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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Character response to conflict between the individual and society in a selection of novels by Theodor.. Emmal, Marline 1986

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CHARACTER RESPONSE TO CONFLICT BETWEEN THE INDIVIDUAL SOCIETY IN A SELECTION OF NOVELS BY THEODOR FONTANE By MARLINE EMMAL B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1975 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Germanic Studi e s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming ( to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH October 1986 Ma r l i n e Emmal, COLUMBIA 1986 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of GERMANIC S T U D I E S The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October 1, 1986. i i ABSTRACT The aim of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to examine how Theodor Fontane (1819-1898) p o r t r a y s c h a r a c t e r response to c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y i n a s e l e c t i o n of f i v e novels s e t i n B e r l i n d u r i n g the 1870's and 1880's - namely, L ' A d u l t e r a (1882); C e c i l e (1887); Irrungen, Wirrungen (1888); S t i n e (1890); and E f f i B r i e s t (1895) . I t i s hypothesized t h a t c h a r a c t e r response t o the fundamental c o n f l i c t i s d e p i c t e d as a f u n c t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y . Moreover, three d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y types may be observed, each of which i s a s s o c i a t e d with a d i f f e r e n t manner of response t o s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s of c o n f l i c t between p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n . The Conformist type i s a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n outlook, c o n s e r v a t i v e , t r a d i t i o n a l , p r i n c i p l e d , i n t o l e r a n t of unconventional behaviour, f e a r f u l of r i d i c u l e , proud, c o m p e t i t i v e , d i s c i p l i n e d , i n h i b i t e d i n emotional and i n s t i n c t u a l e x p r e s s i o n . In s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t , the Conformist adheres to s o c i a l norms i n the b e l i e f t h a t they r e p r e s e n t the " r i g h t " v a l u e s . The Compromiser type i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by melancholy, c y n i c i s m , f a t a l i s m , p a s s i v i t y , i d e a l i s m , s e l f - e f f a c i n g tendencies, emotionalism, i m a g i n a t i o n , r e s t l e s s n e s s , expediency and fondness f o r unconventional a c t i v i t i e s . In s i t u a t i o n s of c o n f l i c t , the Compromiser - whose values are at odds with s o c i a l p r e s c r i p t s - responds e i t h e r with r e s e n t f u l d e f i a n c e of s o c i a l norms, or with r e s i g n e d submissiveness to them. The Courageous type i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by honesty, i n t e g r i t y , t o l e r a n c e , c o - o p e r a t i v e n e s s , s e l f - r e l i a n c e , c o n f i d e n c e , c r e a t i v i t y and optimism. In i n s t a n c e s of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t , t h i s type d i s p l a y s the courage to express p e r s o n a l values and to pursue i n d i v i d u a l goals i n a r e s p o n s i b l e manner d e s p i t e o p p o s i t i o n from s o c i e t y . While Fontane d i d not c o n s c i o u s l y c r e a t e h i s c h a r a c t e r s a c c o r d i n g to t h i s typology, t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e t e x t u a l evidence t h a t i t does e x i s t . Awareness of i t c o n t r i b u t e s to our understanding of how the author d e p i c t s h i s c h a r a c t e r s ' response to c o n f l i c t between s e l f and s o c i e t y . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I. The Conformist Type a. P r o f i l e of the c o n f o r m i s t type 15 b. S e l e c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s and the nature of t h e i r c o n f l i c t s 18 c. P h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of the c o n f o r m i s t s 20 d. General f e a t u r e s of the co n f o r m i s t s i ) A u t h o r i t a r i a n f e a t u r e s 32 i i ) The f l i g h t from f e e l i n g 48 i i i ) The problem of p r i d e 61 e. Summary 7 3 I I . The Compromiser Type a. P r o f i l e of the compromiser type 75 b. S e l e c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s and the nature of t h e i r c o n f l i c t s 78 c. P h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of the compromisers i ) The motif of d i s f i g u r e m e n t 80 i i ) R e t r e a t i n t o i l l n e s s and i n v a l i d i s m 84 d. General f e a t u r e s of the compromisers i ) R e b e l l i o n and d i s t r a c t i o n 107 i i ) - R e s i g n a t i o n and d e s p a i r 127 e. Summary 190 I I I . The Courageous Type a. P r o f i l e of the courageous type 193 b. S e l e c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s and the nature of t h e i r c o n f l i c t s 195 c. General f e a t u r e s of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s . . . 196 d. Summary 228- Con e l u s i o n 230 Notes 234 B i b l i o g r a p h y 249 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n I n t h i s t h e s i s , I am c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x a m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y as i t i s e x h i b i t e d by c h a r a c t e r s i n a s e l e c t i o n o f T h e o d o r F o n t a n e ' s n o v e l s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s one o f i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t , f o r t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r e n o t a l w a y s c o n g r u o u s w i t h t h e g o a l s o f s o c i e t y . I t i s my c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c h a r a c t e r r e s p o n s e t o c o n f l i c t between s e l f and s o c i e t y i s a f u n c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e , r a t h e r t h a n o f s u c h f a c t o r s as s o c i a l c l a s s o r g e n d e r . F u r t h e r , I b e l i e v e t h a t t h r e e s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s - e a c h o f w h i c h i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r manner o f r e s p o n s e t o t h e c o n f l i c t - may be o b s e r v e d . An e x p l a n a t i o n o f how I came t o t h i s c o n c l u s i o n and o f how I a r r i v e d a t t h e t y p o l o g y f o l l o w s . The p r o s e works by F o n t a n e (1819-1898) w i t h w h i c h I f i r s t became a c q u a i n t e d were t h e a u t h o r ' s two most w i d e l y a c c l a i m e d n o v e l s , E f f i B r i e s t and I r r u n g e n , W i r r u n g e n . I s u b s e q u e n t l y r e a d t h e r e m a i n i n g n o v e l s w h i c h a r e s e t i n c o n t e m p o r a r y B e r l i n and a r e known as t h e " B e r l i n - c y c l e . " A f t e r r e a d i n g t h e s e works, I c o u l d see t h a t t h e n o v e l i s t ' s p r i n c i p a l c o n c e r n r e v o l v e d a r o u n d c o n f l i c t between t h e 2 i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . Moreover, I was s t r u c k by the number of s i m i l a r i t i e s shared by so many of Fontane's c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a i t s . On the one hand, there were s e v e r a l f i g u r e s which were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by c o n s e r v a t i v e behaviour and t r a d i t i o n a l views. By c o n t r a s t , there were numerous other c h a r a c t e r s who cou l d be designated as r e b e l s . They a l s o r e v e a l e d a profound sense of r e s i g n a t i o n toward the fundamental c o n f l i c t . A few c h a r a c t e r s - whom I i n i t i a l l y thought of simply as m i s f i t s - d i d not belong to e i t h e r of the two previous groups f o r although they were c l e a r l y u nconventional, they d i d not d i s p l a y the r e s i g n a t i o n so prominent among the r e b e l l i o u s c h a r a c t e r s . With a view to b r i n g i n g my i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t o sharper f o c u s , I compiled as much i n f o r m a t i o n on each c h a r a c t e r as i t was p o s s i b l e to glean from the t e x t s . Aspects concerning the in s t a n c e of c o n f l i c t , the c h a r a c t e r ' s response to the c o n f l i c t , the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of the c h a r a c t e r , and other f a c e t s such as age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , occupation, s o c i a l c l a s s , r e l i g i o n and p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s were recorded. Some c h a r a c t e r s were c l e a r l y not i n v o l v e d i n any s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e of the c o n f l i c t i n quest i o n and they were, t h e r e f o r e , excluded from the enquiry. A n a l y s i s of the remaining c h a r a c t e r s r e v e a l e d that there were - as my o r i g i n a l impressions suggested - three d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y types i n t o which the f i g u r e s c o u l d be grouped. Moreover, 3 each type e x e m p l i f i e d a s i m i l a r response to i n s t a n c e s of the fundamental c o n f l i c t . P e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s of each of these three types are presented at the o u t s e t of the chapter which dea l s with that type. They are too lengthy to be i n c l u d e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n . Each p r o f i l e i s immediately followed with a l i s t i d e n t i f y i n g the c h a r a c t e r s who belong to the type. A b r i e f statement concerning the nature of each c h a r a c t e r ' s c o n f l i c t i s a l s o i n c l u d e d before embarking upon the d e t a i l e d documentation and a c t u a l argumentation of the h y p o t h e s i s . At t h i s p o i n t , however, as p a r t of my account of how I a r r i v e d at the typology, I would l i k e to e x p l a i n how the three terms which I use to designate the types were decided upon. The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r type which w i l l be examined I have termed c o n f o r m i s t . The c o n f o r m i s t i s so-named because c h a r a c t e r s belonging to t h i s group adopt the values of t h e i r s o c i e t y and c o n s i s t e n t l y a c t i n accordance with i t s e x p e c t a t i o n s . In s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s of c o n f l i c t between p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n and the demands of s o c i e t y , the c o n f o r m i s t adheres to s o c i a l norms i n the b e l i e f t h a t they r e p r e s e n t the " r i g h t " v a l u e s . The second c h a r a c t e r type to be d i s c u s s e d I have termed compromiser. I t i s so-named because the c h a r a c t e r s which belong to t h i s group f e e l t h a t s i n c e t h e i r values are at odds with s o c i a l p r e s c r i p t s , they must make concessions to s o c i e t y , must r e l u c t a n t l y s a c r i f i c e 4 t h e i r own d e s i r e s and must surrender hope of r e a l i z i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l g o a l s . In s i t u a t i o n s of c o n f l i c t , the compromiser responds e i t h e r with r e s e n t f u l d e f i a n c e of s o c i a l norms, or with r e s i g n e d submissiveness to them. Both responses p l a c e c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s type i n a p o s i t i o n i n which t h e i r best i n t e r e s t s are j e o p a r d i z e d and are thus i n s t a n c e s of compromise i n that sense, too. For i f the compromiser responds with d e f i a n c e , he or she provokes punishment by s o c i e t y . Unnecessary surrender to the w i l l of others i s , of course, e q u a l l y s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e . The t h i r d group of c h a r a c t e r s I have designated as the courageous type because i t s members d i s p l a y the courage to express t h e i r p e r s o n a l values and to pursue t h e i r goals as i n d i v i d u a l s i n a r e s p o n s i b l e manner d e s p i t e o p p o s i t i o n from s o c i e t y . In episodes of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t , t h i s type decides upon a course of a c t i o n which i s compatible with t h e i r p e r s o n a l values and d e s i r e s , yet does not unduly i n f r i n g e upon the l e g i t i m a t e r i g h t s of others i n s o c i e t y . The courage of the courageous type i s , e s s e n t i a l l y , the courage to be one's tr u e s e l f . The purpose of conducting t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to r e v e a l t h at c h a r a c t e r response to the c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y may be understood as a f u n c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y type. By c o n t r a s t , the tendency of p r e v i o u s Fontane s c h o l a r s h i p has been to e x p l a i n c h a r a c t e r 5 response to such c o n f l i c t in terms of the characters' s o c i a l class."*" It w i l l be demonstrated, however, that characters of di f f e r e n t s o c i a l classes share s i g n i f i c a n t personality t r a i t s , as well as a similar attitude toward c o n f l i c t between s e l f and society. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , gender has been posited as the determining factor in character response to 2 the basic c o n f l i c t . This point of view has been associated with an assumption - which the current study also seeks to refute - that the problems of the male characters cannot be regarded and treated in the same ways as those of the female 3 characters. In th i s analysis, the characters under discussion belong in the main to the lower aristocracy and the affluent upper-middle classes, since Fontane depicted the majority of his characters as belonging to these classes. A special e f f o r t has been made, however, to include as many working class characters as possible, along with approximately the same number of males and females to provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that the characters' responses to the basic c o n f l i c t are not a function of s o c i a l class or gender. Five novels which belong to Fontane's Berlin-cycle were eventually selected for this study. They consist of the following: L'Adultera (1882); Cecile (1887); Irrungen, Wirrunqen (1888); Stine (1890); and E f f i B riest (1895). These choices were based upon a number of reasons. F i r s t l y , 6 I decided that works i n which the author set h i s n a r r a t i v e i n a p l a c e and/or time other than t h a t of B e r l i n d u r i n g the 1870's and 1880's should be excluded. T h i s was done i n order to maintain the same s o c i a l m i l i e u i n which the d i f f e r e n t responses of the c h a r a c t e r s to the b a s i c c o n f l i c t c ould not merely be a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i r d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s e t t i n g - as c o u l d be the case, f o r example, with Fontane's h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l s . Thus such novels as Schach von Wuthenow (1882) set i n the year 1806, Graf Petofy (1884) with i t s Austro-Hungarian s e t t i n g , or U n w i e d e r b r i n g l i c h (1891) which concerns i t s e l f with the Danish a r i s t o c r a c y , are - given the need to r e t a i n u n i t y of s o c i a l m i l i e u - not s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e n q u i r y . Secondly, a f t e r s tudying those novels by Fontane which do r e t a i n u n i t y of m i l i e u i n s o f a r as they are a l l set i n contemporary B e r l i n , i t became apparent that a few of them would a l s o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e s . One u n s u i t a b l e work which has been excluded i s Der S t e c h l i n (1898), d e s c r i b e d by Garland as d e a l i n g "with the r e a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s to i d e a s . T h i s novel does not exemplify c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . In f a c t , the author admitted t h a t he was not concerned with c o n f l i c t of any k i n d i n Der S t e c h l i n : "Von Verwicklungen und Losungen, von H e r z e n s k o n f l i k t e n oder K o n f l i k t e n iiberhaupt, von Spannungen und Uberraschungen f i n d e t 5 s i c h n i c h t s . " S i m i l a r l y , Die Poggenpuhls (1896) i s another 7 work in which there are no instances of the type of c o n f l i c t between s e l f and society which i s under consideration in thi s thesis. As Fontane himself assessed Die Poqqenpuhls; "Das Buch i s t kein Roman und hat keinen Inhalt....das 'Wie' muss fur das 'Was1 eintreten." The t h i r d and f i n a l work belonging to the Berlin-cycle which was excluded from this enquiry i s Frau Jenny Tre i b e l (1892), which Fontane termed 7 "eine humoristische Verhohnung unserer Bourgeoisie." In this novel, we do see one character (Corinna) who experiences an instance of the basic c o n f l i c t which takes the form of a desire to marry a man of a higher socio-economic standing than her own. This situation of c o n f l i c t is commonly encountered in Fontane's novels and a number of equally good, i f not actually superior, examples of i t are found in the other f i v e novels selected for this study. Since Frau Jenny Tre i b e l offers only one character for discussion the nature of whose c o n f l i c t i s not of any special interest, the novel does not warrant inclusion in this study. Moreover, Fontane's own statement of his aim in the novel makes i t clear that his p r i n c i p a l concern was not c o n f l i c t between the in d i v i d u a l and society, but s a t i r e : "Zweck der Geschichte: das Hohle, Phrasenhaf te, Liignerische, Hochmiitige, Hartherzige des Bourgeoisstandpunkts zu zeigen, der von Q S c h i l l e r spricht und Gerson meint." Lest the reader conclude that the fi v e novels were 8 chosen simply by a process of e l i m i n a t i o n , i t should be p o i n t e d out that they o f f e r more than the necessary u n i t y of m i l i e u and c h a r a c t e r s who encounter i n s t a n c e s of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t . They are p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e because they present i n combination a good v a r i e t y of c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s f o r a n a l y s i s . Likewise, the range of c h a r a c t e r response to the fundamental c o n f l i c t i s broadened by i n c l u d i n g works f r e q u e n t l y n e g l e c t e d by c r i t i c s such as S t i n e and C e c i l e , i n which both male and female c h a r a c t e r s adopt a l i f e s t y l e of i n v a l i d i s m and e v e n t u a l l y commit s u i c i d e i n response to the c o n f l i c t . Another work, L ' A d u l t e r a , c o n t r i b u t e s two of the four c h a r a c t e r s who i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i v e l y r a r e courageous mode of response. In t o t a l , the f i v e novels s e l e c t e d f u r n i s h a s u f f i c i e n t number of a p p r o p r i a t e c h a r a c t e r s to i l l u s t r a t e the hypothesis without spreading the a n a l y s i s too t h i n l y . C o n c e n t r a t i o n upon the c h a r a c t e r s i n these novels p r o v i d e s an optimum treatment of the t o p i c . N a t u r a l l y , the o b s e r v a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s which t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n y i e l d s are not n e c e s s a r i l y a p p l i c a b l e to c h a r a c t e r s i n Fontane's other n o v e l s . The method which I have employed to present my argumentation of the hypothesis warrants some e x p l a n a t i o n at t h i s p o i n t . The body of the enquiry i s organized i n t o three chapters with each of these chapters f o c u s s i n g i n turn upon one of the c h a r a c t e r types. Having a l r e a d y i n t h i s 9 i n t r o d u c t i o n d e f i n e d the sense i n which I use the terms co n f o r m i s t , compromiser and courageous, each chapter i s organized a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g scheme: composite p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e of the given type; s e l e c t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s ; e l u c i d a t i o n of t h e i r i n s t a n c e s of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t ; main body of d i s c u s s i o n ; summary of the most p e r t i n e n t p o i n t s . In the main body of the d i s c u s s i o n , the reader i s presented with the argumentation of the hypothesis which i s e s s e n t i a l l y twofold - namely, t h a t s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r s r e v e a l a number of s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s d e s c r i b e d i n the type p r o f i l e , and that these same c h a r a c t e r s a l s o d i s p l a y a tendency to respond to i n s t a n c e s of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t i n the same manner. I have chosen to devote the bulk of the argumentation to the former aspect of the hypothesis f o r two reasons. F i r s t l y , s i n c e I maintain that a c h a r a c t e r ' s response to the c o n f l i c t i s a f u n c t i o n of h i s or her p e r s o n a l i t y , i t i s of c h i e f importance t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of the p e r s o n a l i t y type be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i f any f u r t h e r c o n c l u s i o n s are to be drawn. Secondly, s i n c e the a s s e r t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s share numerous f e a t u r e s with the b a s i c type r e q u i r e s a good d e a l of documentation with i n t e r n a l evidence from the t e x t s , i t was v i r t u a l l y i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h i s aspect of the enquiry would dominate. By c o n t r a s t , the a c t u a l episodes of c o n f l i c t are 10 e a s i l y e s t a b l i s h e d as are the c h a r a c t e r s ' responses to them. Any reader, f o r example, who i s acquainted with so much as a p l o t summary of E f f i B r i e s t knows that the heroine's c o n f l i c t concerns the temptation to commit a d u l t e r y , and t h a t her response to t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s d e f i a n c e of s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s . Rather than d i s c u s s the c h a r a c t e r s ' responses to the episodes of c o n f l i c t i n i s o l a t i o n a f t e r having d e l i n e a t e d the p e r s o n a l i t y types, however, I decided that s i n c e the two aspects of the hypothesis are so i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d , i t would be more a p p r o p r i a t e to embed the r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f e r d i s c u s s i o n s of c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the l a r g e r matrix of the d i s c o u r s e on p e r s o n a l i t y . In Chapters One and Two, I commence the main d i s c u s s i o n of the c h a r a c t e r types with an overview of the p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s which emerged from my i n v e s t i g a t i o n as being a s s o c i a t e d with them. I then proceed to d i s c u s s the v a r i o u s aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y . In Chapter Three, I depart from t h i s format s i n c e only a few p o i n t s can be made r e g a r d i n g the p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s of the courageous type and they do not warrant devoting a separate s e c t i o n to them. With res p e c t to the a c t u a l a n a l y s i s of c h a r a c t e r s as types, i t i s t r u e that any attempt to e s t a b l i s h a typology of c h a r a c t e r e n t a i l s a r i s k of o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n through reducing i n d i v i d u a l i z e d f i g u r e s to types. T h i s danger has been minimized by d i s c u s s i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of 11 f e a t u r e s shared by each type, which - even i n the absence of those a t t r i b u t e s p e c u l i a r to a s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r - present a f a i r l y complex p o r t r a i t . Admittedly, major c h a r a c t e r s are drawn i n more d e t a i l and n a t u r a l l y r e v e a l more dimensions of a g i v e n response type than do secondary c h a r a c t e r s . The l a t t e r are, however, no l e s s worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n than the former and, i n f a c t , o f t e n provide important p a r a l l e l s to the c o n f l i c t s of the main f i g u r e s . Moreover, d i s c u s s i o n of the secondary c h a r a c t e r s c o n t r i b u t e s to the o r i g i n a l i t y of t h i s study, s i n c e most c r i t i c s have tended to focus on the same few major f i g u r e s . I t c e r t a i n l y cannot be denied t h a t Fontane's c h a r a c t e r s are c o n v i n c i n g l y p o r t r a y e d as i n d i v i d u a l s . Yet, i t was beyond the scope of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n to examine those f e a t u r e s which are unique to each c h a r a c t e r . The typology possesses a c e r t a i n u t i l i t y , however, i n that i t e s t a b l i s h e s a framework which f a c i l i t a t e s comparisons and c o n t r a s t s t h a t would not a r i s e as r e a d i l y i f c h a r a c t e r s were s t u d i e d s i n g l y . One other aspect i n connection with the typology i t s e l f r e q u i r e s some c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The three hypothesized types are mutually e x c l u s i v e i n the sense that each one c o n s i s t s of a d i s t i n c t p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e which i s a s s o c i a t e d with a p a r t i c u l a r manner of response to the b a s i c c o n f l i c t and which cannot be confused with e i t h e r of the other two types. The m a j o r i t y of c h a r a c t e r s s e l e c t e d f o r 12 t h i s e n q u i r y can be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d as exponents of one type, f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s remain s t a t i c and so does t h e i r manner of response to the c o n f l i c t . A few c h a r a c t e r s , however, undergo a process of maturation or s i g n i f i c a n t development of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g , given that some of the novels span s e v e r a l years i n time. A corresponding change i n the response to c o n f l i c t accompanies t h i s e v o l u t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y - a f a c t o r which lends f u r t h e r credence to the h y p o t h e s i s . One example of t h i s phenomenon i s provided by I n n s t e t t e n i n E f f i B r i e s t , who - f o r most of what we see of him - i s c l e a r l y a c o n f o r m i s t type. Our l a s t glimpses of t h i s c h a r a c t e r , however, r e v e a l a f i g u r e who has become r e s i g n e d , m e l a n c h o l i c , c y n i c a l and s c e p t i c a l of s o c i e t y ' s values which he once b e l i e v e d i n . In s h o r t , I n n s t e t t e n comes to bear many of the f e a t u r e s t y p i c a l of a compromiser. A second example of a c h a r a c t e r who undergoes a t r a n s i t i o n from one type to another i s Melanie. When L' A d u l t e r a opens, she r e v e a l s the t r a i t s of r e s t l e s s n e s s , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and disappointment a s s o c i a t e d with the compromiser type. T h i s c h a r a c t e r very soon embarks upon a journey of p e r s o n a l growth dur i n g which she d i s p l a y s the v a r i o u s hallmarks of a courageous type. A few t r a n s i t i o n s l i k e these from one type to another do not undermine the hypothesis that d i s t i n c t modes of response to the c o n f l i c t which are a s s o c i a t e d with a 13 p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y type do e x i s t . On the c o n t r a r y , such t r a n s i t i o n s r e f l e c t the r e a l i s m of Fontane's c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a i t s by i l l u s t r a t i n g that growth and change are p o s s i b l e . Moreover, the c h a r a c t e r s who do f i t more than one type do so i n s u c c e s s i o n , not s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The t r a n s i t i o n s are a l s o l o g i c a l i n that we might w e l l expect a c o n f o r m i s t to e v e n t u a l l y become d i s i l l u s i o n e d with s o c i e t y ' s values and adopt the c y n i c a l pose of a compromiser. S i m i l a r l y , a compromiser could c o n c e i v a b l y summon the w i l l to overcome the i n e r t i a of r e s i g n a t i o n and pursue a new d i r e c t i o n . The few t r a n s i t i o n s which occur do so only i n the two d i r e c t i o n s j u s t d e s c r i b e d . No c h a r a c t e r , f o r example, changes from a c o n f o r m i s t to a courageous type, or from a courageous type to a compromiser. A l s o , no c h a r a c t e r d i s p l a y s the t r a i t s of a l l three types. I t must be conceded that any c r i t i c a l approach possesses in h e r e n t strengths and weaknesses. There i s , however, no d e f i n i t i v e method of l i t e r a r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to us. In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I have r e l i e d p r i m a r i l y upon i n t e r n a l evidence c i t e d from the t e x t s as the best means to support my h y p o t h e s i s . Yet, the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of previous s c h o l a r s h i p have c e r t a i n l y been taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n as much as p o s s i b l e and I have shown where I agree, or d i s a g r e e , with p e r t i n e n t views expressed by a number of c r i t i c s with d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t s of view. 14 I t i s not the c o n t e n t i o n of t h i s study t h a t Fontane ever c o n s c i o u s l y proceeded to c r e a t e h i s c h a r a c t e r s according to the typology presented i n t h i s t h e s i s , or to any other formula. There i s t e x t u a l evidence, however, that the author p e r c e i v e d three d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s which may be adopted by i n d i v i d u a l s toward other members of t h e i r s o c i a l group. These are i d e n t i f i e d by the c h a r a c t e r Hofprediger D o r f f e l as "'Hochmut,'" "'Demut,'" and "'Mut.'" 9 Such a t t i t u d e s of p r i d e , h u m i l i t y and courage can, i n t e r e s t i n g l y , be d i s c e r n e d i n the c o n f o r m i s t , compromiser and courageous types, r e s p e c t i v e l y . U l t i m a t e l y , the o n l y a b s o l u t e "proof" of my hypothesis would be a q u o t a t i o n from Fontane's correspondence a t t e s t i n g to the e x i s t e n c e of the three c h a r a c t e r types which I d e s c r i b e . In l i e u of such testimony, my aim can be at most to o f f e r a reasonably p e r s u a s i v e argument i n support of my t h e s i s . 15 I. The Conformist Type "' ...im Zusammenleben mit den Menschen hat s i c h e i n Etwas a u s g e b i l d e t , das nun mal da i s t und nach dessen Paragraphen wir uns gewohnt haben, a l l e s zu b e u r t e i l e n , d i e andern und uns s e l b s t ' " ( I V , 2 3 6 ) . - I n n s t e t t e n a. P r o f i l e of the conf o r m i s t type We commence our d i s c u s s i o n with a b a s i c p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e of the conformist c h a r a c t e r type. I n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s type can be i d e n t i f i e d by a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s which they share with the f o l l o w i n g b a s i c p r o f i l e . The hallmark of the conf o r m i s t type i s an e s s e n t i a l l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n nature. By t h i s we mean t h a t such a c h a r a c t e r accepts without question the values and e x p e c t a t i o n s of the s o c i e t y i n which he or she i s d e p i c t e d . In the novels by Fontane under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h a t s o c i e t y i s Imperial B e r l i n of the 1870"s and 1880's. Regarding s o c i e t y as the u l t i m a t e a r b i t e r of a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour and goals f o r i t s members, the c o n f o r m i s t type adheres s t r i c t l y to p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l 16 norms of conduct. These tend, of course, to be c o n s e r v a t i v e and t r a d i t i o n a l . P r i n c i p l e d to a f a u l t , t here i s an i n c l i n a t i o n with t h i s type toward r i g i d p e r c e p t i o n s of r i g h t and wrong. L i t t l e t o l e r a n c e f o r unconventional behaviour i s d i s c e r n i b l e and c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e j u d i c e against those who e x h i b i t i n d i v i d u a l l i f e s t y l e s i s apparent. F e a r f u l of r i d i c u l e , the conformist sees o n l y one a c c e p t a b l e o p t i o n i n l i f e - namely, to abide by s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s . Another important f e a t u r e of the c o n f o r m i s t type i s a negative form of p r i d e i n which there i s a d e s i r e to e l e v a t e the s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to o t h e r s . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n a number of ways. A c o n f o r m i s t b e l i e v e s , f o r example, t h a t by l i v i n g a c c o r d i n g to c o n v e n t i o n a l standards, he or she w i l l not o n l y a v o i d d i s a p p r o v a l , but w i l l win the approval and even the admiration of o t h e r s . Such pr e o c c u p a t i o n with r e p u t a t i o n , or how one i s viewed by o t h e r s , i s accompanied by i n t e n s e s t r i v i n g to enhance s o c i a l p r e s t i g e . The male conformist type i s an ambitious c a r e e r i s t , while the female c o u n t e r p a r t i s an e q u a l l y s t a t u s conscious s o c i a l c l i m b e r . Moreover, t h i s c h a r a c t e r type d i s p l a y s a c e r t a i n arrogance, or a i r of s u p e r i o r i t y , o f t e n r e v e a l e d through a p a t r o n i z i n g and domineering a t t i t u d e toward those who are considered to be i n f e r i o r . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the c o n f o r m i s t tends to be m a n i p u l a t i v e and c o m p e t i t i v e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , although t h i s i n c l i n a t i o n i s 17 l a r g e l y concealed behind a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e r o l e or p o l i s h e d fagade. A l s o t y p i c a l of the conformist i s a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l can and ought to c o n t r o l every aspect of d a i l y l i f e . A c t i v e and g o a l - o r i e n t e d , the c o n f o r m i s t i s d i s c i p l i n e d , c a u t i o u s , concerned with order and r o u t i n e s . T h i s type experiences d i f f i c u l t y i n coping with the u n p r e d i c t a b l e as w e l l as with the u n c o n t r o l l a b l e . Emotional and i n s t i n c t u a l e x p r e s s i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , i n h i b i t e d . And r e l i a n c e upon reason supplants c r e a t i v e imagination i n t h i s type. Despite the advantages of p o s s e s s i n g youth, good h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , the c o n f o r m i s t remains inwardly unfree - t h a t i s , he or she remains unable to develop a p e r s o n a l s e t of values d i s t i n c t from those of s o c i e t y . In response to what one c r i t i c has d e f i n e d as "the problem of s o c i a l order, of the demands of s o c i e t y as opposed to the d e s i r e s of the i n d i v i d u a l , " ^ the c o n f o r m i s t i s r e l u c t a n t to acknowledge that any such c o n f l i c t e x i s t s . When faced with a s i t u a t i o n i n which a c o n f l i c t of t h i s nature cannot be ignored, the customary response of t h i s c h a r a c t e r type i s to uphold s o c i e t y ' s p r e s c r i p t s i n the b e l i e f t h a t they are the only a c c e p t a b l e v a l u e s . 18 b. S e l e c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s and the nature of t h e i r c o n f l i c t s The s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r s s e l e c t e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s chapter as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the c o n f o r m i s t type i n c l u d e : Baron von I n n s t e t t e n , Annie von I n n s t e t t e n and the housemaid, Johanna, from E f f i B r i e s t ; Major G r y c z i n s k i , h i s w i f e , Jacobine and L y d i a van der S t r a a t e n from L ' A d u l t e r a ; S t i n e Rehbein from S t i n e ; and Kathe von Rienacker (nee S e l l e n t h i n ) from Irrungen, Wirrungen. In the novel C e c i l e , o n l y the t h r e e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s are p o r t r a y e d i n s i t u a t i o n s of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t and each of those three i s a compromiser type. Among the e i g h t c h a r a c t e r s j u s t mentioned, we encounter a v a r i e t y of contexts i n which the c o n f l i c t between s e l f and s o c i e t y i s r e v e a l e d . A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the circumstances of c o n f l i c t i n which Fontane d e p i c t s each c h a r a c t e r w i l l be o f f e r e d at t h i s p o i n t i n order to j u s t i f y the c hoice of f i g u r e s as ones who do, i n f a c t , experience the b a s i c c o n f l i c t . D e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s and of t h e i r responses to them i s undertaken i n the main body of the chapter. I n n s t e t t e n ' s c o n f l i c t a r i s e s out of h i s d i s c o v e r y of h i s w i f e ' s former l i a i s o n with another a r i s t o c r a t and f e l l o w o f f i c e r , Crampas. He i s faced with a d e c i s i o n between r e s t o r i n g h i s blemished honour through the custom of 19 c h a l l e n g i n g Crampas to a duel o r , on the other hand, f o r g i v i n g h i s wife's i n d i s c r e t i o n - an a l t e r n a t i v e toward which he expresses a p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n . Johanna's c o n f l i c t between p e r s o n a l d e s i r e and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n c e n t e r s upon the romantic a t t r a c t i o n which she f e e l s toward her master and s o c i a l s u p e r i o r , I n n s t e t t e n . Once the l a t t e r i s married, of course, her a s p i r a t i o n s are even more s o c i a l l y unacceptable. G r y c z i n s k i i s a f i g u r e who, i n the p a s t , was faced with a c h o i c e between r e t a i n i n g h i s C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n , or r e l i n q u i s h i n g i t i n order to f u r t h e r h i s c a r e e r i n P r o t e s t a n t P r u s s i a . A l s o , G r y c z i n s k i i s cognizant of another p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t impending between s a c r i f i c i n g h i s e s t a b l i s h e d m i l i t a r y c a r e e r or h i s w i f e , i f she should commit a d u l t e r y . Jacobine i s an a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r who i s confronted with two separate episodes of the fundamental c o n f l i c t . On the one hand, she must decide whether to maintain her r e l a t i o n s h i p with her s i s t e r , Melanie - who has become an a d u l t e r e s s and d i v o r c e e - o r , to comply with s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n and her husband's d i r e c t i v e by shunning her. Secondly, Jacobine h e r s e l f experiences the temptation of i n f i d e l i t y . S t i n e ' s i n s t a n c e of c o n f l i c t - namely, her romantic attachment to a man of a much higher s o c i a l c l a s s than her 20 own - i s complicated by a vow she made to her deceased mother that she would avoid r e l a t i o n s h i p s with men a l t o g e t h e r . L a s t l y , Kathe's a l b e i t o n l y a l l e g e d episode of c o n f l i c t i s one shared with Jacobine and numerous other c h a r a c t e r s i n Fontane's novels - the l u r e of a d u l t e r y . And the c o n f l i c t s of both Annie and L y d i a concern the problem of t h e i r mothers' a d u l t e r y , which p l a c e s these g i r l s i n a p o s i t i o n of being expected to r e j e c t them. c. P h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of the c o n f o r m i s t s The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t o b s e r v a t i o n concerning the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c o n f o r m i s t s i s t h a t they are a l l young. The e l d e s t at t h i r t y - e i g h t years, Geert von I n n s t e t t e n , i s not y e t middle-aged when he makes h i s f i r s t appearance i n the novel which i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as Fontane's masterpiece, E f f i B r i e s t . Two a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s work belong to the c o n f o r m i s t type - namely, the s e r v a n t , Johanna, and I n n s t e t t e n ' s daughter, Annie. The former i s d e s c r i b e d as a " n i c h t mehr ganz j u g e n d l i c h e Person"(IV,49). She i s , however, younger than her employer and our l a s t glimpse of Annie i s as a ten year o l d s c h o o l g i r l . Major Otto von G r y c z i n s k i and h i s w i f e , Jacobine - both of whom we meet i n the f i r s t novel of the 21 author's B e r l i n s e r i e s , L ' A d u l t e r a , are young a d u l t s . A t h i r d c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r , L y d i a , who a l s o appears i n t h i s work, i s approximately the same age as Annie. Kathe, the young b r i d e of Botho von Rienacker i n Irrungen, Wirrunqen, as w e l l as S t i n e , the y o u t h f u l heroine of the work which bears her name, may a l s o be counted among the group of c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s . The common f e a t u r e of youth among these c h a r a c t e r s who have not questioned the demands of s o c i e t y , cannot be regarded as p u r e l y a c c i d e n t a l . A reasonable e x p l a n a t i o n would seem to be t h a t they e i t h e r have not yet experienced the disappointment of unmet ex p e c t a t i o n s or, i f they have, as i n the case of I n n s t e t t e n a f t e r h i s p r o p o s a l of marriage to L u i s e i s r e j e c t e d , they continue to f e e l o p t i m i s t i c f o r a while - perhaps because they are s t i l l young enough to b e l i e v e t h a t l i f e w i l l g i v e them a chance to recoup t h e i r l o s s . The b i t t e r n e s s , r e s i g n a t i o n and even d e s p a i r which are t y p i c a l of so many c h a r a c t e r s i n Fontane's works, only r a r e l y manifest themselves i n those who are not yet middle-aged. As long as t h e i r adopted code of values i s not s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d by t h e i r l i f e experience, most of these f i g u r e s continue upon the path of conformity. Another p h y s i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n shared by the c o n f o r m i s t s - with the p o s s i b l e exception of S t i n e - i s t h a t of good h e a l t h . These c h a r a c t e r s are f i t and t r i m , apart 22 from the " s t a t t l i c h e F u l l e " (IV,49) of Johanna, which prov i d e s the only c o n t r a s t . She i s not, however, obese - a f e a t u r e o f t e n encountered among the compromisers. Although I n n s t e t t e n has abandoned h i s c a r e e r as an o f f i c e r f o r t h a t of a c i v i l s e rvant, he remains "schlank...und von m i l i t a r i s c h e r Haltung"(IV,18). We may assume t h a t Major von G r y c z i n s k i i s l i k e w i s e p h y s i c a l l y f i t and of s i m i l a r b e a r i n g . The women of the con f o r m i s t type are po r t r a y e d as very feminine c o u n t e r p a r t s to the very masculine male f i g u r e s . Each has been endowed with at l e a s t one ou t s t a n d i n g p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e . In J a c o b i n e 1 s case, i t i s her strawberry-blond h a i r (11,22), while Kathe i s d e s c r i b e d as a " 1 [ w l u n d e r v o l l e F l a c h s b l o n d i n e mit Vergissmeinnichtaugen'"(II,361). Indeed, blond h a i r i s predominant among women of t h i s category. Johanna, too, has "'schones f l a c h s e n e s Haar'"(IV,250). Even S t i n e possesses h a i r which i s " f l a c h s g e l b " and which " a l s Typus e i n e r germanischen...Blondine g e l t e n konnte"(II,483). Annie, as an exce p t i o n to the r u l e , i s p r e d i c t a b l y d a r k - h a i r e d l i k e both her parents; L y d i a i s a l s o dark. These c h a r a c t e r s are f r e e of any obvious p h y s i c a l blemishes. T h e i r a t t r a c t i v e n e s s helps them to win approval and ensures that they are r e a d i l y accepted i n t o the mainstream of s o c i e t y . Rewarded with a sense of belonging, the c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s are encouraged to remain 23 c o n v e n t i o n a l not only i n appearance, but i n t h e i r behaviour as w e l l . To do otherwise, would c o s t them the esteem of o t h e r s , which they are l o a t h e to surrender. Despite t h i s p o s i t i v e p i c t u r e of the c o n f o r m i s t type, we f i n d numerous i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t , under the s u r f a c e , a l l i s not w e l l . Problems range from a weak c o n s t i t u t i o n , which may predispose the i n d i v i d u a l to a p h y s i c a l breakdown i f unusual s t r e s s i s encountered, to nervousness and other types of p h y s i c a l symptoms a r i s i n g from c h r o n i c u n d e r l y i n g t e n s i o n . S t i n e i s the only c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s category who, while not a c t u a l l y i l l , i s not of robust h e a l t h e i t h e r . A marked c o n t r a s t drawn by the n a r r a t o r between S t i n e and her s i s t e r accentuates our impression of her d e l i c a c y : Auch s i e [ S t i n e ] t r u g einen gewellen S c h e i t e l , aber i h r Haar war f l a c h s g e l b , und d i e Rander der iiberaus f r e u n d l i c h e n Augen z e i g t e n s i c h l e i c h t g e r o t e t , was, a l l e r sonst bliihenden Erscheinung und e i n e r gewissen fthnlichkeit mit der P i t t e l k o w u n e rachtet, doch auf eine z a r t e r e Gesundheit hinzudeuten s c h i e n . Und so war es auch. Die brunette Witwe war das B i l d e i n e r s i i d l i c h e n Schonheit, wahrend d i e jiingere Schwester a l s Typus e i n e r germanischen, wenn auch f r e i l i c h etwas angekrankelten Blondine g e l t e n konnte. (11,483) The n a r r a t o r ' s remark concerning the rims of S t i n e ' s eyes, combined with comments made by the apartment c a r e t a k e r s at the c l o s e of the s t o r y , have l e d M a r t i n i to conclude t h a t the heroine w i l l probably d i e as a r e s u l t of the shock to her system caused by Waldemar' s sudden death."'""'" But as 24 Steinhauer w r i t e s : " . . . t h i s i s by no means c e r t a i n ; i t i s not i n the s p i r i t of Fontane. I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that she w i l l r e c o v e r , c h e r i s h the memory of t h i s romantic 12 e p i s o d e b u t marry a worker or p e t t y shopkeeper...." T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s not, however, adequately supported. I n s o f a r as "the s p i r i t of Fontane" i s concerned, death of even a young heroine i s not unusual i n the author's works, to which the novels E f f i B r i e s t and C e c i l e t e s t i f y . S t i n e i s not r e a l l y very l i k e l y to f o l l o w i n the f o o t s t e p s of Lene - who, as the heroine of Irrungen, Wirrungen, shares a number of other s i m i l a r i t i e s with her - i f only due to a simple l a c k of the r e q u i s i t e p h y s i c a l stamina to do so. In Irrungen, Wirrungen, the l o v e r s both s u r v i v e to go t h e i r separate ways with new p a r t n e r s and to achieve a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n . There i s every l i k e l i h o o d t h a t Fontane intended S t i n e to p o r t r a y the opposite outcome of an e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n - 1 o namely, a t r a g i c c o n c l u s i o n f o r both l o v e r s . J Despite the outward composure of the c o n f o r m i s t s , inwardly they experience a high degree of t e n s i o n , which r e v e a l s i t s e l f through a g i t a t i o n . Two of the women i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b e t ray t h e i r uneasiness through compulsive t a l k i n g . Jacobine and Kathe d i s p l a y what, a c c o r d i n g to the n a r r a t o r i n L ' A d u l t e r a , c o n s t i t u t e s "das t i e f s t e B e d i i r f n i s der Frauennatur: das Plauderbediirf n i s " ( I I , 42 ) . While Fontane 25 does not i n c l u d e these l a d i e s i n much a c t u a l d i a l o g u e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , we are given numerous r e p o r t s from other c h a r a c t e r s , as w e l l as from the n a r r a t o r , which c r e a t e an impression of c o n s i d e r a b l e v e r b o s i t y . I t i s probable t h a t the author d e l i b e r a t e l y employed t h i s i n d i r e c t method of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i n the case of these two f i g u r e s , not merely because they are secondary c h a r a c t e r s , but p r e c i s e l y due to the v a c u i t y of t h e i r speech, which could o n l y have d e t r a c t e d from the novel's impact. Fontane's s u b t l e technique i n t h i s regard i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of Kathe: " E i g e n t l i c h f i i h r t e s i e das Wort, und IT k e i n e r nahm Anstoss daran, w e i l s i e d i e Kunst des g e f a l l i g e n Nichtssagens mit e i n e r wahren M e i s t e r s c h a f t u b t e " ( I I , 4 2 7 ) . The shallow content of these c h a r a c t e r s ' recorded speech, combined with what i s o f t e n i n a p p r o p r i a t e t i m i n g of t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s , i n c l i n e s us to i n t e r p r e t the women's h a b i t as a means of m a i n t a i n i n g emotional detachment. The n a r r a t o r r e i n f o r c e s our impression i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n with h i s account of Jacobine's response to her s i s t e r Melanie's s t r a i n e d reunion with her c h i l d r e n : "...Jacobine versuchte nach i h r e r A r t eine P l a u d e r e i . Denn s i e war ohne jede t i e f e r e Bewegung und b e t r a c h t e t e das Ganze vom Standpunkte e i n e r dramatischen Matinee"(II,125). Jacobine's l a c k of empathy could w e l l i n d i c a t e a s u b s t a n t i a l l o s s of c o n t a c t with her own emotions, which would l o g i c a l l y reduce her c a p a c i t y to 26 respond with s e n s i t i v i t y to those of another. W o l f e l d e s c r i b e s her, f o r i n s t a n c e , as being "von c h a r a k t e r l o s e r F l a c h h e i t , " and as s u f f e r i n g from " S e l b s t e n t f r e m d h e i t . Jacobine's s u p e r f i c i a l i t y i s a l s o encountered i n Kathe and serves to exasperate her husband, Botho: ...wenn inn...von Z e i t zu Z e i t e i n e MiBstimmung anwandelte, so war es, wie schon damals auf s e i n e r Dresdener H o c h z e i t s r e i s e , vorwiegend dariiber, dass mit Kathe wohl e i n l e i d l i c h verniinf t i g e s , aber durchaus k e i n e r n s t e s Wort zu reden war...auch das Beste, was s i e sagte, war o b e r f l a c h l i c h und ' s p i e l r i g , 1 a l s ob s i e der F a h i g k e i t entbehrt h a t t e , zwischen w i c h t i g e n und unwichtigen Dingen zu unt e r s c h e i d e n . (11,418) The problem i s c l e a r l y not a l a c k of i n t e l l i g e n c e , as the fo r e g o i n g q u o t a t i o n concedes, but r a t h e r a r e f u s a l to acknowledge the e x i s t e n c e of sad and s e r i o u s aspects of l i f e . For Kathe, e v e r y t h i n g i s simply "'zu komisch. 1" Another female c o n f o r m i s t , Johanna, uses t a l k i n g not so much to a v o i d negative f e e l i n g s , as to vent them. She accomplishes t h i s aim through g o s s i p . I t i s , f o r example, e v i d e n t i n her chat with Frau Paaschen (IV,72) t h a t Johanna i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more sup p o r t i v e of her master, than of her m i s t r e s s , E f f i . She regards the other household s t a f f members as, f o r one reason or another, u n s u i t a b l e persons with whom to engage i n c o n v e r s a t i o n (IV,73). In f a c t , the r e s t of the s t a f f i s l o y a l to E f f i and would not t o l e r a t e Johanna's s l y innuendos. 27 T h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s g o s s i p , though engaged i n l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , i s j u s t as compulsive as the banter of Jacobine and Kathe, i n s o f a r as a l l of these f i g u r e s appear to be unaware of the reasons m o t i v a t i n g t h e i r a c t i o n s . They seem d r i v e n to repeat the same behaviour without being able to e x e r t any conscious c o n t r o l over i t . In Johanna's case, a p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r her h a b i t of g o s s i p i n g i s t h a t i t may a f f o r d her some r e l i e f from f e e l i n g s of h o s t i l i t y which co u l d stem from f r u s t r a t i o n connected with her s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . Rumoured to be the i l l e g i t i m a t e daughter of an o f f i c e r (IV,127), Johanna has had to content h e r s e l f with a lower s t a t i o n i n l i f e than perhaps her a s p i r a t i o n s would have d i c t a t e d . Through g o s s i p , Johanna can r e l e a s e some of the t e n s i o n stemming from anger over t h i s s i t u a t i o n . In c o n t r a s t to these three women who use t a l k i n g e i t h e r to a v o i d d e a l i n g with, or to vent t h e i r negative f e e l i n g s , S t i n e i s the only c h a r a c t e r among t h i s group who a c t u a l l y employs language f o r i t s intended purpose - communication.''"^ she e s t a b l i s h e s a genuine d i a l o g u e with her s u i t o r , Graf Waldemar von Haldern, which she b e l i e v e s accounts f o r h i s attachment to her (11,519-520). S t i n e ' s s i n c e r e e x p r e s s i o n of her f e e l i n g s has an unexpectedly st r o n g emotional impact upon Waldemar, who has never known anything but the most s u p e r f i c i a l v e r b a l exchanges at h i s l e v e l of s o c i e t y . 28 Whereas the female c o n f o r m i s t s - apart from the two g i r l s - tend to be h i g h l y t a l k a t i v e , the men i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are of the p r o v e r b i a l strong and s i l e n t type. We l e a r n of I n n s t e t t e n , f o r example, that h i s " E r n s t " and "Zugeknopftheit"(IV,130) prevented him, when he was an o f f i c e r , from f i t t i n g i n with h i s more s p i r i t e d comrades. Yet, the n a r r a t o r r e v e a l s of him: "...so niichtern er s c h i e n , e i g e n t l i c h war er nervos..."(IV,103). Major G r y c z i n s k i i s l i k e w i s e " e i n Schweiger," who dons " e i n bestandiges, jeden Sprecher ermutigendes Lacheln, das er, a l l e n u t z l o s e Parteinahme klug vermeidend, iiber Gerechte und Ungerechte g l e i c h m a s s i g scheinen l i e s s " ( I I , 2 3 ) . His p e r p e t u a l g r i n , which might be regarded as a s o r t of nervous t i c , does not i n d i c a t e t h a t the Major i s a happy man. I t does t e s t i f y , however, to a r i g i d c o n t r o l of emotional response, which i s confirmed by a statement from h i s w i f e : " ' G r y c z i n s k i s d r i t t e s Wort i s t j a , dass es im Leben darauf ankomme, s e i n e Gef iihle zu beherrschen '"(11,123). With t h e i r m i l i t a r y background, both I n n s t e t t e n and G r y c z i n s k i have n a t u r a l l y been exposed to the harsh d i s c i p l i n e of army l i f e , but t h i s does not appear to be the only f a c t o r i n v o l v e d , s i n c e Crampas - a former o f f i c e r of I n n s t e t t e n ' s brigade - e x h i b i t s q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t s o r t of emotional c o n s t i t u t i o n to what these two men possess. An a c t u a l f e a r of f e e l i n g s , or perhaps the p o t e n t i a l 29 consequences of expressing them, seems to p l a y a p a r t i n t h e i r marked r e t i c e n c e . The f a c t t h a t t h i s t r a i t i s o l a t e s such c h a r a c t e r s from others i s remarked upon by M a r t i n i : "Der vereinsamte Mensch z i e h t eine Grenze des Schweigens urn s i c h , d i e einen Raum der inneren Selbstbewahrung u m s c h r e i b t . , , x o Anxious to conform to the standards which s o c i e t y p r e s c r i b e s as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r them, I n n s t e t t e n and G r y c z i n s k i shun any d i s p l a y of emotion which might be construed as evidence of weakness or unmanliness. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , both men are e n t h u s i a s t i c Wagnerians. By way of e x p l i c a t i o n , the n a r r a t o r comments upon I n n s t e t t e n ' s case: "...er war e i n Wagnerschwarmer. Was ihn zu diesem h i n i i b e r g e f u h r t h a t t e , war ungewiss; e i n i g e sagten, s e i n e Nerven..."(IV,103). The view has been put f o r t h t h a t music 17 can serve to r e l e a s e blocked energy. Perhaps these two gentlemen - i n s t e a d of v e r b a l i z i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s - 4= . 1 8 experience music as an avenue of emotional e x p r e s s i o n . In a d d i t i o n to i n h i b i t e d emotional e x p r e s s i o n , another source of c h r o n i c t e n s i o n i n the a d u l t c o n f o r m i s t s i s the f r u s t r a t i o n of i n s t i n c t u a l urges. Parmee has commented upon " s u s p i c i o n s aroused i n the reader of sexual inadequacy on 1 9 I n n s t e t t e n ' s p a r t : " J "Urn zehn war I n n s t e t t e n dann abgespannt und e r g i n g s i c h i n e i n paar wohlgemeinten, aber etwas miiden Z a r t l i c h k e i t e n , d i e s i c h E f f i g e f a l l e n l i e s s , ohne s i e r e c h t zu erwidern"(IV,103). What c o u l d , i n f a c t , be the 30 case here i s t h a t I n n s t e t t e n has simply l e a r n e d to pursue h i s work even at home i n the evenings as a means of a v o i d i n g p h y s i c a l intimacy - much as he appears to have arranged a " c u l t u r a l " honeymoon to prevent e x c e s s i v e time spent i n p r i v a t e . C e r t a i n l y , t h i s i s the view of K l i e n e b e r g e r , who a s s e r t s : "In c h a r a c t e r s l i k e . . . I n n s t e t t e n . . . , conformism i s symptomatic of a g e n e r a l human d e f i c i e n c y and goes...with a c a r e e r i s m which i s an attempt to compensate f o r an 20 i n c a p a c i t y f o r i n t i m a t e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " The p a r a l l e l between I n n s t e t t e n and G r y c z i n s k i , another d r i v e n c a r e e r i s t , i s q u i t e d i s c e r n i b l e here and may account f o r the jaundiced view which the Major takes towards c h i l d r e n : "'Er i s t ohnehin gegen Kinder 1 " ( I I , 1 2 6 ) . C e r t a i n l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o agree with Grawe's impression of G r y c z i n s k i and 21 Jacobine as p o s s e s s i n g "eine s t a r k e s e x u e l l e Bindung." No t e x t u a l evidence i s p r o v i d e d to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s o p i n i o n . I t i s not o n l y the men, however, but a l s o the women who appear to s u f f e r from i n h i b i t i o n of t h e i r i n s t i n c t u a l urges. Despite good h e a l t h and no reason to suspect i n f e r t i l i t y , the two married women, Kathe and Jacobine, have both remained c h i l d l e s s . In the case of the former, the n a r r a t o r observes: "Was andere junge Frauen v i e l l e i c h t b e t r i i b t h a t t e : dass das Paar e i n f a c h e i n Paar b l i e b , wurde von Kathe keinen Augenblick s c h m e r z l i c h empfunden...Der Sinn f u r F a m i l i e , geschweige d i e Sehnsucht danach, war i h r noch n i c h t 31 aufgegangen..."(II,418). Kathe's a t t i t u d e would s u r e l y have been co n s i d e r e d by many i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century to be somewhat i r r e g u l a r f o r a young woman. 2 2 By the end of the no v e l , however, Kathe's dormant maternal i n s t i n c t a s s e r t s i t s e l f . J acobine, on the other hand, appears to be without c h i l d r e n more by her husband's c h o i c e than by her own. We glean from one of her l e t t e r s to Melanie, however, that she probably experiences at l e a s t the d e s i r e f o r motherhood: " ' . . . i c h denke mir, M u t t e r l i e b e b l e i b t doch das Schonste...'"(II,123). The two unmarried women, S t i n e and Johanna, are not i n a p o s i t i o n to al l o w themselves e x p r e s s i o n of t h e i r s e x u a l i t y without i n c u r r i n g the censure of s o c i e t y . S t i n e , who has witnessed her s i s t e r endure t h i s type of reproach, i s anxious to a v o i d a s i m i l a r f a t e h e r s e l f . She i s a l s o determined to uphold a vow of c h a s t i t y , which was made to her dying mother - long before she had experienced any k i n d of romantic a t t r a c t i o n . Johanna, on the other hand, i s f a r from shy once E f f i i s out of the p i c t u r e . As I n n s t e t t e n d e s c r i b e s her behaviour to h i s f r i e n d , W u l l e r s d o r f : "'Dieses Sich-in-Szene-Setzen. . . ,diese halb komische B i i s t e n p l a s t i k , die mit einem S p e z i a l a n s p r u c h a u f t r i t t . . . e s ware zum T o t s c h i e s s e n , wenn es n i c h t so l a c h e r l i c h ware'"(IV,286). The young g i r l s , Annie and L y d i a , warrant b r i e f mention i n t h i s context as w e l l . Although they have not yet 32 entered puberty, there i s reason to suspect t h a t a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment to the female r o l e w i l l be d i f f i c u l t , i f not imp o s s i b l e , f o r them to achieve. Not only have they both been d e p r i v e d of a s u i t a b l e r o l e model to guide them i n t o m a t u r i t y , but the circumstances g i v i n g r i s e to t h i s d e p r i v a t i o n have provoked a smouldering resentment which, i f not somehow overcome, w i l l i n t e r f e r e with t h e i r happy and h e a l t h y f u n c t i o n i n g i n adulthood. To c o n s o l i d a t e the o b s e r v a t i o n s made up to t h i s p o i n t , some common threads l i n k i n g c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s i n c l u d e youth, h e a l t h , a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and a high l e v e l of t e n s i o n due to i n h i b i t e d emotional or i n s t i n c t u a l e x p r e s s i o n , which betrays i t s e l f through v a r i o u s compulsive h a b i t s . d. General f e a t u r e s of the co n f o r m i s t s i ) A u t h o r i t a r i a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s are fundamentally a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n t h e i r outlook. Webster's New World D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s a u t h o r i t a r i a n as: " b e l i e v i n g i n or c h a r a c t e r i z e d by unquestioning obedience to a u t h o r i t y r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l freedom." The " a u t h o r i t y " may be simply another person, or i t can be represented by a c h a r a c t e r ' s s u p e r i o r s i n a h i e r a r c h y . Even unwritten laws of s o c i e t y , 33 which are perpetuated through the f o r c e of t r a d i t i o n , f o r example, can c o n s t i t u t e a u t h o r i t y . Jacobine - whom one 23 c r i t i c has a p t l y termed, "eine Marionette i h r e s Mannes" e x h i b i t s a t y p i c a l l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n r e a d i n e s s to c a p i t u l a t e to the demands of another person, when she obeys her husband's s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t she sever a l l r e l a t i o n s with her s i s t e r (11,118). On another l e v e l , the same a t t i t u d e i s expressed by I n n s t e t t e n towards h i s s u p e r i o r s , as he e x p l a i n s to E f f i : " 1 . . . i c h l a s s e d i c h j a n i c h t a l l e i n aus R i i c k s i c h t s l o s i g k e i t oder Laune, sondern w e i l es so s e i n muss i c h b i n e i n Mann im D i e n s t ' " ( I V , 7 8 ) . Both c h a r a c t e r s may a c t u a l l y be t r y i n g to excuse behaviour which they want to engage i n anyway. I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , that Jacobine f e a r s her own r e p u t a t i o n c o u l d be damaged through a s s o c i a t i o n with Melanie. Her husband's i n j u n c t i o n r e l e a s e s her from t a k i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of making her own p o s i t i o n c l e a r - an a c t which would have made her, i n s t e a d of Major G r y c z i n s k i , the t a r g e t of her s i s t e r ' s i n d i g n a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , I n n s t e t t e n ignores the f a c t t h a t a f t e r h i s disappointment i n the c o u r t s h i p of E f f i ' s mother, he made a c h o i c e to put the p u r s u i t of a c a r e e r ahead of p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . By way of c o n t r a s t , E f f i ' s f a t h e r - a compromiser type - made a conscious d e c i s i o n to avoid the c i v i l s e r v i c e p r e c i s e l y because i t would have r e s t r i c t e d h i s p e r s o n a l freedom and 34 independence: 'So nach meinem eigenen W i l l e n s c h a l t e n und walten zu konnen i s t mir immer das l i e b s t e gewesen, j e d e n f a l l s l i e b e r . . . a l s so d i e B l i c k e bestandig nach oben r i c h t e n zu miissen. Man hat dann b l o s s immer Sinn und Merk f u r hohe und hochste V o r g e s e t z t e . ' (IV,21) Herr von B r i e s t i s c l e a r l y not an a u t h o r i t a r i a n p e r s o n a l i t y , i n t h a t he n e i t h e r s a l u t e s a u t h o r i t y , nor does he attempt to e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f as an a u t h o r i t y . I n n s t e t t e n , however, as both a lawyer and a c i v i l s ervant, does defend the values of s o c i e t y over those of the i n d i v i d u a l . S e l f - c o n t r o l , plus a d e s i r e to c o n t r o l the behaviour of o t h e r s , emerge as two f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d with the a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e of the c o n f o r m i s t s . G r y c z i n s k i n e a t l y sums up the former aspect: " ' E i n jeder hat d i e Kunst zu l e r n e n , s i c h zu bescheiden und e i n z u s c h r a n k e n ' " ( I I , 3 8 ) . The h a b i t of s e l f - c o n t r o l i s d i s c l o s e d by a penchant f o r r i t u a l and r o u t i n e . We l e a r n that I n n s t e t t e n , f o r example, i s always an e a r l y r i s e r and i s very s t r i c t about adherence to a p r e c i s e morning schedule. T h i s h a b i t of e a r l y r i s i n g - though i t may be p a r t l y c o n d i t i o n e d by h i s m i l i t a r y background - i s very s t r o n g l y i n g r a i n e d , as Johanna remarks: "'Darin i s t er s t r e n g ; er kann das lange S c h l a f e n n i c h t l e i d e n . . . 1 " ( I V , 5 3 ) . Moreover, I n n s t e t t e n ' s h a b i t of p u n c t u a l i t y r e i n f o r c e s our impression t h a t t h i s i s most l i k e l y another example of t h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e f o r r o u t i n e . "Und es entsprach seinem Charakter und seinen Gewohnheiten," observes the n a r r a t o r r e g a r d i n g I n n s t e t t e n , "genau Z e i t und Stunde zu h a l t e n " ( I V , 4 2 ) . Kathe, too, i s accustomed to r o u t i n e - so much so, t h a t i t may even be a f a c t o r i n her quiescent d e s i r e f o r motherhood: "Sie...fand...,dass s i e vor e i n e r Veranderung i h r e r H a u s l i c h k e i t eher erschrak, a l s s i e herbeiwunschte"(II,418). T h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n with Ordnung appears to serve a d u a l purpose f o r the c o n f o r m i s t s . On the one hand, i t e l i m i n a t e s the need f o r c o n t i n u a l decision-making, once the i n i t i a l c h o i c e of a r o u t i n e has been made; while, on the other hand, i t c o n t r i b u t e s to a sense of s e c u r i t y by removing, as f a r as p o s s i b l e from the day's a c t i v i t i e s , elements which are spontaneous and u n p r e d i c t a b l e . The d e s i r e to c o n t r o l , or endeavour to c o n t r o l , the behaviour of others i s not l i m i t e d to s p e c i f i c c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s . For a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s o c i e t y as a u t h o r i t y , and the c o n f o r m i s t s , who condone and uphold i t s v a l u e s . One manner i n which s o c i e t y e x e r c i s e s i n f l u e n c e over i t s members i s by law enforcement. The c o n f o r m i s t s , as one would expect, abide by the law themselves and view any t r a n s g r e s s i o n of i t as contemptible. I n n s t e t t e n , who as a lawyer a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the c r e a t i o n of laws, i s outraged by the pronouncement of Crampas - a compromiser c h a r a c t e r - t h a t a l l r e g u l a t i o n s are 36 boring (IV,128): ' . . . e i n e r wie S i e , Crampas, der unter der Fahne der D i s z i p l i n grossgeworden i s t und r e c h t gut weiss, dass es ohne Zucht und Ordnung n i c h t gent, e i n Mann wie S i e , der s o l l t e doch e i g e n t l i c h so was n i c h t reden, auch n i c h t einmal im Spass. Indessen, i c h weiss schon, S i e haben einen himmlischen Kehr-mich-nicht-dran und denken, der Himmel wird n i c h t g l e i c h e i n s t i i r z e n . Nein, g l e i c h n i c h t . Aber mal kommt es.' (IV,129) I n n s t e t t e n ' s t h r e a t of d i r e consequences awaiting anyone who t r a n s g r e s s e s s o c i e t y ' s laws has an ominous r i n g to i t . We sense that he would not h e s i t a t e to v o l u n t e e r h i s s e r v i c e s as the agent of r e t r i b u t i o n . However, as Bance notes: " . . . t o set o n e s e l f up as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Ordnung i s always dubious, a way of e x p r e s s i n g the w i l l to power and domination over o t h e r s . Another manner i n which s o c i e t y seeks to i n f l u e n c e i t s members i s through education. In the words of Koc: . . . s o c i e t y makes an enormous e f f o r t to pass on i t s b e l i e f s , i d e a l s and p r i n c i p l e s from g e n e r a t i o n to g e n e r a t i o n , doing so through a program of i n d o c t r i n a t i o n c a l l e d education. T h i s education (Erziehung) i s a t r a i n i n g program which aims at i n s t i l l i n g i n the i n d i v i d u a l the values h e l d by s o c i e t y as a whole. Moreover, Koc e l a b o r a t e s : "... Fontane... d e p i c t [ s ] Erziehung not o n l y as a t o o l s o c i e t y uses to a s s e r t i t s values upon the i n d i v i d u a l , b u t . . . a l s o . . . a s a t o o l c e r t a i n ' p r i n c i p l e d ' 2 6 i n d i v i d u a l s use to a s s e r t t h e i r ego over another ego." 37 Again, I n n s t e t t e n i s c u l p a b l e on t h i s account. Crampas says of him: " 1 . . . e r o p e r i e r t namlich immer e r z i e h e r i s c h , i s t der geborene Padagog...'"(IV,133). T h i s e s s e n t i a l l y p a t e r n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e f i n d s what i s perhaps i t s most obnoxious e x p r e s s i o n i n a tendency towards m o r a l i z i n g : " I n n s t e t t e n h i e l t nur einen s e i n e r k l e i n e n moralischen V o r t r a g e , zu denen er iiberhaupt h i n n e i g t e " (IV, 129) . C h i l d r e n are the most s u s c e p t i b l e t a r g e t s of pedagogical t a l e n t and i t i s no c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t I n n s t e t t e n e n l i s t s Johanna, another a u t h o r i t a r i a n type, r a t h e r than Roswitha to help him "educate" Annie a f t e r the d i s c o v e r y of her mother's a d u l t e r y : "'Das arme Kind. S i e miissen es i h r a l l m a h l i c h b e i b r i n g e n , dass s i e keine Mutter mehr hat. Ich kann es n i c h t . Aber machen S i e ' s g e s c h e i t . Und dass Roswitha n i c h t a l l e s v e r d i r b t 1 " ( I V , 2 4 5 ) . C r i t i c s appear to have overlooked t h i s key q u o t a t i o n and, consequently, p l a c e f a r too much of the blame f o r Annie's "conversion" upon I n n s t e t t e n . Parmee's viewpoint c o n s t i t u t e s one such example: ...we are made to f e e l very s t r o n g l y t h a t I n n s t e t t e n ' s i n h i b i t i n g , f o r h i s own s e l f i s h s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l purposes, of the c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l f e e l i n g towards her mother i s a graver s i n even than h i s k i l l i n g of h i s wife's former l o v e r i n a d u e l . E f f i ' s remarks a f t e r the meeting with her estranged daughter, which a t t r i b u t e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to I n n s t e t t e n , have d o u b t l e s s encouraged t h i s e r r o r : "'Das hat er 38 [ I n n s t e t t e n ] dem Kinde beigebracht, e i n Schulmeister war er immer...und ehe er das Kind s c h i c k t , r i c h t e t e r ' s ab wie einen Papagei...'"(IV,2 7 5). We l e a r n from her c o n v e r s a t i o n with Frau Zwicker, however, that E f f i has q u i t e misjudged Johanna (IV, 2 5 0 ) . She does not suspect the servant of any involvement i n the p o i s o n i n g of Annie's mind, much l e s s of having any designs upon I n n s t e t t e n . I t i s q u i t e c l e a r from the Baron's remarks, n e v e r t h e l e s s , that i t i s Johanna who performs the deed, and only the d i r e c t i v e - c r u e l as i t remains - has come from him. U l t i m a t e l y , i t i s Annie who must make a d e c i s i o n i n t h i s episode of c o n f l i c t between her a f f e c t i o n f o r her mother and s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t she sever the bond with her. As a co n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r , Annie opts f o r the l a t t e r course. Regarding Annie's formal e d u c a t i o n , the n a r r a t o r s t a t e s : Roswitha hatte das p o e t i s c h e Department, d i e Marchen- und Geschichtenerzahlung, Johanna dagegen das des Anstands, e i n e T e i l u n g , d i e hiiben und driiben so f e s t gewurzelt stand, dass Kompetenzkonflikte kaum vorkamen, wobei der Charakter Annies, d i e eine ganz entschiedene Neigung h a t t e , das vornehme F r a u l e i n zu betonen, a l l e r d i n g s m i t h a l f , eine R o l l e , b e i der s i e keine bessere L e h r e r i n a l s Johanna haben konnte. ( I V , 2 2 6 - 2 2 7 ) . Annie appears to have been predisposed towards i d e n t i f y i n g with the valu e s of her f a t h e r ("des Anstands"), which are represented by Johanna, as opposed to those of her mother 39 ("Marchen- und Geschichtenerzahlung"), represented by Roswitha. We a l s o l e a r n t h a t Annie - u n l i k e her mother, whose best s u b j e c t was mythology (IV,27 3) - r e c e i v e s her h i g h e s t marks i n r e l i g i o n (IV,273). Organized r e l i g i o n i s , of course, another major mode of i n f l u e n c e f o r upholding c e r t a i n values deemed a p p r o p r i a t e by s o c i e t y . As Evans remarks: The c u l t u r e of the P r o t e s t a n t church [ i n I m p e r i a l Germany] was...an o f f i c i a l c u l t u r e , and i t s values were s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f i e d with those of the r u l i n g e l i t e . P e r p e t u a t i n g the p o l i t i c a l q u i e t i s m of the Lutheran Church, German P r o t e s t a n t i s m - u n i t e d i n the E v a n g e l i c a l Church i n 1814 - represented c o n s e r v a t i v e values and i n d o c t r i n a t e d i t s congregations i n t o l o y a l t y to the S t a t e and obedience to the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s quo. Organized r e l i g i o n of any f a i t h i s g e n e r a l l y not p o r t r a y e d i n a f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t by Fontane, although members of the c l e r g y are s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y drawn. As E r n s t p o i n t s out: "Zwar g i b t es i n seinem Werk P f a r r e r und K i r c h e n , aber k e i n H e i l 2 9 und keine Gemeinde." The c o n f o r m i s t type, as P r i n z i p i e n r e i t e r , i s quick to appeal to the a u t h o r i t y of r e l i g i o n i n order to strengthen h i s own p o s i t i o n . A case i n p o i n t i s Major G r y c z i n s k i , who f e a r s h i s w i f e may break the seventh commandment, as her s i s t e r has a l r e a d y done. He t e l l s her: 'Und s i e h d i c h vor, Jacobine. Du b i s t e i n entziickendes k l e i n e s Weib...,aber i h r s e i d wie d i e 40 Z w i l l i n g e , wie d i e D r u v a p f e l , und es spukt d i r auch so was im B l u t . Ich b i n aber n i c h t van der S t r a a t e n und fiihre keine Generositatskomodien auf. Am wenigsten auf meine Kosten.' (11,118) G r y c z i n s k i i s d e c i d e d l y l e s s concerned with e t h i c s than he i s with h i s own r e p u t a t i o n . His m o r a l i z i n g i s simply a b i d f o r c o n t r o l , which the t h r e a t of punishment f o r d i s o b e y i n g h i s i n j u n c t i o n r e v e a l s . Were the event which he f e a r s ever to take p l a c e , i t i s c l e a r from these remarks t h a t G r y c z i n s k i , as a t y p i c a l c o n f o r m i s t , would s a c r i f i c e h i s m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n order to safeguard h i s r e p u t a t i o n . T h i s m o r a l i z i n g tendency begins e a r l y , as d i s p l a y e d by both L y d i a and Annie. Rubehn, who becomes Melanie's second husband, says of the former: " ' . . . L y d i a war immer e i n k l e i n e r G r o s s i n q u i s i t o r . . . ' " ( 1 1 , 1 2 8 ) . Annie, when we see her f o r the l a s t time i n c o n v e r s a t i o n with her estranged mother, r e v e a l s t h a t she, too, i s w e l l on the way towards assuming the same r o l e (IV,272-274). The judgmental a t t i t u d e of the c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s i s r e f l e c t e d not o n l y i n t h e i r m o r a l i z i n g tendency, but a l s o expressed i n another form of i n t o l e r a n c e , namely p r e j u d i c e . T h i s p r e j u d i c e extends beyond e t h n i c and r e l i g i o u s boundaries to encompass whatever does not conform to the given s o c i a l standard. Soon a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l i n K e s s i n , I n n s t e t t e n warns E f f i : "...hute d i c h vor dem Aparten oder was man so das Aparte nennt'"(IV,87). The c o n f o r m i s t s tend to 41 view the world i n terms of an e i t h e r / o r dichotomy. They b e l i e v e t h i n g s are e i t h e r " r i g h t " or "wrong," "good" or "bad." People are c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r "one of them" or "one of us." I n n s t e t t e n ' s response, f o r i n s t a n c e , to the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n of K e s s i n , which c o n s i s t s almost e n t i r e l y of immigrants (IV,46), i s one of marked d i s c o m f o r t : "'Hier i s t a l l e s u n s i c h e r ' " ( I V , 4 4 ) . I n n s t e t t e n ' s p r e j u d i c e s a l s o extend to a n t i - s e m i t i s m (IV,103). M i l l e r observes: "In order to i n c r e a s e the r e a l i s m of the p o r t r a i t of I n n s t e t t e n and to i n t e n s i f y the a s s o c i a t i o n of h i s m e n t a l i t y with t h a t of the o f f i c e r , Fontane endowed him with some of the t y p i c a l p r e j u d i c e s which were commonly encountered w i t h i n the o f f i c e r corps d u r i n g the l a t e nineteenth century.3° That G r y c z i n s k i i s s i m i l a r l y p r e j u d i c e d and judgmental - " ' . . . G r y c z i n s k i , der doch so k r i t i s c h i s t und a l l e s immer auf D i s p o s i t i o n h i n a n s i e h t . . . ' " ( I I , 1 1 7 ) - would appear to support M i l l e r ' s v iewpoint. T h i s same c r i t i c a l s o draws a connection between such r i g i d t h i n k i n g and I n n s t e t t e n ' s h a b i t of governing h i s conduct "'nach Grundsatzen 1" 31 (IV,271). Indeed, the d e s i r e to l i v e l i f e a c c o r d i n g to preconceived formulae, or p r i n c i p l e s , i s very s t r o n g i n the c o n f o r m i s t s g e n e r a l l y and may be viewed as an aspect of p r i d e , which f i g u r e s prominently i n these c h a r a c t e r s . For by " f o l l o w i n g the r u l e s , " they hope to avoid i n c u r r i n g the d i s a p p r o v a l of s o c i e t y . Apprehension of r i d i c u l e and of s o c i a l o s t r a c i s m i s 42 p r e v a l e n t among the m a j o r i t y of Fontane's c h a r a c t e r s , but probably most severe i n the c o n f o r m i s t types. "Die Furcht vor dem R i d i k i i l e n s p i e l t i n der Welt eine k o l o s s a l e R o l l e , " 32 commented Fontane. Again, i t i s the f e a r a s s o c i a t e d with "dem Aparten" (IV,87) - the f e a r of appearing d i f f e r e n t from the norm and hence, being deemed unacceptable. To I n n s t e t t e n ' s mind, e c c e n t r i c i t y and happiness are mutually e x c l u s i v e : "'...das b e z a h l t man i n der Regel mit seinem Gliick' "(IV,87) . T h i s f e a r of r i d i c u l e i s t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d i n the men with the t h r e a t of p o t e n t i a l f a i l u r e i n t h e i r c a r e e r s , due to a t a r n i s h e d image. As I n n s t e t t e n e x p l a i n s to Ef f i : 'Ich kann h i e r i n der Stadt d i e Leute n i c h t sagen l a s s e n , Landrat I n n s t e t t e n v e r k a u f t s e i n Haus, w e i l s e i n e Frau den aufgeklebten Chinesen a l s Spuk an ihrem Bett e gesehen hat. Dann b i n i c h v e r l o r e n , E f f i . Von s o l c h e r L a c h e r l i c h k e i t kann man s i c h n i e wieder e r h o l e n . ' (IV,80) G r y c z i n s k i i s l i k e w i s e obsessed with how he appears to others and with the o p i n i o n which others hold of him. He f o r b i d s Jacobine to a s s o c i a t e with Melanie and Rubehn out of f e a r t h a t he w i l l be passed over i n h i s c a r e e r : "'Das u n t e r b l e i b t . Ich habe n i c h t Lust, um s o l c h e r A l l o t r i a w i l l e n b e i s e i t e g e s c h o b e n zu werden'"(II,1 1 8). S i m i l a r l y , t h i s c h a r a c t e r s a c r i f i c e d h i s C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n i n order to enhance h i s c a r e e r prospects i n P r o t e s t a n t P r u s s i a . In the women, t h i s f e a r of judgment and e x c l u s i o n i s 43 connected with t h e i r moral r e p u t a t i o n s . S t i n e i s a prime example of the phenomenon. Having made a vow of c h a s t i t y to her dying mother, she now f i n d s h e r s e l f t o r n between her mother's e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r her and her own d e s i r e f o r a romantic attachment: "'Warum hab' i c h n i c h t nein gesagt? Ich habe mich nun i n s e i n e Hand begeben....Und doch, i c h w i l l n i c h t , w i l l n i c h t . Ich hab' es i h r auf dem S t e r b e b e t t e schworen miissen ' " ( I I , 514 ) . As S t i n e e x p l a i n s to Waldemar when he spontaneously v i s i t s her, she f e a r s becoming the s u b j e c t of g o s s i p : "'Das geht n i c h t , Herr Graf. Ich b i n a l l e i n , und e i n a l l e i n s t e h e n d e s Madchen muss auf s i c h h a l t e n . Sonst g i b t es e i n Gerede. Die Leute sehen a l l e s ' " ( I I , 5 0 7 ) . Her a n x i e t y i s not without j u s t i f i c a t i o n , s i n c e t h e i r encounter has not gone unnoticed by the l a n d l a d y : "Die P o l z i n h a t t e , solange das Gesprach dauerte, beobachtend an ihrem Tiirguckloch gestanden"(II,50 7). S t i n e ' s dawning awareness of a c o n f l i c t between her own d e s i r e s and those of s o c i e t y , which have been mediated by her mother, re p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t t u r n i n g p o i n t f o r her. She has a p p a r e n t l y never questioned u n t i l now the values with which she was r a i s e d . Her p r i d e has been i n v e s t e d i n spurning the advances of male admirers and we suspect t h a t t h i s r e s i s t a n t stance i s a d e f e n s i v e manoeuver designed to keep f e e l i n g s with which she i s not e n t i r e l y comfortable at bay: 44 'Den e r s t e n Tag h a t t e i c h e i n e Aussprache mit ihm und redete von A n s t a n d i g k e i t und redete von A u f - s i c h - H a l t e n , und dass i c h e i n o r d e n t l i c h e s Madchen s e i . Aber i c h schame mich j e t z t f a s t , dass i c h so was gesagt habe. Denn immer a n g s t l i c h s e i n i s t auch n i c h t gut und z e i g t b l o s s , dass man s i c h n i c h t r e c h t t r a u t und dass man schwacher i s t , a l s man s e i n s o l l t e . " (11,519) The heroine's d e c i s i o n to renounce the v a l i d i t y of her own impulses i n favour of s o c i a l r e s p e c t a b i l i t y - an a c t which provokes the death of her s u i t o r and q u i t e p o s s i b l y her own premature demise, as w e l l - i s a f r i g h t f u l example given us by Fontane of the degree to which s o c i a l p r e s s u r e can l e a d an i n d i v i d u a l not o n l y to s e l f - d e n i a l , but even to s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n . Where r e l i g i o u s , j u d i c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s may f a i l to c o n t r o l the behaviour of s o c i e t y ' s members, the t h r e a t of r i d i c u l e and o s t r a c i s m may succeed. S t i n e ' s v i r t u e c o u l d a l s o r e p r e s e n t , i n p a r t , a compensation f o r her s i s t e r P a u l i n e P i t t e l k o w ' s unorthodox l i f e s t y l e . Another c h a r a c t e r whose v i r t u e i s undoubtedly compensatory i s Johanna. Through no f a u l t of her own, she must bear the stigma of i l l e g i t i m a c y (IV,206). Yet, she i s w e l l thought of " w e i l s i e . . .der Mannerwelt gegenviber von e i n e r ausgesprochenen und selbstbewussten R e s e r v i e r t h e i t war" (IV,206). Johanna a l s o s u f f e r s from the same c o n f l i c t which S t i n e experiences between her own d e s i r e s and the f e a r of s o c i a l censure. She i s , however, b e t t e r l o o k i n g than S t i n e . Hence, a c e r t a i n amount of her p r i d e i s i n v e s t e d i n being 45 a t t r a c t i v e to men, as w e l l as i n being m o r a l l y u p r i g h t . Johanna has u n s u c c e s s f u l l y attempted to suppress her awareness of t h i s c o n f l i c t . Yet, Roswitha i s s u f f i c i e n t l y p e r c e p t i v e to n o t i c e those f e e l i n g s toward I n n s t e t t e n of which Johanna i s onl y dimly aware: "'...aber das weiss i c h , Johanna, dass S i e i n den gnad'gen Herrn v e r l i e b t s i n d . 1 Johanna s c h l u g eine krampfhafte Lache auf"(IV,248). As a confo r m i s t type, however, Johanna's behaviour toward the o b j e c t of her a f f e c t i o n s remains w i t h i n the bounds of p r o p r i e t y . The a r i s t o c r a t i c female c o n f o r m i s t s experience an even g r e a t e r need f o r male admiration than does Johanna. While marriage s a t i s f i e s Kathe's d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , i t l eaves her need to be a constant center of a t t e n t i o n - "'weniger Mond a l s Sonne'"(II,361) - inadequately met by Botho. She yearns f o r " ' d i e verbotene Frucht'"(II,419) and longs to experience a sense of power through s e d u c t i o n and conquest: " ' A l l e s , was man s i c h erobern muss...'"(II,412). The p o s s i b i t y t h a t Kathe may have fo l l o w e d through on t h i s impulse - or at l e a s t encountered the o p p o r t u n i t y to do so - does not appear to have been widely recognized by c r i t i c s . Her sudden i n t e r e s t i n motherhood upon her r e t u r n from Schlangenbad - the name of which a l l u d e s to a s e t t i n g of temptation r e m i n i s c e n t of the Garden of Eden - may d e r i v e from something other than the waters. What has been 46 i n t e r p r e t e d as "development i n her c h a r a c t e r and the outlook f o r a more deeply committed marriage" might be a v a r i a t i o n of E f f i ' s r e s o l v e to put the past behind her a f t e r l e a v i n g K e s s i n . On the couple's way home from the r a i l w a y s t a t i o n , the n a r r a t o r remarks of Kathe: " . . . s i e s e u f z t e , wie wenn s i c i h r p l o t z l i c h etwas S c h r e c k l i c h e s und t i e f i n i h r Leben E i n g r e i f e n d e s vor d i e Seele g e s t e l l t h a t t e " ( I I , 4 6 5 ) . She th launches i n t o a c o n v e r s a t i o n about Mr. Armstrong, another guest at Schlangenbad, as i f he were somehow connected with the a n x i e t y she i s f e e l i n g . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d by an u n u s a l l y s e r i o u s o u t b u r s t from Kathe: "'Ach Botho, welcher Schatz i s t doch e i n unschuldiges Herz'"(II,470). Why, one i s tempted to ask, would such a thought occur to her unless she has experienced l o s t innocence and peace of mind?^^ Kathe's request f o r Botho to p r o t e c t her from temptation a l s o provokes s u s p i c i o n : 'Ich habe mir f e s t vorgenommen, mir e i n r e i n e s Herz zu bewahren. Und du musst mir d a r i n h elfen...du musst mir d r e i m a l einen Kuss auf d i e S t i r n geben, b r a u t l i c h , i c h w i l l k eine Z a r t l i c h k e i t , i c h w i l l einen Weihekuss....' (11,470) C l e a r l y , Kathe has faced a c o n f l i c t concerning a d u l t e r y w h i l s t a y i n g at Schlangenbad, although we do not know whether she i s a c t u a l l y g u i l t y of i n f i d e l i t y . I t i s apparent from her v a r i o u s remarks to Botho, however, t h a t she s t i l l upholds f i d e l i t y w i t h i n marriage - a view.: which we expect of a 47 c o n f o r m i s t . Jacobine, a l s o , does not appear to be having her needs f o r a f f e c t i o n and a t t e n t i o n met by her e m o t i o n a l l y c o l d and c o n t r o l l e d husband. Jacobine admits i n a l e t t e r to Melanie t h a t G r y c z i n s k i ' s comparison of her nature with t h a t of her s i s t e r ' s c o n t a i n s an element of t r u t h : " ' . . . i c h f i i h l e , dass er r e c h t hat, und dass eine sonderbare Neugier i n mir steckt'"(11,118). She a l r e a d y enjoys a m i l d s o r t of f l i r t a t i o n with her b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , van der S t r a a t e n , and may w e l l have more s e r i o u s designs upon the landscape a r t i s t , A r n o l d Gabler (11,123). Though Jacobine denies t h a t her husband i s a Bluebeard, we suspect t h a t i f t h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s c u r i o s i t y were to get the b e t t e r of her, she would experience a r a t h e r rude awakening. As with Kathe, we do not know the eventual outcome of t h i s i n s t a n c e of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t . In Jacobine's other i n s t a n c e of c o n f l i c t over the i s s u e of whether to r e j e c t her s i s t e r , however, she d e f i n i t e l y responds by conforming to s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n . The need f o r c o n t r o l - as mentioned e a r l i e r - i s a s s o c i a t e d with the a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e of the c o n f o r m i s t s . I t i s not merely the c o n t r o l over t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , however, which these c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s pursue. They endeavour to c o n t r o l t h e i r very emotions and even seek to check the s p o n t a n e i t y of o t h e r s . Lack of emotional depth and an u n w i l l i n g n e s s to communicate t h e i r 48 f e e l i n g s openly, precludes t r u l y i n t i m a t e and l o v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which these c h a r a c t e r s c o u l d be accepted f o r themselves. T h e i r involvements tend, i n s t e a d , to degenerate i n t o c o m p e t i t i v e power s t r u g g l e s . I t i s the purpose of the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n to examine the v a r i o u s ways i n which the f l i g h t from f e e l i n g r e v e a l s i t s e l f and how i t wrecks havoc i n the l i v e s of the c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s . i i ) The f l i g h t from f e e l i n g The f l i g h t from f e e l i n g which i s t y p i c a l of c o n f o r m i s t s , serves the d u a l purpose of m a i n t a i n i n g an i l l u s i o n of c o n t r o l over the s e l f , while i t a l s o p r o t e c t s a g a i n s t emotional intimacy with o t h e r s . Both of these goals are a s s o c i a t e d with conformity because the c o n f o r m i s t s ' f e a r of r e j e c t i o n by others leads them, not merely to a v o i d d i s c l o s u r e o f , but to r e j e c t o u t r i g h t i n themselves, those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which they b e l i e v e would be unacceptable to o t h e r s . The c o n f o r m i s t s f e e l d r i v e n to present to s o c i e t y a p a r t i c u l a r image of themselves which i s designed to win a p p r o v a l . To be sure, the c o n f o r m i s t s regard t h e i r emotional impulses as one s o r t of enemy w i t h i n , which must be vanquished. G r y c z i n s k i ' s b e l i e f t h a t the p r i n c i p a l t h i n g i n l i f e i s "Gefiihle zu beherrschen ' " ( I I , 123 ) sums up t h i s 49 a t t i t u d e . Kathe, as a female r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h i s group, echoes the same concern: "'...unsere Wunsche bediirfen doch bestandig e i n e r strengen und gewissenhaften K o n t r o l l e 1 " ( I I , 4 3 8 ) . L o s i n g emotional c o n t r o l i s regarded by these c h a r a c t e r s as a s i g n of p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e and weakness. Upon c l o s e r examination, we d i s c o v e r t h a t the r e a l d i f f i c u l t y r e s i d e s with those f e e l i n g s which might be termed " s o f t " or " s e n t i m e n t a l . " P a r t of I n n s t e t t e n ' s dilemma over the d u e l , f o r example, a r i s e s from h i s f e a r t h a t i f he forgave h i s wife's i n f i d e l i t y , word would get around that he was too s o f t - h e a r t e d - even cowardly - and lac k e d s u f f i c i e n t f o r t i t u d e to do the proper t h i n g (IV,237). M i l l e r has suggested that I n n s t e t t e n ' s apprehension over W i i l l e r s d o r f 1 s p o t e n t i a l l o s s of r e s p e c t f o r him may a c t u a l l y stem from the f e a r that he w i l l l o s e h i s s e l f - r e s p e c t : " I n n s t e t t e n complies [with the code of honour] r a t h e r than r i s k h i s own subsequent f e a r and s u s p i c i o n that he was motivated by c o w a r d i c e . " 3 5 His remarks a f t e r the d u e l : "'Aber Verjahrung i s t etwas Halbes, etwas Schwachliches... 1"(IV,243), o f f e r c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s l e a r n too l a t e , however, t h a t i t i s not p o s s i b l e to deny themselves emotional e x p r e s s i o n i n one d i r e c t i o n o nly. Instead, the e n t i r e emotional spectrum s h r i n k s i n response to attempts at 50 c o n t r o l l i n g any p o r t i o n of i t . The male c h a r a c t e r s t y p i c a l l y d e a l with the r e s u l t a n t sense of inne r emptiness by c o n c e n t r a t i n g with f a n a t i c a l devotion upon t h e i r c a r e e r s . A c l a s s i c example of t h i s phenomenon i s f u r n i s h e d by I n n s t e t t e n . We are t o l d t h a t a f t e r being r e j e c t e d by L u i s e , " ' . . . e r . . . f i n g an, J u r i s t e r e i zu s t u d i e r e n , . . . m i t einem "wahren B i e r e i f e r " . . . 1 " ( I V , 1 3 ) . L i k e w i s e , G r y c z i n s k i pursues h i s c a r e e r to the e x c l u s i o n of a l l e l s e : "Dass er den Strebern zugehorte, war eine s e l b s t v e r s t a n d l i c h e Sache..."(11,22). The working c l a s s female c h a r a c t e r , S t i n e , a l s o appears to use exc e s s i v e d e d i c a t i o n to work as a means of av o i d i n g both c o n f r o n t a t i o n with her own f e e l i n g s and i n t e r a c t i o n with other people. Although her low economic s t a t u s c e r t a i n l y warrants a need f o r steady employment, she gi v e s the impression of having u n n e c e s s a r i l y r e s t r i c t e d her s o c i a l sphere by working at home a l l the time and r a r e l y v e n t u r i n g o u t s i d e of the apartment. S t i n e has been able to keep her l i f e p r e d i c t a b l e and under c o n t r o l by these means, but at the c o s t of t e r r i b l e emotional d e p r i v a t i o n . The a r i s t o c r a t i c female c o n f o r m i s t s are f o r c e d to occupy themselves i n a manner a p p r o p r i a t e to t h e i r r o l e i n a s o c i e t y which d i d not permit women of the upper c l a s s e s to engage i n employment. Although i t was p e r m i s s i b l e f o r a 3 fi "lady" to undertake good works, ° we observe n e i t h e r 51 Jacobine, nor Kathe engaged i n such a c t i v i t i e s . In f a c t , the l a t t e r devotes the bulk of her time to a r i t u a l of shopping: "Sie fuhr t a g l i c h i n d i e Stadt, urn Einkaufe zu machen, und wurde n i c h t mude zu v e r s i c h e r n , wie s i e j e t z t e r s t das so hoch i n Gunst und Geltung stehende 'shopping' der e n g l i s c h e n Damen b e g r e i f e n l e r n e . . . ' ( I I , 4 2 6 ) . The c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s e x h i b i t t h i s spectrum of behaviour i n response to a d e s i r e to c o n t r o l t h e i r emotions and, at the same time, r e l i e v e the t e n s i o n c r e a t e d by the unexpressed emotions. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , these t a c t i c s n e i t h e r e s t a b l i s h c o n t r o l , nor do they r e l i e v e t e n s i o n . T h e i r continued use e v e n t u a l l y b r i n g s about a s t a t e o p p o s i t e to the one sought - namely, a c o n d i t i o n of i n s t a b i l i t y due to accumulated t e n s i o n , the f o r c e of which threatens to c r e a t e an a c t u a l l o s s of c o n t r o l . A dramatic i n s t a n c e of t h i s l i t e r a l l o s s of c o n t r o l i s p r o v i d e d by S t i n e ' s episode of f a i n t i n g , which occurs when she i s suddenly overwhelmed by the i n t e n s i t y of her p r e v i o u s l y unacknowledged f e e l i n g s f o r Waldemar (11,554). An i n e v i t a b l e consequence of the f e a r and suppression of emotion i n these c h a r a c t e r s i s t h a t they become e x c e s s i v e l y dependent upon reason as a d i r e c t i o n a l guide. Bance has r e f e r r e d to I n n s t e t t e n , f o r example, as "an a p p a r e n t l y r a t i o n a l being, but one who maintains h i s e q u i l i b r i u m by r e s o l u t e l y suppressing any inner l i f e he 52 h a s . " J / T h i s i n c l u d e s not only the i n s t i n c t u a l , but a l s o s p i r i t u a l i t y , i n t u i t i o n and imagi n a t i o n , f o r example. These aspects of the i r r a t i o n a l are denied by the c o n f o r m i s t s because they cannot be su b j e c t e d to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t r o l . Garland has made the p e r c e p t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " I n n s t e t t e n , though c a u t i o u s by nature, n e v e r t h e l e s s a c t s O Q with almost r e c k l e s s f o l l y where Crampas i s c o n c e r n e d . " J D A p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r h i s poor judgment can be drawn from I n n s t e t t e n ' s r e l u c t a n c e to t r u s t h i s own i n t u i t i v e f a c u l t i e s . H is f e a r s , which are e n t i r e l y j u s t i f i e d g iven the nature of Crampas' r e p u t a t i o n , s u r f a c e i n t e r m i t t e n t l y o n l y to be brushed a s i d e : Und er f i i h l t e s einen l e i s e n Argwohn s i c h wieder regen und f e s t e r e i n n i s t e n . Aber er hatte lange genug g e l e b t , urn zu wissen, dass a l l e Zeichen t r i i g e n , und dass wir i n unsrer E i f e r s u c h t , t r o t z i h r e r hundert Augen, o f t noch mehr i n d i e I r r e gehen a l s i n der B l i n d h e i t unsres Vertrauens. Es konnte j a so s e i n , wie s i e sagte. (IV,183) The extent of I n n s t e t t e n ' s " r e c k l e s s f o l l y " i s t r u l y a p p a l l i n g when we c o n s i d e r how c l e a r and accurate h i s p e r c e p t i o n s of the s i t u a t i o n o r i g i n a l l y are, as r e v e a l e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n on the morning a f t e r the i n c i d e n t "im Schloon" ( I V , 1 6 2 f f . ) . Whether the dream he recounts has, i n f a c t , been experienced, or i s merely f a b r i c a t e d to convey h i s a c c u s a t i o n and warning, i s not a l t o g e t h e r c e r t a i n . 53 As f a r as the s p i r i t u a l realm i s concerned, none of the c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s p l a c e s any s p e c i a l emphasis upon r e l i g i o n i n t h e i r day to day l i v e s . T h e i r moral values are s e c u l a r i n o r i g i n , not d e r i v e d from a p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s f a i t h . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s r e j e c t i o n of the s p i r i t u a l i s t hat i t presupposes a higher power, which i s beyond the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a p a c i t y to manipulate. These c h a r a c t e r s , being obsessed as they are with matters of c o n t r o l , n a t u r a l l y d i s d a i n the very n o t i o n even t h a t a f o r c e which they cannot command might e x i s t . Another f a c e t of the i r r a t i o n a l i s s u p e r s t i t i o n , a f e a t u r e which i s not observed i n the c o n f o r m i s t s , although i t i s seen f r e q u e n t l y i n the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s . Contrary to what Crampas a s s e r t s (IV,130), f o r i n s t a n c e , the n a r r a t o r denies t h a t I n n s t e t t e n possesses any s o r t of m y s t i c a l bent: "Er g l a u b t e n i c h t an Zeichen und fthnliches, im G e g e n t e i l , wies a l l e s Aberglaubische zuriick " (IV, 21) . The r e f u s a l to acknowledge any s u p e r n a t u r a l phenomena - such as ghosts, on I n n s t e t t e n ' s p a r t - enables these c h a r a c t e r s to maintain t h e i r s e l f - i m a g e s as strong persons, while a v o i d i n g dreaded f e a r s over l o s s of c o n t r o l . Encouraging f e a r i n another person, as Johanna and I n n s t e t t e n do with E f f i , a l s o serves as a means to deny f e a r i n o n e s e l f . S u p e r s t i t i o n i s born not o n l y of f e a r , but of i m a g i n a t i o n , as w e l l . The c o n f o r m i s t s l a c k i m a g i n a t i o n , 54 probably due to the twofold reasons of not p e r m i t t i n g themselves any u n s t r u c t u r e d time i n which to develop i t , and of not being w i l l i n g to g i v e t h e i r emotions f r e e e x p r e s s i o n . As a r e s u l t , these c h a r a c t e r s are l a r g e l y devoid of both c r e a t i v i t y and humour. S t i n e i s the o n l y c h a r a c t e r i n t h i s group who might have some very l i m i t e d scope f o r c r e a t i v i t y , i n her otherwise predominantly monotonous work as a seamstress. Johanna, I n n s t e t t e n and S t i n e share with G r y c z i n s k i an i n t e n s e l y s e r i o u s outlook on l i f e - one which focusses upon work and duty to the e x c l u s i o n of p l e a s u r e and r e l a x a t i o n . Perhaps most im p o r t a n t l y , these c h a r a c t e r s l a c k a c a p a c i t y to laugh at themselves. The e x c e s s i v e c o n t r o l which the c o n f o r m i s t s e x e r t over t h e i r emotions e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t s i n a s t a t e of detachment and d e p r i v a t i o n of a l l that g i v e s l i f e c o l o u r and z e s t . These c h a r a c t e r s attend o n l y to t h e i r most b a s i c m a t e r i a l i s t i c needs, while denying themselves f u l f i l l m e n t of t h e i r emotional, s p i r i t u a l and i n s t i n c t u a l needs. I t i s no wonder t h a t I n n s t e t t e n - whom we see as he approaches h i s f i f t i e s , trapped i n a d e b i l i t a t i n g d e p r e s s i o n - f i n a l l y d e c l a r e s : " ' . . . i c h habe mich zu freuen v e r l e r n t ' " ( I V , 2 8 6 ) . "Incapable of deep f e e l i n g , " w r i t e s P a s c a l of I n n s t e t t e n , 3 9 "he i s i n c a p a b l e of happiness...." I n n s t e t t e n pays f o r h i s conformity, not o n l y with h i s happiness - i r o n i c a l l y , a f a t e he thought was reserved f o r those who defy convention 55 (IV,87) - but a l s o with h i s i d e n t i t y , s i n c e the u l t i m a t e p r i c e of conformity i s f o r f e i t u r e of one's i n d i v i d u a l i t y . In l i e u of the emotional intimacy with others which the c o n f o r m i s t s cannot r i s k , we observe a quest f o r power as the b a s i s of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s with o t h e r s . T h i s quest i s d i s c e r n i b l e i n m a n i p u l a t i v e power s t r u g g l e s with f a m i l y members, f r i e n d s and a s s o c i a t e s . I t r e s u l t s i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of the very r e l a t i o n s h i p s which these c h a r a c t e r s seek to preserve and i t deepens t h e i r a l r e a d y c o n s i d e r a b l e i s o l a t i o n . The v a r i o u s ways i n which the power s t r u g g l e s manifest themselves may be l o o s e l y grouped under o v e r t attempts at domination and more s u b t l e manipulative behaviour. L y d i a p r o v i d e s a good example of the former approach, when the f a m i l y contemplates an e x c u r s i o n : "...aber L y d i a war n i c h t zu bewegen und e r k l a r t e bestimmt, s i e w o l l e n i c h t . Da musste denn, wenn man keine Szene haben w o l l t e , nachgegeben werden..."(II,52). T h i s s e l f - w i l l e d g i r l not o n l y prevents her younger s i s t e r from going on the o u t i n g , "...da s i e s i c h daran gewohnt h a t t e , dem B e i s p i e l e der a l t e r n i n a l l und jedem zu f o l g e n " ( I I , 5 2 - 5 3 ) , she a l s o d e p r i v e s her of a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with her mother: " . . . L y d i a . . . r i s s das Kind am Achselbande zuriick...Und dabei zog und zwang s i e d i e halb widerstrebende K l e i n e mit s i c h f o r t und zu der halb o f f e n g e b l i e b e n e n Tur h i n a u s " ( I I , 1 2 5 ) . L y d i a , i n f a c t , seeks 56 to impose her c o n f o r m i s t response to the c o n f l i c t r e g a r d i n g her mother's a d u l t e r y upon her s i s t e r who i s too young to understand the i s s u e and make her own d e c i s i o n i n the matter. In l i g h t of t h i s i n c i d e n t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to agree with Koc's a s s e r t i o n that "Fontane maintains throughout h i s works...a b a s i c a l l y o p t i m i s t i c outlook on the a b i l i t y of the younger g e n e r a t i o n to change s o c i e t y , improving i t g r a d u a l l y . A c t u a l l y , there e x i s t s a s t r o n g tendency, c e r t a i n l y i n the novels under d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s study, f o r the o f f s p r i n g to r e f l e c t the c o n f l i c t s of t h e i r parents, to take s i d e s i n the power s t r u g g l e , and to become v i c t i m s of an i n a b i l i t y to r e s o l v e these c o n f l i c t s , as we see with S t i n e , L y d i a , Annie, Waldemar, C e c i l e and E f f i . In p a r t i c u l a r , with E f f i B r i e s t and with L ' A d u l t e r a , we see young c h i l d r e n who r e j e c t even t h e i r own mothers f o r having t r a n s g r e s s e d s o c i a l norms. While the o b j e c t i o n could be r a i s e d t h a t L y d i a ' s behaviour i s only the temper tantrum of a c h i l d , i t must be conceded, n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t t h i s w i l l f u l behaviour i s a l s o observable i n the c o n f o r m i s t a d u l t s . Jacobine, f o r i n s t a n c e , r e c e i v e s "sehr bestimmte Weisungen"(II,84) from G r y c z i n s k i , and I n n s t e t t e n b l a t a n t l y wags h i s f i n g e r at E f f i on more than one o c c a s i o n . T y p i c a l l y , these c h a r a c t e r s choose someone younger, or otherwise more submissive than they are, to dominate. Garland notes that I n n s t e t t e n , as "a man of 57 f i x e d c h a r a c t e r and h a b i t s , " d o u b t l e s s p e r c e i v e s E f f i ' s tender age "as an advantage.... She w i l l be ma l l e a b l e enough to be shaped i n t o the d e c o r a t i v e and submissive wife of which he dreams."^ I t i s not always the men who dominate, however. K a t h e 1 s ascendancy i n her marriage, f o r example, i s p r e f i g u r e d by the canary which "piepte so lang und e i g e n s i n n i g , b i s ihm der W i l l e getan war. ' A l l e L i e b l i n g e s i n d g l e i c h , 1 sagte Baron Rienacker, 'und f o r d e r n Gehorsam und Unterwerfung 1"(II,34 7). Another aspect of the tendency to dominate a p a r t n e r i s r e v e a l e d by these c h a r a c t e r s through t h e i r j e a l o u s y . I n n s t e t t e n i s so p o s s e s s i v e . of E f f i t h a t he would d e p r i v e her of l i f e i n order to d e p r i v e any other man of having her: " ' F r e i l i c h , wenn i c h dann stvirbe, nahme i c h d i c h am l i e b s t e n mit. Ich w i l l d i c h keinem andern l a s s e n . . . ' " ( I V , 5 6 ) . The d e s i r e f o r c o n t r o l which u n d e r l i e s domination i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d by Kathe: '...auf a l t e , ganz a l t e Geschichten b i n i c h e i f e r s i i c h t i g , v i e l , v i e l e i f e r s i i c h t i g e r a l s auf neue...neue Geschichten hat man doch immer halb unter Augen...Aber a l t e Geschichten, da hort a l l e K o n t r o l l e auf, da kann es tausend und d r e i geben, und man weiss es kaum.' (11,420) The sense of p e r s o n a l i n s e c u r i t y accompanying t h i s a t t i t u d e of anxious v i g i l a n c e i s r e a d i l y apparent. A n a t u r a l e x t e n s i o n of viewing one's p a r t n e r as a po s s e s s i o n i s to t r e a t him or her as a pawn. T h i s i s the 58 area where we observe the more s u b t l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of m a n i p u l a t i o n . The s t a t u s - c o n s c i o u s c o n f o r m i s t s seek out mates who w i l l enhance t h e i r s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . G r y c z i n s k i ' s marriage c o n s t i t u t e s a p e r f e c t example of t h i s t a c t i c , a c c o r d i n g to the d i s g r u n t l e d Baron Duquede: 'Er i s t e i n S t r e b e r . . . . E r hat s i e g e h e i r a t e t , w e i l s i e d i e Schwester i h r e r Schwester i s t . . . . e s g i b t heutzutage Personen, denen a l l e s b l o s s M i t t e l zum Zweck i s t . Auch d i e L i e b e . Und zu d i e s e n Personen gehort auch unser Freund, der Major....Er braucht d i e s e n Schwager.' (11,40-41) Yet, Jacobine i n d i r e c t l y b etrays by her remarks i n a l e t t e r to Melanie t h a t she, too, has l i k e l y been motivated by the d e s i r e f o r m a t e r i a l s e c u r i t y and s o c i a l s t a t u s , r a t h e r than by l o v e : "'Er [Rubehn] i s t r e i c h und jung, und b e i Deinen Lebensanschauungen, mein' i c h , kann es Dich n i c h t u n g l i i c k l i c h machen, dass er u n b e t i t e l t i s t ' " ( I I , 1 1 7 ) . S t i n e ' s a t t r a c t i o n to the young Count and Johanna's en t h r a l l m e n t with I n n s t e t t e n may a l s o be i n s p i r e d , to some degree, by the wish to escape from a lower s o c i a l stratum by a t t a c h i n g themselves to a p a r t n e r of a higher c l a s s . The i n c l i n a t i o n to t r e a t another as the means to an end i s not r e s t r i c t e d i n these c h a r a c t e r s to romantic attachments; i t manifests i t s e l f i n any r e l a t i o n s h i p which c o u l d f u r t h e r t h e i r ambitious aims. I n n s t e t t e n warns E f f i r e g a r d i n g the i n f l u e n t i a l innkeeper, Golchowski, f o r example: "'Wir d i i r f e n es n i c h t mit ihm verderben, w e i l wir 59 ihn brauchen 1"(IV,44) and G r y c z i n s k i ' s s u c c i n c t summation of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with van der S t r a a t e n , h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , i s : "'Ich s p i e l e mit ihm'"(II,37). T h i s l a t t e r q u o t a t i o n evokes the image of a puppeteer and d i s c l o s e s one of the p r i n c i p a l rewards of manipulation - namely, the avoidance of intimacy. The manipulator remains d i s t a n t and u n i n v o l v e d e m o t i o n a l l y while p l a y i n g upon the emotions of another i n d i v i d u a l . The sense of s u p e r i o r i t y d e r i v e d from t h i s a c t i v i t y i s a l s o q u i t e e v i d e n t . Probably the most c r u e l d i s p l a y of t h i s type of manipulation r e v o l v e s around the business of the "ghost" i n E f f i B r i e s t . Although I n n s t e t t e n d e f i n i t e l y p l a y s a r o l e i n t h i s charade, h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n has been g r e a t l y overestimated by c r i t i c s such as Schober: "Durch a l l e r l e i dunkle Andeutungen nahrt I n n s t e t t e n i n s e i n e r Frau d i e im Ort v e r b r e i t e t e V o r s t e l l u n g , der Chinese konne im oberen Stockwerk noch spukhaft s e i n Wesen t r e i b e n . " 4 2 A c l o s e r e a d i n g of the t e x t does not support the f o r e g o i n g statement. I t i s o n l y a f t e r the couple's move to B e r l i n , t h a t I n n s t e t t e n g r a t u i t o u s l y informs E f f i t h a t Johanna has brought the p i c t u r e of the Chinese with her (IV,207-208). T h i s i s r e a l l y the f i r s t and o n l y c l e a r evidence we have of I n n s t e t t e n p o s s i b l y employing E f f i ' s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d f e a r of the ghost as "eine A r t Angstapparat aus K a l k i i l " ( IV,134) . His i n i t i a l response to her mention of what 60 she b e l i e v e s to have heard u p s t a i r s i s one of embarrassment: "In n s t e t t e n sah i n e i n e r k l e i n e n V e r l e g e n h e i t vor s i c h h i n und schien schwankend, ob er auf a l l das antworten s o l l e . S c h l i e s s l i c h e n t s c h i e d er s i c h f u r Schweigen"(IV,58). The reason f o r I n n s t e t t e n 1 s d i s c o m f i t u r e - that he had expected "'einen a d l i g e n S p u k s t o l z ' " of E f f i - i s not uncovered u n t i l somewhat l a t e r (IV,80). In the meantime, he has f u t i l e l y t r i e d to counter her a n x i e t y with r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the n o i s e : "'Es kann auch was anderes s e i n , im Rauchfang, oder der Wurm im Holz oder e i n l i t i s ' " ( I V , 5 8 ) . Johnson notes that I n n s t e t t e n f a i l s 43 to d e a l adequately with E f f i ' s f e a r s and s u r e l y t h i s i s , i n f a c t , a more accurate assessment of the problem than i s o f f e r e d by Bance, who a s s e r t s : " [ I n n s t e t t e n ] . . . h a s done h i s 44 best to f o s t e r these f e a r s . " I n n s t e t t e n ' s o f f e n s e i s d i s t i n c t l y more one of omission than of commission. His inadequacy i n d e a l i n g with E f f i ' s f e e l i n g s i s e n t i r e l y understandable given the r e l u c t a n c e with which he accepts h i s own. He does not comprehend the fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between her nature and h i s - namely, t h a t she i s governed by emotion and i m a g i n a t i o n , not by reason. Johanna does, however, recognize t h i s aspect of E f f i ' s d i s p o s i t i o n and i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more g u i l t y than i s I n n s t e t t e n of p l a y i n g upon i t f o r her own amusement. In a d e l i b e r a t e attempt to exacerbate her m i s t r e s s 1 a n x i e t y , she 61 has q u i t e l i k e l y a f f i x e d the p i c t u r e of the Chinese to the c h a i r a f t e r l i s t e n i n g to E f f i recount her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the noise and before I n n s t e t t e n takes her u p s t a i r s l a t e r the same day. By encouraging E f f i ' s i r r a t i o n a l f e a r s , Johanna gains a sense of power and s u p e r i o r i t y over someone she p e r c e i v e s as a r i v a l f o r the a f f e c t i o n s of I n n s t e t t e n . E f f i s t a t e s about the ghost i n a l e t t e r to her mother: "'...aber Johanna sagt mir, es kame immer mal wieder, namentlich wenn wer Neues im Hause ersch i e n e ' " ( I V , 1 0 0 ) . I t cannot be r u l e d out t h a t E f f i ' s f l a i r f o r dramatics coupled with her extreme e g o c e n t r i c i t y may have c o n t r i b u t e d to an e l a b o r a t i o n of t h i s s o r t upon her d e l u s i o n . The other p o s s i b i l i t y , which i s not i n c o n c e i v a b l e , i s that Johanna a c t u a l l y has s a i d t h i s , although i t c o n t r a d i c t s her o r i g i n a l e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t the n o i s e was caused by the c u r t a i n s (IV,54). C r e a t i n g c o n f u s i o n i n one's v i c t i m i s , however, i n i t s e l f an e x c e l l e n t means of m a n i p u l a t i o n . The i l l u s i o n of c o n t r o l which the c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s pursue can e v e n t u a l l y d i s s o l v e i n t o the very f e e l i n g s of h e l p l e s s n e s s they have sought to d e f e a t . I n n s t e t t e n ' s embittered end, f o r example, i s foreshadowed by h i s remarks about Louis Napoleon: "'Wer i s t am Ende Herr i n seinem Hause? Niemand'"(IV,66). i i i ) The problem of p r i d e 62 The f i n a l d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of the c o n f o r m i s t s to be d i s c u s s e d i s t h e i r p r i d e . T h i s i s not a h e a l t h y s o r t of p r i d e born of s e l f - r e s p e c t , but r a t h e r a negative type, or f a l s e p r i d e . Lynd d e s c r i b e s t h i s form of p r i d e as one which "depends on e x t e r n a l approval and has c o n s t a n t l y to be 45 r e i n f o r c e d . " In essence, the p r i d e of the c o n f o r m i s t s i s an exaggerated concern with how others are e v a l u a t i n g and judging them. I t i s not enough f o r these c h a r a c t e r s simply to conform; they must r e c e i v e acknowledgement f o r t h e i r behaviour. As Garland observes of I n n s t e t t e n , he has an "imperative p r i n c i p l e : to conform to the customs, conventions, and r u l e s of h i s c l a s s and (of equal 4 fi importance) to be seen to do so." The c o n f o r m i s t s ' p r i d e , which r e v e a l s i t s e l f i n a v a r i e t y of ways, i s r e a d i l y betrayed i n some c h a r a c t e r s by t h e i r a t t i t u d e of arrogance, or s u p e r i o r i t y . G r y c z i n s k i i s d e s c r i b e d by another c h a r a c t e r as having " ' a l l e Sorten S t o l z 1 " ( 1 1 , 4 0 ) and h i s " s u p e r i o r e Haltung"(II,51) i s confirmed by the n a r r a t o r . I n n s t e t t e n ' s p r i d e i s r e v e a l e d by a d e s i r e , " s i c h von der grossen Menge zu unterscheiden"(IV,134). T h i s haughtiness i s not c o n f i n e d , however, to the male c h a r a c t e r s , nor onl y to the a r i s t o c r a t i c ones. Johanna i s po r t r a y e d as being "von S t o l z und Oberlegenheit ganz e r f i i l l t " (IV, 245) and Waldemar suspects 63 S t i n e of po s s e s s i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e arrogance; although she denies t h i s a c c u s a t i o n , i t may c o n t a i n an element of t r u t h (II,553). The o s t e n s i b l e reason as to why these c h a r a c t e r s f e e l s u p e r i o r v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to what they have chosen to i n v e s t t h e i r p r i d e i n . For the men, p r i d e i s a s s o c i a t e d mainly with power d e r i v e d from s o c i a l c l a s s , m i l i t a r y rank and ca r e e r p r e s t i g e . The a r i s t o c r a t i c women p r i d e themselves on t h e i r p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , while the working c l a s s women a t t a c h t h e i r p r i d e to moral v i r t u e . The u n d e r l y i n g reason f o r t h i s form of p r i d e appears to be a l a c k of s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e and a consequent d e s i r e to c u l t i v a t e acceptance from o t h e r s . T h i s behaviour not only takes the form of app r o v a l - s e e k i n g , but a l s o e n t a i l s s t r e n u o u s l y a v o i d i n g anything which might provoke d i s a p p r o v a l . Another t e l l t a l e s i g n of p r i d e i n the co n f o r m i s t s i s t h e i r c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s . T h i s can take the form of e i t h e r s t r i v i n g to e l e v a t e o n e s e l f , or endeavouring to d i m i n i s h another. Sometimes, the o b j e c t i v e i s to win ge n e r a l a c c l a i m , while at other times, i t i s the favour of a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l which i s sought. In the case of I n n s t e t t e n , whose p r i d e may be symbolized by the swelled s a i l s of the s h i p which hangs from the c e i l i n g of the K e s s i n r e s i d e n c e (IV,50), we see a c h a r a c t e r d r i v e n by the need f o r r e c o g n i t i o n . E x c e l l i n g has always been a way of l i f e f o r the 64 Baron, from h i s m i l i t a r y days, i n c l u d i n g v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e when he r e c e i v e d the Iron Cross (IV,13), to h i s c i v i l s e r v i c e c a r e e r , i n which he proceeds from Landrat to M i n i s t e r i a l r a t and f i n a l l y , to M i n i s t e r i a l d i r e k t o r a l l w i t h i n approximately a decade. In l a r g e measure, h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n appears to d e r i v e from the knowledge t h a t he i s p r e f e r r e d over o t h e r s : "Der F i i r s t h atte noch von V e r s a i l l e s her eine V o r l i e b e f u r ihn und...der j u g e n d l i c h e durch Haltung und K l u g h e i t g l e i c h ausgezeichnete Landrat stand ebenso i n Gunst b e i der F u r s t i n " ( I V , 6 8 - 6 9 ) . " ' I n n s t e t t e n i s t e i n Karrieremacher says Frau von B r i e s t , "'vom S t r e b e r w i l l i c h n i c h t sprechen...dazu i s t er zu w i r k l i c h vornehm... 1 1"(IV,40). The n a r r a t o r of L ' A d u l t e r a , however, does not h e s i t a t e to accord the l e s s f l a t t e r i n g term to G r y c z i n s k i (11,22). C r i t i c a l comment has been s i m i l a r l y t e r s e : "Major im Generalstab mit der 47 entsprechenden Arroganz." G r y c z i n s k i ' s d e s i r e to stand above the common mass i s c l e a r l y betrayed by h i s c o n v i c t i o n , "dass es i n der ganzen Welt n i c h t zwei so grundverschiedene Farben gabe, wie das allgemeine p r e u s s i s c h e M i l i t a r - R o t und das G e n e r a l s t a b s - R o t " ( I I , 2 2 ) . The o n l y redeeming q u a l i t y of t h i s otherwise grim c h a r a c t e r i s t h a t he i s not e n t i r e l y beyond employing " e i n bescheidenes Mass von Riicksichtnahme"(II, 22) - p r o v i d i n g he i s not given reason to take umbrage. 65 In the women, p r i d e e x h i b i t s i t s e l f i n the g u i s es of v a n i t y and v i r t u e . As an example of the former type, Kathe i s not content simply to bask i n the admiration of Botho's f r i e n d s ; she a l s o demands from her husband a posture of s u p e r l a t i v e d e v o t i o n , even a d o r a t i o n : "'Botho...Puppen werden am meisten g e l i e b t und am besten behandelt. Und darauf kommt es mir an 1 " ( I I , 4 6 6 ) . The wish f o r preferment i s not q u i t e so s t r o n g i n Jacobine, although there i s more than a h i n t of r i v a l r y between her and Melanie. Jacobine i s not as p r e t t y as her o l d e r s i s t e r ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , her red h a i r i s b e l i e v e d by some to r e s t o r e the balance of power (11,22). The f a c t t h a t she remains c h i l d l e s s , however - and not of her own c h o i c e - may w e l l be a cause f o r some f e e l i n g s of envy towards a s i s t e r who has been t h r i c e b l e s s e d . Another c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p a i r of s i s t e r s i s found i n S t i n e . The young heroine of t h i s s t o r y p l a y s a s u b t l e and s e l f - r i g h t e o u s game of one upmanship with her m i s t r e s s s i s t e r , P a u l i n e P i t t e l k o w . S t i n e cannot, or dares not, a c t out the femme f a t a l e r o l e and chooses i n s t e a d to g l o r i f y h e r s e l f i n i t s o p p o s i t e - even to the p o i n t of martyrdom: 1 . . . s o l c h e i n Leben, wie's meine Schwester f i i h r t , v e r f u h r t mich n i c h t ; es s c h r e c k t mich b l o s s ab, und i c h w i l l mich l i e b e r mein Leben lang qualen und im S p i t a l s t e r b e n , a l s jeden Tag a l t e Herren urn mich haben, b l o s s um Unanstandigkeiten mit anhoren zu miissen oder A n z i i g l i c h k e i t e n und Scherze, d i e v i e l l e i c h t noch schlimmer s i n d . ' (11,508) 66 F i n a l l y , with Johanna we observe both v a n i t y and v i r t u e adding up to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of p r i d e . The mental h a b i t of envious comparison a s s o c i a t e d with the c o n f o r m i s t s ' p r i d e , i s r e a d i l y d e t e c t a b l e i n t h i s c h a r a c t e r . Her a t t i t u d e of h o s t i l e competitiveness i s etched i n t o her f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n : " . . . s i e . . . s a h j e d e r z e i t mit e i n e r eigenen, i h r iibrigens durchaus kleidenden Siegermiene g r a d l i n i g und b l a u a u g i g . . . f o r t " ( I V , 2 2 6 ) . Johanna's i r e i s roused by her eagerness f o r preeminence with I n n s t e t t e n . She does not v i e with Roswitha f o r approval from E f f i , s i n c e the l a t t e r i s a r i v a l and, t h e r e f o r e , someone whom Johanna i s compelled to d i m i n i s h i n her own mind, as w e l l as i n the eyes of I n n s t e t t e n : Diese [Johanna]...verwunderte s i c h im s t i l l e n , dass d i e gnadige Frau an a l l dem dummen Zeuge [Geschichten] so v i e l G e f a l l e n f i n d e ; d i e s e Verwunderung aber, d i e mit einem starken U b e r l e g e n h e i t s g e f i i h l e Hand i n Hand ging, war doch auch wieder e i n Gliick und sorgte d a f i i r , dass keine R a n g s t r e i t i g k e i t e n aufkommen konnten. Roswitha war e i n f a c h d i e komische F i g u r , und Neid gegen s i e zu hegen ware f u r Johanna n i c h t s anderes gewesen, wie wenn s i e R o l l o um sei n e F r e u n d s c h a f t s s t e l l u n g beneidet h a t t e . (IV,115) Johanna succeeds i n simultaneously d e f e a t i n g both women. The d i s c o v e r y of E f f i ' s a f f a i r , which i s dou b t l e s s provoked by Johanna's i n s i s t e n c e upon breaking open the drawer - wherein 67 no bandages can be found, although the i n c r i m i n a t i n g l e t t e r s are - accomplishes the e l i m i n a t i o n of E f f i from the household, as w e l l as the "Triumph e i n e r gewissen I n t i m i t a t s s t e l l u n g zum gnadigen Herrn"(IV,245) over Roswitha. Her v i c t o r y i s dubious at b e s t , however, i n t h a t the Baron comes to r e g a r d her as the "comical f i g u r e " - i n more ways than one (IV,286). The d e s i r e f o r preeminence, or p o s i t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n , i s matched i n these c h a r a c t e r s by an e q u a l l y s t r o n g preoccupation with a v o i d i n g negative d i s t i n c t i o n , or das Aparte. Conformists seek to achieve t h i s l a t t e r g o a l by upholding the c o n s e r v a t i v e , t r a d i t i o n a l values of s o c i e t y and shunning any e c c e n t r i c behaviour which might provoke r i d i c u l e . They become what R i c h t e r has r e f e r r e d to I n n s t e t t e n as - namely, "di e Verkorperung eines g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h gepragten und genormten Seins s c h l e c h t h i n . 1 , 4 8 "There are people who can only a c t i n s i t u a t i o n s which have i n some way been f o r m a l i z e d f o r them," s t a t e s Bance, "and I n n s t e t t e n i s one of these. In h i s a n x i e t y to comply with the s o c i a l code, he seeks out the f o r m a l i z e d r o l e where 49 one i s a v a i l a b l e . . . . " For the a r i s t o c r a t i c men - I n n s t e t t e n , whom M u l l e r - S e i d e l has c h a r a c t e r i z e d as "der Typ 50 des P r i n z i p i e n r e i t e r s , and f o r Major G r y c z i n s k i - the " f o r m a l i z e d r o l e " i s t h a t p r e s c r i b e d by the Ehrenkodex of 68 the o f f i c e r c o r p s . The f a c t t h a t I n n s t e t t e n i s no longer an a c t i v e member of the army has not a f f e c t e d h i s value system. As M i l l e r observes: " I n n s t e t t e n pursues h i s ca r e e r w i t h i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e very much as i f he were s t i l l s e r v i n g w i t h i n the corps, p r e s e r v i n g h i s h a b i t of r i s i n g e a r l y and c h e r i s h i n g values such as Zucht, Ordnung, and D i e n s t . Moral values were a l s o p r e s c r i b e d by the Ehrenkodex and these a p p l i e d not onl y to the o f f i c e r s themselves, but to t h e i r k i n as w e l l . M i l l e r p o i n t s out, f o r i n s t a n c e , "that f a i l i n g to prevent one's wif e from having an a f f a i r with another man co u l d be considered a s e r i o u s breach of the code of honor."^2 T h i s i s , of course, p r e c i s e l y the predicament which I n n s t e t t e n f i n d s himself i n and the one which G r y c z i n s k i i s determined to av o i d . The n o t i o n of duty a l s o p r o v i d e d a guide to s o c i a l l y a c ceptable behaviour f o r both men and women. Duty may be understood as one po l e of the c l a s s i c a l dichotomy of P f l i c h t and Neigunq. T h i s dichotomy i s one of many ways of ex p r e s s i n g the e s s e n t i a l c o n f l i c t i n Fontane's works between s o c i e t y and the i n d i v i d u a l . M u l l e r - S e i d e l , f o r example, views the c o n f l i c t as being "zwischen Ordnungsmacht und Herzensbestimmung," while Vincenz chooses to l a b e l i t as 54 one "zwischen Miissen und Wollen." Regardless of how the c o n f l i c t i s phrased, however, i n the co n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s , i t i s the former aspect - duty, or the f u l f i l l m e n t of 69 o b l i g a t i o n s - which p r e v a i l s . To be sure, the exact nature of the o b l i g a t i o n s i n v o l v e d v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to gender and s o c i a l c l a s s , but the n e c e s s i t y to p l a c e duty f i r s t remains constant. The upper c l a s s male c h a r a c t e r s share with the lower c l a s s females the task of s u s t a i n i n g Ordnung. Work s u p p l i e s the f o c a l p o i n t i n t h i s endeavour and suggests a l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the l a c k of concern about Ordnung e x h i b i t e d by the non-working upper c l a s s women. The a r i s t o c r a t i c men are a l s o charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of upholding the honour of t h e i r c a s t e : The concept of honor, as i t was i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n the o f f i c e r corps, had a c o l l e c t i v e as w e l l as an i n d i v i d u a l aspect. Each member of the corps was o b l i g e d to av o i d any a c t - and permit nothing to be done to him - which could r e f l e c t n e g a t i v e l y on the r e p u t a t i o n , i . e . the honor of the corps as a w h o l e . 5 5 The a r i s t o c r a t i c women, on the other hand, are c a l l e d upon p r i n c i p a l l y to be d e c o r a t i v e and i d l e wives. I d e a l l y , they were a l s o expected to provide h e i r s , but c u r i o u s l y none of the women of e i t h e r c l a s s - i n t h i s sample of c h a r a c t e r s - i s seen performing the d u t i e s of a mother. For t h a t matter, n e i t h e r of the two working c l a s s women i s even married - a s i t u a t i o n which does not, however, c o n s t i t u t e as d i r e a f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l d i s g r a c e f o r them, as i t would have f o r the " l a d i e s . " Apart from marriage and c h i l d b e a r i n g , i t was 70 a l s o incumbent on women i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century t o r e f l e c t a c e r t a i n image of what was b e l i e v e d to c o n s t i t u t e f e m i n i n i t y and p r o p r i e t y . T h i s image served to r e s t r i c t many forms of behaviour, as we see most c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d by S t i n e . A l l of the co n f o r m i s t women, however, are c a r e f u l to adopt and guard such an image. A f a l s e image of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y can, i n f a c t , prevent d e t e c t i o n of behaviour and motiv a t i o n s which would otherwise provoke censure. Wandel d e s c r i b e s G r y c z i n s k i ' s image, f o r example, as " a u s s e r l i c h t a d e l l o s , " but p o i n t s out t h a t t h i s i s nothing other than a c l o a k to conceal h i s " k a l t e S t r e b e r t u m . " 3 D i n a s i m i l a r v e i n , Park a l l u d e s to an element of h y p o c r i s y i n the Baron's v a l u e s , d e c l a r i n g t h a t h i s "co n s e r v a t i s m . . . i s not the r e c o g n i t i o n of the power and s a n c t i t y of decorum but r a t h e r a mask h i d i n g h i s weakness 5 7 and i n d e c i s i o n . " Thus adherence to p r i n c i p l e s and performance of duty can endow the con f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s with an aura of s t r e n g t h and i r r e p r o a c h a b i l i t y , which i s not always merited. Unquestionably, the i n h i b i t i n g i n f l u e n c e upon behaviour exerted by governing one's l i f e a c c o r d i n g to p r i n c i p l e s and duty i s c o n s i d e r a b l e ; even so, the same c o n s t r a i n t p r o v i d e s the co n f o r m i s t s not onl y with a sense of s e c u r i t y through f a m i l i a r i t y , but a l s o r e l e a s e s them from the burden of p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In the f i n a l 71 a n a l y s i s , the f e a r of r i d i c u l e e x h i b i t e d by these c h a r a c t e r s may a c t u a l l y be cowardice i n the f a c e of e x e r c i s i n g i n i t i a t i v e and assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as an i n d i v i d u a l . The c o n f o r m i s t s ' d e s i r e f o r s a f e t y and the avoidance of c o n f l i c t between themselves and others outweighs, however, any f l e e t i n g wish f o r autonomy. A c h a r a c t e r whose response to an i n s t a n c e of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t w e l l i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s a t t i t u d e of the c o n f o r m i s t s i s I n n s t e t t e n . The d i s c o v e r y of h i s wife's a d u l t e r y - and h i s d i s c l o s u r e of i t to h i s f r i e n d , W u l l e r s d o r f - p l a c e t h i s c h a r a c t e r i n a s i t u a t i o n where he i s o b l i g a t e d to uphold the custom of h i s o f f i c e r c l a s s by c h a l l e n g i n g the former l o v e r to a d u e l . His p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s , however, i n c l i n e him to f o r g i v e h i s w i f e . During the d i s c u s s i o n with W u l l e r s d o r f - a d i a l o g u e which Wandrey regards as the "grosste Sprechszene 5 8 des deutschen Romans" - I n n s t e t t e n denies any f e e l i n g s of hatred or revenge (IV,235). Yet, as Bance sums up the encounter: "...he [ I n n s t e t t e n ] turns the p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n i n t o an e x t e r n a l , b u r e a u c r a t i c a f f a i r , to be s e t t l e d 5 9 a c c o r d i n g to r e g u l a t i o n s governing conduct." A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e debate, I n n s t e t t e n decides upon the d u e l with the f o l l o w i n g j u s t i f i c a t i o n : "'Man i s t n i c h t b l o s s e i n e i n z e l n e r Mensch, man gehort einem Ganzen an, und auf das Ganze haben wir bestandig R i i c k s i c h t zu nehmen, wir s i n d durchaus abhangig von ihm' "(IV,235). But S c h i l l e m e i t regards 72 I n n s t e t t e n ' s preoccupation with h i s own r e p u t a t i o n as t h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s e s s e n t i a l m o t i v a t i o n : "Vor dem U r t e i l der G e s e l l s c h a f t zu bestehen, i s t d i e Maxime, unter der n i c h t nur I n n s t e t t e n s E n t s c h l u s s zum D u e l l , sondern s e i n ganzes 6 0 Leben b i s zu diesem E n t s c h l u s s s t e h t . " A f t e r the d u e l , however, we see I n n s t e t t e n - who Frau von B r i e s t assured E f f i b e fore her marriage " ' i n a l l e m das r i c h t i g e Mass ha l t ' " ( I V , 3 4 ) - ruminating over what he now f e a r s may have been an e x c e s s i v e r e a c t i o n : " ' T r e i b t man etwas [Ehrenkultus] auf d i e S p i t z e , so u b e r t r e i b t man und hat di e L a c h e r l i c h k e i t . . . . A b e r wo fangt es an? Wo l i e g t d i e Grenze? War s i e da? War s i e schon i i b e r s c h r i t t e n ? ' " (IV, 243) . He cannot decide whether the l e n g t h of time which has elapsed s i n c e the episode of a d u l t e r y c o n s t i t u t e s an i n s t a n c e of the V e r j a h r u n g s t h e o r i e - a theory f o r which the o f f i c e r c l a s s had no exact d e f i n i t i o n to guide them. Our l a s t glimpse of the Baron r e v e a l s an i n d i v i d u a l d i s i l l u s i o n e d with s o c i e t y ' s values and i n d e s p a i r of ever a c h i e v i n g genuine happiness: " ' . . . n i c h t s g e f a l l t mir mehr; je mehr man mich auszeichnet, je mehr f i i h l e i c h , dass d i e s a l l e s n i c h t s i s t . Mein Leben i s t v e r p f u s c h t . . . . M i r i s t a l l e s v e r s c h l o s s e n ' " ( I V , 2 8 7 ) . A r i s i n g from an i n a b i l i t y to e n v i s i o n a new d i r e c t i o n - "'Kann es anders sein?'"(IV,286) - I n n s t e t t e n ' s a t t i t u d e of r e s i g n a t i o n s i g n i f i e s an e v o l u t i o n of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y from t h a t of a c o n f o r m i s t to a 73 compromiser type, e. Summary T h i s chapter has examined a s e l e c t i o n of Fontane's c h a r a c t e r s who d e a l with c o n f l i c t between s o c i e t y and themselves as i n d i v i d u a l s , through conformity to the p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l norms. I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t these c h a r a c t e r s - the c o n f o r m i s t s - share a number of s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s . P h y s i c a l l y , they tend to be young, h e a l t h y and a t t r a c t i v e . Yet, they are plagued by symptoms of c h r o n i c t e n s i o n c r e a t e d by e x c e s s i v e i n h i b i t i o n of emotion. Endeavouring to reduce t h e i r t e n s i o n , the c o n f o r m i s t s engage i n a v a r i e t y of compulsive a c t i v i t i e s from which they appear to d e r i v e a sense of comfort through f a m i l i a r i t y . B a s i c a l l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n , such c h a r a c t e r s are u n w i l l i n g to accept p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s . The i n t o l e r a n c e e x h i b i t e d by c o n f o r m i s t s toward others who are l e s s orthodox, i s matched by a f e a r of being r i d i c u l e d themselves. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , these c h a r a c t e r s hide what they b e l i e v e would be c o n s i d e r e d unacceptable aspects of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y behind a mask, or a r o l e , which i s designed to win approval and to ward o f f d i s a p p r o v a l . As a r e s u l t , they become a l i e n a t e d from t h e i r own emotional cen t e r - a c o n d i t i o n which i s a l s o aggravated by these 74 c h a r a c t e r s ' o v e r - r e l i a n c e upon reason coupled with t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of the i r r a t i o n a l and i n s t i n c t i v e . E s s e n t i a l l y c o m p e t i t i v e , r a t h e r than c o - o p e r a t i v e i n nature, l i f e i s a s e r i o u s business of g e t t i n g ahead f o r the ambitious c o n f o r m i s t s . T h i s obsession with a c h i e v i n g preeminence suggests an e x c e s s i v e dependence upon the o p i n i o n s of o t h e r s . Although upholders of t r a d i t i o n , the c o n f o r m i s t s ' values are fundamentally m a t e r i a l i s t i c and n e i t h e r t r u l y e t h i c a l , nor s p i r i t u a l . These c h a r a c t e r s remain i n the c o n f o r m i s t mode of t h i n k i n g and behaving u n t i l disappointment f o r c e s them to r e c o n s i d e r the v a l i d i t y of s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s . 75 I I . The Compromiser Type "'Es h i l f t n i c h t s . A l s o R e s i g n a t i o n . Ergebung i s t iiberhaupt das Beste.'" (11,400) - Botho a. P r o f i l e of the compromiser type The key d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of the compromiser type i s an a t t i t u d e of r e s i g n a t i o n toward ever s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t between p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n - a stance which R i c h t e r has d e f i n e d as " V e r z i c h t auf e i n e w i r k l i c h e Auflosung aufgeworfener Widerspriiche. " E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s type has abandoned hope of f i n d i n g p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t w i t h i n s o c i e t y . In the words of one such c h a r a c t e r : "'Leben h e i s s t Hoffnungen be g r a b e n 1 " ( I I , 2 9 5 ) . M e l a n c h o l i c and c y n i c a l , the compromiser f e e l s c o n t r o l l e d by other i n d i v i d u a l s , by s o c i e t y , or by f a t e . A sense of h e l p l e s s n e s s i n the face of these f o r c e s encourages p a s s i v i t y , detachment and aimlessness i n t h i s c h a r a c t e r type. The compromiser l i v e s i n the past as an escape from c h r o n i c disappointment and d i s c o n t e n t a s s o c i a t e d with h i s or her present s i t u a t i o n . I d e a l i s m and a romantic 76 yearning f o r the u n a t t a i n a b l e are a l s o t y p i c a l . Another s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e of the compromiser type i s h u m i l i t y - to be understood i n t h i s context, as a sense of i n f e r i o r i t y toward other members of s o c i e t y . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e v e a l s i t s e l f through s e l f - d o u b t , s e l f - e f f a c i n g behaviour and f e e l i n g s of inadequacy. Often, a d e s i r e f o r p r o t e c t i o n or rescue by others i s expressed by t h i s type. S o c i a l withdrawal i s common or, i f s u p e r f i c i a l s o c i a l c o n t a c t s are pursued, the compromiser remains e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t a n t and i s o l a t e d . D u p l i c i t y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Moreover, there i s f r e q u e n t l y evidence of envy and resentment toward i n d i v i d u a l s who are p e r c e i v e d by the compromiser as being b e t t e r o f f than he or she. T h i s type i s a l s o plagued by f e e l i n g s of g u i l t which are experienced not onl y as a sense of c u l p a b i l i t y , but as a ge n e r a l sense of unworthiness. A l s o notable i n the compromiser i s a s e n s i t i v e and emotional nature. Inner c o n f l i c t between d e s i r e s and f e a r s leads to i n d e c i s i v e n e s s , ambivalence and sometimes even p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s . Some form of p h y s i c a l d i s f i g u r e m e n t i s a l s o f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s type. U n p r i n c i p l e d , he or she i s g i v e n to expediency. H i g h l y i m a g i n a t i v e and o f t e n s u p e r s t i t i o u s , the compromiser l i v e s i n a f a n t a s y world of dreams. I n i t i a t i v e , d i s c i p l i n e and perseverance i n the p u r s u i t of r e a l i s t i c goals are l a c k i n g . Nervous and 7 7 r e s t l e s s , t h i s type i m p u l s i v e l y seeks s t i m u l a t i n g experiences - i n c l u d i n g the c h a l l e n g e of romantic conquests. A fondness f o r the e x o t i c and unconventional a c t i v i t i e s as the means f o r d i s p e l l i n g boredom a l s o emerges as a prominent f e a t u r e . When faced with s i t u a t i o n s of c o n f l i c t between pe r s o n a l d e s i r e and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , a compromiser sees two p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s - namely, d e f i a n c e of a u t h o r i t y , or submissive acquiescence to i t s demands. T h i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y behaviour stems from the f a c t t h a t , on the one hand, a compromiser i s s c e p t i c a l - even contemptuous - of s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s . On the other hand, he or she at times f e e l s overwhelmed by s o c i a l p r e s s u r e or by the f e a r of negative r e p e r c u s s i o n s which might f o l l o w i n the wake of r e b e l l i o u s behaviour. U n d e r l y i n g t h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to s a c r i f i c e p e r s o n a l happiness, we sense a profound s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n , or as 6 2 R i c h t e r has termed i t , "eine Unterwerfung." Each of the i n d i v i d u a l compromiser c h a r a c t e r s tends to favour one or other response - e i t h e r d e f i a n c e or submission. However, v a c i l l a t i o n i s t y p i c a l of the compromiser type and an a l t e r n a t i o n between both responses may be observed i n the same c h a r a c t e r . To a v e r t c o n f u s i o n on the reader's p a r t , the p o i n t should be made here t h a t the s p i r i t of r e s i g n a t i o n i n which a compromiser c h a r a c t e r submits to s o c i e t y ' s demands i s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the a t t i t u d e of r e s p e c t f o r 78 s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s e x h i b i t e d by a c o n f o r m i s t . The compromiser's submission i s e s s e n t i a l l y c a p i t u l a t i o n , not conformity. b. S e l e c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s and the nature of t h e i r c o n f l i c t s The s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r s s e l e c t e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s chapter as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the compromiser type i n c l u d e : Robert von L e s l i e - G o r d o n , C e c i l e and P i e r r e St. Arnaud from C e c i l e ; van der S t r a a t e n from L ' A d u l t e r a ; Waldemar von Haldern and P a u l i n e P i t t e l k o w from S t i n e ; Major von Crampas, G i e s h u b l e r , E f f i , M a r i e t t a T r i p p e l l i , Frau von B r i e s t and Herr von B r i e s t from E f f i B r i e s t ; K o n i g i n Isabeau, Frau Dorr, Herr Dorr and Botho von Rienacker from Irrungen, Wirrungen. Each of the aforementioned s i x t e e n c h a r a c t e r s experiences a s i t u a t i o n of c o n f l i c t between p e r s o n a l d e s i r e and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n . Numerous p a r a l l e l s e x i s t between these s i t u a t i o n s which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d at l e n g t h i n the body of t h i s chapter. To a s s i s t the reader who may not be f a m i l i a r w i t h a l l c h a r a c t e r s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a b r i e f e l u c i d a t i o n of the nature of t h e i r c o n f l i c t s w i l l be o f f e r e d here. Gordon and Crampas share the same c o n f l i c t over whether to have an a f f a i r with a married woman. C e c i l e and 79 E f f i , as the married women concerned, f a c e a c o n f l i c t over i n f i d e l i t y . Both St. Arnaud and Herr Dorr were co n f r o n t e d with the d e c i s i o n of whether to marry women who had t a r n i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n s . Van der St r a a t e n , when he d i s c o v e r s h i s wife's i n f i d e l i t y , i s not - u n l i k e the a r i s t o c r a t I n n s t e t t e n - r e q u i r e d to decide upon a d u e l . However, h i s p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n t o f o r g i v e h i s wife and maintain t h e i r marriage does p l a c e him at odds with s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s . Botho's c o n f l i c t r e v o l v e s around the i s s u e of whether to maintain a common-law r e l a t i o n s h i p with a working c l a s s g i r l whom he l o v e s , or to f o l l o w t r a d i t i o n and comply with h i s f a m i l y ' s wishes by marrying a r i c h c o u s i n of h i s own c l a s s . Waldemar's s i t u a t i o n i s v i r t u a l l y the same as Botho 1s except that the former's f a m i l y does not wish him to marry at a l l . The s i t u a t i o n of c o n f l i c t i n which we f i n d P a u l i n e and Kon i g i n Isabeau i s th a t of choosing between earning a l i v i n g by r e s p e c t a b l e means, or by being the m i s t r e s s of an a r i s t o c r a t . Frau Dorr, too, was faced with t h i s c o n f l i c t i n her youth and we a l s o see a v a r i a t i o n upon the same theme with the c h a r a c t e r , M a r i e t t a . The l a t t e r ' s s i t u a t i o n i s f u r t h e r complicated by her d e s i r e to be a s s o c i a t e d with the the a t e r - an a f f i l i a t i o n d e t r i m e n t a l to her r e p u t a t i o n . With G i e s h u b l e r , we encounter a c h a r a c t e r who i s pl a c e d 80 i n a s i t u a t i o n of ongoing c o n f l i c t i n which he i s expected to deny h i m s e l f romantic r e l a t i o n s with women because s o c i e t y views such involvement as i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d . E f f i ' s f a t h e r , Herr von B r i e s t , experiences a c o n f l i c t over the i s s u e of whether to o s t r a c i z e , or to f o r g i v e , h i s daughter. B r i e s t a l s o encountered c o n f l i c t i n the past over e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t he pursue a c a r e e r i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e . L a s t l y , Frau von B r i e s t i s i n v o l v e d i n a few episodes of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t . One concerned her own c h o i c e of a marriage p a r t n e r between the man to whom she f e l t a t t r a c t e d and another man with whom an a l l i a n c e o f f e r e d g r e a t e r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e . Subsequently, she must decide whether i t i s accepta b l e f o r her daughter to marry her former s u i t o r . And, of course, on two separate occasions she f a c e s with her husband the same c o n f l i c t over r e j e c t i n g , or f o r g i v i n g , E f f i . c. P h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of the compromisers i ) The motif of d i s f i g u r e m e n t In c o n t r a s t to the c o n f o r m i s t s , who are noted f o r t h e i r p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , a common motif which can be det e c t e d among s e v e r a l compromisers i s th a t of p h y s i c a l 81 d i s f i g u r e m e n t . T h i s d i s f i g u r e m e n t tends to appear i n one of three forms: wounds, d e f o r m i t i e s and d i s t o r t i o n of n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s . The husband of the heroine i n C e c i l e , P i e r r e von St.Arnaud, as w e l l as the s u i t o r of the heroine i n S t i n e , Waldemar von Haldern, both r e c e i v e d wounds i n the War of 1870. Whereas the former experienced a miraculous recovery (11,148), the l a t t e r was so s e r i o u s l y i n j u r e d t h a t he never f u l l y regained h i s h e a l t h (11,544-545). Major von Crampas i n the n o vel, E f f i B r i e s t , a r r i v e s on the scene with a s h a t t e r e d l e f t arm as the legacy of a d u e l . He u l t i m a t e l y d i e s of a second wound r e c e i v e d i n a subsequent d u e l . P h y s i c a l s c a r s can, of course, r e a d i l y be understood as the symbols of s u f f e r i n g i n i n d i v i d u a l s who have been e m o t i o n a l l y s c a r r e d . Wounds may a l s o imply a sense of shame or h u m i l i t y - t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the submissive stance of compromisers - as Helen M e r r e l l Lynd observes: "Experiences of shame appear to embody the r o o t meaning of the word - to uncover, to expose, to wound." The second type of d i s f i g u r e m e n t - namely, d e f o r m i t y - r e v e a l s i t s e l f i n a v a r i e t y of a p p a r e n t l y c o n g e n i t a l d e f e c t s . A member of t h i s category, as w e l l , i s St.Arnaud, "dessen s c h a r f e r und beinah stechender B l i c k durch einen k l e i n e n F e h l e r am l i n k e n Auge noch g e s t e i g e r t wurde"(II,142). Herr Dorr, the bow-legged gardener i n 82 Irrungen, Wirrungen, would have been i n the o p i n i o n of the n a r r a t o r , "eine vollkommene T r i v i a l e r s c h e i n u n g . . . , wenn ihm n i c h t eine zwischen Augenwinkel und l i n k e r S c h l a f e s i t z e n d e braune Pocke was Apartes gegeben h a t t e " ( I I , 3 2 4 ) . C u r i o u s l y , i t i s the l e f t s i d e of the body which seems to have been s e l e c t e d by the author with more than average frequency to d i s p l a y s c a r s and other blemishes. Those who have been most c r u e l l y t r e a t e d by Nature remain, however, sympathetic c h a r a c t e r s d e s p i t e - or p o s s i b l y due to - t h e i r high degree of e c c e n t r i c i t y . A prime example of t h i s type i s the apothecary i n E f f i B r i e s t , Dr. Alonzo G i e s h i i b l e r . The heroine of t h i s n o v e l , E f f i , observes him through the window, " e i n k l e i n e r , s c h i e f s c h u l t r i g e r und f a s t schon so gut wie verwachsener Herr"(IV,62). G i e s h u b l e r ' s d e f o r m i t y has had t r a g i c r e p e r c u s s i o n s i n h i s s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l l i f e . As he e x p l a i n s : 'Man hat keinen rechten Mut, man hat k e i n Vertrauen zu s i c h s e l b s t , man wagt kaum, ein e Dame zum Tanz a u f z u f o r d e r n , w e i l man i h r e i n e V e r l e g e n h e i t ersparen w i l l , und so gehen d i e Jahre h i n , und man wird a l t , und das Leben war arm und l e e r . ' (IV,63) The f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y and l a c k of acceptance by others which plague the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s , f i n d t h e i r c l e a r e s t e x p r e s s i o n i n t h i s poignant q u o t a t i o n . G i e s h u b l e r ' s response to the c o n f l i c t between h i s own d e s i r e f o r romantic involvement and s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t he renounce such 83 r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s one of submissive acquiescence to s o c i a l p r e s s u r e . His response does not c o n s t i t u t e conformity, s i n c e he does not b e l i e v e t h a t s o c i e t y ' s p o s i t i o n i s r i g h t ; he merely f e e l s t h at he has no c h o i c e i n the matter. The apothecary has r e c e i v e d compensation f o r h i s s u f f e r i n g , however, i n t h a t as Johnson remarks: "Gieshubler's p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y has compelled the c u l t i v a t i o n of emotional s e n s i t i v i t i e s . " * ' 4 Emotional shallowness, as we have a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d , i s u s u a l l y the l o t of the p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e c o n f o r m i s t type. F i n a l l y , a t h i r d type of d i s f i g u r e m e n t - d i s t o r t i o n of n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s from o b e s i t y - i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , s e l f - i n f l i c t e d . The female c h a r a c t e r s are e s p e c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e i n t h i s regard. Rees notes that a c o u n t e r p o i n t i s d i s c e r n i b l e i n V i c t o r i a n l a d i e s between the "pious, f r a i l and submissive" type, and the "remarkably r o b u s t . B o t h v a r i e t i e s can be found i n the category of compromiser. Among the l a t t e r v a r i e t y , we encounter i n Irrungen, Wirrungen "die w o h l a r r o n d i e r t e K o n i g i n Isabeau"(II,391) and her a l t e r - e g o , Frau Dorr, "eine sehr s t a t t l i c h aussehende Frau"(II,320) of whom another c h a r a c t e r remarks: " . . . s i e macht eine F i g u r , aber s i e hat keine" (11,342). Both l a d i e s may be d e r i v i n g t h e i r e x c e s s i v e c a l o r i e s more from a l c o h o l than from food, e s p e c i a l l y Frau Dorr, who appears to have a weakness f o r Kirschwasser (11,341). I t may be no 84 c o i n c i d e n c e , e i t h e r , t h a t K o n i g i n Isabeau wants to buy a d i s t i l l e r y some day with the proceeds of her l i f e s t y l e as an a r i s t o c r a t ' s m i s t r e s s . The o b e s i t y of these c h a r a c t e r s may r e s u l t from attempting to g r a t i f y with food and a l c o h o l an u n s p e c i f i e d - and never s a t i s f i e d - emotional hunger, which i s t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the compromisers. i i ) R e t r e a t i n t o i l l n e s s and i n v a l i d i s m I l l n e s s - whether o r g a n i c or f u n c t i o n a l i n o r i g i n - a f f o r d s some compromiser c h a r a c t e r s a refuge from the c o n f l i c t between t h e i r p e r s o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s and the exp e c t a t i o n s which others i n s o c i e t y would normally p l a c e upon them, i f they were w e l l . I n v a l i d i s m , or a l i f e s t y l e of ch r o n i c s i c k l i n e s s , p r o v i d e s these c h a r a c t e r s with an excuse not only f o r being r e l i e v e d of s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s , but a l s o f o r the f a i l u r e to achieve t h e i r p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s . T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to s o c i e t y i s e s s e n t i a l l y p a r a s i t i c a l i n nature, f o r they make no r e a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to i t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s o c i e t y t o l e r a t e s them because t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to s a c r i f i c e i n d i v i d u a l ambitions ensures t h a t they w i l l pose no t h r e a t to the s t a t u s quo. We w i l l now t u r n to an examination of those compromiser c h a r a c t e r s f o r whom sic k n e s s p r o v i d e s an escape from the dilemma between p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s and the demands of s o c i e t y . 85 For one such c h a r a c t e r , E f f i , the r e t r e a t i n t o i l l n e s s and eventual death i r o n i c a l l y begins with the mere pretense of s i c k n e s s . Anxious to a v o i d even a temporary r e t u r n to K e s s i n , d u r i n g which time her a f f a i r with Crampas might have resumed, E f f i a l i g h t s upon the p e r f e c t s o l u t i o n : "Es gab a l s o nur e i n M i t t e l : s i e musste wieder eine Komodie s p i e l e n , musste krank werden"(IV,197). Her m a l i n g e r i n g does not e n t i r e l y convince Frau von B r i e s t (IV,199) and, as E f f i h e r s e l f r e a l i z e s , i n no way deceives the d o c t o r , Geheimrat Rummschuttel: '"Schulkrank und mit V i r t u o s i t a t g e s p i e l t ; E v a s t o c h t e r comme i l f a u t 1 " ( I V , 2 0 0 ) . Yet, i t achieves the heroine's end of a v o i d i n g a s i t u a t i o n which would have been laden with c o n f l i c t f o r her. Rummschuttel's mention of " ' E v a s t o c h t e r ' " i s r e m i n i s c e n t of v a r i o u s statements p r e v i o u s l y made by I n n s t e t t e n to E f f i . Before the marriage, f o r example, I n n s t e t t e n sometimes r e f e r s to E f f i as h i s " ' k l e i n e Eva'"(IV,33) i n the s a l u t a t i o n of h i s l e t t e r s . A f t e r the b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d , he t e l l s her t h a t she i s "'eine k l e i n e Kokette'"(IV,122) and that she possesses "'was V e r f i i h r e r i s c h e s 1 " (IV, 12 3 ) . E f f i ' s response to these d e c l a r a t i o n s i s e c s t a t i c : "'Gott s e i Dank, dass du das s a g s t . Das i s t f u r euch das Beste, was man s e i n kann....Wir miissen v e r f i i h r e r i s c h s e i n , sonst s i n d wir gar nichts...'"(IV,122-123). These remarks betray E f f i ' s 86 profound sense of worthlessness and h e l p l e s s n e s s , which she hopes to m i t i g a t e by w i e l d i n g a measure of power over others through s e d u c t i o n . The meaning of s e d u c t i o n need not be r e s t r i c t e d here to i t s sexual c o n n o t a t i o n . Rather, i t can be regarded, i n the s p e c i f i c case of m a l i n g e r i n g , as an attempt to l e a d o t h e r s a s t r a y from r e a l i t y i n t o a world of f a n t a s y c o n t r o l l e d by the seducer. Rummschuttel 1s a c t u a l d i a g n o s i s i s a s s u r e d l y t h a t of h y s t e r i a , which has been d e f i n e d as: A k i n d of n e u r o s i s , most o f t e n a f f e c t i n g women and once thought to a r i s e i n the u t e r u s . Sustained a n x i e t y , u s u a l l y with l i t t l e f o u n d a t i o n , expresses i t s e l f i n p h y s i c a l symptoms vaguely resembling those of p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s of the p a r t of the body t h a t the p a t i e n t a s s o c i a t e s with her w o r r i e s . Although m a l i n g e r i n g i s normally d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from h y s t e r i a on the b a s i s that the former i s c o n s c i o u s l y 6 7 executed, whereas the l a t t e r i s an unconscious phenomenon, i t has been a s s e r t e d that h y s t e r i c s n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n r a r e i n s t a n c e s , c o n s c i o u s l y simulate i l l n e s s i n the manner i n which we observe E f f i d o i n g . 6 8 Regardless of whether the u n d e r l y i n g c o n f l i c t i s conscious or unconscious, however, h y s t e r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s can be i n t e r p r e t e d as "a means by which a person who f e e l s h e l p l e s s or trapped may none the l e s s make a b i d f o r freedom.""^ I t i s p r e c i s e l y such a desperate search f o r a way out of i r r e c o n c i l a b l e c o n f l i c t which those compromisers who are s i c k l y share. 87 Another, and somewhat more t y p i c a l , case of h y s t e r i a i s presented by C e c i l e von St.Arnaud. In t h i s c h a r a c t e r , c o n f l i c t between her d e s i r e s and her f e a r s manifests i t s e l f i n a c t u a l p h y s i c a l symptoms. The n a r r a t o r confirms t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C e c i l e as an h y s t e r i c with h i s comments rega r d i n g her "nervoses F l i e g e n und Z i t t e r n , " which he terms "diese h y s t e r i s c h e n Paroxysmen"(II,260). M u l l e r - S e i d e l , who - i n seeking to a s c e r t a i n the exact nature of the heroine's i l l n e s s - r e f e r s to the n a r r a t o r ' s " V e r z i c h t auf 70 A l l w i s s e n h e i t , " appears to have overlooked t h i s c i t a t i o n . Whereas E f f i ' s h y s t e r i c a l pretense of i l l n e s s i s f u l l y conscious and intended o n l y f o r temporary expediency, C e c i l e ' s h y s t e r i a , by way of c o n t r a s t , a p p a r e n t l y s p r i n g s from unconscious p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t s and i n v a l i d i s m has become a way of l i f e f o r her. I t may be t r u e , as M u l l e r - S e i d e l contends, t h a t Fontane's concern i n C e c i l e d i d not reside, so much with an i n d i v i d u a l case of i l l n e s s , as i t d i d with what t h i s c r i t i c 71 l a b e l s "Krankheitserscheinungen a l s Zeitsymptome." M u l l e r - S e i d e l leaves unanswered, however, the q u e s t i o n as to why d i s o r d e r s such as C e c i l e ' s were so widespread i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century. Some l i g h t i s shed upon t h i s phenomenon by R y c r o f t . He a t t r i b u t e s the prevalence of h y s t e r i a i n the V i c t o r i a n e r a to s t r i c t methods of u p b r i n g i n g t h a t f o r c e d o f f s p r i n g to adopt a submissive a t t i t u d e , which then 88 p e r s i s t e d i n t o adulthood and found e x p r e s s i o n i n h y s t e r i c a l 72 symtoms. D i r k Mende, another c r i t i c who e x p l o r e s at some len g t h the i s s u e of C e c i l e ' s i l l n e s s , regards i t as a d i s t i n c t case of h y s t e r i a . He a s s e r t s t h a t t h i s c h a r a c t e r r e a c t s "mit ihrem Korper, w e i l s i e mental zu r e a g i e r e n n i c h t g e l e r n t 73 hat." Although C e c i l e i s uneducated, she l a c k s n e i t h e r b a s i c i n t e l l i g e n c e , nor the a b i l i t y to express h e r s e l f v e r b a l l y . Mende's view i s m i s l e a d i n g i n s o f a r as i t i m p l i e s t h a t h y s t e r i c a l c o n v e r s i o n symptoms are caused by a l a c k of i n t e l l e c t or of formal e d u c a t i o n . Rather, the o r i g i n of h y s t e r i a l i e s , a c c o r d i n g to R y c r o f t , i n "a sense of having been defeated and f o r c e d i n t o a submissive r o l e . " ^ 4 Thus, one p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the somatic e x p r e s s i o n of C e c i l e ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t s could be the apprehension of f u r t h e r s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n - and even abandonment by her p r o t e c t o r - i f she were to r i s k v o i c i n g her f r u s t r a t i o n s openly. Another p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r C e c i l e ' s a r r a y of p h y s i c a l symptoms i s that her innate b i o l o g i c a l temperament may p r e d i s p o s e her towards exaggerated p h y s i o l o g i c a l response to s t r e s s , whether the source of the s t r e s s be an element i n her p h y s i c a l environment, or simply s t r o n g emotion. To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t , we are t o l d , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t C e c i l e possesses "'etwas angeboren 89 F e i n f i i h l i g e s 1 " ( I I , 295 ) and i s h y p e r s e n s i t i v e to her p h y s i c a l environment: "Die Sonne brannte h e i s s . . . , und C e c i l e , d i e nach A r t a l l e r Nervosen sehr e m p f i n d l i c h gegen extreme Te m p e r a t u r v e r h a l t n i s s e war, suchte nach e i n e r s c h a t t i g e n S t e l l e . . . " ( I I , 1 7 3 ) . A l s o c l e a r , i s that C e c i l e ' s t h r e s h o l d f o r s t r e s s , even i n the p o s i t i v e form of excitement, i s a p p a r e n t l y below average. T h i s p o i n t of view i s supported by the n a r r a t o r ' s f o l l o w i n g remarks upon C e c i l e ' s r e t u r n from the Rosstrappe e x c u r s i o n : . . . d i e nervenkranke F r a u . . . h a t t e s i c h t a p f e r g e h a l t e n ; nichtsdestoweniger r a c h t e s i c h , a l s s i e wieder auf ihrem Zimmer war, das Mass von Uberstrengung, und i h r e n Hut b e i s e i t e w e r f e n d , s t r e c k t e s i e s i c h auf eine Chaiselongue, n i c h t s c h l a f - , aber r u h e b e d u r f t i g . (11,168) The f o r e g o i n g q u o t a t i o n s suggest t h a t C e c i l e was perhaps born with an u n u s u a l l y d e l i c a t e nervous system, which i s not o n l y h i g h l y v u l n e r a b l e to the e f f e c t s of s t r e s s , but which may i t s e l f be a cause of a d d i t i o n a l s t r e s s by r e n d e r i n g her e x t r a s e n s i t i v e to sensory s t i m u l i . An admirer of C e c i l e , Gordon, makes the f o l l o w i n g cogent o b s e r v a t i o n of her heightened p h y s i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y and consequent i n s t a b i l i t y : 'Mir p e r s o n l i c h w i l l es scheinen, dass s i e , nach A r t a l l e r Nervenkranken, im hochsten Grade von z u f a l l i g e n Eindriicken abhangig i s t , d i e s i e , je nachdem s i e s i n d , entweder matt und h i n f a l l i g oder aber umgekehrt zu jeder Anstrengung f a h i g machen. 1 (II,188) 90 Another c h a r a c t e r , Hofprediger D o r f f e l , i s aware of C e c i l e ' s mental i m p r e s s i o n a b i l i t y as w e l l : ...der H o f p r e d i g e r , der wohl wusste, dass i h r , wenn d i e s e h y s t e r i s c h e n Paroxysmen kamen, e i n z i g und a l l e i n durch e i n Ab- und U b e r l e i t e n auf andere Dinge hin und, wenn auch das n i c h t h a l f , l e d i g l i c h durch eine f a s t r i i c k s i c h t s l o s e Herbheit zu h e l f e n war (11,260-261) T h i s f e a t u r e of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y i s s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with the h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y . As S p e r l i n g e x p l a i n s : " . . . h y s t e r i a s u s u a l l y respond to suggestion. U n l i k e a t r u e e p i l e p t i c , f o r i n s t a n c e , a person whose c o n v u l s i o n s are h y s t e r i c a l w i l l stop them when t o l d to i n an a u t h o r i t a t i v e 7 5 • • v o i c e . " D o r f f e l ' s f i r s t t a c t i c - namely, d i s t r a c t i o n - permits an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C e c i l e ' s i l l n e s s as being, at 7 6 l e a s t i n p a r t , a r e a c t i o n to boredom. For i t i s q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l e that the s o c i a l l y r e s t r i c t e d l i f e she leads could encourage her to focus e x c e s s i v e l y upon b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s , whether they be normal or d i s o r d e r e d . Again, the n a r r a t o r confirms our s u s p i c i o n : "Aber so lang der Weg war und so r u h e b e d i i r f t i g C e c i l e s i c h f i i h l t e , dennoch sprach s i e k e i n Wort von Ermudung, w e i l das B i l d , das d i e D o r f s t r a s s e gewahrte, s i e bestandig i n t e r e s s i e r t e " ( I I , 2 2 2 ) . An a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e of h y s t e r i a , as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned i n Peter Wingate's d e f i n i t i o n , i s i t s symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of emotional c o n f l i c t . I t i s Gordon who g i v e s 91 us, as w e l l as C e c i l e , the key to understanding t h i s symbolism: "'Aber was Ihnen f e h l t , das i s t n i c h t L u f t , das i s t L i c h t , F r e i h e i t , Freude. S i e s i n d e i n g e s c h n i i r t und eingezwangt, deshalb wird Ihnen das Atem schwer, deshalb t u t Ihnen das Herz weh...'"(II,290) . No one would deny t h a t C e c i l e s u f f e r s from the sense of oppression which Gordon d e s c r i b e s . Yet, i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e as to whether her i l l n e s s i s , to quote Mende, "der a s t h e t i s c h e R e f l e x auf eine p a t r i a r c h a l i s c h e K r a n k h e i t s i d e o l o g i e , d i e a l s Instrument zur Unterdriickung der Frau, w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h verbramt, im h i s t o r i s c h e n Kontext des Romans e i n s e t z t . " ^ F i r s t l y , i f Mende 1s view i s c o r r e c t , how can we account f o r the f a c t t h a t while presumably a l l women were sub j e c t e d to t h i s "Instrument zur Unterdriickung," o n l y random cases of h y s t e r i a are to be found among Fontane's female c h a r a c t e r s ? Secondly, Mende appears to h o l d the common misconception that h y s t e r i a i s a d i s o r d e r c o n f i n e d to women. R y c r o f t informs us, however, that h y s t e r i a , or the submissive defence, was demonstrated by Freud to occur i n 7 8 men, too and would "be recognized as h y s t e r i c a l i f i t were not f o r the r e s i s t a n c e to a p p l y i n g to men a word which 7 9 d e r i v e s from the Greek f o r womb." Moreover, he adds t h a t even the seventeenth-century p h y s i c i a n , Sydenham, knew "that men could have h y s t e r i c a l symptoms and got round the v e r b a l o b j e c t i o n s to diagnosing h y s t e r i a i n men by c a l l i n g male 92 h y s t e r i c s hypochondriacs."° u T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n sheds an i n t e r e s t i n g l i g h t on the case of Waldemar von Haldern, whom another compromiser c h a r a c t e r , P a u l i n e P i t t e l k o w , l a b e l s " ' [ e ] i n armes, krankes Huhn 1"(II,506). Wingate d e s c r i b e s hypochondria as "[u]ndue preoccupation with one's r e a l or supposed a i l m e n t s ; i t i s 81 more of a hobby than an i l l n e s s . " The l a t t e r p o r t i o n of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n bears a s t r i k i n g resemblance to Waldemar's own assessment of h i s s i t u a t i o n , "'...das Kranksein, das e i g e n t l i c h von.Jugend auf mein Lebensberuf war...'"(II,509). Waldemar's f a t h e r , "'der arme, t r a u r i g e Mensch, der...immer einen K a t a r r h . . . h a t t e ' " ( I I , 5 5 1 ) , appears to have p r o v i d e d a model of i n v a l i d i s m f o r h i s son to i m i t a t e . I t must be conceded, of course, that Waldemar may a l s o have i n h e r i t e d a weak c o n s t i t u t i o n , which would n a t u r a l l y have s e t the stage f o r h i s r o l e as an i n v a l i d . Although we l e a r n t h a t Waldemar s u s t a i n e d i n j u r i e s i n b a t t l e - from which he has o n l y h a l f - r e c o v e r e d (11,517) - a p r e c i s e reason f o r h i s f a i l u r e to recuperate completely i s not p r o v i d e d . "Da der V e r f a l l von A d e l s g e s c h l e c h t e r n zu den Themen gehort, d i e man gegen Ende des Jahrhunderts bevorzugt behandelt," s p e c u l a t e s M u l l e r - S e i d e l , "konnte d i e K r a n k l i c h k e i t des jungen Haldern a l s 8 2 e i n e Thematisierung der Decadence verstanden werden." As M u l l e r - S e i d e l proceeds to acknowledge, however, such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Waldemar's h e a l t h i s undermined by the 93 f a c t t h a t S t i n e , too, i s por t r a y e d as being i n d e l i c a t e h e a l t h . The I n v a l i d e n s t r a s s e , on which S t i n e l i v e s and down which we observe Waldemar walking (11,50), may be regarded as symbolic not only of the l a t t e r ' s d i s a b i l i t y as an o f f i c e r , but a l s o of h i s g e n e r a l i n c a p a c i t y f o r l i v i n g . A p a r a l l e l can be drawn between Waldemar and C e c i l e , i n tha t with both c h a r a c t e r s , i t i s impossible to d i s t i n g u i s h those complaints which may have an org a n i c b a s i s , from those which are h y s t e r i c a l conversions of p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t s i n t o p h y s i c a l symptoms. For an important p o i n t which must be understood i n regard to h y s t e r i a i s that i t can occur i n an i n d i v i d u a l who a l s o s u f f e r s from an a c t u a l d i s e a s e p r o c e s s . Hence, although C e c i l e c l e a r l y possesses the submissive p e r s o n a l i t y a s s o c i a t e d with the p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r of h y s t e r i a , i t would be i n c o r r e c t to assume t h a t a l l of her p h y s i c a l complaints are n e c e s s a r i l y h y s t e r i c a l c o n v e r s i o n s . C e c i l e ' s symptoms, apart from those a l r e a d y mentioned, i n c l u d e : t r e m b l i n g f i n g e r s (11,255); a p a l l i d complexion (11,154); c h i l l s and insomnia (11,147); an apparent heart c o n d i t i o n f o r which she has been p r e s c r i b e d d i g i t a l i s (11,289); d i f f i c u l t y b r e a t h i n g (11,290); plus d i f f i c u l t y walking (11,148). While t h i s l i s t of symptoms may appear impressive, i t does not, however, seem to add up to a d e f i n i t i v e d i a g n o s i s . Some of these d i f f i c u l t i e s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e merely to poor d i e t and i n s u f f i c i e n t e x e r c i s e , 94 r a t h e r than to a s p e c i f i c d i s e a s e . Yet, as Garland maintains, C e c i l e ' s " f r a i l h e a l t h may have o r g a n i c causes, as the c a r d i a c complaint which i s e v e n t u a l l y diagnosed appears to c o n f i r m . " Moreover, i f we c o n s i d e r St.Arnaud's remark to the e f f e c t t h a t C e c i l e ' s p h y s i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s may be a s c r i b e d to her " ' V e r t e b r a l l i n i e ' " (11,167), then the p o s s i b i l i t y of a d i s e a s e such as t u b e r c u l o s i s of the spine should not be d i s m i s s e d e i t h e r . In c o n t r a s t to the frequent d i s c u s s i o n of C e c i l e ' s numerous complaints, E f f i ' s d e f i n i t e case of pulmonary t u b e r c u l o s i s progresses to i t s f a t a l c o n c l u s i o n with v i r t u a l l y no mention of what must have been c o n s i d e r a b l e p h y s i c a l s u f f e r i n g . Yet, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to share M u l l e r - S e i d e l ' s view, "dass i n diesen Schilderungen d i e 8 4 Gefahr der S e n t i m e n t a l i t a t n i c h t ganz umgangen worden i s t . " For the d e p i c t i o n of E f f i ' s i l l n e s s and death i s perhaps b e t t e r d e s c r i b e d as romantic, a term which suggests an i d e a l i z e d view, r a t h e r than s e n t i m e n t a l , an e p i t h e t which i m p l i e s e x c e s s i v e or a r t i f i c i a l emotion. Fontane 1s i d e a l i z e d treatment of h i s heroine's demise r e f l e c t s the i n f l u e n c e of v a r i o u s myths concerning the nature of t u b e r c u l o s i s ; these myths p e r s i s t e d f o r some time even a f t e r the d i s e a s e was d i s c o v e r e d i n 1882 to r e s u l t from 8 5 b a c t e r i a l i n f e c t i o n . Other European w r i t e r s i n the n i n e t e e n t h century a l s o had recourse to these myths, which 95 l e n t themselves w e l l to metaphorical e x p r e s s i o n . As Thomalla e x p l a i n s : "Die Schwindsucht war a l s romantische K r a n k h e i t i n der Decadence a u s s e r o r d e n t l i c h b e l i e b t , w e i l s i e den erwiinschten Eindruck von Eleganz und G e i s t i g k e i t n i c h t 8 6 z e r s t o r t , sondern hebt." Thomalla's remarks are echoed and e l a b o r a t e d upon by Sontag: "Nineteenth-century l i t e r a t u r e i s stocked with d e s c r i p t i o n s of almost symptomless, u n f r i g h t e n e d , b e a t i f i c deaths from TB, p a r t i c u l a r l y of young o n p e o p l e . " 0 ' T u b e r c u l o s i s , s t a t e s Sontag, "provided a metaphoric e q u i v a l e n t f o r d e l i c a c y , s e n s i t i v i t y , sadness, O Q [and] powerlessness. 1 1 0 0 To be sure, Fontane was not ignorant of those f a c t s concerning TB which were a l r e a d y known at the time he wrote E f f i B r i e s t from 1888 to 1 8 89. 8 9 The a c t u a l onset of E f f i ' s consumption - i n i t i a l l y foreshadowed by I n n s t e t t e n ' s remark to her about dangerous b a c i l l i i n the a i r (IV,80) - i s r e a l i s t i c a l l y presented as pursuing an i n s i d i o u s course. Although the i n f e c t i o n begins to manifest i t s e l f i n symptoms towards the end of her marriage (IV,223), i t smoulders f o r s e v e r a l years u n t i l i t i s e v e n t u a l l y compounded by a nervous d i s o r d e r (IV,275-276). E f f i ' s c o n d i t i o n i s f u r t h e r exacerbated by mental d e p r e s s i o n , which e v i d e n t l y d i m i nishes her p h y s i c a l r e s i s t a n c e to the d i s e a s e : " . . . a l s das neue Jahr herankam, begann E f f i ganz schwermutig zu werden"(IV,265). Sontag draws 96 a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t t h a t r e s i g n a t i o n i s f e a t u r e d as a r e c u r r e n t motif i n accounts of TB. g^ Moreover, i n the nineteenth century, the t u b e r c u l a r person's c h a r a c t e r was b e l i e v e d to resemble the c l a s s i c a l concept of the melancholy 91 c h a r a c t e r . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t , a l r e a d y i n the f i r s t chapter, E f f i appears to betray such a melancholy temperament with her remarks about I n n s t e t t e n ' s c o u r t s h i p of L u i s e : "'Eine Geschichte mit Entsagung i s t n i e schlimm'"(IV,10). Another n i n e t e e n t h century b e l i e f r e l e v a n t to our d i s c u s s i o n i s that "...TB was thought to come from too much 9 2 p a s s i o n , s e l e c t i n g as i t s v i c t i m "a h e c t i c , r e c k l e s s 9 "3 c r e a t u r e of p a s s i o n a t e e x t r e m e s . T h e s e very a t t r i b u t e s are a p p l i c a b l e to E f f i , who i s c h a s t i s e d by her mother f o r being "'so l e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h ' " ( I V , 9 ) ; d e s c r i b e d as p o s s e s s i n g "'auch was R a b i a t e s ' " ( I V , 4 0 ) ; and as " v i e l zu beweglichen Gemiits " (IV, 89 ) . I t may be t h i s n i n e t e e n t h century n o t i o n of t u b e r c u l o s i s as a d i s e a s e a f f l i c t i n g a c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y type which e x p l a i n s Rummschiittel' s otherwise obscure a s s e r t i o n t h a t E f f i was always predisposed toward consumption (IV,276). Unless we accept t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n of temperament, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to r e l i n q u i s h our i n i t i a l impression of E f f i as " e i n B i l d f r i s c h e s t e n Lebens..."(IV,17). From the p e r s p e c t i v e of the twent i e t h century, we can 97 account f o r E f f i ' s d e p r e s s i o n as an understandable r e a c t i o n to her prolonged s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . We a l s o know t h a t women, i n g e n e r a l , were more v u l n e r a b l e to TB as a r e s u l t of being c o n f i n e d to a sedentary l i f e i n d oors, where they were dressed i n r e s t r i c t i v e c l o t h i n g and i n h a l e d fumes from open c o a l f i r e s . 9 4 N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t E f f i d i e s of TB s p e c i f i c a l l y , r a t h e r than of i n f l u e n z a or pneumonia - two other l e a d i n g causes of death i n the n i n e t e e n t h century. For i t was b e l i e v e d that a process of s p i r i t u a l refinement accompanied the g r a d u a l wasting of the p h y s i c a l body wrought by consumption. As Thomalla e x p l a i n s : "Man s t i r b t lange und s a n f t an i h r und wird wahrend der agonie s i c h t b a r k o r p e r l o s e r 95 und a t h e r i s c h e r . " The n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of E f f i ' s appearance as she approaches death accords with Thomalla's remarks, "dass es n i c h t d i e h e l l e Jugend, sondern e i n e V e r k l a r t h e i t war, was der schlanken Erscheinung und den leuchtenden Augen d i e s e n eigentiimlichen Ausdruck gab"(IV,279). E f f i ' s " V e r k l a r t h e i t " can be i n t e r p r e t e d not only l i t e r a l l y , but a l s o f i g u r a t i v e l y as s p i r i t u a l t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n . "The i n v e t e r a t e s p i r i t u a l i z i n g of TB," s t a t e s Sontag, "provided a redemptive death f o r the 9 fi f a l l e n . " ^ " E x p i a t e d of her g u i l t through the p h y s i c a l s u f f e r i n g of i l l n e s s , i n a d d i t i o n to the emotional s u f f e r i n g of her o s t r a c i s m , E f f i d i e s at peace, "'mit Gott und Menschen versohnt'"(IV,293). 98 T h i s d i s c u s s i o n would not be complete without an examination of the numerous secondary gains - f o r the v i c t i m s and f o r s o c i e t y - which can be d e r i v e d from i l l n e s s and i n v a l i d i s m . One advantage of s i c k n e s s i s t h a t i t permits withdrawal f r o m , s o c i e t y , as Sontag p o i n t s out, "without having to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d e c i s i o n . " 9 7 By s e c l u d i n g themselves, the s i c k l y c h a r a c t e r s can l a r g e l y a v o i d unpleasantness, c o n f l i c t s and c o n f r o n t a t i o n s with o t h e r s . In C e c i l e ' s case, f o r i n s t a n c e , apparent i l l h e a l t h l e g i t i m i z e s her d e s i r e to a v o i d s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , which she f e a r s w i l l u l t i m a t e l y l e a d to the p a i n of r e j e c t i o n , once her u n f o r t u n a t e past i s d i s c o v e r e d . C o n t r a r y to Mende's view that St.Arnaud d e l i b e r a t e l y sequesters C e c i l e f o r h i s 9 R own p e r s o n a l ends - u s i n g her i l l n e s s as a p r e t e x t - the f o l l o w i n g d i a l o g u e between the couple makes i t c l e a r t h a t C e c i l e seeks to i s o l a t e h e r s e l f : "...und so sagte s i e : 'Ich h o f f e , das wir v i e l a l l e i n s i n d . 1 "Warum immer a l l e i n ? Und gerade du. Du brauchst Menschen'"(II,144). I n v a l i d i s m , as a way of l i f e , can not o n l y ward o f f r e j e c t i o n from others and reduce c o n f l i c t s with them. I t can a l s o garner e x t r a a t t e n t i o n , sympathy, c o - o p e r a t i o n and s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , which would otherwise not be 9 9 10 0 forthcoming. Both Mende and Mittelmann have observed t h i s phenomenon i n regard to C e c i l e . The s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t here i s t h a t , as R y c r o f t e x p l a i n s , i f h y s t e r i c a l symptoms 99 "lead to the k i n d of i n v a l i d i s m which b r i n g s with i t a t t e n t i o n and power, they are l i k e l y to p e r s i s t indefinitely.""'"^''" Thus, s i c k l i n e s s can enable c h a r a c t e r s who f e e l h e l p l e s s , to e x e r c i s e power p a s s i v e l y over o t h e r s . I l l n e s s can a l s o serve to check anger i n others by e l i c i t i n g t h e i r p i t y and be e f f e c t i v e l y used to manipulate them with g u i l t . We see t h i s evidenced i n C e c i l e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with St.Arnaud, an i n d i v i d u a l of c o n s i d e r a b l e temper, who might leave her i f she were not s i c k and i n need of h i s p r o t e c t i o n - a f a c t o r which encourages him to f e e l s u p e r i o r and i n c o n t r o l . S i m i l a r l y , Rummschiittel' s success at persuading E f f i ' s parents to take her back i n t o t h e i r home l i k e l y r e s t s as much upon t h e i r g u i l t over having banished her i n the f i r s t p l a c e , as i t does upon t h e i r l o v e . Another b e n e f i t to be d e r i v e d from s i c k n e s s i s t h a t i t can m o l l i f y the demands and e x p e c t a t i o n s of others by p r o v i d i n g the s u f f e r e r with an excuse to evade normal d u t i e s . Regarding C e c i l e , Mende observes: " . . . d i e K r a n k h e i t . . .gewahrt i h r jede Form des Riickzugs, insbesondere 102 im Handhaben der s e x u e l l e n Appetenz mannlicher V e r e h r e r . " One remains unconvinced, however, of t h i s same c r i t i c ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t C e c i l e and E f f i , too, are "Opfer der 10 3 Repression von S e x u a l i t a t im Wilhelmmismus." Rather, the p a s s i v i t y t y p i c a l of the h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n a l i t y i s , a c c o r d i n g to R y c r o f t , incompatible with normal sexual 100 f u n c t i o n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y i n men. 1 0 4 We are given the impression with Waldemar, f o r example, t h a t he has used i l l h e a l t h as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a v o i d i n g romantic involvements: "'Ich b i n krank und ohne Sinn f u r das, was d i e G l u c k l i c h e n und Gesunden i h r e Zerstreuung nennen'"(II,509). I t i s apparent from the remarks of Waldemar's u n c l e , however, t h a t f e a r of competing with and thereby provoking the d i s a p p r o v a l of other males i n the f a m i l y may a l s o be a f a c t o r m o t i v a t i n g the young count's c e l i b a c y : '...du...weisst, dass d e i n Leben an einem seidnen Faden hangt....Debauchiere, wer kann und mag, aber jeder nach seinen K r a f t e n , und durchschwarmte Nachte s i n d n i c h t f u r jedermann und s i c h e r l i c h n i c h t f u r dich....du b i s t f u r immer i n s Schuldbuch der Tugend eingeschrieben,...du musst leben wie e i n e eingemauerte Nonne.... 1 (11,534) C l e a r l y , Waldemar r e c e i v e s a good d e a l of encouragement to p e r s i s t i n a c t i n g out the r o l e of an i n v a l i d . An a d d i t i o n a l secondary g a i n r e s u l t i n g from i l l n e s s can be a sense of s u p e r i o r i t y i t c o n f e r s upon the s u f f e r e r . In the words of Thomalla: "Krankheit war f u r das F i n de s i e c l e i d e n t i s c h mit g e i s t i g e r V e r f e i n e r u n g . M a n . . . f e i e r t e den Zustand der K r a n k h e i t a l s e i n e hohere und e l e g a n t e r e Form des Lebens." T h i s a t t i t u d e f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g remarks of Waldemar: "'...das Kranksein...hat auch s e i n e V o r t e i l e ; man k r i e g t a l l e r l e i Nerven i n seinen zehn F i n g e r s p i t z e n und f i i h l t es den Menschen und V e r h a l t n i s s e n 101 ab, ob s i e g l i i c k l i c h s i n d oder n i c h t ' " ( I I , 50 9) • S i m i l a r l y , Dr. Wiesike p e r c e i v e s E f f i as po s s e s s i n g a s u p e r i o r s e n s i b i l i t y : " ' . . . s o l c h e Kranken haben e i n sehr f e i n e s Gefuhl'"(IV,283) . The n o t i o n of elegance a s s o c i a t e d with the l i f e s t y l e of an i n v a l i d d e r i v e d l a r g e l y from the p a s s i v e , s h e l t e r e d dependency upon ot h e r s which i l l n e s s a f f o r d e d i t s v i c t i m . For s i c k n e s s tends to enhance the s u f f e r e r ' s e g o c e n t r i c i t y by encouraging both s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e as w e l l as forbearance from o t h e r s . F u l f i l l m e n t of the l o n g i n g to be taken care of - a d e s i r e which appears to be shared by a l l t h r e e s i c k l y compromiser c h a r c t e r s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n - leads E f f i , f o r example, to d e c l a r e that her days spent as an i n v a l i d at Hohen-Cremmen have been n e a r l y her most b e a u t i f u l (IV,294). Presumably, they rank second only to her he a l t h y c h i l d h o o d days, a l s o spent at Hohen-Cremmen. Although the weakness a s s o c i a t e d with i l l n e s s d e t r a c t s somewhat from Waldemar's m a s c u l i n i t y , i t accentuates the f e m i n i n i t y of the female c h a r a c t e r s . Rees p o i n t s out t h a t the i n v a l i d ' s r o l e conformed to "the i d e a of the P e r f e c t Lady. A lady on a couch, l a n g u i d , d e l i c a t e and above a l l 1 fi ft s p i r i t u a l . . . . " Indeed, we are presented with t h i s very image both of E f f i (IV,292) and of C e c i l e (11,287). In the case of the l a t t e r , Gordon s p e c i f i c a l l y draws a t t e n t i o n to the correspondence of her weakness with her f e m i n i n i t y 102 (11,289). C e c i l e ' s d e l i c a c y i s f u r t h e r underscored by c o n t r a s t with St.Arnaud's phenomenally strong c o n s t i t u t i o n , as witnessed by h i s miraculous recovery from a s e r i o u s b u l l e t wound (11,148). Thomalla e x p l a i n s t h a t t h i s type of c o n t r a s t i s commonly encountered i n the l i t e r a t u r e of Fontane's day: " V i e l e n femmes f r a g i l e s wird e i n b r u t a l gesunder P a r t n e r an d i e S e i t e g e s t e l l t , urn i h r e f i n e s s e 10 7 gegen se i n e gesunde Grobheit abzuheben." Even the n a r r a t o r suggests t h a t much of C e c i l e ' s charm may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to her i l l n e s s : " A l l e r K rankheit und R e s i g n a t i o n unerachtet, oder v i e l l e i c h t auch g e s t e i g e r t dadurch, war etwas B e s t r i c k e n d e s urn s i e her gewesen..."(11,292). Mende draws our a t t e n t i o n t o yet another f e a t u r e of h y s t e r i c a l i l l n e s s - namely, t h a t i t can a c t u a l l y serve as a c o v e r t form of r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the e x p e c t a t i o n s of others i n s o c i e t y - " . . . d i e H y s t e r i e i s t n i c h t nur Ausdruck des Leidens, sondern g l e i c h z e i t i g Kampform...." u ° T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h y s t e r i a i s supported by R y c r o f t , who remarks: "...the h y s t e r i c a l defence i n c l u d e s an underground 10 9 a t t a c k on a u t h o r i t y and an attempt to escape from i t . " We see a s p e c i f i c i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s phenomenon when E f f i f e i g n s i l l n e s s i n order to defy I n n s t e t t e n ' s wish f o r her to r e t u r n to K e s s i n . A more g e n e r a l i z e d e x p r e s s i o n of h y s t e r i a l i l l n e s s masking d e f i a n c e i s pr o v i d e d by Waldemar who, 103 c o n t r a r y to the o b l i g a t i o n u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with h i s a r i s t o c r a t i c c l a s s , has f a i l e d to marry and produce an h e i r . S i m i l a r l y , we may i n t e r p r e t C e c i l e ' s c h r o n i c h e a l t h complaints as a d i s g u i s e d form of b i r t h c o n t r o l , i n t h a t they provide her with an excuse to avo i d her c o n j u g a l duty and hence, motherhood as well.!-'- 0 I t i s c u r i o u s to note that each of the three s i c k l y compromiser c h a r a c t e r s has been c a s t i n the r o l e of a scapegoat - e i t h e r by f a m i l y members, s o c i e t y , or both of these. The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as to what extent t h e i r i n v a l i d l i f e s t y l e s - and p o s s i b l y even or g a n i c i l l n e s s - may stem, at l e a s t i n p a r t , from the burden of t h i s r o l e . Schuster uncovers a number of s a c r i f i c i a l m o t i f s connected with Effi.''""'"''" And Bance observes, i n regard to these m o t i f s a s s o c i a t e d with E f f i : "The scapegoat s t i l l performs a r i t u a l 112 f u n c t i o n . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , Bance does not e l a b o r a t e s u f f i c i e n t l y upon t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . V a l u a b l e i n s i g h t r e l e v a n t to the o r i g i n of the problem i s , however, pr o v i d e d by Waldemar: 'Das Schlimmste war, dass i c h im Hause s e l b s t , b e i meinen eignen E l t e r n , e i n Fremder war. Und warum? Ich habe s p a t e r darauf geachtet und es i n mehr a l s e i n e r F a m i l i e gesehn, wie h a r t E l t e r n gegen i h r e Kinder s i n d , wenn d i e s e ganz bestimmten Wiinschen und Erwartungen n i c h t entsprechen wollen.' (11,551) By way of comparison, the n a r r a t o r notes t h a t Frau von 104 B r i e s t i s a l s o e x c e s s i v e l y c r i t i c a l of E f f i (IV,23) and, l i k e C e c i l e ' s mother, she endeavours to l i v e out through her daughter, ambitions more p r o p e r l y s u i t e d to h e r s e l f . I n d i v i d u a l s whose ex p e c t a t i o n s - even though u n r e a l i s t i c - have not been met, however, tend to r e s i s t a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s f a i l u r e and i n s t e a d , blame a convenient t a r g e t . In f a c t , Webster's T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s scapegoat as, "a person...bearing the blame f o r others [a n d ] . . . a g a i n s t whom i s d i r e c t e d the i r r a t i o n a l h o s t i l i t y and u n r e l i e v e d a ggression of o t h e r s . " T h i s d e f i n i t i o n permits a t h r e e - f o l d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f u n c t i o n of i l l n e s s and i n v a l i d i s m . F i r s t l y , the s u f f e r i n g a s s o c i a t e d with an i l l n e s s , be i t f a n c i e d or r e a l , and the p u r s u i t of a s e l f - l i m i t i n g l i f e s t y l e as an i n v a l i d can serve these c h a r a c t e r s as a v e h i c l e to atone f o r g u i l t - whether t h a t g u i l t has been induced by f a i l u r e to meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s , or by t r a n s g r e s s i o n s of s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s . Such an attempt at r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s , however, u l t i m a t e l y doomed. For i t aims to p a c i f y o t h e r s at the c h a r a c t e r s ' own expense. Secondly, i n v a l i d i s m may be i n t e r p r e t e d as a means of s y m b o l i c a l l y s t r i k i n g back at those who have d i r e c t e d h o s t i l i t y towards the scapegoat. The s i c k l y c h a r a c t e r s can p a s s i v e l y vent t h e i r anger by employing i l l n e s s as an excuse to a v o i d assuming a d u l t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r themselves, 105 thus burdening those who must care and p rovide f o r them. We see t h i s phenomenon i l l u s t r a t e d most c l e a r l y by E f f i ' s r e t u r n , i n time of s i c k n e s s , to a s t a t e of c h i l d - l i k e dependency upon her p a r e n t s . And she r e v e a l s awareness of t h i s e f f e c t her i n v a l i d i s m has had upon them: "'Und e i g e n t l i c h hab' i c h doch auch euer Leben geandert und euch vor der Z e i t zu a l t e n Leuten gemacht 1"(IV,291). The i n d i r e c t form of p r o t e s t - through i n v a l i d i s m - i n r e a c t i o n to being made a scapegoat m i s c a r r i e s i n the long run, however. For i t , too, shares the s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s of submissive a d a p t a t i o n to the r o l e i n hope of g a i n i n g acceptance. T h i r d l y , not o n l y have the scapegoat c h a r a c t e r s f a l l e n s h o r t of the e x p e c t a t i o n s of others i n s o c i e t y , they have a l s o met with d e f e a t i n the p u r s u i t of t h e i r own a s p i r a t i o n s . Consequently, i l l n e s s and i n v a l i d i s m may be i n t e r p r e t e d as f i n a l attempts - s h o r t of s u i c i d e - on the p a r t of deeply r e s i g n e d c h a r a c t e r s , at r e s o l v i n g the i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l ' s w i l l and the c o l l e c t i v e w i l l of s o c i e t y . For these c h a r a c t e r s , the p h y s i c a l symptoms of i l l n e s s and the l i m i t a t i o n s which i n v a l i d i s m imposes may p r o v i d e a much needed d i v e r s i o n from d i s t r e s s i n g memories, as w e l l as from the emotional p a i n of f a c i n g t h e i r disappointment and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t with l i f e . C e c i l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , can a t t r i b u t e her misery to i l l n e s s , r a t h e r than to her past which s o c i e t y w i l l never f o r g i v e . We 106 a l s o observe t h a t E f f i ' s sense of f r u s t r a t i o n at unmet ex p e c t a t i o n s - " ' . . . i c h kann e i g e n t l i c h von v i e l e m i n meinem Leben sagen "beinah"'"(IV,280) - f i n d s graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n i n the h a l f - c i r c l e s drawn by Waldemar - " 1 Unwi l l k i i r l i c h e s Symbol meiner Tage. H a l b k r e i s e ! Kein Abschluss, keine Rundung, k e i n V o l l b r i n g e n . . . H a l b , h a l b . . . ' " ( I I , 5 5 6 ) . By way of summary, the preceding i n v e s t i g a t i o n has endeavoured to show how i l l e s s and i n v a l i d i s m a r i s e from, and provide a few of the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s with a means of escape from, the c o n f l i c t between t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s and the d i c t a t e s of s o c i e t y . I l l n e s s r e l i e v e s them of the burden of c h o i c e between these two o p t i o n s by r e n d e r i n g them inc a p a b l e of pursuing e i t h e r . S i c k l i n e s s permits these c h a r a c t e r s to evade s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , yet appease s o c i e t y through s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . T h e i r s u f f e r i n g serves to l e s s e n t h e i r f e e l i n g s of g u i l t over f a i l u r e to conform to s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s . At the same time, i t c o n s t i t u t e s a s i l e n t reproach toward a s o c i e t y which would t o l e r a t e such waste of human p o t e n t i a l - e s p e c i a l l y i n young a d u l t s . The path of i n v a l i d i s m , once embarked upon, tends to be s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g due to reinforcement a f f o r d e d the c h a r a c t e r s by numerous secondary gains - not the l e a s t of which i s avoidance of c o n f r o n t a t i o n both with themselves and with s o c i e t y . The eventual winner i n t h i s arrangement, however, i s s o c i e t y , which purges i t s c o l l e c t i v e g u i l t and 107 f a i l u r e by scapegoating an i n d i v i d u a l . By a c q u i r i n g a scapegoat, through o p p o s i t i o n to which other members of s o c i e t y are u n i t e d , i t a l s o f u r t h e r s i t s own goals of order, cohesion and r e s i s t a n c e to change. d. General f e a t u r e s of the compromisers i ) R e b e l l i o n and d i s t r a c t i o n In c o n t r a s t to the c o n f o r m i s t s , who e x h i b i t a high degree of emotional c o n t r o l , the compromisers are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by an extreme emotional l a b i l i t y . T h e i r u n stable natures are r e f l e c t e d i n moods that f l u c t u a t e between e l a t i o n , which i s g e n e r a l l y q u i t e s h o r t - l i v e d , and despondency, which tends to be the more predominant s t a t e . The n a r r a t o r s t a t e s of E f f i , f o r i n s t a n c e : " . . . s i e war . . . v i e l zu beweglichen Gemiits " (IV, 89) . "Es i s t d i e s e Unruhe," d e c l a r e s Kienbaum, "die von den Mannern n i c h t g e t e i l t 113 w ird...." But can we agree with Kienbaum? For the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n i s giv e n of St.Arnaud: "Von a h n l i c h e r Unruhe war der s i e [ C e c i l e ] b e g l e i t e n d e H e r r . . . " ( I I , 1 4 1 ) . A l s o , t h i s p e r c e p t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d by another c h a r a c t e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n of the former l i e u t e n a n t c o l o n e l : " ' . . . e r [ i s t ] v o l l Egoismus und Launen, v i e l l a u n e n h a f t e r a l s C e c i l e s e l b s t ' " ( I I , 2 7 7 ) . In a d d i t i o n , Botho von Rienacker - the 108 hero of Irrungen, Wirrungen - experiences s i m i l a r c o n t r a d i c t o r y emotional responses: "...eine Unruhe bemachtigte s i c h s e i n e r , w e i l ihm a l l e r w i d e r s t r e i t e n d s t e Gefiihle durchs Herz gingen: L i e b e , Sorge, F u r c h t " ( I I , 349 ) . By way of comparison, we observe t h a t Koc draws a t t e n t i o n to "Nachg i e b i g k e i t den eigenen Stimmungen und Launen gegeniiber" as one d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e of those c h a r a c t e r s , both male and female, whom he terms " i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c " 1 1 4 - a group which i s a l i k e i n many r e s p e c t s to the compromisers. The p e r i o d s of e l a t i o n , which most though not a l l of the compromisers experience, are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s i n c l u d i n g : a high degree of a c t i v i t y , s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g and r i s k - t a k i n g behaviour. Whereas the conf o r m i s t s shun s p o n t a n e i t y and p r e f e r r e p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t e d e i t h e r towards a c h i e v i n g s p e c i f i c goals or towards r e l i e v i n g t e n s i o n , the compromisers, on the other hand, favour i m p u l s i v e a c t i v i t y which i s seemingly without purpose, apa r t from s e r v i n g as a d i v e r s i o n . Moreover, i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to the c o n f o r m i s t s , who r e s i s t change and c l i n g to the f a m i l i a r , the compromisers yearn f o r change and v a r i e t y : " E f f i war n i c h t f u r Aufgewarmtheiten; F r i s c h e s war es, wonach s i e s i c h sehnte, Wechsel der Dinge"(IV,1 4 4 ) . Crampas, to whom E f f i f i n d s h e r s e l f s t r o n g l y a t t r a c t e d , s u b s c r i b e s to the same phi l o s o p h y - " 1Abwechslung i s t des Lebens R e i z 1 " ( I V , 1 2 5 ) . "Wechsel der Reize a l s der g r o s s t e 109 R e i z " i s a l s o an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of K o c 1 s i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c t y p e . 1 1 5 T h i s f e a t u r e is' f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by the animal symbolism a s s o c i a t e d with E f f i and Crampas: "'...und auf dem F l u r e i n k l e i n e r H a i f i s c h und e i n K r o k o d i l , beides an S t r i p p e n und immer i n Bewegung'"(IV,241). These two animals, known f o r t h e i r v o r a c i o u s a p p e t i t e s , hang i n the hallway of the K e s s i n home along with the s a i l i n g s h i p (IV,50) which, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, i s an a p p r o p r i a t e symbol f o r I n n s t e t t e n . T h e i r constant motion suggests the r e s t l e s s n e s s accompanying the p e r p e t u a l search of these c h a r a c t e r s f o r the s t i m u l a t i n g d i v e r s i o n s which seem to p r o v i d e them with some v i t a l form of sustenance. Despite the "nourishment" they r e c e i v e , however, t h e i r Sehnsucht, which takes the form of a hunger f o r s e n s a t i o n , i s never a l l e v i a t e d . The "'junge[ K r o k o d i l ' " ( I V , 5 0 ) i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d r e p r e s e n t s E f f i . An a l l u s i o n to f a l s e , or a f f e c t e d , t e a r s might have been p a r t of the author's i n t e n t i o n i n choosing t h i s symbol - an a s s e r t i o n which i s supported by E f f i ' s t h e a t r i c a l tendency: " ' . . . i c h so a l l e i n , und so jung. Ach, wenn i c h doch wen h i e r h a t t e , b e i dem i c h weinen konnte'"(IV,76). Furthermore, as a a q u a t i c c r e a t u r e , the c r o c o d i l e f u r n i s h e s yet another motif connected w i t h water which, as Grawe observes, i s r e p e a t e d l y a s s o c i a t e d with danger f o r the h e r o i n e . 1 1 * ' Concerning Crampas, Grawe maintains: "Im Gegensatz zu E f f i i s t das 110 Wasser, das Elementare, keine Gefahr f u r i h n . . . . " L ± ' T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , however, given the f a c t t h a t Crampas meets h i s u n f o r t u n a t e f a t e near the ocean - the h a b i t a t of the shark. The r e s t l e s s n e s s of the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a type of nervous d i s o r d e r . Hans Otto Horch e x p l o r e s the m u l t i - f a c e t e d concept of N e r v o s i t a t as i t e x i s t e d i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century. Quoting from the 1889 e d i t i o n of Grimm's D i c t i o n a r y , Volume 7, Horch notes the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a n t d e f i n i t i o n of nervos: " ' r e i z b a r e Nerven habend, nervenschwach.'" 1 1 8 "Dietse] negative V a r i a n t e wird gegen Ende des a l t e n und zu Beginn des neuen Jahrhunderts zunehmend betont;" e l a b o r a t e s Horch, " g l e i c h z e i t i g e n t s t e h t d i e a r t i s t i s c h - a s t h e t i s c h e Verkehrung i n s P o s i t i v e , E l i t a r e . " 1 1 9 Koc a f f i r m s , r e g a r d i n g E f f i ' s "whims," t h a t Fontane "draws the two phenomena of nervousness and the constant search f o r d i v e r s i o n i n t o d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n . "-"-^ The exact i n t e n t i o n of the author i n u n i t i n g these two f e a t u r e s remains, however, somewhat obscure. On the one hand, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o view the s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g behaviour of both E f f i and C e c i l e , f o r example, as an attempt to a l l a y a n x i e t y f o s t e r e d by i n n e r c o n f l i c t over t h e i r e x t r a - m a r i t a l l i a i s o n s . As Koc remarks: " C e c i l e ' s nervous i n c l i n a t i o n , apparent from the beginning, i n t e n s i f i e s as her r e l a t i o n s h i p I l l w ith von Gordon becomes more i n v o l v e d and confused." S t i l l , the f a c t t h a t her nervousness i s "apparent from the beginning" - j u s t as i t i s with E f f i even before she i s married (IV,18), l e t alone i n v o l v e d with Crampas - leads us to suspect t h a t a n x i e t y r e s u l t i n g from emotional c o n f l i c t s may not be so much a c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r of nervousness, as i t i s a source of aggravation to the p r e - e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n . The comment by C e c i l e ' s admirer, von L e s l i e - G o r d o n , t h a t she possesses "'etwas angeboren F e i n f i i h l i g e s 1 " ( I I , 2 95 ) suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of a g e n e t i c , b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r the h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e and unstable emotional d i s p o s i t i o n s of these c h a r a c t e r s . T h e i r nervousness may a c t u a l l y be an e f f e c t of the exaggerated f l u c t u a t i o n s i n mood to which a c o n s t i t u t i o n h y p e r s e n s i t i v e to both emotional and sensory s t i m u l i p r e d i s p o s e s them. A s i m i l a r attempt to d e f i n e nervousness i n terms of " c o n t r a s t i n g emotional r e a c t i o n s " has been made by H e l l p a c h , from whom Koc c i t e s the f o l l o w i n g comment: "Die N e r v o s i t a t hat i h r e w e s e n t l i c h e p s y c h o l o g i s c h e Grundlage i n der iibermassigen Steigerung eines normalen s e e l i s c h e n Vorganges: 12 2 des Gef i i h l s k o n t r a s t e s . " I f H e l l p a c h 1 s view i s c o r r e c t , then the compelling quest f o r s t i m u l a t i o n could r e p r e s e n t an e f f o r t to maintain a c o n s i s t e n t l y e l e v a t e d mood by endeavouring through continuous excitement to prevent the unwanted emergence of c o n t r a s t i n g f e e l i n g s of boredom and 112 melancholy - an occurrence which i s heralded by nervous a n x i e t y . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s l e n t credence by remarks from E f f i : " ' . . . j a , Zerstreuung, immer was Neues,....Was i c h n i c h t aushalten kann, i s t Langeweile 1"(IV,32.) Regardless of what motivates the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e i r r e s t l e s s seach f o r s t i m u l a t i o n , they i n e v i t a b l y come i n t o c o n f l i c t with s o c i e t y , as t h e i r d e s i r e f o r new and e x c i t i n g experiences leads them down unconventional paths. "Hang zum A u s g e f a l l e n e n und 12 3 Verbotenen" i s l i k e w i s e t y p i c a l of K o c 1 s i m p r e s s i o n i s t s . The element of r i s k or danger, as w e l l as t h a t of n o v e l t y , e x e r t s a powerful f a s c i n a t i o n upon the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s . Some of them c o u r t a c t u a l p h y s i c a l danger. A prime example of t h i s tendency i s f u r n i s h e d by E f f i , whose "'Hang nach S p i e l und Abenteuer'"(IV,40) appears to have always been a p a r t of her nature: "'Ich k l e t t e r e l i e b e r , und i c h schaukle mich l i e b e r , und am l i e b s t e n immer i n der F u r c h t , dass es irgendwo r e i s s e n oder brechen und i c h n i e d e r s t i i r zen konnte ' " (IV, 34 ) . E f f i does, i n f a c t , experience f a l l s " 1 j e d e n Tag wenigstens zwei-, d r e i m a l ' " ( I V , 1 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g to Johnson, " [ t ] h e p h y s i c a l and emotional s e c u r i t y of her environment i n f u s e s E f f i with the confidence to experiment with r i s k i n her p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . . . . " 1 2 4 However, E f f i ' s penchant f o r 113 c l i m b i n g and swinging - a c t i v i t i e s which y i e l d a sense of u n f e t t e r e d freedom i n space - might a l s o be e x p l a i n e d as an attempt to escape from the f e e l i n g of p a r e n t a l o v e r - p r o t e c t i v e n e s s . E f f i ' s tomboyish s t r e a k not only threatens her with p h y s i c a l i n j u r y ; i t a l s o betrays a r e b e l l i o u s a t t i t u d e with r e s p e c t to s o c i e t a l norms of feminine behaviour. Moreover, the n a u t i c a l costume (IV,9) i n which t h i s heroine makes her i n i t i a l appearance, has been remarked upon b y 1 R i t c h i e as c o n t r i b u t i n g what he terms "a strange sexual ambiguity." Another compromiser c h a r a c t e r , M a r i e t t a T r i p p e l l i , i n whom we f i n d many of E f f i ' s t r a i t s exaggerated, i s f r a n k l y d e s c r i b e d by the n a r r a t o r as "stark mannlich"(IV,90). Lacking not only i n feminine refinement, but i n b a s i c s o c i a l graces as w e l l , M a r i e t t a e x e m p l i f i e s through her unconventional l i f e s t y l e the d e f i a n t mode of response a s s o c i a t e d with compromisers. In the words of Grawe: Al s Sangerin kann s i e [ M a r i e t t a ] im Gegensatz zu E f f i B r i e s t u n g e s t r a f t im "Aparten"...leben und hat i n der Kunst einen B e r e i c h der F r e i h e i t und A n g s t l o s i g k e i t , l e b t aber ausserhalb der b i i r g e r l i c h e n Normen und u n t e r h a l t i n a l l e r O f f e n h e i t e i n V e r h a l t n i s mit einem r u s s i s c h e n F i i r s t e n . These remarks, while v a l i d up to a p o i n t , d e p i c t M a r i e t t a ' s s i t u a t i o n i n a l i g h t which i s perhaps too o p t i m i s t i c . N e i t h e r she, nor any other c h a r a c t e r i n Fontane's n o v e l s , i s permitted the luxury of l i v i n g e n t i r e l y " u n g e s t r a f t im 114 'Aparten.'" M a r i e t t a i s w e l l aware t h a t her a s s o c i a t i o n with the t h e a t e r has b l i g h t e d her r e p u t a t i o n , " ' . . . a l s o das Beste, was man hat'"(IV,93). Furthermore, her r e s o l u t i o n - h e n c e f o r t h , to share s l e e p i n g q u a r t e r s with a Quaker as p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t ghosts, by which she b e l i e v e s to have been p r e v i o u s l y haunted (IV,93) - c a s t s doubt upon Grawe's a s s e r t i o n of M a r i e t t a ' s " A n g s t l o s i g k e i t . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t G i e s h u b l e r i s drawn to both E f f i and M a r i e t t a , each of whom presents an image of sexual ambiguity. The apothecary himsel f e x h i b i t s t h i s phenomenon with h i s outmoded j a b o t s , as w e l l as other somewhat f o p p i s h a t t i r e . G i e s h u b l e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , too, r e v e a l s a s t r o n g l y developed "feminine" s i d e of h i s nature, to which h i s numerous c r e a t i v e p u r s u i t s and h i s keen d e s i r e to nurture - expressed not o n l y i n h i s r e l a t i o n s with people, but a l s o i n h i s hobby of flower c u l t i v a t i o n - t e s t i f y . By way of c o n t r a s t , n e i t h e r E f f i nor M a r i e t t a appears to possess a n u r t u r i n g tendency; they p r e f e r to be the r e c i p i e n t s of care and a t t e n t i o n from o t h e r s . No such b l u r r i n g of the boundaries of gender which these compromiser c h a r a c t e r s d i s p l a y - both i n appearance and p e r s o n a l i t y - i s d i s c e r n i b l e among the c o n f o r m i s t s , who exemplify c o n v e n t i o n a l sex r o l e s t e r e o t y p e s . Another i n s t a n c e of E f f i ' s departure from customary feminine behaviour i s r e v e a l e d by her d e s i r e to r i d e 115 horseback along the beach with Crampas and I n n s t e t t e n : " . . . s i e habe nun mal d i e Pas s i o n , und es s e i doch zu v i e l v e r l a n g t , b l o s s urn des Geredes der Ke s s i n e r w i l l e n , auf etwas zu v e r z i c h t e n , das einem so v i e l wert s e i " ( I V , 1 2 7 ) . I n n s t e t t e n , as a c o n f o r m i s t , i s n a t u r a l l y a g a i n s t the i d e a , but the r e b e l l i o u s Crampas views E f f i ' s wish with a p p r o v a l . C e c i l e i s another c h a r a c t e r f o r whom " ' E s e l r e i t e n und Ponyfahren'" c o n s t i t u t e an a c t u a l "'Passion'"(II,208) to such an extent that she exclaims: "'Ach, i c h konnte den ganzen Tag so r e i t e n , und von Miidigkeit ware keine Spur 1 " ( I I , 2 1 7 ) . At the t u r n of the century, r i d i n g and c y c l i n g , too, were s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d unconventional a c t i v i t i e s f o r women. Such amusements can r e a d i l y be i n t e r p r e t e d , t h e r e f o r e , as symbols of emancipation or, i n connection with E f f i and C e c i l e , as symbols of t h e i r yearning to be l i b e r a t e d from a n x i e t y and r e s t r i c t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , the m o b i l i t y which the donkey a f f o r d s C e c i l e - to ex p l o r e the co u n t r y s i d e with a minimum of p h y s i c a l e x e r t i o n i n search of s t i m u l a t i o n - appears to have t e m p o r a r i l y r e l i e v e d her s p i r i t of an undefined burden: "'Ja, s i e hat e i n Verlangen, eine Sehnsucht. Aber welche? Mitunter i s t es, a l s sehne s i e s i c h , von einem Drucke b e f r e i t zu werden oder von e i n e r F u r c h t und i n n e r l i c h e n Qual'"(II,241). E f f i experiences a s i m i l a r sense of escape when she journeys i n the s l e i g h with I n n s t e t t e n : "'Es i s t j a 116 himmlisch, so h i n z u f l i e g e n , und i c h f i i h l e o r d e n t l i c h , wie mir so f r e i wird und wie a l l e Angst von mir a b f a l l t ' " ( I V , 8 5 ) . The element of danger i s found here, too, i n t h a t E f f i cannot t o l e r a t e the s a f e t y s t r a p which both p r o t e c t s and r e s t r i c t s (IV,157). Such d e l i b e r a t e c o u r t i n g of p h y s i c a l danger appears to serve the f u n c t i o n of momentarily overcoming c h r o n i c a n x i e t y by c o n v e r t i n g i t i n t o a s e n s a t i o n of excitement. O c c a s i o n a l l y , the f e e l i n g of e x h i l a r a t i o n i s d e s i r e d f o r i t s own sake - perhaps as an a n t i d o t e to the 1 ? 7 numbness of boredom and d e p r e s s i o n . As the n a r r a t o r observes of E f f i : "Am l i e b s t e n aber hatte s i e [ E f f i ] wie f r i i h e r auf dem durch d i e L u f t f l i e g e d e n S c h a u k e l b r e t t gestanden und i n dem G e f i i h l e : 1 j e t z t s t i i r z ' i c h , 1 etwas e i g e n t i i m l i c h P r i c k e l n d e s , einen Schauer siisser Gefahr empf unden " (IV, 118 ) . As opposed t o the female c h a r a c t e r s , whose p r o c l i v i t y f o r dangerous a c t i v i t i e s u s u a l l y seems connected t o a d e s i r e f o r movement and freedom from r e s t r a i n t , the male c h a r a c t e r s , g e n e r a l l y speaking, g r a v i t a t e more toward deeds of raw p h y s i c a l bravery, such as both Waldemar and St.Arnaud d i s p l a y e d through t h e i r heroism i n b a t t l e . Even i n peacetime, c h a r a c t e r s l i k e St.Arnaud, Gordon and Crampas appear to c r e a t e g r a t u i t o u s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to r i s k t h e i r l i v e s i n d u e l s . The p r o v o c a t i o n f o r these duels r e s i d e s i n a s o c i a l l y unacceptable involvement with a member of the opp o s i t e sex. These c h a r a c t e r s know t h e i r involvements w i l l 117 a f f r o n t other members of s o c i e t y , yet appear to be motivated p r e c i s e l y by the t h r e a t of censure and r e t r i b u t i o n . St.Arnaud r e a l i z e d f u l l w e l l , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t h i s b e t r o t h a l to C e c i l e would be condemned by h i s f e l l o w o f f i c e r s . As Evans e x p l a i n s , i t was customary f o r the o f f i c e r corps to r e q u i r e t h a t members o b t a i n permission to marry: The g r a n t i n g of t h i s o f f i c i a l consent depended on the s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the p r o s p e c t i v e b r i d e , not o n l y on her s o c i a l antecedents (which had to be r e s p e c t a b l e , non-Jewish and p r e f e r a b l y wealthy but not n e c e s s a r i l y a r i s t o c r a t i c ) but a l s o on her conformity to the mores of the upper c l a s s e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , S t . Arnaud seems to have pursued C e c i l e , as C h r i s t i a n e Wandel expresses i t , "mehr aus e i g e n s i n n i g e r 12 9 Laune a l s aus w i r k l i c h e r Zuneigung." St.Arnaud's r e b e l l i o u s s t r e a k i s confirmed by the n a r r a t o r , who d e s c r i b e s i n h i s f a c i a l f e a t u r e s " e i n Zug von Herbheit, T r o t z und E i g e n w i l l e n " ( I I , 1 4 3 ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , C e c i l e i s a l s o a t t r a c t e d to Gordon, im whom Hofprediger D o r f f e l notes, "'einen e i g e n s i n n i g e n Zug urn den Mund'" and whom he judges to be "mutmasslich f i x e r Ideen f a h i g ' " ( I I , 2 5 8 ) . Defying s o c i a l convention, although i t c o s t s St.Arnaud a b r i l l i a n t c a r e e r , appears to s a t i s f y some profound p s y c h o l o g i c a l need. Dorr, i n choosing the former m i s t r e s s of a count to be h i s second w i f e , i m i t a t e s e s s e n t i a l l y the same r e b e l l i o u s p a t t e r n which St.Arnaud e x h i b i t s . As a member of the working 118 c l a s s , however, the former does not s u f f e r the same re p e r c u s s i o n s as the l a t t e r . A p a r a l l e l may a l s o be drawn here between St.Arnaud and Crampas, whom Bance terms, "a s e l f - s t y l e d adventurer" prone to a c t i n g "not out of f r e e w i l l but i n r e a c t i o n to r e s t r i c t i o n s of s o c i e t y . With him, de f i a n c e passes f o r independence." 1 3^ In Fontane's n o v e l s , the us u a l p r o v o c a t i o n f o r a d u e l i s , however, s p e c i f i c a l l y a d u l t e r y . With regard to the unfortunate case of Gordon, the deed i s merely contemplated, j u s t as S c h i l l e r ' s W a l l e n s t e i n - with whom Gordon i s compared (11,15) - o n l y e n t e r t a i n e d thoughts of tr e a s o n , but was punished as i f he had committed the c r i m e . 1 3 1 A f f a i r s , whether a c t u a l or a n t i c i p a t e d , n e v e r t h e l e s s o f f e r the p a r t i c i p a n t s some reward. E f f i ' s b r i e f l i a i s o n with Crampas, f o r example, i l l u s t r a t e s a number of such b e n e f i t s . F i r s t , she appears i n t r i g u e d both by the Major's r e p u t a t i o n - "'Er s o l i namlich e i n Mann v i e l e r V e r h a l t n i s s e s e i n , e i n Damenmann...'" - and by h i s charm - "'ausgelassen und iibermutig . . . . Vollkommener K a v a l i e r , ungewohnlich gewandt'"(IV,105). To be sure, t h i s dashing p o r t r a i t forms q u i t e a c o n t r a s t to the r a t h e r s t a i d impression which I n n s t e t t e n p r o j e c t s . Another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s advanced by Mittelmann i n her r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d d i s s e r t a t i o n , Die Utopie des we i b l i c h e n Gliicks i n den Romanen Theodor Fontanes, wherein 119 she s t a t e s that E f f i ' s a d u l t e r y can a l s o be regarded as " e i n Ausdruck e i n e s l a t e n t e n Gefuhls der Auflehnung und Rachsucht gegenuber I n n s t e t t e n . " J C e r t a i n l y , Crampas does encourage f e e l i n g s of s u s p i c i o n and anger on E f f i ' s p a r t towards I n n s t e t t e n with h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t her husband i s employing the ghost s t o r y as a means to keep her " ' i n Ordnung'"(IV,13 4). Bance c a r r i e s Mittelmann 1s view perhaps one step too f a r , however, with h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t E f f i ' s a f f a i r "represents a c h i l d i s h r e t a l i a t i o n upon a n e g l e c t f u l male-dominated world which she i s otherwise powerless to c o m b a t . " 1 3 3 F i n a l l y , the aspect of danger a s s o c i a t e d with an i l l i c i t a f f a i r - of which E f f i i s w e l l aware from the o u t s e t : "'Sie [Crampas] s i n d g e f a h r l i c h . . . ' " ( I V , 1 3 2 ) - generates c o n s i d e r a b l e excitement as an a n t i d o t e to her ennui. In the words of Koc: "...the s t i m u l a t i o n [ f o r a d u l t e r e r s ] comes from the element of danger that i s i n v o l v e d , the danger of being discovered.""'" 3 4 Thus, E f f i i s able to s h i f t the focus of her anxious worrying from the nebulous e n t i t y of the ghost to the r e a l i s t i c p o s s i b i l i t y of d i v o r c e and d i s g r a c e . At no p o i n t , however, are we encouraged to a t t r i b u t e E f f i ' s behaviour to d e s i r e . For such f e e l i n g was deemed i n Fontane's day as q u i t e i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a woman - even f o r an a d u l t e r e s s . As Cunningham observes: "Indeed, no n o v e l i s t of the m i d - V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d 120 who wished to arouse sympathy f o r a f a l l e n woman would r i s k p o r t r a y i n g her as remotely s e n s u a l . . . . to suggest t h a t her 135 body i n f l u e n c e d her...would i n v i t e c r i t i c a l d i s a s t e r . " In summary, her a f f a i r with Crampas rewards E f f i with a t t e n t i o n from an a t t r a c t i v e man, who forms an e x h i l a r a t i n g c o n t r a s t to her husband. T h i s attempt to f u l f i l l a romantic f a n t a s y a l s o y i e l d s a sense of g e t t i n g even with I n n s t e t t e n , while i t c o u n t e r a c t s depression and boredom. The l a s t f a c t o r - r e l i e f from monotony - i s an element which appears to be common to the a f f a i r s of a l l compromisers. Two a d d i t i o n a l means by which the compromisers seek to maintain a mood of e x h i l a r a t i o n - namely, by gambling and by engaging i n power s t r u g g l e s with others - may appear, at f i r s t g lance, to have l i t t l e i n common. Yet, both a c t i v i t i e s p r o vide s t i m u l a t i o n through the u n c e r t a i n t y of winning or l o s i n g . In the case of the former a c t i v i t y , four p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s , a l l of whom belong to the category of compromiser, are seemingly a d d i c t e d to games of chance. We l e a r n of Gordon, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t he l e f t the army f o r no other reason than gambling debts (11,192). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note a p a r a l l e l i n t h i s regard between Gordon and C e c i l e ' s f a t h e r , whose a l l e g e d s u i c i d e may have been motivated by growing debt, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t he enjoyed a good income (11,282). Botho von Rienacker, the "unheroic h e r o " 1 3 6 of 121 Irrungen, Wirrungen, r e g u l a r l y passes time gambling at the o f f i c e r s ' c l u b , where he has a c t u a l l y won a v a l u a b l e horse from a comrade (11,339). S t i l l , Botho c o n s i s t e n t l y l i v e s beyond h i s means and i s compelled to marry h i s r i c h c o u s i n i n order to remain s o l v e n t . The t h i r d example of a compromiser c h a r a c t e r who gambles "mit beinah w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e m E r n s t " ( I I , 2 6 4 ) i s f u r n i s h e d by St.Arnaud. In the words-of another c h a r a c t e r : "'Vor T i s c h l i e s t er Zeitungen, nach T i s c h s p i e l t er Whist oder B i l l a r d ; ...es geht urn Summen, d i e f u r unsereins e i n Vermogen bedeuten 1"(II,277). By way of comparison, St.Arnaud 's p a s s i o n f o r reading newspapers - an a u x i l i a r y source of s t i m u l a t i n g d i s t r a c t i o n - i s shared by another compromiser c h a r a c t e r , G i e s h i i b l e r . We encounter the f o u r t h example of a c h a r a c t e r who possesses a gambling st r e a k , van der S t r a a t e n , i n L ' A d u l t e r a . His preoccupation with the stock exchange - e s s e n t i a l l y a form of l e g a l gambling - i s commented upon by Mende: "Die Borse d u r c h d r i n g t van der S t r a a t e n : Der b l i t z s c h n e l l e Umschlag s e i n e r Stimmungen g l e i c h t dem raschen 13 7 Wechsel der Kurse i n der G r u n d e r z e i t . . . . As f a r as the power s t r u g g l e s engaged i n by the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s are concerned, i t i s necessary to make two important d i s t i n c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the aim and nature of these c o n f l i c t s . For the conformist c h a r a c t e r s a l s o r e v e a l themselves to be i n c l i n e d toward such c o m p e t i t i v e 122 i n t e r a c t i o n s . In c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to the c o n f o r m i s t s , however, who seek to c o n t r o l t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n order to maintain a sense of s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y through p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , the compromisers, on,the other hand, appear drawn to power s t r u g g l e s f o r the sense of excitement a f f o r d e d by a c o n t e s t of w i l l s . Moreover, whereas the con f o r m i s t s g e n e r a l l y favour one to one r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which they are c l e a r l y the dominant p a r t n e r , the compromisers are d i s t i n c t l y prone to involvement i n t r i a n g l e s , which are more v o l a t i l e and hence, more e x c i t i n g . We commence our d i s c u s s i o n with C e c i l e , i n which the n a r r a t o r remarks at the o u t s e t upon a c e r t a i n impression conveyed by the heroine and her husband: "Tauschte n i c h t a l l e s , so l a g eine 'Geschichte' zuriick, und d i e schone Frau...war unter a l l e r l e i Kampfen und Opfern errungen"(II,143). T h i s very aura a t t r a c t s and i n t r i g u e s the t h i r d member of the t r i a n g l e , Gordon: "'Dahinter s t e c k t e i n Roman 1 " ( I I , 1 4 9 ) . We know that Gordon has p r e v i o u s l y been i n v o l v e d i n at l e a s t one s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n by h i s r e f e r e n c e to Lady Windham i n D e h l i (11,245). The c h a l l e n g e to Gordon of s e c u r i n g a l i a i s o n with C e c i l e i s i n c r e a s e d not on l y by St.Arnaud 1s pos s e s s i v e n e s s - which a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s an element of danger - but, i n a d d i t i o n , to quote Garland, "by C e c i l e ' s e t h e r e a l beauty, which g i v e s her a c e r t a i n 13 8 remoteness, enhancing d e s i r a b i l i t y . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , 123 Gordon's j e a l o u s y d i s t o r t s h i s judgment to such a degree t h a t he imagines Hedemeyer has usurped h i s p o s i t i o n and, a c t i n g upon t h a t f a l s e assumption, ends by l o s i n g not o n l y the power s t r u g g l e , but h i s very l i f e as w e l l . T h i s p a t t e r n of excitement provided by a c o n t e s t of w i l l s , which e v e n t u a l l y ends i n d e f e a t , i s a l s o e x e m p l i f i e d by two of the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s i n E f f i B r i e s t . Major von Crampas, who shares with Gordon a h i s t o r y of "conquests," experiences a f a t e remarkably s i m i l a r to t h a t of the l a t t e r when he i n t e r p o s e s h i m s e l f between E f f i and I n n s t e t t e n . A second t r i a n g l e - commonly overlooked i n t h i s novel - i s c r e a t e d by E f f i , Crampas and Frau von Crampas. The f a c t t h a t a power s t r u g g l e e x i s t s here, too, i s r e v e a l e d by Crampas' l e t t e r i n which he r e f u s e s E f f i ' s request to abandon h i s wife and run away with her (IV,233). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , each p a i r of l o v e r s i n C e c i l e and i n E f f i B r i e s t u l t i m a t e l y meets with death. The same theme of excitement a f f o r d e d by a power s t r u g g l e , which i s then f o l l o w e d by l o s s , i s played out with l e s s u n fortunate consequences i n Irrungen, Wirrunqen. Here, we observe Frau Dorr occupying a nodal p o s i t i o n i n no fewer than three romantic t r i a n g l e s . The f i r s t t r i a n g l e i s comprised of Frau Dorr, her husband and the count o f whom she was f o r m e r l y a m i s t r e s s . Granted, we never a c t u a l l y meet the count. Yet, he i s present not o n l y i n Frau Dorr's memory, but 124 a l s o i n the imagination of her husband, whom Bance d e s c r i b e s as "a happy man because he f o n d l y imagines h i s wife a so u g h t - a f t e r b e a u t y . " 1 3 9 Disenchanted with her end of the ba r g a i n , however, Frau Dorr endeavours to capture the a t t e n t i o n s of another a r i s t o c r a t , Botho. He appears a c t u a l l y to welcome her i n t r u s i o n , f o r i t serves h i s need to d i s t a n c e h i m s e l f e m o t i o n a l l y from h i s sweetheart, Lene: "'Frau Dorr muss immer dabei s e i n . Ohne Frau Dorr geht es n i c h t 1 " ( I I , 3 7 3 ) . T h i s second t r i a n g l e ends i n l o s s f o r each of i t s members when Botho, who i s i n v o l v e d i n an a d d i t i o n a l t r i a n g l e with Lene and Kathe, becomes o b l i g e d to choose between h i s sentiment f o r the former and h i s need f o r solvency through marriage to the l a t t e r . F i n a l l y , i t i s again Herr Dorr who wins - by d e f a u l t - the power s t r u g g l e of the t h i r d t r i a n g l e composed of hi m s e l f , F r a u Dorr and Botho. Frau Dorr, who shares with E f f i and C e c i l e a need f o r constant a t t e n t i o n from male admirers, i r o n i c a l l y s u f f e r s the g r e a t e s t sense of l o s s i n these romantic t r i a n g l e s , which she appears to i n i t i a t e . Two more i l l u s t r a t i o n s of how the compromisers attempt to s u s t a i n a mood of e x h i l a r a t i o n - namely, through t r a v e l l i n g and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n - warrant b r i e f mention. Gordon, whom Grawe d e s c r i b e s as " h e i m a t l o s , " 1 4 0 has t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y , although even the l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d 125 van der S t r a a t e n has undertaken shor t t r i p s to France and I t a l y . Other c h a r a c t e r s pursue the s t i m u l a t i n g d i v e r s i o n f u r n i s h e d by numerous excursions w i t h i n and without of B e r l i n . C e c i l e n e a t l y sums up the s a t i s f a c t i o n s to be d e r i v e d by compromisers from t r a v e l : 'Wie l e i c h t und g e f a l l i g macht s i c h h i e r das Leben. Und warum? Weil s i c h bestandig neue Beziehungen und Ankniipfungen b i e t e n . Das i s t noch der Vorzug des Re i s e l e b e n s , dass man den Augenblick walten und uberhaupt a l l e s g e l t e n l a s s t , was einem g e f a l l t . ' (II,191) E f f i ' s l o s s of i n t e r e s t i n t r a v e l - which occurs d u r i n g her years as an o u t c a s t (IV,259) - r e f l e c t s the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t no avenue of escape from her c o n f l i c t with s o c i e t y i s p o s s i b l e . In regard to s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s tend to be drawn to f o r e i g n e r s , e c c e n t r i c s and malcontents. E f f i , f o r example, i s i n t r i g u e d by I n n s t e t t e n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n of K e s s i n : "'...nun f i n d e i c h . . . e i n e ganz neue Welt h i e r . A l l e r l e i E x o t i s c h e s . . . . v i e l l e i c h t einen Neger oder einen Tiirken, oder v i e l l e i c h t sogar einen C h i n e s e n 1 " ( I V , 4 5 ) . The most e c c e n t r i c c i r c l e i s t h a t of van der S t r a a t e n , i n which - between the d i a t r i b e s of Baron Duquede and the e n t e r t a i n i n g anecdotes of P o l i c e C o u n c i l l o r R e i f f - there i s never a d u l l moment. L a s t l y , we f i n d a s s o c i a t e d with St.Arnaud a group of men whom Garland terms " c a s u a l t i e s of p u b l i c careers.""'"4"'" 126 "Beinah a l l e waren Frondeurs, Trager e i n e r O p p o s i t i o n quand meme, d i e s i c h gegen Armee und M i n i s t e r i u m , 1 1 e l a b o r a t e s the n a r r a t o r , "und g e l e g e n t l i c h auch gegen das Hohenzollerntum s e l b s t r i c h t e t e " ( I I , 2 6 5 ) . T h i s s e c t i o n has explored v a r i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the r e b e l l i o u s and d i s t r a c t i o n - s e e k i n g behaviour which d i s t i n g u i s h e s compromiser c h a r a c t e r s from the c o n f o r m i s t s . Such behaviour i s d i s p l a y e d when the compromisers, who are noted f o r t h e i r emotional l a b i l i t y , experience a mood of e l a t i o n . While under the i n f l u e n c e of t h i s mood, they indulge i n a h e c t i c round of a c t i v i t i e s , which o f t e n i n c l u d e s s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g and r i s k - t a k i n g . The compromisers yearn f o r constant change and v a r i e t y to serve the purpose of d i v e r s i o n . A nervous temperament appears to g i v e r i s e to t h i s r e s t l e s s n e s s , although i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e to view both nervousness and the search f o r d i v e r s i o n as responses to a n x i e t y generated by c o n f l i c t s , boredom and melancholy. T h e i r d e s i r e to escape f e e l i n g s of r e s t r i c t i o n - i n a d d i t i o n to the quest f o r ever new sources of s t i m u l a t i o n - sometimes encourages the compromisers to defy s o c i a l norms of a p p r o p r i a t e conduct. In the male c h a r a c t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y , we observe a r a t h e r headstrong d e t e r m i n a t i o n to provoke censure through a n t a g o n i z i n g other members of s o c i e t y . A more s u b t l e e x p r e s s i o n of r e b e l l i o n can be observed i n the motif of sexual ambiguity found i n both appearance and 127 p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of some male and female compromiser c h a r a c t e r s . Among the a c t i v i t i e s r e g u l a r l y sought out f o r t h e i r s t i m u l a t i n g p o t e n t i a l are gambling, a f f a i r s , power s t r u g g l e s , t r a v e l l i n g , as w e l l as s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n with f o r e i g n e r s , e c c e n t r i c s and malcontents. P e r i o d i c a l l y , these attempts undertaken by the compromisers to a v o i d c o n f r o n t a t i o n with themselves f a i l . At such times, negative moods t y p i f i e d by ennui, p a s s i v e i n d e c i s i o n , s e l f - r e p r o a c h and r e s i g n a t i o n emerge. We now turn to an examination of these themes i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . i i ) R e s i g n a t i o n and d e s p a i r The p e r i o d s of e l a t i o n which the e m o t i o n a l l y l a b i l e compromisers experience are, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , countered by i n t e r v a l s of profound despondency. During these i n t e r v a l s , we become aware of the e s s e n t i a l l y a p o l o g e t i c stance with which the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s approach the world. T h i s a p o l o g e t i c stance i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by an a t t i t u d e of s e l f - doubt, which c o n t r a s t s with the a i r of s e l f - a s s u r a n c e e x h i b i t e d by the c o n f o r m i s t s . Hofprediger D o r f f e l shares with C e c i l e h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the matter: 128 'Ich weiss wohl, was diesen Ihren bestandigen Zweifeln zugrunde l i e g t , es i s t das, dass S i e , vor Tausenden, i n Ihrem Herzen demutig s i n d . . . . e s i s t doch z w e i e r l e i : d i e Demut vor Gott und d i e Demut vor den Menschen. In unserer Demut vor Gott konnen wir n i e zu weit gehen, aber i n unserer Demut vor den Menschen konnen wir mehr tun a l s n o t i g . Und S i e tun es. Es i s t f r e i l i c h e i n schoner Zug und e i n s i c h e r e s Kennzeichen e d l e r e r Naturen, andere besser zu glauben a l s s i c h s e l b s t , aber wenn wir diesem Zuge zu sehr nachhangen, so v e r f a l i e n wir i n Irrtiimer und s c h a f f e n weit iiber uns s e l b s t hinaus a l l e r l e i Schadigungen und N a c h t e i l e ' (11,259) The compromisers' acquiescent posture toward o t h e r s , which D o r f f e l here d e s c r i b e s , f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n v a r i o u s forms. I t can appear, f o r example, as a sense of i n f e r i o r i t y i n comparison with a s p e c i f i c person, as we observe i n E f f i ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p with I n n s t e t t e n : "'Ich habe mich immer k l e i n neben ihm gef i i h l t . . . 1 " (IV, 275) . And, i t can r e v e a l i t s e l f - as i t a l s o does with E f f i - i n a gen e r a l p a t t e r n of deference toward the wishes of o t h e r s : "'Man muss doch immer dahin passen, wohin man nun mal g e s t e l l t i s t ' " ( I V , 7 1 - 7 2 ) . As a consequence of f e e l i n g i n f e r i o r , the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s tend to regard t h e i r own needs and d e s i r e s as being of l e s s e r importance than those of o t h e r s . In t h i s context, Crampas draws our a t t e n t i o n to an element of f e a r which E f f i experiences as a concomitant of s e l f - a s s e r t i o n : "'Du musst Dich n i c h t urn a l l e s so bangen. Wir haben auch e i n Recht. Und wenn Du D i r das e i n d r i n g l i c h s a g s t , wird . . . a l l e F u r c h t von D i r a b f a l i e n ' " ( I V , 2 3 2 ) . A second i l l u s t r a t i o n of 129 t h i s phenomenon of a n x i e t y l i n k e d with s e l f - a s s e r t i o n i s provided by Waldemar, who wants h i s f a m i l y to pardon him f o r e x e r c i s i n g h i s own w i l l i n the choice of a wife (11,526). In f a c t , our key to understanding the compromisers' submissive r e a c t i o n to the c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y i s the r e c o g n i t i o n that these c h a r a c t e r s are motivated by f e a r - of other people, i n p a r t i c u l a r , and of s o c i e t y , i n g e n e r a l . C e c i l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s plagued by f e a r which presents i t s e l f i n an omnipresent and a c u t e l y i n t e n s e form, as her p l e a to the Hofprediger r e v e a l s : "'...und, vor allem, beten Sie mir das Grauen f o r t , das auf meiner Seele l i e g t ' " ( I I , 2 6 0 ) . E f f i tends, however, to view s p e c i f i c persons and t h i n g s as the o b j e c t s of her f e a r . In a d d i t i o n to I n n s t e t t e n : " ' . . . i c h f u r c h t e mich vor ihm'"(IV,35) - and the Chinese ghost, of course - E f f i i s , at times, apprehensive of other people i n g e n e r a l : " ' . . . s i e s i n d h i e r [ i n K e s s i n ] so s t r e n g und s e l b s t g e r e c h t 1 " ( I V , 8 4 ) . To be sure, i t i s not only the female compromiser c h a r a c t e r s who are s u b j e c t to such f e a r s . Old B r i e s t , f o r example, s u f f e r s from nightmares (IV, 75) and G i e s h i i b l e r i s e x c e s s i v e l y modest due to a n x i e t y over provoking the d i s p l e a s u r e of o t h e r s : "'...er f i i h r t auch den D o k t o r t i t e l , hat's aber n i c h t gern, wenn man ihn dabei nennt, das argere, so meint e r , d i e r i c h t i g e n Doktors b l o s s , und d a r i n wird er wohl r e c h t haben'"(IV,51). 130 Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the compromisers' sense of i n f e r i o r i t y leads them to expect r i d i c u l e from o t h e r s . Frau Dorr r e v e a l s the extent to which compromisers continue to want s o c i e t y ' s approval - o r , at l e a s t to avoid i t s d i s a p p r o v a l - d e s p i t e the t r a n s g r e s s i o n s which they might have made i n the p a s t : ' . . . i c h habe nu Dorren. Na, v i e l i s er n i c h , aber es i s doch was Anstandiges, und man kann s i c h i i b e r a l l sehen l a s s e n . Und drum b i n i c h auch i n d i e K i r c h e mit ihm gefahren und n i c h b l o s s Standesamt. Bei Standesamt reden s i e immer noch.' (11,321) Higher s o c i a l c l a s s does nothing to d i m i n i s h the f e a r of d i s a p p r o v a l , however, as Botho's embarrassment at being seen i n a cheap cab betrays (11,448). Another f e a r to which some compromisers are predisposed, due to t h e i r imagined i n f e r i o r i t y , i s t h a t of u l t i m a t e r e j e c t i o n and abandonment by another. A f e e l i n g of being somehow unworthy of high esteem accompanies t h i s f e a r , which E f f i expresses to I n n s t e t t e n : " ' A l l e Welt hat es so gut mit mir gemeint, am meisten du; das bedriickt mich, w e i l i c h f u h l e , dass i c h es n i c h t verdiene'"(IV,148). The m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n of such r e j e c t i o n - not on l y i n E f f i ' s case, but i n t h a t of Waldemar as w e l l - leads to tragedy. Van der S t r a a t e n , a much l e s s s e n s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r than e i t h e r of the former two, appears to s u r v i v e h i s abandonment mainly by v i r t u e of equating h i s p e r s o n a l worth with h i s monetary 131 worth. An i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l may be seen to e x i s t here between van der St r a a t e n and E f f i , i n that the l a t t e r - p r i o r to her marriage - c u r i o u s l y appears to doubt somewhat her chances of f i n d i n g love and i s q u i t e prepared to opt i n s t e a d f o r m a t e r i a l wealth: "'Und wenn es Z a r t l i c h k e i t und Liebe n i c h t s e i n konnen,...nun, dann b i n i c h f u r Reichtum und e i n vornehmes Haus, e i n ganz vornehmes...'"(IV,32). Moreover, both E f f i and van der Stra a t e n are a l i k e i n t h a t they provoke, by t h e i r own a c t i o n s , the very r e j e c t i o n of which they l i v e i n f e a r . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , we o c c a s i o n a l l y observe compromisers who, i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of themselves being r e j e c t e d , are the f i r s t to r e j e c t another. I n d i r e c t admission of s e l f - d o u b t can, f o r example, be i n f e r r e d from c r i t i c a l remarks made about another c h a r a c t e r who possesses g r e a t e r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . T h i s phenomenon can be n o t i c e d i n C e c i l e ' s d i s l i k e of Rosa, which she r e v e a l s with the f o l l o w i n g statement: " ' . . . i c h f i n d e das F r a u l e i n sehr u n t e r h a l t l i c h , aber doch etwas em a n z i p i e r t oder, wenn d i e s n i c h t das r i c h t i g e Wort i s t , etwas zu s i c h e r und s e l b s t - bewusst'"(II,190). S t i l l more evidence of a f e a r f u l a t t i t u d e i s betrayed by the d e s i r e of both E f f i and C e c i l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , to remain f o r e v e r p r o t e c t e d from the world i n a s t a t e of c h i l d - l i k e dependency upon o t h e r s . E f f i q u i t e unabashedly 132 d e c l a r e s : ' " . . . i c h b i n e i n Kind und werd' es auch wohl b l e i b e n ' " ( I V , 7 1 ) . Her fondness f o r Brentano's poem, "Die Gottesmauer," conveys her wish to be p a s s i v e l y kept s a f e , as i t a l s o r e c a l l s the s e c u r i t y of the horseshoe-shaped enclosure formed by her p a r e n t a l home and i t s p r o p e r t y , which borders upon the "Kirchhofsmauer"(IV,7). A l s o , Gordon surmises t h a t C e c i l e - whom he regards as a "Kinderseele"(II,184) - has a marriage which c o n s t i t u t e s "'eine Neigung mehr aus S c h u t z b e d i i r f n i s a l s aus Liebe'"(11,187). Indeed, the p r i n c i p a l source of a n x i e t y f o r both women i s probably t h e i r f e e l i n g of inadequacy i n coping alone with the world. Reference to such c h i l d - l i k e n e s s i s a l s o made of male compromiser c h a r a c t e r s , however, such as van der St r a a t e n (11,37) and St.Arnaud ( I I , 2 7 7 ) . 1 4 2 Whereas a c h i l d - l i k e view of themselves i n r e l a t i o n to others can be d i s c e r n e d i n a number of compromiser c h a r a c t e r s , the c o n f o r m i s t s , on the other hand, f r e q u e n t l y assume a p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e toward o t h e r s , which approaches patronage. A f e a t u r e which both a t t i t u d e s - the Demut, or sense of i n f e r i o r i t y t y p i c a l of the compromisers, and the Hochmut, or sense of s u p e r i o r i t y t y p i c a l of the c o n f o r m i s t s - have i n common, however, i s the p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t human worth and d i g n i t y can be measured on a v e r t i c a l s c a l e . G e n e r a l l y speaking, the f e a r which motivates the 133 compromisers i s expressed i n the reasonably s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d manners j u s t d e s c r i b e d . An important f a c t o r to be aware o f , ne v e r t h e l e s s , i s t h a t the compromisers may a l s o d i s g u i s e t h e i r f e a r i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s with masks, r o l e - p l a y i n g and even with anger. A prime i l l u s t r a t i o n of both the mask motif and r o l e - p l a y i n g , or a c t i n g , i s f u r n i s h e d by the c h a r a c t e r of Botho, whose nickname among h i s comrades i s Gaston. Lene d i s c l o s e s t h a t she once saw a p l a y e n t i t l e d Der Mann mit der eis e r n e n Maske. "'Und der mit der Maske, der h i e s s Gaston.'" Moreover, she t e l l s Botho d i r e c t l y : "'Du hast auch ei n e Maske' "(11,371) . T h i s a r i s t o c r a t ' s "Sinn f u r das N a t i i r l i c h e " (11,405) i n d i c a t e s , however, a genuine d e s i r e to be f r e e of the a r t i f i c i a l i t y which pervades every aspect of h i s l i f e i n the "'sogenannten Obersphare der G e s e l l s c h a f t ' " ( I I , 4 0 3 ) . But, the p l i a n c y of h i s nature - "'schwach und bestimmbar und von e i n e r s e l t e n e n Weichheit'"(II,362) - encourages him to adapt a l b e i t r e l u c t a n t l y to the r o l e s i n which he i s c a s t by ot h e r s . The modicum of approval he r e c e i v e s f o r h i s am e n a b i l i t y f a i l s , i n the long run, to assuage h i s sense of i n f e r i o r i t y : "'Gideon i s t besser a l s Botho'"(II,475). T h i s theme of p l a y - a c t i n g i s f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d i n Irrungen, Wirrungen by s e v e r a l of the other c h a r a c t e r s - e s p e c i a l l y , the men and women i n Botho 1s c i r c l e , each of whom possesses a pseudonym d e r i v e d from t h e a t e r . The f a l s i t y 134 of the group's female members, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s i r o n i c a l l y exposed by l a c k of a t t e n t i o n to d e t a i l r e g a r d i n g t h e i r "costumes:" "Sie [Isabeau] machte den eleganten, aber mit einem grossen F e t t f l e c k a u s s t a f f i e r t e n Sonnenschirm zu, hing ihn an i h r e n G i i r t e l . . . " ( I I , 394) . An even more comical impression i s conveyed by Frau Dorr, whose p r e t e n t i o u s "'Staatshut'" i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e to her degree of i n s e c u r i t y : '"...der s e i f u r K r o l l oder f u r s Theater," remarks Botho, "aber n i c h t f u r d i e Wilmersdorfer Pedenhaufe'"(II,372). A p a r a l l e l may be drawn here between Frau Dorr and C 4 c i l e , who presents a more t a s t e f u l b i d f o r a t t e n t i o n : " C e c i l e , d i e s i c h inzwischen umgekleidet, t r u g , halb v o r s i c h t s - , halb e i t e l k e i t s h a l b e r , e i n mit P e l z b e s e t z t e s J a c k e t t , das i h r v o r t r e f f l i c h stand und mit dazu b e i t r u g , s i e zum Gegenstand all g e m e i n e r Aufmerksamkeit zu machen"(II,240). And s i m i l a r l y , E f f i expresses the d e s i r e f o r a f u r coat which would serve the same purpose, though her mother a p t l y warns her: "'...wenn du mit deinen siebzehn Jahren i n Nerz oder Marder a u f t r i t t s t , so glauben d i e K e s s i n e r , es s e i eine Maskerade'"(IV,28). Another compromiser c h a r a c t e r i n E f f i B r i e s t - namely, Crampas - i s , l i k e the novel's heroine, " ' [ e l i n e S p i e l e r n a t u r ' " ( I V , 1 4 7 ) . He a c t u a l l y s t a g e - d i r e c t s an amateur p r o d u c t i o n of Wichert's p l a y , E i n S c h r i t t von Weqe, i n which E f f i i s assigned the r o l e of E l l a - a c h a r a c t e r whose very 135 name even suggests an a l t e r ego. In a d d i t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g p a r a l l e l s and thematic l i n k s can be shown to e x i s t between Wichert's p l a y and Fontane's novel, as Grawe s u c c i n c t l y observes: Dass Crampas d i e R o l l e des Ehemanns ablehnt, weist darauf h i n , dass er d i e Beziehung zu E f f i n i c h t sehr e r n s t nimmt: Er weigert s i c h s p a t e r , mit i h r zu f l i e h e n . A l l e r d i n g s f i i h r t er zu E f f i s Unbehagen Regie: "...man muss dann s p i e l e n , wie er w i l l , und n i c h t wie man s e l b e r w i l l " ( 1 4 4 ) . A r t h u r s Charakter e n t s p r i c h t I n n s t e t t e n i n s e i n e r P e d a n t e r i e , so wie E l l a i n i h r e r Sehnsucht "aus dem Regelrechten i n s Ungewohnliche, aus dem V e r k i i n s t e l t e n i n d i e F r e i h e i t der Natur, aus dem C o n v e n t i o n e l l e n i n s A b e n t e u e r l i c h e " ( 4. Akt, 8. Szene) Ziige von E f f i h a t . 1 4 3 Indeed, E f f i ' s a c t i n g s k i l l s are evidenced o f f - s t a g e , as w e l l . Her "'Komodie'"(IV,197) performed f o r the b e n e f i t of Rummschiittel, c l e a r l y demonstrates how masks and r o l e s can camouflage f e a r of c o n f r o n t a t i o n and of s e l f - e x p o s u r e . F i n a l l y , S t i n e warrants b r i e f mention here, too, i n that l i k e Irrungen, Wirrungen, i t presents a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s with nicknames - i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , d e r i v e d from an opera by Mozart - and l i k e E f f i B r i e s t , i t c o n t a i n s an amateur t h e a t r i c a l performance though, a d m i t t e d l y , not on the stage. An e x c e l l e n t in-depth a n a l y s i s on t h i s theme i s p r o v i d e d i n a work by Gunter H e r t l i n g . 1 4 4 Along with masks and r o l e - p l a y i n g as a means to c o n c e a l a n x i e t y , Fontane a l s o d e p i c t s some c h a r a c t e r s who t y p i c a l l y cover t h e i r f e a r with a d i s p l a y of arrogance or 136 anger. In f a c t , these postures could a l s o be regarded as masks and r o l e s i n themselves. Gordon, f o r example, p e r c e p t i v e l y notes t h i s connection r e g a r d i n g C e c i l e : "'Trotz e i n e r hautanen Miene, d i e s i e , wenn s i e w i l l , sehr wohl aufzusetzen v e r s t e h t , i s t s i e bescheiden b i s zur Demut'"(11,188). S i m i l a r l y , the e l d e r Count von Haldern and the Baron are i n t i m i d a t e d by P a u l i n e P i t t e l k o w "urn i h r e s unberechenbaren Temperaments...wilien"(II,498). By keeping others at a s a f e d i s t a n c e i n t h i s manner, she prevents unwanted s e l f - e x p o s u r e . Commenting upon P a u l i n e ' s "Witz und F r i v o l i t a t , " Reuter s t a t e s : "Psychologisch gesehen handelt es s i c h jedoch urn n i c h t s anderes a l s urn den A u s g l e i c h f u r das 14 5 beschamende G e f i i h l , im Kompromiss leben zu mussen." I t i s debatable, however, as to whether P a u l i n e , a c c o r d i n g to 14 6 Reuter, "muss s i c h verkaufen" - s i n c e as S t i n e t e l l s her, she could i n s t e a d work f o r a l i v i n g (11,484). N e i t h e r i s i t c l e a r how, i n M a r t i n i ' s view, P a u l i n e ' s "Lebensklugheit bewahrt Ordnung und S i t t e , " ' ' " 4 ^ nor, how i n M u l l e r - S e i d e l ' s 14 8 o p i n i o n , the widow i s " a l l e s andere a l s u n t e r w u r f i g . " For P a u l i n e t o l e r a t e s the Count's v i s i t s - though she c l e a r l y r e s e n t s them (11,48 3) - and makes no p r o t e s t when he throws the t i g e r - l i l i e s i n her apartment out the window (11,493). She s t o r e s up her anger "auf andere Z e i t zu vertagen"(II,493) o n l y to vent " i h r e s c h l e c h t e 137 Laune"(II,47 9) upon an undeserving, but s a f e r t a r g e t than the Count - such as her daughter, Olga. P a u l i n e ' s temper tantrums are not consonant with M i i l l e r - S e i d e l ' s view of her as someone who has preserved "ein gesundes 14 9 S e l b s t b e w u s s t s e i n . " Rather, they are evidence of inner c o n f l i c t and the f e e l i n g of h e l p l e s s n e s s to a l t e r her s i t u a t i o n . Even P a u l i n e ' s apartment r e f l e c t s the i n f l u e n c e of her d i s c o r d a n t emotional l i f e : "Gegensatze...zeigten s i c h i n der gesamten Zimmereinrichtung, j a , schienen mehr gesucht a l s vermieden zu s e i n . . . " ( I I , 4 9 0 ) . Another compromiser c h a r a c t e r who possesses a sharp tongue i s van der S t r a a t e n : "'Er...weiss so wundervoll a l l e s zu t r e f f e n , was krankt und b l o B s t e l l t und beschamt'"(II,67). In t h i s manner, the f i n a n c i e r e f f e c t i v e l y maintains a smoke screen f o r h i m s e l f by f o c u s s i n g the a t t e n t i o n of others upon t h e i r shortcomings, r a t h e r than upon h i s own. T h i s s t r a t e g y of van der S t r a a t e n - which Johnson i n t e r p r e t s too generously as merely " c a n d o r , " 1 5 0 - a c t u a l l y c o n t a i n s an element of o v e r t h o s t i l i t y , i n t h a t - l i k e the more m i l d l y a n t a g o n i s t i c a n t i c s of B r i e s t - i t hurts and embarasses other people. The l i k e l i h o o d that van der S t r a a t e n ' s obnoxious behaviour s p r i n g s , however, from i n s e c u r i t y i s suggested by the n a r r a t o r : "Van der S t r a a t e n , a b s o l u t ungezogen, konnte, v i e l l e i c h t w e i l er d i e s Manko f i i h l t e , n i c h t s so wenig e r t r a g e n , a l s auf Unerzogenheiten aufmerksam 138 gemacht zu werden..."(II,34). As Grawe observes, d e s p i t e h i s wealth, he remains van der St r a a t e n - namely, "von der 151 S t r a s s e . " Yet, t h i s c h a r a c t e r does not e n t i r e l y l a c k understanding as to the nature of h i s problem. As he e x p l a i n s to h i s w i f e : "'...auch i n i h r e r F urcht unterscheiden s i c h d i e Menschen'"(II,15). Along with van der S t r a a t e n , St.Arnaud i s a c h a r a c t e r who a l s o l i k e s to provoke defensiveness and even o u t r i g h t f e a r i n o t h e r s . T h i s c o n t e n t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the n a r r a t o r : N i c h t das Liebesabenteuer a l s solches weckte seinen G r o l l gegen Gordon, sondern der Gedanke, dass d i e Fu r c h t vor ihm, dem Manne der D e t e r m i n i e r t h e i t e n , n i c h t abschreckender gewirkt h a t t e . G e f i i r c h t e t zu sein,...das war r e c h t e i g e n t l i c h seine P a s s i o n . (11,309-310) The impression t h a t an element of pretense may be connected with t h i s pose i s conveyed by St.Arnaud's c h o i c e of words, such as " R o l l e " (11,309) and repeated mention of " S p i e l " (11,310,311). In s h o r t , St.Arnaud's "game" i s i n t i m i d a t i o n of o t h e r s . Such an obsession presupposes, however, a sense of being somehow threatened o n e s e l f . And i n f a c t , t h i s i s p r e c i s e l y the case: "'Das Gerede der Leute,' w i e d e r h o l t e St.Arnaud s p o t t i s c h das ihn a l l e m a l nervos machende Wort"(II,190). St.Arnaud's arrogance may thus be understood as a mask which conceals the f e a r of f e e l i n g f e a r , and the f e a r of being judged i n f e r i o r . 139 The s u b j e c t of power s t r u g g l e s among the compromisers - p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g - i s a l s o l i n k e d with f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y , which are i n d i r e c t l y expressed not o n l y by maneuvers aimed at embarassing and f r i g h t e n i n g o t h e r s , but a l s o through attempts to dominate them. An i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s s t r a t e g y i s f u r n i s h e d by the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Herr Dorr and h i s w i f e : "die wohl wusste, 'das man z u z e i t e n nachgeben miisse, wenn man d i e H e r r s c h a f t behalten w o l l e , 1 " ( I I , 3 4 1 ) . Botho regards the couple as: " ' E i n sonderbares Paar....Er muss tun, was s i e w i l l , und i s t doch urn v i e l e s k l u g e r . ' " Lene's p e r c e p t i v e response g i v e s us the key to t h i s p u z z l e : '...kluger i s t e r , aber auch g e i z i g und h a r t h e r z i g , und das macht ihn g e f i i g i g , w e i l er b e s t a n d i g e i n s c h l e c h t e s Gewissen hat. S i e s i e h t ihm s c h a r f auf d i e F i n g e r und l e i d e t es n i c h t , wenn er jemand i i b e r v o r t e i l e n w i l l . Und das i s t es, wovor er Furcht hat und was ihn nachgiebig macht." (11,342) I r o n i c a l l y , Botho goes on to form a marriage with Kathe, which p a r a l l e l s t h a t of the Dorrs. His p r i n c i p a l source of g u i l t , however, i s engendered by r e g r e t over h i s past l i a i s o n with Lene, as he laments: "'...nun b i n i c h gebunden und kann n i c h t l o s ' " ( I I , 4 5 4 ) . A second example of a compromiser c h a r a c t e r who seeks to maintain the upper hand i s Crampas: "'...der Major hat so was Gewaltsames, er nimmt einem d i e Dinge gern iiber den Kopf f o r t , ' " laments E f f i . Crampas - l i k e Frau Dorr - i s 140 a c l e v e r t a c t i c i a n : ...er hatte es auch aus s i c h s e l b e r bemerkt, dass E f f i b e f l i s s e n war, s i c h von ihm zuriickzuziehen. Und er war k l u g und Frauenkenner genug, um den n a t i i r l i c h e n Entwicklungsgang, den er nach seinen Erfahrungen nur zu gut kannte, n i c h t zu s t o r e n . (IV,144-145) Crampas succeeds i n imposing h i s w i l l upon E f f i because, even p r i o r to committing a d u l t e r y , she f e e l s g u i l t over her very d e s i r e to r e t a l i a t e a g a i n s t I n n s t e t t e n f o r her thwarted e x p e c t a t i o n s of married l i f e . By way of c o n t r a s t , C e c i l e i s consumed by g u i l t a s s o c i a t e d with i n c i d e n t s i n the p a s t . And as Mende p o i n t s out: "St.Arnaud v e r s t e h t es, t e i l s b e a b s i c h t i g t , t e i l s u n b e a b s i c h t i g t , C e c i l e s Schuldgefuhle immer neu zu m o b i l i s i e r e n , indent er aufs Vergangene a n s p i e l t , s e i es auf i h r e R o l l e a l s f i i r s t l i c h Matresse, s e i 15 2 es auf den erschossenen D z i a l i n s k i . " U n l i k e Frau Dorr and Crampas, however, St.Arnaud appears to be unacquainted with the p r a c t i c e of s t r a t e g i c r e t r e a t - a t a c t i c a l d e f i c i e n c y which leads to grave r e p e r c u s s i o n s . Whereas power s t r u g g l e s i n the form of t r i a n g l e s are sought out by compromisers f o r the purpose of s t i m u l a t i o n , t h e i r one-to-one power s t r u g g l e s are entered i n t o with the aim of p r o v i d i n g an i l l u s o r y sense of s u p e r i o r i t y , which serves to m i t i g a t e u n d e r l y i n g f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y , f o r whichever c h a r a c t e r dominates. As i t w i l l a l r e a d y be apparent to the reader, g u i l t - or the sense of c u l p a b i l i t y and remorse - i s another f a c e t 141 of the t y p i c a l l y a c quiescent, submissive posture a s s o c i a t e d with Demut. The f e e l i n g of g u i l t to which the compromisers are prone, appears sometimes to be, although i s not n e c e s s a r i l y , r e l a t e d to a s p e c i f i c t r a n s g r e s s i o n . More f r e q u e n t l y , t h e i r g u i l t tends to f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n a g e n e r a l i z e d s u s c e p t i b i l i t y towards s e l f - r e p r o a c h , even s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s , and the unquestioned acceptance of censure by o t h e r s . The compromisers' g u i l t , which i s i r r a t i o n a l inasmuch as i t g e n e r a l l y possesses no b a s i s i n r e a l i t y , owes i t s genesis to the fundamental c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . I t i s the very r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s not being i n accord with the ex p e c t a t i o n s h e l d f o r them by the s o c i a l group of which they are members, th a t provokes g u i l t f e e l i n g s i n these c h a r a c t e r s . Concerning t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c r i t i c a l awareness towards s o c i e t y ' s p r e s c r i p t s , Fontane a p t l y observed: "So lange man d i e Dinge urn einen her wie s e l b s t v e r s t a n d l i c h a n s i e h t , geht es, aber b e i Beginn der K r i t i k b r i c h t a l l e s zusammen. Die I C Q G e s e l l s c h a f t i s t e i n Scheusal." Of course, the i s s u e a r i s e s as to how compromiser c h a r a c t e r s have come to regard t h e i r n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n s as unacceptable and even r e p r e h e n s i b l e . The o r i g i n of the problem may be t r a c e d to the f a m i l y u n i t ; i t i s here that s o c i e t y ' s values are imparted to each s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n . 142 Admittedly, Fontane r a r e l y d e p i c t e d c h i l d r e n i n h i s novels and with most of h i s a d u l t c h a r a c t e r s , we know l i t t l e or nothing about t h e i r c h i l d h o o d s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s p o r t r a y a l of E f f i r e v e a l s t h a t he was aware of the p o t e n t i a l contained w i t h i n the f a m i l y c o n s t e l l a t i o n f o r molding p e r s o n a l i t y and behaviour. As Parmee has commented reg a r d i n g E f f i : "...her... c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are f l a w l e s s l y and i n d i s s o l u b l y combined i n the circumstances of her b i r t h and upb r i n g i n g to form one 15 4 whole, rounded, complex i n d i v i d u a l human being." V a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s r e g a r d i n g the origin of g u i l t are d i s c e r n i b l e i n the f i r s t few chapters of E f f i B r i e s t . We observe, f o r i n s t a n c e , how Frau von B r i e s t s c o l d s her daughter f o r exp r e s s i n g what i s merely the n a t u r a l exuberance a s s o c i a t e d with adolescence: "'Nicht so w i l d , E f f i , n i c h t so l e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h . Ich beunruhige mich immer, wenn i c h d i c h so sehe...'"(IV,9). In e f f e c t , s i n c e E f f i ' s behaviour does not accord with what her mother approves o f , she i s made to f e e l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r causing her mother's upset. Moreover, i t i s a l s o e v i d e n t that previous misconduct has i n s t i l l e d i n E f f i a pronounced f e a r of f u r t h e r c a s t i g a t i o n : "'Mama kann es n i c h t l e i d e n , wenn d i e Schlusen so u b e r a l l u m h e r l i e g e n . . . h e l f t mir e r s t Ordnung s c h a f f e n auf dem T i s c h h i e r , sonst g i b t es wieder eine S t r a f - p r e d i g t 1 " ( I V , 1 0 - 1 1 ) . The i n e v i t a b l e consequence f o r the heroine of such repeated episodes - which a c t u a l l y 143 c o n s t i t u t e punishment i n the wake of normal s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n - i s a sense of i n t r i n s i c f a u l t at even so much as wishing to d e v i a t e from her mother's e x p e c t a t i o n s . That Frau von B r i e s t does, i n f a c t , c o n s i d e r her daughter to be an exte n s i o n of h e r s e l f i s onl y too apparent from her remarks concerning I n n s t e t t e n ' s p r o p o s a l to E f f i : "'...und wenn du n i c h t "nein" s a g s t , was i c h von meiner klugen E f f i kaum denken kann, so s t e h s t du mit zwanzig Jahren da, wo andere mit v i e r z i g stehen. Du w i r s t deine Mama weit iiberholen' "(IV,18) . A symbiotic t i e c l e a r l y e x i s t s between mother and daughter. I t has been suggested by Grawe, th a t L u i s e ' s need to c o n s u l t an eye doctor while v i s i t i n g with E f f i i n B e r l i n r e p r e s e n t s " e i n symbolischer Mangel an Se h k r a f t . " J And perhaps the author's i n t e n t i o n here was to p o r t r a y m e t a p h o r i c a l l y Frau von B r i e s t ' s i n a b i l i t y to view her daughter as unique and separate from h e r s e l f . As a r e s u l t of b l u r r e d boundaries between the two, E f f i p e r s i s t s i n an unhealthy over-attachment to her mother and i s incapable of e s t a b l i s h i n g an independent sense of her own i d e n t i t y . Before moving to K e s s i n , f o r i n s t a n c e , E f f i t e l l s her mother: "'Und das B i l d von d i r , das s t e l l ' i c h dann auf eine S t a f f e l e i ; ganz ohne d i c h kann i c h n i c h t s e i n ' " ( I V , 3 1 ) . I t i s a l s o worth n o t i n g t h a t E f f i ' s f a t h e r e x h i b i t s an u n u s u a l l y s t r o n g bond with her: " E i g e n t l i c h aber g a i t a l l s e i n e Z a r t l i c h k e i t doch nur E f f i , mit der er s i c h i n seinem 144 Gemiit immer b e s c h a f t i g t e , zumeist auch, wenn er mit s e i n e r Frau a l l e i n war"(IV,214). Never having known any d i f f e r e n t way to r e l a t e , E f f i forms another symbiotic union i n marriage - a s i t u a t i o n which her f a t h e r ' s p r e - n u p t i a l remarks, as r e p o r t e d by the n a r r a t o r , a n t i c i p a t e d : "Geert, wenn er n i c h t i r r e , habe d i e Bedeutung von einem schlank aufgeschossenen Stamm, und E f f i s e i dann a l s o der Efeu, der s i c h darumzuranken habe"(IV,19). Another compromiser c h a r a c t e r who appears to have had a symbiotic r e l a t i o n s h i p with her mother i s C e c i l e ; unquestionably, both women share Frau von Zacha's emotional i n s t a b i l i t y : "'Sie...war abwechselnd u n e n d l i c h hoch und u n e n d l i c h n i e d r i g ' " ( I I , 2 8 3 ) . T h i s mother's a t t i t u d e towards her daughter i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d p r i n c i p a l l y by e x p l o i t a t i o n i n t h a t , s i m i l a r to Frau von B r i e s t , she regarded her daughter as a v e h i c l e to f u r t h e r her own ambitious ends. C e c i l e - who d i d not of her own v o l i t i o n embark upon the r o l e of m i s t r e s s - i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , u n f a i r l y assigned the burden of g u i l t i n connection with her past. The male compromiser c h a r a c t e r s emerge as e q u a l l y v u l n e r a b l e to g u i l t . Waldemar, f o r example, s u f f e r s from i n a p p r o p r i a t e g u i l t stemming from c h i l d h o o d , when h i s stepmother blamed him f o r her own disappointments i n l i f e (11,551). The f a t h e r f a i l e d , as w e l l , to p r o v i d e h i s son with a h e a l t h i e r sense of h i s worth (11,552). Fontane 145 d e p i c t s how even i n adulthood, g u i l t can serve to perpetuate submission to the w i l l of the parent. T h i s t a c t i c i s i l l u s t r a t e d by Botho's mother, who manipulates her son with g u i l t by making him f e e l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f a m i l y ' s w e l f a r e : " ' J a , Botho, Du hast unser a l l e r Zukunft i n der Hand...'"(11,401). We have observed how v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n a c h a r a c t e r ' s u p b r i n g i n g can produce a sense of g u i l t , which i n h i b i t s normal s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n - not only i n c h i l d h o o d , but on i n t o adulthood. These c h a r a c t e r s have, e s s e n t i a l l y , never been permitted to a c q u i r e a sense of t h e i r own i d e n t i t y , which would have been independent of the values and e x p e c t a t i o n s of p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s . Instead, they r e t a i n a c h i l d - l i k e fear- of, and an emotional dependency upon, others whom they p e r c e i v e to be more powerful and worthy than themselves. T h i s a t t i t u d e encourages submission to the w i l l of ot h e r s - i n c l u d i n g persons encountered o u t s i d e the f a m i l y - i n order to a v o i d d i s a p p r o v a l and r e j e c t i o n . Yet, the compromisers maintain a conscious awareness of the d i s c r e p a n c y between two se t s of values - namely, t h a t of t h e i r f a m i l y , which to a l a r g e degree r e f l e c t s t h a t of s o c i e t y , along with t h a t born of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l needs and d e s i r e s . As R y c r o f t sums up the problem: The sense of g u i l t . . . i s dependent on i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n [of p a r e n t a l and s o c i e t a l v a l u e s ] and i n d i c a t e s the e x i s t e n c e of a c o n f l i c t between 146 two p a r t s of the s e l f , one of which, the e g o i s t i c p a r t , says 'I want t o 1 while the other, the i n t e r n a l i z e d a u t h o r i t y , says 'I ought not t o 1 ; o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , 'I d i d 1 and 'I ought not to h a v e . , l b b A prime i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s c o n f l i c t i s f u r n i s h e d by E f f i , who yearns t o t r a v e l at a time when she should be t h i n k i n g of her unborn c h i l d ' s w e l l - b e i n g : "' Es i s t e i n e Siinde, dass i c h so l e i c h t s i n n i g b i n und solche Gedanken habe und mich wegtraume, wahrend i c h doch an das nachste denken musste.'" Deserving of note, however, i s the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t E f f i ' s sense of impending doom i s g r o s s l y out of p r o p o r t i o n t o the nature of her o f f e n s e : " ' V i e l l e i c h t b e s t r a f t es s i c h auch noch, und a l l e s s t i r b t h i n , das Kind und ic h ' " ( I V , 1 0 9 ) . S i m i l a r l y , E f f i b e l i e v e s t h a t her c u r r e n t sense of l o n e l i n e s s i s somehow l i n k e d with p r e v i o u s mockery of her childhoo d f r i e n d , Hulda (IV,98). S c h l a f f e r ' s commentary on g u i l t i n Fontane's c h a r a c t e r s lends i t s e l f n i c e l y to our d i s c u s s i o n at t h i s p o i n t : "Die e i g e n t l i c h e Schuld des Menschen l i e g t weniger i n s e i n e r p a r t i k u l a r e n Untat a l s im p r i n z i p i e l l e n Widerstand gegen das System der Ordnung, im Verlangen nach F r e i h e i t vom 1 5 7 Zwang d i e s e r Ordnung und nach eigenem Gluck." In s h o r t , g u i l t i s a s s o c i a t e d with the d e s i r e f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . T h i s sense of g u i l t encourages p a s s i v i t y and compliance on the p a r t of compromisers i n response to the demands of s p e c i f i c o t h e r s , as w e l l as to 147 those of s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , resentment at having to make such accomodations f i n d s repeated e x p r e s s i o n i n the types of d e f i a n t behaviour d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r . Both extremes of behaviour - submission and r e b e l l i o n - r e f l e c t the compromisers' sense of a d i v i d e d s e l f . T h e i r i n c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of behaviour c r e a t e s s t i l l more c o n f u s i o n f o r them by prompting s i m i l a r l y i n c o n s i s t e n t responses from o t h e r s . T h i s uneasy mode of being i s expressed most e l o q u e n t l y by Gordon: "'Die Welt i s t e i n e Welt der Gegensatze, draussen und drinnen... 1"(11,293). To summarize, both responses to the b a s i c c o n f l i c t encourage v i c t i m i z a t i o n and are, t h e r e f o r e , s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e . Submission not onl y leads to e x p l o i t a t i o n ; i t hinders development of the p e r s o n a l i t y ' s p o t e n t i a l as w e l l . And r e c k l e s s d e f i a n c e of s o c i e t a l norms i n v i t e s censure, which i n t u r n generates more g u i l t , and demands a p l a c a t o r y r e v e r s i o n to submission. T h i s dichotomous c y c l e , which holds the compromisers i n bondage through t h e i r f e a r of and r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t those whom they p e r c e i v e as having power over them, unavoidably r e s u l t s i n an accumulation of g u i l t . The v a r i e t y of s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e h a b i t s engaged i n by compromiser c h a r a c t e r s - which i n c l u d e : gambling, o v e r - e a t i n g and p h y s i c a l l y dangerous a c t i v i t i e s - may thus be i n t e r p r e t e d as attempts to e x p i a t e t h e i r s t o r e of g u i l t 148 through i n f l i c t i n g punishment upon themselves. Another t y p i c a l f e a t u r e of the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s which can be understood as an e x p r e s s i o n of g u i l t , i s t h e i r tendency toward i n e r t i a . On the s u r f a c e , t h i s f a c e t appears to be incompatible with the compromisers' r e s t l e s s , s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Yet, both h y p e r - a c t i v i t y and i n a c t i v i t y can, i n d i f f e r e n t ways, l e s s e n a n x i e t y stemming from c o n f l i c t between the c h a r a c t e r ' s own s e t of valu e s and s o c i e t y ' s . In the former case, a n x i e t y i s r e l i e v e d by d i s t r a c t i o n ; i n the l a t t e r , awareness of the c o n f l i c t - and hence, of an x i e t y - p r o v o k i n g g u i l t i n connection with i t - i s reduced by seeking to avoid the burden of ch o i c e between one or other course of a c t i o n . In c o n t r a s t to the c o n f o r m i s t s , who d i s p l a y the c a p a c i t y f o r c o n s i s t e n t and p u r p o s e f u l a c t i o n , the compromisers are plagued by " t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to 15 8 a c t as u n d i v i d e d c h a r a c t e r s . " T h i s inner d i v i s i o n caused by the unresolved b a s i c c o n f l i c t , g i v e s r i s e to much s e l f - c a s t i g a t i o n - an e f f e c t which can be observed i n numerous s o l i l o q u i e s of compromiser c h a r a c t e r s . Even the most mundane choices are laden with doubt, as the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from C e c i l e i l l u s t r a t e s : Die Kompartiments [des Zuges] waren noch l e e r , und so h a t t e man denn d i e Wahl, aber f r e i l i c h auch d i e Qual, und mehr a l s ein e Minute v e r g i n g , ehe d i e schlanke, schwarzgekleidete Dame s i c h s c h l i i s s i g gemacht und einen i h r zusagenden P l a t z gefunden h a t t e . (11,141) 149 I t i s debatable as to whether t h i s passage i s , a c c o r d i n g to Garland, evidence that C e c i l e i s a " s p o i l t woman." 1 5 9 Rather, we may i n t e r p r e t r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y the f u n c t i o n of t h i s scene as a symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the heroine's p e r p e t u a l s t a t e of inner t u r m o i l : "Denn i h r Herz und i h r W i l l e befehdeten einander, und je gewissenhafter und e h r l i c h e r das war, was s i e w o l l t e , je mehr erschrak s i e vor allem, was diesen i h r e n W i l l e n i n s Schwanken bringen konnte"(II,290). The compromisers' t y p i c a l responses to the dilemma of choice g e n e r a l l y adhere to one of four p r i n c i p a l p a t t e r n s . F i r s t l y , we observe i n Herr von B r i e s t - whom one c r i t i c has a p t l y d e s c r i b e d as being " f o r d r i f t r a t h e r than f o r a c t i o n " D - the c o n s i s t e n t r e f u s a l t o take a stand. For him, each given i s s u e i s dis m i s s e d as " ' e i n weites F e l d . ' " B r i e s t ' s p h i l o s o p h y i s v a l i d i n s o f a r as i t acknowledges t h a t there can be no formula f o r l i v i n g - an i l l u s i o n to which the c o n f o r m i s t s a r e , however, s u b j e c t . Yet, h i s d e s i r e "'nach meinem eigenen W i l l e n s c h a l t e n und walten zu konnen'"(IV,21) probably l e s s c o n s t i t u t e s inner freedom, than i t does the compromisers' u s u a l s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to impulse. B r i e s t ' s r e l u c t a n c e to commit himself e i t h e r to o p i n i o n s , or to a c t i o n , i s a l s o a s u b t l e form of r e b e l l i o n , inasmuch as i t r e p r e s e n t s p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e to the ex p e c t a t i o n s of ot h e r s . One d e c i s i o n , however, which he u l t i m a t e l y does 150 succeed i n making i s t h a t of f o r g i v i n g E f f i ' s moral t r a n s g r e s s i o n s and i n v i t i n g her back to her p a r e n t a l home. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , too, B r i e s t demonstrates d e f i a n c e of s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , as he a l s o d i d i n r e f u s i n g to pursue a ca r e e r i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e . The second common response by compromisers to the n e c e s s i t y o f making a d e c i s i o n and a c t i n g upon i t , i s p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n . Even once an a p p r o p r i a t e d e c i s i o n has been made, they tend to postpone i t s execution without j u s t i f i a b l e reason. Concerning Waldemar's d e c i s i o n t o marry S t i n e , f o r example, the n a r r a t o r remarks: " . . . e i n s e i n e r Natur entsprechendes Abwarten und Hinausschieben, und wenn auch nur auf e i n paar Tage, war auch diesmal s e i n P l a n gewesen..."(II,531). And Botho, i n h i s avoidance of c o n f r o n t a t i o n with Lene: "'Ich kann es n i c h t , heute n i c h t . ' Und so l i e s s er den Tag vergehen und wartete b i s zum andern Morgen"(II,406) resembles not onl y Waldemar, but a l s o appears to share a b e l i e f i n van der Straaten's adage: " ' Z e i t gewonnen, a l l e s gewonnen'"(II,15). A l l three men are v i c t i m s of what we may term a "Hamlet complex" - namely, the tendency to contemplate t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s i n l i e u of t a k i n g a c t i o n - o r , as Park phrases i t , t h e i r " [ p ] e r c e p t i o n outruns the power of d e c i s i o n . " 1 6 1 In t h i s c ontext, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t van der Straaten's wife a c t u a l l y r e f e r s to him as "'mein Danenprinz, mein Traumer'"(II,16) and 151 Waldemar - l i k e Hamlet - r e c o i l s from the "'bare bodkin'"(11,557). The t h i r d p a t t e r n of response - a search f o r the p e r f e c t s o l u t i o n which would meet with the approval of a l l and, thereby, r e s o l v e the dilemma - c o n s t i t u t e s a v a r i a t i o n of p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n , i n t h a t i t serves to keep the c h a r a c t e r s ' o p t i o n s open. A good d e a l of w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g , as w e l l as d e n i a l of the e x i s t e n c e of boundaries and l i m i t a t i o n s , accompanies t h i s r e a c t i o n . Botho's s e l f - d e c e p t i o n i s , f o r example, p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t : ' A l l e s , was i c h w o l l t e , war e i n verschwiegenes Glii c k , e i n Gliick, f u r das i c h f r i i h e r oder s p a t e r , urn des i h r e r s p a r t e n A f f r o n t s w i l l e n , d i e s t i l l e Gutheissung der G e s e l l s c h a f t erwartete. So war mein Traum, so gingen meine Hoffnungen und Gedanken. 1 (11,40 4) A s i m i l a r l y Utopian f a n t a s y i s a l s o e n t e r t a i n e d by Waldemar, who dreams of s t a r t i n g over with S t i n e i n America - a realm which he imagines to c o n s i s t of u n l i m i t e d freedom and p o s s i b i l i t y . Sometimes, the wish f o r a p e r f e c t r e s o l u t i o n of the c o n f l i c t i s expressed through concern with f i n d i n g the " r i g h t " course, as we note with C e c i l e , who pleads with D o r f f e l : " ' . . . i c h beschwore S i e , h e l f e n Sie mir a l l e s i n d i e rechten Wege b r i n g e n . . . ' " ( I I , 2 6 0 ) . Such an obsession appears to a r i s e i n r e a c t i o n to circumstances which permit of no s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s o l u t i o n . A p a r a l l e l may even be d i s c e r n e d 152 here between C e c i l e and Hamlet, i n t h a t both c h a r a c t e r s f i n d themselves - through no f a u l t of t h e i r own - i n e x t r a o r d i n a r y s i t u a t i o n s from which they cannot e x t r i c a t e themselves. A l s o , the s e n s i t i v i t y of these c h a r a c t e r s i s at once t h e i r v i r t u e and t h e i r flaw. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , compromisers endeavour to r e s o l v e t h e i r ambivalence through recourse to duty - t h a t i s , conduct p r e s c r i b e d by s o c i e t y . Gordon (11,263) and C e c i l e (11,306) - each r a t h e r u n c o n v i n c i n g l y - e x t o l the merit of duty. The dual purpose of such a response, however, i s to a v o i d c o n f r o n t a t i o n with t h e i r own mixed f e e l i n g s and to evade the task of f o r m u l a t i n g t h e i r own e t h i c a l v a l u e s . The compromisers' f o u r t h type of r e a c t i o n to a dilemma of choice i s to wait p a s s i v e l y i n e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the necessary i n i t i a t i v e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be borne f o r them by someone e l s e . In s h o r t , they wait to be rescued. T h i s f e a t u r e of p a s s i v i t y , perhaps more than any other d i s t i n c t i o n , shapes the l i v e s of compromiser c h a r a c t e r s . For i t encourages them simply to l i v e with problems, i n s t e a d of a c t i v e l y d e a l i n g with them. Undoubtedly, p a s s i v i t y renders these c h a r a c t e r s v u l n e r a b l e to v i c t i m i z a t i o n , not o n l y by circumstances, but a l s o by other persons who wish to a s s e r t t h e i r w i l l over them. As Lene - who i s an autonomous courageous type - e x p l a i n s to Botho: " ' A l l e schonen Manner s i n d schwach, und der S t a r k e r e 153 b e h e r r s c h t sie....Nun, entweder i s t ' s deine Mutter oder das Gerede der Menschen oder d i e V e r h a l t n i s s e . Oder v i e l l e i c h t a l l e s d r e i . . . ' " ( 1 1 , 3 4 5 ) . Although Lene f a l s e l y a t t r i b u t e s the source of p a s s i v i t y to good lo o k s , she does d e s c r i b e i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s a c c u r a t e l y . Granted, the p a s s i v i t y of compromisers i s e s s e n t i a l l y i m m o b i l i z a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from t h e i r inner c o n f l i c t between s e l f and s o c i e t y . Yet, the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as to whether, i n some i n s t a n c e s , p a s s i v i t y might be not o n l y a p s y c h o l o g i c a l , but a l s o a p h y s i o l o g i c a l , c o n s t i t u e n t of these c h a r a c t e r s . Park, f o r example, draws a t t e n t i o n to the " l a c k of v i t a l energy" i n s e v e r a l male c h a r a c t e r s which, she a s s e r t s , "predisposes them to d e f e a t . " °^ Since i t does r e q u i r e energy to maintain r e s i s t a n c e i n the face of c o n f l i c t , those c h a r a c t e r s who appear to be i l l , must s u f f e r from an impaired a b i l i t y to defend t h e i r p o s i t i o n . As Waldemar d e f i n e s the problem to h i s u n c l e : " ' . . . i c h b i n weitab davon, den Welt- oder auch nur den G e s e l l s c h a f t s - r e f o r m a t o r machen zu w o l l e n . Dazu hab' i c h n i c h t d i e S c h u l t e r n ' " ( I I , 5 3 8 ) . Quoting Park again, the young count " i s ' e i g e n s i n n i g ' but not o b s t i n a t e enough to stem the t i d e of o p p o s i t i o n he had 16 3 r a i s e d . " In c o n t r a d i c t i o n to Park's view, however, t h a t 16 4 Fontane's female c h a r a c t e r s are a l l "capable women," we are presented with what i s v i r t u a l l y an i d e n t i c a l feminine c o u n t e r p a r t to Waldemar i n the f i g u r e of C e c i l e . As Gordon 154 remarks of her: "'...Frauen wie C e c i l e v ergegenstandlichen s i c h gar n i c h t s und haben gar n i c h t den Drang, s i c h i n n e r l i c h von irgendwas zu b e f r e i e n , auch n i c h t von dem, was s i e q u a l f " ( 1 1 , 2 4 7 - 2 4 8 ) . Even i n those compromiser c h a r a c t e r s who are w e l l , however, we observe a s i m i l a r l a c k of energy. In Gordon's case, e x c e s s i v e rumination may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d r a i n i n g h i s v i t a l i t y . And t h i s may a l s o be the s i t u a t i o n with Botho, whose words echo those of Waldemar: "'Es l i e g t n i c h t i n mir, d i e Welt herauszufordern und i h r und i h r e n V o r u r t e i l e n o f f e n t l i c h den K r i e g zu e r k l a r e n . . . ' " ( I I , 4 0 4 ) . I t i s l i k e w i s e p o s s i b l e t h a t , to some degree, Botho i s t i m i d by temperament. C e r t a i n l y , the n a r r a t o r ' s remarks about E f f i suggest her l a c k of stamina may be an i n h e r e n t f e a t u r e : "Aber wiewohl s i e s t a r k e r Empfindungen f a h i g war, so war s i e doch keine s t a r k e Natur; i h r f e h l t e d i e N a c h h a l t i g - k e i t . . . " ( I V , 1 6 9 ) . Whatever the cause of t h e i r p a s s i v i t y - be i t f e a r and g u i l t a s s o c i a t e d with c o n f l i c t ; i l l n e s s ; brooding; b i o l o g i c a l temperament; or a combination of these - the compromisers, l i k e Hamlet w a i t i n g f o r Providence to i n t e r v e n e , tend to hope some e x t e r n a l agent w i l l r e s o l v e t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r them. Probably as a r e s u l t of c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g which a s s o c i a t e d p a s s i v i t y with f e m i n i n i t y , the wish to be rescued i s encountered more 155 f r e q u e n t l y i n the female, than i n the male, c h a r a c t e r s of t h i s type. Common a l s o , i n connection with t h i s wish, i s the appearance of a f a i r y t a l e m o t i f . Given the f a c t that numerous f a i r y t a l e s c o n t a i n some s o r t of v a r i a t i o n upon the theme of rescue, i t i s a l l the more i n t e r e s t i n g t o note Fontane's s p e c i f i c c h o i c e i n E f f i B r i e s t of C i n d e r e l l a - a s t o r y i n which the heroine p l a y s the s a c r i f i c i a l r o l e of a scapegoat. The i n i t i a l a l l u s i o n to t h i s f a i r y t a l e i s made by E f f i h e r s e l f , j u s t p r i o r to meeting I n n s t e t t e n f o r the f i r s t time: ' " . . . i c h w i l l mich nun e i l e n ; . . . u n d i n fiinf Minuten i s t Aschenpuddel i n ein e P r i n z e s s i n verwandelt'"(IV,17). Subsequent r e f e r e n c e s are made by Old B r i e s t - who comments upon the t r i p to B e r l i n made by mother and daughter i n order to purchase a trouss e a u f o r " P r i n z e s s i n E f f i " ( I V , 2 2 ) - as w e l l as by the b r i d e t o be - who r e c a l l s the t h e a t r i c a l performance she attended t h e r e : "'...wie r e i z e n d im l e t z t e n Akt "Aschenbriidels Erwachen a l s P r i n z e s s i n " . . . ; w i r k l i c h , es war ganz wie e i n Marchen'"(IV,27). We are l a t e r given the impression, by remarks made to I n n s t e t t e n a f t e r the marriage, t h a t an aspect of E f f i ' s common bond with C i n d e r e l l a appears to be her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the f a i r y t a l e heroine's p l i g h t of submissive s u f f e r i n g : "'Ich habe sehr g e l i t t e n , w i r k l i c h sehr, und a l s i c h d i c h sah, da dacht' i c h , nun wiird' i c h f r e i von meiner Angst'"(IV,80). More evidence t h a t E f f i c a s t s 156 I n n s t e t t e n i n the s a v i o u r r o l e of a p r i n c e i s r e v e a l e d by her a s s e r t i o n t h a t he resembles a P e r s i a n or Indian p r i n c e , which she once saw i n a p i c t u r e book (IV,56). Disenchanted with both her husband and t h e i r s o c i a l c i r c l e i n K e s s i n , however, E f f i next p l a c e s her hope of rescue upon Crampas, even before he has a r r i v e d i n the area: "'Tatsache b l e i b t : Notstand, und deshalb sah i c h , durch a l l d i e s e Winterwochen h i n , dem neuen Bezirkskommandeur wie einem T r o s t - und Rettungsbringer entgegen'"(IV,104). Yet, i t i s not long before E f f i yearns to be rescued again - t h i s time, from her i l l i c i t r e l a t i o n s h i p with Crampas. Bance p o i n t s out t h a t the episode of the shipwrecked s a i l o r s ' narrow escape "gives E f f i . . . a surrogate sense of rescue from her own 'drowning' i n the depths of d e c e p t i o n . " 1 ^ 5 Soon, I n n s t e t t e n ' s t r a n s f e r to B e r l i n presents an a c t u a l way out of the s i t u a t i o n . T h i s f o r t u i t o u s t u r n of events i s welcomed, not only by the heroine, but a l s o by Crampas, who w r i t e s her: "'...nur d a r i n hast Du r e c h t : es i s t d i e Rettung, und wir miissen s c h l i e s s l i c h doch d i e Hand segnen, di e d i e s e Trennung liber uns verhangt' " (IV, 23 3) . Another i l l u s t r a t i o n of a female c h a r a c t e r who h a b i t u a l l y looks to men as p r o t e c t o r s and s a v i o u r s i s p r o v i d e d by C e c i l e . She has, i n f a c t , p r e v i o u s l y been a s s o c i a t e d with a c t u a l p r i n c e s . But f o r reasons which are not c l e a r , she v o l u n t a r i l y l e f t the sanctuary which, i n a 157 sense, they a f f o r d e d her. D e s p i t e the zealous e f f o r t s of St. Arnaud to s h i e l d her from harm, C e c i l e c l i n g s to a p e r c e p t i o n of h e r s e l f as a powerless v i c t i m : " ' S e i t g e s t e r n aber i s t mir auch noch eine Herzkrankheit i n a l l e r Form und F e i e r l i c h k e i t z u d i k t i e r t worden, a l s ob i c h des Elends n i c h t schon genug h a t t e 1 " ( I I , 2 8 9 ) . P r e d i c t a b l y , C e c i l e - not u n l i k e E f f i - expects the next man who e n t e r s her sphere to p r o v i d e the i n i t i a t i v e which she l a c k s : "...am wenigsten aber werde s i e s i c h gegen Herrn von Gordon auflehnen, der den Eindruck mache, wie zum Fiihrer und P f a d f i n d e r geboren zu s e i n " ( I I , 1 5 7 ) . A n a t u r a l complement to these female compromiser c h a r a c t e r s who yearn to be rescued, are the numerous male compromisers who are prone to do the r e s c u i n g . O c c a s i o n a l l y , the d e s i r e to rescue remains a f a n t a s y only, as we observe i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between G i e s h i i b l e r and E f f i : " Gieshubler h a t t e nun am l i e b s t e n g l e i c h eine L i e b e s e r k l a r u n g gemacht und gebeten, dass er a l s C i d oder i r g e n d sonst e i n Campeador f u r s i e kampfen und sterben konne"(IV,65). More f r e q u e n t l y , however, the d e s i r e to rescue i s acted out with v a r i e d success. Gordon, f o r example, f a i l s m i serably i n h i s attempt to rescue C e c i l e from her i n v a l i d l i f e s t y l e . On the other hand, Botho manages to rescue Lene from a b o a t i n g a c c i d e n t - a f e a t i n which both G r a w e 1 6 6 and 16 7 Kienbaum d i s c e r n a f a i r y t a l e m o t i f . The Baron a l s o 158 rescues h i s mother, as w e l l as other f a m i l y members, from f i n a n c i a l c a t a s t r o p h e . Another male compromiser - namely, van der S t r a a t e n , performs a s i m i l a r f i n a n c i a l rescue. By marrying Melanie, he saves her from impoverishment a f t e r the death of her f a t h e r . I t i s with the f i g u r e of Waldemar, however, t h a t at l e a s t one u n d e r l y i n g dynamic of such rescues i s exposed. A f t e r informing S t i n e of h i s sympathy and d e s i r e to help her escape from her environment - although he admits, he i s "'kein P r i n z ' " - the young count q u i c k l y r e a l i z e s t h a t he has, i n f a c t , seen a r e f l e c t i o n of h i s own sense of inadequacy i n her: "'Was hab' i c h da gesprochen von F r e i h e i t geben und S i e wieder losmachen wollen! . . . .Weil i c h mich s e l b e r h i I f ebediirf t i g f i i h l e , war i c h wohl des Glaubens, S i e miissten auch h i l f ebediirf t i g s e i n ' " ( I I , 5 0 9 ) . C l e a r l y , Waldemar possesses an u n u s u a l l y high degree of s e l f - i n s i g h t . The remaining c h a r a c t e r s who e x h i b i t t h i s d e s i r e to rescue others appear, however, to l a c k awareness that through these rescue attempts, they are seeking a v i c a r i o u s sense of mastery which they do not experience over the circumstances of t h e i r own l i v e s . Unquestionably, those who await rescue are a l s o communicating the b e l i e f t h a t they have no c o n t r o l over t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . Another prominent f e a t u r e of the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s , which forms a thematic l i n k with t h e i r p a s s i v i t y 159 and the f e e l i n g of i n a b i l i t y to help themselves, i s t h e i r f a t a l i s m . Whereas the co n f o r m i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t the c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t w i l l r e s u l t i n the attainment of t h e i r s o c i a l and c a r e e r g o a l s , the compromisers - on the other hand - appear convinced that t h e i r l i v e s are determined by some e x t e r n a l f o r c e and t h a t any a c t i o n they might take would not improve t h e i r l o t . C e r t a i n l y , t h i s d e f e a t i s t a t t i t u d e of the compromisers i s a f a c t o r which encourages not onl y t h e i r p a s s i v i t y , but a l s o t h e i r c h r o n i c sense of a n x i e t y over some impending doom, i n the face of which, they f e e l powerless. T h i s f a t a l i s m , or the b e l i e f i n an e x t e r n a l f o r c e which determines the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , i s manifested by the compromisers i n a v a r i e t y of ways. In the case of P a u l i n e P i t t e l k o w , " f a t e " i s o s t e n s i b l y economic i n nature - a p o i n t of view which i s espoused, f o r example, by Reuter: "Die 16 8 Witwe P i t t e l k o w muss s i c h verkaufen." But can we agree with t h i s c r i t i c ? For P a u l i n e ' s l i f e s t y l e as the m i s t r e s s of an a r i s t o c r a t i s not one shared by a l l women of her c l a s s . Granted, Fontane does c r e a t e p a r a l l e l f i g u r e s to P a u l i n e , such as the m i s t r e s s e s of Botho's comrades - K o n i g i n Isabeau, i n p a r t i c u l a r . He a l s o shows us, however, s e v e r a l other working c l a s s female c h a r a c t e r s who earn t h e i r l i v i n g as servants and seamstresses. Thus P a u l i n e ' s response to her in s t a n c e of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t i s c l e a r l y one of d e f i a n c e . 160 A second concept of f a t e - namely, as a s o c i a l r a t h e r than an economic, f o r c e - i s hel d by some compromiser c h a r a c t e r s . The b e l i e f i n s o c i a l background and c l a s s conventions as determinants of one's l i f e i s r e v e a l e d by Botho, f o r i n s t a n c e , who a s s e r t s , " ' d a s s das Herkommen unser Tun bestimmt'"(II,405). T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of c e r t a i n o b l i g a t i o n s and r e s t r i c t i o n s t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the s o c i a l c l a s s of the c h a r a c t e r i s not c o n f i n e d to the a r i s t o c r a t s , however, as P a u l i n e ' s remarks to S t i n e d i s c l o s e : "'Es hat nu mal jeder seinen P l a t z , un daran kannst du n i c h t s andern'"(II,521). T h i s concept of the s o c i a l m i l i e u as f a t e i s supported by a number of c r i t i c s . Two such c r i t i c s are F r i t z M a r t i n i , who d e f i n e s S c h i c k s a l i n Fontane's novels as "[d]ie...umgebene W i r k l i c h k e i t , " and Walther K i l l y , who d e f i n e s i t as " e i n Produkt aus T r a d i t i o n und Gegenwart." M a r t i n i emphasizes the given p h y s i c a l environment d e p i c t e d i n the novels and a s s e r t s : "Das M i l i e u bestimmt n i c h t nur d i e Menschen, es l e b t mit ihnen, es 171 s p r i c h t s i e a u s . " 1 ' 1 K i l l y , on the other hand, s t r e s s e s the i n t a n g i b l e i n f l u e n c e which s o c i e t a l conventions from the past continued to e x e r t i n Fontane's day. A t h i r d s c h o l a r , M u l l e r - S e i d e l , o f f e r s yet another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o c i a l m i l i e u as f a t e through h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of "die G e s e l l s c h a f t s e l b s t " as "das S c h i c k s a l , das den Menschen umlauert und aus 17 2 seinen Fangen n i c h t mehr f r e i g i b t . " 161 A l s o e v i d e n t among s e v e r a l of the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s i s the b e l i e f i n f a t e as d e s t i n y - that i s , the predetermined outcome by some metaphysical f o r c e of events i n the c h a r a c t e r ' s l i f e . A prime example of t h i s c o n v i c t i o n i s f u r n i s h e d by Crampas, who informs I n n s t e t t e n : " 1 E s s t e h t mir namlich f e s t , dass i c h einen r i c h t i g e n und h o f f e n t l i c h e h r l i c h e n Soldatentod sterben werde. Zunachst b l o s s Zigeunerprophezeiung, aber mit Resonanz im eigenen Gewissen'"(IV,124). The Major i s convinced not o n l y t h a t he i s f a t e d to d i e i n a p a r t i c u l a r manner, but a l s o t h a t h i s a f f a i r with E f f i was f o r e o r d a i n e d : " ' A l l e s i s t S c h i c k s a l . Es hat so s e i n s o l l e n ' " ( I V , 2 3 3 ) . Crampas' remarks are echoed i n L' A d u l t e r a by van der S t r a a t e n , who accepts as h e r e d i t a r y i n hi s f a m i l y the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of h i s being cuckolded: "'Es kommt, was kommen s o l i ' " ( I I , 1 6 ) . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the compromisers t y p i c a l l y a s c r i b e the occurrence of f o r t u n a t e , as w e l l as un f o r t u n a t e , events to some power beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . They seem unable, or perhaps u n w i l l i n g , to recognize cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e i r a c t i o n s and the consequences of them. For i n s t a n c e , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t she i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l i g i o u s , E f f i says of her i n i t i a l encounter with Roswitha: "'Mir i s t , a l s hatt e Gott S i e mir ge s c h i c k t ' " ( I V , 1 1 3 ) . She i n t e r p r e t s the oc c a s i o n as the r e s u l t of d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n , i n s t e a d of g i v i n g h e r s e l f the 162 c r e d i t f o r having e x e r c i s e d i n i t i a t i v e i n approaching Roswitha. In c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to t h e i r tendency to overlook l o g i c a l cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the compromisers are quick to p e r c e i v e a connection between events where, i n f a c t , none e x i s t s . Gordon, f o r i n s t a n c e , construes the c o i n c i d e n c e of being c a l l e d away from Thale on business - j u s t when he f e l t h i s a t t r a c t i o n towards C e c i l e i n c r e a s i n g - as the work of a guardian s p i r i t : "'Eine gnadige Hand muss uns bewahren. . . .Mein gutes Gliick i n t e r v e n i e r t mal wieder und meint es besser mit mir a l s i c h s e l b s t ' " ( I I , 2 4 2 ) . S i m i l a r l y , I n n s t e t t e n ' s promotion with i t s attendant change of res i d e n c e leads E f f i to conclude: "'Dass wir h i e r abberufen wurden, i s t mir wie e i n Zeichen, dass i c h noch zu Gnaden 1 7 3 angenommen werden kann'"(IV,190). T h i s i n c l i n a t i o n to i n t e r p r e t the a c c i d e n t a l as po r t e n t i s a l s o f r e q u e n t l y r e v e a l e d through the compromisers' s u p e r s t i t i o u s n e s s . When C e c i l e i s unexpectedly surrounded by hundreds of ye l l o w b u t t e r f l i e s , f o r example, she does not know what to make of i t : "'Sieh nur, das bedeutet etwas'"(II,207). In an e a r l i e r scene, however, when a gust of wind sends a c l o u d of rose p e t a l s her way, she exclaims: "'Das i s t mir ein e gute Vorbedeutung'"(II,193). To be sure, i l l omens are a l s o d e t e c t e d , as Botho observes: '"Diese Brummer s i n d a l l e m a l Ungliicksboten . . . ' " ( I I , 400) . And 163 E f f i remarks, s h o r t l y before her death: "'Ja, da r u f t der Kuckuck. Ich mag i h n n i c h t befragen'"(IV,281). A v i t a l d i s t i n c t i o n to be aware of, however, i s t h a t although many of Fontane's c h a r a c t e r s b e l i e v e , as K r i c k e r maintains, t h a t they are "der S p i e l b a l l e ines a l l g e w a l t i g e n S c h i c k s a l s , " 1 7 4 i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t the author - d e s p i t e h i s C a l v i n i s t background - h e l d t h i s o p i n i o n h i m s e l f , nor t h a t he wished readers to i n t e r p r e t the novels i n such a l i g h t . C e r t a i n l y , we are not d e a l i n g with the Fates of c l a s s i c a l mythology, although Garland appears to t h i n k we are i n C e c i l e given h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t a l l of i t s c h a r a c t e r s are "overtaken by N e m e s i s . " l ^ M u l l e r - S e i d e l ' s p o i n t of view on t h i s i s s u e v a r i e s with the p a r t i c u l a r work i n q u e s t i o n . Regarding L ' A d u l t e r a , he s t a t e s : "Das Zwangslaufige, i n das d i e Menschen h i n e i n g l e i t e n und h i n e i n t r e i b e n , i s t vorwiegend g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h 17 7 bedingt." i n r e f e r r i n g to E f f i B r i e s t , however, he emphasizes the r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l i n s t e a d of t h a t of s o c i e t y : "Von irgendwelcher Transzendenz, vom S p i e l damonischer Machte, kann n i c h t d i e Rede s e i n . Die M o t i v i e r u n g 17 8 i s t e i n e s o l c h e der P s y c h o l o g i e . " R i e c h e l , i n o p p o s i t i o n to M u l l e r - S e i d e l , a s s e r t s t h a t the presence of m y t h i c a l and demonic m o t i f s i n E f f i B r i e s t t e s t i f i e s to "an i n e l u c t a b l e 17 9 f a t e . " Moreover, R i e c h e l concludes: "...both m o t i v a t i o n s , the demonic and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l - r e a l i s t i c , 164 are p r e s e n t , and an e i t h e r / o r argument i s i l l e g i t i m a t e . " 1 B U R i e c h e l f a i l s to c o n s i d e r , however, at l e a s t two other p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the author's use of m y t h o l o g i c a l and seemingly demonic elements. F i r s t l y , such r e f e r e n c e s may be nothing more than l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s of symbolism and foreshadowing. The Chinese ghost motif i n E f f i B r i e s t , f o r example, serves a number of u s e f u l f u n c t i o n s - which are i l l u m i n a t e d by Grawe - and i s h a r d l y a "blemish" or "piece of b r i c - a - b r a c l e f t over by ' p o e t i c r e a l i s m , ' " as 1 ft 9 Stern contends. °^ The q u e s t i o n as to whether or not the ghost a c t u a l l y e x i s t s , however, i s i r r e l e v a n t . For at no p o i n t are we given any evidence to suppose t h a t t h i s s p i r i t - i f i t e x i s t s - can e x e r t s u p e r n a t u r a l power over events which u n f o l d i n the s t o r y . Rather, the circumstances of the Chinese servant's death merely p r e f i g u r e these events. In a more g e n e r a l way, the m y t h i c a l motif of s a c r i f i c e a l s o foreshadows the outcome of the n o v e l , as w e l l as s e r v i n g to emphasize i t s theme. Secondly, Fontane's use of myth and apparent s u p e r n a t u r a l i s m i n c o n j u n c t i o n with what R i e c h e l terms the " p s y c h o l o g i c a l - r e a l i s t i c , " could w e l l be h i s mode of s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t i n g elements of the subconscious - such as g u i l t - and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e upon a c h a r a c t e r ' s behaviour. C o n f i r m a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s p r o v i d e d by Fontane h i m s e l f : "Nicht immer, aber o f t . . . e s besteht e i n 165 g e h e i m n i s v o l l e r Zusammenhang zwischen unserer Schuld und 18 3 dem, was wir ' u n g l i i c k l i c h e n Z u f a l l 1 nennen." E s s e n t i a l l y , Fontane p e r c e i v e d a predominantly unconscious connection between g u i l t and s e l f - s a b o t a g e . In a s i m i l a r v e i n , Nef draws our a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t t h a t a c h a r a c t e r ' s d o w n f a l l i s o f t e n caused by a "weak l i n k , " or p e r s o n a l i t y flaw, which may govern t h e i r behaviour more than they are aware o f , or wish i t to do: "So e r s c h e i n e n d i e F i g u r e n Fontanes, wo Z u f a l l e e i n e wesentliche R o l l e s p i e l e n , doch primar n i c h t den M a n i f e s t a t i o n e n e i n e r u n b e g r e i f l i c h e n Macht oder Ordnung, vielmehr menschlichen U n z u l a n g l i c h k e i t e n a u s g e s e t z t . " I 8 4 That mixed m o t i v a t i o n s comprised of unconscious impulses and p e r s o n a l i t y f a u l t s do, i n f a c t , impel a number of Fontane's compromiser c h a r a c t e r s towards t h e i r " f a t e , " i s e v i d e n t upon c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y of the n o v e l s . A l r e a d y i n the f i r s t chapter of E f f i B r i e s t , t h i s theme f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n through the remarks of Pastor Niemeyer's daughter, Hulda: "'Man s o i l s e i n S c h i c k s a l n i c h t v e r s u c h e n . . . 1 " ( i v , 1 1 ) . E f f i ' s f a t a l flaw i s her need f o r "'Zerstreuung, immer was Neues'" - a t r a i t which renders her v u l n e r a b l e to anyone who appears to o f f e r even momentary r e l i e f from boredom, r e g a r d l e s s of the p o s s i b l e longterm consequences: "'Was i c h n i c h t aushalten kann, i s t Langeweile'"(IV,32). S h o r t l y b e f o r e her death, i n response to a remark by her mother - " ' E i g e n t l i c h , v e r z e i h e mir,...dass i c h das j e t z t noch sage, 166 e i g e n t l i c h hast du doch euer L e i d heraufbeschworen 1" - E f f i acknowledges that she d i d , indeed, b r i n g her t r o u b l e s upon h e r s e l f : "'Ja, Mama. Und t r a u r i g , dass es so i s t ' " ( I V , 2 9 3 ) . E f f i ' s s e l f - s a b o t a g e - p a r t i c u l a r l y , her r e t e n t i o n of Crampas' l e t t e r s - may be regarded as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of her unconscious g u i l t , which was demonstrated e a r l i e r t o have a r i s e n i n connection with u n i n h i b i t e d s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i n her youth. Another compromiser c h a r a c t e r who i s d r i v e n to d e s t r u c t i o n by g u i l t i s C e c i l e . Her sense of c u l p a b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d with the death of O b e r s t l e u t n a n t von D z i a l i n s k i and with her former s o c i a l l y unacceptable l i a i s o n with the p r i n c e s , i s r e l e n t l e s s . L i k e E f f i , who i s plagued by the impression of a shadow which f o l l o w s her everywhere (IV,222), C e c i l e i s unable to r i d from her memory the image of the dead o f f i c e r (11,306). And although she i s aware t h a t her v a n i t y renders her s u s c e p t i b l e to a t t e n t i o n , she cannot overcome t h i s weakness, which i s i n i t s e l f a source of g u i l t : 1...wenn i c h auch durch a l l mein Leben h i n i n E i t e l k e i t befangen g e b l i e b e n b i n und der Huldigungen n i c h t entbehren kann, d i e meiner E i t e l k e i t Nahrung geben, so w i l l i c h doch...ich w i l l es, dass diesen Huldigungen e i n e bestimmte Grenze gegeben werde. Das habe i c h geschworen..., und i c h w i l l d i e s e n Schwur h a l t e n , und wenn i c h dariiber sterben s o l l t e . 1 (11,291-292) Despite the f a c t t h a t C e c i l e a l s o t e l l s Gordon: "'Ich habe 167 Schuld genug gesehen'"(II,291), she has n e v e r t h e l e s s encouraged h i s advances, i f onl y by v i r t u e of not r e j e c t i n g them: "Gordon aber nahm i h r e l a s s i g herabhangende Hand und h i e l t und kii s s t e s i e , was s i e geschehen l i e s s " ( I I , 238) . C e c i l e ' s f a i l u r e to confess t h i s measure of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to St. Arnaud when he s p e c i f i c a l l y q u e r i e s her about i t (11,308), p r e c i p i t a t e s the very catastrophe which she has l i v e d i n f e a r o f , yet might e a s i l y have prevented by speaking up at the a p p r o p r i a t e moment. Her r e l u c t a n c e to f o r g i v e h e r s e l f f o r those events i n the past over which she r e a l i s t i c a l l y had no c o n t r o l , as w e l l as her e x c e s s i v e l y harsh view of her own human f r a i l t y , leads C e c i l e to pursue a semblance of mastery over her f a t e - t r a g i c a l l y , through s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n . A t h i r d , and more b l a t a n t , i l l u s t r a t i o n of a compromiser c h a r a c t e r who provokes " f a t e " i s p r o v i d e d by van der S t r a a t e n . His case i s a c l e a r d e p i c t i o n of the aphorism t h a t "the c e r t a i n t y of misery tends to be p r e f e r r e d over the misery of u n c e r t a i n t y . " L i k e C e c i l e , van der S t r a a t e n has i n the past t r a n s g r e s s e d s o c i e t y ' s code of moral conduct, which he admits to h i s w i f e : " ' . . . i c h habe keine Recht, d i r Moral zu predig e n . Was l i e g t n i c h t a l l e s h i n t e r m i r . . . ' " ( I I , 9 9 ) . Moreover, i t would appear t h a t Heth, "'das S t i e f k i n d ' " ( I I , 7 2 ) , might be the o f f s p r i n g of one such t r a n s g r e s s i o n . Van der Straa t e n ' s 168 g u i l t causes him to l i v e " i n der aberglaubischen F u r c h t , i n seinem Gliicke von einem vernichtenden Schlage bedroht zu s e i n " ( I I , 8 6 ) . He i s convinced t h a t Melanie w i l l be u n f a i t h f u l : "'Es musste so kommen, musste nach dem van der Straatenschen Hausgesetz... 1" (11,99). Yet, had the Commercial C o u n c i l l o r possessed "mehr Aufmerksamkeit und weniger E i g e n l i e b e " ( I I , 8 6 ) , he would have recognized the danger posed by the very man whom, on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e , he had i n v i t e d i n t o h i s home: "Doch auch hierwiederum stand er im Bann e i n e r v o r g e f a s s t e n Meinung, und zwar eines k i i n s t l i c h k o n s t r u i e r t e n Rubehn, der mit dem w i r k l i c h e n eine ganz o b e r f l a c h l i c h e Verwandtschaft, aber i n der Tat auch nur d i e s e h a t t e " ( I I , 8 6 ) . Indeed, Garland's p e r c e p t i v e judgment of E f f i B r i e s t might be a p p l i e d j u s t as w e l l to the other novels under c o n s i d e r a t i o n : "We look back on a work i n which men and women, not i n t e n d i n g harm, d e s t r o y t h e i r happiness and wreck t h e i r l i v e s . " 1 8 5 To summarize, the f a t a l i s m encountered among the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s may - at f i r s t glance - seem a t t r i b u t a b l e to economic reasons, s o c i a l m i l i e u or even d e s t i n y . C l o s e r examination, however, r e v e a l s the c o n s i d e r a b l e degree to which s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r s c r e a t e the very s i t u a t i o n s they e r r o n e o u s l y b e l i e v e have been imposed upon them. I t must be conceded that s o c i a l c l a s s and other 169 circumstances unquestionably do p l a y a r o l e i n determining, to a c e r t a i n extent, the demands which are p l a c e d upon each c h a r a c t e r , as w e l l as the o p t i o n s which are a v a i l a b l e to him or her. The compromisers' sense of h e l p l e s s n e s s does not, however, d e r i v e p r i m a r i l y from any e x t e r n a l f o r c e . Rather, i t r e s u l t s from t h e i r own p a s s i v i t y , i n d e c i s i o n and e x c e s s i v e accomodation to the wishes of others - a l l of which a r i s e i n response to an i n a b i l i t y to r e s o l v e the inner c o n f l i c t between t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s and the e x p e c t a t i o n s of s o c i e t y . A c o r o l l a r y of the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s ' p a s s i v i t y i n t h e i r everyday l i v e s i s the burden of tremendous f r u s t r a t i o n from which they seek escape i n f a n t a s y . Through a f l i g h t i n t o the realm of imagination with i t s u n l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s - a l l of which can be achieved immediately and without e f f o r t - the compromisers compensate f o r t h e i r o f t e n u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s , which have been thwarted i n the r e a l world. In c o n t r a s t to t h e i r u s u a l sense of having no c o n t r o l over what happens to them, these c h a r a c t e r s can f e e l omnipotent i n f a n t a s y and experience the f u l f i l l m e n t of d e s i r e s which s o c i e t y , or the n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s of r e a l i t y , deny them. Admittedly, some e f f o r t s to c o n s t r u c t i v e l y channel i m a g i n a t i o n can be observed i n a few of the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s . G i e s h i i b l e r , "'der Mann der fisthetik ' " (IV, 91) , and 170 M a r i e t t a T r i p p e l l i , f o r i n s t a n c e , both express imagination i n the . p o s i t i v e form of c r e a t i v i t y through t h e i r music. In a d d i t i o n , E f f i - d u r i n g her banishment (IV,267) - pursues p a i n t i n g . Imagination a l s o c o n f e r s upon s e v e r a l compromisers an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the beauty i n Nature. For the most p a r t , however, t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n f i n d s negative e x p r e s s i o n through such avenues as r e v e r i e , i l l u s i o n s , deception and disappointment. The female compromiser c h a r a c t e r s are e s p e c i a l l y prone to s u b s t i t u t e daydreaming f o r a c t i o n - perhaps because, i n Fontane's day, there were fewer r e a l o p tions f o r women than there were f o r men. I n n s t e t t e n , f o r example, observes t h a t E f f i d e r i v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n t h i s manner: "Er wusste, dass es n i c h t s Schoneres f u r s i e gab, a l s so s o r g l o s i n e i n e r weichen Stimmung hintraumen zu konnen..."(IV,216). T h i s tendency i s a l s o e x h i b i t e d by C e c i l e , who i s d e s c r i b e d as "'traumerisch und marchenhaft'"(II,283). Furthermore, the readin g m a t e r i a l s e l e c t e d by both of these women suggests a d e s i r e f o r g r e a t e r freedom than they enjoy i n r e a l i t y . C e c i l e ' s c h o i c e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s e n t i t l e d Ehrenstrom, e i n L e b e n s b i l d , oder d i e s e p a r a t i s t i s c h e Bewegung i n der Uckermark (11,169). S i m i l a r l y , E f f i requests James Fenimore Cooper's The Spy (IV,198), a t a l e of the American R e v o l u t i o n . Other novels E f f i d e s i r e s - namely, Walter S c o t t ' s 171 Ivanhoe and Quentin Durward (IV,198) - r e v e a l an attachment to the p a s t , or n o s t a l g i a , which i s t y p i c a l of compromisers. U n w i l l i n g to l i v e f u l l y i n the present, compromisers c l i n g to the p a s t , which they appear to i d e a l i z e i n memory. C e c i l e ' s r e c o l l e c t i o n of the p r i n c e s to whom she was a m i s t r e s s , i s one such example: "'Ich w i l l der S t e l l e wenigstens nahe s e i n , wo d i e ruhen, d i e i n reichem Masse mir das gaben, was mir d i e Welt verweigerte: Liebe und Freundschaft und urn der Liebe w i l l e n auch Achtung... 1"(11,316). Another f a c t o r which motivates escape through f a n t a s y 1 Q C i s b o r e d o m . 0 0 T h i s r e s u l t s from the stalemate between the compromisers' own d e s i r e s and the e x p e c t a t i o n s s o c i e t y p l a c e s upon them. Wilhelm Munch has d e s c r i b e d boredom as 18 7 "eine A r t S t i l l s t a n d des inneren Lebens" and Stern 188 observes t h a t boredom i n d i c a t e s a f e e l i n g of d e p r i v a t i o n . Koc suggests that t h i s d e p r i v a t i o n may o r i g i n a t e i n "a I R Q d i s c r e p a n c y between e x p e c t a t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t . " In t h i s c o ntext, Koc i s indebted to V o l k e r , who " r e f e r s to the Kantian i d e a t h a t boredom i s sensed i n the 'empty' time between experiences and can be seen as a s o r t of 1 9 0 disenchantment." A good example of t h i s phenomenon i s observed by the n a r r a t o r i n E f f i : "So gut es i h r ging,...so kam i h r doch g l e i c h nachher zum Bewusstsein, was i h r f e h l t e " ( I V , 8 9 ) . Moreover, the sense t h a t r e a l i t y i s not 172 enough, t h a t i t somehow f a l l s s h o r t of the i d e a l , encourages a c e r t a i n emotional detachment i n the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s . Ohl remarks upon "eine d i s t a n z i e r t e , o f t g e h e i m n i s v o l l wirkende Kuhle" i n the f i g u r e s of E f f i and 191 C e c i l e , f o r example. A t y p i c a l e x p r e s s i o n of such emotional detachment, which may serve as a defence a g a i n s t f u r t h e r disappointment, i s pro v i d e d by C e c i l e : " ' . . . i c h nehme das Leben, auch j e t z t noch, am l i e b s t e n a l s e i n B i l d e r b u c h , urn d a r i n zu b l a t t e r n ' " ( I I , 2 9 1 ) . The s t a t i c q u a l i t y of the compromisers' e x i s t e n c e i s sometimes p e r c e i v e d as a s o r t of imprisonment, e s p e c i a l l y by the married female c h a r a c t e r s . During her marriage, the n a r r a t o r s t a t e s r e g a r d i n g E f f i : "Es brach wieder iiber s i e h e r e i n , und s i e f i i h l t e , dass s i e wie ein e Gefangene s e i und n i c h t mehr heraus konne"(IV,169) . E f f i ' s mother conveys a s i m i l a r sentiment to B r i e s t : "'Mir gegeniiber hast's du immer b e s t r i t t e n , immer b e s t r i t t e n , dass d i e Frau i n e i n e r Zwangslage s e i ' " ( I V , 4 2 ) . T h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t with marriage i s not, however, c o n f i n e d to the a r i s t o c r a t i c women, as 1 q o 1 9 3 R e u t e r X J i and Mittelmann ^ would have us b e l i e v e . For i t i s a l s o d i s c e r n i b l e i n women of the lower c l a s s e s such as Frau Dorr. Furthermore - apart from the f i g u r e of Herr Dorr, who remains "wie v e r n a r r t i n s e i n e Frau"(II,342) - i t i s apparent t h a t f o r the male compromiser c h a r a c t e r s , too, romance i s eroded by r e a l i t y , as Botho's experience with 173 Kathe i l l u s t r a t e s : "Das war nun d r e i Jahre....Aber es war doch keine r e c h t e Freude gewesen. E i n Bonbon, n i c h t v i e l mehr. Und wer kann von S i i s s i g k e i t e n l e b e n ! " ( I I , 458 ) . Another m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the compromisers' sense of d e p r i v a t i o n i s t h e i r Sehnsucht. T h i s yearning has been v a r i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d by a number of Fontane c r i t i c s . F rye 19 4 d e f i n e s i t as a "yearning f o r other-wordly peace." And 1 D C Stern regards i t as the " l o n g i n g f o r l o v e , " ^ J e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of E f f i . Yet, Grages views E f f i ' s yearning as " i h r Hang zum Aparten, zum Abenteuer, zum Wechsel, zu Zerstreuungen und zum R e i c h t u m . " 1 9 6 Frye a s s e r t s t h a t i t i s the female c h a r a c t e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , who are prone to such 19 7 l o n g i n g , J but we a l s o note i t i n some of the men. Botho's dream of l i v i n g what he b e l i e v e s i s the simple and n a t u r a l l i f e of the working c l a s s c h a r a c t e r s c o n s t i t u t e s one example. An a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e of the Sehnsucht motif i s i t s thematic l i n k with another motif common to the compromisers - namely, a n x i e t y . T h i s connection i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g remarks from E f f i : "'Ich habe sol c h e Sehnsucht und...ich habe solche Angst'"(IV,74). Given t h a t the a n x i e t y of the compromisers i s , at l e a s t to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , a response to the c o n f l i c t they f e e l between t h e i r own wishes and those of s o c i e t y , we may then i n t e r p r e t t h i s yearning as a wish f o r r e s o l u t i o n of the c o n f l i c t and f o r a r e s p i t e from the inner t e n s i o n i t causes. 174 The compromisers' tendency toward w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g , of which t h e i r Sehnsucht i s one e x p r e s s i o n , d i s t i n g u i s h e s them from the c o n f o r m i s t s , whose t h i n k i n g processes could be d e s c r i b e d as b a s i c a l l y e m p i r i c a l i n nature. At times, the i n f l u e n c e of imagination upon the compromisers' t h i n k i n g renders them v u l n e r a b l e to i l l u s i o n s , or mistaken p e r c e p t i o n s , and even to d e l u s i o n s , or mistaken c o n v i c t i o n s . An example i l l u s t r a t i v e of the former c o n d i t i o n i s E f f i ' s impression of hearing music or v o i c e s on the n i g h t of the s l e i g h r i d e - an a s s e r t i o n which i s denied by her t r a v e l l i n g companion, S i d o n i e : "'Das s i n d Sinnestauschungen...'" (IV,157). More treacherous than i l l u s i o n s , however, are the compromisers' d e l u s i o n s , which impair t h e i r judgment - o f t e n with s e r i o u s consequences. In s h o r t , these c h a r a c t e r s are i n c l i n e d to b e l i e v e t h a t t h i n g s are the way they would l i k e them to be, r a t h e r than the way they a c t u a l l y are. T h i s r e l u c t a n c e to face r e a l i t y can r e v e a l i t s e l f i n the p e r s i s t e n c e of f i x e d i d e a s , d e s p i t e evidence which c o n t r a d i c t s them. D o r f f e l n o t i c e s t h i s t r a i t i n Gordon, whom he d e s c r i b e s as, " ' f i x e r Ideen f a h i g ' " ( I I , 2 5 8 ) . Van der S t r a a t e n d i s p l a y s the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and Old B r i e s t - a f t e r the d i v o r c e of E f f i and I n n s t e t t e n - s t i l l b e l i e v e s : " ' E i g e n t l i c h war es doch e i n Musterpaar'"(IV,290). Another mistaken c o n v i c t i o n to which the compromisers 175 are prone i s t h a t of t h i n k i n g they need not adapt themselves to the n a t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the m a t e r i a l world. A t y p i c a l example of t h i s f e a t u r e can be observed i n Botho, who c o n s i s t e n t l y l i v e s f a r beyond h i s means. In p a r t i c u l a r , the Baron's t a s t e f o r l u x u r i o u s f u r n i s h i n g s (11,346) reminds us of E f f i : "Nur das E l e g a n t e s t e g e f i e l i h r , und wenn s i e das Beste n i c h t haben konnte, so v e r z i c h t e t e s i e auf das Zweitbeste, w e i l i h r d i e s Zweite nun n i c h t s mehr bedeutete"(IV,24). The f a c t t h a t the b r i d e to be a l s o mixes up the p r i c e s of her trousseau items, only serves to c o n f i r m her mother's a s t u t e remark: " ' E f f i . . . l e b t i n i h r e n V o r s t e l l u n g e n und Traumen...'"(IV,23). Johnson a l s o draws our a t t e n t i o n to what she terms 19 8 " E f f i ' s compulsive i n t e r m i x i n g of f a n t a s y and r e a l i t y . " Yet, E f f i i s not the only c h a r a c t e r who experiences d i f f i c u l t y s e p a r a t i n g f a c t from f a n t a s y . For although Frau Dorr i s aware of the p o t e n t i a l dangers of i m a g i n a t i o n : "'Immer wenn das E i n b i l d e n anfangt, fangt auch das Schlimme an' " (II,321), i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s apparent - from r e f e r e n c e s to her and her husband's d w e l l i n g as " ' e i n S c h l o s s ' " - t h a t she l i v e s i n a f a n t a s y world: " . . . i n u n e r b i t t l i c h h e l l e r Beleuchtung d a l i e g e n d , sah man nur zu d e u t l i c h , dass der ganze...Bau n i c h t s a l s e i n jammerlicher Holzkasten war..."(II,322). To be sure, Frau Dorr's escape from r e a l i t y i n t o a dream world may be f a c i l i t a t e d , not 176 o n l y by her ima g i n a t i o n , but a l s o by l i b e r a l use of Kirschwasser. Other compromiser c h a r a c t e r s such as Isabeau and B r i e s t c o u l d l i k e w i s e be dependent upon a l c o h o l as a means of b l u r r i n g r e a l i t y . Another form of d e l u s o r y t h i n k i n g indulged i n by the compromisers i s t h a t of h o l d i n g u n r e a l i s t i c , i d e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s . In e f f e c t , t h i s tendency r e s t r i c t s the c h a r a c t e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n of those r e a l i s t i c o p t i o n s which are a v a i l a b l e , and i n e v i t a b l y leads to f r u s t r a t i o n and disappointment. Botho, whose t a s t e i n a r t , too, as Reeve notes, "tends towards i d e a l i s m r a t h e r than r e a l i s m , " 1 " p r o v i d e s us with a metaphorical e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s i n c l i n a t i o n . Looking over a f i e l d , the Baron exclaims: "'Aber s i e h nur, d i e r e i n e Wiese n i c h t s a l s Gras und keine Blume. N i c h t e i n e . ' " Lene, who i s not a compromiser, d i s p u t e s h i s a s s e r t i o n : "'Doch. Die H i i l l e und F i i l l e . Du s i e h s t nur keine, w e i l du zu a n s p r u c h s v o l l b i s t ' " ( I I , 3 7 7 ) . An area i n which the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s are p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e to i d e a l i s m , and hence, disappointment, i s t h a t of lo v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . G e n e r a l l y , t h e i r response to t h i s disenchantment takes one of two forms - namely, e i t h e r a search f o r the i d e a l p a r t n e r , or an emotional detachment from t h e i r c u r r e n t p a r t n e r . The former r e a c t i o n has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n connection with s e n s a t i o n - s e e k i n g . The B r i e s t marriage, which Johnson has 177 termed "the epitome of matrimonial r e s i g n a t i o n , " z u u i l l u s t r a t e s the l a t t e r c o n d i t i o n . L u i s e phrases the problem r a t h e r p o i n t e d l y : "'Jeder q u a l t s e i n e Frau. Und Kunstenthusiasmus i s t noch lange n i c h t das Schlimmste 1"(IV,37). Before E f f i ' s marriage, Frau von B r i e s t attempts to prepare her daughter f o r what she b e l i e v e s w i l l be unavoidable d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t : "'Die W i r k l i c h k e i t i s t anders, und o f t i s t es gut, dass es s t a t t L i c h t und Schimmer e i n Dunkel g i b t ' " ( I V , 3 1 ) . Even g r e a t e r i n d i f f e r e n c e toward romance i s r e v e a l e d , however, by P a u l i n e P i t t e l k o w , who informs S t i n e : " ' . . . L i e b s c h a f t i s n i c h v i e l , L i e b s c h a f t i s e i g e n t l i c h gar n i c h t s " ' ( I I , 520 ) . The a c t i v e f a n t a s y l i f e of the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s , which serves to a m e l i o r a t e romantic as w e l l as other types of disappointment they encounter i n r e a l l i f e , c r e a t e s w i t h i n them a s t a t e of inner d i v i s i o n . T h e i r outward "token c o n f o r m i t y , " as Johnson observes, r e f l e c t s an e s s e n t i a l d u p l i c i t y . m a l e t t e r to Georg F r i e d l a n d e r , dated 3 October 1898, Fontane d e s c r i b e d t h i s phenomenon as he experienced i t h i m s e l f : "Ich habe das Leben immer genommen, wie i c h ' s fand und mich ihm unterwarf. Das h e i s s t nach aussen hm; i n memem Gemute n i c h t . " "Diese G e s p a l t e n h e i t der Person," which has a l s o been examined by W o l f e l , i s betrayed perhaps most c l e a r l y by E f f i ' s monologue i n Chapter Twenty-Four (IV,219). Although she knows t h a t she i s g u i l t y 178 of a d u l t e r y , r a t h e r than f e e l i n g g u i l t as a r e s u l t of t h i s t r a n s g r e s s i o n of s o c i e t y ' s moral code, E f f i f e e l s o n l y shame over her d e c e i t f u l n e s s and f e a r of exposure. She i s d i s t r a u g h t at p o s s e s s i n g n e i t h e r what she conceives of as " ' d i e rechte Reue, 1" nor " ' d i e r e c h t e Scham.'" In an attempt to understand her predicament, E f f i r e c a l l s the admonition which Pastor Niemeyer had given her many years ago: '...auf e i n r i c h t i g e s G e f i i h l , darauf kame es an, und wenn man das habe, dann konne einem das Schlimmste n i c h t p a s s i e r e n , und wenn man es n i c h t habe, dann s e i man i n e i n e r ewigen Gefahr, und das was man den T e u f e l nenne, das habe dann e i n e s i c h e r e Macht iiber uns. ' E s t e r argues p e r s u a s i v e l y t h a t the "proper f e e l i n g " to which Niemeyer had r e f e r r e d , i s "das E i n s s e i n mit s i c h s e l b e r . " 2 0 4 An a p p r o p r i a t e E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t f o r t h i s c r i t i c ' s terminology i s the e x p r e s s i o n "wholeness of being," which conveys a sense of e q u i l i b r i u m , harmony and s i n c e r i t y , i n a d d i t i o n to i n t e g r i t y . I t i s t h i s wholeness of being which the compromisers s a c r i f i c e due to the t h r e a t of d i s a p p r o v a l from o t h e r s , i f they were to communicate and openly a c t i n accordance with t h e i r p e r s o n a l c o n v i c t i o n s . Inasmuch as t h e i r sense of inner r e a l i t y and t h a t of t h e i r outer r e a l i t y are at v a r i a n c e , d i s s e m b l i n g becomes a way of l i f e f o r these c h a r a c t e r s . Returning to the case of E f f i , t h i s c h a r a c t e r recognizes t h a t her d u p l i c i t y e x e r t s a s t a g g e r i n g i n f l u e n c e 179 upon a l l of her r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n c l u d i n g the most s u p e r f i c i a l s o c i a l c o n t a c t s : " ' . . . l i i g e n i s t so gemein, und nun habe i c h doch immer liigen miissen, vor ihm und vor a l l e r Welt, im grossen und im k l e i n e n . . . . 1 " ( I V , 2 1 9 ) . Even more d i s t u r b i n g , however, i s the ease with which she s l i p p e d i n t o t h i s f a l s i t y : '"So kam es, dass s i e s i c h , von Natur f r e i und o f f e n , i n e i n v e r s t e c k t e s Komodienspiel mehr und mehr h i n e i n l e b t e . M i t u n t e r erschrak s i e , wie l e i c h t es i h r wurde"(IV,169). Lynd e x p l a i n s t h a t there i s "a p a r t i c u l a r l y deep shame i n d e c e i v i n g other persons i n t o b e l i e v i n g something about o n e s e l f t h a t i s not t r u e . " 2 0 5 And, i n f a c t , t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n corresponds with E f f i ' s own a p p r a i s a l of the c e n t r a l problem: "'Ich schame mich b l o s s von wegen dem ewigen Lug und Trug...'"(IV,219). E f f i i s ashamed not o n l y of her d u p l i c i t y , however, but a l s o of her f a i l u r e to l i v e up to her i d e a l i z e d s e l f - i m a g e : "'...immer war es mein S t o l z , dass i c h n i c h t liigen konne und auch n i c h t zu liigen brauche...(IV,219). T h i s shame a s s o c i a t e d with the f e e l i n g of having f a l l e n s h o r t of t h e i r i d e a l , encourages more dis s e m b l i n g by compromisers i n the hope t h a t , through f a n t a s y , the d i s c r e p a n c y between the r e a l and the i d e a l can be reduced, or even e l i m i n a t e d . However, such a response merely undermines f u r t h e r the compromiser c h a r a c t e r ' s a l r e a d y p r e c a r i o u s sense of i d e n t i t y . Garland notes, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t Botho "cannot decide which i s h i s t r u e 180 i d e n t i t y " - the r o l e he p l a y s at the c l u b , or the one he "? 0 ft p l a y s with Lene. Reeve echoes t h i s judgment with h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t Botho i s "the most b l a t a n t example of 20 7 s e l f - d e c e p t i o n . " Moreover, the n e c e s s i t y of d e c e i v i n g o t h e r s , which the compromisers f e e l , condemns them - as van der S t r a a t e n ' s case i l l u s t r a t e s - to a l i f e of emotional i s o l a t i o n : "War er doch ohnehin, a l l e r Freundschaft unerachtet, ohne Freund und V e r t r a u t e n . . . " ( I I , 1 4 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as d e c e p t i o n and f a n t a s y come more and more to r e p l a c e p u r p o s e f u l a c t i o n i n the d a i l y l i f e of compromiser c h a r a c t e r s , the d i s c r e p a n c y between r e a l i t y and dreams onl y becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent. T h e i r r e f u s a l to adopt more r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s of themselves, as w e l l as of o t h e r s , i s betrayed by c y n i c i s m , envy and resentment. U n l i k e the c o n f o r m i s t s , who are not c r i t i c a l toward s o c i e t y , the compromisers p e r c e i v e evidence of i t s h y p o c r i s y - t h a t i s , the d i f f e r e n c e between s o c i a l values and s o c i a l behaviour. As B r i e s t informs h i s w i f e : " ' . . . d i e " G e s e l l s c h a f t , " wenn s i e nur w i l l , kann auch e i n Auge zudriicken 1 " (IV, 277 ) . Yet, the compromisers themselves are not a l t o g e t h e r without h y p o c r i s y e i t h e r . Sometimes, the compromisers' disappointment r e v e a l s i t s e l f through envy toward others who appear to be b e t t e r o f f . As one c h a r a c t e r comments upon the f i g u r e of St. Arnaud, who had to abandon a promising m i l i t a r y c a r e e r a f t e r d e c i d i n g to marry a woman 181 with an u n f o r t u n a t e pa s t : " ' J e t z t i s t er v e r b i t t e r t , befehdet, was er f r i i h e r v e r g o t t e r t hat, und s i t z t auf der Bank, wo d i e Spot t e r s i t z e n 1 " ( I I , 2 7 7 ) . The compromisers' i n n e r d i v i s i o n - c r e a t e d by t h e i r awareness of the inh e r e n t c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y , then aggravated by t h e i r tendency toward f l i g h t s of fancy - u l t i m a t e l y leads them to a s t a t e of r e s i g n a t i o n . For the purpose of our d i s c u s s i o n , r e s i g n a t i o n may be understood not as r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , which connotes harmonious a d a p t a t i o n , but r a t h e r as the surrender of a l l hope f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s o l u t i o n of the fundamental c o n f l i c t . Numerous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s concerning Fontane's theme of r e s i g n a t i o n have been proposed. Moltmann-Wendel, f o r i n s t a n c e , d e c l a r e s : "Im Hintergrund der R e s i g n a t i o n s t e h t ohne Z w e i f e l d i e Pradestinationslehre." 2°8 y e t , as M u l l e r - S e i d e l reminds us, r e s i g n a t i o n was a p e r v a s i v e p h i losophy i n the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y 2 0 9 and, t h e r e f o r e , i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a r e f l e c t i o n of Fontane's C a l v i n i s t background. Another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s advanced by H a r r i g a n , who a s s e r t s t h a t the " r e s i g n a t i o n of the female c h a r a c t e r s i s a symptom of the r e t r i b u t i o n demanded by s o c i e t y from women of a l l c l a s s e s " and, moreover, t h a t t h i s r e s i g n a t i o n 210 i s " q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t " from t h a t r e q u i r e d of men. Harrigan f a i l s to s p e c i f y , however, the exact manner i n 182 which r e s i g n a t i o n d i f f e r s i n men and i n women. To confuse the matter f u r t h e r , Kienbaum's view of r e s i g n a t i o n as " e in e x i s t e n t i e l l e s Erkennen der menschlichen Ohnmacht gegeniiber 211 dem a l l m a c h t i g e Gesetz des K o l l e k t i v s " i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to Rychner's c o n t e n t i o n that the re s i g n e d c h a r a c t e r s stand "im V e r h a l t n i s des Goldenen S c h n i t t s , der e i n V e r h a l t n i s 212 v o l l e n d e t e r Harmonie i s t . " The f a c t , which M a r t i n i p o i n t s out, that Fontane d e p i c t s an e x t r a o r d i n a r y number of 213 s u i c i d e s i n h i s prose works, c a s t s doubt upon Rychner's c l a i m . The most comprehensive study on the t o p i c of r e s i g n a t i o n , and the one most compatible with the p o i n t of view adopted by t h i s enquiry, i s that of R i c h t e r . "Die Re s i g n a t i o n wurde i n den Romanen Fontanes zur bestimmenden Lebensantwort," comments R i c h t e r . "Als Hinnahme un l o s b a r e r 214 K o n f l i k t e und Widerspruche t r i t t s i e i n Erscheinung." One hallmark of r e s i g n a t i o n on the p a r t of compromisers i s r e s t r i c t i o n , or what R i c h t e r terms, "eine zugestandene 215 Einschrankung des Lebens." T h i s aspect i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by Frau Dorr. "She i s the v i c t i m of a doubly i r o n i c pun," a s s e r t s F i e l d . "Her name suggests ' d e s i c c a t e d , withered', yet she i s a woman of ' s t a t e l y ' p r o p o r t i o n s and the wife of a g a r d e n e r . " ^ x o Yet, while Frau Dorr's name does o f f e r these i r o n i c c o n t r a s t s , i t may, on the other hand, a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the c o n d i t i o n of her inner being. For she conveys 183 "neben dem Eindruck des Giitigen und Z u v e r l a s s i g e n , z u g l e i c h den e i n e r besonderen B e s c h r a n k t h e i t " ( I I , 3 2 0 ) . Davidson i n t e r p r e t s " B eschranktheit" as r e f e r r i n g to Frau Dorr's 217 " i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional and s o c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s . " While t h i s may i n f a c t be the case, i t could a l s o have been Fontane's aim to c a l l our a t t e n t i o n to a more g e n e r a l sense of r e s t r i c t i o n , or i n h i b i t i o n , of t h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . Another i n d i c a t o r of r e s i g n a t i o n i n the compromisers i s a detached a t t i t u d e of s t o i c endurance i n the f a c e of a d v e r s i t y and disappointment. As Wandel p o i n t s out, the m a j o r i t y of Fontane's c h a r a c t e r s are "Helden im Leiden, im 21 8 s t i l l e n E r t r a g e n , aber keine im Handeln." P a s s i v e s u f f e r i n g as a f a c e t of r e s i g n a t i o n i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n the withdrawal from a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y , which i s t y p i c a l of so many compromiser c h a r a c t e r s . T h i s behaviour appears to be motivated - as r e v e a l e d , f o r example, i n the case of Waldemar - by a d e s i r e to avoid f r i c t i o n : " ' . . . i c h wiinsche Auseinandersetzungen zu vermeiden 1 " ( I I , 558 ) . Common a l s o , i s the r e a d i n e s s to s e t t l e f o r much l e s s than the c h a r a c t e r had o r i g i n a l l y hoped. We observe t h i s a t t i t u d e of compromise i n Botho's sentiment toward Kathe: "'Sie d a l b e r t , nun j a , aber eine d a l b r i g e junge Frau i s t immer noch besser a l s keine'"(11,458). S i m i l a r l y , van der Straaten's "Verlangen nach A u s g l e i c h urn jeden P r e i s " (11,101) as 184 Melanie prepares to d e s e r t him, i s r e v e a l e d by h i s p a t h e t i c p l e a to her: " ' . . . i n diesem Augenblick e r s c h e i n t d i r auch das wenige, was i c h f o r d e r e , noch a l s zu v i e l . . . . e i n Minimum i s t mir g e n u g 1 " ( I I , 9 8 ) . T h i s r e n u n c i a t i o n of p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t i n l i f e i s c e n t r a l to the concept of r e s i g n a t i o n . 2 1 9 In e f f e c t , the compromisers hope t h a t the s a c r i f i c e of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s w i l l b r i n g them peace from the c o n f l i c t between s e l f and s o c i e t y . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the n a r r a t o r ' s remarks concerning Waldemar: "...wenn Ergebung auch n i c h t das a b s o l u t Beste, n i c h t der F r i e d e s e l b s t war, so war es doch das, was dem F r i e d e n am nachsten kam"(II,548). Only a semblance of s e r e n i t y , however, and not genuine e q u i l i b r i u m , i s achieved i n t h i s manner. For a few of the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s , even r e s i g n a t i o n does not s u f f i c i e n t l y a l l a y t h e i r f e e l i n g s of c o n f l i c t and g u i l t . In the words of Waldemar: "'Es g i b t o f t nur e i n M i t t e l , a l l e s wieder i n Ordnung zu bringen'"(II,558) - and t h a t means i s s u i c i d e . T h i s motif i n Fontane's prose works has been v a r i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d by a number of c r i t i c s . Robinson's judgment of s u i c i d e as "a form of moral 220 cowardice" i s c h a l l e n g e d by Lowe's view t h a t Fontane p o r t r a y s i t as "a deed of d e s p a i r r a t h e r than of c o w a r d i c e . " 2 2 1 Frye supports the l a t t e r view with h i s o b s e r v a t i o n that "...Fontane's clergymen, when confronted 185 with s u i c i d e , adopt a compassionate a t t i t u d e . " 2 2 2 E r n s t emphasizes the r o l e which death can serve as "Siihne f u r d i e Schuld" and notes that Fontane's c h a r a c t e r s themselves r e f e r to death as: " ' B e f r e i u n g ' , 'Ruhe', 'Versohnung', ' Z u f l u c h t ' , [und] ' E r l o s u n g ' . " 2 2 3 Reuter, i n h i s a n a l y s i s of C e c i l e , a l s o r e c o g n i z e s g u i l t as a m o t i v a t i o n f o r s u i c i d e : "Der f r e i w i l l i g e Tod b l e i b t C e c i l e a l s e i n z i g e r Ausweg aus einem Los, f u r das s i e i n e r g r e i f e n d e r 'Demut,' i n riihrender Unwissenheit und U n b e h o l f e n h e i t . . . b e i s i c h s e l b s t d i e Schuld gesucht h a t . " 2 2 4 In c o n t r a s t , Mende regards the s u i c i d e of C e c i l e not so much as evidence of her self-condemnation, but r a t h e r as an e x p r e s s i o n of unconscious h o s t i l i t y toward s o c i e t y : "Im S u i z i d wird (unbewusst) d i e v e r h a s s t e G e s e l l s c h a f t 2 25 mi t g e t o t e t . . . . " Both c r i t i c s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s may, i n f a c t , be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y v a l i d . For Koester has observed t h a t whenever one of Fontane's c h a r a c t e r s commits s u i c i d e , the a c t " i s d e p i c t e d as an o r g a n i c r e a c t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y components su b j e c t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r s e t of 2 2 fi circumstances." In s h o r t , a s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r ' s s u i c i d e i s comprehensible on l y when viewed w i t h i n the context of t h a t i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and r e l a t i o n s h i p to s o c i e t y . T h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y i s q u i t e apparent i n the f i g u r e s of E f f i , C e c i l e and Waldemar. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t E f f i ' s death, as we have 186 seen, i s l i n k e d with s a c r i f i c i a l m o t i f s . And i n s o f a r as she d e l i b e r a t e l y exacerbates the d i s e a s e process - by s u b j e c t i n g h e r s e l f to c h i l l s and f a t i g u e (IV,292) - her demise may be regarded e s s e n t i a l l y as s u i c i d e . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by Sontag*s r e s e a r c h i n t o n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o r t r a y a l s of t u b e r c u l o s i s : "TB was represented as the p r o t o t y p i c a l p a s s i v e death. Often i t was a k i n d of 2 2 7 s u i c i d e . " ^ ' C e c i l e and Waldemar a l s o choose to end t h e i r l i v e s i n a p a s s i v e f a s h i o n - namely, by drug overdoses. Too p a s s i v e i n t h e i r s o c i a l behaviour, these three c h a r a c t e r s - r a t h e r than o f f e r i n g e f f e c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e - submit to a c t i n g out the r o l e of a scapegoat. Notable a l s o i n the p o r t r a y a l s of Waldemar and C e c i l e are s a c r i f i c i a l , and even b i b l i c a l , m o t i f s . The palm branches l a i d upon the young count's c o f f i n , f o r example, and the a l t a r p i e c e above i t which d e p i c t s the p r o d i g a l son i n h i s banishment (11,561-562), bear out t h i s a s s e r t i o n . Koester draws our a t t e n t i o n to the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of death 2 2 8 m o t i f s i n C e c i l e which foreshadow the novel's outcome. In the case of C e c i l e , her i n s i s t e n c e t h a t she and Gordon - who, i n a sense, "commits s u i c i d e " - r i d e the o n l y two donkeys i n a c o r r a l f u l l of horses (11,208) suggests an a l l u s i o n to C h r i s t , p e r s e c u t i o n and s a c r i f i c i a l death. Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h i s context, i s Frye's o b s e r v a t i o n that with the p o r t r a y a l of the subsequent e x c u r s i o n through 187 Todtenrode, "...Fontane s u b t l y segregates the only two characters...who are d e s t i n e d to d i e . " 2 2 9 T h e i r l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n from s o c i e t y are a l s o w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s way. Moreover, t h i s theme of i s o l a t i o n and death i s r e i n f o r c e d both i n C e c i l e (11,257) and i n E f f i B r i e s t (IV,23) by r e f e r e n c e s to B o c k l i n ' s p a i n t i n g , " I n s e l der S e l i g e n . " One death motif which l i n k s both C e c i l e and S t i n e i s th a t of the sunset - which, a c c o r d i n g to Frye, " s i g n a l s a 2 3 0 r e l e a s e from r e a l i t y ' s problems and p r e s s u r e s . " More s p e c i f i c a l l y , we may i n t e r p r e t Waldemar's a f f i n i t y f o r sunsets as the author's mode of r e p r e s e n t i n g the hero as a C h r i s t - f i g u r e . A l s o , the image of Waldemar's f a v o r i t e t r e e s with the dead branches (11,555) r e c a l l s the common use by I t a l i a n Renaissance p a i n t e r s of a dead t r e e to symbolize the c r u c i f i x i o n . J X i n C e c i l e , the heroine regards as "'eine Vorbedeutung'" - or perhaps "'eine Warnung'" - her v i s i o n of Gordon i n which both the s e t t i n g sun and t r e e s are fused: "'Und a l s i c h aufsah, sah i c h , dass es d i e niedergehende Sonne war, deren G l u t durch ei n e driiben am andern Ufer stehende Blutbuche f i e l . Und i n der Glut stand Gordon und war wie davon iibergossen ' " ( I I , 260 ) . In a d d i t i o n to t h e i r p a s s i v i t y , f a c t o r s which a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to the eventual death or s u i c i d e of these c h a r a c t e r s are t h e i r emotional, as w e l l as s o c i a l , 188 i s o l a t i o n . Waldemar, f o r i n s t a n c e , remarks t h a t he has always stood alone - even i n h i s f a m i l y (11,549) - and laments: "'...so hab' i c h denn durch v i e l e Jahre h i n g e l e b t , ohne re c h t zu wissen, was Herz und Liebe s e i ' " ( I I , 5 5 2 ) . Contrary to Koester's a s s e r t i o n t h a t Fontane's s u i c i d a l c h a r a c t e r s "do not f o r e s e e t h a t they w i l l k i l l ? 3 2 themselves," J Waldemar, f o r one, has a n t i c i p a t e d t h i s a c t i o n : " 1 S c h l a f p u l v e r ! J a , i c h wusste, dass eure Stunde kommen wurde (11,559). Es i s t e i n E r s p a r n i s aus a l t e n Z e i t e n her, und mein V o r g e f i i h l war r i c h t i g , a l s i c h mir's damals sammelte'"(II,55 7). Koester a l s o contends t h a t " [ t ] h e immediate cause of Waldemar's s u i c i d e i s . . . a misjudgment of another p e r s o n S t i n e , whose r e f u s a l of marriage he had 23 3 not expected." T h i s c r i t i c o v e r l o o k s , however, the s i g n i f i c a n t p a r a l l e l between the young count's r e j e c t i o n by S t i n e and the l o s s , which he s u s t a i n e d i n c h i l d h o o d , of h i s mother through death. She was, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , the o n l y person ever to communicate some measure of a f f e c t i o n f o r him and the symbolic r e p e t i t i o n of t h i s l o s s proves too much f o r him. S i m i l a r l y , i t i s c u r i o u s to note t h a t Gordon bears a s t r i k i n g resemblance to C e c i l e ' s f a t h e r (11,303,282). Indeed, the heroine appears u n c o n s c i o u s l y to have f a l l e n i n love with her deceased f a t h e r i n the person of the engineer. 2 3 4 De s p i t e Koester's opposing view, J C e c i l e may, i n f a c t , 189 p e r c e i v e Gordon's j e a l o u s nature q u i t e a c c u r a t e l y . C e r t a i n l y , through encouraging h i s a t t e n t i o n s , she c r e a t e s the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r her own death, perhaps i n an unacknowledged quest to r e u n i t e with her l o s t parent. That Gordon's death by d u e l c o n s t i t u t e s another r e p e t i t i o n f o r C e c i l e - namely, of the i n c i d e n t concerning D z i a l i n s k i - i s q u i t e e v i d e n t . I t i s , however, Hofp r e d i g e r D o r f f e l who shares the e s s e n t i a l key to understanding C e c i l e ' s s u i c i d e : "'Der Ausdruck i h r e r Ziige war der Ausdruck d e r e r , d i e d i e s e r Z e i t l i c h k e i t miide s i n d 1 " ( I I , 316) . Her l e t t e r to t h i s p a s t o r , "'das Beichtgeheimnis eines demiitigen Her zens ' " ( I I , 316) , conveys sentiments remarkably a k i n to the l a s t u t t e r a n c e s of E f f i (IV,293-294) and of Waldemar (11,557-559). F r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r d e s i r e f o r l o v e and i n t h e i r need f o r a sense of s o c i a l acceptance and belonging, these c h a r a c t e r s who choose to end t h e i r l i v e s appear to do so because without these attainments l i f e possesses no meaning f o r them. As E f f i c oncludes: "'...es hat n i c h t v i e l zu bedeuten, wenn man von der T a f e l etwas f r i i h e r abgerufen w i r d 1 " (IV, 29 3) . Those r e s i g n e d compromiser c h a r a c t e r s who are, however, able to maintain i n t i m a t e and s o c i a l t i e s - r e g a r d l e s s of how u n s a t i s f a c t o r y these may seem to them - emerge as capable at l e a s t of s u r v i v i n g , although they may l i v e , i n the words of Thoreau, " l i v e s of q u i e t d e s p e r a t i o n . " S u r p r i s i n g l y , the 190 compromisers who do commit s u i c i d e - so anxious and f e a r f u l as they were i n l i f e - face death with remarkable calm. Perhaps M i l t o n has given us the most profound i n s i g h t i n t h i s regard, as he phrased i t i n Parad i s e Regained: "For where no hope i s l e f t , i s l e f t no f e a r . " Indeed, Waldemar's e n t r e a t y to S t i n e i n h i s s u i c i d e note confirms t h i s very s u s p i c i o n : "'...vor a l l e m v e r z i c h t e n i c h t auf Hoffnung und Gliick, w e i l i c h darauf v e r z i c h t e t e ' " ( I I , 559 ) . e. Summary T h i s chapter has explored the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of f e a t u r e s shared by those c h a r a c t e r s who respond i n a s p i r i t of compromise to the c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . The m a j o r i t y of Fontane's c h a r a c t e r s , i n f a c t , belong to t h i s compromiser type, which i s so named because i t s members tend - a l b e i t with r e l u c t a n c e - to adapt to s o c i e t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , d e s p i t e t h e i r awareness that s o c i e t y ' s values are not compatible with t h e i r own. Although these c h a r a c t e r s are predominantly submissive toward others due to t h e i r i n a p p r o p r i a t e f e e l i n g s of h u m i l i t y , t h e i r behaviour i s , however, punctuated by episodes of w i l l f u l d e f i a n c e of s o c i a l norms. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , f o r a few compromisers, e c c e n t r i c i t y i s an e s t a b l i s h e d way of l i f e . Although most compromisers are middle-aged, some are 191 young a d u l t s , or are e l d e r l y . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of gender i s approximately e q u a l . However, some compromisers r e v e a l a sexual ambiguity of appearance and behaviour. P h y s i c a l d i s f i g u r e m e n t i s f r e q u e n t l y encountered and poor h e a l t h - which, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , o f f e r s a number of b e n e f i t s - i s a l s o a f e a t u r e . In g e n e r a l , these c h a r a c t e r s possess nervous c o n s t i t u t i o n s and s u f f e r from a high degree of a n x i e t y , as w e l l as from s p e c i f i c f e a r s . E m o t i o n a l l y l a b i l e , most compromisers experience a l t e r n a t i n g moods of euphoria and despondency. Unable to t o l e r a t e boredom, they crave s t i m u l a t i o n and constant d i v e r s i o n , which are sometimes sought through dangerous means. Drawn to the e x o t i c and fond of t r a v e l , the compromisers' r e s t l e s s yearning f o r some i n d e f i n a b l e sustenance leads them i n t o what are o f t e n unconventional a c t i v i t i e s , which provoke the censure of s o c i e t y . The a t t i t u d e of compromise i s r e f l e c t e d i n these c h a r a c t e r s ' r e s i g n e d acceptance of c o n d i t i o n s which f a l l s h o r t of t h e i r i d e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s . They are i n c l i n e d to l i v e more i n f a n t a s y than i n r e a l i t y which, at best, the compromisers p e r c e i v e i n a h i g h l y d i s t o r t e d f a s h i o n . Resentment, c y n i c i s m and envy a l s o form, however, a p a r t of the p i c t u r e , s i n c e these c h a r a c t e r s are f a t a l i s t i c and f e e l h e l p l e s s to a l t e r t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . They have s u f f e r e d severe disappointment - p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n romantic involvements - 192 and are e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e to r e j e c t i o n by o t h e r s , whether a c t u a l or merely a n t i c i p a t e d . Compromisers are t r o u b l e d by f e e l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y and i n f e r i o r i t y because they can f i n d t h e i r way n e i t h e r to s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e , nor to acceptance by s o c i e t y . F e a r f u l of o t h e r s , these c h a r a c t e r s attempt to conceal t h e i r t r u e s e l v e s - as do the co n f o r m i s t s - behind masks and r o l e - p l a y i n g . T h e i r inner d i v i s i o n generates c o n s i d e r a b l e g u i l t and shame over the f a i l u r e to meet e i t h e r s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , or t h e i r p e r s o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . Due to t h i s ambivalence, as w e l l as to t h e i r e s s e n t i a l l y p a s s i v e natures, the compromisers are r e a d i l y manipulated by others and even, i n some cases, are t h r u s t i n t o the r o l e of a scapegoat. T r a g i c a l l y , a few compromiser c h a r a c t e r s , when the r e s t r i c t i o n of t h e i r s o c i a l and emotional connections becomes acute, seek peace from the torment of g u i l t and c o n f l i c t through death. 193 I I I . The Courageous Type "'Man muss a l l e m i n s G e s i c h t sehen und s i c h n i c h t s weismachen l a s s e n , und vor a l l e m s i c h s e l b e r n i c h t s weismachen.'" (11,346) - Lene a. P r o f i l e of the courageous type The most ou t s t a n d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the courageous type i s a concern with honesty toward o n e s e l f and toward o t h e r s . Possessing a high degree of s e l f - i n s i g h t , t h i s type has a strong sense of i d e n t i t y and p l a c e s p e r s o n a l values above those of s o c i e t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the courageous c h a r a c t e r s are able to e s t a b l i s h harmonious r e l a t i o n s with s o c i e t y d e s p i t e t h e i r unconventional l i f e s t y l e s . I n t e g r i t y - namely, the courage to act c o n s i s t e n t l y i n accordance with p e r s o n a l c o n v i c t i o n s - i s one f e a t u r e of these c h a r a c t e r s which encourages s o c i e t y ' s t o l e r a n c e of them. Another f e a t u r e i s the w i l l i n g n e s s to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the n a t u r a l consequences of one's a c t i o n s , r a t h e r than t r y i n g to a f f i x blame o u t s i d e of o n e s e l f . They do not defy s o c i e t y ' s 194 standards out of mere w i l l f u l n e s s j u s t f o r the sake of r e b e l l i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , by a c t i n g autonomously i n accordance with p e r s o n a l c o n v i c t i o n , he or she a c t u a l l y c h a l l e n g e s r a t h e r than opposes t r a d i t i o n and the s t a t u s quo. The p e r s o n a l i t y of the courageous type i s one i n which reason and emotion are harmoniously balanced. A high degree of p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t y , i n i t i a t i v e and s e l f - r e l i a n c e are a l s o d i s p l a y e d . T h i s type l i v e s i n the present and r e a l i s t i c a l l y accepts the world as i t i s . In r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the courageous type r e v e a l s an equal measure of regard f o r s e l f and o t h e r . A c o - o p e r a t i v e , r a t h e r than a c o m p e t i t i v e a t t i t u d e i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t i n the romantic r e l a t i o n s h i p s with t h i s c h a r a c t e r type, which tend to be very rewarding. The healthy v i t a l i t y of the courageous type i s r e f l e c t e d i n a high l e v e l of p e r s o n a l growth and f u l f i l l m e n t of the s e l f ' s p o t e n t i a l . T h i s type i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n t and fundamentally o p t i m i s t i c i n outlook. When faced with c o n f l i c t between i n d i v i d u a l i n c l i n a t i o n and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n , the courageous type adopts a pragmatic approach and f r e q u e n t l y d i s p l a y s c o n s i d e r a b l e c r e a t i v i t y i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . Rather than seeing only the o p t i o n s of conformity or d e f i a n c e , t h i s type p e r c e i v e s a range of p o s s i b l e options i n response to i n s t a n c e s of c o n f l i c t . The courageous type chooses an o p t i o n which w i l l l e a d to the most d e s i r a b l e consequences, f u l l y 195 aware t h a t while no p e r f e c t s o l u t i o n to c o n f l i c t between s e l f and s o c i e t y e x i s t s , a reasonable balance between the demands of both can be achieved. b. S e l e c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s and the nature of t h e i r c o n f l i c t s The four courageous c h a r a c t e r s to be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter i n c l u d e : Melanie and Rubehn from L ' A d u l t e r a along with Lene and Gideon from Irrungen, Wirrungen. Melanie's s i t u a t i o n of c o n f l i c t begins with the temptation to commit a d u l t e r y and leads to a d e c i s i o n over whether to d i v o r c e her husband and abandon her c h i l d r e n . Rubehn, as the one who provokes Melanie's s i t u a t i o n , i s faced with the c o n f l i c t of whether to i n i t i a t e an a f f a i r with a married woman. Lene's c o n f l i c t i s tw o f o l d : f i r s t l y , whether as a working c l a s s woman to pursue a l i a i s o n with an a r i s t o c r a t which she r e a l i z e s can hold no f u t u r e , and secondly, whether to r e v e a l her romantic past to a subsequent s u i t o r . Gideon, as t h a t s u i t o r , must decide whether or not to marry a woman who has a p a s t . Moreover, he has a l s o been faced with a d e c i s i o n over whether to remain with orthodox r e l i g i o n , or to e s t a b l i s h a s e c t of h i s own. 196 c. General f e a t u r e s of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s G e n e r a l l y speaking, c r i t i c s recognize i n Fontane's c h a r a c t e r s o n l y two modes of response to the c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . G e l l h a u s , f o r i n s t a n c e , a s s e r t s i n commenting upon Fontane's n a r r a t i v e works: "Hier ordnet s i c h das Individuum den bestehenden V e r h a l t n i s s e n u n t e r , oder, wenn es d i e durchbrochen hat, t r a g t es d i e T I C Folgen seines T u n s . " i J C e r t a i n l y , most Fontane s c h o l a r s deny that any of the author's c h a r a c t e r s are po r t r a y e d as capable of e x e r c i s i n g f r e e w i l l . "The w i l l of the i n d i v i d u a l , " d e c l a r e s one such c r i t i c , " i s bound by the w i l l of s o c i e t y . " A s i m i l a r l y p e s s i m i s t i c c o n c l u s i o n i s a r r i v e d at by F r i e d r i c h , who contends: "Die Frage nach dem Gliick, wo es moglich i s t und wie es errungen werden kann, b l e i b t ohne A n t w o r t . " 2 3 7 Yet, as Mittelmann p o i n t s out, r e s i g n a t i o n i s not the only s o l u t i o n to c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y which we f i n d i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fontane's n o v e l s . She observes t h a t the author a l s o p o r t r a y s "die M o g l i c h k e i t e n p o s i t i v e n 23 8 Handelns und...einen Spielraum der F r e i h e i t . " C o n f i r m a t i o n of Mittelmann's view i s provided by an excerpt from the n o v e l i s t ' s correspondence, wherein he s t a t e s : "Der f r e i e Mensch aber...kann tun, was er w i l l und muss nur d i e sogenannten ' n a t i i r l i c h e n Konsequenzen, ' . . .entschlossen und 197 t a p f e r auf s i c h nehmen."^-^ T h i s q u o t a t i o n suggests t h a t , i n Fontane's view, the freedom of an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n s o c i e t y i s commensurate with the i n d i v i d u a l ' s degree of w i l l i n g n e s s to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p e r s o n a l c h o i c e s and f o r the consequences of them. Such w i l l i n g n e s s demands courage - the courage to choose between r e s i g n a t i o n and a new d i r e c t i o n . The four c h a r a c t e r s to be examined i n t h i s chapter are po r t r a y e d by Fontane as p o s s e s s i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r brand of courage. Not to be confused with an outward d i s p l a y of p h y s i c a l bravery, the courage of these c h a r a c t e r s may be d e f i n e d as a s p i r i t u a l s t r e n g t h which enables them to withstand and to overcome c o n f l i c t between themselves and s o c i e t y . Webster's T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y o f f e r s as a synonym f o r courage the word " s p i r i t " - a term which suggests "a q u a l i t y of t e m p e r a m e n t a n a b i l i t y to ho l d one's own, f i g h t f o r one's p r i n c i p l e s , or keep up one's morale when opposed, i n t e r f e r e d with, or checked." T h i s d e f i n i t i o n a p t l y d e s c r i b e s the fundamental stance e x h i b i t e d by the courageous c h a r a c t e r s toward the b a s i c c o n f l i c t . E s s e n t i a l l y , the courage of these c h a r a c t e r s i s the courage to be t h e i r t r u e s e l v e s , d e s p i t e s o c i a l pressure to r e l i n q u i s h t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Among the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of a t t r i b u t e s which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the courageous c h a r a c t e r type from Fontane's other f i c t i o n a l p o r t r a i t s , we note t h a t another prominent 198 f e a t u r e i s concern with a u t h e n t i c i t y - namely, honesty with o n e s e l f and s i n c e r i t y toward o t h e r s . By c o n t r a s t , we observe t h a t the co n f o r m i s t s and the compromisers betray both a moderate degree of s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , as w e l l as h a b i t u a l d i s s i m u l a t i o n i n t h e i r c o n t a c t s with o t h e r s . Gideon Francke - whom Lene e v e n t u a l l y marries - s u c c i n c t l y expresses the fundamental val u e s shared by the courageous c h a r a c t e r s : "'Auf d i e Wahrheit kommt es an, und auf d i e Z u v e r l a s s i g k e i t kommt es an und auf d i e E h r l i c h k e i t ' " ( I I , 4 4 4 - 4 4 5 ) . The genuineness of these c o n v i c t i o n s s e t s them apart from the s u p e r f i c i a l , o u t e r - d i r e c t e d v a l u e s , such as preoccupation with r e c o g n i t i o n and s o c i a l r e p u t a t i o n , t y p i c a l of the co n f o r m i s t s . Moreover, the s t e a d f a s t n e s s with which the courageous c h a r a c t e r s adhere to t h e i r values d i s t i n g u i s h e s them from the compromisers, who tend toward not only h y p o c r i s y , but a l s o v a c i l l a t i o n and p a s s i v i t y caused by inner c o n f l i c t . Given the importance of honesty to the courageous type, i t comes as no s u r p r i s e t h a t Gideon - d e s c r i b e d by the compromiser, Botho, as " ' e i n Mann von Freimut und u n t a d e l i g e r Gesinnung'"(II,441) - should be a t t r a c t e d to Frau Nimptsch's adopted daughter, of whom Botho d e c l a r e s : " ' . . . d i e Lene l i i g t n i c h t und b i s s e eher d i e Zunge ab, a l s dass s i e f l u n k e r t e 1 " ( I I , 4 4 3 ) . In f a c t , as Lene e x p l a i n s to her .foster mother, i t i s p r e c i s e l y because of the f a c t o r y 199 foreman's u p r i g h t c h a r a c t e r t h a t she wishes to marry him: "'Ich hab' ihm geantwortet, dass i c h ihn nehmen wol l e , w e i l i c h ihn f u r einen e h r l i c h e n und z u v e r l a s s i g e n Mann h i e l t e . . . 1 " ( I I , 4 3 3 ) . Determined that no deception s h a l l e x i s t between them as a couple, Lene decides to inform Gideon of her pre v i o u s romantic involvements (11,433) - a d i s c l o s u r e which the l a t t e r , d e s p i t e h i s s t r i c t r e l i g i o s i t y , i s a ble to accept. For he b e l i e v e s t h a t t r a n s g r e s s i o n of the s i x t h commandment may be pardoned, as i t repr e s e n t s weakness merely of the f l e s h . However, t r a n s g r e s s i o n of the seventh commandment - inasmuch as i t r e v e a l s weakness of the s p i r i t - i s u n f o r g i v a b l e , i n Gideon's view (11,444). Thus Gideon r e s o l v e s h i s inst a n c e of the b a s i c c o n f l i c t - namely, whether to marry a woman with a past - i n a manner compatible with h i s own p e r s o n a l v a l u e s , not those of s o c i e t y . He does not marry her out of mere d e f i a n c e of s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s , however, as we observed i n the compromiser, St.Arnaud. In terms of the preceeding a n a l y s i s , i t i s d o u b t f u l as to whether what Davidson terms "the unbridgeable s o c i a l 240 chasm" between Lene, as a member of the working c l a s s , and Botho, as an a r i s t o c r a t , i s a c t u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i s s o l u t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p - a view which R i c h t e r , 241 f o r i n s t a n c e , a l s o maintains. Even i f Fontane had po r t r a y e d Lene and Botho as members of the same s o c i a l 200 c l a s s , they would s t i l l have lacked the fundamental bond which e x i s t s between Lene and Gideon by v i r t u e of t h e i r shared v a l u e s . The honesty of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s i s e v i d e n t not o n l y i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s with o t h e r s , but a l s o i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r i n n e r s e l v e s . They are d e p i c t e d as endeavouring to achieve and maintain a high degree of self-knowledge. Reeve observes i n Lene, f o r i n s t a n c e , what he terms " s u p e r i o r 2 4 2 s e l f -awareness""* - a f e a t u r e which c o n t r a s t s with the s e l f - d e c e p t i o n so t y p i c a l of the conformist and e s p e c i a l l y , the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s . By way of i l l u s t r a t i o n , Lene's dream of her p a r t i n g from Botho serves not merely to foreshadow the couple's a c t u a l s e p a r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , i t r e v e a l s t h i s courageous c h a r a c t e r as one who i s f i n e l y attuned to her emotional l i f e : "'...es geht zu End'....Ich hab 1 es f r e i l i c h nur getraumt....Aber warum hab 1 i c h es getraumt? Weil es mir den ganzen Tag vor der Seele stent'"(11,399). We a l s o note a high degree of self-awareness i n the f i g u r e of Melanie van der S t r a a t e n . Although she occupies the p o s i t i o n of advantage i n her f i r s t marriage, t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s p o r t r a y e d as conscious of being d i s c o n t e n t e d . In the words of the n a r r a t o r : " . . . s i e dominierte nur, w e i l s i e s i c h zu zwingen v e r s t a n d ; aber d i e s e s Zwanges l o s und l e d i g zu s e i n , b l i e b doch i h r Wunsch, i h r bestandiges, 201 s t i l l e s V e r l a n g e n " ( I I , 4 2 ) . As Johnson suggests, Melanie's "sense of s p i r i t u a l confinement" i s w e l l represented by the image of her pet cockatoo - "der e i g e n t l i c h e Tyrann des 9 4 3 Hauses"(II,17) - imprisoned w i t h i n i t s cage. When the o p p o r t u n i t y to f r e e h e r s e l f from the c o n s t r a i n t s of an unhappy marriage presents i t s e l f i n the person of Rubehn, Melanie's sense of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n changes to d i s c o r d as she s t r u g g l e s to c l a r i f y her "personal . . ,,244 p r i o r i t i e s . U n l i k e some of the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s who are p o r t r a y e d by Fontane as a c t u a l l y t a k i n g p l e a s u r e i n deception - Herr Dorr and h i s p r a c t i c a l jokes with "potted" flowers c o n s t i t u t e one such example - Melanie d e r i v e s no g r a t i f i c a t i o n from the d u p l i c i t y toward her husband and f r i e n d s which i s n e c e s s i t a t e d by her e x t r a - m a r i t i a l a f f a i r . On the c o n t r a r y , because d e c e i t i s f o r e i g n to her nature Melanie s u f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . As the n a r r a t o r e x p l a i n s : "Sie l a g l e i d e n d und abgeharmt, uneins mit s i c h und der Welt, auf dem S o f a . . . " ( I I , 9 1 ) . The e s s e n t i a l c o n f l i c t which c o n f r o n t s Melanie i s t h a t of choosing between the s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e path of remaining married to van der S t r a a t e n - even though she does not love him - or, r i s k i n g s o c i a l o s t r a c i s m by pursuing s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t i n a new marriage to the man she does l o v e . U l t i m a t e l y , Melanie's f e a r of s o c i a l censure i s overwhelmed by her abhorrence of d e c e p t i o n . As she informs her f i r s t husband: 202 'Ich kann das k l e i n e Geflih l n i c h t langer e r t r a g e n , das an a l l e r Luge h a f t e t ; i c h w i l l wieder k l a r e V e r h a l t n i s s e sehen....Ich w i l l wieder i n F r i e d e n mit mir s e l b e r leben, und wenn n i c h t i n F r i e d e n , so doch wenigstens ohne Zwiespalt und z w e i e r l e i G e s i c h t . ' (11,101-102) I t i s only when Melanie a c t s i n accordance with her own wish t h a t she regains a sense of being at one with h e r s e l f . T h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n serves to i l l u s t r a t e Fontane's d e p i c t i o n i n the courageous c h a r a c t e r s of a l i n k between i n t e g r i t y - o r , wholeness of being - and l o y a l t y t o o n e s e l f . Upon t a k i n g leave of van der S t r a a t e n , Melanie d e c l a r e s t h a t o n l y one remedy w i l l a l l e v i a t e her d i s c o n t e n t : " ' . . . e i n ganz neues Leben und i n ihm das was das e r s t e vermissen l i e s s : T r e u e ' " ( I I , 1 0 2 ) . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , Melanie i s not r e f e r r i n g to her i n f i d e l i t y . Rather, she i s motivated by what she d e s c r i b e s as "'das Gesetz i n s Herz g e s c h r i e b e n 1 " or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , as "'mein eigenes s e l b s t i s c h e s Verlangen'"(II,101,102). Melanie recognizes t h a t the "law w r i t t e n i n her hea r t " happens to correspond with s o c i e t y ' s law which a l s o demands that she be separated from the husband to whom she has been u n f a i t h f u l (11,102). A c t i n g upon her own d e s i r e does not, however, c o n s t i t u t e conformity to the d i c t a t e s of s o c i e t y . For Melanie i s po r t r a y e d as remaining at odds with a s o c i e t y which disapproves of adult e r o u s wives - e s p e c i a l l y those who abandon t h e i r c h i l d r e n without so much as a f i n a l f a r e w e l l (11,103). In 203 the words of Rees: "Second only to a lady's f e e l i n g s f o r her husband were those f o r her c h i l d r e n . . . . f o r a lady not to 'love' her c h i l d r e n made her a m o n s t e r . " 2 4 5 Thus s o c i e t y i s f a r from being appeased by Melanie's d e c i s i o n to d i v o r c e and would r a t h e r see her o s t r a c i z e d , than happy i n a second marriage to Rubehn. As Mittelmann observes, Melanie - i n her d e c i s i o n to d i v o r c e - p l a c e s "die Treue zur eigenen Wesensmitte iiber a l l e s , d i e Selbstverantwortung iiber d i e Verantwortung, d i e das Individuum gegeniiber der G e s e l l s c h a f t hat, das Gesetz, das i h r . ' i n s Herz geschrieben' . . . , iiber das Gesetz der G e s e l l s c h a f t . " 2 4 6 i t i s t h i s h i e r a r c h y of values i n which the s e l f has p r i o r i t y over s o c i e t y t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s the courageous response to the fundamental c o n f l i c t from the responses of the c o n f o r m i s t and compromiser c h a r a c t e r s - both of whom e i t h e r w i l l i n g l y , or r e l u c t a n t l y , p l a c e s o c i e t y ' s d e s i r e s before t h e i r own. T h i s l o y a l t y to s e l f r e v e a l e d by the courageous c h a r a c t e r s may be viewed as a p o s i t i v e form of e g o c e n t r i c i t y , inasmuch as i t permits them to maintain t h e i r i n t e g r i t y and to defend t h e i r best i n t e r e s t i n s i t u a t i o n s of c o n f l i c t . The concept which Gellhaus terms "die innere W a h r h a f t i g k e i t " a l s o has a p p l i c a t i o n here. "Dem eigenen Wesen t r e u b l e i b e n , " a s s e r t s t h i s c r i t i c , " i s t nach Fontane der Grundzug der W a h r h a f t i g k e i t . W a h r h a f t i g k e i t aber kann 204 k e i n e r haben," e x p l a i n s G e l l h a u s , "der n i c h t den Schwerpunkt 247 seines Lebens i n seinem eigenen S e l b s t hat." By c o n t r a s t , the confused p r i o r i t i e s of the compromisers s u b j e c t them to a c h r o n i c s t a t e of inner d i v i s i o n . T h e i r d i v i d e d l o y a l t y between s e l f and s o c i e t y renders them inca p a b l e of c o n s i s t e n t l y p u r s u i n g t h e i r own d e s i r e s . The c o n f o r m i s t s , on the other hand, do possess what co u l d be termed a p s e u d o - i n t e g r i t y and are u s u a l l y able to maintain t h e i r e q u i l i b r i u m . They achieve t h i s , however, by a u t o m a t i c a l l y according s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s f i r s t p r i o r i t y - a c h o i c e which n e c e s s i t a t e s continuous d e n i a l of t h e i r p e r s o n a l wishes. E s s e n t i a l l y , the c o n f o r m i s t and compromiser c h a r a c t e r s have t h e i r "center of g r a v i t y " o u t s i d e of themselves, a f e a t u r e which t h e i r e x c e s s i v e accomodation to the demands of s o c i e t y b e t r a y s . A l i e n a t e d from t h e i r p e r s o n a l needs and d e s i r e s , these c h a r a c t e r s are p o r t r a y e d as dependent upon the c o n v e n t i o n a l values of s o c i e t y to guide t h e i r conduct. By c o n t r a s t , the courageous c h a r a c t e r s are centered w i t h i n themselves and, t h e r e f o r e , b e t t e r able to d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e i r own d e s i r e s from those of s o c i e t y . The needs of t h e i r inner s e l f serve to d i r e c t the a c t i o n s of these c h a r a c t e r s , thereby c r e a t i n g a sense of autonomy which the c o n f o r m i s t s and compromisers l a c k . Despite the f a c t t h a t a c t i n g upon p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n provokes s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l , the 205 s e l f - e s t e e m which accompanies s e l f - a s s e r t i o n i s experienced by the courageous c h a r a c t e r s as rewarding i n i t s e l f . As the n a r r a t o r e x p l a i n s concerning Melanie's c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n to d i v o r c e van der S t r a a t e n : "Das Geschehene, das wusste s i e , war i h r e V e r u r t e i l u n g vor der Welt, war i h r e Demutigung, aber es war doch auch z u g l e i c h i h r S t o l z , d i e s E i n s e t z e n i h r e r E x i s t e n z , d i e s r i i c k h a l t l o s e Bekenntnis i h r e r Neigung"(II,100) . In h i s a n a l y s i s of L ' A d u l t e r a , M u l l e r - S e i d e l i n t e r p r e t s the choice between p e r s o n a l and s o c i e t a l v a l u e s as one between being an o r i g i n a l , or a copy. "Dieser Gegensatz von Typus und I n d i v i d u a l i t a t , von Kopie und O r i g i n a l , " contends t h i s s c h o l a r , " i s t das z e n t r a l e Motiv der Erzahlung, i h r p A o punctum s a l i e n s , urn das s i c h a l l e s d r e h t . . . . " M u l l e r - S e i d e l p o i n t s out t h a t the theme f i n d s metaphorical e x p r e s s i o n through van der Straaten's penchant f o r c o l l e c t i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n s of famous p a i n t i n g s , i n c o n t r a s t to Melanie's s a t i s f a c t i o n with a s i n g l e p o r t r a i t of h e r s e l f . Not commented upon by t h i s c r i t i c i s a s i m i l a r motif which can be observed i n Irrungen, Wirrungen. Here, Botho - who, l i k e van der S t r a a t e n , i s a compromiser - forms a p a r a l l e l f i g u r e to the commercial c o u n c i l l o r . Lacking the f i n a n c i a l acumen of the businessman, however, Botho 1s c o s t l y expenditures on p a i n t i n g s - i n c l u d i n g a Rubens copy - o n l y serve to p l a c e him deeply i n t o debt (11,346-47). With 206 r e s p e c t t o Lene with whom Botho has an a f f a i r , her i n a b i l i t y to understand the E n g l i s h t i t l e s of two p a i n t i n g s which grace the w a l l s of her and Botho's room at Hankel's Ablage i l l u m i n a t e s the e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l g u l f which separates the couple. Another p i c t u r e , e n t i t l e d " S i jeunesse s a v a i t , " o ffends Lene's f i n e s e n s i b i l i t y (11,386). She spontaneously i d e n t i f i e s , however, with the s i g h t of a maid p o l i s h i n g kitchenware: "Lene war wie benommen von dem B i l d " (11,389). In a sense, t h i s r e f l e c t i o n of h e r s e l f which Lene p e r c e i v e s i n the v i s i o n of the maid - "die hiibsche Person, d i e s i c h , so sc h i e n es, i n i h r e r A r b e i t gar n i c h t genugtun konnte"(II,389) - may be viewed as a c o u n t e r p a r t t o Melanie's s e l f - p o r t r a i t (11,17). Notable i n both images i s the backdrop p r o v i d e d by n a t u r a l scenery, a f e a t u r e which suggests the t y p i c a l l y ingenuous q u a l i t y a s s o c i a t e d with the courageous c h a r a c t e r s . The f a c t t h a t these f i g u r e s are a t t r a c t e d to images of themselves p o i n t s not so much to v a n i t y , as i t does t o the str o n g sense of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y which they possess. Another v a r i a t i o n upon the dichotomy between p e r s o n a l va l u e s and s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s , or the theme of "Kopie und O r i g i n a l , " i s apparent i n Gideon's d e c i s i o n to found h i s own r e l i g i o u s s e c t , r a t h e r than remain with or simply r e j e c t orthodox r e l i g i o n . "Franke i s so independent," d e c l a r e s 2 4 Q Bance, "that no e s t a b l i s h e d r e l i g i o n s u i t s him...." 207 Garland's d e s i g n a t i o n of Gideon as "something of a r e l i g i o u s c r a n k " ^ J i s , however, a most u n f a i r assessment of t h i s c h a r a c t e r . For although he c e r t a i n l y does express himself i n a r a t h e r f o r t h r i g h t manner - one which, according to Grawe, 251 resembles t h a t of Old Testament prophets - Franke's r e l i g i o u s e c c e n t r i c i t y and s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s are born not of mere d e f i a n c e toward s o c i e t y ' s e s t a b l i s h e d r e l i g i o n s , but of t o l e r a n c e . As Gideon e x p l a i n s to Botho: "'Ich war lange driiben i n den S t a t e s , . . .man l e r n t driiben anders sehen und n i c h t immer durchs selbe G l a s . Und l e r n t auch, dass es v i e l e Heilswege g i b t u n d . . . . v i e l e Wege, d i e zu Gott fiihren . . . ' " ( I I , 444 ) . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n of m u l t i p l e o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to the i n d i v i d u a l i s t y p i c a l of the courageous type. The c o n f l i c t between the demands of s o c i e t y and p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n may appear, at f i r s t glance, to have no a p p l i c a t i o n i n the case of Lene. As Botho d e s c r i b e s her: " ' . . . s i e h a t t e s i c h von Jugend an daran gewohnt, nach i h r e n eigenen E n t s c h l i i s s e n zu handeln, ohne v i e l R i i c k s i c h t auf d i e Menschen und j e d e n f a l l s ohne Fu r c h t vor ihrem U r t e i l 1 " ( I I , 4 4 2 ) . Although she i s d e p i c t e d as having no f e a r of s o c i e t y ' s judgment, n e v e r t h e l e s s , Lene does not escape the d i s a p p r o v a l of others - e s p e c i a l l y , where her m o r a l i t y i s concerned. We l e a r n t h a t she has been the s u b j e c t of m a l i c i o u s g o s s i p and the absence of a Kranz does not pass 208 unnoticed at her wedding. Even Frau Nimptsch appears c r i t i c a l of her f o s t e r daughter's romantic h i s t o r y , f o r she attempts to dissuade Lene from d i s c l o s i n g i t to Gideon (11,425-426). Yet, t h i s young woman's a f f a i r s p r i o r to marriage were s e r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with men f o r whom she had c o n s i d e r a b l e a f f e c t i o n . U n l i k e the other m i s t r e s s e s of Botho's f e l l o w o f f i c e r s , Lene i s not d e p i c t e d as being motivated by the d e s i r e f o r f i n a n c i a l gain and, f o r t h a t matter, she i s not p r o p e l l e d e x c l u s i v e l y by sexual d e s i r e e i t h e r . Her r e a c t i o n to the suggestive l i t h o g r a p h found i n the h o t e l room at Hankels Ablage serves to d i s p e l any s u s p i c i o n i n the reader's mind as to the b a s i s of Lene's conduct. In the words of the n a r r a t o r : "Ihre f e i n e S i n n l i c h k e i t f i i h l t e s i c h von dem Liisternen i n dem B i l d e wie von e i n e r Verzerrung i h r e s eigenen Gefiihls b e l e i d i g t . . . " ( I I , 3 8 6 ) . The f a c t t h a t the same p i c t u r e i s found i n the Dorr household may be taken to i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t between Lene's nature and t h a t of the v a i n and a c q u i s i t i v e Frau Dorr, who was a l s o at one time the m i s t r e s s of an a r i s t o c r a t . A p a r a l l e l e x i s t s , however, between Lene and Melanie i n that the l a t t e r f i n d s the "ardent" Madonnas of M u r i l l o - which the earthy van der S t r a a t e n adores (11,32-33) - f r a n k l y o f f e n s i v e . By making i t c l e a r that these two courageous c h a r a c t e r s are n e i t h e r f o r t u n e hunters, nor wanton seductresses the author enhances 209 reader sympathy towards them. In Fontane's day, such a p o r t r a y a l would have served to m i t i g a t e - though c e r t a i n l y not to e l i m i n a t e - reader d i s a p p r o v a l of departure from c o n v e n t i o n a l standards of m o r a l i t y i l l u s t r a t e d through these h e r o i n e s . Some mention should f i n a l l y be made of the s p e c i f i c context i n which the f o u r t h courageous c h a r a c t e r , Rubehn, experiences c o n f l i c t between s e l f and s o c i e t y . F i r s t l y , as the e l d e s t son of a Jewish F r a n k f u r t banker, Rubehn i s an o u t s i d e r f i g u r e i n the novel's s e t t i n g of P r o t e s t a n t B e r l i n . L i k e Gideon, he a l s o has t r a v e l l e d e x t e n s i v e l y not onl y i n America, but i n France and England, too. Indeed, van der Straaten p a r t l y bases h i s d e c i s i o n to have Rubehn as a l i v e - i n t r a i n e e upon the assumption that the l a t t e r needs to r e l e a r n " ' d i e S i t t e d i e s e s Landes...weil er s i e draussen halb vergessen h a t ' " ( I I , 1 8 ) . T h i s i n v i t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s i n the f i n a n c i e r ' s own words " ' e i n besonderer Vertrauensakt'" (11,19) - one which Rubehn e v e n t u a l l y betrays by choosing to become Melanie's i l l i c i t l o v e r . Once having taken t h i s i r r e v o c a b l e s tep, which i s c e r t a i n l y a v i c t o r y of p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n over the mores of s o c i e t y , he i s faced with another d e c i s i v e c o n f l i c t - namely, whether to continue the a f f a i r with h i s patron's w i f e , or to d e c l a r e p u b l i c l y h i s love f o r Melanie by marrying her. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , both o p t i o n s e n t a i l c o n f l i c t i n t h a t each i s l i a b l e to provoke 210 s o c i a l censure. C e r t a i n l y , Rubehn i s a c u t e l y aware of the profound r e p e r c u s s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with h i s u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n to wed. A f t e r a meeting with h i s beloved, the n a r r a t o r comments: "Er sah i h r nach, und e i n Gefiih l von Schreck und ungeheurer V e r a n t w o r t l i c h k e i t iiber e i n durch ihn g e s t o r t e s Gliick iiberkam ihn und e r f i i h l t e p l o t z l i c h s e i n ganzes Herz. Was s o i l werden?" (11,90). Yet, i n the manner t y p i c a l of courageous c h a r a c t e r s , Rubehn acknowledges t h a t he possesses f r e e w i l l and must accept the consequences of e x e r c i s i n g i t . Moreover, he r e c o g n i z e s that t h i s a p p l i e s to other i n d i v i d u a l s as w e l l . Although Rubehn d e f i n i t e l y c a r r i e s a c e r t a i n degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as f a r as h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with Melanie i s concerned, he r e a l i z e s t h a t he does not bear the e n t i r e burden alone: "'Ich b i n n i c h t der Narr, der von Engeln s p r i c h t . S i e war k e i n e r und i s t k e i n e r ' " ( I I , 9 0 ) . T h i s i n s i g h t not o n l y b o l s t e r s h i s own s p i r i t , but enables Rubehn to encourage Melanie, too, u n t i l she f e e l s strong enough to c o n f r o n t van der S t r a a t e n with her d e c i s i o n : "'Es hat eben a l l e s seine n a t u r l i c h e Konsequenz, und d i e , d i e h i e r s p r i c h t , d i e s c h e i d e t uns'"(II,101). As M u l l e r - S e i d e l d e c l a r e s : "Der Ausbruch der Melanie van der S t r a a t e n i s t der Ausbruch aus e i n e r G e s e l l s c h a f t , d i e nur noch R o l l e n , Typen und Kopien zu kennen s c h e i n t 1 , 2 5 2 With i t s open windows, the c a r r i a g e i n which she departs symbolizes her escape from t h i s 211 confinement. A c o n t r a s t i n g image to t h a t of the caged b i r d - which represents Melanie's former l i f e with van der Stra a t e n - the coach takes her over a b r i d g e i n t o a new dimension of l i v i n g with Rubehn. Melanie's d e c i s i o n i s , of course, i r r e v o c a b l e - yet, as we expect of courageous c h a r a c t e r s , she does not torment h e r s e l f with r e g r e t : " ' . . . i c h t a t ' es wieder, a l l e s , a l l e s . Und i c h w i l l es n i c h t anders, a l s es i s t ' " ( I I , 9 3 ) . In c o n t r a s t to the compromisers who tend to p l a c e blame f o r t h e i r s i t u a t i o n upon other i n d i v i d u a l s or upon circumstances i n s o c i e t y , the courageous type accepts r e s p o n s i b i l i t y where a p p r o p r i a t e , but acknowledges t h a t i n some cases, as Lene informs Botho, no one i s to blame (11,399). Whereas the confo r m i s t s attempt to e x e r c i s e too much c o n t r o l over events and - at the opposite end of the spectrum - the compromisers p e r c e i v e themselves as h e l p l e s s to a l t e r t h e i r predicament, the courageous c h a r a c t e r s assume a r e a l i s t i c measure of c o n t r o l over t h e i r l i v e s by choosing t h e i r a t t i t u d e and response toward a gi v e n s i t u a t i o n . I t should be mentioned at t h i s p o i n t that both of the courageous couples choose a r e l i g i o u s ceremony to commemorate t h e i r marriage, r a t h e r than simply a l e g a l ceremony. U n l i k e the compromiser c h a r a c t e r Frau Dorr, however, they are not por t r a y e d as motivated to do so out of a d e s i r e to prevent g o s s i p (11,321). And c e r t a i n l y , they are 212 not merely adapting to s o c i a l convention e i t h e r . The author's s e l e c t i o n of church weddings f o r these c h a r a c t e r s may be taken to symbolize the s p i r i t u a l bond which u n i t e s the p a r t n e r s of each couple. Moreover, the w i l l i n g n e s s of c l e r i c s to perform the r e l i g i o u s ceremonies - even with the knowledge i n Melanie's case, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t she i s an a d u l t e r e s s and pregnant with her l o v e r ' s c h i l d - suggests t h a t i n Fontane's view while s o c i e t y may condemn the a c t i o n s of these f i g u r e s , t h e i r love f o r one another o v e r r i d e s t h e i r moral t r a n s g r e s s i o n s i n the eyes of the D i v i n e . In c o n t r a s t to another compromiser c h a r a c t e r such as Botho f o r whom marriage serves as an e x t e r n a l means of imposing a semblance of order upon a confused emotional l i f e - "'Ordnung i s t Ehe'"(II,406) - the courageous couples do not need the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage f o r t h i s purpose. T h e i r sense of order s p r i n g s from w i t h i n because they are at one with themselves as a r e s u l t of l i v i n g i n accord with t h e i r p e r s o n a l v a l u e s . Awareness of t h i s connection i s r e v e a l e d by Melanie i n her remarks to van der S t r a a t e n as she embarks upon a l i f e of g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t with her second husband: "'Es s o l i Ordnung i n mein Leben kommen, Ordnung und E i n h e i t ' " ( I I , 1 0 2 ) . U n l i k e the s u p e r f i c i a l appearance of order a s s o c i a t e d with the c o n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s who r e l y upon s o c i a l p r e s c r i p t s t o d i r e c t t h e i r l i v e s , the order of which Melanie 213 speaks re p r e s e n t s a genuine r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the fundamental c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y , as p o r t r a y e d by Fontane. L i k e Red R i d i n g Hood, with whom Melanie i s l i n k e d by v i r t u e of her maiden name, de Caperoux (= Rotkappchen), she f o l l o w s her n a t u r a l impulse unheedful of the warnings o f f e r e d by o t h e r s . While i t i s by no means smooth s a i l i n g f o r Melanie and Rubehn, t h e i r s t o r y - l i k e t h a t of Red R i d i n g Hood - comes to a happy c o n c l u s i o n and they are e v e n t u a l l y r e i n t e g r a t e d s o c i a l l y , a l b e i t at a lower c l a s s l e v e l . "Doch d i e Versohnung mit der G e s e l l s c h a f t wird h i e r n i c h t e r r e i c h t durch Selbstaufgabe," as Mittelmann p o i n t s out, "sondern unter Beibehaltung des i n d i v i d u e l l e n R e c h t s . " 2 5 3 Although Fontane admitted that the n o t o r i o u s case of Frau Ravene upon which he based the s t o r y of L ' A d u l t e r a was 2 5 4 e x c e p t i o n a l i n i t s p o s i t i v e outcome, he d i d acknowledge t h a t c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y need not n e c e s s a r i l y end i n r e s i g n a t i o n . And, i n Irrungen, Wirrungen he presents a s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n upon t h i s theme through h i s p o r t r a y a l of another courageous couple, Lene and Gideon. Despite Lene's moral t r a n s g r e s s i o n s - which, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , occur p r i o r to matrimony r a t h e r than d u r i n g i t - her marriage, to quote Garland, "has the promise of a longer and serener d u r a t i o n than most of the m a r r i a g e s . . . i n 2 5 5 Fontane's n o v e l s . " T h i s p r o b a b i l i t y negates 214 M u l l e r - S e i d e l 1 s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between s o c i a l order and p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n remains i n the novel " e i n Traum, ein e r e a l i t a t s f e r n e Idee, eine I l l u s i o n . " 2 5 6 Admittedly, these remarks may have bearing upon the l o t of some compromiser c h a r a c t e r s i n the work. I t would be i n c o r r e c t , however, to regard such a p e s s i m i s t i c proclamation as synonymous with Fontane's u l t i m a t e view of the matter. For through h i s d e p i c t i o n of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s , the author demonstrates that i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t y can achieve r e c o n c i l i a t i o n - namely, the r e s t o r a t i o n of harmonious r e l a t i o n s which are f r e e of resentment and r e s i g n a t i o n . The a b i l i t y of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s to s u s t a i n harmonious r e l a t i o n s with s o c i e t y d e s p i t e t h e i r at times unconventional behaviour may be due, i n p a r t , to some q u a l i t i e s of temperament and p e r s o n a l i t y which d i s t i n g u i s h them from both the conf o r m i s t and compromiser groups. One such f e a t u r e i s an ap p a r e n t l y innate c a p a c i t y f o r mai n t a i n i n g a balance between the powers of reason, or i n t e l l e c t , and emotion. As p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d , the con f o r m i s t s are noted f o r t h e i r emotional i n h i b i t i o n and ex c e s s i v e r e l i a n c e upon reason. By c o n t r a s t , most of the compromisers are marked by an extreme emotional l a b i l i t y and i n c a p a c i t y t o p r e d i c t the l o g i c a l consequences of t h e i r i mpulsive a c t i o n s . The courageous f i g u r e s , however, are - 215 l i k e Lene - " ' v e r n u n f t i g und l e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h z u g l e i c h ' " ( I I , 4 5 5 ) . These c h a r a c t e r s are p o r t r a y e d as being guided, but not governed, by f e e l i n g which they t r u s t over p r i n c i p l e s , or r u l e s of conduct. As Melanie e x p l a i n s to Riekchen: " ' . . . i c h habe n i e b e g r i f f e n , wie man Grundsatze haben kann oder P r i n z i p i e n . . . . I c h hab' immer nur getan, was i c h w o l l t e , was mir g e f i e l , wie mir gerade zumute war'"(II,120). Yet, the courageous c h a r a c t e r s do not become v i c t i m s of e r r a t i c moods and impulses i n the manner to which compromiser c h a r a c t e r s are prone. Although members of the former group are spontaneous i n t h e i r emotional e x p r e s s i o n - as Bormann comments upon Lene: " ' . . . s i e l e b t im 25 7 Moment...1" - they do not l i v e f o r the moment as do the compromisers, who i m p u l s i v e l y seek the d i s t r a c t i o n of s e n s a t i o n i n order to r e l i e v e moods of boredom or melancholy. A l s o i n c o n t r a s t to the compromiser type, whose temporal o r i e n t a t i o n i s a c t u a l l y towards the past, the courageous type i s f u l l y engaged with the present - a f e a t u r e to which, f o r example, Melanie's c o n v i c t i o n i n regard to happiness t e s t i f i e s : "'Hier i s t es, oder n i r g e n d s 1 " ( 1 1 , 1 3 4 ) . V i t a l emotional natures s i m i l a r to those of the female courageous c h a r a c t e r s are a l s o found i n the male courageous c h a r a c t e r s . Sometimes, t h i s f e a t u r e i s r e v e a l e d by heightened i n t u i t i v e n e s s - a f a c u l t y which i s independent of 216 reason. Rubehn, f o r example, i n s t a n t l y p e r c e i v e s the unfo r t u n a t e outcome of Melanie's reunion with her two daughters: "'Wie l i e f es ab? Ich f i i r c h t e n i c h t gut. Ich l e s e so was aus deinen Augen. Und i c h h a t t ' auch eine Ahnung davon, g l e i c h heute f r i i h . . . ' " ( I I , 127 ) . U n l i k e I n n s t e t t e n , who as a co n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r i s d e p i c t e d as being wary of the i r r a t i o n a l and i n c l i n e d to d i s m i s s h i s i n t u i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s , Rubehn has developed h i s i n t u i t i o n and t r u s t s i t as a v a l u a b l e source of i n f o r m a t i o n i n d e a l i n g with the world. While i n t u i t i o n i s not e n t i r e l y absent among the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s , i t i s of l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e to them. For t h i s group i s dominated to such an extent by the power of imag i n a t i o n t h a t the a b i l i t y of i t s members to d i s t i n g u i s h f a c t from f a n t a s y i s s e r i o u s l y impaired. As the n a r r a t o r observes r e g a r d i n g van der S t r a a t e n : "In s e i n e r S c h a r f s i c h t o f t i i b e r s i c h t i g und Dinge sehend, d i e gar n i c h t da waren, iibersah er ebenso o f t andere, d i e k l a r zutage l a g e n " ( I I , 8 6 ) . The emotional development of the male courageous c h a r a c t e r s i s a l s o expressed through t h e i r n u r t u r i n g q u a l i t i e s . One of the f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e s Lene i n her cho i c e of Gideon as a husband, f o r i n s t a n c e , i s h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o care f o r both her and Frau Nimptsch (11,433). Moreover, Gideon's empathy f o r the l a t t e r as she approaches death takes precedence over h i s r e l i g i o u s s c r u p l e s a g a i n s t 217 gambling and, t h e r e f o r e , he p l a y s cards with her d a i l y i n the knowledge that the o l d woman d e r i v e s great comfort from t h i s a c t i v i t y (11,424). So, too, Rubehn 1s competence i n p r o v i d i n g emotional support i s a p p r e c i a t e d by Melanie dur i n g the couple's stormy p e r i o d of s o c i a l readjustment. The depth of f e e l i n g r e v e a l e d by t h i s n u r t u r i n g aspect i s f u r t h e r underscored i n Rubehn's case by h i s demonstrated c a p a c i t y f o r profound emotional attachment. T h i s c h a r a c t e r appears s u r p r i s e d h i m s e l f at the i n t e n s i t y of h i s f e e l i n g s f o r Melanie: "'Und i c h l i e b e s i e , v i e l , v i e l mehr, a l s i c h geglaubt habe, v i e l , v i e l mehr, a l s i c h je geglaubt h a t t e , dass i c h l i e b e n konnte'"(II,90). Contrary to E r n s t ' s 25 8 o p i n i o n , J D l o v e i s not l a c k i n g i n Fontane's f i c t i o n a l world, but i t i s c e r t a i n l y r a r e and, at times, manifests i t s e l f i n unexpected forms. However, even with Gideon - a cha r a c t e r of whom we see very l i t t l e - i t i s u n e q u i v o c a l l y h i s compassionate and l o v i n g d i s p o s i t i o n which permits him to f o r g i v e Lene's past l i a i s o n s . By c o n t r a s t , a co n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r such as G r y c z i n s k i warns h i s wife that d a l l i a n c e s w i l l not be excused, s i n c e h i s t o l e r a n c e of such s o c i a l l y unacceptable behaviour on her p a r t would i m p e r i l the Major's c a r e e r . The genuineness of Gideon's f o r g i v e n e s s i s a l l the more e v i d e n t , too, when viewed a l o n g s i d e the d i s p l a y of magnanimity e x h i b i t e d towards Melanie by her compromiser husband, van der St r a a t e n - the f a l s i t y of which i s r e a d i l y 218 apparent to the heroine, as w e l l as to the reader (11,97-102). The r i c h l y developed emotional nature of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s - a f e a t u r e which c o n t r a s t s with both the emotional i n h i b i t i o n of the c o n f o r m i s t s and the shallow emotional l a b i l i t y of the compromisers - does not i n t e r f e r e with t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r r a t i o n a l , r e a l i s t i c t h i n k i n g . For the courageous c h a r a c t e r s are p o r t r a y e d as being capable of a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s i n g t h e i r s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n s o c i e t y and, moreover, of a c c e p t i n g i t - even though i t f a l l s s h o r t of the i d e a l . By way of example, Rubehn i s f u l l y aware of the d i f f i c u l t days which l i e ahead as he and Melanie begin t h e i new l i f e together (11,90). She, too, has r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s of s o c i e t y ' s r e a c t i o n : 'Das wird e i n gross' Gerede geben, und d i e Tugendhaften und S e l b s t g e r e c h t e n werden es mir n i c h t v e r z e i h e n . Aber d i e Welt besteht n i c h t aus l a u t e r Tugendhaften und S e l b s t g e r e c h t e n , s i e besteht auch aus Menschen, d i e Menschliches menschlich ansehen. 1 (11,101-102) Despite foreknowledge of the l o g i c a l consequences of t h e i r a c t i o n s , the couple r e t a i n s hope f o r the f u t u r e : "Und dann bauten s i e L u f t s c h l o s s e r und traumten und hatten s i e lachende Zukunft urn s i c h her." Yet, they do not become l o s i n dreams - as the compromisers tend to - merely wishing t h a t t h i n g s could be d i f f e r e n t : "Aber auch w i r k l i c h e Plane wurden l a u t . . . " ( I I , 9 2 ) . U n l i k e the c o n f o r m i s t s , however, wh 219 are a l s o able to s e t r e a l i s t i c g o a ls and implement p r a c t i c a l measures to achieve them, the courageous c h a r a c t e r s do not l i v e f o r the f u t u r e . An example of t h i s l a t t e r t r a i t i s f u r n i s h e d by Lene who demonstrates a c a p a c i t y to enjoy the present undiminished by her awareness of what the f u t u r e w i l l b r i n g . As she t e l l s Botho at the end of t h e i r a f f a i r : "'Ich hab' es so kommen sehn, von Anfang an, und so gesc h i e h t nur, was muss'"(II,408). Sharing with Melanie and Rubehn t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g r e a l i t y from fa n t a s y , Lene i s able to l e t go of the past - remembering i t f o n d l y , but not h e l d back by i t . In her own words: "'Wenn man schon getraumt hat, so muss man Gott daf i i r danken und d a r f n i c h t klagen, dass der Traum a u f h o r t und d i e W i r k l i c h k e i t wieder a n f a n g t ' " ( I I , 4 0 8 ) . The sense of g r a t i t u d e expressed here by Lene i s another hallmark of the courageous c h a r a c t e r type. These c h a r a c t e r s are t h a n k f u l f o r what i s , r a t h e r than r e s e n t f u l - as the compromisers g e n e r a l l y are - over what cannot be. Fundamentally, t h i s c o n t r a s t i s one between r e a l i s t i c and i d e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s , as i l l u s t r a t e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y through the scene i n which Lene and Botho are d e p i c t e d i n a meadow at Hankels Ablage. The Baron would l i k e to present Lene with a nosegay, but p r o t e s t s : " ' . . . s i e h nur, d i e r e i n e Wiese, n i c h t s a l s Gras und keine Blume. N i c h t e i n e . ' " His p e r f e c t i o n i s t i c demands are exposed, however, by Lene's 220 response: "'Doch. Die H i i l l e und F i i l l e . Du s i e h s t nur keine, w e i l du zu a n s p r u c h s v o l l b i s t ' " ( I I , 3 7 7 ) . The bouquet which Lene h a p p i l y proceeds to assemble c o n t a i n s "eine Menge Brauchbares und Unbrauchbares" - a f i t t i n g metaphor of her readiness to accept a l l t h a t l i f e has to o f f e r . An important d i f f e r e n c e to be aware of between t h i s a t t i t u d e of acceptance t y p i c a l of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s and the r e s i g n a t i o n of the compromisers i s t h a t the l a t t e r i s accompanied by p a s s i v i t y and o f t e n withdrawal from s o c i a l involvement, whereas the former encourages ongoing a c t i v i t y i n the s o c i a l sphere. One s i g n i f i c a n t area of such a c t i v i t y i s employment. Each of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s works, or takes up work duri n g the course of the n o v e l . T h e i r reward i n doing so i s , however, more than merely f i n a n c i a l . Work a s s i s t s these c h a r a c t e r s i n c r e a t i n g a sense of i d e n t i t y and i t a f f i r m s t h e i r s e l f - w o r t h . Lene i s p o r t r a y e d , f o r example, as d e r i v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e p r i d e from the f a c t t h a t she i s s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g (11,443). For Gideon, a wide range of v a r i e d work experience both at home and abroad has served as a v e h i c l e f o r p e r s o n a l development. So, too, Melanie f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t of her t a l e n t s i n g i v i n g l essons a f t e r the c o l l a p s e of Rubehn's f i n a n c i a l empire makes i t necessary f o r each p a r t n e r t o work. Reuter observes that such a c t i v i t y on Melanie's p a r t i s " u n g l e i c h s t a r k e r und I C Q bewusster a l s d i e i h r e r a d l i g e n Schwestern." y And as 221 R e e s Z D U and Gorharrr o J- note, employment i n p a r t i c u l a r represented a "demotion" f o r a l a d y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to share Mittelmann's view, however, that Melanie's e n t e r p r i s i n g s p i r i t " s i c h nur aus dem E i n f l u s s der 26 2 b u r g e r l i c h e n M e n t a l i t a t i h r e s Mannes e r k l a r e n l a s s t . " Although i d l e n e s s i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with Fontane's a r i s t o c r a t i c c h a r a c t e r s , we n e v e r t h e l e s s encounter a few among them - such as I n n s t e t t e n and G r y c z i n s k i - who are d r i v e n c a r e e r i s t s even i n the absence of f i n a n c i a l need. Thus Melanie's high l e v e l of a c t i v i t y as an a r i s t o c r a t can h a r d l y be e x p l i c a b l e s o l e l y as the r e s u l t of p r e v i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n with a middle c l a s s husband. Inasmuch as Lene, a working c l a s s f i g u r e , a l s o demonstrates a degree of i n i t i a t i v e and an a p t i t u d e f o r c r e a t i v e problem-solving which - given the novel's s e t t i n g i n the l a t e n ineteenth century - are e x c e p t i o n a l f o r her gender, we are encouraged to seek an e x p l a n a t i o n independent of s o c i a l c l a s s . The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as to whether t h i s a b i l i t y to d e a l a c t i v e l y with l i f e i s p o r t r a y e d by Fontane as a r i s i n g at l e a s t i n p a r t from a given b i o l o g i c a l temperament. P a s c a l observes t h a t Lene, f o r example, i s both "vigorous" and 26 3 " s e l f - r e l i a n t . " Indeed, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to imagine a s e l f - r e l i a n t c h a r a c t e r who was not a l s o healthy and e n e r g e t i c . In sharp c o n t r a s t to the apathy t y p i c a l of so many compromiser c h a r a c t e r s , we n o t i c e i n the courageous 222 c h a r a c t e r s a v i t a l f o r c e which i s v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as "etwas E n t s c h l o s s e n e s " ( I I , 3 7 5 ) , " e i n t r o t z i g e r S t o l z " (11,124) or simply, " 1 S e l b s t b e w u s s t s e i n ' " ( I I , 6 6 ) . While t h i s f o r c e c e r t a i n l y resembles d e t e r m i n a t i o n , i t possesses an a d d i t i o n a l dimension i n s o f a r as i t i s l i n k e d with an o p t i m i s t i c nature. Lene's temperament, f o r i n s t a n c e , i s termed ' " h e i t e r und. . .beinahe ausgelassen ' " ( I I , 442) . A s i m i l a r r e f e r e n c e i s made to the " h e i t r e n Ruhe"(II,119) a f f o r d e d by Rubehn's presence. That t h i s buoyant q u a l i t y of d i s p o s i t i o n i s a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g how the courageous c h a r a c t e r s respond t o the b a s i c c o n f l i c t between s e l f and s o c i e t y i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d by the n a r r a t o r i n the case of Melanie: Was s i c h i h r notwendig e n t g e g e n s t e l l e n musste, das iibersah s i e n i c h t , und d i e F u r c h t , der Rubehn Ausdruck gegeben h a t t e , war auch i h r e F u r c h t . Aber s i e war doch a n d r e r s e i t s sanguinischen Gemiits genug, urn der Hoffnung zu leben, s i e werd' es iiberwinden. (11,113). The f o r e g o i n g q u o t a t i o n r e c a l l s our d e f i n i t i o n of courage at the ou t s e t of t h i s chapter as a q u a l i t y of s p i r i t - "an a b i l i t y to hold one's own, f i g h t f o r one's p r i n c i p l e s , or keep up one's morale when opposed, i n t e r f e r e d with, or checked." In p a r t i c u l a r , we note t h a t the a t t r i b u t e of courage - as i t i s i l l u s t r a t e d here through the f i g u r e of Melanie - i s not n e c e s s a r i l y an absence of f e a r concerning s o c i e t y ' s r e a c t i o n . Rather, i t i s the confidence to a c t 223 d e s p i t e warranted apprehension. Although d e f i n e d as a q u a l i t y of s p i r i t u a l s t r e n g t h , the courage d i s p l a y e d by t h i s group of c h a r a c t e r s may i n some measure owe i t s e x i s t e n c e to t h e i r h e a lthy and r e s i l i e n t p h y s i c a l c o n s t i t u t i o n s . For i t does r e q u i r e energy to a s s e r t the s e l f - e s p e c i a l l y , i n o p p o s i t i o n to s o c i e t y . By c o n t r a s t , a melancholic temperament combined with the diminished, or e r r a t i c , nervous energy of the compromiser type may l a r g e l y account f o r what at f i r s t glance appears to be p a s s i v i t y due to weakness of c h a r a c t e r . As Botho w i s t f u l l y laments: "'Es l i e g t n i c h t i n mir, d i e Welt herauszufordern und i h r und ih r e n V o r u r t e i l e n o f f e n t l i c h den K r i e g zu e r k l a r e n . . . " ' ( I I , 4 0 4 ) . The v i t a l i t y , independence, i n i t i a t i v e and high l e v e l of a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d with the courageous type are t r a i t s which could be p e r c e i v e d as "masculine" i n the female c h a r a c t e r s . Yet, t h e i r f e m i n i n i t y i s never i n doubt, f o r as Garland d e c l a r e s concerning Melanie: "She emerges as what the end of the nineteenth century c a l l e d the 'New Woman', but without aggressiveness or a n g u l a r i t i e s . Her ma t u r i t y 26 4 e n t a i l s no l o s s of f e m i n i n i t y and charm." A suggestion of even g r e a t e r freedom ahead f o r the next g e n e r a t i o n of women i s conveyed by the image of Melanie's daughter, Heth, p e d a l l i n g her v e l o c i p e d e with u n r e s t r a i n e d enjoyment (11,76). ° Mittelmann b e l i e v e s t h i s t r e n d toward freedom 224 from s o c i e t y ' s r e s t r i c t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s of those q u a l i t i e s and behaviour a p p r o p r i a t e f o r women i s most pronounced i n Fontane's working c l a s s c h a r a c t e r s such as Lene, re g a r d i n g whom she s t a t e s : S e l b s t a n d i g k e i t und T i i c h t i g k e i t , Verantwortungssbewusstsein und Lebensernst, E i g e n s c h a f t e n , d i e dem g e s e l l s c h a f t l i c h e n I d e a l b i l d von der Frau v o l l i g entgegengesetzt waren, werden...als durchaus v e r e i n b a r mit dem Konzept der W e i b l i c h k e i t g e z e i g t . . . . " Harrigan contends, however, t h a t "female autonomy" and "emancipation" are u l t i m a t e l y achieved o n l y by "a woman who 26 7 needs nothing from a man." ° In s h o r t , she appears to regard the normal dependency need f o r a mate as incompatible with freedom and f e m i n i n i t y . But can we agree with Harrigan? I t would appear t h a t she has f a i l e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the n a t u r a l , h e a l t h y depedency needs f o r companionship and a mate, as opposed to expressions of unhealthy dependency such as d e s i r e f o r approval, p a s s i v i t y or undue r e l i a n c e upon d i r e c t i o n from others - t r a i t s which are present i n both the confo r m i s t as w e l l as the compromiser c h a r a c t e r s . Perhaps the r e a l s t r e n g t h and freedom of the female courageous c h a r a c t e r s l i e s not so much i n the development of those f e a t u r e s which permit them to be s e l f - r e l i a n t , as i t does i n t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to remain e m o t i o n a l l y v u l n e r a b l e i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s - or more p r e c i s e l y , i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r b a l a n c i n g these c o n t r a d i c t o r y aspects of human nature. As 225 Croner s u c c i n c t l y observes of Melanie, f o r i n s t a n c e : " . . . Z a r t g e f u h l und Mut s i n d i n i h r v e r e i n i g t . " 2 6 8 "Eine s o l c h e m e h r s e i t i g e O r i e n t i e r u n g , " comments R i c h t e r concerning Lene, "bewahrt den Menschen vor jeder 26 9 E i n s e i t i g k e i t . " The same holds t r u e f o r the male courageous c h a r a c t e r s who a l s o a c q u i r e added s t r e n g t h and freedom from r e s t r i c t i v e gender ster e o t y p e s by a l l o w i n g themselves to express t h e i r needs to g i v e and r e c e i v e emotional nurturance i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i n s t e a d of suppressing these needs i n order to f a l l i n with s o c i e t y ' s concept of m a s c u l i n i t y - a p r a c t i c e with p o t e n t i a l l y t r a g i c r e p e r c u s s i o n s as we observe i n the case of the c o n f o r m i s t , I n n s t e t t e n . Thus Fontane shows us t h a t emancipation i s not reserved f o r h i s female c h a r a c t e r s , but i s a reward f o r the men, too, i f they do not n e g l e c t the "feminine" s i d e of t h e i r being. I t i s the one-sidedness of both the c o n f o r m i s t and compromiser c h a r a c t e r s whose e x c e s s i v e r e l i a n c e upon reason and tendency toward emotionalism, r e s p e c t i v e l y , prevent them from a c h i e v i n g the r e l a x e d s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m and absence of i n n e r c o n f l i c t a s s o c i a t e d with the courageous type. The courageous c h a r a c t e r s ' attainment of autonomy and freedom from c o n v e n t i o n a l sex r o l e s i s p o r t r a y e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h e i r happiness i n l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . E v a l u a t i n g the marriage of Melanie and Rubehn, f o r i n s t a n c e , 226 Mittelmann a s s e r t s : "Es wird g e z e i g t , dass d i e Obernahme e i n e r a k t i v e n R o l l e i n der Ehe durch d i e Frau aus e i n e r Ehe 27 0 eine bedeutungsvolle Verbindung machen kann." I t should be noted, however, t h a t Melanie's i n i t i a t i v e and w i l l i n g n e s s to take employment, though i t meant her "demotion" as a lady, would have been of l i t t l e a v a i l had Rubehn not been s u f f i c i e n t l y secure i n h i s m a s c u l i n i t y to agree upon t h i s s o l u t i o n . E s s e n t i a l l y , the marriages of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h i s s o r t of c o - o p e r a t i o n between the p a r t n e r s , r a t h e r than by c o m p e t i t i v e power s t r u g g l e s . N e i t h e r p a r t n e r i s d e p i c t e d as having a need to dominate, nor as f e e l i n g overshadowed by the other - s i t u a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y p o r t r a y e d , however, i n the marriages of c o n f o r m i s t and compromiser c h a r a c t e r s . The female courageous c h a r a c t e r s are of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t here i n t h a t they do not view marriage (apart from Melanie's f i r s t , unhappy marriage) as the "'Zwangslage'" which Frau von B r i e s t holds i t to be (IV,42). Moreover, Frau Dorr's concept of c o n j u g a l duty as " ' e i n Jammer'"(II,329) i s l i k e w i s e f o r e i g n to the experience of these c h a r a c t e r s i n whom a h e a l t h y e r o t i c adjustment i s apparent. Mende observes i n Melanie, f o r example, "einen Anspruch auf genuine L e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h k e i t , den s i e b e i van der S t r a a t e n n i c h t e i n l o s e n k a n n . " 2 ^ Each of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s p e r c e i v e s h i s or 227 her m a r i t a l p a r t n e r as an i n d i v i d u a l of equal worth - no more, and no l e s s . Garland d i s c e r n s t h i s h o r i z o n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n the marriage of Lene and Gideon, a union which he terms "an honest c o n t r a c t based on mutual regard 2 7 2 and r e s p e c t . " And Mittelmann i d e n t i f i e s i n the marriage of Melanie and Rubehn what may be a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r such r e s p e c t - namely, s i m i l a r i t y between the p a r t n e r s . "Indem d i e G l e i c h h e i t zwischen den Ehepartnern h e r g e s t e l l t wird," she s t a t e s , "wachst auch der Respekt und d i e Zuneigung und das t i e f e Band, das nie zwischen Ungleichen bestehen 27 3 kann." T h i s view i s c o n s i s t e n t with t h a t of Sasse, who observes t h a t i t i s not "complementary c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s but mutual understanding" which i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fontane's 274 novels as being "the key to m a r i t a l happiness." I t i s c e r t a i n l y e v i d e n t t h a t the compromiser c h a r a c t e r van der Straaten's mockery of t h i s need f o r mutual understanding i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the breakdown of h i s marriage to Melanie (11,60). But perhaps the s e c r e t of the success of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s ' marriages i s best summed up by Fontane h i m s e l f : Die Ehe, zu mindestens das Gliick d e r s e l b e n , beruht n i c h t auf der Erganzung, sondern auf dem ge g e n s e i t i g e n V e r s t a n d n i s . Mann und Frau miissen n i c h t Gegensatze, sondern Abstufungen, i h r e Temperamente mussen verwandt, i h r e Ideale d i e selben s e i n . 228 d. Summary To summarize the concepts presented i n t h i s chapter, we have i d e n t i f i e d from the given s e l e c t i o n of Fontane's novels a few c h a r a c t e r s i n whom a unique p a t t e r n of response to the b a s i c c o n f l i c t between s e l f and s o c i e t y i s i l l u s t r a t e d . These c h a r a c t e r s have been designated as courageous because they r e v e a l a q u a l i t y of s p i r i t u a l s t r e n g t h which f a c i l i t a t e s t h e i r quest f o r s e l f - d e t ermination and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n a s o c i e t y which pressures i n d i v i d u a l s e i t h e r to conform a u t o m a t i c a l l y to i t s standards, or to compromise t h e i r p e r s o n a l v a l u e s . Other prominent f e a t u r e s of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s i n c l u d e t h e i r high degree of honesty with themselves and o t h e r s , a strong sense of i d e n t i t y , i n t e g r i t y - or wholeness of being r a t h e r than inner d i v i s i o n - as w e l l as i n i t i a t i v e and the w i l l i n g n e s s to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the consequences of t h e i r a c t i o n s . In c o n t r a s t to the e s s e n t i a l l y dependent stance of both the c o n f o r m i s t and compromiser types, the courageous c h a r a c t e r s are autonomous i n that they conduct themselves i n ways based upon t h e i r needs and d e s i r e s as i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these f i g u r e s t h at they are p o r t r a y e d as healthy and o p t i m i s t i c , i n a d d i t i o n to being s k i l l e d at b a l a n c i n g the opposing f o r c e s of i n t e l l e c t and emotion. Spontaneous and engaged i n the present, the 229 courageous c h a r a c t e r s are a c t i v e and remain i n v o l v e d with s o c i e t y d e s p i t e t h e i r unconventional l i f e s t y l e s - a f a c t o r which prevents the v i c t i m i z a t i o n observed i n many of the s o c i a l l y withdrawn and, hence, i s o l a t e d compromisers. In s h o r t , the courageous types succeed where others f a i l i n a c h i e v i n g a harmonious - a l b e i t imperfect - r e l a t i o n s h i p with s o c i e t y i n which the s e l f i s not s a c r i f i c e d . A microcosm of t h i s achievement i s d i s c e r n i b l e i n t h e i r marriages i n s o f a r as these unions are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by co - o p e r a t i o n and mutual r e s p e c t . U l t i m a t e l y , the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y i s shown by Fontane as r e s t i n g upon the maintenance of an equal regard f o r s e l f and o t h e r s . In the words of Hofprediger D o r f f e l : ' . . . i n unserer Demut vor den Menschen konnen wir mehr tun a l s notig....Damit sprech' i c h dem Hochmute n i c h t das Wort....Aber zwischen Hochmut und Demut s t e h t e i n d r i t t e s , dem das Leben gehort, und das i s t e i n f a c h der Mut.' (11,259). 230 C o n c l u s i o n In the f o r e g o i n g chapters, we have examined how c h a r a c t e r s from a s e l e c t i o n of Theodor Fontane's contemporary B e r l i n novels respond to i n s t a n c e s of c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . The aim was to demonstrate t h a t c h a r a c t e r response to the c o n f l i c t i s a f u n c t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y , r a t h e r than of gender, or of s o c i a l c l a s s . F u r t h e r , i t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t three p e r s o n a l i t y types can be i d e n t i f i e d among the c h a r a c t e r s and t h a t the members of each type respond i n the same manner to the fundamental c o n f l i c t . The three c h a r a c t e r types d e s c r i b e d were designated by the terms c o n f o r m i s t , compromiser and courageous. I n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s were i d e n t i f i e d as belonging to one of these types by a c o n s t e l l a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s which they shared with the b a s i c p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e of the type which was p r o v i d e d at the o u t s e t of each chapter. Common f e a t u r e s were d i s c o v e r e d i n the areas of v a l u e s , g o a l s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s o c i a l behaviour, self-image and sometimes p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s . Moreover, the response of each c h a r a c t e r to one or more s p e c i f i c episodes of c o n f l i c t between s e l f and s o c i e t y was examined and was shown to correspond to the response p o s t u l a t e d as being a s s o c i a t e d with t h a t type. 231 In b r i e f , the co n f o r m i s t c h a r a c t e r s responded to the b a s i c c o n f l i c t by r e c o g n i z i n g only one accept a b l e o p t i o n - namely, conformity with the p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l conventions. The compromiser c h a r a c t e r s , on the other hand, saw i n a d d i t i o n to the o p t i o n of conformity a second o p t i o n of r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t s o c i e t y ' s norms. The compromisers experienced g u i l t , however, when they a s s e r t e d t h e i r w i l l i n o p p o s i t i o n to s o c i a l conventions. They endeavoured t o atone by r e l i n q u i s h i n g the quest f o r p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t , r e l u c t a n t l y y i e l d i n g i n s t e a d to the demands of s o c i e t y . As opposed to the conf o r m i s t s and the compromisers, the courageous c h a r a c t e r s p e r c e i v e d m u l t i p l e o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to them i n s o c i e t y - each with i t s r e s p e c t i v e advantages and disadvantages. A l s o , they possessed a r e s i l i e n t , p e r s e v e r i n g s p i r i t which enabled them to hold t h e i r ground i n the face of s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l . Found to be of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e among the c o n s t e l l a t i o n of f e a t u r e s a s s o c i a t e d with each type was the aspect of se l f - i m a g e v i s - a - v i s others i n s o c i e t y . N e i t h e r the con f o r m i s t s nor the compromisers are por t r a y e d as f e e l i n g t r u l y equal to o t h e r s . Whereas the l a t t e r experience an acute sense of i n f e r i o r i t y , the former c u l t i v a t e a sense of s u p e r i o r i t y . In c o n t r a s t to both of these types, the a t t i t u d e of the courageous c h a r a c t e r s toward themselves and others i s one of equal regard - t h a t i s , they are d e p i c t e d 232 as f e e l i n g equal i n worth to others i n s o c i e t y . T h i s outlook p l a y s a c r u c i a l r o l e i n the courageous c h a r a c t e r s ' a b i l i t y to achieve a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of t h e i r p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s and the demands of s o c i e t y . In a d d i t i o n to the s i m i l a r i t i e s r e v e a l e d by c h a r a c t e r s belonging to the same type, i t i s e q u a l l y i n s t r u c t i v e to observe the d i s t i n c t d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between the c o n s t e l l a t i o n s of f e a t u r e s e x h i b i t e d by the members of each d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r type. In s h o r t , a c o n s i d e r a b l e body of evidence supports the hypothesis t h a t c h a r a c t e r response t o the fundamental c o n f l i c t i s p o r t r a y e d by Fontane as being a concomitant of a c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y type. C o n t r a r y t o views advanced by pr e v i o u s s c h o l a r s h i p , n e i t h e r gender nor s o c i a l c l a s s were d i s c o v e r e d to be f a c t o r s which c o r r e l a t e d with a c h a r a c t e r ' s response to c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . In c o n c l u s i o n , i t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t no value judgments of the three c h a r a c t e r types and of t h e i r modes of response t o the c o n f l i c t are intended. The value s and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d with each type are n e i t h e r "good" nor "bad," n e i t h e r s u p e r i o r nor i n f e r i o r . L i k e w i s e , the d i f f e r e n t modes of response merely represent d i f f e r e n t o p t i o n s i n d e a l i n g with the b a s i c c o n f l i c t . Fontane's message i s t h a t no one r i g h t way to respond to the c o n f l i c t e x i s t s , no s o l u t i o n or formula which would work f o r every 233 c h a r a c t e r under a l l circumstances. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y i s p o r t r a y e d as a h i g h l y complex one. The c h a r a c t e r s cannot escape s i t u a t i o n s of c o n f l i c t which a r i s e from the f a c t t h a t they are both i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l b eings. As r e a d e r s , we cannot f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e Fontane's c h a r a c t e r p o r t r a i t s without g i v i n g c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n to so v i t a l an aspect of t h e i r conception. 234 Notes Walter M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Theodor Fontane. S o z i a l e Romankunst ( S t u t t g a r t : M e t z l e r , 1975); Hans-Heinrich Reuter, Fontane, I I (Munchen: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1968); R i c h a r d Anton Koc, The German "Gesellschaftsroman" at the Turn of the Century. A Comparison of the Works of Theodor Fontane and Eduard von K e y s e r l i n g (Bern: Peter Lang, 1982); Renny Har r i g a n , "The L i m i t s of Female Emancipation: A Study of Theodor Fontane's Lower C l a s s Women," Monatshefte, Vol.70, No.2 (1978), pp. 117-128. 2 Barbara E. Kienbaum, "Die F r a u e n g e s t a l t e n i n Theodor Fontanes B e r l i n e r Romanen: R o l l e und Funktion i n der D a r s t e l l u n g des K o n f l i k t s zwischen Individuum und G e s e l l s c h a f t , " D i s s . , Michigan S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1978; Rosemary Park, "Theodor Fontane's Unheroic Heroes," The Germanic Review, Vol.14, No.l (1939), pp. 32-44. Hanni Mittelmann, Die Utopie des w e i b l i c h e n Glucks i n den Romanen Theodor Fontanes (Bern: Peter Lang, 1980), p. 12. 4 Henry Garland, The B e r l i n Novels of Theodor Fontane (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980), p. 246. 5 R i c h a r d Brinkmann and Waltraud W i e t h o l t e r , eds., D i c h t e r iiber i h r e Dichtungen. Theodor Fontane, II (Munchen: Heimeran, 1973), p. 474f. 6 7 8 Brinkmann, p. 469. Brinkmann, p. 382f. Brinkmann, p. 425f. Theodor Fontane, Samtliche Werke, I I , ed. Walter K e i t e l (Munchen: Hanser, 1962), p. 259. A l l subsequent c i t a t i o n s d e r i v e from t h i s e d i t i o n and are h e r e a f t e r i n d i c a t e d i n the t e x t by volume and page number w i t h i n parentheses. ^ Sasse, Theodor Fontane: An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Novels and N o v e l l e n (Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1968), p. 3, 1 1 F r i t z M a r t i n i , Deutsche L i t e r a t u r im b u r g e r l i c h e n 235 Realismus. 1848-1898 ( S t u t t g a r t : M e t z l e r , 1981 4), p. 781. 12 Harry Steinhauer, ed. and t r a n s . , Twelve German No v e l l a s (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1977), p. 319. G. W. F i e l d , "The Case f o r Kathe i n Fontane's Irrungen, Wirrungen," A n a l e c t a H e l v e t i c a e t Germanica. Eine F e s t s c h r i f t zu Ehren von Hermann Boeschenstein, eds. A. A r n o l d et a l (Bonn: Bouvier, 1979), p. 269. 1 4 Kurt W o l f e l , "'Man i s t n i c h t b l o s s e i n e i n z e l n e r Mensch.' Zum Figurenentwurf i n Fontanes Gesellschaftsromanen," Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r deutsche P h i l o l o g i e , 82 (1963), p. 160. 1 5 For the most comprehensive study on the use of language i n Fontane's prose works, see I n g r i d M ittenzwei, Die Sprache a l s Thema: Untersuchungen zu Fontanes Gesellschaftsromanen (Bad Homburg v.d.H., B e r l i n , Z u r i c h : V e r l a g Dr. Max Gehlen, 1970). 1 6 M a r t i n i , Realismus, p. 778. 17 L o u i s e Bode, M.A. i n a l e c t u r e e n t i t l e d , "The T i b e t a n Book of the Dead: A Jungian P e r s p e c t i v e , " which was d e l i v e r e d on January 20, 1984 at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 18 For a c o n c i s e d i s c u s s i o n of the a l l u s i o n s to Wagner and Mozart i n Fontane's n o v e l s , see C h r i s t i a n Grawe, Fiihrer durch d i e Romane Theodor Fontanes. E i n V e r z e i c h n i s der d a r i n auftauchenden Personen, Schauplatze und Kunstwerke ( F r a n k f u r t , B e r l i n , Wien: U l l s t e i n , 1980), pp. 243-245. 1 9 Theodor Fontane, E f f i B r i e s t , t r a n s , and ed. Douglas Parmee (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1967), p. 10. 20 H. R. K l i e n e b e r g e r , "Fontane and T r o l l o p e , " Formen r e a l i s t i s c h e r E r z a h l k u n s t . F e s t s c h r i f t f o r C h a r l o t t e J o l l e s i n Honour of her 70th B i r t h d a y , eds. J o r g Thunecke and Eda Sagarra (Nottingham: Sherwood P r e s s , 1979), p. 430. 2 1 Grawe, p. 98. 2 2 Martha Vicenus, ed., S u f f e r and Be S t i l l : Women i n the V i c t o r i a n Age (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), p. i x . 23 E l s e Croner, Fontanes F r a u e n g e s t a l t e n ( B e r l i n : 236 F r i e d r i c h Fontane, 1906), p. 33. 24 Alan Bance, Theodor Fontane: The Major Novels (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1982), p. 59. 2 5 Koc, p. 25. 2 6 Koc, p. 33. 27 Parmee, p. 14. 2 8 R i c h a r d J . Evans, The F e m i n i s t Movement i n Germany 1894-1933 (London: Sage, 1976), p. 6. 2 9 Joachim E r n s t , "Gesetz und Schuld im Werk Fontanes," Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r R e l i g i o n s - und G e i s t e s q e s c h i c h t e , I I I (1951), p. 228. 3 0 L e s l i e L. M i l l e r , "Fontane's E f f i B r i e s t . I n n s t e t t e n ' s D e c i s i o n : In Defence of the Gentleman," German Studies Review, 4 (1981), p. 391. 3 1 M i l l e r , p. 392. o p Theodor Fontane, Gesammelte Werke, S e r i e s I I , V o l . 7 , K.E.O. F r i t s c h , ed. ( B e r l i n : F r i e d r i c h Fontane, 1905), p. 8. 3 3 F i e l d , Kathe, p. 272. 3 4 Cf Grawe, pp. 61-62 and p. 211. 3 5 M i l l e r , pp. 399-400. Barbara Rees, The V i c t o r i a n Lady (London: Gordon and Cremonesi, 1977), p. 73. Bance, pp. 51-52. 3 8 Garland, p. 180. 3 9 Roy P a s c a l , "Theodor Fontane," The German Novel: Studi e s (Manchester: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1956), p. 202. 4 (^ Koc, p. 66. 4 1 Garland, p. 175. 4 2 Kurt Schober, Theodor Fontane: In F r e i h e i t dienen 237 ( H e r f o r d : E.S. M i t t l e r & Sohn, 1980), p. 257. 4 3 M a r i l y n L u i s e Johnson, "Maturation i n Demise. Theodor Fontane's L ' A d u l t e r a , Schach von Wuthenow, U n w i e d e r b r i n g l i c h and E f f i B r i e s t , " D i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1981, p. 277. 4 4 Bance, p. 50. 4 5 Helen M e r r e l l Lynd, On Shame and the Search f o r I d e n t i t y (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1958), p. 252. 4 6 Garland, p. 188. 4 7 Grawe, p. 98. 4 8 K a r l R i c h t e r , R e s i g n a t i o n . Eine Studie zum Werk Theodor Fontanes ( S t u t t g a r t , B e r l i n , Koln, Mainz: W. Kohlhammer V e r l a g , 1966), p. 43. 49 ^ Bance, p. 54. 5 0 M i i l i e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 359. 5 1 M i l l e r , p. 390. 5 2 M i l l e r , p. 395. 5 3 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 180. 5 4 Guido Vincenz, Fontanes Welt. Eine I n t e r p r e t a t i o n des " S t e c h l i n " ( Z u r i c h : V e r l a g Z u r i c h , 1966), p. 35. 5 5 M i l l e r , pp. 394-395. 5 6 C h r i s t i a n e Wandel, Die t y p i s c h e Menschendarstellung i n Theodor Fontanes Erzahlungen (Weida: Thomas & Hubert, 1938), p. 55. 5 7 Park, p. 40. 5 8 Conrad Wandrey, Theodor Fontane (Munchen: Beck, 1919), p. 285. c q Bance, p. 52. 6 0 J o s t S c h i l l e m e i t , Theodor Fontane. G e i s t und Kunst s e i n e s A l t e r s w e r k s ( Z u r i c h : A t l a n t i s V e r l a g , 1961), p. 86. 6 1 R i c h t e r , p. 32. 238 6 2 R i c h t e r , p. 91. ^ 3 Lynd, p. 27. 6 4 Johnson, p. 287. 6 5 Rees, p. 115. 6 6 Peter Wingate, The Penguin Medical E n c y c l o p e d i a (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1972), p. 217. 6 7 Wingate, p. 216. 6 8 C h a r l e s R y c r o f t , A n x i e t y and Neurosis (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1968), p. 90. 6 9 R y c r o f t , p. 124. 7 0 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, pp. 187-189. 7 1 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, pp. 188-189. 7 2 R y c r o f t , p. 87. 7 3 D i r k Mende, "Frauenleben. Bemerkungen zu Fontanes L ' A d u l t e r a nebst Exkursen zu C e c i l e und E f f i B r i e s t , " Fontane aus h e u t i g e r S i c h t . Analysen und I n t e r p r e t a t i o n e n s eines Werks. Zehn B e i t r a g e (Miinchen: Nymphenburg, 1980), p. 197. 7 4 R y c r o f t , p. 92. Abraham P. S p e r l i n g , Psychology Made Simple (New York: Doubleday, 1957), p. 169. ' 7 6 Cf Mende, p. 198. 7 7 Mende, pp. 197-198. 7 8 R y c r o f t , p. 123. 7 9 R y c r o f t , p. 88. 8 0 R y c r o f t , p. 123. 8 1 Wingate, p. 216. 82 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 275. 8 3 Garland, p. 96 239 8 4 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 373. 8 5 Susan Sontag, I l l n e s s as Metaphor (New York: F a r r a r , Straus and Giroux, 1978), p. 11. 8 6 A r i a n e Thomalla, Die "femme f r a g i l e . " E i n l i t e r a r i s c h e r Frauentypus der Jahrhundertwende ( D i i s s e l d o r f : Bertelsmann, 1972), p. 30. 8 7 Sontag, p. 16. 8 8 Sontag, p. 61. 8 9 C h a r l o t t e J o l l e s , Theodor Fontane ( S t u t t g a r t : M e t z l e r , 1972), p. 78. 90 Sontag, p. 24. 91 Sontag, p. 32. 92 Sontag, p. 21. 93 Sontag, p. 36. 94 Deborah Gorham I d e a l (London: Croom Helm, 1982), p. 16. Gorham i s indebted i n t h i s context t o S h e i l a Ryan Johannson, "Sex and Death i n V i c t o r i a n England: An Examination of Age-and-Sex-Specific Death Rates, 1840-1910," A Widening Sphere: Changing Roles of V i c t o r i a n Women, ed. Martha V i c i n u s (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977), pp. 163-181. 9 5 Thomalla, p. 30. 96 Sontag, p. 41. q 7 v Sontag, p. 34. 9 8 Mende, p. 197. 9 9 Mende, p. 197. 1 0 0 Mittelmann, p. 40. 1 0 1 R y c r o f t , p. 127. 1 0 2 Mende, p. 197. 1 0 3 Mende, p. 196. 240 1 fl 4 R y c r o f t , pp. 87-88. 1 0 5 Thomalla, p. 29. 1 0 6 Rees, p. 83. 1 0 7 Thomalla, p. 30. 1 0 8 Mende, p. 199. 1 0 9 R y c r o f t , p. 94.. Cf Mende, p. 198. Mende i s indebted i n t h i s context to Barbara E h r e n r e i c h , Deidre E n g l i s h , Zur K r a n k h e i t gezwungen. Eine s c h i c h t e n s p e z i f i s c h e Untersuchung der K r a n k h e i t s i d e o l o g i e a l s Instrument zur Unterdriickung der Frau im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert am B e i s p i e l der USA (Miinchen: n.p., 1976), p. 16. 1 1 1 Peter-Klaus Schuster, Theodor Fontane: " E f f i B r i e s t " - E i n Leben nach c h r i s t l i c h e n B i l d e r n (Tubingen: Niemeyer, 1978) 112 Bance, p. 67. 113 - Kienbaum, p. 4. 1 1 4 Koc, p. 98. Koc i s indebted i n t h i s context to Hamann and J o s t Hermand, Epochen deutscher K u l t u r von 1870 b i s zur Gegenwart, I I I ( F r a n k f u r t : F i s c h e r Taschenbuch V e r l a g , 1977). 1 1 5 Koc, p. 98. 1 1 6 Grawe, p. 56. Grawe, p. 64. 1 1 8 Hans Otto Horch, "Fontane und das kranke Jahrhundert. Theodor Fontanes Beziehungen zu den K u l t u r k r i t i k e r n F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , Max Nordau und Paola Mantegazza," L i t e r a t u r und Theater im Wilhelminischen Z e i t a l t e r , eds. Hans-Peter B a y e r d o r f e r , K a r l Otto Conrady and Helmut Schanze (Tubingen: Niemeyer, 1978), p. 21. 1 1 9 Horch, p. 21. 1 2 0 Koc, p. 94. 241 1 2 1 Koc, p. 81. TOO x ^ Koc, p. 84. O r i g i n a l source: W i l l y H e l l p a c h , " N e r v o s i t a t und K u l t u r , " Kulturprobleme der Gegenwart, V, ed, Leo Berg ( B e r l i n : V e r l a g von Johannes Rode, 1902), p. 12. 19 3 Koc, p. 98. 1 2 4 Johnson, p. 254. 1 9 S James M. R i t c h i e , "Embarrassment, Ambiguity and Ambivalence i n Fontane's E f f i B r i e s t , " Formen r e a l i s t i s c h e r E r z a h l k u n s t . F e s t s c h r i f t f o r C h a r l o t t e J o l l e s i n Honour of her 70th B i r t h d a y , eds. J o r g Thunecke and Eda Sagarra (Nottingham: Sherwood, 1979), p. 567. 126 127 128 129 130 Grawe, p. 230. Cf Koc, p. 178, Evans, p. 23. Wandel, p. 60. Bance, p. 32. 3 Grawe i n t e r p r e t s t h i s t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e d i f f e r e n t l y : "Der Gordon i n S c h i l l e r s W a l l e n s t e i n wird w i e d e r h o l t a s s o z i i e r t , der Mann, der n i c h t i n s S c h i c k s a l e i n z u g r e i f e n wagt." Grawe, p. 148. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to agree with t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however, or to view S c h i l l e r ' s Gordon as anything but a humane v o i c e of reason and compassion. 1 3 2 Mittelmann, p. 53. 1 3 3 Bance, p. 30. Koc, p. 178. 1 3 5 G a i l Cunningham, The New Woman and the V i c t o r i a n Novel (London: Macmillan, 1978), p. 29. 1 3 6 Park, p. 32. 1 3 7 Mende, p. 190. 1 3 8 Garland, p. 90. 1 3 9 Bance, p. 93. 134 242 1 4 0 Grawe, p. 148. 1 4 1 Garland, p. 87. 142 For a more comprehensive treatment of Fontane's a d u l t c h a r a c t e r s who p e r s i s t i n the ways of c h i l d h o o d , see: Paul I r v i n g Anderson, "Game-Motifs i n S e l e c t e d Works of Theodor Fontane. A Study of L i t e r a r y and P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t r u c t u r e s i n Late W r i t i n g s of Theodor Fontane i n Terms of Games and P l a y , " D i s s . , Indiana U n i v e r s i t y , 1974. 1 4 3 Grawe, pp. 77-78. 1 44 Gunter H. H e r t l i n g , Theodor Fontanes " S t i n e : " Eine entzauberte Z a u b e r f l o t e ? Zum Humanitatsgedanken am Ausklang zweier Jahrhunderte (Bern: Peter Lang, 1982). 145 Reuter, I I , p. 682. 146 Reuter, I I , p. 680. 147 M a r t i n i , Realismus, p. 781. 148 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 279. 149 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 279. 150 Johnson, p. 33. 151 Grawe, p. 235. 152 Mende, p. 197. 153 2 2 . v i i i . 1 8 9 5 B r i e f e an seine Frau, V o l . I I ( B e r l i n : F r i e d r i c h Fontane, 1905), p. 316. 1 54 Parmee, p. 9. 15 5 Grawe, p. 57. 1 5 6 R y c r o f t , p. 39. i c 7 Heinz S c h l a f f e r , "Das S c h i c k s a l s m o d e l l i n Fontanes Romanwerk. Konstanz und Auflosung," Germanisch-Romanische M o n a t s s c h r i f t , Vol.16, No.4 (1966), p. 394. 15 8 Park, p. 1. Park's c o n t e n t i o n that a l l of Fontane's male c h a r a c t e r s are v a c i l l a t i n g , "unheroic heroes" c o n s t i t u t e s an o v e r - g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , however. Likewi s e , her a s s e r t i o n t h a t a l l of h i s female c h a r a c t e r s are d e c i s i v e and 243 a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d i s c l e a r l y not the case. 1 5 9 Garland, p. 84. 1 6 0 Garland, p. 178. 1 6 1 Park, p. 41. 1 6 2 Park, p. 36. 1 6 3 Park, p. 35. 1 6 4 Park, p. 43. 1 6 5 Bance, p. 66. 1 6 6 Grawe, p. 166. 1 ft 7 ° Kienbaum, p. 15. 1 6 8 Reuter, I I , p. 680. 16 9 F r i t z M a r t i n i , "Theodor Fontanes Romane," Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r Deutschkunde, XLIX (1935), p. 519. 17 0 Walther K i l l y , "Fontane: Irrungen, Wirrungen," W i r k l i c h k e i t und Kunstcharakter. Neun Romane des 19. Jahrhunderts, ed. Walther K i l l y (Munchen: C.H. Beck, 1963), p. 209. 171 . • M a r t i n i , Realismus, p. 779. 1 7 2 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 370. 17 3 Cf R i c h t e r , p. 27 f o r a d d i t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n of c h a r a c t e r s who i n t e r p r e t events as " s i g n s . " 1 7 4 G o t t f r i e d K r i c k e r , Theodor Fontane. Von s e i n e r A r t und e p i s c h e r Technik ( B e r l i n : n.p., 1912), p. 35. 17 5 Cf M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 370 i n connection with E f f i B r i e s t : "Auf keinen F a l l i s t es das S c h i c k s a l der S c h i c k s a l s t r a g o d i e oder etwas d i e s e r A r t . . . . " 1 7 6 Garland, p. 97. 17 7 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 177. 1 7 8 Walter M u l l e r - S e i d e l , "Fontanes E f f i B r i e s t . Zur T r a d i t i o n des Eheromans," Wissenschaft a l s D i a l o g 244 ( S t u t t g a r t : Reclam, 1969), p. 47. 17 9 Donald C. R i e c h e l , " E f f i B r i e s t and the Calendar of F a t e , " Germanic Review, 48 (1973), p. 200. 1 8 0 R i e c h e l , p. 209. 181 Grawe, pp. 62-63. 182 Joseph Peter S t e r n , "Realism and T o l e r a n c e : Theodor Fontane," R e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : Seven Studies i n Nineteenth-Century German L i t e r a t u r e (London: Thames and Hudson, 1964), p. 319. 18 3 Theodor Fontane, P l a u d e r e i e n iiber Theater (n.p.: n.p., 1926), p. 206. 18 4 E r n s t Nef, "Der Z u f a l l und d i e 'Menschenordnung' im Spatwerk Theodor Fontanes," Per Z u f a l l i n der E r z a h l k u n s t , ed. E r n s t Nef (Bern: Francke, 1970), p. 94. 1 8 5 Garland, p. 207. 186 Cf Koc, pp. 146-188 f o r h i s d i s c u s s i o n of boredom as a motif i n the works of Fontane and K e y s e r l i n g . 18 7 Wilhelm Munch, "Ober d i e Langeweile," Westermanns i l l u s t r i e r t e deutsche Monatshefte, 85 (1898-99), p. 198. 1 8 8 S t e r n , p. 319. l y 9 Koc, p. 148. 190 Koc, p. 148. See a l s o : Ludwig V o l k e r , Langeweile. Untersuchungen zur V o r g e s c h i c h t e eines l i t e r a r i s c h e n Motivs (Munchen: Wilhelm F i n k V e r l a g , 1975), p. 9. 191 Hubert Ohl, "Melusine a l s Mythos b e i Theodor Fontane," Mythos und Mythologie i n der L i t e r a t u r des 19. Jahrhunderts, ed. Helmut Koopmann ( F r a n k f u r t : Klostermann, 1979), pp. 294-295. 1 9 2 Reuter, I I , p. 687. 193 Mittelmann, p. 33. 19 4 Lawrence 0. F r y e , "The Unreal i n Fontane's Novels," Germanic Review 37 (1962), p. 113. 1 9 5 S t e r n , p. 317. 245 1 qc y L o t t e Grages, Frauengestaltung b e i Theodor Fontane (Heppenheim: G. Otto, 1931) , p. 23"! 1 9 7 Frye, p. 113. 198 Johnson, p. 275. 1 9 9 W.C. Reeve, "Die a l t e Waschfrau: A Nineteenth- Century L i t e r a r y M o t i f , " Seminar, 20 (1984), p. 103. 2 0 0 Johnson, p. 267. 201 Johnson, p. 301. 2 f) 2 Theodor Fontane, B r i e f e an Georg F r i e d l a n d e r , ed. Kurt S c h r e i n e r t ( H e i d e l b e r g : F r i e d l a n d e r , 1954), p. 235. 2 0 3 W o l f e l , p. 156. 2 0 4 Hans E s t e r , Der s e l b s t v e r s t a n d l i c h e G e i s t l i c h e . Untersuchungen zu G e s t a l t u n g und Funktion des G e i s t l i c h e n im Erzahlwerk Theodor Fontanes ( L e i d e n : U n i v e r s i t a i r e Pers Leiden, 1975), p. 106. 2 0 5 Lynd, p. 31. 2 0 6 Garland, p. 111. 2 0 7 Reeve, p. 104. 2 0 8 E l i s a b e t h Moltmann-Wendel, Hoffnung - j e n e i t s von Glaube und Sk e p s i s . Theodor Fontane und d i e b i i r g e r l i c h e Welt (Miinchen: K a i s e r - V e r l a g , 1964), p. 15. 2 0 9 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 270. 2 1 0 H a r r i g a n , p. 119. 2 1 1 Kienbaum, p. 2. 2 1 2 Max Rychner, Welt im Wort. L i t e r a r i s c h e A u f s a t z e ( Z u r i c h : Manesse, 1949), p. 259. T 1 o J M a r t i n i , Realismus, p. 750. 2 1 4 R i c h t e r , p. 91. 2 1 5 R i c h t e r , p. 91. 246 216 G.W. F i e l d , ed., Theodor Fontane. Irrungen, Wirrungen (London: Macmillan, 1967), p. x x v i . 217 J u d i t h A. Davidson, " S t a t t l i c h , g u t i q and beschrankt: The F u n c t i o n of Frau Dorr i n Fontane's Irrungen, Wirrungen," Seminar, 18 (1982), p. 158. 2 1 8 Wandel, p. 15. 2 1 9 Cf R i c h t e r , p. 92. A.R. Robinson, Theodor Fontane. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Man and h i s Work ( C a r d i f f : U n i v e r s i t y of Wales Pr e s s , 1976), p. 199. 221 Theodore L. Lowe, "The Problems of Love and Marriage i n the Novels of Theodor Fontane," D i s s . , U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania, 1955, p. x i v . 222 F r y S f p > 3 8 > 2 2 3 E r n s t , p. 228. 2 2 4 Reuter, I I , p. 680. 225 Mende, p. 200. In t h i s c ontext, Mende i s drawing upon p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory: "Freud, Abraham, B e r n f e l d u.a. haben ihn [den S u i z i d ] psychodynamisch a l s Aggressionshandlung i n t e r p r e t i e r t , d i e gegen einen anderen Menschen oder gegen e i n anderes Objekt g e r i c h t e t i s t , mit dem f r i i h e r e i n e I d e n t i f i k a t i o n bestanden hat, das unbewusst gehasst und im Akt der S e l b s t t o t u n g m i t g e t o t e t w i r d . " Mende, p. 199. 2 2 6 Rudolf Koester, "Death by M i s c a l c u l a t i o n : Some Notes on S u i c i d e i n Fontane's Prose," German L i f e and L e t t e r s , NS Vol.20, No.l (1966), p. 39. 227 228 229 230 231 Sontag, p. 24. Koester, pp. 35-36. Frye, p. 35. Fr y e , p. 112. See, f o r example, G i o v a n i B e l l i n i ' s "Agony i n the and V i t t o r e Ca] Koester, p. 40, Garden" rp a c c i o ' s "Meditation on the Passion, 232 247 2 3 3 Koester, p. 41. 2 3 4 Koester, p. 41. 9 35 Augusta G e l l h a u s , S i t t l i c h e s Werten b e i Fontane (Dren: Max Danielewski, 1932), p. 39. 9 36 John R i c h a r d Cary, " A n t i t h e s i s as a P r i n c i p l e of S t r u c t u r e and Technique i n the Novels of Theodor Fontane," D i s s . , Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y , 1954, p. 87. 2 3 7 Gerhard F r i e d r i c h , "Die Frage nach dem Gliick i n Fontanes Irrungen, Wirrungen," Der D e u t s c h u n t e r r i c h t , 11 (1959), p. 86. 2 3 8 Mittelmann, p. 113. 2 3 9 B r i e f e an s e i n e F a m i l i e , Vol.11, ed. K.E.O. F r i t s c h ( B e r l i n : F r i e d r i c h Fontane, 1905), p. 138. 2 4 0 Davidson, p. 161. 2 4 1 R i c h t e r , p. 19. 2 4 2 Reeve, p. 104. 2 4 3 Johnson, p. 25. 2 4 4 Johnson, p. 38. 2 4 5 Rees, p. 12. 2 4 6 Mittelmann, p. 68. 2 4 7 G e l l h a u s , p. 40. 2 4 8 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 172. 2 4 9 Bance, p. 89. 2 5 0 Garland, p. 121. 2 5 1 Grawe, p. 85. 2 5 2 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 178. 2 5 3 Mittelmann, p. 74. 2 5 4 L e t t e r 111, 28 March, 1889. S c h r e i n e r t , p. 105. 248 2 5 5 Garland, p. 121. 2 5 6 M u l l e r - S e i d e l , Romankunst, p. 266. 2 5 7 Alexander von Bormann, "Gliicksansspruch und G l i i c k s v e r z i c h t : Zu e i n i g e n F r a u e n g e s t a l t e n Fontanes," Amsterdamer B e i t r a g e zur Neueren Germanistik, 10 (1980), p. 218. 2 5 8 E r n s t , p. 229. 2 5 9 Reuter, I I , p. 687. 2 6 0 Rees, p. 96. 2 6 1 Gorham, p. 8. 2 6 2 Mittelmann, p. 70. 2 6 3 P a s c a l , p. 190. 2 6 4 Garland, p. 61. 2 6 5 Cf Cunningham, p. 2: "Many young women p e d a l l e d t h e i r way to undreamt-of freedoms on the newly popular b i c y c l e . . . . " 2 6 6 Mittelmann, p. 102. 2 6 7 H a r r i g a n , p. 125. 2 6 8 Croner, p. 22. 2 6 9 R i c h t e r , pp. 37-38. 2 7 0 Mittelmann, p. 72. 2 7 1 Mende, p. 194. 2 7 2 Garland, p. 121. 2 7 3 Mittelmann, p. 72. 2 7 4 Sasse, pp. 16-17. 2 7 5 Ges.Werke, I I ( B e r l i n ) , p. 92. 249 B i b l i o g r a p h y I. 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"Death by M i s c a l c u l a t i o n : Some Notes on S u i c i d e i n Fontane's Prose." German L i f e and L e t t e r s , NS Vol.20, No.l (1966), pp. 34-42. K r i c k e r , G o t t f r i e d . Theodor Fontane. Von s e i n e r A r t und e p i s c h e r Technik. B e r l i n : n.p., 1912. Lowe, Theodore L. "The Problems of Love and Marriage i n the Novels of Theodor Fontane." D i s s . , U. of Pennsylvania, 1955. Lynd, Helen M e r r e l l . On Shame and the Search f o r I d e n t i t y . New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1958. M a r t i n i , F r i t z . Deutsche L i t e r a t u r im b u r g e r l i c h e n Realismus: 1848-1898. S t u t t g a r t : M e t z l e r , 1981 . . "Theodor Fontanes Romane." Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r Deutschkunde, 49 (1935), pp. 513-530. Mende, D i r k . "Frauenleben. Bemerkungen zu Fontanes L ' A d u l t e r a nebst Exkursen zu C e c i l e and E f f i B r i e s t . " Fontane aus h e u t i g e r S i c h t . 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