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Cardio-respiratory responses to mental challenge : high, moderate, and low heart rate reactors Hait, Aaron Vincent 1987

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CARDIO-RESPIRATORY  HIGH,  RESPONSES  MODERATE,  AND  LOW  TO  MENTAL  HEART  RATE  CHALLENGE  REACTORS  By  AARON  B.A.,  A  VINCENT  The U n i v e r s i t y  THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  HAIT  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  MASTER  OF  THE  DEGREE  OF  ARTS  in THE  F A C U L T Y OF  (Department  We  accept to  THE  this  GRADUATE of  the r e q u i r e d  October Aaron  STUDIES  Psychology)  thesis  U N I V E R S I T Y OF  (c)  1983  as  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1987  Vincent Halt,  1987  In  presenting  degree  at  this  the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this or  publication of  thesis for by  his  or  that the  her  representatives.  It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  for  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  DE-6(3/81)  requirements  British Columbia, I agree  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  be allowed without  head of copying  my or  my written  ii Abstract (1)  Three i s s u e s were examined i n t h i s study: which psychological challenge breathing  patterns  or  with  cardiovascular  whether i n d i v i d u a l s i d e n t i f i e d hypertension  breathing  pattern  different  from  100  healthy  basis  of  pressor being and  and  those  respond  rate  (HR)  Those i n the  r e s p i r a t o r y changes  dual  changes.  fifth  and  Little  variability  i n the  cardiovascular breathing difficulty group and  arousal.  to s h i f t  l e a s t true  with  reliably  Subjects  were  q u i n t i l e s on  to a 1-minute  Their  the  cold  The  low  of  Marked  d i r e c t i o n and  increased  a  with  indivi-  extent  of  variability,  Only  task  breathing  difficulty. changes  did indicate a trend ribcage  with  s u b s t a n t i a l l y over  between breathing  data  T h i s was f o r the  versions  & Hard) were compared  covaried  found  as  cardiovascular  rate, amplitude,  towards greater  increased.  (3)  tasks  that are  to the math t a s k s .  reliably  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e was  and  quintile subjects.  O v e r a l l , the  l e v e l s i n response  arousal;  counterbalanced  p r e d o m i n a n t mode o f b r e a t h i n g  resting rate  and  breathing  individuals.  t e s t (Easy  d i f f e r e n c e s were e v i d e n t  breathing and  third  whether  changes  hypertension.  t o two  to the  upper q u i n t i l e were d e s i g n a t e d  5-minute mental a r i t h m e t i c the  changes i n  to m e n t a l c h a l l e n g e  changes  extent  potentially at-risk for  divided into reactor  their heart  of  being  of l o w e r r i s k  a t - r i s k for developing  those  as  cardiovascular  y o u n g men  test.  (2)  of n o r m a l s u b j e c t s ;  pattern changes covary  developing  stress elicits  the  d o m i n a n c e as  and  for task  e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r the a t - r i s k reactor  quintile.  The  expected  i i i  group  differences  however, not  a  implying  good  stress. change  i n response  subgroups also  that  predictor  Overall,  associated  i n cardiovascular  with of  yielded  the to  t h e HR  of  reactivity  reactivity  results  psychological  equivocal  breathers results.  that  stress  arousal. on  the  were  to c o l d  to acute  suggest  cardiovascular  aberrant  reactivity  not  stimulation  mental  challenge  breathing but  The basis  are  HR  i s or  patterns  not  attempt of  found  to  clearly identify  reactivity  iv Table of Contents 1. ABSTRACT 2.  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  3. LIST OF TABLES 4.  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  vii  5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  6. INTRODUCTION  1  7. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  1  Rationale  for respiratory control  4  Why measure r e s p i r a t i o n during  9  Respiratory  9.  1  Why study acute s t r e s s responses?  Cardio-respiratory  8.  t r a i n i n g ...  control  stress?  measures of s t r e s s research  13 21  Why measure t h o r a c i c and abdominal movement?  26  Evidence -for d i f f e r e n t b r e a t h i n g  29  modes  Thoracic-abdominal s t r e s s responses  31  C o n c l u s i o n s and hypotheses  33  METHOD  39  Subjects  39  Apparatus  39  Procedure  42  Experimental Tasks  44  Data Reduction  46  RESULTS  49  I. Mental A r i t h m e t i c II. Stressor  Responses - A l l S u b j e c t s  50  Responses - Reactor Subgroups .... 61  10. DISCUSSION  71  O v e r a l l e f f e c t s •+ task di-f -f i c u l t y  71  Temporal p a t t e r n s of response  75  Reactor  to math tasks ..  subgroups and c a r d i o - r e s p i r a t o r y change  Conclusion and i m p l i c a t i o n s 11. REFERENCES 12.  76 82 86  APPENDIXES A. Health it F i t n e s s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  93  B. S c r i p t : Experiment I n t r o d u c t i o n  94  C. Consent Form  98  D. S c r i p t : Cold Pressor Task I n s t r u c t i o n s ....  99  E. S c r i p t : Mental F. Post-Experiment  A r i t h m e t i c Task I n s t r u c t i o n s Questionnaire  100 101  G. S c r i p t : D e b r i e f i n g  102  H. Post-task Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  105  I. Raw mean s c o r e s -from b a s e l i n e and math task  106  List  1.  Average mental  2.  3.  change  scores  of  Tables  for  easy  for  the  and h a r d  52  arithmetic.  Average  change  periods  of  scores  mental  Correlations arithmetic  three  recording  . . . .  54  arithmetic.  between e a s y  change  scores:  and h a r d all  mental  58  physiological  v a r i a b l e s.  4.  Performance  levels  difficulty:  easy  5. Mean c o l d  subjects  6.  Changes during  and h a r d  pressor  and Low h e a r t  rate  task  61  arithmetic.  scores:  reactors  in physiological easy  and  High,  Mid  62  all  activity  and h a r d m e n t a l  Correlations cold  change  of  combined.  Mid and Low h e a r t  7.  and r a t i n g s  pressor,  rate  easy  arithmetic:  reactor  between change math,  from b a s e l i n e  ..  67  High,  groups.  scores  and h a r d  for math.  69  vii  List  1.  Cardiovascular Minutes  2.  1 to  Respiratory Minutes  1 to  changes  of  Figures  from b a s e l i n e :  51  5.  changes 5.  from b a s e l i n e :  51  viii Acknowledgements I  wish  Linden  to acknowledge  f o r t h e many  gestions  he made  thanks  also  Wilkie  for their  thesis  committee.  the  needs  many h o u r s  help  thesis  of guidance  t o go t o D r . D. invaluable  he d o n a t e d  of t h i s  am d e e p l y  grateful.  Finally,  patience, support  through  to data  special  the data  I am  to i t scompletion.  of the  Fran  Wen  f o r shich  Carla-Marie saw t h i s  also  drafts  procedures.  thank  and encouragement  mention f o r  and f o r h i s  e n t r y and a n a l y s i s I must  Special  a n d D r . D.  the experimental procedure.  hours  sug-  a s m e m b e r s o f my  deserves  i n collecting  helpful  thesis.  Papageorgis  and f o r h i s a d v i s e on s t a t i s t i c a l many  Wolfgang  a n d t h e many  contributions  Rick Juliusson  to Dr.  to Jim Frankish f o r proof-reading earlier  contributed  whose  indebtedness  i n the development  i n fine-tuning  indebted  hours  my  Hait,  thesis  I  1  A case w i l l in  the  breathing  comparing etic  be made f o r  these  arousal.  predominant  patterns  breathing  (1)  the  of  the  lack  mode  heart  of  the  of  relevance and  (3)  the  types  stress  relative  contribution  ture,  studies;  compartments.  information  protocol  to  will  be  is  cardiac  will  of  and  on  empirical a stress  of  extent  to  respiratory  and  (4)  ventilation  issues: teaching  technique; of  (2)  respira-  psychological  measures  utility  of  made  the  by  test)  reactors.  for  acute  the  (subjects  central  a variety  to  of  the  which  pressor  rationale  and  sympath-  moderate  management  responses  Included  in  measuring  the  thoracic  and  this  review  of  the  to  the  choice  of  experimental  along  with  pertinent  presented,  indices  four  assessing  Following  population  to a c o l d  low  focus  the  changes  hyperreactors  increases  simultaneously  previous  abdominal  as  cardiovascular  stressors;  of  an a d e q u a t e  breathing  young  cardiovascular  rate  literature  stress-induced  healthy  from those  diaphragmatic  tory  a  Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t  differentiated  A review  of  changes w i t h  who show e x c e s s i v e can be  quantifying  the  litera-  hypotheses  of  this  s tudy.  Respiratory  is  control  training: Rationale  Voluntary  modification  of  considered  an i m p o r t a n t  aspect  tion  procedures  1973).  (Beary  The b r e a t h i n g  one's  & Benson, pattern  of  rate  and E m p i r i c a l and d e p t h  of  most r e l a x a t i o n  1974;  Bernstein  generally  prescribed  Support. breathing and  &  medita-  Borkovec,  consists  of  2 slower,  deeper  excursion more  inspirations  (Faling,  efficient  diaphragm, therefore (Tobin,  use  than  of  1986). of  buted  the  to  Donaldson,  referred  of  al.,  & Benson,  substantiate  these  initial  laboratory  studies  control  during  procedures  laboratory  Katkin,  Lick,  1979).  On the  izing  other  have  hand,  treatment  comes f o r  a number These & Fox,  of  failed  to  of as  reported  a  panic  Clark,  1986),  hyperventilation  (Bali,  1979;  Datey,  Deshmukh,  Baker,  1983;  Jacob,  Kraemer, & A g r a s ,  Dalvi  al.,  1977;  arousal Harris, Solomon, util-  auxilliary  positive  out-  by a u t o n o m i c  over-  (Fried,  (Salkovskis, 1976)  et  respira-  &  or  to  fact,  studies  primary  seizures  (Lum,  In  1984;  Holmes,  characterized  attacks  evidence  autonomic  significant  idiopathic  Singh, 1971).  that  treatment  the  (Fenwick,  & Wilson,  Holmes,  is  attri-  1983;  verify  McCaul,  training  disorders  include  &  It  been  1984).  acute  (Cappo 1976;  have  empirical  (Holmes,  a number  have  1984),  little  the  even  breathing  Benson  a  breathing  and  & Borkovec,  can a t t e n u a t e  control  of  Heide  claims  & Habberfield,  component  Carlton,  yet  breathing.  state",  Wallace,  challenges  respiratory  arousal.  as  involves  inspiration,  arousal,  diaphragmatic  1972;  there  tory  of  abdominal  diaphragmatic  autonomic  1977;  However,  several  is  of  as  "hypometabolic  practice et  muscle  to  by  reportedly  thoracic-predominant  a transient  Wallace  primary  Attenuation  Gillis  primarily  This pattern  the  does  commonly  induction  1984;  1986).  achieved  and 1969;  Patel,  Rubin,  Jones,  &  hypertension English 1977).  &  3 The  discrepant  a number  of  inducing changes  findings  important  respiratory impact needs  to  breathing  would  more  tive the  arousal  than  individual's  standing  to  some o t h e r natural  efforts of  arousal  at  would  verifying  diaphragmatic  A necessary  establish  that of  different arousal.  mode  during  arousal  from  the  of  pattern  relaxation.  step  strategy  predominant high  If  respiratory  maximizing  Under-  is  success  by  believed of  clinical  reduce  patterns In  other  breathing states  observed such  of  words,  (i.e.  should  for  differ  future  usefulness  are  conditions,  patterns  including  stressors,  or e n g a g i n g  occur  not  at  low  the  patterns  and/or  abdominal)  should  be  arousal  appear in  obtained  resting,  in physical  ways or  rationale  will  differences  to  differ-  in characteristic of  any  is  depth,  versus  found,  quiet  or  arousal  rate,  periods  breathing  breathing  the  thoracic  during  differences  breathing  arousal-related  psychological  control  the  even  mechanism  can e f f e c t i v e l y  To t e s t  of  or  breathing.  the  the  subjec-  control  whether  tenable.  variety  respiratory  and/or  in determining  of  of  to  for  diaphragmatic  physiological  alterations  samples  somatic  quiet  voluntary  tion,  slow,  respiratory  seem e s s e n t i a l  and/or  first  control  levels  of  methods  breathing.  breathing  ent  strategy  the  raise  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  which  of  research  these  systems.  form of  stating  of the  how  reduce  pattern  lines  and  by  effectively  and c l e a r l y  reduce  change  clarified  two  regarding  physiological  be  which a p a r t i c u l a r  these  questions  pattern  other  mechanism  of  for more  respiraacross  responding exercise.  a to  4  To d a t e , logical  only  studies  conditions  a  have  (e.g.  & Hellawell,  Svebak,  Dalen,  1983).  Only  ribcage  looked  Allen,  Turner,  of  handful  study  looked  relative  the  i n g makes  to  addition,  the  respiratory and b l o o d such as  overall  pressure.  T-wave  our knowledge interact  At  how  acute  present,  the  of  to  acute  attempts the  to  etiology  of  has of  as  of yet  breathIn  stress-induced to  heart  cardiovascular pulse,  rate  change,  would  add  to  systems  stress.  exlusively  understand chronic  the  are  only  beginning  to  cardio-respiratory interactions  stressors.  short-term  of  periods  situations.  of  or p h y s i c a l  psychophysiologists  reactions  to  amplitude  responses?  importance  responses  mental  1980;  the  mode  limited  of  al.,  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r and r e s p i r a t o r y  the  almost  been  and b l o o d volume  appreciate  focused  either  Carroll,  Courtney,  No s t u d y  correlates  typically  in  these  &  short  stressful  O t h e r measures  stress  Carroll,  1981).  in  1986;  changes  that  under  Smith et  during  al.,  ventilation  during periods  Why s t u d y  et  contribution  amplitude of  Turner,  excursions  have  Obrist,  investigated  cardiovascular  changes  &  Alexander,  1981;  (Svebak  psychophysio-  r e s p i r a t o r y changes  Suess,  has  and a b d o m i n a l stress  well-controlled  Sherwood,  1986;  psychological at  at  & Storfjell,  one  of  on  In  the  past,  cardiovascular  psychological physiological  cardiovascular  investigators and  stressors processes  disorders  in  subjective in  their  involved  such as  in  essen-  f 5 tial  hypertension  and c o r o n a r y h e a r t  disease  (Krantz  &  Manuck,  1984).  The  importance  psychological evidence  underlying  to  to  of  stress  responses,  there  acute  stressors  are  duals of  exhibit  heart  tions  rate  (Allen,  Dembroski, 1981;  reactivity (Hastrup,  of  Obrist,  &  von  normotensive  for  instance,  There i s  &  and  the  & Obrist, Fischbein,  latter  1985;  1980).  that  reactions than  reactions  to  of  chronic  some  indivi-  hyperresponse and  situaBuell, &  Light,  1981;  Obrist,  of  Sheps,  Elveback,  between  this  hypertensive  1981;  on  do  &  hyperparents  Manuck & P r o i e t t i , epidemiological  a substantially than  the  disease.  and v a r i a b l e  tasks  Based  hypertension  in  Eliot,  overlap  Light,  some  1986;  Wood,  offspring 1982;  of  involved  that  certain  1985; some  marker  stable  & Crowell,  group c a r r i e s  essential parents.  to  to  physiological  development  temporally  & Linden,  Eiff,  suggest  the  Sherwood,  Frankish  to  of  factors  pathological  more complex  acute  body  or c o r o n a r y h e a r t  to  and b l o o d p r e s s u r e  Light,  developing  found,  a  processes  evidence  related  been  subgroup  the  is  be  potentially are  to  increasing  excessive  hypertension that  the  might or  responses  behavioral  model,  a characteristic,  1984).  Warren  evidence,  has  1982;  Schulte  Schirger,  1982;  It  in  and  stress  conditions  acute  disorders.  basis  process  essential  can be a r g u e d  chronic  its  one  to e m o t i o n a l  pathological  development  has  physiological  psychological  According  responsivity  it  studying  stressors  linking  disease.  While  of  greater  risk  individuals  with  6  According to  certain  stable in  to  Steptoe  stress  tasks  hypertension  is  d e t e r m i n i n g which  notes  that  tensives  and b o r d e r l i n e  sustained  Increased  known to  reflect  (Obrist,  1981;  systolic  onset  ability  changes, form  of  tasks  time  therefore processes  be  that  require  coronary  While responses  have  heart  the is  have  consistently in  such  heart  rate  blood  &  to  hyperincreases  and c a r d i a c  on the  has  1986).  been  process.  mental shock  impli-  Because  the  completed to  the  some games,  bonuses)  can  psychophysiological  However, which  in  video  or e a r n monetary  of  cardiac  engage  arithmetic,  analyzing  are heart  Laager,  actively  He  pressure  influences  reactivity  hypertension.  hyperreactivity  study.  that  Obrist,  subjects  avoid  been  one's  increases  and  of  considerations  sympathetically-mediated  (e.g.  in  in essential  tasks  hypertensive  provoke  useful  in  and s y s t o l i c  sympathetic the  to  include  Allen,  development  important  beta-adrenergic  to  tests  studies  autonomic  vascular  rate  coping behaviour  reaction  tudinal  of  to  most  hyperreactivity  the  blood pressure  Sherwood,  cated  the  that  precede  t h r o u g h augmented  strong  heightened  to  fact  hypertensives,  heart  Furthermore, the  of  the  problem-solving  primarily  output.  their  one  challenging,  excessive  in  appears  task(s)  elicited  are  (1985),  as  yet,  directly  development  of  no  longi-  link  acute  hypertension  or  disease.  predictive  still  reactivity  not to  validity  known, the  this  cold  is  of  active  not  the  pressor  test,  coping  case a form  task  for  cardio-  of  physical  7 challenge.  In a 4 5 - y e a r  originally  tested  children  whose  the  pressor  cold  much h i g h e r  with  or d i a s t o l i c  of  hypertension  Other s t u d i e s  do  larger  (Buhler,  et  al.,  reactivity  to  hypertension  in  range  Schulte  not  reactivity cold  show  that  pressor  degree  of  changes showed  to  the  output  other  conclude cardiac  the  two that  cold  cold  life  tests  pressure 1983;  a  with  pressor  al.,  to  did  individuals  than  Greene,  the  test.  and  Such f i n d i n g s  increased one  reactivity of  the  that  few  males  pressure  differences  hypertensive  during  critical  a  between the  resistance  hypertensives  heart  Schulte  to  men In  peripheral  arithmetic led  with  hypertensive  blood  contrast,  of  normo-  show i n r e s p o n s e  pressure,  to a m e n t a l  blood  be p r e d i c t i v e  systolic  In  blood  why  borderline  found  volume,  clear  presently  reported  and e s s e n t i a l  greater  not  are  hypertensives  pressor  is  in  They a l s o  reactivity  stimulation  than  should  who  exaggerated  stroke  groups.  in  blood  is  pressor  (1985)  levels  established  rate,  it  individuals  the  significantly  cardiac  the  borderline,  heart  showed  cold  Hulthen et  standpoint,  challenge.  normotensive,  in  responses  1965).  & von E i f f  blood pressure  do  increases  that  or h i g h e r  that to  children  found  pressure  later  shown  school  (1984)  percentile  have  Bolli,  142  al.  s i m i l a r l y respond  From a p h y s i o l o g i c a l  resting  90th  of  blood  incidence  Lustig  tensive.  et  the  normotensives  future  Wood  in  hypertension  pressure  study  were  significantly  Boltax,  1934,  systolic  normoreactors. essential  in  follow-up  task  rate, than  and von E i f f  and did to  beta-adrenergic  markers  of  hyper-  8 tension nantly  pathogenesis, cardiac  development results  -  some form  reactions  of  one of  of  only  -  this  pressor  that  as  Schulte  ment,  how  excessive later the  von  the  can  Eiff  one  development  development  It  has  of is  the  of  reactivity  hypertension?  Clearly,  premature  conclude  proceeds  by  to  one  on If,  beta-adrenergic  cold at  developbetween  pressor  this  that  specific  for  output.  correlation  the  cold  effect  hypertension  to  later  useful  primary  strong  linking  The  so  acute  al.'s  for  tenuous.  its  maintain,  explain  risk  found  the  Wood e t  studies  than on c a r d i a c  important p r e d i c t o r  blood pressure  research,  rather  of  with  associates  predomi-  predicting  prospective  rather  development  peripheral vasculature  is  is  in  In l i g h t  response  conclusion  the  which p r o v o k e  useful  However,  Wood and h i s  and  tests  would p r o v e  stress  hypertension  reactivity  only  two c o m p l e t e d  laboratory  test  that  hypertension.  hypertension  predicting  and  and  stage  in  hypertension  psychophysiological  pa thway.  Other cardiac  lines  of  research  hyperreactivity  across  may be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r Light  (1981),  normotensive avoidance  reaction  a cold  family  history at  rest  time  pressor of  in  the test  test.  found  also  the  conditions  that heart  had  She a l s o had  that  development  highest  hypertension  and i n r e s p o n s e  stress the  instance,  men showing  during  rates  for  suggest  the  and  of  rates  that  time  50%  during  highest  significantly  over  of time  hypertension.  fully  found  to a r e a c t i o n  stability  of  the  a  shock  heart  rates  men  with  higher task  than  a  heart did  9  men w i t h n o r m o t e n s i v e largest  systolic  stressor similar this  also  pressure tercile  showed  the  response 1985).  magnitude  of  may p r o v e  to  According  and s t i m u l u s  novelty  the  for  less,  rationale  stressors  important vascular  has  not  been  of  are  these  systems  is  the  interact  in  the  top  Krantz  of  of  stimulus et  al.,  and P r o l e f r o n e performance  the  pattern  and  extent  that  To the  laboratory of  hyper-  McKenzie  can a f f e c t  challenges  stress  daily  tasks  life,  cardiovascular  they  disorders.  stress?  as  for  fact  In blood  in  difficulty,  respiratory well  doing  that  the  the  activity  developed  cardiovascular  many r e a s o n s  and type  response.  measuring  stressor-induced  there  all  predictors  The  recording  task  i n d u c e d by  r e s p i r a t i o n during  systolic  subjects  Williamson,  cardiovascular stress  be u s e f u l  the  A  (1985).  cardiovascular  to Manuck,  s u c h as  Why measure  acute  that  (Faulstich,  occurring in  increases.  Linden  of  the  psychological  rate  &  change  a  with  arithmetic.  factors  levels  heart  by p r e d i s p o s i t i o n  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r changes  reflect  rate  suggests  affected  stimulus  incentives,  the  is  to  f o u n d between  to m e n t a l  research  Linden,  (1986),  and h e a r t  reactivity  responsivity  1986;  largest  a 100% o v e r l a p was  Overall,  eliciting  the  increases  r e p o r t e d by F r a n k i s h  reactivity of  Furthermore, subjects  blood pressure  f i n d i n g was  study,  parents.  so.  as  that  changes. Perhaps  task  of  for  Neverthethe  r e s p i r a t o r y and  critical  during  most  cardio-  maintaining  10 gas  exchange  they  ensure  between that  pH t h r o u g h o u t  all  necessary  the  (Sheperd of  for  the  the  atmosphere  levels  tissues  of  oxygen,  are kept  continuation  & Vanhoutte,  1979).  Together,  carbon d i o x i d e ,  within  of  tissues.  the  normal  B o t h systems  narrow  and b l o o d parameters  tissue  functioning  interact  at  a  number  levels.  Respiratory-cardiovascular Presently,  four  types  interactions. of  mechanisms  which r e s p i r a t i o n can m o d u l a t e include; to  and body  the  (1)  mechanical  heart;  trigger  (2)  heart  lung  rate  acceleration  in  and c a r b o n d i o x i d e  oxygen  between  the  the  brain  stem  activity  interaction  these  analyzing  four  cardiovascular  activity.  receptors  which  bodies  tensions;  These  that  mechanisms responses  changes  respiration  efferent  must  to  chemo-  interconnections  control  descending  return  (3)  sensitive  and (4)  by  reflexively  during i n s p i r a t i o n ;  centers via  uncovered  i n s p i r a t i o n on venous  c a r o t i d and a o r t i c  cardiovascular of  of  Inflation  in  been  cardiovascular  effects  receptors  have  be  (Grossman,  and  fibers.  The  considered  when  1983;  Shepherd,  1981 ) .  The a c t i o n functioning  of  is  these  mechanisms  observed  parameters.  Breathing  Together  respiratory  the  with  volume  time.  of  air  At r e s t i n g  primarily rate  is  depth  ventilating levels,  on  or  the  healthy  heart  and  through  one tidal lungs adults  of  five these  volume, in  blood  a  respiratory parameters.  it  given  breathe  vessel  12 -  determines period 17  of  times  11  or  cycles  Jenouri has  et  been  related 1964;  per minute al.,  found  Sroufe,  it  to  covary heart  quickly  and  Secondly, heart  decreased  b l o o d flow  Sroufe,  changes  are  increased increased  rate  heart  depth  hands  Thirdly,  a r e known to  heart  rate,  with  heart  and b r a i n 1981;  apparently sympathetic  vagal  inspiration. thetic et  al.,  from  firing  in  blood  & Eisner,  rate  pressure:  that  i n s p i r a t i o n is heart  rate  (Ti/Ttot)  is  also  system a c t i v i t y  (Leischow  & Allen,  Kelsen,  Lengthy I n s p i r a t i o n s ,  1986;  to  to  heart of  silent  associated  time  related  in  total  Nochomovitz, of  &  rate para-  sympa(Porges  respira-  sympathetic  particularly  the  during  with  increases to  in  Hirsch  activity  remain  drop  flow  1979;  decrease  i n s p i r a t i o n time  1986).  heart  and  of  cycle  with  between i n s p i r a t i o n s  spontaneous  and c o n s e q u e n t  in  in  The r a t i o  tory  1982).  the  The  efferents  In c o n t r a s t ,  fibre  1981).  rate  results  increase  Angell-James,  Hurwitz,  results  that  6  Vanhoutte,  p r o d u c e a p r o n o u n c e d and r a p i d  a concomitant (Daly,  &  inspiration  pauses  of  along  intrathoracic  with  as  respiration results  showed  to  known  respiration  (Shepherd  (1958)  1982;  rate  variability,  and f e e t  associated  expirations  Bishop,  rate  proportional  rate.  of  Coulter,  Yongue,  (also  as  rate  inversely &  a breathing  increased  Manzotti  pressure  at  be  &  variability  decreases  heart  and  McCabe  Chadha,  breathing  (Angelone  steadily  to  directly  rate  Porges, rate  Tobin,  limits,  variability  1981;  and  1971).  press;  heart  arrhythmia) occurs  increased  1979;  rate  In  certain  with  Maximum h e a r t  sinus  increases.  (Linden,  Within  & Bishop,  1971).  respiratory cpm:  1983).  to h e a r t  Hirsch  (cpm)  nervous  Supinski & thoracic  12  origin,  require  results  in  breathing  (1981)  increased -  excursions  either -  has  found  inspirations greater  greater  the  that were  with  when  control  the  in heart  abdominal  the  the  critical  factor  primarily arterial  via  rate  concentration (i.e.  of  breathing  metabolic  requirements),  decreased  oxygen  T-wave  observed  The  and d i l a t i o n  preceding activity  indicate  the  tion,  also  list is  of  suggests  that  found  greater  during  to  be  (Hurwitz,  of  in  regulation,  of  in  muscle  heart  as  in  the  brought  on by  body's  acute and  rate  and c a r d i a c  as  peripheral  well  tissue  a  controlled  A drop  the  is  vasoconstriction  vessels  have  been  1983).  Influences  exhaustive. two  1981).  blood  and i s  vasodilator,  excess  the  the  respiration.  respiratory  interrelatedness  with  system  (Grossman,  by no means  than  nervous  Increased  of  vasoconstriction  sympathetic  inversion  with h y p e r v e n t i l a t i o n  vascular  it  or  of  T-wave  result  availability.  mode  manipulated,  cardiac  breathing  of  Hurwitz  cycle  potent in  can  flattening  vasoconstriction  this  output.  inspirations  carbon dioxide  and d e p t h  of  abdominal  predominant  The  also  mode  or  independently  of  thoracic of  one's  and p e r i p h e r a l  in cardiovascular  the  and  breathing.  during  consequently  thoracic  cardiac  dominant  concentration  overbreathing  output,  rate  m y o c a r d i u m , was  Finally,  on  and  a rough index  than  of  depth  voluntarily  thoracicly  (TWA),  of  effect  that  Fourthly,  predominance  abdominal-diaphragmatic amplitude  exertion  cardiac output.  a notable  increases  occurred  muscular  It  systems.  b o t h r e s p i r a t o r y and  on  does, By  cardiohowever, Implica-  cardiovascular  13 parameters  should  physiological  be measured  stress  Cardlo-respiratory  A study the  by S u e s s ,  stated  purpose  extent  of  of  completed electric  activity the  a  To  output,  anxiety  were  obtained  (Indicative  of  was  end,  rate  further  on  the  its  correlation  leaving to  low  the  lungs.  document  additional  to  increase Suess  respiratory  measures  of  et  al.  anxiety  change  measures  of  stress.  The  from  hand, system  in  the  and the  female) threat of  self-reported stress  levels.  task.  considered  response  to  than r a t e  must  an  stress dioxide  therefore  of  carbon  dioxide  that  future  efforts  must  include  reactivity  r e s p i r a t i o n change,  with  to  pre-task  other  system  levels  heart  carbon  concluded  A  Only  end-tidal  amount  task.  concomitantly  with  the  of  carbon  carbon dioxide  was  the  normal  (13  Recordings  rate,  occurred  respiratory  R e s p i r a t o r y mechanisms acting  under  and d u r i n g  other  because  been  heart  and s u b j e c t i v e  of  have  task.  illustrates  responses  in end-tidal  significant  rate,  study  characterize  undergraduates  both before  measure  levels.  to a c c u r a t e l y  judgement  inadequate of  psychological  29  decrease  (1980)  several  during  hyperventilation)  heart  Respiration  al.  respiration rate,  pre-task  showed  Smith et  adequately  stress.  suboptimal performance.  significant  increased  to  hyperventilatory  this  for  dioxide  rate  study  perceptual  shock  is  recording  stress-induced  individuals.  of  Alexander, of  cardio-respiratory  one  responses.  measures  importance  if  such as  tidal  volume,  14 oxygen  consumption,  Recent  studies  and l e n g t h  that  cardio-respiratory important (1983), mentally finding  challenging  dissociated  stress.  versions rate  In  of  and  the  various  Relative  to  greater  during  condition.  per minute  uptake  and c a r b o n  although two  that  analysis  revealed  reactors  in either that  experienced  by  of  periods  game.  oxygen  the  and  the  males  was  the  uptake  be  the  much  control  increases  in  breathing  consumption  in  modest  the  latter  investigators  from  independence  fact  that  a  or  had  post-hoc  between h i g h and low  heart  or  production  carbon  stressor-induced  high reactors  heart  considered  difference  the  to  volume),  oxygen  two  monitored.  found  during  a  challenge  their  were  cardiac-metabolic However,  during  played  game w h i l e  were  prevented  output  al.  functioning  (tidal  production  et  metabolic  task-induced  ventilation),  Turner  psychological  than  breathing  potentially  demands,  young  rate  of  metabolic  parameters  heart  no d i f f e r e n c e s  the  of  24  A significant  an o v e r a l l the  and  Invaders"  measures  during  suggests  levels,  dioxide  occurred  exceed  study,  (minute  significant.  concluding  can  measures  some  cardiac  I n v a d e r s " computer  depth  respiratory  that  cardiac  comparison,  volume  (1986)  found  during  "Space  rate,  yielded  al.  respiratory  baseline  In  respiratory  that  latter  a "Space  et  tasks  which suggests  can become or  have  comprehensive  have  Carroll  instance,  inspiration.  include  activity  findings.  for  did  of  were  dioxide  heart  rate  metabolically  rate  changes  exaggerated.  15  Carroll  et  al.  comparing h e a r t  rate  challenges in  level  (mental  of  activity  also  information, relating loads. with  heart  recorded  oxygen  on  rate  matrices  each  subject.  rate  was  to  heart  values  considerably  Analysis  of  these  significant occurring  was  these  measures  task,  unlike  rate,  but  metabolic  tasks  can  easy  most  than  of  the  lack  elicit  it  heart  rate  or  of  with  such  changes  effect  such e f f e c t  appears rate  conjunction  that  values  rate  for heart  values.  smaller the  a  values  hard  difficulty  with  rate  revealed  and  effect However,  time  on  each  rate.  of  task  for  respiratory  difficulty  psychologically  increases  and  metabolically  scores  a d d i t i o n a l heart  significant  exercise  r e s p i r a t i o n change.  significant  the  demand,  of  no  subject  arithmetic  c o n d i t i o n compared w i t h  measures  measure  in  heart  rate"  difficulty,  each  this  predicted heart  actual  heart  graded  and p r e d i c t e d  rate"  subjects,  Conversely,  d i d show  the  Considering  of  the  for  less  task  conditions.  obtained  heart  for  heart  F o r most  "additional  effect  during  Impossible  rate.  heart  varied  in  three  mental  between a c t u a l  "additional  unjustified  during  mental  From  then used  task-elicited  The d i f f e r e n c e  designated  were  obtained  predict  engaged  derived for  were  two  Physiological  consumption across  equations  study  that  ergometer.  were  a  during  impossible).  bicycle  oxygen  in  matrices)  subjects  equations  values  to  hard,  while  a  regression  uptake  findings  and R a v e n ' s  (easy,  regression  These  Raven's  arithmetic  exercise  similar  and r e s p i r a t o r y r e s p o n s e s  difficulty  was  isotonic  reported  unrelated  on  indices  challenging to  energy  16 expenditure. subjects' task.  In a d d i t i o n ,  self-reports  The  however,  apparent  a global  while  heart  rate  with  time  on  "additional physical vary  uptake  no  rate".  oxygen  variable  to be  but  appear  they  also  to  during  of  physiological  pressor,  a five-minute  electric  shocks  on a b i c y l e  change  reaction  of  minute in  both during  tidal  task  to  volume  the  only  difficulty.  cardiac-respiratory rate of  output,  breathing  variations changes  and  in  overall  rate.  cardiovascular  and  psychological  and  et  al.  Comprehensive  in  response  time  suboptimal  ergometer  increases  heart  both  found  increased  independent  acute  by A l l e n  also  of  found  of  that,  and  h a n d , was  level  dioxide  fact  in ventilation  other  the  be  covary with  done  for  by  not,  psychological  a function  the  is  for  was  of  the  evident  whereas  phenomenon:  recording  measures  on  in  by  significantly  was  of  changes  al.  carbon  measures  levels  et  a complex  Simultaneous  was  effect  a function  Influenced  consumption,  challenge  was  from the  declined  impact  were l a r g e l y  Carroll  difficulty  respiratory  both  instance,  Respiration rate,  ventilation,  evident  time  The  For  paralleled  independence  on r e s p i r a t o r y v a r i a b l e s  challenge  summarize,  task  is  and r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e ,  variations.  covariation  such  during exercise  psychological  with  and oxygen task,  are  engagement and a r o u s a l  This  heart  volume  respiratory  active  cardiac-metabolic  considerably.  tidal  increases  response.  challenge  ventilation  To  of  such  (five  (1986).  task  to  with  performance, minutes  at  physical  a twominute the  threat  cold of  and  three  load  each  load)  were  17 obtained  for  measures product systolic  heart  included  oxygen  (the  uptake,  Minutes  5 and  baseline  measure  from  the  measure  pressure.  output  volume),  blood pressure.  respiration  tidal  t i d a l volume  &  change  also  volume, respiration  scores  values  The  for  for  and  minute rate),  means  period served  calculated  minute-to-minute  of  dioxide.  calculating were  beat-bybeat  Indices  adaptation  means  (the  period,  rate,  carbon  cardiovascular  pre-ejection  a 15-minute  the  one-way  showed  that  differences Responses  however,  indices.  each  for  as  the  dependent  each  dependent  recorded during  to  instance,  and p r e - e j e c t i o n  difference response  was to  task  cardiovascular substantially  quietly.  the  the  ANOVAs  each  except  reaction-time  across  the  cardiac  of  cold  increased  to  responses  the  cold  less,  during  pressor.  condition.  when  pressor  significantly  This  beta-adrenergic  observed  blood  physiological  was  stress  for  yielded  diastolic  and  period s i g n i f i c a n t l y  to  load  different  output  the  executed  exercise  variables  reaction-time/threat  responses from  increasing  than d u r i n g  attributed the  (conditions)  on a l l  varied  For  reaction-time  resting  The  conditions.  significant  in  cardiac  & stroke  p r o d u c t of  for  As e x p e c t e d ,  greater,  rate,  respiratory  10 of  Single  five  tasks,  undergraduates.  and e n d - t i d a l  values  measure.  each  rate  and d i a s t o l i c  ventilation  the  male  included heart of  change  22  In  task  the task  activity general, differed  subjects  were  18  Differences the  in  reactiontime  instance,  the  other  during  the  was  cold  of  in  tidal  greater  pressor.  exceeded b a s e l i n e the  total  significantly  greater  reaction-time  task,  higher  ventilation  as  might e x p e c t  one  carbon  dioxide  pressor  than  apparently uptake, although to  the  with levels from  both  hyperventilating  however, it  was  did  in  air  both  inspired  tasks  not  In the  differ  across  significantly  higher  per minute  was  than  for  results,  Also  end-tidal  during  cold  the  cold  subjects  were  pressor.  the  the  significantly  fact,  during  conditions  baseline.  more  not  the  task  of  than  from  producing  pattern  on  was  expected  pressor  threat.  task  rate  significantly  shock  rate,  difference  As  For  significant  the  than o c c u r r e d d u r i n g this  decreased during  cold  a  Respiratory  levels. of  found.  reaction-time  respiration  volume  also  i n d u c e d by  two  Oxygen conditions  i n both c o n d i t i o n s  relative  baseline.  In  order  to  cardiovascular al.  for  volume.  Although  significantly  were  elicited  d u r i n g the  significant,  findings,  tasks  pressor  statistically  above  r e s p i r a t o r y changes  pressor  cold  increase  hand,  the  pattern  and c o l d  only  above-baseline  the  computed  Carroll  et  regression computed  further  regression  four  equations  (1983)  equations  output/minute  the  relationship  and r e s p i r a t o r y v a r i a b l e s  al.  for  assess  based  had on  different  ventilation;  2)  for  each  done. rest pairs cardiac  during stress,  In and of  subject,  this  case,  exercise variables:  output/oxygen  between Allen  et  much  as  however,  values 1)  were  cardiac  uptake;  3)  19  heart  rate/minute  The e x t e n t showed  to w h i c h e a c h  or n o t  conditions  these  interval  exercise  the  from was  Just uptake  two  for  deviation  as  was  also  reaction-time  occurred  for  concluded  during  the  between h e a r t disruption involving  a  basis  rate  cardiac  during  similar  of  and minute  Because  of  cardiovascular  reaction-time to examine nonreactors impact  Controlling  and  and c o l d  the to  responses  for  differences observed  during  tasks,  oxygen  stressors.  output  and  of  is  less  are  the  During  responding  Allen the  A  minute  pressor.  that  et  al.  relationship susceptible  to  relationships  differences  observed  parameters  during  Allen  extreme  et  al.  also  ventilation  A further might  and  uptake.  respiratory  both s t r e s s o r s .  these  than  individual  of  two  uptake.  ventilation  pressor  and  rate  nonlinearity  and oxygen  substantial  rest  cold  findings  by b e h a v i o r a l s t r e s s o r s c a r d i a c output  the  and oxygen  these  significant  cardio-respiratory uncoupling.  uncoupling  task,  whether  confidence  Any  at  heart  observed  reaction-  95%  line.  found,  between  pairings  and  the  relationship  c a r d i a c output  on the  of  had  relationship  ventilation  the  an  al.  uptake.  s e e n by l o o k i n g a t  regression  for  rate/oxygen  pressor  outside  evidence  et  cold  then be  linear  Carroll  heart  cardio-respiratory  the  lay  respective  seen as  and 4)  these  could  means  the  showed  nonlinear  the  of  an " u n c o u p l i n g " d u r i n g  time/threat  the  ventilation;  have  order e f f e c t s  purpose on  the  decided  reactors was  other  i n responses  to  in  and  assess  variables. to  the  two  20 stress  conditions,  ANOVAs  (reactor  physiological highest for only  three  both  tasks,  group  subjects and  This  for  respiratory  of  the  rates.  dropped o f f  the  reaction-time changes  values  than low  those  subjects  at  that  functioning  the  due  task,  rather  who  showed  activity. some  of  seen d u r i n g  hyperventilation.  minute  also  minute  of  general,  it  substantial  period Allen the  their  et  noted  that  groups  of  ventilation  ventilation than d i d to  the  cold and  sympathetic  higher pressor,  2.  During  oxygen  was  observed  during  associated  concluded effects  behavioral stressors  uptake that  ventilation  exaggerated  changes al.  greater  significantly  minute  with  low tidal  and  decreases  and  the  larger  showed  exhalation  responded  was  3  order,  substantially  also  carbon dioxide  also  task  that  between M i n u t e s 1  In  the  than s i g n i f i c a n t l y  was  i n carbon dioxide  on  the  groups.  pressor  hyperreactors  reactors.  It  primarily  first  considerably  pre-ejection  beta-adrenergic  higher  Oxygen u p t a k e  stressors  and  was  each  revealed  cold  of  hyperreactor  reactor  the  in  measures  each based  group.  the  analyses  on  were  reactors  low  during  and e n d - t i d a l  two  the  hyperreactors  hyperreactors  increases  to  repeated  task)  groups  common to  difference  but  results  on  per r e a c t o r  these  values  the  output  were  three  for  the  time  had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  output  reactors.  of  two-factor  Reactor  6 subjects  of  hyperreactors  greater  X  measures.  The r e s u l t s  volumes  executed  and 3 l o w e s t v e n t i l a t i o n  a total  cardiac  they  from on  either cardiac with these cardiac  may be due  to  21  The et  al.  importance extend  existence during  been  responses  across  disease  or e s s e n t i a l  deepening in  heart  such  To of  show  least  it  them as  extent  at  has  that  be  or  since have  a  more  respond  sizes  may  than  excessive  systems. during  important  to  stress  including  stress  rate  coronary  heart  implications slowing  a  deviates  heart  a concomitant  an i m p o r t a n t  those  Identifying  whose for  to  possible  systems,  and  they  not  provide  voluntary  considered  that  could  also  risk  increases  Important,  sample  patterns  the  cardiovascular  individuals  b r e a t h i n g can p r o d u c e may be  as  physiological  being  rate  rate"  it  Carroll  about  fact  as  aberrant  hypertension  the  one's  rate,  at  well  whose r e s p i r a t i o n  from r e l a x a t i o n  classifies  treatment.  as  cardiovascular  individuals  significantly  The  is  and  conclusions  challenge.  investigators,  and  al.  heart  Using l a r g e r  that  et  unjustified  different  a number of  respiratory  reactivity  how  previous  of  rate  challenge.  subgroups  subgroup  respective  "additional heart  of  identify  the  Allen  The r e s p i r a t o r y measures  picture  the  of  respiration  heart  such measures  calculated.  by  their  in  such as  psychological used  findings  psychological  changes  complete  the  metabolically  acute  parameters without  beyond  of  measured  of  for  and/or decrease  treatment  for  hyperreactors.  Respiratory  control  A number of  research.  empirical studies  have  attempted  to  demonstrate  22 that  voluntary  autonomic stress.  and  practice  both  of  studies  of  was  earliest  conducted  (1976).  In t h e i r  maintain  a constant  28  were e i t h e r  light  tenth  practice  p e r i o d was  skin  60-second  light  their  shock  each  waited  for  was  arousal  in  the  effect  psychological Habberfield  were  asked  matching light.  to  A  condition. during  The  press  a  other  a signalled  10-minute and  subsequent  electric  after  the  switch  Heart rate four  to  their  regarding  control).  administered  that  the  shock. first  tone.  breathing a 10-minute  increases  for  claims  alike  and  while  instructed  were m o n i t o r e d  shock  to  instructions  (Attention  allotted  levels  or  the  test  Lick  by a f l a s h i n g no  to  encouraging.  specifically responses  attenuate  psychological  therapists  undergraduates  set  control)  acute  were n o t  respiration  given  investigators  during  smaller  pace  flash  2-second  warning  These reduced  of  can  c o u l d reduce  Katkin,  14 male  i n which s u b j e c t s  One p a i n f u l  and  light  conductance  periods  the  (Baseline  on e v e r y  to  pattern  i n response  results  on a u t o n o m i c  depth  to  the  studies  study,  rate  pacing  to  and b e h a v i o u r a l  by H a r r i s ,  respiratory subjects  arousal  were c o n d u c t e d  In g e n e r a l ,  the  breathing  diaphragmatic breathing  respiration control  stress  one's  enthusiasts  systems.  One of  of  self-reported  These  by m e d i t a t i o n the  control  in  found rate  that  to match  practice  periods  the  period  s k i n conductance  expectation  subjects  than  pace  set  voluntarily by  showed  levels did  who  timing  significantly  during  subjects  a  pre-shock in  either  23 no-treatment finding  or  suggests  attention  control  that  r e s p i r a t i o n can a t t e n u a t e  paced  arousal,  no measures  of  obtained  to  that  specified heart at  verify  breathing  rate  mean  control  In  bpm r e s p e c t i v e l y .  slow  one's  breathing  resting  Holmes, in  male  students  of  Subjects  quietly,  their spent  (2)  25 -  30  to  this  tracing  the  subjects  i n each  electric  shock  received  no  No group latter  of  of  the  In  approximately than  conditions.  next  rate  five  their  adaptation  c o n d i t i o n were  In  rate 84.1  minutes  period,  interval.  or  After  to  bpm and to  one-half  of  findings  control their  expect  with study,  while  a  amplitude  was  either:  (1)  own r e s p i r a t i o n  led  for  attempting  30 m i n u t e s and  in vivo.  high  subjects  similar  respiratory  for  the  relaxing.  reported  quietly  pattern  that  were  the  breathing  suggests  respiratory  the  (3) this, a  The r e m a i n i n g  tracing  attempting 50%  of  signalled subjects  shock.  differences  condition.  was  (1978)  sat  In a 9 0 - s e c o n d  threat  subjects  rather  hand-copying  from M i n u t e s reproduce  heart  to  control  was  mean  a  autonomic  adopted  the  Idiosyncratic  and a t t e n t i o n  tracing  obtained. sitting  arousing  and Solomon  and f e m a l e  polygraph  is  actually  paced  finding  such  volume  for  control  down  tidal  questionable  contrast,  rate  Although  and  had  Also  This  comparing  no-treatment 111  levels  McCaul  a study  subjects  and b a s e l i n e  84.9  normal  rate  bpm) o b s e r v e d  post-practice.  attention  respiration  pattern.  (90.0  groups.  the  in  heart  threat  rate  were  condition,  found however,  for  this  subjects  24 who p r e v i o u s l y by hand or  copied  in vivo  self-reported  their  showed  anxiety  One c o n c l u s i o n  from  than  these require  breathing,  increase  rather  more e f f e c t i v e , the  breathing  condition  surprising  for  considering  control  this  problem,  potential maintain  the  with  practiced  one's  coping with showed  subjects  breathing  the  to  activity, apparently that  In  hardly  the seems  to  practice  to  practice recognized  manipulation's  instruct  pattern  coping  fact  investigators  not  group.  arousal  10 m i n u t e s  undermined  by d e c i d i n g  The  had  and  controlled  and  subjects  had  the  as  usual,  increased  time  rates  learned  threat.  resting  (subjects  further  effectiveness  newly  autonomic  Although  they  that  tracing  no-treatment  decrease  how l i t t l e  strategy).  the  heart  than  to  such an u n n a t u r a l maneuver the  is  greater  such  group  relative  in  respiratory  concentration,  interfere  methods  controlled  threat  they  subjects results  which  because  phase  significantly  strategies  possibly  adaptation  during  subjects the  to  stressor  period.  In a more r e c e n t  study,  Cappo and Holmes  redress  some of  the  studies  by:  including a larger  (2)  recording  subjects and  (1)  (3)  three  the  physiological  practiced  one  of  three  Including attentin  different  and e q u i v a l e n t minutes  weaknesses  of  breathing length  practice  of  number of  changes  that  different  techniques  a special  attempted  breathing dependent took  control  while  groups.  expirations.  pacing clock,  measures,  techniques,  were f a s t - s l o w , and  to  control  place  breathing  and n o - t r e a t m e n t  inspirations  with  earlier  (1984)  The  slow-fast, After  subjects  5  were  25 told of  to m a i n t a i n  the  experiment.  conditions sometime  of  were  in  then  the  The r e s u l t s that  of  this  pattern,  arousal  levels.  ineffective  in  to  although  one's  general  i n each  s t r a t e g y was various it  is  expected  far  breathing  not  clear to  been r e s t i n g  of  the  end  the  five  electric  shock  Conditions  were  that  no m e n t i o n  was method  was  (1978) match  a  are  to  subjects  rather  strategies  and s e l f - r e p o r t e d trend  to  contain  than  for the  were  arousal  the  fast  perception  of  levels.  can be  drawn r e g a r d i n g breathing.  arousal  these  studies  brief  to  techniques  quietly  to  increases  a  increases  why  al.'s  pattern  breathing  length  too  further  rate,  and/or  of  et  i n which  cardiovascular  controlled  rate  level  one  resting  conclusions of  breathing  A l l three  expiration  studies  respiration  However,  except  c o n f i r m e d Holmes  there  pre-arousal  predetermined  their  reducing  inspiration-slow  laboratory  i n each  period".  condition  especially  decreases  Some  until  a signalled  "wait  one's  half  at  subjects  expect  study  roughly  arousal  to  the  pattern  shocks.  at  threat  breathing  of  a 90-second  altering  predetermined breath  told  no-threat  electric  finding  practiced One-half  following  identical made  the  the  reduce for  fairly for  First,  inspiration  rather  than  practice  of  assess  the  attenuating  different arousal  up to  of  30 m i n u t e s .  three  altering to  some  limits the  of  Floor  the  Second,  conditions  after  it.  control  potential  arousal.  control  levels  these  were  subjects  had  effects  may  26  have  masked any  have  had.  Third,  conditions efficacy  was of  respiration subsequent it  is  beneficial  not  the  degree  the activity  known how a c c u r a t e l y  breathing  patterns  data,  the  Why measure The  l o n g been Sharp, the  other  hand,  Helbick,  1981;  body's  oxygen Mead the  when  et  al.,  there et  are al.,  stress  method  and e l i m i n a t i n g thorax  two moving p a r t s  differed  studies  and  assigned  or  not  from  open  to  the  control  conditions.  is  the  therefore,  the  whether  the  Fourth,  measured;  threat  Without  question.  movement? in breathing  (e.g.  1976).  mode  Konno & Mead,  has 1968;  Psychophysiologists, little  some  attention  notable  to  exceptions  on such (e.g.  1981).  i n c l u d i n g measures  studying  the  these  paid r e l a t i v e l y  principal  (1967),  and  stress  testing  practice  performed  known  by p h y s i o l o g i s t s  have  not  m o n i t o r i n g changes  Druz  for  of  control  might  the  procedures.  subjects  and a b d o m i n a l  Svebak  One r e a s o n excursion  trained  of  although  for  was  it  anticipation  recognized  changes,  the  of  thoracic  Goldberg,  inadequate  subjects  nor i s  validity  importance  by  control  periods  techniques  induced  during breathing  threat/no-threat  d u r i n g the  breathing  arousal  breathing  manipulations  these  of  the  m i n i m a l and t h e r e f o r e  breathing  subjects  effect  of  responses for  or components  is  that  replenishing  carbon d i o x i d e . or r i b c a g e  thoracic  and of  According the the  and  abdominal  they  represent  its to  supply Konno  abdomen respiratory  of and  constitute system.  27 Furthermore, other  in  the  however,  action  of  the  into  during  of  compressed  the  lower  very  both  the  the  volume,  the  forming 1986).  the  results  inflated  forcing air  out  in  the  is  the  separating  of  apposition  contracted,  downward  of  it  on  viscera this  as the  can  be  contraction  to  displace  a  second  outward. group  of  i n an outward d i s p l a c e m e n t  of  of  intrathoracic  to  Bishop,  periphery,  zone  abdominal  is  r e t u r n the process  the  ribcage  pressure  essentially  r e s p i r a t o r y muscles lungs  to  respiration.  When  walls  be c o u p l e d  muscle  pushes  expansion  Expiration of  a  the  Typically,  coupling  At i t s  intercostals,  a negative  to  of  (Hirsch &  of  of  downward f o r c e  outward  Relaxation the  Since  also  inflation.  of  appear  sheet  diaphragm  external  This  abdomen g e n e r a t e s  process.  lungs.  muscle  a b d o m i n a l and r i b c a g e  muscles,  forces  the  little,  inspiratory  lung  the  compartments.  & Kelsen,  abdomen.  of  ribcage.  primary  ribs,  Supinski,  the  the  thoracic  Contraction  in  independently  ribcage-abdomen  a dome-shaped  inspiration,  contents  ventilating  apparent  diaphragm,  (Nochomowitz,  the  of  moves  and a b d o m i n a l movement  diaphragm i s  inserts  parts  d u r i n g i n s p i r a t i o n and e x p i r a t i o n  a b d o m i n a l and  causes  these  Underlying this  The the  of  process  thoracic  some e x t e n t 1981).  each  allows lung  to  (McLaughlin,  and/or  that  results  the  reverse  the  elastic  its  resting  1977;  West,  1974).  To the able  to  extent  move  that  the  outward),  abdominal Inspiration  wall  is  compliant  can  be  considered  (i.e. pre-  28 dominantly contract,  abdominal however,  inspiratory dominance what  is  the  movement  of  either  referred  in  to  associated  shifts  of  in  noninvasive, known as changes  the  the  one  abdomen.  the  (Grimsby,  estimate  ribcage  of  is  or  the  ribcage two  volume.  While  extensive  spirometer mask)  al,  to  1972;  of  (subjects  t i d a l volume  to  and the  strain the  obtain  to  output  of  volume  1986).  Dual  evidence  increase  obtain  other  the these  around  or  a spirometer,  it  that  may is  or  and  respiratory  rate  findings  and  the  invasive  a mouthpiece  Such  the  require  worth  the  (Gilbert,  the  transducer  into  methods  1960).  of  in r e s p i r a t o r y rate  that  a  otherwise  bands  gauges  argues  breath  noninvasive Mead,  used  1976).  sum of  can be c o m p l i c a t e d and  because  apparatus  relative  Brodsky et  process  (Tobin,  are  r e c o r d i n g changes  t r a i n i n g , Tobin  effort  causes  decrease  this  subject  additional  for  the  the  compartments  can  transducer  plethysmography  of  taking  abdomen  bands must be c a l i b r a t e d a g a i n s t means  by  the  by  & Mead,  i n s p i r a t i o n volume,  dual  a r o u n d the  exerted  one  is  respiratory  two r e s p i r a t o r y  done  and  Whatever  Goldman,  breathing,  of  The  change  both  pressure  process  The o u t p u t  traditional  in  the  gauges  attached  changes  of  This  c o m p l i a n t and  i n t r a t h o r a c i c pressure  volume  muscles  predominance.  term " b r e a t h i n g mode".  respiratory-induetive data,  ribcage  way i n w h i c h  the  strain  becomes l e s s  by  reliable  i n both  abdominal  of  a function  the  the  source  t i d a l volume.  silastic  towards  r e s p i r a t o r y muscles  Because interact  are  As  abdominal w a l l  dominant b r e a t h i n g mode, compartments  origin.  face to  Auchincloss, call  into  29 question recent masks  the  reliability  stress to  Carroll  response  obtain et  al.  (1986)).  stress  research  the  use  stress  Evidence  The  for  breathing Sharp e t as  that  tasks  the  involving  breathing  using  associated the  chest  with  to  excursions  as  participated  in  included  data  81 male six  to  increasing  tidal  functional volume  and  Because  magnetometers  each  maneuver  second  time  thoracic  was  with  data  by  ribcage  done  subjects the  on  sum of  (1986); problems  precludes  seated  was  A second  of  maneuvers.  the  to  thoracic  and  fixed  various  by  By  slow  breathing, forced  loud  postural  ages  maneuvers  breath,  supine  upright.  changes  magnetometers  quieting  and  to  abdominal  followed  speech,  in  of  These  successive  by  attached  from b o t h  capacity),  to  known  device  amplitude  sensitive once  devices  distance  subjects  each  abdomen  investigated  monitoring  the  quiet  twice,  al.  and  anteroposterior  residual  are  et  apparatus  inspirations  expiration,  or  additional  extensively  and female  with  mouthpieces  Allen  One magnetometer  breathing  inspiration the  the  Recordings  (deep  in  modes.  respiratory excursions.  relaxation  expiration  poses  noninvasive  during breathing.  were o b t a i n e d  (e.g.  obtained  speech.  was  measure  abdomen p r o v i d e d  data  either  breathing  c o n t r i b u t i o n of  (1975)  subject's  w h i c h used  Spirometry  i n normal s u b j e c t s al.  respiration  recordings  r e s p i r a t i o n magnetometers.  the  to  in  different  relative  the  studies  spirometer  for  of  of  speech. changes,  position  and  dividing  abdominal  a the  amplitude  30  scores,  a measure  compartment was  Sharp e t  of  the  relative  motion  al.  found  that  Nevertheless,  some p a t t e r n s  others.  For i n s t a n c e ,  in  small;  larger  ribcage  observed  upright.  or a m p l i t u d e  when  lower of  the  the tidal  these  than  the  of  posture  volume  the  ratio  amplitude  (women) of tidal  the  findings  to  in  showed  by  the  suggest  maneuver  of  to  young  simply  thoracic  again  in  pattern  while  seated  breathing  the  the  volume  for  25%  the  ribcage  upright  rest  quietly,  4%  When s e a t e d men  and  displacement.  to  to  Age and  in  tidal  position, 28%  72%  sex  effect  total  (men)  4%  is  perform  the  supine  upright,  of  position.  the  61%  change  compliance  displacement  was  excursion,  the  In  were  reverse  that  apparent.  81% of  displacement  women,  that  reflects  than  amplitudes)  thoracic  Given  and  thoracic  a b d o m e n - d i a p h r a g m when s u b j e c t s  volume.  ribcage  condition,  quietly the  age  common  abdominal  breathed  breathing  same  more  (i.e  Essentially  compartment  accounted  tidal  volume  attributable  was  far  volumes  volumes.  were a s k e d  displacement  thoracic  the  on  the  women  volumes,  a deep b r e a t h i n g - r e l a x a t i o n  When s u b j e c t s  young  men and 83% of  tidal  of  were  exclusively  a given  compartment,  more c o m p l i a n t  respiratory  maneuver,  relaxationsupine  subjects  almost  at  of  given  subjects  displacement.  F o r 91% of  especially  the  tidal  when  accomplished  that  93%  breathing  with  exceeded was  and  across  a  gender.  predominant  somewhat  for  varied  young men  each  obtained.  patterns  the  of  4% 3%  women had  of was  little  31  impact  on' b r e a t h i n g  Nearly  a l l subjects  thoracic  breathers  Greater when  the  were  posture  individuals,  and l e s s  however,  therefore  increased  or spoke was so  were  nature  be  characteristics  They  capable  o f more  muscles  and t h a t  expected  change In  i n their  versions heart  breathing  the  marked  for data  what  these linking  these  ribcage  excursions i s deep  Sharp factors  muscles and  are  abdominal should  and/or  a  must  behavior).  diaphragm  breathing  and  responses),  sources  to uncover  the  most  Age  the  correlational  that  for  i n  f a c t o r s , p o s s i b l y of  thoracic  be  rapid.  responses.  t o one t y p e 13  inspiration,  to  anxiety  e t a l . (1981) demonstrated  counterbalanced changes  where  stress  study,  and  occurred  position.  respiratory  than  consequently  i n response  their  Other  for  though  of  unrelated  potential  with  rapid action  Thoracic-abdominal  supine  thoracic  supine  d i d not attempt  to predominate  Svebak  the  (1980)  d i d note  depth  predominantly  as  personality  be.  posture.  mode  Once a g a i n ,  (e.g. learned  ( s e e Haas  might  their  pattern.  considered  h i s colleagues  of  when  i n breathing  aloud.  l n  differences  and  breathers  generally  i n breathing  psychological  to the e f f e c t  upright.  purposely  upright  differences  abdominal  when  forcefully,  gender,  i n comparison  inter-subject variation  subjects  breathed  mode  male (easy  that  of acute  breathing  psychological  undergraduates and h a r d ) of a v i d e o  r a t e , forearm  EMG,  skin  mode  does  challenge.  played  two  game  while  conductance  and  32 respiration changes  were  i n both  measured.  the  circumference  and a b d o m i n a l compartments mercury-filled another  strain  around  breathing  mode change  increased  of  the  game.  and  thoracic  of  c o u l d be  beginning  eliciting  of  the  abdominal  largest  amplitude.  basis  respiratory  the  muscle  chest  and  degree  of  an e s t i m a t e  of  of  EMG  the  the  had  second  long  respiration  rate  contrast, task.  abdominal different  r e s p i r a t i o n amplitude.  Thoracic  their  performance,  drop  150  levels  A  in  By t a s k ' s  lowest  the  amplitudes,  end,  had i n c r e a s e d  of  these  changes  parallel  roughly  occurring  one  to  levels  at  difficult  game  especially  for  the  for  however,  scores  within approximately  90%  of  levels.  On the  challenge  that  In  d r o p p e d to  game  ribcage  fastening  the  were f o u n d f o r  for  both  the  subject's  revealed  throughout  emerged  the  b o t h game v e r s i o n s baseline  data  decreased  breath  obtained.  circumference.  results  by  comparing  d u r i n g both v e r s i o n s  and a b d o m i n a l e x c u r s i o n s the  By  Similar increases  circumference  each  by  of  r e s p i r a t o r y compartment,  EMG  gradually  video  pattern  i n each  breath  and a m p l i t u d e  around  abdomen.  change  of  were made p o s s i b l e  gauge  his  amplitude  Analysis  Recording  monotonic  for  Svebak e t  associated  increases  throughout  and n o t  findings,  in  with  somatic  increase  this  task  the  viscera  in  took  al.  acute activity.  concluded  psychological Furthermore,  physiological place  (i.e.  only  heart  that  for rate  activity skeletal and  skin  33  conductance).  In c o n t r a s t ,  highest  levels  shortly  suggest  that  functioning can be  a  after  or  negative,  Of g r e a t e r  evidence  acute  ference  system.  respiratory  changes  Unfortunately, by  the  of  possible  of  reactor  As  small  the  subgroups  respiratory  the  effective  dual  strain  (n = 1 3 ) .  c o u l d not  mode,  will  exaggerated  stress  Conclusions  and  assessing response emphasized  of  to  results  of  cardiac  preliminary  in  the  these  for also  is  the  sample.  who  measures,  show  including  p r o v i d e a more c o n v i n c i n g d a t a attempts  range  existence  this  individuals  in  limited  considerable  responses,  the  measuring  findings  the  of  demonstrated.  determined with  techniques  circum-  components  is  physiological  outcomes  individual's  provide  means  Given  where  base to  for  reduce  hypotheses.  review,  respiratory  acute that  be  Such  the  changes  their  responses.  preceding both  on  gauges  identifying  on a number of  tasks  they  An  earlier,  in  independent  significance  size  began.  can i n d u c e two  reached  dissociation  occurs  relevance,  breathing control  the  task.  r e s p i r a t o r y and a u t o n o m i c  hyperresponses  In  via  sample  mentioned  teaching  of  measures  depending  stressors  and a m p l i t u d e  respiratory  the  activity  performance. that  latter  performance-related  and s o m a t i c  positive  these  a and  psychological  sympathetically  rationale  was  developed  for  changes  in  cardiovascular challenge. mediated  It  was  reactivity  first of  the  34  cardiovascular predictor  of  mechanisms  system  the in  et  al.  value stress  changes  of  are  clear  accomplished  that  the  inadequate.  tend  the  compartments,  the  chest  al.'s  source (1981)  demonstrates to the  the  shifted  of  of  task  teaching  to a l t e r  and the  these  of  in  the  abdomen,  measures  psychologically difficulty.  these  Given  thoracic findings  that  traditional  these  provide  it  should  studies  independent as  tasks  an  Svebak  in  sensitive  that not  it only  but a l s o  breathing  some  are  and/or  responses.  dominance  d i a p h r a g m a t i c b r e a t h i n g as  how  considered  challenging  by  ventilation  relevance are  with  how  two  was  for  measures  amplitude  system's  particular  latter  cardiac  demonstrated  responses, in  a  main  support  which  and  reported  respiratory  is  alter  cardio-respiratory  breathing  data  the  from s t u d i e s  considering  changes  greater  tasks,  (1983)  i n f o r m a t i o n on b r e a t h i n g  study  towards  challenging for  of  that  effects  level  al.  be  concomitantly  came  physiologically  Monitoring of  et  et  briefly  respiratory  circumference  alternate  support  i n c l u d i n g comprehensive  a s s e s s m e n t methods be  Further  After  of  p r o v i d e d some i n i t i a l  and C a r r o l l  research.  outline  r e s p i r a t o r y changes  responses.  (1986)  An  may p o s s i b l y  r e s p i r a t o r y parameters  functioning  stress-induced  stressors  disease.  by w h i c h v a r i o u s  cardiovascular Allen  laboratory  cardiovascular  and b l o o d v e s s e l measuring  to  patterns  throughout initial  a technique  to  the  support  for  reducing  arousal.  One p u r p o s e Svebak  et  al.'s  of  the  present  findings  using  study  is  a larger  to a t t e m p t subject  to  replicate  sample  and  a  35  different  task  of  which b r e a t h i n g covary of  T-wave  pattern  measures  amplitude,  respiratory untapped,  excursions.  (Sharp e t  breathing might  mode  be  thoracic  The  given  Svebak  et  their  active  coping  levels  can be a r g u e d  easy  and h a r d  al's  of  test  of  Little  physical  to  be  the  on  onset  of  a  to the  game)  a mental mode  to  of  as  yet  during  this  study  excursions  relative  to  to  be a  include  useful  Svebak  et  will  al.  index  of  data,  it  shift  task  effect and  towards  like  hard  a video  sensitivity  mental  on b r e a t h i n g  of  significantly In  game  task to  mode  versions  elicited  fact,  stressor,  represent  a  stress  load.  arithmetic  tasks;  difficulty  cognitively  this  tasks.  arithmetic  between  and  is  r e q u i r e d i n mental  differences result  in  and a b d o m i n a l a m p l i t u d e .  i n comparison  is  time,  as  assessed  challenge  (a v i d e o  such  not  stress  easy  of  included  mode  that  ribcage  exertion  are  it  arousal,  interactions  have  to  inclusion  further,  study  a differential  breathing  response  found  of  finding task  other  The  transit  provide  thoracic  breathing  the  have  that,  therefore,  will  Based  level  versions  better  likely  1975)  with  may a l s o  pulse  studies  one  that  difficulty  different  in  variations.  dominance  arithmetic  stress  The  al.,  expected  pulse,  extent  hyperreactivity  and s o m a t i c  A n o t h e r measure  change  the  cardiac  on c a r d i o - r e s p i r a t o r y  laboratory  taskinduced  measure  volume  so,  become c l e a r e r .  autonomic  challenge.  which p r e v i o u s  abdominal  should  and  variability,  information  By d o i n g  changes  of  blood  movement  psychological  it  duration.  i n normal s u b j e c t s  additional  the  longer  mediated  conditions arousal  36 rather  than b y - p r o d u c t s  A second not  purpose  individuals  to  different  of  may be  (1986)  by low  considered  to  and  reactors  also  sample it  or n o t of  respiratory difficulty The  results  active  to  be  of  1981).  the  young males  to  occurs  that under  different of  the  an u n c o u p l i n g ordinarily (e.g.  The p o s s i b i l i t y  to  studies  the  Carroll  et  that  in  be  et  pressor  al. test In  hyper-  synchrony  cardioof  coping  here  cardiac  1983;  larger  Furthermore,  levels  or  task.  a  apparent  active  and  time  with  seen.  reviewed  al.,  hyper-  pressor  reaction  the  group  cardiovascular  consequences  of  On  Allen  cold  this  of  those  hyporeactors.  different  types  operate  exists  by  a cold  the  also  than  developing  than  test  reactor  replicated  remains  to a v o i d a v e r s i v e  requirements  for  avoidance  demonstrated  high  or  significantly  reactors.  greatest  can be  pressor  subjects  with  Research  p r o p o r t i o n of  a shock  several  causes  risk  whether  changes  the  hyperreactors  findings  and a c r o s s  responses which bolic  to  covariation  coping  bonuses  such  healthy  needs  greater  experienced  arousal  findings,  a cold  other  rate  a n d / o r more r a p i d l y  a considerable  to  tasks  heart  activity.  determine  challenge  disease.  that  addition,  Whether  to  cardiovascular  be a t  suggests  more d e e p l y  respiratory  is  to  (1983)  or c o r o n a r y h e a r t  breathe  muscular  relative  or moderate  al.'s  also  study  mental  respiratory  Wood e t  tension  this  excessive  subsequent  experienced basis  of  increased  whose c a r d i a c a d j u s t m e n t s  may be c o n s i d e r e d respond  of  to  tasks.  suggest  gain and  task  that  monetary  respiratory meet  Svebak  such u n c o u p l i n g of  et  metaal.,  otherwise  37  parallel  responses  in  subjects  ( A l l e n et  al.,  nately,  the  unacceptably employs the  sizes  low,  ranging  that  sample  breathing  training  to  times  stress.  of  In summary, present  1)  activity, ribcage  post-hoc  al.,  clear  hyperresponders  up  a subset  1981).  A  this  were  study  that  ambiguity.  have  a  are  affect including  and/or  addressed  difficulty  breathing  of  breathing  from during  in  arithmetic  are  like  of  mental  respiratory  rate,  amplitude  of  the  variability  of  rhythmlcity), (either  these  and  thoracic  changes  the or  sensitive  manipulations?  respiratory  adaptation  To what  breathing  In a d d i t i o n ,  task  indices  (i.e.  mode  abdominal)?  Are the  multiple  coping  with  measures m e n t i o n e d continued  above  performance  of  sensitive a  mental  task?  extent  do  task-elicited  respiratory  To  thoracicly  they may b e n e f i t to  of  Unfortu-  comparisons  prior  questions  to  6.  also  during stress,  and a b d o m i n a l e x c u r s i o n s ,  predominant  3)  these  does an a c t i v e  such e x c u r s i o n s  to  et  would  following  extent  arithmetic  2)  Turner  diaphragmatically  the  limited  study:  To what  to  is  from n = 3 to n =  pattern  breathe  systems  in  size  cardiac  dominant  two  1986;  sample  a larger  extent  the  changes  the  38 correspond vascular  to  changes  arousal,  b l o o d volume  Are  task-elicited  indices  If  pulse,  associated of  task  of  initial  with  vascular  cold pressor  response metic  and  cardio-  T-wave  transit  in  ampli-  time?  cardio-respiratory  subjective  subgroups heart test,  from e a c h  and  behavioural  to e a s y  will  other  in  these terms  changes  "Do changes  in breathing  the  to  subgroups of  the  of  covary  with  an  cardio-  a mental being  the  differ  experienced  question  mode  on  adjustments  and h a r d v e r s i o n s  In e s s e n c e ,  differences  can be formed  rate  respiratory  task?  group  of  difficulty?  subjects'  significantly  rate,  and p u l s e  changes  meaningful reactor  basis  indices  including heart  tude,  activity  In s e v e r a l  in  arith-  asked  is  expected  in cardiovascular reactivity?".  39  Me thod Subjects One h u n d r e d male for  course  20.9,  Subjects  SD = 0 . 3 3 ) .  subjects and  credit.  the  were use  preceding  Prior  to  instructed  to  of  the  tobacco,  experiment  al.,  1981).  data  were a v a i l a b l e  The  Due  decision  to  to  considerations. male  subjects  compare  subjects  data  collection  Investigators  in  separate  ranged  i n age  avoid  session  only  92  only  of  the  male  previous  a similar  and  interpretation.  reported  gender  predominant  Svebak,  pose  and a l s o  analyses  for  each  (which  it  was  decided  sex to  use  only  hours et  complete  area  have  two used  required.  Second,  problems  instance,  of  to  on  directly  certain  In  results,  two  to  differences  the  all  activity  based  order  For  1975).  study,  Hutcheson  was this  was  mode  (mean =  subjects.  in  population  study  30  for  Berg,  in  and,  could  to  difficulties,  studies  genders  the  physical  coffee  100  of  test),  the  subjects  both  press;  in  (Jennings,  exclusively  and/or  18  strenuous and  in  from  participation  alcohol  employ  have  interpretation  the  of  amplitude  Linden,  for  almost  findings,  participated  r e c o r d i n g equipment  First,  using  rate,  undergraduates  In  in  several  respiratory  respiration  (e.g.  order  to  facilitate  avoid  the  need  would  reduce  the  power  for of  males.  A p p a r a tus Electrocardiographic  (ECG)  activity  was  recorded  with  40 bipolar lower of  recording electrodes  ribcage.  the  A ground e l e c t r o d e  subject's  relatively  large  equivalent  to  was  9857)  neck.  This  T-waves  via  in  ECG s i g n a l s .  a  the  prior  I  in  to  pulse  manual f o r generate  (BVP)  photoplethysmograph finger  of  the  was  setting  used  for  of  on  the  (1986).  attached the  armpits  umbilicus. into set  for  methods  each and  used  to  complete  30 Hz  with  settings  were  been  a tip  found  in  Blood  Sensormedics of  the  interfaced  (Sensormedics,  Model  the  other  et  al.  recordings  changes,  Resistance  10 uv/mm of  respiratory activity  by Svebak  obtain  subject,  a Sensormedics at  coupler  signal  signals.  via  then  yield  vectorially  at  and have  on the  and  set  ECG  back  to  obtain  These  cleanest  the  (Sensormedics,  to  was  coupler  hand  measuring  amplitude to  filter  the  index with  9853A). of  5  a A  uv/mm  signal.  In o r d e r  abdominal  order  of  The ECG  coupler  in  placed  to  known  1981).  monitored  w h i c h was  is  30 Hz and s t a n d a r d a m p l i f i c a t i o n  this  The method part  the  nondomlnant  attached  50 uv/mm.  the  was  voltage/pulse/pressure filter  of  positions  an ECG s i g n a l  cardiotachometer  "Direct" position  the  also  (Constant,  The c a r d i o t a c h o m e t e r  studies  volume  was  configuration  a s t a n d a r d ECG a m p l i f i c a t i o n recommended  on l a t e r a l  and p r o d u c e s  standard lead  processed  Model  placed  one  two  Bellows  a r o u n d the  located  changes  of  at  the  from one  a m p l i f i c a t i o n with  (1981)  based and  in  Linden  both  thoracic  strain  gauges  and were  chest  at  the  level  level  of  the  abdominal  strain  voltage/pulse/pressure  was  gauge  coupler  a filter  were  (Model  setting  of  of  fed  9853A) 3  Hz.  41 Output  from  strain  the  gauge  strain  coupler  amplification  with  gauge/coupler respiratory  second  gauge was  (Model  a filter  pairings  setting  were  compartments  of  and s i g n a l  gain  and most  the  The  settings  couplers  respiratory  system  was  predetermined  times  calculated  on the  length  time  of  voltage  (TWA).  by c o m p u t i n g  the  corresponding from  the  hard  disk  and  interfaced  high  signal  basis  at  of  between  Pulse  a time  the  transit  delay  printer.  c o u l d be  R-wave  hard  processed  a  cleanest  4-channel with  was  as  the  The  defined  (PTT) scores  peak T-wave  were  obtained  peak  and  A l l cardiovascular stored  copy  Since by  on a 10  printouts only  the  at  rate  defined  peaks  this  intervals  peaks.  an 9000  for  Heart  R-wave  and  Victor  second  R-wave  peak.  filter  testing.  written  intervals,  program were  real-time  speed  30  between e a c h pulse  the  a  experiment.  time  signal  the  interfaced  software  interbeat  resulting  and/or  with  and  in  successive  processing on  data  two  cardiovascular  R.611,  successive  b l o o d volume  signal  the  of  strain  the  confound  in pilot  integrated  throughout  two  with  yielded  converter  sample  time  that  processing  r e a d i n g between  amplitude  The  a Beckman uv/mm  For both c o u p l e r s ,  Model  (A/D)  to  30 H z .  sensitivity  both  were  Signal  set  the  those  for  Dynograph,  microcomputer.  in  were  used  analogue-to-digitai  100  polygraph tracings  measures  Sensormedics  of  into  at  to a v o i d a p o s s i b l e  two c o u p l e r s .  interpretable  set  counterbalanced  from u n d e t e r m i n e d d i f f e r e n c e s processing  9872)  channeled  one  the data  megabyte from  an  respiratory  waveform  analysis  42 software,  data  polygraph cardiac paper  from  paper  for  both manual,  and BVP s i g n a l s  to  strain  gauges  were  post-experimental  were  also  permit c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n  recorded  recorded  on  analysis.  on  the  The  polygraph  checks.  Procedure Throughout  the  experiment,  recliner  chair.  movements  and changes  affected  the  in  the  frequency  on of  and  cardiovascular  disorders  personal  suffering  from asthma  pulmonary  hypertension rate,  individuals (Tobin,  1986).  A  volume,  brief  response  (Appendix B ) ,  after  they  form ( A p p e n d i x C ) .  on s k i n a b r a d e d and c l e a n e d ribcage subject.  and abdomen In o r d e r  A).  overview  strain to e n s u r e  was  with  the  study  of  then  accurate  to  read  such  subjects  were  sign  of  a  placed  Finally,  fastened  recordings  and  subjects  and  ECG e l e c t r o d e s  were  of  the  experiment given  to  or  because  normal  the  and  individuals  ventilation  those  of  infection,  rubbing a l c o h o l .  gauges  history  Any  a  smoking  respiratory  from the  were a s k e d  Next,  weight,  respiratory  of  have  complete  family  and minute  body  might  to  height,  Appendix  apparatus  which  asked  of  from  extraneous  in a  recordings.  history  were e x c l u d e d  markedly  physiological  consent  (see  upright  otherwise  exercise,  (symptomatic),  tidal  differ  were  age,  physical  hypertension,  respiration  that  subjects their  seated  minimized  posture  lab,  questionnaire  habits,  situation  were  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r and r e s p i r a t o r y  Upon e n t e r i n g brief  This  subjects  the  around  the  thoracic  and  43  abdominal  amplitude  volumes,  the  subjects  breath  gauge  position  shifted  from a l l  position, were  to  instructions This  adaptation effect  minute first  of  the  the  instructions  for  were  tidal  checked  by  having  times.  If  either  and r e c h e c k e d .  Cables  two  in  the  (easy  given has  until  the  end  previously  been  can  at  have  McEachern  &  period  the on  in  wall  to  which  of found  same  the  subjects  No  specific  the  adaptation  to  facilitate  time  limiting  physiological  Frankish,  served  the  first  subjects During  for  as  1985).  the  (see  the  Subjects  hard  were  separated  minute  recording  mental  math and  task  (the  the  response The  final  baseline  for  period,  detailed  arithmetic the  two  math)  was  of was  two  trial  pressor  a script  a 10  the  minute  mental  were  blocks.  these  recovery Detailed  then  given  arithmetic  trial  counterbalanced to  test)  of  obtained.  task  randomly a s s i g n e d the  cold  Appendix D for  last  baseline the  adaptation  stress  The o r d e r of  break  followed  l a b o r a t o r y while  the  to  (Appendix E ) .  5-second  or  readjusted  period  following  a second  instructions  subjects.  one  was  of  task.  instructions).  blocks  gauges  range  and r e a d Herman c a r t o o n s .  adaptation  provided  ,  relax  (Linden,  stressor  period  was  entire  through a hole  anticipation  Immediately  were  fed  the  deeply  it  procedure  to  that  adaptation  these  adaptation  were e n c o u r a g e d  period.  over  r e c o r d i n g room.  A 10-minute  task  of  i n and out  devices  neighboring  changes  task  across  orders.  Following  A the  44 second  b l o c k of  minutes then F)  to  the  before  a brief  r e m o v a l of  debriefed for  relax  completed  before  equations,  To summarize first  blocks  the  recovery  period.  arithmetic  subjects  were  remaining  In a l l  task.  design:  the  with  They  (Appendix  Subjects (see  were  Appendix  each  the  of  recovery  G  hard  three  two  conditions  a  tasks  treatment  being  task  preceded 50%  while  of the  first.  multiple (cold  two  5-minute  first  problems  by  a  conditions,  equations  within-subject  constitutes  subjects  period,  and f i n a l l y  cold pressor  easy  the  the  study,  adaptation period followed  the  math)  latter  five  obtained.  this  two math t a s k  to a  in  a 10-minute  cases,  responded  cross-over  and h a r d  test,  F o r the  presented  50%  further  questionnaire  participation  a r i t h m e t i c problems,  approximates  only  their  was  apparatus.  procedure followed  procedure  math,  recording  a  script).  the  of  given  post-experimental  cold pressor  5-minute  were  recording  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a 10-minute  a 1-minute  the  a final  and t h a n k e d f o r  debriefing  subjects  This  treatment  pressor,  easy  condition,  with  counterbalanced  across  subjects.  Experimental Cold  for  Tasks  Pressor. All  subjects  one  minute  Celsius  ice  were  asked  to  Immerse  their  in a f o u r - l i t e r container  water  after  being  told  filled  that  nondominant with  other  of  4  subjects  hand -  6 had  45 successfully that  this  blood rate  task  reported  et  output,  al.,  considerable (Murakami,  task.  Previous  significant  cardiac  Allen  task  this  elicits  pressure, (e.g.  this  completed  increases  tidal  1986).  studies in  volume,  have  such  indices  and  respiratory  Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s  increases  found  have  in peripheral resistance  H i w a d a , & Kokubu,  as  also during  1980).  Mental A r i t h m e t i c . The m e n t a l blocks  of  arithmetic  presented study and  to  (n=10)  the  arithmetic  increases  subtraction, two-digit  problems  elicit  do e a s i e r  ones  the  using has  easy  10  each.  of  the  large  or  but w i t h  that,  et  and h a r d were  screen  as  those  and  a  was  of  heart  the  by  rate the  addition,  involved  three-digit  the  more  and same  numbers.  manipulation  autonomic  and pilot  one-digit  the  long  difficult  elicited  involved  on a v e r a g e ,  for  difficult  responses  than  1983).  arithmetic  displayed  A stopwatch  videotape  elicited  difficulty  greater  al.,  on  problems  two-  5-minute  problems  division  a similar  shown  (Carroll  equations  corner  as  of  problems  significantly  arithmetic seconds  twice  two  F i n d i n g s from  problems  The 30 d i f f i c u l t  operations  arithmetic  block  difficult  multiplication,  research  During  monitor.  one  The 30 e a s y  numbers.  mathematical  mental  the  approximately  easy e q u a t i o n s .  Previous  that  of  pre-recorded  by v i d e o  confirmed easy:  consisted  equations  subjects  other  task  the  on a 51 cm v i d e o  function  simultaneously  blocks,  located  marked the  in  respective screen  for  lower  left  the  passage  of  time  46 to  l/100ths  of  a second  V T - 7 P w i t h an RCA instructed the  onset  divided  the  next e q u a t i o n .  into  two  sections  was  emphasized  purpose.  were  correctly  told  answered  the  that at  to  As a f u r t h e r approximately  be  75% of  reviewed  before  recording  sheet,  30,  to  was  the with  on  the  inducement 90% of  problems  provided the  task  subjects to  other  them a t  were  problem  concentrating  presented  Model  Subjects  each  prepared  of  problems  least  would  by  concentrate  subjects  and the  that  had their  conclusion  of  session.  Self-report mental  task.  was  used  Data  indices  arithmetic  the  on  for  the  conditions  A 15 cm v i s u a l this  perceived  were o b t a i n e d  analog  purpose  difficulty  scale  of  immediately  with  labelled  the  two  following endpoints  (Appendix H ) .  Reduction Samples  intervals  cold  of  seconds  obtained  (cold  pressor  pressor  autonomic  were  adaptation  task;  recovery 30-60  of  the  at  (3)  the  period  following (2)  570-600  (mental  150-180  arithmetic;  recovery  o c c u r r i n g over  baseline);  seconds  (Min. 1),  final  activity  pressor  Easy and Hard m e n t a l 5)  answers A  recorder,  CC017).  numbered from 1 to  numbered.  own p e r f o r m a n c e  Model  The i m p o r t a n c e  since  were n o t  subjects  the  down t h e i r  of  this  ( H i t a c h i video  videocamera,  to w r i t e  for  video  accuracy  period.  times:  (1)  seconds (Min.  ( M i n . 3) (5)  For a l l  time  M i n u t e 10  30-60  10)  arithmetic  and  30-second  of  of the  the cold  baseline);  and 270-300 seconds sampling  of  (4)  ( M i n . 5)  of  270-300  (Min.  times  except  47 the  final  baseline,  the  raw d a t a  (beat  breath  recordings)  for  each  subject  single  mean s c o r e s  for  the  following  T-wave  amplitude,  respiration abdominal  rate,  each the  of  of  10 s a m p l i n g  amplitude  of  times  thoracic  a given  bility  was  amplitude  changes  nature  these  that, the  of for  variability,  to  (T:A),  change  was  rate,  transit  time,  the  also  above.  in  period.  strain  standard  deviation  recording  computed By  be e x p r e s s e d Obviously, could  not  be  breath  relative  scores  of  amplitude, reported  varia-  by  The  task-induced  mean  the  resistance  breath  percentages  for  equalled  variability  of as  of  of  definition,  gauge  period.  and a m p l i t u d e  and T : A s c o r e s  and  ratio  R e s p i r a t o r y amplitude  comparisons  values.  heart  variability,  activity,  outlined  each  amplitude  yield  for  meant  changes, the  appro-  amplitude the  two  periods.  Before  c o m p u t i n g mean s c o r e s  files  were  body  movements  artifacts  for  needed  baseline  baseline  the  across-subject  raw d a t a  priate  as  its  to  to  and a b d o m i n a l e x c u r s i o n s  measurement  defined  pulse  and  breath  averaged  variables:  respiratory  mean i n s p i r a t i o n - e x p i r a t i o n within  were  or  variability.  abdominal amplitude  the  beat  pulse,  amplitude  and i t s  measure  to  volume  thoracic  amplitude  A sixth thoracic  blood  to  inspected  were  respiration  and  for  amplitude  artifacts  recording  defined  from the  as  noted  associated  equipment  sudden, on  the  raw  very  data,  all  data  with  extraneous  errors.  Movement  large  polygraph chart  increases  in  tracings  by  48 the  experimenter  these  artifacts  generated  at  the  were  errors  in  analysis  impossibly the  of  omitted the  were more d i f f i c u l t form  time  to  recording.  from f u r t h e r  recording identify.  of  heart  rate  recording period.  subjects,  type  for  the  because  the  program had no p r e v i o u s  which  compare  the  c u r r e n t R-wave  g r a p h ECG t r a c i n g s revealed with  that  very  for  recordings  to  deviated  and s u b s e q u e n t  their  analogue  d a t a were  deleted.  less  than  15% of  than  50% of  the  of  be  b l o o d volume  T-wave a m p l i t u d e s  (b)  respective  S-waves,  appeared  of  their  a minority  small  occasionally  previous  with  Extensive and,  data  R-wave  is,  second  of  with  of  poly-  printouts  particularly  the  transit  the  those  time  output digital and/or  (a)  their  recording interval  polygraph  editing this  they  peak  data  Whenever  pulse  within  periods.  that  program-generated  in a given on  wave-  identified:  by 100% or more from b o t h  counterparts  recording  first  digital  erroneous. pulse,  the  Comparison  subjects, the  values  subjects  peak.  activity  error,  e r r o r s were e a s i l y  occurred to  of  with  Computer-  cardiovascular  one  estimates  These  analyses.  F o r most  program p r o d u c e d o n l y  large  Data a s s o c i a t e d  was  and  tracing,  the  necessary  for  subgroup,  for  fewer  49 Results  Analysis sections: ponses  of  the response  data  (1) cardiovascular,  of a l l subjects  (2)  mental  and  f i f t h  arithmetic quintiles  will  be  r e s p i r a t o r y , and  t o t h e two m e n t a l responses  of heart  reported  major  subjective  arithmetic  of subjects  rate  i n two  res-  conditions;  i n the f i r s t ,  reactivity  third  to the cold  pressor  challenge.  In First,  the f i r s t to what  section,  extent  amplitude  of ribcage  b i l i t y  these  tal is  of  task  do  occurring to  what  extent  respiratory ioural  levels  changes  functioning of  task  responded  differentially  rate  particular mode  that  section i n  of  the  the  the varia-  experimen-  Second,  during to  what  such  tasks?  simultaneously  of arousal?  i n  Finally,  cardiovascular  subjective  to  with  were  the  reactivity  Interest  covaried  with  and  task?  Indices  addressed.  and  and  behav-  difficulty?  i n the second  of heart  breathing  function  of  be  of breathing,  correspond  correlated  or not i n d i v i d u a l s  Of  as a  i n cardiovascular  quintiles  tasks.  rate  excursions,  a r e t a s k - r e l a t e d changes  assessments  Analyses whether  vary  will  of r e s p i r a t o r y changes  respiratory changes  mode,  and abdominal  excursions  pattern  questions  breathing  and the d i f f i c u l t y  temporal  Third,  do  four  the was  devised  upper,  to  middle,  determine and  lower  to the cold  pressor  test  subsequent  mental  challenge  whether  expected  or group  not  also  changes  In  differences  i n  50 cardiovascular  I.  Mental  reactivity.  Arithmetic  The mean change each r e c o r d i n g are  presented  standard  Responses  scores  period  of  for  for  each  two  mental  1  and  2.  the  three  recording  p e r i o d s are  For  three  dependent  measures  transit  time)  ence  between  the  remaining was  seven  measures,  error  scores  responses baseline  were  interested  by o t h e r  The a n a l y s i s (Recording  results  10 for  the  raw  scores with  equipment  across as  settings.  percentages  included  of  raw  in  the  baseline  Appendix in  our  scores unknown  order  subject's  of  I  the  differences In  each  and  For  an  individual  2.  differ-  scores.  included  subjects,  to task  respective means for  laboratory  and those with  investigators.  MANOVA (BMDP:4V)  Task  the  c o m p u t i n g change  physiological the  computed as  rate,  method of  began by e x e c u t i n g  period)  breathing  for  and  this  i n comparing data c o l l e c t e d  collected  all  is  1  raw  A summary t a b l e  deviations  Tables  and  and  baseline  expressed  values.  standard  data  levels  scores  conditions  rate,  were  variance associated  response  change  in  at  conditions  and  p h y s i o l o g y and r e c o r d i n g  compare  for  task  inappropriate since  amount of in  change  Mean  presented  (heart  measure  arithmetic  two d i f f i c u l t y  the  pulse  physiological  the  in Figures  deviations  - A l l Subjects  (F(10,  a 2 (Task that  measures. 82)  = 13.29,  difficulty)  i n c l u d e d change The  multivariate  p < .001)  and  X  3  scores test Period  I  C H A N G E FROM BASELINE (%)  C H A N G E FROM BASELINE  (%) CHANGE FROM BASELINE (cpm)  i  52  Table 1 A v e r a g e change s c o r e s f o r Easy and Hard m e n t a l a r i t h m e t i c (MA). Difficulty  Condition  82 )  .001)  factors further  Task  and  A Type  12.0  ( 10 .0)  -4.7  ( 10. 8)  -6.3  ( 14 .7)  -29.0  ( 33. 6)  -34.7  ( 34 .6)  the  P T T ( m s e c ) * * * -11.9  ( 20. 2)  -16.5  ( 21 .4)  Testing  6.4  (bpm)***  TWA (%) BVP ( % ) * *  RR  (  2.3  (cpm)***  4.2(  3. 2)  (  3 .6)  (%)  15.5  ( 54. 6)  RA  (%)  5.3  ( 33. 0)  7.5  ( 34 .8)  AA  (%)  -0.4  ( 28 . 9)  -0.8  ( 33 .2)  RAV  (%)  86.3  (216. 7)  89.8  (202 • 6)  AAV  (%)*  41 . 7 ( 127 .5)  72.3  (181 .3)  **P  <  .01  Period  was  mean s c o r e s to  the  nonsignificant (F(10,  Interactions  were  rection  Two  for  of  the  six  \ to  for  of  each  of  ANOVAs.  effects  was  multivariately against  of  the  assumption Thayer,  using  Scheffe's  = 1.58,  test  the  of  viola-  sphericity (Vasey  1987).  method  &  Whenever a  P e r i o d main  recording  result  p = .08), using  (p  for  period  < .05).  Due  Task x P e r i o d  significant  univariate  Greenhouse-Geisser  cor-  freedom.  respiratory  i n response  greater  .05  significant  main  guard  tions  multivariate  82)  Breathing rate  significantly  of  univariate  comparisons  re-analyzed  degrees  significantly tions.  post-hoc  were e x e c u t e d  interactions  main  risk  for  conducted  ***p < .001  9  observed,  for  appropriate.  adopted  — significant effect  <  confirmed  analyses  were  Period  p  21 . 1 ( 56 .2)  T:A  *p < .05 ,  was  5 . 77 ,  I error  7 .0)  HR  =  that  effects  Hard MA  Easy MA  Variable  (F( 10 ,  to  the  changes than  change  to  those  easy hard  indices  were  and h a r d math  occurring  to  arithmetic  were to  found  found the  easy  vary  condito  be task  53  (F(l,  91)  elicited as  did  the  easy  .001).  of  as  great  an i n c r e a s e  condition  (+4.2  cpm  twice  of  Variability  significantly tasks  change  (F(l,  was  ribcage be  are  the  tasks  2:1  in  90)  = 3.26,  p < .05)  tude  (F(2,  90)  = 3.92,  p < .05  from  for  their  scores one  for  another  clearly  all  three  these (see  decreased  latter  two  Table 2). over  of  +5.1%  M i n u t e 3 and +3.6%  at  +10.5% a t  in  ribcage  indices  for  p  arithratio  hard  task.  M i n u t e 1,  from  =  ribcage M i n u t e 5.  breathing  differ  of  p  that  Minutes 3  an  analyzed,  in  7.79,  differed  The a m p l i t u d e  found  respiratory  and a b d o m i n a l  did not  was  amplitude,  of  changes  90)  <  the  were  indicated  at  be  load.  periods  indices  periods  at  to  two  the  stress  and F ( 2 ,  scores  time:  increase  the  of  and  these  comparisons  change  mean  = 58.5,  Once a g a i n ,  and r i b c a g e  respiration  respective  the  found  90)  h a r d e r of  observed  (F(2,  values  respect-  baseline, also  favour  variations  rate  Post-hoc  cpm  rates  and b r e a t h i n g mode were n o t that  were  task  abdominal e x c u r s i o n s  between r e c o r d i n g  main e f f e c t s  respectively).  of  abdominal  suggesting to  in  +2.3  at  hard  breathing  (F(2,  p = .02).  variability,  insensitive  levels  the  in  were  d u r i n g the  approximately differences  rates  amplitude  = 5.75,  When d i f f e r e n c e s significant  math  average,  versus  breathing  greater 91)  amplitude  On  than r e s t i n g in  significant,  change  to  the  higher  Task-related  to  .001).  d u r i n g each  metic  p  In c o m p a r i s o n  significantly  also  <  roughly  ively). rates  = 58.60,  amplitudes  <  .001  Minute  1  significantly and  5,  while  reliably  ribcage  average  ampli-  from  movements  above-baseline decreased  Abdominal  to  amplitude,  54 Table Average periods  2  change s c o r e s f o r t h e t h r e e o f m e n t a l a r i t h m e t i c (MA). Recording  Variable HR  Minute  (%)**  BVP  (%)***  PTT(msec)** RR  7. 1)  - 2 8 . 6 ( 34. 2)  - 3 0 . 1 ( 34. 5)  -16. 4 ( 21.2)  - 1 4 . 0 ( 19. 7)  - 1 2 . 2 ( 21 . 4)  3. 5 (  3. 1 (  3..5)  T : A (%)  18 . 3 ( 59. 6)  RA ( % ) * (%)***  3. 3)  3. 7)  3. 0 (  17. 8 ( 50. 5)  18. 9 ( 56. 0)  10. 5 ( 38.7)  5. 1 ( 32. 1)  3. 6 ( 30. 0)  3 .0 ( 3 1 . 9 )  -2 . 1 ( 3 0 . 0)  -2 . 8 ( 3 1 . 2)  RAV  (%)  100 . 2 ( 2 6 4 . 1 )  70. 0 ( 1 5 8 . 9)  94. 0 ( 191 .7)  AAV  (%)  51 . 3 ( 1 2 9 . 7 )  54. 3 ( 1 3 8 . 9)  6 5 . 5 ( 1 9 5 . 7)  the  05  other  hand,  a further  decrease  the  a m p l i t u d e of  relatively levels  followed  unlike  for  the  the  the  increase  task  5.  varied  increasing  onset  at  In  duration  first  ratio  of  their  of  or  task. ribcage  to  below  the  two and r e m a i n e d Measures to  of  abdominal  to  highest  thereafter.  average  baseline  3  words,  response  and d e c r e a s i n g  math t a s k s ,  decreased  minute the  the  3.0%  Minute  other  in to  of  r i b c a g e a m p l i t u d e , w h i c h r e m a i n e d above  r e m a i n d e r of and the  by M i n u t e  mental c h a l l e n g e s , of  001  average  r e s p i r a t o r y movements  abdominal e x c u r s i o n s  time a f t e r  ***p  by a -2.1% d e c r e a s e  to -2.8%  w i t h i n 2 minutes  However, levels  brief  . 01,  showed an i n i t i a l  and  bility  8 .4 (  -36. 9 ( 33.4)  levels  for  8. 3)  7 .8 (  - 4 . 9 ( 12 . 7)  from b a s e l i n e  of  Minute 5  - 4 . 9 ( 11 . 8)  *p <  on  3  - 6 . 9 ( 14.2)  (cpm)*  AA  Period  Minute  11 . A ( 11.1)  (bpm)***  TWA  1  recording  baseline amplitude  levels  below  some  baseline  breathing  varia-  amplitude  change  55  did  n o t show s i g n i f i c a n t  The e f f e c t tude,  of  task  b l o o d volume  to have  been  respiratory variables  change.  varied  Whereas  showed  a significant  increases  to  exceeded  task  main e f f e c t s  16.07,  = 9.86,  a larger  and p u l s e (-11.9  transit  msec  were a l s o p < .01) On  significant  these  data  times  to  task  indicate  blood  msec)  transit  degree  evident  f o r r e s p i r a t o r y changes. periods  response  were  time  bpm)  by  the  Significant  (F(l,  pulse 91)  (-34.7%)  than d i d the e a s y  equations  pulse  A  similar  b u t was n o t  p = .08).  Taken  the two  over  all  math  response statistitogether, conditions  arousal.  time  also  across  Significant for  +12.0  waves  consistency  noted  Heart  problems  i n autonomic  marked  measures  math  the h a r d e r of  Increase  hard  volume  difficult  respectively).  = 3.20,  to  bpm e l i c i t e d  for  of c a r d i o v a s c u l a r changes of  =  obtained  for  respiratory  difficulty.  .001).  (-13.9  was  the e a s y  p <  f o r T-wave a m p l i t u d e  that  six  (mean  of +6.4  the  it  appears  cardiovascular  i n b l o o d volume  ( F ( l , 91)  than  the  ampli-  change  = 101.27,  average,  -28.6%  the g r e a t e s t  recording  for  and p u l s e  decrease  and  cally  Analysis  four  main e f f e c t  p a t t e r n was a p p a r e n t  elicited  the  ( F ( l , 91)  p < .001).  elicited  of  i n response  the mean i n c r e a s e  math p r o b l e m s  91)  of  two  T-wave  time  subjects  the h a r d math c o n d i t i o n  easy  (F(l,  only  performance.  rate,  transit  across  significantly three  on h e a r t  and p u l s e  more c o n s i s t e n t  arithmetic,  clearly  difficulty  pulse,  mental  rate  v a r i a t i o n d u r i n g task  main  four  revealed  a  subjects  not  effects  for  cardiovascular  56 measures:  1)  heart  amplitude  (F  =  p  and  <  .001;  Post-hoc  rate  5.17, 4)  p  analyses  of  difficulty  cantly  from  the  (mean  =  scores that  arithmetic  +8.4  bpm).  for  the  the  levels  were  during  the  rate  ation  to  heart  levels  task.  Such  and  ribcage  the  task  (F  5.06,  heart to  of  amplitude  occurred  the  the  at  data  rate  are  until  recording  within  the  in  <  3  were  bpm)  Minute  change  did  Minute  1  at  other  any  with  to  not  response  the  time  breath-  that  fourth  5  revealed  5  suggesting  second  that  (+7.8  also  and  at  .01).  signifi-  period  measures  consistent  changes  23.03,  revealed  stable  they  =  declined  Minutes  than  T-wave  p  minute  However,  2) (F  third  cardiovascular  findings  =  change  remained  lower  .001;  time  another.  significantly  <  pulse  recorded  one  p  volume  bpm)  then  three  26.78,  blood  conditions  and  from  =  rate  Comparison  response  reliably  3)  transit  (+11.4  other  differ  ing  first  90)  .01;  the  both  mental  <  pulse  across  of  (F(2,  adapt-  minute  of  responding.  From  the  pattern  cardiovascular activity  vary  task  the  and  both  rate  related  variate that heart  the  as  were  extent  indices  of  changes.  and,  function level to  to  executed  scatterplots  rate  a  difficulty the  regressions  results  functioning  determining were  of  described to of  of  which  a  lesser time  that  obtained  on  a  task.  As  a  changes  changes, arithmetic  prior  to  this  change  were  that  respiratory  mental  each  respiratory  i t appears  extent,  task-elicited  respiratory for  above,  challenge means in  stepwise  heart linear  condition.  analysis linearly  of  Bi-  suggested related  to  57  In  the  accounted  easy  math  for  25.8%  of  Approximately  14.7%  of  in  breathing  ribcage  was  heart  rate  for.  Of t h i s  heart  changes. changes  to  changes.  respiratory  variable  the  transit  for  time  variance.  changes. by  nine  From responses  A by  hard  and T-wave  36.5%  3.6% of  heart  cardiovascular  these  analyses,  under  increasing  to  extent  respiration  changes  rate  the  need, be  heart  some e x t e n t  during  19.2%  rate  reflect  be  the  load  the  accounted with  attributed  to  variance  the  in to  first  following to  3.4%  breathing was  of rate  accounted  measures.  that  heart  (stress)  adjustments.  metabolic  arithmetic  of  variance  contributed  from r e s p i r a t i o n  overall  equation  appear  with  measures,  variability,  attributable  would  hard  the  40.1%  be  regression  changes  associated of  could  psychological  dissociated that  only  was  and r e s p i r a t o r y  it  of  could  64%  amplitude, was  to  associated  In a l l ,  amplitude  the  changes.  cardiovascular  task  Abdominal enter  was  condition  In c o n t r a s t ,  variables  rate  14.3%  time.  approximately  to  11.1%  two  easy  heart  attributable  further  transit  the  respiration  in  was  remaining  for  A further  Overall,  the  the  the  total,  respiratory  pulse  variance  and p u l s e in  two  variance  change.  variance  rate  the  accounted  amplitude  respiratory  the  while  amplitude  variance T-wave  rate  condition,  rate become To  activity  condition  appears  the or to  exaggerated.  Further  information  on  cardio-respiratory  interactions  58  Table 3 C o r r e l a t i o n s between easy a r i t h m e t i c change s c o r e s :  T:A RA-E RA-H  RA  AA  ( E ) and h a r d (H) m e n t a l a l lp h y s i o l o g i c a l measures.  RAV  AAV  RR  HR  TWA  0.63* 0.54*  AA-E AA-H  -0.68* -0.03 -0.78* -0.07  RAV-E RAV-H  0.20 0.12  0.35* -0.06 0.28 0.01  AAV-E AAV-H  11 15  0.11 0.19  RR-E RR-H  18 09  -0. 29 •0. 20  0.08 -0.16  0 ,27 0. 11  0.09 0.07  HR-E HR-H  0.17 0 . 07  0. 24 0.29  0. 5 4 * 0.56* 17 22  -0.12 • 0 . 20  , 20 ,12  0.34* 0.20  15 27  TWA-E TWA-H  - 0 . 0 1 0.04 0.01 -0.01 -0.06 -0.07  BVP-E BVP-H  - 0 . 20 - 0 . 17  - 0 . 29 - 0 . 19  - 0 . 01 0. 07  - 0 . 09 - 0 . 07  - 0 . 08 - 0 . 08  - 0 . 16 - 0 . 07  -0. 37* - 0 . 27  0. 18 0. 17  PTT-E PTT-H  0. 12 0. 06  0. 10 - 0 . 02  - 0 . 16 - 0 . 14  0. 00 - 0 . 11  - 0 . 10 -0 . 21  - 0 . 22 - 0 . 10  -0. 33* -0. 44*  0 .22 0. 27  0.01 0.01  0.18 - 0 . 1 1 - 0 . 3 3 * -0.04 -0.08 -0.36*  *  during  the  two m e n t a l  correlating  the  respiratory resulting the  BVP  change, vascular  mean change  measure  task,  correlated arousal,  W i t h an i n c r e a s e  are  only  in  this task  for  each  one  each  with  difficulty  rate this  by and  condition. 3.  measure,  any  obtained  cardiovascular  i n Table  respiratory  case h e a r t  was  difficulty  presented  significantly in  S i g n i f i c a n t a t p < .001  conditions  scores  within  correlations  easy math  arithmetic  0. 22 0. 29  In r e s p o n s e breathing  measure change  The  of (r  relationship  to  rate  cardio=  .34).  weakened  59 (r  = .20).  with  Heart rate  ribcage  change  amplitude  and i t s  problems  but n o t  true  abdominal amplitude  and  for .27  hard  tasks  to  for  with  the  the  easy  the  noticeably  to  the  for  or  correlated amplitude  magnitude  so  each  with  and a m p l i t u d e rate  the  easy  and  cardio-respiratory  correlation  (r  to weak  hard = .29  volume  versus  the in  their  was r  =  task,  was (r  or  The  on with  with  and  their  marked  highly  greater). with  their  amplitude  also  of  correlated measures  the  other  all.  indices  To some e x t e n t ,  associated  were  ribcage  be  variability  rate,  negatively  more  of  to  = .54  compartment  excursions  measures  irregularly  respective  the  found  obtained  respiratory  amplitudes  ribcage.  variability.  were  and  respiratory the  Breathing and  correlations  cardiovascular  breathe  their  respiratory  difficult  .15  condition  respiratory  moderately  of  of  the  conditions  who  with  greater).  breathing  the  was  Once a g a i n ,  instance,  people  well  reverse  blood  Variability  that  in  was  to  math  between  among  suggests  = .24  more  other  difficulty  moderately  in  only  both  movements  (r  The  in  do  easy  Correlations  changes  in  correlations  abdomen a l s o  The  rate  moderate  and a b d o m i n a l movements,  This  condition.  heart  changes  greater.  correlated  d u r i n g the  variability.  strongest  correlations  task).  task-induced  activity,  variability  hard  amplitude.  In c o m p a r i s o n for  with  showed moderate  approach s i g n i f i c a n c e  and r i b c a g e  associated .19  the  respectively.  correlation pulse  during  were o b t a i n e d  also  hand, of  increases  decreases  in  the  variability.  The  this  relationship  60 appears  to  have  been  and T : A r a t i o . amplitudes  to  for  In f a c t ,  compartments.  T:A  ratio,  between  that  to w h i c h  difficulty  this  one-way  activity  and p e r c e p t i o n s  rates of  the  subjects. hard  large  its  correlations  composite  index,  relationship  exists  = 19.91,  (F(l,  99)  = 150.94,  for  presented  task  higher  with  the  of  the  task  these  judged  the  and  task  rating,  (r the  First,  or n o t  different the  entire  difficult  more  incorrect condition. difficulty  between  change  the  these  a  the  are  were  perceived inverse  In o t h e r  correct  Mean  variables.  moderate  = -0.28).  answers  subjec-  measures  However,  fewer  the  be  easy  d i d show  in  confirmed  among  were f o u n d .  of  analyses  more  correlations  performance  difficulty  to  across  perceived  relationships  hard  ways.  whether  difficulty  of  changes  significantly  physiological  correlations  level  relationship  and  two  determine  task  than  Second,  significant  No s i g n i f i c a n t difficulty  p < .001)  4.  in  and e l i c i t e d  performance  i n Table  for  to  yielded  of  p < .001)  behavioural,  examined  had  task-related  assessed  math c o n d i t i o n was  99)  scores  was  The r e s u l t s  (F(l,  the  independent  and b e h a v i o r a l a s s e s s m e n t s  with  ANOVAs were e x e c u t e d  error  tive,  and  ribcage  unrelated.  relatively the  amplitude  and  virtually  inverse  subjective  manipulation  that  two  measure  ribcage  abdominal  were  for  a strong  difficulty  sample  the  finding,  corresponded  cardio-respiratory two  to  except  them.  The e x t e n t task  be e x p e c t e d  amplitude  suggests  in  conditions  Contrary  between e a c h  variables  changes  b o t h math  Such a f i n d i n g m i g h t  found  all  words,  responses  61  Table  were  4  perceived  Performance l e v e l s and r a t i n g s of task d i f f i c u l t y Easy and Hard a r i t h m e t i c .  of Arithmetic Condition  Correct Responses  the  29.4 ( 5.4) 20.8 ( 5.9)  •Maximum  score  i s  ••Difficulty r a t i n g s based v i s u a l analog scale with 0 (Not a t a l l d i f f i c u l t ) difficult).  difficulty  of  breathing  rate  associations hard  (r  were  of  Before  test  elicited  permit fully groups  for  of  fewer  =  made.  relaperfor-  the  In  higher  rating,  The  perceived  .25).  No  responses  or  the  responses  moderately  =  subjective  show  -0.28).  correct  (r  of  association  to  the  rate  that  entire  with clear  to  behavioral  the mea-  by nine  Subgroups  mental  that were  subject  reactor  other  ln  determine  changes  defined  on the  Reactivity  group d i f f e r e n c e s  rate  heart  were f u r t h e r  task  difficulty  correlated  H e a r t Rate  necessary  heart  levels  words,  the  did  level.  a subdivision  response degree  was  different  other,  and T : A r a t i o  and e i t h e r  Responses:  it  also  with  the level  inverse  (r  f o u n d between p h y s i o l o g i c a l  testing  reactivity,  task  task  mance  i iwere  = -0.28)  difficulty  Stressor  o n 1 5 0 mm anchor points a n d 150 ( V e r y  easy  math c o n d i t i o n  sures  II.  the  48.4 ( 3 7 . 2 ) 73.8 ( 3 7 . 6 )  30.  difficulty  hard  tionship Easy Hard  However,  a moderate  Difficulty R a t i n g **  *  found.  rate  change  pressor  enough  into  cold measures.  and  to  meaning-  The t h r e e  their  physiological  between h e a r t  cold  large  sample  quintiles.  comparing  the  arithmetic  reactor pressor The  respiratory  62  Table 5 Mean c o l d p r e s s o r c h a n g e s c o r e s : H i g h , M i d a n d Low h e a r t r a t e r e a c t o r s and a l l s u b j e c t s combined. Reactor  HR  (n = 18)  Low  Variable  -5. 4 (  (bpm)***  M i d (n = 1 7 )  High  (n = 19)  13. 9 (  All  Subjec ts  2 .9)  2.8  (  0.8)  (%)  4. 6 ( 11 .0)  1.0  (  8.5)  0. 6 ( 12.5)  2 .9 ( 10.6)  BVP (%)  - 4 9 . 5 ( 22 .9)  -63.3  ( 22.0)  - 4 6 . 1 ( 21• 7)  -55. 0 ( 27.4)  -7 .0 ( 12 .0)  -11.5  ( 12.0)  -17 .9 ( 11.5)  - 9 . 1 ( 14.8)  TWA  PTT  (msec)*  RR ( c p m )  -0. 3 (  3 .7)  0.5  3.7)  (  0. 3 (  3. 5 (  5.9)  2.4)  0. 1 (  7.2)  3.3)  T: A (%)  -11 . 0 ( 33 .8)  -1.2 ( 6 8 . 2 )  12 .4 ( 56.1)  4 .8 ( 9 5 . 8 )  RA ( % ) * *  - 1 3 . 1 ( 27 .4)  -0.3  ( 42.8)  3 9 . 1 ( 65.5)  6. 8 ( 4 5 . 6 )  6 .0 ( 34 .6)  25.0  ( 49.2)  29. 7 ( 33.7)  21. 3 ( 41. 5)  55.4 (1 2 1 . 5 )  165. 2 ( 3 5 4 .7)  86 . 7 ( 2 6 0 . 3 )  127 . 5 ( 299.8)  115. 8 ( 4 3 9 . 8 )  AA (%) RAV (%)  57 .7 ( 3 2 7 • 7)  AAV (%)  23 . 2 ( 1 1 9 .4) *p  change was  Cold  also  pressor T.he  Section  breathing baseline  change rate  to  values  to  <  ***p  .01,  were  Task  the  and  presented  scores  for  .001  <  and a r e  as  standard  rate,  the  for  nature  As  each  mentioned  in  transit  time  and  difference  between  task  and  the of of  5.  for  pulse  presented  percentages  relative  deviations  i n Table  heart  computed as  responses  be e x p r e s s e d due  scores  are  raw s c o r e s  measurement.  **p  .05,  (174.5)  responses.  measure  I,  <  101.6  assessed.  mean change  dependent  had  Group  in  their  remaining their these  standard units seven  respective measures.  of  variables baseline  63  The f i r s t different rate  rate  one-way  to  levels  c o u l d be  cold  conducted heart  p <  rate  exceeded  to  which  the  observed  procedure  linear  was  used  with  the  independent  change)  equalled  variate  scatterplots  was  for  22.4%  obtained  change  was  analysis  attributable  rate  comparing  A  baseline  indicated  heart  rates  that (F(l,  changes was  obtained  by  analysis,  a  In  this  equation  if  measure  prior  to  linearly  (i.e.  this  of  partial  heart  rate  4.00.  Bi-  analysis to  variables  their  value  related  during  the  the to  revealed  significantly cold  made by r i b c a g e of  task.  suggested  change  in  each  variable.  contributed  tion  that  contributed  or e x c e e d e d an F - t o - e n t e r  The r e g r e s s i o n  change  that  i n w h i c h r e s p i r a t o r y change  correlations  rate  heart  variables  regression.  regression  variables  baseline  of  confirm  to  The r e s u l t s  heart  the  respiratory  to  purpose,  respiratory  into  rate  was  significantly  basis  i n response  levels.  on  a stepwise  heart  test  this  were e n t e r e d  that  not  .001).  Information significantly  pressor  for  or  formed on the  significantly  significantly  = 24.02,  step-up  the  d i d change  pressor  executing  i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether groups  ANOVA was  and c o l d  99)  reactor  reactivity  heart  task  step  pressor  amplitude  variance.  that to  the  test. change.  A further  abdominal amplitude  only  3.5%  change.  two  respiratory  variance The l a r g e s t It of  alone the  In  in  contribuaccounted  variance  total,  heart  was  respira-  64  tory  changes  heart  rate  accounted  change  Subjects the  test.  These  way.  of  then d i v i d e d i n t o their  reactor  Subjects  whose h e a r t  (mean = - 5 . 4  formed  the  Low r e a c t o r  (n=18)  showed  heart  per minute  +33  per m i n u t e  SD = 0 . 7 7 ) ly.  to +8  (Mid)  Before  one  of  to p r e s e n t showing  variance  in  to  decreased  increases  fifth  range The  =  group  reactor  only  (High)  following  or more to  two  while  four  heart  rate  SD  5.87).  The  included  on  that  for  quintiles  to  second subjects +0.1,  respective-  have  other  data  +9  bpm (mean =  SD = 1.15)  groups  group  to  from  to +1  bpm)  reactor  ranged  =  beats  -12  (n=21)  bpm (mean = + 6 . 2 ,  differences  two = -2  on  pressor  the  from  0.87)  -1  from  cold  in  Mid  quintiles  r a n g e d from  rate,  by  ranging  SD  effects  the  based  a  greater  physiological  the  first  were  (Low),  included  in  analyses.  conducting a repeated the  another with  the  heart  and  or n o t  equivalence  the  quintiles  defined  (mean = + 1 3 . 9 ,  (n=20)  besides  change  (n=21).  reactor  and +5  of  subsequent  whether  High  changes  likelihood responses  group  rate  In o r d e r  third  the  and f o u r t h  whose h e a r t  rates  (mean = + 3 . 4 ,  for  (n=20)  rate  bpm, SD = 2 . 8 6 ,  rate  increases beats  heart  reactor  s u b g r o u p s were  per minute  beats  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 26% of  scores.  were  magnitude  for  of  one-way  three  respect  baseline  reactor to  measures groups  analysis  differed  cardiac reactivity,  heart  ANOVA c o n f i r m e d  to  determine  reliably a test  rates  was  undertaken.  that  the  three  groups  for  The  from the  results  were  not  65  reliably 57)  different  = 2.42,  scores  for  heart  were  subjects  in  three  change made  the  Table  levels  basis  for  of  the  i n a MANOVA t h a t  in  analysis,  possible  response  deviations  results  significant responses  group  patterns.  responses  for  each  By  six  reactor  including  information  mean  would  in  change  group  are  of  respiratory  differences  The  change  physiological  the  and the  further  (F(2,  finding,  nine  compared  of  the  overall multivariate test  between-group  (F(10,  47)  differences  = 9.03,  p  <  existed  .001).  univariate  ANOVA r e s u l t s  revealed  a  difference  in heart  change  the  125.30,  p < .001).  confirmed  that  signicantly  rate  Post-hoc  subjects  larger  in  be  cardio-  scores  and  presented  increases  than the  time  in  were  (F(2,  found f o r  55)  (F(2,  55)  = 6.55,  revealed  that  the  high  increase  bpm)  = 4.51, p  <  reactor  (F(2,  group  who,  in  p = .02); .01). group  and  Post-hoc showed  i n ribcage amplitude  55)  =  method  experienced =  13.9  turn,  (mean = - 5 . 4 ) . other  the group  Scheffe's  (mean  two  of  significant  using  rate  that  pressor  Inspection  reactor  in heart  cold  cold pressor  low r e a c t o r s  amplitude  above-baseline  high  (mean = 2.8  group d i f f e r e n c e s transit  to  indicated  in  highly  analysis  the  larger increases  than d i d Mid r e a c t o r s  pulse  this  rate  5.  The  cant  heart  mid and low r e a c t o r g r o u p s .  the  on  of  other  cardiovascular indices  available  respiratory  and  high,  other  baseline  On the  rate  used  measures  standard  their  p > .05).  measures  the  in  bpm) showed  Signifi-  measures: 2)  1)  ribcage  comparisons the  (+39.1%)  largest and  the  66  largest  average  contrast, smallest and  the  in  subjects average  largest  reactor  decrease in  the  low  decrease decrease  group d i f f e r e d  showing  in pulse  moderate  transit  reactor  in pulse  from  msec).  =  other  on b o t h measures  the  -7.0  msec)  (-13.1%).  the  In  experienced  (mean  amplitude  significantly  (-17.9  group  transit  in ribcage  changes  time  The Mid  two  (-0.3%  groups  change  in  (  ribcage  amplitude  time).  In summary,  subjects bly  different  Mental  ity  into  and  high,  Testing  for  to  easy  (reactor  the  msec  above  results  mid and low  group)  group d i f f e r e n c e s and  hard  x 2 (task  math  measures.  The Type  Complete  data  for  subjects  in  the  this  Low g r o u p ,  transit  subdividing  yielded  relia-  17  I error were  in  for  the  these  constituted  repeated  change  measures  scores risk  only  set  the at  available and  groups  a  3  design.  for  was  Mid group three  reactiv-  19  can be  10 .05.  for in seen  18 the in  6.  multivariate  nonsignificant,  didn't  on  analysis  Change s c o r e s  The o v e r a l l  These  quintiles  conditions  difficulty)  physiological  was  that  in cardio-respiratory  based  Table  pulse  Responses.  conducted  group.  in  confirmed  reactor  A MANOVA was  High  decrease  groups.  Arithmetic  the  -11.5  nonsignificant  as  were a l l  results  show any r e l i a b l e  responses  to  the  two  test  result  10  imply  differences  difficulty  for  of  the  that  the  in  levels  the  univariate three  their of  grouping  reactor  factor ANOVAs. groups  cardio-respiratory  mental  arithmetic.  67  Table  6  Changes i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y from b a s e l i n e d u r i n g easy and h a r d m e n t a l a r i t h m e t i c (MA): H i g h , M i d & Low h e a r t r a t e r e a c t o r g r o u p s .  Heart Low HR  TWA  BVP  PTT  RR  T: A  RA  AA  RAV  AAV  (n  * 18)  (bpm) - E a s y MA - H a r d MA  7.3 ( 13 . 1 (  7.4) 10.5)  (Z) - E a s y MA - H a r d MA  -5.5 ( -7 . 7 (  10.3) 9.0)  Rate  Mid  4.4 9.6  Reactor  (n =  17)  ( (  3.6) 6 .0)  -1.3 -4.0  ( (  Group High  (n  7. 7 ( 15.5 (  6.2) 10.5)  6 .7) 11 .9)  -6.0 -6.4  10.8) 19 .5)  ( (  (Z) - E a s y MA - H a r d MA  -26.2 -27.3  ( (  44.2) 49.1)  -34.0 -38.6  ( (  22.2) 25.8)  -25.1 -32.6  (msec ) - E a s y MA - H a r d MA  -12.9 -17.4  ( (  17 .1) 18.7)  -7.0 -13.0  ( (  15.9) 18.6)  -15.3 ( -19 . 8 (  ( (  2.1) 3 .5)  ( (  4.0) 3 .9)  2.3 3.9  ( (  41 .8) 39.3)  2.5 26.3  ( (  42.8) 63 .3)  31.2 35.6  (Z) - E a s y MA - H a r d MA  7.7 ( 3 . 1 (  27 .8) 29.4)  1.5 16.5  ( (  27• 7) 37.3)  (Z) - E a s y MA - H a r d MA  3.3 5.0  20.8) 31 .9)  7.2 2.5  (cpm) - E a s y MA - H a r d MA  2.4 4.4  (Z) - E a s y MA - H a r d MA  10.5 7.5  ( (  3.0 5.3  = 19)  3.0 9.5  ( 27.2) ( 31 .0)  -8.0 -6.6  ( 34.4) ( 33 .8)  ( (  17 .0) 15 .9)  3 .7) 3 .7)  ( 73 .6) ( 61 .8)  ( (  32.2) 30.1)  ( (  32.7) 37 .2)  (Z) - E a s y MA - H a r d MA  60.4 66.4  ( 1 5 9 .8) ( 185 .0)  47.8 56.5  ( 81 .8) ( 81 .4)  87.5 ( 206• 2) 91 . 1 ( 203.3)  (Z) - E a s y MA - H a r d MA  30 . 7 ( 96 .0) 98 .4 (208 .5)  51.7 62.0  ( 1 2 1 .6) ( 1 5 8 .9)  42 . 8 (117 .0) 54.8 ( 128.3)  1  Inspection  of  difficulty  manipulation,  revealed  that  the  the  multivariate  and  univariate  irrespective  present  results  of  ANOVAs  reactivity  largely  for  the  grouping,  replicated  those  68 reported sented  in Section  particular interest  actions  between  Although  the  for  For this  ribcage  the  overall  = 2.35,  reactor  T:A  (F(2,  ratio:  testing  revealed  cantly  greater  baseline)  the  = 3.01,  that  the  ribcage  than  they  difficulty. a similar showed  little  whereas Mid  average  for  be  pattern  the  will  greatest  the  was  not  be  pre-  evident.  in T:A r a t i o  Simple  for  the  High r e a c t o r  group  (+7.5%).  ANOVAs  the  three  two  difficulty  p <  .05);  and  post-hoc  group e x p e r i e n c e d  signifi-  math  (1.5%  no  (16.5%  above  and  from e a s y  math  to by  for  in T:A  High  above  baseline).  such e f f e c t  differences  B o t h the  elicited  (F(20,  effects  showed  relative  that  = 3.36,  math  i n T:A r a t i o  factors.  univariate  the  d u r i n g hard  between-group  Group x Task  cardiovascular  Mid r e a c t o r  However,  Low r e a c t o r  significant  51)  inter-  nonsignificant  to  p = .058).  groups  possible  difficulty  was  math c o n d i t i o n e l i c i t e d  group. change  at  for  did suggest  (F(2,  excursion  variation  hard  test  d i d d u r i n g easy  Looking  task  differently  amplitude:  51)  analyses  and  and T : A r a t i o  The H i g h and Low r e a c t o r  to  they  epsilon-corrected  responded  (ribcage  the  multivariate  amplitude  groups  were  grouping  p = .09),  conditions  the  reason,  here.  Of  100)  I.  task ratio,  Low to  groups  hard  math  a greater  T:A r a t i o  baseline  levels,  the  hard  task  the  appeared  quintile  (+35.6%) and  Contrary  to e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  interactions  were f o u n d  for  any  in  least no  of  the  on  all  measures.  The u n e x p e c t e d  absence  of  between-group  differences  69 physiological  Table 7 C o r r e l a t i o n s between change s c o r e s f o r c o l d p r e s s o r ( C P ) , easy math (E) and h a r d math ( H ) .  suggested  measures  the  possibility  that heart rate  reactivity  to the c o l d p r e s s o r Variable  is  a  C P x E C P x H E x H poor  T:A  0.02  0.24  0 . 67*  RA AA  0.02 0.04  0.16 0.10  0.41* 0.80*  0.37*  0.24  0.70*  -0.12  0.61*  -0.06  0.69*  RAV AAV  -0.08  p r e d i c t o r of  reactivity  to  overall subsequent  mental challenge tasks. . . As a means of exploring this possibility, in order  and  also  to determine  how  RR  0. 12  HR  0. 13  0. 13  0. 83*  TWA  0.19  0.29  0.81*  physiological  BVP PTT  0.36* 0.42*  0.31 0.24  0.85* 0.81*  were a c r o s s t a s k s , change , scores f o r each measure i n  * S i g n i f i c a n t a t p < .001  .  stable  ' each easy  correlated with in Table pressor  7.  one  another.  I t should  task preceded  be  two  however,  order  e f f e c t and  In g e n e r a l , little  are  by m e n t a l  and  v e r s i o n s of mental  across  therefore d i f f i c u l t  between c o l d p r e s s o r  elicited  arithmetic.  a l l measures, ranging  from  r = .41  math) were  are  presented cold  conditions  are  confounded  to i n t e r p r e t .  responses  was  the  math  However, r e a c t i v i t y  arithmetic  pressor,  that because  correlations  nine  measures  (cold  t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was  correspondence  hard  other  math, hard  counterbalanced  f o r a l l s u b j e c t s , the a c r o s s - t a s k with  task  These c o r r e l a t i o n s  noted,  the  the  relatively and  those  to the  easy  remarkably  stable  (ribcage amplitude)  to  70 r  = .85  (pulse  transit  cardio-respiratory fact  that  poorly (r  heart  with  = .13  erature would did  not  blood  changes  suggested  that  prove  volume to  pulse high  pressor  task  reactivity  true  for  to  direction type heart ity.  of  than w i t h  related  one  to  two  of  and/or extent  task of  In c o n t r a s t ,  change  time  cold  stability.  T:A r a t i o  it  to  the  this  measures, did  show cases,  with  easy  was  also  This  respiratory  task  stability  T-wave  amplitude  hard  math  task  was  responses.  appears  that  level  poor  that  of  respiratory  indicators  may o c c u r  cardiovascular  show a moderate  lit-  pressor  While  only  and  generally  changes  cold  associated  the  the  In b o t h  pressor-math  pressor  are  the  responses.  reactivity  since  responses,  strongly task  conditions  cardiovascular  variability,  cold  math  to  The  correlated  reactivity.  other  transit  correlations,  type  the  task  hard  trend:  of  that  specific.  pressor  math  amplitude,  opposite  cold  reactivity  inter-task  amplitude  Ribcage  task.  rate  of  task  rate  case,  and p u l s e  Based on t h e s e to  of  suggests  particular interest  changes were more  more c l o s e l y  changes  of  show s i g n i f i c a n t  = .37). the  the  levels  ribcage  variable  showed  be  the  by e i t h e r  heart  predictor  to  cold  is  finding  somewhat  to  elicited  cases)  This  are  change  i n both  moderate  (r  responses  rate  be a good  time).  to  responses  a  of  different  other  across-task  the  than  stabil-  71 Discuss!on  Overall  effects  One of logical  the  of  central  challenge  breathing changes  task  or  patterns  correspond  Overall,  the  data  issues  stress  to  reactivity  indicate  continuous  series  also  irregular evident  and  of  amplitude with the  the  study  the  of  more  baseline  they  peripheral  to  this main  more  the  also  changes  in  males the  task  found  coping  than  experienced and h i g h e r  rate  task the  the  heart  a  was  reliably three  levels  the  In  Two  abdominal  in  to  of this easy  all  cases  difficulty  were  greatest  changes  breathed  abdominal  easy  systolic  and  included  subjects their  faster  than  varied  task.  elicited  to  to  m a r k e d l y more  contrast,  response  general,  sig-  reading cartoons.  were  for  system.  problems.  breathing  In  that  task  these  respond  elicited  to have  stressor.  the  increase  arithmetic  breathing  effects  task  rates  mental  quietly  active  whether  cardiovascular  dominant  sat  In  and  individuals  i r r e g u l a r i t y in  hard  resistance  significant  different  difficult  levels.  and w i t h  response  time,  significantly  versions  observed,  in  of  psycho-  stress  v a r i a b i l i t y , were a l s o level  whether  when  r e s p i r a t o r y change,  significant  rapidly  the  simply  was  breathing  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r measures  and h a r d  from  in  thoracicly  subjects  showed  where  more  difficulty  four  that  levels  that  study  young  time-limited  apparent  when  measures  of  this  elicits  healthy  from r e s t i n g  was  in  of  nificantly  It  difficulty.  task. rates,  more  movements A t the  same  increased  blood pressure.  This  72 pattern  of  responses  suggests  results  in  increased  somatic  However, (breathing ribcage task  the  fact  mode,  ribcage  amplitude  difficulty  unaffected  that  suggests  exception levels  regardless of  nificant  the  five  of  Nevertheless, response that  tion  to  the  cognitive  Second,  level.  these  the  large  magnitude  12:1  value  are  responses,  has  it  Is  to  the  response  across  easy/hard  the  task  no e f f e c t  all  six  drops  respective  to  possible difficulty subjects  comparisons  when  Given  such  that  a number  manipulation  was  the  done  in  sig-  levels. even  patterns. the  the  by a  direc-  two  subjects though  ratio  for  each  of  amplitude in  responded the  Furthermore,  separately  math  standard  variability  even  in  conclusion  abdominal  of  relative for  measures,  great  insignificant.  were  the  mean s c o r e s  3:1  the  scores,  to  in  considerable,  testing  were e v i d e n t  respiration  First, shift  breathing  r e s p i r a t i o n changes  their  was  against on  mediated  response  mean change  argues  relatively  average  Unfortunately,  and  and with  conclusion.  p r e c l u d e d any  the  are  cognitively  most  excluded).  strongly  the  of  Across exceeded  ratios  this  individual differences  deviations (this  of  amplitude,  patterns of  measures  significantly  arithmetic  rest  condition,  challenge  and/or extent  conditions.  measures  between  easy  respiration  abdominal a m p l i t u d e ,  difficulty  challenge  arousal.  vary  levels  mental  mental  abdominal  breathing  to  differences  the  undermine  from r e s t  of  of  d i d not  by v a r y i n g d i f f i c u l t y  with  nature  four  that  Two o b s e r v a t i o n s  response  and a u t o n o m i c  variability)  of  increasing  amplitude,  stress. the  that  mean since  respira-  73  tory the  variable, breathing  it  is  possible  patterns  occurred  in different  A casual  inspection  for  itant  rates  change  appeared these  to  data  these  of  show  the  subjects  hard the  task  easy  is  parameters,  obscured. it  study.  was  E f f o r t s were  pattern  differences  of  that  to  be  instead  of  the  next.  the  that higher  little  concom-  Other  subjects  change.  to  changes  considerably  However,  when  Interaction  apparent  testing  to  effect  this  beyond  in  suggested  amplitudes.  regard  considered  subject  but  did occur these  tracings  task,  the  While  that  elicited  pattern  without  changes  but  from one  respiratory  opposite  analyzed  some i n t e r e s t ,  breathing  the  than d i d  breathing  present  the  notable  occurred in breathing  are  difficulty  most  parameters  some i n d i v i d u a l s ,  breathing  of  that  among  for  task  possibility the  focused  scope  on  is  of  of  the  testing  for  between c a r d i o v a s c u l a r  reactivity  subgroups.  Looking  at  the  correlation  and r e s p i r a t o r y changes differential autonomic  arousal  respiratory only  one  metic)  effect  two  of  (heart was  usefulness  and h a r d m e n t a l challenge  rate  obtained  x breathing  statistically approached  relatively of  for  on  becomes even more a p p a r e n t .  physiological  challenges  easy  mental  correlations  correlations the  to  coefficients  studying  for rate  stress-induced  the  respiratory  and  difficulty  changes  to  cardio-  condition,  Another  to  of  24  easy  Such f i n d i n g s  adjusted  independently  arithmetic,  Of the  significant.  significance. systems  each  cardiovascular  the each  respiratory  ariththree  imply  brief  that mental  other. changes  The as  74 predictors therefore sion, this to  of  be c o n s i d e r e d  based study,  easy  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r changes  on  the  is  that  of  for  easy  in  are  the  the  more  the  40.1%  of  two b r e a t h i n g v a r i a b l e s . hard  task  ponses, heart  were  less  accounting  rate  One  for  less  possible stress  mental  between h e a r t finding (1983)  during  loads  rate  to  the  their  results obtained  conducted  to  change  heart  variance  to  predictors 19% of  the  Fully  in  heart  36.5%  rate  accounted  changes  of  in  changes  r e s p i r a t o r y responses  Allen  result  of by  the  et  These  increases  active  were  from  these  these to  rate  of  the res-  explained  In o t h e r is,  the and  al.'s  words,  tasks,  unwarranted.  present  are  these  study  two groups  and b r e a t h i n g r a t e  changes  roughly  levels  equivalent  of  directly  arousal  et  al.'s  suggested  that,  that  occurred  observed  heart  To some  extent,  The  study  had been  a  This  comparable with  r e p o r t e d i n each of  Carroll  investigators.  rate  correspondence  ventilation  metabolically  heart  efforts.  also  the  that  more d i f f i c u l t  the  and  is  of  ventilation  (1986)  in overall  the  smaller  investigators  coping  findings  in a dissociation  adjustments  conclusions.  increases  as than  arithmetic  confirms  relative  conclu-  amplitude  related  attributable  conclusion  and r e s p i r a t o r y a c t i v i t y . like  this  can  variance.  increasing  task  rate  However,  valuable  men  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r measures.  heart  c o n d i t i o n was  to  analyses  and r i b c a g e  closely  three  young  exception  regression  breathing rate  than any of  two-thirds  The one  stepwise  arithmetic  increases  low.  in healthy  the those  heart  indicated  elicited  rate  by  rate that the  75  different argument the  stressor that  present  Temporal  tasks.  heart  rate  p a t t e r n of  difficulty,  more c o n s i s t e n t showed  the  four  subjects'  changes  changes across  task.  associated  subjects.  different  Significant  Three  task  to  their  highest  breathing  levels  gradually  with  slowed,  With  task  onset,  i n d i c a t e d by  and a b d o m i n a l movements. shift  that  gradually  returned  abdominal  movements  with a i r  These Svebak e t a 2 1/2  data al.  than  stand (1981)  minute v i d e o  to  As time  p l a y e d even they  in  their  Thereafter, rates  amplitudes  of  both  task  apparent. made  of  of  the  than  the  time,  filling  the  quietly.  reported  b r e a t h i n g changes  a  volume  same  resting  results  Rather  ribcage  tidal  in  were  of more  In g e n e r a l ,  the  a role  end  progressed,  to At  the  at  still  breath  the  for  rates  to  to  game s t r e s s o r .  found  breathing  onset.  levels.  study  5-minute  tended  at  less  the  also  although  d i d when s u b j e c t s  in contrast  over  also  movements  resting  measures  even  increased  ribcage  six  levels  i n b r e a t h i n g mode became  contribution  lungs  the  of  the  levels  task  levels  generally  On a v e r a g e ,  subjects  slight  in  were  a d a p t a t i o n was  the  as  the  time  of  response  resting  deeply,  to  dissociated  with d i f f e r e n t  i n r e s p i r a t i o n over  r e m a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y above task.  credence  and r e s p i r a t i o n changes  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r measures.  increased  further  responses.  significantly  arithmetic  adds  study.  In c o m p a r i s o n to task  This  by  during  increase  in  76 response  to  task  onset,  reported  to  have  measures  were  also  to n e a r - b a s e l i n e  ribcage  decreased f o u n d to  levels.  and to  the  result  respiratory abdominal of  the  The f a c t  non-negative  data value  period  may have  present  this  s t u d y were  physiological  Reactivity  task  arousal of  scores  all as  used  simply  calculate  ribcage as  recorded  task  do  to  the not  the  two s t u d i e s a  different  p r o d u c e d by the  answering a r i t h m e t i c  is  less  a  accurately levels. in  the  explanation  on  baseline  baseline  of  at yield  scores  for  percentages  and  percentages  designed  from  studies  amplitude responses  elicit  than t h a t  two  to  values  that  alternative in  the  the  average for  that  the video  pattern  of  physically  questions.  s u b g r o u p s and c a r d i o - r e s p i r a t o r y c h a n g e .  second  determine  may  ribcage  the  or d e c r e a s e s  problem,  An  d i r e c t i o n of  stressor  was  basing  task  amplitude r e s u l t s  game p e r f o r m a n c e  demanding  in  Both  expressed  lab  procedure  expressed  values.  the  levels.  return  than on mean s c o r e s  increases  to a v o i d  inconsistent  The  rather  resulted  actual  baseline  this  al.  were  parallel  between  amplitude  amplitude scores,  single  represent  to  and  methods  et  amplitude  lowest  the  differed  Svebak  respective  Although  that  differing  amplitude responses  baseline.  In o r d e r  of  amplitude.  smallest  their  show a g r a d u a l  and a b d o m i n a l a m p l i t u d e changes may be  abdominal  major  whether  cardiovascular  purpose  or n o t  reactivity  of  the  present  study,  b r e a t h i n g p a t t e r n changes in different  reactor  namely, covary  subgroups,  to with  on  the  77 whole  yielded  reactor  groups  initial  cold  ences  formed on the  pressor  arithmetic  cold  not  supportive  test  in cardiovascular  mental to  no  clearly  basis  did not  Stated  a putative  associated  marker of  either  with  ferential  cardiovascular reactivity  cardiac  reactors  arithmetic possibly  with  also  breathing. rate  in  when  the  the  responded  to  breathing  change  words,  only  the  the  sensitivity  to  changes  in  appears  that  of  the  irrespective  task  they  with  showed  moderate  to  reactors  shift other of  in  the  towards two  high  groups  difficulty  and  level.  less  of  or w i t h  of  mental  mode  of  breathed  more  was  easy.  Sub-  the  other  hand,  same d e g r e e In  are group  As  of  other  respiratory  this  and  heart  task.  thoracic  of  breathing  difficulty.  reactor  dif-  for  the  easy  that  patterns  quintile  on  breathing  increased  was  subgroups  reactors)  showed  task  risk,  predominant  third  the  differ-  reactivity  versions  than when i t  more or  an  challenge.  ribcage  quintiles,  of  cardiac  challenge  to  subsequent  hypertension  the  the  distinct  group to  different  of  moderate  p r e d o m i n a n t mode of  subjects  overall  and h a r d  in  in  hard  and l o w e s t  hard as  was  manipulations  the  much g r e a t e r either  task  highest  easy  subjects as  responses  such  that  shifts  (designated  rate  particular  to  levels  distinct  In g e n e r a l ,  thoracicly  to  different  with  reactivity  jects  did indicate  do r e s p o n d  three  responses  mental/psychological  data  The  differently,  changes  the  heart  show any  breathing  However,  to  of  and r e s p i r a t o r y  tasks.  stimulation,  findings.  system far  as  concerned,  it  exerienced dominance shift  a  than  occurred  78  Although  the  findings  suggest  that  induced  respiratory  challenge  cardiac  this  Interactions  for  for  cardiovascular  one  of  arithmetic  interaction and i s  changes ion  for  the  if,  in fact,  obtained  because  stressors  stable  to  generally  considered  to  how  as  a whole  breathing their  large  the  already.  of  should  have  cardiovascular  of  mild or  not  most  the  cardiovascular  of  that  data  changes challenge  systems  were v i e w e d  Individual  group stable  breathing The  quest-  results  were  two  labor-  is  not  a  respiratory  arithmetic  are  changes.  question  data in  are  for  way n o r m a l  relatively to  somewhat  differences  has  obtained  the  adjust as  of  (b)  mental  least  a  arithmetic)  of  results  by  across  to  signifi-  is  current  this  The c o r r e l a t i o n a l  a  stress.  or  group  at  task  patterns  individuals  part  shown  reactivity  levels  that  a  moderate  and m e n t a l  d u r i n g mental  of  to  by  similar  reactivity  by c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  cardiovascular  degree  or f o r  evidence  mode changes  by  measures  second  suggest  these  accompanied  stress-  of  task  argued  pressor of  the  can be  difficulty  independent  Nevertheless, the  (cold  to  all,  paragraph of  pieces  and b r e a t h i n g  cardiovascular  different  The answer  duals  (a)  predictive  It  whether  characteristic  changes  sample  is  of  were n o t  preceding  several  grouping v a r i a b l e  accompanied  arises  First  the  be  changes,  reactivity.  under c o n d i t i o n s  that  atory  task  in  can  amplitude  cardiovascular  effect  trait  pattern  ribcage  hard  cant  reactivity  conclusion.  the  the  summarized  the  the  indivi-  unrelated challenge.  suspect  observed  been  for  given  respira-  79 tory  changes.  divided  The  into  It  cardiovascular  tions  in  responses or  cold  both c a s e s ) , that  low  showing  able  were  answer  for  instance,  is  present  study  responses  to  reflect  for  task  difficulty,  host  of  prior  differential  One s o l u t i o n each  of  the  rate  changes  three to  reactivity  to  this  reactor  the  of  cold  of  either  (r=  the  cold  pressor  high,  across  moderate, of  high  subjects a range  breathing  reactor  mode  and  in  the  groups  factors the  arithmetic  two  types  p r o b l e m would have  p r e s s o r and  did  Rather, perceptions  may w e l l  those  rate  tasks  similar have of  been  two  math  tasks,  for  tasks.  to e x c l u d e whose  tasks  of or a  accounted stress  individuals  of  prefer-  i n d i v i d u a l s whose h e a r t  at  .13  finding  Such g r o u p s would be between  rate  This  those  or f a i l u r e  groups  heart  included only  and m e n t a l  to  correla-  group  tendencies.  state-specific  low  and  basis  not  predicts  homogeneous  Instead,  success  or  arithmetic conditions  A  covariation  response  sub-  test  the  changes  samples  time.  cold pressor  stable  at  obviously negative.  i n c l u d e d a number of the  other  rate  would have  reactivity.  was  whether  presor  Looking  formed on the  over  sample  was  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r adjustments  and c o n s i s t e n t l y testing  the  then, cold  two m e n t a l  homogeneous  exaggerated  when  their  the  heart  subgroups  not  cardiovascular  not  the  the  to  arithmetic.  the  that  subgroups.  to a n s w e r ,  pressor  by  reason  cardiovascular reactors.  reactors,  tasks  reactor  reactivity  elicited  implies  this  question  to m e n t a l  between  changes  for  distinct  relevant  reactivity  was  were  from heart not  80 consistent change. have and  in  the  percentiles  pressor.  A similar  of  to  for  developing  hypertension  present  too  small  predict  study  to  would have  been  the  to  the  responses  covary  challenge  Problems  them i n inspects groups,  the it  first,  fifth  to  easy  the  to  for  present  which  whose the  higher  risk  of  However,  in  beyond  groups,  the  the  lack the  of  of  way  that  the  simply  to which  includes  respond  i n which r e a c t o r heterogeneity  of  differences  terms  task. the  'low'  to  determine  cardio-respiratory  each  and  cardiovascular  but of  to  arithmetic.  not  and  arithmetic  for  analysis  hypertension,  significant  scores  subgroups  respiratory  was  one  apparent  mental  becomes a p p a r e n t  study  90th  alternative  mental  challenge,  patterns  with  hard  blood  them i n  Another  from  cold  (1984).  produced  breathing  developing  different  mean change  and  the  al.  regression  responses  reactor  to  considerably  multiple  different  response  placed  data.  rate  to ln  general  test  normative a  heart  associated  the  might  young p e o p l e  have  mental  were formed e x t e n d  the  of  groups  by Wood e t  would  during  at-risk  with  and  execute  extent  or n o t  individuals  strategy  emphasis  that  a  in  magnitude  than d i d n o r m o r e s p o n d e r s .  changes  determine  had  reliable  pressor  cardiovascular  whether  this  yield  cold  However,  reactivity  the  reactivity  adopted  presor  or  reactor  subjects  rate  was  a cold  percentile  the  heart  demonstrated  increases  change  non-overlapping  strategy  investigators  pressure  of  formed by i n c l u d i n g o n l y  tenth  groups  direction  Alternatively,  been  These  either  three and  to  change.  subgroups of  the  between When  one  reactor 'moderate'  81  to  describe  nomers. enced  the  noticeable  minute.  then  easy  be  inverse  and h a r d the  in  groups  both  the  third  was  also  the  of  showed  the  upper  and  relationship  linear.  of  for  to  two  the  groups  the  first  to  experi'low' they  beats  first  per  quintile  group d i d .  fifth  reactivity of  easy  and f i f t h group.  easy  in  the  did  versus  indicate levels  quintiles  task  in  change  and  distinct  instance,  neither  ribcage  of  of  subjects  subjects  hard  quintiles  and h a r d  is  measures,  In g e n e r a l ,  amplitude  and  conditions  whereas  commonality  between  suggests  between c a r d i o - r e s p i r a t o r y r e a c t i v i t y challenge  6).  similar  than  scores  Table  (see  quintiles  For  The d e g r e e  reactor  mean change  examined  showed  reactivity the  the  conditions.  'mid' reactor  psychological  mis-  since  four  respiratory  and  The p a t t e r n  lower  fact  quintile  two  when  are  and  first  greater  mode changes  only  justified  the  differential  'mid' reactor  levels  for  of  in  be  The d e s i g n a t i o n  third  designation  difficulty  showed  rate.  the  arithmetic  these  two  similar  breathing the  for  test  may  hyporeactors.  appear  quintile.  that  group  the  in  cardiovascular  on a v e r a g e , to  or  quintiles  pressor  in heart  increases  mental  scores  arousal  reactor  cold  subjects  rate  r.evisions  mean change  from  suits  heart  many of  that,  the  A more a p p r o p r i a t e  These  For  to  third  decreases  better  experienced  might  and  Low r e a c t o r s  reactor  to  first  quadratic  and  rather  that  the  varying than  a  82 Conclusions  The  Implications.  results  breathing al.,  and  of  control  1978)  that  this  research  by more  rapid  active  coping  tasks  irregular  breathing  breathing  to  apparent in  such  more  in  greatest  increases  Such f i n d i n g s which  aim  abdominal have  stress.  that This  a sample  in  response  in  this  counter  training clearly  that  most  breathing  from r e s t i n g  are  for  solely suggest  on  stress  analogues life.  For  clinicians the  that  basis  one  the  of  with  mode  after  is  onset.  while  increasing of  breathing  one's  breathing  in  response  responses  to  obtained  marked v a r i a b i l i t y  most  reasons,  tasks  used  people  en-  it  would  breathing  findings.  potentially  showed  strategies  stressors  recommend  an  control  of  showed  for  decrease  stressor  F u r t h e r m o r e , the  these  group of  more  compartments  mean  these  to  elicit  breathing  levels  on  tasks. of  that  rhythmicity  young men who  to  indicate  increased  aspects  based  accom-  dominant  rates  overall those  is  et  trend  breathing  of  healthy  also  McCaul  and a c o n c o m i t a n t  is  i n everyday  inappropriate  in  conclusion  levels  study  shift movement  the  1984;  of  w i t h an e v i d e n t  soon  and  assumption  arithmetic  in amplitude  identified  deviate  mental  both  suggest  excursions  data  On a v e r a g e ,  decreasing  correctly  pattern  from  at  The  thoracicly  ribcage  tacit  cardiovascular arousal  subjects  Underlying this  increase  the  Cappo & H o l m e s ,  as  from most  abdominal e x c u r s i o n s .  their  (e.g.  breathing.  become  load.  support  stress-induced  panied  stress  study  control  The d a t a at-risk  be  do  not  Individ-  83 uals,  cardiovascular  breathing however,  control that  strategies  regardless  hyperreactors tasks  hyperreactors,  tend  to  than anyone  of  task  breathe  more  than do n o r m o - r e a c t o r s .  breathing  patterns  necessary  before  of  could  else.  It  thoracicly  Further  during  and  from  appear,  cardiovascular  research  conclusions  more  does  difficulty,  hyperreactors  unequivocal  benefit  challenging  comparing  the  normoreactors  is  can be  reached  in  this  regard.  While standing to  the of  mental  results  and p h y s i c a l  still  mode  of  breathing  resting  patterns.  significance  bility  Use  to  testing  and s t r e s s the  of  time  was  to  It  response Bellows  of  the  strain  of  mography  (Tobin,  would a l l o w  compartment  to  the  ventilation  breathing  from  rate,  differences  but out  between measures.  permitted  amplitude,  the  and  nonvaria-  conditions.  future made  under v a r i o u s  one's  ruled  movements,  respiratory-inductive  contribution  quest-  different  amplitude  gauges  response  that  amplitudes  for  under-  important  respiratory  known as  in  verified  for  mode,  by a t e c h n i q u e  describe  changes  apparent  levels  possible  cally  current  significantly  difficulty  measures  1986),  to  breathing  breathing  and a c r o s s  absolute  needs  is  confirm  our  a number of  demonstrated  record  dual  assessment  over  challenges,  This  extend  and r e s p i r a t o r y  during stress  used  Nevertheless, invasive  study  remain unanswered.  technique  baseline  this  cardiovascular  ions  the  of  studies by  each  stress  to  made  plethysunequivo-  respiratory  conditions.  In  84  addition,  this  noninvasive  technique  measure  of  would e n a b l e  t i d a l volume  rate,  changes.  When r e c o r d e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  permit  indices,  a more d e t a i l e d  actions  than i s  this  a  which,  breathing  cardiovascular  would p r o v i d e  researchers  single  single  examination  possible  with  the  when  of  with heart of  obtain  multiplied  index  measure of  to  by  ventilation  rate  and  other  ventilation  would  cardio-respiratory  invasive  a  procedures  internow  in  use.  A study  is  now  needed  inductive  plethysmography  breathing  mode,  clinical  volume,  psychological  technique  rate,  populations  as  challenges  which  they  matched  instance,  could indicate  whether  comparing patients  the  associated  or  those  of  normal  or n o t  aberrant breathing patterns  former  group.  changes most  If  observed  suitable  so, in  form  the  that of  type study  disorder  suggest  whether  characteristic  c o u l d be used  of  the  respiratory  in deciding  relaxation/breathing control  for  Likewise,  anxiety  stress-induced  of  breathing  hypertension.  are  of  standardized  subjects,  i n d i v i d u a l s might  the  different  particular  of  in  comparison  normal  not  with  to A  c a r d i o - r e s p i r a t o r y responses  with  respiratory-  changes  respond  stressors.  with  somehow  assess  or  hypertensives  are  to  the  and v a r i a b i l i t y v a r y of  essential  patterns  utilizes  on  the  training  for  such i n d i v i d u a l s .  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The syndrome of habitual chronic hyperventilation. In OW H i l l (Ed). Modern T r e n d s ln Psychosomatic M e d i c i n e . London: B u t t e r s w o r t h , 196-230. M c C a u l , K . , Solomon, S . , & H o l m e s , D . respiration and expectations p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s to t h r e a t . S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 37, 5 6 4 - 7 1 .  (1979). E f f e c t s of paced on physiological and J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y &  McLaughlin, A. (1977). E s s e n t i a l s of Physiology Respiratory Therapy. S t . . L o u i s : CV Mosby.  for  Advanced  Manuck, S . , & P r o i e t t i , J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Parental hypertension and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r r e s p o n s e to c o g n i t i v e and i s o m e t r i c challenge. Psychophysiology, 19, 4 8 1 - 8 9 . M a n z o t t i , M. ( 1 9 5 7 ) . The e f f e c t of some on h e a r t r a t e . J o u r n a l of P h y s i o l o g y ,  respiratory 144, 5 4 1 - 5 7 .  M o r r e l l , E . (1986). 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Identification hyper t e n s i o n i n children of hypertensive Communications i n M e d i c i n e , 44, 7 7 - 7 9 . West, J. (1974). Respiratory Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.  Physiology:  The  Wood, D . , S h e p s , S . , E l v e b a c k , L . , & S h i r g e r , A . p r e s s o r t e s t as a p r e d i c t o r of hypertension. 6, 3 0 1 - 0 6 .  meditation. A wakeful Journal of  of  labile parents.  Essentials.  (1984). Cold Hyper tens i o n ,  9 3  Appendix A  Health 1 . Age:  . . . .  Weight  . . . .  lbs/kg  3.  Height  . . . .  ft.  4.  Do you  smoke? yes,  (Circle unit  used)  in./cm  (Circle unit  Yes/No  (Circle  how much?  used)  answer)  C i gare t t e s / d a y 0 11 21 30  5.  Questionnaire  years  2.  If  and F i t n e s s  -10 - 20 - 30 +  In the p a s t 3 months, how o f t e n on a v e r a g e have you e x e r c i s e d vigorously (i.e. a t l e a s t 20 m i n u t e s of c o n t i n u o u s exertion)? . . . 4 or more times per week . . . 1-3 times per week . . . seldom or i r r e g u l a r l y  6.  What a c t i v i t i e s does the above f r e q u e n c y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n )  7.  Do you s u f f e r Yes/No  from any of  a) b) c) 8.  the  apply  to?  following  (Rank o r d e r  physical  for  disorders?  asthma ( p r e s e n t l y active) respiratory infection pulmonary or e s s e n t i a l hypertension  Do e i t h e r of y o u r n a t u r a l p a r e n t s have a m e d i c a l h i s t o r y of essential hypertension ( i . e . high blood p r e s s u r e ) , coronary h e a r t d i s e a s e or m y o c a r d i a l i n f a r c t i o n ( i . e . h e a r t a t t a c k ) . Yes/No  (Circle  answer)  94  Appendix Experiment Welcome to I'll you an  be  the  idea  you'll  were a s k e d  lenging. refrain  from our  today  One  i n the a r m c h a i r  doing  thing  tasks  of  exercise  is quite  this  important  study.  Have you  presently  <Hand s u b j e c t H e a l t h Also  included  exercise  and  on  this  or  chalto  2 hours such  preceding  things  can  bothered  by  any  respond  to f o l l o w  f o r us  give  these  to know of  the  health  questionnaire. & Fitness  Questionnaire>.  inventory  smoking habits  cardiovascular  you  adjusts  t i m e was  managed  you  this  As  your body might o r d i n a r i l y  whether  on  you  day,  stressful  as  It's also important  problems l i s t e d  other  your body  i n the  Great! are  I give  minutes.  that  instructions? or not  don't  c a f f e i n a t e d or a l c o h o l i c b e v e r a g e s ,  strenuous This  45  the  consider at  Why  while  next  on how  I a s k e d you  a d i s t o r t e d p i c t u r e o f how 3  the  phone c o n v e r s a t i o n  f r o m d r i n k i n g any  experiment.  to the  over  t h a t some p e o p l e  other  name i s  in this experiment.  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a study  smoking, or d o i n g  us  you  comfortable  under c o n d i t i o n s  the  My  o f w h a t w e ' l l be recall  Introduction  lab  working with  make y o u r s e l f  B  disorders.  and  are  some q u e s t i o n s  your family's  Please  respond  about  history  to them as  your  of well.  ********** If  the  questions  subject  a n s w e r s a f f i r m a t i v e l y t o one  re: r e s p i r a t o r y problems,  then  or more of  thank him  for  the  volun-  95  teering health  but s t a t e  that  because  and c o n t a m i n a t i o n of  of  the  a possible  data  the  risk  to  their  e x p e r i m e n t must be  discontinued.  **********  Fine!  Now I'm s u r e  involves.  First  equipment  that  throughtout side  of  kept.  After  correctly, to  the  I'll  use  to  one-way the  I'll  mirror  You can r e a d  There's a clock  on the  the m o n i t o r i n g  the  responses  room on the  other  and I know i t ' s  Herman c a r t o o n s  as  well  for  is  working  s i m p l y r e l a x and g e t  these  table  experiment  m o n i t o r i n g equipment  attached to  this  body's  in  the  10 minutes  have  your be  where  equipment i s  you'll  be a t t a c h i n g  record  experiment.  equipment.  like.  all,  we'll  the  this  of  y o u ' r e w o n d e r i n g what  if  used you  your  convenience.  At  the  detailed  end of  Instructions  come i n t o  the  you and a l s o task  room a t to  Involves  minutes mental  the  to  see  after  challenge  task  instructions  will  true  third  for  minutes After  the to  the  on what that  be  rest  the  point  you'll first  to  receive  task  give  the -  first  task  going  begins.  given  task.  before Between to  period,  you s t a r t tasks  complete I'll  okay.  the  Once a g a i n ,  it.  a brief  return  to  The have  second  more  you'll  I'll  instructions  You'll  before  some more  involves.  these  physical challenge.  r e l a x and a l s o last  period,  that e v e r y t h i n g is  a brief  rest  rest  first a  few  one  - a  detailed The same  be  to  holds  g i v e n a few  questionnaire.  disconnect  the  96  equipment the  and  different  give  this  you  have  <State  1. your be  with  the  form.  the  heart beat, the  with  a conductive paste  There  i s absolutely  no  feel go  q u e s t i o n s so  why  don't  comfortable  ahead  attaching  electrodes  I ' l l have skin  Any  responses  and  to  far?  you  read  about  sign  i t .  Again, i f  me.  while  to a t t a c h  what your  the equipment,  I f you  ask  on  like.  experiment,  following  In order  were  attaching  a question,  cleaning  with  I'm  consent  continuing  some f e e d b a c k  conditions  Okay. W h i l e over  you  the  equipment:>  to your  chest for monitoring  to ask  you  to l i f t  your  alcohol  and  filling  the  i n order danger  of  to o b t a i n electric  shirt. I ' l l electrodes  a clear shocks  signal.  with  this  a p p a r a t u s.  2.  This finger  finger. ments  While  to a  photoplethysmograph  i t ' s on,  p l e a s e keep  measures your  blood flow  finger  and  hand  to  your  move-  minimum. i  3.  I'm  chest out,  and  attaching the  breathe  strain  other around  the amount  Please  two  of out  stretch  gauges  your  abdomen.  i n these  d e e p l y now  so  to you,  tubes  that  As  one  around  you  breath i n  will  I can  be  fasten  your and  measured. them.  Good.  '•91;  Now t h a t ready  to  all  begin  two rooms a r e at  any  again, time  if  time,  few  ask  the  keep  equipment  attached,  by i n t e r c o m :  them and I ' l l the  is  a d a p t a t i o n phase.  connected  you so  minutes.  please  the  you have  calibrate  the  right  choose.  to  Okay.  equipment.  y o u r movements  if  discontinue I'm g o i n g  Make y o u r s e l f are  just  about  For your i n f o r m a t i o n , you have  respond over  The Herman c a r t o o n s  we're  this to  questions  intercom.  experiment  the  other  comfortable  there  to a minimum.  the  any  for  you  the  at  room  for to  Once  the  any to next  read but  ,98Appendix C Consent  Form  I,  ,  subject  in  responses  the to  research  mental  Psychophysiology Linden.  adequately concerned three  Lab, U . B . C ,  explained with  brief  this  obtained  study  confidential: will  to  physical  from  of  under  this  me.  at my  any  and  time.  be no i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  I  a  "Cardio-respiratory the  Cardiovascular  direction  of  study  it,  Dr.  have  this  respiratory  to  W. been  study  change  participate  also in  may be used of  as  is  during  tasks.  I may r e f u s e  it  the  As I u n d e r s t a n d  participation  although  in  participate  45-minute long  and m e n t a l  that  to  entitled  conducted  cardiovascular  I understand from  project  challenge"  The p r o c e d u r e s  agree  me  realize this  personally  withdraw  that  study  in future  or  the  are  strictly  studies,  on  data  any  there  permanent  records. Furthermore,  I  have  questions  pertaining  rights  a p a r t i c i p a n t and I  as  to  been the  given  procedures am  the of  satisfied  opportunity  to  this  and  with  study the  Research  Participant  my  answers  received.  Wi t n e s s  ask  Da te  99,  Appendix Cold  We  are  putting there  to  complete  for  naire  Please  i n the  up.  At  that  be g i n n i n g .  task.  bucket  f a r , a l l of  This  of  task  i c e water  our  minute  but  you  a t any  time  should  you  feel  wish  to remove y o u r hand know.  f o r my  another  h e a r you  instruction  enter ask  I'll  the  you 10  before  room a g a i n  to c o m p l e t e minute  Okay, remember  rest  to w a i t  involves and  subjects  full  I'll  beginning  first  the  I will  time,  questions?  So  l e t me  wait  water.  before  have any  and  do  the  Instructions  in this  for  hand  I f you  speak up  intercom.  is  task  remove y o u r  please  hand  1 minute. this  discomfort.  hand  to b e g i n  your r i g h t  it  wish,  ready  Pressor  D  keeping  have managed  may,  i f you  excessive  from  the  over  the  putting when the  a brief period.  f o r my  water,  your minute  questionDo  signal  you before  100  Appendix E Mental  Over will  the  next  be p r e s e n t e d  Each problem w i l l determine answer  what  sheet  a series  to  the  you over  be p r e s e n t e d  the  correct the  a r o u n d 90% of  correct  or b e t t e r  did at  problem, far?  Good!  ask you  the  I'll  to  the  have  to  consider  fill  out  table  continue  rest  break.  to  so  study.  the  the  next  it  for  screen  If  to  gotten let  an e r r o r .  After  down on  you.  the  There  won't  concentrate.  scores  of  75%  you know how w e l l  you d o n ' t  respond  to a  Any q u e s t i o n s  task,  questionnaire  the  It  presented.  I'll  of  You must  and w r i t e  have  problems  in front  seconds.  10 minute  your r i g h t .  quietly  arithmetic  y o u ' l l have  problems.  of  end of  10 is  our s u b j e c t s  on t h e s e  A t the  for  problem i s  end  down on the to  next  of  video  answer  between p r o b l e m s  So f a r ,  you  Instructions  10 m i n u t e s ,  before  be any b r e a k s  Arithmetic  I'll  that  r e m a i n d e r of  r e t u r n and  you'll  completing the  so  find  this,  you  5 minute  face can  ioi Appendix F Post-experiment  Questionnaire  You have c o m p l e t e d a l l the t a s k s of t h i s s t u d y . We would l i k e to know what you t h o u g h t of the e x p e r i e n c e . Please c i r c l e on the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e s the s i n g l e number t h a t b e s t r e p r e s e n t s your view.  How do you r a t e y o u r p e r f o r m a n c e on the m e n t a l a r i t h m e t i c t a s k s i n c o m p a r i s o n to o t h e r p e o p l e of y o u r age and background?  equal  a lot worse 2. P l e a s e  indicate  a lot better  w i t h a " / " how s t r e s s f u l  each  task  not at a l l stressful  was  very stressful  Cold Math 1 Ma th 2 D i d you e x p e r i e n c e any n o t i c e a b l e changes i n y o u r body d u r i n g the 3 t a s k s ? I f s o , I n d i c a t e w i t h an "X" w h i c h o n e ' s o c c u r r e d i n e a c h of the t a s k s . Cold Tense m u s c l e s P e r s p i r i n g / S w e a t y palms Y a w n i n g / S h o r t of b r e a t h R a p i d or p o u n d i n g h e a r t b e a t Dizziness/lightheadedness Trouble concentrating T i n g l i n g i n h a n d s , f e e t or f a c e  Math 1  Math 2  •102.  Appendix G  Debriefing  The e x p e r i m e n t for  me as  finished looking  the  that, at  in  I'll this  of  way p e o p l e  cardiovascular the  that  It's  known t h a t  the  appear  to  give  both  the  some  questions  After  I'm  what e x a c t l y  we a r e  experiment?  this  study  is  primarily  in stressful such as  ribcage  these  rate  and abdomen make to  the  process  and then e x h a l i n g more w i t h  they're  when  they're  l y i n g down.  your  ribcage  i n and out  their  sitting  Some p e o p l e  the  If  or  of  used  ribcage  standing.  you're  with  in  the  to  contribu-  independently  yet  drawing f r e s h  air  air.  Most  than w i t h  their  The o p p o s i t e  more  to  people  breathing mostly  to b r e a t h e  their  your b r e a t h i n g .  then y o u r b r e a t h i n g mode i s appear  changes  and b l o o d f l o w  interested  two compartments a c t  abdomen when  to c o r r e l a t e  situations  heart  We a r e e s p e c i a l l y  breathe  thoracic.  r e c o r d i n g apparatus?  i n synchrony ln  lungs  P e r h a p s you have  you a summary of  responses,  tion  some degree  the  breathe  extremities.  into  now o v e r .  I disconnect  One p u r p o s e in  is  Script  is  true  by moving said  thoraclcly  to  be  than  o t h e r s.  In shift at  this  experiment,  towards  even  a challenging  we e x p e c t e d  greater  task.  thoracic  This  effect  people's  b r e a t h i n g mode  dominance as  they  was  to  expected  to  continued  be more  .103'=  marked on easier to  the  one.  difficult The  reason f o r t h i s  e l i c i t increased  including freely.  mental a r i t h m e t i c task  muscle  the abdomen. In order  t h r o u g h o u t one's body -  When t e n s e , the  y o u r abdomen c a n ' t  volume of we  will  of r i b c a g e  increasing are  the  reported  breathing  making g r e a t e r  frequency  not of  of b r e a t h i n g .  to r e q u i r e g r e a t e r  predominantly  A second purpose p e o p l e who  of  this  i n d i v i d u a l s during used  rate r e a c t i v i t y are find  teach  The  to see  t h a n m o d e r a t e or low that  greater  to s e p a r a t e  that high heart  arguing  study  other  groups.  t h e n compared  these  strategies  than  i s to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r rate increases  people  The  patterns  differ  to any  breathing  arousal.  Any  low  more  type  test  heart  these  extent.  rate reactors also breath t h e n we  of  or  than  cold pressor  i n t o h i g h and  breathing  reactors  to one  t h o r a c i c dominance  stressors.  i f they  diaphragmatic  for reducing  B o t h of  body  movement a n d / o r  energy expenditure  show e x a g g e r a t e d h e a r t  responses are  expect that your  w i t h one's abdomen.  stressor also experience  other  use  move as  i n s p i r e d a i r that  y o u r body needs to f u n c t i o n n o r m a l l y , c o m p e n s a t e by  the  change i s t h a t s t r e s s a p p e a r s  tension  to k e e p up  t h a n on  people If  we  thoracicly  have a b e t t e r b a s i s f o r i s a useful strategy  questions  a b o u t what I've  to said  so f a r ?  I can  show you  Unfortunately, form but  you  some of y o u r raw  i t will  can  g e t an  be  difficult  data  i f you  like.  to u n d e r s t a n d  i d e a of what i t l o o k s  like  i n i t s present and  what k i n d  •104 ;••  of  equipment  I'd You've  we use  like been  to  keep  the  During to  what Dr.  details  the  of  time,  ahead  you f o r  one  in  of  last this  we'll this  time,  study  study. their  do s o .  results  of  this  sometime  participating  today.  be  all  to  If  they  Finally, are,  fall  of  Will the  were  if  are  strictly  permanently  next  two  like  to  us.  you would l i k e welcome  a graduate year.  to  student  to  months.  yourself  to know what  useless  you a r e  this  study.  you a g r e e  students  d a t a would be  study  the  from a l l  for  other  this  your data  make.  a secret  or Aaron H a l t , in  of  omitted  be a s k i n g  to  department,  p a r t i c i p a t i n g in  request  agreeing  Wolfgang L i n d e n  it.  Remember,  your name w i l l  participate  expect  thank you f o r  I have  that  obtaining  a big help.  confidential: records.  for  to Thank  to  know  contact in  this  Thanks a g a i n  for  •I 05  Appendix H Post-task  Questionnaire  P l e a s e answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s by p u t t i n g a ("/") a t the p o i n t on the l i n e t h a t b e s t r e f l e c t s y o u r d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s t a s k .  1.  How d i f f i c u l t  d i d you f i n d  the  task?  no t a t a l l difficult 2.  How w e l l  do you  very difficult t h i n k you  did at  the  task?  no t w e l l at a l l How a r o u s e d or p h y s i c a l l y d u r i n g the t a s k ?  not at a l l aroused  slash feelings  very well "keyed  up" d i d you f i n d  yourself  v e r y much aroused  Appendix  A v e r a g e l e v e l s of b a s e l i n e and easy  I  p h y s i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y during and h a r d m e n t a l a r i t h m e t i c ( M A ) .  Condi t i o n Variable HR (bpm)  Baseline 68 . 7 (  9. 6)  75 .0 ( 392 .8  Hard (  MA  10 . 8 )  80 .8  13 . 1 )  ( 183 . 0 )  383 .5  ( 180 . 6 )  TWA (mm/mv)  413 .0  BVP  997 . 6 ( 395 . 7)  672 .9 ( 367 .6)  606 .5  ( 356 . 6 )  347 .9  335 .3  331 .6  (  29 . 1 )  2 .9)  19 .5 (  3 .3)  121 . 1 (  56 . 1 )  (mm/mv)  PTT(msec) RR (cpm) T:A  (%)  ( 1 9 4 . 4)  E a s y MA  (  24. 6)  15 . 3 (  3 . 5)  100 .0  ( 28 . 3)  17 .7 (  (  43. 8)  115 .5  (  54 .6)  (  6 .8)  22 .3  (  8 .4)  RA  (mm/mv)  20 . 7 (  6. 4)  21 .8  AA  (mm/mv)  23 . 1 (  8. 3)  22 .9 (  8 .0  22 • 0 (  8 .7)  10 .8  (  4 .0)  8. 1 (  3 .6)  RAV  (mm/mv)  5. 7 (  4. 2)  10 .6 (  4 .7)  AAV  (mm/mv)  4.7  3. 5)  6. 7 (  2 .9)  (  


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