Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A documentation and evaluation of the Pangnirtung Tourism Program Kuiper, Bob 1987

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1987_A8 K94.pdf [ 19.54MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0097240.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0097240-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0097240-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0097240-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0097240-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0097240-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0097240-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0097240-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0097240.ris

Full Text

A DOCUMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF THE PANGNIRTUNG TOURISM PROGRAM By BOB KUIPER B.E.S. University of Manitoba, 1971 M.L.A. University of Guelph, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Community and Regional Planning) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1987 e Bob Kuiper, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October 14, 1987 DE-6(3/81) ABSTRACT The Pangnirtung Tourism Program was ini t iated by the Government of the Northwest Terri tories as a pi lot study in northern community based tourism in Pangnirtung, Baff in Island, in 1981. This thesis is a case study documentation and evaluation of that program. Its focus is to examine the program from the perspective of its participants, which include the residents of Pangnirtung, and planners, tourism representatives, consultants and government off ic ials that have been involved with the program. The thesis identifies what the program's objectives are, what the program's strengths and weaknesses are in achieving its objectives, and how it could have been improved to better meet loca l community development goals. Documentat ion methods included an extensive l i terature search, personal interviews with 101 program participants, and a one-month stay in Pangnirtung. The Pangnirtung Tourism Program was ini t ia ted with the following main objectives: a) to set up a test case and demonstration project in northern tourism that could be learned from; b) to strengthen and diversify the economy in Pangnirtung; c) to encourage development that f i t in with local lifestyles and social goals; and d) to contribute to capacity building in loca l community development. i i . During the program's planning phase, community consultation was held, a loca l Tourism Commit tee was formed, and a consultants' report outlining a f ive-year strategy was produced. During implementat ion, the Tourism Commit tee has taken the lead in managing the program. Development programs have included: t r a i l construction, historic sites development, a visitors ' centre, host programs, cu l tura l programs, outf i t ter t ra ining, loca l purchase of the hotel , and Commit tee organization. Since the program started, tourism visi tat ion has increased, the industry is more controlled by locals , and there are more tourism act iv i t ies in the community. As a test case, the program pioneered a new method of tourism development in the north, and much has been learned. No formal monitoring has been done, however, and this has l imi ted its value as a tourism research and demonstration tool . The program has also created jobs and increased incomes in the community, however, most new jobs and income have been in the public sector. Therefore, it is questionable whether the program has served to decrease or increase dependency on government. The lack of documented data makes i t impossible to do a detai led economic analysis. With rapidly increasing visi tat ion and changing public expenditures, the economic impacts of the program should be closely monitored in the future. The program has also f i t ted in reasonably we l l with local l ifestyles, and its cul tura l projects have contributed to loca l social programs. Minor disruptions of l ifestyles and culture were documented, however, and these may wel l increase with increased vis i ta t ion. The program should be monitored in the future to identify and mit igate potential social problems. i i i . The program also contributed, in a l imi ted way, to capacity building in community development. Through involvement in businesses and the Tourism Commi t t ee , loca l people have controlled the di rect ion of the program and have started building ski l ls in business and program management. A lack of business awareness and management skil ls is s t i l l a major problem in the community, however, and increased training and organizat ional development to build this capaci ty should be given a pr ior i ty . In conclusion, the program has been successful in achieving many of its objectives, and provides many lessons for tourism development in the north. By emphasizing loca l control , involvement and management, tourism has been developed wi th the par t ic ipat ion of local people for the benefit of local people. By pioneering and demonstrating this approach in one Inuit community, the Pangnirtung Tourism Program has contributed significantly to faci l i ta t ing community based tourism development in the north. iv . TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract List of Tables List of Figures Acknowledgement 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Research Project 1.2 Rationale for the Research 1.3 Community Development in the North 1.3.1 The C y c l e of Underdevelopment and Government Dependency 1.3.2 A Direc t ion for Community Development 1.4 A Potent ia l Role for Tourism in the North 1.5 Research Focus and Questions 2.0 RESEARCH METHOD 2.1 The Case Study .Method 2.2 Project Identification and Initiation 2.2.1 Project Identif ication 2.2.2 Refining the Scope and Extent of the Research 2.2.3 Designing the Interview Questions and Pro tocol 2.3 Data Col lec t ion 2.3.1 Research Questions 2.3.2 Personal Interviews 2.3.3 Review of Wri t ten Documentation 2.3.4 Par t ic ipant Observation 2.3.5 Data Recording 2.4 Data Analysis 2.5 Report Preparation 3.0 THE PANGNIRTUNG TOURISM PROGRAM 3.1 Pangnirtung Before the Tourism Program 3.2 Program Start-up Page No. i i . x i . x i i . x i i i . 1 1 3 4 4 7 10 12 14 14 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 22 22 23 23 25 26 26 34 v. TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) Page No. 3.3 Program Objectives 35 3.3.1 Pi lo t Study Objectives 37 3.3.2 Economic Development Objectives 38 3.3.3 Social Development Objectives 38 3.3.4 Community Development Objectives 39 3.4 The Planning Process 40 3.5 The Implementation Phase 46 3.5.1 Year 1 - 1982 46 3.5.2 Year 2 - 1983 48 3.5.3 Year 3 - 1984 50 3.5.4 Year 4 - 1985 51 3.5.5 Year 5 - 1986 52 3.5.6 Current Status - 1987 54 4.0 EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM AS A PILOT STUDY 57 4.1 Appropriateness of the Program Scope and Objectives 58 4.1.1 Program Objectives 58 4.1.2 Program Scope 61 4.2 The Development of an Ef fec t ive Tourism Planning and Implementation Process 62 4.2.1 Strengths of the Planning and Implementation Process 63 4.2.2 Weaknesses of the Planning and Implementation Process 67 4.2.3 How the Planning and Implementation Process Could Have Been Improved 73 4 .3 The Program as a Test Case and Demonstration Project 77 4.3.1 Cr i t e r i a for Evaluat ing Test Case Effectiveness 77 4.3.2 Strengths of the Program as a Test Case and Demonstration Project 79 4.3.3 Weaknesses of the Program as a Test Case and Demonstration Project 80 4.3.4 Ways the Program Could Have Been Improved as a Test Case and Demonstrat ion Project 82 4.4 The Development of New Tourism Programs and Pol ic ies 83 4.5 Conclusions 84 5.0 EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM AS A VEHICLE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 87 5.1 Increasing Community Income 88 5.1.1 Public Sector Income 89 5.1.2 Private Sector Income 93 v i . TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) Page No. 5.2 Increasing Jobs and Business Opportunities 97 5.2.1 Public Sector Jobs 98 5.2.2 Pr ivate Sector Jobs and Businesses 98 5.2.3 Problems With Job Creat ion and Business Development 100 5.3 Increasing the L o c a l Benefits of Tourism Spending 104 5.3.1 Increasing L o c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Ownership 104 5.3.2 Distr ibut ion of Income 106 5.4 Diversifying the Economic Base 108 5.4.1 Strengths of the Program Regarding Economic Divers i f ica t ion 108 5.4.2 Weakness of the Program Regarding Economic Divers i f ica t ion 109 5.5 Increasing Economic Self -Rel iance 111 5.5.1 Strengths of Tourism in Terms of Promoting Economic Self -Rel iance 111 5.5.2 Weaknesses of Tourism in Terms of Promoting Economic Self -Rel iance 114 5.5.3 The Need for More Time and Data Col lec t ion > 117 5.6 Coordination with the Informal Economy 117 5.6.1 Strengths of the Program Regarding the Informal Economy 118 5.6.2 Weaknesses of the Program Regarding the Informal Economy 119 5.7 Ways to Improve the Economic Effectiveness of the Program 119 5.7.1 Strengthen Inuit Management and Ownership in the Industry 119 5.7.2 Improve Training 120 5.7.3 Increase Vis i ta t ion and Extend the Tourism Season 122 5.7.4 Improve Tourism Fac i l i t i e s and Services 122 5.7.5 Improve Tourism Market ing 123 5.7.6 Improve Funding 127 5.7.7 Continue to Provide Jobs Through the Tourism Commit tee 127 5.7.8 Encourage More L o c a l Hir ing 127 5.7.9 Make the Program More Self-supporting 127 5.8 Conclusions 128 6.0 EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM AS A VEHICLE FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 131 6.1 Fi t t ing in With L o c a l Lifes tyles and Cultures 132 6.1.2 Posi t ive Impacts 132 6.1.3 Negative Impacts 133 v i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) Page No. 6.2 Achieving Community Socia l Goals 134 6.2.1 Program Strengths 135 6.2.2 Program Weaknesses 136 6.3 Cross-Cul tura l Learning and Ski l ls in Dealing with People 137 6.3.1 Program Strengths 137 6.3.2 Program Weaknesses 138 6.4 Recommendations for Continued and Improved Achievement of Social Goals 139 6.4.1 Continue Cu l tu r a l Tourism Programs 139 6.4.2 Control the L e v e l of Tourism in the Community . 139 6.4.3 Improve L o c a l Tourism Awareness 140 6.4.4 Improve Tourists ' Awareness of L o c a l Customs 140 6.5 Conclusions 140 7.0 EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM AS A VEHICLE FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 143 7.1 Building Loca l Awareness About Tourism and Development 144 7.1.1 Program Strengths 144 7.1.2 Program Weaknesses 145 7.2 Fac i l i t a t ing L o c a l Management and Cont ro l 146 7.2.1 Loca l Ownership 146 7.2.2 The Pangnirtung Tourism Commit tee 146 7.3 Building Skills in Planning and Management 148 7.3.1 Program Strengths 149 7.3.2 Program Weaknesses 149 7.4 Part icipant Recommendations for the Improvement of the Program Regarding Communi ty Development 151 7.4.1 Improve Awareness Programs 151 7.4.2 Improve the Pangnirtung Tourism Commit tee 152 7.4.3 Create a Fu l l - t ime Tourism Off icer Position in Pangnirtung 153 7.4.4 Organize an Outf i t ters Associat ion 154 7.4.5 Settle Land C la ims 154 7.4.6 Create a Communi ty Development Corporation 154 7.4.7 Improve S k i l l Bui lding in Planning and Community Development 154 7.5 Conclusions 155 v i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) • Page No. 8.0 NATIONAL PARK AND HISTORIC SITES CONCERNS 157 8.1 Auyuit tuq Nat ional Park Reserve 158 8.1.1 Strengths of the Park in Regard to Tourism Development 158 8.1.2 Problems of the Park in Regard to Tourism Development 160 8.1.3 Improving the Role of the Park in L o c a l Development 161 8.2 Keker ton Whaling Station 163 8.2.1 Strengths of Keker ton in Regard to the Tourism Program 164 8.2.2 Problems with Keker ton in Regard to the tour i sm Program 164 8.2.3 Par t ic ipant Recommendations for the Future of Keker ton 166 8.3 Loca l His tor ic Sites 168 8.3.1 Strengths of the L o c a l His tor ic Sites 169 8.3.2 Problems with the L o c a l His tor ic Sites 169 8.3.3 Recommendations for L o c a l His tor ic Sites Management 169 8.4 Conclusions 170 9.0 CONCLUSIONS 171 9.1 Overview of Program Strengths, Weaknesses and Concerns 171 9.2 Lessons to be Learned from the Pangnirtung Program 175 9 .2 .1 Developing an Appropriate Tourism Planning and Implementation Process 176 9.2.2 Tourism as a Vehicle for Economic Development 179 9.2.3 Tourism as a Vehicle for Social Development 180 9.2.4 Tourism as a Vehicle for Capaci ty Building in Communi ty Development 181 9.2.5 The Roles of Auquit tuq Nat ional Park Reserve and L o c a l His tor ic Sites 181 9.3 Implications for Tourism Development Elsewhere in the North 182 9.4 Conclusion 184 10.0 REFERENCES 187 10.1 References C i t ed 187 10.2 References Used But Not C i t e d 191 10.3 Interview References 194 10.3.1 Pangnirtung Residents 194 ix . TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) Page No. 10.3.2 Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies Staff 197 10.3.3 Federal Government Staff 198 10.3.4 Parks Canada Staff • 198 10.3.5 Tourism Industry Representatives 199 10.3.6 Program Consultants 200 APPENDICES Appendix A : Research Questions and Responses 201 Appendix B : Overview of Implementation Strategy 230 x. LIST O F T A B L E S Table I: Pangnirtung Community Income: 1982 With and Without Imputed Value of Country Foods Table II: Cap i t a l and Operating Expenditures - Auyuit tuq Nat ional Park Table III: Parks Canada Expenditures in NWT - Auyui t tuq Nat ional Park Table IV: Government Expenditures Supporting L o c a l Tourism Development Projects Table V : Auyui t tuq Nat ional Park Vis i ta t ion Estimates Table VI: Average Park Vis i tor Expenditures in the NWT for Selected Years - Auyui t tuq Nat ional Park Table VII: Average Park Vis i to r Expenditures in the NWT by Sector: 1982 Table VIII: Tourism Related Businesses and Employment in Pangnirtung Before and A f t e r the Program Page No . 32 90 91 92 95 96 97 99 x i . LIST OF FIGURES Page No. Figure 1: Saipalaseequtt (Museum) Society 1 Figure 2: Interviewing at home. 14 Figure 3: Pangnirtung Fjord and townsite. 26 Figure 4: Pangnirtung Loca t ion 28 Figure 5: Pangnirtung and Surroundings 29 Figure 6: The old meets the new. 30 Figure 7: Skating after church. 57 Figure 8: Carver 87 Figure 9: Hunters preparing to leave for spring camps. 118 Figure 10: Talking after church. 131 Figure 11: Women and chi ldren 138 Figure 12: Museum society meeting room and craft shop. 143 Figure 13: Pangnirtung Fjord and Auyui t tuq Nat ional Park 157 Figure 14: Pangnirtung Whaling Stat ion. 168 Figure 15: Chi ldren : the future of Pangnirtung. 171 Figure 16: The author with Rosie Okpik, interpreter. 187 Figure 17: L o c a l hunter and art is t . 201 Figure 18: Dog team. 230 x i i . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l ike to acknowledge the kind assistance given to me by several people during the course of preparing this thesis. F i r s t and foremost, I would like to thank the people of Pangnirtung, who welcomed me into their community and with their generousity, hospital i ty, humour and patience gave me an experience I learned from greatly and w i l l never forget. I would also l ike to thank a l l the part icipants who contributed their valuable ideas and t ime to the research, for without their input, this thesis would not have been possible. In part icular , the staff of the Department of Economic Development and Tourism in Yel lowkni fe , Iqaluit and Pangnirtung provided valuable assistance. Contributions by Alan Vaughan, Peter Neugebauer, Katherine Trumper, R i c k i Hamburg and Gary Magee were par t icular ly appreciated. I would also like to thank the G N W T and the Canadian Donner Foundation for covering some of the costs of the research. I would also l ike to acknowledge the assistance of key thesis advisors, B i l l Rees, Peter Boothroyd and Michae l M'Gonigle , who provided valuable advise throughout the project. Las t ly , I would like to thank my typist , Tracey Car l i s le , whose perseverance, humour and good judgement helped immensely in the preparation of the f inal report. x i i i -Figure 1: Saipalaseequtt (Museum) Society 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 THE RESEARCH PROJECT This thesis is a documentation and evaluation of the Pangnirtung Tourism Program. This program was started in 1981 by the Government of the Northwest Terr i tor ies as part of an in i t ia t ive to look for ways to strengthen job creation and community development in the north. It was set up as a pilot project in community based tourism development, and to date has involved several years of planning and implementation. The - 1 -program has been significant in that i t was the first of its kind in Canada's north, and set directions for tourism development that many other communities are beginning to fol low. The emphasis of this thesis is to document and evaluate the Pangnirtung Tourism Program from the perspective of its part icipants. In this thesis, part icipants are defined as a l l people who l ive in Pangnirtung and are potentially affected by the program, as we l l as a l l people outside of Pangnirtung who have been involved in either the ' planning or implementation of the program. The research is designed to find out how these people feel about the Tourism Program, what they perceive to be its objectives; what they feel are its major strengths and weaknesses; how they feel i t could have been, or s t i l l can be, improved where appropriate; and what lessons they feel can be learned from the Pangnirtung experience that w i l l help other communities set up effect ive tourism programs elsewhere in the north. In addition, this thesis looks at some of the broader issues surrounding community and tourism development, as contained in the li terature, and evaluates how successful the program has been in addressing these issues. Although the thesis attempts to represent the views of the participants as accurately as possible in the text, the f inal evaluation of the program and conclusions drawn are the responsibility of the author. - 2 -1.2 RATIONALE FOR THE RESEARCH The reason for doing this research is to learn more about tourism and tourism planning in the north. This is a part icular ly important topic for many communities today. In recent years, tourism has been growing rapidly in the north, and many communit ies are now looking to tourism as a major vehicle for development. The Government of the Northwest Terr i tor ies (GNWT) is also interested, and since 1981, has been following a policy of act ively promoting community-based tourism in the north. The goals of this policy are to establish tourism that is owned and managed by loca l communities, and is compatible wi th local l ifestyles, needs and aspirations (Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , 1983). Despite this growing interest, l i t t l e documentation exists on effect ive planning for tourism in the north or the impacts of tourism once it has been established. Fo r this reason, there is a need for more research and data gathering regarding northern tourism planning and development. The Pangnirtung Program was set up par t ia l ly in response to this need. It was started as a pilot program to develop effect ive tourism planning in the north, and to examine whether tourism could be an effective vehicle for community economic and social development (Vaughan, 1985). Al though many people have looked at the Pangnirtung Program informally, no formal study has yet been done to evaluate the program. Therefore, in 1984, GNWT officials expressed the need for a formal evaluation so that i ts value as a pilot study could be increased (Vaughan, 1984, Nuegebauer, 1984, Hamburg, 1984). - 3 -1.3 COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE NORTH The Pangnirtung Tourism Program was ini t ia ted to help strengthen economic and socia l development in Pangnirtung, and as such, address some of the chronic problems of underdevelopment experienced by many northern communities today. For the purposes of this thesis, community development is defined as the process of communities taking act ion to achieve their basic human needs and social and economic goals. Rees (1986) has identified five basic goals for community development in the north: "the opportunity for personal growth, a decent standard of l iv ing , adequate services, reasonable control over the factors most significantly affecting their (the community members) l ives, and some sense of social s tabi l i ty and security" (Rees, 1986). 1.3.1 The Cycle of Underdevelopment and Government Dependency The problems of underdevelopment and government dependency in the arc t ic are wel l documented in the l i terature (Rees, 1986, Ross and Usher, 1986, G N W T , 1982). These problems have been caused by a number of factors. O f major importance, over the last 30 years most Inuit communities have experienced a major loss and change in their economic base. Although hunting and trapping used to be the major ac t iv i t ies in these communities, subsistence hunting is no longer as important as i t once was, and in recent _ 4 -years revenues from trapping and sealing have dropped substantially. This has resulted in a dependence on government welfare programs, and rel iance on the wage economy, for which many Inuit are not we l l equipped (GNWT, 1982). A lack of loca l skil ls suited for wage employment or business development is a major problem for communities in the north. Although many public sector management jobs are available, many Inuit do not have the education or experience to take these jobs, and hence, most are f i l led by Kadluna (whitemen) from the south. L o c a l people are often left out, and feel they are not in control of their own communities. They are often relegated to the unskilled labour jobs (GNWT, 1982). Most pr ivate businesses in the north are also owned and controlled by Kadluna (GNWT, 1982). L o c a l people have not yet gained the experience and f inancial resources to start their own busineses and, as a result, the opportunities that exist are often taken by Kadluna from outside. Not only does this reduce local Inuit input and control in development, but it also results in money leaving the community, as Kadluna often hire people from outside the community, and wages and profits are taken and spent elsewhere. This only further reduces loca l experience, control and f inancial resources. As we l l , much of economic development that has occurred in the arc t ic has been unstable and of l imited benefit to Inuit people. Large-scale industrial developments have provided some local jobs for local people, but they - 5 -require special ized skil ls and training which most loca l people do not have. These jobs also require t rave l away from home, and result in wages which are not distributed as equally as the proceeds gained from the subsistence economy in the home community (Ross and Usher, 1986). The large industrial developments are usually based on non-renewable resources, they are controlled by outside shareholders, and are highly dependent on international markets. In the past, they have proven to be unstable, as c lear ly evidenced by the recent down-turn in o i l and gas exploration in the western a rc t i c . This has resulted in a boom and bust cycle w e l l known to most northerners. Because of the current underdeveloped and unstable nature of the northern economy, there is a high loca l dependence on government jobs and services. F o r example, the public sector accounts for almost 70 percent of Pangnirtung's monetary income (GNWT, 1983). There are also extensive housing, health care, welfare and f inancial assistance programs for loca l people. This high level of services has resulted in welfare dependency, a loss of incentives to achieve, and a high dependence on government to provide business assistance and in i t ia te development. No t surprisingly, this has been accompanied by a loss of pride among the Inuit. A s the 1980 Winter Inuit Magazine states: "Inuit people are very largely taken from the cradle to the grave under the care of bureaucrats. The good side of this is that many things (like jobs, housing, medical care, welfare, etc.) would not be possible without government. The bad side is more subtle; it has something to do with the soul" (GNWT, 1982). - 6 -Government dependence and cul tura l change has been accompanied by social problems, drug and alcohol abuse, loss of t radi t ional skills, poor educational achievement, and high unemployment. This only reinforces poor sk i l l development and a lack of loca l f inancial resources, which in turn, increases dependency on government, and further reduces the amount of pride and control loca l people take over their own communities (GNWT, 1986). 1.3.2 A Direction for Community Development Despite these problems, many northerners are working hard to break out of this cyc le , and are pointing new directions for community development in the north. Several authors have also suggested directions that community development in the north can take to help break out of this underdevelopment and dependency cyc le (Rees, 1986; GNWT, 1982; G N W T , 1983, Ross and Usher, 1986). Some of these main directions are briefly reviewed here: a) Crea te increased incentives for development: Several government off icials and communities feel the current systems of welfare and financial assistance should be restructured to increase incentives for local economic development and reduce the ease with which northerners can continue to survive on government handouts. Suggestions include encouraging more home ownership rather than providing highly subsidized housing, changing the c r i t e r ia for social - 7 -assistance, providing more incentives for local people to get involved in working, and applying s t r i c te r guidelines to funding and "bailout" programs (GNWT, 1982). b) Coordinat ion between the formal and informal economy: The informal economy (subsistence hunting and fishing) is s t i l l re la t ively stable and very important to northern communities, both economically and social ly . Development should ensure that the strength of the informal economy is maintained, enhanced, and coordinated with the development of the formal economy (wage employment and businesses) (GNWT, 1982; Rees, 1987; Ross and Usher, 1986). c) Training: Training is an important component of any new development program. A high level of skil ls is needed by local people to f i l l positions in government and business, and training w i l l be needed on an ongoing basis to take advantage of opportunities as they arise. Training to help build loca l competence in community development and business development should be a pr iori ty (Rees, 1986; G N W T , 1982). d) Socia l development: Socia l programs w i l l also be required to help reinforce self-confidence, pride, and positive attitudes among northerners, which are essential in order to create a social ly stable and healthy community. To aid this, development should be designed so that i t fits in with local values and culture (Rees, 1986; Ross and Usher, 1986; GNWT, 1982). - 8 -e) L o c a l control and ownership: Increasing loca l control and business ownership is also important for community development. In this way, development w i l l be more oriented to maximiz ing loca l benefits, and f i t t ing in with loca l l ifestyles and cul ture, rather than maximizing benefits for outside owners. With local control and ownership, northerners w i l l be more able to take control over their lives, respond to local conditions, and develop responsibility and pride in their actions (Rees, 1986; G N W T , 1982). f) Reduct ion of economic leakages: Methods should be created to stop or reduce the flow of money out of northern communities, so that loca l f inancial resources can be improved. This could include encouraging more loca l ownership so that more profits stay loca l , loca l hiring policies, and more production and sale of local ly produced goods, rather than the import of these goods from outside the community (Rees, 1986; G N W T , 1982). g) Stable economic ac t iv i t i es : Community development should also focus on the development of ac t iv i t ies which w i l l be stable and secure on a long-term basis. Toward this end, development which is based on renewable resources and can be sustainable in the long-term should be given pr ior i ty (Rees, 1986; Ross and Usher, 1986; G N W T , 1982). Building a diverse economic base is also important, as this helps reduce dependency on any one given sector, and encourages economic s tabi l i ty (Boothroyd and Davis , 1986). - 9 -h) Planning, research and monitoring; To be effect ive, community development in the north should be accompanied by a planning process which is community control led and based; has sufficient technica l expertise and f inancial resources; provides opportunities for the sharing of knowledge between part icipants and planners; assesses loca l conditions and goals; is supported by government policies and programs; and is integrated and comprehensive (Rees, 1986). Development programs should also be monitored carefully, so that new ini t ia t ives can be evaluated as to how w e l l they are achieving development objectives. In this way, more can be learned about development and how it can be designed to suit local needs (GNWT, 1982). 1.4 A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR TOURISM IN THE NORTH The value of tourism as a vehicle for community development has long been recognized both internationally and in Canada (deKadt, 1976; Smi th , 1982; G N W T , 1983; Murphy, 1983). Tourism can fac i l i t a te job development and loca l economic growth, however, i t can also have negative impacts on loca l communit ies (Murphy, 1983). Fo r this reason, the GNWT has been promoting a strategy of carefully planned and control led tourism to ensure that loca l development goals w i l l be achieved. There are a number of reasons why, at the start of the Pangnirtung Program, the GNWT felt tourism could work as a positive development strategy for northern communit ies. Tour ism is based on renewable - 10 -resources, and is thought to be re la t ive ly stable over a long-term basis (GNWT, 1983). A s wel l , the G N W T saw it as an industry that could be control led and owned by loca l people and provide substantial economic benefits for local Inuit. It was also seen as an industry which would allow the informal economy to continue, and i t was fel t that through cul tural tourism projects, social development could be strengthened. There are many examples in the l i terature which document that tourism in developing communit ies can serve these purposes i f managed properly (Murphy, 1983; deKadt , 1976; Call imanopulos, 1982; Smi th , 1982). There are, however, also potent ial dangers with tourism development. There are numerous documented examples, in other locations, for example, where tourism has resulted in decreased loca l ownership over businesses, increased economic leakages, displacement of workers from other economic sectors, and negative socia l impacts to the host communities. This has part icularly been the case in developing communities where tourism has grown from smal l loca l businesses to a major industry. In these cases, entrepreneurs from outside have been known to buy up and take over loca l businesses, control the industry for their own benefits, and displace loca l people from their t radi t ional positions of control . This often results in negative social and economic impacts to the host community (Callimanopulos, 1982; Fox , 1977; Smi th , 1982; Pi-Sunyer, 1982). The extent to which tourism can act as a positive vehicle for community development depends on how i t is planned and managed by the implementing agencies (government and private enterprise) and the local - 11 -community. This thesis focusses on determining how successful the Pangnirtung Tourism Program has been as a vehicle for positive community development in Pangnirtung. RESEARCH FOCUS AND QUESTIONS The focus of this thesis, therefore, is to examine the Pangnirtung Tourism Program and evaluate how successful it has been in contributing to community development in Pangnirtung. The main research questions addressed are: a) What were the objectives of the Pangnirtung Tourism Program? b) To what extent did the objectives of the program respond to the issues and problems of arc t ic community development, as identified in the l i terature? c) What planning and implementat ion process was followed by the program? d) What were the strengths and weaknesses of the program in regard to meeting its objectives? e) How could the planning and implementat ion process of the program be improved to better meet its objectives and improve its contribution to community development in Pangnirtung? - 12 -As already noted, the research method emphasizes documenting participant views on the above questions. Nevertheless, where appropriate, the author also includes his own views and conclusions based on the supporting evidence. - 13 -Figure 2: Interviewing at home. Rosie Okpik, the author's interpreter, with a local carver and outfitter. 2.0 RESEARCH METHOD 2.1 THE CASE STUDY METHOD Case studies have long been used for research and learning purposes in planning. In community development, case study research is a process which documents and analyses a community development process by describing the events, actors and different factors which contributed to the process as it happened. It usually does so to illustrate or analyse the - 14 -development process from the viewpoint of a par t icular area of research interest. Wilson (1979) describes four qualit ies inherent to most case studies: a) they are par t icu lar i s t ic , as they describe events in one par t icular situation as it exists; b) they are hol is t ic , as they try to capture as many variables as possible and set the history and context of the case in regard to the area of interest; c) they are "longditudinal", as they usually t e l l a story over t ime; and d) they are qual i ta t ive , in that they usually describe and analyse their cases through a narrat ive, rather than a s t r ic t summarizat ion of quantitative data. Case studies can be very useful tools in learning about community development, and have a number of strengths. They portray the experiences that people have had in development projects, and by sharing these experiences, readers can learn about what worked or what didn't work in other situations (Wilson, 1979). Through their detailed descriptions, they can also provide insights into the complexities of planning situations and the different actions and events involved. They can also portray a real is t ic example of what has actual ly happened and, as such, contribute to the knowledge of what is possible under cer ta in conditions ( Y i n , 1986). There are also, however, several weaknesses and potential problems wi th case studies. They are usually a narrat ive, and there may be l i t t l e consistency in their research methods. Case study research has often been equated to "detective work" (Mintzberg, 1979), which can rely more on the researchers' intui t ion than a rigourous, quantifiable research method. - 15 -There are also several different types of data col lect ion, each with its own l imi ta t ions , applications and strengths (Leenders, 1973; Burgess, 1984; P lummer , 1983). Although there is often heavy reliance on quali tat ive data in case study analysis, the accepted methods of analysis for this type of data are not we l l formulated in the l i terature (Miles, 1979). Because of these reasons, the potential for bias in case study documentation and analysis is high (Yin , 1981; Mi les , 1979; Wilson, 1979; Click, 1979; Kuiper , 1985). Case studies also describe events under very specific circumstances, which are not always transferable to situations elsewhere. Therefore, i t is not possible to draw broad generalizations about planning or development from one case study, but merely to describe what is possible under the circumstances observed. Hence, i t is important to include a detailed description of the conditions and complexi t ies involved, so that readers may draw . insights or parallels wi th s imi la r conditions they experience elsewhere. The learning value of case studies also depends highly on the values the readers have before reading the case study. Research has shown that people tend to remember and believe things that confirm the values they already have (Wilson, 1979). Another problem is that case studies, because of their descriptive nature, are often long and complex, and not easily read by the average reader who is short of t ime. - 16 -To help solve some of these problems, this case study uses the following approach. a) Although i t is not possible to el iminate researcher bias, I have t r ied to clarify my bias by describing, in deta i l , the research method used. I have also used both quanti tat ive and qual i tat ive data in the research, and used a combination of data gathering techniques including l i terature search, personal interviews, and participant observation. I also attempted to represent participants ' views as closely as possible in the report, and sent prel iminary copies of the case study to key part icipants for ver i f ica t ion of their views. b) To indicate the par t icular conditions present, I have included a history of the community and the program, and have t r ied to describe the special conditions, people and complexit ies of tourism development in Pangnirtung as it occurred. In this way, I am t rying to alert readers to the special circumstances present so that they can relate them to circumstances elsewhere. It is hoped this w i l l deter readers from making sweeping generalizations about tourism development that may not hold true for communities elsewhere. c) To fac i l i ta te a greater understanding of the case study by a variety of readers, I have t r ied to represent, as accurately as possible, the range of views held by participants regarding the Pangnirtung project. In most cases, I also describe who held these views and how many people held them. - 17 -d) To help break up the length of the case study, I have organized the report into sections which deal wi th specif ic areas of concern. In this way, readers can turn to the section that they are interested in and refer to only that section, without having to read the entire report. It is hoped this w i l l make the report more usable. In the remainder of this chapter, the case study method I used is described in de ta i l . 2.2 PROJECT IDENTIFICATION AND INITIATION 2.2.1 Project Identification I selected the Pangnirtung Tourism Program as a viable research project in 1984, on the advice of the GNWT Department of Economic Development and Tourism in Yel lowkni fe , and wi th the in i t i a l support of the Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee . I then contacted key program participants by phone and m a i l to get their approval for the project and obtain feedback regarding topics that should be covered in the evaluation,, questions they felt should be asked, and appropriate research processes that might be used. A l l people contacted supported the project focus, and many made several valuable suggestions which were incorporated. 2.2.2 Refining the Scope and Extent of the Research I then refined the scope of the evaluat ion, through discussions wi th research advisors at U B C , GNWT staff, and the Pangnirtung Tourism - 18 -Commi t t ee . Through this process, i t was decided that the evaluation should be broadly based, and should concentrate on how the participants themselves viewed the program, so that the research would ref lect a p rac t i ca l and northern perspective. It was also decided to include a wide range of participants so the evaluation would reflect a range of views. A t the request of the Pangnirtung Tourism Commit tee , I agreed to also examine the roles of Auyui t tuq Nat iona l Park Reserve, the Keker ton Whaling Station, tourism marketing and the Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee as part of the study. 2.2.3 Designing the Interview Questions and Protocol Designing the interview questions and protocol was a major task. I began by proposing a basic set of research questions and a strategy for interviews, which I sent to G N W T Program staff and the Pangnirtung Tourism Commit tee for comment . On their advice, I added additional research questions and prepared a detailed l is t of interviewees. F i n a l l y , I contacted potent ial respondents to let them know what the research was about, and arranged a schedule for field trips and interviews. 2.3 DATA COLLECTION Data were col lected during two major f ie ld trips. The first included two weeks in Yel lowknife during February, 1985, and concentrated on interviewing government s taff and obtaining wri t ten documentation of the - 19 -program. The second field trip involved ten weeks in A p r i l , May and June of 1985, including one month in Pangnirtung, and t ime in Iqaluit (Frobisher Bay), Montrea l , Ot tawa, Toronto, Winnipeg and Vancouver. 2.3.1 Research Questions Data col lec t ion focussed on answering four broad areas of questions:. 1. What were the objectives of the Pangnirtung Tourism Program? 2. What planning and implementat ion process was followed by the program? 3. Was the program successful in achieving its objectives? What were its strengths and weaknesses? 4. How could the Pangnirtung Tourism Program have been improved? The interview guestions (see Appendix A) explored substantive issues, processes and impacts for each category in de ta i l . 2.3.2 Personal Interviews Interviews were held wi th 101 people, as fol lows: a) residents of Pangnirtung; Inuit 43 10 Non-Inuit b) c) d) e) f) GNWT staff; federal government staff; Parks Canada staff; tourism industry operators and wholesalers; and program consultants. 16 12 10 2 8 Total 101 - 20 -A complete list of interview respondents and their affi l iations is included in Sect ion 10.3, 'Interview References' . > Interviews were conducted in an informal but guided manner. While emphasis was on answering the research questions, interviews were conducted as a guided conversation rather than as a rigid questionnaire. Respondents were encouraged to bring up any points they felt were important . Because of the diversity of part icipants, interviews varied considerably in scope and emphasis. People concentrated on areas they knew best, and not - a l l respondents answered a l l research questions. A l l questions eventually did get answered by those who had something to say on those topics. If the interviews had been r igidly structured around specif ic , pre-set research questions only, there is a potent ial danger that cer tain areas of concern or impact would not have been identif ied. To get a wide range of responses, questions were worded in an open-ended way, such as "What have the good impacts of tourism in Pangnirtung been?, or "What have the bad impacts been?". A t the end of a l l interviews, participants were asked to express any outstanding concerns that hadn't been covered yet in the interview. In this way, I am confident that a l l the major concerns regarding the program were ident if ied. In Pangnirtung, I interviewed people in both English and Inuktitut, using loca l interpreters. A n effort was made to talk to a wide range of people in the community, which included elders, youth, men, women, and people who - 21 -were involved in tourism as well as those who were not. Respondents for interviews were suggested by the Tourism Committee, the interpreters, and the interviewees themselves. Some random selection during a community walk-about was also done. Much social visiting was involved, and this helped to develop a good rapport with local people and establish a relaxed atmosphere for interviews. 2.3.3 Review of Written Documentation The literature review included an examination of all relevant files, pamphlets, reports, publications, notes, memos and correspondence that I could find. GNWT files were made accessible to the researcher and respondents were open with the data they had. This material supplied a wealth of information, and provided verification for much of the verbal data gathered during the personal interviews. A complete list of documents reviewed is included in Chapter 10.0, 'References'. 2.3.4 Participant Observation During my 4£ weeks in Pangnirtung, I lived with a local Inuit family, socialized with local people, and joined in community activities. I attended Hamlet Council and Tourism Committee meetings, hiked several trails that had been constructed as part of the tourism program, stayed for a few days at the local hotel, talked to tourists, and talked to outfitters and tourism-related workers. In these ways, I got to know the community first hand and saw the Tourism Program in action. - 22 -2.3.5 Data Recording Data was recorded in a variety of ways. I recorded important interviews with a small portable tape recorder. Most other interviews were recorded by taking extensive notes during the interview. Where neither of the above was possible, notes were made as soon as possible after the interview. Written documentation was either collected or photocopied. Where this was not possible, notes were taken and referenced for later use. I also wrote up the participant observation portion of the research, as appropriate, and made an extensive photographic record of Pangnirtung and its surroundings. Some of these photographs are included in this report. 2.4 DATA ANALYSIS On completion of the interviews and literature review, I organized the data in a simple, two-way matrix, associating interviews and literature sources with the issues they raised. Data and responses were ordered in the categories as shown in Appendix A. By recording the number of times different individuals and sources had mentioned certain points and generating totals for each point mentioned, I was easily able to determine which were the most important (or at least most frequently mentioned) strengths and weaknesses of the program, as viewed by its participants. - 23 -Although the numbers of respondents that mentioned part icular points is recorded in Appendix A , these numbers should be interpreted as general indicators only. This is because the interviews were conducted in an open-ended way, and not a l l respondents were asked a l l questions. Interviews took place under a variety of conditions wi th a variety of people, and this demanded f lex ib i l i ty in interview procedure. Some interviews were very rushed, with executives who didn't have t ime to answer every question. Other interviews were long and relaxed, where a l l questions were discussed in de ta i l . In other interviews, the participants were evidently not knowledgeable about cer tain aspects of the program so, for expediancy, I either did not ask questions related to that area or covered them only in a general sense. Therefore, my own judgement (and therefore also potent ia l bias) was used in adjusting the interview to suit the si tuation and the knowledge of the part icipant . A l so , while taking interview notes, I did not have t ime to wr i te down each detailed point the respondent mentioned. Therefore, the numbers i n ; the f ield data results are approximate only, and in most cases, are lower than they would be, had a l l respondents answered a l l questions and had a l l points mentioned been wri t ten down exact ly . These numbers do, however, indicate a relat ive strength of how often things were mentioned and how strongly respondents held cer ta in views. - 24 -REPORT PREPARATION Once the in i t i a l data were organized, as shown in Appendix A , I sent a progress report showing field data results and explanatory comments to key GNWT staff, the study consultants, Parks Canada staff, and the Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee for review and ver i f ica t ion . Part icipants were then contacted in person, by ma i l , and by phone to encourage feedback at this stage. Af t e r I received comments on the progress report, these were incorporated in the research and I prepared a f inal draft report. This was also circulated to key participants for review and comment prior to preparation of the final document. - 25 -Figure 3: Pangnirtung Fjord and townsite. Cumberland Sound is in the background. 3.0 THE PANGNIRTUNG TOURISM PROGRAM 3.1 PANGNIRTUNG BEFORE THE TOURISM PROGRAM Pangnirtung is situated just off Cumberland Sound, in south-east Baffin Island, about 400 kilometers north of Iqaluit (Frobisher Bay) (see Figures 4 and 5, pages 28 and 29). In 1982, its population was 840, of which over 90 percent were Inuit (GNWT, 1984). It is located in Pangnirtung Fjord. Auyuittuq National Park is located at the north end of the fjord, about -26 -30 kilometers from Pangnirtung. Cumberland Sound is located at the mouth of the fjord. The Sound is extensively used by loca l people for wi ld l i fe harvesting. Cumberland Sound has had a long history of contact between Inuit and Kadluna (whites). Whalers first began to penetrate the Sound in the 1800's, and by the late 1800's, there were at least four permanent whaling stations in the Sound (Marshall , Mack l in and Monaghan, 1982). During this whaling period many Inuit worked as helpers in exchange for Kadluna goods, and l ived in camps close to the whaling stations in summer. By the end of the 19th century, however, the whaling industry in the Sound collapsed, due to the depletion of Bowhead whale stocks. A t the same t ime, fur prices were r is ing, and many Inuit started trapping to trade for the Kadluna goods. The Hudson's Bay Company established a post at Pangnirtung in 1921. The trapping era continued for several decades, and during this t ime, the Inuit l ived in extended family groups, along the coast, l iving off the land and trapping for furs (Ibid. 1984). A major change to this l i festyle took place in the 1950's. A t this t ime, fur prices dropped, store prices rose, there were a few very harsh winters, and animals were disappearing from tradi t ional hunting grounds. This caused death and starvation among many Inuit. As a result, the federal government began a program of emergency re l ief in Pangnirtung (GNWT, 1982). These services were expanded in the 1960's, and Pangnirtung received a new school, a health s tat ion, welfare services, low rent housing, and l imi ted government employment. As a result, families began to leave - 27 -ILako Citv P R I N C E Chariot, Boston | / \ \ 7 M / I \ \ Figure 4: Pangnirtung Loca t ion Source: Surveys and Mapping Branch Energy, Mines and Resources Canada - 28 -Figure 5: Pangnirtung and Surroundings Source: Surveys and Mapping Branch Energy, Mines and Resources Canada - 29 -Figure 6: The old meets the new: Telecommunication disks, drying seal skins and traditional Thule style tents. their outpost camps and moved into the communi ty . The migration has continued slowly but steadily since that t ime . In 1984 there was only one family s t i l l permanently based outside of Pangnirtung (Joamie, 1985). Although most people in the area now l ive in Pangnirtung, they s t i l l have close ties with the sea and the land. The informal economy, through hunting, trapping and fishing, is s t i l l very important to most families. Pe r capita country food consumption is highest of any community in the Baf f in region (GNWT, 1984:68). In winter, the community is used as the base for - 30 -fishing, trapping, and hunting trips in the area. In the spring and summer, many families s t i l l l ive in outpost camps throughout the Sound to pursue their t radi t ional l i fes tyle ac t iv i t ies . F r o m a monetary point of view, Pangnirtung is a relat ively poor community. In 1982 its per capi ta income was $5,160, which was second lowest for the Baff in region (Ibid: 55). There is a high dependency on government for both welfare and employment. Publ ic sector jobs account for 52.3 percent of a l l monetary income in the community, and per capi ta federal and t e r r i to r i a l transfer payments to the community are more than twice as high as the regional average (Ibid: 51). In 1982, there were 415 people in the community between the ages of 17 and 65, yet only 142 jobs were available for these people. Seventy-nine jobs were in the public sector, and an estimated 63 jobs were in the private sector. This included seasonal and self-employed jobs (Ibid: 71). Table I shows to ta l community income for Pangnirtung in ,1982. It shows that income from the private sector consisted of only 30.2 percent of the tota l monetary income in the community. The areas that contributed the most to private income included re ta i l sales, arts and craf t s /and renewable resources. Al though seal skins were a major source of income for hunters in the community during the 1970s, the anti-sealing campaign has resulted in a.drop in price from an average of $40 per skin in the late 1970s to $5 per skin in 1984 (Joamie, 1985). This has caused a major reduction in the community's exports. In 1983, arts and crafts was the community's largest export. The community has a weave shop, a print-making shop, and produces many carvings. Pangnirtung is well-known for its high quality art . - 31 -TABLE I Pangnirtung Community Income: 1982  With and Without Imputed Value of Country Foods - $ Income % of Total Not Including Country Foods % of Total Including Country Foods Publ ic Sector Government Employment GNWT Transfer Payments Federa l Transfer Payments 2 ,298,342 30,691 470,259 52.3 6.8 17.5 30 .5 4 . 0 6 .2 Sub-total Public Sector 3,069,292 69.8 40.7 Pr iva te Sector Fish , Fu r and Ivory Sales Mining Construct ion Re ta i l Ar t s and Crafts'-*-) Hote l and Restaurants^) Outf i t t ing^ 1 ) 247,818 93,754 170,000 379,000 270,000 120,000 43,000 5.6 2.1 3.9 8.6 6.1 2.7 1.0 3 .2 1.2 2 .3 5 .0 3 .6 1.6 0 .6 Sub-Total Private Sector 1,328,572 30.2% 17.6% Total Monetary Income^) 4,397,864 100.0% 58.3% Country Foods Imputed Market Va lued ) 3 ,151,979 41 .7% Total Income with Country Foods 7,549,843 100.0% (1) Based on information supplied by G N W T , Community Prof i le , 1983. These income estimates are probably low, as only incomplete data is available, and a l l three sectors deal with tourists informally, resulting in income which would be undeclared. This refers to personal income from wages, salaries, self-employment earnings, and government payments. Investment income is not included. (3) Based on an annual per capi ta consumption of 342 kgs of country foods at an imputed value of $11.00/kg. (Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , 1984) Source: Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , 1984 Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , 1983 -32 -As with most northern communit ies , Pangnirtung also has its share of social problems. In the last few decades, it has experienced major shifts in its economy, social structures, government programs, education and culture. People are caught in the middle of two worlds; the Inuit and the Kadluna. Many Inuit are finding i t d i f f icul t to adapt to wage economy schedules and l ifestyles, and many are afraid of losing their cul tural ways and values. Dependency on government welfare is high, and lack of hope and job opportunities has resulted in problems of boredom, disillusionment, and depression with the youth. Although the community is off ic ia l ly dry, alcohol and drug abuse are s t i l l major problems (GNWT, 1982). Nevertheless, residents in Pangnirtung are commit ted to their community and concerned about its welfare. It is their home, and loca l people are reluctant to leave the community for opportunities elsewhere. Residents are open, friendly, caring, and par t ic ipate extensively in local committees and social groups (personal observation, 1985). P r io r to the Tourism Program, Pangnirtung had l imi ted involvement in tourism. Mountain c l imbing expeditions have visi ted the community as early as the 1940's. A sport fishing camp in a nearby fjord was established in the early 1970's. More recent ly , the creat ion of Auyui t tuq Nat ional Park Reserve in 1972 has resulted in an increase of mountaineers, hikers, photographers, and naturalists to the area. There was also a smal l loca l hotel owned by Ross Peyton, a Kadluna, where many visitors stayed. P r io r to 1981, most loca l involvement with the tourists had been through selling crafts, skins and carvings, and occassional guiding and outf i t t ing (Joamie, 1985). - 33 -A t that t ime, l oca l people had mixed feelings toward tourism. Although they saw tourism as an opportunity to bring money into the community, they did not know what tourism was a l l about or how to get involved in i t . Fo r many, tourists had left bad impressions by intruding on their pr ivacy, asking too many questions, taking too many photographs, and displacing residents from loca l flights and services. One of the Inuit words for tourist means "people who look in windows" (Marshal l , Mackl in and Monaghan, 1982: 56). As we l l , most tourism businesses were owned by people from outside the community. Tourists came up on charters organized by non-locals, stayed at the hotel which was owned by a non-Inuk, bought their goods at the Hudson's Bay store, and only hired loca l people for the odd t r ip . L o c a l Inuit felt they did not benefit from the tourism as much as they should have. Nevertheless, government officials and many local residents saw potential benefits in tour ism. The area had many at tract ions, and if the industry was organized differently, they felt it could create businesses and employment for loca l people. P R O G R A M S T A R T - U P The idea for the Pangnirtung Tourism Program originated in 1980, from senior staff in the GNWT Department of Economic Development and Tourism (Vaughan, 1985). These off ic ials fel t that a pilot program could help develop new tourism planning and implementat ion methods in the - 34 -arc t i c , and test out whether or not tourism could help in local community development. The officials selected Pangnirtung for the program, and proposed the study to the Baf f in Regional Counci l and the residents of Pangnirtung (Trudeau, 1985). Reac t ion to the idea was favourable. A tourism sub-committee of the Pangnirtung Hamlet Counci l was formed to provide input into the program. The Department of Economic Development and Tourism then prepared terms of reference for the study, reviewed these with the community, and after receiving proposals, hired the Toronto-based f i rm of Marshal l M a c k l i n Monaghan to do the work. P R O G R A M O B J E C T I V E S There were several objectives identif ied for the program. Unfortunately, many of these objectives were impl i c i t and only informally recognized, rather than expl ic i t ly stated. The author could not find any single document which comprehensively l isted the objectives of the program for when i t was first established in 1981 or for later on in 1985 at the t ime of research. A s we l l , the GNWT did not have any formally established policies or c r i t e r i a for tourism development when the program was first started, other than knowing they wanted tourism to be community based and result in maximum benefits to local people. They saw the Pangnirtung study as one vehicle whereby more specific policies could be tested and developed. A n - 35 -organized strategy for tourism development in the north was not c lear ly ar t iculated unti l 1983, with the GNWT document, "Community Based Tourism: A Strategy for the Northwest Terr i tor ies Tourism Industry". It is dif f icul t to distinguish, therefore, those program objectives which were established at the outset, and those which have developed through t ime in the program. Fo r the purposes of this research, however, it is essential to identify a clear set of program c r i t e r i a and objectives which can be used as a basis for evaluation. In developing these objectives, then, I gsed two main sources: 1. I reviewed relevant documentation on the program and GNWT policies for tourism development in the north; and 2. I asked the part icipants of the program, including the residents of Pangnirtung, what they felt the goals and objectives of the program were and should be. Although participants had slightly different pr ior i t ies in regard to different program objectives, the objectives listed by various participants were compatible, and resulted in a comprehensive set of goals and cr i te r ia by which the program could be evaluated. The objectives identified in this way consist of the fol lowing: - 36 -3.3.1 P i l o t Study Objectives One important set of objectives was to use the program as a pilot study for learning and developmental purposes. This was part icularly important to GNWT off ic ia ls . This included: a) to develop new methods for tour ism planning and implementation in the north, par t icular ly those which were community-based, included par t ic ipat ion with local people, and resulted in a strategy which was a p rac t i ca l and real is t ic blueprint for act ion; b) to use the program as a test case and demonstration project, so that tourism could be evaluated as to its impact on local development, and the program could be used as a demonstration project for other communit ies to learn from; and c) to use the program to develop new government policies ,for effect ive tourism development elsewhere in the north. These objectives were clearly supported by the following memo by a senior government of f ic ia l at the t ime: " A t the present t ime, there is a lack of information available to the communities concerning the tourism industry, what it implies , how communities can direct tourism, or what steps communities could take in order to gain maximum benefits from i t . The results of the pi lot project should provide this information, thus helping communit ies to decide for themselves the extent to which community based tourism could assist them . in achieving their social and economic development goals and objectives" (Vaughan, 1981). - 37 -3.3.2 Economic Development Objectives The economic objectives of the program were important to a l l participants. The main rationale for developing tourism in the north was, and s t i l l is, to strengthen local economies and provide jobs for northern residents. Specif ic objectives included: a) to help strengthen and diversify the local economy, by increasing loca l tourism jobs and busines opportunities, thereby reducing dependence on government jobs and the sealing industry; b) to increase the local economic benefits of tourism, by increasing tourism spending in the community, and reducing the flow of tourism money out of the community; and c) to encourage long-term self-sufficiency of the community, by promoting private sector jobs in tourism which were fel t to be more stable and long-term than jobs in businesses such as mining or furs. 3.3.3 Social Development Objectives The social objectives of the program were also important to a l l part icipants, part icularly to loca l residents. Specific social objectives identified were: - 38 -a) to promote development that fits in with local lifestyles and culture, including development which is compatible with subsistance and hunting ac t iv i t ies , and which respects t radi t ional Inuit values and l ifestyles; b) to promote development which will help the community achieve its own social goals, by providing jobs and reducing dependency on socia l assistance, and by promoting cul tura l programs and faci l i t ies which could benefit both tourism and loca l soc ia l development. c) to facilitate cross-cultural learning and local skills in dealing with outside people, by providing opportunities where Inuit and non-Inuit can get to know each other in a posit ive atmosphere, and where loca l people could develop ski l ls in dealing with non-Inuit people. Government people in par t icular stressed this objective. 3.3.4 Community Development Objectives Another goal of the program was to help build local experience and capacity in community development. Specif ic objectives included: a) to facilitate local management and control over tourism development, through encouraging loca l ownership, loca l decision-making, and local s k i l l development in managing tourism businesses and the program; - 39 -b) to develop local awareness about tourism, so that residents could make informed decisions regarding tourism development; and c) to help develop capacity in planning and development, through training, involving residents in the development process and giving them responsibility in making decisions for the community. T H E P L A N N I N G P R O C E S S The planning phase of the program started in February 1981. The consultants' terms of reference included the following: a) to assess tourism opportunities in the area; b) to identify potential social and economic impacts of tourism in the community; c) to identify solutions to the possible negative impacts of tourism in the area; d) to identify existing and potential tourism markets in the area; e) to design a five-year community-based tourism development strategy that was supported by the community; f) to identify government policy and program changes that would be required to accommodate community-based tourism; and -40 -g) to identify potent ial funding for program implementation (Marshall Mack l in Monaghan, 1982). The consultants made their f irst vis i t to Pangnirtung in March , 1981, and stayed for two weeks. During this t r ip , they met local people, identified community concerns, and inventoried tourism opportunities and constraints. Newslet ters explaining the study were sent to a l l homes in the community, and over 20 meetings were held wi th community groups, committees and residents. Trips were also made in the surrounding countryside with the loca l Hunters and Trappers Associa t ion . Attendance at public meetings, however, was low (Marshall , M a c k l i n , Monaghan, 1982). Af t e r this vis i t , the consultants identified potential local tourism opportunities. They also designed three surveys to assess tourism markets for the area and adminstered them from May to October, 1981 to existing visitors, special northern interest groups, and tour wholesalers. The consultants conducted a second two-week visi t in the summer of 1981, during which they continued their f ie ld work and visits with residents. Based on their meetings, f ield inventories, and market research, the consultants then developed five al ternative tourism strategies for community consideration. These included: 1. A non-tourism strategy, to discourage tourism so that tradit ional lifestyles could continue and other types of development could be explored; - 4 1 -2. A strategy based on market demand, in which demands and ini t iat ives in the private sector would determine the direct ion of development; 3. A strategy to maintain and expand traditional markets, in which exist ing tourism act iv i t ies and markets would be promoted; 4. A structured specific market strategy, which would cater to smal l group (10 to 15 people) tours by developing faci l i t ies and a special ized marketing strategy; and 5. A "short stay" broad market strategy, which would cater to larger tour groups (30+ people) staying over for short stays in the community (Ibid: 105-14). These options, wi th a brief evaluation of each, were presented in a report to the community that f a l l . The consultants also prepared a slide/tape show in Inuktitut to explain what tourism was and what i t could mean to the community. In October , the consultants made their third visi t to the community. A public meeting was held with the sl ide/tape show, and the alternatives were presented wi th a recommendation to proceed with Option 4. A t the meeting, the community was asked to vote on one strategy, so the consultants could continue with that al ternat ive in their ongoing work (Ibid: 118). - 4 2 -The community, however, did not understand the process very well. The meeting was not well attended, and there was confusion about the meaning of the five strategies. The community did not feel ready to vote on the alternatives (Trumper, 1985). At this time, the Tourism Committee held their first meetings. Previously planned meetings had been cancelled because of lack of interest. After the presentation of the alternatives, however, they met several times to discuss the project with the consultant, understand the strategies, and present the alternatives to the community. Several open-line radio shows were held, and newsletters explained and discussed the plans. After several weeks of discussion, the community still did not understand the alternatives, so they prepared an "8 point manifesto" to identify the conditions they felt tourism development must meet. It read as follows: TOURISM SUB-COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATION TO HAMLET COUNCIL ON THE TOURIST STUDY "The Tourism Committee of Pangnirtung has conducted a series of radio shows to hear what the people of Pangnirtung have to say about tourism. On the basis of these radio shows, we, the committee, understand that: 1) the community wants more control and more involvement in the tourist business in Pangnirtung; 2) the community wants a tourism committee to monitor all developments in the tourist industry in Pangnirtung; 3) the community wants tourism guides to be hired to take tourists around Pangnirtung and answer their questions; - 43 -4) the community wants to control where people can go on the land and where they cannot go. The commit tee recommends that a map of the area be drawn up showing the areas where tourists can be taken and where they cannot be taken; 5) the community definitely does not want any use of helicopters to transport tourists around the Pangnirtung area; 6) the community does not want tourists to be vis i t ing the summer camps; 7) the community would l ike to see more control over the number of tourists who come into the community at any one t ime; 8) the commit tee recommends that an outf i t ter should set up a model camp somewhere in Cumberland Sound for tourists to vis i t for a few days at a t ime . The Tourism Commi t t ee recommends that on the basis of these above points, the consultants doing the tourism study should develop a tourism plan for the community that best suits the wishes of the people of Pangnirtung" (Pangnirtung Tourism Sub-committee, as quoted in Marshal l , M a c k l i n , Monaghan, 1982, p. 142-143). The consultants felt these conditions favoured strategy N o . 4, "The Tour Group Approach", and continued developing this al ternat ive. In the meantime, the Tourism Commi t t ee continued to meet to discuss tourism and their role in taking the program over once the planning study was complete. The G N W T Area Economic Development Off icer (AEDO) played an important role at this t ime. She helped organize commit tee meetings, took minutes, and faci l i ta ted discussion about tourism and the planning study for Pangnirtung. She noted that, although many educational strides s t i l l had to be made at the t ime, the Commit tee was becoming more knowledgeable about tourism, and i t was building strength (Trumper, 1982). - 44 -Shortly thereafter, the consultants submitted their final report, which consisted of a detailed 277-page technica l report and a 23-page summary report wr i t ten in both English and Inuktitut . The report contained the fol lowing components: 1. A n analysis of tourism opportunities and constraints for Pangnirtung. 2. A brief review of resident att i tudes toward tourism. 3. A market analysis and implicat ions . 4. A n overal l development strategy based on option N o . 4, the tour group al ternative. 5. A five-year program implementat ion strategy, which identified 26 specif ic projects and budgets, and identified the role of the Tourism Commi t t ee , training, funding, and Auyui t tuq Nat ional Park. Appendix B contains a summary sheet of the implementation strategy. The study's key recommendations were: a) to create a number of ac t iv i t ies and faci l i t ies that would a t t ract tourists to Pangnirtung, such as t ra i l s , tours, t radi t ional camps, host programs and brochures. b) to build a new hotel; and - 45 -c) to create a formal Tour ism Board which would organize, promote, and control tourism in Pangnirtung (Marshal l , M a c k l i n , Monaghan, 1982). In February 1982, the consultants made their f inal presentation to the community at a public meeting, during which the community was asked to endorse or reject the plan. Senior GNWT off ic ials were also present. Community residents, however, were upset at feeling pressured to make their minds up at the meeting, so they told the off ic ials that they would wai t with their decision unt i l they understood the study more completely . (Trumper, 1985). F o r the next month, the study was examined in detai l by the Commit tee , and after several meetings, the community decided it was supportive of the plan. The consultants and GNWT officials then held a f inal series of meetings with the community and Commi t t ee to discuss implementat ion. The Commit tee approved the strategy in principle, and decided to start immediately on six projects (Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee , A p r i l 29, 1982). 3.5 THE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE 3.5.1 Year 1 - 1982 Shortly after the Tourism Commi t t ee decided to proceed wi th the plan, the Department of Economic Development and Tourism arranged for $50,000 of funding for implementat ion. -46 -In this f irs t season, the following actions were taken. a) A consultant was hired to help wi th Commi t t ee training and implementat ion of the program. b) The Tourism Commi t t ee was further organized through meetings, formal ized roles, and par t ic ipat ion in summer projects. c) A tourism information office was opened. d) A community host was hired to greet visitors and arrange for tours of the town. e) Two hiking t rai ls were designed and located close to the community. f) Interpretive brochures for the t ra i ls were drafted. g) Two labourers and one local tourism trainee were hired for two months. h) Progress was made in organizing outfi t ters and arranging for a training program in 1983 (Pangnirtung Tourism Commit tee , 1982). These projects were directed by the Tourism Commi t t ee , which reported to Counc i l and the community regularly. A s the A E D O noted: -47 -"The actual delivery of the suggested development plans was undertaken on several fronts. The 26 development schemes were summerized into straight-forward categories and these were translated ver ba t im. Through a series of commit tee meetings we worked through each plan, making alterations where members felt it was necessary. Eight of the 26 plans were undertaken for the f i rs t year under special O & M and capi ta l provisions in both H Q and regional tourism budgets." "Once the first eight projects were settled on for the first development year, they were presented by the chairman in a brief to Counc i l . A series of radio shows by commit tee members outlined the plans to the community. A t ime-frame for development was drafted by the commit tee and revised as we progressed, and always this was passed on to Counc i l to ensure we weren't accused of moving forward in isolation" (Trumper, 1983). 3.5.2 Year 2 - 1983 In year 2, the Commit tee continued wi th previous projects and began several new ones. The following actions were taken. a) A consultant was hired to: 1. coordinate the tourism program; 2. oversee the complet ion of t rai ls and t ra i l signage; 3. photograph loca l f lora; 4. design and lay out a summer camp and associated t r a i l ; 5. wri te a walking tour brochure and a Keker ton whaling station brochure; 6. assess the tourism potent ia l of additional t rai ls ; 7. conduct a tourism awareness workshop; 8. recommend a plan for a day fishing camp; and 9. make recommendations for projects to be undertaken in Y e a r 3 (Strahlendorf, 1983). - 4 8 -b) The tourism office was improved. c) The community host program was continued and expanded. d) L o c a l people were hired for t r a i l construction and hosting. e) The Commi t t ee worked with the outfi t ters to improve organization. f) Archaeologica l work was undertaken at Keker ton (Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee , 1983). Although the Commi t t ee was consistently getting stronger, the A E D O continued to play an important role . She provided advice where required, prepared budgets and funding proposals, and lobbied for tourism interests both in the community and to outside agencies. She worked very hard to build a base of knowledge and independence in the Commi t t ee so that they could start weilding their own effective cont ro l over the program. A s she states: "Up unti l my departure, I organized and attended each monthly meeting, took the minutes, had them translated, and prepared the agenda. Copies of minutes and the upcoming agenda were sent to each member in advance of the next meeting as we l l as the mayor and R . Trudeau. Incidentally, I sat in on these meetings in an ex off icio capacity." " A chairman and deputy were elected, and as t ime went on they assumed most of the responsibility for gathering members for meetings, recrui t ing members, and being the chief spokesmen for the tourism plan at B R C and on C B C northern radio programming. It's no secret that tourism spokesmen from the committees are far more effect ive than ourselves in communicating the essence of the tourism message." - 4 9 -"It took at least two years of work, but the commit tee eventually reached a threshold of assuming more power. Power very clear ly derives from knowledge, and after twenty or more lengthy meetings in smokey rooms, cer ta in members began to be quite well-spoken on the issues of tourism as they affected Pangnirtung. (Others, of course, took less interest in the subject and were therefore less informed.) The committee is now at a stage where they want cont ro l of some of the budget, and for many of the minor O & M and capi ta l expenditures this seems quite possible. I encourage independence in order that tourism development is perceived as, and is, an ini t ia t ive of the community, and not soley that of the government" (Trumper, 1983). A t this t ime, members of the Tourism Commi t t ee began to be known as experts in tourism in other northern communit ies . They often went to other a rc t i c villages to act as advisors in helping communities set up tourism programs of their own. Thus, valuable learning between northern communit ies started to happen (Komoartuk, 1985). 3.5.3 Year 3 - 1984 In Y e a r 3, the community continued to be act ive in developing tour ism. The fol lowing act iv i t ies took place. a) Three outfit ters from Pangnirtung attended a guide L e v e l 1 training program in Frobisher Bay* b) A ful l - t ime general manager was hired for the Tourism Commi t t ee . c) L o c a l people were hired on a var ie ty of tourism construction and cul tura l projects. - 50 -d) A tourist summer camp was planned out. e) A glaciation t r a i l was laid out. f) The tourism host program was expanded and continued. g) A project documenting loca l history and historic buildings was completed by summer high-school students. h) Archaeologica l research continued at Keker ton . i) A n attempt to organize outfi t ters was made through standardizing rates and licensing to ensure fairness and safety (Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee , 1984). 3.5.4 Year 4 - 1985 In year 4 the Commi t t ee continued to be active and tourism vis i ta t ion increased over the previous year. A c t i v i t i e s included the following i tems. a) A landscape archi tect was hired to assist the Commit tee in its projects. b) Further development work took place on a glaciat ion t r a i l . c) Repairs took place on two already constructed t ra i ls . - 51 -d) The hosting program was continued and expanded. e) Archae log ica l work at Keker ton continued. f) Fur ther development work was done on the t radi t ional summer camp. g) Some loca l outfit ters attended a guide training program, held elsewhere in the region. h) The general manager position with the Tourism Commit tee continued on a ful l - t ime basis. i) Research data gathering began for this thesis research study (Magee, 1987; Hamburg, 1987; Keenainak, 1987). 3.5.5 Year 5 - 1986 In 1986, the Commi t t ee continued to be ac t ive on several fronts. Tourism visi tat ion levels again increased over the previous year. Developments included the following i tems. a) Construct ion began on a new visitors centre. The centre houses a museum, visitors ' information centre, elders society meeting room, and the Tourism Commi t t ee off ice . - 52 -b) Development work regarding interpret ive faci l i t ies and trails took place on Keker ton Whaling Stat ion. This employed seven local people in summer jobs. c) The general manager's position for the Tourism Commit tee was made fu l l - t ime. d) A new t r a i l brochure was made for the Pangnirtung area. Old trai ls were improved, relocated and completed as appropriate. e) The landscape archi tect was again hired to assist in the program. f) The hosting program was continued. g) A Pangnirtung information brochure was produced, and distributed to air passengers as they flew into Pangnirtung. h) A new fish camp, operated by local people, opened business on a part-t ime basis. i) A local craft store, owned by loca l people, was started in the vi l lage, j) A loca l fishing camp was made for tourists. k) Research results, as contained in Appendix A , were compiled and sent to the Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee for comment. - 53 -1) Some local people attended a guide training program held elsewhere. One local outf i t ter was sent out to take a trainers course on guiding, and w i l l act as a trainer in future years (Magee, 1987; Hamburg, 1987; Keenainak, 1987). 3.5.6 Current Status - 1987 The program continues to be very ac t ive in the community. The following ac t iv i t ies are in progress: a) The landscape archi tect has been hired for a third consecutive year to assist with program ac t iv i t i es . b) The visitors centre w i l l be completed and opened in the f a l l . c) Development work w i l l be completed at Keker ton and the site w i l l be off ic ia l ly opened as a Te r r i t o r i a l His tor ic Park this year. It w i l l include a boardwalk and interpret ive fac i l i t ies . d) Peyton's Lodge has recently been purchased by a group of loca l and regional investors. L o c a l interests own over 50 percent and loca l ownership is distributed evenly among a large group of Inuit investors in the community. Renovations are scheduled for the fa l l of 1987. Expansion, i f warranted, is scheduled for 1988/89. - 54 -e) The outfit ters are more organized, and are working together with the Tourism Commi t t ee in referrals and setting standardized prices and safety procedures. f) A t radi t ional summer camp is being established close to town. g) The Tourism Commi t t ee has obtained a lease on the old Hudson's Bay Company buildings and the old whaling station in the community, and is planning to start a preservation and interpretation program for these historic sites. h) The tourism host program is continuing and expanding as required. i) The third fishing camp has continued to operate on a part- t ime basis. j) The craft store that opened in 1986 has remained closed, due to unspecified problems. k) The thesis research is being completed and sent to the community. By a l l accounts, 1987 is the busiest tourism year Pangnirtung has ever had, and has been described as "bumper crop". Vis i ta t ion in just the first four months of the 1987/88 year is already 20 percent higher than the tota l annual vis i tat ion for the 1986/87 year (Magee, 1987). Whereas in 1984 outfit ters were often idle and wait ing for cl ients , they are now booked ahead of t ime and are very busy (Hamburg, 1987). - 55 -There are s t i l l 12 l icenced outfi t ters in the community, but fewer unlicenced outfit ters, as the GNWT is becoming s t r ic ter on l icencing and safety procedures (Keenainak, 1987). Accord ing to the A E D O , residents in Pangnirtung are becoming more aware of tourism, and are pleased that it is increasing (Magee, 1987). The current general manager for the Tourism Commi t t ee noted that, although he has received some negative comments from residents regarding the number of tourists in town, most comments he has received from locals regarding tourism have been posit ive. He stated people are happy that tourism is bringing income into the community and creat ing jobs (Keenainak, 1987). - 56 -\ Figure 7: Skating after church. 4.0 EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM AS A PILOT STUDY A major objective of the program was to use the program as a pilot study for learning and developmental purposes. The program was set up to explore one way of solving the problems of community economic development in the north, and develop tourism policies and programs that could assist communities in achieving their development goals. Specific program objectives identified in the program literature and by participants included: - 57 -1. The program should develop new methods for effective tourism planning and implementation in the north; 2. The program should be used as a test case and demonstration project to learn more about tourism development in the north; and 3. The program should be used to develop new government policies and programs for effect ive tourism development elsewhere in the north. 4.1 APPROPRIATENESS OF THE PROGRAM SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES As already stated, the program was set up to help combat some of the problems of underdevelopment and welfare dependency in the north. A s such, to be effect ive, i t is important that the scope and objectives of the pilot study address the major issues of northern development, as identified in the l i terature and by residents of the north. These issues have already been identified in Section 1.3 of this report. In this section, the program is briefly evaluated in terms of how wel l its objectives and scope addressed these issues. 4.1.1 Program Objectives For the most part, the project objectives did address the major issues and directions for northern community development, as identified in the l i terature. - 58 -a) Crea te increased incentives for development: Although the program mandate did not include making changes to existing housing, welfare, or bailout programs, one of i ts major objectives was to provide opportunities where loca l people could easily get involved in earning extra income through outf i t t ing , arts and craft sales or tourism project jobs. Therefore, the program was set up to provide incentives to start getting involved in businesses, which is a first step in developing role models and experience for larger scale community development. b) Coordinat ion between the formal and informal economy: One major objective of the program was to develop an industry which would fi t in with tradi t ional l ifestyles and cultures. This strongly supports the principle of coordinating the t radi t ional informal economy with the formal economy. c) L o c a l control and ownership: A major objective of the program was to develop an industry which was owned, controlled and managed by loca l people. This c lear ly addresses the issue of local control and ownership. d) Reduct ion of economic leakages: The program objectives c lear ly addressed the issue of economic leakages. They supported the development of an industry which was owned and operated by loca l people and encouraged the production and sale of local ly produced goods. These a l l contribute to the reduction of leakages from a community. - 59 -e) Training: The program objectives strongly supported the development of loca l expertise through training programs and job experience. S k i l l development was a major objective of the program. f) Socia l development: The objectives of the program clear ly stated the importance of developing an industry which f i t in with loca l l ifestyles and culture, and helped the community achieve its social goals. g) Stable economic ac t iv i t i es : The program objectives also identified the importance of establishing an economic base which was stable, diverse and viable. The tourism industry was specif ical ly chosen because it was seen as an industry which was stable and sustainable on a long-term basis. h) Planning, research and monitoring: The objectives stated that the program was to be set up as a pi lot study in tourism planning, research and monitoring in the north. Therefore, the program clear ly addressed this important issue. The program objectives, therefore, c lear ly address the major issues of community development for the north, as identified in the l i terature. This is not surprising, as the people who designed the program objectives ~ the government officials and residents of the north — live with the problems of northern development every day, and many are we l l versed in the current l i terature relating to northern development issues and concerns. - 60 -4.1.2 Program Scope The program dealt specif ical ly wi th development in tourism. It did not address possible development opportunities in other sectors. Part icipants noted that this had both advantages and disadvantages. A major advantage of l imi t ing the pi lot study to tourism was that i t gave the program focus. It concentrated on development in an area that the i community was already fami l ia r wi th and interested in pursuing further. This helped encourage loca l par t ic ipat ion in and understanding of the program. A major disadvantage, however, was that the program did not examine opportunities in other sectors, or deal with the coordination of tourism with other sectors in Pangnirtung. F ive respondents, including three government off ic ials , fel t that this was l imi t ing , inappropriate, and potential ly risky. They fel t that because the study only dealt with tourism, potential opportunities in other sectors may be overlooked, and potential confl icts or coordination between the different sectors may not be identified. One senior government o f f i c ia l also felt that the emphasis on tourism in the north was raising people's expectations falsely regarding the potential of tourism to provide a suitable economic base for local communit ies. He felt the focus of the Pangnirtung program on only tourism was further - 61 -aggravating this problem, which could potential ly encourage a reduction of economic diversi ty in communities, rather than an increase i n . d ivers i ty(Alwar id , 1985). For these reasons, five part icipants, including the consultant and some senior officials wi th in the G N W T , fel t that the study would have been more effective i f it had been mult i -sector rather than dealing with only tour ism. In their v iew, the study should have started with a regional socio-economic development overview, identifying opportunities and constraints in a l l sectors. This could then have been followed up with more detailed work for the opportunities identif ied. This could have encouraged a more comprehensive mult i -sector development strategy for Pangnirtung, and could have also broadened residents' awareness about the different opprtunities available to the community (Verburg, 1985). One of the potent ia l problems wi th a broader strategy, however, is that i t probably wouldn't have had as strong a focus as the single sector tourism strategy did. Some government off icials pointed out that because of this, public par t ic ipat ion and awareness may have been more diff icult wi th a mult i-sector study (Vaughan, 1985). THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN EFFECTIVE TOURISM PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS When the Pangnirtung Tourism Program was first established, its intent was to develop a planning and implementation process which: - 62 -a) encouraged the par t ic ipat ion of loca l people; b) could be understood by loca l people and used as a vehicle for learning; c) encouraged local commitment and control over development; and d) resulted in a real is t ic community based strategy which would be sensitive to local needs and aspirations. Respondents had mixed feelings about how successful the program was in achieving these objectives. Several strengths were pointed out, however, weaknesses were also noted. Par t ic ipants also had several suggestions as to how the process could have been improved. 4.2.1 Strengths of the Planning and Implementation Process 4.2.1.1 Involvement of L o c a l People Twelve participants mentioned that one of the most important strengths of the program was its involvement of loca l people. A number of factors contributed to this: a) Contact between consultants and residents during the planning  process: During planning, the consultants made an effort to make good contacts with residents and include them in the work. During f ield visits, the consultants usually stayed for l £ to 2 weeks, and kept - 63 -the community informed through meetings, house visi ts , newsletters and local phone-in radio programs. They also worked with the Hunters and Trappers Associa t ion . Some part icipants mentioned that these measures helped to increase local awareness and strengthen resident input. A n effective Tourism Commi t tee ; Eleven part icipants from a range of categories felt the establishment of the loca l Tourism Commit tee was one of the major strengths of the Program. The Commit tee was, and s t i l l is, the main vehicle for local par t ic ipat ion and control in the plan. It acted as the l iaison between residents and outside consultants and off ic ia ls , and organized tourism awareness programs the community could understand. Commi t t ee members took it upon themselves to learn about tourism, build the skil ls required to guide its development in the community, and fac i l i ta te local input into the decision making process (Sowdloapik, 1985). L o c a l control over decision-making; Another important factor in fac i l i ta t ing loca l involvement was the control loca l people had in the program. Fo r example, the pilot study started only after i t received support from the community . During planning, the consultants were required to get specific feedback from the community before they could proceed further. In implementat ion, the community, through the Commit tee , has always maintained strong control over the direction of projects and the program. Respondents from a l l - 64 -categories felt this local control was essential for maintaining a program which belonged to the loca l people and was sensitive to their needs. d) L o c a l involvement in projects; The Commi t t ee has tr ied to maximize loca l involvement within the community. It has members from a variety of other community groups in Pangnirtung. It has also t r ied to fac i l i ta te local input through meetings, newsletters and radio programs. A s we l l , in its projects, the Commit tee has hired both young and old, and men and women. Many local respondents noted that these policies increased support for the program and loca l understanding of tourism. 4.2.1.2 Strong Ski l ls and Personal Rapport of the Professional People Involved Some government officials felt that the personalities and skills of the professional people involved also contributed to the strength of the program. They felt the consultants were highly skil led and knew how to work wi th local people. They had a sense of humour, a genuine respect for local people, and were wi l l ing to adapt to local schedules and customs. This helped build a good rapport wi th the community (Trumper, 1985). Government officials also noted that the A E D O contributed greatly to the program. She helped organize the Tourism Commit tee and played an act ive role in working with its members and building skil ls . This was important for fac i l i ta t ing local involvement and control in the program (Hamburg, 1985). - 65 -4.2.1.3 Supportive Government Although few participants mentioned this point, i t is clear from reviewing the program that much of its success was also due to a supportive government. Government funding has provided ongoing support for program planning, capi ta l , operation, maintenance, and salary expenditures (Vaughan, 1985). Supportive government staff have also been important. Economic Development and Tour ism staff in Pangnirtung, Iqaluit and Yel lowkni fe strongly supported the program and have wil l ingly spent considerable t ime working on i t . Government participants noted that this involvemenent has been of a training and supportive nature, and has helped build local skil ls , independence, and control in the program (Trumper, 1985). 4.2.1.4 A Useful F ina l Report The planning program also produced a credible f inal report that could be used by the Commit tee for implementat ion. It has given legi t imacy to the program, which is essential in terms of accessing funding and government assistance (Vaughan, 1985). 4.2.1.5 Commitment to Fol low-up and Carry- through in Implementation Much of the success of the program has been due to consistent follow-up and carry-through during implementat ion. The plan was not a document that sat on the shelf and col lec ted dust. Through the commitment and hard work of the Tourism Commi t t ee and the Economic Development and - 66 -Tourism staff, act ion projects were identif ied, funded and implemented as appropriate. In the early years, the projects were re la t ively smal l , wi th a large component of GNWT guidance. A s local capabil i t ies and experience grew, however, the projects have become larger and more complex, and the Commit tee has been taking an increasing role in guiding the program. Now the GNWT and the Commi t t ee work together in guiding the program. This dedication to following through on projects, identifying needs, and putting plans into action has been a major factor in determining the success of the program in Pangnirtung. 4.2.2 Weaknesses of the Planning and Implementation Process Part icipants also noted a number of weaknesses in the planning and implementation process of the program. Concerns included public involvement, the al ternative strategy planning process used, project t iming, lack of follow-up, narrow study focus, an emphasis on capi ta l projects, and a poor marketing component. 4.2.2.1 Poor Areas of Publ ic Involvement Although public involvement was identified by 12 respondents as one of the main strengths of the program, twelve part icipants, including eight loca l people, also felt i t was not as strong as it should have been, especially during planning. The fol lowing points were noted. - 67 -a) Poor local Involvement during program ini t ia t ion: L o c a l people were not significantly involved in in i t ia t ing the program. Rather , it was the GNWT who thought of the program, presented the idea to the community, set the scope, drew up the terms of reference, and hired the consultants for the study. Therefore, the community was only minimally included in sett ing the objectives and scope for the pilot study. This lack of local involvement during project ini t ia t ion seriously contradicts the concept of community-based development. The planning l i terature stresses the importance of involving local people during program ini t ia t ion (Rees, 1986). This gives the community a chance to identify its problems, c lar i fy its goals and aspirations on a comprehensive basis, set the program scope and objectives accordingly, and develop ownership and knowledge in the planning process from the start . Without this in i t i a l local involvement, there was a grey area during the beginning of the planning phase when residents were only vaguely aware o f or interested in the project. A l l the early Tourism Commi t t ee meetings were cancel led because of lack of interest, and the consultants had to spend a lot of t ime explaining the project to loca l residents (Magee, 1987). This lack of loca l involvement l imi ted the input that residents could make in designing a planning process that would work in the community . - 68 -b) Poor public awareness during planning; Even though the consultants ; t r ied a number of techniques to involve the public during planning, many local part icipants s t i l l felt they were not very aware of the planning process. Turnout at public meetings and response at the radio phone-in programs were low. When asked by the researcher what they thought of the planning study, most local respondents could not remember i t . The planning process, as followed, was not t radi t ional in the Inuit cul ture, however, and this may explain some of the awareness dif f icul t ies the consultants had. This again stresses the importance of involving loca l people during project ini t ia t ion to enable designing a program and process that local people are interested in par t ic ipat ing in . c) Short consultant vis i ts ; A few local people fel t that the consultant visits were too short. They felt that l £ to 2 week visits weren't really long enough to get to know the community and start working with the people. They fel t the visits should have been longer (Joamie, 1985). d) Poor tourism awarness programs and unrealistic expectations: The awareness programs during planning were also ineffective. Nine respondents felt the slide and tape awareness program was too late in the planning study, and not comprehensive enough. They felt that areas such as the cu l tura l , legal , economic or developmental issues connected with tourism were not adequately dealt wi th . As we l l , no major public awareness programs have taken place during implementation. - 69 -Because of the poor awareness programs, respondents in a l l categories felt most residents s t i l l have poor understanding of tourism and unrealist ic expectations regarding its potential benefits. Government off icials and outfi t ters did mention, however, that the guide training programs were successful in increasing awareness among outfi t ters. 4.2.2.2 Poor Al te rna t ive Strategy Approach During Planning The approach of choosing between five al ternat ive strategies did not work wel l in the community. Residents did not understand the strategies, nor did they know what to do with them. In the end, they designed their own "manifesto" and responded with a c lear definit ion of what they wanted tourism to do. In hindsight, the consultants and government officials agreed the al ternative strategies approach did not work. As the A E D O stated: "In my own opinion, the strategy approach was never we l l understood by the community members concerned, for the simple reason that ' tourism' as a concept is not a l l that we l l understood. The work 'strategy' does not translate we l l into Inuktitut. I agree a framework is needed, but trying to differentiate the strategies to the communities before thoroughly exposing the subject was 'putting the cart before the horse'" (Trumper, 1982). 4.2.2.3 Not Enough Time Given for Decis ion-Making in the Planning Process L o c a l residents had a lot to learn about tourism, yet they were often requested to make major decisions in short periods of t ime, so the program -70 -could stay on the government's and consultants' schedule. L o c a l people felt this was unfair. In some cases, residents had.to insist that they be given the extra t ime to make their decisions properly (Trumper, 1985). 4.2.2.4 Slow Funding Follow-up and L a c k of Cont inui ty With Personnel Some loca l people and government off icials also felt that funding follow-up was not quick enough. Once the community decided to support the program, some participants noted that funding approvals had often been slow. Funding for 1984 summer season, for example, was not received in the community unti l the f a l l of 1984 (Joamie, 1985). Some loca l people also noted that personnel changes contributed to lack of continuity with the program. A s Commit tee members and general managers changed, continuity was lost, and when the A E D O in Pangnirtung was changed, continuity was lost for a short while. 4.2.2.5 Emphasis on Cap i t a l Growth Rather Than Organizat ional Development Three government off ic ials fel t there was too much emphasis on implementing capi ta l projects that would look good on government records, rather than faci l i ta t ing long-term organizational development that would enable stronger local management and control in tourism. F o r example, most projects in the implementat ion plan were infrastructure related, and l i t t l e budget emphasis was given to organizational development, public awareness or management t ra ining. - 7 1 -Some government off ic ia ls and Commi t t ee members felt that because of this, the Commi t t ee lacked the expertise to plan and monitor tourism development effect ively from a strategic point of view (Joamie, 1985; Sowdloapik, 1985; Theriaul t , 1985). 4.2.2.6. Lack of Planning Fol low-up During Implementation Once the planning phase was complete, the planning consultant had no more involvement wi th the program. Therefore, there were no opportunities for the consultants to monitor the progress of the plan or contribute to ongoing strategic planning as the program developed. Rather , the Commi t t ee was left on its own in terms of implementing the plan as presented in the f inal report. Six participants, including three members of the Commi t t ee , two government off ic ia ls , and the senior planning consultant for the plan, fe l t this lack fo follow-up was a serious weakness of the program. 4.2.2.7 Rigidi ty of the F i v e - Y e a r P lan Some respondents, par t icular ly members of the Tourism Commit tee , felt the five-year plan was too r ig id . It identified a specif ic t ime schedule for part icular projects, and did not allow for change, monitoring or ongoing strategic planning. As a result, the Commi t t ee has had to use the plan as a point of departure only. It discusses the possible projects, and determines i tself what the projects and priori t ies for that year w i l l be. Because of this, the community has had to change the plan as i t goes along (Sowdloapik, 1985). - 7 2 -4.2.2.8 Poor Market ing Component and L a c k of P r iva te Sector Involvement Several government off ic ials , loca l residents, and industry representatives felt the marketing component program was poor. The community did not know how to market itself, or how marketing among government and private organizations should be organized. Industry participants fel t that this was par t ia l ly due to the fact that they were not included in sett ing marketing strategies for the communi ty . In their view, this led to a strategy which was vague, poorly coordinated with existing operations, and imprac t i ca l . Fur ther comments on marketing are included in Section 5.7.4, 'Improve Tourism Market ing ' . 4.2.3 How the Planning and Implementation Process Could Have Been Improved Part ic ipants had a number of suggestions as to how the planning and implementat ion process could be improved. 4.2.3.1 Improved L o c a l Input During Project Ini t iat ion Some of the problems experienced during the planning phase may have been reduced i f the community had been consulted more during project in i t ia t ion . In this way, community concerns and issues could have been addressed at the outset. L o c a l people could have taken part in designing a program and planning process that they would have participated in and residents could have been more aware of the program from the start . This may have resulted in a planning process that would have encouraged greater loca l awareness, commitment , and part icipat ion in the program. - 7 3 -4.2.3.2 Improved Public Participation During Planning and Implementation Ten government officials and local people felt public participation could have been improved during both planning and implementation. They felt a slower planning process with more emphasis on learning would have been valuable. They suggested that the awareness programs be more in-depth, that they start earlier in the program, and that they continue on an ongoing basis with more newsletters, workshops, radio shows, and information meetings. They felt these measures would have increased the value of people's input, as well as facilitating greater understanding of the development process. Some local people also felt public participation could have been improved in regards to involvement in jobs and local management of the program. Suggestions for improvements in these areas are dealt with in Sections 5.7 and 7.4 respectively. 4.2.3.3 Improved Continuity and Funding Nine participants, covering all categories, mentioned that continuity and funding should have been improved. Continuity could have been improved by arranging for funding well ahead of time so that it was readily available when people are ready for implementation. More flexible and secure funding was also desired. - 74 -4.2.3.4 Improved Organizat ional Development and Training F ive part icipants, including loca l people, government off icials , and the consultants, fe l t that organizational development and training wi th community and Commi t t ee members should have been improved. This is dealt wi th in more detai l in Section 7.4.2. 4.2.3.5 Improved Consultant Fol low-up A s already noted, six part icipants, including three members of the Tourism Commi t t ee fel t that the consultants should have been involved in follow-up during the implementat ion stage of the program. They felt this would have helped with program monitoring, training and ongoing strategic planning. Although the consultants were interested in doing this, the GNWT did not make any provisions for consultant follow-up in its budgets (Verburg, 1985). This is a common problem with many community planning contracts in the north. Some participants fel t that greater provision for consultant fo l low-up should be made in the original funding agreements for these types of projects (Verburg, 1985; Joamie , 1985). 4.2.3.6 Increased F l e x i b i l i t y in the F i v e - Y e a r P lan Four participants mentioned that the f ive-year plan should have been more f lexible . They fel t it should have incorporated an ongoing review and strategic planning process so that unforeseen changes in tourism could have - 7 5 -been dealt wi th . Some also fel t it should also have been able to accommodate different speeds and types of development for entrepreneurs wi th different s k i l l and awareness levels (Neugebauer, 1985; Hamburg, 1985). 4.2.3.7 Improved Industry Par t ic ipa t ion Some industry representatives and Commi t t ee members felt that increased par t ic ipat ion by the tourist industry would have improved the program. They fel t this could have helped in identifying industry needs and loca l tourism products that could have been coordinated with a rea l is t ic marketing strategy. Add i t iona l comments regarding marketing are included in Section 5.7.4. It should be noted, however, that the planners and government off ic ia ls were reluctant to involve too much industry part icipation. They wanted the community to " c a l l the shots" in the program and felt that a large industry presence would have been int imidating (Vaughan, 1987). Nevertheless, some community and industry members felt control led industry part icipat ion could have led to mutual learning and more informed decisions being made regarding tourism opportunities and marketing strategies (Joamie, 1985; Kinner , 1985). - 7 6 -4.3 THE PROGRAM AS A TEST CASE AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT One important objective of the program was to establish a test case and demonstration project in northern tourism. The program was set up as an experiment, something that could be examined and learned from. The GNWT people who ini t ia ted the program wanted to: a) learn what tourism planning and implementat ion methods worked in a rc t ic communities; b) evaluate what the impacts of tourism could be on the people and communities of the north; and c) set up a "show piece" or demonstration model of northern tourism that other communities could learn from and fol low. 4.3.1 Criteria for Evaluating Test Case Effectiveness Test cases have long been used for learning and demonstration in community development. There are three project c r i t e r i a that should be met in order to gain maximum benefits from test cases: a) a formal monitoring and evaluation procedure should be in place to observe the test case and evaluate its results; b) appropriate policies and resources should be established as required to support the evaluation process; and c) an effective system of compil ing and distributing the information gained should be in place to ensure maximum learning benefits to others. - 77 -These c r i t e r i a were reflected in the "Baff in Communi ty Economic Planning Handbook", produced by the Department of Economic Development and Tourism (Baffin Region) in 1982. This publication emphasized the importance of "stopping, looking and l is tening" with the new government programs. It recommended that new programs be monitored closely, that they be subject to the systematic gathering of s ta t i s t ica l information, and that people at the receiving end of the programs be listened to so that the programs' impacts could be evaluated. It also recommended that strong policies and resources be put into place to enable this monitoring (in par t icular , policies requiring private industry to provide s ta t i s t ica l data) and that the information be systemat ical ly f i led so that the data could be shared and used by those who needed it (GNWT, 1982). The authors of the publication also emphasized that it was important to coordinate monitoring efforts between different governmental departments. They noted that Pangnirtung would "provide an ideal opportunity for introducing a new spir i t of cooperation among us a l l " (GNWT, 1982:72), because it was the site of a variety of cross-departmental ini t iat ives at the t ime. The report concluded by stating, "We recommend everyone concerned get together to implement some of the recommendations made here, as w e l l as those of other departments and to set up a process to monitor the results of our ini t ia t ives" (GNWT, 1982:72). Despite these strong recommendations for the systematic monitoring of government programs in Pangnirtung in 1982, no formal evaluation, monitoring, or demonstration procedure was ever adopted for the Pangnirtung Tourism Program. Rather , monitoring and demonstrating was - 7 8 -done on an informal and ad hoc basis. Therefore, although valuable learning and demonstration s t i l l took place with the program, it also had weaknesses as a test case and demonstration project. 4.3.2 Strengths of the Program as a Test Case and Demonstration Project Despite the fact that no systematic monitoring has been done regarding the program, 15 participants, in a wide range of categories, s t i l l fel t the program performed a valuable learning function for tourism development in the north. It was the first of its kind, and through occasional staff reviews, informal conversations, and personal experience, many people felt they had gained a lot of new knowledge from the program. Government off ic ia ls noted they learned about planning and implementation methods that worked, and about tourism impacts in the a rc t i c . As a result, they now felt in a better position to design effect ive tourism programs in the north (Hamburg, 1985; Vaughan, 1985). Four loca l residents, par t icular ly Commi t t ee members, also fel t they had learned from their experiences. They fel t they had developed a good understanding of tourism and tourism planning, and fel t they were continually gaining strength in this area. They also mentioned they were learning how to deal more effect ively with governments and funding agencies. The program also served as a valuable demonstration project for other communities in the Baff in Region . As people from other communities learned about the program through word of mouth, they often sent - 79 -delegations to Pangnirtung or invited a member of the Tourism Commit tee to come to their community to assist in sett ing up their own tourism programs. In this way, the Commi t t ee was exporting its tourism knowledge, and the lessons learned in Pangnirtung were being brought in person to other arc t ic communities (Vaughan, 1985; Joamie, 1985; Sowdloapik, 1985). 4.3.3 Weaknesses of the Program as a Test Case and Demonstration Project A major weakness, however, is that the G N W T never followed up on its own recommendation of doing systematic "stopping, looking and listening" with the tourism program. By -1985, no detailed systematic monitoring or s ta t i s t ica l information gathering was ever done wi th the program; the author could not identify any special policies or f inancial resources that had been established to enable effect ive program monitoring; the government had never systematical ly asked local people what they thought of the program; and no common information fi l ing system had been set up to organize and distribute the information gathered. This thesis research was the first t ime any systematic evaluation of the program had been done. Because of these weaknesses, the pilot study's potential to be used as a learning and demonstration tool has been severely l imi ted . For example, there were several areas where important data was not col lected or available, par t icular ly regarding the economic impacts of tourism in the community. It is the responsibility of the A E D O and the Regional tourism officers in Iqaluit to record this data, however, they are extremely busy with the work load they already have and do not have the additional - 80 -resources to do this adequately. These statistics are also difficult to collect because of the informal nature of the industry. As a result, the author could not find any accurate systematically recorded data on tourism related visitation, activities, expenditures, revenues, or employment in the community. Although some data did exist in these areas (see Chapter 5), it was often incomplete, inconsistent, or not systematically collected. Therefore, an accurate economic analysis of the program is difficult. Because of this lack of data, two government officials and two Committee members felt there were still many problems with tourism that were not understood. They felt the lack of formal monitoring and evaluation was a serious weakness of the program. Because of the lack of documentation, the program's value as a demonstration project has largely been limited to word of mouth discussions with communities and people that have had direct contact with Pangnirtung. These people knew a lot about the program, but respondents who had only limited personal contact with the program also had only limited knowledge of it. I also found that, in my contacts with people who were not respondents, several people had heard about the program and had vague ideas about it, but none really had a clear idea of its strengths or weaknesses. This reliance on word of mouth to distribute knowledge about the program carries its own risks, as information can easily be misrepresented, exaggerated, or blown out of proportion this way. This is a particularly serious risk, as several communities are looking to tourism as a major means of achieving economic development, and the potential for creating - 81 -false impressions and expectations is high. Some senior government off icials cautioned that many northern communities; are already developing unrealist ic expectations in regard to tourism, which could seriously impact their development programs (Theriaut, 1985; A l w a r i d , 1985; Hunt, 1985). This underscores the importance of making accurate, documented and unbiased information about the program readily availabe to these communities so that its strengths, l imita t ions , and lessons can be more readily understood by other people in the north. The potential value of the program as a demonstration project, therefore, is great, as many people are interested. The actual real ized value, however, is more l imi ted and of questionable accuracy, because systematical ly documented information on the project does not exist, and comprehensive consistent wr i t ten reviews of the program are not available to those who may be interested. 4.3.4 Ways the Program Could Have Been Improved as a Test Case and Demonstration Project Seven respondents, including three government off icials , three residents, and one industry representative, felt the program could have been improved as a test case by conducting more rigourous monitoring and data gathering in regard to the program and its impacts on the community. This could have included more formal ized follow-up and evaluation meetings regarding the planning and implementation process, more consistent and detailed data gathering regarding the social and economic impacts of the - 82 -program on the community, and more l istening to local people about the effects of the program on the community . These participants felt this would have supplied a more detailed data base on which to test the program, evaluate its effectiveness, and learn more about the s t i l l unknown aspects of tourism development in the north. As we l l , the program would be much more valuable as a demonstration project i f accurate and documented information about i t was made readily available to other communities, tourism planners and the general public. In this way, people who do not have personal contact with Pangnirtung could also learn about the program. These measures would require a serious commitment of staff and finances from the GNWT to carry out, but without them, the value of the program as learning research tool and demonstration project is l imi ted . Based on the leve l of interest northern communit ies have in tourism, this is a commitment the GNWT could do w e l l to consider. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW TOURISM PROGRAMS AND POLICIES A n important objective of the program was to help identify new policies and programs that could be used to fac i l i t a te community based tourism elsewhere in the north. Although the program has had some success in this regard, the extent to which it has contributed to new tourism init iat ives in the north is not c lear . - 83 -A s already noted, no formal evaluations have yet been done to determine new policies and program ini t ia t ives based on the Pangnirtung experience. Nevertheless, one senior government o f f i c ia l noted that the Pangnirtung experience was used extensively in developing the policies and programs included in the 1983 'Communi ty Based Tourism Strategy' (Vaughan, 1987). Therefore, the program has contributed in an informal and ad hoc way, rather than on a systematic or c lear ly specified way. Therefore, i t is d i f f icul t to assess the specif ic contr ibut ion the program has made to program and policy development in the north. A s w e l l , in 1983 when the "Communi ty Based Tourism Strategy" was produced, the Pangnirtung program was s t i l l in its early stage of development. Now that the program has developed further, it would be useful to re-evaluate tourism policies and programs based on the community's more recent experience. CONCLUSIONS In regard to establishing a pilot study and developing an effect ive tourism planning and implementation process, the Tourism Program had both strengths and weaknesses. One strength of the program was that i t developed a structured f ive-year plan that could be used for funding and implementat ion. Of major importance, it also fac i l i ta ted loca l management and control through the Tourism Commit tee , par t icular ly during the later stage of planning and a l l throughout implementat ion. It also faci l i ta ted effective implementat ion through the follow-through and - 84 -ongoing efforts of the Commi t t ee and GNWT staff members. It also contributed signif icantly to informal learning and demonstration in northern tourism wi th people that came into contact with the program. These a l l contributed signif icantly to the success and strengths of the program. The program has also, however, had several major weaknesses as a pilot study. Even though the program was set up to be community based, loca l people were not involved significantly in ini t ia t ing the program or designing the planning process to be followed. Publ ic involvement during the early stages of planning was also l imi ted . L o c a l people had diff icul ty understanding what tourism or the study was a l l about, and the awareness programs were poor. Once planning was finished, there was no follow-up by the consultants during implementat ion, and there was l i t t le formal training for the Commi t t ee in program management. Hence, the Committee 's abi l i t ies to carry out strategic planning on an ongoing basis was l imi ted . Las t l y , no formal monitoring, evaluation or organized system of distributing information on the program was ever established. Hence, the program's value as a research and demonstration tool has been l imi ted . Therefore, despite the fact that the program has resulted in significant progress for tourism development in Pangnirtung, there are several ways in which the planning and implementat ion process could have been improved. Greater involvement of loca l people during project ini t ia t ion may have helped design a program more suited to loca l part icipat ion and learning, and improved awareness programs may have helped build a stronger loca l knowledge of tourism and the program. A s we l l , consultant follow-up - 85 -during implementation could have improved strategic planning wi th the Tourism Commi t t ee , and improved training could have helped build bet ter skil ls in program management and cont ro l . Las t ly , more systematic monitoring, evaluation and distr ibution of information regarding the program could have helped immensely in increasing the program's value as a research and demonstration too l . -86 -Figure 8: Carver 5.0 EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM AS A VEHICLE FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT A major objective of the tourism program was to strengthen economic development in the community. The following criteria were established by the program and its participants in regard to achieving this objective: a) The program should increase income into the community. b) The program should help create new jobs and businesses in the community. - 87 -c) The program should increase the loca l benefits of tourism spending in the community. d) The program should increase economic diversif icat ion in the community. e) The program should promote the development of a stable and economically viable industry. f) The program should be coordinated wi th loca l informal economic ac t iv i t ies such as subsistence hunting, trapping and fishing. These program c r i t e r i a are consistent wi th the objectives and c r i t e r i a identified in the l i terature as being important for community economic development in the north. In this chapter, the tourism program is evaluated in regard to how we l l i t has met these c r i t e r i a . It should be noted, however, that because of the lack of monitoring, very l i t t le systematical ly col lected data is available regarding the economic impacts of tourism on the community. Therefore, to carry out this analysis, I often had to rely on incomplete data sources, secondary sources, generalized data, and the verbal respones given by participants. Therefore, this economic evaluation should be considered as preliminary only, unt i l more complete data is available for analysis. INCREASING COMMUNITY INCOME The formal economy consists of the public sector and private sector. Publ ic sector income includes government jobs, public development grants, - 88 -and transfer payments. Pr iva te sector incomes include a l l monies earned through private businesses or jobs. The program has been successful in increasing incomes in both these sectors in the community. 5.1.1 Public Sector Income The two main sources of tourism related public sector income in Pangnirtung are salaries and contracts related to Auyui t tuq Nat iona l Park Reserve, and government grants to various tourism development projects in the community. Both these sectors have increased since the tourism program started. 5.1.1.1 Auyui t tug Nat ional Park Reserve Although Auyui t tuq Nat iona l Park Reserve was not created solely for tourism, i t does act ively support tourism in the community. It a t t racts many visitors to the area, and one of the growing mandates of nat ional parks is to faci l i ta te compatible tourism related economic development in and close to park areas (Beddard, 1985). Although park budgets are not set only for the purpose of tourism, they do respond to visi tor demands and hence, are affected by the tourism program (Breneman, 1985). Therefore, in this study, park expenditures are considered to be par t ia l ly tourism related and included in this analysis. Communi ty income due to Parks Canada expenditures has increased significantly in the years since the tourism program started. Table II, on page 90 shows park expenditures increased 30 percent from 1981 to - 89 -1983, and the greatest increases during 1981 to 1983 were in operating costs, which have a high component of local expenditures. Table III, shows that, on average, about 70 percent of total park expenditures for Auyuittuq are spent in the Northwest Territories, and local payroll generally accounts for about 67 percent of all NWT expenditures (Intergroup Consultants Ltd., 1985). In 1982/83, local park salaries and labour contracts totalled $256,701 (Intergroup Consultants Ltd. , 1985), which represents 6 percent of the community's total income for that year (GNWT, 1983). Increasing park expenditures, therefore, contribute significantly to increasing local incomes in the community. TABLE n  Capital and Operating Expenditures  Auyuittuq National Park (in 1984 dollars) Year Capital Expenditures Operating Expenditures Total 1973 $487,915 $ 296,757 $ 784,672 1974 691,044 235,566 927,210 1975 116,446 289,130 405,576 1976 397,038 321,402 718,440 1977 — 325,293 325,293 1978 163,674 302,523 466,197 1979 123,361 371,901 495,262 1980 116,935 403,081 520,016 1981 64,819 399,310 464,129 1982 117,443 499,134 616,577 1983 80,977 524,262 605,239 Source: Intergroup Consultants Ltd. , 1985:44. - 90 -TABLE ffl  Parks Canada Expenditures in NWT (in thousands of 1984 dollars) Auyuittuq National Park Expenditure YEAR 1977/78 1978/79 1979/80 NWT Supplies and Services $ 119.62 $ 93.49 $ 107.95 NWT P a y r o l l 223.35 203.06 262.27 NWT Total $ 342.97 $ 296.55 $ 370.22 % NWT of T o t a l 72 .2% 69 .5% 73 .1% Source: Ibid: 18 5.1.1.2 Government Funded Projects Government funded tourism projects in Pangnirtung have also increased as a result of the program. Table IV shows the following level of funding from 1981 to 1985: 1981: $ -0 -1982: 18,000 1983: 76,000 1984: 136,500 1985: 23,000 + (part ial estimate only) Most of this funding was allocated di rect ly for local project salaries and contracts administered through the Tourism Commit tee (Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee , 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985). - 9 1 -Therefore, the program has been effect ive in increasing tourism related public sector income in the community . There was no evidence to suggest that other funding programs were cut to accommodate this increase in tourism funding. TABLE IV  Government Expenditures Supporting  Local Tourism Development Projects Year Project Funding Agency Amount 1982 Y E A R 1 Development Projects GNWT $ 17,999.20 (a) 1983 Y E A R 2 Development Projects Keker ton Research Project YEAR 2 Total GNWT $ 56,000.00 (W 20,000.00 (b) $ 76 ,000.00 1984 Y E A R 3 Development Projects Keker ton Research and Development YEAR 3 Total B T A STEP C W F E R I F E R I $ 11 ,500.00 (c) 12,500.00 (c) 10,000.00 (c) 69 ,000.00 (c) 33,500.00 (d) $136,500.00 1985 Y E A R 4 Development Projects Keker ton Research and Development C/85 GNWT $ 23,000.00 (c) ? Sources: ( a ) Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee , November 16, 1982 (b) Hamburg, 1983. (c) Magee, 1985 (d) Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee , January 31, 1985 - 92 -5.1.2 Private Sector Income The tourism program has also been effective in increasing private sector income to the community . In the research, 12 respondents noted that tourism has helped bring more money into the community, and 21 local people mentioned that tourism had resulted in increased opportunities for sell i lng crafts and operating smal l tourism businesses. This increase in private sector income was seen by local people as a major benefit of the program. Although respondents from a l l categories noted that private sector incomes had increased because of the program, the exact level of increase is unknown due to the lack of sufficiently detailed data. Pr iva te sector tourism income is d i rec t ly related to tourism vis i ta t ion and tourist expenditure patterns, but tour company expenditures were not available to the author, and vis i tor expenditures and vis i ta t ion were not recorded on a consistent basis. Tourism related income was also not recorded among the community's tourism oriented businesses. This data should be recorded by the region's tourism officers based in Iqaluit, however, as there are only two officers for the entire Baff in Region, they have neither the fac i l i t ies nor the t ime to co l lec t such detailed data (Hamburg, 1985). The lack of data makes it impossible to draw detailed conclusions regarding how much tourism contributes to private sector incomes in the community. Nevertheless, to get a rough idea of what visi tor levels and expenditures are, i t is useful to review the incomplete data that does exist. - 93 -5.1.2.1 Tourism Vis i ta t ion Almost a l l local people who were asked mentioned that tourist vis i ta t ion has increased consistently and substantially in Pangnirtung since the program began. In 1981, to ta l vis i ta t ion was 2,016, and by 1983 this had increased to 2,462. Al though vis i ta t ion numbers are not available for later years, the Regional Tour ism Off ice r estimated that vis i ta t ion in 1985 was more than twice as much as in 1982, and visi tat ion has been increasing ever since (Hamburg, 1987). The A E D O and Commit tee manager noted that visi tat ion in the first half of the 1987 season had already surpassed tota l visi tat ion for 1986 (Magee, 1987; Keenainak, 1987). Tourist visi tat ion to Pangnirtung has not always increased this consistently. Park visi tat ion estimates from 1977 to 1983 (shown in Table V) show that there was a decrease in park visi tors from 1978 to 1981, and then an increase from 1981 to 1983. The Superindentent of the park attr ibuted this pattern to: a) heightened awareness in the park shortly after it was established in 1977; b) an increase in airfares in 1979 to 1981, causing a drop in visi tat ion; and c) an increasing interest in Pangnirtung and the park since 1981. This experience suggests that vis i tat ion can be strongly dependent on external factors, such as cost of transportation and marketing. - 94 -TABLE V Auyuittuq National Park Visitation Estimates Year Auyuittuq Visitation Estimate A Ca) Auyuittuq Visitation Estimate B (W 1977 700 730 1978 600 735 1979 500 582 1980 400 436 1981 400 399 1982 520 681 1983 — 734 1984 — Sources: ( a ) Intergroup Consultants, 1985 (b) Beddard, 1985 5.1.2.2 Vis i tor Expenditures Data General vis i tor expenditures in Pangnirtung are not recorded. The only data I could find was in regard to park vis i tor expenditures for selected years. Table VI on page 96, shows that average NWT expenditures for park visitors increased from $62 in 1977 to $522 in 1982. Table VII indicates where these expenditures occurred by sector. Although spending patterns by park visitors in 1982 w i l l not be identical to those of other visitors in other years, many of the categories and trends can be expected to be s imilar . The A r c t i c at tracts toursits who are interested in arts and crafts, outf i t t ing and guiding, and local touring. Non-park visitors could be expected to spend more on outf i t t ing, - 9 5 -accommodation and meals, however, as they are generally not as self sufficient as park visitors regarding food, shelter, or transportation (Beddard, 1985). The documented trends for Auyui t tuq Park visitors then, suggest that non-park vis i tor expenditures in the NWT have also increased substantially in recent years. It would be reasonable to assume that average vis i tor expenditures in Pangnirtung have also increased at a corresponding rate, as Pangnirtung also offers services and re ta i l outlets in a l l the major spending categories identified in Table VII, and this would contribute to the increase in private sector incomes as reported by residents. TABLE VI Average Park Visitor Expenditures in the NWT for Selected Years (in current dollars) Auyuittug National Park Year Average Visitor Expenditure In NWT (in $ per visitor trip) 1977/78 62 1978/79 95 (a) 1979/80 192 (a) 1980/81 N / A 1981/82 N / A 1982 522 (b) Source: (a) Intergroup Consultants L t d . , 1985:33 (b) Taylor , 1983:61 - 96 -TABLE Vn Average Park Visitor Expenditures in the NWT by Sectort 1982 (in 1982 dollars) Sector Average % of Total Expenditure Expenditure L o c a l Ar twork $ 182.00 35% L o c a l Transportation 80.00 15. Accommodat ion 65.00 12 Meals 49.00 9 Other Major Purchases 48.00 9 Guides and Outf i t ters 40.00 8 Groceries 34.00 7 Personal and Miscellaneous 14.00 3 Clothing 10.00 2 Total $ 522.00 100% Source: Taylor , 1983:61 5.2 INCREASING JOBS AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES The program has been very effective in increasing jobs and business opportunities in the community. Thi r ty- two local people, more than two-thirds of a l l loca l respondents, mentioned that job creat ion was one of the major benefits of the program. This benefit was mentioned by more respondents than any other benefit of the program. Despite this strong majority support, nine loca l respondents felt that only a few jobs had been created and job creat ion was not as good as it should have been. - 9 7 -Table VIII, on page 99, identifies tourism employment in the community in 1981 and 1984, the only years for which such data are available. 5.2.1 Public Sector Jobs Publ ic sector jobs increased both wi th the park and with government funded projects. In Auyui t tuq Na t iona l Park, jobs increased from 8.3 person years in 1981, to 10 person years in 1984. The most dramat ic increase, however, occurred with the government funded tourism projects. Before the program, no such projects existed in the community. By 1984, a to ta l of 30 jobs (both fu l l - t ime and part-t ime) had been created through projects related to tourism. Although more recent s ta t is t ical data were not available, telephone interviews in 1987 indicated this high public sector employment continued from 1985 to 1987. In interviews, residents were very supportive of these jobs. They increased incomes, and helped provide training and experience in construction, hosting, arts and crafts, archaelogical work, his torical and cu l tu ra l research, and tourism management. 5.2.2 Private Sector Jobs and Businesses The program also helped create jobs and business opportunities in the private sector, although the exact extent of this is diff icul t to estimate. - 98 -Licenced outfitters increased from 6 in 1981 to 12 in 1984, although many of these outfitters worked only par t - t ime. In 1985, however, a l l outfitters contacted mentioned that business had been increasing from year to year. More recently, the Regional Tour ism Off ice r noted that, whereas in 1984 most outfitters had a lot of free t ime during the tourist season, in 1987, tourism has increased so much that most outfitters were booked ahead of t ime most of for the summer (Hamburg, 1987). TABLE VTJI Tourism Related Businesses and Employment in Pangnirtung  Before and After the Program (including both full-time and seasonal jobs) 1981 1984 Publ ic Sector Auyui t tuq Nat ional Park 8.3 p.y. 9.3 p.y. (a) Archaeological Development -0 - 12* (b) Ter r i to r ia l Park -0 - 1* (b) Tourism Commit tee Projects - 0 - 18* (b) Tourism Commit tee General Manager -0 - 1 p.y. (b) Pr iva te Sector Number of Fishing Camps 1 2* (b) Fishing Camp Jobs 6 10* (b) Licenced Outfi t ters 6 12* (b) Unlicenced Outf i t ters N / A 12* (b) Peyton's Lodge N / A 6+5* p.y. (c) Note : p.y. = person year * = pr imar i ly seasonal or temporary jobs Sources: ( g) Intergroup Consultants L t d . , 1985 J b j Joamie, 1985 ( c ) Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , 1983 - 99 -In regard to start ing tourism businesses, four residents noted that tourists were relat ively easy to deal wi th . They were curious and friendly, wi l l ing to buy loca l goods and go for outings. Four locals also noted i t didn't cost much to get involved. Informal arts and crafts sales didn't involve any overhead costs, and most outfi t ters already had a boat and motor that they could use for outf i t t ing. The main extra costs for outfitters consisted of purchasing a $75 outfit ters l icence and acquiring the required safety gear such as l i fe jackets, etc. (Evik, 1985). Four of the outfitters interviewed mentioned that, wi th training and organization, they had been able to make it a good f inancial business. In 1986, a new local ly owned craft shop also opened in response to tourism. This, however, has remained closed in 1987 due to unknown problems (Keenainak, 1982). Also as a result of the tourism program, the local hotel is being improved and expanded. This w i l l allow for expansion of vis i tor faci l i t ies which w i l l be direct ly related to job creat ion in the community (Vaughan, 1985). 5.2.3 Problems With Job Creation and Business Development Although most loca l residents felt the program was effective in creating jobs and businesses, people also identified a number of problems in this regard. - 100 -5.2.3.1 Lack of L o c a l Business Ski l ls and F inanc ia l Resources Eighteen local people noted the lack of business skills and f inancial resources among the Inuit as the major problem for local business development in Pangnirtung. Ski l ls identif ied as lacking included general tourism awareness, business management, marketing, legal awareness, awareness of safety and rescue procedures (for outfitters), and knowledge of government grants and assistance programs. Because of this, these people noted that some existing opportunities in the community have not been pursued by locals, and Inuit business development has been slow. Therefore, most private sector involvement has, so far, been on a fa i r ly smal l scale. Although this smal l scale of business development is not necessarily bad, as i t takes t ime to develop ski l ls , there is also the danger that wi th this pattern, the larger opportunities may be taken over by the Kadluna. Fo r example, the Kadluna who was the manager of the Pangnirtung Co-op in 1985 has since opened his own private convenience store in town. He has, therefore, taken over an important opportunity in town, and is thereby in direct competi t ion with the loca l Inuit-owned co-op (Magee, 1987). This pattern of having business opportunities taken up by people from outside is not uncommon in areas where tourism is developing rapidly. There are many documented cases in developing countries of outside investors coming into a community once tourism becomes profitable. They buy up existing loca l businesses or start new ones of their own, and control - 101 -the industry more for their own purposes, rather than for the good of the community. This often results in local people being displaced from ownership and control in the industry (Murphy, 1983; Pi-Sunyer, 1982; Call inanopilos, 1982; Fox , 1977; deKadt , 1976). In the case of Pangnirtung, it w i l l be important to ensure that this pattern does not occur. Al though regulation of private business ownership is diff icul t in Canada's democrat ic society, government policies should ensure that local ski l ls , f inancial resources and involvement in businesses is strengthened as guickly as possible to fac i l i ta te stronger local control and ownership in development. The recent loca l purchase of the hotel is very important in this regard. 5.2.3.2 Temporary and Seasonal Nature of Work Most of the jobs have also been temporary or seasonal. In the public sector jobs created, only the Commi t t ee manager's job was ful l - t ime and year-round. The rest ranged from a few weeks to a few months in duration. S imi lar ly , outf i t t ing is seasonal and can be sporadic. Most business is in a six week period in July and August. Fo r most, the seasonal and part- t ime nature of the work was suitable, as it allowed t ime to hunt and pursue t radi t ional ac t iv i t ies . Two of the outfi t ters, however, wanted more stable and year-round employment, and henceforth found this type of work unsuitable. - 102 -5.2.3.3 Language Eight residents noted language as a major problem for Inuit business development. Most middle-aged and older people in Pangnirtung speak only Inuktitut. They felt their lack of English was a major problem in dealing with tourists. Because of this, they strongly supported the roles of the community hosts, who were often able to provide interpretation when required. 5.2.3.4 Outf i t ter L icenc ing There were mixed feelings among residents in regard to outfi t ter l i cenc ing . The outfit ters who were l icenced recognized its value in terms of encouraging safety and proper management of the industry. Six residents, however, felt that l icencing made outf i t t ing too di f f icul t . They felt it was too expensive ($75) for the short season, i t was too complicated to get involved in , it created too many unreal is t ic restrictions and regulations, and was control led by people from outside the community who did not understand local conditions. This hampered their willingness to get involved in outf i t t ing. 5.2.3.5 Poor Organizat ion Among Outf i t ters In 1985, five residents noted that poor organization was a problem for getting involved in outf i t t ing. The fol lowing problems were c i ted: a disorganized and inconsistent referra l system; the lack of an outfi t ters - 103 -association; poorly adhered to regulations, fares and t ime schedules; unfair competi t ion; inconsistent safety pract ices and sk i l l levels; and the hiring of non-local outfitters by the hotel , when locals could do the job just as w e l l . More recently, in 1987, organizat ion among outfitters has been improved. They have an association, and have organized an improved referral and price system which is operated out of the tourism office (Hamburg, 1987). It is not known to what extent this has solved some of the aforementioned problems. 5.3 INCREASING THE LOCAL BENEFITS OF TOURISM SPENDING A major objective of the program was to increase the local benefits of tourism spending by increasing loca l ownership and part icipat ion in the tourism industry (thereby reducing leakages) and involving as wide a range of local people as possible in the industry (thereby encouraging a wide distribution of benefits). 5.3.1 Increasing Local Participation and Ownership The program has been successful in increasing local management of tourism, part icipation in jobs and loca l ownership of businesses. 5.3.1.1 L o c a l Involvement in Jobs Several residents noted there was a higher level of local involvement in tourism jobs after the program than before. In the public sector, - 104 -Commit tee projects used exclusively loca l people, except for the consultants who were hired to t ra in and work with local people. In the private sector, the owner of Peyton's Lodge noted that whereas before the program, most of their guides were imported from the south, in later years, the lodge hired a higher percentage of loca l guides and hotel staff. This was due to the training and experience that people had gained through the program (Peyton, 1985). 5.3.1.2 L o c a l Ownership of Businesses There has also been increased local ownership in tourism businesses. As already noted, local ly owned outfi t t ing businesses doubled in number between 1981 and 1984. A second fishing camp was also established under local ownership in 1984, and a third fish camp under local ownership was established in 1986 (Magee, 1987). Of major importance, Peyton's Lodge was transferred to local ownership in 1987, which w i l l further strengthen local part ic ipat ion and control in the industry. 5.3.1.3 Reduction of Economic Leakages As shown above, the program has clearly been effective in increasing loca l part icipation and ownership in tourism development in the community. Detai led income-expenditure data, however, is not available to trace economic leakages from the community before and after the program. Although this data data does not exist, an increase in local part icipat ion and ownership does suggest that leakages have been reduced. To confirm - 105 -this, a more detailed study comparing estimated previous tourism related income expenditure patterns wi th current ones would have to be undertaken. 5.3.2 Distribution of Income Tourism income in Pangnirtung has also been distributed widely since the tourism program started. This includes incomes in both the public and private sectors. 5.3.2.1 Publ ic Sector Income In its projects, the Tourism Commi t t ee has hired a wide range of people. This has included young and old, and men and women (Joamie, 1985). Other publicly funded tourism projects have hired people as diverse as construction crews, cooks, guides, students, elders and crafts people. This distr ibution has been greatly appreciated by local people. 5.3.2.2 Pr iva te Sector Income In the private sector, incomes have also been widely distributed. More than half of the Inuit residents interviewed noted they received some private income direct ly from tourism, through outfi t t ing, fur and arts and crafts sales, or employment in the hotel . This is consistent with the vis i tor expenditure patterns noted ear l ier in Table VII, which identifies loca l art work, loca l transportation, accommodat ion, meals and guiding/outfi t t ing to be the five top spending categories for park visitors to the area. - 106 -In particular, arts and crafts involves a wide range of loca l people. In 1982, there were 40 carvers earning over $1,500 per year in the community (GNWT, 1984) and probably an additional 40 earning less than $1,500 (Joamie, 1985). In 1985 there were approximately 20 people working in the Pangnirtung Pr in t Shop and Weaving Shop, both of which se l l a portion of their products to tourists (McLean , 1985). Almos t a l l families in Pangnirtung are involved in preparing seal skins or arts and crafts production of some kind, and several residents noted they sold these items direct ly to tourists in the summer. This was confirmed by the manager of the Co-op, who mentioned that almost the entire production of summer carvings gets sold d i rect ly on the street during the tourist season (Murphy, 1985). Guiding and outfi t t ing also involves a wide range of people. In 1984, there were a minimum of 24 people involved in outf i t t ing and fish camps (GNWT, 1982). Recent local ownership in Peyton's Lodge is also widely distributed. The new ownership structure involves an organized division of shares among a distribution of loca l investors in the community and one regional investor. L o c a l ownership is over 51 percent of the operation. Therefore, the distr ibution of tourism spending in the community is wide. Although four residents mentioned that tourism spending only benefited certain people, the author could not find any other monetary private industry in the community wi th income that was distributed as widely as that from tourism. - 107 -5.4 DIVERSIFYING THE ECONOMIC BASE A n important objective of the program was to create an industry which would help to diversify the economic base of the community. Speci f ica l ly , its objectives were to introduce new types of businesses, markets and incomes to the community; give loca l residents a wider choice of viable act iv i t ies whereby they could earn a l iv ing , and thereby help reduce loca l dependence on the existing sectors of government and fur harvesting. Because of the lack of detailed economic base line data for the community before and after the program, i t is impossible to draw any detailed conclusions regarding a change in economic diversif ication in the community. Nevertheless, participants did have several observations on this topic worth noting. 5.4.1 Strengths of the Program Regarding Economic Diversification Eight respondents mentioned that the tourism program was successful in helping to diversify the economy in Pangnirtung. They pointed to the fact that, prior to the program, tourism was a relat ively small part of the economy, and that new opportunities were created in tourism which helped reduce dependence on other sectors. This avai labi l i ty of new work opportunities was felt to be a major benefit by a majority of respondents in the community . Many of these people fe l t their work options were already l imi ted in the community. Students and - 108 -young people who tradi t ional ly had dif f icul ty finding jobs in the summer, were able to find employment on Commit tee projects. Elders, whose options for entering the job market were severely l imi ted , worked on cul tura l history projects or produced arts and crafts for sale. Hunters, who were searching for new opportunities to replace the sealing income that was lost, found that they could do outf i t t ing and also produce arts and crafts . These respondents fel t that tourism was adding a new range of job opportunities to the community. They fel t this was increasing diversi ty and was helping to reduce dependence on welfare, U I C , and the declining fur industry. 5.4.2 Weakness of the Program Regarding Economic Diversification Three respondents, however, fe l t the program was narrowing the economic base rather than widening i t . The fol lowing concerns were mentioned. 5.4.2.1 Continued Dependence on Publ ic Sector Jobs O f major importance, most of the jobs created were in the public sector, not the private sector. Hence, there is a possibility that the program is reinforcing dependence on government jobs, rather than reducing i t . It should be recognized, however, that the program is s t i l l in its development phase, where the emphasis is on building the infrastructure required to support an expanded private tourism industry in the future. As the cap i ta l - 109 -infrastructure projects are completed in the coming years, public sector jobs w i l l probably be reduced, and with the expected increase in tourists, private sector jobs may we l l be increased (Hamburg, 1987). This is speculation, however, and cannot be confirmed at this t ime. 5.4.2.2 Displacement of Jobs and Opportunities from Other Viable Sectors Two government off icials and one local respondent felt that the focus on tourism could take attention and workers from other economic act iv i t ies , thereby reducing diversi ty rather than expanding i t . In Pangnirtung, however, this does not appear to have happened. Many jobs were in areas in which community members were already involved, such as arts and crafts or outf i t t ing, or the people who got jobs would have otherwise been unemployed. F o r these reasons, the tourism sector did not appear to have displaced any workers from other sectors in Pangnirtung. The future growth of the industry, however, may el iminate the par t - t ime nature of the work, and may in fact , displace people from informal economic act ivi t ies or other potential jobs. This should be monitored in the future. The program, did , however, seem to focus local awareness on tourism rather than other sectors. Fo r example, the author found that in 1985, most people in Pangnirtung had several ideas as to how tourism should be developed and improved in the community, however, they had no or only few ideas about opportunities in other sectors. - 110 -More recent developments, however, have shown that this lack of awareness is not necessarily a permanent problem. In 1986 and 1987, a pilot study in commerc ia l fishing was started in Pangnirtung, and is showing promising results (Magee, 1987). There is no evidence to suggest that tourism has detracted in any way from the development of the current fishing operation. 5.5 INCREASING ECONOMIC SELF-RELIANCE Respondents disagreed considerably as to whether tourism was contributing to economic self-rel iance in Pangnirtung or increasing dependence. Convincing arguments were made pointing out both strengths and weaknesses of the industry in regard to its economic viabi l i ty and s tab i l i ty . Most arguments were conceptual only, however, as the industry in Pangnirtung is s t i l l new and underdeveloped, and there was no consistent data base by which either economic viabi l i ty or s tabil i ty could be evaluated. Nevertheless, i t is useful to review the main strengths and weaknesses of the industry in regard to increasing economic self-rel iance in the community. 5.5.1 Strengths of Tourism in Terms of Promoting Economic Self-Reliance A number of respondents noted several factors in support of tourism in Pangnirtung. They felt that, because of these factors, tourism had a good chance of becoming economically viable and stable in the community. - I l l -5.5.1.1 Current Industry Growth and Marke t Trends a) Industry growth: In terms of job creat ion, tourism is Canada's fastest growing industry. Between 1972 and 1985, tourism's average annual employment growth rate was 6.1 percent, which was more than twice as high as the next highest rate of 2.5 percent for the trade sector (Government of Canada, 1985:46). A s was recently stated in the government document, "Tourism Tomorrow": "No single industry in Canada has greater potential for new job creation than does tour ism. Employment in the f ie ld is expected to grow at more than five percent a year in this decade and even faster in the 1990s" (Government of Canada, 1985:33). Tourism in the north is s imi la r ly experiencing growth. Ten years ago, few people were aware of the tourism possibilities in the a rc t i c . Now, interest is increasing. In 1984, there were eight tour wholesalers offering over 30 package tours in the Baff in Region (GNWT Explorers ' Guide, 1984). In 1987 this has increased to 60 tours (Hamburg, 1987). These developments show that tourism is a growing industry, par t icular ly in the north. b) Industry s tabi l i ty : Many tourism operators also consider tourism to be relat ively stable. Industry trends suggest that the desire and need to take vacations does not seem to be seriously affected by recessions. In times of recession, people s t i l l take holidays, but tend to stay closer to home. Thei r holidays tend to be more national than international (Marshal l , M a c k l i n , Monaghan 1983). - 112 -c) Market trends: Recent tourism markets are also changing. There is a greater emphasis on wilderness, adventure, and package tours to specif ic destination points. Disposable incomes among tourists are becoming higher, and family sizes are decreasing. There is a heightened interest in t ravel which is challenging, educational and cu l tura l . These trends favour a rc t ic tourism, which can offer a unique holiday that not many tourists have experienced yet. Fo r these reasons, the Northwest Terr i tor ies is becoming better known wi th both Canadian and international markets, including eastern U S A , Europe and Japan (Hamburg, 1985). 5.5.1.2 L o c a l Tourism Resources Pangnirtung also has significant resources to a t t ract these new tourism markets. It has spectacular geography and scenery. The area is we l l known for its hiking and mountain c l imbing opportunities and wi ld l i fe resources. The area also has cul tura l and historic resources. Pangnirtung's at tractions are being recognized on a national and international basis. Tourism Canada has classified Pangnirtung as a "Category A " tourism product; one which is: "a unique or superior wor ld-class tourism product able to draw visi tors from around the world" (Government of Canada, 1985:15). It also classifies i t as "immature"; one where the "product is p r imi t ive ; lacks infrastructure, access, services and c accommodation. It requires major development" (Ibid:17). There are only five locations in a l l of Canada that have this combination of ratings. This would suggest that Pangnirtung has high potent ial for growth in tourism. - 113 -5.5.1.3 Other Northern Examples Respondents also pointed out that in several areas in the a rc t i c , tourism was already functioning as an economical ly self-reliant industry. F o r example, in 1985 the manager of Peyton's Lodge noted that his business, as it had been running, was economical ly viable. S imi la r ly , there are tourism operations in Iqaluit (Frobisher Bay) and Resolute Bay that are stable and operating on a financially viable basis. Experience has shown, however, that the businesses have to be managed we l l in order to survive economical ly . The arc t ic is an expensive and special ized locat ion, and these factors have to be careful ly considered in order to operate a successful business (Tolley, 1985). 5.5.2 Weaknesses of Tourism in Terms of Promoting Economic Self-Reliance Respondents also pointed out a number of l imitat ions for tourism as a stable and viable industry in Pangnirtung. These include the fol lowing. 5.5.2.1 L i m i t e d and Price-Sensi t ive Market Several respondents noted that the market for tourism in the area would always be l imi ted . This was due to the short season, poor access, and high expense of getting there. To date, for example, the main season is from mid-July to the end of August, when almost half of the annual vis i ta t ion takes place (Taylor, 1983:19). This leaves 10 months of the year with only very l imi ted tourism ac t iv i ty . - 114 -Travel to Pangnirtung is also expensive. Fo r most visitors, the cost of getting to Pangnirtung is greater than the cost of purchasing tourism goods and services while there (Ibid:60). In the past, vis i tat ion has been pr ice-sensitive to transportation costs, as shown by the drop in vis i tat ion during 1979 to 1981, when air fares increased substantially. This creates uncertainty regarding the security of future markets. 5.5.2.2 Expense of Development The costs of tourism infrastructure in the arc t ic are also very high, part icularly when compared to the short season when revenues can be expected. Operation and maintenance costs are especially high i f the fac i l i ty is kept open on a year-round basis. This can reduce the viabi l i ty of tourism faci l i t ies in the north. 5.5.2.3 Exis t ing Rel iance on Government Support Because of these l imi ted markets and high costs, some government officials felt that tourism development was only possible in the arc t ic wi th ongoing government support. F o r example, by 1983 over $250,000 had already been spent on Tourism Commit tee projects. Development costs for Keker ton w i l l be approximately $250,000 by the t ime i t is finished in 1987 (Stevenson, 1987). The budget for the recently completed visitors ' centre was in the range of $650,000 (Magee, 1987). Government f inancial assistance in the new hotel purchase is also expected to be substantial. - 115 -Because of these development costs, government expenditures supporting tourism in Pangnirtung have been far larger than revenues generated by the industry. A few respondents fel t this was a clear indication of the lack of self-rel iance of tourism in the community . Senior government off ic ia ls , however, pointed out that tourism is s t i l l in its developmental stage in Pangnirtung. Because of this, capi tal costs are high and revenues have not yet reached their fu l l potential . One senior government o f f i c ia l felt the upgrading of the hotel w i l l result in increased vis i ta t ion, as tour companies have previously been reluctant to send guests there (Vaughan, 1987). Another government of f ic ia l pointed out that capi ta l development w i l l be reduced substantially over the next two or three years, as fac i l i t ies are put in place (Hamburg, 1987). Therefore, government expenditures in Pangnirtung may we l l be reduced in the future, and private income may increase. This , however, is speculation and cannot be confirmed unt i l the program has developed further. In Pangnirtung, much w i l l depend on how the program and its related tourism businesses progress. If large ongoing government expenditures are required to build and maintain an extensive but underutilized tourism infrastructure, i t is possible that the tourism program w i l l only reinforce economic dependence on government, rather than build self-rel iance. If, on the other hand, the industry is developed and scaled so that its businesses w i l l be viable and eventually self-supporting, then economic self-rel iance may we l l be increased. - 1 1 6 -5.5.3 The Need for More Time and Data Collection It is clear that no clear conclusions can be drawn, at this t ime, on whether the tourism program is reducing or increasing economic self-rel iance in the community. Both t ime and ongoing industry monitoring w i l l be required to determine whether or not Pangnirtung's tourism industry w i l l be viable and stable in the long run. T ime w i l l be reguired to allow the industry to develop and achieve more of its v is i ta t ion potential , and monitoring w i l l be required to keep track of markets, expenditures, and revenues so that the industry's viabi l i ty can be evaluated. Only after this is done, w i l l any conclusive evidence exist as to how much the program has increased or reduced economic self-rel iance in the community. 5.6 COORDINATION WITH THE INFORMAL ECONOMY Pangnirtung has a very important informal economy. For ty - two percent of the tota l community income in 1982 consisted of country foods harvesting (see Table I, page 32). One of the objectives of the tourism program was to build an industry which would not take away from this informal economy, but rather, fit in with i t . There was disagreement as to whether or not tourism fi t ted in with loca l subsistence hunting l i festyles. F i v e loca l respondents said it did, and five said i t did not. - 117 -Figure 9: Hunters preparing to leave for spring camps. 5.6.1 Strengths of the Program Regarding the Informal Economy The residents who mentioned that tourism did fi t wi th local country foods harvesting noted that their involvement in tourism was on a part- t ime basis only, and therefore, they s t i l l had t ime to pursue their t radi t ional act ivi t ies . They felt that tourism was a benefit, as i t offered them a chance to earn some immediate cash, wi th which they could purchase hunting supplies and equipment. In this way, tourism helped the informal economy rather than taking away from i t . - 118 -5.6.2 Weaknesses of the Program Regarding the Informal Economy There were also local people who felt that tourism took away from the t radi t ional subsistence economy. In part icular , three women mentioned that because the men were in town working as outfitters in the summer, families did not spend as much t ime in their t radit ional summer camps as they did before tourism. Therefore, tourism did not affect the men so strongly (as their outfi t t ing al lowed them to s t i l l get out on the land to hunt occasionally), but it did affect the women and children because they spent more of their t ime in town during summer, hence, their former roles in the informal economy on the land were reduced. The exact extent of this impact , however, was not c lear ly ident if ied. 5.7 WAYS TO IMPROVE THE ECONOMIC EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PROGRAM Respondents suggested a number of ways that the program could be improved to increase its effectiveness as a vehicle for loca l economic development. 5.7.1 Strengthen Inuit Management and Ownership in the Industry Fif teen respondents from a l l categories felt that Inuit management and control in the program should be strengthened. This is par t icular ly important considering that loca l ski l ls and f inancial resources are lacking, and in many cases in other locations, tourism development has often been taken over by outsiders once the industry becomes profitable. Therefore, - 119 -to remain community based, it is essential that local people retain control over the industry through ownership in businesses and management and planning of the industry from a strategic point of view. Participants suggested a number of ways that local management and ownership could be strengthened. Seventeen people felt training should be improved and expanded (see following section) to build skills in business development. Seven people felt there should be improved professional support and follow-up for the Committee in order to strengthen its mandate and management skills (see Section 7.4). Six people felt that there should be more businesses owned and operated by Inuit. Six people also felt a local development corporation should be formed to facilitate greater control over the industry (see Section 7.4). These are all important actions for Pangnirtung to consider in order to strengthen local ownership and management in the industry. Government policies and programs should be designed to facilitate these developments in Pangnirtung in the future. 5.7.2 Improve Training Seventeen respondents from all categories felt that local training had to be improved in order to provide better services and businesses in the community, and to strengthen the control local people have in development in Pangnirtung. The following recommendations were put forward. - 120 -5.7.2.1 Increase the Number and Var ie ty of Training Courses People felt more training courses should be given. Suggested topics included: general tourism awareness, how to start and operate a business, improved and expanded outf i t t ing t ra ining, legal l iabi l i ty awareness, l icencing awareness, safety awareness, f i rs t aid, funding, and marketing. 5.7.2.2 Make the Training More Access ible to the General Publ ic F i v e local residents felt the t raining courses should be made more a t t ract ive and accessible to people in the community. Suggestions included holding courses in the community rather than outside, and providing interpretation or courses in Inuktitut for those that could not speak Engl ish . 5.7.2.3 Increase Northern Content and Coordinat ion in Training Programs Some loca l residents, government off ic ials and industry representatives mentioned that past training courses had been based on southern examples of tourism and business management. They felt more local content should be incorporated into the course mater ia l . The Commit tee manager also fel t local courses should be more coordinated wi th training given elsewhere in the NWT, to improve training options and advancement possibilities (Joamie, 1985). - 121 -5.7.3 Increase Visitation and Extend the Tourism Season In 1985, seven local people fel t it would be an improvement i f more tourists came to Pangnirtung. E leven loca l people, however, fel t that the growth of tourism should be control led by locals. This was because the community was smal l , and they fel t i t could only handle so many tourists without being over-run. Three people felt the number of tourists should be kept the same, and one said it should be reduced. Several respondents from a l l categories fel t that the increased vis i ta t ion should be more spread out, both in terms of a longer tourist season, and with more diversif ied tourism ac t iv i t ies . Respondents identified two factors they fel t were required to a t t ract this increased and diversified market: a) improved faci l i t ies and services; and b) improved marketing. 5.7.4 Improve Tourism Facilities and Services A large number of people from a l l categories felt that fac i l i t ies and services should be expanded and diversif ied. This was so that new act iv i t ies could be accommodated and the tourism season could be extended. Suggestions for new fac i l i t ies included: a visitors' centre/museum, an upgraded hotel, an improved information centre, an improved co-op store, expanded re ta i l outlets for souvenirs and arts and crafts, camping supply - 122 -outlets, cross-country ski faci l i t ies (lodge and trails) sport hunting faci l i t ies , mountaineering fac i l i t ies , showers, economical accommodation, a cafe or restaurant serving country food meals, and improved docking fac i l i t ies . Suggestions for expanded services included: interpretation for tourists, tourism host program, mountaineering and cross-country ski guiding, equipment rentals, improved outf i t t ing to accommodate sport hunting, photography tours, wilderness survival expeditions, f loe edge tours, historic sites tours, improved organization and safety standards amoung outfit ters, and improved tour packages that could be developed and marketed to tour wholesalers. 5.7.5 Improve Tourism Marke t ing The need for improved marketing was seen as a: major concern by a wide range of respondents. Because poor marketing was a problem common to the entire a rc t i c , in 1987 the Government of NWT and the Trave l Industry Associat ion of the NWT established a comprehensive Market ing Strategy for the entire NWT (Hamburg, 1987). As this strategy is s t i l l new, i t is not yet known how much it w i l l solve marketing problems in Pangnirtung. The following section reviews marketing problems and recommendations for improvement, as identif ied in 1985, before this strategy was designed. - 123 -5.7.5.1 Exis t ing Problems Problems identified with tourism marketing in Pangnirtung included the fol lowing: a) Vague in i t i a l strategy: Twelve respondents felt the in i t ia l strategy proposed in the five-year plan was vague and unspecific. They felt it did not give a clear indication of what kind of marketing to do and how to do i t . b) Poorly defined roles and a lack of coordination: There are currently many actors involved in market ing. They include local operators, the Baff in Region Tourist Industry Associa t ion , the NWT Travel Industry Associa t ion , Travel A r c t i c , Tourism Canada, t ravel agents, and southern tour operators. Ten part icipants felt the roles of these different people were poorly defined, and there was l i t t l e networking or coordination between these organizations. c) Lack of information and loca l contacts : The majority of southern tour operators contacted noted they did not have adequate information about Pangnirtung, and did not have local contacts to find out about the services avai lable . This made promotion of tourism dif f icul t (Ianetta, 1985). - 124 -d) Poorly defined target market groups: Seven respondents felt that information was lacking about the specific market a t t racted to Pangnirtung. This information would be required to target marketing efforts effect ively. e) Poor local marketing skil ls and t ra ining: L o c a l operators mentioned they did not know how to market their product or know who they should contact for marketing (Joamie, 1985). L o c a l part icipants and tour operators also noted that existing marketing seminars done in the region had been poor. They were vague, dif f icul t to understand, and too southern oriented. 5.7.5.2 Recommendations for Improved Market ing Par t ic ipants had several suggestions as to how tourism marketing could be improved. a) Improved marketing roles and coordination: Nine respondents felt the various marketing and tour operator groups should be brought together to define roles and responsibilities and establish a coordinated marketing strategy. Hopefully, the Market ing Plan established in 1987 w i l l accomplish this task. b) Improved local information and contacts: Seven of the ten tourism industry operators contacted in the south emphasized the importance of having information on the services available in Pangnirtung in - 125 -order to se l l tours there. They suggested that people in Pangnirtung put together tourist information packages for distr ibution to potential cl ients . These packages should include: area maps, townsite maps, br ief area descriptions, a description of outf i t ter services available, pictures, a description of the type of accommodation available, pr ices , the types of act ivi t ies available, a description of their main c l iente le , and a l l appropriate contact names, addresses and phone numbers. This information should be sent to a l l regional tourism organizations and wholesalers who may wish to send people to the Baff in Region. Improved working relationship with t ravel agencies and tour  wholesalers: Tourism industry representatives also recommended establishing closer working relationships between local operators and the outside tour industry. Suggestions included regular conferences where local people and tour wholesalers could be brought together to work out improved market ing strategies, develop better information packages, develop marketable tourism products and identify fac i l i t i es and services needed to improve the loca l tourism industry. Improved seminars and t ra in ing: Six people felt that marketing awareness and training should be improved and made more accessible to locals. They felt it should be oriented to the region by being easy to understand and by dealing wi th problems and solutions relevant to Pangnirtung and other a rc t i c communit ies . - 126 -5.7.6 Improve Funding Three members of the Tourism Commit tee and two government off icials noted that improved funding would assist in improved tourism projects and opportunities for local businesses. Items mentioned included making more start-up funding available, and making funding more secure and long-term for ongoing tourism programs. 5.7.7 Continue to Provide Jobs Through the Tourism Committee Eight residents felt the Commi t t ee should continue hiring loca l people for its projects. They felt this was valuable for creating local employment and building skills and experience. 5.7.8 Encourage More Local Hiring Ten respondents, including five loca l people, felt that more local hiring should be encouraged. This was part icular ly in regard to employment at the hotel . Hopefully, wi th the new loca l ownership, this w i l l improve. 5.7.9 Make the Program More Self-supporting Four respondents suggested that the program be made more economically self-supporting. This would involve an eventual reduction of the proportion of public sector jobs in the program, and a greater emphasis on job and business development in the private sector. It would also involve careful - 127 -planning of businesses to ensure that they help achieve local development goals, and thorough feasibility analysis of new businesses to ensure that they can be economically viable and can survive without ongoing government dependence. This would also involve ongoing monitoring of the businesses to ensure that the industry is developing in a strategically sound manner. In order to achieve this type of development, local management and organization should be strengthened. This emphasizes the importance of improving local ownership and management skills, and maintaining and strengthening the role of the Tourism Committee in the Program (see Section 7.4) CONCLUSIONS The program has both strengths and weaknesses in regard to strengthening economic development in Pangnirtung. One major strength is that local jobs and incomes have increased both in the public and private sector. Also, local ownership and involvement in tourism has increased, and leakages have been reduced. Tourism jobs have been distributed widely in the community, and local people have found it relatively easy to become involved in tourism. These were all important benefits in the community. A major weakness, however, is that most of the tourism related jobs and income in the community are in the public sector, not the private sector. The program is still largely dependent on the government. The program is - 128 -s t i l l in its early developmental phase, however, and infrastructure related public expenditures are expected to decrease in the next few years and visi tor expenditures are expected to increase as the industry grows. It is therefore, not known at this t ime whether tourism w i l l eventually increase economic self-reliance in the community or just prolong government dependency. Another potential weakness is that the attention on tourism may cause opportunities in other sectors to be overlooked and hence may reduce economic diversity in the long run. In Pangnirtung this does not seem to have happened, as the community is now also involved in a fisheries pi lot project with significant success. A final major weakness is that jobs in tourism are usually short- term and seasonal, and the long te rm s tabi l i ty of the industry is not yet known. Therefore, by itself, tourism in the a rc t ic cannot provide a solid basis for community survival . It should be integrated with jobs and business in other sectors that continue on a year-round basis, and should be prepared to adapt to changing market conditions in order to remain viable in the long te rm. Much of the analysis of this chapter was hampered because of a lack of documented economic data available on the program. To be able to better plan the program in the future and learn more about the impacts of toursim in the north, a stronger commitment should be made by the G N W T to systematically gather data and monitor the program on an ongoing basis. - 129 -This w i l l allow part icipants to determine whether the program is achieving self reliance or not, and w i l l also be important for planning future projects in the community so that economic viabi l i ty w i l l be maintained and the program can be kept on t rack. Only with systematic monitoring and evaluation, w i l l the impacts of the program be identif ied. - 130 -Figure 10: Talking after church. 6.0 EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM AS A VEHICLE FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT An important goal of the program was to encourage development which would provide social benefits to the community. This was part icular ly important because, in the past, northern economic development has often had negative social impacts on local communit ies . For the tourism program, three specific objectives and c r i t e r i a were identif ied: - 131 -a) The program should promote development which f i ts in with local l ifestyles and cultures. b) The program should promote development which helps the community to achieve its own socia l goals. c) The program should fac i l i ta te cross-cultural learning and local skil ls in dealing with outside people. In this chapter, the program is evaluated in terms of how effect ively it has achieved these objectives. Suggestions made by participants as to how the program could be improved are also identif ied. 6.1 FITTING IN WITH L O C A L LIFESTYLES AND CULTURES Twenty-three loca l people, mostly Inuit, felt tourism didn't create any major social problems in the community. When questioned further, however, most of these people mentioned that tourism did create some minor problems. Only three loca l people felt that tourism created major social problems. In this section, these positive and negative impacts are reviewed. 6.1.2 Positive Impacts Seventeen local respondents, most of them Inuit, noted they l iked tourists and tourism in Pangnirtung. Many said they enjoyed seeing tourists in - 1 3 2 -town, as tourists were friendly and relaxed. F ive local people noted that tourism did fi t in with local l i festyles and cul ture. This was because tourism involved ac t iv i t ies that loca l people were already involved in, such as t raveling on the land and producing arts and crafts. Tourism also operated mostly on a part- t ime basis, so most people s t i l l had time to carry on their normal non-tourism-related ac t iv i t ies . As wel l , tourism mainly happens during a short six-week summer season, so for most of the year, the community is on its own anyways. Ten local people noted the tourism program was effective in controll ing tourists and minimizing their negative socia l impacts in the community. This was part icular ly due to the tourism host program. Before the program, tourists would go around town and disturb people or invade their privacy, but with the hosts, tourists were accompanied by a local person who would fami l i a r i ze , them with information and local customs, so loca l people would not be bothered as much. 6.1.3 Negative Impacts A number of social problems were also noted. Ten locals noted that tourists were sometimes, rude, insensitive, and invaded people's privacy by staring, asking too many questions, or taking inappropriate photographs. Five locals noted that tourists often didn't understand local hunting customs and got upset when seeing skins or carcasses in town. As already noted though, people mentioned these problems were reduced with the tourism host program. - 133 -Eight local people felt the language barr ier was a problem. They couldn't communicate with the visi tors, and this made them feel insecure. They also mentioned the interpretat ion provided by the hosts helped in this problem. Alcoho l was also a problem. Pangnirtung is a dry community and, in the past, tourists bringing alcohol into the area has caused abuse problems among locals (Magee, 1987). The women were part icularly concerned about this issue. Three women also noted that tourism disrupted their summer camp ac t iv i t ies . Before the tourism program, they went out to the summer camps for the entire season. With tourism, however, they spent part of the summer season in town while their husbands pursued outf i t t ing work. They felt this disrupted their family l ife and was eroding their t radi t ional l i festyle and values. Seven respondents felt that the program had falsely raised people's expectations about the future avai labi l i ty of businesses and jobs. When these were not fulf i l led as much as people had expected, disappointment resulted. ACHIEVING COMMUNITY SOCIAL GOALS In the program, the community had not identified any specific social development goals i t wanted to achieve, however, a number of social goals were mentioned by local people during the course of research. Two goals - 134 -which have already been discussed were to increase employment and to maintain Inuit traditions and l ifestyles. In addition to these, three other goals, or program c r i t e r i a , were mentioned: a) to promote local learning and awareness in Inuit culture; b) to promote pride in Inuit culture and traditions; and c) to provide fac i l i t ies which could be used for social programs as we l l as tourism programs. In general, the program has been effect ive in assisting the community to achieve these goals. 6.2.1 Program Strengths Nine local respondents, mostly Inuit, felt that the program was effective in promoting awarness of local culture. This was part icularly through programs such as the historic sites inventory project, archaeological work at Keker ton, oral history projects with elders at Keker ton , a t radi t ional fish camp, and the museum and elders' meeting centre. These people felt these projects were helping local people, especially young people, learn about the history and loca l traditions, and helped increase pride in the Inuit culture. Several local people mentioned they felt proud when tourists were curious and interested in loca l history (Okpik, 1985). Residents were very supportive of these cu l tura l tourism projects. - 135 -Some tourism faci l i t ies w i l l also be able to help social programs. For example, the new visitors ' centre also contains a museum and meeting room for the Sipalaseequtt society (museum society). The interpretation fac i l i t ies at Kekerton also help loca l cul tural awareness programs. Therefore, these fac i l i t ies w i l l benefit both tourism and social development. 6.2.2 Program Weaknesses Two local Inuit felt that tourism was taking away from local social goals. They felt tourism was eroding loca l pride in Inuit culture, and they did not l ike seeing tourists in the communi ty . One woman in part icular felt strongly that the tourists were providing foreign role models for their children and other residents, and as a result , felt that many Inuit children wanted to grow up to be l ike l i t t l e Kadluna . She felt this was eroding loca l values: and taking away from the pride people had in their own culture (Ani ln i l iak , 1985). Three respondents felt that tourism was making local people dependent on people from outside, and encouraging them to adopt a subservient "master/servant" relationship, rather than a more equal guest/host realationship (Hicks, 1985). No outfi t ters or guides, however, ever mentioned that they felt this way. - 136 -6.3 CROSS-CULTURAL LEARNING AND SKILLS IN DEALING WITH PEOPLE In general, the program has been effective in fostering greater understanding between Kadluna and Inuit, although people noted that problems s t i l l exist . 6.3.1 Program Strengths Several local people mentioned that tourism was increasing cross-cultural learning and helping loca l people learn how to deal wi th outsiders. Through contacts between locals and tourists, Inuit were learning more about Kadluna and Kadluna were learning more about Inuit. L o c a l people felt this was a positive step. It was helping build local skil ls in dealing with outside people in a personal and in a business context, and helping outsiders understand and accept more about Inuit people and their l ifestyles. Outfi t ters and government off ic ia ls noted that the outfi t t ing courses were effective in teaching about tourists and their expectations. Two outfi t ters noted that this was helpful in dealing wi th tourists in various situations, and setting up outfi t t ing services that were better organized. As already noted, the tourism hosts were also doing an effective job of establishing good contacts between the tourists and local people, which helped cross-cultural understanding. - 137 -Figure 11: Women and children. 6.3.2 Program Weaknesses Loca l people also noted, however, that considerable misunderstanding between tourists and locals s t i l l took place in the community. As already noted, there is a language barrier, and many tourists lack an awareness of local customs. Some local people and government officials felt the program did not place enough emphasis on educating tourists about what to expect before they came to Pangnirtung. - 138 -6.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONTINUED AND IMPROVED ACHIEVEMENT OF SOCIAL GOALS Part icipants made a number of recommendations regarding continuing and improving the social development aspects of the tourism program. 6.4.1 Continue Cultural Tourism Programs Twelve respondents, including six locals , felt the cul tural projects of the program should be continued and expanded. This included the summer camp, historic sites restorat ion, the museum, a carving centre and the archaeological program. 6.4.2 Control the Level of Tourism in the Community Several respondents, including eleven loca l residents, emphasized that the number of tourists in the community should be kept under cont ro l . Although people did not have any suggestions as to how this could be accomplished, they felt that too many tourists would over-run the community and erode people's pr ivacy . Therefore, the Commit tee should closely monitor this situation and ensure that some controls are in place to l imi t the number of tourists that come to their community. - 139 -6.4.3 Improve Local Tourism Awareness Twelve people felt that tourism awareness programs for local people should be expanded. They felt this would help local people to be less intimidated by tourists and let them feel more comfortable getting involved in tourism related businesses. 6.4.4 Improve Tourists' Awareness of Local Customs Six respondents noted that tourists should be made more aware of Inuit customs and values, including loca l animal k i l l ing and butchering practices, local values regarding not working on Sundays, alcohol prohibition, and not asking too many questions or taking insensitive photographs. Specific suggestions in this regard included continuing the community host program; producing a pamphlet describing the community, its customs, and some simple translations for Inuktitut words; and building a new visi tors ' centre. 6.5 CONCLUSIONS The program had both strengths and weaknesses in regard to social development. Most loca l people felt tourism did not create any major social problems in the community , although some minor problems were noted. - 140 -The strengths of the program were that many local people enjoyed tourists and tourism Pangnirtung, and through the host program, tourists were more controlled in the community and learned to respect local values and customs. For the most part, tourism did fit in with local culture and l ifestyles, as i t involved ac t iv i t ies people were involved in anyways. Tourism also benefited some socia l programs, as through cul tural projects residents got to learn more about their own history and culture, and some tourism faci l i t ies were used for both tourism and social programs. There were also some problems, however. Some residents noted that even though the tourism host program helped a great deal, tourists s t i l l invaded their privacy at times and were inconsiderate or not understanding of loca l ways. As we l l , a minority of women felt there was a loss of l i fes tyle , as involvement in tourism usually meant they didn't spend as much t ime in their t radi t ional summer camps. A smal l minority of people also felt Inuit were losing their independence, as they were now catering toward the needs of the tourists instead of their own needs. Most, however, welcomed the opportunity to work in tourism and earn their own l iv ing . To them, tourism was considerably better than dependence on unemployment or welfare. It is also very important to note that in 1985, several residents fel t the numbers of tourists in town should be controlled by local people so that tourists wouldn't "take over" the town. Since that time, vis i tat ion has more than doubled, and is increasing steadily. It is quite possible, therefore, that the minor social problems noted in 1985 could become - 141 -major ones, i f the community does not take strong act ion to cont ro l vis i tat ion and reduce these potent ia l problems. In other parts of the wor ld , rapidly increasing tourism has often resulted in serious social problems, including a loss of pr ivacy, loss of l i festyle and culture, loss of quality and integrity in loca l arts and crafts , loss of local control in the tourism industry, and alcohol and drug abuse (Pi-Sunyer, 1982; Call inapulos, 1982; deKadt , 1976; Murphy, 1983). Therefore, for the future in Pangnirtung, it w i l l be important to monitor vis i ta t ion and social impacts c losely , and control the number of tourists in the community so that social problems do not become major. It w i l l also be important to maintain the cul tura l projects and the tourism host program, so tourists can be control led in the community, and so that tourism faci l i t ies and projects can also contribute to local socia l development projects. - 142 -Figure 12: Museum society meeting room and craft shop. 7.0 EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM AS A VEHICLE FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT An important objective of the program was to contribute to the building of skills and capaci ty for community development in Pangnirtung. Specif ic c r i te r ia in this regard were: a) The program should help build awareness about tourism and economic development. - 143 -b) The program should fac i l i ta te loca l management and control in tourism development. c) The program should help develop local skil ls in planning and management. In this chapter, the program is evaluated in terms of how effect ive i t has been in achieving these c r i t e r i a . 7.1 BUILDING LOCAL AWARENESS ABOUT TOURISM AND DEVELOPMENT Twenty respondents from a l l categories felt that local residents had become more aware of tourism and economic development through the program, however, just as many respondents pointed out that lack of awareness was s t i l l the major problem to development in the community . A number of strengths and weaknesses were noted: .7.1.1 Program Strengths A major strength of the program was that i t helped increase tourism in the community, got projects going, hired loca l people, and created the Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee . This direct involvement helped considerably in raising local 's awareness about tourism in the community . As a result, outfitters noted that they were encouraged to run their own operations, entrepreneurial role models began to develop, and several - 144 -people interviewed were thinking 'about starting their own business. People were becoming more aware what tourism had to offer, and how to get involved. A wide variety of respondents fel t the Tourism Commit tee was a main vehicle for building this awareness. Through their involvement, Commit tee members were becoming very knowledgeable about tour ism. They also conducted awareness programs and travelled to other communities to help ' them develop tourism programs of their own. 7.1.2 Program Weaknesses A lack of tourism awareness, however, is s t i l l one of the major problems to developing tourism in the community . Although some awareness programs had been carried out in both planning and implementation, nine respondents felt these programs were poorly done and ineffective. The researcher found that most local respondents had no recol lect ion at a l l of the planning phase of the program. A s we l l , the researcher found that most local people asked were not aware of the awareness programs the Commit tee was running during implementat ion. Because of this lack of awareness, many residents did not know how to get involved in tourism, or what the problems or advantages of gett ing involved were. - 145 -7.2 FACILITATING LOCAL MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL The program has also been successful in increasing local management and control in tourism development, which is a major strength of the program. This was accomplished through increasing local ownership in tourism businesses, and increasing loca l cont ro l in the program through the Tourism Commi t t ee . 7.2.1 Local Ownership As already documented in Section 5.3.1, loca l ownership and involvement in businesses increased considerably after the tourism program started. This has strengthened local control in the private sector, and has helped develop skil ls among local people. With loca l ownership of the hotel, this should be further increased. 7.2.2 The Pangnirtung Tourism Committee Twenty-six respondents, including 12 loca l people, felt a major contribution of the program was the creat ion of the Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee . Almos t a l l respondents who were asked felt the Commit tee was essential to the success of the program. People noted a number of strengths and weaknesses of the Commit tee . - 146 -7.2.2.1 Commit tee Strengths a) Loca l support: Almos t a l l local people who were asked felt the Commit tee was doing a good job. They strongly supported its role and programs. b) L o c a l program organizat ion and control : The Commit tee manages and controls the development of tourism in the community. It is made up of loca l people who have a direct say in the program. This was seen as essential for effect ive local control . c) L o c a l information and awareness: Seven local people felt the Commit tee provided a good information centre and helped to build local awareness in tour ism. Two people also noted the Commit tee maintained good contact wi th other organizations in the community, as the Commit tee was made up of members from other committees in the community. 7.2.2.2 Commit tee Weaknesses a) Lack of loca l contact : F i f teen residents, however, noted they were not very aware of the Tourism Commit tee or its ac t iv i t ies . They felt there was a serious lack of communication between the Commit tee and community at large. - 147 -b) L i m i t e d funding and cont ro l : A few Commit tee members felt the Commit tee had only l imi ted control in tourism development. This was par t ia l ly because a l l the funding was government control led, and not on a secure long-term basis. c) Varied expertise and awareness: Commit tee members noted that some members were unaware of tourism issues, part icularly when they were new to the Commi t t ee , and hence much time was spent brining new members up-to-date. Other members who were knowledgeable acted as leaders. These differences in skil ls sometimes led to frustration in terms of creating an effect ive working group and running eff icient programs (Sowdloapik, 1985). d) Poor management and organizational ski l l s : Commit tee members also noted that management and organizational skills were lacking in the Commi t t ee . As a result, some members felt l imi ted in terms of s t ra t ig ical ly running the program. Rather, they felt l imi ted to running the ongoing administrat ive aspects of the program. Suggestions on how the Tourism Commit tee could be improved are included in Section 7.4.2, 'Improve the Pangnirtung Tourism Commit tee ' . 7.3 BUILDING SKILLS IN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT The program had only l imi ted success in building local skills in planning and management. Although four respondents fel t that some progress had been - 148 -made in this regard, five people, including two Commit tee members, two government off ic ials , and one consultant, felt the program should have focussed more on these objectives. Respondents pointed out both strengths and weaknesses in this regard. 7.3.1 Program Strengths The main areas in which the program helped build local skil ls were in guide training and tourism management. Guide training courses have continued on an ongoing basis in the Baf f in Region, and have been in high demand among local outfi t ters. One of the Pangnirtung outfitters has progressed so far in his experience and training that he is now acting as a t rainer in this field (Hamburg, 1987). Commit tee members have also buil t skil ls in planning and management, although to varying degrees of prof ic iency. They have learned about tourism, how to run a commit tee , program administration, and how to deal with government funding programs effect ively (Joamie, 1985). 7.3.2 Program Weaknesses Five respondents felt the program was not as effective as i t should have been in building local ski l ls in planning and management. One senior federal of f ic ia l felt the program had focussed on capi ta l projects that would look good on government records, rather than sk i l l development. For example, the vast majority of the projects identified in the program's f i ve -- 149 -year plan were infrastructure related, rather than organizational . (See Appendix B for a summary of the five-year plan.) This emphasis, however, is inconsistent wi th the position taken by the planning consultants at the t ime, when they verbally advised the Commit tee that the establishment of an effective tourism board was the most important component of the entire five-year plan (Pangnirtung Tourism Commit tee Minutes, A p r i l 19, 1982). Despite this recognized importance, there were ho training positions for Commit tee members during the planning phase of the project, and there were no formal training or organizational programs designed for the Commit tee during implementat ion. Rather, responsibility for training and organizational development was left to the A E D O . Fortunately, Pangnirtung has been lucky to have two skil led A E D O s at different t imes, who have spent a lot of t ime with the Commit tee over the life of the program, and hence, some valuable learning and sk i l l development has taken place. Nevertheless, several Commit tee members felt they were s t i l l lacking in management and planning ski l ls . They felt ill-equipped to develop the program from a strategic point of view (Joamie, 1985). Three government off ic ials and two residents felt the sk i l l building that did take place was job-specif ic , and did not deal with the broader aspects of community development. For example, in the Commit tee , skills were developed in project administrat ion, funding, and tourism management, and among outfit ters, skills were developed in guiding and operating an outfit t ing business. Important areas in which skil ls had not been developed - 150 -as much as these people felt they should have been included program planning and development, business management, community organization, economic development, resource management, and community planning. Because of this lack of training, some respondents felt that the community was l imi ted in its abi l i ty to pursue broader types of community development and non-tourism related economic development. 7.4 PARTICIPANT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE PROGRAM REGARDING COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Part icipants had a number of suggestions on how the program could have been more effective in building loca l development awareness, control and ski l ls . 7.4.1 Improve Awareness Programs Twelve respondents noted that the awareness programs should be improved. Recommendations included that they should have been held earlier in the planning process, they should be continuing on an ongoing basis, they should encourage more local involvement, and they should cover topics such as: the problems of tourism, how tourism fits in with other forms of development, what other forms of development are possible for the community, the legal problems of outf i t t ing, and tourism business management. - 151 -7.4.2 Improve the Pangnirtung Tourism Committee Respondents had a number of suggestions as to how the Tourism Commit tee could be improved: 7.4.2.1 Improve Community Contac t and Information Fif teen local people noted the Commit tee should be more act ive in involving the community and informing residents about Commit tee projects. Suggestions included improved awareness programs, newsletters, public meetings, special events, seminars, conferences wi th outside tour agencies, meetings wi th different organizations in the community (such as the outfit ters, the hotel , the R C M P , nurses, Hunters and Trappers Associat ion, etc.), an improved information centre, a drop-in centre, and increased notices for jobs and outf i t t ing opportunities. 7.4.2.2 Improve Commit tee Member Select ion Five loca l people felt that Commi t t ee members should be freely elected and/or selected from tourism oriented groups in the community. It was felt that this may help to a t t rac t more dynamic Commit tee members who are commit ted to tourism and aware of its issues. - 152 -7.4.2.3 Increase Training for Commit tee Members Three Commit tee members felt a need for increased training in the following areas: Commit tee organization and management, how to be effective as a Commi t t ee , program planning and administration, and tourism awareness. 7.4.2.4 Improve Funding and Professional Support for the Commit tee In 1985, Commi t t ee members felt that funding for the Commit tee and its general manager should be made more secure to allow for better program planning. They also felt there should be improved professional support for the Commi t t ee . Since that t ime, funding for the general manager's position has been made permanent, and a landscape architecture consultant has been hired for three consecutive summers to help with Commit tee . projects (Hamburg, 1987). It is not known to what extent these measures have addressed the aforementioned problems. 7.4.3 Create a Full-time Tourism Officer Position in Pangnirtung Three people felt a ful l - t ime tourism officer should be created in Pangnirtung. They felt this would assist with the planning and development of the program, and fac i l i ta te increased support from the GNWT in the form of reference materials, f i les, information and access to government resources. - 153 -7.4.4 Organize an Outfitters Association Seven loca l people felt a loca l outfi t ters association should be formed. They fel t this would help organize the outfi t t ing business, set appropriate standards for outfit ters, and act as a lobby group to promote outf i t t ing concerns and interests. 7.4.5 Settle Land Claims Ten loca l people noted that they needed a land claims sett lement to strengthen Inuit control over land, resources, and the economy in the area. They fel t this was essential in order to achieve management over their own social , resource use, economic and po l i t i ca l programs. 7.4.6 Create a Community Development Corporation Three loca l respondents and two government officials felt that a loca l community development corporation (CDC) should be formed to act as a vehicle for tourism development. One of f ic ia l felt a a C D C would help increase local coordination and control over development in the area and fac i l i ta te the accessing of government funding programs (Trumper, 1985). 7.4.7 Improve Skill Building in Planning and Community Development Five respondents felt that sk i l l building in management and planning should be improved. Suggestions for the planning phase included doing more - 154 -planning workshops and establishing a local trainee position to work together with the planners. Suggestions for implementation included training and workshops in strategic planning, community organization, economic development, business development, and program management. The Commit tee manager also expressed the need for more professional follow-up from the tourism planners during implementat ion. He felt this would have helped the Tourism Commit tee monitor, evaluate and direct the program from a strategic point of view, and would have helped the Commit tee build skil ls in these areas. CONCLUSIONS The program had both strengths and weaknesses in regard to being a vehicle for community development. One of its strengths was that it got people involved in tourism, so people became more aware of tourism as one option for economic growth. It also created the Tourism Commit tee which has played the major role in managing the program in the community. It has also helped build strong ski l ls in outfi t t ing through guide training programs, and l imi ted skil ls in program management through the organizational work of the Tourism Commit tee . It has also faci l i ta ted greater ownership and contro l in the industry, through involvement in loca l jobs and the recent purchase of the local hotel . The program also has several weaknesses. In terms of awareness building, most development has only been in tourism, other sectors have not been dealt wi th . Despite the awareness programs undertaken, a lack of tourism - 155 -awareness and skil ls among residents is s t i l l seen as the major problem to developing tourism in the community . Therefore, the training and awareness programs have not been as effect ive as they should have been. As we l l , even though the Tourism Commi t t ee is responsible for managing the program, Commit tee members felt they didn't have the skil ls or professional back-up they needed to manage the program effectively from a strategic and developmental point of view. Training, continuity and professional follow-up with the Commit tee were not as strong as Commit tee members would have l iked . Although the Commit tee is doing an excellent job and has the strong support of the community, its role could nevertheless be improved. Par t ic ipants had a number of suggestions as to how the program could have been improved. Awareness programs should have been held earlier, they should have been more in-depth and also should be held on an ongoing basis. Residents also suggested that the Tourism Commit tee improve contact and information exchange wi th the community and change the system of member select ion. Commit tee members requested increased training and improved professional support and funding. Other suggestions included creating a ful l - t ime tourism officer position in Pangnirtung, organizing an outfit ters organization, creating a Community Development Corporat ion, settling land c la ims, and increasing training in program management, business development, and community planning and development. A l l these actions would be important in strengthening community development in Pangnirtung. - 156 -Figure 13: Pangnirtung Fjord and Auyuittuq National Park. 8.0 NATIONAL PARK AND HISTORIC SITES CONCERNS A t the outset of this study, the Commi t t ee requested that the research examine the roles of Auyui t tuq Nat ional Park Reserve and Keker ton Whaling Station in relat ion to the tourism program. In part icular , they wanted to know what the tourism related strengths and problems of these areas were, and how the areas could be best managed to support loca l development. - 157 -In this chapter, Auyui t tuq Nat iona l Park Reserve, Keker ton Whaling Station, and other local historic sites are briefly reviewed. 8.1 AUYUITTUQ NATIONAL PARK RESERVE Auyui t tuq Nat iona l Park Reserve was first established in 1972. It consists of 21,470 square kilometers of spectacular wildlands. It has been described as " A formidable domain, a prodigious 8,300 square mile t rac t of ve r t i ca l rock, rol l ing ice and precipitous fjords; of ter res t r ia l and marine flora and fauna seen only in photo books by most of the world; and of prehistoric Inuit hunting camps and whaling cemetaries." (Intergroup Consultants L t d . , 1985:9) The area is we l l known for its hiking and mountaineering and attracts hikers, naturalists, photographers and outdoors enthusiasts. Entrance to the park is located at the head of Pangnirtung Fjord, about 30 kms away from the community. (See Figure 2, page 14) 8.1.1 Strengths of the Park in Regard to Tourism Development Auyui t tuq Nat iona l Park Reserve plays a significant role in tourism development for Pangnirtung. 8.1.1.1 An Important A t t r a c t i o n and Resource for Tourism Auyui t tuq is the largest single at t ract ion for tourists in the entire Baff in Region (Mallon, 1985). Therefore, the park clear ly increases tourism in the community. The Park also provides faci l i t ies and services for tourists, - 158 -which helps local infrastructure development. This includes a visi tors ' centre and park warden services and a network of trails and shelters. These f i t in we l l with the loca l tourism program. 8.1.1.2 Job and S k i l l Development The operation of the park also provides loca l jobs and gives opportunities for s k i l l development. The majority of the park employees are loca l , and the national parks system has several ongoing training programs that employees can take advantage of. Skills have been developed in guiding, search and rescue, f irst aid, park and wi ld l i fe management, and office management (Sowdluapik, 1985). 8.1.1.3 Opportunity for L o c a l Input The park reserve also provides for loca l community input into the management of the reserve through the L o c a l Advisory Commit tee , which is made up of community members. The role of this board is to advise and give loca l input into the development and management of the Park Reserve (Beddard, 1985). A major opportunity also exists in that the Auyui t tuq Park Reserve is currently under Interim Management Guidelines, but w i l l soon (possibly within the next five years) be restructured into operating according to a comprehensive Management P lan . The Management Plan planning process gives a high priori ty to public par t ic ipa t ion . This w i l l give locals a chance to have input into the future management of the park. - 159 -8.1.2 Problems of the Park in Regard to Tourism Development Participants also noted problems with the Park Reserve in regard to its relation to the tourism program. 8.1.2.1 Conf l ic t of Objectives Nine respondents, including five park off ic ials , noted that the conservation objectives connected wi th Na t iona l Parks were often in conf l ic t with the economic development objectives of tourism. Some senior officials in GNWT Dept. of Economic Development and Tourism noted that there was fr ic t ion between their department and Parks Canada because of this. These officials felt that, because of national park conservation policies , economic opportunities and vis i tor services in Auyui t tuq would always be l imi ted . Four senior off icials in Parks Canada, including the local park superintendent, however, noted that tourism development was becoming a higher priori ty within the national park system, and they expressed a willingness to cooperate wi th the loca l tourism program. 8.1.2.2 Poor L o c a l Input Although a L o c a l Advisory Commi t t ee is technically in existence, it rarely meets and was not very knowledgeable about park issues, operations, or plans (Breneman, 1985). Because of this, most of the management of the park took place without s ignif icant input from the community or the - 160 -Tourism Commi t t ee . A t the t ime of research, in 1985, the management of the park was being done re la t ively independent of the management of the tourism program (Joamie, 1985). 8.1.2.3 Unreal is t ic Job Expectations and Distrust When the park reserve was first created, local people felt they had been promised a lot of jobs from Parks Canada. In real i ty , however, not nearly as many local jobs were created through the park as originally ant icipated. This created false expectations among locals, disappointment, and a certain level of loca l distrust regarding park operations. As a result, loca l people were reluctant to get involved in Park matters. 8.1.3 Improving the Role of the Park in Local Development Part icipants had a number of suggestions regarding better integration of the park with loca l tourism development. 8.1.3.1 Improve L o c a l Par t i c ipa t ion and Involvement Seventeen participants, including ten park officials and five local residents, felt that public involvement and responsibilities in park management should be increased. Specific recommendations included: a) L o c a l input: L o c a l people should be given greater responsibilities and control over a l l aspects of park management. This point was part icular ly emphasised by loca l people. - 161 -b) L o c a l Advisory C o m m i t t e e : The L o c a l Advisory Commi t t ee should be made stronger. It should be encouraged to meet more often, and be more act ive in park management affairs. Its role should also be more clearly defined and understood, and it should be given more technical and f inancial support to carry out its duties e f fec t ive ly . c) Awareness and information programs: Seven people fel t improved awareness and information programs should be star ted by Parks Canada in the community . These would be to inform loca l residents about park policies, programs and plans for the future. In these programs, people should be given a real is t ic idea of what to expect regarding future benefits or problems related to the park. d) Regional headquarters contact : L o c a l people and regional headquarters officials felt there should be better contact between the community and the regional headguarters office in Winnipeg. e) L o c a l hire: Eight people, including five park off ic ia ls , fel t loca l residents should continue to be hired for park related jobs. 8.1.3.2 Improve Coordination wi th L o c a l Development Goals Eight respondents, including five park officials , felt the park should integrate its programs more wi th regional development goals. This included allowing for increased vis i ta t ion, more park-related business act iv i t ies , l imi ted resource use, and improved marketing of park attractions and faci l i t ies to increase tourism in the area. - 162 -8.1.3.3 Establish a Community-based Park Management P lan Four park officials fel t a Park Management P lan should be developed to clarify management issues and provide for loca l input into parks management. Publ ic par t ic ipat ion in the managment plan planning process was seen as a pr ior i ty . 8.1.3.4 Hire a L o c a l Pub l ic Par t i c ipa t ion Consultant One senior park planner strongly suggested that a local person or organization could be hired to carry out the public part icipat ion component of the proposed Management P lan planning process. It was also noted, however, that this person or organization would have to be well-qual i f ied in order to do a proper job. 8.2 KEKERTON WHALING STATION Kekerton Island is a his tor ic whaling station in the Cumberland Sound, about 4 hours by boat from Pangnirtung. (See Figure 2, page 14) It is considered to be one of the most important historic sites in the Eastern A r c t i c . In the late 1800s, it was the major sett lement for Scott ish and Amer ican whalers in the A r c t i c , and was occupied for a to ta l of 70 years by both Inuit and whites (Stevenson, 1985). Some elders in Pangnirtung s t i l l remember growing up on Keker ton Island, and i t is heritage site highly valued by local people. - 163 -Since 1983, archaeological work has been proceeding on the island under the direct ion of a GNWT archaeologist . It is currently being developed as a t e r r i to r ia l historic park wi th research and visi tor interpretation fac i l i t i es . This work has generated interest among both local people and tourists. 8.2.1 Strengths of Kekerton in Regard to the Tourism Program In general, Keker ton is making a strong contribution to the tourism program. 8.2.1.1 Strong Tourist At t rac t ion Keker ton is a significant a t t rac t ion for tourists and, with its new fac i l i t i es , provides a good opportunity to increase tourism and business in the area. A round trip to Keker ton reguires a fu l l day, by boat, which w i l l provide jobs for local outfi t ters. 8.2.1.2 L o c a l Heritage Value Ten local people also noted that the site has important heritage value for residents. It is a project which not only helps tourism, but also helps loca l people learn about their heritage. People in Pangnirtung were very supportive of this. 8.2.2 Problems with Kekerton in Regard to the Tourism Program Respondents also noted problems wi th development at Keker ton. - 164 -8.2.2.1 Lack of Coordination Of major importance, in 1985, there was a serious lack of coordination between the various people and government departments involved in the s i te . The Pr ince of Wales Heri tage Center was pr imari ly interested in archaeological research, conservation and interpretation (Stevenson, 1985). The Department of Economic Development and Tourism was interested in developing the site as a tourism fac i l i ty (Nuegebauer, 1985). Parks Canada was making its own investigations into other historic sites in the area and was interested in exploring joint management and cost sharing options for Keker ton (Woosley, 1985). Although some off ic ials in Parks Canada were in support of getting involved, the area had not yet been declared a site of national historic significance, and budget cut-backs at the t ime were making any meaningful part icipation di f f icul t . This created a lot of uncertainty about the future of the s i te . Since 1985, however, Parks Canada has not had the budget or mandate to get involved, and the lead role in developing the site has been taken by the Dept. of Economic Development and Tourism, and the Pr ince of Wales Northern Heri tage Center . It has since been made into a Te r r i t o r i a l His tor ic Park, which has cleared much of the previous uncertainty that existed for the s i te . 8.2.2.2 Potent ia l for Damage of A r t i f a c t s A few local people and park off ic ials also felt that with the development of Keker ton as a tourist a t t rac t ion , there would be a danger that some of the - 165 -his tor ical ar t i facts would be disturbed or removed from the island. Ar t i fac t s have been removed by tourists at other heritage sites in the Cumberland Sound, and loca l people did not want that to happen at Keker ton . 8.2.3 Participant Recommendations for the Future of Kekerton Part icipants had a number of recommendations regarding the future development and management of Keker ton . 8.2.3.1 General Development Thirteen respondents, including six locals, fel t Keker ton should be managed for both tourism and loca l use. The management program, as developed by the Pr ince of Wales Northern Heri tage Center , was seen as appropriate. 8.2.3.2 Protect ion and Research Twelve people emphasized that a l l historic sites, including Keker ton and other whaling areas, should be protected. L o c a l people felt that no artifacts should be allowed to leave the area, and proper archaeological research should be done for a l l sites. They also felt that a l l artifacts that had been removed from the region in the past should be returned. - 166 -8.2.3.3 L o c a l Con t ro l Ten people, including six locals , two government off ic ials , and two park officials felt that local people should be in control of development at Keker ton . People also fel t tourism visi tat ion to Keker ton should be controlled so that tourists doe not disturb the art ifacts . This included sett ing visi tat ion l imi ts , providing guides and security, and control l ing ac t iv i t ies . 8.2.3.4 Interpretation Ten participants felt interpretat ion faci l i t ies for local historic sites and whaling areas should be improved. This could include developing brochures, plaques, and an interpretation centre . 8.2.3.5 Cooperation and Cost Sharing Ten people noted that roles and responsibilities between different agencies should be better defined. More cooperation and cost sharing agreements should be sought. Most fel t that loca l people should play a leading role in this coordinated management of si te resources. - 167 -There are also several his toric sites and buildings in the community of Pangnirtung. In 1983, a loca l historic sites inventory was conducted as a summer project by students. Some of the major sites include the old whaling station, the old Hudson's Bay Company buildings, the old Angl ican church and its associated buildings. - 168 -8.3.1 Strengths of the Local Historic Sites Ten loca l people saw the historic sites in Pangnirtung as being very important. They felt the sites give an historic atmosphere to the community, which was an a t t rac t ion for tourists. They also felt the old historic buildings were an important part of their own heritage. F o r the elders, they made the old days "come to l i fe" (Pits iul iak, 1985). 8.3.2 Problems with the Local Historic Sites The problems wi th the loca l historic buildings, however, were that most of them were in poor repair, they were expensive to maintain or restore, and had l i t t l e or no form of protect ion. Because of this, some local residents were concerned that the community was in danger of losing these buildings. 8.3.3 Recommendations for Local Historic Sites Management As with Keker ton , people felt that local his toric sites in Pangnirtung should be saved, protected, and restored when prac t ica l . Buildings to be protected included the old whaling stat ion, the old Hudson's Bay Company building, the old Angl ican Church , and its associated buildings. L o c a l people also felt that research and interpretat ion should be done for these buildings, and they should be maintained and developed to complement the tourism program. - 169 -C O N C L L B I O N S Auyui t tuq Nat ional Park , Keker ton Island and local historic sites in Pangnirtung make an important contribution to the Tourism Program. They are significant at t ract ions, and are educational in both their natural and cultural history. Both the park and the historic areas provide important interpretive potent ia l , and fi t w e l l with loca l cul tura l programs. Although the Nat ional Park has opportunities for local input, through the L o c a l Advisory Board, this is not used effect ively by the community . S imi la r ly , management control is poorly defined with Keker ton and the local historic sites in Pangnirtung. Nevertheless, it is important that residents have significant input and control over the management of these areas. Therefore, the L o c a l Advisory Board should be rev i ta l ized wi th increased incentives and resources to be more effect ive , residents should take the in i t ia t ive to be more involved in the creat ion of a management plan for the park, and the loca l historic sites in Pangnirtung should be protected and managed by the community for tourism and loca l heritage purposes. - 170 -Figure 15: Children: the future of Pangnirtung. 9.0 CONCLUSIONS 9.1 OVERVIEW OF PROGRAM STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES AND CONCERNS In conclusion, the program has had both strengths and weaknesses in regard to achieving its objectives. One of its major strengths was that i t faci l i ta ted a development process in which local people have had significant input and control into the direct ion of the program. The establishment of the Tourism Commit tee and the role i t plays in tourism development in Pangnirtung was essential for the success of the program. - 171 -The program was also successful in increasing jobs and income and this income is widely distributed in the community. As wel l , tourism did not cause any major social problems, although some minor ones were noted. Most loca l residents felt that tourism f i t ted in wel l with their culture and t radi t ional lifestyles and, in some cases, benefited their social programs. The tourism program has also been a valuable informal learning experience for both Pangnirtung residents and other participants. L o c a l people have learned more about running businesses and how to find and manage funding for development projects. Other part icipants have learned about effect ive tourism planning and implementat ion methods in the north, and about the impacts of tourism in an Inuit communi ty . There were also, however, some major weaknesses with the program. There were l imitat ions in the planning and implementation process. L o c a l people were not significantly involved in determining the program's scope or objectives during program ini t ia t ion, and did not understand the planning process very w e l l . This was par t ia l ly due to the fact that awareness programs were too late in the process and not thorough enough. As w e l l , there has been no follow-up from the planning consultants during implementat ion, and no formal training for Commit tee members to develop skil ls in program planning and management. Because of this, Commi t t ee members feel they are l imi ted in their abi l i ty to do strategic planning for the program, which reduces their effectiveness as controllers and managers of tourism. Much of the program is a collaborative effort between the GNWT and the Commit tee , which makes some Commit tee members feel they have l i t t l e control over the program. - 172 -Another major concern is that most jobs and income with the program have been in the public sector, not the private sector. To date, the development of the industry has been heavily subsidized by the government, which raises a major question as to whether the program is increasing or decreasing dependence on government. Government expenditures are expected to decrease in the near future, however, and visi tat ion is expected to increase. Therefore, this s i tuat ion should be monitored closely in the future to ensure that loca l development goals are respected and achieved. Another major concern is loca l control and management in the industry. Although to date, most development has been locally based and control led, experience in other countries and developing communities has shown that once tourism becomes profi table and wel l known, it is often taken over by outside entrepreneurs who then control the industry, and loca l people can be seriously displaced. Therefore, it w i l l be important in Pangnirtung to strengthen local business and management ski l ls , f inancial resources, and control over local development. In this regard, the training programs given so far have been helpful, and should be expanded to include business development and program planning and management. The recent purchase of the hotel by a group of loca l and regional investors has also been helpful, as this strengthens local control in the industry. Another important concern is soc ia l development. The socia l impacts of tourism identified in this research took place at a t ime when tourist visi tat ion was s t i l l re la t ively low. Although many people in 1985 said that tourism didn't create any major socia l problems in the community, some - 173 -said i t did, and many people felt the numbers of tourists in the community should be controlled to minimize negative socia l impacts. Since 1985, vis i ta t ion has more than doubled, which w i l l undoubtedly also affect the social impacts of tourism in the community. As vis i ta t ion increases, therefore, it w i l l be important to monitor the program closely and listen to loca l residents to find out what the changing socia l impacts of tourism in the community are. This w i l l be part icularly important in regard to examining impacts in loca l l i festyles, culture, social programs and people's sense of privacy and control in the community. Another major concern is how tourism compares with other economic sectors or how it can be coordinated wi th them. The program, and this research, deal only with tourism. Therefore, the research does not evaluate whether tourism is any better or worse than other sectors regarding economic development. Fo r the purposes of comprehensive development, however, it is important to know how different sectors compare and how they can be coordinated. Therefore, it would be useful to also carry out case study research on other sectoral projects in the north, and compare them to the Pangnirtung Tourism Program. Fo r example, the fisheries program recently started in Pangnirtung could provide an excellent opportunity to do a comparative analysis of the relative benefits of fishing versus tourism for economic development in Pangnirtung. In this way, the relat ive benefits and weaknesses of tourism as compared to other industries could be brought more into perspective, and guidelines for inter-sector coordination could be developed. - 174 -Las t ly , there is a need for more systematical ly collected data on tourism in Pangnirtung, and better dis tr ibut ion of documented information on the program. Much of the analysis in this research was hampered because of poor avai labi l i ty of information, and without this information i t is impossible to know in deta i l what the impacts of tourism are. Therefore, there are s t i l l many unanswered questions regarding tourism in the community. If the program is to act as the valuable research tool it was set out to be, a systematic monitoring and evaluation process which involves participants and loca l residents should be established. As wel l , to be more effect ive as a demonstration model, information about the program should be documented and made readily available to communities and tourism planners elsewhere. In this way, more people w i l l be able to learn more about the program and its accomplishments. LESSONS TO BE LEARNED FROM THE PANGNIRTUNG PROGRAM Even though there are several remaining questions regarding the Pangnirtung Tourism Program, much can be learned from the case study. The research points to a number of conclusions and observations that form valuable lessons for tourism development in the north. These lessons and their implications for northern tourism development are br ief ly summarized in this sect ion. It should be noted, however, that in applying these lessons to situations elsewhere, each community has its own set of conditions, constraints and - 175 -opportunities. Therefore, something that worked in Pangnirtung may not necessarily work in another community. Each situation has to be evaluated on its own merits and appropriate action taken accordingly. 9.2.1 Developing an Appropriate Tourism Planning and Implementation Process A number of factors were important in the planning and implementation process in Pangnirtung. 9.2.1.1 L o c a l Involvement and Con t ro l L o c a l involvement and control in the program was the single most important factor in determining the success of the program. L o c a l involvement started wi th public meetings and the Tourism Commi t t ee during planning. It was strengthened in implementation through loca l involvement in jobs and projects, local ownership of businesses, and the management role over the program by the Tourism Commi t t ee throughout. This local involvement and control put development in the hands of the community, so the community could guide the program for its own benefits. It helped strengthen loca l organizational development and loca l ownership so that locals could control and enjoy more of the economic benefits of tourism. It also encouraged individual community members to become involved so that people could learn more about development in their community and take part in its future. - 176 -Although local involvement and control was important and effect ive , it could have been made s t i l l stronger. Improved measures could have included improved public input and awareness programs, improved training programs at the outset, greater involvement of the private sector during planning, more human resource development and sk i l l building, increased organizational development wi th the Commi t t ee , and improved contact between the Commi t t ee and community members on an ongoing basis. 9.2.1.2 Timing and Scale of Development Appropria te t iming and scale of development were also important for the success of the program. F o r the most part, the program has progressed at a scale and speed which community members can follow and take part in . Occasional ly, in the planning phase, the consultants and GNWT wanted to speed things up, but this caused problems and local people had to insist i t slow down. In implementat ion, projects are directed by the local Tour ism Commi t t ee , so projects have proceeded at a pace which match loca l t ime tables and the development of ski l ls and awareness in the community. Appropria te scale of development was also important. A t the outset, many people in the community were not fami l ia r with tourism, so i t was important to begin with smaller projects that local people had the ski l ls to deal wi th , such as Commi t t ee organization, hosting, and smal ler construction projects in and around the community. As skil ls and awarenesses have grown over the past five years, so has the scale of the projects. The Commit tee has become progressively stronger, hosting - 177 -programs have become larger, outfitters are more organized, a visi tors ' centre has been constructed, and more recently, the majority ownership of the hotel has changed to a group of local residents. This has helped loca l people to maintain control in the program and manage it for their own benefit. With this five years of experience, the community is now much better prepared to deal with the current large increase in tourism than before the program. 9.2.1.3 Development Support Support for the program through funding, government resources and training, was also important. Very l i t t l e , i f any, of the program would have been possible without government funding. Training supplied by the A E D O and the GNWT was important in developing skil ls and capacity for development. The avai labi l i ty of these resources and willingness of people to help greatly strengthened tourism development in the community. It must be emphasized, however, that government support also carries wi th it a danger of increasing dependence on government. Therefore, the support must be oriented to building local capaci ty for development. In this sense, the support must be coordinated with local goals, help in organizational and s k i l l development, and assist in the development of an industry which is economical ly viable on a long-term basis. - 178 -9.2.1.4 Human Resource Development Human resource development was also important. Building ski l ls in dealing with outside people and tourism management were essential for loca l control in the program. Commi t t ee organization through the A E D O , and training programs with the outfi t ters, were important in this regard. The current lack of awareness and skil ls is s t i l l one of the major problems i n ' tourism development however. Fo r this reason, human resource development should have been more emphasized earlier in the program, and should be given a high pr ior i ty now. 9.2.1.5 F l e x i b i l i t y and Gnqoinq Moni tor ing and Follow-up F l e x i b i l i t y , monitoring and follow-up were also important. The or ig ina l f ive-year plan was too r igid and s ta t ic , it did not allow for monitoring and changes in the program as tourism developed. The Commi t t ee had to change the projects and schedule of the program as it progressed, but fel t it did not know how to adjust or improve the program from a s t ra tegic point of view. Fo r these reasons, the five-year plan should have been more f lexible , and should have included a regular program of monitoring and professional planning follow-up. 9.2.2 Tourism as a Vehicle for Economic Development The program showed that tourism can be effective in strengthening cer ta in aspects of economic development in the north. Publ ic and private jobs - 179 -were created, and this resulted in a net increase in community income. The program also assisted in local involvement and ownership in businesses, hence the local benefits of tourism development were improved. Tourism development also created new opportunities in a sector which was previously underdeveloped, and does not seem to have displaced workers from any other viable sectors. As already noted, however, public sector jobs and incomes in tourism are considerably higher than private sector ones. This raises the question as to whether tourism has encouraged self-reliance or has only reinforced government dependence. This should be closely monitored in the future. 9.2.3 Tourism as a Vehicle for Social Development The program also showed that tourism can be reasonably successful in fi t t ing in with loca l l i festyles and helping local people achieve their socia l objectives. In Pangnirtung, many tourism act ivi t ies were act iv i t ies that people were involved in as part of their normal lives anyway, and most enjoyed the tourists. The cul tura l tourism projects also helped strengthen local culture and heritage, and loca l people strongly supported these projects. May residents fel t a sense of pride when tourists were interested in their history and heri tage. The program also showed, however, that tourism can cause negative socia l impacts. A number of problems were noted, including loss of privacy and community atmosphere, lack of respect for local customs, disruption of t radi t ional l ifestyles, a lcohol abuse and a feelilng of insecurity because of - 180 -not being able to communicate wi th the tourists. With increasing vis i ta t ion, these problems may wel l become major, and this situation should be monitored closely in Pangnirtung. 9.2.4 Tourism as a Vehicle for Capacity Building in Communi ty Development The program also showed that tourism can be effective in building capaci ty for loca l community development. In Pangirtung, people have become more aware of development opportunities 'and concepts, and have become more involved in building development ski l ls in their community. The program also i l lustrated the importance of having a central community based commit tee with which to organize and control development. In Pangnirtung, the Tourism Commi t t ee was the main vehicle whereby loca l skills and experience were built and local control was maintained. The program was not as effective as it should have been in this regard though. Despite the capacity that was bui l t , local people s t i l l felt they lacked the abi l i ty to manage the program stra tegical ly . F o r this reason, the program should have placed a greater emphasis on organizat ional development with the Tourism Commit tee , and human resource development in the areas of business management, program planning, and strategic planning. 9.2.5 The Roles of Auguittug National Park Reserve and Local Historic Sites The program also showed that national parks and historic sites can contribute greatly to loca l development. They provide jobs, a t t ract - 181 -tourists to the area, and provide valuable vis i tor services. Their management structure also allowes for l imi ted local input and contro l . Part ic ipants felt the park and loca l historic sites should be developed to f i t within the tourism program, and that local people should have management control over them. His to r i c sites should also be protected and managed with interpretive fac i l i t i es for the benefit of both tourists and local people. IMPLICATIONS FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ELSEWHERE IN THE NORTH Tourism planners and other northern cdmmunties have much to learn from the Pangnirtung program. The program has shown that tourism development can be successful in achieving certain economic and socia l development objectives in the north. It can help increase jobs and boost the loca l economy, and it can f i t in with local native l ifestyles and cultures. It should be emphasized, however, that in planning tourism each community is different. Each has its own special set of circumstances which may determine whether or not tourism could be successful, or what kind of tourism would be appropriate. Just because tourism worked in Pangnirtung does not mean i t w i l l be successful in a l l other northern communit ies . F o r example, Pangnirtung has resources, skil ls and attractions that many other communities do not have. A l l these factors were important in contributing to the success of the program. In pursuing tourism, communities must - 182 -identify their par t icular at tractions, opportunities and constraints, and develop appropriate and real is t ic tourism programs of their own. Communit ies can learn much from the planning and implementation process followed in Pangnirtung. As detailed in the previous section, faci l i ta t ing loca l awareness, involvement and control in tourism is essential in developing an effect ive program. The development of a local tourism commit tee to manage development is key. Appropriate t iming that fits in with local schedules, and an appropriate scale of development that fits in with local abil i t ies are also important. Support from funding agencies and people wi th technical expertise is required. Human resource development and training is a pr ior i ty and is needed to build required loca l ski l ls . To be effect ive, the program should also be f lexible enough to incorporate changes as they develop, and should have provision for program monitoring and professional follow-up to help with ongoing strategic planning. Las t ly , the development programs should ini t iate action oriented projects that can be used as vehicles for involvement, and building awareness, skills and experience. Commit tees should also be aware of tourism's l imi ta t ions . Although it can provide jobs and income, it is also usually seasonal, caters toward a specific market, and it may not be that easy to get started. It may also have detr imental socia l impacts in isolated communit ies. These l imitations should be closely considered by communities wishing to develop tourism. - 183 -CONCLUSION In conclusion, the Pangnirtung Tourism Program was successful in accomplishing most of its objectives. Although the planning process followed had some problems, the program emphasized local input, and has resulted in a tourism industry which is largely owned and managed by loca l people for the benefit of local people. It has helped increase jobs and incomes in the community, and has helped build local skil ls in tourism development and dealing with government and outside people. Fo r the most part, it has also fac i l i ta ted tourism development which has f i t ted in wi th loca l l ifestyles and helped achieve the community's social goals. The program also has some major weaknesses and problems, however. There was no significant loca l input during project ini t ia t ion, awareness programs have been poor, the community did not understand the process very we l l , and there has been no follow-up from the planning consultants during implementat ion. The Commi t t ee felt l imi ted in its abi l i ty to manage the program from a s trategic point of view. As we l l , even though the program was established as a pilot study test case, no systematic monitoring, evaluation, or distr ibution of information about it has ever been done by the community or the G N W T . This seriously l imits the value of the program as a learning tool and demonstration project for northern tourism development. It is also questionable whether the tourism program is increasing or decreasing government dependence in the community. To date, the majority of new jobs and income created have been in the public rather - 184 -than the private sector. With increased tourist v is i ta t ion, however, this w i l l l ikely change. The long-term economic impacts of the program are s t i l l not known, and they should be monitored closely to ensure that loca l economic goals are maintained rather than lost. Socia l impacts are also a concern. Tourism visi tat ion is increasing rapidly in the community, and i t is possible that too many tourists in the community could have serious social impacts. Vis i ta t ion and impacts should be closely monitored to ensure that comnriunity socia l goals are maintained in the program. Community management and control is also a concern. Although loca l people have become involved in sett ing up businesses and managing the program, a lack of loca l business awareness, f inancial resources and management skil ls is s t i l l a major problem in establishing local ly owned and controled development. Therefore, strengthening f inancial and human resources should be made a pr ior i ty for the future of the program. Las t ly , it is not known how tourism compares with other sectors. This research deals only with tour ism, which has been shown to be a highly seasonal and often par t - t ime industry. It is important, therefore, that because of these l imi ta t ions , tourism not be considered the only industry worth developing in northern communit ies. Tourism should be coordinated with other sectors in the north within a comprehensive development strategy that includes a diversi ty of programs and projects. It is important to do further research on these other sectors to determine how -185 -tourism compares to them as a development strategy, and to determine how tourism can best be coordinated wi th these other sectors for the benefit of the communities involved. Despite these questions and concerns, the program is s t i l l seen as a major success by most of its part icipants, including local residents as we l l as outside part icipants who have been involved in the program. The important ingredient in this success was the involvement, commitment and control local people took in the program. Through the centra l involvement and guidance of the Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee , the program grew and developed in a way that loca l people could appreciate and learn f rom. Projects started small and tourism development grew as people's commitment , ski l ls and awareness grew. In this way, the program has always been in touch wi th the community and managed to benefit the community. Tourism planners and other northern communities have much to learn from Pangnirtung. By following its example in establishing local involvement and control in development projects, communities can create programs that are sensitive to their needs and help them achieve their social and economic goals. Only with local people becoming involved, commit ted , and taking the lead in these projects, w i l l tourism development be truly community based and controlled by the community for the benefit of the community. By pioneering and demonstrating this approach in the north, the Pangnirtung program has contributed significantly to fac i l i ta t ing community based tourism development in the north. - 186 -Figure 16: The author with Rosie Okpik, interpreter. 1Q.0 REFERENCES 10.1 REFERENCES CITED Alivak tuk , Joavee. Personal interview, May 1985. A l w a r i d , Shakir. Personal interview, March 1985. Ani ln i l i ak , Nancy. Personal interview, May 1985. Beddard, Clement . Personal interview, May 1985. - 187 -Boothroyd, P . and H . C . Davis . "Yukon Divers i f ica t ion : Benefits and Possibi l i t ies". Draf t discussion paper prepared for the Yukon Economic Development Strategy F a l l Conference. Vancouver. Conscribe Enterprises, 1986. Breneman, Ray . Personal interview, May 1985. Burgess, Robert G . In the F i e l d : A n Introduction to F i e l d Research. London, George A l l e n & Unwin . 1984. Call imanopulos, D . "Tourism in the Seychelles: A Counterfei t Paradise?", Cul tura l Survival Quarter ly , V o l . 6, N o . 3. 1982. DeKadt , E . Tour ism: Passport to Development? Oxford Universi ty Press, Oxford. 1976. Fox , M . "Optional Planning for Future Tourism", The Socia l and Economic  Impacts of Tourism on Pac i f i c Communit ies E d . Bryan H . F a r r e l . Universi ty of Ca l i fo rn i a . Santa C r u z , Ca l i fo rn ia . 1977. Government of Canada, Minis te r of State (Tourism). Tourism Tomorrow:  Towards a Canadian Tourism Strategy. Ot tawa, Canada, 1985. Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies . Terms of Reference for the "Community Based Tourism P i lo t Project": Pangnirtung, 1981. r Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , Department of Economic Development and Tour ism. Baff in Community Economic Planning  Handbook. Frobisher Bay: G N W T , 1982. Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , Department of Economic Development and Tour ism. A Baff in Region Economic Baseline  Study. Ye l lowkn i fe : G N W T , 1984. Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , Department of Economic Development and Tour ism. Community Based Tourism: A Strategy  for the Northwest Terr i tor ies Tourism Industry. Yel lowkni fe : G N W T , 1983. Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , Department of Economic Develpment and Tour ism. Community Prof i l e : Pangnirtung. 1983. Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , Trave l A r c t i c . Explore Canada's  A r c t i c : O f f i c i a l Explorers Guide, 1984. Ye l lowkni fe , NWT: Trave l A r c t i c T G , 1984. Hamburg, R i c k . Memo to f i l e : Pangnirtung P i lo t Study and Tourism P lan . December 28, 1983. , Personal interview, May 1985. Telephone interview, August 1987. - 188 -Hicks , Jack. Personal interview, May 1985. Ianetta, Cindy . Telephone interview, A p r i l 1985. Intergroup Consultants L t d . A n Examinat ion of the Economic Performance  of Four Northern Nat iona l Parks/Reserves . Winnipeg, Mani toba, 1985. J i ck , Todd D . "Mix ing Qual i ta t ive and Quanti tat ive Methods: Triangulat ion in A c t i o n " , Adminis t ra t ive Science Quar ter ly . December 1979, 24:602-611. Joamie, E r i c . Personal interview, May 1985. Keenainak, Moe. General Manager, Pangnirtung Tourism Commit tee : 1987. Telephone interview, August 5, 1987. Komoartok, Norman. Personal interview, May 1985. Kuiper , Bob. Case Writ ing Manual : Recommended Procedures for  Researching and Writ ing Band Planning Case Studies. Indian and Northern Affa i r s Canada, B C Region. 1985. Leenders, Michae l R. , Erskine, James A . Case Research: the Case Wri t ing  Process. London, Univers i ty of Western Ontario. 1973. Magee, Gary . Personal interview, May , 1985. Telephone interview, August 1987. Mal lon , Cyn th ia . Baff in Region Tourism Industry Associat ion, Iqaluit . Personal interview, May 1985. Marshal l , M a c k l i n , Monaghan. Pangnirtung Community Tourism Stduy. Don M i l l s , Ontar io. 1982. Mike , Jamasie. Personal interview, May 1985. Mi les , Mat thew B . "Qual i ta t ive Data as an At t r ac t ive Nuisance", Adminis t ra t ive Science Quarter ly . December 1979, 24:590-601. Mintzberg , Henry. " A n Emerging Strategy of Direct Research", Adminis t ra t ive Science Quarter ly . December 1979, 24, 582-589. Murphy, M i k e . Personal interview, May 1985. Murphy, P . E . (ed.) Tourism in Canada: Selected Issues and Options. Western Geographical Series, Volume 21, Universi ty of V i c t o r i a . V i c t o r i a , B C . 1983. Nuegebauer, Peter . Personal interview, March 1985. Okpik, Rosie . Personal interview, May 1985. - 189 -Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee . Meet ing Minutes. A p r i l 19, 1982. _ _ — f Recommendations to the Hamlet Counci l on the Tourist Study. November 25, 1981. , Pangnirtung Tourism Development P lan : Update. October 1982. f Meeting Minutes. November 16, 1982. 1 Budget 83/84. 1983. , 1983 Tourism Development Projects . 1983. , Progress Report : Pangnirtung Tourism Projects 1984/85. 1984. , F inancia l Statement. January 31, 1985. Peyton, Jeff . Personal in terview, May 1985. Pi-Sunyer, O. "The C u l t u r a l Costs of Tourism", Cu l tu r a l Surviv ia l  Quarterly, V o l . 6, N o . 3. 1982. Pi t s iu l iak , Kudloo. Personal interview, May 1985. Plummer , Ken . Documents of L i f e . London, George A l l e n & Unwin , 1983. Rees, Wi l l i am, E . "Stable Communi ty Development in the Nor th : Properties and Reguirements". Unpublished report. Vancouver, B C . 1987. Ross, D . and P . Usher. F r o m the Roots Up: Economic Development as i f  Community Mat te red . Croton-on-Hudson, N Y : The Boot Strap Press. 1986. Smith , M . E . "Tourism and Na t ive Americans" . Cu l tu ra l Surv iva l  Quarterly, V o l . 6, N o . 3. 1982. Sowdloapik, Sackiasie. Personal interview, May 1985. Stevenson, Mark. Personal interviews, March 1985 and February 1987. Strahlendorf, P . Pangnirtung Communi ty Tourism Plan Yea r 2. Toronto, Canada. 1983. Taylor , Michel le E . Auyui t tuq Nat ional Park Reserve Vis i to r Survey, 1982  Report on Findings. Na tu ra l Resources Institute, Univers i ty of Manitoba. Prepared for Socio-Economic Divis ion, P ra i r i e Regional Off ice , Parks Canada. Winnipeg, 1983. Tol ley , Chuck. Personal in terview, May 1985. - 190 -Trumper, Kather ine . Personal interview, May 1985. , L e t t e r to A . Vaughan. October 1980. , Pangnirtung Tourism Study Assessment. February 2, 1982. , Memo to f i l e : Del ivery of Communi ty Tourism Plans. February 8, 1983. Vaughan, A l a n . Personal interview, March 1985. , L e t t e r to R . Trudeau. January 22, 1981. Verburg, Kees . Personal interview, A p r i l 1985. Wilson, Steve. "Explorations of the Usefulness of Case Study Evaluations", Evaluations Quarter ly . August 1979, 3:446-459. Y i n , Robert K . The Case Study Method: A n Annotated Bibliography. Cosmos Corpora t ion , 1983. 10.2 R E F E R E N C E S U S E D B U T N O T C I T E D Canadian Fac t s . GNWT Summer Trave l Surveys, 1983 Report of Findings. Vancouver, B C . 1983. Etooangut, Jaypeetee. Report on Tourism Host - Recommendations. September 1983. French, H . L . L e t t e r to P . Welsman. March 18, 1981. , Update G N W T Pangnirtung P i lo t Repor t . November 24, 1981. Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , Department of Economic Development and Tourism. Visi tors to the Northwest Terr i tor ies ,  1982. Ye l lowkni fe , N W T . 1982. Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , Department of L o c a l Government. The Hamlet of Pangnirtung: Background Report . September 29, 1983. Hamburg, R . Memo to f i le : Pangnirtung P i lo t Study and Tourism P l a n . July 14, 1982. , Montei th , D . Baff in Region Market ing Strategy. 1985. Hamlet of Pangnirtung. A Project Proposal for Summer Canada Works, 1984: L o c a l His to r ic Si te . Pangnirtung, NWT. 1984. - 191 -Magee, Gary . Pangnirtung Tourism Commit tee : Federal Employment Related Init iatives, 1984. 1984. , Brief ing Notes for the Minister 's Tour: Pangnirtung and Broughton Island. March 1985. Marshal l , M a c k l i n , Monaghan. Baf f in Region Tourism Strategy. Don M i l l s , Ontar io. 1983. , Pangnirtung Communi ty Based Tourism - P i lo t Project , Meet ing Report #1. January 29, 1981. , Tourism Study Newsle t ter - Pangnirtung. February 27, 1981. Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee . Meet ing Minutes. October 14, 1981. , Meeting Minutes. October 22, 1981. , Meeting Minutes. October 25, 1981. , Meeting Minutes. October 29, 1981. f Meeting Minutes. November 25, 1981. , . Sub-Commit tee . Recommendations to Hamlet Counc i l on the Tourist Study. November 25, 1981. , Meet ing Minutes. January 21, 1982. , Meeting Minutes. February 25, 1982. , Meeting Minutes. February 26, 1982. , Meeting Minutes. March 10, 1982. , Meeting Minutes. March 15, 1982. , Meeting Minutes. A p r i l 15, 1982. , Meeting Minutes. A p r i l 19, 1982. , Meeting Minutes. July 23, 1982. , Program Costs in Y e a r 1. 1982. , Meeting Minutes. June 21, 1983. , Meeting Minutes. August 4, 1983. , Meet ing Minutes. September 27, 1983. , Meeting Minutes. November 3, 1983. - 192 -Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee . Meeting Minutes. December 6, 1983. , Meeting Minutes . January 4, 1984. , Meeting Minutes . January 18, 1984. f Meeting Minutes . May 9, 1984. , Meeting Minutes . August 15, 1984. , General Manager's Repor t . September 3, 1984. , Meeting Minutes. October 3, 1984. , Meeting Minutes. November 6, 1984. r, Meeting Minutes. November 22, 1984. , Meeting Minutes. December 7, 1984. , Meeting Minutes . January 23, 1985. , Meeting Minutes . February 5, 1985. , Meeting Minutes . February 19, 1985. f Meeting Minutes . March 14, 1985. , Challenge '85 - Summer Employment Experience Development. March 23, 1985. Parks Canada, P ra i r i e Region and Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies , Department of Economic Development and Tourism. Economic  Impacts of Exis t ing Nat ional Parks in the Northwest Terr i tor ies ,  Summary Repor t . Parks Canada. 1982. Resource Management Consultants (NWT) L t d . Overview of Economic  Impacts Generated by Auyui t tuq and Nahanni Nat ional Parks . Prepared for Department of Economic Development and Tourism, Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies . Yel lowkni fe , N W T . 1981. RES Pol icy Research Inc. Na t iona l Manpower Strategy Study. Prepared for the Canadian Government Off ice of Tourism. Ot tawa, 1983. Speaking Notes - Presentat ion of October 1 to B C R : "Tourism P i lo t Project". October 1, 1980. Trudeau, Robert . Wri t ten submission to Baff in Region Counc i l . September 29, 1980. , Presentation to C o u n c i l : Pangnirtung Tourism Development. A p r i l 21, 1982. - 193 -Trumper, Kather ine . Le t t e r to Pangnirtung Hamlet C o u n c i l . November 21, 1980. , Memo to f i l e . October 30, 1981. , L e t t e r to P . Weisman. January 18, 1982. , L e t t e r to Pa t Roasseau. May 19, 1982. Vaughan, A l a n . Memo to f i l e . October 9, 1980. - - — , Memo to f i l e . October 15, 1980. Weisman, Pau l . Pangnirtung P i lo t Project Work Objectives, March - A p r i l . March 8, 1982. 10.3 INTERVIEW REFERENCES 10.3.1 Pangnirtung Residents Akpal ia luk, Jocopie . Outf i t ter . Personal interview, May, 18, 1985. Akulujuik, Koagak. Elder . Personal interview, May 6. Akpol ia luk, Annie . Housewife. Personal interview, May 23, 1985. Al ika tuktuk , Thomasie. Manager, Pangnirtung Pr in t Shop. Personal interview, May 7, 1985. Al ivak tuk , Joavee. Outf i t te r . Personal interview, May 9, 1985. Angmar l ik , T ina . Women's Society. Personal interview, May 22, 1985. Ani ln i l i ak , Nancy. Adul t Educat ion. Personal interview, May 14, 1985. Arnaqaq, Meeka. Housewife. Personal interview, May 18, 1985. Atchealak, Annie . Hosewife. Personal interview, May 23, 1985. Atchealak, Davie . Carver . Personal interview, May 23, 1985. Beddard, Clement . Superintendent, Auyui t tug Nat ional Park Reserve. Personal interview, May 17, 1985. - 194 -Breneman, Ray . Ch ie f Warden, Auyui t tuq Nat ional Park Reserve. Personal interview, May 22, 1985. Bat tye , Mary . Housewife. Personal interview, May 18, 1985. Etoangat, Aksayook. E lder . Personal interview,. May 6. Etoangat, B i l l y . Outreach O f f i c e . Personal interview, May 15, 1985. Etoangat, Norman. Out f i t te r . Personal interview, May 13, 1985. Ev ik , Jaco . Wildl i fe Of f i ce r . Personal interview, May 14, 1985. Ev ik , L ivee . Hunter . Personal interview, May 16, 1985. Ev ik , Manasa. Manager, Co-op Carv ing Shop. Personal interview, May 14, 1985. . Hicks , Jack. Adul t Educator . Personal interview, May 21, 1985. Joamie, E r i c . General Manager, Tourism Commit tee : 1985. Personal interview, May 3 - 28, 1985. Keenainak, Moe. General Manager, Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee : 1987. Telephone interview, August 5, 1987. Keenainak, Simione. R C M P Special Constable. Personal interview, May 7, 1985. Keyuakjuk, Oleepeeka. Ca rve r . Personal interview, May 21. Ki labuk, Meeka. Peyton's Lodge. Personal interview, May 8, 1985. Komoartuk, Adamee. Interpreter. Personal interview, May 13, 1985. Komoartok, Norman. Tourism Commi t t ee Chairman: 1982-1985. Personal interview, May 14, 1985. Kudluar l ik , Ki labuk. Housewife. Personal interview, May 23, 1985. Kudlual ik , L ivee . Out f i t te r . Personal interview, May 14, 1985. Magee, Gary. A r e a Economic Development Off icer . Personal interview. May 15-23, 1985. Telephone interview, August 5, 1987. Maniapik, Joanasie. Hamlet C o u n c i l Manager. Personal interview, May 15, 1985. Maniapik, Manasie. Carver . Personal interview, May 20, 1985. - 195 -McLean , Bev. Manager, Pangnirtung Weave Shop. Personal interview. May 8, 1985. Mike , Jamasie. Tourism Commi t t ee Member . Personal interview, May 17, 1985. Murphy, M i k e . Co-op Manager. Personal interview, May 15, 1985. Nashalik, Eenaosilk. E lder . Personal interview, May 6, 1985. Nuvaqiq, Mosesee. Hunter . Personal interview, May 15, 1985. Okaluk, Annie . Housewife. Personal interview, May 17, 1985. Okpik, Rosie. Housewife. Personal interview, May 8 - 28, 1985. Oshutapik, H e z i k i a . Hamle t Of f i ce . Personal interview, May 10, 1985. Osborne, Ar thur . Hamle t Manager. Personal interview, May 16, 1985. Osier, Stephen. A r t i s t , Pangnirtung Pr in t Shop. Personal interview, May 20, 1985. Papatsie, July . Tourism Commi t t e Member. Personal interview, May 13, 1985. Peyton, Jeff . Manager, Peyton's Lodge. Personal interview, May 23, 1985. Pi ts iu l iak , Kudloo. Elder . Personal interview, May 6, 1985. Qappik, Silasie. Out f i t t e r . Personal interview, May 8, 1985. Qarpiq, Pauloosie. Elder . Personal interview, May 6, 1985. Sowdloapik, Sackiasie. Tourism Commi t t ee Chai rman: 1985-87. Personal interview, May 14, 1985. Tol ley, Chuck. School P r inc ipa l . Personal interview, May 13, 1985. Veevee, Joelee. Tourism C o m m i t t e Member. Personal interview, May 13, 1985. Veevee, Paulosie. Out f i t te r . Personal interview, May 14, 1985. Veevee, Rosie . Housewife. Personal interview, May 17, 1985. - 196 -10.3.2 Government of Northwest Territories Staff A l w a r i d , Shakir. Chief , Business Services, Economic Development and Tourism, Ye l lowkni fe . Personal interview, March 1985. Green, Les l i e . L o c a l Government, Ye l lowkn i fe . Personal interview, M a r c h 1985. Hamburg, R i c k . Tourism Off ice r , Iqaluit. Telephone interview, November, 1985. Personal interview, May 1985. Telephone interview, August 1987. Lakhani , A l t a f . Off icer , Economic Development Agreement, Ye l lowkn i fe . Personal interview, March 1985. Lapp, Dave . Tourism and Parks , Ye l lowkn i f e . Personal interview, M a r c h 1985. Lawson, Bob. Renewable Resources, Ye l lowkni fe . Personal in terview. March 1985. LeGres ley , Karen . Tourism and Parks , Ye l lowkni fe . Personal interviews, March 1985 and February 1987. , Liv ings ton , Char l i e . Tourism and Parks, Ye l lowkni fe . Personal interview, March 1985. Magee, Gary . A E D O , Pangirtung, 1982. Personal interview, May 1985. Telephone interview, August 1987. Monte i th , Dave. Tourism Off ice r , Iqaluit. Personal interview, May 1985. Stevenson, Mark . Archaeologist , Pr ince of Wales Northern Her i tage Cent re , Ye l lowkni fe . Personal interview, March 1985 and February 1987. Nuegebauer, Peter . Tourism and Parks, Ye l lowkni fe . Personal in terview, September 1984, March 1985 and February 1987. Trudeau, Robert . Regional Superintendent, Economic Development and Tourism, Baff in Region, 1982. Personal interview, March 1985. Trumper, Kather ine . A E D O Pangnirtung 7-1982. Regional Superintendent, E D &. T, Baff in Region, Iqaluit, 1982-1987. Personal interview, May 1985. Vaughan, A l a n . Head, Tourism and Parks, 1982-1986. Assistant Deputy Minis ter , Economic Development and Tourism, 1986-1987, Ye l lowkni fe . Numerous personal interviews. September 1984 to June 1985. Telephone interview, May 1987. Worre l l , Don. Economic Development and Tourism, Yel lowkni fe . Personal interview, March 1985. - 197 -10.3.3 Federal Government Staff Bradford, Rae. Tourism Development Off icer , Regional Industrial Expansion, Ye l lowkn i fe . Personal interview, March 1985. Byrne, Michae l . Implementation Off icer , Regional Industrial Expansion, Ye l lowkni fe . Personal interview, March 1985. Kneck te l , K a r l : Tourism Canada, Ot tawa. Telephone interview, A p r i l 1985. M c A l e , Beryle . Tourism Canada, Ot tawa. Telephone interview, A p r i l 1985. Sterl ing, Robert . Tourism Canada, Ot tawa. Telephone interview, A p r i l 1985. Stock, Frank. Tourism Canada, Ot tawa . Personal interview, A p r i l 1985. Therault, Andy. D i s t r i c t Manager, D I A N D , Iqaluit. May 1985. Thomas, E l izabe th . Regional Industrial Expansion, Ye l lowkn i fe . Personal interview, March 1985. 10.3.4 Parks Canada Staff Beddard, Clement . Superintendent, Auyui t tuq Nat ional Park Reserve, Pangnirtung. Personal interview, May 1985. Breneman, Ray . Ch ie f Warden, Auyui t tug Nat ional Park Reserve, Pangnirtung. Personal interview, May 1985. Fera i re , Rosi l ine. Socio-economic Planner, Winnipeg. Personal interview. , A p r i l 1985. Gamble, Bob. Publ ic Involvement Off icer , Northern Park Establishment Off ice , Ye l lowkni fe . Personal Interview. A p r i l 1985, December 1986. Telephone interview, January 1987. Goldring, Phi l ip . H i s to r i ca l Research Divis ion, Ot tawa . Personal interview. A p r i l 1985. Johnston, J i m . Parks Planner, Winnipeg. Personal interview, A p r i l 1985. LaVoie , Mane. Market ing Po l i cy Section, Ot tawa. Telephone interview. A p r i l 1985. MacDonald , Br ian . Warden Service Off icer , Winnipeg. Personal interview. A p r i l 1985. - 198 -Sookocheff, T i m . Chief , Management Planning, Winnipeg. Personal interview, A p r i l 1985. Sowdloapik, Sackiasie. Warden, Auyui t tug Nat ional park Reserve, Pangnirtung. Personal interview, May 1985. Thompson, Joanne. Public Input Coordinator , Winnipeg. Personal interview. A p r i l 1985. Woolsey, Br ian . Systems Planning Section, Ot tawa . Personal interview. A p r i l 1985. 10.3.5 Tourism Industry Representatives Burton, Pamela . Trave l Coordinator , Ontario Natural is ts Associat ion, Toronto. Telephone interview, A p r i l 1985. Faber, John. Faber Trave l L t d . , Brantford. Telephone interview, A p r i l 1985. Ianetta, Cindy . Goll iger 's Trave l , Toronto. Telephone interview, A p r i l 1985. Kinner , C h e r i . Canada North Trave l , Igaluit. Personal interview, May 1985. K i rk man , Frank. A r c t i c Region Sales Manager, Nordair , Mont rea l . Telephone interview, A p r i l 1985. Lawson, John. Tourism Industry Associa t ion of Canada, Ot tawa . Personal interview, A p r i l 1985. Mal lon , Cyn th ia . Baff in Region Tourism Industry Associat ion, Igaluit . Personal interview, May 1985. Rigby, Bruce . Tuul l ik Wilderness Adventures, Ot tawa . Personal interview. A p r i l 1985. Tait , B i l l . NWT Tourism Industry Associa t ion , Ye l lowkni fe . Personal interview, March 1985. - 199 -10.3.6 Program Consultants French, Harry . Tourism Planner, Marshal l , Mack l in , Monaghan, Toronto. Personal interview, June 1985. Verburg, Kees. Vice-Pres ident , Marshal l , Mack l in , Monaghan, Toronto. Personal interview, June 1985. - 200 -Figure 17: Local hunter and artist. APPENDIX A RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND RESPONSES - 201 -A P P E N D I X A T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Page No . 1.0 I N T R O D U C T I O N A N D N O T E O N R E A D I N G T H E R E S U L T S 204 2.0 QUESTIONS A N D R E S P O N S E S 206 2.1 Why was the program started? 206 2.2 What were the in i t i a l objectives of the program? 206 2.3 What problems and opportunities faced the program at the outset? 208 2.4 What planning and implementation process was followed by the program? 208 2.5 What were the successes and problems of the planning and implementation process? 209 2.6 How could the planning and implementat ion process have been improved? 210 2.7 Personal Involvement in Tourism 211 2.7.1 What kind of involvement have you had? 212 2.7.2 What are the advantage or opportunities for getting involved in tourism in Pangnirtung? 211 2.7.3 What are the problems of gett ing involved in tourism? 212 2.7.4 How could involvement in tourism be improved? 212 2.8 What impacts has tourism had on Pangnirtung? 212 2.8.1 Economic Impacts 213 2.8.2 Social Impacts 214 2.8.3 Community Development Impacts 215 2.8.4 Case Study Learning 215 2.9 What impacts has the tourism program had on tourism development in Pangnirtung? 216 2.9.1 Economics 216 2.9.2 Social Concerns 216 2.9.3 Community Development 217 2.10 What are the current problems or opportunities for tourism in Pangnirtung 218 2.11 What are some important goals and recommendations for the future of tourism and the program in Pangnirtung? 218 2.11.1 General Tourism Development 219 2.11.2 Economics 220 2.11.3 Social Concerns 220 2.11.4 Community Development 221 2.11.5 Case Study Learning 221 2.12 What other types of development are suitable for Pangnirtung? 222 - 202 -APPENDIX A TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) Page No. 2.13 How does the Pangnirtung experience relate to tourism opportunities in other communit ies? 222 2.14 Auyui t tug Nat ional Park Reserve 223 2.14.1 What are the problems and opportunities for integrating the Nat ional Park with the tourism program? 223 2.14.2 What goals and recommendations are Appropriate for the Future of the Auyui t tuq Park? 224 2.15 Keker ton Whaling Station and L o c a l His tor ic Sites 224 2.15.1 What are the problems or opportunities of integrating Keker ton and local his tor ic sites into the tourism program? 225 2.15.2 How should Keker ton and loca l historic sites be managed?' 226 2.16 Marketing 227 2.16.1 What are the existing tourist markets for Pangnirtung? 227 2.16.2 What are the problems and opportunities for tourism marketing in Pangnirtung? 227 2.16.3 How could marketing be improved for Pangnirtung? 228 2.17 Tourism Commit tee 228 2.17.1 What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Pangnirtung Tourism Commi t t ee? 228 2.17.2 How could the Tourism Commi t t e and its programs be improved? 229 - 203 -INTRODUCTION AND NOTE ON READING THE RESULTS This Appendix identifies the questions concentrated on during research, and responses received. Responses were e l ic i ted through both personal interviews, and a review of the wri t ten documentation available as identified in Chapter 10, 'References' . In this Appendix, each section starts with one of the major topics that was brought up during interviews. Where appropriate, sub-questions which relate to the topic were also asked and are identif ied. The responses to the questions asked are l isted direct ly below the questions, responses are l isted in order of how many respondents gave that part icular answer to a question, in either the verbal interviews or the writ ten documentation reviewed. The numbers in the left-hand columns identify the number of respondents that gave that response to the question asked. Column symbols identify the type of respondent as follows: Tota l No. of Respondents in Each Category T - Tota l number of respondents 101 Pa - Pangnirtung residents 53 G - Government of Northwest Terr i tor ies staff. 16 F - Federal Government staff 8 P - Parks Canada staff 12 T - Tourism industry representatives 10 C - Study consultants 2 - 204 -Although the numbers of" respondents that mentioned particular points is recorded in these field data results, these numbers should be interpreted as general indicators only. This is because the interviews were conducted in an informal and open-ended way. Not a l l respondents answered a l l guestions, and while taking notes the researcher did not have time to wri te down each detailed point the respondent mentioned. Therefore, the numbers in the field data results are approximate only, and in most cases, are lower than they would be, had a l l respondents answered a l l questions and had a l l points mentioned been wr i t ten down exact ly . These numbers do, however, indicate a relat ive strength of how often things were mentioned and how strongly respondents held certain views. The responses l isted in this Appendix are only brief summaries of the points mentioned by participants. Par t ic ipants often responded with considerable detai l and depth to some questions. These more in-depth responses and comments are incorporated into the body of this report under the appropriate sections. - 205 -2.0 QUESTIONS A N D R E S P O N S E S 2.1 W H Y WAS T H E P R O G R A M S T A R T E D ? The purpose of this question was to identify the problems, issues, and needs that led to the project's ini t ia t ion in the beginning. Responses T P a G F P I C 26 19 3 1 3 - High unemployment - the need for new jobs. 7 4 3 - Ex i s t i ng tourism did not benefit the communi ty . 4 4 - L a c k of knowledge of tourism potentials or problems in the area - a need for learning by a l l involved . 3 2 1 - Soc i a l problems in the community and a lack of things to do. 3 2 1 - Over-dependence on the welfare state - there was a need to encourage entrepreneurship and a t ransi t ion to the wage economy. 2.2 W H A T W E R E T H E INITIAL O B J E C T I V E S O F T H E P R O G R A M ? This question was asked to identify the in i t i a l purpose of the program, from the point of view of the participants. F ive broad categories of objectives were ident i f ied. More current goals and objectives identified for the program are included in guestion 2.11, page 218. Responses T P a G F P I C Economic Developments 11 1 4 3 1 1 1 - T o strengthen and diversify the economy. 6 4 1 1 - To increase loca l benefits and reduce economic leakages. 5 2 1 1 1 - To create new jobs and businesses. 3 2 1 - To encourage long-term self-sufficiency of the communi ty . - 206 -Responses (Cont'd) T Pa G F P I C Pi lot Study Learning Objectives 7 1 4 1 1 - To learn about community-based tourism and its potentials and problems. 5 2 1 2 - To create new planning and implementation methods that could be used elsewhere. 5 4 1 - To assess the need for new governmental policies and programs. 4 4 - To help identify the costs and benefits of arct ic tourism. 2 2 - To use the program as a demonstration project. Planning and Implementation Objectives 6 4 1 1 - To work with the community in planning and establishing a program. 6 4 2 - To identify tourism infrastructure requirements. 5 4 1 - To identify marketing requirements. 4 2 2 - To assess local tourism resources and potentials. 4 3 1 - To set clear strategies for tourism development in the community. Social Objectives 14 5 4 2 1 2 - To fit within local lifestyles and cultures. 8 3 3 1 1 - To help the community achieve its social goals. 4 3 1 - To encourage entrepreneurship and transition to wage economy. 3 1 2 - To facili tate cross-cultural learning and local skills in dealing with people. 1 1 - To create community facilities with local social benefits. Community Development Objectives 12 3 4 2 2 1 - To facili tate local control and management over tourism. 5 3 1 1 - To develop local awareness about tourism. 2 2 - To develop local tourism and business skills through training. 2 1 1 - To help develop local decision making and planning skil ls . - 207 -2.3 WHAT PROBLEMS AND OPPORTUNITIES FACED THE PROGRAM AT THE OUTSET? The question was asked to identify what participants saw as the main opportunities for the program at the outset, as well as what the main constraints or problems were that had to be overcome or dealt with. Responses T Pa G F P I C Opportunities 13 3 3 1 4 1 1 - Natural attractiveness of Pangnirtung: the lands-cape, Auyuituq Park and Inuit culture. 5 2 1 1 1 - Existing history of tourism in Pangnirtung. 5 2 2 1 - A positive attitude by locals toward tourism. Constraints and Problems 19 4 5 4 3 1 2 - Lack of tourism awareness and skills in the community. 6 3 2 1 - Negative local attitudes toward tourism because of previous bad experiences. 5 1 1 2 1 - Remoteness and high cost of travel. 4 1 1 2 - Short tourist season. 2 1 1 - Low environmental and social carrying capacity of the community. 2.4 WHAT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS WAS FOLLOWED BY THE PROGRAM? (A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PROGRAM) This question was asked to obtain a clear chronological history of the program and the process followed. Responses are detailed in Chapter 3.0, 'History of the Tourism Program'. - 208 -2.5 W H A T W E R E T H E S U C C E S S E S A N D P R O B L E M S O F T H E P L A N N I N G A N D I M P L E M E N T A T I O N P R O C E S S ? This question was to determine, from the participants ' point of view, what parts of the process were effect ive and which were ineffect ive in terms of helping the program achieve its objectives. Responses T Pa G F P I C Successes 12 5 3 2 2 - Good public consultation and involvement . 11 4 3 2 2 - Establ ishment of a l oca l Tourism C o m m i t t e e . 7 2 2 1 2 - It produced a finished study which was used as a guide for implementat ion and funding. 6 1 4 1 Good ski l ls and rapport built by consultants. 4 1 2 1 F i e l d work by consultants. 3 2 1 Good coordination wi th the A E D O in Pangnir tung. Problems 12 8 3 1 - Poor public involvement in and awareness of the planning process. 9 4 3 1 1 - Inadequate tourism awareness program. 11 2 4 2 3 - Marke t ing component not specif ic enough. 7 6 1 A l t e r n a t i v e strategies process not w e l l understood. 7 2 4 1 - L a c k of continuity between planning and imp le -menta t ion . 7 3 2 1 1 - The decision-making process was too rushed for the loca l community. 6 3 2 1 - F i ve -yea r implementat ion plan too s ta t ic and not r ea l i s t i c . 6 3 2 1 - N o t enough professional follow-up for implemen-ta t ion . (Cont'd) - 209 -Responses (Cont'd) T Pa G F P I C 5 3 1 1 - The study focus was too narrow and biased toward cap i ta l tour ism projects. 4 2 1 1 - Consultants ' f ie ld visi ts were too short. 4 2 2 - Funding process was too slow and beaurocra t ic . 4 2 2 - No t enough management training for l o c a l con t ro l . 3 3 - Didn ' t involve the private sector. 2.6 HOW COULD THE PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS HAVE BEEN IMPROVED? Responses T Pa G F P I C 10 4 5 1 - Increase publ ic par t ic ipat ion. 9 1 3 1 2 1 1 - Improve cont inui ty with more action planning and improved funding. 6 2 3 1 - Increase public awareness. 5 2 2 1 - Increase professional follow-up, o rgan iza t iona l development, and management t ra ining. 5 1 2 1 1 - Broaden the study focus. 4 1 1 2 - Make the plan more f lexible . 4 2 2 - Increase tourist industry part icipat ion. - 210 -2.7 PERSONAL INVOLVEMENT IN TOURISM A number of different questions were asked regarding personal involvement in tourism for Pangnirtung. Only residents of Pangnirtung were asked these questions. 2.7.1 What Kind of Involvement Have You Had?  Responses Total 15 Sel l skins, carvings or handicrafts to the tourists. 9 Unl icenced outf i t ter - take people out occasionally. 5 Licenced outf i t ter . 4 Member of the Tourism Commit tee Comments Tourism is a significant ac t iv i ty for Pangnirtung in the summer. Par t - t ime and ful l- t ime employment s tat is t ics for 1984 include: Licenced Outf i t ters 12 jobs Fishing Camps 10 Tourism Commi t t ee Projects 18 Peyton Lodge 10 Nat ional Park 6 Archaeologica l Development 12 Tra i l Development 6 Ter r i to r i a l Park 1 Total 75 jobs 2.7.2 What are the Advantages or Opportunities for Getting Involved in Tourism  in Pangnirtung? Responses Total 5 Tourists are re la t ive ly easy to deal wi th . 5 Outf i t t ing fits wi th the tradi t ional l ifestyle and is enjoyable. 4 Outf i t t ing doesn't require extensive capi ta l start-up funds. 4 Outf i t t ing gives good financial returns i f you are organized. 4 The Tourism Commi t t ee provides summer work jobs for locals. - 211 -2.7.3 What are the Problems of Getting Involved in Tourism? Responses Tota l 18 Lack of awareness, business knowledge, and tourism ski l l s . 8 Language problems. 6 Outf i t ter l icencing is d i f f icu l t . 6 There is only a l imi ted market and demand for services. 5 Tourism jobs interfere with t radi t ional l i fes tyle . 5 Lack of existing fac i l i t i e s . 5 Disorganization of the outf i t t ing business. 5 Short tourism season leaves only l imi ted opportunities. 2.7.4 How Could Involvement in Tourism be Improved?  Responses Total 9 Do more awareness and training programs. 7 Create an outfi t ters association. 5 Improve fac i l i t ies and diversify ac t iv i t ies . 4 Change l icencing regulations. 4 Create a ful l - t ime tourism officer position in Pangnirtung. 3 Create a development corporat ion. 2 Have the Tourism Commi t t ee take on a stronger organizat ional role . 2.8 WHAT IMPACTS HAS TOURISM HAD ON PANGNIRTUNG? Questions asked in this regard included: "What have some of the good or bad impacts of tourism been on Pangnirtung?" and to many Pangnirtung residents, "Is tourism good or bad for Pangnirtung?", and "why or why not?". Responses were received in regard to economics, social concerns, community development, and learning objectives. - 212 -2.8.1 Economic Impacts  Responses T P a G F P I C B e n e f i c i a l Impacts 36 32 2 1 1 - A lo t of jobs have been created. 29 21 4 2 2 - Opportuni t ies for smal l business and sel l ing have been created. 12 5 3 1 1 2 - Tour i sm brings money into the communi ty . 9 5 3 1 - Tour i sm spending benefits the whole community in general . 8 4 2 1 1 - Tour i sm diversifies the economic base. 6 3 3 ' - Business training and skills are being developed. P rob l em Impacts 9 9 - Only a few jobs have been crea ted . 4 2 2 - Mos t jobs are government funded, not pr ivate . 3 1 2 - Tour i sm has narrowed the economic base, not d ivers i f ied i t . 4 4 - Tour i sm spending only benefits cer ta in people. - 213 -2.8.2 Soc ia l Impacts  Responses T P a G F P I C Beneficial Impacts - Locals enjoy seeing tourists in town - they're friendly. - Helps cross-cultural learning between whites and Inuit. - Helps develop cultural pride among locals. - Provides jobs for a wide range of people. - Fits in with local lifestyles and culture. - Provides hope for the future. Problems - Tourism doesn't create any real social problems in Pangnirtung. - Some tourists are obnoxious, rude and invade privacy. - Tourists don't respect local customs. - Language problems create insecurities among locals. - Tourism helps erode the traditional culture. - Tourists bring alcohol into the community. - Inuits are losing their independence. 17 17 8 4 4 7 6 1 6 4 2 6 4 2 1 1 23 23 17 10 3 1 1 1 1 8 5 3 8 8 6 4 2 4 4 3 2 1 - 214 -2.8.3 Community Development Impacts Responses T Pa G F P I C Benef i c i a l Impacts 20 9 6 1 2 2 - Tour i sm awareness, skil ls and learning is increasing. 4 2 2 - Management and planning ski l ls are being developed. 3 1 1 l - Business and entrepreneurial role models are developing. P rob lem Impacts 6 2 2 1 1 Tour i sm focuses attention away from other sectors . 2.8.4 Case Study Learning  Responses T Pa G F P I C Bene f i c i a l Impacts 15 4 5 3 1 2 - Tour ism has been a valuable learning experience for a l l involved. 9 3 4 1 1 - Pangnirtung is "exporting" i ts knowledge through the ac t iv i t ies of the Tourism C o m m i t t e e . 6 2 2 2 The tourism planning process developed in Pangnirtung is being used elsewhere. 3 2 1 - L o c a l s have learned how to deal wi th governments and funding agencies. Problems 5 1 2 1 1 - Learning has only been in one sector. 4 2 2 - No formal evaluations or monitoring have been done. 4 2 2 - Many problems are s t i l l not understood. - 215 -,9 WHAT IMPACTS HAS THE TOURISM PROGRAM HAD ON TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN PANGNIRTUNG? Responses were received in all five areas of economics, social concern, community development, case study learning and planning and implementation. Responses on planning and implementation have been incorporated in Section 2.5 .9.1 Economics  Responses T Pa G F P I C Beneficial Impacts - Extra funding and jobs have been created because of the program. - Job skills and training have been increased. - More locals are being hired as outfitters. Problems - Job creation has been mainly government funded. 8 5 3 6 4 2 4 3 1 .9.2 Social Concerns  Responses T Pa G F P I C Beneficial Impacts 11 10 1 - Tourism has been more controlled to minize social problems. 11 9 2 - The program has encouraged more local cultural learning and pride. 5 3 2 - The program has increased awareness of tourism. Problems 7 2 2 1 - The program has raised personal expectations falsely. - 216 -2.9.3 Community Development  Responses T Pa G F P I C Benef i c i a l Impacts 26 12 10 2 2 - The program increased loca l control through the Tourism Commi t t ee . 11 7 3 1 - Out f i t t ing has become more organized. 4 2 2 - The program got things started in the communi ty . Problems 10 3 4 2 1 - The program has created unrealist ic development expectat ions. 4 1 1 1 1 - P rogram funding has been a l l government, which only prolongs dependency. 4 1 1 1 1 - The program has not encouraged people to look at other forms of development. 4 1 1 1 1 - The program has focused attention on cap i t a l projects rather than organizational communi ty development. - 217 -2.10 W H A T A R E T H E C U R R E N T P R O B L E M S O R O P P O R T U N I T I E S F O R T O U R I S M IN P A N G N I R T U N G ? Responses T Pa G F P I C Opportuni t ies 16 10 3 2 1 - L o c a l people support tourism development. 11 3 4 4 - Tour i sm is a pr ior i ty with government funding programs. 11 3 3 1 2 1 1 - Pangnir tung has many at t ract ions and resources for tour ism. 9 3 2 2 1 1 - Tour i sm fits with the local l i fes ty le and cul ture . Problems 20 9 6 1 2 1 1 - L a c k of tourism awareness and ski l l s . 10 2 4 2 1 1 - Substandard hotel . 10 3 3 2 2 - Infrastructure is lacking. 10 3 2 3 1 1 - Cos t s of construction and transportat ion are too high. 10 3 3 1 1 2 - The market is l imi ted because of remoteness and short season. 7 2 2 1 1 1 - C a p i t a l for loca l investment is l ack ing . 5 2 3 - Funding is too slow and res t r ic t ive . 5 2 3 - Tra in ing is inadequate and too narrow. 2.11 W H A T A R E S O M E I M P O R T A N T C U R R E N T G O A L S A N D R E C O M M E N D -ATIONS F O R T H E P R O G R A M IN P A N G N I R T U N G ? Questions asked in this regard included: "What would you l ike to see the program achieve now?", "How could the present situation be improved?", "What would you l ike to see maintained, and what would you l ike to see changed?", and "What specif ic things to you think should be done to make the tourism program bet ter in Pangnirtung?" Responses were received in a l l five areas of: general tourism development, economics, social concerns, community development, and case study learning. - 218 -2.11.1 General Tourism Development Responses T Pa G F P I C General 20 13 3 2 1 1 - A museum and interpretation center should be built. 20 11 4 1 2 1 - Outfitting services should be expanded. 20 10 5 2 1 2 - Tourism facilities, infrastructure, and services should be improved. 20 9; 3 3 2 3 - Hotel should be upgraded or replaced. 16 8 3 1 2 2 - Facilities services should be diversified to accommodate new activities. 12 6 2 1 2 1 - The tourist season should be expanded to the shoulder seasons and winter. 6 3 2 1 1 - Economical accommodation should be expanded. Growth of Tourism 17 11 3 1 1 1 - Keep growth under control by locals. 7 7 - Increase the number of tourists in Pangnirtung. 3 3 - Maintain the present number of tourists. 1 1 - Reduce the number of tourists. Tourism and "usiness Skill Development 17 6 5 2 2 2 - Tourism skills should be improved. 17 5 4 3 2 3 - Training should be expanded and improved. Fundinq 6 3 2 1 - Funding should be made secure on a long-term basis, rather than just short-term. 3 2 1 - Funding should be increased. Marketinq 16 6 4 2 2 2 - Marketing skills and programs should be improved. - 219 -2.11.2 Economics Responses T Pa G F P I C 10 8 2 - Cont inue to provide jobs through the Tour ism C o m m i t t e e . 10 5 2 1 1 1 - Encourage more loca l hir ing. 7 4 2 1 - L o c a l economic benefits should be increased. 6 3 2 1 - Es tabl i sh more businesses run by Inuits. 4 2 1 1 - Tour i sm should become self-supporting. 4 1 2 1 - F a c i l i t a t e increased loca l investment. 2.11.3 Social Concerns  Responses T Pa G F P I C 12 6 3 1 2 - Soc i a l and cul tural tourism programs should be main ta ined . 12 5 5 1 1 - Tour i sm awareness should be improved. 6 3 2 1 - L o c a l customs should be more respected by loca ls . 6 3 2 1 - Touris ts should be made more aware of l o c a l t radi t ions . 4 4 - The Tour i sm Commit tee should continue to h i re a wide var ie ty of people for its summer programs. - 220 -2.11.4 Community Development Responses T Pa G F P I C " Local Control and Management 15 6 5 2 1 1 - Local program control and management should be maintained and strengthed. 8 4 2 1 1 - Improve local involvement in tourism. 7 3 1 1 1 1 - Improve professional follow-up and management training. 6 3 2 1 - Set up a local development corporation. 5 3 2 - Hire a full-time tourism officer for Pangnirtung. Overall Community Development 12 10 1 1 - Support Inuit land claims. 8 1 3 2 1 1 - Encourage development in non-tourism sectors. 2.11.5 Case Study Learning  Responses T Pa G F P I C 7 3 3 1 - The program should be more closely monitored and evaluated to learn from it. - 221 -2.12 W H A T O T H E R T Y P E S O F D E V E L O P M E N T A R E S U I T A B L E F O R P A N G N I R T U N G ? Responses T Pa G F P I C 14 11 1 1 1 - Don' t know - but somebody should f ind out. 9 4 3 1 1 - Expanded arts and crafts product ion. 8 5 1 1 1 - Count ry food store for local and interse t t lement markets . 7 5 1 1 - A fish processing f ac i l i t y . 6 3 2 1 - Expanded loca l contract ing companies for loca l cons t ruc t ion . 3 3 - A restaurant for loca l use. 2 2 - L o c a l gardening with greenhouses e tc . 2.13 HOW DOES T H E P A N G N I R T U N G E X P E R I E N C E R E L A T E T O T O U R I S M O P P O R T U N I T I E S I N O T H E R C O M M U N I T I E S ? Responses T Pa G F P I C 11 2 3 1 2 2 1 - Pangnirtung has many advantages because of i ts at tract iveness and the proximity of the Na t iona l Park . 10 3 3 2 1 1 - Eve ry community has its own unigue problems and oppor tun i t i es . 10 2 4 2 2 - The planning process has been a valuable learning experience. 5 2 1 1 1 - Pangnirtung is more social ly and po l i t i ca l ly sophist icated than many other a r c t i c communi t ies . - 222 -2.14 AUYUITTUQ NATIONAL PARK RESERVE The main questions were asked regarding the National Park are detailed below. Most responses were received from National park employees. 2.14.1 What are the Problems and Opportunities for Integrating the National Park  with the Tourism Program? Responses T Pa G F P I C Opportunities 17 5 3 1 5 2 1 - Auyuittuq Park attracts many tourists to the area and provides facilities for them. 6 1 1 4 - The park creates jobs and skill development for local people. 5 5 Local input to park operations is encouraged throughthe Local Advisory Committee. 4 4 National Parks are giving tourism development a higher planning priority than before. 4 4 The proposed Management Plan planning process will provide opportunities for local input. Problems 9 2 2 5 - National Park conservation objectives are often incompatible with tourism objectives. 6 3 1 2 - The National Park has raised unrealistic expectations regarding jobs and economic benefits. 5 2 3 - The Local Advisory Committee is ineffective. 4 4 The environmental carrying capacity of the park is low. - 223 -2.14.2 What Goals and Recommendations are Appropriate for the Future of the  Auyuittuq Park? Responses T Pa G F P I C 17 5 2 10 - Increase local par t ic ipat ion, involvement, and "responsibil i t ies in park management. 8 2 1 5 - H i r e loca l people for park jobs. 8 3 5 - Integrate Nat iona l Park programs wi th regional development goals. 7 3 2 2 - Improve park awareness programs. 4 4 - Cont inue with the plan to inst i tute a Park Management Plan . 2.15 KEKERTON WHALING STATION AND L O C A L HISTORIC SITES Kekerton Island is a his tor ic whaling station in the Cumberland Sound, approximately 4 hours by boat from Pangnirtung. A t present, archaeological work is proceeding on the island under the direct ion of a GNWT archaeologist, Marc Stevenson. The G N W T is developing it as a historic site. Pangnirtung i t se l f also has several buildings that are historic and date back to the whaling era. Community concern was also expressed in regard to these sites. Two main questions were asked in regard to Keker ton and local his toric sites. - 224 -2.15.1 What are the Problems or Opportunities of Integrating Keker ton and L o c a l  His to r ic Sites into the Tourism Program? Responses T Pa G F P I C Opportunit ies 17 10 3 3 1 - Keker ton has important cul tura l value for loca ls . 16 8 4 3 1 - Keker ton is a potent ial ly major a t t rac t ion for tourists and has important historical value. 13 10 2 1 , - H i s to r i c sites in Pangnirtung are also a t t r ac t ive to tourists and highly valued by locals. 5 5 Cos t sharing between Parks Canada and other agencies is possible. Problems 7 4 3 - Tour ism development and a rchaeologica l conservation goals are not always compat ib le . 6 2 2 2 - H i s to r i c sites in Pangnirtung are in poor repa i r and expensive to up-keep. 4 2 2 - Poor ly defined jur isdict ion and coordination exis ts between Parks Canada and different t e r r i t o r i a l departments. 4 4 Parks Canada is under budget constraints. - 225 -2.15.2 How Should Kekerton and Local Historic Sites be Managed? Responses T Pa G F P I C 13 6 4 3 - Kekerton and local historic sites should be developed for controlled tourism and cultural heritage. 12 6 2 6 - Artifacts and buildings should be protected and researched. 10 6 2 2 - Locals should control and manage development. 10 3 2 5 - Improve interpretation facilities. 10 3 2 5 - Cooperation and joint management should be improved. . 7 4 2 1 - Kekerton should be managed as per the guidelines contained in Marc Stevenson's 1984 Kekerton report. 6 2 1 3 - Cost sharing and alternative funding should be improved. - 226 -2.16 MARKETING Questions in the area of marketing included the following: 2.16.1 What are Existing Tourist Markets for Pangnirtung? (As this data was mainly fac tual , rather than evaluative, number of responses for each i tem are not recorded.) Vis i tor profi le: Exis t ing visi tors consist pr imari ly of the following groups: young well- to-do world t ravel lers ; naturalist backpackers; wel l- to-do over 50 international t ravellers; and sports fishermen and hunters. Vis i tor interests: A c t i v i t i e s that these visitors were interested in include: wilderness camping, hiking, mountain c l imbing , educational ac t iv i t ies , Inuit cul tura l ac t iv i t ies , being adventurous, sport fishing, sport hunting, and photography. 2.16.2 What are the Problems and Opportunties for Tourism Marketing in  Pangnirtung? Responses T Pa G F P I C Opportunit ies 9 1 2 1 4 1 - There is considerable growth potent ia l for developing exist ing markets. 9 3 2 1 2 - More markets could be developed w i th d ivers i f ica t ion of ac t iv i t ies . Problems 12 5 3 1 3 - Marke t ing is poorly done. 10 3 3 1 1 2 - Marke t ing roles and responsibilit ies are poorly defined and uncoordinated. 8 2 1 5 - L o c a l contact with the t ravel industry is poor. 7 3 2 2 - Marke t target groups are not we l l defined. 7 2 4 1 - Growth potent ia l is l imi ted . 7 3 2 2 - L o c a l operators have poor awareness and ski l ls in market ing . 4 1 1 2 - Marke t ing studies and seminars have been poor. - 227 -2.16.3 How Could Marketing be Improved for Pangnirtung? Responses T Pa G F P I C 9 3 2 1 3 - Marke t ing roles and responsibilit ies should be bet ter defined and coordinated. 7 1 6 - Information to wholesalers and potent ia l customers should be improved. 6 4 1 1 - Marke t ing awareness and training should be improved. 5 1 1 3 - Loca l s should work more with private industry. 4 1 3 - Saleable products should be developed and packaged better . 2.17 TOURISM COMMITTEE A number of questions were asked about the Tourism Commit tee and its programs. Mainly Pangnirtung residents were asked these questions, as they were the most famil iar with the Tourism Commi t t e , hence, only the total number of responses are indicated. 2.17.1 What are the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Pangnirtung Tourism  Committee? Responses Total Strengths 13 The commit tee is doing a good job. 10 It helps cont ro l tourism development in the community. 7 It provides a good information centre. 6 It provides jobs for local people. 5 The hosting program is good. 5 It does a good job of organizing outfi t ters. 5 Its programs help reinforce the cul tura l identity of the community. • 2 It maintains good contact with other organizations and the community at large. 2 It helps build skil ls and provides good role models for others to fol low. - 228 -Tota l Weaknesses 15 : The community doesn't know much about the commit tee . 8 There is a lack of communicat ion with local people about commit tee programs. 5 There is a lack of tourism expertise and awareness on the commit tee . 5 There is a lack of effect ive management and follow-through. 3 Awareness programs are ineffect ive. 2.17.2 How Could the Tourism Committee and its Programs be Improved?  Responses Total 15 Improve community contact and information. 5 Have more tourism related people in the commit tee . 5 Become more freely elected and independent. 4 Involve more local people in program monitoring and planning. 3 Improve the centre as an information centre for residents. 3 Expand the cul tura l programs. 3 Do more training and awareness programs for commit tee members. 3 Create a ful l - t ime tourism officer position. 2 Create a tourism development corporation. - 229 -Figure 18: Dog Team A P P E N D I X B  O V E R V I E W O F I M P L E M E N T A T I O N S T R A T E G Y Source: Marshall , Macklin, Monaghan, 1982 - 230 -OVERVIEW OF IMPLEMENT AT ION STRATEGY * CAPITAL PHASING PROGRAM ( P l a n n i n g And C a p i t a l Deve l opment ) YEAR PROJECT/PROGRAM " ~ ~ ' • START-UP I II III IV V A. ATTRACTIONS/TOURS/EVENTS 1. Duval R i v e r I n t e r p r e t i v e H i k e 2. Mt. Duva l S c e n i c H i ke J . Ko l i k Ri v e r H i k e ••I. A u l a s i v i k t u k O v e r n i g h t Camp b. k i n g a r d j u a k T o u r i s t Summer Camp 6. U s u a l l u k W h a l i n g S t a t i o n Tour 7. K e k e r t o n W h a l i n g S t a t i o n Tour t). Cumber land Sound Sea l Hunt 9. Char F i s h i n g A c t i v i t y 10. O v e r l o r d Day Tour 11. W i n t e r / S p r i n g Snowmobi le Tour 12. A r c t i c C r o s s - C o u n t r y Tour 13. K i n g n a i t F i o r d H i k e 13A, A r t s and C r a f t s Program l oU . I n c l e m e n t Weather A c t i v i t i e s 13C. F i lm L i b r a r y 0 G Q O e c ... 9 Q o 0 Q ... O © c o © © • o © Q o o © o 0 G o o. a. HOSPITALITY/INFORMATION • ' 114. Community Most I 'rogrdin J5. Loinmunity Intormation 16. I n d u s t r y A w a r e n e s s / M a r k e t i n g 17. Tour Group O u t f i t t i n g I i i . Community Improvement P rogram - © O -Cr-O - O -o C. INFRASTRUCTURE 19. V i s i t o r Accommodat ion 20. A i r p o r t F a c i l i t i e s Upgrade 21. Oock/Wha r f i n g F a c i l i t i e s 22. U t i l i t y S e r v i c e s 23. C h a r t e r F l i g h t Program 24. Upgrade T e r r i t o r i a l Park 25. S e a r c h and Rescue Program © P r i v a t e F e a s i b i l S e c t o r i t y S t udy -O-© Eng i nee - ing F e a s i b i 1 i t y O © S t u d i e s -O F i r s t -O Yea r Of O p e r a t i o n © ©-D. INDUSTRY ORGANIZATION 267 Community r o u r i ^ t - B o a r d I. TRAINING PROGRAMS 27. Awareness T r a i n i n g 28. I n t e r p r e t i v e T r a i n i n g 29. T r a i l Con s t r u c t i on/Managemen t JO. S e a r c h and Rescue T r a i n i n g 31. Mo te l Management 32. S e r v i c e I n d u s t r y T r a i n i n g 33. Sma l l B u s i n e s s Management 34. Tour W h o l e s a l e r F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n 35. E d u c a t i o n a l Tours ©- -O ©-©--© (•Denotes i n i t i a t i o n and c o m p l e t i o n y e a r s f o r the v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s . ) I ll'.URl 0 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0097240/manifest

Comment

Related Items