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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Relationships between microsocial interaction, social support, family life crises and coping outcome… Davies, Glen R. 1986

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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MICROSOCIAL INTERACTION, SOCIAL SUPPORT, FAMILY L I F E CRISES AND COPING OUTCOME OF MOTHERS WITH MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN by GLEN R. DAVIES B . A . S imon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1976 M . A . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1982 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Depar tmen t o f P s y c h o l o g y U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a We a c c e p t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d (g ) G l e n R. D a v i e s , 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date -7Q \ i i Abstract The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between microsocial i n t e r a c t i o n , s o c i a l support, family l i f e c r i s e s and coping outcome of mothers with mentally retarded c h i l d r e n . Sixty mother-r e t a r d e d c h i l d p a i r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s research. Measures were derived from d i r e c t observation of mother-child i n t e r a c t i o n and parent report measures of personal adjustment, marital adjustment, c h i l d behav-i o r and adjustment, s o c i a l support, community i n t e r a c t i o n and l i f e c r i s e s . P r i n c i p a l component analyses were used to derive composite measures f or sets of variables and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of these composite measures, as well as some si n g l e measures, were analyzed by c o r r e l a t i o n a l methods and analyses of variance. Results i n d i c a t e d r e c i p r o c i t y of aversive microsocial i n t e r a c t i o n within mother-retarded c h i l d p a i r s . A strong negative c o r r e l a t i o n was obtained between maternal d i s t r e s s and marital adjustment. Aversive microsocial c h i l d behavior was marginally correlated with maternal d i s t r e s s but not with m a r i t a l adjustment. S o c i a l support from family was negatively correlated with maternal d i s -tress and p o s i t i v e l y correlated with marital adjustment. S o c i a l support from f r i e n d s was not correlated with ei t h e r of these coping outcome var i a b l e s . Maternal perception of the c h i l d was correlated with both maternal d i s t r e s s and m a r i t a l adjustment, even when the e f f e c t s of observed c h i l d behavior were p a r t i a l l e d out. The implications of these r e s u l t s are discussed i n r e l a t i o n to research on f a m i l i e s with mentally retarded c h i l d r e n , as well as s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l research and coercion theory. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v i i LIST OF APPENDICES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT i x INTRODUCTION 1 Overview 1 Coping and Distress i n Parents of Retarded Children 2 Depression 6 Self-Esteem 16 Anxiety 17 Mar i t a l Adjustment 20 Range of Parental Reactions and Predi c t i o n of Distress 31 Stress, Coping Resources and Coping Outcome 40 Coercion Theory and Parental Distress 53 Purpose and Hypotheses 57 METHOD 75 Subjects 75 Observers and Training 79 Behavioral Observation System 80 Measures 83 Home Observation Data 83 Parent Report Data 85 i v D e m o g r a p h i c - S i t u a t i o n D a t a 94 P r o c e d u r e 95 RESULTS 99 O v e r v i e w 99 R e l i a b i l i t y D a t a 101 D e s c r i p t i v e D a t a . 102 P r i n c i p a l Component V a r i a b l e s 107 N o n - A g g r e g a t e V a r i a b l e s 107 M a j o r H y p o t h e s e s 120 E x p l o r a t o r y A n a l y s e s 132 DISCUSSION 152 R E F E R E N C E S . . . , 183 APPENDICES 209 V L i s t o f T a b l e s PAGE 1 . Demograph i c D a t a : P a r a m e t r i c 76 2 . Demograph i c D a t a : C a t e g o r i c a l 77 3 . R e l i a b i l i t y D a t a f o r Home O b s e r v a t i o n M e a s u r e s 103 4 . Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Home O b s e r v a t i o n M e a s u r e s 104 5 . Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f P a r e n t R e p o r t M e a s u r e s 105 6 . Means o f Home O b s e r v a t i o n M e a s u r e s and P a r e n t R e p o r t M e a s u r e s f r o m R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S t u d i e s o f M o t h e r - C h i l d I n t e r a c t i o n 106 7 . C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x , E i g e n v a l u e s and C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h F i r s t P r i n c i p a l Component o f t h e O b s e r v e d C h i l d B e h a v i o r M e a s u r e s 109 8 . C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x , E i g e n v a l u e s and C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e F i r s t P r i n c i p a l Component o f t h e M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s M e a s u r e s 112 9 . C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x , E i g e n v a l u e s and C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e F i r s t P r i n c i p a l Component o f t h e P a r e n t P e r c e p t i o n o f C h i l d A d j u s t m e n t M e a s u r e s 115 1 0 . C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x , E i g e n v a l u e s and P r i n c i p a l Component P a t t e r n M a t r i x o f t h e S o c i a l S u p p o r t M e a s u r e s 117 1 1 . Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f S o c i a l S u p p o r t M e a s u r e s f r o m R e p r e s e n t a t i v e S t u d i e s 118 1 2 . R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t and PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r 122 1 3 . R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t and OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t . . 123 1 4 . R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s W i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC F a m i l y S u p p o r t and PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r 124 1 5 . R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC F a m i l y S u p p o r t and OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t . . 125 1 6 . R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e W i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t and PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r 128 1 7 . R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t and OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 129 1 8 . R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC F a m i l y S u p p o r t and PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r 130 1 9 . R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC F a m i l y S u p p o r t and OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 131 2 0 . R e s u l t s o f E x p l o r a t o r y A n a l y s e s o f PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s w i t h Demograph i c and P a r e n t B e h a v i o r V a r i a b l e s 134 v i 2 1 . R e s u l t s o f E x p l o r a t o r y A n a l y s e s o f t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e w i t h Demograph i c and P a r e n t B e h a v i o r V a r i a b l e s 135 2 2 . R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e R e l i g i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n 136 2 3 . P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n s o f C h r o n o l o g i c a l A g e , V i n e l a n d S o c i a l Age and V i n e l a n d S o c i a l Q u o t i e n t w i t h P r i n c i p a l Component V a r i a b l e s , P a r e n t B e h a v i o r V a r i a b l e s and OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 138 2 4 . R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e L e v e l o f R e t a r d a t i o n w i t h P r i n c i p a l Component V a r i a b l e s , P a r e n t B e h a v i o r M e a s u r e s and t h e OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 142 2 5 . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e t - T e s t s o f I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e Sex o f C h i l d w i t h t h e P r i n c i p a l Component V a r i a b l e s , P a r e n t B e h a v i o r M e a s u r e s and t h e OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 144 2 6 . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e ANOVA o f t h e I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e B i r t h O r d e r w i t h t h e P r i n c i p a l Component V a r i a b l e s , P a r e n t B e h a v i o r M e a s u r e s and t h e OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 146 2 7 . P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n s o f F a m i l y S i z e w i t h t h e P r i n c i p a l Component V a r i a b l e s , P a r e n t B e h a v i o r M e a s u r e s and t h e OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 147 2 8 . P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n s o f S o c i o e c o n o m i c L e v e l w i t h P r i n c i p a l Component V a r i a b l e s , P a r e n t B e h a v i o r M e a s u r e s and OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 148 2 9 . R e s u l t s f r o m t - T e s t s o f I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e C a t h o l i c v s . N o n - C a t h o l i c w i t h t h e P r i n c i p a l Component V a r i a b l e s , P a r e n t B e h a v i o r M e a s u r e s and OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 150 3 0 . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e ANOVA o f I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e R e l i g i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h t h e P r i n c i p a l Component V a r i a b l e s , P a r e n t B e h a v i o r M e a s u r e s and t h e OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 151 v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s 1. A F e e d b a c k Loop f o r C a r e t a k e r D e p r e s s i o n 58 2 . M a t e r n a l P e r c e p t i o n o f F a m i l y 168 3 . M o d e l o f C o p i n g i n F a m i l i e s w i t h R e t a r d e d C h i l d r e n 170 4 . C o r r e l a t i o n s o f S t r e s s , S o c i a l S u p p o r t and C o p i n g Outcome V a r i a b l e s 171 v i i i L i s t o f A p p e n d i c e s PAGE A . B e h a v i o r a l O b s e r v a t i o n Sys tem 210 B . Beck D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y 256 C . P a r e n t i n g Sense o f Competence S c a l e 260 D. S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y 263 E . D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e 265 F . P a r e n t A t t i t u d e s T e s t 269 G . C h i l d B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t and R e v i s e d C h i l d B e h a v i o r P r o f i l e 277 H. V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e 284 I. Community I n t e r a c t i o n C h e c k l i s t 289 J . P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S u p p o r t - F r i e n d s 292 K. P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S u p p o r t - F a m i l y 294 L . OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 296 M. I n t r o d u c t o r y L e t t e r 299 N . C o n s e n t Form - M o t h e r 301 0 . C o n s e n t Form - R e l e a s e o f I n f o r m a t i o n 304 P . C h i l d I n f o r m a t i o n Summary 306 i x Acknow ledgemen ts I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e members o f my c o m m i t t e e , Ken C r a i g , R a l p h H a k s t i a n , Ron S c h m i d t a n d , e s p e c i a l l y my a d v i s o r , Bob McMahon. T h e i r s u p p o r t and g u i d a n c e l e d t o many s i g n i f i c a n t imp rovemen ts i n t h i s p r o -j e c t . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o my r e s e a r c h t e a m : G l e n F r a n k l y n , K r i s t a U h l e r , Wendy R o s s , Susan B e n n e t t , C a t h e r i n e D u b o s t , S a n d i M c D o n a l d and Tami M c E l r o y . A s p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n must go t o f a m i l i e s who p e r m i t t e d us t o s t u d y them and t o t h e numerous a g e n c i e s t h a t h e l p e d us r e a c h i n t e r e s t e d f a m i l i e s . F i n a l l y , my d e e p e s t g r a t i t u d e t o my w i f e , M a r y , f o r h e r l o n g y e a r s o f s u p p o r t and t o my c h i l d r e n , N i c o l e and G r e g o r y , who h e l p e d make t h e y e a r s so l o n g . T h i s r e s e a r c h was s u p p o r t e d by a r e s e a r c h g r a n t f r om t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n ( 8 5 - 1 3 0 0 - 4 3 7 CAN. 4 4 2 2 1 ) . 1 Introduction Overview The major purpose of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to extend our understanding of s t r e s s , coping resources and coping outcome i n mothers of retarded c h i l d r e n by i n t e g r a t i n g methodology and hypotheses from s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l research with current research on adaptation i n f a m i l i e s with retarded c h i l d r e n . From the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l approach, the general method of examining microsocial i n t e r a c t i o n a l sequences and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of these sequences to coping outcome was incorporated. Also, s p e c i f i c hypotheses from the most cohesive model derived from the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l approach ( i . e . , coercion theory) were tested i n t h i s study. These hypotheses were examined within the framework of recent models of adaptation of f a m i l i e s with mentally retarded c h i l d r e n . There-fore, t h i s study represents an attempt to integrate two divergent theore-t i c a l and empirical approaches. This i n t e g r a t i o n i s hoped to derive benefits both for research on f a m i l i e s with retarded c h i l d r e n as well as for coercion theory and the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l approach. The introduction i s divided into three major sections. The f i r s t section i s a review of the research pertaining to s t r e s s , coping and d i s t r e s s i n parents of mentally retarded c h i l d r e n . This review i s quite thorough because there are no recent, scholarly reviews of t h i s material. The extent of current knowledge as well as methodological and substantive shortcomings of t h i s research are presented. The second major section presents a b r i e f overview of the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l approach focusing primarily on coercion theory. The t h i r d section traces the development 2 o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s f r om t h e t h e o r i e s t o t h e s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . C o p i n g and D i s t r e s s i n P a r e n t s o f R e t a r d e d C h i l d r e n The b i r t h and r e a r i n g o f any c h i l d r e q u i r e s t h e p a r e n t s t o a d a p t t o many new demands. F o r t h e p a r e n t s o f a m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d , t h i s a d a p t a t i o n may be f a r more d i f f i c u l t and p r o l o n g e d ( R o b i n s o n & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 6 ) . The p r a c t i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l demands o f e v e r y d a y l i f e may c o n f r o n t t h e s e f a m i l i e s w i t h f a r g r e a t e r c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e i r s t a b i l i t y and w e l l - b e i n g . Whether f a m i l i e s o f t h e r e t a r d e d a r e a b l e t o s u c c e s s -f u l l y meet t h e s e c h a l l e n g e s has been t h e s u b j e c t o f an e x t e n s i v e and c o n t r o v e r s i a l l i t e r a t u r e . A l t h o u g h most r e s e a r c h e r s a r e i n ag reement t h a t l i v i n g w i t h a r e t a r d e d c h i l d e n t a i l s a d d i t i o n a l s t r e s s e s and c r i s e s i n f a m i l y l i f e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e ag reement r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p a c t o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r e n t s o r t h e m a r i t a l d y a d . A t t h e o u t s e t , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e i m p a c t o f a r e t a r d e d c h i l d on t h e p a r e n t s i s r e m a r k a b l y p o o r . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e o v e r 700 p u b l i c a t i o n s on t h i s s u b j e c t (Howard , 1 9 7 8 ) , v e r y few i n v e s t i g a t i o n s meet even m i n i m a l l y a c c e p t a b l e s c i e n t i f i c s t a n d a r d s . R e v i e w e r s o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e have c o n s i s t e n t l y l a m e n t e d t h e s c a r c i t y o f s c i e n t i f i c a l l y v a l i d d a t a ( e . g . , Howard , 1978 ; R o b i n s o n & R o b i n s o n , 1976 ; W o l f e n s b e r g e r , 1 9 6 7 ) . F o r h e u r i s t i c p u r p o s e s , t h e l i t e r a t u r e c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s . I n t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y a r e t h o s e a r t i c l e s w h i c h p r e s e n t c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s and t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h e s e c o n d c a t e g o r y a r e t h o s e a r t i c l e s w h i c h employ some e m p i r i c a l method o f g a t h e r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s e f a m i l i e s . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s h e l p f u l i n t h a t , w h i l e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o 3 o v e r l o o k t h e m a s s i v e and i n f l u e n t i a l c l i n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s e f a m i -l i e s , t h e f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be a c c o r d e d more i m p o r t a n c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , e x a m p l e s o f t h e f o r m e r g r e a t l y o u t n u m b e r e x a m p l e s o f t h e l a t t e r . T h e c l i n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , i n s p i t e o f i t s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s h o r t -c o m i n g s , h a s r e m a i n e d a dominan t i n f l u e n c e on t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f p r o b l e m s i n f a m i l i e s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . A l t h o u g h c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s c a n somet imes p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e and a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e y a r e a l s o s u b -j e c t t o many d i s t o r t i o n s . I n an e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w , W o l f e n s b e r g e r (1967) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s c l i n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e must be s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d . On t h e one h a n d , he n o t e d a s u s p i c i o u s c o n s e n s u s be tween some a u t h o r s i n t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s a b o u t t h e s e f a m i l i e s . . . . t h e r e c u r r e n c e o f a l m o s t v e r b a t i m q u o t e s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t l a t e r w r i t e r s i n t h i s f i e l d d i d n o t a r r i v e a t t h e i r i n s i g h t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y . I n r e v i e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e , I was o f t e n s t r u c k by w e l l - p h r a s e d i n s i g h t s and s t a t e m e n t s , o n l y t o f i n d l a t e r t h a t t h e s e were a p p a r e n t l y c o p i e d f r o m e a r l i e r w r i t e r s w i t h o u t c i t i n g t h e s o u r c e . . . . T h i s l e a d s one t o wonder a b o u t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e p r o f f e r e d i n -s i g h t s , and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t l a t e r w r i t e r s o n l y p e r p e t u a t e d c l i c h e s u t t e r e d by t h e p i o n e e r s , ( p . 3 2 9 ) On t h e o t h e r h a n d , W o l f e n s b e r g e r (1967 ) o b s e r v e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s and 1 9 6 0 ' s s o many a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d t h e i r u n i q u e p e r s p e c t i v e s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d ' s i m p a c t on t h e f a m i l y t h a t a b u r g e o n i n g and c o n t r a -d i c t o r y c l i n i c a l l o r e d e v e l o p e d . F o r e x a m p l e , W o l f e n s b e r g e r 1 s d i s c u s s i o n o f p a r e n t a l r e a c t i o n s t o t h e i r c h i l d ' s d i a g n o s i s i n c l u d e d 45 s e p a r a t e r e a c t i o n s t h a t had been e m p h a s i z e d by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s . Even w i t h t h e s e i n h e r e n t s h o r t c o m i n g s , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e a s o n s why t h e c l i n i c a l l i t e r -a t u r e c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i m p a c t o f a r e t a r d e d c h i l d on t h e p a r e n t s . F i r s t , u n t i l r e c e n t l y t h e c l i n i c a l w r i t e r s p r o -v i d e d t h e dominan t p e r s p e c t i v e , a n d t h e y s t i l l r e m a i n i n f l u e n t i a l 4 ( H e i f e t z , 1 9 8 0 ) . S e c o n d , much o f t h e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h has i n v o l v e d d i r e c t a t t e m p t s t o t e s t c l i n i c a l l y d e r i v e d h y p o t h e s e s . T h i r d , t h e poor q u a l i t y and n a r r o w s c o p e o f much o f t h e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h h a s l e f t l a r g e gaps i n o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r w h i c h we a r e l e f t w i t h no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o r e l y on t h e c l i n i c a l l o r e ( R o b i n s o n & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 6 ) . The e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d ' s i m p a c t on t h e f a m i l y have a l s o i n c l u d e d many m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s . A l t h o u g h many p r o b l e m s have been i d i o s y n c r a t i c t o t h e s p e c i f i c s t u d y , s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s have been common t o most o f t h e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . T h e s e common s h o r t -com ings were d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h by W o l f e n s b e r g e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) . I n b r i e f , t h e s e p r o b l e m s i n c l u d e d : f a i l u r e t o t r a n s l a t e t h e p r o b l e m i n t o a w e l l -d e f i n e d h y p o t h e s i s , i n a p p r o p r i a t e s a m p l i n g , i n a d e q u a t e c o n t r o l s , n o n -q u a n t i t a t i v e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e r e s u l t s , use o f measu res w i t h no r e l i a b i l -i t y o r v a l i d i t y d a t a , i n a d e q u a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s , and o v e r -g e n e r a l i z a t i o n f r om t h e f i n d i n g s . F u r t h e r , t h e p a r e n t s i n t h e s e s t u d i e s were r a r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p a r e n t s o f t h e r e t a r d e d i n g e n e r a l . I n -s t e a d , t h e y were u s u a l l y : C a u c a s i a n , m i d d l e t o uppe r s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a -t u s , m o t h e r s , consumers o f o u t p a t i e n t d i a g n o s t i c c l i n i c s e r v i c e s , members o f p a r e n t g r o u p s , and p a r e n t s o f v e r y young and l o w - f u n c t i o n i n g r e t a r d -a t e s . The m a j o r i t y o f e m p i r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s e p a r e n t s has come f r om l a r g e s c a l e s u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d i n B r i t a i n , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and A u s t r a l i a ( e . g . , B a r s c h , 1968 ; H o l t , 1958 ; S c h o n e l l , M e d d l e t o n , W a t t s & R o r k e , 1959 ; T i z a r d & G r a d , 1 9 6 1 ) . These s u r v e y s have u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on a b r o a d r a n g e o f t o p i c s w i t h i n e a c h f a m i l y . 5 Unfortunately, the c l i n i c a l and empirical research f a i l to provide a s o l i d and unequivocal foundation for subsequent research. Rather than dismiss t h i s body of data altogether, an attempt was made to draw to-gether the various findings on each of the major areas of parental mal-adjustment which have been suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e : depression, low self-esteem, anxiety and marital discord. To do so has required a r e l a -t i v e l y s e l e c t i v e review of the c l i n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . A r t i c l e s t h a t appeared to be i n f l u e n t i a l f o r subsequent writings, or were widely r e f e r -enced, were included i n the discussion. The empirical research was r e -viewed more exhaustively. In order to salvage as much information as possible from t h i s research i t was necessary to be reasonably lenient regarding methodological problems. A c r i t i c a l review of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e would read more l i k e a t r e a t i s e on s c i e n t i f i c methodology (e.g., Wolfensberger, 1967). Major methodological problems which were s p e c i f i c to the study and impeded i n t e r p r e t a t i o n have been included. The present discussion w i l l focus on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the long-term presence of a retarded c h i l d i n the family and parental d i s -t r e s s . I t i s important to make the d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s l i n e of research and research that has involved the assessment of the parents' i n i t i a l reactions to t h e i r c h i l d and the diagnosis. A great many of the c l i n i c a l and empirical researchers have focused on these immediate reac-t i o n s or have not distinguished between the short-term and long-term e f f e c t s . However, t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s useful f or a number of reasons. F i r s t , some form of parental d i s t r e s s i s to be expected when the parents f i r s t receive the diagnosis. This i n i t i a l reaction i s understandable, unavoidable and generally not considered problematic. Some authors have 6 even suggested the absence of d i s t r e s s i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n may warrant more concern than i t s presence (e.g., Roos, 1963). Second, the i n i t i a l reac-tions usually abate with the passage of time and no consistent r e l a t i o n -ship between early and l a t e r parental d i s t r e s s has been c l e a r l y demon-strated. Third, whereas the i n i t i a l reactions may involve some temporary disruption of family l i f e , i t i s the prolonged disruption which has been associated with serious consequences for other family members. For exam-ple, Howard (1978) observed that long-term d i s t r e s s not only erodes the psychological well-being of the parents but may eventually i n t e r f e r e with t h e i r a b i l i t i e s to care for t h e i r retarded c h i l d , other c h i l d r e n and spouse. Fourth, the intensely emotional, private and transient nature of the i n i t i a l reactions has made the empirical study of these phenomena extremely d i f f i c u l t . Consequently, the l i t e r a t u r e on the i n i t i a l reac-tions i s p a r t i c u l a r l y speculative and i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c . In the present discussion only the l i t e r a t u r e on long-term adjustment w i l l be reviewed. It i s acknowledged that d i s t r e s s associated with the long-term presence of a retarded c h i l d i n the family may involve vestiges of these e a r l i e r reactions as well as the e f f e c t s of more recent problems i n l i v i n g . Depression Depression i s one of the most common forms of d i s t r e s s found i n parents of retarded c h i l d r e n . Both the c l i n i c a l and empirical l i t e r a t u r e contain numerous references to the phenomenon of enduring or recurring episodes of serious dysphoria. In the c l i n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , writers have tended to discuss the depressive reaction under a number of l a b e l s (e.g., depression, dysphoria, despair, chronic sorrow, enduring g r i e f , mourning, e t c . ) . Fortunately, there appears to be agreement with regard to the 7 b e h a v i o r a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h i s phenomenon ( e . g . , s a d mood, c r y i n g , l o s s o f i n t e r e s t , s e l f - r e p r o a c h , e t c . ) , so t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s c u s s t h i s r e s e a r c h u n d e r t h e s i n g l e l a b e l o f d e p r e s s i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e i n l a b e l s a p p e a r s t o be due t o t h e d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s v a r i o u s a u t h o r s have a t t a c h e d t o t h e same p a r e n t b e h a v i o r s . Whereas some a u t h o r s have s i m p l y u s e d t h e t e r m d e p r e s s i o n w i t h o u t f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s ' b e h a v i o r ( e . g . , K a n n e r , 1 9 5 3 ; M u r r a y , 1 9 8 0 ; S e l i g m a n & S e l i g m a n , 1980 ; W o l f e n s b e r g e r , 1 9 6 7 ) , t h e m a j o r -i t y o f w r i t e r s f r o m t h e c l i n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e have i n t e r p r e t e d t h e p a r e n t b e h a v i o r a s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a g r i e v i n g r e s p o n s e . T h i s v i e w was i n t r o -duced by B e d d i e and Osmond (1955 ) who d e s c r i b e d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f a r e t a r d e d c h i l d a s a s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s s i m i l a r t o t h e d e a t h o f a h e a l t h y c h i l d bu t w i t h o u t any p r o p e r r i t e s o f p a s s a g e . The l a c k o f s o c i a l l y a c c e p t e d ways t o e x p r e s s mou rn i ng was t h o u g h t t o r e s u l t i n p r o l o n g e d and o f t e n u n f i n i s h e d " g r i e f w o r k " . I n a w i d e l y c i t e d a r t i c l e , S o l n i t and S t a r k ( 1961 ) d e s c r i b e d t h e b i r t h o f a d e f e c t i v e c h i l d i n t e r m s o f t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c p r o c e s s o f o b j e c t - l o s s . The l o s t o b j e c t was t h e p a r e n t s ' h o p e d - f o r f a n t a s y c h i l d , w h i c h t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e d e f e c t i v e baby d e s t r o y s . The p a r e n t s a r e u n a b l e t o g r i e v e t h i s l o s s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i m m e d i a t e l y t h r u s t i n t o c a r i n g f o r t h e i r new i n f a n t . A c c o r d i n g t o S o l n i t and S t a r k ( 1 9 6 1 ) , t h i s s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t s i n a s t a t e o f c h r o n i c mou rn i ng f o r a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e p a r e n t s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p a r e n t a l symptoms o f d e p r e s s i o n and e m o t i o n a l i t y a s i n d i c a t i v e o f an a r r e s t e d g r i e v i n g p r o c e s s q u i c k l y became w i d e l y a c c e p t e d ( e . g . , Baum, 1 9 6 2 ; C o h e n , 1 9 6 2 ; D a l t o n & E p s t e i n , 1 9 6 3 ; Goodman, 1964 ; Owens, 1964 ; R o o s , 1 9 6 3 ; R o s s , 1964 ; T i s z a , 1 9 6 2 ) . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n h a s a l s o r e m a i n e d p o p u l a r 8 i n more r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s ( e . g . , C h i n n , Drew & L o g a n , 1 9 7 9 ; D r o t a r , B a s k i e w i c z , I r v i n , K e n n e l l & K l a u s , 1 9 7 5 ; Emde & B r o w n , 1 9 7 8 ; K l a u s & K e n n e l l , 1 9 7 6 ; S c h i l d , 1 9 7 1 ; S y m a n s k i & T a n g u a y , 1 9 8 0 ) . An i n f l u e n t i a l v a r i a n t o f t h e g r i e v i n g a p p r o a c h was f i r s t p r o p o s e d by O l s h a n s k y ( 1 9 6 2 , 1 9 6 6 ) . A l t h o u g h he c o n c u r r e d w i t h o t h e r a u t h o r s t h a t t h e p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s e may be b e s t v i e w e d a s a f o r m o f m o u r n i n g , O l s h a n s k y a r g u e d t h a t " c h r o n i c s o r r o w " was a n a t u r a l , u n d e r s t a n d a b l e and p r o b a b l y u n a v o i d a b l e r e s p o n s e t o h a v i n g a r e t a r d e d c h i l d . He a g r e e d t h a t symptoms o f d e p r e s s i o n and e m o t i o n a l i t y were p r e s e n t i n most p a r e n t s bu t t h a t t h i s r e s p o n s e was t o be e x p e c t e d g i v e n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . O l s h a n s k y d e p a r t e d f u r t h e r f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f e a r l i e r a u t h o r s by a r g u i n g t h a t c h r o n i c s o r r o w d i d n o t r e s u l t f r o m a f a u l t y g r i e v i n g p r o c e s s . Nor d i d he b e l i e v e t h a t p a r e n t s who e x p e r i e n c e d c h r o n i c s o r r o w were n e u r o t i c t o b e g i n w i t h o r d e v e l o p e d n e u r o t i c p a t t e r n s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . F u r t h e r , he a r g u e d t h a t c h r o n i c s o r r o w c o u l d n o t be " r e s o l v e d " by p s y c h o -t h e r a p y . O l s h a n s k y a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e p a r e n t s do n o t emerge f r o m t h e g r i e v i n g p r o c e s s t o a s t a g e o f a c c e p t a n c e w i t h e q u a n i m i t y , b u t r a t h e r t h e i r "unmend ing wounds" were c o n t i n u a l l y r e o p e n e d i n t h e day t o day l i f e w i t h t h e i r c h i l d . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e o f v i e w i n g t h e p a r e n t s ' s o r r o w a s c h r o n i c and n o n - n e u r o t i c h a s become more w i d e l y e n d o r s e d o v e r t h e l a s t 10 y e a r s ( e . g . , H e i f e t z , 1 9 8 0 ; R o o s , 1 9 7 7 ; S e l i g m a n & S e l i g m a n , 1 9 8 0 ; V o y s e y , 1 9 7 5 ; W o l f e n s b e r g e r & M e n o l a s c i n o , 1 9 7 0 ) . The p a r e n t s t h e m s e l v e s have added a n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e i r r e a c -t i o n s t o t h e i r r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . Numerous p a r e n t s have c o n t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e n o n - e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e by d o c u m e n t i n g t h e i r own p e r -s o n a l r e a c t i o n s ( e . g . , Ab raham, 1958 ; B u c k , 1950 ; F e a t h e r s t o n e , 1980 ; 9 R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 0 ; S e a r l , 1978) o r by p r e s e n t i n g t h e p a r e n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e on i s s u e s i n c a r i n g f o r a r e t a r d e d c h i l d ( e . g . , T u r n b u l l & T u r n b u l l , 1 9 7 8 ) . On t h e w h o l e t h e s e w r i t i n g s have p r o v i d e d a mov ing and a r t i c u l a t e a c c o u n t o f t h e v a r i o u s p a r e n t a l r e a c t i o n s . D e p r e s s i o n , g r i e f o r m o u r n i n g were m e n t i o n e d c o n s i s t e n t l y by t h e s e p a r e n t s a s b e i n g one o f t h e most common and s e r i o u s r e s p o n s e s . A l t h o u g h most p a r e n t a l w r i t i n g s were no t i n t e n d e d t o e n d o r s e e i t h e r t h e f a u l t y g r i e v i n g p e r s p e c t i v e ( e . g . , B e d d i e & Osmond, 1 9 5 5 ; S o l n i t & S t a r k , 1961) o r t h e c h r o n i c s o r r o w p e r s p e c t i v e ( e . g . , O l s h a n s k y , 1 9 6 2 ) , t h e m a j o r i t y have p r e s e n t e d . s c e n a r i o s more c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e l a t t e r a p p r o a c h . I n summary, a l t h o u g h d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t h e s e v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s have been i d e n t i f i e d , t h e c l i n i c a l a u t h o r s have g e n e r a l l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t d e p r e s s i o n , however l a b e l l e d , i s a p r e v a l e n t p r o b l e m among p a r e n t s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . As w e l l , most r e c e n t a u t h o r s have v i e w e d t h e d e p r e s -s i o n a s f o l l o w i n g a v a r i a b l e c o u r s e bu t r e m a i n i n g a c h r o n i c p r o b l e m f o r many p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a r t i c l e s based on e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on d e p r e s s i o n among p a r e n t s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n have been f a r l e s s numerous t h a n a r t i c l e s based on c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s . U n l i k e t h e c l i n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , most e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s have f o c u s e d on d e p r e s s i v e symptoms r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t s t o measure g r i e f o r mou rn i ng s p e c i f i c a l l y . Those few s t u d i e s w h i c h have f o c u s e d on m o u r n i n g p r o v i d e some s u p p o r t f o r t h e s e c o n c e p -t i o n s . D ' A r c y ( 1968 ) compared t h e i n t e r v i e w r e s p o n s e s o f 96 m o t h e r s whose a n e n c e p h a l i c c h i l d r e n had d i e d a t b i r t h , o r s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e s o f m o t h e r s whose a n e n c e p h a l i c i n f a n t s had s u r v i v e d . L e n d i n g some s u p p o r t t o t h e g r i e f work p e r s p e c t i v e , m o t h e r s whose b a b i e s 10 had d i e d were j u d g e d t o have e x p e r i e n c e d more a c u t e g r i e f b u t r e c o v e r e d s o o n e r t h a n m o t h e r s whose b a b i e s s u r v i v e d . T h u r s t o n e ( 1 9 6 0 , 1963) em-p l o y e d a s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n t e s t and f o u n d t h a t g r i e f was one o f t h e t h r e e most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d r e a c t i o n s s h o r t l y a f t e r b i r t h and a f t e r t h e p a s s a g e o f up t o 15 y e a r s . T h u r s t o n e r e p o r t e d t h a t 21% o f t h e p a r -e n t s s t i l l f e l t t o o e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d t o d i s c u s s t h e c o n d i t i o n w i t h o u t s i d e r s . R e c e n t r e s e a r c h by W i k l e r , Wasow and H a t f i e l d (1981 ) has s u p -p o r t e d O l s h a n s k y ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f c h r o n i c s o r r o w . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s a s k e d 32 p a r e n t s t o d e p i c t t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t p r o c e s s o v e r t i m e u s i n g a f r e e - f o r m g r a p h , a g r a p h w i t h 10 t y p i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l c r i s i s p o i n t s ( e . g . , d i a g n o -s i s , t i m e f o r w a l k i n g , e n t r y i n t o s c h o o l , p u b e r t y , e t c . ) and a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e p a r e n t s had e x p e r i e n c e d c h r o n i c s o r r o w . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r b o t h g r a p h i n g t a s k s , 75% o f t h e p a r e n t s drew g r a p h s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e mode l o f c h r o n i c s o r r o w ( e . g . , s e v e r a l ups and downs b u t no o v e r a l l a s c e n t i n a d j u s t m e n t ) . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e d i r e c t q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e p a r e n t s were e x p e r i e n c i n g c h r o n i c s o r r o w , 63% o f t h e p a r e n t s answe red a f f i r m a t i v e l y . A l t h o u g h a l l o f t h e s e s t u d i e s have s e r i o u s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s h o r t c o m i n g s , t h e y do p r o v i d e some modes t s u p p o r t f o r t h e g r i e f - m o u r n i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h e m a j o r i t y o f e m p i r i c a l d a t a on d e p r e s s i o n i n f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n comes f r o m t h e l a r g e - s c a l e i n t e r v i e w and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d i n B r i t a i n , A u s t r a l i a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . U n f o r t u -n a t e l y none o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d s t a n d a r d i z e d and v a l i d a t e d measu res o f d e p r e s s i o n . Nor d i d t h e r e s e a r c h e r s i n c l u d e t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n t r o l g r o u p s t o answer many o f t h e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e s t u d i e s p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p r e v a -11 l e n c e o f d e p r e s s i o n among p a r e n t s ( u s u a l l y m o t h e r s ) o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . H o l t ( 1 9 5 8 ) c o n d u c t e d e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e p a r e n t s o f 201 s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n i n S h e f f i e l d , E n g l a n d . H o l t o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r a c t i c a l and e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h c a r i n g f o r t h e i r r e t a r d e d c h i l d e n t a i l e d had s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d t h e p a r e n t s ' e m o t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g : I t was no t p o s s i b l e t o t a l k t o t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t r e a l i z i n g t h e d e e p d i s t u r b a n c e s c r e a t e d by t h e i r c h i l d ' s c o n d i t i o n . I n n o t one o f t h e f a m i l i e s I v i s i t e d d i d I c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e p a r -e n t s h a d made a f u l l e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e p r o b l e m s , and were a b l e t o l e a d a n o r m a l l i f e w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . ( p . 7 4 8 ) H o l t d i d n o t d i s c u s s d e p r e s s i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y bu t r a t h e r emp loyed t h e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y o f e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e under w h i c h he subsumed d i s -a p p o i n t m e n t , g r i e f , g u i l t , shame and a s e n s e o f i n a d e q u a c y . Howeve r , i n H o l t ' s s a m p l e , 2 m o t h e r s a t t e m p t e d s u i c i d e , 2 m o t h e r s " b r o k e down com-p l e t e l y " r e q u i r i n g h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , and 38 m o t h e r s (19%) were s e v e r e l y p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y e x h a u s t e d . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t e m o t i o n a l d i s -t u r b a n c e was s e v e r e enough t o l e a d t o s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n i n 126 f a m i l i e s (63%) . An A u s t r a l i a n s u r v e y o f 50 m o d e r a t e l y t o s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d -r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s c o n d u c t e d by S c h o n e l l e t a l . ( 1959 ) p r e s e n t e d s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s . T h e s e a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t 30% o f t h e m o t h e r s e x p e r i -enced s e r i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e s o f mood. They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t s on t h e f a m i l i e s "may be f a r r e a c h i n g and i n t e n s e l y r e s t r i c t i v e and d i s r u p t i v e i n n a t u r e " ( p . 1 3 ) . C a l d w e l l and Guze (1960 ) emp loyed a number o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and a p s y c h i a t r i c i n t e r v i e w t o compare t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f s i b l i n g s and p a r e n t s w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d o r h o m e - c a r e r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e 12 a u t h o r s d i d n o t f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t h e s e p o p u l a t i o n s . However , s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s i n m a t c h i n g s u b j e c t s and t h e s m a l l samp le s i z e (n_= 3 2 , 16 home, 16 i n s t i t u t i o n ) may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s . Of t h e 32 m o t h e r s , two i n t h e home samp le and one i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l samp le were d i a g n o s e d a s s e r i o u s l y c l i n i c a l l y d e p r e s s e d . T i z a r d and G r a d (1961 ) c o n d u c t e d an e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y o f 150 h o m e - c a r e and 100 i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n L o n d o n . I n g e n e r a l t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f a m i l y p r o b l e m s i n t h o s e f a m i l i e s t h a t k e p t t h e i r r e t a r d e d c h i l d a t home. A c o m p o s i t e r a t i n g o f f a m i l y d i s t u r b a n c e r e v e a l e d t h a t 34% o f h o m e - c a r e f a m i l i e s e v i d e n c e d 0 - 2 p r o b l e m s and 66% e v i d e n c e d 3 - 9 p r o b l e m s . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l - c a r e f a m i l i e s e v i d e n c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s d i s t u r b a n c e w i t h p r o p o r t i o n s o f 55% and 45% r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e s e a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e m e n t a l h e a l t h o f 23% o f t h e m o t h e r s and 24% o f t h e f a t h e r s was r a t e d a s " p o o r " o r " s e v e r e p r o b l e m " . The most f r e q u e n t p r o b l e m s m e n t i o n e d w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n and m a r i t a l d i s c o r d . D e p r e s s i o n was s e v e r e enough t o r e q u i r e h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n f o r two m o t h e r s , and two o t h e r m o t h e r s were d i a g n o s e d a s s e v e r e l y d e p r e s s e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w . McAndrew (1976 ) i n t e r v i e w e d 116 m o t h e r s o f c h i l d r e n w i t h s e r i o u s p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p s o f whom many were f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e r e t a r d e d r a n g e . Of t h e s e m o t h e r s , 56% r e p o r t e d s u f f e r i n g f r o m poo r h e a l t h and 15% had r e c e i v e d p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t s i n c e t h e b i r t h o f t h e i r h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d . The p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e m o t h e r s w h o s e d i s t u r b a n c e i n v o l v e d d e p r e s s i o n was n o t s p e c i f i e d . O t h e r s u r v e y s have no t f o u n d e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e t o be q u i t e so p r e v a l e n t . E v a n s and C a r t e r (1954) c o l l e c t e d i n t e r v i e w d a t a on 224 13 c h i l d r e n w i t h Down ' s syndrome and t h e i r p a r e n t s . They f o u n d e v i d e n c e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e i n o n l y 6% o f t h e m o t h e r s . S i m i l a r l y , Kramm (1963 ) f o u n d t h e m o t h e r s o f 50 Down 's syndrome c h i l d r e n t o be g e n e r a l l y w e l l - a d j u s t e d . I n f a c t , a f t e r t h e f i r s t 6 - 1 0 y e a r s , w h i c h were c o n -s i d e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s f u l , 76% o f t h e m o t h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t h a v i n g a r e t a r d e d c h i l d was good f o r t hem. A l a r g e s c a l e s u r v e y o f 600 h a n d i -c a p p e d c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s by Cunn ingham (1964 ) a l s o p r e s e n t e d an a p p r a i s a l o f t h e p a r e n t s t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h e y were r e a s o n a b l y w e l l -a d j u s t e d . A l t h o u g h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25% o f t h e m o t h e r s o f m e n t a l l y h a n d i -capped and m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e c h i l d r e n e v i d e n c e d poo r h e a l t h , and s e v e r a l m o t h e r s r e v e a l e d e m o t i o n a l i n s t a b i l i t y d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w (up t o 25% f o r m o t h e r s o f s c h o o l - a g e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n ) , t h e a u t h o r c o n c l u d e d t h a t a s a who le t h e p a r e n t s were s t a n d i n g up t o t h e l o n g s t r a i n v e r y i m p r e s s i v e l y . The o n l y l o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h t h a t h a s a d d r e s s e d t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f p a r e n t s w i t h m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n h a s o b t a i n e d c o m p a r a b l e r e s u l t s t o t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . G a t h and h e r a s s o c i a t e s f r o m E n g l a n d ( s e e G a t h , 1 9 8 5 , f o r a r e v i e w ) have r e p o r t e d t h a t m o t h e r s o f Down ' s s y n -drome c h i l d r e n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i s t r e s s e d t h a n m o t h e r s o f h e a l t h y c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n . A p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e m o t h e r s o f D o w n ' s s y n d r o m e c h i l d r e n were c l i n i c a l l y d e p r e s s e d w i t h i n t h e f i r s t 2 y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h e b i r t h ( G a t h , 1 9 7 8 ) . A f t e r 8 y e a r s , t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e Down ' s syndrome c h i l d r e n were n o t more l i k e l y t o s u f f e r f r o m s e r i o u s p s y c h i a t r i c d i s t u r b a n c e s t h a t r e q u i r e d t r e a t m e n t ; h o w e v e r , s u b - c l i n i c a l a n x i e t y and d e p r e s s i o n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f r e q u e n t ( G a t h & Gumley , 1 9 8 4 ) . The i n c i d e n c e o f t h e s e s u b - c l i n i c a l d i s t r e s s r e a c t i o n s was 30% 14 f o r m o t h e r s and 22% f o r f a t h e r s o f Down ' s syndrome c h i l d r e n compared t o 10% f o r m o t h e r s and 0% f o r f a t h e r s o f c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n . G a t h ( 1985 ) a l s o r e p o r t e d some d a t a f r o m o n g o i n g r e s e a r c h t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h a t p a r e n t s o f Down ' s syndrome c h i l d r e n may be g e n e r a l l y l e s s d i s t r e s s e d t h a n p a r e n t s o f c h i l d r e n w i t h o t h e r t y p e s o f m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g may h e l p e x p l a i n t h e t e n d e n c y f o r r e s e a r c h based on p a r e n t s o f Down ' s syndrome c h i l d r e n t o r e p o r t more f a v o u r a b l e ou tcomes ( e . g . , E v a n s & C a r t e r , 1954 ; Kramm, 1 9 6 3 ) . Some r e s e a r c h e r s have emp loyed more s p e c i f i c measu res o f d e p r e s s i o n . H a r r i s and Schech tman (1959 ) and E r i c k s o n ( 1 9 6 8 , 1969) a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e M i n n e s o t a M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y (MMPI) (Hathaway & M e e h l , 1951) t o g r o u p s o f p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e r e -s e a r c h e r s f o u n d a b r o a d e l e v a t i o n a c r o s s a l l t h e c l i n i c a l s c a l e s f o r b o t h f a t h e r s and m o t h e r s . The mean e l e v a t i o n on t h e d e p r e s s i o n s c a l e was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r b o t h s e x e s when compared t o t h e s t a n d a r d i -z a t i o n s a m p l e s . However t h e r a n g e o f t h e e l e v a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y s u b -c l i n i c a l f o r most o f t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . I n l a r g e -s c a l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f 240 m o t h e r s (Cummings, B a y l e y & R i e , 1966) and 240 f a t h e r s (Cummings, 1976) w i t h m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , c h r o n i c a l l y i l l , n e u r o t i c ( b e h a v i o r o r e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s ) and h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n (n_ = 60 f o r e a c h g r o u p ) , p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d h i g h l e v e l s o f d e p r e s s i o n . These s t u d i e s were t h e o n l y s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a w h i c h i n c l u d e d a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r o l g r o u p s and m a t c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s . U n f o r t u -n a t e l y , t h e d e p r e s s i o n measure emp loyed was a s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n t e s t c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h e s e p r o j e c t s and d i d no t have a v a i l a b l e v a l i d i t y d a t a . R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were g e n e r a l l y a d e q u a t e . M o t h e r s o f r e t a r d e d 15 c h i l d r e n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d e p r e s s e d t h a n m o t h e r s w i t h h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n o r m o t h e r s w i t h c h r o n i c a l l y i l l c h i l d r e n . No d i f f e r e n c e i n d e p r e s s i o n was f o u n d f o r m o t h e r s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n compared t o m o t h e r s o f n e u r o t i c c h i l d r e n . F a t h e r s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n were a l s o s i g n i f i -c a n t l y more d e p r e s s e d t h a n f a t h e r s o f h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n o r c h r o n i c a l l y i l l c h i l d r e n . An a n a l y s i s by age o f t h e c h i l d r e v e a l e d t h a t f a t h e r s o f younge r r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ( 4 - 8 y e a r s ) were more d e p r e s s e d t h a n f a t h e r s o f o l d e r r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ( 9 - 1 3 y e a r s ) . R e c e n t l y , B r e i n e r and F o r e h a n d (1982) compared t h e l e v e l o f d e p r e s s i o n r e p o r t e d by m o t h e r s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n , c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d n o n c o m p l i a n t c h i l d r e n and n o n c l i n i c n o r m a l c h i l d r e n . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s u t i l i z e d a w e l l - v a l i d a t e d a n d r e l i a b l e measure o f d e p r e s s i o n (Beck D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y ; B e c k , 1 9 6 7 ) ; however t h e i r u s e o f a s m a l l samp le s i z e (n_ = 8 , f o r e a c h g r o u p ) p r e v e n t e d c l e a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r r e s u l t s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e mean d e p r e s s i o n s c o r e f o r e a c h g roup i n d i c a t e d a m a r g i n a l t r e n d f o r m o t h e r s w i t h m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n t o r e p o r t more d e p r e s s i o n t h a n m o t h e r s w i t h n o r m a l c h i l d r e n b u t l e s s d e p r e s s i o n t h a n m o t h e r s w i t h n o n c o m p l i a n t c h i l d r e n . T h e s e f i n d i n g s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d o n l y s u g g e s t i v e b e c a u s e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . I n summary, t h e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on d e p r e s s i o n a s a w h o l e i n d i -c a t e s t h a t many p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e f e e l i n g s o f d e p r e s s i o n . I t a l s o a p p e a r s t h a t f o r most o f t h e s e p a r e n t s t h e i r d e p r e s -s i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y m i l d o r s u b - c l i n i c a l . A s u b s t a n t i a l l y s m a l l e r p r o p o r -t i o n o f p a r e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d e p r e s s i o n o f s u f f i c i e n t s e v e r i t y t o r e q u i r e p s y c h i a t r i c o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t . The few s t u d i e s w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s , w h e t h e r c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l ( e . g . , Cummings e t a l . , 1966) 16 o r l o n g i t u d i n a l ( e . g . , G a t h , 1 9 7 8 ; G a t h & Gumley , 1984) i n d e s i g n , i n d i -c a t e t h a t t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f d e p r e s s i o n i n p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t f o r p a r e n t s o f h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n . S e l f - E s t e e m A s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s o f s e l f - e s t e e m may a l s o be e v i d e n t i n a p r o p o r -t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . T h i s l o s s o f s e l f - e s t e e m may o c c u r i n two d i f f e r e n t w a y s . F i r s t , a c h i l d r e p r e s e n t s f o r t h e p a r e n t an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e m s e l v e s . Whereas a h e a l t h y c h i l d may p r o v i d e p a r e n t s w i t h a s o u r c e o f p r i d e , t h e h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d c a n r e p r e s e n t a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o t h e p a r e n t s ' s e l f - e s t e e m ( C h i n n e t a l . , 1 9 7 9 ; K r a v a c e u s & H a y e s , 1 9 6 9 ; Ryckman & H e n d e r s o n , 1 9 6 5 ) . F o r some p a r e n t s , t h e h u m i l i a -t i o n o f h a v i n g c r e a t e d a m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d may l e a d t o d e n i a l ( R o s s , 1964) o r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d ( G a l l a g h e r , 1 9 5 6 ) . F o r p a r e n t s who a r e a l r e a d y s e l f - d e p r e c i a t i n g , t h e b i r t h o f an i m p e r f e c t c h i l d may e v e n l e a d t o s u i c i d a l f a n t a s i e s o r a c t u a l s u i c i d e ( M i c h a e l s & Schucman , 1 9 6 2 ) . The s e c o n d way t h a t t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d may r e s u l t i n l o w e r e d p a r e n t a l s e l f - e s t e e m i n v o l v e s t h e d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p a r e n t and c h i l d . P a r e n t s , even t h o s e who have s u c c e s s f u l l y r e a r e d o t h e r c h i l d r e n , may f i n d t h e i r p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s and e m o t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i n a d e -q u a t e o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e t a s k o f c a r i n g f o r and manag ing t h e i r r e t a r d e d c h i l d ( R o b i n s o n & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 6 ) . R e p e a t e d f a i l u r e s i n a t t e m p t s t o t e a c h t h e c h i l d v a r i o u s s k i l l s o r d e c r e a s e p r o b l e m a t i c b e h a v -i o r s may e r o d e t h e p a r e n t s ' s e n s e o f competence a s p a r e n t s and e v e n t u a l l y t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m ( B a r s h , 1 9 6 8 ) . Roos (1963) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l o s s o f s e l f - e s t e e m , and t h e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d r e a c t i o n o f shame, may i n l a r g e p a r t be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n f o u n d i n p a r e n t s 17 o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , H o l t , 1 9 5 8 ; C a m p i s , J o h n s o n , B r e i n e r & F u r e y , 1 9 8 2 ) . The e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on t h e p a r e n t a l l o s s o f s e l f - e s t e e m i n f a m i -l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n i s q u i t e l i m i t e d . H o l t ( 1958 ) o b s e r v e d t h a t some e v i d e n c e o f l o w s e l f - e s t e e m ( s e n s e o f i n a d e q u a c y ) o r shame was v e r y n o t i c e a b l e i n most p a r e n t s . He added t h a t t h o s e p a r e n t s whose c h i l d became r e t a r d e d l a t e r i n l i f e due t o a d i s e a s e seemed t o show l e s s d e c r e -ment o f e s t e e m . The s t u d i e s by Cummings e t a l . ( 1966 ) and Cummings (1976) i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h m o t h e r s and f a t h e r s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n had a l o w e r s e n s e o f compe tence a s a p a r e n t t h a n p a r e n t s o f h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n . Cummings and h i s a s s o c i a t e s a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e S e l f - A c c e p t a n c e S c a l e o f t h e B e r g e r I n v e n t o r y ( B e r g e r , 1952) and f o u n d a m a r g i n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween f a t h e r s o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n v e r s u s f a t h e r s o f h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n bu t no d i f f e r e n c e f o r m o t h e r s . The a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s l o w e r s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e f o r f a t h e r s o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n may be d u e , i n p a r t , t o t h e i r even g r e a t e r i s o l a t i o n f r o m o t h e r p a r e n t s i n s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , some e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s have f o u n d t h e l o s s o f s e l f - e s t e e m l e s s p r e v a l e n t ( e . g . , C a l d w e l l & G u z e , 1 9 6 0 ; Kramm, 1 9 6 3 ) . B a r s c h (1968) r e p o r t e d t h a t v e r y few m o t h e r s i n h i s samp le seemed t o have any p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e i r s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l o r p a r -e n t a l c o m p e t e n c e . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t p r o b l e m s a r i s e when t h e mother a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e s a n e g a t i v e s e l f - c o n c e p t o r t h e c h i l d e m i t s " b e w i l d e r -i n g " b e h a v i o r . A n x i e t y A n x i e t y i s a n o t h e r p a r e n t a l r e a c t i o n w h i c h has been f r e q u e n t l y s u g g e s t e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e p a r e n t s o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . 18 The i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a n x i e t y i n t h e s e p a r e n t s h a s p r o c e e d e d , much l i k e t h e d e p r e s s i o n r e s e a r c h , w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n j e c t u r e and i n d i r e c t a s s e s s m e n t b u t v e r y l i t t l e s p e c i f i c measurement o f t h e c o n s t r u c t . Some d e g r e e o f a n x i e t y i s t h o u g h t t o be u n i v e r s a l among p a r e n t s com ing t o t e r m s w i t h t h e d i a g n o s i s o f t h e i r c h i l d ( S z y m a n s k i & T a n g u a y , 1 9 8 0 ) . Howeve r , many a u t h o r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e d i s a -b i l i t y i s a p r o c e s s w h i c h may c o n t i n u e f o r y e a r s o r may n e v e r be r e s o l v e d ( e . g . , R o s e n , 1 9 5 5 ; S e a r l , 1 9 7 8 ; W o l f e n s b e r g e r , 1 9 6 7 ) . T h i s p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d o f u n c e r t a i n t y i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most s t r e s s f u l a n d a n x i o u s f o r t h e p a r e n t s ( R o b i n s o n & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 6 ) . E v e n when p a r e n t s have come t o t e r m s w i t h t h e i r c h i l d ' s d i s a b i l i t y , s e v e r a l s o u r c e s o f a n x i e t y s e r v e t o make t h e i r t a s k more s t r e s s f u l t h a n t h e t a s k o f r e a r i n g a n o r m a l c h i l d . U n l i k e t h e s i t u a t i o n f o r n o r m a l c h i l d r e n , r e -t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t and u l t i m a t e l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g i s d i f f i -c u l t t o p r e d i c t . T h i s u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e r e a l i t y t h a t i t i s t h e p a r e n t s who w i l l have t o c o n t i n u e t o f u n c t i o n f o r a c h i l d who f a i l s t o f u n c t i o n on h i s o r h e r own, r e s u l t s i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y a n x i e t y -p r o v o k i n g s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s c a n n e i t h e r p r e d i c t t h e i r c h i l d ' s f u t u r e n o r t h e i r own ( H e i s l e r , 1 9 7 2 ) . A n x i e t y a b o u t t h e f u t u r e i s t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t c o n c e r n o f t h e s e p a r e n t s ( C h i n n e t a l . , 1 9 7 9 ; D e n h o f f , 1 9 6 0 ; Kramm, 1 9 6 3 ; S c h o n e l l e t a l . , 1 9 5 9 ; T i z a r d & G r a d , 1 9 6 1 ) . O t h e r m a j o r s o u r c e s o f p a r e n t a l a n x i e t y a r e c o n c e r n a b o u t p u b e r t y and s e x u a l a d j u s t m e n t (Kramm, 1 9 6 3 ) , c a r e a f t e r p a r e n t s ' d e a t h ( O l s h a n s k y , 1 9 6 2 ) , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n (Kramm, 1963) and d i s r u p t i o n o f f a m i l y l i f e ( H o l t , 1 9 5 8 ) . 19 E a r l i e r c l i n i c a l w r i t i n g s t e n d e d t o e x p l a i n t h e h i g h l e v e l s o f a n x i e t y a p p a r e n t i n t h e s e homes w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p a r e n t a l p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( H e i f e t z , 1 9 8 0 ) . Roos ( 1 9 6 3 , 1977) and W o l f e n s b e r g e r (1967 ) have c r i t i c i z e d t h e t e n d e n c y t o s e a r c h f o r n e u r o t i c i s m i n p a r e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e i r s i t u a t i o n a l s t r e s s o r s a r e so o b v i o u s . Roos h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e a n x i e t i e s w h i c h p r e o c c u p y t h e s e p a r e n t s a r e more l i k e l y t o be e x i s t e n t i a l t h a n n e u r o t i c ( e . g . , mean ing o f l i f e , d i s i l -l u s i o n m e n t w i t h f a i r n e s s , human i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and v u l n e r a b i l i t y , e t c . ) . Some a u t h o r s have a r g u e d t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e t o o q u i c k t o f i n d p a t h o l -ogy i n a f a m i l y t h a t i s s i m p l y r e a c t i n g t o a m a j o r s i t u a t i o n a l s t r e s s ( S e l i g m a n & S e l i g m a n , 1 9 8 0 ) . G i v e n some o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h c o n f r o n t t h e s e f a m i l i e s , t h e a b s e n c e o f a n x i e t y may w a r r a n t more c o n c e r n t h a n i t s p r e s e n c e . H e i f e t z (1980 ) d e s c r i b e d a welcome t r e n d away f r o m v i e w i n g t h e p a r e n t s ' a n x i e t y a s a n e u r o t i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n t o v i e w i n g i t a s a r e a s o n -a b l e r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e a m o u n t o f i n t e r e s t c o n c e r n i n g a n x i e t y i n t h e s e f a m i l i e s , s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e e f f o r t has been d i r e c t e d t owa rd a s s e s s i n g a n x i e t y i n a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e manner . S e v e r a l o f t h e l a r g e s c a l e i n t e r v i e w s t u d i e s have n o t e d a h i g h d e g r e e o f a n x i e t y i n t h e p a r e n t s ( e . g . , Cunn ingham, 1964 ; Kramm, 1 9 6 3 ; S c h i p p e r , 1 9 5 9 ; S c h o n e l l e t a l . , 1959 ; T i z a r d & G r a d , 1 9 6 1 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , S c h o n e l l e t a l . (1959) r e p o r t e d t h a t 68% o f t h e f a t h e r s were a c t i v e l y w o r r i e d a b o u t t h e i r c h i l d and 46% were " a f f e c t e d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e " by t h e i r w o r r i e s . Howeve r , i n t h e s e s t u d i e s , a n x i e t y was a s s e s s e d e i t h e r by i n t e r v i e w e r judgement o r by g e n e r a l r a t i n g s c a l e s o f m e n t a l h e a l t h o f w h i c h a n x i e t y was a componen t . T h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n by T i z a r d and G r a d (1961) a l s o i n c l u d e d t h e Heron 20 N e u r o t i c i s m S c a l e ( H e r o n , 1 9 5 6 ) . E m p l o y i n g t h e n o r m a t i v e c u t - o f f s c o r e s , 21% o f t h e p a r e n t s f e l l i n t h e m a l a d j u s t e d r a n g e , 15% f e l l i n t h e d o u b t -f u l r a n g e and 64% were w e l l - a d j u s t e d . B a r s c h (1968 ) u t i l i z e d t h e p a r e n t p e r c e p t i o n o f Change S c a l e d e v e l o p e d by F a r b e r ( 1 9 5 9 ) . I n a l l t h e h a n d i -capped g r o u p s , i n c l u d i n g t h e two r e t a r d e d g r o u p s , most o f t h e n e g a t i v e s c o r i n g was c o n t r i b u t e d by i t e m s r e l a t e d t o l e s s p a t i e n c e , more w o r r y and more n e r v o u s n e s s . The t h r e e s t u d i e s i n w h i c h t h e MMPI was emp loyed w i t h p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n have c o n s i s t e n t l y f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t e l e v a -t i o n s on t h e c l i n i c a l s c a l e s r e l a t e d t o n e u r o t i c i s m ( E r i c k s o n , 1 9 6 8 , 1 9 6 9 ; H a r r i s & S c h e c h t m a n , 1 9 5 9 ) . Cummings e t a l . ( 1966 ) and Cummings (1976 ) emp loyed t h e Edwards P e r s o n a l P r e f e r e n c e S c h e d u l e ( E d w a r d s , 1 9 5 9 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e p a t t e r n o f e l e v a t i o n s was d i f f e r e n t f o r m o t h e r s and f a t h e r s , t h e a u t h o r s i n t e r p r e t e d b o t h p a t t e r n s a s i n d i c a t i v e o f n e u r o t i c f u n c t i o n -i n g . I n summary, s e v e r a l a u t h o r s r e l y i n g on e i t h e r c l i n i c a l o r e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s have c o n c l u d e d t h a t a h i g h d e g r e e o f a n x i e t y i s a p p a r e n t i n a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . R e g r e t t a b l y , few o f t h e r e s e a r c h e n d e a v o r s have emp loyed a s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u m e n t t o measure a n x i e t y i n a r e l i a b l e and w e l l - v a l i d a t e d manner . M a r i t a l A d j u s t m e n t The p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s have f o c u s e d on t h e e m o t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e p a r e n t s a s i n d i v i d u a l s . I n t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e i m p a c t o f a r e t a r d e d c h i l d on t h e m a r i t a l dyad w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . F o r many y e a r s , i t h a s been s u g g e s t e d t h a t l i v i n g w i t h a r e t a r d e d c h i l d may n o t o n l y a f f e c t t h e p a r e n t s ' i n d i v i d u a l a d j u s t m e n t , bu t may a l s o i n f l u e n c e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween s p o u s e s ( a s w e l l a s be tween p a r e n t s and o t h e r c h i l d r e n ) . T h e r e i s g e n e r a l ag reemen t t h a t t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d may be h i g h l y d i s r u p t i v e t o 21 t h e u s u a l a r e a s o f f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g s u c h a s s o c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h f r i e n d s and n e i g h b o u r s , t i m e f o r r e s t and r e l a x a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , h o l i d a y s , m e d i c a l e x p e n s e s , p a r e n t a l p r i v a c y , s h o p p i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s , l i m i t a t i o n o f f a m i l y s i z e , b a b y s i t t i n g , and so o n . T h e s e d i s r u p t i o n s may d e c r e a s e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e i n f o r c e r s f o r t h e p a r e n t s b o t h i n s i d e and o u t s i d e o f t h e home. W h i l e i t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n c e d e d t h a t r a i s i n g a r e t a r d e d c h i l d i s u s u a l l y more d e m a n d i n g , more s t r e s s f u l and more p r o -l o n g e d t h a n r a i s i n g a h e a l t h y c h i l d , t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n s e n s u s r e g a r d i n g w h e t h e r t h e s e d i s r u p t i o n s l e a d t o m a r i t a l d i s c o r d . The i m p a c t o f a r e t a r d e d c h i l d on t h e p a r e n t s ' m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p h a s been c l a i m e d t o be anywhere f r o m c a t a s t r o p h i c ( N a t t , 1954) t o b e n e f i c i a l (Kramm, 1 9 6 3 ) . Even more so t h a n t h e w r i t i n g s on p a r e n t a l a d j u s t m e n t , t h e l i t e r a t u r e on m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t i s v o l u m i n o u s , s p e c u l a t i v e and c o n t r o v e r s i a l . The e a r l i e s t c l i n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i m p a c t o f a r e t a r d e d c h i l d on f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s ( A l d r i c h , 1947) p r e s e n t e d a b l e a k s c e n a r i o t h a t has been r e s t a t e d i n many f o r m s i n s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s . A l d r i c h s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l demands o f c a r i n g f o r a r e t a r d e d c h i l d wou ld e v e n t u a l l y wear down t h e mother t o t h e p o i n t where she was u n a b l e t o meet h e r own needs o r t h e needs o f h e r s p o u s e and f a m i l y . The e x c e s s i v e demands on t h e t i m e , e n e r g y , a f f e c t i o n and a t t e n t i o n o f t h e mo the r e v e n -t u a l l y t h r e a t e n t h e h u s b a n d - w i f e u n i o n ( M i l l e r , 1 9 6 9 ) . Hagaman (1977 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s m o t h e r - c h i l d monopo ly i s a l l o w e d t o d e v e l o p b e c a u s e o f m a t e r n a l g u i l t w h i c h l e a d s t o o v e r p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d and e x c l u -s i o n o f t h e s p o u s e . A c c o r d i n g t o M i c h a e l s and Schucman ( 1 9 6 2 ) , m u t u a l a n t a g o n i s m s be tween s p o u s e s a r e much more l i k e l y t o f l o u r i s h t h a n i s c o n s t r u c t i v e , m u t u a l s u p p o r t . A n t a g o n i s m s a r e a l s o t h o u g h t t o d e v e l o p 22 b e c a u s e o f r e s e n t m e n t f o r n e g a t i v e l i f e c h a n g e s ( S c h i l d , 1 9 7 1 ) , d i s p l a c e d a g g r e s s i o n f r o m c h i l d t o s p o u s e ( M u r r a y & C o r n e l l , 1 9 8 1 ) , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s p o u s e ' s r o l e w i t h t h e c h i l d ( B a r s c h , 1968) o r b l a m i n g t h e s p o u s e f o r r e t a r d a t i o n ( S c h i l d , 1 9 7 1 ) . A l t h o u g h most c l i n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s have been s t r o n g l y n e g a t i v e i n p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d ' s i m p a c t o n m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t , some a u t h o r s have been more p o s i t i v e . M a j o r r e v i e w a r t i c l e s have p r e s e n t e d a more b a l a n c e d p i c t u r e where b o t h d i s r u p t i v e and c o h e s i v e e f f e c t s on t h e m a r r i a g e have been d e s c r i b e d ( e . g . , Howard , 1978 ; W o l f e n s b e r g e r , 1 9 6 7 ) . S i m i l a r l y , some c l i n i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d a u t h o r s h a v e d i s c u s s e d t h e more p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d ' s i n f l u e n c e on t h e s p o u s e s s u c h a s p r o v i d i n g s h a r e d g o a l s , g i v i n g a new mean ing t o l i f e and f a c i l i t a t i n g a s e n s e o f c l o s e n e s s r e l a t e d t o m u t u a l s u p p o r t unde r a d v e r s i t y ( e . g . , R o b i n s o n & R o b i n s o n , 1976 ; S c h i l d , 1 9 7 1 ) . B i c k n e l l ( 1970 ) c r i t i c i z e d most a v a i l a b l e s t u d i e s c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e y l o o k e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r p a t h o l -ogy and were t h e r e f o r e u n a b l e t o s e e b e n e f i t s even i f t h e y e x i s t e d . She c l a i m e d t h a t s t u d i e s w h i c h have i n c l u d e d measu res f o r b e n e f i t s have u n i f o r m l y f o u n d them, a l t h o u g h she c i t e s no r e f e r e n c e s a s e v i d e n c e . P e r h a p s t h e s t r o n g e s t c r i t i c i s m o f t h e n e g a t i v e c l i n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on m a r i t a l d i s c o r d was p r e s e n t e d by Roos ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Roos c l a i m e d t h a t t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f " t e n u o u s m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " i n t h e s e p a r e n t s i s t h e r e s u l t o f an i n a c c u r a t e and o f t e n d e s t r u c t i v e n e g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e p a r e n t s . He a r g u e s t h a t m a r i t a l d i s c o r d i s more o f t e n a p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e c l i n i c i a n t h a n a r e a l i t y f o r t h e c o u p l e . T h i s p r o j e c t i o n c a n l e a d t o i n a p p r o p r i a t e t r e a t m e n t and s e r i o u s d e l a y s i n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a p p r o -p r i a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n s . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s have c h a l l e n g e d t h e a c c u r a c y o f 23 the stereotype and cautioned against the assumption of p a t h o l o g i c a l p a r e n t a l dynamics (e.g., Kysar, 1968; MacKinnon & Frederick, 1970; Matheney & Vernick, 1969; Menolascino, 1968; Wolfensberger & Menolascino, 1970). Heifetz (1977) even suggested that the f r u s t r a t i o n and sense of helplessness engendered by inappropriate intervention and the lack of needed services may ultimately l e g i t i m i z e the need f o r therapy. A t h i r d c l i n i c a l perspective on a retarded c h i l d ' s impact on marital adjustment has been proposed by several authors who suggest that the degree of impact i s rel a t e d to an i n t e r a c t i o n between a d i f f i c u l t c h i l d and a vulnerable couple. Many authors have argued that the presence of a retarded c h i l d does not lead inexorably to marital discord (e.g., Harper, 1968). Rather, i f discord i s present, then i t i s l i k e l y due to an exa-cerbation of already e x i s t i n g c o n f l i c t . Hastings (1948) was perhaps the f i r s t author to propose that a retarded c h i l d introduces discord i n t o an already vulnerable r e l a t i o n s h i p rather than producing problems i n a l l couples. According to Mahoney (1958), a mentally retarded c h i l d i n a marginally adjusted family may become the focus of tensions and, eventu-a l l y , a scapegoat. S i m i l a r l y , Cohen (1962) has argued that marital discord i s not caused by, but i s rather displaced on the c h i l d . Levy (1970) suggested that marital discord due to the development of a mother-c h i l d monopoly can be avoided i f the spouses are sexually compatible and have s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n common. Empirical research i n which an attempt has been made to discriminate between discord e i t h e r due or not due to the c h i l d has tended to support the perspective of these authors. Holt (1958), McAndrew (1976) and Korn, Chess and Fernandez (1978) have reported that the retarded c h i l d had l i t t l e or no influence i n the major-24 i t y o f c a s e s o f s e r i o u s m a r i t a l d i s c o r d . I n many o f t h e s e c a s e s , t h e d i s c o r d e i t h e r p r e c e d e d t h e b i r t h o f t h e c h i l d o r a p p e a r e d t o i n v o l v e u n r e l a t e d i s s u e s . M a r i t a l q u a l i t y c a n be a s s e s s e d i n a number o f w a y s . The two most common methods u s e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s have been measu res o f s t a b i l i t y ( e . g . , a n n u l m e n t , d i v o r c e , d e s e r t i o n and s e p a r a t i o n ) o r measu res o f s a t i s f a c t i o n o r a d j u s t m e n t i n an i n t a c t c o u p l e ( R o l l i n s & G a l l i g a n , 1 9 7 8 ) . E m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s s t u d y i n g t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p a r e n t s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n have emp loyed b o t h m e t h o d s . T h e s e methods w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y b e c a u s e , a s R o l l i n s and G a l l i g a n (1978 ) have o b s e r v e d , s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s c a n r e s u l t i n many u n s t a b l e m a r r i a g e s o f h i g h q u a l i t y and s t a b l e m a r r i a g e s o f l o w q u a l i t y . Whereas s t a b i l i t y measu res have t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f b e i n g e a s i e r t o d e f i n e and a s s e s s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n o r a d j u s t m e n t m e a s u r e s a r e more s e n s i -t i v e and more m e a n i n g f u l i n d i c a t o r s o f m a r i t a l q u a l i t y ( B u r r , 1 9 7 3 ; R o l l i n s & G a l l i g a n , 1 9 7 8 ; S p a n i e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . The r e s u l t s o f e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on t h e s t a b i l i t y o f m a r r i a g e s o f p a r e n t s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n have been m i x e d . Some r e s e a r c h e r s have f o u n d a l a r m i n g r a t e s o f i n s t a b i l i t y among f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d -r e n . K e n n e d y (1948 ) f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r i n s t a b i l i t y t h r o u g h d e s e r t i o n and d i v o r c e i n a samp le o f p a r e n t s o f 256 e d u c a b l e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d (EMR) c h i l d r e n compared t o a w e l l - m a t c h e d c o n t r o l g r o u p . S i m i -l a r l y , M e y e r o w i t z and F a r b e r (1966 ) compared t h e f a m i l i e s o f 120 EMR c h i l d r e n w i t h 60 matched c o n t r o l s and f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a t e s o f m a r i t a l i n s t a b i l i t y . L o n g i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h on f a m i l i e s w i t h D o w n ' s s y n d r o m e c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e d t h a t w i t h i n t h e f i r s t 2 y e a r s a f t e r t h e 25 b i r t h , 10% o f t h e m a r r i a g e s had ended i n s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e a n d a n o t h e r 20% were marked w i t h s e v e r e d i s c o r d . N e i t h e r b r o k e n m a r r i a g e s n o r s e v e r e d i s c o r d were o b s e r v e d i n t h e matched c o n t r o l g roup o f p a r e n t s w i t h h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n ( G a t h & Gumley , 1 9 8 4 ) . Howeve r , t h e s e a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t h e i n d e x and c o n t r o l f a m i l i e s were o b s e r v e d i n m a r i t a l s t a b i l i t y o v e r t h e e n s u i n g 6 y e a r s ( i . e . , 2 t o 8 y e a r s o f a g e ) . I n a 9 - y e a r l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f 59 c h i l d r e n w i t h s p i n a b i f i d a (most c h i l d r e n w i t h m i l d t o mode ra te r e t a r d a t i o n ) and a matched c o n t r o l g r o u p o f 58 h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n , Tew, Payne and L a u r e n c e (1974) f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a t e o f d i v o r c e i n t h e i n d e x f a m i l i e s ( 1 3 . 2 / 1 0 0 0 / y e a r ) compared t o t h e c o n t r o l g roup ( 5 . 7 / 1 0 0 0 / y e a r ) o r t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e ( 7 . 1 / 1 0 0 0 / y e a r ) . The a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i r f i n d i n g s , w h i c h were more n e g a t i v e t h a n t h e f i n d i n g s f r o m most p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , may be due i n p a r t t o t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l m e t h o d o l o g y . They s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e same i n t e r v i e w e r m e e t i n g r e p e a t e d l y w i t h t h e f a m i l y may u n c o v e r more d i s t r e s s t h a n t h a t u n c o v e r e d i n a s i n g l e v i s i t by a s t r a n g e r . P r e s u m a b l y t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l m e t h o d o l o g y a l s o g u a r d s a g a i n s t t h e p r o b l e m o f s e l e c t i o n b i a s i n t r o d u c e d b e c a u s e more d i s t r e s s e d f a m i l i e s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o v o l u n t e e r t o be s t u d i e d . I n a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y , i t i s p e r h a p s mo re l i k e l y t h a t t h e d i s t r e s s e d f a m i l y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p a r t i c i p a t e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p r i o r commi t tment t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Whereas some r e s e a r c h e r s have r e p o r t e d t h a t a s much a s 25% o f t h e i r samp le o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n came f r om b r o k e n homes ( T i z a r d & G r a d , 1 9 6 1 ) , o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have r e p o r t e d p e r c e n t a g e s c l e a r l y f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e n o r m a l r a n g e o f m a r i t a l i n s t a b i l i t y ( H o l t , 1958 ; McAndrew, 1 9 7 6 ) . Compa-r i s o n between t h e s e s t u d i e s i s made d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n 26 t h e t i m e o f t h e s t u d y , g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , and v a r i e d d e f i n i t i o n s o f i n s t a b i l i t y . I n a d d i t i o n , some r e s e a r c h e r s have a r g u e d t h a t i n o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e m a r r i a g e s t h a t ended i n s e p a r a t i o n c o u l d t h e s e p a r a t i o n be d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d ( e . g . , H o l t , 1 9 5 8 ) . I n most c a s e s t h e i s s u e s l e a d i n g t o s e p a r a t i o n were i s s u e s common t o m a r i t a l d i s c o r d i n c o u p l e s w i t h o u t h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , i n f i d e l i t y , a l c o h o l a b u s e , i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y , e t c . ) . I n summary, r e s e a r c h on t h e s t a b i l i t y o f m a r r i a g e s i n f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n i s q u i t e s c a r c e , and t h o s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e y i e l d i n c o n -s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c h i l d ' s i n f l u e n c e on m a r i t a l s t a b i l -i t y . E m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d ' s i m p a c t on t h e m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e p a r e n t s have r e p o r t e d i n f l u e n c e s r a n g i n g f r o m h i g h l y d i s r u p t i v e t o b e n e f i c i a l . T h i s r a n g e i s no t s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n t h e v a r i e t y o f methods used t o a s s e s s m a r i t a l q u a l i t y and t h e marked d i f f e r e n c e s i n a g e o f t h e c h i l d r e n , s e v e r i t y o f r e t a r d a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s , and o t h e r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e t a i l s . S c h o n e l l e t a l . ( 1959 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d l e a d s t o f a m i l y t e n s i o n s , r e c r i m i -n a t i o n s and d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t t h e p a r e n t s a r e u s u a l l y u n a b l e t o o v e r c o m e . These a u t h o r s do n o t p r o v i d e d a t a on t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s a f f e c t e d i n t h i s manner . S c h i p p e r (1959 ) p r o v i d e d a g l o b a l r a t i n g o f f a m i l y a d j u s t m e n t o r d i s t u r b a n c e based i n l a r g e p a r t on t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p . He r e p o r t e d t h a t i n 12 o f t h e 43 f a m i l i e s (28%) , f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s were " d i s t u r b e d " . T i z a r d and G r a d (1961 ) f o u n d " d i s t u r b e d " t o " s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d " m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n 22% o f t h e i r s a m p l e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e y f o u n d more f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s r a t e d a s good i n t h e home samp le 27 (62%) t h a n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l samp le (44%) . An i n t e n s i v e s t u d y o f 177 i n -t a c t f a m i l i e s by B a r s c h (1968 ) r e v e a l e d t h a t 17 f a m i l i e s (9 .6%) were i n an e x t r e m e s t a t e o f m a r i t a l c r i s i s w i t h open h o s t i l i t i e s , m a s s i v e r e j e c -t i o n o f t h e c h i l d and m u l t i p l e a r e a s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t . I n a measure o f l e s s e x t r e m e d i s c o r d , B a r s c h f o u n d t h a t 31% o f t h e f a t h e r s gave n e g a t i v e r a t i n g s o f t h e m o t h e r s ' a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d and 28% o f t h e m o t h e r s gave n e g a t i v e r a t i n g s o f t h e f a t h e r s ' a t t i t u d e . B a r s c h r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e most f r e q u e n t p a t e r n a l c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e mother were o v e r p r o t e c -t i o n o f t h e c h i l d and f a i l u r e t o meet t h e needs o f o t h e r members o f t h e f a m i l y . The most f r e q u e n t m a t e r n a l c r i t i c i s m o f t h e f a t h e r was r e j e c t i o n o r a p a t h y t o w a r d t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d . T h e s e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d an e a r l i e r f i n d i n g by Cunn ingham (1964 ) w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t m a t e r n a l o v e r p r o t e c t i o n a n d / o r p a t e r n a l r e j e c t i o n were t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n s l e a d i n g t o s e r i o u s m a r i t a l d i s c o r d . I n t h e i r l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y , Tew e t a l . ( 1974 ) f o u n d t h a t , on t h e b a s i s o f a 5 - p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e o f m a r i t a l ha rmony , 70% o f t h e m a r r i a g e s o f t h e c o n t r o l and i n d e x f a m i l i e s were r a t e d a s s a t i s f a c t o r y j u s t p r i o r t o t h e b i r t h o f t h e i r c h i l d . A f t e r 9 y e a r s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f c o n t r o l f a m i l i e s whose m a r r i a g e s were r a t e d a s s a t i s f a c t o r y was 79% w h e r e a s t h e p r o p o r t i o n f o r i n d e x f a m i l i e s was 46%. F u r t h e r m o r e , o f t h e 46% w h i c h were r a t e d a s s a t i s f a c t o r y , t h e a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e d one t h i r d o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s a s " t o o c o h e s i v e " . T h e s e o v e r f u n c t i o n i n g f a m i l i e s were t h o u g h t t o e x a g g e r a t e t h e p a r e n t a l r o l e a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l r o l e and a l l f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s were s u b o r d i n a t e d t o t h e needs o f t h e h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d . I f t h e s e f a m i l i e s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s a t i s f a c t o r y c a t e g o r y , t h e n o n l y 35% o f t h e i n d e x m a r r i a g e s wou ld q u a l i f y a s s a t i s f a c t o r y . The 28 s t u d i e s by Cummings and h i s a s s o c i a t e s had m ixed f i n d i n g s . The f a t h e r s ' e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r s p o u s e , a s measured by a s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n s c a l e , r e v e a l e d t h a t f a t h e r s o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n r a t e d t h e i r s p o u s e m o r e n e g a t i v e l y t h a n f a t h e r s o f h e a l t h y c h i l d r e n (Cummings, 1 9 7 6 ) , w h e r e a s t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e s f o r m o t h e r s (Cummings e t a l . , 1 9 6 6 ) . I n a s t u d y o f l o w - i n c o m e m o t h e r s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n , E h e a r t and C i c c o n e (1982) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r d a t a c o n t r a d i c t e d e a r l i e r s t u d i e s w h i c h documented m a r i t a l d i s c o r d among t h e s e f a m i l i e s . Howeve r , a c l o s e i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e i r d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t when t h e d i v o r c e d m o t h e r s (50%) a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s e s t h e n o n l y 22% o f t h e m o t h e r s r e p o r t e d " n o e f f e c t " o r " s t r e n g t h e n e d m a r r i a g e " . No t a l l e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h e r s have f o u n d t h e i m p a c t o f a r e t a r d e d c h i l d on m a r i t a l q u a l i t y t o be e n t i r e l y n e g a t i v e . H o l t ( 1958 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t j u s t 6% o f t h e c o u p l e s i n h i s samp le q u a r r e l l e d s e v e r e l y and p e r -s i s t e n t l y w i t h t h e u n r e s t b e i n g c l e a r l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e c h i l d . I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e what p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d m i n o r d i s c o r d o r d i s c o r d l e s s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e c h i l d . H o l t s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e p a r e n t s c o u l d d e v e l o p a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l i f e and be drawn c l o s e r t o g e t h e r by t h e i r s t r u g g l e t o meet t h e c h a l l e n g e s t h e y c o n f r o n t . Kramm (1963 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t 42% o f t h e p a r e n t s o f Down ' s syndrome c h i l d r e n were drawn c l o s e r t o g e t h e r by t h e i r c h i l d a n d 38% r e p o r t e d no d i f f e r e n c e . The r e m a i n i n g 20% o f t h e m o t h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d had d i s t a n c e d them f r o m t h e i r s p o u s e s (8% had d i s c u s s e d d i v o r c e ) . Kramm p o i n t e d o u t t h a t among t h o s e c o u p l e s who r e p o r t e d no c u r r e n t d i s c o r d t h e r e were many who f e l t t h e i r m a r r i a g e had been s t r a i n e d f o r a w h i l e i n t h e f i r s t f ew y e a r s bu t had s i n c e i m p r o v e d . A s i m i l a r 29 p a t t e r n was r e p o r t e d by G a t h and Gumley (1984) who f o u n d t h a t a l t h o u g h m a r i t a l s t a b i l i t y and q u a l i t y were a f f e c t e d i n t h e f i r s t 2 y e a r s , t h e r e -a f t e r t h e p a r e n t s o f Down ' s syndrome c h i l d r e n and t h e p a r e n t s o f c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n d i d n o t d i f f e r i n s t a b i l i t y o r q u a l i t y o f m a r r i a g e s . McAndrew (1976 ) a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t more o f t h e f a m i l i e s she i n t e r v i e w e d p e r c e i v e d a s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p r a t h e r t h a n d e t e r i o r a t i o n (38% v s . 15%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . K o r n e t a l . ( 1978 ) f o u n d t h a t i n o n l y 3.7% o f t h e f a m i l i e s was t h e r e s e r i o u s p a r e n t a l d i s c o r d o r s e v e r e d e t e r i o r a -t i o n o f t h e m a r r i a g e w h i c h c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e c h i l d . The more common p a t t e r n o f i m p a c t was f o r t h e h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d t o s e r i o u s l y d i s r u p t f a m i l y r o u t i n e s w h i c h , i n t u r n , l e d t o l e s s s e v e r e d i s c o r d s u c h a s a r g u i n g a b o u t t h e c a r e o f t h e c h i l d , n e g l e c t o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n , and r e s e n t m e n t by t h e s p o u s e . When t h i s l o w e r i n t e n s i t y d i s c o r d was i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s , t h e n 26% o f t h e f a m i l i e s showed some d i s t u r b a n c e o f m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s . The a u t h o r s o b s e r v e d t h a t among t h e 74% o f t h e p a r -e n t s who were n o t d i s t u r b e d , t h e r e were many p a r e n t s who r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e c h a l l e n g e s o f r e a r i n g a h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d were s e e n a s a r e w a r d i n g e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a c t u a l l y s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e i r m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y . A l l o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f m a r i t a l q u a l i t y w h i c h have been d i s -c u s s e d so f a r have emp loyed e i t h e r i n t e r v i e w e r r a t i n g s o r s i m p l e n o n -s t a n d a r d i z e d p a r e n t a l s e l f - r e p o r t . T h e r e a r e o n l y a few i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n w h i c h a s t a n d a r d i z e d measure o f m a r i t a l q u a l i t y has been emp loyed t o compare p a r e n t s w i t h a r e t a r d e d c h i l d and p a r e n t s w i t h a h e a l t h y c h i l d . A l t h o u g h e a c h o f t h e s e s t u d i e s f a i l e d t o f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s i n t h e s e s t u d i e s impede c l e a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . B e r n a r d ( 1 9 7 4 ) a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e F a r b e r I n d e x o f M a r i t a l I n t e g r a t i o n 30 ( F a r b e r , 1957) t o 50 c o u p l e s w i t h a s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d and t o a matched samp le o f 50 c o u p l e s w i t h a n o n - h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d . He r e p o r t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e g r o u p s i n m a r i t a l i n t e g r a t i o n . However , t h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t b e c a u s e i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d on how t h e f a m i l i e s were s e l e c t e d f o r p a r t i c i p a -t i o n and t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s was q u e s t i o n a b l e g i v e n t h a t t h e p a r e n t s were p r e d o m i n a n t l y l o w e r SEL and C a t h o l i c p l u s t h e c h i l d r e n were a l l s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d and g e n e r a l l y o l d e r (M = 1 1 . 7 y e a r s ) . A s e c o n d i n v e s -t i g a t i o n w h i c h emp loyed a s t a n d a r d i z e d m a r i t a l i n t e g r a t i o n measure ( M a r i -t a l A d j u s t m e n t T e s t ; L o c k e & W a l l a c e , 1959) was c o n d u c t e d by W a i s b r e n ( 1 9 8 0 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e m a r i t a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s o f 30 d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n and 30 n o r m a l c h i l d r e n a l l l e s s t h a n 1 .5 y e a r s o f age r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . C a u t i o n i s w a r r a n t e d i n g e n e r a l i z i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s t o p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n b e c a u s e t h e samp le i n c l u d e d o t h e r k i n d s o f d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n ( i . e . , b l i n d , c e r e b r a l p a l s y and b r a i n damaged) a n d , a t t h i s young a g e , t h e c h i l d ' s d e l a y w o u l d l i k e l y n o t be c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s p o s i t i v e o u t c o m e was t e m p e r e d somewhat by a c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e o v e r a l l a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n . T h i s a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t p a r e n t s who e x p r e s s e d p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d t h e c h i l d were more p r o n e t o r e p o r t g r e a t e r symptoms o f p h y s i c a l s t r e s s and more n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e m a r -r i a g e . The a u t h o r i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s f i n d i n g a s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e b e n e -f i t s o f g r e a t e r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c h i l d a r e c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d by t h e d i s -t a n c i n g o f t h e s p o u s e s . B r e i n e r and F o r e h a n d (1982 ) a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d 31 the Marital Adjustment Test to mothers of developmentally delayed child-ren, mothers of clinic-referred noncompliant children and mothers of nonclinic children. These authors did not find significant differences; however, as discussed earlier, the small sample size prevented clear interpretation of these findings. In summary, research on the adjustment of intact marriages of par-ents of retarded children yield quite inconsistent findings. Unfortu-nately, there are no large-scale, longitudinal studies employing a stand-ardized marital adjustment measure and appropriate comparison groups. The longitudinal research that i s available tends to suggest some disrup-tion of the marital relationship, particularly in the f i r s t few years. Thereafter, i t would appear that adjustments ranging from negative to very positive are found in couples with retarded children. Furthermore, in the cross-sectional research, there appears to be a trend for studies employing more objective measures of adjustment to find less differences between couples with retarded children versus couples with healthy child-ren. Range of Parental Reactions and Prediction of Distress The preceding review of the reactions of depression, self-esteem, anxiety and marital discord in parents of retarded children makes appar-ent both the diversity of c l i n i c a l descriptions and empirical results. Poor research methodology may account for part of this inconsistency but another, and perhaps more important source, i s the actual diversity of the reactions of parents in this situation. The search for broad common-a l i t i e s may be quite f u t i l e given that these parents constitute a group only by virtue of a common quirk of fate (Robinson & Robinson, 1976). 32 S e v e r a l a u t h o r s f r o m t h e c l i n i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e h a v e a r g u e d t h a t t h e p a r e n t s ' r e a c t i o n s a r e e x t r e m e l y v a r i a b l e w i t h f e w , i f a n y , g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s ( C h i n n e t a l . , 1 9 7 9 ; H e i f e t z , 1980 ; R o o s , 1 9 6 3 , 1 9 7 7 ; S c h i l d , 1 9 7 1 ) . S t r e s s e s w h i c h a p p e a r t o u n i t e one f a m i l y seem t o d i s s o l v e t h e n e x t . Many o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r s who c o n d u c t e d t h e l a r g e e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s a l s o made r e f e r e n c e t o t h e b r o a d r a n g e o f r e a c t i o n s t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d ( B a r s c h , 1 9 6 8 ; Cunn ingham, 1964 ; E v a n s & C a r t e r , 1954 ; G r o s s m a n , 1972 ; H o l t , 1 9 5 8 ; Kew, 1 9 7 5 ) . The manner i n w h i c h t h e s e a u t h o r s d e s c r i b e d t h e r a n g e o f r e a c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y w e r e s o m e w h a t s u r p r i s e d a n d i m p r e s s e d w i t h how w e l l some f a m i l i e s f u n c t i o n e d d e s p i t e t h e i r h a r d s h i p s . Some a u t h o r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e w i t h i n - g r o u p v a r i a t i o n i s s o g r e a t t h a t t h e t o p i c may be b e t t e r s t u d i e d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s ( B a r s c h , 1968 ; C r n i c , F r i e d r i c h & G r e e n b e r g , 1 9 8 3 ; N i h i r a , M e y e r s & M i n k , 1 9 8 0 ) . W h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n and r a n g e o f r e a c t i o n among t h e s e p a r e n t s , i t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t t h a t a few g e n e r a l i t i e s r e g a r d -i n g d e p r e s s i o n , s e l f - e s t e e m , a n x i e t y and m a r i t a l d i s c o r d do e x i s t . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s p e c i f i c r e a c t i o n b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d , i t a p p e a r s t h a t a s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f p a r e n t s ( p r o b a b l y l e s s t h a n 10%) was s e r i o u s l y d i s -t u r b e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e i r r e t a r d e d c h i l d t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t t h e i r r e a c t i o n w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d o f c l i n i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . A l a r g e r p r o p o r -t i o n o f p a r e n t s ( p r o b a b l y be tween 20% t o 40%) was somewhat d i s t r e s s e d b u t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e i r r e a c t i o n s was w e l l b e l o w t h e i n t e n s i t y f o u n d i n t h e c l i n i c a l s y n d r o m e s . T h e s e p a r e n t s w o u l d p r e s e n t a s m i l d l y d e p r e s s e d o r a n x i o u s , w i t h p e r h a p s a s l i g h t dec remen t i n s e l f - e s t e e m and e v i d e n c i n g more m i n o r f o r m s o f m a r i t a l d i s c o r d . S i m i l a r t o t h e f i n d i n g s f o r p a r e n t s o f o t h e r p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n ( M a s h , 1 9 8 4 ) , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s e v a r i o u s 33 r e a c t i o n s o c c u r r e d t o g e t h e r a s a c l u s t e r i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r e n t o r c o u p l e and i n d i c a t e d a g e n e r a l i z e d d i s t u r b a n c e o f a d j u s t m e n t . O n l y one i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o v i d e d any d i r e c t e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . B a r s c h ( 1 9 6 8 ) p e r f o r m e d an i d i o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e a t t i t u d e s o f s p o u s e s t o w a r d t h e c h i l d and e a c h o t h e r and f o u n d t h a t t h e same 17 f a m i l i e s (9 .6%) c o n s i s t e n t l y d e v i a t e d f r o m t h e norm on i s s u e a f t e r i s s u e . F i n a l -l y , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f p a r e n t s , and p r o b a b l y a m a j o r i t y , was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s t u r b e d by t he p r e s e n c e o f t h e i r r e t a r d e d c h i l d . Among t h e s e n o n - d i s t r e s s e d p a r e n t s a s i z e a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f p a r e n t s r e p o r t e d b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s f o r t h e i r own p e r s o n a l g row th and g r e a t e r c o h e s i v e n e s s o f t h e m a r i t a l d y a d . The g r e a t i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n and t h e r a n g e o f r e a c t i o n s have l e d a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s t o i n v e s t i g a t e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h m i g h t a c c o u n t f o r some o f t h e v a r i a n c e w i t h i n t h e g roup o f p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . Mos t o f t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have i n v o l v e d p o s t - h o c a n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a f r o m t h e m a j o r s u r v e y s t u d i e s . The use o f t h e s e d a t a f o r w i t h i n - g r o u p p r e d i c t i o n a n a l y s e s h a s added m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s : g r o s s l y i n f l a t e d e x p e r i m e n t - w i s e e r r o r r a t e due t o numerous c o m p a r i s o n s ; c o m p a r i -s o n s based on s m a l l , u n e q u a l and o f t e n n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e numbers o f i n d i v i d u a l s ; and c a p i t a l i z a t i o n on c h a n c e a s s o c i a t i o n s f o u n d i n t h e d a t a . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e one p r o g r a m m a t i c s e r i e s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f w i t h i n -g r o u p v a r i a b i l i t y , by F a r b e r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s ( e . g . , F a r b e r , 1959 , 1 9 6 0 ) , h a s i n v o l v e d many o f t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s ( W o l f e n s b e r g e r , 1 9 6 7 ) . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s t u d i e s h o l d an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n r e s e a r c h on p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . Though t h e v a r i a b l e s t h e y have s u g -g e s t e d have o f t e n f a i l e d t o be r e p l i c a t e d u n e q u i v o c a l l y , t h e s e r e s e a r c h -34 e r s have a t l e a s t i d e n t i f i e d v a r i a b l e s w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h s h o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e i n a more r i g o r o u s manner . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have examined v a r i a b l e s w h i c h p e r t a i n t o p a r e n t demograph i c i n f o r m a t i o n o r s t r a t e g i e s o f c o p i n g . H o l t ( 1 9 5 8 ) , T i z a r d and Grad (1961 ) and F a r b e r (1959 ) a l l c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e i m p a c t o f h a v i n g a s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d was g r e a t e r on p a r e n t s w i t h h i g h e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l ( S E L ) t h a n p a r e n t s w i t h l o w e r S E L . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n t e l l i -gence and a c h i e v e m e n t a r e more i n t e n s e l y v a l u e d by t h e h i g h e r SEL p a r e n t s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e i r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t and f r u s t r a t i o n wou ld be more i n t e n s e . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e h o l d s even t h o u g h t h e d i r e c t b u r d e n o f c a r e and p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s i s g r e a t e r f o r t h e l o w e r SEL p a r e n t s ( F a r b e r , 1 9 5 9 ) . P a t t e r n s o f e a r l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t h i g h e r S E L p a r e n t s a r e l e s s a b l e t o a c c e p t t h e i r s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d t h a n a r e l o w e r SEL p a r e n t s ( G i a n n i n i & Goodman, 1 9 6 3 ; O l s h a n s k y & S c h o n f i e l d , 1 9 6 4 ) . R e l i g i o n has a l s o been s u g g e s t e d as a ma jo r v a r i a b l e p r e d i c t i n g t h e d e g r e e o f d i s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e p a r e n t s . I n one o f t h e e a r l i e s t w r i t i n g s on f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n , Boyd (1951 ) i d e n t i f i e d t h e c e n t r a l r o l e w h i c h r e l i g i o n may p l a y i n p a r e n t a l a d j u s t m e n t . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s made p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f r e l i g i o n f o r many o f t h e f a m i l i e s i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( e . g . , C a l d w e l l & G u z e , 1960 ; H o l t , 1958 ; Kramm, 1 9 6 3 ) . W h i l e e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d i d no t s u p p o r t t h e b e n e f i t s o f r e l i g i o n p e r s e , t h e y d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t C a t h o l i c p a r e n t s t e n d e d t o a c c e p t t h e i r r e t a r d e d c h i l d more r e a d i l y ( e . g . , Z u k , 1 9 5 9 ; Z u k , M i l l e r , B a r t r a m & K l i n g , 1 9 6 1 ) , were b e t t e r a b l e t o cope w i t h t h e c h i l d a t home ( F a r b e r , 1959 , 1960) and were l e s s l i k e l y t o i n s t i t u -35 t i o n a l i z e ( S t o n e & P a r n i c k y , 1 9 6 5 ) . Howeve r , o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e f a i l e d t o o b t a i n t h e s e C a t h o l i c v e r s u s n o n - C a t h o l i c d i f f e r e n c e s ( S a e n g e r , 1960 ; L e i c h m a n , 1 9 6 0 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , a s W o l f e n s b e r g e r (1967) p o i n t e d o u t , t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , w h i c h were m o s t l y c o n d u c t e d i n t h e e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s , c o n f o u n d e d C a t h o l i c i s m w i t h S E L , e t h n i c i t y , f a m i l y s i z e , i n - l a w s u p p o r t and so o n . S i n c e t h e s e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s have a l s o been r e l a t e d t o p a r e n t a l c o p i n g , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between C a t h o l i c s and n o n - C a t h o l i c s may have been due t o t h e c o n f o u n d e d v a r i a b l e s . No r e s e a r c h h a s examined t h e r o l e o f r e l i g i o n w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e m a t c h i n g on t h e s e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s . The i n t e r e s t i n r e l i g i o n a s a v a r i a b l e p r e d i c t i n g a d j u s t m e n t i n p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n a p p e a r s t o have d e c r e a s e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s . More r e c e n t s t u d i e s have f a i l e d t o f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e l i -g i o n be tween c o p i n g and n o n - c o p i n g f a m i l i e s ( G r o s s m a n , 1972) o r i n r e l i -g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e t w e e n h a n d i c a p p e d and n o n - h a n d i c a p p e d f a m i l i e s ( B e r n a r d , 1 9 7 4 ) . A l t h o u g h s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and r e l i g i o n have been t h e m a j o r p a r e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i n k e d t o a d j u s t m e n t , a f e w o t h e r p a r e n t a l v a r i a b l e s have a l s o been p r o p o s e d . H o l t (1958) s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n - l a w s u p p o r t was a key v a r i a b l e i n s u c c e s s f u l c o p i n g w i t h s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . A c c o r d i n g t o H o l t , t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s f o r t h e s e f a m i l i e s were t h e i n t e n s e and u n r e l e n t i n g b u r d e n o f c a r e and t h e e n s u i n g s o c i a l i s o l a -t i o n . A s s i s t a n c e f r om e x t e n d e d f a m i l y o r i n - l a w s was t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f r e s p i t e f o r t h e s e p a r e n t s and a ma jo r f a c t o r i n w h e t h e r t h e y c o u l d m a i n t a i n t h e i r h e a l t h and e m o t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f many y e a r s . The paramount i m p o r t a n c e o f f a m i l i a l s u p p o r t i v e r e l a t i o n s i n m a i n t a i n i n g p a r e n t a l a d j u s t m e n t was a l s o f o u n d by W a i s b r e n ( 1 9 8 0 ) . I n a 36 f i n e - g r a i n a n a l y s i s , F a r b e r (1959 ) f o u n d t h a t f r e q u e n t i n t e r a c t i o n b e -tween t h e f a m i l y and t h e m o t h e r ' s mo the r was b e n e f i c i a l w h i l e f r e q u e n t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e f a t h e r ' s mother was d e t r i m e n t a l . F a r b e r ( 1960 ) a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t some f o r m s o f f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n seemed t o be b e n e f i c i a l . He f o u n d t h a t f a m i l i e s t h a t a d o p t e d a c o n s i s t e n t s t r a t e g y ( w h e t h e r c h i l d -o r i e n t e d , p a r e n t - o r i e n t e d o r h o m e - o r i e n t e d ) were more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h o s e f a m i l i e s t h a t f a i l e d t o a d o p t a c o n s i s t e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r a t e g y . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e be tween c o n s i s t e n t and i n c o n s i s t e n t f a m i l i e s was p a r t i c u -l a r l y p r o n o u n c e d i n f a m i l i e s e x p e r i e n c i n g g r e a t e r s e v e r i t y o f c i r c u m s t a n -c e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e s , b u r d e n o f c a r e and so o n . S e v e r a l d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d have been s u g g e s t e d t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e d e g r e e o f d i s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e p a r e n t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n be tween s e x o f t h e h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d and p a r -e n t a l a d j u s t m e n t was f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t e d by F a r b e r ( 1 9 5 9 ) . He f o u n d t h a t ma le r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n were more d i s r u p t i v e t h a n f e m a l e r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n and t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was more p r o n o u n c e d i n l o w e r SES f a m i l i e s . A number o f more r e c e n t s t u d i e s have f a i l e d t o f i n d t h i s s e x d i f f e r e n c e ( e . g . , C u m m i n g s , 1 9 7 6 ; Cummings, e t a l . , 1 9 6 6 ; K o r n e t a l . , 1 9 7 8 ) . C h r o n o l o g i c a l age h a s a l s o been p r o p o s e d a s an i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t o r o f p a r e n t a l d i s t r e s s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s have been q u i t e m i x e d . P a r e n t s o f Down ' s syndrome c h i l d r e n a p p e a r t o f i n d t h e f i r s t f ew y e a r s more s t r e s s f u l t h a n t h e l a t e r c h i l d h o o d y e a r s ( G a t h & G u m l e y , 1984 ; Kramm, 1 9 6 3 ) . S i m i l a r l y , Cummings (1976) f o u n d t h a t f a t h e r s o f o l d e r m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ( 9 - 1 3 y e a r s ) were l e s s d i s t r e s s e d t h a n f a t h e r s o f younge r m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ( 4 - 8 y e a r s ) . Howeve r , Cummings e t a l . ( 1966 ) f o u n d no d i f f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e age o f c h i l d f o r t h e 37 m o t h e r s . K o r n e t a l . ( 1978 ) a l s o f o u n d t h a t younge r h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n ( l e s s t h a n 5 y e a r s ) were more l i k e l y t o b e l o n g t o d i s t r e s s e d f a m i l i e s t h a n were o l d e r c h i l d r e n (5 y e a r s and o l d e r ) . The p r o p o r t i o n o f d i s -t r e s s e d f a m i l i e s was 73% and 34%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , F a r b e r (1959 ) f o u n d t h a t , a t l e a s t f o r b o y s , t h e o l d e r t h e y w e r e , t h e more d i s r u p t i v e t h e y became t o m a r i t a l i n t e g r a t i o n . F a r b e r (1975 ) has s i n c e a r g u e d t h a t p a r e n t a l c o p i n g w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n o f e i t h e r s e x becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o b l e m a t i c o v e r t h e l i f e c y c l e . R e c e n t l y , a l a r g e s c a l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n by S u e l z l e and Keenan (1981 ) c o r r o b o r a t e d F a r b e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n o f d i s t r e s s i n c r e a s i n g w i t h a g e . T h e s e a u t h o r s were u n c e r t a i n w h e t h e r t h i s i n c r e m e n t i n d i s t r e s s was due t o i n c r e a s i n g d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n a g e - a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r , a s F a r b e r (1968 ) and B i r e n b a u m (1971 ) have a r g u e d , o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x t r a f a m i l i a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r d i f f e r e n t age r a n g e s , a s s u g g e s t e d by R o w i t z ( 1 9 7 4 ) . A number o f r e s e a r c h e r s have p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e c h i l d ' s d e g r e e o f d e p e n d e n c y may be r e l a t e d t o p a r e n t a l d i s t r e s s . T h e s e a u t h o r s have t y p i c a l l y a r g u e d t h a t t h e c h i l d ' s dependency l e a d s t o i n c r e a s e d b u r d e n o f c a r e ( e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e m o t h e r ) w h i c h may i n t u r n l e a d t o p h y s i c a l e x h a u s t i o n and d i s t r e s s . Many a u t h o r s have a r g u e d t h a t i t i s t h e s e p r a c t i c a l demands , r a t h e r t h a n e m o t i o n a l demands, t h a t a r e p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p a r e n t a l d i s t r e s s ( e . g . , B a r s c h , 1 9 6 8 ; Cunn ingham, 1964 ; H o l t , 1 9 5 8 ; R o b i n s o n & R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 6 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s v i e w h a s been f r e q u e n t l y o f f e r e d , i t h a s r e c e i v e d v e r y l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . An i n d i r e c t t e s t o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s h a s been p r o v i d e d by two s t u d i e s ( B a r s c h , 1 9 6 8 ; C u n n i n g h a m , 1964) w h i c h f o u n d t h a t a v a r i e t y o f h a n d i -capped g r o u p s ( e . g . , c e r e b r a l p a l s y , Down ' s synd rome , b l i n d ) t h a t wou ld 38 d i f f e r m a r k e d l y i n c h i l d dependency d i d n o t show c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i f f e r e n -c e s i n p a r e n t a l d i s t r e s s . I n two s t u d i e s t h e l i n k a g e be tween dependence and d i s t r e s s was d i r e c t l y t e s t e d and t h e r e s u l t s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t . N i h i r a e t a l . ( 1980 ) u t i l i z e d t h e s o c i a l competency s e c t i o n o f t h e AAMD A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e ( N i h i r a , F o s t e r , S h e l l h a a s & L e l a n d , 1974) a s a measure o f dependency i n t r a i n a b l e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d (TMR) and e d u c a b l e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d (EMR) c h i l d r e n . A c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e dependency f a c t o r was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a number o f i n d i c e s o f i m p a c t on t h e f a m i l y b u t n o t w i t h d i s t r e s s o r n e g a t i v e a t t i -t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e c h i l d . A r e c e n t s t u d y u s i n g a h e t e r o g e n e o u s samp le o f d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n f o u n d p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween dependency and two f o r m s o f m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s ( B r e s l a u , S t a r u c h & M o r t i m e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . D e p e n d -ency was a s s e s s e d by a b r i e f c h e c k l i s t d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s s t u d y w h i c h samp led v a r i o u s a r e a s o f i n d e p e n d e n t f u n c t i o n i n g s u c h a s e a t i n g , d r e s -s i n g , t o i l e t i n g , and so o n . T h e s e a u t h o r s f o u n d c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween t h e c h i l d ' s dependency and measu res o f t h e m o t h e r ' s p e r s o n a l d i s t r e s s and h e r d i s t r e s s r e l a t e d t o t h e p a r e n t i n g r o l e . The l e v e l o f r e t a r d a t i o n has a l s o been p r o p o s e d a s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n p a r e n t a l a d j u s t m e n t . As w i t h c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e , t h e r e s u l t s a r e q u i t e i n c o n s i s t e n t . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e d i s t u r b -a n c e o f t h e p a r e n t s i n c r e a s e s a s t h e s e v e r i t y o f r e t a r d a t i o n i n c r e a s e s ( e . g . , Cunn ingham, 1964 ; E v a n s & C a r t e r , 1954 ; E h e a r t & C i c c o n e , 1982 ; F a r b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) . The g r e a t e r d i s c r e p a n c y be tween t h e c h i l d and t h e i d e a l c h i l d , t h e g r e a t e r s t i g m a and e m b a r r a s s m e n t , and t h e g r e a t e r b u r d e n o f c a r e have been some o f t h e r e a s o n s s u g g e s t e d f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have n o t f o u n d d i s t u r b a n c e r e l a t e d t o t h e s e v e r i t y o f h a n d i -39 cap ( e . g . , Tew e t a l . , 1974 ; T i z a r d & G r a d , 1 9 6 1 ) . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , some i n v e s t i g a t o r s have f o u n d p a r e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e t o be g r e a t e r among f a m i l i e s w i t h l e s s s e v e r e l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , D a l t o n & E p s t e i n , 1 9 6 3 ; D e n h o f f , 1 9 6 0 ; M i l l e r , 1 9 5 8 ) . T h e s e a u t h o r s have e x p l a i n e d t h e s e f i n d i n g s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o s u c h t h i n g s a s t h e i n c r e a s e d a m b i g u i t y o f t h e p r o b l e m , t h e p r o l o n g e d t e n d e n c y o f p a r e n t s t o emp loy w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g w h i c h r e s u l t s i n r e p e a t e d d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s , and t h e i n c r e a s e d l i k e l i h o o d o f v i e w i n g t h e c h i l d a s l a z y , u n m o t i v a t e d o r b a d . E m p i r i c a l s t u d y o f p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s h a s c o n s i s t e n t l y f o u n d t h a t s e v e r e i m p a i r m e n t l e a d s t o o v e r p r o t e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s w h i l e m i l d i m p a i r -ments a r e more l i k e l y t o l e a d t o p a r e n t a l r e j e c t i n g a t t i t u d e s ( e . g . , B a r s c h , 1 9 6 8 ; C o o k , 1 9 6 3 ) . Howeve r , t h e p r e s e n c e o f p a r e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e w h i c h i s t h o u g h t t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e s e a t t i t u d e s h a s r e m a i n e d a c o n t r o -v e r s i a l i s s u e . A c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y by N i h i r a e t a l . ( 1980 ) c l a r i f i e d t h i s s i t u a t i o n somewhat . I n a l a r g e and w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d s t u d y , t h e s e a u t h o r s f o u n d t h a t measu res o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e c h i l d d i s t u r b e d f a m i l y l i f e s t y l e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e more s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d TMR c h i l d r e n were more d i s r u p t i v e t h a n t h e more m i l d l y r e t a r d e d EMR c h i l d r e n . How-e v e r , t h e p a r e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e d i s t u r b a n c e and t o w a r d t h e c h i l d i n g e n e r a l r e v e a l e d t h a t p a r e n t s o f TMR c h i l d r e n were more p o s i t i v e t h a n t h e p a r e n t s o f EMR c h i l d r e n . T h e s e a u t h o r s a l s o f o u n d more c o h e s i v e n e s s and l e s s c o n f l i c t i n p a r e n t s o f TMR c h i l d r e n t h a n p a r e n t s o f EMR c h i l d -r e n . P e r h a p s p a r t o f t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g s e v e r -i t y o f r e t a r d a t i o n r e l a t e s t o w h e t h e r t h e measu res emp loyed by t h e v a r i -ous a u t h o r s a s s e s s e d d i s t u r b a n c e o f l i f e s t y l e o r t h e d i r e c t d i s t u r b a n c e AO o f p a r e n t a l mood. The r e s e a r c h by N i h i r a has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e s e two d i m e n s i o n s o f d i s t u r b a n c e a r e n o t synonymous . A few o t h e r l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t c h i l d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been s u g -g e s t e d t o be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p a r e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e . H o l t ( 1958 ) p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f c l e a r l y n o t i c e a b l e s t i g m a t a i n t h e c h i l d ( e . g . , p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t i e s , a t y p i c a l f a c i a l f e a t u r e s ) w o u l d l e a d t o g r e a t e r s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t s . T h i s s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n w o u l d , i n t u r n , l e a d t o h i g h e r l e v e l s o f p a r e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n a p p e a r s r e a s o n a b l e , i t has n o t been e m p i r i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . A number o f a u t h o r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t b i r t h o r d e r and t h e s i z e o f t h e f a m i l y may r e l a t e t o p a r e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e . The d i s t u r b a n c e may be g r e a t e r i f t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d i s t h e f i r s t b o r n o r o n l y c h i l d ( K a n n e r , 1 9 5 3 ; Kramm, 1 9 6 3 ; R o o s , 1 9 7 7 ) . T i z a r d and G r a d (1961) f o u n d t h e o n l y c h i l d p o s i t i o n t o be t h e most d i s t r e s s i n g f o r t h e p a r e n t s , bu t added t h a t o v e r a l l d i s -t u r b a n c e seemed t o be s i m p l y r e l a t e d t o f a m i l y s i z e r a t h e r t h a n b i r t h o r d e r . They s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r number o f h e a l t h y s i b l i n g s w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s c a n r a i s e s u c c e s s f u l l y and r e c e i v e g r a t i f i c a t i o n f r o m , t h e more w e l l - a d j u s t e d t h e p a r e n t s were l i k e l y t o b e . S t r e s s , C o p i n g R e s o u r c e s and C o p i n g Outcome I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e a p p e a r s t o have been a renewed i n t e r e s t i n t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f p a r e n t s w i t h m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . The c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e phenomena, w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o e l u d e t r a d i t i o n a l u n i v a r i a t e r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s , has begun t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h e x p l o r a t o r y m u l t i v a r i a t e m e t h o d s . The t h e o r e t i c a l mode l s w h i c h have g u i d e d much o f t h i s r e s e a r c h h a v e b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m l i f e s t r e s s r e s e a r c h ( e . g . , D o h r e n w e n d & Dohrenwend , 1974) w i t h p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s on mode l s o f t h e c o p i n g p r o c -41 e s s ( e . g . , F o l k m a n , S c h a e f e r & L a z a r u s , 1 9 7 9 ) . I n s t e a d o f s e a r c h i n g f o r d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween s t r e s s o r s and p a r e n t a l a d j u s t m e n t , t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s have i n c l u d e d numerous v a r i a b l e s t o r e f l e c t c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s t h a t may m e d i a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween s t r e s s and o u t c o m e . A s p a r t o f a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f t h e p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l and c o g n i -t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d and l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s l i v i n g i n a v a r i e t y o f r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g s , N i h i r a and h i s a s s o c i a t e s have r e p o r t e d some i m p o r t a n t d a t a on c o r r e l a t e s o f f a m i l i a l a d j u s t m e n t . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d t h a t t h e p a r e n t s ' f e e l i n g o f i m p a c t was h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n c e o f m a l a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r and l a c k o f a d a p t i v e competency o f t h e c h i l d ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , f a m i l y a d j u s t m e n t was r e l a t e d t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t p r o v i d e d f o r t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d . The q u a l i t y o f t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t was i n t u r n r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r s o n a l ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1980) and s c h o o l a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e c h i l d ( N i h i r a , M i n k & M e y e r , 1 9 8 1 ) . As d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , c o m p a r i s o n o f EMR and TMR s a m p l e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f r e p o r t e d i m p a c t on f a m i l y l i f e was g r e a t e r i n t h e TMR samp le bu t n e g a t i v e p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h i s i m p a c t were more common i n t h e EMR samp le ( N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . F a m i l i e s o f TMR c h i l d r e n were a l s o more c o h e s i v e and had l e s s c o n f l i c t t h a n f a m i l i e s w i t h EMR c h i l d r e n . M i n k , N i h i r a and M e y e r s (1983 ) p e r f o r m e d a c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e f a m i l i e s w i t h TMR c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e i r s a m p l e . T h i s a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d f i v e d i s t i n c t c l u s t e r s o f f a m i l i e s : 1 . c o h e s i v e , h a r m o n i o u s ; 2 . c o n t r o l -o r i e n t e d , somewhat u n h a r m o n i o u s ; 3 . l o w - d i s c l o s u r e , u n h a r m o n i o u s ; 4 . c h i l d - o r i e n t e d , e x p r e s s i v e ; and 5 . d i s a d v a n t a g e d , l o w m o r a l e . These a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t h e s e c l u s t e r s i n f a m i l y 42 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c h i l d a d j u s t m e n t . E s s e n t i a l l y , b o t h f a m i l y and c h i l d a d j u s t m e n t were o p t i m a l i n c o h e s i v e - h a r m o n i o u s f a m i l i e s ( C l u s t e r 1) and were p o o r e s t i n d i s a d v a n t a g e d - l o w m o r a l e f a m i l i e s ( C l u s t e r 5 ) . T h e a d j u s t m e n t o f f a m i l i e s f r o m t h e o t h e r c l u s t e r s f e l l somewhere be tween t h e s e b e s t and w o r s t f a m i l y l i f e s t y l e s . Of i n t e r e s t , t h e s e a u t h o r s s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t h e f a m i l y a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e s e f a m i l y t y p e s may be due t o t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s . From t h e i r d a t a , t h e y s u g g e s t t h a t f e m a l e c h i l d r e n and Down ' s syndrome c h i l d r e n may be l e s s d i s r u p t i v e . From i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l , t h e s e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s u p p o r t s y s t e m s ( i . e . , f i n a n c i a l a n d / o r f a m i l i a l ) and t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p a r e n t ' s own c h i l d h o o d u p b r i n g i n g may f a v o u r a b l y i n f l u e n c e a d j u s t m e n t . I m p o r t a n t p r o g r a m m a t i c r e s e a r c h on t h e c o r r e l a t e s o f p a r e n t a l c o p i n g has been c o n d u c t e d by F r i e d r i c h and h i s c o l l e a g u e s . T h e s e a u t h o r s have r e p o r t e d a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s i n w h i c h a v a r i e t y o f d e m o g r a p h i c and p s y c h o s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s have been examined a s p r e d i c t o r s o f p a r e n t a l c o p i n g . The measure o f p a r e n t a l c o p i n g t h a t has s e r v e d a s t h e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e f o r t h e s e a n a l y s e s h a s been H o l r o y d ' s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on R e s o u r c e s and S t r e s s (QRS) ( H o l r o y d , 1974) and s u b s e q u e n t l y , F r i e d r i c h ' s s h o r t - f o r m r e v i s i o n o f t h e QRS ( Q R S - F ) ( F r i e d r i c h , G r e e n b e r g & C r n i c , 1 9 8 3 ) . The r e l i a n c e on a s i n g l e measure t o r e f l e c t p a r e n t a l c o p i n g h a s had t h e a d v a n t a g e o f y i e l d i n g c o m p a r a b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s . How-e v e r , t h i s r e l i a n c e on t h e QRS and Q R S - F has a l s o had t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f a l a c k o f c o m p a r a b i l i t y t o p a r e n t s o f n o n - h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n , l a c k o f n o r m a t i v e d a t a and a v a r i e t y o f p s y c h o m e t r i c l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e QRS 43 a n d , t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h e Q R S - F . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h i s s e r i e s o f r e s e a r c h h a s l e d t o i m p o r t a n t e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . G i v e n t h e r e l i a n c e on t h e QRS, an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s s c a l e i s i m p o r t a n t t o i n t e r p r e t t h e f i n d i n g s o f F r i e d r i c h and h i s c o l l e a g u e s . The o r i g i n a l QRS i s a 2 8 5 - i t e m t r u e - f a l s e s e l f - r e p o r t i n v e n t o r y t h a t was d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o a s s e s s t h e i m p a c t o f a d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d , h a n d i c a p p e d , o r c h r o n i c a l l y i l l c h i l d on t h e f a m i l y members ( H o l r o y d , 1 9 7 4 ) . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s s e s s e s b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s o f t h e c h i l d on t h e f a m i l y , c o n t a i n s 15 r a t i o n a l l y d e t e r m i n e d s c a l e s ( p l u s a l i e s c a l e ) and p u r p o r t s t o measure t h r e e b r o a d p r o b l e m a r e a s : p a r e n t p r o b l e m s , p r o b l e m s i n f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g , and c h i l d p r o b l e m s . The QRS has been shown t o be r e l a t e d t o i n t e r v i e w r a t i n g s o f s t r e s s ( H o l r o y d , B r o w n , W i k l e r & S immons, 1 9 7 5 ) , t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e c h i l d ' s h a n d i c a p (Beckman , 1 9 8 3 ; H o l r o y d & G u t h r i e , 1979) and t o d i s -c r i m i n a t e be tween p a r e n t s w i t h c h i l d r e n o f v a r i o u s d i a g n o s e s : r e t a r d e d v e r s u s n o n r e t a r d e d ( H o l r o y d e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) , h a n d i c a p p e d v e r s u s n o n h a n d i -capped ( F r i e d r i c h & F r i e d r i c h , 1 9 8 1 ) , n e u r o m u s c u l a r d i s o r d e r v e r s u s n o n h a n d i c a p p e d ( H o l r o y d & G u t h r i e , 1 9 7 9 ) , a u t i s t i c v e r s u s Down 's syndrome v e r s u s p s y c h i a t r i c o u t p a t i e n t s ( H o l r o y d & M c A r t h u r , 1976) and m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d w i t h c e r e b r a l p a l s y v e r s u s m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d w i t h o u t c e r e b r a l p a l s y ( F r i e d r i c h , 1 9 8 3 ) . The o r i g i n a l QRS was l e n g t h y , r e p e t i t i o u s and l a c k e d r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y d a t a on t h e 15 r a t i o n a l l y - d e r i v e d s u b -s c a l e s a s w e l l a s t h e f u l l s c a l e . F r i e d r i c h e t a l . ( 1983 ) c o n d e n s e d t h e QRS by i t e m a n a l y s i s . The r e m a i n i n g 52 i t e m s were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d and f o u r f a c t o r s e m e r g e d : 1 . P a r e n t and F a m i l y P r o b l e m s , 2 . P e s s i m i s m , 3 . C h i l d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and 4 . P h y s i c a l I n c a p a c i t a t i o n . Some e v i d e n c e o f 44 c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y was p r e s e n t e d i n d i c a t i n g t h a t , a s p r e d i c t e d , F a c t o r s 1 and 2 c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e Beck D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y w h e r e a s F a c t o r s 3 and 4 c o r r e l a t e d w i t h an u n s p e c i f i e d b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m c h e c k l i s t . A l -t h o u g h t h e Q R S - F s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t an improvement o v e r t h e QRS, a g r e a t d e a l more e v i d e n c e i s r e q u i r e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d -i t y o f t h i s new s c a l e . F r i e d r i c h ( 1979 ) exam ined a number o f d e m o g r a p h i c and p s y c h o s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s c o u l d b e s t p r e d i c t c o n c u r r e n t c o p i n g o f 98 m o t h e r s w i t h h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n . Demograph i c v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d : s e v e r i t y o f d i s a b i l i t y , r a c e , a g e , s e x , r e s i d e n c e ( i . e . , home v s . i n s t i t u t i o n ) , age o f m o t h e r , number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e home, a n d , f o r b o t h p a r e n t s , e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l , r e l i -g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n and c h u r c h i n v o l v e m e n t . The p s y c h o s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s examined w e r e : t h e L o c k e - W a l l a c e M a r i t a l A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y ( L o c k e & W a l l a c e , 1 9 5 9 ) , t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l W e l l - B e i n g I n d e x ( B r a d b u r n & C a p l o w i t z , 1 9 6 5 ) , a s o c i a l s u p p o r t i n d e x ( N u c k o l l s , C a s s e l & K a p l a n , 1972) and a r e l i g i o s i t y i n d e x ( Z u k , M i l l e r , B a r t r a m & K l i n g , 1 9 6 1 ) . A s t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d t h r e e v a r i a b l e s t h a t were s i g n i f i -c a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f c o p i n g b e h a v i o r as measured by t h e QRS t o t a l s c o r e . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s were m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n ( i . e . , m o t h e r s w i t h h i g h m a r i -t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n r e p o r t e d b e t t e r c o p i n g and l e s s s t r e s s ) , c h i l d ' s r e s i -dence ( i . e . , m o t h e r s o f a h o m e - r e a r e d c h i l d r e p o r t e d b e t t e r c o p i n g ) and s e x ( i . e . , m o t h e r s o f a ma le c h i l d r e p o r t e d b e t t e r c o p i n g ) . M a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n a l o n e a c c o u n t e d f o r 79% o f t h e p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e s o c i a l s u p p o r t and w e l l - b e i n g measu res d i d n o t c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i -c a n t l y t o t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n be tween e a c h 45 measure and c o p i n g was s i g n i f i c a n t a t a b i v a r i a t e l e v e l (r_= - . 2 4 and r_= - . 4 6 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y d a t a on t h e Q R S - F p r e s e n t e d by F r i e d r i c h e t a l . ( 1983 ) c a n a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d f r o m a more s u b s t a n -t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e i r d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t F a c t o r 1 : P a r e n t and F a m i l y P r o b l e m s and F a c t o r 2 : P e s s i m i s m were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r (r_ = . 3 5 ) a n d w i t h t h e B e c k D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y (r_ = .42 and r_ = . 3 9 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . T h e r e f o r e , i t c a n be a r g u e d t h a t a g l o b a l d i s t r e s s f a c t o r ( l a b e l l e d m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s i n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) may be u n d e r -l y i n g e a c h o f t h e two f a c t o r s r e p r e s e n t i n g p a r e n t a l a d j u s t m e n t . A l s o o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f r o m a s u b s t a n t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e was t h a t t h e c h i l d v a r i a b l e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o p a r e n t a l a d j u s t m e n t . I n an i m p o r t a n t t h e o r e t i c a l a r t i c l e , C r n i c e t a l . ( 1983 ) p r o p o s e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o n c e p t u a l mode l t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e r a n g e o f p o s s i b l e p a r e n t a l r e a c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n c e o f a r e t a r d e d c h i l d . T h e s e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a m a j o r i n a d e q u a c y o f r e s e a r c h on f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n was t h e n a r r o w f o c u s o f t h e r e s e a r c h ; t h a t i s , f o c u s i n g on a s i n g l e f a m i l y member, a s i n g l e v a r i a b l e a n d a s i n g l e measurement m e t h o d . They a r g u e t h a t t h e o f t e n i n c o n s i s t e n t o r c o n t r a -d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s t h a t abound i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e may r e s u l t f r o m t h i s f r a g m e n t e d a p p r o a c h . T h e s e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e f ramework t h a t i n t e g r a t e s s t r e s s f a c t o r s , i n d i v i d u a l c o p i n g and e c o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n -c e s on t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f f a m i l i e s w i t h a r e t a r d e d member. E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o e x p l a i n t h e r a n g e o f f a m i l y a d a p t a t i o n a s a r e s p o n s e t o s t r e s s m o d e r a t e d by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s and e c o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s . To t h e l o n g l i s t o f p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e s o f s t r e s s t h a t have been i d e n t i f i e d by p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s , t h e s e a u t h o r s added 46 t h e f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s : c r i s e s i n d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s , l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o c e s s and s t r e s s f u l l i f e e v e n t s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s , C r n i c e t a l . ( 1983 ) drew f r o m w r i t i n g s on t h e c o p i n g p r o c e s s by F o l k m a n e t a l . ( 1979 ) who i d e n t i f i e d f i v e t y p e s o f c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s t h o u g h t t o mode ra te t h e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s o f s t r e s s . T h e s e c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s a r e : p a r e n t a l h e a l t h / e n e r g y / m o r a l e , p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g s k i l l s , s o c i a l n e t w o r k s , u t i l i t a r i a n r e s o u r c e s ( e . g . , i n c o m e , s o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l ) , and g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c b e l i e f s ( e . g . , s e l f -e f f i c a c y , l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , b e l i e f i n a h i g h e r p u r p o s e ) . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r e c e d i n g c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s , C r n i c e t a l . ( 1983 ) have p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s be tween t h e f a m i l y and t h e l a r g e r s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s o r e c o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s may have an i n f l u e n c e on t h e c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s a v a i l -a b l e t o t h e f a m i l y and when o r how t h e s e a r e u s e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e a u t h o r s have a r g u e d t h a t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n s h o u l d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t e a c h o f t h e s e doma ins o f v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . , s t r e s s , r e s o u r c e s and e c o l o g y ) . T h i s c o n c e p t u a l mode l r e p r e s e n t s an i m p o r t a n t s t e p i n a t t e m p t i n g t o i n t e g r a t e t h e v a s t and d i s p a r a t e l i t e r a t u r e on p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d -r e n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e amount o f r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y i s v e r y uneven among t h e s e doma ins o f v a r i a b l e s . T h e r e a r e numerous e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s o f s t r e s s and p u r p o r t e d s t r e s s r e a c t i o n s , o n l y a few s t u d i e s o f c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s and even f e w e r s t u d i e s i n w h i c h e c o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t s a r e e x a m i n -e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , v e r y few i n v e s t i g a t o r s have a s s e s s e d v a r i a b l e s f r o m more t h a n one domain i n a s i n g l e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t and even f e w e r i n v e s t i -g a t o r s have s e a r c h e d f o r i n t e r a c t i v e o r m o d e r a t o r e f f e c t s be tween d o -m a i n s . No s t u d i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e t h a t a s s e s s a l l t h r e e doma ins c o n c u r -47 r e n t l y n o r have t h e p o t e n t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and s e c o n d - o r d e r i n t e r a c t i o n s be tween t h e s e doma ins been a s s e s s e d . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e one may q u e s -t i o n t h e p r a c t i c a l v a l u e o f i n c l u d i n g t h e domain o f f a m i l y e c o l o g y s i n c e no means a r e a v a i l a b l e t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r i n c l u s i o n g r e a t l y adds t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e mode l ( i . e . , f o u r p o t e n t i a l l e v e l s o f i n f l u e n c e : M i c r o s y s t e m , M e s o s y s t e m , E x o s y s t e m and M a c r o s y s t e m ) ( B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , 1 9 7 7 ) , u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y l a r g e s a m p l e s i z e s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o t e s t a l l t h e s e v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s , and s i g n i f i -c a n t m o d e r a t o r v a r i a b l e s have g e n e r a l l y been h a r d t o o b t a i n and o f l i m i -t e d p r a c t i c a l v a l u e i n a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h ( W i g g i n s , 1 9 7 3 ) . A l s o , t h e e c o -l o g i c a l domain o v e r l a p s w i t h s e v e r a l o f t h e c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s ( e . g . , s o c i a l n e t w o r k s , u t i l i t a r i a n r e s o u r c e s , g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c b e l i e f s ) so t h a t t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s a s a d i s t i n c t domain may be q u e s t i o n e d . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h i s mode l p r o p o s e d by C r n i c e t a l . ( 1983 ) i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d e v e l o p m e n t i n r e s e a r c h on p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i r s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e mode l t h a t a t t e m p t s t o i n t e g r a t e t h i s d i v e r g e n t body o f r e s e a r c h . S e c o n d , i t e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r a n g e ( b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e ) o f p o t e n t i a l r e a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e g roup o f p a r e n t s o f h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n . T h i r d , p a r e n t a l r e a c t i o n i s v i e w e d a s an a c t i v e p r o c e s s where p a r e n t s a t t e m p t t o b a l a n c e t h e i r a v a i l a b l e c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s w i t h t h e demands o f t h e s t r e s s o r s t h e y c o n f r o n t . T h i s a c t i v e , c o p i n g mode l i s p e r h a p s more r e a l i s t i c and u s e f u l t h a n p a t h o l o g y - b a s e d f r a m e w o r k s t h a t v i e w t h e p a r -e n t a l r e a c t i o n s a s p a s s i v e and u n a v o i d a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e s t r e s s o r s ( D r o t a r , 1 9 8 1 ) . 48 F r i e d r i c h , W i l t u r n e r and Cohen (1985 ) r e c e n t l y t e s t e d a number o f h y p o t h e s e s d e r i v e d f r o m t h i s mode l on a samp le o f 140 m o t h e r s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . F o u r o f t h e f i v e b r o a d d i m e n s i o n s o f c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s ( i . e . , h e a l t h / e n e r g y / m o r a l e , s o c i a l n e t w o r k s , u t i l i t a r i a n r e s o u r c e s , and g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c b e l i e f s ) were o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d a n d e n t e r e d i n t o a h i e r a r c h i c a l r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h e QRS-F F a c t o r 1 ( P a r e n t and F a m i l y P r o b l e m s ) a s t h e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e . F o u r o f t h e f i v e c o p i n g r e s o u r c e v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t e d u n i q u e v a r i a n c e beyond t h a t a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e m e d i c a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e c h i l d and c h i l d b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s ( s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s ) . T h e s e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e : t h e M a r i t a l A d j u s t m e n t I n v e n t o r y ( L o c k e & W a l l a c e , 1959) ( s o c i a l s u p p o r t ) , F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s I n d e x (Moos & M o o s , 1981) ( s o c i a l s u p p o r t ) , R o t t e r I n t e r n a l -E x t e r n a l L o c u s o f C o n t r o l S c a l e (Comeau, 1978) ( g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c b e l i e f s ) , and t h e s h o r t - f o r m o f t h e Beck D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y ( B e c k & B e a m e s d o r f e r , 1974) ( h e a l t h / e n e r g y / m o r a l e ) . The m o t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ( u t i l i t a r i a n r e s o u r c e s ) d i d n o t c o n t r i b u t e a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a n c e n o r d i d a v a r i e t y o f c h i l d o r f a m i l y d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s ( e . g . , c h i l d ' s s e x , b i r t h o r d e r , l e n g t h o f m a r r i a g e ) . I n o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e o f u n i q u e v a r i a n c e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f p a r e n t and f a m i l y p r o b l e m s , t h e v a r i a b l e s f r o m most t o l e a s t p r e d i c t i v e w e r e : m e d i c a l p r o b l e m s , b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s , m a t e r n a l d e p r e s s i o n , m a r i t a l h a p p i n e s s and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . F r i e d r i c h e t a l . ( 1985 ) a l s o r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t p a c k a g e t o 112 m o t h e r s f o r a 10-month f o l l o w - u p . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s h i e r a r c h i c a l a n a l y s i s were i d e n t i c a l t o t h e f i r s t w i t h t h e same v a r i a b l e s e m e r g i n g a s s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f p a r e n t and f a m i l y p r o b l e m s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , o v e r t h e 10 -month p e r i o d t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n r e p o r t e d 49 p a r e n t and f a m i l y p r o b l e m s ( Q R S - F ) and m a t e r n a l d e p r e s s i o n (BDI ) t h a t t h e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d may have been r e l a t e d t o a change i n m a r i t a l h a p p i n e s s . T o g e t h e r t h e s e s t u d i e s p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e o f t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s d o m a i n , a s w e l l a s t h e s t r e s s d o m a i n , i n t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f p a r e n t a l c o p i n g w i t h a m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e s t u d -i e s c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s and t h e need f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e , m u l t i v a r i a t e a p p r o a c h t o t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f p a r e n t a l c o p i n g b e h a v i o r . A r e c e n t s t u d y by D u n s t , T r i v e t t e and C r o s s (1986 ) has emp loyed a s i m i l a r e x p l o r a t o r y m u l t i v a r i a t e a p p r o a c h t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e m e d i a t i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t on p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y and c h i l d o u t c o m e s . U s i n g a s e r i e s o f h i e r a r c h i c a l m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s , t h e s e a u t h o r s examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f 11 i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w i t h 18 dependen t v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o f a m i l y c o p i n g o u t c o m e s ( 1 4 d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s d e r i v e d f r o m H o l r o y d ' s Q R S ) . These a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p p o r t a n d , t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , number o f s o u r c e s o f s u p p o r t w e r e r e l a t e d t o p a r e n t a l w e l l - b e i n g , a s w e l l a s some o t h e r a s p e c t s o f a d a p t i v e f a m i l i a l and c h i l d f u n c t i o n i n g . I t e m s f r o m t h e measure o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t emp loyed i n t h i s s t u d y ( F a m i l y S u p p o r t S c a l e ) ( D u n s t , J e n k i n s & T r i v e t t e , 1984) were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e QRS F a m i l y I n t e g r i t y S c a l e s . T h i s a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s o f s u p p o r t were f r o m s p o u s e , f o l l o w e d by e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s ( b o t h m a t e r n a l and p a t e r n a l ) and o t h e r p a r e n t s o f h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n . I n t e r -e s t i n g l y , n e i t h e r f r i e n d s u p p o r t n o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s u p p o r t was r e l a t e d t o f a m i l y i n t e g r i t y . 50 The r e c e n t l a r g e - s c a l e s t u d i e s on s t r e s s , c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s a n d c o p i n g o u t c o m e s a r e a m a j o r advancement i n t h e s t u d y o f p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s have i n t e g r a t e d f i n d i n g s f r o m p a s t r e s e a r c h , i d e n t i f i e d d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h and s t i m u l a t e d what a p p e a r s t o be renewed i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s u b j e c t . Howeve r , t h i s r e s e a r c h r e p r e s e n t s a b e g i n n i n g r a t h e r t h a n an end o f r e s e a r c h e n d e a v o r s on s t r e s s and c o p i n g o f p a r e n t s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . A c o m p r e h e n s i v e mode l o f a d a p t a t i o n has been p r o p o s e d ( C r n i c e t a l . , 1 9 8 3 ) , bu t s u p p o r t i n g d a t a f o r t h e v a r i o u s componen ts o f t h e mode l a r e v e r y i n c o m p l e t e . E v e n t h e most a d v a n c e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( e . g . , Duns t e t a l . , 1 9 8 6 ; F r i e d r i c h e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 , N i h i r a e t a l . , 1980) have had i m p o r t a n t l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t p r e v e n t t h e s e s t u d i e s f r om p r o v i d i n g u n e q u i v o c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e v a r i o u s compo-n e n t s o f t h e m o d e l . P e r h a p s t h e most s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i s t h e r e l i a n c e on s e l f - r e p o r t a s t h e o n l y measurement method o r t h e p r i m a r y method w i t h a d d i t i o n a l i n t e r v i e w e r r a t i n g s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l l i n k a g e s be tween s t r e s s and c o p i n g v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n o n e m e a s u r e m e n t method r e m a i n s amb iguous b e c a u s e o f t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s p u r i o u s l i n k a g e s due t o method v a r i a n c e , r e s p o n s e s e t b i a s and so o n . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s have r e p o r t e d an i m p o r t a n t and p r e v i o u s l y o v e r l o o k e d phenome-non t h a t b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s i n t h e c h i l d a r e r e l a t e d t o p a r e n t a l c o p i n g p r o b l e m s . Howeve r , b o t h v a r i a b l e s were a s s e s s e d by p a r e n t r e p o r t meas -u r e s . G i v e n t h a t w i t h o t h e r k i n d s o f d i f f i c u l t c h i l d r e n , p a r e n t a l p e r -c e p t i o n o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s has been shown t o be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o m a t e r n a l d e p r e s s i o n t h a n t o a c t u a l o b s e r v e d c h i l d b e h a v i o r ( e . g . F o r e h a n d , W e l l s , McMahon, G r i e s t & R o g e r s , 1982 ; G r i e s t , W e l l s & 51 F o r e h a n d , 1979) and t h a t d e p r e s s e d m o t h e r s may p e r c e i v e more b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s when no o b s e r v e d d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t ( e . g . , C h a m b e r l a i n , 1 9 8 3 ; R i c k a r d , F o r e h a n d , W e l l s , G r i e s t & McMahon, 1 9 8 1 ; R o g e r s & F o r e h a n d , 1 9 8 2 ) , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y emerges t h a t t h e l i n k a g e be tween p a r e n t - r e p o r t e d c h i l d b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s and p a r e n t - r e p o r t e d p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s may be s i m p l y due t o a p e r c e p t u a l b i a s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e o t h e r l i n k a g e s between t h e s e l f - r e p o r t i n s t r u m e n t s t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t o r s have emp loyed a r e open t o a h o s t o f s u c h r i v a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . D e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t t h e s e l i n k a g e s w i l l g e n e r a l i z e t o m u l t i - m e t h o d measurement s t r a t e g i e s , p a r t i c u -l a r l y d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n where p o s s i b l e , i s c l e a r l y n e e d e d . A s e c o n d m a j o r n e e d f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s f o r improvement o f t h e measurement methods used t o a s s e s s t h e v a r i o u s compo-n e n t s o f t h e mode l i n c l u d i n g t h e s t r e s s , c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s and c o p i n g outcome d i m e n s i o n s . P e r h a p s t h e g r e a t e s t need i s f o r r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e measurement o f p a r e n t a l c o p i n g outcome ( i . e . , d i s t r e s s ) . The measure d e r i v e d by N i h i r a e t a l . ( 1980 ) t o r e f l e c t f a m i l y a d j u s t m e n t was an a g g r e g a t e o f t h r e e s i m p l e r a t i n g s ( two by p a r e n t , one by i n t e r v i e w e r ) t h a t emerged f r o m a c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s be tween 6 measu res r e p r e s e n t i n g f a m i l y a d j u s t m e n t and 15 measu res r e p r e s e n t i n g c h i l d c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s . None o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g s has r e l i a b i l i t y o r v a l i d i t y d a t a a v a i l a b l e , t h e t h r e e r a t i n g s do n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e b r e a d t h o f t h e c o n s t r u c t o f c o p i n g outcome a n d , g i v e n t h e method o f d e r i v a t i o n , t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e measure and i t s t h e o r e t i c a l m e a n i n g f u l n e s s must be q u e s -t i o n e d . . The c o p i n g outcome measu res emp loyed by F r i e d r i c h e t a l . ( 1985 ) and D u n s t e t a l . ( 1986 ) r e p r e s e n t an improvement i n t h a t t h e y h a v e some 52 a v a i l a b l e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y d a t a , and t h e y samp le t h e c o n s t r u c t o f c o p i n g o u t c o m e more b r o a d l y . Howeve r , t h e s e measu res were d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r use w i t h p a r e n t s o f h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n and t h e i r usage h a s been l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e s e p o p u l a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e c o n t e n t o f a number o f i t e m s i s n o t w e l l - s u i t e d t o n o n h a n d i c a p p e d p o p u l a t i o n s n o r a r e t h e r e s u f f i c i e n t c o m p a r a t i v e d a t a w i t h p a r e n t s o f n o n h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n . T h i s l a c k o f c o m p a r a b i l i t y w i t h o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s g r e a t l y l i m i t s t h e d e s c r i p t i v e and i n t e r p r e t i v e u t i l i t y o f t h e QRS and t h e Q R S - F . W i t h o u t t h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s t h e m a g n i t u d e and r a n g e o f a d j u s t m e n t p r o b l e m s i n p a r e n t s o f h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n r e m a i n u n c l e a r . The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n and measurement o f o t h e r componen ts o f t h e mode l a r e a l s o i n need o f f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t . The measurement o f many o f t h e s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s a r e e i t h e r s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ( e . g . , s e x ) o r have a p p r o p r i a t e measu res a v a i l a b l e ( e . g . , s o c i a l m a t u r i t y : V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e ; D o l l , 1 9 6 4 ) . Howeve r , o t h e r s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s a r e c o m p l e x t o a s s e s s and do n o t have a p p r o p r i a t e measu res a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e and a d a p t e d t o f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r -a c t i o n , s t r e s s f u l l i f e e v e n t s ) . T h e r e f o r e , f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t i n t h e measurement o f t h e s e s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s i s g r e a t l y needed t o a d e q u a t e l y t e s t t h e s t r e s s componen ts o f t h e C r n i c e t a l . ( 1983 ) mode l o f p a r e n t a l a d j u s t m e n t . S i m i l a r l y , t h e v a r i o u s c o p i n g r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e i d e n t i f i e d by t h e s e a u t h o r s v a r y g r e a t l y i n how e a s i l y t h e y c a n be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s and t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c q u a l i t y and s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e a v a i l a b l e m e a s u r e s . The f i n a l l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h e d e s i g n s . G i v e n g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s e s w i t h s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t -53 ing each construct and the use of exploratory statistical procedures, one may question whether the specific hypotheses were subjected to a suffi-ciently rigorous test. That is, the potential for Type I error is very high when a large number of comparisons are conducted without correction for inflated experiment-wise error. Furthermore, even though the multi-ple regression or canonical correlational procedures are "fitted" to the sample data, typically these researchers have not cross-validated their findings. Therefore, although these researchers have reported support for many of their hypotheses, more specific and rigorous tests of these hypotheses are now needed. Coercion Theory and Parental Distress Research on adjustment of parents with mentally retarded children has generally lacked methodological rigor and an integrated theory. Although there have been some recent advances in both areas of short-coming, this research s t i l l lags well behind research on families with other childhood problems (e.g., social aggression, hyperactivity, conduct disorder). Multivariate-multimethod research on these other kinds of children and their families has been available for several years. More recently, major advances in the understanding of these families have been accomplished with the application of a social interactional approach to family interaction and distress. This microsocial approach represents a significant departure from traditional approaches to child psychopathol-ogy by explaining child and family problems with reference to momentary, bilateral interactions between parent and child. Microsocial research also represents a departure from research on families with retarded children, which has largely followed traditional approaches to child and 54 f a m i l y p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y . A l t h o u g h t h e r e have been a number o f s t u d i e s o f m o t h e r - r e t a r d e d c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n ( s e e M a r f o , 1984 , f o r a r e v i e w ) , o n l y one o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d c o n c u r r e n t measurement o f p a r e n t a l a d j u s t -ment ( i . e . , B r e i n e r & F o r e h a n d , 1982) and none o f t h e s e s t u d i e s a d e -q u a t e l y examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween m i c r o s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a n d p a r e n t a l a d j u s t m e n t w i t h i n f a m i l i e s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . R e s e a r c h on f a m i l i e s w i t h o t h e r k i n d s o f c h i l d h o o d p r o b l e m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e m i c r o -s o c i a l r e s e a r c h , c a n p r o v i d e an i n v a l u a b l e s o u r c e o f i d e a s , methods and t h e o r y f o r r e s e a r c h e r s s t u d y i n g f a m i l i e s w i t h m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . The i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h i s l o n g o v e r d u e and h o l d s s u b s t a n t i a l p r o m i s e f o r a d v a n c i n g r e s e a r c h i n b o t h a r e a s . One o f t h e most s u s t a i n e d and p r o d u c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e m i c r o -s o c i a l a p p r o a c h t o f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n and d i s t r e s s i s t h a t by G e r a l d P a t t e r s o n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s a t t h e Oregon S o c i a l L e a r n i n g C e n t e r ( O S L C ) . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s have p r o d u c e d numerous m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and s u b s t a n t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s o c i a l l y a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e i r work h a s been w i d e l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e s t u d y o f o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s o f d i f f i c u l t c h i l d r e n a s w e l l a s i n t h e f i e l d o f c h i l d p s y c h -o p a t h o l o g y ( C a i r n s , 1 9 7 9 ) . R e c e n t l y , t h e w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s e s t h a t have g u i d e d t h e i r r e s e a r c h o v e r t h e l a s t 15 y e a r s were i n t e g r a t e d by P a t t e r s o n (1982 ) i n t o a c o h e r e n t t h e o r y c a l l e d c o e r c i o n t h e o r y . E s s e n t i a l l y , c o e r c i o n t h e o r y i s an a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n how f a m i l i e s become d i s t r e s s e d . The mechan ism t h a t p r o d u c e s t h i s d i s t r e s s i s c o e r c i o n o r a v e r s i v e c o n t r o l o c c u r r i n g i n f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n . T h e s e c o n t r o l l i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e c o m p r i s e d o f l o w - l e v e l a v e r s i v e e v e n t s ( e . g . , w h i n i n g , y e l l i n g , c o m m a n d i n g ) w h i c h seem so i n n o c u o u s t h e y have been l a r g e l y 55 o v e r l o o k e d by p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s . T h e s e a v e r s i v e e v e n t s o c c u r a t h i g h r a t e s i n n o r m a l f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n ; h o w e v e r , t h e r a t e s may be even h i g h e r f o r c h i l d r e n who a r e h a n d i c a p p e d o r a r e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y more a c t i v e o r i r r i t a b l e ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . I f t h e s e a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r s a r e met w i t h i n e f f e c t i v e c h i l d management s k i l l s , t h e n t h i s may l e a d t o s p i r a l i n g i n c r e a s e s i n c o e r c i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s be tween p a r e n t and c h i l d . These h i g h r a t e s o f c o e r c i v e exchange n o t o n l y shape b o t h t h e m o t h e r ' s and c h i l d ' s s u b s e q u e n t b e h a v i o r b u t may a l s o l e a d t o m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s . I n c r e a s e d r a t e s o f c o e r c i v e e x c h a n g e s have been shown t o d i s c r i m i n a t e be tween n o n -d i s t r e s s e d and d i s t r e s s e d f a m i l i e s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f p r o b l e m s ; s u c h a s , s o c i a l a g g r e s s i o n ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 7 6 ) , s t e a l i n g ( R e i d & P a t t e r s o n , 1976) and a b u s i v e p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n ( R e i d , T a p l i n & L o r b e r , 1 9 8 1 ) . I n summary, c o e r c i o n t h e o r y p r o v i d e s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h l e a d t o c o e r c i v e p r o c e s s e s , t h e p a t t e r n i n g o f c o e r c i v e e x c h a n g e s and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r p a r e n t and c h i l d o f i m m e r s i o n i n c o e r c i v e f a m i l y s y s -t e m s . L o w - l e v e l a v e r s i v e e v e n t s p l a y a c e n t r a l r o l e i n c o e r c i o n t h e o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o P a t t e r s o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) , t h e s e s m a l l e v e n t s may l e a d t o t h e d i s r u p -t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y s y s t e m . Whereas t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s o f c h i l d p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y have f o c u s e d on d r a m a t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s s u c h a s t r a u m a t i c e v e n t s , n e u r o t i c p a r e n t a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s , o r s u p p r e s s e d r a g e , c o e r c i o n t h e o r y f o c u s e s on e v e n t s w h i c h a r e " i n h e r e n t l y b a n a l " and " c h a n g e w i t h g l a c i a l s l o w n e s s " ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 8 2 , p . 6 8 ) . These a p p a r e n t l y i n n o c u o u s e v e n t s have been shown t o r e s u l t i n s h o r t - t e r m e f f e c t s , s u c h a s i n c r e a s e d a u t o n o m i c a r o u s a l i n t h e c a r e t a k e r , and t h e more s e r i o u s l o n g - t e r m e f f e c t s o f f a m i l y d i s r u p t i o n . T h e s e l o w - l e v e l a v e r s i v e s a r e a l s o t h e 56 p r i m a r y t a r g e t o f i n t e r v e n t i o n s a t t h e O S L C . P a r e n t s a r e t a u g h t c h i l d management s k i l l s i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e t h e l e v e l o f c o e r c i v e e x c h a n g e s ( P a t t e r s o n , R e i d , J o n e s & C o n g e r , 1 9 7 5 ) . The d e c r e a s e i n c o e r c i v e n e s s i n t h e s e f a m i l i e s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n c u r r e n t d e c r e a s e s i n p a r e n t a l d i s -t r e s s ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e r e f o r e , i n c o e r c i o n t h e o r y , l o w - l e v e l a v e r -s i v e e v e n t s a r e c e n t r a l i n b o t h t h e deve lopmen t and r e m e d i a t i o n o f f a m i l y d i s r u p t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h e o r y , c o e r c i o n r e f e r s t o t h e c o n t i n g e n t a p p l i c a -t i o n o f a v e r s i v e e v e n t s i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . By c o n t i n g e n t , i t i s meant t h a t t h e b e h a v i o r r e l i a b l y f o l l o w s some b e h a v i o r s and n o t o t h e r s . Howeve r , a l t h o u g h a b e h a v i o r may be u s e d c o n t i n g e n t l y , i t d o e s n o t n e c e s -s a r i l y mean t h a t t h e b e h a v i o r i s i n t e n t i o n a l . On t h e c o n t r a r y , most o f t h e s e moment- to-moment a v e r s i v e e x c h a n g e s o c c u r o u t s i d e o f an i n d i v i -d u a l ' s a w a r e n e s s ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , c h i l d r e n f r o m b o t h n o r m a l and d e v i a n t g r o u p s a r e m a x i m a l l y c o e r c i v e a t an age ( 2 - 4 y e a r s ) when t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r i n t e n t i o n a l b e h a v i o r i s most l i m i t e d ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l d e c l i n e i n c o e r c i v e n e s s w i t h age may have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n who may be s l o w e r t o d e v e l o p more m a t u r e , n o n - c o e r c i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r e x e r t i n g c o n t r o l i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c -t i o n s . C o e r c i v e e x c h a n g e s f l o u r i s h i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e y f u n c t i o n l i k e o t h e r p u n i s h m e n t s a n d , a t l e a s t i n i t i a l l y , p r o d u c e i m m e d i a t e r e s u l t s ( e . g . , r e s p o n s e s u p p r e s s i o n ) . The immed iacy o f e f f e c t , e s p e c i a l l y when compared t o p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s , may l e a d t o t h e i r a c c e l e r a t e d u s a g e ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . S e c o n d , i n m a x i m i z i n g s h o r t - t e r m p a y o f f s , t h e mo the r may a c c i d e n t a l l y 57 r e i n f o r c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l o n g - t e r m b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s . The r e s u l t o f t h i s " r e i n f o r c e m e n t t r a p " may be t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f even h i g h e r r a t e s o f c o e r c i v e e x c h a n g e s i n t h e f u t u r e . T h i r d , g i v e n an a v e r s i v e b e h a v i o r by one p e r s o n , t h e r e i s a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f t h e o t h e r p e r s o n r e s p o n d i n g i n k i n d . T h i s r e c i p r o c i t y r e s u l t s i n p r o l o n g e d s e q u e n c e s o f a v e r s i v e e x c h a n g e s t o w h i c h b o t h members c o n t r i b u t e . I n h i g h l y c o e r c i v e f a m i l i e s t h e s i t u a t i o n i s even more l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n s p i r a l i n g c o e r c i v e i n t e r -a c t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e f a m i l y members a r e more l i k e l y t o be u n r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e o t h e r ' s a v e r s i v e c o n t r o l , t o i n i t i a t e a c o e r c i v e e x c h a n g e , t o c o u n -t e r a t t a c k , t o m a i n t a i n an a v e r s i v e exchange once i t h a s s t a r t e d and t o e s c a l a t e i n i n t e n s i t y ( P a t t e r s o n , 1980 , 1 9 8 2 ) . P u r p o s e and H y p o t h e s e s The m a j o r p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o i n t e g r a t e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l r e s e a r c h w i t h r e s e a r c h on f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l r e s e a r c h h a s r e s u l t e d i n i m p r e s s i v e a d v a n c e s i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t r e a t m e n t o f v a r i o u s k i n d s o f p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T h i s g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h and s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e -s e s f r o m c o e r c i o n t h e o r y a p p e a r h i g h l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n and y e t t h e y have n o t been a p p l i e d t o t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l r e s e a r c h may p r o v i d e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e m a j o r m e t h o d o -l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n t h e r e s e a r c h on f a m i l i e s o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d -ed c h i l d r e n . T h e r e f o r e , f o r s u b s t a n t i v e and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s , t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e two a r e a s o f r e s e a r c h a p p e a r s p r o m i s i n g . 58 H y p o t h e s i s I; R a t e o f l o w - l e v e l a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e r a t e o f a v e r s i v e - c o n t r o l l i n g p a r e n t i n g b e h a v i o r . C o e r c i o n t h e o r y p r o p o s e s t h a t i n c r e a s e s i n c o e r c i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r s w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n c o e r c i v e p a r e n t b e h a v i o r . T h e p r i n c i p l e o f r e c i p r o c i t y i n f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n i s one o f t h e p i v o t a l c o n c e p t s o f c o e r c i o n t h e o r y . S i n c e i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n 1970 ( P a t t e r s o n & R e i d , 1 9 7 0 ) , t h e c o n c e p t h a s r e c e i v e d an i m p r e s s i v e amount o f e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t f r o m a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s s t u d y i n g f a m i l y and m a r i t a l p r o c e s s ( s e e P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 8 2 , f o r a r e v i e w ) . P a t t e r s o n ' s e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e l i n k a g e s i n c o e r c i v e n e s s be tween mo the r and c h i l d c a n be s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 8 2 , p . 2 8 0 ) : F i g u r e 1 A F e e d b a c k Loop f o r C a r e t a k e r D e p r e s s i o n I n c r e a s e i n C a r e t a k e r ' s F e e l i n g s o f D e p r e s s i o n and H e l p l e s s n e s s Change i n R a t i o o f P o s i t i v e E v e n t s t o A v e r s i v e E v e n t s I n c r e a s i n g l y N e g a t i v e A t t r i b u t i o n s a b o u t S e l f and O t h e r s I n c r e a s e i n C o e r c i v e F a m i l y I n t e r a c t i o n s I n c r e a s e i n P a r e n t a l I r r i t a b i l i t y The i n c r e a s e i n c h i l d a v e r s i v e n e s s l e a d s t o change i n t h e r a t i o o f p o s i -t i v e t o a v e r s i v e e v e n t s w h i c h l e a d s t o m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s , i n c r e a s e i n n e g a t i v e a t t r i b u t i o n s , i n c r e a s e i n p a r e n t a l i r r i t a b i l i t y and u l t i m a t e l y 59 an i n c r e a s e i n m a t e r n a l c o e r c i v e n e s s . A l t h o u g h some o f t h e m e d i a t i n g v a r i a b l e s be tween c o e r c i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r and c o e r c i v e p a r e n t b e h a v i o r have y e t t o be s u b s t a n t i a t e d w i t h e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h , t h e l i n k a g e be tween r e c i p r o c a l a v e r s i v e b e h a v i o r s o f c h i l d and p a r e n t has been w e l l d o c u -mented i n t h e s o c i a l l y a g g r e s s i v e p o p u l a t i o n ( P a t t e r s o n , 1980 , 1 9 8 2 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e m u t u a l i t y o f c o e r c i v e n e s s among t h e s e f a m i l y members have r a n g e d f r o m . 4 0 t o . 7 8 . To d a t e t h e r e h a v e b e e n no s t u d i e s w h i c h e x a m i n e d a v e r s i v e r e c i p r o c i t y i n f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . P o p u l a t i o n c o m p a r i s o n s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n , t h e r a t e s o f a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r and a v e r s i v e - c o n t r o l l i n g p a r e n t b e h a v i o r a r e h i g h e r t h a n i n n o r m a l f a m i l i e s ( s e e M a r f o , 1984 , f o r a r e v i e w ) . However , t h e l i n k a g e f o u n d i n t h e s e s t u d i e s i s open t o numerous r i v a l e x p l a n a -t i o n s . The c o v a r i a t i o n o f c o e r c i v e n e s s w i t h i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n and t h e i r f a m i l i e s has y e t t o be a s s e s s e d . T h e q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s whe the r t h o s e r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n who e x h i b i t h i g h e r l e v e l s o f a v e r s i v e b e h a v i o r s w i l l have m o t h e r s e x h i b -i t i n g h i g h e r l e v e l s o f a v e r s i v e - c o n t r o l l i n g b e h a v i o r . I f a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n i s f o u n d , t h e n s u p p o r t w i l l be o b t a i n e d f o r t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f P a t t e r s o n ' s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f c o e r c i v e n e s s as a d y a d i c , r e c i p r o c a l phenomenon. G i v e n t h e f i n d i n g s o f a v e r s i v e r e c i p r o c i t y i n o t h e r p o p u l a -t i o n s , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n wou ld be f o u n d i n m o t h e r - r e t a r d e d c h i l d d y a d s . H y p o t h e s i s I I : R a t e o f l o w - l e v e l a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s . 60 One o f t h e m a j o r h y p o t h e s e s f r o m c o e r c i o n t h e o r y s t a t e s t h a t p r o -l o n g e d i m m e r s i o n i n " i n n o c u o u s " c o e r c i v e e x c h a n g e s p l a c e s t h e c a r e t a k e r a t r i s k o f d e p r e s s i o n and o t h e r f o r m s o f d i s t r e s s . The p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h i s e r o s i o n o f c a r e t a k e r mood o c c u r s i s d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 1 . T h i s f e e d b a c k l o o p h a s e n g e n d e r e d a good d e a l o f r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t and many o f t h e p r o p o s e d l i n k a g e s have r e c e i v e d e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t ( m o s t l y c o r r e l a -t i o n a l ) i n s t u d i e s o f s o c i a l l y a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n . The s p e c i f i c l i n k a g e be tween t h e r a t e o f a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r and c a r e t a k e r d i s t r e s s h a s been c o n s i s t e n t l y f o u n d i n f a m i l i e s o f s o c i a l l y a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n . I n an e x t e n d e d b a s e l i n e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f f i v e m o t h e r - c h i l d d y a d s , P a t t e r s o n (1982 ) r e p o r t e d m o d e r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween t h e c h i l d ' s d a i l y t o t a l a v e r s i v e b e h a v i o r s c o r e (TAB) and t h e m o t h e r ' s d y s p h o r i a r e p o r t e d d a i l y on t h e L u b i n D e p r e s s i o n A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t ( L u b i n , 1 9 6 7 ) . On d a y s when t h e m o t h e r d e s c r i b e d h e r s e l f a s b e i n g d y s p h o r i c , t h e c h i l d was more l i k e l y t o have p e r f o r m e d a v e r s i v e b e h a v i o r s a t a h i g h e r r a t e . A number o f b e t w e e n - g r o u p c o m p a r i s o n s t u d i e s have f o u n d t h a t , i n c o m p a r i s o n t o n o r m a l m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r s , t h e l e v e l o f m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s and t h e r a t e o f a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r s were e l e v a t e d f o r f a m i l i e s o f s o c i a l l y a g g r e s -s i v e c h i l d r e n ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 8 0 ) , s t e a l e r s ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) , c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n ( G r i e s t e t a l . , 1980) and h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n (Mash & J o h n s t o n , 1 9 8 2 a , 1 9 8 3 ) . F u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r t h e c o v a r i a t i o n o f c h i l d a v e r s i v e n e s s and m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s c a n be drawn f r o m t h e t r e a t m e n t s t u d i e s w h i c h have i n d i c a t e d t h a t when p a r e n t s a r e t a u g h t s p e c i f i c c h i l d management s k i l l s w h i c h l e a d t o r e d u c t i o n s i n t h e l e v e l o f c h i l d a v e r s i v e b e h a v i o r , t h e r e a r e a l s o c o n c u r r e n t r e d u c t i o n s i n 61 p a r e n t a l d i s t r e s s ( F o r e h a n d , W e l l s & G r i e s t , 1 9 8 0 ; P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 2 ) . The c o v a r i a t i o n o f a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r and m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s i n m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d p o p u l a t i o n s i s f a r l e s s c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d . I n many r e s p e c t s t h e r e t a r d e d p o p u l a t i o n p r o v i d e s a more s t r i n g e n t t e s t o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s f r o m c o e r c i o n t h e o r y . W i t h t h e d r a m a t i c c r i s e s t h a t b e s e t t h e s e p a r e n t s i n c l u d i n g s u c h e v e n t s a s t h e d i a g n o s i s , m e d i c a l c o m p l i c a -t i o n s , p a u c i t y o f a p p r o p r i a t e communi ty r e s o u r c e s and so o n , one may r e a s o n a b l y q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r t h e i m p a c t o f t h e s e l o w - l e v e l s t r e s s o r s w i l l r i s e above t h e e f f e c t s o f m a j o r s t r e s s o r s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween t h e l o w - l e v e l a v e r s i v e s and m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s i s n o t a s i m p l e l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p b u t may be mode ra ted by e x p e c t a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , n o r m a l c h i l d r e n a r e m a x i m a l l y c o e r c i v e be tween 2 t o 4 y e a r s and become p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s c o e r c i v e w i t h age ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . The r a t e s o f a v e r s i v e b e h a v i o r s r e p o r t e d f o r n o r m a l 2 t o 4 y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n a r e e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e r a t e s r e p o r t e d f o r 10 t o 11 y e a r - o l d s o c i a l l y a g g r e s -s i v e c h i l d r e n r e f e r r e d f o r t r e a t m e n t . Howeve r , t h e m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s r e p o r t e d by t h e m o t h e r s o f n o r m a l c h i l d r e n i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s t h a n t h a t f o r t h e o l d e r s o c i a l l y a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n . P a t t e r s o n (1982 ) h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t l e v e l s o f c o e r c i o n w h i c h o u r c u l t u r e f i n d s a c c e p t a b l e i n 2 , 3 , and 4 y e a r - o l d s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t o l e r a b l e f o r 10 t o 11 y e a r - o l d s . G i v e n t h a t m o t h e r s a p p e a r t o be a b l e t o a c c e p t h i g h l e v e l s o f a v e r s i v e s w i t h o u t d i s t r e s s i f t h e s e l e v e l s do n o t r u n c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s , t h e n p e r h a p s m o t h e r s o f t h e r e t a r d e d c a n s i m i l a r l y t o l e r a t e h i g h e r l e v e l s i f t h e s e l e v e l s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c h i l d ' s c o n d i t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , p e r h a p s t h i s t o l e r a n c e i s age s p e c i f i c and 62 t h e s e m o t h e r s , l i k e o t h e r m o t h e r s , become l e s s t o l e r a n t o f c o e r c i v e b e h a v i o r s a s t h e i r c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r . Whether t h e s i t u a t i o n f o r p a r -e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t s a s p e c i a l c a s e i n w h i c h t h e c o r r e l a -t i o n be tween l o w - l e v e l a v e r s i v e s and d i s t r e s s f o u n d i n o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s w i l l n o t g e n e r a l i z e o r w h e t h e r t h e s e p a r e n t s a r e s i m i l a r l y a f f e c t e d by t h e s e a v e r s i v e e v e n t s i s f a r f r o m c l e a r . E m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n and t h e i r m o t h e r s h a s y e t t o a d d r e s s t h i s q u e s t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y . From t h e p r e c e d i n g r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h e x a m i n i n g d i s t r e s s i n t h e s e p a r e n t s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t p a r e n t s o f t h e r e t a r d e d a r e g e n e r a l l y more d i s t r e s s e d t h a n p a r e n t s w i t h n o r m a l c h i l d r e n . As w e l l , p a r e n t a l r e p o r t o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s i n d i c a t e t h a t m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n e x c e e d n o r m a l c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f b o t h e x t e r n a l i z i n g ( u n d e r c o n t r o l l e d ) and i n t e r n a l i z i n g ( o v e r c o n t r o l -l e d ) b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s ( s e e Thompson, 1 9 8 5 , f o r r e v i e w ) . B a s e d on p a r e n t r e p o r t , t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e o f t h e c o v a r i a t i o n o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s w i t h p a r e n t a l c o p i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ( F r i e d r i c h e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 ; N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . O b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s i n w h i c h m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d - m o t h e r dyads were compared w i t h n o r m a l c h i l d - m o t h e r dyads have f o u n d h i g h e r r a t e s o f a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r s i n t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d s a m p l e s ( B r e i n e r & F o r e h a n d , 1 9 8 2 ; Cunn ingham, R e u l e r , B l a c k w e l l & D e c k , 1 9 8 2 ; Mash & J o h n s t o n , 1 9 8 2 b ; S toneman , B r o d y & A b b o t t , 1 9 8 2 ) . I n two o f t h e s e s t u d i e s , c o n c u r r e n t measu res o f p a r e n t a l d i s t r e s s were i n c l u d e d and r e v e a l e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h g e n e r a l l y a p p r o a c h e d s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ( B r e i n e r & F o r e h a n d , 1 9 8 2 ; Mash & J o h n s t o n , 1 9 8 2 b ) . I n b o t h c a s e s t h e s e s t u d i e s had v e r y s m a l l samp le 63 s i z e s (n_ = 8 , n_ = 1 6 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) w h i c h r e n d e r s t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a m b i g u o u s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n c o m p a r i s o n t o f a m i l i e s o f n o r m a l c h i l d r e n , r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n a r e g e n e r a l l y more a v e r -s i v e and t h e i r m o t h e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y more d i s t r e s s e d . Howeve r , t h i s c o v a r i a t i o n i s open t o many r i v a l e x p l a n a t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e r e t a r d e d samp le and t h e n o r m a l samp le a l s o may c o n c u r r e n t l y d i f f e r on a number o f v a r i a b l e s o t h e r t h a n a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r . D i f f e r e n c e s i n v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s t h e c h i l d ' s a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r l e v e l , s o c i a l s t i g m a , s o c i a l i s o l a -t i o n and s o on a r e e q u a l l y p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e s e be tween g roup d i f f e r e n c e s . To d a t e no s t u d i e s have a t t e m p t e d t o d i r e c t l y a s s e s s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n be tween o b s e r v e d c h i l d a v e r s i v e b e h a v i o r and m a t e r n a l d i s -t r e s s w i t h i n t h e g roup o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n , t h e r e b y c o n t r o l l i n g f o r many o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t may c o n f o u n d b e t w e e n - g r o u p c o m p a r i s o n s . G i v e n t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e c o e r c i o n h y p o t h e s i s i n o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s o f p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r a t e o f t h e s e c h i l d a v e r -s i v e b e h a v i o r s w o u l d be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h d i s t r e s s i n m o t h e r s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . H y p o t h e s i s I I I : The r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween s t r e s s and m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s w i l l be mode ra ted by s o c i a l s u p -p o r t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e d a t a w i l l c o n f o r m t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n s o f t h e " b u f f e r i n g h y p o t h e s i s " ( C a s s e l , 1 9 7 4 ; W i l c o x , 1 9 8 1 ) . Of t h e m o t h e r s e x p e r i e n c i n g h i g h l e v e l s o f s t r e s s , t h o s e m o t h e r s w i t h l o w s o c i a l s u p p o r t w i l l be more d i s t r e s s e d t h a n t h o s e m o t h e r s w i t h h i g h s o c i a l s u p p o r t . A t l o w l e v e l s o f s t r e s s , 64 s o c i a l s u p p o r t w i l l have l i t t l e o r no i n f l u e n c e on t h e l e v e l o f r e p o r t e d m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s . T h i s r e l a -t i o n s h i p be tween s t r e s s , s o c i a l s u p p o r t and m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s w i l l be f o u n d b o t h f o r i n t r a - d y a d s t r e s s ( i . e . , a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r ) a n d f o r e x t e r n a l s t r e s s ( i . e . , l i f e c r i s e s ) . U n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , c o e r c i o n t h e o r y r e s e a r c h had been f o c u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y on i n t r a - d y a d i n t e r a c t i o n s . Howeve r , i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s , P a t t e r s o n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s have become i n t e r e s t e d i n f o r c e s o u t s i d e t h e dyad t h a t may i m p i n g e upon t h e s e b i l a t e r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h e s e r e s e a r c h -e r s have i d e n t i f i e d two c l a s s e s o f " m a c r o s o c i a l " v a r i a b l e s t h a t may e x e r t i n f l u e n c e on m i c r o s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s : l i f e c r i s i s e v e n t s and s o c i a l s u p -p o r t . A c c o r d i n g t o P a t t e r s o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) , i t became a p p a r e n t t o t h e OSLC r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t d y a d i c i n t e r a c t i o n may be i n f l u e n c e d , a t l e a s t on a s h o r t - t e r m b a s i s , by t h e i m p a c t o f v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s i l l n e s s , l o s s o f i n c o m e , l e g a l p r o b l e m s and o t h e r l i f e c r i s i s e v e n t s . To p r o v i d e d a t a t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , a f a m i l y c r i s i s c h e c k l i s t was c o n s t r u c t e d by a d a p t -i n g i t e m s f r o m g e n e r a l l i f e s t r e s s r e s e a r c h ( e . g . , Ho lmes & R a h e , 1967) t o t h e s i t u a t i o n s c o n f r o n t i n g f a m i l y members. P r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s i n d i -c a t e d t h a t a s i m p l e l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p d i d n o t e x i s t be tween s t r e s s and d i s t r e s s ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e s e d a t a l e d P a t t e r s o n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n p r o p o s e d f o r some t i m e by l i f e s t r e s s r e s e a r c h e r s ; t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l e v e l o f s t r e s s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s o u r c e s f o r c o p i n g d e t e r m i n e s t h e i m p a c t o f t h e s t r e s s ( e . g . , D o h r e n w e n d & Dohrenwend , 1974 ; L a z a r u s , C o h e n , F o l k m a n , K a n n e r & S c h a e f e r , 1 9 8 1 ; K a h n , 1 9 7 3 ) . 65 The ma in c o p i n g r e s o u r c e t h a t P a t t e r s o n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s h a v e i n v e s t i g a t e d i s s o c i a l s u p p o r t . P a t t e r s o n (1982 ) d e s c r i b e d t h e p o t e n t i a l b u f f e r i n g e f f e c t o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween s t r e s s and d i s t r e s s . B o t h c h i l d b e h a v i o r and l i f e c r i s i s e v e n t s were d e s c r i b e d a s s t r e s s o r s t h a t may l e a d t o m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s d e p e n d i n g on t h e l e v e l o f s u p p o r t i v e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h P a t t e r s o n (1982 ) r e v i e w e d a number o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t i n d i r e c t l y s u p p o r t e d t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , o n l y one p i l o t i n v e s t i g a t i o n a t t h e OSLC d i r e c t l y t e s t e d t h e s e l i n k a g e s and i t s f i n d i n g s were u n c l e a r . I n an e x t e n d e d b a s e l i n e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f f i v e f a m i l i e s w i t h s o c i a l l y a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n , t h e m u l t i p l e R_ v a l u e s f o r e a c h f a m i l y were h i g h (R_ = . 55 t o . 7 8 ) be tween m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s and t h e p r e d i c t o r s o f c o e r c i v e b e h a v i o r , l i f e c r i s e s and s o c i a l s u p p o r t . How-e v e r , no s i n g l e p a t t e r n o f c o v a r i a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d a l l t h e f a m i l i e s . The p o t e n t i a l p a t t e r n s o f c o v a r i a t i o n be tween s t r e s s , s o c i a l s u p p o r t and d i s t r e s s have been i n v e s t i g a t e d t h o r o u g h l y by l i f e s t r e s s r e s e a r c h e r s ( s e e Cohen & W i l l s , 1 9 8 5 , f o r a r e v i e w ) . These r e s e a r c h e r s have p r o p o s e d two p o s s i b l e p a t t e r n s f o r t h e r o l e o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t i n r e l a t i o n t o s t r e s s and d i s t r e s s . F i r s t , some r e s e a r c h e r s have p r e s e n t e d d a t a i n d i -c a t i n g t h a t t h e s o c i a l s u p p o r t v a r i a b l e may f u n c t i o n a s a ma in e f f e c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o d i s t r e s s ( i . e . , t h e more s u p p o r t , t h e l e s s d i s t r e s s ) ( e . g . , A n t o n o v s k y , 1974 ; C o b b , 1 9 7 6 ; Dohrenwend , 1 9 7 8 ; M e c h a n i c , 1 9 7 4 ) . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n t e r a c t i v e ( e . g . , C a s s e l , 1974 , 1 9 7 6 ; W i l c o x , 1 9 8 1 ) . They s u g g e s t t h a t when l e v e l s o f s t r e s s a r e h i g h , s o c i a l s u p p o r t b u f f e r s t h e d i s t r e s s ; whe reas when l e v e l s o f s t r e s s a r e l o w , s o c i a l s u p p o r t h a s no i n f l u e n c e on d i s t r e s s . The few s t u d i e s i n w h i c h t h e b u f f e r i n g h y p o t h e s i s has been t e s t e d have r e p o r t e d 66 s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n s ( L i n , S i m e o n e , E u s e l & K u o , 1 9 7 9 ; N u c k o l l s , C a s s e l & K a p l a n , 1 9 7 2 ; W i l c o x , 1 9 8 1 ) . A l t h o u g h f o r many y e a r s s o c i a l s u p p o r t h a s been s u g g e s t e d a s a key f a c t o r i n m o d e r a t i n g d i s t r e s s i n f a m i l i e s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , B a r s c h , 1 9 6 8 ; Cunn ingham, 1964 ; H o l t , 1 9 5 8 ; S c h o n e l l e t a l . , 1 9 5 9 ) , t h e r e h a s been v e r y l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c e f f e c t o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t on p a r e n t a l d i s t r e s s . R e s e a r c h e r s s t u d y i n g f a m i l i e s o f t h e r e t a r d e d have s u g g e s t e d t h a t s o c i a l s u p p o r t p l a y s two s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g a d j u s t m e n t . F i r s t , a d e c r e a s e i n s o c i a l s u p p o r t , o r a d r i f t t o i n s u l a r i t y , h a s been r e p o r t e d t o be w i d e s p r e a d among f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . Some a u t h o r s have r e p o r t e d t h a t a s much a s 63% o f t h e i r s a m p l e h a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e s t r i c t e d s o c i a l n e t w o r k s ( H o l t , 1 9 5 8 ) . Many r e a s o n s have been p r o p o s e d t o e x p l a i n t h i s d r i f t t o i n s u l -a r i t y bu t t h e y c a n be summar i zed a s due t o e i t h e r an i n c r e a s e d b u r d e n o f c a r e a t home o r t h e a v o i d a n c e o f p a i n f u l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( e . g . , e m b a r r a s s m e n t , r e m i n d e r o f d e f i c i t ) . S e c o n d , a l o s s o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t may n o t o n l y r e s u l t f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e bu t may a l s o e x a c e r b a t e t h e d i s t r e s s t h e p a r e n t s e x p e r i e n c e . I n s u l a r i t y i n p a r e n t s o f t h e r e t a r d e d c a n be p a r t o f a v i c i o u s c i r c l e , where d i s t r e s s l e a d s t o i n s u l a r i t y w h i c h l e a d s t o f u r t h e r d i s t r e s s . A l t h o u g h t h i s i d e a i s w i d e l y h e l d i n t h e c l i n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n , i t h a s been e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t e d o n l y r e c e n t l y . A number o f c o r r e l a t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have f o u n d t h a t p a r e n t s w i t h h i g h s o c i a l s u p p o r t r e p o r t e d l e s s d i s t r e s s t h a n p a r e n t s w i t h l o w s o c i a l s u p p o r t ( D u n s t e t a l . , 1 9 8 6 ; F r i e d r i c h e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 ; N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ; W a i s b r e n , 1 9 8 0 ) . Some r e c e n t c l i n i c a l r e s e a r c h has a l s o f o u n d t h a t p a r e n t s o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d a s o c i a l s u p p o r t 67 i n t e r v e n t i o n r e p o r t e d i m p r o v e d c o p i n g ( B e r g e r & F o w l k e s , 1 9 8 0 ; M o o r e , H a m e r l y n c k , B a r s h , S p i e k e r & J o n e s , 1 9 8 2 ) . A l t h o u g h most i n v e s t i g a t o r s have d e s c r i b e d s o c i a l s u p p o r t a s a m o d e r a t o r o r b u f f e r t o h i g h l e v e l s o f s t r e s s , t h e y have n o t i n f a c t t e s t e d t h e i n t e r a c t i o n be tween t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s . T h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n a s s e s s e d b o t h m a j o r s o u r c e s o f s t r e s s i d e n t i f i e d by P a t t e r s o n and h i s c o l l e a g u e s ( i . e . , c h i l d c o e r c i v e n e s s , l i f e c r i s e s ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e a c h o f t h e s e s t r e s s o r s w i t h s o c i a l s u p p o r t and m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s i n f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n was i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s wou ld c o n f o r m t o t h e b u f f e r i n g h y p o t h e s i s : h i g h s t r e s s - l o w s u p p o r t m o t h e r s w o u l d be more d i s t r e s s e d t h a n h i g h s t r e s s - h i g h s u p p o r t m o t h e r s ; a t l o w s t r e s s , l o w and h i g h s u p p o r t m o t h e r s w o u l d n o t d i f f e r i n d i s t r e s s . H y p o t h e s i s I V : M a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h n e g a t i v e m a t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s o f c h i l d a d j u s t m e n t , e v e n when t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f o b s e r v e d c h i l d b e h a v i o r i s p a r t i a l l e d o u t . M a t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d , s e l f and o t h e r s a r e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s a c c o r d i n g t o P a t t e r s o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) . The f e e d b a c k l o o p f o r c a r e t a k e r d e p r e s s i o n ( s e e F i g u r e 1) i n d i c a t e s a l i n k a g e be tween d e p r e s s i o n and i n c r e a s i n g l y n e g a t i v e a t t r i b u t i o n s a b o u t s e l f and o t h e r s . T h i s l i n k a g e be tween n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s and d e p r e s -s i o n has been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e s e a r c h on c l i n i c a l d e p r e s s i o n ( e . g . , B e c k , 1 9 6 7 ; K o v a c s & B e c k , 1 9 7 8 ) . P a t t e r s o n (1982) h a s r e v i e w e d a number o f s t u d i e s t h a t p r o v i d e i n d i r e c t s u p p o r t f o r t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f m a t e r n a l d e p r e s s i o n and n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p r o b l e m c h i l d . The one OSLC 68 i n v e s t i g a t i o n that d i r e c t l y assessed t h i s linkage found that depressed mothers reported higher frequencies of deviant c h i l d behavior on d a i l y parent reports even though no differences i n observed c h i l d behavior were obtained (Chamberlain, 1983). Much of the evidence of a linkage between maternal d i s t r e s s and negative perceptions of the c h i l d has been provided by Rex Forehand and his colleagues at the U n i v e r s i t y of Georgia. These researchers have frequently demonstrated that parent perception of the c h i l d i s a better p r e d i c t o r of c l i n i c - n o n c l i n i c s t a t u s than e i t h e r c h i l d behavior as assessed by an independent observer or parent d i s t r e s s (e.g., G r i e s t et a l . , 1980; Lobitz & Johnson, 1975; Rickard et a l . , 1981). In f a c t , a proportion of c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n are not b e h a v i o r a l l y d e v i a n t , i n d i c a t i n g that parent perception or parent d i s t r e s s was s o l e l y respon-s i b l e f o r the r e f e r r a l . Given the important r o l e of parent perceptions or a t t i t u d e s toward the c h i l d i n defining the problem and seeking treatment, the question a r i s e s as to what f a c t o r s determine parent perception. Rogers and Forehand (1982) found that neither parent behaviors nor c h i l d behaviors d i f f e r e n t i a t e d mothers at three l e v e l s of reported depression; however, there were group differences for a l l three scales of the Parent Attitudes Test (Cowen, Huser, Beach & Rappaport, 1970). Higher l e v e l s of depres-sion were associated with perceptions of greater c h i l d maladjustment (regardless of actual observed behavioral d i f f e r e n c e s ) . Two studies of c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n i n which m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were u t i l i z e d indicated that maternal depression was a better predictor of 69 maternal perceptions of the c h i l d than was c h i l d behavior per se (Forehand et a l . , 1982; Griest et a l . , 1979). Comparison of c l i n i c and nonclinic mother-child pairs by Griest et a l . (1980) revealed an interesting difference. For the nonclinic group, maternal perceptions were best predicted by the child's behavior, whereas for the c l i n i c group, maternal perceptions were best predicted by a combination of child behavior and maternal distress. Therefore, for c l i n i c mothers, personal distress enters into their perception of their child's adjustment. This difference was further explored by Rickard et a l . (1981) who compared nonclinic mother-child pairs, behaviorally non-deviant c l i n i c pairs and behaviorally deviant c l i n i c pairs. These inves-tigators found that for both c l i n i c groups maternal perceptions of their child were more negative than for the nonclinic group. This negative perception for mothers of the nondeviant c l i n i c children occurred even though these children were not behaviorally different from normal child-ren. Subsequent analyses indicated that the mothers in the nondeviant c l i n i c group were significantly more depressed than either of the remain-ing groups. Thus, for some parents, perceptions of their child may be more a function of the parents own distress than of the child's behavior. To date there have been no studies which have examined the influence of child behavior and maternal distress in relation to parent perceptions of their retarded child. It was hypothesized that the pattern of results would resemble the pattern found in clinic-referred behavior problem samples where maternal distress contributes additional unique variance in the prediction of parental perceptions, beyond that a t t r i b u t a b l e to observed child behavior. 70 H y p o t h e s i s V : M a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . T h e r e h a s been some i n c o n s i s t e n c y a s t o w h e t h e r m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t s h o u l d be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s a m e a s u r e o f p a r e n t a l d i s t r e s s ( e . g . , S c h m i r l e r , McMahon & P e t t y , 1986) o r a s a measure o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t ( e . g . , F r i e d r i c h e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 ) . I n t h e f o r m e r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t i s v i e w e d a s an outcome o f t h e c o p i n g p r o c e s s ; whe reas i n t h e l a t t e r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t i s v i e w e d a s a c o p i n g r e -s o u r c e t h a t may m i t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f s t r e s s . A t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s an o u t -come measure and was p l a n n e d t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o m p o s i t e measure o f m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s . Howeve r , d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a c r e d i b l e mode l o f t h e c o p i n g p r o c e s s o f p a r e n t s w i t h m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n was p r o p o s e d ( C r n i c e t a l . , 1983) and f o l l o w e d by an i n v e s t i g a -t i o n i n w h i c h m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t was t r e a t e d a s a c o p i n g r e s o u r c e ( F r i e d r i c h e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s and t h e d y a d i c r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l f o c u s o f m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t l e d t o t h e d e c i s i o n t o remove t h e m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t measure f r o m t h e c o m p o s i t e measure o f m a t e r n a l d i s -t r e s s . H o w e v e r , i t was d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e t o t r e a t m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t a s a c o p i n g ou tcome v a r i a b l e and t o examine t h e r e l e v a n t h y p o t h e s e s u s i n g m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t i n p l a c e o f t h e m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s c o m p o s i t e . G i v e n t h i s c o n c e p t u a l r a t i o n a l e and t h e e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s t h a t m a r i t a l a d j u s t -ment was t h e o p t i m a l p r e d i c t o r o f m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s ( F r i e d r i c h , 1979) a s w e l l a s p a r e n t and f a m i l y p r o b l e m s ( F r i e d r i c h e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 ) , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t and m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s w o u l d be s t r o n g l y n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d . 71 H y p o t h e s i s V I : R a t e o f l o w - l e v e l a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . As d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 1 , P a t t e r s o n (1982 ) h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n t h e r a t e o f c o e r c i v e f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s may be r e l a t e d t o an i n c r e a s e i n c a r e t a k e r d e p r e s s i o n and h e l p l e s s n e s s . T h i s d e c l i n e i n p a r e n t a l mood may i n t u r n be r e l a t e d t o i n c r e a s i n g l y n e g a t i v e a t t r i b u -t i o n s a b o u t s e l f and o t h e r s . Among t h e s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s t h a t may be v i e w e d more n e g a t i v e l y , t h e s p o u s e i s a l i k e l y t a r g e t . Of c o u r s e , t h e d i r e c t i o n o f c a u s a l i t y i m p l i e d i n P a t t e r s o n ' s f e e d b a c k l o o p may be q u e s -t i o n e d . I t i s p e r h a p s j u s t a s c r e d i b l e t h a t a p o o r m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w o u l d l e a d t o c a r e t a k e r d e p r e s s i o n , an i n c r e a s e i n i r r i t a b i l i t y and more c o e r c i v e f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s . To d a t e , o n l y some o f t h e s e l i n k a g e s have been i n v e s t i g a t e d and t h e s t u d i e s have been p r i m a r i l y c o r r e l a t i o n a l so t h e d i r e c t i o n o f c a u s a l i t y r e m a i n s u n c l e a r . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r and m a r i t a l d i s t r e s s h a s been f o u n d i n s t u d i e s o f n o n r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , Bond & McMahon, 1984 ; F o r e h a n d & B r o d y , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e r e have been no o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n , where t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r a n d m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t h a s been e x a m i n e d . G i v e n t h e f i n d i n g s w i t h o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r and m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t w o u l d be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d . H y p o t h e s i s V I I : T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween s t r e s s ( i . e . , a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r , l i f e c r i s e s ) and m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t w i l l be mode ra ted by s o c i a l s u p p o r t . 72 The r a t i o n a l e and t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n H y p o t h e s i s I I I p e r t a i n e q u a l l y w e l l when t h e c o p i n g outcome measure i s m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t i n -s t e a d o f m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s t r e s s , c o p i n g r e s o u r -c e s , and m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t i n f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n has y e t t o be a d e q u a t e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h i s i s u n f o r t u n a t e g i v e n how l o n g t h e s e v a r i a b l e s have been i d e n t i f i e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n f a m i l y c o p i n g ( e . g . , H o l t , 1 9 5 8 ) . To d a t e t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r (Bond & McMahon, 1984) and l i f e c r i s e s ( P a t t e r s o n , 1982) may be r e l a t e d t o m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t i n f a m i l i e s w i t h n o n h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n . T h e r e i s a l s o some e v i d e n c e t h a t m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t i s a p o w e r f u l p r e d i c -t o r o f c o p i n g s u c c e s s i n f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , F r i e d r i c h , 1 9 7 9 ; F r i e d r i c h e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 ; N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . I t wou ld a p p e a r i m p o r t a n t t o now a s s e s s w h e t h e r t h e s e s t r e s s o r s a r e a l s o r e l a t e d t o m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t i n f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r m o r e , based on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a rgumen ts o f C r n i c e t a l . ( 1983 ) and t h e p r e -l i m i n a r y e m p i r i c a l r e s u l t s o f P a t t e r s o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) , i t w o u l d a p p e a r most r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c u r r e n t l y examine t h e p o t e n t i a l m o d e r a t i n g e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t . T h e r e f o r e , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t h i g h s t r e s s - l o w s u p p o r t m o t h e r s w o u l d r e p o r t p o o r e r m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t t h a n h i g h s t r e s s -h i g h s u p p o r t m o t h e r s ; a t l o w s t r e s s , l o w and h i g h s u p p o r t m o t h e r s wou ld n o t d i f f e r i n m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . H y p o t h e s i s V I I I ; M a t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t and c h i l d a d j u s t m e n t w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , even when t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f o b s e r v e d c h i l d b e h a v i o r i s p a r t i a l l e d o u t . 73 Patterson's (1982) feedback loop for caretakers' depression (see Figure 1) indicates a linkage between parental distress and negative attributions about self and others. Both Patterson and his colleagues as well as Forehand and his colleagues have provided evidence for this association. If distressed mothers do in fact perceive more negative attributions about others, then i t is feasible that both the spouse and the child may be viewed in a more negative light. Therefore, i t was hypothesized that maternal perceptions of marital and child adjustment would be positively correlated. Furthermore, i t was hypothesized that this relationship would be maintained when the influence of differences in observed child behavior were partialled out. Exploratory Purposes In addition to the specific hypotheses discussed in the preceding sections, in the present study the relationships between a number of demographic variables and maternal distress were investigated in a more exploratory manner. Many of these variables were discussed previously in the section on the range of parental reactions and the prediction of distress. Some of the variables discussed in that section were trans-lated into specific hypotheses (e.g., social support) whereas others were omitted because no adequate measures have been developed (e.g., physical stigmata, Farber's patterns of family organization). The remaining variables, which were measurable but not germane to the purpose of the study, were included in this set of exploratory analyses. The variables included in this set are: sex of child, age of child, level of retarda-tion, Catholic versus non-Catholic, religious participation, socioeco-nomic level, birth order and family size. As well, the parent behaviors 74 derived from the observation system were included i n the exploratory analyses. 75 Method S u b j e c t s S i x t y m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e c h i l d r e n were be tween 3 and 8 y e a r s o f age and d i a g n o s e d a s m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d by a q u a l i f i e d p h y s i c i a n o r p s y c h o l o g i s t . I f no d i a g n o s i s was a v a i l a b l e , t h e n r e c e n t t e s t s c o r e s on a m a j o r s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t o f i n t e l -l e c t u a l a b i l i t y were r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c h i l d ' s e l i g i b i l i t y . I n o r d e r t o comp ly w i t h c u r r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s o f r e t a r d a t i o n ( e . g . , A m e r i c a n P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 8 0 ; G r o s s m a n , 1 9 7 3 ) , t h e c h i l d r e n a l s o had t o d e m o n s t r a t e d e f i c i t s i n a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r a s a s s e s s e d by s p e c i f i c m e a s -u r e s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r ( e . g . , V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e ; D o l l , 1964) o r by s t a n d a r d i z e d d e v e l o p m e n t a l s c h e d u l e s ( e . g . , A l p e r n & B o l l , 1 9 7 2 ) . F o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e s e c r i t e r i a were met on t h e b a s i s o f m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y team a s s e s s m e n t s f r o m t h e B . C . C h i l d r e n ' s H o s p i t a l a n d / o r f i l e r e v i e w s f r o m t h e r e f e r r i n g a g e n c i e s . The c h i l d r e n a l s o d i d n o t e v i d e n c e s e v e r e p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p s ( e . g . , n o n a m b u l a t o r y ) o r s e v e r e s e n s o r y h a n d i c a p s ( e . g . , d e a f n e s s , b l i n d n e s s ) and had t o be l i v i n g a t home a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s t u d y . See T a b l e s 1 and 2 f o r d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a on t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s . I n t h e f i n a l s a m p l e , t h e r e were 37 boys and 23 g i r l s . The mean age o f t h e c h i l d r e n was 5 . 6 8 y e a r s (SD = 2 . 0 5 ) . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e c h i l d r e n were m i l d (n_ = 29) o r mode ra te (n_ = 18) i n t h e i r l e v e l o f m e n t a l r e t a r -d a t i o n . T h e mean V i n e l a n d s o c i a l q u o t i e n t was 5 8 . 9 2 and t h e mean V i n e l a n d s o c i a l age was 3 . 3 5 y e a r s . S p e c i f i c IQ s c o r e s on a m a j o r s t a n d -a r d i z e d t e s t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e were a v a i l a b l e f o r 31 o f t h e c h i l d r e n (M = 5 3 . 1 0 , SD = 2 2 . 1 8 ) . The samp le o f c h i l d r e n was h e t e r o g e n e o u s w i t h r e s p e c t t o e t i o l o g y o f r e t a r d a t i o n . The most f r e q u e n t d e s i g n a t i o n s were 76 Table 1 Demographic Data: Parametric Variable M SD Age of c h i l d 5.68 2. 05 Vineland s o c i a l age of c h i l d 3 3.35 2. 04 Vineland s o c i a l quotient of child** 58.92 24. 92 Age of mother 33.93 5. 10 Socioeconomic 1< 2 v e l C 43.60 15. 12 Family s i z e ^ 2.13 1. 05 a I n years. M = 100. c B l i s h e n & McRoberts (1976) Scale. Number of ch i l d r e n i n c l u d i n g handicapped c h i l d . 77 T a b l e 2 Demograph ic D a t a : C a t e g o r i c a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Sex M a l e 37 F e m a l e 23 L e v e l o f r e t a r d a t i o n M i l d 29 M o d e r a t e 18 S e v e r e - P r o f o u n d 13 B i r t h O r d e r F i r s t o r o n l y c h i l d 41 M i d d l e c h i l d 4 L a s t c h i l d 15 R e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n C a t h o l i c 17 O t h e r 43 F a m i l y S t r u c t u r e S i n g l e p a r e n t 10 M a r r i e d c o u p l e 46 Commonlaw c o u p l e 4 Employment o f mo the r F u l l - t i m e 2 P a r t - t i m e 8 No o u t - o f - h o m e employment 50 N o t e . N_ = 60 f o r a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . B a s e d on AAMD c r i t e r i a ( G r o s s m a n , 1 9 7 3 ) . 78 unknown e t i o l o g y o r p r o b a b l e p e r i n a t a l c o m p l i c a t i o n . Of t h e s p e c i f i c d i a g n o s e s , Down ' s syndrome was most p r e v a l e n t (n_ = 9 ) a l t h o u g h a v a r i e t y o f l e s s f r e q u e n t syndromes were a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d ( e . g . , C r i d u C h a t Syndrome, O r a l - F a c i a l - D i g i t a l Synd rome, W i l s o n ' s D i s e a s e , K l e i n f e l t e r ' s S y n d r o m e ) . S e v e r a l c h i l d r e n a l s o p r e s e n t e d w i t h o t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n s u c h a s e p i l e p s y , n e u r o m u s c u l a r d i s -o r d e r s , m i l d t o m o d e r a t e s e n s o r y i m p a i r m e n t s , e t c . T h e s e o t h e r c o m p l i c a -t i o n s were more p r e v a l e n t i n t h e more s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e s a m p l e . A l l b u t two o f t h e c h i l d r e n were a t t e n d i n g some f o r m o f day p rog ram f o r s p e c i a l needs c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , p r e s c h o o l , d a y c a r e , s c h o o l ) and most c h i l d r e n a l s o r e c e i v e d o r had r e c e i v e d s u p p l e m e n t a l t h e r a p i e s s u c h a s s p e e c h t h e r a p y , o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p y and p h y s i o t h e r a p y . P r i o r t o 3 y e a r s o f age most o f t h e c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s had r e g u l a r i n v o l v e -ment w i t h t h e I n f a n t Deve lopmen t P r o g r a m , a p r o v i n c i a l o u t r e a c h p rog ram f o r p r o v i d i n g g u i d a n c e r e g a r d i n g s t i m u l a t i o n , management and s e r v i c e s f o r s p e c i a l needs i n f a n t s and young c h i l d r e n . The mean number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l i e s was 2 . 1 3 . The h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d was most l i k e l y t h e f i r s t c h i l d (n_ = 41 ) and s e v e r a l o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s c h o s e n o t t o have o t h e r c h i l d r e n (n_ = 2 0 ) . F o u r h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n were m i d d l e c h i l d r e n and 15 were t h e y o u n g e s t c h i l d i n t h e f a m i l y . The f a m i l i e s r e s i d e d w i t h i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a w i t h a m a j o r i t y o f f a m i l i e s f r o m o u t l y i n g a r e a s r a t h e r t h a n m e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r . A l l m o t h e r s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were t h e b i o l o g i c a l p a r e n t s o f t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n . The mean age o f t h e m o t h e r s was 3 3 . 9 3 y e a r s . Of t h e 60 m o t h e r s , 50 were c o h a b i t a t i n g w i t h a man ( m a r r i e d = 4 6 ; common-law = 4 ) and 10 were s i n g l e p a r e n t s . Of t h e 50 men, 6 were n o t t h e b i o l o g i c a l p a r e n t o f t h e r e t a r d e d c h i l d ( m a r r i e d = 3 ; commonlaw = 3 ) . Of t h e 10 79 s i n g l e p a r e n t m o t h e r s , 5 r e p o r t e d an e n d u r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a man a l t h o u g h t h e y were n o t c o h a b i t a t i n g . The s o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l o f t h e f a m i l i e s was m i d d l e c l a s s (M = 4 3 . 6 on B l i s h e n & M c R o b e r t s (1976 ) S c a l e ) . M o s t o f t h e m o t h e r s d i d n o t have employment o u t s i d e t h e home (n_ = 5 0 ) . Of t h e s e 5 0 , 4 were s t u d e n t s . Of t h e 10 m o t h e r s w i t h o u t s i d e emp loymen t , 8 had p a r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n s and 2 had f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n s . The r e s t r i c t e d o u t s i d e employment o f t h i s samp le o f m o t h e r s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h (Kew, 1 9 7 5 ) . A l t h o u g h 60 m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r s c o m p l e t e d t h e s t u d y , a t o t a l o f 86 m o t h e r s had e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g . M o s t s u b j e c t l o s s (n_ = 12) was b e c a u s e t h e c h i l d was i n e l i g i b l e ( e . g . , n o t r e t a r d e d , b l i n d , t o o young) o r i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e e l i g i -b i l i t y ( e . g . , no t e s t i n g , i n a d e q u a t e t e s t i n g ) . A n o t h e r two s u b j e c t s were l o s t b e c a u s e t h e m o t h e r s were i n e l i g i b l e (1 f o s t e r m o t h e r , 1 s t e p m o t h e r ) . A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t , e i g h t m o t h e r s d e c i d e d n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e . A n o t h e r two f a m i l i e s t e r m i n a t e d a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l i n t e r -v i e w and two more f a m i l i e s f a i l e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e home o b s e r v a t i o n s . O b s e r v e r s and T r a i n i n g A team o f f i v e u n d e r g r a d u a t e p s y c h o l o g y m a j o r s and one p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e r v e d a s home o b s e r v e r s f o r t h i s s t u d y . The f i v e u n d e r g r a d u a t e o b s e r v e r s were t r a i n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t 40 h o u r s o f t r a i n i n g i n t h e c o d i n g s y s t e m , c o n s i s t i n g o f d i d a c t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s y s t e m and p r a c t i c e i n s c o r i n g r o l e - p l a y e d , v i d e o t a p e d and l i v e m o t h e r -c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s . The g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t and t h e two most p r o f i c i e n t u n d e r g r a d u a t e o b s e r v e r s s e r v e d a s c a l i b r a t i n g o b s e r v e r s d u r i n g r e l i a b i l -i t y c h e c k s . A l l o b s e r v e r s o b t a i n e d a t l e a s t 80% ag reemen t w i t h a p r e -80 s c o r e d 1 0 - m i n u t e v i d e o t a p e d i n t e r a c t i o n be tween a mother and h e r r e t a r d e d c h i l d b e f o r e b e i n g p e r m i t t e d t o c o l l e c t d a t a . A l l o b s e r v e r s were k e p t n a i v e a s t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s o r o t h e r p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , w e e k l y 1 -hou r t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s were c o n d u c t e d t o m a i n t a i n h i g h i n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y and p r e v e n t o b s e r v e r d r i f t ( K e n t & F o s t e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . T h e r e a f t e r , b i - m o n t h l y 1 -hou r t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s were h e l d . B e h a v i o r a l O b s e r v a t i o n S y s t e m E a c h m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a s e r i e s o f f o u r 4 0 - m i n u t e o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n d u c t e d i n t h e i r home by t h e t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r s . The o b s e r v e r s emp loyed a c o d i n g s y s t e m d e v e l o p e d by F o r e h a n d , P e e d , R o b e r t s , McMahon, G r i e s t & Humphreys (1978 ) ( A p p e n d i x A ) . T h i s s y s t e m i n v o l v e s s e q u e n t i a l r e c o r d i n g o f mo the r and c h i l d b e h a v i o r s w i t h i n a 3 0 - s e c o n d i n t e r v a l , a s w e l l a s a 3 0 - s e c o n d t i m e - s a m p l i n g measure o f c h i l d i n a p p r o -p r i a t e b e h a v i o r ( e x c l u d i n g n o n c o m p l i a n c e ) . The f o l l o w i n g p a r e n t a n d c h i l d b e h a v i o r s a r e r e c o r d e d w i t h t h i s c o d i n g s y s t e m . P a r e n t : ( 1 ) R e w a r d s . V e r b a l s t a t e m e n t s ( p r a i s e ) t h a t e i t h e r s p e c i f y t h e c h i l d ' s p r a i s e w o r t h y a t t r i b u t e o r b e h a v i o r ( l a b e l l e d ) o r do n o t s p e c i f y t h e a t t r i b u t e o r b e h a v i o r ( u n l a b e l l e d ) , v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r t h a t d e n o t e b e t t e r t h a n a v e r a g e p e r f o r m a n c e , and p h y s i c a l r e w a r d s s u c h a s hugs o r k i s s e s . ( 2 ) A t t e n d s . V e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w and r e f e r t o t h e c h i l d ' s o n g o i n g b e h a v i o r , o b j e c t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e c h i l d ' s a c t i v i t y , t h e c h i l d ' s s p a t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n o r a p p e a r a n c e . ( 3 ) Q u e s t i o n s . I n t e r r o g a t i v e s t o w h i c h t h e o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e c h i l d r e s p o n s e w o u l d be v e r b a l . 81 ( 4 ) Commands. O r d e r s , r u l e s , s u g g e s t i o n s , d i r e c t i o n s o r demands t h a t a r e p h r a s e d e i t h e r a s a s t a t e m e n t o r a q u e s t i o n , and t o w h i c h a m o t o r i c r e s p o n s e i s a p p r o p r i a t e and f e a s i b l e . Commands may be g i v e n t h a t e i t h e r do ( a l p h a ) o r do n o t ( b e t a ) p r o v i d e t h e c h i l d w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o m p l y . ( 5 ) W a r n i n g s . C o n t i n g e n c y s t a t e m e n t s ( i f . . . t h e n ) t h a t d e s c r i b e a v e r s i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e c h i l d t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e p a r e n t i f t h e c h i l d f a i l s t o p e r f o r m o r i n h i b i t a s p e c i f i e d b e h a v i o r . C h i l d : ( 1 ) C o m p l i a n c e . I n i t i a t i o n o f an a p p r o p r i a t e m o t o r i c r e s p o n s e ( o b e d i -e n c e ) w i t h i n 5 s e c o n d s o f a p a r e n t a l command. ( 2 ) N o n c o m p l i a n c e . F a i l u r e t o i n i t i a t e an a p p r o p r i a t e m o t o r i c r e s p o n s e w i t h i n 5 s e c o n d s o f a p a r e n t a l a l p h a command. ( 3 ) I n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . W h i n i n g , c r y i n g , y e l l i n g , t a n t r u m s , a g g r e s -s i o n , o r t h r e a t o f a g g r e s s i o n t o w a r d o b j e c t s o r p e o p l e , o r i n a p p r o -p r i a t e t a l k ( w h i c h i n c l u d e s d i s r e s p e c t f u l s t a t e m e n t s , s t a t e d r e f u s -a l s t o c o m p l y , t h r e a t e n i n g commands t o t h e p a r e n t , p r o f a n i t y and r e p e t i t i v e r e q u e s t s ) . ( 4 ) A p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . A b s e n c e o f a l l o f t h e b e h a v i o r s s c o r e d i n t h e i n a p p r o p r i a t e c h i l d b e h a v i o r c a t e g o r y . The r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h i s b e h a v i o r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m h a v e b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d i n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s b y F o r e h a n d a n d h i s c o l l e a g u e s . A l l s t u d i e s e m p l o y i n g t h i s s y s t e m ( s e e McMahon & F o r e h a n d , 1 9 8 4 , f o r a r e v i e w ) have s u c c e s s f u l l y a t t a i n e d an 80% c r i t e r i o n o f i n t e r -o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y b e f o r e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . D u r i n g d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , an a v e r a g e i n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y w i t h n o r m a l and c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d f a m i -l i e s o f 75% h a s been r e p o r t e d ( F o r e h a n d & P e e d , 1 9 7 9 ) . W i t h m e n t a l l y 82 r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n and t h e i r m o t h e r s , B r e i n e r and F o r e h a n d (1981 ) r e p o r t e d an a v e r a g e i n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y o f 81% by s e s s i o n and 68% by i n t e r -v a l . A l t h o u g h t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h , t h e y a r e c o m p a r -a b l e w i t h c o d i n g s y s t e m s o f s i m i l a r c o m p l e x i t y . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have shown t h a t i n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y i s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m ( e . g . , J o n e s , R e i d & P a t t e r s o n , 1974 ; Mash & M c E l w e e , 1 9 7 4 ) . A d e q u a t e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y h a s been r e p o r t e d a c r o s s o c c a s i o n s and s e t t i n g s ( F o r e h a n d & P e e d , 1979 ; P e e d , R o b e r t s & F o r e h a n d , 1 9 7 7 ) . The o b s e r v a t i o n a l s y s t e m a l s o h a s been shown t o d i s c r i m i n a t e n o n c o m p l i a n t c l i n i c c h i l d r e n f r o m n o n - c l i n i c c h i l d -r e n ( F o r e h a n d , K i n g , Peed & Y o d e r , 1 9 7 5 ; G r i e s t e t a l . , 1980) and men-t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n f r o m n o n c o m p l i a n t c l i n i c c h i l d r e n o r n o n - c l i n i c c h i l d r e n ( B r e i n e r & F o r e h a n d , 1 9 8 2 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s y s t e m h a s been d e m o n s t r a t e d t o be s e n s i t i v e t o t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s i n c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , F o r e h a n d , G r i e s t & W e l l s , 1 9 7 9 ; P e e d e t a l . , 1977) and m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n ( B r e i n e r & F o r e h a n d , 1 9 8 0 ) . A l t h o u g h most o f t h e r e s e a r c h on c o e r c i o n t h e o r y has u t i l i z e d t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p r o c e d u r e d e v e l o p e d by P a t t e r s o n , t h e F o r e h a n d s y s t e m was more s u i t e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : F i r s t , t h e F o r e h a n d s y s t e m has been s u c c e s s f u l l y u s e d w i t h m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n whe reas t h e P a t t e r s o n s y s t e m h a s n o t been a p p l i e d t o t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . S e c o n d , t h e F o r e h a n d s y s t e m was d e v e l o p e d f o r 3 t o 8 y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n whe reas t h e P a t t e r s o n s y s t e m was p r i m a r i l y d e v e l o p e d f o r c h i l d r e n 6 t o 16 y e a r s o f a g e . As w e l l , b e c a u s e t h e maximum m e n t a l age f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s e n t samp le was l e s s t h a n 6 y e a r s , t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t a l m a t u r i t y ma tched more c l o s e l y t h e f o c u s o f t h e F o r e h a n d s y s t e m . T h i r d , a l t h o u g h t h e two methods i n v o l v e s u b s t a n t i a l o v e r l a p i n 83 t h e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s o f b e h a v i o r s s a m p l e d , t h e P a t t e r s o n s y s t e m r e -q u i r e s s e v e r a l more f i n e - g r a i n d i s t i n c t i o n s . T h e s e f i n e - g r a i n d i s t i n c -t i o n s i n v e r b a l b e h a v i o r a r e d i f f i c u l t t o code r e l i a b l y and a r e p r o b a b l y n o t n e c e s s a r y w i t h a young r e t a r d e d p o p u l a t i o n . As w e l l , P a t t e r s o n (1982 ) h a s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e b e s t measure o f c o e r c i v e n e s s i s a s i m p l e c o m p o s i t e o f t h e 14 f i n e - g r a i n a v e r s i v e b e h a v i o r s (TAB s c o r e ) and most o f t h e c o e r c i o n r e s e a r c h has j u s t r e p o r t e d t h i s c o m p o s i t e . T h e r e f o r e , f o r t h e p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e most e f f i c i e n t and a p p r o -p r i a t e method was t h e F o r e h a n d s y s t e m . M e a s u r e s The m e a s u r e s emp loyed i n t h i s s t u d y were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e b e h a v i o r a l o b s e r v a t i o n d a t a and p a r e n t r e p o r t i n v e n t o r i e s . The o b s e r v a t i o n measu res i n c l u d e d t h r e e c h i l d b e h a v i o r measu res and f o u r p a r e n t b e h a v i o r m e a s -u r e s . The p a r e n t r e p o r t measu res were i n t e n d e d t o a s s e s s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s ( d e p r e s s i o n , p a r e n t i n g s e l f - e s t e e m and a n x i e t y ) , m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t , m a t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c h i l d and s o c i a l s u p p o r t . Home o b s e r v a t i o n d a t a F o r e a c h m o t h e r - c h i l d p a i r , t h e same o b s e r v e r coded i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h e home d u r i n g f o u r 4 0 - m i n u t e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s . T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s o c c u r r e d on c o n s e c u t i v e d a y s o r a s c l o s e t o c o n s e c u t i v e days a s p o s s i b l e (M = 8 . 8 , SD = 3 . 6 ) . The o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s were v a r i e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t i m e o f d a y . D u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n , e a c h mo the r was i n s t r u c -t e d t o i g n o r e t h e o b s e r v e r s and t o i n t e r a c t w i t h h e r c h i l d a s she n o r -m a l l y w o u l d , w i t h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r a i n t s : t h a t she r e f r a i n f r o m w a t c h i n g t e l e v i s i o n , r e a d i n g o r p l a y i n g c o m m e r c i a l games; t h a t she n o t p e r m i t v i s i t o r s o r o t h e r f a m i l y members i n t h e room w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f 84 s i b l i n g s who would normally be present ; and that she l i m i t her a c t i v i t i e s to two ad jo in ing rooms. The observer se lec ted a p o s i t i o n wi th in the two-room area which had an unobstructed view to observe mother -ch i ld i n t e r a c t i o n . The observer was equipped with an audio casset te recorder and an earphone to provide prerecorded cues f o r the 30-second i n t e r v a l s . These prerecorded cues were inaud ib le to the mother and c h i l d . The observer was a l s o provided with a c l ipboard and p re -p r in ted scor ing sheets to record the mother and c h i l d behav iors . Data were c o l l e c t e d i n consecut ive 30 second i n t e r v a l s with a 1-minute r e s t per iod every 10 minutes. Three c h i l d behavior measures were der ived from the observat iona l data . These measures were inappropr ia te behavior , compliance to alpha commands plus warnings, and compliance to t o t a l commands plus warnings (alpha and be ta ) . Inappropriate behavior was expressed as a percentage c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g the number of i n t e r v a l s of inappropr ia te behavior by the t o t a l number of i n t e r v a l s and m u l t i p l y i n g by 100. The two c h i l d compliance measures were a l s o expressed as percentages. The compliance to alpha commands plus warnings measure was c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g the sum of c h i l d compliance by the sum of alpha commands plus warnings and m u l t i p l y i n g by 100. S i m i l a r l y , compliance to t o t a l commands plus warn-ings was c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g the sum of c h i l d compliance by the sum of a l l commands plus warnings and m u l t i p l y i n g by 100. The four maternal behavior measures der ived from the observat ion data were alpha commands plus warnings, t o t a l commands plus warnings, rewards plus attends and contingent a t t e n t i o n . Contingent a t ten t ion was expressed as a percentage by d i v i d i n g the sum of rewards plus attends contingent on c h i l d compl i -85 a n c e by t h e sum o f c h i l d c o m p l i a n c e s and m u l t i p l y i n g by 1 0 0 . The o t h e r m a t e r n a l b e h a v i o r measu res were e x p r e s s e d a s r a t e s p e r m i n u t e . P a r e n t r e p o r t d a t a One o f t h e m o s t s e r i o u s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on d i s t r e s s i n p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n r e l a t e s t o t h e measurement o f t h e c o n s t r u c t s . No t o n l y have p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s u s u -a l l y r e l i e d on a s i n g l e measurement method ( e . g . , s e l f - r e p o r t ) b u t t h e y have u s e d m e a s u r e s o f poo r q u a l i t y . The m a j o r i t y o f i n v e s t i g a t o r s have r e l i e d on u n s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e r v i e w e r r a t i n g s o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Those i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t i n c l u d e d s t a n d a r d i z e d measu res t e n d e d t o be f o c u s e d on o n l y a p a r t o f t h e p a r e n t s ' d i s t r e s s r e a c t i o n . I n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s -t i g a t i o n , e a c h o f t h e a r e a s o f d i s t r e s s ( d e p r e s s i o n , p a r e n t i n g s e l f -e s t e e m , a n x i e t y ) , m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t , p a r e n t p e r c e p t i o n o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c h i l d s o c i a l m a t u r i t y and s o c i a l s u p p o r t was a s s e s -s e d u s i n g a s t a n d a r d i z e d s e l f - r e p o r t i n s t r u m e n t f o r w h i c h norms and a d e -q u a t e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e . D e p r e s s i o n . The B e c k D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y (BDI ) ( B e c k , 1967) ( A p -p e n d i x B) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e m o t h e r s t o a s s e s s t h e i r s e l f r e p o r t e d l e v e l o f d e p r e s s i o n . The BDI c o n s i s t s o f 21 i t e m s t h a t a s s e s s t h e a f f e c t i v e , c o g n i t i v e , m o t i v a t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l symptoms o f d e p r e s s i o n . B e c k (1967) h a s r e p o r t e d s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e f o r t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and c o n t e n t , c o n c u r r e n t and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y o f t h i s i n v e n t o r y . O t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s have shown t h a t t h e BDI c o r r e l a t e s h i g h l y w i t h c l i n i c i a n ' s r a t i n g s o f d e p r e s s i o n ( M e t c a l f e & G o l d m a n , 1965) and w i t h o b j e c t i v e b e h a v i o r a l m e a s u r e s o f d e p r e s s i o n ( W i l l i a m s , B a r l o w & A g r a s , 1 9 7 2 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e BDI has been shown t o d i s c r i m i n a t e l e v e l s o f d e p r e s s i o n ( M e t c a l f e & G o l d m a n , 1965) and t o d i s c r i m i n a t e m o t h e r s w i t h c l i n i c -86 r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n f r o m m o t h e r s w i t h n o n - c l i n i c r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n ( G r i e s t e t a l . , 1 9 8 0 ) . The t o t a l s c o r e s f r o m t h e BDI were used f o r d a t a a n a l y -s i s . P a r e n t i n g s e l f - e s t e e m . P a r e n t i n g s e l f - e s t e e m was a s s e s s e d w i t h t h e P a r e n t i n g Sense o f Competence S c a l e (PSOC) ( G i b a u d - W a l l s t o n & Wandersman, 1978) ( A p p e n d i x C ) . The PSOC c o n s i s t s o f 17 i t e m s r e p r e s e n t i n g two s u b s c a l e s t h a t a s s e s s d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f p a r e n t a l s e l f - e s t e e m . The f i r s t s u b s c a l e i s l a b e l l e d " s k i l l / k n o w l e d g e " and r e p r e s e n t s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s f e e l t h a t t h e y p o s s e s s t h e s k i l l and k n o w l e d g e n e c e s -s a r y t o be a compe ten t p a r e n t . The s e c o n d s u b s c a l e , l a b e l l e d " v a l u i n g / c o m f o r t " , a s s e s s e s t h e amount o f v a l u e t h e p a r e n t s p l a c e on p a r e n t h o o d and how c o m f o r t a b l e t h e y f e e l i n t h e p a r e n t i n g r o l e . The PSOC i s a r e l a -t i v e l y new i n s t r u m e n t and d a t a d e m o n s t r a t i n g i t s r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y a r e somewhat l i m i t e d . The a u t h o r s have shown t h e PSOC t o p o s s e s s s a t i s -f a c t o r y i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and some e v i d e n c e o f v a l i d i t y . The PSOC c o r r e l a t e s w i t h o t h e r measu res o f s e l f - e s t e e m , w i t h c h i l d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h a s e a s e o f management and w i t h a v a i l a b i l -i t y o f m a r i t a l and s o c i a l s u p p o r t s y s t e m s . The PSOC h a s a l s o b e e n emp loyed by Mash i n h i s p r o g r a m m a t i c r e s e a r c h on m o t h e r s w i t h h y p e r -a c t i v e , abused and d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n ( s e e M a s h , 1984 , f o r r e v i e w ) . I n t h i s r e s e a r c h , t h e PSOC was shown t o d i s c r i m i n a t e p a r e n t s w i t h h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n f r om p a r e n t s w i t h n o r m a l c h i l d r e n , t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h b e h a v i o r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r and p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l l i n g b e h a v i o r , and t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h p a r e n t a l ( e s p e c i a l l y m a t e r -n a l ) p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d d i f f i c u l t y (Mash & J o h n s t o n , 1 9 8 3 ) . The d a t a f r o m t h e PSOC were a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e two s u b s c a l e s i n a c c o r d w i t h G i b a u d - W a l l s t o n and Wandersman 's argument t h a t t h e s e two s c a l e s 87 measure d i f f e r e n t d i m e n s i o n s o f p a r e n t a l s e l f - e s t e e m . I n a d d i t i o n , Mash and J o h n s t o n (1983 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t s u b s c a l e I I ( v a l u e / c o m f o r t ) c o r r e l a t e d more h i g h l y w i t h p e r c e i v e d c h i l d p r o b l e m s t h a n s u b s c a l e I ( s k i l l / k n o w -l e d g e ) , whe reas s u b s c a l e I c o r r e l a t e d more h i g h l y w i t h t h e age o f t h e c h i l d . T h e s e f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e some s u p p o r t f o r v i e w i n g t h e s e s u b s c a l e s a s r e f l e c t i n g d i f f e r e n t d i m e n s i o n s o f s e l f - e s t e e m . A n x i e t y . The T r a i t f o r m o f t h e S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y ( S T A I ) ( S p i e l b e r g e r , G o r s u c h & L u s h e n e , 1970) ( A p p e n d i x D) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a s s e s s t h e m o t h e r s ' s e l f - r e p o r t e d l e v e l o f a n x i e t y . The T r a i t f o r m o f t h e STAI h a s been d e s c r i b e d a s a measure o f a g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y t o w a r d e x p e r i e n c i n g a n x i e t y ( S p i e l b e r g e r e t a l . , 1 9 7 0 ) . T r a i t a n x i e t y i s t h o u g h t t o be e x p r e s s e d a c r o s s a b r o a d r a n g e o f s t i m u l u s c o n d i t i o n s and t o be r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e t o s h o r t - t e r m s t r e s s o r s . T h i s i n v e n t o r y c o n s i s t s o f 20 i t e m s t o w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e ag reemen t a c c o r d i n g t o how t h e y g e n e r a l l y f e e l . S p i e l b e r g e r e t a l . ( 1970 ) have p r o v i d e d s u b s t a n t i a l d a t a r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f b o t h f o r m s o f t h e S T A I . S u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h e r s have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e T r a i t f o r m o f t h e STAI i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o t h e r i n d i c a t o r s o f e n d u r i n g l i f e s t r e s s (Manuch , H i n r i c h s e n & R o s s , 1 9 7 5 ) . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , G r i e s t e t a l . ( 1 9 8 0 ) r e p o r t e d e l e v a t e d l e v e l s o f T r a i t a n x i e t y on t h e STAI i n m o t h e r s w i t h c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n a s compared t o m o t h e r s o f n o n -c l i n i c c h i l d r e n . The d a t a were a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e t o t a l s c o r e f r o m t h e T r a i t f o r m o f t h e S T A I . M a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . The D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e (DAS) ( S p a n i e r , 1976) ( A p p e n d i x E ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a s s e s s t h e m o t h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h e r m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . The DAS c o n s i s t s o f 32 i t e m s w h i c h have been g r o u p e d i n t o f o u r s u b s c a l e s on t h e b a s i s o f f a c t o r a n a l y t i c p r o c e d u r e s . 88 T h e s e f o u r s u b s c a l e s a r e d y a d i c c o n s e n s u s , d y a d i c c o h e s i o n , d y a d i c s a t i s -f a c t i o n a n d a f f e c t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n . D y a d i c c o n s e n s u s r e f e r s t o t h e p e r c e i v e d ag reemen t be tween s p o u s e s on g e n e r a l m a r i t a l i s s u e s s u c h a s r e l i g i o n , f i n a n c e s , i n - l a w s , g o a l s and so o n . D y a d i c c o h e s i o n r e f e r s t o t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e c o u p l e engages i n j o i n t a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s t a l k -i n g , l a u g h i n g , w o r k i n g , e x c h a n g i n g i d e a s and s h a r i n g o u t s i d e a c t i v i t i e s . D y a d i c s a t i s f a c t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p a n d t h e c o m m i t m e n t e x p r e s s e d t o w a r d s i t . A f f e c t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n r e f e r s t o t h e d e g r e e o f d e m o n s t r a t e d a f f e c t i o n and s e x u a l i n v o l v e m e n t . S p a n i e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) h a s r e p o r t e d e v i d e n c e o f h i g h i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r e a c h o f t h e s u b s c a l e s and t h e t o t a l s c a l e . S u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g c o n t e n t , c r i t e r i o n and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y h a s a l s o been r e p o r t e d ( S p a n i e r , 1 9 7 6 ; S p a n i e r & C o l e , 1 9 7 6 ) . T o t a l DAS s c o r e s , r a t h e r t h a n s u b s c a l e s c o r e s , were emp loyed i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s f o r two r e a s o n s . F i r s t , most v a l i d i t y d a t a p e r t a i n t o t h e t o t a l DAS s c o r e ( S p a n i e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . S e c o n d , a s R o l l i n s and G a l l i g a n (1978 ) have a r g u e d , t h e v a r i o u s s u b s c a l e s a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t t h e s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s o f a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l on c l o s e l y r e l a t e d d i m e n s i o n s so t h a t c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s -t e n c y t h e o r y , r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , w o u l d p r o b a b l y b e t t e r e x p l a i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween t h e s u b - s c a l e s . T h e s e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h e use o f a u n i t a r y s c a l e and p r e f e r t h e l a b e l o f m a r i t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n t o e m p h a s i z e t h e s u b j e c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s e k i n d s o f e v a l u a t i o n s . P a r e n t a l p e r c e p t i o n o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The m o t h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h e r c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was a s s e s s e d w i t h t h e P a r e n t A t t i t u d e s T e s t (PAT) (Cowen e t a l . , 1970) ( A p p e n d i x F ) and t h e C h i l d B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t ( C B C L ) ( A c h e n b a c h & E d e l b r o c k , 1983) ( A p p e n d i x G ) . The PAT c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e s c a l e s : The 89 Home A t t i t u d e S c a l e c o n t a i n s 7 i t e m s t h a t r e f e r t o t h e p a r e n t ' s p e r c e p -t i o n o f t h e c h i l d ' s a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e home; t h e B e h a v i o r R a t i n g S c a l e c o n s i s t s o f 25 s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r s ; and t h e A d j e c t i v e C h e c k l i s t S c a l e l i s t s 34 a d j e c t i v e s t h a t r e f e r t o t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o r o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . E v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y a n d c r i t e r i o n -r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e s c a l e s h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d by Cowen e t a l . ( 1 9 7 0 ) . The PAT h a s been shown t o d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n c l i n i c -r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n and n o n - c l i n i c c h i l d r e n ( F o r e h a n d e t a l . , 1 9 7 5 ; G r i e s t e t a l . , 1980) and be tween m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n a n d n o n - c l i n i c c h i l d r e n ( B r e i n e r & F o r e h a n d , 1 9 8 2 ) . The PAT i s a l s o s e n s i t i v e t o t r e a t -ment e f f e c t s f o r c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , F o r e h a n d & K i n g , 1 9 7 7 ; F o r e h a n d , W e l l s & G r i e s t , 1 9 8 0 ; Peed e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ) . The t h r e e s c a l e s were summed t o p r o v i d e a s i n g l e i n d e x o f p a r e n t p e r c e p t i o n o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s summat ion was c o n d u c t e d b e c a u s e t h e t h r e e s c a l e s o f t h e PAT a l l p r o v i d e g l o b a l i n d i c e s o f c h i l d a d j u s t m e n t and have been f o u n d t o be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d . The d a t a f r o m t h e CBCL were t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e R e v i s e d C h i l d B e h a v -i o r P r o f i l e (CBP) ( A c h e n b a c h & E d e l b r o c k , 1 9 8 3 ) . The CBP i s t h e compan-i o n p r o f i l e f o r m t o t h e CBCL i n w h i c h t h e c h e c k l i s t d a t a a r e c o n v e r t e d t o T - s c o r e s and p e r c e n t i l e s f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s e x and age l e v e l . The CBP c o n s i s t s o f two s c a l e s : The S o c i a l Competency s c a l e and t h e B e h a v i o r P r o b l e m s c a l e . The S o c i a l Competency s c a l e p r o v i d e s s c o r e s on t h r e e a r e a s o f s o c i a l compe tence and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s c h o o l s u c c e s s . The B e h a v i o r P r o b l e m s c a l e y i e l d s a T o t a l B e h a v i o r P r o b l e m s c o r e , s u b s c a l e s c o r e s on two b r o a d - b a n d b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m f a c t o r s ( I n t e r n a l i z i n g and E x t e r n a l i z i n g ) and s c o r e s on a number o f n a r r o w - b a n d b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m f a c t o r s ( e . g . , s o m a t i c c o m p l a i n t s , uncom-90 m u n i c a t i v e ) . A l l t h e B e h a v i o r P r o b l e m s c a l e s o f t h e CBP were d e r i v e d f r o m f a c t o r a n a l y s e s o f p r o b l e m c h e c k l i s t d a t a c o m p l e t e d by t h e p a r e n t s o f c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n . E x t e n s i v e n o r m a t i v e d a t a have been c o l l e c t e d f o r e a c h s c a l e and t h e s c a l e s have been s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r e a c h s e x w i t h i n t h e a g e s 4 - 5 , 6 - 1 1 , and 1 2 - 1 6 y e a r s . No te t h a t no n o r m s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r 3 - y e a r - o l d s , an age g roup i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o u t i l i z e t h e d a t a f r o m 3 - y e a r - o l d s , t h e norms f o r t h e 4 - 5 y e a r o l d s were u s e d . The S o c i a l Competency s c a l e was n o t emp loyed i n t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e so many o f t h e i t e m s a r e n o t a p p r o -p r i a t e f o r u s e w i t h r e t a r d e d p o p u l a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n aged 3 - 8 y e a r s . The T o t a l B e h a v i o r P r o b l e m s c o r e s and s c o r e s on t h e I n t e r n a l i z i n g and E x t e r n a l i z i n g f a c t o r s were c o n v e r t e d t o T - s c o r e s and emp loyed i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s . The CBP has been shown t o p o s s e s s a d e q u a t e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and i n t e r p a r e n t ag reement f o r t h e I n t e r n a l i z i n g and E x t e r n a l i z i n g f a c t o r s and t h e T o t a l B e h a v i o r P r o b l e m s c o r e s ( A c h e n b a c h & E d e l b r o c k , 1 9 8 3 ) . A l l o f t h e s c a l e s have been shown t o d i s c r i m i n a t e be tween n o r m a l and c l i n i c -r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n f o r b o t h s e x e s and a t e a c h o f t h e t h r e e age r a n g e s ( A c h e n b a c h & E d e l b r o c k , 1 9 8 3 ) . S o c i a l m a t u r i t y . The c h i l d ' s s o c i a l m a t u r i t y was a s s e s s e d u s i n g t h e V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e (VSMS) ( D o l l , 1 9 3 6 , 1964) ( A p p e n d i x H) a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e mo the r i n t h e f i r s t i n t e r v i e w . The VSMS i s a s t a n d -a r d i z e d d e v e l o p m e n t a l s c h e d u l e w i t h a few i t e m s a t e a c h a g e - l e v e l r e p r e -s e n t i n g s o c i a l l y a d a p t i v e r e s p o n s e s t y p i c a l o f n o r m a l c h i l d r e n a t t h a t a g e - l e v e l ( B i n e t - t y p e s c a l e ) . The i t e m s were s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t a b a l a n c e d s e r i e s o f i t e m c l u s t e r s a t e a c h a g e - l e v e l and t o be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s c o r e s on t h e t o t a l s c a l e . D o l l ( 1 9 3 6 , 1964) has p r e -91 s e n t e d e v i d e n c e f o r t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h i s s c a l e . A l t h o u g h t h e VSMS h a s r e c e i v e d c r i t i c i s m r e g a r d i n g t h e s m a l l n o r m a t i v e samp le and somewhat l i m i t e d p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o p e r t i e s , i t r e m a i n s p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l f o r c h i l d r e n unde r 5 y e a r s o f age ( S a t t l e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . O t h e r more r e c e n t s c a l e s o f a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r ( e . g . , AAMD A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r S c a l e ; N i h i r a e t a l . , 1 9 7 4 ; B a l t h a z a r S c a l e s o f A d a p t i v e B e h a v i o r ; B a l t h a z a r , 1976) were n o t s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e n o r m a t i v e d a t a were r e s t r i c t e d t o o l d e r a n d / o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s a m p l e s . The VSMS i t e m s f r o m t h e e x p e c t e d m a t u r i t y r a n g e f o r t h e p r e s e n t samp le (0 t o 6 y e a r s ) p r i m a r i l y r e p r e s e n t s e l f - h e l p s k i l l s i n d r e s s i n g , e a t i n g and l o c o -m o t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s r a n g e o f t h e s c a l e c a n be c o n s i d e r e d an e s t i m a t e o f t h e c h i l d ' s d e p e n d e n c e . E a c h c h i l d ' s raw s c o r e was c o n v e r t e d i n t o a s o c i a l age e q u i v a l e n t (SA) and a s o c i a l q u o t i e n t (SQ) f o r d a t a a n a l y s e s . S o c i a l s u p p o r t . R e s e a r c h on s o c i a l s u p p o r t h a s f o c u s e d e i t h e r on s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t s ( e . g . , s i z e o f n e t w o r k , f r e q u e n c y o f c o n t a c t ) o r f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s ( e . g . , p r o v i s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , t a n g i b l e a i d , emo-t i o n a l s u p p o r t ) ( M a r s e l l a & S n y d e r , 1 9 8 1 ) . B o t h o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s were a s s e s s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t s were a s s e s s e d w i t h t h e Communi ty I n t e r a c t i o n C h e c k l i s t ( C I C ) ( W a h l e r , L e s k e & R o g e r s , 1979) ( A p p e n d i x I ) and f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s were a s s e s s e d w i t h t h e P e r -c e i v e d S o c i a l S u p p o r t - F a m i l y ( P S S - F a ) and t h e P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S u p p o r t -F r i e n d s ( P S S - F r ) ( P r o c i d a n o & H e l l e r , 1983) ( A p p e n d i c e s J and K ) . The C I C i s a b r i e f c h e c k l i s t w h i c h was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e mo the r by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n o r d e r t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e f r e q u e n c y and v a l e n c e o f m a t e r n a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l l o w s f o r m o t h e r s t o i d e n t i f y w i t h whom t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d , t h e d u r a t i o n o f 92 t h e i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a c t i v i t y and t h e v a l e n c e o f t h e i n t e r -a c t i o n . The a u t h o r s have c a u t i o n e d t h a t no r e l i a b i l i t y i n d i c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e C I C b e c a u s e o f t h e v a r i a b l e n a t u r e o f d a i l y s o c i a l c o n t a c t and t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g c o r r o b o r a t i n g r e p o r t s f r o m s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s ( W a h l e r e t a l . , 1 9 7 9 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e c o n v e r g e n c e be tween t h e C I C and o t h e r measu res o f p a r e n t - c o m m u n i t y c o n t a c t p r o v i d e d some s u p p o r t f o r t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t ( W a h l e r e t a l . , 1 9 7 9 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e C I C h a s been shown t o d i s c r i m i n a t e f a m i l i e s c a t e g o r i z e d a s " h i g h r i s k " v e r s u s " l o w r i s k " w i t h r e s p e c t t o d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o s e r i o u s f o r m s o f o p p o s i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r ( W a h l e r e t a l . , 1979) and t o d i s c r i m i n a t e f a m i -l i e s t h a t w i l l m a i n t a i n t h e b e n e f i t s o f p a r e n t t r a i n i n g f r o m f a m i l i e s t h a t w i l l r e t u r n t o d y s f u n c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s ( W a h l e r & A f t o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . D a i l y s c o r e s on t h e C I C have been shown t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h o b j e c t i v e m e a s u r e s o f m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n . On d a y s marked by h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s o f p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h f r i e n d s , a v e r s i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s be tween mother and c h i l d were l e s s f r e q u e n t t h a n on d a y s marked by i n s u l a r i t y ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 8 2 ; W a h l e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . One i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a s emp loyed t h e C I C w i t h m o t h e r s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n (Camp is e t a l . , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s compared t h e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s o f m o t h e r s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n and m o t h e r s o f n o n -c o m p l i a n t c h i l d r e n . They f o u n d t h a t p a r e n t s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n r e p o r -t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f e w e r s o c i a l c o n t a c t s and a t r e n d t o w a r d c o n t a c t s o f more n e g a t i v e v a l e n c e . I n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e C I C t o t h e mother a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f e a c h o f t h e two i n t e r v i e w s and t w i c e by phone d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d be tween t h e f a m i l i e s ' f i r s t and l a s t home o b s e r v a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e were f o u r a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n s f o r e a c h m o t h e r . The s c o r e s f r o m e a c h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were summed 93 t o p r o v i d e a s i n g l e s c o r e f o r e a c h mother on t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f f r e q u e n c y , v a l e n c e and p r o p o r t i o n o f c o n t a c t s w i t h f r i e n d s . The P S S - F a and t h e P S S - F r a r e b o t h 2 0 - i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s o r h e r needs f o r s u p p o r t , i n f o r m a t i o n , and f e e d b a c k a r e f u l f i l l e d . The d i s t i n c -t i o n be tween f a m i l y s u p p o r t and f r i e n d s u p p o r t i s c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t by t h e a u t h o r s b e c a u s e f o r d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f c r i s e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l may s e l e c t d i f f e r e n t s u p p o r t n e t w o r k s . A l s o , f o r some e n d u r i n g s t r e s s o r s s u c h a s r a i s i n g a m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d , i t may be more d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n a n e t w o r k o f f r i e n d s and t h e r e f o r e t h e f a m i l y n e t w o r k may p l a y a more s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e ( H o l t , 1 9 5 8 ) . P r o c i d a n o and H e l l e r (1983 ) have p r o v i d e d a d e q u a t e e v i d e n c e o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e new s c a l e s . The P S S - F a and t h e P S S - F r have been shown t o be r e l i a b l e o v e r a 1-month i n t e r v a l ( r = . 8 3 ) and t o p o s s e s s a d e q u a t e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( C r o n b a c h ' s c* = . 9 0 and . 8 8 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . B o t h measu res have been shown t o c o r r e l a t e i n t h e e x p e c t e d manner w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s , p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y and s o c i a l - a s s e t t r a i t s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s c a l e s have been shown t o be i n d e p e n d e n t o f s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y and p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e s e t i n d u c t i o n . T o t a l s c o r e s f o r e a c h s c a l e were u s e d f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s . F a m i l y c r i s e s . The f r e q u e n c y o f c r i s e s i n f a m i l y l i f e was a s s e s s e d w i t h t h e OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t ( F C L ) ( P a t t e r s o n , 1982) ( A p p e n d i x L ) . The FCL i s a l i f e c r i s e s c h e c k l i s t s i m i l a r t o t h o s e u s e d i n l i f e s t r e s s r e s e a r c h ( e . g . , Ho lmes & R a h e , 1967) b u t a d a p t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e r o l e o f f a m i l y member. The FCL c o n t a i n s 78 i t e m s s a m p l i n g m i n o r t o m a j o r c r i s e s e v e n t s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : f a m i l y , h o u s e h o l d and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e c o n o m i c , h e a l t h , s c h o o l , s o c i a l i n t e r c h a n g e , and l e g a l . 94 T h i s i n s t r u m e n t r e q u i r e s t h e p a r e n t t o r e c o r d t h e o c c u r r e n c e / n o n o c c u r -r e n c e o f t h e l i s t e d e v e n t s o v e r t h e p r e c e d i n g week . The FCL i s a new i n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p e d by t h e OSLC r e s e a r c h e r s t o t e s t t h e i m p a c t o f c r i s e s upon t h e mood o f t h e m o t h e r . B e c a u s e o f t h e v a r i a b l e n a t u r e o f l i f e c r i s e s , r e l i a b i l i t y i n d i c e s have n o t been r e p o r t e d . Howeve r , P a t t e r s o n (1982 ) has r e p o r t e d some d a t a s u p p o r t i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . The FCL h a s been shown t o c o r r e l a t e m o d e r a t e l y w i t h m a t e r n a l mood i n f a m i l i e s w i t h n o r m a l c h i l d r e n and i n f a m i l i e s w i t h s o c i a l l y a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d r e n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e FCL h a s been shown t o d i s c i m i n a t e be tween n o r m a l and s o c i a l l y a g g r e s s i v e s a m p l e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f r e q u e n c y o f l i f e c r i s e s ( i . e . , more c r i s e s i n t h e a g g r e s s i v e s a m p l e ) . The s c o r e s f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y were summed t o p r o v i d e a t o t a l s c o r e f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s . D e m o g r a p h i c - s i t u a t i o n a l d a t a P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e s u g g e s t e d a number o f d e m o g r a p h i c o r s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s . M o s t o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s c a n be measured i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner and were a s s e s s e d d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e p a r e n t s ( e . g . , s e x o f c h i l d , c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e , C a t h o l i c v e r s u s n o n - C a t h o l i c , d e g r e e o f r e l i g -i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , b i r t h o r d e r , f a m i l y s i z e ) . L e v e l o f r e t a r d a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m r e p o r t s i n t h e p a r e n t ' s p o s s e s s i o n o r f r o m t h e c h i l d ' s a g e n c y . The s o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l o f t h e f a m i l y was a s s e s s e d u s i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e d e v e l o p e d by B l i s h e n and M c R o b e r t s ( 1 9 7 6 ) . T h e s e a u t h o r s p r o v i d e an e m p i r i c a l l y - d e r i v e d s o c i o e c o n o m i c i n d e x s c o r e f o r e a c h o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s f r o m t h e C a n a d i a n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and D i c t i o n a r y o f O c c u p a t i o n s ( I n f o r m a t i o n C a n a d a , 1 9 7 1 ) . T h i s p r o c e d u r e c o n f o r m s t o t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r m e a s u r e s o f SEL p r o p o s e d by M u e l l e r and P a r c e l ( 1 9 8 1 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r o c e d u r e h a s t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f b e i n g based on 95 C a n a d i a n i ncome and e d u c a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s a s w e l l a s r e f l e c t i n g t h e C a n a -d i a n p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n and i ncome t o S E S . I n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e SEL o f e a c h f a m i l y was b a s e d on t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c i n d e x s c o r e f o r t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e head o f t h e h o u s e h o l d . I f b o t h s p o u s e s were emp loyed o u t s i d e t h e home, t h e n t h e f a m i l y ' s SEL was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s c o r e o f t h e more p r e s t i g i o u s o c c u p a -t i o n ( s e e H a u g , 1 9 7 3 ) . P r o c e d u r e I n i t i a l c o n t a c t A v a r i e t y o f a g e n c i e s t h a t p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s f o r r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a were c o n t a c t e d . T h e s e a g e n c i e s i n c l u d e d s c h o o l s , s p e c i a l c l a s s r o o m s , p r e s c h o o l s , d a y c a r e s and day t r e a t m e n t p rog rams t h a t s e r v e r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n be tween t h e a g e s o f 3 and 8 y e a r s . P a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s d i s t r i b u t e d an i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r t o e l i g i b l e p a r e n t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x M ) . The l e t t e r b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d t h e p u r p o s e , r e q u i r e m e n t s and b e n e f i t s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I n t e r e s t e d m o t h e r s were r e q u e s t e d t o c o n t a c t t h e a u t h o r by t e l e p h o n e . D u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l t e l e p h o n e c o n t a c t , t h e mo the r was p r o v i d e d w i t h more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s and b e n e f i t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was k e p t r e l a t i v e l y g e n e r a l and e m p h a s i z e d t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f m o t h e r -c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s and t h e m o t h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . I t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a f o r t h e c h i l d and t h e mo the r had t o be met i n o r d e r t o p r o c e e d . Some o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a c o u l d be met d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t t e l e p h o n e c o n t a c t , whe reas c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s c h o o l o r o t h e r agency m i g h t be r e q u i r e d t o meet some o f t h e o t h e r c r i t e r i a . The m o t h e r s were i n f o r m e d t h a t i f t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e 96 i n t e r v i e w and t h e i r c h i l d d i d n o t meet t h e c r i t e r i a f r o m t h e a g e n c y , t h e y w o u l d r e c e i v e a $ 5 . 0 0 s t i p e n d f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n up t o t h a t t i m e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e m o t h e r s w o u l d r e c e i v e t h e g e n e r a l r e p o r t on t h e f i n d -i n g s o f t h e s t u d y a t i t s c o n c l u s i o n . I f t h e mo the r a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i -p a t e , d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e e l i g i b i l i t y were c o l l e c t e d and an i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w was s c h e d u l e d . I n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w T h e i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w was c o n d u c t e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t h e s u b j e c t ' s home. The mother was b r i e f e d r e g a r d i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and a c o n s e n t f o r m was s i g n e d by t h e mo the r t o i n d i c a t e h e r ag reement w i t h t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s ( s e e A p p e n d i x N ) . A s e c o n d f o r m i n d i -c a t i n g c o n s e n t f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a g e n c y t o r e l e a s e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was a l s o s i g n e d by t h e mo the r i f r e q u i r e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x 0 ) . M o r e d e t a i l e d d e m o g r a p h i c and f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n was t h e n c o l l e c t e d . The V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e and t h e Communi ty I n t e r a c -t i o n C h e c k l i s t were c o m p l e t e d by t h e mo the r a s p a r t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w . An e x p l a n a t i o n o f e a c h o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was p r o v i d e d and t h e mo the r r e c e i v e d a p a c k a g e c o n t a i n i n g t h e s e m e a s u r e s . The mo the r was a s k e d t o r e f r a i n f r o m c o m p l e t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u n t i l she r e c e i v e d a t e l e p h o n e c a l l f r o m t h e a u t h o r i n d i c a t i n g w h e t h e r h e r c h i l d had p a s s e d t h e n e c e s -s a r y c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s t u d y . A $ 2 5 . 0 0 s t i p e n d was p a i d t o t h e mo the r a t t h i s t i m e . Agency c o n t a c t I f r e q u i r e d , t h e c o n s e n t f o r r e l e a s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r m was f o r -warded t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a g e n c y . The n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e c h i l d ' s f i l e ( e . g , d i a g n o s i s , i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e ) was c o l l e c t e d by t h e a u t h o r o r an agency emp loyee d e p e n d i n g on t h e p r e f e r e n c e o f t h e 9 7 a g e n c y ( s e e A p p e n d i x P ) . I f t h e c h i l d d i d n o t meet t h e c r i t e r i a , t h e m o t h e r was i m m e d i a t e l y i n f o r m e d and a $ 5 . 0 0 r e p l a c e m e n t s t i p e n d was m a i l e d . I f t h e c h i l d met t h e c r i t e r i a , t h e mother was c o n t a c t e d , r e -q u e s t e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and g i v e n t h e name o f an o b s e r v e r who w o u l d c o n t a c t h e r t o a r r a n g e c o n v e n i e n t t i m e s f o r t h e home o b s e r v a -t i o n s . Home o b s e r v a t i o n s F o u r 4 0 - m i n u t e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n were made i n t h e homes o f e a c h o f t h e 60 f a m i l i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s t u d y . D u r i n g e i t h e r t h e t h i r d o r f o u r t h o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e p r i m a r y o b s e r v e r was j o i n e d by a c a l i b r a t i n g o b s e r v e r t o a s s e s s r e l i a b i l i t y . R e l i a b i l i t y c h e c k s were o b t a i n e d on 25.4% o f t h e home o b s e r v a t i o n s . A s p l i t e a r p l u g d e v i c e was emp loyed t o s y n c h r o n i z e r e c o r d i n g i n t e r v a l s f o r t h e two o b s e r v e r s . D a t a f r o m t h e c a l i b r a t i n g o b s e r v e r were u s e d t o compute r e l i a b i l i t y i n d i c e s and were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s . C o n c l u d i n g i n t e r v i e w A l l m o t h e r s who c o m p l e t e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and o b s e r v a t i o n s p a r -t i c i p a t e d i n a s e c o n d i n t e r v i e w . T h e r e were s e v e r a l p u r p o s e s f o r t h i s i n t e r v i e w . F i r s t , t h e m o t h e r s were p r o v i d e d w i t h an u n s t r u c t u r e d o p p o r -t u n i t y t o commun ica te t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f s t r e s s , d i s t r e s s and e f f e c t i v e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . T h i s i n t e r v i e w gave t h e p a r e n t ( s ) t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s t h e i r v i e w s and c o n c e r n s i n a manner w h i c h may have been more s a t i s f y i n g t h a n c o m p l e t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . S e c o n d , i n d i v i d u a l f e e d b a c k was p r o v i d e d r e g a r d i n g mo the r and c h i l d b e h a v i o r d u r i n g t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s a s w e l l a s a b r i e f summary o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s . T h i r d , m o t h e r s who e x p r e s s e d h i g h d i s t r e s s on t h e s e measu res a n d / o r who a p p e a r e d t o want 98 assistance were provided with r e f e r r a l to appropriate resources within t h e i r area (n_ = 4 ) . Dissemination At the conclusion of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , each p a r t i c i p a t i n g mother was forwarded a report o u t l i n i n g the hypotheses and r e s u l t s of the study. Agencies that p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the recruitment of subjects also received a copy of t h i s report. 99 Results Overview The results section is divided into the following subsections: reliability data, descriptive data, principal component analyses, analy-ses of the major hypotheses and exploratory analyses. In the reliability data subsection, the reliability coefficients for the behavior observa-tion data are presented. The descriptive data subsection is primarily a tabular presentation of the means and standard deviations for each of the original variables. This section will permit the reader to easily com-pare these data with normative data or previous research. The subsection on the principal component analyses contains a description of the deriva-tion of each of the five principal component variables used in subsequent analyses. These components were derived from the sets of variables representing observed child behavior, maternal distress, maternal percep-tion of child adjustment and social support. For each principal compo-nent variable, information on the elevations of the original variables, the relative contributions of each original variable to the principal component variable and a verbal interpretation of the principal component variable is provided to make the subsequent results section more meaning-ful to the reader. In the subsection on the analysis of the major hy-potheses, the specific hypotheses are examined first using the principal component of maternal distress as the indicator of personal distress of the mothers. The relevant major hypotheses are then reexamined using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale as an indicator of marital distress. The final subsection on exploratory analyses is divided into three parts. First, there is an examination of the relationships of maternal distress with observed parent behaviors and the demographic-situational variables. 100 S e c o n d , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e DAS w i t h o b s e r v e d p a r e n t b e h a v i o r and d e m o g r a p h i c - s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s a r e e x a m i n e d . F i n a l l y , t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s o f t h e s e d e m o g r a p h i c - s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l component v a r i a b l e s and t h e o b s e r v e d p a r e n t b e h a v i o r s a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d . The i n c l u s i o n o f t h e e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s , a l t h o u g h w o r t h w h i l e f r o m an e m p i r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , p r o d u c e s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i n f l a t e d e x p e r i m e n t - w i s e Type I e r r o r r a t e . E v e n w i t h t h e d a t a r e d u c t i o n a c c o m -p l i s h e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s e s , t h e number o f c o m p a r i s o n s f o r t h e m a j o r h y p o t h e s e s (14) and t h e e x p l o r a t o r y h y p o t h e s e s (118) n e c e s -s i t a t e s a s t r i n g e n t c o r r e c t i o n f o r i n f l a t e d e r r o r . G i v e n t h e c o n v e n t i o n t o s e t oL = .05 f o r an i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a r i s o n and a t o t a l o f 132 c o m p a r i -s o n s c o m p u t e d , by c h a n c e a l o n e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 c o m p a r i s o n s c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o e x c e e d t h i s c r i t i c a l v a l u e . A t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e , i f t h e e x p e r i m e n t - w i s e e r r o r i s s e t a t Ot = .05 by e m p l o y i n g t h e B o n f e r r o n i p r o c e d u r e (CL =.05/132 = .0004), t h e c r i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l i s s o c o n s e r v a t i v e t h a t t h e power t o d e t e c t a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s m i n i m a l . T h e r e f o r e a compromise a p p r o a c h t o s e t t i n g t h e c r i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s was s e l e c t e d . I n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e r e a r e 2 f a m i l i e s o f a n a l y s e s t h a t t e s t t h e m a j o r h y p o t h e s e s and 12 f a m i l i e s o f a n a l y s e s t h a t a r e e x p l o r a t o r y . F o r e a c h o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s o f a n a l y s e s , t h e e r r o r r a t e i s s e t a t = .05 and t h e c r i t i c a l v a l u e f o r e a c h c o m p a r i s o n i s computed by d i v i d i n g .05 by t h e number o f c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . W i t h t h i s c o r r e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e , t h e e x p e r i m e n t - w i s e e r r o r r a t e i s r e d u c e d and t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f d e t e c t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s p e c i f i c m a j o r h y p o t h e s e s i s n o t u n d e r m i n e d by t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a number o f e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s . Howeve r , i t s h o u l d be k e p t i n mind t h a t a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t - w i s e l e v e l , t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f o b t a i n i n g one s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t due t o c h a n c e 101 a l o n e may a p p r o a c h 70%. The r i s k a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s h i g h e x p e r i m e n t -w i s e e r r o r r a t e i s somewhat m i n i m i z e d g i v e n t h a t i t i s s i x t i m e s more l i k e l y f o r t h e e r r o r t o o c c u r w i t h i n t h e e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s and t h e s e a n a l y s e s r e c e i v e o n l y c a u t i o u s e l a b o r a t i o n i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n . To a v o i d c o n f u s i o n , t h e f o r m a t f o r r e p o r t i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s o f t h e r e s u l t s i s k e p t c o n s i s t e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s e c t i o n . The v a r i o u s s t a t i s t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t e x t u a l o r t a b u l a r f o r m w i t h t h e a s s o c i a t e d p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a r i s o n s . A s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s a r e i n a c c u r a t e on an e x p e r i m e n t -w i s e b a s i s . However t h e y a r e i n c l u d e d so t h a t r e s u l t s b a s e d on d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l methods o r u n e q u a l samp le s i z e s c a n be c o m p a r e d . R e s u l t s t h a t e x c e e d t h e . 0 5 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l f o r an i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a r i s o n a r e d i s c u s s e d , f o l l o w e d by a summary o f w h i c h o f t h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s a l s o e x c e e d t h e f a m i l y - w i s e c r i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l d e r i v e d by t h e B o n f e r -r o n i p r o c e d u r e . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e s u l t s f a l l i n g be tween t h e s e two c r i t e r i a o f s i g n i f i c a n c e s h o u l d be made w i t h c a u t i o n . They may b e s t be v i e w e d a s s u g g e s t i v e f i n d i n g s t h a t r e q u i r e r e p l i c a t i o n b e f o r e a c c e p t a n c e . R e l i a b i l i t y D a t a I n t r a c l a s s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d t o a s s e s s t h e i n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e home o b s e r v a t i o n d a t a . A c o e f f i c i e n t was c a l c u l a t e d be tween t h e p r i m a r y and c a l i b r a t i n g o b s e r v e r s ' t o t a l s e s s i o n s c o r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l c a t e g o r i e s u t i l i z e d f r o m t h e c o d i n g s y s t e m . Har tmann (1977 ) has recommended t h a t t h i s m e t h o d be emp loyed when d a t a a r e c o l l e c t e d by more t h a n two o b s e r v e r s . G u i d e l i n e s f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m o f t h e i n t r a c l a s s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i -c i e n t were p r e s e n t e d by S h r o u t and F l e i s s ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e s e a u t h o r s r e c o m -mend a one-way random e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e d e s i g n i n s i t u a t i o n s 102 where e a c h s u b j e c t i s r a t e d by a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f K_ o b s e r v e r s , r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n o f o b s e r v e r s . From t h i s a n a l y s i s MS b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s and MS w i t h i n s u b j e c t s a r e d e r i v e d . The MS w i t h i n s u b j e c t s r e p r e s e n t s t h e r e s i d u a l v a r i a n c e o f t h e e f f e c t s due t o o b s e r v -e r s , t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n be tween o b s e r v e r and s u b j e c t , and t o random e r r o r . The f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a was u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e i n t r a c l a s s c o r r e -l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r e a c h b e h a v i o r a l c a t e g o r y ( W i n e r , 1 9 7 1 ) : MS be tween - MS w i t h i n r_ = MS be tween + ( K - 1 ) MS w i t h i n Where K_ i s t h e number o f o b s e r v e r s r a t i n g e a c h s u b j e c t . The i n t r a c l a s s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e home o b s e r v a t i o n d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 3 . S a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l s o f r e l i a b i l i t y were o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h o f t h e m o t h e r l a n d c h i l d b e h a v i o r s . D e s c r i p t i v e D a t a The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e home o b s e r v a t i o n measu res and t h e p a r e n t r e p o r t measu res a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 4 and 5 , r e s p e c -t i v e l y . A number o f r e c e n t s t u d i e s on m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n c o n d u c t e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a have emp loyed many o f t h e same m e a s u r e s . T h e s e s t u d i e s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r s a m p l e s o f p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n and t h e i r m o t h e r s . The means f r o m t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n and some r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t u d i e s o f o t h e r g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n a r e p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e 6 . S i n c e most o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e t e s t e d u s i n g t h e a g g r e g a t e measu res d e r i v e d by p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s w i l l be b r i e f l y c o v e r e d i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e a g g r e g a t e measu res t o w h i c h t h e y c o n t r i b u t e . The v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e T a b l e 3 R e l i a b i l i t y D a t a f o r Home O b s e r v a t i o n M e a s u r e s B e h a v i o r code M o t h e r Rewards p l u s a t t e n d s . 94 A l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s .81 T o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s .96 C o n t i n g e n t a t t e n t i o n . 9 0 C h i l d C o m p l i a n c e t o a l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s . 77 C o m p l i a n c e t o t o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s . 79 I n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . 92 N o t e . F o r a l l c o m p a r i s o n s , n_= 6 1 . r_ = i n t r a c l a s s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f c i e n t . 104 T a b l e 4 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Home O b s e r v a t i o n M e a s u r e s B e h a v i o r code M SD M o t h e r Rewards p l u s a t t e n d s .737 . 3 7 0 A l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s .676 .246 T o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s 1 .979 .896 C o n t i n g e n t a t t e n t i o n 1 " 2 5 . 0 1 1 4 . 2 3 C h i l d C o m p l i a n c e t o a l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s 7 9 . 8 5 1 1 . 8 6 C o m p l i a n c e t o t o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s * 3 2 9 . 6 4 1 1 . 4 8 I n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r * 3 5 . 9 8 5 . 9 0 a b E x p r e s s e d a s r a t e s p e r m i n u t e . E x p r e s s e d a s p e r c e n t a g e s . 105 T a b l e 5 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f P a r e n t R e p o r t M e a s u r e s M e a s u r e M SD Beck D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y 6 . 2 5 4 . 9 0 P a r e n t i n g S e n s e o f Competence S c a l e S u b s c a l e I - s k i l l / k n o w l e d g e 3 2 . 3 5 4 . 8 4 S u b s c a l e I I - v a l u i n g / c o m f o r t 3 6 . 2 0 6 . 0 3 S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y 4 0 . 0 5 7 . 8 3 D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e 1 1 1 . 2 0 1 8 . 9 3 C h i l d B e h a v i o r P r o f i l e T o t a l B e h a v i o r P r o b l e m s c o r e 6 0 . 6 5 1 0 . 6 5 I n t e r n a l i z i n g f a c t o r 6 1 . 5 0 1 0 . 0 3 E x t e r n a l i z i n g f a c t o r 5 7 . 2 2 1 2 . 0 6 P a r e n t A t t i t u d e s T e s t 6 3 . 1 2 1 9 . 6 9 P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S u p p o r t - F a m i l y 1 4 . 8 7 5 . 3 5 P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S u p p o r t - F r i e n d s 1 4 . 0 2 4 . 8 5 Communi ty I n t e r a c t i o n C h e c k l i s t F r e q u e n c y * 3 4 . 0 9 3 . 3 3 V a l e n c e 1.21 . 67 P r o p o r t i o n f r i e n d s ^ 3 3 . 6 2 1 9 . 0 8 OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 6 7 . 3 7 3 . 3 5 N o t e . n_ = 60 f o r a l l m e a s u r e s e x c e p t t h e DAS (n_ = 5 0 ) . H i g h e r s c o r e s a r e u n d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e B D I , S T A I , C B P , PAT and O S L C . H i g h e r s c o r e s a r e d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e PSOC, DAS, P S S - F a , P S S - F r and C I C . A l l measu res a r e suras o f i t e m s c o r e s e x c e p t a s i n d i c a t e d b e l o w . ^Exp ressed a s T - s c o r e s b a s e d on n o r m a t i v e d a t a (M = 5 0 , SD = 1 0 ) . R a t e p e r d a y . A v e r a g e o f v a l e n c e r a t i n g s f o r e a c h s o c i a l c o n t a c t 7 - p o i n t s c a l e : good = +3, n e u t r a l = 0 , bad = - 3 ) . P e r c e n t a g e . R a t e p e r week . 106 Table 6 Weans of Home Observation Measures and Parent Report Pleasures from Representative Studies of Mother-Child Interaction Primary investigator and sample Davies Breiner Schmirler Bond Measure MR DD NC CO CI CO MD CO Rewards & attends 0.74 2.14 0.40 0.31 .40 .60 .52 .83 of Commands & warnings 0.68 1.15 0.51 0.47 Total commands & warnings 1.98 5.99 1.61 1.21 .70 .77 .83 .87 Contingent attention 25.01 26.00 8.00 6.00 7.55 7.81 4.20 5.03 Compliance to ex- 79.85 90.00 78.00 83.00 82.60 91.81 87.46 93.38 Compliance to total 29.64 16.00 25.00 35.00 34.19 38.08 Inappropriate 5.98 10.00 10.00 6.00 8.25 4.46 5.38 3.34 BDI 6.25 8.88 11.63 5.63 8.06 3.50 8.90 2.80 STAI 40.05 38.56 32.89 44.85 31.70 DAS 111.20 109.06 117.12 83.50 118.15 CBP - Total 60.65 59.33 52.44 58.50 52.10 CBP - Internalizing 61.50 61.44 52.72 CBP - Externalizing 57.22 59.06 52.17 PAT 63.12 75.00 76.75 37.00 47.94 42.22 46.00 30.20 Note. Davies = present investigation, Breiner = Breiner and Forehand (1982), Schmirler = Schmirler McMahon, and Petty (1986) and Bond = Bond and McMahon (1984). MR = mentally retarded, DD = develop-mentally delayed, NC = clinic-referred noncompliant, CO = control, CI = chronically i l l and MD = children from maritally distressed families. BDI = Beck Depression Inventory, STAI = State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, DAS = Dyadic Adjustment Scale, CBP = Child Behavior Profile and PAT = Parent Attitudes Test. 107 a n a l y z e d i n i n d i v i d u a l f o r m ( i . e . , o b s e r v e d p a r e n t b e h a v i o r s , D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e , OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t ) a r e t h e n b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d . P r i n c i p a l Component V a r i a b l e s S e p a r a t e p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s e s were u t i l i z e d on e a c h o f f o u r s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s : o b s e r v e d c h i l d b e h a v i o r , m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s , m a t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f c h i l d a d j u s t m e n t and s o c i a l s u p p o r t . An a g g r e g a t e a p p r o a c h t o d a t a a n a l y s i s was s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e w i t h i n e a c h o f t h e f o u r s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s t h e r e were no t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s o r e m p i r i c a l d a t a t o s u g -g e s t t h e o p t i m a l m e a s u r e t o s e l e c t o r , i f m u l t i p l e m e a s u r e s w e r e e m p l o y e d , t h e o p t i m a l w e i g h t i n g s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l m e a s u r e s . S i n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n e a c h s e t r e p r e s e n t e d p a r t o f a more m o l a r c o n s t r u c t , t h e f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component o f e a c h s e t c o u l d be emp loyed a s a b r o a d e r summary v a r i a b l e . T h i s f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component a l s o h a s c e r t a i n o p t i m a l q u a l i t i e s f o r t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n . F i r s t , i t m a x i m i z e s t h e v a r i a n c e and i s t h e r e f o r e i d e a l f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r -e n c e s . S e c o n d , i t i s m a x i m a l l y i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . T h i r d , s h o u l d more t h a n one p r i n c i p a l component be r e q u i r e d t o summar i ze t h e d a t a s e t , t h e n s u b s e q u e n t components a r e o r t h o g o n a l t o t h e f i r s t ( H a r r i s , 1 9 7 5 ) . N o t e t h a t f o r e a c h p r i n c i p a l component t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n was s t a n d a r d i z e d w i t h M = 50 and SD = 1 0 . N o n - a g g r e g a t e V a r i a b l e s The d a t a f r o m t h e p a r e n t b e h a v i o r s s c o r e d i n t h e home o b s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m s u g g e s t t h a t t h e m o t h e r s i n t h i s samp le were h i g h l y d i r e c t i v e and h i g h l y r e w a r d i n g . T h i s p a t t e r n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h ( s e e M a r f o , 1984 , f o r r e v i e w ) . T h e s e m o t h e r s o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d t o g i v e more c o n t i n g e n t a t t e n t i o n , r e w a r d s p l u s a t t e n d s a n d , p o s s i b l y , a l p h a o r t o t a l commands t h a n m o t h e r s o f n o n c o m p l i a n t c h i l d r e n 108 o r n o r m a l c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n ( e . g . , B r e i n e r & F o r e h a n d , 1 9 8 2 ) . The m o t h e r s o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n were more s i m i l a r t o t h e m o t h e r s o f d e v e l -o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e B r e i n e r and F o r e h a n d s t u d y . How-e v e r , i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d s a m p l e , t h e p r e s e n t samp le was somewhat l e s s d i r e c t i v e and r e w a r d i n g w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f c o n t i n g e n t a t t e n t i o n where b o t h g r o u p s were e q u i v a l e n t . The d a t a f r om t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e i n d i c a t e d a mean l e v e l o f m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t t h a t f a l l s w i t h i n t h e a v e r a g e r a n g e on t e s t n o r m s . When compared t o o t h e r s t u d i e s o f m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e m o t h e r s o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d e q u i v a l e n t i n m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t t o m o t h e r s o f c h r o n i c a l l y i l l c h i l d r e n a n d , a l t h o u g h m a r g i n a l l y l o w e r , a l s o l i k e l y e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e m o t h e r s f r o m t h e two c o n t r o l g r o u p s whose c h i l d r e n were t y p i c a l . The r a n g e o f DAS s c o r e s was b r o a d (76 t o 137) w i t h 9 m o t h e r s r e p o r t i n g DAS s c o r e s i n d i c a t i v e o f some d i s c o r d and 16 m o t h e r s r e p o r t i n g s c o r e s i n d i c a t i v e o f e x c e l l e n t m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . The OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t d a t a i n d i c a t e d a w e e k l y f r e q u e n c y o f c r i s e s (M = 7 . 3 7 ) t h a t e x c e e d e d t h e l e v e l s r e p o r t e d f o r n o r m a l f a m i l i e s (M = 4 . 7 5 ) ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . C r i s e s i n e a c h o f t h e a r e a s a s s e s s e d by t h i s i n s t r u m e n t a p p e a r e d f r e q u e n t , bu t t h e f a m i l i e s w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d -r e n seemed t o e n c o u n t e r an e x c e p t i o n a l number o f c r i s e s r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h ( p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c h i l d ) and h o u s e h o l d m a t t e r s s u c h a s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and b a b y s i t t i n g . O b s e r v e d c h i l d b e h a v i o r . The t h r e e measu res o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r d e r i v e d f r o m t h e b e h a v i o r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m ( c o m p l i a n c e t o a l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s , c o m p l i a n c e t o t o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s , i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r ) were a n a l y z e d by p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s ( s e e T a b l e 7 ) . The f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component p r o v i d e s a good summary 109 T a b l e 7 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x , E i g e n v a l u e s and C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h F i r s t P r i n c i p a l  Component o f t h e O b s e r v e d C h i l d B e h a v i o r M e a s u r e s 1 . C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x M e a s u r e s M e a s u r e s A l p h a T o t a l I n a p p r o p r i a t e C o m p l i a n c e t o a l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s C o m p l i a n c e t o t o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s I n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r .491 - . 5 6 5 - . 5 1 2 2 . E i g e n v a l u e s : 2 . 0 4 6 .521 . 4 3 3 3 . C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h F i r s t P r i n c i p a l component M e a s u r e s F i r s t P r i n c i p a l Component C o m p l i a n c e t o a l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s C o m p l i a n c e t o t o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s I n a p p r o p r i a t e .832 .803 - . 8 4 3 110 v a r i a b l e f o r t h i s d a t a s e t . The c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween t h e o r i g i n a l v a r i -a b l e s and t h e p r i n c i p a l component a r e s t r o n g and u n i f o r m . The e i g e n -v a l u e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f i r s t c o m p o n e n t a c c o u n t s f o r m o s t o f t h e e x p l a i n a b l e v a r i a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h i s component was i n t e n d e d t o r e p r e s e n t a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r , t h e a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d an i n v e r s e measure t h a t c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d a s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d e s i r a b l e c h i l d b e h a v i o r s o f c o m p l i a n c e and a b s e n c e o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r . I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h d a t a f r o m o t h e r s t u d i e s o f m o t h e r - c h i l d i n t e r a c -t i o n ( s e e T a b l e 6 ) , t h e means o f b o t h c o m p l i a n c e measu res a r e l o w e r t h a n means f o r c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n and c o m p a r a b l e t o means f o u n d i n c l i n i c -r e f e r r e d n o n c o m p l i a n t c h i l d r e n o r c h r o n i c a l l y - i l l c h i l d r e n . I n c o m p a r i -s o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d by B r e i n e r and F o r e h a n d ( 1 9 8 2 ) , t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n i n t h i s samp le were l e s s c o m p l i a n t t o a l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s bu t more c o m p l i a n t t o t o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may have been due t o t h e much h i g h e r r a t e o f b e t a commands i s s u e d by m o t h e r s i n B r e i n e r ' s s t u d y . The mean p r o p o r t i o n o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r i s c o m p a r a b l e t o p r o p o r t i o n s f o u n d i n c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n f r o m some s t u d i e s and p o s s i b l y m a r g i n a l l y h i g h e r t h a n p r o p o r t i o n s f o u n d i n c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n f r o m o t h e r s t u d i e s . T h i s l e v e l o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r i s a l s o p r o b a b l y e q u i v a l e n t t o l e v e l s f o u n d i n c h r o n i c a l l y - i l l c h i l d r e n o r c h i l d r e n f r o m m a r i t a l l y d i s t r e s s e d f a m i l i e s ; a n d l i k e l y l o w e r t h a n l e v e l s f o u n d i n c l i n i c -r e f e r r e d n o n c o m p l i a n t c h i l d r e n o r B r e i n e r ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d s a m p l e . T h e r e f o r e , a t t h e mean o f t h e a g g r e g a t e v a r i a b l e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s e m e a s u r e s , c h i l d b e h a v i o r a l i n t e r a c t i o n w o u l d be c o m p a r a b l e t o b e h a v i o r f r o m t h e more d e v i a n t p o p u l a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d ( i . e . , I l l d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n , c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d n o n c o m p l i a n t c h i l d -r e n ) . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r r a n g e s w i d e l y above and b e l o w t h i s p o i n t , w i t h h i g h e r s c o r e s r e f l e c t i n g more p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r a n d l o w e r s c o r e s r e f l e c t i n g more a v e r s i v e b e h a v i o r . The l a b e l f o r t h i s p r i n c i p a l component v a r i a b l e i s PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r . M a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s . T h e m e a s u r e s o f d e p r e s s i o n ( B D I ) , p a r e n t i n g s e l f - e s t e e m ( P S O C - I : s k i l l / k n o w l e d g e ; P S O C - I I : v a l u i n g / c o m f o r t ) a n d a n x i e t y ( S T A I ) were a n a l y z e d by p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s ( s e e T a b l e 8 ) . The s i n g l e , s t r o n g e i g e n v a l u e f o r t h e f i r s t component and t h e h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween t h i s component and t h e o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component i s an a p p r o p r i a t e a n d s u f f i c i e n t summary v a r i a b l e f o r t h e d a t a s e t . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s p r i n c i p a l component i s q u i t e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d s i n c e e a c h o f t h e o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h i s component i n t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n and w i t h r e a s o n -a b l e m a g n i t u d e . The two v a r i a b l e s t h a t a s s e s s t h e m o t h e r ' s g e n e r a l p e r c e p t i o n o f h e r s e l f ( i . e . , B D I , S T A I ) a r e s l i g h t l y more h i g h l y c o r r e -l a t e d w i t h t h e component t h a n t h e two v a r i a b l e s t h a t a s s e s s t h e m o t h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h e r s e l f a s a mo the r ( i . e . , PSOC I, PSOC I I ) . T h i s compo-n e n t t h e r e f o r e r e f l e c t s a g e n e r a l d i s t r e s s f a c t o r r a t h e r t h a n d i s t r e s s r e s t r i c t e d t o p a r e n t i n g c o n c e r n s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e d i s t r e s s i s g e n e r a l l y m i l d . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on m o t h e r s o f a t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n , t h e means o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r e s s v a r i a b l e s a r e o n l y m i n i m a l l y e l e -v a t e d compared t o t h e t e s t norms o r c o m p a r i s o n f a m i l i e s ( s e e T a b l e 6 ) . The mean s c o r e on t h e BDI f a l l s w i t h i n t h e n o n d e p r e s s e d r a n g e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c r i t e r i a p r o p o s e d by B e c k ( 1 9 6 7 ) . By t h e s e c r i t e r i a , 48 m o t h e r s 112 T a b l e 8 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x , E i g e n v a l u e s and C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e F i r s t P r i n c i p a l  Component o f t h e M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s M e a s u r e s 1 . C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x M e a s u r e s M e a s u r e s BDI PSOC I PSOC I I STAI BDI PSOC I - . 3 7 3 PSOC I I - . 3 1 0 . 2 3 0 STAI . 622 - . 2 2 5 - . 4 5 6 2 . E i g e n v a l u e s : 2 . 1 3 9 .836 .697 .328 3 . C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h F i r s t P r i n c i p a l Component M e a s u r e s F i r s t P r i n c i p a l Component BDI . 8 2 2 PSOC I - . 5 6 9 PSOC I I - . 6 7 1 STAI . 8 3 0 N o t e . BDI = B e c k D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y , PSOC I = P a r e n t i n g S e n s e o f Competence S c a l e - S u b s c a l e I - S k i l l / K n o w l e d g e , PSOC I I = P a r e n t i n g S e n s e o f Competence S c a l e - S u b s c a l e I I - V a l u i n g / C o m f o r t , STAI = S t a t e -T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y . 113 were d e s c r i b e d a s n o n d e p r e s s e d , 11 a s m i l d l y d e p r e s s e d and 1 a s mode r -a t e l y d e p r e s s e d . I n c o m p a r i s o n t o d a t a f r o m o t h e r s t u d i e s o f m o t h e r -c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e mean BDI s c o r e s a p p e a r e q u i v a l e n t t o o r m a r g i n a l l y e l e v a t e d f r o m c o n t r o l m o t h e r s , c o m p a r a b l e t o m o t h e r s o f c h r o n i c a l l y i l l o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n , and p e r h a p s l e s s e l e v a t e d t h a n m o t h e r s o f c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d n o n c o m p l i a n t c h i l d r e n . The P a r e n t i n g Sense o f Competence S c a l e h a s been emp loyed by Mash and h i s c o l l e a g u e s w i t h m o t h -e r s o f c h i l d r e n w i t h a v a r i e t y o f p r o b l e m s . I n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e i r d a t a , t h e m o t h e r s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n i n t h i s samp le were e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e c o n t r o l m o t h e r s i n t h e i r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n o f s k i l l and k n o w l e d g e , b u t more s i m i l a r t o t h e m o t h e r s o f h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n o f v a l u e a n d c o m f o r t w i t h t h e p a r e n t i n g r o l e ( M a s h , 1 9 8 5 ; Mash & J o h n s t o n , 1 9 8 3 ) . The d a t a f r o m t h e S t a t e - T r a i t A n x i e t y I n v e n t o r y a l s o i s i n d i c a t i v e o f m i l d e l e v a t i o n s i n c o m p a r i s o n t o n o r m a t i v e d a t a and m o t h e r s o f n o r m a l c h i l d r e n . The mean STAI s c o r e i s e q u i v a l e n t t o s c o r e s r e p o r t e d f o r t h e m o t h e r s o f e a c h o f t h e a t y p i c a l g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6 . I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e STAI manua l n o r m s , t h e r e p o r t e d a n x i e t y o f m o t h e r s o f r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n i n t h i s samp le i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e a n x i e t y r e p o r t e d by c h a r a c t e r d i s o r d e r n e u r o p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s b u t s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s a n x i e t y t h a n a l l o t h e r g r o u p s o f n e u r o - p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d a s h a v i n g a n x i e t y o r d e p r e s s i v e r e a c t i o n s . I n summary, t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e p r i n c i p a l component o f m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s a r e g e n e r a l l y m i l d l y o r m i n i m a l l y e l e v a t e d i n com-p a r i s o n t o t h e d a t a f r o m c o n t r o l m o t h e r s and g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e d a t a f r o m m o t h e r s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n . A l s o c o n s i s t -e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , t h e e l e v a t i o n s o f t h e mean d i s t r e s s s c o r e s 114 a r e l e s s t h a n t h e e l e v a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l i n i c a l l y - d i s t r e s s e d a d u l t s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e mean o f t h e p r i n c i p a l component v a r i a b l e w o u l d r e f l e c t a l e v e l o f g e n e r a l d i s t r e s s t h a t i s o n l y m a r g i n a l l y e l e v a t e d f r o m t h e n o r m , c o m p a r a b l e t o d i s t r e s s f o u n d i n m o t h e r s o f o t h e r a t y p i c a l c h i l d r e n and m a r k e d l y b e l o w l e v e l s o f d i s t r e s s f o u n d i n c l i n i c a l l y -d i s t r e s s e d a d u l t s . The s c o r e s on t h e p r i n c i p a l component v a r i a b l e t h a t f a l l be low t h e mean r e f l e c t l e s s d i s t r e s s and t h e s c o r e s above t h e mean r e f l e c t more d i s t r e s s . G i v e n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f m o t h e r s who r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s o f d i s t r e s s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r e s s measu res ( i . e . , 10 t o 20%), m o t h e r s w i t h p r i n c i p a l component s c o r e s e x c e e d i n g 60 (+1 SD) w o u l d l i k e l y be e x p e r i e n c i n g l e v e l s o f d i s t r e s s t h a t a r e c l i n i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The name g i v e n t o t h i s component i s PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s . M a t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f c h i l d a d j u s t m e n t . The t h r e e d e r i v e d measu res o f t h e C h i l d B e h a v i o r C h e c k l i s t ( T o t a l B e h a v i o r P r o b l e m s c a l e , I n t e r n a l -i z i n g f a c t o r , E x t e r n a l i z i n g f a c t o r ) and t h e P a r e n t A t t i t u d e s T e s t were a n a l y z e d by p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s ( s e e T a b l e 9 ) . The f i r s t p r i n -c i p a l component p r o v i d e s a good summary v a r i a b l e f o r t h i s d a t a s e t . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s p r i n c i p a l component i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d i n t h a t e a c h v a r i a b l e measu res c h i l d m a l a d j u s t m e n t ( i . e . , b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s and u n d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) , a l l v a r i a b l e s a r e p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d and t h e mean e l e v a t i o n o f e a c h v a r i a b l e ( s e e T a b l e 6) i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 SD above t h e mean o f t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s a m p l e s . T h i s e l e v a t i o n i s c o m p a r -a b l e w i t h t h o s e f o u n d i n c h r o n i c a l l y i l l c h i l d r e n and c h i l d r e n f r o m d i s t r e s s e d m a r r i a g e s . T h e r e f o r e a s c o r e a t t h e mean o f t h e p r i n c i p a l component v a r i a b l e w o u l d i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t m a l a d j u s t m e n t , w i t h s c o r e s h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean i n d i c a t i n g s e v e r e m a l a d j u s t m e n t and l o w e r s c o r e s 115 T a b l e 9 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x , E i g e n v a l u e s and C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e F i r s t P r i n c i - p a l Component o f t h e P a r e n t P e r c e p t i o n o f C h i l d A d j u s t m e n t M e a s u r e s 1. C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x M e a s u r e s M e a s u r e s C B P - T o t a l CBP I n t . CBP E x t . PAT C B P - T o t a l B e h a v i o r P r o b l e m S c a l e C B P - I n t e r n a l i z i n g F a c t o r . 8 4 3 C B P - E x t e r n a l i z i n g F a c t o r . 8 7 3 . 519 P a r e n t A t t i t u d e s T e s t .511 . 4 7 3 .447 2 . E i g e n v a l u e s : 2 . 8 6 6 .637 . 479 .018 3 . C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h F i r s t P r i n c i p a l Component M e a s u r e s F i r s t P r i n c i p a l Component CBP - T o t a l B e h a v i o r P r o b l e m S c a l e .971 CBP - I n t e r n a l i z i n g F a c t o r . 8 5 0 CBP - E x t e r n a l i z i n g F a c t o r . 8 5 5 P a r e n t A t t i t u d e s T e s t . 686 N o t e . CBP = C h i l d B e h a v i o r P r o f i l e , PAT = P a r e n t A t t i t u d e s T e s t . 116 i n d i c a t i n g l e s s m a l a d j u s t m e n t . The l a b e l f o r t h i s a g g r e g a t e v a r i a b l e i s PC P e r c e i v e d C h i l d M a l a d j u s t m e n t . S o c i a l S u p p o r t . The f i v e measu res o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t ( P S S - F a m i l y , P S S - F r i e n d s , C I C - F r e q u e n c y , C I C - V a l e n c e , C I C - P r o p o r t i o n F r i e n d s ) were a n a l y z e d by p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s ( s e e T a b l e 1 0 ) . A t w o - f a c t o r s o l u t i o n a p p e a r s r e q u i r e d t o summar i ze t h i s d a t a s e t s i n c e two components e x c e e d t h e K a i s e r - G u t t m a n c r i t e r i a ( e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r t h a n 1 . 0 ) , b o t h h a v e e i g e n v a l u e s c o m p a r a b l e i n m a g n i t u d e and b o t h a p p e a r t o r e f l e c t c o n c e p t u a l l y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t . T h i s two-componen t s o l u t i o n was l e f t a s p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t s , i . e . , n o t r o t a t e d . An o r t h o g o n a l l y - r o t a t e d ( n o r m a l v a r i m a x ) s o l u t i o n was a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o t h e u n r o t a t e d o n e , l y i n g o n l y 4 ° 2 ' i n a n g u l a r s e p a -r a t i o n f r o m t h e two o r i g i n a l , u n r o t a t e d p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t s . On t h e f i r s t p r i n c i p a l componen t , C I C - F r e q u e n c y and C I C - P r o p o r t i o n F r i e n d s l o a d most s t r o n g l y , f o l l o w e d by a mode ra te l o a d i n g o f P S S - F r i e n d s . T h i s component a p p e a r s t o r e f l e c t s o c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m f r i e n d s . The i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n o f C I C - F r e q u e n c y a s a l s o r e f l e c t i n g s u p p o r t f r o m f r i e n d s i s l e s s d i r e c t t h a n f o r t h e o t h e r two v a r i a b l e s . However t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y v a l i d s i n c e t h e r e i s a s t r o n g b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n C I C - F r e q u e n c y and C I C - P r o p o r t i o n F r i e n d s (r_= . 4 4 7 , p_ < . 0 0 1 ) , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a s f r e q u e n c y o f c o n t a c t s i n c r e a s e d t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f f r i e n d s a l s o i n c r e a s e d . The c o r r e l a t i o n be tween C I C - F r e q u e n c y and P S S - F r i e n d s i s a l s o i n t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n b u t f a i l s t o a t t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e (r_ = . 1 7 3 , p_ > . 0 5 ) . The mean o f t h e P S S - F r i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e means r e p o r t e d by P r o c i d a n o and H e l l e r (1983 ) f o r c o l l e g e s a m p l e s ( s e e T a b l e 1 1 ) . The means f o r t h e C I C - F r e q u e n c y and C I C - P r o p o r t i o n F r i e n d s a r e more 117 T a b l e 10 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x , E i g e n v a l u e s and P r i n c i p a l Component P a t t e r n M a t r i x o f t h e S o c i a l S u p p o r t M e a s u r e s 1 . C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x M e a s u r e s M e a s u r e s P S S -F a m i l y P S S -F r i e n d s C I C -F r e q u e n c y C I C - C I C -V a l e n c e F r i e n d s P S S - F a m i l y P S S - F r i e n d s .012 C I C - F r e q u e n c y . 0 1 0 .173 C I C - V a l e n c e .337 .068 . 119 C I C - F r i e n d s - . 1 8 3 .202 . 4 4 7 - . 0 4 0 2 . E i g e n v a l u e s : 1 .581 1 .398 .876 . 672 . 474 3 . P r i n c i p a l Component P a t t e r n M a t r i x P r i n c i p a l Components M e a s u r e s F i r s t Second PSS - F a m i l y .001 . 829 PSS - F r i e n d s . 5 3 3 .047 C I C - F r e q u e n c y .802 .108 C I C - V a l e n c e . 174 . 774 C I C - F r i e n d s .790 - . 3 1 3 N o t e . P S S = P e r c e i v e d S o c i a l S u p p o r t , CIC=Community I n t e r a c t i o n C h e c k l i s t . 118 T a b l e 11 Means and S t a r d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f S o c i a l S u p p o r t M e a s u r e s f r o m R e p r e s e n t a -t i v e S t u d i e s P r i m a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n and samp le D a v i e s P r o c i d a n o W a h l e r Campis M e a s u r e MR C o l l e g e C o l l e g e C o l l e g e I n s u l a r C o n t r o l DD NC P S S - F a m i l y 1 4 . 8 7 1 3 . 4 0 1 3 . 9 5 15 .11 P S S - F r i e n d s 1 4 . 0 2 1 5 . 1 5 1 5 . 5 2 1 5 . 6 9 C I C - F r e q u e n c y 4 . 0 9 2 . 6 9 . 5 2 . 5 7 6 . 0 0 C I C - V a l e n c e 1.21 - . 47 2 . 9 5 C I C - F r i e n d s 3 3 . 6 2 3 0 . 0 5 8 . 0 -N o t e . D a v i e s = p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , P r o c i d a n o = P r o c i d a n o and H e l l e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) , W a h l e r = W a h l e r , L e s k e and R o g e r s ( 1 9 7 9 ) , Camp is = C a m p i s , J o h n -s o n , B r e i n e r and F u r e y ( 1 9 8 2 ) . MR = m o t h e r s o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d -r e n , C o l l e g e = c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , I n s u l a r = i s o l a t e d h i g h - r i s k , s o c i a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d m o t h e r s , C o n t r o l = n o r m a l l o w - r i s k c o m p a r i s o n m o t h e r s , DD = mo the r o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n , NC = m o t h e r s o f n o n d e l a y e d n o n c o m p l i a n t c h i l d r e n . 119 c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d by W a h l e r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s f o r h i g h - r i s k i n s u l a r f a m i l i e s t h a n l o w - r i s k c o m p a r i s o n f a m i l i e s ( W a h l e r , 1 9 8 0 ; W a h l e r & A f t o n , 1 9 8 0 ; W a h l e r e t a l . , 1 9 7 9 ) . The mean o f t h e C I C - F r e q u e n c y a l s o f a l l s s l i g h t l y above t h e f r e q u e n c i e s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d samp le and s l i g h t l y b e l o w t h e f r e q u e n c i e s f o r t h e n o n c o m p l i a n t samp le r e p o r t e d by Camp is e t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e r e f o r e a s c o r e n e a r t h e mean on t h i s p r i n c i p a l component v a r i a b l e w o u l d i n d i c a t e m o d e r a t e i n s u l a r i t y f r o m f r i e n d s i n ter ras o f f r e q u e n c y o f c o n t a c t and p r o p o r t i o n o f f r i e n d s , bu t a v e r a g e p e r c e i v e d i n s u l a r i t y . H i g h e r s c o r e s i n d i c a t e more f r i e n d s u p -p o r t , l o w e r s c o r e s i n d i c a t e l e s s f r i e n d s u p p o r t . T h i s p r i n c i p a l compo-n e n t i s l a b e l l e d PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d p r i n c i p a l component i s more d i f f i -c u l t . T h i s component l o a d s most s t r o n g l y f r o m P S S - F a and C I C - V a l e n c e ; and a p p e a r s t o be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h C I C - P r o p o r t i o n F r i e n d s . The most r e a s o n a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t t h i s component r e f l e c t s s o c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m f a m i l y . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f P S S - F a i s c l e a r . The n e g a -t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h C I C - P r o p o r t i o n F r i e n d s a l s o c a n be s e e n a s r e f l e c t -i n g f a m i l y s u p p o r t b e c a u s e t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f s o c i a l c o n t a c t s i n t h e samp le were e i t h e r f r i e n d s o r f a m i l y , s o t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f c o n t a c t s w i t h f a m i l y was an a p p r o x i m a t e i n v e r s e o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f c o n t a c t s w i t h f r i e n d s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f C I C - V a l e n c e t o f a m i l y s u p p o r t was u n e x p e c t -ed and more d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . A p r e l i m i n a r y i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e C I C d a t a s u g g e s t s t h a t f a m i l i e s who t e n d t o be f a m i l y - s u p p o r t e d r a t h e r t h a n f r i e n d - s u p p o r t e d do n o t have a s many b r i e f , n e u t r a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . These two g r o u p s d i d n o t seem t o d i f f e r on v a l e n c e r a t i n g s o f more e x t e n d e d c o n t a c t s . 120 The mean o f t h e P S S - F a i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d by P r o c i d a n o and H e l l e r (1983 ) ( s e e T a b l e 1 1 ) . The mean o f t h e C I C P r o p o r t i o n F r i e n d s i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e means r e p o r t e d by W a h l e r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s f o r h i g h - r i s k i n s u l a r f a m i l i e s . The mean C I C V a l e n c e i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e l e v e l s r e p o r t e d by Camp is e t a l . ( 1982 ) f o r m o t h e r s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y d e l a y e d c h i l d r e n and more n e g a t i v e t h a n t h e v a l e n c e s r e p o r t e d by m o t h e r s o f n o r m a l n o n c o m p l i a n t c h i l d r e n . S c o r e s n e a r t h e mean o f t h e a g g r e g a t e v a r i a b l e w o u l d i n d i c a t e a v e r a g e o r more t h a n a v e r a g e c o n t a c t and p e r -c e i v e d s u p p o r t f r o m f a m i l y , a s w e l l a s more n e g a t i v e l y v a l e n c e d c o n t a c t s t h a n most f a m i l i e s . H i g h e r s c o r e s w o u l d i n d i c a t e more f a m i l y c o n t a c t , p e r c e i v e d s u p p o r t and p o s i t i v e v a l e n c e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s . Lower s c o r e s wou ld i n d i c a t e i n s u l a r i t y , l o w p e r c e i v e d s u p p o r t and n e g a t i v e v a l e n c e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h i s p r i n c i p a l component v a r i a b l e i s l a b e l l e d PC F a m i l y S u p p o r t . M a j o r H y p o t h e s e s R e c i p r o c i t y B a s e d on P a t t e r s o n ' s C o e r c i o n T h e o r y , i t was s t a t e d i n H y p o t h e s i s 1 t h a t t h e r a t e o f a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r w o u l d be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e r a t e o f a v e r s i v e - c o n t r o l l i n g p a r e n t b e h a v i o r . T h a t i s , t h e r e w o u l d be some e v i d e n c e o f r e c i p r o c i t y i n t h e b e h a v i o r a l exchange be tween p a r e n t and c h i l d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r w o u l d be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e p a r e n t b e h a v i o r o f t o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s . The o b t a i n e d c o r r e l a t i o n be tween PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r and t o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s (r_ = - . 4 7 7 , p_ < . 0 0 1 ) i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . H i g h e r l e v e l s ' o f i n a p p r o p r i a t e c h i l d b e h a v i o r and l o w e r l e v e l s o f c h i l d c o m p l i a n c e were i n f a c t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s o f commands and w a r n i n g s f r o m t h e m o t h e r . 121 M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s The p r i m a r y h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t h a t c h i l d a v e r s i v e b e h a v i o r w o u l d be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s ( H y p o t h e s i s 2 ) . PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r was n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s (r_ = - . 2 5 3 , p_ < . 0 5 ) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t c h i l d a v e r s i v e n e s s d i d c o v a r y a s h y p o t h e s i z e d w i t h m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s . The more a v e r s i v e t h e o b s e r v e d c h i l d b e h a v i o r , t h e more l i k e l y t h e mother d e s -c r i b e d h e r s e l f a s d i s t r e s s e d . The t h i r d m a j o r h y p o t h e s i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween s t r e s s and d i s t r e s s w o u l d be m o d e r a t e d by s o c i a l s u p p o r t . I t was h y p o t h -e s i z e d t h a t a t h i g h l e v e l s o f s t r e s s , m o t h e r s w i t h l o w s u p p o r t wou ld r e p o r t more d i s t r e s s t h a n m o t h e r s w i t h h i g h s u p p o r t . A t l o w l e v e l s o f s t r e s s , s o c i a l s u p p o r t w o u l d have l i t t l e o r no i n f l u e n c e . T h i s b u f f e r i n g e f f e c t was h y p o t h e s i z e d f o r b o t h i n t r a - d y a d i c s t r e s s ( i . e . , a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r ) and e x t e r n a l s t r e s s ( i . e . , l i f e c r i s e s ) . W i t h t h e d e r i -v a t i o n o f two p r i n c i p a l components r e p r e s e n t i n g s o c i a l s u p p o r t , f o u r s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were r e q u i r e d t o t e s t t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s . I n e a c h a n a l y s i s t h e s o c i a l s u p p o r t v a r i a b l e was d i c h o t o m i z e d (med ian s p l i t ) and t h e s t r e s s v a r i a b l e was t r i c h o t o m i z e d . The d e s i g n f o r e a c h a n a l y s i s was a 2 x 3 a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h two b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t v a r i a b l e s ( s o c i a l s u p p o r t : h i g h v s . l o w ; s t r e s s : h i g h v s . mode ra te v s . l o w ) and one dependen t v a r i a b l e (PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s ) . N o t e t h a t t h e s t r e s s v a r i a b l e was t r i c h o t o m i z e d t o e n s u r e o b t a i n i n g a h i g h s t r e s s g roup and t h e s o c i a l s u p p o r t v a r i a b l e was d i c h o t o m i z e d t o e n s u r e a d e q u a t e numbers o f s u b j e c t s t o t e s t t h e b u f f e r i n g e f f e c t . See T a b l e s 12 t o 15 f o r t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s e a n a l y s e s . 122 T a b l e 12 R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC  F r i e n d S u p p o r t and PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r S o u r c e d f MS F p_ PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t 1 84 . 2 5 3 .851 . 3 6 0 PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r 2 264 . 4 9 5 2 .671 . 0 7 8 S u p p o r t x B e h a v i o r 2 12 .687 . 1 2 8 . 8 8 0 W i t h i n - G r o u p s 54 99 . 0 0 9 T a b l e 13 R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t and OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t S o u r c e d f MS F 2. PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t 1 128 .251 1 .223 . 274 OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 2 6 3 . 4 0 7 .604 . 5 5 0 S u p p o r t x C r i s e s 2 5 4 . 7 5 4 . 522 .596 W i t h i n - G r o u p s 54 1 0 4 . 8 9 9 124 T a b l e 14 R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC  F a m i l y S u p p o r t and PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r S o u r c e d f MS F p_ PC F a m i l y S u p p o r t 1 3 7 3 . 7 0 1 4 . 0 3 6 . 0 5 0 PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r 2 2 2 0 . 6 5 0 2 . 3 8 3 . 102 S u p p o r t x B e h a v i o r 2 4 1 . 4 6 7 .448 .641 W i t h i n - G r o u p s 54 9 2 . 5 8 3 125 T a b l e 15 R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC F a m i l y S u p p o r t and OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t S o u r c e d f MS F L PC F a m i l y S u p p o r t 1 3 9 7 . 1 5 3 3 . 9 1 3 . 0 5 3 OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 2 9 . 2 8 9 . 0 9 2 . 9 1 3 S u p p o r t x C r i s e s 2 1 2 . 2 8 6 .121 .886 W i t h i n - G r o u p s 54 1 0 1 . 4 9 2 126 W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e b u f f e r i n g h y p o t h e s i s , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s be tween s o c i a l s u p p o r t and s t r e s s i n any o f t h e a n a l y s e s . T h e r e w a s , h o w e v e r , a s i g n i f i c a n t ma in e f f f e e t f o r s o c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m f a m i l y (PC F a m i l y S u p p o r t ) when t h e s t r e s s v a r i a b l e was PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r ( s e e T a b l e 14) and a m a r g i n a l e f f e c t when t h e s t r e s s v a r i a b l e was t h e OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t ( s e e T a b l e 1 5 ) . M o t h e r s w i t h l o w s u p p o r t f r o m t h e i r f a m i l i e s r e p o r t e d more d i s t r e s s (M = 5 2 . 8 2 ) t h a n d i d t h e h i g h - s u p p o r t m o t h e r s (M = 4 7 . 1 8 ) , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e l e v e l s o f i n t r a - d y a d o r e x t e r n a l s t r e s s . The ma in e f f e c t f o r PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r i s t h e e q u i v a l e n t t e s t o f H y p o t h e s i s 2 u s i n g ANOVA i n p l a c e o f c o r r e l a t i o n a l m e t h o d s . B e c a u s e o f t h e l o s s o f s t a t i s t i c a l power w i t h t h e r e d u c t i o n f r o m a c o n t i n u o u s t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n v a r i a b l e , t h e ma in e f f e c t f o r PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . G i v e n t h e a b s e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s , t h e o t h e r ma in e f f e c t v a r i a b l e s were a l s o a n a l y z e d u s i n g c o r r e l a t i o n a l methods t o m a x i m i z e s t a t i s t i c a l power . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s were more c l e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e f i n d i n g s r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d . PC F a m i l y S u p p o r t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e -l a t e d w i t h PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s (r_ = - . 4 3 6 , p_ < . 0 0 1 ) , and n e i t h e r PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t (r_ = - . 1 6 0 , p_ > . 0 5 ) no r t h e OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t (r_ = . 0 8 2 4 , p_ > . 0 5 ) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s . The f i n a l m a j o r h y p o t h e s i s p r o p o s e d t h a t m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s wou ld be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m a t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f c h i l d a d j u s t m e n t , even when t h e e f f e c t s o f c h i l d b e h a v i o r on m a t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n were p a r t i a l l e d ou t ( H y p o t h e s i s 4 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n be tween PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s and PC P e r c e i v e d C h i l d M a l a d j u s t m e n t was s i g n i f i c a n t (r_ = . 3 3 3 , p_ ^ . 0 0 5 ) and r e m a i n e d so when t h e v a r i a n c e due t o PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r was p a r t i a l l e d ou t (r_ = . 3 0 0 , p_ < . 0 1 ) . 127 G i v e n t h a t t h e r e were s e v e n s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s t o t e s t t h e s e m a j o r h y p o t h e s e s i n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t h e f a m i l y - w i s e e r r o r r a t e was t o be k e p t a t OX = . 0 5 , t h e B o n f e r r o n i p r o c e d u r e was u t i l i z e d and t h e c r i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l f o r e a c h c o m p a r i s o n was computed a s . 0 5 / 7 = . 0 0 7 . U s i n g t h i s c r i t e r i o n , H y p o t h e s i s 1 , e x a m i n i n g a v e r s i v e -c o n t r o l l i n g r e c i p r o c i t y , met t h i s c r i t e r i o n w i t h e a s e ( i . e . , p_ < . 0 0 1 ) . The t e s t o f H y p o t h e s i s 2 , r e l a t i n g c h i l d b e h a v i o r t o m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s , f a i l s t o meet t h e c r i t i c a l l e v e l (p_ < . 0 5 ) and s h o u l d be v i e w e d a s a t e n t a t i v e r e s u l t r e q u i r i n g r e p l i c a t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s 3 , w h i c h e x a m i n e s t h e b u f f e r i n g e f f e c t o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t ( i . e . , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n ) i s n o n -s i g n i f i c a n t . H y p o t h e s i s 4 , e x a m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween d i s t r e s s and m a t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c h i l d , j u s t f a i l s t o meet t h i s c r i t e r i o n (p_ < . 0 1 ) and s h o u l d a l s o be v i e w e d a s a t e n t a t i v e r e s u l t r e q u i r i n g r e p l i c a t i o n . M a r i t a l A d j u s t m e n t H y p o t h e s i s 5 s t a t e d t h a t m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s wou ld be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . The c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d be tween PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s and t h e DAS (r_ = - . 5 3 2 , p_ ^ . 0 0 1 ) was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o H y p o t h e s i s 6 , u n l i k e m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s , m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r (r_ = . 0 8 4 , p_ > . 0 5 ) . The f o u r 2 x 3 ANOVA's c o n d u c t e d t o examine t h e b u f f e r i n g h y p o t h e s i s u s i n g t h e DAS ( H y p o t h e s i s 7) a l s o d i d n o t y i e l d any s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s be tween t h e s t r e s s v a r i a -b l e s and t h e s u p p o r t v a r i a b l e s ( s e e T a b l e s 16 t o 1 9 ) . T h e r e w e r e , how-e v e r , n o n s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s f o r ma in e f f e c t s o f PC F a m i l y S u p p o r t , PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t and t h e OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t . T h e s e t r e n d s were a l s o examined u s i n g c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t m a r i t a l T a b l e 16 R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s  PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t and PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r S o u r c e d f MS F p_ PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t 1 5 8 7 . 973 2 . 9 7 4 .092 PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r 2 1 0 7 . 826 . 5 4 5 . 5 8 3 S u p p o r t x B e h a v i o r 2 5 8 . 209 . 294 . 746 W i t h i n - G r o u p s 44 2 9 7 . 673 T a b l e 17 R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s PC  F r i e n d S u p p o r t and OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t S o u r c e M. MS L E. PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t 1 5 7 0 . 857 3 . 2 7 0 .077 OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t 2 5 3 5 . 714 3 . 0 6 8 .057 S u p p o r t x C r i s e s 2 1 3 8 . 167 .791 . 4 6 0 W i t h i n - G r o u p s 44 1 7 4 . 589 Table 18 Results of ANOVA of Dyadic Adjustment Scale with Independent Variables PC  Family Support and PC Appropriate C h i l d Behavior Source df MS F p_ PC Family Support 1 671.016 3.589 .065 PC Appropriate C h i l d Behavior 2 17.868 .096 .909 Support x Behavior 2 252.455 1.350 .270 Within-Groups 44 186.956 131 Table 19 Results of ANOVA of Dyadic Adjustment Scale with Independent Variables PC  Family Support and OSLC Family Crisis List Source df_ MS F_ p_ PC Family Support 1 661.602 4.049 .050 OSLC Family Crisis L i s t 2 449.606 2.751 .075 Support x Crises 2 338.734 2.073 .138 Wi thin-Groups 44 163.410 . 132 a d j u s t m e n t was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s o c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m f a m i l y (r_ = . 2 6 7 , p_ < . 0 5 ) and n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e f r e q u e n c y o f f a m i l y c r i s e s (r_ = - . 2 9 4 , p_ < . 0 5 ) . M a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h s u p p o r t f r o m f r i e n d s (r_ = . 1 8 4 , p_ > . 0 5 ) o r w i t h c h i l d b e h a v i o r , a s r e p o r t e d a b o v e . H y p o t h e s i s 8 , w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t m a t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t and c h i l d a d j u s t m e n t wou ld be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , was s u p p o r t e d by t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e DAS and PC P e r c e i v e d C h i l d M a l -a d j u s t m e n t were n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d (r_ = - . 3 3 7 , p_ < . 0 1 ) . T h i s r e l a -t i o n s h i p was m a i n t a i n e d when t h e e f f e c t s o f a v e r s i v e c h i l d b e h a v i o r were p a r t i a l l e d o u t (r_ = - . 3 2 7 , p_ < . 0 1 ) . G i v e n a f a m i l y - w i s e e r r o r r a t e s e t a t ct = . 0 5 and s e v e n a n a l y s e s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y , t h e c r i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l by t h e B o n f e r r o n i p r o c e d u r e was computed a s o*- = . 0 5 / 7 = . 0 0 7 . U s i n g t h i s c o n s e r v a t i v e c r i t e r i o n , o n l y H y p o t h e s i s 5 r e l a t i n g m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s and m a r i t a l a d -j u s t m e n t e x c e e d e d t h e c r i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . Howeve r , H y p o t h e s i s 8 , r e l a t i n g m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t t o p e r c e i v e d c h i l d m a l a d j u s t m e n t , f e l l j u s t s h o r t o f t h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l (p_ < . 0 1 ) and may be c o n s i d e r e d a s t r o n g s u g g e s t i v e r e s u l t . The o t h e r h y p o t h e s e s were c l e a r l y n o t s u p -p o r t e d by t h e s e d a t a . E x p l o r a t o r y A n a l y s e s A number o f v a r i a b l e s f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p a r e n t s o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d f o r e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s . A l t h o u g h i t 0 was c o n s i d e r e d w o r t h w h i l e t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , t h e l a r g e number o f c o m p a r i s o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d a s t r i n g e n t c o r r e c t i o n f o r i n f l a t e d e x p e r i m e n t - w i s e e r r o r r a t e . As i n t h e p r e c e e d i n g s e c t i o n s , t h e B o n f e r r o n i c o r r e c t i o n was emp loyed f o r e a c h f a m i l y o f 133 e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s by s e t t i n g t h e f a m i l y - w i s e e r r o r r a t e a t CL = .05 and d i v i d i n g by t h e number o f r e l e v a n t c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y . M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s E x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s were c o n d u c t e d t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s w i t h s e v e r a l d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d by p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s ; and w i t h t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f p a r e n t b e h a v i o r a v a i l a b l e f r o m t h e home o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h e s e d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 20. T h e r e were no a n a l y s e s o f t h e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s t h a t were s i g n i -f i c a n t . Two p a r e n t b e h a v i o r s a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e a t an i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a r i s o n l e v e l i n d i c a t i n g weak t r e n d s f o r more d i s t r e s s e d m o t h e r s t o i s s u e f e w e r r e w a r d s p l u s a t t e n d s and f e w e r a l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s . None o f t h e e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s o f m a t e r n a l d i s t r e s s came c l o s e t o a t t a i n i n g t h e c o r r e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l f o r t h i s f a m i l y o f a n a l y s e s ( a . = .05/14 = .004). M a r i t a l A d j u s t m e n t T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e DAS w i t h t h e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and o b s e r v e d p a r e n t b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s were examined w i t h a s e r i e s o f e x p l o r -a t o r y a n a l y s e s ( s e e T a b l e 21). Two o f t h e s e a n a l y s e s e x c e e d e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o m p a r i s o n l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . A s i g n i f i c a n t ma in e f f e c t f o r g r o u p s on t h e r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i a b l e was o b t a i n e d , F(4,45) = 3.373, p_ < .05 ( s e e T a b l e 22). R e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n was a s s e s s e d by h a v i n g e a c h mother r a t e h e r p e r c e p t i o n o f h e r r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o h e r p e r c e p t i o n o f a v e r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e communi ty (1 = l o w , 2 = m o d e r a t e l y l o w , 3 = a v e r a g e , 4 = m o d e r a t e l y h i g h , 5 = h i g h ) . A p l a n n e d c o m p a r i s o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t m o t h e r s who r a t e d t h e i r r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n a s l o w o r m o d e r a t e l y l o w r e p o r t e d p o o r e r m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t 134 T a b l e 20 R e s u l t s o f E x p l o r a t o r y A n a l y s e s o f PC M a t e r n a l D i s t r e s s w i t h D e m o g r a p h i c and P a r e n t B e h a v i o r V a r i a b l e s A n a l y s i s V a r i a b l e S t a t i s t i c R e s u l t H Age o f c h i l d P e a r s o n r_ r_ = - . 0 2 1 .436 Sex o f c h i l d t_ - t e s t t ( l , 5 8 ) = - . 8 8 . 3 8 0 L e v e l o f r e t a r d a t i o n 3 1-way ANOVA F ( 2 , 5 7 ) = . 162 .851 V i n e l a n d s o c i a l q u o t i e n t P e a r s o n r_ r = . 016 . 4 5 3 V i n e l a n d s o c i a l age P e a r s o n r_ r = . 044 . 3 7 0 B i r t h o r d e r * 5 1-way ANOVA F ( 2 , 5 7 ) = . 8 4 3 . 436 F a m i l y s i z e ° P e a r s o n r_ r_= .088 . 252 C a t h o l i c v s N o n C a t h o l i c t_ - t e s t t ( l , 5 8 ) = .84 . 402 R e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n ^ 1-way ANOVA F ( 4 , 5 5 ) = . 603 . 662 S o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l P e a r s o n r r_= . 072 .292 Reward p l u s a t t e n d s P e a r s o n r_ r = - . 2 0 9 . 0 5 4 A l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s P e a r s o n r_ r = - . 1 8 9 .074 T o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s P e a r s o n r_ r = - . 0 5 0 .354 C o n t i n g e n t a t t e n t i o n P e a r s o n r_ r = . 0 5 0 . 354 a b C l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o AAMD c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . C l a s s i f i e d a s f i r s t o r o n l y c h i l d , m i d d l e c h i l d , y o u n g e s t c h i l d . Number o f c h i l d r e n i n f a m i l y . ^ S c a l e d on a 5 - p o i n t s c a l e r e f l e c t i n g t h e m o t h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h e r r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r s . B l i s h e n and M c R o b e r t s ( 1976 ) S c a l e . 135 T a b l e 21 R e s u l t s o f E x p l o r a t o r y A n a l y s e s o f t h e D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e w i t h  Demograph i c and P a r e n t B e h a v i o r V a r i a b l e s A n a l y s i s V a r i a b l e S t a t i s t i c R e s u l t p_ Age o f c h i l d P e a r s o n r_ r_ = - . 1 2 7 . 189 Sex o f c h i l d t_ - t e s t t ( l , 4 8 ) = 1 .09 . 2 7 9 L e v e l o f r e t a r d a t i o n 1-way ANOVA F ( 2 , 4 7 ) = . 289 . 7 5 0 V i n e l a n d s o c i a l q u o t i e n t P e a r s o n r_ r_= - . 1 5 1 .148 V i n e l a n d s o c i a l age P e a r s o n r_ r_= - . 2 1 2 . 0 7 0 B i r t h o r d e r 1-way ANOVA F ( 2 , 4 7 ) = . 0 1 0 . 9 9 0 F a m i l y s i z e P e a r s o n r_ r = - . 0 4 6 . 3 7 7 C a t h o l i c v s . N o n C a t h o l i c t_ - t e s t t ( l , 4 8 ) = 1.61 . 1 1 3 R e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n 1-way ANOVA F ( 4 , 4 5 ) = 3 . 3 7 3 .017 S o c i o e c o n o m i c l e v e l P e a r s o n r_ r = .141 . 1 6 5 Rewards p l u s a t t e n d s P e a r s o n r_ r = . 2 6 9 . 029 A l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s P e a r s o n r_ r_= . 1 1 8 .207 T o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s P e a r s o n r_ r = - . 0 4 4 . 3 8 0 C o n t i n g e n t a t t e n t i o n P e a r s o n r_ r = - . 0 1 7 . 454 N o t e , n = 50 136 T a b l e 22 R e s u l t s o f ANOVA o f D y a d i c A d j u s t m e n t S c a l e w i t h I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e R e l i g i o u s P a r t i c i p a t i o n 1 . S o u r c e T a b l e S o u r c e d f MS F £. Between g r o u p s 4 5 4 8 . 2 5 5 3 . 3 7 3 .017 W i t h i n g r o u p s 45 1 6 2 . 4 8 3 P l a n n e d c o m p a r i s o n : l o w & mod- low v s . h i g h & m o d - h i g h 1 1 8 1 . 2 1 6 7 . 2 7 0 <.01 2 . Means R e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n M l o w 1 0 9 . 6 7 3 m o d e r a t e l y l o w 8 9 . 2 5 4 a v e r a g e 1 1 3 . 1 4 28 m o d e r a t e l y h i g h 1 1 5 . 1 0 10 h i g h 1 1 1 . 0 0 5 137 on t h e DAS (M_ = 9 8 . 0 0 ) t h a n m o t h e r s who r a t e d t h e i r r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a -t i o n a s h i g h o r m o d e r a t e l y h i g h (M = 1 1 3 . 7 3 ) . M o t h e r who r e p o r t e d h i g h e r m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t t e n d e d t o g i v e more r e w a r d s and a t t e n d s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n ( r = . 2 6 9 , p_ < . 0 5 ) . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t w i t h r e l i g i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r e w a r d s p l u s a t t e n d s s h o u l d be c o n s i d -e r e d s u g g e s t i v e f i n d i n g s s i n c e n e i t h e r r e s u l t e x c e e d s t h e c r i t i c a l s i g n i -f i c a n c e l e v e l f o r t h i s f a m i l y o f a n a l y s e s (C< = . 0 5 / 1 4 = . 0 0 4 ) . C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age o f C h i l d The d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l s o f t h e c h i l d r e n were measured i n two ways i n t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n : c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and s o c i a l age d e r i v e d f r o m t h e V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y S c a l e . A l t h o u g h t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d (r_ = . 6 1 0 , p_ < . 0 0 1 ) , t h e y a l s o measure somewhat d i f -f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f deve lopmen t and a r e t h e r e f o r e d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . To a i d c o m p a r i s o n , t h e r e s u l t s o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e , s o c i a l age and s o c i a l q u o t i e n t a r e p r e s e n t e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l component v a r i a b l e s , p a r e n t b e h a v i o r v a r i a b l e s and t h e OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t ( s e e T a b l e 2 3 ) . M o t h e r s o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y o l d e r c h i l d r e n t e n d e d t o p e r c e i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a s more m a l a d j u s t e d t h a n d i d m o t h e r s o f y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n (r_ = . 2 3 5 , p_ < . 0 5 ) . The r e m a i n i n g p r i n c i p a l component v a r i -a b l e s were n o t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l age o f t h e c h i l d . A l l o f t h e o b s e r v e d p a r e n t b e h a v i o r measu res were n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c h r o n o l o g i c a l a g e . M o t h e r s o f younge r c h i l d r e n gave more r e w a r d s and a t t e n d s , b o t h g e n e r a l l y (r_ = - . 4 4 3 , p_ < . 0 0 1 ) and c o n t i n g e n t on c h i l d c o m p l i a n c e t o t h e i r d i r e c t i o n s (r_ = - . 4 1 9 , p_ •< . 0 0 1 ) . The m o t h e r s o f y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n a l s o gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a l p h a commands p l u s w a r n -i n g s (r_ = - . 2 4 8 , p_ < . 0 5 ) and t o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s (r_ = . 2 3 1 , p_ < 138 T a b l e 23 P e a r s o n C o r r e l a t i o n s o f C h r o n o l o g i c a l A g e , V i n e l a n d S o c i a l Age and V i n e - l a n d S o c i a l Q u o t i e n t w i t h P r i n c i p a l Component V a r i a b l e s , P a r e n t B e h a v i o r  V a r i a b l e s and t h e OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age S o c i a l Age S o c i a l Q u o t i e n t V a r i a b l e s r_ p_ r_ p_ r_ p_ PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r . 167 . 1 0 0 . 2 8 5 .014 . 2 4 3 .031 PC P e r c e i v e d C h i l d M a l a d j u s t m e n t . 2 3 5 . 0 3 5 .242 .031 . 124 . 172 PC F r i e n d S u p p o r t . 1 1 3 . 1 9 5 . 224 . 0 4 3 . 172 . 0 9 5 PC F a m i l y S u p p o r t - . 0 5 3 .343 - . 0 9 8 .227 - . 0 8 9 . 2 4 9 Rewards p l u s a t t e n d s - . 4 4 3 . 0 0 0 - . 4 6 2 . 0 0 0 - . 2 6 0 . 0 2 2 A l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s - . 2 4 8 .028 - . 1 9 2 .071 - . 0 2 7 . 4 1 9 T o t a l commands p l u s w a r n i n g s - . 2 3 1 .038 - . 4 2 5 . 0 0 0 - . 3 4 9 . 0 0 3 C o n t i n g e n t a t t e n t i o n - . 4 1 9 . 0 0 0 - . 4 0 9 .001 - . 2 7 0 . 0 1 8 OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t . 127 .166 . 089 . 2 5 0 . 0 5 9 . 3 2 7 139 .05). The frequency of family c r i s e s was not correlated with the chron-o l o g i c a l age of the c h i l d . The Bonferroni corrected s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l f or t h i s family of analyses was computed as ct = .05/9 = .0056. By t h i s c r i t e r i o n , the tendencies for mothers of younger mentally retarded c h i l d -ren to give more rewards plus attends and contingent attention were the only variables to exceed the required value. S o c i a l Age of C h i l d The s o c i a l age of the c h i l d was derived from the Vineland S o c i a l Maturity Scale. With a sample such as the present where such varying l e v e l s of mental handicap are represented, s o c i a l age i s a more meaning-f u l i n d i c a t o r of developmental maturity than c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. The expl o r a t o r y analyses of s o c i a l age with the parent behavior measures yielded comparable r e s u l t s to the r e s u l t s u s i n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , s o c i a l age was p o s i t i v e l y correlated with PC Appropriate Ch i l d Behavior (r = .285, p_ < .05) and PC Perceived C h i l d Maladjustment (r_ = .242, p_ < .05). This r e s u l t indicated that the older s o c i a l age c h i l d r e n were more compliant and le s s inappropriate i n t h e i r observed behavior but that t h e i r mothers perceived them as more maladjusted. This apparent discrepancy lends support to viewing these measures as r e f l e c t -ing d i f f e r e n t aspects of c h i l d adjustment; a view that i s p l a u s i b l e given the nonsignificant c o r r e l a t i o n between these measures (r_ = -.189, p_ > .05). There was a tendency for mothers of younger s o c i a l age c h i l d r e n to report l e s s s o c i a l support from f r i e n d s (r_ = .224, p_ < .05). The r e l a -tionships of s o c i a l age with rewards plus attends (r_ = -.462, p_ < .001) and contingent attention (r_ = -.409, p_ < .001) indicated that mothers of lower s o c i a l age c h i l d r e n engaged i n more of these p o s i t i v e i n t e r -actions. Mothers of the younger s o c i a l age c h i l d r e n issued more t o t a l 140 commands p l u s w a r n i n g s (p_ = - . 4 2 5 , p_ < . 0 0 1 ) b u t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n be tween s o c i a l age and a l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t (r_ = - . 1 9 2 , p_ > . 0 5 ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were o b t a i n e d be tween s o c i a l age and t h e f r e q u e n c y o f f a m i l y c r i s e s . The f o l l o w i n g c o m p a r i s o n s e x c e e d e d t h e f a m i l y - w i s e c o r r e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l ( i . e . , p_ = . 0 0 5 6 ) : r e w a r d s p l u s a t t e n d s , c o n t i n g e n t a t t e n t i o n and t o t a l commands p l u s w a r n -i n g s . S o c i a l Q u o t i e n t o f C h i l d The e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s e s o f t h e V i n e l a n d s o c i a l q u o t i e n t w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l component v a r i a b l e s , p a r e n t b e h a v i o r measu res a n d t h e OSLC F a m i l y C r i s i s L i s t y i e l d e d some i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s ( s e e T a b l e 2 3 ) . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r i n c i p a l component v a r i a b l e s , t h e s o c i a l q u o t i e n t o f t h e c h i l d was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h PC A p p r o p r i a t e C h i l d B e h a v i o r (r_ = . 2 4 3 , p_ < . 0 5 ) i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e more m i l d l y h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n w e r e mo re c o m p l i a n t and a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h e i r o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o r . The c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween t h e s o c i a l q u o t i e n t and t h e r e m a i n i n g p r i n c i p a l component v a r i -a b l e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . The p a t t e r n o f r e s u l t s be tween t h e s o c i a l q u o t i e n t o f t h e c h i l d and t h e o b s e r v e d p a r e n t b e h a v i o r s was e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e p a t t e r n s o b t a i n e d w i t h s o c i a l a g e . A l l p a r e n t b e h a v i o r s e x c e p t a l p h a commands p l u s w a r n i n g s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s s o c i a l q u o t i e n t , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e more s e v e r e l y h a n d i c a p p e d c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d more r e w a r d s p l u s a t t e n d s (r_ = - . 2 6 0 , p_ < . 0 5 ) , c o n -t i n g e n t a t t e n t i o n (r_ = - . 2 7 0 , p_ <