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Inaugural art of Bird Jaguar IV : rewriting history at Yaxchilan Bardsley, Sandra Eleanor 1987

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INAUGURAL ART OF BIRD REWRITING HISTORY AT JAGUAR IV: YAXCHILAN By SANDRA ELEANOR BARDSLEY B . E d . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Fine Arts We accept t h i s thes i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1987 © S a n d r a Eleanor Bards ley , 1987 4 8 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^jiMl LL*Ag, The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 ABSTRACT Monumental a r t of the Maya incorporates f i g u r a l imagery and h i e r o g l y p h i c texts to document dynast ic and mythical h i s t o r y . One p a r t i c u l a r monument t e l l s us that near the end of A p r i l in 752 A . D . , B i r d Jaguar IV was inaugurated as r u l e r of the Mayan c i t y now known as Yaxch i lan . Inves t iga t ion of h i s s c u l p t u r a l programmes reveals a m u l t i p l i c i t y of innovative so lu t ions for B i r d Jaguar's unpara l l e l ed problems in v a l i d a t i n g a tenuous c l a i m to r u l e r s h i p of Y a x c h i l a n . It appears that in order to compensate for his i n s u f f i c i e n t genea log ica l c l a i m , B i r d Jaguar fabr i ca ted a s er i e s of r i t u a l events which proclaimed his p o l i t i c a l l eg i t imacy . This study examines the intended i n t e g r a t i o n of two p a r a l l e l systems of communication: the v i s u a l and h i erog lyph ic languages of the Maya. Ana lys i s shows how B i r d Jaguar's a r t i s t s presented symbolic references which manipulated the past h i s t o r y , j u s t i f i e d the current h i s t o r y , and e s tab l i shed the future p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y of Yaxch i lan . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i LIST OF CHARTS iv LIST OF FIGURES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I .A The S i t e : Se t t ing and Sculpture 1 I .B Previous Studies of Yaxchi lan 3 I . C Present Methodology 7 CHAPTER II DOCUMENTATION, THEMES,& STYLES I I . A Dynastic Documentation 9 I I .B S c u l p t u r a l Themes and Sty les 23 CHAPTER III DESCRIPTION OF STELA 11:CONTEXT & CONTENT I I I . A Structure 40 35 I I I . B Stelae 11, 12 and 13 36 I I I . C Summary 48 CHAPTER IV THE FLAPSTAFF RITUAL IV. A Ca lendr ic and Glyphic Data 52 IV. B The F i g u r a l Scene 58 V. C Summary 71 CHAPTER V THE BARBEL GOD RITUAL V . A Ca lendr ic and Glyphic Data 80 V.B The F i g u r a l Scene 84 V . C Summary 8 8 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 9 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 104 CHARTS 113 FIGURES.. 119 BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION i v L I S T OF CHARTS PAGE C h a r t 1. The Y a x c h i l a n D y n a s t i e s : m o d i f i e d a f t e r T a t e 1 9 86:465 113 C h a r t 2. C a l e n d r i c a n d A s t r o n o m i c a l D a t a f o r S t e l a 1 1 : f r o m L o u n s b u r y ' s C a l e n d r i c C o r r e l a t i o n s , T a t e 1 9 8 6 , T u c k e r m a n 1964 . 114 C h a r t 3. C a l e n d r i c a n d A s t r o n o m i c a l D a t a R e l e v a n t t o S t e l a 1 1 : f r o m L o u n s b u r y ' s C a l e n d r i c C o r r e l a t i o n s , S c h e i e 1 9 8 2 , T a t e 1 9 8 6 . 115 C h a r t 4. G r a p h : C o n v e r g e n c e o f T h r e e C y c l i c M i d p o i n t s . D r a w i n g b y L i l l i a n S t a r r 116 C h a r t 5. S y n t h e s i s o f D a t a R e l e v a n t t o S t e l a 11 117 C h a r t 6. B i r d J a g u a r ' s R i s e f r o m P o l i t i c a l C o n t e n d e r t o D i v i n e R u l e r : a T h r e e S t a g e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 118 V LIST QF FIC-VRgS PAGE; F i g u r e 1. F i g u r e 2. F i g u r e 3. F i g u r e 4. F i g u r e 5. F i g u r e 6. F i g u r e 7. F i g u r e 8. F i g u r e 9. F i g u r e 10. F i g u r e 11. F i g u r e 12. F i g u r e 13. Map of Maya Area; Robicsek and Hales, 1981:xx. Map of Y a x c h i l a n Showing Summer S o l s t i c e Alignment; a f t e r D. Heyden and P.Gendrop 1976. D i r e c t i o n a l l i n e s and S t r u c t u r e numbers by Tate:1987. P l a n of S t r u c t u r e 40; Morley 1938 Vol.5:518. S t r u c t u r e 40 with S t e l a 11; Maler 1903:P1.73. S t e l a 12, Glyphs; Scheie 1984:48. S t e l a 13, Temple S i d e ; Tate 1986:554. S t e l a 13, P a r a p h r a s i n g of Inscr i p t i o n . S t e l a 11, a. Temple S i d e ; b. R i v e r S i d e ; Maler 1903:P1.74. S t e l a 11, R i v e r S i d e , D e t a i l ; Maler 1903:P1.74. S t e l a 11, R i v e r S i d e ; drawing by Tim Maraun, Glyphs from Scheie 1984, Graham n.d.. S t e l a 11, Temple S i d e ; drawing by Scheie i n Scheie and M i l l e r 1986:214 S t e l a 11, R i v e r S i d e , Clause with F l a p s t a f f - h o l d i n g Events; Scheie 1984 : 44 . S t e l a 11, R i v e r S i d e , Clause with P e r i o d - E n d i n g Event; Graham n.d. 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 v i Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure 21, Figure 22. Figure 23, Figure 24 Figure 25, Figure 26, Figure 27, Figure 28 Ste la 11, River S ide , Basal I n s c r i p t i o n ; Scheie 1984:38. S te la 11, Temple S ide , Upper Zone Parentage Glyphs; Scheie and M i l l e r 1986 :214 . S te la 11, Temple S ide , Main Clause; Scheie and M i l l e r 1986:214. S te la 11, Northwest S ide , I n s c r i p t i o n ; Morley 1938:P1.20. S te la 11, Southeast S ide , I n s c r i p t i o n ; Scheie 1984:37 and Morley 1938:P1.20. a . S te la 18, Temple Side; Tate 1986:558. b. S te la 18, River Side; Graham n.d a . S te la 19, River Side; Maler 1903:P1.77. b. S te la 20, River Side; Maler 1903:P1.78. S te la 1, Temple s i d e ; Graham n . d . S te la 31; drawing by Don P a t t e r s o n , i n Tate 1986:543. S te la 10, River Side; Graham n . d . S te la 34; Tate 1986:531. S te la 16; drawing by L i l l i a n S t a r r , a f t er Maler 1903:P1.74. a . S te la 6, Temple Side; Graham n . d . b. S te la 3, Temple Side; Tate 1986 :522 Structure 33, L i n t e l 2; Graham 1977 :P1.15 . Structure 33, Step VII ; Graham 1982 :P1.160 . 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 v i i Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38, Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Structure 42, L i n t e l 41; Graham 1979.P1.91. Structure 23, L i n t e l 25; Graham 1977.P1.54. Structure 20, L i n t e l s 13, 14; Graham 1977:P1.35,36. Structure 16, L i n t e l s 38, 39, 40; Graham 1979:P1.85-89. Structure 13, L i n t e l s 50, 33; Graham 1979:P1.109,74. Structure 13, L i n t e l 32; Graham 1979.P1.73. Structure 2, L i n t e l 9; Graham 1977.P1.29. Pasad l ta , L i n t e l s 1, 2; drawings by Graham, in Simpson 1976:103. Ornamental F l a p s t a f f s : a . Machaquila S te la 2; Scheie and M i l l e r 1986:68. b. Dos P i l a s Ste la 1; Scheie and M i l l e r 1986:77. c. Dos P i l a s Ste la 17; Scheie and M i l l e r 1986:77. d . Copan Ste la H; drawing by S. Darvas, in Robicsek 1978:91. Nominal Glyphs of "Bundle 'V'Bird" Jaguar I I I ; both from Graham 1977-1979, and traced from photographs by Morley:1938. T i k a l S te la 22; Jones and Satterthwaite 1982:Fig.33. T i k a l Temple IV, L i n t e l 3; Jones and Satterthwaite 1982:Fig.74. Aguateca S te la 2; Graham 1967:5. 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 v i i i Figure 42. Figure 43. Figure 44. F igure 45. Figure 46. F igure 47. F igure 48. Figure 49. Figure 50. Ceramic from B u r i a l 116 at T i k a l ; W. Coe 1980:102. S i te Q (E l Peru?) Paired Ste lae; J . M i l l e r 1974:151,157. Palenque, Cross Group panels; Scheie 1984:57-99. Glyphs from Panel of the Sun, Heir Designation of Chan Bahlum; Scheie 1984:107,108. Palenque, Tower Alfardas: Scr ibe and Orator Tab le t s ; Scheie . Palenque, Dumbarton Oaks Tab le t ; Scheie and M i l l e r 1986:275. Palenque, Temple XIV Table t ; Scheie and M i l l e r 1986:273. Machaquila, S te la 11; Graham 1967 :84 . Piedras Negras, L i n t e l 2; drawing by D.Stuart in Scheie and M i l l e r 1986:149. 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l s o u r ces of a s s i s t a n c e which have helped me to complete t h i s work. The F e l l o w s h i p s granted by the Graduate School of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia enabled me to v i s i t Mayan s i t e s and to a t t e n d d i s t a n t seminars and co n f e r e n c e s on Mayan a r t . Those e x p e r i e n c e s have e n r i c h e d the worth of t h i s study. I am g r a t e f u l f o r the s c h o l a r l y m a t e r i a l s and ideas shared w i t h me by graduate s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, A u s t i n . My family-members: Jamie, J e a n e t t e , and Bob, deserve a s p e c i a l thank you f o r t h e i r many forms of a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the past few y e a r s . I have t r e a s u r e d t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n , t h e i r encouragement, and t h e i r p r e c i o u s g i f t s of "time". Dr. M i c h a e l Blake, of the Anthropology Department a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, shared with me h i s knowledge of k i n s h i p and p o l i t i c a l systems. I wish to thank him f o r h i s v a l u a b l e comments and suggest i o n s . My deepest g r a t i t u d e i s f o r the c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of my a d v i s o r , Dr. Marvin Cohodas, whose s e n s i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Mayan c u l t u r e has been enormously s t i m u l a t i n g and e n l i g h t e n i n g . For the c o u n t l e s s hours of d i s c u s s i o n , guidance, and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , I am g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t i v e . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I.A The S i t e : S e t t i n g and S c u l p t u r e The s i t e of Y a x c h i l a n i n C h i a p a s , Mexico i s l o c a t e d a l o n g s i d e the Usumacinta R i v e r which c r e a t e s p a r t of the p r e s e n t boundary between Mexico and Guatemala ( F i g u r e 1 ) . Y a x c h i l a n i s one of s e v e r a l Maya c i t i e s t h a t were c e n t e r s of m i l i t a r y , economic, r e l i g i o u s , and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the C l a s s i c e r a from about 450 A.D t o 800 A.D. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a from the Maya a r e a s u g g e s t s t h a t communities i n d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d major s i t e s were i n t e n s e l y s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t i e s from which a s i n g l e d y n a s t i c r u l e r , and h i s e l i t e e n t o u r a g e , commonly d i r e c t e d and c o n t r o l l e d the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . The s c u l p t u r a l l e g a c y l e f t by the Maya appears to have been p o l i t i c a l a r t , commissioned by e l i t e p a t r o n s as a means of s e c u r i n g c o n t i n u e d p r e s t i g e . I t i s not known to what e x t e n t a r t i s t s c o n t r o l l e d the d e s i g n i n g of monuments. However, s i n c e the s c u l p t u r e s f u n c t i o n e d as p u b l i c propaganda, and s i n c e t h e y document the h i s t o r y of r u l e r s , i t can be assumed t h a t the u l t i m a t e a p p r o v a l of 2 p u b l i c monuments was g r a n t e d o n l y by t h e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r . One o f t h e l a r g e s t g r o u p s o f s c u l p t u r e s was f o u n d a t Y a x c h i l a n , w h e r e o v e r one h u n d r e d monuments h a v e s u r v i v e d s i n c e i t s e i g h t h c e n t u r y f l u o r e s c e n c e . H e r e s t o n e s c u l p t u r e s i n c l u d e s t e l a e , l i n t e l s , a l t a r s , t h r o n e s , a n d s t a i r s . The f i g u r a l i m a g e s a n d a c c o m p a n y i n g h i e r o g l y p h i c t e x t s o n t h e s e monuments a f f o r d a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Y a x c h i l a n ' s h i s t o r y a n d a n u n u s u a l g l i m p s e i n t o t h e a r t i s t i c m e t h o d s e m p l o y e d b y r u l e r s t o p r o m o t e t h e m s e l v e s a s c r e a t o r s o f t h a t h i s t o r y . The s e t t i n g f o r Y a x c h i l a n a r t a n d a r c h i t e c t u r e i s a f l a t e s p l a n a d e l o c a t e d p a r a l l e l t o t h e r i v e r , a n d f o u r h i l l t o p s w h i c h s u r r o u n d a n d o v e r l o o k t h e t a b l e l a n d ( F i g u r e 2 ) . The m o s t p u b l i c c e r e m o n i e s w o u l d h a v e t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e l a r g e p l a z a s o f t h e e s p l a n a d e f l a n k e d b y i m p o s i n g t e m p l e s t r u c t u r e s . C e r e m o n i e s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e Y a x c h i l a n e l i t e w o u l d h a v e o c c u r r e d on t h e h i g h e r a c r o p o l i s l e v e l s , i n s m a l l e r t e r r a c e s d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t o f l a r g e r t e m p l e s w h i c h w e r e o f t e n o r i e n t e d t o f a c e t o w a r d t h e p l a z a s a n d r i v e r b e l o w . Mayan a r t was n o t m e r e l y c o m m e m o r a t i v e : i n some s c u l p t u r a l p r o g r a m m e s t h e a r t may h a v e b e e n d e s i g n e d t o r e w r i t e h i s t o r y a n d t o r e d i r e c t p u b l i c o p i n i o n . The 3 i n a u g u r a l monuments of B i r d Jaguar I V , l a t e e i g h t h c e n t u r y r u l e r of Y a x c h i l a n , i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r form of propaganda. The ways i n which the f i g u r e s and i n s c r i p t i o n s " c r e a t e " h i s t o r y t o v a l i d a t e c l a i m s t o r u l e r s h i p w i l l be the s u b j e c t of t h i s s t u d y . I . B P r e v i o u s Studies; o f Y a x c h i l a n A r t and 1 a r c h i t e c t u r e o f Y a x c h i l a n have been i n v e s t i g a t e d now f o r over one hundred y e a r s . Photographs and d e s c r i p t i v e notes which c o n t i n u e t o be v a l u a b l e s o u r c e s f o r s t u d i e s of Y a x c h i l a n were p u b l i s h e d by Maudslay from 1889 to 1902, Maler i n 1903, and Morley i n 1938. E r o s i o n a n d - d e s t r u c t i o n of r e c e n t decades have obscured much, of the f i g u r a l and g l y p h i c d e t a i l t h a t was p h o t o g r a p h i c a l l y r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h e i r i n i t i a l e x p l o r a t i o n s of the s i t e . M o r l e y was one of the f i r s t h i s t o r i a n s t o i n v e s t i g a t e c h r o n o l o g i c a l developments of Mayan a r t , and h i s s t y l i s t i c b a s i s f o r comparison was t y p i c a l of most s t u d i e s which preceded the more h i s t o r i c a l approach i n t r o d u c e d by P r o s k o u r i a k o f f (1960). A l t h o u g h some of Morley's (1937-38) s u g g e s t i o n s f o r s t y l i s t i c d a t i n g of the monuments a t Y a x c h i l a n have proven i n c o r r e c t , h i s 4 work has been an i n c e n t i v e f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s of t h i s s c u l p t u r a l l e g a c y . Graham's p u b l i s h e d s i t e p l a n and the drawings of Y a x c h i l a n ' s l i n t e l s and: h i e r o g l y p h i c s t a i r w a y s (1977,1979,1982) g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d the v i s u a l d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s . Graham a l s o loaned me p r e l i m i n a r y drawings o f Y a x c h i l a n ' s s t e l a e . As he i s preparing, a corpus of i n s c r i p t i o n s f o r o t h e r s c h o l a r s to a n a l y z e , Graham a v o i d s any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . P r o s k o u r i a k o f f ' s (1960) d i s c o v e r y of the nominal g l y p h s of r u l e r s ; a t nearby P i e d r a s Negras was the f i r s t r e a l e v i d e n c e t h a t the c o n t e n t of Maya; i n s c r i p t i o n s i s l a r g e l y d y n a s t i c . P r o s k o u r i a k o f f ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d y n a s t i c records,; and the a s s o c i a t i o n of s p e c i f i c h i e r o g l y p h s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r s c e n e s , p r o v i d e d the f o u n d a t i o n f o r most of: the major e p i g r a p h i c advances o f the p a s t t h r e e decades. Her o r i g i n a l d e d u c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the s u c c e s s i o n of r u l e r s and t h e i r r e l e v a n t monuments a t P i e d r a s Negras en a b l e d her to s u b s e q u e n t l y e s t a b l i s h the d y n a s t i c sequence f o r e i g h t h c e n t u r y Y a x c h i l a n (1963,1964), d e f i n i n g the r e i g n s of t h r e e r u l e r s whom she c a l l e d S h i e l d Jaguar, B i r d J aguar, and S h i e l d J a g u a r ' s Descendant. 5 A l t h o u g h Cohodas' s t u d y (1972) preceded the more r e c e n t decipherments of nominal and v e r b a l g l y p h s which would have c o n f i r m e d h i s t h e o r i e s of c h r o n o l o g i c a l developments, he was a b l e t o b u i l d a s t y l i s t i c sequence f o r Y a x c h i l a n s c u l p t u r e t h a t was based on P r o s k o u r i a k o f f ' s d y n a s t i c sequence. S i n c e r u l e r s o f t e n e r e c t e d s c u l p t u r e to commemorate an event which had o c c u r r e d s e v e r a l decades e a r l i e r , d u r i n g the r e i g n of a p r e v i o u s r u l e r , Cohodas' s t y l i s t i c sequence i s v a l u a b l e f o r d e t e c t i n g which r u l e r a c t u a l l y e r e c t e d such monuments. Cohodas a l s o d e t e r m i n e d t h a t w h i l e Y a x c h i l a n ' s s c u l p t u r e had been t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a r v e d i n a N a r r a t i v e mode1, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a more Symbolic type of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o i n c i d e d w i t h the i n a u g u r a t i o n of B i r d Jaguar IV (1976b:302). The new s y m b o l i c monuments i n v o l v e d new i c o n o g r a p h i c themes and s c u l p t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s as well,, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the N a r r a t i v e and Symbolic c o m p o s i t i o n a l t y pes were c r e a t e d by two d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s of a r t i s t s . The Symbolic s c u l p t u r a l S c h o o l i s p r e s e n t o n l y d u r i n g the r e i g n of B i r d Jaguar IV a t Y a x c h i l a n and d i s a p p e a r s t h e r e a f t e r . S c h e i e ' s a n a l y s e s (1982) of v e r b morphology and the s y n t a x of the Maya h i e r o g l y p h i c system i n c o r p o r a t e s 6 the f i n d i n g s of s e v e r a l o t h e r e p i g r a p h e r s and l i n g u i s t s , and has r e s u l t e d i n the p r o f u s i o n of decipherments and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f g l y p h i c passages from monuments a t most Maya s i t e s , i n c l u d i n g Y a x c h i l a n . A r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n by S c h e i e and M i l l e r (1986) p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l h y p o t h e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Y a x c h i l a n s c u l p t u r a l scene as w e l l . The r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of d y n a s t i e s i s c u r r e n t l y under i n v e s t i g a t i o n by P e t e r Mathews and David S t u a r t . For example, through t h e i r work we now know t h a t P r o s k o u r i a k o f f ' s B i r d Jaguar was the f o u r t h r u l e r t o use the nominal g l y p h of a; s m a l l b i r d a top a j a g u a r head, and he is; now; r e f e r r e d t o as B i r d Jaguar IV. The f i r s t major s t u d y of the ico n o g r a p h y of Y a x c h i l a n s c u l p t u r e i s t h e r e c e n t d i s s e r t a t i o n by Tate (1986). T a t e ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Y a x c h i l a n ' s a r t , w r i t i n g , and a r c h i t e c t u r e emphasizes t h a t : " . . i n o r d e r to comprehend the symbol system, i t i s n e c e s s a r y to understand the n a t u r e of the p l a c e i n which i t o p e r a t e s " (1986:5,11). Tate d i s c e r n e d t h a t the use of c e r t a i n symbols was r e s t r i c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of s p e c i f i c r i t u a l s . In p a r t i c u l a r , she d i s c o v e r e d the c o r r e l a t i o n between a p a r t i c u l a r c e r e m o n i a l element and the o b s e r v a t i o n of Summer S o l s t i c e s u n r i s e . 7 I . C P r e s e n t M e t h o d o l o g y A l t h o u g h s c h o l a r s who h a v e s t u d i e d t h e a r t a n d a r c h i t e c t u r e o f Y a x c h i l a n h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o o u r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c a l e n d r i c s a n d t h e d y n a s t i c h i s t o r y o f t h e s i t e s , a l l o f t h e a n a l y s e s o u t l i n e d a b o v e h a v e i n v o l v e d ; l i m i t e d p o i n t s o f v i e w , t h u s p r o v i d i n g o n l y p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g : t h e m o numents. F o r e x a m p l e , no a u t h o r h a s y e t a n a l y z e d t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e f i g u r a l i m a g e s a n d t h e h i e r o g l y p h i c t e x t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s c u l p t u r e s . Many a u t h o r s f o c u s o n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l d a t a , b u t d o n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y i n v e s t i g a t e t h e v i s u a l means u s e d b y a r t i s t s t o c o m p l e m e n t a n d e n h a n c e i d e a s c o n v e y e d b y t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s . U n d e r s t a n d i n g b o t h a s p e c t s i s i m p o r t a n t s i n c e t h e Maya, s e t t h e i r f i g u r a l s c e n e s w i t h i n a f r a m e w o r k o f r e l i g i o u s a n d m y t h i c a l c o n c e p t s t h a t h a s n o t b e e n s u f f i c i e n t l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h i s s t u d y d i f f e r s i n t h a t i n s t e a d o f e x a m i n i n g a l a r g e b o d y o f w o r k s f r o m one p o i n t o f v i e w , i t e x a m i n e s one s c u l p t u r a l e n s e m b l e f r o m s e v e r a l p o i n t s o f v i e w . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e s n o t o n l y t h e r e c o r d e d d y n a s t i c e v e n t s b u t a l s o t h e p r o b l e m o f a p p a r e n t g e n e a l o g i c a l f a b r i c a t i o n s , t h e u s e o f c a l e n d r i c a n d c o s m o l o g i c a l 8 c o n c e p t s , and the c r e a t i o n of new r i t u a l s and a new a r t i s t i c s t y l e . These- f e a t u r e s w i l l be reviewed i n l i g h t o f t h e i r immediate c o n t e x t a t Y a x c h i l a n , and a l s o w i t h i n the b r o a d e r scope of p a t t e r n s of p o l i t i c a l a r t a t o t h e r s i t e s . 9 CHAPTER I I DOCUMENTATION, THEMES, AND STYLES I I . A D y n a s t i c D o c u m e n t a t i o n I n t r o d u c t i o n . A r c h i t e c t u r a l a n d s c u l p t u r a l r e m a i n s e n a b l e s c h o l a r s t o r e c o n s t r u c t some a s p e c t s o f Mayan c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y . The p i c t o r i a l i m a g e s a n d h i e r o g l y p h i c t e x t s c a r v e d on. s t o n e s t e l a e , l i n t e l s , a n d s t a i r c a s e s w e r e c o m m i s s i o n e d b y r u l e r s a s p u b l i c d o c u m e n t s o f t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e r o l e i n s o c i e t y . The g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f t e x t s d o c u m e n t b l o o d l i n e s , r e v e a l i n g , t h a t t h e Maya w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p u b l i c d i s p l a y o f p r o p e r l i n e a g e a s t h e i r r i g h t t o r u l e . The m o t i v a t i o n f o r e r e c t i n g c a r v e d s t o n e monuments was n o t o n l y p o l i t i c a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l , b u t a l s o r e l i g i o u s , s i n c e t h e a r t i n c o r p o r a t e d s a c r e d , s u p e r n a t u r a l a n d r i t u a l i m a g e r y . W h i l e h i e r o g l y p h i c r e c o r d s o f b i r t h , p a r e n t a g e , m a r r i a g e , , a c c e s s i o n , a n d d e a t h v a l i d a t e d t h e r u l e r ' s d y n a s t i c r i g h t t o r u l e , t h e f i g u r a l s c e n e s c o n v e y i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , a n d a s t r o n o m i c a l a s p e c t s o f Mayan i d e o l o g y . The f r e e s t a n d i n g c a r v e d s t e l a e w e r e t h e m o s t p u b l i c o f Maya monuments a n d w e r e s e t up e i t h e r i n l a r g e p l a z a s , o r i n t h e s m a l l e r p a t i o s o f i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s . LO The p r o m i n e n t i m a g e on t h e l a r g e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f Maya s t e l a e i s t h e r u l e r , a l t h o u g h s u b s i d i a r y c o n s o r t s , p a r e n t s , m i l i t i a c a p t a i n s , p r i s o n e r s , a r e o f t e n p r e s e n t . When g o d s a r e i n c l u d e d t h e y a r e u s u a l l y s e c o n d a r y a n d p o s i t i o n e d t o f r a m e t h e r u l e r . S t o n e s c u l p t u r e f r o m U s u m a c i n t a R i v e r s i t e s ( s u c h a s Y a x c h i l a n ) i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b y t h e n a r r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n o f s e v e r a l f i g u r e s i n a n i l l u s i o n i s t i c s p a c e , a n d t h e f r e q u e n t i n c l u s i o n o f t h e r u l e r ' s p a r e n t s on i t s s t e l a e a n d w a l l p a n e l s . . T e x t s i n s c r i b e d o n t h e s e monuments u s u a l l y r e f e r t o p u b l i c c e r e m o n i e s u n d e r t a k e n d u r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r r e i g n . S u b o r d i n a t e c a l e n d r i c a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p g l y p h s a r e o f t e n i n c l u d e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s p e c i f i c t e m p o r a l a n d d y n a s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h o s e o c c a s i o n s . S t e l a 22 f r o m T i k a l e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s p a t t e r n ( F i g u r e 3 9 ) . The t e x t b e g i n s b y s t a t i n g t h e d a t e on w h i c h t h e r u l e r c e r e m o n i a l l y e n d e d a. t i m e p e r i o d . T h i s i n i t i a l c l a u s e i n c l u d e s t h e r u l e r ' s name, m o d i f i e d , b y a r e f e r e n c e t o h i s p a r e n t a g e . The s e c o n d c l a u s e f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e s t h e r u l e r b y r e f e r r i n g t o h i s i n a u g u r a l d a t e . F i n a l l y , t h e t h i r d c l a u s e r e s t a t e s t h e r u l e r ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n on t h e c u r r e n t p e r i o d - e n d i n g c e r e m o n y . I n t h i s c a s e , some o f t h e f i g u r a l i m a g e r y i s r e a d i l y d e c o d e d , s i n c e i t e l a b o r a t e s the h i e r o g l y p h i c a l l u s i o n to the " s c a t t e r i n g " e v ent. T h i s c o n c i s e type of documentation f o r a more p u b l i c r i t u a l c o n t r a s t s w i t h types of i n f o r m a t i o n conveyed by t e x t s and images on the more s e c l u d e d l i n t e l s . A l t h o u g h the t e x t on L i n t e l 3 of T i k a l ' s Temple IV ( F i g u r e 40) f o l l o w s a b a s i c format s i m i l a r t o t h a t of S t e l a 22;,, the r e c o r d s of both r i t u a l and h i s t o r y a r e much more d e t a i l e d . For example a l t h o u g h the i n s c r i p t i o n b e g i n s w i t h an i m p o r t a n t p e r i o d - e n d i n g , f i v e d i f f e r e n t c l a u s e s a r e concerned w i t h a t h r e e - t u n a n n i v e r s a r y of a w a r - a s s o c i a t e d e v e n t , p r o b a b l y the conquest of Yaxha. F o r t h i s r i t u a l the g l y p h s a l s o name s e v e r a l gods i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the r u l e r ' s name. The p a r t i c u l a r j u x t a p o s i t i o n of g l y p h i c p a t t e r n s , complex costumes, p o s t u r e s , and c e r e m o n i a l implements e v o l v e d i n t o a unique and s t a n d a r d i z e d form a t each s i t e (such as the above examples from T i k a l ) . W i t h i n each s i t e - t y p e , a t y p i c a l themes, c o n t r i v e d c a l e n d r i c s , or gaps i n a p r e d i c t a b l e sequence of events may appear when the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n was u n s t a b l e , as e x c e p t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s were employed to augment d y n a s t i c documentation. 12 The R u l e r s of Y a x c h i l a n . F o l l o w i n g P r o s k o u r i a k o f f ' s o r i g i n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h r e e of Y a x c h i l a n ' s e i g h t h c e n t u r y r u l e r s (1963-64) o t h e r s c h o l a r s have i d e n t i f i e d the names of a d d i t i o n a l r u l e r s s p anning the h i s t o r y o f the s i t e from 454 A.D. to 808 A.D... The d y n a s t i c l i s t ( C h a r t 1) s u g g e s t s a t o t a l of seventeen, r u l e r s . However, because o f the d i s c o n t i n u i t y of documentation between E a r l y and L a t e C l a s s i c r u l e r s , i t remains d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n e i t h e r the a c t u a l number o r t h e e x a c t s u c c e s s i o n . x I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g Y a x c h i l a n ' s E a r l y C l a s s i c r u l e r s i s l i m i t e d t o l i s t s of a c c e s s i o n r e c o r d s on the l i n t e l s of S t r u c t u r e s 12 and 22, and t o a few b a d l y eroded s t e l a e which, ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of S t e l a 14), appear to commemorate p e r i o d - e n d i n g r i t u a l ( S t e l a e 27, 2 ) . Names and. t i t l e s of the f i r s t t e n r u l e r s a re comp i l e d i n the l i n t e l t e x t s of S t r u c t u r e 12. The s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r i n g of these l i n t e l s s u g gests t h a t t h i s h i s t o r y was documented by the t e n t h r u l e r , known c u r r e n t l y as Mak'inah S k u l l II ( a c c e s s i o n 526 A.D., d i e d c i r c a 550 A.D.). Though he commemorated the date of h i s own i n a u g u r a t i o n , he l i s t e d o n l y the o r d i n a l s u c c e s s i o n of h i s nine p r e d e c e s s o r s . 2 A h i s t o r y of Mak'inah S k u l l ' s next two s u c c e s s o r s remains obscure and i s based 13 on l i m i t e d and p r o b l e m a t i c r e f e r e n c e s on a s e v e r e l y eroded. E a r l y c l a s s i c s t e l a and on l i n t e l s and s t a i r s by Late C l a s s i c r u l e r s ( S t e l a 27, L i n t e l 46, S t r u c t u r e 44 Step I ) . The l a c k o f documentation f o r the p e r i o d of about 550 t o 650 A.D. l e a v e s a gap i n our knowledge of Y a x c h i l a n ' s h i s t o r y . The f i r s t known r u l e r of the L a t e C l a s s i c period., c a l l e d B i r d Jaguar I I I , r e p o r t e d l y r u l e d f o r over f i f t y y e a r s , from 629 A.D. t o about 680 A.D.. He i s commemorated by both h i s son S h i e l d J aguar, and h i s assumed grandson B i r d Jaguar IV, who gave him h i s f i n a l name g l y p h . The mother of S h i e l d Jaguar I, presumably the c o n s o r t of B i r d Jaguar I I I , i s named Lady Pacal. S i n c e no monuments a r e y e t known from h i s r e i g n , 3 one may i n f e r t h a t during; h i s e r a Y a x c h i l a n d i d not possess the economic and p o l i t i c a l power n e c e s s a r y f o r the r e g u l a r p r o d u c t i o n of p e r s o n a l i z e d monumental a r t . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the l a c k of s c u l p t u r e d a t i n g t o the r e i g n of B i r d Jaguar I I I may be found on the s t e p s of House C a t Palenque. I t has been suggested t h a t the son of B i r d Jaguar I I I was c a p t u r e d by someone of Palenque on 9.11.6.16.3, a t about age s i x to e l e v e n y e a r s ( S c h e i e 1982:226). A r u l e r whose h e i r has been c a p t u r e d does not possess the power r e q u i r e d to 14 commission a r t . 4 However, because l a t e r descendants d i d r e f e r t o B i r d Jaguar I I I , he i s the f i r s t L a t e C l a s s i c l e a d e r f o r whom we have c l e a r l i n e a g e c o n n e c t i o n s . I t s h o u l d be noted though t h a t the o n l y d a t a we know about t h i s r u l e r i s the i n f o r m a t i o n h i s descendants chose to r e c o r d . These l a t t e r i n s c r i p t i o n s suggest t h a t h i s o r i g i n a l name g l y p h was; "Bundle" Jaguar, and t h a t i t was m o d i f i e d l a t e r ( t o " B i r d " Jaguar) by h i s supposed grandson t o promote h i m s e l f as a l e g i t i m a t e s u c c e s s o r . 9 The p r e c i s e b i r t h d a t e of S h i e l d Jaguar I ( a c c e s s i o n 681 A.D., d i e d 742 A.D.) i s not known, but g l y p h i c e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t he l i v e d t o be a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t y - f i v e y e a r s o l d , a f t e r h a v i n g r u l e d Y a x c h i l a n f o r s i x t y - o n e y e a r s . S h i e l d Jaguar I documents h i s parentage- on many s c u l p t u r e s : he i s the son of " B u n d l e / B i r d " Jaguar I I I and Lady Pacal. He i s a l s o shown w i t h a. woman, Lady Xoc, who may have been h i s c o n s o r t a l t h o u g h she i s never r e f e r r e d t o as anyone's mother. 8 The monuments commissioned by S h i e l d Jaguar d e s c r i b e h i s m i l i t a r y e x p l o i t s , h i s c e l e b r a t i o n s of p e r i o d - e n d i n g s , and may i n f o r m us when he h e l d d e d i c a t o r y ceremonies f o r newly c o n s t r u c t e d temples ( S c h e i e 1987:135). 15 The f l u o r e s c e n c e of d y n a s t i c documentation a t Y a x c h i l a n was not i n i t i a t e d u n t i l a f t e r S h i e l d Jaguar I had been r u l i n g f o r about f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s . The use of s t e l a e as a medium f o r documenting r u l e r s h i p was s t a n d a r d i z e d under S h i e l d Jaguar d u r i n g the e a r l y e i g h t h c e n t u r y a t Y a x c h i l a n , and h i s a r t s e t s the c r i t e r i a a g a i n s t which t h e i n n o v a t i o n s of h i s s u c c e s s o r s may be u n d e r s t o o d . A c c o r d i n g to* the g e n e r a l r u l e s , s t e l a e were o n l y e r r e c t e d t o commemorate c o m p l e t i o n s of time spans, or p e r i o d - e n d i n g s . While the i n s c r i p t i o n may a l s o r e f e r back t o the r u l e r ' s a c c e s s i o n s e v e r a l decades e a r l i e r , the e v e n t s d e p i c t e d o c c u r r e d c l o s e t o the time of the c a r v i n g and d e d i c a t i o n , of the s c u l p t u r e s . S h i e l d J a g u a r ' s a r t i s t s a l s o i n t r o d u c e d the t r i a d i c programme of l i n t e l s t o communicate i n t e r r e l a t e d f i g u r a l and g l y p h i c v a l i d a t i o n s o f r u l e r s h i p , i n i t i a l l y d e r i v e d from the t h r e e - p a r t scheme of the C r o s s Group a t Palenque (Cohodas 1976a:173). I t i s known t h a t the s u c c e s s o r of S h i e l d Jaguar was B i r d Jaguar IV (born 709 A.D., a c c e s s i o n 752 A.D., d i e d c i r c a 771 A.D.). However, t h e r e are s e v e r a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s i n the documentation of B i r d Jaguar I V s parentage and h i s a c c e s s i o n t h a t " . . . c r e a t e s the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e r e was something unusual i n i t t h a t 16 r e q u i r e d e x p l i c a t i o n " , ( P r o s k o u r i a k o f f 1964:130). The f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n of a problem i n d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n i s the t e n year i n t e r r e g n u m between the d e a t h of S h i e l d Jaguar I and the i n a u g u r a t i o n of B i r d Jaguar IV. At the d e a t h of h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , B i r d Jaguar was a l r e a d y t h i r t y -three: y e a r s o l d , mature enough t o r u l e , y e t he d i d not take the throne u n t i l he was aged f o r t y - t h r e e , t e n y e a r s l a t e r . . N o r m a l l y a d u l t r u l e r s are i n a u g u r a t e d w i t h i n a year of t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r ' s d e a t h , so the unprecedented decade of i n t e r r e g n u m s u g g e s t s t h a t B i r d Jaguar d i d not have an u n d i s p u t e d c l a i m to the t h r o n e . Perhaps he was one of s e v e r a l e l i g i b l e contenders- who began s t r i v i n g f o r the t h r o n e a f t e r the 9.15.17.15.14, death of Lady Xoc. Her death preceded B i r d J a g u a r ' s a c c e s s i o n by about t h r e e years . There i s a l s o a g e n e a l o g i c a l problem: B i r d J a g u a r ' s parentage c l a i m s may be e i t h e r p a r t i a l l y or t o t a l l y f a b r i c a t e d . H i s i n a u g u r a l monument, S t e l a 11, c l a i m s t h a t B i r d Jaguar i s the c h i l d of the p r e v i o u s r u l e r S h i e l d Jaguar I and Lady Ik S k u l l . However, the o n l y r o y a l l a d y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the a r t commissioned by S h i e l d Jaguar was Lady Xoc, and none of S h i e l d Jaguar's known monuments mention e i t h e r Lady Ik S k u l l or B i r d Jaguar IV. L a t e r s c u l p t u r e s ( l i n t e l s of S t r u c t u r e 24) 17 r e c o r d t h a t l a d y Xoc and Lady rx S k u l l l i v e d contemporaneously, but w h i l e t h e r e are r e c o r d s of Maya r u l e r s r e m a r r y i n g a f t e r the d e a t h of a c o n s o r t , t h e r e i s no documentation of r u l e r s h a v i n g c o n c u r r e n t wives. Thus, even i f B i r d Jaguar was the c h i l d of S h i e l d Jaguar and Lady Ix S k u l l , S h i e l d J a g u a r ' s l a c k of acknowledgement f o r Lady Ik S k u l l and B i r d Jaguar s t i l l s u g g e s t s t h a t B i r d Jaguar was not the d y n a s t i c h e i r , as he, was not the son- of t h e o f f i c i a l c o n s o r t , Lady Xoc. A l t h o u g h p a r t i a l remains, of a g l y p h i c passage suggest t h a t he may have r u l e d u n t i l about age s i x t y -f o u r , t h e r e i s no e x t a n t r e c o r d of e i t h e r B i r d J a g u a r ' s d e a t h or the a c c e s s i o n of h i s s u c c e s s o r (see L i n t e l 31, and a s t e l a fragment i n Tate 1986:240). Thus, w h i l e B i r d Jaguar IV commissioned more s c u l p t u r a l commemorations of r u l e r s h i p than any o t h e r r u l e r a t the s i t e , c u r r e n t l y known remains cannot e n t i r e l y a ccount f o r e i t h e r h i s e n t r y i n t o or h i s e x i t from Y a x c h i l a n ' s p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . The s c u l p t u r e e r e c t e d d u r i n g B i r d J a g u a r ' s r e i g n r e v e a l s many i n n o v a t i o n s which may r e l a t e to the d i s r u p t i o n of d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n . For example, a most unusual method used to s t r e n g t h e n h i s a s s e r t i o n of power was B i r d J a g u a r ' s c h o i c e f o r h i s i n a u g u r a l date as 18 9 . 1 6 . 1 . 0 . 0 . T h i s s e l e c t i o n of a p e r i o d - e n d i n g (which marks the c o m p l e t i o n of a 360-day c y c l e ) f o r an i n a u g u r a t i o n i s unique i n Maya h i s t o r y . P e r i o d - e n d i n g s were among the most commonly r e c o r d e d e v e n t s of Maya rulers',.,but t h e y were r e s e r v e d f o r p u b l i c c e l e b r a t i o n s o£ c a l e n d r i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , as opposed t o more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d r i t e s such as a c c e s s i o n . P e r i o d - e n d i n g r i t e s : seem t o have a c c o r d e d the r u l e r a type of s u p e r n a t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y f o r both the d e s t r u c t i o n and the renewal of time, s i n c e t h e s e e v e n t s c e l e b r a t e d not o n l y the c o m p l e t i o n of one e r a , but a l s o t h e b i r t h of a new c a l e n d r i c i n t e r v a l . By p l a n n i n g h i s a c c e s s i o n t o c o i n c i d e w i t h a r e c o g n i z e d p e r i o d - e n d i n g , B i r d Jaguar was emphasizing a perce i v e d , symmetry between such temporal renewal and h i s own d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n . The subsequent l i n t e l s of S t r u c t u r e 33 ( e r e c t e d f o r 9.16.6.0.0) show t h a t whenever the p u b l i c j o i n e d him i n c e l e b r a t i n g f u t u r e period-endings,, t h e y would be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y commemorating h i s i n a u g u r a t i o n . N o r m a l l y i t i s o n l y a f t e r a r u l e r takes o f f i c e t h a t h i s b i r t h and any r e l e v a n t events of h i s youth a r e r e c o r d e d . I t i s t h e r e f o r e s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t B i r d Jaguar not o n l y r e f e r s g l y p h i c a l l y to h i s son and h e i r , ( S h i e l d Jaguar I I ) , but t h a t he a l s o commissioned a d u a l 19 p o r t r a i t o f h i m s e l f w i t h t h i s f i v e y e a r o l d s o n ( L i n t e l 2 o f S t r u c t u r e 33, F i g u r e 27). A l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h a t d e s p i t e h i s e x t r e m e y o u t h , t h e f i v e y e a r o l d h e i r i s named w i t h t h e mak'inah t i t l e n o r m a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r i n s t a l l e d r u l e r s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f d u a l r u l e r s h i p e x i s t s , b u t c a n n o t be p r o v e n b y p r e s e n t l y known s c u l p t u r e - . S i n c e B i r d J a g u a r i s i n a u g u r a t e d o n l y s e v e n t y - f i v e days: a f t e r h i s s o n ' s b i r t h , , t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f an? h e i r w i t h p r o p e r g e n e a l o g y m i g h t h a v e b e e n a p r e c o n d i t i o n o f B i r d J a g u a r ' s i n a u g u r a t i o n . B i r d J a g u a r ' s r e i g n i s a l s o m a r k e d b y many i n n o v a t i o n s a n d i r r e g u l a r i t i e s I n t h e d y n a s t i c m onuments. F o r e x a m p l e a t Y a x c h i l a n , s t e l a e w e r e n o r m a l l y e r e c t e d t o commemorate p e r i o d - e n d i n g s o f katuns a n d h a l f - k a t u n s . B y c o n t r a s t , B i r d J a g u a r c o m m i s s i o n e d a t r i a d o f S t e l a e (11, 12, 13) t o m e m o r i a l i z e h i s i n a u g u r a t i o n a n d e r e c t e d t h e m i n f r o n t o f S t r u c t u r e 4 0 , a t e m p l e a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d f o r h i s i n a u g u r a t i o n . The a l i g n m e n t o f S t r u c t u r e 40 a n d i t s s t e l a e w i t h t h e summer s o l s t i c e s u n r i s e ( T a t e 1986:133) was t h e f i r s t o f s e v e r a l a s t r o n o m i c a l l y o r i e n t e d t e m p l e s b u i l t b y B i r d J a g u a r t o e m p h a s i z e t h a t s o l a r s t a t i o n ( F i g u r e 2 ) . A n o t h e r u n u s u a l f e a t u r e o f B i r d J a g u a r ' s s c u l p t u r e i s t h a t i t i n t r o d u c e s t h e p o r t r a y a l o f cahals, 20 or a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o£ s u b o r d i n a t e s i t e s . U n l i k e d e p i c t i o n s of canals a t ot h e r s i t e s , ( P i e d r a s Negras L i n t e l 3, S t e l a 12), those a t Y a x c h i l a n are not shown i n s u b o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n s . R a t h e r , t h e y appear i n costumes, poses, and eve n t s s h a r e d by the r u l e r , ( L i n t e l s 3,6,8,9,14,42), s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y may a l s o share some measure of the r u l e r ' s p r e s t i g e . S i m i l a r l y , w h i l e mothers of r u l e r s c e r t a i n l y appear i n c o m p o s i t i o n s a t ot h e r c i t i e s , the e r e c t i o n of S t e l a 34 ( F i g u r e 2 4 ) , commemorating Bird' J a g u a r ' s deceased mother Lady Ik S k u l l i s u n p a r a l l e l e d . The " S k u l l " g l y p h i n nominal phrases of B i r d J a g u a r ' s mother may be s i g n i f i c a n t a l s o . As seen i n the D y n a s t i c C h a r t 1, t h e r e seems t o have been an e a r l i e r a l t e r n a t i o n between two d y n a s t i c f a m i l i e s , the " S k u l l s " and the " J a g u a r s " . The f a c t t h a t B i r d J a g u a r ' s mother (Lady Ik S k u l l ) , h i s c o n s o r t (Lady G r e a t S k u l l ) , and the most o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d cahal (Lord Great S k u l l ) , a l l c a r r y the " S k u l l " t i t l e demonstrates the c o n t i n u i n g importance of t h i s l i n e d u r i n g the s u c c e s s i v e r e i g n s of t h r e e "Jaguar" r u l e r s ; ( S h i e l d Jaguar I, B i r d Jaguar IV, S h i e l d Jaguar I I ) . There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t B i r d Jaguar was a t t e m p t i n g to u n i t e these two d i s t i n c t l i n e a g e s to s u p p o r t h i s p o s i t i o n as r u l e r . 21 W h i l e i t was r e a s o n a b l y common f o r Maya r u l e r s t o c o m m i s s i o n i m a g e s o f t h e i r c o n s o r t s , B i r d J a g u a r a l s o e r e c t e d n u m e r o u s p o r t r a i t s o f t w o a d d i t i o n a l f e m a l e s , L a d y I x a n d L a d y I x , w i t h o u t d o c u m e n t i n g t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i m . I n a l l f o u r t e m p l e s i n w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r , L a d y Ix i s a l w a y s o n t h e l e f t o f t h r e e l i n t e l s a n d L a d y Ik i s a l w a y s on t h e r i g h t : t h e y n e v e r a p p e a r a l o n e o r i n , a n y o t h e r p a t t e r n . C o h o d a s ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s c o m p o s i t i o n a l p a t t e r n a n d t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f Ix a n d Ik i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s e f e m a l e i m a g e s a r e s y m b o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n n a g e s . To s u m m a r i z e , many f e a t u r e s o f B i r d J a g u a r ' s d y n a s t i c d o c u m e n t a t i o n a r e u n u s u a l . The t e n y e a r i n t e r r e g n u m e v i d e n c i n g d y n a s t i c i n s t a b i l i t y s u g g e s t s t h a t B i r d . J a g u a r may n o t h a v e h e l d a c l e a r t i t l e t o t h e t h r o n e . I t a p p e a r s t h a t i n o r d e r t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y o f h i s s u c c e s s i o n , B i r d J a g u a r c h o s e f o r h i s a c c e s s i o n d a t e a. p e r i o d - e n d i n g w h i c h w o u l d p r o v i d e c o s m i c v a l i d a t i o n o f h i s p o s i t i o n . The c u r i o u s i n t e r r e g n u m seems t o h a v e s t i m u l a t e d , n o t o n l y h i s c l a i m s o f p a r e n t a g e t h a t now s e e m q u e s t i o n a b l e , b u t a l s o t h e u n p r e c e d e n t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n o f S t r u c t u r e 40 a n d i t s s t e l a - t r i a d t o commemorate t h e a c c e s s i o n . L a t e r s c u l p t u r e c o m m i s s i o n e d 22 by B i r d Jaguar c o n t i n u e d to d i s p l a y unusual f e a t u r e s . The i n c l u s i o n of s e c o n d a r y r u l e r s , canals, f i c t i o n a l l a d l e s , and the c o n f e r r i n g of the mak'inah t i t l e on h i s son a r e a l l h i g h l y i r r e g u l a r i n Mayan a r t . Blake ( p e r s o n a l communication) has s u g g e s t e d t h a t f o r B i r d Jaguar IV, the c a h a l s may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s having, been chosen as r u l e r o f Y a x c h i l a n . The next r u l e r documented a t Y a x c h i l a n i s S h i e l d , Jaguar I.I (born; 752 A.D., a c c e s s i o n c i r c a 772 A.D., d i e d 1 c i r c a 808 A.D.), whom we know to be the son of B i r d Jaguar IV. S i n c e an i n a u g u r a l d a t e f o r t h i s r u l e r has n o t been found and the d e a t h date f o r h i s f a t h e r i s unknown, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r contemporary s c h o l a r s to determine p r e c i s e l y when and why t h i s s u c c e s s i o n o c c u r r e d . - 7 However, what i s d i s c e r n i b l e from the s c u l p t u r e s of B i r d Jaguar IV and S h i e l d Jaguar II i s t h a t both t h e s e r u l e r s p l a c e d an e x c e p t i o n a l emphasis on the documentation of d y n a s t i c d e s c e n t and t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h e l i t e , though secondary, cahals. S h i e l d Jaguar I I ' s a r t c o n t i n u e d t o p r e s e n t s i m i l a r t y p e s of r e c o r d s , but the e x e c u t i o n of both h i e r o g l y p h s and f i g u r a l images e v i d e n c e a d e c l i n e i n q u a l i t y . A l though r e f e r e n c e s are r a r e ( S t r u c t u r e 3, L i n t e l 10), c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e d a t a shows t h a t 23 Y a x c h i l a n ' s l a s t documented r u l e r was Mak'inah S k u l l I I I . He i s recorded as- the h e i r of S h i e l d Jaguar II ( i e . t h e son of the "captor of: Tah Mo'VShield Jaguar I I , and Lady B l o o d l e t t e r ) , and he i s therefore, grandson of B i r d Jaguar IV. The " S k u l l " name of t h i s f i n a l r u l e r repeats E a r l y C l a s s i c t i t l e s and again suggests that there may have been some a l t e r n a t i o n , of two dynas t i c f a m i l i e s : "Skul l s" versus "Jaguars". IT . B S c u l p t u r a l Themes and Sty les i n t r o d u c t i o n . Mayan s c u l p t u r a l a r t was commissioned by r u l e r s who had s u f f i c i e n t c o n t r o l over both the economic resources and the schools of s k i l l e d a r t i s a n s requ ired for the product ion of a r t , and therefore would have been viewed as express ions of pres t ige and a u t h o r i t y . Monumental a r t was commissioned by r u l e r s p r i m a r i l y as an enduring form of p u b l i c i t y to d i s p l a y and. v a l i d a t e t h e i r powers which were both r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l . The synthes i s of the s p e c i f i e d h i s t o r i c a l data and the chosen i l l u s t r a t i v e features of s c u l p t u r e creates a symbolic v a l i d a t i o n of the s tatus of r u l e r s h i p , reached only a f t e r a s e r i e s of r i t u a l s had been performed to 24 e n s u r e a r u l e r ' s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m m o r t a l t o d i v i n e . E t h n o g r a p h i c a n d i c o n o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s b y s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t m o s t Maya r i t u a l s w e r e r e - e n a c t m e n t s o f m y t h s w h i c h t h e m s e l v e s w e r e p a r a d i g m s o f t h e c y c l i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . I n t h e same way t h a t s u p e r n a t u r a l a i d was deemed, n e c e s s a r y t o t r a n s f o r m w r i n k l e d o l d s e e d s i n t o l u s h , g r e e n p l a n t s , a n d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s e t t i n g , s u n w o u l d r e a p p e a r a t dawn, s u p e r n a t u r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n was n e c e s s a r y f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t Maya r u l e r s w o u l d be t r a n s f o r m e d f r o m mere humans t o d i v i n e k i n g s . Thus,, i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o c l a i m i n g t h e r u l e r ' s m i l i t a r y a n d g e n e a l o g i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , i m a g e r y f o r p u b l i c monuments was a l s o d e s i g n e d t o d o c u m e n t t h e r i t u a l p r o c e s s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t o r e i n f o r c e t h e r u l e r ' s c l a i m s . I m a g e r y e m p l o y e d t o c o n v e y m y t h o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s v a r i e d s p a t i a l l y a n d t e m p o r a l l y . The m o s t common s c u l p t u r a l f o r m a t f o r s t e l a e i s a - s t a n d i n g o r e n t h r o n e d r u l e r , whose r o y a l r e g a l i a a l l u d e s t o h i s m y t h o l o g i c a l r o l e a n d t o h i s m e t a p h o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h c e l e s t i a l d e i t i e s . As p o i n t e d o u t b y R e e n t s - B u d e t ( i n p r e s s ) t h i s f o r m a l p o r t r a i t u r e i s t y p i c a l o f a m o n o s c e n i c t y p e o f n a r r a t i v e w h e r e i n one s c e n e i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a n e n t i r e c o m p l e x o f e v e n t s a n d 25 b e l i e f s . Though only one s p e c i f i c moment i s d e p i c t e d , costume, ornament, and hand-held objects are subt le references to a s soc ia ted concepts and events . A l t e r n a t e s c u l p t u r a l composit ions would inc lude images of r u l e r s with s e v e r a l a s s i s t a n t cahals and pr i soners of war (Piedras Negras S t e l a 12) , m u l t i p l e e l i t e members ln throne-room sett ings: (Piedras Negras L i n t e l 3 ) , s t e lae p a i r s f e a t u r i n g male and female r o y a l persons (Naranjo Ste lae 22,, 24),, and' images of r u l e r s with t h e i r consorts (Yaxch i lan L i n t e l 26), or with t h e i r parents (Palenque Palace Tab le t ) . . Though the p i c t o r i a l focus of the s cu lp ture may be d y n a s t i c or m i l i t a r i s t i c , the event i t s e l f i s g e n e r a l l y an a l l e g o r i c a l reference to e i t h e r the r u l e r ' s transformat ion to d i v i n i t y for h i s a c c e s s i o n , or to transformat ions of- s tatus dur ing h i s ensuing r e i g n . On S t e l a 2 from Aguateca, (Figure 41), the r u l e r i s dressed as a>. warr ior and the glyphs record h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a m i l i t a r y conquest , while the text a l so s ta tes that he pres ided over a per iod-ending ceremony a few months l a t e r . That i s , the r u l e r ' s m i l i t a r y success which af forded him an e levated p o l i t i c a l s tatus i s incorporated as part of the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for h i s s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s ro le as the transformer of time at the per iod-ending ceremony. 26 Studies of c a l e n d r i c s at s e v e r a l Maya s i t e s have a l so proven that dates for h i s t o r i c a l events were f requent ly chosen for t h e i r symbolic values as w e l l . That i s / a combination of f a c t o r s a s soc ia ted with the date inf luenced s p e c i f i c c h o i c e s . Aguateca S t e l a 2 a l so exempl i f i es t h i s phenomenon, s ince an Evening Star appearance of Venus, symbol iz ing death and d e s t r u c t i o n , was chosen for the date of the m i l i t a r y a t t a c k . Maya; s c u l p t u r a l images are f requent ly contained i n groupings of: monuments: which together present an e n t i r e programme of: concepts . The i n s t i t u t i o n of r u l e r s h i p i s f r e q u e n t l y subs tant ia ted with metaphorical a l l u s i o n s to the oppos i t ions of the c y c l i c un iverse , and these a l l u s i o n s seem, to r e f l e c t the r e l i g i o u s and r i t u a l foundation of a l l Mesoamerican s o c i e t i e s , based on a c y c l i c a g r a r i a n subs i s t ence . As proposed by Van Gennep in h i s volume, "Rites of Passage" (1975): three stage r i t u a l s are u n i v e r s a l and tend to r e p l i c a t e the c y c l i c nature of the cosmos. Van Gennep's study has determined that these r i t u a l s inc lude a per iod of t ransformat ion or l i m i n a l i t y , o c c u r r i n g between the end of one s ta te and the s t a r t or r e b i r t h of a new s t a t u s , and i t i s t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l phase that Maya r u l e r s often r e f e r to i n t h e i r a r t . Cohodas a p p l i e d 27 these three stages to t h r e e - p a r t n a r r a t i v e s at Palenque, Y a x c h i l a n , and Copan (1976a). Although the supposed trans format ion was the key aspect of c y c l i c renewal , a s ta te of l i m i n a l i t y r e q u i r i n g supernatura l mediat ion was d i f f i c u l t to por tray i n p i c t o r i a l images. Frequent ly composit ions were created to juxtapose themes of death and r e b i r t h , which were symbolic of the e n t i r e c y c l i c progress ion from the p r e r e q u i s i t e death of the o l d order through to the regeneration, of the new s t a t u s . The Cross Group panels of Palenque are a r a r e example of t h r e e - p a r t s c u l p t u r a l programmes which inc lude imagery represent ing the l i m i n a l s t a t e , whereas s t e l a e and a l t a r composites of Copan, stelae, of Qui.rig.ua and Yaxchi lan are representa t ive of more common two-part schemes implying the t r a n s i t i o n b y juxtapos ing themes of d e s t r u c t i o n and renewal (Cohodas 1976a:173). Sculpture at Y a x c h i l a n . C h r o n o l o g i c a l comparison of monuments at Yaxchi lan shows that up u n t i l the r e i g n of B i r d Jaguar IV, only two s c u l p t u r a l themes were t r a d i t i o n a l for s t e l a e : a m i l i t a r i s t i c scene of pr i soner arraignment and a commemorative scene wherein the r u l e r s ca t t ered l i q u i d as part of a per iod-ending r i t u a l . A l l such s t e lae at Yaxchi lan had f a l l e n and had 28 thereby been p a r t i a l l y eroded before nineteenth and twent ieth century h i s t o r i a n s were able to photograph them. While the preserved faces of S h i e l d Jaguar ' s s t e l a e show the m i l i t a r y scene, those of Bird- Jaguar and S h i e l d Jaguar II show the per iod-ending r i t e . However, there are enough traces of both s ides to determine the consis tent , format fol lowed in a l l three r e i g n s . The s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the arraignment theme are the pos tures , the costumes, the implements h e l d , and the v e r b a l phrases of the text (Figures 19b, 20,21b) .. Arraignment scenes; always portrayed the r u l e r i n the garb of a warr ior , , ( s h i e l d , padded chest p r o t e c t o r ) , and ho ld ing an obvious weapon. U s u a l l y present i s a capt ive v i c t i m , i n d i c a t e d by h i s knee l ing posture and/or h i s gestures of s u p p l i c a t i o n , (one hand to mouth or to opposite s h o u l d e r ) . The v e r b a l express ion i n the h i e r o g l y p h i c text i s deciphered p h o n e t i c a l l y as "capture", conf irming the event i l l u s t r a t e d . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence shows that at Y a x c h i l a n , s t e lae were always erected with the arraignment scenes fac ing toward the r i v e r . The opposing "scatter" themes faced the temples (Figures 19a,21a,22) . These i l l u s t r a t i o n s of p e r i o d -ending r i t e s feature a s tanding r u l e r who wears a r e p t i l l i a n headdress, a s h e l l diadem, a knotted p e c t o r a l ornament, twisted serpent w r i s t l e t s and a n k l e t s , a trophy head at the back of h i s b e l t , and a short h i p c l o t h . A stream of l i q u i d flows from h i s hands, and splashes onto a woven c o n t a i n e r , as r e l a t e d in the "sca t ter ing" verb (Scheie 1982:145). Secondary ac tors are not always present , but i f i n c l u d e d they are often male and/or female a s s i s t a n t s who s tand , and a knee l ing s u p p l i a n t f i gure who i s u s u a l l y dep ic ted with a dang l ing b i v a l v e -s h e l l neck ornament. The main image of a r u l e r s c a t t e r i n g l i q u i d was f lanked by smal ler panels above and below. The upper f l a n k i n g images d e p i c t male and female ancestors who are seated wi th in cartouches that are sometimes recognizable as s o l a r and lunar enc lo sures , (Tate 1986:63ff) . These miniature p o r t r a i t s may a l s o r e f e r to the paradigmatic supernatura l union of male and female, and of Sun and E a r t h , which are necessary for the complet ion of c y c l i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Between these ancestor images i s the head and torso of a s a c r i f i c i a l d e i t y , u s u a l l y the Barbel or Jaguar God. These a n c e s t r a l cartouches are separated from the main image by what s cho lars term a C e l e s t i a l Band (Carlson 1985:115), the "skyband" or "planetary band" 30 r e f e r r e d to by Tate and o t h e r s . T h i s r a t h e r g e o m e t r i c d e p i c t i o n of a two-headed r e p t i l e whose body i s composed of symbols a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s t r a l b o d i e s , u s u a l l y seems to f u n c t i o n as a p i c t o r i a l a l l u s i o n t o the m y t h i c a l underworld j o u r n e y t r a v e l l e d by a s t r a l b o d i e s , maize seeds, human embryos,, and deceased r u l e r s (Cohodas 1982:141-143). To. the band a r e a t t a c h e d god heads, u s u a l l y o f Sun God or Jaguar God t y p e , and o f t e n s i m i l a r to t h a t of the c e n t r a l d e i t y image above. The lower p a n e l c o n t a i n s o n l y d e i t y imagery and Tate thus s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t some a s p e c t of the s u p e r n a t u r a l underworld ( 1 9 8 6 : 7 6 f f ) . These images are c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t i n each example. The " c a p t u r e " and " s c a t t e r " scenes were r e p e a t e d l y p a i r e d because t o g e t h e r they s y m b o l i z e c y c l i c d e s t r u c t i o n and renewal, whether of time p e r i o d s , of r u l e r s h i p , or of s o c i e t y as a whole. Through t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n of themes, the s t e l a a l s o c o n f i r m e d t h a t the r u l e r was q u a l i f i e d f o r both m i l i t a r y and r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s h i p . These two t y p i c a l themes were always c a r v e d i n the N a r r a t i v e mode t r a d i t i o n a l f o r f i g u r a l a r t a t Y a x c h i l a n . L i n t e l programmes commissioned by S h i e l d Jaguar were a l s o c a r v e d i n the N a r r a t i v e mode and 31 presented themes of capture and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . L i n t e l s 44, 45, and 46 show the r u l e r as warr ior who towers over a cowering v i c t i m . On L i n t e l 24 S h i e l d Jaguar ' s consor t , Lady Xoc i s dep ic ted drawing her blood for a s e l f -s a c r i f i c i a l o f f e r i n g by drawing a spined rope through her tongue. Later a r t i s t s who repeated these themes for B i r d Jaguar a l s o employed, the t r a d i t i o n a l N a r r a t i v e s c u l p t u r a l , mode, using, the same costumes, pos tures , and v e r b a l h i e r o g l y p h s , often i n m u l t i f i g u r a l scenes or groups of l i n t e l s l inked: as stages i n a s i n g l e n a r r a t i v e . Although, the N a r r a t i v e approach had endured at Yaxchi lan for over two hundred y e a r s , a new symbolic mode i n v o l v i n g new themes and a new s c u l p t u r a l technique was introduced and developed under B i r d Jaguar IV (Cohodas 1976b). While N a r r a t i v e school l i n t e l s invo lve up to s ix f igures i n t e r a c t i n g and therefore a v a r i e t y of postures , as we l l as graphic: v e r b a l h i e r o g l y p h s , Symbolic l i n t e l s d e p i c t only one or two s tanding f igures who do not i n t e r a c t , and. the v e r b a l express ions u s u a l l y r e f e r to the object held rather than to the func t ion of the r i t u a l event (Cohodas 1976b:309-310). During the r e i g n of B i r d Jaguar IV the o lder N a r r a t i v e school of a r t i s t s continued to carve the t r a d i t i o n a l themes used on s t e lae and l i n t e l s of S h i e l d Jaguar I , while the new Symbolic school 32 was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e new t h e m a t i c t y p e s t h a t were (with one exception) reserved f o r l i n t e l s , a n d we r e represented only i n a Symbolic mode not employed by e a r l i e r , a r t i s t s at Yaxch i lan (for example; L i n t e l s 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 9 ) . Though the d i s t i n c t i o n s between the N a r r a t i v e and: Symbolic s c u l p t u r a l schools are c l e a r l y evident throughout B ird f Jaguar's: r u l e r s h i p , i t must be noted that h i s f i r s t Symbolic School s c u l p t u r e was introduced on his Inaugural S t e l a 11 as part of a. complete ly innovat ive programme of p o l i t i c a l p u b l i c i t y . Notes for Chapter II x Thi s chart i s modif ied from T a t e ' s d y n a s t i c l i s t (1986:465). Chart 1 does not inc lude Lady Ik S k u l l (Tate ' s r u l e r #13)' as one of Y a x c h i l a n ' s r u l e r s . Reasons for t h i s d i s p a r i t y are d i scussed i n Chapter IV. The S h i e l d Jaguar suggested by Tate as r u l e r #12 is mentioned once on ly , at Bonampak around 9 . 8 . 0 . 0 . 0 . Lady Xoc's parentage, recorded on L i n t e l 23 of S tructure 23, i s problematic and has therefore not been inc luded in Chart 1. Further d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s problem appears below i n note #6. a The l i n t e l s of S truc ture 12 were l i k e l y erected to commemorate the access ion of Mak'inah S k u l l II that i s recorded t h e r e i n on L i n t e l 47 as 9 .4 .11 .8 .16 , or February 11, 526 A . D . . The s e q u e n t i a l l i s t of Y a x c h i l a n ' s f i r s t ten r u l e r s i s found on L i n t e l s 49, 37, 35, 47, 48, and "new" of t h i s s t r u c t u r e . 3 Even though Stelae 6 and. 3 (Figure 26) do record 33 a n n i v e r s a r i e s of B i r d Jaguar I l l ' s acces s ion; s t y l i s t i c , i conographic , and h i e r o g l y p h i c comparisons with other Yaxchi lan s c u l p t u r e suggest s t r o n g l y that these monuments were designed and erected some one hundred years l a t e r by B i r d Jaguar IV and S h i e l d Jaguar I I . * Although the l a t e r B i r d Jaguar IV makes reference to "Bundle /B ird" Jaguar III as a p r e s t i g i o u s ances tor , i t must be noted, that when other s i t e s document events from the era. of " B u n d l e / B i r d ' T I T , they r e f e r only to h i s son (Sh ie ld Jaguar I) suggest ing perhaps that "Bundle /B ird" Jaguar lacked the esteem u s u a l l y a s soc ia ted with r u l e r s h i p . The s t a i r c a s e of House C at Palenque records some m a r t i a l event for S h i e l d Jaguar at about age 6 to 11. The nominal g lyph Ah Kan on Piedras Negras L i n t e l 2 (Figure 51 A ' - B ' ) i s l i s t e d f o r S h i e l d Jaguar on L i n t e l 32 and: Stela* 12 at Y a x c h i l a n as w e l l , suggest ing that as a c h i l d , S h i e l d Jaguar p a r t i c i p a t e d in a type of communal successor-appointment at P iedras Negras. Here aga in , no mention i s made of S h i e l d Jaguar ' s f a t h e r , "Bundle /B ird" Jaguar III . . s A comparison of the var ious g l y p h i c names for B i r d Jaguar I I I provides fur ther evidence that S t e l a 6 was created l a t e r by B i r d Jaguar IV. As seen in F igure 38 the nominal glyphs on the h i e r o g l y p h i c s t a i r s of S truc ture 44 show that when S h i e l d Jaguar-I was r e f e r r i n g to h i s f a t h e r , ("Bird" Jaguar I I I ) , the glyph is composed of a jaguar head and an i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e element which may be construed as a "bundle", (Steps IV, V, V I ) . However, i n the texts of B i r d Jaguar IV which a l l u d e to his supposed grandfather , that p e c u l i a r p r e f i x element has c l e a r l y been changed to a " b i r d " (Step V I I I , S t e l a 6) . 6 Though i t i s c l e a r that her father was a canal (Ah Kan-GI) , the nominal g lyph for Lady Xoc's mother may be deciphered as e i t h e r Lady Xlbalba or Lady Pacal ( L i n t e l 23a D - l to E - 2 ) . S h i e l d Jaguar ' s mother is known to have been Lady Pacal (H ierog lyph ic Step I V ) . Thus, i f Lady Xoc's mother was a l so the Lady Pacal, Lady Xoc and Sh ie ld Jaguar I may have been h a l f - b r o t h e r - a n d - s i s t e r , rather than r u l e r - a n d - c o n s o r t as is u s u a l l y assumed. If so, then there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that S h i e l d Jaguar ' s consort was Lady Ik S k u l l (B ird Jaguar ' s Mother) . However, i t i s cur ious t h a t S h i e l d Jaguar might have commissioned a p o r t r a i t of a h a l f - s i s t e r rather than a consor t . Even i f Lady Ik S k u l l was t h e consor t , t h e t e n year i n t e r r e g n u m (between the death of s h i e l d Jaguar and the a c c e s s i o n of B i r d Jaguar) s t i l l s u g g ests t h a t B i r d Jaguar d i d not have a c l e a r r i g h t to the t h r o n e . T While c e r t a i n l y s p e c u l a t i v e , i c o n o g r a p h i c comparison s u g g e s t s t h a t L i n t e l 2 of S t r u c t u r e 33 may m e m o r i a l i z e the h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n of S h i e l d Jaguar I I . The b i r d -s t a f f s h e l d by B i r d Jaguar and h i s son on L i n t e l 2 are r e m i n i s c e n t of the c e n t r a l images (serpent-winged b i r d , branched t r e e / s t a f f ) of Palenque's P a n e l of the C r o s s . L i k e the C r o s s P a n e l , L i n t e l 2 f e a t u r e s a f a t h e r / s o n p a i r i n g , and i t i s the c e n t r a l of t h r e e s c u l p t u r a l images.. I t may be t h a t the l i n t e l s of S t r u c t u r e - 33 a r e r e p l i c a t i n g the same t h r e e commemorations of the C r o s s Group: an? a c c e s s i o n , an a n n i v e r s a r y of a c c e s s i o n , and an heir, d e s i g n a t i o n . L i n t e l 2 i s d a t e d 9.16.6.0.0, when S h i e l d Jaguar II was about f i v e y e a r s o l d (5.3.15). T h i s age i s w i t h i n the range f o r r e c o r d e d h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n s and i s comparable to Chan Bah 1 urn's age (6.2.17) f o r h i s h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n t h a t i s one of the t h r e e f e a t u r e d e v e n t s of the C r o s s Group. L i n t e l 5 of S t r u c t u r e 1 a l s o d e p i c t s a b i r d s t a f f , h e l d by B i r d Jaguar IV., The Yaxkin date (June 7, 752 A.D.) i s n o r m a l l y used by B i r d Jaguar o n l y i n r e f e r e n c e to F l a p s t a f f e v e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the passage of power and summer s o l s t i c e s e a s o n s . S i n c e the d a t e of L i n t e l 5 f o l l o w s the b i r t h of S h i e l d Jaguar II by about 100 days, i t may be t h a t L i n t e l 5 i s commemorating the b i r t h of the h e i r who i s f o r m a l l y d e s i g n a t e d as such n e a r l y f i v e y e a r s l a t e r on 9.16.6.0.0 ( L i n t e l 2 ) . B i r d Jaguar seems to have employed the B i r d S t a f f i n r e f e r e n c e s to the h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n of h i s son, w h i l e r e s e r v i n g the F l a p s t a f f to be employed o n l y i n r e f e r e n c e s to h i s own a f f i r m a t i o n s of power. 35 CHAPTER I I I DESCRIPTION OF STELA 11: CONTEXT & CONTENT I I I . A S t r u c t u r e 40 B i r d J a g u a r ' s I n a u g u r a l Complex c o n s i s t s of S t r u c t u r e 40 and I t s t r i a d of S t e l a e : 11, 12, 13 ( F i g u r e 3 ) . F i g u r a l imagery, h i e r o g l y p h i c i n s c r i p t i o n s , and i t s s p e c i a l placement and o r i e n t a t i o n show t h a t S t e l a 11 was the major s c u l p t u r e of B i r d J a g u a r ' s I n a u g u r a l Commemorative. S t r u c t u r e 40 was c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h s e v e r a l I n n o v a t i v e f e a t u r e s d e s i g n e d t o emphasize i t s importance. I t s o r i e n t a t i o n , a t 53 degrees e a s t o f n o r t h , d u p l i c a t e s the p o s s i b l y e a r l i e r S t r u c t u r e 41 of the same h i l l t o p . T ate has d i s c e r n e d t h a t s t r u c t u r e s a t Y a x c h i l a n with o r i e n t a t i o n s of .51.-54': degrees were c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t on summer s o l s t i c e s , the f i r s t s u n r i s e r a y s i l l u m i n a t e the i n t e r i o r s of the b u i l d i n g s f o r o n l y a few minutes, (see F i g u r e 2 ) . At S t r u c t u r e 41, the summer s o l s t i c e r a y s pass t h r o u g h the stepped o u t l i n e of the doorway and c r e a t e a q u a t r e f o i l p a t c h of l i g h t on the f l o o r (Tate 1 9 8 6 : 1 3 3 , 1 8 3 ) . 1 The i n t e r i o r of S t r u c t u r e 40 c o n t a i n s two unusual d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e s . While remnants of i n t e r i o r benches are e v i d e n t i n o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s , t h a t of 36 S t r u c t u r e 40 was ornamented wi t h nine t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l s e a t e d s t u c c o f i g u r e s . A s s o c i a t i o n s of the number n i n e and c o n c e p t s of l i m i n a l i t y and the underworld a r e e v i d e n t In numerous Maya c o n t e x t s , so t h e a t y p i c a l i n c l u s i o n of n i n e f i g u r e s s e r v e s t o a f f i r m the g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n of t h i s temple as the s i t e of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r i t u a l . The e l a b o r a t e murals i n s i d e s t r u c t u r e 40, now l i t t l e more than t r a c e s of polychrome p a i n t on e v e r y i n t e r i o r s u r f a c e , seem t o have been commissioned by B i r d Jaguar t o c r e a t e an e x t r a o r d i n a r y s a n c t u a r y space. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t o n l y a v e r y few Maya s t r u c t u r e s were d e c o r a t e d w i t h i n t e r i o r m u r a l s . I I I . B S t e l a e 11, 12, 13 S t e l a 11 was e r r e c t e d c e n t r a l l y on the middle t e r r a c e i n f r o n t of S t r u c t u r e 40, and i t was f l a n k e d s y m m e t r i c a l l y by S t e l a e 12 and 13. C i r c u l a r a l t a r s were found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h each s t e l a : A l t a r X I I I w i t h S t e l a 12, A l t a r XV w i t h S t e l a 13, and a p l a i n a l t a r w i t h S t e l a 11. A l t a r XIV, on the upper t e r r a c e , was a l s o a l i g n e d w i t h the c e n t r a l S t e l a 11 of the middle t e r r a c e . (See p l a n , F i g u r e 3 ) . H i e r o g l y p h s were c a r v e d on t h r e e a l t a r s , and though e r o s i o n has made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o 37 v e r i f y h i s p r o p o s a l , M o r l e y suggested t h a t t h e i r d a t es were contemporary w i t h the s t e l a e (1938:525). The t h r e e s t e l a e i n f r o n t of S t r u c t u r e 40 were d e s i g n e d t o be as e x c e p t i o n a l as the temple. Though imagery from th e r i v e r s i d e of S t e l a 13 i s almost e n t i r e l y o b l i t e r a t e d and cannot be a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e d (Tate 1986:384), the o p p o s i t e f a c e p r e s e n t s a p o r t r a i t of S h i e l d Jaguar I which d i f f e r s from e i t h e r scene on t r a d i t i o n a l s t e l a e i n both costume and the s i m p l e s t a f f h e l d i n h i s hand ( F i g u r e 6 ) . The h i e r o g l y p h i c t e x t opens w i t h an a u x i l i a r y v e r b r a t h e r than the u s u a l i n t r o d u c t o r y c a l e n d r i c s , thus s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n conveyed on t h i s f a c e of the s t e l a i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of an event p l a c e d h i s t o r i c a l l y by a date on the r e v e r s e s i d e . A l t h o u g h c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the nominal g l y p h s i n d i c a t e S h i e l d Jaguar I as t h e s u b j e c t , e r o s i o n makes i t i m p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r p r e t the v e r b a l c l a u s e ( F i g u r e 7 ) . When found by Maler i n 1897, S t e l a 12 was a l r e a d y broken i n t o s e v e r a l fragments which have s i n c e been reassembled, but the p i c t o r i a l remains a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r d e t e r m i n i n g o r i g i n a l c o m p o s i t i o n s . However, g l y p h i c p a n e l s from both s i d e s of the upper fragment have s u r v i v e d i n good c o n d i t i o n ( F i g u r e 5 ) . These t e x t s r e l a t e S h i e l d J a g u a r ' s death i n 741 A.0. to 38 the subsequent a c c e s s i o n of B i r d Jaguar IV i n 752 A.D. ( S c h e i e 1982:136,198). I t s c e n t r a l placement between S t e l a e 12 and 13, and i t s g r e a t e r h e i g h t and more e l a b o r a t e c o m p o s i t i o n , d i s t i n g u i s h S t e l a 11 as the major s c u l p t u r e of the S t r u c t u r e 40 complex. The two narrow s u r f a c e s c o n t a i n o n l y g l y p h i c datar w h i l e the temple and r i v e r s i d e s p r e s e n t the new s t y l e and themes of B i r d J a g u a r ' s r e i g n . In fact,, S t e l a * 11 may be the f i r s t s t e l a t o have been c a r v e d on a l l f o u r f a c e s , and i t i s a l s o the o n l y f r e e s t a n d i n g s c u l p t u r e a t Y a x c h i l a n t o i n c l u d e m i n i a t u r e p o r t r a i t s . In t h e upper r e g i s t e r s of both s i d e s . On the temple s i d e a s s o c i a t e d g l y p h s i d e n t i f y the two s m a l l f i g u r e s as B i r d J a g u a r ' s p a r e n t s , S h i e l d Jaguar I and Lady Ik S k u l l ( F i g u r e 1 1 ) . I d e n t i f y i n g g l y p h s are not i n c l u d e d w i t h the a n c e s t r a l p o r t r a i t s on the r i v e r s i d e . Both major scenes of S t e l a 11 d i s p l a y new themes and formats which s e r v e d as models f o r o t h e r a r t i s t s . While most s t e l a e of e a r l i e r r u l e r s documented o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g t h e i r r e i g n s as e v i d e n c e of t h e i r power and p o s i t i o n , B i r d J a g u a r ' s S t e l a 11 f o c u s e s i n s t e a d on p r e - i n a u g u r a l r i t u a l s as c o n f i r m a t i o n of h i s h a v i n g a c h i e v e d the r e q u i s i t e d i v i n i t y . 39 Information concerning Bird Jaguar's p r e -inaugural events and h i s accession i s found i n glyphic texts on a l l four faces of s t e l a 11. Five dates and occurrences are included, one of which i s repeated three times, for a t o t a l of seven i n s c r i b e d dates. These i n i t i a t e with 9.15.9.17.16 and conclude with 9.16.1.0.0, the date of B i r d Jaguar's inauguration and the probable dedication date for Structure 40 and i t s t r i a d of s t e l a e . A paraphrasing of these texts (Figures 12 through 18), includes Julian, date c o r r e l a t i o n s , and the epigraphic findings of Morley (1938:521), Scheie (1984a: 37-38), and myself. L e t t e r s and numbers have been assigned to the i n d i v i d u a l glyphs as per Tate (1986:553). The Two N a r r o w F a c e s o f S t e l a 11. A continuous text unites the two narrow spaces (Figures 17, 18). As with the text of T i k a l ' s S t e l a 22 mentioned previously, Mayan hi e r o g l y p h i c passages often e s t a b l i s h a context for present events through reference to a previous event. Here, the text begins on the northwest side with the I n i t i a l Series date of Bi r d Jaguar's inauguration, 9.16.1.0.0, elaborated with the a d d i t i o n o f pertinent lunar data. The text continues on the southeast f a c e with a distance-number r e f e r r i n g b a c k t o a n e a r l i e r d a t e , 4 0 9.15.19.14.14, which celebrates a s t a t i o n in the 819-day c y c l e . 2 Known Instances of the 819-day-count are extremely rare (Kelley 1976:57), and seem to h i g h l i g h t and foreshadow a forthcoming featured event, as on S t e l a 11. However, here the 819-day s t a t i o n i s a t y p i c a l l y documented as having been an a c t u a l r i t u a l , rather than the usual conceptualized and a r i t h m e t i c a l l y derived cosmic '•station". This 819-day-count "event" on 9 .15 ..1.9 .14 .14 precedes Bird Jaguar's inauguration by j u s t over one year (426 days). The f i n a l clause on t h i s narrow face repeats B i r d Jaguar's accession date and includes the v e r b a l glyph deciphered as "was inaugurated". The River Side. The carving on the r i v e r side of S t e l a 11 follows the three r e g i s t e r format c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s c a t t e r i n g scenes on the Temple Sides of Yaxchilan period-ending s t e l a e . As in the conventional format, an elaborate "skyband" separates the main scene from the ancestor cartouches of the upper r e g i s t e r (Figures 8b,10). These p o r t r a i t s of a male and female probably represent Bird Jaguar's parents although no i d e n t i f y i n g glyphs were included on t h i s face of the 41 s t e l a . The skyband shows a composite c a u a c - B a r b e l God image. The lowest r e g i s t e r i s c o m p l e t e l y g l y p h i c and r e c o r d s the f i n a l d a t e on the monument/ which was t h e a c c e s s i o n of B i r d J a g u a r IV.on 9.16.1.0.0. The r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e s i z e of t h e s e g l y p h s , and t h e expanded c a l e n d r i c and nominal p h r a s e s i s o l a t e t h i s t e x t as most im p o r t a n t . S i n c e t h i s d a t e i s a l s o r e c o r d e d on both narrow faces: of. the s t e l a > I t seems c l e a r t h a t the o t h e r d a t e s and e v e n t s documented on the monument were i n c l u d e d as e s s e n t i a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r B i r d J a g u a r ' s i n a u g u r a t i o n . The arrangement of the t h r e e r e p i t i t i o n s of the a c c e s s i o n d a t e - on t h e main s i d e p l u s the two f l a n k i n g , s i d e s , echoes the h i e r a r c h i c arrangement of the t h r e e i n a u g u r a l s t e l a e : the c e n t r a l S t e l a 11 f l a n k e d w i t h S t e l a e 12 and 13. The c e n t r a l scene of p a i r e d males i s immediately r e c o g n i z e d as a n o t a b l e I n n o v a t i o n a t Y a x c h i l a n . In a d d i t i o n t o the I n t r o d u c t i o n of a new r i t u a l implement (the s t a f f s ) , the scene i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a unique c o m p o s i t i o n a l approach. While p r e v i o u s s t e l a e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t a t u s w i t h v a r i a t i o n s of pose and costume, the two males i n t h i s scene who s t a n d f a c i n g each o t h e r a r e o f e q u a l h e i g h t , h o l d n e a r l y I d e n t i c a l objects, and wear c l o t h i n g that d i s t i n g u i s h e s them both as e l i t e i n d i v i d u a l s . Their nearly equivalent status i s confirmed by two d i f f e r e n t texts where they are i n d i v i d u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as; Sh i e l d Jaguar I, (on the l e f t ) , and h i s successor B i r d Jaguar IV. Tate suggests that the " f l a p s t a f f " which both f i g u r e s grasp was composed of a wooden frame to which c l o t h , (with cut out q u a t r e f o i l shapes),, was attached (1986:130). Although the f l a p s t a f f occurred; o c c a s i o n a l l y at other s i t e s , t h i s scene on S t e l a 11 c o n s t i t u t e s i t s f i r s t appearance at Yaxchilan. Both males wear the pointed h l p c l o t h seen i n per iod-end ing. r i t e s , but they also hold c i r c u l a r s h i e l d s which are commonly paired elsewhere with manikin sceptres as symbols of d i v i n e r u l e r s h i p . The headdresses of both Shi e l d Jaguar and B i r d Jaguar contain elements normally associated with the* period-ending r i t u a l of s c a t t e r i n g . Thus, t h e i r costume suggests a composite of two r i t u a l s . Two d i f f e r e n t texts enclosed within the upper and lower borders of t h i s scene each document events that supposedly occurred s e v e r a l years before B i r d Jaguar was enthroned. The lower text r e f e r s to the r i t u a l d i s p l a y of the f l a p s t a f f . While the F l a p s t a f f scene shows two f i g u r e s , the glyphic text only mentions Shield Jaguar's 43 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r i t u a l ( F i g u r e 12). However, s i n c e B i r d Jaguar i s a l s o d e p i c t e d as h o l d i n g a f l a p s t a f f , i t may be assumed t h a t h i s presence was a v i t a l p a r t of the r i t e . The date of t h i s event (9.15.9•17.16) may be c a l c u l a t e d as June 22, 741 A.D., n e a r l y a y e a r b e f o r e the death of S h i e l d Jaguar I on 9.15.10.17.14. Tate: d i s c u s s e s c a l e n d r i c , a r c h i t e c t u r a l , and e t h n o g r a p h i c e v i d e n c e which shows t h a t the June 22 date of the S t e l a 11 F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l b e g i n s a p a t t e r n of a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h summer s o l s t i c e d a t e s which was continued: i n l a t e r examples a t Y a x c h i l a n . S t e l a 11 i s i t s e l f a l i g n e d w i t h S t r u c t u r e 40 a l o n g an a x i s which Tate s u g g e s t s was used f o r s i g h t i n g the Sun a t summer s o l s t i c e s u n r i s e ( 1 9 8 6 : 1 3 3 ) . Tate a l s o p r o v i d e s a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l , based on the s i m i l a r i t y of the c a r v e d scene and e t h n o g r a p h i c a c c o u n t s of summer s o l s t i c e r i t u a l . The s o l s t i c i a l ceremonies p r e s e n t l y performed by the C h o r t i - M a y a r e p l i c a t e the annual passage of the Sun when i t slows down b e f o r e c h a n g ing d i r e c t i o n s . These s o l s t i c i a l r i t e s f u n c t i o n as the p o i n t s of e x i t from, and e n t r y i n t o , p o s i t i o n s of r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s h i p . S p e c i f i c a l l y , summer s o l s t i c e marks the day t h a t the c u r r e n t l e a d e r t e r m i n a t e s h i s d u t i e s (Tate 1986:133£f). 44 The summer s o l s t i c e ceremony recorded on Stela 11 may then have c o n s t i t u t e d a type of successor-appointment r i t u a l depicted by B i r d Jaguar as a v a l i d a t i o n of the passage of power from h i s father to himself. In view of the interregnum discrepancies noted above, i t i s l i k e l y that the r i t u a l event was pure f a b r i c a t i o n . The second text in t h i s scene records the period-ending r i t u a l on 9.15.15.0.0 (746 A.D.). Although verbal and nominal glyphs of t h i s passage (Figure 13) seem to i n d i c a t e that S h i e l d Jaguar conducted the usual s c a t t e r i n g r i t e In c e l e b r a t i o n of the period-ending, the date recorded i s nearly four years a f t e r his death. Here, B i r d Jaguar's name i s connected to that of Shield Jaguar by means of an "u-cab" glyph, roughly meaning "under the auspices of" or " i n the realm of" (Figure 13, N-2). Its i n c l u s i o n here seems to imply B i r d Jaguar's p o l i t i c a l command of; the s c a t t e r i n g event. Certain costume elements associated with such period-ending r i t e s ( s h e l l diadem, r e p t i l l i a n mask) are worn i n t h i s scene by both Sh i e l d Jaguar and B i r d Jaguar, p a r a l l e l i n g the t e x t u a l record of. t h e i r shared p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the s c a t t e r i n g ceremony. The f i g u r a l scene thus simultaneously represents the symbolic dual p a r t i c i p a t i o n of S h i e l d Jaguar I and Bird Jaguar IV i n both a F l a p s t a f f 45 r i t u a l on 9.15.19.17.16 and a P e r i o d - E n d i n g r i t u a l on 9.15.15.0.0. I t appears t h a t both the d u a l i n s c r i p t i o n s and t h e d u a l p o r t r a i t s o f the F l a p s t a f f scene were i n t e n d e d to e s t a b l i s h the s u c c e s s i o n from S h i e l d Jaguar I t o B i r d Jaguar IV. B i r d Jaguar appears t o be s u g g e s t i n g t h a t on the summer s o l s t i c e b e f o r e h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , S h i e l d Jaguar performed a; F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l which e l e v a t e d B i r d Jaguar t o t h e p o s i t i o n of h e i r . For some as y e t undetermined r e a s o n , no i n a u g u r a t i o n was h e l d f o r t e n y e a r s a f t e r S h i e l d J a g u a r ' s d e a t h . However, B i r d Jaguar c l a i m s t h a t he was a l r e a d y s u f f i c i e n t l y i n c o n t r o l , and of p roper t i t l e , t o o f f i c i a t e the next p e r i o d - e n d i n g r i t u a l as s u r r o g a t e f o r the deceased S h i e l d J a g u ar. The Temple S i d e . T h i s s i d e of S t e l a 11 i s a t w o - r e g i s t e r format. The upper zone d e p i c t s B i r d J a g u a r ' s p a r e n t s , i d e n t i f i e d g l y p h i c a l l y as Lady Ik S k u l l Sky and S h i e l d Jaguar I . The lower r e g i s t e r c o n t a i n s a n a r r a t i v e scene ( F i g u r e s 8a,11) which i s i n p a r t a c o m b i n a t i o n of the a r r a i g n m e n t / c a p t u r e and s c a t t e r i n g themes t h a t d e c o r a t e the two s i d e s of Y a x c h i l a n ' s s t a n d a r d p e r i o d - e n d i n g s t e l a e . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of scenes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c a p t u r e and arraignment of p r i s o n e r s 46 which appear on t h i s s i d e i n c l u d e : 1. t h r e e k n e e l i n g f i g u r e s i d e n t i f i e d as c a p t i v e s by the d r o o p i n g c l o t h e a r p l u g s , r o p e b i n d i n g s , s c a n t c l o t h i n g , and k n e e l i n g p o s t u r e ; 2. the j a g u a r s k i n k i l t and cauac monster b e l t mask worn by B i r d J a g u a r , a s s o c i a t e d i n g e n e r a l w i t h s a c r i f i c e and d e s t r u c t i o n ; and 3. the baton h e l d by B i r d J a guar, which r e a p p e a r s on two l a t e r a r r a i g n m e n t scenes commissioned by B i r d Jaguar where i t i s h e l d by the a t t e n d i n g canal. ( F i g u r e s 23,36). C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s c a t t e r i n g r i t u a l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r i o d - e n d i n g s which appear i n t h i s scene i n c l u d e : 1. the k n o t t e d p e c t o r a l ; 2. the twined s e r p e n t d e c o r a t i o n on w r i s t l e t s and a n k l e t s ; 3. the p e r f o r a t o r god on the l o i n c l o t h ; and 4. the manikin s c e p t r e h e l d i n B i r d J a g u a r ' s l e f t hand, which may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such s c a t t e r i n g r i t e s as w e l l , since, i t l i k e w i s e connotes f e r t i l i t y and r e b i r t h (Cohodas 1 9 8 2 : 1 1 3 f f ) . T h i s thorough b l e n d i n g of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h two c o n t r a s t i n g r i t u a l s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the F l a p s t a f f scene on the r i v e r s i d e , as e x p l a i n e d above. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of s t a n d a r d s t e l a elements, the n a r r a t i v e scene on the temple s i d e of S t e l a 11 i s a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the d r a m a t i c p o r t r a y a l of B i r d Jaguar as an impersonator of the B a r b e l God. 3 4 7 While r u l e r s o f t e n wore the s h e l l e a r p l u g and diadem of the B a r b e l god i n t h e i r headdress on s c a t t e r i n g r i t u a l s d e p i c t e d i n s t e l a e s c u l p t u r e s , i n t h i s scene on s t e l a 11 B i r d Jaguar h i m s e l f wears not o n l y the e a r p l u g s and diadem but a l s o a mask d e p i c t i n g the f a c e of the B a r b e l god. As t h i s d e i t y i m p e r s o n a t i o n i s the most unique and s t r i k i n g element of the t e m p l e - s i d e n a r r a t i v e , i t w i l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as the " B a r b e l God Scene".* While the h i e r o g l y p h i c t e x t accompanying the arr a i g n m e n t scene c l e a r l y r e c o r d s B i r d Jaguar IV as the s u b j e c t of the a c t i o n , s e v e r e e r o s i o n of the v e r b a l g l y p h s makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o determine what p a r t i c u l a r e vent i s b e i n g r e c o r d e d ( F i g u r e 16). For reason s explained, i n Chapter V, I s u s p e c t the event was B i r d J a g u a r ' s a c c e p t a n c e as Y a x c h i l a n ' s r u l e r - e l e c t . The c a l e n d r i c g l y p h s a r e c l e a r and i n f o r m us t h a t t h i s event o c c u r r e d on 9.15.19.1.1, about two y e a r s p r i o r t o B i r d J a g u a r ' s a c c e s s i o n . I t s h o u l d be noted too t h a t u n l i k e d a t e s on the P e r i o d - e n d i n g S t e l a e t h a t u s u a l l y r e c o r d a c a p t u r e and subsequent p e r i o d - e n d i n g d u r i n g a s p e c i f i e d r e i g n , t h i s a c t i o n on S t e l a 11 i s h i s t o r i c a l l y and s y m b o l i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h B i r d J a g u a r ' s l a t e r i n a u g u r a t i o n . Whereas the i n t e g r a t i o n of two s y m b o l i c themes i n the F l a p s t a f f scene of the r i v e r s i d e was 48 c l a r i f i e d by the i n c l u s i o n of a t e x t f o r each of the two a s s o c i a t e d r i t u a l s , o n l y a s i n g l e t e x t appears wi t h the e q u a l l y d u a l i s t i c B a r b e l God scene of the temple s i d e . There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n a l and c l i m a c t i c i n a u g u r a l t e x t on the base of the r i v e r s i d e was u n d e r s t o o d t o f u n c t i o n as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the second r i t u a l implement o f the B a r b e l God scene. While the baton, r e f e r s t o s a c r i f i c i a l a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the B a r b e l god, the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the m a n i k i n s c e p t r e ( a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d y n a s t i c r i t u a l s a t Y a x c h i l a n ) , may r e f e r d i r e c t l y t o the i n a u g u r a l e v e n t . I T I . C Summary The unique S t e l a 11 i s the f o c u s of B i r d J a g u a r ' s ensemble of i n a u g u r a l commemoratives a l i g n e d w i t h S t r u c t u r e 40 and f l a n k e d by S t e l a e 12 and 13. Maya i n s c r i p t i o n s commonly span a t l e a s t s e v e r a l decades i n o r d e r f o r r u l e r s : t o r e l a t e events w i t h i n t h e i r r e i g n t o p r e r e q u i s i t e e v e n t s d u r i n g t h e i r y o u t h . T h i s t e c h n i q u e a l s o enabled r u l e r s t o a s s o c i a t e themselves w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l s by l i n k i n g supposed e v e n t s from m y t h i c a l h i s t o r y t o a c t u a l events i n c u r r e n t h i s t o r y . S t e l a 11 i s unusual i n i t s r e f e r e n c e o n l y to events encompassing the 49 ten year i n t e r r e g n u m p e r i o d when the r u l e r s h i p of Y a x c h i l a n was u n c e r t a i n - b e g i n n i n g w i t h a ceremony which s u p p o s e d l y took p l a c e a year b e f o r e S h i e l d J a g u a r ' s death and e n d i n g w i t h B i r d J a g u a r ' s i n a u g u r a t i o n ( C h a r t 2 ) . 9 Other u n u s u a l elements on S t e l a 11 i n c l u d e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of both a new s c u l p t u r a l mode and a new theme i n v o l v i n g a* f a t h e r / s o n p a i r i n g . The most unique a r t i s t i c i n n o v a t i o n i s the d e s i g n of each f i g u r a l scene to r e p r e s e n t two s e p a r a t e e v e n t s , c l a r i f i e d i n i n d i v i d u a l t e x t s . The F l a p s t a f f scene r e f e r s both t o S h i e l d J a g u a r ' s supposed s e l e c t i o n o f B i r d Jaguar as h e i r , and t o B i r d J a g u a r ' s performance of a p e r i o d - e n d i n g r i t e as s u r r o g a t e f o r the deceased S h i e l d J a g u a r . The B a r b e l God scene r e f e r s both t o the m i l i t a r y conquest a s s o c i a t e d w i t h B i r d J a g u a r ' s f i n a l e l e c t i o n t o s u c c e e d , and to the i n a u g u r a t i o n which c u l m i n a t e s t h i s t o r t u o u s path t o the t h r o n e . Of the f o u r e v e n t s , two are common i n Maya d y n a s t i c monuments:, the p e r i o d - e n d i n g and i n a u g u r a t i o n r i t u a l s . The o t h e r two, the F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l and the E l e c t i o n / c o n q u e s t , a r e unusual events a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h B i r d J a g u a r ' s v a l i d a t i o n of a shaky c l a i m t o the t h r o n e , and t h e y dominate the f i g u r a l imagery. These two r i t u a l s thus r e p r e s e n t the focus of 50 propaganda i n the i n a u g u r a l complex and d e s e r v e f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s w i l l probe the c a l e n d r i c c o n t e n t of t h e s e two r i t u a l s , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the i c o n o g r a p h y of the a s s o c i a t e d f i g u r a l s c e n e s . Notes f o r Chapter I I I 1 While Tate does r e l a t e i n t e r e s t i n g phenomena a t S t r u c t u r e s 41 and 33 where the f i r s t p a t ches of summer s o l s t i c e s u n l i g h t c r e a t e s p e c i a l v i s u a l e f f e c t s (1986:3,25); she does not r e c o r d any such h i e r o p h a n y f o r S t r u c t u r e 40. The c e n t r a l S t e l a 11 was one of the t a l l e s t a t Y a x c h i l a n and was a l i g n e d w i t h the c e n t r a l doorway of S t r u c t u r e 40. I s u s p e c t t h a t the i n t e n d e d v i s u a l e f f e c t may have o c c u r r e d when the f i r s t s o l s t i c i a l r a y s a l i g n e d w i t h the temple and the upper p o r t i o n of S t e l a 11. T h i s i l l u m i n a t e d s i d e of the s t e l a p o r t r a y s B i r d Jaguar and h i s f a t h e r , engaged i n a summer s o l s t i c e r i t u a l ; so the a s s o c i a t i o n s of the imagery and the astronomy were perhaps planned t o be complementary. Tate would not have been a b l e t o observe t h i s phenomena s i n c e S t e l a 11 i s no l o n g e r s t a n d i n g i n i t s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n . a The 819-day-cycle seems t o have been d i v i d e d i n t o four quadrants a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each of the f o u r d i r e c t i o n s , four d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r s , and the Mayan God "K" ( K e l l e y 1976:57). God "K" r e p r e s e n t s a form of the newly born maize god, and i s s y m b o l i c of r u l e r s who a r e newly "born" upon i n a u g u r a t i o n . 3 The B a r b e l God i s named f o r the f i s h - b a r b e l s u s u a l l y d e p i c t e d on h i s cheeks. His c o n t e x t u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the watery underworld r e a l m ( i n c i s e d bones from T i k a l ) , a re r e f l e c t e d as w e l l by the s h e l l ear c o v e r i n g and the s h e l l headdress diadem t h a t a r e f r e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e d as h i s costume elements (Copan S t e l a I, A l t a r P a i n t e r ' s p l a t e ) . The B a r b e l God i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as GI (God #1) because of i t s c o n t e x t a t Palenque. The t r i a d of Palenque gods were f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d by H e i n r i c h B e r l i n ( 1 9 6 3 ) as God I, God I I , and God I I I . The C r o s s Group i n s c r i p t i o n s r e c o r d 51 that these three gods were the o f f s p r i n g of an an c e s t r a l male/female pair of gods, presently known as :"Lady Beastie" and "GI, the father" (Scheie 1984a). For Palenque at l e a s t , Gl/the Barbel God represents the p a t r i a r c h of Maya r u l e r s h i p . Scheie has r e c e n t l y suggested another name for t h i s god: Chac Xlb Chac (1986:312). *• This emphasis on the Barbel god i s r e f l e c t e d i n the skyband on the r i v e r side of the monument. Instead of the more usual jaguarian or sungod anthropomorphic heads, a r t i s t s of St e l a 11 have modified the d e i t y heads to represent a composite cauac-Barbel god (Figure 10). ° Chart 2 incorporates data from various sources. The J u l i a n and Gregorian c o r r e l a t i o n s for Maya long counts are taken from Lounsbury's tables incorporating the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (G.M.T.), synchronization of 584,283 days. Venus-day p o s i t i o n s , c a l c u l a t e d by Lounsbury, are counted from the midpoint of the f i f t y - d a y Superior Conjunction (midpoint counts as zero and/or 584). The d i f f e r e n c e i n degrees of longitude f o r Venus and the Sun derive from Tuckerman's tables of Planetary and Solar p o s i t i o n s (1964). Regarding i n i t i a l s i g h t i n g s of Venus, opinions vary but i t i s ge n e r a l l y accepted that Venus cannot be seen from Earth u n t i l i t i s at l e a s t 10 to 13 degrees away from the Sun. For Evening Star t h i s d i f f e r e n c e would correspond to approximately Day 25 of the Venus c y c l e . Morning Star could f i r s t be seen on approximately Day 297 of the Venus c y c l e . However, Venus days for i n i t i a l s i g h t i n g s of Morning or Evening Star vary according to i n t e r s i t e d i f f e r e n c e s in atmospheric conditions and e l e v a t i o n or alignment with the horizon. Thus, v a r i a t i o n s of f i r s t s i g h t i n g s of Evening Star could range from about Day 23 to at l e a s t Day 45. For f i r s t appearances of Morning Star, the Venus c y c l e Day could vary from about Day 297 u n t i l about Day 319. When i n v e s t i g a t i n g possible c o r r e l a t i o n s of c a l e n d r i c s and astronomy, another factor must be considered: although i t a c t u a l l y l a s t s for about f i f t y days, Mayan astronomy tables charted a period of ninety days for Superior Conjunction. Thus, in checking apparent f i r s t appearances of Evening Star one cannot be sure i f the Maya intended a reference to an act u a l s i g h t i n g or to a mathematically predicted s i g h t i n g . For Mayan symbolic purposes, e i t h e r would have been s i g n i f i c a n t . 52 CHAPTER I V THE F L A P S T A F F RITUAL I V . A I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f C a l e n d r i c a n d G l y p h i c D a t a A t Y a x c h i l a n t h e F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l i s d e p i c t e d n o t o n l y on S t e l a 11 b u t a l s o on S t e l a 1 6 , L i n t e l s 3 3 , 50, a n d 9 ( F i g u r e s 2 5 , 3 3 , 3 5 ) . I n a l l e x a m p l e s o f r e a d a b l e d a t e s , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h summer s o l s t i c e i s m a i n t a i n e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l t h o u g h a l l f i v e e x a m p l e s were c a r v e d d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f B i r d J a g u a r , f o u r o u t o f t h e f i v e a r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S h i e l d J a g u a r , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h i s r i t u a l c o n t i n u e d t o a s s o c i a t e t h e t r a n s f e r o f power t o B i r d J a g u a r w i t h c e l e b r a t i o n s o f t h e summer s o l s t i c e . 1 The F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l on S t e l a 11 i s s a i d t o h a v e t a k e n p l a c e on 9 . 1 5 . 9 . 1 7 . 1 6 , ( J u n e 2 2 , 741 A . D . ) . B i r d J a g u a r c h o s e t o d a t e t h i s c e r e m o n y b a c k t o t h e l a s t Summer S o l s t i c e b e f o r e h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , t h e l a s t t i m e when s o l a r e v e n t s c o u l d v a l i d a t e t h e t r a n s f e r o f power f r o m S h i e l d J a g u a r I t o B i r d J a g u a r I V . S i n c e M e s o a m e r i c a n p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s i d e n t i f i e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e S u n , Maya s c u l p t u r e s d o c u m e n t i n g d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n o f t e n i n c l u d e m e t a p h o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e d e a t h a n d r e b i r t h o f t h e S u n , w h i c h c o u l d be p e r c e i v e d a s r e c u r r i n g b o t h d a i l y a n d a n n u a l l y . As f i r s t s y n t h e s i z e d b y C o h o d a s ( 1 9 7 6 a : 1 6 2 f f ) , t h e d e a t h o f a p r e d e c e s s o r w o u l d be a n a l o g o u s t o t h e d a i l y d e s c e n t o f t h e Sun i n t h e w e s t o r i t s a n n u a l d e s c e n t on t h e v e r n a l e q u i n o x , w h i l e t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f t h e s u c c e s s o r w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s u b s e q u e n t d a i l y s u n r i s e o r a n n u a l " r e b i r t h " on t h e a u t u m n a l e q u i n o x . The t i m e b e t w e e n one d e a t h a n d a s u b s e q u e n t a c c e s s i o n w o u l d be l i k e n e d t o t h e Su n ' s n o c t u r n a l j o u r n e y f r o m w e s t t o e a s t , w h i c h was p r e s u m e d t o o c c u r i n t h e u n d e r w o r l d d u r i n g t h e summer s o l s t i c e s e a s o n . By c h o o s i n g t o a s s o c i a t e h i m s e l f a n d h i s p r e d e c e s s o r w i t h t h e l i m i n a l p o i n t o f t h e Sun's m e t a m o r p h o s i s , B i r d J a g u a r was a b l e t o c a p i t a l i z e on i t s m e t a p h o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s t o d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n . A r a r e c o s m o l o g i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e h a p p e n e d t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h i s summer s o l s t i c e p r i o r t o t h e d e a t h o f S h i e l d J a g u a r , a n d i t seems c e r t a i n t h a t t h i s a u s p i c i o u s o c c a s i o n s t i m u l a t e d B i r d J a g u a r ' s i n n o v a t i v e u s e o f summer s o l s t i c e s y m b o l i s m . W i t h i n a p e r i o d o f s i x d a y s f r o m t h e S t e l a 11 F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l , t h e r e was a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y c o i n c i d e n c e i n v o l v i n g a r i t h m e t i c a l a n d s y m b o l i c h a l f w a y p o s i t i o n s o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c y c l e s : t h e 3 6 5 - d a y S o l a r c y c l e ( 9 . 1 5 . 9 . 1 7 . 1 6 ) , t h e 7 2 0 0 - d a y c y c l e o f K a t u n s ( 9 . 1 5 . 1 0 . 0 . 0 ) , a n d t h e 5 8 4 - d a y V e n u s c y c l e ( 9 . 1 5 . 1 0 . 0 . 1 ) . As t h e p e r i o d - e n d i n g d a t e 9.15.10.0.0 54 m a r k e d o r a p p r o x i m a t e d t h e m i d p o i n t s o f a l l t h r e e c y c l e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o s i g n a l i n g t h e a n n u a l m i d y e a r r e s t i n g p o i n t o f t h e S u n , i t was t h e e n d o f t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t w e n t y t u n s c a l l e d a lahuntun ( e q u i v a l e n t t o t e n t u n s ) , a n d i t was n e a r t h e l a s t d a y o f i n v i s i b i l i t y o r I n f e r i o r C o n j u n c t i o n i n t h e V e n u s c y c l e ( C h a r t 4 ) . E a c h o f t h e s e c y c l i c s t a t i o n s a r e m i d p o i n t p i v o t s , m a r k i n g t h e e n d o f one p h a s e a n d t h e s t a r t o f a new r o t a t i o n , a n d e a c h i s t h e r e f o r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i m i n a l i t y a n d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The s i m u l t a n e o u s o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e s e t h r e e c y c l i c b i f u r c a t i o n s i s e x t r e m e l y r a r e a n d w o u l d h a v e h e l d e n o r m o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e Maya whose p o l i t i c a l a n d r e l i g i o u s f o u n d a t i o n f o c u s e d on c o n c e p t s o f p a r a l l e l c y c l i c t r a n s i t i o n a n d r e n e w a l . 2 W h i l e many r u l e r s d i d commemorate c e l e b r a t i o n s o f t h e e x a c t d a t e o f t h e p e r i o d - e n d i n g , 9 . 1 5 . 1 0 . 0 . 0 , B i r d J a g u a r d i d n o t . 3 I n s t e a d , he r e f e r r e d o n l y t o d a t e s o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e a n d a f t e r t h e lahuntun c e l e b r a t i o n . The F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l on S t e l a 11 i s d a t e d 9 . 1 5 . 9 . 1 7 . 1 6 , o r t h e J u n e 22 Summer S o l s t i c e o f 741 A.D. p r e c e d i n g t h e p e r i o d - e n d i n g b y f o u r d a y s , a n d i t a p p e a r s a l s o t o h a v e b e e n t h e m i d p o i n t o f I n f e r i o r C o n j u n c t i o n . B y c o n t r a s t , two l a t e r s c u l p t u r e s e r e c t e d b y B i r d J a g u a r r e c o r d e v e n t s w h i c h seem t o h a v e b e e n p a r t i a l l y i n c o m m e m o r a t i o n o f t h e 55 s u b s e q u e n t f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e o f M o r n i n g S t a r , f i v e d a y s l a t e r , on J u n e 27 o r 9 . 1 5 . 1 0 . 0 . 1 , one d a y a f t e r t h e l a h u n t u n c e l e b r a t i o n . T h e s e c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d d a t e s a r e s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t i v e o f a r i t e o f p a s s a g e w h i c h s p a n n e d s i x d a y s : f r o m 9.15.9.17.16 t h r o u g h 9 . 1 5 . 1 0 . 0 . 1 . The d a t e s i n v o l v e d t h u s i n c l u d e f o u r d a y s b e f o r e t h e p e r i o d -e n d i n g t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , t h e u n s t a t e d l i m i n a l p e r i o d o f t h e p e r i o d - e n d i n g i t s e l f , a n d t h e r e n e w a l o r r e c r e a t i o n w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e on t h e f i r s t d a y o f t h e new l a h u n t u n . T h e s e t h r e e e v e n t s d o c u m e n t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e o l d t i m e p e r i o d a n d c r e a t i o n o f t h e new i n a manner p a r a l l e l t o t h e t h r e e s t a g e s o f a r i t u a l p a s s a g e . R e v i e w e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s c h e m e : D a t e A, 9 . 1 5 . 9 . 1 7 . 1 6 , m a r k s t h e f i n a l d e s c e n t o f t h e a g e d Sun i n i t s a n n u a l c y c l e , t h e m i d p o i n t o f I n f e r i o r C o n j u n c t i o n when V e n u s i s i n v i s i b l e , a n d s i g n a l s t h e d e a t h o r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e o l d t i m e p e r i o d . T h i s d a t e i s r e c o r d e d f o r t h e F l a p s t a f f e v e n t o f S t e l a 1 1 , a n d i s i n t e r p r e t e d h e r e a s B i r d J a g u a r ' s c l a i m t o h a v i n g b e e n d e s i g n a t e d a s S h i e l d J a g u a r ' s s u c c e s s o r . 56 Date B, 9.15.10.0.0, denotes the l l m i n a l t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t i n a l l these c y c l e s . Although understood as the date from which the p r e c e e d i n g and s u c c e e d i n g events are c a l c u l a t e d , t h i s p e r i o d - e n d i n g date i s not i t s e l f r e c o r d e d . Date C, 9.15.10.0.1, s i g n a l s r e b i r t h , reappearance, and renewal i n a l l c y c l e s . I t r e c o r d s the f i r s t day of a new decade and the f i r s t Morning S t a r s i g h t i n g of Venus which was f o l l o w e d minutes l a t e r by the f i r s t r i s i n g of the re b o r n Sun. T h i s date appears on two s c u l p t u r e s from l a t e r In B i r d Jaguar's r e i g n , and he Is one of four d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s d e p i c t e d i n images w i t h t h i s d a t e . I t appears t h a t the d i s c r e p a n c i e s of B i r d Jaguar's g e n e a l o g i c a l c l a i m t o r u l e r s h i p r e q u i r e d t h a t he document some precedent or j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s a c c e s s i o n . B i r d Jaguar took advantage of the order and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of c e l e s t i a l bodies and the count of tuns, by r e w r i t i n g a h i s t o r y which would convey n o t i o n s of a p a r a l l e l i n e v i t a b i l i t y f o r h i s own p e r s o n a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from mortal t o d i v i n e . The r u l e r Chan Bah 1 urn, from the nearby s i t e of Palenque, s h o u l d be c r e d i t e d with the s p e c i f i c l i n k i n g of 57 Summer S o l s t i c e days to r i t e s of passage and o f f i c e -t a k i n g . In the t h r e e temples of the Cross Group (692 A.O.) Chan Bahlum d e p i c t s h i m s e l f with h i s f a t h e r and pre d e c e s s o r Pacal, i n a t h r e e stage t r a n s f e r of power t h a t begins with Chan Bahlum's h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n and ends w i t h h i s f a t h e r ' s memorial ceremony (Cohodas:personal communication). The date of Chan Bahlum's h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n as r e c o r d e d on the Sun T a b l e t ( F i g u r e 45:P6-Q10) o c c u r r e d near a summer s o l s t i c e i n the G.M.T. c o r r e l a t i o n . The intended p a r a l l e l s of d y n a s t i c and s o l a r t r a n s i t i o n are c l a r i f i e d i n the passage which appears t o s t a t e t h a t on t h i s s o l s t i c e Chan Bahlum "became the sun" or "entered (the l i n e a g e ) as the sun" (Scheie 1984b:289). That B i r d Jaguar was r e p l i c a t i n g Chan Bahlum's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n and Summer S o l s t i c e , i s suggested by B i r d Jaguar's c h o i c e of a date (9.15.9.17.16), o c c u r r i n g p r e c i s e l y one hundred s o l a r y e a r s a f t e r the s i m i l a r event a t Palengue! Even by i t s e l f t h i s a n n i v e r s a r y would have h e l d g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e , but s i n c e i t c o i n c i d e d w i t h the phenomenal a s p e c t s of the 9.15.10.0.0 lahuntun p e r i o d - e n d i n g i t s symbolic v a l u e was enormously m a g n i f i e d . Furthermore, the Cross Group t a b l e t s p r o v i d e the o n l y l i k e l y source f o r the F l a p s t a f f scene, i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the 58 d e c e a s e d p r e d e c e s s o r a n d p r e s e n t r u l e r f a c i n g e a c h o t h e r . B i r d J a g u a r ' s f i g u r a l a n d g l y p h i c a l l u s i o n s t o a s i x d a y r i t u a l s e q u e n c e a p p e a r t o be a n e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e s o l s t i c i a l h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n f i r s t d o c u m e n t e d h i e r o g l y p h i c a l l y b y Chan Bahlum a t P a l e n q u e . The C r o s s G r o u p t e x t s s p e c i f y t h a t C han Bah1urn's h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n r i t e s c u l m i n a t e d on t h e f i f t h d a y a f t e r t h e y w e re i n i t i a t e d . S i m i l a r l y , a t Y a x c h i l a n t h e f i f t h d a y i s commemorated b y t h e monuments d a t e d 9 . 1 5 . 1 0 . 0 . 1 . I n a d d i t i o n t o r e p l i c a t i n g Chan Bahlum's " f i f t h d a y " c e l e b r a t i o n , t h i s d a t e a l s o s i g n a l e d t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a new lahuntun a n d t h e i n i t i a l a p p e a r a n c e o f M o r n i n g S t a r w h i c h was s y m b o l i c a l l y a n a l o g o u s t o a Summer S o l s t i c e s u n r i s e . B i r d J a g u a r ' s v e r s i o n t a k e s a d v a n t a g e o f t h e c y c l i c c o n v e r g e n c e w i t h V e n u s a n d a t e m p o r a l c o u n t , n o t a v a i l a b l e t o Chan Bahlum. I V . B The F i g u r a l S c e n e The S t e l a 11 p a i r i n g o f t w o f a c i n g f i g u r e s who h o l d n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l s t a f f s i m m e d i a t e l y i n s i n u a t e s a n e q u i v a l e n t s t a t u s a s r o y a l p e r s o n s , s u p p o r t i n g T a t e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e f l a p s t a f f w i t h t h e t r a n s f e r o f r i t u a l a n d s e c u l a r power ( 1 9 8 6 : 1 3 8 ) . N o t o n l y do t h e s y m b o l i c 59 m o t i f s , p o s t u r e , a n d g e s t u r e i n t h e F l a p s t a f f s c e n e o f S t e l a 11 r e i n f o r c e t h e g e n e r a l i d e a o f t r a n s f e r , b u t a l s o t h e i n d i v i d u a l e l e m e n t s a n d m o t i f s a l l u d e t o t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o r e n d o f one s t a t e o f b e i n g w h i c h must p r e c e d e t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new o r d e r . O r n a m e n t a l f l a p s t a f f s a r e r e a s o n a b l y common i n Maya s c u l p t u r e b u t t h e y a r e n o r m a l l y i n c l u d e d o n l y a s c o s t u m e p a r a p h e r n a l i a i d e n t i f y i n g i n d i v i d u a l s a s s e l f -s a c r i f i c e r s a n d / o r w a r r i o r s ( F i g u r e 3 7 ) . H a n d - h e l d f l a p s t a f f s a p p e a r on f o u r o t h e r monuments a t Y a x c h i l a n : S t e l a 1 6 , L i n t e l s 9, 3 3 , 50. T h e s e were c o m m i s s i o n e d l a t e r t h a n S t e l a 11 ( l i k e l y d u r i n g B i r d J a g u a r ' s s e c o n d d e c a d e o f r u l e ) , a n d e v i d e n c e a r e v i v a l o f f l a p s t a f f i m a g e r y . As w i t h S t e l a 11 t h e y a r e a l s o l n c o n t e x t s d e n o t i n g t h e p a s s a g e o f p o w e r . T h o u g h S t e l a 16 ( F i g u r e 25) c a n n o t be d a t e d s e c u r e l y , t h e p r o t a g o n i s t h o l d i n g t h e f l a p s t a f f i s c l e a r l y named a s S h i e l d J a g u a r I . * The f a c t t h a t t h e monument was e r e c t e d b y B i r d J a g u a r s u g g e s t s r e - u s e o f t h i s image a s a v a l i d a t i o n o f h i s r i g h t t o r u l e . L i n t e l 9 ( F i g u r e 3 5 ) , d a t e d 9 . 1 6 . 1 7 . 6 . 1 2 , 1 Eb end o f Y a x k i n ( J u n e 1 6 , 768 A . D . ) , a l s o i n t e r r e l a t e s t h e s o l s t i c e w i t h a p a s s a g e o f p o w e r , b u t i t s f u n c t i o n I s d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t . The a c t o r s a r e B i r d J a g u a r a n d 60 the canal Great S k u l l Zero (perhaps b r o t h e r - i n - l a w to B i r d J a g u a r ) , who i s not known to have r u l e d a t Y a x c h i l a n . At l e a s t t h r e e s c e n a r i o s c o u l d e x p l a i n the enigma o£ L i n t e l 9, but not enough i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e . 9 L i k e S t e l a 11, the l i n t e l s of S t r u c t u r e 13 ( F i g u r e s 33,34) r e f e r back to dates d u r i n g the r e i g n of S h i e l d Jaguar, and d u r i n g the interregnum. F l a p s t a f f images on L i n t e l s 50 and 33 f l a n k the c e n t r a l L i n t e l 32 which d e p i c t s B i r d Jaguar's p u t a t i v e p a r e n t s : Lady Ik S k u l l and S h i e l d Jaguar I . Tate shows (1986:307) t h a t the scene and date of L i n t e l 32 (9.13.17.15.il) were desig n e d to r e w r i t e the event on L i n t e l 24 (9.13.17.15 . 1 2 ) where S h i e l d Jaguar Is shown wi t h Lady Xoc p e r f o r m i n g s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . S i n c e t h i s date o c c u r r e d o n l y s i x t y - t h r e e days a f t e r B i r d Jaguar's b i r t h , i t may be t h a t B i r d Jaguar was now I n f e r r i n g t h a t he had been c o n s i d e r e d the r i g h t f u l h e i r s i n c e t h a t time. The date of the F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l performed by B i r d Jaguar on L i n t e l 33 (9.15.16.1.6) corresponds almost t o the f i f t h s o l a r a n n i v e r s a r y of S h i e l d Jaguar's d e a t h , and was l i k e l y p e r c e i v e d of as the exact a n n i v e r s a r y of h i s b u r i a l and descent i n t o a journey of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n through the underworld. 61 No date was i n s c r i b e d on L i n t e l 50, but s i n c e i t i s p a i r e d w i t h L i n t e l 33, one c o u l d assume t h a t t h i s F l a p s t a f f event o c c u r r e d on the same date as L i n t e l 33, the probable a n n i v e r s a r y of S h i e l d Jaguar's b u r i a l . E r o s i o n has d e s t r o y e d the g l y p h s , a l t h o u g h an apparent " s k u l l " g l y p h c o u l d be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the b u r i a l -a n n i v e r s a r y proposed h e r e i n . 8 The two f l a n k i n g l i n t e l s of S t r u c t u r e 13 would then r e p r e s e n t S h i e l d Jaguar and B i r d Jaguar with f l a p s t a f f s as on S t e l a 11, v a r y i n g the theme of s u c c e s s o r appointment; while the c e n t r a l L i n t e l 32 d e p i c t i n g B i r d J aguar's p a r e n t s emphasizes a g e n e a l o g i c a l c l a i m r e p e a t i n g t h a t i n the upper r e g i s t e r s of both s i d e s of S t e l a 11. F u r t h e r c o n n o t a t i o n s of the F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l may be i n f e r r e d by comparison with r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a t other Maya s i t e s . To my knowledge the o n l y i n c i d e n c e of predominant hand-held f l a p s t a f f s p r i o r t o the r e i g n of B i r d Jaguar IV, i s on the p a i r e d s t e l a e from S i t e Q/El Peru ( F i g u r e 43), which commemorate the p e r i o d - e n d i n g of 9.13.0.0.0 (692 A.D.). There are no known glyphs a s s o c i a t e d with S i t e Q s c u l p t u r e which r e c o r d e i t h e r a summer s o l s t i c e or a successor-appointment, so the f l a p s t a f f s t h e r e are almost c e r t a i n l y not r e p r e s e n t i n g the same ceremony as B i r d Jaguar r e c o r d e d . Furthermore, 62 the f l a p s t a f f i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a s a c r i f i c i a l s c e p t r e h e l d by both a male and a female, i n c o n t r a s t t o the s t r i c t l y male a s s o c i a t i o n a t Y a x c h i l a n . The a c t o r s p o r t r a y e d on t h e p a n e l s are g l y p h i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as the mother and b r o t h e r of the contemporary r u l e r , Jaguar Paw, and t h e y are both r e c o r d e d as having performed s e l f -s a c r i f i c i a l b l o o d l e t t i n g i n c e l e b r a t i o n of the p e r i o d -ending. From evidence on the S i t e Q s t e l a e and b a l l p l a y e r panels (Scheie 1982) i t i s known t h a t the r u l e r Jaguar Paw acceded i n 686 A.D. a t the age of 44. Puma, born about four y ears b e f o r e Jaguar Paw and from the same p a r e n t s , was the o l d e r b r o t h e r of Jaguar Paw, and presumably, h i s p r e d e c e s s o r . A d i s t a n c e number of eighty-two days precedes the a c c e s s i o n of Jaguar Paw and c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e suggests t h a t i t may have been counted from the death of the p r e d e c e s s o r , Puma. However, on the p a i r e d s c u l p t u r e s which r e c o r d Jaguar Paw's a c c e s s i o n and subsequent p e r i o d - e n d i n g , h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r Puma i s a l s o named posthumously i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the p e r i o d - e n d i n g . These o b s e r v a t i o n s i n f e r t h a t l i k e B i r d Jaguar of Y a x c h i l a n , Jaguar Paw of S i t e Q was i n c o r p o r a t i n g the s u p e r n a t u r a l power of h i s deceased predecessor to s a n c t i o n or l e g i t i m i z e the a c c e s s i o n and p e r i o d - e n d i n g r i t e s . F u r t h e r support f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l appears a t Palenque. In commemorating the f i r s t katun a n n i v e r s a r y of h i s a c c e s s i o n i n 764 A.D., Kuk e r e c t e d the T a b l e t of the N i n e t y - S i x Glyphs on the South w a l l of the p a l a c e tower, and f l a n k e d t h i s t a b l e t with the "Orator and S c r i b e " images on the b a l u s t r a d e s (alfazdas) of the s t a i r w a y below. Both alfazdas ( F i g u r e 46), d e p i c t s e l f - s a c r i f i c e r s who h o l d a v e r s i o n of the f l a p s t a f f . The a c t o r i n both scenes seems t o be Chac Zutz, a cahal whose c u r i o u s c o n t r o l of Palenque came between the r e i g n s of Lord Chaccal and h i s son, Lord Kuk. Through these panels and the F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l , Kuk e s t a b l i s h e d descent from h i s f a t h e r , r a t h e r than from the cahal whom he a c t u a l l y succeeded." 7 A p a t t e r n emerges. Kuk " i n h e r i t e d " r u l e r s h i p from a cahal long a f t e r the death of h i s f a t h e r ; Jaguar Paw " i n h e r i t e d " r u l e r s h i p from h i s b r o t h e r , l o n g a f t e r the death of h i s f a t h e r ; and B i r d Jaguar was inaugurated a f t e r a ten year interregnum t h a t f o l l o w e d S h i e l d Jaguar's death. The F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l , r e p r e s e n t e d on Y a x c h i l a n ' s S t e l a 11, the Palenque alfazdas, and the S i t e Q s t e l a e , may have been employed as compensation f o r 64 d e v i a t i o n from the u s u a l s o l a r paradigm f o r p a t t e r n s of d e s c e n t . That i s , a c c e d i n g r u l e r s who are impersonating the r e b o r n Sun n o r m a l l y a c q u i r e d i v i n i t y from t h e i r d y i n g f a t h e r s who impersonate the s e t t i n g Sun. I f those f a t h e r s are long s i n c e deceased when t h e i r sons are approaching i n a u g u r a t i o n , then the s u p e r n a t u r a l powers of the f a t h e r s must be r e a c t i v a t e d In order f o r the a c c e d i n g son to i n h e r i t h i s r e q u i r e d d i v i n i t y . The F l a p s t a f f R i t u a l may a c c o m p l i s h t h i s purpose. For B i r d Jaguar, i n a d d i t i o n to e x p r e s s i n g h i s c l a i m as h e i r , the F l a p s t a f f seems to have been e s p e c i a l l y important as a c l a i m of S h i e l d Jaguar's f a t h e r s h i p . The same a s s o c i a t i o n s of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e with the f l a p s t a f f r i t u a l a t S i t e Q and Palenque a l s o occur on S t e l a 11. Concepts of p i e r c i n g or s a c r i f i c e are i n h e r e n t i n the c u t - o u t s of the f l a p s t a f f i t s e l f , as w e l l as the s e l f - s a c r 1 f l c l a l c o n t e x t s i n which I t o c c u r s . * In a d d i t i o n , the Summer S o l s t i c e d a t e , f o u r days b e f o r e the p e r i o d - e n d i n g of 9.15.10.0.0 r e f e r s t o the t e r m i n a t i o n or d e s t r u c t i o n of t h r e e d i s t i n c t cosmic c y c l e s . S i m i l a r l y , the s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n of the long deceased p r e d e c e s s o r s r e v i v e d a t Y a x c h i l a n , S i t e Q, and Palenque f o r the i n a u g u r a t i o n s of t h e i r sons i s p a r a l l e l to the descending or d y i n g Sun God whose d e s t r u c t i o n i n the underworld a l l o w s the c r e a t i o n of the new sun or new r u l e r . While death symbolism of the f l a p s t a f f elements was used to i l l u s t r a t e the concepts of death and descent connected with the date 9.15.9.17.16, B i r d Jaguar's monuments commemorating the date 9.15.10.0.1 symbolize r e b i r t h and emergence through a two-headed s e r p e n t image ( F i g u r e s 24,31b,32b). Serpent imagery f o r t h i s date i s as c o n s i s t e n t as the f l a p s t a f f imagery f o r Summer S o l s t i c e dates a l t h o u g h , u n l i k e the F l a p s t a f f scene, s e r p e n t s are a l s o employed i n other c o n t e x t s a t Y a x c h i l a n . Monuments dated 9.15.10.0.1 a l s o share i n s c r i p t i o n s d e s c r i b i n g the events as the " f i s h - i n - h a n d -God K" type of s a c r i f i c i a l b l o o d l e t t i n g , u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with female s e l f - s a c r i f i c e a t Y a x c h i l a n . As s y n t h e s i z e d by Cohodas (1982:141), r e p t i l l i a n imagery i n Maya s c u l p t u r e i s g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l realm, and the female p r i n c i p l e of womb and c r e a t i o n . Thus, on B i r d Jaguar's s c u l p t u r e s commemorating 9.15.10.0.1, the p o r t r a i t heads suggest t h a t the r o l e of the s e r p e n t was to engender new l i f e and/or new s t a t u s . T h i s p r o p o s a l i s supported by the c o n t e x t of s e r p e n t imagery on other l i n t e l s a t Y a x c h i l a n t h a t r e c o r d w e l l r e c o g n i z e d 66 o c c a s i o n s of emergence: a c c e s s i o n and b i r t h ( L i n t e l s 25, 13: F i g u r e s 30,31a). The most s i g n i f i c a n t monument dated 9.15.10.0.1 i s S t e l a 34, as i t s iconography, c a l e n d r i c s , and symbolism are i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o p a r a l l e l components of S t e l a 11. While S t e l a 11 commemorates the r o l e of B i r d Jaguar's f a t h e r i n the t e r m i n a t i o n - F l a p s t a f f r i t e , S t e l a 34 commemorates the r o l e of B i r d Jaguar's mother i n the "Serpent" r i t e s of emergence. I d i s a g r e e with Tate's c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t these s c u l p t u r e s commemorate the day when B i r d Jaguar's mother, Lady Ik S k u l l took some important o f f i c e a t Y a x c h i l a n (Tate 1986:114). On 9.15.10.0.1 B i r d Jaguar, a t age 31, was c e r t a i n l y o l d enough t o accede; and s i n c e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s were c u s t o m a r i l y males, i t i s not l i k e l y t h a t B i r d Jaguar's mother would have been g i v e n the power i n l i e u of her son. A l s o , s i n c e S h i e l d Jaguar's o f f i c i a l l y p r esented c o n s o r t , Lady Xoc, was s t i l l l i v i n g i n 9.15.10.0.1, i t would seem more l i k e l y t h a t i f any female were to be g i v e n p o l i t i c a l power, i t would be she. As w e l l , s i n c e Lady Ik S k u l l never c a r r i e s a "Lady of Y a x c h i l a n " t i t l e of r u l e r s h i p , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t she h e l d the p o s i t i o n as p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r . Furthermore, Tate supports her p r o p o s a l with a decipherment of the g l y p h at B-3 ( F i g u r e 24) to name Lady Ik S k u l l with the Mak'inah t i t l e u s u a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r r u l e r s . However, i n my judgment the H u - c a b M g l y p h a t A-3 i n t r o d u c e s two s u p e r n a t u r a l s (at B*-3/A-4) i n whose re a l m the b l o o d l e t t i n g ( a t A-2) o c c u r r e d . Then, a second phrase begins w i t h the a u x i l i a r y v e r b a t B-4, and communicates t h a t Lady Ik S k u l l a l s o performed a b l o o d l e t t i n g on 9.15.10.0.1. I t i s my o p i n i o n t h a t the b l o o d l e t t i n g done by B i r d Jaguar's mother, Lady rk S k u l l , was supplemented or s a n c t i f i e d by the d e i t y or d e i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d a t B-3/A-4 with the mak'inah t i t l e . The s t e l a p o r t r a y i n g o n l y a female on both s i d e s was e n t i r e l y unique f o r the Maya, and i n f e r s a s u p e r i o r s t a t u s f o r Lady IK S k u l l . S i n c e the r e v e r s e s i d e of t h i s s t e l a names her as B i r d Jaguar's mother (D-3) I s u s p e c t t h a t the p r i m a r y reason f o r c l a i m i n g g r e a t s t a t u s f o r h i s mother was because i t t h e r e b y e l e v a t e d B i r d Jaguar's own p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y - as having descended from an eminent f a t h e r and mother. While the a l l u s i o n t o the f i v e day s u c c e s s o r d e s i g n a t i o n r i t u a l was borrowed from Palenque, the elements B i r d Jaguar's a r t i s t s used on S t e l a 34 to i l l u s t r a t e the c u l m i n a t i n g emergence of 9.15.10.0.1 were borrowed from an e a r l i e r l i n t e l s c u l p t u r e a t Y a x c h i l a n 68 whose i n s c r i p t i o n commemorates S h i e l d Jaguar's i n a u g u r a t i o n : L i n t e l 25 of S t r u c t u r e 23 shows Lady Xoc's b l o o d l e t t i n g , menaced by the p o r t r a i t of S h i e l d Jaguar as w a r r i o r emerging from the s e r p e n t maw ( F i g u r e 30). About s i x t y y e ars l a t e r B i r d Jaguar adopted t h i s d e s i g n f o r S t e l a 34 i n order t o document h i s mother's (Lady Ik S k u l l ' s ) s e l f - s a c r i f i c e on 9.15.10.0.1. S t e l a 34 ( F i g u r e 24) r e f l e c t s both the se r p e n t imagery and the " f i s h - i n - h a n d " v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n of the e a r l i e r L i n t e l 25. Furthermore, S t e l a 34 d e p i c t s a p a r t i a l l y s k e l e t a l s e r p e n t . The h a l f - f l e s h e d , h a l f - s k e l e t a l s e r p e n t of L i n t e l 25 i s s u g g e s t i v e of l i m i n a l i t y and i s a v i s u a l a l l u s i o n to the "underworld journey" t r a v e l l e d by S h i e l d Jaguar p r i o r t o h i s symbolic r e b i r t h a t a c c e s s i o n . 9 The other B i r d Jaguar e r a s c u l p t u r e r e c o r d i n g the s e l f - s a c r i f i c e on 9.15.10.0.1 i s t h e c e n t r a l l i n t e l of S t r u c t u r e 13, L i n t e l 39 ( F i g u r e 32). The f l a n k i n g L i n t e l s 38 and 40 i n c o r p o r a t e s i m i l a r s e r p e n t imagery and r e c o r d the same " f i s h - i n - h a n d * 1 b l o o d l e t t i n g r i t u a l , performed on two d i f f e r e n t d a t es by the p o s s i b l y symbolic l a d i e s Ix and Ik. Two f e a t u r e s of L i n t e l 39 d i f f e r from t h e i r p a r a l l e l elements on the f l a n k i n g l i n t e l s , and were pr o b a b l y intended to ensure t h a t the L i n t e l 39 event was understood t o be s y m b o l i c a l l y d i s t i n c t . Whereas L i n t e l s 69 38 and 40 d e p i c t f l e s h e d s e r p e n t s , L i n t e l 39 i m i t a t e s the p a r t i a l l y s k e l e t a l s e r p e n t s t h a t have been shown to be s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and emergence ( L i n t e l 25). E q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h a t w h i l e the f l a n k i n g l i n t e l s r e c o r d b l o o d l e t t i n g performed by the females, the v e r b a l phrases of L i n t e l 39 s p e c i f y t h a t the b l o o d l e t t i n g was done "under the a u s p i c e s o f or " i n the realm o f " B i r d Jaguar, but not by him. These d i s t i n c t i o n s are s u g g e s t i v e t h a t L i n t e l 39 a l s o a l l u d e s t o the s e l f - s a c r i f i c e by h i s mother, as r e c o r d e d f o r the same date on S t e l a 34.10 The date 9.15.10.0.1 i s mentioned a g a i n a t Y a x c h i l a n on L i n t e l 14, d a t i n g from the r e i g n of B i r d Jaguar's son, S h i e l d Jaguar II ( F i g u r e 31). While the imagery of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e and emergence from a d i v i n e s e r p e n t i s s i m i l a r , the nominal glyphs suggest t h a t the scene i s r e f e r r i n g to b l o o d l e t t i n g done by B i r d Jaguar's w i f e , Lady Great S k u l l and the canal, Lord Great S k u l l . T h e i r b l o o d l e t t i n g may have been performed to s a n c t i o n B i r d Jaguar's emergence as r u l e r - e l e c t i n 9.15.10.0.1. Support f o r t h i s p r o p o s a l appears on L i n t e l 13 where the imagery almost d u p l i c a t e s t h a t of L i n t e l 14 from the same temple. On L i n t e l 13 ( F i g u r e 31) B i r d Jaguar and h i s c o n s o r t are engaged i n the same a c t of b l o o d l e t t i n g to 70 s a n c t i f y the b i r t h of t h e i r h e i r , S h i e l d Jaguar I I . As i m p l i e d on S t e l a 34 and L i n t e l 39, L i n t e l 13 c l e a r l y euphemizes " r e b i r t h " as an emergence from the underworld v i a the f r o n t head of a s e r p e n t . A r e p e a t e d p a t t e r n thus l i n k s F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l and the 9.15.10.0.1 s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . In c o n t r a s t t o the complex of s c u l p t u r e s f e a t u r i n g B i r d Jaguar's f a t h e r and the f l a p s t a f f image, a l l of the monuments commemorating the date 9.15.10.0.1 In c o r p o r a t e s e r p e n t imagery and m emorialize a c t i o n s of B i r d Jaguar's wi f e or mother, and are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b i r t h or renewal. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l i n v o l v e s the same a c t o r s on d i f f e r e n t d a t e s , w h i l e 9.15.10.0.1 Inv o l v e s d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s on the same d a t e . Whereas S t e l a e 11, 12, 13 l i n k e d the death of S h i e l d Jaguar to the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and e v e n t u a l a c c e s s i o n of B i r d Jaguar, and emphasized the male r o l e s d u r i n g t r a n s i t i o n ; the t h r e e s c u l p t u r e s r e c o r d i n g the c o n c l u s i o n of the s i x - d a y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r i t e s on 9.15.10.0.1 l i n k B i r d Jaguar's emergence as h e i r t o a c t i o n s performed by female f a m i l y members. T h i s s e p a r a t i o n of male v e r s u s female r o l e s d u r i n g t r a n s i t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Maya mythology, h i e r o g l y p h i c s , and f i g u r a l c o m p o s i t i o n s and e x p l a i n s the n e c e s s i t y of B i r d Jaguar's ceremonies spanning the f i v e days from Summer 71 S o l s t i c e to f i r s t appearance of Morning S t a r . In many Mesoamerican myths and r i t u a l s (Gohodas 1976a), death must precede r e b i r t h , and the i n i t i a l a c t of death or s a c r i f i c e i s most commonly a s s o c i a t e d with male a c t o r s while the c u l m i n a t i n g r e b i r t h or emergence i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h female s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . IV.c Summary of the F l a p s t a f f R i t u a l S i nce B i r d Jaguar was not inaugurated u n t i l t en years a f t e r the death of h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , the v a l i d i t y of the ceremonial events he documents i s dubious. I t appears t h a t to compensate f o r h i s tenuous c l a i m s to r u l e r s h i p , he p r o c l a i m e d an appointment by h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , i n which he e x p l o i t e d the symbolism presented by a s e r i e s of c o s m o l o g i c a l events a s s o c i a t e d with the p e r i o d - e n d i n g of 9.15.10.0.0. U n l i k e monuments at other s i t e s t h a t commemorate t h i s p e r i o d - e n d i n g , B i r d Jaguar r e c o r d e d i n s t e a d the s o l s t i c e date of four days e a r l i e r because i t s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h S o l a r , Venus, and long-count c y c l e endings c o u l d be used to emphasize the p a r a l l e l s of cosmic and d y n a s t i c t e r m i n a t i o n which must precede r e o r d e r i n g and emergence. 72 To complement t h i s new form of cosmic v a l i d a t i o n , a r t i s t s of S t e l a 11 a l s o employed i n n o v a t i v e imagery. S t e l a l l ' s scene of f a t h e r and son was unprecedented a t Y a x c h i l a n . The i d e a of d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n Inherent l n t h i s p a i r i n g was r e i n f o r c e d with the concept of exchange conveyed not o n l y by the d u a l f l a p s t a f f s , but a l s o by the shared r i t u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p e r i o d - e n d i n g of 9.15.15.0.0., (the f i r s t a f t e r S h i e l d Jaguar's d e a t h ) . F l a p s t a f f imagery of s a c r i f i c e i s a s s o c i a t e d with a r e v i v i n g of the deceased f a t h e r / o l d Sun f o r the t r a n s f e r of power to the son/new Sun. Both the f a t h e r / s o n p a i r i n g and the s o l s t i c e ceremony of successor-appointment c l e a r l y d e r i v e from an e a r l i e r c o m p o s i t i o n a t Palenque, and B i r d Jaguar may a l s o have borrowed the Idea of a r i t u a l c o m p l e t i o n of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n r i t e s a f t e r f i v e days. While known i n s c r i p t i o n s a t Y a x c h i l a n do not a r i t h m e t i c a l l y connect the dates 9.15.9.17.16 and 9.15.10.0.1, t h e i r f i v e day i n t e r v a l echoes the f i f t h - d a y c u l m i n a t i o n of the h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n r i t e s a t Palenque, and the c o s m o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of renewal a s s o c i a t e d with 9.15.10.0.1 echo s i m i l a r concepts a t Palenque where Chan Bahlum emerged as "the (new) Sun". In c o n t r a s t t o Palenque where a Summer S o l s t i c e marked the c u l m i n a t i o n of Chan Bahlum's h e i r 73 d e s i g n a t i o n r i t e s , B i r d Jaguar chose to e x p l o i t the m u l t i p l e a s s o c i a t i o n s of c i r c a 9.15.10.0.0 by c l a i m i n g t h a t h i s h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n i n i t i a t e d on the s o l s t i c e and cul m i n a t e d on 9.15.10.0.1 s i n c e the l a t t e r date symbolized renewal i n not one, but t h r e e , s e p a r a t e c y c l e s . Of Y a x c h i l a n ' s s t e l a e , S t e l a 11 and S t e l a 34 are the most i n n o v a t i v e i n format and o p p o s i t e i n imagery. Both are unusual i n r e p r e s e n t i n g s i m i l a r events f o r both s i d e s , but while S t e l a 11 shows o n l y male a c t o r s and d e p i c t s a f l a p s t a f f r i t u a l f o r the " s e p a r a t i o n " date of 9.15.9.17.16, S t e l a 34 d e p i c t s o n l y a female i n v o l v e d i n the s e r p e n t / s e l f - s a c r i f i c i a l r i t u a l f o r the " r e i n t e g r a t i o n " date of 9.15.10.0.1. By e r e c t i n g the unique S t e l a 34 B i r d Jaguar was g e n e r a t i n g immense p r e s t i g e f o r h i s mother, who In r e a l i t y was p r o b a b l y not the r o y a l c o n s o r t of S h i e l d Jaguar I. As w e l l , he was c r e a t i n g a p a i r of s t e l a e to commemorate both the p a i r e d r i t e s of passage and h i s p a i r of immediate p r e d e c e s s o r s . Notes f o r Chapter IV 1 By comparison, Tate shows t h a t S h i e l d Jaguar and h i s c o n s o r t p r e s i d e d over three s e p a r a t e ceremonies which o c c u r r e d on summer s o l s t i c e s (1986:440). Recent 74 decipherment of the v e r b a l " f i r e " g l y p h s accompanying those r i t e s , ( c i t e d i n Scheie 1987:135), suggests t h a t these r i t u a l s i n v o l v e d the d e d i c a t i o n of S h i e l d Jaguar's newly c o n s t r u c t e d l i n t e l s and temples ( S t r u c t u r e s 23 and 44) . In view of P r e i d e l ' s (1986) a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence of Mayan t e r m i n a t i o n r i t u a l s t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e d f i r e s , the glyphs d e c i p h e r e d as d e d i c a t i o n r i t e s , and the l a t e r A z tec New F i r e Ceremonies t h a t c e l e b r a t e d the death and renewal of Time, i t i s apparent t h a t i n Mesoamerica, " f i r e " r i t e s were sometimes a s s o c i a t e d with concepts of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and change. Though It seems l i k e l y t h a t " f i r e " r i t u a l s do r e l a t e to concepts of c r e a t i o n and r e g e n e r a t i o n , conveyed a l s o by the summer s o l s t i c e , S h i e l d Jaguar d i d not c o n s i s t e n t l y schedule f i r e / d e d i c a t i o n ceremonies f o r s o l s t i c e days. And, though B i r d Jaguar IV documents f i r e / d e d i c a t i o n r i t e s as w e l l ( L i n t e l 28, L i n t e l 31) th e y d i d not occur near a summer s o l s t i c e . Thus, while I t Is c l e a r t h a t summer s o l s t i c e dates had been employed o c c a s i o n a l l y by h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , B i r d Jaguar's a r t i s t s were the f i r s t to s p e c i f i c a l l y l i n k the summer s o l s t i c e w i t h a repeated r i t u a l . 2 Concerning 9.15.10.0.0, Aguateca S t e l a 1 r e c o r d s an a c c e s s i o n on 9.15.9.17.17 or June 23, 741 A.D., t h a t i s l i n k e d a r i t h m e t i c a l l y t o the p e r i o d - e n d i n g t h r e e days l a t e r . As t h i s Aguateca r u l e r seems to have been a p o l i t i c a l puppet of Dos P i l a s , i t may be t h a t the symbolic a c c e s s i o n date was chosen to e l e v a t e the s t a t u s of such a secondary f i g u r e . 3 Although not a l l p e r i o d - e n d i n g s were commemorated by the Maya, the lahuntun-ending of 9.15.10.0.0 i s documented on s c u l p t u r e from a t l e a s t seven s i t e s : Aguateca S t e l a 1 E l Peru S t e l a B Machaquila S t e l a 11 Naj T u n l c h Group H a N i m l i P u n i t S t e l a 1 Q u i r i g u a S t e l a F west T i k a l Temple IV L i n t e l s 2 and 3 That t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d - e n d i n g was e x t r a o r d i n a r y Is shown on S t e l a 11 from Machaquila ( F i g u r e 49). In a d d i t i o n to the emphasis p l a c e d on the Baktun, Katun, and Tun components of the l o n g count (9.15.10.), a c u r i o u s g l y p h i c compound a t B-4a suggests t h a t the p e r i o d - e n d i n g 75 event (A-4b) may have been l i n k e d with another event four days e a r l i e r . The g l y p h i c s i g n s , yax/nev and k i n / s u n , are p o s i t i o n e d between those f o r "sky" and ••earth", p r o b a b l y as a r e f e r e n c e t o the annual r i s i n g of the "yaxkin" or "new sun" on 9.15.9.17.16, four days b e f o r e the p e r i o d - e n d i n g of 9.15.10.0.0. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , Cohodas (p.c.) suggests t h a t the i n c l u s i o n of the B y a x " g l y p h with the s u n - a t - h o r i z o n v a r i a n t of the kin/day g l y p h as a d i s t a n c e number, might r e f e r to an i n t e r v a l of f o u r dawns. In e i t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n the "yax" s i g n must r e f e r t o a r i s i n g or renewal a t dawn. 4 On the b a s i s of the nominal g l y p h s , Tate dates the e r e c t i o n of S t e l a 16 to the r e i g n of S h i e l d Jaguar (1986:395). However, a n a l y s i s of s t y l i s t i c and i c o n o g r a p h i c developments a t Y a x c h i l a n , (Cohodas 1976b), shows t h a t t h i s s c u l p t u r e e v i d e n c e s t e c h n i c a l and symbolic t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d with B i r d Jaguar's a r t i s t s , and t h e r e f o r e may e s t a b l i s h t h a t B i r d Jaguar commissioned t h i s monument to memorialize some event e x p e r i e n c e d by h i s f a t h e r . Tate c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e s 19 Yaxkin as the month p o s i t i o n and c l a i m s t h a t the c o e f f i c i e n t f o r the day i s 6, 7, or 8 (1986:395), but j u d g i n g from the b l o c k s of space a l l o t t e d f o r each component of the Calendar Round, th e r e i s a l s o enough evidence s u b s t a n t i a t i n g day c o e f f i c i e n t s of 11, 12, or 13. Thus the dates 12 C i b 19 Yaxkin (9.15.9.17.16) and 13 Imix 19 Yaxkin (9.15.11.0.1) must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as p o s s i b i l i t i e s . My p r e f e r e n c e i s 13 Imix 19 Yaxkin, the summer s o l s t i c e of 742 A.D. t h a t f o l l o w e d the death of S h i e l d Jaguar by seven days. S h i e l d Jaguar's death i s r e c o r d e d as June 15, 742 A.D. (9.15.10.17.14). Though no s c u l p t u r e r e c o r d s h i s b u r i a l , the s o l s t i c e seven days l a t e r i s not o n l y a f e a s i b l e i n t e r v a l from the death d a t e , but would have been s y m b o l i c a l l y v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e as w e l l -p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view of the c u r r e n t C h o r t i c o n v e n t i o n wherein Summer S o l s t i c e marks the day when r i t u a l l e a d e r s t e r m i n a t e t h e i r d u t i e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r B i r d Jaguar who c l a i m s t o have e n t e r e d the l i n e a g e as h e i r , on the p r e v i o u s s o l s t i c e . 5 Since the l i n t e l s of S t r u c t u r e 10 suggest t h a t B i r d Jaguar c o n t i n u e d to r u l e beyond the supposed t r a n s f e r of power on L i n t e l 9, one e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the L i n t e l 9 F l a p s t a f f r i t e i s t h a t B i r d Jaguar employed Summer S o l s t i c e a s s o c i a t i o n s with t r a n s f o r m a t i o n to s a n c t i o n i n c r e a s e d m i l i t a r y and e l i t e s t a t u s f o r Great S k u l l , 76 which he c o n t i n u e d to ho l d d u r i n g the r e i g n o£ B i r d Jaguar's h e i r , S h i e l d Jaguar I I . Another e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t L i n t e l 9 was e r e c t e d l a t e r by S h i e l d Jaguar II i n r e c o g n i t i o n of i n t e r i m power granted to Great S k u l l by a perhaps a i l i n g B i r d Jaguar. While s p e c u l a t i v e , i t may be t h a t B i r d Jaguar d i e d s h o r t l y a f t e r 9.16.17.6.12 ( L i n t e l 9 d a t e ) . At about age seventeen, S h i e l d Jaguar II may have been too young to r u l e , so B i r d Jaguar's b r o t h e r - i n - l a w ( u n c l e t o S h i e l d Jaguar I I ) may have r u l e d t e m p o r a r i l y u n t i l s h i e l d Jaguar II reached m a t u r i t y (perhaps the age "1 katun" or c i r c a 9.17.1.0.0). A f t e r the a c c e s s i o n of S h i e l d Jaguar I I , Great S k u l l then h e l d the p o s i t i o n of major m i l i t a r y c a p t a i n or "second-in-command" as i s i n d i c a t e d on L i n t e l 58. T h i s s c e n a r i o would e x p l a i n a c u r i o u s c o n t r a d i c t i o n of r u l e r s h i p , or d u a l r u l e r s h i p of S h i e l d Jaguar II and B i r d Jaguar IV evidenced by comparing S t e l a 7 and a newly d i s c o v e r e d s t e l a fragment (Tate 1986:240). Cohodas ( p e r s o n a l communication) a l s o notes t h a t F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l s d e p i c t e d a t Y a x c h i l a n as w e l l as a t o t h e r s i t e s o f t e n i n v o l v e personnages who, with the e x c e p t i o n of the c u r r e n t r u l e r , are deceased a t the time the monument i s e r e c t e d , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t one of the f u n c t i o n s of the f l a p s t a f f r i t u a l i s t o demonstrate a t r a n s f e r of power from a deceased to a l i v i n g i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s suggests to Cohodas t h a t one of the two i n d i v i d u a l s on L i n t e l 9 i s l i k e l y deceased, but he notes t h a t t h e r e are reasons f o r s u s p e c t i n g each. He agrees with me t h a t i f B i r d Jaguar were now dead, then he would be shown handing over i n t e r i m power to Great S k u l l Cahal who c o u l d take B i r d Jaguar's p l a c e i n d u a l r u l e r s h i p with S h i e l d Jaguar I I . However, Cohodas a l s o notes t h a t the placement of L i n t e l 9 over the s i n g l e door of the t i n y temple known as S t r u c t u r e 2 might suggest a memorial t o Great S k u l l Cahal, who c o u l d have been b u r i e d below, i n c o n t r a s t t o the l a r g e r t hree-door temples d e d i c a t e d to B i r d Jaguar IV or S h i e l d Jaguar I I . I t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a new personnage i n the f l a p s t a f f exchange was o c c a s i o n e d by Great S k u l l ' s death, and t h a t B i r d Jaguar wished t o express the importance of Great S k u l l ' s support to h i s own r e i g n , as d i d S h i e l d Jaguar II i n S t r u c t u r e s 54 and 20. In support of t h i s l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y , Cohodas a l s o notes t h a t while Great S k u l l Cahal i s never a s s o c i a t e d with dates a f t e r t h a t of L i n t e l 9 (9.16.17.6.12), B i r d Jaguar IV i s mentioned i n c o n n e c t i o n with the dates 9.17.0.0.0 and 9.17.1.0.0. 6 Based on the " s k u l l " g l y p h a t A-5 ( F i g u r e 33a), Tate 77 has proposed t h a t the s u b j e c t of L i n t e l 50 may be a descendant of B i r d Jaguar IV, whose g l y p h i c name i d e n t i f i e s him as Mak'Inah S k u l l II (1986:306), but g l y p h i c and c o n t e x t u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r t h i s l i n t e l do not support Tate's i d e a . F i r s t l y , the s t y l i s t i c and c o m p o s i t i o n a l elements of the image are comparable to other commissions by B i r d Jaguar and t h e r e f o r e tend to c o n t r a d i c t the n o t i o n t h a t t h i s was a l a t e r s c u l p t u r e (Cohodas 1976b). While c e r t a i n l y a moot p o i n t , the a p p a r e n t l y nominal " s k u l l " g l y p h of L i n t e l 50 does not Include any of the other elements used by Mak'inah Skull Ah Kan Banac on h i s L i n t e l 10. On L i n t e l 50 the " s k u l l " g l y p h precedes Y a x c h i l a n ' 3 two emblem g l y p h s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the s k u l l names a deceased "Lord of Y a x c h i l a n " . . . . perhaps the deceased S h i e l d Jaguar I. 7 Decipherment of these alfazdas glyphs cannot be s e c u r e d , but a l o o s e t r a n s l a t i o n i n f e r s t h a t a b l o o d l e t t i n g or s a c r i f i c e was performed by, f o r , or to Chaccal. Then, on an unreadable date a nawah or "ceremony commemorating the dead" (S c h e i e 1982:267f£) was performed by Chac Zutz, Chaccal's s u c c e s s o r . By c l a i m i n g t h a t the i n t e r v e n i n g cahal had memorialized the deceased Chaccal, Kuk was r e i n s t a t i n g h i s f a t h e r as the s e t t i n g Sun, whose d i v i n i t y was then t r a n s f e r r e d t o h i s b i o l o g i c a l h e i r . 8 Components of the f l a p s t a f f i t s e l f may a l s o be symbolic of the p r o c e s s e s of s o l a r and d y n a s t i c d e s t r u c t i o n and renewal. The T-shaped f l a p s have been c u t from the c l o t h - w r a p p i n g of the s t a f f and t h i s c u t t i n g of a woven f a b r i c i s i n i t s e l f a d e s t r u c t i v e a c t , s y m b o l i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t t o : s a c r i f i c e (God of #6, T-shaped axe of GI and the B a r b e l God), death ( g l y p h i c death e x p r e s s i o n , T-shaped t o o t h of S o l a r gods and underworld d e i t i e s ) , and by e x t e n s i o n , the p e n e t r a t i o n of the E a r t h by the Sun a t s u n s e t . I t must be noted t h a t when i n c o n t e x t s of war or s a c r i f i c i a l b l o o d l e t t i n g , most d e p i c t i o n s of the f l a p s t a f f emphasize o n l y the T-shaped Ik m o t i f ( F i g u r e 37). T h i s i s i n marked c o n t r a s t to the Y a x c h i l a n c o n t e x t s where a l t h o u g h the c u t - o u t f l a p i s a r e c t i l i n e a r Ik motif ( c a r r y i n g c o n n o t a t i o n s of d e s t r u c t i o n and p e n e t r a t i o n ) , the c l o t h from which i t i s c u t i s a more c u r v i l i n e a r , s e m i - q u a t r e f o i l shape a s s o c i a t e d with concepts of c r e a t i o n and emergence i n s e v e r a l Mesoamerican s o u r c e s . T h i s o p p o s i t i o n of Ik and q u a t r e f o i l emblems echoes d u a l i t i e s of death and r e b i r t h , 78 d isappearance and reappearance, s e p a r a t i o n and r e i n t e g r a t i o n ; which are b a s i c to c y c l e s of the Sun and of d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n . Tate remarks t h a t "the q u a t r e f o i l i s a d e p i c t i o n of the opening of the cosmic c e n t r a l a x i s a t the c r o s s r o a d s of the four d i r e c t i o n s " , and t h a t i t may be symbolic of the opening through which the sun e n t e r s and e x i t s the underworld a t sunset and s u n r i s e (1986:131). T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f e r s a p o s s i b l e i n s i g h t as to why the q u a t r e f o i l a d d i t i o n appears on B i r d Jaguar's f l a p s t a f f images. The symbolic r e f e r e n c e to the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l passageway complements h i s c a l e n d r i c r e f e r e n c e s t o c y c l i c changes of the Sun. 9 Two a d d i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s were employed t o a c c e n t u a t e concepts of l i m i n a l i t y : L i n t e l 25, l i k e i t s Cross panel p r o t o t y p e a t Palenque, i s the c e n t r a l image of a t h r e e -p a r t programme a l l u d i n g to d y n a s t i c and s o l a r s u c c e s s i o n , and the i n s c r i p t i o n was carved t o be viewed as a m i r r o r image,' conveying n o t i o n s of the underworld t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l realm. The concept of emergence from the l i m i n a l realm may be a l l u d e d to w i t h i n a secondary t e x t of L i n t e l 25 as w e l l . Although Scheie (1987) has proposed t h a t the glyphs a t G-1 and G-2 i d e n t i f y the emerging f i g u r e as the a n c e s t r a l founder of Y a x c h i l a n , I s u s p e c t t h a t the "founder" g l y p h i s i n t h i s case r e f e r r i n g to the s e r p e n t i t s e l f as the a n c e s t r a l p r o c r e a t o r , or founder, of d y n a s t i c l i n e a g e s . The b a s i s f o r t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t the g l y p h a t G - l appears to name a female, r a t h e r than the male, " P r o g e n i t o r Jaguar" who i s supposedly the founder of the Y a x c h i l a n dynasty, as seen on the most r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d l i n t e l of S t r u c t u r e 12. As w e l l , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s e r p e n t s and females i s e v i d e n t i n s e v e r a l Mesoamerican c o n t e x t s . In a d d i t i o n to the f r e q u e n t o c c a s i o n s when s e r p e n t s d i s g o r g e v a r i o u s humans and d e i t i e s , Spero (1987:47,125,229) documents s e v e r a l s o u r c e s wherein s e r p e n t s are viewed as i n t e r c e s s o r s and are b e l i e v e d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r "devouring, t r a n s f o r m i n g , and r e g u r g i t a t i n g m o r t a l s " . 10 As suggested p r e v i o u s l y , i t was l i k e l y o n l y a f t e r the deaths of S h i e l d Jaguar and h i s c o n s o r t Lady Xoc t h a t B i r d Jaguar c o u l d i n i t i a t e a campaign f o r the r u l e r s h i p of Y a x c h i l a n . While the c e n t r a l L i n t e l 39 may r e f e r t o s e l f - s a c r i f i c e f o r B i r d Jaguar, done by h i s mother on 9.15.10.0.1, the dates of L i n t e l 38 (9.16.12.5.14) and 79 L i n t e l 40 (9.16.7.0.0) i n d i c a t e t h a t s i m i l a r a c c l a i m f o r B i r d Jaguar was l a t e r extended by the l a d i e s Ix and Ik on the t w e n t y - f i r s t s o l a r a n n i v e r s a r y of the d e a t h / b u r i a l of S h i e l d Jaguar, and on the n i n t h s o l a r a n n i v e r s a r y of the death of S h i e l d Jaguar's c o n s o r t , Lady Xoc. I t appears t h a t the l i n t e l s of S t r u c t u r e 16 commemorate s o l a r a n n i v e r s a r i e s of the two deaths r e q u i s i t e f o r h i s a c c e s s i o n , and the ceremony on 9.15.10.0.1 f a b r i c a t e d as having been the v a l i d a t i o n of h i s h e i r - a p p a r e n c y . 80 CHAPTER V THE BARBEL GOD SCENE V.A I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C a l e n d r i c and G l y p h i c Data Although S t e l a 11 was e r e c t e d to commemorate B i r d Jaguar's a c c e s s i o n , i l l u s t r a t i o n s of two p r e -a c c e s s i o n events were emphasized as the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h a t i n a u g u r a t i o n . The r i v e r s i d e of the monument has been shown to d e p i c t the F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l wherein B i r d Jaguar was d e s i g n a t e d as h e i r by the former r u l e r of Y a x c h i l a n . I propose t h a t the temple s i d e of the s t e l a i s i n p a r t a l a t e r , y e t complementary r i t u a l wherein B i r d Jaguar was v a l i d a t e d as r u l e r - e l e c t by the Y a x c h i l a n e l i t e and a s u p e r n a t u r a l p a t r o n of r u l e r s h i p . The themes of cosmic and d y n a s t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and s u c c e s s i o n apparent i n the F l a p s t a f f scene are r e p e a t e d i n the B a r b e l God scene, but a r t i s t s ' c h o i c e s of c a l e n d r i c , i c o n o g r a p h i c , and s t y l i s t i c t e c h n i q u e s f o r p r e s e n t i n g those themes were e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t ( F i g u r e s 8a, 11). The i n s c r i p t i o n above the scene appears to c o r r e l a t e with the m a r t i a l a s p e c t s of the composite image. The date of t h i s c a p t u r e event c a r r i e s i n n o v a t i v e and potent c o n n o t a t i o n s t h a t are f a r d i f f e r e n t from concepts a s s o c i a t e d with capture dates on t r a d i t i o n a l s t e l a e a t Y a x c h i l a n . Captures on such s t e l a e were si m p l y r e l a t e d t o , (and p o s s i b l y r e q u i s i t e f o r 1 ) , the subsequent p e r i o d - e n d i n g s . While combined with an i n a u g u r a l p e r i o d -ending, S t e l a l l ' s arraignment on 9.15.19.1.1 i s most s t r o n g l y l i n k e d to the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d - e n d i n g of 9.15.15.0.0, commemorated above the F l a p s t a f f scene. Since 9.15.19.1.1 i s p r e c i s e l y four s o l a r y e ars l a t e r than the 9.15.15.0.0 p e r i o d - e n d i n g r e c o r d e d on the r e v e r s e s i d e of the s t e l a , i t appears t h a t a r t i s t s intended the B a r b e l scene to be understood i n c o n n e c t i o n with the interregnum p e r i o d - e n d i n g . In Mesoamerica the number four i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with r i t u a l c o m p l e t i o n s . That t h i s four s o l a r year i n t e r v a l was s i g n i f i c a n t i s demonstrated by the l a t e r L i n t e l s 8 and 41, which r e c o r d a l a t e r c a p t u r e event on 9.16.4.1.1, p r e c i s e l y four s o l a r years a f t e r the 9.16.0.0.0 katun-ending. T h e r e f o r e , the d i f f e r e n c e of e x a c t l y four s o l a r years from S h i e l d Jaguar's and B i r d Jaguar's j o i n t p e r i o d - e n d i n g of 9.15.15.0.0 i s s u g g e s t i v e t h a t the B a r b e l God event was a c u l m i n a t i o n of a p r e v i o u s l y i n i t i a t e d s i t u a t i o n . S ince the c a l e n d r i c s and imagery of the F l a p s t a f f scene were chosen t o emphasize the d y n a s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p of B i r d Jaguar IV and h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , the four year " c o m p l e t i o n " i n t e r v a l on the temple s i d e may imply t h a t the r i t u a l 82 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s shared by B i r d Jaguar and S h i e l d Jaguar on the 9.15.15.0.0 p e r i o d - e n d i n g were f i n a l l y b e i n g g r a n t e d s o l e l y to B i r d Jaguar on 9.15.19.1.1. Venus imagery and c a l e n d r i c s , o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with capture scenes on Maya s c u l p t u r e , are a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n the B a r b e l God scene. The p a r a l l e l 9.16.4.1.1 ca p t u r e event recorded on L i n t e l 41 uses the " s t a r - o v e r - s h e l l " g l y p h which Lounsbury (1982) c o r r e l a t e s with r a i d s timed to c o i n c i d e with the f i r s t appearance of Venus as Evening S t a r , i t s m a r t i a l a s p e c t . 2 The date 9.15.19.1.1 of the B a r b e l arraignment a l s o o c c u r r e d on or near the f i r s t appearance of Venus as Evening S t a r (Chart 2), and thus i s a s s o c i a t e d with the d e s t r u c t i v e a s p e c t s of the Evening S t a r . Because the other s i d e of the s t e l a f e a t u r e s B i r d Jaguar's h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n , i t i s a l s o r e l e v a n t t h a t a t l e a s t t h r e e other s i t e s r e c o r d war and "axe" events as augmentation f o r the d e s i g n a t i o n of h e i r s (Palenque, Naranjo, Bonampak; Scheie 1987:97). T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s a l s o i n f e r r e d on L i n t e l 2 a t P i e d r a s Negras where a form of h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h w a r r i o r imagery ( F i g u r e 50), and a p a r a l l e l sequence of events was st a n d a r d p r a c t i c e f o r l a t e r Mesoamericans, the A z t e c s . S e v e r a l c h r o n i c l e s d e s c r i b e p r e - a c c e s s i o n b a t t l e s t h a t were conducted to secure v i c t i m s f o r i n a u g u r a l s a c r i f i c e s ( G a r c i a Granados 1952). Aztec i n a u g u r a t i o n s r e q u i r e d two r i t u a l s : one p r e c e d i n g the b a t t l e , and one f o l l o w i n g i t . The v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n i n the h i e r o g l y p h i c t e x t accompanying the B a r b e l God scene p r o v i d e s some a s s i s t a n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the symbolic f u n c t i o n s of the f i g u r a l image. The t h r e e v e r b a l glyphs are eroded ( F i g u r e 16:Y,Z,A'), but the t h i r d i s s t i l l r e c o g n i z a b l e as the animal head r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the phoneme och, s u f f i x e d with the l o c a t i v e t i . Scheie (1984b:301) s t a t e s t h a t the word och means "to e n t e r " or "to become". L a u g h l i n ' s Tzotzil d i c t i o n a r y (1975:65,412) documents the usage of och i n s e v e r a l phrases e x p r e s s i n g an incompleted passage from one s t a t e to another ( i e . "to be put i n t o " , "going to become", "to begin t o " ) , and a c c o r d i n g to Scheie the g l y p h och i s used f r e q u e n t l y a t Palenque i n compounds a s s o c i a t e d g e n e r a l l y with movement i n t o a higher p o s i t i o n i n the d y n a s t i c h i e r a r c h y . These t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s may be through h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n , i n a u g u r a t i o n , or a p o t h e o s i s . The second v e r b a l g l y p h of t h i s t e x t may r e p r e s e n t a seated f i g u r e , and s i m i l a r human-figure glyphs are a s s o c i a t e d with h e i r apparency a t Palenque and T i k a l . 3 Although the e r o s i o n of these glyphs makes i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s p e c u l a t i v e , i n my o p i n i o n the combination of a human-figure g l y p h with the c l e a r l y 84 re a d a b l e och g l y p h , s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s the p r o p o s a l t h a t the B a r b e l scene i s commemorating a r i t u a l performed to s a n c t i o n B i r d Jaguar as s u i t a b l e f o r "becoming" the r u l e r . * Thus, 9.15.19.1.1 may have been the day when, a f t e r a s u c c e s s f u l m i l i t a r y campaign, B i r d Jaguar was f i n a l l y e l e c t e d as r u l e r . I t s h o u l d be r e c a l l e d t h a t i n t h i s scene, B i r d Jaguar holds the baton a s s o c i a t e d with s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m s , and the manikin s c e p t r e , a w e l l r e c o g n i z e d symbol of r u l e r s h i p . V.B The F i g u r a l Scene The B a r b e l God scene of S t e l a 11 combines the imagery of the two s i d e s of a t r a d i t i o n a l p e r i o d - e n d i n g s t e l a , each of which f e a t u r e s a k n e e l i n g secondary f i g u r e : the c a p t i v e f o r the arraignment s i d e and the " s u p p l i a n t " f o r the s c a t t e r i n g s i d e . The composite S t e l a 11 scene i s unusual f o r e i t h e r type i n f e a t u r i n g a c l o s e l y l i n k e d and p a r a l l e l group of t h r e e k n e e l i n g c a p t i v e / s u p p l i a n t s . That t h i s " t r i p l i c a t i o n " was designed to p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on the s u p e r n a t u r a l s a n c t i o n f o r these r i t u a l s i s suggested by the c e n t r a l t r i a d (VI, V I I , V I I I ) of ballgame r i s e r s from S t r u c t u r e 33, carved by the same 85 a r t i s t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r S t e l a 11 (Cohodas: p e r s o n a l communication). L i k e S t e l a 11, Step VII ( F i g u r e 28) i s c e n t r a l w i t h i n a h i e r a r c h i c g r o u p i n g of three monuments i n f r o n t of a major temple. The m y t h o l o g i c a l p o r t i o n of the t e x t on t h i s panel i n v o l v e s a s e r i e s of three p a r a l l e l m a r t l a l / " a x e " events undertaken by d e i t i e s named " a h - k n o t - s k u l l " , a p p a r e n t l y a name f o r the Venus god. The " h i s t o r i c a l " p o r t i o n of the t e x t i n f e r s t h a t p r i o r t o h i s a c c e s s i o n , B i r d Jaguar and the s u p e r n a t u r a l "ah-knot-s k u l l " r e e n a c t e d the l a s t of these events from the m y t h i c a l e r a . J u s t as the three m y t h i c a l s a c r i f i c i a l events were f a b r i c a t e d to j u s t i f y B i r d Jaguar's interregnum event r e c o r d e d on Step V I I , the c e n t r a l of a t h r e e - s c u l p t u r e group, the t h r e e v i c t i m s on S t e l a 11 may have been f a b r i c a t e d to v a l i d a t e the interregnum event r e c o r d e d on S t e l a 11, the c e n t r a l of t h r e e s t e l a e . Whereas the t r a d i t i o n a l costume of the s c a t t e r e r i n p e r i o d - e n d i n g r i t e s a t Y a x c h i l a n i n v o l v e d a t t r i b u t e s of the B a r b e l God B, on S t e l a 11 B i r d Jaguar i s u n i q u e l y shown wearing the zoomorphic mask o f , and t h e r e f o r e a c t i n g as, the B a r b e l god. Both a s s o c i a t e d i n s c r i p t i o n s i d e n t i f y the s u b j e c t as B i r d Jaguar, even though he i s masked as the s u p e r n a t u r a l B a r b e l god. Although masks are d e v i c e s used u n i v e r s a l l y f o r the 86 r i t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of humans, they are r a r e l y d e p i c t e d i n Mayan a r t . T h i s one seems to have been chosen t o ensure the viewers* u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a c t i o n s of the s u p e r n a t u r a l B a r b e l God were mediated by the r o y a l B i r d Jaguar (and v i c e - v e r s a ) . The o n l y p r e v i o u s example of mask-wearing a t Y a x c h i l a n i s L i n t e l 25 ( F i g u r e 30) of S t r u c t u r e 23 which commemorates S h i e l d Jaguar's much e a r l i e r i n a u g u r a t i o n . The same l i n t e l scene was a l s o shown to be a source f o r the r e l a t e d s e l f - s a c r i f i c e scene on S t e l a 34. L i k e the Ba r b e l mask, the Tlaloc masks used on L i n t e l 25 are a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m i l i t a r y and s a c r i f i c i a l themes and were r e t a i n e d by B i r d Jaguar f o r h i s S t e l a 34 ( F i g u r e s 24,30). B i r d Jaguar's c h o i c e of the B a r b e l god mask may a l l u d e to the power of the Palenque dynasty which appears to have s e l e c t e d t h i s d e i t y , r a t h e r than the more common Jaguar god, as i t s s p e c i a l p a t r o n . For example, Kan Xul's memorial t a b l e t d e p i c t s t h i s r u l e r i n an e q u a l l y s t r i k i n g g u i s e of the B a r b e l God ( F i g u r e 4 7 ) . The purpose of memorial ceremonies a t Palenque, always a s s o c i a t e d w i t h B a r b e l God and underworld imagery, appears to have been the c e s s a t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e of the p r e v i o u s r u l e r on the c u r r e n t r e i g n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of B i r d Jaguar's 9.15.19.1.1 arraignment as c o n c l u d i n g a p e r i o d of j o i n t i n f l u e n c e by B i r d Jaguar and S h i e l d Jaguar a t Y a x c h i l a n i s analogous. At Palenque, the B a r b e l God was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d with the r u l e r ' s i n a u g u r a t i o n as i n the Temple of the Cross (Chan Bahlum) and p o s s i b l y the C r e a t i o n T a b l e t (Kuk). In the Cross temple, the B a r b e l god i s a l s o s e l e c t e d f o r the m y t h o l o g i c a l f i g u r e s of both the aged d y i n g f a t h e r and the y o u t h f u l , reborn Sun- a s t r o n g p a r a l l e l t o d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n . I t i s e s p e c i a l l y n o t a b l e t h a t the B a r b e l God's r o l e as p a t r o n of d y n a s t i c r u l e r s h i p i s i m p l i c i t i n the t e x t s d e s c r i b i n g Chan Bahlum's h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n a t Palenque. A c c o r d i n g to S c h e i e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n of the Sun-panel t e x t , the Summer S o l s t i c e c u l m i n a t i o n of the d e s i g n a t i o n r i t u a l was enacted "by the doing o f " or "by the agency o f " GI of the Palenque t r i a d / t h e B a r b e l god (Scheie 1987:96, F i g u r e 45) . Although the B a r b e l God's r o l e i s u s u a l l y t h a t of a d e s t r u c t i v e s a c r i f i c e r , he i s o f t e n i n v o l v e d as w e l l i n ceremonies of o f f i c e - t a k i n g , p e r i o d - e n d i n g , memorials f o r the dead, and the c r e a t i o n of the Maya world, thereby e v i d e n c i n g a d u a l i s t i c nature f o r t h i s s u p e r n a t u r a l t h a t i s most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the composite nature of S t e l a 11's temple s i d e . Whereas the B a r b e l - a s s o c i a t e d costume emblems i n t r a d i t i o n a l p e r i o d - e n d i n g scenes a t Y a x c h i l a n 88 were a p p a r e n t l y i n c l u d e d to mark the r u l e r as a c t i n g under the a u s p i c e s of t h a t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l d e i t y , the B a r b e l impersonation of the S t e l a 11 arraignment scene may r e p r e s e n t a more s p e c i f i c a s p e c t of t h a t god as a d e i f i e d p atron of r u l e r s h i p who was i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h s a c r i f i c i a l r i t e s done to ensure the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s of m o r t a l s : from death to r e b i r t h , from deceased to d i v i n e , from p o l i t i c a l contender to i n a u g u r a t e d r u l e r . V.C Summary of the B a r b e l God Scene The arraignment scene i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c a l e n d r i c and i c o n o g r a p h i c elements s u g g e s t i v e of s a c r i f i c i a l a c t i v i t y performed by B i r d Jaguar who was impersonating the B a r b e l god. The symbolic a s s o c i a t i o n s of s e v e r a l components d e p i c t e d i n the B a r b e l scene a l l u d e to the i n i t i a l d e s t r u c t i o n or s a c r i f i c e r e q u i r e d f o r a l l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , and the Evening S t a r phase a s s o c i a t e d with the date e l a b o r a t e s the symbolism i n t e n d e d . A t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l r i t e i s i n d i c a t e d w i t h the e x c e p t i o n a l composite of human and d e i t y , and s e v e r a l pan-Maya h i e r o g l y p h i c and i c o n o g r a p h i c c o n t e x t s f o r the B a r b e l god demonstrate h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r metamorphosis. 89 While B i r d Jaguar c l a i m s to have been d e s i g n a t e d as s u c c e s s o r i n the F l a p s t a f f r i t e , i t i s my o p i n i o n t h a t he o n l y became a contender f o r the throne a f t e r the death of Lady Xoc, about t h r e e years p r i o r t o h i s a c c e s s i o n . Imagery, c a l e n d r i c s , and v e r b a l glyphs of the B a r b e l scene appear to commemorate B i r d Jaguar's e l e c t i o n to r u l e r s h i p on 9.15.19.1.1, May 31 750 A.D.. The four year i n t e r v a l between the arraignment (9.15.19.1.1) and the p r e v i o u s p e r i o d - e n d i n g (9.15.15.0.0) r e c o r d e d on the other face of the s t e l a conveys concepts of r i t u a l c o m p l e t i o n . A s p e c u l a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the c o m p l e t i v e event a l l u d e d t o i n the B a r b e l God scene i s t h a t i t marked the end of a r u l e r s h i p "shared" by B i r d Jaguar and the deceased S h i e l d Jaguar, and was the ceremony wherein B i r d Jaguar was accepted as Y a x c h i l a n ' s next r u l e r . For t h i s purpose, B i r d Jaguar borrowed Palenque's B a r b e l God imagery, perhaps designed to mark the end of the i n f l u e n c e of a deceased r u l e r , to l i k e w i s e i n d i c a t e a s u p e r n a t u r a l s a n c t i o n i n g of both h i s own e l e c t i o n and the end of S h i e l d Jaguar's i n f l u e n c e . Notes f o r Chapter V 1 The P a s a d i t a l i n t e l s ( F i g u r e 36) emulate the p a i r e d themes from Y a x c h i l a n ' s t r a d i t i o n a l s t e l a e . C a l e n d r i c n o t a t i o n on the P a s a d i t a l i n t e l s i n f e r s t h a t the capture 90 preceded the p e r i o d - e n d i n g ceremony, and i t has been suggested t h a t such a c t s of c a p t u r i n g served d u a l purposes of c o n f i r m i n g a r u l e r ' s m i l i t a r y prowess and of s e c u r i n g a v i c t i m who would be s a c r i f i c e d as p a r t of the p e r i o d - e n d i n g r i t e s . Support f o r t h i s t h e o r y i s i n d i c a t e d with the o c c a s i o n a l presence i n the s c a t t e r i n g scenes of a k n e e l i n g secondary f i g u r e who wears a s h e l l pendant. Comparisons wi t h other c o n t e x t s f o r the s h e l l ( F i g u r e 42), i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s worn i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e ; t h e r e b y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the k n e e l i n g personnage i n the p e r i o d - e n d i n g scenes may have been f o r c e d i n t o s a c r i f i c i a l a c t s as p a r t of the p e r i o d - e n d i n g ceremony. 2 Lounsbury (1982:143ff) has determined p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between reco r d e d a c t s of i n t e r s i t e s a c r i f i c e , war, and death with known i n i t i a l appearances of Venus as Evening S t a r . Such c o r r e l a t i o n s occur i n c o n n e c t i o n with the f o l l o w i n g monuments: S i t e Monument Venus Day If Lono Count C a r a c o l & Naranjo S t e l a 3 H i e r . Steps Day # 18 9 . 9.18.16.3 Tortuguero S t e l a 6 Day # 17 9 .10.16.13.6 Dos P i l a s & Aguateca S t e l a 16 S t e l a 2 Day # 24 9 .15. 4. 6.4 Bonampak L i n t e l 3 Day # 22 9 .15.9. 3.14 Y a x c h i l a n L i n t e l s 41, 8 Day if 113 9 .16.4. 1. 1 Y a x c h i l a n L i n t e l 16 Day # 98 9 .16.0.13.17 I t s hould a l s o be noted t h a t many " s h e l l are not a s s o c i a t e d with Venus as Evening Days If 297-540 are Morning S t a r ) . - s t a r " S t a r , war events (Venus Tortuguero S t e l a 6 Day # 473 9 .10.11.9 .6 P i e d r a s Negras S t e l a 35 Day If 516 9 .11.9.8.12 Dos P i l a s Steps Day If 458 9 .12.5.9.14 91 Dos P i l a s S t e l a 25 Day # 452 9.13.4.12.14 T i k a l & S i t e Q T . I , L i n t e l 3 not r e c o r d e d Day ft 480 9.13.3.7.18 3 Palenque's P a l a c e T a b l e t r e c o r d s a ceremony wherein the c h i l d , Kan Xul i s g i v e n the t i t l e t h a t he uses l a t e r , d u r i n g h i s a d u l t r e i g n . Glyph F-9 of t h i s passage seems to name Kan Xul as the " k e x o l " , or "s u c c e s s o r o f " , s e v e r a l l i n e a g e gods (Scheie 1985b:67). A c c o r d i n g to Scheie (1985:p.c.) s i m i l a r glyphs f e a t u r i n g o n l y a l e f t -hand are a l s o found a t Copan and P i e d r a s Negras, and may be g r a p h i c e x p r e s s i o n s of the Tzotzil word "kexol" meaning both " s u c c e s s i o n " and " l e f t - h a n d " or "changeable hand". A s i m i l a r youth-event f o r Chaccal I I I i s recor d e d on the jambs of Temple XVIII a t Palenque. Here too, the h e i r -apparent i s d e s c r i b e d as the " k e x o l " of GI, the B a r b e l God . On A l t a r 5 from T i k a l the nominal g l y p h between the two a c t o r s , and glyphs a t p o s i t i o n s 4 and 20 may name the e l u s i v e Ruler A/B ("Crossed Bands Rodent/Jaguar"?), whose h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n may have been on 9.12.19.12.9 (Glyphs 1 to 4 ) . The v e r b a l glyph a t p o s i t i o n 3 appears t o be a headless dwarf. I t i s noteworthy t h a t the kexol g l y p h on the Pa l a c e T a b l e t i s a l s o h e a d l e s s , and t h a t dwarves occur on Y a x c h i l a n ' s Step VII of S t r u c t u r e 33 where glyphs r e c o r d another p r e - a c c e s s i o n event by B i r d Jaguar. * C o n f i g u r a t i o n c l u e s to the f i r s t two glyphs of the v e r b a l phrase suggest t h a t the i n i t i a l g l y p h may be an a u x i l i a r y verb and the second g l y p h i s p o s s i b l y a seated f i g u r e . Together the t h r e e verbs might be read as; "On 9.15.19.1.1...it happened ... he was p l a c e d . . . t o e n t e r (the s u c c e s s i o n ) a s . . . t h e t h r e e katun ahau, B i r d Jaguar...". * With the e x c e p t i o n of S t e l a 11, th e r e a re no s t e l a e where the main comp o s i t i o n s of both s i d e s remain i n t a c t , r e n d e r i n g i t i m p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n o r i g i n a l imagery. However, the P a s a d i t a l i n t e l d e p i c t i n g B i r d Jaguar i n a s c a t t e r r i t e i s l e s s d e t e r i o r a t e d and a comparison with s c u l p t u r a l remnants from S t e l a e 1, 3, 31 a t Y a x c h i l a n s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t the u s u a l costume worn by r u l e r s at p e r i o d - e n d i n g ceremonies i n c l u d e d the s h e l l e a r, s h e l l diadem, knotted p e c t o r a l , and crossed-bands b e l t of the Ba r b e l god. See F i g u r e s 36,21, 26, 22. 92 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Monumental a r t s e r v e s as p o l i t i c a l propaganda f o r the r u l i n g c l a s s e s of s o c i e t y and f u n c t i o n s g e n e r a l l y as a p r o c l a m a t i o n of the economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l power assumed by the a r i s t o c r a t i c e l i t e f o r whom i t was c r e a t e d . Most d y n a s t i c a r t of the Maya communicated and pre s e r v e d c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , a l o n g w i t h the f e a t u r e d h i s t o r i c a l documentation. In c o n t r a s t , S t e l a 11 and i t s a s s o c i a t e d s c u l p t u r e s are s p e c i a l forms of propaganda whose prim a r y purpose was the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of a t y p i c a l p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t i e s . S t e l a 11 p r e s e n t s a s p e c i f i c complex of i n n o v a t i v e themes, images, and c a l e n d r i c s t h a t was h i s t o r i c a l l y unique. To compensate f o r h i s anomalous parentage and h i s a p p a r e n t l y extemporary a c c e s s i o n , B i r d Jaguar and h i s a r t i s t s d esigned an i n a u g u r a l commemorative programme which e f f e c t i v e l y rewrote h i s d y n a s t i c h i s t o r y and emphasized the cosmic means by which he a c q u i r e d the r i g h t t o r u l e . To p r o c l a i m l e g i t i m a c y as r u l e r B i r d Jaguar s e l e c t e d imagery and c a l e n d r i c s which would ac c e n t u a t e the process of s u c c e s s i o n . While t r a d i t i o n a l s t e l a e commemorated p e r i o d - e n d i n g s , S t e l a 11 was designed 93 to memorialize h i s i n a u g u r a t i o n and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , to document the r i t u a l procedures by which he a t t a i n e d the r u l e r s h i p . Though a l l p r e v i o u s monumental a r t a t Y a x c h i l a n had been c a r v e d i n a N a r r a t i v e mode, B i r d Jaguar's S t e l a 11 i n t r o d u c e d a Symbolic s c u l p t u r a l mode. While t r a d i t i o n a l s t e l a e c o n s i s t e n t l y employed o n l y two s t a n d a r d i z e d themes, S t e l a 11 p r e s e n t s a unique p a i r of composite images and unprecedented themes. Although i t was common f o r Maya r u l e r s to l i n k t h e i r a c c e s s i o n s to the deaths of t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , S t e l a 11 focuses on documenting a s u s p i c i o u s sequence of events as having o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the c u r i o u s l y l o n g i n t e r v a l between the death of S h i e l d Jaguar I and the i n a u g u r a t i o n of B i r d Jaguar IV. S t e l a 11 was designed with f o u r major dates and two major images which c o l l e c t i v e l y recount the episode of Y a x c h i l a n ' s h i s t o r y wherein p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s h i p was t r a n s f e r r e d from S h i e l d Jaguar I to h i s su c c e s s o r B i r d Jaguar IV. The F l a p s t a f f scene has been shown to i n c l u d e c a l e n d r i c and Iconographic r e f e r e n c e s t o B i r d Jaguar's a l l e g e d h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n on the date 9.15.9.17.16 (re c o r d e d i n the s c e n e ) . The a n a l y s i s of the s t r u c t u r e of Mesoamerican r e l i g i o n by Cohodas (1976a) and the e t h n o g r a p h i c data i n c o r p o r a t e d by Tate (1986) 94 both p r o v i d e s u b s t a n t i a l evidence t h a t Summer S o l s t i c e seasons would have been viewed by the Maya as p e r i o d s a s s o c i a t e d with t e r m i n a t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y has determined s e v e r a l reasons to e x p l a i n why summer s o l s t i c e symbolism i n g e n e r a l , and the s o l s t i c e of 9.15.9.17.16 i n p a r t i c u l a r , were most a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e s f o r B i r d Jaguar's i n a u g u r a l commemorations. Costume elements worn by both B i r d Jaguar and S h i e l d Jaguar i n t h i s scene a l l u d e to t r a d i t i o n a l p e r i o d - e n d i n g scenes, t h e r e b y i m p l y i n g t h a t the image of f a t h e r and son i s a l s o a v i s u a l r e f e r e n c e to the d u a l " r u l e r s h i p " and p e r i o d -ending c e l e b r a t i o n f o r the date 9.15.15.0.0, which i s i n s c r i b e d i n t h i s scene as w e l l . In c o n t r a s t to the F l a p s t a f f scene which d e p i c t s p a i r e d humans and emphasizes an important s o l a r p o s i t i o n , the B a r b e l God scene p o r t r a y s a s u p e r n a t u r a l impersonator and r e f e r s to a s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i o n of the Venus c y c l e . As w i t h the F l a p s t a f f scene, the B a r b e l scene i s a l s o r e l a t e d to two d i f f e r e n t e v e n t s : the date 9.15.19.1.1 i s l i n k e d s y m b o l i c a l l y w i t h the interregnum p e r i o d - e n d i n g of 9.15.15.0.0, four years e a r l i e r . The i n a u g u r a l i n s c r i p t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d on the o p p o s i t e s i d e completes both the B a r b e l image and the whole s t e l a programme. A Venus date a s s o c i a t e d with war and d e s t r u c t i o n has been s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the p e r i o d - e n d i n g n o r m a l l y f e a t u r e d . The e l a b o r a t e Barbel-mask and the och g l y p h f o r " e n t e r i n g / b e c o m i n g H i n d i c a t e t h a t the scene i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of a r i t u a l c o n f i r m a t i o n of B i r d Jaguar's p o s i t i o n as r u l e r - e l e c t . T h i s i s supported by comparisons with known and probable s u c c e s s o r appointments a t other s i t e s , where p r i s o n e r s of war, s a c r i f i c e , and the B a r b e l god were commonly a s s o c i a t e d with movement to h i g h e r s t a t u s w i t h i n d y n a s t i c h i e r a r c h i e s . Since S t e l a 11 commemorated B i r d Jaguar's i n a u g u r a t i o n or h i s "emergence" as r u l e r , i t might seem c u r i o u s t h a t the s e r i e s of p r e - i n a u g u r a l r i t e s i n c l u d e so many c a l e n d r i c and p i c t o r i a l symbols of s a c r i f i c e , death, and t e r m i n a t i o n . However, i n o r i g i n myths of many c u l t u r e s "death, d e s t r u c t i o n , and chaos" always precede " r e b i r t h , c r e a t i o n , and o r d e r " , and most r i t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s r e p l i c a t e o r i g i n myths. U n i v e r s a l l y , such r i t e s of passage are composed of t h r e e d i s t i n c t phases: s e p a r a t i o n r i t u a l s where the i n i t i a t e i s removed from the common realm of s o c i e t y , a l i m l n a l p e r i o d when the s u b j e c t i s a f f i l i a t e d o n l y with s u p e r n a t u r a l s , and r e i n t e g r a t i o n r i t e s when the person i s r e t u r n e d to s o c i e t y , a l o n g with h i s newly a c q u i r e d s t a t u s . T h i s 96 th r e e - s t a g e approach seems obvious f o r the h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n r i t e s of 9.15.9.17.16, 9.15.10.0.0, and 9.15.10.0.1. I t a l s o p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l s t r u c t u r e f o r con t e m p l a t i n g the e n t i r e s e t of events rec o r d e d on S t e l a 11. B i r d Jaguar e x p l o i t e d the p a r a l l e l s of s o l a r and d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n by i m p l y i n g t h a t Summer S o l s t i c e marked the day when the pro c e s s of h i s s u c c e s s i o n was i n i t i a t e d . His a l l e g e d h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n on 9.15.9.17.16 corresponds t o the f i r s t stage of r i t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , the s e p a r a t i o n . The events on 9.15.15.0.0, 9.15.19.1.1 and 9.15.19.14.14 each i n v o l v e s u p e r n a t u r a l s (the deceased S h i e l d Jaguar, the B a r b e l God, and God " K M ) , and thus correspond t o the l i m i n a l Phase of r i t u a l metamorphosis. The p r o m i n e n t l y f e a t u r e d and t h r i c e -r e peated i n a u g u r a l date 9.16.1.0.0, p r o c l a i m s B i r d Jaguar's r e i n t e g r a t i o n as r u l e r of Y a x c h i l a n , thereby f i n a l i z i n g the pro c e s s of d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n . Events of B i r d Jaguar's t h r e e - s t a g e R i t e of Passage, as i n d i c a t e d by S t e l a 11, are o u t l i n e d i n Chart 6. 1 S t r u c t u r a l and c o n t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s has shown t h a t the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r the S t r u c t u r e 40 complex of s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e was the p a r a l l e l of d y n a s t i c and s o l a r s u c c e s s i o n . Rather than a d h e r i n g t o 97 t r a d i t i o n a l modes of c a l e n d r i c and i c o n o g r a p h i c d e c l a r a t i o n s of d i v i n i t y and r u l e r s h i p , B i r d Jaguar's S t e l a 11 i n t r o d u c e d numerous symbolic o p p o s i t i o n s , i n n o v a t i v e images, and c a l e n d r i c m a n i p u l a t i o n s as unique a r t i s t i c s o l u t i o n s f o r h i s u n p a r a l l e l e d p o l i t i c a l and g e n e a l o g i c a l problems. B i r d Jaguar's emphasis on the Summer S o l s t i c e would have been e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d by the e l i t e as a v a r i a t i o n of Chan Bahlum's s o l s t i c i a l h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n ceremony. By i m i t a t i n g Palenque, B i r d Jaguar adapted the i d e a of i n t e r w e a v i n g concepts of s o l a r and d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n on monumental a r t , and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y assumed some of the p r e s t i g e p r e v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d with the powerful dynasty of Palenque. As p o i n t e d out by Nagao (n.d.:23) and Stone (n.d.:35) the a d o p t i o n of f o r e i g n themes and s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s demonstrates a d e l i b e r a t e and c o n s c i o u s attempt t o c l a i m p o l i t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y through v i s u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s with s u p e r i o r f o r e i g n power (contemporary and/or remembered). As w e l l , the p o l i t i c a l g a i n s engendered by the r e p l i c a t i o n of Palenque's a l l u s i o n s t o s o l a r and d y n a s t i c renewal were m u l t i p l i e d enormously by B i r d Jaguar's s e l e c t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n of the s i n g u l a r s o l s t i c e which f o r t u i t o u s l y c o i n c i d e d w i t h the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l midpoints of two other s y m b o l i c a l l y 98 s i g n i f i c a n t c y c l e s , was one hundred s o l a r y ears a f t e r Chan Bahlum's h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n , and was the l a s t p o s s i b l e date of such an e l a b o r a t e cosmic t r a n s i t i o n p r i o r to the death of h i s p r e d e c e s s o r . The c o n v e n t i o n s of Mayan i n t e r a c t i v e n a r r a t i v e i n v o l v e two p a r a l l e l systems of t e x t u a l and p i c t o r i a l communication which were each manipulated to complement the other (Reents-Budet:in p r e s s ) . While i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t these images alone were s u f f i c i e n t t o convey concepts of d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n to even a n o n - l i t e r a t e viewer, o n l y the e l i t e l i t e r a t i would have been a b l e to f u l l y comprehend and a p p r e c i a t e the h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t e r m e s h i n g of c a l e n d r i c and i c o n o g r a p h i c symbolism t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s S t e l a 11 a t Y a x c h i l a n . I t has been s a i d t h a t t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y v i s u a l a d v e r tisement or " p u b l i c i t y " i s g e n e r a l l y addressed to the e l i t e and t h a t i t s images o f t e n r e f e r t o the p a s t , and always speak to the f u t u r e (Berger 1972:130). While monumental a r t of the Maya operated l n t h i s f a s h i o n t o some e x t e n t , Berger's comment on propaganda seems an e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of B i r d Jaguar's i n a u g u r a l programme of " p u b l i c i t y " . As w e l l as s a t i s f y i n g h i s p e r s o n a l need f o r c u r r e n t and f u t u r e p o l i t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y , B i r d Jaguar's s c u l p t u r a l propaganda a l s o s a t i s f i e d s i m i l a r needs f o r h i s e l i t e r e t i n u e . Furthermore, by v a l i d a t i n g h i s own r u l e r s h i p and r e i n s t a t i n g a d y n a s t i c s u c c e s s i o n , B i r d Jaguar s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ensured a d y n a s t i c r i g h t t o r u l e r s h i p f o r h i s son, the Mak'inah S h i e l d Jaguar I I . Research f o r t h i s p r o j e c t has suggested t h a t o n l y the e l e c t i o n of 9.15.19.1.1 and the i n a u g u r a t i o n of 9.16.1.0.0 are h i s t o r i c a l p r o b a b i l i t i e s . In my judgment, the a l l e g e d h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n of 9.15.9.17.16 and i t s r i t u a l c o mpletion on 9.15.10.0.1 were f a b r i c a t e d i n order to promote B i r d Jaguar as h e i r to an e s t a b l i s h e d l i n e a g e , when i n r e a l i t y , h i s c l a i m was i n s u f f i c i e n t . M i c h a e l Blake ( p e r s o n a l communication) suggests t h a t the c a h a l s may have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e l e v a t i n g B i r d Jaguar to r u l e r s h i p a t Y a x c h i l a n , both through t h e i r m i l i t a r y power, and through t h e i r m a n i p u l a t i o n of marriage a l l i a n c e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the " S k u l l " l i n e may have arranged the marriage of S h i e l d Jaguar I t o Lady Ik S k u l l to advance t h e i r own p o s i t i o n . When S h i e l d Jaguar d i e d , they c o u l d then promote B i r d Jaguar beyond h i s r i g h t f u l s t a t u s , and f u r t h e r s o l i d i f y t h i s a l l i a n c e by marrying him to another member of t h e i r l i n e a g e , Lady Great S k u l l . The f i n a l s t e p i n advancing B i r d Jaguar towards the throne was then the b i r t h of S h i e l d Jaguar 100 I I , whose mother and grandmother were both of the " S k u l l " l i n e , and whose f a t h e r and g r a n d f a t h e r were both of the "Jaguar" l i n e . In f a c t , the i n t e r v a l between the b i r t h of S h i e l d Jaguar II and the i n a u g u r a t i o n of B i r d Jaguar, s e v e n t y - f i v e days l a t e r , i s s i m i l a r to t h a t between the death of a r u l e r and i n a u g u r a t i o n of h i s s u c c e s s o r a t other Maya s i t e s . I f the c a h a l s , and e s p e c i a l l y Great S k u l l C a h a l , were r e s p o n s i b l e i n t h i s way f o r s e l e c t i n g and advancing B i r d Jaguar to r u l e r s h i p , then they may a l s o have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the propaganda employed i n monumental a r t to c l a i m a s t a t u s c o n s i s t e n t with the power which they had granted him. The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of s c u l p t u r e produced d u r i n g B i r d Jaguar's r e i g n i s a c o n v i n c i n g t e s t i m o n y to economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l s u c c e s s f o l l o w i n g h i s a c c e s s i o n . However, w h i l e a few of h i s l a t e r monuments r e c o r d contemporaneous p e r i o d - e n d i n g s and m i l i t a r y accomplishments, the m a j o r i t y of h i s s c u l p t u r a l programmes c o n t i n u e to r e f e r back to p r e i n a u g u r a l p r o c l a m a t i o n s of d y n a s t i c and cosmic l e g i t i m a c y . The S t r u c t u r e 40 Inaugural Complex was o n l y the propaganda of the moment. In order to c o n s t a n t l y r e a f f i r m h i s v a l i d i t y as the most s u i t a b l e r u l e r , B i r d Jaguar developed a d d i t i o n a l s c u l p t u r a l complexes, each i n v o l v i n g 101 i n t e g r a t e d , m u l t i - l e v e l programmes i n which the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of r u l e r s h i p was l i k e w i s e arranged i n t o a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l and o f t e n t h r e e - p a r t p a t t e r n , and o f t e n i n c l u d e d f a b r i c a t e d e v e n t s . Each of these programmes evidences a d i f f e r e n t focus f o r l e g i t i m i z a t i o n and a d i f f e r e n t b a s i s f o r c a l e n d r i c symbolism. S c u l p t u r a l imagery and c a l e n d r i c s on the t r i a d of S t r u c t u r e s 1, 33, 42 e x e m p l i f y these c o n d i t i o n s . Here, the F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l i s never r e f e r r e d t o . In s t e a d , symbolism i s based on a Ballgame r i t u a l t h a t a l s o took p l a c e d u r i n g the interregnum, and B i r d Jaguar's j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r u l e r s h i p a g a i n i n v o l v e s cosmic v a l i d a t i o n going back to m y t h i c a l time and a g a i n p a r a l l e l s memorial monuments from Palenque. L i n t e l s 15, 16, 17 of S t r u c t u r e 21 evidence another i n t e g r a t e d programme which i s based on a s e p a r a t e though e q u a l l y t y p i c a l c o n s t r u c t . Here, n e i t h e r Ballgame nor F l a p s t a f f events are mentioned. In t h i s case B i r d Jaguar's main v a l i d a t i o n i s the b i r t h of h i s h e i r , S h i e l d Jaguar I I , l i n k e d c o s m i c a l l y w i t h a c a p t u r e of e i g h t days e a r l i e r . Again these events are pre i n a u g u r a l , and the e i g h t - d a y i n t e r v a l was i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y i n v e n t e d t o suggest t h a t the b i r t h of B i r d Jaguar's son was a form of r i t u a l c o m p l etion, a s s o c i a t e d with B i r d Jaguar's a c c e s s i o n , and 102 analagous to the e i g h t days of I n f e r i o r C o n j u n c t i o n of Venus between i t s d i s a p p e a r a n c e as Evening S t a r (death) and reappearance as Morning S t a r ( b i r t h ) . 3 S t e l a 34 and the L i n t e l s of S t r u c t u r e 16 ( a l s o from l a t e r i n h i s r e i g n ) , show t h a t B i r d Jaguar c o n t i n u e d to r e f e r to the phenomenal c i r c u m s t a n c e s of c i r c a 9.15.10.0.0 which he had p r e v i o u s l y s e l e c t e d as the best j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s r u l e r s h i p . Though each of B i r d Jaguar's l a t e r temple-programmes i n v o l v e a s e p a r a t e c a l e n d r i c b a s i s , each s c u l p t u r a l s e t f o l l o w s a r e g u l a r p a t t e r n wherein r e f e r e n c e s to the past are combined with a l l u s i o n s to a s t r o n o m i c a l or cosmic involvement which t o g e t h e r j u s t i f y B i r d Jaguar's c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n . B i r d Jaguar's symbolic c o n s t r u c t s evidence m u l t i p l e approaches, each conveying p a r a l l e l v a l i d a t i o n s of l e g i t i m a c y . Mayan monuments are assumed t o be o b j e c t i v e h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s . However, t h i s s t u d y has shown t h a t s c u l p t u r a l c o m p o s i t i o n s c o u l d be d e s i g n e d i n s t e a d t o sway p u b l i c o p i n i o n and to modify e x i s t i n g i d e o l o g y , i n order to account f o r p e c u l i a r or u n p r e d i c t e d p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . Records of a c t u a l or f i c t i t i o u s events would e q u a l l y f i t the propaganda f u n c t i o n of a l l monumental a r t of the Maya. We s h o u l d be aware t h a t events recorded on 103 other monuments a t Y a x c h i l a n and a t other s i t e s may a l s o have been f a b r i c a t e d t o support c l a i m s of power. Notes f o r Chapter VI 1 While Cohodas ( p e r s o n a l communication) agrees with t h i s b a s i c t h r e e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e , he suggests a d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n of e v e n t s . Emphasizing the main a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n each, he suggests t h a t the s e p a r a t i o n phase corresponds to the F l a p s t a f f r i t u a l which i s performed by S h i e l d Jaguar alone b e f o r e h i s death; t h a t the l i m i n a l phase corresponds t o the p e r i o d - e n d i n g r e c o r d e d as having been c e l e b r a t e d j o i n t l y by the deceased S h i e l d Jaguar and n o t - y e t inaugurated B i r d Jaguar i n the middle of the interregnum; and t h a t the r e i n t e g r a t i o n phase begins with the e l e c t i o n event of 9.15.19.1.1 i n which B i r d Jaguar i s the s o l e a c t o r . In Cohodas' view, the f i r s t and l a s t of these s t a g e s may be f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d , as a n t i c i p a t e d by Van Gennep who noted t h a t each stage of a r i t e of passage may be expanded i n t o a t h r e e - p a r t r i t u a l sequence. In t h i s c o n s t r u c t , the three s t a g e s of the s e p a r a t i o n r i t u a l would be the F l a p s t a f f event of 9.15.9.17.16, the p e r i o d -ending four days l a t e r on 9.15.10.0.0, and the female s e l f - s a c r i f i c e on the f o l l o w i n g day 9.15.10.0.1. The three stages of the r e i n t e g r a t i o n r i t e , as suggested on S t e l a 11 o n l y , would be the combined e l e c t i o n of B i r d Jaguar as h e i r and dem o n s t r a t i o n of h i s m i l i t a r y prowess on 9.15.19.1.1, the f o l l o w i n g p e r i o d - e n d i n g on 9.16.0.0.0, and the i n a u g u r a t i o n on 9.16.1.0.0. 3 See Cohodas (n.d) r e g a r d i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Venus c y c l e s i n r e l a t i o n t o Y a x c h i l a n ' s S t r u c t u r e 33 and B i r d Jaguar's p r e - i n a u g u r a l Ballgame r i t u a l . 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M.A. T h e s i s , Department of Anthropology, The U n i v e r s i t y of Texas a t A u s t i n . i n p ress "Beyond Rainstorms: The Kawak as A n c e s t o r , W a r r i o r , and Patron of W i t c h c r a f t . " Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Sexta Mesa Redonda de Palenque. June 1986. Stone, Andrea i n p ress " D i s c o n n e c t i o n , F o r e i g n I n s i g n i a , a n d P o l i t i c a l Expansion: The Warrior S t e l a e of P i e d r a s Negras Guatemala", i n Mesoamerica  A f t e r the D e c l i n e of T e o t i h u a c a n : A.D. 700-900., ed. R . D i e h l and J . B e r l o , Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C. S t u a r t , David i n p ress "Blood Symbolism i n Maya Iconography". Paper presented a t the Conference on the Beginnings of Maya Iconography, P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y . no date " E p i g r a p h i c Evidence of P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n i n the Usumacinta Drainage". Unpublished manuscript. 1985 "The I n s c r i p t i o n on Four S h e l l Plaques from P i e d r a s Negras, Guatemala". In F o u r t h  Palenque Round T a b l e . 1980 f V o l . 6 f ed. Merle Greene Robertson and E l i z a b e t h Benson. San F r a n c i s c o , Pre-Columbian A r t Research I n s t i t u t e . 112 Tate, C a r o l y n 19 86 The Language of Symbols i n the R i t u a l Environment of Y a x c h i l a n . Chiapas, Mexico. D o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n : U n i v e r s i t y of Texas at A u s t i n , J u l y . 1987 "The Use of Astronomy i n P o l i t i c a l Statements a t Y a x c h i l a n " , i n World Archaeoastronomy,. ed.A. A v e n i , Cambridge. T a y l o r , Dicey 1978 "The Cauac Monster" In T e r c e r a Mesa Redonda de Palenque, V o l . 4. Ed. by Merle Greene Robertson and Donnan C a l l J e f f e r s , Monterey C a l i f o r n i a . H e r a l d P r i n t e r s : 7 9 - 8 9 . Tedlock, Barbara 1982 Time and the Highland Maya. Albuquerque: U n i v e r s i t y of New Mexico P r e s s . Thompson, J.E.S. 1971 Maya H i e r o g l y p h i c W r i t i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma P r e s s . Tuckerman, Bryant 1964 P l a n e t a r y , Lunar, and S o l a r P o s i t i o n s : A.D. 2 to 1649 a t F i v e - d a y and Ten-day I n t e r v a l s . P h i l e d e l p h i a : American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y . Van Gennep, Ar n o l d 1975 The R i t e s of Passage, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s . T r a n s l a t e d by Monika B. Vizedom and G a b r i e l l e L. C a f f e e . Winters, Diane i n p r e s s "A Study of the F i s h - i n - H a n d Glyph T714: P a r t I", paper presented a t Sexta Mesa Redonda de Palenque, June 9-14, 1986. 113 I . 1 S . M . I J.H.1.1.1 1.11.I.J.I I . I I . I I . I M M . 1 . 1 9. I I I . I !. 1.1.1.1 J . 2 . I I . I i. 3.(.1.1 J . I . M . I ). (.1.1.1 ! . I . M . I 9. M . M 9.12.1.I .I 9 . 1 M . M 9 . 1 7 . M . I M l . M . I F i r s t H o n skill (4) •ttodtd a l Y D f c s l (5) flak i n k Skill I (i) B«OD S k i l l (71 Lady C i i e i Kakliak skill II ( I I ) 9 . 4 . 1 1 . M lady Pacal lady I k i k i l l lady Ioc Lady G^eat S k i l l Protjetitor Jaqtar (1) 6111-Jatjsai (2) l l r d Jaqcjc I (3) Bird Jaguar III ( I ) I t t t - l y e Jagw 1 0 ) ?9.3 .13.12.1J l»ot-tye J a i j a i (I (11) ? M . 1 0 . 1 4 . I S ??Sileld Jagiai (12?) llrd.Jagiar 111(13) 1 9 . 9 . 1 U I . 1 3 1 Sifeld, Ja<5«r I (14) 9.12.9.1.1 l i r d Jafvar IV (1$) J 9 . 1 U . M — 1 Great S k i l l . lady Ik . lady Ix . lai-fok .Ili-Ahp»-»o .lac-HUc lUkliak'skill III (17) 9.1I .17.12.J? V72 Lriy.Sloodlettei tkield Jaqiar II ( 1 0 ' | ' 9 . 1 7 . 1 . M ? Chart 1. The Y a x c h i l a n Dynasties with A c c e s s i o n Dates. 114 9.15. 9.17.16 12 Cib 19 Yaxkin FLAPSTAFF RITUAL J u l i a n Calendar equivalent: June 22, 741 A . D . Gregorian Correc t ion: June 26, 741 A . D . Approximate Venus Day: 304 Sun and Venus are: 21.85 degrees apart Venus is on or near i n i t i a l appearance as Morning Star . Sun is at farthest norther ly po int : Summer S o l s t i c e 9.15,15, Q, Q 9 AhflU 18 Xu,l PERIOD-ENDING J u l i a n Calendar equivalent: May 31, 746 A . D . Gregorian Correct ion: June 4, 746 A . D . Approximate Venus Day: 356 Morning Star Sun and Venus are: 45.59 degrees apart 9.15.19. 1. 1 1 Imix 19 Xul BARBEL GOD RITUAL J u l i a n Calendar equivalent: May 31, 750 A .D. Gregorian Correc t ion: June 4, 750 A . D . Approximate Venus Day: 65 Sun and Venus are: 17.02 degrees apart Venus is on or near i n i t i a l appearance as Evening Star . 9.15.19.14.14 1 Ix 7 Uo 819-DAY-COUNT J u l i a n Calendar equivalent: February 28, 751 A . D . Gregorian Correc t ion: March 4, 751 A . D . Approximate Venus Day: 338 Morning Star Sun and Venus are: 44.08 degrees apart 9.16. 1. 0. 0 11 Ahau 8 Tzec INAUGURATION J u l i a n Calendar equivalent: A p r i l 29, 752 A . D . Gregorian Correc t ion: May 3, 752 A . D . Approximate Venus Day: 180 Evening Star Sun and Venus are: 41.85 degrees apart . Venus is near e longation. Chart 2. Calendric and Astronomical Data Ste la 11 (see note #5 page 50) 115 9.15.10. 0. 0 3 Ahau 3 Moi PERIOD-ENDING J u l i a n Calendar Equivalent: June 26, 741 A . D . Gregorian Correc t ion: June 30, 741 A . D . Approximate Venus Day: 308 Venus is near f i n a l day of Infer ior Conjunction 9.15.10. 0. 1 4 Imix 4 Moi BLOODLETTING RITES J u l i a n Calendar equivalent: June 27, 741 A . D . Gregorian Correc t ion: Ju ly 1, 741 A . D . Approximate Venus Day: 309 Sun and Venus a r e : 27.61 degrees apa r t Venus is on or near i n i t i a l appearance as Morning Star . 9,15,10,17,14 6 IX 12 YaxMn DEATH OF SHIELD JAGUAR J u l i a n Calendar equivalent: June 15, 742 A . D . Gregorian Correc t ion: June 19, 742 A . D . Approximate Venus Day: 78 Evening Star Sun is seven days before Summer S o l s t i c e . 9,15,16, 1, 6 5 Cimi 19 Yaxkin LINTEL 33-FLAPSTAFF J u l i a n Calendar equivalent: June 21, 747 A . D . Gregorian Correc t ion: June 25, 747 A .D. Approximate Venus Day: 158 Evening Star 9,15,17.15,14 3 IX 17 Zip DEATH QF W Y XQQ J u l i a n Calendar equivalent: March 30, 749 A . D . Gregorian Correc t ion: A p r i l 3, 749 A .D . Approximate Venus Day: 222 Evening Star 9,16,17, 6,12 1 Eb end Qf. Xaxkin LINTEL 9-FL.APSTAFF J u l i a n Calendar equivalent: June 16, 768 A . D . Gregorian Correc t ion: June 20, 768 A .D. Approximate Venus Day: 333 Evening Star Chart 3. Calendric Data Relevant to Ste la 11 116 Chart 4. Convergence of C y c l i c Midpoints 117 A- 9 .13. 17. 12. 10 b i r t h of B i r d Jaguar L i n t e l 30 + 3. 3 9 .13. 17. 15. 13 c e l e b r a t i o n of B.J.'s b i r t h ? ? L i n t e l 32 B. 9 .15. X 9. 17. 16 A d e s i g n a t i o n as h e i r S t e l a 11 9 i .15. 10. 0. 0 Maya lahuntun c e l e b r a t o n not recorded 9 i .15. 10. 0. A 1 midpoints of three c y c l e s S t e l a 34 L i n t e l 39 L i n t e l 14 c- 9 .15. 10. 17. 14 death of S h i e l d Jaguar I S t e l a 12 + 7 9 .15. 11. 0. 1 b u r i a l of S h i e l d Jaguar I?? S t e l a 16?? + 5, 1, 5 (completion of 5 s o l a r years) 9 .15. 16. 1. 6 a n n i v e r s a r y of b u r i a l of S.J.? L i n t e l 33 ? L i n t e l 50 9 .15. 15. 0. 0 posthumous period-end by S.J. S t e l a 11 + 4. 1. 1 (completion of 4 s o l a r years) 9 .15. 19. 1. 1 probable e l e c t i o n of B. J . IV S t e l a 11 £ 9 .15. 17. 15. 14 death of Lady Xoc L i n t e l 59 + 1, 3, 7 9 .15. 19. l . 1 probable e l e c t i o n of B. J . IV S t e l a 11 f. 9 .15. 19. 14. 14 819-day-count h e r a l d s a c c e s s i o n S t e l a 11 + 1. 3 f 6 9 .16. 1. 0. 0. Inauguration of B i r d Jaguar IV S t e l a 11 9 .16. 17. 6. 12 passing power to Great S k u l l ? ? L i n t e l 9 Chart 5. S y n t h e s i s of Data Relevant t o S t e l a 11 118 SEPARATION: 9.15. 9.17.16 FLAPSTAFF RITE (h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n ) PERIOD-ENDING BARBEL GOD RITE ( e l e c t i o n & s a c r i f i c e ) 819-DAY STATION REINTEGRATION: 9.16. 1. 0. 0 INAUGURATION (as r u l e r ) Chart 6. Dates on S t e l a 11: Arranged as a Three-Stage R i t e of Passage. 9.15.15. 0. 0 LIMINAL PHASE: J 9.15.19. 1. 1 9.15.19.14.14 i 119 F i g u r e 1. Hap of the Maya A r e a . 121 F i g u r e 3. Plan of S t r u c t u r e 40: O r i e n t a t i o n i s 53 degrees east of n o r t h . i f & H A - l t o A-5 On 6 I x 12 Y a x k i n (9.15.10.17.14/June 15, 742 A . D . ) . . . " h i s s o u l f l e w " . . . " h e d i e d " . . . h e of t h e s h e l l f i s t t i t l e . . . t h e 5 k a t u n l o r d . . . S h i e l d Jaguar I , . . . c a p t o r o f . . . A h A h a u a l . B-5 t o D-6 i t was...6 kins, 11 t u n s . . . u n t i l . . . 1 1 Ahau...8 Tzec ( 9 . 1 6 . 1 . 0 . 0 ) . . . ( t h a t he) was s e a t e d . . . a s ahau of the s u c c e s s i o n , . . . t i t l e . . . S k y t i t l e . . . c a p t o r of Ah C/hc, ...the Zotzkin?... ( B i r d ) Jaguar IV.. .Lord of Y a x c h i l a n . . . L o r d of Y a x c h i l a n . . . B a c a b . E - l t o F-5 a u x i l i a r y v e r b . . . a s the deceased? i n d e a t h ? . . . ( h e was) a ? u i n i c . . . s h e l l f i s t t i t l e . . . t h e 5 k a t u n a h a u . . . S h i e l d Jaguar I , ...the c a p t o r o f . . . A h Ahaual,...Ah Kan ( t i t l e of S h i e l d J a g u a r ) . . . t i t l e ? . . . t h e 5 katun l o r d . . . a h a u t i t l e . . . t h e f i r s t i n the s u c c e s s i o n . . . o f God K...the f i r s t . . . o f the Zotzkin t i t l e . . . t h e 5 katun l o r d . . . t h e B a l l p l a y e r . . . t h e 5 k a t u n ahau?...Lord of Y a x c h i l a n ? . F i g u r e 5. S t r u c t u r e 40 S t e l a 12: I n s c r i p t i o n s C 7jf* f» F i g u r e 6. S t r u c t u r e 40 S t e l a 13: Temple Side 125 A - l t o B-4 a u x i l i a r y verb? ...? ...? ...? ...? ...? S h i e l d Jaguar I...5 Katun Lord? C - l t o D-4 ? . . . ? . . . 5 Katun ahau?...? ...Lord of Y a x c h i l a n . . . Lord of Yaxchilan...Bacab...Bate. F i g u r e 7. S t e l a 13: Paraphrasing of Glyphs a. 8. S t e l a 11: a.Temple Side b.River Side Figure 10. Ste la 11: River Side 129 F i g u r e 1 1 . S t e l a 11: Temple Side 130 S - l t o T-3 On 6 lx,..12 Y a x k l n (9.15.9.17.16/June 22, 741 A.D.)/he h e l d . . . the flapstaf£?/the 5 x a t u n l o r d . . . s h i e l d Jaguar I / L o r d of Y a x c h i l a n . F i g u r e 12. S t e l a 11: River S i d e , F l a p s t a f f Event. 131 N-2 t o N-9 ( I t happened) i n t h e r e a l m o f / u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f , . . . t h e c a p t o r o f Ah t/hc, . . . B i r d Jaguar...he o f t w e n t y c a p t i v e s . . . t h e t h r e e x a t u n l o r d . . . L o r d o f Y a x c h i l a n . . . L o r d o f Y a x c h i l a n . F i g u r e 13. S t e l a 11: R i v e r Side, Period-Ending Event. 132 A - l t o B-4 On 9.16.1.0.0, 11 Ahau C - l t o C-3 (Lunar d a t a f o r t h e day 11 Ahau) God G-9 was L o r d of t h e N i g h t , G l y p h F...Glyph Y-6...Glyph D, t h e moon was 12 days o l d . . . G l y p h C-5, i t was the f i f t h l u n a t i o n o f t h e h a l f - y e a r , G l y p h X...Glyph B, Gl y p h A, t h e moon had 29 days. D-3 On 8 Tzec ( A p r i l 29, 752 A.D.) C-4 t o F-4 He took o f f i c e . . . a s L o r d of t h e s u c c e s s i o n . . . B i r d J a g u a r , . . . t h e c a p t o r of Ah Uhc,...he of tw e n t y c a p t i v e s . . . t h e t h r e e x a t u n l o r d . . . t h e B a t a b . . . t h e L o r d of Y a x c h i l a n . . . t h e L o r d of Y a x c h i l a n . G - l t o G-3 He was t h e c h i l d of t h e woman...Lady I x S k u l l . . . S k y , . . . L a d y of t h e God C t i t l e . . . L a d y Bacab. H-3 t o 1-4 He was t h e c h i l d o f . . . t h e t i t l e d p a r e n t . . . t h e f i v e x a t u n l o r d . . . S h i e l d Jaguar I , . . . t h e c a p t o r of Ah A h a u a l , . . . t h e L o r d of Y a x c h i l a n , t h e Bacab. F i g u r e 14. S t e l a 11: R i v e r S i d e , B a s a l I n s c r i p t i o n . U - l t o u-4 ( a u x i l i a r y v e r b ) . . . female t i t l e . . . L a d y Ik S k u l l Sky...Lady of t h e God C t i t l e U - l t o V-4 ( m i s s i n g ) . . . ( M i s s i n g ) . . . S h i e l d J a g u a r I , t h e c a p t o r of ...Ah A h a u l , L o r d of Y a x c h i l a n . F i g u r e 15. S t e l a 11: Temple Si d e , Upper Zone Parentage Glyphs. 134 W-l t o C - 5 On 1 Imix.,19 X u l (9.15.19.1.1/May 31, 750 A . D . ) . . . a u x i l i a r y v e r b ? . . . s e a t e d f i g u r e ? . . . h e e n t e r e d ( t h e s u c c e s s i o n ) a s . . . t h e 3 x a t u n l o r d . . . B i r d J a g u a r IV, ...the c a p t o r o f . . . A h l/hc, . . . L o r d of Y a x c h i l a n . . .Lord of Yaxchilan...Bacab...West B a t e . F i g u r e 16. S t e l a 11: Temple Side, Main Text 135 I n i t i a l S e r i e s I n t r o d u c t o r y Glyph 9 Baktuns 16 Katuns 1 Tun V (9.16.1.0.0) 0 Ulnals 0 Kins ( I t was on) 11 Ahau Glyph F ( G l y p h G-9) G l y p h Y-6 Glyph D- t h e moon was 12 days o l d G l y p h c- i t was t h e f i f t h l u n a t i o n o f t h e h a l f - y e a r Glyph X-3 Gl y p h B Glyph A 10 ( e r r o r , s h o u l d be 9)the moon had 30(29) days ( I t was on) 8 Tzec ( 9 . 1 6 . 1 . 0 . 0 / A p r i l 29, 752 A.D.) ( t h a t ) he was s e a t e d (as r u l e r of Y a x c h i l a n ) . F i g u r e 17. S t e l a 11: Northwest S i d e , I n s c r i p t i o n . D i s t a n c e Number I n t r o d u c t o r y Glyph 136 t C ( I t was) 6 k i n s , 3 u i n a l s 1 t u n ( s i n c e ) (On) 1 I x , 7 Uo (9.15.19.14.14), when he took p a r t i n ? the 819-day-count e v e n t , i n i t s N o r t h q u a d r a n t . the c o l o u r w h i t e , A n t l e r t i t l e , God K, God K t i t l e s ? (were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e v e n t ) 10 ?/ ( u n t i l ) 8 Tzec (9.16.1.0.0), when ir he took o f f i c e / a s ahau o f the s u c c e s s i o n , t i t l e / A n t l e r t i t l e , Sky t i t l e , • z e r o - t e - u i n i c " t i t l e B i r d J a g u a r IV, he o f twenty c a p t i v e s , Lord of Y a x c h i l a n , Bacab. F i g u r e 18. S t e l a 11: Southeast Side, I n s c r i p t i o n . F i g u r e 19. s t r u c t u r e 41 S t e l a 18: 9.14.17.15.12 a.Temple Side b.River Side 138 F i g u r e 20. S t r u c t u r e 41 a. S t e l a 19: I n s c r i b e d Date 9.12.8.14.0 b. S t e l a 20: I n s c r i b e d Date 9.13.9.14.14 139 140 F i g u r e 22. S t r u c t u r e 33 S t e l a 31: I n c i s e d S t a l a c t i t e . Date Unknown, c. 9.16.5.0.0. 141 F i g u r e 23. S t r u c t u r e 39 S t e l a 10: River Side Date Unknown, c. 9.16.5.0.0? F i g u r e 25. s t r u c t u r e 41 S t e l a 16: R i v e r s i d e Date Insecure. F i g u r e 27. s t r u c t u r e 33 L i n t e l 2 I n s c r i b e d Date 9.16.6.0.0 F i g u r e 29. S t r u c t u r e 42 L i n t e l 41: 9.16.4.1.1 D e d i c a t i o n Date c. 9.16.6.0.0. 148 F i g u r e 30. S t r u c t u r e 23 L i n t e l 25: 9.12.9.8.1 D e d i c a t i o n Date c. 9.14.15.0.0? F i g u r e 31. S t r u c t u r e 20 a. L i n t e l 13: I n s c r i b e d Date 9.16.0.14.5 b. L i n t e l 14: I n s c r i b e d Date 9.15.10.0.1 D e d i c a t i o n Date f o r both:9.17.0.0.0? F i g u r e 32. S t r u c t u r e 16 a . L i n t e l 38: 9.16.12.5.14 b. L i n t e l 39: 9.15.10.0.1 c. L i n t e l 40: 9.16.7.0.0 D e d i c a t i o n of S t r u c t u r e c.9.16.15.0.0? 152 F i g u r e 34. S t r u c t u r e 13 L i n t e l 32: I n s c r i b e d Date 9.15.17.15.13 D e d i c a t i o n of S t r u c t u r e c.9.16.15.0.0? F i g u r e 35. S t r u c t u r e 2 L i n t e l 9: I n s c r i b e d Date 9.16.17.6.12 154 F i g u r e 36. P a s a d i t a D e d i c a t i o n c.9.16.15.0.0 a. L i n t e l 1: I n s c r i b e d Date 9.16.8.3.18 b. L i n t e l 2: I n s c r i b e d Date 9.16.15.0.0 155 F i g u r e 37. Ornamental F l a p s t a f f s : a. Machaquila S t e l a 2, 9.18.10.0.0 b. Copan S t e l a H, 9.15. 0.0.0 c. Dos P i l a s S t e l a 1, 9.13.15.0.0 d. Dos P i l a s S t e l a 17, 9.12.10.0.0 S t r u c t u r e 44 Step IV: A-6b to A-7b carved c. 9.15.1.0.0 S t r u c t u r e 44 Step V: C - l a to D-2b carved c. 9.15.1.0.0 S t r u c t u r e 44 Step V: P - l to Q-2 carved c. 9.15.1.0.0 S t r u c t u r e 33 Step V I I I : G-2 to G-4 carved c. 9.16.6.0.0 S t r u c t u r e 20 S t e l a 6: C-7 to C-10 carvd c. 9.16.5.0.0 S t r u c t u r e 20 S t e l a 3: C-4 to C-7 carved c. 9.17.0.0.0 Fi g u r e 38. Nominal Glyphs f o r "Bird/Bundle" Jaguar I I I . 157 F i g u r e 39. T i k a l S t e l a 22: I n s c r i b e d Date 9.17.0 .0.0 158 F i g u r e 40. T i k a l Temple IV: L i n t e l 3 I n s c r i b e d Date: 9.15.10.0.0 159 * i « • i » F i g u r e 41. Aguateca S t e l a 2: D e d i c a t i o n Date c. 9.15.5.0.0 160 F i g u r e 42. T i k a l B u r i a l 116: Ceramic D e p i c t i n g S a c r i f i c i a l R i t u a l . F i g u r e 43. S i t e Q P a i r e d S t e l a e : D e d i c a t i o n c.9.13.0.0.0 a . S t e l a II b . S t e l a I F i g u r e 44. Palenque Cross Group Panels: a.Panel of the Sun b.Panel of the Cross c.Panel of the F o l i a t e d Cross D e d i c a t i o n Date c. 9.13.0.0.0 163 On 9 A k b a l 6 X u l (9.10.8.9.3) he h e l d the o b s i d i a n m i r r o r / c e l t ? . ( t h e n ) , 5 days l a t e r ( 9.10.8.9.8), he entered/became as (och t e ) •the Sun", (kin kin) Chan Bahlum bac le bahlam ahau; t i t l e ? by the d o i n g o f / a g e n c y o f GI, the B a r b e l God ( p a t r o n of r u l e r s h i p ) F i g u r e 45. Palenque P a n e l of t h e Sun: P-6 t o Q-10, Record of Chan Bahlum's H e i r D e s i g n a t i o n . 165 F i g u r e 47. Palenque Dumbarton Oaks T a b l e t : D e d i c a t i o n c.9.14.15.0.0 166 F i g u r e 48. Palenque T a b l e t of Temple XIV D e d i c a t i o n c.9.13.15.0.0 167 F i g u r e 49. Machaquila S t e l a 11: I n s c r i b e d Date 9.15.10.0.0 3 168 CM 4) ID 4J f-l C • ~H H •J H * cn n iTJ • M U CP 4) C Z O ro 10 M U CL a o m s IT 

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