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Andrea Palladio's influence on Venetian church design, 1581-1751 1987

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ANDREA P A L L A D I O ' S INFLUENCE ON VENETIAN CHURCH DESIGN: 1581 - 1751 By RICHARD JAMES GREEN B . A . ( H o n o u r s ) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , 1975 B . A r c h . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRIT ISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t 1987 © R i c h a r d James G r e e n , 1987 k In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of dst^/~j£e^&<^K. The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date Q^t>-C-c^ /S( /9gft- . DE-6G/81) A B S T R A C T Andrea Palladia was born in Padua in the Republic of Venice in 1508 and practiced his architecture throughout the Veneto until his death in 1580. Today, there are some forth-four surviving palaces, villas, and churches by the master. These buildings have profoundly moved the imagination of countless generations of academics, artists, and architects for over four hundred years. Without a doubt, he has been the most exalted and emulated architect in modern history. While Palladio is well-remembered for his innovative palaces and villas of the Veneto, he is also most distinguished for his revolutionary religious architecture in Venice Itself. His designs for San Francesco della Vigna (1562) (Fig. 1), San Giorgio Maggiore (1565) (Fig. 3), Le Zitelle (1570) (Fig. 4), II Redentore (1576) (Fig. 5), and the Tempietto (1580) (Fig. 6) at Master, represented fresh and independent visions, exemplifying his deep-seated understanding of the ideas of the High Renaissance. Nowhere was Palladio's influence on the future development of ecclesiastical design more profoundly felt than in Venice itself. Collectively, the emulators of Palladian church design form a coherent episode which can be discernedly traced from Santa Maria Celeste (Figs. 7 and 8) in 1581 through to San Giovanni Novo (Fig. 9) of 1751. Between these years and buildings, there were sixty-two churches erected in Venice. Of these, some thirty-five structures, or fifty-six percent, exhibit, through their system of organizing plans, elevations and spatial relationships, different degrees of debt to Palladio. All i i i . in a l l * they demonstrate a highly significant concurrency in the overall development of religious architecture in Venice. The aim of this present thesis is to investigate the architectural character of a large number of Venetian churches built between 1581 and 1751 in an attempt to clarify the extent of Palladio's influence on their design. This study will be divided into four chapters. In order to better understand sixteenth century Venetian building in general* and Palladio's prominent position within i t , Chapter One will explore the unfolding ambience of Renaissance architecture in Venice, elucidating the rich, productive, and international development of the city's most innovative architects. Herein, the saliency of Palladio and his churches, as crowning symbols of this period, will be examined. Chapters Two, Three and Four will explore the thirty-five churches under investigation. These last sections will analyze some ten or more buildings each, and, for the most part, in the chronological order of their construction. In the end, 1t 1s hoped that this study will demonstrate a clear and coherent tradition of Venetian church design which fulfilled itself through an integration of a whole series of Pall ad 1 an prototypes. i v . T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S ABSTRACT j i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . ' . . . v INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I The A r c h i t e c t u r a l Ambience o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e and A n d r e a P a l l a d i o 8 CHAPTER I I P a l l a d i o ' s I n f l u e n c e on V e n e t i a n C h u r c h D e s i g n 1581 - 1 6 2 6 S a n t a M a r i a C e l e s t e : P l a n - 1581 48 San T r o v a s o : 1583 55 San F r a n c e s c o d i P a o l a : F a c a d e - 1588 62 San N i c o l o d e i T o l e n t i n i : P l a n - 1591 65 San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o : F a c a d e - 1594 72 San Giacomo d e l 1 a G i u d e c c a : 1603 77 San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o : P l a n - 1619 83 S a n t a M a r i a E l i s a b e t t a , L i d o : P l a n - 1620 89 San N i c o l o d e l L i d o : 1626 92 CHAPTER I I I P a l l a d i o ' s I n f l u e n c e on V e n e t i a n C h u r c h D e s i g n 1627 - 1695 S a n t a M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e : 1630 97 S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a : 1647 115 San B a s e g i o : P l a n - 1650 120 S a n t a M a r i a d e g l i S c a l z i : P l a n - 1656 124 San B a s s o : P l a n - 1661 130 San P a n t a l e o n e : 1668 133 San L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t e : F a c a d e - 1673 138 San S t a e : P l a n - 1678 143 San M a r z i a l e : P l a n - c . 1 6 8 0 149 San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a : c . 1695 153 CHAPTER IV P a l l a d i o ' s I n f l u e n c e on V e n e t i a n C h u r c h D e s i g n 1696 - 1 7 5 1 : Summary 158 CONCLUSION 172 BIBLIOGRAPHY 173 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TO GIORGIO GIANIGHIAN THANK YOU SARAH JAMES GREEN CHIRSTINE LINDA TAYLOR PROFESSOR ABRAHAM ROGATNICK PROFESSOR GEORGE KNOX 1. INTRODUCTION A n d r e a P a l l a d i o was bo rn i n Padua i n t h e R e p u b l i c o f V e n i c e i n 1508 and p r a c t i c e d h i s a r c h i t e c t u r e t h r o u g h o u t t h e Vene to u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1580 . T o d a y , t h e r e a r e some f o r t y - f o u r s u r v i v i n g p a l a c e s , v i l l a s , and c h u r c h e s by t h e m a s t e r . ^ These b u i l d i n g s have p r o f o u n d l y moved t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f c o u n t l e s s g e n e r a t i o n s o f a c a d e m i c s , a r t i s t s , and a r c h i t e c t s f o r o v e r f o u r hundred y e a r s . W i t h o u t a d o u b t , he has been t h e most e x a l t e d and e m u l a t e d a r c h i t e c t i n modern h i s t o r y . A d m i r e r s o f a r c h i t e c t u r e have m a r v e l l e d a t t h e n e a r p e r f e c t i o n o f P a l l a d i o ' s a r t , each s e a r c h i n g f o r " . . . t h e s e c r e t o f h i s enormous i n f l u e n c e . " C r i t i c a l o p i n i o n o f t h e a r c h i t e c t by c o n t e m p o r a r y s c h o l a r s has been one o f u n i t e d v e n e r a t i o n . James Ackerman opens h i s i m p o r t a n t and much a p p r e c i a t e d Pa11 a d i o ( B a l t i m o r e , 1 9 6 6 ) w i t h an e n c o m p a s s i n g e x t o l m e n t o f t h e a r c h i t e c t : A l l o v e r t h e w e s t e r n w o r l d hundreds o f t h o u s a n d s o f h o u s e s , c h u r c h e s and p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s w i t h s y m m e t r i c a l f r o n t s and a p p l i e d h a l f - c o l u m n s t opped by a ped imen t d e s c e n d f rom the d e s i g n s o f And rea P a l l a d i o . He i s t h e most i m i t a t e d a r c h i t e c t i n h i s t o r y . . . g r e a t e ^ t h a n t h a t o f a l l o t h e r R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t s c o m b i n e d . R e f l e c t i n g on t h i s same theme, F r e d e r i c N i c h o l s s t a t e s t h a t P a l l a d i o " . . . was 4 t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l s i n g l e a r c h i t e c t who e v e r l i v e d . " P r o c e e d i n g f u r t h e r , Howard Burns s u b m i t s t h a t t he w o r l d c o u l d b e n e f i t immed ia te a d v a n t a g e f rom an embracement o f P a l l a d i o i n ou r own t i m e s . He a c k n o w l e d g e s him as . . . t h e g r e a t e s t and most o r i g i n a l o f a l l a r c h i t e c t s . . . r a d i c a l , c l e a r h e a d e d , and i n n o v a t o r y i n h i s a p p r o a c h t o d e s i g n . H i s a ims and p r o c e d u r e s a r e o f e n d u r i n g i n t e r e s t and v a l u e . . . The q u a l i t y and mora l and i n t e l l e c t u a l com- m i tmen t o f h i s work have few p a r a l l e l s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f a r c h i t e c t u r e . Fo r anyone s e r i o u s l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h c r e a t - i n g some d e g r e e o f h a p p i n e s s f o r h i m s e l f and f o r o t h e r s 2. ' h e r e b e l o w ' • P a l l a d i o ' s a c h i e v e m e n t w i l l a l w a y s r e p a y s t u d y and r e f l e c t i o n . As B u r n s s u g g e s t s , t h e b u i l d i n g s o f P a l l a d i o evoke a p r e s e n c e imbued w i t h u n i v e r s a l m e a n i n g , v a l u e and q u a l i t y , m a i n t a i n i n g t h e same imminen t i n t e r e s t and i m p o r t a n c e f o r t o d a y ' s a r c h i t e c t s as t h e y d i d f o r t h o s e o f t h e p a s t f o u r c e n t u r i e s . W h i l e P a l l a d i o i s w e l l - r e m e m b e r e d f o r h i s i n n o v a t i v e p a l a c e s and v i l l a s o f t h e V e n e t o , he i s a l s o most d i s t i n g u i s h e d f o r h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e l i g i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r e i n V e n i c e i t s e l f . H i s d e s i g n s f o r San F r a n c e s c o d e l 1 a • V i g n a (1562) ( F i g . 1 ) , San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e (1565) ( F i g . 3 ) , Le Z i t e l l e (1570) ( F i g . 4 ) , II R e d e n t o r e ( 1 5 7 6 ) ( F i g . 5 ) , and t h e T e m p i e t t o (1580) ( F i g . 6) a t M a s e r , r e p r e s e n t e d f r e s h and i n d e p e n d e n t v i s i o n s , e x e m p l i f y i n g h i s d e e p - s e a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i d e a s o f t h e H i g h R e n a i s s a n c e . Nowhere was P a l l a d i o ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h e f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l d e s i g n more p r o f o u n d l y f e l t t h a n i n V e n i c e i t s e l f . A f t e r h i s d e a t h , " V e n i c e was e n v e l o p e d f o r c e n t u r i e s i n t h e s p e l l c a s t by P a l l a d i o ' s a r c h i t e c t u r e " ^ , a n d , as Deborah Howard s t a t e s , " P a l l a d i o ' s V e n e t i a n c h u r c h e s had become a f u n d a m e n t a l s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n , w h i c h no r e l i g i o u s a r c h i t e c t i n t h e c i t y c o u l d a f f o r d t o i g n o r e . " ' 7 C o l l e c t i v e l y , t h e e m u l a t o r s o f P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n f o r m a c o h e r e n t e p i s o d e w h i c h can be d i s c e r n e d l y t r a c e d f r o m S a n t a M a r i a C e l e s t e ( F i g s . 7 and 8) i n 1581 t h r o u g h t o San G i o v a n n i Novo ( F i g . 9 ) o f 1 7 5 1 . Between t h e s e y e a r s and b u i l d i n g s , t h e r e were s i x t y - t w o c h u r c h e s e r e c t e d i n V e n i c e . 8 Of t h e s e , some t h i r t y - f i v e s t r u c t u r e s , o r f i f t y - s i x p e r c e n t , e x h i b i t , t h r o u g h t h e i r s y s t e m o f o r g a n i z i n g p l a n s , e l e v a t i o n s , 9 and s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s o f d e b t t o P a l l a d i o . A l l i n a l l t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c u r r e n c y i n t h e o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e l i g i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r e i n V e n i c e . 3. A r e v i e w o f t he l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t no s t u d y o f V e n e t i a n c h u r c h e s a f t e r P a l l a d i o has c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y e x p l o r e d t h e m a s t e r ' s g r e a t i n - f l u e n c e on t h e i r d e s i g n s . To d a t e , most d i s c u s s i o n s a r e f o u n d i n i n f o r m a t i v e s t u d i e s w h i c h a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e c o r d i n g e i t h e r t h e o v e r a l l d e v e l o p - ment o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f V e n i c e t h r o u g h o u t i t s l o n g h i s t o r y ^ o r s p e c i f i c a l l y as i t r e l a t e s t o c e r t a i n a e s t h e t i c p e r i o d s . ^ U n d e r s t a n d a b l y , w i t h i n t h e s e two f o r m a t s , c h u r c h e s a r e most o f t e n a n a l y z e d as t h e y appea r i n t h e p r o c e s s o f h i s t o r y r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f P a l l a d i a n i s m . T h e r e a r e a l s o s e v e r a l 12 13 good books and c o u n t l e s s a r t i c l e s 1 w h i c h e l u c i d a t e t h e c a r e e r s o f c e r t a i n a r c h i t e c t s o f V e n i c e . C o n c e i v e d i n a s i m i l a r v e i n as t h e p e r i o d i c s t u d i e s , t h e s e w o r k s a n a l y z e c h u r c h d e s i g n s as t h e y o c c u r i n t h e o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a r c h i t e c t under q u e s t i o n . Most o f t e n , t h e r e has been l i t t l e a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e t h e i r e x t r a o r d i n a r y c o n f o r m i t y t o P a l l a d i a n s t a n d a r d s w i t h i n a l a r g e r b u i l d i n g body o v e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e . C u r r e n t l y , t h e two most i n f o r m a - t i v e works on t he e c c l e s i a s t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f V e n i c e a r e Umber to F r a n z o i ' s C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a , 1976) and A l v i s e Z o r z i ' s V e n e z i a Scomparsa ( M i l a n o , 1 9 7 2 ) . As r e f e r e n c e b o o k s , t h e y a r e i n d i s p e n s i b l e , b u t , once a g a i n , t he c h r o n o l o g y and s t y l i s t i c m e r i t s o f each c h u r c h have been d i s c u s s e d i n an i n d e p e n d e n t manner r a t h e r t h a n as i n t e g r a l e l e m e n t s w h i c h i n t e r r e l a t e t o f o r m an o n g o i n g P a l l a d i a n t r a d i t i o n . The a im o f t h i s p r e s e n t t h e s i s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r o f a l a r g e number o f V e n e t i a n c h u r c h e s b u i l t be tween 1581 and 1751 i n an a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y t h e e x t e n t o f P a l l a d i o ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r d e s i g n . T h i s s t u d y w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c h a p t e r s . In o r d e r t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n e t i a n b u i l d i n g i n g e n e r a l and P a l l a d i o ' s p r o m i n e n t p o s i - 4. t i o n w i t h i n i t , C h a p t e r One w i l l e x p l o r e t h e u n f o l d i n g amb ience o f R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e i n V e n i c e , e l u c i d a t i n g t h e r i c h , p r o d u c t i v e , and i n t e r r e l a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c i t y ' s most i n n o v a t i v e a r c h i t e c t s . H e r e i n , t h e s a l i e n c y o f P a l l a d i o and h i s c h u r c h e s , as c r o w n i n g s y m b o l s o f t h i s p e r i o d , w i l l be e x a m i n e d . C h a p t e r s Two, T h r e e , and F o u r w i l l e x p l o r e t h e t h i r t y - f i v e c h u r c h e s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . These l a s t s e c t i o n s w i l l a n a l y z e some t e n o r more b u i l d i n g s e a c h , a n d , f o r t h e most p a r t , i n t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r o f t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n . In t h e e n d , i t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e a c l e a r and c o h e r e n t t r a d i t i o n o f V e n e t i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n w h i c h f u l f i l l e d i t s e l f t h r o u g h an i n t e g r a t i o n o f a who le s e r i e s o f P a l l a d i a n p r o t o t y p e s . The i l l u s t r a t i o n s w h i c h accompany t he t e x t o f t h i s book can be f o u n d i n t h e S c h o o l o f A r c h i t e c t u r e R e a d i n g Room, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a . 5 . NOTES 1. The c o m p l e t e l i s t o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g s w i t h d a t e s and l o c a t i o n s can be f o u n d i n James A c k e r m a n , P a l l a d i o ( B a l t i m o r e : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 1 4 - 1 5 . 2 . W a l t e r M u i r W h i t e h i l l and F r e d e r i c k Dove ton N i c h o l s , P a l l a d i o i n A m e r i c a ( M i l a n : E l e c t a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 1 0 1 . 3 . James A c k e r m a n , P a l l a d i o ( B a l t i m o r e : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 1 9 . 4 . W h i t e h i l l and N i c h o l s , P a l l a d i o i n A m e r i c a , p . 1 0 1 . 5 . Howard B u r n s , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o 1508 -1580 ( L o n d o n : The A r t s C o u n c i l o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 7 and 7 2 . 6 . A c k e r m a n , P a l l a d i o , p. 184 . 7 . Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 182 . 8 . F o r a t a b l e o f a l l t h e r e l i g i o u s b u i l d i n g s e r e c t e d i n V e n i c e f r o m 1469 t o 1 8 6 3 , i n numbered c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r , s e e D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e B a r o q u e C h u r c h e s . o f . V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p p . 3 - 1 0 . 9 . The c h u r c h e s b u i l t i n V e n i c e between 1581 and 1751 w h i c h i n one way o r a n o t h e r d e m o n s t r a t e P a l l a d i o ' s i n f l u e n c e a r e : 1581 S a n t a M a r i a C e l e s t e ( p l a n ) V . S c a m o z z i 1583 San T r o v a s o F . S m e r a l d i 1588 San F r a n c e s c o d i P a o l a ( p l a n ) a r c h i t e c t unknown 1591 San N i c o l o d e i T o l e n t i n i ( p l a n ) V . S c a m o z z i 1594 San P i e t r o ( f a c a d e ) F . S m e r a l d i 1603 San Giacomo d e l l a G u i d e c c a a r c h i t e c t unknown 1619 San P i e t r o ( p l a n ) G. G r a p i g l i a 1620 S a n t a M a r i a E l i s a b e t t a , L i d o ( p l a n ) a r c h i t e c t unknown 1626 San N i c o l e , d e l L i d o a r c h i t e c t unknown 1630 S a n t a M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e B. Longhena 1647 S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a G. L a m b r a n z i 1650 San B a s e g i o ( p l a n ) F . B o g n o l o 1656 S a n t a M a r i a d e g l i S c a l z i ( p i a n ) B. Longhena 1661 San B a s s o ( p l a n ) G. B e n o n i 1668 San P a n t a l e o n e F . Comino 1673 San L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t i ( f a c a d e ) G. S a r d i 1678 San S t a e ( p l a n ) G. G r a s s i c . 1 6 8 0 San M a r z i a l e ( p l a n ) a r c h i t e c t unknown c . 1 6 9 5 San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a a r c h i t e c t unknown 1705 C h i e s a d e l 1 a F a v a ( p l a n ) A . G a s p a r i / G . M a s s a r i 6. 1706 San G i r o l a m o D. R o s s i 1706 San N i c o l b d e i . T o l e n t i n i ( f a c a d e ) A . T i r a l i 1709 San S t a e ( f a c a d e ) D. R o s s i 1715 C h i e s a d e i G e s u i t i ( p l a n ) D. R o s s i 1718 San S imeone P i c c o l o G. S c a l f a r o t t o 1723 San B a r t o l o m e o ( p l a n ) a r c h i t e c t unknown 1726 C h i e s a d e i G e s u a t i G. M a s s a r i 1728 San M a r c u o l a ( f a c a d e ) G . M a s s a r i 1734 San V i d a l ( f a c a d e ) A . T i r a l i 1735 C h i e s a d e l l a P i e t a G. M a s s a r i 1736 San B a r n a b a L . B o s c h e t t i 1742 San Toma ( p l a n ) F . B o g n o l o 1746 San B i a g i o ( p l a n ) F . B o g n o l o 1748 C h i e s a d e l l a M a d d a l e n a T . Temanza 1751 San G i o v a n n i Novo G . M a s s a r i 1 0 . F o r e x a m p l e , see Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) ; C . L a n e , V e n i c e and H i s t o r y ( B a l t i m o r e , 1 9 6 6 ) ; P e t e r L a u r i t z e n , V e n i c e : A Thousand Y e a r s o f C u l t u r e and C i v i l i z a t i o n ( L o n d o n : W i e d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , I n c . , 1 9 7 8 ) ; G u i l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) ; and M i c h e l a n g e l o M u r a r o , V e n i c e and Her I s l a n d s ( F l o r e n c e : A r n a u d P u b l i s h e r , 1 9 5 6 ) . 1 1 . F o r e x a m p l e , see E l e n a B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a d e l S e i e S e t t e c e n t o a V e n e z i a ( N a p o l i : E d i z i o n e S c i e n t i f i c h e I t a l i a n e , 1 9 6 2 ) ; M a n l i o B r u s a t i n , V e n e z i a n e l S e t t e c e n t o : s t a t o , a r c h i t e t t u r a , t e r r i t o r i o ( T o r i n o : G i u l i o E i n a u d i e d i t o r e , 1 9 8 0 ) ; D. Chambe rs , The I m p e r f a l Age o f V e n i c e 1380-1580 ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 7 0 ) ; J . R . H a l e , R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e ( L o n d o n : F a b e r and F a b e r , 1 9 7 3 ) ; E m i l K a u f m a n , A r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e Age o f Reason ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) ; and Doug las L e w i s , The L a t e Ba roque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) . 1 2 . F o r examp les o f b o o k - l e n g t h s t u d i e s , see James A c k e r m a n , Pa11 a d i o ( B a l t i m o r e : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1 9 6 6 ) ; F . B a r b i e r i , V i n c e n z o S c a m o z z i ( V i c e n z a , 1 9 5 2 ) ; Deborah Howard , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) ; A n t o n i o M a s s a r i , G i o r g i o M a s s a r i : A r c h i t e t t o V e n e z i a n o d e l S e t t e c e n t o ( V i c e n z a : N e r i P o z z a E d i t o r e , 1 9 7 1 ) ; and L i o n e l l o P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New Yo rk G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) . 1 3 . F o r examp les o f a r t i c l e s , see E. B a s s i , "I I S a n s o v i n o pe r l ' o s p i z i o d e g l i I n c u r a b i l i " , C r i t i c a A r t e , L V I I - L V I I I , 1 9 6 3 , P P . 4 6 - 6 2 ; C . M o n t i - b e l l e r , " L a p i a n t a o r i g i n a l e i n e d i t a d e l l a c h i e s a d e i p a r d i C a r m e l i t a n i S c a l z i d i B a l d a s s a r e L o n g h e n a " , A r t e V e n e t a , V I I , 1 9 5 3 , pp . 1 7 2 - 7 3 ; A . M u r a t and o t h e r s , "II N e o c l a s s i c i s m o ne l V e n e t o " , B o l l e t t i n o , V , 1 9 6 3 , p p . 9 9 - 2 5 7 ; P. M u r r a y , " P a l l a d i o ' s C h u r c h e s " , A r t e i n E u r o p a , S c r i t t i d i S t o r i a d e l l ' A r t e i n Onore d i E . A r s l a n ( M i l a n , 1 9 6 6 ) ; R. P a l l u c c h i n i , " V i c e n z o S c a m o z z i e 1 ' a r c h i t e t t u r a v e n e t a " , L ' A r t e , X X X I X , 1 9 3 6 , p p . 2 8 4 - 9 6 ; S t a a l e S i n d i n g - L a r s e n , " P a l l a d i o ' s R e d e n t o r e , a Compromise- i n C o m p o s i t i o n " , The A r t B u l l e t i n , X L V I I , 1 9 6 5 , pp . 4 1 9 - 4 3 7 ; W. T i m o f i e w i t s c h , 7. " E i n e Z e i c h n u n g A n d r e a P a l l a d i o s F u e r D i e K l o s t e r a n l a g e Von S . G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e " , A r t e Ve r t e ta , X V I , 1 9 6 2 , p p . 1 6 0 - 6 3 ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , " S . M a r i a d e l 1 a S a l u t e : S c e n o g r a p h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e and t h e V e n e t i a n B a r o q u e " , J o u r n a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , X V I , 1 9 5 7 , p p . 3 - 1 0 . 8 . C h a p t e r 1 T n e A r c h i t e c t u r a l Amb ience o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e and And rea P a l l a d i o The R e n a i s s a n c e i n Eu rope i n t h e f i f t e e n t h and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s was an age o f r e b i r t h w i t h a g r e a t r e v i v a l o f l e a r n i n g f ounded on c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y w h i c h fo rmed t h e p r i n c i p l e s t u d y i n e v e r y b r a n c h o f k n o w l e d g e . I t began i n I t a l y and s p r e a d g r a d u a l l y t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and marked t h e t r a n s i - t i o n f rom t h e m e d i e v a l w o r l d t o t h e m o d e r n . * V i g o r o u s s t u d y o f a n c i e n t Rome f o s t e r e d a new w o r l d v i e w , w h i c h i n t u r n , p romoted an a n t i - G o t h i c d e s i g n a e s t h e t i c w i t h i n w h i c h t h e r e was a " . . . d i s t i n c t i v e d e p a r t u r e f rom t h e a r c h i - 2 t e c t u r e o f t h e m i d d l e a g e s . " The f a t h e r o f I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e t h e o r y was Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i ( 1 4 0 4 - 1 4 7 2 ) , e t h i c i s t , a e s t h e t i c i a n , p a i n t e r , e d u c a t o r , e c o n o m i s t , s c i e n t i s t , w r i t e r , and a r c h i t e c t — e p i t o m e o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e m a n . 3 A l b e r t i w r o t e numerous s e m i n a l books o f w h i c h t h e most i m p o r t a n t became h i s i n f l u e n t i a l t r e a t i s e on a r c h i t e c t u r e , De r e a e d i f i c a t o r i a , w r i t t e n i n 1 4 5 2 , bu t p u b l i s h e d 4 p o s t h u m o u s l y i n 1 4 8 5 . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r s t a t e s t h a t i t was " . . . a g r e a t , o r i g i n a l m a s t e r p i e c e , s t e e p e d i n c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g , immense ly r i c h and s u g g e s t - 5 i v e and o f l o n g - l a s t i n g i m p o r t a n c e . " R e l a t i n g to a n c i e n t know ledge and a r c h i - t e c t u r e , i t was mode led on t he m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y B . C . Roman a r c h i t e c t and e n g i n e e r Marcus V i t r u v i u s P o l l i o . ^ Through i t s r e v o l u t i o n a r y a p p r o a c h , i t armed t h e modern a n t i - G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t w i t h an o r i g i n a l p rogram f o r b u i l d i n g d e s i g n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s p rogram i n c l u d e d a new Human is t a p p r o a c h to a r c h i t e c t u r a l t h o u g h t and d e s i g n . R o u g h l y , i t p r o p o s e d t h a t a l l c r e a t i o n i t s e l f was e n v e l o p e d i n a m a t h e m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f a b s o l u t e harmony. I t p r e s e n t e d a c o n c e p t o f b u i l d i n g h a r m o n i e s w i t h i n w h i c h p l a n s , e l e v a t i o n s , and d e t a i l s became a c o n c o r d o f p a r t s where n o t h i n g c o u l d be added o r removed w i t h o u t d i s r u p t i n g t h e ha rmony . ^ M o r e o v e r , a d e s i g n f o l l o w i n g t h e l a w s o f 9 . harmony wou ld be most a t t u n e d t o t h e i n b o r n p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , and p s y c h o - g l o g i c a l ha rmon ies embod ied i n man. F i v e b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n w h i c h A l b e r t i a t t e m p t e d t o m a n i f e s t t h e s e a b s o l u t e h a r m o n i e s a r e : San F r a n c e s c o (1450) ( F i g . 10) a t R i m i n i ; S a n t a M a r i a N o v e l l a (1458 ) ( F i g . 11) a t F l o r e n c e ; San S e b a s t i a n o (1460) ( F i g . 12) a t M a n t u a ; and San And rea (1470) ( F i g . 13) g a t M a n t u a . Through b o t h h i s books and b u i l d i n g s , A l b e r t i became one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l p r o p a g a n d i z e s o f t h e movement t o w a r d a c o m p l e t e r e v i v a l o f c l a s s i - c a l t h o u g h t and d e s i g n t h r o u g h o u t I t a l y . In V e n i c e i n t h e second h a l f o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , R e n a i s s a n c e t h e o r y was bo th u n d e r s t o o d and a c c e p t e d w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y . G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i t e l l s us t h a t O n l y by d o i n g v i o l e n c e t o t h e deep p e r s o n a l t e n d e n c i e s o f he r t a s t e c o u l d V e n i c e have r e n o u n c e d her a b s o l u t e need f o r r i c h d e c o r a t i o n , l u x u r i o u s p i c t o r i a l v a r i e t y o f l i n e and c o l o u r w h i c h was i n c o m p l e t e c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t i o n s o f . c l e a r b a l a n c e d s i m p l i c i t y o f l i n e , s u r f a c e and p r o p o r t i o n t h a t Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , t h e r e a l f o u n d e r o f t h e a r t i s t i c t h e o r y o f t he R e n a i s s a n c e , had p r o c l a i m e d , w i t h r a r e i n s p i r e d i n t u i t i o n , as b e i n g t h e t r u e harmony o f a r c h i t e c t u r e . 1 The p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n between t h e G o t h i c and R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e s i n V e n i c e i s c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t he e a r l y q u a s i - c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e o f P i e t r o Lombardo ( 1 4 3 5 - 1 5 1 5 ) and h i s sons A n t o n i o ( d . 1516) and T u l l i o ( d . 1 5 3 2 ) . 1 1 The C h u r c h o f t he M i r a c o l i ( 1 4 8 1 - 8 9 ) ( F i g . 1 4 ) 1 2 and P a l a z z o D a r i o (1487) 13 ( F i g . 15) a r e bo th h e a v i l y e m b e l l i s h e d i n e x o t i c p a t t e r n s o f i n l a i d m a r b l e s o f many c o l o u r s . U n l i k e Deborah Howard , who r e g a r d s t h e s e b u i l d i n g s as 14 " d e l i g h t f u l " and " b e s t - l o v e d " , L o r e n z e t t i r e v i e w s them i n a c o m p l e t e l y c o n t r a r y manner , , s t a t i n g t h a t L o m b a r d o ' s a r t . . . i s somet imes so t r i t e and p r e t t y as t o become, p e r h a p s , c l o y i n g and a l i t t l e b o r i n g . The b a d l y 10 . d e v i s e d s t r u c t u r e s a r e so l o a d e d w i t h a s u p e r - abundance o f d e c o r a t i v e m o t i v e s , o r so s h e a t h e d w i t h i n l a i d m a r b l e s i n p a n e l s , c r o s s e s , s t a r s and w h e e l s , as o f t e n to weaken t h e s o l i d i t y o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s and c o n f u s e t h e c l a r i t y o f t h e l i n e and p r o p o r t i o n . 15 L o m b a r d o ' s f l a m b o y a n t manner was a l s o l a v i s h l y e x p r e s s e d i n m a r b l e i n t h e o r n a m e n t a l d e t a i l o f t h e f i r s t two t i e r s o f t h e f a c a d e o f t h e S c u o l a Grande d i San M a r c o , c o n s t r u c t e d between 1487 and 1496 ( F i g . 1 6 ) . The l u n e t t e d c r o w n i n g o f t h e topmos t t i e r was d e s i g n e d by Mauro C o d u s s i ( 1 4 4 0 - 1 5 0 4 ) o f Be rgamo, who, as L o r e n z e t t i s t a t e s , " . . . emerg [ed] i n c o n t r a p o s i t i o n t o t h e L o m b a r d i , as a v e r y d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y and w i t h t h e mind o f a t r u e a r c h i - t e c t . " ^ P r i o r to t h i s c o m m i s s i o n , C o d u s s i d i s p l a y e d s i m i l a r d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s w i t h h i s t r i p l e - c u r v e d c r o w n i n g s f o r t h e f a c a d e s o f San M i c h e l e i n I s o l a (1469) ( F i g . 17) and San Z a c c a r i a (1481 ) ( F i g . 1 8 ) . 1 8 In t he l a t e 1 4 0 0 ' s , P i e t r o Lombardo p l a y e d an u n d e n i a b l y i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n bo th t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n o f new and more c l a s s i c a l l y i n - s p i r e d fo rms i n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l G o t h i c - l a d e n f a b r i c o f V e n e t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e . B u t , as C a r r o l l Meeks t e l l s u s , " A new movement i n a r c h i t e c t u r e i s no t j u s t t h e b r a i n c h i l d o f a p h i l o s o p h e r bu t t h e work o f one o r more a r c h i t e c t s e x p l o i t - 19 i n g a new c o n c e p t more o r l e s s f u l l y . " I t was a c t u a l l y t h r o u g h t h e work o f L o m b a r d o ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , l i k e A n t o n i o R i z z o ( d . 1500) and most n o t a b l y Mauro C o d u s s i , t h a t t h e r e a l o p p o r t u n i t y to u n d e r s t a n d and a c c e p t t h e new t e n e t s o f R e n a i s s a n c e d e s i g n i n a r c h i t e c t u r e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n V e n i c e . E n s u i n g l y , by t h e end o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , " . . . t h e G o t h i c s t y l e was t o have v i r t u a l l y d i e d o u t . " ^ A f t e r t h e e a s t w ing o f t h e Duca l P a l a c e was g u t t e d by f i r e i n 1 4 8 3 , A n t o n i o R i z z o , an a r c h i t e c t and s c u l p t o r f rom V e r o n a , was e n t r u s t e d 1 1 . w i t h i t s d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n ( F i g . 1 9 ) . T h i s b u i l d i n g , h o u s i n g t h e D o g e ' s r e s i d e n c e on t h e p i a n o n o b i l e , has been c a l l e d " . . . t h e most i m p o r t a n t a r c h i - 21 t e c t u r a l work o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e . " A l o n g w i t h R i z z o ' s c e r e m o n i a l s t a i r c a s e ( c . 1483) r i s i n g f rom t h e c o u r t y a r d t o t h e D o g e ' s r e s i d e n c e , c u r r e n t l y c a l l e d t h e S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i b e c a u s e o f t h e two g i a n t s t a t u e s a t 22 t h e t o p by J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o ( 1 4 8 6 - 1 5 7 0 ) i n 1566 ( F i g s . 19 and 2 0 ) , t h e e a s t w i n g p l a y e d a p r o m i n e n t r o l e i n p r o m o t i n g and a d v a n c i n g c l a s s i c i s m i n a r c h i t e c - t u r e i n V e n i c e , I t h e l p e d t o e n c o u r a g e a r c h i t e c t s s u c h as G i o v a n n i Cand i ( d . 1 5 0 6 ) , G i o r g i o S p a v e n t o ( d . 1 5 0 9 ) , S e b a s t i a n o M a r i a n i ( d . 1 5 1 8 ) , and G i o v a n n i Buo ra ( c . 1450 -1513 ) t o f u r t h e r c o n c e i v e l o c a l b u i l d i n g d e s i g n s i n 23 t h e c l a s s i c a l mode. R i z z o ' s c o n t i n u i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e advancement o f R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e i n V e n i c e came t o an a b r u p t h a l t i n 1498 when he had t o f l e e t h e c i t y " . . . unde r s u s p i c i o n o f h a v i n g robbed 1 2 , 0 0 0 d u c a t s f rom "24 p a l a c e f u n d s . . . . By 1 5 0 0 , e i g h t y e a r s b e f o r e t h e b i r t h o f And rea P a l l a d i o , and 25 t h i r t y - e i g h t y e a r s b e f o r e h i s f i r s t b u i l d i n g , Mauro C o d u s s i ' s a r c h i t e c t u r e was " . . . s u f f i c i e n t to p l a c e him w i t h o u t d i s c u s s i o n a t t h e head o f t h e a r c h i - 26 t e c t u r a l movement i n V e n i c e . " Two o f t h e most r e m a r k a b l e examp les o f C o d u s s i ' s c l a s s i c a l c o n c e p t i o n s a r e t h e c h u r c h e s o f San M i c h e l e (1469) ( F i g . 17) and San Z a c c a r i a (1480) ( F i g . 1 8 ) , w h i c h , i n t h e c r o w n i n g c u r v a t i o n s o f t h e i r f a c a d e s , show " . . . t h a t he had s t u d i e d t h e work o f Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , t h a t 27 l o f t y s p i r i t o f t he XV c e n t u r y I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e . " Bo th o f t h e s e f a c a d e s a r e s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f A l b e r t i ' s u n f i n i s h e d San F r a n c e s c o (1450) ( F i g . 10) a t R i m i n i , as i t a p p e a r s on a f o u n d a t i o n medal made by M a t t e o de P a s t i ( F i g . 2 1 ) , 28 A l b e r t i ' s a s s i s t a n t on t h e s i t e . A n o t h e r b u i l d i n g f o r w h i c h A l b e r t i a n t h o u g h t 1 2 . became t h e f undamen ta l i n s p i r a t i o n was C o d u s s i ' s T o r r e d e l l ' O r o l o g i o (1496) ( F i g . 2 2 ) , f r o n t i n g P i a z z a San M a r c o . A l b e r t i , i n h i s De r e a e d i f i c a t o r i a , o f w h i c h C o d u s s i was most l i k e l y f a m i l i a r , w h e t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , s t a t e s t h a t t o w e r s b u i l t i n t i e r s w i t h c l a s s i c a l o r d e r s , s u n d i a l s , and w ind 29 vanes a r e " . . . one o f t h e f i n e s t a t t r i b u t e s o f a c i t y . " W h i l e e x p l o r i n g and a d d i n g new d i m e n s i o n s t o b o t h e c c l e s i a s t i c and c i v i c a r c h i t e c t u r e i n V e n i c e , C o d u s s i a l s o d e s i g n e d two p a l a c e s on t h e Grand Cana l w i t h " . . . 30 a s t o u n d i n g l y matu re c l a s s i c a l f a c a d e [ s ] . " In h i s P a l a z z o C o r n e r - S p i n e l 1 i ( c . 1500) ( F i g . 2 3 ) , C o d u s s i c r e a t e d a model f o r t h e more monumental and g r a n d e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i ( F i g . 2 4 ) , w h i c h was 31 e r e c t e d two y e a r s l a t e r i n 1 5 0 2 . The d e s i g n o f t h e l a t t e r was a r e v o l u t i o n - a r y o n e , f o r i t " . . . was t h e f i r s t V e n e t i a n p a l a c e f a c a d e i n w h i c h t h e c l a s s i - 32 c a l o r d e r s e x p r e s s e d t h e who le s t r u c t u r e . " Once a g a i n , C o d u s s i may have d e r i v e d t h i s e x p r e s s i o n f rom A l b e r t i who a r t i c u l a t e d t h e c o m p l e t e f a c a d e o f 33 h i s P a l a z z o R u c e l l a i ( c . 1446) ( F i g . 25) a t F l o r e n c e w i t h c l a s s i c a l o r d e r s . C o d u s s i d i e d i n V e n i c e i n 1 5 0 4 , l e a v i n g b e h i n d a s e r i e s o f b u i l d i n g s w h i c h , as Howard s t a t e s , a r e " . . . some o f t h e most s e r e n e , h a r m o n i o u s , c l a s s i c i z i n g 34 a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e who le o f t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e . " F i v e y e a r s a f t e r C o d u s s i ' s d e a t h j t h e R e p u b l i c o f V e n i c e e n t e r e d i n t o 35 t w e n t y y e a r s o f t u m u l t u o u s w a r f a r e w i t h t h e League o f C a m b r a i . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f a c u t e p o l i t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s , new c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e c i t y was l i m i t e d t o " . . . o n l y t h e most i n d i s p e n s i b l e o r r i c h l y endowed b u i l d i n g 30 p r o j e c t s . . . . " J u s t p r i o r t o t h e o n s e t o f t h e Cambra i w a r s , G i o r g i o S p a v e n t o i n t r o d u c e d r i c h new forms t o t h e d e s i g n o f c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e i n V e n i c e w i t h h i s C h u r c h o f San S a l v a d o r ( F i g s . 26 and 2 7 ) , w h i c h was begun i n 1507 and 1 3 . s u b s e q u e n t l y f i n i s h e d by S a n s o v i n o i n 1 5 3 4 . In t h e d e s i g n o f t h i s c h u r c h , S p a v e n t o c r e a t e d a s p a c i o u s c r u c i f o r m p l a n su rmoun ted by t h r e e l a r g e domes w i t h t h e c l a s s i c a l o r d e r s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e e x q u i s i t e l y c a r v e d f rom w h i t e I s t r i a n - s t o n e ( F i g . 2 8 ) , mak ing i t " . . . one o f t h e most i m a g i n a t i v e and s u c c e s s - 37 f u l d e s i g n s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f V e n e t i a n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e . " The c l a s s i c a l movement i n V e n i c e was f u r t h e r enhanced t h r o u g h t h e f i r s t p r i n t e d e d i t i o n o f V i t r u v i u s ' De A r c h i t e c t u r a i n 1 5 1 1 . T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n , w i t h 136 b e a u t i f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d w o o d c u t s , was b r o u g h t o u t by F ra G i o v a n n i G i o c o n d o ( 1 4 3 0 - 1 5 1 5 ) , a V e r o n e s e e n g i n e e r , a r c h i t e c t , c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r , and 38 D o m i n i c a n f r i a r . Up t o t h e t i m e o f t h i s b o o k , V i t r u v i u s had been known o n l y t h r o u g h e a r l y h a n d w r i t t e n m a n u s c r i p t c o p i e s h e l d i n v a r i o u s m o n a s t e r i e s t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e . B e i n g l i t t l e u s e d , i t was no t " . . . u n t i l a b o u t 1 4 1 4 , when P o g g i o B r a c c i o l i n i drew a t t e n t i o n to t h e copy a t S . G a l l , t h a t t h e f u l l 39 i m p a c t o f t h i s work was f e l t . " In V e n i c e , as Howard t e l l s u s , . . . F ra G i o c o n d o ' s e d i t i o n h e l p e d t o s u s t a i n an i n t e r e s t i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l t h e o r y d u r i n g t h e c a e s u r a i n b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y c a u s e d by t h e Cambra i W a r s . More i m p o r t a n t , i t a l l o w e d V e n e t i a n s t o g i v e t h o u g h t t o ways o f r e v i v i n g ' a u t h e n t i c 1 a n c i e n t Roman fo rms o f b u i l d i n g , as c o d i f i e d by V i t r u v i u s i n t h e i r own c i t y . 0 V i t r u v i u s ' De A r c h i t e c t u r a f u n c t i o n e d as a " t e x t b o o k " f o r t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y c l a s s i c a l r e v i v a l . L i k e A l b e r t i ' s De r e a e d i f i c a t o r i a o f 1 4 8 5 , i t was u n d e r - s t o o d by t h e V e n e t i a n a r c h i t e c t as an i n s t r u c t i v e m a n u a l , c o n v e y i n g t h r o u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f word ( t e x t - t h e o r y ) and image ( d r a w i n g s - p r a c t i c e ) t h e c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n needed t o i n s p i r e good modern a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n . In 1 5 1 2 , a f i r e d e s t r o y e d a s e r i e s o f o l d houses on t h e n o r t h s i d e o f P i a z z a San M a r c o . In t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , B a r t o l o m e o Bon ( d . 1 5 2 9 ) , a p r o - ponen t o f V i t r u v i a n t h o u g h t i n d e s i g n , began r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e P r o c u r a t i e 14 . V e c c h i e ( 1 5 1 3 - 1 5 2 6 ) ( F i g . 2 9 ) , w h i c h " . . . w a s t h e f i r s t m a j o r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g 41 i n V e n i c e t o be e r e c t e d i n a p u r e l y c l a s s i c a l s t y l e . " In J a n u a r y 1 5 1 4 , l e s s t h a n two y e a r s a f t e r t h e f i r e i n t he P i a z z a , a d e v a s t a t i n g b l a z e b roke o u t i n t h e ma rke t a r e a o f t h e R i a l t o , o b l i t e r a t i n g i t i n l e s s t h a n t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s . I t was i m m e d i a t e l y r e b u i l t on t h e p r e v i o u s l a y o u t by A n t o n i o S c a r p a g n i n o ( d . 1 5 4 9 ) . As i s p i c t u r e d i n F i g u r e t h i r t y , t h e new b u i l d i n g s o f t h e F a b b r i c h e V e c c h i e d i R i a l t o were " . . . s t r i c t l y f u n c t i o n a l , w i t h v i r t u a l l y no o rnament . 42 a p a r t f rom c o n t i n u o u s h o r i z o n t a l s t r i n g c o u r s e s and d e n t i l l e d c o r n i c e s . " Owing t o t he s p a r i n g budge t a s s i g n e d t o t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f R i a l t o , S c a r p a g - n i n o was g i v e n l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n d u l g e h i m s e l f i n t h e k i n d o f c l a s s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n d e s i g n w h i c h wou ld have b r o u g h t t h e new b u i l d i n g s i n ag reemen t w i t h more c u r r e n t t r e n d s i n modern a r c h i t e c t u r e . An o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e c l a s s i c i s m more f u l l y came w i t h S c a r p a g n i n o 1 s a p p o i n t m e n t as p r o t o ( c h i e f a r c h i t e c t ) t o t h e S c u o l a Grande d i San Rocco ( F i g s . 31 and 32) i n 1 5 2 7 , r e p l a c - i n g B a r t o l o m e o Bon who made t he o r i g i n a l d e s i g n and began c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e new b u i l d i n g i n 1 5 1 5 . Bon i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f o u n d a t i o n , t h e ground p l a n , and t h e f i r s t t i e r o f t h e f a c a d e , and S c a r p a g n i n o i s t h e a u t h o r o f t h e com- 43 p l e t i o n o f t he r e m a i n d e r o f the b u i l d i n g . The S c u o l a Grande d i San R o c c o , l o n g c e l e b r a t e d f o r i t s m a s t e r p i e c e s i n p a i n t i n g , i t s r i c h c a r v e d d e c o r a t i o n s , and i t s i n l a i d p a n e l s o f p r e c i o u s m a r b l e , i s , as L o r e n z e t t i s t a t e s , " . . . a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c example o f t h e sumptuous a p p e a r a n c e w h i c h t h e c l a s s i c a l fo rms 44 were to assume i n V e n i c e d u r i n g t he f i r s t h a l f o f t h e XVI c e n t u r y . . . . " In 1 5 2 9 , t h e Cambra i wars ended w i t h t h e Peace o f B o l o g n a , " . . . s e t [ t i n g ] 45 V e n i c e back on her f e e t . " For t h e most p a r t , t h i s r e p o s e o f f e r e d V e n e t i a n s a s t a b l e a tmosphe re o f p o l i t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l w e l l - b e i n g and advancement f o r 1 5 . t h e r e s t o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . A f t e r t h e s a c k i n g o f Rome i n 1527 by t h e I m p e r i a l t r o o p s o f C h a r l e s V , V e n i c e , as a c i t y known f o r i t s " r e a l " s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y and p r o s p e r i t y , became a c e n t r e o f i m m i g r a t i o n , a t t r a c t i n g many t a l e n t e d p a i n t e r s , s c u l p t o r s , and a r c h i t e c t s f rom c e n t r a l I t a l y . Th ree o f t h e c i t y ' s most i m m i n e n t l y p o w e r f u l new r e s i d e n t a r c h i t e c t s were S e b a s t i a n o S e r l i o ( 1 4 7 5 - 1 5 5 4 ) , M i c h e l e S a n m i c h e l i ( 1 4 8 4 - 1 5 5 9 ) and J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o ( 1 4 8 6 - 1 5 7 0 ) . These men , h i g h l y t r a i n e d and t h o r o u g h l y c o m p e t e n t i n t h e Roman s t y l e , a t t r a c t e d t h e a m b i t i o u s p a t r o n a g e o f " . . . a c i t y e a g e r t o e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f as t h e 'new R o m e ' , [and] t h e p r e t e n t i o n s and a s p i r a t i o n s o f e m p l o y e r s e n c o u r a g e d a r c h i t e c t s t o f l a u n t t h e i r knowledge o f V i t r u v i a n grammar and c l a s s i c a l m o t i f s 47 Lombardo , C o d u s s i , R i z z o , S p a v e n t o , B o n , S c a r p a g n i n o , and o t h e r s , had a l l s h o w n , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e f a c e o f numerous l i m i t a t i o n s , a r e m a r k a b l e u n d e r - s t a n d i n g and p r a c t i c e o f t h e a l l ' a n t i c a s t y l e , but i t was no t u n t i l t h e new- comers f rom Rome and Tuscany t h a t one s e e s a " t r u e " p r o v i s i o n i n V e n e t i a n a r c h - 48 t e c t u r e o f t h e Roman i d i o m . Through t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f Book I V , "On t h e O r d e r s " ( 1 5 3 7 ) , and Book I I I , "On A n t i q u i t y " ( 1 5 4 0 ) , o f h i s A r c h i t e t t u r a , S e b a s t i a n o S e r l i o , l i k e F ra G i o c o n d o some t w e n t y - s i x y e a r s e a r l i e r , e x e r c i s e d g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on a r c h i - 49 t e c t u r a l d e s i g n i n V e n i c e d u r i n g t he R e n a i s s a n c e . Th rough h i s w o r k , S e r l i o e d u c a t e d c o u n t l e s s V e n e t i a n b u i l d e r s t o c o r r e c t l y a p p l y t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f V i t r u v i u s . F u r t h e r m o r e , as Howard t e l l s u s , . . . h i s [Ser l i o ' s ) c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e l o c a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l v o c a b u l a r y was immense, and h i s emphas i s on t he i m p o r t a n c e o f a d a p t i n g t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a b u i l d i n g t o i t s p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n , as w e l l as on s c e n i c e f f e c t s and v a r i e t y i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , had a deep and w i d e - r a n g i n g i m p a c t on V e n i c e . " 5 0 1 6 . In ag reemen t w i t h Howard , J . Q u e n t i n Hughes s t a t e s t h a t t h e b a s i s o f S e r l i o ' s t r e a t i s e was fo rmed on Symmetry and g e o m e t r i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , and t h e t r e a t m e n t o f s p a c e as a s u c c e s s i o n o f p l a n e s i n p e r s p e c t i v e . . . In a d d i t i o n he i n t r o d u c e s i n t o h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s t h e c h i a r o s c u r i c t r e a t m e n t o f f a c a d e s w h i c h h e r a l d s t he a r c h i t e c t u r e o f S a n m i c h e l i , S a n s o v i n o and P a l l a d i o . H i s c o n s c i o u s a im was t o r e s t a t e t h e f o r m u l a e o f V i t r u v i u s , bu t t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f v i l l a s , p a l a c e s and c h u r c h e s , p r o p o s e d o r e x e c u t e d by h i m , were an e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n . 5 1 B e s i d e s b e i n g based i n V i t r u v i a n - A l b e r t i a n t h o u g h t , S e r l i o ' s book a l s o a t t e m p t - ed t o p r e s e n t , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , an " e n c y c l o p e d i c " o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e d e s i g n and p r a c t i c e o f modern a r c h i t e c t u r e . The second t i m e came some t h i r t y - t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r w i t h P a l l a d i o ' s e n o r m o u s l y i n f l u e n t i a l I Q u a t t r o L i b r i d e l l ' A r c h i - t e t t u r a ( 1 5 7 0 ) . The n a t u r e o f S e r l i o ' s book was e s s e n t i a l l y v i s u a l . H i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s , r a t h e r t han h i s t e x t , became t h e ma in exponen t o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l k n o w l e d g e . T h i s n o t i o n o f " i n s t r u c t i o n - b y - e x a m p l e " must have c a u g h t P a l l a d i o ' s i m a g i n a t i o n , f o r he " . . . m o d e l l e d h i s own book a few y e a r s l a t e r on S e r l i o r a t h e r t h a n A l b e r t i and t he V i t r u v i a n t r a d i t i o n , and t h i s c h o i c e , g i v e n t h e h i g h q u a l i t y o f t h e work he i l l u s t r a t e d , was t o make him t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l 52 a r c h i t e c t o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . " U n l i k e P a l l a d i o , S e r l i o c o n s t r u c t e d no b u i l d i n g s i n V e n i c e . T h e r e - f o r e , h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a d i s s e m i n a t o r o f s t y l i s t i c d i r e c t i o n s i n V e n e t i a n a r c h i - t e c t u r e r e s t s e n t i r e l y on t he p o p u l a r r e c e p t i o n and s u b s e q u e n t e m u l a t i o n o f t h e d e s i g n s o f h i s book by l o c a l a r c h i t e c t s . F i g u r e t h i r t y - t h r e e f e a t u r e s one o f S e r l i o ' s d e s i g n s f o r a p a l a c e on t h e Grand Cana l as i l 1 u s t r a t e d i n Book IV o f 1 5 3 7 . E m p l o y i n g an a r c h i t e c t u r a l e m b e l l i s h m e n t most used i n R e n a i s s a n c e d e s i g n , S e r l i o gave h i s p a l a c e a d e t e r m i n a t e base by r u s t i c a t i n g t h e l o w e r s t o r y i n h i g h r e l i e f . T h i s t r e a t m e n t c r e a t e s and s u p p o r t s a l i g h t n e s s o f e f f e c t on t h e more 1 7 . d e l i c a t e l y f a s h i o n e d upper f l o o r s . W i s h i n g t o c r e a t e a t o t a l c o m p o s i t i o n w h i c h wou ld s t r e s s a p i v o t a l c e n t r a l e m p h a s i s w i t h i n t h e t r i p a r t i t e s u b d i v i - s i o n o f t h e who le f a c a d e , S e r l i o i n t r o d u c e d h i s most c o p i e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t , t h e S e r l i a n w indow. As P e t e r L a u r i t z e n w r i t e s , The S e r l i a n window i s b a s i c a l l y a t h r e e l i g h t o p e n i n g , t h e c e n t r a l window o f w h i c h i s t o p p e d w i t h a c u r v e d a r c h r i s i n g above t h e f l a t l i n t e l s o f i t s f l a n k i n g s i d e w i n d o w s . In t h e V e n e t i a n v e r s i o n t h e two s i d e windows o f t e n had r e c t a n g u l a r o p e n i n g s above them as w e l l , mak ing t h e who le p a t t e r n a p p e a r i n s c r i b e d w i t h i n a s q u a r e . 5 3 The S e r l i a n a , as one o f many new a r c h i t e c t u r a l fo rms i l l u s t r a t e d i n h i s b o o k , was e x p r e s s e d r e p e a t e d l y i n V e n e t i a n b u i l d i n g d e s i g n w e l l i n t o t h e s e v e n t e e n t h 54 c e n t u r y . I t was f u r t h e r p o p u l a r i z e d by P a l l a d i o and i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as a P a l l a d i a n w indow. M i c h e l e S a n m i c h e l i , l i k e S e r l i o , " . . . p l a y e d a m a j o r p a r t f n t h e 55 i n f l u x o f new i d e a s i n t o V e n e t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e . " P r i o r t o t h e Peace o f B o l o g n a i n 1 5 2 9 , he had e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as a h i g h l y es teemed m i l i t a r y a r c h i - t e c t i n t h e c o u r t o f Pope C lemen t V I I . F o r t u n a t e l y , f o r bo th t h e c i t y and t h e a r c h i t e c t , S a n m i c h e l i a r r i v e d i n V e n i c e a t a t i m e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e g rowth i n t h e d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f m i l i t a r y f o r t i f i c a t i o n s . In 1 5 3 5 , r e c o g n i z - i n g h i s e x p e r t i s e i n m i l i t a r y a f f a i r s , S c a r p a g n i n o , now p r o t o t o t he S a l t O f f i c e , made S a n m i c h e l i d i r e c t o r o f a l l d e f e n s e s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n t h e V e n e t i a n 56 R e p u b l i c , i n c l u d i n g f o r t i f i c a t i o n s i n C o r f u , C r e t e and C y p r u s . H i s F o r t e z z a d i S a n t ' A n d r e a (1543) ( F i g . 34) a t t h e e n t r a n c e to t h e V e n e t i a n l a g o o n i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i s g r e a t g e n i u s i n t h e a r t o f d e f e n s e d e s i g n . B e i n g w e l l v e r s e d i n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f modern c l a s s i c a l d e s i g n , he emp loyed t h i s c o m m i s s i o n as " . . . a v e h i c l e f o r t h e i m a g i n a t i v e use o f c o n v e n t i o n a l c l a s s i c a l e l e m e n t s t o 1 8 . e x p r e s s t h e m i g h t and s t a t u s o f t h e t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n . " Upon i t s c o m p l e t i o n , t h i s b u i l d i n g r e c e i v e d much a d u l a t i o n f r om t h e g r o w i n g commun i ty o f c l a s s i - c i s t s , i n c l u d i n g G i o r g i o V a s a r i ( 1 5 1 1 - 1 5 7 4 ) , who w r o t e t h a t i t " . . . e q u a l s i n 58 m a j e s t y , t h e most famous s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e R o m a n s . " Most o f S a n m i c h e l i ' s a r c h i t e c t u r e i s i n V e r o n a , a n o t h e r c i t y i n t h e R e p u b l i c . I t was t h e r e t h a t he b u i l t h i s two famous f o r t i f i e d g a t e s o f P o r t a Nuova (1533) ( F i g . 35) and P o r t a P a l i o (1550) ( F i g . 3 5 ) . He a l s o a d o r n e d t h e c i t y w i t h a s e r i e s o f w e l l p l a n n e d and r i c h l y s c u l p t u r e d d o m e s t i c s t r u c t u r e s , o f w h i c h P a l a z z o P o m p e i i (1529) ( F i g . 3 7 ) , P a l a z z o C a n o s s a ( c . 1 5 3 0 ) ( F i g . 3 8 ) , 59 and P a l a z z o G u a s t a v e r z a (1555) ( F i g . 39) a r e most n o t a b l e . A t t h e h e i g h t o f h i s c a r e e r , S a n m i c h e l i a l s o g r a c e d t h e f a c e o f t h e c a n a l s o f V e n i c e w i t h two e l e g a n t and r a t h e r i m p o s i n g modern s t r u c t u r e s . A t San P o l o , he c o n s t r u c t e d h i s P a l a z z o C o r n e r - M o c e n i g o ( c . 1550) ( F i g . 4 0 ) , " . . . a r o b u s t c l a s s i c a l b u i l d i n g . I n t he o v e r a l l d e s i g n o f t h e f a c a d e , c h a r a c t e r i s d e c i s i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t he i n t e r v a l s o f r e p e t i t i v e rhy thms s e t up by a r c h i t e c t u r a l u n i t s and s i z e s . W i t h i n i t s t r i p a r t i t e f o r m a t i o n , t h e r e i s a c e n t r a l v e r t i c a l s p i n e and t o t h e l e f t and r i g h t a r e m i r r o r e d b a y s . The c e n t r a l a x i a l f e a t u r e above t h e p i a n o t e r r a i s e x p r e s s e d i n t r i p l e t and t h e l a t e r a l e l e m e n t s i n s i n g l e u n i t s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h i s e x p r e s s i o n c l o s e l y f o l l o w s t h e t r i a d i c f a c a d e p l a n n i n g f o r S e b a s t i a n o S e r l i o ' s V e n e t i a n p a l a c e d e s i g n s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Book IV o f h i s A r c h i t e t t u r a ( F i g . 3 3 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , S a n m i c h e l i has a l s o a d o p t e d S e r l i o ' s famous w indow, a l l o w i n g t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n t o d o m i n a t e t h e s i d e s and a c t as t he c l i m a x to t h e who le f a c a d e . A t San L u c a , f r o n t i n g t h e Grand C a n a l , he b u i l t h i s P a l a z z o G r i m a n i ( 1 5 5 6 - 1 5 5 9 ) ( F i g . 4 1 ) , " . . . one o f t h e n o b l e s t examples . . . o f t he R e n a i s s a n c e f o r t h e g r a c e o f i t s 1 9 . a r c h i t e c t u r e and o r n a m e n t a l m o t i v e s , " s u g g e s t i n g t o M i c h e l a n g e l o Mura ro t h a t , " I t s s p l e n d o u r i s such t h a t i s seems t o e c l i p s e a l l n e i g h b o u r i n g e d i f i c e s . " S y n c h r o n o u s w i t h t h e work o f S a n m i c h e l i i s t h a t o f J a c o p o T a t t i , c a l l e d 11 S a n s o v i n o a f t e r h i s m a s t e r . P r i o r t o t h e s a c k i n g o f Rome, S a n s o v i n o , l i k e S a n m i c h e l i , had a l r e a d y e n t e r e d i n t o a p r o m i s i n g c a r e e r " . . . i n t h e r i c h 63 days o f t h e New Rome." Upon f l e e i n g c e n t r a l I t a l y , he was c a l l e d t o V e n i c e on a c o m m i s s i o n t o e f f e c t r e p a i r s on t h e aged c h u r c h o f San M a r c o . In 1 5 2 9 , on t h e d e a t h o f B a r t o l o m e o B o n , he was made p r o t o o f t h e P r o c u r a t o r o f San 64 M a r c o , " . . . t h e h i g h e s t a p p o i n t m e n t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n a l work i n V e n i c e . " T h i s p r e s t i g i o u s engagement a l l o w e d him t o l i v e and work i n V e n i c e " . . . w i t h o u t 65 i n t e r r u p t i o n , i l l u s t r i o u s and r e s p e c t e d , f o r o v e r f o r t y y e a r s . " A f t e r P a l l a d i o , S a n s o v i n o was t h e most i m p o r t a n t a r c h i t e c t o f t h e V e n e t i a n R e n a i s s a n c e . S t e e p e d i n know ledge o f t h e Roman s t y l e , h i s s t r u c t u r e s added a c l a s s i c a l g r a n d i o s i t y t o t h e c u r r e n t c i t y s c a p e o f V e n i c e . D u r i n g t h e 1 5 3 0 ' s , as c h i e f a r c h i t e c t o f t h e b u i l d i n g s o f P i a z z a San M a r c o , he was g i v e n t h e g r e a t o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n i t i a t e a r e b u i l d i n g scheme w h i c h became " . . . one o f t h e most a m b i t i o u s programmes i n u r b a n renewa l i n s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y I t a l y . W i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Zecca (1536) ( F i g . 4 2 ) , o r M i n t , t h e L i b r a r y o f S a i n t M a r k ' s (1537) ( F i g . 4 3 ) , and t h e L o g g e t t a a t t h e f o o t o f t he C a m p a n i l e (1538) ( F i g . 4 4 ) , S a n s o v i n o p r o f o u n d l y r e m o d e l l e d t h e f a c e o f one o f E u r o p e ' s i m p o r t a n t c i t y c e n t r e s , b r i n g i n g t o i t an a i r o f b e a u t y and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w h i c h e m b l e m a t i z e d t h e monumental g r a n d e u r o f t h e H igh R e n a i s s a n c e . ^ L i k e many o f t he i m p o r t a n t a r c h i t e c t s b e f o r e h i m , S a n s o v i n o was a l s o t he a u t h o r o f a number o f sumptuous p a l a c e s . In h i s g u i d e b o o k , V e n e t i a c i t t a n o b i l i s s i m a e t s i n g o l a r e o f 1 5 8 1 , F r a n c e s c o S a n s o v i n o , J a c o p o ' s s o n , s e l e c t e d two o f h i s f a t h e r ' s b u i l d i n g s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e " t o p 2 0 . f o u r " p a l a c e s on t h e Grand Cana l i n V e n i c e . The f i r s t and f o u r t h p l a c e s t r u c t u r e s were C o d u s s i ' s P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n - C a l e r g i ( F i g . 24) and S a n m i c h e l i ' s P a l a z z o G r i m a n i ( F i g . 4 1 ) . T a k i n g t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d p l a c e p o s i t i o n s were S a n s o v i n o ' s P a l a z z o D o l f i n (1538) ( F i g . 45) and P a l a z z o C o r n e r (1545) ( F i g . 46) B u i l t w i t h s e e m i n g l y b o u n d l e s s e x p e n d i t u r e s , t h e s e f o u r b u i l d i n g s r e c e i v e d F r a n c e s c o ' s s p e c i a l p r a i s e based " . . . on t h e c r i t e r i a o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l m e r i t , g r a n d e u r , s i z e , c o s t , s k i l l e d s t o n e - c a r v i n g a n d , above a l l , a d h e r e n c e t o t h e r u l e s o f V i t r u v i u s . " ^ S a n s o v i n o ' s p a l a c e s , l i k e h i s p r e s t i g i o u s p r o j e c t s i n P i a z z a San M a r c o , d i s p l a y e d h i s know ledge o f t h e b u i l d i n g s o f Rome i n t h e r i c h n e s s o f t h e i r a l l ' a n t i c a d e t a i l , " . . . p r o v i d i n g t h e c i t y w i t h a w e a l t h o f new m o t i f s as w e l l as a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t o h a n d l e c l a s s i c a l fo rms c o h e r e n t l y and c o r r e c t l y . " ^ Be tween 1530 and 1 5 7 0 , S a n s o v i n o a l s o d e s i g n e d s i x c h u r c h e s i n V e n i c e t h e C h u r c h o f San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a (1534) ( F i g s . 47 and 4 8 ) ; t h e C h u r c h o f San M a r t i n o (1540) ( F i g . 4 9 ) ; t h e C h u r c h o f San S p i r i t o i n I s o l a ( c . 1542) ( F i g . 5 0 ) , d e s t r o y e d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; t h e Chu rch o f San G i u l i a n o (1553) ( F i g . 5 1 ) ; t h e C h u r c h o f San G e m i n i a n o (1557) ( F i g . 5 2 ) , d e s t r o y e d i n 1807 t o make way f o r t he new I m p e r i a l b a l l r o o m o f t h e N a p o l e o n i c p e r i o d ; and t h e C h u r c h o f t h e I n c u r a b i l i (1565) ( F i g . 53) o f t h e s y p h i l i s h o s p i t a l , 72 d e s t r o y e d i n 1 8 3 1 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , S a n s o v i n o ' s s u r v i v i n g c h u r c h d e s i g n s do no t do j u s t i c e t o h i s g r e a t i n v e n t i v e g e n i u s w h i c h i s r e a d i l y e x p r e s s e d i n h i s s e c u l a r c o m m i s s i o n s . As Deborah Howard t e l l s u s , S a n s o v i n o ' s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e i n V e n i c e shows no o b v i o u s s t y l i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o r u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h y . In each c h u r c h he o f f e r e d a t o t a l l y i n d i v i d u a l s o l u t i o n t o a s p e c i f i c s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . . . He c e r t a i n l y owed much t o Mauro C o d u c c i who, a t t h e end o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , had f i r s t r e v i v e d t h e V e n e t o - B y z a n t i n e c e n t r a l 2 1 . p l a n . . . What he h i m s e l f b e l i e v e d to be t he p e r f e c t form f o r a c h u r c h i s a m y s t e r y . . . Not o n l y do S a n s o v i n o ' s V e n e t i a n c h u r c h e s g i v e no h i n t o f h i s t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a s abou t r e l i g i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r e , but u n l i k e P a l l a d i o , he l e f t no t r e a t i s e to e n l i g h t e n u s . He was i n v e n t i v e , p r a g - m a t i c , and sup reme l y a d a p t a b l e . Pe rhaps t h e v e r y f l e x i - b i l i t y o f h i s a p p r o a c h - combined w i t h t h e o b l i t e r a t i o n o f t h r e e o f h i s s i x V e n e t i a n c h u r c h e s under N a p o l e o n i c r u l e - may e x p l a i n why S a n s o v i n o ' s r e p u t a t i o n as an e c c l e s - i a s t i c a l a r c h i t e c t i n V e n i c e does no t match t h o s e o f P a l l a d i o , Longhena , o r even C o d u c c i . 7 3 R e l a t i v e l y , f o l l o w i n g the demise o f Lombardo , C o d u s s i , and S p a v e n t o , modern e c c l e s i a s t i c d e s i g n i n V e n i c e began t o l a g beh ind t h a t o f c e n t r a l I t a l y . Through B r u n e l l e s c h i (1377-1446) to A l b e r t i ( 1404 -1472 ) to Bramante (1444 - 1514) to M i c h e l a n g e l o ( 1 4 7 5 - 1 5 6 4 ) , the deve lopment o f s o u t h e r n R e n a i s s a n c e c h u r c h d e s i g n had been a c c o r d a n t and p r o f o u n d i n i t s a d v a n c i n g s t a t e m e n t s o f 74 t h e c l a s s i c a l t e n e t s o f V i t r u v i u s . In V e n i c e , i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t he s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , when new c h u r c h s t a r t s were l i m i t e d i n bo th number and s c a l e , ma jo r a r c h i t e c t s l i k e S c a r p a g n i n o , B o n , S a n m i c h e l i , and S a n s o v i n o found them- s e l v e s more o r l e s s c o n f i n e d to p a l a c e and c i v i c b u i l d i n g d e s i g n i n t h e i r c r e a t i v e p u r s u i t to i n t r o d u c e t he a r c h i t e c t u r a l messages o f t he a n c i e n t s . Save f o r t he Tuscan p l a n o f h i s San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a ( F i g . 47) and the S e r l i a n i n s p i r e d f a c a d e o f h i s e x t i n c t San Gemin iano ( F i g . 5 2 ) , S a n s o v i n o ' s c h u r c h e s seem to e x p r e s s an o v e r i n d u l g e n c e i n a n e c d o t i c t r a d i t i o n a l m o t i f s . When compared to the v i s u a l r i c h n e s s o f the e x u b e r a n t c l a s s i c i s m o f h i s o t h e r b u i l d i n g s , t h e y seem l e s s i m a g i n a t i v e i n bo th s t r u c t u r e and f o r m . As Ackerman s t a t e s , " . . . none [o f S a n s o v i n o ' s c h u r c h e s ] had t he s t r e n g t h to promote s i g n i f i c a n t d e p a r t u r e s from 75 the v i g o r o u s s t y l e o f Coducc i and Lombard i o f the t u r n o f t he c e n t u r y . " I t was not u n t i l t he 1 5 6 0 ' s w i t h the phenomena l l y i n n o v a t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f Andrea P a l l a d i o , the l e a d i n g a r c h i t e c t o f V i c e n z a and the T e r r a f i r m a , t h a t V e n i c e became i n a u g u r a t e d i n t o the m a i n s t r e a m o f H igh R e n a i s s a n c e c h u r c h d e s i g n . 2 2 . P a l l a d i o ' s a p p l i c a t i o n o f two i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g t e m p l e f r o n t s , e x p r e s s i n g m a j o r and m i n o r o r d e r s , f o r t h e f a c a d e o f S a n s o v i n o ' s San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a ( c . 1 5 6 2 ) ( F i g s . 54 and 5 5 ) , . . . was r e v o l u t i o n a r y [and] w i t h o u t p r e c e d e n t i n a n c i e n t o r c o n t e m p o r a r y a r c h i t e c t u r e . As e l a b o r a t e d i n [ h i s d e s i g n s f o r ] San G i o r g i o and the R e d e n t o r e , i t became t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r V e n e t i a n c h u r c h f a c a d e s o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . 7 6 F u t u r e a r c h i t e c t s o f e c c l e s i a s t i c b u i l d i n g s i n V e n i c e d i s p l a y e d an a l m o s t e x c l u - s i v e f a s c i n a t i o n f o r t h e p l a n s , e l e v a t i o n s , and s p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s o f P a l l a d i o ' s c h u r h c e s . L e a n i n g h e a v i l y on h i s e x a m p l e , t h e d e s c e n d e n t s o f t h e m a s t e r ' s d e s i g n s a r e many. From 1538 t o 1 5 6 0 , P a l l a d i o emerged as one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t and r e s p e c t e d a r c h i t e c t s i n t he V e n e t o . H i s p r a c t i c e was a v e r y a c t i v e o n e . I t r e a c h e d a p r o l i f i c a c y w i t h i n w h i c h he c o u l d o f t e n be found s u p e r v i s i n g t h e c o n - s t r u c t i o n o f a number o f p r o j e c t s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , he e m b e l - l i s h e d V i c e n z a w i t h many p a l a c e s and p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s ( F i g s . 5 6 , 57 and 5 8 ) , o f g r e a t n o t i c e . ^ C o n c u r r e n t l y , h i s m a g n i f i c e n t v i l l a s ( F i g s . 5 9 , 60 and 6 1 ) , b u i l t f o r t h e p a r t r i c i a t e o f bo th V i c e n z a and V e n i c e , were welcomed w i t h g r e a t 78 a c c l a i m . A f t e r o n l y two decades o f d e v e l o p m e n t , P a l l a d i o e s t a b l i s h e d a h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , c o m p l e t e l y c o h e r e n t , and s t u n n i n g l y p r o d i g i o u s s y s t e m o f a r c h i - t e c t u r a l d e s i g n . P r o f o u n d l y i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e a n c i e n t s , P a l l a d i o made f r e q u e n t v i s i t s t o c e n t r a l I t a l y t o s t u d y and make p r e c i s e r e c o r d i n g s o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y and fo rm o f Roman a r c h i t e c t u r a l r u i n s . A f t e r r e t u r n i n g f rom h i s l a s t t r i p i n 1 5 5 4 , he p u b l i s h e d t h e f i r s t a c a d e m i c g u i d e book to c l a s s i c a l Rome. Le a n t i c h i t a d i Roma, as Ackerman t e l l s u s , was 2 3 . . . . t h e f i r s t r e l i a b l e and compac t p o c k e t g u i d e b o o k t o a n c i e n t r e m a i n s based on a t h o r o u g h know ledge o f t o p o - g r a p h i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p . In t h i r t y - n i n e p a g e s , i t enumer - a t e s and l o c a t e s monuments bo th d e s t r o y e d and p r e s e r v e d . . . . Over t h e n e x t two c e n t u r i e s , t h i s l i t t l e vo lume was r e p r o d u c e d o v e r t h i r t y t i m e s , o f f e r i n g v i s i t o r s to Rome an a c c u r a t e i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o t h e c i t y ' s c l a s s i c a l h e r i t a g e . As an e x p e r t i n command o f Roman r e m a i n s , P a l l a d i o was c o m m i s s i o n e d t o make d r a w i n g s f o r D a n i e l e B a r b a r o ' s ( b . 1 5 1 4 ) e d i t i o n o f V i t r u v i u s i n 1 5 5 6 . F o u r t e e n y e a r s l a t e r , P a l l a d i o ' s e x p e r t i s e i n Roman a n t i q u i t y was e x p r e s s e d i n much g r e a t e r d e p t h i n h i s own t r e a t i s e I Q u a t t r o L i b r i d e l 1 ' A r c h i t e t t u r a , pub - l i s h e d i n V e n i c e i n 1 5 7 0 . When compared w i t h t h e e d i t i o n s o f V i t r u v i u s by e i t h e r F ra G i o c o n d o i n 1511 o r B a r b a r o i n 1 5 5 6 , we f i n d t h a t t h e Roman r e c o n - s t r u c t i o n s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e Q u a t t r o L i b r i a r e much more i n f o r m a t i v e , " . . . b e c a u s e t h e b u i l d i n g s V i t r u v i u s knew i n t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y B . C . were no t t h e most 80 i n t e r e s t i n g o r t h e b e s t p r e s e r v e d examp les o f Roman a r c h i t e c t u r e . " L i k e S e r l i o and A l b e r t i b e f o r e h i m , P a l l a d i o ' s w r i t i n g s , above a l l t h e Q u a t t r o L i b r i , gave d e f i n i t e fo rm to many R e n a i s s a n c e i d e a l s and o f f e r e d them j o i n t l y w i t h a n c i e n t and modern ( h i s own) d e s i g n s as a means t o e n c o u r a g e t h e i n s p i r e d a r c h i - t e c t s o f t h e day i n t o becoming modern e x p e r t s i n c l a s s i c a l t h o u g h t and d e s i g n . From i t s f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n t h r o u g h c e n t u r i e s o f r e i s s u e s t o t o d a y , t h e Q u a t t r o L i b r i has been " . . . u n d o u b t e d l y the most i n f l u e n t i a l t r e a t i s e i n W e s t e r n a r c h i - 81 t e c t u r e " , h a v i n g had t h e most p r o f o u n d and w i d e s p r e a d i m p a c t o f any book on 82 a r c h i t e c t u r e e v e r w r i t t e n . D u r i n g t he 1 5 5 0 ' s P a l l a d i o made s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f i n t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l w o r l d o f S a n s o v i n o ' s V e n i c e . In 1 5 5 4 , he made an u n s u c c e s s - f u l a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e s a l a r i e d p o s i t i o n o f p r o t o t o t h e S a l t O f f i c e . In 1 5 5 5 , 2 4 . he s u b m i t t e d d e s i g n s f o r bo th t h e S c a l a d ' O r o o f t h e Duca l P a l a c e and t h e 84 R i a l t o b r i d g e . N e i t h e r scheme was a d o p t e d . P a l l a d i o ' s f i r s t s u c c e s s came i n 1558 w i t h h i s p r o p o s a l f o r t h e f a c a d e o f San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o , w h i c h , as L i o n e l l o Pupp i s t a t e s , " . . . [was] a p r e l u d e t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e theme o f c h u r c h f a c a d e s w h i c h , by way o f S . F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a , was t o l e a d t o t h e d e f i n i - 85 t i v e s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e c h u r c h e s o f S . G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e . " U n f o r t u n - a t e l y , P a l l a d i o ' s d e s i g n , as o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d , was n e v e r r e a l i z e d . The e x i s t i n g f a c a d e ( F i g . 6 2 ) , a p a s t i c h e o f P a l l a d i o ' s own i n v e n t i o n s , i s t h e r e s p o n - s i b i l i t y o f F r a n c e s c o S m e r a l d i , c a l l e d II F r a c a , who s u p e r v i s e d i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n 86 between 1594 and 1 5 9 6 . P u r s u a n t to San P i e t r o , P a l l a d i o was i n v i t e d t o d e s i g n t h e r e f e c t o r y o f San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e ( 1 5 6 0 - 6 2 ) . In 1 5 6 1 , he began work on t h e m o n a s t e r y o f S a n t a M a r i a d e l l a C a r i t a 87 ( F i g . 6 3 ) . I t was t h r o u g h t h i s c o m m i s s i o n t h a t P a l l a d i o ove rcame t h e c i t y ' s r e l u c t a n c e t o e n t r u s t him w i t h i m p o r t a n t p r o j e c t s . I t s s u c c e s s e s e n s u r e d h i s a c c e p t a n c e and he " . . . a t l a s t t ook h i s p l a c e i n V e n e t i a n s o c i e t y , and f rom 88 t h e n on h i s p r e s e n c e became more c o n s t a n t and i n f l u e n t i a l P a l l a d i o ' s fame and r e c o g n i t i o n g a i n e d f u r t h e r s u p p o r t i n 1562 w i t h h i s w h o l l y o r i g i n a l f a c a d e f o r San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a ( F i g . 5 5 ) . As Bu rns w r i t e s , V e n i c e p r o v i d e d P a l l a d i o w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h i c h V i c e n z a c o u l d n e v e r have o f f e r e d h i m . I t r e v e a l e d him as an a r c h i - t e c t whose o r i g i n a l i t y and c a p a b i l i t i e s c o u l d e x t e n d w e l l beyond t h e f i e l d o f v i l l a and p a l a c e d e s i g n . 8 9 As an i n n o v a t i v e a r c h i t e c t e x p r e s s i n g new p r i n c i p l e s and s y s t e m s , P a l l a d i o was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y f a v o u r e d o v e r t h e a g i n g S a n s o v i n o , now i n h i s m i d - s e v e n t i e s . In 1 5 6 4 , P a l l a d i o was p r e s e n t e d w i t h t he o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s h i s t h o u g h t and p r a c t i c e t h r o u g h t h e t o t a l d e s i g n o f a r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e f o r t he f i r s t t i m e . In t h e C h u r c h o f t h e S i s t e r s o f S a n t a L u c i a ( F i g . 2 ) , a r e l a t i v e l y 2 5 . modest p r o p o s a l w h i c h had m i n i m a l e f f e c t on f u t u r e V e n e t i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n , he e s t a b l i s h e d a c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n based on t h e s q u a r e ( F i g . 6 4 ) . As L i o n e l l o Pupp i t e l l s u s , S a n t a L u c i a . " . . . r e p r e s e n t P a l l a d i o ' s f i r s t s o l u t i o n f o r t h e i n t e r i o r o f a c h u r c h The c h o i c e o f t h e ' s q u a r e ' f o r m r e c u r r e d i n t h e Z i t e l l e Chu rch so i t was o b v i o u s l y no t a c a s u a l c h o i c e bu t 91 a c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r e n c e . . . . " ^ 1 T h i s p l a n was one o f P a l l a d i o ' s a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t i o n s w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d i n h i s Q u a t t r o L i b r i : " . . . t h e most b e a u t i f u l and r e g u l a r f o r m s , f r o m w h i c h t h e o t h e r s r e c e i v e t h e i r m e a s u r e s , a r e t h e r o u n d , and t h e q u a d r a n g u l a r , and t h e r e f o r e V i t r u v i u s o n l y m e n t i o n s Op t h e s e t w o . . . . P a l l a d i o ' s a d m i r a t i o n o f t h e r ound p l a n f o r c h u r c h e s , w h i c h he s t a t e s t o be " . . . t h e most p e r f e c t , and most e x c e l l e n t " , 9 3 p h y s i c a l l y m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n h i s T e m p i e t t o ( F i g s . 6 and 65) a t Mase r i n 1580 . T h i s c h u r c h r e p r e s e n t s P a l l a d i o ' s l a s t b u i l d i n g d e s i g n , f o r he d i e d i n t h e same y e a r as i t s c o n c e p t i o n . . In 1 5 6 5 , P a l l a d i o f u r t h e r enhanced h i s c a r e e r as an a r c h i t e c t o f V e n e t i a n r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e s t h r o u g h h i s h i g h l y d i s t i n c t i v e d e s i g n f o r San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e ( F i g . 3 ) , h i s second c o m m i s s i o n f o r t h e e n t i r e d e s i g n o f a c h u r c h . Due t o " . . . i n f l e x i b l e l i t u r g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n " , ^ P a l l a d i o d i d no t use a r o u n d o r s q u a r e f o rm f o r t h e p l a n o f San G i o r g i o . A l L o r e n z e t t i s t a t e s , The i n t e r i o r o f San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e i s on a L a t i n c r o s s p l a n , w i t h nave and s i d e a i s l e s , t h e t r a n s e p t s w i t h a p s e s and v a u l t e d c e i l i n g s u p p o r t e d by m ixed s t y l e c o l u m n s ; t h e H i g h A l t a r i s i s o l a t e d and b e h i n d t h e rows o f m a s s i v e c o l u m n s , i s t h e C h o i r ; t h e who le scheme i s o f m a j e s t i c s o l e m n i t y c o n c e i v e d i n Roman s t y l e . 9 5 By c o m b i n i n g a c e n t r a l i z e d c r o s s i n g w i t h a l o n g i t u d i n a l nave ( F i g s . 66 and 6 7 ) , P a l l a d i o f o u n d a way t o f u s e bo th h i s p r e f e r r e d s q u a r e and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l b a s i l i c a l f o r m i n t o one c o n g r u e n t e n t i t y . Over t he c e n t r a l s p a c e he added h i s m a j e s t i c r o u n d dome ( F i g . 68) " . . . t h a t had been t h e t e s t a m e n t o f e a r l y R e n a i s - 2 6 . s a n c e T u s c a n a r c h i t e c t s t o t h e S t . P e t e r ' s d e s i g n o f B ramante and M i c h a e l - 96 a n g e l o . " As e v i d e n c e d i n h i s Q u a t t r o L i b r i , P a l l a d i o f e l t t h a t h i s c a p a c i o u s L a t i n c r o s s s o l u t i o n f o r San G i o r g i o was s e c o n d o n l y t o t h e round f o r m : Those c h u r c h e s a l s o a r e v e r y l a u d a b l e , t h a t a r e made i n t h e fo rm o f a c r o s s , w h i c h have t h e i r e n t r a n c e i n t h e p a r t t h a t r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e f o o t o f t h e c r o s s , and o p p o s i t e t o w h i c h s h o u l d be t h e p r i n c i p a l a l t a r , and t h e c h o i r ; and i n t h e two b r a n c h e s , t h a t a r e e x t e n d e d f rom e i t h e r s i d e l i k e a r m s , two o t h e r e n t r a n c e s , o r two o t h e r a l t a r s ; b e c a u s e t h a t b e i n g f a s h i o n e d i n t h e fo rm o f t h e c r o s s , t h e y r e p r e s e n t t o t h e eyes o f t h e b e h o l d e r s t h a t wood f rom w h i c h depended o u r s a l v a t i o n . And o f t h i s f o r ^ y I have made t h e c h u r c h o f San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e a t V e n i c e . To t h e f r o n t o f San G i o r g i o , P a l l a d i o a p p l i e d an a d v a n c e d v e r s i o n o f h i s f a c a d e f o r San F r a n c e s c o . In t h i s c a s e , t h o u g h , he was g i v e n t h e o c c a s i o n t o d e s i g n t h e c h u r c h i n i t s e n t i r e t y . Owing t o t h i s , as Howard n o t e s , P a l l a d i o . . . was a b l e t o a v o i d t h e s t y l i s t i c d i s c o r d a n c e between t h e e x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r w h i c h i s so marked a t San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a . Here t h e f a c a d e f i t s more n e a t l y on t o t h e nave - - t h e f o r m e r r a i s e d on h i g h bases and t h e l a t t e r r e s t - i n g on t h e ^ g r o u n d - - r e p r o d u c e f a i t h f u l l y t h e s y s t e m o f t h e i n t e r i o r . 9 ° In t h e 1 5 6 0 ' s , San G i o r g i o r e p r e s e n t e d t h e most i m p o r t a n t c h u r c h c o m m i s s i o n i n V e n i c e . I t s d e s i g n r e c e i v e d much p r a i s e . In 1 5 6 8 , V a s a r i d e d i c a t e d s e v e r a l pages o f h i s Le V i t e t o P a l l a d i o , " . . . a man o f s i n g u l a r g e n i u s and j u d g e m e n t , " who, i n h i s d e s i g n o f San G i o r g i o , c r e a t e d " . . . a s t u p e n d o u s and most b e a u t i f u l 99 w o r k . . . . " A t S a n s o v i n o ' s d e a t h i n 1 5 7 0 , P a l l a d i o was i n d i s p u t a b l y t h e l e a d - i n g a r c h i t e c t o f V e n i c e . H i s a c h i e v e m e n t s t o t h a t d a t e a l s o gave him much n a t i o n a l a c c l a i m . I t was a t t h i s t i m e , as Burns s u g g e s t s , t h a t " . . . P a l l a d i o c o u l d and p r o b a b l y d i d t h i n k o f h i m s e l f as one o f I t a l y ' s g r e a t e s t a r c h i t e c t s ,,100 In 1 5 6 1 , t h e J e s u i t B e n e d e t t o P a l m i p u r c h a s e d l a n d on t h e G i u d e c c a i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t e t h a t wou ld c a r e f o r young g i r l s . 2 7 . In t h e wake o f h i s p a s t s u c c e s s e s , P a l l a d i o was c o m m i s s i o n e d i n 1570 t o . m a k e a d e s i g n f o r t h e new C h u r c h o f t h e Z i t e l l e (mean ing " m a i d e n s " ) ( F i g . 4 ) . E m u l a t i n g t h e p l a n f o r S a n t a L u c i a , he r e d u c e d t h e a r e a o f t h e c h u r c h t o t h e " b e a u t i f u l " and " r e g u l a r " fo rm o f f o u r equa l a n g l e s and f o u r e q u a l s i d e s . Once a g a i n , P a l l a d i o e x p r e s s e d h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r a c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n based on t h e s q a u r e ( F i g . 6 9 ) . S u r m o u n t i n g t h i s s p a c e i s t h e f i g u r e o f a h i g h round dome ( F i g . 7 0 ) , r e c a l l i n g P a l l a d i o ' s r e c e n t s o l u t i o n f o r San G i o r g i o . U n l i k e San F r a n c e s c o and San G i o r g i o , t h e f a c a d e f o r t h e Z i t e l l e was no t c o n - t a i n e d w i t h i n one g i a n t o r d e r but d i v i d e d i n t o two s t o r e y s c rowned w i t h a w i d e ped imen t ( F i g s . 4 and 7 1 ) . T h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n a l s o d e v i a t e s d r a m a t i c a l l y f rom t h e e x t e r i o r o f S a n t a L u c i a ( F i g . 2 ) , w h i c h , as Pupp i s u g g e s t s , " " . . . d e p o r t e d 1 no f rom t h e o r i g i n a l ' m o d e l ' a t t h e b u i l d i n g s t a g e . . . . " E x c e p t f o r " . . . t h e 103 u n m i s t a k a b l e mark o f P a l l a d i o ' s hand i n t h e use o f t h e r m a l w i n d o w s , " t h e two f a c a d e s d i f f e r i n bo th fo rm and c h a r a c t e r . In 1 5 7 6 , e l e v e n y e a r s a f t e r h i s em inen t d e s i g n f o r San G i o r g i o , P a l l a d i o r e c e i v e d a n o t h e r l a r g e and p r e s t i g i o u s e c c l e s i a s t i c c o m m i s s i o n . The R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 5 ) , " . . . c o u n t e d among t h e a r c h i t e c t ' s g r e a t e s t m a s t e r p i e c e s " * * ^ was t h e r e s u l t o f a p l e d g e made by t h e V e n e t i a n S e n a t e t o e r e c t a c h u r c h d e d i - c a t e d t o C h r i s t t h e Redeemer a f t e r t h e d e l i v e r a n c e o f V e n i c e f rom t h e g r e a t p l a g u e o f 1 5 7 5 - 7 7 . In l a t e November o f 1 5 7 6 , P a l l a d i o was a s k e d t o make two a l t e r n a t i v e d e s i g n s , one each i n t h e round and l o n g i t u d i n a l f o r m s . A f t e r much 105 d e b a t e , t h e m a s t e r ' s L a t i n c r o s s p l a n was c h o s e n i n e a r l y F e b r u a r y , 1 5 7 7 . In many ways p a r a l l e l i n g t h e d e s i g n o f San G i o r g i o , t h i s p l a n a l s o comb ines t he s q u a r e and t h e b a s i c i a l fo rms t h r o u g h a f u s i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l i z e d c r o s s i n g w i t h t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l nave ( F i g s . 72 and 7 3 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , P a l l a d i o employed 2 8 . a m a g n i f i c e n t round dome t o crown t h e c e n t r a l i z e d s p a c e a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e c h u r c h ( F i g . 7 4 ) , r e c a l l i n g i t s s i m i l a r use i n b o t h San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e and t h e Z i t e l l e . In h i s Q u a t t r o L i b r i , P a l l a d i o t e l l s us t h a t . . . i n c a s e t h e r e be no e l e v a t e d p l a c e s , t h e f l o o r o f t h e t e m p l e i s t o be r a i s e d , as much as i s c o n v e n i e n t , above t h e r e s t o f t h e c i t y . One i s b e s i d e s t o a s c e n d to t h e t e m p l e by s t e p s ; s i n c e t he a s c e n t a l o n e t o a t e m p l e i s what a f f o r d g r e a t e r d e v o t i o n and m a j e s t y . 1 ° ^ These d i c t u m s were r e a l i z e d many t i m e s i n P a l l a d i o ' s t e m p l e - f r o n t e d v i l l a s , but i t was i n h i s R e d e n t o r e t h a t t h e y were f i r s t a c h i e v e d i n one o f h i s c h u r c h d e s i g n s . They were r e p e a t e d f o r t h e s e c o n d and l a s t t i m e f o u r y e a r s l a t e r i n h i s T e m p i e t t o a t Maser ( F i g . 6 ) . The e x t e r i o r o f t h e R e d e n t o r e a l s o r e p r e s e n t s P a l l a d i o ' s l a s t s t a t e m e n t on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f two i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g t e m p l e f r o n t s o f m a j o r and m i n o r o r d e r s ( F i g s . 5 and 75 ) . I t was a m a g n i f i c e n t c u l m i n a - t i o n t o t h e e a r l i e r f a c a d e s t u d i e s o f San P i e t r o , San F r a n c e s c o , and San G i o r g i o , a n d , t o r e p e a t B u r n s , " . . . i t became t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r V e n e t i a n c h u r c h f a c a d e s o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . " P a l l a d i o ' s l a s t c h u r c h was t h e T e m p i e t t o a t Maser (1580) ( F i g . 6 ) , d e s i g n e d i n t h e same y e a r o f h i s d e a t h f o r t h e f a m i l y o f h i s g r e a t f r i e n d , c o h o r t , 1 AO and p a t r o n D a n i e l e B a r b a r o . F o l l o w i n g " . . . t he same p r o p o r t i o n s as i n t h e P a n t h e o n a t Rome"^ - 0 ^ ( F i g s . 76 and 7 7 ) , he c r e a t e d a c i r c u l a r c h u r c h whose i n t e r i o r h e i g h t o f f o r t y - e i g h t f e e t i s t o t h e f o r t y f o o t d i a m e t e r o f t h e p l a n as s i x t o f i v e ( F i g s . 65 and 7 8 ) . A h e m i s p h e r i c a l dome w i t h a s m a l l l a t e r n c rowns t h e w h o l e . T h i s c e n t r a l i z e d round form i s o f t h e t y p e w h i c h P a l l a d i o a d m i r e d and d e s c r i b e d i n h i s Q u a t t r o L i b r i . ^ R e f e r r i n g t o t h e a r c h i t e c t ' s v e n e r a t i o n o f t h e P a n t h e o n , C a r r o l . Meeks s t a t e s t h a t 2 9 . P a l l a d i o had done much t o e m p h a s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e o r i g i n a l . . . In h i s F o u r t h Book he s i n g l e s o u t t h e P a n t h e o n f o r v e r y p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n . He d e v o t e s p l a t e s 75 t h r o u g h 84 t o i t , n e a r l y t w i c e as many as he a l l o c a t e s t o any o t h e r b u i l d i n g and two pages o f t e x t i n w h i c h he uses te rms l i k e "mos t c e l e b r a t e d " , "most n o t a b l e " , and "mos t b e a u t i f u l " , and a l l u d e s t o i t s symbol i s m . H 2 " In d e s i g n i n g h i s modern v e r s i o n o f t h e g r e a t Roman p a r a d i g m , P a l l a d i o p a i d c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o i t s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a c c u r a c y . He c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d t h e o r i g i n a l as an i n t e g r a t e d s e r i e s o f t h r e e b a s i c f o r m s , t h e a d v a n c e d p r o n a o s a g a i n s t a v e s t i b u l e a g a i n s t a v a u l t e d c y l i n d e r . A c c o r d i n g l y , P a l l a d i o i n t r o d u c e d h i s c e n t r i c p l a n w i t h a p r o s t y l e C o r i n t h i a n p o r t i c o w h i c h b u t t s a g a i n s t a v e s t i b u l e c o n t a i n i n g t h e main e n t r a n c e and t o each s i d e t h e e n c l o s e d s t a i r w e l l s l e a d i n g t o t h e two b e l f r i e s a b o v e . Due t o i t s r e d u c e d s c a l e , t h e p o r t i c o o f t h e T e m p i e t t o , u n l i k e t h e o c t a s t y l e P a n t h e o n , i s h e x a s t y l e . Y e t , as B a n i s t e r F l e t c h e r t e l l s u s , The l e n g t h o f t h i s p o r t i c o ( t h e T e m p i e t t o ' s ) i s n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s o f t he d i a m e t e r o f t h e c h u r c h , and P a l l a d i o has f o l l o w e d t h e same p r o p o r t i o n s as i n t h e Pan theon a t Rome, w h i c h o f c o u r s e had been measured by h i m , and whose p o r t i c o has In l e n g t h two t h i r d s o f t h e d i a m e t e r o f t h e i n t e r i o r . Generous as P a l l a d i o had been i n d e s i g n i n g f r e e - s t a n d i n g t e m p l e f r o n t s f o r h i s v i l l a s , * * ^ h i s p o r t i c o a t Maser was t h e o n l y one he b u i l t on a c h u r c h . ^ For t h e e x t e r i o r s o f San F r a n c e s c o , San G i o r g i o , and t h e R e d e n t o r e , he u t i l i z e d an a n a l o g o u s s y s t e m , t h a t o f " . . . p r o j e c t i n g t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e p o r t i c o on t h e p l a n e o f t h e f a c a d e w a l l . . . one o f h i s most b r i l l i a n t i n v e n t i o n s . " - ^ L i k e t h e R e d e n t o r e , bu t u n l i k e t h e P a n t h e o n , t h e T e m p i e t t o a l s o emp loyed a w i d e f l i g h t o f s t e p s l e a d i n g t o i t s p o r t i c o , w h i c h , as P a l l a d i o s t a t e s , i s " . . . f o r t h e c o n v e n i e n c y o f t h e p e o p l e , t h a t t h e y m i g h t have [some]where t o e n t e r - t a i n one a n o t h e r , . . . [and] under w h i c h i n bad w e a t h e r men m i g h t a v o i d t h e s u n , t h e r a i n , t h e h a i l , and t h e s n o w . " 1 1 ' F o r o v e r one hundred y e a r s , t h e T e m p i e t t o a t Mase r r e m a i n e d t h e s o l e t e m p l e - f r o n t e d c h u r c h b u i l t i n t h e e n t i r e R e p u b l i c o f V e n i c e . I t was no t u n t i l 1 7 0 6 , w i t h A n d r e a T i r a l i ' s ( c . 1 6 6 0 - 1 7 3 7 ) h e x a s t y l e p o r t i c o ( F i g . 7 9 ) o f C o r i n t h i a n co lumns r a i s e d on a f l i g h t o f s t e p s i n f r o n t o f t h e f a c a d e w a l l o f V i n c e n z o S c a m o z z i ' s ( 1 5 5 2 - 1 6 1 6 ) P a l l a d i a n i n s p i r e d c h u r c h o f San N i c o l o d e i T o l e n t i n i (1591) ( F i g . 8 0 ) i n V e n i c e , t h a t i t was r e p e a t e d . A l l o f P a l l a d i o ' s e c c l e s i a s t i c d e s i g n s were c o n t r u c t e d on s i t e s o f g r e a t e x p o s u r e . U n q u e s t i o n a b l y , h i s f i v e c o m m i s s i o n s o f V e n i c e were t h e most c o n s p i c u o u s and pa ramoun t . Through t h e s e b u i l d i n g s , he c r e a t e d u n - f o r g e t a b l e images o f i m p o s i n g and p o w e r f u l b e a u t y , " . . . w h i c h no r e l i g i o u s a r c h i t e c t i n t h e c i t y c o u l d a f f o r d t o i g n o r e . " H 9 B e l i e v i n g i n v a l i d r u l e s , immutab le c a n o n s , and a c o r r e c t way t o d e s i g n , P a l l a d i o became a spokesman f o r a b s o l u t e s t a n d a r d s i n a r c h i t e c t u r e . ^ 0 T a k i n g c a r e f u l n o t i c e , many l a t e r a r c h i t e c t s used t h e m a s t e r ' s b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s as p o i n t s o f d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e i r own e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o V e n e t i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n . As e x p r e s s e d by Howard , No c h u r c h b u i l d e r c o u l d i n f u t u r e f o r g e t h i s r e s t r a i n e d , y e t c o m p e l l i n g c l a s s i c a l s t y l e , o r d i s r e g a r d h i s b r i l l i a n t s o l u t i o n s t o l i t u r g i c a l and p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s . To t h e v o c a b u l a r y and grammar o f Roman a r c h i t e c t u r e , a l r e a d y i n t r o d u c e d t o V e n i c e by S e r l i o , S a n - s o v i n o and S a n m i c h e l i , he added a s e n s e o f t h e s c a l e and g r a n d e u r o f t h e b u i l d i n g s o f t h e a n c i e n t s . A f t e r h i s d e a t h , P a l l a d i o ' s m a s t e r f u l c o n c e p t i o n s r e m a i n e d f u n d a m e n t a l s o u r c e s o f i n s p i r a t i o n , d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c i n g t h e o n g o i n g d e s i g n o f a l a r g e number o f l o c a l monuments. As A d o l f K. P l a c z e k t e l l s u s , P a l l a d i o " . . . i s t h e o n l y a r c h i t e c t a f t e r whom an a r c h i t e c t u r a l i d i o m i s named-: P a l 1 a d i a n i s m . 3 1 . As an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y c o h e s i v e e p i s o d e i n V e n e t i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n , P a l 1 a d i a n i s m e x t e n d e d p o w e r f u l l y i n t o s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n i c e . I t f o s t e r e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h i r t y - f i v e c h u r c h e s whose s y s t e m s o f o r g a n i z i n g p l a n s , s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and e l e v a t i o n s r e v e a l d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s o f d e b t t o P a l l a d i o . In t h e e n d , t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c u r r e n c y i n t h e o v e r a l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e l i g i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r e i n V e n i c e . The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l s y s t e m a t i c a l l y exam- i n e t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l l e g a c y o f P a l l a d i a n i n s p i r e d c h u r c h d e s i g n i n V e n i c e f r o m 1581 t o 1 7 5 1 . In o r d e r t o b e s t a p p r e c i a t e h i s i n f l u e n c e , i t i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o c a t e g o r i z e P a l l a d i o ' s a c h i e v e m e n t s . Two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p l a n s as d e v e l o p e d by P a l l a d i o can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . The f i r s t t y p e i s t h e c e n t r a l - i z e d p l a n w i t h r e c e s s e s f o r t h e p r e s b y t e r y , l a t e r a l a l t a r s , and c h o i r , as examp led i n S a n t a L u c i a ( F i g . 6 4 ) , t h e Z i t e l l e ( F i g . 6 9 ) , and t h e T e m p i e t t o a t Maser ( F i g . 6 5 ) . The second t y p e i s t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l p l a n i n t h e f o r m o f a L a t i n c r o s s w i t h a n a v e , t r a n s e p t , p r e s b y t e r y , and c h o i r , as e x p r e s s e d i n San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 6 6 ) and t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 2 ) . T h e r e a r e a l s o f o u r t y p e s o f f a c a d e s . The f i r s t was p l a n n e d w i t h a l a r g e t e m p l e f r o n t m o t i f i n t h e c e n t r e and f l a n k e d on each s i d e by a m i n o r o r d e r s u p p o r t i n g h a l f - p e d i m e n t s , as f e a t u r e d i n t h e c h u r c h e s o f San F r a n c e s c o ( F i g . 5 5 ) , San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 3 ) , and t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 5 ) . These e x t e r i o r s w i t h o u t t h e i r s i d e - w i n g s r e p r e s e n t t h e second t y p e o f f a c a d e . Many o f P a l l a d i o ' s emu- l a t o r s i s o l a t e d t h e c e n t r a l t e m p l e f r o n t m o t i f and " . . . p a r t i a l l y o r c o m p l e t e l y d i s p e n s e d w i t h t h e m i n o r o r d e r . T h e t h i r d t y p e i n c l u d e s a w i d e ped imen t s p a n n i n g o v e r two s t o r e y s . The f i r s t t i e r has a doorway c rowned w i t h a p e d i - ment and p o s i t i o n e d t o each s i d e i s a l o n g w indow. The s e c o n d t i e r has a l a r g e 3 2 . Roman w indow. To t h e s i d e s o f each s t o r y a r e p a i r s o f C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s . T h i s i s t h e f a c a d e f o r t h e Z i t e l l e ( F i g . 7 1 ) , w h i c h l a t e r " . . . w a s t o become 1 OA t h e model f o r t h e s m a l l c h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e . " 1 The f o u r t h t y p e o f f a c a d e i s t h a t o f t h e f r e e - s t a n d i n g t e m p l e f r o n t on t h e model o f t h e P a n t h e o n , as exem- p l i f i e d i n t h e T e m p i e t t o ( F i g . 6 ) . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e method o f s t u d y i n t h e n e x t t h r e e c h a p t e r s w i l l be t o s u b j e c t t h e c h u r c h e s under q u e s t i o n t o a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f b o t h t h e i r i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r p l a n n i n g i n an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e f o r e a c h t h e i r c o n c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e P a l l a d i a n s y s t e m . Once a g a i n , i n t h e e n d , i t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e a c l e a r and c o h e r e n t t r a d i t i o n o f V e n e t i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n w h i c h f u l f i l l e d i t s e l f t h r o u g h an i n t e g r a t i o n o f a w h o l e s e r i e s o f P a l l a d i a n p r o t o t y p e s . 3 3 . NOTES 1. Fo r more d i s c u s s i o n on t h e R e n a i s s a n c e movement i n a r t and a r c h i t e c t u r e , see J . Q u e n t i n Hughes and N o r b e r t L y n t o n , S i m p s o n ' s H i s t o r y o f A r c h i - t e c t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , Volume I V , R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e ( L o n d o n : W i l l i a m C lowes and S o n s , L t d . , 1 9 6 2 ) ; and H.W. J a n s o n , H i s t o r y o f A r t (New Y o r k : H a r r y N. A b r a m s , I n c . , 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 3 4 7 - 4 8 1 ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Age o f Humanism (Mew Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 5 ) . 2 . B a n i s t e r F . F l e t c h e r , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o : H i s L i f e and Works ( L o n d o n : George B e l l and S o n s , 1 9 0 2 ) , p. 5 . 3 . Fo r s t u d i e s on t h e l i f e and works o f A l b e r t i , see A n t h o n y B l u n t , A r t i s t i c T h e o r y i n I t a l y 1450 -1600 ( O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) ; F ranco B o r s i , Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i ( M i l a n o : E l e c t a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 5 ) ; Joan G a d o l , Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i : U n i v e r s a l Man o f t h e E a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) ; J o s e p h R y k w e r t ( e d . ) " L e o n i s B a p t i s t e A l b e r t i " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , V . 4 9 , n o . 5 and 6 , 1 9 7 9 ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 5 ) . 4 . Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i , L ' a r c h i t e t t u r a de r e a e d i f i c a t o r i a ( M i l a n o : E d i z i o n i i l P o l i f i l o , 1 9 6 6 ) . Fo r i n d e p t h d i s c u s s i o n on A l b e r t i ' s De r e - a e d i f i c a - t o r i a , see An thony B l u n t , A r t i s t i c T h e o r y i n I t a l y 1 4 5 0 - 1 6 0 0 ( O x f o r d T ^ ' The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 7 f f . ; J . Q u e n t i n Hughes and N o r b e r t L y n t o n , S i m p s o n ' s H i s t o r y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , Vo l . I V , R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i - t e c t u r e ( L o n d o n : W i l l i a m C lowes and S o n s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 3 8 f f . ; J o s e p h Rykwer t ( e d . ) , " L e o n i s B a p t i s t e A l b e r t i " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , V . 4 9 , n o . 5 and 6 , 1 9 7 9 , p p . 9 - 1 2 , 2 6 - 3 3 , and 4 5 f f . ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i - t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 3 f f . Two o t h e r i m p o r t a n t books by A l b e r t i a r e : D e l i a P i t t u r a ( 1 4 3 6 ) , w h i c h i n t r o d u c e d u n p r e c e d e n t e d f o r m u l a t i o n s o f a e s t h e t i c and s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e s i n p a i n t i n g ; and D e l i a F a m i g l i a ( 1 4 3 8 ) , w h i c h d i s c u s s e d e d u c a - t i o n , e t h i c s , and d o m e s t i c l i f e w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a new s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n f o r I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e c u l t u r e . Fo r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a - t i o n , see C e c i l G r a y s o n , " L e o n B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i : A r c h i t e c t " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , V . 4 9 , n o . 5 and 6 , 1 9 7 9 , pp . 8 and 9 ; and A d r i a n S t o k e s , A r t and S c i e n c e ( L o n d o n : Fabe r and F a b e r , 1 9 4 9 ) , pp . 1 4 - 1 7 . 5 . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 7 4 " " 6 . Marcus V i t r u v i u s , V i t r u v i u s on A r c h i t e c t u r e , t r a n s l a t e d i n two vo lumes by F rank G range r ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) . Fo r commen- t a r y on V i t r u v i u s ' b o o k , see F r a n c o i s e C h o a y , " A l b e r t i and V i t r u v i u s " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , V . 4 9 , no . 5 and 6 , 1 9 7 9 , p p . 2 6 - 3 5 ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 1 3 f f . 34. 7 . W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m . p. 6 4 . 8 . For s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h A l b e r t i and h i s Human i s t p h i l o s o p h y , s e e An thony B l u n t , A r t i s t i c Theo ry i n I t a l y 1 4 5 0 - 1 6 0 0 ( O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , pp . 7 - 2 2 ; A d r i a n S t o k e s , A r t and S c i e n c e ( L o n d o n : Fabe r and F a b e r , 1 9 4 9 ) , pp . 1 1 - 2 7 ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r i n - c i p l e s i n t h e Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , I n c . , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 3 3 - 5 6 . 9 . For t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f A l b e r t i ' s San F r a n c e s c o , S a n t a M a r i a N o v e l l a , San S e b a s t i a n o , and San A n d r e a , see F r a n c o B o r s i , Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i ( M i l a n o : E l e c t a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 5 ) , pp . 1 2 7 - 1 9 1 , 8 0 - 1 0 5 , 2 0 5 - 2 2 9 , and 2 2 9 - 2 7 5 , c o n s e - c u t i v e l y . O t h e r s t u d i e s wh i ch d e a l w i t h A l b e r t i ' s b u i l d i n g s i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s a r e : An thony B l u n t , A r t i s t i c T h e o r y i n I t a l y 1 4 5 0 - 1 6 0 0 ( O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) ; J o a n G a d o l , Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i : U n i v e r s a l Man o f t he E a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) ; J . Q u e n t i n Hughes and N o r b e r t L y n t o n , S i m p s o n ' s H i s t o r y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , V o l . I V , R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e ( L o n d o n : W i l l i a m C lowes and S o n s , 1 9 6 2 ; J o s e p h Rykwer t ( e d . ) , " L e o n i s B a p t i s t e A l b e r t i " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , V . 4 9 , n o . 5 and 6 , 1 9 7 9 ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 5 ) . 1 0 . G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 8 0 . 1 1 . Fo r more i n f o r m a t i o n on the Lombard i f a m i l y and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n b o t h s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e , see Deborah H o w a r d , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 1 2 - 1 1 4 ; and G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 8 0 - 8 3 and 9 3 6 ; and M. M u r a r o , V e n i c e and Her I s ! a n d s ( F l o r e n c e : A rnaud P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 4 4 2 . 1 2 . For f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e C h u r c h o f t h e M i r a c o l i , s e e Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 1 6 2 - 6 7 ; Deborah H o w a r d , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i c a - t i o n s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 1 3 - 1 1 4 ; R . E . L e i b e r m a n , The Chu rch o f S a n t a M a r i a d e i M i r a c o l i i n V e n i c e , u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , New Yo rk U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 and " V e n e t i a n Church A r c h i t e c t u r e a r o u n d 1 5 0 0 " , B o l l e t t i n g , , X I X , 1 9 7 7 , p p . 3 6 - 3 7 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 3 3 5 - 3 7 ; and M. M u r a r o , V e n i c e and Her I s l a n d s ( F l o r e n c e : A rnaud P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 2 9 0 . 1 3 . Fo r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on P a l a z z o D a r i o , s e e Deborah Howard , The A r c h i - t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 1 0 8 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 6 3 0 ; and M. M u r a r o , V e n i c e and Her I s l a n d s ( F l o r e n c e : A rnaud P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 4 1 . 3 5 . 1 4 . Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 108 and 1 1 3 . 1 5 . L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s L a g o o n , p p . 8 0 - 8 1 . 1 6 . Fo r more commentary on t h e S c u o l a Grande d i San M a r c o , see Deborah H o w a r d , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 9 6 f f . and The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , pp . 1 2 1 - 1 2 2 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i . L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 3 4 0 - 4 3 ; P . P a o l e t t i , La S c u o l a Grande d i San Marco ( V e n e z i a , 1 9 2 9 ) ; and A l v i s e Z o r z i , V e n e z i a S c o m p a r s a , 2 v o l s . ( M i l a n o : E l e c t a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 5 8 1 - 8 5 . 1 7 . L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s L a g o o n , p. 8 1 . 1 8 . For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on t h e C h u r c h o f San M i c h e l e , see L . A n g e l i n i , Le Opere i n V e n e z i a d i Mauro C o d u s s i ( M i l a n o , 1 9 4 5 ) ; Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i c a - t i o n s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , pp . 1 1 5 - 1 7 ; R T E . L i e b e r m a n , " V e n e t i a n C h u r c h A r c h i - t e c t u r e a r o u n d 1 5 0 0 " , B o l l e t t i n o , X I X , 1 9 7 7 , p p . 3 5 - 3 6 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 8 0 9 - 1 2 ; and M. M u r a r o , V e n i c e and Her I s l a n d s ( F l o r e n c e : A rnaud P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 3 7 3 - 4 4 . Fo r more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e Church o f San Z a c c a r i a , see Unlberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1976-) , p p . 3 9 0 - 4 0 5 ; R . E . L i e b e r m a n , " V e n e t i a n C h u r c h A r c h i t e c t u r e a r o u n d 1 5 0 0 " , B o l 1 e t - t i n o , X I X , 1 9 7 7 , pp . 3 7 - 3 8 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , pp . 2 9 3 - 9 7 ; and M. M u r a r o , V e n i c e and Her I s l a n d s ( F l o r e n c e : A rnaud P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 5 5 ) , p p . 2 5 1 - 5 5 . 1 9 . C a r r o l l M e e k s , I t a l i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e : 1750-1914 (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r - s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. XVI o f t h e P r e f a c e . 2 0 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 1 0 4 . 2 1 . L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s L a g o o n , p. 8 1 ; f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e Duca l P a l a c e , see Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 7 9 - 8 5 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 2 3 2 - 2 8 6 ; and E g l e T r i n c a n a t o , "II P a l a z z o D u c a l " , i n G. Samona, e t a l . , P i a z z a San M a r c o : L ' a r c h i t e t t u r a , l a s t o r i a , l e f u n z i o n i ( P a d u a : M a r s i l i o E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 0 ) , pp . 1 2 2 f f . 2 2 . F o r an a n a l y s i s o f t h e S c a l a d e i G i g a n t i , see Deborah Howard , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 3 2 - 3 3 ; and M. M u r a r o , " L a S c a l a s e n z a G i g a n t i " , i n M. M e i s s ( e d . ) , De a r t i b u s o p u s c u l a X L : E s s a y s i n Honor o f E r w i n Pa n o f s k y (New Y o r k : New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 ) , p p . 3 5 0 - 3 7 0 . 36. 2 3 . The c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e o f G i o v a n n i Cand i i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e S c a l a d e l B o v o l o ( c . 1499) ( s p i r a l s t a i r c a s e ) o f t h e P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i Dal B o v o l o . F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n and an i l l u s t r a t i o n , s e e G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 5 1 8 - 1 9 . Examp les o f G i o r g i o S p a v e n t o ' s c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e a r e t h e C h u r c h o f San Theodo re ( c . 1 4 9 5 ) ; t h e e l e g a n t b u i l d i n g i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t c o r n e r o f t h e c o u r t y a r d o f t h e Duca l P a l a c e e n c l o s i n g t h e s m a l l e r c o u r t y a r d o f t h e S e n a t o r s to t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e G i a n t ' s S t a i r c a s e ( c . 1500) ( F i g . 1 2 ) ; t h e p l a n and i n t e r i o r o f t h e C h u r c h o f San S a l v a d o r s t a r t e d i n c . 1505 and l a t e r c o m p l e t e d by J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o i n 1 5 3 4 ; and t h e Fondaco d e i T e d e s c h i ( 1 5 0 5 - 0 8 ) . For more i n f o r m a t i o n on bo th S p a v e n t o and h i s b u i l d - i n g s , s e e G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 9 3 7 ; and M. M u r a r o , V e n i c e and Her I s l a n d s ( F l o r e n c e : A rnaud P u b l i s h e r , 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 83 and 2 3 1 - 3 3 . S e b a s t i a n o M a r i a n i ' s ( c a l l e d da Lugano) b e s t e a r l y R e n a i s s a n c e d e s i g n was t h e f a c a d e o f t h e Chu rch o f t h e C a r m i n i ( c . 1 5 1 0 ) . Fo r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on bo th M a r i a n i and t he C a r m i n i , see Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 1 7 7 - 1 8 0 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 5 6 3 - 6 7 ; and M. M u r a r o , V e n i c e and Her I s l a n d s ( F l o r e n c e : A rnaud P u b l i s h e r , 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 3 4 6 - 7 7 . G i o v a n n i B u o r a ' s R e n a i s s a n c e d e s i g n s i n c l u d e t h e p l i n t h s , c o l u m n s , and c a p i t a l s o f t he t h r e e a i s l e s o f t h e Church o f San Z a c c a r i a ( 1 4 8 0 ) ; t h e d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e f a c a d e o f t h e S c u o l a d i San Marco (1487) i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h P i e t r o Lombardo t h e p r i n c i p l e a r c h i t e c t ; t h e D o r m i t o r i o o f t h e M o n a s t e r y o f t h e I s l a n d o f San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e ( c . 1 4 9 0 ] ; and t h e P a l a z z o M i c h i e l ( c . 1 5 1 0 ) . For more on B u o r a , see Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a , ' 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 372 and 3 9 8 ; and G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 8 9 5 . 2 4 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 1 1 0 . 2 5 . P a l l a d i o ' s f i r s t c o m m i s s i o n came i n 1538 a t age t h i r t y . I t was t h e V i l l a God i a t L o n e d o , t w e n t y k i l o m e t e r s n o r t h o f V i c e n z a . For a d i s c u s s i o n o f bo th P a l l a d i o and t he V i l l a G o d i , see James A c k e r m a n , Pa11 a d i o ( B a l t i m o r e : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 4 1 - 4 4 ; and L i o n e l l o P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New York G r a p h i c s S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) , pp . 4 1 - 4 3 and 2 3 8 - 2 4 0 . 2 6 . L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s L a g o o n , p. 8 1 . For a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f Mauro C o d u s s i and h i s a r c h i t e c t u r e , see L . P u p p i , Mauro C o d u s s i e 1 ' a r c h i t e t t u r a v e n e z i a n a d e l Pr imo R i n a s c i m e n t o ( M i l a n : E l e c t a , 1 9 7 7 ) . 2 7 . I b i d , p. 8 1 . 2 8 . J . Q u e n t i n Hughes and N o r b e r t L y n t o n , S i m p s o n ' s H i s t o r y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , Volume I V : R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e ( L o n d o n : W. C lowes and S o n s , L t d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp . 4 0 - 4 1 . I t c o u l d a l s o be s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e f a c a d e s o f San M i c h e l e i n I s o l a (1469) and San Z a c c a r i a (1480) were p e r h a p s i n - s p i r e d by t he r h y t h m i c c u r v a t i o n s o f t h e uppermost a r c h e s o f t h e B a s i l i c a o f San Marco ( 8 3 2 - C . 1 4 5 0 ) and t h e C h u r c h o f the C a r i t a ( c . 1 4 5 0 ) . I t i s 37. a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e f a c a d e o f San M i c h e l e , w i t h i t s m a j o r c r o w n i n g a r c h i m m e d i a t e l y f l a n k e d by two q u a r t e r c i r c l e s i d e - w i n g s , c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e d s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r d e s i g n s i n t h e l a t e - G o t h i c f a c a d e s o f t h e c h u r c h e s o f S a n t 1 A n d r e a d e l l a Z i r a d a and San G i o v a n n i i n B r a g o r a , b o t h c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1 4 7 5 . W i t h o u t d i s c u s s i o n , t h e f a c a d e o f t h e C h u r c h o f San F e l i c e (1531) was i n s p i r e d a l m o s t t o t a l l y by t h a t o f San M i c h e l e . Fo r f u r t h e r s t u d y and e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e above m e n t i o n e d b u i l d i n g s , see Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , pp . 4 0 1 , 3 9 0 - 4 0 5 , 2 9 0 - 3 1 0 , 2 1 6 - 2 2 3 , 8 9 - 9 0 , 4 9 1 - 9 3 , and 144 -45 c o n s e c u t i v e l y . 2 9 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 1 2 5 . Fo r more on C o d u s s i ' s d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t know ledge o f bo th A l b e r t i ' s b u i l d i n g s and h i s De r e a e d i f i c a t o r i a , see pages 116 and 243 f o o t n o t e 32 o f t h e above c i t e d book . 3 0 . I b i d . ? p . 124 . 3 1 . L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s L a g o o n , p . 6 4 1 . For f u r t h e r commentary on t h e P a l a z z o C o r n e r - S p i n e l 1 i , see E l e n a B a s s i , P a l a z z i d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : La S t a m p e r i a d i V e n e z i a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 3 8 6 - 3 9 5 ; and M. M u r a r o , V e n i c e and Her I s l a n d s ( F l o r e n c e : A rnaud P u b l i s h e r , 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 34 and 2 2 7 . Fo r d i s c u s s i o n s on t he P a l a z z o V e n d r a m i n - C a l g e r i , s e e E l e n a B a s s i , P a l a z z i d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : La S t a m p e r i a d i V e n e z i a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 1 9 6 - 2 0 3 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 6 5 5 ; and Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 2 2 - 2 4 . 3 2 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 123 3 3 . I b i d . , p. 1 2 4 . C o d u s s i may have a l s o d e r i v e d h i s f a v o r i t e window m o t i f o f t he t r i - l o b e d b i f o r a t e o p e n i n g s w i t h an o c u l u s above f rom A l b e r t i ' s P a l a z z o R u c e l l a i , w h i c h s u g g e s t s a s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r f o r m u l a t i o n ( F i g . 25). F o i f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f P a l a z z o R u c e l l a i , see F ranco B o r s i , Leon B a t t i s t a A l b e r t i ( M i l a n : E l e c t a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 5 ) , pp . 6 2 - 7 5 ; and Hube r t D a m i s c h , "The Column and t he W a l l " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e s i g n , V o l . 4 9 , No. 5 and 6 , 1 9 7 9 , pp . 1 8 - 2 5 . 3 4 . I b i d . , p. 116 . 3 5 . On t h e p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n o f V e n i c e d u r i n g t he Cambra i y e a r s , see F. G i l b e r t , " V e n i c e i n t h e C r i s i s o f t h e League o f C a m b r a i " , i n J . R . H a l e ( e d . ) , R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e ( L o n d o n : Faber and F a b e r , 1 9 7 3 ) , p p . 2 7 4 - 2 9 2 . 3 6 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 1 2 8 . Fo r more d i s c u s s i o n on t h e p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , and s o c i a l v i c i s s i t u d e s o f t h e Cambra i y e a r s i n V e n i c e , see pages 127 -135 o f t h e above c i t e d book . 3 7 . I b i d . , p . 1 3 1 . Fo r f u r t h e r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t he Church o f San S a l v a d o r , see Umberto F r a n z o i , La C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 3 5 3 - 5 9 ; and G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 3 9 4 - 9 7 . 3 8 . 3 8 . I b i d . „ p . 1 3 6 . F o r more d i s c u s s i o n on F ra G i o v a n n i G i o c o n d o and h i s e d i t i o n o f V i t r u v i u s De A r c h i t e c t u r a , see R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i - t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s d u r i n g t h e Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 13 and 1 5 . 3 9 . Hughes and L y n t o n , S i m p s o n ' s H i s t o r y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , Volume I V : R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e , p . 4 0 . 4 0 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 1 3 6 . 4 1 . I b i d . , p. 1 2 9 , F o r f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s c o n c e r n i n g b o t h B a r t o l o m e o Bon and h i s P r o c u r a t i e V e c c h i e , see G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 1 4 0 ; and E . V i o , " L e P r o - c u r a t i e V e c c h i e " , i n G . Samona, e t a l . , P i a z z a San Marco ( P a d u a , 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 1 4 2 - 1 4 9 . 4 2 . I b i d . , p. 1 3 1 . For more i n f o r m a t i o n on F a b b r i c h e V e c c h i e d i R i a l t o and t h e g e n e r a l e v o l u t i o n o f t h e R i a l t o , see A . A l b e r t i and R. C e s s i , R i a l t o , l ' i s o l a - i l pon te - i l m e r c a t o ( B o l o g n a , 1 9 3 4 ) ; Deborah H o w a r d , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 5 0 - 5 2 ; and G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 4 6 9 - 7 0 . 4 3 . L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s L a g o o n , p. 6 0 4 . 4 4 . I b i d . , p. 6 0 4 . Fo r more d i s c u s s i o n on B a r t o l o m e o Bon and A n t o n i o S c a r - pagn ino and t h e S c u o l a Grande d i San R o c c o , see Umberto F r a n z o i , L e C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , pp . 4 8 - 5 0 ; Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 3 3 - 1 3 5 ; and M. M u r a r o , V e n i c e and Her I s l a n d s ( F l o r e n c e : A rnaud P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 3 2 5 - 2 8 . 4 5 . Deborah Howard , Jacopo S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s - s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 1 0 1 . 4 6 . Fo r a c c o u n t s o f t he s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic a t m o s p h e r e o f V e n i c e i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , s e e D . S . Chambers , The I m p e r i a l Age o f V e n i c e 1 3 8 0 - 1 5 8 0 ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 7 0 ) ; J . R . H a l e ( e d . ) , R e n a i s - s a n c e V e n i c e ( L o n d o n : Faber and F a b e r , 1 9 7 0 ) ; G . L u z z a t o , S t o r i a e c o n o - m i c a d i V e n e z i a d a ! ' X I a l XVI s e c o l o ( V e n i c e , 1 9 6 1 ) ; and B. P u l l a n ( e d . ) , C r i s i s and Change i n t h e V e n e t i a n Economy i n t h e S i x t e e n t h and S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 8 ) . 4 7 . Howard , Jacopo S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , p . 2 . On t h e V e n e t i a n d e s i r e t o e m u l a t e a n c i e n t Rome, see D . S . C h a m b e r s , The I m p e r i a l Age o f V e n i c e 1380 -1580 ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 1 2 - 3 2 . 4 8 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 1 3 7 . 3 9 . 4 9 . L ' a r c h i t e t t u r a e t p r o s p e t i v a d i S e b a s t i a n o S e r l i o B o l o g n e s e , came i n p a r t s b e c a u s e o f t h e l a r g e s i z e o f t h e w o r k . I t was o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n i n v e r - n a c u l a r l a n g u a g e ( r a t h e r t h a n L a t i n ) and i n c o r p o r a t e s e x t e n s i v e i l l u s t r a - t i o n s . The work d i d no t o r i g i n a l l y appea r i n i t s p r e s e n t o r d e r : Book I V , "On t h e O r d e r s " i n V e n i c e i n 1 5 3 7 ; Book I I I , "On A n t i q u i t y " i n V e n i c e i n 1540 ; Books I and I I , "On Geomet ry and P e r s p e c t i v e " i n P a r i s i n 1 5 4 5 ; Book V , "On C h u r c h A r c h i t e c t u r e " i n P a r i s i n 1547 . The f i v e books were f i r s t p u b l i s h e d t o g e t h e r i n 1584 i n V e n i c e under t h e t i t l e T u t t e 1 ' o p e r e d ' a r c h i t e t t u r a e t p r o s p e t t i v a . The o r i g i n a l m a n u s c r i p t o f Book VI i s i n t h e Mun i ch L i b r a r y and was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n f a c s i m i l e by Marco R o s c i ( M i l a n , 1 9 6 7 ) . Book V I I , "On D o o r w a y s " , was p u b l i s h e d p o s t h u m o u s l y i n 1 5 7 5 ; Book V I I I , "On M i l i t a r y A r c h i t e c t u r e " , was n e v e r p u b l i s h e d and i s now l a r g e l y l o s t . The f i v e books w h i c h were p u b l i s h e d i n V e n i c e i n 1584 were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o many l a n g u a g e s . In 1 6 0 6 , Den E e r s t e V i j f s t e n boeck van a r c h i t e c t u r e S e b a s t i a n i S e r l i j was p u b l i s h e d i n Amsterdam i n a t r a n s l a t i o n by P i e t e r Coecke van A e l s ' t . The Du tch v e r s i o n was i n t u r n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h f o r t h e e d i t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n 1 6 1 1 , p r i n t e d by S imon S t a f f o r d f o r R o b e r t P e a k e , a p r i n t s e l l e r and S e r j e a n t P a i n t e r t o James I. T h i s 1611 E n g l i s h e d i t i o n has r e c e n t l y been r e p r o d u c e d : S e b a s t i a n o S e r l i o , The F i v e Books o f A r c h i t e c t u r e (New Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 8 2 ) . F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on b o t h S e r l i o and h i s w o r k , see G . C . A r g o n , " S e b a s t i a n o S e r l i o " . L ' A r t e , XXXV , 1 9 3 2 , p p . 1 8 3 - 9 9 ; W . B . D i n s m o o r , "The L i t e r a r y Remains o t b e b a s t i a n S e r l i o " , X X I V , 1 9 4 2 , p p . 55 -91 and 1 1 5 - 5 4 ; Deborah Howard , " S e b a s t i a n S e r l i o ' s V e n e t i a n C o p y r i g h t s " , B u r l i n g t o n M a g a z i n e , CXV, 1 9 7 3 , p p . 512 -16 and The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 3 7 - 3 8 ; J . Q u e n t i n Hughes and N o r b e r t L y n t o n , S i m p s o n ' s H i s t o r y .o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , Volume I V : R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e ( L o n d o n : W. C lowes and S o n s , L t d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 1 2 3 - 2 4 ; and M . N . R o s e n f e l d , S e b a s t i a n o S e r l i o on D o m e s t i c A r c h i t e c t u r e ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : M . I . T . P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) . 50 . Howard , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , p . 3 . 5 1 . Hughes and L y n t o n , S i m p s o n ' s H i s t o r y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , Volume I V : R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e , p. 124 . 5 2 . James A c k e r m a n , P a l l a d i o ( B a l t i m o r e : P e n q u i n B o o k s , L t d . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 2 5 . 5 3 . P e t e r L a u r i t z e n , V e n i c e : A Thousand Y e a r s o f C u l t u r e and C i v i l i z a t i o n ( L o n d o n : W i e d e n f e l d and N i c o l s o n , I n c . , 1 9 7 8 ) , p. 1 3 5 . 5 4 . F o r examp les o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e S e r l i a n a i n s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y V e n e t i a n p a l a c e d e s i g n , see E l e n a B a s s i , P a l a z z i d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : La S t a m p e r i a d i V e n e z i a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 145 ( P a l a z z o C o c c i n a - T i e p o l o ) , p. 146 ( P a l a z z o G r i m a n i ) , p. 246 ( P a l a z z o C a p e l l o ) , p. 250 ( P a l a z z o T e r z i ) , p. 258 ( P a l a z z o C o n t a r i n i ) , p. 325 ( P a l a z z o A l b r i z z i ) , p. 330 ( P a l a z z o M o c e n i g o ) , p . 334 ( P a l a z z o C o r n a r o - M o c e n i g o ) , p. 354 ( P a l a z z o B a s o d o n n a ) , p. 414 ( P a l a z z o F o s c a r i n i ) , and p. 500 ( P a l a z z o Donado ) . 40. 5 5 . Howard , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , p. 4 . On S a n m i c h e l i i n t h e V e n e t o , see E l e n a B a s s i , P a l a z z i d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : La S t a m p e r i a d i V e n e z i a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 5 9 2 ; G. F i o c c a , e t a l . , M i c h e l e S a n m i c h e l i 1 4 8 4 - 1 5 5 9 : S t u d i r a c c o l t i d a l l ' - Accademia d i A g r i c o l t u r a , S c i e n z a e L e t t e r e d i Ve rona ( V e r o n a , 1 9 6 0 ) ; J . Q u e n t i n Hughes and N o r b e r t L y n t o n , S i m p s o n ' s H i s t o r y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , Volume I V : R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e (Londo~n~: W. C lowes and S o n s , L t d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 1 3 1 f f . ; E r i c L a n g e n s k i o l d , M i c h e l e S a n m i c h e l i : The A r c h i t e c t o f Ve rona ( U p p s a l a / 1 9 3 8 ) ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 9 3 3 ; L . P u p p i , M i c h e l e S a n m i c h e l i : a r c h i t e t t o d i Ve rona ( P a d u a , 1 9 7 1 ) ; and G i o r g i o V a s a r i , Le v i t e d e ' p i u e c c e l l e n t i a r c h i t e t t i , p i t t o r i , e t s c u l t o r i i t a l i - a n i , e d . G. M i l a n e s i , 9 vo lumes ( M i l a n , 1 8 7 8 - 1 8 8 5 ) . 5 6 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 1 4 1 . 5 7 . I b i d . , p. 1 4 4 . 5 8 . G i o r g i o V a s a r i , Le v i t e d e ' p i u e c c e l l e n t i a r c h i t e t t i , p i t t o r i , e t s c u l t o r i i t a l i a n i , e d . G. M i l a n e s i , 9 v o l s . ( M i l a n , 1 8 7 8 - 1 8 8 5 ) , v o l . 6 , p. 3 4 8 . 5 9 . Hughes and L y n t o n , S i m p s o n ' s H i s t o r y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , Volume I V : R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e , p p . 1 3 4 - 3 8 . 6 0 . L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s L a g o o n , p. 5 8 3 . For more d i s c u s s i o n o f S a n m i c h - e l i and h i s P a l a z z o C o r n e r - M o c e n i g o , see E l e n a B a s s i , P a l a z z i d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : La S t a m p e r i a d i V e n e z i a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 3 3 4 - 3 7 . 6 1 . I b i d . , p. 6 4 0 . Fo r more d i s c u s s i o n on S a n m i c h e l i and h i s P a l a z z o G r i m a n i , see E l e n a B a s s i , P a l a z z i d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : La S t a m p e r i a d i V e n e z i a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 1 4 6 - 1 5 3 . 6 2 . M i c h e l a n g e l o M u r a r o , V e n i c e and Her I s l a n d s ( F l o r e n c e : A rnaud P u b l i s h e r , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 3 4 . 6 3 . Hughes and L y n t o n , S i m p s o n ' s H i s t o r y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , Volume I V : R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e , p. 1 2 9 . On S a n s o v i n o i n V e n i c e , see R. G a l l o , " C o n t r i b u t i s u Jacopo S a n s o v i n o " , Sagg i e Memor ie d i S t o r i a d e l l ' - A r t e , I, 1 9 5 7 , pp . 8 5 - 1 0 5 ; Deborah Howard , Jacopo S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , pp . 1 3 8 - 1 5 9 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , " I t i n e r a r i o S a n s o v i n i a n o a V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a , 1 9 2 9 ) ; W. L o t z , "The Roman Legacy i n S a n s o v i n o ' s V e n e - t i a n B u i l d i n g s " , J o u r n a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , X X I I , 1 9 6 3 , pp . 3 - 1 2 ; G. M a r i a c h e r , II S a n s o v i n o ( M i l a n o , 1 9 6 2 ) ; and M. T a f u r i , Jacopo S a n s o v i n o e 1 ' a r c h i t e t t u r a d e ' 5 0 0 a V e n e z i a ( P a d u a : M a s i l i o E d i t o r i , 1 9 6 9 . 6 4 . L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s L a g o o n , p. 1 1 0 . 6 5 . I b i d . , p. 110 . 41. 6 6 . Howard , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , p. 1 4 . 6 7 . F o r g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n on P i a z z a San Marco and S a n s o v i n o ' s i m p a c t on i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e , see Deborah Howard , Jacopo S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n ; Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 8 - 1 6 and The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 4 4 - 1 5 2 ; and W. L o t z , " L a t r a n s f o r m a z i o n e S a n s o v i n i a n a d i P i a z z a San Marco e 1 ' u r b a n i s t i c a d e l c i n q u e c e n t o " , B o l l e t t i n o , V I I I , p a r t 2 , 1 9 6 6 , p p . 1 1 4 - 1 2 2 . For more d i s c u s s i o n on t h e Z e c c a s p e c i f i c a l l y , see Deborah Howard , Jacopo S a n s o - v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 38 -47 and The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 4 4 - 4 5 j and G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 1 5 6 - 5 8 . Fo r more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e S a n s o v i n o L i b r a r y , see N. I v a n o f f , "I c i c l i a l l e g o r i c i d e l l a L i b r e r i a e d e l P a l a z z o D u c a l e d i V e n e z i a " , i n V . B r a n c a ( e d . ) , R i n a s c i m e n t o Eu ropeo e R i n a s c i - mento V e n e z i a n o ( F l o r e n c e , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 281-297 and "II c i c l o a l l e g o r i c o d e l l a L i b r e r i a S a n s o v i n i a n i , A r t e A n t i c a e M o d e r n a , X I 1 1 - X V I , 1 9 6 1 , p p . 248 -258 and "II c i c l o d e i f i l o s o f i d e l l a L i b r e r i a M a r c i a n a a V e n e z i a " , Empor ium, C X L , n o . 2 , 1 9 6 4 , p p . 2 0 7 - 1 0 and "II co ronamen to s t a t u a r i o d e l l a M a r c i a n a " , A t e n e o V e n e t o , N . S . I I , n o . 1 , 1964 , p p . 100 -112 and " L a L i - b r e r i a M a r c i a n a : a r t e e i c o n o l o g i a " , S a g g i e Memor ia d i S t o r i a d e l l ' A r t e , V I , 1 9 6 8 , p p . 3 3 - 7 8 ; Deborah H o w a r d , Jacopo S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 17 -28 and The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 4 6 - 1 5 2 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , " L a L i - b r e r i a S a n s o v i n i a n a d i V e n e z i a " , A c c a d e m i e e B i b l i o t e c h e d ' I t a l i a , I I , f a s c . 6 , 1 9 2 8 - 2 9 , p p . 7 3 - 9 8 and V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 1 5 0 - 5 6 . For more i n f o r m a t i o n on S a n s o v i n o ' s L o g g e t t a , see Deborah Howard , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n - age i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 28 -37 and The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , pp . 1 5 2 - 5 3 ; and G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , " L a L o g g e t t a a l C a m p a n i l e d i San M a r c o " , L ' a r t e , X I I I , 1 9 1 0 , p p . 108 -133 and V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 1 4 8 - 1 5 0 . 6 8 . F r a n c e s c o S a n s o v i n o , V e n e t i a c i t t a n o b i l i s s i m a e t s i n g o l a r e , e d . G i u s t i n - i a n o M a r t i n i o n i ( V e n e z i a , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 3 8 7 . F r a n c e s c o S a n s o v i n o w r o t e two i m p o r t a n t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f V e n i c e . The e a r l i e r one i s i n t h e fo rm o f a d i a l o g u e between a V e n e t i a n and a s t r a n g e r , t he p r i n c i p a l e d i t i o n s b e i n g A . G u i s c o n i (=F. S a n s o v i n o ) , T u t t e l e c o s e n o t a b i l i e b e l l e che sono i n V e n e t i a ( V e n e z i a , 1 5 5 6 ) ; F. S a n s o v i n o , D e l l a c o s e n o t a b i l i che sono i n V e n e t i a ( V e n e z i a , 1561) and D e l l e c o s e n o t a b i l i d e l l a c i t t a d i V e n e t i a ( V e n e z i a , 1 5 8 3 ) . The s e c o n d , a c o n s i d e r a b l y more s u b s t a n t i a l w o r k , i s h i s famous g u i d e b o o k F. S a n s o v i n o , V e n e t i a c i t t a n o b i l i s s i m a e t s i n g o l a r e ( V e n e z i a , 1 5 8 1 ) . A new e d i t i o n w i t h c o r r e c t i o n s and a d d i t i o n s was p u b - l i s h e d by G i o v a n n i S t r i n g a i n 1 6 0 4 . G i u s t i n i a n o M a r t i n i o n i p r o d u c e d a second r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d e d i t i o n i n 1 6 6 3 , though r e t a i n i n g t h e o r i g i n a l 42. t e x t i n t a c t . The M a r t i n i o n i e d i t i o n has r e c e n t l y been r e i s s u e d i n a modern f a c s i m i l e ( V e n e z i a , 1 9 6 8 ) . The above i n f o r m a t i o n was t a k e n f r om Deborah Howard , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s - s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 1 8 7 . 6 9 . Fo r an a n a l y s i s o f P a l a z z o D o l f i n , see E l e n a B a s s i , P a l a z z i d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : La S t a m p e r i a d i V e n e z i a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 1 5 4 - 1 6 1 ; and Deborah H o w a r d , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s - s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 126-132 and The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 5 4 - 5 5 . Fo r d i s c u s s i o n s on P a l a z z o C o r n e r , see E l e n a B a s s i , P a l a z z i d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : La S t a m p e r i a d i V e n e z i a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 8 8 - 9 3 ; Deborah H o w a r d , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 132 -156 and The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 5 4 - 5 7 ; and G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 6 3 1 . 7 0 . Howard , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , p. 126 . 7 1 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 1 6 3 . 7 2 . On San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a , s e e Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 4 5 3 - 4 6 0 ; Deborah Howard , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r - s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 64 -74 and The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 5 7 - 5 9 ; and G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 3 7 7 - 3 8 1 . On San M a r t i n o , s e e Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 4 9 6 - 9 7 ; Deborah Howard , Jacopo S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r - s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 6 3 - 8 1 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 3 2 0 . On San S p i r i t o i n I s o l a , see Deborah Howard , Jacopo S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e - n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 7 6 - 7 7 ; and A l v i s e Z o r z i , V e n e z i a Scomparsa ( M i l a n o : E l e c t a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 4 1 1 - 1 2 . On San G e m i n i a n o , see Umber to F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 3 1 4 - 1 6 ; and Deborah Howard , Jacopo S a n s o - v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 8 1 - 8 4 and The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 2 1 5 - 1 6 . On t h e C h u r c h o f t h e I n c u r a b i l i , see Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 2 2 6 - 2 9 ; and Deborah H o w a r d , J a c o p o S a n s o - v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 8 8 - 9 4 and The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 5 8 - 5 9 . On San G i u l i a n o , see Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 3 6 3 - 6 5 ; Deborah H o w a r d , Jacopo S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , pp . 8 4 - 8 7 ; and G i u l i o L o r e z e n t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i - z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 3 6 8 - 6 9 . 4 3 . 7 3 . Howard , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , pp . 9 4 - 9 5 . 7 4 . Fo r more on B r u n e i l e s c h i , B r a m a n t e , and M i c h e l a n g e l o , see An thony B l u n t , A r t i s t i c T h e o r y i n I t a l y 1 4 5 0 - 1 6 0 0 ( O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) ; L . H e y d e n r e i c h and W. L o t z , A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y 1400 -1600 (Harmonds- w o r t h : P e l i c a n Books L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) ; J . Q u e n t i n Hughes , " A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e i n I t a l y " , i n S i m p s o n ' s H i s t o r y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l D e v e l o p - men t , Volume I V , R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e ( L o n d o n : W i l l i a m C lowes and S o n s , L t d . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 3 - 2 0 5 ; W y l i e S y p h e r , Four S t a g e s o f R e n a i s s a n c e S t y l e (Garden C i t y : D o u b l e d a y , L t d . , 1 9 5 5 ) ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 5 ) . 7 5 . A c k e r m a n , P a l l a d i o , p. 1 2 8 . 7 6 . Howard B u r n s , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o 1 5 0 8 - 1 5 8 0 ( L o n d o n : The A r t s C o u n c i l o f G r e a t B r i t a i n , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 1 3 5 . Fo r t h r e e i n f o r m a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e d e s i g n o f P a l l a d i o ' s i n t e r s e c t i n g t e m p l e f r o n t c h u r c h f a c a d e s , see S t a a l e S i n d i n g - L a r s e n , " P a l l a d i o ' s R e d e n t o r e , a Compromise i n C o m p o s i t i o n " , The A r t B u l l e t i n , X L V I I , 1 9 6 5 , p p . 4 1 9 - 3 7 ; H. L u n d , "The f a c a d e o f S . G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e " , A r c h i t e c t u r a l R e v i e w , 1 3 3 , 1 9 6 3 , p p . 2 8 3 f f . ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 8 9 - 9 7 . 7 7 . F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p a l a c e and p u b l i c b u i l d i n g d e s i g n s by P a l l a d i o , see James A c k e r m a n , Pa11 a d i o ( B a l t i m o r e : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1 9 6 6 ) ; O t t a v i o B e r t o t t i - S c a m o z z i , Le F a b b r i c h e e i D i s e g n i d i And rea P a l l a d i o , ( e d . ) J . Q u e n t i n Hughes ( V e n e z i a : E d i z i o n i d ' A r t e A l f i e r i , 1 9 6 8 ) ; Howard B u r n s , Andrea P a l l a d i o 1508 -1580 ( L o n d o n : G r a p h i c s P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) ; B a n i s t e r F l e t c h e r , Andrea P a l l a d i o : H i s L i f e and Works ( L o n d o n : George B e l l and S o n s , 1 9 0 2 H N i c o l a I v a n o f f , P a l l a d i o ( M i l a n o : E d i z i o n i pe r i l C l u b d e l L i b r e , 1 9 6 7 ) ; L i o n e l l o P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1965) and P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) . 7 8 . Fo r more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e v i l l a s o f P a l l a d i o , see James A c k e r m a n , P a l l a d i o ( B a l t i m o r e : P e n g u i n B o o k s , L t d . , 1966) and P a l l a d i o ' s V i l l a s (New Y o r k : New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) ; L i l i a n a B a l z a r e t t i , V i l 1 e V e n e t e ( M i l a n o : T a m b u r i n i E d i t o r e , 1 9 6 5 ) ; O t t a v i o B e r t o t t i - S c a m o z z i , Le F a b b r i c h e e i D i s e g n i d i A n d r e a P a l l a d i o , ( e d . ) J . Q u e n t i n Hughes ( V e n e z i a : E d i z i o n i d A r t e A l f i e r i , 1 9 6 8 ; Howard B u r n s , And rea P a l l a d i o 1508 -1580 ( L o n d o n : G r a p h i c s P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) ; B a n i s t e r F l e t c h e r , And rea P a l l a d i o : H i s L i f e and Works ( L o n d o n : George B e l l and S o n s , 1 9 0 2 ) ; N i c o l a I v a n o f f , P a l l a d i o ( M i l a n o : E d i z i o n i per i l C l u b d e l L i b r e , 1 9 6 7 ) ; G . K . L u k o m s k i , L ' O e u v r e D ' A n d r e a P a l l a d i o : Les V i l l a s des Doges de V e n i s e ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s A b l e r t M o r a n e e , 19 ? ) ; G i u s e p p e M a z z o t t i , P a l l a d i a n and O t h e r V e n e t i a n V i l l a s ( L o n d o n : T i r a n t i , I n c . , 1 9 5 8 ) ; L i o n e l l o P u p p i , 44. A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New Y o r k G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1965) and P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a c T i a n i s m ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) . 7 9 . A c k e r m a n , P a l l a d i o , p. 2 7 . 8 0 . I b i d . , p. 2 7 . 8 1 . A l a s t a i r S m a r t , e d . , A p o l l o o f t h e A r t s : L o r d B u r l i n g t o n and H i s C i r c l e ( N o t t i n g h a m : N o t t i n g h a m U n i v e r s i t y A r t G a l l e r y , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 2 8 . 8 2 . Fo r more d i s c u s s i o n on P a l l a d i o ' s Q u a t t r o L i b r i , see James A c k e r m a n , P a l l a d i o ( B a l t i m o r e : P e n g u i n B o o k s , L t d . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 1 9 3 ; L i o n e l l o P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 4 4 1 - 4 2 ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 171 and P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m (London: Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p p . 7 3 - 9 2 and 2 2 3 . 8 3 . On t h e S c a l a d ' O r o p r o j e c t , see Howard B u r n s , And rea P a l l a d i o 1508 -1580 ( L o n d o n : The A r t s C o u n c i l o f B r i t a i n , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 1 1 3 ; G . B . L o r e n z i , Monument i pe r s e r v i r e a l i a s t o r i a d e l P a l a z z o D u c a l e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : 1 8 6 8 ) , p p . 2 8 7 - 8 8 ; and G . G . Z o r z i , Le o p e r e p u b b l i c h e e i p a l a z z i p r i v a t i d i And rea P a l l a d i o ( V e n e z i a : N e r i P o z z a , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 1 3 7 . ~ 8 4 . On P a l l a d i o ' s R i a l t o B r i d g e d e s i g n s , see Howard B u r n s , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o 1508-1580 ( L o n d o n : The A r t s C o u n c i l o f B r i t a i n , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 1 2 4 f f . ; and L i o n e l l o P u p p i , And rea P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 2 8 8 - 3 0 2 . 8 5 . L i o n e l l o P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New Y o r k G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1975), p.3 8 6 . For more on the q u e s t i o n o f S m e r a l d i ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t he d e s i g n o f t h e f a c a d e o f San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o , see James A c k e r m a n , Pa l 1 a d i o ( B a l t i m o r e : P e n g u i n Books L t d . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 1 4 5 ; Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 5 2 8 - 2 9 ; R o b e r t o P a n e , Andrea P a l l a d i o TTur in, 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 2 8 9 ; L i o n e l l o P u p p i , And rea P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 3 2 1 ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t h e Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 8 9 . 8 7 . On P a l l a d i o ' s d e s i g n f o r t h e m o n a s t e r y o f San ta M a r i a d e l l a C a r i t a , see E l e n a B a s s i , The Conven to d e l l a C a r i t a , t r a n s l a t i o n by C.W. W e s t f a l l ( U n i v e r s i t y P a r k : P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) . 8 8 . P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o , p . 335. 8 9 . B u r n s , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o 1 5 0 8 - 1 5 8 0 , p. 116 . 4 5 . 9 0 . W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a H a d i a n i s m , p. 2 0 . 9 1 . P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o , p. 3 6 2 . 9 2 . A n d r e a P a l l a d i o , The F o u r Books o f A r c h i t e c t u r e (New Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n d . , 1 9 6 5 ) , Book F o u r , C h a p t e r Two, p. 8 1 . 9 3 . I b i d . , Book F o u r , C h a p t e r Two, p . 81. 9 4 . P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o , p. 3 6 2 . F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e b u i l d i n g o f San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e as i t r e l a t e d t o l i t u r g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , see C . A . I s e r m e y e r , " L e c h i e s e d e l P a l l a d i o i n r a p p o r t o a l c u l t o " , B o l l e t t i n o , V o l . 1 0 , 1 9 6 8 , pp . 4 2 - 5 8 . 9 5 . L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s L a g o o n , p. 7 9 4 . 9 6 . A c k e r m a n , P a l l a d i o , p. 128 . 9 7 . P a l l a d i o , The F o u r Books o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , Book F o u r , C h a p t e r Two, p. 8 2 . 9 8 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 166 . 9 9 . V a s a r i , Le v i t e d e ' p i u e c c e l l e n t i a r c h i t e t t i , p i t t o r i , e t s c u l t o r i i t a l i a n i , v o l . V I I , 1 8 8 1 , pp . 5 2 7 - 3 1 . 1 0 0 . B u r n s , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o 1 5 0 8 - 1 5 8 0 , p. 116 . 1 0 1 . P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o , p. 4 3 1 . 102 . I b i d . , p. 3 6 2 . 1 0 3 . I b i d . , p. 3 6 2 . 104 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 169 . 105 . P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o , p. 4 4 2 . 106 . P a l l a d i o , The F o u r Books o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , Book F o u r , C h a p t e r Two, p . 8 1 . 107 . B u r n s , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o 1 5 0 8 - 1 5 8 0 , p. 135 . 1 0 8 . A l i f e o f D a n i e l e B a r b a r o has no t y e t been w r i t t e n . F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on h i s w o r k , h i s f a m i l y , and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h P a l l a d i o , see James A c k e r m a n , P a l 1 a d i o (Ha rmondswor th : P e n g u i n B o o k s , L t d . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 192 f o r a l i s t o f i n d e x e n t r i e s ; G i o v a n n i P o l e n i , E x e r c i t a t i o n e s V i t r u v i a n a e ( P a d u a , 1 7 3 9 ) , pp . 7 3 - 8 2 ; M. T a f u r i , L ' a r c h i t e t t u r a d e l M a n i e r i s m o n e l C i n q u e c e n t o eu ropeo (Rome, 1 9 6 6 ) , pp . 2 0 0 - 2 0 1 ; R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r c h i - t e c t u r a l P r i n c i p l e s i n t he Age o f Humanism (New Y o r k : Random H o u s e , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 167 f o r a l i s t o f i n d e x e n t r i e s . 4 6 . 1 0 9 . B a n i s t e r F l e t c h e r , Andrea P a l l a d i o : H i s L i f e and Works ( L o n d o n : George B e l l and S o n s , 1 9 0 2 ) , p. 8 7 . .110. I b i d . , p. 8 7 . 1 1 1 . P a l l a d i o , The Four Books o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , Book F o u r , C h a p t e r Two, p p . 8 1 - 8 2 . 1 1 2 . C a r r o l l M e e k s , I t a l i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e 1750-1914 (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r - s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 1 7 0 . 1 1 3 . F l e t c h e r , And rea P a l l a d i o : H i s L i f e and W o r k s , p. 8 7 . 114 . F r e e - s t a n d i n g t e m p l e f r o n t s were commonplace on P a l l a d i o ' s v i l l a s , f o r e x a m p l e s , see L i o n e l l o P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 104 ( V i l l a C o r n a r o , 1 5 5 3 ) , p. 108 ( V i l l a C h i e r i c a t i , 1 5 5 4 ) , p. 118 ( V i l l a B a d o e r , 1 5 5 6 ) , p. 128 ( V i l l a F o s c a r i , 1 5 5 9 ) , and p. 188 ( V i l l a R o t o n d a , 1 5 6 6 ) . For a n o t h e r i n f o r m a t i v e s t u d y o f P a l l a d i o ' s V i l l a s , see James A c k e r m a n , P a l l a d i o ' s V i l l a s (New Y o r k : New Yo rk U n i v e r - s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) . See a l s o n o t e 7 8 . 1 1 5 . As i s e v i d e n c e by a d r a w i n g h e l d i n A r c h i v i o d i S t a t o i n V e n i c e , w h i c h i s a l s o p u b l i s h e d i n W. T i m o f i e w i t s c h , " E i n e Z e i c h n u n g And rea P a l l a d i o f u r d i e K l o s t e r a n l a g e S . G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e " , A r t e V e n e t a , X V I , 1 9 6 2 , p p . 1 6 0 f f . , P a l l a d i o had a t one s t a g e c o n s i d e r e d a f r e e - s t a n d i n g p o r t i c o f o r t h e f a c a d e o f San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e . W i t t k o w e r d a t e s t h i s d r a w i n g " . . . between 1577 and 1 5 7 9 , d e m o n s t r a t [ i n g ] t h a t P a l l a d i o was o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e f a c a d e o f S . G i o r g i o r i g h t up to t h e t i m e o f h i s d e a t h See R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 207 N o t e s 5 and 6 . 116 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 1 6 6 . 117 . P a l l a d i o , The Four Books o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , Book F o u r , C h a p t e r s Four and F i v e , pp . 81 and 8 5 . 118 . As i s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n a s e r i e s o f d r a w i n g s p r e s e r v e d i n t h e Roya l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s ' B u r l i n g t o n - D e v o n s h i r e C o l l e c t i o n ( V o l . X I V , Mos . 1 2 , 1 3 , and 1 4 ) , P a l l a d i o was w o r k i n g on a c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n w i t h a h e x a - - gona l p o r t i c o o f C o r i n t h i a n co lumns r a i s e d on a f l i g h t o f s t e p s f o r San N i c o l o d e i T o l e n t i n i . T h i s p r o j e c t can be d a t e d a t 1 5 7 9 , one y e a r b e f o r e h i s d e s i g n f o r t h e T e m p i e t t o a t Maser and d u r i n g t h e t i m e t h a t he was o c c u p i e d w i t h a d e s i g n f o r a f r e e - s t a n d i n g t emp le f r o n t f o r San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e ( see no te 1 1 5 ) . 1 1 9 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 1 8 2 . 120.. P a l l a d i o , The Four Books o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , P . V o f t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n by A d o l f K. P l a c z e k . 1 2 1 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 1 7 3 . 47. 1 2 2 . P a l l a d i o , The Four Books o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , P . V o f t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n by A d o l f K. P l a c z e k . 1 2 3 . W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h . P a l l a d i a n i s m , p. 18 . 124 . I b i d . , p . 1 3 . S a n t a M a r i a C e l e s t e : P l a n - 1581 I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r P a l l a d i o ' s d e a t h i n 1 5 8 0 , P a l l a d i a n i s m i n V e n e t i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n began t o e v o l v e i n t o a l i v i n g t r a d i t i o n w h i c h embraced e v e r y decade f o r t h e n e x t hund red and s e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . As Howard s t a t e s , . . . P a l l a d i o ' s a r t i s t i c l e g a c y i n V e n i c e c o u l d no t be i g n o r e d . W i t h i n a g e n e r a t i o n h i s i m p r e s s i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e c i t y had i t s e l f become a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e V e n e t i a n h e r i t a g e . . . . He showed t h a t m a j e s t i c e f f e c t s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t e x p e n s i v e m a t e r i a l s , c h r o m a t i c r i c h n e s s o r e l a b o r a t e d e c o r a t i o n , w h i c h wou ld o n l y have o b s c u r e d t h e u n i t y and c o h e r e n c e o f h i s m a s t e r f u l c o n c e p t i o n s . 1 Many a r c h i t e c t s l e a n e d t o t h e examp le o f P a l l a d i o , bu t no t one c o p i e d t h e m a s t e r ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n c e p t s c o m p l e t e l y . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e y r e s o l v e d t h e i r d e s i g n s i n an e c l e c t i c manne r , " . . . w h e r e b y v a r i o u s e l - ements o f t h e P a l l a d i a n v o c a b u l a r y were c h o s e n f r o m P a l l a d i o ' s e c - c l e s i a s t i c a l b u i l d i n g s and c o m b i n e d . . . t o c r e a t e an i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n . " 2 In 1 5 8 1 , V i n c e n z o S c a m o z z i ' s (1552 - 1616) S a n t a M a r i a C e l e s t e became t h e f i r s t c h u r c h i n V e n i c e t o e x h i b i t a c h a r a c t e r w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d an e s s e n t i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l themes o f P a l l a d i o . S c a m o z z i , who was P a l l a d i o ' s p u p i l , a s s i s t a n t , and f o l l o w e r , became one o f V e n i c e ' s l e a d i n g a r c h i t e c t s a f t e r h i s m a s t e r ' s d e a t h , and as W i t t k o w e r e x p l a i n s , h i s " . . . a r c h i t e c t u r e must be r e g a r d e d as a r e v i s i o n o f h i s t e a c h e r . . . . " - * The e x a c t m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C e l e s t e i s s t i l l unde r q u e s t i o n t o d a y . In 1810 , t h e c h u r c h and m o n a s t e r y were s u p p r e s s e d and t h e c h u r c h l a t e r d e s t r o y e d , c i r c a 1 8 5 0 , l e a v i n g no p h y s i c a l t r a c e o f i t s d e s i g n 4 9 . O n l y t h e P a l l a d i a n i n s p i r e d c l o i s t e r r e m a i n s t o d a y . C i t i n g an e a r l y man- u s c r i p t , F r a n z o i t e l l s us t h a t S c a m o z z i d e v e l o p e d a p l a n f o r a new c h u r c h t w e l v e y e a r s a f t e r a f i r e d e s t r o y e d t h e o r i g i n a l t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y b u i l d - i n g i n 1 5 6 9 . ^ As d e s c r i b e d , t h i s p l a n e m u l a t e d t h e work o f P a l l a d i o a t t h e R e d e n t o r e , p r o p o s i n g a c e n t r a l i z e d c r o s s i n g w i t h a dome p r e c e d e d by a nave f a c e d w i t h a c l a s s i c a l t e m p l e f r o n t f a c a d e . I t i s known t h a t S c a m o z z i s u - p e r v i s e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s b u i l d i n g u n t i l March o f 1582 when he f e l l i n d i s p u t e w i t h c h u r c h o f f i c a l s and was f i r e d . A l l work was s t o p p e d and t h e b u i l d i n g a b a n d o n e d , l e a v i n g i t h a l f f i n i s h e d t o t h e f i r s t o r d e r o f a two o r d e r s y s t e m o f two d i f f e r e n t h e i g h t s . ^ The s i t u a t i o n r e m a i n e d t h e same f o r t w e n t y ^ f o u r y e a r s . I t has been t h o u g h t t h a t S c a m o z z i ' s b u i l d i n g was "com- p l e t e l y d e m o l i s h e d " i n 1506 i n o r d e r t o make way f o r a t o t a l l y new c h u r c h d e s i g n t h a t was b u i l t i n f i v e y e a r s and c o n s e c r a t e d i n 1 6 1 1 . 6 U n l i k e S c a - m o z z i ' s d e s i g n , d r a w i n g s o f t h e 1606 p r o j e c t have been p r e s e r v e d , a l l o w i n g one t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e a c t u a l p h y s i c a l f o r m o f t h i s d e s i g n . Th ree d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f p l a n s f r o m t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c e n t u r i e s e x i s t : G i o v a n n i C a s o n i ( F i g s . 7 and 8 ) , c . 1606 ; A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( F i g . 81 ) , c . 1750 ; and B e r n a r d o C o m b a t t i ( F i g . 8 2 ) , 1846 . Each p l a n p r e s e n t s a c r u c i f o r m c o n f i g u r a t i o n composed o f a s h o r t , w i d e nave w i t h r e c t a n g u l a r t r a n s e p t s f l a n k i n g a c r o s s i n g . B e f o r e t h e n a v e , t h e r e i s a v e s t i b u l e w i t h a m o n k ' s c h o i r a b o v e , and a f t e r t h e c r o s s i n g a r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l f l a n k e d by two l o w e r c h a p e l s . I t has been t h o u g h t t h a t S c a m o z z i ' s p a r t i a l l y c o m p l e t e c h u r c h o f 1581 was r a z e d b e c a u s e t h e d r a w i n g s o f t h e new b u i l d i n g o f 1606 do no t r e a d i l y comp ly w i t h t h e e a r l i e r m a n u s c r i p t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S c a m o z z i a n d e s i g n . ' ' Y e t , a c l o s e r s t u d y o f t h e p l a n s o f t h e 1606 b u i l d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e by C a s o n i , w h i c h a r e s c a l e d w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s and d e p i c t t h e b u i l d i n g under c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e v e a l s a nave d e s i g n 5 0 . w h i c h i s a c l o s e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e P a l l a d i a n model a t t h e R e d e n t o r e , s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e s k e l e t a l r e m a i n s o f S c a m o z z i ' s b u i l d i n g were no t d e s t r o y e d as t h o u g h t , bu t r e t a i n e d , r e m o d e l l e d , and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e o v e r a l l d e s i g n o f t h e new c h u r c h . As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g s . 73 and 74), C a s o n i ' s d r a w i n g o f t h e p l a n o f t h e C e l e s t e ( F i g . 7.) f e a t u r e s a s i n g l e nave h a l l w i t h t h r e e s i d e - c h a p e l s s e p a r a t e d by an a r rangemen t o f p a i r e d h a l f - c o l u m n s a t each s i d e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l a x i s . F i g u r e e i g h t d e p i c t s t h e e l e v a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c h a n c e l and l o w e r f l a n k i n g c h a p e l s . From a s t u d y o f t h i s d r a w i n g , much can be deduced c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o o r d i n a t i o n and f o r m o f t h e o r d e r s o f t h e nave w a l l , f o r w h i c h no d r a w i n g has been f o u n d . As r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p l a n , t h e C o r i n t h i a n o r d e r o f t h e p r i n c i p a l h a l f - c o l u m n s on h i g h p e d - e s t a l s and t h e s u b s i d i a r y D o r i c o r d e r o f p i l a s t e r s wou ld have been c a r r i e d c o n s i s t e n t l y a round t h e e n t i r e body o f t h e nave and c r o s s i n g , c r e a t i n g a h a r m o n i c i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n w h i c h each a r c h i t e c t u r a l component wou ld have i t s c o u n t e r p a r t p e r f e c t l y m i r r o r e d t o each s i d e . T h i s d i s p l a y o f r e p e t i t i o n and symmetry d e m o n s t r a t e s a p r e d o m i n a n t l y P a l l a d i a n i n f l u e n c e , f u r t h e r e n d o r s i n g t h e i d e a t h a t t h e w a l l s e n c l o s i n g t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n s p a c e were t h o s e d e s i g n e d and l e f t u n f i n i s h e d by Scamozz i i n 1581 and l a t e r added t o and c o m p l e t e d a f t e r 1606 . The s t r u c t u r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e nave w a l l s i n t o a d e e p l y m o d e l l e d c l a s s i c a l a r c a d e o f na r row and w i d e bays o f p a i r e d h a l f - c o l u m n s and a r c h e d c h a p e l s was a m o d i f i e d copy o f t h e same a r rangemen t a t t h e R e d e n t o r e . S c a m o z z i a l t e r e d P a l l a d i o ' s d e s i g n o n l y s l i g h t l y . The n i c h e s f o r s t a t u e s f o u n d i n t h e o r i g i n a l were e l i m i n a t e d by c l o s e l y p a i r i n g t h e co lumns o f t h e g i a n t o r d e r . A t t h e R e d e n t o r e , P a l l a d i o ' s h a l f - c o l u m n s r e s t d i r e c t l y on t h e g r o u n d . 5 1 . A t t h e C e l e s t e , S c a m o z z i made them r i s e f r o m h i g h p e d e s t a l s , e c l e c t i c a l l y e m u l a t i n g a s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n by h i s m a s t e r a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 6 7 ) . A d j a c e n t t o t h e p a i r e d c o l u m n s , as i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , were s i x b i l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l c h a p e l s . U n l i k e t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e c h a p e l s were s h a l l o w , u n - v a u l t e d , and w i n d o w l e s s , bu t t h e s y s t e m o f e m p l o y i n g s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h e s , r e s t i n g on t h e e n t a b l a t u r e s o f t h e s m a l l e r o r d e r s w i t h o u t p e d e s t a l , was e x e c u t e d i n t h e P a l l a d i a n mode. The k e y s t o n e s o f t h e s e a r c h e s s u p p o r t e d a heavy s t r a i g h t e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h was c a r r i e d a r o u n d t h e w h o l e b u i l d i n g , f o l l o w - i n g c l o s e l y t h e same example i n t h e R e d e n t o r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o l o s s a l co l umns o f bo th b u i l d i n g s c a r r i e d t h e e n t a b l a t u r e t o w a r d s i m i l a r C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s a t t h e c o r n e r s , and b o t h co lumns and p i l a s t e r p i e r s came t o g e t h e r a t t h e e n t r a n c e s o f t h e c h a n c e l and t r a n s e p t s o f t h e c r o s s i n g ( F i g s . 7 and 8 ) . U n l i k e t h e nave o f t h e R e d e n t o r e , w h i c h i s c o v e r e d by an a r c h i n g p l a s t e r v a u l t w i t h c l e a r s t o r y l i g h t i n g ( F i g . 7 3 ) , t h e C e l e s t e was r o o f e d w i t h a s e r i e s o f s i m p l e t r u s s e s w h i c h r e s t e d d i r e c t l y on t h e e n c i r c l i n g e n t a b l a t u r e and c a r r i e d a f l a t c e i l i n g . T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t does no t seem t o be o f S c a m o z z i ' s i n v e n t i o n . As C a s o n i ' s c h a n c e l e l e v a t i o n ( F i g . 7 ) c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e s , t h e r e i s a m a j o r d e s i g n c o n f l i c t between t h e c r o s s i n g and c h a n c e l p i e r s and t he f l a t c e i l i n g . Under normal c l a s s i c a l d e s i g n c o n d i t i o n s , l i k e t h o s e a t t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e g i a n t p i l a s t e r s s e t n e x t t o t h e co lumns wou ld have s u p p o r t e d i m p o s i n g t r i u m p h a l a r c h e s a n n o u n c i n g t h e deep s p a c e s o f t h e c h a n c e l and t r a n s e p t s . In t h e c a s e o f t h e C e l e s t e , t h e a r c h e s were n e v e r b u i l t , a n d , i n t h e i r p l a c e , t h e b r o a d e n t a b l a t u r e seems t o have been b r o u g h t s t r a i g h t a c r o s s f r o m c a p i t a l t o c a p i t a l w i t h o u t t h e use o f a s u p p o r t i n g a r c h u n d e r n e a t h . T h i s s p a n n i n g , a c c o m p l i s h e d o n l y t h r o u g h t he use o f an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y l o n g and heavy s l a b 5 2 . o f s t o n e , i s a v e r y u n o r t h o d o x and u n c l a s s i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n . W i t h o u t t h e g r e a t a r c h e s , t h e g i a n t p i l a s t e r s a g a i n s t t h e co lumns a r e r e d u n d a n t and t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l use i n c o r r e c t . A more l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n wou ld have been f o r t h e a r c h i t e c t o f t h e 1606 r e b u i l d i n g t o remove t h e g i a n t p i l a s t e r s and r e p l a c e them w i t h t h e m i n o r o r d e r w i t h an a r c h and k e y s t o n e . In t h i s manne r , t h e c h a n c e l w a l l wou ld have r e s e m b l e d t h e nave a r c a d e and t h e use o f a f l a t c e i l i n g above t h e e n t a b l a t u r e a c c e p t a b l e . Howeve r , t h i s s o l u t i o n wou ld have been bo th n o n - P a l l a d i a n and n o n - S c a m o z z i a n . The g i a n t p i l a s t e r p i e r s s u g g e s t t h a t S c a m o z z i had p l a n n e d f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f g i a n t a r c h e s . In s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e s e a r c h e s wou ld most l i k e l y have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a b a r r e l - v a u l t e d c e i l i n g w i t h l u n e t t e s . T h i s c o n d i t i o n wou ld have a l s o a l l o w e d f o r g e n e r o u s c l e a r s t o r y l i g h t i n g above t h e s i x s i d e - c h a p e l s , i l l u m i n a t i n g what must have o t h e r w i s e been an u n u s u a l l y d a r k c o n g r e g a t i o n s p a c e . V i s e n t i n i ' s p l a n ( F i g . 8 1 ) , c i r c a 1 7 5 0 , a g r e e s w i t h t h a t o f C a s o n i i n a l m o s t e v e r y way. By a d d i n g more d e t a i l s , V i s e n t i n i d e l i n e a t e s t h e s t r u c t u r a l o r d e r i n g and e n t r a n c e s and windows o f t h e v e s t i b u l e be low t h e m o n k ' s c h o i r l o f t . C a s o n i had o n l y b l o c k e d ou t t h e a r e a , w h i c h c o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s s p a c e may no t have been p a r t o f S c a m o z z i ' s d e s i g n , bu t added l a t e r d u r i n g t h e r e m o d e l l i n g . The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e n a v e , c r o s s i n g , and t r a n s e p t s a r e n e g l i g i b l e , w i t h t h e l a t e r more d e t a i l e d by V i s e n t i n i , r e v e a l - i n g t h e doorways and windows i n t h e end w a l l s . The o n l y m a j o r c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s i n t h e s c a l e o f t h e c h a n c e l and t h e l o w e r a d j a c e n t c h a p e l s , w h i c h , i n C a s o n i , a r e n e a r l y e q u a l i n s i z e and p r o p o r t i o n . V i s e n t i n i made them d i f f e r e n t by w i d e n i n g t h e c h a n c e l and n a r r o w i n g and s h o r t e n i n g t h e c h a p e l s . C o m b a t t i ' s p l a n ( F i g . 82) o f 1846 d e p i c t s t h e same w i d e n i n g and n a r r o w i n g as t h e 5 3 . V i s e n t i n i d r a w i n g . Y e t , i n t h e f o r m e r , o n l y t h e n o r t h c h a p e l seems t o be f o r e s h o r t e n e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e l a t e r d r a w i n g s o f V i s e n t i n i and C o m b a t t i seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t C a s o n i ' s p r o p o r t i o n a t e a r r a n g e m e n t may have been a l t e r e d as a c o n s e q u e n c e o f f u r t h e r r e m o d e l l i n g somet ime be tween 1606 and 1750 . F u r t h e r m o r e , C o m b a t t i ' s p l a n i n d i c a t e s t h a t a d d i t i o n a l r e b u i l d i n g o c c u r r e d a f t e r 1 7 5 0 , and most l i k e l y b e f o r e t h e C e l e s t e was s u p p r e s s e d i n 1810 . The o r i g i n a l c r u c i f o r m p l a n , w i t h i t s w i d e nave and c r o s s i n g and r e c t a n g u l a r t r a n s e p t s , i s s t i l l v i s i b l e i n t h e d r a w i n g , b u t , as d e p i c t e d , t h e t r a n s e p t s were p e r m a n e n t l y c l o s e d o f f by e x t e n d i n g t h e nave w a l l s s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h t o t h e c h a n c e l w a l l . By r e m o v i n g t h e t r a n s e p t s , t h e c r o s s i n g was l o s t and t h e g round p l a n t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a s i m p l e l o n g i t u d i n a l r e c t a n g l e w i t h t h e c h a n c e l and t h e two a d j a c e n t c h a p e l s o c c u p y i n g t h e e a s t e n d . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l s o added an a d d i t i o n a l two c h a p e l bays t o S c a m o z z i ' s c l a s s i c a l s i x - b a y nave a r c a d e w h i c h was m o d e l l e d a f t e r t h e R e d e n t o r e . C o m b a t t i ' s d r a w i n g r e v e a l s t h a t two .more s e t s o f p a i r e d h a l f - c o l u m n s on h i g h p e d e s t a l s were c o n s t r u c t e d t o r e p l a c e t h e t r a n s e p t p i e r s , r e s p e c t i n g and r e p e a t i n g t h e P a l l a d i a n c h a r a c t e r o f b a l a n c e d r e p e t i t i o n and symmetry a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t he e a r l i e r s i x - b a y c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Some t e n y e a r s a f t e r C o m b a t t i p u b l i s h e d h i s p l a n o f t h e C e l e s t e , t h e c h u r c h was d e s t r o y e d , l e a v i n g n o t h i n g t o d e m o n s t r a t e i t s d e s i g n . The r e c o r d s t h a t e x i s t t o d a y t o h e l p e x p l a i n t h e f o r m and c h a r a c t e r o f t h e C e l e s t e a r e s p a r s e , bu t no t i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Each document d e p i c t s a c h u r c h w h i c h once d e m o n s t r a t e d an e s s e n t i a l a t t e n t i o n t o and p a r t i c u l a r a f f i n i t i e s w i t h t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l f o r m u l a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d by P a l l a d i o a t t h e R e d e n t o r e . 5 4 . NOTES 1. Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p . 1 7 3 . 2 . J o h n B. O ' K e l l y , The C h u r c h o f t h e G e s u a t i i n V e n i c e ( M . A . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 3 0 . 3 . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y : 1600 -1750 ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n q u i n B o o k s , I n c . , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 7 3 . 4 . Umber to F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 4 6 3 - 6 4 . 5 . I b i d . , p. 4 6 4 . 6 . I b i d . , p. 4 6 4 . 7 . I b i d . , p. 4 6 4 . San T r o v a s o : 1583 In 1 5 8 3 , one y e a r a f t e r V i n c e n z o S c a m o z z i ' s S a n t a M a r i a C e l e s t e was l e f t a b a n d o n e d , t h e a n c i e n t c h u r c h o f San T r o v a s o c o l l a p s e d u n e x p e c t e d l y . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t b u i l d i n g began i n 1584 , f o l l o w i n g t h e d e s i g n o f a n o t h e r P a l l a d i a n a r c h i t e c t , F r a n c e s c o S m e r a l d i , and was l a r g e l y c o m p l e t e by 1 5 9 0 . 1 S m e r a l d i ' s s p a t i a l c o n c e p t i o n f o r t h e i n t e r i o r o f San T r o v a s o i s a n o t h e r examp le o f P a l l a d i a n e c l e c t i c i s m , b l e n d i n g o r n a m e n t a l and s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e m s f r om bo th San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e and t h e R e d e n t o r e . I n - d e b t e d n e s s t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f P a l l a d i o i s u n m i s t a k a b l y e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e nave w i t h s i x b i l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l s i d e - c h a p e l s , i n t h e c r o s s i n g w i t h l a t e r a l t r a n s e p t s , and i n t h e s q u a r e c h a n c e l f l a n k e d by two l o w e r c h a p e l s . ( F i g . 8 3 ) . The p l a n o f San T r o v a s o i s a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e L a t i n c r o s s f o r m u l a p r e s e n t e d a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 6 6 ) . Reduced i n s c a l e , t h e ma in arm o f t h e c r o s s r e p e a t s t he same s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e P a l l a d i a n m o d e l . Bo th c h u r c h e s have p e r f e c t l y s q u a r e c r o s s i n g s w i t h naves one and a h a l f t i m e s as l o n g . A t San G i o r g i o , P a l l a d i o p r o j e c t e d t h e nave p a s t t h e c r o s s i n g t o f o r m a n o t h e r s q u a r e c o n g r e g a t i o n a l s p a c e d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t o f t h e g i a n t c h a n c e l a r c h . T h i s f o r m a t i o n was d u p l i c a t e d i n San T r o v a s o , e x c e p t t h a t t h i s s p a c e became bo th t h e t e r m i n a t i n g head o f t h e c r o s s and t h e c h a n c e l h o u s i n g t h e h i g h a l t a r . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o , t h e c h a n c e l pavement i s t h r e e s t e p s h i g h - e r t h a n t h e f l o o r o f t h e nave and c r o s s i n g , s e t t i n g o f f t h a t p a r t o f t h e c h u r c h r e s e r v e d f o r t h e o f f i c i a t i n g c l e r g y f r o m t h e a s s e m b l y s p a c e s be low ( F i g s . 66 and 84 and 8 5 ) . F l a n k i n g each s i d e o f t h e c h a n c e l s q u a r e a r e l o w e r 56 . a r c h e d c h a p e l s , r e f l e c t i n g t h e s i m i l a r p a t t e r n a t San G i o r g i o . The o u t - s i d e w a l l s o f t h e s e c h a p e l s d e f i n e t h e d e p t h o f t h e r e c t a n g u l a r t r a n s e p t s , w h i c h a r e h a l f as deep as t h e s q u a r e c r o s s i n g . D i s t i n c t f r o m t h e p l a n o f San G i o r g i o , San T r o v a s o does no t have a m b u l a t o r y s i d e - a i s l e s b o r d e r i n g i t s n a v e . In l i e u o f a i s l e s , S m e r a l d i d e s i g n e d s i x i d e n t i c a l v a u l t e d s i d e - c h a p e l s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t an a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o P a l l a d i o ' s work a t t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g s . 72 and 8 3 ) . These c h a p e l s a r e s e p a r a t e d by a s e r i e s o f s i n g l e C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s , w h i c h a r e a t t e n u a t e d v e r s i o n s o f t h e d o u b l e d components e x p r e s s e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l . F o r t u n a t e l y , S m e r a l d i d i d no t a t t e m p t t o r e f l e c t t h e c o l o s s a l o r d e r s o f P a l l a d i o w i t h i n t h e s m a l l e r s p a c e s o f San T r o v a s o . Once a g a i n , a t a r e d u c e d s c a l e , he f o l - lowed t h e same g e o m e t r i c p r o p o r t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e i n t e r i o r o f San G i o r g i o , mak ing t h e d i m e n s i o n f r o m t h e f l o o r t o t h e c rown o f t h e v a u l t t h e same as t h e nave w h i c h i s one and a h a l f t i m e s as l o n g as t h e c r o s s i n g s q u a r e . F u r t h e r - m o r e , t h e v a u l t i s h a l f as h i g h as t h e p r i n c i p a l p i l a s t e r s c a r r y i n g i t , 2 w h i c h a r e t h e same l e n g t h as t h e c r o s s i n g . F o l l o w i n g t h i s p a t t e r n , S m e r a l d i r e d u c e d t h e a r c h i t e c t o n i c c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e i n t e r i o r i n t o p r o p o r t i o n s more ha rmon ious w i t h t h e s m a l l e r s p a c e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g . As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e r e p e t i t i o n and symmetry o f the p r i n c i p a l o r d e r s on d i m i n u t i v e b a s e s i s u n i f o r m l y a r t i c u l a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t he c h u r c h . E c h o i n g t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e pavement o f each s i d e - c h a p e l i s r a i s e d t h r e e s t e p s f r om t h e nave f l o o r . The c h a p e l s a r e composed o f s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h e s r i s i n g f r om e n t a b l a t u r e s s e t above t h e s u b s i d i a r y D o r i c p i l a s t e r s w i t h o u t p e d e s t a l s ( F i g s . 84 and 8 6 ) . C o n f o r m i n g t o P a l l a d i o , b o t h t h e k e y - s t o n e s o f t h e a r c h e s and t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e a d j a c e n t p i l a s t e r s s u p p o r t a heavy s t r a i g h t e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h r u n s a round t h e who le i n t e r i o r w i t h o u t a 57 . b r e a k , e x c e p t t o s t e p back b r i e f l y i n s h a l l o w p l a n e s b e n e a t h t h e f o u r l a r g e a r c h e s e n c l o s i n g t h e c r o s s i n g s q u a r e ( F i g . 8 4 ) . As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h i s e n t a b l a t u r e a c t s as a s i m p l e , a x i a l l y i n s i s t e n t f o r m , p r o d u c i n g a l i n e a r s u r f a c e w h i c h moves t h e eye down t h e nave and a round t h e t r a n s e p t s and i n t o t h e c h a n c e l . R e s e m b l i n g San G i o r g i o , t h e i n t e r i o r o f San T r o v a s o has f o u r b a r r e l v a u l t c e i l i n g s w h i c h h i g h l y d e f i n e t h e f o u r arms o f i t s c r u c i f o r m p l a n ( F i g s . 67 and 8 7 ) . W h i t e and u n a r t i c u l a t e d , t h e y r i s e f r o m t h e p r i n c i p a l e n t a b l a t u r e and s t r e t c h f r o m t h e f o u r end w a l l s t o t h e f o u r a r c h e s above t h e f o u r c o r n e r p i e r s w h i c h d e l i n e a t e t h e c r o s s i n g s q u a r e . To c o n t r a s t t h e c r o s s - i n g w i t h a l l o t h e r s p a c e s , S m e r a l d i d i d no t c rown i t w i t h a dome as P a l l a d i o d i d i n San G i o r g i o . I n s t e a d , he d e v e l o p e d an i n t e r s e c t i n g b a r r e l v a u l t t o h e l p imbue t h e s p a c e w i t h g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e ( F i g . 9 1 ) . L i k e San G i o r g i o , t h e f o u r a d j a c e n t v a u l t s d e r i v e t h e i r f o r m a l c l a r i t y f r o m t h e a c c e n t u a t e d r i b b i n g o f t h e i r bound ing a r c h e s , w h i c h a r e p a r a l l e l t o t h e c u r v e o f t h e v a u l t s . W i t h i n each a r c h i n each end w a l l i s a huge m u l l i o n e d t h e r m a l w indow. These e x a g g e r a t e d windows t r a n s f u s e a u n i f o r m l i g h t t h r o u g h o u t t h e c h u r c h , r e f l e c t i n g i t s e l f o f f t h e smooth w h i t e w a s h e d s u r f a c e s o f t h e s t u c c o e d v a u l t s . The i n t e r i o r scheme o f e x t e n s i v e and b r i g h t l y l i t p l a s t e r e d s u r - f a c e s e n l i v e n e d by d a r k e r s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s b e a r s t h e i m p r e s s o f P a l l a d i o a t San G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e , w h i c h a r e bo th i l l u m i n a t e d by a s e r i e s o f l a r g e t h e r m a l o p e n i n g s ( F i g s . 88 and 8 9 ) . B e f o r e P a l l a d i o d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e g r e a t p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e r m a l w i n d o w s , t h e y " . . . w e r e r a r e l y used i n I t a l i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e , " bu t a f t e r , t h e y " . . . b e c a m e s t a n d a r d f e a t u r e s o f new c h u r c h e s , 4 and were a l s o i n s e r t e d i n t o many o l d e r ones t o improve t h e l i g h t i n g . " F u r t h e r f o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o ' s l i g h t i n g f o r m u l a , S m e r a l d i s e t s i x Roman 58 . w indows i n t o t h e b a r r e l v a u l t o f t h e nave d i r e c t l y above t h e s i x s i d e - c h a p e l s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e windows have been c l o s e d , a p p a r e n t l y f o r 5 c e n t u r i e s . T h e i r e x i s t e n c e i s w i t n e s s e d on t h e e x t e r i o r o f t h e c h u r c h where t h e o r i g i n a l m u l l i o n e d , s e m i - c i r c u l a r w indows s t i l l a p p e a r ( F i g . 9 0 ) . T o d a y , S m e r a l d i ' s nave v a u l t i s smooth and u n a r t i c u l a t e d . I n i t i a l l y , i t wou ld have r e f l e c t e d t h e more l u m i n o u s a r r a n g e m e n t a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g s . 67 and 88) and t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g s . 73 and 8 9 ) , where s i x c u r v i n g t r i a n g u l a r l u n e t t e s above t h e windows b r e a k i n t o t h e c e i l i n g and p o i n t t h e i r g r o i n e d f o r m s a t each o t h e r o v e r t h e c e n t e r o f t h e a r c h e d v a u l t . T u r n i n g t o t h e e x t e r i o r o f San T r o v a s o , we f i n d t h a t S m e r a l d i m o d e l l e d h i s two f a c a d e s ( F i g s . 90 and 92) d i r e c t l y upon t h e p a t t e r n p r e s e n t - ed by P a l l a d i o a t t h e Chu rch o f Le Z i t e l l e ( F i g . 7 1 ) . Each f a c a d e i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s t o r i e s o f s u p e r i m p o s e d o r d e r s , h o r i z o n t a l l y s e p a r a t e d by an i n t e r - m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e and c rowned by a s i n g l e ped imen t o v e r a l a r g e s e m i - c i r c u l a r w indow. The Z i t e l l e f a c a d e i s l a r g e r i n s c a l e t h a n t h o s e o f San T r o v a s o , bu t S m e r a l d i f o l l o w e d t he same s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c p r o p o r t i o n s t h a t g o v e r n t h e o r i g i n a l , mak ing t h e uppe r t i e r h a l f t h e h e i g h t o f t h e l o w e r . The l o w e r s e c t i o n s o f bo th c h u r c h e s a r e a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l . Each i s composed o f C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s p a i r e d a t t h e c o r n e r s w i t h a w i d e c e n t r a l bay f i l l e d by a l a r g e ped imen ted doorway f l a n k e d by two l o n g a r c h e d w i n d o w s . Due t o t h e i r r e d u c e d s c a l e , t h e p i l a s t e r s o f San T r o v a s o do no t r e s t on h i g h p e d e s t a l s l i k e t h o s e o f t h e Z i t e l l e . I n s t e a d , t h e y s i t on low b a s e s , r e p e a t - i n g t h e same p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i n t e r i o r . U n l i k e P a l l a d i o , S m e r a l d i s e t t h e w a l l o f t h e main bay o f t h e wes t f r o n t ; back a s h a l l o w t h r e e i n c h e s , s u b t l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e e x a c t w i d t h o f t h e nave b e h i n d ( F i g . 9 2 ) . To f u r t h e r accommodate t h i s a r t i c u l a t i o n o f s u c c e s s i v e p l a n e s i n t h e f a c a d e , t h e ma in 5 9 . e n t a b l a t u r e was s e t back and s u p p o r t e d a t each end by v e s t i g i a l h a l f - p i l a s t e r s i n t h e c o r n e r s , once a g a i n d u p l i c a t i n g t h e same a p p l i c a t i o n i n s i d e ( F i g . 8 7 ) . As a r e s u l t , t h e p a i r e d p i l a s t e r bays p r o j e c t f o r w a r d , c a r r y i n g b r o k e n e n t a b l a t u r e s e g m e n t s . J u s t as t h e m i d d l e bay a g r e e s i n w i d t h and h e i g h t w i t h t he n a v e , t h e a d j a c e n t p a i r e d o r d e r s c o r r e s p o n d i n w i d t h and h e i g h t t o t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s b e h i n d . By i n c o r p o r a t i n g s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e d e s i g n o f t he t h r e e bays o f t h e l o w e r t i e r , S m e r a l d i c r e a t e d a n o v e l s o l u t i o n t o P a l l a d i o ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n t o r e s o l v e t h e i n t e r n a l s p a t i a l i s m o f h i s c h u r c h e s on t h e i r f a c a d e s . L i k e t h e f a c a d e s o f San F r a n - c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a , San G i o r g i o , t h e R e d e n t o r e , and t h e Z i t e l l e , t h e e x t e r i o r o f San T r o v a s o p r e s e n t s a d i r e c t i d e a o f t h e f o r m , f a b r i c , and p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r i o r . The two p o r t a l d e s i g n s o f San T r o v a s o a r e e x a c t l y t h e same ( F i g s . 90 and 92) and a r e r e m i n i s c e n t o f P a l l a d i o ' s work a t b o t h t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 75) and t h e Z i t e l l e ( F i g . 7 1 ) . F l a n k i n g t he doorways a r e two engaged h a l f - co l umns s u p p o r t i n g an e n t a b l a t u r e and t r i a n g u l a r p e d i m e n t . Between t h e s e c o l u m n s , a n o t h e r m i n o r o r d e r o f p i l a s t e r s c a r r y a r o u n d - h e a d e d a r c h r i s i n g t o a k e y s t o n e b e n e a t h t h e e n t a b l a t u r e o f t h e m a j o r o r d e r . U n l i k e P a l l a d i o ' s d o o r s , t h i s e n t a b l a t u r e e x t e n d s s l i g h t l y p a s t t h e c o l u m n s , b e i n g s u p p o r t e d by two more f l a n k i n g p i l a s t e r s . T h i s a r rangemen t does no t e s c a p e a l l u s i o n s t o t h e m a s t e r ' s d e s i g n s f o r t h e a l t a r s o f t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 8 6 ) . The o n l y d r a m a t i c d i v e r g e n c e f r o m P a l l a d i o a p p e a r s where t h e c e n t e r o f t h e a r c h i t r a v e , f r i e z e , and c o r n i c e a r e c u t b a c k , l e a v i n g two n a r r o w r e s s a u t s t o c a r r y t h e b roken t r i a n g u l a r p e d i m e n t . ' ' L i k e t h e a l t a r s o f t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e tympanum o f t h e ped iment has a c i r c l e e n f r a m e d by a p a i r o f t r i a n g u l a r p a n e l s . 6 0 . U n l i k e t h e Z i t e l l e , the second s t o r e y o f San T r o v a s o was d e s i g n e d w i t h s i n g l e p i l a s t e r u n i t s f l a n k i n g each s i d e o f t h e m a s s i v e M a n n e r i s t Roman w indow . In P a l l a d i o ' s f a c a d e , t h e p a i r e d p i l a s t e r s o f t h e l o w e r t i e r a r e s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e upper s t o r e y so as t o c a r e f u l l y r e f l e c t t h e i n t e r n a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e e n c l o s e d s t a i r w e l l s l e a d i n g f r o m t h e g round f l o o r t o t h e b e l f r i e s above t h e ped imen t w h i c h embraces t h e f u l l w i d t h o f t h e f a c a d e ( F i g s . 69 and 7 1 ) . The a r rangemen t o f S m e r a l d i ' s f a c a d e i s a l s o d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n t e r n a l s p a c e s o f t h e c h u r c h , w h i c h , u n l i k e t h e Z i t e l l e , a r e na r rowed i n t h e upper zones by t h e h a l f - b a r r e l v a u l t s e c t i o n above t h e n a v e . The a r c h o f t h e g r e a t window r e p e a t s e x a c t l y t h e a r c h o f t h e v a u l t and t h e c r o w n i n g ped imen t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e a t t i c b e h i n d . To l i n k t h e t e r m i n a l p a i r e d p i l a s t e r s o f t h e f i r s t s t o r e y w i t h t h e t a l l e r c e n t r a l b l o c k , S m e r a l d i b u i l t s t e e p s c r o l 1 - s h a p e d v o l u t e s w h i c h d e s c e n d f r o m t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e upper o r d e r t o t h e t o p o f t h e c o r n i c e o f t h e o u t s i d e p i l a s t e r o f t h e l o w e r o r d e r ( F i g . 9 2 ) . The s o u t h f a c a d e o f San T r o v a s o r e p e a t s t h e same d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n as t h e wes t f r o n t , e x c e p t t h a t t h e p a i r e d o u t s i d e bays o f t h e l o w e r t i e r a r e w i d e r , e c h o i n g t h e b r o a d e r s p a c e s b e h i n d them ( F i g s . 83 and 9 0 ) . T h i s w i d t h i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l a r g e r and l e s s s t e e p v o l u t e s b u t t r e s s i n g t h e uppe r p o r t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l b a y . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , bo th f a c a d e s o f San T r o v a s o were i n d a n g e r o f Q f a l l i n g f o r w a r d o f f t h e b u i l d i n g . T o d a y , t h e y have been c a r e f u l l y r e s t o r e d t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l s t a t e , c l e a r l y r e v e a l i n g t h e many b l e n d e d e l e m e n t s w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n t i m p r e s s o f P a l l a d i o . 6 1 . NOTES F o r more commentary on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h u r c h o f San T r o v a s o f r o m a n c i e n t t i m e s t o t h e p r e s e n t b u i l d i n g , see G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1975) , p . 5 5 1 ; Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1976) , p p . 2 0 3 - 2 0 4 ; and John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D r a w i n g s C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 3 8 . J o h n McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D raw ings C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 3 8 . T o d a y , a p p a r e n t l y f o r s t r u c t u r a l r e a s o n s , t h e Roman window i n t h e end w a l l o f t h e c h a n c e l v a u l t i s c l o s e d ( F i g . 8 5 ) . Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p , 1 6 7 . As d e p i c t e d i n A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ' s l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n o f San T r o v a s o , c i r c a 1 7 5 0 , t h e windows a l r e a d y appea r c l o s e d a t t h a t t i m e ( F i g . 8 4 ) . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 1 9 . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n c o n g r u o u s f e a t u r e s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a m a n i p u l a t e d d i s t o r t i o n o f P a l l a d i o ' s r e a l i s t i c c l a s s i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t , r e v e a l s a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s Manne r i sm i n S m e r a l d i ' s wo rk . McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D raw ings C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i , p. 3 8 . D e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i r d i l a p i d a t e d s t a t e b e f o r e r e n o v a t i o n s , see f a c a d e pho to i n Umber to F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 2 0 5 . 6 2 . San F r a n c e s c o d i P a o l a : F a c a d e - 1588 R e p l a c i n g an e a r l i e r f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y G o t h i c s t r u c t u r e , t h e l a t e R e n a i s s a n c e c h u r c h o f San F r a n c e s c o d i P a o l a was c o m p l e t e d by an u n - known a r c h i t e c t c i r c a 1 5 9 0 . * The p l a n ( F i g s . 93 and 95) i s p r e - P a l l a d i a n , f o r i t a c t u a l l y e m u l a t e s an e a r l i e r V e n e t i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n , c l o s e l y c o p y i n g A n t o n i o A b b o n d i ' s ( c a l l e d Lo S c a r p a n i n o , ? - 1 5 4 9 ) San S e b a s t i a n o o f 1505 - 1545 ( F i g s . 94 and 9 6 ) . ^ Bo th b u i l d i n g s p r e s e n t t h e same c r u c i f o r m p l a n p r e c e d e d by a v e s t i b u l e w i t h a c h o i r g a l l e r y a b o v e , w h i c h c o n t i n u e s down each s i d e o f t h e nave o v e r s i x deep s i d e - c h a p e l s . F l a t c e i l i n g s i n p a n e l s c o v e r each i n t e r i o r , and a f t e r t he c r o s s i n g t h e r e a r e deep c h a n c e l s f l a n k e d by two l o w e r c h a p e l s . C u r i o u s l y e n o u g h , b o t h p l a n s r e v e a l numerous a f f i l i a t i o n s t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t P a l l a d i o may v e r y w e l l have been s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by A b b o n d i ' s p r e c e d e n c e a t San S e b a s t i a n o , w h i c h , a t i t s c o m p l e t i o n i n 1 5 4 5 , was an i m p o r t a n t examp le o f modern c l a s s i c a l c h u r c h d e s i g n i n V e n i c e , e x i s t i n g f o r s t u d y and r e f l e c t i o n some t w e n t y y e a r s b e f o r e P a l l a d i o ' s g r e a t c o m m i s s i o n s . The a r c h i t e c t o f San F r a n c e s c o i m i t a t e d t h e p l a n f o r San S e b a s t i a n o , bu t he d i d no t copy A b b o n d i ' s . d o u b l e t i e r e d f a c a d e d e s i g n . I n s t e a d , we f i n d t h a t he r e p e a t e d P a l l a d i o ' s r e s o l u t i o n f o r t he Z i t e l l e ( F i g . 71) a l m o s t e x a c t l y ( F i g . 9 7 ) . L i k e S m e r a l d i a t San T r o v a s o , he r e i t e r a t e d t h e 2 :1 p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l , mak ing t h e l o w e r t i e r t w i c e t h e h e i g h t o f t h e u p p e r . He s e p a r a t e d t h e f l o o r s w i t h a heavy unb roken e n t a b l a t u r e o f t h e same p r e c i s e p r o f i l e as P a l l a d i o . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t h i s e n t a b l a t u r e i s s u p p o r t e d by two p a i r e d bays o f C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s a t t he c o r n e r s . They r e p r e s e n t t h e w i d t h o f t h e s i d e c h a p e l s b e h i n d . Because o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n 6 3 . s c a l e , t h e p i l a s t e r s o f San F r a n c e s c o , u n l i k e t h o s e o f t h e Z i t e l l e , a r e s e t w i d e r a p a r t and r e s t on s h o r t e r p e d e s t a l s . Between t h e o u t e r b a y s , t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n e c h o e s t h e w i d t h o f t h e nave and embraces two l o n g a r c h e d windows a d j a c e n t t o a ped imen ted p o r t a l . The l o n g windows a r e no t as l o n g as t h o s e o f t h e Z i t e l l e , and t h e doorway i s no t as w i d e no r t a l l , y e t t h e o v e r a l l d e s i g n o f t h e two i s t h e same, e x c e p t t h a t t h e C o r i n t h i a n co lumns o f t h e d o o r r e s t on s h o r t e r p e d e s t a l s , a n d between t h e s e , t h e s t o n e jamb i s composed o f a p l a i n r e c t i l i n e a r f ramework i n s t e a d o f a n o t h e r m i n o r o r d e r o f p i l a s t e r s c a r r y i n g a r o u n d - h e a d e d a r c h . The uppe r t i e r o f San F r a n c e s c o ( F i g . 97) f u r t h e r r e p e a t s t h e Z i t e l l e d e s i g n ( F i g . 7 1 ) . In r e p l y t o t h e l o w e r s t o r e y , t h e r e a r e two more p a i r e d bays o f C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s f l a n k i n g t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n . S i m i l a r t o t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e r i g h t bay r e f l e c t s an i n t e r n a l s t a i r w e l l l e a d i n g f r o m t h e second f l o o r t o a b e l f r y a b o v e . The d o u b l e a r c h e d o p e n i n g s o f P a l l a d i o ' s t u r r e t s a r e r e p e a t e d h e r e a l s o . U n l i k e t h e Z i t e l l e , a second b e l f r y does no t appea r above t h e ped imen t on t h e l e f t s i d e o f t h e b u i l d i n g . Between t h e o u t e r bays i s a n o t h e r g i a n t M a n n e r i s t t h e r m a l w indow, w h i c h b r i g h t l y i l l u m i n a t e s t h e c h o i r g a l l e r y and nave b e h i n d ( F i g . 9 5 ) . The s i d e o r d e r s c a r r y an e n t a b l a t u r e and s h a r p l y d e n t i l l e d p e d i m e n t , wh i ch crown t h e f u l l w i d t h o f t h e f a c a d e . Once a g a i n , t h e p r o f i l e p l a n n i n g o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s c l o s e l y r e p r e s e n t t h e same d e s i g n o f t h e Z i t e l l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e tympanums o f b o t h b u i l d i n g s a r e composed o f l a r g e p l a i n s u r f a c e s and echo s i m i l a r a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h i n t h e ped imen t o v e r t h e d o o r s . H a v i n g been r e b u i l t i n 1964 , t h e f a c a d e o f San F r a n c e s c o i s i n b e a u t i f u l c o n d i t i o n t o d a y , and r e p r e s e n t s one o f V e n i c e ' s most f a i t h f u l r e - w o r k i n g s o f t h e c l a s s i c a l c h u r c h f r o n t f o r m u l a p r e s e n t e d by P a l l a d i o a t t h e Z i t e l l e . NOTES F o r more commentary on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h u r c h o f San F r a n c e s c o d i P a o l a f r om a n c i e n t t i m e s t o t h e p r e s e n t b u i l d - i n g , see G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 1 1 3 - 1 1 4 ; and Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 5 0 2 - 5 0 4 . F o r more commentary on t h e c h u r c h o f San S e b a s t i a n o . s e e Umber to F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 1 8 2 - 1 8 4 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a s t u d y o f t h e i m p a c t and i n f l u e n c e o f A b b o n d i ' s San S e b a s t i a n o p l a n on P a l l a d i o ' s own deve lopmen t as a c h u r c h d e s i g n e r i s o u t s i d e t h e s c o p e o f t h i s t h e s i s . 6 5 . San N i c o l e - d e i T o l e n t i n i : P l a n - 1591 In 1 5 7 9 , one y e a r b e f o r e h i s d e a t h , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o p r o p o s e d a c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n f o r San N i c o l o d e i T o l e n t i n i ( F i g s . 98 and 9 9 ) . 1 E x c e p t f o r t h e ma in a p s i d i a l s a n c t u a r y , f o rmed by a r e c e d i n g h e m i c y c l e s c r e e n o f f r e e - s t a n d i n g C o r i n t h i a n co lumns capped by t h e vo lume o f a h a l f - d o m e , t h e a l t a r s a r e a s s e m b l e d i n one v e r y t a l l s p a t i a l u n i t su rmoun ted by a huge drum- l e s s dome. B e h i n d t h e c u r v e d t r a n s p a r e n t apse i s a g e n e r o u s p i e - s h a p e d m o n k ' s c h o i r . The f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e r o t u n d a a r e a r t i c u l a t e d by b r o a d l y b e v e l l e d p i e r s t u r n e d on f o r t y - f i v e d e g r e e a n g l e s between s l i g h t l y engaged c o l o s s a l C o r i n t h i a n c o l u m n s . These bea r l a r g e r e s s a u t s f r o m w h i c h s p r i n g t h e f o u r g i a n t a r c h e s s u p p o r t i n g t h e c e n t r a l dome. In d e s i g n i n g t h i s c h u r c h , P a l l a d i o drew much s t r e n g t h f r o m h i s s u c c e s s f u l domed t r i c o n c h c h a n c e l o f t h e R e d e n t o r e , w i t h i n w h i c h many s i m i l a r e l e m e n t s appea r ( F i g s . 72 and 7 4 ) . F o r t h e f a c a d e o f t h e b u i l d i n g , P a l l a d i o p r o p o s e d a g rand c l a s s i c a l C o r i n t h i a n p o r t i c o on t h e model o f t h e P a n t h e o n ( F i g . 1 0 0 ) . 2 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a f t e r h i s d e m i s e , t h e m a s t e r ' s p r o j e c t was abandoned and n e v e r r e a l i z e d . In 1 5 9 1 , n i n e y e a r s a f t e r he was f i r e d as a r c h i t e c t o f t h e new c h u r c h o f S a n t a M a r i a C e l e s t e , P a l l a d i o ' s f o l l o w e r , V i n c e n z o S c a m o z z i , was h i r e d by t h e T h e a t i n e s t o d e s i g n t h e T o l e n t i n i . He s u p e r v i s e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t b u i l d i n g ( F i g s . 80 and 101) and a d j o i n i n g m o n a s t e r y u n t i l 1 5 9 5 , when he was a g a i n d i s m i s s e d by h i s e m p l o y e r s " . . . f o r s u p p o s e d i n c o m - p e t e n c e . " U n l i k e t h e abandoned C e l e s t e , w h i c h was l e f t h a l f f i n i s h e d f o r t w e n t y - f o u r y e a r s ( t i l l 1 6 0 6 ) , c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e T o l e n t i n i was c o n t i n u e d on S c a m o z z i ' s " . . . s c h e m e w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n s . . . u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e 6 6 . T h e a t i n e a m a t e u r s ' and c o n s e c r a t e d i n 1602 . F o l l o w i n g h i s p r e c e d e n c e a t t h e C e l e s t e , S c a m o z z i r e t u r n e d t o t h e R e d e n t o r e f o r i n s p i r a t i o n f o r h i s d e s i g n f o r t h e T o l e n t i n i . R e c a l l i n g P a l l a d i o , t h e p l a n p r e s e n t s a L a t i n c r o s s c o n f i g u r a t i o n composed o f a v a u l t e d nave w i t h s i x i d e n t i c a l b i l a t e r a l v a u l t e d s i d e - c h a p e l s and a c e n t r a l i z e d c r o s s i n g c rowned w i t h an i n c o m p l e t e drummed c u p o l a ^ f o l l o w e d by a s h o r t c h a n c e l w i t h a l o n g f l a t - e n d e d c h o i r b e h i n d . The s i d e - c h a p e l s o f t h e nave a r e s e p a r a t e d by a s e r i e s o f g i a n t s i n g l e C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s ( F i g . 1 0 2 ) , w h i c h a r e r e d u c e d a l t e r n a t i v e s o f t h e p a i r e d h a l f - c o l u m n s o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 86) and echo t h e s i m i l a r , bu t s h o r t e r v e r s i o n s f o u n d i n San T r o v a s o by S m e r a l d i ( F i g . 8 4 ) . D u p l i c a t i n g t h e e a r l i e r c h u r c h e s , t h e symmetry and r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e main o r d e r s on s m a l l b a s e s i s u n i f o r m l y c a r r i e d a r o u n d t h e c h u r c h . As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , each c h a p e l i s f o r m e d by a s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h r i s i n g f r o m an e n t a b l a t u r e s u p p o r t e d by m i n o r D o r i c p i l a s t e r s w i t h o u t p e d e s t a l s . U n l i k e t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e c h a p e l s a r e r e c t a n - g u l a r and no t e l l i p t i c a l l y e l o n g a t e d by s m a l l apses t o t h e s i d e s . T h i s shape c o u l d have been d e r i v e d f r om San T r o v a s o ( F i g . 83) o r p o s s i b l y San F r a n c e s c o d i P a o l a ( F i g . 93) v i a San S e b a s t i a n o ( F i g . 9 4 ) , w h i c h a l l have r e c t i l i n e a r c h a p e l s . L i k e t h e R e d e n t o r e , a l l t h e c h a p e l s a r e l i n k e d i n s e r i e s by a c c e s s c o r r i d o r s w h i c h a l l o w f o r p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s t o be c o n d u c t e d w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f mass a t t h e h i g h a l t a r . In t h e o r i g i n a l , P a l l a d i o d e s i g n e d s i x i d e n t i c a l a l t a r s t o s i t w i t h i n h i s s i x i d e n t i c a l c h a p e l s , g i v i n g p r o f o u n d b a l a n c e t o h i s ha rmon ious and e n c o m p a s s i n g s y s t e m o f d e s i g n . A f t e r r e p e a t i n g t h i s p a t t e r n , S c a m o z z i a l s o c l o s e l y c o p i e d P a l l a d i o ' s o r i g i n a l a l t a r d e s i g n ( F i g . 8 6 ) , u t i l i z i n g two p r o j e c t i n g 6 7 . co l umns c a r r y i n g a s i m p l e ped imen t w i t h a p e r t u r e s f o r p i c t u r e s f r amed w i t h i n a r o u n d - h e a d e d a r c h w i t h a k e y s t o n e s u p p o r t e d by m i n o r o r d e r s ( F i g . 1 0 3 ) . By mak ing t h e c h a p e l s and t h e i r a l t a r s a l l o f t h e same d e - s i g n , t h e y a c t as a r e p e t i t i v e and c o m p l i m e n t a r y f o i l t o t h e more e l a b o r a t e main a l t a r w h i c h has no copy and s t a n d s a l o n e i n i t s u l t i m a t e i m p o r t a n c e ( F i g . 1 0 4 ) . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o a t t h e R e d e n t o r e , S c a m o z z i opened t h e back w a l l s o f t h e l a t e r a l c h a p e l s above t h e c o r n i c e i n t o m u l l i o n e d t h e r m a l w indows o f t h e same s i z e as t h e a r c h e s c o n n e c t i n g them w i t h t h e n a v e . F u r t h e r m o r e , he a d a p t e d P a l l a d i o ' s s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e m o f e x t e n d i n g upwards t h e w a l l s o f masonry s e p a r a t i n g t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s t o f o r m b u t t r e s s e s t o r e s i s t t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e nave v a u l t ( F i g s . 5 and 1 0 5 ) . The n a v e , l i k e t h a t o f t h e R e d e n t o r e , i s a l m o s t e x a c t l y t w i c e as l o n g as i t i s w i d e ( F i g s . 72 and 8 0 ) . U n l i k e P a l l a d i o ' s c h u r c h , w h i c h has a s h a l l o w c u r v e d v a u l t " . . . j u d g e d t o be t o o low i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r two d i m e n s i o n s [w id th and h e i g h t ] " ^ . S c a m o z z i ' s nave i s c o v e r e d by a v e r y h i g h b a r r e l v a u l t ( F i g . 1 0 2 ) , r e c a l l i n g h i s m a s t e r ' s work a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 6 7 ) . S c a m o z z i s t r e t c h e d P a l l a d i o ' s g e o m e t r i c p r o p o r t i o n s f u r t h e r , mak ing t h e d i m e n s i o n f r o m t h e f l o o r t o t h e crown o f t h e v a u l t t h e same as t he w i d t h o f t h e t h r e e s i d e - c h a p e l s , w h i c h i s a l m o s t t h e same b r e a d t h as t h e c r o s s i n g s q u a r e under t h e dome ( F i g . 1 0 1 ) . A t San G i o r g i o , t h e v a u l t i s h a l f as h i g h as t h e p r i n c i p a l o r d e r s c a r r y i n g i t , whereas t h e T o l e n t i n i c e i l i n g i s t w i c e t h e h e i g h t o f t h e main p i l a s t e r s , e x p r e s s i n g an even more v a s t s e n s e o f open s p a c e . C o n f o r m i n g t o P a l l a d i o a t t h e R e d e n t o r e , b o t h t h e k e y s t o n e s o f t h e c h a p e l a r c h e s and t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e a d j o i n i n g p i l a s t e r s s u p p o r t a h e a v y , d e n t i l l e d e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h r u n s p e r f e c t l y s t r a i g h t a round t he who le i n t e r i o r , no t even b r e a k i n g b r i e f l y i n s l i g h t p l a n e s b e n e a t h t h e 6 8 . f o u r huge a r c h e s f o r m i n g t h e c r o s s i n g s q u a r e . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t h i s v e r y l i n e a r s u r f a c e i s an a x i a l l y i n s i s t e n t e l emen t w h i c h e n c o u r a g e s t h e eye t o move down the nave t h r o u g h t h e c r o s s i n g and i n t o t h e c h a n c e l h o u s i n g t h e h i g h a l t a r ( F i g s . 102 and 1 0 4 ) , d e m o n s t r a t i n g what W i t t k o w e r c a l l s t h e " . . . s p e c i a l b r a n d o f f r i g i d c l a s s i c i s m . . . o f S c a m o z z i ' s b r i t t l e , l i n e a r s t y l e . I n a g r e e m e n t , L e w i s s t a t e s t h a t a f t e r P a l l a d i o , " . . . S c a m o z z i Q p e r p e t u a t e d a f u n d a m e n t a l l y t e c t o n i c sys tem o f d e s i g n " 0 , e x p r e s s i n g a r a t i o n a l l y o r d e r e d , c l e a r and i n t e g r a l s ys tem o f b o l d l y s t r u c t u r a l s u r f a c e s . As i n San G i o r g i o , t h e nave v a u l t o f t h e T o l e n t i n i i s a smooth w h i t e w a s h e d s u r f a c e w h i c h d e r i v e s i t s f o r m a l c l a r i t y f r o m the a c c e n t u a t e d r i b b i n g o f i t s b o u n d i n g a r c h e s ( F i g s . 67 and 1 0 2 ) . By s e t t i n g s i x Roman windows i n t o t h i s c e i l i n g d i r e c t l y above t h e s i x s i d e - c h a p e l s , Scamozz i a l s o c o p i e d P a l l a d i o ' s l i g h t i n g f o r m u l a . Combined w i t h t he windows o f t he c h a p e l s , a b r i l j i a n t u n i f o r m l i g h t i s t r a n s f u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n s p a c e . In t h e same manner as S m e r a l d i a t San T r o v a s o , t h e f o r m a t i o n o f b r i g h t l y l i t p l a s t e r e d s u r f a c e s e n l i v e n e d by d a r k e r s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s echoes t h e i m p r e s s o f P a l l a d i o a t bo th San G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e . P a s s i n g i n t o t h e c r o s s i n g f r om t h e n a v e , we f i n d t h a t t h e t r a n s v e r s e a x i s o f t h i s s p a c e , l i k e t h a t o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 6 6 ) , i s t h e same w i d t h as t h e nave and h e l p s t o oppose t h e i n s i s t e n t p r o g r e s s i o n o f t h e more f o r c e f u l c e n t r a l a x i s o f t h e nave ( F i g . 8 0 ) . C o n c u r r i n g w i t h t he r e s t o f t h e c h u r c h , and f o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o ' s own p r i n c i p a l s , e v e r y a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t i s c a r e - f u l l y r e p e a t e d t o each s i d e , c r e a t i n g a h i g h l y c a l c u l a t e d i n t e r l o c k i n g p a t t e r n and u n i f i e d e f f e c t . The d e p t h o f t h e nave c h a p e l s d e f i n e s t h e s h a l l o w d e p t h o f t h e t r a n s e p t a rms . C o v e r i n g t h e t r a n s e p t s , t h e r e a r e v e r y s h o r t b a r r e l v a u l t s d e f i n e d by bound ing a r c h e s whose a r c h i v o l t s a r e e m b e l i s h e d w i t h 6 9 . o r n a m e n t a l m o u l d i n g ( F i g . 1 0 6 ) . T h i s same a r rangemen t i s r e p e a t e d once a g a i n i n an i d e n t i c a l s p a c e s e t b e f o r e t h e c h a n c e l ( F i g . 1 0 4 ) . O v e r a l l , t h e c r o s s i n g r e p r e s e n t s a s p a t i a l n u c l e u s o f t h r e e s h o r t , bu t l a r g e , r e c e s s e d bays b o r d e r i n g a c e n t r a l c r o s s i n g s q u a r e under a dome ( F i g . 104) In t h i s manne r , i t c l o s e l y r e f l e c t s P a l l a d i o ' s domed t r i c o n c h s t r u c t u r e a t t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 4 ) . In each o f h i s a r c h e d b a y s , S c a m o z z i d e s i g n e d a l o w e r a r c h e d o p e n i n g . F o r t h e two t r a n s e p t a r m s , t h e s e o p e n i n g s e x t e n d back t o f o r m l a r g e , d e e p , r e c t i l i n e a r c h a p e l s c o v e r e d by h a l f - b a r r e l v a u l t s and l i t by l a r g e t h e r m a l w indows s e t above t h e c o r n i c e l i n e s o f t h e end w a l l s ( F i g . 1 0 6 ) . The s m a l l e r i n n e r a r c h e s a c t as a n s w e r i n g c u r v e s t o t h e l a r g e r o u t e r o n e s , f o c u s s i n g t h e v i s i t o r ' s v i e w i n w a r d s t o t h e two i d e n t i c a l a l t a r s . C u r i o u s l y e n o u g h , t h e t r a n s e p t e l e v a t i o n s c l o s e l y i m i t a t e P a l l a d i o ' s r e s o l u t i o n f o r t h e s i d e c h a p e l s f o r h i s u n r e a l i z e d d e s i g n f o r t h e T o l e n t i n i o f 1579 ( F i g . 9 9 ) , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t S c a m o z z i may have had a c c e s s t o h i s m a s t e r ' s o r i g i n a l d e s i g n , s u r e l y i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e T h e a t i n e s and a v a i l a b l e t o h im f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n a t t h e t i m e . As no ted by o t h e r s , t h e r e c t a n g u l a r shape o f t h e c h a p e l s a t t a c h e d t o t h e t r a n s e p t arms were no t i n t e n d e d by S c a m o z z i . ^ They were d e s i g n e d and added by t h e new b u i l d e r s a f t e r S c a m o z z i ' s d i s m i s s a l . The o r i g i n a l scheme c a l l e d f o r s e m i - c i r c u l a r c h a p e l s ( F i g . 1 0 7 ) , w h i c h c o u l d have b r o u g h t t h e p l a n i n t o c l o s e a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t he a p s i d a l c h a p e l s o f t h e R e d e n t o r e . A l a t e r d r a w i n g by A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( F i g . 1 0 8 ) , c i r c a 1 7 5 0 , r e - v e a l s a c e n t r a l i z e d c r o s s i n g b o r d e r e d by t h r e e l a r g e c i r c u l a r a p s e s . T h i s p l a n i s t h o u g h t t o have been a copy o f a n o t h e r S c a m o z z i d r a w i n g known t o V i s e n t i n i t h r o u g h h i s f r i e n d Tommaso Temanza (1705 -1789 ) " . . . w h o s t a t e d t h a t he had i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n t h e o r i g i n a l d e s i g n s f o r t he c h u r c h by V i n c e n z o / u . S c a m o z z i . " i U Once a g a i n , t h i s p l a n r e f l e c t s a c l e a r d e b t t o t h e d e s i g n o f t h e t r i c h o t o m o u s g roup o f a p s e s a t t h e R e d e n t o r e . The c h a n c e l f l o o r , l i k e t h a t o f San G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e , i s r a i s e d a few s t e p s f r om t h e pavement o f t h e a d j a c e n t s p a c e s ( F i g . 1 0 9 ) . A l l t h r e e c h u r c h e s have b a l u s t r a d e d l a n d i n g s w h i c h , i n d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s , p r o j e c t o u t w a r d s i n t o t h e s p a c e s t h e y f r o n t i n an i n v i t a t i o n a l g e s t u r e t o t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n . The s t r u c t u r a l f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c h a n c e l h o u s i n g t h e h i g h a l t a r i s e x a c t l y t h e same, d e s i g n as t h e t r a n s e p t c h a p e l s , e x c e p t t h a t t h e r e i s no back w a l l t o t h e c h a n c e l r e c e s s . I n s t e a d , t h e r e i s a l o n g n a r r o w m o n k ' s c h o i r w h i c h can be d r a m a t i c a l l y seen a round and above t h e a l t a r t h r o u g h t h e c h a n c e l a r chway ( F i g . 1 0 9 ) . The s p a c e i s b r i g h t l y l i t by a f l o o d o f l i g h t p a s s i n g t h r o u g h f o u r Roman windows s e t i n t h e b a r r e l v a u l t above t h e ma in e n t a b l a t u r e . A n o t h e r l a r g e t h e r m a l window i n t h e end w a l l has been c l o s e d i n . The c o n c e p t o f e x t e n d i n g s p a c e b e h i n d a s c r e e n b e h i n d t h e h i g h a l t a r f o r a m o n k ' s c h o i r was s u c c e s s f u l l y used by P a l l a d i o i n bo th San G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e . In t h e T o l e n t i n i , t h e r e i s no a r c h i t e c t o n i c c u r t a i n be tween t h e c h a n c e l and t h e c h o i r s p a c e as t h e r e a r e i n t h e P a l l a d i a n m o d e l s . I n s t e a d , t h e p l a n u s e s t h e h i g h a l t a r as a p a r t i a l p a r t i t i o n , f o l l o w i n g S a n s o v i n o ' s p r e c e d e n t a t San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a i n 1 5 3 4 , where an a l t a r s e r v i n g as a c h o i r - s c r e e n was a new and r e v o l u t i o n a r y f e a t u r e i n V e n i c e ( F i g . 4 7 ) . ^ The c h o i r was most l i k e l y o f T h e a t i n e d e s i g n . In V i s e n t i n i ' s d r a w i n g , we f i n d t h a t S c a m o z z i wanted t he end w a l l o f t h e c h o i r t o be s e m i - c i r c u l a r , b u t , once a g a i n , t h e a l t a r s t i l l s i t s under t h e d o u b l e c u r v e s and v a u l t o f t h e c h a n c e l a r c h w a y , s c r e e n i n g t h e s a n c t u a r y s p a c e f r o m t h e c h o i r be - h i n d ( F i g . 1 0 8 ) . The T o l e n t i n i i s one o f V e n i c e ' s most i m p o r t a n t r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e s and a b e a u t i f u l l y e l a b o r a t e example o f V e n e t i a n P a l l a d i a n i s m . 7 1 . NOTES 1. The p l a n s f o r P a l l a d i o ' s c e n t r a l i z e d p r o j e c t f o r San N i c o l o d e i T o l e n t i n i a r e p r e s e r v e d i n London i n t h e B u r l i n g t o n - D e v o n s h i r e C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s , X I V / 1 3 - 1 6 . F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s u n i q u e p r o p o s a l , see W. T i m o f i e w i t s c h , " E i n U n b e k a n n t e r K i r c h e n e n t w u r f P a l l a d i o s " , A r t e V e n e t a , X I I I - X I V , 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 , p p . 7 9 - 8 7 . 2 . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 1 2 . 3 . Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 174 . See a l s o , E l e n a B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a d e l S e i e S e t t e c e n t o a V e n e z i a ( N a p o l i : E d i z i o n i S c i e n - t i f i c h e I t a l i a n e , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 8 4 . 4 . John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D raw ings C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 3 8 . 5 . Above t h e c r o s s - s h a p e d v a u l t i n g o f t h e n a v e , t r a n s e p t s , and c h a n c e l , t h e dome i s l i m i t e d t o a drum o n l y , b e i n g c o v e r e d by a f l a t c e i l i n g ( F i g . 1 0 1 ) . 6 . W. T i m o f i e w i t s c h , The C h i e s a d e l R e d e n t o r e ( U n i v e r s i t y P a r k : The P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 2 2 . 7 . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y : 1600 -1750 ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n B o o k s , I n c . , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 7 3 . 8 . D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e Ba roque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 2 9 5 . 9 . See Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 174 ; G u i 1 i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p , 4 8 5 ; L i o n e l l o P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 4 4 3 ; W. T i m o f i e w i t s c h , " D i s e g n i I n e d i t i d e l l o Scamozz i i n p o s s e s s o p r i v a t o a Monaco d i B a v i e r a " , B o n e t t i n g , I I I , 1 9 6 1 , pp . 1 4 1 - 4 2 ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p p . 1 6 - 1 7 . 10 . L i o n e l l o P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 4 3 3 . 1 1 . Deborah Howard , J a c o p o S a n s o v i n o : A r c h i t e c t u r e and P a t r o n a g e i n R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e (New Haven : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 70 a n c j 72. 7 2 . San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o : F a c a d e - 1594 In 1 5 5 8 , P a t r i a r c h V i n c e n z o D i e d o c o m m i s s i o n e d P a l l a d i o t o d e s i g n a c o m p l e t e l y new c h u r c h * t o r e p l a c e t h e aged G o t h i c s t r u c t u r e o f San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o ( F i g . 1 1 0 ) . A b u i l d i n g c o n t r a c t was drawn up t o engage s tonemasons t o e r e c t a f a c a d e f o l l o w i n g a main f r o n t scheme o f s i x l a r g e c o l u m n s , bu t on December 9 , 1559 , D i e d o d i e d , and c o n s t r u c t i o n was 3 h a l t e d a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , P a l l a d i o ' s d e s i g n , l i k e t h a t o f t h e T o l e n t i n i , was n e v e r r e a l i z e d . I f c o n s t r u c t i o n had c o n - t i n u e d , t h e f a c a d e wou ld have been P a l l a d i o ' s f i r s t f o r a c h u r c h p r e c e d i n g h i s new i n v e n t i o n o f t h e i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g t e m p l e f r o n t s o l u t i o n a t San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a ( F i g . 55) i n 1562 by f o u r y e a r s . O t h e r t h a n a few vague s u g g e s t i o n s o f f o r m w r i t t e n i n t h e c o n t r a c t , t h e r e i s no way o f knowing t h e a c t u a l d e s i g n , f o r t h e o r i g i n a l d r a w i n g s have been l o s t . ^ In V e n i c e , P a l l a d i o n e v e r used more t h a n f o u r g i a n t co lumns t o f o rm t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f h i s t e m p l e f r o n t c h u r c h f a c a d e s . However , i n t h e 1 5 5 0 ' s , he had f r e q u e n t l y f a v o r e d g r a n d h e x a s t y l e Roman p o r t i c o s f o r h i s Vene to v i l l a d e s i g n s ( F i g s . 6 1 , 1 1 3 , 114 and 1 1 5 ) . Even though t h e c o n t r a c t o f 1558 does no t p a r t i c u l a r i z e " f r e e - s t a n d i n g " o r d e r s , P a l l a d i o may have been p r o p o s i n g a s i x co lumn p o r t i c o . H i s f a s c i n a t i o n and a p p r o v a l f o r t h e f o r m c o n t i n u e d r i g h t up t o h i s d e a t h . F o r San G i o r g i o , " . . . h e c o n s i d e r e d , p r o b a b l y i n t h e l a t e 1 5 7 0 ' s , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a huge f r e e - s t a n d i n g p o r t i c o " ( F i g . 1 1 1 ) . 6 i n 1 5 7 9 , he r e p e a t e d i t once a g a i n i n h i s u n r e a l i z e d p r o j e c t f o r t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 1 0 0 ) . In 1 5 8 0 , he ended h i s c a r e e r w i t h a h e x a s t y l e p r o s t y l e f r o n t f o r h i s T e m p i e t t o a t Maser ( F i g . 6 ) . 73. In 1594 , f o u r y e a r s a f t e r h i s c h u r c h o f San T r o v a s o was f i n i s h e d , F r a n c e s c o S m e r a l d i began r e b u i l d i n g t h e f a c a d e o f San P i e t r o . I t was c o m p l e t e two y e a r s l a t e r i n 1596 ( F i g . 1 1 2 ) . The o v e r a l l d e s i g n f o l l o w s P a l l a d i o ' s s o l u t i o n a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 3 ) , w i t h e l e m e n t s t a k e n f r o m t h e R e d e n t o r e added t o i t ( F i g . 5 ) . I t has been o f t e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t S m e r a l d i may have t a k e n o v e r P a l l a d i o ' s e a r l i e r d e s i g n and i n i m i t a b l y m o d i f i e d i t , g p r o d u c i n g t h e e x i s t i n g f a c a d e . T o d a y , t h e r e i s s t i l l no e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e t o s o l i d l y s u b s t a n t i a t e such a c l a i m . I t i s t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r t h a t t h e d e s i g n was o f S m e r a l d i ' s own i n v e n t i o n , i m i t a t i n g t h e f a m i l i a r manner o f P a l l a d i o ' s l a t e r c h u r c h e s and no t a r e w o r k i n g o f t h e m a s t e r ' s d e s i g n o f 1558 . F u r t h e r m o r e , P a l l a d i o ' s d e s i g n , as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e c o n t r a c t , does no t compare w i t h t h e p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e . S m e r a l d i ' s f a c a d e was f i r s t s e t a g a i n s t t h e nave and s i d e - a i s l e w a l l s o f t h e o r i g i n a l b a s i l i c a n G o t h i c c h u r c h ( F i g . 1 1 0 ) . In 1 6 1 9 , t h e o l d s t r u c t u r e was d e m o l i s h e d and a new t r i p a r t i t e p l a n c o n s t r u c t e d on t h e model o f San G i o r g i o t o s u p p o r t t h e 1594 f a c a d e . In bo th c a s e s , t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l and v i s u a l e f f e c t s o f t h e i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g t e m p l e f r o n t o r g a n i z e d i n h i s f a c a d e were meant t o p roduce a s e n s e o f c o n t i n u i t y and d i a l o g u e between t h e i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r o f t h e c h u r c h . In t h i s manne r , S m e r a l d i was t h o r o u g h g o i n g l y P a l l a d i a n . The main bay o f S m e r a l d i ' s f a c a d e i s composed o f a t e m p l e f r o n t w i t h two p a i r s o f l a r g e C o m p o s i t e h a l f - c o l u m n s on h i g h p e d e s t a l s s u p p o r t i n g a b r o a d e n t a b l a t u r e and a s t r o n g l y marked ped iment ( F i g . 1 1 2 ) . Between the c o l o s s a l o r d e r s t h e m s e l v e s , t h e r e a r e upper p a n e l s s e p a r a t e d by s t r i n g c o u r s e s o f e n t a b l a t u r e f r om f r amed n i t c h e s b e l o w . The l a r g e c e n t r e s p a c e between t h e p a i r e d c o l u m n a r bays embraces a l a r g e doorway w i t h a m i n o r 74.. o r d e r and p e d i m e n t . The p i l a s t e r s on s m a l l bases o f t h e s e c o n d a r y C o r i n t h i a n o r d e r f r a m i n g t h i s e n t r a n c e e x t e n d ou t beyond t h e ma in t e m p l e f r o n t t o c a r r y t h e h a l f p e d i m e n t s o f t h e s i d e b a y s , w h i c h a r e t h e f r o n t a l w a l l s o f t h e s i d e a i s l e s o f t h e i n t e r i o r . H e r e , between t h e o r d e r s , S m e r a l d i added a n o t h e r two s h o r t e r p e d i m e n t e d d o o r s . To h e l p i n t e r l o c k a l l t h r e e bays o f h i s f a c a d e , t h e a r c h i t e c t c o n t i n u e d t h e e n t a b l a t u r e o f t h e m i n o r o r d e r s a c r o s s t h e who le f a c a d e . E x c e p t f o r t h e ped imen t above t h e ma in p o r t a l and t h e two a d d i t i o n a l s i d e - a i s l e d o o r s i n t h e w i n g s , t h i s a c c o u n t o f San P i e t r o c o u l d a l s o d e s c r i b e P a l l a d i o ' s f a c a d e f o r San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 3 ) . The way i n w h i c h t h e s t r u c t u r a l w a l l s and a t t i c s o f t h e nave and a i s l e s meet t h e f a c a d e i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t manner c o n s t i t u t e s t h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two d e s i g n s . A t San G i o r g i o , t h e f a c a d e i s c o n n e c t e d t o t h e main s t r u c t u r e o f t h e b u i l d i n g a t t h e same h e i g h t . The ma in and s i d e - p e d i m e n t s c o r r e s p o n d e x a c t l y t o t h e h e i g h t o f t h e a t t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n s b e h i n d . A t San P i e t r o , t h e p e d i m e n t s do no t r i s e t o t h e a t t i c l e v e l s ( F i g . 1 1 2 ) . To f i l l t h e v o i d above t h e main c e n t r a l p e d i m e n t , a h i g h , r e c t a n g u l a r a t t i c w i t h a d e n t i l l e d c o r n i c e was i n t r o d u c e d . Above t h e h a l f - p e d i m e n t s o f t h e s i d e b a y s , t h e r e a r e two b u t t r e s s f o r m s w i t h u n d e t a i l e d p a r t i a l p e d i m e n t s . These r e s o l u t i o n s c l o s e l y i m i t a t e P a l l a d i o ' s model a t t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 5 ) . No one knows why t h e e l e m e n t s f r o m t h e R e d e n t o r e were s u p e r i m p o s e d above a p r e d o m i n a n t l y San G i o r g i o f a c a d e . I t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l b a s i l i c a n G o t h i c s t r u c t u r e t o w h i c h S m e r a l d i a t t a c h e d h i s f a c a d e i n 1594 was l o w e r t h a n t he P a l l a d i a n s t r u c t u r e added t o t h e same f r o n t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s l a t e r i n 1619 by G i r o l a m o G r a p i g l i a . D e ' B a r b a r i ' s s k e t c h o f t h e a n c i e n t c h u r c h seems t o s u p p o r t t h i s i d e a ( F i g . 1 1 0 ) . I t d e p i c t s a l owe r b u i l d i n g w i t h a v e r y n a r r o w c l e a r s t o r y w a l l be tween t h e nave and a i s l e r o o f s . The w a l l i s p i e r c e d 7 5 . w i t h o v e r a dozen s m a l l r e c t i l i n e a r w indows . As i t a p p e a r s , S m e r a l d i ' s f a c a d e , w i t h o u t t h e uppe r a t t i c and s i d e - w i n g b u t t r e s s e s , wou ld have f i t n e a t l y on t o t h e a n c i e n t s t r u c t u r e . In c o m p a r i s o n , G r a p i g l i a ' s s t r u c t u r e ( F i g . 112) i s h i g h e r and i n c l u d e s two v e r y t a l l c l e a r s t o r y w a l l s w h i c h t o - g e t h e r h o l d s i x g i a n t Roman windows between t h e uppe r and l o w e r r o o f l i n e s . S m e r a l d i ' s f a c a d e , w i t h o u t t h e a t t i c and b u t t r e s s e s , does no t c o n f o r m t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e new b u i l d i n g . I t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t G r a p i g l i a may have added t h e R e d e n t o r e e l e m e n t s above t h e p e d i m e n t s i n o r d e r t o f i l l i n t h e gaps c r e a t e d by d e s i g n i n g a t a l l e r s t r u c t u r e t h a n t h e a n c i e n t one t o w h i c h S m e r a l d i ' s 1594 f a c a d e was a d a p t e d . As an e m u l a t i o n o f San G i o r g i o , w i t h e l e m e n t s t a k e n f r o m t h e R e d e n t o r e , S m e r a l d i ' s f r o n t f o r San P i e t r o r e m a i n e d t h e o n l y r e a l i z e d f a c s i m i l e o f P a l l a d i o ' s i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g t e m p l e f r o n t f a c a d e d e s i g n i n V e n i c e f o r one hund red y e a r s . I t was no t u n t i l c i r c a 1 6 9 5 , w i t h t h e m o d i f i e d r e - s t a t e m e n t o f t h e San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a f a c a d e f o r San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a , t h a t i t was r e p e a t e d once a g a i n ( F i g . 1 8 7 ) . 7 6 . NOTES 1. P a l l a d i o may have s u b m i t t e d as many as e i g h t d i f f e r e n t d e s i g n s t o P a t r i a r c h D i e d o , see John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D raw ings C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 3 6 . 2 . F o r more commentary on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l deve lopmen t o f t h e c h u r c h o f San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o , see Umber to F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 5 2 4 - 5 3 3 . 3 . John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D raw ings C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 3 6 . The c o n t r a c t o f J a n u a r y 7 , 1 5 5 8 , f o r P a l l a d i o ' s d e s i g n f o r San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o w i t h s p e c i f i c b u i l d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s i s r e p r o d u c e d i n A . M a g r i n i , Memor ie i n t o r n o l a v i t a e l e o p e r e d i A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( P a d u a , 1 8 4 5 ) , p. X V I I , n o t e 3 7 . 4 . L i o n e l l o P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 3 2 2 . 5 . See f o o t n o t e 114 o f C h a p t e r I, p. 4 6 . 6 . Howard B u r n s , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o 1508 -1580 ( L o n d o n : The A r t s C o u n c i l o f B r i t a i n , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 140 . 7 . F o r more d i s c u s s i o n on P a l l a d i o ' s u n r e a l i z e d p r o p o s a l f o r a f r e e - s t a n d i n g p o r t i c o f o r San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e , see L i o n e l l o P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) , pp . 369 and 4 2 9 ; and W. T i m o f i e w i t s c h " E i n e Z e i c h n u n g A n d r e a P a l l a d i o s F u e r D i e K l o s t e r a n l a g e Van S . G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e " , A r t e V e n e t a , X V I , 1 9 6 2 , p p . 1 6 0 - 6 3 . A l s o see f o o t n o t e s 115 and 118 o f C h a p t e r I, p. 4 6 , h e r e i n . 8 . F o r a c o n c i s e r e v i e w o f t h e many d i f f e r i n g v i e w s ( J . A c k e r m a n , A . M a g r i n i , R. P a n e , E . P a o l e t t i , R. W i t t k o w e r , G. Z o r z i ) w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e d e s i g n i n f l u e n c e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e f a c a d e o f San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o , see L i o n e l l o P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) , pp . 3 2 1 - 3 2 2 . 7 7 . San G iacomo d e l l a G i u d e c c a : 1603 In 1 6 0 3 , t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y G o t h i c c h u r c h o f San Giacomo d e l l a G i u d e c c a was r a d i c a l l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n t o a new b u i l d i n g by an unknown a r c h i t e c t . * In 1 8 0 6 , t h e m o n a s t e r y and c h u r c h were s u p p r e s s e d and c o n v e r t e d i n t o a r e s i d e n c e and wa rehouse f o r t h e m i l i t a r y . The b u i l d i n g s were e v e n t u a l l y p u l l e d down c i r c a 1 8 4 0 , l e a v i n g no p h y s i c a l t r a c e o f t h e i r 2 d e s i g n . T o d a y , A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ' s d r a w i n g s o f San Giacomo ( F i g s . 1 1 7 , 118 ,119 and 120) a r e t h e o n l y r e c o r d s l e f t documen t i ng t h e d e s i g n o f t h e i n t e r i o r and t h e f a c a d e o f t h e c h u r c h . McAndrew t e l l s us t h a t t h e i n t e r i o r " . . . w a s a s m a l l v e r s i o n o f i t s i m m e d i a t e n e i g h b o u r , t h e R e d e n t o r e . . . Candl i t c o u l d e a s i l y have been d e s i g n e d by one o f h i s LPa l lad io ' sJ pers is tent i m i t a t o r s such as S o r e l l a o r S m e r a l d i . " ^ In t he s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s i n V e n i c e , one o f t h e f a v o r i t e c h u r c h p l a n s was t h e s t a n d a r d l o n g nave and s q u a r e c h a n c e l . As W i t t k o w e r s t a t e s , V e n i c e i t s e l f i s r i c h i n v a r i a t i o n s on t he theme o f t h e R e d e n t o r e . F r e q u e n t l y e n c o u n t e r e d i s t h e nave w i t h o u t a i s l e s bu t w i t h t h r e e s i d e c h a p e l s , o f v a r y i n g d e p t h , s e p a r a t e d by an a r rangemen t o f h a l f - c o l u m n s o r p i l a s t e r s , and r o o f e d by a b a r r e l - v a u l t w i t h l u n e t t e s . ^ The g round p l a n o f San Giacomo was one o f t h e e a r l i e s t examp les i n V e n i c e o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o ' s p r o p o r t i o n s a t t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 2 ) , t h e r e c t a n g u l a r nave h a l l o f San G iacomo was a l m o s t e x a c t l y t w i c e as l o n g as i t was w i d e ( F i g . 1 1 7 ) . By f o r e s h o r t e n i n g t he d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e p l a n became v e r y l o n g and n a r r o w . The c h a n c e l s q u a r e was o n e - t h i r d t h e 7 8 . l e n g t h and t w o - t h i r d s t h e w i d t h o f t h e n a v e . L i k e t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e nave was r i c h l y a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h a p o w e r f u l rhy thm o f engaged h a l f - c o l u m n s , w h i c h moved p a s t s i x b i l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l s i d e - c h a p e l s ( F i g . 1 1 8 ) . U n l i k e t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e m a j o r members were s i n g l e Compos i t e o r d e r s . The c h a p e l s , l i k e t h e P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h e s o f San T r o v a s o ( F i g . 84) and t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 1 0 2 ) , were f o rmed by s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h e s w i t h k e y s t o n e s r i s i n g f r o m e n t a b l a t u r e s s u p p o r t e d by m i n o r D o r i c p i l a s t e r s . R e p e a t i n g a s i m i l a r a r r a n g e m e n t f o u n d i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e p r i n c i p a l and s u b s i d i a r y o r d e r s s t a r t e d f r o m t h e same d i m i n u t i v e b a s e s . E c h o i n g S c a m o z z i ' s C e l e s t e ( F i g . 7 ) , t h e c h a p e l s were v e r y l i g h t l y r e c e s s e d , u n v a u l t e d , and w i n d o w l e s s . The o u t s i d e c h a p e l s i n each r a n g e , l i k e t h o s e o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 8 9 ) , were f l a n k e d by a s i n g l e h a l f - c o l u m n on one s i d e and a p i l a s t e r i n t h e corner. In t h e n a r r o w bays between t h e s e members , t h e r e were doorways su rmoun ted by s t a t u e n i c h e s . A t t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e l o w e r r a n g e has a n o t h e r s t a t u e " n i c h e and no t a d o o r ( F i g . 8 6 ) . D e m o n s t r a t i n g a p r e d o m i n a n t l y P a l l a d i a n i n f l u e n c e , each a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l emen t had i t s c o u n t e r p a r t p e r f e c t l y r e p e a t e d t o each s i d e o f t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n s p a c e , c r e a t i n g a ha rmon ious and u n i f y i n g sys tem o f d e s i g n ( F i g . 1 1 7 ) . S u p p o r t e d above t h e o r d e r s , a heavy e n t a b l a t u r e w i t h a s t r o n g l y d e n t i l l e d c o r n i c e c o n t i n u e d a round t h e c h u r c h w i t h o u t a b reak ( F i g . 1 1 8 ) , e x c e p t t o p r o j e c t i n s h a l l o w p l a n e s b e n e a t h t he c h a n c e l and e n t r a n c e a r c h e s ( F i g . 1 1 9 ) . I m i t a t i n g P a l l a d i o a t t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h i s l i n e a r s u r f a c e p u l l e d o n e ' s v i e w down t h e nave a round a s h o r t e n d - w a l l i n t o t h e c h a n c e l s q u a r e , t e r m i n a t i n g i t above a p a i r o f f r e e - s t a n d i n g co lumns s c r e e n i n g a c h o i r b e h i n d . S p r i n g i n g f r o m t h e e n t a b l a t u r e , a h i g h , bu t n a r r o w , b a r r e l v a u l t c e i l i n g c o v e r e d t h e n a v e . T h i s v a u l t was d e r i v e d f r om San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 67) 7 9 . r a t h e r t h a n t h e R e d e n t o r e , w h i c h has a d e p r e s s e d c e i l i n g ( F i g . 8 9 ) . I t had been c u t away t o accommodate s i x h e a v i l y g r o i n e d s e m i - c i r c u l a r Roman windows s e t p e r f e c t l y above t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s . As i n bo th San G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e y t o g e t h e r t r a n s f u s e d a u n i f o r m l i g h t t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n s p a c e b e l o w . C o n f o r m i n g t o t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 3 ) , a w a l l p e n e t r a t e d w i t h a monumental a r c h ended t h e nave h a l l and announced t h e c h a n c e l by f r a m i n g t h e h i g h a l t a r ( F i g . 1 1 9 ) . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e main room and t h e s a n c t u a r y fo rmed a l m o s t i n d e p e n d e n t u n i t s . Be low t h e a r c h , t h e l e v e l o f t h e nave pavement was c l o s e d by two s t e p s r i s i n g t o t h e e l e v a t e d c h a n c e l f l o o r . In f a m i l i a r P a l l a d i a n f a s h i o n , t h e c h a n c e l was i s o l a t e d and e m p h a s i z e d as a s a c r e d e n c l o s u r e by a number o f s p e c i a l m o t i f s . B e i n g p e r f e c t l y s q u a r e , t h e c h a n c e l c r e a t e d a s p a t i a l c o n t e n t t h a t was u n i q u e and s e p a r a t e and i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o t h e r s p a c e s o f t h e c h u r c h . The a r c h i t e c t was u s i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f h i e r a r c h y t h a t P a l l a d i o f i r s t i n v e n t e d i n San G i o r g i o t o b r i n g dominance and c l i m a x t o t h e s a n c t u a r y . As Ackerman t e l l s u s , t h e " . . . s e l f - c o n t a i n e d a l t a r - h o u s e l i k e San G i o r g i o ' s i s u n i q u e i n t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e . . . . " ^ As i n San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 8 8 ) , San Giacomo had two l a t e r a l a r c h e s r i s i n g o v e r t he e n c i r c l i n g e n t a b l a t u r e , c o n t a i n i n g t h e l a r g e s t p a i r o f Roman windows i n t h e b u i l d i n g ( F i g . 1 1 8 ) . In San G i o r g i o , t h e t e r m i n a t i n g a r c h o p p o s i t e t h e open c h a n c e l a r c h i s f i l l e d w i t h a d o u b l e t i e r e d o r g a n s c r e e n w i t h t h e t o p and bo t tom open t o t h e c h o i r b e h i n d ( F i g . 1 2 1 ) . The a r c h i t e c t o f San Giacomo r e i n t r o d u c e d t h e l o w e r t i e r o f p a i r e d i s o l a t e d co lumns a r r a n g e d i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e w i t h t h r e e i n t e r c o l u m n i a t i o n s , t h e c e n t e r bay b e i n g t w i c e as w i d e as t h o s e t o t he s i d e s ( F i g . 1 1 9 ) . Y e t , i n t h e upper t i e r , he removed t h e o r g a n and i n s t a l l e d a n o t h e r Roman window open t o t h e e x t e r i o r . The t h r e e g e n e r o u s 8 0 . o p e n i n g s above t h e h i g h a l t a r wou ld have f l o o d e d t h e c h a n c e l w i t h a b r i g h t l i g h t , r e n d e r i n g t h e s p a c e more e m p h a t i c and d i s t i n c t i n i t s s t a t e l i n e s s . P a l l a d i o d e r i v e d h i s c o l o n n a d e between two s p a c e s f r o m t h e a n c i e n t d e s i g n s o f Roman b a t h s . ^ As i n San G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e open s c r e e n o f San Giacomo ( F i g s . 118 and 1 1 9 ) , was d e s i g n e d t o b o t h h e l p s t o p t h e v i e w a t t h e end o f t h e c h a n c e l and a l l o w a g l i m p s e p a s t t h i s p r o f i l e i n t o t h e r e c e d i n g c h o i r , w h i c h was " . . . a s u b o r d i n a t e and e s s e n t i a l l y s e p a r a t e o s p a c e d e v o t e d t o p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s As i n t h e o r i g i n a l s , t h e t r i - p a r t i t e o p e n i n g s a l s o p e r m i t t e d b o t h e a s y l i t u r g i c a l c i r c u l a t i o n f r o m t h e s a c r i s t i e s , w h i c h were a c c e s s e d t o t h e r i g h t and l e f t d i r e c t l y b e h i n d t h e s c r e e n , and f l u i d v o i c e t r a n s f e r t o t h e r e s t o f t h e c h u r c h . L i k e t h o s e o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 8 9 ) , t h e c u r v e d w a l l o f t h e c h o i r o f San Giacomo was d e v o i d o f any p l a s t i c a r t i c u l a t i o n . The o n l y o rnaments were f o u r l a r g e e l e v a t e d w i n d o w s , w h i c h , e c h o i n g t h e o r i g i n a l , were " . . . s t r o n g l y s p l a y e d t o - ward t h e i n s i d e i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e f l o o d o f l i g h t . T u r n i n g t o t h e e x t e r i o r o f San G i a c o m o , we f i n d t h a t t he f a c a d e ( F i g . 1 2 0 ) , l i k e t h o s e o f San T r o v a s o ( F i g s 90 and 92) and San F r a n c e s c o d i P a o l a ( F i g . 9 7 ) , was m o d e l l e d c l o s e l y upon t h e p a t t e r n p r e s e n t e d by P a l l a d i o a t t h e Z i t e l l e ( F i g . 7 1 ) . The e l e v a t i o n was s e p a r a t e d i n t o two t i e r s o f p a i r e d s u p e r i m p o s e d c o m p o s i t e p i l a s t e r s , h o r i z o n t a l l y d i v i d e d by a b r o a d e n t a b l a t u r e and t o p p e d w i t h a t r i a n g u l a r ped iment o v e r a l a r g e s e m i - c i r c u l a r Roman w indow. F o l l o w i n g t h e same s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c p r o p o r t i o n s o f t he o r i g i n a l , t h e upper o r d e r s were h a l f t h e h e i g h t o f t h e l o w e r o n e s . Opposed t o t h e Z i t e l l e , and i n agreement w i t h San T r o v a s o and San F r a n c e s c o , t h e p i l a s t e r s r e s t on s h o r t b a s e s . U n l i k e t h e Z i t e l l e , t he ma in bay o f t he l o w e r t i e r embraced a c e n t r a l p e d i m e n t e d p o r t a l o n l y . The t r a d i t i o n a l l o n g windows were removed and t h e i n s i d e p i l a s t e r s p l a c e d c l o s e t o t h e d o o r . T h i s change c r e a t e d l a r g e r w a l l s u r f a c e s between t h e p a i r e d o r d e r s , w i t h i n w h i c h s u p e r i m p o s e d s t a t u e n i c h e s were i n s e r t e d . These n i c h e s were s e p a r a t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y by a s l i g h t l y i n c i s e d m o l d i n g w h i c h c o n t i n u e d b e h i n d t he ma jo r o r d e r s a c r o s s t h e w h o l e f a c a d e a t t h e common l e v e l o f t h e e n t a b l a t u r e o f t h e ma in d o o r . T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t u n i f i e s t he s i d e bays w i t h t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n and r e f l e c t s P a l l a d i o ' s i n t e n t a t San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a ( F i g . 5 5 ) , San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 3) and t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 5 ) . In t h e s p a c e s between t h e p i l a s t e r s o f t h e uppe r t i e r , t h e r e were l a r g e s l i g h t l y r e c e s s e d r e c t a n g u l a r p a n e l s . Between t h e p a i r e d b a y s , as i n t h e Z i t e l l e , t h e r e was a l a r g e m u l l i o n e d t h e r m a l o p e n i n g , w h i c h wou ld have b r i g h t l y i l l u m i n a t e d t h e nave b e h i n d ( F i g s . 118 and 1 1 9 ) . As V i s e n t i n i ' s d r a w i n g s a f f i r m , t h e d e s i g n o f t h i s c h u r c h was one o f t h e f i r s t i n V e n i c e t o r e s o l v e t h e r e c u r r i n g p r o b l e m t h a t f u t u r e a r c h i t e c t s had i n a t t e m p t i n g t o u n i f y a p r i m a r y l o n g i t u d i n a l nave w i t h a s q u a r e c h a n c e l based on P a l l a d i a n m o d e l s . The c h u r c h was a l s o t h e t h i r d i n t w e n t y y e a r s i n V e n i c e t o adop t a P a l l a d i a n f a c a d e based on t h e Z i t e l l e m o d e l , f o l l o w i n g San T r o v a s o i n 1583 and San F r a n c e s c o d i P a o l a i n 1588 . 8 2 . NOTES 1. F o r more d i s c u s s i o n on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l deve lopmen t o f t h e c h u r c h o f San G iacomo d e l l a G i u d e c c a , see Umber to F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 2 7 6 - 2 7 7 ; and John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D raw ings C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . ' Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 3 1 . 2 . John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D r a w i n g s C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 3 1 . 3 . These d r a w i n g s a r e h e l d i n two c o l l e c t i o n s : R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s , L o n d o n , number 1 0 7 , ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) , ( 3 ) ; and t h e B r i t i s h Museum, L o n d o n , A d m i r a n d a U r b i s V e n e t a e : 1 7 4 0 - 1 7 6 0 , Volume I I I , p. 73 and 7 4 . 4 . McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D r a w i n g s C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i , p. 3 1 . 5 . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 2 1 . 6 . James A c k e r m a n , P a l l a d i o ( L o n d o n : P e n g u i n B o o k s , L t d . , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 1 3 0 . 7 . W. T i m o f i e w i t s c h , The C h i e s a d e l R e d e n t o r e ( U n i v e r s i t y P a r k : The P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , pp . 44 and 5 0 , f o o t n o t e 8 3 . 8 . I b i d . , p. 2 1 . 9 . I b i d . , p p . 3 0 - 3 1 . 8 3 . San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o : P l a n - 1619 In 1558 , P a l l a d i o p r o p o s e d a c o m p l e t e l y new p l a n f o r t h e c h u r c h o f San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o . The d e s i g n was n e v e r r e a l i z e d and t h e a c t u a l f o r m o f t h e b u i l d i n g i s unknown, f o r t h e o r i g i n a l d r a w i n g s have n e v e r been f o u n d . In 1 6 1 9 , t h e a n c i e n t G o t h i c b a s i l i c a was p u l l e d down and a new t r i - p a r t i t e s t r u c t u r e was b u i l t on t h e model o f San G i o r g i o by G i r o l a m o G r a p i g l i a . The c h u r c h was f i n i s h e d i n 1621 and c o n s e c r a t e d i n 1 6 4 2 . * San P i e t r o was t h e r e l i g i o u s c e n t r e o f V e n i c e u n t i l 1807 when Napo leon p a s s e d t h e c a t h e d r a l t i t l e and s e a t o f t h e P a t r i a r c h t o San M a r c o , u n t i l t h e n t h e p e r s o n a l c h a p e l o f t h e Doge. The 1619 s t r u c t u r e was a t t a c h e d t o F r a n c e s c o S m e r a l d i ' s P a l l a d i a n f a c a d e o f 1594 ( F i g . 1 1 2 ) . R e s p o n d i n g t o t h e t r i p a r t i t i o n o f t h e e x t e r i o r , G r a p i g l i a d e s i g n e d a t h r e e - b a y P a l l a d i a n c r u c i f o r m p l a n s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a h i g h nave and two l o w e r a i s l e s , a t r a n s e p t c r o s s i n g w i t h a l a r g e dome, and a s q u a r e c h a n c e l w i t h an a p s i d i a l r e t r o c h o i r f l a n k e d by two deep l o w e r c h a p e l s ( F i g s . 122 and 1 2 3 ) . As i n San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 6 6 ) , t h e nave i s t h e same w i d t h and one and a h a l f t i m e s as l o n g as t h e c r o s s i n g s q u a r e . The s i d e - a i s l e s a r e h a l f t h e w i d t h o f t h e n a v e . I m i t a t i n g t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e d i m e n s i o n f r o m t h e f l o o r t o t h e t o p o f t h e c e i l i n g i s t h e same as t h e l e n g t h o f t h e n a v e . U n l i k e San T r o v a s o , w h i c h , a t a r e d u c e d s c a l e , r e p e a t s s i m i l a r g e o m e t r i c p r o p o r t i o n s ( F i g . 8 4 ) , t h e i n t e r i o r o f San P i e t r o i s d e s i g n e d a t t h e c o l o s s a l s i z e o f San G i o r g i o . T h e r e i s an i m p r e s s i o n o f g r e a t s p a c i o u s n e s s c r e a t e d by t h e h e i g h t o f t h e nave r a t h e r t h a n by i t s w i d t h . The nave w a l l i s d i v i d e d i n t o e q u a l a r c h e d bays w h i c h a r e s e p a r a t e d by s i n g l e g i a n t o r d e r s . In c o n t r a s t t o San 8 4 . G i o r g i o , w h i c h has C o m p o s i t e h a l f - c o l u m n s on t a l l p e d e s t a l s ( F i g . 6 7 ) , t h e g i a n t o r d e r s o f San P i e t r o a r e C o r i n t h i a n and r e s t on v e r y u n u s u a l medium- h e i g h t t r i p l e b a s e s ( F i g s . 123 and 1 2 4 ) . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o , t h e o r d e r s a r e as l o n g as t h e nave i s w ide and a r e c a r r i e d c o n s i s t e n t l y a round t h e w h o l e c h u r c h , as w e l l as b e i n g echoed on t h e f a c a d e ( F i g . 1 1 2 ) . These p i l a s t e r s a r e s e t o n t o s l e n d e r p i e r s and i n t r o d u c e t h e t h r e e a d j o i n i n g a r c h e s w h i c h announce t h e f l a n k i n g s i d e - a i s l e s . As i n San G i o r g i o , t h e m i n o r p i l a s t e r s o f t h e nave a r c a d e a r e C o r i n t h i a n , b u t , u n l i k e t h e P a l l a d i a n a r r a n g e m e n t , t h e s e e l e m e n t s a r e s h o r t and s i n g l e and r i s e f r o m t h e same base as t h e a d j a c e n t m a j o r o r d e r s . The c o m p o s i t i o n o f each a rchway p e r f e c t l y f r a m e s t h e w a l l - a l t a r s b e h i n d , w h i c h , u n l i k e t h e m a s t e r ' s d e s i g n , a r e no t l i t f r o m above by t h e r m a l w i n d o w s . R e - p e a t i n g t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e m i n o r o r d e r s o f t h e s i d e - a i s l e s c a r r y i n t e r s e c t i n g b a r r e l v a u l t e d c e i l i n g s d i v i d e d by t h e a r c h e s o f each bay i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t s e c t i o n s ( F i g . 1 2 4 ) . C o n f o r m i n g t o P a l l a d i o ( F i g . 6 7 ) , t h e g i a n t o r d e r s c a r r y a b o l d l y d e n t i l l e d e n t a b l a t u r e , w h i c h , u n l i k e t h e s t r a i g h t e l emen t o f t he R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 3 ) , p r o j e c t s and r e c e d e s i n a l t e r n a t i n g bays o v e r t h e p i l a s t e r s and a round t h e w ide a p e r t u r e s l e a d i n g t o t h e s i d e - a i s l e s ( F i g . 1 2 4 ) . The u n d u l a t i n g c o r n i c e no t o n l y draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p i l a s t e r s and a r c h w a y s t h e m s e l v e s , bu t u n i t e s t h e s e v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s i n a p e r s p e c t i v e c o n v e r g e n c e down t h e nave a round t h e t r a n s e p t s and i n t o t h e c h a n c e l . I m i t a t i n g P a l l a d i o , t h i s r h y t h m i c sys tem o f l i n e a r a m b i g u i t i e s was c a r e f u l l y c a l c u l a t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f i n t e r l o c k i n g v i s u a l c o m p l e x i t i e s , w h i c h , t o - g e t h e r , c r e a t e a b a l a n c e d and u n i f i e d s p a t i a l e n t i t y . O p p o s i n g San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 6 7 ) , t h e nave v a u l t o f San P i e t r o does no t r u n smooth and unb roken f r o m t h e e n t r a n c e w a l l t o t h e c r o s s i n g 8 5 . a r c h . I n s t e a d , t h e s e m i - c i r c u l a r s u p p o r t a r c h e s o f t h e c e i l i n g r e p e a t t h e m s e l v e s a t each g i a n t p i l a s t e r , f o r m i n g t h r e e c l e a r bays ( F i g s . 124 and 1 2 5 ) . The deep g r e i n i n g f r o m bo th t h e l a r g e c l e a r s t o r y windows and t h e nave a r c h e s c o n v e r g e i n t h e c e n t e r o f each b a y , c r e a t i n g a t r i p a r t i t e s e r i e s o f i n t e r s e c t i n g b a r r e l v a u l t s w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e s i m i l a r a r r a n g e m e n t f o u n d i n t h e upper zones o f t h e f l a n k i n g s i d e - a i s l e s . The d e s i g n o f t h e c r o s s i n g ( F i g s . 122 and 1 2 3 ) , c l o s e l y r e f l e c t s t h e u n i f i e d s i m p l i c i t y o f P a l l a d i o a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 6 6 ) . The t r a n s e p t arms o f t h e c r u c i f o r m p l a n a r e c o v e r e d i n c o r r e s p o n d i n g w h i t e , u n a r t i c u l a t e d , b a r r e l v a u l t s . They a r c h f r o m t h e ma in c o r n i c e and run f r o m t h e two end w a l l s t o t h e two a r c h e s above t h e f o u r c o r n e r p i e r s w h i c h d e l i n e a t e t h e c r o s s i n g s q u a r e . As i n t he o r i g i n a l , t h e c e i l i n g s d e r i v e t h e i r f o r m a l c l a r i t y f r o m t h e a c c e n t u a t e d r i b b i n g o f t h e i r bound ing a r c h e s , w h i c h a r e p a r a l l e l t o t h e c u r v e o f t h e v a u l t s . U n l i k e San G i o r g i o , G r a p i g l i a s u b - s t i t u t e d P a l l a d i o ' s a p i s i d a l c h a p e l s f o r f l a t a r c h e d end w a l l s . W i t h i n t h e a r c h e s o f t h e s e w a l l s , t h e r e a r e two g i g a n t i c m u l l i o n e d Roman w i n d o w s , w h i c h , t h r o u g h t h e i r e x a g g e r a t e d s i z e , t r a n s f o r m a b r i l l i a n t l i g h t t h r o u g h o u t t h e c r o s s i n g , r e f l e c t i n g i t s e l f o f f t h e w h i t e p l a s t e r e d s u r f a c e s o f t h e v a u l t s . A s i m i l a r d e s i g n t o t h e s e end w a l l s was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n V e n i c e by S m e r a l d i a t San T r o v a s o i n 1583 ( F i g . 8 4 ) , an i m p o r t a n t c h u r c h w h i c h G r a p i g l i a wou ld have known. As i n San G i o r g i o , the c r o s s i n g o f San P i e t r o can be seen as a s i n g l e ou twa rd and upward e x p a n d i n g s p a c e . To c rown h i s c r o s s i n g s q u a r e ( F i g . 1 2 4 ) , G r a p i g l i a adop ted P a l l a d i o ' s dome a t San G i o r g i o a l m o s t e x a c t l y ( F i g . 6 8 ) . The b a l u s t r a d e o f t he d rum, w h i c h i s f o r m e d by s i x t e e n s e c t i o n s o f b i p a r t i t e b a l u s t e r s a r t i c u l a t e d by p o s t s , i s s u p p o r t e d by a round d e n t i l l e d c o r n i c e 8 6 . w h i c h p a s s e s o v e r t h e t o p s o f t h e f o u r g r e a t a r c h e s and t h e c o r n e r p e n d e n t - i v e s . B e h i n d t h e b a l u s t r a d e , t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e drum w a l l i s a l s o d i v i d e d i n - t o s i x t e e n b a y s , each one fo rmed by a p a i r o f a d j o i n i n g D o r i c p i l a s t e r s . F o u r r e c t a n g u l a r windows open v e r t i c a l l y i n t o t h e p r i n c i p a l i n t e r c o l u m n i a t i o n s w h i l e each o f t h e o t h e r s u r f a c e s i s smooth and p l a i n . In bo th b u i l d i n g s , t h e windows open a l o n g t h e d i a g o n a l a x i s above t h e p e n d e n t i v e s . U n l i k e San P i e t r o , t h e i n between s u r f a c e s o f San G i o r g i o a r e d e c o r a t e d w i t h a s e r i e s o f t w e l v e s t a t u e n i c h e s . S u r m o u n t i n g t h e p i l a s t e r s , t h e r e i s a t h i n e n - t a b l a t u r e f r o m w h i c h s p r i n g s a s e e m i n g l y w e i g h t l e s s w h i t e dome w i t h a s m a l l o p e n i n g f o r l i g h t i n t h e c e n t r e . P a l l a d i o , a t San G i o r g i o , c o n t i n u e d h i s nave p a s t t h e c r o s s i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a n o t h e r s q u a r e c o n g r e g a t i o n a l s p a c e d i r e c t l y f r o n t i n g t h e g i a n t c h a n c e l a r c h ( F i g . 6 6 ) . T h i s f o r m was r e p e a t e d a t San P i e t r o , e x c e p t t h a t t h i s huge space became bo th t h e head o f t h e c r o s s and t h e a l t a r - h o u s e ( F i g s . 122 and 1 2 4 ) . T h i s f o r m u l a t i o n f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r a r rangemen t a t San T r o v a s o ( F i g s . 83 and 8 5 ) . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o , t h e c h a n c e l pavement i s e l e v a t e d f r o m t h a t o f t he nave by a s e r i e s o f s t e p s . Above t h e main e n t a b l a t u r e o f t h e l a t e r a l w a l l s , t h e r e a r e two l a r g e t h e r m a l windows w h i c h open a t t h e l e v e l o f t he p a i n t e d i n t e r s e c t i n g c r o s s v a u l t , f l o o d i n g t h e a r e a be low w i t h l i g h t ( F i g . 1 2 4 ) . F l a n k i n g t h e c h a n c e l s q u a r e , t h e r e a r e two v e r y deep l o w e r c h a p e l s w i t h t h e r m a l windows p l a c e d h i g h i n t h e i r end w a l l s , r e f l e c t i n g San G i o r g i o . As a t San T r o v a s o ( F i g . 8 3 ) , t h e o u t s i d e w a l l s o f t h e s e c h a p e l s d e f i n e t h e dep th o f t h e r e c t a n g u l a r t r a n s e p t s , w h i c h a r e h a l f as deep as t h e c r o s s i n g s q u a r e . B e h i n d t h e c h a n c e l s q u a r e , G r a p i g l i a c o n s t r u c t e d a l a r g e open s e m i - c i r c u l a r c h o i r s p a c e c rowned w i t h a p a i n t e d h a l f - d o m e . P a l l a d i o ' s 8 7 . a r c h i t e c t o n i c w a l l - s c r e e n was not i n t r o d u c e d h e r e . I n s t e a d , t h e f o r m f o l l o w s t h e g e n e r a l p r o f i l e o f t he a p s i d i a l c h a p e l s o f t h e t r a n s e p t s o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 66 )and t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 4 ) . The l a r g e f r e e - s t a n d i n g h i g h a l t a r i s t h e o n l y e l e m e n t t h a t s e r v e s as a p a r t i a l s c r e e n between t h e c h a n c e l and t h e c h o i r , f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a i n 1534 ( F i g . 47) and t h e T o l e n t i n i i n 1591 ( F i g s . 108 and 1 0 9 ) . San P i e t r o was t w i c e h i t w i t h A u s t r i a n bombs i n 1916 and 1917 and r e c e i v e d heavy damage d u r i n g t h e g r e a t f l o o d o f November , 1966 . In 1 9 7 3 , t h e b u i l d i n g was c o m p l e t e l y r e s t o r e d t h r o u g h f u n d s p r o v i d e d by t h e V e n i c e 3 Commi t tee o f Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , and i s now a n o t h e r examp le o f V e n e t i a n P a l l a d i a n i s m t h a t can be b e a u t i f u l l y v i e w e d . 8 8 . NOTES 1. F o r more commentary on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h u r c h o f San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o , see Umber to F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 5 2 4 - 5 3 3 , and John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e Draw ings C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 3 6 . 2 . The d e s i g n o f t h e drum and dome o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 68) i s e x a c t l y t h e same as t h a t i n t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 4 ) . 3 . John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D r a w i n g s C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 3 6 . S a n t a M a r i a E l i s a b e t t a , L i d o : P l a n - 1620 The l i t t l e c h u r c h o f S a n t a M a r i a E l i s a b e t t a , w h i c h s t a n d s b e f o r e t h e l a r g e s q u a r e o f t h e same name a d j a c e n t t o t h e m o t o r b o a t s t o p on t h e i s l a n d o f L i d o , was f o u n d e d i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y and r e - c o n s t r u c t e d by an unknown a r c h i t e c t i n 1 6 2 0 . 1 I t s P a l l a d i a n p l a n i s a n o t h e r v a r i a t i o n on t h e s t a n d a r d l o n g nave and s q u a r e c h a n c e l theme ( F i g . 1 2 6 ) , w h i c h was e a r l i e r e x e m p l i f i e d on a g r a n d e r s c a l e i n San Giacomo d e l l a G i u d e c c a i n 1603 ( F i g . 1 1 7 ) . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o ' s p r e f e r r e d 2 :1 r a t i o , t h e nave i s t w i c e as l o n g as i t i s w i d e . F l a n k i n g t h i s R e d e n t o r e - l i k e h a l l , a r e s i x b i l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l s i d e - c h a p e l s f o rmed by a s e r i e s o f s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h e s w i t h k e y s t o n e s s p r i n g i n g f r om b a s e l e s s m i n o r D o r i c o r d e r s . The t h r e e bays a r e s e p a r a t e d by a row o f t a l l , t h i n C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s on h i g h p e d e s t a l s ( F i g . 1 2 7 ) , r e f l e c t i n g t h e s t y l e o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 88) r a t h e r t h a n t h e R e d e n t o r e , w h i c h has p a i r e d o r d e r s r i s i n g d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e f l o o r ( F i g . 8 9 ) . I m i t a t i n g t h e C e l e s t e ( F i g . 81) and San Giacomo ( F i g . 1 1 7 ) , t h e c h a p e l s a r e v e r y s h a l l o w , u n v a u l t e d , and w i n d o w l e s s . Between t h e o u t s i d e c h a p e l s and t h f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e n a v e , t h e r e a r e t a l l , na r row bays o f u n a r t i c u l a t e d w a l l s In t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e s e s u r f a c e s a r e i n d e n t e d w i t h p a i r s o f su rmoun ted s t a t u e n i c h e s . T h i s p a t t e r n i s a l s o r e p e a t e d i n t h e two t a l l bays o f t h e s t r o n g l y p r o j e c t e d end w a l l s , w h i c h t e r m i n a t e a g a i n s t t h e c h a n c e l a r c h ( F i g s 73 and 8 6 ) . In t h e E l i s a b e t t a , t h e end w a l l s a r e p l a i n , e x c e p t f o r t h e u n o r d e r e d doorways open t o t h e s a c r i s t i e s b e h i n d ( F i g . 1 2 6 ) . Above t he ma jo r o r d e r s , a t h i n , weak e n t a b l a t u r e r u n s a round t h e w h o l e c h u r c h , b r e a k i n g s l i g h t l y o v e r e v e r y c a p i t a l . R i s i n g f r o m t h i s 9 0 . e l e m e n t , t h e nave i s c o v e r e d by an u n u s u a l l y s q u a t v a u l t . M e e t i n g a t t h e r e c t a n g u l a r p a i n t e d p a n e l i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c e i l i n g , t h e r e a r e s i x l o n g and low t r i a n g u l a r g r o i n s , c u r v i n g f r o m t h e c l e a r s t o r y t h e r m a l windows s e t above each c h a p e l ( F i g . 1 2 7 ) . Most o f t h e i n t e r i o r s u r f a c e s o f t h e E l i s a b e t t a a r e c o v e r e d by a b r i l l i a n t w h i t e p l a s t e r . The nave h a l l i s b r i g h t - l y l i t by r e f l e c t e d l i g h t f r o m t h e uppe r w i n d o w s , w h i c h a r e t h e o n l y o p e n i n g s t o t h e e x t e r i o r . E n t e r i n g t h e c h a n c e l , we f i n d t h a t t h e pavement i s r a i s e d t h r e e s t e p s f r o m t h e nave f l o o r . In t y p i c a l P a l l a d i a n f a s h i o n , t h e s e n s e o f s e p a r a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f t h e s a n c t u a r y s p a c e f r o m t h a t o f t h e nave i s f u r t h e r enhanced by t h e b a l u s t r a d e w h i c h bounds t h e e n t r a n c e , o p e n i n g o n l y a t t h e c e n t e r w i t h a g a t e . As i n San. G iacomo ( F i g . 1 1 8 ) , t h e two l a r g e s t Roman windows o f t h e b u i l d i n g r i s e l a t e r a l l y above t h e e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h s u r r o u n d s t h e t a l l a l t a r s e t h i g h i n t o t h e s m a l l a r c h o f t h e back w a l l ( F i g . 1 2 6 ) . In a v e r y u n o r t h o d o x manner , t h e t o p s o f t h e s e s i d e - a r c h e s a r e a t a h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n t h a n t h e c h a n c e l a r c h , w h i c h i s e l l i p t i c a l r a t h e r t h a n s e m i - c i r c u l a r . T h i s odd s e m i - f l a t t e n e d c u r v e was c r e a t e d by t h e e x c e s s i v e d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e nave v a u l t , w h i c h c o u l d no t a c c e p t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a f u l l - h e i g h t h a l f - r o u n d t r i u m p h a l a r c h w i t h o u t i t p e n e t r a t i n g t h r o u g h t h e c e i l i n g . R e s u l t i n g f r om t h e m ixed h e i g h t s o f t h e f o u r b o u n d i n g a r c h e s , t h e g r o i n i n g o f t h e c r o s s v a u l t o f t h e c h a n c e l i s e x t r e m e l y c o n v o l u t e d , f o l d i n g awkward l y i n and ou t f o l l o w i n g t h e m i sma tched i n s and o u t s o f t h e a d j a c e n t m e m b e r i n g s . The f a c a d e f o r t he c h u r c h was n e v e r b u i l t , and no d r a w i n g s o f i t s p r o p o s a l have s u r v i v e d . A f t e r San G i a c o m o , t he l o n g nave and s q u a r e c h a n c e l i n t e r i o r o f t h e E l i s a b e t t a was t he second i n V e n i c e t o r e f l e c t P a l l a d i a n d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s . 9 1 . NOTES 1. J o h n McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D r a w i n g s C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 1 7 . A l s o see G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t , 1 9 8 5 ) , p. 7 9 9 . 9 2 . San N i c o l b d e l L i d o : 1626 Two m i l e s n o r t h o f S a n t a M a r i a E l i s a b e t t a , a d j a c e n t t o t h e N i e e l 1 i a i r p o r t , s t a n d s t h e f a c a d e l e s s c h u r c h o f San N i c o l o d e l L i d o ( F i g . 1 3 0 ) . The b u i l d i n g was s t a r t e d i n 1626 by an unknown a r c h i t e c t , and c o m p l e t e d i n n i n e y e a r s i n 1 6 3 5 . * W r i t i n g on San N i c o l b , McAndrew t e l l s us t h a t , "The r e s e m b l a n c e s t o t h e Reden to re a r e so m a n y . . . a n d so s t r o n g t h a t one p r e s u p p o s e s an a r c h i t e c t i n 2 t h e o r b i t o f P a l l a d i o , such as S m e r a l d i o r S o r e l l a . " The P a l l a d i a n nave a r c a d e o f San N i c o l o ( F i g . 129) r e c a l l s s i m i l a r d e s i g n a r r a n g e m e n t s and d e t a i l - i n g w h i c h have been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n San T r o v a s o ( F i g . 87) and t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 1 0 2 ) . A l l t h r e e have w a l l s f e a t u r i n g s i x deep a r c h e d s i d e - c h a p e l bays a r t i c u l a t e d by a s e r i e s o f s i n g l e m a j o r C o r i n t h a i n order-s s u p p o r t - i n g b r o a d s t r a i g h t e n t a b l a t u r e s su rmoun ted by windowed v a u l t s a b o v e . U n l i k e t h e s e c h u r c h e s , wh i ch have o p e n - e n d e d naves r e l a t i n g t o t h e i r c r u c i f o r m p l a n s , t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n space o f San N i c o l b i s an e n c l o s e d cupped vo lume ( F i g s . 131 and 1 3 2 ) , more c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h e c i r c u m s c r i b e d h a l l o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 3 ) . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e o n l y o p e n i n g s e x i t i n g t h e ma in room a r e w i t h i n each end w a l l . O p p o s i t e t h e e n t r a n c e , a monumental a r c h opens t h e c h a n c e l w a l l , e x p o s i n g t h e s q u a r e s a n c t u a r y and t h e s e m i - s c r e e n e d a p s i d i a l c h o i r b e h i n d ( F i g . 1 2 8 ) . These l a t t e r e l e m e n t s i m i t a t e t h e San G i o r g i o model ( F i g . 1 2 1 ) . The o v e r a l l d e s i g n o f t h e g r o u n d p l a n and c l a s s i c a l o r d e r i n g o f t h e w a l l s a l s o c l o s e l y r e f l e c t s t h e i n t e r i o r o f San Giacomo d e l l a G i u d e c c a , w h i c h s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e u n i o n o f a R e d e n t o r e - l i k e nave w i t h a San G i o r g i o - l i k e c h a n c e l and c h o i r i n 1603 ( F i g s . 117 and 1 1 8 ) . ^ 9 3 . A s : a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 8 8 ) , t h e s q u a r e c h a n c e l o f San N i c o l o i s r o o f e d by an i n t e r s e c t i n g b a r r e l v a u l t f o r m e d by t h e s t r o n g s e m i - c i r c u l a r g r o i n s p r o j e c t i n g f r o m t h e f o u r e q u a l l y s i z e d b o u n d i n g a r c h e s ( F i g . 1 2 8 ) . The l a t e r a l a r c h e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h m u l l i o n e d Roman w i n d o w s , f l o o d i n g l i g h t i n t o t h e s p a c e . A l o n g w i t h a r i s e o f t h r e e s t e p s , t h e s e e l e m e n t s h e l p t o e f f e c t i v e l y r e i n f o r c e t h e P a l l a d i a n p e r c e p t i o n o f a s p e c i a l e n c l o s e d a l t a r s p a c e . D e s i g n e d t o s t o p t h e v i e w a t t h e end o f t h e c h a n c e l , a r e d u c e d t r i u m p h a l a r c h s e t i n s i d e a l a r g e r one f r a m e s t h e f r e e - s t a n d i n g h i g h a l t a r ( F i g . 1 2 8 ) . T h i s i s t h e c u l m i n a t i n g e l e m e n t i n t h e c e n t r a l a x i a l p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m t h e nave and i m i t a t e s P a l l a d i o a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 1 2 1 ) . In t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e p o r t a l was f i l l e d w i t h an o r g a n s c r e e n w i t h i t s t o p and bo t t om o p e n , a f f o r d i n g a g l i m p s e o f t h e c h o i r . A t San N i c o l o , t h e a p e r t u r e i s f u l l y open f r o m t h e f l o o r t o t h e a r c h i v o l t o f t h e a r c h , r e v e a l i n g v a s t amounts o f t h e c h o i r s p a c e b e h i n d , w h i l e s t i l l f o c u s s i n g t h e v i e w i n w a r d s t o t h e a l t a r b e l o w . A t San G i o r g i o , P a l l a d i o r e d u c e d t h e s i z e o f h i s p i l a s t e r s t o match and b a l a n c e w i t h t h e r e d u c e d s c a l e o f t h e m i n o r a r c h t h a t t h e y s u p p o r t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e a r c h i t e c t o f San N i c o l b used t h e c o l o s s a l C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s o f t h e main o r d e r e n c i r c l i n g t h e c h u r c h ( F i g . 1 2 8 ) . Above t h e s e m a s s i v e p i e r s , t h e r e i s a t h i c k p r o j e c t i n g e n t a b l a t u r e s e c t i o n w i t h a s t r o n g l y d e n t i l l e d c o r n i c e . S u p p o r t e d above t h i s huge s t r u c t u r e i s a t h i n , s m a l l s t o n e a r c h , w h i c h seems v e r y ou t o f p l a c e and a l m o s t u n g a i n l y w i t h i n i t s m i sma tched c o n t e x t . The pavement o f t h e c h o i r , l i k e t h a t o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 8 8 ) , i s r a i s e d a few s t e p s f r o m t h e c h a n c e l f l o o r . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s l o n g , t a l l s p a c e c l o s e s w i t h a s i m i l a r a p s i d i a l w a l l w i t h a h a l f - d o m e above ( F i g . 1 3 3 ) . H i g h up on t h e w a l l s , w h i c h a r e p l a i n e x p a n s e s o f w h i t e s t u c c o l i k e t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 9 4 . 8 8 ) , t h e r e a r e f o u r s i m p l y f r amed r e c t a n g u l a r w indows w h i c h l i g h t t h e t w e n t y - s e v e n c h o i r s t a l l s r u n n i n g t o g e t h e r i n a c u r v e d row a g a i n s t t h e s i d e and end w a l l s . As a t San G i o r g i o , t h e s t a l l s a r e r i c h l y d e c o r a t e d i n wooden r e l i e f c a r v i n g s . T h i s l o w e r zone o f t h e c h o i r i s p a r t i a l l y h i d d e n by t h e h i g h a l t a r , a l l o w i n g t h e monks t o s i n g unseen by t h e p a r i s h i o n e r s and y e t r e m a i n e a s i l y a u d i b l e . The sound o f t h e i r v o i c e s r e v e r b e r a t e s o f f t h e c u r v e d v a u l t s a b o v e , p a s s i n g b e a u t i f u l a c o u s t i c e f f e c t s i n t o t h e ma in body o f t h e c h u r c h . T u r n i n g t o t h e e x t e r i o r o f San N i c o l b , we f i n d a b l a n k , u n f i n i s h e d b r i c k f r o n t , e x c e p t f o r t h e s t o n e p o r t a l ( F i g . 1 3 0 ) . T o d a y , a d r a w i n g by V i s e n t i n i r e p r e s e n t s t h e o n l y known p r o p o s i t i o n f o r a f a c a d e f o r t h e c h u r c h ( F i g . 1 3 4 ) . As d e p i c t e d , a s i m p l i f i e d r e w o r k i n g o f t h e o v e r l a p p i n g a n t i q u e c l a s s i c a l f r o n t d e s i g n o f t h e R e d e n t o r e was p r o p o s e d ( F i g . 7 5 ) . The f a c a d e c o n s i s t s o f one m a j o r c o m p l e t e monumental t e m p l e f r o n t f l a n k e d by two l o w e r and s m a l l e r h a l f - t e m p l e f r o n t s . As i n San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a ( F i g . 5 5 ) , San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 3 ) , t he R e d e n t o r e and San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o ( F i g . 1 1 2 ) , t h e t e t r a s t y l e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e f a c a d e i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e t r i p a r t i t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a l s p a c e s b e h i n d . The c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e e l e v a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e nave and t he l a t e r a l s e c t i o n s echo t h e deep p r o j e c t i n g s i d e - c h a p e l s . F u r t h e r f o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o , t h e v i s u a l and p h y s i c a l u n i t y o f t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s o f t h e f a c a d e i s e m p h a s i z e d by t h e use o f an i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h i s drawn a c r o s s t he main bay b e h i n d t h e g i a n t co lumns a t t h e common l e v e l o f t h e o r d e r s o f t h e s i d e - w i n g s and t h e c e n t r a l p o r t a l . A t t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e two co lumns o f t h e doo r and t h e s i x p i l a s t e r s o f t h e l a t e r a l bays a r e o f a s i m i l a r o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e as t h o s e o f t h e c e n t r a l p e d i m e n t a l s y s t e m , b e i n g j u s t o v e r t w o - t h i r d s as t a l l . In V i s e n t i n i ' s d r a w i n g , t h e s e c o n d a r y o r d e r s o f San N i c o l o a r e o n l y h a l f t h e h e i g h t o f t h e p r i m a r y o n e s . U n l i k e t h e o r i g i n a l , t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n c r e a t e s l a r g e s u r f a c e s be tween t h e i n t e r c o l u m n i a r 9 5 . bays o f t h e g i a n t o r d e r s o f t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n above t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e , r e f l e c t i n g a s i m i l a r r e s o l u t i o n by P a l l a d i o a t b o t h San F r a n c e s c o and San G i o r g i o . In t h e San N i c o l b p r o p o s a l , t h e a t t i c and t h e b u t t r e s s e s o f t h e R e d e n t o r e have been removed . I t i s not known where V i s e n t i n i o b t a i n e d t h e d r a w i n g f o r t h e f a c a d e o f San N i c o l b , o r w h e t h e r i t i s a t r u e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l a r c h i t e c t ' s i n t e n t . The d e s i g n may o n l y be an i m a g i n a r y c o n c e p t i o n o f V i s e n t i n i h i m s e l f , f o r t h e ma in b l o c k o f t h e f a c a d e i s t w e n t y f e e t w i d e r t h a n t h e e x i s t i n g nave b e h i n d , w h i c h , when added t o t h e d i m e n s i o n o f t h e s i d e - w i n g s , " . . . i n v e n t s a P a l l a d i a n f a c a d e 90 f t . w i d e . " 6 The p l a n o f San N i c o l b d e l L i d o i s a b e a u t i f u l examp le o f P a l l a d i a n e c l e c t i c i s m , c o m b i n i n g e l e m e n t s f r o m bo th San G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e . T o d a y , t h e c h u r c h i s i n w o n d e r f u l c o n d i t i o n , h a v i n g been e x c e p t i o n a l l y m a i n - t a i n e d by F r a n c i s c a n f r i a r s s i n c e i t s c o m p l e t e r e s t o r a t i o n c i r c a 1 9 2 6 . ^ 9 6 . NOTES D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e Ba rogue C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 7 . John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D r a w i n g s C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1974) p. 3 8 . F o r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e nave e l e v a t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f San N i c o l o d e l L i d o , see San T r o v a s o : 1 5 8 3 , p . 56 and San N i c o l b d e i T o l e n t i n i : P l a n - 1 5 9 1 , p. 6 6 , h e r e i n . F o r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p l a n and e l e v a t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r i o r o f San Giacomo d e l l a G i u d e c c a , 1 6 0 3 , see p p . 7 8 - 8 1 , h e r e i n . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 17 . McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D r a w i n g s C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i , p. 3 8 . I b i d . , p. 38 9 7 . S a n t a M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e : 1630 In O c t o b e r o f 1630 , t h e R e p u b l i c o f V e n i c e d e c r e e d t h e e r e c - t i o n o f a c h u r c h t o honor t h e V i r g i n f o r l i b e r a t i n g t h e c i t y f r o m t h e g r e a t p l a g u e o f t h e same y e a r . A d e s i g n c o m p e t i t i o n was h e l d and e l e v e n mode ls were s u b m i t t e d . Over s t a n d a r d c r u c i f o r m schemes p r o p o s e d by A n t o n i o F r a c a o , G i a m b a t t i s t a R u b e r t i n i , and A n t o n i o S m e r a l d i , t h e u n i q u e c e n t r a l i z e d Ba roque p l a n b a s e d on an o c t a g o n by B a l d a s s a r e Longhena (1598 - 1682) was c h o s e n w i n n e r ( F i g . 1 3 5 ) . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n , made w i t h o v e r one m i l - l i o n p i l e s , was s t a r t e d i n 1631 and w i t h i n t w e n t y y e a r s most o f t h e b u i l d i n g was s t a n d i n g . The c h u r c h was f i n i s h e d i n 1 6 8 1 , one y e a r b e f o r e L o n g h e n a ' s d e a t h , and c o n s e c r a t e d i n 1687. ' ' ' As Howard w r i t e s , t h e S a l u t e " . . . i s a m a s t e r p i e c e o f B a r o q u e a r c h i t e c t u r e . . . and p r o b a b l y t h e o n l y I t a l i a n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y b u i l d i n g t o r i v a l t h e c r e a t i o n s o f B e r n i n i and B o r r o m i n i i n Rome. " A f t e r t h e S a l u t e , t h e r e were s i m u l t a n e o u s d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h e Ba roque and P a l l a d i a n s t y l e s i n V e n e t i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n , w i t h t h e l a t e r b e i n g more dom inan t and p r e v a i l i n g . Ba roque d e s i g n s f o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s were no t e a s i l y a c c e p t e d i n t h e " . . . i s l a n d c i t a d e l o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n s e r v a t i s m . " The g r e a t c l a s s i - c i s t s S p a v e n t o , B o n , S c a r p a g n i n o , S a n m i c h e l i , S a n s o v i n o , P a l l a d i o , S c a m o z z i , S m e r a l d i , G r a p i g l i a , and many o t h e r s o f l e s s e r t a l e n t , a d o r n e d V e n i c e w i t h an u n f o r g e t t a b l y b e a u t i f u l R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e w h i c h t h e c i t y came t o e n d e a r w i t h an a r d e n t c o n s e r v a t i s m , t e n d i n g t o r e s i s t o r oppose any changes t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n . F l a m b o y a n t l y e x t r a v a g e n t Ba roque d e s i g n s were t h o u g h t t o be " t o o a m b i t i o u s " and most o f t e n a b o r t e d by c o n s e r v a t i v e 9 8 . V e n e t i a n t a s t e . E x e m p l i f y i n g t h i s , L e w i s t e l l s us t h a t t h e r e j e c t i o n s o f t h e B a r o q u e schemes p r o p o s e d f o r San V i d a l ( F i g s . 136 and 137) and San S t a e ( F i g . 138) were " . . . e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p a t t e r n o f V e n e t i a n 5 c h u r c h b u i l d i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . " The B a r o q u e a r c h i t e c t s o f V e n i c e u n d e r s t o o d t h i s s t r o n g and d e c i s i v e s e n t i m e n t t o w a r d s t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a l c l a s s i c i s m and many o f t h e i r d e s i g n s r e v e a l a c o n c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s a e s t h e t i c i s m . The p l a n s o f t h e Ba roque c h u r c h e s o f L o n g h e n a ' s S a n t a M a r i a d e g l i S c a l z i ( F i g . 171) and B e n o n i ' s S a n t a M a r i a d e l G i g l i o ( F i g . 1 7 8 ) . w h i c h b o t h e m p h a s i z e e x t r a l a r g e c e n t r a l bays i n t h e i r nave w a l l s , a r e m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n s o f S c a m o z z i ' s San L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t i ( F i g . 1 7 6 ) , w h i c h was o r i g i n a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by S a n s o v i n o ' s c h u r c h o f t h e I n c u r a b i l i h o s p i t a l ( F i g . 5 3 ) . 6 F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p a i r e d o r d e r s o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e m o f t he nave and t h e d e s i g n o f t h e c h a n c e l and c h o i r o f t h e S c a l z i f o l l o w P a l l a d i o a t t h e R e d e n t o r e and San G i o r g i o . ' ' The p l a n o f R o s s i ' s B a r o q u e - R o c o c o S a n t a M a r i a A s s u n t a , known as "I G e s u i t i " ( F i g . 2 1 1 ) , a l s o e m u l a t e s d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s f o u n d i n P a l l a d i o ' s l a r g e c h u r c h e s . F u r t h e r - m o r e , i t a l s o r e s e m b l e s s i m i l a r P a l l a d i a n schemes b u i l t o v e r f o r t y y e a r s e a r l i e r by S m e r a l d i a t San T r o v a s o ( F i g . 83) and by S c a m o z z i a t t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 8 0 ) . A f t e r t h e r e l i g i o u s s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , and e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e by P a l l a d i o , W i t t k o w e r s t a t e s t h a t "Few V e n e t i a n c h u r c h e s Q o f t h e Ba roque age p r e s e n t any new e l e m e n t s . " In ag reement w i t h W i t t k o w e r , Q Yarwood t e l l s us t h a t " V e n e t i a n c h u r c h e s were Ba roque v e r s i o n s o f P a l l a d i o . " T h e r e a r e o t h e r r e a s o n s f o r V e n i c e ' s a v o i d a n c e o f t h e more e x u b e r - an t a s p e c t s o f t h e Roman Ba roque i n i t s c h u r c h e s and t a k i n g t o t h e more r e s t r a i n - ed and s u b t l e c l a s s i c i s m o f P a l l a d i o . V e n i c e a l w a y s t r i e d t o keep i t s e l f r e l a t i v e l y d i s t a n c e d f r om t h e p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , and a r t i s t i c c u r r e n t s o f 9 9 . Rome. In 1 6 0 6 , t h e Pope a t t e m p t e d t o f o r c e t h e R e p u b l i c t o adop t a more s u b s e r v i e n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e c h u r c h , b u t t h e V e n e t i a n g o v e r n m e n t , w h i c h a l w a y s had c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e r e l i g i o u s l i f e o f t h e c i t y , m a i n - t a i n e d i t s r e l i g i o u s i n d e p e n d e n c e by s t a n d i n g o u t r e s o l u t e l y a g a i n s t t h e P a p a l I n t e r d i c t , 1 ° e x p e l l i n g t h e J e s u i t l o y a l i s t s who were " . . . s e e n as un - welcome s p r e a d e r s o f P a p a l o r t h o d o x y and r i g i d C o u n t e r R e f o r m a t i o n i d e a s . In Rome, t h e J e s u i t s were e m p l o y i n g Ba roque a r t i s t s and a r c h i t e c t s , c a u s i n g t h e s t y l e t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r name. A f t e r t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e i r r i v a l s , many o t h e r r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s w i t h p l a n s t o e r e c t new c h u r c h e s i n V e n i c e were e n c o u r a g e d t o s e l e c t schemes by P a l l a d i a n i n s p i r e d a r c h i t e c t s and r e j e c t t h o s e f o u n d t o be e x c e s s i v e l y B a r o q u e . The J e s u i t s were r e t u r n e d t o V e n i c e i n 1 6 5 7 , bu t i t was no t u n t i l f i f t y - e i g h t y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1 7 1 5 , t h a t t h e y were a l l o w e d t o b u i l d a new c h u r c h , a n d , even t h e n , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i t s B a r o q u e - R o c o c o i n t e r i o r was based on a p r e d o m i n a t e l y P a l l a d i a n p l a n ( F i g . 2 1 1 ) . In V e n i c e , t h e R e n a i s s a n c e s t y l e p e r s i s t e d a t t h e c o r e o f t h e B a r o q u e , and t h i s theme i s w o n d e r f u l l y e x e m p l i f i e d i n B a l d a s s a r e L o n g h e n a ' s famous S a n t a M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e ( F i g . 1 4 2 ) . As L o r e n z e t t i w r i t e s , The c o n s t r u c t i v e i d e a o f t h i s g r e a t m a s t e r was not r e a l l y a Ba roque o n e . He began by f o l l o w i n g i n t h e s t e p s o f (Jiis teacher } S c a m o z z i . . . [and h i s ] work i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i d e a l s and c h a r - a c t e r o f h i s t i m e , w i t h o u t u n e x p e c t e d e x p e r i m e n t s , o r e x t r a v a g a n t e x c e s s e s . I t r e s p o n d e d t o a c o n c e p t i o n o f r e - s t r a i n e d so lemn g r a n d e u r , and a v o i d e d , i n i t s l o f t i e s t moments, t h a t u n r e s t r a i n - ed and w h i m s i c a l d e c o r a t i v e n e s s w h i c h i n o t h e r p a r t s o f I t a l y were t he r e a l and ^ t y p i c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e " B a r o q u e " s t y l e . A l t h o u g h many o f t h e d e t a i l s o f t he S a l u t e a r e P a l l a d i a n , c r i t i c s have f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c l u d e where Longhena d e r i v e d t he " c o n c e p t u a l d i r e c t i o n " w h i c h 100 . g e n e r a t e d t he p l a n and form o f t h e S a l u t e . L o r e n z e t t i , when d e s c r i b i n g t h e i n t e r i o r , s a y s t h a t i t . . . i s s u r p r i s i n g l y e f f e c t i v e i n t h e s o b e r g r a n d e u r o f t h e m a s s e s ; i t c o n s i s t s o f a c e n t r a l body on an o c t a g o n a l p l a n , on each s i d e o f w h i c h r i s e a c o r r e s p o n d i n g number o f s t o u t a r c h e s d i v i d e d by c o m p o s i t e co lumns on wh i ch r e s t t h e c o r n i c e and t h e drum o f t h e c o l o s s a l dome, (Surrounding] t h i s c e n t r a l body t h e r e i s a P e r i b o l u s f r o m w h i c h r a d i a t e s i x c h a p e l s and on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e f r o m t h e main e n t r a n c e t h e r e i s t h e huge c h a n c e l w i t h i t s dome and i s o l a t e d high a l t a r l i k e a k i n d o f a p p r o a c h o f P a l l a d i a n i n s p i r a t i o n * . e n c l o s e d a t e i t h e r end by a p s e s w i t h c o v e d c e i l i n g s " . 14 I t has been no ted t h a t t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e o f t h e r e g u l a r o c t a g o n s u r r o u n d e d by an a m b u l a t o r y was u n i q u e i n R e n a i s s a n c e and p o s t - R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e and t h a t Longhena may have been i n s p i r e d by E a r l y C h r i s t i a n m o d e l s , such 15 as San V i t a l e i n Ravenna and S a n t a C o s t a n z a i n Rome. S u r e l y he must have known t h e famous woodcut o f t h e Temple o f Venus i n C o l o n n a ' s H y p n e r o t o m a c h i a P o l i f i 1 i ( V e n i c e , 1 4 9 9 ) , " . . . w h i c h shows p r e c i s e l y t h i s m o t i f i n a s e c t i o n t h r o u g h a c e n t r a l i z e d domed b u i l d i n g w i t h a m b u l a t o r y . " ^ Howard has s u g g e s t e d t h a t Longhena may have d e r i v e d t h e i d e a o f u s i n g a c o n t i n u o u s a m b u l a t o r y a r o u n d h i s nave f r om a p a r a l l e l a r r a n g e m e n t a round t h e h i g h a l t a r o f t h e c h u r c h o f San Z a c c a r i a ( F i g . 1 4 1 ) . ' ' B e s i d e s San Z a c c a r i a , a m b u l a t o r i e s a r e 18 unknown i n V e n i c e , and " . . . a r e r a r e i n I t a l y i n g e n e r a l . " In c o n c r e t e t e r m s , Longhena n e v e r e x p l a i n e d t h e s o u r c e o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l d i r e c t i o n t h a t c a u s e d him t o c r e a t e t h e u n i q u e c e n t r a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r o f h i s c h u r c h . The accompany ing l e t t e r w i t h h i s model o f 1630 h o l d s one o f t he o n l y c l u e s , and i t i s a s u b j e c t i v e o n e : "The m y s t e r y c o n - t a i n e d i n t h e d e d i c a t i o n o f t h i s c h u r c h t o t h e b l e s s e d V i r g i n made me t h i n k , w i t h what l i t t l e t a l e n t God has bes towed on me, o f b u i l d i n g t h e c h u r c h i n 1 0 1 . f o r m a r o t o n d a T i . e . i n t h e shape o f a c r o w n . " A n o t h e r m y s t e r i o u s answer came i n 1644 i n a poem w r i t t e n by t h e p r i e s t L o r e n z o Longo o f t h e P a d r i Somasch i o r d e r o f t h e S a l u t e . ^ ° He c l a i m s t h a t L o n g h e n a , " i l nuovo P a l l a d i o " , had a v i s i o n i n a dream t h a t t o l d h im o f t h e f o r m h i s d e s i g n s h o u l d t a k e . 2 1 Longhena was w e l l aware o f t h e n o v e l t y and m a r v e l o f h i s u n i q u e d e s i g n and c a r e f u l l y g u a r d e d t h e knowledge o f i t s g e n e s i s . He t e l l s us t h a t h i s d e s i g n f o r t h e S a l u t e was " . . . a v i r g i n w o r k , n e v e r seen b e f o r e , s t r a n g e , w o r t h y and b e a u t i f u l , i n t h e shape o f a round ' m a c h i n e ' such as had n e v e r been s e e n , o r i n v e n t e d e i t h e r i n i t s who le o r i n p a r t f r o m any o t h e r c h u r c h i n t h i s c i t y 2 2 [ V e n i c e ] I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e r e was no o t h e r c h u r c h i n V e n i c e w i t h a c i r c u l a r o r o c t a g o n a l nave w i t h a s u r r o u n d i n g a i s l e s y s t e m a t t a c h e d t o a f r o n t and c h a n c e l e n t r a n c e and s i x i d e n t i c a l s i d e - c h a p e l s ( F i g . 1 4 2 ) , bu t i t has been shown by numerous c r i t i c s t h a t many o f t h e d e t a i l s o r " p a r t s " o f t h e S a l u t e , such as t h e o r d e r s , t h e co lumns on h i g h p e d e s t a l s , and t h e t h e r m a l w indows o f t h e c h a p e l s and t h e i r e x t e r i o r f a c e s , r e l a t e t o P a l l a d i o ' s i n v e n t i o n s 23 a t San G i o r g i o , t h e R e d e n t o r e , and t h e Z i t e l l e . W i t t k o w e r t e l l s us t h a t a l l t h e e l e m e n t s d e r i v i n g f r om P a l l a d i o " . . . c o m b i n e t o g i v e t h e S a l u t e t h e s e v e r e OA and c h a s t e a p p e a r a n c e o f a P a l l a d i a n s t r u c t u r e . " Bu t f u r t h e r s t u d y o f t h e c h u r c h r e v e a l s an even more e s s e n t i a l l i n k t o P a l l a d i o . Where Longhena d e r i v e d t h e c o n c e p t u a l d i r e c t i o n f o r h i s o c t a g o n a l c h u r c h a t t a c h e d t o a c e n t r a l i z e d c h a n c e l i s u n c o n c l u d e d , bu t i t can be shown t h a t t he a r c h i t e c t u r a l p l a n n i n g o f t h e c h u r c h may have come f r o m a s i m p l e g r o u p i n g t o g e t h e r o f i s o l a t e d s t r u c t u r a l and s p a t i a l u n i t s t a k e n d i r e c t l y f r o m P a l l a d i o and a p p l i e d t o an o c t a g o n a l p l a n . To h e l p d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s i d e a , c e r t a i n p i e c e s o f t h e d e s i g n s f o r San G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e w i l l be c u t o u t o f t h e i r p l a n s and r e f o r m e d t o g e t h e r t o c r e a t e a c l o s e f a c s i m i l e o f 102 . t h e p l a n o f t h e S a l u t e . The p l a n s d i s p l a y e d h e r e i n f o r San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 1 4 3 ) , t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 1 4 4 ) , and t he S a l u t e ( F i g . 142) have a l l been r e p r o d u c e d a t e x a c t l y t h e same b u i l d i n g s c a l e . T h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n r e v e a l s t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t t h a t Longhena d e t e r m i n a t e l y r e l i e d on t h e s t r i c t m a t h e m a t i c a l p r o p o r t i o n s o f P a l l a d i o ' s c h u r c h e s , and s c a l e d much o f h i s b u i l d i n g d i r e c t l y f r o m them.25 Our r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t he f i r s t Ba roque P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h i n V e n i c e b e g i n s w i t h t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e nave and s i d e - a i s l e s f r o m t h e p l a n o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 1 4 3 ) . The s i x a i s l e u n i t s a r e t h e n s e t i n b i l a t e r a l l y opposed p o s i t i o n s t o t h e r i g h t and l e f t o f t h e c e n t r a l a x i s o f an o c t a g o n a l nave s p a c e ( F i g . 1 4 5 ) . Two more a i s l e u n i t s , w i t h o u t c h a p e l s o r b a c k w a l l s , a r e p o s i t i o n e d b e f o r e t h e ma in d o o r and c h a n c e l e n t r a n c e s , as t h e y a r e i n t h e S a l u t e ( F i g . 1 4 2 ) . The a i s l e u n i t s o f L o n g h e n a ' s c h u r c h a r e f o r m e d by s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h e s w h i c h c r o s s s m o o t h l y f r om t h e back s i d e s o f t h e ma in p i e r s t o a s e r i e s o f e q u a l l y s p a c e d p i l l a r s o f t h e o u t s i d e w a l l o f t h e a m b u l a t o r y . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 1 4 3 ) , Longhena r e p e a t e d t h e s i m p l e d e v i c e o f mak ing t h e s i d e s o f t h e m a j o r and m i n o r p i e r s p a r a l l e l t o each o t h e r , g i v i n g t h e u n i t s o f t h e a m b u l a t o r y and t he c h a p e l s r e g u l a r g e o m e t r i c a l shapes ( F i g . 1 4 2 ) . ^ As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e m i n o r o r d e r s o f t h e a i s l e s c a r r y i n t e r s e c t i n g b a r r e l v a u l t e d c e i l i n g s d i v i d e d by t he a r c h e s o f each b a y . T o g e t h e r t h e y c r e a t e e i g h t d i s t i n c t s e c t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g t he n a v e . The d e s i g n o f t he t r i u m p h a l - a r c h a r c a d i n g o f t he nave o f L o n g h e n a ' s c h u r c h ( F i g . 154) p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g s . 155 and 1 5 6 ) . As i n P a l l a d i o ' s c h u r c h , t h e e q u a l bays a r e s e p a r a t e d by s i n g l e g i a n t C o r i n t h i a n h a l f - c o l u m n s on h i g h p e d e s t a l s . The a r c h e s r i s e f r o m e n t a b l a t u r e s s u p p o r t e d above s m a l l e r c o u p l e d C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s on s m a l l b a s e s . The a r c h i v o l t s o f 103 . t h e a r c h e s e x t e n d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e p t h o v e r t h e w i d t h s o f t h e p a i r e d p i l a s t e r s and d e m o n s t r a t e t h e same b o l d and s t r o n g p r o f i l e as t h o s e a t San G i o r g i o . U n l i k e t h e o r i g i n a l , each a r c h c a r r i e s a k e y s t o n e , r e f l e c t i n g t h e a r r a n g e m e n t a t t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 8 6 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a r c h e s a r e no t as l o f t y as t h o s e o f San G i o r g i o , w h i c h a r e two and a h a l f t i m e s as t a l l as t h e y a r e w i d e ( F i g . 1 5 5 ) , bu t t h e y do f o l l o w t h e s t o u t e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h o s e a t t h e R e d e n t o r e , w h i c h a r e s i m p l y d o u b l e t h e i r w i d t h . S u p p o r t e d above t h e o r d e r s , a heavy e n t a b l a t u r e w i t h a s t r o n g l y d e n t i l l e d c o r n i c e r u n s a round t h e n a v e , ( b r e a k i n g s h a r p l y o v e r each c a p i t a l ( F i g . 1 5 4 ) . T h i s s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n - i z a t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e s u b t l e o r d e r i n g o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g s . 155 and 1 5 6 ) . U n l i k e t h e R e d e n t o r e , w h i c h has a s t r a i g h t e n t a b l a t u r e t h a t a s s i s t s i n d e l i n - e a t i n g t h e h a l l - l i k e s p a c e o f t h e n a v e , t h e j u t t i n g r e s s a u t s o f San G i o r g i o and t h e S a l u t e e m p h a s i z e t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e c o l o s s a l co lumns t h a t make up t h e s p a c e . They a l s o draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a r chways by f r a m i n g t h e s t r a i g h t l e n g t h s o f e n t a b l a t u r e t h a t r u n above them. In r e p e a t i n g P a l l a d i o ' s u n i f y - i n g s y s t e m o f d e s i g n , Longhena a l s o c r e a t e d a ha rmon ious s y n t h e s i s o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l components o f h i s n a v e . To b e a u t i f y t h e vo lume o f t h i s s p a c e , he c rowned i t w i t h a m a j e s t i c c i r c u l a r dome w h i c h r i s e s f r o m a t a l l o c t a g o n a l drum h o l d i n g s i x t e e n l a r g e l o n g , na r row windows ( F i g . 1 5 7 ) . These o p e n i n g s , comb ined w i t h t h o s e o f t h e huge l a n t e r n t o p p i n g t h e dome, t r a n s f u s e v a s t amounts o f u n i f o r m l i g h t o n t o t h e nave b e l o w , r e f l e c t i n g i t s e l f o f f t h e s t u c c o e d s u r f a c e s o f t h e dome, w a l l s , and f i l l i n g s . The c o l o r i s t i c t r e a t m e n t o f t h e w h i t e w a s h e d s u r f a c e s e n l i v e n e d by d a r k e r s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s o f g r e y I s t r i a n s t o n e d e r i v e s f r om P a l l a d i o a t San G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g s . 67 and 7 4 ) . The d e s i g n o f t he drum and dome o f t h e S a l u t e i s no t P a l l a d i a n , bu t t h e s t r u c t u r e t h a t s u p p o r t s i t i s . 104. From t h e c e n t e r o f t h e ma in room under t h e dome, Longhena c r e a t - ed a s e r i e s o f e i g h t s c e n o g r a p h i c v i e w s f r a m e d by t h e p i e r s and a r c h e s o f t h e nave a r c a d e . L o o k i n g n o r t h and s o u t h a l o n g t h e c e n t r a l a x i s , t h e eye i s d i r e c t e d by a sequence o f a r c h e d s p a c e s f r o m t h e main e n t r a n c e t h r o u g h t h e nave and on t o t h e c h a n c e l h o u s i n g t h e h i g h a l t a r ( F i g . 1 5 4 ) . As L e w i s w r i t e s , T h i s i n i t a l e f f e c t i s s u p p l e m e n t e d . . . b y t h e s e c o n d a r y axes i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g i t s c e n t r a l i z e d o c t a g o n , t h r o u g h whose b r i l - l i a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n Longhena c o n t r i v e d a who le r i n g o f r a d i a t i n g v i s t a s t o c u l m i - n a t e i n t h e e l a b o r a t e l y f r a m e d a l t a r p i c t u r e s e n s h r i n e d i n i t s s u r r o u n d i n g a m b u l a t o r y . 2 7 The p r i n c i p l e s o f s c e n o g r a p h i c d e s i g n t h a t a r e d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e S a l u t e by Longhena were f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d by P a l l a d i o a t San G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e . W i t h i n t h e o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r e s , t h e v a r i o u s s p a c e s a r e u n i f i e d i n t o one dynamic s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h r o u g h a sequence o f o p t i c a l d e v i c e s c r e a t e d by t h e u n i q u e p l a n n i n g o f h i s s t r u c t u r a l o r d e r s . By a d o p t i n g much o f P a l l a d i o ' s s t r u c t u r a l p l a n n i n g t o h i s o c t a g o n a l p l a n , Longhena c r e a t e d an e f f e c t i v e s c e n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n whereby t he p r o g r e s s i o n f r o m t h e f r o n t s t e p s o f t h e c h u r c h s t r a i g h t t h r o u g h t o t h e h i g h a l t a r " . . . u n f o l d s as a s e r i e s o f ' p i c t u r e s ' , f r a m e d by s c e n i c e l e m e n t s w h i c h a r e s u c c e s s i v e l y p e n e t r a t e d , f i r s t by t h e eye 28 and t h e n t h r o u g h p h y s i c a l movement, as t h e a x i s i s f o l l o w e d t o t h e c h o i r . " The d i s c o v e r y , r e c o g n i t i o n , and c r u c i a l c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f s c e n o g r a p h i c d e s i g n w i t h i n t h e c h u r c h e s o f Longhena and P a l l a d i o i s t h e pq i m p o r t a n t work o f W i t t k o w e r . To c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f L o n g h e n a ' s c h u r c h f r o m P a l l a d i a n p l a n s , t h e f l a t back w a l l s and t h e c h a p e l s o f t h e s i x San G i o r g i o a i s l e u n i t s ( F i g . 145) have been r e p l a c e d w i t h t h e s i x r e c e s s e d s i d e - c h a p e l s 105 . o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g s . 144 and 1 4 6 ) , r e s e m b l i n g t h e p a r a l l e l a r rangemen t a t t h e S a l u t e ( F i g . 1 4 2 ) . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l ( F i g . 8 6 ) , each c h a p e l i s f o r m e d by a s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h r i s i n g f r o m an e n t a b l a t u r e s u p p o r t e d by m i n o r p i l a s t e r s w i t h o u t p e d e s t a l s ( F i g . 1 5 8 ) . U n l i k e t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e c h a p e l s a r e no t e l l i p t i c a l l y e l o n g a t e d by s m a l l a p s e s , b u t a r e r e c t a n g u l a r . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e y r e f l e c t t h e s t y l e o f S c a m o z z i ' s s i d e - c h a p e l s a t t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 1 0 3 ) , w h i c h a r e a l s o echoed i n t h e p l a n o f San N i c o l o d e l L i d o ( F i g . 1 2 9 ) . A t t h e R e d e n t o r e , P a l l a d i o d e s i g n e d s i x i d e n t i c a l a l t a r s t o s i t w i t h i n h i s s i x i d e n t i c a l c h a p e l s , g i v i n g b a l a n c e t o h i s ha rmon ious and e n c o m p a s s i n g s y s t e m o f d e s i g n . S c a m o z z i echoed t h i s p a t t e r n a t t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 101) and h i s f o r m e r s t u d e n t r e p e a t e d i t once a g a i n i n t h e S a l u t e ( F i g s . 154 and 1 5 8 ) . U n l i k e S c a m o z z i , Longhena d i d not copy P a l l a d i o ' s o r i g i n a l a l t a r d e s i g n s , bu t c r e a t e d a ma tched s e r i e s o f r e l a t i v e l y modest Ba roque ones i n s t e a d . As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , San G i o r g i o , and t he T o l e n t i n i , t h e i d e n t i c a l l y d e s i g n e d c h a p e l s and a l t a r s t o g e t h e r a c t as a r e p e t i t i v e and c o m p l i m e n t a r y f o i l t o t h e more e l a b o r a t e l y d e s i g n e d main a l t a r ( F i g . 1 5 4 ) . F o l l o w i n g bo th P a l l a d i o and S c a m o z z i , Longhena opened t he back w a l l s o f t h e l a t e r a l c h a p e l s above t h e c o r - n i c e i n t o m u l l i o n e d t h e r m a l windows o f t h e same s i z e as t h e a r c h e s c o n n e c t i n g them w i t h t h e a m b u l a t o r y and t h e n a v e . U n l i k e t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l d e s i g n s o f t h e e a r l i e r a r c h i t e c t s , t h e seven j u t t i n g e x t e r i o r w a l l s o f t h e o c t a g o n a l p l a n o f t h e S a l u t e , w h i c h g i v e t h e c h u r c h i t s p i c t u r e s q u e b r o k e n p r o f i l e , were d e s i g n e d t o r e c e i v e g r e a t e x p o s u r e ( F i g . 1 3 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , each w a l l has a f a c a d e and t o g e t h e r t h e y v a r y i n i m p o r t a n c e t h r o u g h a change i n a r t i c u l a t i o n and s c a l e f r o m t h e r e a r a r o u n d t o t h e f r o n t o f t he b u i l d i n g , c u l m i n a t i n g i n t h e c o l o s s a l f a c a d e o f t h e ma in e n t r a n c e f a c i n g d i r e c t l y on t o t h e Grand C a n a l . The s i x f a c a d e s 106 . o f t h e c h a p e l s a r e i m a g i n a t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f P a l l a d i o ' s f a c a d e f o r t h e Z i t e l l e ( F i g . 7 1 ) . The back f o u r a r e made o f b r i c k and f a c e d w i t h p l a s t e r and t h e two f l a n k i n g t h e ma in e n t r a n c e a r e ado rned w i t h I s t r i a n s t o n e and a r e more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o P a l l a d i o ' s w o r k . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , L o n g h e n a ' s c h a p e l f a c a d e s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two s t o r i e s o f s u p e r i m p o s e d o r d e r s , h o r i z o n t a l - l y s e p a r a t e d by i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e s and c rowned by s i n g l e p e d i m e n t s o v e r l a r g e t h e r m a l windows ( F i g . 1 3 5 ) . E m u l a t i n g P a l l a d i o , t h e d e s i g n s f o r L o n g h e n a ' s m i n o r f a c a d e s were d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t he s p a c e s b e h i n d . The w i d t h and h e i g h t o f each i s e x a c t l y t h e same, p e r f e c t l y e c h o i n g each o t h e r . The i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e i s p l a c e d a t t h e same h e i g h t i n s i d e and o u t , and bo th e l e m e n t s a r e s u p p o r t e d by C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s o f t h e same s c a l e and d e s i g n . The a r c h o f t h e t h e r m a l window i n t h e upper zone r e p e a t s e x a c t l y t h e a r c h o f t h e v a u l t b e h i n d and t he c r o w n i n g ped imen t c o r r e - sponds w i t h t h e a t t i c b e h i n d . In an a t t e m p t t o i n t e r r e l a t e t h e i n s i d e and o u t s i d e d e s i g n s o f h i s c h u r c h , as P a l l a d i o had done i n San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a , San G i o r g i o , t h e R e d e n t o r e , and t h e Z i t e l l e , Longhena made much o f t h e e x t e r i o r o f t h e S a l u t e p r e s e n t a d i r e c t i d e a o f t h e f o r m , f a b r i c and p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r i o r . F i g u r e 147 r e t u r n s us t o t h e g r a p h i c r e b u i l d i n g o f t h e S a l u t e . I t d e p i c t s t h e s i d e - a i s l e s o f San G i o r g i o a t t a c h e d t o t he s i d e - c h a p e l s o f t h e R e d e n t o r e s e t a round an o c t a g o n a l n a v e . The domed t r i c o n c h c h a n c e l o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 144) has been l o o s e l y p l a c e d a t t h e o p p o s i t e end o f t h e c e n t r a l a x i s f r o m the f r o n t d o o r . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t he c h a n c e l o f t h e S a l u t e i s s i t u a t e d a t a h i g h e r l e v e l t h a n t h e nave by t h r e e s t e p s ( F i g . 1 4 2 ) . In bo th c h u r c h e s , t h e naves and t h e c h a n c e l s f o r m a l m o s t i n d e p e n d e n t u n i t s . As W i t t k o w e r t e l 1 s u s , 107 . F o r t h e two l a r g e a p s e s o f t h e domed s a n c t u a r y Longhena emp loyed a s y s t e m e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e o c t a g o n ; he used g i a n t p i l a s t e r s i n - s t e a d o f co lumns and r e p l a c e d t h e m u l l i o n e d windows o f t h e c h a p e l s by normal windows i n two t i e r s . Shape and d e t a i l o f t h e s a n c t u a r y depend on t h e R e d e n t o r e , where P a l l a d i o had p e r - fo rmed a s i m i l a r change o f s y s t e m between t h e nave and t h e c e n t r a l i z e d p o r t i o n . 3 0 The most i m p o r t a n t space i n t h e c h a n c e l i s t h e s q u a r e one d i r e c t l y under t h e dome. Combined w i t h t h e vo lumes o f t h e two l a t e r a l a p s e s w i t h c o v e d c e i l i n g s , t h i s s p a c e c r e a t e s a t r a n s v e r s e o v a l w h i c h r e a d s as a s h o r t c r o w n - i n g c r o s s - a x i s t o t h e c e n t r a l p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e n a v e . As a t t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e h a l f - d o m e s r e f l e c t t h e r o u n d e d vo lume o f t h e dome. The c e n t r a l a r e a i s d e f i n e d by f o u r p o w e r f u l p i e r s w h i c h t u r n on f o r t y - f i v e d e g r e e a n g l e s between t h e c o r n e r c o l u m n s , a c c e n t u a t i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e and u n i t y o f t h e s p a c e ( F i g . 1 5 9 ) . E c h o i n g P a l l a d i o ( F i g . 7 4 ) , t h e a n g l e d w a l l s between t h e p i e r s c o n t a i n s u p e r i m p o s e d s t a t u e n i c h e s . To c rown h i s c h a n c e l s q u a r e ( F i g s . 159 and 1 6 3 ) , Longhena adop ted P a l l a d i o ' s dome a t t h e R e d e n t o r e a l m o s t e x a c t l y ( F i g . 7 4 ) . T h e b a l u s t r a d e o f t h e d rum, w h i c h i s f o r m e d by s i x t e e n s e c t i o n s o f b i p a r t i t e b a l u s t e r s a r t i c u l a t e d by p o s t s , i s s u p p o r t e d by a round d e n t i l l e d c o r n i c e w h i c h p a s s e s o v e r t h e t o p s o f t h e f o u r g r e a t a r c h e s and t h e c o r n e r p e n d e n t i v e s . B e h i n d t h e b a l u s t r a d e t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e drum w a l l i s a l s o d i v i d e d i n t o s i x t e e n b a y s , each one fo rmed by a p a i r o f a d j o i n i n g D o r i c p i l a s t e r s . U n l i k e t he o r i g i n a l , w h i c h has f o u r a p e r t u r e s , t h e r e a r e e i g h t r e c t a n g u l a r windows s e t v e r t i c a l l y i n t o t h e p r i n c i p a l i n t e r c o l u m n i a t i o n s , w h i l e each o f t h e o t h e r a l t e r n a t i n g s u r f a c e s i s smooth and p l a i n . A t t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e i n between s u r f a c e s a r e d e c o r a t e d w i t h a s e r i e s o f t w e l v e s t a t u e 108 . n i c h e s . S u r m o u n t i n g t h e p i l a s t e r s , t h e r e i s a t h i n e n t a b l a t u r e f r om w h i c h s p r i n g s a w h i t e w a s h e d dome w i t h a s m a l l o p e n i n g f o r l i g h t i n t h e c e n t e r ( F i g . 1 5 9 ) . Not o n l y do t h e shapes and d e t a i l s o f t h e i n t e r i o r s o f t h e c h a n c e l s o f t h e S a l u t e and t h e R e d e n t o r e r e p e a t each o t h e r , bu t a l o o k a t t h e r e a r f a c a d e s o f bo th b u i l d i n g s r e v e a l s s i m i l a r c o m p o s i t i o n s o f domes and s i d e a p s e s f r a m e d by s o a r i n g b e l l t o w e r s ( F i g s . 160 and 1 6 1 ) . To c o n n e c t t o g e t h e r a l l t h e e l e m e n t s o f P a l l a d i o f e a t u r e d i n F i g u r e 1 4 7 , we need t he e i g h t a l t e r n a t i n g f o r t y - f i v e d e g r e e p i e - s h a p e d a i s l e s e c t i o n s o f t h e S a l u t e ( F i g s . 142 and 1 4 8 ) . These s h o r t w indowed and v a u l t e d s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s a r e o f L o n g h e n a ' s c r e a t i o n and compared t o t h e o t h e r g r a n d - i o s e s p a c e s o f t h e c h u r c h t h e y seem a l m o s t i n s i g n i f i c a n t . When i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e nave t h e y a r e t o t a l l y h i d d e n f r o m v i e w . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e s h o u l d no t be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , f o r t h e y a r e t h e b r i l l i a n t i n v e n t i o n s w h i c h j o i n t o g e t h e r t h e many p a r t s o f L o n g h e n a ' s " r o u n d m a c h i n e " i n t o a c o m p l e t e and e n - c o m p a s s i n g w h o l e . W i t h o u t t h e m , t h e a m b u l a t o r y wou ld be l o s t and t h e wondrous P a l l a d i a n s t r u c t u r e s and s p a c e s o f t h e b u i l d i n g wou ld r e m a i n s t a t i c i n t h e i r d i s c o n n e c t i o n . F i g u r e 149 d e p i c t s t he P a l l a d i a n e l e m e n t s u n i t e d by L o n g h e n a ' s t r i a n g u l a r c o n n e c t i o n s . As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 1 4 4 ) , t h e i n n e r c o r r i d o r s l e a d i n g a round t h e e x e d r a s f r om t h e two s a c r i s t i e s f l a n k i n g t h e s p a c e b e h i n d t h e h i g h a l t a r a r e now d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t h r o u g h L o n g h e n a ' s c o n n e c t o r s t o a l l s i x s i d e - c h a p e l s ( F i g . 1 5 8 ) . R e p e a t i n g P a l l a d i o , as S c a m o z z i had done a t t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 8 0 ) , t h e a c c e s s c o r r i d o r s o f t h e S a l u t e a l l o w f o r p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s t o be c o n d u c t e d a t t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s w i t h o u t d i s t u r b i n g t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f mass a t t h e h i g h a l t a r . To c o m p l e t e ou r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S a l u t e ( F i g . 1 4 2 ) , we need t o add f i v e more e l e m e n t s ( F i g . 150) t o t h e d r a w i n g ( F i g . 1 4 9 ) . The s p a c e 109 . b e h i n d t h e h i g h a l t a r o f t h e R e d e n t o r e opens i n t o a d e e p l y r e c e d i n g h e m i - c y c l e o f s i x e x q u i s i t e l y c a r v e d C o r i n t h i a n co lumns ( F i g . 1 6 2 ) . R e s t i n g on t h e s e o r d e r s , t h e r e i s a heavy c u r v e d e n t a b l a t u r e above w h i c h s p r i n g s t h e b r i g h t w h i t e vo lume o f a huge h a l f - d o m e , t e r m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t t h e back o f t h e g i a n t a l t a r a r c h . Longhena o n l y r e p e a t e d t h e a l t a r a r c h , b u t , u n l i k e P a l l a d i o , he c o n t i n u e d t h e main e n t a b l a t u r e s t r a i g h t a c r o s s and c l o s e d t h e a r c h o f f , d e c o r a t i n g i t w i t h c i r c u l a r p a n e l s ( F i g . 1 6 3 ) . A r e d u c e d t r i u m p h a l a r c h s e t i n s i d e t h e l a r g e r one s u p p o r t s t h e ma in e n t a b l a t u r e and f r a m e s t h e f r e e - s t a n d i n g h i g h a l t a r . As i n San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 121) and San N i c o l o d e l L i d o ( F i g . 1 2 8 ) , t h e a r c h - w i t h i n - a n - a r c h theme was d e s i g n e d t o h e l p s t o p t h e v i e w a t t h e end o f t h e c h a n c e l , w h i l e s t i l l f o c u s s i n g i t i n w a r d s t o t h e a l t a r b e l o w . A t P a l l a d i o ' s c h u r c h , t h e l a r g e t e r m i n a t i n g a r c h i s f i l l e d w i t h a d o u b l e t i e r e d o r g a n s c r e e n w i t h t h e t o p and bo t tom open t o t h e c h o i r b e h i n d . Longhena r e i n t r o d u c e d t h e l o w e r t i e r o f p a i r e d i s o l a t e d co lumns a r r a n g e d i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e w i t h t h r e e i n t e r c o l u m n i a t i o n s . U n l i k e t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e c e n t e r bay was made much w i d e r t h a n t h o s e t o t h e s i d e s , a l l o w i n g e a s y a c c e s s t o t h e c h o i r b e h i n d . F i g u r e 151 d e p i c t s t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t i n p l a n . The s t e p s and g a t e i n t r o d u c i n g t h e h i g h a l t a r o f t he S a l u t e have been added a l s o . W i t h t h e remova l o f t h e apse o f t h e main a l t a r o f t h e R e d e n t o r e f r o m t h e r e c o n s t r u c - t i o n ( F i g . 1 4 9 ) , t h e new r e c t a n g u l a r s p a c e has been c o n v e r t e d i n t o a c h o i r , r e f l e c t i n g t h e p a r a l l e l a r rangemen t i n t h e S a l u t e . The row o f r o u n d - h e a d e d windows h i g h on t h e back w a l l o f L o n g h e n a ' s c h o i r has been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e p l a n a l s o . The f i n a l two a r c h i t e c t u r a l e l e m e n t s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e c o n - s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S a l u t e ( F i g . 149) a r e t h e f a c a d e o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 143) and t h e w i d e , h i g h f i v e - s i d e d s t a i r s f r o n t i n g t h e S a l u t e ( F i g . 1 4 2 ) . A t t h e R e d e n t o r e , 110 . P a l l a d i o had a l r e a d y d e m o n s t r a t e d how e f f e c t i v e l y a f l i g h t o f monumental s t a i r s c o u l d be when used t o i n t r o d u c e a g r a n d e n t r a n c e p o r t a l l e a d i n g o n t o a l a r g e nave b e h i n d ( F i g . 7 5 ) . Longhena made h i s s t a i r s f i f t e e n s t e p s h i g h , r e p e a t i n g P a l l a d i o e x a c t l y . No o t h e r c h u r c h i n V e n i c e had a f l i g h t o f s t a i r s t o compare w i t h t h o s e o f t h e g r e a t m a s t e r s . I t was no t u n t i l e i g h t y - e i g h t y e a r s a f t e r t h e S a l u t e , i n 1 7 1 8 , t h a t t h e f i f t e e n - s t e p s t a i r s were ou tnumbered by G i o v a n n i S c a l f a r o t t o a t San S imeone P i c c o l o , where a l o f t y n i n e t e e n s t e p s were used ( F i g . 2 1 2 ) . The o v e r a l l d e s i g n f o r t h e main f a c a d e o f t h e S a l u t e ( F i g . 213) f o l l o w s P a l l a d i o ' s s o l u t i o n a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 3 ) . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , i t i s composed o f a t e m p l e f r o n t w i t h two p a i r s o f l a r g e C o m p o s i t e h a l f - c o l u m n s on h i g h p e d e s t a l s s u p p o r t i n g a b r o a d e n t a b l a t u r e . Between t h e g i a n t o r d e r s t h e m s e l v e s , t h e r e a r e surmounted s t a t u e n i c h e s s e p a r a t e d by s t r i n g c o u r s e s o f e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h a r e c a r r i e d a c r o s s t h e f a c a d e f r o m t h e m i n o r C o r i n t h i a n s i d e - o r d e r s . The l a r g e c e n t e r bay between t h e p a i r e d c o l u m n a r u n i t s embraces a c o l o s s a l doorway t h a t f i l l s t h e who le s p a c e . I t s f o r m and s c a l e c l o s e l y i n t e r p r e t t h e i n t e r i o r a r c h e s o f t h e o c t a g o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e theme o f t h e i n t e r i o r t o t h e w o r s h i p p e r b e f o r e he e n t e r s t h e c h u r c h . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e m i n o r o r d e r r e p e a t s t h a t o f t h e i n s i d e , and t h e d e s i g n o f t h e t i e r e d s t a t u e n i c h e s a r e e x a c t r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h e windows o f t h e c h a n c e l a p s e s ( F i g . 1 5 9 ) . Once a g a i n , Longhena e m u l a t e d P a l l a d i o ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n t o i n t r o d u c e t h e scheme o f t h e i n t e r i o r o f h i s c h u r c h e s on t h e i r f a c a d e s . U n l i k e San G i o r g i o , t h e main t r i a n g u l a r ped imen t does no t embrace t h e f u l l w i d t h o f t h e f a c a d e . I n s t e a d , i t c rowns t h e c e n t r a l bay above t h e d o o r . To f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e t h e ma in p e d i m e n t - ed b a y , Longhena p r o j e c t e d i t f o r w a r d by s e t t i n g back t h e c o r n i c e between t h e p a i r e d o r d e r s . The who le c o m p o s i t i o n i s a m a j e s t i c o n e . F i g u r e s 151 and 152 111. d e p i c t a j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S a l u t e f r o m e l e m e n t s t a k e n f r o m t h e p l a n s o f P a l l a d i o w i t h L o n g h e n a ' s b u i l d i n g i t s e l f . T h e i r d e s i g n s a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . From t h e Mo lo a d j a c e n t t o t h e Duca l P a l a c e , a w o n d e r f u l w i d e s o u t h e r n v i s t a o f t h e B a c i n o d i San Marco c a n be s e e n . The f o u r b e a u t i f u l c h u r c h e s o f San G i o r g i o , t he Z i t e l l e , t h e R e d e n t o r e , and t h e S a l u t e e n c i r c l e t h e edges o f t h i s v i e w . P a l l a d i o ' s s t r u c t u r e s a r e c r e a t i o n s o f g e n i u s i n t h e m s e l v e s and L o n g h e n a ' s c h u r c h i s as e q u a l l y b r i l l i a n t f o r e m u l a t i n g t hem. 112 . NOTES 1. F o r more commentary on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h u r c h o f S a n t a M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e , see E l e n a B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a d e l S e i e S e t t e c e n t o a V e n e z i a ( N a p o l i : E d i z i o n i S c i e n t i f i c h e I t a l i a n e , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 9 0 - 1 0 8 ; B. B o u c h e r , " B a r o q u e A r c h i t e c t u r e i n V e n i c e " , A p o l l o , C X , 1 9 7 9 , p p . 3 8 8 - 3 9 5 ; Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , pp . 2 4 2 - 2 5 6 ; Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 178- 1 8 4 ; D o u g l a s L e w i s , " B a l d a s s a r e L o n g h e n a " , A r t e V e n e t a , X X V I I , 1 9 7 3 , p p . 3 2 8 - 3 3 0 , and The L a t e Baroque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p p . 2 4 - 2 8 , 8 9 , and 3 2 5 , f o o t n o t e 1 3 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 5 3 8 - 5 4 3 ; M. M u r a r o , "I I Tempio v o t i v o d i S a n t a M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e i n una poema d e l S e i c e n t o " , A t e n e o V e n e t o , X I , 1 9 7 3 , p p . 8 7 - 1 1 9 , and V e n i c e and Her I s l a n d s ( F l o r e n c e : A rnaud P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 3 3 0 - 3 3 3 ; and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y : 1600 - 1750 ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n B o o k s , I n c . , 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 1 9 1 - 1 9 6 , and " S , M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e " , S a g g i e M e m o r i e , V . 3 , 1 9 6 3 , p p . 3 3 - 5 4 , and " S . M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e : S c e n o g r a p h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e and t h e V e n e t i a n B a r o q u e " , J o u r n a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , X V I , 1 9 5 7 , p p . 3 - 1 0 . F o r a c o m p l e t e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on L o n g h e n a , see D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e Ba roque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 ) , p p . 3 0 6 - 3 1 0 , f o o t n o t e 9 . 2 . Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 183 . F o r an o u t l i n e o f t h e work o f L o n g h e n a ' s Roman c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , see R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y : 1600 - 1750 (Ha rmondswor th : P e n g u i n B o o k s , I n c . , 1 9 7 2 ) . 3 . D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e Baroque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 162 . 4 . I b i d . , p. 5 9 . 5 . I b i d . , p. 3 3 . Two e x c e p t i o n s a r e f o u n d i n t h e f a c a d e s o f S a n t a M a r i a d e i D e r e l i t t i , o r d e l l ' O s p e d a l e t t o , by Longhena i n 1670 ( F i g . 140) and San M o i s e by A l e s s a n d r o T rem igon and E n r i c o M e y r i n g i n 1688 ( F i g . 1 4 1 ) , w h i c h b o t h d i s p l a y e x c e s s i v e and g r o s s l y o v e r - l o a d e d B a r o q u e s c u l p t u r a l e f f e c t s . F o r more d i s c u s s i o n on t h e s e two c h u r c h e s , see Umber to F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 4 4 4 - 4 4 6 and 3 1 8 - 3 2 1 , c o n s e c u t i v e l y . 6 . F o r more d i s c u s s i o n on t h e l i n e o f d e s i g n d e s c e n t be tween t h e s e b u i l d i n g s see pages 1 2 4 - 1 2 5 f h e r e i n . 7 . See pages 1 2 5 - 1 2 8 , h e r e i n , f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f P a l l a d i o ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h e d e s i g n o f L o n g h e n a ' s S a n t a M a r i a d e g l i S c a l z i . 113 . 8 . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 2 2 . 9 . Do reen Y a r w o o d , The A r c h i t e c t u r e o f I t a l y ( L o n d o n : C h a t t o and W i n d u s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 9 6 . 1 0 . H o w a r d , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p p . 176 and 1 9 3 . 1 1 . I b i d . , p . 1 8 0 . 1 2 . G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p p . 1 1 4 - 1 1 5 . 1 3 . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y : 1600 - 1750 (Harmonds- w o r t h : P e n g u i n B o o k s , I n c . , 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 1 9 2 . 14 . L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s L a g o o n , p. 5 3 9 . 1 5 . W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y : 1600 - 1 7 5 0 , p . 1 9 1 . See a l s o , Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 1 8 2 . 16 . I b i d . , p . 1 9 2 . See a l s o E l e n a B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a d e l S e i e S e t t e c e n t o a V e n e z i a ( N a p o l i : E d i z i o n i S c i e n t i f i c h e I t a l i a n e , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 9 8 ; and Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 182 . 17 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 182 . 18 . R a l p h L i e b e r m a n , R e n a i s s a n c e A r c h i t e c t u r e i n V e n i c e 1450 -1540 (New Y o r k : A b b e v i l l e P r e s s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 14. 1 9 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 1 8 0 . 2 0 . A f t e r t h e J e s u i t s were c h a s e d ou t o f V e n i c e i n 1606 , t h e P a d r i S o m a s c h i , who were t h e o n l y r e l i g i o u s o r d e r t o have been f o u n d e d i n V e n i c e , became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a i n i n g t h e l o c a l p r i e s t s and c l e r i c s . See Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 7 9 - 1 8 0 . 2 1 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , P P . 179 and 2 4 6 , f o o t n o t e 1 2 . L o r e n z o L o n g o ' s l o n g poem was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d by M. M u r a r o , "II Tempio V o t i v o d i S a n t a M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e i n una poema d e l S e i c e n t o " , A t e n e o V e n e t o , X I , 1 9 7 3 , p p . 8 7 - 1 1 9 . 2 2 . L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s L a g o o n , p. 5 7 8 . See a l s o , E l e n a B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a d e l S e i e S e t t e c e n t o a V e n e z i a ( N a p o l i : E d i z i o n e S c i e n t i f i c h e I t a l i a n e , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 9 2 . 2 3 . See f o o t n o t e o n e , a b o v e , f o r a l i s t o f w r i t i n g s w i t h i n w h i c h t h e i r a u t h o r s speak o f P a l l a d i o ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h e d e s i g n o f t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e S a l u t e . 114. 2 4 . W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y , p. 1 9 2 . 2 5 . See R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , " S . M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e " , S a g g i e M e m o r i e , V . 3 , 1 9 6 3 , p p . 4 6 - 4 7 . W i t t k o w e r shows t h a t t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e S a l u t e a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r i n s i m p l e m a t h e m a t i c a l r a t i o s w h i c h r e f l e c t P a l l a d i o ' s own h a r m o n i z e d p r o p o r t i o n s . 2 6 . W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y : 1600 - 1 7 5 0 , p. 192 . 2 7 . L e w i s , L a t e Baroque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e , p. 2 6 . 2 8 . I b i d . , p. 2 6 . 2 9 . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r ' s w r i t i n g s w h i c h f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t h e c o n c e p t and p r i n c i p l e s o f " s c e n o g r a p h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e " t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f bo th P a l l a d i o ' s and L o n g h e n a ' s a r t a r e " S . M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e : S c e n o g r a p h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e and t h e V e n e t i a n B a r o q u e " , J o u r n a l o f t h e S o c i e t y o f A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , X V I , 1 9 5 7 , p p . 3 - 1 0 ; " S . M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e " , S a g g i e M e m o r i e , V . 3 , 1 9 6 3 , p p . 3 3 - 5 4 ; and A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y : 1600 - 1750~THarmondswor th : P e n g u i n B o o k s , I n c . , 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 1 9 2 - 1 9 6 . 3 0 . W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y : 1600 - 1 7 5 0 , p. 194 . 3 1 . The d e s i g n o f t h e drum and dome o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 74) i s e x a c t l y t h e same as t h a t i n San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 6 8 ) , w h i c h had been c o p i e d e a r l i e r by G i r o l a m o G r a p i g l i a t o c rown t h e c r o s s i n g o f h i s P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h o f San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o i n 1619 ( F i g . 1 2 5 ) . 115 . S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a : 1647 The c h u r c h o f S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a , w h i c h s t a n d s i n t h e l a r g e campo o f t h e same name, was f o u n d e d i n t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y ( F i g . 1 6 4 ) . In t h e m i d d l e o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e a n t i q u e t h r e e - n a v e s t r u c t u r e f e l l i n t o c o m p l e t e d i s r e p a i r and was r a z e d . * C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t b u i l d i n g be - gan i n 1 6 4 7 , f o l l o w i n g t h e d e s i g n o f t h e p a i n t e r and a r c h i t e c t G i o v a n n i 2 B a t t i s t a L a m b r a n z i . Bo th t h e i n t e r i o r and t h e u n r e a l i z e d e x t e r i o r a r e t h o r o u g h l y P a l l a d i a n i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g . L a m b r a n z i ' s c h u r c h r e p e a t s t h e use o f t h e p o p u l a r l o n g nave and s q u a r e c h a n c e l p l a n ( F i g . 1 6 5 ) . As i n San Giacomo ( F i g . 1 1 8 ) , S a n t a M a r i a E l i s a b e t t a ( F i g . 1 2 6 ) , and San N i c o l o ( F i g . 1 3 1 ) , t h e c l o s e d cupped c o n g r e g a t i o n s p a c e o f San M a r g h e r i t a i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e R e d e n t o r e h a l l ( F i g . 8 9 ) . D e v i a t i n g f r o m P a l l a d i o ' s 2 :1 r a t i o , t h e l e n g t h o f t h e nave i s o n l y one and a h a l f t i m e s i t s w i d t h , mak ing t h e s p a c e appea r t o be s h o r t and w i d e i n s t e a d o f l o n g and n a r r o w . F l a n k i n g t h i s h a l l , t h e r e a r e s i x b i l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l s i d e - c h a p e l s r e c e s s e d i n t o t h e w a l l s ( F i g . 1 6 6 ) . They a r e f o rmed by s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h e s w i t h k e y s t o n e s r i s i n g f r o m m i n o r D o r i c o r d e r s . F o l l o w i n g f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n o t h e r P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h e s , t h e t h r e e bays a r e s e p a r a t e d by a s e r i e s o f g i a n t o r d e r s . As i n t h e E l i s a b e t t a ( F i g . 1 2 7 ) , t h e t a l l , t h i n C o r i n t h i a n o r d e r s r i s e f r om t a l l p e d e s t a l s , r e f l e c t i n g San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 8 8 ) . The t r i p l e b a s e s o f t he p e d e s t a l s r e p e a t t h e u n u s u a l p r o f i l e o f t h o s e f o u n d i n San P i e t r o ( F i g . 1 2 4 ) . As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e r e a r e f o u r t a l l , na r row bays o f w a l l s p a c e between t h e f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e nave and t h e l a s t s i d e - c h a p e l i n each r a n g e . W i t h i n t h e s e s p a c e s , t h e r e a r e d o o r - ways su rmoun ted by s t a t u e n i c h e s , e c h o i n g t he d e s i g n o f San G iacomo ( F i g . 1 1 8 ) . 116 . These f o r m s a r e s y m m e t r i c a l l y r e p e a t e d w i t h i n t h e f o u r end w a l l s w h i c h f l a n k t h e e n t r a n c e and c h a n c e l a r c h e s ( F i g . 1 6 7 ) . In t h e R e d e n t o r e , a l l e i g h t bays c o n t a i n p a i r s o f su rmounted s t a t u e n i c h e s . S u p p o r t e d above t h e ma in o r d e r s , a heavy d e n t i l l e d e n t a b l a t u r e c a r r i e s a c u r v e d v a u l t w i t h s i x g r o i n e d t h e r m a l windows p o s i t i o n e d d i r e c t l y above t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s . R e p e a t i n g P a l l a d i o , Lambranz i made t h e pavement o f t h e s q u a r e c h a n c e l r i s e a f ew s t e p s f r o m t h a t o f t h e nave ( F i g . 1 6 6 ) . The t h r e e w a l l s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e a l t a r a r e b l a n k and c o v e r e d i n w h i t e s t u c c o . The two c o r n e r s o f t h e end w a l l h o l d u n u s u a l l y t h i n f r a g m e n t s o f C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s , c r e a t i n g an u n e a s y v i s u a l t e n s i o n be tween t h e heavy e n t a b l a t u r e and t h e s p i n d l y members s u p p o r t i n g i t . Above t h e e n t a b l a t u r e , t h e r e a r e f o u r a r c h e s o f e q u a l s i z e e n c i r c l i n g t h e w a l l s . The l a t e r a l a r c h e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h l a r g e t h e r m a l w i n d o w s , f l o o d i n g l i g h t i n t o t h e s p a c e b e l o w . The c h a n c e l i s r o o f e d w i t h an u n p a i n t e d i n t e r s e c t i n g b a r r e l v a u l t . R e f l e c t i n g t h e same a r r a n g e m e n t a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 8 8 ) , t h e v a u l t i s f o r m e d by t h e g r o i n i n g f r o m t h e f o u r a d j a c e n t a r c h e s . The f a c a d e f o r S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a was n e v e r b u i l t , bu t i t can be u n d e r s t o o d t h r o u g h a d r a w i n g by V i s e n t i n i ( F i g . 168 ) . L i k e t h e f r o n t s o f San T r o v a s o ( F i g s . 90 and 9 1 ) , San F r a n c e s c o d i P a o l a ( F i g . 9 7 ) , and San Giacomo ( F i g . 1 2 0 ) , L a m b r a n z i ' s p r o p o s a l was c l o s e l y m o d e l l e d on t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e Z i t e l l e ( F i g . 7 1 ) . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e e l e v a t i o n i s s p l i t i n t o two t i e r s o f p a i r e d s u p e r i m p o s e d p i l a s t e r s , h o r i z o n t i a l l y d i v i d e d by a heavy e n t a b l a t u r e . F o l l o w i n g t h e same s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c p r o p o r t i o n s o f P a l l a d i o , t h e upper t i e r i s h a l f t h e h e i g h t o f t h e l o w e r . The l o w e r s e c t i o n o f t h e f a c a d e i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t o f San Giacomo ( F i g . 1 2 0 ) . U n l i k e t h e Z i t e l l e , t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n o f t h e l o w e r 117 . r a n g e h o l d s a c e n t r a l p o r t a l o n l y , f o r t h e l o n g windows were e l i m i n a t e d . The t a l l i n n e r C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s on s h o r t b a s e s a r e l o c a t e d c l o s e t o t h e d o o r w a y . The p o r t a l d e s i g n i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f San T r o v a s o and t h e Z i t e l l e , e x c e p t f o r t h e use o f a s e m i - c i r c u l a r ped imen t i n s t e a d o f a t r i a n g u l a r o n e . Two C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s s u p p o r t b r o k e n e n t a b l a t u r e s e c t i o n s and between t h e s e a n o t h e r m i n o r o r d e r o f D o r i c p i l a s t e r s c a r r y a r o u n d - h e a d e d a r c h r i s i n g t o a k e y s t o n e benea th t h e c o r n i c e o f t h e p e d i m e n t . Between t h e c a p i t a l s , t h e a r c h i t r a v e and f r i e z e o f t h e e n t a b l a t u r e were r e - moved so t h a t t h e k e y s t o n e o f t h e a r c h c o u l d r i s e above t h e l e v e l o f t h e a d j a c e n t o r d e r s , e n l a r g i n g t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e d o o r . As i n San T r o v a s o , t h e e n t a b l a t u r e e x t e n d s s l i g h t l y p a s t t h e i n s i d e o r d e r s , b e i n g s u p p o r t e d by a n o t h e r p a i r o f f l a n k i n g h a l f - p i l a s t e r s . I m i t a t i n g San G i a c o m o , t h e d r a w i n g o f San M a r g h e r i t a d e p i c t s s t a t u e n i c h e s i n t h e w a l l s between t h e p a i r e d g i a n t o r d e r s . U n l i k e t h e f o r m e r , w h i c h had two p a i r s o f s u p e r i m p o s e d n i c h e s , t h e p r o p o s a l c a l l s f o r s i n g l e u n i t s p l a c e d midway on t h e w a l l . The base m o u l d i n g s o f t h e n i c h e s a r e s l i g h t l y r a i s e d and c o n t i n u e as s t r i n g c o u r s e s b e h i n d t h e m a j o r o r d e r s a t t h e common l e v e l o f t h e e n t a b l a t u r e o f t h e m i n o r o r d e r o f t h e a r c h e d doo rway . In t h i s manner , an a t t e m p t was made t o u n i f y t h e s i d e s e c t i o n s w i t h t h e c e n t r a l b a y . E c h o i n g t h e p o r t a l d e s i g n , t h e ends o f t h e main e n - t a b l a t u r e a r e b r o k e n , s e t b a c k , and s u p p o r t e d by C o r i n t h i a n h a l f - p i l a s t e r s engaged i n t o t h e c o r n e r s o f t he f a c a d e . T h i s p a t t e r n i s r e p e a t e d a g a i n i n t h e m i n o r o r d e r o f h a l f - p i l a s t e r s b l o c k i n g t h e ends o f t h e uppe r t i e r . The p a i r e d p i l a s t e r s o f t h e l o w e r s t o r y a r e s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e u p p e r . D i v e r g i n g f r o m most i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Z i t e l l e f a c a d e , t h e upper o r d e r s a r e D o r i c i n s t e a d o f C o r i n t h i a n . U n l i k e t he Z i t e l l e ( F i g . 7 1 ) , San 118. F r a n c e s c o ( F i g . 9 7 ) , and San Giacomo ( F i g . 1 2 0 ) , t h e ma in t r i a n g u l a r ped imen t does no t embrace t h e f u l l w i d t h o f t h e f a c a d e . I n s t e a d , i t c rowns t h e c e n t r a l bay above t h e l a r g e m u l l i o n e d t h e r m a l w indow, f o l l o w i n g t h e s i m i l a r p a t t e r n a t San T r o v a s o ( F i g . 9 2 ) . The uppe r e n t a b l a t u r e was r e d u c e d t o an u n d e n t i l l e d c o r n i c e s t r i p o n l y . To f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e t h e main p e d i m e n t e d b a y , L a m b r a n z i p r o j e c t e d i t f o r w a r d by s e t t i n g back t h e c o r n i c e between t h e p a i r e d o r d e r s . As a r e s u l t , t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e o u t - s i d e p i l a s t e r s c a r r y an u n u s u a l l y t h i n c o r n i c e f r a g m e n t . In 1 8 0 8 , t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e c a m p a n i l e o f S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a was p u l l e d down b e c a u s e i t was s t r u c t u r a l l y u n s o u n d . Two y e a r s l a t e r , t h e c h u r c h was s u p p r e s s e d by o r d e r o f N a p o l e o n . F o r t h e n e x t one hund red and s e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , t h e b u i l d i n g was used as a t o b a c c o f a c t o r y , w a r e h o u s e , s c u l p t o r ' s s t u d i o , P r o t e s t a n t c h u r c h , and e v e n t u a l l y a m o v i e t h e a t r e . As McAndrew t e l l s u s , The v a u l t has now been h i d d e n by a new c l o t h c e i l i n g ; t h e s c r e e n hangs a t t he f r o n t o f t h e c h a n c e l ; t h e l a s t bay has been r e m o d e l l e d t o s e r v e as a l o b b y , w i t h two b a l c o n i e s i n t h e space a b o v e ; and t h e s i d e c h a p e l s i n t h e o t h e r two bays have been a d a p t e d t o h o l d b o x e s . ^ E x c e p t f o r t h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s , t he o r i g i n a l f o rm and d e t a i l i n g o f L a m b r a n z i ' s c h u r c h r e m a i n s unchanged and i n a r e l a t i v e l y good s t a t e o f r e p a i r . 119 . NOTES 1. F o r more commentary on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h u r c h o f S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a f r o m a n c i e n t t i m e s t o t h e p r e s e n t , s e e Umber to F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 1 7 5 - 7 6 ; G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 5 6 9 ; and A l v i s e Z o r z i , V e n e z i a S c o m p a r s a ( M i l a n o : E l e c t a E d i t r i c e , 1 9 7 2 ) , p p . 5 1 7 - 5 1 8 . 2 . E l e n a B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a d e l S e i e S e t t e c e n t o a V e n e z i a ( N a p o l i : E d i z i o n i S c i e n t i f i c h e I t a l i a n e , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 2 5 . 3 . The o v e r a l l d e s i g n o f t h e nave a r c a d i n g o f San M a r g h e r i t a i s c o m p a r a b l e t o d i s c u s s i o n s made h e r e i n on S a n t a M a r i a C e l e s t e ( F i g . 7 ) , p p . 5 0 - 5 1 ; San T r o v a s o ( F i g . 8 4 ) , pp . 5 6 - 5 7 ; San N i c o l b d e i T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 1 0 2 ) , p p . 6 6 - 6 7 ; San Giacomo d e l l a G i u d e c c a ( F i g . 1 1 8 ) , p p . 7 8 - 7 9 ; S a n t a M a r i a E l i s a b e t t a ( F i g . 1 2 7 ) , p p . 8 9 - 9 0 ; and San N i c o l b d e l L i d o ( F i g . 1 2 9 ) , p. 9 2 . 4 . John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D raw ings C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 3 3 . 120 . San B a s e q i o : P l a n - c . 1650 The c h u r c h o f San B a s e g i o was " . . . d e d i c a t e d t o S . B a s i l i o by t h e B a s e g g i o f a m i l y , whose name i t u n w i t t i n g l y a b s o r b e d . " * The b u i l d i n g was f o u n d e d i n t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y and r e c o n s t r u c t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s t h e r e a f t e r . C i r c a 1 6 5 0 , i t was r e b u i l t f o r t h e l a s t t i m e by an unknown a r c h i t e c t who c r e a t e d a n o t h e r v a r i a t i o n on t h e p o p u l a r nave and s q u a r e c h a n c e l t heme. A l o n g w i t h t h e C e l e s t e , San G i a c o m o , and San M a r g h e r i t a , San B a s e g i o was c l o s e d by N a p o l e o n i n t h e f i r s t decade o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t was 3 f i n a l l y p u l l e d down i n 1824 , l e a v i n g no p h y s i c a l t r a c e o f i t s d e s i g n . T o d a y , A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ' s d r a w i n g s o f San B a s e g i o a r e t h e o n l y g r a p h i c r e c o r d s l e f t documen t i ng t h e d e s i g n o f t h e i n t e r i o r ( F i g s . 169 and 170 ) . I t i s no t known i f a f a c a d e f o r t he c h u r c h was e v e r b u i l t , f o r no d r a w i n g r e v e a l i n g i t s d e s i g n has s u r v i v e d . U n l i k e o t h e r R e d e n t o r e - 1 i k e c o n g r e g a t i o n s p a c e s , w h i c h , most o f t e n , a r e t w i c e as l o n g as t h e y a r e w i d e , t h e nave p l a n o f San B a s e g i o was s q u a r e ( F i g . 169). F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n V e n i c e , t h e a r c h i t e c t used f o u r i n s t e a d o f s i x b i l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l s i d e - c h a p e l s t o f o r m h i s l a t e r a l w a l l s ( F i g . 1 7 0 ) . By e l i m i n a t i n g two c h a p e l s and w i d e n i n g t h e e n t r a n c e and c h a n c e l end w a l l s , a s q u a r e p l a n was fo rmed ou t o f t h e l o n g nave c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t he R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 2 ) . S i m i l a r t o t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e p a i r s o f c h a p e l s were s e p a r a t e d f r o m each o t h e r and t h e end w a l l s by an a r rangemen t o f p a i r e d C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s on d i m i n u t i v e b a s e s . In t h i s manne r , t h e l a t e r a l w a l l s o f t h e nave were a r t i c u l a t e d i n t o a s e r i e s o f a l t e r n a t i n g w i d e and n a r r o w b a y s . The w i d e , w i n d o w l e s s s i d e - c h a p e l s were f o rmed by s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h e s w i t h k e y s t o n e s s p r i n g i n g f r o m 1 2 1 . b a s e l e s s m i n o r D o r i c o r d e r s . Between t h e g i a n t p a i r e d o r d e r s o f t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e r e a r e p a i r s o f su rmounted s t a t u e n i c h e s ( F i g . 8 6 ) . In c o n t r a s t , t h e w a l l s o f t h e na r row bays o f San B a s e g i o were smooth s t u c c o e d s u r f a c e s . They were d i v i d e d i n t o uppe r and l o w e r p a n e l s by a d e c o r a t i v e e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h r a n f r o m t h e s p r i n g i n g o f t h e l a t e r a l a r c h e s a c r o s s t h e f u l l l e n g t h o f t h e w a l l . As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h i s b a n d i n g d i v i d e d " . . . t h e s e awkward l y t a l l s p a c e s i n t o more ha rmon ious r e c t a n g l e s . " ^ T h i s h o r i z o n t a l e l e m e n t a l s o h e l p e d t o u n i t e t h e v e r t i c a l members o f t h e nave e l e v a t i o n . S u p p o r t e d above t h e ma in o r d e r s , a heavy R e d e n t o r e - 1 i k e e n t a b l a t u r e c o n t i n u e d a round t h e c h u r c h , b r e a k i n g b r i e f l y above t h e p i l a s t e r c l u s t e r s b e n e a t h t h e c h a n c e l a r c h . S p r i n g i n g f r o m t h i s u n d e n t i l l e d member, a h i g h , w i d e v a u l t c o v e r e d t h e n a v e . I n s e r t e d i n t o t h i s cupped v o l u m e , t h e r e were f o u r h e a v i l y g r o i n e d s e m i - c i r c u l a r t h e r m a l windows s e t d i r e c t l y above t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s , l i g h t i n g t h e space b e l o w . The s t r u c t u r a l and s p a c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t he s q u a r e s a n c t u a r y o f San B a s e g i o ( F i g . 170) c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s t h e a l t a r - h o u s e d e s i g n s o f San Giacomo ( F i g . 1 1 8 ) , t h e E l i s a b e t t a ( F i g . 1 2 6 ) , and S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a ( F i g . 166 )• The l e v e l o f t h e pavement o f each c h a n c e l i s r a i s e d a few s t e p s f r o m t h e nave f l o o r . U n l i k e t h e f l i m s y , v e s t i g i a l c o r n e r p i l a s t e r s o f San M a r g h e r i t a , t h o s e o f San B a s e g i o were f u l l h a l f - p i l a s t e r s , c r e a t i n g a b a l a n c e d c o e x i s t e n c e w i t h t he s c a l e o f t h e o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e r i n g s . F o l l o w i n g p r e c e d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s , t h e two l a r g e s t t h e r m a l windows i n t h e c h u r c h r i s e l a t e r a l l y above t h e e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h s u r r o u n d s t h e h i g h a l t a r . As a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 8 8 ) , t h e c h a n c e l i s r o o f e d by an i n t e r s e c t i n g b a r r e l v a u l t f o rmed by t h e g r o i n s p r o j e c t i n g f r o m t h e f o u r b o u n d i n g a r c h e s . 122 . The p l a n o f San B a s e g i o was a u n i q u e d e s i g n i n t h e l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f V e n e t i a n P a l l a d i a n i s m . I t was t h e c i t y ' s s o l e examp le o f a c h u r c h w i t h a p e r f e c t l y s q u a r e c o n g r e g a t i o n s p a c e w i t h s i d e w a l l s m o d e l l e d on t h o s e o f t h e R e d e n t o r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , L a m b r a n z i ' s t w o - i n s t e a d - o f - t h r e e bay P a l l a d i a n s i d e - c h a p e l s o l u t i o n was a f i r s t i n V e n i c e , r e p e a t e d t w i c e a g a i n by F r a n c e s c o B o g n o l o i n San B i a g i o i n 1746 ( F i g . 229) and G i o r g i o M a s s a r i i n San G i o v a n n i Novo i n 1751 ( F i g . 2 3 1 ) . 123 . NOTES 1. John McAndrew, Ca ta1oque i o f t h e D raw ings C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 2 8 . 2 . F o r more commentary on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h u r c h o f San B a s e g i o , see Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 1 9 5 . 3 . McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D raw ings C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i , p. 2 8 . 4 . D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e Baroque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 7 2 . 124 . S a n t a M a r i a d e g l i S c a l z i : P l a n - 1656 In 1 6 3 3 , t h e b a r e f o o t C a r m e l i t e f r i a r s s e t t l e d i n V e n i c e and w i t h i n t h i r t e e n y e a r s p u r c h a s e d l a n d f o r a new c h u r c h . In 1 6 5 6 , t w e n t y - s i x y e a r s a f t e r h i s s u c c e s s f u l S a n t a M a r i a d e l l a S a l u t e , B a l d a s s a r e Longhena was h i r e d by t h e f r i a r s t o p r o d u c e a n o t h e r b e a u t i f u l Baroque c h u r c h . ' ' ' As i n t h e f o r m e r s t r u c t u r e , t h e a r c h i t e c t ' s d e s i g n f o r S a n t a M a r i a d e g l i S c a l z i r e v e a l s p a r t i c u l a r a f f i n i t i e s t o P a l l a d i o ' s work a t b o t h San G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e . Longhena d i r e c t e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g f r o m i t s f o u n d a t i o n i n 1656 u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1682 . I t was f i n i s h e d w i t h o u t h im by G i u s e p p e P o z z o i n 1689 and c o n s e c r a t e d i n 1705 . F o r t h e p l a n o f t h e S c a l z i , Longhena f o l l o w e d t h e p r e v a i l i n g s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y scheme o f a s q u a r e c h a n c e l p r e c e d e d by a v a u l t e d r e c t a n g u l a r h a l l w h i c h i s e x a c t l y t w i c e as l o n g as i t i s w i d e , r e p e a t i n g P a l l a d i a n r a t i o s ( F i g . 171 ) . U n l i k e most c h u r c h e s b u i l t on t h i s f o r m u l a , t h e l a t e r a l w a l l s o f t h e nave do no t e x p r e s s a r e w o r k i n g o f t h e s i x b i - l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l s i d e - c h a p e l s o f t he R e d e n t o r e . The re a r e s i x s i d e - c h a p e l b a y s , b u t , u n l i k e P a l l a d i o ' s scheme, t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n i n each w a l l i s e x p r e s s e d as a l a r g e a r c h o f t h e same s c a l e and d e t a i l i n g as t h o s e o p e n i n g o v e r t h e c h a n c e l and t h e e n t r a n c e ( F i g s . 172 and 173 ) . These b i g a r c h e s g i v e on t o deep b a r r e l v a u l t e d r e c t a n g u l a r s p a c e s o f a l m o s t t h e same m a g n i t u d e as t h e main c h a n c e l . They a r e b r i g h t l y l i t by huge m u l l i o n e d t h e r m a l w i n d o w s , w h i c h a r e t h e same s i z e as t h e a r c h e s and v a u l t s i n t r o d u c i n g t hem. F l a n k i n g t h e s e l a r g e i n t e r m e d i a t e s p a c e s , t h e r e a r e f o u r l o w e r and n a r r o w e r s i d e - c h a p e l s . S i m i l a r t o t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 2 ) , t h e T o l e n t i n i 125 . ( F i g . 1 0 7 ) , and t h e S a l u t e ( F i g . 1 4 2 ) , a l l s i x c h a p e l s a r e l i n k e d i n a s e r i e s by a c c e s s c o r r i d o r s , p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e s a c r i s t i e s w h i c h f l a n k t h e c h a n c e l . The use o f an e x t r a l a r g e m i d - n a v e bay was no t new t o V e n e t i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n . P a r a l l e l s o l u t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n C o d u s s i ' s San G i o v a n n i G r i s o s t o m o ( F i g . 174) o f 1 4 9 7 , i n b o t h o f S a n s o v i n o ' s c h u r c h e s o f San M a r t i n o ( F i g . 175) o f 1540 and t h e I n c u r a b i l i ( F i g . 53) o f 1 5 6 5 , i n S c a m o z z i ' s San L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t i ( F i g . 176) o f 1 6 0 1 , and i n F r a n c e s c o C o n t i n i ' s San A n g e l o R a f f a e l e ( F i g . 177) o f 1618 . A f t e r t h e S c a l z i , s i m i l a r c o n s t r u c t i o n s c o n t i n u e d i n V e n i c e i n B e n o n i ' s S a n t a M a r i a d e l G i g l i o ( F i g . 178) o f 1670 and i n bo th o f M a s s a r i ' s c h u r c h e s o f San M a r c u o l a ( F i g . 179) o f 1728 and t h e P i e t a ( F i g . 180) 0 f 1 7 3 5 . P a l l a d i o ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h e d e s i g n o f t h e S c a l z i i s e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e R e d e n t o r e - 1 i k e p a i r e d C o r i n t h i a n o r d e r s w h i c h f l a n k t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s ( F i g . 172 ) . As i n San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 8 8 ) , t h e g i a n t o r d e r s r i s e f r o m t a l l p e d e s t a l s . E m u l a t i n g t h e R e d e n t o r e , Longhena made t h e p i l a s t e r p a i r s mark t w e l v e e q u a l i n t e r c o l u m n i a r bays a round t h e n a v e . S e t be tween each o n e , t h e r e i s a t a l l r o u n d - h e a d e d s t a t u e n i c h e su rmoun ted by a r e c t a n g u l a r p a n e l h o l d i n g a b u s t . B o t h e l e m e n t s a r e s e p a r a t e d by a d e c o r a t i v e i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e , w h i c h i s c o n t i n u e d f r o m t h e common l e v e l o f t h e s p r i n g i n g o f t h e l a t e r a l a r c h e s o f t h e m i n o r D o r i c o r d e r s o f t h e l o w e r s i d e - c h a p e l s . The re a r e a l s o e l a b o r a t e l y c a r v e d g a r l a n d s f e s t o o n e d between t h e p i l a s t e r c a p i t a l s . C u r i o u s l y e n o u g h , t h e o v e r a l l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e e l e v a t i o n o f each o f t h e s e p a i r e d s t r u c t u r a l u n i t s c l o s e l y c o p i e s P a l l a d i o ' s d e s i g n f o r t h e g i a n t c o u p l e d C o m p o s i t e co lumn g r o u p s on t h e f a c a d e o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 181) . In t h e o r i g i n a l , as i n t h e S c a l z i , t h e c o l o s s a l o r d e r s e n c l o s e s t a t u e n i c h e s su rmoun ted by e n t a b l a t u r e s t r i p s and c a r v i n g s i n p a n e l s and g a r l a n d s suspended between 126 . t h e c a p i t a l s . Above t h e g i a n t o r d e r s , a b r o a d s t r a i g h t e n t a b l a t u r e i s c a r r i e d a round t h e f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e n a v e , i n t e r r u p t e d o n l y by t h e t a l l e r a r c h e s above t h e c e n t r a l s i d e - c h a p e l s , t h e c h a n c e l , and t h e e n t r a n c e ( F i g . 1 7 2 ) . U n l i k e t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e c u r v e d v a u l t o f t h e S c a l z i i s no t a smooth w h i t e s u r f a c e w i t h s i m p l e g r o i n i n g f r o m s i x e q u a l l y s i z e d c l e a r s t o r y w i n d o w s . I n s t e a d , t h e f o u r huge l u n e t t e s above t h e m a j o r a r c h e s o f t h e c h a n c e l , e n t r a n c e and s i d e - c h a p e l s c o n v e r g e w i t h t h e f o u r s m a l l e r ones o v e r t h e windows t o meet i n t h e c e n t e r a t a f l a t p a i n t e d r e c t a n g u l a r f r a m e . The nave o f t h e S c a l z i i s a v e r y d a r k s p a c e , even on a sunny d a y . U n l i k e t h e b r i g h t i n t e r i o r s o f P a l l a d i o ' s c h u r c h e s , w h i c h g a i n g r e a t e r l u m i n o s i t y t h r o u g h t h e use o f w h i t e I s t r i a n s t o n e and w h i t e w a s h e d w a l l s , t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e S c a l z i i s a Ba roque p r o f u s i o n o f ove rshadowed ornament and da rk c o l o u r e d m a r b l e s ( F i g . 173 ) . As L e w i s t e l l s u s , " . . . n o t one i n c h o f t he S c a l z i i n t e r i o r i s l e f t u n d e c o r a t e d i n s i m p l e s t o n e o r p l a s t e r . " P a l l a d i o wou ld no t have a g r e e d w i t h t h e e n v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n w i t h i n an e l a b o r a t e s y s t e m o f c o l o r i s t i c i l l u s i o n i s m , f o r , as he w r o t e , " O f a l l t h e c o l o u r s , none i s more p r o p e r f o r c h u r c h e s t h a n w h i t e , s i n c e t h e p u r i t y o f t h e c o l o u r , as o f l i f e i t s e l f , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s a t i s f y i n g t o G o d . " ^ As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , t he p r o j e c t i n g end w a l l s , w h i c h t e r m i n a t e i n t o t h e t r i u m p h a l a r c h o f t h e c h a n c e l , c a u s e t h e main room and t h e s a n c t u a r y t o f o r m a l m o s t i n d e p e n d e n t s p a t i a l u n i t s ( F i g . 1 7 3 ) . The c h a n c e l , i n t y p i c a l P a l l a d i a n f a s h i o n , i s i s o l a t e d and e m p h a s i z e d as a s a c r e d e n - c l o s u r e by a number o f s p e c i a l m o t i f s . The pavement o f t h i s room i s r a i s e d a few s t e p s f r o m t h e nave f l o o r . The re i s a b a l u s t r a d e w h i c h bounds t h e e n t r a n c e , o p e n i n g o n l y a t t h e c e n t e r w i t h a g a t e . Two l a r g e t h e r m a l 127 . w indows r i s e l a t e r a l l y above t he e n t a b l a t u r e and d i r e c t l y l i g h t t h e apex o f t h e g i g a n t i c f r e e - s t a n d i n g a l t a r whose p r o p o r t i o n s a l m o s t f i l l t h e who le s p a c e . To imbue t h e s p a c e w i t h even more s i g n i f i c a n c e , Longhena c o n s t r u c t - ed a s h a l l o w dome w h i c h r i s e s above t h e f o u r l a r g e b o u n d i n g a r c h e s f r a m i n g t h e t o p o f t h e a l t a r . B e h i n d t h e c h a n c e l , t h e r e i s a l a r g e s e m i - c i r c u l a r c h o i r ( F i g . 172 ) . The s p a c e i s t a l l and c o v e r e d w i t h a cupped c e i l i n g w h i c h r e m i n d s us o f t h e d e s i g n s a t San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o ( F i g . 124) and San N i c o l o d e l L i d o ( F i g . 1 3 3 ) , w h i c h were m o d i f i e d c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e c h o i r s o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 88) and t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 8 9 ) . The sound o f t h e s i n g i n g r e v e r b e r a t e s o f f t h e c u r v e d v a u l t and p a s s e s b e a u t i f u l a c o u s t i c e f f e c t s beyond t h e c h a n c e l i n t o t h e n a v e . U n l i k e P a l l a d i o ' s b u i l d i n g s , t h e c h o i r i s no t h i d d e n by an a r c h i t e c t o n i c s c r e e n . F o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d a t San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a ( F i g . 4 7 ) , t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 1 0 9 ) , San P i e t r o ( F i g . 1 2 3 ) , and San N i c o l b ( F i g . 1 2 8 ) , t h e mass o f t h e h i g h a l t a r h e l p s s t o p t h e v i e w f r om t h e nave i n t o t h e c h o i r . The w o r s h i p e r i s o n l y a l l o w e d " . . . a shadowy g l i m p s e p a s t t h e p r o f i l e s o f t h e T a b e r n a c l e and s a i n t s i n t o t h e l o n g r e c e d i n g c h o i r . " The w a l l s o f t h e room a r e f l a t and w i n d o w l e s s . L i g h t a r r i v e s o n l y f r om t h e l a r g e c h a n c e l w i n d o w s . To g i v e t h e s p a c e a more c o m p l i m e n t a r y a r c h i t e c t u r a l f r a m e w o r k , t h e w a l l s were p a i n t e d w i t h i l l u i o n i s t i c o r d e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y i m i t a t i n g t h o s e o f t h e c h a n c e l and n a v e . The i n t e r i o r o f t he S c a l z i i s t o t a l l y c o v e r e d w i t h r i c h p o l y - c h r o m a t i c m a r b l e p a n e l s and e l a b o r a t e l y c a r v e d o rnaments and v a u l t p a i n t i n g s . F o r v a r i e t y and r a n g e o f c o l o r i s t i c e f f e c t , L o n g h e n a ' s c h u r c h i s u n - s u r p a s s e d , i n V e n i c e , e x c e p t by t h e d e c o r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f San Marco 128 . i t s e l f . Y e t , unde r a l l t h i s Ba roque e x u b e r a n c y , w h i c h , i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e , was s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by Rome, much o f t h e p l a n n i n g and s t r u c t u r a l o r d e r i n g o f t h e S c a l z i was d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y f r o m P a l l a d i o . NOTES D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e Baroque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1979) p. 2 3 5 . F o r more d i s c u s s i o n on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h u r c h o f S a n t a M a r i a d e g l i S c a l z i , see Umber to F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 9 8 - 9 9 . L e w i s , The L a t e B a r o q u e C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e , p p . 2 3 9 - 4 0 . A n d r e a P a l l a d i o , The F o u r Books o f A r c h i t e c t u r e (New Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 8 2 . L e w i s , The L a t e Ba roque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e , p. 1 7 1 . I b i d . , p . 2 3 4 . 130 . San B a s s o : P l a n - 1670 The s m a l l c h u r c h o f San B a s s o , w h i c h f a c e s P i a z z e t t a d e i L e o n i a c r o s s f r o m San M a r c o , was f o u n d e d i n 1076 . A f t e r a f i r e d e s t r o y e d t h e o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r e i n 1 6 6 1 , G i u s e p p e Benon i was c o m m i s s i o n e d t o d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t a new c h u r c h . * The p l a n i s a n o t h e r examp le o f t h e s t a n d a r d l o n g nave and s q u a r e c h a n c e l theme ( F i g . 1 8 2 ) . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o ' s r a t i o s a t t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 2 ) , t h e h a l l i s t w i c e as l o n g as i t i s w i d e . By f o r e s h o r t e n i n g t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e p l a n became l o n g and na r row and t a l l , r e m i n d i n g us o f San Giacomo ( F i g . 1 1 7 ) . As i n t h e . l a t t e r , t h e c h a n c e l s q u a r e i s o n e - t h i r d t h e l e n g t h and t w o - t h i r d s t h e w i d t h o f t h e n a v e . The l a t e r a l w a l l s a r e a r t i c u l a t e d by a s t r o n g rhy thm o f t a l l C o r i n t h i a n p i l a s t e r s i n b o l d r e l i e f ( F i g . 1 8 3 ) . As a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 6 7 ) , t h e h e i g h t o f t h e ma in o r d e r s i s e q u a l t o t h e w i d t h o f t h e n a v e . These members f r ame s i x R e d e n t o r e - 1 i k e b i l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l s i d e - c h a p e l s , w h i c h , e c h o i n g t h e C e l e s t e ( F i g . 7 ) , San Giacomo ( F i g . 1 1 7 ) , t h e E l i s a b e t t a ( F i g . 1 2 7 ) , and San B a s e g i o ( F i g . 1 7 0 ) , a r e v e r y l i g h t l y r e c e s s e d , u n v a u l t e d , and w i n d o w ! e s s . They a r e f o rmed by s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h e s w i t h k e y s t o n e s r i s i n g f r o m e n t a b l a t u r e s s u p p o r t e d by m i n o r D o r i c p i l a s t e r s . R e p e a t i n g p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e p r i n c i p a l and s u b s i d i a r y o r d e r s b e g i n f r o m the same b a s e s and a r e u n i f o r m - l y r e p e a t e d i n a s y m m e t r i c a l p a t t e r n a round t h e c h u r c h . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , b o t h t h e k e y s t o n e s o f t h e c h a p e l a r c h e s and t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e a d j o i n i n g p i l a s t e r s s u p p o r t a heavy e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h r u n s p e r f e c t l y s t r a i g h t a round t h e i n t e r i o r , b r e a k i n g o n l y i n s l i g h t p l a n e s benea th t h e c h a n c e l and e n t r a n c e a r c h e s ( F i g . 1 8 2 ) . T h i s l i n e a r s u r f a c e a c t s as an a x i a l l y i n s i s t e n t 1 3 1 . f o r m e n c o u r a g i n g t h e eye t o move down t h e nave a round t h e t i g h t c l u s t e r s o f p i l a s t e r s i n t h e c o r n e r s o f t h e s h o r t end w a l l s and on i n t o t h e c h a n c e l . T o d a y , b o t h t h e c u r v e d v a u l t and t h e t r i u m p h a l a r c h e s i n each end w a l l a r e h i d d e n by a f l a t c e i l i n g s u p p o r t e d o v e r t h e s t r o n g l y d e n t i l l e d c o r n i c e . Above t h i s c o v e r , t h e o r i g i n a l g r o i n e d c e i l i n g s t i l l e x i s t s i n good c o n d i t i o n . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o ' s l i g h t i n g f o r m u l a , Benon i s e t s i x t h e r m a l windows i n t o t h e v a u l t d i r e c t l y above t h e s i x s i d e c h a p e l s . E n t e r i n g t h e c h a n c e l , t h e l e v e l o f t h e pavement r i s e s by two s t e p s . The t h r e e w a l l s e n c l o s i n g t h e a l t a r a r e w h i t e w a s h e d b l a n k s u r f a c e s a r t i c u l a t e d by t h e g i a n t o r d e r s a t t h e c o r n e r s . Above t h e e n t a b l a t u r e , t h e r e a r e two l a r g e t h e r m a l windows s e t i n t o t h e a r c h e s o f t h e l a t e r a l w a l l s . L i k e t h e a p e r a t u r e s o f t h e n a v e , t h e s e windows a r e a l s o h i d d e n by t h e f a l s e c e i l i n g . F o l l o w i n g many o t h e r P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h e s , t h e c h a n c e l i s c o v e r e d by an i n t e r s e c t i n g b a r r e l v a u l t . A l o n g w i t h t h e C e l e s t e , San G i a c o m o , S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a , and San B a s e g i o , San B a s s o was c l o s e d by N a p o l e o n i n 1810 . L u c k i l y e n o u g h , i t was no t d e s t r o y e d . I t was s o l d t o t h e P a t r i a r c h and used f o r many y e a r s by t h e v e s t r y b o a r d . ^ E v e n t u a l l y , i t became a w a r e h o u s e , and l a t e r an e x h i b i t i o n g a l l e r y . M a i n t a i n e d i n a v e r y good s t a t e o f r e p a i r , i t i s now a p o p u l a r l e c t u r e and c o n f e r e n c e h a l l . 132 . NOTES 1. F o r more commentary on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l deve lopmen t o f t h e c h u r c h o f San B a s s o , see Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s a d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 3 1 2 - 3 1 3 . 2 . John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D r a w i n g s C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 3 6 . 1 3 3 . San P a n t a l e o n e : 1668 T o g e t h e r w i t h i t s i m m e d i a t e n e i g h b o u r S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a ( F i g . 164) t h e c h u r c h o f San P a n t a l e o n e was f o u n d e d i n t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y . In 1 6 6 8 , t h e a n t i q u e G o t h i c s t r u c t u r e was r a z e d t o make room f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h by F r a n c e s c o Comino ( F i g . 1 8 9 ) . * On a much l a r g e r and g r a n d e r s c a l e , t h e i n t e r i o r p l a n o f San P a n t a l e o n e ( F i g s . 191 and 192) f o l l o w s t h a t o f t h e M a r g h e r i t a ( F i g . 1 6 5 ) . B o t h c h u r c h e s have c l o s e d cupped c o n g r e g a t i o n s p a c e s d e r i v i n g f r o m t h e R e d e n t o r e h a l l ( F i g . 8 9 ) . D e v i a t i n g f r o m P a l l a d i o ' s 2 :1 r a t i o s , t h e l e n g t h o f b o t h naves a r e o n l y one and a h a l f t i m e s t h e i r w i d t h , mak ing them appea r t o be s h o r t and w i d e i n s t e a d o f l o n g and n a r r o w . The nave o f San P a n t a l e o n e i s f l a n k e d by s i x deep b a r r e l v a u l t e d s i d e - c h a p e l s . As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , each c h a p e l i s f o rmed by a s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h w i t h a k e y s t o n e r i s i n g f r o m an e n t a b l a t u r e s u p p o r t e d by m i n o r D o r i c p i l a s t e r s w i t h o u t p e d e s t a l s . The deep r e c t a n g u l a r s p a c e s a r e e l e v a t e d f r o m t h e nave f l o o r by f o u r s t e p s and l i n k e d i n a row by i n t e r - c o m m u n i c a t i n g d o o r w a y s , l i k e t h o s e o f t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 1 0 7 ) , t h e S a l u t e ( F i g . 1 4 2 ) , and t h e S c a l z i ( F i g . 1 7 1 ) . 2 W i t h i n each e n c l o s u r e , t h e r e i s a l a r g e t h e r m a l window s e t above t h e c o r n i c e o f t h e m i n o r o r d e r , l i g h t i n g t h e a l t a r s b e l o w . S e p a r a t i n g t h e s i x b a y s , t h e r e i s a s e r i e s o f g r e a t l y o v e r s c a l e d c o m p o s i t e h a l f - c o l u m n s . Comino a t t e m p t e d t o r e f l e c t t h e v a s t s c a l e o f t h e nave o f t h e R e d e n t o r e w i t h i n t h e r e d u c e d s p a c e s o f San P a n t a l e o n e by m a g n i f y i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l m e m b e r i n g s , e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i r c l a r i t y and power . As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e r e a r e f o u r t a l l , na r row bays o f w a l l 134 . s p a c e be tween t h e f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e nave and t h e l a s t s i d e - c h a p e l i n each r a n g e . They a r e d i v i d e d i n t o uppe r and l o w e r zones by a d e c o r a t i v e e n t a b l a t u r e s t r i p w h i c h r u n s f r o m t h e s p r i n g i n g o f t h e a r c h e s o f t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s . As i n San G iacomo ( F i g . 118) and S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a ( F i g . 166) t h e s e s p a c e s e n c l o s e d o o r w a y s . W i t h i n t h e v o i d s above t h e d o o r s , t h e r e a r e s u r - mounted r e c t a n g u l a r p a i n t i n g s . T h i s same p a t t e r n was r e p e a t e d on b o t h t h e e n t r a n c e and c h a n c e l w a l l s ( F i g . 1 9 2 ) . C a r r i e d above t h e ma in o r d e r s , a heavy R e d e n t o r e - 1 i k e e n t a b l a t u r e r u n s s t r a i g h t a round t h e f o u r c o r n e r s o f t he n a v e , b r e a k i n g b r i e f l y above t h e co lumn and p i l a s t e r p i e r s o f t h e c h a n c e l and e n t r a n c e a r c h e s . S u p p o r t e d above t h i s s t r o n g l y d e n t i l l e d member, t h e r e i s a v a u l t e d c e i l i n g w i t h s i x c l e a r s t o r y t h e r m a l windows s e t above t h e s i x s i d e - c h a p e l s . The w h o l e s u r f a c e o f t h e c e i l i n g i s c o v e r e d w i t h a s p e c t a c u l a r i l l u s i o n i s t i c b a r o q u e p a i n t i n g . E n t e r i n g t h e r e l a t i v e l y n a r r o w c h a n c e l , t h e pavement i s r a i s e d f o u r s t e p s f r o m t h e nave f l o o r ( F i g . 1 9 2 ) . B r e a k i n g w i t h l o c a l t r a d i t i o n , t h e t a l l s q u a r e s p a c e was c o v e r e d w i t h a b a r r e l v a u l t c e i l i n g , i n s t e a d o f a c r o s s v a u l t . E c h o i n g p a r a l l e l a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h i n t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s , t h e b o u n d i n g a r c h o f t h e r e a r w a l l above t h e main e n t a b l a t u r e was f i l l e d w i t h a l a r g e m u l l i o n e d t h e r m a l w indow. To h e l p e n l i v e n t h e s p a c e m o r e , two l o n g a r c h e d windows were s e t i n t o t h e r e a r w a l l b e h i n d t h e h i g h a l t a r . T u r n i n g t o t h e e x t e r i o r o f San P a n t a l e o n e , t h e r e i s a b l a n k , u n f i n i s h e d b r i c k f a c a d e , e x c e p t f o r b o t h t h e f r ames e n c l o s i n g t h e t h r e e p o r t a l s and t he f r o n t s t e p s ( F i g . 1 8 9 ) . T o d a y , i t s p r o p o s a l i s known t h r o u g h a d r a w i n g by V i s e n t i n i ( F i g . 1 9 3 ) . As d e p i c t e d , Comino m o d e l l e d h i s f r o n t on t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n o f P a l l a d i o ' s f a c a d e f o r San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a ( F i g s . 55 and 1 8 8 ) . He was t h e f i r s t V e n e t i a n c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t t o i s o l a t e 135 . t h e c e n t r a l P a l l a d i a n t e m p l e m o t i f and d i s p e n s e w i t h t h e m i n o r s i d e - o r d e r s c o m p l e t e l y . The w a l l s o f t h e two l a t e r a l bays f r o n t i n g t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s a r e s e t back f r o m t h e main s e c t i o n f r o n t i n g t he nave by t e n f e e t ( F i g . 1 9 4 ) . These w a l l s o f masonry e x t e n d upwards t o f o r m b u t t r e s s e s t o r e s i s t t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e nave v a u l t . U n l i k e t he b u t t r e s s e s o f t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 105) and San N i c o l o d e l L i d o ( F i g . 1 3 0 ) , w h i c h a r e s e t f o r - ward i n l i n e w i t h t he ma in b l o c k s and s t r i a t e d t o a c c e p t s t o n e f a c i n g s , t h o s e o f San P a n t a l e o n e a r e f l a t and c o v e r e d w i t h p l a s t e r . E i g h t y e a r s a f t e r t h e c h u r c h was c o m p l e t e d i n 1 6 8 6 , houses had a l r e a d y been b u i l t t i g h t up a g a i n s t t h e s e w a l l s , f u r t h e r i s o l a t i n g t h e p r o m i n e n t nave s e c t i o n f r o m i t s d i s t a n c e d 3 and h i d d e n s i d e - w i n g s . As a t San F r a n c e s c o , t h e t e m p l e f r o n t o f San P a n t a l e o n e i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e t a l l i n t e r c o l u m n i a t i o n s fo rmed by f o u r g i a n t C o r i n t h i a n h a l f - c o l u m n s r i s i n g f r o m t a l l p e d e s t a l s . The w ide m i d d l e bay h o l d s a l a r g e c e n t r a l doorway su rmoun ted by a d e c o r a t i v e pane l be low a m u l l i o n e d t h e r m a l window ( F i g . 1 9 3 ) . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e k e y s t o n e o f t h i s window and t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e f o u r f l a n k i n g o r d e r s c a r r y a heavy e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h s u p p o r t s a b road t r i a n g u l a r ped imen t th rown i n t o deep r e l i e f by f l a n k i n g b l o c k s o f r e s s a u t s c a r r i e d on c o r n e r p i l a s t e r s . U n l i k e t h e c e n t e r bay o f San F r a n c e s c o , Comino d i d no t use a heavy i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e above h i s d o o r , w h i c h , i n P a l l a d i o ' s b u i l d i n g , r u n s as a v e s t i g i a l s t r i p between t h e co lumns o f t h e f l a n k i n g bays and on t o s u p p o r t t h e h a l f - p e d i m e n t s o f t h e s i d e - o r d e r s ( F i g . 1 8 8 ) . I n s t e a d , he c rowned t he door w i t h a s i m p l e s e m i - c i r c u l a r p e d i m e n t , r e p e a t i n g i t s c u r v e i n t h e r a i s e d b o r d e r o f t h e pane l above i t . F l a n k i n g t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n , t h e r e a r e two n a r r o w e r s i d e - b a y s . A t San F r a n c e s c o , t h e g i a n t co lumns a r e p o s i t i o n e d c l o s e t o g e t h e r on h i g h 136 . p e d e s t a l s s e t a g a i n s t a c o n t i n u o u s p l i n t h . A t San P a n t a l e o n e , t h e co lumns a r e s e t w i d e r a p a r t and t h e p l i n t h s e c t i o n s i n between t h e p e d e s t a l s r e - moved and r e p l a c e d w i t h two l o w e r p o r t a l s . Jammed t i g h t i n between t h e p e d e s t a l s , t h e d o o r s a r e o f t h e same d e s i g n as t h e main e n t r a n c e , t hough no t o f any p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r a l o r d e r i n g . They a l l c a r r y c o m p l i m e n t a r y s e m i - c i r c u l a r p e d i m e n t s and open o n t o t h e same c o n t i n u o u s l i n e o f s t a i r s . Above t h e s i d e - d o o r s , t h e r e a r e f o u r r e c t a n g u l a r p a n e l s , s e p a r a t e d v e r t i c a l l y by r a i s e d h o r i z o n t a l b a n d i n g s t r i p s . These s t r i p s d i v i d e t h e t a l l w a l l s be - tween t h e co lumns i n t o s m a l l e r s e c t i o n s w h i c h a r e more ha rmon ious w i t h t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e d o o r s . P a r a l l e l i n g t h e s c a l e o f t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 1 0 2 ) , San N i c o l b d e l L i d o ( F i g . 1 3 1 ) , and t h e S c a l z i ( F i g . 1 7 3 ) , San P a n t a l e o n e i s one o f V e n i c e ' s most i m p o r t a n t and b e a u t i f u l l y s t r u c t u r e d examp les o f V e n e t i a n P a l l a d i a n i s m . 1 3 7 . NOTES 1. F o r more commentary on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l deve lopmen t o f t h e c h u r c h o f San P a n t a l e o n e , see Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 173. 2 . V i s e n t i n i f o r g o t t o r e p r e s e n t t h e s e a c c e s s c o r r i d o r s be tween t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s i n h i s p l a n ( F i g . 1 9 0 ) . 3. A s m a l l p l a q u e on t h e second s t o r y o f t h e b u i l d i n g b u i l t a g a i n s t t h e b u t t r e s s and nave w a l l s o f t h e r i g h t f l a n k o f San P a n t a l e o n e g i v e s a c o n s t r u c t i o n d a t e o f 1698 ( F i g . 1 9 4 ) . 138 . San L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t i : F a c a d e - 1673 In 1 6 0 1 , s i x y e a r s a f t e r he was f i r e d as a r c h i t e c t o f San N i c o l o d e i T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 8 0 ) , V i n c e n z o S c a m o z z i was h i r e d t o d e s i g n and b u i l d t h e c h u r c h o f San L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t i and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g h o s p i t a l ( F i g . 1 7 6 ) . He s u p e r v i s e d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g s u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1616 . The c h u r c h was c o m p l e t e d on S c a m o z z i ' s scheme i n 1631 and c o n s e c r a t - ed i n 1 6 3 6 . 1 W i t h t h e p l a n o f San L a z z a r o , S c a m o z z i i n t r o d u c e d one o f V e n i c e ' s e a r l i e s t v a r i a t i o n s on t h e s t a n d a r d l o n g h a l l and s q u a r e c h a n c e l t heme , p r e d a t i n g San Giacomo by two y e a r s ( F i g . 1 1 7 ) . U n l i k e t h e i n t e r i o r o f San G i a c o m o , w h i c h echoed t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e nave o f San L a z z a r o was no t m o d e l l e d on any P a l l a d i a n p a r a d i g m . As Howard t e l l s u s , "The d e s i g n o f t h e c h u r c h i t s e l f bo r rows t h e s i n g l e nave w i t h f o u r a l t a r s and r a i s e d s i n g i n g 2 g a l l e r i e s f r o m S a n s o v i n o ' s c h u r c h f o r t h e I n c u r a b i l i h o s p i t a l . " As i n t h e o r i g i n a l ( F i g . 5 3 ) , t h e l a t e r a l w a l l s o f t h e nave o f San L a z z a r o have e x t r a w i d e c e n t r a l bays ( F i g . 195) w h i c h e n c l o s e e l e v a t e d c h o i r l o f t s and " . . . i n - f i l l i n g s c r e e n f s ] b e h i n d whose m i n a t u r e a r c a d i n g s t he s o p r a n o s s i n g . " The body o f t h e c h u r c h was f i n i s h e d on S c a m o z z i ' s p l a n , bu t t h e f r o n t o f t h e b u i l d i n g was l e f t unado rned f o r s e v e n t y - t w o y e a r s . The a r c h - i t e c t ' s f a c a d e d e s i g n f o r San L a z z a r o i s unknown f o r no d r a w i n g r e v e a l i n g i t s d e s i g n has s u r v i v e d . G i u s e p p e S a r d i d e s i g n e d t he p r e s e n t P a l l a d i a n f a c a d e i n 1673 ( F i g s . 196 and 197 ) . He m o d e l l e d i t on t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n o f P a l l a d i o ' s f a c a d e f o r San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a ( F i g s . 55 and 188) j u s t as Comino had done a t San P a n t a l e o n e f i v e y e a r s e a r l i e r ( F i g . 1 9 3 ) . S a r d i 139 . i s o l a t e d t h e c e n t r a l P a l l a d i a n t e m p l e m o t i f , b u t , u n l i k e Comino he d i d no t d i s p e n s e w i t h t h e m i n o r s i d e - o r d e r s c o m p l e t e l y . As a t San F r a n c e s c o , t h e f a c a d e i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e t a l l i n t e r c o l u m n i a t i o n s f o rmed by f o u r g i a n t C o r i n t h i a n h a l f - c o l u m n s r i s i n g f r o m t a l l p e d e s t a l s . E c h o i n g t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e p e d e s t a l p a i r s a r e s e t a g a i n s t two t a l l p l i n t h s . They a r e d e c o r a t e d w i t h s q u a r e p a n e l s e n f r a m i n g c i r c l e s . R i s i n g f r o m t h e f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e p l i n t h s , a r e f o u r t i n y C o m p o s i t e h a l f - p i l a s t e r s , p a r t l y c u t o f f f r o m v i e w by t h e s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e a d j a c e n t g i a n t c o l u m n s . A t San F r a n c e s c o P a l l a d i o used engaged s u b s i d i a r y C o r i n t h i a n h a l f - c o l u m n s , s l i g h t l y d i v o r c e d f r o m t h e g i a n t o r d e r s . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e m i n o r o r d e r s o f San L a z z a r o a r e h a l f t h e h e i g h t o f t h e m a j o r ones and c a r r y an i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h r u n s b e h i n d t h e g i a n t co lumns as a c o n t i n u o u s h o r i z o n t a l band w h i c h h e l p s t o v i s u a l l y u n i f y t h e na r row s i d e bays w i t h t h e b r o a d e r m i d d l e o n e . A t San F r a n c e s c o , t h e m i n o r o r d e r s o f t h e m i d d l e bay c l o s e l y embrace a t a l l doorway composed o f a n o t h e r o r d e r o f s m a l l e r p i l a s t e r s c a r r y i n g an a r c h r i s i n g t o a k e y s t o n e b e n e a t h t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e . A t San L a z z a r o , t h i s s o l u t i o n was no t r e p e a t e d . I n s t e a d , S a r d i i n t r o d u c e d a s h o r t e r p o r t a l , t o t a l l y d i v o r c e d f r o m t h e m i n o r o r d e r s b o u n d i n g i t . C u r i o u s l y e n o u g h , t h e d e s i g n o f t h e d o o r i s a l m o s t an e x a c t copy o f t h a t p r o p o s e d but n e v e r r e a l i z e d by L a m b r a n z i f o r t h e f a c a d e o f S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a i n 1647 ( F i g . 1 6 8 ) 3 . The m a j o r d e s i g n d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e two d o o r s i s i n t h e f o r m o f t h e i r s e m i - c i r c u l a r p e d i m e n t s . A t S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a , t h e c u r v e o f t h e ped imen t was t o be f u l l and c o m p l e t e . A t San L a z z a r o , S a r d i u s e d a b r o k e n segmen ta l ped imen t i n t h e Baroque s t y l e , w h i c h , as Howard t e l l s u s , i s t h e o n l y e l emen t w h i c h " . . . b e t r a y s t h e f a c a d e as a s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y monument . " ^ P a r a l l e l i n g San 140 . F r a n c e s c o , Comino c rowned t h e ma in bay above t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e w i t h a l a r g e m u l l i o n e d t h e r m a l w indow. As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e k e y s t o n e o f t h i s a p e r t u r e and t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e f o u r f l a n k i n g o r d e r s c a r r y a heavy e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h s u p p o r t s a b r o a d s t r o n g l y d e n t i l l e d p e d i m e n t . The tympanum i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h a r o u n d o c u l u s between t r i a n g u l a r p a n e l s ( F i g . 196 ) , e c h o i n g p r e c e d e n t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s f o u n d i n t h e a l t a r s o f t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 86) and t h e d o o r s o f San T r o v a s o ( F i g . 9 2 ) . R e f l e c t i n g t h e a t r i u m b e h i n d , S a r d i i n t r o d u c e d a s h o r t a t t i c above t h e p e d i m e n t , c r o w n i n g i t s t h r e e c o r n e r s w i t h P a l l a d i a n s k y l i n e - f i g u r e s . The m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f t h e f a c a d e o f San L a z z a r o i s f l a n k e d by two n a r r o w e r s i d e - b a y s . These bays a r e d i v i d e d v e r t i c a l l y by t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e i n t o upper and l o w e r r e c t a n g u l a r z o n e s , w i t h t h e l a t t e r b e i n g l a r g e r . A t San F r a n c e s c o , each l o w e r w a l l i s i n d e n t e d w i t h a r o u n d - h e a d e d s t a t u e n i c h e e n c l o s e d by a p r o j e c t i n g s q u a r e - h e a d e d r e c t a n g u l a r f r a m e . In t h e upper z o n e , above t h e i n c i s i o n s o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e s t r i p , t h e r e i s a s m a l l e r r e c t a n g u l a r p a n e l p l a c e d j u s t be low t h e n e c k i n g o f t h e a d j a c e n t c o u p l e d g i a n t c o l u m n s . A t San L a z z a r o , S a r d i m o d i f i e d t h e P a l l a d i a n a r rangemen t by t o t a l l y f i l l i n g i n t he s p a c e s w i t h i n each zone w i t h l a r g e w indows . S a r d i ' s f a c a d e f r o n t s t h e t w o - s t o r y a t r i u m w h i c h S c a m o z z i d e s i g n e d t o s e p a r a t e t he c h u r c h i t s e l f f r o m t h e s t r e e t o u t s i d e ( F i g . 176 ) . Th ree o f t h e f o u r w a l l s o f t h e a t r i u m a r e s o l i d , e x c e p t f o r d o o r w a y s . The o n l y way S a r d i c o u l d l i g h t S c a m o z z i ' s huge s p a c e e x t e n s i v e l y t h r o u g h a San F r a n c e s c o - l i k e f a c a d e was by o p e n i n g a l m o s t a l l a v a i l a b l e un - s t r u c t u r e d w a l l space f o r f e n e s t r a t i o n . T h i s l i g h t i n g f o r m u l a d e p a r t e d r a d i c a l l y f r om t h a t o f P a l l a d i o , who o n l y made one window i n a l l t h r e e o f h i s c o l o s s a l c l a s s i c a l t emp le c h u r c h f a c a d e s . T o d a y , t h e a t r i u m has been 1 4 1 . d i v i d e d i n t o two rooms by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new f l o o r midway up t h e w a l l s . The l o w e r room i s l i t by t h e r o u n d - h e a d e d l o n g windows o f t h e s i d e bays and t h e h a l f - r o u n d window w i t h i n t h e a r c h o f t h e ma in doorway ( F i g s . 197 and 1 9 8 ) . The uppe r room i s l i t by t h e s q u a r e - h e a d e d s i d e windows o f t h e upper z o n e . The l a r g e t h e r m a l w indow, w h i c h once f l o o d e d t h e who le a t r i u m w i t h l i g h t , has been c l o s e d i n ( F i g . 1 9 6 ) . R e c e n t l y r e s t o r e d , t h e f a c a d e o f San L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t i i s i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n and a v e r y b e a u t i f u l example o f V e n e t i a n P a l l a d i a n i s m . 142 . NOTES 1. Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 4 4 2 . See a l s o , John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e Draw ings C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 3 2 . 2 . Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 1 2 5 . 3 . D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e Ba roque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 6 1 . F o r more commentary on c e l e b r a t e d V e n e t i a n c h u r c h c o n s e r v a t o r i e s , see D. A r n o l d , "Orphans and L a d i e s : The V e n e t i a n C o n s e r v a t o r i e s , 1680 - 1 7 9 0 , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e R o y a l M u s i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 8 9 , 1 9 6 2 - 6 3 ; and E l e n a B a s s i , "II S a n s o v i n o pe r T o s p i z i o d e g l i I n c u r a b i l i " , C r i t i c a A r t e , L V I I - L V I I I , 1 9 6 3 , p p . 4 6 - 6 2 . 3 . See page 117 h e r e i n , f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e u n r e a l i z e d p o r t a l d e s i g n f o r S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a by G i o v a n n i L a m b r a n z i . 4 . Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p. 190 . 1 4 3 . San S t a e : P l a n : 1678 The c h u r c h o f San S t a e , w h i c h f a c e s o n t o t h e Grand C a n a l , was f o u n d e d i n t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y . In t h e l a t e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e a n t i q u e G o t h i c s t r u c t u r e o f 1479 f e l l i n t o c o m p l e t e d i s r e p a i r and was t o r n d o w n . 1 C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t P a l l a d i a n b u i l d i n g began i n 1 6 7 8 , f o l l o w i n g t h e d e s i g n o f t h e l i t t l e known s c u l p t o r and a r c h i t e c t G i o v a n n i G r a s s i . The c h u r c h was c o m p l e t e d i n 1704 , e x c e p t f o r i t s f a c a d e w h i c h was d e s i g n e d i n 1709 by Domenico R o s s i and f i n i s h e d i n l e s s t h a n f o u r y e a r s i n 1712 ( F i g . 1 9 9 ) . F o r t h e g round p l a n o f San S t a e , G r a s s i c r e a t e d a n o t h e r v a r i a t i o n on t h e s t a n d a r d nave h a l l and c h a n c e l d e s i g n m o d e l l e d on P a l l a d i a n themes ( F i g s . 200 , 2 0 1 , and 2 0 2 ) . W r i t i n g on San S t a e , McAndrew t e l l s us t h a t The p r e c e d e n t f o r t h e i n t e r i o r i s P a l l a d i a n : s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e R e d e n t o r e has been a s - s i m i l a t e d t o t h e t y p i c a l V e n e t i a n b o x - l i k e n a v e , h e r e 45 x 60 f t , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f deep c h a p e l s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e T o l e n t i n i [ F i g . 1 0 2 , h e r e i n ] , t h e w h o l e b e i n g much l i k e i t s s l i g h t l y o l d e r c o n t e m p o r a r y S P a n t a l o n [ F i g . 1 9 1 , h e r e i n ] . U n l i k e t h e 2:1 P a l l a d i a n p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 8 0 ) , t h e l e n g t h o f t h e nave o f San S t a e i s o n l y one and a t h i r d t i m e s i t s w i d t h , mak ing t h e s p a c e s h o r t and w ide r a t h e r t h a n l o n g and n a r r o w . G r a s s i de - v e l o p e d a p l a n even more b o x - l i k e t h a n t h e c h u r c h e s o f S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a ( F i g . 165) and San P a n t a l e o n e ( F i g . 1 9 0 ) , w h i c h bo th f o l l o w e d 1 .5 :1 r a t i o s . He a c c o m p l i s h e d t h i s f o r e s h o r t e n i n g o f t h e nave by g r e a t l y r e d u c i n g t h e w i d t h o f t h e f o u r t a l l , na r row bays o f w a l l s p a c e between t h e f o u r c o r n e r s and t h e l a s t s i d e - c h a p e l i n each r a n g e ( F i g s . 201 and 2 0 2 ) , e c h o i n g t h e more r a d i c a l a r rangemen t a t San B a s s o , where t h e bays a r e a l m o s t e l i m i n a t e d 144 . e n t i r e l y ( F i g . 1 8 2 ) . F l a n k i n g t h e n a v e , t h e r e a r e s i x i d e n t i c a l v a u l t e d s i d e - c h a p e l s d e e p l y r e c e s s e d i n t o t h e w a l l s . T h e s e e n c l o s u r e s a r e s e p a r a t e d by a s e r i e s o f g i a n t s i n g l e C o m p o s i t e h a l f - c o l u m n s ( F i g . 2 0 2 ) , w h i c h a r e r e d u c e d a l - t e r n a t i v e s o f t h e p a i r e d o r d e r s o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 8 6 ) and echo t h e s i m i l a r v e r s i o n s f o u n d i n San P a n t a l e o n e ( F i g . 1 9 1 ) . As i n t h e C e l e s t e ( F i g . 8 ) , t h e E l i s a b e t t a ( F i g . 1 2 7 ) , and S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a ( F i g . 1 6 6 ) , t h e co lumns r i s e f r o m t a l l p e d e s t a l s , r e f l e c t i n g San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 8 8 ) . F o l l o w - i n g P a l l a d i o , t h e b a l a n c e d symmetry and r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l members i s u n i f o r m l y e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c h u r c h . As L e w i s t e l l s u s , . . . t h e i n t e r i o r o f S . S t a e d i r e c t s i t s e n e r g i e s t o w a r d a r a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e w o r s h i p p e r ' s m i n d , r a t h e r t h a n any a p p e a l t o h i s h e a r t t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h e s e n s e s . . . r e - i n v o k e [ ing] t h e c o n s c i o u s l y c e r e b r a l q u a l i t y o f a c l a r i f i e d and t h e o r e t i c a l l y - p r o p o r t i o n e d a r c h i t e c t u r e , e x e m p l i f i e d i n P a l l a d i o ' s g r e a t c h u r c h e s . . . . 4 As p r e v i o u s l y r e n d e r e d by Comino a t San P a n t a l e o n e , G r a s s i r e f l e c t e d t h e g i a n t s c a l e o f t h e nave a r c a d e o f t h e R e d e n t o r e w i t h i n t h e r e d u c e d s p a c e s o f San S t a e by augment ing t h e s i z e o f t h e o r d e r s , e m p h a s i z i n g an u n - c o m p l i c a t e d c l a r i t y and b o l d n e s s . As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , each s i d e - c h a p e l i s f o rmed by a s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h r i s i n g f r om an e n t a b l a t u r e s u p p o r t e d by m i n o r D o r i c p i l a s t e r s w i t h o u t p e d e s t a l s . In t h e o r i g i n a l , P a l 1 a d i o d e s i g n e d s i x i d e n t i c a l a l t a r s t o s i t w i t h i n h i s s i x i d e n t i c a l c h a p e l s , g i v i n g p r o f o u n d b a l a n c e t o h i s ha rmon ious and e n c o m p a s s i n g sys tem o f d e s i g n ( F i g . 8 6 ) . T h i s p a t t e r n was r e p e a t e d i n San S t a e , as i t had been i n t h e T o l e n t i n i e i g h t y - s e v e n y e a r s b e f o r e ( F i g . 1 0 3 ) . As i n t h e l a t t e r c h u r c h , t h e a l t a r d e s i g n s o f San S t a e c l o s e l y copy t h o s e by 145 . P a l l a d i o a t t h e R e d e n t o r e , u t i l i z i n g two p r o j e c t i n g co lumns c a r r y i n g a s i m p l e ped imen t w i t h a p e r t u r e s f o r p i c t u r e s f r amed w i t h i n a r o u n d - h e a d e d a r c h w i t h a k e y s t o n e s u p p o r t e d by m i n o r o r d e r s ( F i g . 2 0 2 ) . By mak ing t h e c h a p e l s and t h e i r a l t a r s a l l o f t h e same d e s i g n , t h e y a c t as a r e p e t i t i v e and c o m p l i m e n t - a r y f o i l t o t h e more e l a b o r a t e main a l t a r , w h i c h has no copy and s t a n d s a l o n e ( F i g . 2 0 4 ) . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o a t t h e R e d e n t o r e , G r a s s i opened t h e back w a l l s o f t h e l a t e r a l c h a p e l s above t h e c o r n i c e i n t o m u l l i o n e d t h e r m a l w indows o f t h e same s i z e as t he a r c h e s c o n n e c t i n g them w i t h t h e n a v e . F u r t h e r m o r e , he a d a p t e d P a l l a d i o ' s s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e m o f e x t e n d i n g upwards t h e w a l l s o f masonry s e p a r a t i n g t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s t o f o r m b u t t r e s s e s t o r e s i s t t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e nave v a u l t ( F i g . 2 0 5 ) , w h i c h had been e x p r e s s e d e a r l i e r a t t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 1 0 5 ) , San N i c o l o d e l L i d o ( F i g . 1 3 0 ) , and San P a n t a l e o n e ( F i g . 189) . C o n f o r m i n g t o P a l l a d i o a t t h e R e d e n t o r e , b o t h t h e k e y s t o n e s o f t h e c h a p e l a r c h e s and t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e a d j o i n i n g p i l a s t e r s s u p p o r t a heavy d e n t i l l e d e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h r u n s p e r f e c t l y s t r a i g h t a r o u n d t h e who le i n t e r i o r , o n l y b r e a k i n g b r i e f l y i n s l i g h t p l a n e s b e n e a t h t h e huge a r c h e s o f t h e e n t r a n c e and c h a n c e l w a l l s ( F i g . 2 0 4 ) . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t h i s v e r y l i n e a r s u r f a c e i s an a x i a l l y i n s i s t e n t e l emen t w h i c h e n c o u r a g e s t h e eye t o move down t h e nave a c r o s s t h e end w a l l and on i n t o t h e c h a n c e l . S u p p o r t e d above t h e e n t a b l a t u r e , t h e r e i s a g r o i n e d c e i l i n g v a u l t w i t h s i x c l e a r s t o r y t h e r m a l windows s e t above t h e s i x s i d e - c h a p e l s . Combined w i t h t h e windows o f t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s , a b r i l l i a n t u n i f o r m l i g h t i s t r a n s f o r m e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c h u r c h , r e f l e c t i n g i t s e l f o f f t h e smooth w h i t e w a s h e d s u r f a c e s o f t h e s t u c c o e d v a u l t and w a l l s . The i n t e r i o r scheme o f e x t e n s i v e and b r i g h t l y l i t p l a s t e r e d s u r f a c e s e n l i v i n e d by d a r k e r s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t s b e a r s t h e i m p r e s s o f P a l l a d i o a t San G i o r g i o and t h e R e d e n t o r e , w h i c h a r e b o t h i l l u m i n a t e d by 146 . a s e r i e s o f l a r g e t h e r m a l o p e n i n g s ( F i g s . 88 and 8 9 ) . E x c e p t f o r i s o l a t e d p a i n t i n g s w i t h i n s t r o n g l y marked f r a m e s , t h e i n t e r i o r o f San S t a e p r e s e n t s i t s e l f as an " . . . a u s t e r e t o n a l harmony o f w h i t e and g r e y . " ^ Between t h e f o u r c o r n e r p i l a s t e r s o f t h e nave and t h e f o u r co lumns o f t h e e n t r a n c e and c h a n c e l a r c h e s , t h e r e a r e f o u r t a l l , na r row bays o f w a l l s p a c e . W i t h i n bo th bays f l a n k i n g t h e c h a n c e l a r c h , t h e r e a r e d o o r s su rmoun ted by s t a t u e n i c h e s under b o r d e r e d p a n e l s ( F i g . 2 0 4 ) . As t h o s e o f t h e E l i s a b e t t a ( F i g . 1 2 6 ) , t h e M a r g h e r i t a ( F i g . 1 6 7 ) , and San P a n t a l e o n e ( F i g . 1 9 2 ) , t h e doorways open o n t o t h e s a c r i s t i e s b e h i n d , w h i c h f l a n k each s i d e o f t h e c h a n c e l . The h i g h e r e l e m e n t s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o uppe r and l o w e r zones by a d e c o r a t i v e e n t a b l a t u r e s t r i p . In t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e s e end w a l l s , w h i c h d e f i n e t h e c h a n c e l o p e n i n g , a r e i n d e n t e d w i t h p a i r s o f su rmoun ted s t a t u e n i c h e s ( F i g . 7 3 ) . E n t e r i n g t he c h a n c e l , we f i n d t h e pavement i s r a i s e d fou r " s t e p s f r o m t h e nave f l o o r ( F i g . 2 0 4 ) . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o , t h e s e n s e o f s e p a r a t - i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f t he s a n c t u a r y s p a c e f r o m t h a t o f t h e nave i s f u r t h e r enhanced by t h e b a l u s t r a d e w h i c h bounds t h e e n t r a n c e , o p e n i n g o n l y a t t h e c e n t e r w i t h a g a t e . U n l i k e most o f t h e c h a n c e l s a n a l y z e d h e r e i n , t h e a l t a r - house o f San S t a e i s not s q u a r e . G r a s s i made t h e l e n g t h o f t h e back w a l l a s l i g h t one and o n e - q u a r t e r t i m e s t h a t o f t h e l a t e r a l w a l l s , c r e a t i n g a s u b t l e r e c t a n g u l a r space wh i ch i s w i d e r t h a n i t i s d e e p . T h i s b road room j u x t a p o s e d w i t h t he s h o r t w ide h a l l makes t h e l a r g e c h a n c e l a r c h seem even more g i g a n t i c and p o w e r f u l t o t h e w o r s h i p p e r , d r a w i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n i m m e d i a t e - l y t o t h e i m p o s i n g h i g h a l t a r a g a i n s t t h e back w a l l ( F i g . 2 0 4 ) . As i n San G i o r g i o , San S t a e has two l a t e r a l a r c h e s r i s i n g o v e r t h e e n c i r c l i n g e n t a b l a t u r e , c o n t a i n i n g t h e r m a l w indows . O r i g i n a l l y , t h e a r c h o f t h e back w a l l h e l d a n o t h e r l a r g e o p e n i n g , now c l o s e d o f f and c o v e r e d w i t h a p a i n t i n g . The c h a n c e l i s r o o f e d w i t h a c r o s s v a u l t wh i ch has an o v a l p a i n t e d p a n e l p l a c e d o v e r t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f i t s f o u r g r o i n s . G i o v a n n i G r a s s i ' s San S t a e was t h e t w e l f t h c h u r c h w i t h i n one h u n d r e d y e a r s i n V e n i c e t o be b u i l t w i t h a nave d e v e l o p e d on P a l l a d i o ' s d e s i g n a t t h e R e d e n t o r e . I t r e p r e s e n t s G r a s s i ' s o n l y known b u i l d i n g and one o f t h e c i t y ' s b e s t examp les o f V e n e t i a n P a l l a d i a n i s m . 148 . NOTES 1. F o r more commentary on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h u r c h o f San S t a e f r o m a n c i e n t t i m e s t o t h e p r e s e n t , see Umber to F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 6 2 - 6 5 ; and D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e Baroque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d Pub- l i s h i ng7TnT77Tl)7irr71)p̂ ^ 2 . F o r more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e l i f e and work o f G i o v a n n i G r a s s i , see D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e Ba roque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p p . 45 and 3 2 8 , f o o t n o t e 2 2 . 3 . John McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D raw ings C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 3 8 . 4 . D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e Ba roque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p p . 2 6 5 - 6 6 . 5 . I b i d . , p. 2 6 0 . 149 . San M a r z i a l e : P l a n - c . 1680 The c h u r c h o f San M a r z i a l e , w h i c h f l a n k s t h e s m a l l campo o f t h e same name, was f o u n d e d i n t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y ( F i g s . 206 and 2 0 7 ) . In t h e t h i r d - q u a r t e r o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e a n t i q u e t h r e e - n a v e G o t h i c s t r u c t u r e was p u l l e d down, a n d , i n i t s p l a c e , a new P a l l a d i a n i n s p i r e d c h u r c h was e r e c t e d between c i r c a 1680 and 1693 by an unknown a r c h i t e c t . The c h u r c h was c o n s e c r a t e d i n 1 7 2 1 . * The p l a n o f San M a r z i a l e i s a n o t h e r R e d e n t o r e - 1 i k e v a r i a t i o n o f t h e s t a n d a r d l o n g nave and s q u a r e c h a n c e l theme ( F i g . 2 0 8 ) . D e v i a t i n g f r o m P a l l a d i o ' s 2 :1 r a t i o , t he l e n g t h o f t h e nave i s one and a h a l f t i m e s i t s w i d t h , c r e a t i n g a s h o r t , w ide s p a c e i n s t e a d o f a l o n g , n a r r o w o n e . T h i s p l a n n i n g e c h o e s t h e same r a t i o s o f S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a ( F i g . 165) and San P a n t a l e o n e ( F i g . 1 9 0 ) . F l a n k i n g t h i s h a l l , t h e r e a r e s i x b i l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l w i n d o w l e s s s i d e - c h a p e l s l i g h t l y r e c e s s e d i n t o t h e w a l l s ( F i g . 209 ) . They a r e fo rmed by s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h e s w i t h k e y s t o n e s r i s i n g f r om m i n o r D o r i c o r d e r s . The c h a p e l s a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m each o t h e r by an a r r a n g e m e n t o f p a i r e d C o m p o s i t e p i l a s t e r s , e c h o i n g t h e C e l e s t e ( F i g . 81) and San B a s e g i o ( F i g . 1 7 0 ) . The ma jo r o r d e r s r i s e f r o m h i g h p e d e s t a l s , e c l e c t i c a l l y e m u l a t i n g a s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n by P a l l a d i o a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 6 7 ) . The s t r u c t u r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e nave w a l l s i n t o a c l a s s i c a l a r c a d e o f n a r r o w and w ide bays o f p a i r e d p i l a s t e r s and a r c h e d c h a p e l s was a m o d i f i e d copy o f t h e same a r rangemen t a t t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 8 6 ) . Each g roup o f p a i r e d p i l a s t e r s f r a m e s a l o n g r o u n d - h e a d e d window p o s i t i o n e d h a l f w a y up t h e w a l l . T h i s o p e n i n g r e p l a c e s t h e su rmoun ted s t a t u e n i c h e s 150 . o f t h e R e d e n t o r e . On t he r i g h t s i d e o f t he n a v e , t h e two windows surmount two doo rways w h i c h open on to t he campo b e h i n d ( F i g . 2 0 6 ) . P a r a l l e l i n g San B a s s o ( F i g . 182) and San S t a e ( F i g . 2 0 2 ) , t h e w i d t h s o f t h e f o u r t a l l , n a r r o w bays o f w a l l s p a c e between t h e f o u r c o r n e r s and t h e l a s t s i d e - c h a p e l i n e a c h r a n g e have been r a d i c a l l y r e d u c e d . S u p p o r t e d above t h e main o r d e r s , a b r o a d d e n t i l l e d e n t a b l a t u r e r u n s s m o o t h l y a round t h e c h u r c h , b r e a k i n g b r i e f l y above t h e p i l a s t e r c l u s t e r s b e n e a t h t h e e n t r a n c e and c h a n c e l a r c h e s . S p r i n g i n g f r o m t h i s member, a h i g h , w ide v a u l t c o v e r s t h e n a v e . S t r e t c h i n g a c r o s s t h e m i d d l e o f t h e v a u l t , t h e r e i s a r e c t a n g u l a r f r ame e n c l o s i n g an i 1 1 u s i o n i s t i c p a i n t i n g , e c h o i n g t h e S c a l z i . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o ' s l i g h t i n g f o r m u l a , t h e v a u l t o f San M a r z i a l e has s i x h e a v i l y g r o i n e d s e m i - c i r c u l a r Roman windows s e t d i r e c t l y above t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s , i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e s p a c e b e l o w . Between t h e f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e nave and t h e p i l a s t e r s o f t h e e n t r a n c e and c h a n c e l a r c h e s , t h e r e a r e f o u r t a l l , n a r r o w bays o f w a l l s p a c e f o rmed by p a i r e d p i l a s t e r s , r e p e a t i n g t h e theme o f t h e nave a r c a d e ( F i g . 2 1 0 ) . As i n t h e E l i s a b e t t a ( F i g . 1 2 6 ) , t h e w a l l s f l a n k i n g t h e c h a n c e l a r c h a r e p l a i n and t he doorways t o t h e s a c r i s t i e s b e h i n d u n o r d e r e d . Long n a r r o w p a i n t i n g s hang above t h e d o o r s . The o u t s i d e p i l a s t e r s o f t h e p a i r e d o r d e r s s t a n d f r e e f r o m the c o r n e r s by e i g h t e e n i n c h e s , c r e a t i n g two more r a d i c a l l y r e d u c e d b a y s . Cramped i n t o t h e c o r n e r a n g l e s a r e v e r y s l e n d e r v e r t i c a l p i l a s t e r b a n d s , each c a r r y i n g one q u a r t e r o f a C o m p o s i t e c a p i t a l r i s i n g f r o m a f r a g m e n t a r y base ( F i g s . 209 and 2 1 0 ) . These u n u s u a l l y t h i n members c r e a t e an uneasy m isma tched s t r u c t u r a l t e n s i o n be tween them- s e l v e s and t h e heavy e n t a b l a t u r e t h e y s u p p o r t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e v i s u a l i m p a c t o f t h e one q u a r t e r members p o s i t i o n e d between two f l a n k i n g f u l l 1 5 1 . p i l a s t e r s i s somewhat c l u m s y and u n a t t r a c t i v e . E n t e r i n g t he c h a n c e l , we f i n d t h a t t h e pavement i s r a i s e d f o u r s t e p s f r o m t h a t o f t h e nave ( F i g s . 208 and 2 1 0 ) . L i k e most o f t h e s a n c - t u a r i e s a n a l y z e d h e r e i n , t h e a l t a r - h o u s e o f San M a r z i a l e i s s q u a r e , m o d e l l e d on t h e f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n a t San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 6 6 ) . R i s i n g o v e r t h e e n t a b - l a t u r e o f t h e e n c i r c l i n g w a l l s , t h e r e a r e t h r e e s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h e s . The l a t e r a l ones a r e g l a z e d and t he r e a r one b l o c k e d o f f . H i g h a g a i n s t t h e back w a l l , t h e r e i s an o r g a n assemb ly w h i c h p a r t i a l l y h i d e s t h e i n - f i l l i n g o f t h e r e a r a r c h . The c h a n c e l i s r o o f e d w i t h a c r o s s v a u l t w h i c h has an o v a l p a i n t e d p a n e l p l a c e d o v e r t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n o f i t s f o u r g r o i n s , r e s e m - b l i n g San S t a e ( F i g . 2 0 4 ) . T u r n i n g t o t h e e x t e r i o r o f San M a r z i a l e , we f i n d t h a t a f a c a d e f o r t h e c h u r c h was n e v e r b u i l t , and no d r a w i n g o f i t s p r o p o s a l has s u r v i v e d ( F i g . 2 0 7 ) . T h e r e a r e f o u r o p e n i n g s i n t h e f l a t p l a s t e r s u r f a c e o f t h e l a r g e s q u a r e f r o n t . The u n o r d e r e d c e n t r a l doorway i s f l a n k e d by two r o u n d - headed l o n g windows and surmounted by a m u l l i o n e d t h e r m a l o p e n i n g , e c h o i n g s i m i l a r a r r a n g e m e n t s a t San T r o v a s o ( F i g . 9 2 ) , San F r a n c e s c o d i P a o l a ( F i g . 9 7 ) , San G iacomo ( F i g . 1 2 0 ) , and t h e M a r g h e r i t a ( F i g . 1 6 8 ) , w h i c h were a l l m o d i f i e d c o p i e s o f t h e Z i t e l l e f a c a d e ( F i g . 7 1 ) . A n o t h e r a d a p t a t i o n o f P a l l a d i o ' s d e s i g n may have been i n t e n d e d f o r t h e f r o n t o f San M a r z i a l e . In t h e y e a r 1 6 8 0 , t h e hund red th a n n i v e r s a r y o f P a l l a d i o ' s d e a t h , San M a r z i a l e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e e i g h t e e n t h c h u r c h i n V e n i c e t o e x h i b i t a d e s i g n d e b t t o t h e g r e a t m a s t e r . T h i s amount r e p r e s e n t s j u s t o v e r h a l f o f t h e t o t a l number o f c h u r c h e s b u i l t i n V e n i c e w h i c h f o l l o w e d P a l l a d i a n p a r a d i g m s . NOTES F o r more commentary on t he m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h u r c h o f San M a r z i a l e , see Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e d i V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 1 2 7 . 153 . San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a : c . 1695 The c h u r c h o f San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a , w h i c h s t o o d a t t h e v e r y e a s t - e r n t i p o f t h e G i u d e c c a , was f o u n d e d i n 1340 . A t t h e end o f t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e a n t i q u e t h r e e - n a v e G o t h i c s t r u c t u r e was p u l l e d down, a n d , i n i t s p l a c e , a new P a l l a d i a n i n s p i r e d c h u r c h was e r e c t e d by an unknown a r c h i t e c t . In 1 7 6 7 , t h e c h u r c h was s u p p r e s s e d by t h e V e n e t i a n R e p u b l i c , b u t s t i l l c o n t i n u e d as a p r i v a t e c h a p e l f o r t h e monks o f t h e a d j a c e n t m o n a s t e r y . * A f t e r " N a p o l e o n gave up t h e i d e a o f mak ing a pa rk where i t s t o o d . . . t h e p r o p e r t y was g i v e n t o 2 n a v a l w o r k s h o p s ( w h i c h s t i l l o p e r a t e on t h e s i t e ) . " C i r c a 1 8 5 0 , t h e b u i l d i n g was r a z e d , l e a v i n g no p h y s i c a l t r a c e s o f i t s d e s i g n . T o d a y , A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ' s d r a w i n g s o f San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a ( F i g s . 184 , 185 , 186 and 187) a r e t h e o n l y s u r v i v i n g g r a p h i c r e c o r d s o f t h e d e s i g n o f t h e i n t e r i o r and t h e f a c a d e o f t h e c h u r c h . 3 As i n t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g c h u r c h o f San G iacomo ( F i g . 1 1 7 ) , t he p l a n o f t he nave ( F i g . 4) was a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h a t o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 2 ) . P a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e c e n t r a l d o o r - way, t h e w o r s h i p e r a r r i v e d i n a l o n g c o n g r e g a t i o n h a l l w i t h s i x b i l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l s i d e - c h a p e l s ( F i g . 1 8 5 ) . P a r a l l e l i n g t h o s e o f San T r o v a s o ( F i g . s 8 3 ) , t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 8 0 ) , San N i c o l o de L i d o ( F i g . 1 2 9 ) , San P a n t a l e o n e ( F i g . 1 9 1 ) , and San S t a e ( F i g . 202) , t h e s e e n c l o s u r e s were d e e p l y s e t and r a i s e d f r o m t h e f l o o r by a s e r i e s o f s t e p s . U n l i k e p r e v i o u s d e s i g n s , t h e c h a p e l s were made s q u a r e i n s t e a d o f r e c t a n g u l a r . They were fo rmed by s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h e s w i t h o u t k e y s t o n e s s p r i n g i n g f r o m m i n o r D o r i c o r d e r s . Each one had a b a r r e l v a u l t b a c k i n g o n t o a w i n d o w l e s s r e a r w a l l . S e p a r a t i n g t h e s i x b a y s , t h e r e was a ' s e r i e s o f t a l l C o m p o s i t e p i l a s t e r s . As i n t h e R e d e n t o r e , t h e 154. p r i n c i p a l and s u b s i d i a r y o r d e r s began f r o m t h e same b a s e s and were u n i f o r m l y r e p e a t e d i n a b a l a n c e d s t r u c t u r a l harmony a round t h e c h u r c h . E c h o i n g t he o r i g i n a l , t h e r e were f o u r t a l l , na r row bays o f w a l l s p a c e be tween t h e f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e nave and t h e l a s t s i d e - c h a p e l i n each r a n g e . As d e p i c t e d on t h e p l a n ( F i g . 1 8 4 ) , t h e s e s p a c e s h e l d doorways su rmoun ted by s t a t u e n i c h e s , 4 r e m i n d i n g us o f San Giacomo ( F i g . 118) and t h e M a r g h e r i t a ( F i g . 1 6 6 ) . T h i s p a t t e r n was r e p e a t e d on t h e e n t r a n c e w a l l , bu t w i t h s t a t u e n i c h e s o n l y . C a r r i e d above t h e ma in o r d e r s , a heavy s t r a i g h t e n t a b l a t u r e s u p p o r t s a P a l l a d i a n v a u l t i n d e n t e d w i t h s i x g r o i n e d t h e r m a l windows p o s i t i o n e d d i r e c t l y above t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s , l i g h t i n g t h e nave b e l o w . The two v e r y t h i n p r o j e c t i n g end w a l l bays w h i c h f l a n k e d t h e c h a n c e l a r c h ( F i g . 186) were f o r e s h o r t e n e d v e r s i o n s o f t h o s e a t t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 3 ) . They echoed s i m i l a r a r r a n g e m e n t s a t San Giacomo ( F i g . 119) and San B a s s o ( F i g . 1 8 2 ) , where t h e g i a n t o r d e r s i n and a d j a c e n t t o t h e c o r n e r s we're b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n t i g h t c l u s t e r s , a l l o w i n g f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f bo th w i d e r c h a n c e l a r c h e s and more s p a c i o u s a l t a r - h o u s e s . D e v i a t i n g f r o m l o c a l t r a d i t i o n , t h e a r c h i t e c t o f San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a d i d no t d e s i g n a s q u a r e c r o s s v a u l t e d c h a n c e l w i t h l a t e r a l t h e r m a l w i n d o w s . I n s t e a d , he i n t r o d u c e d a w i d e bu t s h a l l o w r e c t a n g u l a r s a n c t u a r y ( F i g s . 1 8 4 and 1 8 5 ) , c l o s e l y r e i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e S c a m o z z i a n model a t t h e T o l e n t i n i ( F i g . 1 0 9 ) . Each c o r n e r o f t h e c h a n c e l was a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h a g i a n t p i l a s t e r . T o g e t h e r , t h e y s u p p o r t e d e n t a b l a t u r e s e c t i o n s w h i c h c a r r i e d two s e m i - c i r c u l a r a r c h e s . Formed between t he doub le c u r v e s , t h e r e was a na r row b a r r e l v a u l t . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , • t h e h i g h a l t a r s a t c e n t e r e d between and be low t h i s s t r u c t u r a l a r r a n g e m e n t , p a r t i a l l y s c r e e n i n g t h e nave f r o m t h e c h o i r b e h i n d . S i m i l a r t o t h e one p r o p o s e d by S c a m o z z i f o r t h e 155 . T o l e n t i n i , bu t n e v e r r e a l i z e d ( F i g . 1 0 8 ) , t h e c h o i r was an open s e m i - c i r c u l a r vo lume c rowned w i t h a v a u l t e d h a l f - d o m e , w h i c h r e v e r b e r a t e d sound p a s t t h e c h a n c e l i n t o t h e nave ( F i g s . 1 8 4 and 185 ) . T h i s cupped s p a c e a l s o r e m i n d s us o f c o m p a r a b l e c o n s t r u c t i o n s a t San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o ( F i g . 1 2 4 ) , San N i c o l o d e l L i d o ( F i g . 1 3 3 ) , and S a n t a M a r i a d e g l i S c a l z i ( F i g . 1 7 2 ) , w h i c h have d e s i g n s m o d i f i e d f r o m t h e c h o i r s o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 88) and t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 8 9 ) . T u r n i n g t o t h e e x t e r i o r o f San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a , we f i n d t h a t t h e f a c a d e ( F i g . 187) was m o d e l l e d upon t h e o v e r l a p p i n g c l a s s i c a l t e m p l e f r o n t d e s i g n p r e s e n t e d by P a l l a d i o a t San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a ( F i g s . 55 and 1 8 8 ) . As i n t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e f a c a d e was composed o f one t a l l , ma in a n t i q u e t e m p l e f r o n t f l a n k e d by two l o w e r and s m a l l e r h a l f - t e m p l e f r o n t s . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o , t h e a r c h i t e c t wanted t o r e f l e c t t h e t r i p a r t i t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g t h a t t h e f a c a d e wou ld b e a u t i f y . The c e n t r a l bay f r o n t e d t h e nave and t h e s i d e - bays c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s . Bo th o r d e r s were r a i s e d upon a c o n - t i n u o u s p l i n t h w h i c h s t o o d d r a m a t i c a l l y h i g h above head h e i g h t , r e p e a t i n g t h e p a t t e r n a t San F r a n c e s c o . A t a l l , t h i n doorway was c u t t h r o u g h t h i s heavy b a s e . U n l i k e t h e o r i g i n a l , t h e r e was no i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n be tween t h e doo r and t h e s i d e - w i n g s t h r o u g h t h e use o f c o m p l i m e n t a r y o r d e r s . The s i d e - o r d e r s o f San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a were t o o t a l l and t o o w ide t o be e x t e n d e d i n w a r d t o f i t on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e d o o r . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e co lumns o f t h e c e n t r a l bay o f t h e main s e c t i o n were s e t t o o c l o s e t o g e t h e r t o a c c e p t a copy o f t h e p o r t a l d e s i g n o f San F r a n c e s c o . The t a l l s i d e - w i n g o r d e r s c a u s e d t h e c o r n i c e s o f t h e h a l f - p e d i m e n t s t o j o i n t h e ma in bay a t t h e awkward l e v e l where t h e n e a k i n g and c a p i t a l s o f t he main o r d e r s mee t . T h i s s i t u a t i o n r e m i n d s us o f t h e p a r a l l e l a r r a n g e m e n t a t t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 7 5 ) . As an o u t c o m e , t h e 156. c o n t i n u o u s e n t a b l a t u r e l i n e o f t h e s e c o n d a r y o r d e r was r a i s e d above t h e m i d - p o i n t o f t h e m a j o r c o l u m n s , l e a v i n g l a r g e u n a r t i c u l a t e d w a l l s p a c e s i n t h e l o w e r r a n g e between t h e o r d e r s and above t h e d o o r . A t San F r a n c e s c o , where t h e s i d e - o r d e r s a r e o n l y h a l f as t a l l as t h e c o l o s s a l c o l u m n s , t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e r u n s low enough t h r o u g h t h e f a c a d e t o r e s t on t o p o f t h e m i n o r o r d e r s f l a n k i n g t h e d o o r . Above and be low t h i s e l e m e n t , t h e w a l l s u r f a c e s a r e f i l l e d w i t h c a r v e d a r c h i t e c t o n i c e l e m e n t s . The l a c k o f s c u l p t u r a l d e - c o r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e l a r g e open w a l l s p a c e s o f t h e f a c a d e o f San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a gave t h e ma in ped imen ted t e m p l e f r o n t a more b o l d and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n . A f t e r San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a , many V e n e t i a n c h u r c h e s c o n t i n u e d t o d e v e l o p nave p l a n s m o d e l l e d on t h e R e d e n t o r e , bu t t h e e m u l a t i o n o f P a l l a d i o ' s i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g t e m p l e f r o n t f a c a d e d e s i g n was o n l y r e p e a t e d once a g a i n by A n d r e a T i r a l i i n 1734 , t h r o u g h h i s f a i t h f u l r e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e San G i o r g i o f a c a d e on t h e f r o n t o f San V i d a l ( F i g . 1 1 6 ) . 157 . NOTES 1. F o r more commentary on t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h u r c h o f San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a , see Umberto F r a n z o i , Le C h i e s e de V e n e z i a ( V e n e z i a : A l f i e r i , 1 9 7 6 ) , p p . 2 6 0 - 6 1 . 2 . J o h n McAndrew, C a t a l o g u e o f t h e D r a w i n g s C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h ' A r c h i t e c t ' s : A n t o n i o V i s e n t i n i ( H a n t s , E n g l a n d : D . C . Hea th L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 4 8 . ' — 3 . T h e s e d r a w i n g s a r e h e l d i n t he V i s e n t i n i c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s , L o n d o n , number 2 1 6 , ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) , ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) . 4 . V i s e n t i n i d i d no t r e p r e s e n t t h e s e d o o r s and n i c h e s on h i s nave e l e v a t i o n ( F i g . 1 8 5 ) . 158. Chapter IV Palladio's Influence on Venetian Church Design 1695 - 1751: Summary During the first half of the eighteenth century, twenty-three churches were built or rebuilt in Venice.* Sixteen of these buildings, or sixty-seven percent, exhibit, through their system of organizing plans, elevations, and spatial relationships, different degrees of debt to Palladio. These sixteen buildings also represent forty-five percent of the thirty-five Palladian inspired churches built between 1581 and 1751. Almost half of the structures of the present study were constructed in the last fi f t y years of the hundred and seventy year era of Palladianism in Venetian church design. Instead of waning in popularity, the emulation of Palladian design principles by local church architects entered a new period of increased interest and activity, coinciding with the spreading development of classicism all over Europe. As Lorenzetti tells us, Venice did not remain apart from this predominant movement that tended to a revival of feeling to- wards the classicism which, however, even in Bernini's century had never died out completely — but which revived and spread with greater inten- sity in the eighteenth century. As we have already said, in the seventeenth century, painting was able to avoid the danger and remain practically immune from it through some inborn virtue, but architecture yielded and accepted the teaching of the new theory with intense enthusiasm. 'An architect who does not want to die of starvation' Giorgio Massari, one of the greatest architects of the century assented 'must of necessity adapt himself to see and think according to the classical rules'. It was, above a l l , before the literary exaltation and the theorical effort of writers, thesis writers, philosophers and men of doctrine, that this new atmosphere of classical 159 . r e v i v a l was c r e a t e d as a r e a c t i o n t o t h e e x c e s s e s o f B a r o q u e , as a more s o l i d b a s i s o f s t u d y and a more s e v e r e s o u r c e o f a e s t h e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n . In V e n i c e V i t r u v i u s and P a l l a d i o had t h e i r commenta- t o r s who s p r e a d t h e g o s p e l i n huge vo lumes and a r c h i t e c t u r a l m a n u a l s . - * The s t r o n g and c o n s i s t e n t h e r i t a g e o f P a l l a d i a n i s m i n V e n e t i a n c h u r c h d e - s i g n a s s i m i l a t e d i t s e l f e a s i l y and r e a d i l y i n t o t h e modern movement t o w a r d s t h e p r a c t i c e o f c l a s s i c a l b u i l d i n g d e s i g n , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e c h u r c h e s b u i l t i n V e n i c e be tween 1700 and 1751 e m u l a t i n g P a l l a d i o . ^ The p o p u l a r s t a n d a r d p l a n o f t h e l o n g nave and s q u a r e c h a n c e l b a s e d on t h e nave o f t h e R e d e n t o r e and t h e c h a n c e l o f San G i o r g i o was r e p e a t - ed a f u r t h e r e i g h t t i m e s a f t e r 1 7 0 0 : 5 C h i e s a d e l l a F a v a by A n t o n i o G a s p a r i , 1705 ( F i g s . 214 and 2 1 5 ) ; San G i r o l a m o by Domenico R o s s i , 1706 ( F i g s . 218 and 2 1 9 ) ; C h i e s a d e i G e s u a t i by G i o r g i o M a s s a r i , 1726 ( F i g s . 221 and 2 2 2 ) ; San B a r n a b a by L o r e n z o B o s c h e t t i , 1736 ( F i g s . 224 and 2 2 5 ) ; San Toma, 1742 ( F i g s . 226 and 227) and San B i a g i o , 1746 ( F i g s . 228 and 2 2 9 ) , by F r a n c e s c o B o g n o l o ; and San G i o v a n n i Novo by G i o r g i o M a s s a r i , 1751 ( F i g s . 230 and 2 3 1 ) . F l a n k i n g t h e naves o f t h e s e c h u r c h e s , t h e r e a r e t h e common b i l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l R e d e n t o r e - l i k e s i d e - c h a p e l s , a r t i c u l a t e d by e i t h e r s i n g l e o r d o u b l e o r d e r s o f g i a n t p i l a s t e r s o r h a l f - c o l u m n s . S u p p o r t e d above t h e ma in o r d e r s , heavy e n t a b l a t u r e s c a r r y c u r v e d v a u l t s w i t h g r o i n e d windows p o s i t i o n e d d i r e c t l y above t h e s i d e - c h a p e l s , e c h o i n g P a l l a d i o a t t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 8 9 ) . F o l l o w i n g S m e r a l d i a t San T r o v a s o (1583) and S c a m o z z i a t t h e T o l e n t i n i ( 1 5 9 1 ) , R o s s i ' s s p a t i a l c o n c e p t i o n f o r t h e i n t e r i o r o f C h i e s a d e i G e s u i t i i s a n o t h e r examp le o f P a l l a d i a n e c l e c t i c i s m , b l e n d i n g o r n a m e n t a l and s t r u c t u r a l s y s t e m s f r o m b o t h t h e R e d e n t o r e and San G i o r g i o . I n d e b t e d n e s s t o P a l l a d i o i s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e nave w i t h s i x i d e n t i c a l l y o p p o s - ed s i d e - c h a p e l s , i n t h e c r o s s i n g w i t h l a t e r a l t r a n s e p t s , and i n t h e c h a n c e l 160. flanked by two lower chapels (Fig. 211). In Venice, the only striking departure from the standard Redentore- like nave system was the new device of turning the narrow bays of wall space between the outside chapels and the four corners of the nave through forty- five degree angles across the corners to the piers of the entrance and chancel arches, creating a semi-elliptical plan. This innovation was first introduced by Gaspari in the Fava (Fig. 216) and repeated thereafter in the Gesuiti (Figs. 211 and 232) and the Gesuati (Figs. 222 and 223). In the nave of the Redentore, Palladio used square corners, but in the Zitelle he made a square interior seem circular by cutting off the corners at forty-five degree angles (Fig.65). Gaspari may have looked to the Zitelle for inspiration when designing the bev- elled corners of the nave of the Fava. To accentuate the spatial unity of the chancel square under the dome of the Redentore, Palladio defined the space with four powerful piers set on forty-five degree angles (Fig. 74). Longhena repeated this structural organization in the Salute in 1630 (Fig. 159). Fol- lowing Palladio, the dome above the crossing square of the Gesuiti is support- ed by giant arches rising from colossal bevelled piers (Fig. 211). Rossi further repeated this device in the chancel of the Gesuiti by angling the walls between the pilasters of the four corners. He first used this arrange- ment in 1706 in the chancel of San Girolamo (Fig. 219). Modified versions were also developed by Massari for the chancels of the Gesuati in 1726 (Fig. 222) and the Fava in 1750 (Fig. 217). In 1723, an unknown architect designed the church of San Bartolomeo (Figs. 234, 235 and 236) on the plan of San Giorgio (Figs. 66 and 88). Sim- ilar to the original, San Bartolomeo has a three-bay cruciform plan subdivid- ed into a high nave and two lower side-aisles, a transept crossing, and a 1 6 1 . r e c t a n g u l a r c h a n c e l f l a n k e d by two l o w e r c h a p e l s . A w h i t e w a s h e d P a l l a d i a n b a r r e l v a u l t w i t h s i x h e a v i l y g r o i n e d c l e a r s t o r y t h e r m a l windows c o v e r s t h e n a v e . U n l i k e San P i e t r o d i C a s t e l l o o f 1619 ( F i g . 1 2 2 ) , w h i c h i s t h e o n l y o t h e r c h u r c h i n V e n i c e t o e m u l a t e t h e o v e r a l l p l a n o f San G i o r g i o , t h e i n - t e r i o r o f San B a r t o l o m e o i s no t d e s i g n e d a t t h e c o l o s s a l s i z e o f t h e o r i g i - n a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s m a l l e r c h u r c h r e p e a t s many o f P a l l a d i o ' s g e o m e t r i c p r o p o r t i o n s a t a r e d u c e d s c a l e . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , two c e n t r a l i z e d c h u r c h e s f o r m e d on c i r c u l a r p l a n s were b u i l t : San S imeone P i c c o l o by G i o v a n n i S c a l f a r o t t o i n 1718 ( F i g s . 212 and 2 3 7 ) ; and S a n t a M a r i a M a d d a l e n a by Tommaso Temanza i n 1748 ( F i g s . 242 and 2 4 3 ) . S i m i l a r t o t h e T e m p i e t t o a t Mase r ( F i g s . 6 and 6 5 ) , c o n c e i v e d one hund red and t h i r t y - e i g h t y e a r s e a r l i e r i n 1 5 8 0 , t h e d e s i g n o f San S imeone i s a n o t h e r m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e P a n - t h e o n i n Rome ( F i g s . 76 and 7 7 ) . As P a l l a d i o b e f o r e h i m , S c a l f a r o t t o c o r - r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d t h e o r i g i n a l as an i n t e g r a t e d s e r i e s o f t h r e e b a s i c f o r m s : t h e advanced p r o n a o s a g a i n s t a v e s t i b u l e a g a i n s t a domed c y l i n d e r . A c c o r d i n g l y , he i n t r o d u c e d h i s c e n t r i c p l a n w i t h a p r o s t y l e C o r i n t h i a n p o r t i c o w h i c h b u t t s a g a i n s t a v e s t i b u l e c o n t a i n i n g t h e main e n t r a n c e . Due t o i t s r e d u c e d s c a l e , t h e p o r t i c o o f San S i m e o n e , u n l i k e t h e o c t a s t y l e P a n t h e o n , i s h e x a s t y l e , f o l - l o w i n g P a l l a d i o ' s p a r a d i g m a t M a s e r . T h i s f o r m was a l s o r e p e a t e d i n t h e new ly f i n i s h e d f a c a d e o f t h e n e a r b y San N i c o l o d e i T o l e n t i n i by A n d r e a T i r a l i i n 1706 ( F i g . 7 9 ) . I n t r o d u c i n g t h e f i r s t p r o j e c t i n g t e m p l e f r o n t i n V e n i c e , t h i s c h u r c h was a l s o i n s p i r a t i o n a l t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f S c a l f a r o t t o ' s d e s i g n . I n t r o d u c e d by seven s t e p s , T i r a l i ' s p o r t i c o i s composed o f s i x c a r e f u l l y c a r v e d C o r i n t h i a n co lumns on d i m i n u t i v e b a s e s , w i t h a w i d e r i n t e r - c o l u m n i a t i o n a t t h e c e n t e r . The co lumns s u p p o r t a heavy p l a i n e n t a b l a t u r e , 1 6 2 . su rmoun ted by a l a r g e t r i a n g u l a r p e d i m e n t . C u r i o u s l y e n o u g h , e x c e p t f o r t h e dom inan t e l l i p t i c a l o c u l u s i n t h e c e n t e r o f t h e tympanum, t h i s d e s i g n c l o s e l y i m i t a t e s P a l l a d i o ' s f a c a d e p r o p o s a l f o r h i s u n r e a l i z e d d e s i g n o f t h e T o l e n t i n i o f 1579 ( F i g . 1 0 0 ) , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t T i r a l i may have had a c c e s s t o t h e o r i g i n a l s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y d e s i g n . Under S c a l f a r o t t o ' s s o a r i n g S a l u t e - l i k e dome, t h e c e n t r i c nave o f San S imeone ( F i g . 238) c l e a r l y r e p e a t s t h e o r n a m e n t a l and s t r u c t u r a l themes o f t h e P a n t h e o n ( F i g . 7 7 ) . The s i d e - w a l l s o f t h e c y l i n d e r a r e composed o f t h e f a m i l i a r c e n t r a l r e c e s s e s w h i c h c o n t a i n f r e e - s t a n d i n g C o r i n t h i a n co lumns su rmoun ted by a heavy c u r v e d e n t a b l a t u r e s u p p o r t i n g a drum a r t i c u l a t e d by l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r ped imen ted windows ( F i g . 2 3 9 ) . P a l l a d i o ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h e d e s i g n o f t h e i n t e r i o r o f San Simeone i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e R e d e n t o r e - 1 i k e c h a n c e l ( F i g . 2 4 0 ) . As W i t t k o w e r t e l l s u s , "The i n t e r i o r somewhat v a r i e s [ f rom] t h e P a n t h e o n . . . (where] t he c o n g r e g a t i o n a l room opens i n t o a domed u n i t w i t h s e m i c i r c u l a r a p s e s , a f o r m u l a d e r i v e d v i a t h e S a l u t e f r o m P a l l a d i o (at t h e R e d e n t o r e ] . The c o n c e p t o f s e p a r a t i n g t h e c h a n c e l f r o m t h e nave by a t r i u m p h a l a r c h r e s u l t s i n a s c e n o g r a p h i c e f f e c t t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l l y P a l l a d i a n . 8 As i n San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 1 2 1 ) , San N i c o l o d e l L i d o ( F i g . 1 2 8 ) , and t h e S a l u t e ( F i g . 1 6 3 ) , t h e w a l l b e h i n d t h e h i g h a l t a r has an a r c h - w i t h i n - a n - a r c h c o m p o s i t i o n ( F i g . 2 4 1 ) , w h i c h h e l p s s t o p t h e v i e w a t t h e end o f t h e c h a n c e l , w h i l e s t i l l f o c u s s i n g i t i n w a r d s t o t h e a l t a r b e l o w . D e s i g n e d by S c a l f a r o t t o ' s nephew and s t u d e n t Tommaso Temanza , S a n t a M a r i a M a d d a l e n a i s a r a d i c a l l y m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h e P a n t h e o n ( F i g . 2 4 3 ) . The p o r t i c o , w h i c h i s f l a t t e n e d ou t a g a i n s t t h e c y l i n d e r , c o n s i s t s o f two w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d p a i r s o f I o n i c c o l u m n s on low b a s e s . P a r a l l e l i n g P a l l a d i o a t M a s e r ( F i g . 7 8 ) , t h e drum above t h e ma in o r d e r s o f t h e e x t e r i o r c a r r i e s a 163. low saucer dome with a hexagonal lantern composed of arched windows and topped with another small round dome (Fig. 244). Unlike the circular in- terior of the Tempietto, the nave of the Maddalena is hexagonal. Echoing Longhena's resolution at the Salute, the overall architectural planning of the church comes from a grouping together of isolated structural and spatial units modified directly from Palladio and set on a hexagonal plan (Fig. 243). In the Salute, Longhena modified the nave arcade of San Giorgio to formulate his unique octagonal congregation space. In the Maddalena, Temanza revised the nave arcade of the Redentore (Fig. 86), making the structural distribution of the walls of the main room into a deeply modelled series of narrow and wide bays of paired half-columns with statue niches and deep arched chapels (Fig. 124). Following Palladio, Longhena, and Scalfarotto, Temanza's nave also opens through a monumental arch into a square chancel flanked by a pair of semi-circular apses with half-dome ceilings. Unlike the older churches, the ceiling over the chancel is a low vault and not a dome, which closely echoes the pattern established in 1726 in the elliptical choir of the Gesuati (Figs. 222 and 223), creating strikingly similar scenographic effects. Between 1700 and 1751, nine more examples of modified Palladian church facade designs were proposed for Venice: San Girolamo (Fig. 218), 1706, and San Stae (Figs. 199 and 205), 1709, by Domenico Rossi; Chiesa dei Gesuati (Fig. 221), 1726, and San Marcuola (Figs. 245 and 246), 1728, by Giorgio Massari; Santa Fosca (Fig. 250), 1733, by Rossi; San Vidal (Figs. 116 and 248), 1734, by Andrea Tirali; Chiesa della Pieta (Fig. 247), 1735, by Massari; San Barnaba (Fig. 224), 1736, by Lorenzo Boschetti; and San Giovanni Novo (Fig. 230), 1751, by Massari. Including San Francesco della Vigna (Fig. 188), San Giorgio (Fig.3), 164. and the Redentore (Fig. 5), there were eight large interpenetrating temple front church facades planned for Venice. The last example is the front for San Vidal of 1734 (Figs. 116, 248 and 249), which came after San Giovanni Battista (Fig. 187), circa 1695, San Nicolo del Lido (Fig. 134, unrealized proposal), 1626, San Pietro di Castello (Fig. 112), 1594, San Nicolo dei Tolentini (Figs. 108 and 251, unrealized proposal), 1591. The main bay of Tirali's facade is composed of a temple front with two pairs of large Composite half-columns on high pedestals supporting a broad entablature and a strongly marked pediment (Fig. 116). Between the colossal orders them- selves, there are small rectangular windows separated by string courses of entablature from framed statue niches below. THe center space between the paired columnar bays embraces a large doorway with a minor order and pediment. The pilasters on smaller bases of the secondary Corinthian order framing this entrance extend out beyond the main temple front to carry half-pediments of the side bays, which, unlike Palladio's churches, represent the presence of two rows of houses and not the internal planning of flanking side-aisles or side-chapels (Figs. 248 and 249). Within the wide bays of the side-wings, Tirali added two long, round-headed windows, reminding us of the Zitelle (Fig. 71). Barely discernible behind the metal grating of these large blind church windows, there are small square-headed residential windows which light the rooms of the houses behind. To help interlock all three bays of his facade, Tirali continued the entablature of the minor orders across the whole facade. Except for a few minor design differences, this account of San Vidal could also describe the overall composition of the fronts of San Giorgio (Fig. 3) and San Pietro (Fig. 112), but a closer look at the facade reveals an even more essential link to Scamozzi at the Tolentini (Fig. 25). After comparing 165 . t h e two f a c a d e s , L e w i s t e l l s us t h a t San V i d a l " . . . r e p r o d u c e s t h e S c a m o z z i f a c a d e f o r S . N i c o f b da T o l e n t i n o w i t h such u t t e r p r e c i s i o n t h a t between Q t h e two d e s i g n s t h e r e r e m a i n i n f a c t no d i f f e r e n c e s w o r t h s p e a k i n g o f . I r o n i c a l l y , a f t e r one hund red and f o r t y - t h r e e y e a r s , t h e v e r y f i r s t p r o p o s - a l i n V e n i c e f o r a P a l l a d i a n o v e r l a p p i n g t e m p l e f r o n t c h u r c h f a c a d e became t h e c i t y ' s v e r y l a s t examp le a l s o . As has been no ted by o t h e r s , T i r a l i c o u l d have s t u d i e d t h e o r i g i n a l s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y d e s i g n , known t o be i n Temmanza 's p o s s e s s i o n a t t h e t i m e . * 0 I t a l s o seems p o s s i b l e t h a t T i r a l i may have v i e w e d S c a m o z z i ' s p r o p o s a l f o r t h e T o l e n t i n i w h i l e b u i l d i n g h i s 1706 r e i n v e n t i o n o f P a l l a d i o ' s even e a r l i e r d e s i g n (1579) f o r a f r e e - s t a n d i n g p o r t i c o f o r t h e same c h u r c h . B o t h schemes may have been i n t h e T h e a t i n e a r c h i v e s and a v a i l a b l e t o T i r a l i f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n . Between 1709 and 1 7 3 6 , t h e r e were s i x more P a l l a d i a n c e n t r a l - t e m p l e - f r o n t - m o t i f f a c a d e s p l a n n e d f o r V e n i c e , f o l l o w i n g t h e e a r l i e r examp les o f C o m i n o ' s San P a n t a l e o n e i n 1668 ( F i g . 193) and S a r d i ' s San L a z z a r o d e i M e n d i c a n t i i n 1673 ( F i g . 1 9 7 ) . To a d o r n G r a s s i ' s b e a u t i f u l l y p l a n n e d R e d e n t o r e - l i k e San S t a e o f 1678 ( F i g s . 200 - 2 0 4 ) , R o s s i c r e a t e d a l a r g e t e m p l e f r o n t ( F i g . 199) on t h e model o f t h e c e n t r a l s e c t i o n o f t h e f a c a d e o f San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 1 8 1 ) . P a r a l l e l i n g P a l l a d i o a t t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 5 ) , R o s s i f i l l e d t h e c e n t e r bay between t h e p a i r e d c o l u m n a r u n i t s w i t h a l a r g e p r o j e c t i n g p o r t a l composed o f a m i n o r o r d e r o f C o r i n t h i a n h a l f - c o l u m n s s u p p o r t i n g a p e d i m e n t . E c h o i n g S a r d i ' s s m a l l e r e n t r a n c e f o r San L a z z a r o , R o s s i used a b r o k e n segmen ta l ped imen t i n t h e Ba roque s t y l e t o r e f l e c t t h e f o r m o f t h e two f o r w a r d - p r o j e c t i n g c o l u m n s . As i n San F r a n c e s c o ( F i g . 1 8 8 ) , San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 3 ) , and t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 5 ) , an i n t e r m e d i a t e e n t a b l a t u r e r u n s a c r o s s t h e f a c a d e b e h i n d t h e m a j o r co lumns a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e m i n o r o r d e r s , e m p h a s i z i n g t h e v i s u a l 166. u n i t y o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e f a c a d e . The co lumns o f t h e e n t r a n c e e x t e n d ou t beyond t h e main t e m p l e f r o n t t o s u p p o r t t h e e n t a b l a t u r e o f t h e s i d e - b a y s , w h i c h a r e t h e e x t e r i o r e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e s h a l l o w p r o j e c t i n g s i d e - c h a p e l s o f t h e i n t e r i o r ( F i g . 2 0 5 ) . U n l i k e t h e o v e r l a p p i n g t e m p l e f r o n t f a c a d e s o f P a l l a d i o and h i s f o l l o w e r s , t h e e x t e r n a l w i n g s o f San S t a e a r e no t w i d e enough t o e x p r e s s f u l l i n t e r c o l u m n a r b a y s . As W i t t k o w e r w r i t e s , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f a c a d e " . . . i s based on an u n o r t h o d o x h a n d l i n g o f P a l l a d i o ' s i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n o f a l a r g e and a s m a l l o r d e r . " 1 1 The n a r r o w n e s s o f t h e l a t e r a l c h a p e l s p rompted t h e u n i q u e s o l u t i o n o f s i n g l e - c o l u m n w i n g s f l a n k i n g t h e c e n t r a l m a s s . S u p p o r t e d above t h e s e g r a c e f u l members, t h e r e a r e e n t a b - l a t u r e f r a g m e n t s su rmoun ted by s m a l l p e d e s t a l s w i t h f r e e - s t a n d i n g s c u l p t e d f i g u r e s , i m i t a t i n g t h o s e on t h e ma in p e d i m e n t . To l i n k t h e s i n g l e co lumns w i t h t h e t a l l e r c e n t r a l b l o c k , R o s s i b u i l t s t e e p s t r u c t u r a l v o l u t e s w h i c h d e s c e n d f r o m t h e c a p i t a l s o f t h e ma in o r d e r s t o t h e e n t a b l a t u r e - p e d e s t a l s o f t h e m i n o r , r e m i n d i n g us o f S m e r a l d i ' s s i m i l a r i n v e n t i o n a t San T r o v a s o i n 1583 ( F i g . 9 2 ) . F o r t h e f a c a d e s o f San F r a n c e s c o ( F i g . 5 5 ) , and San G i o r g i o ( F i g . 1 8 1 ) , P a l l a d i o made t h e i r d i f f e r e n t w a l l s u r f a c e s e x i s t on t h e same p l a n e , c l e a r l y e m p h a s i z i n g t h e smooth i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n o f two t e m p l e f r o n t s . A t t h e R e d e n t o r e , he e m p h a s i z e d t h e dominance o f t h e main t e m p l e f r o n t by s l i g h t - l y s e t t i n g i t f o r w a r d f r o m t h e s i d e - w i n g s , c r e a t i n g a p h y s i c a l and o p t i c a l d i s c o n t i n u i t y ( F i g . 5 ) . F o l l o w i n g P a l l a d i o , R o s s i made t h e s i d e - o r d e r s o f San S t a e r e c e d e as f a r as p o s s i b l e , c r e a t i n g a l a r g e r d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e ma in body and t h e w i n g s ( F i g . 2 0 5 ) . To g i v e h i s t e m p l e f r o n t an even more b o l d and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , R o s s i made t h e g i a n t o u t s i d e co lumns t h r e e - q u a r t e r s r ound and a l m o s t d i s e n g a g e d , c r e a t i n g a c l e a r b reak w i t h t h e 1 6 7 . two w i n g s . The way i n w h i c h t he c e n t r a l and s i d e bays i n t e r r e l a t e i n San S t a e , i n f l u e n c e d t h e f a c a d e d e s i g n by G i a m b a t t i s t a F a t t o r e t t o i n 1715 f o r R o s s i ' s P a l l a d i a n p l a n n e d c h u r c h o f t h e G e s u i t i ( F i g . 2 3 3 ) . Wan t i ng t o e m p h a s i z e t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f h i s f a c a d e even m o r e , F a t t o r e t t o made h i s co lumns f r e e - s t a n d i n g . As d e p i c t e d i n p l a n , t h e o u t s i d e co lumns o f t h e ma in f r o n t and t h e i n s i d e co lumns o f t he r e c e d i n g s i d e b a y s , a l s o f r e e - s t a n d i n g , a r e s e t on f o r t y - f i v e d e g r e e a n g l e s f r o m each o t h e r , r e f l e c t i n g , i n r e v e r s e , t h e b e v e l e d c o r n e r s o f R o s s i ' s nave b e h i n d ( F i g . 2 1 1 ) . A f t e r San S t a e , t h e n e x t c h u r c h t o r e p r o d u c e a P a l l a d i a n t e m p l e f r o n t i n V e n i c e was t h e G e s u a t i i n 1726 ( F i g . 2 2 1 ) . F o l l o w i n g F r a n c e s c o Comino a t San P a n t a l e o n e ( F i g . 1 9 3 ) , M a s s a r i was t h e s e c o n d V e n e t i a n c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t t o i s o l a t e t h e c e n t r a l t e m p l e m o t i f and d i s p e n s e w i t h t h e m i n o r s i d e - o r d e r s c o m p l e t e l y . To h e l p g i v e t h e p h y s i c a l and o p t i c a l a p p e a r a n c e o f a p r o j e c t e d t e m p l e f a c a d e , Comino t h r e w h i s ma in f r o n t i n t o deep r e l i e f by s e t t i n g back t h e g i a n t end p i l a s t e r s w h i c h f r a m e i t . A t t h e G e s u a t i , M a s s a r i f o l l o w e d t h i s p a t t e r n c l o s e l y . Wan t i ng t o i n c r e a s e t h e dominance o f h i s R e d e n t o r e - l i k e f r o n t even m o r e , M a s s a r i c r e a t e d " . . . t h e d e v i c e o f a t i g h t l y c l u s t e r e d p i l a s t e r g r o u p t u r n i n g a round t h e o u t e r c o r n e r s i n s u c c e s s i v e 19 p l a n e s o f deep p l a s t i c r e l i e f . " I n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t e c h o e s t h e c o l u m n - a n d - p i l a s t e r c l u s t e r s o f t h e s i d e - w i n g o r d e r s o f San S t a e ( F i g . 2 0 6 ) , w h i c h a c c e n t u a t e a s i m i l a r t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l t u r n i n g o f t h e c o r n e r s , mak ing t h e f a c a d e appea r b o l d e r f r o m t h e f r o n t and w i d e r f r o m t h e s i d e ( F i g . 2 2 1 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t he r e c e d i n g o r d e r s o f t h e c o r n e r s o f t h e G e s u a t i a r e s e t a t f o r t y - f i v e deg ree a n g l e s f r o m e a c h o t h e r , e c h o i n g , i n r e v e r s e , t h e a n g l e d c o r n e r s o f t h e nave b e h i n d ( F i g . 2 2 2 ) , r e m i n d i n g us o f F a t t o r e t t o ' s s o l u t i o n f o r t h e G e s u i t i ( F i g . 2 1 1 ) . 1 6 8 . In 1 7 2 8 , two y e a r s a f t e r t h e G e s u a t i d e s i g n , M a s s a r i p r o p o s e d a P a l l a d i a n t e m p l e f r o n t f a c a d e f o r t h e c h u r c h o f San M a r c u o l a . The p r o j e c t was l e f t u n f i n i s h e d ( F i g . 2 4 5 ) , bu t i t can be u n d e r s t o o d t h r o u g h an o r i g i n a l d r a w i n g ( F i g . 2 4 6 ) . U n l i k e any o t h e r f a c a d e e c h o i n g P a l l a d i o i n V e n i c e , M a s s a r i p r o p o s e d a s h a l l o w f o u r co lumn f r e e - s t a n d i n g p o r t i c o , o n l y l i g h t l y engaged where t h e t a l l p r o j e c t i n g p e d e s t a l s back o n t o t h e f r o n t w a l l o f t h e c h u r c h . M a s s a r i must have been i n f l u e n c e d by F a t t o r e t t o ' s f a c a d e f o r t h e G e s u i t i , w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d a s i m i l a r a r rangemen t o f f r e e - s t a n d i n g c o l u m n s , a c c e n t u a t i n g t h e p r o m i n e n t c e n t r a l s e c t i o n o f t h e c h u r c h ( F i g . 2 3 3 ) . The f a c a d e s o f S a n t a F o s c a by R o s s i i n 1733 ( F i g . 250) and C h i e s a d e l l a P i e t a by M a s s a r i i n 1735 ( F i g . 247) r e t u r n t o P a l l a d i o ' s i n v e n t i o n o f p r o j e c t i n g t h e e l e m e n t s o f a p o r t i c o o n t o t h e f l a t p l a n e o f a f a c a d e w a l l . * - * F o r t h e d e s i g n o f t h e doorway f o r S a n t a F o s c a , R o s s i t u r n e d t o M a s s a r i ' s p o r t a l o f t h e G e s u a t i , e m u l a t i n g i t a l m o s t e x a c t l y ( F i g . 2 2 1 ) . F o r t h e e n - t r a n c e o f t h e P i e t a , M a s s a r i c l o s e l y c o p i e d t h e doo r o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 5 ) . He p l a c e d i t be tween t h e g i a n t C o r i n t h i a n o r d e r s o f t h e c e n t r a l bay o f a p r e d o m i n a t e l y San G i o r g i o - l i k e f a c a d e . The f r o n t f o r t h e c h u r c h o f San B a r n a b a by B o s c h e t t i i n 1736 i s a m o d i f i e d copy o f M a s s a r i ' s R e d e n t o r e - 1 i k e f a c a d e f o r t h e G e s u a t i , d e s i g n e d t e n y e a r s e a r l i e r . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e f o u r huge h a l f - c o l u m n s o f t h e ma in f r o n t s u p p o r t a heavy e n t a b l a t u r e w h i c h i s t h rown i n t o deep r e l i e f by t h e f l a n k i n g b l o c k s o f r e s s a u t s c a r r i e d on c l o s e l y s e t r e c e d i n g c o l u m n - a n d - p i l a s t e r c l u s t e r s . U n l i k e a t t h e G e s u a t i , B o s c h e t t i wrapped h i s f a c a d e one f u l l bay a round t h e s i d e s o f h i s n a v e , c r e a t i n g s p a c e f o r two s i d e - d o o r s . As L e w i s t e l l s u s , t h e r e " . . . i s no c o m p a r a b l e examp le i n V e n i c e o f a f a c a d e t r e a t m e n t b e i n g c a r r i e d t o a d i s t a n c e o f one bay down each o f i t s s i d e s . 169 . As a t t h e P i e t a ( F i g . 2 4 7 ) , t h e f r o n t e n t r a n c e t o San B a r n a b a i s m o d e l l e d on t h a t o f t h e R e d e n t o r e ( F i g . 5 ) . A f t e r 1700 i n V e n i c e , t h e r e were two more c h u r c h e s p l a n n e d w i t h f a c a d e s m o d e l l e d on t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e Z i t e l l e ( F i g . 7 1 ) : San G i r o l a m o by R o s s i i n 1706 ( F i g . 218) and San G i o v a n n i Novo by M a s s a r i i n 1751 ( F i g . 2 3 0 ) . R o s s i ' s f a c a d e was t h e f i r s t examp le o f a Z i t e l l e - l i k e f a c a d e a f t e r L a m b r a n z i ' s u n - r e a l i z e d p r o j e c t f o r S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a i n 1 6 4 7 , d e s i g n e d f i f t y - n i n e y e a r s e a r l i e r ( F i g . 1 6 8 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two f a c a d e s r e v e a l s v e r y f ew d i f f e r - e n c e s be tween t h e m , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t R o s s i may have c r e a t e d h i s v e r s i o n 15 f r o m a s t u d y o f t h e o r i g i n a l d e s i g n by L a m b r a n z i . M a s s a r i ' s f a c a d e f o r San G i o v a n n i N o v o , l i k e t h a t o f S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a , was l e f t i n c o m p l e t e , e x c e p t f o r t h e t r i a n g u l a r p e d i m e n t e d doorway under a t h e r m a l w indow, t h e f i r s t e i g h t f e e t o f t h e l o w e r t i e r o f p a i r e d o r d e r s f l a n k i n g t h e e n t r a n c e , and t h e l o n g , na r row r o u n d - h e a d e d windows between t h e s e o r d e r s . No d r a w i n g r e v e a l i n g i t s t o t a l d e s i g n has s u r v i v e d , bu t f r o m a s t u d y o f t h e e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e and t h e o v e r a l l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e f a c a d e much can be deduced c o n c e r n i n g i t s i n t e n d e d f o r m . The a r rangemen t s u g g e s t s an e l e v a t i o n s e p a r a t e d i n t o two d i f f e r e n t l y s c a l e d t i e r s o f p a i r e d s u p e r i m p o s e d o r d e r s , h o r i z o n t a l l y d i v i d e d by an e n - t a b l a t u r e and t o p p e d w i t h a t r i a n g u l a r ped imen t o v e r a s e m i - c i r c u l a r t h e r m a l w indow, e c h o i n g P a l l a d i o ' s f a c a d e f o r t h e Z i t e l l e . The i n t e n s e a c t i v i t y i n c h u r c h b u i l d i n g i n V e n i c e i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y c r e a t e d a n o t h e r e l e v e n p l a n s and n i n e more f a c a d e s o f P a l l a d i a n d e s c e n t , mak ing t h e g r e a t m a s t e r ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r e s e n c e u n f o r g e t t a b l y f e l t i n e v e r y c o r n e r o f t h e c i t y . Now c l o s e d and i n v e r y poor s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n , t h e b e a u t i f u l l i t t l e c h u r c h o f San G i o v a n n i Novo c o n c l u d e s t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y on P a l l a d i o ' s i n f l u e n c e on V e n e t i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n between 1581 and 1 7 5 1 . 1 7 0 . NOTES 1. B e g i n n i n g w i t h San G a l l o (1703) and e n d i n g w i t h San G i o v a n n i Novo ( 1 7 5 1 ) , a l i s t o f t h e s e t w e n t y - t h r e e c h u r c h e s can be f o u n d i n D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e B a r o q u e C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , pp. 8 - 9 . 2 . G i u l i o L o r e n z e t t i , V e n i c e and i t s Lagoon ( T r i e s t e : E d i z i o n i L i n t T r i e s t e , 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 126 . 3 . I b i d . , p . 1 2 6 . F o r more d i s c u s s i o n on t h e s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , a e s t h e t i c , and r e l i g i o u s r e a s o n s w h i c h h e l p e d c a u s e t h e r e v i v a l o f a more s e r i o u s c l a s s i c a l s t y l e i n t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f V e n i c e i n t h e e i g h t - e e n t h c e n t u r y see E l e n a B a s s i , A r c h i t e t t u r a d e l S e i e S e t t e c e n t o a V e n e z i a ( N a p o l i : E d i z i o n e S c i e n t e f i c h e I t a l i a n e , 1 9 6 2 ) ; M a n l i o B r u s a t i n , V e n e z i a n e l S e t t e c e n t o : S t a t o , A r c h i t e t t u r a , T e r r i t o r i o ( T o r i n o : G i u l i o E i n a u d i E d i t o r e , 1 9 8 0 ) ; Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p p . 1 9 3 - 1 9 5 ; and D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e Ba roque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p p . 4 8 - 5 7 . 4 . See p p . 5 and 6 , f o o t n o t e 9 , h e r e i n , f o r a l i s t o f t h e s i x t e e n c h u r c h e s b u i l t be tween 1700 and 1 7 5 1 , s t a r t i n g w i t h C h i e s a d e l l a F a v a (1705) and e n d i n g w i t h San G i o v a n n i Novo ( 1 7 5 1 ) . 5 . T h e r e were t e n c h u r c h e s b u i l t i n V e n i c e between 1603 and 1705 on t h e s t a n d a r d l o n g nave and s q u a r e c h a n c e l p l a n e c h o i n g P a l l a d i a n d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s : San G iacomo d e l l a G u i d e c c a ( 1 6 0 3 ) ; S a n t a M a r i a E l i s a b e t t a ( 1 6 2 0 ) ; San N i c o l o d e l L i d o ( 1 6 2 6 ) ; S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a ( 1 6 4 7 ) ; S a n t a M a r i a d e g l i S c a l z i ( 1 6 5 6 ) ; San B a s s o ( 1 6 6 1 ) ; San P a n t a l e o n e ( 1 6 6 8 ) ; San S t a e ( 1 6 7 8 ) ; San M a r z i a l e ( c . 1 6 8 0 ) ; and San G i o v a n n i B a t t i s t a ( c . 1 6 9 5 ) . 6 . Deborah Howard , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : Holmes and M e i e r P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 199 . 7 . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y : 1600 - 1750 ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h : P e n g u i n B o o k s , I n c . , 1 9 7 2 ) , p . 2 5 3 . ' 8 . R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 2 2 . 9 . D o u g l a s L e w i s , The L a t e Ba roque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e (New Y o r k : G a r l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , I n c . , 1 9 7 9 ) , p . 1 3 3 . See a l s o pp . 132 and 3 5 6 , f o o t n o t e s 30 and 3 1 . 10 . F o r more d i s c u s s i o n on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between T i r a l i ' s f a c a d e f o r San V i d a l and S c a m o z z i ' s f o r t h e T o l e n t i n i , see L i o n e l l o P u p p i , A n d r e a P a l l a d i o ( B o s t o n : New Yo rk G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 4 3 3 , and R u d o l f W i t t k o w e r , P a l l a d i o and E n g l i s h P a l l a d i a n i s m ( L o n d o n : Thames and H u d s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) , p p . 16 and 17 . 1 7 1 . 1 1 . W i t t k o w e r , A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n I t a l y : 1600 - 1 7 5 0 , p. 3 8 2 . 1 2 . L e w i s , The L a t e Ba roque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e , p . 1 4 0 . 1 3 . H o w a r d , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r y o f V e n i c e , p . 1 6 6 . 1 4 . L e w i s , The L a t e Ba roque C h u r c h e s o f V e n i c e , p. 3 6 1 . 1 5 . See p p . 1 1 6 - 1 1 8 , h e r e i n , f o r an a n a l y s i s o f t h e f a c a d e o f S a n t a M a r g h e r i t a . 1 7 2 . CONCLUSION A n d r e a P a l l a d i o i s w e l l - r e m e m b e r e d f o r h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e l i g i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r e o f V e n i c e . H i s d e s i g n s f o r San F r a n c e s c o d e l l a V i g n a ( 1 5 6 2 ) , San G i o r g i o M a g g i o r e ( 1 5 6 5 ) , Le Z i t e l l e ( 1 5 7 0 ) , II R e d e n t o r e ( 1 5 7 6 ) , and t h e T e m p i e t t o ( 1 5 8 0 ) , r e p r e s e n t e d f r e s h and i n d e p e n d e n t v i s i o n s , e x e m p l i f y i n g h i s d e e p - s e a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c l a s s i c a l i d e a s o f t h e H i g h R e n a i s s a n c e . Nowhere was P a l l a d i o ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h e f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e c c l e s i a s t i c a l d e s i g n more p r o f o u n d l y f e l t t h a n i n V e n i c e i t s e l f . C o l l e c t i v e l y , t h e e m u l a t - o r s o f P a l l a d i a n c h u r c h d e s i g n f o r m an a r c h i t e c t u r a l l e g a c y w h i c h can be d i s c e r n e d l y t r a c e d f r o m S a n t a M a r i a C e l e s t e i n 1581 t o San G i o v a n n i Novo i n 1 7 5 1 . Be tween t h e s e y e a r s and b u i l d i n g s , t h i r t y - f i v e c h u r c h e s were b u i l t m o d e l l e d a f t e r P a l l a d i a n p a r a d i g m s , e x h i b i t i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r s y s t e m o f o r g a n i z i n g p l a n s , s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and e l e v a t i o n s , d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s o f d e b t t o P a l l a d i o . 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