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The influence of the self-image on the behaviour of entrepreneurial women Kotarski, Joan Elizabeth 1987

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THE INFLUENCE OF THE SELF-IMAGE ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF ENTREPRENEURIAL WOMEN By JOAN ELIZABETH KOTARSKI H . B . A . , The University of Guelph, 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS -  in  V;  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Anthropology and Sociology  We accept this thesis as  conforming  to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  July ©  1987  Joan Elizabeth Kotarski, 1987  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  freely available copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University of  British  Columbia,  for reference and study.  this or  thesis  thesis by  this  for scholarly  his thesis  or  her  the  I agree  I further agree  purposes  may  representatives.  It  be is  requirements  for  an  Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  advanced  that the Library shall  make it  that permission  for extensive  granted  head  by the  understood  that  for financial gain shall not be allowed without  permission.  DE-6G/81)  of  of  my  copying  or  my written  i i  ABSTRACT The Influence of the Self-image on the Behaviour of Entrepreneurial Women  The thesis deals with a group of modern Canadian women performing the v i s i b l e social and economic role of entrepreneur. males are dominant as entrepreneurs.  In general,  However, the centre of this  research is a case study of a female entrepreneur.  It i s augmented by  interviews with other female entrepreneurs and the limited published research available about female entrepreneurs. tion:  in what ways do self-images  neurial women? of ourselves,  It addresses  the ques-  influence the behaviour of entrepre-  Self-image is conceptualized as an essential  component  influenced by such themes as our c u l t u r e , our sex-role  s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and our environment. a b i l i t y to act in society.  Self-image helps to shape our  Self-image can be manipulated and used as a  strategy for the entrepreneurial role which is valued in our society. Entrepreneurial experts affirm that a positive self-image to entrepreneurial behaviour.  is important  Researchers have i d e n t i f i e d women as a  group with a poor self-image, yet women are now becoming entrepreneurs at three times the rate of men. factors related to self-image women:  My thesis suggests that a number of  influence the behaviour of entrepreneurial  1) through the lack of relevant b e l i e f s ,  incorporate into t h e i r self-images; beliefs,  values or images to  2) through the lack of appropriate  values or images to incorporate into their  3) through the presentation of c o n f l i c t i n g b e l i e f s , 4) and through the reinforcement of b e l i e f s , p a r t i c u l a r social situations or contexts.  self-images; values or images;  values and images in  i ii  The factors related to the self-images  of those women who perform  the entrepreneurial role suggest important cultural and social  changes  in the status of women generally. Following the conclusion, a discussion on the i l l u s i o n s that can be a part of women's self-images  is included.  I look at the i l l u s i o n  associated with images of women and the i l l u s i o n of choice.  I suggest  that both these i l l u s i o n s can impact s i g n i f i c a n t l y on self-image and often with detrimental effects for women. are aware that the self-images  My point i s to make sure we  do not always r e f l e c t objective r e a l i t y .  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page  TITLE PAGE ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF APPENDICES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS/DEDICATION  i .'  ii iv v vi  CHAPTER I: Introduction  1  Cultural Milieu and the Position of Women  5  Self  10  Self-image  15  Women Entrepreneurs  23  Research Methods Objectives Study Components Significant Problems Problems with Case Study Method Key Informant  32 33 33 36 38 41  CHAPTER II: Introduction  47  Start-Up  47  Work Environment  66  Home Environment  88  Time  104  CHAPTER III: Conclusion BIBLIOGRAPHY  114 . 128  V  LIST OF APPENDICES Page APPENDIX 1:  APPENDIX 2:  APPENDIX 3:  APPENDIX 4:  B . C . Government cover l e t t e r and questionnaire  136  Women Executives and Entrepreneurs Business Ownership for Women 1986, handouts from conference  140  Frontpage from 'Women Executives News' a newsletter of the Canadian Association of Women Executives and Entrepreneurs  146  Instructor contract and In-class sheets from my key informant  147  evaluation  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to thank members of my supervisory committee,  Cyril  shaw and Elvi Whittaker, for t h e i r support in the last year.  DEDICATION  This thesis is dedicated to the memory of my niece, MEGAN MARIE GRIESBACH. I grieve for things that might have been.  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION This study deals with entrepreneurial women's values, beliefs and perceptions of t h e i r social role in Canadian society.  To say being an  entrepreneur i s a new role for women belies the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women entrepreneurs in the past and/or women entrepreneurs in other cultural traditions.  Yet on the present scale this is a new role for contem-  porary Canadian women who are entering this segment of the paid labour force at three times the current rate of men (Baird, 1982:  7).  The  research focuses on white middle-class women who organize and run t h e i r own businesses.  It looks at the ways self-image  influences  the  behaviour of entrepreneurial women in s p e c i f i c situational contexts. ' Michael Skolnik, a labour and human resource economist with the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, suggests that a way to study women involved in the labour force is to place more emphasis on "detailed description of women's experience i n typical and new work settings" (1981:  126).  My research on entrepreneurial women addresses  some of the points he raises in his paper 'Toward Some New Empirical Research on Women and The Canadian Labour F o r c e ' , presented at a workshop s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed at researchers involved with women and the Canadian labour force held at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, He goes on to say:  1981.  2  It would be p a r t i c u l a r l y interesting to see what changes might be occurring in the workplace as a result of the increasing p a r t i c i pation of women. For example where women have moved into 'non-traditional jobs, i t would be valuable to study changes which might have occurred in the way jobs are performed, the reaction of employers and male workers and the impact of such non-incremental changes in women's vocational lives on t h e i r home, personal l i v e s , and self-images. . . . T h e female's ever-present concern about integration of paid employment with home and personal l i f e is perhaps one of the most important features d i s tinguishing female from male labour force experience (Skolnik, 1981: 126 [emphasis mine]). Entrepreneurial women are a scarcely studied component of the Canadian Labour Force, making research based on them p a r t i c u l a r l y interesting.  But there are compelling reasons other than neglect to do  serious research on women entrepreneurs.  One is that the increased  number of women entrepreneurs makes i t an important labour trend - one that coincides with the general increase in women's labour force p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y of married women and/or women with children (Canada.  Women in Canada, 1985).  A second reason is the social and economic value placed on entrepreneurial a c t i v i t y by Canadians.  The Ontario Government credits  entrepreneurial a c t i v i t y with increasing the Canadian standard of l i v i n g and contributing to the economic growth of Ontario s p e c i f i c a l l y and Canada generally (Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 1985: Indeed the concept of entrepreneur embodies many symbolic  1).  beliefs  valued by Canadian c i t i z e n s although l i t t l e scholarly descriptive work has been done on i t for this country.  The Royal Bank of Canada,  Canada's largest f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n (Horvitch, 1986: own magazine states:  40), in i t s  3  "A business of my own" - i t ' s a magic phrase that haunts, i n t r i g u e s , i n s p i r e s , motivates and challenges so many of us. For some i t remains a dream forever; for others i t becomes a r e a l i t y . Those five words are the ultimate expression of the free and independent s p i r i t that has come to characterize Canadian business (Royal Bank Reporter, F a l l , 1985: 10). A l s o , there is the important aspect of economic independence represented by owning and c o n t r o l l i n g a business.  Dorothy Smith (1981)  argues that women are obliged to work for others yet t h e i r work does not e n t i t l e them to share in the benefits of t h e i r work. Property rights constituting the man as economic agent have only very recently begun to be modified. The celebrated Murdoch case drew the attention of rural women to the f a c t , of which many were unaware, that t h e i r labour did not e n t i t l e them to a share in the property. Mrs. Murdoch had worked for twenty-five years on her husband's ranch, doing more than the domestic work. A large part of the work of c a t t l e ranching she did herself since, in addition to what she did when her husband was there, she took over the whole enterprise for the five months of the year he took paid employment. Yet her labour did not, in the view of the courts, e n t i t l e her to a share in the property she had helped create. Even the dissenting opinion of Bora Laskin did not recognize the wife's contribution of labour to the overall enterprise as constituting a claim on the property. He dissented only on the grounds that her contribution had been exceptional. Women's labour as such - as the labour of a wife - had no claim (Smith, 1981, p. 166). The Canadian government recognizes the importance of economic independence for women by s p e c i f i c a l l y naming i t as one of the two goals stated in the 'Plan of Action for the Status of Women' (1983).  The Federal  Government sees the economic independence of women enhancing the status of women i n Canada.  So women acquiring ownership and control of busi-  ness in Canada may be a s i g n i f i c a n t element in a changing society.  As  4  such, elements embodied in i t , such as the part played by self-image, require understanding and investigation. According to the report of the 'Business Ownership for Women Conference '86', entrepreneurial women are achieving s u c c e s s J are entering business associations,  They  sponsoring community projects,  endorsing p o l i t i c a l programs, valued as knowledgeable business owners in short, they are making a positive impact on a male bastion.  They  are at the forefront of many of the social dilemmas confronting the women in Canadian society and t h e i r experience i s an important part of the study of women in Canada. My personal interest  in the topic arises from the apparent contra-  d i c t i o n inherent in the concept 'entrepreneurial women'.  Sexton (1982)  (a) and S i l v e r (1983) identify a positive/high self-image  to be one of  the important characteristics of the entrepreneurial r o l e , but Sanford and Donovan (1984) attribute a poor/low self-image  to women generally.  Yet women are becoming entrepreneurs and at a faster rate than men (Baird, 1982).  In addition Winter (1980), Scollard (1985) and the Royal  Bank (1985) report entrepreneurs devote an enormous amount of time and energy to t h e i r businesses, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the start-up phase of their enterprises.  Schwartz (1976) and Baird (1982) in t h e i r studies of  women entrepreneurs state that women who are organizing businesses  1.  The d e f i n i t i o n of success I am implying here is 'favourable accomplishment' (Oxford English Dictionary). Later in the thesis (see page 32) I define success in terms of entrepreneurial women as ' s t i l l in business and has not declared bankruptcy'.  5  report caring for husbands, households and/or c h i l d r e n , a l l time consuming a c t i v i t i e s which according to Pat and Hugh Armstrong (1978: 91) are often at odds with employment of any kind.  53-  It seems an impos-  s i b l e feat of personal management for an entrepreneurial woman to balance the demands of home and family with those of a self-run business.  Locating the entrepreneurial role as an aspect of the  performed by a woman i n Canadian society relates to her other  roles roles,  such as mother, wife, f r i e n d . The structure of the thesis i s as follows.  Chapter I begins with  the introduction and description of the cultural m i l i e u .  It discusses  the position of women in the social and cultural environment leading into a discussion of self-image  and how I have used i t in the research.  I present the available research on entrepreneurial women and relate to the culture along with the relationship to self-image.  it  The chapter  ends with a description and a discussion of my research methods. Included here are problems I i d e n t i f i e d and how I dealt with them. Chapter II contains the situational contexts I have selected from my data and from the l i t e r a t u r e .  Each situation presented is p a r t i c u l a r  to entrepreneurial women but represents general situations force.  types of problems linked to  that at least apply to a l l women in the paid labour  Chapter III contains the conclusions and implications of the  research.  THE CULTURAL MILIEU AND THE POSITION OF WOMEN Entrepreneurial women cannot be understood in i s o l a t i o n from the larger social organization of Canadian society.  Dorothy Smith (1975)  argues that women and men are situated d i f f e r e n t l y and experience  the  6  world from d i f f e r e n t "places".  A basic component of my analysis is the  assumption that in Canadian society people are i d e n t i f i e d and divided by biological gender (Henschel, 1973:  41-51)  ( E i c h l e r , 1979:  51-69).  They are enculturated on the basis of gender, resulting in the potent i a l for a dual concept of culture based on gender. u n t i l recently not recognized as v a l i d (Rogers, 1978:  It  i s a concept 124).  The  duality is a problem because of the frequent assumption in society and in the l i t e r a t u r e of the male standard/view as the norm and the lack of respect f o r and/or integration of female experience.  The discussion  then addresses not only the lack of documentation of women's experience but a rationale for why i t i s so d i f f i c u l t to include women's experience in existing  frameworks.  Canadian society i s a male dominated cultural and social tion.  It  organiza-  is a society where men to a large extent appropriate the  positions from which society i s governed, administered and managed (Smith, op. c i t . ) .  If women are admitted to any of these positions  it  is only as i n d i v i d u a l s , not as representatives of t h e i r sex (French, 1985:  467, 469-473).  At the same time, the women who are admitted  most often share and treat as relevant the b e l i e f s , values and a t t i tudes of the men (Spender, 1982:  19-24).  Thus access to positions of  power and/or authority is controlled by a male dominated ruling group (Smith, op. c i t . ) . scious  Of course the gender barrier i s not always a con-  'no women allowed' attitude (although that is sometimes the  case, and has been in the past), but the ubiquitous nature of male dominance oftimes precludes even female ambition in other than prescribed roles for women.  7  It is men who have decreed that women occupy a different place from themselves in a p a t r i archal universe, but men do not know what i t is to be in that different place. Yet without any direct experience of what i t feels l i k e to be half of humanity, men have proceeded to describe and explain the world from their own point of view, and have assumed that their part i a l experience of the world i s a l l that e x i s t s . . . M e n are in charge i n our society: not only do they hold the most i n f l u e n t i a l positions and own and control most of the resources, but t h e i r positions and resources enable them to be the 'experts' who make the pronouncements on what make sense in society, on what is to be valued, even on what is to be considered r e a l , and what is not (Spender, 1982: 5). What is real for women in Canadian society is discrimination based on gender.  1.  Numerous studies^  have documented discrimination in many  Gender discrimination is routinely discussed in the l i t e r a t u r e about women. A few Canadian examples are: Armstrong, Pat and Hugh Armstrong, The Double Ghetto: Canadian Women and Their Segregated Work. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1978. Henshel, Anne-Marie. Sex Structure. Canadian Social Problems series. Don M i l l s : Longman, 1973. Hartman, Grace. "Women and the Unions"; Nelson, Fiona. "Sex Stereotyping in Canadian Schools"; Vickers, J i l l . "Women in the Universit i e s " , in Women in the Canadian Mosaic, ed. Gwen Matheson. Toronto: Peter Martin, 1976. Ireland, G i s e l e . The Farmer Takes a Wife. Chesley: Concerned Farm Women, 1983. LeFrancois, Bee and Helga Martens. Story of a Women's Centre. Vancouver Press, Jan. 9, 1979. Luxton, Meg. More Than a Labour of Love. Toronto: Women's Press, 1980. Smith, Dorothy E. and Sara David, eds. Women Look at Psychiatry. Vancouver: Press Gang, 1975. Two excellent bibliographies: McKay, Margaret. Women in the Labour Force with an Emphasis on the C l e r i c a l and Service Occupations: A Selected Bibliography. Ottawa: The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1982. Reinhartz, Shulanut; Marti Bombyk and Janet Wright. "Methodological Issues in Feminist Research: A Bibliography of Literature in Women's Studies, Sociology and Psychology". Women's Studies International Forum. 6 #4, 1983: 437-454.  8  situations and the results for women.  Gender discrimination is charac-  terized as pervasive, subtle and blatent, i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , to change and i r r a t i o n a l .  resistent  Viola Klein a s o c i o l o g i s t , writing in 1946  recognized: (I)n a society whose standards are predominantly masculine, women form an 'outgroup' d i s tinguished from the dominant strata by physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n , social role and a d i f f e r e n t process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and these differences are evaluated as d e f i c i e n c i e s , with the r e s u l t that women's i n f e r i o r i t y is j u s t i f i e d , (cited in Spender, 1982: 504) Marilyn French, writing almost forty years l a t e r in 1985, does not see any change in attitude despite the changes in women's roles: (f)eminists are appalled at the i r r a t i o n a l i t y of men who persist in regarding women as i n f e r i o r despite the example of strong i n t e l l i g e n t women functioning with competence. (French, 1985: 188). Women's Research Director Jan Barnsley locates discrimination within our basic social structure and perpetuated by a l l (women and men) of us. Anyone who has examined sex-role stereotyping and conditioning knows very well how pervasive the t r a d i t i o n a l ideology of women's roles in society is and how d i f f i c u l t i t i s to overcome our t r a i n i n g to conform. Because we are a l l trained and s o c i a l i z e d to adhere to society's dominant ideology, we are a l l to some extent "carriers" and perpetuators of that ideology. (Barnsley, 1985: 11) How do women overcome the pervasive t r a d i t i o n a l ideology of women's roles i n society?  Some researchers suggest that c r o s s - c u l t u r a l studies  supporting universal male dominance and superior value to the roles and a c t i v i t i e s of men are biased and incomplete at best.  9  . . . i t is the androcentrism of anthropologists themselves, r e f l e c t i n g , often unconsciously the male bias of t h e i r own personal and professional s o c i a l i z a t i o n , which leads to consistent assertions and assumptions of high cultural valuation of males and male a c t i v i t i e s throughout the ethnographic record...most ethnographic data focuses on male cultural perceptions, assuming them to be representative of the society as a whole. But might not women in some societies perceive t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s as predominantly important and more highly valued than those of men? (Rogers, 1978: 143) While re-evaluation of the assumptions that anthropologists  (and  other researchers) carry with them into other cultures and contexts may be helpful in discovering more about women in other cultures, does that help us in understanding how the biases are formed and perpetuated? Can i t be by merely including women in the discussion that problems of' sex-role valuations vanish?  In my opinion i t is an interlocking prob-  lem of how we perceive women and how women perceive themselves. The entrepreneurial women I talked with speak to t h e i r own experience.  That i s ,  they talked about t h e i r personal views which they ex-  pressed within a conceptual framework that incorporated images of themselves as they saw themselves and images of themselves as they thought they should be.  Entrepreneurial women, while breaking away  from the limited images available to women by virtue of their new entrepreneurial r o l e s , were s t i l l  susceptible  limitations of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l roles. came entrepreneurs, the decisions  to the expectations and  For whatever reasons they be-  themselves i n i t i a t e d the beginning of  changes in t h e i r behaviour and in t h e i r self-images. preneurs themselves notice and r e f l e c t on the changes.  The women entrePerhaps the  self-assessments that entrepreneurial a c t i v i t y encourages  (Winter,  10  1980) and perhaps the consciousness  r a i s i n g of feminist analysis  (Stephenson, 1977) share in illuminating the importance of the s e l f images of entrepreneurial women.  SELF: If one accepts as v a l i d the assumption that to have a self-image one must f i r s t have a s e l f , then i t appears necessary to look at the broader topic of the s e l f p r i o r to examining the area of self-image.  I  am going to present a b r i e f survey of the transitions of the meaning of s e l f in the humanistic psychological l i t e r a t u r e because I believe  it  closely p a r a l l e l s the unexamined notions of s e l f used in anthropological work.  I w i l l begin with a look at the l i n g u i s t i c development of  the term s e l f . In her book, Words and Values, Rosenthal (1984) traces the development of the word "self" from i t s early beginnings around 900 AD. At that time, the term "self" had two usages, being either emphatic or reflexive.  An example of each follows: Now i s the guardian of the heavens, God himself with us (reflexive) thys is the thing selfe that is in debate (emphatic) (Oxford English Dictionary)  During the next f i v e hundred years the reflexiveness  value was joined  by an i d e n t i t y function, which, i n t e r e s t i n g l y , was rejected almost as soon as i t occurred: Oure own s e l f we sal deny. lord god al-myghty.  And follow oure  (Oxford English Dictionary)  11  A positive God was necessarily in opposition to a positive s e l f . the meaning of "self" remained either neutral or negative t i l l coming of the Renaissance, when reflexiveness  Thus  the  became a legitimate  subject of i n v e s t i g a t i o n , both a topic of celebration and a topic of controversy, and s u b j e c t i v i t y became firmly entrenched in the masculine consciousness,  since i t was only males who legitimately engaged in such  explorations.  Rosenthal chronologically traces the entry into common  usage of many s e l f - r e f e r e n t words during that period: 1549; s e l f - l o v e ,  self-praise,  1563; s e l f - p r i d e , 1586; s e l f - r e g a r d , 1595;  i n t e r e s t , 1649; and self-confidence,  1633.  self-  It i s an interesting r e -  minder that there was a time when words and concepts which are so integral a part of d a i l y contemporary usage simply did not e x i s t . Through the 17th and 18th centuries three d e f i n i t i o n s of s e l f emerged:  "self as s e l f - i n t e r e s t ,  s e l f as a p r i n c i p l e of unified  i d e n t i t y , and s e l f as an element of divided identity" ( i b i d . ,  15).  "Self" became established as the permanent subject of man's consciousness.  These same concepts s t i l l prevail today as the basic d e f i n i t i o n s  of s e l f .  However, the struggle s t i l l continued over the dichotomy of  the s p i r i t u a l / e v i l or n a t u r a l / s i n f u l s e l f and, i n one form or another, this same controversy also persists today. As the romantic era emerged i n the 19th century, a major s h i f t i n self-awareness primary value.  occurred as feelings and t h e i r expression became a In less than two hundred years a reversal had trans-  pired where in 1680 the prevailing attitude was: Self is the great A n t i - C h r i s t and Anti-God in the World, by 1870 the opposite held sway:  12  respect to s e l f and i t s ultimate good pertains to the very n o b i l i t y of man's nature (Oxford English Dictionary) God had come to reside within man. In the l a t t e r half of the 19th century, William James wrote the Principles of Psychology (1890) which according to Coopersmith (1967), is generally regarded as marking the advent of modern psychology. According to Coopersmith, James suggested three major areas which influenced "self-feeling".  If one's achievements measured up favorably  against one's aspirations a positive "self" would be experienced. Levels of aspiration grew out of the prevailing community standards as well as one's personal value system. affects "self-feeling"  A second social factor which  is the evaluation of one's accomplishments  against those of peers or contemporaries in the broader society. more external is James' t h i r d source of s e l f .  Even  Included here are "the  sum total of a l l that he can c a l l h i s , not only his body and his psychic powers, but his clothes and his house, his wife and his c h i l dren, his ancestors and his f r i e n d s , his reputation and works, his lands and horses, and yacht and bank account" (Coopersmith, 1967: 30).  James' position might be summarized as:  doing, on comparing with others, and on having.  Self was dependent on At the turn of the  century, then, i t seems that factors external to the individual  (read  MAN, for this quest was only a masculine pursuit) were responsible for his sense of "self". Calkin (1910), a pupil of James', defined psychology as the "science of the conscious s e l f in r e l a t i o n to i t s environment" ( 1 2).  Although the "self" was thought to be r e l a t i v e l y  persistent,  13  unique, complex and s o c i a l , she nevertheless f e l t i t could not be defined. Rosenthal  (1984) s u b - t i t l e s one of her chapters  Slippery Sense of Self",  a description which becomes increasingly more  apt as one explores the "territory". ness, contradictions, ambiguities,  She cites many examples of vague-  inconsistencies, redundance and  generally confused descriptions of the s e l f . Direct definitions  "Psychology's  A b r i e f example  follows.  of "self" are d i f f i c u l t to find in the l i t e r a t u r e .  More often what occurs is the following: d e f i n i t i o n by apposition:  "that the person, the s e l f , i s  generous"  d e f i n i t i o n by or:  "the archetype of wholeness or of the self"  d e f i n i t i o n by as:  "I speak now of the real s e l f as that central  inner  force" d e f i n i t i o n by a combination of the above: constellation  of interrelated attitudes"  Thus the "self  "conceiving ego or s e l f as a (21).  is viewed in juxtaposition with other equally ephemeral  concepts. Rosenthal  (1984) highlights another equally perplexing practice  which i s that of presenting the "self" as a goal of one kind or another ..."The goal may sound l i k e a treasure hunt (the f a m i l i a r finding of one's s e l f ) ,  a t r i p (the long journey to achieve selfhood),  a vegetable  (the maturation of the s e l f ) , or a vaguely A r i s t o t e l i a n process a c t u a l i z a t i o n is actualization of a s e l f ) Sometimes,  (self-  (21).  though, "self" seems not to be a goal but to have goals  of i t s own, as evidence by this quotation from the  International  Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis and Neurology: "the [mature] s e l f now e x p r e s s e s . . . i t s intentions  and goals" (vol.  10:  14  108).  Rosenthal asks the very v a l i d question,  "On the way to f i n d -  i n g , or achieving, or actualizing the s e l f , i s the s e l f wholly absent before i t ' s  reached? or i s i t partly there a l l along?"  (21-22).  When  Rogers uses the t i t l e On Becoming a Person, i s i t legitimate to ask what he was before or while he was i n the state of "becoming"? much of Rosenthal's c r i t i q u e is undoubtedly tongue-in-cheek,  While  the  v a l i d i t y of many of her comments cannot be denied. In many respects her question i s too direct and too pointed.  Cer-  t a i n l y most authors do not address themselves to the 'before' period, and one can imagine t h e i r discomfort in formulating a s p e c i f i c , response.  However, Branden (1984), with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  clear  forthrightness,  quite unequivocally states, At b i r t h , the s e l f does not e x i s t . What exists i s , in e f f e c t , the raw material from which s e l f can develop...To evolve into selfhood is the primary human t a s k . . . t h e central goal of the maturational process is evolution toward autonomy...During the process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n , we become more and more completely what we are potentially--expanding the boundaries of the s e l f to embrace a l l of our p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , as well as those parts that have been denied, disowned, repressed (113-114). What begins as an unequivocal statement ends no less vaguely than other w r i t e r s , with the s e l f equated with undefined p o t e n t i a l i t i e s .  Rosenthal's  question i s answered, but the elusiveness of "self" p r e v a i l s . Seeing the "self" more as a push from w i t h i n , Horney (1950) describes "the real self" as "that central inner force, common to a l l human beings and yet unique to each, which is the deep source of inner growth" (17).  In a s i m i l a r v e i n , Jung's d e f i n i t i o n of the "self" as  "the archetype of wholeness" assumes an inherent predisposition. According.to Rosenthal (1984), Jung (1959), in a fashion more deliberate  15  than many psychologists, was " . . . d e f i n i t e  chose the term "self" because he f e l t the word  enough to convey the essence of human wholeness a n d . . . i n -  d e f i n i t e enough to express the indescribable and indeterminable nature of this wholeness"  (448-49).  He went on to elaborate,  "The s e l f  is  a union of opposites par e x c e l l e n c e . . . [ I t ] i s absolutely paradoxical in that i t represents  in every respect thesis and a n t i t h e s i s ,  same time synthesis"  (450).  Jung, at l e a s t , appears to  and at the recognize  the elusiveness of the term and to understand the value of i t s  lack of  specificity. Although Freud did not use the term "self", i t was b a s i c a l l y the equivalent of his term "ego" [Latin for "I"] which he described as the psychical organization (pattern) and oneness ( u n i f i c a t i o n ) . (1984) suggests Freud's intent also was to be deliberately  Rosenthal vague.  D i s t i n c t i o n of the "self" from the ego emerged only in post-Freudian psychoanalysis.  (International  Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology,  Psychoanalysis and Neurology, 1977). May (1953), also refers to the s e l f as the "organizing function within the i n d i v i d u a l " .  There is a strong s i m i l a r i t y with Rogers when  he equates "experiencing one's s e l f as a self" with "becoming a person" with "the experience of one's identity as a being of worth and d i g nity".  The c r i t i c a l factor here i s respect for one's own worth, that  i s , respect for one's own self-image.  SELF-IMAGE One of the major d i f f i c u l t i e s sensus of meaning about self-image terms such as self-concept,  in attempting to establish a coni s the multitude of  semi-equivalent,  self-appraisal, self-feeling,  self-regard,  16  self-worth, self-acceptance and self-esteem which are frequently used as synonyms.  Unfortunately, too often they also are used as homonyms,  which is when the semantic confusion begins.  Commenting on the p l e -  thora of terms and d e f i n i t i o n s , Wylie (1961) states that these concepts "have been stretched to cover so many inferred cognitive and motivational processes that t h e i r u t i l i t y for a n a l y t i c a l and predictive purposes has been greatly diminished" (318).  For the purposes of this  paper generally synonymous terms w i l l be avoided, as much as possible. But what is self-image?  Self-image i s the organization of be-  l i e f s , values and images each of us has and holds to be true of her or himself (Sanford and Donovan, 1984:  7).  It is a learned response to  our experience of our cultural environment. that grows and changes as the individual  Self-image i s something  interacts in the world.  not something inate and f i x e d , determining what people w i l l not do (Combs et a l . , 1979:  77).  do or w i l l  A person's self-image w i l l  contain a wide variety of images, values and b e l i e f s .  It i s  usually  Some are state-  ments of f a c t , l i k e I am a woman, I have brown h a i r , I am English; but others refer to less tangible aspects of the s e l f not as easy to v e r i f y , such as I am popular, I have a hard time, I belong to a better group of people, my God is the best or only true God, I cannot do anything r i g h t , I think d i f f e r e n t l y from the people around me, and so on.  All  the various b e l i e f s , values and images have one thing in common - none were with us at birth (Loc. c i t . ) . How does self-image relate to individual cultural environments? Many basic ideas we have about ourselves were acquired p r i o r to adulthood.  There are two main sources of this knowledge:  how others t r e a t -  ed us and what others t o l d us about ourselves (Loc. c i t . ) .  At the same  17  time, we learned basic ideas about who we should be and what we should be l i k e .  Psychologist Karen Horney says there are two of us - the  i s ' s e l f and the ' i d e a l ' s e l f .  'as  According to Horney we are constantly  comparing our perceived or 'as i s ' s e l f to our ' i d e a l ' s e l f , and the wider the gap between the two, the lower we value our self-image (Horney, 1979:  22).  The ideal standards we use to judge ourselves  vary from culture to culture and from individual to i n d i v i d u a l . Sociologist Nancy Chodorow states: Cross-cultural research suggests that there are no absolute personality differences between men and women, that many of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s we normally c l a s s i f y as masculine or feminine tend to d i f f e r e n t i a t e both the males and females •in one culture from those in another, and in still other cultures to the reverse of our expectations (Chodorow, 1971: 173). In North America psychologists consider the self-image the best predictor of a woman's happiness and s a t i s f a c t i o n  (Gordon and H a l l , 1974).  Margaret Mead (1935) in Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societ i e s , i l l u s t r a t e s how d i f f e r i n g beliefs about the a b i l i t i e s of women and men resulted in contrasting c u l t u r a l l y generated determining behaviour and a c t i v i t i e s .  self-images  The self-image i s always i n  r e l a t i o n to a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e . Further, each component of our self-image i s d i f f e r e n t l y valued. Horney (1979) points out that the most valued components constitute core of our self-image.  the  Those we believe are less important we place  on the periphery of our core self-image.  We are constantly evaluating  our self-image with the ideal images of our culture.  It i s possible  to  have a mostly positive self-image but s t i l l devalue our own self-image because we f a i l  to meet a core requirement, having placed a l l those  18  positive b e l i e f s on the periphery of our core self-image. words, there are two ways of evaluating our self-image:  In other an item by  item approval that is not cumulative, and a general overall kind of approval.  In North America, studies identify male as the preferred sex  (Zellman, 1978).  For women who have been s o c i a l i z e d to believe in the  primacy of being male and the resulting a b i l i t i e s that being male endows, women's self-image might well suffer in comparison. Women who begin l i f e by not being the more valued sex (Markel, 1974), have fewer positive s o c i a l l y shared images to incorporate into t h e i r self-images.  But what are the images available to women?  Germaine Greer argues there i s only one dominant image for women. We (women) know what we are, but not what we may be or what we might have been...The compound of induced c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of soul and body i s the myth of the Eternal Feminine, nowadays c a l l e d the Stereotype. This is the dominant image of femininity which rules our culture and to which a l l women aspire (Greer, 1972: 14, 15). Simone de Beauvoir points out the d i f f i c u l t y of men to understand the constraints placed on women. It i s , in point of f a c t , a d i f f i c u l t matter for man to r e a l i z e the extreme social importance of social discrimination which seem outwardly i n s i g n i f i c a n t but which produce in woman moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l effects so profound that they appear to spring from her o r i g i n a l nature. The most sympathetic of men never f u l l y comprehend women's concrete s i t u a t i o n (Beauvoir, 1957: xxix). Public relations expert Lucy Komisar (1971), writing about the power of the advertising media to influence the images people have of women, suggests advertising:  "spews out images of women as sex mates, house-  keepers, mothers and menial workers - images that perhaps r e f l e c t  the  19  true status of most women in society,  but which also make i t increas- ,  ingly d i f f i c u l t for women to break out of the sexist stereotypes imprison them" (1977:  207).  that  Weitzman suggests that the textbooks used  in elementary school present limited images of women and the images influence the expectations of the children. Rarely are women mentioned in important roles in h i s t o r y , as government leaders or as great s c i e n t i s t s . . . t h e stereotyping (was) most extreme in the science textbooks where only 6 percent of the pictures included pictures of adult women...the presentation of science as a prototypical masculine endeavor may help to explain how young g i r l s are "cooled out" of science and channeled into more t r a d i t i o n a l "feminine" f i e l d s (Weitzman, 1979: 179). English professor Marjorie B. U'Ren commenting on the writers of school textbooks  observes: The fact that such textbooks are quite f r e quently written by females suggests the low opinion many women have of t h e i r own sex. This is not s u r p r i s i n g ; individuals generally adopt the attitudes of t h e i r own culture even when these attitudes are directed against t h e i r own kind (1971: 223).  The power of externally defined self-images,  regardless of the  reasons they are generated, are problems for women. in research that establishes mental health services  This is  reflected  women of a l l classes as the prime users of  (Gove, 1972; Smith, 1975), which is not sur-  prising when we see how society defines healthy women.  In the c l a s s i c  study by Broverman and associates (1972), mental health c l i n i c i a n s were asked to describe normal, healthy adults; normal, heal.thy adult males; and normal, healthy adult females.  Normal, healthy adults and normal,  healthy males shared almost identical descriptions while the description of normal, healthy adult women differed from that of healthy,  20  adult men i n being "more submissive, less competitive, less independent, less adventurous, less aggressive, more e a s i l y influenced, more ' excitable i n minor c r i s e s , having t h e i r feelings more e a s i l y hurt, more conceited about t h e i r appearance, less o b j e c t i v e , and d i s l i k i n g math and science" (Broverman et a l . , 1972:  70).  From this research we see  that women are caught in a catch-22 s i t u a t i o n (Kimball, 1975).  A woman  can be a healthy adult but sick as a woman, or a woman can be a healthy woman and sick as an adult!  Here we have a blatant example of the male  standard as a norm seriously affecting women's l i v e s . Obviously the potential for women to have poor/low self-images very high in Canadian society.  is  The evidence points out that women have  a generally poor/low self-image of themselves and that image i s r e i n forced and supported by the cultural environment.  Given the high value  placed on males, i t i s not surprising to discover that women who report high self-images  identify with male c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Gordon and H a l l ,  1974). Germaine Greer argues that the changes in women's roles must s t a r t from within themselves.  21  The organized 1iberationists are a w e l l publicized minority; the same faces appear every time a feminist issue i s discussed. Inevitably they are presented as the leaders of a movement which is e s s e n t i a l l y leaderless. They are not much nearer to providing a revolutionary strategy than they ever were; demonstrating, compiling l i s t s and s i t t i n g on committees are not themselves l i b e r a t i n g behaviour, especially when they are embedded in a context of housework and feminine wiles. As means of educating the people who must take action to l i b e r a t e themselves, t h e i r e f f e c t i v e ness i s l i m i t e d . The concept of l i b e r t y imp l i e d by such l i b e r a t i o n is vacuous; at worse i t i s defined by the condition of men, themselves unfree, and at best i t i s l e f t undefined in a world of very limited p o s s i b i l i t i e s . On the one hand, feminists can be found who serve the notion of equality ' s o c i a l , l e g a l , occupat i o n a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and moral', whose enemy is d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , whose means are competion and demand. On the other hand there are those who cherish an ideal of a better l i f e , which w i l l follow when a better l i f e i s assured for a l l by the correct p o l i t i c a l means. To women disgusted with conventional p o l i t i c a l methods, whether constitutional or t o t a l i t a r i a n or revol u t i o n a r y , neither alternative can make much appeal. The housewife who must wait for success of world l i b e r a t i o n for her l i b e r t y might be excused for losing hope, while conservative p o l i t i c a l methods can invent no way in which the economically necessary unit of the one-man family could be d i v e r s i f i e d . But there i s another dimension in which she can find motive and cause for a c t i o n , although she might not find a blue-print for Utopia. She could begin not by changing the world, but by re-assessing herself (Greer, 1971: 13). The re-assessing  Greer c a l l s for is echoed by anthropologists, of  course not for reasons of female enlightenment per se but for insight into the ways individual self-assessments influence the selection of personal goals and the choices people make within the context of t h e i r s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment.  It i s no longer s u f f i c i e n t to say i n d i v i -  duals are the c a r r i e r s of culture without attempting to understand the processes involved.  22  Self-awareness, l i k e g r a v i t y , was long taken for granted before i t was subject to a n a l y s i s , genetically and f u n c t i o n a l l y . We now know that i t is one of the attributes of a generic personality structure that has to be b u i l t up in the individual in every human society during the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process. This has been one of the contributions of modern personality psychology. From the anthropological side we know that there are varying t r a d i t i o n a l concepts of the s e l f in different societies that must c o n t r i bute to the self-image of the i n d i v i d u a l . How far variables in self-concepts are related to differences in needs and goals of the individual and consequently to behavioural differences needs further investigation...Self-awareness is as i n herent in the human situation as are social structure and culture (Hallowell, 1953: 615). Hallowell sees self-image  (or self-awareness or self-concept)  emerging as an important category i n analyzing cultural s t a b i l i t y and cultural  change. (an) important contribution of anthropology...is the demonstrable relations between cultural v a r i a b i l i t y and the motivational systems of human i n d i v i d u a l s , that i s , the d i f f e r e n t i a l organization of d r i v e s , needs, emotions, attitudes, and so on, which l i e at the core of r e l a t i v e l y enduring d i s p o s i tions to act in a predictable manner ( i b i d . , 605).  My own use of self-image ized i t as an essential  society.  In one sense I conceptual-  component of ourselves,  our c u l t u r e , by our sex-role our social environment.  is twofold.  strongly influenced by  s o c i a l i z a t i o n and by our interaction with  It relates to our a b i l i t y to act or perform in  It is less than our total personality but more than the  merely v i s i b l e aspects of ourselves.  It is assumed that the presenta-  tion of s e l f i s an outward statement of inner b e l i e f s or at least is an outward statement of how we want to be perceived.  In this  second  sense, i t is a strategy we can use; we can manipulate self-image. in one sense i t i s an unconscious part of us and in another i t i s a  So  23  very conscious resource (similar to the 'as i s ' tions used in the preceeding discussion).  and ' i d e a l ' construc-  Self-image influences  selection of personal goals and strategies used to obtain them.  the It  remains for us to discover how the self-images of entrepreneurial women influence t h e i r behaviour.  The research examines the changes women  entrepreneurs perceive to be necessary for t h e i r businesses, the strategies they use, and how they conduct themselves not only i n business but i n t h e i r non-professional experiences  lives.  Before we turn to the  of entrepreneurial women, I am going to present a summary  of the available information about them.  WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS I think the f i r s t point to be recognized i n my description of entrepreneurs is that I use the descriptive female noun 'women' to identify the group that I am studying.  If this study was about male  entrepreneurs I could use 'entrepreneur' and everyone would assume I meant men.  I suspect not many people would object but in my view,  would be wrong.  I believe researchers must be very clear to  gender regardless of which gender is examined.  that  specify  In the beginning of my  research I defined entrepreneur as a woman who i n i t i a t e d , organized and ran her own business.  Subsequently, I discovered that while the d e f i -  n i t i o n was perfectly acceptable as a means of identifying the group of women I wished to study as a tool of a n a l y s i s ,  i t was inadequate.  It  is important to look at not only who or how many make up the category c a l l e d entrepreneurial women, but j u s t what the role of entrepreneur comprises, that i s , how i t is embedded in the cultural and social environment.  24  Entrepreneur is an androgenous word, but i n looking at research about women entrepreneurs i t can hide more than i t reveals.  Most of  the research p r i o r to 1976 i d e n t i f i e d only men as entrepreneurs but seldom made note of that f a c t .  James DeCark and Paul Lyons state:  "(A)lmost a l l research on the characterist i c s of entrepreneurs has taken place using samples of male entrepreneurs. Few studies report the sex of the subjects. The reader is l e f t to assume that the subjects are males". (1979: 379) I doubt whether i t was even considered a problem u n t i l the l a s t decade. Schwartz (1976) begins her study of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , motivations and attitudes of women entrepreneurs; " . . . l i t t l e attention has been given to female entrepreneurs. In contrast, the entrepreneurial behaviour of males has been researched extensively with conclusions rendered regarding the characterist i c s , psychology and management styles of these male entrepreneurs". (1976: 48). In 1980 Winter, after concluding research on entrepreneurial women for the Canadian government, wrote a guide book for the would-be woman entrepreneur.  She points out:  "(T)he enterprising woman is not yet a role model as say, a woman doctor i s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , women have been excluded from the language and l i t e r a t u r e of business. From Robinson Crusoe to Business Week, the hero of the tale i s male; government publications and teaching texts s t i l l address the potential business man". (1980: 10) Winter is well aware of our Canadian view of the entrepreneur as male. Cochran wrote i n 1965 " . . . t h e able entrepreneur wanted to be one of the boys even with the workmen, but wanted a margin of respect for his a b i l i t i e s and position" (1965:  105 [emphasis mine]).  This is in an  25  essay e n t i t l e d "Role and Sanction" which discusses how societal  stereo-  types influence entrepreneurial a c t i v i t y but women are not mentioned at all!  Even as late as 1983, Ross writing about the 'Entrepreneurial  Personality'  concludes  " . . . t h e most successful entrepreneurs seem to be happily married men. Most have good marriages with bright women . . . T h e wives, in f a c t , seemed to be partners". (1983: 63) It never seemed to occur to Ross that women are entrepreneurs in t h e i r own r i g h t . Nevertheless,  i t i s because the entrepreneurial role is considered  a 'male' role that i t is the basis of my research.  Skolnik (1981)  suggests the study of women performing non-traditional jobs may be valuable research areas in order to document "the impact of non-incremental changes in women's vocational l i v e s on t h e i r home, personal l i v e s and self-images"  (ibid.:  126).  Jenks in his essay on "Approaches  to Entrepreneurial Personality", suggests a way to look at personality q u a l i t i e s such as self-image, "the social s i t u a t i o n s , formed" (1965:  84).  is as business behaviour inseparable from  past and present,  From Jenks, I see that the personality of entre-  preneurial women, of which self-image needs to be understood in social  comprises an important part,  situations which are influenced by the  cultural environment, past and present, women's behaviour.  context of social s i t u a t i o n s , Nor are social  surrounding entrepreneurial  Jenks further states:  personality, unique or otherwise,  ed.  in which actions are per-  situations  "...it  is asserted that no  can be understood apart from the  past and present, in which i t has functionto be adequately understood except in  terms of the way persons actually or t y p i c a l l y involved define or deal  26  with them" ( i b i d . ) .  I see the views of Skolnik and Jenks useful  developing the structure of my research.  in  Present day entrepreneurial  women, for the most part s o c i a l i z e d in t r a d i t i o n a l female sex  roles,  are exposed to feminist analysis but must deal with a largely t r a d i tional male dominated situation - the business world.  They are i n -  fluenced by t h e i r past s o c i a l i z a t i o n and p a r t i c u l a r l y the  sex-role  images of t h e i r past. At the same time the women entrepreneurs have other roles to perform.  Some, such as the more t r a d i t i o n a l roles of wife and mother,  perhaps require different organizations of t h e i r self-images.  The  entrepreneurial role for women i s s t i l l new enough that there are few role models, which means many of the women entrepreneurs spend a l o t of time not switching roles per se but switching self-expectations for particular situations.  That i s ,  there is not available to entrepre- •  neurial women a role-model which s a t i s f a c t o r i l y and/or r e a l i s t i c a l l y incorporates the variety of actual and perceived social demands on t h e i r time by other members of t h e i r social group.  Therefore, the  switching process may be more c l e a r l y illuminated to themselves and to others because i t is a more conscious e f f o r t .  The expectations of the  entrepreneurial role may be in d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with the expectations of the t r a d i t i o n a l roles of wife and mother.  The entrepreneurial woman  may switch her self-expectations and her behaviour to accommodate the role she i s performing at any given time.  Since she i s of course the  same person, role c o n f l i c t may develop. In Jenks' terms, I understand the past as including the t r a d i tional roles and the present as including the new entrepreneurial role (and how that effects the other present areas of a woman's l i f e ) .  The  27  way we understand the entrepreneurial woman's social situations  is by  paying attention to how she defines and deals with her p a r t i c u l a r situations.  It is the entrepreneurial woman's version of her experi-  ence I am concerned with, not my interpretation of i t , although that has i t s  place.  Jenks goes on to say " . . . p e r s o n a l i t y at every level of analysis i s seen as some degree of organization of all resources of the individual with respect to the situations in which (she) he tries to act...Personality is dynamic; it undergoes irreversible changes, not merely of an autonomous character, arising from continuous interplay with environment, especially the social environment" (loc. c i t . [emphasis is the author's]). In my research I have used women entrepreneurs to test whether their self-images (as aspects of personality) undergo change in response tothe social environment in p a r t i c u l a r the entrepreneurial environment. What is the entrepreneurial environment as i t pertains to women? A proportion of the entrepreneurial l i t e r a t u r e i s concerned with deciding who i s or is not an entrepreneur.  As I have said an entre-  preneur i s someone who i n i t i a t e s , organizes and runs an enterprise. Inherent in the d e f i n i t i o n is the notion that some element of personal r i s k i s involved.  Barth (1978) suggests  28  "these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s imply that the entrepreneur must i n i t i a t e and coordinate a number of inter-personal relationships in a supervisory capacity to effectuate (her) his enterprise. In other words, around the entrepreneur there arises a corporate group (the term corporate group w i l l throughout be used in this wide Weberian sense) (Weber, 1947)J new in terms of i t s p a r t i c u l a r membership and function and perhaps also an innovation in terms of i t s composition and structure". (Barth, 1978: 5) Barth's d e f i n i t i o n is p a r t i c u l a r l y helpful in pointing out the importance of the other people that the entrepreneurial women interact with in t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r social and c u l t u r a l environment. I have already outlined the treatment of women in past entrepreneurial research but in the l a s t decade new studies have focused on women entrepreneurs as part of the paid labour force.  In 1983, 53% of  Canadian women between 15 and 65 years old participated in the paid labour force (Canada, Women in Canada, 1985). total Canadian Labour Force.  Women made up 42% of the  Recent s t a t i s t i c s on self-employment  indicate that women account for 27% of Canada's self-employed self-employment  is 13% of a l l employed (male and female)  (total  in Canada)  ( B r i t i s h Columbia, Self-employment Trends in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985). In the United States, the growth rate for self-employed women is  three  times that of self-employed men (United States, Bottom Line, 1977).  In  Canada, women are entering this segment of paid labour at anywhere from double to over three times the rate of men (Baird, 1982).  1.  I also use the term corporate group to describe the group of people a woman entrepreneur gathers around herself to help her perform the entrepreneurial r o l e .  29  In addition to compiling numbers of women entrepreneurs,  the  studies look at defining c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as personality a t t r i butes and personal circumstances; size and type of business and d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered.  Almost a l l the studies r e l i e d on mail-back  questionnaires, with sometimes more in-depth interviews.  The size of  the responding population ranges from 20 in-depth interviews to 3,200 mail-back questionnaires.  The studies cover 1976 to 1985, from a U.S.  Presidential Task Force to a Canadian provincial survey, but t h e i r findings are remarkably s i m i l a r (see Appendix 1, p. 136  for an example  of the type of questionnaire). The following description of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s summarizes a l l studies' neur.  the  findings and presents a p r o f i l e of a typical female entrepre-  Women entrepreneurs started new businesses rather than i n h e r i t -  ing them or buying existing businesses.  A l l the women entrepreneurs •  had been in business for a short time (almost a l l less than 20 years and an average of about 6 years).  Most are f i r s t time business owners  who rent t h e i r business premises.  Most own only one business and  started i t alone without a partner. service or r e t a i l sector.  Their businesses operate in the  Female entrepreneurs generally make less  money than male entrepreneurs.  Women entrepreneurs have more education  than the average person in Canada and the United States. entrepreneurs report having an entrepreneurial role model.  Many female Female  entrepreneurs maintain a family as well as a business and many started t h e i r business in t h e i r t h i r t i e s (Schwartz, 1976; U . S . , Bottom Line, 1977; DeCarlo and Lyons, 1979; Baird, 1982; B . C . , Self-employment Trends in B . C . , 1985; Ontario, Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 1985).  Credit discrimination is reported by women entrepreneurs,  30  p a r t i c u l a r l y during the start-up phase of t h e i r businesses (Schwartz, 1976; U . S . , Bottom Line, 1977; B a i r d , 1982).  The need to achieve,  desire to be independent, the need for job s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  the  the a b i l i t y to  work hard, a high energy level and the necessity to make a l i v i n g are the major personality and motivational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s associated with female entrepreneurs (Schwartz, 1976; DeCarlo and Lyons, 1979).  Female  entrepreneurs share an autocratic management style characterized by active p a r t i c i p a t i o n and control of t h e i r business operations 1976; DeCarlo and Lyons, 1979; Baird, 1982).  (Schwartz,  The most common f a i l i n g  of women entrepreneurs is underestimating the cost of t h e i r businesses and marketing t h e i r product or service Baird, 1982).  (Schwartz, 1976; Winter, 1980;  The a b i l i t y to ask for help is i d e n t i f i e d as important  to the success of women entrepreneur's enterprises  (Winter, 1980;  B a i r d , 1982; S c o l l a r d , 1985). In a study using two standardized objective measures, Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) and the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values (SIV), women entrepreneurs scored high in comparison to the general population on those personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d as relevant to the entrepreneurial role (DeCarlo and Lyons, 1979).  That  i s , the female entrepreneurial subjects scored high on Achievement, Autonomy and Aggression scales of the EPPS and the Support, Independence and Leadership scales of the SIV.  It is important to note that  many entrepreneurial women f e l t they had to acquire the s k i l l s become entrepreneurs (Winter, 1980; S c o l l a r d , 1985).  to  That suggests  would-be entrepreneurial women consciously develop the personal characteristics  that distinguish them from the rest of the population.  perhaps before the entrepreneurial women became entrepreneurs,  And  their  31  test scores would have been s i m i l a r to other women.  I believe  that  personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or t h e i r lack do l i t t l e to identify women entrepreneurs without including a description of t h e i r social and cultural environment. While the studies included here about female entrepreneurs are valuable additions to entrepreneurial research and aspects of women's lives,  they t e l l  us l i t t l e about the kinds of changes women must make'  to become entrepreneurs, p a r t i c u l a r l y changes which have to do with t h e i r self-images.  We are presented with a ' f a i t accompli', suggesting  entrepreneurs are born not made. case.  Yet, the contrary appears to be the  Entrepreneurial success stories encourage the 'everyday' woman  to see herself in the entrepreneurial r o l e . heredity and upbringing can be advantageous  Certainly some factors of but many women in our  populations share s i m i l a r b i r t h orders, have access to entrepreneurial kin or experience,  and are decisive and goal oriented in many s i t u a -  tions (to name just a few entrepreneurial t r a i t s ) .  The t r a i t s that are  illuminated as entrepreneurial describe many people who are not entrepreneurs.  It seems what sets entrepreneurs apart is the fact of  i n i t i a t i n g and co-ordinating a number of interpersonal relationships in a supervisory capacity to promote t h e i r enterprise (Barth, 1978). There i s also an element of personal risk involved.  Entrepreneurs are  /  agents of change, both in an economic sense and a cultural sense (Sexton,  1982(a)).  My understanding and use of the term entrepreneur is as a social role involving the formation of a new corporate group around i t .  It  also an aspect of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s role because there are other roles individuals perform ( l i k e mother or father, wife, f r i e n d , e t c . )  that  is  32  impinge on i t . tions,  In the l i t e r a t u r e surrounding both of these construc-  i t s most dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c is male gender.  The role of entrepreneur is one of the 'new' roles women are taking on and adapting to t h e i r circumstances.  The big struggle  for  would-be female entrepreneurs may not be sex discrimination as i l l u s trated by reported c r e d i t discrimination but the achieving of a s e l f image compatible with both entrepreneurial roles and female  roles.  A point I want to make clear is that a l l my informants and a l l research material is based on assumed successful are two exceptions:  entrepreneurs.  the  There  1) the research by Sexton and Van Auben (1982)  which compares successful  and unsuccessful  entrepreneurs and 2) in  Baird's (1982) work on Canadian women owners/managers where a few women entrepreneurs were included even though they no longer operated a b u s i ness (no reason was given why they no longer did so).  Success means,  in the only way I can define i t for my research, that the entrepreneur is s t i l l  in business and has not declared bankruptcy.  RESEARCH METHODS The purpose of this section is to describe the ways, means and manner of proceeding that I have used in producing this t h e s i s .  I  believe that the 'how' of research is as important as any other part of the research project; in many instances more important.  I am going to  discuss the following topics which comprise or influence the methods I have used; objectives,  study components and s i g n i f i c a n t problems.  I  conclude with a description of the interviews with my key informant.  33  Objectives The main objectives  of my research are threefold and directed to-  wards examining the experience of women entrepreneurs in Canadian society.  The research is exploratory in design and aimed at generating  interest and insight in the topic.  My f i r s t objective is to describe  Canadian entrepreneurial women's experience in r e l a t i o n to the universe of Canadian entrepreneurs and link that to the larger cultural and social environment.  My second objective is to present the material not  as a polemic against male dominance but as an affirmation of p a r t i c u l a r women's experience in the organization of Canadian society. objective  My t h i r d  is to use as much Canadian material as possible because so  much of our Canadian experience is obscured by the overwhelming presence of the United States.  Canadians are often assumed to be similar  to t h e i r American counterparts, an assumption that may not be v a l i d .  I  also believe that anthropology should not be exclusively the study of 'other' cultures.  The further removed (geographically and symboli-  c a l l y ) from one's own i s not necessarily better. should be able to offer serious insights  In f a c t , we  into our own communities from  our research endeavors.  Study Components The components of the research cover three areas:  literature  search, a case study and other informants. Although the primary l i t e r a t u r e search is conducted at the i n i t i a l stages of research, I find i t to be an ongoing endeavor p a r t i c u l a r l y i f one has to wait for material to be sent from other locations around the country.  I focused my l i b r a r y search on 'women entrepreneurs'.  Although  34  this material is sparse, i t reflected the usual trend in studies about women.  That i s , most of i t is recent and a male standard is used to  illuminate and judge the female experience.  In Canada, quantitative  research has been conducted by the federal and some provincial governments on women entrepreneurs.  An interesting source of information  comes from an array of "How to Succeed as a Woman Entrepreneur" books. The books are either written by a women entrepreneur or in association with one.  They u t i l i z e numerous s p e c i f i c  individualized comments  extracted from t h e i r own experience and the experience of other women entrepreneurs.  The books are i l l u s t r a t e d with many details from the  l i v e s of women entrepreneurs, both domestic and business. include an enormous number of helpful  The books  ' t i p s ' , suggestions, encourage-  ment to start a business and information on other sources to consult for help.  This l i t e r a t u r e is readily available to the women entrepre-  neurs and the general p u b l i c .  While in sheer numbers there are more  American publications with sometimes references t i o n , there is a substantial  to the Canadian s i t u a -  number of books written by Canadians for  Canadian women.  Case Study I chose to use a single case study to address my primary objective of providing a more in-depth picture of a women entrepreneur than the thumbnail sketches printed in the l i t e r a t u r e I read.  I chose the case  study method because I saw i t as being an adaptive one readily complemented by additional information and confined to a manageable environmental and personal context. usefulness of case studies,  While there is some debate about the  I f e l t that the advantages for my research  35  outweighed any possible disadvantages. was a good choice.  For my purposes, the case study  I could u t i l i z e l i b r a r y research techniques and  present the divergent themes into a cohesive unit focusing on the case study. In my case study, I contacted an entrepreneurial woman who met my c r i t e r i a (see  Key Informant, p. 41) and she became my key informant.  We arranged mutually convenient times for a series of interviews, I also spoke with some of her employees and talked with her pre-school children accompanied by t h e i r nanny.  I arranged to be present at least  once a week at her workplace and had access to c l i e n t s and other s t a f f . The case study is bounded by my key informant's workplace but not limited to i t .  My intention is to connect her role of entrepreneur  with the other aspects of her l i f e study can accomplish those  (wife, mother, friend) and a case  objectives.  Other Informants An anthropologist makes use of a l l aspects of a culture and society to glean information for research purposes.  The objects,  a r t i f a c t s and written material a l l have t h e i r place, but p a r t i c u l a r l y useful  i s insight into a l l the taken-for-granted a c t i v i t i e s with a l l  the taken-for-granted reasons for doing them.  Friendly conversation  and everyday social  In this t h e s i s , I make  interaction becomes data.  use of f r i e n d l y conversation and everyday social additional  information about women entrepreneurs.  interactions to gather Some of these i n f o r -  mal interviews took place at a conference s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed at women entrepreneurs, others at the workplace of women entrepreneurs whose businesses I entered as customer or f r i e n d .  Some sources of information  36  were quite unexpected.  I encountered some women entrepreneurs at  parties where my research interest generated conversations with women entrepreneurs in attendance.  One p a r t i c u l a r l y useful source was in  connection with my son's soccer team.  Several of the boys on the team  have mothers who are small business owners.  The entrepreneurial  mothers discussed portions of t h e i r lives over the course of watching our sons play soccer every Saturday during two soccer seasons season lasts from September u n t i l A p r i l ) .  (soccer  While I often asked ques-  t i o n s , the women usually volunteered information about whatever problem they were currently struggling to solve.  Many of the informal conver-  sations gave me insight into responses to situations ed.  I had not consider-  The informal forms of data are well within the bounds of l e g i t i -  mate research material for anthropological purposes.  S i g n i f i c a n t Problems Under this heading I am going to discuss three problems that I consider s i g n i f i c a n t :  informant status,  primary research component.  bias and problems of the  It i s important to recognize potential  problems in order to minimize and/or counteract their e f f e c t .  Informant Status My key informant met a l l the c r i t e r i a that I required; she s t a r t ed, organized, and ran her own business; she was married and l i v i n g with her husband; and she had children whom she was responsible for raising.  She was also a white, protestant, university educated woman  who occupied the same or higher social status that I d i d .  This was  also true of most of the other informants with whom I came in contact  37  (a few women entrepreneurs were black or o r i e n t a l ; for many I was not aware of t h e i r religious a f f i l i a t i o n s ) .  In most fieldwork  experiences,  the student anthropologist studies a group who by North American standards occupy a lower social status.  In some situations the student  anthropologist i s at least allocated a special and generally esteemed position.  In my case, I would say that as a student I was in a lower  status position and my informants are informed educated people who are not so much in awe of my position but accommodate i t as a favour to me personally and/or a commitment to research generally.  I believe my  'mature' student category (I am about the same age as my informants) and the fact that I have two c h i l d r e n , enabled me to be treated as at least an equal on the business  level and sharing some of the same  circumstances on the personal l e v e l .  In any fieldwork s i t u a t i o n s ,  it  is important to have an understanding of the social status positions one occupies v i s - a - v i s the informants.  I also found that because my  informants were of equal status I was p a r t i c u l a r l y careful to be accurate in how I presented my research.  That i s ,  I was not studying  some far away cultural group who may not read and who have no possible way to reject or agree with what a researcher writes about them. Accountability to the researched is becoming increasingly an important issue in a l l research a c t i v i t y .  Bias Bias is a s i g n i f i c a n t problem in a l l research, whether i t acknowledged or not.  is  In my opinion, recognizing that nothing is value  free i s a f i r s t step in counteracting bias as a problem.  In my re-  search work my bias is d e f i n i t e l y toward the inclusion of women i n a l l  38  research or at least the acknowledgement that women are not otherwise being addressed.  My bias is based on discovering the exclusion of  women from many h i s t o r i c a l accounts and that where they are included, often a male bias arises unchallenged. gender is a crucial  It seems obvious to me that  issue.  The other d i r e c t i o n of my bias is in studying one's own society. There is a danger in studying one's own society that cultural w i l l not be recognized.  patterns  That i s , because I am describing aspects of  my c u l t u r e , my f a m i l i a r i t y with i t may allow me to make assumptions or leave out d e t a i l s that may be questioned by researchers not as f a m i l i a r with the c u l t u r e .  The consequences of f a m i l i a r i t y with the culture in  the c r u c i a l a c t i v i t y of translating observations into data can be a problem; but they do not have to be.  Again, I think awareness and  s e n s i t i v i t y to these possible problem areas helps reduce them as problems and may turn them into advantages, for example, ease of entry into the group under study, being able to focus more quickly on s p e c i f i c aspects of the research, sharing a common language and social  heritage.  Informant status and bias are not different in kind, though they may d i f f e r in i n t e n s i t y ,  from problems other researchers deal with in  other more exotic cultures.  Beneath my p a r t i c u l a r problems in a fami-  l i a r culture context are the same problems that researchers i n foreign lands encounter.  Problems with Case Study Method The use of the case studies method labours under ambiguous notions of just what they are and what they can do.  Case study research i s  employed in a variety of d i s c i p l i n e s and s i t u a t i o n s .  Its u t i l i t y i s  39  widely recognized and i t i s j u s t as widely c r i t i c i z e d .  Yet there  is  l i t t l e written about i t or how to do i t . Case studies are generally seen as belonging to q u a l i t a t i v e methods rather than quantitative but they are ranked lower than other q u a l i t a t i v e methods.  Blease and Bryman (1986) state:  "(T)he notion of  'case study' is often used in a way which makes i t synonymous with ethnography" (166), resulting in case studies being placed with other q u a l i t a t i v e methods.  Case studies and other q u a l i t a t i v e methods are  often characterized as 'soft'  research strategies.  The implication is  that q u a l i t a t i v e methods (and hence, case studies) are not as rigorous as other research methods ( Y i n , 1984).  Chambers (1985) notes that in  anthropology, case study research i s often u t i l i z e d by applied anthropologists  because they work in the public sphere rather than the aca-  demic sphere.  He asserts that the goal of the applied anthropologists'  research is a deliberate one and is t y p i c a l l y derived from a need to make decisions  concerning some aspect of human behaviour.  His view  distances case study research from other academic research and implies that case study research i s not as 'good' as other academic research. Robert Yin (1984) champions the case study method by providing an outline of how to do i t and a specific d e f i n i t i o n .  According to Y i n ,  the case study is defined as: an empirical investigation inquiry that: . investigates a contemporary phenomenon within i t s r e a l - l i f e context; when . the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not c l e a r l y defined; and in which . multiple sources of evidence are used. (Yin, 1984:  23)  40  In his view, the major c r i t i c i s m of the case study method is lack of g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y .  its  He sees that c r i t i c i s m as the major one  directed towards a l l q u a l i t a t i v e research and feels the case study should not be singled out as the sole target.  He further responds to  the c r i t i c i s m by saying that the case study should not be viewed as a sample generalizabl.e to theoretical  propositions.  Most often,  study research presents an account of s p e c i f i c people in circumstances.  case  specific  The c r i t i c i s m is one directed more at how the research  findings are used than at the research i t s e l f . I believe case study research is an evolving research method which attempts to bridge the gap between q u a l i t a t i v e research and quantitative research.  Blease and Bryman (1986) view the integration of  quantitative and q u a l i t a t i v e techniques in a single case study to be "mutually enhancing" (167)  to both methods and "a sensitive merger may  provide a more complete p i c t u r e , which might be more satisfying and a t t r a c t i v e to academics and policy-makers alike" ( i b i d . ) . In my research, I use the case study method.  I have included the  quantitative research available along with a q u a l i t a t i v e account of entrepreneurial women to present a more rounded picture of entrepreneurial women in present day Canada.  specific  The major q u a l i f i c a t i o n '  to my thesis i s that I did not include more information about my key informant and/or I did not add more women entrepreneurs.  That i s , my  account could have been more complete by the addition of more i n f o r mation about my key informant or by including more 'key' informants. In spite of the l i m i t a t i o n , the case study that I have constructed does resemble the d e f i n i t i o n of a case study presented by Dr. Yin and gives a picture of s p e c i f i c entrepreneurial women in Canada.  41  Key Informant The following information concerns the interviewing and the b u i l d ing of rapport between myself and the key informant. why and where the discussions  took place.  It describes how,  In the next chapter con-  taining the situational contexts, I have included, where appropriate, information about the circumstances surrounding the statements by the informant(s) but a chronological account of the interaction between the key informant and myself is not apparent.  I want to include i t in the'  research d e s c r i p t i o n . My f i r s t step was to acquire a women entrepreneur informant.  In  deciding who to use as an informant I r e l i e d on the printed research material already collected to help guide my choice and give me needed background information.  I decided to make a l i s t of what I f e l t were  the most important aspects concerning my informant. following  I compiled the  list:  1.  woman s t a r t e d , organized and ran business  2.  married and preferably with children  3.  preferably between the ages of 30 to 50  4.  close to the university where I lived  5.  a business that interested me (I was going to be spending a l o t of time with this person in her business)  The preceding year I had begun to take an active interest in aerobic exercise and health clubs. try out t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s  I started to go to a variety of places  to see which ones I l i k e d .  to  It was during this  shopping around a c t i v i t y that I met my informant, who also had the exercise program that I liked the best.  Several months l a t e r when I  was compiling my informant c r i t e r i a l i s t and after attending her  42  classes r e g u l a r l y , I realized she met my requirements. appointment with her over the telephone. part because she was very busy.  I set up an  She was reluctant to take  Fortunately, I had estimated  the  amount of time I thought I would need and how often we would meet. From the l i t e r a t u r e I had discovered most entrepreneurs l i k e to be able to block out time on a calendar and organize t h e i r time c a r e f u l l y .  She  was also worried about an invasion of her privacy because she had just been interviewed by a j o u r n a l i s t and did not l i k e the experience. assured her that she could refuse to answer any of the questions f e l t were inappropriate. I obtained o f f i c i a l myself and the project.  I she  We made our f i r s t appointment. credentials from my advisor to introduce I also had a consent form made up for her and  her personnel manager to sign.  I f e l t these acts reinforced my pro-  fessionalism for her and a l l e v i a t e d some of her concerns about the interviewing  process.  Our interviews were conducted at my informant's convenience near her place of work.  There was l i t t l e privacy at her workplace and she  thought we would be interrupted constantly.  We met in a nearby cafe  which I discovered she used quite often as a kind of ' o f f i c e ' business meetings and even as a place to do her paper work. sonnel manager used the cafe in this manner as w e l l .  for her The per-  The owners of the  cafe were well known to her and treated her l i k e a special  customer.  They did not object to our use of their cafe for meetings.  In f a c t ,  when I suggested that I should ask permission from them, she said that i t was not necessary.  She kept an account open with the cafe owners  and we quite often had a beverage or l i g h t snack which she always put on her running tab.  She said they b i l l e d her once a month and i t went  43  on her business expenses, and I was not to worry about i t .  Meeting at  the cafe precluded me from using a tape recorder because of the  diffi-  c u l t i e s with background noise, finding backup outlets and perhaps more importantly, my level of expertise with the equipment.  I did not feel  very comfortable using a tape recorder in this situation nor did I r e l i s h the chore of transcribing the tape.  I opted for making notes  and checking back for d e t a i l s missed at follow-up meetings. My informant and I met formally for 6 weeks.  I made three  follow-  up phone c a l l s and my informant read a t r a n s c r i p t I prepared of our meetings. missed.  She added comments and corrected any factual material I had After the f i r s t set of meetings, i t was necessary for me to  meet with her again and pursue other questions a r i s i n g from my analysis of our meetings and other material. an hour.  We met three more times for about  The meetings took place in her o f f i c e and in a new snack bar  she had added to the exercise studio.  A new nanny came by with the two  children during one of our meetings. Once committed to the research project, my informant proved to be a ready and w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a n t .  She gave me access to her workplace  and included a free membership to her exercise studio during the tial  set of interviews.  ini-  Her generosity enabled me to observe the  workplace and the s t a f f and c l i e n t s e a s i l y .  It legitimized my presence  without having to explain my research except when I wanted to.  She  also gave me a l l the p u b l i c i t y material available on her and the b u s i ness.  There are two kinds of material:  material she generated and  material that was generated about her (and the business) by j o u r n a l ists.  44  There are two areas which she was reluctant to talk about; how much money she made and personal d e t a i l s . she was very sensitive about. start-up experiences  The f i r s t area, finances,  She was quite w i l l i n g to discuss her  and how she put her financial backing together but  not how much p r o f i t she made.  I constructed a scale of sales volume  and she placed her company's sales on the scale.  I discovered from the  l i t e r a t u r e on entrepreneurs that this p a r t i c u l a r subject i s a very d i f f i c u l t one to get business owners to talk about so I was not surprised by her reluctance.  Nevertheless,  there i s a gap in my research  about my key informant because she was reluctant to provide me with many d e t a i l s of her financial arrangements. f i n a n c i a l l y successful  I have assumed she is  p a r t i a l l y because she admitted to a range of  gross sales of over $2,000,000 in the l a s t year.  I also assume success  because she remains in business and because she looks and acts successful.  It is d i f f i c u l t to say what kind of insights may have been  e l i c i t e d i f more financial d e t a i l s had been made a v a i l a b l e .  The other  area, personal d e t a i l s , made me wonder what kind of personal  details  she thought I was going to ask. volunteered many details  She answered everything I asked and  in the course of our conversations.  Other than these two areas, my informant was most cooperative.  In  essence, the experience was much l i k e getting to know a new and i n t e r esting f r i e n d .  Sometimes over our coffee in the cafe and p a r t i c u l a r l y  during our l a t e r meetings, conversation on topic.  I would have to remind myself to keep the  I always had an outline of prompts and ques-  tions on s p e c i f i c topics to discuss but generally I t r i e d to flow with the d i r e c t i o n she took from my opening question or whatever she started to talk about.  I f e l t this was one way of following the  connections  45  she made between the concepts I introduced rather than following my own connections. After the i n i t i a l  interview which was a l i t t l e s t i f f and formal,  we would talk e a s i l y the entire time.  I began each session (the  first  set of interviews and the second set) with s p e c i f i c questions raised from the previous session.  I gave a b r i e f outline of what topics I  wanted to cover in that p a r t i c u l a r interview session.  I f e l t i t was  important to get the d e t a i l s covered quickly and concisely at the beginning of the interview so that our discussions could flow with as few interruptions from me as possible.  I encouraged my informant to  ask questions and to make any comments throughout a l l the interview sessions.  The format was comfortable for me and appeared to be so for  my informant.  She had scheduled an hour of her time for each session  and we kept pretty much to that time l i m i t . up for an appointment at the cafe. I went over to the workplace.  Only once did she not show  After waiting for about 10 minutes,  She was engrossed in something that had  come up unexpectedly and had forgotten the time.  She was very apolo-  getic but said i f that ever happens again to come and get her right away.  We just rescheduled our meeting and i t never happened again. My interview experience with her was very positive even i f i t was  somewhat l i m i t e d .  If I had gone to her home and met with her family  and taken part in some of her more personal a c t i v i t i e s , provided a more detailed picture of her l i f e .  that would have  At the same time much of  her 'free' time and many personal a c t i v i t i e s are taken up by the business and I had ample access to those a c t i v i t i e s . interviews I did not feel  At the time of our  comfortable in pushing myself into the p r i -  vate personal time she had available to her.  We did talk about family,  46  personal d e t a i l s ,  responsibilities  and her feelings about a l l of these  topics a great part of our time together.  I had ambivalent feelings  about imposing on her h o s p i t a l i t y further and I could not convince myself that i t was necessary.  I now feel  being included in family a c t i v i t i e s to my research.  that v i s i t i n g her home and  would have been valuable additions  The depth of my observations and insights could only  improve by being able to personally observe the interaction of family members instead of only through the verbal reports of my informant.  I  was sensitive to the fact that she worked extremely hard and long hours, took her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  to her family s e r i o u s l y , and the  introduction of another person would j u s t add to her workload.  In the  end, i t was my own feelings that precluded me from even asking her. My research methods may not be considered systematic not random e i t h e r .  but they are  They have arisen from the material I discovered.  I have pulled examples from the l i t e r a t u r e , from my personal experiences and u t i l i z e d a case study in an attempt to get a rounded p i c t u r e . I focus on the case study but I use the other material to build around and bolster the information presented.  47  CHAPTER II  INTRODUCTION The following situational contexts are extracted from the l i t e r a ture and my personal observations.  The categories  I have extracted are:  s t a r t - u p , work environment, home environment and time.  The boundaries  of the situational contexts are defined by the entrepreneurial role but are not limited to i t .  The intent of the analysis is to illuminate the  various roles and complementary self-images.  The relationship between  the two is revealed within the situational contexts.  At the beginning  of each situation I describe the problem I am addressing and the context.  Each situational context is linked to the main thesis question  but answers i t s own question within i t s s p e c i f i c  context.  START-UP Start-up is the f i r s t situational context where I w i l l the influence of the self-image of entrepreneurial women. the i n i t i a l  illustrate Here we see  stages of the business and the f i r s t contacts with a v a r i -  ety of other people who form the 'corporate' group (in Barth's sense). Specifically,  I will  present some of the feelings the entrepreneurial  woman expresses and actions taken during the 'start-up' of her 'new role' - entrepreneur. Start-up refers to two kinds of situations: enterprise and the i n i t i a l  the beginning of the  contact with other professionals  (such as  bankers, lawyers, accountants) and potential c l i e n t s or customers.  I  define start-up as the period of time anywhere from when the entrepreneurial woman began to think about starting a business to several years  48  after the actual opening day of business.  I suspect the concept of  start-up w i l l vary among entrepreneurs and a f l e x i b l e d e f i n i t i o n w i l l be needed to accommodate the variety of experience. tion:  how does the self-images  I ask the ques-  of entrepreneurial women influence  t h e i r behaviour in the start-up of t h e i r enterprise? In j o u r n a l i s t a r t i c l e s , entrepreneurial guidebooks, government small business handbooks and in my discussions with women entrepreneurs the question of how women entrepreneurs got started i s the most f r e quently asked question.  My key informant during our second interview  in the cafe responded to my query with the following story. Well, I guess I've been an entrepreneur a l l my life. My e a r l i e s t venture was a kool-aid stand at about 7. Then, together with my future s i s t e r in-law, around age 18, we ran a "play-in" for c h i l d r e n . We took children for the summer months on a d a i l y basis and b a s i c a l l y took them places and did things with them. It r e a l l y thrived but i t got too big for us to handle and my s i s t e r in-law moved. So i t ended...Now this business (exercise studio) came out of my awareness that people were becoming more and more active. There were hardly any exercise classes happening at that time so I went around and I looked at what programs were being offered. I decided I could put a r e a l l y dynamite program together. I took classes at the university in Kinesiology and n u t r i t i o n - I s t i l l take a course a year to keep up. I researched the whole area of exercise and business. I mean I spent a considerable amount of time finding out about the business (she spent about one year preparing). I made up a business plan and r e a l l y try to stick to i t . Of course, I revise i t but I think i t helps. Then I took the plunge and gave my f i r s t class in a teenie weenie gym with just me doing everything. I had about 20 students including a healthy number of r e l a t i v e s and friends. I r e l i e d on word of mouth to spread the news around and within 3 months, I had to get a larger space.  49  My key informant's previous experience as a teenager in operating her own business with a partner prepared her for entrepreneurial a c t i v i t y in a way not echoed by some other entrepreneurial women.  Current  research suggests most entrepreneurial women are operating t h e i r f i r s t business.  Most of the women I talked with at a conference for women  business owners^ said t h e i r current enterprise was t h e i r f i r s t and they needed a l o t of help to get started.  My conversation with eight of the  women registrants took place over a s i t down breakfast which was the initial  a c t i v i t y of the conference.  It was a open seating arrangement  and we were a l l strangers to each other.  Our table of people i n t r o -  duced themselves and each person spoke about why they were attending the conference.  Six of the women were either in the process of estab-  l i s h i n g a business or already operating a business and two were seriousl y thinking about s t a r t i n g one.  A l l were at the conference to gain  more information and to 'network'.  They a l l expressed interest i n my  research and volunteered t h e i r own start-up s t o r i e s .  I have included  some of t h e i r conversations. The f i r s t speaker is a well groomed woman in her f o r t i e s . married and has two teenage daughters.  She i s  She i s wearing a c l a s s i c flower  1.  Third Annual Business Ownership Conference for Women, September 5th and 6th, 1986, sponsored by the Canadian Association of Women Executives and Entrepreneurs and the Ontario Ministry of Trade and Technology. It was held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Ontario. Over 500 women took part in the two day conference(see Appendix 2, pg. 140).  2.  Network - to establish contacts with other promote t h e i r own business. This word was and the women at the conference considered valuable opportunity to connect with other  business women and to mentioned very often 'networking' to be a businesses.  50  p r i n t shirtwaist dress and s o l i d color jacket.  Her hair i s short and  well kept and she is wearing a moderate amount of face makeup (foundat i o n , blush l i p s t i c k , eye shadow, mascara applied with a l i g h t touch; she i s wearing perfume). wholesale company.  She owns and runs a dress manufacturing and  The dress she is wearing is one of her l i n e s .  She  is the only one other than myself who does not hand out a business card and apologizes profusely for forgetting to bring her cards with her. She begins her story: I was a teacher for twenty years but I wanted to t r y something e l s e . I loved the idea of working for myself. A friend got me started, she was the one with the i n i t i a l contacts and experiences but she got sick and I took over. It was a real learning experience (she said this with a knowing look around the t a b l e , and e l i c i t s murmured agreements and nods from the other women). I did not know anything about s e l l i n g dresses, just buying them! I started slowly in my basement, part-time, adding other part-time workers as I needed them but I couldn't manage any big orders. Well, i t was either grow or die. I got a big order from a place on Spadina (garment d i s t r i c t in Toronto) and I v i s i t e d my bank for money to get a proper factory. I was lucky that my husband had a friend who is an accountant and he helped me plan out the f i r s t two years. My bank gave me the money. Well I r e a l l y didn't understand my own business plan so I decided to take a course offered by the Federal Business BankJ It's not so hard once you understand, r e a l l y straight forward but boy was I a dumb dumb starting out! I'm s t i l l learning. Another woman at our table commented on how unusual i t was to find another woman who owns and runs a factory.  1.  She said she considers  Federal Business Development Bank (FBDB) is a Crown Corporation that exists to promote and a s s i s t most types of business in Canada at any stage in t h e i r development. The services offered are d i v i d ed into three major categories: Management Services (including seminars, c l i n i c s , information), Financial Services (loans), and Investment Banking.  51  herself an 'oddball' and was happy to meet another oddball!  She thinks  one of her secrets to success is because she asks 'dumb' questions and gets answers. I've used the Federal Bank's programs a number of times. The f i r s t person who helped me had been in the garment trade forever. He must have been shaking his head when he saw my operation. He gave me lots of advice and proved to be a tremendous contact. Right now, I'm using a consultant for strategic planning. I also get advice from our customers. People are r e a l l y very h e l p f u l , i f you ask. She went on to say: This business i s n ' t the one I wanted to start (she manufactures disposable clothing). I wanted to open an employment agency in my community to connect young mothers with the new companies springing up in my area. I took an accountant course to learn about business procedures and then I started doing the bookkeeping for my husband's business which is a d i s t r i b u t i n g company for sanitary c l o t h i n g . I learnt about his business and the kinds of products that were already available and saw a niche for my idea - disposable clothes. I started without a penny. I'd never sold anything in my l i f e . I had no idea i f I had any s k i l l at i t . I just did i t . I worked from the phone in the basement for two or three months. A l l I needed was letterhead. I did my own typing and I carried no stock. I c a l l e d up people and asked them what they needed and then I placed the order with my suppliers and got i t wholesale. I usually borrowed samples from a supplier when I needed them. I found that my customers were asking for product specifications that my suppliers could not meet. So I decided to make i t myself. I got one machine and one operator and now I have 29 and 13,000 feet of i n d u s t r i a l space. A t h i r d woman at our breakfast table operates a handcrafted sweater business out of her house. c a l l s i t "professional".  She is thinking of going as she  She exaplained her present business is part-  time and the outgrowth of her hobby, but i t is taking more and more of her time and she feels the need to either cut back or develop i t in  52  some way.  She is at the conference to find out the kinds of  she should be asking. even ask yet.  questions  She feels she doesn't know what questions  to  She was avidly l i s t e n i n g to the discussion on start-up.  Of a l l the women at our table her appearance was noticeably  different.  She was nicely dressed, but not with the same amount of fashion or s t y l e sense that was exhibited by the other women. l i p s t i c k and was among the l a s t to speak.  She wore only  We discovered that she and I  v/ere attending the same workshop after breakfast and went together. She t o l d me: Hearing how the other women started t h e i r businesses, not knowing any more than I do, gives me some confidence to keep going. If the workshops are as informative and i n s p i r ing as our breakfast, the conference w i l l be well worth my effort to get here (she l i v e s about three hours away by car and had to get a caregiver for her children and convince her husband the conference was worth i t . She stayed with friends overnight to reduce her costs). At the workshop we attended together e n t i t l e d  'Three Faces of Eve',  concerning the multiple roles women perform in our society, the workshop leader began her presentation with this comment: Growing up, the only image I had of a person in business was the image of the business man. That was the only word I heard. Being a business woman j u s t wasn't i n the realm of p o s s i b i lity. So now that I am a business woman, I feel I've done the impossible. I found out I can do so much more than I was brought up to believe I could do, and that feels great. What is the image entrepreneurial women are after?  In a session  on image creation c a l l e d 'Creating an Image for your Business'  (at the  Business Ownership for Women Conference), one of the leaders of the •  53  workshop, herself a freelance image consultant, t o l d the participants including myself: Consider yourself a business actress. Don't proj e c t a unilateral image. Give people what they expect. Look l i k e what you do. You wouldn't hire a messy looking accountant or a sick looking health consultant. She went on to say that the right image is needed for whatever job you are doing.  She recommends wearing a jacket because of the  She thinks i t looks more ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' . item of clothing at the conference.  pockets.  In f a c t , i t was a very common  In glancing around at the other  women attending and leading the conference, most were wearing jackets. Some jackets were very flamboyant and others a more conservative s t y l e and in many colours.  blazer  The woman who was speaking had a daffodil  yellow big look blazer on over a dress.  She went on to assert:  ing a business image to project is a business s k i l l .  "Find-  Dressing appro-  p r i a t e l y should be looked at as another, a l b e i t an important one, skill  for you to learn".  Her co-leader of the workshop, a graphic  a r t i s t , concurred. I check to see who I have to meet with during the day. If i t is a c l i e n t , I dress conservat i v e l y - - look responsible. After a l l , they are investing t h e i r money in me. If I am meeting with the p r i n t e r s , I wear jeans and sweatshirt and no make-up - I look l i k e an a r t i s t or they won't take me seriously as an a r t i s t . Both leaders of the workshop told us the idea was to convey a 'professional'  image.  They asserted appearing well groomed and appro-  p r i a t e l y dressed w i l l contribute to your self-confidence ness domain and can contribute to your success.  in the busi-  If the large numbers  of women attending the workshops on improving t h e i r image and the image of t h e i r businesses is indicative of the beliefs and concerns of other  54  entrepreneurial women, then the attainment of the 'professional' image i s one of the goals of entrepreneurial women. J.  R. Scollard (1985) in her guidebook for entrepreneurial women  reinforces the importance of image for success in business: Both your manner and your appearance convey to your c l i e n t s and bankers important information about you. You must analyze how they perceive you. You must develop an image that reinforces your professionalism (1985: 222). My key informant, a fitness instructor who owns and manages a d i verse fitness f a c i l i t y , agrees that appearances are important.  Over  j u i c e and health muffins in her new snack bar area we talked about achieving a self-confident  outlook.  Of course, fitness is my business so I may be understandably prejudice but I believe how you look and how you handle yourself are r e a l l y important. If you have confidence in your physical appearance, that c a r r i e s over into other aspects of your l i f e . She f e l t planning and taking time for decisions also contributed to her self-confidence. I take time for decision making. I want a q u a l i t y business and that means planning. When I started I thought out where I wanted to be in a s p e c i f i c length of time. I n i t i a l l y I planned for five years. I s a i d , OK t h i s is my plan for the next couple of years, now how do I go about doing i t ? So consequently, I anticipated a l o t of problems along the way, and i f you anticipate them, then they're not a huge monumentous thing. They're something you overcome. So when I went to find my market, I i d e n t i f i e d the market I wanted to reach and looked at how I would a t t r a c t that market. A l o t of that was finding the right image and having a good quality product to back i t (the image) up. Now I've got that market. She f e l t knowing what you want and planning for i t gives her the confidence to go after i t .  "The plan breaks everything down into  55  manageable parts.  It has to be f l e x i b l e but i t is important to have  one, not only for y o u r s e l f , but i t is a business tool and other business people expect you to have one.  I wouldn't know what to do without  one", she s a i d . One of the soccer mothers who is an entrepreneur reiterated the importance of planning.  I asked her i f she used a business plan and  what she thought about such things.  She confided her ignorance of  business generally when she opened her children's store five years ago, a dream she had for many years but had held back because of her lack of confidence in her a b i l i t i e s .  She f i n a l l y went to an introductory  business ownership workshop offered in her local  library.  Once I knew what a business plan entailed and how simple i t was, I could hardly believe that I thought i t was this mysterious thing I ' l l never understand. Now when I talk to my accountant, lawyer or colleagues, I know what I am talking about and what they are talking about! It gives me a tremendous boost to know I can hold my own with these professionals. I don't mind asking questions or admitting I don't know something. I just do not get overwhelmed by much anymore. While many women entrepreneurs discover new s k i l l s and build s e l f confidence in t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , many see the business world as a male dominated domain to which they must adapt in order to succeed.  My key  informant believes "men and women can achieve whatever they want i f they are w i l l i n g to work hard.  In her view, "the business world is not  male dominated, i t is j u s t the way i t i s and you j u s t have to stand up for yourself and deal with i t " .  She told me she does not have much  sympathy for women who "cry sexual harassment and unfair" because "women use that sexual game to get things. ways".  You can't have i t both  At another meeting we talked about acquiring a new building.  56  She told me she had her husband negotiate the lease because the male owners of the building did not believe women were business people and refused to see her role as dominant. better deal or perhaps the only deal. office  l i k e a dutiful  She said:  "I sat there in t h e i r  l i t t l e wife and even had Mike (her husband) point  out where I should sign." r e p l i e d , "It's j u s t  She f e l t her husband could get a  I asked her how she f e l t about that and she  business".  Many of the women at the 'Business Ownership for Women Conference' expressed an understanding of the business world as a 'male' domain. A woman lawyer at the conference^ during a discussion of some of the problems women face in business commented: There's so much sexism in the business commun i t y , and you're always on the l i n e . You can try to ignore put-downs, but s t i l l you have to prove yourself against unfair standards. Because you're a woman, you r e a l l y have to do everything twice as well as a man. The pressure to prove yourself and prove a l l women worthy at the same time is so intense. If a guy has a bad idea or blows a d e a l , i t ' s written off with the attitude "everyone makes mistakes" and he is not permanently branded as an i d i o t as a r e s u l t . But i f a woman messes up, she's incompetent and even worse, i t ' s taken as proof that a l l women are incompetent. There's r e a l l y no room for errors in a bind l i k e that. Many women at the conference had stories about reactions they personally encountered during the course of running t h e i r businesses.  The  woman who manufactures disposable clothing remembered an incident early in her business.  She was making an appointment with a businessman on  the phone when he asked her why she wasn't home minding her kids.  1.  Workshop e n t i t l e d "Three Faces of Eve".  She  57  said she burst into tears but then anger set i n .  "You stinker" she  thought and found that kind of comment and attitude a real motivator for her. Many of the women laughingly shared stores of being mistaken for a hired worker (usually secretary) by c l i e n t s and customers and even more commonly being c a l l e d 'sweetie, honey or d e a r ' , something they do not think male entrepreneurs had to put up with and they feel the f a m i l i a r i t y such language implies. respect.  demeaned by  They f e l t i t was a lack of  Most of the women in this group f e l t they had to ignore the  remarks but firmly t e l l people t h e i r name and t i t l e when necessary.  A  few admitted to enjoying the discomfort exhibited when the person found out that they were the boss.  "The best revenge was success" according  to the participants of the workshop. One of the women entrepreneurs whose background is in n u t r i t i o n and now runs an i n t e r i o r design company s p e c i a l i z i n g in kitchens also the mother of one of the boys on my son's soccer team.  She be-  lieves the working world has been dominated by men but that i t changing.  is  is  She thinks women entrepreneurs need to develop "thick skins  and to focus on t h e i r objectives not l i b e r a t i n g every person they meet". her:  She i l l u s t r a t e d her beliefs with this story that happened to  58  I was after a big contract to remodel the kitchen and eating areas of a wealthy middle eastern moslem gentleman. One of my male employees actually negotiated the deal but now i t was time for a face to face meeting. Knowing the attitude of most moslem men towards working women (that i s why she used her male employee o r i g i n a l l y ) , I was worried. I could blow this contract. I even thought about not going but for some reason, I j u s t couldn't do that. Well, I agonized over what to wear, wanting j u s t the r i g h t touch - not too manish but not too feminine. I f i n a l l y chose a simple s k i r t and blazer, plain s h i r t , minimum make-up and adornments. I went with my two male employees and I was ignored u n t i l f i n a l l y the c l i e n t said I am so glad you brought a woman. After a l l , t h e i r place i s in the kitchen, she w i l l be helpful in the design. The c l i e n t never did r e a l i z e I was the boss but he loved the renovation. In one sense, I feel I did the right thing but I s t i l l feel a l i t t l e uneasy about i t and I don't t e l l that story to too many people. Business comes f i r s t but no one said i t was going to be easy. Some women entrepreneurs f e l t being a woman was an advantage in business.  A freelance editor and writer taking part in the workshop,  'Three Faces of E v e ' , at the Toronto Conference commented "I believe my s k i l l s as an interviewer and my a b i l i t y to get in to see people are because I am a woman.  I think people generally are more comfortable  talking with a woman and I think I get treated with more deference by the 'gate keepers' (secretaries,  doormen, e t c . )  than my male colleagues".  At the same workshop, many of the women entrepreneurs made a common observation that women enjoy i n i t i a l  success because they are a novelty,  e s p e c i a l l y in a t r a d i t i o n a l male enterprise l i k e manufacturing, but they also cautioned against expecting the novelty to l a s t . novelty is no substitute for continued sales.  "Being a  You need to back up the  'novelty' with quality service and q u a l i t y products", warned the woman manufacturer of disposable clothing.  "In business,  l i n e that counts not the opening l i n e " .  i t is the bottom  My key informant has already addressed how she circumvents the bias of some business people towards her being a woman boss.  She was  able by using her husband i n that instance, to get what she wanted. She believes her awareness and the actions she takes make business sense. I do not see that kind of thing as an unsurmountable problem. I recognize i t when necessary as a problem and then figure out a way to deal with i t . In research that asks the question of women entrepreneurs, what kind of help would they l i k e in starting and operating t h e i r b u s i nesses? - t h e i r response i s an overwhelming no to special help.  They  want to have the same access to financing and programs as t h e i r male counterparts.  They want to be treated the same.  echoed by some of my women informants.  It is a response  A bookstore owner friend t o l d  me, "I identify with the small business community f i r s t and bookstore owners p a r t i c u l a r l y , then I think about being a woman business owner". My key informant responded to the question by replying: Get r i d of endless government involvement: People should do things for themselves and not rely on the government. For my key informant being a woman or a man i s incidental to the start up of an enterprise by an entrepreneur.  She sees gender as a f a c t , to  minimize or maximize as the s i t u a t i o n warrants.  She sees business  knowledge and s k i l l s heavily contributing to success. well developed plan of action", she s a i d .  "Nothing beats  60  Summary Start-up is a situational context common to a l l women entrepreneurs.  It is a time of t r a n s i t i o n for them where they learn the  role of entrepreneur.  The influence of the self-images  'new , 1  of entrepre-  neurial women on t h e i r behaviour i s most evident during this time. Most of the women report the process of learning the 'new to them' role i s a time of self-discovery as well as discovery about the b u s i ness world. In establishing t h e i r businesses, women entrepreneurs experience barriers to t h e i r performance of the entrepreneurial r o l e . s t a r t out with very l i t t l e  Many women  information about the entrepreneurial role  and l i t t l e confidence in t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s .  The women entrepreneurs  were surprised at how straight-forward business a c t i v i t y can be and while they find i t hard work, they are not mystified by i t . e r a l l y poor self-image  The gen-  (manifested by lack of self-confidence)  preneurial women confess to at the start of t h e i r enterprise  entreinfluences  them to be cautious and find out more about business generally and t h e i r business  specifically.  Along with lack of knowledge about entrepreneurial a c t i v i t y , another b a r r i e r is lack of appropriate role models.  The women entre-  preneurs spend a considerable amount of time and effort evolving t h e i r own business image - one they feel  comfortable with but more impor-  t a n t l y , one that conveys a professional women entrepreneurs feel t h e i r self-images  image.  It is an area that  p a r t i c u l a r l y vulnerable about which can affect  in varying degrees by positive or negative  from those around them.  feedback  61  The women entrepreneurs feel  that t h e i r physical image is impor-  tant to t h e i r role of entrepreneur.  Since there are few women entre-  preneurs to act as role models, the women entrepreneurs, p a r t i c u l a r l y at s t a r t - u p , must create t h e i r own images. of self-confidence  Their images can be sources  and hence, positive self-image or a continuing  struggle to determine appropriate dress and hence can contribute to apoor self-image.  The relationship between physical image and the pre-  sentation of a professional entrepreneurs.  image generates many concerns for women  This is i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e i r great interest  s k i l l s workshops l i k e the ones at the conference for Women '86'.  'Business Ownership  I suggest the reason for t h e i r concern is partly t h e i r  desire to appear professional  and partly because physical appearance  one of the most stressed components contained in a woman's in our c u l t u r e .  in image  is  self-image  It is because women perceive themselves to be (and are  quite often) valued based on t h e i r physical appearance.  While physical  appearance is a common measure of value for a l l members of our society, there is a special emphasis placed on women because of t h e i r gender and the constraints of sex-role s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  Presentation of the s e l f  as  an entrepreneur and as a woman, has the potential to undermine the self-image  of the person depending on the context of the s i t u a t i o n she  may find herself i n .  My key informant had her mother as a role model  of a woman in business,  and she expressed very l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y with  her own physical image and her role as an entrepreneur.  Her business  is fitness which may also contribute to her self-confidence image.  She also had run a small business successfully  which gave her experience  in her  as a teenager  in entrepreneurial a c t i v i t y not shared by  many of the contemporary women entrepreneurs.  62  Clearly the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge about the entrepreneurial role and acquiring the professional  image eases the t r a n s i t i o n of  entrepreneurial women into the business world.  The professional  gives them guidelines to help them make choices which increase potential to successfully guidelines  perform the entrepreneurial r o l e .  include carrying business cards.  can result i n feeling unprofessional  image  their  The  Not having business cards  i f the cards are forgotten or  unavailable (as happened to the woman at my table during the conference).  The guidelines help women entrepreneurs feel  have the effect of increasing t h e i r self-image  professional and  as an entrepreneur.  Sex discrimination can be a barrier for women entrepreneurs.  In  our s o c i e t y , women are discriminated against i n many subtle and blatant ways which can affect  t h e i r self-images.  Some entrepreneurial women  report feeling that they have to try twice as hard as male colleagues and that t h e i r mistakes are highlighted as examples of women's i n a b i l i t y to do business.  A view commonly held by women entrepreneurs  is  that the business world i s a male domain and they must adapt to i t . In a world that not only sets a male standard but recognizes the only standard, women entrepreneurs must make t h e i r way.  i t as  Their  self-images come to identify with the community of entrepreneurs. Being a woman is often viewed by themselves as incidental to t h e i r entrepreneurial r o l e .  They strongly feel  that the t r a i t s necessary for  entrepreneurial a c t i v i t y are available to women and men. express a strong b e l i e f i n individual a b i l i t i e s mined ones.  They also  rather than sex deter-  Women entrepreneurs are w i l l i n g to make use of t h e i r  gender i f they feel  i t i s to the advantage of t h e i r business.  I am not  suggesting that women entrepreneurs use t h e i r gender i n an overtly  63  sexual way but rather d e l i b e r a t e l y .  That i s , when they perceive t h e i r  gender is advantageous to t h e i r business, they make use of i t but when they perceive t h e i r gender is a problem to t h e i r business, they minimize their gender.  An example from my research i s the behaviour of  my key informant in getting her lease.  Another example is the story  the designer t o l d me on the soccer f i e l d about the contract with the moslem gentleman.  In other words, they make t h e i r gender work for them  instead of allowing t h e i r gender to work against them.  Women entre-  preneurs contribute to how they want to be perceived by others and hence, guide the creation of t h e i r own self-images. Many of the women entrepreneurs report being subjected to sexist comments.  They appear to relegate sexist comments to the edges of  t h e i r self-images  and not take the comments personally.  They even  appear to enjoy the discomfort of the men who mistake them for employees.  Their self-images  which incorporate the authority of owner-  ship of a business appears to insulate them and give them some measure of power in situations where women are commonly vulnerable.  They  happily discover t h e i r entrepreneurial role gives them a measure of respect not always accorded to them as women.  Entrepreneurial women  discover t h e i r new roles provide them with a satisfactory way to handle the pervasive sexism of our society.  Their worth is not only measured  by t h e i r gender - female - but by the value of the entrepreneur r o l e . The role i t s e l f contributes to t h e i r positive self-image which in turn influences t h e i r behaviour and influences how other people respond to them. Women entrepreneurs report that they do not want any special programs aimed at them because they are women.  They do want access to the  64  same programs as male entrepreneurs.  They want to be treated as equal  members of the small business community.  This is i n spite of t h e i r  understanding of the business world as male dominated.  My understand-  ing of the situation explains t h e i r views in r e l a t i o n to their s e l f images.  In a society where special programs for women, l i k e affirma-  t i v e a c t i o n , have become associated with hiring women, not because they are the best q u a l i f i e d but because they are women, women entrepreneurs see t h e i r hard won gains from the entrepreneurial role diminishing in value.  Special programs for women entrepreneurs could result in the  current group of women entrepreneurs losing some of the respect from other members of the society and that would affect  their  self-image;  images which include making i t in a man's world, with man's rules and man's rewards. The entrepreneurial role is a challenging role for men and for women.  It is a role that depends on hard work, finding out information  and sound planning for success.  A l l the women entrepreneurs I talked  with have never regretted their decision to become an entrepreneur. The very v i s i b l e rewards of the role are acquiring wealth and respect in t h e i r communities. The discovery that business s k i l l s are not d i f f i c u l t to learn i n creases women entrepreneurs' confidence entrepreneurial a c t i v i t y .  in t h e i r a b i l i t y to undertake  Once the entrepreneurial woman learns the  business s k i l l s , develops her business plan and improves or creates the physical images; her self-image  incorporates a new image of herself  a competent person able to handle a vast array of business problems. Her self-image person into i t .  improves as she incorporates the s k i l l s of a business It is a small step from acquiring the s k i l l s  to  as  65  r e a l i s i n g you are a business person and a business person is a valuable member of Canadian society. ing a business successfully  With each step of acquiring and maintainaccomplished, new confidence  changes in other aspects of at least her work l i f e . employer and in the next situational  leads to  She may become an  context, 'Work Environment', I  examine, along with other components in the work environment,  the  influence of her self-image on her behaviour as an employer.  The  changes in the self-images of entrepreneurial women appropriately reinforce the t r a n s i t i o n stages of developing a new business.  That i s ,  her low self-image of her entrepreneurial a b i l i t i e s  the  influences  woman to learn more about business and her business in p a r t i c u l a r , because i t i s a l l very new to her:  then the self-image influences  acquisition of valued s k i l l s which increases her confidence a b i l i t i e s which are needed to promote her business.  her  in her  The stages of the  growth of the business correspond to the increase of images available to her and to the general positive changes in her self-images. The entrepreneurial image which both she and society values provides her with feelings of self-worth, public world of business.  and with ways to adapt to the  In the name of business she can deflect  sexist comments and unequal business p r a c t i c e s , viewing them as b u s i ness challenges,  not personal affronts.  Her s k i l l s in negotiating  way through the entrepreneurial domain, the male domain, increase value of her self-images.  She feels uneasy about special  her the  programs for  entrepreneurial women because the programs may have a negative impact on the respect that was so d i f f i c u l t to win.  Generally, the self-image  guides the women to learn more about entrepreneurial a c t i v i t y , hence increasing t h e i r  self-confidence.  66  WORK ENVIRONMENT Women entrepreneurs usually operate t h e i r businesses from a p r i mary physical space they c a l l  t h e i r workplace or o f f i c e .  I use an  i n c l u s i v e concept, work environment, to convey the different kinds of work areas.  By focusing on the work environment instead of defining  the workplace boundaries, I am able to include the variety of a c t i v i t i e s and spaces women entrepreneurs make use of for t h e i r businesses. I ask the question, in what ways do the self-images  of entrepreneurial  women influence t h e i r behaviour in t h e i r work environment? In my discussion of self-image and work environment, I include the home o f f i c e and o f f i c e  separate from the home.  Also included are the  interactions between the entrepreneur and others in the work environment.  The category of others includes employees,  other professionals  clients/customers,  (members of her corporate group b r i e f l y touched  upon in the previous section) and professional colleagues.  In the  following discussion I concentrate on employees and other professionals. I am focusing on the entrepreneurial woman's feelings and actions as she reports them to me, augmented where possible by conversations with employees and by my observations. to the influence of the  Her feelings and actions are guides  self-image.  I am beginning with my key informant whose entrepreneurial a c t i v i t y takes place in both the home o f f i c e and separate workspace, and includes working with a partner to employing up to forty people at one time. office'  The following discussion with her took place in her over three separate meetings.  'cafe  In the f i r s t session we talked  about her early years at her parents' home and f i r s t business prise.  enter-  The second part was p a r t i a l l y recorded during a discussion of  her o f f i c e when she wanted to give me some promotional material f i l e d away in the workplace at the fitness f a c i l i t y .  In the t h i r d session I  asked more d i r e c t questions to clear up some inconsistencies  in my  notes. My s i s t e r - i n - l a w (future) and I ran our c h i l d minding business out of my parents' home. I guess we d i d n ' t think to do anything e l s e . Cert a i n l y no one even suggested anything e l s e . We used t h e i r phone but my mother and aunt helped us with our books and we deducted the cost from our expenses. In other words, we paid my mom to use the phone. My aunt r e a l l y helped us a l o t . She and my mom were both camp recreation leaders at our church camps and had t e r r i f i c ideas for kid's a c t i v i t i e s . My mom is a real business woman. She is my role model. She and my dad were partners in t h e i r own business. My brother took over a few years ago but they s t i l l help out and take an active i n t e r e s t , in my business too. Anyway, my mom showed us how to keep a set of books, she did them for her and dad's b u s i n e s s . . . ( d i s cussion of family l i f e included in next situational context). She showed us to include expenses l i k e the phone, paper, a d v e r t i s i n g , transportation and materials for a c t i v i t i e s in our records and the money coming i n . We learnt you had to spend money to make money. We even did a mini market survey to test the product in our local area. We put up notices in the local supermarket and the response was good, so we went ahead. At the time I r e a l l y d i d n ' t think about the location of our office but I r e a l i z e now i t was important to have i t at home. My s i s t e r - i n - l a w and I focussed on the kids and them having a good time but having the office at home must of helped our c r e d i b i l i t y with the parents of the kids. The parents had to trust us and having i t at home with the implied (and actual) support of my parents and aunt was a plus for us. It was a wonderful i f exhausting experience. My key informant's next enterprise is her current fitness lity.  faci-  When she started out she r e a l l y did not have an o f f i c e for her  business.  68  I used my desk where I worked to keep track of things. I f i l e d s t u f f there and I made my phone c a l l s there. I guess my work was okay because my boss never said anything. I did everything myself but I started small and didn't expand u n t i l I had c l i e n t demand. I d i d n ' t even quit my regular job for the f i r s t six months. The l a s t thing I thought of was an o f f i c e . I was worried about renting a big enough space to hold classes not o f f i c e s . For other entrepreneurial women an o f f i c e can be a v i s i b l e sign of t h e i r new role of business woman.  At the 'Business Ownership for  Women' conference during a workshop on 'Creating a Business Image', a woman entrepreneur spoke about her f i r s t o f f i c e . I love having my own o f f i c e . I feel l i k e I have arrived. I feel professional. I can have c l i e n t s come into the o f f i c e and we can discuss projects in private and I have a l l my material at my f i n g e r t i p s . Salespeople can bring in t h e i r samples. At the beginning I needed an o f f i c e to help me organize myself, now I want one - bigger, better - something that shows o f f my success. The workshop leader reiterates the need to be organized and strongly suggests an o f f i c e space is the prime way to do i t .  She s a i d :  You need to define your workspace and at the very least that means a desk, f i l i n g cabinets, shelves and a good source of l i g h t . Another must is a telephone and i f you or someone else cannot be there a l l the time, a system for taking messages. Now this is the same for home offices or for the regular offices. You must avoid the amateurish image, you want to look and act l i k e a professional. The importance of the o f f i c e is understood within the context of the business community.  James Gray, a management s p e c i a l i s t talks  about the psychological benefits of an o f f i c e and what the o f f i c e i t s e l f can convey about you.  69  Your o f f i c e is your personal d i r e c t l y reflects your level your power, your willingness and possibly your command of 1982: 100). Gray's analysis  space...It of authority, to communicate, respect (Gray,  is more suited to the hierarchy of the executive ex-  perience and larger businesses rather than to the entrepreneur who already is at the top of her business. an entrepreneur's  While i t i s true the office  is  'personal space', many entrepreneurs do not need to  show others t h e i r level of authority because they r e a l l y have i t .  My  key informant conducts many of her business meetings in a nearby cafe. Her o f f i c e at her workplace is shared with her employees. two o f f i c e  spaces:  shared with others.  There are  one is nominally designated her space but is also The two workrooms are piled high with c l o t h i n g ,  tapes for music, a sound system, c l o t h i n g , magazines and papers. store things high on shelves with big labels d e t a i l i n g the During the long hours the business is open, the room is f u l l  Boxes  contents. of cus-  tomers who have access through an open door leading into the exercise room.  The s t a f f are busy (often up to eight at one time in the room)  answering questions  from the customers, would-be customers and the  telephone which has at least three extensions.  Music is played almost  constantly and many of the instructors are regularly trying new music or asking someone's opinion about the music. with posters, a r t i c l e s and information.  The walls are covered  There i s a special section in  the small o f f i c e where employee notices and t h e i r work schedule are displayed.  The noise level drops dramatically as soon as an exercise  session starts and the door to the exercise room w i l l usually be closed or p a r t i a l l y closed during the time the class i s on. cheerful and bright room.  It is a busy,  A large t a b l e - l i k e desk is in the centre of  70  the big room with chairs placed around as needed and some chairs in other parts of the room. fits  The small room has a regular desk that just  i t s space, and one chair placed in front and one behind i t .  The  reception area is part of the big room but only takes up one corner of i t and i t is angled in such a way that most of the larger room is not v i s i b l e from the customer's point of view. office  There is privacy for the  from the street but not from the exercise room.  My key informant had told me i t was not a very private or a very quiet place to have a conversation.  She was r i g h t .  Using the cafe  does not appear to detract from her professional image.  Rather, in my  opinion, i t is a relaxed way to conduct business and the business lunch or dinner is commonly used by a l l kinds of business people.  Her regu-  lar use of the cafe made i t a special place and gave her special treatment by the owner of the cafe. 'business'  office  If she f e l t  she could use her husband's but she couldn't remember  an instance where she had done that recently. offices  She often went to the  of the lawyer or accountant when she needed to see them.  feels an o f f i c e sary.  she had to have a  in the 'private status proclaiming' sense is  She  unneces-  Her s t a f f handle many of the everyday business problems l i k e  phone c a l l s , m a i l , f i l i n g and s o r t i n g .  It leaves her free to conduct  her business meetings in a style that i s comfortable and unique for her.  Her children with t h e i r nanny and friends often joined us for  part of our time together.  She never l e t anyone intrude for very long  but I encouraged her to l e t people drop by and chat with us. aware of our limited time together. office  She was  Her choice of not having a special  is a deliberate one and has to do with her management s t y l e and  employee relations which I w i l l write about l a t e r .  71  Before we move on to employer and employee interactions of the entrepreneur, I want to discuss the home o f f i c e .  In my discussions  with women at the "Business Ownership for Women" conference and in the 'how-to-be-an-entrepreneur' l i t e r a t u r e readily a v a i l a b l e , the home o f f i c e i s discussed at great length. discussed is because the home o f f i c e  Part of the reason i t is widely impinges d i r e c t l y on home l i f e .  It is a v i s i b l e addition to the home while keeping the entrepreneurial woman v i s i b l e to her family. she does them.  The roles they have become familiar as  A workshop leader from the session at the conference  c a l l e d 'Three Faces of Eve' told us about the benefits and problems of working at home that she encounters in her business. When you are doing business at home, some people, e s p e c i a l l y men, feel that you are doing i t j u s t for a hobby. And since they think i t is j u s t your hobby they feel your rates should be "unprofessionally" low. I work j u s t as hard as i f I work at a regular shop. Though I found that my women customers were generally enthusiast i c and supportive of my home business, men often treated me as though I were not thoroughly professional. I think this is because men most often work outside the home, whereas women often welcome the p o s s i b i l i t y of doing business at home... My biggest problem is convincing my family and my customers that my hours are l i m i t e d . I often get phone c a l l s after business hours. I answer them, not as an entrepreneur but as a business woman who is through for the day. I get nasty and say the o f f i c e is closed, c a l l back in the morning at ten, and repeat i t l i k e a recording. When my family interrupts me, the entrepreneur, at work, at home, I can't be as blunt. Although sometimes I really y e l l ! I am slowly training them to respect my work time and to interrupt only when r e a l l y necessary. I try and reward them with something special after I have been very busy with work. Schools, children and friends find i t d i f f i c u l t to r e s i s t you when they know you are captive in your home o f f i c e . A home o f f i c e demands scheduling and routine, just as any other business office does. You must be able to overlook temptation and proceed with your work and ideas without i n t e r r u p t i o n . D i s c i p l i n e is v i t a l when you work in your home.  72  A soccer mother entrepreneur who works at home t o l d me about the problems she encounters.  She was p a r t i c u l a r l y upset the day we talked  because her husband was supposed to be there instead of her.  They had  an agreement to take turns and this was her t h i r d time in a row.  It  was also a cold rainy day. I love working at home, being there when the kids come home from school but my family won't take me s e r i o u s l y . I have my own o f f i c e , door and everything - but my kids j u s t walk in anytime they feel l i k e i t . My husband hates i t when I work at night and my mother complains I never talk to her anymore. She phones during the day, talking for what seems l i k e hours and gets hurt when I t e l l her I am busy and have to hang up now. Not only does she t i e up my phone for business (she has a separate business phone and residential phone) but she cuts into my time during the day and gets me a l l upset because I've hurt her feelings! Working at home is both a blessing and a hindrance. Constant interruptions slow down my work, and I haven't been able to come up with a good solution to the problem. Good solutions are hard to find for the women entrepreneur working at home.  The strong connections with the home while helpful  ways blur the d i v i s i o n between home and business. to organize a business in a regular o f f i c e , lenge working in the home.  If i t i s d i f f i c u l t  i t is even more of a c h a l -  Working at home there is the danger that  the entrepreneurial role w i l l  never become a prime one and s k i l l s  learnt w i l l not affect her self-images more t r a d i t i o n a l  in some  in the same primary way that the  roles of wife, mother, daughter and friend do.  Those  continue to get demanded and reinforced by being at home. If that is the case, the home o f f i c e w i l l  have a detrimental  influence on the performance of the entrepreneurial woman but i f the home o f f i c e is successfully organized, then the entrepreneurial role  73  w i l l not c o n f l i c t with the demands of her other r o l e s .  It w i l l  enhance  the performance of the entrepreneurial role by complementing, not competing with, the performance of her other r o l e s . Working out of a 'regular' o f f i c e ,  away from home or at home,  appears to increase the 'professional' self-image of the woman entrepreneur.  Here i t is the actual physical space with desk, f i l i n g  cabinets, e t c .  that influences  the self-images,  not j u s t the l o c a t i o n .  These accoutrements l e t the entrepreneurial woman feel  l i k e a busi-  nessperson according to an ' i d e a l ' standard. My key informant d e f i n i t e l y does not need a regular o f f i c e tion or a r t i f a c t s to feel  professional or to feel  needs is her appointment book, see section encourages her employees to feel business.  The 'no private o f f i c e '  organized ( a l l  'Time').  l i k e colleagues  locashe  She deliberately  or equals in her  is p a r t i a l l y the result of the  limitations of her workplace but she makes no attempt to build a p r i vate o f f i c e  into her plans.  In f a c t , she has added a snack bar and a  new weight room in the existing space rather than anything private for herself.  She said she has no plans to build a private office and she  has an o f f i c e  space she shares with her husband at t h e i r home.  Her entrepreneurial self-image does not need the status enhancing accoutrements of an ' o f f i c e '  but how does her self-image  influence her  performance as an employer?  Her attitude towards her employees is par-  t i a l l y reflected in the low status p r o f i l e she fosters for herself. Her adherence to her business plan with i t s gradual introduction of employees l e t s her select s t a f f slowly and think about the kind of relationship she wants to have with them.  The following extract from  my notes is from a discussion on the problems of being a boss.  She  74  c i t e s s t a f f relations as one of her major problem areas and one she keeps working on to improve. My basic plan is to have a q u a l i t y business and I saw to do that I needed to have q u a l i t y people around me. So when I went to choose my s t a f f and I was very careful of who I chose, I gave i t to them right on the l i n e , this i s how i t is. I am also lucky because almost a l l my choices worked out. I started with one other employee who is s t i l l with me and myself. She had taken my class and so I knew her a b i l i t y and her interest in fitness as a l i f e s t y l e not j u s t for looks. I made her an offer and we went from there. She is my 'right-hand' person and for a long time we d i d n ' t need t i t l e s but now she is o f f i c i a l l y my personnel d i r e c t o r . In the beginning I couldn't offer f u l l - t i m e work but now I employ nine f u l l time workers and about t h i r t y part-time. It is only in the last few years that I have used employee contracts and even a probation period. I could have saved myself a l o t of trouble i f I had used those business tools e a r l i e r but you learn from your mistakes and I try and make mistakes only once. Mostly I rely on people wanting to get along and do a good job. If things don't work out personality wise or sloppy work, I always hope they w i l l get the picture themselves and resign. It is hard to f i r e someone, even with a good cause and for the good of my business. Luckly I haven't had to f i r e very many people and now my personnel d i r e c t o r handles most of that sort of thing. We are very close and discuss many of the problems together. One of my biggest problems is l e t t i n g her do her job. I have to sometimes hold myself back from i n t e r f e r i n g - 'bite the b u l l e t ' so to speak. I want her to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and she does i t very w e l l , but i t is s t i l l a problem for me. Luckily she is my friend too and understands my problems. One of my biggest j o l t s came when the s t a f f told me I wasn't communicating with them. They f e l t I expected them to know my mind and then do i t , without r e a l l y consulting with them. Well that hurt! I always thought of myself as reasonable, f a i r and accessible - after a l l I put up the employee suggestion box, I j u s t never thought one of the suggestions would be for me to change! - but I forced myself to be accountable. I hired a management communication expert to come in and try and find out where I was going wrong - even though  75  I r e a l l y d i d n ' t think i t was r e a l l y my f a u l t . What was r e a l l y important to me is to have good employee relations and i f my employees thought there was something wrong, then I would try my best to f i x the problem. I want my employees to l i k e me but more importantly, I want t h e i r respect. I have weekly meetings and in-house seminars on t h e i r own time but that i s a l l l a i d out when they are h i r e d . We tend to s o c i a l i z e together so i t i s crucial we a l l get on. I suppose i f someone d i d n ' t f i t i n , i t would be apparent right away. I think this is a l i t t l e unusual, in most companies things are a l i t t l e more formal. At the weekly discussions I have my s t a f f feed back information to me about how they are feeling and whether they're burnt out. I ask them to g i v e , give, give, so i t i s important that I give back to them. I want our customers to feel the support and caring of the s t a f f and i f the person in charge - me - t r i e s to emulate as much love and concern from t h e i r heart, then I think the s t a f f feels that and can give to the customers. Maybe the way I feel about the s t a f f and the customers has to do with the kind of business and my feelings about a healthy l i f e s t y l e and the job of being an example of that l i f e s t y l e , I don't think i t has much to do with me being a woman boss. My key informant gives voice to some of the r e a l i t i e s of managing a business and dealing with s t a f f which affects ness which in turn affects  the image of the busi-  the self-images of entrepreneurial women.  My informant and numerous business resource books agree that employees perform essential jobs and represent your business in t h e i r dealings with the public hence i t is crucial that they are trained and motivated to present the image the employer wants.  Where my informant uses the  language of 'like-minded' friends and employees 'who f i t i n ' , she is r e a l l y t a l k i n g about how they f i t in to her image of her business.  In  spite of her low p r o f i l e as the boss, she is very much in charge and she uses her lack of a personal private space, seminars and discussions to break down the b a r r i e r of being boss.  It i s part of her role that  76  can be included in the entrepreneurial role but i t i s often d i f f i c u l t for her to handle. Her problems and concerns for the image of the boss she wants to incorporate into her self-images  were illuminated for me during d i s -  cussions with a woman 'boss' at the Business Ownership for Women conference at a workshop c a l l e d 'Three Faces of Eve'.  The workshop leader  gave us the following excerpt from a book about women and authority called Women in Charge. After a l l these years of heightened consciousness, liberated s t r i v i n g , and open mindedness about women on the j o b , boss lady s t i l l seems a cont r a d i c t i o n in terms. A lady is not a boss. And no one would think to specify gentleman or man or male when mentioning boss, because after a l l , aren't a l l bosses men? And so we continue to hear references to female managers, female bosses, and female executives, because the underlying, unconscious assumption is that the natural f u l f i l lers of these roles are s t i l l men. Women are, even today, not immediately and naturally thought of as appropriate people to become bosses. And women are just as l i k e l y as men to harbour this unconscious prejudice (Jacobsen, 1985: 1). Then, she told us about some of her thoughts when she became a 'boss' due to the expansion of her business. I was afraid of becoming a boss lady. I did not want to be thought of as a nag or a harsh school mistress. I t r i e d joking when I should have been serious. Above a l l , I feared being labelled with those female stereotypes I abhor. Is there such a thing as a male nag or a male shrew? No. There are male bosses who are hated but respected. There are kind bosses and ineffectual bosses who are men. But a nagging boss? A scatterbrain boss? A boss with a heart of gold? That boss is l i k e l y to be female. Being i n charge is more than a matter of t i t l e .  It requires a  stock of tools and a range of attitudes that my informants report do not come e a s i l y to them.  The current crop of images available to women  77  entrepreneurial bosses does not appear to suit or f i t the kind of image they want to incorporate into t h e i r self-images. images, often by t r i a l  They t r y to forge new  and error but persevering in attempts to find an  image they approve or feel  comfortable with, one that f i t s the image of  t h e i r business and t h e i r s t y l e of management.  While performing the  entrepreneurial role appears to be a positive experience for women, the role of the entrepreneurial boss is fraught with ongoing The entrepreneurs at the workshop suggest establishing before d i f f i c u l t i e s  with employees develop.  lop.  guidelines  Using the business plan  approach for employees establishes clearer objectives to understand and for the boss to f a l l  difficulties.  for the employees  back on when d i f f i c u l t i e s  deve-  If the boss feels comfortable with the guidelines she sets out,  then f a i l u r e of the employee to meet the requests of the boss problems of the employee, not the boss.  Then the self-image  reflect of the  entrepreneurial boss is enhanced by the interaction but i f the employee-employer interaction becomes or continues to be f u l l of tensions and ambiguities, the boss has to take some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and the self-image  of an ' i d e a l ' competent boss is l o s t .  The performance  as an entrepreneur may become limited by the f a i l u r e to have positive employee-employer r e l a t i o n s .  Research on male entrepreneurs  indicates'  that they have a d i f f i c u l t time when t h e i r business grows beyond t h e i r own control and the limited work on female entrepreneurs 1978; B a i r d , 1982)  suggests i t applies to women as w e l l .  (Schwartz, Problems with  employees are more than just problems of sex-role stereotyping and lack of appropriate images (although stereotyping can be a serious problem) but are inherent in the make-up of an entrepreneur.  Encouragingly for  women entrepreneurs who have this problem is the finding that women  78  tend to seek help more readily than t h e i r male counterparts (Schwartz, 1976; Winter, 1980; B a i r d , 1982). The l a s t group of people I am going to look at in the context of the work environment is the corporate group of people entrepreneurs organize around themselves to provide information and needed services they cannot do or do not understand.  Often they are recognized experts  l i k e lawyers and accountants and sometimes they are p a r t i c u l a r people unique to the individual women entrepreneur's circumstances.  The  question I am asking is in what ways do the self-images of the woman entrepreneur influence her selection  of her corporate group?  I examine the question by f i r s t looking at the experience of my key informant and her use of experts. the reported experiences  I augment her information with  of other women entrepreneurs p a r t i c u l a r l y from  the Business Ownership for Women conference which had a workshop specif i c a l l y on this topic called 'Drafting your Professional Team'. look at the use of experts in the course of running the  I next  business.  Then 1 consider other people who can make up the corporate group. Among the people an entrepreneur interacts with is a group Barth c a l l s the corporate group (1978).  The entrepreneur must i n i t i a t e and  organize the members of her corporate group to effectuate her enterprise.  The two most common members and who take part in almost a l l  enterprises  at some point are a lawyer and an accountant.  Interest-  ingly enough, my key informant does not speak of these two experts very much.  One of the reasons is her husband i s the company lawyer and also  looks after the financial presentation in cooperation with a chartered accountant firm.  In the start-up of her business she used his exper-  t i s e and as the business grew, his role grew along with i t .  His  79  official  t i t l e i s now comptroller.  It would be extremely d i f f i c u l t  to  refuse his help i f offered during the start-up stage of her business and I am not sure she even considered involving anyone e l s e .  Failure  of her enterprise might have made his role more problematic and clearer for this p a r t i c u l a r a n a l y s i s .  The other reason is she is very guarded  about f i n a n c i a l information of any kind.  For her own reasons,  she  would not share information about the corporate structure or how i t was l e g a l l y organized above her own proclaimed role as "founder and d i r e c tor" of her fitness f a c i l i t y .  I understand from my conversations with  her that his involvement in the business has grown along with success, but that he has other business i n t e r e s t s . he a c t u a l l y receives a salary or a fee for services.  its  I am not certain i f Certainly he  shares in the p r o f i t s of the business but how he does that is between him and Revenue Canada. official  We talked only b r i e f l y about her husband's  role in the business but his importance to her emerges in the  next section  'Home Environment' and in other conversational  contexts.  Fortunately, my other informants provide more insight into using a lawyer and an accountant. At the conference  'Business Ownership for Women', a special work-  shop was organized e n t i t l e d  'Drafting your Professional Team'.  The  workshop highlighted the importance of an accountant and a lawyer to the health of the business.  The workshop leader talked about the  problems a new entrepreneurial woman has with the recruitment of these two 'experts'.  The f i r s t common problem is believing her business is  too small and expert services are not needed.  The second i s  believing  the experts think she is too i n s i g n i f i c a n t and w i l l not want to bother with her.  The t h i r d is waiting to c a l l in an expert u n t i l a serious  80  problem occurs.  The reported problems suggest women entrepreneurs do  not make proper use of lawyers or accountants, at least from the standpoint of the leaders of the workshop.  I must point out that the  leaders were an accountant and a lawyer who both specialized i n small business.  Proper use of lawyers and accountants (and other experts as  needed) is considered important in the 'How-to-Succeed-as-an-entrepreneur' books.  M. A. Winter states:  (T)he longer you delay before consulting an expert about a problem, the more complicated the problem w i l l become. You may l i e to your f r i e n d s , your spouse, or your customers; but never l i e to your lawyer or your accountant (Winter, 1980: 164)! At the workshop, one woman entrepreneur described the following experience.  The other women at the workshop appeared to identify with  her story and many nodded in s i l e n t agreement. I f e l t very fortunate because a friend who is a lawyer offered to help me. I had not been looking forward to finding someone to help get my business r o l l i n g and I jumped at his o f f e r . He said he won't charge me very much, another r e l i e f , and I r e a l l y didn't think I would use him very much. So, i t seemed perfect. Now I need him to help me with the lease I signed and he keeps putting me o f f . I know I am not a p r i o r i t y customer for him and he probably means to help me as soon as he has time, but I need him now! - not when he has time for me. I feel caught - I appreciate his offer but I need the s e r v i c e , even at his cheap p r i c e , i t i s n ' t a bargain i f I get kicked out of my shop before I even get started because he doesn't have the time to help me! From this woman's experience and the general agreement of the other women, trying to cut corners on expert services just does not work.  The  workshop leaders suggested women entrepreneurs frequently experience problems with acquiring the right kind of advisers and the blame for  81  the problem is placed on the women entrepreneurs themselves.  According  to the workshop leaders, entrepreneurial women should decide what they want in an expert and shop around for the experts who s u i t them. What other experts form part of the corporate group? informant mentions several other experts that she uses.  My key  Throughout the  course of our interview session she talks about several different kinds of experts who help her with her enterprise. The real estate agent from whom we bought our f i r s t house helped us to scout out locations for the fitness f a c i l i t y . He was very helpful and we had a l o t of stipulations on the kind of building we could make use of and then we had to be able to renovate extensively. He keeps in touch with us even when we are not a c t i v e l y looking for property. I i n v i t e him and his wife to our annual Christmas open house...I believe in loyalty to the people who help me...The communications s p e c i a l i s t I hired to help with my s t a f f problem was r e a l l y dynamite. She helped bring out a lot of areas of tension for a l l of us and her suggestions for the most part made sense not that I use everything she s u g g e s t s . . . . I bring in a special speaker once a month for our s t a f f meetings. Sometimes i t is someone talking about n u t r i t i o n or a new exercise or self-improvement - whatever I or the s t a f f - I l e t them suggest people too - find interesting or we think is beneficial to us a l l . Sometimes I organize a special course at night for our customers to take advantage of what we have learnt. I use some people regularly in this way, especially from the u n i v e r s i t y . There is a n u t r i t i o n i s t and a sports medicine professor who gives courses or talks every year. They also make use of my exercise f a c i l i t y as members. I r e l y on a l o t of repeat business. In my business you have to keep up to date and even though we read as many fitness publications as we can, these experts are an important part of my continuing c r e d i bility. She also described her attitude toward the experts' advice and informat i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the communications expert,  . . . "I pay a l o t of  attention to what they say but I do not follow b l i n d l y . am the boss".  After a l l , I  82  My key informant uses experts and so do other women entrepreneurs. Another of my informants from the conference  (see page 51) mentioned  the value of the help she got from the Federal Development Bank and and l a t e r used a consultant for strategic planning.  The experience of  using experts does not appear to be an unusual one.  Rather, i t is  the  quality and s u i t a b i l i t y of the 'expert' that appears to be a problem. Most often the entrepreneurial woman does analyze her role as the pivotal one around which she organizes a variety of experts, and t h e i r advice.  She does control the composition of her corporate group  whether she takes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for i t or not. fluences  Her self-image i n -  the kinds of experts she chooses by considering the image and  information she wants for her business.  At the same time, the s e l f -  image influences her selection by establishing who she feels comfortable with and who is available to her.  In a sense, her self-images  as  a woman, that i o , the ideal t r a d i t i o n a l images of women as accommodating and passive, taking guidance from experts as well as husbands and f r i e n d s , takes precedence over her self-images  of an entrepreneur.  The  entrepreneurial images may be in d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with the images of her other r o l e s .  She may be in doubt about which self-image  or should assert,  she wants to  p a r t i c u l a r l y in situations where she perceives con-'  f l i c t i n g role expectations.  That i s , for instance, l e t us say her  husband who is an accountant offers to help her s t a r t up her business. His offer may be expressed in such a way that she understands he has not even considered she may not want his services.  She may have wanted  a professional relationship not a personal one even i f i t i n i t i a l l y saves her money.  She may not want to r i s k a c o n f l i c t at this point but  my informants from the conference suggest i t is best to establish  83  professional  business r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; best for the business and best for  the business and personal relationships of the entrepreneurial woman. The entrepreneurial woman's self-images may make the choices of experts p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t for her especially when the self-images of herself as woman and as entrepreneur are in c o n f l i c t . The Ontario Ministry of Industry, Trade and Technology in t h e i r guide to s t a r t i n g a small business state:  "The single most important  person to a small business is the banker" (1986:  36).  The statement  is p a r t i c u l a r l y interesting because not one of my informants mentioned using a banker as a member of her corporate group.  It may be due to  the finding that women entrepreneurs either do not approach banks for financing (Schwartz, 1976; U.S. Bottom Line, 1977; Baird, 1982) and/or are turned down by banks for loans ( i b i d . ) .  It may simply be women  entrepreneurs do not consider a banker to be p a r t i c u l a r l y important or helpful to t h e i r enterprise and banks are treated as routines with little  personal  contacts.  There is one more person who I have i d e n t i f i e d that can become part of the corporate group.  It is the professional colleague whom the  entrepreneur meets in the course of j o i n i n g a professional tion.  organiza-  Organizations l i k e Women Executives and Entrepreneurs of Canada,  the Association of Independent Business Women, the Canadian Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Zonta or the Chamber of Commerce provide a group of peers to meet with, share information and 'network'.  My key informant belongs to provincial and international  fitness associations  and was the delegate for B r i t i s h Columbia to a  recent international event.  In a study done in Ontario, "most women  business owners belong to some type of association and f e l t that these  84  were necessary and useful  for purposes of information, exchange,  t a c t s , personal growth, etc."  (Baird, 1982:  11).  con-  Similar findings  were reported in the United States (U.S. Bottom Line, 1978). A natural question to ask is did any of the women entrepreneurs want to j o i n organizations or Service Clubs that did not admit women? Among a l l my informants, not one woman reported being refused admittance because of her sex.  Perhaps this is not an issue due to the fact  there are a number of organizations exclusively for women (with  visit-  ing privileges for men, l i k e the Elmwood in Toronto) and thus, women do not feel  excluded.  Or perhaps the women I spoke with had not been  refused admission to any organization they wished to j o i n .  My sense of  the general committment of women entrepreneurs is to equal access for women and they would lend t h e i r support to any woman who was prepared to make an issue of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , but there had to be more of a point to the action than just to allow women to j o i n .  That i s , the denial of  admission to an organization, Service Club, group would have to also deny s p e c i f i c social and economic opportunities. While I have scant information about what the membership in r e l e vant associations  means to the women entrepreneurs, that they choose to  j o i n and do j o i n i s a f a c t .  I assume they do so because they  some benefit from t h e i r association.  receive  If membership is valued then  active membership can be only more valued especially considering the commonly busy l i v e s of women entrepreneurs.  From my experience with  the organizers of the Business Ownership for Women conference who belonged to Women Executives and Entrepreneurs of Canada, t h e i r i n volvement was valued by at least the other members of t h e i r organization.  The conference committee was highlighted at a l l the  conference  85  main events and the committee members received extensive p u b l i c i t y along with p u b l i c i t y for t h e i r business (see Appendix 2, pg.  140).  Their self-images are enhanced by membership in the organization in at least two ways.  They receive support and confirmation of the  roles  they are performing by women i n s i m i l a r situations and by taking an active part in the organization, they receive encouragement and praise from members of the organization.  It also is a good source of p u b l i -  c i t y and advertising for t h e i r own business.  Membership in an organi-  zation provides benefits to t h e i r enterprise and to themselves personally.  It is my view that associations  l i k e the ones I have l i s t e d  could be a prime resource for the establishment of friendships, something quite different from the corporate group but a person could be a member of each group.  I talk about friends in the next situational  context, home environment.  Summary Within the context of the 'work environment' I am able to explore a variety of work related s i t u a t i o n s ,  including the home o f f i c e ,  entrepreneurial women perform t h e i r major business a c t i v i t i e s . appears most entrepreneurial women establish an o f f i c e important to the organization of t h e i r businesses. the o f f i c e  space varies with personal circumstances.  that the 'status conscious'  office  where It  space and i t  is  The actual form of While i t appears  is not important to the self-images  of the entrepreneurial women I talked with (for the most part they u t i l i z e d whatever space they had available to the best of t h e i r a b i lities),  i t is suggested that most women entrepreneurs express enhanced  self-images j u s t from having an o f f i c e .  The entrepreneurial women  86  found, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the home o f f i c e , t h e i r business r o l e .  a lack of i n i t i a l respect  The home o f f i c e can be a serious problem.  entrepreneurs appear to need to keep a dominant 'professional' mind while managing t h e i r businesses from the home o f f i c e .  for Women  image i n  The commit-  ment to the business and the entrepreneurial role needs to be as strong as the demand for t h e i r roles in the home, roles that are reinforced by t r a d i t i o n and society. The self-images of entrepreneurial women influence t h e i r behaviour in t h e i r work environment by reinforcing t h e i r new role of business person.  Their o f f i c e  does not need to be private or ostentatious but  functional and suited to t h e i r circumstances. are not committed to any p a r t i c u l a r o f f i c e standards of an o f f i c e  style but t r a d i t i o n a l  ( l i k e desk, f i l i n g cabinets, phone) can enhance  t h e i r business/professional commitment  Entrepreneurial women  self-image which in turn reinforces  their  to the entrepreneurial r o l e .  The self-images of entrepreneurial women influence t h e i r behaviour as an employer.  If t h e i r self-images do not include perspectives  on how  to be an employer and t h e i r new entrepreneurial s k i l l s do not provide them with help, then appropriate responses to t h e i r employees may be difficult.  Hoping employees w i l l work out or behave as friends is not  very r e a l i s t i c or professional.  If the self-images of the entrepre-  neurial women are unable to p o s i t i v e l y influence t h e i r behaviour with t h e i r employees due to a lack of available or suitable  'boss' images  for the women entrepreneurs, then the unflattering sexist stereotypes can lead to self-defeating ness/professional  behaviours.  Thus, substituting the busi-  images already learnt for the 'boss' images allows  the entrepreneurial women to overcome or negate the ' t r a d i t i o n a l '  '  87  unproductive stereotypical  images.  Only by adherence to a well  out business plan which includes employees, possible.  is successful  thought  performance  Otherwise luck appears to influence the performance of the  employer. The self-images of the entrepreneurial women influences t i o n of t h e i r corporate group in at least two ways.  the selec-  The f i r s t  is  by determining in t h e i r self-assessment the kind of expert and the type of information they need. self-images.  Accurate self-assessments enhance t h e i r  Secondly, t h e i r self-images influence the kind of person  they choose as expert, that i s , do they get along? able together?  Are they comfort-  While there are a number of general ways the s e l f -  images influence the decision sometimes the composition of the corporate group is determined by whether one's husband/uncle/father/brotherin-law, etc.  is an accountant/lawyer/management  specialist,  etc. and  whether for monetary or family/personal reasons the entrepreneurial self-image  does not exert enough force to refuse t h e i r help even i f the  entrepreneurs feel  they are unsuitable.  The impact of family and  friends and the interaction of the self-images are discussed in the next s e c t i o n ,  'Home Environment'.  The self-images of entrepreneurial women are enhanced, reinforced and expanded by membership in relevant organizations, l i k e the Canadian Association of Women Executives and Entrepreneurs.  The women entrepre-  neurs meet other women l i k e themselves with s i m i l a r problems and experiences.  Together they try to resolve d i f f i c u l t i e s .  For many women  entrepreneurs, the women they meet and are exposed to at meetings (and conferences),  can act as role models.  ated into t h e i r own self-images.  The role models can be incorpor-  These role models present a more rea-  88  l i s t i c standard of ' i d e a l ' behaviour that women entrepreneurs can s a t i s f a c t o r i l y emulate into t h e i r 'as i s '  life.  HOME ENVIRONMENT The demanding roles of the entrepreneurial women I met put a great deal of pressure on t h e i r l i v e s outside of t h e i r enterprise.  Canadian  studies (B. C. Survey of Women Business Owners in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986; B a i r d , 1982)  show the typical woman entrepreneur is married and  running a household.  The question I ask i s :  in what ways do the s e l f -  images of entrepreneurial women influence t h e i r behaviour in t h e i r home environment? In my discussion  'home environment' refers to a l l those areas  that  do not d i r e c t l y deal with the women entrepreneurs' business but the r e a l i t y is that the l i n e between the two is seldom clear cut. i t i s an a r t i f i c i a l d i v i s i o n I have established. which is d i f f i c u l t for my informants to make. ing where one area stops and the other s t a r t s .  Rather,  It is a d i v i s i o n  They have trouble decidI include family,  friends and the entrepreneurial woman herself in my discussion of s e l f images and the home environment.  Family includes those people l i v i n g  in a common dwelling and any r e l a t i v e s who interact with the entrepreneurial women.  Also included are household arrangements, such as  c h i l d care, housekeeping and scheduling.  'Friends' involves those  people the entrepreneurial women consider to be friends and the nature of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Here, boundaries between friends and business  associates can be extremely blurred. with the a c t i v i t i e s types of a c t i v i t i e s ,  The l a s t category ' h e r s e l f  deals  the entrepreneurial women do for themselves, the how she feels about time for herself and even  89  whether she believes she has any.  I am focusing on the feelings and  actions of my key informant augmented by conversations with other women entrepreneurs and discussions at the Business Ownership for Women conference, p a r t i c u l a r l y during a workshop c a l l e d 'Three Faces of Eve', about the many demands on a woman entrepreneur.  I begin with the  discussion on the ' f a m i l y ' . Many people see women working in the paid labour force and family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as mutually exclusive  (Luxton, 1980).  The following  discussion examines the often c o n f l i c t i n g roles of business woman, wife and mother and the feelings expressed by the women entrepreneurs in performing the r o l e s .  I ask the question, in what ways do the s e l f -  images of the entrepreneurial women influence t h e i r behaviour with t h e i r families?  I begin with my key informant who talks about the  demands of her c h i l d r e n , the help of her husband and the shared l i v i n g arrangements with her parents.  Her discourse is extracted from my  notes and I have rearranged the order of some of her comments.  It  is  to be expected that as our relationship developed, the type and depth of her personal details  increased.  90  My parents ran t h e i r own business - furniture - and as a c h i l d , I was intimately involved in the business. I saw f i r s t hand how my parents ran t h e i r business, how i t was part of our family l i f e , how we did things as a family. They were reasonably successful - good parents were actually very successful). Seriously, my mother is my role model. She took an active part in the business, juggled family responsibil i t i e s and with three kids (she has two older brothers). Throughout everything she was always - - well - a woman!...My parents must have done something r i g h t , one brother took over the family business, one brother has his own business up north and me with mine! We are a close family. We keep in touch regularly i f not d a i l y in some cases. When my husband and I were looking for THE HOUSE to l i v e i n , one of the c r i t e r i a was, i t had to be big enough for the children we planned to have, for a business office and a separate apartment for my parents. We decided to plan to have my parents l i v e with us. Almost everyday, unless something r e a l l y unusual happens, I have a before dinner drink with my parents after work. We talk over the day and the kids come with me and usually Mike (her husband) arrives in time to j o i n us. I really like i t . If they l i v e d away from us, I am so busy I don't think I would be able to see them as much. And i t is great for unexpected babysitti n g , although that doesn't happen very much, and when we go away on holidays, we know someone is there. I see my brother and his wife (my old business partner in the c h i l d minding venture) quite often. She takes an a c t i v e , i f u n o f f i c i a l part in the furniture business and he drops by the house to talk things over with my dad and mom. My other brother -:.nd his family we don't see as much, usually special t r i p s of theirs to the big c i t y or passing through to somewhere e l s e . My husband's parents l i v e in the eastern part of Canada. We don't see them very much but we make an e f f o r t to get together with them every year, especially now with the kids. My family knows my work is important to me and they support me. I give to them but they give to me too. I n i t i a l l y my key informant did not report any problems with managing family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and her business other than noting i t made for a busy l i f e .  She has always worked at some job and work is a valued  a c t i v i t y in her family.  When the subject of our conversations turned  91  to c h i l d r e n , some of her d i f f i c u l t i e s  were revealed.  Children i n t r o -  duced new demands and c o n f l i c t s with her self-image,  ones she had not  anticipated. I have always loved c h i l d r e n . I wanted to be a teacher a l l my l i f e . I was even the top education student in my graduating class but somewhere along the line I burnt out. Oh, not the kids - on the school system. After a l l those years I never taught f u l l - t i m e . My husband and I wanted kids. We l i v e d together several years and one of the reasons we got married was to have c h i l d r e n . It was a big step for me. We believe children are important to enrich family l i f e . We have two c h i l d r e n , 4 and 6, and I am not sure about more. O r i g i n a l l y we thought more than two but - well business is busy and the kids - well - i t is more demanding a l l the time. Mike (her husband) is wonderful with them - so patient with them. She t o l d me a story about a recent problem with one of her children that r e a l l y upset her.  She had driven them home and the oldest  to get out of the car.  She t r i e d reasoning with the c h i l d , she t r i e d  pleading and f i n a l l y , ordered the c h i l d out of the car. f e l t out of control and when the c h i l d s t i l l l e f t her in the car.  refused  She said she  refused to budge - she  Her husband who came home shortly after her (and  she very c a r e f u l l y explained to me that she knew he would), got the c h i l d out on the f i r s t , go.  He simply l i f t e d the c h i l d out and couldn't  understand his wife's problem.  My informant, h a l f - s e r i o u s l y ,  complain-  ed to me:  "Why can't they (her children) be as easy to manage as my  business?  I can j u s t get r i d of people who won't cooperate, with kids  i t is not so easy". Problems with the demands of children are reinforced by other entrepreneurial mothers.  One woman at the conference workshop, 'Three  Faces of E v e , expressed the c o n f l i c t i n g demands of business and 1  family.  Here her family is the nuclear family.  92  It's very hard i f you've got both a family and a business to feel you're r e a l l y measuring up and succeeding. Having to work, I feel I'm in some ways a f a i l u r e as a mother. I'd l i k e to spend more time with my kids than I'm able to. And having a family, i t ' s hard to feel you are doing your best at the business. If I attend a conference or a workshop on the weekend or stay late at night, i t means depriving my family, f a l l i n g down as a mother. And then when I am concentrating at work, i t ' s hard to free myself of my family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Like I ' l l be in the middle of talking to a customer, and suddenly i t pops into my head that we're low on t o i l e t paper at home, and I ' l l go off track trying to remember i f there's extra t o i l e t paper in the upstairs bathroom. I don't think you have to give up the family, but you have to manage i t in a d i f f erent way. You can't be the only one taking care of the children when they're s i c k . Maybe we'll have to give up some perfectionism about the household. Maybe i t ' s okay i f the children make t h e i r own dinner sometimes. No one should try and be superwoman. If you expect to put on your superwoman cape and do i t a l l , y o u ' l l make yourself crazy. The additional demands of motherhood, often considered a f u l l  time job  in i t s e l f , compete for attention with the entrepreneurial woman's business r o l e s .  It is not very easy to switch from ' i d e a l ' business woman  images to ' i d e a l ' motherhood images, especially when ' i d e a l ' motherhood images are problematic already (Roland and Harns, 1979).  The ' i d e a l '  images of motherhood influence the self-images of entrepreneurial women in dealing with t h e i r family and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i r c h i l d r e n . is'  The 'as  r e a l i t y of the entrepreneurial mothers' domestic domain c o n f l i c t s  with the 'as i s '  importance of t h e i r businesses.  some valued personal satisfactions  offers  (Baird, 1982; Schwartz, 1976)  even motherhood cannot guarantee (Sales, 1978). neur said at the conference:  The business  that  As one women entrepre-  "You spell motherhood,  g-u-i-l-t"!  Who does help entrepreneurial women in coping with t h e i r demanding life?  A crucial person i d e n t i f i e d by many entrepreneurs is t h e i r hus-  bands.  My key informant is adamant in her appreciation of her hus-  band's role in her successful  entrepreneurial performance.  I guess you could say I have a l o t of energy and I am w i l l i n g to work hard, but I have gotten tremendous support from my husband. I c a l l him the man behind the woman! He manages the business end of our company, practices law and runs a construction company (the construction company as of writing is no longer a c t i v e ) . I have his total support and input into every aspect of the business. He helps me to see problems as a series of steps to be anticipated and planned for but not without loads of heavy discussions and disagreements. We work very hard and believe in each other - i t doesn't j u s t happen. Sometimes we fight - I mean y e l l i n g and screaming - for days over an issue but we work hard at keeping our business and family lives separate. We schedule time to work out our business plans and different times for our family discussions and try to not mix up the two. I think i t helps that his immigrant parents owned and worked hard at a small business too. He understands about business from his childhood experiences and of course his own business ventures. We share a common commitment to our businesses and to our family. I think i t is important to share common philosophies about l i f e and the kinds of things you want out of l i f e . Oh, not just financial rewards - although that is nice - but other more personal rewards - l i k e s a t i s f a c t i o n with what you are doing, happiness and l i k i n g who you are. Mike (her husband) and I love each other but we care about each other too. We want each other to be happy and we are w i l l i n g to work at i t , even to the point where we might not agree about something but that is where the t r u s t and believing in the other person comes i n . I don't know i f I could say I wouldn't be in business i f Mike wasn't so supportive, but I know he makes i t a lot easier for me. Making i t easier is a message other women entrepreneurs echoed in discussions at the conference 'Three Faces of Eve'.  'Business Ownership for Women' workshop  A woman entrepreneur asked for help to involve  her husband in the demands on her l i f e . fashioned kind of guy.  She t o l d us:  "He is an o l d -  He thinks I am responsible for everything in  94  the house and the kids - dinner on the table at six every night! want to work f i n e , but I do i t on top of my other duties.  If I  He won't  exactly stop me but he refuses to cooperate in even making i t a l i t t l e easier for me.  I don't know what to do".  The women participants  volunteered possible actions they had t r i e d or heard of but she said she had t r i e d a l l of them.  The final  analysis:  get some professional  counselling help or give up her business or leave him! - not very easy choices.  Of course, we heard a very one sided version of events, but  many of the women entrepreneurs had encountered s i m i l a r and presumedly easier solutions.  difficulties  Women entrepreneurs feel  of a mate/spouse towards t h e i r business aspirations greatly  the support alleviates  demanding and often c o n f l i c t i n g role images, on the ' i d e a l ' and the is'  level of construction.  'as  Their spouses'/mates' cooperation in  support of the behaviour of the entrepreneurial women strengthens their relationship and gives the entrepreneurial women affirmation of t h e i r feminine self-images - an area that may be vulnerable to disapproval because of the masculine attributes perceived to be a part of the entrepreneurial r o l e .  The relationship can have important positive or  negative effects on the self-images of entrepreneurial women. After husbands/mates/spouses,  the most helpful person to the  entrepreneurial woman consists of hired domestic workers. workers include housekeepers,  Domestic  nannies, babysitters and cleaners of a l l  kinds.  They can have l i v e - i n arrangements or l i v e out, d a i l y or weekly  hours.  While these people are ostensibly to make the running of the  household easier for the entrepreneurial woman and her family, sometimes they can add to their problems. in nanny for her two c h i l d r e n .  My key informant employs a l i v e -  In the two years of our association  she  95  had to replace her nanny four times.  In between the times when she is  losing her nanny and before she has decided on a replacement, she t o l d me "that is always my busiest time with the business".  Of course  whether i t is the busiest or not, i t seems that way to my informant because i t is one more thing she has to worry about and i t is an important area of her l i f e , one she has strong feelings about and causes her anxiety.  She also employs a cleaning lady on a regular basis.  not report any d i f f i c u l t y with her cleaner.  She did  Presumedly the work was  satisfactory and/or not as important to her. While some entrepreneurial women do not employ outside help there is as yet no research available about whether entrepreneurial women employ more, would l i k e to employ more or do not employ domestic help regularly.  Regardless whether entrepreneurial women do or do not  employ outside domestic help they s t i l l holds.  have to manage t h e i r house-  The women participants at the workshop 'Three Faces of Eve'  were adamant i n advocating increased help from t h e i r respective family members and decreased expectations advised the p a r t i c i p a n t s :  for themselves.  A workshop leader  "(D)on't try to be a wonderwoman!  Don't  succumb to the magazine myths of superwife, supermom or supertycoon. No man i s - or is expected to be - super in a l l areas.  But a l o t of  women s t i l l buy the perfectionist image, at least on an emotional l e v e l , and s t r i p t h e i r gears trying to be wonderwoman"! The women entrepreneurs at the workshop feel both areas - home and business.  they are managers in  In business they organize t h e i r enter-  prise with a business plan and keep to schedules.  S i m i l a r l y , in t h e i r '  household the entrepreneurs have to organize and plan the maintenance  96  and the a c t i v i t i e s  of the household.  Both spheres have to be coordi-  nated and organized within the same twenty-four hour time frame. pressures of f i t t i n g a l l the various a c t i v i t i e s  The  together is a constant  source of trouble for entrepreneurial women and planning time to be with t h e i r families and not j u s t household tasks i s important to them. In the l a s t situational  context 'Time', solutions to t h e i r problems  with time are discussed in more d e t a i l .  The point that I want to make  clear here is the entrepreneurial women I talked with see themselves as responsible for the management of t h e i r households and t h e i r businesses In spite of the support or lack of i t from husbands, children and hired domestic help, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s woman's (Sales, 1978).  for the household remain the  I have not heard of any documented or verbal  accounts where men have become house-husbands with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the household s i m i l a r to house-wives' t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e .  The result  is the self-images of entrepreneurial women get tied together with the traditional  images of the housewife,  woman recognizes  even when the entrepreneurial  i t is u n r e a l i s t i c to expect so much from herself.  In  many instances the self-images of entrepreneurial women r e f l e c t unrealistic  ' i d e a l ' images of homemaker, wife and/or mother because there  is  social pressure for the women to perform those roles and a past social t r a d i t i o n which supports women's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to perform the functions of the r o l e s .  Household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  remain a problematic  area for women entrepreneurs and no easy solutions  are apparent.  Individual women entrepreneurs appear to work out i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c solutions  to t h e i r own circumstances.  Their decisions are often based  on limitations of time rather than a p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y with of female r o l e s .  ideals  Some women entrepreneurs find t h e i r friendships with  97  other women in s i m i l a r circumstances help them keep t h e i r l i v e s in perspective. In the discussion of f r i e n d s , I ask the question in what ways do the self-images of entrepreneurial women influence the selection of friends?  Entrepreneurial women often complain that they have no time  for t h e i r friends or they do not have many friends anymore. informant reports her lack of a social  My key  life.  A late night for us i s midnight and then I am wiped out the next day. We don't go out much with people who are not associated in some way with the business. We have a big party about twice a year - Christmas time and in the summer - where I try and get everyone together, old friends and business people. Other than that, we don't entertain at home very much. I have friends from university and I l i v e in the same c i t y I grew up i n , but I don't see the friends from those days very much anymore. I've noticed that our c i r c l e of friends seems to include more and more people in business or related to my work. I keep losing touch with my other friends or I find out they have moved away. I'm sorry about i t but I don't think about i t too much - I'm too busy. Her problems with friends are not unique.  Schwartz reports in her  research on female entrepreneurs when she asked the twenty women entrepreneurs with whom she did in-depth interviews,  'What advice would you  give to new entrepreneurs'? - "they emphasized the all-consuming need for money and energy, e s p e c i a l l y during the start-up period; a real interest  in the business;  the a b i l i t y to risk and s a c r i f i c e f r i e n d s ,  sports or hobbies; the need for those you l i v e with to understand them; and a continuing willingness  to modify the product or service to what  the customer wants" (Schwartz, 1976:  71 [emphasis mine]).  It is a  s a c r i f i c e and r i s k that generates c o n f l i c t i n g self-images to the women entrepreneurs.  One young successful  female entrepreneur whose goal  is  98  to make a m i l l i o n before she i s t h i r t y spoke to a group of participants at the "Business Ownership for Women" conference. I have lots of mixed feelings about myself and what I am doing. I'm real proud of what I've accomplished, and I know I never would have been able to get this far i f I hadn't focussed on my own goals and put reaching them as my f i r s t p r i o r i t y . But in doing that I had to say no to my friends and family a lot. I couldn't be there for people when they needed me because my career and schooling always had to come f i r s t . So, while I feel real proud of my accomplishments, I don't feel real good about myself as a f r i e n d . The speaker in trying to deal with her career goals i s caught in images of women as nurturing and available to friends and family without thinking of themselves (Roland and H a r r i s , 1974). been s e l f i s h .  She feels she has  She does not mention what kind of friends she does have  now but my key informant mentions the composition of her friends and some of her ambivalent feelings about her friendships. I had a l o t of trouble with one of my employees. She was one of the early instructors I hired. We became pretty close as I am with most of the s t a f f or at least I used to feel close with most of them. Anyway, I thought she and I were good friends not j u s t employer-employee. Well she began to suggest to the employees that they needed a union and better compensation i f they got injured. It got very uncomfortable for me especially because I think I am very f a i r with my employees. I t e l l them the risks at the beginning and I try not to ask them to do very many classes and I do pay the best rate in the city! It turned out her husband was r e a l l y the i n s t i g a t o r but i t was too l a t e . She l e f t and now I don't see her at a l l anymore. It has made me very cautious about expecting business friendships to be very deep. What makes i t worse is I worry about not having time for my friends but necessity forces me to associate with people who are involved with the business.  99  Entrepreneurial women are often forced to pick friends from a limited number of social  contacts.  Their involvement i n their business  makes business associates the people they do things with simply because they are there and a v a i l a b l e .  The self-images of the entrepreneurial  women suffer because they think business interests may be a poor c r i terion for picking friends and also because they believe that the kind and quality of friends are important measures of personal success.  The  women entrepreneurs worry they may have given up something important without r e a l l y making a choice.  Their enjoyment of t h e i r new found  business acumen may not compensate for the s a c r i f i c e of friendships. The lack of friendships may put additional pressures on their family to supply companionship and support.  The choice of friends from business  associates may be an appropriate strategy for women entrepreneurs. Friends drawn from s i m i l a r situations  and with s i m i l a r l i f e s t y l e s may  offer more understanding and support than even old school friends and others who do not share s i m i l a r problems. I suspect that membership in associations, along with the business networking that takes place to promote t h e i r businesses, i s a source of potential  friendships for the entrepreneurial woman, friendships  dif-  ferent i n quality from the friendships with people they work with or employees.  It raises questions that remain unanswered.  They should be  included in other research work, p a r t i c u l a r l y because entrepreneurial women report they think i t is important to j o i n associations (and because they do j o i n associations) (Schwartz, 1976; Winter, 1980; 1982)  Baird,  and because of the research by Sexton and Van Auken (1982).  one of the few studies of unsuccessful male sample),  entrepreneurs  In  (admittedly only a  they "tended to make t h e i r jobs of f i r s t or second impor-  100  tance s i g n i f i c a n t l y more often than successful ones", when asked to rank the importance of family, community and job".  Also,  "unsuccessful  entrepreneurs tended to work longer hours than successful entrepreneurs" ( i b i d . :  237).  The findings suggest over-involvement with the  business may be actually harmful to the successful performance of the entrepreneurial r o l e .  Stated another way, i f the self-images of the  woman entrepreneur are focussed too strongly on t h e i r enterprise to the exclusion of family and f r i e n d s , t h e i r business may suffer.  Conversely  then, entrepreneurial women may have an advantage over t h e i r male counterparts because of t h e i r multiple roles and self-images.  Sanford  and Donovan (1985) suggest that multiple roles are healthy for human beings so that individual self-images one r o l e .  do not become over-involved with  For example, i t has been noted that women who identify too  strongly with t h e i r mother image experience a syndrome known as the 'empty-nest' when t h e i r children leave home. depression and feelings of worthlessness  The women experience  because they have lost t h e i r  primary self-image.  They have no other comparable self-image to put in  place of t h e i r core  mother role self-image  (Bart, 1971).  The l a s t type of personal interaction I am discussing is the r e l a tionship the entrepreneurial woman has with herself.  The relationship  is manifested in the actions she takes to do the things she wants to do for herself outside of business.  A prevalent image in our society is of  the woman who s a c r i f i c e s her emotion and time to others.  Women entre-  preneurs as members of our society also hold similar images, but have an even more greedy entity to appease - t h e i r business.  I ask the  question in what ways do the self-images of entrepreneurial women influence the kind and amount of time they set aside for themselves?  101  Many women entrepreneurs see the time spent on themselves as a luxury.  Studies have shown that women often place themselves l a s t  (Bernard, 1979).  My key informant, whose business includes psychologi-  cal as well as physical f i t n e s s ,  knows there i s value in giving herself  some free unstructured and uncommitted time.  In the beginning of our  interviews, we went over her d a i l y and weekly schedules. how she f i t t e d a l l the components of her l i f e together.  She told me One of the  important points she stressed was taking time for herself.  She thought  i t was important to be good to yourself because " i f you are not good to you, how can you expect other people to be good to you"? Every Friday afternoon is my time. Three or four hours when I might do anything - go somewhere by myself, go for a run, have a f a c i a l , v i s i t a f r i e n d , or go shopping. Less than one year l a t e r she told me: Who suffers f i r s t in a woman's l i f e - "herself" - no more Fridays anymore. I'm j u s t too busy. At the time she told me she also planned to return to Friday afternoons o f f as soon as possible.  She saw i t as a temporary thing but now a  year l a t e r , she s t i l l has not worked in some regular time for herself. She t o l d me she needs a good holiday of relaxing and doing nothing soon but business  is  great.  One of the entrepreneurial soccer mothers uses a special holiday time, regularly planned every year as a treat for herself. that she and several g i r l and j u s t relax.  She told me  friends rent a cottage on one of the islands  She has been doing i t every year since high school and  with some of the same friends.  New women friends are introduced to the  group but she keeps i t to about six women total - no c h i l d r e n , no  102  husbands, no men, no pets.  She said she has a great time and credits  i t with keeping her sane.  She said she knows of other women who go o f f  on holidays together but not as regularly as the one she plans and not as deliberately r e s t f u l . Being considerate of themselves  is something women entrepreneurs  find d i f f i c u l t to do, even when they think i t is important and try to incorporate i t into t h e i r l i v e s .  My key informant when faced with an  increase i n work chose to eliminate her special time for herself rather than any other s o l u t i o n .  The image of women as s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g  is  very strong and entrepreneurial women appear to have d i f f i c u l t y with e i t h e r finding the time and/or j u s t i f y i n g the importance to and others of taking time for themselves.  themselves  In spite of the d i f f i c u l t y  of combining multiple roles and demands, women entrepreneurs do not appear to give themselves enough c r e d i t for a d i f f i c u l t job. pect more from themselves  They ex-  than they expect from anyone e l s e .  Summary The self-images  of entrepreneurial women influence t h e i r behaviour  in r e l a t i o n to t h e i r home environment by presenting the women with ' i d e a l ' images of t r a d i t i o n a l female r o l e s , such as wife and mother, that set u n r e a l i s t i c goals.  Entrepreneurial women appear to be v u l -  nerable to unnecessary g u i l t over the conduct of t h e i r family, in p a r t i c u l a r t h e i r children.  They feel  t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s deeply and  that i s consistent with prevalent societal  views.  Solutions to t h e i r  lack of time because of t h e i r business commitments do not include giving up the business talked with).  (at least amongst the women entrepreneurs I  Obviously, the business must generate images that  103  reinforce t h e i r self-esteem i n more pervasive ways than t r a d i t i o n a l roles.  Their solutions  involve hiring help and e l i c i t i n g more help  from t h e i r family members.  The d i f f i c u l t y in both solutions  is  that  entrepreneurial women s t i l l manage t h e i r household and take care of problems.  It does not appear to occur to the women entrepreneurs to  re-organize household r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  I have suggested that the con-  t r o l of the household, even though entrepreneurial women complain about i t , may be d i f f i c u l t for them to give up for other reasons and they may never r e a l l y consider giving up the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to be a viable solution.  Their self-images remain t i e d to t r a d i t i o n a l images of  women, responsible and to some extent, c o n t r o l l i n g the household. The information I have about the role of friends is limited and I feel  unclear.  For the women I talked with, friends appeared to be both  not very important and very important.  The composition and a c q u i s i t i o n  of friends is interesting but not very unusual under the circumstances. The s a c r i f i c i n g image of the ' i d e a l ' images of t r a d i t i o n a l women influences entrepreneurial women to place themselves l a s t on t h e i r list.  That i s , they give up t h e i r time for others, p a r t i c u l a r l y for  t h e i r family and consider t h e i r own needs and wants l a s t . there is a conscious  Even when  recognition of the importance of making time for  oneself, the women entrepreneurs can not seem to j u s t i f y to themselves that they deserve, on a regular basis, being good to themselves. t h e i r haste to f u l f i l l  family objectives  In  and individual family members'  needs, which the women entrepreneurs appear to feel  they can never do  enough or with enough understanding, the entrepreneurial woman puts herself l a s t on the l i s t .  She i s the f i r s t to suffer loss of her  special time i f she becomes busier at business or some other person  104  needs her attention.  The d i f f i c u l t i e s  in trying to accommodate mul-  t i p l e sets of role demands, business,  family and s e l f , are not e a s i l y  addressed by the women entrepreneurs.  Individual solutions appear to  work for individual women but the overall conditions of women entrepreneurs are s i m i l a r for many women who work in the paid labour f o r c e . , The 'as i s '  conditions may precipitate general changes i n role demands,  p a r t i c u l a r l y since the l i f e s t y l e  of the entrepreneurial women repre-  sents such d i f f i c u l t and hectic role combinations.  Women entrepreneurs  keep looking for more viable solutions without giving up t h e i r business role.  The next situational  context 'Time', addresses a way of handling  problems of c o n f l i c t i n g role r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  that entrepreneurial  women are trying to make work.  TIME The most frequent complaint of women entrepreneurs is their perceived lack of time.  F i t t i n g the r e s p o n s i b l i t i e s  of managing t h e i r own  businesses with the demands of home, family and friends leaves many entrepreneurial women wondering how they can save time or make better use of i t .  In the following discussion I establish time as an impor-  tant resource and i t s use as a business s k i l l which affects the s e l f images of entrepreneurial women.  Examples of the d a i l y and weekly  schedules of my key informant are presented along with her perception of time and how she uses i t , augmented by conversations with other women entrepreneurs.  I ask the question, how do the self-images of  entrepreneurial women influence t h e i r use of time? Immediately upon talking with any entrepreneurial woman one real i z e s she l i v e s by schedules and l i s t s .  Time i s something she cannot  105  afford to lose.  From the beginnings of t h e i r businesses women are  advised to plan out t h e i r time so that an assessment of t h e i r business potential can be seen. Time is a resource equally available to everyone, yet not everyone makes equal use of i t . Some people put t h e i r time to good use; others waste i t . Some appear to have l i t t l e or no control over this time. They often appear to be rushed, trying to catch up with events rather than a n t i c i p a t i n g them. They are the sort of people who get to the end of the day and r e a l i z e that they have been unable to see to some v i t a l matter because so many other things "came up". By contrast, people who know how to manage t h e i r time set t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s in advance and plan ahead. They know what they have to do and when they have to do i t . As a r e s u l t , the r e a l l y important tasks get done i n time (Royal Bank, 1983: 1). The goal of organizing t h e i r time to make better use of i t  is  d i f f i c u l t for women who consider t h e i r family and t h e i r business equally important.  Yet, i t is even more necessary for busy entrepre-  neurial women to plan and organize.  How do they do i t ?  My key informant gave me a typical d a i l y and weekly schedule.  One  she uses to plan out her days but she i n s i s t s that i t has to be f l e x ible.  She r e l i e s on a huge day book to block out time and keep track  of appointments and her "must do" items.  "Must do" items range from  picking up a c h i l d to meeting a business report deadline. Since my husband and I are in business, we must keep our personal, intimate roles separate from the business. Of course this is hard to do but i t is essential for good working and l i v i n g r e l a tions. What happens is we program times to be together as business partners, as lovers and friends and as a family. We have two l i t t l e boys, 4 and 6, and we need to spend time with them too. My l i f e i s organized around my appointment book. It has to be or else I w i l l forget something important - I cannot keep everything in my head. A typical weekday looks l i k e this for me. (I a r b i t r a r i l y chose Tuesday as the day she was to outline).  up at 6:30 am. My husband and I get the kids washed and dressed and ourselves. Then we a l l have breakfast together. The kids stay with the l i v e - i n nanny at our house, l a t e r she takes them to t h e i r class and sometimes they stop by my office. by 8:30 am I go to one of the two o f f i c e / s t u d i o locations (there i s only one studio location now), between 9:00-11:00 am I teach a fitness class, between 11:00-12:00 I meet with the part-time o f f i c e s t a f f and we go over business d e t a i l s , phone c a l l s , messages, problems, whatever (now there i s a f u l l - t i m e o f f i c e manager who handles many small d e t a i l s and supervises any part-time s t a f f for the office). between 12:00-4:00 pm I go to a management meeting with my husband at his office downtown (includes driving time and lunch, I may also pick up items or drop o f f items, l i k e dry cleaning, groceries, or something for the p r i n t e r ) . from 4:00-5:30 I teach another class and after the class I am available to the members of the class or whoever. from 5:30-6:30 I stay in my office to be available to people both personal and business. I return c a l l s , set up appointments, plan the next day or work on a project. Sometimes I go to the cafe to work. 6:30 - I leave the o f f i c e to go home. I pick up the kids from the nanny i f she is downtown or c o l l e c t them from my parents who look after them for the half hour or so when the nanny is o f f . I usually stop for something on the way home. I have a drink with my parents (they l i v e in a separate part of the house) and my husband usually j o i n s us. 7-ish pm i s family meal time. 8:30 pm is bedtime for the kids. I or my husband take turns getting them ready for bed and a night time story. 9:00 pm I get my clothes and the kids ready for the next day. I leave n o t e s / l i s t s for the nanny and for the cleaning lady and anyone else I can think of. I catch up on my appointment book. I sort of review i t and revise i t . Sometimes I think of things at home. I write notes to myself. 10:00 pm I bath or shower, then read or watch t e l e vision. 11:30 pm I am usually asleep by now or even sooner. I can f a l l asleep with the t e l e v i s i o n on.  107  Every Monday and Thursday I have a planning session of some kind. Every Wednesday a f t e r noon is family oriented and we spend special time with the k i d s , usually we go swimming. There are also scheduled early morning meetings with a l l the s t a f f once a month and unscheduled meetings with c l i e n t s , interviews ( p u b l i c i t y ) and researchers l i k e you (she has noticed increased interest in women entrepreneurs and she gets asked a l o t of questions because of her high public p r o f i l e and she says, "because she can't say no"!). There are also special occasions for the business which are over and above the d a i l y work. Friday afternoons were her special time when she did whatever she wanted.  Increased business a c t i v i t y has c u r t a i l e d her special time but  she wants to again allow for special time for herself soon. Saturdays I just hang out at home with the kids. We both try r e a l l y hard not to work on the weekends. My husband and I take turns spending special time with each of the kids individually. Sundays we plan a family a c t i vity. In the winter we often go s k i i n g . My work day schedule varies a l o t because of a l l the classes we offer and I have to be a v a i l able to f i l l in i f needed. The schedule is not a hard and fast rule - i t has to s u i t my needs too. After we wrote out her schedule and she read i t she exclaimed sarc a s t i c a l l y , "Yes - sort of boring l i f e t h i s woman leads" and then she wrote on the page:  "My l i f e sounds so organized and regimented and  e a s y . . . I don't breeze through, I swim upstream"!  She also commented in  a follow-up interview about the Friday afternoons and Sunday times have been f i l l e d "temporarily" with special seminars.  It seems that under  the pressure of business family time i s slowly being eaten away, despite her and her husband's commitment to t h e i r family. Women entrepreneurs are i n a constant battle with time. ready use l i s t s and organizing techniques e f f e c t i v e l y  Many a l -  and consistently.  108  Studies of women managers report that: Women use time management techniques, such as keeping a d a i l y log of jobs to be done, and organizing jobs by p r i o r i t y and scheduling jobs for times of peak energy more consistently than men do (Loden, 1985: 206). Women entrepreneurs use s i m i l a r strategies.  One of the entrepreneurial  soccer mothers hires a housekeeper and a personal shopper. she l i v e s by her l i s t s ,  for business and for the family.  She said She amazes  her friends by masterminding elaborate weekend retreats to t h e i r country house, or organizing t h e i r three children and t h e i r lessons, and entertaining r e g u l a r l y .  She admits to hiring help for everything  she can think of - from buying gourmet dinners already cooked, to gardening s e r v i c e s , to someone doing the grocery shopping and shopping for her clothes and the rest of the family. she and her husband have successful  Of course i t helps that  and profitable careers.  She feels  without her hired help she would be "overwhelmed". Another of the entrepreneurial mothers, perhaps not as wealthy or unwilling to take a s i m i l a r course of a c t i o n , decided to handle her problems with time in a d i f f e r e n t way. I took a course in time management, c a l l e d Time Mastery, because I f e l t I was going through days and weeks without getting anything done - or should I say what I wanted done. The course taught me to p r i o r i t i z e the things I wanted accomplished. It was sort of fun and didn't cost me very much. F i r s t , we made a l i s t of everything that is incomplete in our l i v e s under s p e c i f i c headings: house, c a r , body, correspondence, people, finances, c l o t h i n g . We were supposed to be s p e c i f i c and to make i t as complete as possible for right now, to go over i t again and then set p r i o r i t i e s . We used "A" for absolutely, "B" for bump i t to someone else and "C" for can i t - as in garbage. The idea was to identify some things you need to get done right away, others you can delegate and others to just abandon.  109  She said she thought the course was wonderful but her "B" category has gotten out of hand, things s t i l l need to be done. d i d n ' t r e a l l y address her circumstances.  She f e l t the course  She f e l t i t only r e a l l y work-  ed for her business work, not for her personal l i f e . figured out how to delegate a l l the "B" stuff yet.  She hadn't F i t t i n g the per-  sonal into t h e i r l i s t s and p r i o r i t i e s is a d i f f i c u l t task for women entrepreneurs responsible for planning the family as w e l l .  Learning  the s k i l l s of time management allows entrepreneurial women to experience more s e l f control in t h e i r l i v e s which results i n enhancing t h e i r images of themselves as e f f i c i e n t and organized.  At the same time,  entrepreneurial women r e a l i z e they must give up or modify other s e l f images that have to do with the other roles they incorporate into theirself-images.  Women entrepreneurs often try to do too much and expect  too much of themselves. images in t h e i r  They have a hard time l i v i n g up to the ' i d e a l '  self-images.  At a workshop on the dangers of the myth of superwoman e n t i t l e d ' E a r l i e r and Faster - The Secret Life of Superwoman'J the following l i s t of questions were asked the participants about t h e i r l i v e s . 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)  1.  Do you sleep facing towards the door so as not to waste time r o l l i n g over when the clock screams "you're late"! Are you doing the ironing at 4 AM? Is your only chance to read i s while on hold or on the throne? Do you forget who you are c a l l i n g j u s t as you f i n i s h dialing? Does unexpected company on Sunday mean no lunches or clean underwear for a week? Have you forgotten to pick up a c h i l d at Day Care because he wasn't on the 'Must Do' l i s t ?  Workshop given by Karen Fraser, owner of Women Like Me, Toronto, 1986, from her workshop notes.  no While everyone laughed at the appropriate places, there was an underlay of tension because most of the women had 'caught' themselves doing one of those items, i f not then something s i m i l a r .  Most l i k e l y the women  do not l i v e with that kind of pressure d a i l y , but i t was a regular enough phenomenon that i t was well recognized by the women present. The eagerness of the workshop participants to learn ' t i p s ' for handling t h e i r many tasks in t h e i r time l i m i t s , coupled with the b e l i e f that i f they could j u s t get up e a r l i e r or j u s t work faster they would get everything accomplished and have time for the things they r e a l l y wanted to do, was shattered.  The workshop leaders s a i d , "Do not expect your  work to reduce i t s e l f ,  you have to make conscious choices about what is  essential  to you and each woman's choices are going to be d i f f e r e n t .  Some things are going to be hard to give up". Entrepreneurial women grasp at time management as a solution to t h e i r harried l i v e s , only to find that there are only 24 hours in a day no matter how fast or long they work.  Summary The self-images of entrepreneurial women influence t h e i r use of time by leading women to believe that i f they worked harder or faster they could get everything accomplished. tations.  It sets up u n r e a l i s t i c expec-  While setting up l i s t s and planning items on a p r i o r i t y basis  is a sensible way to begin to use time e f f i c i e n t l y , the emphasis for entrepreneurial women needs to be on developing the l i s t s with the involvement of other people l i k e her family to share the tasks.  Many  entrepreneurial women believe i t is t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to organize t h e i r household, and so t h e i r self-images  suffer when they cannot  m  fulfill  a l l the needs of t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  The women who talked with me  assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y even while they complained about i t but none suggested t h e i r husbands or others should be responsible.  Most wanted  family members to help them more but the women kept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the control for themselves.  It may be the women wanted the control  elements of the situation much more than they wanted to reduce t h e i r household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  It appears that the women entrepreneurs'  images of wife and mother as household managers are very ingrained aspects of t h e i r self-images  and changing t h e i r actions to accommodate  changes in t h e i r self-images  may be unacceptable to them even at the  personal costs of chronic fatigue and constant clock watching. Using time schedules is one of the s k i l l s that gets reinforced as a highly praised business s k i l l highly praised s k i l l .  and a sign of being organized, another  The key word is  'sign' because making l i s t s ,  having a daybook and marking down appointments does not necessarily make someone organized.  The entrepreneurial self-images  are enhanced  j u s t by using the techniques of time management even i f they do not a c t u a l l y help the entrepreneurial woman control her time.  Being busy  and making use of time management s k i l l s are l o g i c a l outcomes of a woman entrepreneur's l i f e and are not necessarily unwanted characteristics.  It is almost a sign of success to have an organized ap-  pointment book f i l l e d with 'important' things to do and people to meet. The l i n e between being busy and happy, and busy and harried is c u l t to ascertain and varies from individual to i n d i v i d u a l . busy is a sign of success, no one admits to idleness. extremely stressful  to feel  diffi-  If being  It must be  time can be wasted so e a s i l y .  112  The self-images  of entrepreneurial women influence them to or-  ganize time to apparently aid themselves.  It does but i t also i n -  creases t h e i r awareness of the amount of work they could get done and p r a c t i c a l l y assures they w i l l use up a l l available tir.e. sense, i t could increase t h e i r workload. agement is an interesting and useful s k i l l abused.  One wonders how ' q u a l i t y '  every other Tuesday afternoon.  1  In that  In my opinion, time manbut one that can be e a s i l y  time can be programmed from 1-3 pm  My key informant i l l u s t r a t e s how per-  sonal and family time are the f i r s t to suffer when other demands, l i k e business, are seen as more important.  In this case, i t occurs  even when a well stated conviction of the importance of family l i f e  is  a r t i c u l a t e d and I suspect meant. We see that the business s k i l l  of time management can increase the  amount and in some instances, the quality of the work, thus enhancing the entrepreneurial/business images of the women.  Time l i s t s can show  the amount of time spent on the household and family, thus giving the entrepreneurial woman information to make some choices on a l l o c a t i n g her time but only i f she is w i l l i n g to l e t go of some of her control over the household or parts of her business.  Time s k i l l s give the  i l l u s i o n of control over her l i f e .  1.  Quality time is a concept women entrepreneurs understand as time spent usually with a c h i l d or spouse/mate where a l l t h e i r attent i o n is focused on what they are doing together. That i s , i t is time set aside to spend with a p a r t i c u l a r person without d i s t r a c tions. It is considered to be a way of making up for a l l the other time which cannot be spent with that person. The term arises from family studies l i t e r a t u r e and i t has permeated into common usage-. The term implies a special relationship where a person gives time and attention to another, especially in the case of a parent and child. See Goldzband, Melvin. Quality Time. New York: McGrawH i l l , 1985.  113  The i l l u s i o n a r y aspects of time management can deceive her into putting more pressure on herself to act f a s t e r , make choices more q u i c k l y , reduce time with her family and generally increase pressure on her to perform in a f r a n t i c e f f o r t to make 'extra' time.  Some women  entrepreneurs are able to keep up the fast pace for long periods. need the promise of a regular period of rest to keep them going.  Some The  suggestion is that the women themselves do not see t h e i r f r a n t i c pace as something they can keep up i n d e f i n i t e l y .  Women entrepreneurs a l -  ready t r y to do a great deal towards reorganizing t h e i r time and getting more done in the time available to them and that may be helpful in the short term, but they need to eliminate or t r u l y delegate some of t h e i r workload.  It seems when t h e i r time and the amount of work are  over-balanced, women entrepreneurs hire other people to help them. Women entrepreneurs are pressured to find new solutions to t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s whether they include employees for the business or employees for the home.  They force themselves to find alternative arrangements  for household maintenance or c h i l d care not because of problems with the images of t r a d i t i o n a l housewives but because they personally cannot fulfill  those obligations and because they i n s i s t the duties must be  fulfilled.  A woman entrepreneur at the conference for Business Owner-  ship for Women shall have the l a s t word:  "I think I am a strong per-  son, energetic and able to cope but I find juggling home, family and business too much sometimes. much.  It doesn't seem reasonable to juggle so  Hopefully, people l i k e me w i l l be the t r a n s i t i o n generation.  This is not viable".  114  CHAPTER III  CONCLUSION A l l of us members of transitory generations, help to create the bridge by which the past continues into the future. But i f our l i v e s are f i l l e d with s e l f - d e n i a l , self-punishment, empty rewards, i l l u s o r y goals, and the mutilations of power and obedience, then neither our l i v e s nor our legacy is worth the pain (French, 1985: 545). i French's conviction that the present generation of women are in evolving social roles i s echoed by the experience of women entrepreneurs.  Like French's transitory generation, women entrepreneurs are  hopefully retaining a bridge with the past not to return to old problematic roles but to go forward with new insight and new circumstances.  By identifying self-image as an aspect of personality we are  able to follow the changes which occur when a new role is undertaken. We are able to see the social  situation defined and dealt with in terms  of the persons who are actually involved.  In this case, we see  the  entrepreneurial role defined and dealt with by the women actually and t y p i c a l l y involved.  We can understand, by looking at the influence of  the self-images of entrepreneurial women on t h e i r behaviour, the changes that occur in the way they perceive themselves and how they think or want others to perceive them. self-image influences  Let us look at the ways the  t h e i r behaviour.  The self-images of entrepreneurial women influence t h e i r behaviour in several ways; 1) by the lack of relevant b e l i e f s ,  values or images  to incorporate into t h e i r self-images; 2) by inappropriate  beliefs,  values or images to incorporate into t h e i r self-images; 3) by the  115  presentation of c o n f l i c t i n g b e l i e f s , reinforcement of b e l i e f s , situations or contexts.  values or images; and 4) by the  values and images in p a r t i c u l a r social I am now going to examine each of the s i t u a -  tional contexts I have used and describe the influence of the s e l f images on the behaviour of the entrepreneurial women. In the f i r s t situational  context, s t a r t - u p , women entrepreneurs'  self-images influence them to examine how to become entrepreneurs.  The  entrepreneurial role is understood by them to be a role valued in society and they want to be able to understand and cope with this recently acquired r o l e .  They learn there is a 'professional'  learn how to present themselves in a professional way.  image and  With each step  of building t h e i r enterprise, they see themselves as valued because they are performing the entrepreneurial r o l e .  They acquire business  s k i l l s and learn that the ethos of entrepreneurs transcends gender. a c u l t u r a l l y shared positive self-images.  So  image i s e a s i l y incorporated into their  The image of a professional with i t s rules for behaviour  gives guidelines  for behaviour in other areas of t h e i r l i v e s .  The lack  of women entrepreneurial images provides the entrepreneurial women with the incentive to learn more about the role and because the entrepreneurial role is valued, society reinforces i t s performance. In the next situational  context, work environment, the women  entrepreneurs' self-images influence behaviour through the lack of appropriate concepts.  The images of employers available to entrepre-  neurial women are unacceptable to them because the predominant image is male and because they feel  constrained by negative stereotypical  por-  trayals of female employers which present women employers as e i t h e r ineffectual  or aggressively  rigid.  Only by relying on the  guidelines  116  of the professional successfully  image, or by luck, are women entrepreneurs able to  perform the 'boss' role that can be an important part of  the performance of the entrepreneurial r o l e . Many male business owners report problems when t h e i r business becomes s l i g h t l y too much for one person to handle since the owner/manager has not been accustomed to delegate and deal with employees. Generally, the women owner/manager researched in the l i t e r a t u r e had not been in existence long enough to determine i f this problem would e x i s t . The point is the d i f f i c u l t i e s  may have to do with inherent features  the entrepreneurial make up compounded by sexist  of  stereotyping.  In the situational context of the work environment, the s e l f images of entrepreneurial women are also influenced by acquiring an office. fessional  Their o f f i c e  can help entrepreneurial women exert t h e i r pro-  image by reinforcing business images shared by the society.  We assume the acquisition of an o f f i c e with desk, c h a i r s , f i l i n g system, phones, etc.  are the images we consider to be appropriate for a  business person.  Generally, the o f f i c e  but the home o f f i c e the home with i t s  can help entrepreneurial women  can present some d i f f i c u l t i e s .  The relatedness of  r o l e s , and the o f f i c e with i t s r o l e s , can come into  d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with each other.  The roles of wife and mother can  e a s i l y predominate because of the strong social pressures to perform the roles and because the entrepreneurial women are at home where the pressures are immediate and strongest.  Conflicts can develop  easily,  leaving entrepreneurial women confused about t h e i r choices. Choosing t h e i r corporate group does not appear to be a decision entrepreneurial women feel  they can make alone.  As we saw with my  informants, they often allow personal circumstances or haphazard  117  c r i t e r i a to influence the type and kind of corporate group they establ i s h around themselves. t h e i r corporate group.  They are often unhappy with the performance of Their d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  coupled with increased  awareness of the importance of the corporate group may contribute to t h e i r choices becoming more professionally and objectively based rather than based on the family and personal emphasis exhibited by my i n f o r mants.  If they are successful  with u t i l i z i n g a good corporate group,  the positive factors w i l l enhance t h e i r self-images and i t may encourage them to use experts.  The result is the adoption of more  business information and perhaps actual s k i l l s .  The self-images of  entrepreneurial women are influenced by the acquisition of s k i l l s and t h e i r successful  use.  professional  It takes special effort and awareness  for entrepreneurial women to counteract either the lack of or inappropriate images available to them.  The c o n f l i c t between the t r a d i t i o n a l  roles and the entrepreneurial role is not e a s i l y resolved but business accoutrements  reinforce t h e i r entrepreneurial/business  In the t h i r d situational  role.  context, home environment, the  self-  images of women entrepreneurs influence the constant underlying conflicts  between the entrepreneurial role and the images, b e l i e f s and  values of the t r a d i t i o n a l roles of wife, mother, daughter, f r i e n d . Here we see the c o n f l i c t between the roles come into continual struggle.  The solution for entrepreneurial women is to consistently  more from themselves rather than from t h e i r families or friends. social expectations about the family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  expect The  and duties that  women are expected to perform are d i f f i c u l t for women to ignore or for them to l e t go. evident.  Yet, this is the area where most stress and s t r a i n i s  118  In trying to cope with the problems in t h e i r home environment and the pressures of t h e i r work l i v e s , entrepreneurial women turn to my l a s t situational context, time.  The use of time management, a business  s k i l l , i s reinforced by professional  guidelines but i t s use can be  i l l u s o r y and increase pressures on entrepreneurial women.  It insures  that every moment is accounted for and the quantity of tasks completed over the quality of the tasks completed is emphasized.  A d a i l y appoint-  ment book becomes a recognized business tool and decisions depend on the time a v a i l a b l e .  Concentration on the business can lead to giving  up family and personal time when the self-images focus on the enterprise. My key informant i l l u s t r a t e s the family.  the c o n f l i c t between the business and  The gradual erosion of family and personal time in support  of her business is excused as temporary but evidence from my interviews with her suggests family and personal time lost is not regained. Using the techniques of time management reinforces  professional/  business self-images and can give the i l l u s i o n , i f not the a c t u a l i t y , of organized competency.  Whether i t helps reduce the stress on entre-  preneurial women and the s t r a i n of t h e i r role c o n f l i c t s , c u l t to say.  Carrying out a more e f f i c i e n t  i t is  diffi-  business is a business goal  but not at the expense of planned and needed time for personal and family goals.  If that is the case, then the entrepreneurial role is  not changed by gender; rather, the women's other roles are changed. The self-images of entrepreneurial women influence t h e i r behaviour in many ways.  The lack of images for women entrepreneurs to incorpor-  ate into t h e i r self-images is p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent at the start-up of t h e i r businesses.  Occupational roles are confused with sex  roles  119  perhaps because most entrepreneurs they know are men. confusion are the generally low self-images in our society. socialization.  Coupled with the  women have for themselves  Their problems are compounded by reinforcing sex-role Women entrepreneurs feel  they should be and are ex-  pected to be entrepreneurs in addition to t h e i r other ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' roles (wife, mother, e t c . ) .  In f a c t , evidence from my informants  suggests that only being an entrepreneur is never enough.  They must be  good wives, mothers, and so on to be considered worthy in t h e i r own self-images.  Their confusion over the kind of image to project i s  compounded by t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n about feminine roles and the b e l i e f they (because they are women) are not suitable for business enterprises.  Characteristics l i k e aggression and self-confidence  seen as male not female endowments.  are  Hence women perceive themselves  i n i t i a l l y unable to cope with business.  During start-up they i n i t i a l l y  doubt t h e i r own experience and defer to others on decisions and d e f i nitions of s i t u a t i o n s , t h e i r self-image),  but as they gain more confidence  (which enhances  they learn to trust t h e i r perceptions.  Entrepre-  neurial women I talked with appear to largely ignore sexist stereotypes but are not free of t h e i r influence ( l i k e the 'boss' also use s e x i s t stereotypes to t h e i r advantage:  images).  They may  for example, the idea  of a woman business owner as a novelty (see page 58).  A common t r a i t  of entrepreneurs is turning problems into advantages. We cannot escape noticing that women are e s p e c i a l l y subject to the dilemma of 'packaged' choices. f l i c t i n g expectations,  Not only are they reared with con-  but they also confront ambiguous structures that  often force them to choose among a number of desired goals and undesired r e s u l t s .  It is p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t for women to build strong  120  bases in both the domestic and the work/public spheres where decisions in one sphere l i m i t the range of options in the other. b u i l t into the structure of t h e i r choices:  Trade-offs are  whether a woman opts for  work, motherhood or some combination of the two, she accepts the costs of what is foregone as well as the benefits of what is chosen (opportunity costs in the language of economics).  In t h i s sense, women face  a set of dichotomous choices in which work and family commitments are posed as competing, alternative commitments. decisions are inextricably linked.  Their work and family  The choices in one sphere depend on  the opportunities, incentive and constraints in the other.  Entrepre-  neurial women may choose the entrepreneurial role because i t offers i l l u s i o n of combining choices in both spheres.  Their c o n f l i c t s  the  between  roles do not go away but take on more internal rather than external expectations.  The r e a l i t y of women's s o c i a l i z a t i o n for roles is more  acutely defined and the r e a l i z a t i o n that personal pressures are as great as social ones.  The self-images of entrepreneurial women i n f l u -  ence the choices they make in each sphere and while we may not be able to f o r e t e l l each choice, we are able to understand by including the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment, the circumstances impinging on them.  IMPLICATIONS In t h i s section I want to discuss two aspects of self-image which emerged from my research.  The f i r s t discussion centres around s e l f -  image as i l l u s i o n ; that i s the self-image may not always r e f l e c t objective conditions accurately.  The second discussion looks at s e l f -  image as an important element in improving the status of women.  121  Self Image as I l l u s i o n A l l media work us over completely. They are so pervasive in t h e i r personal, p o l i t i c a l , economic, aesthetic, psychological, moral, ethical and social consequences that they leave no part of us untouched, unaffected, unaltered. The medium is the massage. Any understanding of social and cultural change is impossible without a knowledge of the way media work as environments...Media, by a l t e r i n g the environment, evoke in us unique ratios of sense perceptions. The extension of any one sense alters the way we think and act - the way we perceive the world...Environments are i n v i s i b l e . Their ground r u l e s , pervasive structure and overall patterns elude easy perceptions (McLuhan and F i o r e , 1967: 20, 41, 84). In our society the media can interpret for us the way we see our socio cultural environment and our individual place in i t .  The per-  vasiveness of media interpretation leaves us vulnerable to incorporating i d e n t i t i e s and roles (self-images) tive reality.  that may not resemble objec-  We must pay attention to Marshall McLuhan's warning to  look c l o s e l y at the "ground r u l e s , pervasive structure and overall patterns" ( i b i d . , 1967) of our environment in order to see beyond the immediate and readily available images - images perhaps based on illusion. There are two types of i l l u s i o n s I want to refer to in r e l a t i o n to the self-image.  One is the i l l u s i o n based on the kinds of images  presented about women in our society and the other is the i l l u s i o n of choices.  In each discussion I w i l l describe the i l l u s i o n and then  relate i t to the self-images  of women.  Can we trust the dominant images presented about women in our society?  I have stated e a r l i e r in this thesis that women are portrayed  as stereotypical creations in most media presentations.  Groups l i k e  122  MediaWatch, based in Vancouver, have spent enormous amounts of time and energy in describing and documenting images of women that are false or at best, misleading.  For example, in t h e i r visual presentation,  ' K i l l i n g Us S o f t l y ' , based on advertisements extracted from t e l e v i s i o n and magazines, a prevalent image presented of women is as an impeccably groomed housewife overly concerned with clean f l o o r s , clean clothes and male s h i r t c o l l a r s .  The images do not r e f l e c t the objective r e a l i t y of  most women's l i v e s .  If that is t r u e , and one suspects that given the  impact of the media on the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l environment, then the images women hold to be true and the expectations  they have of themselves,  are  based on i l l u s i o n s . What kind of impact does that have for women in our society? women to be blamed or praised for discovering and revealing the  Are  illu-  sions? Psychologist J . Bardwick (1979) reports we achieve identity and self-esteem (components of self-image) agrees is important. is.  when we accomplish what everyone  It is easier the more s p e c i f i c the goal or task  Once women began to question the accomplishments that structured  t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s , new accomplishments had to surface to f i t new norms and to challenge the old norms.  She writes "(W)hen old norms are given  up, we are freed from the r e s t r i c t i o n s of t h e i r obligatory responsibilities (1979:  but we are not freed from our need to construct an identity" 24).  Therefore, the media interpreted images are able to  fill  the void resulting from the rejection of the old norms and the lack of relevant new images. Bardwick further defines women's current struggles with images as "a revolt against the l i m i t a t i o n s women imposed upon themselves when  123  society created an insane 'normalcy'" (1979:  25)  for women.  Women  questioning the roots of the images presented about themselves f a l t e r against a society comfortably run by male interests.  One result  is  that ambitious women identify with male success and male attitudes (Zellman, 1978). real about  Another is that women have l o s t a sense of what i s  themselves. In a sense we have l o s t contact with the feminine in ourselves. We are f a m i l i a r with the masculine. We are well practised in the a b i l i t i e s with which we deal with outside matters. But the feminine, or the subjective, of everyone is lost from experience i s untutored, undeveloped, unperceived. As long as we ignore or pay only f l e e t i n g attention to our emotional processes and internal states, in a quite real way we w i l l not know what we are (Bardwick, 1979: 182).  The i l l u s i o n s presented by society about women are a disservice to women, especially now while women are struggling to define themselves in t h e i r own terms.  Women are p a r t i c u l a r l y vulnerable because our  society is male dominated.  Women have few reasons to trust the i n -  s t i t u t i o n a l structure of our society,  p a r t i c u l a r l y when i n s t i t u t i o n a l  .esponse to women's problems only gives the i l l u s i o n of helping women. An example is the United Way involvement with the issue of battered women.  124  Institutions - for example, the United Way - begin with mainstream social science approaches, t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l theories, and bureaucratic perspectives (based on the former approaches and theories) and define wife battering as individual pathology and faulty interaction within the i n v i o l a t e i n s t i t u t i o n of the family. They do not deem women's experience of wife battering to be worthy of analysis and action on i t s own terms, nor do they accord status or respect to those who do, i . e . feminists and a c t i v i s t s . What follows from this approach is a d e f i n i t i o n of the issue as a family violence, subsuming women's experience into a more general frame, worthy of "public" i n t e r e s t ; a d e f i n i t i o n that obscures who is doing what to whom; that reframes p o l i t i c a l issues as social problems, thus minimizing the inherent structural challenges; that f i t s more closely the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s and the state's existing problem-solving apparatus; and that u l t i mately makes women's situations i n v i s i b l e . This approach e f f e c t i v e l y serves to protect the status quo, the existing p o l i t i c a l system, and i t s structures and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Institutions can do a l l this without appearing to be acting out of s e l f interest which, of course, is what they are doing. Rather, they give the appearance of being f a i r and responsive upholders of the greater good - including women's" (Barnsley, 1985: 73). Barnsley openly distrusts the i n s t i t u t i o n a l structure of our society and doubts that choices made within the system are real choices. Lobbyists for women's concerns are put in a position of tinkering with the existing legal and l e g i s l a t i v e frameworks and accepting the state's agenda and timet a b l e , rather than working towards fundamental change that is in women's i n t e r e s t s . . . I n the process we (women) are in danger of losing sight of the fact that fundamental change is indeed necessary, and we're in danger of s e t t l i n g for short-term, inadequate and reversible gains as ends in themselves ( i b i d . : 89). While Barnsley describes the i l l u s i o n of help from i n s t i t u t i o n s , coupled with what Schrank (1977) c a l l s pseudo-choices, that i s a choice where the boundaries of the choices are c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d , Bardwick (1979) illuminates the personal deception that occurs when old norms and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are rejected or ignored to gain personal freedom.  125  The movements (feminism, the human potential movement and the sexual revolution) of this decade express our (women's) yearning for the things we have not done, the opportunities we have not had, the experiences we have not known. There is the i l l u s i o n that l i f t i n g limitations w i l l make us free and there is a denial that freedom is r e a l l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to decide what we w i l l do. There is very l i t t l e awareness that things are l o s t and things are gained in every committment (Bardwick, 1979: 25). Bardwick points out the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of choice but for many women, the problem i s not lack of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but that women accept too much personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r choices, even when they r e a l l y did not have legitimate choices before them.  Women are p a r t i c u l a r l y  vulnerable to the i l l u s i o n that they are able to make real  choices  which d i r e c t t h e i r l i v e s but most often, women make 'pseudo-choices'. Freedom exists only in the presence of choices, but i t does not follow that the presence of choices creates freedom. Some choices contribute only to the i l l u s i o n of freedom; these we w i l l c a l l pseudo-choices. A pseudo-choice should not be confused with the absence of choice. A pseudochoice is a real choice exercised by a person using what is commonly recognized as free w i l l , but the choice has c a r e f u l l y controlled boundaries that often exclude what the person choosing r e a l l y wants (Schrank, 1977: 11). Women find themselves subject to the unintended results of choices that were supposedly freely made. Perhaps an example w i l l  illuminate the discussion.  image in our society for women is motherhood.  The dominant  Women respond to the  pressure of society and for one reason or another, 'choose' to have children.  The necessity for a woman to work for a wage takes her away  from her c h i l d r a i s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at home. for her c h i l d . sive.  She seeks childcare  There is either nothing available or i t is too expen-  She i s t o l d :  she 'chose' to have children and they are her  126  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and/or she 'chose' to go to work and childcare is her responsibility.  In any event, in a long l i n e of  pseudo-choosing,  perhaps even starting from the event of conception of the c h i l d ,  the  woman has l i t t l e control over her choices and must take the f u l l  re-  sponsibility.  Further, i f anything psychological or physical happens  to the c h i l d , that too is because of her choice and i t is her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  ultimately  At the same time, the decision not to have c h i l -  dren or abort is viewed as unnatural, irresponsible and s e l f i s h . Many women find they must choose between career and parenthood goals, even when that i s , in many cases, not a p o s s i b i l i t y .  I suspect,  and my research on women entrepreneurs suggests, women want to be able to combine both career and parenthood.  The i l l u s i o n of choice sets  women up for bearing the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the results of t h e i r pseudochoices, even when they have l i t t l e control of the boundaries of t h e i r choices and the  outcomes.  SELF-IMAGE AND STATUS OF WOMEN In t h i s s e c t i o n ,  I discuss self-image  as an important element in  improving the status of women. Self-image emerges from the research as an important component inherent in the choices entrepreneurial women make in r e l a t i o n to their l i f e strategies.  A l o g i c a l assumption can be made that self-image  will  be equally important to other groups of women, p a r t i c u l a r l y in career choices. cal  One of the disappointing results of the present  socio-politi-  climate of Canada is the lack of s i g n i f i c a n t numbers of women  attaining i n f l u e n t i a l positions 1982).  in our society (Brodie and Vickers,  The consequences for women result in them being v i s u a l l y and  127  accurately i d e n t i f i e d as a disadvantaged group, more l i k e l y to be poor and remain poor in t h e i r lifetime  (Not Enough, 1983).  Women are t r u l y in a 'no man's land' with few refuges in sight. Caught between the ideal images of mother/wife sheltered by a father/ husband, and the ideal images of career women; women's actual (and even t h e i r possible  reality  r e a l i t y ) does not even come close to approxi-  mating the ideal images.  Individual s t r i v i n g towards either of the  ideal images automatically comes with arguments d e t a i l i n g the  unpleas-  ant i r r e v e r s i b l e consequences associated with either of the ideal image's l i f e s t y l e .  Bound up in the choices is the self-images of the  women. The way we perceive our world, make our choices and conduct ourselves i s based on the things we learn through contact with our sociocultural environment.  Our beliefs about ourselves (our self-images)  are reinforced, muted or discarded by interaction with those around us. It is possible  for erroneous beliefs to be perpetuated.  Perhaps a way to understand the complexity of the problem for women is to recognize the importance of the self-image in making l i f e choices.  To say the social and cultural forces  impinging on women are  different from men ( i f not in kind, in quality) is perhaps t r i t e but no less true.  A more detailed analysis of self-image in r e l a t i o n to  life  choices may reveal answers to status of women issues that the vote, the access to the labour force, the reawakening of women's past have f a i l e d to accomplish.  Men as well as women could benefit from a better under-  standing of t h e i r combined cultural heritages in r e l a t i o n to t h e i r self-images and in t u r n , how t h e i r c u l t u r a l l y derived self-images influence t h e i r behaviour.  128  BIBLIOGRAPHY Acker, Joan; Kate Barry and Jake Esseveld. "Objectivity and Truth: Problems in Doing Feminist Research". Women Studies International, 1983, 6(4): 423-435. Adorno, T . W . ; E. Frenkel-Brunswick; D. J . Levinson and R. N. Sanford. The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper, 1950. Agarwal, Vinod K. I n i t i a t i v e , Enterprise and Economic Choice in India. India: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1975. A i t k i n , H. (ed.) Explorations in Enterprise. University Press, 1965. 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Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies . New York, William Morrow, 1935. Ministry of Industry, Trade and Technology. Entrepreneurship and Small Business in Ontario: A Discussion Paper. Toronto: Queen's Park, 1986. Munt, E. D. ed. Small Enterprise Entrepreneurship in Canada. Red River Community College, 1982. Murphy, Robert. The D i a l e c t i c s of Social L i f e . University Press, 19.71.  New York:  Myral, Gunnar. O b j e c t i v i t y in Social Research. University Press, 1969.  Connecticut:  Winnipeg:  Columbia Weskyan  Nelson, Fiona. "Sex Stereotyping in Canadian Schools", ed. G. Matheson, Women in the Canadian Mosaic. Toronto: Peter Martin, 1976: 167-182. Nelton, Sharon. Sons, 1986.  In Love and in Business.  New York:  John Wiley and  Not Enough. The Meaning and Measurement of Poverty in Canada. Council on Social Development, Ottawa: 1984.  Canada  133  Not Enough. The Meaning and Measurement of Poverty in Canada. Canadian Council on Social Development, 1983.  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Toronto: Publications, 1980.  Every Waxwing  Women and the Canadian Labour Force, proceedings and papers, Ottawa: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1982. Wylie, R. 1961.  The Self-Concept.  Lincoln:  University of Nebraska Press,  Y i n , Robert K. Case Study Research, Design and Methods. Applied Social Research Methods Services, volume 5. C a l i f o r n i a : Sage Publications, 1974. Zellmain, G a i l . "Prejudice and Discrimination", ed. Irene F r i e z e , Women and Sex Roles. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1978: 279Zimmerman, Jan. Once Upon the Future. A Woman's Guide to Tomorrow Technology. London: Pandora Press, 1986. Zkolnik, Michael L. "Toward Some New Emphases in Empirical Research on Women and the Canadian Labour Force", Women and the Canadian Labour Force, proceedings and papers, Ottawa: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, 1982.  APPENDIX 1 (continued) Province of British Columbia WOMEN'S PROGRAMS A SURVEY OF WOMEN BUSINESS OWNERS A business owner i s a wcrran who c o n t r o l s a f i rm by reason o f e x c l u s i v e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p , p a r t n e r s h i p or shareholding. Examples of such a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e owning a c o n s t r u c t i o n ccuqaiiy o r a beauty s a l o n , s e l l i n g o n e ' s own inventory door t o door, o r producing p o t t e r y o r c r a f t s i n o n e ' s own heme for s a l e . The woman business owner operates as an executive p o l i c y maker and r e c e i v e s f i n a n c i a l remuneration from her business a c t i v i t y . 1.  Please check one business category which most c l o s e l y d e s c r i b e s the a c t i v i t y o f your business (CHECK ONE).  n  2 . Mining  n e. Wholesale trade n 7 . R e t a i l trade  3. C o n s t r u c t i o n  Be.  Finance, Insurance, Real E s t a t e  4. Manufacturing  n9.  Service  5. Transportat i on  flio.  Other (SPECIFY)  1. A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t r y , F i s h i n g  2.  What type of business i s i t (WRITE I N ) i (Examplei income tax preparation)  3.  What i s the l e g a l s t a t u s of the business (CHECK ONE): D  1. Sole p r o p r i e t o r s h i p unincorporated Q 4 . C o - o p e r a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n  fl 2. P a r t n e r s h i p General  fl  Q 3. P a r t n e r s h i p L i m i t e d 4.  r e s t a u r a n t , dry c l e a n e r s ,  5. Own 50% o r more o f the s t o c k Q 6. Own l e s s than 50% o f the stock but a majority shareholder  For how many years have you been an owner/co-owner o f t h i s businesst  Mow many people work i n the business a t the present time (WRITE IN THE NUMBER): 1. F u l l - t i m e owners o r partners 2. Part-time owners o r p a r t n e r s 3. F u l l - t i m e tmployees 4. Part-time employees (A p a r t - t i n e person works 30 hours a week o r l e s s . ) I f yours i s a seasonal business, i n d i c a t e the lowest as w e l l as peak number o f employees (EXCLUDING OWNERS AND PARTNERS) i n the moat recent f i s c a l y e a r : 1. 2. 7.  Lowest f u l l - t i m e Peak f u l l - t i m e  3. 4.  lowest p a r t - t i m e Peak p a r t - t i m e  What was the gross d o l l a r volume of the business (BEFORE TAXES AND EXPENSES) i n the most recent f i s c a l y e a r : U  1. Less than $49,999 per year  H 2. $50,000 t o $99,999 per year 3. $100,000 t o $249,999 per year  Q 5. $500,000 t o $999,999 per year D 6. $1,000,000 t o $1,999,999 U 7. Over $2,000,000 per year  4. $250,000 t o $499,999 per year B.  What was the gross d o l l a r volume o f the business (BEFORE TAXES AND EXPENSES) i n your best f i s c a l year: D  Less than $49,999 per year  D 5.  $500,000 t o $999,999 per year  D 2.  $50,000 t o $99,999 per year  D 6.  $1,000,000 per year t o $1,999,999  fl  3.  $100,000 t o $249,999 per year  D 7.  Over $2,000,000 per year  D  4.  $250,000 t o $499,999 per year  1.  APPENDIX 1 (continued)  9.  What type of premises does your business use (CHECK ONE)i  LI i.  your awn house  0 3. owned premises other than your home  13 2. Kented premises  4. Other(SPECIFY)  lO. When you decided to tiecaie a business owner, what were the three post important euurces of financing ( L I S T IN DESCENDING CUDER OP IMFOHTANCEi 1-roost important. 3- least ln^jortantji 1. Your personal savings 2. Your family savings 3. Private financing (e.g. loans from frieids or family) 4. Bank or other camerclal loan  5. _____ 6, 7. 8.  Goverrrent loan Equity financing Goverrment grants Other(SPECITY)  11. When you decided to becone a business owner, did you use any of the following business advisors (CHECK AS MANY AS APPLY)i i. Lawyer D 2. Accountant n 3. Business development service (e.g. narkettng, advertising) n 4. Provincial goverinent services  u  U 5. Federal government service  D « . Experienced business person Other(SPECIFY) n U 8. None  12. Have yuu used any business advisors in the course of riming the business (CHECK AS MANY AS APPLY) i H i.  Lawyer  II 5. Federal government service  0 2. Accountant  0 6. Experienced business person  Q 3. Business development service (e.g. Marketing, advertising)  D 7. Other(SPECIFY) D a. None  Q 4. Provincial government service  13. In planning air) operating the business, have you used any of the following sources of business education (CHECK AS WW AS APPLY)i 0 1. Oonnunity college or university courses D 2. Adult education courses offend through local school boards D . 3  Goveriment agency courses Nane of agency  0 4. Business association courses Name of association — D 5. Televised business instruction D . Correspondence courses  Q 7. Government publications u  8. Bocks and sagastnea U 9. Other(SPECIFY)  6  10.  APPENDIX 2 (continued)  141  B U S I N E S S O W N E R S H I P FOR WOMEN C O N F E R E N C E '86 WORKSHOP  LEADERS  Basics of Business Ownership F r i d a y , September 5 A.  Exploring Options Linda Reader  B.  The Business Plan E i l e e n Sherwood  C.  D.  - Should I Take t h e Plunge? - M a r k e t i n g Management S e r v i c e s  - Federal  Business  Development  Start-Up Financing S h e r r y F o t h e r i n g h a m - R o y a l Bank Donene Lashbrook - Lashbrook C o r p o r a t e Inc. S t a r t i n g O u t / S e t t i n g Up Yvonne B l a n d / B e t t y Horton Sarmite Bulte - Barrister  Graphics  - Thome Ernst & Solicitor  Marketing Strategies T e r r y Green - Terry Green I n s i g h t s I n c o r p o r a t e d S h e r r y Brydson - The Brydson Group I n c .  F.  C o s t i n g f o rYour N e i l Walker  of Industry,  Trade  G.  D r a f t i n g Y o u r P r o f e s s i o n a l Team Barbara Gory, Chartered Accountant L i n d a B e r t o l d i - Day, W i l s o n , Campbell  H.  Three  Faces Hilary  of Eve Freeman - Family  Services  Advertising  & Whinney  E.  Business - Ministry  Bank  & Technology  Association  I.  C r e a t i n g an Image f o r Your Business Sandra Matheson - Bernard & A s s o c i a t e s C o n n i e E i d e / J a n e B a r b e r - B a r b e r , E i d e fc A s s o c . I n c .  J.  H i r i n g t h eR i g h t Person Linda Geluch - M i l i n Resources G a i l Hamilton - Hamilton & Associates  142  APPENDIX 2 (continued) B U S I N E S S O W N E R S H I P FOR WOMEN CONFERENCE WORKSHOP  Beyond the B a s i c s Saturday, September K.  '86  LEADERS  6  Taking Stock P h i l l i p Daniels - Stephenson K e l l o g g Ernst Ginger Eisen - Ginger's Bath  M.  Financing For Expansion Gordon Sharwood - Sharwood & C o . J o - A n n e Raynes - L l o y d ' s Bank Canada  N.  C o m p e n s a t i o n Management Donna B a p t i s t - D.J. B a p t i s t & A s s o c i a t e s David Tyson - David Tyson & A s s o c i a t e s  0.  G r o w i n g U p / L e t t i n g Go David Riches - Thome Judi Argue - Colours  Ernst  & Whinney  6 Whinney  P.  How t o D e v e l o p New M a r k e t s T e r r y Green - Terry Green I n s i g h t s I n c o r p o r a t e d Emelia Franks - Emelia Franks Foods Inc.  0.  G e t t i n g and Keeping C l i e n t s P h i l l i p e Denichaud - P e r f o r m a n c e Management International  R.  A d v e r t i s i n g and Promotion Shari Ferris - Advertising Consultant Linda Strachan - V i c k e r s & Benson  S.  Strategic Planning Larry Ginsberg  - The G i n s b e r g  Group  Organization, Inc.  T.  Using  a Board o f D i r e c t o r s Barbara C a l d w e l l - Cleanwear Products David Gallagher - Gallagher & Associates  V.  F a m i l y Law A c t , 1 9 8 6 : T h e I m p a c t on Y o u r B u s i n e s s Barbara McGregor - O s i e r , Hoskin & H a r c o u r t Nancy C h a p l i c k - O s i e r , Hoskin & H a r c o u r t  W.  T h e P r o f e s s i o n a 1 as E n t r e p r e n e u r Jane Harvey - Jane Harvey & A s s o c i a t e s P h i l l i p e Denichaud - Performance Management International  Group  143  APPENDIX 2 (continued)  Barbara N. Gory, B. Com.  CHAPTERED ACCOUNTANT  S u i t * 3 0 1 . S O u n o l o o r Ro»a  tabngcan,  NOTES ON  -  Ont*rrO M S A  "HOW TO CHOOSE A CHARTERED ACCOUmANT ' FOR BUSINESS OWNERSHIP FOR WOMEN SEMINAR 1  SEPTEMBER 5, 1986  I.  WHEN TO CHOOSE YOUR C.A. VERY BEGINNING - "GLEAM I N YOUR EYE STAGE" ADVICE ON: BUSINESS STRUCTURE - LTD. CO VS UNTNCDRPORATOJ : BUSINESS PLAN : START-UP FINANCING PROPOSALS (GO WITH YOU TO BANK) : GOVT. FORMS - EMPLOYER REGISTRATION, WORKERS" COMP., SALES TAX LICENCE : ACCOUNTING SYSTEM/HIRING ACOXJNTING STAFF : FINANCIAL AND TAX CONSEQUENCES OF AGREEMENTS LEASE, FRANCHISE AGREEMENT  II.  HOW TO DEVELOP YOUR "SHORT L I S T " ENTHUSIASTIC REFERRAL FROM OTHER BUSINESS OWNER ALSO REFERRALS FROM - LAWYERS, BANK MANAGERS, INSURANCE BROKER IMPRESSED BY ARTICLE/SPEECH  III.  SEA  (416)239 1 2 4 3  WHAT TO ASK A C.A. AT YOUR FIRST MEETING - WHAT ARE YOUR "AREAS OF INTEREST" ( WILL YOU BE AN IMPORTANT CLIENT)? - HOW MUCH TIME DO YOU FEEL YOU NEED TO SPEND ON PROFESSIONAL DEWELPOMENT (» TO KEEP UP TO DATE) AND HOW DO YOU ACCOMPLISH IT? - WHERE DO YOU GO FOR EXPERTISE BEYOND YOUR OWN (E.G. RESOURCE PEOPLE FOR COMPLEX TAX OR ESTATE PLANNING IUOULEMS, COMPUTER DECISIONS, LAWYERS, INSURANCE ADVISERS, INVESTMENT ADVISORS)? - HOW ACTIVE ARE YOU IN YOUR PROFESSION / I N BUSINESS OI<GANlZATIONS? IN COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS? - HOW MUCH DO YOU CHARGE - FOR YOUR TIME, FOR YOUR STAFF, I S THERE ANY DIFFERENCE FOR DIFFERENT KINDS OF WORK?  144  APPENDIX 2 (continued)  - 2 WHAT TO ASK YOURSELF AFTER MEETING THE C . A . :  IV.  - D I D T H E OFFICE SEEM WELL ORGANIZED, REASONABLY PROSPEROUS? - WERE H I E S T A F F PLEASANT, DID THEY APPEAR TO BE E F F I C I E N T ? - D I D '11 IE C . A . LISTEN TO ME/SHOW AN INTELLIGENT I N T E R E S T IN MY B U S I N E S S A N I ) H A V E SOME KNOWLEDGE O F M Y NEEDS? - 1)11) T H E C . A . (XmJNICATK EASILY - NO UNEXPLAINED JARGON, No PATRONIZING REMARKS - D I D T H E C.A. E N C O U R A G E ME TO ASK QUESTIONS? - MOST IMPORTANT, WAS THE CHEMISTRY RIGHT? WHAT KINDS OF HELP CAN I EXPECT FROM MY C . A . ?  V.  - ACCESSIBILITY TO ANSWER QUESTIONS - ACQ X JNTLNG/AUDITING SERVICES - PROBABLY NOT AUDIT FOR a/NER-MANAGED BUSINESS - B U S I N E S S A D V I C E - KNOWLEDGEABLE A B O U T YOUR BUSLNESS, O B J E C T I V E (SUCH THINGS AS PRODUCT COSTING, NEGOTIATIONS, STRATEGIC PLANNING) - ADVICE/HELP IN DEVELOPING P R O P E R ACCOUNTING S Y S T T M - IKCJT-1IT, A C C U R A T E , USEABLE INFORMATION ESSENTIAL - MANACIMlHi U J N T R O L S - INSTRUCTION OJ' ACCOUNTING S T A F F / H I R I N G ASSISTANCE -  HM<E(ASTS  d BUDGETS  -  FINANCING  PROPOSALS -  -  T A X I'I A N N I N G  YL  B A N K S 1* O T H E R S / C O V T . A S S I S T A N C E  - YOU AND THE BUSINESS (SALARY AND D I V I D E N D M L X , CAR ALLOWANCES) PERSONAL FINANCIAL PLANNING ATIENDANCE AT TAX AUDITS EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION (SALARY LEVELS, PROFIT SHARING, COMPANY CARS) INSURANCE REVIEW INCLUDING WORKERS' COMPENSATION COVERAGE FOR CWNERS/OFFICERS BUYING/SELLING BUSINESS OR TAKING IN PARTNER/SHAREHOLDER  HOW CAN I GET T H E B E S T VALUE FROM MY C . A . ? -  Ix) ROUTINE WORK YOURSELF - CALL C.A. FOR HELP  -  HAVE  -  RCIDRT  -  NOTIFY  R E A D Y BEFORE C.A. COMES IN ANY DIFFERENCES ON TAX ASSESSMENTS FROM FIGURES F I L E D WITH RETURNS I F T A X AUDITOR COMING - NEVER SIGN ANYTHING AT T A X  SCHEDULES  A U D I T WITHOUT A S K I N G  C.A.  - lXJN'T D E M A N D UNREASONABLE SERVICE - C.A. SHOULD TRY TO IN URGENT SITUATIONS IF POSSIBLE - K E E P C . A . INFORMED (E.G. IF BUYING EXPENSIVE COMPUTER) - DON'T TRY IX) HIDE INFORMATION. BE HONEST.  B a r b a r a N. G o r y . B C H M I t *aa  ACCOUNI  »Nt  Com.  HELP  WOMEN  yiExecutives  146  APPENDIX 3  C.tmiuliu AsSIKVlll  uj 11 iiiiic Exfcnlii  OCTOBER 1986  CRISIS DIFFUSED BUT INSURANCE PROBLEMS REMAIN By Ubbie Jennings The audience at the August 14 dinner meeting was in a f e i s t y mood. Many were business owners who wanted to know why their l i a b i l i t y insurance premiums had jumped so dramatically. Others were concerned about the s o c i a l impact of l i a b i l i t y insurance costs on day care and recreational programs. Premier David Peterson opens Business Ownership for Women Conference '86  BUSINESS OWNERS CONFERENCE A TREMENDOUS SUCCESS! By Patricia Collins A look of amazement f l i c k e r e d across Premier David Peterson's face when he f i r s t saw the huge breakfast audience gathered to hear his opening remarks at our third annual Business Ownership for Women Conference, held September S and 6 at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre. More than 500 women were there on Friday to learn about the basics of business ownership, and about 300 (some attending both days) came on Saturday for the advanced workshops. The conference was co-sponsored by Women Executives and Entrepreneurs and the Ontario Ministry of Industry Trade and Technology, with assistance from Thome Ernst & Whinney, The Manufacturers L i f e Insurance Company, The Royal Bank of Janada, the City of Toronto and McDonald's Restaurants of Canada Limited. In addition to the 21 workshops iffered during the two days, the program . . . cont'd on 8  By the time Ted Belton, President and Chief Executive O f f i c e r of the Insurers' Advisory Organization Inc., finished hia presentation, the audience at least had a better grasp of the reasoning behind the soaring coats. "The cause of sky-rocketing premiums and a v a i l a b i l i t y problems is social i n f l a t i o n , " Belton said. "The courts have been a very important factor in s o c i a l i n f l a t i o n . No-fault insurance ia an appropriate solution i f the objective is to compensate a l l injured people regardless of negligence. Government insurance is d e f i n i t e l y not the ...cont 'd on 5  INSIDE You and Your Lawyer  2  Report from Ireland  6  Mark Your Calendar  6  Business Owners Conference New Members  8-12 Vi  1.47  APPENDIX 4  INSTRUCTOR  CONTRACT  NAME: ADDRESS: PHONE:  Work -  Hoae -  SOCIAL INSURANCE NUMBER:  DATE OF BIRTH:  You  are responsible for:  a) b) c) d) e)  p r e p a r a t i o n of a w e l l rehersed c l a s s t o p i c a w e l l p r e s e n t e d t h o r o u g h and s a f e c l a s s attendance at the weekly workshop meetings c o n s i s t e n c y and r e g u l a r i t y o f t e a c h i n g y o u r c l a s s e s i f you a r e away, g e t t i n g a s u b s t i t u t e and a d v i s i n g t h e p e r s o n n e l manager b e i n g aware o f t h e w e e k l y a n n o u n c e m e n t s each I n s t r u c t o r l a f i n a n c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r having the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s deemed n e c e s s a r y by t h e P l t n e a a Group w i t h i n • I n months o f y o u r a t a r t l n g d a t e  f) g)  h) 1) j)  m a i n t a i n i n g I d e a l body w e i g h t a w e l l groomed, h e a l t h y , a t t r a c t i v e a p p e a r a n c e b e i n g a t your c l a a a 15 m i n u t e s b e f o r e I t s t a r t s  As a s e l f - e m p l o y e d p e r s o n , y o u a r e t h e p r o p e r Income t a x r e t u r n s , and Unemployment I n s u r a n c e A c t , Canada A c t , Minimum Viage A c t , o r W o r k e r ' s has p u b l i c l i a b i l i t y n e g l i g e n c e on y o u r p a r t .  responsible for submitting you a r e n o t c o v e r e d by t h e P e n s i o n P l a n , H o l i d a y Pay C o m p e n s a t i o n A c t . The i n s u r a n c e to c o v e r g r o s s Date  Y o u r r a t e per c l a s s I s  I a g r e e to the above. Date:  148  APPENDIX 4 (continued)  IN-HOUSE CLASS  EVALUATION  Naoe o f I n s t r u c t o r Date  -  WORKOUT/REPIT  ^_^_^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^ ^^. m  m  m  m  m  Time  Day  Naoe o f E v a l u a t o r Post t l v e Intro & Topic P r e s e n t a t i o n : 1. Body C o m m u n i c a t i o n & P o i s e 2. V o i c e P r o j e c t i o n 3. I n f o r m a t i o n  Presentation  4. E n e r g y P r o j e c t i o n 5. Eye C o n t a c t Warm-up: 1. Body C o m m u n i c a t i o n & P o l a e 2. V o i c e P r o j e c t i o n 3. E n e r g y P r o j e c t i o n 4. Eye C o n t a c t 5. T h o r o u g h n e s s 6. Plow & C o n t r o l 7. I m a g i n a t i o n 8.  & Creativity  Safety/Education  9. V e r b a l  Cues  10. M o t i v a t i o n  To Be Worked On  APPENDIX 4 (continued)  In-House E v a l u a t i o n - B o d y / R e f i t Body, c o o t . ARMS & QUADS: 1. Body C o m m u n i c a t i o n & P o i s e 2. V o i c e  Projection  3. E n e r g y  Projection  4. Eye C o n t a c t 5. T h o r o u g h n e s s 6. Flow & C o n t r o l 7. I m a g i n a t i o n & C r e a t i v i t y 8. S a f e t y & E d u c a t i o n 9. V e r b a l Cuea 10. M o t i v a t i o n 11.  Intenalty  CARDIO: 1. Body C o m m u n i c a t i o n & P o i s e 2. V o i c e 3. E n e r g y  Projection Projection  4. E y e C o n t a c t 5.  Thoroughness  6. F l o w & C o n t r o l 7. I m a g i n a t i o n  & Creativity  149  APPENDIX 4 (continued)  FLOOR WORK:  8.  Safety/Education  9. V e r b a l  Cues  10.  Motivation  11.  Intensity  Additional  Consents:  150  

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