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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Army service and social mobility : the Mahars of the Bombay Presidency, with comparisions with the… Basham, Ardythe Maude Roberta 1985

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ARMY SERVICE AND  SOCIAL MOBILITY:  THE MAHARS OF THE BOMBAY  PRESIDENCY,  WITH COMPARISONS WITH THE BENE ISRAEL AND  BLACK  AMERICANS  By ARDYTHE MAUDE ROBERTA BASHAM M.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED  of Manitoba,  1975  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of H i s t o r y )  We  a c c e p t tb*is t h e s i s to the required  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November Copyright  1985  A r d y t h e Maude R o b e r t a Basham,  1985  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree t h a t for  understood that for  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  copying or  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  g r a n t e d by  not  be  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  of  Columbia  make  further this  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  the  representatives. publication  the  University  the  p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  permission  department or  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  scholarly  in partial  written  ABSTRACT: Army S e r v i c e The  and  Mahars o f  Social  the  w i t h Comparisons and A has  avenue o f  multicultural  port  this  of  the  with  and  ences  to  the  social mobility  and  their  economic  s o c i a l and  Mahars and  the  assesses  the  for  Bene I s r a e l  this,  and  period  States  served  i n the  theory,  citizenship,  and  War  1950s.  effects  the  of  the the  to  the  are  and  relationship status  of  impact  i n the  experi-  of  military  I n d i a n Army  i n e l i g i b l e for of  examined and the  b e g i n n i n g s of  Comparative racial  similari-  military  struggle  f o r American b l a c k s ,  Civil  the  situations.  when b o t h g r o u p s were d e c l a r e d reasons  India,  case  I n d i a n J e w i s h community,  and  and  i n the  are  s o c i a l status  e a c h community,  the  who  i n the  general  Races"  an  sup-  describing  differences  relevant  movement the  Bene I s r a e l ,  their military e l i g i b i l i t y ,  United  by  u n t o u c h a b l e community o f W e s t e r n  the  peoples  investigations  does so  and  service  for disadvantaged  detailed  thesis  military  analyses  The  regain  that  d e s c r i b e s and  1893,  ment.  Israel  thesis  on  The  Bene  The  of  service  This  few  between army s e r v i c e  black Americans. ties  the  have a s s e r t e d  s o c i e t i e s but  Mahars, an  compared  to  Presidency,  social mobility  assertion.  relationship  Bombay  Americans.  number o f h i s t o r i a n s  b e e n an  in  to Black  Mobility:  the  the  m i l i t a r y pay  enlistMahars  compared  century  from  Civil and  between m i l i t a r y  service  their  with the  benefits,  the  in  to  Rights  caste prejudice,  soldiers  up  "Martial and  non-military  environments  are  thesis  t h e Mahars b e n e f i t e d most  They  that received  leadership access  discussed  economic  enhanced  channels.  agitated  f o r r e s t o r a t i o n of  did  finally  not  racial the  or  loss  effort rived  caste  of m i l i t a r y  improvement military political  of  But  military  status,  The and  status.  these  improved  periodically something  Bene  Israel  were l e a s t  they  had  affected  they  made  the  of c r u c i a l entire  important  by  de-  importance  black  no  little  While American b l a c k s  were n o t of  service.  and  they  Accordingly,  the  opportunities,  to e n l i s t ,  1942.  however,  reinforced  in  their  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n as  for  population;  in justifying  status  i n other  documents  dominance w i t h  racial  of  superiority  t h e Mahars and  s o l d i e r s had  in strengthening  Primary  their  innate  value  claims  to  the  interviews,  used  standard  the U n i t e d  Library.  and  used  i n the  as w e l l  o f Mahars and  f o r the  thesis  from t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s  Office  which they  blacks  symbolic  claims  pseudo-scientific to  military.  as  practical  blacks  to  equal  areas. sources  State Archives,  the  right  support  equality.  recognition  India  the  position  s e r v i c e was,  Whites beliefs  social  employment.  the  from  to  educational  t o overcome,  benefits,  i n order  Consequently,  until  to regain enlistment similar  limit  achieve stigma  length  benefits,  experience,  to o f f i c i a l  at  a variety  Services  of  India,  Institution  R e g i m e n t a l and of  include the of  government Maharashtra  I n d i a , and  the  other  military  histories,  cultural history  sources,  as w e l l  m o n o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l s , have a l s o b e e n  Professor  P.  used.  Harnetty  as  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS GLOSSARY  viii  ABBREVIATIONS  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  x i i  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter I. II.  III.  IV.  ORIGINS AND SOCIAL STATUS EARLY MILITARY HISTORY  24  The Mahars The Bene I s r a e l American Blacks PROFESSIONALISM AND PREJUDICE: MILITARY SERVICE IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY  24 42 44 59  The I n d i a n Army R a c i a l T h e o r i e s : M a r t i a l Races and t h e "Gurkha Syndrome" The A m e r i c a n Army t o 1900 Comparison o f American and I n d i a n Armies, c. 1865-1914  100  Summary  105  COSTS AND BENEFITS OF MILITARY SERVICE The I n d i a n Army The A m e r i c a n Army S o c i a l S t a t u s and M i l i t a r y  V.  8  Service  FIGHTING FOR THE RIGHT TO FIGHT: THE INDIAN ARMY, 1893-1942; THE AMERICAN ARMY, 1918-1945 The M a h a b a l e s h w a r Committee a n d Army Reorganization The P e t i t i o n s . . W o r l d War I and t h e 1 1 1 t h Mahars D r . Ambedkar a n d O t h e r s : S u p p o r t f o r Mahar Enlistment W o r l d War I I and t h e Mahar Regiment B l a c k A m e r i c a n s i n Two W o r l d Wars  60 74 87  114 115 155 163 187 187 207 214 218 221 224  V  VI.  MILITARY SERVICE TODAY  240  The I n d i a n Army The A m e r i c a n Army Conclusions  240 251 255  CONCLUSIONS  262  BIBLIOGRAPHY  272  Appendix A. NAME AND B.  CASTE IDENTIFICATION  292  MILITARY APPOINTMENT OF KAMALNAC WITNAC, JEMADAR, 1847  302  C.  MONTHLY COST OF A REGIMENT OF NATIVE INFANTRY  D.  RANKS IN THE INDIAN ARMY  306  E.  DAPOLI  308  SCHOOL DISPUTE  Part Part F.  1 2  Part the Part in  315  1, W a l a n g k a r P e t i t i o n 2, Crewe P e t i t i o n 3, P e t i t i o n o f 1921  QUESTIONNAIRES AUGUST 1980  304  308 311  PETITIONS FOR RE-ENLISTMENT Part Part Part  G.  . . .  315 322 335  DISTRIBUTED BETWEEN A P R I L -  1, Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Mahar Community 2, Q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e Army  338  f o r Former S o l d i e r s o f f o r People having  Ancestors  338 339  vi  TABLES I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII.  Differentiating Social Factors Breakdown o f Bombay I n f a n t r y by C a s t e and Y e a r . . Breakdown o f Bombay I n f a n t r y by C o u n t r y and Y e a r . Bombay Army R e c r u i t i n g , 1848-52 Comparative S e r v i c e C o n d i t i o n s , American t o I n d i a n A r m i e s , c. 1865-1914 M e d a l s I s s u e d t o Bombay Army, 1890-1900 S a l a r y Range o f Madras P e n s i o n e r s i n C i v i l Employment F i n a l M i l i t a r y Ranks o f N a t i v e Normal S c h o o l A t t e n d e e s , 1858 S c h o o l A t t e n d a n c e of Regimental G i r l s of the 25th N a t i v e I n f a n t r y , S h o l a p u r , 1863 . Age and C a s t e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e g i m e n t a l G i r l s o f t h e 2 5 t h N a t i v e I n f a n t r y , S h o l a p u r , 1863 . . . . Length of S e r v i c e i n Years f o r Promotion to C o m m i s s i o n e d and Noncommissioned Ranks, Bombay Infantry R a t e s o f P r o m o t i o n t o Commissioned and Nonc o m m i s s i o n e d Ranks, Bombay I n f a n t r y  18 65 66 68 103 120 130 147 152 154 204 205  vii  MAPS 1. 2.  Map o f Map o f  t h e Bombay P r e s i d e n c y India  9 61  GLOSSARY Balutedar: a v i l l a g e o f f i c e r or crop, e t c . ( W i l s o n , p. 56) Bara khanna: Batta: the  "big dinner";  servant  r e c e i v i n g a share  a large, formal  meal o r  of  the  banquet  an e x t r a a l l o w a n c e made t o . . . s o l d i e r s . . . when i n f i e l d , o r on o t h e r s p e c i a l g r o u n d s . ( H o b s o n - J o b s o n , p. 72)  Bhistie:  water-carrier  Chakkiliya, Chuckler: tanner or c o b b l e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o Chamar o r M o c h i .  c a s t e of South  India,  Chuprass: a b a d g e - p l a t e i n s c r i b e d w i t h t h e name o f t h e o f f i c e t o which the b e a r e r i s a t t a c h e d . The c h a p r a s i ( c h u p r a s s y ) i s an o f f i c e - m e s s e n g e r . . . b e a r i n g s u c h a badge on a c l o t h o r leather belt. ( H o b s o n - J o b s o n , p. 220) Cutcherry: an o f f i c e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a c o u r t - h o u s e ( s u c h as a C o l l e c t o r ' s or M a g i s t r a t e ' s o f f i c e ) ( H o b s o n - J o b s o n , p. 287) Dacoit: a r o b b e r b e l o n g i n g t o an armed gang . . . t o c o n s t i t u t e d a c o i t y , t h e r e must be f i v e o r more i n t h e gang. (HobsonJ o b s o n , p. 290) Dipmala: a lampstand (dipa) Dooly:  a covered  Feringee: Gurudwara:  to hold  litter  or  several small  stretcher carried  "European," p r o b a b l y a Sikh  saucer-shaped  derived  from  by  2 or 4  lamps men  Persian  temple  Holi: a spring f e r t i l i t y India  festival,  c e l e b r a t e d i n March i n n o r t h  Jati: s u b c a s t e ; a d i v i s i o n , u s u a l l y endogamous, o f a l a r g e r c a s t e or o c c u p a t i o n a l group. F o r example: t h e Mahar c a s t e i s s u b d i v i d e d i n t o a l a r g e number o f j a t i s (Mar. z a t a ) w h i c h do not i n t e r m a r r y . The t r a d i t i o n a l number i s t w e l v e and a h a l f ; i n f a c t a t l e a s t f i f t y c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d , t h o u g h no more t h a n a d o z e n would be f o u n d i n any one d i s t r i c t . (Robertson, pp. 49-50)  ix Jawan: l i t e r a l l y " y o u t h , " now a p p l i e d t o s o l d i e r s , i n t h e way one m i g h t r e f e r t o "our boys i n u n i f o r m . " I d i d n o t f i n d any s o l d i e r s o r e x - s o l d i e r s u s i n g t h i s t e r m f o r t h e m s e l v e s , however . Kaji: c h i e f p r i e s t o r judge (a Muslim t i t l e Israel)—Kehimkar, p. 47.  a d o p t e d b y t h e Bene  Karkun, Karkoon (Mar.): a clerk, a writer, a registrar; . . . i n f e r i o r r e v e n u e o f f i c e r . . . under t h e . . . d i s t r i c t collector ( W i l s o n , p . 261) Kulkarni: v i l l a g e r e g i s t r a r and a c c o u n t a n t , [who] k e e p s a c c o u n t s between t h e c u l t i v a t o r s and t h e government ( W i l s o n , p. 300) Lakh:  one h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d 1  M a z h b i , Muzbee: "a c l a s s o f S i k h s u s u a l l y descendants of converts ( H o b s o n - J o b s o n , p. 606)  o r i g i n a l l y o f low c a s t e , " from t h e sweeper c a s t e  Paraiya, Pariah: "a low c a s t e o f H i n d u s i n S o u t h e r n I n d i a . . . one o f t h e most numerous c a s t e s . . . . i n t h e T a m i l c o u n t r y " ; l o o s e l y u s e d a s a synonym f o r " o u t c a s t e " o r " u n t o u c h a b l e " . ( H o b s o n - J o b s o n , p. 678) Parwari: a t e r m p o s s i b l y meaning " h i l l men", o r p o s s i b l y s i g n i f y ing dwellers outside the v i l l a g e walls. Used t o d e s i g n a t e Mahars i n t h e m i l i t a r y . Patil, patel: t h e h e a d man o f a v i l l a g e ; f o r m e r l y h e r e d i t a r y , o f t e n g r a n t e d as a reward f o r s e r v i c e ; u s u a l l y w i t h revenue, p o l i c e , and j u d i c i a l powers Pundit, Pandit: p. 740)  a man l e a r n e d  i n Sanskrit  lore  (Hobson-Jobson,  Purdasi, pardeshi: l i t e r a l l y " f o r e i g n e r " ; i n t h e Bombay Army, a s o l d i e r f r o m N. I n d i a . Many s o - c a l l e d " p a r d e s h i s " were n a t i v e s o f t h e P r e s i d e n c y a l t h o u g h t h e i r f a m i l y o r i g i n s were in North India. Ressaidar: a native subaltern of irregular cavalry, Ressaldar. ( H o b s o n - J o b s o n , p . 761)  under t h e  Ressaidar, Risaldar: t h e n a t i v e o f f i c e r who commands a r e s s a l a (troop) i n . . . regiments of " I r r e g u l a r Horse." (HobsonJ o b s o n , p . 762) Ressaldar-Major: senior ressaidar l e n t t o Subadar-major)  of a cavalry  regiment  (equiva-  X  Rumal: l i t e r a l l y a handkerchief; a l s o a p p l i e d to a c l o t h t y i n g up a b u n d l e . Papers i n the Kolhapur S t a t e A r c h i v e s are s t o r e d i n " r u m a l s " — a s e t o f documents wrapped i n h e a v y c o t t o n c l o t h t i e d up a t t h e t o p . Rupee: b a s i c u n i t o f c u r r e n c y i n I n d i a ; one a n n a s ; one anna e q u a l l e d 4 p i c e o r p a i s a  rupee e q u a l l e d  Ryot: "an i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p y i n g l a n d as a f a r m e r o r a peasant farmer. ( H o b s o n - J o b s o n , p. 777)  16  cultivator";  Sanad: a grant, a diploma, a c h a r t e r , a patent . . . [issued] under t h e s e a l o f t h e r u l i n g a u t h o r i t y . ( W i l s o n , p. 460) O l d c h a r t e r s were o f t e n e n g r a v e d on c o p p e r p l a t e s . I n modern t i m e s , t h e M a h a r a j a h o f K o l h a p u r had f a c s i m i l e s o f i m p o r t a n t documents e n g r a v e d on s i l v e r p l a t e s ( l e t t e r t o L. J . M o u n t f o r d , 14 A u g u s t 1917; Rumal #30, 1917, l e t t e r #6180-81). Sepoy, S i p a h i : Persian "soldier," privates. S o l d i e r s today s t i l l i s the o f f i c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n . Sowar:  an  Indian  cavalry  g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d to i n f a n t r y use t h e term, a l t h o u g h "jawan"  trooper  Sowkar, s a u k a r : a banker, a d e a l e r merchant i n g e n e r a l ( W i l s o n , p. Silladari: a system of i r r e g u l a r p a i d f o r h i s own mount  i n money and e x c h a n g e s , 453); a moneylender  cavalry  i n which each  a  trooper  S h e r i s t a d a r , S a r i s h t a d a r , H.: a r e g i s t r a r , r e c o r d - k e e p e r , app l i e d e s p e c i a l l y to the head n a t i v e o f f i c e r of a c o u r t of j u s t i c e or c o l l e c t o r ' s o f f i c e . ( W i l s o n , p. 467) Ummedwar, Umedwar: an e x p e c t a n t , a c a n d i d a t e f o r employment, who a w a i t s a f a v o u r a b l e answer t o some r e p r e s e n t a t i o n or request ( W i l s o n , p. 532) Watandar: the h o l d e r of a h e r e d i t a r y r i g h t , p r o p e r t y , w i t h t h e p r i v i l e g e s and emoluments a t t a c h e d t o i t p. 557) Zata:  Marathi  term  for  "jati"  one  or o f f i c e , (Wilson,  xi  ABBREVIATIONS AGCT - Army G e n e r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n T e s t , u s e d by t h e U.S. Army t o g r a d e r e c r u i t s on t h e i r o v e r a l l e d u c a t i o n ; o f t e n e r r o n e o u s l y assumed t o be an " i n t e l l i g e n c e " t e s t . G. I . B i l l - The G . I . B i l l o f R i g h t s i s t h e p o p u l a r name f o r t h e S e r v i c e m e n ' s R e a d j u s t m e n t A c t o f 1944, w h i c h p r o v i d e d s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r v e t e r a n s o f W o r l d War I I ( E n c y c l o p e d i a A m e r i cana) . H. E . I . C .  - Honourable  I. O.L. - I n d i a O f f i c e I.E.S.H.R. - I n d i a n  East  India  Company  Library  Economic  and S o c i a l  M.S.A. - M a h a r a s h t r a S t a t e  Archives  N.A.I. - N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s  of India  N.I.  - Native  Infantry  U.S.I. - U n i t e d  Services  Institution  H i s t o r y Review  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The tance  author wishes t o acknowledge w i t h  of  many  preparation  p e o p l e and i n s t i t u t i o n s  of t h i s  thesis,  particularly  with  g r a t i t u d e the a s s i s the  research  the f o l l o w i n g :  The S h a s t r i Indo-Canadian I n s t i t u t e , for financial support, and Mr. P. N. M a l i k i n New D e l h i f o r a d v i c e and p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, e s p e c i a l l y Professor P e t e r H a r n e t t y and t h e d e p a r t m e n t s o f H i s t o r y and A s i a n S t u d i e s . The N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s o f I n d i a , t h e M a h a r a s h t r a S t a t e A r c h i v e s , t h e U n i t e d S e r v i c e s I n s t i t u t i o n and C o l o n e l Pyare L a i , S h r i V a s a n t W. Moon o f Bombay, and many others i n India. The  o f f i c e r s and men o f t h e Mahar  Regiment.  Ms. C a r r i e Hunter, Ms. S a r a R. L e e , and e s p e c i a l l y Mrs. N. P a t t i Kenny, f o r t h e i r work i n p r e p a r i n g t h e thesis. My h u s b a n d R o b e r t years.  for patience  and support' o v e r  many  and  1  INTRODUCTION The  professional  s t a n d i n g army i s an  e v e r y modern n a t i o n s t a t e . army e n t a i l s and  may  be  Military  avoided  obligation  as  a necessary  service  which  is  wartime.  I t may  conscripted, find and  classes,  in civil  benefits  service,  i n many  offer  in c i v i l  there classes  the m i l i t a r y  are  t o be  fought  For  may  access  the  accepted  operate.  Military  particularly  of poor  their  services  or  defense  an  or  privi-  have  fought.  i n modern s o c i e t i e s ,  increased  very hard  class support  f o r the r i g h t  Most a r m i e s as  does  train-  employment  social  roles.  t o be  have a c c e p t e d  noncombatants, However,  be  burden,  the  types of  in  otherwise  freely  some o f  to c e r t a i n  as  disadvan-  f o r which they  and  duty  status.  numerous i n s t a n c e s o f u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d  as c o m b a t a n t s .  i n other  in  f o r , or  is  an  many  cases,  they are denied  life,  fighting  women o f low and  serve  t o men  particularly  of  state,  i n terms of e d u c a t i o n , s p e c i a l i z e d  education  followers  factors  of c i t i z e n s h i p  and  sometimes  may  life  sometimes p r e f e r e n t i a l  to  t h o s e who  thus b e a r i n g a share of the n a t i o n a l  that  of t h a t  be p e r c e i v e d as an o n e r o u s  these  who  ing,  depressed  on  of c i t i z e n s h i p .  onerous  certain benefits  Therefore,  may  seem e s p e c i a l l y h a r d  However, m i l i t a r y confer  the c i t i z e n s  as a p r i v i l e g e  concomitant  certainly  disadvantaged  leges  from  feature  o f manpower f o r s u c h  i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y welcomed b u t  groups a l l t h r e e of  service  yet  obligations  i f possible,  an  taged  provision  often confer certain benefits  military. to  certain  The  important  or  admitted men  menials,  and camp  i t i s sometimes  2  only  with great d i f f i c u l t y  accepted  a s combat  that  these people win the r i g h t  t r o o p s and e a r n w h a t e v e r  status  t o be  and p r i v i l e g e s  accrue thereto. Ultimately, democratic  the  society)  citizenship.  A  right  to serve i n the m i l i t a r y  indissolubly  l i n k e d with the r i g h t s  r e c e n t statement,  military,  applies  depressed  classes.  with equal  is  written  force  about  (in a  of  women and  full the  t o many o t h e r m i n o r i t i e s  or  And when i t comes t o r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , none i s h i g h e r or more g l a m o r o u s - t h a n t h e n a t i o n ' s s e c u r i t y . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s e c u r i t y o f t h e c o u n t r y i s t h e essence o f g o v e r n i n g and i t i s a responsibility from which [women] a r e t o t a l l y e x c l u d e d . [ W h i t e ] men will t o l e r a t e [women] i n t h e armed f o r c e s , b u t n o t i n t h e a r e a that c o u n t s - combat. They c a n h e l p , but they cannot share, and u n t i l t h e y c a n , [women] w i l l be . . . full c i t i z e n s i n name o n l y . 1 This describes exactly explains their  the s i t u a t i o n  why  military  efforts  t o improve  The concern  object  o f many m i n o r i t y g r o u p s , and  s e r v i c e has had a s i g n i f i c a n t their  of t h i s  study  is  threefold.  I n d i a and t o a s k why m i l i t a r y  important  community,  receive  from  military  were  refused admission  son  the  India,  military  will  "untouchable"  also  what b e n e f i t s  service,  o f t h e Bene  be d i s c u s s e d .  community  they r e c e i v e d  For purposes Israel,  also  " c l e a n " b u t somewhat i s o l a t e d  factors,  i t i s possible  by r e l i g i o u s  t o s e e how m i l i t a r y  service  very  o r hoped  times  of an  I n d i a n community  socially  of the  they  of compari-  By t h u s c o m p a r i n g  with another  principal  s e r v i c e was  and why a t c e r t a i n  t o the m i l i t a r y .  history  The  the m i l i t a r y h i s t o r y  Mahars o f w e s t e r n  to  in  status.  i s t o examine i n some d e t a i l  to this  role  western Indian  which  is  and c u l t u r a l may be d i f -  3  ferently  perceived  factors.  Likewise  are  found  i n both  military black  i t will  cases.  experiences  caste  be p o s s i b l e t o n o t e  Some r e f e r e n c e w i l l  of other  comparison  between  community h a v i n g  low-status  what  social  similarities  a l s o be made t o t h e  groups,  experience  not p o s s i b l e f o r various reasons.  community service; lost  had  such  effort  from a  to enlist,  t o regain access for  instance,  particularly  possibly  c a s t e groups w i t h  w o u l d be  Although  t o time,  delisted  engage i n s u c h  to military  and  service.  military  v a r i o u s "untouchable"  1932.  These  two  ways.  The  of m i l i t a r y  who  served  separate  groups d i f f e r e d  low c a s t e M a d r a s s i s opportunities.  i n Queen V i c t o r i a ' s  o u t c a s t e s made t h e m s e l v e s themselves  into  The  experience  military  determined  Bombay  'Quinsap'  Army  t o 1893,  regiments  never  There  were t h e Madras  and t h e  in  important  changed t h e i r  had t o d e a l  i s some e v i d e n c e  i n t o a new s u b d i v i s i o n their  native  between 1857 and  S a p p e r s and who by  and m a r r y i n g  from  castes,  t h e Mahars  never  their  Two o t h e r low  recruited  and low  from  Madras S a p p e r s and M i n e r s  loss  of  t o have made any p r o t e s t a g a i n s t  significant  recruited  so  low c a s t e  t h a t i s , one w h i c h  b e c a u s e s o few were a f f e c t e d .  Mazhbi S i k h s ,  composition  but  a l o n g and  (Queen V i c t o r i a ' s Own) S a p p e r s and M i n e r s , Christians  useful,  "untouchable"  period  community,  low  other  no o t h e r  unbroken  Indian  r e c r u i t e d Mangs and Ramoshis p r i o r  n e i t h e r group appears  delistment,  time  l o n g and  n o r d i d any o t h e r  i t s right  had,  on  t h e Mahars and a n o t h e r  military  I n d i a n s were r e c r u i t e d  but  e f f e c t s based  Americans. A  was  and have d i f f e r e n t  sons  . only  caste  with  the  that  "men  origin .  were  .  calling  to  Quinsap  4  girls." than a  If  2  true,  elevating  new  among  the  this status  somewhat h i g h e r the  Mahars.  As  service  affected  them,  towards  them  other  by  for  Mazhbi  Sikhs,  a l l Mazhbis.3  to  organized  reluctance  larger  Sikh  to  ly  practical a  than a  the  Israel  black basis  did  low  of  access  government  to  military  menial  of  employment,  form  in  Of the  only  i t was not  occur  military shown  for  those  not  gener-  engage  in  any  possibly  due  within  the  status  prospects the  military be  sources;  an  and  a  of  obtaining  in detail,  overview  of  several  in  the  the  of  is,  of  work),  prestige access of  and  both  finanare  satis-  the  Bene  primary experience  studies,  to  treatment  personal  Mahars  most  instances  better  military  modern  in  higher  some  land,  using  frequent-  authorities, devel-  dirty  aspect  of  and  (which be  benefits.  c e r t a i n degree  importance  experience  utilizing  to  sometimes  unmeasurable  considered  Americans,  and  certain  is secular  service  considered  secondary  and  confers  which  of  will  The  service;  their  not  prejudice  true  education  tradition  The  for  to  wrongly  courts,  secondary  cases  or  improvements  faction.  did  re-enlistment,  i n most  rightly  security.  local  the  was  community  to  i n nature,  respectable  cial  in  access  tradition  cultures,  military  attention  service  include  oping  created  community.  Military These  Chakkiliyas,  i n s o f a r as  reduce  this  agitation for  draw  rather  Sikhs,  to  but  This  or  service,  phenomenon w h i c h  i t helped  alized  or  the  f a m i l i e s with  military  a l l Paraiyas a  or  prolonged  of  that  caste,  individuals to  suggests  and of  provides  a  serving  in  comparison. Mahar  or  other  untouchable  or  low-caste  man  5  the  nineteenth-century  encouraged  efforts  to  Hindus;  loyal  access  t o government  century, period  Bombay army o c c u p i e d  service  improve h i s s o c i a l under  s e r v i c e s and  many Mahars had of  years  the B r i t i s h  and  government  an o b l i g a t i o n The  government was  tionships  with  certain  considered  t o be  been  concede t h a t s i m i l a r  with  the  "untouchable" community, viduals,  access  t o the  situation  comparable  up  not  as  war  to  by  numbers  of  quently  denied  a the  military  special  rela-  and  the  and but  were  it  did  already  considered  been a p a r t i c u l a r l y  well-to-do  military crucial  s e r v i c e o f v a l u e as t o them as  i t was  indi-  to  humiliated at  the being  military.  f o r American b l a c k s  i s i n many ways much more  American b l a c k s  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s from  t o t h e V i e t n a m War  l a r g e numbers.  as  were n e v e r  t h a t of the Mahars.  fought  in  been e s t a b l i s h e d  They were, however, d i s a p p o i n t e d and  The  every  was  long  the p a r t of  soldiers,  I n d i a , who  a l s o have n e v e r  it  a  races."  of western  seem t o h a v e f o u n d but  Mahars. refused  but  the  them,  "martial races"  r e l a t i o n s had  equal  in  over  n o t a b l y the S i k h s  designated  "non-martial  Bene I s r a e l  late  earned  to e s t a b l i s h  o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y v a l u e as  so-called  By  c r e a t e d on  willing  communities,  not  The  had  caste  claims to  t o a l l o w them t o c o n t i n u e  service.  had  justified  employment.  and  which  status vis-a-vis  i n many campaigns had  certain privileges  which  position  come t o b e l i e v e t h a t s e r v i c e  community,  Gurkhas,  a  and  continue  to serve  However, f o r much o f  b l a c k s were a c c e p t e d access  to o f f i c e r  as  this  served  in  the R e v o l u t i o n a r y  War  i n the  time  only very  combatants;  training  and  military  in  limited  t h e y were  fre-  therefore i f  they  6  s e r v e d a s c o m b a t a n t s a t a l l d i d so o n l y i n t h e r a n k s . their  role  units  until  these  very r e c e n t l y .  circumstances  military their if  a s c o m b a t a n t s was a c c e p t e d  indicates  continued  that  claims to f u l l  necessary.  their  been  nation,  to risk  yet  civil  in  served  they b e l i e v e d  for  i t was i m p o r t a n t  most k e e n l y  as w i l l i n g a s any w h i t e  their life  lives,  still  segregated  service  by b e i n g w i l l i n g  blacks f e l t  in  that American b l a c k s  to agitate  citizenship  Many  having  The f a c t  they  E v e n when  and i n d e e d  t o be d e n i e d  the  to justify blood  injustice  men t o  serve  their  full  i n the  t o shed  the  to lose  under  of  their  l i v e s , and  privileges  of  citizenship. Although exact nature been  an  of t h e i r  important  status. equal  these groups d i f f e r e d  For and  important;  to their  impact  For  to military  balance  i n t h e armed  planning.  of m i l i t a r y  Origins, service  social  service  and  economic  the issue  continues to  of be  questions of ethnic/  forces continue military  on t h e s e  s e r v i c e has  t o be  impor-  experience,  and  t h r e e groups w i l l  form  Note:  t h e sake  for  military  and i n t h e  study.  of s i m p l i c i t y  and c o n s i s t e n c y ,  " P a r w a r i " and " b l a c k A m e r i c a n " out  their  r e s p e c t i v e governments,  t h e main p a r t o f t h i s  Author's  affecting  e q u i t a b l e access  in military  social  factor  experience,  t h e Mahars and f o r b l a c k A m e r i c a n s ,  racial/communal tant  military  i n social origins  these  t h e terms  "Mahar" o r  o r " b l a c k " have b e e n u s e d  r e s p e c t i v e groups,  except  in  through-  quotations  from  7  sources  w h i c h use  intended, prefers  nor  another  other  terms.  No  political  does t h e  author  intend  any  implications  offense  t o anyone  are who  usage.  Footnotes 1.  R i c h a r d Cohen, " S h a r i n g : Ms., v o l . X I I I , no.  The P o l i t i c s o f t h e S h o p p i n g 2, A u g u s t 1984, p. 75.  List,"  2.  P h i l i p Mason, A M a t t e r o f Honour: An A c c o u n t o f t h e I n d i a n Army, I t s O f f i c e r s and Men"^ (Harmondsworth, E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books, 1976), pp. 147-149.  3.  I n d e r a P. S i n g h , "A S i k h V i l l a g e , " i n T r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a : S t r u c t u r e and Change, ed. M i l t o n S i n g e r ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : The A m e r i c a n F o l k l o r e S o c i e t y , B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , V o l . X, 1959, pp. 276-280.  8  CHAPTER I  ORIGINS AND  The  are  The  Mahars,  "said  t o be by  invaders."  They  population century in  vary,  the  areas  Mahars i n 1901  reflecting only  up  estimates  w i t h i n the and  and  up  largest  Marathas  Berar.  2  r a n g e f r o m one  whatever  untouchable  range of  and of  f o r the  million  exact  the  late  present  nineteenth  in the  There  inland  total  number  (Bombay  possibly  3  Presidency  seems t o be  numbers,  c a s t e of Maharashtra,  percent  the  to 3 m i l l i o n ,  considered  areas).  their  of  tribes  post-Aryan  three to f i v e  Estimates  Robertson,  who  they  general  were and  are  second o n l y to  the  knew them w e l l from many y e a r s  missionary,  found  Hills,  f a r e a s t as B h a n d a r a d i s t r i c t ,  and  aboriginal  i n number.  Alexander  southern  i n Maharashtra,  t o twenty p e r c e n t  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a r e a  that,  the  about nine p e r c e n t  or a l l M a r a t h i - s p e a k i n g  agreement the  fall  of Vidarbha  caste  s u c c e s s i v e waves o f A r y a n  make  but  untouchable  r e s i d u e of  Maharashtra;  coastal  districts of  of  the  Mahars  largest  a composite  dispossessed 1  the  SOCIAL STATUS  as  t h e Mahars r e s i d e n t as  Ratnagiri,  observed  with  the  f a r n o r t h as and  as  the  far  l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n around  as  a  Satpura  south  as  Nagpur,  that:  It is l i t e r a l l y t r u e t h a t t h e r e i s a Mahar quarter in every v i l l a g e w i t h i n t h e bounds o f t h a t t e r r i t o r y where the Marathi language i s spoken; and t h e Mahar i s thus located not because there are menial duties to be  SOURCE: C a m b r i d g e : The  A n i l S e a l , The Emergence o f I n d i a n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968, p. 65.  Nationalism.  10 performed i n every v i l l a g e , but because the very o r g a n i zation o f t h e v i l l a g e community w o u l d be ineffective u n l e s s t h e d u t i e s o f t h e Mahars were p e r f o r m e d and u n l e s s t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e Mahars were c o n s e r v e d . 4 Based  on p o p u l a t i o n  tional patterns,  density,  caste d i v i s i o n s ,  R o b e r t s o n c o n s i d e r e d Nagpur  and occupa-  t o be t h e c e n t r e o f  t h e Mahar p e o p l e ,  and r e l a t e d b o t h t h e name o f t h e c i t y  common Mahar  "nak" t o t h e Naka p e o p l e ,  affix  tors  o f t h e Mahars.  from  a  Other  tribal names  aboriginal Mangs  An a l t e r n a t i v e  totem a n i m a l ,  applied ownership:  bhukari,  of the land";  parwari,  men" o r " d w e l l e r s o u t s i d e Greek p a r u a r o i the t h r e s h i n g term  used  the  the cobra or  a  (another untouchable c a s t e ) ,  "tiller  name  floor;  suggest a  may mean  variously  to the r i g h t  the  ances-  o f "nak" may  possibly  term a p p l i e d  the v i l l a g e , "  a n d may r e f e r  t h e presumed  derivation  t o t h e Mahars a l s o  and  elephant.^  tradition  "dweller  interpreted  the  on," or as  may a l s o d e r i v e  "hill  from the  to gather g r a i n  left  on  and d h a r a n i c h e p u t a o r "sons o f t h e s o i l , "  i n t h e Ahmednagar "Maharashtra"  district.^  i s derived  I t has been argued  from M a h a r - R a s h t r a ,  R a s h t r a a n d S a u r a s h t r a o r S u r a t , from t h e S a u r a s . explains  of  t o them b y  Maharashtra  a  that  or "the  c o u n t r y o f t h e M a h a r s , " on t h e a n a l o g y o f G u j a r a t f r o m G u j a r  etymology  be  and  An a l t e r n a t i v e  a s Maha R a s h t r a o r  "the  great  country. If  t h e Mahars were once an e t h n i c a l l y  non-Aryan or pre-Aryan o r i g i n , on  the basis  other nation many  castes  of p h y s i c a l living  generations.  from M a r a t h a s ,  i n t h e same a r e a s .  Some  people  of  t h e y a r e no l o n g e r d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  appearance  i s t h e o b v i o u s one:  distinct  The most p r o b a b l e  intermarriage or  Mahars  Kunbis,  cohabitation  i n G u j a r a t had Rajput  and  explaover  surnames  11  such  as  while  Chauhan and  other  landowning  Mahar o r  Mahars  and  Kunbis.^  i n Berar  M a r a t h a s and and  Nothing  t o be  from be  Many  others  experience  one  of  that  the  disputes, money t o  and the  of  the  by  Marathas well  as  short,  may  land.  well  The  the  duties  lighting  village  Their  of  in  They were r e s p o n s i b l e  dogs  pigs)  from t h e  of  by  observations differences  the  Mahars as p a r t  s u r v i v a l s from a a c t i n g as  referees,  boundary  and  (probably  and  and  fuel  and  sums  of  included,  guarding  a primitive  supplying  time  revenue  carried large  fires,  of  watchmen,  f o r r e m o v i n g dead c a t t l e  village,  At  a Maratha  any  to  "passing":  r e l i g i o u s duties  Holi  goddess M a r i a i  homely.  army as  boundary  vital  first  a l l tend  and  ease  include  porters,  the  author's  distinguished  Personal  represent  duties  treasury.  1 0  basis.  messengers they o f t e n  district  i n the be  dark  i n the  a caste  Brahmins.  appearance;  sectmark.H  deity) . or  of  indicates  t e s t i m o n y was  as  i n many p l a c e s , shrine  on  messengers, Their  2  s o u r c e s or  basis  r i g h t s and  organization  gatekeepers,  of  Similar-  as  Mahars and  t h a t Mahars can  the  and  features  when t h e y owned t h e  guides.-'-  Mahars  i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s f a r outweigh  traditional  village  s h a r e d by  a Mahar e n l i s t i n g  suggest  complexion or  blood,  servants  "brother"  u s e d by  in written  source  Maratha e a r r i n g s  The  are  K u n b i s on  wearing  in  are  ( u n f l a t t e r i n g l y ) as  tale  mixed  r e l a t e d t o them.^  a d d r e s s e d as  suggests  literary  Kincaid's  indicating  i n c l u d i n g B h o n s l e , J a d h a v a , Gaikwad, Pawar,  found e i t h e r  described  t o be  surnames  Thorat;  Marathas or  least  claimed  m i g h t be  Kunbis,  Shinde  possibly  Dheda f a m i l i e s were h e r e d i t a r y  f a m i l i e s and  ly,  personal  Solanki,  for  the  place-  (but  not  crema-  12  tions. -*  In  1  village,  r e t u r n they  holding  v a r i o u s payments  a  share  i n kind.  casses  o f dead c a t t l e ,  taken  f o r cremation,  ritual  degradation.  handling,  l e t alone  polluting  activities  were w a t a n d a r s and b a l u t e d a r s of the v i l l a g e Payments  leftover  lands  i n kind,  food,  and  of value,  the c a r -  from  From t h e p o i n t o f view o f c a s t e H i n d u s , e a t i n g , dead cows was imaginable;  this  alone  would j u s t i f y  d u t i e s and payments,  while  Mahars  to the v i l l a g e ,  economically livelihood.  regarded  not  specific  occupations,  stripping inferior  society:  centuries untouchable  vital  The  Mahars occupied  relations  outside  Bene  Jewish  with  century,  binding  Israel community,  t o be  them  and p e r p e t u a t i n g  i n the l a t e  nineteenth  to and  their  and  an ambiguous p o s i t i o n  early  in  village  degraded, y e t performing  bound t o t h e v i l l a g e  faithful  and  a r e one o f t h r e e the other  and t h e B a g h d a d i Jews.  the  non-Mahars,  i t s w a l l s ; p o p u l a r l y regarded  yet proverbially  of  an  community.  and r i t u a l l y  t o t h e community;  to l i v e  quarrelsome,  Kerala  the  bound t h e  rights"  nineteenth  1 , 1 5  brief,  Other  not guaranteeing  b u t as " c h a i n s ,  specific  (from  f o r a l a r g e but i n d e t e r -  v o l u n t a r i n e s s f r o m any a c t ,  twentieth  Indian  as p r i v i l e g e s ,  way,  "fifty-two  by t h e l a t e  s t a t u s i n the v i l l a g e  In  forced  The t r a d i t i o n a l  h a d come,  in this  while  ( p r o b a b l y an i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n  m i n a t e number)  tions  not degrading  even  and i s one o f t h e most  c o n s i d e r i n g t h e Mahars u n t o u c h a b l e .  Mahars  corpses  often involved  the Hindu s t a n d p o i n t )  adequate  the  receiving  including  and c l o t h i n g  though c e r t a i n l y  of  economy, as d i r t y  but and  trustworthy. sub-divisions  two b e i n g  The o r i g i n s  func-  the Cochin  o f t h e Bene  of  the  Jews o f  Israel  and  13  the  C o c h i n Jews a r e a l m o s t  Jews  have a t r a d i t i o n  century The  A.D.  Bene  equally obscure,  that  their  immediately a f t e r  Israel  believe  Israel ?  of  around  700 B.C.  origin  t o a m i g r a t i o n of about  a l s o adopted the  as t h e i r  line  from  would  place  and more  i n the  1  the  Ten  Lost  in  India  traces  their  The Bene I s r a e l  have  arrival  tradition  175 B . C . ^ 1  myth w h i c h  According to this  resembles  coast  I t i s u n c l e a r whether b o t h g r o u p s  actually  be some c o n n e c t i o n . ^ 1  original  of  s e v e n c o u p l e s who were s h i p w r e c k e d on t h e  and i f so w h i c h  have been s e t t l e d  that  groups  myth f r o m t h e same s o u r c e o r whether one g r o u p  other  first  of the temple. ^  from  their  likely  Cochin  t r a d i t i o n both  n e a r Bombay.  origin  the d e s t r u c t i o n  own an o r i g i n  C h i t p a v a n Brahmins.  descended  may  which  Another  ancestors arrived  they a r e descended  Tribes  1  although the  i n India  came f i r s t ,  There  i s no doubt  f o r at least  that  an  c o p i e d the  or i f i n f a c t  sixteen  s e t t l e m e n t s were i n t h e c o a s t a l  adopted  there  t h e Bene  Israel  centuries.  Their  d i s t r i c t s of Kolaba  and  Thana. Throughout the  Bene  Israel  most o f what  i s known o f t h e i r  were a r e l a t i v e l y p o o r  community.  never  t o h a v e numbered more t h a n f i f t e e n t h o u s a n d  were  e v e r as many as t h i s . ^ 2  t i o n was  as o i l p r e s s e r s ,  Their  and b e c a u s e  men."  Some who  Mahars  or  leading  farmed  l a n d and i t i s s a i d  l a n d would  families  by  employ M a r a t h a s  Mangs who were c o n s i d e r e d t o  Bene I s r a e l  They  seem  i f indeed there occupa-  they observed the Saturday  t h e y were known as "Shanwar T e l i s , " t h a t  Israel  i n India  most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Sabbath  owned  history  be  held positions  i s "Saturday o i l  Kehimkar  that  Bene  as l a b o u r e r s b u t n o t "unclean." under  2 1  Some  various  native  14  rulers  and h e l d  certain fleet  Aaron by  received his  Khanoji Angria early  of  isolated their  late the  a  first  Jewish  Israel  century.  He  possession  of  The p o s i t i o n  of  in  family  until  about  certainly  their  nearest  their  Muslim  neighbours  pure  The G o r a Jewish  i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, a v i s i t e d t h e Bene I s r a e l  of Jewish  observance. instructed  The Bene I s r a e l  and H i n d u  descent,  t o Muslims.  i tpolitic  t o be on good  and t h e r e f o r e t o a v o i d  o f t h e Bene I s r a e l a r e t h o s e who  jati  into  believe  and n o n - J e w i s h  for  as f a r they  terms  customs  whereas t h e K a l a a r e t h e  system  Gora that  with which i s to  and  women.  t h e r e i s l i t t l e o b s e r v a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between  Kala  they are  offspring  of  The d i f f e r e n c e s  name  i n India,  between Bene I s r a e l  communities.  adopted The  marriages fact  t h e Bene  Although  persecuted  men  was  t o r e p l a c e t h e term Y e h u d i  were n e v e r  or white  commuHe  have  neighbours.  A r e f l e c t i o n of the Hindu  i n the d i v i s i o n  portions.  much  forms.  have f o u n d  w o u l d be o f f e n s i v e .  t h e Bene  t e a c h e r s from C o c h i n who  i s known t h e Bene I s r a e l  found  c o m m u n i t i e s and a p p a r e n t l y l o s t  considered offensive  would  of  a  were  was p r o b a b l y a d o p t e d  w h i c h was  o f time  Rahabi,  religious  Bene  be  of  a  Israel  the fundamentals  of s e v e r a l  i n proper  period  However,  David E z e k i e l  customs from  as  still  was h e l d by t h i s  culture.  many  Jew  fleet  considerable  and t a u g h t  Israel  instance,  i n the seventeenth  i n the n i n e t e e n t h century.  from o t h e r J e w i s h  C o c h i n Jew,  the  For  2 2  For  nity  service.  a g r a n t o f Inam l a n d w h i c h was  commander  of  for  C h u r r i k a r was a p p o i n t e d Nayek o r commander  descendants  1793.  grants of land  of  In p o i n t the  two  a r e p r o b a b l y due more t o t r a d i t i o n  15 than  fact,  less  and  i n modern t i m e s t h i s  d i s t i n c t i o n has  become  of  i s that  of  importance.23 The  t h i r d J e w i s h community o f  the  B a g h d a d i Jews.  of  the  These emigrated  eighteenth  entrepreneurial Baghdadi extremely  was  wealthy  c h a r i t a b l e works. Bene I s r a e l and  as  and  the  later, the  Sassoon  the  The  two  significance  from  Iraq  and  family  in  the  tended  The  B a g h d a d i Jews,  t o be  The  and  latter  part  move  into  to  o f Bombay  t e x t i l e industry  Bene I s r a e l  i n the  Parsis did.  f e l l o w Jews, a l w a y s h e l d  considered  socially.  century  a r e a s much as  family  any  best  known  which was  became  noted  for  although recognizing  the  t h e m s e l v e s somewhat definitely  communities have never  aloof  beneath  intermarried  them  to  any  extent.24 During numbers  to  became  an  the  B r i t i s h period  Bombay important  took  up  tions  a t a low  the  and  besides  new  profession  s k i l l e d trades  and  Bene I s r a e l  enlistment f o r many  clerical  t o medium l e v e l . 2 5  in  and  moved the  Bene  other  Through c o n t a c t  E n g l i s h Jews,  the  Bene I s r a e l  countries. status states  of  Overall a caste  that  their  the  status  as  They  have not  suffered  have g e n e r a l l y  American  and  other  and  have b e e n a b l e rank  t o the  t o assume  Bene I s r a e l had  t h i s was  quite well  certainly  as  a  in  Marathas;  from d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t o any  functioned  Christian  t i e s with c o - r e l i g i o n i s t s  in social  the Muslims,  posi-  their  Bene I s r a e l  similar  many  became much more c o n s c i o u s o f  " i n Kulaba D i s t r i c t the  same  and  of  which  with  more p r o s p e r o u s B a g h d a d i Jews, and  and  army,  government  the  identity  large  Israel,  missionaries,  Jewish  in  jati  Israel  exactly not  the  low."26  marked or  the  extent  sub-caste  16  w i t h i n Hindu cultural  the  though m a i n t a i n i n g  i s no u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t  whose a n c e s t o r s seventeenth  slave  trade  were b r o u g h t  and e i g h t e e n t h  officially  ended  dominant w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n . immigrant p o p u l a t i o n , much  longer  adapt  were  at least  to  did  fulfill  Not  provided early  could  nineteenth  nucleus  clergy,  many  their  o f work,  i n their  important  artisans, any  century,  from t h e a l s o an  can c l a i m  whites.  However  languages,  own  culture of their  religions,  and  heritage  imported  t o do  even as  free blacks class  of a "black b o u r g e o i s i e "  nevertheless  every  black  ser-  occupation  men and  actually  i n many s t a t e s ,  women By t h e  of  mixed  and formed  including business on a s m a l l  they  economy.  new c o u n t r y .  (many  and p r o f e s s i o n a l men and women:  access  b u t as domestic  eventually i n  the  freedmen  functions i n the o v e r a l l  of b u i l d i n g a  and  masters.  activities,  k i n d of opening,  were a s i g n i f i c a n t  while  were g e n e r a l l y d e n i e d  w o r k e r s on p l a n t a t i o n s ,  find  distinct  a t home o r i n e t h n i c c o m m u n i t i e s ,  much o f t h e l a b o u r  parentage) the  extremely  skilled  where t h e y  than  and many forms o f employment, and  o n l y as f i e l d  vants,  racially  in  century.)  many b l a c k A m e r i c a n s  to preserve  kinds  were s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d  Ameri-  international  nineteenth  A f r i c a n s l a v e s were o r i g i n a l l y  and d i r t i e s t  education  (The  f o r c e d t o abandon most o f t h e i r  Although  of black  White Americans a r e o f course  to the European-derived  hardest  group,  "American" a n c e s t r y  cultures,  blacks  non-Hindu  t o t h e A m e r i c a s as s l a v e s  centuries.  and i n f a c t  w h i t e A m e r i c a n s were a b l e and  separate,  the o r i g i n s  i n the e a r l y  They a r e t h e r e f o r e an i m m i g r a n t  a  a  identity.  There cans,  society,  people,  scale to  be  17 sure,  but  still  a class with  some e c o n o m i c and  political  influ-  ence . In  both  United  absolute  States  Mahars.  numbers and  occupy a roughly  Blacks  are  now  In  1850,  the  million,  3,200,000 b e i n g  f e d e r a t e S t a t e s had  black  while  a  million  total  populations; sippi, Some  and areas  were,  Several  nearly half of  the  The  population century, West  with  to  in  racially roles,  was  but  about  estimated  22  and  million  s t a t e s had  3.5  total.  very  most  since  out  factors being migration  the  from  l a r g e - s c a l e European certain  Mahars a r e filling  economically  the  the  areas  black Missis-  Blacks the  fact  cotton  to  American urban-  immigration.  indigenous  vital  31  American  characteristics, an  of  mid-nineteenth  opening of rural  of  Alabama.  i n the  the  Con-  free  large  of  23  million,  reflecting  distribution  the  The  black.27  important  over  million  i n S o u t h C a r o l i n a and  economically  The  and  minority."  later  of n e a r l y 4 m i l l i o n  unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d ,  indistinguishable, socially  of  t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f L o u i s i a n a and  groups share  ways.  ten percent  S t a t e s was  over  the the  "visible  years  in  t o t h a t of  at perhaps one-half  southern  s t r u c t u r e and  important  centres,  other  Ten  changed c o n s i d e r a b l y  These t h r e e fer  very  settlement,  industrial  largest  deep S o u t h were 70-90 p e r c e n t  racial has  about  the U n i t e d  b l a c k s were a m a j o r i t y  slave labour  belt.  of  black population  therefore,  that  the  about 9 m i l l i o n people,  c a n be  total.  t o make up  slaves.  t h e N o r t h had  population  giving  are  total population  with  them b l a c k ,  and  blacks  analogous p o s i t i o n  estimated  the American p o p u l a t i o n ,  percentages,  ritual  depressed.  The  but  dif-  population, and  social  Bene  Israel,  18  while and  not  technically  a l s o not  role  racially  in society,  discrimination. ately  imported  from  the  an  indigenous  distinct.  suffered  Black Americans,  dominant  menial  culture  are  They have no  nor have t h e y  to perform  group,  and  as  an  long-established  r i t u a l l y prescribed  from  social  or  economic  group  deliber-  racially  distinct  immigrant  work, a r e b o t h have been  subjected  to  extreme  discrimination. As  Table  factors  I shows,  i n common t h a n  most  significant  black  Americans,  immutable Mahars  sign  could  adopting  either  difference their of the  more  an  Mahars and  group w i t h  inferior  o c c u p a t i o n and  t h e Bene  is in racial  racial  readily  black Americans  i d e n t i t y has  Israel.  The  b e e n an  t o change  lifestyle  more  differentiation;  status assigned  attempt  have  for  outward  and  them.  The  to their  appropriate for  status a  by  higher  status. TABLE I DIFFERENTIATING SOCIAL FACTORS  Social 1 factors I Group 1  Racially Distinct  1 I  Functionally necessary social roles  I 1 I  Depressed Socio-Economic Status  Mahars  1  No  1  Yes  1  Yes  Bene I s r a e l  1  No  I  No  1  No  Black Americans  I 1  Yes  tion  |  Yes  Although  both  c o m m u n i t i e s have a  extending  some c e n t u r i e s e a r l i e r ,  |  Yes  tenuous m i l i t a r y f o r t h e Mahars and  tradiBene  19  Israel,  the  participation  period  from 1800  i n the  military.  increased professionalization India of  i n terms of  access  service  to  was  the  status.  races"  removed  same  right  reasons.  achieved least who  modernization  The  rolls  of the  to serve  as  enlistment  color"  served  men,  Freed  or as  blacks  American R e v o l u t i o n . American  Civil  Congress  in  ments. Wars o f and  1866  Between the  late  important  many y e a r s ,  Free  War.  and  after  in  1942,  the  19th  role  indeed  and  relevant  factors.  term then  when  profes-  "non-martial not  for  for  the  initial  pro-  hard an  With  or  a limited 1914,  century,  the  back-  military  " f r e e men  t o the  of  American in  the  sides during  the  army e s t a b l i s h e d  by  on b o t h  number o f  particularly these  at  community  ethnic  was,  the  finally  Independence,  prior  regular standing  until  and  p o s s i b l y some s l a v e s f o u g h t fought  loss  military  p a t t e r n of  i n use  militias  all-black during  regiments played  i n American m i l i t a r y up  The  Mahars  Since  religion,  blacks  provided  armies  although  caste,  the  The  1866  of  the  the  i n 1893,  soldiers.  in various colonial  Revolution.  of  i s open t o anyone from any  s u p p o s e d t o be  Black  an  i n t e r m s o f pay  A m e r i c a n b l a c k s have a somewhat s i m i l a r service.  a l s o marked by  i s s u e o f army s e r v i c e .  meets r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d s ;  ground are not  of  Mahars a g i t a t e d l o n g and  t h e Mahar Regiment  i n theory,  level  just  whereas t h e Bene I s r a e l ,  right  highest  organization.  c o m m u n i t i e s were among  seem t o have d r o p p e d t h e  formation  their  t h e r e f o r e came  from r e c r u i t i n g  to e n l i s t ,  test,  and  e q u i p m e n t and  military  Both  saw  T h i s p e r i o d was  b e c o m i n g more a t t r a c t i v e  sional  the  training,  t o 1893  actions.  S e c o n d W o r l d War,  regi-  the  Indian  an  active  However, their  for  partici-  20  pation  was  enlisted  very and  status.  service  i n the  and  both  i n terms of  officer  them  limited  they  Like  fought  military,  but  t o be  compete on  their  their the  military  access  Mahars,  t o be  an  numbers,  military  origins,  service  individually  or  to  or  depressed  offered native  its  beginning For  of  the  offered  imperial martial"  rule  differ  status.  their  as  the  groups  considered issue  be  for  to  the  allowed  to  considerably  in  Israel,  For  blacks,  set  British racial s u c h as  as  the  out  of  a  the  servile  one  of  the  War  and  Civil  service  one  black  while  changing  Mahars and  and  in a regular  l i m i t s on  theories  under  army was  B r i t i s h conquest  the  and  service  emancipation  citizens  with m i l i t a r y  prejudice  Mahars  military  the  used  either  t h a n s o c i a l advancement  professions.  Bene I s r a e l ,  the  a way  B r i t i s h rule  participation  position,  cases of  offered  Bene  rather  i n other areas,  and  to  A l l t h r e e have  their  a f t e r m a t h marked b o t h t h e i r  Racial  military  In  the  under  opportunities,  important. the  For  while  Mahars and new  to  were and  admitted  t e r m s and  consolidate  service  security  t r a d e s or  political  roles  important t o be  therefore, social  improve or  status.  rulers,  s e v e r a l new  and  military  political  only  equal  collectively.  black Americans,  combatant  who  merits.  These t h r e e communities, their  number  b l a c k Americans  not  on  to  the  extremely  very hard, admitted  own  i n terms of  army.  of  of  the  India  the  most  achievements  ultimately Bene I s r a e l  demands forced out  in of  "non-  of  the  to  use,  army. The military  ways i n w h i c h t h e s e g r o u p s u s e d , service,  and  the  often  conflicting  or  attempted  attitudes  of  those  21  who  set military  subject  of  this  policy study.  towards  their  aspirations,  form  the  main  Footnotes,  Chapter  I  Sunanda P a t w a r d h a n , Change Among I n d i a n ' s H a r i j a n s : M a h a r a s h t r a - A C a s e S t u d y (New D e l h i ; O r i e n t Longman L i m i t e d , 1973), p. 29. A l e x a n d e r R o b e r t s o n , The Mahar F o l k : A S t u d y o f U n t o u c h a b l e s i n M a h a r a s h t r a ( C a l c u t t a : Y.M.C.A. P u b l i s h i n g House, 1 9 3 8 ) , 44-45. Ibid.,  p.  47.  Ibid.,  p.  44.  Ibid.,  pp.  46-47,  51.  I b i d . , p. 53; Dr. G u s t a v O p p e r t , The O r i g i n a l I n h a b i t a n t s o f I n d i a ( M a d r a s : n.p., 1893; r e p r i n t ed., New Delhi: O r i e n t a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1972), p. 93. R.  V. R u s s e l l and H i r a L a i , The T r i b e s and C a s t e s o f t h e C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e s o f I n d i a , v o l . TV (N.p.: C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1916; r e p r i n t ed., O o s t e r h o u t N.B. - N e t h e r l a n d s : A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1969), p. 130.  Loc. c i t . R o b e r t s o n , The Ibid., C.  p.  Mahar F o l k ,  p.  17.  54.  A. K i n c a i d , "The O u t c a s t e ' s S t o r y , " The A n c h o r i t e and O t h e r S t o r i e s (London, Bombay: Humphrey M i l f o r d a t t h e O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 2 ) , pp. 154-55.  R o b e r t s o n , The Ibid.,  pp.  Ibid.,  p.  Mahar F o l k ,  p.  18.  20-24. 27.  Robert J . M i l l e r , "Button, Button . . . Great T r a d i t i o n , L i t t l e T r a d i t i o n , Whose T r a d i t i o n ? " , A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 39 ( J a n u a r y 1966):32. S c h i f r a S t r i z o w e r , The o f Bombay ( O x f o r d :  C h i l d r e n o f I s r a e l : The Bene I s r a e l B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1 9 / 1 ) , pp. 89-90.  23 17.  R. A. S c h e r m e r h o r n , E t h n i c P l u r a l i t y i n I n d i a ( T u c s o n , A r i z o n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f A r i z o n a P r e s s , 1978), p. 240; The G a z e t t e e r o f Bombay C i t y and I s l a n d , v o l . I (Pune: The Government P h o t o z i n c o P r e s s , 1977; f a c s i m i l e e d . o r i g . pub. Bombay: The Times P r e s s , 1909), p . 247, n. 3. The "Ten L o s t T r i b e s " o f t h e kingdom o f I s r a e l were c a r r i e d i n t o c a p t i v i t y b y t h e A s s y r i a n s under S a r g o n I I , c . 740-700 B.C. The o t h e r t r i b e s were t h e S o u t h e r n kingdom o f J u d a h .  18.  Haeem Samuel K e h i m k a r , The H i s t o r y o f t h e B e n e - I s r a e l o f I n d i a ( T e l A v i v : Dayag P r e s s L t d . , 1937), p. 52.  19.  Ibid.,  20.  Rev. J . H e n r y L o r d , The Jews i n I n d i a and t h e E a s t ( K o l h a p u r : M i s s i o n P r e s s , 1907; r e p r i n t e d . , W e s t p o r t , Conn.: Greenwood P r e s s , P u b l i s h e r s , 1976), app. I , pp. 1-2. G i v e s a t o t a l o f 14,889 Jews i n t h e Bombay P r e s i d e n c y i n 1901.  21.  Ibid.,  p . 93.  22.  Ibid.,  p . 79.  23.  S c h e r m e r h o r n , E t h n i c P l u r a l i t y i n I n d i a , pp. 244-245; S t r i z o w e r , The C h i l d r e n o f I s r a e l , pp. 27-28.  24.  S t r i z o w e r , The C h i l d r e n o f I s r a e l , p. 47; S c h e r m e r h o r n , E t h n i c P l u r a l i t y i n I n d i a , p"p. 245-246.  25.  Bombay C i t y  26.  B e n j a m i n J . I s r a e l , ' "Bene I s r a e l Surnames and T h e i r V i l l a g e L i n k s , " i n The Bene I s r a e l o f I n d i a : Some S t u d i e s (New Y o r k : A p t Books, I n c . , 1984; by a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h O r i e n t Longman L t d . , I n d i a ) , p. 123.  27.  A l l a n N e v i n s and H e n r y S t e e l e Commager, A P o c k e t H i s t o r y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (New Y o r k : W a s h i n g t o n S q u a r e P r e s s , I n c . , 1963), pp. 200-201, 222.  pp. 15-16.  Gazetteer,  v o l . I , pp. 248-249.  24  CHAPTER I I EARLY MILITARY HISTORY All history ries; of  three of  military  counting  s o r t s can  can  be  c o m m u n i t i e s under d i s c u s s i o n have had  s e r v i c e extending  be  ship;  as  t o an  There  folk  further.  vas  or  when,  and  Sanads s a i d particular  the  several  in  the  villages  individual  groups rewards,  a one-sided  i t i s i n the  organi-  relation-  to serve  interest  in  of  the  Mahars c l a i m of  there  the  are  Somavanshi  zata  fought  the  with  a number o f  standing  plate  t o see  existence  to v i l l a g e himself,  Poona d i s t r i c t .  other  Panda-  Robertson mentions s e v e r a l copper the  and  long  (the  per-  confirming  able  small  services  Mahar f a m i l i e s o r not  tradition  permanent m i l i t a r y  t h e Mahars t o have  rulers.  to e x i s t  R o b e r t s o n was Purandhar  seeking  among t h e Mahars o f m i l i t a r y  for l o c a l  centu-  this.  i n the Mahabharata War,l  formed  a  early military history  groups are p e r m i t t e d  o n l y when,  discounting  a martial  i n d i v i d u a l s or  i n a formal,  subordinate  s u b d i v i s i o n ) of  traditions  This  immediate need and  The  largest  beliefs,  adventitious:  dominant group t o p e r m i t  Even  back more t h a n two  is also characteristically  minority  military  and  t r a c e d even  than p a r t i c i p a t i o n  zation.  the  the  traditions  described  responding rather  of  of  Inams g r a n t e d  groups. was  This  One  owned by records  t o a Mahar o f P u r a n d h a r v i l l a g e  a  such,  which  family  the named  to  grant  near of  Baharnak  25  Bangale. for  Baharnak s services  the  king  Purandhar, port  in  these  of  Bedar  various putting  scribed plates  t o be  able  can  fairly  be  also  to allow  assumed, b u t  which to  photograph  The  of  owned examine  one  but  plate  found  Purandhar p l a t e  a Mahar f r i e n d .  fort  m i l i t a r y sup-  outsiders  Koya n e a r Ahmednagar, The  sacrifices  the  families  t o b o r r o w and  indecipherable.  f o r R o b e r t s o n by  and  The  2  human  b u i l d i n g of  construction,  revolts.  Mahars o f  providing  the  were r e l u c t a n t  was  to the  language  facilitate  down two  Robertson  belonging  to  works o f  copper p l a t e s  them.  included  1  was  existence  tran-  of  t h e i r a u t h e n t i c i t y has  the  these  not  been  doubt  that  established. In  more r e c e n t  times,  for  seventeenth-century Maratha r u l e r S h i v a j i .  under S h i v a j i f o r t s and  three  officers  generally  two  normally by  soldiers,  is l i t t l e  did  that  foot  there  Mahars the  s e r v e as  however,  men  bles  of  equal  M a r a t h a s and  a Kayastha while of  the  Parwari  and  traditional  s c o u t s and  status one the  drawn  e n v i r o n s of  duty of  the  i n t h i s case the  to guard m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s .  behaviour Another  other  officers  directly tradition  Mahar i n t h e  reign  Mahars  notes  different  3  a  village  It is also  of  report  and  to h i s  describes  services  Rajaram.  the  This  were  of  Shivnak  resem-  watchman being  very  comings and any  immediate  was  guarded  m i l i t a r y duty  the  fort  castes,  fort  t o k e e p w a t c h on the  under  the  ( P a r w a r i s ) were  t o S h i v a j i or  of  Sarkar  quartermaster  Mahar as  ployed  the  spies  The  This  that  of  from  Brahmin.  Ramushi c a s t e .  t h e y were e x p e c t e d  as  o u t p o s t s were n o r m a l l y p l a c e d  except  that  possibly  em-  likely goings  suspicious lieutenants.  Shivnak or  Shibnak  r a i s e d a Mahar  unit  26  and o f f e r e d  i t i n s u p p o r t of Rajaram  (1707-49),  descendants  Kalambi  village  military  the  Hiroji  of Kharda  Patankar,  objected  to  should  still  owned l a n d  was  be no  quite possibly  rights.  said  The  still  been  He  t o have t o l d  a Patil  that  with  with  as  Patil.  t h e Mahars as p a r t  do draw on t h i s  and  recently  and  o f S h i v n a k Mahar  the  had  lost  his  captured the  fort  i t t o t h e k i n g who  history  these  of t h e i r  tradition,  stories  limited  Brahmin,  6  of a w i l l i n g n e s s  social  o r d e r f o r ways and  in  they  tradition,  as  leadership,  of m a r t i a l  power o f t h e t i m e ,  true,  o f t h e Mahar R e g i m e n t . it  and  is,  whether M u s l i m ,  t o l o o k beyond  means t o b e t t e r  to  loyalty.  achievements  allying  and The  along  there i s a d e f i n i t e  t h e Mahars as a s e p a r a t e g r o u p  the r u l i n g  warfare  5  they are capable of courage,  of  who  descendants  quite  and  presenting  o t h e r a s p e c t s o f Mahar t r a d i t i o n ,  pression  advisor,  in  Shivnak's  i n the S a t a r a area but  of the o f f i c i a l  Considering  that  until  at  commanders  these i n c i d e n t s are h i s t o r i c a l l y  a r e w i d e l y a c c e p t e d by  prove  caste.  t o o k a band o f Mahar s o l d i e r s  Mahars c a n and  Patwardhan  Brahmin  camp  is also  do.4  restored his rights  form p a r t  granted  Shivnak  other  p r o b a b l y a contemporary  Whether o r n o t  now  in their  concern f o r  of V a i r a t g a d h from the Muslims, return  Peshwa's  i n the S a t a r a d i s t r i c t  Nagnak Mahar, had  i n 1795.  Shahu  a l s o Shivnak, p r o v i d e d  o f Pureshwarambhau  Shivnak's presence  there  elder,  H i s grandson,  the l i f e  later  I n r e t u r n he was  t o t h e Peshwa, Sawai M a d h a v r a o .  with saving  battle  Shivaji.  as a g i f t .  service  credited  of  (1689-1700) and  im-  themselves Maratha,  the  themselves.  or  traditional True  to  27.  this  pattern,  when  Honourable East India,  the  British  I n d i a Company) as  t h e Mahars w i l l i n g l y  were d o i n g  the  attempting  e s t a b l i s h e d themselves  took  same t h i n g o t h e r  to a l l y  had  made c o n s o l i d a t i o n and  As  t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s as  to believe of  attempts,  ritual  the  personal  that  the  s e r v i c e under  them.  themselves with  previous  and  power  castes  In  domestic  a significant  low  or  the  customs  poverty their  (beef-eating,  perspective  themselves  t h i s was  without being  of  the  gains the  soldiers,  difficult. British,  their  low  to the  British.  their  as  reason  carrion,  lack  status  a unique o p p o r t u n i t y  h a n d i c a p p e d by  Mahars  t h e y had  handling  p r o h i b i t i o n s ) which d e l i n e a t e d  Mahar  Mahars  group.  H i n d u s w o u l d make them e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e the  The  currently-dominant  r e t a i n e r s of as  Western  done i n  maintenance of  and  in  the  c o m m u n i t i e s had  s t a t u s and  servants  (as  as From  to  prove  ritually-degraded  status. Mahar  military  s e r v i c e under  tuitously  i n the  labourers  employed on  bodies  of  sepoys  labourers case  at  of  attack  placed  under  ductor  and  "Jumbledars," peter,  one  and  the  fortifications  pay  but  The  men  on  " S i r Naiques,"  and  two  pay  regular  arms  as in  scale  and  early quasi-military force  was  Gumbajee P u t t o j e e  i n t o four  the  served  t o t a k e up  military  for-  organized  ordinarily  companies o f  E a c h company c o n s i s t e d o f  eight  began q u i t e  o f Bombay i n t o  were o b l i g e d  This  command o f one divided  British  I n d i a Company  were t h e n p l a c e d  each.  beldar  East  for defense.  discipline.  was  men  The  the  labourers'  under m i l i t a r y  sixteen  1740s.  the  four  colour  hundred p r i v a t e s .  two one  as  their hundred  Subadar,  bearers,  one  conand four trum-  28  Documents twenty-three  in  men  the  Public  as c a p t a i n s ,  Department D i a r y each  of  shown as commanding  numbers o f men  armed w i t h v a r i o u s weapons: f i r e l o c k s ,  long  sword  swords,  likely  that  and  target,  1757  and bow  these c a p t a i n s each brought  and  varying  matchlocks,  arrow.?  It  a c o n t i n g e n t of  engaged them a l l as a body and a c t e d as an  mal  spokesman.  own  weapons s u g g e s t s t h a t  that  they  minimal men.  would  degree These  Subadars two  and  men  The  t a k e up arms i f a s k e d ,  of t r a i n i n g ,  including  "Moors"  ( M u s l i m s ) and  men  a r e "Gentoos"  men,  353  Bombay)  only  t o be Mahars.  and  men  t h e y had  222  captains.  mixed  own  The  "caste"  companies.  to  "Frost"  and  the  of  648  around  Muslim  This assortment  "cap-  of  (presumably  of the S i d i  150  Christians  some  One  or men,  and  the t o t a l  o f t h e Bombay Army u n t i l  had two  of  t h e major  a had  castes reor-  1895.  references and  four  Of  Gujarat.  from the t e r r i t o r i e s  sixty-  "Pharash  eight  while  were f r o m S u r a t and  g a n i z a t i o n o f 1893  various  commanding 436  country  characteristic  Army between 1757  "Frosts,"  Eleven,  from A n g r i a t e r r i t o r i e s .  Specific  as  some watch-  commanding  T h e r e were o n l y  of t h e i r had  their  the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  that  from the " M a r a t t a "  o f 34 men  s m a l l groups  brought  the remaining seven c a p t a i n s  (Hindus).  "Gentoos"  came  contingent  remained  are l i s t e d  among s i x d i f f e r e n t  and  and  infor-  i f o n l y as h u n t e r s o r v i l l a g e  themselves,  are  "Moors"  on  Four of the c a p t a i n s ,  appear  had  t h e men  " c a p t a i n s " do n o t seem t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e  no c a s t e " and  tains"  that  t h e y were employed  and J u m b l e d a r s .  scattered  fact  seems kinsmen  or neighbours, leader  list  1797  t o Mahar m i l i t a r y a r e few,  though  service until  i n t h e Bombay  the  acquisition  29 of  territories  had  perforce  and  could  least  one  to recruit  from t h e c o a s t a l d i s t r i c t s  h a r d l y have a v o i d e d source  Elphinstone with  above t h e W e s t e r n G h a t s i n 1802 t h e Bombay  gives  t a k i n g Mahars  p o s i t i v e evidence  in  any  of  Mahar  ( t h e G o v e r n o r o f Bombay) q u o t e d ,  t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , an e a r l i e r  around  in  work w h i c h  Army Bombay  case.  At  service;  correspondence stated:  i n t h e wars o f L a w r e n c e , C l i v e and C o o t e , i n t h e Carnatic, t h e a b o r i g i n e s c o n s t i t u t e d by f a r t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e p o y s . . . I t was t h e y ( t h e P u r w a r i s o f t h e Bombay Army) who, i n t h e s i e g e o f M a n g a l o r e [1783-84author], t o g e t h e r w i t h . . . t h e 42nd H i g h l a n d e r s under C o l o n e l C a m p b e l l , d e f e n d e d t h a t f o r t r e s s f o r s i x months . . .8 The  Bombay r e g i m e n t  designated  a  involved,  Grenadier  t h e 8 t h Bombay N a t i v e  r e g i m e n t and awarded t h e  in  unofficially  honoured as t h e 3 r d B a t t a l i o n o f t h e B l a c k  record  number of  Battalion.  recognition of their  battle  "Mangalore"  A  official  Infantry,  of references  corps  was r a i s e d i n 1776-77,  the  M a r i n e " — t o provide  the  Bombay  Marine  Infantry  detachments  (later  Indian  from a very  early period enlisted  Parwaris.  I n 1776,  Navy). 1(  Some but  enlisted  higher-caste  Marine  " f o r the s e r v i c e of of  Battalion  was r a i s e d , t h e f i v e  Parwaris  Hindus a p p a r e n t l y  were c o n s i d e r e d  i n the  a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f Mahars o r  when t h e c o r p s  were i n f a c t  or  The M a r i n e  )  was  Watch.^  f o r s e r v i c e i n the ships  S e p o y s were t o be a l l "Moormen" o r M u s l i m s . S e p o y s who  honour and  t o Mahar s e r v i c e a r e f o u n d  t h e 2 1 s t Regiment Bombay N a t i v e This  service,  was  hundred  However, many o f t h e and M o c h i s o r Chamars.  did enlist  u n s u i t a b l e because they  i n the  battalion  frequently  objected  t o c r o s s i n g t h e s e a , w h i c h was a p r o b l e m s i n c e t h e M a r i n e  Battal-  ion  i n 1812  so f r e q u e n t l y served  on b o a r d  ship.  For instance,  30  Ragoojee against to  Bhonsla, pirates  Jemadar  either  i n 1836  about  prevented  transferred  Battalion  to  go  of  wherever  problems; Whether  list,  an  the  Marine B a t t a l i o n  188  Muslims.  or  Bene I s r a e l .  of  l a t e as  a number o f  assigned  to  Gulf So  i t , as  a regular  Bombay  and and  i t did  185  two  see  The  attempt  for other  much more t h a n any  other  that caste  were  the  then  Veteran Service  men  of  Marine By  1877  were Mahars  and  three  Jews  a f t e r Mahar r e c r u i t m e n t  had  (out  often  of  on  824)  i n the  active  The  but  when  the  Battalion and  the  went duties  a pioneer b a t t a l i o n  for  always  stationed  for  service  including the  battalion.  service  Marine  i t was  t o Burma and  regiment of  1857.  the  I n d o - P o r t u g u e s e and  service  such  mutiny of  Muslims.  whom 492  army  forestall  reasons,  Mahars and  a m a r i n e b a t t a l i o n , as  extensive  was infan-  General  to  the  always used to p r o v i d e detachments  very  of  T h e s e men  changes i n i t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  for expeditions  He  whose  removed t o  an  not.  infantry battalion,  promoted  government  Battalion  1 2  Dart  s o l d i e r s e n l i s t i n g i n the  1895,  Mahars  Bombay Army was  through  as  685  M a r i n e B a t t a l i o n was the  of  i n c i d e n t a l cause of  included  the  t o be  Regiment  afloat.  was  or  board  regiment.  notice  discharged.  d o m i n a t e d by  ended, t h e r e were s t i l l  rest  or  T h e r e were a l s o As  the  on  ordered  7th  regiments,  t h i s Act,  came t o be  the  Marine  requiring  also  was  infantry  their service  1856,  because of  The  i n the  t h e y were s e n t ,  i t was  Battalion  men  to other  or p e n s i o n  Enlistment Act  t o an  i t came t o  240  serving  Cutch,  second b a t t a l i o n of  Again  prejudices  of  the  try. I  were  Gulf  was  transferred  to  there  i n the  who  and  removed 1  Havildar,  the on  in  Persian  board  overseas  and  ship.  service,  Bombay army, p a r t i c u l a r -  31  ly  in  the  Marine  latter  Battalion  under  a native  siderable special  that  officer,  a  gained  published  but  in  1797 i n the  of  their  Mandnack E s n a c k , Sonmettee  and  Cosnack  Naiks.  Four of  their  account  the  of  the  records  Vigilant  Gulf  large  men  con-  earning  was  of Kutch,  of  fortunate  battalion  were s t i l l  and  was  fresh.  attacked  by  four  d r o v e them o f f  marines r e c e i v e d promotions this  occasion. Two  Nimnac Sownac were p r o m o t e d  five  a  number  i t is also  p r o m o t e d t o Jemadar.  these  required  sepoys  chances of  f o r the  history  Five  Subannac and  of  the  high.  s e r v i c e s on  was  Since  detachments  duties often  action,  fact-filled  instance,  recognition  century.  particular recognition;  a three-hour b a t t l e .  privates  their  probably  Sanganian p i r a t e v e s s e l s  tee  small  a t a t i m e when memories and  For  after  and  were q u i t e  factors  brief  nineteenth  independent  distinction  who  the  usually supplied  degree of  These Mahars  h a l f of  in  The  Havildar,  Naiks,  Ruttonmet-  to  Havildar  and  Mandnac Caunnac were p r o m o t e d  to  were Mahars,  or  the  fifth  a Mochi  Chamar. In an attacked Persian the  unrelated  by Gulf.  Havildar silver  but  engagement was  four of  brig Viper  at anchor o f f B u s h i r e  the  thirty-two  of  s i x t y - f i v e Marines being  killed.  A l l of  the  a  brief  in  was  bloody,  and the  the  but  g r a t u i t y o f one  Soubannac Wagnac and  H.E.I.C. s h i p , all  The  received  chain  same y e a r ,  Joasmi p i r a t e s while  detachment of  survivors  i n c i d e n t the  Jemadar S h e i k  badge w o r t h one c r u i s e r Sylph,  the  ship's  month's  hundred  f a r e d worse  crew and  the  pay,  Gunny,  and received  two, a  rupees.13  Another  in a pirate  attack;  e n t i r e Marine  detachment  were k i l l e d  i n hand-to-hand  In F e b r u a r y the  seven  board  men  o f 1809  Lucknac  and  Roopnac Sonnac,  and  Bamnac Sonnac, affixed In  French  to their  on  Esnac  Sepoys,  frigates.  B a t t a l i o n who Havildar,  The  detachment of seventeen remained  d e s p i t e b o t h p e r s u a s i o n and  induce  them t o change t h e i r  rank.  Each  them, in  rupee  widow  ordinary grant  was  was  not  the  died  in this  was  alle-  to  them  The  men  badge.  on d u t y  When  to in-  were e a c h p r o m o t e d  one  one  of  i n the P e r s i a n G u l f  were g r a n t e d a p e n s i o n  instance e n t i t l e d It  two  Marine  to their  exceedalthough  to a pension  specifically  noted  that  made i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s p r e v i o u s s e r v i c e  on  under this board  1 6  Soldiers the  of the  to France.  a silver  child  men  what would o r d i n a r i l y have b e e n g i v e n ,  circumstances.  Aurora.  beyond  and  c a p t u r e d by  faithful  seven Muslims,  to receive  h i s widow S a l l e e  i n g by one  the  and  also  Dewnac Bamnac  coercion applied  allegiance  H a v i l d a r Dhunnac Dadnac,  1820  the  was  on  Naique,  as Mahars from  t h e c r u i s e r A u r o r a was  the A u r o r a  Mahars  killed  of  names.  1810  board  ten  been  C a l n a c Downac  a l l identifiable  1 5  giance  volved,  had  Gonnak Gondnac, B a l n a c J a n n a c ,  September  Battalion  p e n s i o n s were g r a n t e d t o t h e widows  of the Marine  the Sylph,  "nak"  combat.14  of  the Marine  borders  Subadar Balnak  Tannak,  Battalion  o f I n d i a and a Mahar,  in  command o f a g u a r d  over  his  commanding o f f i c e r  received  in  an  i n 1817  a convict  on o c c a s i o n s e r v e d independent went t o New  draft  a letter  to that  capacity; South  colony,  from G o v e r n o r  well  Wales and  MacQuarrie  33  commending duty.  interesting  history  East the  for his satisfactory  of  although  not  especially  the Marine B a t t a l i o n  Indiaman N a u t i l u s e n c o u n t e r e d Straits  unaware two  o f Sunda.  n a t i o n s and  fired  Elinac  several other killed  men  "This  mese War,  of  this  the  recommendation  that  against  and  Boyce,  were which  i n the F i r s t the  Bur-  company's  Major  confirmed  both  Gunnac  Commodore Hayes'  i n these  but  and  ranks  men  was  not  were r a i s e d  t h e H a v i l d a r b e i n g p r o m o t e d t o Jemadar and  Naik  to H a v i l d a r .  eight  noncommissioned identified  Besides  these  officers  and  as Mahars s e r v e d  f o u r p r i v a t e s who  T h e r e were a n o t h e r  ninety-one  o f whom were a l m o s t  the  killed  commended H a v i l d a r Walnac Sumnac  degree,  and  was  action  t h e o n l y o c c a s i o n on  a l s o served  rank one  NCOs  ensuing  x  f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons,  three  In the  the  Americans." &  accepted  tively  was  rank ,of Subadar  be  the  the Peacock a p p a r e n t l y  b e e n s e r v i n g as a J e m a d a r . they  when  in  Commodore J o h n Hayes commanding  had  in  s h i p Peacock  commander, L i e u t e n a n t  i s probably  been s e r v i n g i n the  episode  i n 1815  the Marine B a t t a l i o n  Vestal particularly  Seednac N a i k who  of  of  a l r e a d y b e e n s i g n e d between  the Marine B a t t a l i o n  1824-26.  brig-of-war had  fought  important  the American  c a p t a i n of  including  or wounded.  Men  third  conduct  occurred  upon t h e N a u t i l u s .  Sonnac o f  I n d i a n army has  who  The  t h a t a p e a c e t r e a t y had  Subadar  the  Subadar  1 7  An the  the  Marine B a t t a l i o n  men  a total  o f one  s i x p r i v a t e s who  i n t h e Burmese War can  be  privates,  identified  at l e a s t  c e r t a i n l y Mahars. i n t h i s war  was  The  be  as  with  Muslim. to  general to  and  posi-  along  one-half  considered  the  Jemadar  can  in  one-  conduct be  very  34  praiseworthy. of  them,  their  nac, tal  as  h a d by 1826  o f one  o f 1839,  the b a t t l e  early  1840s and t h e Opium War  o f Meanee,  A  1851  Second the  promoted  Burmese War  S e c o n d S i k h War  March  served  o f 1857  chest,  special had  she  Battalion  t h e c a p t u r e o f Aden (Sind)  campaigns  a g a i n won  (established  in  Several  specific  in  residency  i n Sind  i n C h i n a 1840-42.  Babnac  the  the  Mahar  mention was  i n 1837)  for  invested  in  October  sank on a voyage  Deepnac,  who  stayed at h i s post  was  on  until  to  sentry  the  ship  and t h e n managed t o s a v e t h e bag o f r u p e e s .  to Naik.  Moozaffur,  Battalion  India  Marine p r i v a t e ,  went down under him,  Feroze,  received  of the Marine  t h e company s h i p F a l k l a n d s  duty over the t r e a s u r e  He was  other  in hospi-  and as i n  S u b a d a r - M a j o r J a n n a c Nownac Bahadur  with the Order of B r i t i s h  Karachi.  duration  1  including  of the Marine B a t t a l i o n  I n May  f o r the  granted a  the defence of the Hyderabad  to  v a r i o u s deeds.  received  circumstances. ^  detachments  prior  soldiers  ship,  i n Burma,  r u p e e more t h a n she w o u l d have  and 1858  most  o f t h e A u r o r a , Downac M u c k i n -  contracted  i n a number o f campaigns  September  and  r e a c h e d t h e rank o f S u b a d a r , d i e d  of i l l n e s s  1838  medals  on a t r a n s p o r t  t o p e n s i o n under o r d i n a r y  Between  1845.  were awarded  c a s e o f Dhamnac H a v i l d a r , h i s widow was  entitled  served  Another s u r v i v o r  a result  pension been  detachment  B a t t a o f o n e - q u a r t e r r u p e e p e r day  service.  who  earlier  entire  e x c e p t f o r t h o s e employed  an a d d i t i o n a l of  The  M a r i n e s s e r v e d on t h e company  Berenice,  Z e n o b i a , and S e s o s t r i s  1853-54 and r e c e i v e d  service  some one h u n d r e d and t e n men  i n t h e s h i p s o f t h e Indus F l o t i l l a  detachments  during  medals. of  steamers  the  During Marine  1848-49.  of M a r i n e s from the F e r o z e ,  the  In  Semiramis,  35 Assaye,  Ajdaha,  Victoria,  Lieutenant-General  Clive  and  S i r James Outram a t  the  Persia.  Lance-Naik  Esnak and  P r i v a t e Lucknak were w o u n d e d .  A  distinction at  during  Multan.  guard the  The  and  house  chest  attack.  was  promoted  Gondnac  The  Ramnac  of  themselves. commanding  riotous their  the  Indian  mutineers of  M a r i n e s were a b l e  and  the  Navy.  67th  to  to  the  Class.  M.  H.E.I.C.  with  the  fourteen  Balnac  Lance-Naik.  conduct,  uniforms,  an  0.  Stephens,  conduct of  leveled against  serving  bringing  one  Sonnac,  Dhurumnac  Havildar  at  false  always  Jannac Indian  twelve of  and  included  was  sixteen  under him.  feigning  distinguish  a R o y a l Navy  i n 1852,  Chamar,  t h e s e men  attempt  who  2 2  s h i p Semiramis  Mahars,  and  Bicknac Coottennac a l l pro-  M a r i n e B a t t a l i o n d i d not  Commander  2 1  repulse  o f N a i k J a n n a c Dhonnac  B a l m a t e r Rammater,  promoted  to  Assistant  P r i v a t e s Aumnac J a n n a c , B i c k n a c  Battalion recently  Charges  stationed  the  and  Privates  Third  the  dissatisfied  included  of  been  been a s s i g n e d  house of  Holt  particular  of  the  Ragnak  L a n c e - N a i k Ramnac Babnac a l s o were awarded t h e  Order of M e r i t ,  Marine  won  a party  Balnac Jannac,  Babnac  Dhonnac and  Men  Infantry  and  Havildar  in  2 0  i n the  detachment c o n s i s t e d  Pitnac,  moted t o N a i k , and  by  under  o f Mohumra  d e t a c h m e n t had  O f f i c e r Lieutenant  to H a v i l d a r ,  killed;  s e v e r a l p r i v a t e s had  w h i c h was  attacked  69th Bengal Native the  and  The  served  taking  Marine B a t t a l i o n again  Mutiny.  Naik  Port  was  the  the  treasure  Magistrate The  Babmac Sumnak was  detachment of  Falkland  The one  men  officer extremely of  the  sixteen  men  Anglo-Indian.  h a b i t u a l bad  conduct,  insanity, losing parts  complaints  and  general  of  insubordi-  36  nation. with  Commander S t e p h e n s  one  other  dozen l a s h e s w i t h the c a t f o r  marines  "misconducted  insubordinate of  their  appear er  corps being  Stephens  not  was  flogged."23  of a l l ,  themselves  also at fault  of d i s c i p l i n e  first  themselves  in a  customary  marked  and  were n o t s a i l o r s  in  seems p r o b a b l e  privates  that  defining  discipline  not  Command-  the d u t i e s  were r i g h t  who,  then  were  imposed i n  i s s u e d by t h e G o v e r -  c o u l d be p u n i s h e d  the marines  do  and s e c o n d l y  of marine  p u n i s h m e n t was n o t p e r m i t t e d i n t h e c a s e o f  sioned o f f i c e r s ;  one  to enforce the s t a n -  but s o l d i e r s ,  1810,  in Council  of  i n t h e B r i t i s h Navy upon men  nor  sepoys,  noncommis-  with a "rattan."  It  i n q u e s t i o n i n g t h e use  the cat.24 An  interesting  the Marine  stone a  the  the marines  i n attempting  According to regulations  of  most  and  very s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ,  t h e B r i t i s h Navy.  of  punished  disobedience,  Although  accustomed t o the b r u t a l p h y s i c a l  corporal  Cannae  manner by o p e n l y q u e s t i o n i n g t h e p r o p r i e t y  t o have conducted  dards  had P r i v a t e Lucknac  Central  of  sepoys  Africa.  men  Mullang  and  S h a i k Khan, Lucknac,  episode  o c c u r r e d i n 1865 when D r .  F o r t y men  of the Marine leaving  P r i v a t e s Khoada Bux, Purun,  for Zanzibar  Pandnac Ramnac,  the l a s t  Living-  f i v e Mahars.  expedition  in  Lance  E s m a l l Khan, Jaynac  Bawajnac Gunnac, and Ramnac Bhewnac.  were M u s l i m s ,  David  Battalion  were C o l o r H a v i l d a r S h a i k Ahmad,  Shaik  i n the h i s t o r y  t h e government o f Bombay t o e n l i s t  t o accompany h i m on h i s n e x t  t w e l v e were e n l i s t e d ,  twelve  these  Battalion  r e c e i v e d p e r m i s s i o n from  number  and  and somewhat u n u s u a l  to  volunteered 1866. Naik  Shaik  The Sheik  Curreem,  Gunnac, Ramnac  The f i r s t  seven of  L i v i n g s t o n e d i d not  37  find  that  that  the sepoys  the sepoys  that  they  be  all  said  as a l e a d e r .  Muslim.  the  extent  He a l s o  of t h e i r  served  service  the Second Afghan  but i t i s harder  w h i c h show War,  the  apparently very  little  t h e y were  not  much c r e d i t  upon  to  regiments  determine  However  Mahars s e r v i n g  the  scattered  i n such  campaigns  t h e S e c o n d A n g l o - S i k h War,  1st battalion/3rd  and  suit  the  defeated  regiment,  (1817-1819), (later  Bhowani S i n g h and E k n a t h  to Havildar for their  zeal  Peshwa B a j i  the  Kali  Balnak,  were  and b r a v e r y d u r i n g t h e Rao  after  the  two  pur-  battle  of  2 6  One  i n s t a n c e o f Mahar b r a v e r y ,  d e s c r i b e d by I . A.  o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d A n g l o - S i k h War. including  attack 1849.  be  War.  promoted  Army,  and  understood  f o r lack of evidence.  Panchwin or B l a c k F i f t h ) ,  Kirkee.  old  i n s t a n c e , d u r i n g t h e T h i r d M a r a t h a War of  of  to  In e x t e n u a t i o n i t  i n most o f t h e Bombay i n f a n t r y  the T h i r d Anglo-Maratha  soldiers  clearly  them,  Battalion.  nineteenth century,  For  getting  with  reluctant  s i n c e he was n o t even aware t h a t  r e f e r e n c e s do e x i s t as  t o work b u t l i k e w i s e  then  considered  brought  The e p i s o d e , however, does n o t c a s t  Mahars a l s o in  t o t h e pack a n i m a l s  L i v i n g s t o n e was  the sepoys  the Marine  Livingstone  and were g e n e r a l l y , u n t r u s t w o r t h y .  ineffectual about  were c r u e l  were r e l u c t a n t  s e n t home, must  served him well.25  a company  on t h e K h u n i 2 7  captured  According the  Burj  of Sappers  U n i t s of the  and M i n e r s ,  took  (Bloody Bastion) at Multan  to Ezekiel,  a Mahar  Ezekiel,  soldier,  Bombay  p a r t i n the on 2  January  Mahadev  Missar,  enemy c o l o u r s and i n s p i r e d h i s r e g i m e n t  to  press  38  their  attack  also  displayed  similar  vein,  Sindhay, off  successfully. similar a party  part  of  valour;  of a regiment  these s t o r i e s  campaign  i s well-documented.  An military in  dated of  early o f f i c i a l  Appendix  B)  n o t be  These  notice  the  1881  Humane  day  of June  from  original  similar  stories  of the appointment  1847  This  and  effective  from t h e S e c o n d A half  A f g h a n War  on J a n u a r y  R.  o f Maiwand, J u l y  to l e a v e the l i n e Henn and  provide  form  first  of  battle,  f o u r t e e n Sappers  and  later  further Sappers  27th  dead.  B a l n a k Yesnak and Chocnak, were Mahars.32  1880.  leaving Of On  the 12th  D o c t o r McMahon o f He  was  awarded t h e b r o n z e  medal o f t h e  Royal  most famous and b e s t documented  i n s t a n c e s of  Mahar  Society.  military  do  o f a Mahar t o a  company o f t h e Bombay  Sepoy Bhewnac Ramnac s a v e d A s s i s t a n t  two  this  3 1  were t h e l a s t  to Naik  The  1818  specific  6 1 s t Regiment and h i s s e r v a n t f r o m d e a t h by d r o w n i n g .  promoted  held  Vitnac  b e h i n d L i e u t e n a n t T.  April  confirmed  and  and M i n e r s were p r e s e n t a t t h e b a t t l e  two,  Ramjee  i n 1826,  Although  a  o f t h e g r a n t o f rank o f Jemadar t o Kamalnac  examples o f Mahar s e r v i c e .  fourteen,  Mahar,  n  (given  episodes  men  a  i  3 0  d a t e s from 1847.  t h e same y e a r .  These  medals.28  i n Kathiawar  enemy.29  Ramnak,  is a certificate  the f i r s t  Two  under  Jannak  t h e p r e s e n c e o f Bombay r e g i m e n t s d u r i n g  tradition.  position  serving  could  sources,  o f t h e Mahar  both received  four hundred  military  part  Mahar s o l d i e r ,  o f t w e n t y - f i v e men  an a t t a c k by o v e r  details  Another  3 3  service  of d i s t i n c t i o n  and a t D u b r a i ,  are at the b a t t l e  A f g h a n i s t a n 1880.  The  battle  of Koregaon  in  of Koregaon  is  39 interesting nificant  i n that  i t appeared at f i r s t  engagement,  turning  point  to  commanded by Maratha  The  pounder 1817,  come t o  be  and h a s been ultimate  500  left  arriving  was  important  Captain  F.  o f t h e 2nd B a t t a l i o n / l s t about  n a s t y shock when he  a b o u t 8:30 a.m.  of Koregaon  p.m.  the f o l l o w i n g  n e a r Pune.  t o have  n e v e r have  t o make a s t a n d  (and s t i l l  i s today) f o r t i f i e d  guns. also  selecting  left  under  o f two  six-  January 1st received  guns,  an h o u r  Captain  walls,  and  until  9:00  p.m.  and  later,  Staunton which  infantry control  was  posi-  for h i s  f o r c e was  up  later  t o o k up  could  managed t o g a i n  Captain Staunton's small  b a t t l e w i t h o u t food or water  out  of Koregaon,  s i t u a t i o n s he  and h a d  formed  I t turned  taken p l a c e .  w i t h mud  about  Pune t h e day b e f o r e  i n the v i l l a g e  the b e s t  the v i l l a g e  position.  Bombay  Horse  morning,  t h e meantime 3,000 o f t h e Peshwa's A r a b  occupied  better in  In  Regiment  or had C a p t a i n S t a u n t o n a r r i v e d  determined  there,  factor  Staunton,  Captain Staunton  s i d e o f t h e Bhima R i v e r .  engagement w o u l d  tion  blow  e n c o u n t e r e d t h e army o f t h e Peshwa,  t h e Peshwa's army was  the  F.  250 A u x i l i a r y  20,000 c a v a l r y and 8,000 i n f a n t r y w i t h two h e a v y  t h e y done s o ,  a severe  on t h e 3 1 s t o f December  a  had  large  Sirur  the v i l l a g e  that  a  detachment  a t 10:00  the o p p o s i t e  successful  and a s m a l l a r t i l l e r y  at  on  a  defeat.  (Grenadiers),  Swanston  guns,  men  The  c o n s i d e r e d an  insig-  considered  force against  Rao h i m s e l f  e v e n t s a r e s i m p l e enough.  Infantry  Lieutenant  t h e Peshwa B a j i  to their  commanding a b o u t Native  since  by a s m a l l B r i t i s h - l e d  morale,  contributing  has  i n t h e T h i r d A n g l o - M a r a t h a War.  defense of Koregaon army  but  t o be a somewhat  two had  of the  continually  when t h e  Arabs  40  were  finally  lowing and  day  on  ered and  the  d r i v e n out  of  the  Staunton's troops evening  of  took  some  January  2nd,  e q u i p m e n t and Lieutenant of  son,  a l s o of  artillery Staunton  fifty  t o do  the  proved  f e a t u r e of the  the  and  the  celebration.  at  regimental  dinners  t o the  of  s u r v i v o r s of  The  camp  heavy l o s s e s ,  Lieutenant Lieutenant  and 113  Patterson  Swanston  twelve  men  exertions and  were of  the  Captain imposof  the  privates,  that  on  this  battle,  the G r e n a d i e r s . t o be  trying  which  became a v e r y  continued  Win-  Patter-  wounded.  m e r i t s and  as  important As  an  long  as  important  o f t h e o c c a s i o n were k e p t  in  t h e engagement were h o n o u r e d  occasions.  t o commemorate t h i s b a t t l e by the b a t t l e .  and  insignificant  other  appeared  A s s i s t a n t Surgeon  f o r t u n e t o command  Memorabilia  and  Lieutenant  comment: " I t i s u t t e r l y  e x i s t e d Koregaon N i g h t  mess and  of  of  gath-  h i s guns,  Staunton  Lieutenant  a total  regimental h i s t o r y  regimental  site  and  apparently  the  chose  and  t o have major c o n s e q u e n c e s ,  regiment  regimental  good  post  Staunton  recorded  non-commissioned o f f i c e r s ,  h o n o u r and  o c c a s i o n . T h i s  He  of the G r e n a d i e r s  justice  enemy  t o abandon h i s  b a d l y wounded.  ended h i s r e p o r t w i t h me  had  been k i l l e d  Connellan  been k i l l e d ,  European o f f i c e r s ,  noted  having  men  Captain  tumbrels.  the a r t i l l e r y  Lieutenant  had  for  had  gun  the G r e n a d i e r s ,  a l s o wounded,  I  of  fol-  In h i s r e p o r t t o  b e c a u s e he had  the  the G r e n a d i e r s  died.  sible  of  Chisholm  gate  later  one  the  the  c o l l e c t e d h i s wounded and  towards S i r u r .  apprehension  daybreak of  C o l o n e l F i t z s i m o n , Commanding a t S i r u r , under  At  possession  t h a t same day,  together h i s survivors, began a r e t r e a t  village.  Government  3 5  e r e c t i n g an o b e l i s k  obelisk s t i l l  stands  and  on  at  i t s face  also the are  41 recorded  the  names  engagement. battle  This  since  i t i s probably  i n many a c c o u n t s o f  o f Mahar s o l d i e r s i n a very The won  the  g a l l a n t and  and  Sonnak Tannak o f  t o be  three  1880,  these  3rd  wounding tion  combat.  d e f e n d e d by  found  o f f the  three  on  This the  attack  At  3  which the  of  the  19th  men  along  took  as  their  l a r g e s t number  time the  with  a small  some 250  to t h e i r the  and  a  deemed  t o have e a r n e d  the  third  c l a s s I.O.M.,  their  pension  f o r a term of  three  t o the  Even these  ordinary sketchy  the  These  killing  or  ammunito  hand  presently  was  Road not  Sonnak Tannak were widows were years,  in  i n d i c a t e t h a t Mahar s o l d i e r s  not  family pension records  leaving  Merit  since Elahi  addition  Ghazis.  on Waudby  but  equivalent  in  plaque  School  and  outpost  i n hand  Order of Bux  two  when t h e i r  were k i l l e d  Indian  and  privates.  could,  by  Infantry.  t o 300  heels,  two  they  Girls'  again  Privates  a daffadar  posthumously,  the  t o have  g a l l a n t r y shown  granted  awarded  and  Bombay N a t i v e  opponents, and  Mahars,  unimportant but  the  by  l o n g as  the A l e x a n d r a  this  the  histo-  task.  e x p l o i t i s commemorated by  w a l l of  Bombay. ^  This  on  M a j o r Waudby and  e x h a u s t e d dashed out  3 7  died  m i l i t a r y h i s t o r y of  came under a t t a c k  some t h i r t y  was  t w e n t y - o n e Mahars.36  S i n d H o r s e were d e f e n d i n g  They  held  who  M a j o r S i d n e y James Waudby and  S i n d H o r s e Sowars a p p a r e n t l y  post  that  a t t e n t i o n because of  Bux  the  in  is militarily  involved,  of  men  i n t h e Mahar r e g i m e n t a l  difficult  men  16 A p r i l  of  occasion  i n c i d e n t at Dubrai  Afghanistan.  in  one  and  a r e known f o r c e r t a i n t o have d i e d ,  considerable  sowars  The  the  the  three  Elahi On  officers  a l s o features prominently and  has  the  includes a t o t a l  ries  died  of  due  them. ^ 3  42 only  served  the  in various  nineteenth  regiments of but  occasion  Mahar s o l d i e r s d i s p l a y e d  On  c o u r a g e and  leadership  serving  According  Abyssinian  Kanhoji  this  his  family,  navy.  Israel  t o Kehimkar  earliest  two  It  and  S a m a j i and  i s a l s o thought  on  that  were a p p o i n t e d as  documentary e v i d e n c e of  rather  The numbers They  a f t e r the  territories  dates the  family  two  of  and  of  hitherto for  H o r n b y who  and  1760.  family was  to  or  change  impressed other to  command  various  others.  by  members  several  Bene forts,  However,  such appointments  considered  enter  religious  At  of  a  as is  tradition  fact.40  been a f r a i d  f e a r of  served  to  considerable  i s l a n d came i n t o B r i t i s h  m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e of  from about  Divekar  city  Bene  soldiers  Bene I s r a e l began t o m i g r a t e t o Bombay i n  had  record  fort  must be  than a proven h i s t o r i c a l  so  commanders o f  Sagadgud  therefore,  this  was  ancestors  Kehimkar c o n c e d e s , this,  of  Churrikar  Abraham o r A b a j i ,  fort,  and  native  the  the  refusing  appointed  including Avchitgad  lacking  of  of  In a b a t t l e w i t h  f a i t h f u l n e s s t h a t he  families  members  Angrey apparently  Samuel or  of  qualities  instance  members o f  were c a p t u r e d  were k i l l e d .  e v i d e n c e of  the  the  soldiers involves  they  status  level.  r u l e r of J a n j i r a .  Angrey  allegiance  of  as  the  throughout  Bene I s r a e l  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y  family. the  some a t t a i n e d  at a high  The  Israel  Bombay Army  century,  officers.  As  the  the  e n l i s t e d and  t h e n G o v e r n o r and  Portuguese  persecution.  that  received  time,  dominated  The  Bene I s r a e l under  about  possession.  earliest  the  British  five brothers  commissions  Commander-in-Chief  from of h i s  of  William Majes-  43  ty's  castle  Hassaji,  and  island  Sillamon Hassaji,  David H a s s a j i . Jemadar  or  Samuel and h e l d  service  of a large  listing.  specially  noted, are  Native Moosajee  Israel  manding  a  Ahmedabad party  of  native o f f i c e r s  particularly Danieljee  Israel  escorting o f 1830.  thanked a gold  by C o l o n e l  medal  r a n k o f Jemadar  nently Bene  i n Bene I s r a e l  Bhils.  Israel  apparently  time.  At  Davidji  Israel  served  n  who  had  to  an a t t a c k  by a  The  Subadar  was  at  Baroda,  and  1857,  Subadar-  Native  Infantry i n  first  information  of h i s regiment.43 promia  i n t h e Bombay G r e n a d i e r s a t  just  of  com-  Baroda  f o r t h e Mahars,  at Baroda  be  con-  Regiment  from  July  gave  an  should  does n o t f e a t u r e as  as i t does  a regimental dinner held Bahadur,  not  D a n i e l j e e was  resident  t h e 2 7 t h Regiment  tradition  hun-  Subadar-Major  repelled  i  detailed  T h i s was  convoy  The p l a t o o n  of Koregaon  military  o v e r one  and  Subadar  and N a t i v e A d j u t a n t ,  the B a t t l e  taken  independently  a p l a n n e d m u t i n y among some o f t h e s o l d i e r s Although  and was  of the 16th  f o r h i s conduct.42  serving with  1780s.  giving  4 1  and  early  the  listing  Khurrilkar)  Kennet,  Hassaji  whose s e r v i c e s  an opium  Issaji  t o the rank of  notes  as t h e y a r e  (Moosajee K o l e t k a r ) .  platoon  Major Moosajee, the  Two  a p p r o x i m a t e l y four hundred  publicly received  o f t h i r t y - t w o and  (Subadar D a n i e l  in April  of  Kehimkar  became n a t i v e o f f i c e r s .  Subadar  Infantry  appointed  number o f o t h e r Bene I s r a e l ,  Bene I s r a e l who  exhaustive  Ellojee  i n t h e S e c o n d Mysore War  f o r some t i m e .  of the s e r v i c e  firmed,  Samaji H a s s a j i ,  i n t h e m i d d l e 1770s t o t h e  served  prisoner  accounts  T h e s e b r o t h e r s were  They were a l l a p p a r e n t l y  a n d / o r Subadar  Samaji  dred  o f Bombay.  in  1846,  completed forty-one  few that  Jemadar years'  44  service,  was  called  i n to return  t h e t o a s t o f f e r e d by t h e R e s i -  dent of Baroda t o the s u r v i v o r s of K o r e g a o n . A  very  r i e n c e was native  striking  the high  officers.  promotions  representation represented relatively or  f e a t u r e o f t h e Bene I s r a e l  proportion In t h i s  indeed,  o f Bene I s r a e l  they d i f f e r  i n t h e army.  officers;  i n local administration. in later  fers  that  respects. serve the  of men  i n the m i l i t a r y ,  have  Also,  allied revolt  tribes  or  own.  while  history  often,  differed  retirement,  or f l e e , attempting  i n the Indian  of blacks Bene  as s l a v e s ,  overall overmany  i n the p o l i c e be  further  i n the Americas Israel could  in  t h e Mahars and Bene I s r a e l  sometimes a l l y i n g  power,  soldiers  slave  by  seem a l w a y s t o could  with  settlements  reality—of  to  whereas  service  slaves  themselves  t o form independent occasional  important  i f n o t as s o l d i e r s ,  the r u l i n g  dif-  be c o m p e l l e d  seem t o h a v e o f f e r e d t h e i r  enced white a t t i t u d e s toward b l a c k  The  won  Blacks  as l a b o u r e r s  themselves with  The t h r e a t — a n d  alleled  who  to their  These d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l  t h e Mahars and  Mahars and Bene I s r a e l  choice.  did  Black  similar  became  chapters.  early military  from  who  t h e y a l s o seem t o h a v e h e l d  American The  soldiers  expe-  N o t o n l y were t h e Bene I s r a e l  prestigious positions after  discussed  military  f r o m t h e Mahars,  but i n a p r o p o r t i o n  as n a t i v e  4 4  of  and  Indian their  revolt  influ-  i n a way q u i t e  unpar-  context.  various  colonial  powers—France,  Spain,  and  in their  policies  and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s b l a c k s .  Britain— Succes-  45  sive  French  found  and  Spanish c o l o n i a l  i t expedient  plement  the r e g u l a r  Between 1730 French  t o use  and  1740  administrations  s l a v e s and  t r o o p s and both  free  white  f r e e b l a c k s and  states  and  Louisiana  of c o l o u r to  militia  e x p e d i t i o n s a g a i n s t the Natchez  McConnell  men  in  available  sup-  to  them.  slaves participated  in  Chickasaw  As  Indians.  i n h i s study:  For the most p a r t b o t h t h e e n s l a v e d and t h e freed had given a good account of themselves and proved their l o y a l t y to the French. A t t h e same t i m e , t h e y had acquired v a l u a b l e m i l i t a r y and disciplinary experience. This m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d an avenue t o f r e e d o m for the enslaved. And f o r t h e f r e e , definitely organized into a company w i t h t h e i r own o f f i c e r s by the second C h i c k a s a w war, t h e r e was t h e r e w a r d i n g k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e government also depended upon them for i t s defence a g a i n s t t h e common enemy.45 By  the time L o u i s i a n a p a s s e d  imperial policy nized  among  subdivided  included provision  the  free people  i n t o pardos  (lighter  Mulattoes  fought  for Spain against B r i t a i n  ably  in  soldiers"46  a  n  d  militiamen  also  s l a v e s and  their  citizens  and N e g r o e s ) .  on  "first  t o be  and  i n the Cimarron  orga-  Mulattoes, and  men  Morenos  of  colour  performing  against  the l e v e e s of the M i s s i s s i p p i .  tion  to F l o r i d a  European  i n 1779-81,  free  Spanish  credit-  trained  European  promotions. War  Negro  (against  runaway  h i d e o u t s ) and worked w i t h o t h e r a b l e - b o d i e d male  a c t i o n under  Orleans  units  N e g r o e s and  A number o f  experience  took p a r t  hands,  skinned Mulattoes)  e a r n i n g commendations  last  The  for m i l i t i a  of c o l o u r ,  (dark  their  into Spanish  the Spanish  flag,  a g a i n s t an a d v e n t u r e r  F r e n c h and a fairly  took p a r t  prosperous  and who  in  i n an  their expedi-  named B o w l e s .  Spanish a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s l e f t  large,  in culture,  they  In 1799,  behind  c l a s s of mulattoes  in  who  o c c u p i e d an anomalous p o s i t i o n  New were in  46  the  developing  they  belonged  fied  with  "caste"  to the "slave  the white  The  British  allow  free blacks  both  free  militia  free  arms.  in  1661,  military that  militia, fifers  service.  boy  misgivings  This,  blacks  the  wayside  both  slaves  was  arming  to  fight  free blacks only  must  to serve  policy  join  or  of  as p o t e n to f a l l  for military  i n 1740 a f t e r two s e r i o u s  service. slave  French  their  were  by  occasions  i n 1703 and 1715 Slaves  the  guards.  from the  alongside  attack.  feel  as drummers,  a l s o tended  or a t t a c k s  South C a r o l i n a Indian  from  A new  T h e r e were a number  freedom i n r e t u r n  South C a r o l i n a  favoured.  b e a r arms and f i g h t  against  blacks  t o b e a r arms and s e r v e  attacks  bear-  Connecticut  or highway l a b o u r e r s ,  allowed  early  l e d white c o l o n i s t s t o  specially  road  i n 1656,  a l l barred  However, t h e s e p o l i c i e s  For instance,  their  to  s l a v e and f r e e , f r o m  colonies,  s t i p u l a t e d that  c o l o n i s t s facing Indian  offered  regard  colonies quite  Massachusetts  i n t i m e o f war.  to  with  The v a r i o u s  however,  were b e i n g  trumpeters,  combatants.  in  were f e l t  b u t t h e y were u s u a l l y a l l o w e d  slaves  history  or  i n 1639,  frequently  masters.  early colonial  to  b e c a u s e e v e r y a v a i l a b l e man  soon t h e o t h e r  tial  allowed  more r e l u c t a n t  colonial  They were n o t o r d i n a r i l y  when  identi-  in  of b a r r i n g blacks,  and  and  they  included  revolts.  Virginia  therefore  In very  and s l a v e s were o f t e n  of slave  free  but c u l t u r a l l y  racially  f o r t h e y were o f t e n v i e w e d a s p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s o r  the step  ing  South;  caste."  t o b e a r arms.  simply  blacks,  caste,"  American  c o l o n i s t s were c o n s i d e r a b l y  Particular  instigators took  "ruling  blacks  units  needed.  system of the  white allowed  sometimes This  ended  insurrections.  47  During  the p e r i o d of  permitted  to serve  the F r e n c h - I n d i a n  i n the  military.  Wars,  b l a c k s were  again  4 7  Many towns, unable otherwise to f u r n i s h t h e i r quotas, g l a d l y accepted a l l Blacks. To s l a v e s , the p r o s p e c t of freedom, made e n l i s t m e n t i n t h e C o l o n i a l f o r c e s attractive; for free Blacks, t h e hope o f e l e v a t i n g t h e i r low s o c i a l s t a t u s was t h e p r i m e i n d u c e m e n t . 8 4  T h e s e men  served  servants. pay  with whites.  end  of  i n the  Very  t o n and  other  engagement.  and  old  men  unfit  men,  later  to s l a v e r y at their  the  freedom  men  at the b a t t l e s  joined of  by  blacks  at the b a t t l e  This order  appointed  not  was  to e n r o l l  to endure the T h i s p o l i c y had  f a t i g u e s of t o be  the  modified  1775,  stroller,  reiterated  to bare  campaign,  Arms, are  to  v e r y q u i c k l y , as  the B r i t i s h  he  command,  freedom t o i n d e n t u r e d  s e r v i c e under  that  Commander-in-  "any  r e i n f o r c e d and  Bunker at  i n June of  " n e i t h e r Negroes, boys unable  would take  of  i n t h e army under h i s  officers  with  j o i n e d Ethan A l l e n ' s Green  the C o n t i n e n t a l Congress  finding  the  Lexing-  a r e known t o have b e e n p r e s e n t  enlisted blacks offering  s l a v e s who  their  many s l a v e s d i d e a r n  G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n was  at  1775:  4  and  men  recruiting  inlisted." ^ British  black  vagabond."  November o f  some or a l l o f  some were r e t u r n e d  S a l e m Poor a l s o f o u g h t  t h e army o f  not p l e a s e d  Negro or  equal  A b l a c k Minuteman named S a l e m P o o r , a l o n g  When  ordered  and  received  i n the American R e v o l u t i o n b l a c k  three other black  Hill  of  and  to surrender  a r e known t o have f o u g h t  Boys.  Chief  u n i t s and  labourers,  armed f o r c e s .  Mountain and  i n unsegregated  S l a v e s had  Concord.  least  wagoners,  However,  early  Minutemen and  scouts,  masters,  t h e war.  serving  was  soldiers,  They s e r v e d  wages t o t h e i r  at  as  flag.  in nor be the  servants There  48  was  a l s o the problem of  s i g n up  f o r yet another  finding  enough w h i t e s  year  fighting  of  It  t h e r e f o r e became n e c e s s a r y  A  number o f n o r t h e r n  slaves,  offering  compensation Island,  tutes  passed as  and  black  f o r w h i t e men.  permitting  slave  a law  soldiers,  War.  the  substituting  less  the  veterans  the  armed f o r c e s on ideology and  states  to p r o h i b i t  founder  either  some took  the  their  slave trade,  manumission laws.  abolished slavery,  emancipation. o f b l a c k Masonry,  and  first  improvement serving  side.  some s o u t h e r n  A number o f b l a c k Prince Hall,  owners.  Revolu-  several  states  to  Hampshire,  and  states provided  veterans  sail-maker  in  manumis-  slaves,  New  could  opportunity  former  their  some  former  i f they  s l a v e s t o seek  other  1783 served  their  f r e e d o m by  Vermont, and  in  Revolutionary  out  t h e A m e r i c a n or B r i t i s h individual  substi-  p r o m i s e s and  to f i n d  e n c o u r a g e d some m a s t e r s t o f r e e the  as  had  to re-enslave  waited  Many won  encouraged  sion,  Massachusetts  the  t o move f a r away from t h e i r  s t a t u s of b l a c k s .  their  s l a v e s who  during  Rhode  legislation  t h e A m e r i c a n R e v o l u t i o n p r o d u c e d an  in  gradual  of  and  companies  s t a t e of V i r g i n i a  success  t h e war's end  liberalize  The  emancipation  after  tionary  service  Massachusetts,  a l l masters honoured t h e i r  a l l black  recruited  sometimes e n l i s t e d  f o r w h i t e men,  g r e a t e r or  up,  their  s t a t e of Maryland passed  t h e w h i t e man's p r o m i s e s ;  sum  actively  of  owners.  Slaves  trust  To  end  soldiers.  H a m p s h i r e among o t h e r s had  men. The  directing  attempted with Not  New  to  i n t h e C o n t i n e n t a l army.  f u r t h e r and  enlistments.  However n o t  slaves.  former  were w i l l i n g  f r e e b l a c k s as  freedom at the  their  Connecticut,  or b a t t a l i o n s of  s t a t e s went  them  to  to accept  who  including and  for the  abolition-  49  ist a  James F o r t e n  o f P h i l a d e l p h i a , and t h e R e v e r e n d L e m u e l Haymes,  f o r m e r G r e e n M o u n t a i n Boy,  free black achieved legal  became  community o f t h e n o r t h . still  left  or economic.  the m a j o r i t y  leaders of However,  5 1  of b l a c k s  I n some r e s p e c t s  the  developing  the small  in  progress  bondage,  the s o c i a l ,  either  political,  and  economic  c o n d i t i o n s of black Americans d e t e r i o r a t e d i n the years  following  the American R e v o l u t i o n .  tion  d i d not f o r b i d  Act  of  1792  required  black  labourers  and  men  militia ship  were  s e v e r a l reasons  the m i l i t i a  1790s  in  This blacks  Haiti  certainly  A slave revolt  barred  life.  exclusion  for  of  as  blacks  blacks.  overtones,  were v e r y  from e n l i s t m e n t  large.  under-  in this  Toussaint  f e a r s of  of the  indepen-  French  armed  i n the southern  type  L'Ouverture,  achieved  defeating a large  particularly  community  T h e r e was an  Christophe  c o n t r i b u t e d t o white  Local  the s l a v e r e b e l l i o n  under  few  and l e a d e r -  of  to participate  was  and H e n r i  i n 1804 a f t e r  and m u l a t t o e s ,  black populations ly  and p o l i t i c a l  An a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r  Haiti.  for  states  i n some c a s e s  was u s e d by w h i t e s as a form  Jean-Jacques Dessalines, dence  need  reluctance to allow blacks  of a c t i v i t y .  ( i t merely  i n p r a c t i c e most  for this  u s e f u l t o them i n p o l i t i c a l  standable  blacks  A f t e r 1792 t h e army r e q u i r e d r e l a t i v e l y  5 2  u n i t s took on s o c i a l  service  Constitu-  and t h e M i l i t i a  s e r v i c e except  t h e r e f o r e h a d no p a r t i c u l a r  in  men,  exclude  of white males),  from m i l i t a r y  t h e U.S.  musicians.  f r o m combat r o l e s . and  of black  d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y  excluded  men  the enlistment  the enrollment  There  Although  army.  revolt  of  s t a t e s where  I n 1798 b l a c k s were  official-  i n t h e M a r i n e C o r p s and Navy.  However,  50  these and  s e r v i c e s f r e q u e n t l y h a d t r o u b l e g e t t i n g enough w h i t e  continued The  t o accept  men t o s e r v e  from  France  still  Battalion  i n the m i l i t a r y .  to the United  existed.  This  States  ancestry),  in  i n value.  force  a leading role  perseverance.  i n the b a t t l e  Black  o f Lake E r i e  continued  excluded  to enlist  i n the b a t t l e  men a l s o s e r v e d  Blacks Second The  also  Seminole  Spanish  played Wars,  colony  to slaves escaping tive  their  i n the  naval  Perry.^3  and  o f t e n became  t o 1818 was l a r g e l y  role  against United  i n t o Seminole t r i b e s ,  leaders.  they  not only  i n the F i r s t States  as  The F i r s t  and  troops.  o f f e r e d a refuge  from South C a r o l i n a and G e o r g i a .  tribal  War b l a c k s  However,  served  o f F l o r i d a h a d f o r many y e a r s  s l a v e s were a c c e p t e d  Orleans  seamen.54  a significant  fighting  army.  where t h e y  These  for  under C a p t a i n 0. H.  c o o k s and s t e w a r d s b u t a l s o a s common  was r a i s e d  o f New  Andrew J a c k s o n  three  officers,  f r o m S a n t o Domingo.  from t h e r e g u l a r  i n t h e navy,  as t h e  of at least  Between t h e e n d o f t h e War o f 1812 and t h e C i v i l were once a g a i n  unit  o r quadroons o f  A second b a t t a l i o n  and were commended by G e n e r a l and  militia  The b a t t a l i o n h a d some b l a c k  a black o r i g i n a l l y  b a t t a l i o n s took  courage  mulattoes  e a c h o f whom owned p r o p e r t y  Joseph Savary,  1814,  a black  transferred  T h i s b a t t a l i o n was made up o f  t h o u g h i t was commanded by w h i t e s .  two  Louisiana,  was f o r m a l l y r e a c t i v a t e d i n 1812  (many o f whom were a c t u a l l y  hundred d o l l a r s  by  In  some o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  i n 1803,  o f F r e e Men o f C o l o r .  free blacks French  b l a c k men.  War o f 1812 once a g a i n p r o v i d e d  black  seamen  Many  married  fugiIndians  S e m i n o l e War o f 1817  a punitive expedition to destroy black  slave  51  towns  and r e t u r n s l a v e s t o t h e i r  owners.  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1819 by S p a i n . Andrew J a c k s o n  ordered  eastern  t o the Arkansas  ment  states  this policy  the  Second  army  the removal  War  from  u l t i m a t e l y won t h e war,  men  and  forty  million  slavery.  where  Some  losing  The U n i t e d  by a d o p t i n g  t h e y waged g u e r i l l a  planters. The  instead  warfare  a  into  submission.  to  were  Northern  f o r many y e a r s  positions  o f some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  e x t r a manpower was needed,  responsibility. of  loyalty.  At sold  Mexico  against  i n one r e s p e c t : t h e y were a c c e p t e d  when  attitude  to flee  hundred  scorched-earth  e x p e r i e n c e o f b l a c k s up t o t h i s p o i n t was v e r y  military  classes  States  Texas  5 5  t o t h a t o f t h e Mahars  command  to imple-  some f i f t e e n  starved the Indians  chose  the south-  I n d i a n s and b l a c k s l e d t o  c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e war h u n d r e d s o f b l a c k S e m i n o l e s  into  men p r o v e d  One  Given  allowed  similar i n t o the  even t o  but g e n e r a l l y not allowed  o p p o r t u n i t y and  capable  important  of  courage,  difference  incentive,  perseverance,  hold much both and  between t h e two was i n t h e  of the majority population.  American whites, ly  from  to  President  The a t t e m p t  1835 t o 1842. after  was c e d e d  later  of a l l Indians  territory.  dollars,  p o l i c y which e f f e c t i v e l y the  Eleven years  a g a i n s t the Seminole  Seminole  Florida  frightened  allowing traditions  particularly  of slave revolts  b l a c k men t o b e a r suggests  even contemplated  that  such  i n the south,  justifiab-  and t h e r e f o r e e x t r e m e l y  arms.  Nothing  t h e Mahars e v e r  action,  were  wary  of  history  or  armed r e v o l t ,  or  in their  tried  against Indian rulers  or  against  52  the of  British. loyal  and  The  T h e i r r e p u t a t i o n as faithful  by  ritual  after and  language,  for this  all,  bours.  Though  position  and  and  they  retained a  social  order  local  ancestry  United  of  States  Through the ity, no  ties  eighteenth  rapidly  anisms  to  of  along  generations some  of  of  the  the  w o u l d be  a t t e m p t s by  with  e r a and  Later  i n the  a  and  not  War.  having  which  or  and  expanding white  and  slavery,  themselves with  mech-  nineteenth several  whites,  been s l a v e  was  acceptable.  early  Given  the  major-  as a d u l t s ,  sentiment  palatable.  i f t h e r e had  by  balances  society,  of p l a n t a t i o n  runaway s l a v e s t o a l l y  themselves hard-pressed  were p a r t o f  evolving in  s l a v e r y endurable  itself  were  established social  i n t e r a c t i o n between b l a c k s  surprising  subservient  Revolutionary  enslaved  growing a b o l i t i o n i s t  excesses  neigh-  many b l a c k s , p e r h a p s even a  T h e r e were few  institution  order  dominant w h i t e  s t a t u s of  they  c h e c k s and  social  the A f r i c a n s l a v e t r a d e  worst  h a r d l y make t h e it  changing.  make t h e  ending  century,  k i n d t o the  sharing  social equilibrium.  colonial  century  and  o f a t i m e when t h e y  enough b u i l t - i n  t r u e of  s o c i e t y , bound  their  land, nevertheless  through the  o f any  that  The  their higher-caste  tradition  were A f r i c a n - b o r n , k i d n a p p e d and  itself  The  t h i s was  obvious.  their  resented  c o m p e n s a t o r y mechanisms t o m a i n t a i n None  seems  communities,  with  have  folk  the  with  difference  i n t e g r a l p a r t of  might  a c k n o w l e d g e d owners o f stable  an  custom t o t h e i r  culture,  proverbially  servants.  explanation  Mahars were,  a c l a s s was  tempered but  could  a l l of  this  revolts  and  Indian  tribes,  settlements.  themes i n b l a c k A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y ,  s u c h as  the  "back  53  to A f r i c a " Liberia, lence  and  of  blacks By  movements o f M a r c u s G a r v e y and even the B l a c k  many A m e r i c a n s ,  can  or  should  be  black  truly  and  has  s t a t u s , the never  conversion non-Brahmin  idea of  b e e n an  white,  a p a r t of  c o n t r a s t , t h o u g h t h e Mahars have t r i e d  their  was  tradition,  but  the  whether society.  to  improve  from I n d i a n  society  step,  the  a d e l i b e r a t e r e v e r s i o n t o an still  of  ambiva-  over  American  T h e i r most d r a m a t i c  t o Buddhism,  founding  many t a c t i c s  separating entirely  issue.  the  M u s l i m movement, r e f l e c t both  ever  others,  w i t h i n the  Indian  mass older,  cultural  context. The mostly al,  military  closely  and  ing  of b l a c k s  to t h a t of  Indians  the  i n t h e A m e r i c a n army Indian  in particular,  Increasing professionalization  roles  power,  comparable  low-caste  century.  experience  and  of  the  military  in maintaining  i n the of  the and  growing r a c i a l / c a s t e p r e j u d i c e are  both  t h e A m e r i c a n and  tute  the  s u b j e c t of  Indian  the  next  armies  soldier late  i n genernineteenth  military,  chang-  extending  state  characteristic  in this period,  chapter.  is  and  of  consti-  54 Footnotes,  Chapter I I  1.  R. V. R u s s e l l and H i r a L a i , T h e T r i b e s and C a s t e s o f t h e C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e s o f I n d i a , v o l . IV (N.p.: C e n t r a l P r o v i n c e s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1916; r e p r i n t e d . O o s t e r h o u t N.B. - The N e t h e r l a n d s : A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1969), pp. 132-133.  2.  A l e x a n d e r R o b e r t s o n , The Mahar F o l k : A, S t u d y o f U n t o u c h a b l e s i n M a h a r a s h t r a ( C a l c u t t a : Y.M.C.A. P u b l i s h i n g House, 1938), pp. 29-30. The d a t e g i v e n t o R o b e r t s o n was Shake 1109 (1187 A.D.), but a s he n o t e d t h i s must h a v e been i n a c c u r a t e l y t r a n s cribed. The kingdom o f Bedar f l o u r i s h e d c . 1492-1565 A.D.  3.  Jadunath man  Sarkar, S h i v a j i L t d . , 1973 L f i r s t  a n d H i s Times published  (Delhi: Orient  1919]),  Long-  p. 363.  4.  V. R. S h i n d e , B h a r t i y a A s p i s h y a t e c h a P r a s h n a (Nagpur: V e n k a t e s h Shamrao B a l k u n d i , Nav B h a r a t G r a n t h M a l a , 1933), pp. 169-172; K. V. K o t a v a l e , P o l i t i c s o f t h e D a l i t s (Bombay: M a j e s t i c Book S t a l l , 1974), pp. 142-145. T h e s e s o u r c e s were b r o u g h t t o my a t t e n t i o n by S h r i V. W. Moon i n Bombay and P r o f . M. D. Nalawade i n K o l h a p u r , and were t r a n s l a t e d f o r me by Smt. M a n g a l a Moghe and Mr. Amol D i v k a r .  5.  C o l . V. L o n g e r , "Mahar R e g i m e n t a l H i s t o r y , " p. 12, Mahar R e g i m e n t a l C e n t r e , S a u g o r ,  6.  Robert J . M i l l e r , "Button, Button . . . Great T r a d i t i o n , L i t t l e T r a d i t i o n , Whose T r a d i t i o n ? " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y 39 ( J a n u a r y 1966):26-42.  7.  M.S.A., P u b l i c  8.  M.S.A., M i l i t a r y  9.  P h i l i p Mason, A M a t t e r o f H o n o u r : An A c c o u n t o f t h e I n d i a n Army, I t s O f f i c e r s a n d Men (Harmonsworth, E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books, 1976), p. 127.  Dept.  chaps. M.P.  I and I I ,  D i a r y , 1747.  C o m p i l a t i o n s , v o l . 716 o f 1857, #389.  10.  " R e c o r d o f t h e 2 1 s t Regiment Bombay N a t i v e I n f a n t r y o r M a r i n e B a t t a l i o n " U.S.I. J o u r n a l , no. 4 (1871-2):50.  11.  L i e u t . - C o l . W. B. P. T u g w e l l , H i s t o r y o f t h e Bombay P i o n e e r s ( L o n d o n : The S i d n e y P r e s s , L i m i t e d , i y 3 b ) , app. 2~, pp. 372-3.  55  12.  " R e c o r d o f t h e 2 1 s t R e g i m e n t , " p . 72; T u g w e l l , BombayP i o n e e r s , p. 33. The argument t h a t M a r a t h a s were u n a b l e t o s e r v e a t s e a due t o c a s t e p r e j u d i c e s seems weak, s i n c e as l a t e a s 1783 t h e Peshwa s t i l l commanded a s i g n i f i c a n t n a v a l f o r c e under t h e command o f one A n u n d r a o D h o o l a p . Possib l y by t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y they had d e v e l o p e d a d i s t a s t e f o r s e a f a r i n g , o r p o s s i b l y t h i s was a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r o t h e r problems, such as r.eluctance t o undertake housekeeping d u t i e s while a t sea.  13.  " R e c o r d o f t h e 2 1 s t R e g i m e n t , " pp. 52-53.  14.  Tugwell,  15.  " R e c o r d o f t h e 2 1 s t R e g i m e n t , " p . 55.  16.  Ibid.,  pp. 57 and 65.  17.  Ibid.,  pp. 63-64.  18.  Tugwell,  19.  " R e c o r d o f t h e 2 1 s t R e g i m e n t , " pp. 73-74.  20.  Tugwell,  21.  The G a z e t t e e r o f Bombay C i t y And I s l a n d , v o l . I I (Pune: The Government P h o t o z i n c o P r e s s , 1977; f a c s i m i l e e d . o r i g . pub. Bombay: The Times P r e s s , 1909), pp. 284-295. In 1830 t h e I n d i a n M a r i n e was renamed t h e I n d i a n Navy; t h i s d e s i g n a t i o n was r e t a i n e d u n t i l 1858, when i t became Her M a j e s t y ' s I n d i a n Navy. I n 1863 i t was a g a i n renamed t h e Bombay M a r i n e , and was amalgamated w i t h t h e o t h e r I n d i a n m a r i n e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n 1877, under a scheme d e v i s e d by C a p t a i n ( l a t e r A d m i r a l ) Bythesea.  22.  Tugwell,  23.  M.S.A., M i l i t a r y  24.  " R e c o r d o f t h e 2 1 s t R e g i m e n t , " pp. 55-56.  25.  G e o r g e S e a v e r , D a v i d L i v i n g s t o n e : H i s L i f e and L e t t e r s ( L o n d o n : L u t t e r w o r t h P r e s s , 1957), pp. 481-495.  26.  L i e u t . - C o l . M. G. A b h y a n k a r , V a l o u r E n s h r i n e d : A H i s t o r y o f t h e M a r a t h a L i g h t I n f a n t r y 1768-1947 (New D e l h i : O r i e n t Longman, 1971), p~i 43 .  27.  L i e u t . - C o l . E. W. C. Sandes, The I n d i a n S a p p e r s and M i n e r s (Chatham: I n s t i t u t i o n o f R o y a l E n g i n e e r s , 1948), pp. 182-3.  Bombay P i o n e e r s ,  Bombay P i o n e e r s ,  Bombay P i o n e e r s ,  Bombay P i o n e e r s ,  pp. 57-58.  p. 63.  p. 109.  p. 109.  Compilations,  v o l . 488 o f 1852, #197.  56  I.  A. E z e k i e l , "Over My Dead Body I n d i a , A p r i l 2, 1972, p. 17.  . . . "  Illus.  Weekly o f  Ibid. E z e k i e l and t h e a u t h o r s o f some o t h e r p o p u l a r a r t i c l e s on t h e Mahar m i l i t a r y t r a d i t i o n g o t t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n from C o l . G. K. K a r a n d i k a r , now r e t i r e d and l i v i n g i n Pune. Col. K a r a n d i k a r s e r v e d w i t h t h e Mahar Regiment from 1942 and w r o t e t h e f i r s t r e g i m e n t a l h i s t o r y . R e g i m e n t a l H i s t o r y o f Mahar M. G. Regiment Army P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) , app. B, p. 9~TT Sandes, Col.  I n d i a n S a p p e r s and  R. D. P a l s o k a r , p. 124, Pune.  Miners,  p.  (Dehra  Dun:  The  280.  " H i s t o r y of the G r e n a d i e r s , "  chap.  17,  L t . - C o l . V a l e n t i n e B l a c k e r , Memoir o f t h e O p e r a t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h Army i n I n d i a d u r i n g t h e M a h r a t t a War o f 1817, 1818, & 1819, 2 v o l s . ( L o n d o n : B l o c k , K i n g s b u r y , Parbury and A l l e n , 1821), p. 183 and app. I, p. 457. Maj.  J . T. Gorman, 2nd B a t t a l i o n 4 t h Bombay G r e n a d i e r s ( K i n g E d w a r d s ' s Own) f o r m e r l y The 102nd K i n g Edward's Own G r e n a d i e r s : H i s t o r i c a l R e c o r d o f t h e Regiment, 1796-1933 ( f i r s t ed. o f 1877 by C o l . S t a n l e y Edwardes; WestonS u p e r - M a r e : L a w r e n c e B r o s . , L t d . , 1933), p. 60 and app. I, p. 147.  The  c a r e t a k e r o f t h e monument i s G u l a b Rao Babu Rao Jemadar, r e t i r e d i n 1960 from t h e 2nd B a t t a l i o n , M a r a t h a L i g h t Infantry. He i s t h e g r e a t - g r a n d s o n o f "Cundajee M u l l o j e e " — K h a n d e Rao M a l a t k a r — w h o was a s u r v i v o r o f the b a t t l e . Sources:  Gorman, 2 n d / 4 t h Bombay G r e n a d i e r s , p. 147. Col. R. D. P a l s o k a r , p r i v a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J u l y 17, 1980.  The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e names o f Mahar s o l d i e r s o f G r e n a d i e r s a p p e a r i n g on t h e K o r e g a o n monument: Killed Naiks:  Sonnac Cummulnac Ramnac E s s n a c  P r i v a t e s : Gondnac C o o t e n n a c Ramnac E s s n a c Bhanac H a r n a c Amnac Cannae Gunnac B a l n a c  | I I I I I I I  the  57 1  Killed B a l n a c Dhondnac Roopnac L u c k n a c E t t n a c Dhaknac Robnac Ramnac Raznac Gunnac Bobnac Hubnac Rynac J a n n a c Sujunnac Essnac Gunnac Dhrumnac Dewnac Annac Gopolnac Balnac Hurnac Hurnac J e t n a c Downac Gunnac Ducknac  Wounded  j  1 Drummer Tannac  j j  Hurnac  | |  1  1 1  T h e r e were s i x o t h e r s wounded.  j I j  |  The o t h e r 28 c a s u a l t i e s i n c l u d e d M u s l i m s , Chamars, and M a r a t h a s . 37.  N.A.I. F o r e i g n Department, S e c r e t S u p p l e m e n t a r y B r a n c h , May 1880 #176, P o l i t i c a l D i a r y , K a n d a h a r : 22-30, A p r i l 1880.  38.  Ezekiel,  39.  G a z e t t e o f I n d i a , 18 December Department, p. 697.  40.  Haeem Samuel Kehimkar, The H i s t o r y o f t h e B e n e - I s r a e l o f I n d i a ( T e l A v i v : Dayag P r e s s L t d . , 1937), pp. 188-191.  41.  Ibid.,  42.  Abhyankar,  43.  C o l . M a l l e s o n , e d . , Kaye's and M a l l e s o n ' s H i s t o r y o f t h e I n d i a n M u t i n y o f 1857-8, v o l . 5 ( L o n d o n : Longman s, G r e e n and Co., 1909), p. 27.  "Over My  pp.  Dead Body  . . . ," p. 1880,  no.  16. 51,  Military  191-216. V a l o u r E n s h r i n e d , p.  55. 1  44.  Gorman, 2 n d / 4 t h Bombay G r e n a d i e r s ,  45.  R o l a n d C. M c C o n n e l l , N e g r o T r o o p s o f A n t e b e l l u m L o u i s i a n a : H i s t o r y o f t h e B a t T E a l i o n o f F r e e Men o f C o l o r ( B a t o n Rouge: L o u i s i a n a S t a t e U. P r e s s , 1968), p. 14. He a l s o m e n t i o n s , on page 9, one F r a n c o i s T i c o n " o f the S e n e g a l n a t i o n " , f r e e d f o r b r a v e r y i n t h e Choctaw War.  46.  Ibid.,  47.  J a c k D. F o n e r , B l a c k s and t h e M i l i t a r y i n A m e r i c a n A New P e r s p e c t i v e (n.p. , P r a e g e r , 1 9 / 4 ) , pT T~.  48.  Ibid.,  p.  pp.  p.  60.  42.  4-5.  History:  A  58  49.  M a r v i n F l e t c h e r , The B l a c k S o l d i e r and O f f i c e r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Army, 1891-1917 ( C o l u m b i a : The U. o f M i s s o u r i P r e s s , 1974), p. 12.  50.  R o b e r t E w e l l G r e e n e , B l a c k D e f e n d e r s o f A m e r i c a 1775-1973 ( C h i c a g o : J o h n s o n P u b l i s h i n g Company I n c . , 1974), pT 343.  51.  Foner,  B l a c k s and t h e M i l i t a r y ,  52.  Ibid.,  p. 21.  53.  Greene,  54.  Fletcher,  55.  F o n e r , B l a c k s and t h e M i l i t a r y ,  Black Defenders Black Soldier  pp.  of America, and O f f i c e r , pp.  18-19.  pp.  345-6.  p. 16. 28-29.  59  CHAPTER I I I  PROFESSIONALISM IN The the  AND  PREJUDICE: MILITARY  THE LATE NINETEENTH  nature of m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e  late  nineteenth century.  equipment,  requiring higher  CENTURY  changed  i n important  More s o p h i s t i c a t e d  increased  sion.  The r o l e o f t h e m i l i t a r y i n m a i n t a i n i n g of  period,  the a t t r a c t i o n of m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e  t h e s t a t e became  (among  At other  India  teenth  factors)  to r e s t r i c t  century  followed cy  In control early  low-caste  can  India,  legal  as a p e r i o d  aftermath  meddling  with  Indian  military  p o l i c y geared  of  half of  s i g n i f i c a n t changes  of  r e v o l t saw much social  By t h e e a r l y  blacks  and  service.  In  of the  nine-  consolidation poli-  territorial  characterized  by t h e o u t b r e a k  to minimizing  this  prejudice  in military  British  reforms which  c u s t o m s and  in  landscape.  extension  and s o c i a l  m e r c e n a r y army.  military  be d e s c r i b e d  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y were h a l t e d The  and e x t e n d i n g t h e  access of  the l a t t e r  rapid  profes-  of the m i l i t a r y pro-  States,  the  and  varied  as a  racial/caste  Indians—to  changes i n the p o l i t i c a l  and  1857.  large  tended  by e x p a n s i o n , w i t h  following  the p r e s t i g e increasing  and t h e U n i t e d  weapons  and f o r m a l i z e d  t h e same t i m e ,  Indians—especially both  more e x p l i c i t  potentially increasing  fession.  ways i n  l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n and more  skills,  power  SERVICE  greater  the  of r e v o l t i n caution  organization,  and  the r i s k s of maintaining  in a a  1880s s e c u r i t y c o n c e r n s h a d  60  abated,  and  the  defense against an  Russian  instrument of After  United War too  faced  1861-65.  complex  However,  t o be  r a p i d expansion  i t s greatest  The  from  c a u s e s and  discussed,  the  point  consequence  slavery.  This now  perceived  imperial expansion  of  important  policy  Army was  imperial policy in A s i a .  a period  States  of  Indian  of  of  Civil  War  U n i o n army,  and  their  was and  to  facilitate  subduing  tion  of  American  the  right  and  1890  expansion  Indians.  involvement  forced greater  the  armed s e r v i c e s .  at  Hugli,  and  Catherine  coast  of  of  Fort  India. and its  2  Indian  S t . George of  Around  Bombay, respective  context. the  most of  military  in  the  of  in  the  national U.S.  protecting  Army  settlers  and  acquisi-  of  inter-American  greater affairs,  organization  of  Army from t h e  i n Madras and  little  Bombay on  t h e s e n u c l e i grew t h e commercial  Presidency.  Under  commercial  Fort William  B r a g a n z a ' s dowry o f  each the  far  number  marked a b e g i n n i n g  i n I n d i a advanced  settlements  to share  better  Civil are  services  S p a n i s h - A m e r i c a n War  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l and  the  abolition  a large  c h i e f r o l e of  p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n and  B r i t i s h power  centre  the  as  the  this  the  t h e i r past  i n t o t h e West, The  The  in  things—that  citizens  former S p a n i s h t e r r i t o r i e s  and  Calcutta,  as  and  t h i s war  in  demands o f  f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of  Between 1866  crisis  was  many o t h e r  slaves  of  e a r l y 1800s,  consequences of  newly-freed  defense.  i n the  view o f A m e r i c a n b l a c k s ,  the  line  1  political  t o accommodate t h e  of  a first  in Afghanistan  even b r i e f l y ,  meant—among  had  as  cities  and  of  on  the  the west  Madras,  administrative  H.E.I.C. r u l e  the  61  Map  2.  India  i n the Twentieth  Century  SOURCE: The O x f o r d H i s t o r y o f I n d i a , 4 t h ed. By t h e l a t e V i n c e n t A. S m i t h . C . I . E . ; f o u r t h ed., e d i t e d by P e r c i v a l S p e a r . D e l h i : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981, e n d p a p e r .  62  Presidencies  were autonomous, e a c h G o v e r n o r r e p o r t i n g  the  Court of  Directors  of  B e n g a l had  i n London.  supervisory  authority  f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes the the  Government o f  India,  by  the  Act  Charter  assumption  to  Secretary  of  Improved  State  for India  only  to  advanced  after  the  transportation  and  lines,  and  the  Suez  Canal  Government o f  i t s whole t e r r i t o r y ,  i n London t o  but  Bombay  although  became a r e a l i t y  c o n t r o l over  Bombay,  stay  and  India  for  in regular  the  contact  Calcutta.  military body o f the  Presidency needs.  native  The  militia  had  lines  and  Bengal.  1679  the  regiments, ments,  more t h a n a  small  but  into regular was  by  1767  battalions,  underway a l o n g  Robert C l i v e i n  through three  the  1st  and  Bombay Army i n c l u d e d pioneer  native 4  sepoys  local  II),  major p h a s e s .  i t grew s t e a d i l y i n s i z e and  including  of  no  meet  the  Madras  3  1799,  and  army t o  i n Chapter  S t r i n g e r L a w r e n c e and  and  engineer  i t s own  European l i n e s ,  Bombay Army p a s s e d  1824  ments  native  The  campaigns,  up  (as d e s c i b e d  equipped along  p i o n e e r e d by  built  Bombay Army began as  p r o c e s s of o r g a n i z i n g  trained  By  1853,  to  Governor-General  o f Madras and  in Calcutta),  via railroads, telegraph  real  Each  and  subordination (based  the  made i t t e c h n i c a l l y f e a s i b l e f o r t h e  exercise  with  theory  o v e r Madras and  o f Crown r u l e i n 1858.  communications (1869)  of  In  directly  corps,  five  infantry,  as  w i t h a complete  a l l nominally  under  2nd  cavalry  range of the  orders  thirty-six  Mysore Wars i n t h e  h o r s e and  well  fought  Between  as  artillery,  regiments, two  staff of  foot  the  and  European  and  1790s.  service  Governor of  24  an regi-  infantry departBombay.  63 In p r a c t i c e t h e recruiting time  Presidency  patterns  t h e Government o f  o f one  military As  Army  was  1838-1843  campaigns  were  and  c o n s t a n t l y i n l a r g e or  small  the  ( t h e P i n d a r i War) Afghanistan,  Indian Mutiny  1857-1859.  the  exception  o f a few  unreliable,  was  i n mopping-up o p e r a t i o n s  Between 1860 campaigns,  and  and  1890,  seven of  regiments.  i n waras  parts  The  last  campaigns  2nd  Sikh the  War, entire  mutinied  i n suppressing  afterwards  in Central  small,  of  the  India.  i n only  ten  involving only  in Abyssinia,  i n which the  campaigns  regiments which  t h e Burmese War  Bombay  1817-1818,  Nearly  engaged  were v e r y  campaigns  1878-1880, and  the  the  in  t h e Bombay Army s e r v e d  these  A f g h a n War, three  a l l three  I860,  i n S i n d and  considered  m u t i n y and  role.  d i d use  and  and  3 r d M a r a t h a War  Bombay Army, w i t h  two  I n d i a c o u l d and  engaged a l m o s t  1848-1849,  segregated;  g a r r i s o n duties overlapped,  B r i t i s h power expanded between 1800  the  or  completely  organization.  including  or  and  a r m i e s were n o t  1867,  the  2nd  1885-1887 were  o l d Bombay Army took a  one  the  major  5  By serving  the  late  locally  century,  i n t h e Madras and  outlived  their  the  important  most  nineteenth  military of  its  s o l d i e r s p r i m a r i l y f r o m N o r t h and  Baluchis) provided  on  both  and  major  t h e N o r t h West F r o n t i e r .  from t r i b a l  s i d e s of  the b o r d e r .  g a r r i s o n s f o r Aden and  the  Red  The Sea  become  responsibilIt  North-western  Muslims  recruited India,  (Pathans,  and  the  Afridis,  Bombay Army, forts  and  largely  B e n g a l Army had  c a r r y i n g the  f o r the  of Nepal,  of  three,  The  ity  Gurkhas  security  Bombay P r e s i d e n c i e s had  usefulness.  the  the armies r e c r u i t e d  also  which for  64 S i n d , had  a greater  by  time  this  (Queen's Own) Army  which  military  almost Sappers  role  entirely  a local  and M i n e r s  continued  t h a n t h e Madras Army, w h i c h the  Madras  the o n l y regiment of the  Madras  t o be u s e d on  force,  field  with  was  service  outside  the  Presidency. After of  the  Bombay  century. ing  Army changed  Recruitment  area,  steadily  "martial" general  races  Table  Muslim  declined,  and  away  from  component,  tion,  By  contrast,  that  reflecting  still  1895.  of  The  further.  t h e Bombay I n f a n t r y was of R a t n a g i r i ,  The  south  greatest under  The  Jews, a l w a y s diminishing  of  late  importance  as 1877,  T h i s was  were r e c r u i t e d .  changes  came a b o u t  for several for  manpower,  Mahars 14%  of  the  showing  over  half  (the c o a s t a l  District,  including  to  a small propor-  were n e a r l y a l l f r o m  industries  and  of  is in  from over  most o f t h e Mahars, who  reasons,  makeup  change  from which  These  and  one-fifth  from t h e Konkan Kolaba).  a  India.  shown i n T a b l e I I I , As  recruited  Thana, and  falling  so-called  north  community  just  the l a t t e r  r e g i o n a l breakdown o f t h e army.  districts  power t o t h e  from  Mahars i n t h e Bombay Army i s f u r t h e r the  increased,  t h e numbers o f M a r a t h a s  amount.  recruit-  India  rises  substantially,  than h a l f dwindled  which  nineteenth  of  the l o n g - p a c i f i e d  and  late  while recruitment  I I shows t h e c h a n g i n g c a s t e and  (Parwaris) drop less  the  the c o m p o s i t i o n  f o r m e r l y a major  i n the l o c u s of m i l i t a r y  over o n e - t h i r d .  to  in  f r o m t h e Konkan,  Bombay Army between 1877  the  steadily  from N o r t h w e s t  shift  north-west,  the  the s u p p r e s s i o n of the I n d i a n Mutiny,  the  in recruiting  region  Ratnagiri patterns  c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m Bombay  administrative  and  organizational  65 changes theory, the  i n t h e army, i n c r e a s i n g and  British  growing  acceptance of the "martial  caste prejudice  ( p e r h a p s more marked  races" among  t h a n among c a s t e H i n d u s ) . TABLE I I  BREAKDOWN OF BOMBAY INFANTRY BY CASTE AND YEAR  Caste  Year  11877  | 1880 | 1882  1. M u s l i m s *  119.4%| 20.5%1  2. M a r a t h a s *  I 3 9 . 6 % | 3 8 . 7 % | 38. 8%  3.  2 0 . 7%  1885  1 1890  1893  1895  2 1 . 5% 1  2 2 . 6 % 3 0 . 5%  33.1%  34. 2%  I  3 2 . 5 % 2 9 . 3%  2 7 . 9%  1 1 4 . 2 % | 12.2% | 12.1%  9.8%  1  8.7%  4 . Brahmins  1  4.9% |  4.9%  5.0%  5.  Telingas  I 0 . 5 % | 0.4% |  0.3%  6.  Rajputs/ Jats/Sikhs  I 6.0%|  7.0%  7.  Other  112.2%| 13.5%| 13.0%  8.  IndoEuropeans  1 1.8%|  2.0% |  2.0%  1.8%  Jews  1 1.3%|  1. 2% |  1.2%  1.1%  9.  Parwaris*  Army. wise  Hindus  5.1%|  6. 5%  1  7.6%  6.6%  1 5.4%  4.8%  4.3%  0.2%  1 0 . 2%  0.1%  0 . 2%  8. 7%  1 7.2%  6.3%  7.2%  I 21.2% 19. 5%  19.0%  17.6%  SOURCE: Summarized from I .O.L., C a s t e * i n d i c a t e c a t e g o r i e s showing as i n o r i g i n a l r e c o r d s .  greatest  i  1.5%  1.2%  1.2%  0.8%  0 . 7%  0.6%  R e t u r n s of t h e Bombay change;  order other-  66 TABLE I I I BREAKDOWN OF BOMBAY INFANTRY BY REGION AND YEAR  Country 1.  11877  Year  | 1880  1882  | 1885  1890 I  1893  | 1895  North & N.W. I n d i a *  114.5%|  1 5 . 1%  16.7%|  22.0%  34.4%|  42.7% | 47.0%  2.  Konkan*  |56.3%|  50.7%  48.0%|  43.6%  41.8%|  37.0%|  3.  Deccan  112.1%|  1 8 . 3%  21.4%|  1 8 . 1%  12.8%1  1 2 . 2 % | 1 2 . 3%  1 9.6%|  8 . 7%  7.1% |  7.7%  6.6%|  5 . 2% |  6.1%  1 1.7%|  0.9%  1.1% 1  6.2%  4.2% |  2.7%|  2.8%  15.8%|  6.3%  5 . 7% |  2.4%  0 . 2% |  0 . 2% |  0.1%  4.  Oudh  5.  Central  6.  Other  India  Summarized f r o m I.O.L., C a s t e R e t u r n s o f t h e  SOURCE: Bombay Army.  * i n d i c a t e c a t e g o r i e s showing w i s e as i n o r i g i n a l r e c o r d s .  The  Konkan,  fill  greatest  i t s needs  i s questionable.  Konkan  complained  seldom  visited  try,  later  first  cotton  t o revenue  t h e army  that  At this  t o become a major spinning  time  employer,  Whether not  from  the  recruiting in  major  could  I n 1852 v i l l a g e r s  officials  other-  was a l s o a  them a n d many young men h a d l o o k e d to enlist.6  order  i n d u s t r i e s o f Bombay.  a c t u a l l y drew o f f s o many men t h a t  opportunities  change;  d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d and p o o r ,  s o u r c e o f manpower f o r t h e g r o w i n g industry  31.8%  parties vain  t h e Bombay c o t t o n  for indus-  was i n i t s i n f a n c y ;  f a c t o r y was n o t even b u i l t  until  1854.  the 7  67  As  Table  obtained  IV  nearly  shows,  half  between 1848  i t s new  f o r l e s s than o n e - t h i r d ,  recruiting  policy.  need  for labour  young  men  Bombay need  who  for  new  of  Army  e a r l y as  ment;  when  the  recruitment.  a t work;  opportunities  and  1852)  up  parties  did  work,  thus  c o n t r i b u t i n g to the  could  not  " C o s t s and  Administrative  aftermath  for of  efficiency, of  waiting  obtained.  Army  and  and  This  and  importance,  its  unlikely factor  apparent  need  i n the  in  that shift-  circle  that  Bombay  parties;  fewer  many  employ-  potential  enough  i s discussed  of  recruits  further  in  Service."  c h a n g e s were made i n  security for  of  the  t o Bombay i n s e a r c h  of M i l i t a r y  reasons:  some the  up,  impression  organizational  Mutiny,  changes  migrated  the  off  t o seek o t h e r  show  question  Benefits  several  the  grew,  as  recruiting  young men  to  official  However,  an  Army  going  d i d draw  important  impelled  given  Indian  others  I t seems  most  meant fewer  recruiting  IV,  Konkan,  military  T h e r e was  r e c r u i t s had  Chapter  Bombay  d e c r e a s e d manpower r e q u i r e m e n t s o f  to e n l i s t  be  and  doubtless  recruits also declined.  causation (as  industry  i n b o t h s i z e and  was  the  i n accordance with  might o t h e r w i s e have e n l i s t e d .  from i n d u s t r y  patterns  cotton  increased  Army d e c l i n e d  competition ing  also  the  1852  r e c r u i t s from the  Hindustan  As  and  concerns  improved  m i l i t a r y p o l i c y of  in  economy the  the the and  Government  India. The  Mutiny,  Bengal with  an  Punjab, North-West  Army almost India,  was  completely  complete and  Nepal.  shift  re-organized of  after  recruiting  to  the the  68 TABLE IV BOMBAY ARMY RECRUITING, 1848-52  i  Hindustan  Deccan  1848  I  134  44  83  1849  I  119  58  1850  I  255  1851  I  1852  Totals  Konkan  i  Total  55  I  316  240  51  I  468  89  519  154  I  1017  270  62  357  92  1  781  I  171  42  337  72  I  622  I  949  295  1536  424  I  3204  SOURCE:  M.S.A. M i l i t a r y  Although  o n l y a few Bombay r e g i m e n t s  Other  Compilations,  v o l . 492 o f 1852,  #790.  close  to  mutiny,  reforms.  Many  regiments  of  mutiny,  affected  t h e Bombay Army h a d m u t i n i e d ,  while  almost  army t o o was  others had not.  or  The 2 7 t h N a t i v e  t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f i t s men,  mostly  w i t h i n t h e Bombay P r e s i d e n c y and were  sympathy  with  diers  the "rebel"  remained from  loyal,  leaders.  drew s l i g h t l y  beyond t h e P r e s i d e n c y . 8  l e a d e r s were among t h e H i n d u s t a n i Bene  also  come  certain close  to  Infantry, part of regiment i n  Marathas, had been likely  t o be i n  The 1 s t G r e n a d i e r  Regiment,  more t h a n h a l f  of i t s  On t h e o t h e r hand, soldiers  I s r a e l H a v i l d a r reported the planned  records  post-Mutiny  was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p r o v i n c i a l  enlisted  which  by  o r come  t h e o r i e s were p r o p o u n d e d t o e x p l a i n why  which had m u t i n i e d , that  this  had mutinied,  the r i n g -  o f t h e 27th, mutiny.  sol-  while  a  The m i l i t a r y  show t h a t men o f a l l c a s t e s and c o m m u n i t i e s  i n the  69  27th N a t i v e  Infantry,  involved  in  relating  the c l a s s  diers  to  the  plot.  their  adequately  with  tendency  or  the  clear  the  records  this  the  replacing  listing  I n f a n t r y was Northwest ly  27th  from  potential  the  the  had  to  largely  other  Mahar  mutiny i n the  lost  was  who first  By  27th  and  had  Native  27th  their  t h a t the men 1 0  the  27th had  who  had  place in including  and  then  not  done n o t h i n g  or  Native  loyal  being  with  a  regiment  to  i n t e n d e d as a  penalty  any  o f a number o f d e c i s i o n s w h i c h  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e  and  complete-  re-formed  to deserve  en-  Punjab  been  T h i s c l o s e d one  Although  other  27th  remained  is  Native  or  Bombay,  not  What  of B h i l s  1877  o f M u s l i m s from  composition.  recruits.  the  reduced  a regiment  sol-  does  regiments.  mutinied  theory  with a B a l u c h i regiment,  regiments,  class  t h e Mahars, it  not  were  of the  i n r e o r g a n i z i n g the  with  27th  with o f f i c e r s  somewhat d i f f e r e n t  tially  who  I n d i a . I t would appear  transferred  ment,  i s that,  G u j a r a t or S i n d .  composed  disbanded,  against  s p e c i f i c problems  regiment  replacing  men  origin  to  i n other  simple  A number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s were s u g g e s t e d ,  the  aborigines,  or geographic  l a c k of problems  Parwaris  regiment.  seem t h a t any  t o m u t i n y or n o t  f o r the  Infantry,  Infantry,  I t would  composition  account  from  the e x c e p t i o n of the P a r w a r i s , ^  punishsubstan-  t o Mahars t o s e r v e i n  army. In  balances Army  g e n e r a l , however, t h e c o n c e r n  between r e g i o n a l f o r c e s t e n d e d  as a s e p a r a t e  ness. police,  f o r m a i n t a i n i n g checks  With and  e n t i t y w e l l beyond  internal  security  responsibility  largely  to preserve  i t s real  the  Bombay  military  useful-  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  for external security  and  and  of  the  imperial  70  military  duties  Army, t h e  Bombay Army underwent major r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s  allow  i t to  shifted  fulfill  to the  i t s reduced  n o t h e r n p o r t i o n of  functions with  the  Bengal  intended  greater  to  efficien-  cy. By nance  the  of  last  quarter  internal  of  the  s e c u r i t y was  The  armed p o l i c e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  very  large  local  disorders,  permanently s t a t i o n e d adequate  to  dacoity.  suggested  order  to  possible  conflict  greatly worried Several the  1882,  and  the  the  total  lost  eight  in Afghanistan—a  1,764.)  The  virtually  11th,  were s e l e c t e d  for reduction;  approximately  11  aspect  of  the  per 1882  cent  considered  rebellions 1878-80,  or  defi-  the  15th  four  the  in a  which  efficiency  low-caste  increased  in size, (The  B e n g a l Army, t h r e e its total  and  18th of  were Mahars,  so  Madras  were that Army  cavalry  and  numerical  strength  Bombay N a t i v e  Infantry  2,767 men, were  indirect  of  soldiers.  i n f a n t r y regiments  unchanged.  a total  reforms with  s u c h as  possibility  improve  p o s i t i o n of  a c t u a l l y increased  6th,  but  India.  regiments  i n f a n t r y regiments;  i n f a n t r y , but  local  any  garrisons  were  from t h a t q u a r t e r ,  r e g i m e n t and  manpower was  with  local  A f g h a n War,  undertaken to  remaining  consideration.  small spots  mainte-  Army needed some improvements  threats  Russia  the  adequate to d e a l  2nd  government o f  cavalry the  a great  relatively  Indian  future  measures  one  reduced,  by  and  of  the  with  the  was  Bombay Army u n d e r m i n e d t h e  In  six  that  meet any  longer  century,  or p r e f e r a b l y a v e r t  experience  nitely  no  in potential trouble  deal with  The  nineteenth  o f whom 311  affected.  implications  or  Another for  the  71 Bombay  Army was  the Bengal In Sir  the d i s b a n d i n g of  Army as  a post-Mutiny  J u l y o f 1882  Donald  to  cease  including and  Chamars,  "the  the Governor-General,  ment  of  enlisting  eliminate  them.  low-caste  officers  was  recruiting patterns, written  in  "Kaiths"  India,  circular  for  1 1  H i n d u s had  failed  but  factor.  #3610-D  of  Stewart  and  s t a t e why  wanted the  of  to  experi-  commanding  Accurately predicting  Lord Elphinstone,  them  t h a t the e x p e r i -  dissatisfaction  1 3  to  Hindus,"  —Kayasthas.  agreed  not  General  instructing  classes  had  r e c o r d s do  deemed t o have f a i l e d , important  menial  L o r d Ripon,  ment was  an  and  and  Official  1 2  in  I n f a n t r y regiments  lowest  Banias,  raised  experiment.  issued a confidential  of Bengal  enlisting  regiments  the Commander-in-Chief  Stewart,  commanding o f f i c e r s  low-caste  future  G o v e r n o r o f Bombay,  had  1858:  As soon as t h e m i s t r u s t w h i c h r e c e n t e v e n t s have e x c i t e d h a s i n some d e g r e e s u b s i d e d - nay even b e f o r e - commanding officers w i l l a g a i n p r e f e r good l o o k i n g h i g h caste recruits, to stunted Bheels, or b l a c k shabby looking Purwarries. 1 4  The to  restriction  on  e n l i s t m e n t of  t h e Bombay o r Madras a r m i e s  proposal  was  government  made by  of  low-caste  i n 1882,  but  the Commander-in-Chief  India  indicates  a very  men  was  the and  not  fact  extended that  approved  significant  this  by  change  the in  policy. Soldiers ferred than  to other  accept  partial having  with  less  regiments;  a transfer  pension fifteen  than  years  those wishing  were e l i g i b l e  d e p e n d i n g on years  fifteen  service  their or  s e r v i c e were  trans-  t o l e a v e t h e army r a t h e r  for gratuities,  l e n g t h of  bonuses,  service.  l o n g e r were c o m p u l s o r i l y  or  Soldiers retired.  72 Those  with  ordinary  fourteen  to twenty-five  rate of pension with  bonus, w h i l e  years  o f s e r v i c e o r more r e c e i v e d  their  rank.  civilian  a  e x i s t e d or could  be made  f o r I n d i a acknowledged t h a t  remainder of t h e i r  reduction form  of increased  and  1891  The  were  within  Bombay  cases  the  similar banded  1 5  The S e c r e t a r y  of  retirement  1 6  for  draw t h e i r  would be  who h a d c o u n t e d on with  their  serving  regiments,  but the  A minor c o n c e s s i o n ,  i n the daffadars,  retired.  conversion. men from t h e  and on t h e b o r d e r s o f t h e  to  localize  two  s e l e c t i n g t h e 24th The  reconstituted  Pathans  and  Baluchistan  other  agency. ^ 1  I n f a n t r y was r e c o n s t i t u t e d i n June 1891, w i t h t h e  native  terms  f o l l o w i n g i n November  officers  of  1892.  In  and s o l d i e r s were d i s p o s e d  t o those accorded  i n 1882.  and  Infantry  Infantry  to conversion, ity,  for  i f  g o o d - c o n d u c t p a y f o r h a v i l d a r s and  to  2 4 t h Bombay  26th  twenty-five  regiments  t h e government o f I n d i a d e c i d e d  2 6 t h Bombay  tribes  or t o other  o f t h e Bombay Army i n B a l u c h i s t a n ,  regiments  the  rate of pension  f o r them.  was o f no b e n e f i t t o t h e men s u m m a r i l y  regiments  those with  compulsory  active lives  was c a r r i e d o u t a n y w a y .  In  received  Some a t t e m p t was made t o t r a n s f e r some o f t h e men t o  s e v e r e blow t o many o f t h e s e men,  the  service  the higher  employment o r t o t h e p o l i c e ,  vacancies State  years  t h e men o f t h e  178 t r a n s f e r r e d t o o t h e r  with  pension,  under  regiments  dis-  Infantry  prior  Of t h e 601 men o f t h e 2 6 t h Bombay 299 were d i s c h a r g e d  of  both  124 w i t h  regiments or to the  gratu-  reserve.  O n l y one h a v i l d a r and f o u r p r i v a t e s were t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e n e w l y reconstituted  26th  Baluchistan  twenty r e c r u i t  boys,  five  Infantry.  Of  the  were t r a n s f e r r e d t o o t h e r  regiment's  r e g i m e n t s and  73  the remaining the  fifteen  discharged without g r a t u i t y . T r a n s f e r  r e s e r v e o r o t h e r r e g i m e n t s was p e r m i t t e d o n l y t o  selected  Sepoys  desirable  to  belonging  retain."19  been  applied  four  regiments  that  government  disbanded  Although  o f i t s mutiny  banded  or  regiments.  regiments, Presidency.  conversion at least  try  incur  additional  and t h e 2 8 t h  Marine  already regiments By which of  close  i s a further  were n o t s e l e c t e d  The  regiments  as  p a r t l y because  indication  disciplinary o r i n any way in  1882  were  o f t h e Bombay the  I n f a n t r y were c h o s e n  for  I n f a n t r y had r e c e n t l y  and government d i d n o t  specialized  " The 2 7 t h ,  battalions,  2 9 t h and 3 0 t h  and i t was t h e r e f o r e  t o them i n t h e army l i n e o n l y twenty  (the  considered  infantry  were  intended  that  s h o u l d be c o n v e r t e d .  infantry  r e c r u i t e d Mahars and o t h e r l o w - c a s t e men.  Mahars i n t h e i n f a n t r y h a d d e c l i n e d  wish  The 2 1 s t I n f a n -  and t h e P i o n e e r B a t t a l i o n ) and were  t e e n p e r c e n t i n 1870 t o a b o u t  dis-  at posts within  the 25th  Regiment,  of as a  either  senior  expense t o c o n v e r t i t a g a i n .  1892, t h e r e f o r e ,  the  service  a  disbanded  t h e y were t h e l e a s t  as B a l u c h i ,  have  or to  the other regiments  The 2 4 t h and 2 6 t h  i n these r o l e s . classed  Infantry,  to  I n f a n t r y was r e c o n s t i t u t e d  I n f a n t r y were b o t h  Battalion  efficient  the 27th  considered  does n o t seem  and were a l l p r e s e n t l y  been c o n v e r t e d t o a R i f l e to  is  t h e y were c o n s i d e r e d i n e f f i c i e n t  p r i m a r i l y because  Bombay  This  i t  "carefully  discouraging military  i n 1857,  reconstituted  measure o r b e c a u s e  Infantry  i n 1882.  was a c t i v e l y  result  chosen  This provision  t o t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f the 24th  l o w - c a s t e men.  troublesome  t o c l a s s e s which  to  from  regiments The  slightly  remained  proportion over  s e v e n p e r c e n t i n 1893.  four-  The army  74  reorganization the  of  remaining  considered World  but  the  A  f o r the  were removed  regain  few  s o l d i e r s of lingered  most p a r t  from the  d i s m i s s a l of  the  other  so-called  until  the  and  a l l of  classes  i n s e r v i c e as  army i n 1893,  r i g h t to e n l i s t  almost  now  late  as  "non-martial d i d not  perma-  independence of  India  1947. A  major  factor  influencing  reorganization  in this period  racial  s u c h as  theories  growing  caste  s o l d i e r s has with "The an  i n the  Mahar s o l d i e r s and  I,  classes"  in  resulted  "non-martial."  War  nently  1893  as  the  b e e n t o u c h e d on  "martial races"  increasing  important  nineteenth gelical both  century  doctrines;  were  assumption races,  and  a b l e . "20 liberal  low-caste  in this  chapter,  and  be  sufficient  "movements that that  of  "human  and tended  values, as  and caste.  to  warrant  inherently  mid-  and  rested the  evan-  same  on  the  in  all  readily  alter-  undertaken (or a t  individual rights,  while  countervailing  the  different origins,  which  reforms  in  liberal  t o promote s e c u l a r  A  chapter.  the  rule i n India  individualism"  educational  dealt  here.  radically  n a t u r e was  next  importance  r e f o r m b a s e d on their  will  i n the  i n h e r i t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were  influence  institutions  in British  social  and  against  which f o l l o w s  despite  Social  traditional) such  was  theory,  of  prejudice  i s of  trend  army  popularity  races"  R a c i a l T h e o r i e s : M a r t i a l Races and "Gurkha Syndrome" An  of  British  Mahars s p e c i f i c a l l y  theory  extended d i s c u s s i o n ,  the  nature  so-called "martial  prejudice.  i t a f f e c t e d the  was  the  under  least  non-  undermining  tendency,  to  pre-  75  serve  traditional  institutions  f o r t h e sake  s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e shock o f t h e A  new  variety  differences  "evolutionary  say  and  social  t o t h e movement l a t e r  social  to  t h o u g h t was  theories  expounded  called  social  a p p l y the p r i n c i p l e s  Darwinism,21  appears  likely  of a b a s i c a l l y  that  the " m a r t i a l  conservative  races"  fully-developed justify  sively  view o f I n d i a n  theory than a " c a t c h - a l l phrase  on r e c r u i t i n g  to the i n f l u e n c e  in-Chief  i n India  Lord  service  i s to  selection  to  from 1885  during  contact  to  influ-  theory.  Less a  .  .  .  used  Based  dency Armies,  the Mutiny, He had  t h e 2nd A f g h a n War,  a  long  and had had  in military  on h i s e x t e n s i v e  with  and  s e r v e d w i t h the Bengal  o f t h e Madras Army,  active  he was  Commander-  spanning forty-one years i n India,  w i t h t h e Bombay Army.  remained  exclu-  to the Indian A r m y — h a d  the Army,  consider-  After h i s retirement  he went on t o s e r v e as Commander-in-Chief and  India,"22  almost  Kandahar,  to  1893.  Bahadur"  o f 1881.  as C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f  1914.23  society,  c a n be a t t r i b u t e d  of Lord Roberts of  career,  S o u t h A f r i c a n War  India  policies  Roberts—"Bobs  illustrious  active  War,  that  a wide r a n g e o f o p i n i o n s on t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f  effect  able  contri-  theory developed  e n c e d by p o p u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f e v o l u t i o n a r y  and  Spencer's  1850s,  of n a t u r a l  a  explaining  Herbert  i n the  of  systems. It  its  was  the development  inequalities.  first  stability,  mutiny.  and p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c  sociology,"  attempts  out  in social  of s c i e n t i f i c  racial  buted  element  of  during  matters u n t i l  the  Boer  h i s death  experience with a l l three  completely convinced that  from  the poor  in  Presiquality  76  of  the  Madras and  instincts was  i n the  equally  be  men  convinced  Afghanistan should  only  that  i n order  from the  the  neither  had  suffered,  ing  d e t e r i o r a t i n g e f f e c t on  and  ancient  military  ordinary  Hindostani  regarded  the  believed  spirit of  that  ciency.  greater  time  served  in  service  better.  the  of  of  and  threat  north  in  India  although  its  i n them as the  M i n e r s as  an  or  a  knew He  soften-  that died  better  "the  in  exceptional  the He  24  case,  education  rather  British  their  Royal Engineers, experience,  he  than  to acknowledge t h a t  S a p p e r s and  for l i f e ,  and  Pioneers  the  few  had  i t had  q u a l i t y of  with  he  M a h r a t t a of Bombay."  improve  Madras Army,  elsewhere.  Madrassis,  have w i s h e d  Indian  i n 1880  p r o s p e r i t y had  the  when  wanted t o know why.  Sappers or  i n the  field  2  he  reforms to  from the  to get  not be  or p r o m o t i o n , ^  transfer Army,  may  instituted  seconded  and  i n t e l l i g e n c e and  them as  might  Officers  limited  died  B e n g a l and  the  He  difference  a l t h o u g h he  had  Madras S a p p e r s and  infantry.  teers,  military  a knee-jerk bigot;  s e c u r i t y , and  Madrassis q u a l i f i e d  real  of  Russian  Commander-in-Chief  t h a t peace,  regular  t o meet t h e  nor  concluded  of  lack  "martial races"  a fool  Madras Army as  i t s reputation  and  t o the  recruited.  to  that  due  f r o m whom t h e s e a r m i e s were r e c r u i t e d ,  men  R o b e r t s was went  Bombay A r m i e s was  officers,  m o r a l e and  M i n e r s were  serving  while  infantry  Much t h e  same c o u l d  be  s a i d of  prospects  for active  s e r v i c e were  for  a  officers for  they could  effivolun-  i n India  opportunities until  the  field  wangle  the  a  Bombay somewhat  77  Roberts's Afghan  War  although Maiwand  c o n f i r m e d h i s low  a  careful  suggests  interpreted had  e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e Bombay Army d u r i n g t h e  examination  that  Roberts  the events  a l r e a d y formed.  battle  o p i n i o n of  saw  of the  disastrous  what he  expected  of the b a t t l e  A detailed  o f Maiwand does n o t  i t s fighting  Second  qualities, battle  of  see,  and  to  a c c o r d i n g to the theory  examination  he  of the course of  support Roberts's  conclusions  the  about  t h e Bombay Army. On  July  Burrows, of  the  27th  1880,  consisting 66th  Regiment o f F o o t  (Grenadiers),  Rifles),  a  bore The  guns s u f f e r e d  the  included  Grenadiers,  diers  actually  were k i l l e d probably  30th  sowars and  and  934  and  175  engaged; missing.  deserted.  few  of the n a t i v e troops,  the  infantry,  overwhelming  Bombay  and M i n e r s , of c a p t u r e d  including  missing,  in addition  893  one  thousand  credited stating  who  five  hundred  Afghan  smooth  were  and  Khan.  rifles  and  and  had  carbines  and  to the  who  s  i  o  was  unreliabil"The  Native  p r e s s e d back on  jji  sol-  and  Roberts,  to hold t h e i r  of  drivers  Afghans  i n h i s memoirs,  illustrated  Ayub  followers  numbers o f t h e enemy."26  troops i s further  (Jacob's  o u t o f 2,476  the d e b a c l e  were u n a b l e  Native  six native officers  wounded and  o f t h e b r i g a d e g o t o u t o f hand,  British  Infantry  were a l s o c a p t u r e d .  t h e n commanding a t K a b u l ,  portion  1 s t Bombay  Native  Many o f t h e s e  Over  the  s i x companies  d e f e a t a t t h e hands o f  killed,  many swords and b a y o n e t s  ity  Bombay  a battery  a serious  artillery,  (British),  company o f Bombay S a p p e r s  cavalry  losses  commanded by B r i g a d i e r - G e n e r a l  of a t r o o p of horse  Infantry  native  a Brigade  own  w  by h i s s t a t e m e n t  the  against  opinion  of  regarding  78  the  force  dency, In  it  could  a dispatch  1880  on  able  n o t be  that  to the A d j u t a n t - G e n e r a l i n I n d i a dated  noted again,  of the Kabul  " I am  few  However,  2 8  Bombay  Presi-  races." 30th  field  July force,  regiments  other factors  2 7  are  than  the  i n the d e f e a t  Maiwand.  imately had  of a l l ,  a very exposed The  bardment  at  significantly theory, enemy  B u r r o w s ' B r i g a d e was  t e n t o one,  reserves.  the  outgunned  two  time  they  the  Rajputs,  Jats  soldiers  at a l l .  The  The  and  leave the f i e l d , dead  on t h e  surviving  survivors village  to break  regiment  of  Khig,  was  and  of and  the run  field.  The  Native  Regiment, a  final  from  made up p r i m a r i l y  companies o f  Sappers  the  Infantry  very l a r g e l y  I t c o n t a i n e d no  a l o n g w i t h a few  66th and  dead  races"  i n the face of  Bombay  f o u r t e e n Sappers  Most  "martial  recruited  Sikhs.  as bom-  disarray.  G r e n a d i e r s d i d not break  leaving  Burrows  regiments  Jacob's  pan-  Rifles.  were t h e  last  and L i e u t e n a n t T.  included  two  p a r t y of about  s t a n d near twelve  R.  Mahars.  o f t h e G r e n a d i e r s and  made a n o t h e r  of  low-caste  ranks u n t i l  t h e s m a l l company o f S a p p e r s  Sappers,  of the  to twelve.  into  and Oudh, and was  t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e two  artillerymen  Henn  o f view  companies o f t h e 3 0 t h This  approx-  a two-hour a r t i l l e r y  finally fell  body o f men  Muslims,  by  thirty  suffered  point  N o r t h and N o r t h West I n d i a  icked  by  outnumbered by  p o s i t i o n with only h i s cavalry  from  the f i r s t were  and  i n f a n t r y had  (Jacob's R i f l e s ) .  The  t o Kandahar  c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Bombay Army were i n v o l v e d  First  to  sure that  t o cope w i t h A f g h a n s . "  racial  "as b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Bombay  composed o f t h e b e s t f i g h t i n g  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  Roberts  at  in Baluchistan  the the  Sappers  79 eventually command  a r r i v e d a t Kandahar,  of  the s e n i o r Sapper.  circumstances the  that  In s p i t e Madras  cited, of  Armies,  Mahratta the  soldiers  of education  candidates  overlooking military  a fighting  Hindustanis,  Tamils,  men s u b s c r i b e d  i n 1871 t h a t  the Indian  just  t o some v e r s i o n this  idea  was  officers  population  and s u g g e s t e d  i n a l l classes,  those  "the best  from a p a c i f i c  by t h e  that s u i t a b l e  " p e r h a p s e v e n among t h e  R o b e r t s had been  army c o u l d  o f t h e more w a r l i k e Telugus,  be  pressing  rendered  peoples of the south"  "as  the m i l i t a r y  member  f o r the other  s i n c e h i s t e r m as Commander-in-  e v e n w r o t e t h a t he was " i n d e s p a i r t o see the matter w i t h  and h a r d y r a c e s "  " s o - c a l l e d M a h r a t t a s " and  o f t h e Madras Army, he e n c o u n t e r e d  Chesney,  in  machine a s i t was p o s s i b l e t o make i t " o n l y b y  "men  people  the  o f t h e Bombay  f a c t s such as  Although Lord  3 0  under  was m a i n t a i n e d  One who o p p o s e d  a r e formed  view t h a t  substituting  Chief  discipline  and d i s c i p l i n e , "  Brahmins."  "effeminate  extraordinary  under t h e  2 9  theory.  c o u l d be f o u n d  contrary  perfect  of  o f M a g d a l a , who w r o t e  the best  powers  and  level  and  many, b u t n o t a l l ,  Napier  It is  i n formation  o f t h e l o n g and d i s t i n g u i s h e d r e c o r d  the " m a r t i a l races"  Lord and  this  face of m i l i t a r y d i s a s t e r .  and  marching  considerable a t not being  [his] eyes."  3 1  of the Viceroy's  resistance, able  General Council  to get  S i r George i n the l a t e  1880s, and G o v e r n o r s - G e n e r a l D u f f e r i n and Lansdowne, however, d i d see  with  R o b e r t s ' s eyes,  "non-martial" period. martial  this  By t h e t i m e o f t h e army r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f 1891-95,  the  theory  and c l a s s e s was r e d u c e d  the r o l e of in  races  races  and as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d  steadily  h a d come t o d o m i n a t e r e c r u i t m e n t  policies,  80 and  continued As  could  late  still  neither  a s 1932,  oration  aptitude  due t o c h i l d  accounts  served  First  Even L o r d  two i m p o r t a n t  army.  reliability  of  form;  there  There  was  There  some  a higher  Roberts's  climate of  b u t none o f t h e s e  as  from  the  distinct  villages  great personal  sand  soldiers  their  kinsmen  for a loyal  in  f o r concern  which  3 3  doubt  their  pre-1893  the  awareness  the  and  future. activity  i n c l u d e d v a r i o u s c l a s s e s now  "non-martial."  Many  Mahars  t o Bombay This  and and  t h e army a n n u a l l y , industrial  going  t h i s was a r i s k y  raised  to  force,  the thou-  live  slums o f Bombay.  situation.  poor Poona  o f some h u n d r e d s o f t h e n e a r l y e i g h t  i n the growing  government,"  to  about  mind t h a t t h e I n d i a n Army was a "mercenary  alien  and p o l i t i c a l -  reason  c a s t e s ) had migrated  who l e f t  pres-  not  o f t h e Konkan and D e c c a n .  possibility  qualities  had the " m a r t i a l r a c e s " theory  grounds  arbitrarily  (among o t h e r  South  have  was no o b v i o u s  Indians,  Marathas  deteri-  c o u l d not  degree of p o l i t i c a l  defined  very  q  d i s e a s e s , and d e g e n -  t h e Bombay and Madras a r m i e s  were  N  3 2  have  functions.  among b e t t e r - e d u c a t e d  in  of t r o p i c a l  i n i m p o r t a n c e was t h e need  neutral  India  i n the p h y s i c a l or moral  general acceptance,  at least  MacMunn  f o r t h e presumed  were a l l p r o p o s e d ,  f o r a sudden change  of  courage."  and t h e w e i g h t o f h i s F i e l d - M a r s h a l ' s b a t o n  won s u c h  ly  physical  The e n e r v a t i n g  effects  marriage  of a given p o p u l a t i o n . tige  nor  martial qualities.  the d e b i l i t a t i n g  S i r George  "The mass o f t h e p e o p l e  e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d be a d v a n c e d  in  India,  Lieutenant-General  state that,  martial  convincing  eracy  t o do so f o r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s .  with  Bearing  s e r v i n g an  Since  i t  was  81  not  possible  desirable areas,  to avoid having  to s h i f t  recruiting  where r e t i r e d  a n a t i v e army, to d i s t a n t ,  s o l d i e r s w o u l d be  it  was  certainly  predominantly  unable  ( i f so  rural,  i n c l i n e d ) to  c a u s e much t r o u b l e . It  is hardly  become  the  distinct  backbone  .  . . on  "little  access  in  .  the  lines,  .  criteria; Jats, were  of  proverbs  about  clusion  trying  but  be  to  "Sikh  quartered favour;  view o f when in  m  ay  the  be  distinctly  tribal  distinct met  These still  ("Sikh have  later  they  (the  from  the these  did  sometimes jokes,"  joined  recent  is hardly  enlisted  de-  on  the  traditional  events  in  India  Saxena's a  were n o t  p r a c t i c e s and  not  unfounded.  certain  looked  upon  r e q u i r i n g Sikhs  " k e s " ) and  con-  compulsion,  i t is interesting in  the  races"  o f a m e r c e n a r y army c o u l d  r u l e s were i n s t i t u t e d beards  clan  a l l of  unamusing).  reputation,  were f i r s t  with-  or  "martial  a n a t i o n a l army might be  extreme b u t  religious  along  are  having  outnumbered  Sikhs  J a t s , although  education  state,"  to a l e s s e r degree,  " P o l i s h jokes,"  Punjab,  u n c u t h a i r and their  so,  somewhat d e n s e  the  their Sikhs  special  ence w i t h  as  jokes"  improve  The  to  "geographically  the  [being]  culturally  b a c k w a r d and  "educating  3  1851,  were  "martial races."  thick-headed  suicidal" ^ In  their  other  "Newfie" or  that  but  Gurkhas;  folklore  have r e n d e r e d  or  population.  educationally  pattern  Army  r e g i o n a l p e r i p h e r i e s of  Indian  R a j p u t s and  in  Indian  ethnically  so d i d t h e  also  the  " m a r t i a l r a c e s " now  s t a t e system,"34 o r g a n i z e d  the  scribed  in  the  often  of  of  the  t o c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y and .  and  majority  c o i n c i d e n t a l that  forbidding  that  regiments with  much  to  keep  interfer-  "social peculiarities."36  82  The  Marathas,  who  s h o u l d have q u a l i f i e d  the b a s i s of  their history,  they  perhaps,  were,  potential "Gurkha  t o be  safely  syndrome"  t h e S i k h s and A  was  caste/class tary  even  who  factor,  structure.  very  heredity.  The  rulers, well The  3 8  when  traditional  merchants,  with V i c t o r i a n wish  to maintain  I n d i a n s o c i e t y was  reason.  this  The  officers  blood)  had  o f an  a romantic  of the  Crecy.  nineteenth  century;  the  likely  come from  an  produced  tens  earliest  aristocratic yearning  average  depopulated  by  3  ing  heard:  agents  the H i g h l a n d "You  only  raised  by  soldier  imperial  o f our  by  and  many the  t h e r e may  inheritors  be (by  tradition,  sturdy  yeoman  longbowman to f i n d was  far  Scottish  of  c l e a r a n c e s , and us  But  the  The  of thousands  robbed  reflect  were h a r d  British  on,  division,  military  for  so  and  the E n g l i s h  urban s l u m . ^  n a t i v e regiments  may  heredi-  change  I n d i a n Army,  as  Indian  and  rigid  establishments.  E n g l i s h peasants  had  rapid  one,  structure  k i n d of  undergoing  Agincourt  which  —such  and  sweepers,  i d e a s of c l a s s  idealized  to  3 7  I n d i a n system of  artisans,  farmer-turned-soldier, and  ethnic  means a n e g l i g i b l e  were b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d ,  i f n o t by have  f i t the  "an  no  common t o m i l i t a r y  to  to  t h o u g h by  conservatism  seem  They d i d n o t only  case;  political  m a r t i a l and l o y a l "  roles  training  much  were b o t h  traditional  another  too  t o have t h e army c o n f o r m t o t h e B r i t i s h  soldiers,  meshed  had  on  Gurkhas.  secondary  the wish  numerous and  t r e a t e d as m a r t i a l .  men  "martial race"  were c o n s i d e r e d a v e r y d u b i o u s  which a p p l i e d p e r f e c t l y  group t h a t produced as  too  as a  of  i n the more  Highlands,  soldiers  for  "the  Britain,"  had  been  the  country  1850s and  recruit-  gave  it  to  83 the  sheep.  sheep  Therefore,  defend  contributed been  you I "  and  Gurkhas  remained.  "right"  kind  of  family,  clever;  or  determined  t o be  not  this  ter),  of  In  at  India  soldier:  such  "martial race,"  least  and  still  honourable  s u c h men  energy to  and  t o 1815,  had  m a r t i a l Sikhs have  of  after  or  Kshatriya they  were  soldiers  were  their health  s e p o y s c o u l d be  land-  t o be  Lady Roberts devoted  improving  the  educated  If B r i t i s h  4 1  and  than  "discovered"  arms."  had  from a r e s p e c t a b l e rather  let  which  p o s s i b l e to  u s u a l l y proved was  both Lord  Indian  India's  a young man  ancestry  (and  army f r o m 1776  but  i t was  " f i t to bear  t i m e and  4 2  own  demoralized,  brave  ancestry,  deal  Britain's  4 0  fortuitously,  like  h a v e p r e f e r r e d sheep t o men,  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y to the  dispersed  owning  s i n c e you  a  great  and  charac-  r e c r u i t e d from the  right  classes. A fit  corollary  t o be  above  soldiers  regimental  "martial  t o the  races"  was  theory  t h a t no  that only  Indian  level.  T h i s was  theory;  only  E u r o p e a n s had  necessary  for o f f i c e r s .  conviction  could  carried  Charles the  Ezechiel.  Bombay  Ezechiel for  a career  admission tion.  He  on  was  was  a son  The  Charles i n the  army.  i n 1891, the and  t o be  and  educated Charles passed  g r o u n d s t h a t he his  the  extent  of L i e u t e n a n t  to  J.  i n England wrote the  not  A.  in  case  of this of  Lieutenant preparation  Sandhurst but  the  E z e c h i e l of  was  of pure European  father both protested,  of  which the  were  officer  qualities  Department.  creditably,  was  an  extension  d e m o n s t r a t e d by  Commissariat-Transport  sent  examinations  He  f i t t o be  a necessary  leadership  be  was  c e r t a i n Indians  p o i n t i n g out  entrance refused extracthat a l l  84  British-born  or n a t u r a l i z e d B r i t i s h  commissions reversed. his  i n t h e army,  b u t were n o t a b l e  f a t h e r was b o r n  i n England  i n England;  background, Poona,  h i s mother,  on what was  legally  Guards  he was  Ezechiel  declined  of  legally  Indo-Portuguese C h a r l e s was  soil.  authorities  a " n a t i v e o f I n d i a , " so d e s i g n a t e d  appealed,  to i n t e r v e n e .  Lord  supported  Since everyone  4 3  Roberts,  this  born  By e d u c a t i o n  But t o the m i l i t a r y  b a s i s o f h i s mixed p a r e n t a g e a l o n e . tenant  who were b o t h  citizen.  "British"  for  on h i s c i t i z e n s h i p ;  who was  was a n a t u r a l i z e d B r i t i s h  t r a i n i n g he was B r i t i s h . Horse  of parents  eligible  t o have the d e c i s i o n  C h a r l e s E z e c h i e l based h i s appeal  domiciled  in  s u b j e c t s were  and  at the on  the  t o whom L i e u -  interpretation  involved with  this  arid issue  willingly  c o n c e d e d t h a t C h a r l e s E z e c h i e l was  fully  qualified  in  all  respects,  discrimination  was  other  apparently  tic  the p r i n c i p l e  t o be u p h e l d  The  Indian C i v i l  about  recruiting  under a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Service, while  Indians,  dates  on  David  had a l r e a d y q u a l i f i e d  moderately  i n the B r i t i s h  defused limited, take  army.  because s o c i a l  enthusias-  qualified  felt  Indian  their  brother  and h a d a t  troops  least  generally  (a t r a d i t i o n  career prospects  Possible racial  conflicts  contacts o u t s i d e the m i l i t a r y  p r i m a r i l y by m u t u a l c o n s e n t .  a close paternal interest  candi-  a  4 4  f o r f a m i l y reasons  s e r v i c e ) or because they than  f o r t h e I.C.S.  commanding  c h o s e n t o do s o , e i t h e r  time  Charles Ezechiel's older  successful career. officers  not a t t h i s  d i d not exclude  the b a s i s of race.  British  of r a c i a l  i n their  had  of Indian  were  better  were  largely  setting  were  O f f i c e r s were e x p e c t e d men,  visit  their  to  villages  85  on  tour,  understand  equals. ing  The  tone of  officer  Indian sion and  was  derived like  respect,  officer that  that  fact  Assuming  this and  their  area  of  their  There imposed  to  was  the  at  upon  and  love.  were  soldiers  1878  was  c o u l d be  theft,"  for ten years  s e p o y s were so w e l l - b e h a v e d  an  between  British  relaxed  i n the  religious but  than  American by  both  restrictions i n the  respect,  limited  friendship,  kinds  and  discipline  contrast  in India,  who  were  needed  and  Indian  i t was  sepoys,  very  rarely  (1838-1848).  troops,  subject  the  f o r whom  4 5  f e a r of  i f they  and  Indian dismisDrunken-  p r o b l e m s among and  used  Why  to serious misbehaviour.  uncommon among I n d i a n  was  t o keep down d r u n k -  i s u n c e r t a i n , but  deterrent  of  The  a major c o n t r i b u t o r t o d i s c i p l i n a r y was  as  classes.  " i t was  extreme d i s g r a c e  actually abolished  troops,  and  mutual  period.  accepted  separate,  soldiers  because  flogging  ness,  caste  of d i f f e r e n t  i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n and  a powerful  soldiers  i n e q u a l i t y was  of  I  much more  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  marked between B r i t i s h  was  reminiscences,  t o t h e W o r l d War  black  the  impres-  accepted  relationship  completely  enness,  sal  and  and  command-  Whether  g e n e r a l l y one was  as  ,  great  s u c h an  men.  personal  doubtless  political  question,  up  the  s e p o y was  them  "ma-bap"—the  inequality  least  p r o f e s s i o n there  flogging until  was  histories,  case,  to t r e a t  a t t i t u d e i s unknown; t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  private lives  even a k i n d of  very  life,  without  kept  this  essential  of  not  f a t h e r " to h i s  white o f f i c e r s  Social  parties  the  Indian  between  Army.  resented  i s that  but  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  from r e g i m e n t a l  and  immutable  the  customs,  "mother and  sepoys ever  the  their  British  used  drugs  86 they  seem t o h a v e done s o q u i e t l y .  ted  to  maintain  responsible minor  o f f e n c e s which were  and n e v e r An  which  removed  to  lines.  R. R. G i l l e s p i e ,  of h i s inspection  i n an  a  to 1st  one p o l i c e m a n  The r e g i m e n t  was  commanding  i n c l u d e a number  that  some were v e r y smart  or  Moochies." ^  to  the lack of d i s c i p l i n e  4  Gillespie  however; related  about  was  failure  the  generally regi-  instructed but  and most o f good "There  appear-  a r e t o o many  10 o u t o f 40 b e i n g P u r w a r e e s t h e number  t h e y were u n a b l e o r u n w i l l i n g  for their  The  and NCOs  o f Bombay  of low-caste  shown d u r i n g t h e Mohurram  h i g h e r - c a s t e sepoys.  was  Division,  o f comments  the regiment  in a  immediately  Mhow  The H a v i l d a r s were n o t w e l l  c a s t e men among them,  Bombay  i n s p e c t e d a n d r e p o r t e d on i t .  He commented  low  discharged  in  ( 2 8 t h September  a n d c a p a b l e o f making e x c e l l e n t NCOs.  that  informal  attention.  a n d w e l l b e h a v e d b u t n o t up t o t h e a v e r a g e  plying  official  o f l o w - c a s t e men among t h e n a t i v e o f f i c e r s  seemed i n t e l l i g e n t ;  among  that  violence  At least  where t h e o f f i c e r  ments i n a p p e a r a n c e .  ance  It i slikely  i n Bombay, were i n v o l v e d  and townspeople.  the regiment.  quiet  held  S e v e r a l men o f t h e 1 7 t h Bombay  was t h e n s t a t i o n e d  Mhow  preponderance of  t h e Mohurram  w h i l e i n t h e sepoy  Major-General results  during  expec-  were  officers'  i n s t a n c e of widespread  with p o l i c e  killed  and  have earned a B r i t i s h s o l d i e r  r i o t s o f 1877 i n Bombay.  Infantry, fight  might  came t o t h e commanding  occurred  October)  matters,  h a n d l e d by t h e I n d i a n o f f i c e r s  unusual  regiment  i n minor  f o r the behaviour of the sepoys.  punishment way,  discipline  The VCOs and NCOs were  However,  riots,  to maintain  their  men  im-  discipline  of the o f f i c e r s  to control  NCOs  who  during  were the  87 riots, one  none were o f  a J a t or  were  cers  and  M u s l i m and  the  other  a M o c h i , one  difficult  cers  had  actually  t o see  t o do  one  discharged  level  of  at  what the the  failure  to  be  caste  the  The  War  simply British  the  the  years  the  war  of  form  a  rejecting  a request  know  this  are  that able  soldier Military  a soldier  who  to  pressure  offi-  officers  of  thirty  been w i t h for  were  or  turn  rioting. ^ 4  1900 for  military  large-scale  units,  seeking  centers.  regiment,  and  that out  to  that  the  of  from a b o l i t i o n i s t s  an  Ohio,  'Do  you  white  men  to e n l i s t the  in  volun-  Expressing  asked:  of  re-  although  " G o v e r n o r D a v i d Tod  it;  their  officers  identify  i n the  t o d r i v e e v e r y w h i t e man and  had  native  i s a w h i t e man's government;  necessity  It  I t i s probab-  reprimanded  occasion  to r a i s e a Black  protect  Sikh.  the  caste.  failed  recruiting  common view,  t o d e f e n d and  w o u l d be  low  that  free Northern blacks  r e j e c t e d by  of  a J a t or  was  noncommissioned  the  A m e r i c a n Army t o  into regular  t h e s e one  the  involved  first  offi-  officers  The  the  (South  his  sepoys  was  others  have b e e n p r o m o t e d b e y o n d  the  men  extreme  of  men;  of black  were o f t e n  the  Two  Telinga  of  third  considering  cruiting  teer  of  t o blame f o r h a v i n g  f o r punishment  first  the  Marathas,  Three n a t i v e  S u b a d a r - M a j o r was  might  a  Regiment;  in fact  i n c o n t r o l of  Civil  probably  t i m e were a l s o s e v e r e l y  particularly held  The  17th  riots,  were n o t  and  the  was  two  Bene I s r a e l .  4  competence.  regiment  one  a Brahmin,  possibly a Maratha. ^  that  service,  was  a M a r a t h a , and  with  more r e l e v a n t  years'  over  one  but  one  were t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o t h e  probably  ly  caste;  of dubious o r i g i n ,  Indian)  is  Sikh,  low  a  Negro  service?'" combined  4 9  to  88  make  this  federate of  an u n t e n a b l e  territory  fugitive  bloody  as  white volunteers  manpower, t h e p r e s s u r e  of  1862-1863,  to recruit  commanders  blacks. Sea  General  Islands  General ment.  Lane  B.  from t h e  Third Native  ana.  This  free  blacks  the made  use  distrust trated  had  already  Hunter,  t o work o r f i g h t  for  t h a t t h e war would be l o n g  and  failed black  to  provide  troops  F.  Guards,  t h e Kansas C o l o r e d  formed  governor.  However,  Guards,  since  from t h e n o r t h  the Confederacy, l e d the Native  offer  to recruit  them i n t o  families,  Regi-  specific  au-  Second  Guards of L o u i s i -  the Confederacy had there  was  policy  were d e c l a r e d  Guards t o accept  officially  admitted  Late  sanctioned  into military  forever  would be  t o whom t h e y h a d  free.  never  infilTheir  first  offered  General  Butler's  i n A u g u s t 1862,  the recruitment  service,  General  by  considerable  a c t i n g as spies.^°  t h e U n i o n army.  the  commissioned  and t h e r e were f e a r s t h a t t h e y  A l l blacks  Volunteers.  i n the F i r s t ,  from t h e N a t i v e  of  from t h e  Volunteer  under N e g r o o f f i c e r s  services,  blacks.  mustered  units  blacks  regiment o f South C a r o l i n a  their  Department  small  mili-  o f e i g h t companies h a d b e e n formed by  of the Native  by  begun t o employ  War D e p a r t m e n t ,  by f r e e Negroes  rejection  S e v e r a l Union  B u t l e r i n L o u i s i a n a , without  o f New O r l e a n s  o f them,  sufficient  increased.  i n May 1862, r e c r u i t e d  the f i r s t  regiment  Confederate  Con-  P r e s i d e n t L i n c o l n g r a d u a l l y c h a n g e d h i s view  i n Kansas r a i s e d  General  thority and  into  into  the s e r v i c e s o f thousands  t h e war a n d moved c l o s e r t o e m a n c i p a t i o n .  tary  War  f o r c e s moving  many a b l e and w i l l i n g  A s i t became o b v i o u s  and  In  Federal  acquired w i l l y - n i l l y  slaves,  the Union.  policy.  with  Hunter's  of  their unoffi-  89  cial  regiment  formed  f o r m a l l y mustered First  the nucleus  into  federal  black  from  regiments  54th  and  ments  55th  and  Boston,  of  raised  in  over  the c o u r s e  Connecticut,  Michigan.  the Union armies  territory.  Early  creation  regular sand  of  penetrated  the L i n c o l n  By  t h e end  10 b a t t e r i e s  of  light  forces.  Black  5 1  Wagner,  J u n e 1863;  and  Richmond  s o l d i e r s had  had  very  fought  mortality white  very hard  "no  further  into  tory p o l i c i e s  from  Confederate  War,  including  regiments about  soldiers  infantry artillery,  M i l l i k e n ' s Bend, J u n e 1863;  Fort  fought  i n 1864.  with  i n many  Although  training great  i n many  cases  or e x p e r i e n c e ,  they  determination.  medical of  than  care, poor  the C o n f e d e r a t e  Their those  of  equipment, army  when  5 2  i n t h e U n i o n army s u f f e r e d  i n a number o f a r e a s . i n the matter  thou-  in-  t o poor  troops.  120  of heavy ten per  180  battles  little  and  more t h a n  the  the  quarter" policy  confronted with black  was  1863;  p o s s i b l y due  a presumed  Black  Illinois,  however, came  r a t e s were g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r  troops,  nation  Ohio,  regi-  cent of  troops  P o r t Hudson,  generally  May  12  artillery,  cluding  these  and  the  administration authorized  of the C i v i l  7 c a v a l r y regiments,  Union  Other  included  Volunteers,  soldiers,  b l a c k s were s e r v i n g i n USCT u n i t s ,  total  The  o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o l o r e d T r o o p s as p a r t o f  army.  regiments,  1863.  t h e command o f  t h e war  Pennsylvania,  Most b l a c k  i n 1863  regiment  Thomas Wentworth H i g g i n s o n .  t h e S o u t h as  and  black  i n January  Regiments of Massachusetts  raised  Indiana,  and  service  first  S o u t h C a r o l i n a V o l u n t e e r s were p l a c e d under  an a b o l i t i o n i s t  the  of the  o f pay.  The The  from d i s c r i m i n a -  most s e r i o u s original  discrimi-  assumption  had  90  been t h a t were,  therefore,  White of  t h e b l a c k r e g i m e n t s would  privates  $3.50,  paid  received  as  l a b o u r e r s and  while black  Chaplains,  month.  Many  rather ing  s o l d i e r s were p a i d  question done  black  ment,  is,  a r e we  or a r e  soldiers,  duty.  Why  c a n ' t we  noted that  a month pay.  de  refused, money  seben  . . . b u t we dollar."54  as a m a t t e r  that  J o h n A.  t h e men  t h e pay  Public  pressure pay,  retroactive  have a  r e t r o a c t i v e pay  have  pay?"53  of h i s  regi-  to take the  seven  sogerin'  to  regiments  de  also  t h e pay  t h e y were e n t i t l e d i n June  1864  ensure would  by  law.55  to  grant  for a l l black soldiers were f r e e  many b l a c k s s a i d Another  law  that  in April  t h e y were  i n M a r c h 1865  to a l l black soldiers.56  Apart  of  difference.  5 5 t h M a s s a c h u s e t t s Regiments  to January,  i f n o t by man's.  main  t o a c c e p t an a p p r o p r i a t i o n  f o r c e d Congress  to t h i s ,  Good-  ' s p i s e o u r s e l v e s so much f o r  e n l i s t m e n t f o r b l a c k s who  In r e s p o n s e  b y God's law  refused  a l l  We  soldier's  o f t h e men  t o make up  t o w h i c h he b e l i e v e d finally  at  the  Andrew o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s worked h a r d t o  retroactive to  "Now  labourers?  Massachusetts  of p r i n c i p l e ,  o f t h e 5 4 t h and  receive  The  legislature  asked:  "We're g i b our  won't  pay,  $100.00 p e r  a c c e p t any pay  we  one-third  They s a i d ,  from t h e s t a t e  Governor  t h e same  C o r p o r a l James Henry  the South C a r o l i n a V o l u n t e e r s ,  take  full  as l a b o u r e r s .  allowance  $10.00 a month w i t h a  to  regiment  Guv'ment, C u n n e l ,  1861.  refused  54th M a s s a c h u s e t t s  Higginson  dollar  equal  soldiers  They  soldiers.  clothing  A l l ranks r e c e i v e d  the  a soldier's  Colonel  as  a l t h o u g h w h i t e C h a p l a i n s were p a i d  t h a n a c c e p t pay  of  not  $15.00 a month p l u s a  $3.00 d e d u c t i o n f o r c l o t h i n g . even  s e r v e as n o n c o m b a t a n t s .  and of free  granted  from t h e  pay  91  issue,  w h i c h was  seemed  to  ultimately  have  supplies,  consistently  medical  treatment,  promoted  to o f f i c e r  the  many b l a c k s ,  fact  ate,  and  his  had a  required  t o promote In  effort  even  of  problems.  always  and  officers,  black  four blacks  noncommissioned o f t h e NCOs o f  seem,  their  therefore,  more c o u l d have b e e n  difficulties  of done  officers  for their  encountered,  and p r o d u c e d few  soldiers  won  commanding b l a c k  dignity.  to being  disci-  Congressional  e a r n e d Navy medals o f  responded very w e l l  regard  troops  found  treated with  Unfortunately  honor.^ that  respect  t h i s was  not  remembered. Blacks  War.  illiter-  commission had  I t would  t h e p r o b l e m s and  Sixteen  and o t h e r  soldiers with  were  to  them t o c o m m i s s i o n e d r a n k .  M e d a l s o f Honor,  black  few were  of course,  several  for  troops g e n e r a l l y performed w e l l ,  Higginson  for  equipment,  been made t o improve t h e l i t e r a c y  noncommissioned  spite  plinary  due,  soldiers  very  southern blacks,  would h a v e b e e n e l i g i b l e  serious  Also  partly  e d u c a t i o n been s u f f i c i e n t .  some o f t h e  and  T h i s was  black  inferior  and t r a i n i n g .  5  literacy  black  received  particularly was  favourably,  Colonel Higginson noted ? that  regiment  that  status.  literacy  officers.  resolved  On  earned Carolina  h a d mixed  one hand,  their  freedom.  Regiment  feelings  they c o u l d  about t h e i r now  service  legitimately  i n the  claim  Civil  to  have  As C o r p o r a l Thomas Long o f t h e 1 s t S o u t h  said with great  force:  I f we h a d n ' t become s o j e r s a l l might have gone back as i t was b e f o r e . . . B u t now t i n g s c a n n e v e r go b a c k , b e c a u s e we h a v e showed o u r e n e r g y and o u r c o u r a g e and o u r natur a l l y manhood. Anoder ting i s , s u p p o s e you had k e p t y o u r freedom  92 widout enlisting i s d i s army; your c h i l e n might have grown up f r e e , and b e e n w e l l c u l t i v a t e d so as t o be e q u a l t o any b u s i n e s s ; b u t i t w o u l d have b e e n a l w a y s f l u n g in d e r e f a c e s - 'Your f a d e r n e v e r f o u g h t f o r he own f r e e d o m ' - and what c o u l d dey answer. Neber can say t h a t t o d i s A f r i c a n r a c e any more.59 Others  became  rapidly  convinced  advancement o r p r o m o t i o n to  serve  "are not a  induced  .  .  do  and  War,  in civilian  dilemma As  o b l i g e d to  citizens, fight  this  obligation  civil  rights.  b l a c k s was  to serve  to v a l i d a t e ,  to remain  Lsic]."^0  of b l a c k s  as  inferior  These  Fleetwood,  to  a b l a c k Medal  army,  further  both  believing his  generations  of he  personal  of  black  sometimes  legal-  t o r e f u s e or  avoid  (and  and to  justify  subordinate  incapable  of  demands  for  positions allotted  seem t o a c c e p t ,  and  in  race.  country,  i n the  blacks  considerations  the  were m o r a l l y  or  continue  satisfied  would have made i t h a r d  But  to  . . . are  successive  for their  that  of  that  life  they  and  prospect  admission  to leave  confronted  no  an  the betterment of h i s  Americans.  view  and  subservincy  the C i v i l  more  This  to  soldiers,  S e r g e a n t - M a j o r C h r i s t i a n A.  ambition  ly)  .  t h e r e was  c a p a c i t y was  f i t for promotion,  Honor w i n n e r o f could  for black  i n a subordinate  s t a t e of  that  the  stereotypical  l e a d e r s h i p or  cour-  age . After  the C i v i l  t h e A m e r i c a n army. to  War,  t h e r e was  Many r a d i c a l  Republicans  aid in reconstruction policies  i n the  allies  among n e w l y e m a n c i p a t e d b l a c k s ,  tier.  U l t i m a t e l y , the  black  c a v a l r y regiments,  try  regiments,  the  a major r e o r g a n i z a t i o n wanted a l a r g e  South,  and  to  to serve  army  favour  their  on  fron-  the  g r e a t l y expanded r e g u l a r army i n c l u d e d  38th,  the  9th  39th,  and  10th,  4 0 t h and  and 41st.  four black In  of  1869,  two  infanall  93  infantry  r e g i m e n t s were c o n s o l i d a t e d ,  became two, compared  for  initial  officers  had  stationed  intruders  Mexico  Minnesota,  Cavalry  served  in  disease, civilian some  d u t y was  addition  cases  by  standably  felt  isolated  garrison lems,  the  these  6 1  during  arduous, t o normal  against  Chinese,  and  some r e s e n t m e n t  frontier  duty east  posts,  r o a d s and  (many  fear  their  four  regi-  where t h e y  of  telegraph  were  such  as  lines,  The  6 2  the  performed  frontier,  the 25th  24th  and  Infan-  i n Texas,  The  9 t h and  from t h e i r  original  physically  demanding,  the 10th  formation  6 3  hazards  from  Indians.  and  hostile  Indians,  tempered  depressed  Black s o l d i e r s  at spending a l l of t h e i r  of the M i s s i s s i p p i .  t r o o p s got  In s p i t e  dan-  to contend with  T h i s p r e j u d i c e was  whereas w h i t e  b l a c k r e g i m e n t s had  only  Despite  the p e r i o d  b l a c k s o l d i e r s had  them.  share  the four b l a c k regiments  the presence of o t h e r s o c i a l l y  s u c h as M e x i c a n s ,  in  War.  and h a r s h c l i m a t e s , prejudice  1944.  from 1860-1888.  the f r o n t i e r  the Spanish-American  gerous;  record  f r o m 1880-1898;  and Montana  on  a small  f o r these regiments  the f r o n t i e r ,  building  units  p r o v i d e d the  until  e x p e c t e d o f t r o o p s on t h e  Dakotas,  Frontier  War,  out of the I n d i a n T e r r i t o r y .  s e r v e d i n New  until  t o 1890,  a l m o s t e n t i r e l y on  e s c o r t i n g wagon t r a i n s ,  try  units,  t o s e r v e w i t h them f o r  successful  From 1865  of the d u t i e s  keeping  four  army  officers  the four b l a c k  c a r e e r s w o u l d be h a m p e r e d ) ;  a generally  I n d i a n Wars.  all  in finding d i d not wish  military  ments  These  b l a c k s i n the r e g u l a r  problems  future  25th.  t o t h e 180,000 USCT o f t h e C i v i l  openings  white  t h e 2 4 t h and  and  groups underservice  occasional  of such  a good r e c o r d d u r i n g  in  the  probIndian  94  Wars.  Thirteen  black  black  r e g i m e n t s had  re-enlistment, white  v e r y low  and  a  earned Medals  r a t e s of d e s e r t i o n ,  much l o w e r  incidence of  Army  detachments  seem t o h a v e b e e n s u b j e c t e d  serving  high rates alcoholism  were i l l e g a l  under  officers  discipline no  either  was  may  white  f o r some h a r d e n e d  t h i s was  racially  have f a r e d b e t t e r ,  w e l l - b e h a v e d and had problems  isolated  i n sweat-boxes.  out of simple sadism,  ineffective  soldiers  in  fewer p r o b l e m s  offenders.  conflicts  often  erupted,  military  ensure a f a i r Prospects  to p r o t e c t  Disciplinary  their  Although  i n 1878,  to earn o f f i c e r s '  black  enlisted 1870  prior man  and  i t was  commissions,  t o the Spanish-American  r o s e from the ranks to e a r n  1889  of  interests  or  i n theory  possible very  few  War  not a  a  and  for  Academy.  examinations,  and  only  However, o n l y  men  black in this single  commission.  twenty-two b l a c k y o u t h s were a p p o i n t e d  United States M i l i t a r y entrance  by  the f a i l u r e  (and n o t many w h i t e s ) e v e r o b t a i n e d c o m m i s s i o n s fact,  near  trial.  f o r p r o m o t i o n were dim.  ranks  In  the  authorities  t o an A c t o f C o n g r e s s  way.  the  generally  o f t e n provoked  or  Between  There  i f anything,  alcohol.  civilian  soldiers  normal  6 6  t h e y were  A common c o m p l a i n t o f b l a c k s o l d i e r s was  the  these  command-  because  whites.  from  by  motivated; since  with  or  such  more o f t e n a r o s e when b l a c k s o l d i e r s were s t a t i o n e d  populations;  according  frontier  Some o f  army r e g u l a t i o n s b u t were imposed  suggestion that  black  even  of than  t o very h a r s h punishments,  " s p r e a d - e a g l i n g " or confinement  was  The  6 4  6  posts  ing  of H o n o r .  soldiers. ^ American  as  soldiers  6 7  to  twelve passed  three a c t u a l l y  managed  to  95  graduate. missed  t o be  the  third,  duty  at  Charles  T h i s was  was the  graduate  c h a r g e and  2nd  i n 1948  probably  unique.  After purposes  of  colonial  no  with  f r o m major  was  still  third  army f r o m t h e B e n j a m i n 0.  main-  becoming  r e g u l a r army, i n 1901  volunteer Davis  active  Davis  for  services.  Sr.  He  was  a  Lieutenant  in  took h i s  9th C a v a l r y ,  w h i c h he  and  on  and  possibility  commissioned F i r s t  to  He  was  did.  rank o f B r i g a d i e r - G e n e r a l .  dis-  hoping  became a G e n e r a l  S t a t e s Army.  in  His  1940,  case  W o r l d War,  However, territories the  near  two  is  of  the  1899-1902,  w h i c h had finally  t o be  did  large centers  not  i t was  of p o p u l a t i o n .  soldiers  on  Indian  of  the  1898  require  acquisition  garrisoned.  pacified,  and  s m a l l wars w h i c h  r e s u l t e d i n the  p o s s i b l e to i s o l a t e black cities.  The  end  t h e S p a n i s h - A m e r i c a n War  both  frontier  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n  With the  needs began t o c h a n g e .  more s o l d i e r s  longer  A  6  P h i l i p p i n e I n s u r r e c t i o n of  same t i m e , to post  1. ^  many changes took p l a c e  manpower.  large  after  dis-  6 9  the F i r s t  the  the  the U n i t e d  military  preceded  much  1890  1889)  as a p r i v a t e i n t h e  i n the  at  always  shortly  I n f a n t r y i n 1899.  Lieutenant  retiring  and  o f W o r l d War  re-enlisted  commissioned  i n 1894,  (graduated  f o l l o w e d by  a commission  Wars,  Young  Volunteer  c o u r t - m a r t i a l l e d and  science at W i l b e r f o r c e U n i v e r s i t y ,  o f Howard U n i v e r s i t y ,  8 t h U.S.  earn  died  t o come t o t h e  route  was  (on g r o u n d s w h i c h he  one  in military  the b e g i n n i n g  promotion  Flipper,  army i n 1892  improper),  instructor  the  Henry 0.  from the  tained an  One,  At  of the  necessary It  was  frontier  away  96 The  Spanish-American  were h i g h p o i n t s 10th  commended by  t h e B a t t l e o f San J u a n H i l l i n Cuba e a r n e d  Certificates  of  and  soldiers officers diers given  of  than  although  these  volunteer  was  appointed  lar  army.  officers  Lynch,  served  a Captain  reviewed  r e c e p t i o n both  were d e m o b i l i z e d  while  some b l a c k  twenty  in  Wash-  for  black  and  black  Black  soldiers  regular  solwere  regiments  On d e m o b i l i z a t i o n i n 1901 were g i v e n  by  none  commissions,  i n the volunteers,  men were g r a n t e d  commis-  T h e s e were B e n j a m i n 0. D a v i s  S r . , who  enlisted  a 1st Lieutenant  Spanish-American  War,  Young, West P o i n t  1889, t h e s e  officers  soldiers  i n the paymaster department of the regu-  I n 1901 two b l a c k  as  Black  a l s o was  a p a y m a s t e r and M a j o r  s i o n s as 2nd L i e u t e n a n t s . had  after  were i n t e m p o r a r y v o l u n t e e r 7  J o h n R.  Roosevelt  r e g i m e n t s were d e c o m m i s s i o n e d .  the r e g u l a r army. !  the black  The  But p u b l i c e n t h u s i a s m  7 0  t o note t h a t ,  commissions,  rather  a special  q u i c k l y as t h e y  of volunteer  d i d not f a i l  Insurrection  soldiers.  J u l y 1898.  The 1 0 t h C a v a l r y  and g i v e n  very  of black  C o l o n e l Theodore  i n Cuba,  in Philadelphia.  cooled  Philippine  f i v e M e d a l s o f Honor and more t h a n  Merit.  P r e s i d e n t McKinley, ington  and t h e  i n the m i l i t a r y h i s t o r y  C a v a l r y was  serving  War  i n the  and J o h n E.  (excluding Chaplains)  three  volunteers  Green.  Along  during with  Charles  men were t o be t h e o n l y  i n t h e U.S.  Army u n t i l  the  black  World  War  1.72 Although siasm sponse  b l a c k Americans had shared  f o r t h e S p a n i s h - A m e r i c a n War, among  Aguinaldo's  blacks  to  American  i n d e p e n d e n c e movement.  i n the general  t h e r e was a v e r y involvement On one  in  hand,  enthu-  mixed  re-  suppressing as  citizens  97  American on  blacks  the  an  o t h e r hand,  aspirations may  felt  have  some f e l t  to independence. been,  regiments  obligation  black  fulfilled  national policies;  a n a t u r a l sympathy  Whatever  soldiers  their  to support  their  of both  for  private reservations  regular  d u t i e s honourably  Filipino  and  while  volunteer  s e r v i n g i n the  Philippines. Another  consequence of  major  revamping  Spain  had  American many  to  be  branch  and  3  Elihu  enlargement of branches. pects  total  be  vanced  military,  and  was  and  who  formal  or  no  d i d have s u i t a b l e the  the  there, were  however,  very  14  deaths appointof  i n 1907-8 b l a c k  effort skills  was and  duty.?  able  or  their  more  4  It  can  to f i l l  the  technically  ad-  made t o f i n d  or  encourage  education.  I n d i a n Army, t h e A m e r i c a n m i l i t a r y  " m a r t i a l races" theory,  training  seamen were d i v e r t e d  b l a c k s were l e s s and  both pros-  increase in  t r a n s f e r r e d to shore  in a larger  a  100,000,  improve c a r e e r  no  in  medical  creation  to o f f i c e r  limited,  to  ill-prepared  Department,  Their access  needed  than  Reforms i n c l u d e d t h e  d i d not,  a over  better professional services in  still  made,  but  weakness  proved  was  victory  i n c r e a s e i n army s t r e n g t h t o  that poorly-educated  Unlike a  an  soldiers.  positions  casualties  t o h e a d t h e War  t h e messmen's b r a n c h  skilled  f o r c e s had  battle  Staff,  training  number was  argued  those  286  These reforms  specialized  American  t h e Commissary D e p a r t m e n t ,  t h e navy,  for black  involvements  more t o S p a n i s h  n a v a l gunnery.  Root  permanent G e n e r a l  military  Department.  American  especially  from d i s e a s e ) ?  into  The  ( f o r each of  of  t h e War  attributed  courage.  areas,  ment  of  these  f o r two  likely  never  reasons:  evolved it  was  98 politically entirely  impossible  from but  be  to limit  ular  racial  carefree,  existing their  stereotypes  courage  i f  course)  but c e r t a i n l y  be  able  belief  given  held  served  The  the black  leadership  at frontier  posts  o f t h e few b l a c k the great  Alexander  (West P o i n t  post  exchange,  during,  Pershing  i n Mexico,  during  World  the  command  with  than  war;  this  regiments  had  Montana,  officers  7 6  army  to  responsibilities.  active black  and mission  a l l o w him the f i e l d him.  prior  to the 9th Cavalry  a  War,  was s e n t on a m i l i t a r y  was p a r t i c u l a r l y  was  locations.  who d i d s e e  i n 1896,  w h i c h h i s rank and s e r v i c e e n t i t l e d Flipper  It  i n the Dakotas,  Spanish-American  War I r a t h e r  crisis.  o f h i s d u t i e s i n 1894,  C h a r l e s Young,  7th Cavalry  regiment  of  black  1887) was a s s i g n e d  and was r e l i e v e d  white  men,  reluctance of the  John  the  Pop-  white  commissioned  man, however q u a l i f i e d ,  with  upon i n  the  any b l a c k  7  could  childlike,  i n many t h e a t r e s o f  allow  reason. ^  as  ( o n l y by  and n o r t h w e s t e r n  W o r l d War I i l l u s t r a t e s  apparent  man  be  c o u l d n o t e n d u r e c o l d , and would n o t  p e r s i s t e d although  treatment  might  and o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  n o t t o be r e l i e d  north  citizens)  and s u p e r s t i t i o u s , p o s s i b l y c a p a b l e o f  to function e f f e c t i v e l y  Wyoming, and o t h e r  to  portrayed  that blacks  f o r many y e a r s  were  p r e j u d i c e s and s t e r e o t y p e s  participation  the r i g h t  apparently  (who  no m a t t e r what t h e o r i e s  racial  irresponsible,  also widely  remove b l a c k s  the m i l i t a r y ,  developed; utilized  to  The c a s e  f o r no service volunteer  with to  General Liberia  command  to  o f Henry  0.  s a d , i f a s he i n s i s t e d he was n o t g u i l t y  of  t h e misuse o f funds  f o r w h i c h he was c o u r t - m a r t i a l l e d i n 1881.  It  seems h i g h l y p o s s i b l e t h a t he.was r a i l r o a d e d , o r a t l e a s t  that  99 he  was  punished  ment and later  very  inexperience.  career  as  A l b e r t B.  his  to the  behalf this  t o say,  have been poor  Many p r o m i n e n t p e o p l e  a mining engineer  reversed.  had  s e v e r e l y f o r what may  Fall,  who  knew him  worked t o have h i s  S e c r e t a r y of  the  praising  Interior,  F l i p p e r ' s work and  in his  conviction w r i t i n g on  S e n a t e Committee on M i l i t a r y A f f a i r s  after  judge-  in  1922,  abilities:  H i s l i f e i s a most p a t h e t i c one. By e d u c a t i o n , by e x p e rience and because of h i s natural high intellectual characteristics, he c a n f i n d no p l e a s u r e i n a s s o c i a t i o n with many o f h i s own r a c e , and b e c a u s e o f h i s c o l o r he was and i s p r e c l u d e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y from enjoying the society o f t h o s e whom he would be m e n t a l l y and otherwise best f i t t e d to a s s o c i a t e with. I have n e v e r known a more h o n o r a b l e man . . .77 A  similar  had  statement  c o u l d have b e e n made o f C h a r l e s  a l s o been d e p r i v e d  of h i s chosen c a r e e r  Ezechiel,  through  race  who  preju-  dice . The also  difficulties  resemble  dates  for  the  the  difficult  harshly  Indian  than  Nath  Banerjea,  by  d i f f i c u l t i e s .faced by Civil  Service;  to gain admission,  more  dismissed  experienced  British  who  i n the  passed  in his f i r s t  and  year  the of  these  few  the  first  i t was  Indians same  I.C.S. service,  Indian  possible  may  officers  have  but  been  circumstances. examination on  very judged  Surendra  i n 1869,  was  g r o u n d s t h a t he these  cases,  outright  p r e j u d i c e o r a more s u b t l e e x p e c t a t i o n o f  failure  not also  only  deprived  capable An and  c o n t r i b u t e d to the  the  and  their  ambitious  d e s t r u c t i o n of a chosen c a r e e r ,  r e s p e c t i v e s e r v i c e s of young  e x t r e m e example o f  n  each of  (like  insisted  7 ( 3  i  candi-  F l i p p e r ) always racial  were u n j u s t .  black  the  t a l e n t s of  but three  men. lengths  government were p r e p a r e d  to which m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s  t o go  to spare  white  feelings  is  100  found 167 of  i n the h a n d l i n g  of  the B r o w n s v i l l e  s o l d i e r s were d i s h o n o u r a b l y the  25th I n f a n t r y , a b l a c k  martial.  On  13  August  engaged  in a shooting  killing  one  man  ordered  by  President  Infantry  were  and  were  who  of  eligible Eleven  in  1909  these  found  men  but  in  or  Southerners  Roosevelt's  in  a c t i o n and  A  25th  s i n c e no  soldiers  of  the  25th  with  the  shooting  silence. with  Many o f  might a p p e a r  f o u r t e e n of  the  reason  an  i t was  the  power.  the  soldiers court  soldiers  were  inquiry.  legal  the  The  been  general  railroaded.  with  and  men  themselves  just.  President 7 9  Armies,  t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n Army, a v o l u n t e e r government,  they  A  to defend  pleased  both  that  Most o f  s o l d i e r s had were  identify  for this decision.  re-enlist.  opportunity  contrast  army s e r v i n g a d e m o c r a t i c with  or  good r e c o r d s .  C o m p a r i s o n o f A m e r i c a n and I n d i a n c. 1865-1914 It  Brownsville,  the  gave no  an  had  of  t h a t the  felt  court-  t h a t men  even t o appear b e f o r e  among b l a c k s was  or  suggested  did in fact  were n e v e r g i v e n  White  of  that  discharged court,  s t r e e t s of  i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded  i n a conspiracy  for re-enlistment, of  feeling  the  were l o n g - s e r v i c e v e t e r a n s  inquiry  a trial  investigation  and  the  companies  cursory  involvement  were g u i l t y ,  engaged  dismissed  Roosevelt  to  when  s i x t e e n t o t w e n t y armed men  through  responsible,  1906,  from t h r e e  regiment, without  wounding a n o t h e r .  I n f a n t r y w o u l d admit others  discharged  1906,  spree  i n c i d e n t of  c o u l d have l i t t l e  citizen  i n common  I n d i a n Army, a m e r c e n a r y army s e r v i n g a f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l As  Roger Beaumont has  American e q u i v a l e n t  to the  observed,  sepoy  .  .  t h e r e was . (unless  "virtually  i t was  the  no  black  101  'buffalo Army  soldier')."  I f the black  8 0  a r e c o n s i d e r e d as a s e p a r a t e  many s i m i l a r i t i e s the  c a n be s e e n .  same p o s i t i o n  relative  A m e r i c a n Army, as I n d i a n and  troops  British  resembled American  in  Black  i n India Within  soldiers  i n the  (as i n d e e d  approximately  (British) Indian  t h e I n d i a n Army to high-caste  some r e s p e c t s t h e b l a c k / w h i t e  also  relationship  comparison  i s best  army a f t e r  India  the upheavals  from  Company  t o Crown was c o m p l e t e ,  War;  the  internal  As  f o r general  comparable. difficult  Pay due  more-or-less employment  and  other  comparable—on o f comparable  t o men w i t h same:  (although  thirty  limited years  function of i n India),  and t o f i g h t  these  meaningful  t o t h e many d i f f e r e n c e s i n  structures,  military  occa-  v  conditions of service,  scales  in  the t r a n s f e r  (especially  and sometimes a d v a n c e t h e f r o n t i e r s ,  s m a l l e x t e r n a l campaigns.  date  and t h e i n t e r n a l  security  and  relatively  by t h e same  In both 'countries the primary  army was t o m a i n t a i n guard  the C i v i l  o f t h e I n d i a n M u t i n y were p a s t ,  s i t u a t i o n was s t a b l e .  the  in  made i n t h e p e r i o d between 1866  standing  tive  and  soldiers  small  family  Army  the  I n 1866 t h e A m e r i c a n Army was r e - o r g a n i z e d as a  sional  officers  itself,  1914.  to  i n the  Army.  The  the  were),  and o f f i c e r s  (including  relative  American  they  s o l d i e r s had  s o l d i e r s had t o white  in India).  status of low-caste  class  to white s o l d i e r s  i n the m i l i t a r y  troops  regiments  were  roughly  comparisons  social  expectations,  o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) seem t o have  t h e low end o f t h e r a n g e  skill, options.  but acceptable  for  and even  Service f o r pension  i n t h e A m e r i c a n Army  (less  are  been civil  attrac-  was  about  i f disabled);  102  twenty-one (with  for half  provision  neither a  years  for invalid  level.  b l a c k s compared b o t h  caste  I n d i a n s as a  p o s t s on  white There by  low-caste  Army.  soldiers,  service  with a l l Indian s o l d i e r s  Army s p e n t  the western  and  t o be  regiments  In  p a i d at  conditions, and  with  t h e p e r i o d 1866-1900  low-  southern  frontiers.  The  largely  black  discriminatory  also  spent  very  simply a long f r o n t i e r  treatment  long tours  to on  w i t h many p o s t s  at  regiments  c o n t i n u o u s l y p o s t e d west o f t h e M i s s i s s i p p i ;  appeared  was  Indian  pension,  subgroup.  American  were a l m o s t  or  i n the  T a b l e V shows c o m p a r a t i v e  with  The  thirty-two for f u l l  pension)  c a s e were b l a c k s o l d i e r s ,  lower  this  pension;  although  many the  blacks, frontier.  t o be g a r r i s o n e d  a s m a l l army. By  contrast, although  i n A f g h a n i s t a n and  the  I n d i a n Army f o u g h t  g a r r i s o n e d the North-West F r o n t i e r ,  ments were p o s t e d on a semi-permanent b a s i s f a i r l y recruiting  grounds.  Regiments  s e r v i c e were u s u a l l y (five  seemed t o be  regiments the  not  sent  expected  most  at  most  close  f a r from home  relief.  the B a l u c h i regiments) served  major wars regi-  to  on  their active  t o s e r v e more t h a n a few  maximum) w i t h o u t  (including  frontier;  two  military  Only spent  years  a few  Bombay  much t i m e  cantonments  in  on the  Presidency. Attitudes icant  ways.  instances  of o f f i c e r s White  officers  resented  b e c a u s e t h e y had  in  the  being assigned to  because they b e l i e v e d or  towards t h e i r  their  a low  men  differed  American black  in  Army  regiments,  chances of promotion  w o u l d be  o p i n i o n of b l a c k troops.  For  signifin  some either  reduced example,  103  TABLE V COMPARATIVE SERVICE CONDITIONS AMERICAN TO  INDIAN ARMIES, c . 1865 - 1914  Similarities Blacks 1. n o t e n l i s t e d  Indians  in Artillery  1. A r t i l l e r y r e s t r i c t e d few M o u n t a i n B a t t e r i e s  to a  2. n o t e l i g i b l e f o r p r o m o t i o n beyond r e g i m e n t a l l e v e l . A l t h o u g h i n t h e o r y (A.G.O. #93 o f 1867) c o m m i s s i o n f r o m t h e r a n k s was p o s s i b l e t h i s was very rare, e s p e c i a l l y f o r blacks.  2. n o t e l i g i b l e f o r p r o m o t i o n beyond r e g i m e n t a l l e v e l  3. n o t a l l o w e d white troops  3. n o t a l l o w e d B r i t i s h troops  4. b l a c k whites 5. h i g h compared  t o command  troops o f f i c e r e d  by  rate of re-enlistment to whites  6. number o f b l a c k s s t r i c t l y limited  i n army  4. I n d i a n British  troops  E v e n r e g u l a r r e g i m e n t s somet i m e s p e r f o r m e d non-combat duties 8. Army one o f t h e b e s t o f l i m i t e d employment o p t i o n s  officered  5. many l o n g - s e r v i c e  soldiers  Indians  7. o f t e n e n l i s t e d as m u s i c i a n s and as m e n i a l s , e v e n when a l s o a c c e p t e d as c o m b a t a n t s ; employed as s e r v a n t s by B r i t i s h officers 8. Army one o f t h e b e s t o f l i m i t e d employment o p t i o n s  Pi fferences 1. e n l i s t e d i n Navy i n v e r y l i m i t e d numbers  by  6. t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o a set r a t i o with B r i t i s h troops in India Low-Caste  7. e n l i s t e d i n s u p p o r t u n i t s , mess s t e w a r d s i n Navy, e t c . ;  t o command  1. s e r v e d i n I n d i a n Navy/ Bombay M a r i n e a t lower r a n k s f r o m 1863 on  104 TABLE  V—Continued  Di f f e r e n c e s Blacks 2. n o t e n l i s t e d  Indians  as  Marines  2. M a r i n e Army  3. n o m i n a l l y e q u i p p e d and t r a i n e d same as w h i t e t r o o p s ; i n p r a c t i c e may have sometimes received lower-quality equipment .  Battalion  3. I n d i a n Army g i v e n l e s s e f f e c t i v e weapons, p o o r e r h o u s i n g , lower l e v e l of b e n e f i t s than B r i t i s h t r o o p s , as a m a t t e r o f policy. Low-Caste  4.  2 Black cavalry  George and of  Custer refused  took  a lower  black  white  civilians.  to t r e a t  A  Comparing Infantry  Brownsville, whole simply  got  white o f f i c e r s  adopted  as w h i t e  and  socially a  T e x a s some y e a r s l a t e r , treatment.  their  discharged with a gratuity  soldiers  demand from them  the  soldiers.  the treatment of  much b e t t e r  among  paternalistic  the treatment of the n a t i v e o f f i c e r s with  regiment Officers  were a b l e t o a c c e p t b l a c k s s i m p l y as  d i s c h a r g e d on  the  25th  of the Infantry  the I n d i a n s o l d i e r s Seven of the  ordinary pension, o f s i x months pay.  ment i n t h a t  some o f them a t l e a s t  to  the h i g h e r r a t e of p e n s i o n of  receive  regiment.  sometimes were n o t a c c e p t e d  them w i t h t h e same r e s p e c t ,  same p e r f o r m a n c e  Bombay  of a b l a c k c a v a l r y  to serve with a white  Other  few  Indians  4. Not e n l i s t e d i n c a v a l r y f o r f i n a n c i a l reasons r a t h e r than p o l i c y (Bombay c a v a l r y o r g a n i z e d on s i l l a d a r i s y s t e m )  the c o l o n e l c y  rank  regiments  attitude. and  regiments  i n Bombay  on  officers  w h i l e the l a s t T h i s was  would o r d i n a r i l y h a v e their  rank,  17th at the were was  a punishexpected but  it  105  hardly  seems e x c e s s i v e ,  discharge 25th  without  pension  severe  than  t h e summary  o r b e n e f i t s meted o u t t o t h e men o f t h e  Infantry. These  rant,  are both  extreme,  b u t by no means i s o l a t e d  examples o f t h e t r e a t m e n t  black  soldiers  whether  respectively.  low-caste  diers,  British  soldiers keeping  as  Apart  military  fairly  soldiers'  belief  among b l a c k  among  black  substantial  legal  i f only  and m a i n t a i n i n g  soldiers,  soldiers  and  as i n f e r i o r  in  treated the  morale.  solIndian  interest  In the  but a l s o a tendency  to white s e n s i t i v i t i e s  rights.  aber-  This at least  was a  and even a l l o w i n g  h i s t o r i a n s and p o p u l a r  writers,  while  of  American  c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e j u d i c e among  soldiers,  a u t h o r i t i e s t o pander  or  from t h e a b s t r a c t q u e s t i o n o f  as p o s s i b l e ,  against black  black  to Indian  authorities generally  n o t o n l y was t h e r e  civilians  accorded  men were u n f a i r l y p e r c e i v e d  up r e c r u i t m e n t  situation,  tary  and was much l e s s  white  for miliignoring  widely-held  for possible bias  i t appears t o  have  justification. Summary  The changes United  last in  third  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n of both  S t a t e s Army,  available decline  to  of the n i n e t e e n t h  and a r e l a t i v e  low-caste  occurred  century  the Indian  d e c l i n e i n the  and b l a c k , s o l d i e r s  i n spite  of past  saw  significant  Army  and  opportunities  respectively.  satisfactory  the  service;  This  i n the  *  case  of black  soldiers,  case  o f t h e Mahars,  tion  with  the dramatic  l o n g and l o y a l  t h e Bombay Army.  example o f t h e USCT; i n t h e  though l e s s  striking  associa-  106 The  northward  probably of  the  inevitable,  separate  from t h e  unsuitability; permanently w o u l d be  army,  i n the  without  a  and  western  any  formal  P u n j a b and  e x a m i n a t i o n s c o u l d have d e a l t w i t h  castes  no  necessary  longer  "martial  races"  improving  military  cally class  t o be  theory  and  other  military  and  recruitment  of b l a c k  p l a c i n g severe although  virtues,  justified  a l s o served  soldiers  on  If  stringent then  classes  suggests  that  maintaining  was and the than  a  politi-  prejudices  own  on  their  four  about  The  grounds of  other  p r a c t i c e of  segre-  (where p o s s i b l e f a r  t e c h n i c a l l y - a d v a n c e d branches of  least  them o f f i c e r  contributed to maintaining limiting  black  access  inherent  and  them  the  regular  opportunities  endurance,  ends. units  to only  denying  n a n c e by  Konkanis  Why  white p o p u l a t i o n s ) ,  certainly  semi-  requirements  the  courage,  other  in their  men  limitations  leadership qualities,  gating black  in  their  to e n l i s t .  of  the  caste.  become o f f i c e r s , of  few  more  lists  author  particularly  time i t  (including  this.  n e u t r a l army w h i c h c o n f o r m e d t o B r i t i s h  regiments,  lack  The  satisfied  efficiency,  Restricting  to  problem,  to produce d e t a i l e d enlisted?  the  stationed  t o Peshawar or A m r i t s a r  physical  considered  India  regiments  major  abolition  d e c l a r a t i o n of  deterioration  was  w o u l d have l a r g e -  North-West F r o n t i e r ,  were a  Army  The  l o n g o v e r d u e by  physical  it  Indian  requirements.  m a j o r i t y of  to t r a v e l  i n the  These changes a l o n e  from s o u t h e r n  with  likely  recruiting  a r m i e s was  i n 1893.  e l i m i n a t e d men  Mahars)  of  given m i l i t a r y  Presidency  a c t u a l l y happened ly  shift  training,  and  from  keeping  the  army,  the p a t t e r n of white  domi-  to m i l i t a r y  training.  As  in  the  107 Indian  case,  military  appropriate  efficiency  standards  for  c o u l d have been m a i n t a i n e d  physical  fitness  and  by  educational  attainments. An  important  consequence  of  government public  of  always  As  o r no  become  hand,  completely allowed  be  with  government  did  seen l a t e r ,  as  f o r change.  citizens.  from t h e  Indians extended  more  reduction military chapter.  similarity  service In b o t h  for blacks  are  standards  and  discussed  instances,  of b l a c k s  ses"  t o measure up  new  quo.  service  low-caste i n some  t o the  on  e v e n had  a d e s i r e to maintain  as  i n pay with  men.  a general  the  some  be  shown i n and  a  for  bene-  parallel  Benefits in  the  of next  improvement  in  o v e r t l y to  c o v e r t l y to social  be  to  conditions  detail  but  the  given).  or Mahars/"non-martial  standards,  not  therefore,  Indians),  equipment,  with  have  l e d t o fewer o p p o r t u n i t i e s due  (presumed) i n a b i l i t y  status  a few  improvement  however,  the  c l a s s p r e j u d i c e s and  and  not  could  (however g r u d g i n g l y  to a considerable  i n access  Indian  but  did  They c o u l d n o t ,  low-caste  weapons and  The  low-caste  policies,  power and  military  (particularly  advanced  professional  to  American b l a c k s ,  military,  in  direct  situations.  views of poor,  recruitment  a c h a n c e t o become o f f i c e r s  V,  is a  Indian p u b l i c opinion did  h a v e some p o l i t i c a l  rights  Overall  cal  political  none t o t h e  will  excluded  and  situations  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n government, d i s a g r e e m e n t  constitutional  fits,  certainly  e f f e c t i v e pressure  other  Table  difference in  two  I n d i a d i d n o t h a v e t o g i v e much w e i g h t  agree  little  blacks  the  opinion,  soldiers.  d i f f e r e n c e i n these  and  clascaste/ politi-  108 Footnotes,  Chapter I I I  R. K. P e r t i , S o u t h A s i a : F r o n t i e r P o l i c i e s , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o b l e m s and L o r d Lansdowne (New D e l h i : O r i e n t a l P u b l i s h e r s a n d D i s t r i b u t o r s , 1976), p. 151. K. M. L . Saxena, The M i l i t a r y S y s t e m o f I n d i a , 1850-1900 (New D e l h i : S t e r l i n g P u b l i s h e r s P v t . L t d . , 1974), pp. 12. Ibid.,  pp. 4-5.  Roger Beaumont, Sword o f t h e R a j : The B r i t i s h Army i n I n d i a , 1747-1947 (New Y o r k : The B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company, I n c . , 1977), p. 40. Sir  P a t r i c k C a d e l l , H i s t o r y o f t h e Bombay Army ( L o n d o n : Longmans, G r e e n and Company, 1938), app. T, pp. 307-313.  M.S.A., M i l i t a r y  Compilations,  v o l . 492 o f 1852, #3194.  Bombay I n d u s t r i e s : The C o t t o n M i l l s , e d . b y S. M. R u t n a g u r (Bombay: The I n d i a n T e x t i l e J o u r n a l L t d . , 1927), p. 9. T h i s was owned by t h e Bombay S p i n n i n g and Weaving Company, f o u n d e d by Mr. C a w o s j i Nanabhoy D a v e r . M.S.A., M i l i t a r y C o m p i l a t i o n s , 8892, pp. 6-8.  v o l . 812 o f 1858, #515, i t e m  M.S.A., M i l i t a r y C o m p i l a t i o n s , 7893, p a r . 5.  v o l . 812 o f 1858, #515, i t e m  Jemadar ( l a t e r S u b a d a r - M a j o r ) M o o s a j e e , t h e N a t i v e A d j u t a n t who h a d g i v e n f i r s t i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e m u t i n y , was t r a n s f e r r e d t o the 17th Native Infantry. N.A.I., M i l i t a r y Department P r o c e e d i n g s , J a n u a r y 1894, #2282-85 B. (See a l s o n. 30, chap. V I . ) The K a y a s t h a s o b j e c t e d t o b e i n g c l a s s e d a s " m e n i a l s , " and s a i d s o i n a m e m o r i a l t o government, b u t were a d v i s e d t h a t no r e f l e c t i o n on t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s was i n t e n d e d , o n l y t h a t t h e y were n o t " m a r t i a l . " N.A.I., M i l i t a r y Department P r o c e e d i n g s , #1702 a n d 1703, p a r s . 3-4. Saxena,  Military  System  November 1882,  o f I n d i a , p . 100.  M.S.A., M i l i t a r y C o m p i l a t i o n s , v o l . 812 o f 1858, #515, pp. 441-446; L i e u t . H. L. Showers, "The Meywar B h i l C o r p s , " U.S.I. J o u r n a l , no. 84 ( J a n u a r y 1891):87-95; A. H. A. Simcox, A Memoir o f t h e Khandesh B h i l C o r p s (Bombay: T h a c k e r & Company L i m i t e d , n.d., c . 1 9 1 2 ) .  109  B h i l s had b e e n r e c r u i t e d i n t o i r r e g u l a r l o c a l c o r p s , i n c l u d i n g t h e Meywar B h i l C o r p s (1841-1891) and t h e Khandesh B h i l C o r p s (1825-1862), t h e l a t t e r b e i n g c o n v e r t e d t o armed p o l i c e (1862-1891) p r i o r t o a b s o r p t i o n i n t o the r e g u l a r p o l i c e f o r c e s . Sporadic a t t e m p t s were made t o r e c r u i t them as r e g u l a r s e p o y s , b u t w i t h o u t much s u c c e s s or p e r s i s t e n c e . 15.  N.A.I., M i l i t a r y pp. 13-23.  Department P r o c e e d i n g s ,  M a r c h 1882,  16.  P h i l i p Mason, A M a t t e r o f H o n o u r : An A c c o u n t o f t h e I n d i a n Army, I t s O f f i c e r s and Men (Harmondsworth, E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books, 1976), p. 347. The t e r m " N a t i v e " was o f f i c i a l l y d r o p p e d i n 1885.  17.  N.A.I., M i l i t a r y Department P r o c e e d i n g s , G e n e r a l O r d e r no. 537.  June  18.  N.A.I., M i l i t a r y #1457.  Department P r o c e e d i n g s ,  December  1892,  19.  N.A.I., M i l i t a r y D e p a r t m e n t P r o c e e d i n g s , #1453, p. 10.  December  1892,  20.  Thomas R. M e t c a l f , The A f t e r m a t h o f R e v o l t ; I n d i a , 1857-1870 ( P r i n c e t o n , N.JT1 P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 8.  21.  P e t e r H a l f p e n n y , P o s i t i v i s m and S o c i o l o g y : E x p l a i n i n g S o c i a l L i f e ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n & Unwin, 1982), p. 21; R o b e r t C. B a n n i s t e r , S o c i a l D a r w i n i s m : S c i e n c e and Myth i n A n g l o - A m e r i c a n S o c i a l T h o u g h t ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : Temple U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p^ 4. The t e r m " s o c i a l D a r w i n i s m " was u s e d by R i c h a r d H o f s t a d t e r i n 1955, b u t a c c o r d i n g t o B a n n i s t e r f i r s t a p p e a r e d on t h e C o n t i n e n t a b o u t 1880. I t has been a p p l i e d t o a wide v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l v i e w s , most h a v i n g l i t t l e t o do w i t h C h a r l e s D a r w i n .  22.  S t e p h e n P. Cohen, The I n d i a n Army: I t s C o n t r i b u t i o n t o D e v e l o p m e n t o f a N a t i o n ( B e r k e l e y , C a l i f . : TT. o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1971), p. 45.  23.  H.  24.  F i e l d - M a r s h a l L o r d Roberts, of Kandahar, Forty-One Y e a r s i n I n d i a (New Y o r k : Longmans, G r e e n & C o ~ 1900), p. 499.  1891,  #1153,  #292,  the  W. C. D a v i s and J . R. H. Weaver, The D i c t i o n a r y o f N a t i o n a l B i o g r a p h y , 1912-1921 ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1927), pp. 464-470. A p p o i n t e d c o l o n e l - i n - c h i e f of the I n d i a n E x p e d i t i o n a r y F o r c e , R o b e r t s went t o F r a n c e t o v i s i t and e n c o u r a g e t h e t r o o p s , but d i e d of a c h i l l . He was e i g h t y - t w o y e a r s o l d and a d e d i c a t e d s o l d i e r t o t h e end.  110 25.  Mason, A M a t t e r  o f Honour, pp.  26.  Roberts,  27.  Ibid.,  p.  471.  28.  Ibid.,  p.  472.  29.  A r c h i b a l d F o r b e s , The A f g h a n Wars, 1839-42 and 1878-80 ( L o n d o n : S e e l e y & Co., L i m i t e d , 1892), pp. 292-302; L i e u t . - C o l . E. W. C. Sandes, The I n d i a n S a p p e r s and M i n e r s (Chatham: I n s t i t u t i o n o f R o y a l E n g i n e e r s , 1948), pp. 279-280; T. A. H e a t h c o t e , The I n d i a n Army: The G a r r i s o n o f B r i t i s h I m p e r i a l I n d i a , 1822-1922, H i s t o r i c A r m i e s and N a v i e s S e r i e s (Newton A b b o t , London, V a n c o u v e r : D a v i d & C h a r l e s , 1974), p. 88.  30.  Quoted  31.  Roberts,  32.  From The M a r t i a l R a c e s o f I n d i a , o f Honour, pp. 348-9.  33.  N.A.I., M i l i t a r y D e p a r t m e n t P r o c e e d i n g s , A u g u s t 1885, #135, app. C, p. 259. " P r o p o s a l o f Army C o m m i s s i o n r e g a r d i n g c r e a t i o n o f an army r e s e r v e . "  34.  C y n t h i a H. E n l o e , E t h n i c S o l d i e r s : S t a t e S e c u r i t y i n D i v i d e d S o c i e t i e s ( A t h e n s : The U. o f G e o r g i a P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , pp. 26-28.  35.  Saxena, M i l i t a r y  36.  N.A.I., M i l i t a r y D e p a r t m e n t P r o c e e d i n g s , November 1882, #1704, l e t t e r from Maj.-Gen. S i r G. R. G r e a v e s , A d j u t a n t G e n e r a l i n I n d i a ; C i r c u l a r no. 457, d a t e d S i m l a , 12 M a r c h 1851, from L t . - C o l . H. T. T u c k e r , A d j u t a n t - G e n e r a l o f t h e army.  37.  Enloe,  38.  "God And  Forty-One  Years  i n India,  i n Saxena, M i l i t a r y Forty-One  Years  345-46.  i n India,  p.  470.  System of I n d i a ,  System of I n d i a ,  Ethnic Soldiers,  p.  pp.  264-265.  531-532.  quoted  p.  pp.  i n Mason, A  Matter  245.  27.  b l e s s t h e S q u i r e and h i s r e l a t i o n s , k e e p us i n our p r o p e r s t a t i o n s . " S a i d , t o n g u e - i n - c h e e k , by an o b s c u r e V i c t o r i a n E n g l i s h man, H. D. P a c k e r ( b o r n 1898); ( t h e a u t h o r ' s f a t h e r ) . P r o b a b l y a m i s q u o t a t i o n o f C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , The C h i m e s : 0 l e t us l o v e our o c c u p a t i o n s , B l e s s t h e s q u i r e and h i s r e l a t i o n s , L i v e upon our d a i l y r a t i o n s , And a l w a y s know our p r o p e r s t a t i o n s . O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y o f Q u o t a t i o n s , 3 r d ed. ( O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 176.  Ill 39.  The  Duke o f W e l l i n g t o n , b e f o r e W a t e r l o o , d e s c r i b e d h i s i n f a n t r y as " t h e scum o f t h e e a r t h , e n l i s t e d f o r d r i n k . "  40.  John Prebble, Warburg,  The H i g h l a n d C l e a r a n c e s ( L o n d o n : S e e k e r 1963), pp.  and  316-322.  41.  Cohen, The  42.  Mason, A M a t t e r o f Honour, p. 348; Saxena, M i l i t a r y S y s t e m o f I n d i a , p. 195; R o b e r t s , F o r t y - O n e Y e a r s , pp. 514-520. N.A.I., M i l i t a r y Department P r o c e e d i n g s , May 1893, #23192320.  43.  I n d i a n Army, pp.  48-49.  44.  P h i l i p W o o d r u f f [ P h i l i p Mason], The Men Who R u l e d I n d i a , v o l . I I : The G u a r d i a n s (London: J o n a t h a n Cape, 1963), pp. 184-185. D a v i d E z e c h i e l i s m e n t i o n e d as a c t i n g D i s t r i c t Magistrate, Noakhali D i s t r i c t , Bengal.  45.  Mason, A M a t t e r o f Honour, pp.  46.  N.A.I., M i l i t a r y  47.  They  48.  N.A.I., M i l i t a r y  49.  J a c k D. F o n e r , B l a c k s A New P e r s p e c t i v e  50.  R o b e r t E w e l l Greene, B l a c k D e f e n d e r s o f A m e r i c a 1775-1973 ( C h i c a g o : J o h n s o n P u b l i s h i n g Company I n c . , 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 355-356.  51.  M a r v i n F l e t c h e r , The B l a c k S o l d i e r and O f f i c e r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Army, 1891-1917 ( C o l u m b i a : The U. o f M i s s o u r i P r e s s , 1974), p. 18.  52.  B i n k i n e t a l . , B l a c k s and t h e M i l i t a r y ( W a s h i n g t o n , The B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n , 1982), p. 15, n. 11.  53.  F o n e r , B l a c k s and  54.  Thomas Wentworth H i g g i n s o n , Army L i f e i n a B l a c k Regiment ( B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1962; o r i g . pub. 1869), p i 242. The s o l d i e r s a l s o sang t h e f o l l o w i n g d i t t y , "Ten d o l l a r a month 1 T r e e ob d a t f o r c l o t h i n ' 1 Go t o W a s h i n g t o n  Department  202-203.  P r o c e e d i n g s , June  1888,  #3317.  were: S u b a d a r - M a j o r B a b a j i M a n i a , S u b a d a r s Ram Chandar Powar, P u n j a b S i n g h , J a g a n a t h Pande, K r i s h n a j i Kadam, Jemadars Sankappa and S h a i k S u l i m a n , and Jemadar I s a a c M u s a j i . Department  P r o c e e d i n g s , June  1888,  #3317.  and t h e M i l i t a r y i n A m e r i c a n H i s t o r y : (N.p.: P r a e g e r , 1 9 7 4 ) , p~. 32.  the M i l i t a r y ,  p.  D.C:  42.  112 F i g h t f o r L i n k u m ' s d a r t e r 1" " L i n c o l n ' s daughter" being L i b e r t y . 55.  Greene,  Black Defenders  56.  Foner,  57.  H i g g i n s o n , Army L i f e  i n a B l a c k Regiment, p.  58.  Master  Lee, Negro Medal  B l a c k s and  the M i l i t a r y ,  S g t . I r v i n H.  York:  of America,  Dodd, Mead & Co.,  i n F o n e r , B l a c k s and  p.  1967),  p.  347.  43. 26.  o f Honor Men  pp.  (New  127-129.  59.  Quoted  60. 61.  S g t . - M a j o r C. A. F l e e t w o o d t o James H a l l , 8 J u n e 1865, q u o t e d i n G r e e n e , B l a c k D e f e n d e r s o f A m e r i c a , p. 351. W. Sherman Savage, B l a c k s i n t h e West, c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n A f r o - A m e r i c a n and A f r i c a n S t u d i e s , no. 23 ( W e s t p o r t , C o n n e c t i c u t : Greenwood P r e s s , 1976), p. 51.  62.  Ibid.,  p.  63.  Ibid.,  pp.  64.  Lee, Negro Medal  65.  Don  66.  R i c k e y , F o r t y M i l e s a Day, p a s s i m . " S p r e a d - e a g l i n g " i n v o l v e d s t a k i n g a man o u t i n t h e sun, l y i n g f l a t on h i s back w i t h h i s arms and l e g s t i e d t o stakes, f o r a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l hours.  67.  Foner,  68.  Greene, B l a c k Defenders of America, B l a c k s i n t h e West; pp. 52-53.  69.  F o n e r , B l a c k s and  p.  51.  51. 54-62. o f Honor, p.  128.  R i c k e y , J r . , F o r t y M i l e s a Day on Beans and Hay: The E n l i s t e d S o l d i e r F i g h t i n g t h e I n d i a n Wars (Norman: U. o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1963), p. 159; F o n e r , B l a c k s and t h e M i l i t a r y , chap. 4; F l e t c h e r , B l a c k S o l d i e r s and O f f i c e r s , i n t r o d u c t i o n ; Savage, B l a c k s i n t h e West, chap. 3. I n t h e 1880s a l m o s t 41 o u t o f 1000 s o l d i e r s were h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r a l c o h o l i s m ; t h i s i n c l u d e d o n l y t h e most s e v e r e c a s e s , men s u f f e r i n g from d e l i r i u m t r e m e n s . In t h e f o u r b l a c k r e g i m e n t s o n l y 5 l / 2 c a s e s p e r 1000 were reported.  B l a c k s and  Defenders 70. 71.  the M i l i t a r y ,  the M i l i t a r y ,  the M i l i t a r y ,  of America^  pp.  p.  p.  64. pp. 93;  360-363; Greene,  189-90.  F l e t c h e r , B l a c k S o l d i e r and O f f i c e r , pp. F o n e r , B l a c k s and t h e M i l i t a r y , p. 91.  45-46.  Savage,  Black  113 72.  Ibid.,  pp. 85, 93-94. J o h n R. L y n c h was a p r o m i n e n t b l a c k R e p u b l i c a n from M i s s i s s i p p i whose a p p o i n t m e n t was a p i e c e o f p o l i t i c a l patronage.  73.  Samuel E l i o t M o r i s o n , Henry S t e e l e Commager, and W i l l i a m E. Leuchtenburg, A C o n c i s e H i s t o r y of the American R e p u b l i c (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977), pp. 487-88.  74.  Foner,  75.  Savage,  76.  Ibid.,  77.  Greene,  78.  Woodruff,  79.  F o n e r , B l a c k s and t h e M i l i t a r y , pp. 95-103; F l e t c h e r , The B l a c k S o l d i e r and O f f i c e r , pp. 119-152. In 1971 a b l a c k C o n g r e s s m a n f r o m C a l i f o r n i a , A u g u s t u s F. Hawkins ( D . ) , s u c c e e d e d i n h a v i n g a b i l l p a s s e d t o d e c l a r e a l l of the d i s c h a r g e s honourable. The l a s t s u r v i v o r , D o r s i e W i l l i s , was awarded a p e n s i o n o f S25,000.  80.  Beaumont, Sword o f t h e R a j , p.  B l a c k s and  the M i l i t a r y ,  B l a c k s i n t h e West, p. p.  pp.  104-106.  52.  53.  Black Defenders The  Men  Who  of America,  Ruled  India,  IX.  p. pp.  361. 169-171.  114  CHAPTER IV  COSTS AND BENEFITS OF MILITARY The  costs of m i l i t a r y  include, ty,  particularly  restrictions  discipline, and  i n wartime,  on p e r s o n a l  frequent  foregone  opportunities  status,  preferential  and p e r s o n a l  For belief that it  American  that black  cast  acceptance  forcivilian  access  from  not  won.  on  the basis  their  of  They  military  f a m i l y and  employment.  to education  to  apparent.  of death or d i s a b i l i -  and/or  employment,  home,  Benefits specialized  enhanced  social  satisfaction. t h e r e was an a d d i t i o n a l  f o r freedom  faces  that  their  guaranteed  t o them  q u o t e d e a r l i e r , made t h i s  service  Regiment;  U l y s s e s Lee confirmed  vice  t o W o r l d War I , s t a t i n g  the  freedom o r have  freedom had been g i v e n  C o r p o r a l Thomas Long, of h i s personal  factor:  i n t h e C i v i l War h a d  men c o u l d n e v e r a g a i n be d e n i e d  into  prior  the r i s k  separation  access  blacks  fighting  are readily  liberty,  enforced  i n c l u d e p a y and p e n s i o n s , training,  service  SERVICE  with the 1 s t South  and point  Carolina  the importance o f m i l i t a r y  ser-  that:  [The Army] was one o f t h e few n a t i o n a l e n d e a v o r s i n w h i c h Negroes had had a r e l a t i v e l y s e c u r e p o s i t i o n and which, a t l e a s t i n t i m e o f war, c o u l d l e a d t o n a t i o n a l recognition o f t h e i r w o r t h a s c i t i z e n s and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l as p a r t n e r s i n a common u n d e r t a k i n g . 1  Similarly removed As  the  Mahars c o u l d  untouchability  claim  and g i v e n  that  service  them e q u a l  t h e I n d i a n newspaper R a s h t r a V i r  put i t ,  i n the  status  in  army  had  society.  115 Army e n l i s t m e n t i s t h e b i r t h r i g h t o f e v e r y like e d u c a t i o n removes u n t o u c h a b i l i t y and of s t a t u s t o t h e M a h a r s .  community and gives equality  2  These b e n e f i t s are d i f f i c u l t is  important  of  military  to note  the  t o measure i n o b j e c t i v e t e r m s ,  specific,  cally  the  three  Presidency  regular  pensions  and  training.  pay,  civil  In t h i s  and  Indian sion  counted  on p l u n d e r  teenth  century  t h e pay  o f an  private  t o 100  allowances rupees per  pension  t o make up  an  Indian  soldier  rupees per  ranged  1837,  after grant  three, of  clothing, for  and  by  1886  s i x and  30 with  4 rupees  upkeep, r a i s e d  first  and  2,  a  of  enlistment  "half-mounting," 3  In  class.  was  Staff 2  month f o r introduced month  In 1876  purchase  o r k i t money 1  1881  from  3 rupees per  for  nine-  month f o r a  rupees per  or  at  profes-  the  service respectively.  i n 1886.  not  VCOs r a n g e d  G o o d - c o n d u c t pay  g i v e n on  to 5 rupees  as  from 7 rupees per  amounted t o 1,  r u p e e s was  or  Indian  sport.  soldiers  H a v i l d a r t o 25  ten years'  professional  insignificant.  noncommissioned o f f i c e r s  of  S e r v i c e i n the  blood  month f o r a Subadar  month f o r a C o l o u r  form  the armies of  the m i l i t a r y  not  composed)  the  of  shortages.  b e n e f i t s for Indian but  in  (specifi-  was  irregularly  aristocratic  the Subadar-Major of a regiment. in  of  it  a degree  f r o m most o f  were r a t h e r low,  for  and  the p r o s p e c t not  I n d i a n Army  security  w h i c h were o f t e n p a i d  f o r o r d i n a r y men, and  some l o n g - t e r m employment,  Army opened up  Pay  the  armies of which  i t differed  Moghul r u l e r s ,  all,  I n d i a n Army  a p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d i n g army,  offered  or  measurable, o b j e c t i v e b e n e f i t s  service. The  As  so i t  a of  annually  116  By  comparison,  i n 1875  wages i n t h e Bombay c o t t o n  which a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of districts ranged  of  t h e Konkan,  from 5 t o 6 r u p e e s p e r  month f o r c o o l i e s and 50  rupees per  was  certain  all  c l o t h i n g and of  these  physically  The  4  In  hands c o u l d u s u a l l y o b t a i n l e a v e  and  were  while  to leave  s o l d i e r s were n o t .  after  1885  were g i v e n  fifteen  per  furlough  in a given  The  cent  of  the  view  Donald with  civilian  not  be  men  work other  was hand,  long  they  chose,  furloughs, 5  and  but  only  allowed  D u f f e r i n , w r i t i n g i n 1885  Lord by  Randolph C h u r c h i l l , the  s e p o y ' s pay  even w i t h  adequate supply 6  was  o f new  Although  no  longer  the  recruits  meeting  Sir  competitive  could in  Dufferin's  and  therepay  and  recommenda-  several years  Bombay Army,  the  expressed  r a t e s o f pay,  improvements  made i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of  to  Commander-in-Chief,  non-combatant  t h e M a h a b a l e s h w a r Committee,  t o d i s c u s s the  of  provide  o f a r e g i m e n t were u s u a l l y  Lord  counted upon.  were  the  part  to  mill  On  workers.  year.  wages, or  fore  tions,  the  soldiers  and  f r e e r a i l w a y p a s s e s t o go home,  t h a t the  a r e g u l a r and  care,  as  a r a t h e r generous b a s i s ,  S o l d i e r s d i d get  for India,  that  scale for  addition,  per  t o as h i g h  employment whenever  (apparently accepted  Stewart)  emoluments  their  Governor-General,  S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e  t h e army d i d ,  m i l l hands had  on  same  7 to 8 rupees  f r e q u e n t l y unhealthy.  mill  free  pay  medical  expenses, w h i l e  themselves.  a r d u o u s and  as  to that of cotton m i l l  with housing,  food  for  Ratnagiri,  from the  s e m i - s k i l l e d workers,  comparable  S o l d i e r s were p r o v i d e d  workers  month f o r b o y s ,  month f o r m e c h a n i c s .  therefore roughly  their  K o l a b a and  their  mills,  later  reiterated  the  117  complaint  that  material." might not for  army pay  Army pay  7  was  have a c c e s s  whom t h e h i g h e r  was  insufficient  to a t t r a c t  adequate to a t t r a c t  to better-paying s t a t u s of  low-caste  civilian  military  the  jobs  s e r v i c e was  "best  men,  who  anyway, an  and  important  consideration. Morris  D.  labour  in  slowly  i n the p e r i o d  rose  very  labour  the  Morris'  lies in the  to the  and  supply  1881  as  some  evidence  men  1921  jobs  i n the  that  the  the  military  the  very  employment  enough any  not  surplus manpower  absolute,  but  landowning  Morris  8  of  of  rose  r a t e of  that  were  supply  wages  availability  soldiers.  fami-  a l s o observed  that  formed a much s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n  over-represented.^  There  is  t h a t u n t o u c h a b l e s were d i s c r i m i n a t e d  against  by  they  were s t i l l  and  but  was  the p o p u l a t i o n not  were l a r g e l y  excluded  although  also a device  advantageous but  very  from t h e  there  o f u n t o u c h a b l e s was  o f Bombay,  of as  weaving sheds,  particularly  although  the  and  exclusion  phenomenon  shows t h a t  of h i g h e r - c a s t e ,  f o r c e than of  some m i l l - o w n e r s ,  is  not  "the  possibility  entirely  to preserve limited  highest-paid  the  economic  a  caste  monopoly  of  opportunities  newcomers. form  was  the  The  Order  faithful  of  the  untouchables  labour  late  A  by  o f wages and  I t would appear  were p r e f e r r e d as  mill  against  indicating  encountered  who  1872  1875-1906,  k e e p wages low.  shortages relative  Bombay c o t t o n m i l l s  sharply,  to  analysis  of  monetary reward  medal f o r g a l l a n t r y of and  British  for long  I n d i a was  honourable  f o r a s m a l l number o f  service,  s e r v i c e and  introduced and  was  in given  soldiers  good 1837 only  conduct. for to  long, native  118 officers. included  The  first  The s e c o n d c l a s s O r d e r  Indian  commissioned  rupee  per  red  for  awarded  conspicuous in  three  elevated  monthly basic  and  gallantry  classes:  medals  pension  to a f i r s t - c l a s s  The I n d i a n  of  1 1  the  (1887) l o n g  Order o f  Daffadars  with  an a n n u i t y  A f t e r the i n i t i a l  was  promoted  medal The  or reduced  file  without  inscribed  Each  " f o r long  i n the f i r s t  i n addition to  The the a  pension.  conduct  and  allowed  o f 25  regiment  rupees,  were made, died  was  con-  t o be g r a n t e d good  i n each regiment  per  or  allowed  s e r v i c e and good  i n s t a n c e were c o n t i n u e d 1 2  other  Each c a v a l r y  holder  A f u r t h e r l o n g - s e r v i c e and  g r a t u i t y was a l l o w e d  a n n u i t i e s payable  discharge  i n rank.  a g r a t u i t y o f 25 r u p e e s each, only.  a  for  good  grants  medals c o u l d be awarded o n l y when a p r e v i o u s  and  and  A r m i e s was  new  rank  third-  Merit.  o f award.  Presidency  conduct,  and H a v i l d a r s .  with  a  was  from o n e - t h i r d o f  s e r v i c e and  types  i n the three  for  and  confer-  enemy,  merited  of  I n 1888, i n commemoration o f Queen  different  medals f o r m e r i t o r i o u s  two medals,  Order  Cross,  f o r noncommissioned o f f i c e r s  two  annually  available to  o f rank t o d o u b l e p a y o r p e n s i o n  T h e r e were t h r e e regiment  of " S i r d a r  the second-class,  increased accordingly,  introduced  infantry  i n the face  above,  h a d a s t i p e n d o f one  of the V i c t o r i a  a second earned  Golden J u b i l e e  were  ranks.  duct"  and  India,  one a c t o f b r a v e r y  c l a s s Order of M e r i t .  Victoria's  o f "Bahadur."  f o r Indians  the holder  allowance pay  first  Subadars  of B r i t i s h  of a l l grades,  day and t h e t i t l e  Order of M e r i t ,  third  and  officers  the equivalent  class  awarded t o  a s t i p e n d o f two r u p e e s p e r day and t h e t i t l e  Bahadur."  Merit,  class,  to  conduct year. after  119 In t h e p e r i o d 1865-1885, of  t h e Bombay Army  British  India.  nineteen  (retired  order  included five  were  s i x Bene I s r a e l ,  but  between  1900,  fifth  of  them,  the  army w o u l d  the  fact  their  three  suggest.  times  Mochi,  by  1895  o f medals  as  than  a few  Bene I s r a e l ,  were  able  to  many as  their  accounted  and  few  of  least  pre-  awarded one-  proportion in for partly at a  soldiers  considering their honours  a few  the  there  recruited  Mahars  The  (and  small t o t a l available  by  higher-  f o r l o n g - s e r v i c e medals.  that at  the h i g h e s t  the  of and  (the o t h e r h a v i n g  compulsorily retired  time,  indicate  earn  one  Mahars;  listing  T h i s might be  t h a t t h e y were b e i n g  do  officers  shows Mahars g e t t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y  about  records  Mahar,  Mahar  a partial  p l a c e w o u l d have q u a l i f i e d  official  native  s e v e n t y - s i x members o f  two  o n l y one  VI,  than-normal r a t e at t h i s in  the and  122  s e r v i n g ) h e l d the Order  i n c l u d e d one  Bene I s r a e l  Table  and  still  I n 1890,  sumably d i e d . ) 1 3 1890  or  T h i s number  Bene I s r a e l .  approximately  more  numbers) to  Indian  soldiers. The intended forty  system to  years  reward  after  awards  granted  part  o r by of  fifteen on  years.  the  but 1 4  introduced service;  might be The  British  I n d i a n Army  reformed  s o l d i e r s had  r a t h e r than was  modernization  from  its  s e v e r a l times,  already l e f t  a  1796,  sepoy out  system of pensions  objective criteria,  and  in  invalided  t h e whim o f a commanding o f f i c e r ,  s y s t e m was  low-caste  first  faithful  the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n  guished pension  l o n g and  for f u l l pension,  pension  basis  of pensions,  the  and  on  served on  half-  and  other  an  an  was  ad  important  which  distin-  predecessors. i n 1895,  service,  the  hoc  The  when most lower  rate  120 TABLE VI  MEDALS ISSUED TO BOMBAY ARMY, 1890-1900  Date Awarded  Mahars  Feb. and Sept.  Meritorious Service with Annuity  1890  Long S e r v i c e & Good C o n d u c t with Gratuity Long S e r v i c e & Good without G r a t u i t y  June  1893  April  1894  April  1895  April  1896  May  1900  Merit.  Svce.  with  3  _  24  -  18  11  1  55  3  —  21  7  1  54  2  —  18  & G.C. w i t h o u t  L.S.  & G.C. w i t h  L.S.  & G.C. w i t h o u t  Gratuity  Gratuity Gratuity  Gratuity Gratuity  8  Annuity  1  Gratuity  14  1  49  4  -  22  L.S.  & G.C. w i t h  L.S.  & G.C. w i t h o u t  Gratuity  10  Annuity  2  Gratuity  7  -  53  2  -  20  L.S.  Se G.C. w i t h  L.S.  & G.C. w i t h o u t Gazette  122  5  L.S.  SOURCE:  2  56  & G.C. w i t h  with  27  -  L.S.  Svce.  9  10  & G.C. w i t h o u t  Merit.  1  Gratuity  L.S.  with  1  3  & G.C. w i t h  Svce.  Total  Annuity  L.S.  Merit;  Conduct  Bene Israel  Gratuity  of India,  Military  Rewards  8  Lists  121  of  p e n s i o n was g r a n t e d a f t e r  after  32  years' was  years' service.  service  About  Men  and t h e h i g h e r invalided  one h a l f  t h e pay e a r n e d  1860, a c c o r d i n g t o m i l i t a r y  (full)  out with  received extra g r a t u i t i e s . ^  approximately  ment.  21,  The  pension  less  than  basic  a t the time  pension  of  r e c o r d s , men  21  retire-  e n l i s t e d at  somewhere between 18 and 22 y e a r s o f age, s e r v e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y y e a r s on t h e a v e r a g e off  in  their  approximately perhaps were  middle  12 y e a r s .  per  year  Ratnagiri  on  mately  per  living  ri  found there is  service  s e r v i c e were M a h a r s .  pensions.  was  there  t o 65  i n t h e army,  rupees  men  from  collecting  f o r an a v e r a g e  per month.  1 7  of  Approxi-  cent  of  the  S i n c e t h e M a h a r s ' were  at the higher ranks, they  for  collecting  5,599  c e n t o f t h e p e n s i o n e r s and 18 p e r  t o suppose t h a t  collected  about  i t is  probably  14 t o 15 p e r c e n t  T h i s would mean a t o t a l  of about  68,000  p e r y e a r was b e i n g p a i d t o t h e Mahar community o f R a t n a g i -  district  rupees  A t t h e same t i m e  rupees  underrepresented  rupees  example,  This translates  8 1/2  pensioned  pension  district,  or about  somewhat  the t o t a l  i n Ratnagiri  per year,  on a c t i v e  of  a  for  580,000 r u p e e s  soldiers  reasonable  were  amount o f t h a t p e n s i o n  I n 1879,  were on a c t i v e  per year,  16  and c o l l e c t e d  The a v e r a g e  1 6  average.  of approximately  103 r u p e e s  40s,  454,520 r u p e e s .  the  district  received pensions,  p e r month.  7,009 p e n s i o n e r s totalling  they  to late  5 or 6 rupees  pensions  pay  until  24  i n t h e form o f m i l i t a r y  per year  i n pay.  i t s way back  pensions,  Some p o r t i o n  to families  i s no way o f knowing how  still  of m i l i t a r y  resident  much t h i s  and a b o u t  probably  in Ratnagiri,  might have  n o t i n a b s o l u t e t e r m s a huge sum o f money,  pay  87,000  been.  particularly  but This when  122 divided a  over  a l a r g e number o f  families,  d e p r e s s e d community whose t r a d i t i o n a l  was  i n kind,  populated, of  this  ri  on  particularly and  sizable  i n which  it  that,  and  as w i l l  village  social  of  died  pensions If  a  were  soldier  be  seen on  later,  degree  after  died  d e a t h by  o r use  of economic  and  Soldiers  were a l s o  many  young man as  o f wounds,  heir;  I f t h e man  The  his  impact  enlisting  under  i f he had  village The  fact  was  died.  be  to  be  eligible  for  contributed  s u c h as e x c e s s i v e d r i n k -  this provision likely  However  circumstances.  c o n s i d e r e d t o have  t o name t h e i r  a son,  impor-  and when t h e  considered  h i s f a m i l y might  considered serviceget  heirs, in  any and  their  pension. i t appears  records.  t o name h i s f a t h e r  or  t h e son would most l i k e l y  d i d not always  change i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  o f a widow, d a u g h t e r ,  the  castes.  certain  f a m i l y would p r o b a b l y not  w o u l d be  significant,  from  also  h i s d e a t h would n o t be  required  been  only to s o l d i e r s ,  intemperate h a b i t s ,  however, s o l d i e r s  reflect  densely  suggests the  or of d i s e a s e  service,  d i d not update  his heir;  poor,  independence.  retirement h i s pension  of drugs,  related,  that  service  Mahar p e n s i o n e r s were a b l e t o d e f y  payable to f a m i l i e s  family pension.  ing  for  low.  independence  the i s s u e of s c h o o l i n g ,  c a u s e d by h i s m i l i t a r y  t o h i s own  rather  land-owning  N o r m a l l y p e n s i o n s were p a i d soldier  was  o r d e r must have  f r o m t h e dominant  officials  tance of t h i s  which  income was  a l l o w e d f o r a degree  authorities  important for  recompense  in a district  cash  i t was  i n f l o w o f c a s h t o t h e Mahar community o f R a t n a g i -  the t r a d i t i o n a l  since  a  but  There  A  mother be h i s  change t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s  to  a r e a number o f i n s t a n c e s  o r mother o f a d e c e a s e d  soldier  petitioning  123 to  be  named as  soldier,  but  government income, This  the  but  clearly  was  b e n e f i t was to  fever  e a r n e d by  his  in  apparently from  the  ruary  of  Downac  family  e a r n e d by the  An  19th