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"291" and cultural criticism : to see through closed eyes Daniels, Marilyn Christine Johanne 1987

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"291"  AND  CULTURAL  CRITICISM: TO SEE THROUGH CLOSED By  MARILYN CHRISTINE JOHANNE DANIELS B.A. Hons., M c M a s t e r U n i v e r s i t y , 2nd  1976  B.A. Hons., M c M a s t e r U n i v e r s i t y ,  A THESIS SUBMITTED  1982  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f F i n e  We a c c e p t to  this  thesis  Arts)  as c o n f o r m i n g  the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October _) M a r i l y n  Christine  1987  Johanne D a n i e l s ,  1987  EYES  In  presenting  requirements of  British  it  freely  agree for  this f o r an  in partial  advanced  degree  Columbia, I agree that available  that  f o r reference  permission  scholarly  o r by  understood  that  financial  f o r extensive  p u r p o s e s may  department for  thesis  be  copying  gain  --6  (3/81)  Q ctO  n o t be  shall  and  I  study.  copying by  iSi  Columbia  H87  make  further  of this  t h e head  of this  thesis  of  my  I t i s thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  of  for  the Library  or publication  shall  the  University  h i s or her representatives.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  at the  granted  permission.  Department  fulfilment of  written  i i  Abstract  Alfred often  Stieglitz  remembered  and t h e members o f '291' a r e most  i n the a r t h i s t o r i c a l  i n t r o d u c i n g modernism i n t o A m e r i c a European  artists  European  formal  artists.  While  that  modernism, as p r e s e n t e d  this  to c r i t i q u e  and t h r o u g h experiments  society,  conspicuously  missing.  In t h i s was  lurking  thesis  imagination,  its  particular  and  position  to t h e i r  Also critic  and why  of the ' i r r a t i o n a l '  their  have r e f e r r e d  to the f a c t  by 291, was  absent  referred  t o as t h e "queer  d i d they  art.  set of contexts represented—  hypothesis."  are asked:  insist  s t a t e s of the p s y c h e —  in their  rivals.  intended  i s an a n a l y s i s o f  at the P o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t  291's c r i t i q u e  of c u r r e n t  t h e work o f A m e r i c a n  the f o l l o w i n g questions  and  t h e work o f  any a n a l y s i s o f t h a t c r i t i q u e i s  what one c o n t e m p o r a r y symbolism  through  the i n t e g r a t i o n into  some a u t h o r s  literature for  upon t h e e x p r e s s i o n passion,  By s i t u a t i n g I attempt  what  intuition  291 w i t h i n  t o e x p l a i n what  t o t h e members  themselves  iii Table  of  Contents  Abstract Table List  i i  of C o n t e n t s  i i i  of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  v  Acknowledgement  vi  Introduction  1  Notes  14  Chapter The  One  P r o g r e s s i v e Era  Conflicting  as T u r n i n g  Point  17  R e - d e f i n i t i o n s of D i r e c t i o n  Art  as U p h o l d i n g  The  Great  and  the  Masters  the  Past  i n the  Collections,  23  Present:  American  Impressionism  'Eight'  27  Notes  Chapter  38  Two-  '291': 1908-1910 •  Pamela Colman S m i t h and The  First  and  Brothel"  291's  Symbolist  European E x h i b i t i o n s :  John M a r i n  and  Roots  42  "Memoranda of t h e  Gutter 46  Marsden H a r t l e y and  the  Search  Beyond  the P r e s e n t  52  Notes  60  Chapter  Three-  John Marin, Arthur  '291':  1911-1913  Abraham W a l k o w i t z  Dove, Marsden H a r t l e y  and M o d e r n i t y and t h e B r e a k  63 with  Representation  70  The B a n k r u p t  73  Intellect  Notes  79  Conclusion  81  83 Bibliography ... 94 Illustrations  V  List  of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  Fig.l-  Robert  R e i d . The V i o l e t  Fig.2-  Pamela Colman S m i t h .  F i g . 3 - Auguste Rodin.  Kimono, c.1910:....  The Wave, 1903 .  Kneeling G i r l -  95  Drawing No.6  F i g . 4 - H e n r i M a t i s s e . Nude, c.1907. Fig.5- Henri  de T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c .  Conquest Fig.6- Alfred  of Passage,  Mills  Woman i n C o r s e t -  1896.  98 1907  1908-9.  John M a r i n .  1909.  102  From t h e Window o f 291 L o o k i n g  Down F i f t h Avenue, Fig.11-  John M a r i n .  Fig.12-  Abraham W a l k o w i t z .  F i g . 1 3 - John  100 101  F i g . 9 - Marsden H a r t l e y . The Dark M o u n t a i n , Fig.10-  99  and B r i d g e , Meaux, 1907  F i g . 8 - M a r s d e n H a r t l e y . Cosmos,  96 97  H. M a u r e r . Woman w i t h Hat,  F i g . 7 - John M a r i n .  94  1912.  103  Movement, F i f t h Avenue, Scene  S l o a n . The P i c n i c  1912  i n the Park,  Grounds,  F i g . 1 4 - A r t h u r Dove. N a t u r e S y m b o l i z e d  1906-7 No.2  104  n . d . .......105 106 107  (Wind on a H i l l s i d e ) , 1911/12 F i g . 1 5 - Marsden H a r t l e y . P a i n t i n g N o . l ,  1913  108  vi Acknowledgement I would  first  l i k e t o acknowledge the  w h i c h w o r k i n g w i t h my  s u p e r v i s o r s , Dr.  Dr.  their  of  David my  Solkin,  understanding Secondly,  in  their  this me  own  to understand  Malcolm  Kennard  the p r o c e s s Fleming  debts  i n the  Michael  to Yule through  Baron and lagged  actual  Kuiack,  and see  this  Alexis  i s and  would  also  of t h i s  H e i b e l who open e y e s ' .  has,  work's i s one  My  the  to  and understand  past  greatest  thesis  I would a l s o  are  while  intellectual  owed t o Progressive me  l i k e t o thank  kindness  i n the  Patricia  last j e t -  completion. person  who  I would l i k e t o t h a n k him  f o r s h a r i n g t h a t w i t h me.  l i k e to dedicate t h i s  Yas  i n many ways, h e l p e d  Bawagan f o r t h e i r  producing  l i k e to thank Marnie  connection with  i n London, O n t a r i o .  Above a l l o t h e r s  he  Marion  f o r s h a r i n g h i s knowledge of the  d a y s of t h i s  Rana S o d h i .  and  t h i n g s , h e l p i n g me  I would  production  of  each  Houk f o r h e l p i n g  of l e a r n i n g  f o r , among o t h e r  development  f r i e n d s who,  the p r o c e s s  l i k e t o t h a n k Meg  the p r o c e s s  upon t h e  and  p o l i t i c a l processes.  throughout  f o r p r o v i d i n g a needed  writing  "to  me  of c r e a t i v i t y .  I was  had  l i k e t o thank t h o s e  helped  I would  and  impact  Serge G u i l b a u t  s t u d e n t s has  of s o c i a l  I would  way,  thesis.  Era,  and  profound  work.  deserves simply  acknowledgement:  f o r being  I t i s t o him  that I  who  1  INTRODUCTION  The in the an  the  first  decade o f  most modern c o m m e r c i a l a r t scene that  would of  however, A m e r i c a was activity  could  nineteenth s u c h as  century  prospect  t o the  approximately c o l u m n s , nor  the  world.  In  artists  of  did  the  commercial National  and  force  wished and  little  to gain  develop  art  the recognition, were o f t e n  faced  had  of a r t , a c o n d i t i o n  not  Until  carry  art c r i t i c s  regular  to w r i t e to a r t .  The  relatively  of  art  what  e x h i b i t i o n s remained  establishment  York,  decade,  Most A m e r i c a n s  was  one  the  first  Mary C a s s a t t ,  public galleries  i n the  t i m e New  y e a r s of  newspapers d i d g i v e  Academy o f A r t s  predominant  late  n e w s p a p e r s d i d not  c o v e r a g e the  the  art criticism.  t h e y employ  important  P a r i s as  i n which very  who  an  that  Until  expatriation.  s t a t e of  1908  At  challenge  a place  found.  was  i n A m e r i c a , began t o  i n t e r e s t or u n d e r s t a n d i n g  unrelated  little  be  later the  art.  city  James M c N e i l W h i s t l e r  w i t h the little  century  development of American  dominant a r t c e n t e r  of  this  number  small  and  the  artists'  reputations. In November o f Avenue i n New both the The  York.  Academy and  "Little  1905 This the  G a l l e r i e s of  a small  g a l l e r y opened a t  g a l l e r y would r a d i c a l l y lethargy  of  the  American  the.Photo-Secession",  as  291  5th  challenge art it  scene. was  2 originally  known, was  first  e s t a b l i s h e d i n order  photography  of h i g h q u a l i t y  and  t o win  photography  as a f i n e  The  founders  Alfred  Stieglitz  name f r o m  not  Eduard  t h e German and  term c a r r i e d carried  and  art.  unaware.  Americans",  "The  the  gallery, the  said,  gallery's While  the  o f the E u r o p e a n s y m b o l i s t s i t one  of w h i c h t h e  idea of S e c e s s i o n  Stieglitz  of  Austrian Secessionists.  connotation,  exhibit  p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n of  S t e i c h e n , borrowed  the c o n n o t a t i o n s  another  to  two  men  i s h a t e f u l to  "They'll  be  were  the  t h i n k i n g of  the  2 Civil  War".  Americans  I f the t h e r e was  idea of  secessionism  nonetheless  was  h a t e f u l to  great p u b l i c i n t e r e s t  and  3  support  f o r the g a l l e r y ' s  gallery,  photo-exhibitions.  a l s o known s i m p l y  exhibition  as  of non-photographic  "291", t u r n e d a r t i n 1907  the  p u b l i c turned  variously into  and  o f t e n anger.  While  to declare c i v i l  1913  term  t h a t the 291  for  two  i s best  t h i n g s ; i t was  Toulouse-Lautrec, exhibited  only  artists,  i n America  support  between  to prove  apt.  1908  I t was  Matisse,  P i c a s s o were a l s o here  t h e new  and  literature  t h a t t h e work of R o d i n ,  first  that  European  g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y  t o be  of  never  art historical  As W i l l i a m Innes Homer has  gallery  the  i t was  i n f l u e n c e d by and  the  S t e i c h e n may  R o u s s e a u , Cezanne and  were e n c o u r a g e d  t h e i r work. the  i n the  t o an A m e r i c a n p u b l i c .  young A m e r i c a n styles,  here  and  war,  ' s e c e s s i o n ' was  remembered  to  the  amusement, b e w i l d e r m e n t ,  Stieglitz  have i n t e n d e d  However as  to  observed,  "continuously  exhibit  291  devoted  was to  3 the  advancement of  However 1913, part  i t was  modern a r t p r i o r  a l s o the  where a r t i s t s of  the  until  the  and  vitality  Stieglitz  and  outbreak  only  place  to the i n New  intellectuals  of  Parisian  art  Steichen  remained  at  the  First  York,  could  the  of  Armory  Show."  prior  retain  4  to  a  small  world. the  W o r l d War  core  when  of  291  Steichen  5  withdrew h i s support. were v e r y in  Paris  figures send  different. w h e r e he  most  of  Stieglitz artists the  ideological  the  to  over  published  by  Closest of  people:  at  and  works  control  in Paris  the  He  arguments w i t h  the  press  shown t h e r e . the  He  contents  of  to this  central  associates Paul  and  of  played  most  part,  the  major  as  arranged  well young  of  key  knit  delighted in gallery's  lines  the  closely  putting  American  the  remained  the  as  to  group  provoking  visitors  and  significance  a l s o kept  firm  editorial  Camera Work, a j o u r n a l  291.  Agnes E r n s t Meyer; Hartmann  the  who  along  s m a l l but  gallery.  inform  he  working  'Stieglitz  men  w i t h most of  Europeans  and  two  f o r the  several promising  avant-garde.  gathered  attempted  with  the  remained,  I t was  the  f o r c e w i t h i n the  discussions  of  shows o f  currently  which  i n c l o s e touch  art world.  i n touch  European  which  the  roles  Steichen  was  w i t h i n the  The  critics  Benjamin  de  core  of  291  was  Haviland, Marius Charles  Caffin,  a small de  Zayas  group and  Sadakichi  Casseres;  and  artists  Marsden H a r t l e y , Abraham W a l k o w i t z  and  Arthur  John Dove.  Marin, The  4  group  which  one.  They  The  group  Steichen Paris,  clustered  contained a large was  was  born  of  American, gallery  was  York  as  proportion  from Veracruz  de  the Diaz d i c t a t o r s h i p .  through  Camera Work, C h a r l e s C a f f i n  Zayas  the son  from  r e c e n t e d moved  g r o w n up  i n a German J e w i s h h o u s e h o l d , spending  also  political  support  England  o f a German m e r c h a n t  was  in  father's  the  the c r i t i c s  Stieglitz  and  had  of f i n a n c i a l  Of was  immigrants.  Agnes E r n s t Meyer,  mother.  school  of h i s  the c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r t u n e of her  German o f J e w i s h b a c k g r o u n d .  H a r t m a n n was  i n common.  of recent  i n order to escape  source  diverse  Paul Haviland, born  Marius  a key  qualities  representative  company.  a c t e d as  a relatively  certain  i n Luxembourg.  i n New  York  climate  291  d i d , however, h o l d  Limoges c r y s t a l t o New  around  American  nine years of  by  f o r the  husband,  a  who  wrote  and  Sadakichi  and  birth  a  for  Japanese  however  attending a  schooling  an  having  French  i n Germany as  a  7  y o u t h , he  felt  Unlike  291's  Arthur  Dove and  h i m s e l f t o be  associates John  the  artists  who  c a m e t o New  While them s p e n t  intellectual for  an  their  291  i n Europe  and  American  received  York  most o f t h e time  cultures. Marsden  Hartley,  M a r i n were a l l Americans  m o s t n o t e a b l e e x c e p t i o n was Jew,  between  artistic  by  Abraham W a l k o w i t z ,  as  a  trends there.  training  i n the  Russian  were A m e r i c a n s ,  where they were  to t r a i n  The  child.  artists  artist  a  birth.  influenced I t was  i n Europe, Parisian  each  not  however  academies.  by  of the  unusual most While  5 the  initial  part  training  traditional,  o f t h e 291 a r t i s t s  was f o r t h e most  and w h i l e many s p e n t t h e i r  first  months i n  Q Paris for  studying  an a l t e r n a t i v e The  in  a t an academy,  their  artistic  aesthetic  291 a r t i s t s ,  each e v e n t u a l l y s e a r c h e d to that  critics  and a s s o c i a t e s were unanimous  v i e w o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e new i n t e l l e c t u a l and trends  i n Europe.  amount o f t i m e t h e r e ,  E a c h o f them s p e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  became f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e c i t y ' s intellectuals held  included  Gertrude  and Leo S t e i n ,  Auguste  Rousseau,  Pablo P i c a s s o ,  Delaunay,  Wassily  Georges  t o t h e Armory  Guillaume  Show,  Apollinaire,  Rodin, Henri M a t i s s e , Braque,  Picabia.  t h e members o f 291 h e l d i n  internationalist  i n the a r t i s t i c  Henri  R o b e r t and Mme  K a n d i n s k y , F r a n z Marc and F r a n c i s  Thus t h e k e y e l e m e n t s w h i c h  interest  where t h e y  o f 1913, 291's e x t e n s i v e c o n n e c t i o n s i n  Maurice Maeterlinck,  common were t h e i r  in Paris,  key a r t i s t s and  During the years p r i o r  i n the spring  Europe  of the academic.  backgrounds  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  and t h e i r  trends current i n  Europe. In  Camera Work t h e g r o u p compared  the  American  had  experienced i n Paris.  American level  a r t scene t o t h e v i t a l i t y  public's  lack  activity  and growth  of  which they  c o m p l a i n e d about t h e  o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a r t , t h e poor  of press c r i t i c i s m  artistic  They  the backwardness  and t h e f a c t  which America  t h a t what  little  d i d p o s s e s s was c o n f i n e d t o  6 a  few  was  Eastern  seen  as  cities.  a full  European p u b l i c , art  and  European c u l t u r e ,  generation  they  ahead  observed,  had  w e r e more e n t h u s i a s t i c .  As  on  the  other  hand,  of American.  The  closer  with  one  contact  member  new  said:  The new a r t m o v e m e n t o f E u r o p e h a s o n c e m o r e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e s t a n d a r d of the day. I t i s up t o g the American a l s o t o g i v e h i s a r t of the l i v i n g day. Academic that  art, virtually  time,  was  auctioneers, acted  as  referred  dealer  primarily,  circle,  through  atmosphere  Paul  Haviland  entering  "The  as  by  who  undertakers  those  them.  described  of  of  a r t i n America  a r t ; the supported  of  that  were p a r t of  being  i t , they  o a s i s or  apart  the  an  experience  said,  culture.^  i t i s evident who  at  collectors,  291  from  island one  was  i t s inner the  Those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  i t t o an  Little  form  a dead  critics  i t s sense  around  compare  to  only  Camera Work  defined  to  and  e m b a l m e r s and  Throughout  liked  the  of  felt  the  life  and  group  refuge. upon  Galleries":  P e r h a p s , t h e f i r s t t i m e y o u went up t h e n a r r o w e l e v a t o r w h i c h t o o k i n q u i r e r s t o t h e t o p f l o o r and e n t e r e d t h e room t o your r i g h t , t h e d i r e c t o r , t h e l e a d i n g s p i r i t , w o u l d be f o u n d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h some f r i e n d s o r visitors. The m i n u t e y o u g a z e d i n t o t h e r o o m s s o f i t t i n g l y d e s i g n e d , y o u seem t o b r e a t h e a d i f f e r e n t atmosphere. The q u i e t , n e u t r a l t o n e o f t h e w a l l s a n d of t h e woodwork; the s o f t l y d i f f u s e d l i g h t ; t h e happy s p a c i n g and p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e rooms and t h e i r f u r n i s h i n g s ; the c o l o r note of the autumn f o l i a g e i n t h e b i g b r a s s bowl i n the c e n t r e of the f a r t h e r room; a l l combined t o g i v e you f r o m the o u t s e t a f e e l i n g of h a r m o n y , b a l a n c e and r e p o s e . You insensibly r e l a x e d . . . . C o n v e r s a t i o n warmed u p . . . F o r h a l f an h o u r , o r a n h o u r , o r two h o u r s y o u f o r g o t a l l a b o u t New York, t h e r u s h o f t h e subway and t h e s t r u g g l e a f t e r t h e a l m i g h t y d o l l a r ; a n d w h e n y o u go b a c k i n t o t h e s t r e e t ,  7 i n t o t h e t u r m o i l o f e v e r y d a y l i f e , you f e l t t h a t you had d i s c o v e r e d an o a s i s , s e e m i n g l y t h o u s a n d s o f m i l e s f r o m t h e s c o r c h i n g s t r u g g l e f o r l i f e , where a t your p l e a s u r e you c o u l d s t o p and r e f r e s h y o u r s e l f i n t h e p e a c e f u l enjoyment o f t h e b e a u t y of l i f e ; a q u i e t nook i n a c i t y of c o n f l i c t , where you b r e a t h e d ^ an atmosphere of m u t u a l h e l p f u l n e s s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . As its  Haviland  indicates,  d e s i g n and  the tone  t h e r e were f e l t outside and  t o be  i t s doors.  conflict  different  York one  repose,  The  between S t i e g l i t z ,  gallery,  of the c o n v e r s a t i o n which took  in relationships  understanding.  atmosphere o f t h e  from  that  of the  place  world  In p l a c e o f the r u s h , s t r u g g l e , t u r m o i l  o f New  harmony, b a l a n c e , engaged  the e n t i r e  fact  encountered  p e a c e and  beauty.  Here  of one  o f m u t u a l h e l p f u l n e s s and of t h e a c t u a l  a man  a feeling  who  by  frequent  a l l accounts  conflicts  was  often  • 12 difficult  and  associates nature  t h e way  different  from  indeed The  stands  the o t h e r  as a r e m i n d e r  "struggle  close  of t h e  ideological  Nevertheless i t  i n w h i c h t h e g r o u p saw  the o u t s i d e w o r l d ,  itself  as  being  f o r the c o m m e r c i a l  world  p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g " o u t s i d e " .  primary  attributed  Yorkers  291  and  o f t h e above s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n .  suggests  was  of  domineering,  cause  of the d i s t u r b i n g  t o , as H a v i l a n d ' s f o r the a l m i g h t y  as c a u g h t  description  dollar".  i n the g r i p s  291  o f a "mad  quality  of l i f e  suggests,  the  perceived  New  was  money f r e n z y " , a  13  "senseless m a t e r i a l orgy". Y o r k e r " B e n j a m i n De C a s s e r e s  In "Physiognomy of t h e New d e s c r i b e d New York as a p l a c e  of  . . 14 servility. Articles  f r e n z y , b a r t e r , power and  were  8 w r i t t e n which described  t h e dilemma o f t h e v i r t u o u s  i n s u c h an e n v i r o n m e n t .  One s u c h f i c t i t i o u s h e r o  artist  lived  w i t h o u t r e g a r d f o r money, w i t h o u t c o n c e r n f o r t h e r e n t existing  o n l y t o produce  s t a n d a r d s and b e l i e f s .  a r t a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own m o r a l When f a c e d w i t h t h e r e a l i t y  indebtedness t o a f r i e n d  forhis living  confronted with the necessity  of h i s  e x p e n s e s , he was  of s e l l i n g h i s a r t .  Equating  t h i s a c t w i t h t h e s e l l i n g o f one's c h i l d r e n , t h e a r t i s t  saw  15  no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o end h i s l i f e .  Romantic  s e n t i m e n t a l as i t i s , t h e s t o r y c l e a r l y sense of a l i e n a t i o n t h e group society.  felt  wanted t o d i s t a n c e i t s e l f Stieglitz  i l l u s t r a t e s the  from t h e mainstream o f  I f the search f o r the d o l l a r  to f o r f e i t h i s or her i n t e g r i t y  forced the i n d i v i d u a l  and i n d i v i d u a l i t y ,  from the p r o c e s s .  operated the g a l l e r y  and o v e r l y  291  Accordingly  and t h e j o u r n a l l a r g e l y  from  h i s own f u n d s , c h a r g i n g ' t h e a r t i s t s n e i t h e r c o m m i s s i o n f o r sales nor e x h i b i t i o n costs. offered  The " s p e c i a l d r a w i n g  by 2 9 1 , t h e r e f o r e , was t h e " f r e e s p i r i t "  permeated i t ,  a spirit  which afforded  "relief  card" which  from the 16  stiflingly  l a d e n c o m m e r c i a l a t m o s p h e r e o f New Y o r k " .  Connected  with this  i d e a o f 291 b e i n g a b o v e and a p a r t  f r o m t h e c o m m e r c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f New Y o r k i s t h e i d e a t h e y , as a c u l t u r a l e l i t e — s t o o d a p a r t from t h e masses.  one p o s s e s s i n g " i n d i v i d u a l i t y " , They make i t c l e a r  " m a s s e s " , t o them, i n c l u d e d n o t o n l y t h e w o r k i n g Of New  York:  that  that the population  9 To t h e m a s s e s b e l o n g m i l l i o n a i r e s a s w e l l a s l a b o r e r s , washerwomen as w e l l as s l i m a r i s t o c r a t i c girls. Crucial  i n the  definition  individuality, Sadakichi  was  the  Hartmann,  Work, d e f i n e d speculates  as  of  importance  i n the  on  the  own of  October  absolutely  solely  their  free  basis  difference, original  1910  that  of  thought.  issue  of  "original  personal  their  Camera thinker  observation  who and  18 deduction the  therefrom".  traits  Casseres  Such  predominant  an  i n New  characterized  as  a p p r o a c h was  Yorkers—  stupidity,  opposed  traits  to  which  vulgarity,  respectability, indifference, conformity, hypocrisy 19 . mediocrity. The m e m b e r s o f 2 9 1 , s e e i n g t h e m s e l v e s cultural  aristocracy, believed  "superior  sensibility",  understand published  a r t but  one  also  life.  Oscar Wilde's  definition  with  which  that  which In  they  they  possessed  enabled  them not  July  1909  definition  of  clearly  De  of  and as a only  Camera  a dreamer,  identified.  a  to  Work  a Wilde  wrote:  A D r e a m e r i s one who c a n o n l y f i n d h i s way b y m o o n l i g h t a n d h i s punishment2gS t h a t he s e e s t h e dawn b e f o r e the r e s t of the world. In  seeing  could they  see  themselves what the  believed  stream"  i t to  i n order  to  itself  in this  rest be  of  the  their  bring  referred  to  with  upon the  notion  of  the  division  within  an  army.  way--  world  duty  about  original  to  could "fight  change.  terms which avant-garde  thinkers not  yet  against  Thus the  were a  see— the  group  suggest b a t t l e ; they  who  often  drawing  "garret"  or  a  10 [The S e c e s s i o n ] f i n d s i t s e l f one d i v i s i o n o f a d e s p e r a t e b u t n o t d i s p i c a b l e army. For the Secession, a l t h o u g h i n d e p e n d e n t i n i t s i n c e p t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i n i t s development, a l t h o u g h l o c a l l y i s o l a t e d and a t odds w i t h i t s immediate environment, n e i t h e r stands alone today nor i s out of touch with i t s times. There a r e o t h e r s e c e s s i o n s , some o f t h e m a l l b u t u n c o n s c i o u s o f their enlistment. P i c t o r i a l a r t i s ^ b u t one o f t h e least of their f i e l d s of battle... The  elements  cultural  of 29l's s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n  aristocracy,  rest  of the world  with  i t s environment,  which  their  indebted  not, locally  drawing  in origin.  Camera Work  significance summarized  believed  In their  of the gallery's which  a  "fight  and  ideas  against the  a r t , an a r t w h i c h styles  of Europe. of that  was I t  weapon.  i n explaining the  symbol,  they  and a t odds  forms  i n the potency  (1911) J . B . K e r f o o t ,  the role  isolated  upon a r t i s t i c  p r i m e weapon was t h e i r  that they  then,  o f s e e i n g what most o f t h e  t o the c u r r e n t non-academic  was c l e a r In  could  a r e European  stream"  capable  were,  a golden  had chosen.  He  disk, wrote:  I n o u r s u n w h i r l t h e r e i s o n e p l a n e t w h i c h h a s a moon w h i c h i s t u r n i n g t h e o t h e r way. And i f i t be s t r o n g enough, and l a s t l o n g enough, s o o n e r o r l a t e r t h e w h o l e m i g h t y Wheel o f L i g h t w i l l r e t u r n and f o l l o w t h a t o n e l i t t l e moon. The G o l d e n Dis,}£ o f t h e S e c e s s i o n i s t h e s y m b o l o f that s a t e l l i t e . The  work  o f any r e s e a r c h e r  role  291 p l a y e d  with  difficulties.  form  of a r t i s t ' s  entire  during  the years  attempting  t o understand  1907-13 w i l l  be  fraught  Most o f t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e  monographs.  oeuvre of the a r t i s t ,  Such a f o r m a t , typically  treats  the  i s i nthe  covering the the years  11 between  1907  manner.  An  and  1913  i n an  extremely brief  exception to this  generality  and  superficial  i s Sheldon  Reich's  23 two  v o l u m e w o r k on  painstakingly  John  follows  Marin,  a work  Marin's s t y l i s t i c  throughout h i s entire  career.  artists  complete;  a r e much l e s s  and  sequence  the  case  Only  The  one  development  histories  basic  of works are s t i l l  o f Abraham  which  of  other  q u e s t i o n s of  dating  unsolved, p a r t i c u l a r l y  in  Walkowitz.  s t u d y has  attempted  t o examine  the  291  group  24 as  a whole.  Investigating  291  from  i t s inception  in 25  1905  to i t s closure  laid  the groundwork w i t h o u t which  would  be  attempt social kind  i n 1917  impossible. to situate  and  William  Innes  further  Homer,  political  within  i t s complex  contexts.  have been attempted  by  Partial  Ileana  1977  investigations  Despite his contribution  291  in  of  H o m e r made  artistic,  attempts  Leavens  no  and  of  this  Edward  26 Abrahams.  Leavens,  devotes her  e v i d e n c e and  "could  have been"  291  refers  book t o t h e a t t e m p t  flimsy  the  who  group.  superficial  mutual  Greenwich  Village  context  Curiously of  291  Nevertheless  with,  a s we  Stieglitz  Stieglitz  to describe  less  of Abraham's  attempt  a  and  of  there Ball  and  "culture  a group  see, very  i s more o r  the a u t h o r does  that  between Arp  shall  f o r the purpose  the basis  similarities,  Abrahams c o n s i d e r s  a term n o r m a l l y used  as " p r o t o - D a d a i s t "  t o p r o v e , on  influences  radical",  aims.  t o 291  from  different  removed  from  the  study.  to situate  his  subjects  12 within  their  own  historical  context-  with  often  fruitful,  i f  27 sometimes  probematic  assumption and  291  in  i n Leavens  of American  critique  any  was,  depth.  However literature  Abrahams works  how  a r t and  underlying i s that  their  the question  of  critique  Stieglitz  journal,  i t functioned,  mention  something 291.  else  In t h e i r  to America  peculiar  nature of  evident  to at least  making  of j u s t  a  exactly  i s never  addressed  i n Homer's work i s  i s conspicuously attempt  historians  one  critic  Cortissoz,  a conservative  April  1913  o f The  issue lurking  to heroize  i n New  critic,  Century Magazine of the  of  arrival the  was  York  wrote  i n the  the  a nature which  writing  at the bottom  missing  have overlooked  that modernism,  Royal  symbolism  the  missing.  on  modernism  While  society,  and  Any  conspicuously  of  and  were, through t h e i r  critique that  results.  in  1913.  in  "the  queer  Post-Impressionist  hypothesis".^ In  this  consisting  of  perspectives goals  brought  thesis  291  individuals but  them t o g e t h e r  and  developed  expressed  through t h e i r  ideology  was,  intended  to challenge  York.  I will  Thus t h e  be  with  individuals  they held  New  will  considered sometimes  a r t and  and  whole,  differing  t o w o r k as a u n i t . ideology  their  As  writing.  systems  nature of  of other  291's  and a  which  a counter-ideology—  the b e l i e f  fact  a  w h o s e common i n t e r e s t s  a particular  argue,  as  group was  This one groups  critique  in  will  13 figure will  as t h e c e n t r a l  issue  o f t h e "queer  modernism—  why  what and  states  position rivals.  represented,  I shall  European concerns. 291 h e l d  behind 291's  upon t h e i m p o r t a n c e  of emotion,  intuition 29l's  of expressing  and  critique  r e p r e s e n t e d , t o t h e members The w o r k s e x h i b i t e d argue,  b u t one w h i c h  avant-garde  New  a changing  ultimately  theory with  Ultimately within  i s an  within  s e t o f c o n t e x t s I hope t o be a b l e t o e x p l a i n  to their  opposition,  However, as I  critique  i n i t s a r t . By s i t u a t i n g  particular their  symbolism"  i tinsisted  'irrational'  imagination its  thesis.  argue, key t o understanding that  examination  the  of this  I hope  York.  themselves  a t 291  strategy of  blended  specifically  t o make c l e a r  elements of American  the position  that  14 NOTES  F o r a n a c c o u n t o f t h e s t a t e o f a r t c r i t i c i s m i n New Y o r k a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y s e e A r l e n e R. O l s e n , A r t C r i t i c s a n d t h e A v a n t - G a r d e New Y o r k , 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 1 3 (New Y o r k : U.M.I. P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) . 2 A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z , 1902, r e p o r t e d i n Edward Abrahams, "The L y r i c a l L e f t : T h e O r i g i n s o f t h e A v a n t - G a r d e i n A m e r i c a , 1 9 0 0 - W o r l d War I " ( P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , B r o w n U n i v e r s i t y , 1981), p.158. 3 F r o m M a y 1 9 0 6 t o A p r i l 1 9 0 7 t h e g a l l e r y r e c e i v e d 197 requests f o r loan of t h e i r c i r c u l a t i n g photo e x h i b i t i o n . (See " P h o t o - S e c e s s i o n N o t e s , " C a m e r a W o r k 18 ( A p r i l 1907): 49. 4 . . . W i l l i a m I n n e s Homer, " S t i e g l i t z and 2 9 1 , " A r t i n America  61 ( J u l y - A u g u s t  1973): 51.  5 The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n , a t l e a s t p a r t l y , due t o t h e d i f f e r i n g p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t i e s o f t h e members: S t e i c h e n s u p p o r t e d F r a n c e whereas S t i e g l i t z s i d e d w i t h Germany. I t s e e m s , o n t h e b a s i s o f r e p o r t s l a t e r made b y 2 9 1 members, t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t S t i e g l i t z ' s colleagues accept h i s p o s i t i o n o f d o m i n a n c e — sometimes d e s c r i b e d as p a t r i a r c h a l and d i c t a t o r i a l - - as a c o n d i t i o n o f t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with t h e group. T h o s e who d i d n o t , s u c h a s M a x Weber, s i m p l y l e f t . F o r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h a t s p l i t s e e P e r c y North's "Turmoil a t 291," A r c h i v e s of American A r t Journal 24:1: 12-20. 7 P a u l H a v i l a n d and h i s b r o t h e r Frank B u r t y , possessing considerable connections within the P a r i s i a n a r t w o r l d , were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g 291's a s s o c i a t i o n with Picasso. H a v i l a n d became v e r y c l o s e t o S t i e g l i t z d u r i n g h i s t i m e i n New Y o r k a n d s e r v e d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s a s t h e a s s o c i a t e e d i t o r o f Camera Work. M a r i u s de Z a y a s * f a m i l y owned two n e w s p a p e r s i n M e x i c o and h i s f a t h e r h a d been t h a t country's poet l a u r e a t e . O n c e i n New Y o r k d e Zayas produced c a r i c a t u r e s f o r t h e c i t y ' s newspapers. Agnes E r n s t M e y e r f i r s t came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h 2 9 1 a s a n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t e r f o r t h e New Y o r k S u n . F o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n regarding Ernst see her autobiography Out o f These R o o t s ( B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1953). Her husband, a f i n a n c i a l s p e c u l a t o r and l a t e r owner o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n P o s t , was a m a j o r s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e g a l l e r y . His  15 b i o g r a p h y i s c o n t a i n e d i n M e r l o J . P u s e y s Eugene Meyer (New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1 9 7 4 ) . p M a r i n a t t e n d e d t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a Academy o f F i n e A r t ( 1 8 9 8 - 9 9 ) , t h e A r t S t u d e n t s ' L e a g u e ( 1 9 0 2 - 3 ) and f o r two months t o o k c l a s s e s at the Academie J u l i a n (1905). Dove took a r t c l a s s e s at C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y only. Hartley attended the C l e v e l a n d School of A r t (1898-99), the A r t S t u d e n t s ' L e a g u e a n d t h e New Y o r k S c h o o l o f A r t ( 1 8 9 9 ) a n d t h e N a t i o n a l Academy o f D e s i g n ( 1 9 0 0 ) . Walkowitz took c l a s s e s a t t h e N a t i o n a l Academy of D e s i g n , p r o b a b l y a t t h e A r t S t u d e n t ' s L e a g u e and a l s o a t t e n d e d t h e A c a d e m i e J u l i a n (1906). 1  9 O s c a r B l u e m n e r , " A u d i a t o r e t a l t e r a p a r s : Some S e n s e o n t h e M o d e r n A r t M o v e m e n t , " CW S p e c i a l N u m b e r 1913): 38. *^Ibid•i  P•  28.  P a u l -B. H a v i l a n d , "The ( J a n u a r y 1909): 21-22. n  25  12  Sadakichi  Plain (June  Home o f  Hartmann wrote  the  the  Golden  following  to  Disk," .  CW  . . Stieglitz:  I got t i r e d of your d i c t a t o r s h i p . For y e a r s you i m p o s e d u p o n me, a n d a s I n e v e r r e s e n t e d i t , y o u r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s me g r e w w o r s e f r o m y e a r t o y e a r , u n t i l I c o u l d s t a n d i t no l o n g e r . Waldo Frank, S t i e g l i t z on  another c l o s e f r i e n d , J u l y 31, 1923:  wrote  a similar  letter  to  I f e e l t h a t you a r e i n c a p a b l e of a r e l a t i o n s h i p of e q u a l i t y w i t h anyone. Y o u demand i n some way, the 'other person' a c c e p t your ascendency b e f o r e you f u n c t i o n i n s e r v i n g h i m . . . T h i s i s why y o u h a v e h a d a ' s e r i e s ' o f f r i e n d s . . . A n d t h a t i s why t h e f r i e n d s who r e m a i n e d . . . h a v e b e e n o f t h e t y p e w h i c h o n e c o u l d j u s t l y term f i x a t e d a d o l e s c e n t s . . . These a s s o c i a t e s , t r u e d i s c i p l e s , have l i v e d t o almost p e r f e c t e x t e n t i n an a t m o s p h e r e o f y o u r d e t e r m i n i n g . Both l e t t e r s a r c h i v e s and 243.  a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e A l f r e d w e r e q u o t e d i n A b r a h a m s , "The  13 26  B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s , ( A p r i l 1909):17-18.  CW  29  Benjamin (January  de C a s s e r e s , 1910): 35.  Stieglitz Lyrical Left,"  . " C a r i c a t u r e and  New  "Physiognomy  a New  of  York,"  CW  Yorker,"  p.  16 C h a r l e s H. C a f f i n , ( J a n u a r y 1908): 27-29.  "An  1 5  1908):  " R e p o r t on 45.  I m p o s s i b l e Case,"  t h e Member's E x h i b i t i o n , "  CW  CW 21  21 (January  17 S [ a d a k i c h i ] H [ a r t m a n n ] , "That T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c P r i n t , " CW 29 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 1 0 ) : 3 8 . 18 S a d a k i c h i H a r t m a n n , " P u r i t a n i s m , I t s G r a n d e u r and S h a m e , " CW 32 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 1 0 ) : 1 7 . 19 B e n j a m i n de C a s s e r e s , " A m e r i c a n I n d i f f e r e n c e , " CW (July 1909):24-25. 20 . . O s c a r W i l d e , " F r o m 'The C r i t i c a s A r t i s t , " CW 27 ( J u l y 1 9 0 9 ) : 46.  27  1  J . B . K e r f o o t , "The ( J a n u a r y 1909): 49-50. 2 1  J.B.Kerfoot, (January 1911): 2 2  33  "The 45.  Phenix  [ s i c ] i n the Embers,"  Game a t t h e L i t t l e  CW  Galleries,"  25 CW  23 S h e l d o n R e i c h , J o h n M a r i n : A S t y l i s t i c A n a l y s i s and Catalogue Raisonne (Tuscan, Arizona: U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona Press, 1970). 24 T h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e A r m o r y Show h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n J u d i t h K a t y Z i l c z e r ' s "The A e s t h e t i c S t r u g g l e i n A m e r i c a , 1913-18: A b s t r a c t A r t and T h e o r y i n t h e S t i e g l i t z C i r c l e " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Delaware, 1975). 25 . . . W i l l i a m I n n e s Homer, A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z and t h e A m e r i c a n A v a n t - G a r d e ( B o s t o n : New Y o r k G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1977) . Birth 1983)  S e e I l e a n a B.~ L e a v e n s , F r o m " 2 9 1 " t o Z u r i c h : The o f Dada (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U.M.I. R e s e a r c h P r e s s , a n d A b r a h a m s , "The L y r i c a l L e f t " .  27  . He  i s , f o r example,  at times  . . historically  unspecif ic. 28 R o y a l C o r t i s s o z , "The P o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s t I l l u s i o n " The C e n t u r y M a g a z i n e LXXXV ( A p r i l 1 9 1 3 ) : 807. C o r t i s s o z was w r i t i n g t h i s a r t i c l e a m i d s t t h e g r e a t f u r o r c a u s e d by t h e A r m o r y Show. A t t h i s e x h i b i t i o n w e r e i n c l u d e d w o r k s by t h e a r t i s t s o f 291 and t h e E u r o p e a n m o d e r n i s t s . W h i l e C o r t i s s o z a p p e a r s t o be r e f e r r i n g t o t h e movement as a w h o l e i t must be r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g m o d e r n i s m , t h e n o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o s i m p l y as " P o s t - I m p r e s s i o n i s m " d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y from 291.  17 CHAPTER  ONE  One i s c o n s c i o u s o f u n r e s t a n d s e e k i n g — a w e i r d w o r l d h u n g e r f o r s o m e t h i n g we e v i d e n t l y h a v e n ' t g o t a n d d o n ' t understand. To many i t i s a s o c i a l a n d economic p r o b l e m — B u t t h i s i s o n l y one o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f i t — A b i g g e r t h i n g l i e s s t r u g g l i n g b e n e a t h — I have a vague f e e l i n g o f k n o w i n g i t and y e t i t l o s e s i t s e l f i n i t s vagueness. Something i s b e i n g born or i s g o i n g t o be. ( E d u a r d S t e i c h e n t o A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z , 1913) I t i s a s i f a new s u n b y i t s p o w e r f u l e n e r g i e s h a d d r i e d up and b u r n e d t o a s h e s a l l t h a t h a d l o s t i t s l i f e a n d a t t h e same t i m e w e r e f o r c i n g i n t o life new c u l t u r e . ( O s c a r B l u e m n e r , Camera Work, 1913) We a r e i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a new o r g a n i z a t i o n o f society. Our l i f e h a s b r o k e n away f r o m t h e p a s t . T h e l i f e o f A m e r i c a i s n o t t h e l i f e t h a t i t was t w e n t y y e a r s a g o ; i t i s n o t t h e l i f e t h a t i t was ten y e a r s ago. We h a v e c h a n g e d o u r economic c o n d i t i o n s , a b s o l u t e l y , from top t o bottom; and, w i t h our economic s o c i e t y , the o r g a n i s a t i o n of our l i f e . (Woodrow W i l s o n , 1913) There historical turning felt  i s one  There  1903  world  coming  spoke  of  and  t o an  and  which  end  t h r o u g h o u t many o f Era: that  time during  between  which  t h e p a s t and  Progressive  of  and  another  of d e a l i n g  the  E r a , the  laws  and  longer applicable  conditions.  the  present years  i n the making.  with  the  Americans  Many c o n t e m p o r a r i e s s p o k e  w e r e no  political  no  i n the  1917.  the problem  conventions social  was  sharp d i v i s i o n  more p r o f o u n d l y t h a n between  runs  accounts of the P r o g r e s s i v e  point.  the  theme w h i c h  of  one  Others  social  to the  changed  18 The  Progressive  majority  of  national  life  reached  the  p a r t l y as  take  the  had  late  a crisis  however proceeded  that  the  of  larger organizations  competitors Motivated profits was  through by  a drive  unable  to  cope w i t h  industrialization. number o f  the  the  o l d way 1893  that  1898  and  and  their  was a a  few  weaker  centralization. and  laissez-faire  1904  of  enlarged economy  mature the  size  dramatically;  January  1898  not to  life  under which  efficiency a  and  I t was  of  eliminate  problems of  by  been  economy began  conditions  increased  in existence  smoothly.  Between  increased  argued  had  of  corporate  began to  Between  corporations  corporations  growth  c o n s o l i d a t i o n and  industrialists  perceived  That p o i n t  relatively  produced  for  the  move t o w a r d s u r b a n i z a t i o n  focus.  depression  which  urban,  point.  fact that  came i n t o s h a r p had  and  the  the  severe the  rural  1 8 9 0 ' s , when t h e  firm hold,  changing  at  a time during  a r e s u l t of  industrialization;  until  was  population,  t o be  modernization  Era  1904,  of 234  and the of  318 them  4 had  come i n t o b e i n g  corporations  within  were g i a n t  the  past  i n scope  and  s i x years. commanded  These enormous  economic power. A b o u t 300 o f t h e g i a n t s w e r e c a p i t a l i z e d a t n e a r l y $6 b i l l i o n . A m e r e 29 o f t h e m , h o w e v e r , a c c o u n t e d for 40% of the t o t a l . The c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was even m o r e d r a m a t i c a l l y a p p a r e n t when m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f i n d i v i d u a l wealth. The r i c h e s t 1% o f t h e population o w n e d 5 0 % o f t h e n a t i o n ' s w e a l t h , ^ a n d 9 0 % o f i t was h e l d by a mere 1 2 % o f t h e p e o p l e . T h r o u g h c o n s o l i d a t i o n and  centralization  such companies  as  19 the United  States Steel  Company, t h e A m e r i c a n Harvester  effective  previously  corporate  elite  t h e r e were  the  yet worked 1901  The  At  1907,  between the  extend  their  gained offices  what of  the  the  class,  barons'.  those  of  power  a  that  new of  the  While  Nelson  had  as  support  cities.  the  that  Support  as  they  f o r the  a peak  not  panics was  in  to  rivals. came  socialist  polls,  anarchist  reached  attempted  their  I n 1912  system  remained  biggest threats  been t e n y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y .  (I.W.W.) a l s o  system  competition  from  candidates  winning  1,200  Socialist  c a n d i d a t e , Eugene Debs, had 7  p a r t y , the  their  many p r o b l e m s  the whole  at the  take  stock market  expense of  left.  'mushroom  created corporate  many f l a w s ,  industrialists  the  the  known, c o u l d n o t  newly  industrialists'  Socialist  the World  Such  control,  members o f  In a d d i t i o n ,  power o f  i n 340  i t had  the  h o l d i n g s at the  unprecedented  presidential  these  i t appeared  fierce  growing  of  'robber  empires,  times, such  collapse.  of  of  system  of  the  wealth  stability  danger  One  financial  t h e y were a l s o  out.  and  the market.  Centralization  so-called  Amalgamated  J.P.Morgan were t h e most p o w e r f u l .  as  granted.  over  O i l Steel  International  t h e h a n d s o f a new  the  their  aristocracy',  of  or  and  Despite  for  into  several  Rockefeller  or  Company,  control  unknown.  phenomenon, f e l l  power  Tobacco  Company, C o n s o l i d a t e d T o b a c c o and  Copper g a i n e d was  Corporation, Standard  grown t e n f o l d  The  radical  Industrial  from  wing  Workers  i n i t s union  of  20 membership,  largely  year  strike g  i n the  Massachusetts. inspiration left  was  20,000 t e x t i l e on  with  Reformers,  m o v e m e n t was  Max  attained  at  that  Lawrence,  the  the year b e f o r e , the  tremendous energy  and  optimism  that  a  underway.  feminists,  writers  from  a l l over  upon t h e d e c a y i n g n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  of Greenwich  Socialists  workers  revolution  anarchists,  converged  i t had  t h e s e s u c c e s s e s , and  of the Mexican  filled  district  of  Based  mass r e v o l u t i o n a r y  America  through the v i c t o r y  Village.  Eastman, John  Central  Reed  Emma G o l d m a n , A l e x a n d e r B e r k m a n  and  and  to this Floyd  scene  Dell;  were  anarchists  I.W.W. l e a d e r  Bill  9 Haywood. C o n v i n c e d among a g r o w i n g people the  number o f d i s c o n t e n t e d  need  pageant  for radical  at Madison silk  however,  t h e two  separately: the  polls  the  workers  the  and  Fearing and  Square  workers'  Americans  these  The  Gardens  strike.  1  0  which  Socialists  For  t h e most  disputes,  occasionally  they would  a quickly  concentrating  growing  became i n c r e a s i n g l y  be  the  aims,  and a  violent  worked showing  upon  at  organizing  organizing  industrial  marches  sabotage. ''' 1  crushed between o r g a n i z e d  l a b o u r movement t h e  involved  to  part,  at improving t h e i r  industrial and  socialists  enacted  groups, having d i f f e r e n t  during  that  change.  as  t o g e t h e r , p r o d u c i n g i n 1913  the A n a r c h i s t s  the unemployed  capital  structural  sometimes worked  Paterson  class  f o r support  c o n c e n t r a t e d upon means o f e d u c a t i n g t h e p u b l i c  anarchists  of  of the tremendous p o t e n t i a l  in organizing  middle for  21 political  reform.  Prior  to the corporate  1890's s m a l l businessmen the  ruling  local,  With  community-based  corporate prestige  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s had  passed  from  elite.  economy t o a n a t i o n a l l y  capacities  were  millionaires.  the hands o f t h i s  While  as a c l a s s ,  of the  represented  t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s o c i e t y from  organization the o l d distribution  corporate poorer  class.  mergers  oriented  o f power and  class  t o t h e new  t h e b o u r g e o i s i e was n o t  their  wealth  increasingly I t was t h i s  and  growing  decision-making  overshadowed  group which  b y t h e new  lead the  reform  movement known a s P r o g r e s s i v i s m , a movement w h i c h nationwide Why hold  reform  i tdid i s still  historians. caused  I t i s clear  by m o d e r n i z a t i o n  the  P r o g r e s s i v e E r a a new  d i s c o n t e n t remained  muckraking  helped  to focus  such  of Progressivism  of conjecture  diffuse.  form  took  among  t o 1901 t h e d i s l o c a t i o n  a great  deal  of discontent  By t h e b e g i n n i n g  of  o f j o u r n a l i s m known a s  t h a t d i s c o n t e n t by  t o t h e many p r o b l e m a t i c  Journalists  aspects  drawing  of American  as L i n c o l n S t e f f e n s , I d a T a r b e l l ,  life.  Charles  R u s s e l l a n d Thomas L a w s o n i n v e s t i g a t e d s e v e r a l  American and  a matter  caused  that  Edward  sentiment  that prior  but  attention  became  i n support.  the strong  when  a  cities,  privilege  Virtually  r e v e a l i n g widespread  i n business,  every  aspect  politics  of American  bribery, corruption and t h e p o l i c e .  life,  from c h i l d  labor to  22 unsanitary described graft,  c o n d i t i o n s i n the meat-packing i n detail.  No p a r t o f l i f e  c o r r u p t i o n and p r i v i l e g e .  magazines  such  presented  the situation  passively  n o r t o be a d d r e s s e d  change. to  They  take  as M c C l u r e s ,  appealed  responsibility  seemed u n t o u c h e d  and  by  Cosmopolitan  as one t o be  through  t o each  was  However t h e a r t i c l e s i n  Colliers  neither  industry,  accepted  several  and e v e r y  f o r the situation  structural  member  of  society  and t o h e l p  i nthe  movement t o r e f o r m . While  a myriad  Progressives, intellectuals with  Wilson this  the key i s s u e addressed during the years  the trusts.  presidential  o f p r o b l e m s were t a c k l e d  were v i r t u a l l y  one k e y i s s u e .  Brandeis, class  the fears  supported system;  Roosevelt They  differed,  Adherents  Freedom".  they  to this  however, i n  of Louis  To W i l s o n  had e l i m i n a t e d  the revival opposed  position,  of elements centralized  and r e g u l a t i o n  of Herbert  Croly,  the  while not power,  of the l a i s s e z - f a i r e government  of the preservation of local  restoration  D.  free  t h e d i s m a n t l i n g t h e new i n d u s t r i a l i s t s '  they  the h e l p  and Woodrow  o f much o f t h e o l d m i d d l e  "The New  were dangerous because  advocating  favour  Theodore  Wilson, with the support  represented  competition.  o f 1912 t h e p l a t f o r m s o f  identical.  when he p r e s e n t e d  trusts  liberal  1 9 0 7 t o 1 9 1 3 , was w h a t t o do  In the e l e c t i o n  candidates  by  by  and s t o o d i n  authority  of competition. represented  and t h e  Roosevelt,  the opposing  with  23 viewpoint, restore  "New  the  argued could  of  Furthermore,  i n favor  the with  of  effectively As  The  in this "new  controlled",  the  past the  former  of  of  the  has  the  was  attempt  naive  present  pointed  was  and  They  won  to  to  the  "strengthen  corporate  which  corporate  in his  review  central  acceptance  "deal  c e n t r a l i z e d power  i s , how  the  (1909) the  eventually  i t s failure  out  as  coherently  i s to  the  to  abuses  system.  power of  American L i f e  which  how  strengthening  limit  Lasch  viewpoint,  that  the  argued,  of  m a t c h and  Promise  question  of  that  n e u t r a l , c e n t r a l i z e d government  liberalism",  the  merely  a  Christopher  Croly's  flaw  they  n a t u r a l outgrowth  system.  which held  economic c o n d i t i o n s  nostalgic. were the  Nationalism",  be  state  without  i n t e r e s t s which  enjoy  the  12 easiest  access  to  it."  There were, t h e r e f o r e , v a r i o u s conditions Era.  The  which presented  new  corporate  its  holdings  The  left,  on  grass-roots  to grapple  with  government  and  that  the  themselves  elite  finding  optimistic  capitalizing and  while  of  the  a way  their  as  own  to  problem trusts  to  diverse  as  they  the  the  Progressive  protect  and  the  through  do  with  attempted  the  make t h e m m o r e r e s p o n s i v e common t o w e r e , was  a l l of the  upon  education  intellectuals  what t o  extend  economy.  future, contentrated  Liberal of  to  to  stabilize  public's discontent  g r o u p ' s n e e d s . What was  positions,  during  attempted  organizing. the  responses  to  these  conviction  that  24 society  was a t a t u r n i n g  economic the  structures  exception  their  sector part  all  lands  of the process was  i n need  process.  American  society  revealing  itself  every  institutional  aspect  to represent  i t s energies  who h e l p e d  convinced  that  ground  f o r a r t , had abandonned  area.  Herbert  as  who h a d e d i t e d  L i p p m a n n , who o f becoming  an a t t e m p t  they  Croly,  believed  entered  extending or  to define  laws, To  thwarted  such  original  Two o f  Roosevelt's  was a n  infertile  careers  i n the  A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record, i n 1906 w i t h t h e  turned  t o "change t h e d e p e r s o n a l i z i n g had p r e v i o u s l y  life.  s o l e l y upon a r t ,  Harvard  an a r t c r i t i c ,  part i n  worked  practices.  America  their  virtually  of a widespread  most g r o u p s  labour  necessary  291's c r i t i q u e  a s h i r k i n g of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  intellectuals  "New N a t i o n a l i s m " ,  intention  that  of American  structures--  or unfair  seemed  Walter  context  t o take  the powers o f government, changing  291, i n f o c u s s i n g  and  as a  every  reconstruction.  a responsibility this  to return  status,  and d i r e c t i o n and  r e d e f i n i t i o n of l i f e  dangerous  liberal  perceived  With  immigrants,  e n o u g h money  economic  of shaping  people  the  t o earn  and  of shaping.  arrived  o f r e d e f i n i t i o n and  of almost  upon  challenging  need  s o c i e t y must be s e e n — - a s p a r t  this  directly  political  improved  I t i s within  re-evaluation In  of newly  with  o f i t s members f e l t  that of  native  social,  i n desperate  a n d many h o p i n g  of American  Society  were  of the class  unassimilated to  point;  their  to social society artistic  reform which  25 impulses."  13  . . i n h i s book D r i f t  Lippmann,  (1914)  a t t a c k e d w h a t he  drift:  those positions  with  the  effort  problems  and  called which  o f a new  intelligence  where t o d a y  i s turning  and  t h e many-headed h y d r a  allowed people  w o r l d . "At the  a r e n e e d e d " , he into  Mastery  tomorrow,  of  to avoid  dealing  only point  wrote,  where  "that  there these  point  people  are  14 not  found."  supporters also of  While  h i s mam  o f W i l s o n and  addressed  the  point  Brandeis  of a t t a c k 1  "New  "modern a r t i s t " ,  d r a w i n g rooms and c a f e s , 15 l i t t l e cliques." The m o d e r n a r t i s t , t o be " s a t i s f i e d w i t h a c u l t " .  the  Freedom"  he  studios,  was  who  lived  amidst he  " i n a world  idle  said,  Lippmann  was  people  in  doomed  So h e s p e c i a l i z e s o n some a s p e c t o f f o r m , e x a g g e r a t e s some q u a l i t y o f l i n e , a n d p r o d u c e s a r t t h a t o n l y a f e w p e o p l e w o u l d m i s s i f i - ^ d i s a p p e a r e d . Then he d e n o u n c e s the p h i l i s t i n e p u b l i c . While that To  the  very different  left  shared  E a s t m a n , Reed  politics  could  i n elements  and  not  in their  Dell,  be  and that  required,  mixed.  effort... the  said  As  and  criticism.  writers, later  appear  art  and  recalled:  b l e n d i n g of p o e t r y w i t h revolutionary poetry that "serious  scientific  demands o f  i t would  Lippmann's  Eastman  E a s t m a n , was  the p r a c t i c a l  revolution  of  a l l poets  No, t h e r e j u s t w a s n ' t any revolution. Nobody w r o t e was a n y g o o d . W h a t was  goals,  every  work  free  social  of mind  man  thought or  hand  in i t s  18 desperate  hour."  Greenwich  Village.  291  the hero  Eastman  later  In apparent  of h i s book  said:  wrote  of h i s y e a r s i n  reference to the  group  at  26 But t h o s e f u t u r i s t i c a r t i s t s most o f them h a v e n ' t any d r i v i n g f o r c e t h a t I c a n s e e . None o f t h e i r a r t contains e i t h e r a great passion or a great idea- just p a i n t e r s ' i d e a s and s t u d i o f e e l i n g s , and t h e n t h a t g r e a t p a s s i o n t o be an a r t i s t . They a r e n o t l i v i n g l i f e , th^y are l i v i n g a r t . That's the t r o u b l e with them... Recalling the  one o f M a b e l Dodge's  radical  reported similar  intellectuals  that B i l l criticisms  salons,  a meeting  place f o r  of Greenwich V i l l a g e ,  Haywood,  leader  Eastman  o f t h e I.W.W., made  i n a s p e e c h t o an a u d i e n c e w h i c h  included  20 Picabia  and  291 a r t i s t s  drew h i s g u e s t s '  Marin  and H a r t l e y .  attention to the fact  that  Haywood there  was  first no  proletarian art. " N o t o n l y i s a r t i m p o s s i b l e t o s u c h a man," h e s a i d , "but l i f e i s i m p o s s i b l e . He d o e s n o t l i v e . He j u s t w o r k s . He d o e s t h e w o r k t h a t e n a b l e s y o u t o e n j o y a r t , and t o make i t , and t o h a v e a n i c e m e e t i n g l i k e t h i s a n d t a l k i t o v e r . . . . The o n l y p r o b l e m , t h e n , i s how t o make i t p o s s i b l e , how t o make l i f e p o s s i b l e t o t h e p r o l e t a r i a t . . . . I s u p p o s e y o u w i l l w a n t t o know w h a t my i d e a l o f p r o l e t a r i a n a r t i s , he c o n t i n u e d , what I t h i n k i t w i l l be l i k e , when a r e v o l u t i o n b r i n g s i t i n t o existence. I t h i n k i t w i l l be v e r y much k i n d l i e r t h a n y o u r a r t . T h e r e w i l l be a s o c i a l s p i r i t i n i t . N o t s o much b o a s t i n g a b o u t p e r s o n a l i t y . Artists w o n ' t b e s o e g o t i s t i c a l . . . W h e n we s t o p f i g h t i n g e a c h o t h e r - f o r wages o f e x i s t e n c e on one s i d e , and f o r u n n e c e s s a r y l u x u r y o n t h e o t h e r - t h e n p e r h a p s we s h a l l a l l b e c o m e human b e i n g s a n d s u r p r i s e o u r s e l v e s w i t h t h e b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s we do a n d make o n t h e e a r t h . Then p e r h a p s t h e r e w i l l be a c i v i l i z a t i o n and a c i v i l i z e d a r t . B u t t h e r e i s no u s e p u t t i n g up p r e t e n s e s now. Tb,<= i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s t o r e a l i z e t h a t we a r e f i g h t i n g .  The of  underlying  the period  social  assumption  i s that  change could  o f each of these  a r t could  occur--  that  n o t be a f o r u m i n chosing  key f i g u r e s i n which  to focus  their  27 critique  through a r t  pressing  issues  which  of  291  the  was,  day.  T h e r e was  c o n s i s t e n t l y supported  goals.  The  voice  was  that  associate  of  Greenwich  V i l l a g e crowd  effectively,  291  of  Emma G o l d m a n a n d  one  avoiding voice,  i n i t s program  a  the  association with  H a p g o o d , w r i t i n g i n an  article  entitled  Unrest"  i n the  equated  the  York Globe,  in i t s close  closely linked with  Dodge.  New  however,  and  H u t c h i n s Hapgood,  through his  the  new  Mabel  "Art art  and  with  "agitation": I t means e d u c a t i o n , i n the d i s t u r b i n g , doubting sense. Post-impressionism i s a s d i s t u r b i n g i n one f i e l d a s t h e I.W.W. i s . i n a n o t h e r . I t t u r n s up the s o i l , shakes the o l d f o u n d a t i o n s , and l e a d s t o new l i f e . . . . T h e r e seems a v a g u e but r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a l l t h e r e a l w o r k e r s of our day. Whether i n , l i t e r a t u r e , p l a s t i c a r t , the l a b o r movement, s c i e n c e , j o u r n a l i s m , p h i l o s o p h y , w h e r e v e r we turn a n d f i n d s o m e t h i n g v i t a l i n f o r m , we f i n d a common q u a l i t y - we f i n d an i n s t i n c t t o l o o s e n up t h e o l d f o r m s and t r a d i t i o n s , t o d y n a m i t e t h e b a k e d and h a r d e n e d e a r t h so t h a t f r e s h f l o w e r s w i l l grow. I t i s t h i s i n s t i n c t t o t u r n up t h e s o i l , s o t h a t t h r o u g h hardened s u r f a c e s of l i f e l e s s c o n v e n t i o n a l i t i e s t h e s i m p l y h u m a n may a g a i n n a k e d l y a p p e a r , i t i s t h i s i n s t i n c t t h a t i s c r e a t i n g o u r i n t e r e s t . One function o f t h e g e n e r a l u n r e s t i s t h e a g i t a t i o n w h i c h means e d u c a t i o n - a g i t a t i o n i n a r t , as w e l l as i n l a b o r , 2 2 p o l i t i c s , and t h e w h o l e f i e l d o f o u r s o c i a l life. Hapgood•s quickly  support  be  suggests  dismissed.  Haywood, he  could  articulated  some k i n d  It  see  i s clear that  that  Unlike  291*s c r i t i q u e  his  associates,  something  in this  of  critique.  the  potent  idea  that  art  art could  should Reed  not  and  which  not  play  a  so  28 role  i n the restructuring  However found role  i t i s nonetheless true  i n America  see l a t e r  question  each  group  of collectors  m o s t common.  These  accumulations  o f works  particularly began  collections,  a department  whom made Randolph  Hearst  relatively represented has  store  (railway  their  to  a  A s we  call  into Among  typically  were  vast  of western  history--  t h e R e n a i s s a n c e and p o s t - R e n a i s s a n c e  of  Philadelphia),  positions.  constructions.  from a l l periods  t o be formed  of street  d i d play  the "Great Masters c o l l e c t i o n s  s u c h men a s J . P i e r p o n t  (owner  of a r t  known a s t h e " r o b b e r b a r o n s " , t h e  by  Huntington  forms  decade  ideological  of these i d e o l o g i c a l  class,  period,  t h e major  t h e a r t o f 2 9 1 was i n t e n d e d  industrialist  but  that  was a p r e d o m i n a n t o n e .  a t t h e end o f t h e f i r s t  i n upholding particular  shall  the  of society  vast  Morgan,  landlord),  from C a l i f o r n i a ) ,  and meat p r o c e s s i n g Clay  Frick  fortunes  (newspaper  humble s o c i a l one pathway  They were  Benjamin Altman  and S t i e g l i t z ' s  magnate  cars  Henry  i n t h e 1890's.  owner).  background, to social  P.  P.A.B.Widener  plants i n  and i r o n )  To  (founder Collis  and Andrew M e l l o n  i n coal  owned  (both of  and W i l l i a m  t h e s e men, o f t e n o f  these  prestige.  collections W.G.Constable  observed: [T]he m o s t i m p o r t a n t c h a l l e n g e was t o t h e p a s t . The m e r c h a n t p r i n c e s a n d i n d u s t r i a l i s t s o f t h e t i m e formed a c l a s s i n s o c i e t y analogous t o t h e commercial a r i s t o c r a c y o f V e n i c e ; and t h e y wanted t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t A m e r i c a n w e a l t h c o u l d show c u l t u r a l a c h i e v e m e n t s t h a t c o u l d r i v a l t h o s e o f E u r o p e , and a g r e a t c o l l e c t i o n was one way o f d o i n g t h i s . So t h e c o l l e c t o r s t o o k as t h e i r model t h e c o l l e c t i o n s formed  29 by t h e k i n g s , p r i n c e s , n o b i l i t y a n d g r e a t m e r c h a n t s o f E u r o p e , w h i c h i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e d an e c l e c t i c concentr a t i o n on m a s t e r p i e c e s , t h e s e b e i n g p r o v i d e d w i t h a n c i l l a r y c o l l e c t i o n s and^sett ings which conformed to the p a t t e r n of the past. However past  i f such  they  also represented  the  European  the  absence  of  the  aristocracy of  However w h i l e  in  they  their  refusal  a challenge to  i t s continuity:  of  be  continued  by  the  of  the  t o buy  their  past,  the  tradition  the  of  present  of  power. upon  industrialists a r t , both  In  acquisition  rulers  collections  contemporary  the  i n America.  powerful  legitimacy to t h e i r patterned  the  family wealth,  o n c e owned  confer  collections  represented  would  a tradition  possessions  Europe would  great  collections  those  differed  European  and  American. While  some o f  these  w e r e d i s c e r n i n g and bought  collectors,  well-informed  indiscriminately.  characterizes  not  as  W.R.  such  in their  Hearst,  a collector  as  but  J.P.Morgan,  taste,  whom  others  Constable  "a g i g a n t i c  and 24 . '  voracious such  an  magpie" w i t h a  example.  "conspicuous were o n l y uncultured  one  The  "lust  industrialists,  consumption" facet,  in their  for possession  of which  were w i d e l y taste.  infamous  their  reputed  Benjamin  run  De  art  mad"  for  is  their  collections  t o be  vulgar  Casseres  wrote  and in  Camera Work: And b e h o l d t h e w e a l t h y p a t r o n s o f t h e a r t s ! . . . They c a r r y t h e i r e x h a u s t e d s o u l s t o E u r o p e and buy " a r t o b j e c t s , " t h e g r e a t money v a l u e o f w h i c h i s t h e o n l y t h i n g t h e y w e r e made t o a p p r e c i a t e . W h i l e t h e A m e r i c a n a r t i s t who h a s a n o r i g i n a l n o t e , who has seceded i n o r d e r to p r e s e r v e the i n v i o l a b i l i t y of h i s own a r t i s t i c g e n i u s , r o t s i n h i s r a g s i n h i s h o l e o f  30 a studio. T h e s e " p a t r o n s " ( o r s h o u l d we c a l l t h e m p a d r o n e s ? ) r a n s a c k museums, p u r c h a s e o l d p a l a c e s , bragging w i t h the brazenness of a l lv u l g a r i t y of the enormous p r i c e s t h e y p a i d f o r them. They a r e t h e Medusas of I n d i f f e r e n c e , the exposed g u t s of Respectability. It that  was  largely  whatever  support  through the d i r e c t i o n  institutions  to the a r t s .  director article  existed  S i r Purdon  of the M e t r o p o l i t a n  such  i n America  Clarke's  Museum was,  i n Camera Work, b a s e d  of  patrons  gave  their  appointment according  upon t h e s i m i l a r i t y  as  to  an  of  26  interests  w h i c h he  interests  stopped  shared with short  J.P.Morgan.  a t t h e end  These  of the  eighteenth  century. The  American  represented any  one  a variety  category.  adherence  trend  nineteenth  Most  public  mural  within  such  themes,  works,  based  back  Their  impossible  they held  artistic  artists  were  upon h i s t o r y  on  tradition. the  The  these a r t i s t s the correct  of  an first  and  Edwin  of  held  the art to  drawing of  the  represented i n morally  or mythology. realists,  V e l a s q u e z and  under  classicizing  as K e n y o n Cox  were o f t e n  the term  depictions  to define  i n common was  i n t e n d e d t o be  to Hals,  1908-13  resembling the p a i n t i n g s  which  by  the p e r i o d  t h e A c a d e m y was  closely  classifiable  influences Munich.  which  procedure based  Their  most o f t e n loosely  styles,  c e n t u r y F r e n c h academy  a rational  figure.  That  r e p r e s e n t e d by  Blashfield.  be  of  during  t o some i n h e r i t e d  significant school  academy,  A  second  traced  M a n e t by  lower class  edifying  group,  their  way  subjects  and  of  were of  a  31 type  thought  unsuitable  Representations dark A  tonality  third  This  and  landscapes science, infuse which to  this  artists Of  school  with  t o be was  Durand-Ruel  a sense  Pinkham  was  of and  and  was  a group  based  the volume,  American  i t s formal qualities, French academicism.  an  of  American so  to the  since  the  influence of  American  known as  the  the  "Ten"  the  Americans  contours of form  I m p r e s s i o n i s m was,  t h e more  were  artists'  amalgam of F r e n c h  Unlike  related  French  public.  and  quality  tendency  to the e f f o r t s  of the  to  Blakelock.  been  upon the F r e n c h  solidity  to a r t i s t .  Ralph  had  due  However t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h  artist  attempted  Closely  t h e academy  largely  of which  from  group  as  Whistler  Opposing  Ryder  i n e x p o s i n g the work  such  tonality.  t h e most p o p u l a r and  Impressionism,  respected  artists  i n nature.  a c c e p t e d by  to the American  technique.  Tonalists.  primarily  this  a  brushwork.  of the mysterious  o f M a r y C a s s a t t and  influential,  by  of  were  rationalism  Impressionists  most  loose  t h e more r o m a n t i c o r m y s t i c a l  This popularity  reputation  were o f t e n  the term  subjects  inherent  as A l b e r t  I m p r e s s i o n i s m was  and  and  classicists.  the Barbizon school,  Their  a l l the s t y l e s  1890's.  group  i n quick,  i n a dominant  scenes  felt  such  from  luminism.  materialism  they  this  r e p r e s e n t e d most c l e a r l y  painted  their  from  were e x e c u t e d  Inness, derived  American  t h e more o r t h o d o x  h a v e b e e n d e s i g n a t e d by  tendency,  George  deriving  and  group  by  varied in  terms  Impressionism  subjective  32  tendencies  o f t h e T o n a l i s t s and t h e R o m a n t i c s t h e  Impressionists aspects  of the v i s i b l e  The themes-  concentrated  world.  subject matter landscape  of t h i s  of the two.  quiet  rural  scenes—  quiet  streams  mill,  t h e snow, b r i d g e s  depictions mountain these  which  scenes  antithesis  it,  on t h e o t h e r  i t s resources, escape  was s e e n  end o f t h e day t h o s e  not  thought  sentimentality the  1890's,  regarding  century  t o be p u r e  the American  rural  past.  and u n s p o i l e d . drained  within the city;  a  The  the country  The c o u n t r y  Associated with  frontier  nature  the c i t y ;  also at  f o r i t was  o f p l a c e where one w o u l d  the country  as  of  with  t h a t which had b u i l t  who w o r k e d  i f i t c o u l d be a v o i d e d .  such  The a s s o c i a t i o n s  who h a d t h e m e a n s l e f t  t o be t h e k i n d  gentle  across  America,  human a n d n a t u r a l .  t o those  hills,  up would h a v e been t h e  h a n d , was t h a t w h i c h  the  live  of r u r a l  the nineteenth  represented  both  the o l d  The s u b j e c t m a t t e r  works would have brought  country  rolling  but domesticated.  of modernity:  represented  or farmhouses,  d o e s o n e come  Falls.  were  i n the distance,  or uncultivated nature  are overwhelmingly  unlike the city,  city, of  or Niagara  as p i c t u r e s q u e  these  The  rarely  of the wilderness  works  depicted  barns  and s t r e a m s ,  Only  i tdepicted  with villages  beside  upon two  or o c c a s i o n a l l y a  The l a n d s c a p e s  fields  running  orchards.  w o r k was b a s e d  and t h e f i g u r e ,  combination  streams,  upon r e p r e s e n t i n g s e l e c t e d  chose t o  growing  was t h e f a c t  had d i s a p p e a r e d .  that, i n The  fact  33 that  there  was no l o n g e r  unexplored  land  a seemingly  a v a i l a b l e meant t h a t  unlimited  t h e s a f e t y v a l v e had  dissolved.  The s a n c t i t y o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e  be  t o be p r o t e c t e d  imagined The  was  other  that  particularly Women w e r e the  sometimes they  or yard  within quiet accompanied  comb t h e i r activity  hair,  by a c h i l d  play  i susually  scenes  beautiful,  of their  domestic  homes.  interiors.  inactivity.  they  elegant  high  Their  but r e v e r i e . Held  group,  were  Most  scenes  While  they a r e  companion  The V i o l e t  flowers,  pour t e a ,  books b u t t h e i r a t t i t u d e i s n o t one w i t h i n such  are beautiful objects  settings.  number  they  o r by a f e m a l e  or hold  As has  or streams of  As i n R o b e r t R e i d ' s  solitaire  longer  prototypes.  out of doors  f i g . 1) t h e women a r r a n g e  d i s t r e s s o r ennui  timeless  French  by t h e f i e l d s  b u t when d e p i c t e d  (c.1910,  setting.  was an u n u s u a l l y  to their  depicted  are usually alone.  Kimono  of  sometimes  no  Impressionists  o f women i n t h e w o r k s o f t h i s  i n t h e garden  took place  there  when c o m p a r e d  countryside  usually  theme o f t h e A m e r i c a n  been"observed  representations  could  the growth of the c i t y .  of the f i g u r e w i t h i n a domestic  frequently of  major  from  amount o f  A s we s h a l l  posed  seemingly  within  see these  images  27  also  recalled  The the  the nineteenth  first  "Eight",  century  past.  group t o s e r i o u s l y challenge  sometimes  this  r e f e r r e d t o as t h e "Ashcan  vision  was  School".  34  In terms  of  i t s formal  represented,  f o r the  qualities  most p a r t ,  from w i t h i n the  Academy: the  Munich  (Robert  late  realists  Impressionism  Glackens),  a lyrical  experimental Prendergast). was  to with  The  group  amalgam of  George Luks  style  (Arthur  and  of  John  Shinn,  style  Eight's  i t focused  the Sloan),  William  Davies)  neo-Impressionist  matter;  tendencies  slashing style  d i f f e r e n c e i n the  i t s subject  members  Lawson, E v e r e t t  poetic  decorative  an  dark,  Henri,  (Ernest  the  and  a  more  (Maurice  a r t , however,  upon 2 8  contemporary, The  p a i n t i n g s of  depicted scene:  specifically  i n American  crowded  the  streets,  restaurants,  scenes,  new  now  that  appear see, the  such  i n American  h o w e v e r , most  their  from  bourgeois  signified  a  of  the  of  However  main t o p i c of  This  life  but was  changing  the just  never  involved  the  and  and  urban  l o c a t i o n s would 29  a late  date.  As  locations held,  realm  of  The  a r t and,  very  fact  V i c t o r i a n moral of  I t seems  the  social  their  late  in  from  depiction  restrictions political  was  human l i f e  which  took place  working  shall  in fact,  Eight  often  unusual  necessitated  of  and  beach  first  we  until  the  as  before  backyards,  bars.  a s s o c i a t i o n s which  the  themselves  such  these  accompanied the  rooftops  innocuous  society.  loosening  which  scenes  t h e a t r e s , w r e s t l i n g matches,  a r t at  century,  exclusion  polite  parks,  themes.  included  f i v e - c e n t movies  seemingly  nineteenth  Eight  a r t , most of  fashionable the  American  not  c l a s s as  the  which order.  settings within  i t  was  them.  35 bourgeois. American  While  artists  portraits in  the  rare  of  the  first  i n American  life  a part  paintings. slightly their  working  the  of  that  life  attempt  articles  depictions  of  touching  never  the  modernist  quality.  Sloan.  As  Amy  and  The  over  or  to  the  included still,  relatively  depict  in  the  books,  of  w a r m t h and character  of  distinctive  poor  see.  the  New  observed  the  their  fact  of  sensational  over  i n favour  life.  York—  of  One  also  i t s most  modern s k y s c r a p e r s  indeterminate homely  in  conditions—  energetic of  section  i t is a  The  numerous  i s glossed  a  American  invisible  slum l i v i n g  s k y l i n e and  as  portrayed  ignored  subject  i n favour  Goldin  Eight  t h a t we  unsanitary,  muckraking  Henri,  century,  remained  poor  which were the  with  the  p r e v i o u s l y been  In t h e i r  glossed  sometimes  d e p i c t i o n s were  twentieth  that  conditions  again  century  art.^°  overcrowded,  obvious  nineteenth  c l a s s such  sentimentalized  sees  the  t r a i n e d i n M u n i c h had  i t i s true  t h a t had  painting,  works of  decade of  Although of  the  s e t t i n g s , as  neighbourhoods city  are  appears  of  as  an  31 "overgrown v i l l a g e "  , with  nineteenth  century  represents  a strange  modernity.  I t i s as  world  they  humanizing During  the  community. mixture  The of  the  of  a  work of  the  Eight,  acceptance  and  rejection  i f i n order  translated i t into the  nostalgic character  to accomodate t o  the  terms of  the  the  past,  then, of  new thereby  new. early years  of  the  second  decade  Henri  and  36  Sloan  both  worked  on  instructor  at the  Ferrer School  Emma G o l d m a n ) a n d journal  The  educate  Americans  socialism, full  and  artists  double  and  capitalism. always While  one  pages of  L i k e The  the from  his  current  then,  century.  To  with  their  nineteenth  present. to  past  The  work  century  represented  end  the  new  given  over  the  to  other  often served simple,  c o u l d not  informed  of  Sloan be  purpose  as  easily  Eastman,  mixed.  of  t h e m was  A l l used  an  Only  of  the  forms of  first  kept  of  of  t h a t of great  the  the  of  of  the  a r t of  the  continuity  European  empires  Impressionists recalled  past  and  accomodation  artistic  art  decade  industrialists  t o g i v e them a sense  American  a mixture  styles.  Max  s e v e r a l opposing  chosen h i s t o r y - -  past.  to  institutions  f o r the  which  socialist  which  and  cartoons  politics  used  will  at the  c e n t u r i e s served  the  work of S l o a n  a t t a c k upon t h e  anarchist  b e n e f i t s of  They were always  c o u l d be  past  of  by  and  an  the  f o r the  M a s s e s was  editor,  as  paintings.  i n America  twentieth  by  a vehicle nature  The  Masses'  political  There were,  as  t h a t a r t and  h i s cartoons  separate  text.  Henri  (directed  Their p o l i t i c a l  maintained  education  of the  in their  left,  a cartoonist  Intended  third  to the  direct  as  the  r e g a r d i n g the  staff.  illustration read  Sloan  Masses.  over  on  behalf of  the and  Ashcan  School  r e s i s t a n c e to  language which  socialists  the  attempted  was to  the  indebted address  37 the  p r e s e n t but  education. question  The  each  i n d o i n g so u s e d a r t of  a s we  of these v i s i o n s .  Art  i n America  Its  purpose  feel  291,  is still  i s not  shall They  largely  the l a t t e r  i n any  sham, d e v o i d o f a r t —  truth,  elevates  and  of into  wrote: misunderstood. of  Europe  of the d o l l a r ,  way,  wages o f t h e d r e s s m a k e r s —  a means  see, c a l l e d  t o . . . make t h e d u k e s  a t home i n t h e m a n s i o n s  serve  pure  c a r t o o n s as  nor  even  nor  to raise  A l l " a r t " of t h i s  or r e l a t i o n liberates,  to the  sort  to ourselves. because  is A r t —  i t makes  31 articulate How  a r t was  subject  the l i f e  to liberate  of the following  of and  i t s own what  time.  i t was  chapters.  to a r t i c u l a t e  i s the  38 NOTES L e t t e r from P a r i s , S t e i c h e n t o S t i e g l i t z , dated N o v e m b e r 1 9 1 3 . Q u o t e d i n A b r a h a m s , "The L y r i c a l L e f t , " p . l . 2 O s c a r B l u e m n e r , " A u d i a t o r e t a l t e r a p a r s : Some P l a i n S e n s e o n t h e M o d e r n A r t M o v e m e n t , " CW S p e c i a l N u m b e r ( J u n e 1913): 35. 3 W o o d r o w W i l s o n , T h e New F r e e d o m , 1 9 1 6 r e p r i n t e d i t i o n (J.M.Dent & Sons, 1926) 4 . R i c h a r d H o f s t a d t e r e t a l , The A m e r i c a n R e p u b l i c , v o l . 2 : T h e P r o g r e s s i v e E r a ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1959. 5 . . . . W i l l i a m Appleman W i l l i a m s , Americans i n a Changing W o r l d (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 8 ) , p . 5 4 . The H o u s e o f M o r g a n a n d t h e R o c k e f e l l e r G r o u p e a c h c o n t r o l l e d s e v e r a l banks, a s e r i e s o f r a i l r o a d s and s e v e r a l n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . A f t e r 1 9 0 7 , when t h e t w o g r o u p s acted together t o prevent a panic i n the stock market, they d e c i d e d t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n was l e s s f r u i t f u l t h a n u n i t y . T h e r e a f t e r t h e y merged by p u r c h a s i n g s t o c k i n e a c h o t h e r ' s c o m p a n i e s and by f o r m i n g i n t e r l o c k i n g d i r e c t o r a t e s . I n 1913 the P u j o Committee o f t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s r e l e a s e d a r e p o r t showing t h e extent of t h e Morgan-Rockefeller interests: One h u n d r e d a n d e i g h t e e n d i r e c t o r s h i p s i n 34 b a n k s and t r u s t c o m p a n i e s h a v i n g t o t a l r e s o u r c e s o f $2,697,000,000 and t o t a l d e p o s i t s o f $1,983,000,000. T h i r t y d i r e c t o r s h i p s i n 10 i n s u r a n c e c o m p a n i e s h a v i n g t o t a l a s s e t s o f $2,293,000,000. One h u n d r e d a n d f i v e d i r e c t o r s h i p s i n 32 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems having a t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of $11,784,000,000 and a t o t a l m i l e a g e ( e x c l u d i n g e x p r e s s companies and s t e a m s h i p l i n e s ) o f 150,200. S i x t y - t h r e e d i r e c t o r s h i p s i n 24 p r o d u c i n g a n d t r a d i n g corporations having a t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of $3,339,000. T w e n t y - f i v e d i r e c t o r s h i p s i n 12 p u b l i c u t i l i t y c o r p o r a t i o n s h a v i n g a t o t a l c a p i t a l i z a t i o n o f $2,150,000,000. I n a l l , 3 4 1 d i r e c t o r s h i p s i n 112 c o r p o r a t i o n s h a v i n g aggregate resources or c a p i t a l i z a t i o n of $22,245,000,000. T r a n s l a t e d i n t o t h e terms o f r e a l e s t a t e t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l o f t h e M o r g a n - R o c k e f e l l e r combine exceeded t h e p r o p e r t y v a l u e o f t h e 22 s t a t e s w e s t o f t h e M i s s i s s i p p i  39  R i v e r and e x c e e d e d by t h r e e t i m e s t h e p r o p e r t y t h i r t e e n southern s t a t e s . ( H o f s t a d t e r et a l , P r o g r e s s i v e E r a , p. 3 6 3 - 6 4 .  value The  of a l l  7  I n 1902 t h e S o c i a l i s t P a r t y r e c e i v e d 9 5 , 0 0 0 v o t e s ; i n 1912 i t r e c e i v e d 9 0 0 , 0 0 0 v o t e s o r 6% o f t h e v o t e . At t h a t t i m e 79 S o c i a l i s t c a n d i d a t e s w e r e e l e c t e d a s m a y o r s i n 24 s t a t e s . ( C h r i s t o p h e r L a s c h , The A g o n y o f t h e A m e r i c a n L e f t (New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 3 5 . ) g S e e M e l v y n D u b o f s k y , We S h a l l Be A l l : A H i s t o r y o f the I n d u s t r i a l Workers of the World (Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969) 9 E a s t m a n was a p h i l o s o p h y i n s t r u c t o r a t C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y f r o m 1907 t o 1 9 1 1 . He was a l s o e d i t o r o f The M a s s e s a n d a w r i t e r . R e e d , a w r i t e r a n d p o e t , was associate e d i t o r o f The M a s s e s . D e l l was a f o r m e r p r o f e s s o r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago. G o l d m a n f i r s t came t o t h e p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n i n 1902 w h e n s h e was a c c u s e d o f i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n o f P r e s i d e n t M c K i n l e y , an i n v o l v e m e n t w h i c h she d e n i e d . She was e d i t o r o f M o t h e r E a r t h and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e F e r r e r S c h o o l , named a f t e r a S p a n i s h anarchist. B e l i e v i n g t h a t a l l forms of government were u n n e c e s s a r y , as w e l l as i n h e r e n t l y v i o l e n t , a n a r c h i s t s c o n c e n t r a t e d upon g r a s s - r o o t o r g a n i z a t i o n . B e r k m a n , who was v e r y c l o s e t o G o l d m a n , was j a i l e d f o r 14 y e a r s f o r t h e attempted murder of Henry C l a y F r i c k i n 1892. 1 0  15,000  spectators  attended  the  pageant.  ^The I.W.W. m a i n t a i n e d a f r a g i l e c o a l i t i o n w i t h the S o c i a l i s t P a r t y u n t i l 1913 w h e n t h e S.P. v o t e d t o p r o h i b i t s a b o t a g e and d i r e c t a c t i o n . 12 Christopher Lasch, "Herbert Croly's America," New Y o r k R e v i e w o f B o o k s 4 ( J u l y 1, 1 9 6 5 ) : 1 9 . For accounts of the r o l e o f the l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s see C h a r l e s Forcey, The C r o s s r o a d s o f L i b e r a l i s m : C r o l y , W e y l , L i p p m a n n a n d the P r o g r e s s i v e E r a , 1900-1925 (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) a n d D a v i d W. L e v y , H e r b e r t C r o l y o f t h e New Republic: L i f e and T h o u g h t o f an A m e r i c a n P r o g r e s s i v e ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1985). 13 . . J a m e s H o o p e s , "The C u l t u r e o f P r o g r e s s i v i s m : C r o l y , L i p p m a n n , B r o o k s , B o u r n e and t h e I d e a o f A m e r i c a n A r t i s t i c D e c a d e n c e , " C L I O 7:1 (Fall 1977) 14 W a l t e r L i p p m a n n , D r i f t and M a s t e r y , p . 1 7 9 - 8 0 . Ibid.,  p.  139.  40 1 6  Ibid.,  p.  194.  17 York:  Q u o t e d i n D a n i e l A a r o n , W r i t e r s on t h e L e f t (New H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d , I n c . , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 25. ^ I b i d . , p. 1 9  Ibid.,  p.  23 . 24.  20 I n h e r m e m o i r e s M a b e l Dodge r e c a l l s t h e same s p e e c h and m e n t i o n s t h a t t h e t h r e e . a r t i s t s w e r e p r e s e n t . See M a b e l D o d g e L u h a n , I n t i m a t e M e m o r i e s , V o l . 3, M o v e r s a n d S h a k e r s (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & C o . , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 9 0 . 21 B i l l H a y w o o d , q u o t e d i n Max E a s t m a n ' s V e n t u r e (New York: A l b e r t & C h a r l e s B o n i , 1927), p.210-11. 22 H u t c h i n s H a p g o o d , " A r t a n d U n r e s t , " New Y o r k G l o b e , r e p r i n t e d i n CW 4 2 / 4 3 ( A p r i l - J u l y 1 9 1 3 ) : 4 3 . 23 W.G.Constable, A r t C o l l e c t i n g m the United States o f A m e r i c a : An O u t l i n e o f a H i s t o r y ( L o n d o n : Thomas N e l s o n & Sons, 1 9 6 4 ) , p.98. 2 4  Ibid.,  p.  139.  25 Benjamin 27  (July  1909):  de  . Casseres, "American  . Indifference,"  CW  25.  26 C h a r l e s H. C a f f i n , " I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n H i g h P l a c e s , " CW 26 ( A p r i l 1 9 0 9 ) : 2 2 . 27 S e v e r a l e x a m p l e s o f t h e s e i m a g e s c a n be f o u n d i n P a t r i c i a H i l l s , T u r n o f t h e C e n t u r y A m e r i c a (New Y o r k : W h i t n e y Museum o f A m e r i c a n A r t , 1 9 7 7 ) . 28 R o b e r t H e n r i , t h e E i g h t ' s l e a d e r , w r o t e i n 1908 t h a t t h e r e was no u n i t y i n t h e i r a p p r o a c h e x c e p t t h a t t h e y a l l a g r e e d t h a t ' l i f e ' was t o b e t h e s u b j e c t . They w i s h e d t o be c o n t e m p o r a r y — t o t r e a t c o n t e m p o r a r y t h e m e s i n a r e a l i s t i c manner. F u r t h e r m o r e , as H e n r i w r o t e i n 1909, t h e a r t i s t s h o u l d l e a r n t o express "the great ideas n a t i v e t o t h e c o u n t r y " . A m e r i c a n p a i n t i n g , H e n r i b e l i e v e d , demanded " f a r r o o t s , s t r e t c h i n g f a r down i n t o t h e s o i l o f a n a t i o n , and i n i t s g r o w t h s h o w i n g , w i t h w h a t e v e r v a r i a t i o n , i n e v i t a b l y the r e s u l t of these c o n d i t i o n s . " (Robert Henri, " P r o g r e s s i n Our N a t i o n a l A r t , " ( J a n u a r y 1 9 0 9 ) , q u o t e d i n Homer, R o b e r t H e n r i and H i s C i r c l e , p. 284.) 29 Scenes o f t h e t h e a t r e , b a r , c a f e - c o n c e r t and t h e boulevard were, of c o u r s e , q u i t e f r e q u e n t i n French Impressionist painting.  41 S l o a n , Luks and H e n r i , e s p e c i a l l y , were drawn t o t h i s type of subject. F o r S l o a n and H e n r i t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s were c l o s e r t o t h e r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e than o t h e r groups i n society. Wheras H e n r i u s u a l l y d e p i c t e d s i n g l e f i g u r e s S l o a n approached t h e c i t y ' s l i f e as i f i t were t h e a t r e . In h i s w o r k s w e r e a s e r i e s o f v i g n e t t e s — t h e d y i n g o f a woman's h a i r as seen t h r o u g h a h a i r d r e s s e r ' s window, w o r k i n g c l a s s women b e g i n n i n g t h e i r d a y a t 3 A.M., men p l a y i n g w i t h p i g e o n s on a r o o f . 31  Art  . . . Amy G o l d m , " T h e E i g h t ' s L a i s s e z - F a i r e i n A m e r i c a 61 ( J u l y - A u g u s t 1 9 7 3 ) : 4 7 . Oscar  Bluemner,  "Audiator  et altera  Revolution,"  pars,":  25.  42 CHAPTER  In January  of  1907  TWO  the g a l l e r y  first  opened i t s  doors to the e x h i b i t i o n of non-photographic  a r t . The  artist  an  in  t o be  Great  s h o w n was  Britain  and  States.  second  i n F e b r u a r y and Smith's  orientation.  received March  subjects  Describing  Casseres,  a critic  following  i n Camera  artist  r e s i d i n g a l t e r n a t e l y i n Jamaica  United  1909.^  She  Pamela Colman S m i t h ,  and  three of  e x h i b i t i o n s at  1908  and  were c l e a r l y her  close  third  first  a third  symbolist  born and  291,  the  i n March  of  291,  of  in  e x h i b i t i o n Benjamin  associate  the  wrote  de  the  Work:  H e r e - a s i n "Warum", Man s t a n d s q u e s t i o n i n g t h e I n f i n i t e , o r a g a i n , as i n " C l o s i n g Day", a f i g u r e b l a s t e d w i t h m e l a n c h o l i a has dragged h i m s e l f t o the e a v e s o f s p a c e , o r a s i n "The W h i t e C a s t l e " , a w o n d e r f u l l y executed p i e c e of work- the e t e r n a l a s c e t i c appears a g a i n s t the snowpeaks of s p i r i t u a l isolation. What m a t t e r t h e s u b j e c t ? The a r t i s t h e r e i s s p y i n g t h e o l d i m m o r t a l t h i n g s i n a new i m m o r t a l way" In  The  from  Wave  the  with  Casseres,  visions, world  f i g . 2 ) human f o r m s  surrounding  merge a g a i n de  (1903,  were e v i d e n c e t h a t  lives  a symbolist,  i n by  continued:  De  only,  S m i t h was one  who  the overwhelming  3 imagination."  water  the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d sea.  a mystic,  she  darkened  momentarily  Casseres*  emerge  presumably, Such  to  images,  "a b l e n d e r  of  t r a n s f i g u r e s the simplicity  . . . a p p r e c i a t i o n of Smith's  of  her  work  to  43 P a m e l a C o l m a n S m i t h h a s s e e n t h r o u g h many v e i l s . To h e r t h e u n i v e r s e i s a c o n g e r i e s o f suggestions. She h a s s m i t t e n w i t h t h e r o d o f h e r i m a g i n a t i o n t h i s adamant w o r l d o f s u c h s e e m i n g s o l i d s and v a p o r i z e d i t . And o u t ^ o f t h e v a p o r she h a s s h a p e d h e r v i s i o n s o f lif e .. . The  critic  James H u n e k e r ,  Camera Work, s i m i l a r l y of  imagination."  Ensor,  the  under  sinister  the  published f o r her  "rare  work t o t h a t  of  Maeterlinck, spiritual  music  or  earlier  in  quality  Blake, he  said  that  e x a l t a t i o n , of  haunted  by  some  imagining^ should  America's  first  s e r i e s of  perhaps,  inaugurate  somewhat odd.  anomaly but  a  orientation. shown, and indebted  to  She  c o n t i n u i t y of  Much of  the  with  photography  Caffin  of  and  to  be  i n 1903  and  de  an  interests  and  was  the  other  himself  Belgian  close  Sadakichi  Casseres,  previously  clearly  Stiechen  critics  Benjamin  not  w h i c h was  Steichen  aesthetic.  particularly  prove  however,  291's  Maurice Maeterlinck,  beginning  gallery,  represents,  logical  a symbolist  playwright,  what would  modern a r t e x h i b i t i o n s a p p e a r s ,  especially that  touch  Charles  her  i n f l u e n c e of  Smith  the  Smith  "memoranda o f  That  close  essay  Munch, R e d o n and  d r a w i n g s were  soul  praised  Comparing  Beardsley,  Smith's  i n an  were  was  symbolist  associates Hartmann, strongly  7 influenced Moreover  by  the  and  was  the  the  first  Maeterlinck, fact  only  two  that  Mallarme  S m i t h was  American-based  years  of  and  given artist  Verlaine. three e x h i b i t i o n s , to  i t s e x h i b i t i o n of  show a t  in  291  for  non-photographic  of  44  art,  attests  Stieglitz  to the  that  her  aesthetic  was  one  of  which  approved.  Smith's against  fact  works  r e p r e s e n t e d t o 291  the predominant  way  of  life.  a form De  of  protest  Casseres  wrote:  I have spoken of the "overwhelming s i m p l i c i t y of her work. They a r e so s i m p l e t h a t f a t p r a c t i c a l b r a i n s w i l l e i t h e r see i n them n o t h i n g o r l u n a c y . . . The w o r l d i s s o c o m p l e t e l y a n d i r r e t r i e v a b l y lost i n t h e c o n c r e t e , i t has so c a r e f u l l y moulded o f the s e c o n d a r y and i n c i d e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c r e a t i o n a w o r l d w i t h i n a w o r l d , that a poet, such a s P a m e l a C o l m a n S m i t h , who s p e a k s d i r e c t l y o f t h i n g s a s t h e y a r e p e r c e i v e d by t h e m i n d n o t y e t o v e r l a i d by the p a i n t e d i l l u s i o n s o f s i g h t and a r e n o t a f f e c t e d by the deadly automatism of r o u t i n e , i s b e l i e v e d to have a t o u c h of i n s a n i t y . . . . Fat Mind s t a n d i n g b e f o r e these w o n d e r f u l o f f e r i n g s of M i s s Smith w i l l l e t t h i s ooze f r o m h i s m o u t h : " T h e r e i s no s u c h w o r l d a s I s e e h e r e ; t h e r e a r e no s u c h m o u n t a i n s , no s u c h m o o n s , no s u c h f l o w e r s w i t h b a b y h e a d s o n t h e m , no s u c h s h i p s , no s u c h skies." T h u s F a t B r a i n , who i s l e g i o n . . . . To s u c h m i n d s [as S m i t h ' s ] what i s p r a c t i c a l i s v u l g a r , what i s u t i l i t a r i a n i s u g l y . . . . Our i m p a s s i o n e d dreams..-that i s t h e r e a l moment o v e r a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e " r e a l " workaday world i s a f i c t i o n , a blasphemy, a l i e . Pamela Colman Smith has i n t h i s manner, I t h i n k , c h a l l e n g e d the world around her. Within  this  text  Camera Work w i t h 1908-13.  The  assume t o be world  of  we  find  regular  a number o f  of  the  "robber  the  in  years  c o n c r e t e , "workaday" w o r l d , the w o r l d which "real"  is a fiction,  practicality  and  an  utilitarian dreams.  illusion.  however,  "Captains of barons".  De  i t was  felt  To  Smith's  work  this  was  the  "real".  to challenge the  reality  I n d u s t r y " , o t h e r w i s e known as Casseres  we  goals i s contrasted  t o c h a l l e n g e the viewer's conception of  Specifically,  appear  consistency throughout  another w o r l d : the world of thought  ideas which  wrote:  the  45  Let the scavengers scrape the gutters f o r coppers and d u c k i n t h e c e s s p o o l s o f p r a c t i c a l l i f e f o r t h e rolling dollar. They a r e t h e " C a p t a i n s o f I n d u s t r y " t h e g r i m y , s m u t t y c a p t a i n s o f t h e m a r t s , and t h e i r " i n d u s t r y " i s a grimy, smutty, l u r i d h e l l of l i e s . And t h e i r r e a l m i s t h e r e a l m o f t h e a r c h e d s p i n e and t h e f u r t i v e g l a n c e and t h e g l u t t o n o u s l i p . They and a l l t h e i r w o r k s s h a l l go i n t h e w i n d s ; a n d t h e t u r r e t s and s p i r e s and b r i d g e s o f o u r c i v i l i z a t i o n s h a l l l o n g be g a n g r e n e d i n t h e muds o f O b l i v i o n w h e n t h e d r e a m e r s from the s l o p e s of Parnassus s h a l l s t i l l w i t h potent r o d s m i t e t h e s o u l s o f g e n e r a t i o n s y e t u n b o r n ; and f r o m them, as f r o m u s , s h a l l b u r s t t h e f o u n t a i n s o f e x a l t e d wonder. g P a m e l a Colman S m i t h h a s seen by c l o s i n g t h e e y e s . The  oppositional  e m b o d y was  not  exhibition  which  position  p e r c e i v e d as was  d a y s was  prolonged  aroused.  In spite  people 72  visited  drawings  Smith very  people  question this  practical  and  specifically held  by  problem  Not  point  sight  class?  1907  interest i t  over  2,200 half  of Pamela  of  her  Colman  i t attracted  i t to  the  criticize:  However  the  closed  eyes,  the c o n c r e t e , Why  was  i t felt  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  for, I will  position  of  to  f o r ten  over  through  signify?  question  the  weather  expected  reality  industrialist  What i s f i r s t  of  In a d d i t i o n ,  this  the u t i l i t a r i a n  291's  to run  Vanderbilts.^^  what does  at a l a t e r  Her  scheduled  C a s s e r e s had  into  the p u b l i c .  bourgeois audience,  denies the  call  felt  o n l y d i d the work  H a v e m e y e r s and  t h e new  understanding culture.  de  which  by  a r t was  days because  exhibition.  remains—  sight  eight  to a large  the Whitneys,  such  o f c o n t i n u o u s bad  the  that  Smith's  originally  by  sold.^  appeal  which  We  will  argue,  of resistance  of  return  i t i s key to the  to  reality to  this  to  dominant  n e c e s s a r y t o show i s t h e c o n s t a n c y  of  46 this  position;  aesthetic  states—  spirituality—  Running Smith's  a l t h o u g h 291 moved  to a modernist  subjective and  that  from  with  in  preoccupation with intuition, imagination,  constant.  was  29l's  t o be s e e n  exhibition  i n America:  form  wholly Drawing  form  and t h e d e g r e e  t o which  of academicism  each  and c o n t e n t . of studies No.  avoidance  3).  poses,  and t h e s e e m i n g l y over  careless  critics  displayed  i n the works.  exhibited  i n a public said  exhibition such  the  level  consisted  as K n e e l i n g  Girl-  pointed out the  aspects of the drawings: h i s  way  quality  i n which  Regardless of  thin  of h i s washes  their  appreciated the technical Whether or not they  gallery  varying  they c h a l l e n g e d the  the unfinished  the drawings.  o b s e r v a t i o n s most  W.B.McCormick  critics  or u n t r a d i t i o n a l  of studied  were s p r e a d  The  nude  first  Rodin,  While  d i d s o on b o t h  1908  of the female  6 (fig.  unconventional  Rodin's  with  of the  Auguste  M a t i s s e a n d H e n r i de T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c .  t h e manner  work  a symbolist  1908 t o 1 9 1 0 , r o u g h l y c o n c u r r e n t l y  three exhibitions,  dominant of  emotion,  remained  European modernists Henri  one t h e i r  from  was  another  should  skill be  matter.  i n the Press:  As a m a t t e r o f f a c t t h e s e d r a w i n g s s h o u l d n e v e r have b e e n shown a n y w h e r e b u t i n t h e s c u l p t o r ' s s t u d i o , f o r t h e y a r e s i m p l y n o t e s d a s h e d o f f , s t u d i e s o f t h e human f o r m - c h i e f l y o f nude f e m a l e s - t h a t a r e t o o p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l t o h a v e much g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t e x c e p t t h a t o f a not very elevating kind. Stripped of a l l " a r t " a t m o s p h e r e " t h e y s t a n d a s d r a w i n g s o f n u d e women i n a t t i t u d e s t h a t may i n t e r e s t t h e a r t i s t whcj d r e w t h e m , but which are not f o r p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n .  47 Two s e p a r a t e  issues thus  untraditional subject, that  qualities  "of not a very  of the nature  critics'  i n the press: the  of the sketches  elevating kind."  of their  and t h e i r  The s e c o n d  subject matter,  issue,  dominated t h e  discussion.  The the  formal  emerged  tone  gallery  exhibition, described  f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n seems t o h a v e b e e n  itself.  In the catologue  essay  ofthe  r e p r i n t e d i n Camera Work, A r t h u r  Rodin's  drawings  s e tby  Symons  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g terms:  ...In t h e s e a s t o n i s h i n g d r a w i n g s f r o m t h e n u d e we s e e woman c a r r i e d t o a f u r t h e r p o i n t o f s i m p l i c i t y than e v e n i n D e g a s : woman t h e a n i m a l ; woman, i n a s t r a n g e sense, t h e i d o l . . . Each drawing i n d i c a t e s , as i f i n t h e r o u g h b l o c k o f s t o n e , a s i n g l e v i o l e n t movement. H e r e a woman f a c e s y o u , h e r l e g s t h r o w n a b o v e h e r head; here she faces you w i t h h e r l e g s t h r u s t out b e f o r e her, t h e s o l e s o f h e r f e e t seen c l o s e and gigantic. She s q u a t s l i k e a t o a d , s h e s t r e t c h e s h e r s e l f l i k e a c a t , she stands r i g i d , she l i e s abandoned. E v e r y movement o f h e r b o d y , v i o l e n t l y a g i t a t e d by t h e remembrance, o r t h e e x p e c t a t i o n , o r t h e a c t o f d e s i r e , i s s e e n a t a n e x p r e s s i v e moment. She t u r n s u p o n h e r s e l f i n a h u n d r e d a t t i t u d e s , t u r n i n g a l w a y s upon t h e c e n t r a l p i v o t o f t h e s e x , which emphasizes i t s e l f w i t h a f a n t a s t i c and f r i g h t f u l monotony. The f a c e i s b u t j u s t i n d i c a t e d , a f a c e o f wood, l i k e a s a v a g e i d o l ; and t h e body h a s r a r e l y any o f t h a t e l e g a n c e , s e d u c t i v e n e s s , a n d s h i v e r i n g d e l i c a c y o f l i f e w h i c h we f i n d i n t h e m a r b l e . I t i s a m a c h i n e i n movement, a m o n s t r o u s , d e v a s t a t i n g m a c h i n e , w o r k i n g m e c h a n i c a l l y , and p o s s e s s e d by t h e one r a g e o f t h e a n i m a l . This the  description, like drawings  desire,  reference  explicit.  presentation "monstrous,  the Rodin drawings, to sexuality,  o f woman a s o b j e c t o f  However t h e p r o b l e m a t i c  o f woman—  as o b j e c t ,  makes t h e f a c t o f  nature  as r e p t i l e ,  of this  as  d e v a s t a t i n g m a c h i n e " , was o v e r l o o k e d  i n both  48  Camera  Work and t h e p r e s s .  presented a  The R o d i n  and i n t e r p r e t e d , by those  "challenge  drawings  who w e r e  t o the p r u r i e n t prudery  were  sympathetic,  as  of our  14 puritanism", an outmoded, The  consisted such  mainly  realistic  (1907,  colours  response,  o f Camera  resources.  etchings  organized  o f 1903 t o w a t e r c o l o u r s rendered This  from such  i n vivid  time  291  and no i n f o r m a t i o n t o g u i d e t h e preferring,  Work, t o l e a v e  acted  first  the evolution of h i s style  as they  everyone  A s t h e j o u r n a l was q u i c k  exhibition  Matisse's  n u d e s . The w o r k s w e r e  f i g . 4 ) , works w h i c h were  no c a t a l o g u e  appear t o  6 t o 25, 1908, a g a i n  and a f r e e e x p r e s s i o n i s t s t y l e .  audience's issue  o f female  exhibitions  reasons.  from A p r i l  a way a s t o s u g g e s t  Nude  issued  f o rsimilar  a t 291, held  relatively as  and T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c  presented  exhibition  r e l e a s e from t h e s t r i c t u r e s o f  overly restrictive morality.  Matisse  have been  in  as a needed  as an i r r i t a n t ,  said  i n the July  to their  own  to point outthe  l e a d i n g t o "many  heated  15 controversies".  Some c r i t i c s  exhibition,  a slightly  took  Matisse's  formal  Matisse's  works represented  subject, described her  woman.  humorous  innovations.  James  Matisse's  , i n reviewing the approach  However  f o r most  a "vulgarization"  Huneker  i n describing critics  of h i s  o f t h e New Y o r k S u n  d e p i c t i o n s o f t h e "female  animal  shame a n d h o r r o r " a s "memoranda o f t h e g u t t e r a n d  in a l l  49 16  brothel"  .  J.E.Chamberlin,  described  them as  of  condemned  a mind  of  the  New  "most a p p a l l i n g and "to the  limbo  York  Daily  haunting",  of  Mail  the  product  artistic  17 degeneration." deforming The  or  Others  otherwise  spoke of doing  the  depictions  violence to  the  as  female  form.  S c r i p s u m m a r i z e d t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g when i t w r o t e : [ T ] h e m e r e o b s e r v e r , who i s b o u n d t o t a k e a l i t t l e e m o t i o n t o an i n t e r e s t i n g p i c t u r e g a l l e r y , i s p r e t t y c e r t a i n to f i n d that emotion unpleasantly s t i r r e d , i n s p i t e o f t h g u t m o s t d e s i r e t o be i m p e r s o n a l and appreciative. When f e m a l e  nudes were d i s p l a y e d d u r i n g  the  second  19 Matisse 1910, was  exhibition,  they  now,  elicited  however,  represented, was  from  a similar  the  February  response  suggestion  simply  23  to March  from  the  of  of  press.  that Matisse's  a vulgarization  3  There  work  his subject  but  a g a i n s t a u t h o r i t y " , an a t t e m p t at 20 "shocking the bourgeois". W h i l e James Huneker c o u l d d i s m i s s t h i s a t t e m p t by c o m p a r i n g i t t o t h e b o y h o o d p r a n k 21 "the  also a  not  held  small  Townsend  "revolt  boy  of  snowballing  the  war  of  issue. the  Around  suggesting  the  key  one  further artist  women.  January  His 14,  Whereas the  by  Mr.  female  wrote,  Matisse's  p a r t of  "now  wages 22  a the  anti-suffragists". to understanding should  exhibition,  1910,  that  some, t o be  M a t i s s e " , he the  Toulouse-Lautrec. to  least  and  associations  1909  at  suffragists  Before  fat teacher"  A m e r i c a n A r t News i n d i c a t e d  works were p e r c e i v e d , serious  the  of  held  also focused s u b j e c t s of  be  these  examined, Henri  f r o m December upon the Rodin  and  de  20,  d e p i c t i o n of Matisse  50  were d e p i c t e d most  without  of Lautrec's  reference  to class or social  women, a s C a m e r a  Work o b s e r v e d ,  position, "belong  23 unmistakably Certain  t o t h e lower  of Lautrec's  Jane A v r i l ,  however,  were  included  i n 1896 u n d e r  were taken  from t h e l i f e  from pinning  wash b a s i n lying  undressing  while  While objected  up t h e i r  (1896,  her client  the c r i t i c s  to  G u i l b e r t and  The e x h i b i t i o n c e n t r e d ,  lithographs which 24 "Elles".  They were d e p i c t e d  on t h e b e d .  of Passage  of Yvette  laden  were scenes  inhabited  i n a v a r i e t y of  h a i r or pouring  water  depictions  into a  o f women  I n o n e , Woman i n C o r s e t -  fig.5),  t h e woman i s s h o w n  looks on.  admired  the context  These  o f t h e p r o s t i t u t e s who  t o more e m o t i o n a l l y  exhausted  Conquest  a t 291.  the t i t l e  Parisian brothels.  poses,  order."  entertainers of the Parisian  upon a s e r i e s o f e l e v e n  published  the  representations  w e l l known  cafe-concert,  Parisian social  Lautrec's  draughtsmanship  i n w h i c h woman w a s s h o w n ,  a  J . E . C h a m b e r l i n d e s c r i b e d a s " t h e seamy s i d e o f 25 . . . life". A r t h u r Hoeber, academic p a i n t e r and c r i t i c , i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f a r t was h i g h e r a n d n o b l e r  they  context  which  this.  He  than  wrote:  One c a n f i n d , a s a r u l e , t h a t f o r w h i c h h e s e a r c h e s and t o s t a r t o u t w i t h t h e p r e c o n c e p t i o n t h a t a l l humanity i s degraded, s o r d i d , ignoble, i s t o d e l i b e r a t e l y i g n o r e t h e presence o f o t h e r and b e t t e r qualities. T h e c o n s u m p t i v e woman o f t h e p a v e m e n t i s s c a r c e l y f i t theme f o r t h e b r u s h o f t h e p a i n t e r , t h e pencil of the lithographer. Granted she i s p a r t o f t h e problems of l i f e , i t serves l i t t l e of the purpose of art t o perpetuate her i n serious drawing. The d e g r a d e d  51 f e m a l e o f t h e b a g n i o , n o m a t t e r how r e a l i s t i c a l l y presented, i s only abhorrent, and t h e v u l g a r i t y o f t h e semi-nude b o u r g e o i s e i s never s u b j e c t f o r a e s t h e t i c e y e s , f o r t h e more t r u e t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e more objectionable the fact. One l e a v e s t h i s r o o m w i t h a bad t a s t e i n t h e m o u t h ; i t i s d e p r e s s i n g t o s t u d y 2 ^ h e s e types; the v i s i t o r f e e l s apologetic f o rh i s race.  As  mentioned,  29l's  works by t h e Europeans statement While  regarding  depictions  Victorian American  the  accordance  respectable,  company  cultured  participating essentially depicted  the  public  realm.  respectability ideology  American  narrow  context;  always placed  I t presented  within  her i n as  of proper  cloistered, moral  i n d e p i c t i n g women  i n mixed  s t r e e t s — i n short,  as  had broken w i t h t h e  century  view of s o c i a l  life  as  Impressionists.  the crumbling  1 8 9 0 ' s women  i n a very  restaurants,  mid-nineteenth  the  of a r t ,  Victorian ideals--  School,  i n Europe,  representations i n  s h e was a l m o s t  i n public l i f e ,  by A m e r i c a n  With  form  and as a model  The A s h c a n  i n the parks,  series of  to culture.  n u d e w e r e common  o f t h e home.  dominant  of passion  similar  woman  clothed  sphere with  restraint.  prohibited  depicted  and f i n e l y  private  the importance  The most p o p u l a r  Impressionism, fully  i n exhibiting this  seems t o h a v e b e e n t o make a  of the female  reserve art.  intent  gained  of the Victorian social considerable  However  of mid-nineteenth  f r e e d o m t o move  the doctrine  and s e l f - c o n t r o l ,  into  of moral  so important  century  structure i n  American  t o the success c u l t u r e , was  52 still  engrained  twentieth regards  century.  This  to the behavior  Puritanism, "the  i n the customs  Sadakichi  n a t u r a l and  expression  d o c t r i n e was o f women.  sensual  had  sense  of  "decency,  destructive,  Hartmann  said,  intellectual  pursuits.  He  was  and  only  the  strict  with  of  i n Camera Work  that  a l l "natural  proscribed".  p r o p r i e t y and  not  into  because  been c r u s h e d "  emotions  well  especially  I t was  Hartmann wrote  of the h e a r t ' s  prohibitive  of Americans  This  regularity"  to a r t but  was  to a l l  wrote:  [ T ] h e i r c a n b e no v i t a l a r t o f a n y s o r t . . . u n t i l we d a r e f a c e o u r p a s s i o n s , u n t i l we a r e u n a s h a m e d t o b e w h a t we a r e . . . A n d a s l o n g a s we- a s H e i n e s a i d o f t h e B e r l i n e r s - s i t i n snow up t o o u r n a v e l s , and t o r m e n t o u r s e l v e s w i t h c o n s c i e n t i o u s s c r u p l e s we w i l l h a v e no c a n d o r , no f i r e a n d d a s h i n a n y i n t e l l e c t u a l act. We w i l l r e m a i n a g r e y r a c e , o u r p a s s i o n s w i l l b e c o l d , and a p e t t y and p a l l i g t a s t e w i l l p e r v a d e o u r w o r l d o f a r t s and l e t t e r s . 291,  i n chosing  to exhibit  Europeans,  attempted  repression  of t h e i r  public  responded  by  the  female nudes  to confront  of  the  the p u b l i c with  passions.  H o w e v e r a s we  condemning  the works  the  have  seen,  as d e g e n e r a t e ,  the as  "memoranda o f t h e g u t t e r and b r o t h e l " .  After exhibit  Smith's  a t 291  third  again.  show i n M a r c h  I t was  at t h i s  b e g a n t o show t h e work o f A m e r i c a n influenced exhibitions  by  t h e new  occurred  trends in April  of  point  artists  i n Europe. 1909  1909  with  she  that who  The  the  had  first  a joint  d i d not gallery  been of  these  exhibition  53 of  the  works  of A l f r e d  Maurer  and .  far  more e x p e r i m e n t a l  exclusion not  291  again.  c l o s e to the  Armory  Marin  Show, r e m a i n e d  by  however,  except  i n March of  Marin,  g r o u p and,  Maurer  was  29  i n a g r o u p show, h e l d  shown a t  very  than  John M a r i n .  on  the  during  f a r the  1910,  other  the  for his Maurer  hand,  years  was  became  prior  to  the  most e x h i b i t e d a r t i s t  at  30 291.  During  members o f Gertrude  the  patterning  Nabis  unaware of  f i g . 7 ) may or  matter,  be  H o w e v e r he  effect  the  upon M a r i n  small  or  described Marin's  technique styles,  as  with  was  as  had  f o r the  Mills the  and  or  most  and  part, While  Bridge,  i n f l u e n c e of  most d i r e c t 31  Whistler's watercolours.  courtyards  to  Steichen  developments.  through  upon t h e  access  through  s t r o n g e s t and  the  Meaux the  influence  Marin's  subject  o l d b u i l d i n g s of  Europe:  cathedral facades,  could  best  picturesque.  work, m i x i n g a limited  presented  past.• Calling order",  the  new  such  have been  which centred  villages,  had  remained, the  i n works  Fauves  was  i n E u r o p e he  European avant-garde  Stein.  uninterested  (1907,  his stay  Marin  by a  William McColl,  traditional i n f l u e n c e of 291  "poet  as  the  new  visionary  April  1910  of  and  European  representing a bridge  and  i n the  subject matter  the  i s s u e of  to  the  highest Camera  Work, d e s c r i b e d M a r i n ' s e x h i b i t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g terms: The i m p r e s s i o n t h a t we r e c e i v e o n e n t e r i n g i s r a t h e r o f h a v i n g s t e p p e d out o f some new w o r l d - t h a t new world w h i c h i s e v e r a b o u t u s , o f raw o r b u t h a l f - f o r m e d m a t e r i a l s i n t h e m a k i n g - i n t o some a n t i q u e o n e , some a n c i e n t playground of bygone, h a l f - f o r g o t t e n m e m o r i e s . . . The r e a l t r u t h i s t h a t t h e Photo-Secession  54  G a l l e r i e s a r e an i m a g i n a t i v e l y i d e a l l i n k b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n t and t h e p a s t . Throbbing, pulsing with l i f e , the l i f e t h a t connects i t s e l f immutably w i t h the past, b e c a u s e i t s r o o t s , as h a s b e e n s a i d o f a l l r e l i g i o n s , a r e s o " d e e p i n t h e e a r t h o f man's n a t u r e " . The s u n s h i n e t h a t d w e l l s h e r e i s o f an e v e r n e w - o l d w o r l d . . . and t ^ e m u s i c t h a t we h e a r i s o f t h a t o l d symbolic type. 29l's life out  conception around  of  the  of  around  memories.  In t h i s  attempt  find  ideal"  A in  or  i n the  search  h i s work  landscapes Italian was  held  at  by  291  of  stitches which  of  an  an  the  the  1909,  of  canvas  to  express  i n the  period.  present.  can  be  found  artist  to  Hartley's a series  of  under  infuence  of  the  which,  "Segantini as  c o l o r s pure  Camera and  first  the  stitch" Work  laying  i n long  flecks  that  bright  colour  s c h e m e was  The  an  "imaginatively  American  The  of  see  displayed  Segantini.  "using  playground  sustenance  this  the  stepping  M a r i n ' s w o r k we  attempt  other  technique  embroidery."  "startled Unlike  antique  of  of  produced  Giovanni  upon the  the  during  had  consisted  side  an  from  image of  through  past,  work,  a neo-Impressionist  side  or  for roots  i n May  w h i c h he  painter  described,  into  past, the  isolated  in McColl's  him  of  Marsden H a r t l e y ' s  exhibition,  oasis,  elements which were m i s s i n g  similar  exhibit  an  interpretation  construction  qualities  as  i t i s expressed world  to  itself  look  them like one  beholder".  quiet,  domesticated  Impressionists  Hartley  chose  forest-covered  mountains  of  to  rural  depict  Maine.  In  the  s e t t i n g s of more  the  dramatic  images such  as  Cosmos  55  (1908-9, f i g . 8 ) t h e heavy c l o u d s in  a thick  impasto.  perspective pattern.  there  A t t h e expense o f t r a d i t i o n a l  i s considerable  Hartley's  choice  t o be n o t u n r e l a t e d attempted mystical  t o fuse subject  some t i m e w i t h beliefs  various  t o the f a c t  matter.  Hartley  as a model  the I t a l i a n  h i s neo-Impressionist  form.  he had come v e r y  i n 1900.  could  that  technique  A devoted  As e a r l y as t h a t  be p e r c e i v e d  Transcendentalists  attempted Describing  i n nature.  with  Episcopalian  d a t e he b e l i e v e d  that  He e n c o u n t e r e d  h i s v i e w , most Like  important the  he saw a " c o r r e s p o n d e n c e " between t h e  o f man and t h e s p i r i t  to discover  his spiritual  immanent relation  i n n a t u r e and to nature.  t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e symbol o f t h e m o u n t a i n i n  h i s works, H a r t l e y upon n a t u r e . he  a r t i s t had  c l o s e t o e n t e r i n g the  i n f l u e n c e s which s u p p o r t e d  spirit  appears  had been c o n c e r n e d f o r  o f w h i c h were Emerson, T h o r e a u and Whitman.  inner  decorative  f i n d i n g a means t o e x p r e s s h i s s p i r i t u a l  from c h i l d h o o d ,  divinity  emphasis upon  of Segantini  through h i s a r t i s t i c  preisthood  and m o u n t a i n s a r e r e n d e r e d  revealed  a p r o j e c t i o n o f h i s own mood  The m o u n t a i n was u n i q u e among o t h e r  elements,  said, i n t h a t l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g can be done t o i t by t h e ravages of s i l e n t a g e n c i e s . . . . I t i s t h i s element of h y p n o s i s i n n a t u r e i t s e l f w h i c h makes us c l i n g t o i t as a r e l i e f from t h e v a c u i t i e s o f human e x p e r i e n c e . Mountains are t h i n g s , e n t i t i e s of a grandiose c h a r a c t e r , and t h e one who u n d e r s t a n d s them b e s t i s t h e one who c a n s u f f e ^ them b e s t and r e s p e c t t h e i r profound l o n e l i n e s s .  56 The  idea  of taking  vacuities  i n nature  o f human e x p e r i e n c e "  understanding that  refuge  Hartley's  h e h a d "come b a c k  romanticist"  and t h a t  as " r e l i e f  from the  seems t o r e v e a l  intention.  He  to the original  wrote child  h i s work r e p r e s e n t e d  the key t o at this  time  within, the  "little  visions  35 of  the intangible".  I f others,  such  as Ashcan  member 36  John  Sloan  Hartley  found  Hartley's  mysticism  "a l i t t l e  remained  convinced  of h i s inner  t o o much"  vision.  He  wrote:  Some w i l l s a y t h a t [ I ] h a v e g o n e mad- o t h e r s w i l l look and s a y [ I h a v e ] l o o k e d i n a t t h e l a t t i c e o f H e a v e n a n d ccjme b a c k w i t h t h e m a d n e s s o f s p l e n d o r o n [me] . From American it the  t h e works which H a r t l e y Painters  was e v i d e n t previous  visionary executed  e x h i b i t i o n , held  that  year  painter  displayed  h i s style  a t 291 i n M a r c h o f 1910,  had changed  he h a d d i s c o v e r e d Albert  significantly.  t h e work  Pinkham Ryder  a number o f w o r k s  a t t h e Younger  "as c l o s e  and he  In  of the American subsequently  t o Ryder as  38 possible". condition period close  The  H i s attempts with  the landscape  o f extreme  to identify remained.  Deserted In both  of despair  i s conveyed  Farm and The D a r k M o u n t a i n pictures  the horizon  line,  emotional  Experiencing  l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n  to suicide Hartley wrote: [ R y d e r ] saw w i t h a n a l l t o o p i t the element of hopelessness i n succumbing of things i n nature g r e a t e r than they that w i e l d a  element  h i s own  a  which brought him  i l e s s and p i t i f u l eye things, the complete t o those elements f a t a l power.  i n such p a i n t i n g s (fig.9),  both  as  o f 1909.  where m o u n t a i n s meet s k y ,  57  is  very  trees  high.  In the  foreground  there  are  which have l o n g  since lost  their  foliage.  overlook  a valley  overwhelmed the  sense  remains  by  of  i n which  the  immensity  rhythmic  their  a tiny of  flaccid,  farmhouse  the  broken  They  stands  mountains behind.  p a t t e r n i n g of  his previous  b r i g h t c o l o u r s have been r e p l a c e d  While  landscapes by  dark  tones.  Thus adopted While  i n the  elements of  their  drastic  years  Impressionists  1910  the  the  styles  Ashcan  stage,  relatively cautious  During  the  years  of  291  artists  would  innovative  quality  the  the  1911  to  1913  of  and  into  the  School,  done c o n c u r r e n t l y i n Europe M a r i n initial  Marin  Hartley  their  art.  i n n o v a t i o n s would have appeared  from  and  to  European modernism  stylistic  departure  1909  this  disappear  and  as  a  American  compared  to  the  H a r t l e y were,  in their  work  in  this  approach.  cautiousness  on  the  part  equal  in  and  they  would  experimentation  then  undertaken  in  Europe. Despite things of  the  remained  expressing  the  around  constant:  and  present.  personally him.  i n formal their  felt His  their As  approach, however,  s t r e s s upon the  subjective s t a t e s —  spirituality— to,  change  emotion,  estrangement  H a r t l e y ' s quotes  a l i e n a t e d and  from,  turning to nature  importance  imagination and  seems t o  by  and  resistance  indicate,  disempowered  two  the  he forces  represent  an  58 effort  t o salvage  power o u t s i d e comfort  that  Marin's  the social  discussion  o f h i s work  from  American  present  take  was  ephemeral  force,  in his  t o make  any c e r t a i n t y .  of McColl's  article,  past  was, as t h e y  link  However i t  period,  t o some i d e a l  and p r e s e n t . described  similar  the only  i n Camera Work o f t h i s  the American  to  I n t h e absence of evidence  h i s a r t as an i m a g i n a t i v e  distant  present  of a greater  as t o h i s i n t e n t i o n s w i t h on t h e b a s i s  regenerative  He a p p e a r e d  intentions i t i s difficult  seems t h a t  viewed  society.  t o the immensity  "immanent s p i r i t " .  regarding claims  o f o r beyond  from the f a c t  when c o m p a r e d terms,  meaning and purpose t h r o u g h a  291  past,  In short  i f the  i t , "chaotic, 40  neurotic,  inconsequent  responded  by  find  value This  did  searching  trend  qualities,  times  or other  continued  i n the years  forces to  t o f o l l o w . Not  also  scheduled  a  spontaneous,  f o r c e , one n o t y e t " b l i n d e d " by e d u c a t i o n , expectations.  Discussing  of thought  and  behavior.  c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i n Camera Work S a d a k i c h i purity,  by  They were as y e t u n l i m i t e d by  frameworks  their  only  a series of children's  C h i l d r e n , t o them, r e p r e s e n t e d  conventional  praised  other  i n Rousseau, p r a i s i n g h i s naive, p r i m i t i v e  they  exhibitions.  societal  into  they  o r hope.  291 b r i n g  natural  and o u t o f e q u i l i b r i u m "  alertness of vision,  enthusiasm.  The c h i l d ,  unconscious  and r e c a l l s  he s a i d , elemental  Hartmann  d i r e c t n e s s and  t h r i v e s i n the realm qualities.  A l l of  of the these  59 qualities regain  were ones which  f o r themselves  and  t h e members o f 291 convey  attempted  through t h e i r a r t .  60 NOTES •'"Smith was b o r n i n G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d l i v e d i n J a m a i c a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . She e x h i b i t e d a t 2 9 1 J a n u a r y 5-24 1 9 0 7 , F e b r u a r y 2 6 - M a r c h 11 1908 a n d M a r c h 1 7 - 2 7 1909. 2 B e n j a m i n de 1 9 0 9 ) : 18.  (July 3  Ibid.  4  Ibid.  C a s s e r e s , "Pamela  Colman  S m i t h , " CW  27  5 J a m e s H u n e k e r , New Y o r k S u n ( J a n u a r y 1 5 , 1 9 0 7 ) , r e p r i n t e d i n CW 18 ( A p r i l 1 9 0 7 ) : 3 7 . 6 To c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s y m b o l i s t i n f l u e n c e i n S t e i c h e n ' s p h o t o g r a p h s t h e S p e c i a l S t e i c h e n S u p p l e m e n t o f CW ( A p r i l 1906) c o n t a i n e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n by M a e t e r l i n c k . 7 . . . Hartmann, f o r example, e d i t e d a magazine entitled the A r t C r i t i c i n t h e 1890's w h i c h c o n t a i n e d t h e s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e of French symbolism. He was a f r i e n d o f W a l t W h i t m a n , h a d a t t e n d e d M a l l a r m e ' s 'Tuesday e v e n i n g s ' and had met V e r l a i n e . g  19-20. 9 1 0  Benjamin Ibid.,  p.  de  C a s s e r e s , "Pamela  Colman  Smith,"  pp.  20,  "Photo-Secession  Notes,"  CW  18  (April  1907):49.  '''''Review o f t h e 1907 o p e n i n g i n t h e New Y o r k S u n b y James Huneker. R e p o r t e d i n Homer, A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z and t h e A m e r i c a n A v a n t - G a r d e , p. 4 3 . 12 W.B.McCormick i n t h e P r e s s . R e p r i n t e d i n CW 22 (April 1908):38. 13 A r t h u r Symons' c a t a l o g u e e s s a y on R o d i n , r e p r i n t e d i n "The R o d i n D r a w i n g s a t t h e P h o t o - S e c e s s i o n G a l l e r i e s , " 22 ( A p r i l 1 9 0 8 ) : 3 5 . 14 . . . J . N. L a u r v i k i n t h e T i m e s , r e p r i n t e d i n CW 22 (April 1908):37. 1 5  "Photo-Secession  N o t e s " CW  23  (July  1908):  9.  16 23  James Huneker ( J u l y 1908): 11.  i n t h e New  York  Sun,  reprinted  in  CW  CW  61 17 J. reprinted •I  . E . C h a m b e r l i n i n t h e New Y o r k i n CW 23 ( J u l y 1 9 0 8 ) : 1 1 .  . Evening  Mail,  Q  The  Scrip  (June),  reprinted  i n CW 23 ( J u l y  1908):  12. 19 . D i s p l a y e d i n t h i s e x h i b i t i o n were m o s t l y s t u d i e s o f t h e f e m a l e nude and b l a c k and w h i t e r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f paintings. Of t h e l a t t e r t y p e w e r e i n c l u d e d J o i e de V i v r e ( 1 9 0 5 - 6 ) , T h e B l u e N u d e ( 1 9 0 7 ) a n d P o r t r a i t o f Madame Matisse (1905). Harmony i n Red (1909) and Harmony i n B l u e ( 1 9 0 8 ) may a l s o h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d . 20 J a m e s H u n e k e r i n t h e New Y o r k S u n , r e p r i n t e d i n CW 30 ( A p r i l 1 9 1 0 ) : 4 8 . 21 ,., Ibid. T  22 Mr. Townsend i n A m e r i c a n A r t News, r e p r i n t e d m CW ( A p r i l 1910): 52. 23 " P h o t o - S e c e s s i o n E x h i b i t i o n s / L i t h o g r a p h s by T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c , " CW 29 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 1 0 ) : 5 1 . 24 The " E l l e s " l i t h o g r a p h s w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n a n e d i t i o n o f one h u n d r e d . 25 J . E. C h a m b e r l i n i n t h e M a i l (December 3 0 , 1 9 0 9 ) , r e p r i n t e d i n CW 29 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 1 0 ) : 5 3 . 30  A r t h u r Hoeber i n t h e G l o b e (December r e p r i n t e d i n CW 29 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 1 0 ) : 5 4 .  29, 1909),  27 See L a r y May, S c r e e n i n g O u t t h e P a s t : The B i r t h o f M a s s C u l t u r e a n d t h e M o t i o n P i c t u r e I n d u s t r y ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , T h o r s t e i n V e b l e n , The T h e o r y o f t h e L e i s u r e C l a s s , 1 8 9 9 r e p r i n t e d i t i o n (New Y o r k : M o d e r n L i b r a r y , 1 9 3 4 ) , T h e o d o r W. A d o r n o , " V e b l e n ' s A t t a c k on C u l t u r e , " i n P r i s m s ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : M.I.T. P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 75-94 a n d C a r o l C h r i s t , " V i c t o r i a n M a s c u l i n i t y and t h e A n g e l i n t h e House," i n A W i d e n i n g S p h e r e : C h a n g i n g R o l e s o f V i c t o r i a n Women, e d i t e d b y M a r t h a V i c i n u s (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977). 28 S a d a k i c h i Hartmann, " P u r i t a n i s m , I t s Grandeur and S h a m e , " CW 32 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 1 0 ) : 1 7 - 1 9 . 29 Maurer had, i n t h e e a r l y p a r t of t h e f i r s t decade, p r o d u c e d i m a g e s o f women i n q u i e t d o m e s t i c i n t e r i o r s n o t u n l i k e t h o s e d e p i c t e d by t h e A m e r i c a n I m p r e s s i o n s i s t s . By 1 9 0 6 a d r a s t i c c h a n g e i n h i s a p p r o a c h was e v i d e n t . I n Woman w i t h Hat (1907, f i g .6 ) , t h e e x p r e s s i v e d i s t o r t i o n s o f t h e  62 f a c e and Fauvism.  the high-keyed  colour  show h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o  30 291 one  and and 31  Marin's 32  M a r i n had f o u r e x h i b i t i o n s between t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e A r m o r y Show c o m p a r e d t o H a r t l e y ' s t w o , D o v e ' s W a l k o w i t z ' s one. See R e i c h , J o h n M a r i n , f o r a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f s t y l i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s and development. . ... W i l l i a m D. M c C o l l , " E x h i b i t i o n o f W a t e r - C o l o r s ,  Pastels  and  E t c h i n g s by  John  M a r i n , " CW  30  (April  1910):  41.  33 " U n p h o t o g r a p h i c P a i n t : - The T e x t u r e o f I m p r e s s i o n i s m , " CW 28 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 0 9 ) : 2 0 . Quoted i n Barbara H a s k e l l , Marsden H a r t l e y (New Y o r k : W h i t n e y M u s e u m o f A m e r i c a n A r t , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 1 7 . 3 4  Ibid. 36 John  Sloan, i n a diary  entry  dated March  23,  1909,  wrote: Went t o G l a c k e n s s t u d i o t o s e e H a r t l e y ' s w o r k . It is broken color "Impressionism". Some t w o o r t h r e e c a n v a s e s I l i k e d - - t h e more s i n c e r e n e r v o u s s o r t . Some o f t h e m s e e m a f f e c t a t i o n s . . . The w o r k h a d , h o w e v e r , s e v e r a l good s p o t s i n i t . . . E v e r e t t [ S h i n n ] d o e s n ' t l i k e the H a r t l e y s even a l i t t l e b i t . . . F o u r d a y s l a t e r he w r o t e t h a t H a r t l e y ' s m y s t i c i s m was "a l i t t l e t o o m u c h f o r me, a n d I h o p e i t w o n ' t f i n a l l y p r o v e t o o much f o r h i s p a i n t i n g s . " ( J o h n S l o a n ' s New Y o r k S c e n e , B r u c e S t . J o h n , e d . (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row Publishers, 1965), n.p.) 37 Hartley, letter H a r t l e y , p. 17. 3 8  Ibid.,  p.  of  1908,  quoted  in Haskell,  Marsden  39.  39 Ibid. 40 1912):  M a r i u s de Z a y a s , pp. 45-6.  "The  Sun  has  S e t , " CW  39  (July  63  CHAPTER  The the  subject of modernity  work  along few  with  o f New  York  1909 w h e r e he  city.  1910.  Faced  environment  o f New  that  modernity.  city's  modernity  i n only  York  was  with  Y o r k he  t h e new  Unlike Paris,  upon v i s i t i n g  the  city  "the cubist,  its  architecture,  attempted  New  York  modern  i t sl i f e ,  York i n  social to depict  e x h i b i t e di t s  city  of the  city,  i n the world.  f o r t h e A r m o r y Show  the f u t u r i s t  city.'''  i t ss p i r i t  a  stay i n and  monuments o r a r e a s  thoroughly  Picabia,  visual  which  Alps,  t o New  for a brief  immediately  isolated  t h e most  except  into  exhibited,  of the Tyrolean  He h a d r e t u r n e d  remained,  enter  1912 when M a r i n  a group of watercolours  Europe d u r i n g  New  d i d not d i r e c t l y  e x h i b i t e d a t 291 u n t i l  views  late  THREE  called  I t expresses  the  modern  New  York  in  2 thought." was  visited  o n e o f many c o m m e n t a t o r s t o d e s c r i b e  striking, Writers unigue the  J o h n v a n D y k e , who  more i m p r e s s i v e  like  Van Dyke  qualities-  city,  than  any o t h e r  described  i t sskyline  city  the c i t y  on t h e  i n terms  of skyscrapers  globe".  of i t s  looming  above  and  frenzied  movement o f i t s c r o w d s - e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g  the  strange  or New  called  impermanence York's  Bridge,  "more  the noise  phenomenon  the Brooklyn  i t as  i n 1909,  "rush-hour",  i n the constant  modernity  Dyke p o i n t e d o u t :  was  the sense pulling  a product  of constant  down a n d  change  rebuilding.  of i t sbusiness,  as v a n  64 The e n o r m o u s b u i l d i n g s , t h e r o a r o f t h e t r a f f i c i n t h e s t r e e t s , the babel of tongues, the glare of the l i g h t s , the s t r i d e n t s c r e e c h o f c a r wheels, speak t h e b u s i n e s s c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c i t y a s t h e hum o f a t o p i t s s p i n n i n g m o t i o n . . . B u t t h e s k y s c r a p e r o f commerce l o o m s above the u n i v e r s i t y and t h e a r t g a l l e r y on t h e h o r i z o n l i n e of t h e c i t y ; and t h e m a s t e r b u i l d e r o f t h e s k y - s c r a p e r , the s o - c a l l e d c a p t a i n o f i n d u s t r y , seems t o f i l l t h e most c o n s p i c i o u s p l a c ^ i n t h e i n t e r e s t and a f f e c t i o n s of t h e c i t y ' s p e o p l e . Most city's or  Impressionist  modernity, preferring  the domestic  the  artists  subject,  features night,  scene.  such  to depict  However  as C h i l d e  of the city  ignored the fact  those  the rural  of the landscape  f e w who d i d a d d r e s s  Hassam, d e p i c t e d  t h e modern  s o f t e n e d and t r a n s f o r m e d by dusk,  or through v e i l s  o f snow o r m i s t .  As Donald  Kuspit  4 has  suggested,  such of  such  John  1910,  a t home w i t h -  i n a clear,  linear  Slightly  direct  the skyline  later  style  from  from  images  seemed  to function i n  or neutralize-or  the city's  M a r i n was t h e f i r s t  view  clear,  a depiction  a way a s t o n a t u r a l i z e  feeling  features  such  a way  modernity.  artist  t o r e p r e s e n t i t s modern  manner.  His first  a distance,  works,  depicting  across a harbour  such  find  from  i ti n a  or river.  a s D o w n t o w n New Y o r k  (1910) o r  F r o m t h e W i n d o w o f 2 9 1 L o o k i n g Down F i f t h  Avenue  (1911, f i g .  10)  from  closer  depict  viewpoint. views  from  appear  and b u i l d i n g s  The b u i l d i n g s , t o melt  an a p p r o p r i a t e this  streets  Here t h e s t r u c t u r e  i s lost.  colour, for  the city  and s o l i d i t y rendered  together.  That  a  of the e a r l i e r  i n broad  washes o f  M a r i n was  searching  means o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e s u b j e c t  note w r i t t e n  to Stieglitz  :  i s clear  65 A s y o u h a v e no d o u b t b e e n t o l d b y H a v i l a n d , t h e s k y s c r a p e r s s t r u c k a s n a g , f o r the p r e s e n t a t l e a s t ; so we h a d t o p u s h i n a new d i r e c t i o n . . . [ I ] t may b e a s t e p forward. L e t us hope s o . By  the  time  February obvious  o f h i s 1913  of  1913-just p r i o r  that  Marin  had  Camera Work n o t e d , previous  scenes,  such  as  D o w n t o w n New  Bridge,  S i n g e r and  structures the  47  he  story  (1912,  departure  only  York  surpassed  i n h e i g h t o n l y by  Completed  i n 1913  from  images  i n 1908  the Woolworth  the Woolworth B u i l d i n g  of  and of  Brooklyn  In  these  more modern  completed  any  generalized  Woolworth b u i l d i n g s .  Singer building,  As  series  (1912),  f i g . 1 1 ) but  c o u l d h a r d l y have found  was  direction.  In t h i s  i n w a t e r c o l o u r , not  Avenue  the  York."  and  Show, i t  a new  "a r a d i c a l  o f New  Movement, F i f t h and  taken  these were  showed,  held i n January  t o the Armory  indeed  interpretation  works M a r i n street  exhibition,  symbols;  was  building. was  the  world's  6 tallest  skyscraper at  60  was  not  to depict  the  city  or  the  feeling  the  city  instilled.  which  Avenue M a r i n buildings' way  suggests  axes  i n which  he  rendered into  them, p l a c e d i n the i s a clock Marin The  life  of  the  However, M a r i n ' s  i t s modernity  city's  the  one  space  resting  he  to  convey  by  by The  tilting  the  Fifth the  seemingly  crowd  where the  tilting  buildings  upon a somewhat u n s t e a d y  said,  was  i n a catalogue not  rapid  below i s  s u r g i n g mass o f movement.  explained his intention the c i t y ,  and  scene.  but  intent  I n Movement,  energy  at v a r i o u s angles  undifferientiated  meet,  stories.  Above do  not  pole. statement.  confined simply  to  66 its  people  and  b u i l d i n g s , was emotions. different  He  animals.  The  whole c i t y ,  including i t s  a l i v e by v i r t u e o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o move h i s s t r e s s e d t h a t i t was  h i s i n t e n t to express  f e e l i n g s t h a t the b u i l d i n g s c a l l e d  the  into being.  He  wrote: I see g r e a t f o r c e s a t w o r k ; g r e a t movements; t h e l a r g e b u i l d i n g s and t h e s m a l l b u i l d i n g s ; t h e w a r r i n g o f t h e g r e a t and t h e s m a l l ; i n f l u e n c e s o f one mass on a n o t h e r g r e a t e r o r s m a l l e r mass. F e e l i n g s a r e a r o u s e d w h i c h g i v e me t h e d e s i r e t o e x p r e s s t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e s e • p u l l f o r c e s , ' t h o s e i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h p l a y w i t h one a n o t h e r ; g r e a t masses p u l l i n g s m a l l e r m a s s e s , each s u b j e c t i n some d e g r e e t o t h e o t h e r ' s power. I n l i f e a l l t h i n g s come u n d e r t h e m a g n e t i c i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r t h i n g s ; the b i g g e r a s s e r t themselves s t r o n g l y , t h e s m a l l e r n o t so much, b u t t h e y s t i l l a s s e r t thems e l v e s , and t h o u g h h i d d e n t h e y s t r i v e t o be s e e n and i n d o i n g so change t h e i r b e n t and d i r e c t i o n . W h i l e t h e s e p o w e r s a r e a t work p u s h i n g , p u l l i n g , s i d e w a y s , downwards, u p w a r d s , I can h e a r t h e sound o f t h e i r s t r i f e . And so I t r y t o e x p r e s s g r a p h i c a l l y what a great c i t y i s doing. W i t h i n t h e f r a m e s t h e r e must be a b a l a n c e , a c o n t r o l l i n g of these w a r r i n g , p u s h i n g , pulling forces. T h i s i s what I am t r y i n g t o r e a l i ze. M a r i n saw  t h e b u i l d i n g s o f New  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f w a r r i n g and His  intent,  attempt  pushing  f o r c e s or  powers.  to r e a l i z e  frame a b a l a n c e o r c o n t r o l o v e r them.  within This  of c o u r s e , a s y m b o l i c or i m a g i n a t i v e o n e —  t o come t o t e r m s w i t h h i s own  a d m i r a t i o n and letter  t h e n , as a  i n d e p i c t i n g t h e s e f o r c e s , was  the p i c t o r i a l b a l a n c e was,  York,  simultaneous  f e a r of these symbols of modernity.  to S t i e g l i t z Marin expressed  an  t h i s changing  In a response;  Maybe now and t h e n a l i t t l e f i t o f t h e b l u e s , b u t t h e n t h e r e a r e d a y s when I am g l a d t o be a l i v e and j u s t t o see t h e w o n d e r f u l c i t y i n i t s d i f f e r e n t  67 a s p e c t s and t h e n I s a y , I w i l l ! I w i l l ! I w i l l ! I h a v e j u s t s t a r t e d some D o w n t o w n s t u f f a n d t o p i l e t h e s e g r e a t h o u s e s one u p o n a n o t h e r w i t h p a i n t as t h e y do s o m e t i m e s p i l e t h e m s e l v e s up t h e r e s o b e a u t i f u l , s o f a n t a s t i c - a t t i m e s one i s a f r a i d t o l o o k a t them b u t f e e l s l i k e r u n n i n g away. This  ambivalence  depicting appears the  and  mere f a c t  virile  of  second  15,  1912-  January  concentrated the  people  scenes the  dancers 9  works  Island  upper  1913,  was  unlike  the c i t y . digging  beach,  groups  d e p i c t e d park  in their  the the  half  He  scene  is typically  lower h a l f  a river  foliage  of  trees  provide  vertical,  or  or  of  held  modernity  from  Marin's  skyline  December  i n that i t  o f New  York  of people  i n the  sights  that  t o have been scenes.  and  Scene  in half.  into  The  one  scenes  are  presented i n (n.d.,  horizontal while  lower  the  band  defines  trunks of these  diagonal,contrast  t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and  might  those  These  line  l a k e w h i l e the upper  occasionally  10  i n the Park  divided  on  street, any  are u s u a l l y  but  of  subway t r e n c h e s , b a t h e r s  a f a r s h o r e . The  and  theme o f  d e f i n e s the ground  i s again divided  lines  Like  works  express  d e p i c t e d a range  or beach  construction format.  represents  horizontal  the  His exhibition,  "men  long horizontal  bands-  with  . L a r g e s t i n number a p p e a r which  fig.12)  to deal  upon the s t a g e , a t h o u s a n d  formulaic a  within  of  scale.  upon the c o m m e r c i a l  including  Coney  see.."  not  14,  series  w h i l e i n o t h e r s i t seems t o  artist  Abraham W a l k o w i t z .  i n the  I n some t h e s k y s c r a p e r  i t s overpowering  was  on  clear  the Woolworth B u i l d i n g .  tall  The  is especially  the trees to  are d i s t r i b u t e d  the in  68 s u c h a way  that  dispersal.  the  scene  These t r e e s  plane,  thereby refusing  within  this  structure  pairs  or groups,  often  arranged within  scale, for  further  the  rare  Matisse  qualities. quality blocky  but  the  the  life  The  of  parallel  that  of  the c i t y  John  Sloan's Picnic  of  the  figure,  and  are clothed  in their  In  significance attention  of t h i s  be  figures  and  seen  of  are  the  details  naive  heavy,  figure of  are  dress  i n Walkowitz's  both  modeling  disrupts  only  t h e modern q u a l i t y  fig.13)  shows  pictorial  and  work  that  conventions  realistic  e l a b o r a t e d upon  f o r 291. from  He  of  to  rendering  those conventions.  Bluemner  distance  choice  depicted not  of Walkowitz's  (1906-7,  disruption  to Walkowitz's  to  decorative surface  Details  specifically  Camera Work O s c a r  in  to h i s compositions the  "Eight";  narrative,  Except  face.  can  Grounds  Walkowitz  in  are  s h o w some i n d e b t e d n e s s  However a c o m p a r i s o n  scale,  Arranged  They  figures  the  the but  picture  or arranged  the  Sloan respects the t r a d i t i o n a l  depth,  depth.  suggestion of depth.  scenes  similarities  life.  of  to the  any  only modeling of  rhythmic  landscape without regard f o r  a r t , Walkowitz's  not  features  that  whereas  the  colouration  including  and  their  singular  betray a naive quality.  Obvious  by  the p i c t u r e  figures-  scene,  dress.  omitted-  themes  are  children's  and  of  to lend  Attempting to lend  of  also  are arranged  disturbing  in their  up  seated, s t a n d i n g or r e c l i n i n g .  beach  contemporary  i s broken  called  the  69 "naturalistic-academic" antithesis its  own  the  reality  organism, However eye",  of  despite  Bluemner  i t s own  and  said,  calling  Each  inner  real,  by  way  experience".  of  by  "the  he  which  quality,  pictures  to  "has  i t is  an  nature.  "a  feeling  look  imagination  Bluemner  living  said,  d i f f e r e n t from  anti-academic Walkowitz's  him  picture,  laws,  purposefully  their  "naturalistic", corresponding  "Academic".  and  totally  painting,  and  memory  of  explained:  ...Walkowitz goes at once to the fundamental r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t i n t e n s e and specific f e e l i n g , as w e l l a s a b s o l u t e h a r m o n y , a r e a l w a y s actuated and r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y by a s i n g l e m o t i v e o f n a t u r e a t a t i m e , a theme o f a f i g u r e or o f a s c e n e , o f any o b j e c t o r g e n e r a l e f f e c t , w h i l e a l l e l s e t h a t t h a t m a k e s up t h e n a t u r a l e n s e m b l e , i s i r r e l e v a n t t o t h a t one s p e c i f i c p i c t o r i a l i d e a . Therefore he ignores the t o t a l i t y of n a t u r e , e l i m i n a t e s a l l the i r r e l e v a n c i e s , d i s s o l v e s the n a t u r a l c o r p o r a t i o n of the r e m a i n i n g f e a t u r e s a n d q u a l i t i e s , and r e a r r a n g e s t h e m i n a new c o m p o s i t i o n o f l i n e a m e n t s and tone-figurations d i s t r i b u t e d over the p i c t u r e p l a n e . In d o i n g t h a t he i s now c o n s c i o u s o n l y of the p i c t o r i a l sensation d e r i v e d f r o m t h e a c t u a l m o t i v e t o be e x p r e s s e d . He l i m i t s h i m s e l f to the i n t e n s e e x p r e s s i o n of the motive and makes i t s p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t i e s t h e m o t i f o f a composition. By r e p e t i t i o n , v a r i a t i o n , a r r a n g e m e n t , c o - o r d i n a t i o n , b a l a n c e a n d a l w a y s by a rhythmical f e e l i n g , a new, u n r e a l , p u r e l y e x p r e s s i v e v i s i o n of life-sensation is created.... To a s k w h a t he w a n t s t o s a y o r w h a t p a r t i c u l a r i t y he saw, i s not to the point. A f t e r a l l , t h e p a i n t e r s e e s a s he f e e l s ; t h e spectator i s l e f t ^ t o t h a t v i s i b l e o u t c o m e - and t o h i s own imagination. Several  key  ideas  Walkowitz's  paintings  inner  laws  laws,  nature.  Their  dissolution  and  which  can have are  construction  be  found  their  own  within  Bluemner's  reality  and  their  intentionally different is  rearrangement  dependent of  the  upon  the  "natural",  text.  a  from  own  70 re-arrangement The  ultimate  a vision thus  which  purpose  which  The Arthur  by  and  March of  The  not  Camera Work d e s c r i b e d  them,  called  own  response  them,  suggesting  " e x t r a c t i o n s " from  nature,  since h i s stay  i n France  Inspired  Fauvism  decided to  compositions Symbolized is  based  rely  pastels  undertaking  Impressionism",  #2  to reduce  form  his late  to l a r g e areas of pure (Wind  solely  on  on H i l l s i d e ) the play  as  as  of experiments w i t h  had  were,  known c o l l e c t i v e l y  culmination  he  form  on the  exhibited  solely  were,  on h i s  as  Dove  extraction  a process of d i s t i l l a t i o n .  by  recognizable  were o r i g i n a l l y  The  in  designs based  the viewer would  t o them.  291  of e l i m i n a t i o n  "decorative  Commandments", t h e w o r k s  her  qualities"  Later  of  i n Walkowitz's  t e n p a s t e l s shown a t 291  "Ten  or  i n the work  e x h i b i t i o n at  the p r i n c i p l e  colour".  so t h a t  solo  Whereas  line,  titles  and  found  of  can  imagination.  pure  without  form  viewer  of h i s or her  a r e t o be  Dove t o o k  The  intellectual  1912.  s e r i e s of  feeling.  t h r o u g h an  his first  of  qualities.  a process i s the expression  " a l lirrelevant  remained,  further.  had  a l l irrelevant  upon  the e x e r c i s e  same p r i n c i p l e s  elimination still  such  the r e s u l t  D o v e , who  February  of  i s dependent  appreciate  process but  eliminates  The that  works were Dove had  during  the  been  1908-9.  "simplify  Impressionist colour.  (c.1912,  of a b s t r a c t  In  landscape Nature  fig.14)  formal  expression  elements-  the  71 juxtaposition repetition dynamism the  and c o n t r a s t  and s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n  of tones,  of curvilinear  i m p l i e d by t h e f r e e - f l o a t i n g  process  series  of colour  by w h i c h he p r o d u c e d  the forms  patterns.  and t h e  Describing  h i s "Ten Commandments"  Dove w r o t e :  The f i r s t s t e p was t o c h o s e f r o m n a t u r e a m o t i f i n c o l o r and w i t h t h a t m o t i f t o p a i n t f r o m n a t u r e , t h e forms being s t i l l o b j e c t i v e . The s e c o n d s t e p was t o a p p l y t h i s same p r i n c i p l e t o f o r m , t h e a c t u a l dependence upon t h e o b j e c t ( r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ) d i s a p p e a r i n g , and t h e means o f e x p r e s s i o n becoming p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e . After w o r k i n g f o r some t i m e i n t h i s w a y , I no l o n g e r o b s e r v e d i n t h e o l d way, a n d , n o t o n l y b e g a n t o t h i n k s u b j e c t i v e l y b u t a l s o t o remember c e r t a i n s e n s a t i o n s p u r e l y t h r o u g h t h e i r f o r m and c o l o r , t h a t i s , by c e r t a i n s h a p e s , p l a n e s o f l i g h t , o r c h a r a c t e r l i n e s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e m e e t i n g o f s u c h planes. With the introduction of the l i n e motif the e x p r e s s i o n grew more p l a s t i c and t h e ^ s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e means became l e s s e v i d e n t . What b e g a n  as o b j e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f m o t i f s  became t r a n s f o r m e d final but  result  (Wind  windy h i l l s i d e painting" thing".  t o those  on a H i l l s i d e )  i n order  t o express  In the  facts.  Thus  Nature  began as a d r a w i n g  "the s p i r i t  of a  "rhythmic of the whole  1 3  reference  work  to the world  produced  called  response  nature  not of o b j e c t i v e f a c t s  b u t became a n o n - o b j e c t i v e  In H a r t l e y ' s  he  a subjective process.  t h e w o r k s became r e c o r d s  the a r t i s t ' s  Symbolized  through  from  of late  of objects  a s e r i e s o f about  Intuitive  1912 and e a r l y i s broken.  twenty  A b s t r a c t i o n s , Cosmic  1913 a l l At that  time  c a n v a s e s w h i c h he Cubism  or Subliminal  72 Cubism.  With  the f i n a n c i a l  able  to travel  kept  i n close  Initially Hartley  t o Europe touch v i t h  attracted  support  in April  o f 1912.  Stieglitz  to the vorks  s o o n became d i s i l l u s i o n e d  of S t i e g l i t z He  Hartley  nonetheless  and t h e members  of the P a r i s i a n vith  vhat  vas  o f 291. avant-garde  he b e l i e v e d  to  14 be  the  excessive intellectualism  of the French.  became a t t a c h e d t o a g r o u p  o f German a r t i s t s  and  l e a n i n g s reneved  through  attempts  artists  Reiter.  "recurrence in  mystical  to express  t h e German Blaue  their  January  spirituality  living  of r e l i g i o u s  his art.  he v r o t e t o S t i e g l i t z aspirations".  (fig.15)  i n Paris  his earlier  he v a s i n t r o d u c e d t o K a n d i n s k y  By O c t o b e r  o f 1913  through  He  and Der  of h i s  Painting  v a s one o f t h e l a s t  Through  N o . 1, b e g u n of the  series. Regarding the vorks Hartley vrote t o S t i e g l i t z : M o d e r n a r t i s n o v t a k i n g a p l u n g e i n v a r d a n d men are r e v o l t i n g a g a i n s t s u p e r f i c i a l ideas. E a c h man i s t r y i n g t o l o o k t o h i m s e l f and s e e v h a t he f i n d s there. Inspired vhat  by P i c a s s o ' s a n a l y t i c a l  Hartley  called  and  Kandinsky's  of  Intuitive  cubist  forms  Picasso's intuitive,  abstract  forms  Abstractions.  Hartley  (the result  creative  produced  He v r o t e t o  of  processes)  h i s series  Stieglitz:  I d i d t h e s e t h i n g s . . . as a r e s u l t o f s p i r i t u a l i l l u m i n a t i o n s a n d I am c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t i s my t r u e a n d r e a l u t t e r a n c e . . . I am c o n v i n c e d o f t h e Bergson argument i n p h i l o s o p h y , t h a t t h e i n t u i t i o n i s t h e o n l y v e h i c l e f o r a r t e x p r e s s i o n a n d i t i s on t h i s b a s i s t h a t I am p r o c e e d i n g - My f i r s t i m p u l s e s came f r o m t h e m e r e s u g g e s t i o n i n K a n d i n s k y ' s b o o k The S p i r i t u a l i n A r t . With  Hartley,  accompanied  then,  the t o t a l  by a c o m p l e t e  break  closing  vith  representation i s  of t h e eyes  to the outside  73 world. result  A r t t o him of  We art  was  spiritual  have seen  produced  by  naturalistic  the  form  took  first  major  d u r i n g the years  291  shift  The  dependent  upon b o t h  chosen  impact  e v i d e n t i n 291's  of  through  which  avant-garde. European  shown a t  291  less  was  1913  less  of  that  scene  the  i n our  In Dove's work of  the  of  of M a r i n  period that  is  completely broken;  or is  symbolic carried  European by  current  during this  objective world  link  that  were  e x p e r i m e n t a l as  to the  to read  and  form--  i s evident.  "inner logic"  the  the  argued,  period  perceiving.  shift  refers  attempt 1912  abstractions".  emotional  from  to  a r t , I have  traditional  way  upon t h e  the  intercedes  1913,  Smith  significance  borrowed  another  still  but  the  relatively  Colman  content of  became i n c r e a s i n g l y and  to  from  this  carried  relatively  Walkowitz  almost  from  the  they  impact  While  and  and  Thus H a r t l e y ' s mountains  matter. park  and  viewer's habitual  1912  1907  w i t h the work  s t a n d a r d s , the works produced  disturbed By  1910  the work  f o r him, The  depend  to  form  significance. a form  changed  a r t of Pamela  subject matter. because,  intuition  in Hartley's "intuitive  p l a c e d u r i n g 1908  the  artists  i n the  Hartley.  is,  e x p r e s s i o n of  illumination.  how,  non-representation The  an  the  the  artists  facts  of  pictures  picture  to the world  art  for subject  objective  of h i s  The  "as of  reality".  objects i s  i t s e r v e s as h i s s t a r t i n g  point,  74  his  source  works  i s really  objective and  of i n s p i r a t i o n ,  years  291.  inner,  A s we h a v e  concerned  Hartley's  with  1912  of objects  h i s own i n n e r  world.  form during t h e  were thought passion.  constant  t h e same s t a t e s o f s u b j e c t i v i t y ;  from  the statement  remains:  t h e pages  Renaissance  de C a s s e r e s  part  f o runderstanding.  tools with said  very  artists  the importance of  i s only  states-- passion,  f a rsuperior  Marsden  o f Camera Work, t h i s  the i n t e l l e c t  f o rexperience,  Benjamin  the European  t o h a v e made r e g a r d i n g  'irrational'  - were  states remained  s e e n n o t a l l a r t shown a t t h e g a l l e r y  Throughout  conviction capacity  "irrational"  m y s t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , was  much d i f f e r e n t  o f one's  F o r 291  imagination,  which  intuition-  to experience  i n an a r t i c l e  single  entitled  life. "The  of the I r r a t i o n a l " ,  i n t e l l e c t i s bankrupt. I t i s o n l y a park pond. M i s s i s s i p p i and t h e Amazon f l o w t h r o u g h t h e h e a r t . '  A distinction in  i n artistic  of a setof  works o f l a t e  world  t o express  o f Dove's  1908 t o 1913 t h e i n s i s t e n c e upon t h e i m p o r t a n c e  at  The The  to the outer  t h e changes  expressing  As  In Hartley's  and he a t t e m p t s  of  the  facts.  1913 a l l r e f e r e n c e  Despite  was  h i s subjective experience  visual  disappears  but the subject  which  w a s made i n t h e i r  the rational  minds as t o t h e realms  and i r r a t i o n a l  operated.  Rationality  75  or  the  what On  intellect,  i s r e a l , what  a deeper  the is  they  level  said,  i s p r a c t i c a l , and i s the  realm  irrational qualities. actually  order  the  a code,  world.  i s concerned  world  i t i s , i s unknowable  thoughts, What 291 nature  emotions, was  of  trying  in  of  the work  that later  disrupt  by  but  reality  which  reality  f o r our  the  1908 way  and  1913  i n which  we  actually  in truth  own  the  perceptions, world. was  the  simply  1912  the  t h e r e seems t o  291's  s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of  of Smith  and  the  ideological  which  of  the  for  serves  Initially,  example, However  process  to  the  the  actually  rather  n e c e s s i t y f o r change.  i n v o l v e d i n the viewer's wrote,  addressed  i s intended  a r t i c l e s i n Camera Work s p e a k o f  a r t , they  have  reality.  described, pointed to.  in a disintegrative  speaking  strategy  Europeans,  s t r a t e g y b e c o m e s one  than  Most  i n the  the viewer  processes  t o be  to point to, i n e f f e c t ,  c o n s t r u c t i o n was the  world  and  reality.  been a s h i f t fact  real  certain.  intercede to colour that  However between  the  mistake  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  to d e s c r i b e the  is  defining  unconscious  conventions  pretends as  what  the  W h a t we  a set of  Our  of  with  By  different  engagement w i t h a r t .  purpose  of  a fairy  tale-  18 to  i t delights, music  hypnotic.  amuses and  distracts.  S a d a k i c h i Hartmann He  Comparing  described this  art  process  as  wrote:  A melody i s complete i n i t s e l f . P r o d u c e d by i n s t i n c t i t a l s o c o n t r o l s the i n s t i n c t of the l i s t e n e r . It i s f l u i d s e n s u o u s and h y p n o t i c . We a r e c a r r i e d a w a y , as on t h e r u s h o f s t r a n g e m u s i c a l w a t e r s .  76  We  are thus  purpose or the  controlled,  by t h e w o r k .  The  o f 2 9 1 ' s a r t , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , was t o e n l i g h t e n  reveal,  t o provoke  grooves  second  hypnotized  d i s c o m f o r t — one w h i c h  of action".  approach  again  "disturbs  C a r r y i n g the analogy  t o music  Hartmann  of  this  wrote:  A broken melody, ending a b r u p t l y i n s i l e n c e or i n s o u n d s u n r e l a t e d t o t h e m e l o d y , s t a r t s us up f r o m o u r "mystic musings". I t i s subtler, irritating, i t makes-us t h i n k . Conclusions are not positive. The e f f e c t s a r e more u n c e r t a i n . The r e s u l t i s h a l f - f a n c i e d . It i s l i k e struggling i n the breakers.  The  "fragmentary  leaving to  certain  de C a s s e r e s  The a p p e a l said  consisted of  and a p p e a l i n g t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n  The i n t e l l e c t ,  i n the process.  Benjamin  he c o n c l u d e d ,  things unsaid  s o l v e the problem.  bypassed as  approach",  i n effect, was  was  " t o the deeps",  i n "The U n c o n s c i o u s  i nArt", 22  but  only  emotion  What t h e y being the  of awakening  the unconscious.  w e r e a r g u i n g , t h e n , was t h a t t h e  bound  up i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n  everyday,  unless  was c a p a b l e  was  intellect,  of the 'real',  the practical,  incapable of breaking r e a l i t y ' s  i t was i n f o r m e d  by t h e deeper p r o c e s s e s  'spell'  of the  unconscious. In  looking  t o Europe,  to  the not-yet  civilized  of  consciousness  modes o f t h o u g h t of  present  to the "imaginative past",  and t o t h e i r r a t i o n a l  291 was l o o k i n g and q u a l i t i e s  American  culture.  to find,  of being  and  alien  By p o i n t i n g  states integrate, to that  to the ideological  77  nature its  of the construction of r e a l i t y  inevitability, As  recent  and  reality.  their  would  have  society.  Croly  three  suicide"  defined  counts:  familiar  some d i s t a n c e f r o m  fact  of their  on t o t h e i r  were  enough w i t h  foreign  other  the American  foreign  origins,  identities,  a l i e n a t e d them f r o m t h e m a i n s t r e a m Increasing immigration  t o the "promise  Herbert on  The v e r y  effectively  of "race  threat  to take  desire to hold  of American fear  t h e m a j o r i t y o f 291 members  or at least  t o be a b l e  questioning desirability.  1  immigrants,  social  were  i t s'naturalness , i t s very  we h a v e s e e n ,  cultures  they  was o f t e n p e r c e i v e d of American  life",  and t h e  t o be a s e r i o u s a promise  as s u p e r i o r t o t h e European  economic w e l l - b e i n g , p o l i t i c a l  which  countries  freedom  23 and  social  were  and m o r a l  forced  identity,  Subsequently  t o become A m e r i c a n i z e d ,  as q u i c k l y  pressure  and r e v e r s e d  American  life  of  integrity.  was  immigrants  to lose their  foreign  as p o s s i b l e .  291 r e s i s t e d  this  the equation  by i n s i s t i n g  that  essentially  problematic  and i n need  redefining. However u n l i k e t h e v a s t  who  concentrated  291  attempted  and  perception.  proceed would  upon t h e need  to break  A l l other  from t h i s  dominant  although  for structural  the very  one.  become t r a n s f o r m e d  because  majority of Progressives,  How  change, they o r what  was n e v e r  2 9 1 was c a p a b l e  ideology,  framework  of  change, thought  argued,  would  structures of society addressed,  essentially  of c r i t i c i z i n g  American  i t d i d not see the r e l a t i o n s h i p  of  78  ideology, and  or the  economic  focused cause  inner  structures.  upon e f f e c t s ,  and  processes of the psyche,  effect.  As  rather  such t h e i r  to  critique  than the r e l a t i o n s h i p  political  remained between  79 NOTES '''Amy K u r l a n d e r , " C u b i s m a n d M o d e r n P a r i s , " U n p u b l i s h e d working paper, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y seminar, Spring 1987. 2  . . . . . . F r a n c i s P i c a b i a , 1913, q u o t e d i n D o m i n i c R i c c i o t t i , "The R e v o l u t i o n i n U r b a n T r a n s p o r t : Max W e b e r a n d Italian F u t u r i s m , " T h e A m e r i c a n A r t J o u r n a l 16:1 ( W i n t e r 1 9 8 4 ) : 46-64. 3  J o h n v a n D y k e , The New New Y o r k (New Y o r k : T h e M a c M i l l a n Co., 1 9 0 9 ) , p. 15. 4 . . . D o n a l d K u s p i t , " I n d i v i d u a l and Mass I d e n t i t y i n U r b a n A r t : The New Y o r k C a s e , " i n T h e C r i t i c a s A r t i s t : t h e I n t e n t i o n a l i t y o f A r t (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : U.M.I. R e s e a r c h P r e s s , 1 9 8 4 ) , p. 292. 5 J o h n M a r i n , l e t t e r t o S t i e g l i t z , d a t e d New York, O c t o b e r 11, 1910. In Herbert Seligmann (ed.), L e t t e r s of John M a r i n ( W e s t p o r t , Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 0 ) , n.p. CL  Bayrd University  Still, Press,  M i r r o r f o r Gotham 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 257.  (New  York:  New  York  7  . . John M a r i n ' s c a t a l o g u e s t a t e m e n t r e p r i n t e d i n "Notes o n " 2 9 1 " - W a t e r c o l o r s b y J o h n M a r i n , " CW 4 2 / 4 3 ( A p r i l - J u l y 1 9 1 3 ) : 18. J o h n M a r i n ( i n New Y o r k ) t o A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z ( i n E u r o p e ) , i n S e l i g m a n n , L e t t e r s o f J o h n M a r i n , n.p. 9 , ,  Photo-Secession  Notes,"  CW  41  (January 1913):  26.  ^ I t i s very d i f f i c u l t to reconstruct Walkowitz's oeuvre f o r several reasons. M u c h o f h i s e a r l y w o r k was originally undated. L a t e r i n l i f e the a r t i s t went back t h r o u g h h i s w o r k s and a s s i g n e d them d a t e s r a t h e r capriciously. As v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n p a i d t o W a l k o w i t z i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h e s e problems of d a t i n g have y e t t o be s o l v e d . For a d i s c u s s i o n of the p r o b l e m see S h e l d o n R e i c h , "Abraham W a l k o w i t z : P i o n e e r o f E a r l y Modernism," The A m e r i c a n A r t J o u r n a l 3:1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 1 ) : 72-82. U  0scar  Bluemner,  " W a l k o w i t z , " CW  44  (October  1913):  25. 12 1913.  AQ ur ot th eudr  Di onv e ro t vh eu :r LJ ie fr eo m ea n dE d W do y, A n,n l Le et et e rM o wr rg ia tn t, e nA r tf ho ur r A D rk,  80 w i t h a C a t a l o g u e R a i s o n n e (Newark: U n i v e r s i t y o f Delaware P r e s s , 1 9 8 4 ) , p. 39. 13 A r t h u r Dove, s t a t e m e n t w r i t t e n f o r Samuel K o o t z , 1930. Quoted i n Morgan, A r t h u r Dove, pp. 106-7. 14 . . H a r t l e y , i n December 1912, w r o t e t o S t i e g l i t z f r o m Paris complaining of " a l l these i n t e l l e c t u a l c a t a l e p t i c s " : T h e y a r e s t i m u l a t i n g i n some s e n s e b u t t h e y d o n ' t go m u c h o f a n y w h e r e . They a r e a l l i n a bunch h e r e , t a l k i n g each o t h e r t o madness, d e s p i s i n g each o t h e r s ' work, s i p p i n g d r i n k s t o g e t h e r and s m i l i n g l i k e children." ( Q u o t e d i n R o x a n n a B a r r y , "The A g e o f B l o o d a n d I r o n : M a r s d e n H a r t l e y i n B e r l i n , " A r t s M a g a z i n e 54:3 (November 1979) : 166. ) 15 Marsden H a r t l e y , l e t t e r Stieglitz. Quoted i n H a s k e l l , ^ I b i d . , p . 28 .  o f O c t o b e r 1912, t o M a r s d e n H a r t l e y , p. 27.  81  Conclusion  By  the time of the Armory  1913 m o d e r n i s m h a d America. devoted  Whereas  taken hold, Stieglitz's  t o the continuous  1913, between  1913  and  organizations  held  over  Correspondingly, 291 of  lost  c o l l e c t o r s began  infrequency, own  felt;  g a l l e r y ond o n l y  291 b e t w e e n Marcel  not  to Stieglitz  gallery  1908  remained  defined  at  A s we  function with  that  t o have  W o r k was  alone. art.  the  published  moved  with  were  during  gravitated.  their  exhibited  the war,  Finally  out  greater  F u r t h e r m o r e , when F r a n c i s York  As  enthusiasm  a w a y f r o m h i m t o s e t up  t o New  they  York  i n modern  lost  to  and  in effect,  European a r t i s t s  1917.  Duchamp moved  to invest  one  at  Picabia i t was  i n 1917  the  closed.  During  291.  four  1913 a n d  and  appears  moved  of  the only  art prior  galleries  as m o d e r n i s m ,  Camera  colleagues  remained  e x h i b i t i o n s i n New  i t sexclusiveness,  previously  g a l l e r y had  thirty-four  250  and March  i f but a t e n t a t i v e one, i n  e x h i b i t i o n o f modern  1918  h i s domain, S t i e g l i t z  had  Show o f F e b r u a r y  t o 1913, however, modernism by S t i e g l i t z  have  seen,  as a c r i t i q u e  materialism,  and h i s c o l l e a g u e s  i t was  originally  of American  society—  i t s i n s i s t e n c e upon  repression  of passion  and  'reality',  the i n e v i t a b i l i t y  i n America  intended i t s  propriety  i t sunquestioning of the l o g i c a l ,  and  artists to  preoccupation  and t h e  i n s i s t e n c e upon practical  and  the  82  and  certain.  was  that which,  the  expression  perceptual dependent  What 291 a t t e m p t e d  to introduce  t o American  t o them, modernism r e p r e s e n t e d : of emotion  framerorks. upon v i s i o n  To  and a b r e a k w i t h 291 s i g h t  through  closed  into eyes.  society  spontaneity,  conventional the world  was  83 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books and E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e s Aaron, Barr,  Daniel. 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M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t , New Stieglitz Collection, 1949.  Watercolour. York. Alfred  98  Fig.5-  H e n r i de T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c . Woman i n C o r s e t - C o n q u e s t o f P a s s a g e , 1896. lithograph, printed i n colour. M u s e u m o f M o d e r n A r t , New Y o r k . G i f t o f A b b y A l d r i c h R o c k e f e l l e r , 1946.  99  Fig.6-  A l f r e d H. M a u r e r . Woman v i t h H a t , 1 9 0 7 . o i l on canvas. U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska A r t G a l l e r i e s , Lincoln. Bertha Schaefer Bequest.  100  Fig.7-  John Marin. M i l l s and B r i d g e , Meaux, 1907. watercolour. E s t a t e of John M a r i n . M a r l b o r o u g h G a l l e r y , I n c . , New Y o r k .  101  Fig.8-  Marsden H a r t l e y . Cosmos, 1908-9. A r t . G i f t o f F e r d i n a n d Howald.  Columbus  Museum o f  102  Fig.9-  M a r s d e n H a r t l e y . The D a r k M o u n t a i n , 1 9 0 9 . The A r t I n s t i t u t e o f C h i c a g o . The A l f r e d Stieglitz Collection.  103  Fig.10-  John Marin. F r o m t h e W i n d o w o f 2 9 1 L o o k i n g Down F i f t h A v e n u e , 1 9 1 2 . w a t e r c o l o u r . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t . The A l f r e d S t i e g l i t z C o l l e c t i o n , 1 9 4 9 .  104  Fig.11-  John M a r i n . Movement, F i f t h Avenue, watercolor. A r t I n s t i t u t e of Chicago. Stieglitz Collection.  1912. Alfred  105  Fig.12-  Abraham W a l k o w i t z . Scene i n t h e P a r k , n.d. pastel on p a p e r . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t . B e q u e s t o f C h a r l e s F. I k l e , 1963.  106  Fig.13-  John Sloan. canvas. The York.  The P i c n i c G r o u n d s , 1 9 0 6 - 7 . o i l on W h i t n e y M u s e u m o f A m e r i c a n A r t , New  107  .14-  A r t h u r Dove. N a t u r e S y m b o l i z e d No.2 ( W i n d o n a H i l l s i d e , 1 9 1 1 / 1 2 . p a s t e l on l i n e n . The A r t I n s t i t u t e of Chicago. Alfred S t i e g l i t z Collection.  108  Fig.15-  M a r s d e n H a r t l e y . P a i n t i n g No. 1, 1 9 1 3 . of Nebraska, L i n c o l n A r t G a l l e r i e s . F.M. Collection.  University Hall  

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