UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

"291" and cultural criticism : to see through closed eyes 1987

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1987_A8 D36.pdf [ 14.69MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0097259.json
JSON-LD: 1.0097259+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0097259.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0097259+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0097259+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0097259+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0097259.ris

Full Text

"291" AND CULTURAL CRITICISM: TO SEE THROUGH CLOSED EYES By MARILYN CHRISTINE JOHANNE DANIELS B.A. Hons., McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , 1976 2nd B.A. Hons., McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Fine A r t s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1987 _) M a r i l y n C h r i s t i n e Johanne D a n i e l s , 1987 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 D a t e Q ctO for i S i H 8 7 --6 (3/81) i i A b s t r a c t A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z and the members of '291' are most of t e n remembered i n the a r t h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g modernism i n t o America through the work of European a r t i s t s and through the i n t e g r a t i o n of c u r r e n t European formal experiments i n t o the work of American a r t i s t s . While some authors have r e f e r r e d to the f a c t that t h i s modernism, as presented by 291, was intended to c r i t i q u e s o c i e t y , any a n a l y s i s of that c r i t i q u e i s con s p i c u o u s l y m i s s i n g . A l s o absent i s an a n a l y s i s of what one contemporary c r i t i c r e f e r r e d to as the "queer symbolism l u r k i n g at the P o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t h y p o t h e s i s . " In t h i s t h e s i s the f o l l o w i n g questions are asked: what was 291's c r i t i q u e and why d i d they i n s i s t upon the expression of the ' i r r a t i o n a l ' s t a t e s of the p s y c h e — p a s s i o n , i n t u i t i o n and imagination, i n t h e i r a r t . By s i t u a t i n g 291 w i t h i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r set of contexts I attempt to e x p l a i n what t h e i r p o s i t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d — to the members themselves and to t h e i r r i v a l s . i i i Table of Contents A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s v Acknowledgement v i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Notes 14 Chapter One The P r o g r e s s i v e Era as Turning Point 17 C o n f l i c t i n g R e - d e f i n i t i o n s of D i r e c t i o n 23 A r t as Upholding the Past i n the Present: The Great Masters C o l l e c t i o n s , American Impressionism and the 'Eight' 27 Notes 38 Chapter Two- '291': 1908-1910 • Pamela Colman Smith and 291's Symbolist Roots 42 The F i r s t European E x h i b i t i o n s : "Memoranda of the Gutter and B r o t h e l " 46 John Marin and Marsden H a r t l e y and the Search Beyond the Present 52 Notes 60 C h a p t e r T h r e e - '291': 1911-1913 J o h n M a r i n , Abraham W a l k o w i t z and M o d e r n i t y 63 A r t h u r Dove, M a r s d e n H a r t l e y and t h e B r e a k w i t h R e p r e s e n t a t i o n 70 The B a n k r u p t I n t e l l e c t 73 N o t e s 79 C o n c l u s i o n 81 83 B i b l i o g r a p h y ... 94 I l l u s t r a t i o n s V L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s F i g . l - Robert Reid. The V i o l e t Kimono, c.1910:.... 94 F i g . 2 - Pamela Colman Smith. The Wave, 1903 . 95 F i g . 3 - Auguste Rodin. K n e e l i n g G i r l - Drawing No.6 96 F i g . 4 - Henri Matisse. Nude, c.1907. 97 F i g . 5 - Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. Woman i n Co r s e t - Conquest of Passage, 1896. 98 F i g . 6 - A l f r e d H. Maurer. Woman with Hat, 1907 99 F i g . 7 - John Marin. M i l l s and Bridge, Meaux, 1907 100 Fi g . 8 - Marsden H a r t l e y . Cosmos, 1908-9. 101 F i g . 9 - Marsden H a r t l e y . The Dark Mountain, 1909. 102 Fig.10- John Marin. From the Window of 291 Looking Down F i f t h Avenue, 1912. 103 Fig.11- John Marin. Movement, F i f t h Avenue, 1912 104 Fig.12- Abraham Walkowitz. Scene i n the Park, n.d. .......105 Fig.13- John Sloan. The P i c n i c Grounds, 1906-7 106 Fig.14- Arthur Dove. Nature Symbolized No.2 107 (Wind on a H i l l s i d e ) , 1911/12 Fig.15- Marsden H a r t l e y . P a i n t i n g No.l, 1913 108 v i Acknowledgement I would f i r s t l i k e to acknowledge the profound impact which working with my s u p e r v i s o r s , Dr. Serge G u i l b a u t and Dr. David S o l k i n , and t h e i r students has had upon the development of my understanding of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l processes. Secondly, I would l i k e to thank those f r i e n d s who, each i n t h e i r own way, helped me throughout the process of producing t h i s t h e s i s . I would l i k e to thank Meg Houk f o r h e l p i n g me to understand the process of l e a r n i n g and Marion Yas and Malcolm Kennard f o r , among other t h i n g s , h e l p i n g me to understand the process of c r e a t i v i t y . I would a l s o l i k e to thank Marnie Fleming f o r p r o v i d i n g a needed connection with the past while I was w r i t i n g t h i s i n London, O n t a r i o . My g r e a t e s t i n t e l l e c t u a l debts i n the a c t u a l p r oduction of t h i s t h e s i s are owed to Michael Kuiack, f o r s h a r i n g h i s knowledge of the P r o g r e s s i v e Era, and to Yule H e i b e l who has, i n many ways, helped me "to see through open eyes'. I would a l s o l i k e to thank P a t r i c i a Baron and A l e x i s Bawagan f o r t h e i r kindness i n the l a s t j e t - lagged days of t h i s work's completion. Above a l l others i s one person who deserves acknowledgement: Rana Sodhi. I would l i k e to thank him simply f o r being who he i s and f o r s h a r i n g that with me. I t i s to him that I would l i k e to dedicate t h i s work. 1 INTRODUCTION The f i r s t decade of t h i s century was an important one i n the development of American a r t . At that time New York, the most modern commercial c i t y i n America, began to develop an a r t scene that would l a t e r challenge P a r i s as the dominant a r t center of the world. U n t i l the f i r s t decade, however, America was a place i n which very l i t t l e a r t a c t i v i t y could be found. In the l a t e years of the n i n e t e e n t h century a r t i s t s who wished to gain r e c o g n i t i o n , such as James McNeil W h i s t l e r and Mary C a s s a t t , were of t e n faced with the prospect of e x p a t r i a t i o n . Most Americans had l i t t l e i n t e r e s t or understanding of a r t , a c o n d i t i o n not u n r e l a t e d to the s t a t e of a r t c r i t i c i s m . U n t i l approximately 1908 newspapers did not c a r r y r e g u l a r a r t columns, nor did they employ a r t c r i t i c s to w r i t e what l i t t l e coverage the newspapers did g i v e to a r t . The number of commercial and p u b l i c g a l l e r i e s was r e l a t i v e l y small and the N a t i o n a l Academy of A r t s e x h i b i t i o n s remained the predominant f o r c e i n the establishment of a r t i s t s ' r e p u t a t i o n s . In November of 1905 a small g a l l e r y opened at 291 5th Avenue i n New York. This g a l l e r y would r a d i c a l l y c h a l l e n g e both the Academy and the l e t h a r g y of the American a r t scene. The " L i t t l e G a l l e r i e s of the.Photo-Secession", as i t was 2 o r i g i n a l l y known, was f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n order to e x h i b i t photography of high q u a l i t y and to win p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n of photography as a f i n e a r t . The founders of the g a l l e r y , A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z and Eduard Steichen, borrowed the g a l l e r y ' s name from the German and A u s t r i a n S e c e s s i o n i s t s . While the term c a r r i e d the connotations of the European sym b o l i s t s i t c a r r i e d another connotation, one of which the two men were not unaware. "The idea of Secession i s h a t e f u l to the Americans", S t i e g l i t z s a i d , " T h e y ' l l be t h i n k i n g of the 2 C i v i l War". I f the idea of secessionism was h a t e f u l to Americans there was nonetheless great p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and 3 support f o r the g a l l e r y ' s p h o t o - e x h i b i t i o n s . However as the g a l l e r y , a l s o known simply as "291", turned to the e x h i b i t i o n of non-photographic a r t i n 1907 the support of the p u b l i c turned v a r i o u s l y i n t o amusement, bewilderment, and o f t e n anger. While S t i e g l i t z and Steichen may never have intended to d e c l a r e c i v i l war, i t was between 1908 and 1913 that the term 'secession' was to prove apt. 291 i s best remembered i n the a r t h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r two t h i n g s ; i t was here t h a t the work of Rodin, Matisse, Toulouse-Lautrec, Rousseau, Cezanne and P i c a s s o were f i r s t e x h i b i t e d to an American p u b l i c . I t was a l s o here that young American a r t i s t s , i n f l u e n c e d by the new European s t y l e s , were encouraged and given an opportunity to e x h i b i t t h e i r work. As W i l l i a m Innes Homer has observed, 291 was the only g a l l e r y i n America to be "continuously devoted to 3 4 t h e a d v a n c e m e n t o f modern a r t p r i o r t o t h e A r m o r y Show." However i t was a l s o t h e o n l y p l a c e i n New Y o r k , p r i o r t o 1 9 1 3 , w here a r t i s t s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o u l d r e t a i n a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e v i t a l i t y o f t h e P a r i s i a n a r t w o r l d . S t i e g l i t z and S t e i c h e n r e m a i n e d a t t h e c o r e o f 291 u n t i l t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e F i r s t W o r l d War when S t e i c h e n 5 w i t h d r e w h i s s u p p o r t . The r o l e s w h i c h t h e two men p l a y e d were v e r y d i f f e r e n t . S t e i c h e n r e m a i n e d , f o r t h e most p a r t , i n P a r i s where he was i n c l o s e t o u c h w i t h most o f t h e m a j o r f i g u r e s w i t h i n t h e a r t w o r l d . I t was he who a r r a n g e d t o s e n d most o f t h e shows o f t h e E u r o p e a n s as w e l l as p u t t i n g S t i e g l i t z i n t o u c h w i t h s e v e r a l p r o m i s i n g young A m e r i c a n a r t i s t s c u r r e n t l y i n P a r i s and w o r k i n g a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e E u r o p e a n a v a n t - g a r d e . ' S t i e g l i t z r e m a i n e d t h e k e y i d e o l o g i c a l f o r c e w i t h i n t h e s m a l l b u t c l o s e l y k n i t g r o u p w h i c h g a t h e r e d a t t h e g a l l e r y . He d e l i g h t e d i n p r o v o k i n g d i s c u s s i o n s and a r g u m e n t s w i t h t h e g a l l e r y ' s v i s i t o r s and a t t e m p t e d t o i n f o r m t h e p r e s s o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e w o r k s shown t h e r e . He a l s o k e p t f i r m e d i t o r i a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e c o n t e n t s o f Camera Work, a j o u r n a l p u b l i s h e d by 291. C l o s e s t t o t h i s c e n t r a l c o r e o f 291 was a s m a l l g r o u p o f p e o p l e : a s s o c i a t e s P a u l H a v i l a n d , M a r i u s de Z a y a s and A g nes E r n s t M e y e r ; c r i t i c s C h a r l e s C a f f i n , S a d a k i c h i H a r t mann and B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s ; and a r t i s t s J o h n M a r i n , M a r s d e n H a r t l e y , Abraham W a l k o w i t z and A r t h u r Dove. The 4 g r o u p w h i c h c l u s t e r e d a r o u n d 291 was a r e l a t i v e l y d i v e r s e one. They d i d , h o w e v e r , h o l d c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s i n common. The g r o u p c o n t a i n e d a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f r e c e n t i m m i g r a n t s . S t e i c h e n was b o r n i n L u x e m b o u r g . P a u l H a v i l a n d , b o r n i n P a r i s , was i n New Y o r k as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i s f a t h e r ' s L i m o g e s c r y s t a l company. M a r i u s de Z a y a s had r e c e n t e d moved t o New Y o r k f r o m V e r a c r u z i n o r d e r t o e s c a p e t h e p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e o f t h e D i a z d i c t a t o r s h i p . Agnes E r n s t M e y e r , an A m e r i c a n , a c t e d as a k e y s o u r c e o f f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e g a l l e r y t h r o u g h t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r t u n e o f h e r h u s b a n d , a German o f J e w i s h b a c k g r o u n d . Of t h e c r i t i c s who w r o t e f o r Camera Work, C h a r l e s C a f f i n was f r o m E n g l a n d and S a d a k i c h i H a r tmann was t h e s o n o f a German m e r c h a n t and a J a p a n e s e m o t h e r . S t i e g l i t z was a l s o A m e r i c a n by b i r t h h o w e v e r h a v i n g grown up i n a German J e w i s h h o u s e h o l d , a t t e n d i n g a F r e n c h s c h o o l and s p e n d i n g n i n e y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g i n Germany as a 7 y o u t h , he f e l t h i m s e l f t o be b e t w e e n c u l t u r e s . U n l i k e 2 9 1 ' s a s s o c i a t e s t h e a r t i s t s M a r s d e n H a r t l e y , A r t h u r Dove and J o h n M a r i n were a l l A m e r i c a n s by b i r t h . The most n o t e a b l e e x c e p t i o n was Abraham W a l k o w i t z , a R u s s i a n Jew, who came t o New Y o r k as a c h i l d . W h i l e most o f t h e 291 a r t i s t s were A m e r i c a n s , e a c h o f them s p e n t t i m e i n E u r o p e w here t h e y were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c t r e n d s t h e r e . I t was n o t u n u s u a l f o r an A m e r i c a n a r t i s t t o t r a i n i n E u r o p e , h o w e v e r most r e c e i v e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n t h e P a r i s i a n a c a d e m i e s . W h i l e 5 the i n i t i a l t r a i n i n g of the 291 a r t i s t s was f o r the most p a r t t r a d i t i o n a l , and while many spent t h e i r f i r s t months i n Q P a r i s studying at an academy, each e v e n t u a l l y searched f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e a e s t h e t i c to that of the academic. The 291 a r t i s t s , c r i t i c s and a s s o c i a t e s were unanimous i n t h e i r view of the importance of the new i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c trends i n Europe. Each of them spent a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of time there, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n P a r i s , where they became f a m i l i a r with the c i t y ' s key a r t i s t s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s During the years p r i o r to the Armory Show, held i n the s p r i n g of 1913, 291's ext e n s i v e connections i n Europe i n c l u d e d Maurice M a e t e r l i n c k , Guillaume A p o l l i n a i r e , Gertrude and Leo S t e i n , Auguste Rodin, Henri Matisse, Henri Rousseau, Pablo P i c a s s o , Georges Braque, Robert and Mme Delaunay, Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc and F r a n c i s P i c a b i a . Thus the key elements which the members of 291 h e l d i n common were t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t backgrounds and t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the a r t i s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l trends c u r r e n t i n Europe. In Camera Work the group compared the backwardness of the American a r t scene to the v i t a l i t y and growth which they had experienced i n P a r i s . They complained about the American p u b l i c ' s l a c k of understanding of a r t , the poor l e v e l of press c r i t i c i s m and the f a c t t h at what l i t t l e a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y which America d i d possess was confin e d to 6 a few E a s t e r n c i t i e s . E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , was s e e n as a f u l l g e n e r a t i o n ahead o f A m e r i c a n . The E u r o p e a n p u b l i c , t h e y o b s e r v e d , had c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h new a r t and w e r e more e n t h u s i a s t i c . As one member s a i d : The new a r t movement o f E u r o p e h a s once more e s t a b l i s h e d t h e s t a n d a r d o f t h e day. I t i s up t o g t h e A m e r i c a n a l s o t o g i v e h i s a r t o f t h e l i v i n g day. A c a d e m i c a r t , v i r t u a l l y t h e o n l y f o r m o f a r t i n A m e r i c a a t t h a t t i m e , was r e f e r r e d t o as a dead a r t ; t h e c o l l e c t o r s , a u c t i o n e e r s , d e a l e r and c r i t i c s who s u p p o r t e d i t , t h e y s a i d , a c t e d as embalmers and u n d e r t a k e r s o f c u l t u r e . ^ T h r o u g h o u t Camera Work i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t 291 was d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y , by t h o s e who were p a r t o f i t s i n n e r c i r c l e , t h r o u g h i t s s e n s e o f b e i n g a p a r t f r o m t h e l i f e and a t m o s p h e r e a r o u n d them. Those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e g r o u p l i k e d t o compare i t t o an o a s i s o r an i s l a n d o f r e f u g e . P a u l H a v i l a n d d e s c r i b e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e one f e l t upon e n t e r i n g "The L i t t l e G a l l e r i e s " : P e r h a p s , t h e f i r s t t i m e y o u went up t h e n a r r o w e l e v a t o r w h i c h t o o k i n q u i r e r s t o t h e t o p f l o o r and e n t e r e d t h e room t o y o u r r i g h t , t h e d i r e c t o r , t h e l e a d i n g s p i r i t , w o u l d be f o u n d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h some f r i e n d s o r v i s i t o r s . The m i n u t e y o u g a z e d i n t o t h e rooms so f i t t i n g l y d e s i g n e d , y o u seem t o b r e a t h e a d i f f e r e n t a t m o s p h e r e . The q u i e t , n e u t r a l t o n e o f t h e w a l l s and o f t h e woodwork; t h e s o f t l y d i f f u s e d l i g h t ; t h e happy s p a c i n g and p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e rooms and t h e i r f u r n i s h - i n g s ; t h e c o l o r n o t e o f t h e autumn f o l i a g e i n t h e b i g b r a s s b o w l i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e f a r t h e r room; a l l c o m b i n e d t o g i v e y o u f r o m t h e o u t s e t a f e e l i n g o f h armony, b a l a n c e and r e p o s e . You i n s e n s i b l y r e l a x e d . . . . C o n v e r s a t i o n warmed u p . . . F o r h a l f an h o u r , o r an h o u r , o r two h o u r s y o u f o r g o t a l l a b o u t New Y o r k , t h e r u s h o f t h e subway and t h e s t r u g g l e a f t e r t h e a l m i g h t y d o l l a r ; and when you go b a c k i n t o t h e s t r e e t , 7 i n t o the t u r m o i l of everyday l i f e , you f e l t t h a t you had d i s c o v e r e d an o a s i s , seemingly thousands of miles from the s c o r c h i n g s t r u g g l e f o r l i f e , where at your p l e a s u r e you could stop and r e f r e s h y o u r s e l f i n the p e a c e f u l enjoyment of the beauty of l i f e ; a q u i e t nook i n a c i t y of c o n f l i c t , where you breathed^ an atmosphere of mutual h e l p f u l n e s s and understanding. As Haviland i n d i c a t e s , the e n t i r e atmosphere of the g a l l e r y , i t s design and the tone of the c o n v e r s a t i o n which took p l a c e there were f e l t to be d i f f e r e n t from that of the world outside i t s doors. In p l a c e of the rush, s t r u g g l e , t u r m o i l and c o n f l i c t of New York one encountered a f e e l i n g of harmony, balance, repose, peace and beauty. Here one engaged i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s of mutual h e l p f u l n e s s and understanding. The f a c t of the a c t u a l frequent c o n f l i c t s between S t i e g l i t z , a man who by a l l accounts was o f t e n • 12 d i f f i c u l t and domineering, and the other c l o s e a s s o c i a t e s of 291 stands as a reminder of the i d e o l o g i c a l nature of the above s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n . Nevertheless i t suggests the way i n which the group saw i t s e l f as being d i f f e r e n t from the o u t s i d e world, f o r the commercial world was indeed perceived as being " o u t s i d e " . The primary cause of the d i s t u r b i n g q u a l i t y of l i f e was a t t r i b u t e d t o , as Haviland's d e s c r i p t i o n suggests, the " s t r u g g l e f o r the almighty d o l l a r " . 291 p e r c e i v e d New Yorkers as caught i n the g r i p s of a "mad money f r e n z y " , a 13 " s e n s e l e s s m a t e r i a l orgy". In "Physiognomy of the New Yorker" Benjamin De Casseres described New York as a place . . 14 of f r e n z y , b a r t e r , power and s e r v i l i t y . A r t i c l e s were 8 w r i t t e n which d e s c r i b e d the dilemma of the v i r t u o u s a r t i s t i n such an environment. One such f i c t i t i o u s hero l i v e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r money, w i t h o u t concern f o r the r e n t - e x i s t i n g o n l y t o produce a r t a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own moral s t a n d a r d s and b e l i e f s . When f a c e d w i t h the r e a l i t y of h i s in d e b t e d n e s s t o a f r i e n d f o r h i s l i v i n g expenses, he was c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the n e c e s s i t y of s e l l i n g h i s a r t . E q u a t i n g t h i s a c t w i t h the s e l l i n g of one's c h i l d r e n , the a r t i s t saw 15 no a l t e r n a t i v e but t o end h i s l i f e . Romantic and o v e r l y s e n t i m e n t a l as i t i s , the s t o r y c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s the sense of a l i e n a t i o n the group f e l t from the mainstream of s o c i e t y . I f the s e a r c h f o r the d o l l a r f o r c e d the i n d i v i d u a l t o f o r f e i t h i s or her i n t e g r i t y and i n d i v i d u a l i t y , 291 wanted t o d i s t a n c e i t s e l f from the p r o c e s s . A c c o r d i n g l y S t i e g l i t z o perated the g a l l e r y and the j o u r n a l l a r g e l y from h i s own f u n d s , c h a r g i n g ' t h e a r t i s t s n e i t h e r commission f o r s a l e s nor e x h i b i t i o n c o s t s . The " s p e c i a l drawing c a r d " o f f e r e d by 291, t h e r e f o r e , was the " f r e e s p i r i t " which permeated i t , a s p i r i t which a f f o r d e d " r e l i e f from the 16 s t i f l i n g l y l a d e n commercial atmosphere of New York". Connected w i t h t h i s i d e a of 291 b e i n g above and a p a r t from the commercial o r i e n t a t i o n of New York i s the i d e a t h a t t h e y , as a c u l t u r a l e l i t e — one p o s s e s s i n g " i n d i v i d u a l i t y " , s t o o d a p a r t from the masses. They make i t c l e a r t h a t the "masses", t o them, i n c l u d e d not o n l y the wo r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n Of New York: 9 To t h e masses b e l o n g m i l l i o n a i r e s as w e l l as l a b o r e r s , washerwomen as w e l l as s l i m a r i s t o c r a t i c g i r l s . C r u c i a l i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e i r own d i f f e r e n c e , t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y , was t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f o r i g i n a l t h o u g h t . S a d a k i c h i H a r t m a n n , i n t h e O c t o b e r 1910 i s s u e o f Camera Work, d e f i n e d as a b s o l u t e l y f r e e t h a t " o r i g i n a l t h i n k e r who s p e c u l a t e s s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n and 18 d e d u c t i o n t h e r e f r o m " . Such an a p p r o a c h was o p p o s e d t o t h e t r a i t s p r e d o m i n a n t i n New Y o r k e r s — t r a i t s w h i c h De C a s s e r e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as s t u p i d i t y , v u l g a r i t y , r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , i n d i f f e r e n c e , c o n f o r m i t y , h y p o c r i s y and 19 . m e d i o c r i t y . The members o f 291, s e e i n g t h e m s e l v e s as a c u l t u r a l a r i s t o c r a c y , b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y p o s s e s s e d a " s u p e r i o r s e n s i b i l i t y " , one w h i c h e n a b l e d them n o t o n l y t o u n d e r s t a n d a r t b u t a l s o l i f e . I n J u l y o f 1909 Camera Work p u b l i s h e d O s c a r W i l d e ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f a d r e a m e r , a d e f i n i t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e y c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d . W i l d e w r o t e : A Dreamer i s one who c a n o n l y f i n d h i s way by m o o n l i g h t and h i s punishment2gS t h a t he s e e s t h e dawn b e f o r e t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . I n s e e i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t h i s way-- o r i g i n a l t h i n k e r s who c o u l d s e e what t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d c o u l d n o t y e t s e e — t h e y b e l i e v e d i t t o be t h e i r d u t y t o " f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e s t r e a m " i n o r d e r t o b r i n g a b o u t c h a n g e . Thus t h e g r o u p o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o i t s e l f w i t h t e r m s w h i c h s u g g e s t b a t t l e ; d r a w i n g upon t h e n o t i o n o f t h e a v a n t - g a r d e t h e y were a " g a r r e t " o r a d i v i s i o n w i t h i n an army. 10 [The S e c e s s i o n ] f i n d s i t s e l f one d i v i s i o n o f a d e s p e r a t e b u t n o t d i s p i c a b l e army. F o r t h e S e c e s s i o n , a l t h o u g h i n d e p e n d e n t i n i t s i n c e p t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i n i t s d e v e l o p m e n t , a l t h o u g h l o c a l l y i s o l a t e d and a t odds w i t h i t s i m m e d i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t , n e i t h e r s t a n d s a l o n e t o d a y n o r i s o u t o f t o u c h w i t h i t s t i m e s . T h e r e a r e o t h e r s e c e s s i o n s , some o f them a l l b u t u n c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r e n l i s t m e n t . P i c t o r i a l a r t i s ^ b u t one o f t h e l e a s t o f t h e i r f i e l d s o f b a t t l e . . . The e l e m e n t s o f 2 9 l ' s s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n w e r e , t h e n , a c u l t u r a l a r i s t o c r a c y , c a p a b l e o f s e e i n g what most o f t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d c o u l d n o t , l o c a l l y i s o l a t e d and a t odds w i t h i t s e n v i r o n m e n t , d r a w i n g upon a r t i s t i c f o r m s and i d e a s w h i c h a r e E u r o p e a n i n o r i g i n . I n t h e i r " f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e s t r e a m " t h e i r p r i m e weapon was t h e i r a r t , an a r t w h i c h was i n d e b t e d t o t h e c u r r e n t n o n - a c a d e m i c s t y l e s o f E u r o p e . I t was c l e a r t h a t t h e y b e l i e v e d i n t h e p o t e n c y o f t h a t weapon. I n Camera Work (1911) J . B . K e r f o o t , i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e g a l l e r y ' s s y m b o l , a g o l d e n d i s k , s u m m a r i z e d t h e r o l e w h i c h t h e y had c h o s e n . He w r o t e : I n o u r s u n w h i r l t h e r e i s one p l a n e t w h i c h h a s a moon w h i c h i s t u r n i n g t h e o t h e r way. And i f i t be s t r o n g e n o u g h , and l a s t l o n g e n o u g h , s o o n e r o r l a t e r t h e w h o l e m i g h t y Wheel o f L i g h t w i l l r e t u r n and f o l l o w t h a t one l i t t l e moon. The G o l d e n Dis,}£ o f t h e S e c e s s i o n i s t h e s y m b o l o f t h a t s a t e l l i t e . The w o r k o f any r e s e a r c h e r a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r o l e 291 p l a y e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1907-13 w i l l be f r a u g h t w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s . M o s t o f t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e i s i n t h e f o r m o f a r t i s t ' s m o nographs. Such a f o r m a t , c o v e r i n g t h e e n t i r e o e u v r e o f t h e a r t i s t , t y p i c a l l y t r e a t s t h e y e a r s 11 b e t w e e n 1907 and 1913 i n an e x t r e m e l y b r i e f and s u p e r f i c i a l manner. An e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s g e n e r a l i t y i s S h e l d o n R e i c h ' s 23 two v o l u m e work on J o h n M a r i n , a work w h i c h p a i n s t a k i n g l y f o l l o w s M a r i n ' s s t y l i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t t h r o u g h o u t h i s e n t i r e c a r e e r . The h i s t o r i e s o f o t h e r a r t i s t s a r e much l e s s c o m p l e t e ; b a s i c q u e s t i o n s o f d a t i n g and s e q u e n c e o f w o r k s a r e s t i l l u n s o l v e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e c a s e o f Abraham W a l k o w i t z . O n l y one s t u d y h a s a t t e m p t e d t o e x a m i n e t h e 291 g r o u p 24 as a w h o l e . I n v e s t i g a t i n g 291 f r o m i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 25 1905 t o i t s c l o s u r e i n 1917 W i l l i a m I n n e s Homer, i n 1977 l a i d t h e g r o u n d w o r k w i t h o u t w h i c h f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e . D e s p i t e h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n Homer made no a t t e m p t t o s i t u a t e 291 w i t h i n i t s c o m p l e x o f a r t i s t i c , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t s . P a r t i a l a t t e m p t s o f t h i s k i n d h a v e b e e n a t t e m p t e d by I l e a n a L e a v e n s and Edward 2 6 A brahams. L e a v e n s , who r e f e r s t o 291 as " p r o t o - D a d a i s t " d e v o t e s h e r book t o t h e a t t e m p t t o p r o v e , on t h e b a s i s o f f l i m s y e v i d e n c e and s u p e r f i c i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , t h a t t h e r e " c o u l d h a v e b e e n " m u t u a l i n f l u e n c e s b e t w e e n A r p and B a l l and t h e 291 g r o u p . Abrahams c o n s i d e r s S t i e g l i t z a " c u l t u r e r a d i c a l " , a t e r m n o r m a l l y u s e d t o d e s c r i b e a g r o u p f r o m G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e w i t h , as we s h a l l s e e , v e r y d i f f e r e n t a i m s . C u r i o u s l y S t i e g l i t z i s more o r l e s s removed f r o m t h e c o n t e x t o f 291 f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f Abraham's s t u d y . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e a u t h o r does a t t e m p t t o s i t u a t e h i s s u b j e c t s 12 w i t h i n t h e i r own h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t - w i t h o f t e n f r u i t f u l , i f 27 s o m e t i m e s p r o b e m a t i c r e s u l t s . W h i l e t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n i n L e a v e n s and Abrahams w o r k s i s t h a t S t i e g l i t z and 291 w e r e , t h r o u g h t h e i r a r t and t h e i r j o u r n a l , m a k i n g a c r i t i q u e o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y , t h e q u e s t i o n o f j u s t e x a c t l y t h a t c r i t i q u e was, and how i t f u n c t i o n e d , i s n e v e r a d d r e s s e d i n any d e p t h . Any m e n t i o n o f c r i t i q u e i n Homer's work i s c o n s p i c u o u s l y m i s s i n g . However s o m e t h i n g e l s e i s c o n s p i c u o u s l y m i s s i n g i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on 291. I n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o h e r o i z e t h e a r r i v a l o f m o d e r n i s m t o A m e r i c a h i s t o r i a n s h a v e o v e r l o o k e d t h e p e c u l i a r n a t u r e o f t h a t m o d e r n i s m , a n a t u r e w h i c h was e v i d e n t t o a t l e a s t one c r i t i c w r i t i n g i n New Y o r k i n 1913. R o y a l C o r t i s s o z , a c o n s e r v a t i v e c r i t i c , w r o t e i n A p r i l 1913 i s s u e o f The C e n t u r y M a g a z i n e o f " t h e q u e e r s y m b o l i s m l u r k i n g a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e P o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t h y p o t h e s i s " . ^ I n t h i s t h e s i s 291 w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as a w h o l e , c o n s i s t i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h s o m e t i m e s d i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s b u t i n d i v i d u a l s whose common i n t e r e s t s and g o a l s b r o u g h t them t o g e t h e r t o work as a u n i t . As a g r o u p t h e y h e l d and d e v e l o p e d a p a r t i c u l a r i d e o l o g y w h i c h was e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e i r a r t and t h e i r w r i t i n g . T h i s i d e o l o g y was, I w i l l a r g u e , a c o u n t e r - i d e o l o g y — one i n t e n d e d t o c h a l l e n g e t h e b e l i e f s y s t e m s o f o t h e r g r o u p s i n New Y o r k . Thus t h e f a c t and n a t u r e o f 291's c r i t i q u e w i l l 1 3 f i g u r e as t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e o f t h i s t h e s i s . However, as I w i l l a r g u e , k e y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t c r i t i q u e i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e " q u e e r s y m b o l i s m " b e h i n d 291's m o d e r n i s m — why i t i n s i s t e d upon t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e ' i r r a t i o n a l ' s t a t e s o f e m o t i o n , i n t u i t i o n and i m a g i n a t i o n i n i t s a r t . By s i t u a t i n g 2 9 l ' s c r i t i q u e w i t h i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f c o n t e x t s I hope t o be a b l e t o e x p l a i n what t h e i r p o s i t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d , t o t h e members t h e m s e l v e s and t o t h e i r r i v a l s . The w o r k s e x h i b i t e d a t 291 r e p r e s e n t e d , I s h a l l a r g u e , a c h a n g i n g s t r a t e g y o f o p p o s i t i o n , b u t one w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y b l e n d e d e l e m e n t s o f E u r o p e a n a v a n t - g a r d e t h e o r y w i t h s p e c i f i c a l l y A m e r i c a n c o n c e r n s . U l t i m a t e l y I hope t o make c l e a r t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t 291 h e l d w i t h i n New Y o r k . 14 NOTES F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h e s t a t e o f a r t c r i t i c i s m i n New Y o r k a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y s e e A r l e n e R. O l s e n , A r t C r i t i c s and t h e A v a n t - G a r d e New Y o r k , 1900-1913 (New Y o r k : U.M.I. P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) . 2 A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z , 1902, r e p o r t e d i n Edward Abrahams, "The L y r i c a l L e f t : The O r i g i n s o f t h e A v a n t - G a r d e i n A m e r i c a , 1900- W o r l d War I " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Brown U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 8 1 ) , p.158. 3 From May 1906 t o A p r i l 1907 t h e g a l l e r y r e c e i v e d 197 r e q u e s t s f o r l o a n o f t h e i r c i r c u l a t i n g p h o t o e x h i b i t i o n . ( See " P h o t o - S e c e s s i o n N o t e s , " Camera Work 18 ( A p r i l 1 9 0 7 ) : 4 9 . 4 . . . W i l l i a m I n n e s Homer, " S t i e g l i t z and 291," A r t i n A m e r i c a 61 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1 9 7 3 ) : 51. 5 The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n , a t l e a s t p a r t l y , due t o t h e d i f f e r i n g p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t i e s o f t h e members: S t e i c h e n s u p p o r t e d F r a n c e w h e r e a s S t i e g l i t z s i d e d w i t h Germany. I t seems, on t h e b a s i s o f r e p o r t s l a t e r made by 291 members, t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t S t i e g l i t z ' s c o l l e a g u e s a c c e p t h i s p o s i t i o n o f d o m i n a n c e — s o m e t i m e s d e s c r i b e d as p a t r i a r c h a l and d i c t a t o r i a l - - as a c o n d i t i o n o f t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e g r o u p . Those who d i d n o t , s u c h as Max Weber, s i m p l y l e f t . F o r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h a t s p l i t s e e P e r c y N o r t h ' s " T u r m o i l a t 291," A r c h i v e s o f A m e r i c a n A r t J o u r n a l 2 4 : 1 : 12-20. 7 P a u l H a v i l a n d and h i s b r o t h e r F r a n k B u r t y , p o s s e s s i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e P a r i s i a n a r t w o r l d , w e re r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g 291's a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h P i c a s s o . H a v i l a n d became v e r y c l o s e t o S t i e g l i t z d u r i n g h i s t i m e i n New Y o r k and s e r v e d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s as t h e a s s o c i a t e e d i t o r o f Camera Work. M a r i u s de Z a y a s * f a m i l y owned two n e w s p a p e r s i n M e x i c o and h i s f a t h e r had b e e n t h a t c o u n t r y ' s p o e t l a u r e a t e . Once i n New Y o r k de Z a y a s p r o d u c e d c a r i c a t u r e s f o r t h e c i t y ' s n e w s p a p e r s . Agnes E r n s t M e y e r f i r s t came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h 291 as a n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t e r f o r t h e New Y o r k Sun. F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g E r n s t s e e h e r a u t o b i o g r a p h y Out o f T h e s e R o o t s ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1 9 5 3 ) . Her h u s b a n d , a f i n a n c i a l s p e c u l a t o r and l a t e r owner o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , was a m a j o r s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e g a l l e r y . H i s 15 b i o g r a p h y i s c o n t a i n e d i n M e r l o J . P u s e y 1 s Eugene Meyer (New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1 9 7 4 ) . p M a r i n a t t e n d e d t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a Academy o f F i n e A r t ( 1 8 9 8 - 9 9 ) , t h e A r t S t u d e n t s ' L e a g u e (1902-3) and f o r two months t o o k c l a s s e s a t t h e A c a d e m i e J u l i a n ( 1 9 0 5 ) . Dove t o o k a r t c l a s s e s a t C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y o n l y . H a r t l e y a t t e n d e d t h e C l e v e l a n d S c h o o l o f A r t ( 1 8 9 8 - 9 9 ) , t h e A r t S t u d e n t s ' L e a g u e and t h e New Y o r k S c h o o l o f A r t ( 1 8 99) and t h e N a t i o n a l Academy o f D e s i g n ( 1 9 0 0 ) . W a l k o w i t z t o o k c l a s s e s a t t h e N a t i o n a l Academy o f D e s i g n , p r o b a b l y a t t h e A r t S t u d e n t ' s L e a g u e and a l s o a t t e n d e d t h e A c a d e m i e J u l i a n ( 1 9 0 6 ) . 9 O s c a r B l u e m n e r , " A u d i a t o r e t a l t e r a p a r s : Some P l a i n S e n s e on t h e Modern A r t Movement," CW S p e c i a l Number ( J u n e 1 9 1 3 ) : 38. * ^ I b i d • i P• 28. n P a u l -B. H a v i l a n d , "The Home o f t h e G o l d e n D i s k , " CW 25 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 0 9 ) : 21-22. 12 . . . S a d a k i c h i Hartmann w r o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g t o S t i e g l i t z : I g o t t i r e d o f y o u r d i c t a t o r s h i p . F o r y e a r s y o u i m p o s e d upon me, and as I n e v e r r e s e n t e d i t , y o u r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s me grew w o r s e f r o m y e a r t o y e a r , u n t i l I c o u l d s t a n d i t no l o n g e r . Waldo F r a n k , a n o t h e r c l o s e f r i e n d , w r o t e a s i m i l a r l e t t e r t o S t i e g l i t z on J u l y 31, 1923: I f e e l t h a t y o u a r e i n c a p a b l e o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e q u a l i t y w i t h a n y o n e . You demand i n some way, t h e ' o t h e r p e r s o n ' a c c e p t y o u r a s c e n d e n c y b e f o r e y o u f u n c t i o n i n s e r v i n g h i m . . . T h i s i s why you h a v e had a ' s e r i e s ' o f f r i e n d s . . . And t h a t i s why t h e f r i e n d s who r e m a i n e d . . . h a v e b e e n o f t h e t y p e w h i c h one c o u l d j u s t l y t e r m f i x a t e d a d o l e s c e n t s . . . These a s s o c i a t e s , t r u e d i s c i p l e s , h a v e l i v e d t o a l m o s t p e r f e c t e x t e n t i n an a t m o s p h e r e o f y o u r d e t e r m i n i n g . B o t h l e t t e r s a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z a r c h i v e s and were q u o t e d i n Abrahams, "The L y r i c a l L e f t , " p. 2 4 3 . 13 . B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s , " C a r i c a t u r e and New Y o r k , " CW 26 ( A p r i l 1 9 0 9 ) : 1 7 - 1 8 . B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s , " P h y s i o g n o m y o f a New Y o r k e r , " CW 29 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 1 0 ) : 35. 16 1 5 C h a r l e s H. C a f f i n , "An I m p o s s i b l e C a s e , " CW 21 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 0 8 ) : 27-29. " R e p o r t on t h e Member's E x h i b i t i o n , " CW 21 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 0 8 ) : 4 5 . 17 S [ a d a k i c h i ] H [ a r t m a n n ] , " T h a t T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c P r i n t , " CW 29 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 1 0 ) : 38. 18 S a d a k i c h i H a r t m a n n , " P u r i t a n i s m , I t s G r a n d e u r and Shame," CW 32 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 1 0 ) : 17. 19 B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s , " A m e r i c a n I n d i f f e r e n c e , " CW 27 ( J u l y 1 9 0 9 ) : 2 4 - 2 5 . 20 . . O s c a r W i l d e , "From 'The C r i t i c as A r t i s t 1 , " CW 27 ( J u l y 1 9 0 9 ) : 46. 2 1 J . B . K e r f o o t , "The P h e n i x [ s i c ] i n t h e Embers," CW 25 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 0 9 ) : 4 9 - 5 0 . 2 2 J . B . K e r f o o t , "The Game a t t h e L i t t l e G a l l e r i e s , " CW 33 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 1 1 ) : 45. 23 S h e l d o n R e i c h , J o h n M a r i n : A S t y l i s t i c A n a l y s i s and C a t a l o g u e R a i s o n n e ( T u s c a n , A r i z o n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) . 24 The y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e Armory Show h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n J u d i t h K a t y Z i l c z e r ' s "The A e s t h e t i c S t r u g g l e i n A m e r i c a , 1913-18: A b s t r a c t A r t and T h e o r y i n t h e S t i e g l i t z C i r c l e " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f D e l a w a r e , 1 9 7 5 ) . 25 . . . W i l l i a m I n n e s Homer, A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z and t h e A m e r i c a n A v a n t - G a r d e ( B o s t o n : New Y o r k G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1977) . See I l e a n a B.~ L e a v e n s , From "291" t o Z u r i c h : The B i r t h o f Dada (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U.M.I. R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1983) and Abrahams, "The L y r i c a l L e f t " . 27 . . . He i s , f o r e x a m p l e , a t t i m e s h i s t o r i c a l l y u n s p e c i f i c . 28 R o y a l C o r t i s s o z , "The P o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t I l l u s i o n " The C e n t u r y M a g a z i n e LXXXV ( A p r i l 1 9 1 3 ) : 807. C o r t i s s o z was w r i t i n g t h i s a r t i c l e a m i d s t t h e g r e a t f u r o r c a u s e d by t h e A r m o r y Show. A t t h i s e x h i b i t i o n were i n c l u d e d w o r k s by t h e a r t i s t s o f 291 and t h e E u r o p e a n m o d e r n i s t s . W h i l e C o r t i s s o z a p p e a r s t o be r e f e r r i n g t o t h e movement as a w h o l e i t must be remembered t h a t t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g m o d e r n i s m , t h e n o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o s i m p l y as " P o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s m " d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y f r o m 291. 17 CHAPTER ONE One i s c o n s c i o u s o f u n r e s t and s e e k i n g — a w e i r d w o r l d h u n g e r f o r s o m e t h i n g we e v i d e n t l y h a v e n ' t g o t and d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d . To many i t i s a s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m — B u t t h i s i s o n l y one o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f i t — A b i g g e r t h i n g l i e s s t r u g g l i n g b e n e a t h — I h a v e a v a g u e f e e l i n g o f k n o w i n g i t and y e t i t l o s e s i t s e l f i n i t s v a g u e n e s s . S o m e t h i n g i s b e i n g b o r n o r i s g o i n g t o be. ( E d u a r d S t e i c h e n t o A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z , 1913) I t i s as i f a new sun by i t s p o w e r f u l e n e r g i e s had d r i e d up and b u r n e d t o a s h e s a l l t h a t h ad l o s t i t s l i f e and a t t h e same t i m e were f o r c i n g i n t o l i f e new c u l t u r e . ( O s c a r B l u e m n e r , Camera Work, 1913) We a r e i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a new o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y . Our l i f e h a s b r o k e n away f r o m t h e p a s t . The l i f e o f A m e r i c a i s n o t t h e l i f e t h a t i t was t w e n t y y e a r s ago; i t i s n o t t h e l i f e t h a t i t was t e n y e a r s ago. We h a v e c h a n g e d o u r e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s , a b s o l u t e l y , f r o m t o p t o b o t t o m ; a n d , w i t h o u r e c o n o m i c s o c i e t y , t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f o u r l i f e . (Woodrow W i l s o n , 1913) T h e r e i s one theme w h i c h r u n s t h r o u g h o u t many o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l a c c o u n t s o f t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a : t h a t o f t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t . T h e r e was no t i m e d u r i n g w h i c h A m e r i c a n s f e l t t h e s h a r p d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n t h e p a s t and t h e p r e s e n t more p r o f o u n d l y t h a n i n t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a , t h e y e a r s b e t w e e n 1903 and 1917. Many c o n t e m p o r a r i e s s p o k e o f one w o r l d c o m i n g t o an end and a n o t h e r i n t h e m a k i n g . O t h e r s s p o k e o f t h e p r o b l e m o f d e a l i n g w i t h l a w s and s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n s w h i c h were no l o n g e r a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e c h a n g e d s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . 18 The P r o g r e s s i v e E r a was a t i m e d u r i n g w h i c h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , r u r a l and u r b a n , p e r c e i v e d n a t i o n a l l i f e t o be a t a c r i s i s p o i n t . T h a t p o i n t had been r e a c h e d p a r t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h e g r o w t h o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n ; h o w e v e r t h e move t o w a r d s u r b a n i z a t i o n and m o d e r n i z a t i o n had p r o c e e d e d r e l a t i v e l y s m o o t h l y . I t was n o t u n t i l t h e l a t e 1 8 9 0 ' s , when t h e c o r p o r a t e economy began t o t a k e f i r m h o l d , t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e o l d way o f l i f e was c h a n g i n g came i n t o s h a r p f o c u s . Between 1893 and 1898 a s e v e r e d e p r e s s i o n had p r o d u c e d c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h a few o f t h e l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s b e g a n t o e l i m i n a t e t h e i r w e a k e r c o m p e t i t o r s t h r o u g h c o n s o l i d a t i o n and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . M o t i v a t e d by a d r i v e f o r i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y and e n l a r g e d p r o f i t s i n d u s t r i a l i s t s a r g u e d t h a t a l a i s s e z - f a i r e economy was u n a b l e t o cope w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f m a t u r e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . B e t w een 1898 and 1904 t h e s i z e and number o f c o r p o r a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y ; o f t h e 318 c o r p o r a t i o n s i n e x i s t e n c e by J a n u a r y o f 1904, 234 o f them 4 had come i n t o b e i n g w i t h i n t h e p a s t s i x y e a r s . T h e s e c o r p o r a t i o n s were g i a n t i n s c o p e and commanded enormous e c o n o m i c power. A b o u t 300 o f t h e g i a n t s were c a p i t a l i z e d a t n e a r l y $6 b i l l i o n . A mere 29 o f them, h o w e v e r , a c c o u n t e d f o r 4 0 % o f t h e t o t a l . The c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was e v e n more d r a m a t i c a l l y a p p a r e n t when me a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f i n d i v i d u a l w e a l t h . The r i c h e s t 1% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n owned 5 0 % o f t h e n a t i o n ' s w e a l t h , ^ a n d 9 0 % o f i t was h e l d by a mere 12% o f t h e p e o p l e . T h r o u g h c o n s o l i d a t i o n and c e n t r a l i z a t i o n s u c h c o m p a n i e s as 19 t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s S t e e l C o r p o r a t i o n , S t a n d a r d O i l S t e e l Company, t h e A m e r i c a n T o b a c c o Company, I n t e r n a t i o n a l H a r v e s t e r Company, C o n s o l i d a t e d T o b a c c o and Amalgamated C o p p e r g a i n e d e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e m a r k e t . Such power was p r e v i o u s l y unknown. C e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f c o n t r o l , a new phenomenon, f e l l i n t o t h e h a n d s o f a new c l a s s , t h a t o f t h e c o r p o r a t e e l i t e o r t h e s o - c a l l e d ' r o b b e r b a r o n s ' . W h i l e t h e r e w e re s e v e r a l f i n a n c i a l e m p i r e s , t h o s e o f N e l s o n R o c k e f e l l e r and J.P.Morgan were t h e most p o w e r f u l . D e s p i t e t h e i r w e a l t h t h e s e members o f t h e 'mushroom a r i s t o c r a c y ' , as t h e y were a l s o known, c o u l d n o t t a k e t h e i r power o r t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e n e w l y c r e a t e d c o r p o r a t e s y s t e m f o r g r a n t e d . The s y s t e m had many f l a w s , many p r o b l e m s n o t y e t w o r k e d o u t . A t t i m e s , s u c h as t h e s t o c k m a r k e t p a n i c s o f 1901 and 1907, i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e w h o l e s y s t e m was i n d a n g e r o f c o l l a p s e . I n a d d i t i o n , c o m p e t i t i o n r e m a i n e d f i e r c e b e t w e e n t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s as t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o e x t e n d t h e i r h o l d i n g s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e i r r i v a l s . One o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s ' b i g g e s t t h r e a t s came f r o m t h e g r o w i n g power o f t h e l e f t . I n 1912 s o c i a l i s t c a n d i d a t e s g a i n e d u n p r e c e d e n t e d s u p p o r t a t t h e p o l l s , w i n n i n g 1,200 o f f i c e s i n 340 c i t i e s . S u p p o r t f o r t h e S o c i a l i s t p r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e , Eugene Debs, had grown t e n f o l d f r o m 7 what i t had been t e n y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y . The r a d i c a l w i n g o f t h e S o c i a l i s t p a r t y , t h e a n a r c h i s t I n d u s t r i a l W o r k e r s o f t h e W o r l d (I.W.W.) a l s o r e a c h e d a peak i n i t s u n i o n 20 m e m b e r s h i p , l a r g e l y t h r o u g h t h e v i c t o r y i t had a t t a i n e d t h a t y e a r i n t h e s t r i k e o f 20,000 t e x t i l e w o r k e r s a t L a w r e n c e , g M a s s a c h u s e t t s . B a s e d on t h e s e s u c c e s s e s , and t h e i n s p i r a t i o n o f t h e M e x i c a n r e v o l u t i o n t h e y e a r b e f o r e , t h e l e f t was f i l l e d w i t h t r e m e n d o u s e n e r g y and o p t i m i s m t h a t a mass r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement was underway. R e f o r m e r s , a n a r c h i s t s , f e m i n i s t s , w r i t e r s f r o m a l l o v e r A m e r i c a c o n v e r g e d upon t h e d e c a y i n g n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y d i s t r i c t o f G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e . C e n t r a l t o t h i s s c e n e were S o c i a l i s t s Max E a s t m a n , J o h n Reed and F l o y d D e l l ; a n a r c h i s t s Emma Goldman, A l e x a n d e r Berkman and I.W.W. l e a d e r B i l l 9 Haywood. C o n v i n c e d o f t h e t r e m e n d o u s p o t e n t i a l f o r s u p p o r t among a g r o w i n g number o f d i s c o n t e n t e d A m e r i c a n s t h e s e p e o p l e c o n c e n t r a t e d upon means o f e d u c a t i n g t h e p u b l i c as t o t h e n eed f o r r a d i c a l s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e . The s o c i a l i s t s and a n a r c h i s t s s o m e t i m e s w o r k e d t o g e t h e r , p r o d u c i n g i n 1913 a p a g e a n t a t M a d i s o n S q u a r e G a r d e n s w h i c h e n a c t e d t h e v i o l e n t P a t e r s o n s i l k w o r k e r s ' s t r i k e . 1 0 F o r t h e most p a r t , h o w e v e r , t h e two g r o u p s , h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t a i m s , w o r k e d s e p a r a t e l y : t h e S o c i a l i s t s a t i m p r o v i n g t h e i r s h o w i n g a t t h e p o l l s and t h e A n a r c h i s t s c o n c e n t r a t i n g upon o r g a n i z i n g t h e w o r k e r s d u r i n g i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s , o r g a n i z i n g m a r c h e s o f t h e u n e m p l o y e d and o c c a s i o n a l l y i n d u s t r i a l sabotage. 1''' F e a r i n g t h a t t h e y w o u l d be c r u s h e d b e t w e e n o r g a n i z e d c a p i t a l and a q u i c k l y g r o w i n g l a b o u r movement t h e m i d d l e c l a s s became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z i n g f o r 21 p o l i t i c a l r e f o r m . P r i o r t o t h e c o r p o r a t e m e r g e r s o f t h e 1890's s m a l l b u s i n e s s m e n and p r o f e s s i o n a l s had r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r u l i n g c l a s s . W i t h t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i e t y f r o m a l o c a l , c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d economy t o a n a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d c o r p o r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o l d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power and p r e s t i g e p a s s e d f r o m t h e h a n d s o f t h i s c l a s s t o t h e new c o r p o r a t e e l i t e . W h i l e t h e b o u r g e o i s i e was n o t g r o w i n g p o o r e r as a c l a s s , t h e i r w e a l t h and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g c a p a c i t i e s were i n c r e a s i n g l y o v e r s h a d o w e d by t h e new m i l l i o n a i r e s . I t was t h i s g r o u p w h i c h l e a d t h e r e f o r m movement known as P r o g r e s s i v i s m , a movement w h i c h became n a t i o n w i d e i n s u p p o r t . Why t h e s t r o n g r e f o r m s e n t i m e n t o f P r o g r e s s i v i s m t o o k h o l d when i t d i d i s s t i l l a m a t t e r o f c o n j e c t u r e among h i s t o r i a n s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t p r i o r t o 1901 t h e d i s l o c a t i o n c a u s e d by m o d e r n i z a t i o n c a u s e d a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s c o n t e n t b u t t h a t d i s c o n t e n t r e m a i n e d d i f f u s e . By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a a new f o r m o f j o u r n a l i s m known as m u c k r a k i n g h e l p e d t o f o c u s t h a t d i s c o n t e n t by d r a w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e many p r o b l e m a t i c a s p e c t s o f A m e r i c a n l i f e . J o u r n a l i s t s s u c h as L i n c o l n S t e f f e n s , I d a T a r b e l l , C h a r l e s Edward R u s s e l l and Thomas Lawson i n v e s t i g a t e d s e v e r a l A m e r i c a n c i t i e s , r e v e a l i n g w i d e s p r e a d b r i b e r y , c o r r u p t i o n and p r i v i l e g e i n b u s i n e s s , p o l i t i c s and t h e p o l i c e . V i r t u a l l y e v e r y a s p e c t o f A m e r i c a n l i f e , f r o m c h i l d l a b o r t o 22 u n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e m e a t - p a c k i n g i n d u s t r y , was d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l . No p a r t o f l i f e seemed u n t o u c h e d by g r a f t , c o r r u p t i o n and p r i v i l e g e . However t h e a r t i c l e s i n m a g a z i n e s s u c h as M c C l u r e s , C o l l i e r s and C o s m o p o l i t a n p r e s e n t e d t h e s i t u a t i o n n e i t h e r as one t o be a c c e p t e d p a s s i v e l y n o r t o be a d d r e s s e d t h r o u g h s e v e r a l s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e . They a p p e a l e d t o e a c h and e v e r y member o f s o c i e t y t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s i t u a t i o n and t o h e l p i n t h e movement t o r e f o r m . W h i l e a m y r i a d o f p r o b l e m s were t a c k l e d by P r o g r e s s i v e s , t h e k e y i s s u e a d d r e s s e d by l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1907 t o 1913, was what t o do w i t h t h e t r u s t s . I n t h e e l e c t i o n o f 1912 t h e p l a t f o r m s o f p r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s T h e o d o r e R o o s e v e l t and Woodrow W i l s o n w e r e v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l . They d i f f e r e d , h o w e v e r , i n t h i s one k e y i s s u e . W i l s o n , w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f L o u i s D. B r a n d e i s , r e p r e s e n t e d t h e f e a r s o f much o f t h e o l d m i d d l e c l a s s when he p r e s e n t e d "The New Freedom". To W i l s o n t h e t r u s t s w e r e d a n g e r o u s b e c a u s e t h e y had e l i m i n a t e d f r e e c o m p e t i t i o n . A d h e r e n t s t o t h i s p o s i t i o n , w h i l e n o t a d v o c a t i n g t h e d i s m a n t l i n g t h e new i n d u s t r i a l i s t s ' power, s u p p o r t e d t h e r e v i v a l o f e l e m e n t s o f t h e l a i s s e z - f a i r e s y s t e m ; t h e y o p p o s e d c e n t r a l i z e d g o v e r n m e n t and s t o o d i n f a v o u r o f t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t y and t h e r e s t o r a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n o f c o m p e t i t i o n . R o o s e v e l t , w i t h t h e h e l p o f H e r b e r t C r o l y , r e p r e s e n t e d t h e o p p o s i n g 23 v i e w p o i n t , "New N a t i o n a l i s m " , w h i c h h e l d t h a t t h e a t t e m p t t o r e s t o r e t h e e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p a s t was n a i v e and n o s t a l g i c . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y a r g u e d , t h e p r e s e n t a b u s e s were t h e n a t u r a l o u t g r o w t h o f t h e f o r m e r s y s t e m . They a r g u e d i n f a v o r o f a n e u t r a l , c e n t r a l i z e d g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h c o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y m a t c h and l i m i t t h e power o f t h e c o r p o r a t e s y s t e m . As C h r i s t o p h e r L a s c h has p o i n t e d o u t i n h i s r e v i e w o f C r o l y ' s The P r o m i s e o f A m e r i c a n L i f e ( 1 9 0 9 ) t h e c e n t r a l f l a w i n t h i s v i e w p o i n t , w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y won a c c e p t a n c e as t h e "new l i b e r a l i s m " , was i t s f a i l u r e t o " d e a l c o h e r e n t l y w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f how c e n t r a l i z e d power i s t o be c o n t r o l l e d " , t h a t i s , how t o " s t r e n g t h e n t h e s t a t e w i t h o u t m e r e l y s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e c o r p o r a t e i n t e r e s t s w h i c h e n j o y t h e 12 e a s i e s t a c c e s s t o i t . " T h e r e w e r e , t h e r e f o r e , v a r i o u s r e s p o n s e s t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h p r e s e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s d u r i n g t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a . The new c o r p o r a t e e l i t e a t t e m p t e d t o p r o t e c t and e x t e n d i t s h o l d i n g s w h i l e f i n d i n g a way t o s t a b i l i z e t h e economy. The l e f t , o p t i m i s t i c o f t h e i r own f u t u r e , c o n t e n t r a t e d upon c a p i t a l i z i n g on t h e p u b l i c ' s d i s c o n t e n t t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n and g r a s s - r o o t s o r g a n i z i n g . L i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s a t t e m p t e d t o g r a p p l e w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f what t o do w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t and t h e t r u s t s t o make them more r e s p o n s i v e t o t h a t g r o u p ' s n e e d s . What was common t o a l l o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s , as d i v e r s e as t h e y w e r e , was t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t 24 s o c i e t y was a t a t u r n i n g p o i n t ; s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e s were i n d e s p e r a t e need o f s h a p i n g . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c l a s s o f n e w l y a r r i v e d i m m i g r a n t s , u n a s s i m i l a t e d and many h o p i n g t o e a r n enough money t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d s w i t h i m p r o v e d e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , e v e r y s e c t o r o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y p e r c e i v e d i t s e l f as a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f r e d e f i n i t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . S o c i e t y was i n need o f s h a p i n g and d i r e c t i o n and v i r t u a l l y a l l o f i t s members f e l t a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t a k e p a r t i n t h a t p r o c e s s . I t i s w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h a t 291's c r i t i q u e o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y must be s e e n — - a s p a r t o f a w i d e s p r e a d r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f a l m o s t e v e r y a s p e c t o f A m e r i c a n l i f e . I n t h i s r e d e f i n i t i o n o f l i f e most g r o u p s w o r k e d d i r e c t l y upon i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s - - e x t e n d i n g o r c h a l l e n g i n g t h e p o w e r s o f g o v e r n m e n t , c h a n g i n g l a w s , r e v e a l i n g d a n g e r o u s o r u n f a i r l a b o u r p r a c t i c e s . To s u c h p e o p l e 2 9 1 , i n f o c u s s i n g i t s e n e r g i e s s o l e l y upon a r t , seemed t o r e p r e s e n t a s h i r k i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Two o f t h e l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s who h e l p e d t o d e f i n e R o o s e v e l t ' s "New N a t i o n a l i s m " , c o n v i n c e d t h a t A m e r i c a was an i n f e r t i l e g r o u n d f o r a r t , h a d aband o n n e d t h e i r o r i g i n a l c a r e e r s i n t h e a r e a . H e r b e r t C r o l y , who had e d i t e d A r c h i t e c t u r a l R e c o r d , and W a l t e r L i p p m a n n , who e n t e r e d H a r v a r d i n 1906 w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f b e c o m i n g an a r t c r i t i c , t u r n e d t o s o c i a l r e f o r m as an a t t e m p t t o "change t h e d e p e r s o n a l i z i n g s o c i e t y w h i c h t h e y b e l i e v e d h a d p r e v i o u s l y t h w a r t e d t h e i r a r t i s t i c 25 13 . . i m p u l s e s . " L i p p m a n n , i n h i s book D r i f t and M a s t e r y (1914) a t t a c k e d what he c a l l e d t h e many-headed h y d r a o f d r i f t : t h o s e p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a l l o w e d p e o p l e t o a v o i d d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s o f a new w o r l d . " A t t h e o n l y p o i n t where e f f o r t and i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e n e e d e d " , he w r o t e , " t h a t p o i n t where t o d a y i s t u r n i n g i n t o t o m o r r o w , t h e r e t h e s e p e o p l e a r e 14 n o t f o u n d . " W h i l e h i s mam p o i n t o f a t t a c k was t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f W i l s o n and B r a n d e i s 1 "New Freedom" L i p p m a n n a l s o a d d r e s s e d t h e "modern a r t i s t " , he who l i v e d " i n a w o r l d o f s t u d i o s , d r a w i n g rooms and c a f e s , a m i d s t i d l e p e o p l e i n 15 l i t t l e c l i q u e s . " The modern a r t i s t , he s a i d , was doomed t o be " s a t i s f i e d w i t h a c u l t " . So he s p e c i a l i z e s on some a s p e c t o f f o r m , e x a g g e r a t e s some q u a l i t y o f l i n e , and p r o d u c e s a r t t h a t o n l y a few p e o p l e w o u l d m i s s i f i - ^ d i s a p p e a r e d . Then he d e n o u n c e s t h e p h i l i s t i n e p u b l i c . W h i l e v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r g o a l s , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e l e f t s h a r e d i n e l e m e n t s o f L i p p m a n n ' s c r i t i c i s m . To E a s t m a n , Reed and D e l l , a l l p o e t s and w r i t e r s , a r t and p o l i t i c s c o u l d n o t be m i x e d . As Eastman l a t e r r e c a l l e d : No, t h e r e j u s t w a s n ' t any b l e n d i n g o f p o e t r y w i t h r e v o l u t i o n . Nobody w r o t e r e v o l u t i o n a r y p o e t r y t h a t was any g o o d . What was r e q u i r e d , s a i d E a s t m a n , was " s e r i o u s s o c i a l t h o u g h t and e f f o r t . . . t h e p r a c t i c a l s c i e n t i f i c work o f m i n d o r hand t h a t t h e r e v o l u t i o n demands o f e v e r y f r e e man i n i t s 18 d e s p e r a t e h o u r . " E astman l a t e r w r o t e o f h i s y e a r s i n G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e . I n a p p a r e n t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e g r o u p a t 291 t h e h e r o o f h i s book s a i d : 26 B u t t h o s e f u t u r i s t i c a r t i s t s most o f them h a v e n ' t any d r i v i n g f o r c e t h a t I c a n s e e . None o f t h e i r a r t c o n t a i n s e i t h e r a g r e a t p a s s i o n o r a g r e a t i d e a - j u s t p a i n t e r s ' i d e a s and s t u d i o f e e l i n g s , and t h e n t h a t g r e a t p a s s i o n t o be an a r t i s t . They a r e n o t l i v i n g l i f e , t h ^ y a r e l i v i n g a r t . T h a t ' s t h e t r o u b l e w i t h them... R e c a l l i n g one o f M a b e l Dodge's s a l o n s , a m e e t i n g p l a c e f o r t h e r a d i c a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s o f G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e , E a stman r e p o r t e d t h a t B i l l Haywood, l e a d e r o f t h e I.W.W., made s i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m s i n a s p e e c h t o an a u d i e n c e w h i c h i n c l u d e d 20 P i c a b i a and 291 a r t i s t s M a r i n and H a r t l e y . Haywood f i r s t drew h i s g u e s t s ' a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no p r o l e t a r i a n a r t . "Not o n l y i s a r t i m p o s s i b l e t o s u c h a man," he s a i d , " b u t l i f e i s i m p o s s i b l e . He does n o t l i v e . He j u s t w o r k s . He does t h e work t h a t e n a b l e s y o u t o e n j o y a r t , and t o make i t , and t o h a v e a n i c e m e e t i n g l i k e t h i s and t a l k i t o v e r . . . . The o n l y p r o b l e m , t h e n , i s how t o make i t p o s s i b l e , how t o make l i f e p o s s i b l e t o t h e p r o l e t a r i a t . . . . I s u p p o s e y o u w i l l want t o know what my i d e a l o f p r o l e t a r i a n a r t i s , he c o n t i n u e d , what I t h i n k i t w i l l be l i k e , when a r e v o l u t i o n b r i n g s i t i n t o e x i s t e n c e . I t h i n k i t w i l l be v e r y much k i n d l i e r t h a n y o u r a r t . T h e r e w i l l be a s o c i a l s p i r i t i n i t . Not so much b o a s t i n g a b o u t p e r s o n a l i t y . A r t i s t s won't be so e g o t i s t i c a l . . . W h e n we s t o p f i g h t i n g e a c h o t h e r - f o r wages o f e x i s t e n c e on one s i d e , and f o r u n n e c e s s a r y l u x u r y on t h e o t h e r - t h e n p e r h a p s we s h a l l a l l become human b e i n g s and s u r p r i s e o u r s e l v e s w i t h t h e b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s we do and make on t h e e a r t h . Then p e r h a p s t h e r e w i l l be a c i v i l i z a t i o n and a c i v i l i z e d a r t . B u t t h e r e i s no use p u t t i n g up p r e t e n s e s now. Tb,<= i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s t o r e a l i z e t h a t we a r e f i g h t i n g . The u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n o f e a c h o f t h e s e k e y f i g u r e s o f t h e p e r i o d i s t h a t a r t c o u l d n o t be a f o r u m i n w h i c h s o c i a l c h a n g e c o u l d o c c u r - - t h a t i n c h o s i n g t o f o c u s t h e i r 27 c r i t i q u e t h r o u g h a r t 291 was, e f f e c t i v e l y , a v o i d i n g t h e p r e s s i n g i s s u e s o f t h e day. T h e r e was one v o i c e , h o w e v e r , w h i c h c o n s i s t e n t l y s u p p o r t e d 291 i n i t s p r o g r a m and i n i t s g o a l s . The v o i c e was t h a t o f H u t c h i n s Hapgood, a c l o s e a s s o c i a t e o f Emma Goldman and c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h t h e G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e c r o w d t h r o u g h h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h M a b e l Dodge. Hapgood, w r i t i n g i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " A r t and U n r e s t " i n t h e New Y o r k G l o b e , e q u a t e d t h e new a r t w i t h " a g i t a t i o n " : I t means e d u c a t i o n , i n t h e d i s t u r b i n g , d o u b t i n g s e n s e . P o s t - i m p r e s s i o n i s m i s as d i s t u r b i n g i n one f i e l d as t h e I.W.W. i s . i n a n o t h e r . I t t u r n s up t h e s o i l , s h a k e s t h e o l d f o u n d a t i o n s , and l e a d s t o new l i f e . . . . T h e r e seems a v a g u e b u t r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a l l t h e r e a l w o r k e r s o f o u r day. W h e t h e r i n , l i t e r a t u r e , p l a s t i c a r t , t h e l a b o r movement, s c i e n c e , j o u r n a l i s m , p h i l o s o p h y , w h e r e v e r we t u r n and f i n d s o m e t h i n g v i t a l i n f o r m , we f i n d a common q u a l i t y - we f i n d an i n s t i n c t t o l o o s e n up t h e o l d f o r m s and t r a d i t i o n s , t o d y n a m i t e t h e b a k e d and h a r d e n e d e a r t h so t h a t f r e s h f l o w e r s w i l l grow. I t i s t h i s i n s t i n c t t o t u r n up t h e s o i l , s o t h a t t h r o u g h h a r d e n e d s u r f a c e s o f l i f e l e s s c o n v e n t i o n a l i t i e s t h e s i m p l y human may a g a i n n a k e d l y a p p e a r , i t i s t h i s i n s t i n c t t h a t i s c r e a t i n g o u r i n t e r e s t . One f u n c t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l u n r e s t i s t h e a g i t a t i o n w h i c h means e d u c a t i o n - a g i t a t i o n i n a r t , as w e l l as i n l a b o r , 2 2 p o l i t i c s , and t h e w h o l e f i e l d o f o u r s o c i a l l i f e . H apgood•s s u p p o r t s u g g e s t s t h a t 291*s c r i t i q u e s h o u l d n o t so q u i c k l y be d i s m i s s e d . U n l i k e h i s a s s o c i a t e s , Reed and Haywood, he c o u l d see s o m e t h i n g i n t h i s a r t w h i c h a r t i c u l a t e d some k i n d o f p o t e n t c r i t i q u e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e i d e a t h a t a r t c o u l d n o t p l a y a 28 r o l e i n t h e r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f s o c i e t y was a p r e d o m i n a n t one. However i t i s n o n e t h e l e s s t r u e t h a t t h e m a j o r f o r m s o f a r t f o u n d i n A m e r i c a a t t h e end o f t h e f i r s t d e c a d e d i d p l a y a r o l e i n u p h o l d i n g p a r t i c u l a r i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s . As we s h a l l s e e l a t e r t h e a r t o f 291 was i n t e n d e d t o c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n e a c h o f t h e s e i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s . Among t h e g r o u p o f c o l l e c t o r s known as t h e " r o b b e r b a r o n s " , t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t c l a s s , t h e " G r e a t M a s t e r s c o l l e c t i o n s were most common. These c o l l e c t i o n s , t y p i c a l l y v a s t a c c u m u l a t i o n s o f w o r k s f r o m a l l p e r i o d s o f w e s t e r n h i s t o r y - - b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e R e n a i s s a n c e and p o s t - R e n a i s s a n c e p e r i o d , b e g a n t o be f o r m e d i n t h e 1890's. They were owned by s u c h men as J . P i e r p o n t M o r g a n , B e n j a m i n A l t m a n ( f o u n d e r o f a d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e and S t i e g l i t z ' s l a n d l o r d ) , C o l l i s P. H u n t i n g t o n ( r a i l w a y magnate f r o m C a l i f o r n i a ) , P.A.B.Widener (owner o f s t r e e t c a r s and meat p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s i n P h i l a d e l p h i a ) , H e n r y C l a y F r i c k and Andrew M e l l o n ( b o t h o f whom made t h e i r v a s t f o r t u n e s i n c o a l and i r o n ) and W i l l i a m R a n d o l p h H e a r s t ( n e w s p a p e r o w n e r ) . To t h e s e men, o f t e n o f r e l a t i v e l y humble s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d , t h e s e c o l l e c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d one pa t h w a y t o s o c i a l p r e s t i g e . W . G . C o n s t a b l e h a s o b s e r v e d : [ T ] h e most i m p o r t a n t c h a l l e n g e was t o t h e p a s t . The m e r c h a n t p r i n c e s and i n d u s t r i a l i s t s o f t h e t i m e f o r m e d a c l a s s i n s o c i e t y a n a l o g o u s t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l a r i s t o c r a c y o f V e n i c e ; and t h e y wanted t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t A m e r i c a n w e a l t h c o u l d show c u l t u r a l a c h i e v e m e n t s t h a t c o u l d r i v a l t h o s e o f E u r o p e , and a g r e a t c o l l e c t i o n was one way o f d o i n g t h i s . So t h e c o l l e c t o r s t o o k as t h e i r model t h e c o l l e c t i o n s f o r m e d 29 by t h e k i n g s , p r i n c e s , n o b i l i t y and g r e a t m e r c h a n t s o f E u r o p e , w h i c h i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e d an e c l e c t i c c o n c e n t - r a t i o n on m a s t e r p i e c e s , t h e s e b e i n g p r o v i d e d w i t h a n c i l l a r y c o l l e c t i o n s a n d ^ s e t t i n g s w h i c h c o n f o r m e d t o t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e p a s t . However i f s u c h c o l l e c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e p a s t t h e y a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i t s c o n t i n u i t y : t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e E u r o p e a n a r i s t o c r a c y w o u l d be c o n t i n u e d i n A m e r i c a . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f a t r a d i t i o n o f f a m i l y w e a l t h , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e p o s s e s s i o n s once owned by t h e p o w e r f u l r u l e r s o f E u r o p e w o u l d c o n f e r l e g i t i m a c y t o t h e i r p r e s e n t power. However w h i l e t h e y p a t t e r n e d t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s upon t h o s e g r e a t c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e p a s t , t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r r e f u s a l t o buy c o n t e m p o r a r y a r t , b o t h E u r o p e a n and A m e r i c a n . W h i l e some o f t h e s e c o l l e c t o r s , s u c h as J . P . M o r g a n , were d i s c e r n i n g and w e l l - i n f o r m e d i n t h e i r t a s t e , o t h e r s b o u g h t i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . W.R. H e a r s t , whom C o n s t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i z e s n o t as a c o l l e c t o r b u t "a g i g a n t i c and 24 . ' v o r a c i o u s m a g p i e " w i t h a " l u s t f o r p o s s e s s i o n r u n mad" i s s u c h an e x a m p l e . The i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , i n f a m o u s f o r t h e i r " c o n s p i c u o u s c o n s u m p t i o n " o f w h i c h t h e i r a r t c o l l e c t i o n s were o n l y one f a c e t , were w i d e l y r e p u t e d t o be v u l g a r and u n c u l t u r e d i n t h e i r t a s t e . B e n j a m i n De C a s s e r e s w r o t e i n Camera Work: And b e h o l d t h e w e a l t h y p a t r o n s o f t h e a r t s ! . . . They c a r r y t h e i r e x h a u s t e d s o u l s t o E u r o p e and buy " a r t o b j e c t s , " t h e g r e a t money v a l u e o f w h i c h i s t h e o n l y t h i n g t h e y were made t o a p p r e c i a t e . W h i l e t h e A m e r i c a n a r t i s t who h a s an o r i g i n a l n o t e , who h a s s e c e d e d i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e t h e i n v i o l a b i l i t y o f h i s own a r t i s t i c g e n i u s , r o t s i n h i s r a g s i n h i s h o l e o f 30 a s t u d i o . These " p a t r o n s " ( o r s h o u l d we c a l l them p a d r o n e s ? ) r a n s a c k museums, p u r c h a s e o l d p a l a c e s , b r a g g i n g w i t h t h e b r a z e n n e s s o f a l l v u l g a r i t y o f t h e enormous p r i c e s t h e y p a i d f o r them. They a r e t h e Medusas o f I n d i f f e r e n c e , t h e e x p o s e d g u t s o f R e s p e c t a b i l i t y . I t was l a r g e l y t h r o u g h t h e d i r e c t i o n o f s u c h p a t r o n s t h a t w h a t e v e r i n s t i t u t i o n s e x i s t e d i n A m e r i c a g a v e t h e i r s u p p o r t t o t h e a r t s . S i r P u r d o n C l a r k e ' s a p p o i n t m e n t as d i r e c t o r o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum was, a c c o r d i n g t o an a r t i c l e i n Camera Work, b a s e d upon t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f 2 6 i n t e r e s t s w h i c h he s h a r e d w i t h J . P . M o r g a n . These i n t e r e s t s s t o p p e d s h o r t a t t h e end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The A m e r i c a n academy, d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1908-13 r e p r e s e n t e d a v a r i e t y o f s t y l e s , i m p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e u n d e r any one c a t e g o r y . T h a t w h i c h t h e y h e l d i n common was an a d h e r e n c e t o some i n h e r i t e d a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n . The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d w i t h i n t h e Academy was t h e c l a s s i c i z i n g s c h o o l r e p r e s e n t e d by s u c h a r t i s t s as K enyon Cox and E d w i n B l a s h f i e l d . Most c l o s e l y r e s e m b l i n g t h e p a i n t i n g s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y F r e n c h academy t h e s e a r t i s t s h e l d a r t t o be a r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e b a s e d on t h e c o r r e c t d r a w i n g o f t h e f i g u r e . T h e i r themes, w h i c h were o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d i n p u b l i c m u r a l w o r k s , were i n t e n d e d t o be m o r a l l y e d i f y i n g and most o f t e n b a s e d upon h i s t o r y o r m y t h o l o g y . A s e c o n d g r o u p , l o o s e l y c l a s s i f i a b l e by t h e t e r m r e a l i s t s , t r a c e d t h e i r i n f l u e n c e s b a c k t o H a l s , V e l a s q u e z and Manet by way o f M u n i c h . T h e i r d e p i c t i o n s o f l o w e r c l a s s s u b j e c t s were o f a 31 t y p e t h o u g h t u n s u i t a b l e by t h e more o r t h o d o x c l a s s i c i s t s . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s d e r i v i n g f r o m t h i s g r o u p were o f t e n o f a d a r k t o n a l i t y and were e x e c u t e d i n q u i c k , l o o s e b r u s h w o r k . A t h i r d g r o u p h a v e been d e s i g n a t e d by t h e t e r m T o n a l i s t s . T h i s t e n d e n c y , r e p r e s e n t e d most c l e a r l y by a r t i s t s s u c h as G e o r g e I n n e s s , d e r i v e d f r o m t h e B a r b i z o n s c h o o l , W h i s t l e r and A m e r i c a n l u m i n i s m . T h e i r s u b j e c t s were p r i m a r i l y l a n d s c a p e s p a i n t e d i n a d o m i n a n t t o n a l i t y . O p p o s i n g s c i e n c e , m a t e r i a l i s m and r a t i o n a l i s m t h i s g r o u p a t t e m p t e d t o i n f u s e t h e i r s c e n e s w i t h a s e n s e o f t h e m y s t e r i o u s q u a l i t y w h i c h t h e y f e l t t o be i n h e r e n t i n n a t u r e . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h i s s c h o o l was t h e more r o m a n t i c o r m y s t i c a l t e n d e n c y o f a r t i s t s s u c h as A l b e r t P i n k h a m R y d e r and R a l p h B l a k e l o c k . Of a l l t h e s t y l e s a c c e p t e d by t h e academy A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n i s m was t h e most p o p u l a r and had been so s i n c e t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s . T h i s p o p u l a r i t y was l a r g e l y due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e and r e p u t a t i o n o f Mary C a s s a t t and t o t h e e f f o r t s o f D u r a n d - R u e l i n e x p o s i n g t h e work o f t h e F r e n c h I m p r e s s i o n i s t s t o t h e A m e r i c a n p u b l i c . A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n i s m , o f w h i c h a g r o u p known as t h e "Ten" were t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l , was b a s e d upon t h e F r e n c h a r t i s t s ' t e c h n i q u e . However t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e A m e r i c a n s r e s p e c t e d t h e v o l u m e , s o l i d i t y and c o n t o u r s o f f o r m v a r i e d f r o m a r t i s t t o a r t i s t . A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n i s m was, i n t e r m s o f i t s f o r m a l q u a l i t i e s , an amalgam o f F r e n c h I m p r e s s i o n i s m and F r e n c h a c a d e m i c i s m . U n l i k e t h e more s u b j e c t i v e 32 t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e T o n a l i s t s and t h e R o m a n t i c s t h e I m p r e s s i o n i s t s c o n c e n t r a t e d upon r e p r e s e n t i n g s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s o f t h e v i s i b l e w o r l d . The s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h i s work was b a s e d upon two t h e m e s - l a n d s c a p e and t h e f i g u r e , o r o c c a s i o n a l l y a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e two. The l a n d s c a p e s i t d e p i c t e d were q u i e t r u r a l s c e n e s — f i e l d s w i t h v i l l a g e s i n t h e d i s t a n c e , q u i e t s t r e a m s r u n n i n g b e s i d e b a r n s o r f a r m h o u s e s , t h e o l d m i l l , t h e snow, b r i d g e s and s t r e a m s , r o l l i n g h i l l s , g e n t l e s t r e a m s , o r c h a r d s . O n l y r a r e l y does one come a c r o s s d e p i c t i o n s o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s o r u n c u l t i v a t e d n a t u r e s u c h as m o u n t a i n s c e n e s o r N i a g a r a F a l l s . The s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e s e w o r k s a r e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y o f r u r a l A m e r i c a , w i t h n a t u r e d e p i c t e d as p i c t u r e s q u e b u t d o m e s t i c a t e d . The a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h t h e s e w o r k s w o u l d h a v e b r o u g h t up w o u l d h a v e been t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f m o d e r n i t y : t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y r u r a l p a s t . The c o u n t r y r e p r e s e n t e d t h a t w h i c h had b u i l t t h e c i t y ; i t , u n l i k e t h e c i t y , was s e e n t o be p u r e and u n s p o i l e d . The c i t y , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , was t h a t w h i c h d r a i n e d t h e c o u n t r y o f i t s r e s o u r c e s , b o t h human and n a t u r a l . The c o u n t r y a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d e s c a p e t o t h o s e who w o r k e d w i t h i n t h e c i t y ; a t t h e end o f t h e day t h o s e who had t h e means l e f t f o r i t was n o t t h o u g h t t o be t h e k i n d o f p l a c e where one w o u l d c h o s e t o l i v e i f i t c o u l d be a v o i d e d . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r o w i n g s e n t i m e n t a l i t y r e g a r d i n g t h e c o u n t r y was t h e f a c t t h a t , i n t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s , t h e A m e r i c a n f r o n t i e r had d i s a p p e a r e d . The f a c t 33 t h a t t h e r e was no l o n g e r a s e e m i n g l y u n l i m i t e d amount o f u n e x p l o r e d l a n d a v a i l a b l e meant t h a t t h e s a f e t y v a l v e had d i s s o l v e d . The s a n c t i t y o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e c o u l d no l o n g e r be i m a g i n e d t o be p r o t e c t e d f r o m t h e g r o w t h o f t h e c i t y . The o t h e r m a j o r theme o f t h e A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n i s t s was t h a t o f t h e f i g u r e w i t h i n a d o m e s t i c s e t t i n g . As h a s f r e q u e n t l y b e e n " o b s e r v e d t h e r e was an u n u s u a l l y h i g h number o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f women i n t h e w o r k s o f t h i s g r o u p , p a r t i c u l a r l y when compared t o t h e i r F r e n c h p r o t o t y p e s . Women were s o m e t i m e s d e p i c t e d by t h e f i e l d s o r s t r e a m s o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e b u t when d e p i c t e d o u t o f d o o r s t h e y were u s u a l l y i n t h e g a r d e n o r y a r d o f t h e i r homes. M o s t s c e n e s t o o k p l a c e w i t h i n q u i e t d o m e s t i c i n t e r i o r s . W h i l e t h e y a r e so m e t i m e s a c c o m p a n i e d by a c h i l d o r by a f e m a l e c o m p a n i o n t h e y a r e u s u a l l y a l o n e . As i n R o b e r t R e i d ' s The V i o l e t Kimono ( c . 1 9 1 0 , f i g . 1) t h e women a r r a n g e f l o w e r s , p o u r t e a , comb t h e i r h a i r , p l a y s o l i t a i r e o r h o l d b o o k s b u t t h e i r a c t i v i t y i s u s u a l l y i n a c t i v i t y . T h e i r a t t i t u d e i s n o t one o f d i s t r e s s o r e n n u i b u t r e v e r i e . H e l d w i t h i n s u c h s e e m i n g l y t i m e l e s s s c e n e s t h e y a r e b e a u t i f u l o b j e c t s p o s e d w i t h i n b e a u t i f u l , e l e g a n t s e t t i n g s . As we s h a l l s e e t h e s e images 2 7 a l s o r e c a l l e d t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p a s t . The f i r s t g r o u p t o s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e t h i s v i s i o n was t h e " E i g h t " , s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o as t h e "A s h c a n S c h o o l " . 3 4 I n t e r m s o f i t s f o r m a l q u a l i t i e s t h e g r o u p members r e p r e s e n t e d , f o r t h e most p a r t , an amalgam o f t e n d e n c i e s f r o m w i t h i n t h e Academy: t h e d a r k , s l a s h i n g s t y l e o f t h e M u n i c h r e a l i s t s ( R o b e r t H e n r i , G e o r g e L u k s and J o h n S l o a n ) , l a t e I m p r e s s i o n i s m ( E r n e s t L a w s o n , E v e r e t t S h i n n , W i l l i a m G l a c k e n s ) , a l y r i c a l p o e t i c s t y l e ( A r t h u r D a v i e s ) and a more e x p e r i m e n t a l d e c o r a t i v e n e o - I m p r e s s i o n i s t s t y l e ( M a u r i c e P r e n d e r g a s t ) . The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e E i g h t ' s a r t , h o w e v e r , was t o w i t h i t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r ; i t f o c u s e d upon 2 8 c o n t e m p o r a r y , s p e c i f i c a l l y A m e r i c a n themes. The p a i n t i n g s o f t h e E i g h t i n c l u d e d s c e n e s n e v e r b e f o r e d e p i c t e d i n A m e r i c a n a r t , most o f w h i c h i n v o l v e d t h e u r b a n s c e n e : c r o w d e d s t r e e t s , p a r k s , r o o f t o p s and b a c k y a r d s , f a s h i o n a b l e r e s t a u r a n t s , t h e a t r e s , w r e s t l i n g m a t c h e s , b e a c h s c e n e s , t h e new f i v e - c e n t m o v i e s and b a r s . I t seems u n u s u a l now t h a t s u c h s e e m i n g l y i n n o c u o u s l o c a t i o n s w o u l d f i r s t 29 a p p e a r i n A m e r i c a n a r t a t s u c h a l a t e d a t e . As we s h a l l s e e , h o w e v e r , most o f t h e s e l o c a t i o n s h e l d , u n t i l l a t e i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e i r e x c l u s i o n f r o m t h e r e a l m o f a r t a n d , i n f a c t , f r o m p o l i t e b o u r g e o i s s o c i e t y . The v e r y f a c t o f t h e i r d e p i c t i o n s i g n i f i e d a l o o s e n i n g o f V i c t o r i a n m o r a l r e s t r i c t i o n s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e c h a n g i n g o f t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r d e r . However t h e m a i n t o p i c o f t h e E i g h t was n o t t h e s e t t i n g s t h e m s e l v e s b u t t h e human l i f e w h i c h t o o k p l a c e w i t h i n them. T h i s l i f e was j u s t as o f t e n w o r k i n g c l a s s as i t was 35 b o u r g e o i s . W h i l e t h e w o r k s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y A m e r i c a n a r t i s t s t r a i n e d i n M u n i c h had s o m e t i m e s i n c l u d e d p o r t r a i t s o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s s u c h d e p i c t i o n s were s t i l l , i n t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , r e l a t i v e l y r a r e i n A m e r i c a n art.^° A l t h o u g h i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e E i g h t p o r t r a y e d a s e c t i o n o f l i f e t h a t had p r e v i o u s l y b e e n i g n o r e d i n A m e r i c a n p a i n t i n g , a p a r t o f t h a t l i f e r e m a i n e d i n v i s i b l e i n t h e i r p a i n t i n g s . I n t h e i r a t t e m p t t o d e p i c t t h e p o o r i t i s a s l i g h t l y s e n t i m e n t a l i z e d p o o r t h a t we s e e . The f a c t o f t h e i r o v e r c r o w d e d , u n s a n i t a r y , s l u m l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s — c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h were t h e s u b j e c t o f numerous s e n s a t i o n a l m u c k r a k i n g a r t i c l e s and b o o k s , i s g l o s s e d o v e r i n f a v o u r o f d e p i c t i o n s o f t o u c h i n g warmth and e n e r g e t i c l i f e . One a l s o n e v e r s e e s t h e m o d e r n i s t c h a r a c t e r o f New Y o r k — i t s most o b v i o u s q u a l i t y . The s k y l i n e and t h e modern s k y s c r a p e r s a r e a g a i n g l o s s e d o v e r i n f a v o u r o f i n d e t e r m i n a t e s e t t i n g s , as w i t h H e n r i , o r t h e d i s t i n c t i v e h o m e l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s o f S l o a n . As Amy G o l d i n as o b s e r v e d t h e c i t y a p p e a r s as an 31 " o v e r g r o w n v i l l a g e " , w i t h t h e n o s t a l g i c c h a r a c t e r o f a n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o m m u n i t y . The work o f t h e E i g h t , t h e n , r e p r e s e n t s a s t r a n g e m i x t u r e o f a c c e p t a n c e and r e j e c t i o n o f m o d e r n i t y . I t i s as i f i n o r d e r t o a c c o m o d a t e t o t h e new w o r l d t h e y t r a n s l a t e d i t i n t o t h e t e r m s o f t h e p a s t , t h e r e b y h u m a n i z i n g t h e new. D u r i n g t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e s e c o n d d e c a d e H e n r i and 36 S l o a n b o t h w o r k e d on b e h a l f o f t h e l e f t , H e n r i as an i n s t r u c t o r a t t h e F e r r e r S c h o o l ( d i r e c t e d by t h e a n a r c h i s t Emma Goldman) and S l o a n as a c a r t o o n i s t f o r t h e s o c i a l i s t j o u r n a l The M a s s e s . I n t e n d e d as a v e h i c l e by w h i c h t o e d u c a t e A m e r i c a n s r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e and b e n e f i t s o f s o c i a l i s m , o v e r one t h i r d o f The M a s s e s was g i v e n o v e r t o f u l l and d o u b l e pages o f t h e work o f S l o a n and t h e o t h e r a r t i s t s on s t a f f . T h e i r p o l i t i c a l c a r t o o n s o f t e n s e r v e d as i l l u s t r a t i o n t o t h e t e x t . They were a l w a y s s i m p l e , e a s i l y r e a d and d i r e c t i n t h e i r a t t a c k upon t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f c a p i t a l i s m . L i k e The M a s s e s ' e d i t o r , Max E a s t m a n , S l o a n a l w a y s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a r t and p o l i t i c s c o u l d n o t be m i x e d . W h i l e h i s c a r t o o n s c o u l d be u s e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e d u c a t i o n t h e p o l i t i c a l w i l l w h i c h i n f o r m e d them was k e p t s e p a r a t e f r o m h i s p a i n t i n g s . T h e r e w e r e , t h e n , s e v e r a l o p p o s i n g f o r m s o f a r t c u r r e n t i n A m e r i c a a t t h e end o f t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . To t h e new i n d u s t r i a l i s t s a r t o f t h e p a s t c e n t u r i e s s e r v e d t o g i v e them a s e n s e o f c o n t i n u i t y w i t h t h e i r c h o s e n h i s t o r y - - t h a t o f g r e a t E u r o p e a n e m p i r e s o f t h e p a s t . The work o f t h e I m p r e s s i o n i s t s r e c a l l e d t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y A m e r i c a n p a s t and t h e A s h c a n S c h o o l r e p r e s e n t e d a m i x t u r e o f a c c o m o d a t i o n and r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e p r e s e n t . A l l u s e d an a r t i s t i c l a n g u a g e w h i c h was i n d e b t e d t o p a s t s t y l e s . O n l y t h e s o c i a l i s t s a t t e m p t e d t o a d d r e s s 37 t h e p r e s e n t b u t i n d o i n g so u s e d c a r t o o n s as a means o f e d u c a t i o n . The a r t o f 291, as we s h a l l s e e , c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n e a c h o f t h e s e v i s i o n s . They w r o t e : A r t i n A m e r i c a i s s t i l l l a r g e l y m i s u n d e r s t o o d . I t s p u r p o s e i s n o t t o . . . make t h e d u k e s o f E u r o p e f e e l a t home i n t h e m a n s i o n s o f t h e d o l l a r , n o r t o s e r v e t h e l a t t e r i n any way, n o r even t o r a i s e t h e wages o f t h e d r e s s m a k e r s — A l l " a r t " o f t h i s s o r t i s sham, d e v o i d o f t r u t h , o r r e l a t i o n t o o u r s e l v e s . A r t — p u r e a r t — e l e v a t e s and l i b e r a t e s , b e c a u s e i t makes 31 a r t i c u l a t e t h e l i f e o f i t s own t i m e . How a r t was t o l i b e r a t e and what i t was t o a r t i c u l a t e i s t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s . 38 NOTES L e t t e r f r o m P a r i s , S t e i c h e n t o S t i e g l i t z , d a t e d November 1913. Quoted i n Abrahams, "The L y r i c a l L e f t , " p . l . 2 O s c a r B l u e m n e r , " A u d i a t o r e t a l t e r a p a r s : Some P l a i n S e n s e on t h e Modern A r t Movement," CW S p e c i a l Number ( J u n e 1 9 1 3 ) : 3 5. 3 Woodrow W i l s o n , The New Freedom, 1916 r e p r i n t e d i t i o n (J.M.Dent & S o n s , 1926) 4 . R i c h a r d H o f s t a d t e r e t a l , The A m e r i c a n R e p u b l i c , v o l . 2 : The P r o g r e s s i v e E r a ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1959. 5 . . . . W i l l i a m Appleman W i l l i a m s , A m e r i c a n s i n a C h a n g i n g W o r l d (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 54. The House o f Morgan and t h e R o c k e f e l l e r G r o u p e a c h c o n t r o l l e d s e v e r a l b a n k s , a s e r i e s o f r a i l r o a d s and s e v e r a l n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . A f t e r 1907, when t h e two g r o u p s a c t e d t o g e t h e r t o p r e v e n t a p a n i c i n t h e s t o c k m a r k e t , t h e y d e c i d e d t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n was l e s s f r u i t f u l t h a n u n i t y . T h e r e a f t e r t h e y merged by p u r c h a s i n g s t o c k i n e a c h o t h e r ' s c o m p a n i e s and by f o r m i n g i n t e r l o c k i n g d i r e c t o r a t e s . I n 1913 t h e P u j o C o m m i t t e e o f t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e l e a s e d a r e p o r t s h o w i n g t h e e x t e n t o f t h e M o r g a n - R o c k e f e l l e r i n t e r e s t s : One h u n d r e d and e i g h t e e n d i r e c t o r s h i p s i n 34 b a n k s and t r u s t c o m p a n i e s h a v i n g t o t a l r e s o u r c e s o f $2,697,000,000 and t o t a l d e p o s i t s o f $1,983,000,000. T h i r t y d i r e c t o r s h i p s i n 10 i n s u r a n c e c o m p a n i e s h a v i n g t o t a l a s s e t s o f $2,293,000,000. One h u n d r e d and f i v e d i r e c t o r s h i p s i n 32 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s h a v i n g a t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f $11,784,000,000 and a t o t a l m i l e a g e ( e x c l u d i n g e x p r e s s c o m p a n i e s and s t e a m s h i p l i n e s ) o f 150,200. S i x t y - t h r e e d i r e c t o r s h i p s i n 24 p r o d u c i n g and t r a d i n g c o r p o r a t i o n s h a v i n g a t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f $3 , 3 3 9 , 0 0 0 . T w e n t y - f i v e d i r e c t o r s h i p s i n 12 p u b l i c u t i l i t y c o r p o r - a t i o n s h a v i n g a t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f $2,150,000,000. I n a l l , 341 d i r e c t o r s h i p s i n 112 c o r p o r a t i o n s h a v i n g a g g r e g a t e r e s o u r c e s o r c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f $2 2 , 2 4 5 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . T r a n s l a t e d i n t o t h e t e r m s o f r e a l e s t a t e t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l o f t h e M o r g a n - R o c k e f e l l e r combine e x c e e d e d t h e p r o p e r t y v a l u e o f t h e 22 s t a t e s w e s t o f t h e M i s s i s s i p p i 39 R i v e r and e x c e e d e d by t h r e e t i m e s t h e p r o p e r t y v a l u e o f a l l t h i r t e e n s o u t h e r n s t a t e s . ( H o f s t a d t e r e t a l , The P r o g r e s s i v e E r a , p. 363-64. 7 I n 1902 t h e S o c i a l i s t P a r t y r e c e i v e d 95,000 v o t e s ; i n 1912 i t r e c e i v e d 900,000 v o t e s o r 6% o f t h e v o t e . A t t h a t t i m e 79 S o c i a l i s t c a n d i d a t e s were e l e c t e d as m a y o r s i n 24 s t a t e s . ( C h r i s t o p h e r L a s c h , The Agony o f t h e A m e r i c a n L e f t (New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1 9 6 9 ) , p.35.) g See M e l v y n D u b o f s k y , We S h a l l Be A l l : A H i s t o r y o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l W o r k e r s o f t h e W o r l d ( C h i c a g o : Q u a d r a n g l e B o o k s , 1969) 9 E a s t m a n was a p h i l o s o p h y i n s t r u c t o r a t C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y f r o m 1907 t o 1911. He was a l s o e d i t o r o f The M a s s e s and a w r i t e r . R e e d , a w r i t e r and p o e t , was a s s o c i a t e e d i t o r o f The M a s s e s . D e l l was a f o r m e r p r o f e s s o r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o . Goldman f i r s t came t o t h e p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n i n 1902 when she was a c c u s e d o f i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t M c K i n l e y , an i n v o l v e m e n t w h i c h she d e n i e d . She was e d i t o r o f M o t h e r E a r t h and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e F e r r e r S c h o o l , named a f t e r a S p a n i s h a n a r c h i s t . B e l i e v i n g t h a t a l l f o r m s o f g o v e r n m e n t were u n n e c e s s a r y , as w e l l as i n h e r e n t l y v i o l e n t , a n a r c h i s t s c o n c e n t r a t e d upon g r a s s - r o o t o r g a n i z a t i o n . Berkman, who was v e r y c l o s e t o Goldman, was j a i l e d f o r 14 y e a r s f o r t h e a t t e m p t e d murder o f H e n r y C l a y F r i c k i n 1892. 1 0 1 5 , 0 0 0 s p e c t a t o r s a t t e n d e d t h e p a g e a n t . ^ T h e I.W.W. m a i n t a i n e d a f r a g i l e c o a l i t i o n w i t h t h e S o c i a l i s t P a r t y u n t i l 1913 when t h e S.P. v o t e d t o p r o h i b i t s a b o t a g e and d i r e c t a c t i o n . 12 C h r i s t o p h e r L a s c h , " H e r b e r t C r o l y ' s A m e r i c a , " New Y o r k R e v i e w o f Books 4 ( J u l y 1, 1 9 6 5 ) : 19. F o r a c c o u n t s o f t h e r o l e o f t h e l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s s e e C h a r l e s F o r c e y , The C r o s s r o a d s o f L i b e r a l i s m : C r o l y , W e y l , L i p p m a n n and t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a , 1900-1925 ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961) and D a v i d W. L e v y , H e r b e r t C r o l y o f t h e New R e p u b l i c : L i f e and T h o u g h t o f an A m e r i c a n P r o g r e s s i v e ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 5 ) . 13 . . James Hoopes, "The C u l t u r e o f P r o g r e s s i v i s m : C r o l y , L i p p m a n n , B r o o k s , B o u r n e and t h e I d e a o f A m e r i c a n A r t i s t i c D e c a d e n c e , " CLIO 7:1 ( F a l l 1977) 14 W a l t e r L i p p m a n n , D r i f t and M a s t e r y , p . 1 7 9 - 8 0 . I b i d . , p. 139. 40 1 6 I b i d . , p. 194. 17 Q u o t e d i n D a n i e l A a r o n , W r i t e r s on t h e L e f t (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d , I n c . , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 25. ^ I b i d . , p. 23 . 1 9 I b i d . , p. 24. 20 I n h e r memoires M a b e l Dodge r e c a l l s t h e same s p e e c h and m e n t i o n s t h a t t h e t h r e e . a r t i s t s were p r e s e n t . See M a b e l Dodge L u h a n , I n t i m a t e M e m o r i e s , V o l . 3, M o v e r s and S h a k e r s (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & Co., 1 9 3 6 ) , p. 90. 21 B i l l Haywood, q u o t e d i n Max E a s t m a n ' s V e n t u r e (New Y o r k : A l b e r t & C h a r l e s B o n i , 1 9 2 7 ) , p . 2 1 0 - 1 1 . 22 H u t c h i n s Hapgood, " A r t and U n r e s t , " New Y o r k G l o b e , r e p r i n t e d i n CW 42/43 ( A p r i l - J u l y 1 9 1 3 ) : 4 3 . 23 W . G . C o n s t a b l e , A r t C o l l e c t i n g m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a : An O u t l i n e o f a H i s t o r y ( L o n d o n : Thomas N e l s o n & S o n s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p.98. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 139. 25 . . B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s , " A m e r i c a n I n d i f f e r e n c e , " CW 27 ( J u l y 1 9 0 9 ) : 25. 2 6 C h a r l e s H. C a f f i n , " I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n H i g h P l a c e s , " CW 26 ( A p r i l 1 9 0 9 ) : 22. 27 S e v e r a l e x a m p l e s o f t h e s e images c a n be f o u n d i n P a t r i c i a H i l l s , T u r n o f t h e C e n t u r y A m e r i c a (New Y o r k : W h i t n e y Museum o f A m e r i c a n A r t , 1 9 7 7 ) . 2 8 R o b e r t H e n r i , t h e E i g h t ' s l e a d e r , w r o t e i n 1908 t h a t t h e r e was no u n i t y i n t h e i r a p p r o a c h e x c e p t t h a t t h e y a l l a g r e e d t h a t ' l i f e ' was t o be t h e s u b j e c t . They w i s h e d t o be c o n t e m p o r a r y — t o t r e a t c o n t e m p o r a r y themes i n a r e a l i s t i c manner. F u r t h e r m o r e , as H e n r i w r o t e i n 1909, t h e a r t i s t s h o u l d l e a r n t o e x p r e s s " t h e g r e a t i d e a s n a t i v e t o t h e c o u n t r y " . A m e r i c a n p a i n t i n g , H e n r i b e l i e v e d , demanded " f a r r o o t s , s t r e t c h i n g f a r down i n t o t h e s o i l o f a n a t i o n , and i n i t s g r o w t h s h o w i n g , w i t h w h a t e v e r v a r i a t i o n , i n e v i t a b l y t h e r e s u l t o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . " ( R o b e r t H e n r i , " P r o g r e s s i n Our N a t i o n a l A r t , " ( J a n u a r y 1 9 0 9 ) , q u o t e d i n Homer, R o b e r t H e n r i and H i s C i r c l e , p. 284.) 29 S c e n e s o f t h e t h e a t r e , b a r , c a f e - c o n c e r t and t h e b o u l e v a r d w e r e , o f c o u r s e , q u i t e f r e q u e n t i n F r e n c h I m p r e s s i o n i s t p a i n t i n g . 41 S l o a n , L u k s and H e n r i , e s p e c i a l l y , were drawn t o t h i s t y p e o f s u b j e c t . F o r S l o a n and H e n r i t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s were c l o s e r t o t h e r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e t h a n o t h e r g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y . Wheras H e n r i u s u a l l y d e p i c t e d s i n g l e f i g u r e s S l o a n a p p r o a c h e d t h e c i t y ' s l i f e a s i f i t were t h e a t r e . I n h i s w o r k s were a s e r i e s o f v i g n e t t e s — t h e d y i n g o f a woman's h a i r as s e e n t h r o u g h a h a i r d r e s s e r ' s window, w o r k i n g c l a s s women b e g i n n i n g t h e i r day a t 3 A.M., men p l a y i n g w i t h p i g e o n s on a r o o f . 31 . . . Amy G o l d m , "The E i g h t ' s L a i s s e z - F a i r e R e v o l u t i o n , " A r t i n A m e r i c a 61 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1 9 7 3 ) : 4 7. O s c a r B l u e m n e r , " A u d i a t o r e t a l t e r a p a r s , " : 25. 42 CHAPTER TWO I n J a n u a r y o f 1907 t h e g a l l e r y f i r s t o p e n ed i t s d o o r s t o t h e e x h i b i t i o n o f n o n - p h o t o g r a p h i c a r t . The f i r s t a r t i s t t o be shown was P a m e l a Colman S m i t h , an a r t i s t b o r n i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and r e s i d i n g a l t e r n a t e l y i n J a m a i c a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . She r e c e i v e d t h r e e e x h i b i t i o n s a t 291, t h e s e c o n d i n F e b r u a r y and M a r c h o f 1908 and a t h i r d i n M a r c h o f 1909.^ S m i t h ' s s u b j e c t s were c l e a r l y s y m b o l i s t i n o r i e n t a t i o n . D e s c r i b i n g h e r t h i r d e x h i b i t i o n B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s , a c r i t i c and c l o s e a s s o c i a t e o f 291, w r o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n Camera Work: H e r e - as i n "Warum", Man s t a n d s q u e s t i o n i n g t h e I n f i n i t e , o r a g a i n , as i n " C l o s i n g Day", a f i g u r e b l a s t e d w i t h m e l a n c h o l i a h a s d r a g g e d h i m s e l f t o t h e e a v e s o f s p a c e , o r as i n "The W h i t e C a s t l e " , a w o n d e r f u l l y e x e c u t e d p i e c e o f w o rk- t h e e t e r n a l a s c e t i c a p p e a r s a g a i n s t t h e snowpeaks o f s p i r i t u a l i s o l a t i o n . What m a t t e r t h e s u b j e c t ? The a r t i s t h e r e i s s p y i n g t h e o l d i m m o r t a l t h i n g s i n a new i m m o r t a l way" I n The Wave ( 1 9 0 3 , f i g . 2 ) human f o r m s m o m e n t a r i l y emerge f r o m t h e s u r r o u n d i n g d a r k e n e d w a t e r o n l y , p r e s u m a b l y , t o merge a g a i n w i t h t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s e a . Such i m a g e s , t o de C a s s e r e s , were e v i d e n c e t h a t S m i t h was "a b l e n d e r o f v i s i o n s , a m y s t i c , a s y m b o l i s t , one who t r a n s f i g u r e s t h e w o r l d she l i v e s i n by t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g s i m p l i c i t y o f h e r 3 . . . i m a g i n a t i o n . " De C a s s e r e s * a p p r e c i a t i o n o f S m i t h ' s work c o n t i n u e d : 43 P a m e l a Colman S m i t h h a s s e e n t h r o u g h many v e i l s . To h e r t h e u n i v e r s e i s a c o n g e r i e s o f s u g g e s t i o n s . She h a s s m i t t e n w i t h t h e r o d o f h e r i m a g i n a t i o n t h i s adamant w o r l d o f s u c h s e e m i n g s o l i d s and v a p o r i z e d i t . And o u t ^ o f t h e v a p o r she h a s s h a p e d h e r v i s i o n s o f l i f e . . . The c r i t i c James H u n e k e r , i n an e s s a y p u b l i s h e d e a r l i e r i n Camera Work, s i m i l a r l y p r a i s e d S m i t h f o r h e r " r a r e q u a l i t y o f i m a g i n a t i o n . " C o m p a r i n g h e r work t o t h a t o f B l a k e , E n s o r , B e a r d s l e y , Munch, Redon and M a e t e r l i n c k , he s a i d t h a t S m i t h ' s d r a w i n g s were "memoranda o f s p i r i t u a l e x a l t a t i o n , o f t h e s o u l u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f m u s i c o r h a u n t e d by some s i n i s t e r i m a g i n i n g ^ T h a t S m i t h s h o u l d i n a u g u r a t e what w o u l d p r o v e t o be A m e r i c a ' s f i r s t s e r i e s o f modern a r t e x h i b i t i o n s a p p e a r s , p e r h a p s , somewhat odd. She r e p r e s e n t s , h o w e v e r , n o t an a n omaly b u t a l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y o f 291's i n t e r e s t s and o r i e n t a t i o n . Much o f t h e p h o t o g r a p h y w h i c h was p r e v i o u s l y shown, and e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f S t e i c h e n was c l e a r l y i n d e b t e d t o a s y m b o l i s t a e s t h e t i c . S t i e c h e n h i m s e l f was i n c l o s e t o u c h w i t h M a u r i c e M a e t e r l i n c k , t h e B e l g i a n s y m b o l i s t p l a y w r i g h t , b e g i n n i n g i n 1903 and o t h e r c l o s e a s s o c i a t e s o f t h e g a l l e r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c s S a d a k i c h i H a r t m a n n , C h a r l e s C a f f i n and B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s , were s t r o n g l y 7 i n f l u e n c e d by M a e t e r l i n c k , M a l l a r m e and V e r l a i n e . M o r e o v e r t h e f a c t t h a t S m i t h was g i v e n t h r e e e x h i b i t i o n s , and was t h e o n l y A m e r i c a n - b a s e d a r t i s t t o show a t 291 f o r t h e f i r s t two y e a r s o f i t s e x h i b i t i o n o f n o n - p h o t o g r a p h i c 44 a r t , a t t e s t s t o t h e f a c t t h a t h e r a e s t h e t i c was one o f w h i c h S t i e g l i t z a p p r o v e d . S m i t h ' s w o r k s r e p r e s e n t e d t o 291 a f o r m o f p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e p r e d o m i n a n t way o f l i f e . De C a s s e r e s w r o t e : I h a v e s p o k e n o f t h e " o v e r w h e l m i n g s i m p l i c i t y o f h e r w o r k. They a r e s o s i m p l e t h a t f a t p r a c t i c a l b r a i n s w i l l e i t h e r see i n them n o t h i n g o r l u n a c y . . . The w o r l d i s so c o m p l e t e l y and i r r e t r i e v a b l y l o s t i n t h e c o n c r e t e , i t h a s so c a r e f u l l y m o u l d e d o f t h e s e c o n d a r y and i n c i d e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c r e a t i o n a w o r l d w i t h i n a w o r l d , t h a t a p o e t , s u c h as P a m e l a Colman S m i t h , who s p e a k s d i r e c t l y o f t h i n g s as t h e y a r e p e r c e i v e d by t h e mind n o t y e t o v e r l a i d by t h e p a i n t e d i l l u s i o n s o f s i g h t and a r e n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e d e a d l y a u t o m a t i s m o f r o u t i n e , i s b e l i e v e d t o h a v e a t o u c h o f i n s a n i t y . . . . F a t M i n d s t a n d i n g b e f o r e t h e s e w o n d e r f u l o f f e r i n g s o f M i s s S m i t h w i l l l e t t h i s o o z e f r o m h i s mouth: " T h e r e i s no s u c h w o r l d as I see h e r e ; t h e r e a r e no s u c h m o u n t a i n s , no s u c h moons, no s u c h f l o w e r s w i t h baby h e a d s on them, no s u c h s h i p s , no s u c h s k i e s . " Thus F a t B r a i n , who i s l e g i o n . . . . To s u c h m i n d s [ a s S m i t h ' s ] what i s p r a c t i c a l i s v u l g a r , what i s u t i l i t a r i a n i s u g l y . . . . Our i m p a s s i o n e d d r e a m s . . - t h a t i s t h e r e a l moment o v e r a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e " r e a l " w o r k a d a y w o r l d i s a f i c t i o n , a b l a s p h e m y , a l i e . P a m e l a Colman S m i t h h a s i n t h i s manner, I t h i n k , c h a l l e n g e d t h e w o r l d a r o u n d h e r . W i t h i n t h i s t e x t we f i n d a number o f i d e a s w h i c h a p p e a r i n Camera Work w i t h r e g u l a r c o n s i s t e n c y t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r s 1 908-13. The c o n c r e t e , " w o r k a d a y " w o r l d , t h e w o r l d w h i c h we assume t o be " r e a l " i s a f i c t i o n , an i l l u s i o n . To t h i s w o r l d o f p r a c t i c a l i t y and u t i l i t a r i a n g o a l s i s c o n t r a s t e d a n o t h e r w o r l d : t h e w o r l d o f dreams. S m i t h ' s work was t h o u g h t t o c h a l l e n g e t h e v i e w e r ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e " r e a l " . S p e c i f i c a l l y , h o w e v e r , i t was f e l t t o c h a l l e n g e t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e " C a p t a i n s o f I n d u s t r y " , o t h e r w i s e known as t h e " r o b b e r b a r o n s " . De C a s s e r e s w r o t e : 45 L e t t h e s c a v e n g e r s s c r a p e t h e g u t t e r s f o r c o p p e r s and d u c k i n t h e c e s s p o o l s o f p r a c t i c a l l i f e f o r t h e r o l l i n g d o l l a r . They a r e t h e " C a p t a i n s o f I n d u s t r y " - t h e g r i m y , s m u t t y c a p t a i n s o f t h e m a r t s , and t h e i r " i n d u s t r y " i s a g r i m y , s m u t t y , l u r i d h e l l o f l i e s . And t h e i r r e a l m i s t h e r e a l m o f t h e a r c h e d s p i n e and t h e f u r t i v e g l a n c e and t h e g l u t t o n o u s l i p . They and a l l t h e i r w o r k s s h a l l go i n t h e w i n d s ; and t h e t u r r e t s and s p i r e s and b r i d g e s o f o u r c i v i l i z a t i o n s h a l l l o n g be g a n g r e n e d i n t h e muds o f O b l i v i o n when t h e d r e a m e r s f r o m t h e s l o p e s o f P a r n a s s u s s h a l l s t i l l w i t h p o t e n t r o d s m i t e t h e s o u l s o f g e n e r a t i o n s y e t u n b o r n ; and f r o m them, as f r o m u s , s h a l l b u r s t t h e f o u n t a i n s o f e x a l t e d w o n d e r . g P a m e l a Colman S m i t h h a s s e e n by c l o s i n g t h e e y e s . The o p p o s i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n w h i c h S m i t h ' s a r t was f e l t t o embody was n o t p e r c e i v e d as s u c h by t h e p u b l i c . Her 1907 e x h i b i t i o n w h i c h was o r i g i n a l l y s c h e d u l e d t o r u n f o r t e n d a y s was p r o l o n g e d by e i g h t d a y s b e c a u s e o f t h e i n t e r e s t i t a r o u s e d . I n s p i t e o f c o n t i n u o u s bad w e a t h e r o v e r 2,200 p e o p l e v i s i t e d t h e e x h i b i t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , o v e r h a l f o f h e r 72 d r a w i n g s s o l d . ^ Not o n l y d i d t h e work o f P a m e l a Colman S m i t h a p p e a l t o a l a r g e b o u r g e o i s a u d i e n c e , i t a t t r a c t e d t h e v e r y p e o p l e t h a t de C a s s e r e s had e x p e c t e d i t t o c r i t i c i z e : t h e W h i t n e y s , Havemeyers and V a n d e r b i l t s . ^ ^ However t h e q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s — what does t h i s s i g h t t h r o u g h c l o s e d e y e s , t h i s s i g h t w h i c h d e n i e s t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e c o n c r e t e , p r a c t i c a l and t h e u t i l i t a r i a n s i g n i f y ? Why was i t f e l t t o s p e c i f i c a l l y c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y h e l d by t h e new i n d u s t r i a l i s t c l a s s ? We w i l l r e t u r n t o t h i s p r o b l e m a t a l a t e r p o i n t f o r , I w i l l a r g u e , i t i s k e y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g 291's p o s i t i o n o f r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e d o m i n a n t c u l t u r e . What i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o show i s t h e c o n s t a n c y o f 46 t h i s p o s i t i o n ; t h a t a l t h o u g h 291 moved f r o m a s y m b o l i s t a e s t h e t i c t o a m o d e r n i s t one t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e s — w i t h e m o t i o n , i n t u i t i o n , i m a g i n a t i o n , and s p i r i t u a l i t y — r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t . R u n n i n g f r o m 1908 t o 1910, r o u g h l y c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h S m i t h ' s t h r e e e x h i b i t i o n s , was 2 9 l ' s e x h i b i t i o n o f t h e f i r s t E u r o p e a n m o d e r n i s t s t o be s e e n i n A m e r i c a : A u g u s t e R o d i n , H e n r i M a t i s s e and H e n r i de T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c . W h i l e v a r y i n g i n t h e manner and t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e y c h a l l e n g e d t h e d o m i n a n t f o r m o f a c a d e m i c i s m e a c h d i d so on b o t h t h e l e v e l o f f o r m and c o n t e n t . R o d i n ' s 1908 e x h i b i t i o n c o n s i s t e d w h o l l y o f s t u d i e s o f t h e f e m a l e nude s u c h as K n e e l i n g G i r l - D r a w i n g No. 6 ( f i g . 3 ) . The c r i t i c s p o i n t e d o u t t h e u n c o n v e n t i o n a l o r u n t r a d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e d r a w i n g s : h i s a v o i d a n c e o f s t u d i e d p o s e s , t h e u n f i n i s h e d q u a l i t y o f h i s work and t h e s e e m i n g l y c a r e l e s s way i n w h i c h t h i n washes were s p r e a d o v e r t h e d r a w i n g s . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s most c r i t i c s a p p r e c i a t e d t h e t e c h n i c a l s k i l l d i s p l a y e d i n t h e w o r k s . W h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y s h o u l d be e x h i b i t e d i n a p u b l i c g a l l e r y was a n o t h e r m a t t e r . W.B.McCormick s a i d i n t h e P r e s s : As a m a t t e r o f f a c t t h e s e d r a w i n g s s h o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n shown anywhere b u t i n t h e s c u l p t o r ' s s t u d i o , f o r t h e y a r e s i m p l y n o t e s d a s h e d o f f , s t u d i e s o f t h e human f o r m - c h i e f l y o f nude f e m a l e s - t h a t a r e t o o p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l t o h a v e much g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t e x c e p t t h a t o f a n o t v e r y e l e v a t i n g k i n d . S t r i p p e d o f a l l " a r t " a t m o s p h e r e " t h e y s t a n d as d r a w i n g s o f nude women i n a t t i t u d e s t h a t may i n t e r e s t t h e a r t i s t whcj drew them, b u t w h i c h a r e n o t f o r p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n . 47 Two s e p a r a t e i s s u e s t h u s emerged i n t h e p r e s s : t h e u n t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m a l q u a l i t i e s o f t h e s k e t c h e s and t h e i r s u b j e c t , " o f n o t a v e r y e l e v a t i n g k i n d . " The s e c o n d i s s u e , t h a t o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t t e r , d o m i n a t e d t h e c r i t i c s ' d i s c u s s i o n . The t o n e f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n seems t o h a v e b e e n s e t by t h e g a l l e r y i t s e l f . I n t h e c a t o l o g u e e s s a y o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n , r e p r i n t e d i n Camera Work, A r t h u r Symons d e s c r i b e d R o d i n ' s d r a w i n g s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : . . . I n t h e s e a s t o n i s h i n g d r a w i n g s f r o m t h e nude we s e e woman c a r r i e d t o a f u r t h e r p o i n t o f s i m p l i c i t y t h a n e v e n i n Degas: woman t h e a n i m a l ; woman, i n a s t r a n g e s e n s e , t h e i d o l . . . E a c h d r a w i n g i n d i c a t e s , as i f i n t h e r o u g h b l o c k o f s t o n e , a s i n g l e v i o l e n t movement. H e r e a woman f a c e s y o u , h e r l e g s t h r o w n a b o v e h e r h e a d ; h e r e she f a c e s y o u w i t h h e r l e g s t h r u s t o u t b e f o r e h e r , t h e s o l e s o f h e r f e e t s e e n c l o s e and g i g a n t i c . She s q u a t s l i k e a t o a d , she s t r e t c h e s h e r s e l f l i k e a c a t , she s t a n d s r i g i d , she l i e s a b a n d o n e d . E v e r y movement o f h e r body, v i o l e n t l y a g i t a t e d by t h e remembrance, o r t h e e x p e c t a t i o n , o r t h e a c t o f d e s i r e , i s s e e n a t an e x p r e s s i v e moment. She t u r n s upon h e r s e l f i n a h u n d r e d a t t i t u d e s , t u r n i n g a l w a y s upon t h e c e n t r a l p i v o t o f t h e s e x , w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s i t s e l f w i t h a f a n t a s t i c and f r i g h t - f u l monotony. The f a c e i s b u t j u s t i n d i c a t e d , a f a c e o f wood, l i k e a s a v a g e i d o l ; and t h e body h a s r a r e l y any o f t h a t e l e g a n c e , s e d u c t i v e n e s s , and s h i v e r i n g d e l i c a c y o f l i f e w h i c h we f i n d i n t h e m a r b l e . I t i s a m a c h i n e i n movement, a m o n s t r o u s , d e v a s t a t i n g m a c h i n e , w o r k i n g m e c h a n i c a l l y , and p o s s e s s e d by t h e one r a g e o f t h e a n i m a l . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , l i k e t h e R o d i n d r a w i n g s , makes t h e f a c t o f t h e d r a w i n g s r e f e r e n c e t o s e x u a l i t y , o f woman as o b j e c t o f d e s i r e , e x p l i c i t . However t h e p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e o f t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f woman— as o b j e c t , as r e p t i l e , a s " m o n s t r o u s , d e v a s t a t i n g m a c h i n e " , was o v e r l o o k e d i n b o t h 48 Camera Work and t h e p r e s s . The R o d i n d r a w i n g s w ere p r e s e n t e d and i n t e r p r e t e d , by t h o s e who were s y m p a t h e t i c , as a " c h a l l e n g e t o t h e p r u r i e n t p r u d e r y o f o u r 14 p u r i t a n i s m " , as a needed r e l e a s e f r o m t h e s t r i c t u r e s o f an o u t m o d e d , o v e r l y r e s t r i c t i v e m o r a l i t y . The M a t i s s e and T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c e x h i b i t i o n s a p p e a r t o h a v e been p r e s e n t e d f o r s i m i l a r r e a s o n s . M a t i s s e ' s f i r s t e x h i b i t i o n a t 291, h e l d f r o m A p r i l 6 t o 25, 1908, a g a i n c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f f e m a l e n u d e s . The w o r k s were o r g a n i z e d i n s u c h a way as t o s u g g e s t t h e e v o l u t i o n o f h i s s t y l e f r o m r e l a t i v e l y r e a l i s t i c e t c h i n g s o f 1903 t o w a t e r c o l o u r s s u c h as Nude ( 1 9 0 7 , f i g . 4 ) , w o r k s w h i c h were r e n d e r e d i n v i v i d c o l o u r s and a f r e e e x p r e s s i o n i s t s t y l e . T h i s t i m e 291 i s s u e d no c a t a l o g u e and no i n f o r m a t i o n t o g u i d e t h e a u d i e n c e ' s r e s p o n s e , p r e f e r r i n g , as t h e y s a i d i n t h e J u l y i s s u e o f Camera Work, t o l e a v e e v e r y o n e t o t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . As t h e j o u r n a l was q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t t h e e x h i b i t i o n a c t e d as an i r r i t a n t , l e a d i n g t o "many h e a t e d 15 c o n t r o v e r s i e s " . Some c r i t i c s , i n r e v i e w i n g t h e e x h i b i t i o n , t o o k a s l i g h t l y humorous a p p r o a c h i n d e s c r i b i n g M a t i s s e ' s f o r m a l i n n o v a t i o n s . However f o r most c r i t i c s M a t i s s e ' s w o r k s r e p r e s e n t e d a " v u l g a r i z a t i o n " o f h i s s u b j e c t , woman. James H u n e k e r o f t h e New Y o r k Sun d e s c r i b e d M a t i s s e ' s d e p i c t i o n s o f t h e " f e m a l e a n i m a l i n a l l h e r shame and h o r r o r " as "memoranda o f t h e g u t t e r and 49 16 b r o t h e l " . J . E . C h a m b e r l i n , o f t h e New Y o r k D a i l y M a i l d e s c r i b e d them as "most a p p a l l i n g and h a u n t i n g " , t h e p r o d u c t o f a mind condemned " t o t h e l i m b o o f a r t i s t i c 17 d e g e n e r a t i o n . " O t h e r s s p o k e o f t h e d e p i c t i o n s as d e f o r m i n g o r o t h e r w i s e d o i n g v i o l e n c e t o t h e f e m a l e f o r m . The S c r i p s u m m a r i z e d t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g when i t w r o t e : [ T ] h e mere o b s e r v e r , who i s bound t o t a k e a l i t t l e e m o t i o n t o an i n t e r e s t i n g p i c t u r e g a l l e r y , i s p r e t t y c e r t a i n t o f i n d t h a t e m o t i o n u n p l e a s a n t l y s t i r r e d , i n s p i t e o f t h g u t m o s t d e s i r e t o be i m p e r s o n a l and a p p r e c i a t i v e . When f e m a l e nudes were d i s p l a y e d d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d 19 M a t i s s e e x h i b i t i o n , h e l d f r o m F e b r u a r y 23 t o M a r c h 3 o f 1910, t h e y e l i c i t e d a s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e p r e s s . T h e r e was now, h o w e v e r , t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t M a t i s s e ' s work r e p r e s e n t e d , n o t s i m p l y a v u l g a r i z a t i o n o f h i s s u b j e c t b u t was a l s o a " r e v o l t a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y " , an a t t e m p t a t 20 " s h o c k i n g t h e b o u r g e o i s " . W h i l e James H u n e k e r c o u l d d i s m i s s t h i s a t t e m p t by c o m p a r i n g i t t o t h e b o y h o o d p r a n k o f 21 " t h e s m a l l boy s n o w b a l l i n g t h e f a t t e a c h e r " Mr. Townsend o f t h e A m e r i c a n A r t News i n d i c a t e d t h a t M a t i s s e ' s w o r k s were p e r c e i v e d , a t l e a s t by some, t o be p a r t o f a s e r i o u s i s s u e . A r o u n d M a t i s s e " , he w r o t e , "now wages t h e 22 war o f t h e s u f f r a g i s t s and t h e a n t i - s u f f r a g i s t s " . B e f o r e s u g g e s t i n g t h e k e y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s one f u r t h e r a r t i s t s h o u l d be e x a m i n e d , H e n r i de T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c . H i s e x h i b i t i o n , h e l d f r o m December 20, 1909 t o J a n u a r y 14, 1910, a l s o f o c u s e d upon t h e d e p i c t i o n o f women. Whereas t h e f e m a l e s u b j e c t s o f R o d i n and M a t i s s e 50 were d e p i c t e d w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o c l a s s o r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , most o f L a u t r e c ' s women, as Camera Work o b s e r v e d , " b e l o n g 23 u n m i s t a k a b l y t o t h e l o w e r P a r i s i a n s o c i a l o r d e r . " C e r t a i n o f L a u t r e c ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f Y v e t t e G u i l b e r t and J a n e A v r i l , w e l l known e n t e r t a i n e r s o f t h e P a r i s i a n c a f e - c o n c e r t , were i n c l u d e d a t 291. The e x h i b i t i o n c e n t r e d , h o w e v e r , upon a s e r i e s o f e l e v e n l i t h o g r a p h s w h i c h were 24 p u b l i s h e d i n 1896 u n d e r t h e t i t l e " E l l e s " . T h ese s c e n e s were t a k e n f r o m t h e l i f e o f t h e p r o s t i t u t e s who i n h a b i t e d t h e P a r i s i a n b r o t h e l s . They were d e p i c t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f p o s e s , f r o m p i n n i n g up t h e i r h a i r o r p o u r i n g w a t e r i n t o a wash b a s i n t o more e m o t i o n a l l y l a d e n d e p i c t i o n s o f women l y i n g e x h a u s t e d on t h e b e d . I n one, Woman i n C o r s e t - C o n q u e s t o f P a s s a g e ( 1 8 9 6 , f i g . 5 ) , t h e woman i s shown u n d r e s s i n g w h i l e h e r c l i e n t l o o k s on. W h i l e t h e c r i t i c s a d m i r e d L a u t r e c ' s d r a u g h t s m a n s h i p t h e y o b j e c t e d t o t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h woman was shown, a c o n t e x t w h i c h J . E . C h a m b e r l i n d e s c r i b e d as " t h e seamy s i d e o f 25 . . . l i f e " . A r t h u r H o e b e r , a c a d e m i c p a i n t e r and c r i t i c , i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f a r t was h i g h e r and n o b l e r t h a n t h i s . He w r o t e : One c a n f i n d , as a r u l e , t h a t f o r w h i c h he s e a r c h e s and t o s t a r t o u t w i t h t h e p r e c o n c e p t i o n t h a t a l l h u m a n i t y i s d e g r a d e d , s o r d i d , i g n o b l e , i s t o d e l i b e r a t e l y i g n o r e t h e p r e s e n c e o f o t h e r and b e t t e r q u a l i t i e s . The c o n s u m p t i v e woman o f t h e pavement i s s c a r c e l y f i t theme f o r t h e b r u s h o f t h e p a i n t e r , t h e p e n c i l o f t h e l i t h o g r a p h e r . G r a n t e d she i s p a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f l i f e , i t s e r v e s l i t t l e o f t h e p u r p o s e o f a r t t o p e r p e t u a t e h e r i n s e r i o u s d r a w i n g . The d e g r a d e d 51 f e m a l e o f t h e b a g n i o , no m a t t e r how r e a l i s t i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d , i s o n l y a b h o r r e n t , and t h e v u l g a r i t y o f t h e se m i - n u d e b o u r g e o i s e i s n e v e r s u b j e c t f o r a e s t h e t i c e y e s , f o r t h e more t r u e t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e more o b j e c t i o n a b l e t h e f a c t . One l e a v e s t h i s room w i t h a bad t a s t e i n t h e mouth; i t i s d e p r e s s i n g t o s t u d y 2 ^ h e s e t y p e s ; t h e v i s i t o r f e e l s a p o l o g e t i c f o r h i s r a c e . As m e n t i o n e d , 2 9 l ' s i n t e n t i n e x h i b i t i n g t h i s s e r i e s o f w o r k s by t h e E u r o p e a n s seems t o h a v e been t o make a s t a t e m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p a s s i o n t o c u l t u r e . W h i l e d e p i c t i o n s o f t h e f e m a l e nude were common i n E u r o p e , V i c t o r i a n r e s e r v e p r o h i b i t e d s i m i l a r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n A m e r i c a n a r t . The most p o p u l a r f o r m o f a r t , A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n i s m , d e p i c t e d woman i n a v e r y n a r r o w c o n t e x t ; f u l l y and f i n e l y c l o t h e d she was a l m o s t a l w a y s p l a c e d w i t h i n t h e p r i v a t e s p h e r e o f t h e home. I t p r e s e n t e d h e r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h d o m i n a n t V i c t o r i a n i d e a l s - - as c l o i s t e r e d , r e s p e c t a b l e , c u l t u r e d and as a model o f p r o p e r m o r a l r e s t r a i n t . The A s h c a n S c h o o l , i n d e p i c t i n g women i n m i x e d company i n t h e p a r k s , r e s t a u r a n t s , s t r e e t s — i n s h o r t , as p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p u b l i c l i f e , h a d b r o k e n w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l l y m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y v i e w o f s o c i a l l i f e a s d e p i c t e d by A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n i s t s . W i t h t h e c r u m b l i n g o f t h e V i c t o r i a n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n t h e 1890's women g a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e f r e e d o m t o move i n t o t h e p u b l i c r e a l m . However t h e d o c t r i n e o f m o r a l r e s p e c t a b i l i t y and s e l f - c o n t r o l , so i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s u c c e s s i d e o l o g y o f m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e , was 52 s t i l l e n g r a i n e d i n t h e c u s t o m s o f A m e r i c a n s w e l l i n t o t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . T h i s d o c t r i n e was e s p e c i a l l y s t r i c t w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e b e h a v i o r o f women. I t was b e c a u s e o f P u r i t a n i s m , S a d a k i c h i Hartmann w r o t e i n Camera Work t h a t " t h e n a t u r a l and s e n s u a l had been c r u s h e d " and a l l " n a t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e h e a r t ' s e m o t i o n s was p r o s c r i b e d " . T h i s p r o h i b i t i v e s e n s e o f " d e c e n c y , p r o p r i e t y and r e g u l a r i t y " was d e s t r u c t i v e , Hartmann s a i d , n o t o n l y t o a r t b u t t o a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s . He w r o t e : [ T ] h e i r c a n be no v i t a l a r t o f any s o r t . . . u n t i l we d a r e f a c e o u r p a s s i o n s , u n t i l we a r e unashamed t o be what we a r e . . . And as l o n g as we- as H e i n e s a i d o f t h e B e r l i n e r s - s i t i n snow up t o o u r n a v e l s , and t o r m e n t o u r s e l v e s w i t h c o n s c i e n t i o u s s c r u p l e s we w i l l h a v e no c a n d o r , no f i r e and d a s h i n any i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t . We w i l l r e m a i n a g r e y r a c e , o u r p a s s i o n s w i l l be c o l d , and a p e t t y and p a l l i g t a s t e w i l l p e r v a d e o u r w o r l d o f a r t s and l e t t e r s . 2 9 1, i n c h o s i n g t o e x h i b i t t h e f e m a l e nudes o f t h e E u r o p e a n s , a t t e m p t e d t o c o n f r o n t t h e p u b l i c w i t h t h e r e p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r p a s s i o n s . However as we h a v e s e e n , t h e p u b l i c r e s p o n d e d by c o n d e m n i n g t h e w o r k s as d e g e n e r a t e , as "memoranda o f t h e g u t t e r and b r o t h e l " . A f t e r S m i t h ' s t h i r d show i n M a r c h o f 1909 she d i d n o t e x h i b i t a t 291 a g a i n . I t was a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e g a l l e r y b e g an t o show t h e work o f A m e r i c a n a r t i s t s who had been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e new t r e n d s i n E u r o p e . The f i r s t o f t h e s e e x h i b i t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n A p r i l 1909 w i t h a j o i n t e x h i b i t i o n 53 o f t h e w o r k s o f A l f r e d M a u r e r and J o h n M a r i n . M a u r e r was . 29 f a r more e x p e r i m e n t a l t h a n M a r i n h o w e v e r , e x c e p t f o r h i s e x c l u s i o n i n a g r o u p show, h e l d i n M a r c h o f 1910, M a u r e r was n o t shown a t 291 a g a i n . M a r i n , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , became v e r y c l o s e t o t h e g r o u p a n d , d u r i n g t h e y e a r s p r i o r t o t h e A r m o r y Show, r e m a i n e d by f a r t h e most e x h i b i t e d a r t i s t a t 30 291. D u r i n g h i s s t a y i n E u r o p e he had had a c c e s s t o members o f t h e E u r o p e a n a v a n t - g a r d e t h r o u g h S t e i c h e n and G e r t r u d e S t e i n . However he r e m a i n e d , f o r t h e most p a r t , u n i n t e r e s t e d o r unaware o f t h e new d e v e l o p m e n t s . W h i l e t h e p a t t e r n i n g e f f e c t i n w o r k s s u c h as M i l l s and B r i d g e , Meaux ( 1 9 0 7 , f i g . 7 ) may h a v e been t h r o u g h t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e N a b i s o r t h e F a u v e s t h e s t r o n g e s t and most d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e 31 upon M a r i n was W h i s t l e r ' s w a t e r c o l o u r s . M a r i n ' s s u b j e c t m a t t e r , w h i c h c e n t r e d upon t h e o l d b u i l d i n g s o f E u r o p e : s m a l l v i l l a g e s , c o u r t y a r d s o r c a t h e d r a l f a c a d e s , c o u l d b e s t be d e s c r i b e d as p i c t u r e s q u e . M a r i n ' s w o rk, m i x i n g t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t e c h n i q u e w i t h a l i m i t e d i n f l u e n c e o f t h e new E u r o p e a n s t y l e s , was p r e s e n t e d by 291 as r e p r e s e n t i n g a b r i d g e t o t h e p a s t . • C a l l i n g M a r i n a " p o e t and v i s i o n a r y o f t h e h i g h e s t o r d e r " , W i l l i a m M c C o l l , i n t h e A p r i l 1910 i s s u e o f Camera Work, d e s c r i b e d M a r i n ' s e x h i b i t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : The i m p r e s s i o n t h a t we r e c e i v e on e n t e r i n g i s r a t h e r o f h a v i n g s t e p p e d out o f some new w o r l d - t h a t new w o r l d w h i c h i s e v e r a b o u t u s , o f raw o r b u t h a l f - f o r m e d m a t e r i a l s i n t h e m a k i n g - i n t o some a n t i q u e one, some a n c i e n t p l a y g r o u n d o f b y g o n e , h a l f - f o r g o t t e n m e m o r i e s . . . The r e a l t r u t h i s t h a t t h e P h o t o - S e c e s s i o n 5 4 G a l l e r i e s a r e an i m a g i n a t i v e l y i d e a l l i n k b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n t and t h e p a s t . T h r o b b i n g , p u l s i n g w i t h l i f e , t h e l i f e t h a t c o n n e c t s i t s e l f i m m u t a b l y w i t h t h e p a s t , b e c a u s e i t s r o o t s , as h a s b een s a i d o f a l l r e l i g i o n s , a r e s o "deep i n t h e e a r t h o f man's n a t u r e " . The s u n s h i n e t h a t d w e l l s h e r e i s o f an e v e r n e w - o l d w o r l d . . . and t ^ e m u s i c t h a t we h e a r i s o f t h a t o l d s y m b o l i c t y p e . 2 9 l ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f i t s e l f as an o a s i s , i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e l i f e a r o u n d i t i s e x p r e s s e d i n M c C o l l ' s image o f s t e p p i n g o u t o f t h e w o r l d a r o u n d h i m i n t o an a n t i q u e p l a y g r o u n d o f m e m o r i e s . I n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f M a r i n ' s work we see an a t t e m p t t o f i n d i n t h e p a s t , o r t h r o u g h an " i m a g i n a t i v e l y i d e a l " c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p a s t , an a t t e m p t t o e x p r e s s q u a l i t i e s o r e l e m e n t s w h i c h were m i s s i n g i n t h e p r e s e n t . A s i m i l a r s e a r c h f o r r o o t s o f s u s t e n a n c e c a n be f o u n d i n M a r s d e n H a r t l e y ' s w o r k, t h e o t h e r A m e r i c a n a r t i s t t o e x h i b i t h i s work a t 291 d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . H a r t l e y ' s f i r s t e x h i b i t i o n , h e l d i n May o f 1909, d i s p l a y e d a s e r i e s o f l a n d s c a p e s w h i c h he had p r o d u c e d u n d e r t h e i n f u e n c e o f t h e I t a l i a n p a i n t e r G i o v a n n i S e g a n t i n i . The " S e g a n t i n i s t i t c h " was a n e o - I m p r e s s i o n i s t t e c h n i q u e w h i c h , as Camera Work d e s c r i b e d , c o n s i s t e d o f " u s i n g c o l o r s p u r e and l a y i n g them s i d e by s i d e upon t h e c a n v a s i n l o n g f l e c k s t h a t l o o k l i k e s t i t c h e s o f e m b r o i d e r y . " The b r i g h t c o l o u r scheme was one w h i c h " s t a r t l e d t h e b e h o l d e r " . U n l i k e t h e q u i e t , d o m e s t i c a t e d r u r a l s e t t i n g s o f t h e I m p r e s s i o n i s t s H a r t l e y c h o s e t o d e p i c t t h e more d r a m a t i c f o r e s t - c o v e r e d m o u n t a i n s o f M a i n e . I n images s u c h as Cosmos 5 5 (1908-9, f i g . 8 ) the heavy clouds and mountains are rendered i n a t h i c k impasto. At the expense of t r a d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis upon d e c o r a t i v e p a t t e r n . H a r t l e y ' s choice of S e g a n t i n i as a model appears to be not unr e l a t e d to the f a c t that the I t a l i a n a r t i s t had attempted to fuse h i s neo-Impressionist technique with m y s t i c a l subject matter. H a r t l e y had been concerned f o r some time with f i n d i n g a means to express h i s s p i r i t u a l b e l i e f s through h i s a r t i s t i c form. A devoted E p i s c o p a l i a n from c h i l d h o o d , he had come very c l o s e to e n t e r i n g the pr e i s t h o o d i n 1900. As e a r l y as that date he b e l i e v e d that d i v i n i t y could be perceived i n nature. He encountered v a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s which supported h i s view, most important of which were Emerson, Thoreau and Whitman. L i k e the T r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t s he saw a "correspondence" between the inner s p i r i t of man and the s p i r i t immanent i n nature and attempted to d i s c o v e r h i s s p i r i t u a l r e l a t i o n to nature. D e s c r i b i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the symbol of the mountain i n h i s works, H a r t l e y revealed a p r o j e c t i o n of h i s own mood upon nature. The mountain was unique among other elements, he s a i d , i n t h a t l i t t l e or nothing can be done to i t by the ravages of s i l e n t agencies.... I t i s t h i s element of hypnosis i n nature i t s e l f which makes us c l i n g to i t as a r e l i e f from the v a c u i t i e s of human experience. Mountains are t h i n g s , e n t i t i e s of a grandiose c h a r a c t e r , and the one who understands them best i s the one who can s u f f e ^ them best and resp e c t t h e i r profound l o n e l i n e s s . 56 The i d e a o f t a k i n g r e f u g e i n n a t u r e as " r e l i e f f r o m t h e v a c u i t i e s o f human e x p e r i e n c e " seems t o r e v e a l t h e k e y t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g H a r t l e y ' s i n t e n t i o n . He w r o t e a t t h i s t i m e t h a t he h a d "come b a c k t o t h e o r i g i n a l c h i l d w i t h i n , t h e r o m a n t i c i s t " and t h a t h i s work r e p r e s e n t e d " l i t t l e v i s i o n s 35 o f t h e i n t a n g i b l e " . I f o t h e r s , s u c h as A s h c a n member 3 6 J o h n S l o a n f o u n d H a r t l e y ' s m y s t i c i s m "a l i t t l e t o o much" H a r t l e y r e m a i n e d c o n v i n c e d o f h i s i n n e r v i s i o n . He w r o t e : Some w i l l s a y t h a t [ I ] h a v e gone mad- o t h e r s w i l l l o o k and s a y [ I h a v e ] l o o k e d i n a t t h e l a t t i c e o f Heaven and ccjme b a c k w i t h t h e madness o f s p l e n d o r on [me] . From t h e w o r k s w h i c h H a r t l e y d i s p l a y e d a t t h e Y o u n g e r A m e r i c a n P a i n t e r s e x h i b i t i o n , h e l d a t 291 i n M a r c h o f 1910, i t was e v i d e n t t h a t h i s s t y l e h a d changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y . I n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r he had d i s c o v e r e d t h e work o f t h e A m e r i c a n v i s i o n a r y p a i n t e r A l b e r t P i n k h a m R y d e r and he s u b s e q u e n t l y e x e c u t e d a number o f w o r k s "as c l o s e t o R y d e r as 3 8 p o s s i b l e " . H i s a t t e m p t s t o i d e n t i f y h i s own e m o t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h t h e l a n d s c a p e r e m a i n e d . E x p e r i e n c i n g a p e r i o d o f e x t r e m e l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n w h i c h b r o u g h t h i m c l o s e t o s u i c i d e H a r t l e y w r o t e : [ R y d e r ] saw w i t h an a l l t o o p i t i l e s s and p i t i f u l eye t h e e l e m e n t o f h o p e l e s s n e s s i n t h i n g s , t h e c o m p l e t e s u c c u m b i n g o f t h i n g s i n n a t u r e t o t h o s e e l e m e n t s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e y t h a t w i e l d a f a t a l power. The e l e m e n t o f d e s p a i r i s c o n v e y e d i n s u c h p a i n t i n g s as D e s e r t e d Farm and The D a r k M o u n t a i n ( f i g . 9 ) , b o t h o f 1909. I n b o t h p i c t u r e s t h e h o r i z o n l i n e , where m o u n t a i n s meet s k y , 57 i s v e r y h i g h . I n t h e f o r e g r o u n d t h e r e a r e f l a c c i d , b r o k e n t r e e s w h i c h h a v e l o n g s i n c e l o s t t h e i r f o l i a g e . They o v e r l o o k a v a l l e y i n w h i c h a t i n y f a r m h o u s e s t a n d s o v e r w h e l m e d by t h e i m m e n s i t y o f t h e m o u n t a i n s b e h i n d . W h i l e t h e s e n s e o f r h y t h m i c p a t t e r n i n g o f h i s p r e v i o u s l a n d s c a p e s r e m a i n s t h e i r b r i g h t c o l o u r s h a v e been r e p l a c e d by d a r k t o n e s . Thus i n t h e y e a r s 1909 t o 1910 M a r i n and H a r t l e y a d o p t e d e l e m e n t s o f E u r o p e a n m o d e r n i s m i n t o t h e i r a r t . W h i l e t h e i r s t y l i s t i c i n n o v a t i o n s w o u l d h a v e a p p e a r e d as a d r a s t i c d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e s t y l e s o f t h e A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n i s t s and t h e A s h c a n S c h o o l , compared t o t h e work done c o n c u r r e n t l y i n E u r o p e M a r i n and H a r t l e y w e r e , i n t h i s i n i t i a l s t a g e , r e l a t i v e l y c a u t i o u s i n t h e i r a p p r o a c h . D u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1911 t o 1913 t h i s c a u t i o u s n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e 291 a r t i s t s w o u l d d i s a p p e a r and t h e y w o u l d e q u a l i n i n n o v a t i v e q u a l i t y t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t h e n u n d e r t a k e n i n E u r o p e . D e s p i t e t h e c h a n g e i n f o r m a l a p p r o a c h , h o w e v e r , two t h i n g s r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t : t h e i r s t r e s s upon t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e x p r e s s i n g s u b j e c t i v e s t a t e s — e m o t i o n , i m a g i n a t i o n and s p i r i t u a l i t y — and t h e i r e s t r a n g e m e n t f r o m , and r e s i s t a n c e t o , t h e p r e s e n t . As H a r t l e y ' s q u o t e s i n d i c a t e , he p e r s o n a l l y f e l t a l i e n a t e d and d i s e m p o w e r e d by t h e f o r c e s a r o u n d h i m . H i s t u r n i n g t o n a t u r e seems t o r e p r e s e n t an 58 e f f o r t t o s a l v a g e m e a n i n g and p u r p o s e t h r o u g h a r e g e n e r a t i v e power o u t s i d e o f o r be y o n d s o c i e t y . He a p p e a r e d t o t a k e c o m f o r t f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s o c i a l p r e s e n t was e p h e m e r a l when c o m p a r e d t o t h e i m m e n s i t y o f a g r e a t e r f o r c e , i n h i s t e r m s , "immanent s p i r i t " . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g M a r i n ' s i n t e n t i o n s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make s i m i l a r c l a i m s a s t o h i s i n t e n t i o n s w i t h any c e r t a i n t y . However i t seems t h a t on t h e b a s i s o f M c C o l l ' s a r t i c l e , t h e o n l y d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s work i n Camera Work o f t h i s p e r i o d , 291 v i e w e d h i s a r t as an i m a g i n a t i v e l i n k t o some i d e a l p a s t , d i s t a n t f r o m t h e A m e r i c a n p a s t and p r e s e n t . I n s h o r t i f t h e A m e r i c a n p r e s e n t was, as t h e y d e s c r i b e d i t , " c h a o t i c , 40 n e u r o t i c , i n c o n s e q u e n t and o u t o f e q u i l i b r i u m " t h e y r e s p o n d e d by s e a r c h i n g i n t o o t h e r t i m e s o r o t h e r f o r c e s t o f i n d v a l u e o r hope. T h i s t r e n d c o n t i n u e d i n t h e y e a r s t o f o l l o w . N o t o n l y d i d 291 b r i n g i n R o u s s e a u , p r a i s i n g h i s n a i v e , p r i m i t i v e q u a l i t i e s , t h e y a l s o s c h e d u l e d a s e r i e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s e x h i b i t i o n s . C h i l d r e n , t o them, r e p r e s e n t e d a s p o n t a n e o u s , n a t u r a l f o r c e , one n o t y e t " b l i n d e d " by e d u c a t i o n , by s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . They were as y e t u n l i m i t e d by c o n v e n t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k s o f t h o u g h t and b e h a v i o r . D i s c u s s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i n Camera Work S a d a k i c h i Hartmann p r a i s e d t h e i r p u r i t y , a l e r t n e s s o f v i s i o n , d i r e c t n e s s and e n t h u s i a s m . The c h i l d , he s a i d , t h r i v e s i n t h e r e a l m o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s and r e c a l l s e l e m e n t a l q u a l i t i e s . A l l o f t h e s e 59 q u a l i t i e s were ones which the members of 291 attempted r e g a i n f o r themselves and convey through t h e i r a r t . 60 NOTES •'"Smith was b o r n i n G r e a t B r i t a i n and l i v e d i n J a m a i c a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . She e x h i b i t e d a t 291 J a n u a r y 5-24 1907, F e b r u a r y 26- M a r c h 11 1908 and M a r c h 17-27 1909. 2 B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s , "Pamela Colman S m i t h , " CW 27 ( J u l y 1 9 0 9 ) : 18. 3 I b i d . 4 I b i d . 5 James H u n e k e r , New Y o r k Sun ( J a n u a r y 15, 1 9 0 7 ) , r e p r i n t e d i n CW 18 ( A p r i l 1 9 0 7 ) : 37. 6 To c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s y m b o l i s t i n f l u e n c e i n S t e i c h e n ' s p h o t o g r a p h s t h e S p e c i a l S t e i c h e n S u p p l e m e n t o f CW ( A p r i l 1906) c o n t a i n e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n by M a e t e r l i n c k . 7 . . . H a r t m a n n , f o r e x a m p l e , e d i t e d a m a g a z i n e e n t i t l e d t h e A r t C r i t i c i n t h e 1890's w h i c h c o n t a i n e d t h e s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o f F r e n c h s y m b o l i s m . He was a f r i e n d o f W a l t Whitman, had a t t e n d e d M a l l a r m e ' s 'Tuesday e v e n i n g s ' and had met V e r l a i n e . g B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s , "Pamela Colman S m i t h , " pp. 19-20. 9 I b i d . , p. 20, 1 0 " P h o t o - S e c e s s i o n N o t e s , " CW 18 ( A p r i l 1 9 0 7 ) : 4 9 . '''''Review o f t h e 1907 o p e n i n g i n t h e New Y o r k Sun by James H u n e k e r . R e p o r t e d i n Homer, A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z and t h e A m e r i c a n A v a n t - G a r d e , p. 4 3 . 12 W.B.McCormick i n t h e P r e s s . R e p r i n t e d i n CW 22 ( A p r i l 1 9 0 8 ) : 3 8 . 13 A r t h u r Symons' c a t a l o g u e e s s a y on R o d i n , r e p r i n t e d i n "The R o d i n D r a w i n g s a t t h e P h o t o - S e c e s s i o n G a l l e r i e s , " CW 22 ( A p r i l 1 9 0 8 ) : 35. 14 . . . J . N. L a u r v i k i n t h e T i m e s , r e p r i n t e d i n CW 22 ( A p r i l 1 9 0 8 ) : 3 7 . 1 5 " P h o t o - S e c e s s i o n N o t e s " CW 23 ( J u l y 1 9 0 8 ) : 9. 16 James H u n e k e r i n t h e New Y o r k Sun, r e p r i n t e d i n CW 23 ( J u l y 1 9 0 8 ) : 11. 61 17 . . J . E. C h a m b e r l i n i n t h e New Y o r k E v e n i n g M a i l , r e p r i n t e d i n CW 23 ( J u l y 1 9 0 8 ) : 11. •I Q The S c r i p ( J u n e ) , r e p r i n t e d i n CW 23 ( J u l y 1 9 0 8 ) : 12. 19 . D i s p l a y e d i n t h i s e x h i b i t i o n were m o s t l y s t u d i e s o f t h e f e m a l e nude and b l a c k and w h i t e r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f p a i n t i n g s . Of t h e l a t t e r t y p e were i n c l u d e d J o i e de V i v r e ( 1 9 0 5 - 6 ) , The B l u e Nude ( 1 9 0 7 ) and P o r t r a i t o f Madame M a t i s s e ( 1 9 0 5 ) . Harmony i n Red (1909) and Harmony i n B l u e ( 1 9 0 8 ) may a l s o h a v e been i n c l u d e d . 20 James H u n e k e r i n t h e New Y o r k Sun, r e p r i n t e d i n CW 30 ( A p r i l 1 9 1 0 ) : 4 8 . 2 1 T , . , I b i d . 22 Mr. Townsend i n A m e r i c a n A r t News, r e p r i n t e d m CW 30 ( A p r i l 1 9 1 0 ) : 52. 23 " P h o t o - S e c e s s i o n E x h i b i t i o n s / L i t h o g r a p h s by T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c , " CW 29 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 1 0 ) : 51. 24 The " E l l e s " l i t h o g r a p h s were p u b l i s h e d i n an e d i t i o n o f one h u n d r e d . 25 J . E. C h a m b e r l i n i n t h e M a i l (December 30, 1 9 0 9 ) , r e p r i n t e d i n CW 29 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 1 0 ) : 53. A r t h u r H o e b e r i n t h e G l o b e (December 29, 1 9 0 9 ) , r e p r i n t e d i n CW 29 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 1 0 ) : 54. 27 See L a r y May, S c r e e n i n g Out t h e P a s t : The B i r t h o f Mass C u l t u r e and t h e M o t i o n P i c t u r e I n d u s t r y ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n , The T h e o r y o f t h e L e i s u r e C l a s s , 1899 r e p r i n t e d i t i o n (New Y o r k : M odern L i b r a r y , 1 9 3 4 ) , T h e o d o r W. A d o r n o , " V e b l e n ' s A t t a c k on C u l t u r e , " i n P r i s m s ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 75-94 and C a r o l C h r i s t , " V i c t o r i a n M a s c u l i n i t y and t h e A n g e l i n t h e House," i n A W i d e n i n g S p h e r e : C h a n g i n g R o l e s o f V i c t o r i a n Women, e d i t e d by M a r t h a V i c i n u s ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) . 2 8 S a d a k i c h i H a r t m a n n , " P u r i t a n i s m , I t s G r a n d e u r and Shame," CW 32 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 1 0 ) : 17-19. 29 M a u r e r h a d , i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e f i r s t d e c a d e , p r o d u c e d i m a ges o f women i n q u i e t d o m e s t i c i n t e r i o r s n o t u n l i k e t h o s e d e p i c t e d by t h e A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n s i s t s . By 1906 a d r a s t i c c h a n g e i n h i s a p p r o a c h was e v i d e n t . I n Woman w i t h Hat ( 1 9 0 7 , f i g . 6 ) , t h e e x p r e s s i v e d i s t o r t i o n s o f t h e 62 f a c e and t h e h i g h - k e y e d c o l o u r show h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o F a u v i s m . 30 M a r i n had f o u r e x h i b i t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e o p e n i n g o f 291 and t h e Armory Show compared t o H a r t l e y ' s t w o , Dove's one and W a l k o w i t z ' s one. 31 See R e i c h , J o h n M a r i n , f o r a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f M a r i n ' s s t y l i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s and d e v e l o p m e n t . 32 . . . . W i l l i a m D. M c C o l l , " E x h i b i t i o n o f W a t e r - C o l o r s , P a s t e l s and E t c h i n g s by J o h n M a r i n , " CW 30 ( A p r i l 1 9 1 0 ) : 4 1 . 33 " U n p h o t o g r a p h i c P a i n t : - The T e x t u r e o f I m p r e s s i o n i s m , " CW 28 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 0 9 ) : 20. 3 4 Q u o t e d i n B a r b a r a H a s k e l l , M a r s d e n H a r t l e y (New Y o r k : W h i t n e y Museum o f A m e r i c a n A r t , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 17. I b i d . 3 6 J o h n S l o a n , i n a d i a r y e n t r y d a t e d M a r c h 23, 1909, w r o t e : Went t o G l a c k e n s s t u d i o t o see H a r t l e y ' s w o r k . I t i s b r o k e n c o l o r " I m p r e s s i o n i s m " . Some two o r t h r e e c a n v a s e s I l i k e d - - t h e more s i n c e r e n e r v o u s s o r t . Some o f them seem a f f e c t a t i o n s . . . The work h a d , h o w e v e r , s e v e r a l good s p o t s i n i t . . . E v e r e t t [ S h i n n ] d o e s n ' t l i k e t h e H a r t l e y s e v e n a l i t t l e b i t . . . F o u r d a y s l a t e r he w r o t e t h a t H a r t l e y ' s m y s t i c i s m was "a l i t t l e t o o much f o r me, and I hope i t won't f i n a l l y p r o v e t o o much f o r h i s p a i n t i n g s . " ( J o h n S l o a n ' s New Y o r k S c e n e , B r u c e S t . J o h n , e d . (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 5 ) , n.p.) 37 H a r t l e y , l e t t e r o f 1908, q u o t e d i n H a s k e l l , M a r s d e n H a r t l e y , p. 17. 3 8 I b i d . , p. 39. 39 I b i d . 40 M a r i u s de Z a y a s , "The Sun h a s S e t , " CW 39 ( J u l y 1 9 1 2 ) : pp. 45-6. 63 CHAPTER THREE The s u b j e c t o f m o d e r n i t y d i d n o t d i r e c t l y e n t e r i n t o t h e work e x h i b i t e d a t 291 u n t i l 1912 when M a r i n e x h i b i t e d , a l o n g w i t h a g r o u p o f w a t e r c o l o u r s o f t h e T y r o l e a n A l p s , a few v i e w s o f New Y o r k c i t y . He had r e t u r n e d t o New Y o r k i n l a t e 1909 where he r e m a i n e d , e x c e p t f o r a b r i e f s t a y i n E u r o p e d u r i n g 1910. F a c e d w i t h t h e new v i s u a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f New Y o r k he i m m e d i a t e l y a t t e m p t e d t o d e p i c t t h a t c i t y ' s m o d e r n i t y . U n l i k e P a r i s , w h i c h e x h i b i t e d i t s m o d e r n i t y i n o n l y i s o l a t e d monuments o r a r e a s o f t h e c i t y , New Y o r k was t h e most t h o r o u g h l y modern c i t y i n t h e w o r l d . P i c a b i a , upon v i s i t i n g New Y o r k f o r t h e A r m o r y Show c a l l e d t h e c i t y " t h e c u b i s t , t h e f u t u r i s t c i t y . ' ' ' I t e x p r e s s e s i n i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e , i t s l i f e , i t s s p i r i t t h e modern 2 t h o u g h t . " J o h n v a n Dyke, who v i s i t e d New Y o r k i n 1909, was one o f many c o m m e n t a t o r s t o d e s c r i b e i t as "more s t r i k i n g , more i m p r e s s i v e t h a n any o t h e r c i t y on t h e g l o b e " . W r i t e r s l i k e Van Dyke d e s c r i b e d t h e c i t y i n t e r m s o f i t s u n i g u e q u a l i t i e s - i t s s k y l i n e o f s k y s c r a p e r s l o o m i n g above t h e c i t y , t h e B r o o k l y n B r i d g e , t h e n o i s e and f r e n z i e d movement o f i t s c r o w d s - e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e s t r a n g e phenomenon c a l l e d " r u s h - h o u r " , t h e s e n s e o f c o n s t a n t change o r impermanence i n t h e c o n s t a n t p u l l i n g down and r e b u i l d i n g . New Y o r k ' s m o d e r n i t y was a p r o d u c t o f i t s b u s i n e s s , as v a n Dyke p o i n t e d o u t : 64 The enormous b u i l d i n g s , t h e r o a r o f t h e t r a f f i c i n t h e s t r e e t s , t h e b a b e l o f t o n g u e s , t h e g l a r e o f t h e l i g h t s , t h e s t r i d e n t s c r e e c h o f c a r w h e e l s , s p e a k t h e b u s i n e s s c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c i t y as t h e hum o f a t o p i t s s p i n n i n g m o t i o n . . . B u t t h e s k y s c r a p e r o f commerce l o o m s above t h e u n i v e r s i t y and t h e a r t g a l l e r y on t h e h o r i z o n l i n e o f t h e c i t y ; and t h e m a s t e r b u i l d e r o f t h e s k y - s c r a p e r , t h e s o - c a l l e d c a p t a i n o f i n d u s t r y , seems t o f i l l t h e most c o n s p i c i o u s p l a c ^ i n t h e i n t e r e s t and a f f e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y ' s p e o p l e . M o st I m p r e s s i o n i s t a r t i s t s i g n o r e d t h e f a c t o f t h e c i t y ' s m o d e r n i t y , p r e f e r r i n g t o d e p i c t t h e r u r a l l a n d s c a p e o r t h e d o m e s t i c s c e n e . However t h o s e few who d i d a d d r e s s t h e s u b j e c t , s u c h as C h i l d e Hassam, d e p i c t e d t h e modern f e a t u r e s o f t h e c i t y s o f t e n e d and t r a n s f o r m e d by d u s k , n i g h t , o r t h r o u g h v e i l s o f snow o r m i s t . As D o n a l d K u s p i t 4 has s u g g e s t e d , s u c h a d e p i c t i o n seemed t o f u n c t i o n i n s u c h s u c h a way as t o n a t u r a l i z e o r n e u t r a l i z e - o r f i n d a way o f f e e l i n g a t home w i t h - t h e c i t y ' s m o d e r n i t y . J o h n M a r i n was t h e f i r s t a r t i s t t o r e p r e s e n t i t s modern f e a t u r e s i n a c l e a r , d i r e c t manner. H i s f i r s t w o r k s , f r o m 1910, v i e w t h e s k y l i n e f r o m a d i s t a n c e , d e p i c t i n g i t i n a c l e a r , l i n e a r s t y l e f r o m a c r o s s a h a r b o u r o r r i v e r . S l i g h t l y l a t e r images s u c h as Downtown New Y o r k (1910) o r From t h e Window o f 291 L o o k i n g Down F i f t h Avenue ( 1 9 1 1 , f i g . 10) d e p i c t t h e c i t y s t r e e t s and b u i l d i n g s f r o m a c l o s e r v i e w p o i n t . H e r e t h e s t r u c t u r e and s o l i d i t y o f t h e e a r l i e r v i e w s i s l o s t . The b u i l d i n g s , r e n d e r e d i n b r o a d washes o f c o l o u r , a p p e a r t o m e l t t o g e t h e r . T h a t M a r i n was s e a r c h i n g f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e means o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e s u b j e c t i s c l e a r f r o m t h i s n o t e w r i t t e n t o S t i e g l i t z : 65 As y o u h a v e no d o u b t b e e n t o l d by H a v i l a n d , t h e s k y - s c r a p e r s s t r u c k a s n a g , f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t l e a s t ; so we h a d t o p u s h i n a new d i r e c t i o n . . . [ I ] t may be a s t e p f o r w a r d . L e t us hope s o . By t h e t i m e o f h i s 1913 e x h i b i t i o n , h e l d i n J a n u a r y and F e b r u a r y o f 1 9 1 3 - j u s t p r i o r t o t h e Armory Show, i t was o b v i o u s t h a t M a r i n had i n d e e d t a k e n a new d i r e c t i o n . As Camera Work n o t e d , t h e s e w e r e "a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e f r o m any p r e v i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f New Y o r k . " I n t h i s s e r i e s o f w o r k s M a r i n showed, i n w a t e r c o l o u r , n o t o n l y g e n e r a l i z e d s t r e e t s c e n e s , s u c h as Downtown New Y o r k ( 1 9 1 2 ) , and Movement, F i f t h Avenue ( 1 9 1 2 , f i g . 1 1 ) b u t images o f B r o o k l y n B r i d g e , and t h e S i n g e r and W o o l w o r t h b u i l d i n g s . I n t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s he c o u l d h a r d l y h a v e f o u n d more modern s y m b o l s ; t h e 47 s t o r y S i n g e r b u i l d i n g , c o m p l e t e d i n 1908 was s u r p a s s e d i n h e i g h t o n l y by t h e W o o l w o r t h b u i l d i n g . C o m p l e t e d i n 1913 t h e W o o l w o r t h B u i l d i n g was t h e w o r l d ' s 6 t a l l e s t s k y s c r a p e r a t 60 s t o r i e s . However, M a r i n ' s i n t e n t was n o t t o d e p i c t t h e c i t y o r i t s m o d e r n i t y b u t t o c o n v e y t h e f e e l i n g w h i c h t h e c i t y i n s t i l l e d . I n Movement, F i f t h A venue M a r i n s u g g e s t s t h e c i t y ' s e n e r g y by t i l t i n g t h e b u i l d i n g s ' a x e s a t v a r i o u s a n g l e s and by t h e s e e m i n g l y r a p i d way i n w h i c h he r e n d e r e d t h e s c e n e . The c r o w d b e l o w i s u n d i f f e r i e n t i a t e d i n t o one s u r g i n g mass o f movement. Above them, p l a c e d i n t h e s p a c e w here t h e t i l t i n g b u i l d i n g s do n o t meet, i s a c l o c k r e s t i n g upon a somewhat u n s t e a d y p o l e . M a r i n e x p l a i n e d h i s i n t e n t i o n i n a c a t a l o g u e s t a t e m e n t . The l i f e o f t h e c i t y , he s a i d , was n o t c o n f i n e d s i m p l y t o 66 i t s people and a n i m a l s . The whole c i t y , i n c l u d i n g i t s b u i l d i n g s , was a l i v e by v i r t u e of t h e i r a b i l i t y t o move h i s emotions. He s t r e s s e d t h a t i t was h i s i n t e n t t o e x p r e s s the d i f f e r e n t f e e l i n g s t h a t the b u i l d i n g s c a l l e d i n t o b e i n g . He wrote: I see g r e a t f o r c e s at work; g r e a t movements; the l a r g e b u i l d i n g s and the s m a l l b u i l d i n g s ; the w a r r i n g of the g r e a t and the s m a l l ; i n f l u e n c e s of one mass on another g r e a t e r or s m a l l e r mass. F e e l i n g s are aroused which g i v e me the d e s i r e t o e x p r e s s the r e a c t i o n of these • p u l l f o r c e s , ' those i n f l u e n c e s which p l a y w i t h one a n o t h e r ; g r e a t masses p u l l i n g s m a l l e r masses, each s u b j e c t i n some degree t o the o t h e r ' s power. In l i f e a l l t h i n g s come under the magnetic i n f l u e n c e of o t h e r t h i n g s ; the b i g g e r a s s e r t themselves s t r o n g l y , the s m a l l e r not so much, but they s t i l l a s s e r t them- s e l v e s , and though h i d d e n they s t r i v e t o be seen and i n d o i n g so change t h e i r bent and d i r e c t i o n . W hile these powers are a t work p u s h i n g , p u l l i n g , s i d e w ays, downwards, upwards, I can hear the sound of t h e i r s t r i f e . And so I t r y t o express g r a p h i c a l l y what a g r e a t c i t y i s d o i n g . W i t h i n the frames t h e r e must be a b a l a n c e , a c o n t r o l l i n g of these w a r r i n g , p u s h i n g , p u l l i n g f o r c e s . T h i s i s what I am t r y i n g t o r e a l i ze. M a r i n saw the b u i l d i n g s of New York, t h e n , as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of w a r r i n g and pushing f o r c e s or powers. H i s i n t e n t , i n d e p i c t i n g these f o r c e s , was to r e a l i z e w i t h i n the p i c t o r i a l frame a b a l a n c e or c o n t r o l over them. T h i s b a l a n c e was, of c o u r s e , a s y m b o l i c or i m a g i n a t i v e o n e — an attempt t o come t o terms w i t h h i s own s i m u l t a n e o u s a d m i r a t i o n and f e a r of these symbols of m o d e r n i t y . In a l e t t e r t o S t i e g l i t z M a r i n expressed t h i s changing response; Maybe now and then a l i t t l e f i t of the b l u e s , but then t h e r e are days when I am g l a d t o be a l i v e and j u s t t o see the w o n d e r f u l c i t y i n i t s d i f f e r e n t 67 a s p e c t s and t h e n I s a y , I w i l l ! I w i l l ! I w i l l ! I h a v e j u s t s t a r t e d some Downtown s t u f f and t o p i l e t h e s e g r e a t h o u s e s one upon a n o t h e r w i t h p a i n t as t h e y do s o m e t i m e s p i l e t h e m s e l v e s up t h e r e so b e a u t i f u l , so f a n t a s t i c - a t t i m e s one i s a f r a i d t o l o o k a t them b u t f e e l s l i k e r u n n i n g away. T h i s a m b i v a l e n c e i s e s p e c i a l l y c l e a r i n t h e s e r i e s o f w o r k s d e p i c t i n g t h e W o o l w o r t h B u i l d i n g . I n some t h e s k y s c r a p e r a p p e a r s t a l l and v i r i l e w h i l e i n o t h e r s i t seems t o e x p r e s s t h e mere f a c t o f i t s o v e r p o w e r i n g s c a l e . The s e c o n d a r t i s t t o d e a l w i t h t h e theme o f m o d e r n i t y was Abraham W a l k o w i t z . H i s e x h i b i t i o n , h e l d f r o m December 15, 1912- J a n u a r y 14, 1913, was u n l i k e M a r i n ' s i n t h a t i t c o n c e n t r a t e d n o t upon t h e c o m m e r c i a l s k y l i n e o f New Y o r k b u t on t h e p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e c i t y . He d e p i c t e d a r a n g e o f s c e n e s i n c l u d i n g "men d i g g i n g subway t r e n c h e s , b a t h e r s on t h e Coney I s l a n d b e a c h , g r o u p s o f p e o p l e i n t h e s t r e e t , d a n c e r s upon t h e s t a g e , a t h o u s a n d s i g h t s t h a t any one m i g h t 9 . 10 s e e . . " L a r g e s t i n number a p p e a r t o h a v e been t h o s e w o r k s w h i c h d e p i c t e d p a r k o r b e a c h s c e n e s . These s c e n e s a r e f o r m u l a i c i n t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n and a r e u s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d i n a l o n g h o r i z o n t a l f o r m a t . L i k e Scene i n t h e P a r k ( n . d . , f i g . 1 2 ) t h e s c e n e i s t y p i c a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o h o r i z o n t a l b a n d s - t h e l o w e r h a l f d e f i n e s t h e g r o u n d l i n e w h i l e t h e u p p e r h a l f i s a g a i n d i v i d e d i n h a l f . The l o w e r band r e p r e s e n t s a r i v e r o r l a k e w h i l e t h e u p p e r d e f i n e s t h e f o l i a g e o f t r e e s o r a f a r s h o r e . The t r u n k s o f t h e s e t r e e s p r o v i d e v e r t i c a l , and o c c a s i o n a l l y d i a g o n a l , c o n t r a s t t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and a r e d i s t r i b u t e d i n 68 s u c h a way t h a t t h e s c e n e i s b r o k e n up by t h e i r r h y t h m i c d i s p e r s a l . These t r e e s a r e a r r a n g e d p a r a l l e l t o t h e p i c t u r e p l a n e , t h e r e b y r e f u s i n g t o l e n d t h e p i c t u r e d e p t h . A r r a n g e d w i t h i n t h i s s t r u c t u r e a r e f i g u r e s - s i n g u l a r o r a r r a n g e d i n p a i r s o r g r o u p s , s e a t e d , s t a n d i n g o r r e c l i n i n g . They a r e o f t e n a r r a n g e d w i t h i n t h e l a n d s c a p e w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r s c a l e , f u r t h e r d i s t u r b i n g any s u g g e s t i o n o f d e p t h . E x c e p t f o r t h e r a r e b e a c h s c e n e , t h e f i g u r e s a r e c l o t h e d i n c o n t e m p o r a r y d r e s s . The s c e n e s show some i n d e b t e d n e s s t o M a t i s s e i n t h e i r c o l o u r a t i o n and i n t h e i r d e c o r a t i v e s u r f a c e q u a l i t i e s . A t t e m p t i n g t o l e n d t o h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s t h e n a i v e q u a l i t y o f c h i l d r e n ' s a r t , W a l k o w i t z ' s f i g u r e s a r e h e a v y , b l o c k y and b e t r a y a n a i v e q u a l i t y . D e t a i l s o f t h e f i g u r e a r e o m i t t e d - i n c l u d i n g n o t o n l y m o d e l i n g and d e t a i l s o f d r e s s b u t a l s o t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e f a c e . O b v i o u s s i m i l a r i t i e s c a n be s e e n i n W a l k o w i t z ' s c h o i c e o f themes and t h a t o f t h e " E i g h t " ; b o t h d e p i c t e d n o t o n l y t h e l i f e o f t h e c i t y b u t s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e modern q u a l i t y o f t h a t l i f e . However a c o m p a r i s o n o f W a l k o w i t z ' s work t o J o h n S l o a n ' s P i c n i c G r o u n d s ( 1 9 0 6 - 7 , f i g . 1 3 ) shows t h a t w h e r e a s S l o a n r e s p e c t s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p i c t o r i a l c o n v e n t i o n s o f d e p t h , s c a l e , n a r r a t i v e , m o d e l i n g and r e a l i s t i c r e n d e r i n g o f t h e f i g u r e , W a l k o w i t z d i s r u p t s t h o s e c o n v e n t i o n s . I n Camera Work O s c a r B l u e m n e r e l a b o r a t e d upon t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s d i s r u p t i o n f o r 291. He c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o W a l k o w i t z ' s d i s t a n c e f r o m 69 " n a t u r a l i s t i c - a c a d e m i c " p a i n t i n g , c a l l i n g him " t h e l i v i n g a n t i t h e s i s o f the "Academic". Each p i c t u r e , he s a i d , "has i t s own r e a l i t y and i t s own i n n e r l a w s , by w h i c h i t i s an o r g a n i s m , t o t a l l y and p u r p o s e f u l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m n a t u r e . However d e s p i t e t h e i r a n t i - a c a d e m i c q u a l i t y , t o "a f e e l i n g e y e " , Bluemner s a i d , W a l k o w i t z ' s p i c t u r e s l o o k " n a t u r a l i s t i c " , r e a l , by way o f i m a g i n a t i o n and memory of c o r r e s p o n d i n g e x p e r i e n c e " . Bluemner e x p l a i n e d : . . . W a l k o w i t z goes a t once t o t h e f u n d a m e n t a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t i n t e n s e and s p e c i f i c f e e l i n g , as w e l l as a b s o l u t e harmony, a r e a l w a y s a c t u a t e d and r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y by a s i n g l e m o t i v e o f n a t u r e a t a t i m e , a theme o f a f i g u r e o r o f a s c e n e , o f any o b j e c t o r g e n e r a l e f f e c t , w h i l e a l l e l s e t h a t t h a t makes up t h e n a t u r a l ensemble, i s i r r e l e v a n t t o t h a t one s p e c i f i c p i c t o r i a l i d e a . T h e r e f o r e he i g n o r e s t h e t o t a l i t y o f n a t u r e , e l i m i n a t e s a l l t h e i r r e l e v a n c i e s , d i s s o l v e s t h e n a t u r a l c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e r e m a i n i n g f e a t u r e s and q u a l i t i e s , and r e a r r a n g e s them i n a new c o m p o s i t i o n o f l i n e a m e n t s and t o n e - f i g u r a t i o n s d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r th e p i c t u r e p l a n e . In d o i n g t h a t he i s now c o n s c i o u s o n l y o f t h e p i c t o r i a l s e n s a t i o n d e r i v e d from th e a c t u a l m o t i v e t o be e x p r e s s e d . He l i m i t s h i m s e l f t o t h e i n t e n s e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e m o t i v e and makes i t s p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t i e s t h e m o t i f o f a c o m p o s i t i o n . By r e p e t i t i o n , v a r i a t i o n , a r r a n g e m e n t , c o - o r d i n a t i o n , b a l a n c e and a l w a y s by a r h y t h m i c a l f e e l i n g , a new, u n r e a l , p u r e l y e x p r e s s i v e v i s i o n o f l i f e - s e n s a t i o n i s c r e a t e d . . . . To ask what he wants t o say o r what p a r t i c u l a r i t y he saw, i s n o t t o t h e p o i n t . A f t e r a l l , t h e p a i n t e r s e e s as he f e e l s ; t h e s p e c t a t o r i s l e f t ^ t o t h a t v i s i b l e outcome- and t o h i s own i m a g i n - a t i o n . S e v e r a l key i d e a s can be f o u n d w i t h i n B l u e m n e r ' s t e x t . W a l k o w i t z ' s p a i n t i n g s have t h e i r own r e a l i t y and t h e i r own i n n e r l a w s , laws w h i c h a r e i n t e n t i o n a l l y d i f f e r e n t from n a t u r e . T h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n i s dependent upon t h e d i s s o l u t i o n and r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e " n a t u r a l " , a 70 r e - a r r a n g e m e n t w h i c h e l i m i n a t e s a l l i r r e l e v a n t q u a l i t i e s . The u l t i m a t e p u r p o s e o f s u c h a p r o c e s s i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a v i s i o n w h i c h i s d e p e n d e n t upon f e e l i n g . The v i e w e r c a n t h u s a p p r e c i a t e t h e r e s u l t n o t t h r o u g h an i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o c e s s b u t by t h e e x e r c i s e o f h i s o r h e r i m a g i n a t i o n . The same p r i n c i p l e s a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e w o r k o f A r t h u r Dove, who had h i s f i r s t s o l o e x h i b i t i o n a t 291 i n F e b r u a r y and M a r c h o f 1912. Whereas i n W a l k o w i t z ' s e l i m i n a t i o n o f " a l l i r r e l e v a n t q u a l i t i e s " r e c o g n i z a b l e f o r m s t i l l r e m a i n e d , Dove t o o k t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e l i m i n a t i o n f u r t h e r . The s e r i e s o f t e n p a s t e l s shown a t 291 w e r e , as Camera Work d e s c r i b e d them, " d e c o r a t i v e d e s i g n s b a s e d on p u r e l i n e , f o r m and c o l o u r " . L a t e r known c o l l e c t i v e l y as t h e "Ten Commandments", t h e w o r k s were o r i g i n a l l y e x h i b i t e d w i t h o u t t i t l e s so t h a t t h e v i e w e r w o u l d r e l y s o l e l y on h i s o r h e r own r e s p o n s e t o them. The p a s t e l s w e r e , as Dove c a l l e d them, " e x t r a c t i o n s " f r o m n a t u r e , e x t r a c t i o n s u g g e s t i n g a p r o c e s s o f d i s t i l l a t i o n . The w o r k s were t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h f o r m t h a t Dove h a d been u n d e r t a k i n g s i n c e h i s s t a y i n F r a n c e d u r i n g 1908-9. I n s p i r e d by F a u v i s m he had d e c i d e d t o " s i m p l i f y I m p r e s s i o n i s m " , t o r e d u c e h i s l a t e I m p r e s s i o n i s t l a n d s c a p e c o m p o s i t i o n s t o l a r g e a r e a s o f p u r e c o l o u r . I n N a t u r e S y m b o l i z e d #2 (Wind on H i l l s i d e ) ( c . 1 9 1 2 , f i g . 1 4 ) e x p r e s s i o n i s b a s e d s o l e l y on t h e p l a y o f a b s t r a c t f o r m a l e l e m e n t s - t h e 71 j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f c o l o u r and c o n t r a s t o f t o n e s , t h e r e p e t i t i o n and s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f c u r v i l i n e a r f o r m s and t h e dynamism i m p l i e d by t h e f r e e - f l o a t i n g p a t t e r n s . D e s c r i b i n g t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h he p r o d u c e d h i s "Ten Commandments" s e r i e s Dove w r o t e : The f i r s t s t e p was t o c h o s e f r o m n a t u r e a m o t i f i n c o l o r and w i t h t h a t m o t i f t o p a i n t f r o m n a t u r e , t h e f o r m s b e i n g s t i l l o b j e c t i v e . The s e c o n d s t e p was t o a p p l y t h i s same p r i n c i p l e t o f o r m , t h e a c t u a l d e p e n d e n c e upon t h e o b j e c t ( r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) d i s a p p e a r i n g , and t h e means o f e x p r e s s i o n b e c o m i n g p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e . A f t e r w o r k i n g f o r some t i m e i n t h i s way, I no l o n g e r o b s e r v e d i n t h e o l d way, and, n o t o n l y b e g a n t o t h i n k s u b j e c t i v e l y b u t a l s o t o remember c e r t a i n s e n s a t i o n s p u r e l y t h r o u g h t h e i r f o r m and c o l o r , t h a t i s , by c e r t a i n s h a p e s , p l a n e s o f l i g h t , o r c h a r a c t e r l i n e s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e m e e t i n g o f s u c h p l a n e s . W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e l i n e m o t i f t h e e x p r e s s i o n grew more p l a s t i c and t h e ^ s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e means became l e s s e v i d e n t . What b e g a n as o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f m o t i f s f r o m n a t u r e became t r a n s f o r m e d t h r o u g h a s u b j e c t i v e p r o c e s s . I n t h e f i n a l r e s u l t t h e w o r k s became r e c o r d s n o t o f o b j e c t i v e f a c t s b u t t h e a r t i s t ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h o s e f a c t s . Thus N a t u r e S y m b o l i z e d (Wind on a H i l l s i d e ) began as a d r a w i n g o f a w i n d y h i l l s i d e b u t became a n o n - o b j e c t i v e " r h y t h m i c p a i n t i n g " i n o r d e r t o e x p r e s s " t h e s p i r i t o f t h e w h o l e t h i n g " . 1 3 I n H a r t l e y ' s work o f l a t e 1912 and e a r l y 1913 a l l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e w o r l d o f o b j e c t s i s b r o k e n . A t t h a t t i m e he p r o d u c e d a s e r i e s o f a b o u t t w e n t y c a n v a s e s w h i c h he c a l l e d I n t u i t i v e A b s t r a c t i o n s , C o s m i c C u b i s m o r S u b l i m i n a l 72 C u b i s m . W i t h t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t o f S t i e g l i t z H a r t l e y v a s a b l e t o t r a v e l t o E u r o p e i n A p r i l o f 1912. He n o n e t h e l e s s k e p t i n c l o s e t o u c h v i t h S t i e g l i t z and t h e members o f 291. I n i t i a l l y a t t r a c t e d t o t h e v o r k s o f t h e P a r i s i a n a v a n t - g a r d e H a r t l e y s o o n became d i s i l l u s i o n e d v i t h v h a t he b e l i e v e d t o 14 be t h e e x c e s s i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m o f t h e F r e n c h . He became a t t a c h e d t o a g r o u p o f German a r t i s t s l i v i n g i n P a r i s and t h r o u g h t h e i r m y s t i c a l l e a n i n g s r e n e v e d h i s e a r l i e r a t t e m p t s t o e x p r e s s s p i r i t u a l i t y t h r o u g h h i s a r t . T h r o u g h t h e German a r t i s t s he v a s i n t r o d u c e d t o K a n d i n s k y and Der B l a u e R e i t e r . By O c t o b e r he v r o t e t o S t i e g l i t z o f h i s " r e c u r r e n c e o f r e l i g i o u s a s p i r a t i o n s " . P a i n t i n g No. 1, begun i n J a n u a r y o f 1913 ( f i g . 1 5 ) v a s one o f t h e l a s t o f t h e s e r i e s . R e g a r d i n g t h e v o r k s H a r t l e y v r o t e t o S t i e g l i t z : M o d ern a r t i s nov t a k i n g a p l u n g e i n v a r d and men a r e r e v o l t i n g a g a i n s t s u p e r f i c i a l i d e a s . E a c h man i s t r y i n g t o l o o k t o h i m s e l f and see v h a t he f i n d s t h e r e . I n s p i r e d by P i c a s s o ' s a n a l y t i c a l c u b i s t f o r m s ( t h e r e s u l t o f v h a t H a r t l e y c a l l e d P i c a s s o ' s i n t u i t i v e , c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s e s ) and K a n d i n s k y ' s a b s t r a c t f o r m s H a r t l e y p r o d u c e d h i s s e r i e s o f I n t u i t i v e A b s t r a c t i o n s . He v r o t e t o S t i e g l i t z : I d i d t h e s e t h i n g s . . . as a r e s u l t o f s p i r i t u a l i l l u m i n a t i o n s and I am c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t i s my t r u e and r e a l u t t e r a n c e . . . I am c o n v i n c e d o f t h e B e r g s o n argument i n p h i l o s o p h y , t h a t t h e i n t u i t i o n i s t h e o n l y v e h i c l e f o r a r t e x p r e s s i o n and i t i s on t h i s b a s i s t h a t I am p r o c e e d i n g - My f i r s t i m p u l s e s came f r o m t h e mere s u g g e s t i o n i n K a n d i n s k y ' s book The S p i r i t u a l i n A r t . W i t h H a r t l e y , t h e n , t h e t o t a l b r e a k v i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s a c c o m p a n i e d by a c o m p l e t e c l o s i n g o f t h e e y e s t o t h e o u t s i d e 73 w o r l d . A r t t o h i m was an e x p r e s s i o n o f i n t u i t i o n and t h e r e s u l t o f s p i r i t u a l i l l u m i n a t i o n . We h a v e s e e n how, d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1907 t o 1913, t h e a r t p r o d u c e d by t h e 291 a r t i s t s c h a n g e d f r o m r e l a t i v e l y n a t u r a l i s t i c f o r m i n t h e a r t o f P amela Colman S m i t h t o n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n H a r t l e y ' s " i n t u i t i v e a b s t r a c t i o n s " . The f i r s t m a j o r s h i f t e v i d e n t i n 291's a r t , I h a v e a r g u e d , t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g 1908 t o 1910 w i t h t h e work o f M a r i n and H a r t l e y . The i m p a c t o f t h e work f r o m t h i s p e r i o d i s d e p e n d e n t upon b o t h f o r m and t h e c o n t e n t o f t h a t f o r m - - t h a t i s , t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . Thus H a r t l e y ' s m o u n t a i n s were c h o s e n b e c a u s e , f o r h i m , t h e y c a r r i e d e m o t i o n a l o r s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . The i m p a c t o f t h a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i s c a r r i e d t h r o u g h a f o r m w h i c h was b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e E u r o p e a n a v a n t - g a r d e . W h i l e r e l a t i v e l y t r a d i t i o n a l by c u r r e n t E u r o p e a n s t a n d a r d s , t h e w o r k s p r o d u c e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d d i s t u r b e d v i e w e r ' s h a b i t u a l way o f p e r c e i v i n g . By 1912 and 1913 a n o t h e r s h i f t i s e v i d e n t . The a r t shown a t 291 became i n c r e a s i n g l y e x p e r i m e n t a l as t h e a r t i s t s d epend l e s s and l e s s upon t h e o b j e c t i v e w o r l d f o r s u b j e c t m a t t e r . W a l k o w i t z s t i l l r e f e r s t o t h e o b j e c t i v e f a c t s o f t h e p a r k s c e n e b u t t h e " i n n e r l o g i c " o f h i s p i c t u r e s i n t e r c e d e s i n o u r a t t e m p t t o r e a d t h e p i c t u r e "as r e a l i t y " . I n Dove's work o f 1912 t h e l i n k t o t h e w o r l d o f o b j e c t s i s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y b r o k e n ; i t s e r v e s as h i s s t a r t i n g p o i n t , 7 4 h i s s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n , b u t t h e s u b j e c t o f Dov e ' s w o r k s i s r e a l l y h i s s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f a s e t o f o b j e c t i v e v i s u a l f a c t s . I n H a r t l e y ' s w o r k s o f l a t e 1912 and 1913 a l l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o u t e r w o r l d o f o b j e c t s d i s a p p e a r s and he a t t e m p t s t o e x p r e s s h i s own i n n e r w o r l d . D e s p i t e t h e c h a n g e s i n a r t i s t i c f o r m d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1908 t o 1913 t h e i n s i s t e n c e upon t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e x p r e s s i n g i n n e r , " i r r a t i o n a l " s t a t e s r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t a t 2 9 1. As we h a v e s e e n n o t a l l a r t shown a t t h e g a l l e r y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e same s t a t e s o f s u b j e c t i v i t y ; M a r s d e n H a r t l e y ' s m y s t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , was v e r y much d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e s t a t e m e n t t h e E u r o p e a n a r t i s t s w ere t h o u g h t t o h a v e made r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p a s s i o n . T h r o u g h o u t t h e p a g e s o f Camera Work, t h i s s i n g l e c o n v i c t i o n r e m a i n s : t h e i n t e l l e c t i s o n l y p a r t o f o n e ' s c a p a c i t y f o r e x p e r i e n c e , f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g . F o r 291 t h e ' i r r a t i o n a l ' s t a t e s - - p a s s i o n , i m a g i n a t i o n , i n t u i t i o n - - w e r e f a r s u p e r i o r t o o l s w i t h w h i c h t o e x p e r i e n c e l i f e . As B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s s a i d i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The R e n a i s s a n c e o f t h e I r r a t i o n a l " , The i n t e l l e c t i s b a n k r u p t . I t i s o n l y a p a r k p o n d . The M i s s i s s i p p i and t h e Amazon f l o w t h r o u g h t h e h e a r t . ' A d i s t i n c t i o n was made i n t h e i r m i n d s as t o t h e r e a l m s i n w h i c h t h e r a t i o n a l and i r r a t i o n a l o p e r a t e d . R a t i o n a l i t y 75 o r t h e i n t e l l e c t , t h e y s a i d , i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e f i n i n g what i s r e a l , what i s p r a c t i c a l , and what i s c e r t a i n . On a d e e p e r l e v e l i s t h e r e a l m o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s and t h e i r r a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s . What we m i s t a k e t o be r e a l i t y i s a c t u a l l y a c o d e , a s e t o f c o n v e n t i o n s by w h i c h we o r d e r t h e w o r l d . Our c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y a c t u a l l y p r e t e n d s t o d e s c r i b e t h e r e a l w o r l d b u t i n t r u t h t h e w o r l d as i t i s , i s u n k n o w a b l e f o r o u r own p e r c e p t i o n s , t h o u g h t s , e m o t i o n s , i n t e r c e d e t o c o l o u r t h a t w o r l d . What 291 was t r y i n g t o p o i n t t o , i n e f f e c t , was t h e i d e o l o g i c a l n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y . However b e t w e e n 1908 and 1913 t h e r e seems t o h a v e been a s h i f t i n t h e way i n w h i c h 291's s t r a t e g y a d d r e s s e d t h e f a c t o f t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y . I n i t i a l l y , i n t h e w o r k o f S m i t h and t h e E u r o p e a n s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t c o n s t r u c t i o n was d e s c r i b e d , p o i n t e d t o . However l a t e r t h e s t r a t e g y becomes one w h i c h i s i n t e n d e d t o a c t u a l l y d i s r u p t t h e v i e w e r i n a d i s i n t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y s p e a k i n g o f t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r c h a n g e . By 1912 t h e a r t i c l e s i n Camera Work s p e a k o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e v i e w e r ' s engagement w i t h a r t . M o s t a r t , t h e y w r o t e , s e r v e s t h e p u r p o s e o f a f a i r y t a l e - 18 - i t d e l i g h t s , amuses and d i s t r a c t s . C o m p a r i n g a r t t o m u s i c S a d a k i c h i Hartmann d e s c r i b e d t h i s p r o c e s s as h y p n o t i c . He w r o t e : A m e l o d y i s c o m p l e t e i n i t s e l f . P r o d u c e d by i n s t i n c t i t a l s o c o n t r o l s t h e i n s t i n c t o f t h e l i s t e n e r . I t i s f l u i d s e n s u o u s and h y p n o t i c . We a r e c a r r i e d away, as on t h e r u s h o f s t r a n g e m u s i c a l w a t e r s . 76 We a r e t h u s c o n t r o l l e d , h y p n o t i z e d by t h e work. The p u r p o s e o f 291's a r t , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , was t o e n l i g h t e n o r r e v e a l , t o p r o v o k e d i s c o m f o r t — one w h i c h " d i s t u r b s t h e g r o o v e s o f a c t i o n " . C a r r y i n g t h e a n a l o g y o f t h i s s e c o n d a p p r o a c h a g a i n t o m u s i c Hartmann w r o t e : A b r o k e n m e l o d y , e n d i n g a b r u p t l y i n s i l e n c e o r i n s o u n d s u n r e l a t e d t o t h e m e l o d y , s t a r t s us up f r o m o u r " m y s t i c m u s i n g s " . I t i s s u b t l e r , i r r i t a t i n g , i t makes-us t h i n k . C o n c l u s i o n s a r e n o t p o s i t i v e . The e f f e c t s a r e more u n c e r t a i n . The r e s u l t i s h a l f - f a n c i e d . I t i s l i k e s t r u g g l i n g i n t h e b r e a k e r s . The " f r a g m e n t a r y a p p r o a c h " , he c o n c l u d e d , c o n s i s t e d o f l e a v i n g c e r t a i n t h i n g s u n s a i d and a p p e a l i n g t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m . The i n t e l l e c t , i n e f f e c t , was b y p a s s e d i n t h e p r o c e s s . The a p p e a l was " t o t h e d e e p s " , as B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s s a i d i n "The U n c o n s c i o u s i n A r t " , 22 b u t o n l y e m o t i o n was c a p a b l e o f a w a k e n i n g t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . What t h e y w e re a r g u i n g , t h e n , was t h a t t h e i n t e l l e c t , b e i n g bound up i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e ' r e a l ' , t h e p r a c t i c a l , t h e e v e r y d a y , was i n c a p a b l e o f b r e a k i n g r e a l i t y ' s ' s p e l l ' u n l e s s i t was i n f o r m e d by t h e d e e p e r p r o c e s s e s o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . I n l o o k i n g t o E u r o p e , t o t h e " i m a g i n a t i v e p a s t " , t o t h e n o t - y e t c i v i l i z e d and t o t h e i r r a t i o n a l s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s 291 was l o o k i n g t o f i n d , and i n t e g r a t e , modes o f t h o u g h t and q u a l i t i e s o f b e i n g a l i e n t o t h a t o f p r e s e n t A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e . By p o i n t i n g t o t h e i d e o l o g i c a l 77 n a t u r e o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y t h e y were q u e s t i o n i n g i t s i n e v i t a b i l i t y , i t s ' n a t u r a l n e s s 1 , i t s v e r y d e s i r a b i l i t y . As we h a v e s e e n , t h e m a j o r i t y o f 291 members were r e c e n t i m m i g r a n t s , o r a t l e a s t f a m i l i a r e nough w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r e s t o be a b l e t o t a k e some d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e A m e r i c a n s o c i a l r e a l i t y . The v e r y f a c t o f t h e i r f o r e i g n o r i g i n s , and t h e i r d e s i r e t o h o l d on t o t h e i r f o r e i g n i d e n t i t i e s , w o u l d h a v e e f f e c t i v e l y a l i e n a t e d them f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . I n c r e a s i n g i m m i g r a t i o n and t h e f e a r o f " r a c e s u i c i d e " was o f t e n p e r c e i v e d t o be a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o t h e " p r o m i s e o f A m e r i c a n l i f e " , a p r o m i s e w h i c h H e r b e r t C r o l y d e f i n e d as s u p e r i o r t o t h e E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s on t h r e e c o u n t s : e c o n o m i c w e l l - b e i n g , p o l i t i c a l f r e e d o m 23 and s o c i a l and m o r a l i n t e g r i t y . S u b s e q u e n t l y i m m i g r a n t s w e r e f o r c e d t o become A m e r i c a n i z e d , t o l o s e t h e i r f o r e i g n i d e n t i t y , as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . 291 r e s i s t e d t h i s p r e s s u r e and r e v e r s e d t h e e q u a t i o n by i n s i s t i n g t h a t A m e r i c a n l i f e was e s s e n t i a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c and i n need o f r e d e f i n i n g . H owever u n l i k e t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f P r o g r e s s i v e s , who c o n c e n t r a t e d upon t h e need f o r s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e , 291 a t t e m p t e d t o b r e a k t h e v e r y f r a m e w o r k o f t h o u g h t and p e r c e p t i o n . A l l o t h e r c h a n g e , t h e y a r g u e d , w o u l d p r o c e e d f r o m t h i s one. How o r what s t r u c t u r e s o f s o c i e t y w o u l d become t r a n s f o r m e d was n e v e r a d d r e s s e d , e s s e n t i a l l y b e c a u s e a l t h o u g h 291 was c a p a b l e o f c r i t i c i z i n g A m e r i c a n d o m i n a n t i d e o l o g y , i t d i d n o t s e e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f 78 i d e o l o g y , o r t h e i n n e r p r o c e s s e s o f t h e p s y c h e , t o p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e s . As s u c h t h e i r c r i t i q u e r e m a i n e d f o c u s e d upon e f f e c t s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c a u s e and e f f e c t . 79 NOTES '''Amy K u r l a n d e r , "Cubism and Modern P a r i s , " U n p u b l i s h e d w o r k i n g p a p e r , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y s e m i n a r , S p r i n g 1987. 2 . . . . . . F r a n c i s P i c a b i a , 1913, q u o t e d i n D o m i n i c R i c c i o t t i , "The R e v o l u t i o n i n U r b a n T r a n s p o r t : Max Weber and I t a l i a n F u t u r i s m , " The A m e r i c a n A r t J o u r n a l 16:1 ( W i n t e r 1 9 8 4 ) : 46-64. 3 J o h n v a n Dyke, The New New Y o r k (New Y o r k : The M a c M i l l a n Co., 1 9 0 9 ) , p. 15. 4 . . . D o n a l d K u s p i t , " I n d i v i d u a l and Mass I d e n t i t y i n U r b a n A r t : The New Y o r k C a s e , " i n The C r i t i c as A r t i s t : t h e I n t e n t i o n a l i t y o f A r t (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U.M.I. R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1 9 8 4 ) , p. 292. 5 J o h n M a r i n , l e t t e r t o S t i e g l i t z , d a t e d New Y o r k , O c t o b e r 11, 1910. I n H e r b e r t S e l i g m a n n ( e d . ) , L e t t e r s o f J o h n M a r i n ( W e s t p o r t , Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 0 ) , n.p. CL B a y r d S t i l l , M i r r o r f o r Gotham (New Y o r k : New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 257. 7 . . J o h n M a r i n ' s c a t a l o g u e s t a t e m e n t r e p r i n t e d i n " N o t e s on " 2 9 1 " - W a t e r c o l o r s by J o h n M a r i n , " CW 42/43 ( A p r i l - J u l y 1 9 1 3 ) : 18. J o h n M a r i n ( i n New Y o r k ) t o A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z ( i n E u r o p e ) , i n S e l i g m a n n , L e t t e r s o f J o h n M a r i n , n.p. 9 , , P h o t o - S e c e s s i o n N o t e s , " CW 41 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 1 3 ) : 26. ^ I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o n s t r u c t W a l k o w i t z ' s o e u v r e f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . Much o f h i s e a r l y work was o r i g i n a l l y u n d a t e d . L a t e r i n l i f e t h e a r t i s t went b a c k t h r o u g h h i s w o r k s and a s s i g n e d them d a t e s r a t h e r c a p r i c i o u s l y . As v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n p a i d t o W a l k o w i t z i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h e s e p r o b l e m s o f d a t i n g have y e t t o be s o l v e d . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s e e S h e l d o n R e i c h , "Abraham W a l k o w i t z : P i o n e e r o f E a r l y M o d e r n i s m , " The A m e r i c a n A r t J o u r n a l 3:1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 1 ) : 7 2-82. 25. U 0 s c a r B l u e m n e r , " W a l k o w i t z , " CW 44 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 1 3 ) : 12 A r t h u r Dove, l e t t e r w r i t t e n f o r A r t h u r J e r o m e Eddy, 1913. Q u o t e d i n Ann Lee M o r g a n , A r t h u r Dove: L i f e and Work, 80 w i t h a C a t a l o g u e R a i s o n n e (Newark: U n i v e r s i t y o f D e l a w a r e P r e s s , 1 9 8 4 ) , p. 39. 13 A r t h u r Dove, s t a t e m e n t w r i t t e n f o r Samuel K o o t z , 1930. Q u o t e d i n M o r g a n , A r t h u r Dove, pp. 106-7. 14 . . H a r t l e y , i n December 1912, w r o t e t o S t i e g l i t z f r o m P a r i s c o m p l a i n i n g o f " a l l t h e s e i n t e l l e c t u a l c a t a l e p t i c s " : They a r e s t i m u l a t i n g i n some s e n s e b u t t h e y d o n ' t go much o f a n y w h e r e . They a r e a l l i n a b u n c h h e r e , t a l k i n g e a c h o t h e r t o madness, d e s p i s i n g e a c h o t h e r s ' w o r k , s i p p i n g d r i n k s t o g e t h e r and s m i l i n g l i k e c h i l d r e n . " ( Q u o t e d i n Roxanna B a r r y , "The Age o f B l o o d and I r o n : M a r s d e n H a r t l e y i n B e r l i n , " A r t s M a g a z i n e 54:3 (November 1979) : 166. ) 15 M a r s d e n H a r t l e y , l e t t e r o f O c t o b e r 1912, t o S t i e g l i t z . Quoted i n H a s k e l l , M a r s d e n H a r t l e y , p. 27. ^ I b i d . , p. 28 . 81 C o n c l u s i o n By t h e t i m e o f t h e A r m o r y Show o f F e b r u a r y and M a r c h o f 1913 m o d e r n i s m had t a k e n h o l d , i f b u t a t e n t a t i v e o ne, i n A m e r i c a . Whereas S t i e g l i t z ' s g a l l e r y had r e m a i n e d t h e o n l y one d e v o t e d t o t h e c o n t i n u o u s e x h i b i t i o n o f modern a r t p r i o r t o 1913, b e t w e e n 1913 and 1918 t h i r t y - f o u r g a l l e r i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s h e l d o v e r 250 e x h i b i t i o n s i n New Y o r k a l o n e . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , c o l l e c t o r s began t o i n v e s t i n modern a r t . As 291 l o s t i t s e x c l u s i v e n e s s , as m o d e r n i s m , i n e f f e c t , moved o u t o f h i s d o m a i n , S t i e g l i t z a p p e a r s t o h a v e l o s t t h e e n t h u s i a s m h a d p r e v i o u s l y f e l t ; Camera Work was p u b l i s h e d w i t h g r e a t e r i n f r e q u e n c y , c o l l e a g u e s moved away f r o m h i m t o s e t up t h e i r own g a l l e r y ond o n l y f o u r E u r o p e a n a r t i s t s were e x h i b i t e d a t 291 b e t w e e n 1913 and 1917. F u r t h e r m o r e , when F r a n c i s P i c a b i a and M a r c e l Duchamp moved t o New Y o r k d u r i n g t h e w a r , i t was n o t t o S t i e g l i t z t h a t t h e y g r a v i t a t e d . F i n a l l y i n 1917 t h e g a l l e r y c l o s e d . D u r i n g 1908 t o 1913, h o w e v e r , m o d e r n i s m i n A m e r i c a r e m a i n e d d e f i n e d by S t i e g l i t z and h i s c o l l e a g u e s and a r t i s t s a t 2 91. As we h a v e s e e n , i t was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t o f u n c t i o n as a c r i t i q u e o f A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y — i t s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h m a t e r i a l i s m , i t s i n s i s t e n c e upon p r o p r i e t y and t h e r e p r e s s i o n o f p a s s i o n and i t s u n q u e s t i o n i n g i n s i s t e n c e upon t h e ' r e a l i t y ' , t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t h e l o g i c a l , p r a c t i c a l and 82 and c e r t a i n . What 291 a t t e m p t e d t o i n t r o d u c e t o A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y was t h a t w h i c h , t o them, m o d e r n i s m r e p r e s e n t e d : s p o n t a n e i t y , t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f e m o t i o n and a b r e a k w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r c e p t u a l f r a m e r o r k s . To 291 s i g h t i n t o t h e w o r l d was d e p e n d e n t upon v i s i o n t h r o u g h c l o s e d e y e s . 83 BIBLIOGRAPHY B o o k s and E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e s A a r o n , D a n i e l . W r i t e r s on t h e L e f t . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d , I n c . , 1961. B a r r , A l f r e d H. Max Weber R e t r o s p e c t i v e E x h i b i t i o n 1907-1930. New Y o r k : Museum o f Modern A r t , 1930. B l a s h f i e l d , E d w i n H o w l a n d . M u r a l P a i n t i n g i n A m e r i c a . New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s S o ns, 1928. B o y l e , R i c h a r d J . A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n i s m . B o s t o n : New Y o r k G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1974. B r i d g e s , W i l l i a m . T r a n s i t i o n s . R e a d i n g , Mass.: A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1980. Brown, M i l t o n W. A m e r i c a n A r t t o 1900. New Y o r k H.N.Abrams, 1977. .The S t o r y o f t h e A r m o r y Show. New Y o r k : The J o s e p h H . H i r s h h o r n F o u n d a t i o n , 1963. Brown, M i l t o n W.; H u n t e r , Sam; J a c o b u s , J o h n ; R o s e n b l u m , Naomi; and S o k o l , D a v i d . A m e r i c a n A r t . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1979. B u r g e r , P e t e r . T h e o r y o f t h e A v a n t - G a r d e . M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1984. C a n t o r , M i l t o n . The D i v i d e d L e f t : A m e r i c a n R a d i c a l i s m , 1900-1975. New Y o r k : H i l l and Wang, 1978. C l a r k , T . J . The P a i n t i n g o f Modern L i f e : P a r i s i n t h e A r t o f Manet and H i s F o l l o w e r s . P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1984. C o n s t a b l e , W.G. A r t C o l l e c t i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a : An O u t l i n e o f a H i s t o r y . L o n d o n : Thomas N e l s o n & S o n s , 1964. C o r n , Wanda M. The C o l o u r o f Mood: A m e r i c a n T o n a l i s m , 1880- 1910. San F r a n c i s c o : M.H. de Young M e m o r i a l Museum & t h e C a l i f o r n i a P a l a c e o f t h e L e g i o n o f H o n o u r , 1972. Co w a r d , R o s a l i n d and E l l i s , J o h n . Language and M a t e r i a l i s m : D e v e l o p m e n t s i n S e m i o l o g y and t h e T h e o r y o f t h e Sub j e c t . L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e S, Kegan P a u l , 1977. 84 Cowdrey, Mary B a r t l e t t . A m e r i c a n Academy o f F i n e A r t s and A m e r i c a n A r t U n i o n . New Y o r k : The.New Y o r k H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1 9 5 3 . C r o l y , H e r b e r t . The P r o m i s e o f A m e r i c a n L i f e . The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1909; r e p r i n t e d i t i o n . , C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: The B e l k n a p P r e s s o f H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. D a v i d s o n , Abraham A. The E c c e n t r i c s and O t h e r A m e r i c a n V i s i o n a r y P a i n t e r s . New Y o r k : E . P . D u t t o n , 1978. D e l a w a r e A r t Museum. A v a n t - G a r d e P a i n t i n g and S c u l p t u r e i n A m e r i c a , 1910-25. W i l m i n g t o n , D e l a w a r e : D e l a w a r e A r t Museum, 1975. D e l e v o y , R o b e r t L. S y m b o l i s t s and S y m b o l i s m . New Y o r k : S k i r a / R i z z o l i , 1978. D e l l , F l o y d . L o v e i n G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e . New Y o r k : G e o r g e H. D o r a n Co., 1923. D i g g i n s , J o h n P. The A m e r i c a n L e f t i n t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , J o v a n o v i c h I n c . , 1973. D u b o f s k y , M e l v y n . We S h a l l Be A l l : A H i s t o r y o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l W o r k e r s o f t h e W o r l d . C h i c a g o : Q u a d r a n g l e B o o k s , 1969. E . B . C r o c k e r A r t G a l l e r y . M u n i c h and A m e r i c a n R e a l i s m i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y . S a c r a m e n t o : E . B . C r o c k e r A r t G a l l e r y , 1978. E a s t m a n , Max. L o v e and R e v o l u t i o n : My J o u r n e y T h r o u g h an E p o c h . New Y o r k : Random House, 1964. . V e n t u r e . New Y o r k : A l b e r t & C h a r l e s B o n i , 1927. Ewen, S t u a r t . C a p t a i n s o f C o n s c i o u s n e s s : A d v e r t i s i n g and t h e S o c i a l R o o t s o f t h e Consumer C u l t u r e . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1976. F i n k , L o i s M a r i e and T a y l o r , J o s h u a C. Academy: The A c a d e m i c T r a d i t i o n i n A m e r i c a n A r t . W a s h i n g t o n : S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n P r e s s , 1975. F i t z g e r a l d , R i c h a r d . A r t and P o l i t i c s : C a r t o o n i s t s o f t h e M a s s e s and t h e L i b e r a t o r . W e s t p o r t , Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s , 1973. F o r c e y , C h a r l e s . The C r o s s r o a d s o f L i b e r a l i s m : C r o l y , W e y l , L i p p m a n n and t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a , 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 2 5 . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. 85 G e r d t s , W i l l i a m H. A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n i s m . S e a t t l e : The H e n r y A r t G a l l e r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1980. . A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n i s m . New Y o r k : A b b e v i l l e P r e s s , 1984. G e r h a r d u s , M a l y and D i e t f r i e d . S y m b o l i s m and A r t Nouveau: S e n s e o f I m p e n d i n g C r i s i s , R e f i n e m e n t o f S e n s i b i l i t y and L i f e R e b o r n i n B e a u t y . O x f o r d : P h a i d o n P r e s s L t d . , 1979. Goldman, Emma. L i v i n g My L i f e : An A u t o b i o g r a p h y . S a l t L a k e C i t y , U t a h : G i b b s M. S m i t h I n c . , 1982. . Red Emma S p e a k s . E d i t e d by A l i x K a t e s S h u l m a n . New Y o r k : S c h o c k e n B o o k s , 1982. G o l d m a r k , J o s e p h i n e . F a t i g u e and E f f i c i e n c y : A S t u d y i n I n d u s t r y . New Y o r k : R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1912. G o o d r i c h , L l o y d . P i o n e e r s o f Modern A r t i n A m e r i c a : The Decade o f t h e Arm o r y Show, 1910-20. New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , 1 963. G o u l d , L e w i s L., e d . The P r o g r e s s i v e E r a . S y r a c u s e , New Y o r k : S y r a c r u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974. G r a y , C l i v e . J o h n M a r i n by J o h n M a r i n . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1977. H a s k e l l , B a r b a r a . A r t h u r Dove. L o s A n g e l e s : San F r a n c i s c o Museum o f A r t , 1974. _. M a r s d e n H a r t l e y . New Y o r k : W h i t n e y Museum o f A m e r i c a n A r t , 1980. H i l l s , P a t r i c i a . The P a i n t e r ' s A m e r i c a : R u r a l and U r b a n L i f e , 1810-1910. New Y o r k : P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1974. . T u r n o f t h e C e n t u r y A m e r i c a . New Y o r k : W h i t n e y Museum o f A m e r i c a n A r t , 1977. H o f s t a d t e r , R i c h a r d . The Age o f R e f o r m . New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1955. . The A m e r i c a n P o l i t i c a l T r a d i t i o n and t h e Men Who Made I t . New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1982. ( r e p r i n t e d . ) . The P r o g r e s s i v e H i s t o r i a n s . New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1968. 86 H o f s t a d t e r , R i c h a r d ; M i l l e r , W i l l i a m ; and A a r o n , D a n i e l . The A m e r i c a n R e p u b l i c , v o l . 2 : The P r o g r e s s i v e E r a . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1959 . Homer, W i l l i a m I n n e s . A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z and t h e A m e r i c a n A v a n t - G a r d e . B o s t o n : New Y o r k G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1977. . R o b e r t H e n r i and H i s C i r c l e . I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969. H o o p e s, D o n e l s o n F. The A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n i s t s . New Y o r k : W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1972. J o n e s , Howard Mumford. The Age o f E n e r g y : V a r i e t i e s o f A m e r i c a n E x p e r i e n c e 1865-1915. New Y o r k : The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1970. Kennedy G a l l e r i e s . J o h n M a r i n ' s New Y o r k . New Y o r k : Kennedy G a l l e r i e s , 1 9 81. K i p n i s , I r a . The A m e r i c a n S o c i a l i s t Movement, 1897-1912. New Y o r k : Greenwood P r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1968. K o l k o , G a b r i e l . The T r i u m p h o f C o n s e r v a t i s m . L o n d o n : C o l l i e r - M a c M i l l a h L t d . , 1963. L a s c h , C h r i s t o p h e r . The Agony o f t h e A m e r i c a n L e f t . New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1969. L e a r s , T . J . J a c k s o n . No P l a c e o f G r a c e : A n t i m o d e r n i s m and t h e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n C u l t u r e , 1880-1920. New Y o r k : P a n t h e o n B o o k s , 1981. L e a v e n s , I l e a n a B. From "291" t o Z u r i c h : The B i r t h o f Dada. Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U.M.I. R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1983. L e o n a r d , S a n d r a E. H e n r i R o u s s e a u and Max Weber. New Y o r k : R i c h a r d L. F e i g e n & Co., 1970. L e v y , D a v i d W. H e r b e r t C r o l y o f t h e New R e p u b l i c : L i f e and T h o u g h t o f an A m e r i c a n P r o g r e s s i v e . P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1985. L u h a n , M a b e l Dodge. I n t i m a t e M e m o r i e s . V o l . 3: M o v e r s and S h a k e r s . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & Co., 1936. M a c K i n t o s h , A l i s t a i r . S y m b o l i s m and A r t N ouveau. Woodbury, New Y o r k : B a r r o n s , 1978. May, H e n r y . The End o f A m e r i c a n I n n o c e n c e : A S t u d y o f t h e F i r s t Y e a r s o f Our Own Time. New Y o r k : ,1959. 87 May, L a r y . S c r e e n i n g Out t h e P a s t : The B i r t h o f Mass C u l t u r e and t h e M o t i o n P i c t u r e I n d u s t r y . C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1980. M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t . A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n i s t and R e a l i s t P a i n t i n g s and D r a w i n g s . New Y o r k : M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , 1973. M e y e r , A g n e s E r n s t . Out o f T h e s e R o o t s . B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1953. M i l n e r , J o h n . S y m b o l i s t s and D e c a d e n t s . L o n d o n : S t u d i o V i s t a L t d . , 1 9 7 1. M o r g a n , Ann L e e . A r t h u r Dove: L i f e and Work, w i t h a C a t a l o g u e R a i s o n n e . Newark: U n i v e r s i t y o f D e l a w a r e P r e s s , 1984. Museum o f Modern A r t . H e n r i de T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c : Images o f t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s . New Y o r k : Museum o f Modern A r t , 1985. N a t i o n a l C o l l e c t i o n o f F i n e A r t s . A l f r e d H. M a u r e r , 1868- 1932. W a s h i n g t o n : S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n P r e s s , 1973 . N o b l e , D a v i d W. The P r o g r e s s i v e M i n d 1890-1917. C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y & Co., 1970. N o v o t n y , F. T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c . New Y o r k : P h a i d o n , 1969. O l s o n , A r l e n e R. A r t C r i t i c s and t h e A v a n t - G a r d e : New Y o r k , 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 1 3 . Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U.M.I. R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1980. P i e r r e , J o s e . S y m b o l i s m . L o n d o n : E y r e M e t h u e n , 1979. P u s e y , M e r l o J . Eugene M e y e r . New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1974. R e i c h , S h e l d o n . J o h n M a r i n : A S t y l i s t i c A n a l y s i s and C a t a l o g u e R a i s o n n e . T u c s o n , A r i z o n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a P r e s s , 1970. . J o h n M a r i n : O i l s , W a t e r c o l o u r s and D r a w i n g s . P h i l a d e l p h i a : P h i l a d e l p h i a Museum o f A r t , 1969. R o s e , B a r b a r a . A m e r i c a n A r t S i n c e 1900: A C r i t i c a l H i s t o r y . New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k A. P r a e g e r , 1967. R o s e n s t o n e , R o b e r t A. R o m a n t i c R e v o l u t i o n a r y : A B i o g r a p h y o f J o h n Reed. New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1975. 88 S a a r i n e n , A l i n e B. The P r o u d P o s s e s s o r s . New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1958. S t . J o h n , B r u c e . J o h n S l o a n . New Y o r k : P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. . J o h n S l o a n ' s New Y o r k S c e n e . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1965. S a n f o r d , C h a r l e s L. The Q u e s t f o r P a r a d i s e . U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1961. S a w i n , M a r t i c a . Abraham W a l k o w i t z , 1875-1965. S a l t L a k e C i t y , U t a h : U t a h Museum o f F i n e A r t s , 1 9 7 5 . S c o t t , D a v i d . J o h n S l o a n . New Y o r k : W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1975. S c o t t , D a v i d W. and B u l l a r d , J o h n E. J o h n S l o a n , 1 8 7 1 - 1 9 5 1 . B o s t o n : B o s t o n Book & A r t , P u b l i s h e r , 1 9 7 1 . S e l i g m a n n , H e r b e r t ( e d ) . L e t t e r s o f J o h n M a r i n . W e s t p o r t Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1970. S h a r p - Y o u n g , M a h o n r i . P a i n t e r s o f t h e S t i e g l i t z G r o u p : E a r l y A m e r i c a n M o d e r n s . New Y o r k : W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1974. Sh u l m a n , A l i x K a t e s . To t h e B a r r i c a d e s : The A n a r c h i s t L i f e o f Emma Goldman. New Y o r k : Thomas Y. C r o w e l l Co., 1971. Soby, James T h r a l l and M i l l e r , D o r o t h y C. R o m a n t i c P a i n t i n g i n A m e r i c a . New Y o r k : Museum o f Modern A r t , 1943. S t i l l , B a y r d . M i r r o r f o r Gotham. New Y o r k : New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. T a s h j i a n , D i c k r a n . S k y s c r a p e r P r i m i t i v e s : Dada and t h e A m e r i c a n A v a n t - G a r d e , 1910-1925. M i d d l e t o w n , Conn.: W e s l e y a n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975. Van D y k e , J o h n C. The New New Y o r k . New Y o r k : The M a c M i l l a n Co., 1909. V e b l e n , T h o r s t e i n . The T h e o r y o f t h e L e i s u r e C l a s s . 1899 r e p r i n t e d . : New Y o r k : Modern L i b r a r y , 1934. W a l k o w i t z , Abraham. A D e m o n s t r a t i o n o f O b j e c t i v e , A b s t r a c t and N o n - O b j e c t i v e A r t . G i r a r d , K a n s a s : H a d l e m a n - J u l i u s P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 945. 89 Warne, F r a n k J u l i a n . The I m m i g r a n t I n v a s i o n . New Y o r k : Dodd, Mead & Co., 1 9 1 3 . W e i n s t e i n , James. Ambiguous L e g a c y : The L e f t i n A m e r i c a n P o l i t i c s . New Y o r k : F r a n k l i n W a t t s I n c . , 1975. W e r n e r , A l f r e d . Max Weber. New Y o r k : H a r r y N. Abrams, I n c . , 1975. W i e b e , R o b e r t H. The S e a r c h f o r O r d e r , 1877-1920. New Y o r k : H i l l & Wang, 1967. W i l l i a m s , W i l l i a m A p p l e m a n . A m e r i c a C o n f r o n t s a R e v o l u t i o n a r y W o r l d , 1776-1976. New Y o r k : W i l l i a m M orrow & Co., L t d . , 1976. . A m e r i c a n s i n a C h a n g i n g W o r l d . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1978. . The C o n t o u r s o f A m e r i c a n H i s t o r y . New Y o r k : New V i e w p o i n t s , 1973. . E m p i r e as a Way o f L i f e . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980. . The T r a g e d y o f A m e r i c a n D i p l o m a c y . New Y o r k : D e l l P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . , 1972. W i l s o n , Woodrow. The New Freedom. 1916. r e p r i n t e d . : J.M. D e n t S. S o n s , L t d . , 1926. Y oung, M a h o n r i S h a r p . A m e r i c a n R e a l i s t s . New Y o r k : W a t s o n - G u p t i l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1977. Z i g r o s s e r , C a r l . The C o m p l e t e E t c h i n g s o f J o h n M a r i n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : P h i l a d e l p h i a Museum o f A r t , 1969. A r t i c l e s i n Books and J o u r n a l s A l t h u s s e r , L o u i s . " I d e o l o g y and I d e o l o g i c a l S t a t e A p p a r a t u s e s ( N o t e s t o w a r d s an I n v e s t i g a t i o n ) " i n L e n i n and P h i l o s o p h y and O t h e r E s s a y s . New Y o r k : M o n t h l y R e v i e w P r e s s , 1969, pp. 127-186. A n d e r s o n , W i l l i a m G. " P r o g r e s s i v i s m : An H i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l E s s a y . " H i s t o r y T e a c h e r 6 ( 1 9 7 3 ) : 4 2 7 - 5 2 . A d o r n o , T h e o d o r W. " V e b l e n ' s A t t a c k on C u l t u r e . " P r i s m s . C a m b r i d g e , Mass.:M.I.T. P r e s s , 1967: 75-94. B a r r y , R o x a n n a . "The Age o f B l o o d and I r o n : M a r s d e n H a r t l e y i n B e r l i n . " A r t s M a g a z i n e 54:3 (November 1 9 7 9 ) : 166-171. 90 B r i n t o n , C h r i s t i a n . " C u r r e n t A r t , N a t i v e and F o r e i g n " . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i o 69:195 (May 1 9 1 3 ) : 56-58. . " E v o l u t i o n n o t R e v o l u t i o n i n A r t " . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d i o 69:194 ( A p r i l 1 9 1 3 ) : 28-35. C h r i s t , C a r o l . " V i c t o r i a n M a s c u l i n i t y and t h e A n g e l i n t h e House." I n A W i d e n i n g S p h e r e : C h a n g i n g R o l e s o f V i c t o r i a n Women, pp. 146-162. E d i t e d by M a r t h a V i c i n u s . B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977. Cohn, S h e r r y e . " A r t h u r Dove and t h e O r g a n i c A n a l o g y : A R a p p r o c h e m e n t Between A r t and N a t u r e . " A r t s M a g a z i n e 59:10 (June/Summer 1 9 8 5 ) : 84-89. . "The Image and t h e I m a g i n a t i o n o f Space i n t h e A r t o f A r t h u r Dove; p a r t I I : Dove and t h e F o u r t h D i m e n s i o n . " A r t s M a g a z i n e 58:5 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 8 4 ) : 1 2 1 - 2 5 . C o r n , Wanda. "The New New Y o r k . " A r t i n A m e r i c a 61 ( J u l y - A u g u s t l 9 7 3 ) : 5 8 - 6 5 . C o r t i s s o z , R o y a l . "The P o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t I l l u s i o n . " The C e n t u r y M a g a z i n e 85:6 ( A p r i l 1 9 1 3 ) : 8 0 5 - 1 5 . D e Z a y a s , M a r i u s . "How, When and Why Modern A r t Came t o New Y o r k " . A r t s M a g a z i n e 54:8 ( A p r i l 1 9 8 0 ) : 9 6 -126. E l d r e d g e , C h a r l e s . "The A r r i v a l o f E u r o p e a n M o d e r n i s m . " A r t i n A m e r i c a 61 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1 9 7 3 ) : 3 4 - 4 1 . G o l d i n , Amy. "The E i g h t ' s L a i s s e z - F a i r e R e v o l u t i o n . " A r t i n A m e r i c a 61 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1 9 7 3 ) : 4 2 - 4 9 . H e n d e r s o n , L i n d a D a l r y m p l e . " M a b e l Dodge, G e r t r u d e S t e i n and Max Weber: A F o u r - D i m e n s i o n a l T r i o . " A r t s M a g a z i n e 57:1 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 2 ) : 106-11. H e n d r i c k , B u r t o n . "The S k u l l s o f Our I m m i g r a n t s . " M c C l u r e s M a g a z i n e 35 ( M a y - O c t o b e r 1 9 1 0 ) : 36-50. H e r r o n , S t e l l a Wynne. "The A m e r i c a n i z i n g o f A n d r e F r a n c o i s . " M c C l u r e s M a g a z i n e 31 ( M a y - O c t o b e r 1 9 0 8 ) : 500-509. Homer, W i l l i a m I n n e s . " I d e n t i f y i n g A r t h u r Dove's 'The Ten Commandments'." The A m e r i c a n A r t J o u r n a l 12:3 (Summer 1 9 8 0 ) : 21-32. _. " S t i e g l i t z and 2 9 1 . " A r t i n A m e r i c a 61 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1 9 7 3 ) : 50-57. 91 H o o p e s, James. "The C u l t u r e o f P r o g r e s s i v i s m : C r o l y , L i p p m a n n , B r o o k s , B o u r n e and t h e I d e a o f A m e r i c a n A r t i s t i c D e c a d e n c e . " CLIO 7:1 ( F a l l 1 9 7 7 ) : 9 1 - 1 1 1 . H y l a n d , D o u g l a s K.S. "Agnes E r n s t M e y e r : P a t r o n o f A m e r i c a n M o d e r n i s m . " A m e r i c a n A r t J o u r n a l 12:1 ( W i n t e r 1 9 8 0 ) : 6 4 - 8 1 . K u s p i t , D o n a l d . " I n d i v i d u a l and Mass I d e n t i t y i n U r b a n A r t : The New Y o r k C a s e . " I n The C r i t i c as A r t i s t : t h e I n t e n t i o n a l i t y o f A r t . Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U.M.I. R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1984. L a n e , J o h n R. "The S o u r c e s o f Max Weber's C u b i s m . " A r t J o u r n a l 35:3 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 6 ) : 231-36. L a s c h , C h r i s t o p h e r . " H e r b e r t C r o l y ' s A m e r i c a . " New Y o r k R e v i e w o f B o o k s 4 ( J u l y 1 1 9 6 5 ) : 18-19. L e v i n , G a i l . " H i d d e n S y m b o l i s m i n M a r s d e n H a r t l e y ' s M i l i t a r y P i c t u r e s . " A r t s M a g a z i n e . 54:2 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 7 9 ) : 154-58. . "Marsden H a r t l e y , K a n d i n s k y and Der B l a u e R e i t e r . " A r t s M a g a z i n e 52:3 (November 1 9 7 7 ) : 156-60. . "Marsden H a r t l e y and t h e E u r o p e a n A v a n t - G a r d e . " A r t s M a g a z i n e 54:1 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 9 ) : 158-63. . "Marsden H a r t l e y and M y s t i c i s m . " A r t s M a g a z i n e 60:3 (November 1 9 8 5 ) : 16-21. L o u g h e r y , J o h n . " C h a r l e s C a f f i n and W i l l a r d H u n t i n g t o n W r i g h t , A d v o c a t e s o f Modern A r t " . A r t s M a g a z i n e 59 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 8 5 ) : 103-9. Maddox, J e r a l d C. " P h o t o g r a p h y i n t h e F i r s t D e c a d e . " A r t i n A m e r i c a 61 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1 9 7 3 ) : 72-79. Naumann, F r a n c i s M. and A v r i c h , P a u l . " A d o l f W o l f f : ' P o e t , S c u l p t o r and R e v o l u t i o n i s t , b u t M o s t l y R e v o l u t i o n i s t . ' The A r t B u l l e t i n ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 5 ) : 4 8 6 - 5 0 0 . N o r t h , P e r c y . " T u r m o i l a t 2 9 1 . " A r c h i v e s o f A m e r i c a n A r t J o u r n a l 2 4 : 1 : 12-20. P l a g e n s , P e t e r . "The C r i t i c s : H a r t m a n n , H u n e k e r , De C a s s e r e s . " A r t i n A m e r i c a 61 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1 9 7 3 ) : 6 6 - 7 1 . 92 R e i c h , S h e l d o n . "Abraham W a l k o w i t z : P i o n e e r o f E a r l y M o d e r n i s m . " The A m e r i c a n A r t J o u r n a l 3:1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 1 ) : 72-82. " J o h n M a r i n : P a i n t i n g s o f New Y o r k , 1 9 1 2 . " The A m e r i c a n A r t J o u r n a l 1:1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 6 9 ) : 4 3 - 5 2 . R i c c i o t t i , D o m i n i c . "The R e v o l u t i o n i n U r b a n T r a n s p o r t : Max Weber and I t a l i a n F u t u r i s m . " The A m e r i c a n A r t J o u r n a l 16:1 ( W i n t e r 1 9 8 4 ) : 4 6 - 6 4 . . "Symbols and Monuments: Images o f t h e S k y s c r a p e r i n A m e r i c a n A r t . " L a n d s c a p e 25:2 ( 1 9 8 1 ) : 22-29. R o b e r t s , Mary F a n t o n [ G i l e s E d g e r t o n ] . "The Y o u n g e r A m e r i c a n P a i n t e r s : A r e They C r e a t i n g a N a t i o n a l A r t ? " The C r a f t s m a n 13:5 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 0 8 ) : 512-32. S c h u l t e - S a s s e , J o c h e n . "Towards a C u l t u r e f o r t h e M a s s e s : The S o c i o - P s y c h o l o g i c a l F u n c t i o n o f P o p u l a r L i t e r a t u r e i n Germany and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1880- 1920". New German C r i t i g u e 29 ( S p r i n g - S u m m e r 1 9 8 3 ) : 8 5 - 1 0 7 . S e k u l a , A l l a n . "On t h e I n v e n t i o n o f P h o t o g r a p h i c M e a n i n g . " A r t f o r u m 13 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 7 5 ) : 136-45. T r i m b e r g e r , E l l e n Kay. " F e m i n i s m , Men and Modern L o v e : G r e e n w i c h V i l l a g e , 1 9 0 0-1925." I n P o w e r s o f D e s i r e : The P o l i t i c s o f S e x u a l i t y . E d i t e d by Ann S n i t o w , C h r i s t i n e S t a n s e l l and S h a r o n Thompson. New Y o r k : M o n t h l y R e v i e w P r e s s , 1983. Z i l c z e r , J u d i t h K. "The A r m o r y Show and t h e A m e r i c a n A v a n t - G a r d e : A R e - e v a l u a t i o n . " A r t s M a g a z i n e 53:1 ( S e p t e m b e r 1978) J o u r n a l s Camera Work: A P h o t o g r a p h i c Q u a r t e r l y ( 1 9 0 7 - 1 9 1 4 ) E d i t e d by A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z e t a l . New Y o r k : N e n d e l n / L i e c h t e n s t e i n ( K r a u s R e p r i n t ) , 1969. The M a s s e s (December 1912- F e b r u a r y 1915) E d i t e d by Max E a s t m a n . New Y o r k . M o t h e r E a r t h 4-10 (November 1 9 0 9 - O c t o b e r 1915) E d i t e d by Emma Goldman. New Y o r k . 93 U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l s A b rahams, Edward. "The L y r i c a l L e f t : The O r i g i n s o f t h e A v a n t - G a r d e i n A m e r i c a , 1 9 0 0 - W o r l d War I . " Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n . Brown U n i v e r s i t y , 1981. A r c h i v e s o f A m e r i c a n A r t - A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z P a p e r s . C l a r k , T . J . " N o t e s on C u b i s m " . D i s c u s s i o n p a p e r , p r e s e n t e d t o g r a d u a t e s e m i n a r a t H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a m b r i d g e M a s s . , 1987. H a r d i n g , S a n d r a . " F e m i n i s t E p i s t e m o l o g y . " P a p e r p r e s e n t e d t o g r a d u a t e s e m i n a r a t U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o , L o n d o n , O n t . , M a r c h 5, 1987. H e i b e l , Y u l e F. " D i f f e r e n c e s A s i d e ? ( R e - ) P r e s e n t a t i o n , L i k e n e s s e s , and Laws i n C u b i s m ' s D i s c u r s i v e S p a c e s . " P a p e r , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a m b r i d g e M a s s . , 1987. K u r l a n d e r , Amy. " C ubism and Modern P a r i s . " W o r k i n g p a p e r p r e s e n t e d t o g r a d u a t e s e m i n a r a t H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , S p r i n g , 1987. S i e g e l , P r i s c i l l a . "Abraham W a l k o w i t z : The E a r l y Y e a r s o f an I m m i g r a n t A r t i s t . " M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f D e l a w a r e , 1976. 94 F i g . l - R o b e r t R e i d . The V i o l e t Kimono, c . 1 9 1 0 . o i l on c a n v a s . N a t i o n a l Museum of F i n e A r t s , S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n . G i f t o f J o h n G e l l a t l y . 95 F i g . 2 - P a m e l a Colman S m i t h . The Wave, 1903. w a t e r / c o l o u r . C o l l e c t i o n o f W h i t n e y Museum o f A m e r i c a n A r t , New Y o r k . G i f t o f M r s . S i d n e y N. H e l l e r . 96 F i g . 3 - A u g u s t e R o d i n . K n e e l i n g G i r l - D r a w i n g No. 6. p e n c i l & w a t e r c o l o u r . The A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o . A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z C o l l e c t i o n , 1949. 97 F i g . 4 - H e n r i M a t i s s e . Nude, c.1907. W a t e r c o l o u r . M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , New Y o r k . A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z C o l l e c t i o n , 1949. 98 F i g . 5 - H e n r i de T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c . Woman i n C o r s e t - C o n q u e s t o f P a s s a g e , 1896. l i t h o g r a p h , p r i n t e d i n c o l o u r . Museum o f Modern A r t , New Y o r k . G i f t o f Abby A l d r i c h R o c k e f e l l e r , 1946. 99 F i g . 6 - A l f r e d H. M a u r e r . Woman v i t h H a t , 1907. o i l on c a n v a s . U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a A r t G a l l e r i e s , L i n c o l n . B e r t h a S c h a e f e r B e q u e s t . 100 F i g . 7 - J o h n M a r i n . M i l l s and B r i d g e , Meaux, 1907. w a t e r c o l o u r . E s t a t e o f J o h n M a r i n . M a r l b o r o u g h G a l l e r y , I n c . , New Y o r k . 101 F i g . 8 - M a r s d e n H a r t l e y . Cosmos, 1908-9. Columbus Museum o f A r t . G i f t o f F e r d i n a n d H o w a l d . 102 F i g . 9 - M a r s d e n H a r t l e y . The D a r k M o u n t a i n , 1909. The A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o . The A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z C o l l e c t i o n . 103 F i g . 1 0 - J o h n M a r i n . From t h e Window o f 291 L o o k i n g Down F i f t h A v e n u e , 1912. w a t e r c o l o u r . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t . The A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z C o l l e c t i o n , 1949. 104 F i g . 1 1 - J o h n M a r i n . Movement, F i f t h A v e n u e , 1 9 1 2 . w a t e r c o l o r . A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o . A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z C o l l e c t i o n . 105 F i g . 1 2 - Abraham W a l k o w i t z . Scene i n t h e P a r k , n.d. p a s t e l on p a p e r . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t . B e q u e s t o f C h a r l e s F. I k l e , 1 963. 106 F i g . 1 3 - J o h n S l o a n . The P i c n i c G r o u n d s , 1906-7. o i l on c a n v a s . The W h i t n e y Museum o f A m e r i c a n A r t , New Y o r k . 107 .14- A r t h u r Dove. N a t u r e S y m b o l i z e d No.2 (Wind on a H i l l s i d e , 1911/12. p a s t e l on l i n e n . The A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o . A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z C o l l e c t i o n . 108 F i g . 1 5 - M a r s d e n H a r t l e y . P a i n t i n g No. 1, 1913. U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a , L i n c o l n A r t G a l l e r i e s . F.M. H a l l C o l l e c t i o n .

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
China 8 0
United States 4 4
City Views Downloads
Beijing 8 0
Unknown 1 39
Wilmington 1 0
Sunnyvale 1 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items