 5 and a G r a d e 6 s a m p l e o f n o n - g i f t e d s t u d e n t s . R e s u l t s w e re a n a l y s e d u s i n g t h e M a n n - W h i t n e y U t e s t o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t o d e t e r m i n e i f any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d w i t h i n t h e r a n k s o f t h e two g r o u p s t e s t e d . F i n d i n g s a n d C o n c l u s i o n The r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s was v a l i d a t e d a nd t h e r e b y a n s w e r e d two q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s o f g i f t e d n e s s w i t h p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y . The a n s w e r s a r e t h a t : 1) T h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e o v e r a l l s c o r e s o f g i f t e d a n d n o n - g i f t e d i n d i v i d u a l s a t t h e G r a d e 5 l e v e l on t h e M a c G r e g o r  P e r c e p t u a l I n d e x T e s t . 2) T h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e o v e r a l l s c o r e s o f g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d i n d i v i d u a l s a t t h e G r a d e 6 l e v e l on t h e M a c G r e g o r  P e r c e p t u a l I n d e x T e s t . 102. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b t a i n e d between the Grade 5 g i f t e d sample and the Grade 5 n o n - g i f t e d sample on f o u r of the seven c a t e g o r i e s t h a t make up the MPI. These were p e r c e p t i o n of shape, p e r c e p t i o n of the v e r t i c a l , p e r c e p t i o n m o d i f i e d by constancy and p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t o u r . C e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s were c o n s t a n t l y answered i n c o r r e c t l y , w h i l e o t h e r s were c o n s t a n t l y answered c o r r e c t l y ^ i n d i c a t i n g a crude measure of f a c e v a l i d i t y f o r the MPI. Dur ing an i n t e r v i e w wi th the t e a c h e r s a t the Lyons P r i m a r y S c h o o l , i t was drawn to my a t t e n t i o n t h a t those c h i l d r e n who performed above the average on the MPI were a l s o those c h i l d r e n who had a c h i e v e d h igh academic s t a n d i n g w i t h i n t h e i r g r a d e s . T h e r e s e a r c h e r noted t h a t the t ime taken to respond t o i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n s on the MPI by the g i f t e d group w a s c o n s i s t e n t l y s h o r t e r t h a n t h a t t a k e n by t h e n o n - g i f t e d g r o u p . I t may be t h a t g i f t e d c h i l d r e n were more a b l e to r a p i d l y p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n or respond more r a p i d l y to p e r c e p t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The s tudy has shown t h a t g i f t e d n e s s appears to i n c l u d e s u p e r i o r a b i l i t y to handle p e r c e p t u a l d a t a . Yet 1 0 3 . e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e g i f t e d d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o e m p h a s i z e o r e v e n e n c o u r a g e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e v i s u a l a r t f i e l d . E d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n e r s a nd a d m i n i s t r a t o r s may w e l l f i n d t h a t t h e e l a b o r a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m s f o r t h e g i f t e d t o i n c l u d e p e r c e p t u a l l y - b a s e d l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l b r i n g a b o u t e n h a n c e d p e r f o r m a n c e by a g r o u p a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d as u n u s u a l l y c o m p e t e n t i n t h e a c a d e m i c s e n s e . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s T h e r e i s e x t e n s i v e c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h on e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e g i f t e d , a n d a n e q u a l b o d y o f r e s e a r c h o n p e r c e p t i o n e s p e c i a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e v i s u a l f i e l d . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a l a c k o f r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n w h i c h c o r r e l a t e s w i t h t h a t o n g i f t e d c h i l d r e n . W i t h t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y i n m i n d , t h e f o l l o w i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e made: 1) S t u d i e s s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e i n s p e c i f i c t e r m s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n g i f t e d n e s s a nd p e r c e p t u a l a c u i t y . 2) T e a c h e r t r a i n i n g s h o u l d e m p h a s i s e v a r i o u s n e e d s and b e h a v i o u r s o f m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s t h a t a r e e v i d e n t w i t h i n t h e a v e r a g e c l a s s r o o m , and s h o u l d i n c l u d e 104. e x p e r i e n c e s i n d e v e l o p i n g n o n - v e r b a l ways to promote the e d u c a t i o n of these m i n o r i t i e s . 3) R e s e a r c h s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n to d e v e l o p f u r t h e r n o n - v e r b a l p e r c e p t i o n t e s t s , to cover a wider range of a r e a s , and to make c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n e a s i e r . 4) A s tudy s h o u l d be conducted among g i f t e d and n o n - g i f t e d groups u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t n o n - v e r b a l p e r c e p t i o n t e s t , to determine whether the r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy can be r e p l i c a t e d . 5) I t i s f u r t h e r recommended t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n s tudy be d e v e l o p e d to determine whether or not h igh s c o r e r s of t h e MPI a r e a l s o those c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as g i f t e d or t a l e n t e d i n a r t . 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A n o n v e r b a l a b i l i t y t e s t . S t u d i e s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , 20_(3) , 57-63. Zachkowsky, L . D . , Zachkowsky, L . B . & M a r t i n e k , T . J . (19 80 ) . Growth and Development: The C h i l d and P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y . S t . L o u i s : The C . V . Mosby Company. Z e t t e l , J . (1979). S t a t e p r o v i s i o n s f o r e d u c a t i n g the g i f t e d and the t a l e n t e d . In H . A . Passow ( E d . ) , The G i f t e d and  the T a l e n t e d . 78th Yearbook , P a r t I , N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study o f E d u c a t i o n . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s . APPENDIX A Calculation for Tables 1-8 120, MPI Raw Score T o t a l s Group A U = n 1n 2+n- L ( n 2 + D - R 2 = (11)(13) + (11)(14) - 79.5 2 = 143 + 77 - 79.5 = 140.5 Group B 1^= n 1 n 2 + n 2 (n 2+l) - R 2 2 = (11) (13) + (13) (14) - 220.5 2 = 143 + 91 - 220.5 = 13.5* Group C U = r ^ n ^ (n 2+l) -2 = (13) (15) + (13) (16) - 142 2 = 195 + 104 - 142 = 157 Group D U 1= r ^ n ^ n 2 (n 2+l) - R 2 2 = (13) (15) + (15) (16) - 264 2 = 195 + 120 - 264 = 51* * p <.05 1 2 1 . P e r c e p t i o n o f D i s t a n c e G r o u p A U = " 1 n 2 + n ^ ( n 2 + l ) - R^ 2 = 11.13 + 1 1 ( 1 4 ) - 120.5 — 2 = 143 + 77 - 120.5 = 99.5 G r o u p B U±= n 1 n 2 + n 2 ( n 2 + l ) - R 2 2 = (11) (13) + (13) (14) - 179.5 = 143 + 91 - 179.5 = 54.5 G r o u p C U = n i n 2 + n 1 ( n 2 + l ) - R^ 2 = 13.15 + 13.16 - 201.5 = 195 + 104 - 201.5 = 97.5 G r o u p D U^= n^n 2+ n 2 ( n 2 + l ) - R 2 2 = 13.15 + 15.16 - 204.5 2 = 195 + 120 - 204.5 110.5 122 P e r c e p t i o n o f Embedded F i g u r e s G r o u p A U = n- Ln 2 + n 1 ( n 2 + l ) -2 = 11.13 + 11(14) - 147.5 2 = 143 + 77 - 147.5 = 72.5 G r o u p B 0^= n 1 n 2 + n 2 ( n 2 + l ) - R 2 2 = 11.13 + 13(14) - 152.5 2 = 143 + 91 - 152.5 = 81.5 G r o u p C U = n 1 n 2 + n 1 ( n 2 + l ) - R^ 2 = 13.15 + 13.16 - 162.5 2 = 195 + 104 - 162.5 = 136.5 G r o u p D U 1= n 1 n 2 + n 2 ( n 2 + l ) - R 2 2 = 13.15 + 15.16 - 243.5 2 = 195 + 120 -'243.5 = 71.5 123 P e r c e p t i o n o f Shape G r o u p A U = n ^ n 2 + n ^ ( n 2 + l ) - R-^  2 = 11.13 + 11.14 - 102.5 2 = 143 + 77 - 102.5 = 117.5 G r o u p B U^= n ^ n 2 + n 2 ( n 2 + l ) - R 2 2 = 11.13 + 13.14 - 197.5-2 = 143 + 91 - 197.5 = 3 6 . 5 * G r o u p C U = n ^ n 2 + n 1 ( n 2 + l ) - R^ 2 = 13.15 + 13.16 - 114.5 2 = 195 + 104 - 114.5 = 184.5 G r o u p D U 1= n 1 n 2 + n 2 ( n 2 + l ) - R 2 = 1 3 . 1 5 + 15.16 - 220.5 2 = 19 5 + 120 -- 220.5 = 94.5 * p <.05 124 Perception of S i m i l a r i t i e s and Differences Group A U = n 1 n 2 + n^Cn^l ) - R^ 2 = 11.13 + 11.14 - 10 5 2 = 143 + 77 - 150 = 70 Group B 17^ = n-^n2 + n 2 (n 2 +l ) - R 2 2 = 11.13 + 13.14 - 150 2 = 143 + 91 - 150 = 84 Group C U = n^n 2 + n 1 (n 2 +l ) - R-j^  2 = 13.15 + 13.16 - R, 2 X = 195 + 104 - 156 = 143 Group D 1^ = n-^n2 + n 2 (n 2+l) - R 2 2 = 13.15 + 15.16 - 250 2 = 195 + 120 - 250 = 65 P e r c e p t i o n of the V e r t i c a l Group A Group B Group C Group D * p <.05 U = n 1 n 2 + n 1 ( n 2 + l ) - R = 11.13 + 11.14 - 104 2 = 143 + 77 - 104 = 116 U l = n l n 2 + n 2 ( n 2 + 1 ) ~ R: 2 = 11.13 + 13.14 - 196 2 = 143 + 91 - 196 = 38* U = n x n 2 + n 1 ( n 2 + l ) - R. 2 = 13.15 + 13.16 - 165 2 = 195 + 104 - 165 = 134 ° 1 = n l n 2 + n 2 ( n 2 + 1 ) " R : = 13.15 + 15.16 - 241 2 = 195 + 120 - 241 = 74 126 P e r c e p t i o n M o d i f i e d b y C o n s t a n c y G r o u p A U = n 1 n 2 + n 1 ( n 2 + l ) -2 = 11.13 + 11.14 - 84.5 2 = 143 + 77 - 84.5 = 135.5 G r o u p B U x= n x n 2 + n 2 ( n 2 + l ) - R 2 2 = 11.13 + 13.14 - 215.5 2 = 143 + 91 - 215.5 = 1 8 . 5 * G r o u p C U = n 1 n 2 + n 1 ( n 2 + l ) - R 1 2 ~ = 13.15 + 13.16 - 167 2 = 195 + 104 - 167 = 132 G r o u p D U 1= n 1 n 2 + n 2 ( n 2 + l ) - R 2 2 = 13.15 + 15.16 - 239 2 = 195 + 120 - 239 = 76 p < .05 127, P e r c e p t i o n of Contour Group A U = n1n2 + n 1 ( n 2 + l ) -2 = 11.13 + 11.14 - 100.5 2 = 143 + 77 - 100.5 = 119.5 Group B Uj= n^n 2 + n 2 ( n 2 + l ) - R 2 = 11.13 + 13.14 - 19 5 2 = 143 + 91 - 195 = 39* Group C U = n 1 n 2 + n 1 ( n 2 + l ) - R 1 2 = 13.15 + 13.16 - 157 2 - 195 + 104 - 157 = 142 Group D u x= n 1 n 2 + n 2 ( n 2 + l ) - R 2 2 = 13.15 + 15.16 - 251 2 = 195 + 120 - 251 = 64 * p ^.05 APPENDIX B Th.e MacGregor P e r c e p t u a l Index T e s t 129. INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADMINISTERING THE l'ERCEPTUAL INDEX Each student requires a copy of the Teat Bookiet, a set of Answer Sheets (numbered ONE through ttfttii)*} and a pencil. When these have been passed outt the teacher addresses the students as follows: The booklets which you have in front of you have photographs In them which you will be looking at In a few minutes. I have some questions about them which I would like you to answer on the Answer Sheets. Usually, you will have ten seconds to answer each question. At the end of ten seconds, I shall say "Stop. Let's go on to the next question." Use your pencils to answer each question: you are required only to make check marks. You may erase your answer and put in another if you change your mind. Ten seconds is quite a long time. Study each photograph carefully before answering: don't guess wildly. If you miss one question, don't stop to think i t out. It's more important to keep up with me as I go over the next question with you. Ready? Then look at Answer Sheet ONE. Tn rhr n p n r r - Tn the top right-hand corner, £±£1 in your name, the grade you are In, how old you are; draw a circle around "Boy" i f you are a boy, and around "Girl" i f you are a g i r l . Now open your Test Booklets at page 1. I want you to think of this photograph as i f i t was a scene that you were looking at through a window. When you look at things through a window you can t e l l that some of the things you are seeing are quite near or close to you and some things are far away. For example, in the photograph on page 1 you can see a g i r l , marked X, and a house, marked Y. Which looks nearer to you: the gi r l marked X or the house marked Y? Now look-at Question 1 on your Answer Sheet. You can see that you have three choices in answering. The first says: The part marked X (that Is, the girl) looks nearer (to me) than the part marked Y (that is, the house). There is a l i t t l e square beside that sentence. If you think that is the best of the three choices, you would put a check mark in that square. The second says: The part marked Y looks nearer to me than the pait marked X. If you think that is the best choice, you would put,a check mark i n that square. The third says: The part marked X and the part marked Y look the same distance away from me. If you think that is the best of the three choices, you would put a check mark in that square. (The teacher may clarify as necessary). You have three choices: make one check mark with your pencils, in ten seconds, starting NOW. - 2 - 1 3 0 . At the end of ten seconds, the teacher says: S t o p . The n e x t f i v e q u e s t i o n s a r e g o i n g t o ask f o r the same c h o i c e s : Does che pare marked X l o o k n e a r e r than che p a r t marked Y? Does the p a r t marked Y l o o k n e a r e r Chan che p a r t marked X? Do p a r e s X and Y l o o k che same d i s t a n c e away? W e ' l l do Chem one aC a t i m e . Turn Co page 2 i n y o u r TesC BookleCs and l o o k ac p h o t o g r a p h 2 (che F e r r i s w h e e l ) . On your Answer SheeC, where i c s a y s Q u e s t i o n 2, put a check mark i n the l i t t l e s q u a r e b e s i d e the c h o i c e you make, i n t e n s e c o n d s , s C a r C i n g NOW. SCop. Uock of fU.H Now p h o t o g r a p h 3 (t-bn aparCmant b l o d e s ) . Answer Q u e s t i o n 3 by c h e c k i n g the s q u a r e o f y o u r c h o i c e i n cen seconds s t a r C i n g NOW. SCop Now phoCograph 4 ( t h e c r a n e ) . Answer Q u e s t i o n 4 by c h e c k i n g che s q u a r e o f y o u r c h o i c e i n cen seconds sCartingNOW. S l ° P f ^ ^ f » ^ c^,*~«<- W T u » o . Now phoCograph 5 (che s c r e e t l i g h t ) . Answer O u e s c i o n 5 by c h e c k i n g che s q u a r e o f y o u r c h o i c e i n Cen seconds s c a r C i n g NOW. S t o p . Now phoCograph 6 (che c o n v e y e r b e l C s ) . Answer Q u e s t i o n 6 by c h e c k i n g the s q u a r e o f y o u r c h o i c e i n t e n seconds s c a r C i n g NOW. Scop. Now we have anoCher k i n d o f p r o b l e m f o r you co s o l v e . Look a t Answer Sheec TWO. You w i l l s ee ChaC some shapes have been drawn on i c , w i c h a l i n e b e s i d e each shape. I n a fewmoments I'm g o i n g Co ask you t o t u r n Che page of y o u r TesC B o o k l e C s ,°ana V.1iGis^y'ou?^o y o u ' l l see s i x pho t o g r a p h s , numbered 7 eh rough 12. Each p h o t o g r a p h has one of t h e shapes on Answer Sheec TWO somewhere i n i c . You a r e Co w r i c e the number of the p h o t o g r a p h where you f i n d the shape on t h e l i n e b e s i d e Che shape. Suppose you d i s c o v e r t h a t che f i r s t shape on y o u r answer sheec can be found i n p h o t o g r a p h 9. You would w r i t e 9 on t h e l i n e b e s i d e che f i r s t shape. The teacher demonstrates until a l l the children seen to understated what is required. Each shape i s used o n l y once, so you s h o u l d use e v e r y number between 7 and 12. A l l d i e shapes on the An.swer SheeC a r e about the same s i z e as they - 3 -131 . are i n che ph o t o g r a p h s . T h i s time, i n s C e a d o f s t o p p i n g you a f t e r 10 s e c o n d s , w e ' l l add a l l the times t o g e t h e r Co g i v e us 60 seconds. You have 60 seconds Co answer a l l o f Answer Sheec TWO, so t u r n Co pages 4 and 5 of che TesC BookleC and b e g i n NOW. Stop. Nww-We' 11 move to the next sec o f problems. Look aC phoCograph 13 on page 7 o f your TesC BookleC, and Chen aC QueaCion 13 on Answer SheeC THREE. The q u e s C i o n s a y s : How many p e o p l e do you see i n Chis phoCograph? When you know che answer, you make a chec k mark i n Che numbered s q u a r e . So i f you see two p e o p l e i n c h i s phoCograph, you would make a check mark i n che square w i t h 2 p r i n C e d i n i t . Sometimes you w i l l see o n l y p a r e o f the o b j e c c . CounC che p a r t as one; buc remember t h a c Cwo p a r e s o f t h e same t h i n g don't count as Cwo. S i n c e chey a r e p a r e s o f che same c h i n g , you would o n l y counC one. We w i l l do chese one a t a tim e , C a k i n g Cen seconds Co answer each q u e s -C i o n . T u r n che page on you r TesC B o o k l e t Co page 8, l o o k aC phoCograph 14, and c h e c k how many l e a v e s you s e e , i n cen seconds s c a r C i n g NOW. Scop. Now Q u e s C i o n 15. How many irc»lgrrt>«-isai'3 ao you see, i n 10 seconds s c a r C i n g NOW. SCop. Now Q u e s C i o n 16. How many wagon wheels do you s e e , i n 10 seconds s c a r C i n g NOW. Scop. Now Q u e s C i o n 17. How many c h i l d r e n do you s e e , i n 10 seconds s c a r C i n g NOW. SCop. SU*jrC^ c<>~Arr^»CTF--^ —ar»4-~ee--p«g«~i^Hk*--y«t^^ . *ou w i l l see a phoCograph o f a f e n c e , w i c h a b l a c k p a t c h c o v e r i n g p a r t o f i c . Q u e s C i o n 18 on Answer Sheet HMfK?shows Chree d r a w i n g s , and you are asked t o choose w h i c h o f the t h r e e d r a w i n g s l o o k s most l i k e the way t h i n g s would l o o k under the b l a c k p a t c h i n p h o t o g r a p h 18. I f you d e c i d e t h a t d r a w i n g A l o o k s most l i k e the way t h i n g s would l o o k under the b l a c k p a t c h , you would make a check mark i n che l i e t l e s q u a r e marked A. I f you d e c i d e d che besC answer was B, you'd check the B s q u a r e , and so on. Make your check mark i n s q u a r e A, B, o r C now. 132. - A -We are going to add together the times for questions 19, 20, and 21, so that you have 30 seconds to "do a l l three. Turn the page in your Test Booklets to page iS* and begin NOW. l O Stop. The next questions are about how one thing looks l i k e another. Some-times two things look exactly the same. At other times you can make the best choice from a l o t of things that are r e a l l y a l l a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t . If I say: Who i s Joe l i k e in this class? You might answer that he i s n ' t exactly l i k e anybody e l s e , but he looks more l i k e B i l l than any of the others because they are about the same height and have the same colour of h a i r . You'd have made your choice by deciding that B i l l has more features that look l i k e Joe's features than anybody else i n the c l a s s . The teacher may clarify as necessary. It is important that the childrrn realize that they should look for as many points of similarity as possible in making a choice. \\ <*C^> Look at photograph 22, on page t§ of your Test Booklets. There are four gear wheels, marked A, B, C, and D. I am going to ask which other gear wheel A looks most l i k e : or do they -111 look exactly the same? Now look at Question 22, on Answer Sheet r i V . " . Y o u have four choices: A looks most l i k e B; A looks most l i k e C; A looks raosi l i k e D; they a l l look exactly the same. You would put a check mark in the square beside the best answer. Take 10 seconds to do that, s t a r t i n g NOW. Now w e ' l l t r y the next one: Look at Question 23, on the Answer Sheet.f-Your choices are A and B; A and C: B and C: and A l l the Same. Turn the it page to page M of your Test Booklets and answer Question 23 (Grain elevators) i n ten seconds, s t a r t i n g NOW. ^r»\v\ s U o i Stop. Now Question 24 (Knives) in ten sconds, s t a r t i n g NOW. Stop. Now Question 23 (Spoons) in ten seconds, s t a r t i n g NOW. Stop. Now Question 26 (Gloves) in ten seconds, s t a r t i n g NOW. Stop. Turn to page ±6. in your Tost Booklets. Now do Question 27 ( F i r e hydrants) in ten seconds, s t a r t i n g NOW. S t o p . IS" Now l o o k a t page i=? i n y o u r Teat B o o k l e t s . P h o t o g r a p h 28 was p r o d u c e d by b e g i n n i n g w i t h a n o r m a l p h o t o g r a p h ( F i r s t s t a g e ) t i l t i n g i t (Second s t a g e ) and c u t t i n g i t s edges ( T h i r d s t a g e ) . Look a t Q u e s t i o n 28 on Answer Sheet S I X You a r e asked t o d e c i d e w h i c h o f t h t h r e e d r a w i n g s , A, B o r C, i s most l i k e the way p h o t o g r a p h 28 ( T h i r d s t a g e ) was b e f o r e i t was t i l t e d and c u t . T h i s i s v e r y e a s y , because we have t h e f i r s t s t a g e a t the top o f page t?', 5 and we can see t h a t d r a w i n g B i s most l i k e i t . So we would make a c h e c k mark i n t h e l i t t l e s q u a r e marked B i n Q u e s t i o n 28. The o t h e r s a r e n o t so e a s y , because a l l you w i l l have i s the t i l t e d and c u t p h o t o g r a p h ( l i k e p h o t o g r a p h 28: T h i r d S t a g e ) . You w i l l have t o d e c i d e w h i c h o f t h e t h r e e d r a w i n g s , A, B o r C, i s most l i k e t h e way each p h o t o g r a p h was b e f o r e i t was t i l t e d and c u t . (The teacher may pause at this point and check to see that every one seems to understand what is required. ) We w i l l add a l l o u r t e n seconds t o g e t h e r t h i s t i m e , so t h a t you have 50 seconds t o answer Q u e s t i o n s 29 t h r o u g h 33. T u r n the page o f y o u r T e s t B o o k l e t s t o pages 1* and 19- and b e g i n NOW. S t o p . These n e x t q u e s t i o n s a r e about the way t h i n g s l o o k and t h e way t h i n g s r e a l l y a r e . Suppose you see y o u r f r i e n d a t the en'd o f a l o n g s t r e e t . How does he l o o k - v e r y s m a l l ? But has he r e a l l y grown v e r y s m a l l ? Or i s he r e a l l y the same s i z e as he a l w a y s was, but j u s t l o o k s s m a l l because he i s f a r away? Look a t p h o t o g r a p h 34, on p a g e ^ 2 * o f y o u r T e s t B o o k l e t s . T h e r e a r some s t r e e t l i g h t s , marked A, B, C, and D. Now l o o k a t Q u e s t i o n 34, on Answe Sheet SEVCN.f The q u e s t i o n a s k s : A r e the s t r e e t l i g h t s A, B, C and D r e a l l y t he same h e i g h t ? I f you t h i n k t h e y a r e , c h e c k the s q u a r e marked YES. I f you t h i n k t h e y a r e n o t , c h e c k t h e s q u a r e marked NO. Remember t o t h i n k about the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e way t h i n g s l o o k , and t h e way t h i n g s r e a l l y a r e . I O - ? , G C L Now t u r n the page i n y o u r t e s t b o o k l e t s t o page 2-3. Q u e s t i o n 35 a s k s : I s boy B r e a l l y t a l l e r t h a n Boy A? Answer YES o r jNO i n t e n s e c o n d s , s t a r t i n g NOW. S t o p . Q u e s t i o n 36. A r e bowls A, B, C and D r e a l l y t h e same s i z e ? Yes o r No i n t e n s e c o n d s , s t a r t i n g NOW. » S t o p . Q u e s t i o n 37. I s s i d e A o f the b o a r d r e a l l y f u r t h e r away f r o m you t h a n s i d e B? Yes o r No i n t e n s e c o n d s , s t a r t i n g NOW. S t o p . Q u e s t i o n 38. I s i t r e a l l y the same d i s t a n c e between p o s t s A and B, B and C, C and D, D and E, E and F, and F and G? Yes o r No i n t e n s e c o n d s , s t a r t i n g NOW. - 6 - 134 . Now t u r n t o page 2-5 I n y o u r T e s t B o o k l e t s . On t h i s page t h e r e a r e t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s o f c l o c k s . Now l o o k a t Q u e s t i o n 39 on Answer Shee t £IG ! 1 ? ^ The q u e s t i o n g i v e s y o u some c h o i c e s , and y o u have t o d e c i d e w h i c h i s the best, c h o i c e . The f i r s t i s t h a t a l l t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s a r e o f the same c l o c k . The s e c o n d i s t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s B and C a r e o f the same c l o c k , bu t A i s o f a d i f f e r e n t c l o c k . The t h i r d i s t h a t p h o t o g r a p h s A and C a r e o f t h e same c l o c k , bu t B i s o f a d i f f e r e n t c l o c k . The f o u r t h c h o i c e i s t h a t A and B a r e o f t h e same c l o c k , b u t C i s o f a d i f f e r e n t c l o c k . And t h e l a s t c h o i c e i s t h a t a l l t h r e e p h o t o g r a p h s a r e o f d i f f e r e n t c l o c k s . Y o u r c h o i c e s a g a i n a r e : A l l same, A d i f f e r e n t , B d i f f e r e n t , C d i f f e r e n t , a l l d i f f e r e n t . Make a c h e c k mark i n t h e s q u a r e b e s i d e t h e b e s t c h o i c e , i n t e n s e c o n d s , s t a r t i n g NOW. F o r Q u e s t i o n 40, t he c h o i c e s a r e t h e same. T u r n t o page £6 i n y o u r T e s t B o o k l e t s , l o o k a t t h e p h o t o g r a p h s o f t h e s e a t s and do q u e s t i o n 40 i n t e n s e c o n d s , s t a r t i n g NOW. S t o p . Q u e s t i o n 41, t h e i r o n s . Same c h o i c e s , i n t e n s e c o n d s , s t a r t i n g NOW. S t o p . 2.4-T u r n t o page 2ft" i n y o u r T e s t B o o k l e t s , and answer q u e s t i o n 42 ( a i r c r a f t ) . Same c h o i c e s , i n t e n s e c o n d s , s t a r t i n g NOW. S t o p . II Now l o o k a t Answer Shee t N B ? C . T h e r e a r e some s h a p e s drawn on i t , and e a c h one has a l i n e b e s i d e i t . ^When I t e l l y o u , y o u w i l l t u r n the page o f y o u r T e s t B o o k l e t t o pages 20- and 5± and see s i x p h o t o g r a p h s numbered 43 .thr-ougfo +t? 4 8 . I n e a c h p h o t o g r a p h t h e r e i s an o b j e c t t h a t has an o u t l i n e l i k e one o f t h e s e shapes on A n s w e r Shee t K B t g ! ^ and I want y o u t o w r i t e t he number o f t he p h o t o g r a p h where the o u l i n e c a n be f o u n d on the l i n e b e s i d e the s h a p e . So i f y o u were to f i n d t h e f i r s t o u t l i n e i n p h o t o g r a p h 48, y o u w o u l d w r i t e 48 on the l i n e b e s i d e i t . The s h a p e s on t h e Answer Shee t may n o t be the same s i z e as i n the. p h o t o g r a p h , and some o f them may have been t u r n e d u p s i d e down o r s i d e w a y s . E a c h shape has been u s e d o n l y o n c e , so y o u s h o u l d have u s e d e v e r y number f rom 43 fhrn-i trh 48 when y o u have c o m p l e t e d a l l s i x i t e m s . W e ' l l add t o g e t h e r t h e t i m e s f o r a l l s i x i t e m s , so t h a t y o u have 60 s e c o n d s to answer t h e w h o l e p a g e , s t a r t i n g NOW. S t o p . C l o s e y o u r b o o k s . Answer Sheet ONE 1 3 5 . Q u e s t i o n 1 Part. X l o o k s n e a r e r than p a r t Y P a r t Y l o o k s n e a r e r than p a r t X Q P a r t X and p a r t Y l o o k the same d i s t a n c e away Q Q u e s t i o n 2 P a r t X l o o k s n e a r e r t h a n p a r t Y Q P a r t Y l o o k s n e a r e r than p a r t X £j[ P a r t X and p a r t Y l o o k t he same d i s t a n c e away Q Q u e s t i o n 3 P a r t X l o o k s n e a r e r t h a n p a r t Y Q P a r t Y l o o k s n e a r e r than p a r t X P a r t X and p a r t Y l o o k the same d i s t a n c e away Q Q u e s t i o n 4 P a r t X l o o k s n e a r e r t h a n p a r t Y Q P a r t Y l o o k s n e a r e r t h a n p a r t X P a r t X and p a r t Y l o o k t he same d i s t a n c e away Q e s t i o n 5 P a r t X l o o k s n e a r e r t h a n p a r t Y P a r t Y l o o k s n e a r e r than p a r t X P a r t X and p a r t Y l o o k the same d i s t a n c e away Q Q u e s t i o n 6 P a r t X l o o k s n e a r e r than p a r t Y Q P a r t Y l o o k s n e a r e r than p a r t X f J ^ J P a r t X and p a r t Y l o o k the same d i s t a n c e away Q Answer Sheet TWO 136. Answer Sheet THREE 137. Question 13 How many people do you see in this photograph Question 14 How many leaves do you see in this photograph Question 15 How many IfulglH cars do you see in this photograph 3 4 Question 16 How many wagon wheels do you see in this photograph Question 17 How many children do you see in this photograph 4 5 Answer Sheet FOUR 138 . Answer Sheet FIVE 139 . Q u e s t i o n 22 (Gear w h e e l s ) A l o o k s most l i k e B j J A l o o k s most l i k e C j J A l o o k s most l i k e D 1 J They a l l l o o k e x a c t l y a l i k e j ( Q u e s t i o n 23 ( G r a i n e l e v a t o r s ) A l o o k s most l i k e B j | A l o o k s most l i k e C ] | B l o o k s most l i k e C | | They a l l l o o k e x a c t l y a l i k e | [ Q u e s t i o n 24 ( K n i v e s ) A l o o k s most l i k e B j j A l o o k s most l i k e C | J B l o o k s most l i k e C | / They a l l l o o k e x a c t l y a l i k e j ) Q u e s t i o n 25 (Spoons) B l o o k s most l i k e A | | B l o o k s most l i k e D | | B l o o k s most l i k e E | f They a l l l o o k e x a c t l y a l i k e f [ Q u e s t i o n 26 ( G l o v e s ) A l o o k s most l i k e B { } A l o o k s most l i k e C | | A l o o k s most l i k e D | f They a l l l o o k e x a c t l y a l i k e I | Q u e s t i o n 27 ( F i r e h y d r a n t s ) A l o o k s most l i k e B 1 ) A l o o k s most l i k e C | ) B l o o k s most l i k e C j | They a l l l o o k e x a c t l y a l i k e 1 | Answer Sheet SIX 140. Question 28 Question 29 Question 30 Question 31 Question 32 Question 33 21 Answer Sheet SEVEN 141. Question 34 Are the streetl ights ABC and D real ly the same height Yes Q No Q Question 35 Is boy B real ly ta l l er than boy A Yes • No • Question 36 Are bowls ABC and D rea l ly the same size Ye8 • No • Question 37 Is side A of the board rea l ly further away from you than side B I — i Yes • No Q Question 38 Is i t rea l ly the same distance between posts A and B, B and C, C and D, D and E, E and F and F and G Yes • No Q Answer Sheet EIGHT Question 39 Photographs A, B, and C are a l l of the same clock Photograph A is of a different clock Photograph B is of a different clock Photograph C is of a different clock Photographs A, B and C are a l l of different clocks Question 40 Photographs A, B and C are a l l of the same seat Photograph A is of a different seat Photograph B is of a different seat Photograph C is of a different seat Photographs A, B and C are a l l of different seats Question 41 Photographs A, B and C are a l l of the same iron Photograph A is of a different iron Photograph B is of a different iron Ph o tograph C is of a different iron Photograph A,B and C are a l l of different irons Question 42 Photographs A, B and C are a l l of the same a ircraf t Photograph A is of a different a ircraf t Photograph B is of a different a ircraf t Photograph C is of a different a ircraf t Photograph A, B and C are a l l of different a i rcraf t Answer Sheet NINE 143 MPI (Amended v e r s i o n , C o l l i e r ) A n s w e r S h e e t ONE C a t e g o r y ONE: P e r c e p t i o n o f D i s t a n c e Q u e s t i o n 1 The g i r l X l o o k s n e a r e r t h a n t h e h o u s e Y The h o u s e Y l o o k s n e a r e r t h a n t h e g i r l X The g i r l X a n d t h e h o u s e Y l o o k t o be t h e same d i s t a n c e away Q u e s t i o n 2 The p a r t X l o o k s n e a r e s t t o me The p a r t Y l o o k s n e a r e s t t o me The p a r t Z l o o k s n e a r e s t t o me Q u e s t i o n 3 The p a r t X l o o k s n e a r e r t h a n t h e p a r t Y The p a r t Y l o o k s n e a r e r t h a n t h e p a r t X The p a r t X a n d t h e p a r t Y l o o k t o be t h e same d i s t a n c e away f r o m me Q u e s t i o n 4 The p a r t X l o o k s n e a r e r t h a n t h e p a r t Y The p a r t Y l o o k s n e a r e r t h a n t h e p a r t X The p a r t X a n d t h e P a r t Y l o o k t o be t h e same d i s t a n c e away Answer Sheet TWO Question 5 The part X looks nearer than the part Y The part Y looks nearer than the part X The part X and the part Y look to be the distance away Question 6 ' The part X looks nearer than the part Y The part Y looks nearer than the part X The part X and the part Y look: to be the distance away Category TWO: Perception of Embedded Figures Questions 7 - 1 2 145. • • same j^j • • same Answer Sheet THREE Category THREE: Perception of Shape Question 13 How many people (or p a r t s of people) 1 2 3 4 5 146, do you see? • • • • • Question 14 How many leaves (or pa r t s of leaves) doyousee? \h6h6£ Question 15 How many t r a i n c a r r i a g e s (or p a r t s of t r a i n c a r r i a g e s ) do you see? 3 4 5 g 7 Question 16 How many wagon wheels (or p a r t s of wagon wheels) do you see? 3 4 5 6 -7 • • • • • Question 1 7 How many c h i l d r e n (or p a r t s of c h i l d r e n ) do you see? 1 2 3 4 5 • • • • • Question 18 B • Question 19 Answer S h e e t FOUR 147. Q u e s t i o n 2 0 Q u e s t i o n 21 DO • C a t e g o r y ? 0 U K : P e r c e p t i o n o f S i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i f f e r e n c e s Q u e s t i o n 22 G e a r A and g e a r 3 l o o k most a l i k e Gear- A and g e a r C l o o k most a l i k e C-ear A and g e a r D l o o k most a l i k e They a l l l o o k e x a c t l y a l i k e • • • • Q u e s t i o n 23 G r a i n s i l o A and g r a i n s i l o B l o o k most a l i k e | ) G i - a i n s i l o A and g r a i n s i l o C l o o k most a l i k e I j G r a i n s i l o B and j r a i n s i l o C l o o k most a l i k e j j They a l l l o o k e x a c t l y a l i k e • Answer Sheet FIVE Question 24 Knife C and knife B look most a l i k e Knife C and knife A look most a l i k e Knife A and knife B look most a l i k e They a l l look exactly a l i k e Question 25 opoon C and spoon A look most a l i k e Spoon C and spoon B look most a l i k e Spoon G and spoon D look most a l i k e Spoon C and spoon S look most al i k e They a l l look exactly a l i k e Question 26 Glove A and Glove B look most a l i k e Glove A and glove C look most a l i k e Glove A and glove D look most a l i k e They a l l look exactly a l i k e Question 27 F i r e hydrant A and F i r e hydrant B look most a l i k e F i r e hydrant A and F i r e hydrant C look most a l i k e F i r e hydrant B and F i r e hydrant C look most a l i k e They a l l look, exactly a l i k e Answer Sheet SIX Category FIVE: P e r c e p t i o n of the V e r t i c a l Question 28 149. 150. Question 30 A • Question 31 ra Question 32 A • Answer Sheet SEVEN <3\ 13 < 0 • ) c • 4 c n 151. Answer Sheet EIGHT Question 33 f) U A o Category SIX: Perception Modified bv Constancy Question 34 Are the street l i g h t s A,B,C & D r e a l l y the same height? Question 35 Is boy B r e a l l y t a l l e r than Boy A? Question 36 Are bowls A.,B,C & D r e a l l y the same size.? Tea Q No Q Yes • No Q Yes Q No Q 152. Answer Sheet NINE Question 37 Is side A of one board r e a l l y further away from you than Yes Side B? No Question 38 Is i t r e a l l y the same distance between posts A & B, B & C, yes C & D, D & E, E & F, and F & G? No Question 39 Photographs A, B and C are a l l of the same clock Photograph A i s of a d i f f e r e n t clock Photograph B i s of a d i f f e r e n t clock Photograph C i s of a d i f f e r e n t clock Photographs A,B and C are a l l of di f f e r e n t clocks Answer Sheet TEN Question 40 Photographs A , B and C are a l l of the same t h i n g Photograph A i s of a d i f f e r e n t t h i n g Photograph B i s of a d i f f e r e n t t h i n g Photograph C i s of a d i f f e r e n t t h i n g Photographs A , B and C are a l l of d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s Question 41 Photographs A , B and C are a l l of the same i r o n Photograph A i s of a d i f f e r e n t i r o n Photograph B i s of a d i f f e r e n t i r o n Photograph 0 i s of a d i f f e r e n t i r o n Photographs A, B and C are a l l of d i f f e r e n t i r o n s Question 42 Photographs A, B and C are a l l of the same a i r c r a f t Photograph A i s of a d i f f e r e n t a i r c r a f t Photograph B i s of a d i f f e r e n t a i r c r a f t Photograph C i s of a d i f f e r e n t a i r c r a f t Photographs A , B and C are a l l of d i f f e r e n t a i r c r a f t 154. Answer Sheet ELEVEN 155. ANSWER KEY (Answers f o r both m o d i f i e d and o r i g i n a l MPI T e s t s ) Q. 1 - 6 X l o o k s n e a r e r than Y , X looks n e a r e r than Y Y l o o k s n e a r e r than X , X l o o k s n e a r e r than Y X l o o k s n e a r e r than Y , Y l o o k s n e a r e r than X Q. 7 - 1 2 11, 7, 8, 12, 10, 9 Q. 13 - 17 2, 5, 4, 6, 3 Q. 18 - 21 C , C , B , C Q. 2 2 - 2 7 A l o o k s most l i k e D , A l o o k s most l i k e C A l o o k s most l i k e C , B looks most l i k e E A l o o k s most l i k e B , A l o o k s most l i k e B Q. 28 - 33 B , B , B , C , B , B Q. 34 - 38 Y e s , no , no , n o , yes Q. 3 9 - 4 2 B i s d i f f e r e n t , a l l same s e a t , C i s d i f f e r e n t , a l l same a i r c r a f t Q. 43 - 48 ( o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n ) 47, 44, 48, 46, 43, 45 Q. 43 - 48 (modi f i ed v e r s i o n ) 44, 48, 46, 47, 43 , 45 TEST BOOKLET 1 5 7 . . TEST BOOKLET p a g e 1 1 158. 3 159. page 3 page 4 1 6 3 . page 7 164. page 9 165. page 11 167. 168.' 170. page 17 p a g e 18 174. 177. 181. 182. APPENDIX C Responses to the MPI RESPONSES TO THE MPI ' NON-GIFTED 184 . GIFT o <D CM •P u o t»0 GRADE 5 G.LADE 6 GRADE 5 i i r l s Boys G i r l s Boys G i i l s r? 2 4 \ - \ \ \ \ \ - \ - - \ \ \ \ \ - v - - \ \ \ \ - " ^ - \ ^ ' - - • 5• \ \ \ \ • \\ • \ \ • \ v \ \ \ • ' • • • \ • • • \ \• • \ • \ \ 6 ' • • \ • • \ \ \ \ v \ . . \ - . \ \ . « - \ - -7 . • • • • • • \ \ - - \ - - \ - . \ \ • \ \ • • 8 • • • • • • • • • • \ . • • • . • 9 • • ' • . \ • - \ • • • • - \ \ \- \- •• §> 10 11 \ r • \ • «J 12 • • • • ' * \ • • • \ ' ° 13 - N • • \ • • • • x v \ \ . . . . • 1 4 \ . ^ \ . \ \ v . \ . . \ \ \ \ • \ \ \ . \ • \ • \ \ \ 15 \ \ \ \ \ • • \ \ - \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ - - \ \ \ V \ \ \ \ \ -16' \ • \ \ \ \ v \ • . \ \ \ \ \ \ - \ • • \ \ \ W 17N • v \ \ \ v \ \ \ \ \ \ \ • • s \ • • • \ • • \ \ \ a n 18 ^  \ \ • \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ - • - \ \ - \ \ "5 19* • \ N • • •• • \ \ \ \ • • • \ • • N • \ * ' ' \ ' • \ • \ • * • • u 20 • \ \ • - \ . \ . \ . \ \ \ \ . . . \ \ . \ . * . . \ \ \ . . \ . . 21- v • • \ V \ ' • • . \ " \ • • • • \ • •» 22- • • • • \ . . . S 23' • • v \ • . • • • \ • • • Vi 24 * • N • N \ \ - ' V - \ \ - \ \ - \ ' \ ' \ ' - \ -CD »3--P 25* • • • • • \ • \ \ • • \ \ • • \ • \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ • • \ A 26 * \ \ - - \ \ \ \ ' \ - \ \ N 27 \ N ' \ v \ • \ U \ • N \ . \ \ \ \ - - \ - \ \ \ \ - - \ \ \ \ \ >» 28 \ • £ 2 9 - \ N . . . \ . - \ . . . . \ - . \ . . . . - -Vi 30 \ N \ \ \ v • • \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ - \ * - V X N V ^ - V ^ X ' X X - • ® 31 • v \ v V - \ - \ \ \ \ N N V \ \ - \ \ • \ - v • • • N \ v • • \ \ a 32. N • \ • • • . s \ . \ . . \ \ \ v . \ \ \ . - - - - \ - \ - - - - ' 3 3 - - , \ - ' - - N \ \ * * \ \ v - \ \ . . • • 34 • • • • • \ . . . . . . . . . . . \ • 35\ • • • \ \ \ - • • • • 36 • •• \ •• \ • \ • • • \\ \ ©VO 39 \ \ ' \ N • • "s \ \ - x • • \ • \ "S 4 0 . s \ \ - . - . \ \ \ w - . N • \ • \ • • o 4 1 - . - v * \ • • . s V 4 2 \ \ - \ \ . \ v v \ \ \ N . . \ • \ • - x • \ - • • \ • \ • • • • 43 \ N . s s ••• • . . v. . . • x • §, 44 • • \ • • • • • • v • \ • • • • - \ • \ v - • • • • • CDC- 4 5 . . - • \ • \ \ • • • • • • \ • • \ \ • . • • \ • S 46 - • • . . v . s • • -• o 47 • • * ^ v \ • • \ • • • • • • 48 • • \ • v • v • • • - - • s • • • • N \ • • • • • • T o t a l s 3i«yi i~v-v\\% wt-u v v i\ V?IM,% * C 9*21 -^>%^yt vsi n m / I i °il S« +i£ Vi Vn \S ft 0> i s j £ H? S i k * <L£ %i ll $i ° * 51 • * • • . ' • . • • -n-n b t • \ • \ ' \ • •rti I S cWi V i M l Vn Vi \ \ \ \ • . • . • \ . . ' • * • • • . • • - h i -U \ \ \ \ \ \ • \ \ \ N • \ • • \ \ \ \ \ *)> \ \ • \ \ • "\ - \ . \ N • . \ . . . \ • • N 05 a i ^ \ \ • \ • \ ZA °n °11 •h-n . \ • \ ' • \ \ • • \ • . • • a s >*> • . . • \ • \ • ft t * * » . \ • • • • \ . \ \ \ • . • \ °\l o\ \ \ N \ \ \ \ • \ \ - N \ \ \ . \ \ \ \ • LI . \ • \ • V • • • . • • \ . \ • . \ \ \ \ 0> \ \ \ \ \ • \ . \ \ • \ \ \ \ \ \ s \ \ N w \ \ • \ \ \ • \ \ \ \ • \ • \ \ • • • \ N H \ \ . \ \ • • • \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ N \ \ N 5* • t • • > • • . . • N • • . • 05 H i V h • * • • * • # » * • • • . • \ . . . . • 1* 15 1+ 11 . \ . \ • \ • \ \ \ \ \ * \ \ . • • . . \ 5-1 N \ • \ • \ • • . \ • \ • . \ . • \ \ \ • C I . \ • • • \ \ • \ • \ • • \ \ \ \ \ • • • • • \ • ' • . • " * • * • a . \ • • • • • * * » . • * • S ? i i s -*> s "I i s, •* S i C o g 9 3 C T Y J K ) "S8T IdW 3H1 OA S3SN0dS3tf APPENDIX D Authorization Letters 188 . T h e H o l t S c h o o l 20th May, 1985. Dear Parents, Ms. Robyn C o l l i e r i s undergoing post-graduate work i n Education. She would l i k e to test a random sample of Year 5/6 children at our school. The ch i l d r e n would be asked to look at a series of 'pictures'. The chi l d r e n would then respond to a set of three or four answers by i n d i c a t i n g which one best describes the picture. The time required would be a maximum of one hour. The Schools Authority has given approval f o r this study. We are seeking your approval f o r your c h i l d to be involved i n th i s project. Please complete the s l i p below i f you have no obj ections. R.D. Blakey Acting P r i n c i p a l . RANDOM SAMPLE - RETURN SLIP I hereby give approval for my son/daughter to be involved i n t h i s study. Signed Parent/Guardian LYONS PRIMARY SCHOOL 189 . 27 March 1985 Dear P a r e n t s , Ms. Robyn C o l l i e r i s u n d e r g o i n g p o s t - g r a d u a t e work i n E d u c a t i o n . She would l i k e t o t e s t a random sample o f Year 5/6 c h i l d r e n a t our s c h o o l . The c h i l d r e n would be asked t o l o o k a t a s e r i e s o f ' p i c t u r e s ' . The c h i l d r e n would then respond t o a s e t o f t h r e e o r f o u r answers by i n d i c a t i n g which one b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e p i c t u r e . The t i m e r e q u i r e d would be a maximum o f one hour. The S c h o o l s A u t h o r i t y has g i v e n a p p r o v a l f o r t h i s s t u d y . We a r e s e e k i n g y o u r a p p r o v a l f o r y o u r c h i l d t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t . P l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h e s l i p below i f you have no o b j e c t i o n s . A. BISHOP ACTING PRINCIPAL RANDOM SAMPLE - RETURN S L I P I hereby g i v e a p p r o v a l f o r my s o n / d a u g h t e r t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Parent/Guardian APPENDIX E Test Schedule 1 9 1 . APPENDIX E T e s t S c h e d u l e D a t e Time G r o u p A A p r i l 11 9:05 — 9:45 am 11 ' 10;35 11;10 am G r o u p B 11 11;30 12:05 pm 12 ,9:05 9:45 am 12 11:15 - 11:45 am G r o u p C 23 9:30 10:05 am 23 10:35 - 11:05 am G r o u p D 23 11:30 - n o o n 24 9:30 - 10:10 am 24 10:35 11:10 am APPENDIX F Mann-Whitney U. Table of C r i t i c a l Values AI'I'KNDIX TAHI.E K. TABLE or CUITICAL VAI.TJES»OF U IN THE MANN-WIIITNET TEST* (Continued) Tabic Kiv. Critirhl Viilucs of U for n One-tailed Test at o - .05 or fur a Two-tailed Teal at a - .10 ni X 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1G 17 18 19 20 1 0 0 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 10 11 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 18 5 9 11 12 13 15 16 18 19 20 22 23 25 6 12 14 16 17 19 21 23 25 2G 28 30 32 7 15 17 19 21 24 2G 28 30 33 35 3" 39 8 18 20 23 20 28 31 33 36 39 41 44 47 9 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 10 24 27 31. 34 37 41 44 48 51 55 58 62 11 27 31 34, 38 42 46 50 54 57 61 65 69 12 30 34 38 42 47 51 55 60 64 68 72 77 13 33 37 42 47 51 56 61 65 70 75 80 84 14 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 77 82 87 92 15 39 44 50 55 61 66 72 77 83 8S 94 100 1G 42 48 54 60 65 71 77 83 89 95 101 107 1" 45 51 57 64 70 77 83 89 90 102 109 115 18 48 55 61 68 75 82 88 95 102 109 116 123 19 51 58 65 72 80 87 94 101 109 116 123 130 20 54 G2 69 77 84 92 100 107 115 123 130 138 * Adapted and abridged from Tables 1, 3, 5, and 7 of Aublc, D. 1953. Extended tables for the Mann-\Vhitney statistic. Bulletin of the Institute of Educational Research at Indiana University, 1, No. 2, with the kind permission of the author and the publisher. Sidney Siegel (1'956), Nonparametric Stat is t ics for the Behavioral Sciences, New York: McGraw-Hill. APPENDIX G LGA Socio-economic  indicator scores (used to select population! 195. The Development of the 1984 'Indicator of Disadvantage' and i t s Application to Resource A l l o c a t i o n Decisions for the Disadvantaged Schools Program i n A u s t r a l i a . Kenneth Ross, Deakin University, July 1984. LGA SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATOR SCORES BASED ON 19S1 CD CENSUS DATA C' INDEX') •RANK' ' RANK Of LGA Br INDICATOR ACROSS AUSTRALIA •S RANK • » RANK OF LGA BY INDICATOR WITHIN THE STATE/TERRITORY ORDERED BY LGA WITHIN STATES - - STATE-ACT i -L G A LGA N A M E INDEX RANK S RANK LGA_POPN NO_CDS STD _DEW MIM_CO MAX 1 AC TON 74.6 1137 80 1498 1 7*.6 74 2 A 1 ML I E 5 5 . 1 952 1 7 4748 9 5 .7 47.3 65 J ARANDA 70.2 1125 74 J047 S 4 .8 6 7 . 2 79 I BARTON 5 5 . 8 973 I B 713 i . 5 5 . 6 55 5 B E L C O N N E N 52 . 7 887 9 499 i 5 2 . 7 52 6 BEK.ONNEN - BALANCE 53.2 906 12 91 i 53.2 53 7 BRAOOON 54.5 940 15 2 4 4 2 4 9 .2 40.4 60 8 BMULE 57 .9 1015 25 367 1 . 5 7 . 9 57 9 CAMPBELL 66.8 1 112 66 4214 7 6 .9 56.2 76 10 C H A P M A N 74.1 1 1 36 79 3536 J 2 .0 71.» ' 75 1 1 C M A R N W O O D 54.6 942 16 3479 5 3.3 50.7 58 12 C H l l L f Y 60.6 1048 37 2901 3 1 .2 5 9 . 1 61 1 3 CITY 59.6 1033 33 301 1 . 5 9 . 6 59 14 C G I 1 K 68. 1 1 116 69 3257 5 B .0 62.6 83 1 5 CURT IN 65.2 1 104 61 6167 11 3 .2 5 9 . 7 70 16 DE A * IN 71.5 1 1 30 75 2759 5 7 .5 6 3 . 2 . 80 1 7 DICKSON 59.1 1028 30 2295 4 4 .6 S I . 3 61 18 D O W N E R 57.0 999 22 4075 5 1 .0 SS.S 58 19 OUI f 1 64 .7 1102 59 3855 4 4 . 1 61.9 70 20 EVA! ! 61.6 1061 39 5791 7 5 .0 S 3 . 3 67 21 f A R R E R 67.8 1115 68 4066 5 4 .5 6 0 . 6 72 22 f 1 SHEH 61.5 1087 53 3779 5 2 .9 60.3 ' 68 23 FLORE Y 64 .5 1099 58 284 1 . 6 4 . 5 64 74 ( L Y N N 66.0 1108 64 4289 4 4 6 6 1 . 8 72 25 F O H REST 7 3.6 1 1 35 78 1174 2 7 .8 6 8 . 9 80 26 iUAS tR 69.5 1 122 7 3 2453 3 3 .6 6 6 . 6 ' 73 27 f YSnuICK 49.6 709 5 80 \ 4 9 . 6 49 2a GARHAN 68.4 1118 71 3655 4 5 .1 6 4 . 1 74 29 G1MALANG 62.5 107S 46 3779 4 2 .5 60.4 66 30 GOWR1 £ 67.4 1113 67 411 1 , 67.4 67 Jl GRIFFITH 61 .9 1064 41 3025 5 6 .0 51.S 66 32 GuNGAHL 1 N 54.5 939 14 9 5 1 5 4 . 5 54 i 3 II A C • £ 1 T 63.0 1082 51 3403 S 4 .5 5 4 . 8 66 14 HALL 60.3 1045 35 2.. .'• 1 6 0 . 3 60 5 5 Il A U < E R 72.2 1131 76 3030 5 8 . 1 56.4 75 36 H lGGI ' J S 58.9 1026 28 4013 5 1 .8 56.9 61 3 7 HOLDER 64 . 1 1096 56 3410 4 2 .4 6 2 . 0 67 18 HOI 1 59.6 1032 32 4 370 5 3 .0 57.4 64 39 MUGHt'S 66 . 6 1 1 10 65 3144 6 5 . 1 61.0 75 4 1 JlMKAHOMBERRA 4 6 . 5 284 1 7 76 1 4 .5 41.4 50 42 J ikv1S DAY 4 / . 8 4 33 3 787 3 16 .9 2 3 . 0 55 4 1 * Al au 63 . 3 1084 52 74 71 10 2 9 58.8 67 4 4 A K II A tl 6 2 . 3 1069 44 16351 18 4 0 56.9 70 4 S • 1 N I . S VON so. a 809 6 850 2 14 2 3 3 . 6 53 46 I.OWE H 53.1 905 1 1 38 1 53.1 53 i. / L A 1 HAM 62.9 1079 48 3424 3 2 2 60.9 65 48 I YNE ><AH 56 . 7 991 21 2269 5 5 7 50.9 63 49 I TONS 59.3 1030 31 3208 6 10 3 36.7 64 50 MC&EILAR 54 . 1 926 1 3 34 ] 54.1 54 S I MAl_l.REi.OM . 3 1068 43 4 365 5 4 2 58.7 68 5 2 MACOliAHIE 62.3 1071 45 24 7 7 3 3 8 58.9 66 196. L G A S O C l O - E C O N O M I C INDICATOR SCORES BASED ON 19B1 CO CENSUS DATA( 1 INDEX'I • R A N K ' - RANK OF LGA BY INDICATOR ACROSS AUSTRALIA •S_RANK' • RANK OF L G A BY INDICATOR WITHIN THE STATE/TERRITORY ORDERED BY LGA WITHIN STATES STATE-ACT L G A L G A _ N A M f c INDEX RANK S_RANK LGA_POPN N0_C0S «TO_OEW 5 3 M A J U R A 5 3 . 1 901 10 343 2 J.9 5 4 M A U S O N 6 1 .9 1065 42 2815 4 7.5 5 5 ME L B A 5 8 . 6 1023 27 4647 6 If .0 5 7 M O N A S H 64 . 3 1098 57 2034 1 . 5 8 N A R R A O U N P A M 5 2 .0 870 8 5512 8 11.0 3 9 0 • C O N N O R 5 8 . 4 1021 26 5266 10 r.o 6 0 0 ' M A L L E r 7 7 . 9 1138 81 105 1 • 4 1 C A G E 5 9 . 0 1027 29 2635 3 6 3 P E A R C E 6 5 . 4 1105 62 2938 3 6.4 6 1 P H I L L I P 6 8 . 3 1117 70 355 1 6 5 P 1 A L L A G O 56 . 2 981 19 131 1 . 6 6 R E D M I L L 68 . 6 1120 72 3118 5 11.7 6 7 H E 1 0 57 .0 1000 23 1420 3 1J.7 6 8 R I V E 1 1 6 1 . 3 1053 38 4100 7 2.7 6 9 i C U L L 1 H 6 0 . 4 1046 36 3200 4 1.4 7 0 S P E N C E 6 3 . 9 1093 55 3321 3 1.6 71 S I I R L 1 N G 62 . 7 1076 47 1287 1 • 71 S 1 R O M l 0 6 0 . 3 1044 34 180 1 7 ; s yMON 5 T O N 4 8 . 3 520 4 244 1 7 1 I O R R E N S 6 5 .•2 1103 60 2627 3 5.2 7 5 I U G G E R A N O N C - B A L A N C E 56 . 5 988 20 98 1 »!* 7 6 T U R N E R 61 . 7 1062 40 1968 5 7 7 U A N N I A S S A 63 . 7 1090 54 8742 9 3.7 7 8 W A R A M A N G A 63 . 0 1081 50 3138 3 4.4 7 9 W A T S O N 57 .9 1014 24 4085 6 3.0 8 0 U E E T A N G E R A 73 .1 1133 77 3304 4 2.7 8 1 W E S T O N 65 . 4 1106 63 3739 6 4.9 8 7 W E S I O N C R E E K - B A L A N C E 4 7 . 0 352 2 95 1 . 8 3 Y A R R A L U M L A 62 . 9 1080 49 2882 5 4.1 8 4 A C T - R E M A I N D E R 51 . 3 846 7 378 3 10.8 MIN CO 57 71 73 64 67 65 77 59 72 68 56 81 69 .0 66 .3 61.5 65 .8 62 .7 60 .3 48.3 69 .0 56 69 73 66 63 76 73 47 70. 1 65 .3 Source: The A u s t r a l i a n Department of Education, A.C.T, 

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