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A tonal analysis of the First String Quartet, opus 37, by Karol Szymanowski Cadrin, Paul 1985

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A TONAL ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST STRING QUARTET, OPUS 37, BY KAROL SZYMANOWSKI By PAUL CADRIN M.A., McGill University, 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ''Department of Music) We' accept this thesis/a^ conforming to t^ ne /req^ir^d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1985 © Paul Cadrin, 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. MUSIC Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 23 April I986 ABSTRACT In 1917, at the peak of the most productive period of his creative l i f e , the P o l i s h composer Karol Szymanowski (1882-1937) undertook his F i r s t S tring Quartet i n C, opus 37. Of the four movements o r i g i n a l l y planned, three were published i n 1925. These three movements r e f l e c t important d i r e c t i o n s i n the evolution of the composer's s t y l e : from a youthful fervor toward German l a t e romanticism ( F i r s t Movement), through Szymanowski*s discovery of French impressionism (Second Movement), to his most daring experiment with p o l y t o n a l i t y (Third Movement). The complexity of t h i s work, p a r t i c u l a r l y of i t s tonal-harmonic language, raises questions which this d i s s e r t a t i o n proposes to answer. In order to do t h i s , a three-tiered approach i s used. At a f i r s t l e v e l , the surface of the work i n a l l i t s d e t a i l s i s represented as a network of l i n e s according to stated c r i t e r i a of c o n t i n u i t y . At a second l e v e l , the s t r u c t u r a l l y decisive outer-voices are extracted and the v e r t i c a l i t i e s providing the harmonic framework for l i n e a r motions i d e n t i f i e d . F i n a l l y , at a t h i r d l e v e l , the tonal-harmonic structure i s represented through m u l t i l e v e l l e d Roman numeral designations, on the one hand; and, on the other, broad d i r e c t i o n s of motion encompassing major sections and e n t i r e movements are portrayed i n outer-voice frameworks. Following a discussion of these methodological stages, each movement i s analyzed i n d e t a i l . i i i i i A summary of s i g n i f i c a n t p r i n c i p l e s of p o l y t o n a l i t y introduces a discussion of Szymanowski's a p p l i c a t i o n of these i n the Th i r d Movement. As a broad commentary on the composer's s t y l e and technique i n the F i r s t Quartet, the f i n a l chapter examines p a r t i c u l a r procedures manifest i n a l l three movements. Voice-leading graphs f o r the e n t i r e Quartet are appended. U r ' . Wallace Berry earch Supervisor TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF GRAPHS IN APPENDIX v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i INTRODUCTION 1 Karol Szymanowski: His L i f e and the Evolution of h i s Style to the Time of the F i r s t Quartet 2 Evolution of the F i r s t Quartet before i t s P u b l i c a t i o n 5 Notes 8 CHAPTER I - METHODOLOGY..... 10 Focusing on Voice-Leading 14 Focusing on Outer-Voice Preponderance and Chordal Structures 22 Focusing on Tonal-Harmonic Structure and Outer-Voice Framework 26 Sample Analysis 32 Notes 44 CHAPTER II - ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST MOVEMENT 46 The Introduction . 46 The Exposition 60 The Development 79 The Recapitulation and Coda 89 Tonal-Harmonic Structure and Formal Design 100 Notes 106 i v Page CHAPTER III - ANALYSIS OF THE SECOND MOVEMENT 109 The Canzone 112 Va r i a t i o n 1 115 Va r i a t i o n 2 118 Va r i a t i o n 3 123 Outer-Voice Framework and Tonal-Harmonic Structure 132 Notes... . 135 CHAPTER IV - ANALYSIS OF THE THIRD MOVEMENT 136 Poly t o r i a l i t y * 136 Po l y t o n a l i t y i n the Third Movement: General Observations... 139 Motivic Material and Aspects of Voice-Leading 147 Tonal-Harmonic Structures 152 Outer-Voice Framework • 161 Formal Analysis 166 Conclusion 173 Notes 174 CHAPTER V - SIGNIFICANT ELEMENTS OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE FIRST QUARTET 177 Outer-Line Contours •• 177 Relative Complexity and Formal Function 195 Cadential Harmonic Techniques 198 Tonal System and Formal Structure 210 Outer-Voice Framework 213 Notes 219 BIBLIOGRAPHY 221 APPENDIX 223 v LIST OF GRAPHS IN APPENDIX Page 1. F i r s t Movement, measures 1 to 18.1 224 2. F i r s t Movement, measures 18 to 35.1 225 3. F i r s t Movement, measures 35 to 44.1 226 4. F i r s t Movement, measures 44 to 53.1 227 5. F i r s t Movement, measures 53 to 63.1 228 6. F i r s t Movement, measures 63 to 73.1 229 7. F i r s t Movement, measures 73 to 118.1 230 8. F i r s t Movement, measures 118 to 159.1 231 9. F i r s t Movement, measures 159 to 182 232 10. Second Movement, measures 1 to 10.1 233 11. Second Movement, measures 10 to 22 234 12. Second Movement, measures 23 to 40 235 13. Second Movement, measures 41 to 85 236 14. Third Movement, measures 8 to 20.1 237 15. Third Movement, measures 20 to 44.1 238 16. Third Movement, measures 44 to 67 239 17. Third Movement, measures 68 to 186.1 240 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I t i s a most pleasant duty for me to acknowledge the help received from my p r i n c i p a l advisor, Dr. Wallace Berry, and from Dr. William E. Benjamin, a member of my supervisory committee. I f t h i s research i s brought to f r u i t i o n , i t i s l a r g e l y due to t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y i n providing appropriate guidance. The s t a f f of the Music L i b r a r y , d i r e c t e d by Mr. Hans Burndorfer, has been h e l p f u l i n a l l kinds of ways. Consultation of sources i n the P o l i s h language was possible thanks to the assistance of Mrs. L i d i a Kostkiewicz, Mrs. Jadwiga Keats, and Mr. Leszek M. Karpinski. The f i n a l typescript was done r a p i d l y and expertly by Jeeva Jonahs. For permission to use copyrighted m a t e r i a l , my thanks, are due to European-American Music D i s t r i b u t o r s Corporation, North American agents for the Universal E d i t i o n . The Unive r s i t e Laval has provided f i n a n c i a l assistance to th i s project. The burden of a l l e v i a t i n g the disruptions caused by my prolonged absence from t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n has been generously c a r r i e d by Mr. P i erre Thibault, Director of the Ecole de musique, and by many colleagues. The precious contribution of my wife C h r i s t i a n e i n matters s e c r e t a r i a l and e d i t o r i a l was only one of countless ways, tangible and int a n g i b l e , through which she showed her unrelenting support and unflagging confidence i n my work. We are both deeply indebted to our ch i l d r e n for th e i r patience and understanding. v i i I N T R O D U C T I O N The F i r s t String Quartet, op. 37, i n C by Karol Szymanowski * was i n i t i a l l y greeted with o f f i c i a l and c r i t i c a l acclaim. In 1922, i t won the composer the f i r s t prize in a competition organized by the Department of Public Education and Family A f f a i r s of the recently l i b e r a t e d P o l i s h State. In 1925, i t s f i r s t performance outside Poland, i n a concert of the Internationale Gesellschaft fur neue Musik organized by Arnold Schoenberg, triggered "a hurricane of applause." It was considered to be the climax of an evening where new works by Egon Wellesz, Karol Rathaus, and Alfredo Casella were also featured. To a large 1extent, the fate of the Quartet was that of the music of Szymanowski. In his l i f e t i m e , he achieved t r u l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l stature. From the premiere of his Third Symphony under Albert Coates, i n London (1921), to the "unqualified success" 1* of his b a l l e t Harnasie i n Paris (1936), Szymanowski remained the unchallenged representative of P o l i s h music on the European scene. Following his death i n 1937, however, he seemed to be remembered outside Poland only as a composer of music for the v i o l i n . His F i r s t Concerto, op. 35, and "La Fontaine d'Arethuse", op. 30, no. 1, were acknowledged as belonging to the virtuoso v i o l i n i s t ' s repertoire but l i t t l e else was ever performed p u b l i c l y , l e t alone recorded. In 1982, celebrations marking the hundredth anniversary of his b i r t h have spurred i n t e r e s t i n his music, an i n t e r e s t which has materialized i n a number of *Notes for the Introduction begin on p. 8. 1 2 f i n e recordings. In p a r t i c u l a r , two excellent performances of composer's two String Quartets are now a v a i l a b l e . ~* The Quartets stand at d i f f e r e n t turning points i n the l i f e of the composer. For that reason, they are undoubtedly deserving of a t t e n t i o n from anybody who wishes to understand the evolution of his s t y l e . On the other hand, a knowledge of the outlines of t h i s evolution o f f e r s valuable i n s i g h t s to the analyst concerned with the d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e x p e r i e n t i a l e f f e c t of the works. Karol Szymanowski: His L i f e and the Evolution of h i s  Style to the Time of the F i r s t Quartet Karol Szymanowski was born and raised i n a prosperous area of Ukraine where the b u c o l i c serenity of the countryside was i n sharp contrast to the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l tensions among i t s inhabitants. Although the country was under Russian domination, his father's family belonged to a f i e r c e l y p a t r i o t i c P o l i s h gentry established there since 1778. His mother's family, von Taube, had been admitted into the P o l i s h n o b i l i t y as early as 1572. Although P o l i s h , French, and German were spoken at home, Russian had to be l e a r n t i n school. Together with t h e i r n a t i o n a l i s t a l l e g i a n c e , Anna and Stanislaw Szymanowski bequeathed to t h e i r f i v e c h i l d r e n t h e i r profound a r t i s t i c d i s p o s i t i o n s . Musical, l i t e r a r y , and t h e a t r i c a l undertakings were encouraged, f i r s t at home, and, l a t e r , i n that unparalleled music school run by t h e i r distant r e l a t i v e , Gustav Neuhaus (1853-1937), i n Elisavetgrad. This excellent pedagogue nurtured his pupils i n the best of the German t r a d i t i o n s , both musical and p h i l o s o p h i c a l , while 3 opening t h e i r minds to whatever glimmers of the current music scene reached t h e i r somewhat i s o l a t e d town. Very early Karol came i n contact with the music of Scria b i n , i n which he heard a reincarnation of the s p i r i t of Chopin. But the deepest impression he received during those years was of Wagner's operas, soon to be followed by the enthusiastic discovery of those of Richard Strauss. As a student of Zawirski and Noskowski i n Warsaw, from 1901 to 1904, he was introduced to the contrapuntal i n t r i c a c i e s of Max Reger. If the influence of German l a t e romanticism proved to become oppressive around 1913, there i s no question that i t shaped his thinking i n this i n i t i a l c r eative period. This period culminated i n 1909-1911 i n two works which drew the attention not only of P o l i s h musical c i r c l e s , but also that of Vienna, B e r l i n , and London, thanks to the promotional zeal of the conductor Grzegorz F i t e l b e r g and the p i a n i s t Artur Rubinstein: the Second Symphony, op. 19, and the Second Piano Sonata, op. 21. Already i n 1912, while working on the one-act opera Hagith, avowedly patterned a f t e r Salome, Szymanowski had f e l t the urge to break the shackles of German influence and to develop an i n t e r n a t i o n a l language of authentic P o l i s h lineage. A t r i p to Paris i n 1914 had a d e c i s i v e e f f e c t on t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n . Although he knew the music of Debussy and Ravel beforehand, he had not yet understood that t h e i r s was a language of i n t e r n a t i o n a l stature that owed l i t t l e to the German t r a d i t i o n . More d e c i s i v e yet was his meeting with Stravinsky. Here was a composer whose music could appeal to European audiences while speaking with an unmistakable Russian accent. A f t e r a b r i e f stay i n London, Szymanowski traveled back to Tymoszowka, the family estate, j u s t i n time to escape the outbreak of the war. 4 Isolated i n Ukraine for most of the following f i v e years, he completed no less than sixteen works of s t r i k i n g o r i g i n a l i t y (most of them before 1917). To mention but the most important: (1) for v i o l i n and piano, Nocturne and T a r e n t e l l a , op. 28, and Mythes, op. 30; (2) for solo piano, Masques, op. 34, and the Third Sonata, op. 36; (3) for orchestra, the Third Symphony, op. 27, and the F i r s t V i o l i n Concerto, op. 35; and (4) the F i r s t Quartet, op. 37. The sheer size of this output commands attention. Equally s t r i k i n g , however, i s the fact that, although he worked on many pieces simultaneously, each i s stamped with a d i s t i n c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i t y which i s the hallmark of the t r u l y mature a r t i s t . 6 The influences observed to this point may a l l be f e l t i n varying degrees, but they are now subsumed i n the composer's unique creative personality. Chronologically, the F i r s t Quartet stands at a major turning point of the war years, i n f a c t , at the eve of the most disruptive single event i n the l i f e of the composer. In 1917, Tymoszowka, "le palais enchant^," 7 was razed i n the October Revolution. Af t e r spending two years i n Elisavetgrad, i n the most trying conditions, the family f i n a l l y decided to leave Ukraine for the free State of Poland. The two compositions on which Szymanowski was working at the time of the Revolution, the Quartet and the cantata Agave, op. 38, were never to be completed as planned. The cantata p remained incomplete and i n manuscript, while the i n i t i a l plan of the Quartet, which c a l l e d for four movements, was abandoned. The three movements already completed were l a t e r revised for p u b l i c a t i o n . What the o r i g i n a l plan was and how i t was modified i s a matter of i n t e r e s t i n the present study. 5 Evolution of the F i r s t Quartet  before i t s P u b l i c a t i o n According to Michalowski, who based his conclusions on indications found i n the correspondence,^ the o r i g i n a l plan was to include a scherzo between the i n i t i a l A l l e g r o and the slow movement, and a fugue as a f i n a l e . The Scherzo as a second movement i s a feature common to a l l the quartets which may have been a d i r e c t i n s p i r a t i o n to Szymanowski, namely, those of Reger, Debussy, and Ravel. The fugal f i n a l e c e r t a i n l y c a r r i e s with i t extensive h i s t o r i c a l c r e d e n t i a l s , but Reger i s l i k e l y to be the composer most d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n t i a l on Szymanowski's choice of that form, as he c e r t a i n l y was i n the choice of a theme and v a r i a t i o n s for the o r i g i n a l l y projected Third Movement. In i t s published form, the F i r s t Quartet features a rather elaborate slow Introduction followed by an a l l e g r o i n sonata form f o r the F i r s t Movement, and a theme—marked In modo d'una canzone—and va r i a t i o n s for the Second Movement. It i s not u n l i k e l y that the Third Movement, marked Scherzando a l i a burlesca, was meant to come i n second p o s i t i o n , and was revised to accommodate elements of the fugal structure o r i g i n a l l y planned fo r the f i n a l e . Upon s u p e r f i c i a l examination, c e r t a i n aspects of the Quartet s t r i k e one as strangely anachronistic when compared with the e a r l i e r Third Symphony and the F i r s t V i o l i n Concerto. No i n d i c a t i o n of t o n a l i t y had appeared i n the t i t l e of a composition since the Second Piano Sonata i n A major, op. 21 (1911), and the Quartet was to be the l a s t work of the e n t i r e oeuvre to carry such an i n d i c a t i o n . As noted by A l i s t a i r Wightman: 6 The progressive d i s r u p t i o n of t o n a l i t y , a process well under way i n the e a r l i e r war-time works, seems to have been arrested i n the f i r s t of the Q u a r t e t s . 1 0 The influence of German romanticism i s f e l t i n the language and structure of the F i r s t Movement (there are even covert references to T r i s t a n ; see Examples 2.17 and 2.23). S i m i l a r l y , the straightforward tonal character of the Canzone, i n E major, i s unique i n a l l the works of Szymanowski a f t e r the choruses of the opera Hagith, op. 25 (1913). On the other hand, the v a r i a t i o n s of the Second Movement move progressively toward an impressionist s t y l e which appears i n f u l l bloom i n the Third V a r i a t i o n . The l a s t movement, with i t s four simultaneous key signatures, i s not Szymanowski's f i r s t venture into the world of p o l y t o n a l i t y , but i t i s without doubt his most r a d i c a l : i n no other work does he attempt to superimpose more than two "keys," 1 1 nor f o r more than a few measures at a time. Although intimations of b i t o n a l i t y were to be found i n the music of Richard Strauss, the technique r e a l l y f l o u r i s h e d i n P a r i s i a n c i r c l e s during and a f t e r the war, p a r t i c u l a r l y under the influence of Stravinsky. In t h i s context, the l a s t movement s t r i k e s one as a kind of manifesto. Both the chromatic counterpoint of Reger and the s t a t i c harmony of Ravel are l e f t behind. Szymanowski r e s o l u t e l y j o i n s the French-Russian avant-garde f o r which a more appropriate term than "neo-classicism" i s s t i l l to be found. These cursory observations leave one with the d i s t i n c t impression that the work i s , i n a sense, "autobiographical." Szymanowski seldom wrote works of "absolute" music of extended scope. Even such compositions as the Concert Overture, op. 12, the Second Symphony i n Bb major, op. 19, and the 7 F i r s t V i o l i n Concerto, op. 35, are more or le s s e x p l i c i t l y programmatic, and the Third Symphony, op. 27, i s , l i k e Stravinsky's l a t e r (and c u r i o u s l y s i m i l a r ) Symphony of Psalms, a s e t t i n g for voices and orchestra. In the F i r s t Quartet, one finds ground f o r thinking that, when he was not composing under the s p e l l of a poem, a l i b r e t t o , or an exquisite landscape, Szymanowski was tracking his personal reactions to the challenges of the musical world surrounding him. This may be an answer to the question raised i n the following statement, by Jim Samson: The co-existence of t o n a l l y a f f i r m a t i v e and t o n a l l y evasive works i n the middle-period music suggests that Szymanowski did not regard tonal d i s s o l u t i o n as a major problem demanding a " f i n a l " s o l u t i o n , but was prepared to allow the harmonic language of each work to be determined by p a r t i c u l a r expressive requirements, often dictated by text or program. If the tonal structure was shaped by expressive requirements i n programmatic or vocal works, what shaped i t i n compositions of "absolute" music? In the case of the Quartet, at l e a s t , the answer may very well be found i n the successive phases of the composer's s t y l i s t i c e volution. In more than one way, this i s music "about music." The present a n a l y t i c a l undertaking i s more than j u s t i f i e d by t h i s consideration. If the F i r s t Quartet traces, i n a sense, a retrospective of the composer's development, i t becomes a key to major aspects of Szymanowski's creative a c t i v i t y of the war years, summarized i n the Quartet's three movements. Indeed, i t s multifarious content i s a challenge to the analyst, a challenge holding the promise of a b o u n t i f u l harvest of rewarding i n s i g h t s . 8 N O T E S ^Karol Szymanowski: Complete E d i t i o n , Teresa C h y l i n s k a , gen. ed., 17 v o l s , i n progress (Krakow: PWM-Edition; Vienna: U n i v e r s a l E d i t i o n ; P a r i s : E d i t i o n s Max E s c h i g , 1973- ), v o l . 6 S t r i n g Quartets, ed. Z o f i a Helman, 6 (1978): 3-24. Unless otherwise noted, a l l references are to t h i s e d i t i o n . ^Kornel Michalowski, K a r o l Szymanowski 1882-1937: k a t a l o g tematyczny  d z i e l i b i b l i o g r a f i a [Thematic Catalogue and B i b l i o g r a p h y ] Krakow: PWM-Edition, 1967), p. 137. ^These are the words used by the music c r i t i c J u l i u s z Wolfsohn (Muzyka, 1925, no. 3, p. 128). They are quoted i n an explanatory note to a l e t t e r from Emil Hertzka, founder and d i r e c t o r of U n i v e r s a l E d i t i o n , to the composer. Hertzka's words are a l s o worth quoting: "Gestern hat d i e Urauffuhrung Ihres Quartetts h i e r durch das 'Wiener S t r e i c h q u a r t e t t ' stattgefunden und einen ausgezeichneten E r f o l g gehabt. . . "Es w i r d Sie i n t e r e s s i e r e n , dass w i r e i n i g e Tage vor der Auffiihrung d i e K r i t i k e r und eine Reihe von prominenten Wiener Musikern zu e i n e r Generalprobe des Werkes i n d i e Raume der U n i v e r s a l E d i t i o n gebeten haben, wo Ihr Werk e b e n f a l l s vor einem Parkett von Sachverstandigen v o i l e Anerkennung gefunden hat." (E m i l Hertzka to K a r o l Szymanowski, 19 March 1925.) "Yesterday took place the premiere of your Quartet by the Vienna S t r i n g Quartet and i t was a remarkable success. . . You w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d to know t h a t , a few days before the performance, we i n v i t e d a number of prominent Viennese musicians and c r i t i c s to a dress r e h e a r s a l of the work i n the o f f i c e s of U n i v e r s a l E d i t i o n . Your work was l i k e w i s e h i g h l y praised by t h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g audience." ( T r a n s l a t i o n mine.) Teresa C h y l i n s k a , ed., K a r o l Szymanowski: Bri e f w e c h s e l mit der U n i v e r s a l  E d i t i o n 1912-1937 (Vienna: U n i v e r s a l E d i t i o n , 1981), pp. 69-70. 4jim Samson, The Music of Szymanowski (London: Kahn & A v e r i l l , 1980), p. 203. ^These recordings are: by the V a r s o v i a Quartet, Pavane ADW 7118; and by the Pro Arte Quartet, L a u r e l Records LR 123. ^For an attempt at e s t a b l i s h i n g a chronology of composition, see Samson, The Music of Szymanowski, pp. 77-83. 9 'These are the words used by the poet (and cousin of Szymanowski) Jaroslaw Iwaszkiewicz to describe Timoszowka i n his book Spotkania z  Szymanowskim [Meetings with Szymanowski] (Cracow, 1947). Quoted i n Samson, i b i d . , p. 25. fa c s i m i l e of the manuscript appears i n the Complete E d i t i o n , v o l . 4 Cantatas, ed. Zofia Helman (1979). ^Michalowski, Karol Szymanowski, p. 137. 1 0 A l i s t a i r Wightman, "The Music of Karol Szymanowski" (Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , University of York, 1972), p. 94. l^The meaning of this word i n the present context i s explained on p. 174, note 9. 1 2 j i m Samson, "Szymanowski and Ton a l i t y , " Studi musicali 5 (1976), p. 302. CHAPTER I METHODOLOGY As i s the case with a s i g n i f i c a n t portion of the a n a l y t i c a l a c t i v i t y taking place i n North America today, the present research borrows heavily from the Schenkerian t r a d i t i o n . Its departures from the teachings of Heinrich Schenker are however su b s t a n t i a l . The choice of a repertoire which l i e s outside the period from which and for which Schenker evolved h i theory accounts for some of the more s u p e r f i c i a l d i s p a r i t i e s . Deeper ones are accountable to this writer's personal understanding of pi t c h s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and of i t s representation i n a n a l y t i c a l graphs. In th i s short expository chapter on methodology, only the broadest outlines of t h i approach are sketched. The multifarious s i t u a t i o n s offered by the music o Szymanowski w i l l be the real testing ground of i t s v a l i d i t y . The three layers of the writer's analyses are not to be equated with foreground, middleground, and background as conceived i n orthodox Schenkerian theory. Level -A- focuses on voice-leading, l e v e l -B- on interpreted chord formation and progressions, and l e v e l -C- on tonal structure of phrases as well as of broader spans of the piece. In a sense l e v e l -A- thus r e f l e c t s a view of pi t c h organization inspired by counterpoint, l e v e l -B- looks more l i k e a figured-bass r e a l i z a t i o n , while l e v e l -C- d i s t i l l s from the previous two harmonic functions of broader s i g n i f i c a n c e . Of course, t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of harmonic functions goes hand i n hand with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of chord prolongations. 10 11 Each of the three l e v e l s i s s t r a t i f i e d within i t s e l f ; that i s , each embodies at least two d i f f e r e n t types of p i t c h functions. To represent on a given system pitches belonging to d i f f e r e n t s t r a t a i s not j u s t a convenient way of reducing the number of staves needed to chart the an a l y s i s ; i t i s methodologically unavoidable at a l l but an ultimate background l e v e l . If a system were to contain nothing but pitches belonging to the same h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l , there would be no way of reaching beyond to layers of deeper s i g n i f i c a n c e . In William Benjamin's apt formulation: . . . there i s no l e v e l i n a Schenkerian analysis which i s meaningful independently of a s t i l l - h i g h e r l e v e l , no l e v e l which i s i r r e d u c i b l e , unless i t be a l e v e l which expresses no motion at a l l . 1 * To understand a system as a cross-section of the piece d i s p l a y i n g pitches of i d e n t i c a l function would be a c a r i c a t u r e . It i s both more accurate and more f r u i t f u l to understand a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l as containing pitches that share comparable i n t e r r e l a t i o n s . A comparison with elementary counterpoint may help c l a r i f y t his point. In the system of species, pitches are c l a s s i f i e d s t r i c t l y according to durations. However, i n any given species, one finds pitches of not only i d e n t i c a l duration but also pitches of i d e n t i c a l melodic-harmonic function. Accented dissonant passing tones and accented dissonant neighbouring tones, for example, are not to be found anywhere but i n a part i n t h i r d species and on the t h i r d quarter of a measure. Thus a contrapuntal species groups pitches of i d e n t i c a l duration *Notes for this chapter begin on p. 44. 12 and of s i m i l a r function; that i s , pitches that contribute to the structure of the piece i n a comparable way. While i t i s probably u n r e a l i s t i c to expect the method used here to y i e l d unequivocal r e s u l t s , t h i s writer believes that i t has the o b j e c t i v i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y needed to account s a t i s f a c t o r i l y for the voice-leading c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Quartet: c e r t a i n techniques w i l l indeed be found to belong almost e x c l u s i v e l y to the surface of the composition, while others w i l l be found to permeate i t s deeper s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l s . At each l e v e l , therefore, the task at hand i s that of defining i n terms that are as f u l l y formalized as possible the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of that l e v e l . Defining r e l a t i o n s h i p s raises the constant threat of c i r c u l a r thinking: t h i s p i t c h i s a member of the structure because i t belongs to a chord; these pitches form a chord because they belong to the structure as expressed i n terms of durational emphasis, metric placement, etc. T r a d i t i o n a l techniques of conceiving p i t c h organization such as counterpoint, figured bass, and harmony circumvent t h i s trap by having recourse to concepts of consonance and dissonance. Indeed, most cases i n the repertoire of the common-practice period are well accounted for by this d i s t i n c t i o n : consonances are normally presumed to belong to a deeper s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l than surrounding dissonances. There are s i t u a t i o n s however where this c r i t e r i o n proves to be i n s u f f i c i e n t . These cases point to possible avenues f o r the analysis of the more complex cases found i n the music of Szymanowski. The ornamented suspension i n Example 1.1 may be analyzed i n two d i f f e r e n t ways: the eighth-note b 1 (at the a s t e r i s k ) ^ c a n be considered as 13 Example 1.1 ^ 1 —e—J ^ -— - t r •Cfc -7* an a n t i c i p a t i o n decorated with a lower neighbour a , or i t may be understood as an accented consonant passing tone between the suspension i t s e l f and a lower neighbour to i t s r e s o l u t i o n . In both cases, only the following half-note b 1 i s considered to be an adequate res o l u t i o n for the suspension despite the fact that both _Bs are equally consonant. In reaching t h i s conclusion, metric p o s i t i o n i s of c r u c i a l import. Thus, even i n the realm of elementary counterpoint, the degree of consonance i s not the only c r i t e r i o n used to judge s t r u c t u r a l function. Needless to say the analysis of the music of Szymanowski c a l l s for frequent contextual assessments of this nature, where metrical and r e g i s t r a l 3 3 p o s i t i o n must be taken into account. In Example 1.2, the e i s c e r t a i n l y q more consonant than the following d^. Melodic shape and rhythmic configuration however counteract the e f f e c t of consonance and turn t h i s p i t c h into an upper appoggiatura, an impression reinforced by the motion of g^ to a 1 i n the v i o l a , on the second beat. The chord of the ninth (see box i n Example 1.2) thus appears to play the kind of s t r u c t u r a l r o l e t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with consonant t r i a d s . That a chord of this 14 Example 1.2: Quartet No. 1, 2:32-33 i K r v / f ~ f l <7J L J 5^= _JL 1— $ g 496 -< i 153 ' fc* J -7^= = r » — © Copyright 1925 by Universal Ed i t ion A . G . , Wien Copyright renewed A l l r ights reserved Used by permission of European American Music D is t r ibu tors Corporat ion, sole Canadian agent for Universal Ed i t ion configuration should play a s t r u c t u r a l role i n this repertoire i s i n agreement with conventional t h e o r e t i c a l wisdom. It i s this writer's b e l i e f , however, that the emphasis put on elements such as rhythm, meter, a r t i c u l a t i o n , texture, and dynamics as conditioning i n a v i t a l way the proje c t i o n and perception of tonal-harmonic structures i s without precedent i n the study of the music of Szymanowski. Focusing on Voice-Leading Level -A- appears as the most uncompromisingly concrete. Every d e t a i l of rhythm, r e g i s t r a l d i s p o s i t i o n , phrasing, and a r t i c u l a t i o n i s taken into account i n the assessment of the role played by each p i t c h . This l e v e l 15 rests on two axioms; namely, that there are no unaccountable pitches i n the score, and that a l l l i n e s ^ are considered as p o t e n t i a l l y contributing i n an equal degree to the tonal-harmonic structure. These axioms are now explored i n f u l l e r d e t a i l . According to the f i r s t axiom, each pit c h i s heard as l o g i c a l l y related to another p i t c h sounded previously or simultaneously. " L o g i c a l l y " , here, i s to be understood, f i r s t and foremost, as implying either common tone or step-motion. To quote William Benjamin once more: . . . I take i t as axiomatic for tonal music that to function importantly i n a l i n e a r sense i s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a continuity of step-motion.5 In s i t u a t i o n s where common-tone or step-motion i s lacking, l o g i c a l continuity may be found i n larger i n t e r v a l s of the classes 0, 1, and 2.6 A l l such leaps can be interpreted as the octave transfer of a common tone or step-motion (Example 1.3: Quartet 1:29-30). Supportive contextual factors play a decisive r o l e i n making those c o n t i n u i t i e s audible: octave t r a n s f e r s , for example, are frequently underscored by the r e p e t i t i o n of a motive at that p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r v a l (Example 1.4). Example 1.3: Specimen of octave transfer ( f i r s t v i o l i n , 1:29-30) © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edi t ion A . 6 . , Wien Copyright renewed A l l r ights reserved Used by permission of European American Music D is t r ibutors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edit ion 16 Example 1.4: Motivic underscoring of octave transfer ( v i o l a , 1:26) © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Mien Copyright renewed Ml rights reserved Used by permission of European American f*jsic Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition R e g i s t e r - s p e c i f i c i n t e r v a l s of a t h i r d are also recorded as l i n e a r c o n t i n u i t i e s under c e r t a i n circumstances: (1) as part of the skipped  passing tone subdividing an i n t e r v a l of a fourth (Example 1.5a); (2) within a cambiata or expanded neighbouring tone fig u r e (Examples 1.5b and c ) . In deciding whether a leap of a t h i r d i s to be interpreted as a motion Example 1.5a: Skipped passing tone Example 1.5b: Cambiata Example 1.5c: Expanded neighbouring tone 17 to another l i n e or as one of the above ornaments, proximity i s the c r u c i a l f a c t o r : the solution chosen i s always the one that comes closest to the i d e a l of step-motion continuity. Example 1.6 shows how two s i m i l a r contrived s i t u a t i o n s give r i s e to very d i f f e r e n t interpretations i n a p p l i c a t i o n of this p r i n c i p l e . Whether i t be octave transfers or leaps of a t h i r d , i n both cases there i s a strong t h e o r e t i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n support of t h e i r assessment as expansions of the basic axiom of common-tone/step-motion. A new l i n e can be said to have been generated only i f the operations mentioned above f a i l to account for every p i t c h i n the score. Such a new l i n e may be i n i t i a t e d by b i f u r c a t i o n from a preexisting and concurrent l i n e (Example 1.7a), or by octave d u p l i c a t i o n of a pit c h belonging to another, concurrent l i n e (Example 1.7b). Thus any given pit c h may spawn more than one subsequent p i t c h . It i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e complexity of 18 Example 1.7a: B i f u r c a t i o n (1:44-46) Example 1.7b: Octave du p l i c a t i o n (1:62-63) the texture of the Quartet (and of i t s harmonic vocabulary) that, beyond the beginning of each movement, new l i n e s always emerge from pitches belonging to preexisting and concurrent l i n e s by v i r t u e of the operations of b i f u r c a t i o n or octave d u p l i c a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , except for the end of a movement, a l i n e i s always terminated through fusion with another l i n e . The decision as to which of two converging l i n e s "disappears" and which i s allowed to continue rests on i n d i c a t i o n s provided by the context. In p a r t i c u l a r , the l i n e most recently generated i s interpreted as absorbed by the preexisting one i n keeping with i t s r e l a t i v e l y l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Example 1.8a i s an excerpt from the F i r s t Movement where the second v i o l i n appears to be involved i n a dialogue with the v i o l a . Despite the rhythmic and melodic independence of the parts, l i n e a r analysis (Example 1.8b) shows the second v i o l i n to be a commentary, so to speak, on the other part, o u t l i n i n g a motion from A to 19 IJ. At m. 54.1, t h i s subsidiary l i n e merges with the p r e v a i l i n g continuity i n the v i o l a . Example 1.8a: Quartet No. 1, 1:53-54 meno moso dolce espressivo * PP doliiss. -t* Pf' fr ... pp dolclss. p p doklss. © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A . G . , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition Example 1.8b: Voice-leading i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r—3»J r A s p e c i a l case must be made here for the technique of arpeggiation. A look at the voice-leading graph of the upper l i n e s of 1:24-27 (Example 1.9) Example 1.9: Voice-leading graph of 1:24-27 24 25 26 27 20 discloses the double nature of this technique. On the one hand, the a c t i v i t y of a l i n e i s transferred to another r e g i s t e r , here from g* to g^. On the other hand, each of the intervening degrees p o t e n t i a l l y i n i t i a t e s a l i n e a r motion evolving i n i t s own r i g h t . S t r i c t l y speaking, however, these subsidiary l i n e s are not generated by the arpeggiation as such but by the axiomatic operations described above: common-tone, step-motion, octave d u p l i c a t i o n , or b i f u r c a t i o n . Thus, i n Example 1.9, b£ at m. 24.1 i s a common-tone held over from m. 22.1; e^ at m. 24.4, g^ at m. 25.1, b^ at m. 25.2, and e^ at m. 26 are a l l octave d u p l i c a t i o n s . To use the b expression "octave duplications" may seem a pedantic way of s t a t i n g that these are chord tones. Since no reference i s made to chords at this l e v e l , on the one hand, and since, on the other, there are instances i n the Quartet of arpeggiations i n which chord tones are avoided and therefore c a l l for a d i f f e r e n t assessment (see, for example, the c e l l o l i n e i n 1:31.4), such a c i r c u i t o u s formulation seems preferable i n the context of the present a n a l y t i c a l approach. The second axiom on which l e v e l -A- rests b a s i c a l l y implies that no h i e r a r c h i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n i s posited between inner and outer voices,^ the l a t t e r presumably enjoying some kind of prevalence over the former. At t h i s l e v e l , the migration of l i n e s from inner to outer p o s i t i o n (or vice - v e r s a ) , i n a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s of continuity deduced from the f i r s t axiom, i s without e f f e c t on t h e i r h i e r a r c h i c a l status. As described above i n the analysis of Example 1.8, a l i n e i s considered subsidiary only with respect to i t s extent as a l i n e , and not because of i t s r e g i s t r a l p o s i t i o n or the tonal-harmonic s i g n i f i c a n c e of i t s component 21 pitches. As was the case with the f i r s t axiom, t h i s axiom i s also an extrapolation of p r i n c i p l e s fundamental to t r a d i t i o n a l counterpoint; namely, that r e g i s t e r i s not a factor i n ranking voices and that, at any given moment i n a composition, the ranking of voices i s primarily a function of r e l a t i v e duration (hence the system of species) rather than of distance from some potential chordal root: whatever voice i t appears i n , a whole note i s r e f e r e n t i a l for a l l the notes i n shorter durations i n concurrent voices regardless of i t s function i n the pr e v a i l i n g harmony. To a c e r t a i n extent, these two axioms may seem to be musically c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e : d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s ( r e s t s , changes of r e g i s t e r s , entries of new l i n e s ) may appear underestimated i n a p p l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t , while the si g n i f i c a n c e of outer-voice prominence and harmonic function, two elements e s s e n t i a l to music theory since the eighteenth century, i s b l a t a n t l y challenged by the second. Paradoxically, these axioms allow the f i r s t l e v e l to represent music i n i t s most concrete dimension: as e x i s t i n g i n time. This f i r s t step of the a n a l y t i c a l process can be viewed as an a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e so aptly formulated by Edward T. Cone: Music, as i t moves through time, must make i t s formal r e l a t i o n s h i p s cle a r from moment to moment.8 Without adopting the naive view that, i n counterpoint, chords appear as a fo r t u i t o u s r e s u l t of l i n e a r motions, one can thus claim s i g n i f i c a n t methodological advantages i n focusing on these motions i n the i n i t i a l stage of a multi-leveled a n a l y t i c a l approach. The only form of grouping, here, i s h o r i z o n t a l : each pit c h i s seen to be connected to temporally 22 contiguous pitches. Any add i t i o n a l form of grouping, whether i t be along formal-motivic, t e x t u r a l , or tonal-harmonic l i n e s , involves the a p p l i c a t i o n of a process of abstraction to t h i s i n i t i a l , concrete l e v e l . In agreement with the basic commitment of t h i s study, formal and textural components w i l l be considered only insofar as they contribute to the tonal-harmonic Q structure of the piece. Focusing on Outer-Voice Preponderance  and Chordal Structures Moving from l e v e l -A- to l e v e l -B- involves a double grouping process: the outer voices are regarded as r e l a t i v e l y preponderant factors of continuity and the network of l i n e s i s pa r t i t i o n e d into v e r t i c a l chordal structures. At the f i r s t l e v e l , l i n e s moved from outer to inner positions i n keeping with the p r i n c i p l e s of continuity established for that l e v e l . At l e v e l -B-, these l i n e s coalesce into voices, and a h i e r a r c h i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n appears between outer and inner voices. This d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n process cannot r e s u l t from a mechanical separation of pitches l y i n g at r e g i s t r a l extremes from those i n between. The nature of the a c t i v i t y taking place in the d i f f e r e n t strands i s c r i t i c a l to t h i s assessment. While a bass sounding above an inner part i s a rare occurrence, there i s no lack of evidence i n favour of a d i s t i n c t i o n between uppermost sounding p i t c h and upper member of the i n f e r r e d outer-voice framework. C.P.E. Bach himself draws a clear l i n e between the concepts of "upper part" ("Oberstimme") and that of " p r i n c i p a l part" ("Hauptstimme"). 1 0 His 23 i s a p r a c t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n between the upper pitches of the accompaniment and the accompanied melody. The transfer of this p r a c t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n to the realm of a n a l y t i c a l theory c a l l s for a more thorough d e f i n i t i o n . A higher degree of rhythmic and melodic a c t i v i t y cannot of i t s e l f d i s t i n g u i s h a l i n e as " p r i n c i p a l " . Indeed, a predominant melody i n note values longer than those of i t s accompanying parts i s c e r t a i n l y not an unusual occurrence. A negative d e f i n i t i o n i s probably the best approximation possible here: the " p r i n c i p a l upper l i n e " i s that l i n e which i s not primarily heard as a projection of the rhythmic and harmonic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the b a s s . 1 1 This d e f i n i t i o n takes the counterpart of the role assigned to the inner parts by C.P.E. Bach. In the case of poor and awkward compositions i n which there i s often no clear middle voice at a l l , owing to the ineptness of the bass (out of which middle parts should flow) . . . ( I t a l i c s m i n e . ) 1 2 Concurrently with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of outer voices, l e v e l -B-d i s t i l l s a chordal structure from the i n i t i a l l e v e l . This involves a dual operation of chord i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and ranking. Chord i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s achieved through the elimination of p i t c h - c l a s s duplications, octave tr a n s f e r s , short connecting motions, passing and neighbouring motions, and 13 arpeggiations of l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Furthermore, the chords thus extracted are s t r a t i f i e d into chords of structure and chords of ornamentation, represented respectively by "white" and "black" noteheads. Here again, a negative d e f i n i t i o n appears useful: the 24 "non-structural" (therefore ornamental) chord i s l i k e l y to be more dissonant than the chord to which i t moves (or, r a r e l y , the chord from  which i t comes)j 1^ i t may have been preceded by a chord sharing the same root; i t s t o t a l duration i s equal to, or shorter than that of the chord toward which i t points; i t s connection with that chord may involve IC 1 or 2 motions i n one or both outer voices; etc. In a l l cases, assessing such functions c a l l s into play a convergence of factors which, taken separately, may seem inconclusive. Beyond such c r i t e r i a of l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , the p o s i t i o n of the chord within the phrase plays a c r i t i c a l role here: i t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine a chord as ornamental i f i t occurs at a point of phrase punctuation. In the words of Wallace Berry: Cadential events are i n v a r i a b l y of fundamental, e s s e n t i a l function at some l e v e l . . . A predominant preoccupation of harmonic analysis i s thus the analysis of cadence . . . ^ Perfect major and minor t r i a d s , even i f they are i n root p o s i t i o n , are not a p r i o r i assumed to carry deeper s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . In m. 11 of the Introduction (Example 1.10), a root p o s i t i o n B minor t r i a d i s heard on Example 1.10: Quartet No._1, 1:10-11 rail. hi r T T - i f * ^ © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A . G . , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition.. 25 the second half of the second beat. On the f i r s t half of the beat, e J i n the f i r s t v i o l i n creates a dissonant clash with the octave j?# i n the v i o l a and d* i n the second v i o l i n . The s t r u c t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y of fj over e^ and the ensuing sense of r e s o l u t i o n on the second half of the beat are unmistakably a function of the t r i a d heard at that point. However, the consonant character of this chord i s i n no way i n d i c a t i v e of a deeper s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e with respect to surrounding, more dissonant harmonies. Indeed, i n the analysis of t h i s passage, t h i s chord i s considered as a passing element (see below, p. 57). In the luxuriant harmonic vocabulary of Szymanowski, consonant triads of t h i s kind are l i k e l y to sound incomplete and t r a n s i t i o n a l while four- and five-note chords assume deeper s t r u c t u r a l functions. At the beginning of the r e t r a n s i t i o n i n the F i r s t Movement of the Quartet (Example 1.11), analysis of the harmony depends upon which member Example 1.11: Quartet No. 1, 1:103-106 a tempo, piu mosso © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edit ion A . G . , Wien Copyright renewed A l l r ights reserved Used by permission of European American Music D ist r ibutors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edit ion 26 of the chord i s i d e n t i f i e d as root. The p o s i t i o n of the chord as a major punctuation i n the formal structure rules out the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t s being ornamental. Conventional harmonic analysis may lack the conceptual framework to account for such so n o r i t i e s i n th e i r own r i g h t . It i s the purpose of l e v e l -C- to suggest a solution to this problem, however p r o v i s i o n a l . 1 6 In more than one way, this middle l e v e l i s the one which probably best approximates the experience of a l i s t e n e r not yet thoroughly f a m i l i a r with the work, the other two l e v e l s showing refinements of the l i s t e n i n g strategy, the f i r s t i n the d i r e c t i o n of the surface, the t h i r d i n the d i r e c t i o n of the background. Thus the unity of each phrase appears to be based on a "middleground" view where predominant outer voices are i d e n t i f i a b l e , inner voices appearing primarily as components of those v e r t i c a l i t i e s on which the understanding of the tonal-harmonic o r i e n t a t i o n of the work r e s t s . Focusing on Tonal-Harmonic Structure  and Outer-Voice Framework At l e v e l -C-, chords previously i d e n t i f i e d as s t r u c t u r a l l y primary are seen to coalesce into patterns involving broader segments of the piece. I f the temporal frame for units of l e v e l -B- was t e n t a t i v e l y defined as extending from the beat to the measure (see p. 45, note 13), the 17 r e f e r e n t i a l unit of l e v e l -C- normally coincides with the phrase. Tonal-harmonic content can be thought of as "that part of a piece that can 1 8 be described without reference to octave placement." This p r i n c i p l e i s 27 v i s u a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n the renotation of the chords i d e n t i f i e d at l e v e l - l i -on a single s t a f f at l e v e l -C-, p r o f i l e s of i n d i v i d u a l voices being omitted. The r e a l i n t e r e s t of this t h i r d l e v e l comes through not so much i n t h i s notational convenience as i n the underlying Roman numeral an a l y s i s . Szymanowski i s the i n h e r i t o r of the harmonic vocabulary and tonal syntax of Richard Strauss, Max Reger, and Alexander Scriabin. "Irregular" resolutions and enharmonic reinterpretations are bound to be frequent, as are s o n o r i t i e s implying multiple tonal a f f i n i t i e s . In order to account for tonal-harmonic motions i n such a highly fluctuant context, one needs a f l e x i b l e a n a l y t i c a l system capable of recording rapid changes as well as ambivalent s i t u a t i o n s . The m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of layers of chord symbols pertaining to d i f f e r e n t "tonics" r e f l e c t s the i n t u i t i o n that, i n this music, c e n t r i c i t y i s best viewed as r e s u l t i n g from a convergence of tonal implications rather than from a sin g l e , unequivocal r e f e r e n t i a l system. A s o l i d l i n e framing a series of symbols (Example 1.12) v i s u a l l y emphasizes that analysis which i s deemed to p r e v a i l i n a given phrase or segment of phrase; a dashed l i n e s i m i l a r l y frames those symbols whose si g n i f i c a n c e i s also contextually p l a u s i b l e . Unframed sets of symbols are used for weakly represented key centers, while the t o t a l absence of Roman numerals i n a given segment i s to be interpreted as denoting the v i r t u a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y of hearing the tonal-harmonic motions i n that key. Thus, a hierarchy of tonal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , however fluctuant, emerges from l e v e l -C-. Two kinds of symbols found at this l e v e l are i n need of an explanation: (1) an arrow connecting two Roman numerals draws attention to a root motion by descending f i f t h ; and (2) Roman numerals i n small c a p i t a l s denote chords 28 whose root belongs to the natural minor scale (lowered t h i r d , s i x t h , and seventh degrees). Example 1.12: Voice-leading graph, l e v e l -C-, 2:26-32 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 B L_V]_ V»V II V J V v~m Ci N v| v«wi A 1 IV V D V VJV-IV 1 . One c r u c i a l question must be answered as to the a n a l y t i c a l process applied to t h i s l e v e l : i s the evaluation of tonal-harmonic distance based on any v e r i f i a b l e scale and i f so, how does the graph r e f l e c t this? In answer to t h i s question, one may consider as axiomatic the tonal o r i e n t a t i o n of cer t a i n s o n o r i t i e s . For example, a "perfect major with minor seventh" sonority, whichever inversion or spacing i t may appear i n , a p r i o r i suggests a dominant function. Depending on the context, this function i s interpreted as having primary or secondary status. Understanding i t as a German s i x t h i s also possible, again, depending on the context. Thus, i n the absence of countervailing contextual f a c t o r s , the l i n e 29 representing the key i n which such a chord functions as a primary dominant i s highlighted with a s o l i d frame, a dashed l i n e frames i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as a secondary dominant, and i t s analysis as a German s i x t h i s either not framed or does not appear at a l l . However, few sonorities lend themselves to such an "absolute" ranking. In p a r t i c u l a r , only a few of the chords based on the notes of the whole-tone scale have conventionally recognized statuses: the augmented f i f t h chord, which tends to sound "dominant"; the French s i x t h chord, c e r t a i n l y one of the most strongly characterized sounds of common-practice harmony; and the I t a l i a n s i x t h doubling as a dominant seventh without f i f t h . In a l l three instances, r e g i s t r a l d i s p o s i t i o n i s highly i n f l u e n t i a l i n i d e n t i f y i n g tonal function. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of the augmented f i f t h and French s i x t h chords, the choice of the root (and inversion) i s conditioned by which member of the chord i s heard i n the bass. In view of the r e l a t i v e l y high number of whole-tone so n o r i t i e s heard i n the Quartet, and the high number of other chords not unequivocally i d e n t i f i a b l e i n terms of t r a d i t i o n a l tonal theory, the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n process of l e v e l -C- i s bound to depend l a r g e l y on contextual factors such as: (1) voice-leading i n general, but p a r t i c u l a r l y that of the outer-voices; (2) r e g i s t r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and spacing, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to the lowest voice; and (3) rhythmic, dynamic, and te x t u r a l emphasis and/or i s o l a t i o n . Even when a l l these elements are taken into consideration, the f i n a l v e r d i c t as to the exact tonal-harmonic s i g n i f i c a n c e of a chord or series of chords i s apt to be undecided or equivocal. This may be viewed as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the tonal-harmonic language of the Quartet. 30 The only c r i t e r i o n applied consistently to the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of "keys" i n the multi-layered Roman numeral analysis i s the r e l a t i v e d i r e c t i o n of f l u c t u a t i o n with respect to the ultimate tonal center (C i n the case of the outer movements; E and D i n the successive sections of the Second Movement). Thus, key centers located on the flat/minor side of C (e.g., Eb, F, Ab, Bb) appear below the C l i n e , and key centers located on the sharp/major side appear above (e.g., D, E, A, B). The ambivalence of thi s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the va r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s : f i f t h and t h i r d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between successive tonal centers are frequent while r e l a t i o n s h i p s of a second or a tr i t o n e ( i n d i r e c t succession) are not e n t i r e l y avoided. While the strategy described above i s not to be equated with p o l y t o n a l i t y , Szymanowski's experiments with the l a t t e r i n v i t e comparisons between the concurrent a p p l i c a b i l i t y of two or more d i f f e r e n t Roman numeral analyses and the simultaneous use of four d i f f e r e n t key signatures i n the l a s t movement of the Quartet. The analysis of this movement offers an opportunity to assess one i n terms of the other and to c l a r i f y t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e . The discussion of l e v e l -C- also includes a representation of the outer-voice framework (Example 1.13). This framework i s an excerpt of the outer-voices of l e v e l -B-, of which only the points of cadential and/or r e g i s t r a l emphasis (climaxes) are retained. The connections between those points are further emphasized by being transposed i n order to appear i n the most conjunct r e l a t i o n possible. Although t h i s operation may look l i k e an attempt at extracting an Ursatz, the underlying assumptions d i f f e r 31 Example 1.13: Specimen of outer-voice framework, 1:35.1-44.1 J~, . *. 2 . IT h 7 f 2 35 37 38 42 43 44 s u b s t a n t i a l l y from those of an orthodox Schenkerian a n a l y s i s : 1. there i s no preconceived pattern guiding the choice as to which notes belong to that framework and which don't; as described above, the single axiom i s that of the "shortest route," l i n e a r proximity ( i n c l u d i n g root motions by f i f t h and fourth i n the bass, representative of harmonic proximity); 2. as a consequence of this f i r s t axiom, the prevalence of descending motions over ascending ones i s not considered axiomatic; indeed, one of the i n t u i t i v e bases of this analysis i s that ascending motions are bound to p r e v a i l i n progressive, i n i t i a t i n g portions of the music, while descending ones are more l i k e l y to coincide with recessive, cadential portions, both being equally e s s e n t i a l i n t h e i r own r i g h t ; 3. as a further outcome of the f i r s t axiom, no superior h i e r a r c h i c a l status i s granted a p r i o r i to the notes of the tonic t r i a d , or to 32 those of the diatonic scale i n the i n f e r r e d key (C for the two outer movements, for example); v e r t i c a l l y , there i s no p r i o r i t y of perfect consonances over imperfect ones; no attempt i s made at r e l a t i v e dissonance evaluation. Thus the outer-voice framework accounts i n the most f a i t h f u l way possible for the broad d i r e c t i o n s imparted to the music by the succession of cadences and culmination points. In doing so, i t i s guided not by any preconceived scheme but by the axioms l i s t e d above. In more than one way, i t represents an extrapolation of the outer-voices of l e v e l -B-, p a r a l l e l to and coordinated with the extrapolation of the harmonic content into the tonal structures of l e v e l -C-. Sample Analysis In order to demonstrate the approach described i n the preceding paragraphs, an excerpt from the F i r s t Movement i s analyzed here i n f u l l d e t a i l . Measures 49 to 53.1, the second phrase of the second subject group, have been chosen for this purpose, a choice motivated by the i n t r i c a c i e s of voice-leading and of tonal-harmonic structures found i n t h i s segment. Instances of most of the techniques found i n the Quartet are to be observed i n t h i s segment (Example 1.14). Assuming the reader not to be thoroughly f a m i l i a r with the work and i n accord with what i s said above (see p. 26) about the middleground character of i n i t i a l approaches to an unknown composition, this analysis begins with o u t l i n i n g broad features of the segment. While the discussion of methodology above follows a l o g i c a l procedure, this a n a l y s i s , at least i n i t s inception, adopts a preliminary perceptual approach. 33 Example 1.14: Quartet No. 1, 1:49-53 poco rail. m e n o m o s s o dolce espressivo pp dolcist. (c) Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G. , Wien Copyright renewed A l l rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition The most obvious single continuity i n this segment i s that of the bass descending chromatically from ab| to cfej (mm. 49.2 to 51.3, Example 1.15). The rest of the a c t i v i t y i n the bass (mm. 51.4-52.4) i s apt to be understood as an elaborate ornamentation of an octave transfer c|^  to c 1 (mm. 51.3-52.3), preparing a half-step motion to bb| at m. 53.2. 34 Example 1.15: Bass motion, 1:49.2-51.3 By contrast with t h i s straightforward bass motion entrusted to the c e l l o , the upper l i n e emerges from the i n t r i c a c i e s of the two v i o l i n parts (Example 1.16). Already, at t h i s very i n c i p i e n t stage of the a n a l y s i s , the f i r s t - v i o l i n leap up to a^ (m. 51.2) appears as an inner voice crossing-over of a very p r o v i s i o n a l nature. Example 1.16: Upper l i n e , 1:49.1-53.4 49 50 51 52 53 Through the dense web of chromatic motions woven by a l l four instruments, a few transparent tonal-harmonic events emerge: a D major t r i a d at m. 49.1-.2; an A major t r i a d subsuming the whole of m. 51.1-.2; and f i n a l l y a chord at m. 52.3, soon to be transformed by chromatic motions whose s i g n i f i c a n c e can only be adduced from the ensuing res o l u t i o n (mm. 53.2 f f . ) . No attempt i s made at t h i s point tp i n t e r p r e t the tonal s i g n i f i c a n c e of these events but they may be expected to play a v i t a l role 35 i n c l a r i f y i n g the structure of the segment, either by v i r t u e of the i r metric p o s i t i o n ( t h i s applies p a r t i c u l a r l y well to the f i r s t two), t h e i r duration, or t h e i r tonal-harmonic c l a r i t y . With this i n i t i a l sketch of the segment i n mind, i t i s now possible to s c r u t i n i z e the contents of l e v e l -A- (Example 1.17). The i n i t i a l skip from F# to at) i n the c e l l o (m. 49.1) i s subdivided by dfc|, i t s e l f decorated with an incomplete neighbour c#. Example 1.17: Voice-leading graph, l e v e l -A-, 1:49-53.1 49 50 51 52 53 The choice between c# and dfcj i s made i n ap p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of t r i a d i c prevalence at the l o c a l l e v e l (see above, p 25). While i t i s easy to predict that the descent from afcj to c j ^ w i l l involve passing motions, the a t t r i b u t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l or ornamental status to each member of the scale must take into account contextual factors such as the re l a t i o n s h i p with the other voices and rhythmic-metric placement. F i r s t and second v i o l i n s are involved i n an exchange of imitations. Motive Bl i n the f i r s t v i o l i n (Example 1.18) ca r r i e s out a descent from d 36 Example 1.18: 1st V i o l i n , Motive B l , 1:49 4 9 fly, -, © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A .G. , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition to c-* before leaping down to d 2 . i t s im i t a t i o n by the second v i o l i n descends to b 1 , re t a i n i n g the leap to d 1 . Despite obvious s i m i l a r i t i e s , the two c e l l s are analyzed i n d i f f e r e n t ways. While the leap to d 2 i n the f i r s t v i o l i n i s e a s i l y understood as o u t l i n i n g an octave transfer d^ to d 2 , the assessment of the leap to d* i n the second v i o l i n must take into account the v i o l a part: t h i s d 1 resolves the d^ / e£ heard i n the previous beat (Example 1.19). The d 2 of the f i r s t v i o l i n (m. 49.4) can be understood as a prolongation of the same pi t c h heard i n the second v i o l i n at the beginning of the measure. Through motivic i m i t a t i o n , however, the Example 1.19: Second v i o l i n and v i o l a , 1:49-50.1 avvivando, poco pill mosso © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A .G. , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition I 37 second v i o l i n here outlines a motion i n p a r a l l e l octaves with the f i r s t v i o l i n ( J ) - c j j ) i an i n t e r e s t i n g instance of the kind of semi-independent l i n e a r doubling described above (see p. 18). The v i o l a leaves dl (m. 49.3), ascending to b* (m. 50.2). This if D involves a chromatic ascent from f}, to b}* Within this ascent, a* stands if D out as the most l i k e l y factor of chordal a f f i l i a t i o n , an assessment made i n f u l l awareness of the fact that the following b^ i s l o c a l l y more consonant. The rhythmic-metric configuration of t h i s l i n e , reinforced by the motion to d\/e} i n the second v i o l i n at m. 50.2, imparts the f i r s t bj with the if o b d i s t i n c t i v e character of an a n t i c i p a t i o n . While the second v i o l i n d^ may appear i n i t i a l l y as a return to the p i t c h of the v i o l a (m. 49.3), i t turns out to be subsumed as a passing note i n a broader motion to e^ (m. 50.3). On the l a s t beat of m. 50, the second v i o l i n i n i t i a t e s a pattern of ascending arpeggiations imitated, i n turn, by the f i r s t v i o l i n (m. 51.1) and v i o l a (m. 51.2, Example 1.20). The f i r s t of these arpeggiations Example 1.20: Chain of arpeggiations, mm. 50.4-51.3 (c) Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A . G . , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American lusic Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition c a r r i e s out an exchange between the upper l i n e and one of the inner l i n e s . The e^ i n the second v i o l i n i s " c a r r i e d " two octaves higher, becoming the 38 upper l i n e at t h i s point, while the of the f i r s t v i o l i n i s transferred to the v i o l a an octave below (Example 1.21). Attention i s drawn here to Example 1.21: Voice-leading i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of arpeggiations mm. 50.4-51.3 51 the migration of l i n e s from outer to inner po s i t i o n s , and vice-versa. While t h i s i s not a normal consequence of voice exchange i n orthodox Schenkerian theory, i t i s a l o g i c a l outcome of the s t r i c t concept of l i n e s applied to t h i s l e v e l (see above, p. 15). There i s no need for the exchange to "undo" i t s e l f l a t e r , since l e v e l -A- i s concerned e s s e n t i a l l y with l o c a l l i n e a r motions. At l e v e l -B-, the axiomatic prevalence of outer voices w i l l normally absorb such migrations. The ascending arpeggiation i n the f i r s t v i o l i n (m. 51.1-.2) c a l l s for a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t explanation. No exchange appears at this point and the transfer of a 1 to ai doesn't generate any s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r a c t i v i t y in the higher r e g i s t e r beyond the neighbour motion to gj (m. 51.3). As 39 already mentioned, this a-* i s not assessed as belonging to the upper l i n e but simply to an octave d u p l i c a t i o n of an inner l i n e , the upper l i n e here being provided by the second v i o l i n i n i t s descent to c|. Roles are exchanged between the two v i o l i n s at m. 51.3: the f i r s t v i o l i n resolves the second v i o l i n c^ on d^ while the second v i o l i n picks up the a^ of the f i r s t v i o l i n , a l b e i t an octave below, and brings t h i s voice down chromatically to f | (m. 52.1). Meanwhile, the v i o l a has arpeggiated an ascent from et| ( c e l l o ) to e^. The primary function of this motion seems to be the generation of a new p i t c h l i n e i n that r e g i s t e r , d u p l i c a t i n g the upper l i n e an octave below. Meanwhile, the efc| which i n i t i a t e d the arpeggiation c a r r i e s on the descending passing motion i n which i t was already involved. Therefore, the three arpeggiations found at mm. 50.4-51.2 a f f e c t the structure i n three d i f f e r e n t ways: i n the f i r s t case (second v i o l i n ) , there i s an actual exchange through which an inner l i n e moves to an o u t e r - l i n e p o s i t i o n ; the f i r s t v i o l i n arpeggiation also involves such an exchange, from the i n n e r - l i n e a* (m. 51.1) to the upper-l i n e d* (m. 51.4), but the intervening ascent to a^ (m. 51.2-.3) must be understood as a prolongation of the i n n e r - l i n e A rather than as i n i t i a t i n g a new upper l i n e ; and the arpeggiation i n the v i o l a belongs to a t h i r d category since i t connects pitches belonging to two d i f f e r e n t l i n e s (e|q i n the c e l l o , m. 51.1, and e2 i n the v i o l a , m. 51.3), each of these two l i n e s maintaining i t s autonomy beyond the arpeggiation. Beginning with m. 51.4, i t i s the c e l l o ' s turn to get involved i n an ascending arpeggiation which spans two octaves, from C to c^ (Example 1.22). There i s no question as to the s t r u c t u r a l role played by C here. AO Example 1.22: Arpeggiation i n c e l l o , 1:51.4-52.3 : _ ^ •f-r^ * While they a l l contribute to the passing motion, the intervening pitches are not a l l of equivalent weight: A and f# emerge as belonging to a deeper s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l by v i r t u e both of the i r degree of consonance and of t h e i r metric p o s i t i o n . In the case of A, metric p o s i t i o n i s c r u c i a l to this i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In the case of Bb, both factors are negatively a p p l i c a b l e . In the case of ftj, the harmonic context of D_-F#-A established at the beginning of the measure points to i t s r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as E#. F i n a l l y , metric p o s i t i o n and linear-harmonic context rule i n favour of c 1 against b. Although a G-major 6-chord i s touched upon here, i t i s so f l e e t i n g as to merit only passing mention. The a r r i v a l of the c e l l o on c 1 heralds a moment of harmonic s t a b i l i t y ( c o i n c i d i n g with a poco rallentendo, calando i n d i c a t i o n ) preparing the cadence point at m. 53.1. The descent from a 1 to f 1 i n the v i o l a completes the return to i t s home r e g i s t e r of a l i n e which had been allowed to ascend up to a^. The change of r e g i s t e r i s m o t i v i c a l l y emphasized (Example 1.23 and above, p. 15). The approach to the cadence uses a technique which recurs at s i m i l a r points i n the movement (see p. 49): an ascending chromatic scale i n the upper voice, usually emphasized by p a r a l l e l octave d u p l i c a t i o n . In t h i s case, i t i s accompanied by contrary motion i n the 41 Example 1.23: Second v i o l i n and v i o l a , 1:51-52 © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G. , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission, of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition v i o l a ( f | - f / e | - d|) and a sustained s i x t h c^-a^. Measure 53 opens with the octave E#, which turns out to be an accented dissonant passing tone to _F# when the other instruments enter on the second beat. While the r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s E# i s delayed to the t h i r d beat i n the second v i o l i n and to the fourth i n the f i r s t , i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e as a passing tone i s never r e a l l y modified by the ongoing motions of the other l i n e s . Before proceeding with the study of subsequent, deeper l e v e l s , an important issue must be addressed concerning the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the foregoing a n a l y s i s . While c o n t i n u i t i e s established by conjunct motions are r a r e l y problematic, those involving leaps are often open to multiple i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . But to give three d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the same phenomenon, namely the arpeggiation (mm. 50.4-51.2), may seem l i k e pushing a n a l y t i c a l l o g i c beyond reasonable cognition and c r e d i b i l i t y . The answer to t h i s i s two-pronged. On the one hand, this f i r s t l e v e l probably approximates a kind of knowledge accessible only to performers and analysts thoroughly f a m i l i a r with the work. On the other hand, the three d i f f e r e n t readings of the arpeggiations do not r e f l e c t three d i f f e r e n t l i s t e n i n g s t r a t e g i e s , but an attempt at understanding the d i f f e r e n t ways i n which 42 these events contribute to the flow of musical ideas. Had a l l three arpeggiations followed the pattern established by the f i r s t (octave transfer and l i n e a r exchange), the contents of the f i r s t v i o l i n and v i o l a parts at mm. 51-52 would have sounded i n higher r e g i s t e r s and l i k e l y have been d i s t r i b u t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t way. This i s the case at mm. 70-72 of the same movement: ascending octave transfers a f f e c t the voices i n the same way, producing a unique passage of shimmering s o n o r i t i e s (see below, p. 74), t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the one analyzed above. A reading of the second and t h i r d layers (Example 1.24) shows how the passing s o n o r i t i e s led by the bass are framed by two inversions of a D_-F#-A-(C) chord (mm. 49.1 and 51.4). The second of these p i v o t a l chords i s preceded by i t s dominant i n f i r s t i n v e r s i o n . At th i s l e v e l , "white" Example 1.24: Voice-leading graph, l e v e l s -B- and -C-, 1:49-53.1 T T 49 50 51 52 53 A E V Cc VOFV Eb VOFIII VOFV V ( I ) VOFV VOFVI VOFV V VOFIII 43 noteheads have been used to depict t h i s dominant (on A) i n order to emphasize i t s importance both as a preparation for the following and as a point of a r r i v a l of the passing motion. At the t h i r d , deeper l e v e l , however, i t i s shown as subordinated to the prolongation of the chord of D, e s s e n t i a l l y because of i t s weaker p o s i t i o n within the phrase. A double beam i s needed to account for the bass i n order to show the descending l i n e as a passing motion between atj i n an inner voice (m. 49.1) and the seventh cfc| i n the bass (m. 51.4). Meanwhile, the soprano outlines a double-neighbour motion c i r c l i n g D_ (C and E), followed by a chromatic ascent to F# at the cadence. This motion i s a fragment of a long-range serie s of c l i m a c t i c points forming the outer-voice framework of the subordinate group. This framework i s examined i n due course (see p. 73). 44 NOTES 1William E. Benjamin, "Models of Underlying Tonal Structure: How Can They Be Abstract, And How Should They Be Abstract?", Music Theory Spectrum 4 (1982): 49. 2 R e g i s t e r - s p e c i f i c pitches are i d e n t i f i e d i n the following way: C-B belong to the lowest octave on the c e l l o ; c-b, to the lowest octave on the v i o l a ; c^-b 1, the octave beginning on middle C^; and so on. Underscored c a p i t a l l e t t e r s are used to ind i c a t e p i t c h - c l a s s e s (PCs), i . e . , members of the chromatic scale not assigned to a s p e c i f i c r e g i s t e r or appearing i n more than one r e g i s t e r simultaneously. ^References to the score are to be read i n the following way: 1:63-73.1 means " F i r s t Movement, measure 63 to the f i r s t beat of measure 73." ^This term i s to be understood i n the s t r i c t sense, as defined by Wallace Berry: " . . . the term l i n e r e f e r s to any te x t u r a l component i n which hori z o n t a l r e l a t i o n and configuration can p l a u s i b l y be traced as a l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y — a n i d e n t i f i a b l e stratum i n the texture at some given l e v e l . The term voice w i l l normally denote a l i n e having d i s t i n c t r e l a t i v e independence." (Wallace Berry, Structural Functions i n Music [Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1976], p. 192n.) ^Benjamin, "Models of Underlying Tonal Structure," p. 46. 6"An i n t e r v a l c l a s s (IC) includes any given i n t e r v a l within the octave together with i t s i n v e r s i o n (complement) and a l l compound extensions (expansions by one or more octaves) of the given i n t e r v a l or i t s inversion." (Berry, S t r u c t u r a l Functions, p. 193n.) ^See note 4 above as to the formal use of this term. 8Edward T. Cone, "Music: A View from D e l f t , " i n Benjamin Boretz and Edward T. Cone, ed., Perspectives on Contemporary Music Theory (New York: W.W. Norton, 1972), p. 62. ^The following d e f i n i t i o n of texture, by Wallace Berry, suggests that Interesting conclusions i n that area of analysis may be found i n a study of l e v e l -A-: "Texture i s conceived as that element of musical structure shaped (determined, conditioned) by the voice or number of voices and other components projecting the musical materials i n the sounding medium, and . . . by the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s among them." (Berry, Structural Functions, p. 191.) 45 lOCarl P h i l i p p Emanuel Bach, Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard  Instruments, trans, and ed. William J . M i t c h e l l (New York: W.W. Norton, 1949), p. 176. H T h i s d e f i n i t i o n doesn't account for homorhythmic bass-soprano interdependence. Since this s i t u a t i o n never arises i n the Quartet, only passing mention i s made here of a possible s o l u t i o n to this problem. When two parts are i n homorhythmic r e l a t i o n s h i p involving oblique motions (as i s so often the case i n keyboard w r i t i n g and i n chorales), the r e s u l t i n g homophony i s only apparent, repeated notes being subdivisions of longer values. In those probably rare cases where f u l l y homophonic writing between bass and soprano i s maintained f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t period of time (e.g., for a complete phrase), the basic p o l a r i t y conducive of functional s t r a t i f i c a t i o n rests e n t i r e l y on r e g i s t r a l d i s p o s i t i o n . l^Bach, Essay, p. 176. ^Although a s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n of what should be considered " l o c a l " i s probably impossible i n view of the broad v a r i e t y of si t u a t i o n s found i n a work as complex as the Quartet, i t seems i n t u i t i v e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y to think of the beat and the measure as the lower and upper l i m i t s within which the use of the term " l o c a l " i s v a l i d . Only under p a r t i c u l a r circumstances w i l l an event shorter than the beat or longer than the p r e v a i l i n g metric unit be considered as " l o c a l . " l^In response to Wallace Berry's warning that the "question of r e l a t i v e dissonance se v e r i t y ( i n t e n s i t y ) i s . . . highly complex and agreement i s d i f f i c u l t concerning any proposed scale f o r i n t e r v a l s and chords" ( S t r u c t u r a l Functions, p. 109), one may say that no attempt i s made here at esta b l i s h i n g such a scale and assessments are always made on a contextual basis i n which r e l a t i v e dissonance i s a component of var i a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . l^Berry, S t r u c t u r a l Functions, pp. 61-62. l^This fragment i s given here f o r purposes of i l l u s t r a t i o n . A f u l l e r d i scussion i s found on p. 87. l^Schoenberg's d e f i n i t i o n of the term "phrase," i n a l l i t s vagueness, i s probably as useful as any: ". . . a kind of musical molecule consisting of a number of integrated musical events, possessing a c e r t a i n completeness, and well adapted to combination with other s i m i l a r units . . . Its ending suggests a form of punctuation such as a comma." (Arnold Schoenberg, Fundamentals of Musical Composition, ed. Gerald Strang and Leonard Stein [London: Faber and Faber, 1967], p. 3.) ^^William E. Benjamin, " P i t c h - c l a s s Counterpoint i n Tonal Music," i n Music Theory: Special Topics, ed. Richmond Browne (New York: Academic Press, 1981), p. 5. CHAPTER II ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST MOVEMENT The Introduction The Introduction (mm. 1-17) consists of a period (mm. 1-13.2) and a t r a n s i t i o n leading to the Alle g r o (mm. 13.3-17.4). Two phrases (mm. 1-8.1 and 8.2-13.2) i n complementary r e l a t i o n s h i p (the second i s , broadly speaking, a retrograde v a r i a t i o n of the f i r s t ) form the i n i t i a l period. Two components of the f i r s t v i o l i n , i n mm. 1-4, can be singled out as having motivic import: the conjunct descent g^-f|-e^ (Example 2.1, Example 2.1: F i r s t v i o l i n , 1:2-4.1 motive M) and the "skipped passing tone" f i g u r e (motive N). The l a t t e r i s a diatonic variant of a motive frequently used by Szymanowski (notably i n the Third Piano Sonata), and possibly taken over from S c r i a b i n , according to Samson.1* Example 2.2 shows the extent of the influence of motive N, and of i t s permutations, on the f i r s t v i o l i n part i n the Introduction. *Notes for t h i s chapter begin on p. 106. ( 8 v a ) (c) Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A .G . , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition 46 47 Example 2.2: F i r s t v i o l i n , 1:1-14.1 © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition Aspects of Voice-Leading Whether i t i s looked at from the point of view of voice-leading or from that of tonal-harmonic s i g n i f i c a n c e , the conjunct p a r a l l e l motion of major t r i a d s which opens the Quartet can be seen to embody elements of deep s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . P a r a l l e l motion plays a decisive role i n the Quartet, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n underscoring the approach to culmination points. P a r a l l e l motions involving t r i a d s are thus found i n mm. 87.3-96 i n an extensive preparation for the apex of the movement (m. 97.1). A s i m i l a r gesture i s found i n the Third Movement (mm. 50-67.1, and the r e p r i s e , mm. 222-239). The recourse to p a r a l l e l perfect f i f t h s i n the lowest parts i s a well recorded t r a i t ^ of the s t y l e of Szymanowski. It c e r t a i n l y contributes to the harmonic s t a b i l i t y of the passages thus supported while not necess a r i l y c l a r i f y i n g t h e i r tonal implications. The broad contours of the f i r s t t h i r t e e n measures appear as two wedges interlocked at th e i r thin ends (m. 8.2) (see voice-leading graph, Appendix p. 224). While l e v e l -A- r e f l e c t s the surface i n a l l i t s d e t a i l s , an 48 i n t e r e s t i n g , i f d i f f e r e n t v i s i o n of the voice-leading i s obtained i f one attempts to follow motion (including leaps of a third) i n a s i n g l e  d i r e c t i o n . The r e s u l t i n g c o n t i n u i t i e s are represented i n Example 2.3. Example 2.3: Homodirectional l i n e a r c o n t i n u i t i e s , mm. 1-13 A B C A' 1 — t±4 rfn 1 i— 1 r-£-* 1 f * f-f~ 4T~ " f ~ 4 ZLT ' r Y I 1 D l e v — fc^— 4 —J 1 J J i 4— r r — ^ i 4 - —d Thus the descent i n i t i a t e d on g-* by the f i r s t v i o l i n ( l i n e A) can be followed through two and a half octaves to the c 1 i n the v i o l a at m. 13 (a doubling of the c e l l o two octaves above), while the ascent beginning on c 1 ( l i n e B) i n the v i o l a at m. 2 pursues i t s course to the c^ of the f i r s t 49 v i o l i n i n m. 13. Following the same general d i r e c t i o n as l i n e B, the lower of the two parts sounded by the v i o l a at m. 2, beginning with e\^t r i s e s s t e a d i l y u n t i l i t merges with l i n e A on the d* of m. 10.2 ( l i n e C). Its contribution i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable at mm. 6-8, where i t i s the lowest sounding voice. While the other voices follow the general pattern established by these three l i n e s , they are not r e s t r i c t e d to mere octave doubling (as i s the case i n the f i r s t three measures). Instead, they develop a modicum of l i n e a r independence, reverting to t h e i r i n i t i a l , subsidiary function at m. 12. Thus a l l the pitches sounded i n the i n i t i a l chord (m. 2) generate d i s t i n c t strands of the polyphonic f a b r i c . The increase i n the number of melodically and rhythmically autonomous voices coincides with, i n f a c t contributes to, an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of a c t i v i t y . The reverse process underscores the approach to a point of subsidence, the cadential motion of m. 12, leading to the harmonic plateau of mm. 13-16.1. A voice-leading device recurring through the movement may be observed for the f i r s t time at mm. 7-8 (Example 2.4), i n the second v i o l i n : a Example 2.4: Second v i o l i n , 1:7.2-8.1 I P ) 4 = © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition chromatic ascent leads to a cadential point. While there are exceptions (for example, 1:42-44), these ornaments are normally of s t r i c t l y l o c a l 50 s i g n i f i c a n c e : a f t e r the cadence, the l i n e resumes i t s motion at the point i t had reached p r i o r to the chromatic ascent. Another voice-leading device present i n the Introduction and frequently found elsewhere i s to be pointed out here: the representation of a t r i l l as a l i n e a r motion. At m. 6, the v i o l a t r i l l s e^ with f ^ . Although the p r i n c i p a l note, as written i n the score i s e l , examination of the context shows that both these pitches belong to the continuation of the ascent i n i t i a t e d by the c^ of the second v i o l i n (Example 2.3, l i n e B). Thus there i s no inconsistency i n w r i t i n g , i n the voice-leading graph (Appendix, p. 224), an ascent from e^ to g* through f l . S i m i l a r l y , the lower neighbour b£ at m. 13, i s gradually transformed from i t s purely D ornamental role to that of f i f t h of the Eb-major t r i a d at m. 18, the i n i t i a l chord of the A l l e g r o . In t h i s case, the score accurately r e f l e c t s the transformation since b^, t r i l l e d with C*, appears as the p r i n c i p a l note at m. 16.2, at the exact point where the motion from C to C# i n the c e l l o threatens the p o s s i b i l i t y of hearing C* as the chord tone and b b as a lower neighbour. This mutation in the role of b^ had been well prepared, p a r t i c u l a r l y by the incomplete neighbour motions of m. 14 (b^-c^ and b - c ^ ) . The use of t h i s technique does not f a c i l i t a t e the task of the b analyst, since the harmonic implications of both the p r i n c i p a l note and the t r i l l must always be considered, an approach p e r f e c t l y consistent with a harmonic system saturated with multiple-meaning s o n o r i t i e s . 51 Tonal-Harmonic Structure The i n i t i a l three-chord progression (measures 1 to 5) The cu r t a i n r i s e s on a simple C-major t r i a d , an opening quite unlike anything else written by Szymanowski at the time of the Quartet. If the l i s t e n e r i s induced by this gesture into expecting some form of conventional t r i a d i c t o n a l i t y , his hopes are soon to be thwarted by the unfolding of the movement. This i n i t i a l statement, of I t s e l f , i s pregnant with implications with regard to the text u r a l space i n which the piece evolves (see below, p. 55), but i t s tonal s i g n i f i c a n c e i s apparent only i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with ensuing events. That this f i r s t chord moves upward, i n s t r i c t p a r a l l e l motion, through a D-major, to an E-major t r i a d c a l l s for an unconventional d e f i n i t i o n of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between consonance, p a r a l l e l motion, and harmonic functions. The d i a t o n i c archetype for a ju x t a p o s i t i o n of two perfect major t r i a d s a step apart i s to be found i n a motion from a subdominant to a dominant t r i a d i n a major t o n a l i t y . If th i s motion i s pursued one step further, the chord of a r r i v a l i s a submediant altered to function as a V of I I . This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n points to G major as the key center f o r the opening of the Quartet. Given the two forms of the melodic minor scale, an understanding i n A minor i s also p l a u s i b l e : a chord of the t h i r d degree using the descending or natural form of the scale i s followed with chords of the subdominant and dominant, both using the ascending form of the scale. The v a l i d i t y of this approach i s confirmed by occurrences of the same, or s i m i l a r progressions i n l a t e r works of Szymanowski, where the tonal context excludes any other i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : the 4th movement of the Stabat Mater, op. 53 (Example 52 2.5); the f i n a l cadence of the Veni Creator, op. 57 (Example 2.6) J; and , intermediate cadence i n the Mazurka, op. 50, no. 8, where the a l t e r a t i o n the subdominant emphasizes the A-minor o r i e n t a t i o n (Example 2.7). Example 2.5: Stabat Mater, op. 53, Fourth Movement, mm. 11-13 N .3 . In Ab 11 T B r r 9t± r r r Copyright 1928 by Universal E d i t i o n Copyright renewed 1956 A l l r i g h t s reserved Used by permission of European American Music D i s t r i b u t o r s Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Uni v e r s a l E d i t i o n Example 2.6: Veni Creator, op. 5 7 , mm. 144-145 i — * — n He it A77.S F J fT f):ti*— W Oi —s $ 9 -6-Copyright 1975 by PWM, Krakow, Poland Used by permission 53 Example 2.7: Mazurka, op. 50, no. 8, mm. 27-29 N.B. e J - f 1 (m. 28) 27. sosten. _. a tempo _ a tempo -r r ^ tnp i f r PP Copyright 1931 by Universal Edition Copyright renewed 1958 All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition Level -C- of the voice-leading graph (see Appendix, p. 224) suggests a t h i r d approach to this progression: a motion from the s i x t h degree to the tonic i n E minor, using the natural form of the scale f o r the s i x t h and seventh degrees and adding a t i e r c e de Picardie to the tonic chord. Seen from t h i s angle, t h i s harmonic t r i p t y c h shares enough of the properties of the archetypal subdominant-dominant-tonic progression to be considered as a v a l i d substitute f o r i t . While the s u b s t i t u t i o n of the subdominant by the submediant i s f a i r l y common, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a minor mode, the use of the chord of the natural seventh degree in l i e u of the dominant i s a noticeable departure from conventional usage. It i s j u s t i f i a b l e on the very same ground as other, e a s i l y recognized s u b s t i t u t i o n s , namely that the two chords share two pitches. In t h i s case, the f i f t h _F# and the seventh A of the dominant become the t h i r d and f i f t h of the subtonic t r i a d . The analogy between the prototype IV-V-I and the progression under scrutiny applies not only to each of the chords taken i n d i v i d u a l l y , but 54 also to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i s c e r n i b l e between them. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the three t r i a d s exhaust the PC content of the scale (including i n this case two forms of the mediant), a property which i s frequently given i n j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the tonal strength of the IV-V-I progression. The f i r s t two chords are a step apart and have no pitches i n common, a superstrong progression i n Schoenberg's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . ^ While the ensuing motion to the E-major t r i a d may seem to put t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n jeopardy, i t creates a r e l a t i o n s h i p of an ascending t h i r d between the f i r s t and l a s t t r i a d s . This i s a "descending" progression according to Schoenberg.^ Root motions involving a descent of a fourth, such as IV-I, are also c l a s s i f i e d as "descending". In both cases, Schoenberg's word of caution concerning "descending" progressions has been heeded: "'Descending' progressions . . . are better used i n combination of three chords which . . . r e s u l t i n a strong progression . . . Example 2.8 summarizes the above i n a graphic form. Example 2.8: Comparison of opening three-chord progression with axiomatic IV-V-I progression superstrong strong I V > - * V > descending superstrong superstrong SI > VII >• -> I# descending 55 Confirmation of the v a l i d i t y of t h i s l a s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s found within the confines of the Quartet, s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the Canzone which opens the Second Movement, mm. 3-4, where the same progression appears i n an unequivocal E-major/minor context (see below for the analysis of t h i s passage, p. 112). None of the three readings of the i n i t i a l progression made so f a r points to fj, the alleged key center of the Quartet. If CJ assumes a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e , here, i t i s more by v i r t u e of i t s temporal p o s i t i o n : i t i s the Ur-chord from which the piece i s generated. Moreover, the other two chords are included i n the texture-space 7 defined by the i n i t i a l C-major chord. The retrograde i m i t a t i o n of t h i s i n i t i a l chord progression at mm. 12-13 expands t h i s space to f i v e octaves (C to c ^ ) , the space within which the Quartet evolves, with rare but s i g n i f i c a n t exceptions. This process of t e x t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l functions i s v i v i d l y c a r r i e d on i n the Introduction. On a broader l e v e l , a tonal-scalar l i n k may be sought between the threefold progression and the Introduction. An eight-note scale may be extracted from t h i s statement: I), E, _F#, G_, G#, A, JB, a Lydian scale on (] with an extra chromatic degree (Gjt/Ab). Its dominant C! i s thus flanked with "leading-tones" on both sides. In the unfolding of this p i t c h - c o l l e c t i o n at mm. 2-3, i t s WT^-related^ components are r e g i s t r a l l y and t e x t u r a l l y emphasized. Analysis of the Introduction (see below) shows th i s whole-tone scale to be a potent factor of homogeneity. 56 Measures 6 to 18 In keeping with the double-wedge shape described above (p. 48), a point of maximum compression i s reached at m. 8.2. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h i s point and the outer flanks of the Introduction are best described i n terms of textural-harmonic density. While the cadential point of m. 8.1 cannot be said to be the point of highest dissonance, i f only because there i s no objective scale by which evaluations may be gauged,^ there i s no question that the t e x t u r a l compression of m. 6 coincides with a r e l a t i v e increase i n harmonic density. Consonant t r i a d i c harmonies are reintroduced at m. 12 concurrently with a resumption of the broadly spaced texture of m. 5. The r e l a t i v e l y dissonant segment (mm. 6-11) prominently features WT^  s o n o r i t i e s . In Example 2.9, the pitches of each of the two Example 2.9: Whole-tone s o n o r i t i e s , 1:6-11 57 whole-tone scales are showed as o (WT°) or as #(WT 1). The aster i s k s draw attention to chords formed e x c l u s i v e l y of pitches belonging to a sin g l e whole-tone scale. On the other hand, the B-minor consonant t r i a d at m. 11.2 appears to be passing between the two "inversions" of the whole-tone chord that frame i t . Its consonant character i s not i n i t s e l f s u f f i c i e n t evidence of deeper tonal-harmonic s i g n i f i c a n c e . If the two chords of m. 10.2 and m. 11.3 are permutations of the same p i t c h - c o l l e c t i o n , t h e i r contextual assessment discloses a r a d i c a l s h i f t i n tonal o r i e n t a t i o n . The f i r s t i s e a s i l y understandable as a French s i x t h i n E, and indeed i t resolves normally to the passing B t r i a d , although the l a t t e r c a r r i e s a minor t h i r d . The second (m. 11.3) resolves by descending f i f t h to Eb major, introducing the f l a t - s i d e regions for the f i r s t time i n the piece. F u l l c r e d i t for the transformation must be given to the contrapuntal technique of voice-exchange as well as to the emphatic way with which the motion to Eb i s r e a l i z e d . The remarkable opening three-chord progression i s stated i n a retrograde form at mm. 12-13, an Eb-major t r i a d s u b s t i t u t i n g for the E-major t r i a d (Example 2.10). Obviously, tonal orientations d i f f e r e n t from those of mm. 1-5 are suggested by t h i s retrograde version, but diatonic archetypes may again be invoked i n support of a to n a l - f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The descending half-step root motion between the f i r s t two perfect major chords suggests a submediant to dominant progression i n G minor. Subsequent motion to a C-major t r i a d weakens th i s assumption. 58 Example 2.10: Quartet No. 1, 1:12-13 Tempo I 12 | i 1 % v fdolce -P ^ 1 fdolce rs L j | = = j^ fdolcc-^z • , '* t i i^fnlrr © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A . G . , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition Not only i s the V to IV ro o t - p o s i t i o n progression a t y p i c a l but the fac t that both chords are perfect major t r i a d s implies a descent _G-F#-E along the ascending melodic minor scale, also an a t y p i c a l motion. An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n C minor i s also worth exploring. It c a l l s for a motion from the mediant to the tonic with t i e r c e de Picardie through an a l t e r e d chord of the second degree. This altered chord cannot be properly considered as a secondary dominant for the same reasons that made the V to IV progression i n G u n l i k e l y . Because they deal with the progression without reference to the context, none of the above analyses grants Eb major the s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e that, i n f a c t , i t c a r r i e s i n the course of the movement. The i n i t i a l chord of the progression, at m. 12.2, i s ton i c i z e d by the preceding harmony, the f i r s t occurrence of an unambiguous V-I motion i n the piece. S i m i l a r l y , passing motions i n the t r a n s i t i o n (mm. 16-17) lead to an Eb-major t r i a d at the beginning of the Allegro (m. 18.1). While Eb major 59 must be added to the l i s t of tonics i n f e r r a b l e i n consideration of the tonal structure of the piece, the three-chord progression at mm. 12-13 does not i n i t s e l f evoke a clear o r i e n t a t i o n i n that d i r e c t i o n . 1 0 If an introduction i s to end on a pedal tone, as i s often the case, the dominant i s undoubtedly the most l i k e l y choice for this r o l e . One could almost go so far as to say that any degree but the tonic degree would be predicted: however, this i s exactly the degree chosen by Szymanowski here. Once more, th i s degree i s robbed of any unambiguous tonic connotation by the melodic insistence on Bib. Thus the Introduction does lead to a dominant-seventh sonority, but i n a "wrong" key. The suggestion that the movement may begin i n F i s not f u l f i l l e d , nor i s the more remote p o s s i b i l i t y of transforming t h i s dominant seventh into a German s i x t h i n E so much as hinted at. As mentioned above, a chromatic motion of the bass simply leads back to the Eb-major t r i a d with which the Exposition begins. Outer-Voice Framework Patterns set f o r t h i n an introduction are expected to a n t i c i p a t e e s s e n t i a l aspects of the ensuing movement or piece. Such i s the case with the outer-voice framework of the Introduction (Example 2.11). Two basic Example 2.11: Outer-voice framework of Introduction 60 arpeggiations are interwoven: C major (minor at m. 12) and E major. The opposition between the major and minor sides of C i s c e n t r a l to the tonal structure of the F i r s t Movement; E major i s the key i n which the Second Movement begins; and the opposition between C major and E major i s the only s i g n i f i c a n t tonal contrast perceived i n the Third Movement. Thus the outer-voice framework of the Introduction appears to be r e l a t e d o r g a n i c a l l y , so to speak, with the tonal structure of the Quartet. Further r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Introduction and subsequent movements are explored i n due course. The Exposition The F i r s t Subject Group The f i r s t subject group (mm. 18-35.1) i s subdivided i n two successive phrases forming a period (mm. 18-26 and 27-35.1). It i s followed with a t r a n s i t i o n (mm. 35.2-44.1), i t s e l f divided m o t i v i c a l l y , t e x t u r a l l y , and harmonically into an e p i s o d e 1 1 and a closing phrase leading into the second subject group. Taken as a whole, the melodic contour of the upper voice i n the f i r s t subject group (mm. 18-35.1) belongs to a species i d e n t i f i e d by Samson as possibly i n h e r i t e d from S c r i a b i n . He describes i t as "ascending leaps followed by a drooping chromatic d e s c e n t . " 1 2 This p r i n c i p a l upper voice sets f o r t h two motives which are intimately related (Example 2.12). Nevertheless, i t seems preferable to consider them as d i s t i n c t i n view of the divergent influences they exert on melodic shape. Motive Al with i t s leap of a fourth and s t r i c t l y d i a t o n i c character, belongs to the antecedent 61 Example 2.12: Motives Al and A2 of f i r s t subject group A1 19 (8va) 28 © Copyright 1925 ay Universal Ed\ti,on A,G. ? Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition (mm. 18.1-26.4) while the descending chromatic conjunct motion of motive A2 i s i d e n t i f i e d with the consequent (mm. 27.1-35.1).^ If both groups are u n i f i e d t e x t u r a l l y by pedal tones and uninterrupted tremolandi, i n every other respect they are contrasted. A c t i v i t y i n the consequent i s much more intense than i n the antecedent: i t moves i n higher r e g i s t e r s (note the ascending arpeggiations y i e l d i n g changes of reg i s t e r s from m. 24 on); the lower voices are more ac t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y the bass; the tonal-harmonic structure i s both more dissonant and more f l u i d (see voice-leading graph, Appendix, p. 225). Each of these points i s worth exploring i n greater d e t a i l . A closer look at mm. 24-27 (see voice-leading graph quoted i n Example 1.9) discloses the double nature of the technique of arpeggiation (see above, p. 19). On the one hand, the a c t i v i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r voice appears to be transferred to another r e g i s t e r , here two octaves above that of the previous phrase. On the other hand, each of the intervening degrees i n i t i a t e s a l i n e a r motion evolving i n i t s own r i g h t . Thus the arpeggiation functions i n a double capacity: as passing motion between events happening 62 i n widely separated r e g i s t e r s , bringing them together i n a single p r i n c i p a l outer voice continuum, and as generator of subsidiary l i n e s f i l l i n g , so to speak, the space opened up by t h i s gesture, and therefore i n t e n s i f y i n g the t e x t u r a l density. Changes of r e g i s t e r i n a given l i n e can usually be traced by the i m i t a t i o n of a motive characterizing that l i n e . Thus, at m. 26, the tr a n s f e r of the two l i n e s merging on gfc| i n the v i o l a i s c l e a r l y underscored by the i m i t a t i o n of the motive an octave above (see Example 1.4). A r a d i c a l change of character i n the bass l i n e i s concurrent with the changes of r e g i s t e r described above (Example 2.13). While the antecedent Example 2.13: Contour of bass l i n e , mm. 18-35.1 i antecedent -II consequent 1 M n p ^-1 r 9-_^ . • 9- TH k r a 18 , 20 , 22 , 24 , 26 . 28 . 30 i 32 , 34 . favours a r e l a t i v e l y slow-moving bass sustaining root p o s i t i o n chords belonging to a sin g l e d i a t o n i c scale (the progression I - V I 7 - V 7 of V i n Eb major i s o u t l i n e d ) , the consequent i s supported by a more active bass l i n e generating both ro o t - p o s i t i o n and inverted chords not compatible with a sing l e diatonic frame of reference, as observed i n the voice-leading graph. C l e a r l y , chromatic voice-leading p r e v a i l s over root motion by f i f t h . The d i f f e r e n t characters of the motives used, the r e g i s t e r 63 tra n s f e r s r e s u l t i n g from arpeggiations, and the change of pace i n the bass are progressive factors counterbalanced by one prominently recessive element: the descending d i r e c t i o n of motive A2, the "drooping chromatic l i n e . " ! ^ At a deeper l e v e l of structure, however, the outer voices combine i n d elineating a s t r i k i n g ascending framework responsible for the large-scale d i r e c t i o n of the s e c t i o n (Example 2.14). Example 2.14: Outer-voice framework, mm. 18-35.1 l (Jm, . 1 * Of — 'J fa ? Wy J> W *-^ r - L , 1 = 9 ^ ^ f - « 18 24 27 30 31 35 The cadential chord at m. 35.1 can be construed as a dominant seventh i n second inversion implying a r e s o l u t i o n to Eb (with a c | as an unresolved appoggiatura to d^), but also as forming a group of appoggiaturas to an F-rooted chord, the l a t t e r p o s s i b i l i t y a r i s i n g from the preparatory French s i x t h i n m. 34.4. Only i t s r e s o l u t i o n can determine whether £ or Bb must be considered as the proper root of the chord (Example 2.15). L o c a l l y , the f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r e v a i l s : the following statement begins with an a f f i r m a t i o n of jib i n the bass and the r e s o l u t i o n of c J to dt| ( a l b e i t three octaves below!). Looking ahead, however, i t may be seen that the following 64 Example 2.15: P o t e n t i a l resolutions of cadential chord at m. 35.1 segment (mm. 35.2-38.1) i s an episode followed by a return to _F as root of the en t i r e closing phrase (mm. 38.2-44.1). In that perspective, both resolutions of Example 2.15 may be considered as f u n c t i o n a l , each at i t s own l e v e l . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n Eb i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n that i t completes the sequence of root motions by f i f t h s i n i t i a t e d at m. 18 ( I - V I 7 - V 7 of V-V 7). The T r a n s i t i o n The f i r s t segment of the t r a n s i t i o n , e a r l i e r described as an episode (see p. 60), combines motive N as found i n m. 8 (see above, Example 2.1) with the ascending chromatic cadential motive (see above, p. 49) and a pedal on Bb. It can probably best be described, harmonically, as a s t r i n g of ^ chords, ascending i n s l i g h t l y d i s t o r t e d p a r a l l e l motion. Tonally i t s purpose i s to move from the cadential chord on Bb (see above) back to a dominant seventh on JF. As was the case at m. 35.1, this cadential chord i s i n second inversion, the following phrase opening with the root p o s i t i o n of the same harmony. The generally ascending d i r e c t i o n of t h i s sequential passage, counteracted only by the JBb pedal, reverses the general l i n e a r d i r e c t i o n of mm. 33-35.1. Harmonically, i t moves from _Bb (mm. 35.1-37.1), to Eb (m. 37.2), to C (m. 37.4), to ¥_ (m. 38.1), thus retracing 65 the path of the p r i n c i p a l group (from Eb i n m. 18) and momentarily h a l t i n g the counterclockwise motion of mm. 24-35 around the c i r c l e of f i f t h s . 1 - * The second phrase of the t r a n s i t i o n combines motives Al and A2 over descending chromatic l i n e s and a pedal on JF. In using the motivic material of the f i r s t subject group, i t doubles as a cl o s i n g phrase for that group (Example 2.16). The exact point at which the t r a n s i t i o n ends i s Example 2.16: Formal analysis of f i r s t subject group and t r a n s i t i o n Period mm. 18-35.1 I 1 I 1 Antecedent Consequent Episode Closing Phrase mm. 18-27.1 mm. 27.2-35.1 mm. 35.2-38.1 mm. 38.2-44.1 Motives: Al A2 N Al & A2 problematic. Motivic ideas from both groups overlap to the point that there i s disagreement among authors as to the exact point where the second subject group begins. Arthur Willner sees t h i s happening at m. 42.1, while A l i s t a i r Wightman puts i t at m. 4 4 . l . ^ S u p e r f i c i a l l y , m. 42.1 does appear as a noticeable turning point: i t i s preceded with a rallentendo and marked poco meno mosso, t r a n q u i l l o ; a new dynamic i n d i c a t i o n (p dolce) appears i n a l l the parts and the descending motion i n t r i p l e t s of sixteenth notes t y p i c a l of motive Bl (see below, Example 2.19) i s played by the second v i o l i n . Yet, there i s no T r a n s i t i o n mm. 35.2-44.1 66 c l e a r harmonic punctuation at this point. The bass p e r s i s t s i n i t s pedal on _F, a l b e i t now supportive of an unstable JB instead of C. The f i r s t v i o l i n interrupts i t s descent (mm. 38.2-42.1) to c a l l upon a f i g u r e which had already been i d e n t i f i e d with cadential preparation (see above, p. 49): the ascending chromatic scale. By contrast with the ambiguous s i t u a t i o n of m. 42.1, m. 44.1 presents a strong harmonic d e l i n e a t i o n , not only because i t i s followed with a root p o s i t i o n chord on IS, but because of the very i s o l a t i o n of the octave A#. Similar i s o l a t i o n of single PCs for purposes of emphasis may be observed i n the Introduction (m. 12.1), i n the second subject group (mm. 53.1, 57.1, and 58.1), and within the Second and Third Movements.!7 In this case, the emphasis put on A# stresses a change of tonal o r i e n t a t i o n that takes place i n mm. 42-43 and that can be followed i n the voice-leading graph (Appendix, p. 226); had the Eb o r i e n t a t i o n of the f i r s t subject group been maintained, t h i s A# would more properly be reinterpreted as JBb resolving the secondary dominant on J? (mm. 38-40) . The f a c t that t h i s i s v i r t u a l l y inconceivable substantiates the change of tonal-harmonic o r i e n t a t i o n to A, the tonal center of the second subject group. In moving from one area to the other, the secondary dominant on F_ i s transformed into an augmented s i x t h i n A, a transformation possibly i n s p i r e d by a famous paradigm: the " T r i s t a n " chord (Example 2.17). A summary notation of the broad outer-voice pattern of the t r a n s i t i o n reveals a continuation of the motion observed i n the f i r s t subject group (see above, Example 2.14), as well as the tonal-harmonic s h i f t described above (Example 2.18). 67 Example 2.17: Comparison between mm. 42-44.1 and the opening of the Prelude to T r i s t a n und Isolde by R. Wagner . ; P 1 dt-J j 1—J J . T ^ 1 , - 4 ^ © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edit ion A . G . , Wien Copyright renewed A l l r ights reserved Used by permission of European American Music D ist r ibutors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edi t ion Example 2.18: Outer-voice framework, mm. 35.1-44.1 0 6a 35 37 3&40 43 44 68 The Second Subject Group The motivic content of the second subject group (mm. 44-63.1) i s less sharply defined than that of the f i r s t . T r i p l e t s of sixteenth notes and descending chromatic scales permeate the entire section. While these appear at m. 42 i n a form l a b e l l e d motive BI (Example 2.19), les s Example 2.19: Motive BI, 2nd v i o l i n , m. 42 © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Musiic Diisitn'butors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition c h a r a c t e r i s t i c manifestations of t h i s proto-motivic material are found i n every part. A secondary idea (motive B2) also appears under various guises, evolving into an intensely l y r i c a l gesture of the f i r s t v i o l i n at m. 54 (Example 2.20). Example 2.20: Motive B2 (2nd v i o l i n , m. 45) and i t s l y r i c a l variant (1st v i o l i n , m. 54) f— f — i & 0 f — © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition Formally, t h i s second subject group i s subdivided into four phrases of which the l a s t i s an almost l i t e r a l r e p r ise of the f i r s t . While both 69 motives BI and B2 appear i n a l l four phrases, t h e i r r e l a t i v e prominence varies from phrase to phrase allowing for the following formal a n a l y s i s : 1. "BI" mm. 44.2-49.1 2. "Blv" Development of BI mm. 49.1-53.1 1 8 3. "B2" mm. 53.2-58.1 4. " B l r " Reprise of "BI" mm. 58.2-63.1 Thus, i n the second subject group as i n the f i r s t , a t r i p a r t i t e ("ABA") grouping of motivic material emerges from a f o u r f o l d phrase d i v i s i o n . In the second subject group, a development on BI ("Blv") i s heard instead of an episode, as i n the f i r s t subject group. Turning to features of voice-leading i n t h i s second subject group, one observes the appearance of a technique already i d e n t i f i e d i n the f i r s t subject group (see above, Example 1.4): the motivic underscoring of an octave transfer (Example 2.21). This group i s no Example 2.21: Second v i o l i n , mm. 47-48.1 m © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed Al l rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition exception to the rule that, frequently, the outer voices embody more than one strand of the contrapuntal f a b r i c . Witness the descent from d3 to e^ at m. 44 (Example 2.22), which f u l f i l l s multiple voice-leading purposes: 70 Example 2.22: Excerpt from voice-leading graph, mm. 44-47 44 45 46 47 on the one hand, the re s o l u t i o n of the a| suspended from the previous section i s reached through an embellishing motion leaping to d^; on the other hand, this d^ belongs to a longer-reaching^line going to f | i n the next measure, while the interposed, "passing", E i s heard an octave below. S i m i l a r l y , at m. 47, the leap up to c^ adds a further step to the a|-b2 motion of m. 44 while acting as an upper embellishing motion to g|/a^ of the other contrapuntal strand.19 Conversely, some of the a c t i v i t y of the inner voices from m. 45 to 49.1 (see voice-leading graph, Appendix, p. 227) i s understandable as a b i f u r c a t i o n from the f | of mm. 44-45.1, one l i n e descending to d^ i n m. 47 by way of the C ^ - D * motion i n m. 46, while the f| held i n the other l i n e i s resolved down to e^ at m. 46.2. This l a s t strand merges with the d^ at m. 47.1. Thus the two l i n e s generated by the f | at m. 45.1 eventually reach J) at m. 47.1, but an octave apart. From there on, embellished octave transfers (see p. 15) create a double neighbouring motion, reaching 71 i n the upper part and c o , i n the lower (m. 48.1 and 48.3), both b 1 returning to I) at m. 49.1. Thus the simple harmonic progression of mm. 44-48 i s decorated with intense surface a c t i v i t y i n a l l the upper vo i c e s . Tonal-harmonic features include the f i f t h F-c, which i s already prominent i n the f i r s t subject group (mm. 27-28.1) and i n the t r a n s i t i o n (mm. 38-40). From secondary dominant i n Eb, i t i s here transformed into a f l a t s i x t h degree i n A, or, more accurately (since i t carr i e s a seventh i n m. 48), into a dominant of the Neapolitan degree. Resolving t h i s dominant would no doubt imperil the recently established o r i e n t a t i o n to A/a. Indeed, such a r e s o l u t i o n i s c a r e f u l l y avoided and replaced with chromatic contrary motion of the outer voices (m. 49.1) maintaining the o r i e n t a t i o n to A major (m. 51.1) by way of i t s fourth degree _D (m. 49.1). Just as the approach to the second subject group i s found to be based on a famous prototype (see Example 2.17), the progression of mm. 44-49 i s also r e l a t e d to another T r i s t a n passage (Example 2.23). Whether the composer was aware Example 2.23: Conceivable prototype for mm. 44-49: Wagner, Prelude to T r i s t a n und Isolde, mm. 16-18 h*1 4f 4' 7*" y. y y cv-I-'• v -f' J • r m — c  »J ^—i \-F * 72 of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s a moot point. They c e r t a i n l y t e s t i f y to the extent of the influence of t h i s Prelude on the musical thought of the e a r l y twentieth century. The two middle statement ("Blv" and "B2") are u n i f i e d , across important rhythmic and te x t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , by a single descending bass motion, from atj (m. 49.2) to an implied B, r e a l i z e d as blq(m. 53.2), to ft) (m. 57.2) and back to E (m. 58.2) f o r the reprise of " B l " (see Example 1.15). The turning point (m. 58.1) between segments "Blv" and "B2" rests on a secondary dominant i n A, V of V. This point i s approached i n a way s i m i l a r to m. 44.1 (see above, p. 66): the texture i s momentarily reduced to a single p i t c h - c l a s s , a lower chromatic appoggiatura to the f i f t h of the following chord. In both cases, this kind of focusing underscores an enharmonic r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : as _Bb i s transformed into A#, j? from m. 48 i s turned i n t o _E#. Thus the bass-root f i f t h r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two events (E at m. 44.2; _B at m. 53.2) i s also projected on the upper voices. When phrase " B l " i s repeated (mm. 58-63.1), the s i g n i f i c a n c e of F as f l a t s i x t h degree i n A i s unequivocal since there has been no a l l u s i o n since m. 48 to a p o t e n t i a l return to Eb or Bb as tonal centers. The connection with the following phrase i s a l l the more unexpected: F i s retained i n the bass, reinterpreted as a f i f t h degree of a Bb t r i a d i n ^ p o s i t i o n . Since a thorough understanding of this event i s c r u c i a l to the formal analysis of the movement, i t i s c a r e f u l l y examined i n the following section of t h i s chapter (see p. 77). A reading of the deep s t r u c t u r a l pattern drawn by the outer voices (Example 2.24) once more reveals the prevalence, i n the upper r e g i s t e r , of 73 Example 2.24: Outer-voice framework of second subject group, mm. 44.1-63.1 a broad ascending motion o u t l i n i n g an octave transfer whose extremities (_B-C) coincide with the two statements of B l . The descending motion of the bass i s understood as o r i g i n a t i n g from an inner voice a (m. 49.1) returning to JS for the r e p r i s e , therefore embellishing the neighbouring motion E-F-F//-E (mm. 44-58). The Closing Group As seen above, the presence of F i n the c e l l o l i n k s this section with the preceding. The f i r s t v i o l i n contributes to t h i s sense of continuity between the two sections with i t s t r i p l e octave _D expanding the rhythmic-melodic idea of " B l " . The remaining two instruments, however, contrast sharply with this double prolongation of second subject group 74 material by reintroducing the main idea of the f i r s t subject group together with i t s chromatic counterpoint. The entire section i s characterized by t h i s superimposition of material from both subject groups. A sense of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n p r e v a i l s , leading to a culmination point at mm. 71-72. Techniques of ornamentation are put to good use i n underscoring t h i s i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n : arpeggiando i n the f i r s t v i o l i n , picked up by the second v i o l i n and c e l l o at mm. 66-68; tremolando i n the c e l l o , c a r r i e d on by the v i o l a at mm. 67-69 and the c e l l o at m. 70; t r i l l i n the c e l l o at m. 69, a l l of which are supported by a steady crescendo leading to a forte at the beginning of m. 69. The decrescendo at m. 70 ( i n a l l instruments but the c e l l o ) may seem to run against the o v e r a l l thrust. It i s compensated for by a combination of harmonics, flautando, and s u l tasto, producing a s t r i k i n g t e x t u r a l contrast. These ornamental devices reinf o r c e a progression imbedded i n the very structure of the piece (see Appendix, p. 229). The f i r s t subject group motive i s repeated sequentially, s t a r t i n g on d 1 (m. 63.2), e 2 (m. 66.2), e^ (m. 69.2) and b^ (m. 70.2), the l a s t two statements overlapping i n s t r e t t o , a process of unmistakable i n t e n s i f y i n g e f f e c t . 2 0 Meanwhile, the accompanying l i n e s are undergoing r e g i s t r a l expansion, p a r t i c u l a r l y through the descending motion of the c e l l o . Based on this motion, the section i s a r t i c u l a t e d i n two segments: mm. 63.1-70 and 71.1-73.1 (Example 2.25). The f i r s t segment comprises a broad descent from F (m. 63.1) to C (m. 69) through D (mm. 66.1-68.3). In the second segment, the descent s t a r t s from the f i f t h above the preceding point of a r r i v a l (m. 70.1) transferred i n the middle r e g i s t e r to f 1 (m. 71.1) and descending i n eighth notes to bb (m. 72.4). 75 Example 2.25: Outline of bass motion, mm. 63-72.4 J — 63 65 66 T 69 71 72 73 The ensuing motion to a|^  (m. 73.1) i s dealt with i n connection with the analysis of the cadence (see below). Thus the descending motion of mm. 71-72 f u l f i l l s a double purpose: i t acts as a process of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n rhythmically and r e g i s t r a l l y , but because i t i s an inner-voice motion (beginning on G above C i n m. 70), i t momentarily retards the progress from to Bb (m. 72.4). The cadential gesture at m. 73.1 implies a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the preceding chord from 1^ i n Eb (a return to the key center of the f i r s t subject group) to an incomplete (and a l t e r e d : JSb instead of E) German s i x t h i n E. I t thus produces the combined e f f e c t s of a half cadence i n E and of a deceptive cadence i n Eb ( i f the root JB i s reinterpreted as Cb). Although such a powerful e f f e c t i s consistent with the p r e v a i l i n g tonal-harmonic procedures, i t s p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r a l impact should not be underestimated. Eb and A have been i d e n t i f i e d as the two broad tonal regions i n which the f i r s t and second subject groups res p e c t i v e l y evolve (see above, p. 64 and 66). The submediant _F which closes the second 76 subject group i s used to reenter the Eb area (mm. 63-72.4), where the f i r s t subject group motive reappears. The abrupt return to the A area (B as V of V) at m. 73.1 reverts this o r i e n t a t i o n and announces the general d i r e c t i o n taken by the following section. Measures 63.1 to 73.1 have been d i v e r s e l y interpreted as the beginning of the Development (Wightman and Willner) or the end of the Exposition (Samson). 2^ while none of these authors adduces evidence i n support of his opinion, a care f u l analysis should be useful i n c l a r i f y i n g this point. The controversy probably stems as much from d i f f e r i n g concepts of what i s a sonata-allegro development as i t does from the contents of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r movement. If the term "development" i s taken i n the broad sense of "treatment of musical materials to convey a sense of expansion . . . or e x p l o r a t i o n , " 2 2 i t s a p p l i c a t i o n cannot be r e s t r i c t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r section of the movement.2^ The sixty-three measures of the Quartet analyzed so f a r already display several instances of t h i s kind of development (see, for example, section "Blv", mm. 49.1-53.1). In a more r e s t r i c t e d sense, when used to designate the middle-section of a sonata-allegro form, other c r i t e r i a must be adduced, f i r s t and foremost the segmentation of the movement by way of cadences. The evaluation of cadential events must be consistent with the s t y l i s t i c context. In a s t y l e where cadences are weakly defined and a r t i c u l a t i o n s between phrases d e l i b e r a t e l y blurred through harraonic-motivic overlap, ambiguity i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of punctuating events i s to be expected. Such i s not the case i n the Quartet so f a r : cadences are always 77 c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d t e x t u r a l l y , m o t i v i c a l l y , and harmonically. Thus the Introduction comes to an unambiguous close on ^ at m. 13.1; the end of the f i r s t subject group at m. 35.1 i s j u s t as unequivocal.24 Therefore, one has every reason to expect an obvious punctuation to mark the end of the Exposition or, to put i t more circumspectly, given a choice between two points apt to f u l f i l l t h is function (namely, mm. 63.1 and 73.1), i t i s s t y l i s t i c a l l y consistent to choose the one that i s most c l e a r l y punctuative, m o t i v i c a l l y , t e x t u r a l l y , and harmonically. Based on t h i s c r i t e r i o n , the punctuation at m. 73.1 outweighs that of m. 63.1: i t i s harmonically cadential, as the analysis above shows, and i t i s followed by a pronounced change of pace, of texture, and of motivic and rhythmic m a t e r i a l . Comparatively, m. 63.1 appears to be only weakly c a d e n t i a l . The use of a ^ sonority at a cadential point i s not unusual i n t h i s Quartet (see mm. 35.1 and 38.1) but, i n a l l other cases, the following phrase begins with the root p o s i t i o n chord, confirming the r e l a t i v e l y consonant and stable character of the ^. In t h i s case, both the bass and soprano are stationary, r e s p e c t i v e l y on F and J ) (expanded over three octaves) u n t i l m. 65.4, at which point they both move to Eb i n contrary motion. Meanwhile the inner voices descend chromatically to bb (2nd v i o l i n , m. 65.2) and Ab ( v i o l a , m. 65.1), transforming the Bb t r i a d into a dominant seventh s t i l l i n second i n v e r s i o n . Harmonically speaking, mm. 63.1-65.3 function as a prolongation of the chord at m. 63.1. From the points of view of texture as well as of rhythmic a c t i v i t y , elements of continuity overshadow factors of d i v i s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the 78 continuing arpeggiando pattern i n t r i p l e t s of sixteenth notes i n the f i r s t v i o l i n . The only s i g n i f i c a n t aspect which could plead i n favour of m. 63.1 as being the end of the Exposition i s the reappearance of motive A l . This reappearance, however, i s p e r f e c t l y compatible with the function of a codetta to the Exposition, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a s t y l e i n which the exact r e p e t i t i o n of the Exposition i s avoided. M o t i v i c a l l y , measures 63 to 73.1 function both as a condensed restatement of the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c components of the two subject groups and as a codetta, the l a t t e r character r e s u l t i n g from the combination of procedures of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n described above. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the highest p i t c h reached here second v i o l i n , m. 71.1) recurs only twice i n the course of the movement (and i s never exceeded): at m. 157.2, two measures before the close of the Reexposition; and at m. 179.1, three measures before the end. It thus appears to be uniquely associated with closing gestures. An examination of the outer-voice framework (Example 2.26) shows the ascending motion of the upper voice almost coming to a halt while the Example 2.26: Outer-voice framework of mm. 63.1-73.1 i b , 63 65 66 68 69 70 71 79 d i r e c t i o n of the lower voice i s c l e a r l y reversed. Both these changes play a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n delineating t h i s segment as a closing group. Indeed, one would be tempted to formulate the hypothesis that the combination of surface i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n with tonal-harmonic q u a s i - s t a t i c or recessive motions i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of closing sections. Only the study of a broadly d i v e r s i f i e d r epertoire could substantiate such a claim. The Development The development section of the movement . . . i s r e a l l y i n the nature of an independent episode, functioning as a kind of scherzo for the work. It employs accompaniment patterns derived from the exposition but makes l i t t l e use of the f i r s t or second subject material u n t i l the approach of the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n . 2 - ' C l e a r l y , Szymanowski shares Schoenberg's view of the development: "Varied as the s p e c i f i c cases may be, the formal purpose of t h i s section i s , as with other contrasting middle sections, to provide a RELATED CONTRAST."6 A s t r i k i n g contrast of texture and of rhythmic a c t i v i t y i s indeed indicated at the outset of t h i s section, by the marking subito scherzando a l i a  burlesca, as well as by the syncopations, staccatos, and two-against-three polyrhythms. 2^ The intense a c t i v i t y p r e v a i l i n g i n the i n i t i a l , rhythmic  phase (mm. 73-96) builds up to a culmination point (m. 97.1) giving way to the second, l y r i c phase (mm. 97-102). A r e t r a n s i t i o n (mm. 103-117) leads back to the Recapitulation. A voice-leading graph of the Development i s found on p. 230. The predominance of imitations and sequences generates a highly r e p e t i t i v e , and comparatively unrevealing picture at l e v e l -A-. Attention i s therefore focused on the middleground and tonal-harmonic 80 background. At l e v e l -C-, lack of space needed to account for tonal f l u c t u a t i o n over such an extended segment (46 measures) made a change of key imperative at m. 97. The A-major l i n e leaves the way to a D-major/minor l i n e at that point. The Rhythmic Phase Two d i f f e r e n t sets of ascending sequences subdivide t h i s phase i n two segments: mm. 73-82 and 83-96. While both segments are characterized by intense imitations of terse motives i n a l l the parts, as well as by ascending sequential patterns, they are strongly contrasted i n t h e i r i n t e r v a l l i c content. The f i r s t features two p r i n c i p a l motives: a short chromatic motion and a leap of a minor t h i r d (Example 2.27). Example 2.27: P r i n c i p a l motives of rhythmic phase, m. 73. l i f l f r l $ if} > _ © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A .G . , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors ' i Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition ' The second segment (mm. 83-96) i s firmly grounded on a repeated C i n the c e l l o , and progressively moves from chromatic to di a t o n i c s c a l a r motives on successively higher degrees (see below). This progressive transformation of motives i s comparable to the transformations undergone by motive B2 i n the second subject group (see Example 2.19). Examination of the voice-leading of the f i r s t segment discloses an i n i t i a l statement moving from the dominant of E (m. 73.1) to a diminished 81 seventh on E (m. 78.1). The sequential motion between these two points c l e a r l y prolongs the motion from D# to E, ascending from the inner voice e^ , attained through a transfer of r e g i s t e r at m. 73.4 (Example 2.28). Example 2.28: Upper-voice motion, mm. 73.1-78.1 73 74 75 76 77 78 The approach to the culmination point of m. 78.1 involves the kind of ascending chromaticism already observed i n analogous situations (see above, Example 2.5). Here, both f i r s t and second v i o l i n partake of this motion, i n p a r a l l e l t h i r d s . From t h i s point on (m. 78.2), a second ascending sequence i s generated by a descent to an inner voice, returning to e at m. 80.2 but carrying on to a^ at m. 82.1. This new culmination point i s again approached by an ascending chromatic motion, t h i s time i n p a r a l l e l octaves. A t h i r d ascending sequence begins at m. 82.2, only to be abruptly interrupted and replaced by the second segment of the rhythmic phase. The change of r e g i s t e r i n the bass at m. 75.3 may seem to delineate a motion of deeper s i g n i f i c a n c e . In other contexts, s i m i l a r displacements are interpreted as r e a c t i v a t i n g a l i n e l e f t incomplete e a r l i e r (see, for 82 example, Introduction, m. 12; second subject group, m. 58). No such r e a c t i v a t i o n can be associated with t h i s change of r e g i s t e r , however, and i t i s nothing more than an embellishing motion to the f# established at m. 75.2, possibly as a way of "amplifying" the bass symmetrically with the ascending transfer of r e g i s t e r i n the soprano. When the bass returns to the upper octave at m. 76.3, i t i n i t i a t e s a motion from c (m. 76.4) to C# (m. 82.1, Example 2.29). The deeper s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s Example 2.29: Lower-voice motions, mm. 76.4-82.1 -*y-—y. J * j — i t 76 t 1 77 T ~r'~~T^l 78 79 80 81 82 motion, c l e a r l y delineated m o t i v i c a l l y , m e t r i c a l l y , and harmonically (see voice-leading graph, p. 230), r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y confirms the subsidiary character of the change of r e g i s t e r at mm. 75.3-76.2. The voice-leading graph t e s t i f i e s to the prevalence, i n t h i s f i r s t segment, of dominant-seventh and diminished-seventh s o n o r i t i e s , the l a t t e r obviously connected with the pervasive minor-third motive mentioned above. These so n o r i t i e s are subsumed i n a broad root motion from a V of V (m. 73.1) to the tonic i n A (m. 82.1), the intervening diminished seventh on E s u b s t i t u t i n g for the dominant (m. 78.1). 83 The second segment of the rhythmic phase i s e n t i r e l y set up over a pedal of C. Pitches heard over this pedal belong to two d i s t i n c t f a m i l i e s : pitches a f f i l i a t e d with a single diatonic scale, g i v i n g r i s e to consonant t r i a d s , and pitches a f f i l i a t e d with chromatic passing motions. The two kinds of materials are c l e a r l y separated and t h e i r tonal-harmonic s i g n i f i c a n c e i s likewise d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . Chromatic passing motions (e.g., the lower l i n e of the v i o l a , m. 83; the second v i o l i n , m. 85) are purely l o c a l phenomena and do not a f f e c t the tonal-harmonic content except as " f i l l i n g i n " . On the other hand, the diatonic degrees (to which category most of the pitches belong) influence the tonal o r i e n t a t i o n of the segment i n which they appear such that any change i n the q u a l i t y of a degree s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t s the d i r e c t i o n of the segment. Examples of such changes are: motion from G to G# heralded i n the f i r s t v i o l i n , m. 85; motion from CJ to _C# i n the second v i o l i n m. 86; motion from A to A# i n the v i o l a , m. 86. Thus sharp degrees are successively secured. This ascending trend i s reverted at points of punctuation: at m. 89.1, _D# returns toJDl^, and A# to Al|. 28 The ascending trend, however, i s immediately resumed. In f a c t , i t goes further i n reaching for new degrees: B# ( v i o l a , m. 89.3) and E# ( f i r s t v i o l i n , m. 90.2). The p r e v a i l i n g ascending d i r e c t i o n of t h i s segment thus appears to r e s u l t not only from dynamic, t e x t u r a l , and r e g i s t r a l f a c t o r s , but from tonal-harmonic ones as w e l l . The extensive ascending sequence b u i l t on the pedal on C emphasizes successive degrees of WT°: C, D, E, F# (Example 2.30). Given the c e n t r a l ! t y of t h i s event i n the Development as well as i n the piece, there i s every reason to understand this phrase as a condensed motion from the 84 Example 2.30: Triads emerging from l i n e a r motions, mm. 83-97 CA&£A/C£ CHbEA/ce C&Ot£/JC£ h\ \'i it 83-85 86-88 89 90 91-95 96 97 key center of the movement to the t o n a l i t y farthest removed. Thus, the p a r a l l e l motion from C to E which opened the Introduction i s resumed and car r i e d one step f u r t h e r . The root motion by f i f t h s which characterized the f i r s t segment of th i s rhythmic phase i s not pursued i n the second segment. On the contrary, the segment begins with an abrupt change of d i r e c t i o n , from an A-major t r i a d i n f i r s t inversion to a C-major t r i a d (mm. 82-83), a change of d i r e c t i o n emphasized by concurrent changes i n texture, timbre, and dynamics. The r e s o l u t i o n of the dominant t h i r t e e n t h 2 ^ at m. 97.1 i s a clue to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of this r e o r i e n t a t i o n . It i s examined below i n the context of the l y r i c phase of the Development. The L y r i c Phase The l y r i c phase (mm. 97-102) introduces a new melodic motive which can be seen to resemble the i n i t i a l motive of the Introduction (Example 2.31). This motive i s repeated sequentially, a t h i r d down (mm. 100-102), accompanied by chromatic descending scale patterns i n the inner voices, a f a m i l i a r component of statements of motive Al (see mm. 18-20.2, and 38.2-41.3). 85 Example 2.31: P r i n c i p a l motive of l y r i c phase (1st v i o l i n , mm. 97-100.1) compared with 1:1-3 97 Bva © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed Al l rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition Instead of root motion to suggested by the dominant sonority of m. 96, an-ascending half-step motion to C#/Db i n the bass supportive of ^ sonority imposes a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the chord on C as an altered dominant of the dominant i n F# (Example 2.32). This s h i f t i n tonal Example 2.32: Enharmonic r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of mm. 96-97 £ V.3 VI RfcVt^ V V d i r e c t i o n , c o i n c i d i n g with r a d i c a l changes of texture, mode of a r t i c u l a t i o n , and surface rhythmic a c t i v i t y , underlines the culmination point of the Development, indeed of the movement as a whole. Measure 97 i s the fulcrum on which the forma l - r h e t o r i c a l balance of the movement r e s t s . The l y r i c phase expanding t h i s moment into a f u l l apotheosis i s 86 reminiscent of a recurring feature of the music of Szymanowski, described by Samson: As so often i n e a r l i e r impressionist cycles, the tension which has been b u i l t up i s released by means of an impassioned 'Romantic' version of the main theme, with the harmonic language s t i r r i n g echoes of German late-Romanticism. If any sense of a r r i v a l i s achieved i n this passage, i t i s c e r t a i n l y 6 5 not through t o n a l l y closed harmonic motions. The ^ does not resolve to a ^ but rather moves to another ^ on A supportive of a sequential r e p e t i t i o n of mm. 97-99. The progression from £ to F# (mm. 83-97) thus may be interpreted as a tonal parenthesis within the prolongation of A (m. 82 and m. 101). The punctuation at m. 103 apparently deprives t h i s prolongation of A of i t s natural r e s o l u t i o n to JJ. Indeed, the WT^  sonority on Bb appearing at t h i s point sounds very much l i k e a deceptive cadence i n D minor. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of this event with respect to the r e t r a n s i t i o n i s examined i n due course. P r o v i s i o n a l l y , attention i s drawn to the fact that the broad A-major tonal d i r e c t i o n for the Development implied i n the above analysis i s consistent with the tonal orientations heralded i n the Exposition, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the second subject group (see p. 66). The R e t r a n s i t i o n This segment has much i n common with the closing phrase of the Exposition (mm. 63-73.1): descending scale i n the bass, ascending sequences i n the upper voice, i n t e n s i f y i n g ornamental devices i n the inner voices (arpeggiando, tremolando), not to mention the reappearance of 87 motives Al and A2 from the f i r s t subject group. Furthermore, both segments are introduced by an ambivalent cadence i n which rhythmic a c t i v i t y and tonal-harmonic function stress continuity of motion as much as, i f not more than, punctuation of the preceding statement. A s i n g l e l i n e a r motion of the bass, from d 1 to Bb u n i f i e s the s e c t i o n . This bass descends r e g u l a r l y at the rate of one note per bar, with the exception of a two-bar plateau on f# at mm. 112-113. This assessment implies that both pitches of the i n i t i a l d*-c* t r i l l (mm. 101-106) are included i n the l i n e , a technique which has already been noticed i n the analysis of the Introduction (see above, p. 50). As mentioned above, the WT° sonority on Bb (mm. 103-106) suggests as one of i t s possible i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a s i x t h degree i n D minor. While t h i s contextual assessment cannot be disproved, neither should the tonal ambiguity of t h i s c r u c i a l moment of the Development be minimized. Indeed, the dominant of D established at m. 101 i s not f u l l y resolved before the end of the r e t r a n s i t i o n (m. 117), where i t i s approached by way of an augmented s i x t h , a powerful dominant preparation. This section features a technique which could be c a l l e d "framing": the t h i r d B^-d on which i t opens reappears exactly i n the same guise at the beginning of the Recapitulation (m. 118.1). The intervening scalar motion i s c l e a r l y an octave transfer from b^ to Bb. Imbedded i n t h i s descending scale i s a motion from d* to dfc| thanks to which t h i s PC progressively emerges as the prevalent root. The outer-voice framework of the Development (Example 2.33) reveals a remarkably consistent pattern of two i n t e r l o c k i n g ascending motions i n the Example 2.33: Outer-voice framework of Development 89 upper voices supported by an ascending motion i n the bass, i t s e l f followed by a neighbour-note pedal (BB#) preparing the culmination point of m. 97. From there on, the upper voice follows a slowly descending general d i r e c t i o n allowing for ascending motions i n the inner voices, while the bass once more features a double neighbouring motion around Bb and J) (mm. 103-118), t h i s time expanded into a scalar gesture spanning a tenth. The Recapitulation and Coda Formally, the Recapitulation appears to follow a t r i p a r t i t e plan s i m i l a r to those of the Exposition and Development (Example 2.34). Example 2.34: Comparison of the structures of major subdivisions Exposition: Motives: Development: Motives: Recapitulation: Motives: F i r s t subject group Al and A2 Rhythmic phase New motives F i r s t subject group Al and A2 Second subject group BI and B2 L y r i c phase New motives Second subject group BI and B2 Closing group Al and BI Retra n s i t i o n Al and A2 Closing group Al and BI The Recapitulation of the Two Subject Groups Although he does not f a i l to mention that i t s i n i t i a l t h i r t e e n measures are transposed with respect to t h e i r statement i n the Exposition (mm. 18-30 and 118-130), Samson speaks of a " s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t e r a l recapitulation."31 Two other movements from the two s t r i n g quartets include extensive r e p r i s e s : the l a s t movement of t h i s Quartet and the f i r s t of the second. In both cases, the reprises are more extensive and 90 more l i t e r a l than., the one deemed " s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t e r a l " by Samson.32 Beyond the obvious changes of key and r e g i s t e r caused by the t r a n s p o s i t i o n , the tonal structure i s modified s u b s t a n t i a l l y by what may seem to be, upon s u p e r f i c i a l examination, a minor change. The i n i t i a l chord at m. 18.1 (Example 2.35 and voice-leading graph, p. 231) was Example 2.35: Comparison of m. 18 with m. 118 g ( 7 ) Allegro moderato - # — m PP ptzz. w 118 Tempo I i mm pip-<c) Copyright 1925 by Universal E d i t i o n A.G., Wien Copyright renewed A l l r i g h t s reserved Used by permission of European American Music D i s t r i b u t o r s Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal E d i t i o n 91 analyzed as a root p o s i t i o n t r i a d on Eb not only because of the b r i e f b^ i n the f i r s t v i o l i n , soon displaced by the C* i n the second v i o l i n , but because t h i s chord appears as the point of a r r i v a l of passing motions from C (mm. 14-16) to Eb i n the c e l l o . In t h i s context, C* i n the second v i o l i n (m. 18) was understood as a neighbouring tone to b D rather than as a return to a p o t e n t i a l root. An exact t r a n s p o s i t i o n up a f i f t h would have c a l l e d f o r an f l i n the f i r s t v i o l i n at m. 118.1, producing a Bb major t r i a d . However, g l i s heard instead and, indeed, the previous measure, with i t s emphasis on a V 7 on D, prepares a r e s o l u t i o n to (J j u s t as c l e a r l y as the passing motion at mm. 16-17 pointed to Eb. Thus, from a harmonic point of view, the Recapitulation does not begin a f i f t h above the Exposition but a major t h i r d above. The descent to G at m. 124 i s to the root of the chord prolonged since m. 118. The use of G minor, rather than major, c a r r i e s a double i m p l i c a t i o n : i t allows for an exact t r a n s p o s i t i o n of the C minor of the Exposition and i t avoids any dominant suggestion which would point to CJ at m. 127 as to a tonic; moreover, i t reestablishes an o r i e n t a t i o n to the f l a t - s i d e of C. Indeed, throughout the Recapitulation, t h i s f l a t - s i d e assumes a prominence c l e a r l y counterbalancing the sharp-side d i r e c t i o n taken i n the Development. Starting with m. 131, the transpositio n i s abandoned and the Recapitulation i s exact to m. 153, with the exception of the e l i s i o n of mm. 49-52. This raises two sets of questions: 1. How i s the l i n k effected between the transposed segment and the untransposed one? Is the e f f e c t one of i n t e r r u p t i o n , or i s there a sense i n which l o g i c a l continuation may be heard between the two phrases? 92 2. What reasons may be adduced for the e l i s i o n of mm. 49 to 52? How i s the tonal plan affected by this change? In seeking answers to the f i r s t set of questions, one observes that, as the turning point of m. 131 i s approached, modifications are progressively introduced. While most of these changes a f f e c t only surface ornamentation, some prove s i g n i f i c a n t enough to impose an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d i f f e r e n t from that which would r e s u l t from a mere transposition (Example 2.36 and voice-leading graph, p. 231). What may appear as a minor d e t a i l Example 2.36: Comparison of mm. 27-31 with mm. 127-131 © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed Al l rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition 93 turns out to be a p i v o t a l event of the tonal structure: the single F i n the c e l l o part at m. 131.1 i s the r e s o l u t i o n of the preceding dominant-sounding harmony on Cj (m. 127). Textural and rhythmic factors are pressed into service i n order to focus on this otherwise elusive i n s t a n t : modification of dynamics from m. 126 to m. 130, the sustained crescendo of the Exposition being replaced by a rapid decrescendo to ppp-pp; recourse to harmonics accompanied flautando and sul p o n t i c e l l o , a combination of s o n o r i t i e s previously associated with the approach to other s i g n i f i c a n t turning points (see mm. 71-72, and 82); f i n a l l y , poco sostenuto, at m. 130. When the F i s attacked i n the c e l l o , a l l the other instruments are s i l e n t (an exact reprise would have c a l l e d for the second v i o l i n and v i o l a to begin playing on the f i r s t beat), again a device of emphasis used e a r l i e r (see mm. 53.1, 57.1, 58.1, and 69.1, and note 17 on p. 107). Not only does t h i s F resolve the preceding dominant on jC, but i t also paves the way to the cadence on Bb at m. 135.1. Thus a tonal-harmonic connection between the transposed and untransposed parts of the Recapitulation of the f i r s t subject group i s indeed secured. In seeking reasons for the e l i s i o n of mm. 49-52, one must r e c a l l that t h i s segment has been characterized as a short development of the second subject group. Its omission i n the Recapitulation may be j u s t i f i e d by the aims pursued i n t h i s section which are, i n a sense, a n t i t h e t i c a l to those of the Exposition. The e f f e c t desired at this point i s not one of growth but of s t a b i l i z a t i o n . In this perspective, there i s no need to go over every element of the Exposition. Indeed, those segments which, i n the Exposition, are characterized by a sense of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n and 94 development, are those that are most l i k e l y to be omitted. The e l i s i o n of mm. 49-52 thus appears j u s t i f i e d from a f o r m a l - r h e t o r i c a l point of view. As for the tonal plan of the section, mm. 49-53.1 are seen to prolong a dominant-seventh sonority rooted on ID (see voice-leading graph p. 227). Their omission thus brings the dominant seventh on J_ at m. 148 i n d i r e c t contact with the dominant seventh on ]J at m. 149, a connection c a l l i n g f o r a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the B chord as a German s i x t h i n Eb, where F i s a secondary dominant. This implication i s not c a r r i e d any further i n the following measures. With the exception of an interchange of parts between c e l l o and v i o l a , mm. 149 to 153 repeat mm. 53 to 57 exactly. As i n mm. 127-130, however, preparation for an important change of d i r e c t i o n i s made palpable by modifications of dynamics and tempo. Here again a decrescendo to pianissimo dolcissimo replaces the crescendo ( i n the f i r s t v i o l i n ) of mm. 56-57. The sempre rallentendo i s further emphasized by the i n d i c a t i o n molto allargando at m. 154. Harmonically, t h i s l a s t measure i s not a r e p r i s e of the Exposition but a pivot s i m i l a r to that of m. 130 analyzed above (see p. 93). Its highly ambiguous tonal-harmonic content underscores t h i s role p e r f e c t l y (see voice-leading graph, Appendix, p. 231). A four-measure phrase ends t h i s Recapitulation of the second subject group. While the f i r s t two measures present motive Bl i n canonic i m i t a t i o n , f i r s t at a t h i r d below, then at a s i x t h , the l a s t two form a s l i g h t l y varied reprise of mm. 47-48 (and 61-62) transposed a step above. For the f i r s t time i n the piece, the dominant of CJ i s unequivocally established. Nothing i s spared to emphasize the paroxysmal nature of these 95 measures: a tempo, fo r t e e deciso, then poco accelerando, crescendo to f o r t i s s i m o , with stress marks on every note, and p a r a l l e l octaves i n a l l three upper instruments at m. 157, underlining the extremely high r e g i s t e r reached here (d^ i n the f i r s t v i o l i n ) . This fo r t i s s i m o statement therefore has a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a c l i m a c t i c event.^3 A r e s o l u t i o n of the dominant to the tonic at m. 159.1 would be conventionally l o g i c a l but l i t t l e i n keeping with the kinds of progression the l i s t e n e r has come to expect i n the movement. Indeed, the motion of the bass up a semitone i s p e r f e c t l y consistent with patterns used i n s i m i l a r circumstances (see, for example, mm. 97.1 and 103.1). The study of the formal s i g n i f i c a n c e of this cadence belongs to the analysis of the c l o s i n g group which i t i n i t i a t e s (see below). A comparison of the outer-voice framework of the Recapitulation with that of the Exposition (Example 2.37) shows the extent of the influence of the changes described above. The upper voice ascent from Eb to A (Exposition) i s replaced with a step-wise motion G to A prolonged through an extensive neighbouring elaboration. In spite of the omission of mm. 49-52 i n the Recapitulation, the second subject group sees the soprano continue i t s ascent to IJ (m. 158), the modifications of mm. 153-158 making up for the missing steps. Noticeably, CJ, which should have been the goal of t h i s motion at m. 159.1, i s omitted altogether from the harmony at t h i s point. Example 2.37: Outer-voice framework of Recapitulation and Exposition compared. 97 Modifications i n the bass l i n e are equally s u b s t a n t i a l . These modifications s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the tonal structure of the movement. The two subject groups of the Exposition have been understood e a r l i e r (see above, pp. 64 and 66) as resting on two d i f f e r e n t "sides" of C, each of these two sides being represented by a d i f f e r e n t key center: Eb for the minor-flat side, and A (mainly through i t s dominant E) f o r the major-sharp side. Between the two, F played a p i v o t a l r o l e , as secondary dominant i n Eb and as s i x t h degree i n A. In the Recapitulation, the transposition of the beginning of the f i r s t subject group and the modified ending to the second subject group are both centered on G. Part of the tonal-harmonic contrast found i n the Exposition i s preserved i n the s h i f t from G minor to G major, allowing f o r the dominant of C f i n a l l y to emerge. In short, the Recapitulation c a r r i e s out a broad neighbouring motion from G to E and back to (i, passing through _F i n both instances. This neighbouring motion f u l f i l l s one of the basic requirements for th i s section i n a conventional sonata-allegro form: tonal s t a b i l i t y , as opposed to tonal contrast i n the Exposition. The Closing Group The avoidance of a tonic r e s o l u t i o n at m. 159.1 leaves room for a further working out of both motives, Al and B l . In f a c t , the tonic p i t c h i t s e l f i s even missing from t h i s cadence, the WT^  sonority at that point being reminiscent of p a r a l l e l moments e a r l i e r i n the movement, p a r t i c u l a r l y of the l i n k between the l y r i c phase and the r e t r a n s i t i o n (m. 103.1). This group neatly subdivides into two phrases of eight measures each (mm. 159.2 98 to 168.1, 168.1 to 175.1). In the f i r s t phrase, the head of motive Al appears i n a t i g h t sequence of overlapping i m i t a t i o n s , the outer voices moving i n contrary motion.34 The voice-leading graph (Appendix, p. 232) reveals how a sequence of root motions centering on Ab emerges from t h i s context, a clear pattern not unlike those heard i n the two p a r a l l e l closing sections (mm. 63-73.1 and 103-118.1). At m. 167, Ab i s reinterpreted as a dominant, to be resolved on the f i r s t beat of m. 168, on Db, the Neapolitan degree of the p r e v a i l i n g key, appearing i n i t s most recognizable guise: f i r s t i n v e r s i o n . The second phrase of t h i s c losing group features material from the second subject group. A sequence of chords whose roots ascend i n minor th i r d s from Db to JBb (mm. 168-171) i s followed with a prolongation of the Eb chord resolving the l a s t step of the sequence (mm. 172.1-174.1). This Eb i s i t s e l f transformed into a dominant of Ab. Thus, the cycle i s completed and the entire closing group appears as an embellishing motion to t h i s dominant seventh on Ab/G#. The r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of this chord as a German s i x t h i n C allows f or i t s r e s o l u t i o n to G at m. 175.1. Because the t r i a d supported by t h i s £ i s a ^, however, i t functions ambivalently as a p o t e n t i a l dominant approach, on a l o c a l l e v e l , and as a tonic r e s o l u t i o n of the s t r u c t u r a l dominant l e f t unresolved by the deceptive cadence of m. 159.1. Indeed, Szymanowski dispenses with the conventional r e s o l u t i o n 6 5 6 6 of ^ to ^ and moves d i r e c t l y to another ^ on the tonic, a ^ which does resolve to a root p o s i t i o n chord at m. 177. The p e r f e c t l y consonant G-major t r i a d which comes as the t h i r d step of the sequence from Db to Eb (m. 170) may sound odd i n the midst of the 99 dominant-seventh sonorities p r e v a i l i n g here. The use of an "incomplete" chord (that i s , incomplete with regard to contextual norms) may be a way of s t r e s s i n g i t s passing function while avoiding any suggestion of i t s broader s t r u c t u r a l role as dominant i n the key of C. A s i m i l a r use of a perfect t r i a d as a passing chord was noticed i n the Introduction (see m. 11.2 and above, p. 57). The combination of ascending l i n e s and ornamentation of increasing density with crescendo molto (from subito pianissimo) at mm. 172.2-175.1 harks back to s i m i l a r gestures heard e a r l i e r i n the movement: the bridge between the two subject groups (mm. 35.2-38.1), mm. 80-82.1, and mm. 83-97.1 of the Development. The Coda Given the extensive closing group analyzed above, there i s l i t t l e need for an elaborate Coda. Indeed, i t i s remarkably short: eight measures o u t l i n i n g a motion from tonic to subdominant, and back to tonic, c e r t a i n l y the most predictable tonal o r i e n t a t i o n for this section. A sequence of statements of the head of motive Al over a tonic pedal culminates on a dominant ninth of the subdominant, followed by emphatic but predictable motions to the subdominant and t o n i c . While the second measure (m. 176) shows an i n c l i n a t i o n toward the sharp side (E-major t r i a d over the tonic pedal), m. 178 d e f i n i t e l y s h i f t s the tonal balance to the f l a t side (Eb t r i a d ) , a l l t h i s i n the most agitated tempo and at the loudest dynamic l e v e l possible (note the l a s t chord: s f f f p o s s i b i l e ! ) . The outer-voice framework of the closing group and Coda discloses how 100 the a r r i v a l to the f i n a l tonic i s delayed by neighbouring motions prolonging the augmented s i x t h of m. 159 (Example 2.38). Tonal-Harmonic Structure and Formal Design Although i n t e r e s t was primarily focused on i n d i v i d u a l segments as separate e n t i t i e s , ideas about the broad formal design and unity of the movement were i m p l i c i t i n the analyses made to this point. In this f i n a l s ection, the movement as a whole i s considered, p a r t i c u l a r l y with the aim of examining r e l a t i o n s h i p s between tonal-harmonic structure and formal-motivic organization. Passing mention was made of a basic pattern of a n t i t h e s i s permeating the tonal plan of the movement. This a n t i t h e s i s rests on a t r i p l e opposition: opposition between Eb and A as tonal centers located at equal distance from C; opposition between the subdominant and dominant sides of C (counterclockwise and clockwise motion around the c i r c l e of f i f t h s ) ; and f i n a l l y , opposition between C major and C minor, emphasized by the fact that A i s usually represented by i t s dominant E, set i n v i v i d contrast with Eb and related tonal regions. This oppositional design becomes manifest as early as the Introduction. While a C-major t r i a d frames the p r i n c i p a l period of t h i s section (m. 2 and 13), th i s degree does not immediately emerge as a tonal center. The key centers of E and A predominate u n t i l m. 11.2, where a rapid s h i f t to Eb takes place. The emphatic way i n which t h i s Eb i s toni c i z e d compensates f o r i t s b r e v i t y . As the analysis above has d i s c l o s e d , C i s only one of a number of pl a u s i b l e tonal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s for the ensuing progression at mm. 12-13. The f i r s t subject group i s t o n a l l y u n i f i e d around Eb, expressed mostly 101 Example 2.38: Outer-voice framework of f i n a l c l o sing group and Coda 102 through i t s secondary dominant F and dominant Bb. The t r a n s i t i o n from the Eb region to the E-A region of the second subj ect group rests on the r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of _F as s i x t h degree of A minor, allowing for an augmented s i x t h to dominant motion (mm. 43-44). Because of the exact r e p e t i t i o n of i t s f i r s t phrase (mm. 58-62), the second subject group i s enclosed within a broad V-VI motion i n A minor. Between these two p i l l a r s , an emphasis on D major (mm. 49-51) and B major (m. 53) punctuates the beginning of each of the two intervening segments, interpreted i n context as motions to IV and V of V i n A. While the second subject group i s introduced by a motion from F to E (mm. 43-44) and closes with a motion from E to F (mm. 60-63.1), the Exposition as a whole begins with a motion from Eb to F, through C (mm. 18-27) and closes with a motion from F (m. 63.1) to Eb (m. 72) through C (m. 69). Such a t o n a l l y c i r c u l a r structure i s more akin to that of a f i r s t section i n a sonata-rondo than to the Exposition of a sonata-allegro form. In a sense, a reprise of the Exposition would be pl a u s i b l e a f t e r m. 72 of the closing group. The cadence to a dominant seventh rooted on B/Cb, at m. 73.1, implies a r a d i c a l departure from t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n . It opens the door to the Development. The two subdivisions of the i n i t i a l , rhythmic phase of the Development are strongly contrasted not only by the fact that the second (mm. 83-96) rests on a pedal of C, but also by the nature of th e i r tonal-harmonic content. The f i r s t segment (mm. 73-82) features ascending motions of diminished-seventh and dominant-seventh chords. The minor second and the minor t h i r d are prevalent i n t e r v a l s both i n the motivic content of i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s and i n the pattern of root motions. By contrast, the 103 second segment (mm. 83-96) sets f o r t h scalar motions and triads i n which the major second and the major t h i r d predominate. In more than one way, the contrast between the two sections i s comparable to the contrast t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with the ju x t a p o s i t i o n of a statement i n minor followed by a statement i n major. As mentioned e a r l i e r (see p. 84), the root progression by f i f t h s (B, E, A) of mm. 73-82 i s not pursued i n the second segment, which features root motions ascending by major seconds over a pedal of C:. The r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s pedal to an F#-major t r i a d i n ^  p o s i t i o n completes t h i s motion, and i n i t i a t e s a descending sequence which leads back to A as a dominant of D at m. 101. From that point on, root motions by f i f t h are resumed, ultimately ending well into the Recapitulation: D (prolonged and c l a r i f i e d i n the descending scale of mm. 105-117); G minor (mm 118-126); C major (m. 127); F major (m. 131); Bb major (m. 135); Eb major (m. 137). The dynamic and te x t u r a l culmination point of the movement (m. 97.1) thus appears within a motion parenthetical to th i s harmonic pattern encompassing the Development and the f i r s t half of the Recapitulation. On the other hand, _F# does not appear anywhere else i n the movement i n a s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l p o s i t i o n , lending t h i s culmination point a unique harmonic impact. I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the Recapitulation begins when the sequence of descending f i f t h s reaches JS, the dominant of the key center of the movement. In order to maintain the basic d i a l e c t i c a l pattern described above between the flat/minor/subdominant side of C i n the f i r s t subject and the sharp/major/dominant side i n the second subject group, G minor i s used at t h i s point. 104 Because the second subject group i s restated untransposed, i t halts the s e r i e s of descending-fifth root motions, focusing on E (as V of A), as i n the Exposition. The conclusion of the second subject group merely s l i p s back to G, f i r s t minor, than major (mm. 157-158), introducing the dominant of C i n i t s f u l l capacity for the f i r s t time i n the piece. Of the many questions raised by the tonal structure of this movement, that of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the tonal plan of the Recapitulation i s probably the most pressing. That the Recapitulation does not begin i n the tonic key (or i n the same key as the Exposition, for that matter) i s not unusual. There i s no lack of examples i n the l i t e r a t u r e of r e c a p i t u l a t i o n s beginning i n the key of the dominant and returning to the tonic i n the course of the f i r s t subject group. On the other hand, r e c a p i t u l a t i o n s where the second subject group i s not transposed are c e r t a i n l y more of a rar i t y . 3 5 The combination of both a n o m a l i e s — f i r s t subject group transposed; second subject group not t r a n s p o s e d — i s probably unique to th i s Quartet. Were the second subject group exposed i n the tonic key to st a r t with, the very idea of c a l l i n g t h i s a sonata-form movement would be incongruous. The aural experience of the piece, confirmed by i t s a n a l y s i s , suggests that the requirements of tonal opposition i n an exposition are indeed f u l f i l l e d but through other means than the conventional tonic-dominant or tonic-mediant contrasts, as seen above. The persistence of th i s tonal c o n f l i c t i n the Recapitulation c a l l s f o r a reevaluation of the influence of C as t o n i c . In keeping with the Austro-German t r a d i t i o n of the times,36 Szymanowski's concept of sonata form i s strongly t r i p a r t i t e . There i s 105 l i t t l e vestige l e f t of i t s binary o r i g i n . This strong leaning toward an "ABA" pattern coincides with a greater reliance on thematic content to characterize each component. The Development thus stands out as an almost e n t i r e l y autonomous section with l i t t l e motivic r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Exposition u n t i l the r e t r a n s i t i o n . The "related contrast" (Schoenberg's term) c a l l e d for i n th i s section r e l i e s not so much on contrast of key and/or mode, as on contrasts of tempo, texture, and rhythmic-motivic patterns. While, i n keeping with conventions, i t uses a v a r i e t y of i n t e n s i f y i n g devices of which r i s i n g sequences are the most powerful, t h i s Development prominently features a tonic pedal i n i t s center. Had the tonic the same s t a b i l i z i n g influence i t has i n works representative of the tonal t r a d i t i o n , t h i s pedal would be most unsuitable. The t o n a l i t y of C i s only weakly defined at the end of the Introduction; i t plays v i r t u a l l y no role i n the Exposition; and i t i s c l e a r l y established only i n the Coda. Emphasizing i t i n the Development therefore c a r r i e s l i t t l e r i s k of tonal stagnation. A further consequence of th i s formal concept i s the complete in t e g r a t i o n of the Introduction and Coda i n the tonal structure of the piece. Without them, i t i s u n l i k e l y that CJ would be f e l t as tonal center of the movement. 106 NOTES 1 Samson, The Music of Szymanowski, p. 108. 2 I b i d . , p. 97. 3ln closing t h i s piece on the dominant, Szymanowski probably t r i e d to recapture some of the modal flavour of the gregorian hymn on the same text. For a f u l l discussion of the "tonal" implications of t h i s hypomixolydian melody, see Berry, S t r u c t u r a l Functions, pp. 121-122. ^Arnold Schoenberg, St r u c t u r a l Functions of Harmony, Revised E d i t i o n , edited by Leonard Stein (New York: W.W. Norton, 1969), p. 7. 5 I b i d . 6 I b i d . , p. 8. ^Texture-space i n i t s broadest acceptation i s defined by Wallace Berry as "the o v e r a l l f i e l d or ambitus i n which events take place" ( S t r u c t u r a l  Functions, p. 191). W^T^  designates the whole-tone c o l l e c t i o n which includes p i t c h - c l a s s (±; the other i s indicated by the abbreviation WT*. ^See p. 45, note 14, for a f u l l e r discussion of this question. lOjfo attempt i s made here at applying Schoenberg's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of root progressions. There i s no equivalent tonal-functional progression, except IV-VI-I (or I-III-V), c e r t a i n l y not a well established archetype. H T h i s term i s to be understood as defined by Schoenberg: "Episodes in t e r r u p t the normal flow of a sec t i o n . . . They often introduce small phrases, strangely foreign to the previously used motive-forms . . . " (Schoenberg, Fundamentals, p. 155). l 2Samson, The Music of Szymanowski, p. 108. See his Example 23(i) f o r a comparison of melodic l i n e s from various works by Szymanowski (the F i r s t Quartet i s not quoted, however) with a theme from The Poem of Ecstasy by S c r i a b i n . ^ M o t i v e Al i s accompanied by a chromatic l i n e (second v i o l i n ) embellishing the p r e v a i l i n g d iatonic degrees. These, with the chromatic embellishing motions i n the bass, do not a f f e c t the p r e v a i l i n g d i a t o n i c character of motive A l . 107 l^The d i a l e c t i c a l concept of progressive and recessive motions i s borrowed from Wallace Berry i n S t r u c t u r a l Functions. See i n p a r t i c u l a r the Introduction, pp. 7-13. 1^Beyond this tonal-harmonic function, the episode also anticipates m o t i v i c a l l y , rhythmically, and t e x t u r a l l y the f i r s t part of the Development (see below, p. 79). ^ A r t h u r W i l l n e r , Notes to the Philharmonia-Partituren E d i t i o n of the Quartet (without page number) (Vienna: Universal E d i t i o n , 1925); Wightman, "The Music of Karol Szymanowski", p. 96. l^The " r e s o l u t i v e " , "quasi-tonic" character of such single tones has been well described by Wallace Berry, S t r u c t u r a l Functions, p. 104. 18 The reader w i l l have recognized t h i s as the phrase chosen for the sample analysis of chapter I, pp. 32-43. 1 9 T h i s c 4 (m. 47.1) i s a s t y l i s t i c anomaly. In keeping with the Wagnerian influence already noticed i n other dimensions of t h i s music, culminating points of this type have previously been approached by way of an appoggiatura (see g3, at m. 27.2 to f3; b^ at m. 31.2). Indeed, here, the rhythmic and melodic contours of the appoggiatura are kept but functions are reversed: c 4 Is the chord tone, and b3 a passing tone. 20"The closer the i m i t a t i o n (the smaller the time i n t e r v a l ) , the more intense i s the 'competition 1; i t i s reasonable to assume, and experience confirms, that the awareness of e x p l i c i t motivic a f f i n i t y put 'out of j o i n t 1 by temporal discrepancy must be heightened by a r e l a t i v e l y small  margin of distance. This i s the basis for the use by composers . . . o f s t r e t t o , . . . as part of the expression of i n t e n s i t y toward which t e x t u r a l structure, with other element structures, progresses." (Berry, S t r u c t u r a l  Functions, p. 217). ^Wightman, "The Music of Karol Szymanowski", p. 97; Willner, Notes to the Philharmonia E d i t i o n of the Quartet (without pagination); Samson does not describe i t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n these terms, but he puts the beginning of the Development at m. 73.1 (The Music of Szymanowski, p. 128), implying that, i n his view, mm. 63-73.1 are s t i l l part of the Exposition. ^Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed., s.v. "Development", by Leonard G. Ratner. 23xhe ambiguity of t h i s term i s the basis of Schoenberg's preference for the term "elaboration" to designate the middle portion of a sonata-allegro form. See Schoenberg, Fundamentals, p. 151, note 1; p. 200, note; and p. 206. ^ A d m i t t e d l y , the emergence of the second subject group does allow for some uncertainty, as described above (see pp. 65-66). 108 •"Samson, The Music of Szymanowski, p. 128. 26schoenberg, Fundamentals, p. 201 ( c a p i t a l s i n the t e x t ) . 2^The short episode of mm. 35-38.1 may be understood as a forerunner of t h i s passage. There too, marcato a r t i c u l a t i o n , repeated notes, and a generally agitated atmosphere created a sharp contrast with the preceding phrase. 28xhe descending motion A#-Ajb| i s anticipated i n the v i o l a , m. 88.3. 29This dominant t h i r t e e n t h i s curiously related to the "Mystic chord" of S c r i a b i n : both are WT^  c o l l e c t i o n s plus one added PC. In the case of the Mystic chord, A i s added, while, here, i s the "foreign" note. 30samson, The Music of Szymanowski, pp. 109-110. 3! l b i d . , p. 128. 3 2 i n the Third Movement of the F i r s t Quartet, 63 measures are repeated without the s l i g h t e s t a l t e r a t i o n , representing 24.2% of the t o t a l length of the movement. In the F i r s t Movement of the Second Quartet, 22 measures are repeated, 22.5% of the movement. In the case examined here, only 23 measures out of 182 are repeated exactly (12.5%). I f the transposed measures are included, the proportion increases to 20%, s t i l l i n f e r i o r to that of the other two cases. 3^The return of t h i s d^, sforzando f o r t i s s i m o , at m. 179.1 does not in v a l i d a t e this statement since, at that point, i t has become a dissonant ninth above the f i r m l y established t o n i c . In a sense, i t i s "suspended" from m. 157, to be resolved i m p l i c i t l y by the f i n a l tonic t r i a d at m. 182. 3 4 T h e change of r e g i s t e r i n the bass at m. 163 i s unavoidable. 35" . . . the minimum change i n the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n i s the transposition of the subordinate group to the tonic region." (Schoenberg, Fundamentals, p. 209). 3 6Schoenberg's theories of form, as exposed i n his Fundamentals, f a i t h f u l l y represent t h i s t r a d i t i o n . CHAPTER III ANALYSIS OF THE SECOND MOVEMENT In more than one way, the middle movement i s t r a n s i t i o n a l : i t begins i n an unequivocal E major to end on an ambivalent sonority poised over the f i f t h D-A, i n a meter, a tempo, and a key signature d i f f e r e n t from those of the beginning. One author describes i t as a theme and v a r i a t i o n s , 1 * and, indeed, t h i s seems to be the formal pattern underlying the composer's approach. Szymanowski's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of this pattern, however, proves to be j u s t as personal as his i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of sonata form i n the F i r s t Movement. Three d i f f e r e n t indications of meter, key, and tempo are used i n the Second Movement: (1) 3/4, four sharps, Andantino semplice, i n mm. 1-22; (2) 6/8, one f l a t , Adagio dolcissimo, i n mm. 23-40; and (3) 3/8, no sharps or f l a t s , Lento a s s a i , i n mm. 41-85. Based on t h i s evidence, some authors^ have considered the movement to be i n three sections. It i s this writer's opinion that another major a r t i c u l a t i o n occurs at m. 10, y i e l d i n g a f o u r f o l d structure. It i s imperative to state now the fundamental reasons i n favour of this hypothesis. The perfect authentic cadence at m. 10.1 i s a decisive punctuation, indeed, the most obvious event of i t s kind i n the e n t i r e Quartet. If mm. 1-22 were to form a u n i f i e d section, i t would be most unusual to emphasize with such a powerful punctuation what would be an intermediate cadence. *Notes for t h i s chapter begin on p. 135. 109 110 This punctuation i s followed with a s i g n i f i c a n t change of character. While mm. 1-10 can be described as an accompanied melody, interrupted by a f l e e t i n g i m i t a t i v e passage at mm. 5-6, mm. 10-22 are e n t i r e l y occupied with s t r e t t o - l i k e sequences to which a l l four instruments contribute on an equal b a s i s . These i m i t a t i v e sequences exhibit an ABA s t r u c t u r a l pattern (mm. 21-22 are a varied reprise of mm. 11-12) which i s also found to govern the following two sections (mm. 23-40 and 41-85), but i s not found i n the i n i t i a l phrase (mm. 1-10). Thus, mm. 10-22 are s t r u c t u r a l l y p a r a l l e l to the following two sections and l i k e l y to have formally equivalent status. Given the obvious change of character that takes place i n m. 10, the i n i t i a l tempo i n d i c a t i o n , Andantino semplice, i n modo d'una canzone, can hardly be said to apply to mm. 10-22. The i n d i c a t i o n L'istesso tempo provided by the composer at m. 10 i s d i f f i c u l t to understand i f not meant to suggest, inadequately perhaps, that a new section begins at that point i n the same tempo (andantino semplice) as the preceding phrase but NOT i n modo d'una canzone. The evidence gathered above should be s u f f i c i e n t to support the view according to which there i s a major s t r u c t u r a l a r t i c u l a t i o n at m. 10. The movement thus appears to be made of a theme (the Canzone, mm. 1-10.1), and three v a r i a t i o n s . In view of the change of time signature from 6/8 to 3/8 at m. 41, two measures of V a r i a t i o n 3 are equivalent to one of V a r i a t i o n 2. The length of the successive sections thus appears to increase progressively: Canzone, 10 measures; V a r i a t i o n 1, 13 measures; V a r i a t i o n 2, 18 measures; and V a r i a t i o n 3, 22 1/2 measures. A formal analysis of the movement based on the hypothesis discussed above i s outlined i n Example 3.1. I l l Example 3.1: Formal out l i n e of Second Movement Canzone 4 sharps (E) 3 4 Andantino semplice 1 - 10 V a r i a t i o n 1 4 sharps (E) f 1 0 - 1 2 "Al' L'is t e s s o < ^ _ ^ . < A 2. tempo k 2 0 - 2 2 "Alv" V a r i a t i o n 2 1 f l a t (F/d?) 6 8 Adagio i dolcissimo 23 26 31 36 25 T r a n s i t i o n 1 30 " B l " 35 "B2" 40 "Blv" Va r i a t i o n 3 No signature (C/a?) 3 8 Lento assai 41 - 46 T r a n s i t i o n 2 47 - 55 "CI" 56 - 74 "C2" 75 - 83 "Civ" 84 - 85 Codetta While the Introduction to the Quartet and the Canzone tread s i m i l a r paths (see Example 3.2 and related commentary), a deeper connection between the i n i t i a l three-chord progression C major-D major-E major (Introduction, 112 mm. 2-3) and the structure of the Second Movement i s hinted at by the changes of key signatures. E major rules over the Canzone and V a r i a t i o n 1. I f V a r i a t i o n 2 turned out to be i n D minor (one f l a t ) and V a r i a t i o n 3 i n C major (no key signature), the movement as a whole would be a large-scale retrograde of the i n i t i a l ascent from C major to E major. The quotation of t h i s progression i n mm. 3-4.1 of the Canzone would thus carry deeper implications than that of a parenthetical evocation. Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s not obvious, however, since neither V a r i a t i o n 2 nor V a r i a t i o n 3 i s t o n a l l y unambiguous. In f a c t , t h e i r tonal structures are vague enough as to have e l i c i t e d the following comment by Samson: "Later sections touch on various tonal regions without l i n g e r i n g i n any." He goes on to admit, however, that: D minor i s suggested i n a second paragraph and t h i s i n turn leads to a slow, i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a l l y coloured c l o s i n g section whose blend of Gb major and C major r e c a l l s the slow movement of the Third Piano Sonata. 3 Only a c a r e f u l examination of the tonal-harmonic structure of the movement i s apt to provide conclusive evidence i n support of or against t h i s hypothesis. The Canzone As mentioned above, many elements of the Canzone i n v i t e a comparison with the Introduction. Not only i s the i n i t i a l three-chord progression quoted i n mm. 3-4.1, but the upper-voice melodic elements of the two passages show a marked resemblance i n t h e i r respective contours (Example 3.2). The p a r a l l e l between the N and z motives i n t h i s example 113 Example 3.2: Comparison of melodic contours of Introduction and Canzone a. 1:1-4 8va r M , N . , M' b. 2:1-3 © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G. , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition i s made a l l the more s t r i k i n g by the fact that i n both cases this element coincides with the ascending progression already mentioned, although not i n a consistent metric p o s i t i o n . Furthermore, both melodies bui l d up to a climax underlined by remarkably s i m i l a r gestures (Example 3.3): a melodic ascent, underscored by a crescendo i n a l l the parts and contrary motion i n the bass, leads to a t e x t u r a l l y i s o l a t e d and sustained p i t c h marked f dolce; the three lower instruments reenter with a s t r i c t l y homophonic succession of three chords ending on a decrescendo. A d e t a i l e d voice-leading graph of the Canzone i s found i n the Appendix (p. 233). The i n t r i c a c i e s of voice-leading are sorted out at l e v e l -A- i n a manner which i s now f a m i l i a r to the reader. At the surface, the impression of tonal-harmonic c l a r i t y r e s u l t s from the prevalence of consonant chords and root motions by f i f t h . A further reduction of l e v e l -B- y i e l d i n g a Schenkerian Ursatz emerges as a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y (Example 3.4). Without overworking the importance of this p o s s i b i l i t y , 114 Example 3.3: Comparison of mm. 11-13 of Introduction with mm. 6-7 of 2nd Movement © Copyright 1925 by Universal E d i t i o n A.G., Wien Copyright renewed A l l r i g h t s reserved Used by permission of European American Music D i s t r i b u t o r s Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal E d i t i o n 115 Example 3.4: Background structure of Canzone there i s no doubt that i t reinforces the i n t u i t i o n that this segment of the Quartet belongs to a d i f f e r e n t s t y l i s t i c family. V a r i a t i o n 1 Va r i a t i o n 1 (mm. 10.1-22) features s t r e t t o - l i k e imitations of motives borrowed from the melody of the Canzone, ornamenting a sequential harmonic structure. A f i r s t series of statements on motive x' (Example 3.5) 4 builds Example 3.5: Motive x 1, F i r s t v i o l i n , mm. 11-12 (6) Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G. , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition up to a melodic-dynamic-textural c l i m a c t i c point at m. 16, followed by a second s e r i e s , this time on motive y, s t a r t i n g i n the lowest r e g i s t e r to 116 ascend to a varied repeat of the i n i t i a l measures of the v a r i a t i o n (mm. 20-22). Some elements of the harmonic structure of the Canzone seem to influence the contour of the bass l i n e (see Example 3.7 and related commentary). Beyond the fact that the p r i n c i p a l motive of this phrase i s a v a r i a t i o n of motive x, the two melodies approach t h e i r apexes i n s i m i l a r ways (Example 3.6). Example 3.6: Comparison of f i r s t v i o l i n l i n e s , mm. 5-6 and 15-16 8va I, ft f\ 15 1 4& 8va © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition The chordal implications of motive y are thoroughly ca r r i e d out in^the second phrase (mm. 16.3-22), where diminished-seventh and dominant-seventh so n o r i t i e s predominate. Together with the im i t a t i v e entries and the ascending harmonic sequence, t h i s predominance marks this phrase as a kind of development of the short sequences heard i n the middle of the Canzone (mm. 5.2-6.2). It also evokes moments of the F i r s t Movement, s p e c i f i c a l l y the beginning of the Development (mm. 73-78.1). If the term " v a r i a t i o n " i s appropriate here, i t i s not i n the sense that the melody or the bass of the Canzone functions as a cantus firmus to t h i s section, but rather i n the borrowing of motivic material, of fragments 117 of outer-voice contours, and of the tonal o r i e n t a t i o n of the Canzone, an approach c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of twentieth-century "free" v a r i a t i o n s . A voice-leading graph of th i s v a r i a t i o n i s found on p. 234. For the same reasons as i n the Development of the F i r s t Movement (p. 79), l e v e l -A-i s dispensed with and attention i s focused on the middleground and tonal-harmonic background. At l e v e l -B-, the importance of sequential imitations i s r e f l e c t e d i n the fact that the upper p r i n c i p a l l i n e i s fragmented. A neighbouring motion around JB i s i d e n t i f i a b l e , however, beginning with b at m. 11.2, culminating on a^ at m. 16.1, and returning to b^ at m. 19.2. A motion to a^ by way of g| (m.22) secures a l i n k with the beginning of the following v a r i a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y , the bass appears as a prolongation of an octave descent from B to BB, including an unavoidable octave transfer at m. 14. Harmonically, t h i s descending s c a l e , beginning with the f i f t h of the tonic chord at m. 10.1, supports a sequence of dominant-seventh so n o r i t i e s descending i n th i r d s from F. The return to E at m. 20.3 involves an ascent by whole steps: C# (m. 16.3), D# (m. 18.1), E# (m. 19.2), followed by a c i r c l i n g motion around E by way of D (m. 20.2). I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, the ascending progression suggests a 4/4 metric framework. The harmonies involved are diminished sevenths ascending i n p a r a l l e l motion. The bass contour of th i s v a r i a t i o n i s not without some noticeable s i m i l a r i t i e s to that of the Canzone (Example 3.7): the i n i t i a l descending motion, which stopped on C i n the Canzone but goes on to reach BBb (represented as Bb) i n the v a r i a t i o n ; the ascent from C#, comparable to m. 7 of the Canzone; and 118 Example 3.7: Comparison of bass l i n e s , mm. 2-7 and 10-20 m i i p P f © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edi t ion A . G . , Wien Copyright renewed A l l r ights reserved Used by permission of European American Music D ist r ibutors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edi t ion the a r r i v a l on E (m. 7 and m. 20.3) followed by a cadential formula, here an open cadence leading the way to the following v a r i a t i o n . F i n a l l y , the two sections are also related by the importance granted to s t r i c t p a r a l l e l motion of chords, although root p o s i t i o n triads and dominant-seventh chords are here less common i n that role than f i r s t inversions and diminished sevenths. V a r i a t i o n 2 Variations 2 and 3 rank among Szymanowski's most personal i n s p i r a t i o n s . They belong to the same s t y l i s t i c universe as the Mythes, 119 op. 30, for v i o l i n and piano, of which Samson writes: His p a r t i c u l a r genius . . . lay i n the creation of s e n s i t i v e l y drawn, chromatically f l e x i b l e melodic l i n e s and i n the development of sui t a b l y refined harmonic and t e x t u r a l backcloths.^ Although rhythmic-metric structures are only marginally considered i n t h i s study, passing mention must be made of the remarkable metric f l u c t u a t i o n which takes place i n the beginning of V a r i a t i o n 2. The time signature changes at m. 23 but the new meter (6/8) and tempo are not made palpable immediately. After 1 1/2 measures of a m e t r i c a l l y indeterminate double pedal (C#-a ), the reentry of motive x' i n the f i r s t v i o l i n (mm. 24.2-26.1) evokes a continuation of the preceding 3/4 signature ("off-beat" by one eighth note; Example 3.8), an impression confirmed by Example 3.8: Renotation of 1st v i o l i n , mm. 24-26.1 -4 - T f—*1 ft— H r f— fth 1  the following statement of motive x' i n the v i o l a . At m. 28, the v i o l a introduces a sequential pattern also i n 3/4 but i n agreement with the notated b a r - l i n e s (Example 3.9). The consequent metric ambiguity i s f a r from c l a r i f i e d by the other voices. Indeed, another pattern emerges from the combined motions of the two v i o l i n s and c e l l o at m. 29-30.2 (Example 3.10), a pattern i n 4/4. 120 Example 3.9: V i o l a , mm. 28.1-29.2 28 I n u u ' r ' f © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G. , Wien Copyright renewed Al l rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition Example 3.10: Renotation of 1st and 2nd v i o l i n s , and c e l l o , mm. 29-30.1 (?) Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G. , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition In short, the 6/8 time signature i s not heard to have any d e f i n i t e influence before m. 31, while implications of 4/4 are gradually shaken by d i s l o c a t i o n s . Textural components heighten the impression of v a c i l l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the open sonority with which the v a r i a t i o n begins (C#-a2), and the protracted dominant pedal (A) which u n i f i e s this segment (mm. 23-30.2), with i t s disconcerting r e s o l u t i o n to g# (a phenomenon of tonal-harmonic structure studied below). 121 After a short middle segment of r e l a t i v e metric c l a r i t y (mm. 31-35), the varied repeat of the i n i t i a l statement does not immediately e l i c i t the same f e e l i n g of uncertainty. The clear downbeat i n both v i o l i n s at m. 37 and the d i s t i n c t 6/8 character of the second v i o l i n ( c l e a r l y required by changes of bowing and marcato accentuations) prevent any obscuring of the 6/8 impulse. Furthermore, the texture always remains r e l a t i v e l y f u l l . However, the exact restatement of mm. 28-30 at mm. 38-40 does summon an impression of progressive metric d i s l o c a t i o n . The section i s recognizable as a v a r i a t i o n of the Canzone not only through the presence of motives x 1 and y, but also because of the contour of the bass (descending conjunct motion from ai| to dlj, return to afc| by leaps) and the t y p i c a l way i n which the cli m a c t i c moment i s defined (compare Example 3.11 with Example 3.3 and related commentary). Example 3.11: _2nd V a r i a t i o n , mm. 33-35.1 poco sosten. © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edit ion A .G . , Wien Conyright renewed ATI r ights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distr ibutors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition 122 A secondary figure i n the accompaniment of the Canzone may also be interpreted as the model for a countermelody of this v a r i a t i o n (Example 3.12): the analogy between the two patterns r e a d i l y comes through i f the l a s t four notes of the former are transposed down an octave. Example 3.12: 2nd v i o l i n , mm. 2-3 and mm. 27-28 2 (c) Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G. , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition The v a r i a t i o n i s u n i f i e d t o n a l l y by the conspicuous presence of a pedal on A i n t h i r t e e n of i t s eighteen measures. The motion away from t h i s pedal i s made a l l the more momentous by the fact that, while i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as a dominant pedal i n D i s hardly questionable,6 i t resolves by moving down a semitone, i n a German-sixth type of r e s o l u t i o n , to Git, the l a t t e r part of a dominant-seventh chord. The reference to C# implied by this motion i s maintained through mm. 31-32 so that, i n order to introduce the D-major ninth chord at m. 33, the dominant of C# i n m. 32 ( i n second inversion) must be, i n i t s turn, treated as a dominant of the dominant i n F# resolving to a German s i x t h , as can be read i n the voice-leading graph (Appendix, p. 235). In view of the prevalence of WTO patterns elsewhere i n the Quartet, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the roots of the chord succession of mm. 30.2-33 belong to that scale: G#-F#-E#-D. 123 The f i n a l return to the dominant of D i s mediated by a motion through B major (mm. 34.2-35.2). The t o n a l i t y of D which was posited at the beginning of t h i s analysis as a working assumption thus appears to govern the outer parts of the v a r i a t i o n (mm. 23-30.1 and 36-40.1) while the middle segment i s better understood i n C# and B. Only once does a chord on D appear i n root p o s i t i o n (m. 33), and then, within a context of C# i n which i t functions as a German s i x t h i n the key of the subdominant. The harmonic vocabulary used i n t h i s v a r i a t i o n i s remarkably consistent: chords of the seventh (dominant seventh, diminished seventh, minor seventh) enjoy an unchallenged preeminence. V a r i a t i o n 3 This l a s t v a r i a t i o n i s so d i f f i c u l t to r e l a t e to the Canzone that one i s j u s t i f i e d i n looking elsewhere for a prototype. Indeed, c a r e f u l analysis reveals subtle but unmistakable references to the Introduction. Before exploring these, however, motivic, voice-leading and tonal-harmonic features of t h i s v a r i a t i o n must be examined i n d e t a i l . If i t retains t e x t u r a l aspects of V a r i a t i o n 2, p a r t i c u l a r l y the s t a t i c character of the harmony r e s u l t i n g from extended pedal tones sustaining melodies exploring progressively higher r e g i s t e r s , V a r i a t i o n 3 i s otherwise strongly contrasting. Not only i s the time signature changed to 3/8 and the tempo further slowed to Lento a s s a i , but the rhythmic patterns of both melody and accompaniment are designed to enhance the meter throughout, as opposed to the f l o a t i n g metric organization of the preceding v a r i a t i o n . 124 Without exception, changes of harmony occur on the f i r s t beats of measures. Both the p r i n c i p a l melody and i t s counterpoint (beginning at m. 57) c l a r i f y the meter with a re g u l a r l y undulating l i n e (Example 3.13). Indeed, the only noticeable threat to metric c l a r i t y occurs i n the Example 3.13: P r i n c i p a l melody, f i r s t v i o l i n , mm. 47-56 H7 44 H to Si Q Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition cadence to the "A" segment i n the second v i o l i n (Example 3.14). The use of the hemiola (here a 3/4 grouping of two measures i n 3/8) at cadential points, however, can hardly be considered an instance of metric d i s l o c a t i o n . Example 3.14: Countermelody, second v i o l i n , mm. 52-56 © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition 125 By f ar the most i n t r i g u i n g element i n the composition of th i s passage i s the dichotomy f e l t , at c e r t a i n moments, between the tonal o r i e n t a t i o n of the melodic l i n e s and that of the concurrent harmonies. Since the l a s t movement i s e x p l i c i t l y polytonal i n i t s i n t e n t i o n s , could i t be, here, that Szymanowski i s already moving i n that d i r e c t i o n , confirming the t r a n s i t i o n a l character of th i s movement? A c a r e f u l scrutiny reveals that the kind of dichotomy f e l t i n th i s v a r i a t i o n i s not to be equated with the systematic use of d i f f e r e n t key signatures, although i t i s plausible that Szymanowski meant th i s passage to an t i c i p a t e , to a c e r t a i n extent, the following movement. In order to make t h i s point, the tonal-harmonic structure of the accompaniment i s analyzed separately from that of the melodic l i n e s . This l a s t v a r i a t i o n begins on an inversion of the same harmony on which the previous one ended: a dominant seventh on j3#/Ab (a ninth i s added i n the v i o l a at m. 47). From m. 50.1 to 52, this chord i s gradually transformed into a D-major t r i a d i n root p o s i t i o n , a transformation deserving of closer examination (Example 3.15). Example 3.15: •\pa ha \\-TJ— 49 50 51 52 126 At m. 50.1, c 1 descends to c*, a motion whose s i g n i f i c a n c e i s enhanced by i t s simultaneous occurrence i n the melody and the accompaniment. This motion tr i g g e r s a chain reaction of suspension-like "displacements": the b^ resolves to a^ at m. 50.3; t h i s a^ c a l l s f o r the displacement of g D to f l j , which indeed occurs on the following beat (m. 51.1); f i n a l l y , the flj causes the upper voice e^ to descend to d*- on the l a s t beat of the measure. The chain reaction i s interrupted at this point, implying that the v e r t i c a l i t i e s of mm. 50-51.2 were a l l preparatory to t h i s chord, a diminished seventh over a suspended Eb i n the bass. The en t i r e process appears as an extrapolation of the progression shown i n Example 3.16, where the pedal i n the bass successively functions as t h i r d , f i f t h , and seventh of the chord. Example 3.16: Suggested prototype for mm. 50-51.2 Although they move away from the t o n a l i t y of D established i n the preceding v a r i a t i o n , mm. 40.2-51 turn out to play a t r a n s i t i o n a l role i n the tonal structure. Motion to the remote region of Ab i s absorbed, so to speak, i n a root motion of deeper s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e : V-I i n D. Following a four-bar plateau on _D, harmonic motion i s resumed by a descent to £ at m. 56.1. The bass c l j at that point i s evanescent, however, and the harmony p r e v a i l i n g over mm. 56-59 i s a dominant sonority i n t h i r d 127 i n v e r s i o n with augmented f i f t h : F_#-A#-Cx-E_. At m. 60.1, t h i s sonority i s resolved to a root p o s i t i o n V 9 on CJ. There i s a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y between the progression of mm. 56-70 and the i n i t i a l progression of the v a r i a t i o n . In both cases the i n t e r v a l of root motion i s a t r i t o n e ; i n both cases, the f i r s t chord i s i n inversion, the second i n root p o s i t i o n . Thus a descending sequential pattern may be perceived as underlying mm. 47-70 despite s i g n i f i c a n t differences of surface ornamentation: the root motion Ab-D i s imitated a step down, .F//-C. A V 2 i n Ab, reinterpreted as a diminished t h i r d chord (augmented s i x t h i n root position) i n G, l i n k s the middle segment with the return of the i n i t i a l phrase on D at m. 74. From that point on, the harmonies of the accompaniment are lightened, and the texture i s illuminated by a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of material over a much broader r e g i s t e r . Lightening of the accompaniment goes hand i n hand with the appearance of a new countermelody which turns out to be formed of ornamented arpeggiations of the pitches omitted i n the accompaniment, thus implying e s s e n t i a l l y the same harmonic structure. The return of the i n i t i a l phrase of the v a r i a t i o n (m. 74) involves more than a mere r e p r i s e . As noted e a r l i e r , D i s reestablished from the very beginning, turning the Ab chord at m. 75 into one of neighbouring function, as opposed to i t s role as a passing chord at m. 47. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the passing dominant-seventh sonority at mm. 71-73 appears to be resolved i n both of i t s p o t e n t i a l functions: as a diminished t h i r d chord (root p o s i t i o n German s i x t h ) , i t resolves to D at m. 74; as dominant seventh, i t resolves to Ab at m. 75 (Example 3.17). The implied tonal 128 Example 3.17: Double r e s o l u t i o n of passing chord, mm. 71-75 71 74 71 75 G Gt V? Ab V VoFIV b i f u r c a t i o n does f i n d a r e s o l u t i o n i n the opening of the following movement with an emphatic J£# to (J motion: the V7 on Ab (mm. 71-73) thus appears as a German s i x t h (Gb reinterpreted as _F#), the dominant seventh on D as a secondary dominant, both pointing to G as to a dominant of C, the unequivocal center of the f i n a l movement. The tonal o r i e n t a t i o n of the melodic l i n e s follows a course d i f f e r e n t from that of the accompaniment when heard i n i s o l a t i o n . In the f i r s t segment, the f i r s t v i o l i n melody sounds i n Ab major (mm. 47-49) turning to minor (i n c l u d i n g the use of natural s i x t h and seventh degrees, mm. 50.1-55; see Example 3.13). The countermelody introduced at m. 52 (2nd v i o l i n , mm. 53-56) rein f o r c e s t h i s Ab-minor o r i e n t a t i o n (see Example 3. 14). In the four-measure t r a n s i t i o n a l passage which follows (mm. 56.2-59), the two melodies ( f i r s t v i o l i n and v i o l a ) favour an F#-major tonal o r i e n t a t i o n admitting of some chromaticism i n the l a s t two measures of the v i o l a . In measures 60-71.1, the scale of F major i s made prominent. The unique emphasis on jj#/Ab (g^ at m. 68 i s the highest point i n the Quartet) does not imply an i n f l e c t i o n to F minor: t h i s p i t c h i s c l e a r l y a chromatic appoggiatura resolving to Bb by way of A. After a three-measure chromatic 129 t r a n s i t i o n (mm. 71.2-73), the melodic material of the f i r s t segment returns, carrying the Ab major/minor implications described above. Six d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s are created by the combination of accompaniment and melody: 1. mm. 47-51: both melody and harmony belong to Ab major/minor, although the harmony s t a r t s evolving toward D at m. 50; 2. mm. 52-55: upper-voice melodies carry on with the Ab or i e n t a t i o n while the accompaniment i s a c l e a r D major t r i a d ; 3. mm. 56-59: the preceding Ab i n the melodies i s "resolved" down to Gb/F#, thus converging with the accompanying harmony; 4. mm. 60-70: both melodic material and accompaniment c l e a r l y project F major through i t s dominant C; 5. mm. 71-73: upper-voice melodies progressively become saturated with chromaticism while the harmony of the accompaniment i s ambivalently poised between G and Ab; 6. mm. 74-85: the s i t u a t i o n of 2 above i s resumed, but i s resolved to G i n the beginning of the following movement. The kind of superimposition of tonal o r i e n t a t i o n apt to be interpreted as b i t o n a l i t y appears c l e a r l y i n the segments numbered 2 and 6 above. There i s no tonal c o n f l i c t i n segments 1, 3, and 4, while segment 5 i s t o n a l l y fluctuant i n both of i t s components such that no unequivocal tonal unity or dichotomy i s i d e n t i f i a b l e i n i t . In both instances where a r e a l d u a l i t y of orientations appears, i t resolves most n a t u r a l l y i n the beginning of the following segment: to F# at m. 56; to G i n the beginning of the Third Movement (as dominant of C). 130 A systematic discussion of p o l y t o n a l i t y i s c e n t r a l to the following chapter. Attention i s simply drawn here to the d i f f e r e n c e between the expanded suspensions of the Second Movement and the superimposition of d i f f e r e n t key signatures i n the l a s t movement. The suspended t o n a l i t y of Ab heard here i s part and parcel of the uncommon broadening of tempo producing a f e e l i n g of q u a s i - s t a s i s . In a context where chords are stretched over four measures and more ( i n a very slow tempo), the suspension of a chord or of a melodic pattern projecting a harmony d i f f e r e n t from that of the accompaniment takes on the implications of transient tonal b i f u r c a t i o n . But resolutions are c a r e f u l l y defined here (and, i n the case of mm. 52-55, the preparation too), and C emerges c l e a r l y at the opening of the Third Movement as the unquestioned goal. At the outset of t h i s paragraph, reference was made to possible l i n k s between the Introduction and V a r i a t i o n 3. Such r e l a t i o n s h i p s can indeed be found at various l e v e l s . Both sections are marked lento assai i n a ternary time signature (Introduction: 3/4; V a r i a t i o n : 3/8). Both are followed by a movement i n rapid tempo with which they are s t r u c t u r a l l y connected (Introduction: a l l e g r o moderato; V a r i a t i o n : vivace and vivace ma non  troppo) . Both feature sustained harmonies i n a r e l a t i v e l y low range. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the contours and p i t c h content of mm. 12-17 of the Introduction seem to influence the shaping of the l a s t v a r i a t i o n (Example 3.18). As the example reveals, each section opens with a t e x t u r a l l y i s o l a t e d p i t c h . The contour of the bass l i n e s i s remarkably s i m i l a r , as i s the harmonic content of the upper voices. From t h i s l a s t point of view, the least equivocal moments of the v a r i a t i o n (mm. 52-55, 60-70, and 80-85) 131 Example 3.18: P a r a l l e l between Introduction and V a r i a t i o n 3 a. Introduction, mm. 12-18 + *vSi«£U pi tcl> 7eloJic climax Jc&l 12 13-15 b. V a r i a t i o n 3, mm. 46-85 17 18 Me, loJic c/i'inAX ± 46 47-50 52-55 60-70 7 1 - 7 3 82-85 are those i n which i t reproduces most accurately the p i t c h content of the Introduction, intervening harmonies being analyzed as neighbouring, passing, or r e s u l t i n g from.suspensions. Motivic analogies between the two sections compared are to be found: (1) i n the descending t h i r d (motive M of the Introduction; Example 3.19a); and (2) i n the "skipped passing tone" f i g u r e (motive N of the Introduction; Example 3.19b). T r i v i a l as i t may seem, the fact that the melodic climax of both sections occurs within the same harmony should not be e n t i r e l y overlooked (c^ at 1:13; g^ at 2:68) i n view of the influence of t h i s event on the upper-voice contour. Thus V a r i a t i o n 3 appears to be more c l o s e l y related to a segment of the Introduction than to the Canzone to which one turns f i r s t i n searching for a source "theme".? 132 Example 3.19: Influence of motives from the Introduction on V a r i a t i o n 3 Motive M (Second v i o l i n , 2:75-76) © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition b. Motive N ( F i r s t v i o l i n , 2:47-49) (£) Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition Outer-Voice Framework and  Tonal-Harmonic Structure From the study of the outer-voice framework, a tonal plan emerges, l i n k i n g a l l four sections as well as connecting the movement as a whole with i t s two neighbours (Example 3.20). Early i n this analysis (p. 112), an hypothesis was formulated pertaining to a possible retrograde r e l a t i o n s h i p between the tonal plan of t h i s movement and the i n i t i a l three-chord progression of the Introduction. This hypothesis was based ex c l u s i v e l y on a s u p e r f i c i a l c r i t e r i o n : the various key signatures used. Complete scrutiny of the tonal-harmonic structure reveals that, indeed, t h i s retrograde motion exists but not exactly as the key signatures imply: the Canzone and V a r i a t i o n 1 arpeggiate an E-major t r i a d , but D major i s reached only i n V a r i a t i o n 3, the middle v a r i a t i o n arpeggiating i t s Example 3.20: Outer-voice framework of Second Movement 134 dominant A. C major appears as a lower neighbour to JD i n V a r i a t i o n 3, but i t i s not f i r m l y established as a tonal center before the outset of the Third Movement. This may explain the notational p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the t r a n s i t i o n between the two movements (3:1-7): of those seven measures, only three beats contain pitches and two of the s i l e n t measures are crowned with fermatas. Study of the tonal plan suggests that t h i s system plays a s t r u c t u r a l role equivalent to V a r i a t i o n 2 i n i t s e n t i r e t y : i t i s a prolongation of the dominant of C, within a motion from D to C, just as Va r i a t i o n 2 prolonged A between E and D. Although the composer has chosen to merely hint at this prolongation of G, rather than to develop i t through an e x p l i c i t statement, he has been very c a r e f u l i n notating i t i n a way that would leave no doubt as to i t s s t r u c t u r a l weight. Thus, the retrograde elaboration of the i n i t i a l three-chord progression i s enriched with dominant-related root motions completing a segment of the c i r c l e of f i f t h s : E-A-D-G-C. 135 N O T E S 1Joanna Bruzdowicz-Tittel, Notes to the recording of the two Quartets of Szymanowski by the Varsovia String Quartet, Pavane Records, ADW 7118. ^See, i n p a r t i c u l a r , Wightman, "The Music of Karol Szymanowski", p. 100. ^Samson, The Music of Szymanowski, p. 128. 4 This p a r t i c u l a r variant of motive x (see Example 3.2) i s given a separate l a b e l i n view of the s i g n i f i c a n t role i t plays i n t h i s and the following v a r i a t i o n . ^Samson, The Music of Szymanowski, p. 89. ^Samson speaks of D minor ( i b i d . , p. 128, quoted on p. 112). The FJ^ appears only within chromatic passing motions (mm. 28.1, 29.2, and 38.1), while the Fjf i s present everywhere. Admittedly, the l a t t e r i s frequently associated with _C|^  i n a V7 of IV sonority. Nevertheless, D major seems a more pla u s i b l e choice here. ^From these analogies between the Introduction and V a r i a t i o n 3, one may be tempted to look for p a r a l l e l s between mm. 1-11 of the Introduction and mm. 1-46 of the Second Movement, such that the e n t i r e movement would appear to be a large-scale v a r i a t i o n of the Introduction. Beyond the fact that the three-chord progression of 1:2-3 i s quoted i n 2:3-4, however, there i s l i t t l e to support such an hypothesis. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF THE THIRD MOVEMENT At the outset of an analysis of the Third Movement, the basic p r i n c i p l e s of p o l y t o n a l i t y and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h i s movement must be s c r u t i n i z e d . The examination of voice-leading techniques and t o n a l -harmonic structures w i l l pave the way to an objective assessment of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of p o l y t o n a l i t y as well as to a f u l l e r understanding of the formal organization of the movement. Po l y t o n a l i t y "In a sense, the concept of d i f f e r e n t yet simultaneous t o n a l i t i e s i s s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y . " 1 * This statement by E r i c Salzman probably i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the opinion of a majority of today's t h e o r i s t s with respect to p o l y t o n a l i t y . This technique had i t s heyday i n the f i r s t quarter of the century, when i t was used more or less systematically by a s u r p r i s i n g l y large number of composers of the most diverse persuasions, from Milhaud and Stravinsky to Bartok, Ravel, Strauss, Koechlin, Roussel, C a s e l l a , de F a l l a , Schoenberg, and Szymanowski. In spite of enthusiastic i n t e r e s t i n p o l y t o n a l i t y at the time, i t never seemed to generate a well-defined t h e o r e t i c a l system open to v e r i f i c a t i o n and pedagogical a p p l i c a t i o n s . In a most extensive survey of the repertoire of polytonal music, Charles Koechlin quotes three d i f f e r e n t works by Szymanowski, a l l dating *Notes for this chapter begin on p. 174. 136 137 from the period of the F i r s t Quartet: Mythes, op. 30, for v i o l i n and piano (1915); ShSherazade, op. 34, no. 1, for piano (1916); and Tantris l e bouffon, op. 34, no. 2, for piano (1916). It may be assumed that Koechlin was unaware of the F i r s t Quartet. He would surely have been a l l too happy to quote a work where the simultaneous use of four d i f f e r e n t key signatures affirms i n the most e x p l i c i t way the composer's polytonal i n t e n t i o n s . Koechlin draws a d i s t i n c t i o n between harmonic p o l y t o n a l i t y , on the one hand, and polyphonic or contrapuntal p o l y t o n a l i t y , on the other; the former corresponds to superimposed chords open to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n two (or more) d i f f e r e n t keys, the l a t t e r , to superimposed melodic l i n e s defining contrasting tonal centers. Although he doesn't mention i t , a t h i r d s i t u a t i o n arises when a melodic l i n e i s supported by a harmonic accompaniment suggestive of a d i f f e r e n t key center. H i s t o r i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the f i r s t two types i s found i n well-established techniques: harmonic p o l y t o n a l i t y i s an expansion of the concept of pedal, and the contrapuntal v a r i e t y can be viewed as an expansion of dissonant ornaments, p a r t i c u l a r l y of the accented type (suspensions, passing notes, e t c . ) . According to Vincent P e r s i c h e t t i , 3 i n order to be perceived as such, p o l y t o n a l i t y requires well-defined, strongly contrasting s t r a t a : d i s s i m i l a r timbres, wide r e g i s t r a l d i s p o s i t i o n s , unequivocal tonal o r i e n t a t i o n of each of the components taken separately, d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d key centers, contrasting rhythmic and metric organization. To i n s i s t e x c l u s i v e l y on contrast, however, raises the danger of creating s t a t i c planes i n which development i s v i r t u a l l y impossible. Music composed along those l i n e s i s 138 l i k e l y to r e l y e x c l u s i v e l y on j u x t a p o s i t i o n of phrases and sections for i t s formal organization. It i s p e r f e c t l y p l a u s i b l e , however, that the aims pursued by the composers named above were not s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from those of t r a d i t i o n a l contrapuntal w r i t i n g , namely, the creation of l i n e s that s t r i k e a balance between independence and coordination, l i n e s that have points of convergence as well as points of divergence, the points of convergence presumably acting as r e f e r e n t i a l at one l e v e l or another. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n keeping with the thrust of the present study, the emergence of tonal-harmonic centers of reference, as d i s t i n c t from, but correlated with, t e x t u r a l , timbral, and metric-rhythmic ones, must be examined. In f a c t , such an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s strongly warranted by the aural experience of the music. A f i r s t attempt i n that d i r e c t i o n consists i n considering those v e r t i c a l i t i e s that are a c t u a l l y projected by the music i t s e l f , and i n r e l a t i n g them to structures whose tonal implications are conventionally appreciable. Indeed, a chord such as that i d e n t i f i e d by the arrow i n Example 4.1 i s found i n the polytonal context of the Third Movement. From Example 4.1: Quartet no. 1, 3:20 i, V — n © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition 139 a polytonal point of view, i t combines the t h i r d degree of C i n the c e l l o , the second and fourth degrees of Eb i n the v i o l a , and the fourth degree of F# i n the second v i o l i n with the fourth degree of A i n the f i r s t . It i s hard to imagine a context i n which these four d i f f e r e n t "functions" would be perceived independently, o b l i t e r a t i n g the t r i v i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s group as a dominant-ninth i n A (or an augmented s i x t h i n Ab). The p o s s i b i l i t y of convergences of this kind i n a polytonal context i s given passing recognition by Koechlin. As for the large number of examples of contrapuntal p o l y t o n a l i t y , i t may be that, on strong beats (as i s the case i n conventional counterpoint) analysis may reveal the presence of "multiple perfect t r i a d s " . . . , i . e . , superimposed perfect t r i a d s ; i t may even be that the reference points correspond to t r a d i t i o n a l  harmonies . . . 4 (Emphasis mine) Therefore, p o l y t o n a l i t y appears as "an art far more subtle than that of accompanying i n D a melody i n C (as i s assumed by simple-minded and amateurish people)."^ A l l too often, p o l y t o n a l i t y has been used "when a touch of grotesque humour was intended,"6 a trend which may have contributed to i t s dismissal as of l i m i t e d expressive p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . Szymanowski c l e a r l y intended the l a s t movement to evoke a p l a y f u l character.^ An attempt at explaining why p o l y t o n a l i t y may be well-suited to t h i s type of expression i s made at the end of t h i s chapter. P o l y t o n a l i t y i n the Third Movement:  General Observations In t r y i n g to account for his personal experience of t o n a l i t y i n t h i s movement, Samson turns to the amount of overlap between the four scales: 140 With scalar forms based on C, Eb, F#, and A constantly i n play there can be no p o s s i b i l i t y of any aural ' s p l i t ' between tonal regions (each note of the chromatic scale i s 'leaked' through the four scales and the diminished seventh F-Ab-B-D i s leaked twice). Although the above statement i s not without ambiguities, i t seems to allude to the fact that the superimposition of any three of the four scales involved y i e l d s three of the four PCs JJ, F_y Ab, and _B as common tones. Samson i s c e r t a i n l y not suggesting that, because of these recurrences, these four PCs emerge as defining a common tonal center for the four l i n e s , the diminished-seventh chord being p a r t i c u l a r l y i l l - s u i t e d f o r that purpose. Nevertheless, c e r t a i n conclusions on the nature and e f f e c t s of p o l y t o n a l i t y i n the Third Movement can be reached through examination of the various key signatures used, of the presence (or absence) of accidentals, and of r e g i s t r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the scales implied by the key signatures. Three d i f f e r e n t arrays of "keys"9 are used i n the movement. Example 4.2 l i s t s them by t h e i r signatures. Array y obviously transposes array x a Example 4.2: Key signatures used i n the Third Movement Arrays X y z Measures 8-143 189-260 144-177 178-188 F i r s t V i o l i n 3 sharps 5 sharps 1 sharp Second V i o l i n 6 sharps 4 f l a t s 4 f l a t s V i o l a 3 f l a t s 1 f l a t 4 sharps C e l l o None 2 sharps None 141 whole step up. Array z does not display any kind of inner r e g u l a r i t y comparable to the minor-third spacing of arrays x and y and i t s effectiveness i s open to question. For most of the eleven measures to which i t applies, the second v i o l i n i s r e s t r i c t e d to a pedal point on jib, forming a minor seventh over the C-major t r i a d arpeggiated by the c e l l o . When the second v i o l i n u l t i m a t e l y descends the scale of Ab major (mm. 183-185), the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t of that scale i s absorbed i n the descending passing motions of a l l three upper instruments (Example 4.3). Example 4.3: Voice-leading graph of mm. 183-186, l e v e l -A-183 184 185 186 Any assessment of the tonal-harmonic implications of the d i f f e r e n t key signatures must take into account the presence or absence of accidentals i n the course of the movement. Undoubtedly, the i n s e r t i o n of accidentals i s capable of undermining the polytonal e f f e c t implied by the key signatures. 142 Accidentals are remarkably rare i n th i s movement, and many of them do not a f f e c t the p r e v a i l i n g "key" s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Example 4.4 l i s t s a l l instances of accidentals i n the movement, with a summary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . A discussion of the more perplexing cases fol l o w s . In cases 6 and 7, the a l t e r a t i o n s are without e f f e c t on the tonal-harmonic str u c t u r e . In the second of these, the range of the second v i o l i n i s simply extended down to f#. Case 10 can be explained by the fact that the change of key signature notated at m. 144 i n e f f e c t takes place at m. 138, together with the change of tempo and character. In two cases (2 and 3) the accidental i s so f l e e t i n g as to be without e f f e c t on the tonal-harmonic structure (these altered pitches do not even appear on the voice-leading graph, Appendix p. 238). In cases 1, 5, 9, 11, and 14, a part momentarily abandons i t s "key" to adopt that of another part, without any r e c i p r o c a l change to " f i l l the gap." S i g n i f i c a n t l y , without exception, these changes are made i n favour of the lowest part; the c e l l o In cases 1, 5, 9, and 14, the v i o l a i n case 11. Cases 8 and 13 coincide with the preparation of "modulations"; that i s , they immediately precede changes of key signatures. The accidentals, however, are a l l understandable as chromatic passing or neighbouring motions within the prevalent "key." The texture i s thus enriched chromatically without any actual change of tonal-harmonic d i r e c t i o n . If chromatic i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n i n preparation for changes of key signatures i s an established technique of polytonal w r i t i n g , no mention i s made of i t i n the sources c o n s u l t e d . 1 2 143 Example 4.4: Accidentals found i n the Third Movement Reference No. Measures^ Part P i t c h or PC Summary Interpretation 1. 8 I & II C Doubling of c e l l o 2. 31.3 I Neighbour note 3. 32.2 I C3 Passing note 4. 35-38 A l l parts e 1 a 2 g l Tonal-harmonic implications (see text) 5. 40.2, 42.3 II gt) d l e 2 Extension of c e l l o 6. 65-67.1 Via 1* Exchange with II 7. 121-122 Via & II c 2 d l D Exchange of parts 8. 127.3-137 A l l parts 12 acciden-t a l s - Preparation for "modulation" (see text) 9. 139-141 Via at| bit) f # et Doubling of c e l l o 10. 140-143 Cello f# Consistent with f o r t h -coming change of key signatures 11. 157.1 Cello f l Completes v i o l a (F-major t r i a d ) 12. 185.1 I f 2 In a l l l i k e l i h o o d , a misprint 11 13. 187-189.1 A l l parts 6 acciden-t a l s "Modulation" back to i n i t i a l key signatures 14. 259-160 I, I I , V i a C , E , G Cadence i n C major (extension of c e l l o ) 144 The f i v e a l t e r a t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d under 4 are most l i k e l y explained by the desire to obtain s p e c i f i c v e r t i c a l i t i e s f u l f i l l i n g clear harmonic functions, as a reading of the voice-leading graph reveals (Examples 4.5 and 4.17). This i s , therefore, the only case where a common tonal-harmonic Example 4.5: Voice-leading graph of mm. 35-39.1, l e v e l -A-N.B. Arrows point to pitches obtained through accidentals u • fl n us I ' 1 L ' 1 »- — r — ^ ^ J- „ 3 — ^ — ^ y ^ f f k f 35 36 37 38 39 d i r e c t i o n other than that of the bass ( i t runs the course of a C-major scale i n th i s segment) motivates the chromatic adjustment of i n d i v i d u a l parts. From t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the use of accidentals, two conclusions may be drawn: (1) i n most cases, accidentals are without any durable e f f e c t on the tonal-harmonic structure of the segment i n which they appear; and (2) when they do have such an e f f e c t , i n a l l but one case (mm. 35-38), the upper voices y i e l d to the tonal o r i e n t a t i o n of the bass. From t h i s l a s t conclusion, one may i n f e r that, i n th i s movement as i n every piece of tonal 145 music of the common-practice period, the bass plays a key role i n defining the tonal-harmonic o r i e n t a t i o n of the upper voices. This i n v i t e s an examination of the r e g i s t r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of "keys." Example 4.6 records the lowest occurrence of each of the twelve PCs i n the sections f a l l i n g under array x (mm. 8-143 and 189-260), exclusive of Example 4.6 those passages where accidentals are used and which have already been discussed. The f i r s t octave (C-B), the domain of the c e l l o , uses the pitches of the scale of C major. The second octave (c-b) introduces e^, a^, and bb, the so-called "modal" degrees l i k e l y to create an impression of C minor when occurring i n the context of C defined by the lowest octave.I 3 i f o n e adds that the movement begins with a unison CJ (m. 8), ends with a perfect cadence i n C major (mm. 259-260), and that 92 of i t s 260 measures rest over a pedal of C i n the c e l l o (mm. 59-76, 91-137, 178-186, and 231-248), i t should become obvious that the o r i e n t a t i o n of the bass toward C major/minor exerts a " c e n t r i p e t a l " influence over the upper parts. The v i o l a part i s p a r t i c u l a r l y susceptible to t h i s powerful a t t r a c t i o n , not only because i t introduces modal degrees to C but also 146 because i t s r e g i s t e r overlaps and complements that of the c e l l o . In the section under array y (mm. 144-177), the o r i e n t a t i o n to D major/minor i s j u s t as unequivocal. The short passage where array z i s i n force (mm. 178-188) has already been discussed (see above, p. 141). Suffice i t to r e c a l l that, there again, C plays a d e c i s i v e role i n the bass. The d e t a i l e d examination of the movement (see voice-leading graphs, Appendix, pp. 237-240) shows that tonal orientations other than that of C (or D i n mm. 144-177) are found i n the course of the movement, but the p i t c h content of the bass makes i t u n l i k e l y that these w i l l be more than t r a n s i t i o n a l events subservient to C. If t h i s preponderant o r i e n t a t i o n can be said to exert d e c i s i v e influence on the v i o l a , i t cannot be invoked against the p o s s i b i l i t y of b i t o n a l i t y or, even, t r i t o n a l i t y a r i s i n g from the a c t i v i t y of the two v i o l i n parts. Presumably, an examination of these two parts along the same l i n e would demonstrate that F# major/minor (Ab i n mm. 144-177) i s the prevalent key center. To conclude that b i t o n a l i t y at the i n t e r v a l of a t r i t o n e (C-F#) i s projected i n t h i s movement would not only be premature, i t would also imply a symmetry i n the way outer voices achieve prominence which i s highly questionable. As mentioned i n chapter I (see above, p. 22), the function of the lowest pitches i n o u t l i n i n g the prevalent bass i s r a r e l y problematic while the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a predominating upper voice often i s . Doubtless, r e g i s t r a l i s o l a t i o n i s not the only factor at work here, and only a systematic analysis of the movement w i l l allow for the extraction of the upper voice as well as of the outer-voice framework. The rest of t h i s chapter i s for the most part devoted to this task. This 147 analysis takes into account the conclusion reached so f a r , namely, that although the polytonal key signatures are seldom modified by a l t e r a t i o n s , the bass exerts a prevalent influence on the tonal-harmonic o r i e n t a t i o n of the movement. An impression of p o l y t o n a l i t y or, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , b i t o n a l i t y between the bass and the prevalent upper voice i s c e r t a i n l y possible, but only as a r e l a t i v e l y s u p e r f i c i a l elaboration. Motivic Material and Aspects of Voice-Leading In order to introduce a consistent system of reference to the various sections of the movement, a formal o u t l i n e i s sketched here (Example 4.7). A f u l l e r discussion of t h i s structure concludes the chapter (see p. 166). Example 4.7: Formal outline of Third Movement T r a n s i t i o n from the 1 - 7 Second Movement A 8 - 6 7 T r a n s i t i o n 1 6 8 - 7 7 B 78 - 137 T r a n s i t i o n 2 137 - 142 M 142 - 187 A 187 - 239 Tr a n s i t i o n 1 240 - 249 Coda 250 - 260 148 Section A opens with a fugal exposition i n which the two p r i n c i p a l motives of the section (Al and A2) appear i n a subject-countersubject r e l a t i o n s h i p (Example 4.8). Although i t i s c l o s e l y related to motive A2, Example 4.8: Motives of Section A A l : C e l l o , mm. 8-11.1 A2: C e l l o , mm. 12-13 12-A3: F i r s t v i o l i n , mm. 19.3-21.1 ! © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition motive A3 i s presented separately here i n order to stress i t s s i m i l a r i t y with motive A2 of the F i r s t Movement (see Example 2.12), a s i m i l a r i t y which extends to i t s sequential r e p e t i t i o n up a t h i r d (compare mm. 20-23 with 1:27-34). Section B i s e n t i r e l y based on one p r i n c i p a l motive (Example 4.9), also presented i n a fugal exposition followed with extensive i m i t a t i v e w r i t i n g . Section M introduces a melody (Example 4.10) which does not undergo any development or i m i t a t i v e treatment. It i s merely repeated with minor va r i a t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t keys and with d i f f e r e n t accompaniments (mm. 152-157 and 178-183). By contrast, measures 158-171 reintroduce 149 statements of motive B (mm. 158-164) and Al (mm. 165-171) i n i m i t a t i v e treatment. Example 4.9: Motive B, F i r s t v i o l i n , mm.'77.3-82 78 © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A .G. , Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission' of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition Example 4.10: Motive M, F i r s t v i o l i n , mm. 146-151 146 © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed All rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition Two other techniques c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the fugue are found i n the movement: phrase overlap and s t r e t t o . Phrase overlap, a well-known component of polyphonic w r i t i n g , occurs i n mm. 17, 43-44.1, 89-90.1, and 97-98.1: one part introduces a new statement of motive Al or B while the other parts are s t i l l i n the process of bringing the preceding phrase to a halt (Example 4.11). In every case, the segment beginning at the point of overlap i s a s t r e t t o . In only two cases are there s t r e t t i which don't overlap with the preceding phrase: "mm. 23-28 and 165-168. In two instances, the word " s t r e t t o " i s not used i n a s t r i c t sense, which would normally imply an overlap of motivic material. In mm. 23-26 and 44-47, 150 Example 4.11: Measures 43.3-46.1 © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G. , Wien Copyright renewed A l l rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition there i s no such overlap; only one part (soprano i n the f i r s t case, bass i n the second) c a r r i e s on with motive Al i n i t s e n t i r e t y , the other parts using only the head of the motive before dissolvings into non-motivic f i g u r a t i o n s . Since there are only three cases of melodic sequence i n this movement (mm. 20-23.1, 35-38, and 127-137), i t seems reasonable to conclude that s t r e t t i are meant to f u l f i l l a s t r u c t u r a l role analogous to that played by sequences i n the other two movements, namely, as a process of r e g i s t r a l and tex t u r a l i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n involving tonal-harmonic i n s t a b i l i t y . This process of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n i s further enhanced, rhythmically, by the phrase overlap with which most s t r e t t i begin. Beyond the fugal procedures of exposition, s t r e t t o , and phrase overlap, the p r e v a i l i n g s t y l e of writing i s not fugal but consists of 151 various permutations of elemental "building blocks": pedal points, o s t i n a t i , scales, and the rare cases of sequence mentioned above. Pedal points and o s t i n a t i are used i n support of: (1) motivic statements (motive A3, mm. 20-23; motive A2, mm. 27-32; motive B, mm. 91-99, 118-126, and 158-163; motive M, mm. 146-157, and 172-183); (2) descending scales as recessive gestures (mm. 50-55, 127-137, 184-186); (3) ascending sequences and scale passages i n preparation for a culmination point (mm. 55-58); and (4) a codetta functioning as a protracted punctuation (mm. 59-67). In only one instance i s a pedal found i n a voice other than the bass: the _E i n t r a n s i t i o n 1 (mm. 68-77). S i m i l a r l y , there i s only one case of an ostinato involving a l l four instruments: mm. 39-43, i n which a chord succession of a cadential nature i s repeated three times, the l a s t time overlapping with the beginning of the following quasi-stretto passage quoted above (see Example 4.14). Scales appear i n a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n combination with pedal points or o s t i n a t i . Descending scales i n the bass (therefore, scales of C major) are found at mm. 15.2-18, 34-39.1, and 46-49. In a l l three cases, the upper voices proceed i n contrary motion, using sequential or quasi-stretto r e p e t i t i o n s of the head of motive Al (with the exception of mm. 15-18). An ascending scale i n the bass appears only once, i n mm. 24-26, but ascending s t r e t t i are often used i n ornamentation of an underlying s c a l a r motion. Such unfolding gestures are always underlined by i n d i c a t i o n s of crescendo (and of accelerando at mm. 46-49) conducive of an unmistakable progressive e f f e c t . Descending scalar patterns i n the upper voices, t y p i c a l l y expanded into chords i n p a r a l l e l motion, are always used 152 over an ostinato or pedal point i n the bass (mm. 50-54, 127-137, and 184-186). In t h i s case, dynamics do not follow a consistent pattern. Thus the movement appears to consist of a succession of permutations of basic elements such as s t r e t t i , pedal points, o s t i n a t i , scales, and sequences. This approach to s t r u c t u r a l organization i s i n part responsible for the redundancies of l e v e l -A- of the voice-leading, beyond the exposition. Therefore only l e v e l s -B- and -C- are shown i n the graphs aft e r m. 20. On the other hand, overlapping of phrases and of cadences (a technique described below) tends to l i n k broad expanses of the movement. The large-scale c o n t i n u i t i e s thus obtained play a more s i g n i f i c a n t role i n shaping the piece than the r e p e t i t i v e surface a c t i v i t y . The following paragraphs, dealing with tonal-harmonic structures, outer-voice frameworks, and form, are concerned with drawing as accurate a picture as possible of these patterns. Tonal-Harmonic Structures With the exception of the more relaxed B section, the movement proceeds at an unrelenting pace. This atmosphere of sustained unrest i s a r e s u l t not only of i t s tempo (vivace ma non troppo), but also of i t s formal and harmonic make-up. The s t r e t t i described above are c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n achieving t h i s e f f e c t . More widespread yet i s the technique of cadence overlap. By contrast with phrase overlap, cadence overlap i s a homophonic procedure: a single chord acts both as a cadence point for the phrase preceding i t and as a point of departure for the following phrase, 153 achieving an e f f e c t of continual motion. This occurs at mm. 11.1, 14.1, 17.1, 20.1, 27.1, 30.1, 50.1, and 172.1 (Example 4.12). Furthermore these cadences subdivide the section into phrase units three measures long, implying that a conventional four-measure pattern i s truncated by the overlap. Example 4.12: Measures 14-17, showing cadence overlap at m. 17 n V 14 n i l ' mp 'I ' l | m mf mm mp T ,© Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A„G., Wien Copyright renewed Al l rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition The harmonic vocabulary used for cadences (Example 4.13) i s p e r f e c t l y i n keeping with the ambivalent role that most of them are c a l l e d to f u l f i l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of overlaps, as described above. Dominant-related so n o r i t i e s predominate, p a r t i c u l a r l y dominant ninths of both species (natural and f l a t n i n t h ) . Chords belonging to the whole-tone family are also construed as altered dominants because of the c r i t i c a l i n t e r v a l of the t r i t o n e between the t h i r d (present or implied) and the seventh (always present) of the chord. These include the uncertain i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the cadential chord of m. 67.1 as a dominant with ra i s e d 154 Example 4.13: Summary of cadential chords with assumed functional i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (see pp. 28-29) Mm. \<T 10 23 2 7 3 0 3 J 40(42) 5 0 i 4 6 7 H H  dbfc *1 I IT «t R E * 1 V 9 0 V* v 4 97 1(6 v* v'J 137 15-1 i 15-7 1»* l & I t . 2 172 184, v ' V 17 v and lowered f i f t h . An alternate view would be to consider F# and ^///Ab as two unresolved neighbours to G. S i m i l a r l y equivocal chord formations are found at the close of B (m. 137.1), as well as at intermediate cadences such as those found at m. 97.1 and 116.1. The elaborate cadential gesture which closes the exposition of Section A (mm. 39-44) involves a chord progression spanning two measures, repeated twice, the l a s t statement overlapping with the beginning of the ensuing 155 s t r e t t o . The broad motion IV-II-V i n C i s amplified through chromatic passing chords #IV (as part of IV-#IV-V) and b i l l (as part of IV-bIII-II-V: Example 4.14). This cadential progression i s underscored, not only by i t s Example 4.14a: Mm. 39-44 I I f I I I © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edit ion A .G . , Wien Copyright renewed A l l r ights reserved . Used by permission of European American Music D ist r ibutors Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edit ion Example 4.14b: Mm. 39-40 ? = ? 1 §?—rr? ^ /i L , L l 7 %—Hi 156 r e p e t i t i o n , but also by the hemiola pattern which i t implies, as indicated by brackets i n Example 4.14a. The hemiola i n cadential approaches, i n t r i p l e meter, i s a well recorded t r a i t of e a r l i e r p e r i o d s . ^ Measures 39-44 suggest that i t i s not foreign to twentieth-century techniques. While i n mm. 39 and 41, the v i o l a and second v i o l i n sound the "tonic" chord of the p a r t i c u l a r "key" i n which they are written, the a l t e r a t i o n s i n the second v i o l i n at mm. 40 and 42 t e s t i f y to the fact that an overriding single tonal a t t r a c t i o n i s at work: C major, the key of the c e l l o . An e f f e c t related to both deceptive and half-cadences i s achieved i n the way t h i s event leads into the following s t r e t t o : the complete cadential progression i s heard twice (half-cadence: mm. 39-42), but the t h i r d statement remains incomplete on V of VI i n C (deceptive cadence: mm. 44-45) . Although the four major "keys" implied by the d i f f e r e n t key signatures of arrays x and y p a r t i t i o n the octave into minor t h i r d s , the diminished seventh chord i s not the most prominent sonority heard i n the movement. Measures 50-58 are probably the only ones where minor t h i r d s , either superimposed or i n immediate succession, play any s i g n i f i c a n t role i n shaping the texture (Example 4.15). Example 4.15: Diminished triads i n upper voices, mm. 50-58 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 157 If equal d i v i s i o n of the octave has any prominence, i t i s under the form of the augmented f i f t h t r i a d . In mm. 96-98 of Section B, nothing but augmented tr i a d s are heard. With the exception of b r i e f neighbouring motions through g (mm. 93 and 97) and e^ (mm. 94 and 98), these measures make use e x c l u s i v e l y of the degrees of WT^ . Otherwise, recurrent harmonic s o n o r i t i e s are the dominant seventh/German s i x t h , and the French s i x t h . In passages where the four-voice basic texture i s enriched by double stops and arpeggiations, dominant-ninth, -eleventh, and even - t h i r t e e n t h s o n o r i t i e s enjoy a preeminence without precedent i n the Quartet (see, for example, mm. 50-59). One may be i n c l i n e d to look at such passages as to segments where p o l y t o n a l i t y i s most l i k e l y to come through. A t h i r t e e n t h chord, a f t e r a l l , i s a superimposition of two d i f f e r e n t t r i a d s . Such i s not the case, however, since i n these segments the upper voices move i n s t r i c t homophony, i n p a r a l l e l motion with each other, o b l i t e r a t i n g any p o s s i b i l i t y of hearing two or more strands o u t l i n i n g d i f f e r e n t key centers. While cadences systematically occur on f i r s t beats (except for m. 39, see above, pp. 154-156), s t r u c t u r a l chords within phrases are frequently displaced to the l a s t beat, p a r t i c u l a r l y when the bass features a descending scale (see, for example, mm. 15, 16, 17, 35, 36, 37, and 38, and voice-leading graphs, pp. 237-238). Such rhythmic " s h i f t s " contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the p r e v a i l i n g r e s t l e s s atmosphere. Two p a r t i c u l a r techniques stand out for t h e i r p o t e n t i a l s t y l i s t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s : the prevalence of "descending" progressions (e.g., V to V of V)16 and modal interchange based on the two forms of the s i x t h degree. As described by Schoenberg, "descending" progressions normally involve simple 158 interchange (V-V of V-V) or act as an intermediate phase between two chords forming an "ascending" progression. The descending-fifth root motions of mm. 35-37, 50-67, and 137-144 neither belong to an interchange, nor do they act as intermediate steps. The l a s t two cases are p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t since they encompass the entire codetta to Section A and that of Section B (Example 4.16). Example 4.16 IV I 5 0 54 55 S5 i I V Vo#V 137 138 142 The simple procedure of interchanging the two forms of the s i x t h degree takes an uncommon importance when i t involves the jux t a p o s i t i o n of both forms of the secondary dominant to the s i x t h degree. Measures 30-38 (Example 4.17) out l i n e such a progression from V (mm. 30-32) to V of VI (m. 34) i n A minor, to V of VI i n A major (m. 37) to VI (m. 38) altered to become a V of I I . S i m i l a r l y , i n the ensuing cadence, the or i e n t a t i o n to B 159 Example 4.17: Voice-leading graph of mm. 30-39.1, l e v e l s -B- and -C-a * — — — . . — > - a — n ~ *7 **%r. —^ %* $0-0 =p -B-~c7 ~ BP 1 <> -CH 30-32 33 34 35 36 37 38 1 Go. oil E y 0 P N Aa V. VQFVI VCFII VOFV C "As'" V 39/41 VOFV VOFII VOFV VOFII VOFVP—-VOFII VI VOFIV FS VOFIV 'IV" As V (as V of V i n A major) given by the preceding dominant on F# must y i e l d to the broader o r i e n t a t i o n to C, a change i n which the clash between G as VI of B minor and M as V of VI i n B major turns out to represent a motion from V to V of VI i n C. The elements summarized i n the above paragraphs make clear the fact that a tonal-harmonic strategy d i f f e r e n t from that of the f i r s t two movements i s at work here: j u x t a p o s i t i o n or superposition of homogeneous 160 e n t i t i e s (e.g., pedal points, o s t i n a t i , sequences) producing sharp contrasts; overlapping of phrase segments bypassing cadences; metric displacement of s t r u c t u r a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t chords; prevalence of dominant s o n o r i t i e s , including ninth, eleventh, and t h i r t e e n t h chords. In spite of what the key signatures may imply, p o l y t o n a l i t y does not emerge s i g n i f i c a n t l y at the tonal-harmonic l e v e l . Moreover, key signatures are seen to y i e l d , o c casionally, to the requirements of the bass, acknowledging the preeminence of t h i s part i n defining the tonal o r i e n t a t i o n of the movement. The danger of tonal inertness created by the protracted pedal points i n the b a s s ^ i s counteracted by the intense tonal a c t i v i t y of the upper voices, spreading over a broad range. Ample spacing creates transparency, p a r t i c u l a r l y when p a r a l l e l motions of sixths, sevenths, and tenths are used (see, for example, mm. 17, 20-22, 27-29, 46-67, and 93-101). On the other hand, t h i s broad spacing combined with the a p p l i c a t i o n of four d i f f e r e n t key signatures generates countless instances of major sevenths and minor ninths (as well as major fourteenths, and minor sixteenths), occurring either v e r t i c a l l y or diagonally (Example 4.18: m. 20), and r e l a t i v e l y few r e l a t i o n s h i p s of a semitone ( i n the example, the succession A^-A^ i s the only one of the kind). As the voice-leading graphs i n d i c a t e (see Appendix, pp. 237-240), beyond the exposition (mm. 8-23.1), tonal motion i s almost e x c l u s i v e l y to degrees on the major-sharp side of C i n Sections A and B, while Section M contains a passing i n f l e c t i o n to F on the minor-flat side of D. 161 Example 4.18: IC 1 i n m. 20 20 V ' ^ V " \ — \ \ * ' - T i " f > • f © Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien Copyright renewed Al l rights reserved Used by permission of European American Music Distributo Corporation, sole Canadian agent for Universal Edition These ingredients combine to convey a r e s o l u t e l y "major" atmosphere. In contrast with the chromatic saturation of the F i r s t Movement, which often c a r r i e d minor connotations through the prevalence of diminished sevenths, French si x t h s , Neapolitan r e l a t i o n s h i p s , etc., the t o n a l i t y of t h i s movement i s suffused with what could be c a l l e d "expanded diatonicism." This i s probably the most palpable e f f e c t of the use of multiple key signatures. Outer-Voice Framework The outer-voice framework r e f l e c t s the large scale continuity r e s u l t i n g from the repeated use of phrase overlap and cadence e l i s i o n (Example 4.19). Section A appears as a single continuous tonal motion, a motion l e f t incomplete i n i t s f i r s t statement (mm. 8-76) but completed i n the short coda (at mm. 254-260). An ascending arpeggiation of the dominant seventh on E i n the upper voice coincides with a descending arpeggiation of Example 4.19: Outer -vo ice framework of Sect ions A and B 76 81 82 89 90 91 99101 102 109 110 114 117 122 I2G 130 133 134 135 137 138 163 the t r i a d of C major (mm. 8-26). A neighbouring motion to M i n the bass coincides with motion to F# i n the upper voice (mm. 27-30), with return to E i n both parts (m. 33). F# i s expanded into a prolongation of a dominant-seventh chord of B (mm. 38-41). Throughout these measures, the soprano holds on to the seventh _E, which i s carried over to m. 42 when the bass moves to G_. The expanded cadence of mm. 42-44 i s seen to focus on pitches of the G-major t r i a d . Moreover, i t functions i n a double capacity: the harmony at that point i s a dominant seventh i n root p o s i t i o n i n which the upper-voice E_ i s an added s i x t h , an a n t i c i p a t i o n of the t h i r d of the assumed r e s o l u t i o n . This r e s o l u t i o n i s delayed to m. 67. The motion to F-A (m. 54) which i s interpolated between m. 44 and m. 67 can be understood as an embellishing motion. Its most s t r i k i n g e f f e c t , however, i s to create a IV-I f i n a l cadence, a descending progression, as described above (see p. 157). The unconventional character of t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n i s further enhanced by the chord of a r r i v a l , the f i n a l " I " (m. 67), with i t s double appoggiatura (see p. 153). The large-scale e f f e c t of the polytonal technique can be observed i n t h i s outer-voice framework. The lower voice i s r e s t r i c t e d for the most part to an underlying arpeggiation of the C-major t r i a d . Thus the exposition of Section A superimposes an arpeggiation of V 7 i n A to the arpeggiation of the C-major t r i a d i n the bass. With the exception of the suspension of the F#-major t r i a d at m. 30, pitches foreign to the diatonic scale of C major receive consonant support (e.g., E supporting G_#, j? supporting G#/Ab). Thus, the apparent b i t o n a l i t y here becomes one more instance of the a p p l i c a t i o n of the consonant passing tone p r i n c i p l e . 164 This p r i n c i p l e continues through a l l l e v e l s of the middleground, creating more and more new l e v e l s which present new p o s s i b i l i t i e s of prolongations for dissonant passing tones . . As a further consequence of the " b i t o n a l " a c t i v i t y i n t h i s section, the upper voice i s allowed to reach up to A (m. 54) i n a broad embellishing motion ascending and descending through JF# and G# (mm. 59-61). Because these two sharp degrees are used, the r e l a t i o n s h i p to E i s unequivocal. Were Gtj used instead, A would be construed as an embellishing motion to the f i f t h degree of C, rather than to the t h i r d . A prolongation of V7 i n A, i n the upper voices, over a pedal of Q occupies most of Section B. The chromatic descending motions of the cl o s i n g group (mm. 126-137) are subservient to a descent of broader proportions whose s i g n i f i c a n c e can only be assessed when Section M i s also taken into consideration. This descent begins with a motion from E to C# (mm. 117-122), thereby also e s t a b l i s h i n g a descending minor t h i r d pattern which becomes motivic i n Section M (see mm. 146-151, 172-177, and 178-183). In exactly the same way as Section A avoids the r e s o l u t i o n of Ab to G_ (see above), the closing group of Section B ends on an unresolved Ab i n the upper voice ( s t i l l over a pedal of C). Motion of the bass up to E) (m. 146) allows f o r a consonant r e s o l u t i o n to _F#, bypassing again a motion to j j . With the exception of i t s closing group (mm. 178-186), Section M rests on an arpeggiation embellishing I) i n the bass: D minor ascending, D major descending (Example 4.20). The upper voice, i n turn, outlines a broad embellishing scalar motion focused on F l . The f i r s t part of that motion (to m. 164) thus appears to carry on the descending scale beginning 165 Example 4.20: Outer-voice framework, of Section M I46I5M52 158 163 166 167 172 178 163 186 189 190 (=18) 166 at m. 117 of Section B. The fJ-E dyad which has been prolonged since the beginning of the movement i s moved one step up to D-F#, eventually reaching C-G at m. 178. Measures 178-183 turn out to be both the culminating point of the movement and i t s most consonant passage. The of m. 178 resolves the (J#/Ab, used p e r s i s t e n t l y as a f o c a l point since the beginning of the movement. In e f f e c t , the upper voice outlines a succession of key centers i n ascending motion represented by t h e i r dominants: V of A (mm. 8-137), V of B (mm. 146-177), and V of C (mm. 178-186). The return of Section A brings back the C-E_ outer-voice prolongation described above (see p. 163). The Coda, i n i t s s i m p l i c i t y , allows for a f i n a l upper-voice descent to CJ through I). This motion does not undergo any of the elaborate prolongations found i n other sections: g-d 2 at m. 254 i s followed by a short i n f l e c t i o n to V of V and a perfect cadence at mm. 259-260. That so much weight should rest on the open f i f t h of m. 254 may seem to be stretching the evidence to f i t the theory. It i s hard to explain otherwise the change i n the f i r s t v i o l i n part at that point. Had m. 81 been repeated exactly, c| would have been heard instead of d 2 . Moreover, i t i s c e r t a i n l y consistent with t r a d i t i o n a l theory to grant cadential pitches deep s t r u c t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e by v i r t u e of formal position.19 Formal Analysis The analysis of the f i r s t two movements has stressed the p a r t i c u l a r ways i n which they r e i n t e r p r e t the basic tenets of sonata-allegro form i n the f i r s t case, and of theme and v a r i a t i o n s i n the second. The Third 167 Movement i s s t i l l less conventional. It has been characterized by A l i s t a i r Wightman as "an uneasy fusion of sonata form with fugal technique."20 Questions l e f t open by t h i s cautious c l a s s i f i c a t i o n suggest that other avenues be explored. 1 The i n i t i a l exposition of motive Al (mm. 8-20.1) i s so canonically regular that i t seems anomalous i n the context of a fugue: the four entries follow one another at an i n t e r v a l of three measures without any intervening codetta. The only asymmetry on which a grouping of entries may be based i s afforded by the r e g i s t r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of voices: a minor tenth separates al t o from tenor, but tenor and bass, on the one hand, and soprano and a l t o , on the other, enter at a minor t h i r d i n t e r v a l . Beyond the expositions of Sections A and B, s t r e t t i and the concurrent phrase overlap are the only t r u l y fugal elements found i n the course of the movement. Some features may even be said to be a n t i t h e t i c a l to fugal procedures: the t o t a l number of parts occasionally exceeds four, and extensive segments are written i n homophonic s t y l e (see mm. 50-54 for evidence of both). While the fugue per se i s not associated with any p a r t i c u l a r form or forms, t h i s specimen c e r t a i n l y treads an unworn path. A f i r s t glance suggests an ABA scheme: mm. 17-79 are repeated exactly at mm. 189-251. Fugues i n a t r i p a r t i t e form are not unusual, but fugues with an exact r e p r i s e a r e . 2 * Because the middle section begins with a fugal exposition on a d i s t i n c t but related subject, one may be tempted to speak of a double fugue. This term proves to be inadequate since the two subjects are not treated i n combination. Thus fugal techniques appear as components of a structure whose design does not belong to the t r a d i t i o n s of the fugue. 168 Consideration of the sonata-allegro archetype i s even more unsa t i s f a c t o r y . Although a f i r s t subject group (mm. 8-67) i s followed with a t r a n s i t i o n (mm. 67-77), a second subject group i n a contrasting mood (mm. 77-137), a development characterized by changes of "keys" (mm. 137-186), and a r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the f i r s t subject group, there i s no recognizable trace of the tonal strategies v i t a l to the form nor of a p l a u s i b l e s u b s t i t u t i o n , as was the case i n the F i r s t Movement. On the contrary, the f i r s t subject group begins and ends on CJ, the second subject group evolves over a pedal of C^  f o r i t s l a s t forty-seven measures. The d i v i s i o n which might otherwise be construed as the development e s s e n t i a l l y consists of a series of varied statements of a melody over an ostinato accompaniment. Despite changes of key signatures at m. 144 and m. 177, one cannot speak of modulation between or within phrases but rather of a j u x t a p o s i t i o n of harmonically autonomous segments.22 Although the motivic material of Section M may seem somewhat related to the thematic content of Section A, there i s no "working out" of the material as such.23 F i n a l l y , and t h i s i s probably the most r a d i c a l departure from the conventions of sonata-allegro form, there i s no r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of the second subject group. It i s merely hinted at, untransposed, i n a diminutive episode taking the place of a closing group (mm. 250-260). In t h i s writer's view, the form of t h i s movement i s best described as two nested ternary forms, i n a manner which shares some points with the c l a s s i c a l scherzo. This view w i l l now be supported by a d e t a i l e d examination of each s e c t i o n . 169 As mentioned already, the f i r s t thematic group closes with an emphatic cadence on the tonic (m. 67), a cadence which becomes the f i n a l gesture of the movement, save a short coda, when t h i s section i s repeated. The two basic ingredients of a da capo design are thus seen to be,present: exact r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of Section A and f u l l close at the end of each of the two statements of that section. Accordingly, the middle section should provide a "related contrast," normally enhanced by a change of tonal o r i e n t a t i o n . In t h i s case, the change i s not so much from one key to another as i t i s from an intensely active section to a generally subdued one. This subdued character i s the r e s u l t of: (1) an extensive tonic pedal (mm. 91-137); (2) successive changes to slower tempi (poco meno, m. 77; poco meno, m. 104; rallentendo, m. 126; and allargando, m. 133); (3) a generally soft dynamic l e v e l (p-pp) further restrained at mm. 110-116 (pp-ppp), and m. 133 (molto  diminuendo); and (4) indi c a t i o n s of character (grazioso, m. 79; espressivo, m. 98; delicatamente, m. 118; and dolcissimo, m. 127). According to this view, Section B ends not with the return of A at m. 189, but with the cadence at m. 137. This cadence i s prepared through a clear process of " l i q u i d a t i o n " . 2 4 The f i n a l chords of A and B are very s i m i l a r (Example 4.21), the only difference between the two being the presence, i n m. 137, of a Bb, giving the chord a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c dominant-seventh sound. It i s as though the choice of the degree i s less s i g n i f i c a n t than the presence of a p a r t i c u l a r harmonic colour associated with s p e c i f i c formal purposes, a " t o n i c " colour to close Section A, and a "dominant" colour to close Section B. 170 Example 4.21: F i n a l chords of Sections A (m.67) and B (m. 137) tU -n • O f t f t t i f l g 1 UL . iifl u. • O : H°& -• "n ' ' S n * ££ 67 137 Section B i s followed with a strongly contrasted section (mm. 146-186) announced by a t r a n s i t i o n based on motive B (Example 4.9, above). It features a six-measure melody (see Example 4.10) over an ostinato accompaniment o u t l i n i n g a D-major t r i a d (Phrase "Ml", mm. 146-151). This melody i s repeated a minor t h i r d down, the accompaniment, however, leaping up to F major (Phrase "M2", mm. 152-157). The following seven-measure phrase, presenting i m i t a t i v e counterpoint of motive B over an A-E double pedal (phrase "Nl", mm. 158-164), leads to a s t r e t t o - l i k e segment on motive Al over a I-IV-V-I motion of the bass i n D major (phrase "N2", mm. 165-171). Phrase "Ml" i s repeated exactly, followed with a new v a r i a t i o n (Phrase "M3", mm. 178-183) re s t i n g on a dominant-seventh ostinato on fj, and a short r e t r a n s i t i o n (mm. 184-186) leads back to the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n of Section A.25 Example 4.22 summarizes the foregoing d e s c r i p t i o n of the contrasting s e c t i o n . Its t r i p a r t i t e pattern comes through v i v i d l y . With the exception 171 of the f i n a l move to C, the t o n a l i t y of D p r e v a i l s . Example 4.22: Formal ou t l i n e of Section M (mm. 146-183) Tonal plan Motives i n D/d Introduction 142 - 145 I ("Ml" 146 - 151 M I ''Exposition < ("M") L"M2" 152 - 157 Mv i i i M< Contrasting group ("N") Nl" 158 - 164 B V N2" 165 - 172 A1,B I ["Ml" 172 - 177 M I Reprise £ ("Mv") ["M3" 178 - 183 Mv Vy of i i i Codetta 184 - 187 This nesting of two t r i p a r t i t e forms i s strongly reminiscent of the scherzo-trio combination. Other features of the movement are indigenous to the scherzo: (1) the character (Scherzando a l i a burlesca); (2) the tempo (vivace ma non troppo); (3) the 3/4 meter; and (4) intense rhythmic a c t i v i t y i n Sections A and M. There i s , however, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the formal organization: the c l a s s i c a l scherzo i s a compound ternary form. It i s l i k e l y that Szymanowski c u r t a i l e d the r e p e t i t i o n s that the form normally e n t a i l s because of the volume of redundancies already present, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the form of s t r e t t i and sequences. To state Section A four times and Section B twice would have made the movement disproportionately r e p e t i t i v e . The t r i o thus appears to be inserted between Section B and the return of A. Example 4.23 summarizes the formal analysis of the Third Movement. 172 Example 4.23: Formal analysis of Third Movement Tr a n s i t i o n from Second Movement ^ F i r s t Exposition Group Second Codetta Closing .Group T r a n s i t i o n 1 ( ( ( ( ( Exposition Group Closing Group ( { T r a n s i t i o n 2 M Introduction Exposition ("M") Contrasting group ("N") Reprise (varied) ("M") Codetta Reprise of "A" and of T r a n s i t i o n 1 ( ( ( Coda 1 - 7 8 - 19 Al 20 - 23 A2 23 - 26 Stretto on Al 27 - 33 A3 33 - 39 Antecedent on A3 39 - 44 Consequent on A l 44 - 50 Antecedent ( s t r e t t o ) 50 - 54 Consequent 55 - 58 Antecedent 59 - 67 Consequent 68 - 77 78 - 90 B 90 - 102 Stretto on B 102 - 109 Antecedent 110 - 117 Consequent 118 - 126 Antecedent 127 - 137 Consequent 137 - 142 142 - 145 146 - 151 M ("Ml") 152 - 157 Va r i a t i o n on M ("M2") 158 - 164 on B ("Nl") 165 - 172 Retra n s i t i o n on A l and 172 - 177 M ("Ml") 178 - 183 V a r i a t i o n on M ("M3") 184 - 187 187 - 188 Str e t t o on Al (Condensed from mm. 8 189 - 249 Reprise of mm. 17 - 77 250 — 260 on B 173 Conclusion The p l a y f u l character of the Third Movement i s antipodal with respect to the dramatically conceived F i r s t Movement. While t h i s contrast undeniably r e s u l t s from a convergence of f a c t o r s , a comparison of tonal-harmonic contents i s apt to shed some l i g h t on the c o r r e l a t i o n between p o l y t o n a l i t y and the expression of humour noted by Rudolf Reti.26 Extended segments of the F i r s t Movement have been seen to favour the minor/flat-side of C. The importance of modal borrowings, however, also extends to segments i n major: f o r example, the f l a t s i x t h degree plays a prominent role within the A-major context of mm. 44-63.1. The frequency of s i m i l a r borrowings goes hand i n hand with the repeated use of segments of the chromatic scale i n support of ent i r e phrases (for example, mm. 49-58 or 73-82). By contrast, the Third Movement i s suffused with d i a t o n i c , major s o n o r i t i e s , from i t s motivic material to i t s outer-voice framework. The only s i g n i f i c a n t i n t r u s i o n of chromaticism i s i n approaches to "modulations" (mm. 126-137 and 198-188). The "hyper-diatonic" atmosphere thus created i s c e r t a i n l y congenial to the expression of exuberance. If th i s conclusion proved to be true of other polytonal works, i t could very well explain the perplexing c o r r e l a t i o n observed between p o l y t o n a l i t y and humour. 174 NOTES E r i c Salzman, Twentieth-Century Music: An Introduction (Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1967), p. 64. r\ Charles Koechlin, "Evolution de l'harmonie: periode contemporaine depuis Bizet et Cesar Franck jusqu'a nos jours", chap. X: P o l y t o n a l i t e - A t o n a l i t e i n Encyclopedie de l a musique et d i c t i o n n a i r e du  conservatoire, Albert Lavignac et Lionel de l a Laurencie, ed. (P a r i s : Delagrave, 1925), 2 e p a r t i e , 1:696-760. See also by the same author: T r a i t e de l'harmonie (Paris: Max Eschig, 1930), 2:250-268. 3 Vincent P e r s i c h e t t i , Twentieth-Century Harmony (New York: W.W. Norton, 1961), pp. 256-258. ^"Quant aux exemples tres nombreux de p o l y t o n a l i t e par contrepoints, i l se peut que sur les temps forts (comme pour le contrepoint ordinaire ) 1'analyse retrouve des points de repere au moyen des 'accords p a r f a i t s multiples' . . .; parfois meme les points de repere seraient analysables en harmonies usuelles . . ." ( Koechlin, "Evolution de l'harmonie", 1:752). (T r a n s l a t i o n mine.) 5 L a p o l y t o n a l i t e "est un art autrement plus s u b t i l que de se borner (comme l e supposent les primaires et les amateurs) a 1'accompagnement, en Re, d'une melodie en J)o . . . " (Koechlin, T r a i t e de l'harmonie, 2:265). (Translation mine.) 6Rudolph Re t i , T o n a l i t y , A t o n a l i t y , Pantonality: A Study of Some  Trends i n Twentieth-Century Music (N.Y.: MacMillan, 1958), p. 61. 7 The combination of fugal writing (although not necessarily polytonal) with a light-hearted character i s frequently found i n f i n a l movements of his works. See, for example, the l a s t movements of the Variations on  a Folk-Tune, op. 10 (Mit Humor-poco buffo); of the Second Piano Sonata, op. 21 (poco scherzando e c a p r i c i o s o ) ; and of the Third Piano Sonata, op. 36 (Scherzando e bu f f o ) . P Samson, The Music of Szymanowski, p. 129. g At this stage, words such as key and modulation can only be used infor m a l l y . Expressions such as "the key of C major" mean l i t t l e more than "the p i t c h - c l a s s c o l l e c t i o n A, B^ , CJ_, 13, E_, J_, G_." S i m i l a r l y , "modulation" simply implies a change of key signature without implication for tonal f u n c t i o n a l i t y i n such a change. This informal use i s always indicated by double quotation marks. 1 0 S i n c e mm. 189-251 are an exact repeat of mm. 17-79, and mm. 172-177 a repeat of mm. 146-151 ( i n both cases, with only minor changes i n the f i r s t measure), reference to the reprise i s only given when relevant to the dis c u s s i o n . 175 H Since no convincing musical j u s t i f i c a t i o n could be found for t h i s f£j, t h i s writer i s i n c l i n e d to think that i t i s a misprint. l^These include the books and a r t i c l e s by Koechlin, P e r s i c h e t t i , and Reti already mentioned, plus the following: Mosco Carner, A Study of  Twentieth-Century Harmony, v o l . 2: Contemporary Harmony, 2nd ed. (London: Joseph Williams, 1944), pp. 47-59; and Ludmilla Ulehla, Contemporary  Harmony: Romanticism through the Twelve-Tone Row (New York: The Free Press, 1966), pp. 282-285. 13in only one instance does the c e l l o cross over the v i o l a (mm. 27-29). In a l l three recordings a v a i l a b l e to t h i s w r i t e r , the e^ i n the v i o l a i s inaudible. Presumably, i t i s missing i n the parts. u T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of hemiola i n cadential approaches ( i n t r i p l e meter) i n music of e a r l i e r periods i s well described i n a recent a r t i c l e by Edward T. Cone, "Musical Form and Musical Performance Reconsidered," Music  Theory Spectrum, v o l . 7 (1985), pp. 150-156. l^The change of meter, from 3/4 to 4/4, notated at m. 45, r e a l l y extends to m. 54, as revealed by accentuation marks and s l u r s . The contrametric bass motive at mm. 50-54 does not succeed i n overruling the 4/4 meter of the upper voices. 16 Schoenberg, Structural Functions, pp. 7-8. 1^37% of the t o t a l duration of Sections A, B, and "M3" (arrays x and z) rest on a pedal of C, while a pedal of JJ i s heard through 44% of that portion of Section M under array y. l ^ H e i n r i c h Schenker, Free Composition (Der f r e i e Satz), trans1. and ed. by Ernst Oster (New York: Longman, 1979), p. 61. l^On t h i s question, see also chapter 2, p. 24. 2 0Wightman, "The Music of Karol Szymanowski," p. 101. 21For a rare example of t h i s procedure, see the fugue i n J.S. Bach, Prelude, Fugue, and A l l e g r o i n Eb major, BWV 998. The middle section of t h i s fugue, however, i s a non-fugal episode i n a contrasting vein, which i s not the case i n the Quartet. 2 2xhe increasing use of passing chromaticism i n the approach to the change of key does not i n i t s e l f constitute preparation for modulation. 23"The contrasting middle section . . . i s devoted almost e x c l u s i v e l y to the working out of the r i c h v a r i e t y of thematic material 'exposed' i n the f i r s t d i v i s i o n . " (Schoenberg, Fundamentals, p. 200.) 176 2 4 T h i s process i s defined i n Schoenberg, Fundamentals, p. 58. Further descriptions are found on pp. 152-153. Schoenberg's ch a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of the end of t h i s process applies p a r t i c u l a r l y well to mm. 127-137: "The end of the l i q u i d a t i o n i s generally marked by a combination of repose and suspense . . . the retarding e f f e c t of a pedal point i s appropriate." I b i d . , p. 153. 2^xhe s t r e t t o at mm. 187-188 i s obviously a condensed evocation of mm. 8-16 of the exposition. See p. 139 and note 6, above. CHAPTER V SIGNIFICANT ELEMENTS OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE FIRST QUARTET This chapter seeks to answer questions about general techniques common to a l l three movements, therefore i n d i c a t i n g basic premises of the s t y l e of Szymanowski i n th i s work. These questions are grouped under f i v e headings running a course p a r a l l e l to the l e v e l s of analysis applied to the Quartet, from foreground to background: (1) out e r - l i n e contours; (2) r e l a t i v e complexity and formal function; (3) cadential harmonic techniques; (4) tonal system and formal structure; and (5) outer-voice frameworks. Outer-Line Contours Passing mention was made i n chapter 2 (see p. 44, note 9) of the p o s s i b i l i t y of looking at the network of l i n e s of l e v e l -A- as to a r e f l e c t i o n of the te x t u r a l properties of the Quartet. These properties of the texture are intimately connected with formal d e l i n e a t i o n . In the words of Wallace Berry: Textural s t a s i s , progression, recession, and v a r i a t i o n are basic i n the f u n c t i o n a l processes by which forms are shaped, and by which expressive functional events ( c l i m a c t i c , c a d e n t i a l , introductory, expository, etc.) are projected.1* An exhaustive study of texture must take into account a m u l t i p l i c i t y of factors such as density and r e l a t i v e independence-interdependence of l i n e s *Notes f o r t h i s chapter begin on p. 219. 177 178 with respect to d i r e c t i o n , rhythm, and i n t e r v a l of motion.'' In the Quartet, however, the shape of texture-space 3 as defined by the contour of outer l i n e s seems to play a p i v o t a l role i n the association of texture with formal purposes, no other aspect taken i n i s o l a t i o n showing the same r e g u l a r i t y i n that respect. Insofar as i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d representation of the score, l e v e l -A- i s admirably suited to the study of those o u t e r - l i n e contours. In view of the lack of a recognized terminology f o r contours, a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s proposed here. Questions concerning the range of a p p l i c a t i o n and method of d e s c r i p t i o n of this c l a s s i f i c a t i o n must f i r s t be addressed. Range of a p p l i c a t i o n Although occasional reference i s made to shorter or longer segments, th i s study i s concerned p r i m a r i l y with the texture-shapes of phrases. The type of r e l a t i o n s h i p between outer l i n e s with regard to d i r e c t i o n of motion tends to be constant within segments of this s i z e , and to change markedly from phrase to phrase. Rarely are two successive phrases found to belong to the same type, confirming the v a l i d i t y of the p a r a l l e l i s m established between these two dimensions of structure. On the other hand, repeated statements are not considered as d i s t i n c t f o r the present purposes, even when the r e p e t i t i o n includes a c e r t a i n amount of v a r i a t i o n , unless these v a r i a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the o u t e r - l i n e p r o f i l e of the statement ( f o r example, compare 2:47-56 with the varied reprise at 2:74-85, where the contour of the soprano i s t o t a l l y transformed). 179 Method of Description For the purposes of this c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a l i n e , c a l l e d a contour  l i n e , i s drawn between the r e g i s t e r - s p e c i f i c p i t c h on which the phrase begins and that on which i t ends i n each of the outer voices. The lower of the two l i n e s i s , as conventionally, c a l l e d the bass, and the higher, the soprano. The d i r e c t i o n and shape of the r e s u l t i n g figure determines the category to which the phrase belongs. In view of the o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n that such a r i g i d method may bring about, c e r t a i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are introduced. When, at the beginning or the end of the phrase, there i s a change of d i r e c t i o n or a change of r e g i s t e r which, i f taken into consideration, would give a di s t o r t e d image of the phrase contour as a whole, such a change i s disregarded and the contour l i n e i s made to r e f l e c t the d i r e c t i o n of motion p r e v a i l i n g through the phrase. Such l o c a l changes often r e s u l t from overlapping with the surrounding statements or are meant to emphasize the cadence, and therefore do not belong to the core of the phrase. On the other hand, i f changes of d i r e c t i o n taking place i n the course of the phrase are such that to consider them as l o c a l d e f l e c t i o n s to a p r e v a i l i n g s t r a i g h t l i n e would be musically c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e , that phrase i s c l a s s i f i e d i n one of two categories described below under nos. 7 (periodic) or 8 (compound). With regard to the d i r e c t i o n s that i t s combined contour l i n e s may take, each phrase belongs to one of the following categories: (1) simple expansion; (2) simple contraction; (3) double expansion; (4) double contraction; (5) descending transient; (6) ascending transient; 180 (7) periodic; and (8) compound. Each of these i s now defined i n d e t a i l . Classes of Outer-Line Contours 1. The contour l i n e s of a phrase are said to follow a simple  expansion pattern when the bass i s ho r i z o n t a l , normally as a r e f l e c t i o n of a pedal or ostinato, while the soprano ascends (Example 5.1a). Example 5.1a: Simple expansion pattern Of course, a pedal held i n the soprano over a descending bass l i n e would also q u a l i f y as a simple expansion, but this never occurs i n the Quartet at the l e v e l of the phrase.^ 2. A simple contraction pattern occurs when a h o r i z o n t a l l i n e i n the bass appears under a descending soprano (Example 5.1b). Example 5.1b: Simple contraction pattern Again, t h i s term would also apply to a bass descending under a pedal i n the soprano but th i s s i t u a t i o n i s never found to p r e v a i l over a complete phrase.^ 181 3. A double expansion occurs when the outer l i n e s move i n contrary motion, ending the segment at an i n t e r v a l broader than the i n t e r v a l of inception (Example 5.1c). Example 5.1c: Double expansion pattern 4. A double contraction occurs when the l i n e s are i n a co n t r a d i r e c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , the f i n a l i n t e r v a l being smaller than the i n i t i a l one (Example 5.Id). Example 5.Id: Double contraction pattern 5. A descending transient pattern r e s u l t s from homodirectional descending motions of the contour l i n e s , regardless of the size of i n i t i a l and f i n a l i n t e r v a l s (Example 5.1e). Example 5.1e: Descending transient pattern 182 6. S i m i l a r l y , an ascending transient pattern i s found i n homodirectional ascending motions of the contour l i n e s (Example 5 . I f ) . Example 5.If: Ascending transient pattern 7. In a p p l i c a t i o n of the introductory q u a l i f y i n g statements above, a periodic pattern emerges when the phrase ends at e s s e n t i a l l y the same i n t e r v a l and i n the same range i n which i t begins, meanwhile moving away from t h i s i n t e r v a l . Of the innumerable patterns that such a d e s c r i p t i o n i s apt to cover, only a li m i t e d number of subtypes are found i n the quartet. These are: 7.1 the simple periodic pattern (Example 5.1g); Example 5.1g: Simple periodic pattern 183 7.2 the double p e r i o d i c pattern (Example 5.1h); Example 5.1h: Double periodic pattern 7.3 the o s c i l l a t o r y patterns (Example 5.1i); Example 5.1i: O s c i l l a t o r y patterns 7.4 the s t a t i c pattern (Example 5.1j), of which there i s only one instance i n the Quartet (2:23-26.1). Example 5.1j: S t a t i c pattern 8. The f i n a l type, that of compound patterns, accommodates those si t u a t i o n s which do not f a l l into any of the above categories. Of course, any phrase c l a s s i f i e d as such could be broken down Into shorter components belonging to the above c l a s s e s , but t h i s would contradict the point of 184 analysis of contour r e l a t i o n s generalized as at the l e v e l of the phrase. Of the unlimited number of patterns belonging to this c l a s s , one type of contour i s frequent enough as to be worthy of separate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : the ascending-expanding contour. An ascending transient beginning i s transformed into a double expansion by a change of d i r e c t i o n i n the bass (Example 5.1k). Example 5.1k: Ascending-expanding pattern Outer-Line Contours i n the Quartet L i s t s of the phrases belonging to each of the above classes are now established with appropriate commentary and reference to the voice-leading graphs. 1. Examples of simple expansions are found i n : a. 1: 88 - 97.1 (p. 230) b. 1: 175 - 179.1 (p. 232) c. 2: 61 - 69 (P. 236) d. 2: 81 - 85 (P- 236) In view of the extensive use of bass pedals i n the Quartet, the r e l a t i v e r a r i t y of th i s p a t t e r n — i t s t o t a l absence from the Third Movement, i n p a r t i c u l a r — m u s t be regarded as s t y l i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Cases a and b 185 belong to passages of increasing rhythmic a c t i v i t y and dynamic i n t e n s i t y (the approach to the climax of the Development and the f i r s t phrase of the Coda). In both cases, the upper voices are homorhythmically related and sequential. Cases c and d, on the contrary, are without doubt the most restrained i n dynamic i n t e n s i t y i n the Quartet: a decrease from double to t r i p l e piano i s c a l l e d f o r and, i n case d, perdendosi. In marked contrast with the f i r s t two cases, these project a sense of suspended motion p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate i n case d, the end of the movement. 2. Within the broad v a r i e t y of simple contractions, three subtypes may be i d e n t i f i e d on the basis of aspects of texture other than the o u t e r - l i n e contour: the recessive closing type; the intensive closing type; and the antecedent type. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the c r i t e r i a on which these sub-categories are founded follows the l i s t s of phrases belonging to each c l a s s . 2.1 The recessive c l o s i n g type i s found i n : a. 1: 13 - 18 (P. 224) b. 1: 38 - 43 (P- 226) c. 2: 43 - 46 (p. 236) d. 2: 74 - 80 (P- 236) e. 3: 127 - 137 (p. 240) In a l l phrases belonging to this subtype, the dynamic l e v e l i s i n the soft range and a decrescendo c a l l e d f o r , underscored, i n a l l cases but a, by a rallentando or a change to a slower tempo than that of the phrase immediately preceding. Cases b and c are further related by the heterorhythmic, homodirectional descending scales featured i n the upper voices. Case c, where a single l i n e acts as a t r a n s i t i o n between 186 Variations 2 and 3, i s included here by analogy of shape and function. The common tread l i n k i n g these cases i s th e i r nature as i n t e r n a l cadences combining a sense of closure with the establishment of an "anticip a t o r y 'atmosphere'".^ This i s made p a r t i c u l a r l y palpable i n case b, the consequent phrase of the t r a n s i t i o n i n the Exposition, where the second subject i s anticipated i n the inner voices of mm. 42-43. The an t i c i p a t o r y atmosphere i s no less perceivable i n the other cases, which are a l l followed by major formal a r t i c u l a t i o n s (case a, the beginning of the Allegro; case c, V a r i a t i o n 3; case d, the end of the movement; and case e, the contrasting Section M). 2.2 The intensive c l o s i n g type i s found i n : a. 3: 50 - 54 (p. 239) b. 3: 59 - 67 (p. 239) c. 3: 184 - 187 (p. 240) Insofar as these are a l l consequent phrases i n closing groups, they share a common purpose with those of type 2.1. The dynamic l e v e l prescribed, however, i s at the other extreme of the scale: double and t r i p l e forte (cases a and b), and crescendo to sforzando f o r t i s s i m o (case c ) . In a l l three cases, the upper voices move i n s t r i c t homorhythmic r e l a t i o n , either i n descending scales (cases a and c) or descending sequences (case b). In cases b and c, the bass i s also homorhythmically related to the other voices. The punctuative character of these phrases i s c l e a r , but no an t i c i p a t o r y atmosphere i s associated with them, although cases b and c are indeed followed with major formal a r t i c u l a t i o n s . 187 2.3 The antecedent type i s found i n : a. 2: 53 - 56 (p. 236) b. 3: 102 - 109 (p. 240) c. 3: 118 - 126 (p. 240) These are three instances of antecedent phrases e x h i b i t i n g a simple contraction pattern. Dynamics remain s o f t , at a d e l i c a t e l y animated l e v e l . A s t r i k i n g feature common to a l l three phrases i s the concurrence of strongly d i f f e r e n t i a t e d harmonic content. In case a, the melody i n the f i r s t v i o l i n outlines an Ab-minor t r i a d over the D-major t r i a d sustained i n the lower voices (a s i t u a t i o n discussed at length on p. 129). Case b ends with a Db-major t r i a d i n the upper voices clashing against the pedal C i n the c e l l o . S i m i l a r l y , case c ends with a B-major t r i a d , again clashing against the repeated C_. The range of descent of the upper voice i n cases b and c i s very narrow (case b: a*-g|; case c: c^-b^), lending these two passages an almost s t a t i c character subtly animated i n the inner voices (compare with case 7.4).^ 3. Example of double expansions are found i n : a. 1: 8 - 13 (P. 224) b. 1: 18 - 26 (P- 225) c. 1: 49 - 52 (P. 227) d. 1: 63 - 69 (P. 229) e. 1: 103 - 112 (P. 230) f . 3: 33 - 39 (P. 238) Without exception, a l l these phrases carry dynamic markings of crescendo, further underscored by i n d i c a t i o n s of poco avvivando and/or piu mosso i n 188 cases a, c, and e. Within this c l a s s , case a, the consequent phrase of the Introduction, i s exceptional not only i n that i t i s a consequent, but also i n i t s mixture of arpeggio (mm. 8-10) and descending scale i n the bass coi n c i d i n g with the already c a r e f u l l y analyzed homorhythmic passage of mm. 11-13 (see p. 57). By contrast, a l l the other phrases l i s t e d are antecedents b u i l t over descending scales i n the bass and featuring ascending sequences i n the soprano.^ Various degrees of polyphonic complexity are found i n t h i s group, from the r e l a t i v e l y simple s i t u a t i o n of case b to the i n t r i c a t e multi-voiced texture of c, the segment chosen for the sample analysis of chapter 1. Cases d, e, and f form a noticeable subgroup: these are three antecedents belonging to major c l o s i n g groups or t r a n s i t i o n s ; the sequential succession of motivic statements i s rhythmically p e r i o d i c , as opposed to the rhythmic-metric freedom of the other segments quoted, which are a l l expository. Further instances of t h i s formal-textural combination are found below, under type 8.1. 4. There are only four instances of double contraction: a. 1: 1 - 8.1 (p. 224) b. 1: 97 - 103.1 (p. 230) c. 2: 7 - 10.1 (p. 233) d. 2: 34 - 35 (p. 235) These form by far the most consistent group found i n this study. In view of the influence of motive M i n the soprano of case b (see Example 2.31), on the one hand, and of the strong analogies at a l l l e v e l s found between cases a, c, and d, one could go so far as to say that the opening of the 189 Introduction i s m o t i v i c a l l y related to the other three phrases. What i s more s t r i k i n g , however, i s that the pattern of double contraction i s uniquely associated with this motive, including the l y r i c a l descent i n the soprano, the sostenuto ascending motion i n the bass, and, i n cases a, c, and d, i n the inner voices as we l l . Although i t displays a greater v a r i e t y of inner-voice motions than the other members of the group, case b introduces the decrescendo, one further t r a i t shared with cases c and d. 5. Six segments belong to the ascending transient group: a. 1: 35 - 38 (p. 226) b. 1: 73 - 78 (p. 230) c. 1: 78 - 82 (p. 230) d. 2: 5 - 6 (p. 233) e. 2: 17 - 22 (p. 234) f. 3: 55 - 58 (p. 239) In a l l cases, the progressive character of the l i n e s i s underscored by a crescendo ( l a t e r reverting to decrescendo i n case e ) . Ascending sequences and/or s t r e t t i of remarkable r e g u l a r i t y form the substance of these phrases, such that r e l a t i v e l y complex polyphonic motions become c l a r i f i e d through s t r i c t r e p e t i t i o n s . With the exception of case e (the consequent of V a r i a t i o n 1), they a l l are antecedents. Case a i s unique i n more than one respect: i t displays the only instance of an ascending scale i n the soprano running through a complete phrase; t h i s scale i s accompanied by a pedal i n an inner voice, and ascending sequences i n the lower two instruments, also unique occurrences. 190 6. Five segments are found to belong to the descending transient group: a. 1: 53 58.1 (p. 228) b. 1: 70 - 72 (p. 229) c. 1: 112 118.1 (P. 230) d. 2: 30.2 - 33 (P. 235) e. 3: 78 102.1 (p. 240) Of these, the l a s t i s r e a l l y a group of s i x four-measure phrases forming the exposition of Section B. By i t s shape as well as by the general d i r e c t i o n of i t s motivic material, i t forms a mirror image of the exposition of A (see below, type 8.Id). The four other passages share the following features: descending scale i n the bass, and a sostenuto l y r i c a l character p a r t i c u l a r l y evidenced i n the soprano, which forms a descending sequence i n a l l but case a. Indications of piano and pianissimo  dolcissimo increasing to forte dolce i n an an t i c i p a t o r y gesture appear i n a l l but case c, which i s marked fo r t i s s i m o dolce ending i n a decrescendo. Case d i s the second part of the antecedent of V a r i a t i o n 2, while cases a, b, and c are a l l consequents. 7. The periodic type i s evident i n nine segments, of which three belong to: 7.1 the simple p e r i o d i c sub-type a. 1: 83 - 89.1 (p. 230) b. 2: 26.2 - 30.2 (p. 235) c. 3: 146 - 151 (p. 240) In the f i r s t instance, the descending shape of the upper voice (mm. 85.2-88.1), coinciding with the uninterrupted crescendo and the 191 vigorous rhythmic a r t i c u l a t i o n , brings t h i s passage very close to the texture of phrases such as 3:50-54 which are c l a s s i f i e d under "simple contraction, intensive c l o s i n g " type (see case 2.2a). S i m i l a r l y , case b, with i t s predominantly descending second h a l f , shares many t r a i t s with the recessive subtype of simple contractions (see case 2.1b), including the decrescendo and poco allargando markings. Case c could be considered a prototype of a f u l l y periodic formula: ostinato arpeggiations and pedal accompanying a self-contained melody. Repetitions of th i s pattern form the bulk of Section M. 7.2 The double periodic subtype i s found i n two phrases: a. 1: 159 - 172.1 (p. 232) b. 2: 1 - 4 (p. 233) Both could be broken down Into a double expansion followed by a double contraction, but i n neither case i s there a point of a r t i c u l a t i o n which would support such a segmentation. Case a, the antecedent of the closing group to the Recapitulation, features sequences on the head of motive Al and an uninterrupted crescendo, poco vivace, l a t e r becoming agitato poco, a l l t extural features which bring i t close to the double expansion type (compare with cases 3d and 3e), and, indeed, were the v i o l i n parts transposed up an octave, at mm. 171-172.1, and the c e l l o down an octave at m. 172.1, t h i s i s exactly the shape i t would take. The segment thus modified sounds so convincing i n context (when played on the piano) that t h i s writer i s Inclined to think that the composer has c u r t a i l e d the ascent i n order to achieve a f u l l n e s s of sonority which the instruments of the s t r i n g quartet would have had d i f f i c u l t y achieving had i t been written the other way. 192 7.3 A l l three examples of o s c i l l a t o r y patterns are found i n the Third Movement: a. 3: 39 - 44 (p. 238) b. 3: 68 - 77 (p. 240) c. 3: 110 - 117 (p. 240) These are extensions of cadential gestures into complete phrases. Case a i s the consequent of the codetta to the expository group of A, very s i m i l a r i n nature and function to the intensive closings of type 2; cases b and c are more akin to the recessive c l o s i n g s , including the diminuendo (and rallentando i n case c ) , a l l factors conducive to the an t i c i p a t o r y atmosphere appropriate to these points i n the movement. 7.4 The only instance of a f u l l y s t a t i c statement, 2:23-26.1 (p. 235), belongs to the t r a n s i t i o n between Variations 1 and 2. When associated with the following phrase (see 7.1b above), i t p e r f e c t l y f u l f i l l s i t s t r a n s i t i o n a l r o l e . It i s not unlike case 7.3b, above, the de l i c a t e ornamentation of the pedals being more appropriate to the r a r e f i e d atmosphere of the Second Movement than the o s t i n a t i found i n the Third Movement. 8. Of the eleven phrases c l a s s i f i e d as compound, s i x share a common shape which has been c a l l e d ascending-expanding. These are: a. 1: 172 - 175.1 (P- 232) b. 1: 179 - 180.1 (P. 232) c. 2: 10 - 16 (P- 234) d. 3: 8 - 23 (P- 237) e. 3: 44 - 49 (P- 239) f. 3: 165 - 172 (P- 240) 193 These phrases are marked crescendo, or even crescendo molto, and they involve sequential ascents or s t r e t t i i n the upper voices against a descending scale i n the bass ( i n the l a t e r part of the phrase), a l l t r a i t s through which they are related to the double expansion type. They are put to a greater d i v e r s i t y of use than the l a t t e r , however: cases a and b are both consequents, r e s p e c t i v e l y to the closing group of the Recapitulation and Coda, while cases c, d and e are antecedents and case f i s an ambivalent r e t r a n s i t i o n to the reprise of M. F i n a l l y , f i v e phrases do not f i t any of the above categories and have l i t t l e i n common among themselves. These are: a. 1: 27 -35.1 (p. 225) b. 1: 44 - 48 (P. 227) c. 2: 47 - 52 (P- 236) d. 2: 70 - 73 (P- 236) e. 3: 24 - 34.1 (P- 238) a. The consequent of the f i r s t subject group i s a r e l a t i v e l y complex segment where i r r e g u l a r sequences i n contrary motion i n the outer voices frame f r e e l y decorated sustained chords i n the inner voices; elements of a descending transient type are perceivable i n the second h a l f (mm. 31-35.1), associating t h i s fragment with other consequents (the consequent of B, for example, case 6a). b. The antecedent of B, whose second part (mm. 47-48) i s a simple contraction, undergoes transformations i n the reprise (mm. 61-62) and the 194 Recapitulation (mm. 155-158) which underscore i t s a f f i n i t i e s with the simple contraction: i n the r e p r i s e , a decrescendo turns i t into a recessive closing type (compare with 2.1a), while the fortissimo and accelerando markings of the Recapitulation are suggestive of an intensive c l o s i n g type (compare with 2.1c). c. The antecedent of V a r i a t i o n 3 shares features with the simple contraction type ( p a r t i c u l a r l y type 2.3) as well as with the descending transient group. d. The passionato and crescendo indications of t h i s t r a n s i t i o n generate a d i s t i n c t impulse leading to the reprise of phrase A of V a r i a t i o n 3. e. This sequential development of motive A3 i s introduced by an ascending transient gesture and i s accompanied with ostinato patterns forerunning the contrasting middle Section M. From the above inventory, i t seems reasonable to conclude that there are n o n - t r i v i a l correspondences between c e r t a i n contours and s p e c i f i c formal s i t u a t i o n s . The unique a s s o c i a t i o n of the double contraction (type 4) with motive M and i t s variants i s c e r t a i n l y the most s t r i k i n g . The numerous instances of double expansion (type 3) and of the c l o s e l y related ascending-expanding pattern (type 8.1) are also very i n t e r e s t i n g . A l l but two of the t h i r t e e n phrases belonging to these two types are antecedents; the two exceptions are found i n the f i n a l closing group and i n the Coda of the F i r s t Movement. This i n v i t e s the formulation of an hypothesis: i n order to achieve the closing e f f e c t desired at the end of the movement (the peroration), formal functions of o u t e r - l i n e contours are 195 reversed; a contour most r e a d i l y associated with progressive purposes i s now used i n a punctuative r o l e . A comparable transformation may be observed i n the successive statements of phrase "BI" of the second subject group i n the same movement. The two statements of this phrase i n the Exposition belong to the same contour type, recessive closing (2.1), whose most i n t e r e s t i n g features have been described as a combination of a c l o s i n g character with the establishment of an an t i c i p a t o r y atmosphere. In the Recapitulation, the l a s t statement of t h i s phrase i s transformed to make i t s i m i l a r to an intensive closing type (2.2), a most appropriate way of emphasizing the approach to the end of the movement, where an a n t i c i p a t o r y atmosphere i s no longer d e s i r a b l e . Within the remaining types of contours, the constant association of ascending transient patterns with progressive moments, on the one hand, and of descending transient patterns with recessive moments, on the other, i s worth noting. F i n a l l y , the disproportion i n the frequency of simple expansions (type 1: 4 cases) as compared to simple contractions (type 2: 11 cases plus 8 related cases) i n a work where pedals and o s t i n a t i i n the bass are common should not go unnoticed i n any attempt at defining s t y l i s t i c norms for t h i s Quartet. Relative Complexity and Formal Function While the association of c e r t a i n contours with s p e c i f i c formal purposes, described above, i s compatible with common pr a c t i c e s , there i s one type of c o r r e l a t i o n between texture and form which does not f a l l i n 196 l i n e with the expectations of the experienced l i s t e n e r : the c o r r e l a t i o n between r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y of texture and expository gestures, on the one hand, and r e l a t i v e complexity and elaborative sections, on the other. The procedure by which, i n so many p r o t o t y p i c a l designs, formal d e l i n e a t i o n i s one of r e l a t i v e l y uncomplicated texture i n thematic statement set against subsequent r e l a t i v e l y d i v e r s i f i e d , sometimes intense, te x t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n developmental and v a r i a t i o n a l processes, w i l l be r e c a l l e d by any experienced l i s t e n e r Along with independence/interdependence of component l i n e s based on d i r e c t i o n and i n t e r v a l of motion on the one hand, and rhythm, on the other, c r i t e r i a such as f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the number of l i n e s and d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s within each l i n e may be adduced as indicators of te x t u r a l complexity. A passage where bi f u r c a t i o n s and fusions affect the number of component l i n e s w i l l come through as more complex than a passage i n which that number remains constant, a l l other factors being equal. S i m i l a r l y , a passage where continuity must be sought across octave transfers and duplications w i l l c e r t a i n l y sound more i n t r i c a t e than one i n which a l l component l i n e s are e a s i l y followed i n the same r e g i s t e r from beginning to end. These factors of r e l a t i v e complexity are a l l evident i n the voice-leading graphs, where the omission of durations and of c e r t a i n d e t a i l s of surface ornamentation, on the one hand, and the i n d i c a t i o n of l i n e a r c o n t i n u i t i e s , on the other, throw these elements into sharp r e l i e f . Just a glance at the voice-leading graph of 1:44-46.1 (p. 227) as compared to that of 1:53-55.1 (p. 228) leaves no doubt as to which i s more complex and why, something which does not come through r e a d i l y upon reading the score since, for one 197 thing, the bass of 1:53-55.1 i s s p l i t between the c e l l o and the v i o l a . Thus l e v e l -A- of the voice-leading graph i s a useful i n d i c a t o r of te x t u r a l complexity. Based on the observation of such c r i t e r i a , i t i s easy to perceive that the most complex passages i n the F i r s t Movement are heard i n the Introduction (mm. 1-18.1), the consequent of A (mm. 27-35.1), the second subject group ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the short elaboration at mm. 49-53.1), the l y r i c phase of the Development (mm. 97-103.1), and the antecedent of the f i n a l c l o sing group (mm. 159-175.1). S i m i l a r l y , the Canzone i n the Second Movement displays f ar more " i r r e g u l a r i t i e s " than any of the subsequent v a r i a t i o n s . Nowhere i n the Third Movement i s the complexity of texture comparable to what i s to be found i n the exposition of Section A (mm. 8-23). At the other end of a scale of r e l a t i v e complexity i n tonal motions, one would l i k e l y f i n d scales, ascending or descending at a regular pace. A simple pattern of t h i s kind i s never found In a pure state i n the Quartet, but scales often appear as bass of sequential passages. Sequences and scales are congenial: a scalar passage or arpeggiation can be found to be the backbone of any sequence. If a rhythmically regular motion along a scale i s perceived as simple, then sequences should share something of that s i m p l i c i t y . From another point of view, a sequence can be considered a r e l a t i v e l y simple musical statement because, no matter how complex the model, r e p e t i t i o n allows the ear to scan and elucidate i t s complexities. Sequential passages are seen to form the bulk of the Development of the F i r s t Movement, of V a r i a t i o n 1 i n the Second Movement, and of the second 198 c l o s i n g group of Section A i n the T h i r d . These are a l l instances of developmental and v a r i a t i o n a l processes. Therefore i t becomes apparent that Szymanowski makes no e f f o r t at following the archetype described by Wallace Berry i n the quotation above: complexity of texture i s often associated with thematic statements while r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y frequently characterizes elaborative gestures. Cadential Harmonic Techniques Few of the punctuations found i n the Quartet q u a l i f y as cadences by textbook standards. Since the purpose of the present study i s to i d e n t i f y the norms e f f e c t i v e l y at work i n the piece rather than to check the conformity of t h i s composition with standard formulations, a broad d e f i n i t i o n of "cadence" i s needed. For the purposes of t h i s study, a cadence i s any type of i n t e r r u p t i o n created by rests or changes of texture and/or rhythmic flow. The i n t e r r u p t i o n must a f f e c t a l l or most of the sounding parts, either simultaneously or i n close succession, thereby admitting of such common musical devices as suspensions and phrase overlap. A further r e s t r i c t i o n must be added: the cadential i n t e r r u p t i o n i s introduced by an harmonic change, either a change of root or a change of chord over the same root. An accurate assessment of the harmonic circumstances of punctuation c a l l s for an examination of both the sonority on which the segment ends and of the way i n which i t i s approached. With respect to the conventions of major/minor t o n a l i t y , the following questions a r i s e i n connection with cadences i d e n t i f i e d i n a p p l i c a t i o n of the above d e f i n i t i o n : 199 1. Cadences are conventionally known to feature consonant root p o s i t i o n t r i a d s as points of a r r i v a l , a condition which i s observed i n only three instances i n the Quartet (the f i n a l cadences of both the F i r s t and Third Movements, and the end of the Canzone). Is there any comparable r u l e to be i n f e r r e d from the observation of the other cadences? For example, does the chord of a r r i v a l tend to be less dissonant than the chord of preparation? Do root p o s i t i o n ( a l b e i t dissonant) chords p r e v a i l over inversions? Or, on the contrary, i s the punctuation s t r i c t l y a matter of changes i n the texture and rhythmic flow, terminal harmonic formations showing no cadential function apart from that which they acquire by dint of t h e i r formal position? 2. Certain root motions are usually, i f not e x c l u s i v e l y , associated with cadences: root motions by f i f t h s (ascending or descending); and root motions by ascending seconds (major or minor). Are there applications of these procedures i n the Quartet? An answer to these questions requires the unambiguous assessment of each chord as to root p o s i t i o n or inversion, a task which i s far from easy i n c e r t a i n cases. There i s more than one cadence, for example, which proceeds from a chord analyzed as a V7 of the Neapolitan (a chord of the s i x t h degree i n minor, with a minor seventh) to a V of V (Example 5.2). According to this i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , both chords are i n root p o s i t i o n . The f i r s t chord, however, may also be interpreted as a German s i x t h , i n which case i t i s i n f i r s t i n v e r s i o n . Motion to V of V i s no i n d i c a t i o n that one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n should be preferred over the other. Although the second 200 Example 5.2 ft ^ F , { T^of N V^of V G 6 V^of V 7 7of V V 7of N V ? o f V G 6 chord i s i n root p o s i t i o n ( i n both i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ) , the context could also suggest that the terms be reversed, the chord of preparation becoming a V of V, and the punctuative chord, a German s i x t h , therefore a f i r s t inversion.10 P r i o r to an evaluation of cadences, the implications of every pl a u s i b l e analysis must have been explored. In a f i r s t step, a l i s t of cadences i s established together with contextually prevalent Roman numeral analyses. Two types of conclusions may be drawn from this data: (1) the r e l a t i v e frequency of root p o s i t i o n chords as opposed to inversions; and (2) the r e l a t i v e frequency of consonant t r i a d s (whether root p o s i t i o n or i n v e r s i o n ) . The p o s s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a scale of dissonance f l u c t u a t i o n has been dismissed e a r l i e r i n t h i s study (see p. 45, note 14). In the present case, the simple contrast between consonant t r i a d s and dissonant four- and five-note chords i s used as an indic a t o r of which trend seems to p r e v a i l within each movement. 201 Example 5.3 (see following page) l i s t s the cadences found i n the F i r s t Movement together with: (1) t h e i r Roman numeral i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ; (2) symbols denoting root p o s i t i o n (R) or inversion ( I ) , and consonance (C) or dissonance (D); and (3) the i n t e r v a l of root motion. The l a t t e r c a l l s f o r a word of explanation. Intervals of root motion are expressed as to the number of ascending semi-tones which they span, thus allowing f o r a d i s t i n c t i o n to be made between ascending major thirds (4) and descending major t h i r d s (8), f o r example, but not between ascending major thirds and descending minor sixths (4 i n both cases). Example 5.4a i s a compilation of the data found i n the preceding example concerning root positions and inversions. From t h i s compilation, Example 5.4a. Chord P o s i t i o n R - R: 5 R - I: 8 I - R: 6 I - I: 6 202 Example 5.3: Cadences i n the F i r s t Movement Measures Roman Numeral Analysis P o s i t i o n Consonance or Dissonance Root Motion 8 VII? of V • 3D I - I D - C 6 13 V of V — I R - R C - C 10 27 II — R - R D - D 5 35 F 6 - V$ of IV I - I D - D 10 38 V5# o f V " V* 3 R - I D - D 5 44 F 6 ~ V7 I - R D - D 5 49 V ? - V 6 of VI R - I D - C 9 53 V 2 — V? of VI I - R D - D 9 58 G, — V., of V I - R D - D 8 63 V7 " X4 R - I D - C 5 69 I V 2 ~ V5# ' Df V I - R D - D 9 73 I — V 2 of N R - I C - D 9 82 V I I 6 of V -4 - V 6 I - I D - C 1 97 V 6 of V — I 6 5 4 I - I D - C 10 103 V — F 7 6 R - I D - D 7 117 Il7 — v 5b 7 R - R D - D 5 127 II -- V 9 7 7 R - R D - D 5 135 F, - V* of IV I - I D - D 10 138 V5# ° f V " 7*3 R - I D - D 5 144 F 6 " V 7 I - R D - D 5 149 G 6 - V ? of V I - R D - D 8 159 V — F, 6 R - I C - D 7 172 V5# ° f V - V2 R - I D - D 5 175 X t 6 " X4 I - I D - C 6 182 IV — I R - R C - C 7 203 the following conclusion may be drawn: motion to a chord i n root p o s i t i o n does not seem to play any s i g n i f i c a n t role i n achieving cadential purposes i n the F i r s t Movement. In f a c t , there are a few more instances of R-I motions (8) than the reverse (6). Example 5.4b presents a s i m i l a r compilation with respect to consonance and dissonance. As can be expected, C-C motions are rare and D-D motions c l e a r l y p r e v a i l . More s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( f o r our purposes), there i s a higher number of D-C cadences (6) than C-D (2). It i s safe to i n f e r from t h i s i n d i c a t i o n that, i n the F i r s t Movement, the r e l a t i v e degree of consonance seems to play a role i n achieving cadential purposes. Example 5.4b: Consonance/Dissonance C - C: 2 C - D: 2 D - C: 6 D - D : 15 Example 5.5 (see following page) l i s t s together with t h e i r analysis i n a p p l i c a t i o n above. cadences of the Second Movement of the symbols described 204 Example 5.5: Cadences i n the Second Movement Roman Numeral Consonance or Root Measures Analysis P o s i t i o n Dissonance Motion 4 IV - V R - R C - C 2 10 V ? — I R - R D - C 5 16 V^b of VI — V I l | o f V R - I D - D 3 21 G* — I, I - I D - C 6 3 6 30 ' N £ — V, I - R C - D 6 4 7 33 V* 0 f V -- G, I - I D - D 4 J o 35 V^ of V — V 2 R - I D - D 5 40 N 6 — V., I - R C - D 6 4 7 52 VII* - - V I I - R D - C 9 56 V 9 b of V - V' of IV R - R D - D 10 60 G,—V?. ofV I - R D - D 8 o / 74 G -- V, I - R D - D 1 o / 80 IV* — V 7 I - R D - D 2 205 Examples 5.6a and b present the data c o l l e c t e d from this l i s t . As opposed to the s i t u a t i o n p r e v a i l i n g i n the F i r s t Movement, I-R motions obviously predominate i n this movement. On the other hand, the trend observed i n the F i r s t Movement with respect to r e l a t i v e consonance does not receive confirmation from the data compiled i n the Second. Example 5.6 a. Chord P o s i t i o n R - R: 3 R - I: 2 I - R: 6 I - I: 2 b. Consonance/Dissonance c - C: 1 c - D: 2 D - C: 3 D - D: 7 The extensive pedals found i n the Third Movement, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Sections B and M, make the assessment of such factors as po s i t i o n and degree of dissonance p a r t i c u l a r l y problematic: when i s the pedal to be considered part of the chord and when i s i t not? Since there i s no s a t i s f a c t o r y systematic answer to th i s question, t h i s study i s r e s t r i c t e d to cadences not involving the presence of a pedal. Example 5.7 l i s t s these cadences, and Example 5.8 compiles the data c o l l e c t e d from the l i s t . 206 Example 5.7: Cadences i n the Third Movement Measures 14 20 30 33 40 (&42) 44 50 67 90 115 168 254 260 Roman Numeral Analysis V 2 of IV — F6 VII* of V — V, of IV V| - 07 V 9 — V 9 of VI V ? of V — V y V 7 of V — V ? of VI V| of IV — V* P o s i t i o n V I I 2 of I I I - V 5 # of IV I IV — V 7 of N V-, of VI — F, / o V l l f of V — I.6 5 4 V I l | of V V* — I V3 I R R - I R - R R - R R - R I -R - R R - I I - I I - R I - R Consonance or Dissonance D - D D - D D - D D - D D - D D - D D - D D - D C - D D - D D - C D - C D - C Root Motion 2 6 11 8 5 1 7 9 3 6 6 1 5 207 Example 5.8 a. Chord P o s i t i o n R - R: 4 R - I: 2 I - R: 3 I - I : 4 b. Consonance/Dissonance c - C: 0 c - D: 1 D - C: 3 D - D: 9 The proportion of R-R and I-I i s more i n l i n e with that found i n the F i r s t Movement than i n the Second. There i s no clear prevalence of I-R or R-I. Despite the overwhelming s u p e r i o r i t y of D-D, the trend observed i n the F i r s t Movement also emerges i n the Third: D-C motions are preferred to C-D. From the above i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t appears that there i s no single answer to the f i r s t question concerned with the role played by r e l a t i v e consonance and/or chord p o s i t i o n i n achieving cadential purposes: root p o s i t i o n does seem to play a role i n the Second Movement but degree of consonance does not. The reverse holds true for the two outer movements. In order to answer the second question about root motions i n cadential progressions, a tabulation of i n t e r v a l s of root motion f o r each movement i s presented i n Example 5.9. S t r i k i n g differences are revealed 208 Example 5.9: Cadential a. F i r s t Movement Inter v a l 1: 1 2: 0 3: 0 4: 0 5: 9 6: 2 b. Second Movement Inter v a l 1: 1 2: 2 3: 1 4: 1 5: 2 6: 3 c. Third Movement Int e r v a l 1: 2 2: 1 3: 1 4: 0 Root Motions 7: 3 8: 2 9: 4 10: 4 11: 0 7: 0 8: 1 9: 1 10: 1 11: 0 7: 1 8: 1 9: 1 10: 0 209 by these data, p a r t i c u l a r l y between the F i r s t Movement and the other two. While root motion at i n t e r v a l 5 enjoys clear supremacy i n the F i r s t Movement, i t i s superseded i n the other two by root motion at i n t e r v a l 6. The dif f e r e n c e between the movements comes through even more v i v i d l y i f one adopts Schoenberg's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n strong ( i n t e r v a l s 5, 8, and 9), superstrong ( i n t e r v a l s 1, 2, 10, and 11), and "descending" ( i n t e r v a l s 3, 4, and 7). Although Schoenberg does not provide a category for root motions at i n t e r v a l 6, there i s evidence that they could be included i n the superstrong c l a s s : i n a progression of th i s type, the two chords have no pitches i n common ( " a l l the tones of the f i r s t chord are conquered, i . e . , eliminated e n t i r e l y . " H ) . Example 5.10 displays the data thus compiled. Example 5.10: Cadential root motions c l a s s i f i e d according to Schoenberg's categories F i r s t Second Third Movement Movement Movement Strong 15 4 4 Superstrong 7 7 7 "Descending" 3 2 2 Although these figures r e f l e c t only cadential root motions, they c e r t a i n l y give concrete evidence i n support of the i n t u i t i v e perception that a s i g n i f i c a n t change takes place a f t e r the F i r s t Movement with regard to harmonic techniques. Whereas strong progressions c l e a r l y p r e v a i l i n the F i r s t Movement, they are superseded by superstrong progressions i n the 210 following movements. "Descending" progressions maintain t h e i r subsidiary status throughout the Quartet. The conventions of t r a d i t i o n a l harmony appear to have been modified i n the following ways i n the Quartet: (1) root motions by ascending f i f t h are r e l a t i v e l y rare i n a l l movements; (2) root motions by descending f i f t h p r e v a i l i n the F i r s t Movement but not i n the other two; (3) root motions by ascending second play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the l a s t two movements while i n the F i r s t , they are dominated by root motions by descending second; (4) root motions by ascending t h i r d are seen to gain some prominence i n the Second Movement but they are v i r t u a l l y i nexistent i n the other two; and (5) root motions by descending t h i r d are well represented i n a l l three movements. The charts of cadences given i n Examples 5.3, 5.5, and 5.7 bear witness to an unmistakable prominence given to so n o r i t i e s of the dominant type, whether they be V or VII, not only i n cadential p o s i t i o n but i n preparation f o r cadences as well. The prevalence of such so n o r i t i e s i s responsible f o r the frequency of "once-removed" Roman numeral analyses. If the ultimate de s t i n a t i o n of a progression i s a dominant sonority, the penultimate chord i s l i k e l y to be a dominant of the dominant, or an augmented s i x t h . Tonal System and Formal Structure Examination of cadences has shown that the Quartet expands on conventions of the common-practice period, projecting an o r i g i n a l system of harmonic r e l a t i o n s h i p s . On a broader scale, the tonal coherence of the movements i s also seen to depend on r e l a t i o n s h i p s which are extrapolations of common-practice tonal and formal designs. 211 The F i r s t Movement rein t e r p r e t s the t r a d i t i o n a l sonata-form i n more than one of i t s aspects. Tonality i s established i n the Introduction, rather than i n the f i r s t subject group, and t h i s i s done by means of a pedal on the tonic underlying the close of this section and the l i n k to the A l l e g r o , at a point where a pedal on the dominant would conventionally be expected. A pedal on the tonic runs through a substantial portion of the Development, again i n a formal p o s i t i o n where motion away from the tonic i s expected. The only p e r f e c t l y conventional role which the tonic harmony i s c a l l e d to play i s that of f i n a l cadence, including a preparation by dominant harmony (mm. 157-159) and a deceptive cadence allowing for a penultimate closing group to delay the motion to the tonic (mm. 159-175.1). The tonal strategy replacing the conventional opposition between tonic ( f i r s t subject group) and contrasting key (second subject group) has been discussed at length i n the f i n a l section of chapter 2 (see p. 100), as were the unusual ways i n which motivic material i s r e d i s t r i b u t e d i n the Recapitulation. E a r l i e r i n this chapter, attention was drawn to the reversal of c l a s s i c a l values with regard to density and texture, the Development showing greater s i m p l i c i t y of design than the expository segments, according to s p e c i f i c , stated c r i t e r i a . The Second Movement also r e i n t e r p r e t s the patterns t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with i t s formal prototype, theme and v a r i a t i o n s . As explained i n the beginning of chapter 3 (p. 109), the term " v a r i a t i o n " i s used i n a very broad sense, here. None of the three sections i s structured around the melody, the bass, or the harmonic framework of the Canzone. Each elaborates upon ce r t a i n components of the Canzone treated as motives. The 212 three v a r i a t i o n s follow an ABA pattern which does not ori g i n a t e i n the Canzone i t s e l f . Movements i n theme and v a r i a t i o n form normally r e a f f i r m i n the f i n a l v a r i a t i o n the t o n a l i t y established i n the theme, when intervening v a r i a t i o n s have modulated away from t h i s i n i t i a l key centre. In the Quartet, the change of t o n a l i t y i s part of a broader plan involving changes i n the te x t u r a l nature and harmonic language of the composition. While the i n i t i a l Canzone and the F i r s t V a r i a t i o n are written i n a s t y l e strongly reminiscent of s i m i l a r movements i n the works of Max Reger,12 the l a s t V a r i a t i o n i s more r e a d i l y associated with the works of R a v e l . ^ The observations recorded e a r l i e r i n this chapter with regard to the predominance of root motions by f i f t h i n the F i r s t Movement, and the t r a n s i t i o n to a predominance of root motions by second and t r i t o n e i n the Second Movement, are further evidence of a mutation of language, as are intimations of b i t o n a l i t y achieved through extended multiple suspensions. The v a l i d i t y of polytonal key signatures i n the Third Movement as an explanatory basis of i t s tonal structure has been s e r i o u s l y questioned i n th i s study. Their influence i s not denied, but t h e i r e f f e c t i s not one of four simultaneously audible keys. Their influence i s f e l t i n the maintenance of d i s t i n c t , r e g i s t r a l l y correlated d i a t o n i c f i e l d s generating a harmonic vocabulary and spacing unique to t h i s movement. With respect to the norms of tonal organization applied i n music since the Renaissance, the way i n which jC achieves prominence i n th i s movement could almost be c a l l e d "non-functional." There i s l i t t l e trace of a h i e r a r c h i c a l tonal pattern from which such a 213 prominence would emerge n a t u r a l l y . R e g i s t r a l exposure i n the bass and r e i t e r a t i o n f o r extensive segments, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c l o s i n g sections, are the e s s e n t i a l techniques used to achieve t h i s end. The tonal harmonic a c t i v i t y observed i n Section A i s i n f l e c t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y to the sharp side of C, notably to E. The contrasting section M arpeggiates a D-minor t r i a d but, within each of i t s phrases (with the exception of mm. 165-171), a "drone" prevents any harmonic ch a r a c t e r i z a t i o n from taking place, even for purposes of punctuation. Contrast with the preceding movements i s also a r e s u l t of the prevalence of descending-fifth motions. Here again, Szymanowski displays a f a s c i n a t i o n with unconventional procedures. Outer-Voice Framework The p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s of each movement have been amply documented i n the materials and procedures of harmony, i n the motivic content, and i n aspects of texture and rhythm. A study of outer-voice frameworks reveals further d i s t i n c t i o n s from which unique global structures emerge. In studying these frameworks, attention i s focused not so much on the steps through which the l i n e s proceed as on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of motion i t s e l f , p a r t i c u l a r l y on d i r e c t i o n both i n absolute (ascending or descending) and r e l a t i v e ( s i m i l a r , p a r a l l e l , contrary, oblique) terms. It i s believed that such a study may account i n a very v i v i d way for the dynamic processes responsible for large-scale coherence i n the music. The F i r s t Movement i s u n i f i e d around two broad motions (Example 5.11, pp. 215-216): (1) an ascending l i n e a r motion of the upper voice l i n k i n g the 214 Introduction, the Exposition and the Development to the melodic climax (m. 97); and (2) a harmonic motion of descending f i f t h s u n i t i n g mm. 73-137. At m. 137, the ascending l i n e a r motion b r i e f l y takes over. Both f a c t o r s ( l i n e a r motion of the upper voice, and harmonic progression of the lower voice) are at work i n the c l o s i n g group (mm. 159-174), but the f i n a l cadence r e l i e s e n t i r e l y on root motion by f i f t h i n both outer voices, an emphasis on harmonic motion which reverberates i n the Coda i n i t s move to the subdominant. Within the general d i r e c t i o n imparted by t h i s combination of motions, c e r t a i n d e t a i l s are deserving of emphasis. The " p a r a l l e l octaves" of mm. 13-38, f o r example, c a l l f o r some words of explanation. Since pitches belonging to the outer-voice framework are not meant to represent r e g i s t e r - s p e c i f i c s o n o r i t i e s so much as r e l a t i v e motions of outer voices, one could go so far as to say that, i n those measures, the framework i s r e a l l y reduced to a single continuity of p i t c h - c l a s s adjacencies. This kind of "monophony" never recurs over a comparable time-span i n the Quartet. In p a r t i c u l a r , this "monophonic" passage i s appreciably shortened by t r a n s p o s i t i o n and modifications i n the Recapitulation (mm. 118-131). Motion i n p a r a l l e l f i f t h s at mm. 44-47 introduces a modicum of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the two voices. Subsequent contrary motion (mm. 49-58) r e s u l t s i n a progression i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Although mm. 58-62 repeat mm. 44-48, the intervening segment lends t h i s reprise a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t meaning: the upper voice i s now an octave above the preceding statement, implying that ascending motion i s uninterrupted i n the 215 Example 5.11a: Outer-voice framework of F i r s t Movement (Part I) 216 Example 5.11b: Outer-voice framework of F i r s t Movement (Part II) 217 middle segment (mm. 49-58); the lower voice returns to E_ (m. 58) by way of a descent from an inner-voice A (m. 49). As a f i n a l remark to the study of the framework of the F i r s t Movement, one may note the prevalence of perfect consonances i n the Exposition and Recapitulation, while imperfect consonances predominate i n the Introduction, i n both closing groups, and i n the Development. The Second Movement (see Example 3.20, p. 133) harmoniously combines continuity of l i n e a r motion i n the upper voice with continuity of harmonic motion expressed i n the lower voice by successive descending f i f t h s . After an i n i t i a l statement (the Canzone), where a descending l i n e a r motion i n the upper voice i s supported by neighbouring motions i n the lower voice, the three v a r i a t i o n s are u n i f i e d , across t h e i r formal boundaries, by the combined action of a long-range descending motion i n the upper voice and of a succession of descending f i f t h s i n the lower voice, a combination of motions which i s ultimately completed i n the opening of the Third Movement. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the outer-voice framework i n bringing unity into a form characterized by the jux t a p o s i t i o n of s u p e r f i c i a l l y disconnected sections i s well worth emphasizing. The Third Movement (see Examples 4.19 and 4.20) i s d e f i n i t e l y more s t a t i c than the f i r s t two with respect to lower-voice motion. A c t i v i t y i s l a r g e l y reserved for the upper voice. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c immobility of the bass i s l o c a l l y enhanced by the non-motivic material used through most of the movement. No prevalence of perfect or imperfect consonances has been found to be associated with a p a r t i c u l a r section, as was the case i n the F i r s t Movement. 218 An i n i t i a l ascent, proportionately much shorter than that observed i n the F i r s t Movement, i s followed by extensive descending motions interrupted by the long neighbouring elaboration of _F#, forming Section M. Contrary motion of the bass i n the l a t t e r section y i e l d s a pattern of outer-voice motions strongly reminiscent of the Introduction (1:1-13). The apparent lack of large-scale a c t i v i t y , as compared with the other two movements, i s j u s t i f i e d by the goals pursued i n th i s movement: as opposed to the impassioned atmosphere of the F i r s t Movement, and the e c s t a t i c character of the Second, the Third Movement i s d e l i b e r a t e l y p l a y f u l , at times bordering on the grotesque. This f e e l i n g i s n a t u r a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n the s i m p l i c i t y of the tonal-harmonic structure as well as of the outer-voice framework. 219 NOTES *Berry, S t r u c t u r a l Functions, p. 241. ^This l i s t i s borrowed from the systematic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of textural values suggested by Wallace Berry, S t r u c t u r a l Functions, pp. 191-195. -^ See p. 106, note 7, for a d e f i n i t i o n of texture-space. ^The only instance of such a contour i n a shorter segment i s found i n 3:68-70. Since the pattern i s repeated to m. 76, however, the contour of the phrase as a whole belongs to the periodic category (type 7) described below. ^For an example i n a shorter segment, see 1:16-18, the l i n k between the Introduction and the A l l e g r o . 6Berry, S t r u c t u r a l Functions, p. 246. ^Three instances of simple contractions are unrelated to the categories described i n this paragraph: a. 2:57-60 (p. 236); b. 3:138-145 (p. 240);c. 3:158-164 (p. 240). Case b, a single melodic l i n e introducing Section M, i s included i n this type by analogy of shape and character (see also case 2.1c, above) with type 2.2. The other two instances do not show any s i g n i f i c a n t r e g u l a r i t y . As a f i n a l item i n th i s inventory of simple contractions, one may note the prevalence of cl o s i n g statements i n t h i s category: a l l of sub-types 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3 are closing groups or t r a n s i t i o n s ( c e r t a i n l y a form of closure), as i s case c above. 8The sequential underpinings of case c are somewhat obscured by the surface a c t i v i t y , but come through i n the double-neighbour figure i n the soprano at l e v e l -B- of the voice-leading graph. 9 B e r r y , S t r u c t u r a l Functions, p. 240. ^Contextual in d i c a t i o n s notwithstanding, the i n i t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (V of N to V of V) i s more elegant since i t suggests a " c e n t r i p e t a l " leaning (toward V and I) as opposed to the " c e n t r i f u g a l " o r i e n t a t i o n of the second. ^Schoenberg, Structural Functions of Harmony, p. 7, note 2. It should be emphasized that, i n esta b l i s h i n g his c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Schoenberg only takes into account pitches belonging to the t r i a d i c "core" of the chord, exclusive of sevenths and ninths. S i m i l a r l y , he doesn't consider the p o s s i b i l i t y of an altered t h i r d or f i f t h . l^see, for example, the Second Movement of his Second Quartet, op 54, no.2; the Second Movement of his Quintet i n C minor f or piano and s t r i n g s , op. 64; the Third Movement of his Third Quartet, op. 74; and the Third Movement of his Fourth Quartet, op. 109. 220 1 J S e e , for example, the Third Movement of his Quartet i n F, as well as many of his works f o r solo piano; textural and harmonic a f f i n i t i e s between the Third V a r i a t i o n of the Szymanowski Quartet and mm. 51-53 of Jeux d'eau are p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g . BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Sources Karol Szymanowski: Briefwechsel mit der Universal E d i t i o n 1912-1937. Edited by Teresa Chylinska. Vienna: Universal E d i t i o n , 1981. Karol Szymanowski: Complete E d i t i o n . Teresa Chylinska, gen. ed. 17 v o l s . Krakow: PWM-Edition; Vienna: Universal E d i t i o n ; P a r i s : Editions Max Eschig, 1973- ( i n progress). Szymanowski, Karol. String Quartet i n C, opus 37. Notes by Arthur Wil l n e r . Philharmonia P a r t i t u r e n . Vienna: Universal E d i t i o n , 1925. B. Others Benjamin, William E. "Models of Underlying Tonal Structure: How Can They Be Abstract, and How Should They Be Abstract?" Music Theory Spectrum 4 (1982): 49. . "Pitch-class Counterpoint i n Tonal Music." In Music Theory: Special Topics, pp. 1-32. Edited by Richmond Browne. New York: Academic Press, 1981. Berry, Wallace. S t r u c t u r a l Functions i n Music. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1976. Koechlin, Charles. "Evolution de l'harmonie: periode contemporaine depuis Bizet et Cesar Franck jusqu'a nos jours." i n Encyclopedie de l a  musique et d i c t i o n n a i r e du conservatoire, 2 e p a r t i e , v o l . 1, pp. 696-760. Edited by Albert Lavignac and Lione l de l a Laurencie. P a r i s : Delagrave, 1925. . T r a i t e de l'harmonie. 3 v o l s . P a r i s : Max Eschig, 1930. Michalowski, Kornel. Karol Szymanowski 1882-1937: katalog tematyczny dzieJ:  i b i b l i o g r a f i a [Thematic Catalogue and Bibliography]. Krakow: PWM E d i t i o n , 1967. P e r s i c h e t t i , Vincent. Twentieth-Century Harmony. New York: W.W. Norton, 1961. Samson, Jim. The Music of Szymanowski. London: Kahn & A v e r i l l , 1980. . "Szymanowski and Tonality." Studi Musical! 5 (1976), pp. 291-312. 221 222 Schoenberg, Arnold. Fundamentals of Musical Composition. Edited by Gerald Strang and Leonard S t e i n . London: Faber and Faber, 1967. • S t r u c t u r a l Functions of Harmony. Revised E d i t i o n , edited by Leonard Stein. New York: W.W. Norton, 1969. Wightman, A l i s t a i r . "The Music of Karol Szymanowski." Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of York, 1972. APPENDIX VOICE-LEADING GRAPHS 223 224 G R A P H 1 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 1 : 1 - 1 8 . 1 8 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 B 3S= 8 >; 9 : g *• 1 3tc 3 * ! 1 »1 % A a J1L IV y G^IIV__V__V VII VIIOFII "VlIcHV W O F V vl W I T C & VOFV VOFVI V O F I M I V O F V - V [jir"_VPJFVLYI_ _ V J IV H J Z V O F V IL v i V < ^ I VOFIII VI V I I O F V ( V ) VI in 2 2 5 G R A P H 2 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 1 : 1 8 - 3 5 . 1 Cc At VI IV V O F V \/\ \/ VOFVI V OFV V liv VOF in (~ v) F 6 2 2 6 G R A P H 3 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 1 : 3 5 - 4 4 . 1 2 2 7 G R A P H 4 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 1 : 4 4 - 5 3 . 1 2 2 8 G R A P H 5 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 1 : 5 3 - 6 3 . 1 x r ! 4 * / 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 3 £ 3 t 5 ± 3 $ Cc VOFIII V O F V A V O F V * v IV60 ( V O F N ) N 6 E V V O F V V O F J V j ( V ) 2 2 9 G R A P H 6 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 1 : 6 3 - 7 3 . 1 .—f- in i i | j JI i 4 k-*—k-. k-J * k-. 4—y # e ^ ~"= -SL - - •' -- - - to \i :. ** ' * * }* v v* v, i.; \i- i$ _ i a — n — — ^ ^ sH . - , , t, ^ ^ ^ ^ 5 . — _ . c_4u— .—LCJ : i ! ! i i • ! 1 *-T H"-|< =H H-« 94 63 64 &5 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 ^ 3 E< VOFIH V Cc IV V O F V VOF IV V O F V ^ V ^ 1 V VOFVI E , V ii VOFIII VOFIV VOF IV^ IV FG i G6 _ VOFIV _ v~ _VQF VI IV V O F V 2 3 0 G R A P H 7 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 1 : 7 3 - 1 1 8 . 1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 3p —- o ~D zr I r e * 3 5 97 . 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 III 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 4» j. 7r «1 i SS . Br i 87 i «f i »( i 95 i *r I ?7 < 99 < 10i i ro) , . IOJ 1 107 , 109 73 1 77 79 H J . IIJT A(!)[VbrAA c F At Dd (11 HI) VOFIV 3F V T 1 Z J 5 O M Z _ . _Y_ _Vi/5J. VOFV \A)F1V> V T V N VOFIV "IV" [ F S A / O F V ? [VOFV. VOFII 11 2 3 1 G R A P H 8 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 1 : 1 1 8 - 1 5 9 . 1 B VOFIV VI V VOFN A F G ^ V G S V O F V VOFII C V V O F I V IV V FR F l l h ^ V VOFIV Bb I V ^ . W O F I W V VSOFVIV At V O F V V L & L V Q F I Q I 2 3 2 G R A P H 9 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 1 : 1 5 9 - 1 8 2 dfct 1A bi. =&— bo <y btf bo 4* b ^ . 3® M 2, *~ 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 176 180 182 1$ ]%>=*1 ! 71 b rTT" r r * c->4 1 , * r u ^ H % — 1 \r& « Irf kf b^ — b4 ^ \q&—b_£_ ••-{%• - ?-% ^ € — L«y - b£ ^ ,1, —t-9— (y-J—9-0^  - *—— _ w T9-Cc Ffi VOFIII IV vi VOEIII V O F V V ^ N N6 VOPIII V _VpFlll III F G VII A / V IV" V O F I V IV 1 1 Ab V O F V VI V O F V V O F I V U V FR VOFIII U ) F \ M / WVOFIV I 2 3 3 G R A P H 1 0 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 2 : 1 - 1 0 . 1 ft&r 1 * f* Ee Et I VI VII I VOFIII — — » i V V L _ ^ ^  ^ I V V I I O F V ^ V - — I F lV V VOFII V V OFVI VI VOFN 2 3 4 G R A P H 1 1 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 2 : 1 0 - 2 2 \>1 4- > # « ' he? a. <2_ "TP J2_ "IF * r 10 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 K< $ A ' \\ ' 1 * Aa Ee Et V_ G G V VOFIV VIIOFV VII V G G IV VIIJ VII OF IV V OF III V v<fvi V VOFVI v OFVI VIIOFV V O F V V O F V IVGD V VIIOFIV 1 VOFII 16 VIIOFVL IVfe VOFV 2 3 5 G R A P H 1 2 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 2 : 2 3 - 4 0 I *d n—*- -i9-:3z ^ tt; ttg t+—T f-J r» .o /i a fi a J L * _ r 23-26 27 28 29 30 31 i 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 i y i t I F * IK- . V > - - V o F I V l _YJ_ _Y*V II_VJV_ V~V G6 VIUVCV V»F|V Cn N V v<wi V VII 1 N V IV V c l l l ] V Lm Vei l V~V V~IV n Iv*—- 1 V~V 2 3 6 G R A P H 1 3 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 2 : 4 1 - 8 5 I IE -A V 0. 9ga t*=P -fce=dp — g k-y- I r z r ^ 41 47 49 50 51 52 56 60 65 70 71 74 75 77 80 85 35 Gb C G D E VOFV VII VI (V~N) VOFIV 1 j VO^N V O F V Ge V j l _ V O F V _VOFVII V VOFIV VII OFII VOFV "AG" V O F V fAe V *N' L V I VII V O F I V V O F V V O F N 237 G R A P H 1 4 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 3 : 8 - 2 0 . 1 7 JTT J bj J>j 8# H i 3£ ^ 3 b -iS>-8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 I = f7 — — | H T73 7 ? 7 U a ^ 4 ~ * r ~ 5— T £ — 'ft 1- • * — : —b~ l — x s ~ *~" t — ^ & — » f is A a V VOF VI VII vi II V O F I V Vorin V i V J E 1 V^FIII VIIOFIV IV v«*vi V J V C 1 HI IV VIIOFIVVOFVI Vo F VI VOFV VOFII V VIKAO/I Eb VOFIV * IV VOFV VOFVI VII G G J V 2 3 8 G R A P H 1 5 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 3 : 2 0 - 4 4 . 1 -tUz 1 • / / <? t ^ 3& 0 $v to x2 g tt j , — * i 20 21 22 23 24 25 2 6 27 28-2930-32 33 34 35 37 38 39/41 40 /42 43 44 [45] IP f — r t f f ^ f " * t — %•+ c -rt—f-* — i r * J^r u l f LI 't J * ' J ? LO ' J - f r - t f — NT ^1 »g -Bb G» . V _ V O F V I VjfefVivi V V Ge E V O F I V VOFN "A6" V V O F V VOFII V O F V V^III HI VOFWI Aa V V VOFVI VCFII V O F V VOFII V0FVK--V0FII vi VOFII V C VOFVI VOFIV Fe VOFIV "IV"v„vi VOFV>V VbFVI Bt 2 3 9 G R A P H 1 6 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 3 : 4 4 - 6 7 i b — g ^ ^ — > go b f o j—"tp ^ II g fyg (bj. { 3 110 3 3 B T9 inS b-6>--B-kg b<? -C k9- bg f 9— <5" IT K  ' 3 • r « 1 r—3 9 —r i 44 45 46 47 48 • c - i 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 61 63 65-67 c« A E VI V F 6 V O F V V V Ge V H VOFV_ _VbFVi ] Va« N VOFIV V O F V I L v l II V lorVI? C c IVOFVI G6 VOPVI VOFIII Vo^vi IV "1 ' V VIIOFV/V Vll/I 1 Et V 1 VOFIV V V O F I V VOFV VI 240 G R A P H 1 7 V O I C E - L E A D I N G G R A P H O F 3 : 6 8 - 1 8 6 . 1 1 n,Z b i ,b / b* W h * f— i t u .ijfo try, II j <=^== i r _v b_<2 b_£_ 6 6 70 82 90 91 100 102 104 105 106 109 110 114 I 5 I 122 125 , 127 , 129 , 131 133 135 , 137 M L 1 « _ -ty p —#— 1—^—H 1 b l ^ — f l ? I , ' — — H b^g— «>— H " — J : 1  j fr? — * — «r 8» i—p—* 157 »J1 158 n r (b8 w />o at (71 (w-iat D C FLV ll IjV MyIV in V ^ V O F I V - IV V r l V V M l VOFII J V _ A6F I L V)F V L V VOFYVXLV VOFV) VOFII VbFv] Vb VOFII V 

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