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Planning Northwest British Columbia economic development : a comparative study Webber, Andrew J. M. 1987

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PLANNING NORTHWEST BRITISH COLUMBIA . ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY By ANDREW J . M. WEBBER B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1987 © A n d r e w J . M. Webber, 1987 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Andrew J . M, Webber S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 9, 1987 i i PLANNING NORTHWEST BRITISH COLUMBIA ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ABSTRACT: The t h e s i s is; a r e t r o s p e c t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f two economic p l a n s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s , u n d e r t a k e n f o r the same a r e a d u r i n g the same time p e r i o d . The g e o g r a p h i c s e t t i n g f o r the t h e s i s i s n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The time p e r i o d c o v e r e d by t h e r e v i e w i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1980 t o 1985. The t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s the d i f f e r e n c e s which can o c c u r between the two p l a n s and s e a r c h e s f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s which seem to a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . The economic p l a n produced by t h e B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i n c i a l government recommends a f u t u r e r e g i o n a l economy based on l a r g e - s c a l e , c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e t e c h n o l o g y and f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f the r e g i o n w i t h a w o r l d economy. The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s used was c e n t r a l i z e d and t e c h n o c r a t i c . The o t h e r p l a n , produced by the r e g i o n a l Economic Development Commission, a l s o recommends f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n but i s o r i e n t e d towards s u s t a i n e d community development and a p p r o p r i a t e ( i . e . s m a l l - s c a l e , l o c a l l y - c o n t r o l l e d ) t e c h n o l o g y . The p l a n i s i n f o r m e d by a l o c a l l y - b a s e d , p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s . C a t e g o r i e s f o r comparing the two p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s a r e drawn from r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e , p l a n n i n g t h e o r y l i t e r a t u r e and r e v i e w o f the c a s e s t h e m s e l v e s . Nine p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s a r e employed i n the a n a l y s i s . The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s t h a t the c r i t i c a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s which a f f e c t the c o n t e n t o f the p l a n s a r e : the l e v e l o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each p r o c e s s , the manner i n which c o n t r o l o v e r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s c e n t r a l i z e d o r d e c e n t r a l i z e d , and t h e s p a t i a l i n t e r e s t o f key a c t o r s . The s t u d y method u s e d , an ex p o s t f a c t o c a s e s t u d y , however, can o n l y i n f e r c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p r o c e s s and p l a n v a r i a b l e s ; i t does n o t p r o v i d e c e r t a i n knowledge o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS: A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s v i i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s i x Acknowledgement x CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose o f T h e s i s 1 Study Methods 2 So u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n 4 A n a l y t i c a l Approach 5 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f T h e s i s 7 CHAPTER TWO: DETERMINATION OF CATEGORIES OF ANALYSIS 9 F u n c t i o n a l and T e r r i t o r i a l Development 10 S e l e c t i o n o f P l a n C a t e g o r i e s 16 S e l e c t i o n o f P r o c e s s C a t e g o r i e s 17 C h a p t e r Summary 21 V CHAPTER THREE: THE NORTHWEST REGION 23 D e f i n i t i o n s o f the Northwest Region 24 The Economy o f Northwest B r i t i s h Columbia 28 P h y s i o g r a p h y 28 Economic H i s t o r y 29 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I n f r a s t r u c t u r e 32 P o p u l a t i o n and Income L e v e l s 34 The L o c a l Economies 36 The Contemporary R e g i o n a l Economy 39 M a j o r P r o j e c t s I n v e n t o r y 46 The Short-Term P o l i c y S o l u t i o n s 47 CHAPTER FOUR: THE PROVINCE'S PLANNING PROCESS AND PLAN 52 The Need F o r an Economic S t r a t e g y 52 The V a l u e o f the P l a n 55 The C a b i n e t T o u r s 57 A Model f o r Development 63 The Northwest Economic Development S t u d i e s 65 Review 73 CHAPTER FIVE: THE REGIONAL DISTRICT PLANNING PROCESS AND PLAN 75 P o l i t i c a l / I n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n t e x t 76 R e l a t i o n s h i p s With O t h e r R e g i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s 85 Chambers o f Commerce/Business I n f o C e n t r e s 86 Skeena Manpower Development Committee 87 B.C. M i n i s t r y o f Labour 89 Employment Development Branch 89 v i F e d e r a l B u s i n e s s Development Bank 90 M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 90 T e n s i o n i n the I n s t i t u t i o n a l E nvironment 94 L e g i t i m a c y C r i s i s 95 P o l a r i z e d P o l i t i c s 96 R e s t r a i n t P o l i t i c s 97 D e s c r i p t i o n o f P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 98 T e c h n o c r a t i c Approach 98 P a r t i c i p a t o r y Approach 106 The Emerging P l a n 115 P l a n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 115 CHAPTER SIX: ANALYSIS 128 Comparison o f Economic P l a n s 128 Approach t o T e c h n o l o g y 128 S p a t i a l C l o s u r e v s . F u n c t i o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 131 Comprehensive o r S e c t o r a l P l a n s 132 V i s i o n a r y o r I n c r e m e n t a l P l a n s 132 S u s t a i n e d Community Development 134 Comparison o f P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s e s 135 P l a n n i n g Mandates 136 C e n t r a l i z e d v s . D e c e n t r a l i z e d C o n t r o l 139 Degree o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 140 S p a t i a l I n t e r e s t 142 T i m i n g o f P r o c e s s 145 D e t e r m i n i s t i c o r F l u i d P r o c e s s 146 R o l e o f Development Model 147 v i i Background o f P l a n n e r s 148 R o l e o f P l a n n e r 148 Ca u s a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s 153 P l a n n i n g Mandates 154 C e n t r a l i z e d v s . D e c e n t r a l i z e d C o n t r o l 157 Degree o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 158 S p a t i a l I n t e r e s t 158 T i m i n g o f P r o c e s s 159 D e t e r m i n i s t i c o r F l u i d P r o c e s s 159 R o l e o f Development Model 160 Background o f P l a n n e r s 160 R o l e o f P l a n n e r 161 CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS 162 BIBLIOGRAPHY 167 APPENDIX ONE: AN APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY: THE PORTABLE MINERAL CONCENTRATOR 178 v i i i LIST OF TABLES: 1. F u n c t i o n a l and T e r r i t o r i a l Development 15 2. P o p u l a t i o n o f Major Communities, 1981 35 3. Average M o n t h l y Unemployment I n s u r a n c e C l a i m a n t s i n C.E.I.C. Skeena D i s t r i c t and S p e c i f i e d A r e a s w i t h i n D i s t r i c t 42 4. R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e : Assessment 1981 - 1985 42 5. C a b i n e t Committee on Economic Development, 1982 57 6. K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t B o a r d , 1984 78 7. Economic Development Commission: Tax Levy Revenues 93 8. Comparison o f Economic P l a n s 129 9. Comparison o f P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s e s 137 0 ix LIST OF FIGURES: 1. K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (Map) 25 2. B.C. Government P l a n n i n g A r e a (Map) 27 3. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I n f r a s t r u c t u r e (Map) 33 4. P r o v i n c i a l Government P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s : T i m e t a b l e 53 5. I n t e r m i n i s t r y Working Group S t r u c t u r e 67 6. R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s : T i m e t a b l e 99 7. C a u s a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s : P l a n & P r o c e s s V a r i a b l e s 155 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: In p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s I am i n d e b t e d t o the c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and i n s i g h t p r o v i d e d by P e t e r B o o t h r o y d , G e r a l d Hodge and Brahm Wiesman o f the Scho o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . In T e r r a c e , a l o n g overdue acknowledgment i s owed John P o u s e t t e o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , and t o o u r f e l l o w employees, whose s u p p o r t has been i n s t r u m e n t a l . S p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n must a l s o be a c c o r d e d L i s a D a v i s f o r e n d u r i n g t y p i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , I wish t o r e c o g n i z e Norma Kerby, who f i r s t saw the p o t e n t i a l i n s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g development, l a t e r c o n v i n c e d me o f i t s v a l u e , b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s can a c c r u e f r o m community-based economic p l a n n i n g . I . PLANNING NORTHWEST BRITISH COLUMBIA ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  Purpose o f T h e s i s : D u r i n g the p e r i o d o f 1981 t o 1985 two economic p l a n s were c o m p i l e d f o r n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — o n e by the p r o v i n c i a l government, the second by a r e g i o n a l economic p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y . Though produced f o r the same a r e a d u r i n g t h e same time p e r i o d , t he two p l a n s and t he p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s which g e n e r a t e d them a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n i s o r i e n t e d towards l a r g e - s c a l e , c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e r e s o u r c e development ( m e g a - p r o j e c t s ) and i s g u i d e d by a p e r c e p t i o n o f the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n as a h i n t e r l a n d o r p a r t o f a l a r g e r economic system. The p l a n i s the outcome o f a t e c h n o c r a t i c , c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The r e g i o n a l Economic Development Commission's p l a n more e x p l i c i t l y r e f l e c t s a c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e no r t h w e s t (and i t s i n d i v i d u a l communities) as an i n t e g r a l , o r g a n i c u n i t and promotes s u s t a i n e d community development. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s p l a n a d v o c a t e s s m a l l s c a l e o r a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y . The r e g i o n a l p l a n i s i n f o r m e d t h r o u g h a l o c a l , p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s . Both t he r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, however, p r o c l a i m t h a t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e economic o b j e c t i v e s , can be a c h i e v e d v i a the f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f the n o r t h w e s t economy w i t h a g l o b a l economy. T h i s t h e s i s i s a comparison o f t h e s e two p l a n s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . The purpose i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e c r i t i c a l 2. v a r i a b l e s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s which seem t o a c c o u n t f o r d i v e r g e n c e between the two p l a n s . The t h e s i s w i l l d e s c r i b e v a r i a t i o n s which can emerge i n p l a n s d e v e l o p e d f o r the same a r e a a t about t he same time and w i l l i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s which seem t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l a l l o w us t o p r o j e c t , though not p r e d i c t w i t h c e r t a i n t y , t h e outcomes o f p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s by r e v i e w i n g t h e i n g r e d i e n t s o f such p r o c e s s e s . These f i n d i n g s may a l s o r e v e a l t o p l a n n e r s how d e s i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as s u s t a i n a b l e community development o r a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n o l o g y might be c o n s i d e r e d i n a p l a n t h r o u g h a d j u s t m e n t s t o p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Knowing how we a r r i v e a t s p e c i f i c k i n d s o f p l a n s f o r economic development s e r v e s an u l t i m a t e purpose o f making r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g more e f f e c t i v e and r e l e v a n t . T h i s knowledge may f u r t h e r l e a d p l a n n e r s t o u n c o v e r "new avenues f o r development," which John Friedmann o f f e r s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t o m a i n t a i n i t s " l e g i t i m a t e m i s s i o n " ( F r i e d m a n n , 1981:15). Stu d y Methods: The t h e s i s i s a r e t r o s p e c t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f two economic development p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s and p l a n s . The s t u d y i s not e x p e r i m e n t a l n o r i s i t s t a t i s t i c a l . I n s t e a d , t he t h e s i s r e l i e s upon i n - d e p t h n a r r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the two c a s e s as the b a s i s f o r comparing t he p r o c e s s e s 3. and p l a n s . The t h e s i s t h e n i n f e r s c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between components o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p l a n s . The a n a l y s i s u n f o l d s i n t h r e e s t a g e s : 1) a c o mparison o f the two p l a n s 2) a c o mparison o f the two p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s 3) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a f f e c t the outcomes i n the p l a n s (and which s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e x p l a i n the v a r i a t i o n s between the two p l a n s ) The t h e s i s i s both " d e s c r i p t i v e " and " c a u s a l " i n i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n (Emory, 1980:84). The paper w i l l r e l a t e the "who, what, when, where and how" o f the p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s ( d e s c r i p t i v e ) and then c o n s i d e r "why" ( c a u s a l ) the p l a n s c o n t a i n d i f f e r e n t outcomes (Emory, 1980:91,93). The c a t e g o r i e s chosen f o r comparing p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s a r e drawn from a r e v i e w o f r e g i o n a l development l i t e r a t u r e and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s a r e s u g g e s t e d by the c a s e s t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h a f t e r - t h e - f a c t o b s e r v a t i o n . The s t u d y method has acknowledged l i m i t a t i o n s . F i r s t , i t can o n l y p r o v i d e i n f o r m e d judgements about the c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s and r e s u l t i n g p l a n s . The t h e s i s c a nnot c o n c l u d e w i t h complete a u t h o r i t y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the economic p l a n s ( e . g . s m a l l - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y ) a r e n e c e s s a r i l y the r e s u l t o f c e r t a i n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s elements ( e . g . l o c a l l y - b a s e d , p a r t i c i p a t o r y 4. p r o c e s s ) . The v a l i d i t y o f the c a s e s t u d y c o n c l u s i o n s i s dependent upon the comprehensive c o v e r a g e o f the n a r r a t i v e , i t s a b i l i t y t o a l l o w the r e a d e r t o e l i m i n a t e a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n s from t h o s e g i v e n i n the t h e s i s c o n c l u s i o n s and the a u t h o r ' s i m p a r t i a l i t y . However, t h i s s t u d y can p r o v i d e c a t e g o r i e s o f a n a l y s i s f o r t e s t i n g i n f u t u r e c a s e s t u d i e s . A second l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t t h e s t u d y c o n c l u s i o n s may n o t be g e n e r a l i z a b l e . Though t h i s t h e s i s a s p i r e s t o p r o v i d e as complete and a c c u r a t e an a c c o u n t as p o s s i b l e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the r e s u l t i n g p l a n s , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e s t i l l based upon l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . O n l y two c a s e s a r e b e i n g r e v i e w e d i n t h i s paper. S o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n : P r i n c i p a l s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the B.C. government's p l a n and p r o c e s s a r e a s e r i e s o f government p u b l i c a t i o n s , c u l m i n a t i n g i n the 1983 p r i n t i n g o f The Northwest  Economic Development S t u d i e s . Many government o f f i c i a l s were c o n s u l t e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s but s y s t e m a t i c , s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s were n o t p a r t o f the r e s e a r c h method. P e r s o n a l communications are r e f e r e n c e d i n the t e x t . S o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g 5. p r o c e s s a r e p u b l i s h e d and i n t e r n a l documents o f the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The Economic Development Commission o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e i s the agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e r e g i o n a l economic p l a n . The a u t h o r was an economic development o f f i c e r f o r the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and i n v o l v e d i n a l l a s p e c t s o f the economic s t r a t e g y . Knowledge g a i n e d d u r i n g t h i s e x p e r i e n c e augments p r i n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . A n a l y t i c a l A p p roach : The purpose o f the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r i s t o e s t a b l i s h a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r i e s f o r a n a l y z i n g the two economic p l a n s and t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o c e s s e s . In the a n a l y s i s f i v e d i m e n s i o n s o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p l a n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and compared. T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a comparison o f the p r o c e s s e s a c c o r d i n g t o n i n e s e l e c t e d c r i t e r i a . D i f f e r e n c e s o r s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two p l a n s w i l l then be a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c a t e g o r i e s , the purpose b e i n g t o a t t r i b u t e p l a n outcomes t o p r o c e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The p l a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e the dependent v a r i a b l e s ; the p r o c e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . John P i a t t has l a b e l l e d t h i s r e s e a r c h approach the " s t r o n g i n f e r e n c e " method ( i n Emory, 1980:103). "The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s method c a l l s f o r the r e s e a r c h e r t o d e v e l o p m u l t i p l e h y p o t h e s e s by which t o e x p l a i n a phenomenon" (Emory, 1980:103). In o t h e r words, 6. t h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n s i d e r a wide range o f p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c a t e g o r i e s i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n p l a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Those which c a n n o t be e l i m i n a t e d a r e the b e s t e x p l a n a t i o n s o f c a u s e s (Emory, 1980:104). T h i s approach " r e d u c e s a t t a c h m e n t (and p o t e n t i a l b i a s ) o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o r a g i v e n h y p o t h e s i s " (Emory, 1980:103). Examples o f p l a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o be c o n s i d e r e d a r e the r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l approaches t o s c a l e o f t e c h n o l o g y , approaches t o l o c a l community s u s t a i n a b i l i t y and. approaches w i t h r e s p e c t t o economic s t r u c t u r e . Important p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s t o be employed r e f e r t o p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n methods, p l a n n e r r o l e s and c e n t r a l i z e d and d e c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l o v e r the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . These c a t e g o r i e s , both f o r the p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s , emerge from the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e (Friedmann and Weaver, 1979) ( W a l t e r S t o h r , 1981) ( S t o h r and T o d t l i n g , 1979), p l a n n i n g t h e o r y l i t e r a t u r e (Gunton, 1984) and from r e v i e w o f the c a s e s t h e m s e l v e s . A p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n must be noted i n the c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s . Equal t r e a t m e n t i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e two p r o c e s s e s i s n o t g i v e n i n t h i s p a per. The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p r o c e s s i s s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by c o m p e t i t i o n among l o c a l government a g e n c i e s i n a r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t . Thus, a l e n g t h y s e c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d which d e s c r i b e s a r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n which the Economic Commission i s o b l i g a t e d t o f u n c t i o n . On the o t h e r hand i t i s assumed t h a t s i m i l a r f a c t o r s do n o t a f f e c t the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n . However, the w r i t e r was not p r i v y t o c o n f l i c t s which might have a r i s e n i n the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t o r 7. b u r e a u c r a c y and which may have a f f e c t e d the p l a n f o r n o r t h w e s t d e v e l opment. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f T h e s i s : T h i s paper c o m p r i s e s seven c h a p t e r s and one a p p e n d i x . F o l l o w i n g t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r , i s C h a p t e r Two, i n which the c a t e g o r i e s t o be used i n comparing the p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d . C h a p t e r T h r e e , e n t i t l e d "The Northwest R e g i o n " , d e s c r i b e s the r e s o u r c e - b a s e d economy o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the r e g i o n ' s p h y s i o g r a p h y , i t s economic h i s t o r y and the contemporary p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t . C h a p t e r s Four and F i v e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e n a r r a t i v e s on the p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l economic p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s and t h e i r r e s u l t i n g p l a n s . The c o m p a r i s o n o f p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s i s made i n C h a p t e r S i x , w i t h the most i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s summarized and d i s c u s s e d i n the c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r , C h a p t e r Seven. C h a p t e r Seven a l s o r e c o r d s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The Appendix p r o v i d e s more d e t a i l e d ^ i n f o r m a t i o n on the p o r t a b l e m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t o r c o n c e p t . The p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r i s the b e s t example o f an a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y as a d v o c a t e d i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n . T h i s t e c h n o l o g y i s u s u a l l y a t r u c k t r a n s p o r t a b l e o r e p r o c e s s i n g u n i t , which c o u l d be used t o s e r v i c e the numerous, s m a l l but t y p i c a l l y u n u t i l i z e d p r e c i o u s m e t a l s d e p o s i t s i n the n o r t h w e s t . The term " a p p r o p r i a t e " i s a p p l i e d because the t e c h n o l o g y i s 8. c o m p a t i b l e w i t h worker s k i l l l e v e l s i n the r e g i o n , l o c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n t e r e s t and f i n a n c i a l c a p a c i t y o f n o r t h w e s t r e s i d e n t s . " A p p r o p r i a t e " , " a l t e r n a t i v e " and " s m a l l s c a l e " t e c h n o l o g y a r e terms used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n t h i s p a per. A l l engender l o c a l c o n t r o l o v e r t e c h n o l o g y . 9. CHAPTER TWO:, DETERMINATION OF CATEGORIES OF ANALYSIS The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c a t e g o r i e s t o be used i n comparing t he two p l a n s and the two p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . L i t e r a t u r e from r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g w i l l be employed t o e n a b l e a l i s t i n g o f r e l e v a n t p l a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s some o f the c r i t i c a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s t o be examined. The c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f two a l t e r n a t i v e development models c i t e d i n the r e g i o n a l development l i t e r a t u r e . By e x a m i n i n g a debate f r o m r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g between "development from above" and "development from below" ( S t o h r & T o d t l i n g , 1979), (Friedmann & Weaver, 1979), ( S t o h r & F r a s e r , 1981), a framework f o r comparing t h e two p l a n s i s e s t a b l i s h e d . S p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s t o be used i n the a n a l y s i s emerge from t h i s framework ( s e e T a b l e 1 ) . The same l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be r e v i e w e d t o i d e n t i f y some o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s . An a r t i c l e on p l a n n e r r o l e s w r i t t e n by p l a n n i n g t h e o r i s t Tom Gunton w i l l a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d (Gunton, 1981). I m p o r t a n t l y , not a l l p l a n o r p r o c e s s c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o any l i t e r a t u r e . S e v e r a l a r e s u g g e s t e d by r e v i e w i n g t he two p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s . The c h a p t e r t u r n s now t o an o v e r v i e w o f the f u n c t i o n a l (development from above) and t e r r i t o r i a l ( development from below) development models. 10. F u n c t i o n a l and T e r r i t o r i a l Development: Over t he l a s t few d e c a d e s , the f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n development model has dominated s p a t i a l p l a n n i n g t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e (Stb'hr & T a y l o r , 1981:1). "The b a s i c h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t development i s d r i v e n by e x t e r n a l demand and i n n o v a t i o n i m p u l s e s , and t h a t from a few dynamic s e c t o r a l o r g e o g r a p h i c c l u s t e r s development would, e i t h e r i n a spontaneous o r i n d u c e d way, ' t r i c k l e down' t o the r e s t o f the system" ( S t o h r & T a y l o r , 1981:1). The model has o f t e n m a t e r i a l i z e d as a growth c e n t r e o r growth p o l e s t r a t e g y . The f u n c t i o n a l model r e l i e s s t r o n g l y on n e o - c l a s s i c a l economic t h e o r y ; thus m o b i l i t y o f commodities and f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n i s a d v o c a t e d t o i n c r e a s e economic e f f i c i e n c y ( S t o h r & T b ' d t l i n g , 1977:137). O f t e n , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communications systems a r e the p r a c t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f such o b j e c t i v e s . The assumption i s t h a t a r e a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f economic a c t i v i t y , based on a fundamental p r i n c i p l e o f c o m p a r a t i v e a d v a n t a g e , w i l l maximize a g g r e g a t e growth, Though growth may i n i t i a l l y be g e o g r a p h i c a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d , o v e r time s p a t i a l i n e q u a l i t i e s would d i m i n i s h as f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n seek l o c a t i o n s o f h i g h e s t r e t u r n . T h i s i s l a b e l l e d a d i v e r g e n c e - c o n v e r g e n c e syndrome (Hansen, 1981: 3 5 ) . "Such s t r a t e g i e s , as w e l l as b e i n g o u t w a r d - l o o k i n g o r e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d , have tended t o be urban and i n d u s t r i a l i n n a t u r e , c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e , and dominated by h i g h t e c h n o l o g y and the 11. ' l a r g e p r o j e c t ' a p p r o a c h " ( S t t f h r & T a y l o r , 1981:1). E x t e r n a l and s c a l e economies a r e thus c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s model. "Development 'from below 1 s t r a t e g i e s ( t e r r i t o r i a l development) a r e b a s i c - n e e d s o r i e n t e d , l a b o r i n t e n s i v e , s m a l l s c a l e , r e g i o n a l - r e s o u r c e - b a s e d , o f t e n r u r a l - c e n t e r e d , and argue f o r the use o f ' a p p r o p r i a t e ' r a t h e r than ' h i g h e s t ' t e c h n o l o g y " ( S t o h r & T a y l o r , 1981:1). I n s t e a d o f " m a ximizing r e t u r n on s e l e c t e d f a c t o r s , " r e l y i n g on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c o m p a r a t i v e advantage i n a g l o b a l economy, " i n t e g r a l r e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s a d v o c a t e d t o s e r v e r e g i o n a l needs f i r s t ( S t S h r , 1981:39). A paramount o b j e c t i v e i s s e l f - r e l i a n t d evelopment. Two i m p o r t a n t c r i t i c i s m s o f f u n c t i o n a l development e x p l a i n the o r i g i n s o f the t e r r i t o r i a l development a l t e r n a t i v e : (1) t h a t i n e q u a l i t i e s i n the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f r i c h and poor r e g i o n s have not been overcome by p r e s e n t r e g i o n a l p o l i c y and (2) t h a t i n c r e a s e d f u n c t i o n a l t i e s between r e g i o n s may worsen s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g by u n d e r m i n i n g r e g i o n a l l y h e l d c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c v a l u e s , by c a u s i n g d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f l o c a l non-market and n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s , o r t h r o u g h the e r o s i o n o f p o l i t i c a l autonomy o f s m a l l e r t e r r i t o r i e s . A t e r r i t o r i a l development model b e g i n s w i t h "an i n h e r e n t d i s t r u s t o f the ' t r i c k l e - d o w n ' o r 'spread e f f e c t ' e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p a s t development p o l i c i e s " ( S t o h r & T a y l o r , 1981:1). C o n c e n t r a t i n g t h e i r r e s e a r c h m o s t l y on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c e n e , c r i t i c s o f contemporary p r a c t i c e r e p o r t a w i d e n i n g not a c o n t r a c t i o n o f d i s p a r i t i e s between r i c h and poor n a t i o n s ( S t o h r & 12. T o d t l i n g , 1977:137). The f u n c t i o n a l development model has been s u s t a i n e d f o r s e v e r a l decades by economic t h e o r y . Development has become eq u a t e d w i t h m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s and i s measured by such market-based i n d i c a t o r s as r e g i o n a l income o r employment l e v e l s (St'dhr & T o d t l i n g , 1977:141). W a l t e r S t o h r argues t h a t t h i s model "presumes an e v e n t u a l l y m o n o l i t h i c and u n i f o r m c o n c e p t o f development, v a l u e systems and human h a p p i n e s s , which a u t o m a t i c a l l y o r by p o l i c y i n t e r v e n t i o n w i l l s p r e a d o v e r t he e n t i r e w o r l d " (St'dhr, 1.981:41). By c o n t r a s t , t e r r i t o r i a l development a c c e p t s c u l t u r a l and v a l u e d i v e r s i t y among r e g i o n s . The model f u r t h e r a d v o c a t e s r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l autonomy based on the presumption t h a t t e r r i t o r i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s g i v e r i s e t o forms o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n more c o n d u c i v e t o the w e l l - b e i n g o f c i t i z e n s . Whereas l a r g e - s c a l e f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e h i e r a r c h i c a l and " g u i d e d by s u p e r i o r a u t h o r i t i e s , " t h e s m a l l s c a l e human i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t e r r i t o r i a l space u s u a l l y c r e a t e s o c i a l systems which o p e r a t e by " i n f o r m a l s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n and s e l f - p o l i c i n g " ( S t S h r & T o d t l i n g , 1977:143). Friedmann and Weaver d e s c r i b e t h e two forms o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h i s manner: The t e r r i t o r i a l f o r c e d e r i v e s from common bonds o f s o c i a l o r d e r f o r g e d by h i s t o r y w i t h i n a g i v e n p l a c e . F u n c t i o n a l t i e s a r e based on mutual s e l f - i n t e r e s t . G i v e n i n e q u a l i t i e s a t t h e s t a r t , a f u n c t i o n a l o r d e r i s always h i e r a r c h i c a l , a c c u m u l a t i n g power a t the t o p . T e r r i t o r i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , on t he o t h e r hand, though t h e y w i l l be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n e q u a l i t i e s o f power, a r e tempered by mutual r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s which t he members o f a t e r r i t o r i a l group c l a i m from one a n o t h e r (Friedmann & Weaver, 1979:7). 13. Development i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s as much a p o l i t i c a l o r c u l t u r a l phenomenon as i t i s d e f i n e d by economics. F u n c t i o n a l development i s t y p i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by "top-down c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g " ( L e e , 1981:121), l a r g e - s c a l e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and l a r g e - s c a l e r e d i s t r i b u t i v e mechanisms ( S t o h r , 1981:41). In c o m p a r i s o n , t e r r i t o r i a l development c a l l s f o r d e c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g and p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y t o be v e s t e d i n r e g i o n s . St'dhr and T o d t l i n g s u g g e s t t h a t development s h o u l d i n c l u d e "the r i g h t o f i n d i v i d u a l s and s m a l l groups t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r immediate n a t u r a l and human e n v i r o n m e n t and t o e x e r t c o n t r o l on the i n f l u e n c e o f e x t e r n a l economic, t e c h n o l o g i c a l , c u l t u r a l and o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s which a f f e c t t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g " ( S t o h r & T b ' d t l i n g , 1979:135). T h i s o b j e c t i v e o f s e l f - r e l i a n t development i s t o be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a s t r a t e g y o f " s e l e c t i v e s p a t i a l c l o s u r e . " T r a n s f e r s between t e r r i t o r i e s o f c o m m o d i t i e s , t e c h n o l o g y o r c a p i t a l w i l l be a s s e s s e d w i t h i n t h e s e c o mmunities, not n e c e s s a r i l y w i t h a view t o m a x i m i z i n g o v e r a l l economic e f f i c i e n c y , r a t h e r i n r e g a r d t o the a b i l i t y o f t h e s e exchanges t o s a t i s f y b a s i c - n e e d s o f each community. S e l e c t i v e s p a t i a l c l o s u r e i m p l i e s some form o f ownership o r c o n t r o l o v e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e u s e — d e s c r i b e d by Friedmann and Weaver as " c o m m u n a l i z a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v e w e a l t h " (Friedmann & Weaver, 1979:195). R e g i o n a l c o n t r o l o v e r e d u c a t i o n systems and t e c h n o l o g y i s a l s o 14. f o r e s e e n (Stb'hr & T o d t l i n g , 1977:154). T e c h n o l o g y would no l o n g e r be a d e t e r m i n a n t o f development (as d e f i n e d under a f u n c t i o n a l development model) but would "be r e v e r t e d t o the r o l e o f an i n s t r u m e n t o f s o c i e t y " ( S t o h r & T o d t l i n g , 1977:154). S e l e c t i v e c l o s u r e , however, does not connote o p p o s i t i o n t o growth o b j e c t i v e s . The s t r a t e g y promotes " i n c r e a s e d and i n t e g r a t e d r e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n i n a r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t " r a t h e r than s e l e c t i v e r e s o u r c e w i t h d r a w a l ( S t o h r , 1981:61). The t e r r i t o r i a l and f u n c t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s embrace s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s o f " s p a c e " and "system." In t e r r i t o r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n the s o c i a l system i s p e r c e i v e d as a p h y s i c a l l y bounded a r e a . I t i s a p o l i t i c a l community w i t h a c u l t u r e and h i s t o r y . In a 1981 a r t i c l e on " c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n r e g i o n a l development," John Friedmann e n t i t l e s t h i s form o f community as " l i f e s p a c e . " He t h e n compares t h i s c o n c e p t o f space w i t h the a b s t r a c t and d i s c o n t i n u o u s "economic s p a c e " which dominates i n the f u n c t i o n a l development model. He c l a i m s t h a t e x c e s s i v e f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n undermines t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y ; "we can see the r e s u l t i n the d i s s o l u t i o n o f l i f e s p a c e s and t h e i r p r o g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n t o economic s p a c e . . . " ( F r i e d m a n n , 1981:7). In f u n c t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e system i s viewed as e s s e n t i a l l y u n bounded--!imited o n l y as a g l o b a l economy. As an a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t , economic space has few o f the human s c a l e q u a l i t i e s one f i n d s i n n e i g h b o r h o o d s o r l o c a l communities where t i m e , p l a c e and c i r c u m s t a n c e a r e s h a r e d . In the f o r t h c o m i n g r e v i e w o f the two c a s e s , the r e a d e r w i l l f i n d a p a r a l l e l i n how the p r o v i n c e and 15. r e g i o n p e r c e i v e d i f f e r e n t l y a n o r t h w e s t B.C. r e g i o n . To summarize t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e b a s i c f e a t u r e s o f each model a r e h i g h l i g h t e d i n T a b l e 1. TABLE 1: F u n c t i o n a l and T e r r i t o r i a l Development Functional Development T e r r i t o r i a l Development 1) 2 ) 3) 4) 5) 6) promotes externally-oriented 1) economy (external demand for commodities) (Stohr £. Taylor, 1981) advocates strategy to reduce 2 ) b a r r i e r s to factor mobility, based on comparative advantage maxim (economic e f f i c i e n c y ) supported by top-down 3) decision-making & c e n t r a l -ized planning (Lee, 1981) r e l y s upon p r i m a r i l y an 4) economic concept of develop-ment; r e l i a n c e on market-based processes r e l y s upon large-scale 5) i n s t i t u t i o n s for implementing p o l i c y dominated by highest tech-nology and large-scale project approach; technology a "determinant" of develop-ment (Stohr & Todtling, 1977) 6) promotes i n t e r n a l l y - o r i e n t e d economy ( i n t e r n a l innovation impulses) advocates strategy of s e l e c t i v e s p a t i a l closure (integrated resource mobilization) based on regional basic-needs imperatives (vs. " s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y " ) (Friedmann & Weaver, 1979) (Stohr, 1981) advocates regional control over natural resource use, technology, etc.; decentralized planning (Stohr, 1981) accepts more diverse s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l concepts of development oriented towards smaller scale i n s t i t u t i o n s promotes appropriate tech-nology approach; technology an "instrument" of society 7) based on conception of unbounded, abstract space (Friedmann, 1981) 7) based on conception of bounded, t e r r i t o r i a l space 16. S e l e c t i o n o f P l a n C a t e g o r i e s : The two economic models as summarized i n T a b l e 1 a r e f a i r l y complex a g g r e g a t i o n s o f i d e a s on the s u b s t a n c e o f economic development and p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In d i s a g g r e g a t i n g t h e s e c o n c e p t s two c a t e g o r i e s p e r t i n e n t t o t h e comparison o f t h e c a s e s t u d y p l a n s i m m e d i a t e l y emerge. F i r s t t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , do the c a s e s t u d y p l a n s m a i n t a i n d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t e c h n o l o g y ? Does one p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y promote l a r g e s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y and c o n s i d e r t e c h n o l o g y a " d e t e r m i n a n t " o f development, w h i l e the o t h e r promotes s m a l l s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y and views t e c h n o l o g y as an " i n s t r u m e n t o f s o c i e t y ? " S e c o n d l y , what a r e the c o n c l u s i o n s o f the two p l a n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the s p a t i a l c l o s u r e v s . f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n d i m e n s i o n ? Does one p l a n l e a n towards an i n t e r n a l l y - o r i e n t e d economy and the o t h e r towards an e x t e r n a l l y - o r i e n t e d economy? Th r e e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s worth e x a m i n a t i o n a r e based upon v i s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c a s e s t u d y p l a n s t h e m s e l v e s . One p l a n , t h a t o f the p r o v i n c e , i s c o m p r e h e n s i v e ; the r e g i o n a l p l a n i s l i m i t e d i n a p o l i c y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n phase t o one economic s e c t o r . The s t u d y s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e ask, a r e the p l a n s comprehensive o r s e c t o r a l and why? Are t h e r e f a c t o r s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s which d e t e r m i n e t h i s v a r i a t i o n ? A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f the p l a n s i s whether t h e y a r e v i s i o n a r y o r i n c r e m e n t a l ? Does one p l a n e x p l o r e new development 17. a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i l e the o t h e r m a i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo? F i n a l l y , the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t r e f l e c t e d i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n i s an a c t i v e p u r s u i t o f s o l u t i o n s t o such r e g i o n a l economic problems as l a c k o f d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , unemployment and uneven development, r e q u i r e s a ssessment o f a c a t e g o r y e n t i t l e d "community s u s t a i n a b i l i t y . " The r e g i o n a l p l a n c o n t r a s t s w i t h the p r o v i n c e ' s , i n which the l a t t e r agency a d v o c a t e s a p o l i c y o f c o n t i n u e d l a r g e - s c a l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n . T h i s i s a r g u a b l y a p o l i c y which does not l e a d t o s u s t a i n e d development o f t h e n o r t h w e s t . To summarize, f i v e d i m e n s i o n s o r c o m p a r a t i v e p l a n c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be examined i n the a n a l y s i s c h a p t e r : 1) Approach t o T e c h n o l o g y 2) S p a t i a l C l o s u r e v s . F u n c t i o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 3) Comprehensive o r S e c t o r a l P l a n s 4) V i s i o n a r y o r I n c r e m e n t a l P l a n s 5) Approach t o Community S u s t a i n a b i l i t y S e l e c t i o n o f P r o c e s s C a t e g o r i e s : The d i s c u s s i o n on t e r r i t o r i a l and f u n c t i o n a l development a l l o w s f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f some o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s . An o b v i o u s d i s t i n c t i o n between the two models i s t h e i r r e l i a n c e upon c e n t r a l i z e d and d e c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g . However, terms such as 18. "bottom-up" and "top-down" p l a n n i n g , "development from below" and "development from above," and " c e n t r a l i z e d " and " d e c e n t r a l i z e d " p l a n n i n g o f t e n g e n e r a t e o n l y i l l - d e f i n e d images i n the r e a d e r ' s mind. F o r i n s t a n c e , i s t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r t h a t t he r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g o c c u r s i n t h e l o c a l community o r i n the p o l i t i c a l and economic c e n t r e ? Or do t h e s e c o n c e p t s c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s as w e l l w i t h how d e c i s i o n making o c c u r s r a t h e r than s i m p l y where? F o r example, t h e r e g i o n a l p r o c e s s depends upon a h i g h r a t e o f p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t o f l o c a l p e o p l e , and the p r o c e s s i s c o n t r o l l e d w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . The p r o v i n c e r e l i e s much l e s s upon p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s c o n t r o l l e d from t he p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l . In t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n , t he terms c e n t r a l i z e d and d e c e n t r a l i z e d r e f e r t o c o n t r o l o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . Is c o n t r o l o v e r the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s l o c a l o r based i n the c e n t r e ? A s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y i n t h e a n a l y s i s w i l l examine the l e v e l o f p u b l i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each p r o c e s s . The d i f f e r i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f "s p a c e " o u t l i n e d i n the same d i s c u s s i o n on t he f u n c t i o n a l and t e r r i t o r i a l models n e c e s s i t a t e a comparison on how the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n i s c o n c e i v e d o f i n each p r o c e s s . Do the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s o v e r s e e i n g t he p r o v i n c i a l p l a n m a i n t a i n a c o n c e p t i o n o f a b s t r a c t space w h i l e t he r e g i o n a l p l a n m a n i f e s t s a c o n c e p t i o n o f t e r r i t o r i a l space? What t h e r e f o r e i s the s p a t i a l i n t e r e s t i n each p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ? A g a i n t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s t o be used i n the a n a l y s i s which 19. a r e i n d e p e n d e n t o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d but a r e s u g g e s t e d d i r e c t l y from the two s t u d y c a s e s . These c a t e g o r i e s a r e l i s t e d below and the terms d e f i n e d : P l a n n i n g Mandates: There a r e d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r o v i n c i a l government and Economic Development Commission w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r l e g i s l a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r p l a n n i n g , t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c j u r i s d i c t i o n s and r e s o u r c e s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l . D e s c r i b e d under the l a b e l , " p l a n n i n g mandates," a r e the economic p l a n s a f f e c t e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s e f a c t o r s ? T i m i n g o f P r o c e s s : The two p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e u n d e r t a k e n o v e r d i f f e r e n t time p e r i o d s . Does t h i s modest d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m i n g a f f e c t p l a n outcomes? D e t e r m i n i s t i c o r F l u i d P r o c e s s : Do t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s adopted seem to impose c o n c l u s i o n s about the r e g i o n ' s economic development f u t u r e , as r e c o r d e d i n t h e p l a n s . Or a r e t h e s e a d a p t a b l e p r o c e s s e s and open to c o n s i d e r i n g v a r i o u s development a l t e r n a t i v e s ? R o l e o f Development Models: Is e i t h e r p r o c e s s c o n s t r a i n e d by a p r e - c o n c e i v e d v i s i o n o r model o f economic development? Background o f P l a n n e r s : A r e t h e r e i d e o l o g i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and/or o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p l a n n e r s i n v o l v e d which a f f e c t the p l a n outcomes? Role o f P l a n n e r s : A r e t h e r e d i f f e r e n c e s between the two economic p l a n s which can be a s c r i b e d t o d i f f e r e n t r o l e s p l a n n e r s assume i n the two c a s e s ? With r e s p e c t t o the l a s t c a t e g o r y , s e v e r a l terms w i l l be e x t r a c t e d from a 1984 a r t i c l e i n Canadian P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w r i t t e n by Tom Gunton. In "The R o l e o f the P r o f e s s i o n a l P l a n n e r , " Gunton c o n s t r u c t s a taxonomy o f e i g h t a l t e r n a t i v e r o l e s p l a n n e r s can 20. p e r f o r m . The a r t i c l e condenses c o n s i d e r a b l e p l a n n i n g t h e o r y l i t e r a t u r e but i t s ' p u r p o s e i s t o d e s c r i b e i n r e a l i s t i c terms p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e . P a r e n t h e t i c a l l y , h i s recommendations a r e t h a t p l a n n e r s s h o u l d n o t s t r i v e f o r a s i n g l e , c o r r e c t r o l e b u t s h o u l d a c c e p t t h e e x i s t i n g d i v e r s i t y o f approaches and l e a r n which r o l e s a r e s u i t a b l e i n v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t s . Gunton b e g i n s w i t h a common d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p l a n n e r as a t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t who uses s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l i t y t o s o l v e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . He then f a s h i o n s t h e a l t e r n a t e r o l e s from the c r i t i c i s m s which have a r i s e n o v e r t h e y e a r s o f t h i s r o l e -- t h a t r a t i o n a l i t y i s n o t comprehensive enough, t h a t p l a n n i n g i s i n e f f e c t i v e i f s e p a r a t e d from d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , t h a t p l a n n i n g o n l y performs a l e g i t i m a t i o n f u n c t i o n on b e h a l f o f t h e s t a t e . A t one extreme i s the " T e c h n o c r a t , " above p o l i t i c s and i d e o l o g y , who e s t a b l i s h e s s o c i e t a l g o a l s , d e f i n e s means and implements p l a n s . A t the o t h e r extreme, p l a n n i n g as a p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y v i r t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r s , r e p l a c e d by a c o n t i n u o u s d i a l o g u e between p l a n n e r and c l i e n t i n " S o c i a l L e a r n i n g , " o r made redundant as " S o c i a l Reform" t r a n s f e r s power from p r o f e s s i o n a l e l i t e s t o c l i e n t s (Gunton, 1984:402,403). Gunton's e i g h t r o l e s a r e T e c h n o c r a t , P u b l i c S e r v a n t , R e f e r e e , A d v o c a t e , B u r e a u c r a t , S t a t e A g e n t , S o c i a l L e a r n e r and S o c i a l Reformer. 21. C h a p t e r Summary: T h i s c h a p t e r has i d e n t i f i e d t he c a t e g o r i e s which w i l l be used t o compare t h e two p l a n s f o r n o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h Columbia development and c a t e g o r i e s t o compare the two p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . The f i v e c a t e g o r i e s chosen on which t o base a comparison between the two economic p l a n s have been l a b e l l e d : 1) Approach t o T e c h n o l o g y 2) S p a t i a l C l o s u r e v s . F u n c t i o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n 3) Comprehensive o r S e c t o r a l P l a n s 4) V i s i o n a r y o r I n c r e m e n t a l P l a n s 5) Approach t o Community S u s t a i n i b i l i t y Nine p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c a t e g o r i e s have been s e l e c t e d . They a r e e n t i t l e d : 1) P l a n n i n g Mandates 2) C e n t r a l i z e d v s . D e c e n t r a l i z e d C o n t r o l Over P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 3) Degree o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 4) S p a t i a l I n t e r e s t 5) T i m i n g o f P r o c e s s 6) D e t e r m i n i s t i c o r F l u i d P r o c e s s 7) R o l e o f Development Models 8) Background o f P l a n n e r 9) Role o f P l a n n e r 22. The t h e s i s now commences the n a r r a t i v e p o r t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s w i t h a p r e s e n t a t i o n on the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n . C h a p t e r T h r e e p r o v i d e s an economic h i s t o r y o f the n o r t h w e s t , i l l u m i n a t e s some o f t h e a r e a ' s economic problems and d e s c r i b e s a contemporary p l a n n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . 23. CHAPTER THREE: THE NORTHWEST REGION In t h i s c h a p t e r , an economic p r o f i l e o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia i s p r e s e n t e d . Recent economic c o n d i t i o n s , as a c o n t e x t t o economic p l a n n i n g , a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d . Northwest B.C. i s n o t a f i n i t e g e o g r a p h i c , c u l t u r a l o r p o l i t i c a l r e g i o n . I t i s d e f i n e d a r b i t r a r i l y and d i f f e r e n t l y i n the economic p l a n s o f the p r o v i n c e and r e g i o n . In the f i r s t o f f o u r s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , the d i f f e r e n t n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n s as d e f i n e d i n the two p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s are d i s c u s s e d . In the second s e c t i o n , e n t i t l e d , "The Economy o f Northwest B r i t i s h Columbia," a condensed p r o f i l e o f t h e r e g i o n a l economy i s o f f e r e d . The d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e s an o v e r v i e w o f the economic h i s t o r y o f the r e g i o n , i d e n t i f i e s s i g n i f i c a n t p h y s i o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s o f the n o r t h w e s t , g i v e s a demographic p r o f i l e and d i s c u s s e s the economies o f i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e c i t e d t h i s m a t e r i a l i s drawn from the R e g i o n a l Economic  P r o f i l e o f 1982. B e g i n n i n g around 1981 the n o r t h w e s t s u b s i d e d i n t o economic d e p r e s s i o n . High unemployment was a most s a l i e n t r e p e r c u s s i o n but permanent employment l o s s e s i n h i g h wage m a n u f a c t u r i n g and p r i m a r y s e c t o r j o b s a l s o o c c u r r e d . These a s p e c t s o f the c ontemporary r e g i o n a l economy a r e r e l a t e d i n more d e t a i l i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n . The f i n a l s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s s e n i o r governments' p o l i c i e s f o r overcoming t h e s e employment pro b l e m s . 24. S t a t i s t i c s i n s u p p o r t o f the n a r r a t i v e a r e p r o v i d e d but the r e a d e r i s c a u t i o n e d t h a t demographic and economic d a t a f o r t h e n o r t h w e s t i s t y p i c a l l y f l a w e d - o r l a c k i n g . D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s t h e r e f o r e o f t e n based on p e r c e p t i o n and i n t u i t i o n . T e r r a c e a r e a s t a t i s t i c s p e r i o d i c a l l y w i l l be employed t o r e p r e s e n t the economic c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e e n t i r e n o r t h w e s t . D e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e Northwest R e g i o n : For the purposes o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and B.C. government p l a n s f o r n o r t h w e s t development, the n o r t h w e s t B.C. r e g i o n i s d e f i n e d somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y . T h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t i v e g e o g r a p h i c , p o l i t i c a l o r c u l t u r a l e n t i t y o f n o r t h w e s t B.C.. I n t r o d u c e d onto a complex o f mountain ranges and r i v e r systems i s the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t -S t i k i n e ( F i g u r e 1 ) . T h i s i s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t , a c r e a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l government. The K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i s 40,000 m i l e s 2 i n a r e a (102,000 km 2) and e x t e n d s from M i l b a n k e Sound on the west c o a s t t o the 58th p a r a l l e l i n the n o r t h . The major communities o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a r e K i t i m a t , T e r r a c e , S t e w a r t and the Hazel t o n s . Two i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l highways t r a v e r s e t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t : t he Y e l l o w h e a d Highway 16 e x t e n d s from P r i n c e Rupert t o W i n n i p e g , M a n i t o b a ; the S t e w a r t C a s s i a r Highway 37 o r i g i n a t e s i n K i t i m a t i n the s o u t h and c o n n e c t s w i t h the A l a s k a Highway j u s t n o r t h o f the Yukon b o r d e r . 25 26. The p o p u l a t i o n o f the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i s h i g h l y c o n c e n t r a t e d . F u l l y 31,400 p e o p l e (74%) o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t 1981 census p o p u l a t i o n o f 42,400 r e s i d e i n the urban c e n t r e s o f T e r r a c e and K i t i m a t (Census o f Canada, 1981). The r e m a i n d e r o f the p o p u l a t i o n i s d i s p e r s e d i n s m a l l s i n g l e i n d u s t r y communities o r numerous s m a l l I n d i a n r e s e r v e s . The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n c o v e r s a l a r g e r a r e a than j u s t the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ( F i g u r e 2 ) . I t i n c l u d e s P r i n c e R u p e r t and e n v i r o n s i n the west and e x t e n d s n o r t h t o the Yukon b o r d e r by i n c l u d i n g the u n i n c o r p o r a t e d S t i k i n e R e g i o n . The p r o v i n c e m a t t e r - o f - f a c t l y d e s c r i b e s t h i s a r e a as f o l l o w s : "The r e g i o n c o n s i s t s o f the S t i k i n e and K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e Census D i v i s i o n s t o g e t h e r w i t h S u b d i v i s i o n A o f the Skeena-Queen C h a r l o t t e Census D i v i s i o n " (The Northwest R e g i o n , 1982:17). (Census d i v i s i o n and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t b o u n d a r i e s a r e c o t e r m i n o u s ) . T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1981 o f t h i s n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n was 62,755, i n c l u d i n g 16,200 i n P r i n c e R u p e r t and 1,950 i n the S t i k i n e Region (The Northwest R e g i o n , 1982:21). The S t i k i n e Region i s u n i n c o r p o r a t e d . L o c a l government s e r v i c e s i n t h i s a r e a a r e p r o v i d e d e i t h e r i n company towns such as C a s s i a r by l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s ( B r i n c o M i n i n g L t d . ) o r from V i c t o r i a by the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . The M i n i s t r y i s s u p p o r t e d by l o c a l a d v i s o r y p l a n n i n g commissions i n the communities o f Dease Lake and A t ! i n . Figure. 2: B.C. GOVERNMENT PLANNING AREA source: The Northwest Region, 1982 28. The p r o v i n c i a l development s t r a t e g y d i s t i n g u i s h e s between a p o p u l a t e d S o u t h e r n Zone and an u n d e v e l o p e d N o r t h e r n Zone (The New F r o n t i e r , 1982:11). The N o r t h e r n Zone i s the p o r t i o n from S t e w a r t n o r t h . The development model e n v i s a g e d by the p r o v i n c e , however, would a p p l y t o the e n t i r e n o r t h w e s t q u a d r a n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The Economy o f Northwest B r i t i s h C o lumbia: P h y s i o g r a p h y : The major g e o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s o f n o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h Columbia a r e a s e r i e s o f n o r t h w e s t - s o u t h e a s t t r e n d i n g mountain ranges which a r e t r a n s e c t e d by s e v e r a l major r i v e r s . A l o n g the P a c i f i c C o a s t , the C o a s t Mountains o f t e n exceed 1,800 meters i n e l e v a t i o n . F u r t h e r i n l a n d , i n the s o u t h , a r e the H a z e l t o n M o u n t a i n s , and Skeena, Boundary and C a s s i a r Ranges t o the n o r t h . The major r i v e r s o f the r e g i o n a r e the S t i k i n e , I s k u t , Nass, Skeena and B u l k l e y . Over t h i s d i v e r s e and v a s t t e r r a i n , t he c l i m a t e v a r i e s m a r k e d l y . A m i l d e r and w e t t e r " c o a s t a l - m a r i n e " c l i m a t e dominates a l o n g the c o a s t . Moving i n l a n d c o l d e r and d r i e r " i n t e r i o r - c o n t i n e n t a l " i n f l u e n c e s p r e v a i l . T h i s rugged geography has c o n f i n e d s e t t l e m e n t w i t h i n a few r i v e r v a l l e y c o r r i d o r s . S e t t l e m e n t has g e n e r a l l y o c c u r r e d a l o n g t r a d e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s and i n v a l l e y bottom a r e a s s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n 1981, more than 75% o f the p o p u l a t i o n o f the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t r e s i d e d w i t h i n 80 km o f the Skeena R i v e r ( R e g i o n a l Economic P r o f i l e , 1982:1-7). 29. H i s t o r i c a l l y , n a t i v e I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t , which d a t e s back more than 8,000 y e a r s , took p l a c e i n the major r i v e r v a l l e y s . The r i v e r s and a network o f t r a i l s became i m p o r t a n t c o r r i d o r s f o r t r a d e between i n t e r i o r and c o a s t a l I n d i a n p e o p l e s . Communities d e v e l o p e d a t s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n s . Economic H i s t o r y : The f i r s t i n c u r s i o n s o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t i n t o t he r e g i o n c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e s e a r c h f o r p r e c i o u s m e t a l s . G o l d was d i s c o v e r e d i n the S t i k i n e r e g i o n i n the 1860's and the S t i k i n e R i v e r became a w e l l t r a v e l l e d r i v e r highway. In the 1870's a g o l d rush i n the Omineca r e g i o n i n the i n t e r i o r encouraged the growth o f H a z e l t o n as a r e g i o n a l s u p p l y c e n t r e . H a z e l t o n was the f u r t h e s t p o i n t i n l a n d on the Skeena R i v e r f o r steamboat t r a v e l . H a z e l t o n ' s s t r a t e g i c r o l e would be renewed i n the 1890's K l o n d i k e G o l d Rush. By 1910, i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t 8,000 p e o p l e l i v e d i n the H a z e l t o n a r e a (Community  Economic P r o f i l e s , 1982:4). In 1981, l e s s than 4,000 p e o p l e r e s i d e d i n t h e a r e a . O t h e r major developments i n the e a r l y y e a r s were the at t e m p t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the C o l l i n s O v e r l a n d T e l e g r a p h L i n e from N o r t h A m e r i c a t h r o u g h the B e r i n g S t r a i t t o A s i a , and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l Grand Trunk P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d (now Ca n a d i a n N a t i o n a l ) , c i r c a 1912. The r a i l w a y p r o v i d e d t he i n i t i a l s t i m u l u s 30. t o the f o r e s t s e c t o r as i n d u s t r y d e v e l o p e d around the p r o d u c t i o n o f r a i l r o a d t i e s and the e x p o r t o f c e d a r t e l e g r a p h p o l e s . Wars have a l s o p l a y e d an i n s t r u m e n t a l r o l e i n the economic h i s t o r y o f the r e g i o n . In the l a t e 1890's, the S t e w a r t a r e a was the scene o f i t s own m i n i n g boom. Perhaps as many as 10,000 p e o p l e r e s i d e d i n the a r e a ( R e g i o n a l Economic P r o f i l e , 1982:1-5). Showing t h a t the n o r t h w e s t was a n y t h i n g but i s o l a t e d from w o r l d e v e n t s , the F i r s t World War i s i d e n t i f i e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the r a p i d d e p o p u l a t i o n o f the community. D u r i n g war time the p o p u l a t i o n was reduced t o l e s s than 100 p e o p l e . S t e w a r t ' s h i s t o r y has been one o f "boom and b u s t . " The Second World War saw the e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n the northv/est o f key i n f r a s t r u c t u r e which would a f f e c t the l o n g - t e r m growth o f the r e g i o n . A s e r i e s o f a i r p o r t s was c o n s t r u c t e d t h r o u g h o u t n o r t h e r n B.C. and roads were c o n s t r u c t e d which c o n n e c t e d the communities o f T e r r a c e w i t h P r i n c e R u p e r t , and T e l e g r a p h Creek w i t h Dease Lake. P r i o r t o World War I I , T e r r a c e was an i n s i g n i f i c a n t a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t i n d u s t r y community. D u r i n g war time i t became a m i l i t a r y base w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 3,000 and i t would c o n t i n u e t o grow a f t e r w a r d s . T e r r a c e i s now the l a r g e s t urban c e n t r e i n n o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h Columbia. D u r i n g t h e 1950's and 1960's the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y came t o the f o r e f r o n t as the r e g i o n ' s most i m p o r t a n t b a s i c i n d u s t r y . High p r o d u c t i o n d i m e n s i o n a l lumber s a w m i l l s , s e r v i c i n g e x p o r t m a r k e t s , became major employers i n the communities o f South H a z e l t o n , T e r r a c e and Kitwanga. In P r i n c e R u p e r t the Skeena P u l p M i l l was 31. c o n s t r u c t e d by Columbia C e l l u l o s e . In 1970 a second p u l p m i l l f o r the r e g i o n was e r e c t e d i n K i t i m a t by E u r o c a n P u l p and Paper. Hemlock, balsam f i r and c e d a r are the most abundant wood s p e c i e s h a r v e s t e d . The A l c a n P r o j e c t was a l s o r e a l i z e d i n the 1950's. T h i s K i t i m a t V a l l e y i s where the A l c a n Aluminum Company r e c o g n i z e d the l a r g e s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l i n the c o m b i n a t i o n o f f l a t , d e v e l o p a b l e l a n d , t i d e w a t e r a c c e s s and h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power g e n e r a t i o n power c a p a c i t y . One o f t h e w o r l d ' s l a r g e s t aluminum s m e l t e r s was c o n s t r u c t e d i n K i t i m a t . The s m e l t e r was l a t e r complemented by the Eurocan P u l p M i l l and O c e l o t C h e m i c a l s Methanol p l a n t , but the community has f a l l e n w e l l s h o r t o f i t s o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n growth p r o j e c t i o n s o f 30,000 t o 50,000 p e o p l e . The A l c a n P r o j e c t i s the most w i d e l y known o f s e v e r a l l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s which have shaped n o r t h w e s t development. M a j o r m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e P r e m i e r G o l d and Granduc Copper Mine i n S t e w a r t , the C a s s i a r A s b e s t o s Mine i n C a s s i a r and the Amax Molybdenum Mine a t K i t s a u l t . World s c a l e p u l p m i l l s were c o n s t r u c t e d i n P r i n c e R u p e r t and K i t i m a t . More r e c e n t a d d i t i o n s t o t h i s i n v e n t o r y o f l a r g e -s c a l e p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e the O c e l o t Methanol p l a n t i n K i t i m a t and the R i d l e y I s l a n d c o a l and g r a i n e x p o r t f a c i l i t i e s n e a r P r i n c e R u p e r t . Today's r e g i o n a l economy i s s t i l l h i g h l y dependent upon i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r k e t s , l a c k s s t a b i l i t y and economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . I t i s a r e s o u r c e based economy w i t h s e c o n d a r y m a n u f a c t u r i n g l i m i t e d t o 32. p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e p r o c e s s i n g i n t h e form o f d i m e n s i o n a l lumber p r o d u c t i o n , p u l p m a n u f a c t u r i n g , f i s h p r o c e s s i n g and aluminum m a n u f a c t u r i n g . T y p i c a l l y the r e a s o n s c i t e d as c o n s t r a i n t s t o f u r t h e r d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g a r e h i g h l a b o r c o s t s , h i g h c o s t s f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s t o markets and the s m a l l s i z e o f r e g i o n a l m a r k e t s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I n f r a s t r u c t u r e : Much o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e o f the n o r t h w e s t has been c o n s t r u c t e d s i m p l y t o s e r v i c e i n d i v i d u a l r e s o u r c e development p r o j e c t s . The S t e w a r t C a s s i a r Highway was o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t w i t h S t e w a r t on the c o a s t as i t s s o u t h e r n t e r m i n u s i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e e x p o r t o f the p r o d u c t s o f the C a s s i a r A s b e s t o s Mine. O n l y l a t e r i n the mid 1970's was the r o a d j o i n e d t o the Y e l l o w h e a d Highway 16 system t h e r e b y f a c i l i t a t i n g i n t r a - r e g i o n a l t r a f f i c . The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s ( F i g u r e 3) which now e x i s t r e f l e c t the r e g i o n ' s e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d economy. Major s h i p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s have been d e v e l o p e d i n K i t i m a t , P r i n c e R u p e r t and S t e w a r t . The l a r g e a i r l i n e companies o f P a c i f i c Western and Canadian P a c i f i c s e r v i c e the r e g i o n from Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t t h r o u g h a i r p o r t s i n P r i n c e R u p e r t , T e r r a c e and S m i t h e r s . The r e g i o n has two i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l highways and the C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l l i n e Figure 3: TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE source: The Northwest Region, 1932 34. e x t e n d s a c r o s s t h e r e g i o n t o P r i n c e R u p e r t , w i t h a b r a n c h l i n e t o K i t i m a t . T h i s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e has f a c i l i t a t e d t he p o p u l a t i o n growth o f the r e g i o n i n r e c e n t decades and has c r e a t e d , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , a system f o r e x t e n s i v e i n t r a - r e g i o n a l t r a v e l and communication among n o r t h w e s t urban c e n t e r s . N o n - n a t i v e n o r t h w e s t communities have d e v e l o p e d a c c o r d i n g t o a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n as a r e s u l t o f e x t e r n a l demand f o r c o m m o d i t i e s , but l a r g e l y i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f one a n o t h e r . L i n k a g e between i n d i v i d u a l n o r t h w e s t communities a r e a c t u a l l y a r e c e n t o c c u r r e n c e . An a l l - w e a t h e r r o a d between H a z e l t o n and Kitwanga was c o n s t r u c t e d o n l y i n 1955. The highway between H a z e l t o n and T e r r a c e was paved o n l y i n the e a r l y 1970's. A road between T e r r a c e and K i t i m a t was needed o n l y i n the 1950's. A paved highway from Highway 16 t o S t e w a r t was c o m p l e t e d o n l y i n 1985. P o p u l a t i o n and Income L e v e l s : The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n as d e s c r i b e d f o r the p r o v i n c i a l economic p l a n , i n 1981, was 62,755 (The N orthwest R e g i o n , 1982:21). The 1981 census K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p o p u l a t i o n was 42,400, t h e Skeena-Queen C h a r l o t t e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ( P r i n c e R u p e r t a r e a ) p o p u l a t i o n was 18,402, and the S t i k i n e r e g i o n , p o p u l a t i o n was 1,953. The p o p u l a t i o n o f the n o r t h w e s t i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n and g e n e r a l l y a y o u n g e r 35. p o p u l a t i o n than the p r o v i n c i a l one. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 25% o f n o r t h w e s t r e s i d e n t s a r e n a t i v e I n d i a n . The p o p u l a t i o n i n the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e r e g i o n i n r e c e n t decades has n e i t h e r grown a t a c o n s i s t e n t r a t e n o r been e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s the r e g i o n . N o n e t h e l e s s , the p o p u l a t i o n has grown from 9,669 p e o p l e i n 1951 t o 42,400 i n 1986, and has i n c r e a s e d i n a l l a r e a s o f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t (Census o f Canada r e c o r d s ) . T e r r a c e and K i t i m a t have been the f a s t e s t growing communities because o f the development o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y and c r e a t i o n o f the A l c a n Aluminum p r o j e c t . P r i o r t o 1951, the i n d u s t r i a l community o f K i t i m a t d i d n o t e x i s t . In 1951, t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f T e r r a c e was o n l y 961, but would grow r a p i d l y a f t e r w a r d s . The s t a r t i n g p o i n t was g r a n t i n g o f T r e e Farm L i c e n s e No. 1 i n 1949 t o the Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company. T e r r a c e remains an i m p o r t a n t t i m b e r p r o c e s s i n g community. TABLE 2: P o p u l a t i o n o f M a j o r Communities, 1981 P r i n c e R u p e r t T e r r a c e and D i s t r i c t K i t i m a t H a z e l t o n New H a z e l t o n S t e w a r t A t l i n C a s s i a r Dease Lake 16,197 17,757 12,814 393 712 1,456 230 1,053 320 ( e s t . ) S o u r c e : The Northwest Region (1982) The o f f i c i a l S t a t i s t i c s Canada 1981 Census d a t a i n d i c a t e the i m p o r t a n c e t o the n o r t h w e s t o f i t s p r i m a r y and m a n u f a c t u r i n g s e c t o r s . Of t h e n o r t h w e s t l a b o r f o r c e , 12.6% i s c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n 36. p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y ; a f u r t h e r 26.5% i s engaged i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . The l a t t e r would be a c c o u n t e d f o r by h i g h wage employment i n p u l p m i l l s , s a w m i l l s and aluminum m a n u f a c t u r i n g . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e s a r e 7.1% i n the p r i m a r y s e c t o r and 14.7% i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . A g g r e g a t e d s t a t i s t i c s c o m p i l e d by the p r o v i n c e u s i n g 1979 i n d i v i d u a l t a x r e t u r n s r e v e a l t h a t a v e r a g e p e r s o n a l incomes o f the n o r t h w e s t were 105% t h a t o f a B.C. a v e r a g e . However, p e r s o n a l incomes range n o t i c e a b l y between communities. S u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r incomes were ear n e d i n the l a r g e r c e n t e r s o f K i t i m a t , and T e r r a c e . In the H a z e l t o n a r e a 1979 incomes were but 72% o f the p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e (The Northwest R e g i o n , 1982:23). The L o c a l Economies: Masked by e m p l o y i n g a g g r e g a t e d s t a t i s t i c s t o d e s c r i b e a n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n i s the r e a l i t y t h a t v a r i o u s communities which c o m p r i s e the n o r t h w e s t have s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t economic s t r u c t u r e s , h i s t o r i e s and d e m o g r a p h i c s . T h i s s e c t i o n c o n c l u d e s w i t h a b r i e f commentary on th e unique f e a t u r e s o f the l a r g e r n o r t h w e s t c e n t e r s . P r i n c e R u p e r t i s a s t r a t e g i c t r a n s s h i p m e n t p o i n t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s the t e r m i n u s f o r the Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y N o r t h e r n M a i n l i n e and s i t e o f the n a t i o n ' s most modern g r a i n and c o a l e x p o r t f a c i l i t i e s . The community has a h i s t o r y l i n k e d t o the s e a ; 37. commercial f i s h i n g , f i s h p r o c e s s i n g and m arine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r e v i s i b l e and h i s t o r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t s e c t o r s o f the economic p r o f i l e . The l a r g e s t i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t i s the Skeena K r a f t P u l p M i l l . T e r r a c e i s the most d i v e r s i f i e d community i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. I t has the most comprehensive r e t a i l s e c t o r o f any o f the r e g i o n ' s c e n t e r s and has d e v e l o p e d as a r e t a i l and commercial s e r v i c e c e n t e r f o r the e n t i r e n o r t h w e s t q u a r t e r o f the p r o v i n c e . T e r r a c e i s a l s o a r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r , the s i t e o f many p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l government o f f i c e s . Employment i s commonly d e s c r i b e d as based 1/3 on r e t a i l , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l s e r v i c e s , 1/3 on government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and 1/3 on the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . T e r r a c e has a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d l o g g i n g s e c t o r , w i t h two h i g h p r o d u c t i o n s a w m i l l s and a p o l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t . K i t i m a t i s the p r i n c i p a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g c e n t e r f o r the r e g i o n . T o g e t h e r , A l c a n S m e l t e r s and C h e m i c a l s L t d . , Eurocan P u l p and Paper Co., and O c e l o t C h e m i c a l s L t d . employed o v e r 3,400 p e o p l e i n 1983. T h i s was o v e r 50% o f the K i t i m a t l a b o r f o r c e ( D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t , 1986). The community's s e r v i c e s e c t o r however has f a i l e d t o mature. In r e c e n t y e a r s r e t a i l and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s have tended t o c o n c e n t r a t e i n T e r r a c e , 60 km n o r t h . U n l i k e T e r r a c e , w i t h an economy h i g h l y dependant upon r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , o n l y the Eurocan P u l p M i l l p r o c e s s e s n o r t h w e s t r e s o u r c e s . B a u x i t e f o r the A l c a n Aluminum s m e l t e r o r i g i n a t e s o v e r s e a s i n Japan and A u s t r a l i a and i s p r o c e s s e d i n K i t i m a t owing t o low c o s t h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power. The O c e l o t methanol p l a n t p r o c e s s e s n a t u r a l gas t r a n s p o r t e d by 38. p i p e l i n e t o K i t i m a t from n o r t h e a s t B.C. o r A l b e r t a . The H a z e l t o n A r e a i s c o m p r i s e d o f a s e r i e s o f n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e communities. The V i l l a g e o f H a z e l t o n i s a c h i l d o f the steamboat e r a . A c r o s s the B u l k l e y R i v e r , the o t h e r l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t y , New H a z e l t o n , i s a c h i l d o f the r a i l r o a d . Once a v i b r a n t economic c e n t e r , t h e H a z e l t o n s a r e now c h a r a c t e r i z e d by endemic h i g h unemployment and low income l e v e l s . A s e r v i c e s e c t o r i s v i r t u a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t i n the a r e a and the economy i s h i g h l y dependent upon two d i m e n s i o n a l lumber s a w m i l l s . The i r o n y o f the H a z e l t o n economy i s t h a t the a r e a has p r o b a b l y t h e b e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r d i v e r s i f i e d development o f any n o r t h w e s t c e n t e r . Based upon the r e s o u r c e s t r i b u t a r y t o t h e a r e a , t h e H a z e l t o n s have e x c e l l e n t p r o s p e c t s i n a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g and t o u r i s m . The H a z e l t o n a r e a i s one o f the few p l a c e s l e f t i n the n o r t h w e s t w i t h o u t s e r i o u s c o n c e r n s o v e r a v a i l a b l e t i m b e r s u p p l y . To the n o r t h , m i n i n g and m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n p r o v i d e the base f o r the l o c a l economies i n S t e w a r t , C a s s i a r , A t l i n and Dease Lake (The  Northwest R e g i o n , 1982:26). S t e w a r t i s a l s o d e v e l o p i n g as a s t r a t e g i c gateway t o n o r t h e r n r e s o u r c e s and government has p r o v i d e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y . S t e w a r t a l s o has p o t e n t i a l t o become a s i g n i f i c a n t wood p r o c e s s i n g c e n t e r . Thus f a r , f o r e s t s e c t o r a c t i v i t y has been l i m i t e d t o l o g h a n d l i n g and s o r t i n g . Commencing i n 1985, S t e w a r t became a major e x i t p o i n t f o r whole l o g e x p o r t s . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s e x p o r t e d t o A l a s k a p u l p m i l l s , down the B.C. c o a s t and o v e r s e a s . None o f t h e s e 39. n o r t h e r n communities has y e t a c q u i r e d s e c o n d a r y i n d u s t r y o r a d i v e r s i f i e d s e r v i c e s e c t o r . The Contemporary R e g i o n a l Economy: R i s k s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l a c k o f d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and i n the e a r l y 1980's f a i l i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l markets f o r many n o r t h w e s t commodities d i c t a t e d t h a t t h e n o r t h w e s t would endure t h e s o c i a l and economic con s e q u e n c e s . I f one had taken an e x c u r s i o n t h r o u g h n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia i n e a r l y 1984 (when the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t economic p l a n n i n g commenced) one would have found h i g h unemployment, l i t t l e c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y , boarded-up s t o r e f r o n t s and many b u s i n e s s f a i l u r e s . In T e r r a c e , unemployment hovered n e a r 40% and e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a f o o d bank was a w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d embarrassment f o r t h e community. Commencing around 1981 s e v e r a l mine c l o s u r e s and slowdowns i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y r e s u l t e d i n h i g h unemployment i n the r e g i o n . In the f o r e s t - b a s e d c e n t e r s , t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the r e c e s s i o n i n the n o r t h w e s t was s i g n a l l e d by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f A m e r i c a s t r i k e which took p l a c e i n the summer o f 1981. Wh i l e t h e s t r i k e had n o t h i n g to do w i t h t he w i d e r r e c e s s i o n , f o r many f o r e s t workers i n the T e r r a c e a r e a e s p e c i a l l y , permanent work i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y was not t o become a v a i l a b l e a g a i n . 40. Though n o t o c c u r r i n g a l l a t once, mine c l o s u r e s had a s i g n i f i c a n t c u m u l a t i v e impact on unemployment i n the r e g i o n . T o g e t h e r the c l o s u r e s o f the Amax Molybdenum Mine i n K i t s a u l t , E s s o M i n e r a l s Granduc Copper Mine and the S c o t t i e G o l d Mine i n S t e w a r t , and the B e l l and G r a n i s l e c o p p e r mines i n G r a n i s l e r e s u l t e d i n the l o s s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,200 d i r e c t j o b s . Owing o n l y t o the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the Commissioner o f C r i t i c a l I n d u s t r i e s and c o n c e s s i o n s p r o v i d e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government on h y d r o - e l e c t r i c r a t e s was the B e l l Mine reopened i n the f a l l o f 1985--and t h i s w i l l be f o r o n l y a t h r e e y e a r d u r a t i o n because o f d e p l e t i n g r e s e r v e s . Meanwhile, the Granduc Mine has p e r m a n e n t l y c l o s e d , t h e t o w n s i t e and p h y s i c a l p l a n t removed a l m o s t e n t i r e l y and the s i t e r e c l a i m e d t o meet p r o v i n c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s . S c o t t i e G o l d Mines f i l e d f o r b a n k r u p t c y i n A u g u s t , 1986 ( N o r t h e r n M i n e r , August 16, 1986). O f f i c i a l S t a t i s t i c s Canada unemployment r a t e s f o r n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia have ranged between 4.8% i n 1980 t o 15.6% i n 1985. However, t h e s e f i g u r e s were h i g h l y m i s l e a d i n g because o f the i n h e r e n t weaknesses i n the S t a t i s t i c s Canada s u r v e y methods. N o t a b l y , a sample s i z e o f o n l y 215 h o u s e h o l d s was used p r i o r t o 1985 f o r a l m o s t the e n t i r e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f the p r o v i n c e ( H a r v i e Andre, March 1985). The most comprehensive s u r v e y s o f unemployment r a t e s i n the n o r t h w e s t were c o m p i l e d e v e r y t h r e e t o s i x months o v e r a two y e a r p e r i o d by the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . These f i g u r e s however were o n l y c o m p i l e d f o r the G r e a t e r T e r r a c e - Nass V a l l e y a r e a , 41. r e p r e s e n t i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f about 19,000 o f a R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t 1981 p o p u l a t i o n o f .42,400. The p r i m a r y purpose o f t h e s e s u r v e y s was t o m o n i t o r the c o n d i t i o n o f the f o r e s t s e c t o r . By t o t a l i n g a c t u a l number o f i n d i v i d u a l s on unemployment i n s u r a n c e and s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , and a c c o u n t i n g f o r f a i r l y l a r g e numbers o f i n d e p e n d e n t l o g g i n g c o n t r a c t o r s who would not n o r m a l l y be e l i g i b l e f o r unemployment a s s i s t a n c e , the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t c a l c u l a t e d r e a l unemployment r a t e s o v e r the two y e a r p e r i o d o f 1983 t o 1985 between 36% and 40% (Economic Development Commission, June 1983, November 1983, J a n u a r y 1985). Unemployment i n s u r a n c e d a t a a l o n e s h o u l d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d as a measure o f unemployment but r e g i o n a l U.I.C. s t a t i s t i c s do p r o v i d e an o r d e r o f magnitude i n d i c a t o r o f a f a l t e r i n g economy. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e ( T a b l e 3) r e c o r d s a v e r a g e monthly i n s u r a n c e c l a i m a n t s i n t h e Canada Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n Commission Skeena D i s t r i c t and s u b - a r e a s . The D i s t r i c t e x t e n d s from Houston t h r o u g h t o the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s and i n c l u d e s K i t i m a t and a r e a s n o r t h . E x t r a p o l a t i n g from 1981 Census f i g u r e s , the t o t a l l a b o r f o r c e o f the Skeena D i s t r i c t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 38,000. 42. TABLE 3: Average M o n t h l y Unemployment I n s u r a n c e C l a i m a n t s i n C.E.I.C. Skeena D i s t r i c t and S p e c i f i c A r e a s w i t h i n D i s t r i c t 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Terrace CEC Area 829 1,000 2,235 1,890 2,360 2,091 Kitimat CEC Area 300 334 564 631 621 652 Smithers CEC Area 512 631 1,297 1,010 1,188 1,176 Houston CEC Area 199 260 753 552 421 557 Skeena D i s t r i c t 3,014 3,565 7,422 6,944 7,246 7,102 Source: CEC Terrace (from Kutcho Creek Stage 2 Report, volume 2, p. 15, March 1986) P r o p e r t y assessment f i g u r e s a r e one measure o f a r a t e o f i n v e s t m e n t o c c u r r i n g i n an ar e a ( T a b l e 4 ) . Assessment i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o l o c a l government because i t d e t e r m i n e s the revenue a v a i l a b l e t o pay f o r l o c a l s e r v i c e s . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e d e p i c t s t h e changes i n asses s m e n t which have o c c u r r e d i n the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s i n c e 19.81. TABLE 4: R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e L o c a l P r o p e r t y Assessments 1981-1985 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 D i s t r i c t of Kitimat $ 91,957,518 $126,593,144 $126,857,657 $126,295,610 $128,411,306 D i s t r i c t of Terrace 36,850,288 43,111,413 36,224,058 35,883,473 37,604,922 D i s t r i c t of Stewart 8,179,029 10,531,142 9,348,052 9,132,659 2,604,849 D i s t r i c t of New Hazelton 1,389,107 1,837,377 1,565,544 1,538,911 1,748,802 V i l l a g e of Hazelton 500,782 684,660 592,585 567,235 606,846 Electoral Area A 12,502,258 14,773,141 19,582,252 19,584,313 11,903,453 Electoral Area B 9,323,539 11,672,544 10,349,268 10,390,160 10,572,858 Electoral Area C 16,189,783 21,082,927 19,132,888 18,382,692 18,470,788 Electoral Area D 291,720 464,385 383,821 297,361 312,095 Electoral Area E 6,571,322 8,623,626 7,327,914 7,631,268 8,263,705 $183,755,346 $239,374,359 $231,364,039 $229,703,682 $220,499,624 note:' V a l u e s have not been a d j u s t e d f o r i n f l a t i o n . 43. D u r i n g t h i s 1981-1985 p e r i o d , p r o p e r t y assessments i n c r e a s e d by a s e e m i n g l y h e a l t h y 20% o v e r 1981 l e v e l s , but i n f a c t d e c r e a s e d e v e r y y e a r s i n c e a peak was r e a c h e d i n 1982. U s i n g the Vancouver consumer p r i c e i n d e x as a s u r r o g a t e f o r a n o r t h w e s t i n f l a t i o n r a t e , a 21% i n f l a t i o n r a t e between 1981 and 1985 means t h a t t h e a b i l i t y o f l o c a l government t o r a i s e revenue has d e c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, March 1986:35). E q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i s the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t changes i n assessment were u n e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e r e g i o n . F o r example, major i n c r e a s e s i n assessment were a c h i e v e d i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t . T h i s i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the O c e l o t C h e m i c a l s ' methanol p l a n t and p o r t f a c i l i t y , p l u s some e x p a n s i o n o f t h e A l c a n Aluminum S m e l t e r . I t i s worth n o t i n g , however, t h a t no a p p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e i n employment o c c u r r e d because o f t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s . By c o m p a r i s o n , c o n s i d e r a b l e assessment l o s s e s o c c u r r e d i n E l e c t o r a l A r e a A (Nass V a l l e y - A l i c e Arm) and w i t h i n the D i s t r i c t o f S t e w a r t . The f o r m e r l o s s e s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o c l o s u r e o f the Amax Molybdenum Mine a t K i t s a u l t and c l o s u r e o f Westar Timber's semipermanent l o g g i n g camp i n the Nass V a l l e y . In S t e w a r t , t h e shutdown o f S c o t t i e G o l d Mine, d e m o l i t i o n o f the Granduc Mine and t o w n s i t e , combined w i t h a r e t r o a c t i v e tax assessment appeal by i t ' s owner, Esso M i n e r a l s , r e s u l t e d i n 1985 i n a 71.5% d e c r e a s e i n the assessment base o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y from the p r e v i o u s y e a r . Many l o c a l government s e r v i c e s were s e v e r e l y c u r t a i l e d as a r e s u l t . 44. A n o t h e r measure o f i n v e s t o r c o n f i d e n c e i n a community i s r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y . In T e r r a c e between 1979 and 1981 an annual a v e r a g e o f 61 s i n g l e f a m i l y houses were c o n s t r u c t e d and t o t a l r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s a v e r a g e d 170 per y e a r . From 1982 t h r o u g h 1985 no m u l t i - r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s have been c o n s t r u c t e d and o n l y 39 houses have been b u i l t o v e r t h e s e f o u r y e a r s ( C i t y o f Terrace, 1986:10). The p r e c e d i n g c o l l e c t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c s o n l y s e r v e t o show t h a t the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n e x h i b i t e d a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an economy h i t by r e c e s s i o n , i f o n l y more a c u t e l y f e l t than i n o t h e r a r e a s o f the p r o v i n c e . V e r y h i g h unemployment was the most v i s i b l e impact but p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h i s "boom and b u s t " r e s o u r c e - b a s e d economy would s u g g e s t i t was o n l y a temporary s i t u a t i o n . Y e t i t was d u r i n g the r e c e s s i o n t h a t major i n d u s t r i e s o p e r a t i n g i n the n o r t h w e s t began t o re-examine t h e i r manpower r e q u i r e m e n t s and r e s t r u c t u r e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g l y . Lumber companies such as Westar Timber and West F r a s e r Timber L t d . made i n v e s t m e n t s i n new t e c h n o l o g i e s i n o r d e r t o s t a y c o m p e t i t i v e i n s m a l l e r w o r l d m a r k e t s . C a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t would be a t the expense o f l a b o r . A l c a n Aluminum adop t e d a n o - h i r i n g p o l i c y and r e d u c e d employment from 2,500 i n 1981 t o 2,200 i n 1986 ( D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t , 1986). Eurocan a l s o r e d u c e d employment w i t h o u t l o w e r i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y . The r e c e s s i o n a r y e n v i r o n m e n t d i s g u i s e d s u b s t a n t i a l permanent employment l o s s e s o c c u r r i n g i n a l l a r e a s o f the n o r t h w e s t and f e l t i n a l m o s t a l l economic s e c t o r s . 45. In the T e r r a c e a r e a , which had d e v e l o p e d on the b a s i s o f the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , r e s o u r c e d e p l e t i o n , r e d u c t i o n s i n the annual a l l o w a b l e c u t and t e c h n o l o g i c a l u p g r a d i n g i n the m i l l s w i l l r e s u l t (by 1987) i n a p r e d i c t e d 40% l o s s o r 520 permanent j o b s i n t h i s m ajor i n d u s t r y ( G r e a t e r T e r r a c e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n , 1984:183-189). In K i t i m a t , a n o t h e r 680 j o b s have been e s t i m a t e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o have been l o s t from the A l c a n Aluminum S m e l t e r and the Eurocan P u l p M i l l between 1980 and 1985 ( D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t , J a n u a r y , 1986). S i m i l a r l o s s e s can a l s o be r e c o r d e d i n o t h e r communities and some a l r e a d y mentioned w i t h the permanent mine c l o s u r e s . . T h i s a u t h o r e s t i m a t e s t h a t 2,400 permanent j o b s have been l o s t i n the n o r t h w e s t s i n c e 1980 i n the r e g i o n d e f i n e d f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l p l a n . These a r e d i r e c t j o b s , u s u a l l y h i g h p a y i n g and h i g h l y s k i l l e d . From p r e v i o u s economic s t u d i e s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t e s t i m a t e s o f employment m u l t i p l i e r s used to c a l c u l a t e l o c a l s p i n - o f f employment u s u a l l y range between 1 and 2. T h e r e f o r e t o t a l employment l o s s e s i n the n o r t h c o u l d a p p roacn 7,500 p e o p l e . T o t a l l a b o r f o r c e i n 1981 i n t h i s r e g i o n was 30,765 (Census o f Canada 1981). These employment l o s s e s would n o t have been o f such c o n c e r n i f i t were not f o r the l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o which t h e s e i d l e d t e c h n i c a l and t r a d e s k i l l s c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d . The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a s s e s s e d the s i t u a t i o n and chose t o promote s m a l l e r s c a l e r e s o u r c e - b a s e d b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The p r o v i n c e ' s p l a n f o r the r e g i o n r e l i e d upon the l a r g e s c a l e r e s o u r c e development p r o j e c t , the " m e g a - p r o j e c t . " 46. M a j o r P r o j e c t s I n v e n t o r y I t has a l r e a d y been r e c o r d e d t h a t economic h i s t o r y and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s i n the n o r t h w e s t have been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t and o f t e n w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t p u b l i c s e c t o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s development h i s t o r y , an i m p r e s s i v e l i s t o f m e g a - p r o j e c t s s t a n d s w a i t i n g t o c a r r y the r e g i o n t h r o u g h t o the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y . In c l o s i n g t h i s o v e r v i e w on the economic f o r t u n e s o f n o r t h w e s t B.C. s i n c e 1980, i t i s worth l i s t i n g t h e s e p r o j e c t s and commenting on the s t a t u s o f the development p r o j e c t s i n l i g h t o f t h e r e c e s s i o n and the o b j e c t i v e s o f the p r o v i n c e ' s p l a n . 1. A l c a n Aluminum Kemano C o m p l e t i o n P r o j e c t - p o s t p o n e d i n d e f i n i t e l y . 2. S t i k i n e - I s k u t H y d r o - e l e c t r i c P r o j e c t (B.C. Hydro) - p o s t p o n e d i n d e f i n i t e l y . 3. Crows Nest R e s o u r c e s Telkwa Thermal Coal P r o j e c t - p r o c e e d i n g t h r o u g h p r o v i n c i a l r e v i e w p r o c e s s ; p r o j e c t d e l a y s ; d e f e r r e d commitment to s t a r t - u p d a t e . 4. L i q u i f i e d N a t u r a l Gas e x p o r t f a c i l i t i e s p l a n n e d f o r P o r t Simpson and K i t i m a t - p r i n c i p a l c o r p o r a t e a c t o r s changed; s a l e s agreements abroad c o u l d not be o b t a i n e d ; postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y . 5. E x p a n s i o n o f O c e l o t C h e m i c a l s Methanol P l a n t i n K i t i m a t - c o n s t r u c t i o n o f ammonia p l a n t began i n 1985 and s h o u l d be o p e r a t i o n a l by f a l l 1986; p l a n t i s m o s t l y c o n s t r u c t e d i n modules f a b r i c a t e d abroad and s h i p p e d t o K i t i m a t . 6. G u l f R e s o u r c e s Mt. Klappan A n t h r a c i t e Coal Mine - p r o c e e d i n g t h r o u g h p r o v i n c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e v i e w p r o c e s s ; s e v e r a l t e s t m a r k e t i n g shipments have been made t o E u r o p e , e a s t e r n Canada and K o r e a . 47. 7. Kutcho Creek Copper Mine - p r o c e e d i n g t h r o u g h e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e v i e w p r o c e s s ; no c o n s t r u c t i o n d a t e committed due t o low commodity p r i c e s ; p r o j e c t has been d e l a y e d s e v e r a l times s i n c e l a t e 1970's. 8. New Eurocan Sawmill i n K i t i m a t - p r o j e c t i s no l o n g e r v i a b l e as p a r e n t company West F r a s e r Timber p u r c h a s e d e x i s t i n g Westar Timber s a w m i l l i n T e r r a c e . 9. T e r r a c e - P r i n c e Rupert H y d r o - e l e c t r i c T r a n s m i s s i o n L i n e - postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y . 10. S c h a f t Creek Copper-Molybdenum Mine - postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y . 11. P e t r o c h e m i c a l e x p o r t f a c i l i t y a t P r i n c e R u p e r t - postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y . O n l y two o f t h e s e e l e v e n p r o j e c t s appear t o have any p o t e n t i a l t o be r e a l i z e d b e f o r e 1990 and o n l y the Mt. Klappan A n t r a c i t e p r o j e c t has not been s u b j e c t t o d e l a y s . The O c e l o t C h e m i c a l s ammonia p l a n t , now s c h e d u l e d f o r c o m p l e t i o n i n the f a l l o f 1986 i s an e x c e p t i o n . A t $80 m i l l i o n t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l a g a i n add t o K i t i m a t ' s l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l tax base. However, i t s r e a l impact on the r e g i o n i n terms o f permanent employment i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . T o t a l j o b s a t the ammonia p l a n t w i l l be f i f t e e n . The S h o r t - T e r m P o l i c y S o l u t i o n s : J u d g i n g from the k i n d s o f s e n i o r government e x p e n d i t u r e s made i n the n o r t h w e s t d u r i n g the r e c e s s i o n p e r i o d a f t e r 1981, t h e r e was l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t the i s s u e o f permanent j o b l o s s was a t a l l r e c o g n i z e d . I n s t e a d , the economic problems o f the n o r t h w e s t were i n t e r p r e t e d as t e m p o r a r y , the consequence o f a c y c l i c a l downturn i n m a r k e t s . The p o l i c y r e s p o n s e was t o d i r e c t s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f government funds 48. t o programs such as temporary employment programs o r p u b l i c works. T h i s p o l i c y amounted t o a s h o r t - t e r m s o l u t i o n . These employment programs were m o s t l y the r e s u l t o f a s e r i e s o f f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l agreements and m o s t l y used f e d e r a l f unds a l l o c a t e d t h r o u g h t h e Canada Employment and Immigration Commission. Some p r o v i n c i a l f unds were a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d and p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s such as the M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s were h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d i n program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Through t h e s e employment programs much needed s i l v i c u l t u r a l , o t h e r f o r e s t r y - r e l a t e d work and community development p r o j e c t s were u n d e r t a k e n . In most programs, income supplements were p a i d t o unemployment i n s u r a n c e r e c i p i e n t s and "U.I. e x h a u s t e e s . " The i n c e n t i v e f o r p r i v a t e companies t o become s p o n s o r s o f p r o j e c t s was an overhead a l l o w a n c e which c o u l d be put towards a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o s t s o r f o r r e n t i n g t h e i r own m a c h i n e r y and equipment t o a p r o j e c t . A i d e d by v o c a l l o b b y i n g e f f o r t s by the l o c a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f America Union and the Skeena Manpower Development Committee ( d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e ) , the T e r r a c e a r e a was one o f the p r i n c i p a l b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f t h e s e programs. Between May 1982 and June 1983, $9.8 m i l l i o n was s p e n t t h r o u g h the Employment B r i d g i n g A s s i s t a n c e Program (EBAP) and the New E x p a n s i o n and Employment Development Program (NEED). The EBAP e x p e n d i t u r e s i n the Kalum F o r e s t D i s t r i c t ( T e r r a c e a r e a ) r e p r e s e n t e d 19% o f a l l program funds s p e n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( J e n n i n g s , 1985). T h i s $9.8 m i l l i o n p r o v i d e d an i n f u s i o n i n t o t he T e r r a c e economy o f $4.5 m i l l i o n above the "normal" e x p e n d i t u r e s o f the Canada Employment and Immigration 49. Commission ( M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , O c t o b e r 4, 1983:1). The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t f o r e s t r y employment s u r v e y s showed the e x t e n t to which t h e s e temporary employment programs were " e m p l o y i n g " r e s i d e n t s o f the T e r r a c e a r e a . D u r i n g 1983, t h e s e work programs employed o v e r 1,500 p e o p l e o r o v e r 15% o f the T e r r a c e a r e a w o r k f o r c e (Economic Development Commission, June 1, 1983) ( M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , O c t o b e r 4, 1983:1). In e f f e c t t he Canada Employment and Immigration Commission was a t the time one. o f the l a r g e s t employers i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Much o f the work com p l e t e d under t h e s e temporary work programs was b a s i c s i l v i c u l t u r e i n c l u d i n g s t a n d t e n d i n g , t h i n n i n g and f i r e p r o t e c t i o n . T h i s work r e q u i r e d minimal s k i l l s b u t was l a b o r i n t e n s i v e . In a d d i t i o n , community p r o j e c t s such as l o c a l p a r k s development were a l s o u n d e r t a k e n . L a t e r , some o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s would c o n t i n u e t o be funded but s u b s t a n t i a l drops i n f u n d i n g i n the r e g i o n f o l l o w e d i n 1984, i r o n i c a l l y , s ubsequent t o p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s . W h i l e many o f the s i l v i c u l t u r e p r o j e c t s w i l l r e t u r n b e n e f i t s t o the r e g i o n i n the l o n g - t e r m and have r e n d e r e d i n t e n s i v e f o r e s t management a s a l i e n t p o l i t i c a l i s s u e i n some n o r t h w e s t communities, t h e r e was l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e s e work p r o j e c t s would be s i g n i f i c a n t components o f the r e g i o n a l economy o v e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d . An i n d i c a t o r o f s e n i o r government commitment t o a l o n g e r term development s t r a t e g y would have been p r o v i s i o n o f t r a i n i n g t h r o u g h 50. t h e s e p r o j e c t s t o d e v e l o p a c o r e o f more s k i l l e d s i l v i c u l t u r e c o n t r a c t o r s and t e c h n i c i a n s . O n l y i n l a t e 1985 was f u n d i n g a l l o c a t e d t o the r e g i o n a l c o l l e g e t o e s t a b l i s h a s i x month s i l v i c u l t u r e t e c h n i c i a n s t r a i n i n g program f o r f o r t y p e o p l e . The p r o j e c t has s u b s e q u e n t l y g a r n e r e d m i n i s t e r i a l s u p p o r t a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l and has been expanded to o t h e r n o r t h w e s t communities. A second major i n f l o w o f s e n i o r government money was c h a n n e l e d t o the r e g i o n t h r o u g h p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s . In 1983 s e v e r a l l a r g e r e g i o n a l highway p a v i n g p r o j e c t s were i n i t i a t e d by the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways. Some o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s p e r m i t t e d c o n t r a c t o r s t o employ t h e i r i d l e heavy equipment on s h o r t term o r day l a b o r c o n t r a c t s and r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e numbers o f l o c a l p e o p l e b e i n g h i r e d . In t h e 1982/83 f i s c a l y e a r t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s o f the M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways i n the Skeena E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t amounted t o $18.0 m i l l i o n , o f which $2.6 m i l l i o n were s p e n t on "day l a b o r " c o n t r a c t s . In 1983/84 t h e s e t o t a l s i n c r e a s e d t o $36.7 m i l l i o n and $8.1 m i l l i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y ( M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways, 1982/83:110-112;1983/84:125-128). C o n s t r u c t i o n work on u p g r a d i n g the C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l l i n e was a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t employer d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . D u r i n g t h i s p o l i c y e p i s o d e s e n i o r government e x p e n d i t u r e s were t a r g e t e d t o the l e v e l o f the i n d i v i d u a l . D i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n t h e a n a l y s i s c h a p t e r , the i n d i v i d u a l as the f o c a l p o i n t o f government p o l i c y i s but one m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y . We w i l l see t h a t i n d i v i d u a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l i n t e r e s t s may c o n f l i c t . 51. The b e s t example o f l i b e r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s r e f l e c t e d i n manpower programs took p l a c e w i t h c l o s u r e o f t h e Granduc Copper Mine i n S t e w a r t . C o i n c i d i n g w i t h the announcement t o c l o s e the mine p e r m a n e n t l y was m o b i l i z a t i o n o f government r e s o u r c e s t o a s s i s t workers t o seek employment e l s e w h e r e i n Canada i n c l u d i n g p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the form o f r e l o c a t i o n a l l o w a n c e s . W h i l e p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l a s s i s t a n c e t o unemployed mine w o r k e r s , t h i s program, one might a r g u e , may a c t u a l l y have been t o the d e t r i m e n t o f the community and r e g i o n by e n c o u r a g i n g o u t - m i g r a t i o n o f s k i l l e d workers from the n o r t h w e s t . L e s s government e f f o r t was put towards f i n d i n g o r c r e a t i n g l o n g term employment f o r t h e s e workers w i t h i n S t e w a r t o r the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n . I t was, i n p a r t , r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a s u r p l u s o f s k i l l e d workers was becoming a v a i l a b l e i n the r e g i o n which encouraged t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t t o engage i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r economic development p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 52. CHAPTER FOUR: THE PROVINCE'S PLANNING PROCESS AND PLAN T h i s c h a p t e r r e v i e w s t he p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s used by the B r i t i s h Columbia government i n f o r m u l a t i n g a p l a n f o r the economic development o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and d e s c r i b e s t he p r o c e s s outcomes. The p r o c e s s has two d i s t i n c t phases ( s e e F i g u r e 4 ) . L a t e i n 1981 and a g a i n i n 1982 members o f the C a b i n e t Committee on Economic Development made " f a c t - f i n d i n g " v i s i t s t o the n o r t h w e s t t o d i s c u s s development i s s u e s o f the r e g i o n . L a t e r , i n September, 1982, the C a b i n e t Committee announced i t s i n t e n t i o n t o f o r m u l a t e an economic s t r a t e g y f o r n o r t h w e s t B.C. and s e t the e x p e r t a d v i s o r s i n i t s b u r e a u c r a c y t o d e s c r i b e growth p o t e n t i a l i n the r e g i o n and a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r s e t t l e m e n t , power g e n e r a t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s . These s t u d i e s would c o n c e n t r a t e on the N o r t h e r n Zone o f the r e g i o n ( f r o m S t e w a r t t o the Yukon b o r d e r ) . The c a b i n e t t o u r s r e p r e s e n t a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s i n which development g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . P r e p a r a t i o n o f the economic s t r a t e g y i s a t e c h n i c a l p l a n n i n g s t a g e , i n which the b u r e a u c r a c y e x p l o r e s o p t i o n a l means t o a c h i e v e g i v e n ends. The Need f o r an Economic S t r a t e g y : From the " f i r s t - h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n " p r o v i d e d t o the C a b i n e t Committee on i t s two t o u r s , the d e c i s i o n s a r e made t o commission "a r e p o r t t h a t would r e a l i s t i c a l l y summarize t he a r e a ' s economic p o t e n t i a l , " and then t o p r o c e e d t o d e v e l o p an economic s t r a t e g y f o r the r e g i o n (The  New F r o n t i e r , 1982:7). D e s p i t e a c u r i o u s p u b l i s h e d comment about 1981 i!982 1983 1984 P o l i t i c a l Phase October 1981: f i r s t cabinet committee tour February 1982: second tour to A t l i n , Cassiar and Dease Lake March 1982: t h i r d tour to Stewart Technical Phase £ z z — 1 - > early 1982: Cabinet i n s t r u c t s Task Force to compile review of northwest B.C. economic potential September 1982: Cabinet announces in t e n t i o n to develop regional economic strategy; The New Frontier & The Northwest Region reports are released October 1983: Summary report of Northwest Economic Development Studies i s released December 1983: background reports to Northwest  Studies are released post-1983: public & private sector planning of s p e c i f i c development projects continues government assistance provided to road access f e a s i b i l i t y studies 54. the c a b i n e t ' s m e e t i n g s i n t h e n o r t h w e s t , t h a t " t h e message was c l e a r and i t was h e a r d " (The New F r o n t i e r , 1982:7), i t was not p r e c i s e l y s t a t e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government what the need was f o r such a s t r a t e g y nor were re a s o n s g i v e n f o r i t s t i m i n g . P u r e l y p o l i t i c a l m o t i v e s c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d as r e a s o n s f o r u n d e r t a k i n g the s t r a t e g y . In the f a l l o f 1982 e l e c t i o n t a l k was c i r c u l a t i n g and the announcement o f an economic s t r a t e g y would be a h i g h p r o f i l e e v e n t . T h i s a u t h o r r e c a l l s t h a t the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n was t o have the m a j o r i t y o f the C a b i n e t Committee i n T e r r a c e f o r the September 15, 1982 b r i e f i n g . I n s t e a d , o n l y Labour M i n i s t e r Bob M c C l e l l a n d a t t e n d e d . An e l e c t i o n was not h e l d u n t i l May, 1983. The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t economic p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s commences i n l i g h t o f e x t r e m e l y h i g h r a t e s o f unemployment and permanent j o b l o s s . I f t h e r e a r e any c o r r e s p o n d i n g c r i s i s d i m e n s i o n s t o the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n , one i s l e f t t o suppose i t i s a f e a r o f r a p i d , u n c o o r d i n a t e d growth. Though the o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n o f the p r o v i n c e ' s s t u d i e s was t o be t h a t the r e g i o n has good p o t e n t i a l f o r moderate growth (The Northwest  R e g i o n , 1982:15), a t the time t h a t p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s would have been c o n c e i v i n g o f i n i t i a t i n g a s t r a t e g y , c o r p o r a t e p l a n n i n g i n s e c t o r s such as m a n u f a c t u r i n g and p e t r o c h e m i c a l s was q u i t e a c t i v e . In 1981, A l c a n Aluminum's Kemano C o m p l e t i o n P r o j e c t and L i q u i f i e d N a t u r a l Gas p r o p o s a l s f o r K i t i m a t by Petro-Canada and P o r t Simpson by Dome P e t r o l e u m seemed t o be moving q u i c k l y toward p r o d u c t i o n d e c i s i o n s . R e g i o n a l h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power demand was 55. f o r e c a s t t o grow a t an annual r a t e o f 8.5% between 1980 and 1990 (The  Northwest R e g i o n , 1982:87). The V a l u e o f the P l a n : In r e t r o s p e c t t h e economic s t r a t e g y as l a t e r p u b l i s h e d i n The  Northwest Economic Development S t u d i e s (1983) e s t a b l i s h e s a framework f o r p u b l i c s e c t o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the economic growth o f the r e g i o n . .. The r e p o r t s summarize development p o t e n t i a l ( e m p h a s i z i n g l a r g e - s c a l e p r o j e c t s ) and o u t l i n e p o s s i b l e r o l e s government w i l l p l a y i n p r o v i d i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , community and human s e r v i c e s . The i n t e n t o f the s t r a t e g y i s t o make use o f the "untapped" n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t i n o r d e r " t o s u p p o r t t h e P r o v i n c e ' s l o n g - t e r m o b j e c t i v e s o f economic growth and p r o s p e r i t y " (The New  F r o n t i e r , 1982:5). The b i a s i s d i s t i n c t l y p r o v i n c i a l i n s c o p e , n o t r e g i o n a l , though development i s t o be " m i n d f u l o f the e n v i r o n m e n t , the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e l e s s t a n g i b l e a s s e t s and a t t r i b u t e s o f t h i s p a r t o f our P r o v i n c e " (The New F r o n t i e r , 1982:5). In a p a r t i c u l a r l y b o l d a s s e r t i o n , t h e p r o v i n c e i g n o r e s the c e n t u r i e s o f n a t i v e I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t and s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s o f w h i t e i n h a b i t a t i o n , and c a l l s t h e n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n , "The New F r o n t i e r . " R e g a r d l e s s , t h e Northwest S t u d i e s s h o u l d not be d i s m i s s e d as a w a s t e f u l p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s e x e r c i s e . The Northwest S t u d i e s r e p o r t s do c o n t a i n minor e r r o r s and m i s c o n c e p t i o n s a r i s i n g from w o r k i n g f a r from the s c e n e , the s t u d y recommendations a r e o f t e n i m p r e c i s e because o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n p r e d i c t i n g t h e t i m i n g o f r e s o u r c e developments i n 56. the n o r t h , but s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g n o r t h w e s t development a r e a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d . F o r example, an i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l group e x a m i n i n g s e t t l e m e n t o p t i o n s i n the N o r t h e r n Zone c o n c l u d e d t h a t the i n t e r e s t s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t would be b e t t e r s a t i s f i e d i f f u t u r e l a r g e - s c a l e r e s o u r c e p r o j e c t s i n c o r p o r a t e d b l o c k commuting programs f o r w o r k e r s . Rather than c o n s t r u c t i n g new t o w n s i t e s i n remote a r e a s , companies would be encouraged t o house t h e i r w o r k f o r c e s i n the e x i s t i n g l a r g e r c e n t r e s o f the S o u t h e r n Zone o f S m i t h e r s , T e r r a c e o r P r i n c e R u p e r t . Workers would be t r a n s p o r t e d t o the p r o j e c t s i t e by a i r o r road and housed i n c o m f o r t a b l e but temporary accommodations a t the work p l a c e . S h i f t s would be f o r f a i r l y l o n g d u r a t i o n s ( e g . seven days on, seven days o f f ) . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s p o l i c y a r e t o a s s i s t d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f the S o u t h e r n Zone, i n c r e a s e the t a x b a s e s , r e d u c e e x c e s s c a p a c i t y i n community s e r v i c e s and a v o i d s o c i a l problems which might o c c u r i n the p r e s e n t l y u n p o p u l a t e d n o r t h e r n c e n t r e s ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , S e t t l e m e n t O p t i o n s , 1983: s e c . 4.3.8.). Two companies w i t h p r o j e c t s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g r e v i e w e d under the p r o v i n c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e v i e w p r o c e s s f o r mine development, G u l f R e s o u r c e s (Mr. Klappan A n t h r a c i t e Coal Mine) and Sumac Mines (Kutcho Creek Copper Mine) have adopted b l o c k commuting s t r a t e g i e s . The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e i s one l o c a l government which s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s t h i s p o l i c y (RDKS c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , August 12, 1986, r e : Kutcho Creek P r o j e c t ) . 57. The C a b i n e t T o u r s : The C a b i n e t Committee on Economic Development i s an e l e v e n - p e r s o n sub-committee o f the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t . In September 1982, i t s chairman was Labour M i n i s t e r Bob M c C l e l l a n d , who had r e c e n t l y been t r a n s f e r r e d from t he M i n i s t r y o f Energy (Cdn. News F a c t s , 1982: 2740). R e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Committee i s from t he r e s o u r c e m i n i s t r i e s (eg'. M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , M i n i s t r y o f Energy, Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s ) and from o t h e r m i n i s t r i e s w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r economic development ( e g . M i n i s t r y o f F i n a n c e , M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s Development). The CCED was c r e a t e d " t o f o r m u l a t e p o l i c i e s and programs which would encourage comprehensive i n d u s t r i a l and economic e x p a n s i o n i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia" (The New F r o n t i e r , 1982:6). A membership l i s t from September 1982 ( a f t e r a c a b i n e t s h u f f l e ) i s p r e s e n t e d below. TABLE 5: C a b i n e t Committee on Economic Development Hon. Bob M c C l e l l a n d M i n i s t e r o f Labour Hon. Tony Brummet M i n i s t e r o f Lands, Parks & Hou s i n g Hon. Hugh C u r t i s M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e Hon. A l e x F r a s e r M i n i s t e r o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways Hon. J a c k H e i n r i c h M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s Hon. Tom W a t e r l a n d M i n i s t e r o f F o r e s t s Hon. Don P h i l l i p s M i n i s t e r o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s Development Hon. Harvey S c h r o e d e r M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Food Hon. B r i a n Smith M i n i s t e r o f Energy, Mines & P e t r o l e u m R esources Hon. Steven Rogers M i n i s t e r o f Environment Hon. C l a u d e Richmond M i n i s t e r o f T o u r i s m Members o f the C a b i n e t Committee t o u r e d t he n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n i n l a t e 1981 and a g a i n i n e a r l y 1982. Normal p r a c t i c e i s t h a t c a b i n e t 58. members o r committees meet s e p a r a t e l y w i t h d i f f e r e n t groups i n v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as opposed t o s t a g i n g l a r g e , open p u b l i c forums. T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y the program adopted on t h e s e t o u r s . The e x c e p t i o n i s t h a t V i c t o r i a r e q u e s t e d i n advance t h a t n o r t h w e s t groups p r e p a r e b r i e f s on p o l i c i e s and c o n c e r n s r e g a r d i n g n o r t h w e s t economic development. In a d d i t i o n , the C a b i n e t Committee r e c e i v e d u n s o l i c i t e d b r i e f s from groups and i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n i n g o f an impending C a b i n e t t o u r ( C a t h y Mayoh, C a b i n e t S e c r e t a r i a t , p e r s . comm.). The d e t a i l e d arrangements o f a c a b i n e t t o u r , i n c l u d i n g communications w i t h l o c a l governments, would be managed by s t a f f members o f the C a b i n e t S e c r e t a r i a t . But i f the f o r m a l l e t t e r o f i n v i t a t i o n from Bob M c C l e l l a n d t o the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e i s any i n d i c a t i o n , t h e r e a r e no c l u e s t h a t a major r e g i o n a l economic p l a n n i n g i n i t i a t i v e i s i n the o f f i n g . In c o r r e s p o n d e n c e d a t e d O c t o b e r 19, 1981, Chairman o f the C a b i n e t Committee, Bob M c C l e l l a n d s i m p l y s t a t e s t h a t the CCED: ... c o n d u c t s r e g u l a r t o u r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia and h o l d s m e e tings i n v a r i o u s r e g i o n s on economic development and i n d u s t r i a l i s s u e s . We use t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to v i s i t l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s and t o u r communities. (The m e e t i n g w i t h the R e g i o n a l Board on O c t o b e r 26, 1981) would g i v e us an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s r e g i o n a l economic m a t t e r s (R.H. M c C l e l l a n d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , O c t o b e r 19, 1981). Three c a b i n e t t o u r s took p l a c e , i n O c t o b e r 1981, F e b r u a r y 1982, and March 1982. D u r i n g the f i r s t t o u r , n i n e members o f t h e C a b i n e t Committee s p e n t t h r e e days i n the r e g i o n i n the t h r e e major c e n t r e s o f K i t i m a t , T e r r a c e , and P r i n c e R u p e r t . The c a b i n e t met m o s t l y w i t h l o c a l m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , chambers o f 59. commerce r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and o t h e r c i v i c o r i n d u s t r y e l i t e g r o u p s . F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n t o u r s o f the major i n d u s t r i a l p l a n s were a l s o p a r t o f the v i s i t . The Committee v i s i t e d t h e P o r t Simpson LNG s i t e , t h e Westar p u l p m i l l i n P r i n c e R u p e r t , and met w i t h o f f i c i a l s o f o r t o u r e d the A l c a n Aluminum S m e l t e r and Eurocan P u l p M i l l i n K i t i m a t . An o p e n i n g ceremony a t the O c e l o t Methanol P l a n t i n K i t i m a t was a l s o a t t e n d e d . Open p u b l i c meetings were not p a r t o f t h i s O c t o b e r 1981 t o u r ( C a t h y Mayoh, p e r s . com.). The two subsequent v i s i t s t o the a r e a were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by more e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In F e b r u a r y , 1982, s i x members o f the C a b i n e t Committee v i s i t e d the s m a l l e r communities i n the N o r t h e r n Zone o f A t l i n , C a s s i a r and Dease Lake. In March 1982, f i v e members s p e n t two days i n the p o r t and m i n i n g community o f S t e w a r t . Throughout a l l t h r e e t o u r s a c o r e group c o n s i s t e d o f Bob M c C l e l l a n d ( M i n i s t e r o f E nergy, Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s ) , J a c k H e i n r i c h ( M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r ) , Tom W a t e r l a n d ( M i n i s t e r o f F o r e s t s ) , J i m Chabot ( M i n i s t e r o f Lands, Parks and Housing) and Don P h i l l i p s ( M i n i s t e r o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s Development). D u r i n g t h e s e v i s i t s t o the N o r t h e r n Zone, open p u b l i c m e e t i n g s were h e l d i n the e v e n i n g i n C a s s i a r and S t e w a r t . In A t l i n , C a s s i a r and Dease Lake i n f o r m a l community luncheons were a l s o h e l d . A g a i n , where a p p l i c a b l e , C a b i n e t met w i t h the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l and b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s , but d i d not r e l y e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e s e p e o p l e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n as o c c u r r e d i n the l a r g e r , more s o u t h e r l y c e n t r e s . F o r 60. example, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the Kaska Dene T r i b a l C o u n c i l met w i t h C a b i n e t members i n C a s s i a r ( C a t h y Mayoh, p e r s . comm). Subsequent government p u b l i c a t i o n s e x h i b i t c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a n c e r e g a r d i n g who s u b m i t t e d b r i e f s . A t the September, 1982 announcement i n T e r r a c e , two r e p o r t s a r e made p u b l i c . The f i r s t i s a s t a t e m e n t o f economic p o t e n t i a l i n the r e g i o n p l u s a summary o f i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d from the m e e t i n g s w i t h n o r t h w e s t r e s i d e n t s . The r e p o r t , e n t i t l e d The Northwest R e g i o n : A B r i t i s h Columbia R e g i o n a l Economic  Study 1982, s t a t e s t h a t " s e v e r a l b r i e f s on f u r t h e r i n g economic development were advanced" (The Northwest R e g i o n , 1982:5). Comments which summarize t h e s e b r i e f s o n l y acknowledge the i n p u t o f r e g i o n a l e l i t e groups such as m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t boards and chambers o f commerce (The Northwest R e g i o n , 1982:28-34). The New F r o n t i e r i s a l s o r e l e a s e d a t the same o c c a s i o n . T h i s r e p o r t d i s c u s s e s the P r o v i n c e ' s p l a n t o d e v e l o p an economic s t r a t e g y f o r the r e g i o n , a l s o h i g h l i g h t s development i s s u e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s , but c r e a t e s a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e o f the c a b i n e t t o u r s : The Committee met w i t h groups and i n d i v i d u a l s ; t h e y ranged from p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s and m u n i c i p a l l e a d e r s t o Chambers o f Commerce and i n d u s t r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , from n a t i v e groups t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s . They r e a d b r i e f s and heard s u b m i s s i o n s c o v e r i n g a wide range o f s o c i a l and economic c o n c e r n s . The s u b j e c t s were i m p o r t a n t and i n t e r e s t i n g : t h e l a c k o f d i v e r s i t y i n the economy o f the r e g i o n ; the dependence on s i n g l e - r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s ; the h i g h l a b o r t u r n o v e r ; t h e need f o r more community s e r v i c e s ; t h e a r e a ' s f e e l i n g o f r e g i o n a l i s o l a t i o n . Some r e s i d e n t s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n t h a t the N o r t h West's e x i s t i n g l i f e s t y l e might be m a s s i v e l y d i s r u p t e d by too much development too f a s t . O t h e r s w o r r i e d t h a t t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a l u e s might be j e o p a r d i z e d . Some . urg e d q u i c k a c t i o n t o encourage economic development now; o t h e r s e x p l a i n e d the r e g i o n ' s need f o r new j o b s , new i n d u s t r i e s , new v i t a l i t y (The New F r o n t i e r , 1982:7). 61. The Northwest R e g i o n : A B r i t i s h Columbia R e g i o n a l Economic S t u d y ,  1982 i s , as j u s t s t a t e d , a r e p o r t which c o n t a i n s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the l o c a l g r o u p s ' p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o c a b i n e t and a s t a t e m e n t on r e g i o n a l economic p o t e n t i a l . The r e p o r t i s a c o n c i s e , r e a d a b l e p r o f i l e o f the r e g i o n a l economy and i n c l u d e s a summary o f economic, e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i a l i mpacts which might a r i s e f r o m f u t u r e development. One c o u l d d e s c r i b e the p r o c e s s as a " s c o p i n g " e x e r c i s e ; i t s p urpose i s t o i d e n t i f y c r i t i c a l r e g i o n a l development i s s u e s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , The Northwest R e g i o n , i n both s u b t l e and e x p l i c i t ways, d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t fundamental components o f the r e g i o n a l development p l a n had a l r e a d y been d e t e r m i n e d . For the S o u t h e r n Zone the l a r g e - s c a l e developments b e i n g p l a n n e d a t the time a r e t r e a t e d as a p p r o p r i a t e mechanisms t o d i v e r s i f y t h a t p a r t o f the r e g i o n . C o n t i n u a t i o n o f a l a r g e - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y development h i s t o r y i s recommended (The Northwest R e g i o n , 1982:16). In the N o r t h e r n Zone, n i n e l a r g e " c o r n e r s t o n e " m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s a r e proposed as c a t a l y s t s f o r f u r t h e r development. R e g i o n a l economic performance would t h e r e f o r e be a f u n c t i o n o f e x p o r t - b a s e d development. The s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g which f o l l o w e d c o n c e n t r a t e d r e s e a r c h on the N o r t h e r n Zone. Some o f the language used i n The Northwest Region i l l u s t r a t e s p r o v i n c i a l a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g development o f the n o r t h w e s t . Communities o f the n o r t h a r e d e s c r i b e d as "remote" ( p . 2 6 ) , the r e g i o n d e s c r i b e d as g e n e r a l l y " u n i n h a b i t e d h i n t e r l a n d " ( p . 1 8 ) , 62. r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s a r e "untapped" ( p . 54) o r " u n e x p l o i t e d " ( p . 57) and i n need o f " ' roads t o r e s o u r c e s ' " i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e development (p . 5 2 ) . Remarks have a l r e a d y been made about the t i t l e o f the accompanying r e p o r t , The New F r o n t i e r . The c o n c e r n s o f r e s i d e n t n o r t h w e s t g r o u p s , as t h e y a r e documented i n The Northwest Region r e p o r t , do not i n c l u d e o p i n i o n s on the p h i l o s o p h y o f development. G o a l s such as d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n a r e m e n t i o n e d , i s s u e s such as l a b o r t u r n o v e r are c i t e d b u t , m o s t l y , the b r i e f s a r e s h o p p i n g l i s t s f o r s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s o r p o l i c i e s . The D i s t r i c t o f S t e w a r t r e q u e s t e d a c o n n e c t i o n t o the B.C. F e r r y System. The C i t y o f P r i n c e R u p e r t wanted the M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s t o i n c r e a s e t h e t i m b e r s u p p l y a v a i l a b l e t o i n d u s t r y a l o n g t h e n o r t h c o a s t . The T e r r a c e and D i s t r i c t Chamber o f Commerce wanted a s s u r a n c e s t h a t l o w - c o s t h o u s i n g would be m a i n t a i n e d as a government p r i o r i t y (The  N orthwest R e g i o n , 1982:28-31). R e g a r d l e s s , the p r o v i n c e managed t o e x t r a p o l a t e some economic o b j e c t i v e s from the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h e i r t o u r s . "The o b j e c t i v e s o f r e g i o n a l b a l a n c e , employment, income growth and s t a b i l i t y a r e b e i n g p u r s u e d . These o b j e c t i v e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l Economic P o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s " (The  N orthwest R e g i o n , 1982:17). The r e a d e r w i l l n o t e , as a d i g r e s s i o n , t h a t an a l l e g e d c o n s i s t e n c y between i m p r e c i s e p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s d i d n o t mean t h a t methods chosen t o a c h i e v e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s n e c e s s a r i l y c o n c u r r e d . 63. A Model f o r Development: The Northwest Region r e p o r t c a r r i e s an i m p o r t a n t message: t h a t t he p r o v i n c e v e r y e a r l y on had r e s o l v e d t h a t a model o f development i n - c o r p o r a t i n g an e x p o r t o r i e n t a t i o n and l a r g e - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the n o r t h w e s t . A l t h o u g h s m a l l - s c a l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s ( e g . w i l d e r n e s s t o u r i s m o r n a t i v e I n d i a n c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n ) a r e n o t t o t a l l y i g n o r e d , i n the l i s t o f development p o t e n t i a l the emphasis i s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y on the l a r g e - s c a l e r e s o u r c e development p r o j e c t . The d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f the N o r t h e r n Zone which f o l l o w e d and c o m p r i s e the development s t r a t e g y a r e c i r c u m s c r i b e d by t h i s e a r l y d e c i s i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , The Northwest Economic Development S t u d i e s a r e u n d e r t a k e n " t o d e t e r m i n e the s c a l e o f t i m i n g o f p o t e n t i a l m i n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , and t o i d e n t i f y o p t i o n s t o s u p p l y power, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n o r d e r t o s e r v e t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s ; (The Northwest S t u d i e s : Summary R e p o r t , 1983:1). The development s t r a t e g y p l a n n i n g i s r e l e g a t e d t o b e i n g a t e c h n i c a l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . T h i s e x e r c i s e would s u p p o r t the g i v e n development model not seek a l t e r n a t i v e models. T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f the development model. One i s t h a t from t h e i r advantageous p o s i t i o n p r o v i n c i a l t e c h n i c i a n s u n d e r t a k i n g the background r e s e a r c h may have exposed c a b i n e t t o no o t h e r development model than the l a r g e - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y 64: one. I t i s t h r o u g h t h e eyes o f the p r o v i n c i a l b u r e a u c r a c y t h a t development o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d . An a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s which e x p l a i n s the o r i g i n s o f the chosen model i s t h a t c a b i n e t i n d e e d d e c i d e s upon an a p p r o p r i a t e model f o r n o r t h w e s t development t h r o u g h the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s o f c o n s u l t i n g w i t h n o r t h w e s t groups and i n d i v i d u a l s . In t h i s s c e n a r i o , c a b i n e t remains supreme, chooses development ends and i n s t r u c t s i t s s t a f f t o d e t e r m i n e a l t e r n a t i v e means. Yet a t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t c a b i n e t h o l d s a p r e d e t e r m i n e d v i s i o n f o r n o r t h w e s t development, f o r m u l a t e d p r i o r t o any n o r t h w e s t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , any c a b i n e t t o u r o r any t e c h n i c a l r e s e a r c h . S u p p o r t i n g the v a l i d i t y o f the t h i r d o p t i o n i s t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f the C a b i n e t Committee t h a t i t i n t e n d e d t o r e p l i c a t e i t s proven " o p e n - p l a n n i n g " p r o c e s s a p p l i e d i n N o r t h e a s t Coal development (The New F r o n t i e r , 1982:5). N o r t h e a s t Coal i s the a r c h e t y p a l m e g a - p r o j e c t . The r e a s o n a b l y a c t i v e r o l e o f p o l i t i c i a n s i n the p r o c e s s thus d e s c r i b e d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d be r e v i e w e d l a t e r on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s the c o r r e c t o n e — t h a t t h e p o l i t i c i a n s e s t a b l i s h e d g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s and the government p l a n n e r s i d e n t i f i e d t he means. However, none o f t h e s e t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s b r i n g s i n t o q u e s t i o n the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t p l a n n i n g which t a k e s p l a c e a f t e r the September 1982 s t r a t e g y announcement o n l y s e r v e s a purpose o f r e a l i z i n g t he chosen development model. 65. The Northv/est Economic Development S t u d i e s : The Northwest Region i s w r i t t e n by the Economic A n a l y s i s and R e s e a r c h Bureau o f the M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s Development. The r e s e a r c h , however, i s c o m p i l e d by an " i n t e r m i n i s t r y w o r k i n g group." The M i n i s t r i e s o f E n e r g y , Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Highways, E n v i r o n m e n t , I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l R e l a t i o n s , M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , T o u r i s m , F o r e s t s , and A g r i c u l t u r e and Food a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the s t u d y (The Northwest R e g i o n , 1982:5). The  Northwest Region i s more "a q u a l i t a t i v e r e v i e w " o f the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n a l economy but terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r the s t u d y c a l l f o r more t e c h n i c a l work to be u n d e r t a k e n , i n c l u d i n g f o r e c a s t i n g and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s (The Northwest R e g i o n , 1982:9). In t u r n i n g t o the second phase o f t h i s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , the p r o c e s s becomes more t e c h n o c r a t i c . In a d d i t i o n , t he i n t e r m i n i s t r y f o r m a t becomes more e v i d e n t . The September 1982 economic s t r a t e g y announcement commits the p r o v i n c i a l government t o an " o p e n - p l a n n i n g " p r o c e s s . C o n t i n u o u s d i a l o g u e w i t h the p u b l i c o f the n o r t h w e s t i s t o be a v i t a l p a r t o f a r e g i o n a l economic s t r a t e g y (The New F r o n t i e r , 1982:8); y e t , t h i s second phase o f the s t r a t e g y i s a c t u a l l y c o m p i l e d w i t h minimal p u b l i c i n p u t . P l a n n i n g a f t e r September 15, 1982, has l i t t l e i n p u t from the r e g i o n , o t h e r t h a n from the p r o v i n c i a l government's own r e g i o n a l o f f i c i a l s . A r e v i e w o f the terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r the s t r a t e g y makes one wonder 66. why a promise t o p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n would even be c o n s i d e r e d . The p r o v i n c i a l b u r e a u c r a c y i s i n s t r u c t e d by the CCED t o u n d e r t a k e a s e r i e s o f d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s on the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n , f o c u s s i n g on the n i n e key m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s which had been i d e n t i f i e d p r e v i o u s l y . The s t r a t e g y i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a t e c h n i c a l e x e r c i s e . A "committee a p p r o a c h " i s employed i n t h e Northwest Development S t u d i e s . R e p o r t i n g t o t h e C a b i n e t Committee on Economic Development i s an I n t e r m i n i s t r y Task F o r c e on Northwest Economic Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s . The Task F o r c e has r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f r e s o u r c e and economic development m i n i s t r i e s and i s c o - c h a i r e d by L o m e S i v e r t s o n , A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r , (Mines D i v i s i o n ) , M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s and W i l l i a m McReynolds, A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r the M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s Development. Beneath t he Task F o r c e , s i x "Working Groups" a r e e s t a b l i s h e d t o p e r f o r m s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h a s s i g n m e n t s . The s i x groups a r e the Economic, F i n a n c i a l and M a r k e t i n g Group, the M i n e r a l R e s ources Group, t h e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Group, the M u n i c i p a l Group, the Energy Group and the E n v i r o n m e n t a l and S o c i a l Impact Group. Membership i n t h e s e committees a g a i n encompasses s e v e r a l m i n i s t r i e s . Members o f the Task F o r c e a r e a l s o members o f w o r k i n g groups and some i n d i v i d u a l s s i t on more than one w o r k i n g group. I n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d by the w o r k i n g groups i s c h a n n e l e d t h r o u g h the Economic, F i n a n c i a l and M a r k e t i n g 67. Group i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f v a r i o u s development s c e n a r i o s . The committee s t r u c t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d below i n F i g u r e 5: Figure 5: Northwest Economic Development Opportunities:  Interministry working group structure CABINET COMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INTERMINISTRY TASK FORCE ECONOMICS/FINANCE & MARKETING CROUP MINERAL RESOURCES GROUP TRANSPORTATION GROUP MUNICIPAL CROUP ENERGY GROUP ENVIRONMENT & SOCIAL IMPACT GROUP source: Northwest Studies,Settlement options, 1.9S3 68. Taken d i r e c t l y from the r e p o r t the E n v i r o n m e n t a l and S o c i a l Impact Group i s a l i s t o f the committees and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e terms o f r e f e r e n c e : Economic, F i n a n c i a l and M a r k e t i n g Group - e x p e c t e d t o : - r e f i n e l a r g e - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n s c e n a r i o s and c o n f i r m t h e i r l i k e l i h o o d o f r e a l i z a t i o n ; - e s t i m a t e a s s o c i a t e d demands f o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ; and - e v a l u a t e the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e means o f p r o v i d i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e s Group - e x p e c t e d t o : - e s t i m a t e p o t e n t i a l development and p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s o f p r i n c i p a l p o t e n t i a l m i n i n g p r o p e r t i e s i n r e g i o n ; - r e f i n e e s t i m a t e s o f m i n e r a l o u t p u t q u a n t i t i e s , and o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n l a b o r f o r c e s ; and; . - a n a l y z e w o r l d markets f o r p r o b a b l e t r e n d s i n m i n e r a l p r i c e s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Group - e x p e c t e d t o : - i d e n t i f y a range o f p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s f o r r o a d , r a i l , p i p e l i n e and o t h e r t r a n s p o r t s e r v i c e s a t v a r i o u s o p e r a t i n g l e v e l s ; - p r o v i d e p r e l i m i n a r y c o s t e s t i m a t e s f o r t h e s e o p t i o n s ; and - i n v e s t i g a t e the need f o r , and p o s s i b l e c o s t s o f , p o r t improvements a t S t e w a r t and P r i n c e R u p e r t . M u n i c i p a l Group - e x p e c t e d t o : - e s t i m a t e t o t a l r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n growth, based on w o r k f o r c e e s t i m a t e s ; - i d e n t i f y the range o f h o u s i n g o p t i o n s and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l c o s t s ; and - where n e c e s s a r y , i n i t i a t e p r e l i m i n a r y l o c a t i o n s t u d i e s f o r p o t e n t i a l s i t e s f o r new towns. 69. Energy Group - e x p e c t e d t o : - e s t i m a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l e x t e n t and t i m i n g o f power demands, based on the development s c e n a r i o s ; - i d e n t i f y a range o f f e a s i b l e s m a l l - s c a l e and medium-scale h y d r o - e l e c t r i c and thermal g e n e r a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s ; and - i n v e s t i g a t e the f e a s i b i l i t y o f p r i v a t e o r j o i n t - v e n t u r e ( p r i v a t e / p u b l i c ) power de v e l o p m e n t s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l and S o c i a l Impact Group - e x p e c t e d t o : - d e v e l o p an o v e r v i e w o f t h e impacts o f major mine-based development; - d e v e l o p an o v e r v i e w o f the impacts o f p o t e n t i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t s ; - i d e n t i f y p r e l i m i n a r y m i t i g a t i o n needs; and - i d e n t i f y v a r i o u s means o f e n c o u r a g i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , E n v i r o n m e n t a l Overview, 1983:2,3) The i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t s a m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p roach to r e s e a r c h . I n d i v i d u a l s p o s s e s s i n g a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s and academic backgrounds c o n t r i b u t e t o the s t u d i e s . S i x s t u d i e s are p u b l i s h e d i n 1983, i n c o r p o r a t i n g a v a r i e t y o f r e s e a r c h methods. Most o f t h e a n a l y s i s i s q u a n t i t a t i v e ; f o r example, a s e r i e s o f f i n a n c i a l a ssessments i s p e r f o r m e d f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and h y d r o - e l e c t r i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t o a number o f p r oposed mines. More s u b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a l s o a p p e a r s i n some r e p o r t s . The M u n i c i p a l Group, f o r example, i n c l u d e s a q u a l i t a t i v e assessment o f the c a p a c i t y o f d i f f e r e n t communities t o endure s o c i a l c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a r g e - s c a l e r e s o u r c e development ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , S e t t l e m e n t O p t i o n s , 1983:sec. 4.3.8). Because b a s e l i n e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t u d y a r e a i s i n s u f f i c i e n t , the 70. E n v i r o n m e n t a l and S o c i a l Working Group d i s t r i b u t e s a d e t a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o r e g i o n a l and V i c t o r i a - b a s e d r e s o u r c e m i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s i n o r d e r t o gauge t h e e c o l o g i c a l impacts o f a number o f development s c e n a r i o s ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , E n v i r o n m e n t a l Overview, 1983:4). In a d d i t i o n t o a Summary R e p o r t w r i t t e n by the R e g i o n a l and Resource A n a l y s i s Branch o f the M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s Development, s i x r e p o r t s a r e p r e p a r e d by the Task F o r c e on Northwest Economic Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s . These r e p o r t s c o m p r i s i n g t h e Northwest Economic Development S t u d i e s a r e e n t i t l e d , S o c i o - E c o n o m i c  Overview , E n v i r o n m e n t a l O v e r v i e w , P o t e n t i a l Mine Developments, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n O p t i o n s , S e t t l e m e n t O p t i o n s and Power S u p p l y O p t i o n s . The Summary R e p o r t i s r e l e a s e d t o the p u b l i c i n O c t o b e r , 1983, the re m a i n d e r o f the s e r i e s i n December, 1983. The c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s , The Northwest Economic Development  S t u d i e s , was "not t o r e p r e s e n t a b l u e p r i n t f o r development, b ut r a t h e r i n d i c a t e p r i o r i t i e s f o r f u t u r e p l a n n i n g and development" ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1 9 8 3 : i i ) . The c o n t e n t i o n made i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n i s t h a t a b l u e p r i n t f o r n o r t h w e s t development i n f a c t had a l r e a d y been f o r m u l a t e d ; t h u s , t he d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s c o u l d o n l y a s s e s s d i f f e r e n t s c e n a r i o s f o r growth w i t h i n t h e parameters o f a p r e d e t e r m i n e d development model. The c o n c l u s i o n o f the e a r l i e r p r o v i n c i a l government r e s e a r c h had been 71. t h a t development o f the more p o p u l a t e d S o u t h e r n Zone would be w e l l s e r v e d by t h o s e development p r o s p e c t s which were on the h o r i z o n a t the t i m e . W i t h o u t c o m m i t t i n g i t s e l f t o s u p p o r t i n g any s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s , t h e p r o v i n c e i d e n t i f i e s aluminum m a n u f a c t u r i n g , l i q u i f i e d n a t u r a l gas e x p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , and p e t r o c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s i n g as h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t development p o t e n t i a l . The N o r t h e r n Zone i s seen as an a r e a o f f e r i n g " s u b s t a n t i a l development p o t e n t i a l based m a i n l y upon the s i g n i f i c a n t but l a r g e l y u n d e v e l o p e d m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s " (Northwest S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1 9 8 2 : i ) . The o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e a l s o made t h a t t h e N o r t h e r n Zone " l a c k s v i r t u a l l y a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t o s u s t a i n e a r l y l a r g e - s c a l e development" and t h a t development " w i l l r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l p r i v a t e and p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t s -i n v e s t m e n t s which can o n l y be made a f t e r c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g and c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s " ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1983: i i ) . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s on the N o r t h e r n Zone i s d e l e g a t e d by t he C a b i n e t Committee t o t h e I n t e r - M i n i s t r y Task F o r c e . As p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r , " t h e s e s t u d i e s were u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s c a l e and t i m i n g o f p o t e n t i a l m i n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , and t o i d e n t i f y o p t i o n s t o s u p p l y power, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n o r d e r t o s e r v e t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s . The Task F o r c e i s asked t o i d e n t i f y t h e s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s which m i g h t a r i s e as development p r o c e e d s " ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1 9 8 3 : i ) . The l a s t l i n e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p o l i t i c i a n s a r e w i l l i n g t o l e t t h e b u r e a u c r a c y i d e n t i f y c o n f l i c t i s s u e s b u t a r e g o i n g t o m a i n t a i n dominion o v e r c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . 72. The c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e Northwest S t u d i e s do n o t c o n t a i n t h e o p t i m i s m which i s p a r t o f the e a r l i e r N o rthwest Region r e p o r t . I n s t e a d , o n l y two p r o j e c t s , t h e Mt. Klappan a n t h r a c i t e c o a l mine and the Kutcho Greek c o p p e r / z i n c mine, a r e b e l i e v e d t o have p o t e n t i a l t o be on-stream p r i o r t o 1990. With i n c l u s i o n o f the S t i k i n e and S c h a f t Creek c o p p e r mines, o n l y f o u r p r o j e c t s a re l i k e l y t o be i n p r o d u c t i o n by t h e y e a r 2000 (Nor t h w e s t S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1983:37,38). The s t u d i e s a l s o i d e n t i f y t h r e e s u b - r e g i o n s i n the n o r t h which a r e l i k e l y c e n t r e s f o r m i n e r a l development. F o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s , the p r o v i n c e c o n c l u d e s t h e t h r e e a r e a s c o u l d be t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y . The t h r e e s u b - r e g i o n s a r e t h e Kutcho Creek Resource A r e a , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 k i l o m e t e r s e a s t o f Dease Lake, t he Mount Klappan R e s o u r c e A r e a , 150 k i l o m e t e r s n o r t h e a s t o f S t e w a r t , and the S c h a f t C r e e k - S t i k i n e Resource A r e a , 150 k i l o m e t e r s n o r t h w e s t o f S t e w a r t . The recommendation o f the Northwest S t u d i e s i s t h a t t h e s e a r e a s s h o u l d be the t a r g e t s o f c o n t i n u i n g development p l a n n i n g . " I n p a r t i c u l a r , f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be f o c u s s e d on the q u e s t i o n o f r e s o u r c e r o a d a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the t h r e e a r e a s and r a i l a c c e s s f o r the Mount Klappan a r e a . A d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o f i n a l i z e t h e s e t t l e m e n t o p t i o n s and t h e energy s u p p l y o p t i o n s f o r t h e s e r e g i o n s . S i n c e t h e b a s e l i n e e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a t a f o r the whole o f the no r t h w e s t i s l i m i t e d , f u r t h e r e f f o r t t o improve t he d a t a base i s r e q u i r e d " ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1930:40). In 1986 road a c c e s s f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s i n the Kutcho Creek a r e a and f o r t h e Mt. Klappan p r o j e c t were comp l e t e d and p a r t i a l l y f u n d e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government. Such i s one i n d i c a t i o n o f a commitment by c a b i n e t t o the Northwest S t u d i e s ' recommendations. 73. Review: The p r o v i n c i a l economic p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s commences w i t h an e p i s o d e i n which development g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s f o r the n o r t h w e s t a r e d e f i n e d . In t h i s " p o l i t i c a l phase" t h r e e c a b i n e t committee t o u r s t a k e p l a c e and e f f o r t s a r e made t o c o n s u l t w i t h n o r t h w e s t r e s i d e n t s . In t h e S o u t h e r n Zone, c a b i n e t r e l i e s upon l o c a l b u s i n e s s and c i v i c l e a d e r s h i p ; i n t h e N o r t h e r n Zone, i n f o r m a l p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and community luncheons a r e h e l d . Even b e f o r e t h e September 1982 announcement t o f o r m u l a t e a s t r a t e g y f o r development o f the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n , t h e p r o v i n c i a l b u r e a u c r a c y b e g i n s a p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f y i n g growth p o t e n t i a l and s u g g e s t i n g p u b l i c s e c t o r r o l e s i n a s s i s t i n g r e s o u r c e development l e d by t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The announcement o n l y s i g n a l s t h a t t h e t e c h n i c a l p l a n n i n g phase has begun i n e a r n e s t . The Northwest S t u d i e s a r e the most v i s i b l e p r o d u c t s o f t h i s p l a n n i n g . In s p i t e o f the C a b i n e t Committee's e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h a c o n t i n u o u s d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e p e o p l e o f t h e n o r t h w e s t , t h e development p l a n i s m o s t l y a p r o d u c t made i n V i c t o r i a . A f t e r t h e c a b i n e t t o u r s have been c o n c l u d e d no avenues a r e o f f e r e d t o the n o r t h w e s t t o a f f e c t t h e outcome o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . T h e r e a r e no p u b l i c m e e t i n g s o r h e a r i n g s h e l d which r e v i e w t h e Northwest S t u d i e s . C o n t r a r y t o s t a t e m e n t s c o n t a i n e d i n The New F r o n t i e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) , p l a n n i n g i s n o t a f t e r September, 1982, an " o p e n - p l a n n i n g " p r o c e s s . R e g i o n a l i n p u t 74. i s o n l y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h r e g i o n a l o f f i c i a l s o f p r o v i n c i a l l i n e a g e n c i e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e g i o n a l economic development, however, i s not l i m i t e d t o t h e s t r a t e g y f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s . O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n by r e g i o n a l groups and i n d i v i d u a l s a r e s t i l l a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e v i e w p r o c e d u r e s used i n a s s e s s i n g major r e s o u r c e p r o j e c t s . In a c t u a l i t y , p r i v a t e s e c t o r p r o p o n e n t s a r e o b l i g a t e d under the d i r e c t i o n o f the p r i n c i p a l government to c o n s u l t w i t h the l o c a l c ommunities. The l o n g - t e r m development p l a n o f the p r o v i n c e , however, i s n o t s u b j e c t t o r e v i e w . The p r o v i n c i a l p r o c e s s b e g i n s d u r i n g r e l a t i v e l y h e a l t h y economic t i m e s ; r e a l i z a t i o n o f s e v e r a l l a r g e - s c a l e p r o j e c t s i n the n o r t h w e s t seems imminent. By the time the Northwest S t u d i e s a r e r e l e a s e d the r e c e s s i o n t a k e s h o l d but the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n i s a l t e r e d l i t t l e . C a t a l y s t s o f development i n the N o r t h e r n Zone a r e s t i l l t o be n i n e l a r g e m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s . D i s m i s s e d from the p r o v i n c e ' s e x a m i n a t i o n o f development p o t e n t i a l a r e s m a l l e r p r e c i o u s metal d e p o s i t s . "Given the s i g n i f i c a n t c y c l e s i n p r e c i o u s metal p r i c e s , the d i f f i c u l t y i n p r e d i c t i n g p r o j e c t t i m i n g and t h e s m a l l s c a l e o f many o f t h e s e p r o s p e c t s , i t was d e c i d e d t o o m i t t h e s e p o t e n t i a l mines from the a n a l y s i s " ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1983:7). In the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , which t h i s t h e s i s w i l l now a d d r e s s , s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g i s recommended as a v i a b l e development a l t e r n a t i v e . 75. CHAPTER FIVE: THE REGIONAL DISTRICT PLANNING PROCESS AND PLAN: In t he two p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , the r e g i o n i s d e s c r i b e d , development c o n c e r n s o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B.C. d u r i n g t he p e r i o d 1980 t o 1984 a r e d i s c u s s e d and the economic p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e i n i t i a t e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government i n 1981 i s examined. In t h i s c h a p t e r , t he R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s d e t a i l e d and i t s outcome as an economic p l a n d e s c r i b e d . As i s t o be d e m o n s t r a t e d , p l a n n i n g w i t h i n t he r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g program can be seen l a r g e l y as a p r a g m a t i c r e s p o n s e t o t e n s i o n w i t h i n two d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s . F i r s t , r e g i o n a l development i s s u e s o f h i g h unemployment and permanent j o b l o s s e s a f f e c t t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Added t o t h e s e a r e p r e s s i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s . I n t e r - a g e n c y r i v a l r i e s , t h r e a t s from l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o withdraw from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e g i o n a l economic development f u n c t i o n and p r o s p e c t s o f more budget c u t b a c k s f o r c e t h e Commission i n t o a campaign which r e f l e c t s a s h o r t e r term time h o r i z o n and which c o n c e n t r a t e s on economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s which a r e the most r e a l i z a b l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n the f i r s t o f two major s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n which the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s f o r m u l a t e d i s p r e s e n t e d . T h i s s e c t i o n b e g i n s w i t h a f a i r l y l e n g t h y s t a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f the Economic Development Commission, i t s s t r u c t u r e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r economic development a g e n c i e s w i t h i n t he R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . 76. L a t e r the impacts o f some o f the dynamic a s p e c t s o f t h i s c o n t e x t , such as p o l a r i z e d p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s and s e n i o r government f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t p o l i c i e s , a r e a s s e s s e d . In t h e second s e c t i o n , the i n g r e d i e n t s o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e d e s c r i b e d . The p r o c e s s employs two s e p a r a t e economic development programs which t o g e t h e r g e n e r a t e a r e g i o n a l economic p l a n . The two programs a l s o i n d i v i d u a l l y i d e n t i f y the s m a l l mines p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . A c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d which d e t a i l s the a t t e m p t t o implement t h e t e c h n o l o g y c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e . These two programs i n v o l v e v e r y d i f f e r e n t p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , d i f f e r e n t r o l e s f o r p l a n n e r s , d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s and d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s o f communication b u t both a r e p r o c e s s e s d e s i g n e d t o i d e n t i f y a p p r o p r i a t e forms o f economic development f o r the r e g i o n . The f i r s t program i s based upon a c o n s u l t a n t ' s r e v i e w o f s m a l l e r r e s o u r c e development o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the n o r t h w e s t . The second program i s h i g h l i g h t e d by c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c i n p u t a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f b r a i n s t o r m i n g seminars h e l d i n t h r e e communities o f the r e g i o n . The f i r s t program i s l a b e l l e d here a T e c h n o c r a t i c A p p r o a c h ; the second i s l a b e l l e d a P a r t i c i p a t o r y A p proach. P o l i t i c a i / I n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n t e x t : C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y , the powers o f l o c a l government i n Canada a r e v e s t e d i n p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . B e g i n n i n g i n 1967, t w e n t y - e i g h t r e g i o n a l 77. governments known as R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s were formed by the B.C. government. The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e encompasses an 2 2 a r e a o f 40,000 m i l e s (102,000 km ) i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and had a 1981 census p o p u l a t i o n o f 42,400. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.5% o f the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g i n an a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10% o f t h e p r o v i n c e ( R e g i o n a l Economic P r o f i l e , 1982: 1-1, 2 - 1 ) . The major i n c o r p o r a t e d communities w i t h i n the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a r e the D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t , D i s t r i c t o f T e r r a c e , D i s t r i c t o f S t e w a r t , D i s t r i c t o f New H a z e l t o n and V i l l a g e o f H a z e l t o n . The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ' s boundary on t h e n o r t h i s the 58th p a r a l l e l ; i t t h e n e x t e n d s southward t o M i l b a n k e Sound near Klemtu on t h e west c o a s t . P r i n c e R u p e r t and S m i t h e r s a r e two l a r g e r n o r t h w e s t communities o u t s i d e o f the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . The K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a l s o c o n t a i n s many I n d i a n R e s e r v e s which a r e exempt from R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t j u r i s d i c t i o n . The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s ' p r i m a r y and b e s t known r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o d e l i v e r l a n d use p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e s t o t h e s e t t l e d u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s o f the r e g i o n . I n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own l a n d use p l a n n i n g . The K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t e r s a t o t a l t o 24 d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s o r s e r v i c e s f o r e i t h e r the e n t i r e r e g i o n o r s p e c i f i e d l o c a l a r e a s . These r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e wide r a n g i n g and i n c l u d e l a n d use p l a n n i n g , economic development, o p e r a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s such as a s k i a r e a and a p u b l i c m a r i n a , t o animal c o n t r o l and management o f r e f u s e s i t e s . 78. A u t h o r i t y f o r t h e s e f u n c t i o n s i s g i v e n by the p r o v i n c i a l government t h r o u g h " s u p p l e m e n t a r y l e t t e r s p a t e n t . " P o l i c i e s o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a r e f o r m u l a t e d by a R e g i o n a l Board c o n s i s t i n g o f t w e l v e d i r e c t o r s . The c o u n c i l s o f t h e i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a n n u a l l y a p p o i n t m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l members t o s i t as D i r e c t o r s on t h e R e g i o n a l B o a r d . Two D i r e c t o r s r e p r e s e n t the two l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s , t h e D i s t r i c t s o f K i t i m a t and T e r r a c e , w h i l e each o f the t h r e e o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have a s i n g l e D i r e c t o r . In a d d i t i o n the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has f i v e e l e c t o r a l a r e a s f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s . Each e l e c t o r a l a r e a has a s i n g l e D i r e c t o r a c q u i r i n g o f f i c e by d i r e c t e l e c t i o n f o r a two y e a r term. Most r e s o l u t i o n s and bylaws a r e v o t e d on by the R e g i o n a l Board by a w e i g h t e d v o t e a c c o r d i n g t o a p o p u l a t i o n f o r m u l a . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e l i s t s t h e 1984 R e g i o n a l Board and t h e i r v o t i n g s t r e n g t h : TABLE 6: K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board (1984) T o t a l Vote C a r r i e d A r e a A P e r c y T a i t 2 A r e a B F r e d Roisum 3 Area C Gordon Robinson 3 A r e a D J o e Murphy 1 Area E R o b e r t L a v o i e 3 Hazel ton A l i c e M a i t l a n d 1 New H a z e l t o n P e t e r Weeber 1 K i t i m a t No. 1 Lee E l l i s 4 K i t i m a t No. 2 Ron B u r n e t t 3 S t e w a r t Andrew B u r t o n 1 T e r r a c e No. 1 D a v i d G e l l a t e l y 3 T e r r a c e No. 2 A l a n S o u t a r 3 28 79. The K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t m a i n t a i n s a permanent f u l l t i me s t a f f o f between 12 t o 15 p e r s o n s , making i t one o f t h e s m a l l e s t R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s i n the p r o v i n c e . I t s o f f i c e s a r e l o c a t e d i n T e r r a c e . S e v e r a l s t a f f members have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n s and h o l d s e v e r a l t i t l e s . F o r example, the A d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i s a l s o t h e Economic Development Commissioner, and the A s s i s t a n t A d m i n i s t r a t o r i s a l s o t h e D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g . The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s t a f f s i z e f a c i l i t a t e s an awareness o f a c t i v i t i e s o f o t h e r departments t h r o u g h f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l c h a n n e l s . Economic Development i s one f u n c t i o n o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . I t s method o f d e l i v e r y i s t h r o u g h an Economic Development Commission and i s o u t l i n e d i n R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Bylaw No. 107, passed i n 1980. The Economic Development Commission i s c o m p r i s e d o f a l l t h e Board D i r e c t o r s o f the R e g i o n a l Board w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the two D i r e c t o r s from t h e D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t . K i t i m a t withdrew from t h e f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e J a n u a r y 1 s t , 1984, w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f u n d e r t a k i n g i t s own economic development program. U n l i k e t h e R e g i o n a l B o a r d , t h e r e s o l u t i o n s o f the Commission a r e v o t e d on w i t h each D i r e c t o r c a r r y i n g o n l y a s i n g l e v o t e . Commission meetings a r e open t o t h e p u b l i c and h e l d on the same day as t h e r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d monthly meetings o f t h e R e g i o n a l Board. In terms o f the methods o f o p e r a t i o n , t he Commission f u n c t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f the R e g i o n a l B o a r d , i t s r e s o l u t i o n s a r e n o t r e v i e w e d by the R e g i o n a l B o a r d , though f o r m a l l y the Commission i s s u b s e r v i e n t . 80. A Commission c o m p r i s e d e x c l u s i v e l y o f p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was the s t r u c t u r e chosen f o r o n l y f o u r o f the 20 R e g i o n a l Economic Commissions which were formed i n B.C. between 1978 and 1980. Most o t h e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s a p p o i n t e d p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o s i t on t h e i r Commissions o r chose a s t r u c t u r e i n v o l v i n g a mix o f p o l i t i c i a n s and appointments from the p r i v a t e s e c t o r ( E r n s t & Whinney, 1981: 3-1 t o 3 - 5 ) . Where o u t s i d e p r i v a t e s e c t o r p e o p l e were b r o u g h t i n , t h e Commissions c o u l d more c l e a r l y f u n c t i o n as b o d i e s s e p a r a t e from the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board than has been the c a s e i n the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e Economic Development Commission has been used as a v e h i c l e t o d i s c u s s a l m o s t any i s s u e c o n c e r n i n g economic development, which p r e v i o u s l y and i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s would be d e a l t w i t h a t the R e g i o n a l Board l e v e l . O f t e n the Commission has been used more as a p o l i t i c a l l o b b y than f o r s t r i c t l y economic p r o m o t i o n s o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . A r e v i e w o f Economic Development Commission a c t i v i t i e s f r o m 1983 shows t h a t o n l y e i g h t o f the 143 r e s o l u t i o n s o f the Commission a l l o c a t e d f u n d i n g o r d i r e c t e d s t a f f t o engage i n economic p r o m o t i o n a l programs. The Economic Development Commission has one f u l l t i me s t a f f member, the A s s i s t a n t C ommissioner, w i t h t h e Commissioner p e r f o r m i n g the dual r o l e as A d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and d e r i v i n g o n l y 25% o f h i s s a l a r y i n 1984 from the Economic Development f u n c t i o n . D u r i n g 1984 the Commission a l s o made p a r t time use o f a c o n s u l t a n t based i n 81. T e r r a c e and one o t h e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s t a f f member t o a s s i s t w i t h s p e c i a l economic development p r o j e c t s . W h i l e markedly l i m i t e d i n r e s o u r c e s and t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n w o r k i n g w i t h f o r e i g n s u b j e c t m a t t e r such as m i n i n g and m i n e r a l p r o c e s s i n g , a b r o a d c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f d i s c i p l i n e s i s n e v e r t h e l e s s c o v e r e d by the t h r e e p r i n c i p a l Commission s t a f f members and t h e c o n s u l t a n t who worked on the s m a l l mines p r o j e c t i n 1984. C o l l e c t i v e l y t h e s e f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s had p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i n the l i b e r a l a r t s , commerce, law, e c o l o g y , r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g , r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , b u s i n e s s management and m a r k e t i n g . The Commissions c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d g r a s s r o o t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n s t e a d t h e y o n l y came i n t o b e i n g w i t h the p r o v i s i o n o f f u n d i n g from the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments. The R e g i o n a l Economic Commissions were o r i g i n a l l y funded i n the l a t e 1970's from t h e I n d u s t r i a l Development S u b s i d i a r y Agreement ( I D S A ) . I t was c o s t s h a r e d 50/50 between the two s e n i o r l e v e l s o f government. The IDSA agreement was one o f a s e r i e s o f s u b s i d i a r y agreements s i g n e d f o l l o w i n g the G e n e r a l Development Agreement o f 1974, which i n t u r n o u t l i n e d key a r e a s f o r r e g i o n a l development t o which p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l government funds and p o l i c y would be t a r g e t e d ( E r n s t & Whinney, 1 9 8 1 : i ) . In B r i t i s h Columbia l a r g e r s u b s i d i a r y agreements were a l s o s i g n e d f o r f o r e s t r y and t o u r i s m development. IDSA monies were o r i g i n a l l y t o be p r o v i d e d t o the r e g i o n a l Commissions f o r t h r e e y e a r s on a d e s c e n d i n g s c a l e o f s u p p o r t - - 9 0 % i n 82. the f i r s t y e a r , 70% i n the second and 50% i n the t h i r d ( E r n s t & Whinney, 1 9 8 1 : i ) . Many Commissions r e c e i v e d a f o r t h y e a r o f s u p p o r t amounting t o 45% o f the budget o f the Commission as approved by an IDSA S t e e r i n g Committee. IDSA was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s Development and the f e d e r a l Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n . The Economic Development Commission o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e was formed i n 1980, and was i n i t s l a s t y e a r o f r e c e i v i n g o u t s i d e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t ( 4 5 % IDSA c o n t r i b u t i o n ) i n 1984. T h i s was the y e a r i n which the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s under r e v i e w i n t h i s t h e s i s took p l a c e . As w i l l be s e e n , f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h e y m i g h t r e s u l t i n the t e r m i n a t i o n o f the Commission, a f f e c t e d the b e h a v i o r o f the Commission and o t h e r l o c a l government a g e n c i e s , and c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g used by the Commission i n t h a t y e a r . One a s p e c t o f the problem was t h a t some l o c a l government p o l i t i c i a n s were l o s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the r e g i o n a l commission because i t was no l o n g e r g o i n g t o be e l i g i b l e f o r s e n i o r government g r a n t monies. Through t h e y e a r s 1982-1984 the Commission budget was h e l d a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y $120,000. In y e a r s 1983 and 1984 revenues i n c l u d e d IDSA g r a n t s o f $84,707 and $59,380 r e s p e c t i v e l y (Economic Development Commission, J a n u a r y 1986). The p o r t i o n o f the f u n d i n g f o r the Commission n o t c o v e r e d by IDSA g r a n t s must be o b t a i n e d from l o c a l p r o p e r t y t a x e s . The Commission, however, i s l i m i t e d i n i t s S u p p l e m e n t a r y L e t t e r s P a t e n t t o a maximum 1/2 m i l l t a x l e v y . In 83. 1985, w i t h o u t the b e n e f i t o f IDSA g r a n t s , t h e Commission c o u l d o n l y a c q u i r e a t a x r e q u i s i t i o n o f $63,700 - - . a 47% r e d u c t i o n i n revenues i n one y e a r (Economic Development Commission, J a n u a r y 1986). Bylaw No. 107 o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t d e f i n e s t he r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and p r o c e d u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e Economic Development Commission. The bylaw s t a t e s t h a t w i t h d r a w a l from t h e f u n c t i o n must be i n the form o f a r e s o l u t i o n from the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l , g i v e n one y e a r i n advance t o t a k e e f f e c t J a n u a r y 1 s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . The D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t withdrew from the Commission f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e t he b e g i n n i n g o f 1984. D i s c o n t e n t was h e a r d from o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the D i s t r i c t s o f T e r r a c e and New H a z e l t o n both gave n o t i c e t o withdraw t o t a k e e f f e c t on J a n u a r y 1 s t , 1986. (However i n both c a s e s t h e s e communities d e c i d e d t o remain w i t h the Commission.) The v i a b i l i t y o f t h e Commission was t h r e a t e n e d , e s p e c i a l l y as K i t i m a t and T e r r a c e r e s p e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n 1984, 55% and 16% o f the t a x l e v y o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ("Regional D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e A s s e s s m e n t s , 1976-1985"). The most d e f i n i t i v e s t a t e m e n t on a mandate f o r the economic commissions i s f o u n d i n the 1978 IDSA " G u i d e l i n e s f o r R e g i o n a l Economic Development Commissions." The preamble s t a t e s t h a t t he commissions a r e " t o c o o r d i n a t e , r a t i o n a l i z e and promote economic development a c t i v i t i e s on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . . . " ( E r n s t & Whinney, 1981:1.1). C l e a r l y t h i s c o u l d not be an e x c l u s i v e domain o f r e g i o n a l government a g e n c i e s , nor does i t p r o v i d e much g u i d a n c e on the u l t i m a t e g o a l s o f r e g i o n a l economic development, nor on how t o 84. a c h i e v e t h e s e g o a l s . However, beyond b e i n g g i v e n a l i s t o f e x p e c t e d p r o j e c t s , such as t o c o m p i l e a r e g i o n a l economic p r o f i l e o r t o e s t a b l i s h an a c c o u n t i n g system, more s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s on a c t i v i t i e s , methods and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were not f o r t h c o m i n g . I t i s c u r i o u s t h a t o n l y w i t h a d v e n t o f the P r o v i n c i a l - M u n i c i p a l P a r t n e r s h i p Program and i t s encouragement o f a d o p t i n g an economic development f u n c t i o n a t the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , t h a t a handbook has been p u b l i s h e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s Development, on how t o e s t a b l i s h an economic development f u n c t i o n , a l t e r n a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , and methods o f u n d e r t a k i n g key p r o j e c t s (Community Economic  Development Manual, 1985). The B.C. government's P a r t n e r s h i p Program o f f e r s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s g r a n t s t o h i r e development o f f i c e r s and t o f u n d p r o m o t i o n s . P r o p e r t y t a x b r e a k s t o new b u s i n e s s e s a r e a l s o o f f e r e d . With the announcement o f the IDSA r e g i o n a l commissions program, many l o c a l governments p r o b a b l y s e i z e d a t t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r " f r e e " d o l l a r s w i t h l i t t l e c o n c e p t i o n f o r the need o r r o l e o f a l o c a l economic development commission. In p r a c t i c e t h e c o m m i s s i o n s , t h r o u g h t h e i r c o m m i s s i o n e r s , have t i n k e r e d w i t h a m y r i a d o f f u n c t i o n s . The economic c o m m i s s i o n e r s have a c t e d as a "one-stop shop" f o r b u s i n e s s and demographic i n f o r m a t i o n , an agent f o r s e n i o r government on p u b l i c i z i n g t h e T a t t e r ' s b u s i n e s s a s s i s t a n c e programs, and an a d v o c a t e f o r l o c a l government i n V i c t o r i a and Ottawa. The commissions have a l s o p roduced p r o m o t i o n a l b r o c h u r e s , a c t e d as b u s i n e s s p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s , engaged i n l o n g term economic p l a n n i n g , a c t e d as promoters o f l o c a l b u s i n e s s and d e v e l o p e r s o f 85. i n d u s t r i a l p a r k s and r e s e a r c h a g e n c i e s . The K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e Commission has o v e r time e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h a l l t h e s e f u n c t i o n s . More r e c e n t l y t h e r e c e s s i o n has g i v e n r i s e t o the r e g i o n a l commissions t u r n i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s t o d e v e l o p i n g community-based economic p l a n s which f o c u s upon imp o r t s u b s t i t u t i o n , j o b c r e a t i o n based upon e x p a n s i o n o f e x i s t i n g b u s i n e s s e s and b u s i n e s s development w i t h s t r o n g e r t i e s t o the r e g i o n s ' manpower and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . In many c a s e s t h e s e s t r a t e g i e s p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t more o f an e f f o r t by t h e s e a g e n c i e s t o j u s t i f y t h e m s e l v e s r a t h e r than r e f l e c t i n g s i n c e r e o b j e c t i v e s t o encourage economic development. R e l a t i o n s h i p s With O t h e r R e g i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s : The Economic Development Commission i s the o n l y government agency p r o v i d i n g an a l l encompassing range o f s e r v i c e s r e l a t i n g t o economic p l a n n i n g and pr o m o t i o n f o r the e n t i r e K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n . The agency's domain w i t h i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s thus p r e d i c a t e d upon i t s r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , an a b i l i t y t o draw on c e r t a i n e x p e r t i s e i n i t s s t a f f and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s not a v a i l a b l e t o o t h e r government development a g e n c i e s and i t s s i n g l e purpose as an economic development agency. O t h e r a g e n c i e s i n the r e g i o n a l s o engage i n some a s p e c t s o f economic p l a n n i n g o r pr o m o t i o n -- o f t e n as an a d j u n c t i v e a c t i v i t y f o r t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s . In the f o l l o w i n g , a l i s t o f t h e s e r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s i s p r o v i d e d , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s g i v e n and 86. a comment on the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Economic Development Commission i s n o t e d . C r i t i c a l t o the Economic Development Commission's chances o f s u r v i v a l w i t h i n t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l m i l i e u i s t h e measure o f community s u p p o r t a c c o r d e d t o i t by the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The degree t o which t h e r e i s an o v e r l a p o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o r c o m p e t i t i o n amongst t h e s e l o c a l governments i s d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l towards the end o f t h i s s e c t i o n . I t i s t h r o u g h t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h a t an i s s u e u n d e r l y i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s i s s u e c o n c e r n s the c o n t i n u e d l e g i t i m a c y o f the Economic Development Commission. Chambers o f Commerce/Business I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e s : T h e r e a r e f o u r chambers o f commerce i n the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , l o c a t e d i n T e r r a c e , K i t i m a t , the H a z e l t o n s and S t e w a r t . A l l a r e p r i n c i p a l l y b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t i o n s c r e a t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f community p r o m o t i o n , though membership i s much more b r o a d l y based than would be foun d i n chambers i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . In most c a s e s f u n d i n g i s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h membership dues, though both the K i t i m a t and T e r r a c e and D i s t r i c t Chambers o f Commerce r e c e i v e g r a n t s from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o u n d e r t a k e t o u r i s m p r o m o t i o n on b e h a l f o f t h e i r c o m munities. O n l y the T e r r a c e and D i s t r i c t and K i t i m a t Chambers can s u p p o r t a f u l l time s t a f f member. For the most p a r t , t h e r e i s o n l y a minor d u p l i c a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between the chambers and the Economic 87. Development Commission. G e n e r a l l y , t h e Economic Development Commission has l e f t p r o d u c t i o n o f p r o m o t i o n a l b r o c h u r e s and a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s t o t h e chambers, and on o c c a s i o n has h e l p e d f i n a n c i a l l y t o s u p p o r t t h e s e e n d e a v o r s . The Economic Development Commission i s n o t a member o f any chamber o f commerce and w i l l o n l y send a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o chamber meetings as r e q u e s t e d . A f a i r l y i n f o r m a l p r o j e c t by p r o j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the chambers by the Commission a t both s t a f f and e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l l e v e l s . The chambers o f commerce a r e a l s o s u p p o r t e d f i n a n c i a l l y by the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s Development t o a c t as s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the p r o v i n c i a l government's s m a l l b u s i n e s s development programs. T h i s i s a t f i r s t g l a n c e a d u p l i c a t i o n o f one a s p e c t o f the Economic Development Commission's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . However, t h i s has n e v e r been an a r e a o f d i s p u t e , but i n f a c t a s s i s t s the Commission by d i v e r t i n g p o t e n t i a l l y many time consuming day t o day i n q u i r i e s . Skeena Manpower Development Committee: Skeena Manpower i s a unique o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t i s composed o f the major i n d u s t r i a l employers o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia ( e g . A l c a n , E u r o c a n , Westar Timber) and major o p e r a t i n g u n i o n s ( e g . IWA, BCGEU, CPWU). The c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s u n i o n s have chosen n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the Committee. 88. The Committee a c t s as a t h i n k - t a n k and p o w e r f u l l o b b y group c o n c e r n i n g i t s e l f w i t h r e g i o n a l manpower development, employment and unemployment i s s u e s . The Committee was formed i n 1977 i n a p e r i o d when l a b o r t u r n o v e r was a s e r i o u s problem f o r the major i n d u s t r i e s o f the r e g i o n . Skeena Manpower c o n t i n u e s t o v o i c e o p i n i o n s t o s e n i o r government on manpower i s s u e s and has p e r i o d i c a l l y s p o n s o r e d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s which a d d r e s s c u r r e n t employment r e l a t e d p r oblems. A p r o j e c t c ompleted i n 1984 was an i n v e n t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s r e q u i r e d by a l l the major employers o f the n o r t h w e s t . The i n v e n t o r y was c o n v e r t e d t o a computer program and made a v a i l a b l e t o n o r t h w e s t h i g h s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r s . Skeena Manpower i s f u n d e d by membership dues a p p o r t i o n e d a c c o r d i n g t o the number o f employees w i t h i n each company o r u n i o n . In a d d i t i o n an annual g r a n t i s p r o v i d e d by the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e o f t h e Canada Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n Commission i n Vancouver. Skeena Manpower u s u a l l y h o l d s meetings once a month. In a d d i t i o n t o i t s u n i o n and c o r p o r a t e membership, t h e monthly m e e t i n g s a r e a t t e n d e d by n e a r l y a l l government a g e n c i e s i n the n o r t h w e s t which a r e i n v o l v e d i n manpower development o r economic development. S t a f f o f t h e Economic Development Commission r e g u l a r l y a t t e n d t he meetings o f Skeena Manpower and have o f t e n a s s i s t e d w i t h the d e s i g n o f the Committee's r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . The s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t i n employment i s s u e s o f t h e Skeena 89. Manpower Development Committee, the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r , and the Employment Development B r a n c h , o f f e r s l i t t l e c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the Economic Development Commission. B.C. M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r : A r e g i o n a l o f f i c e o f the p r o v i n c i a l l a b o r m i n i s t r y i s m a i n t a i n e d i n T e r r a c e . Through t h i s m i n i s t r y , p r o v i n c i a l government programs f o r employment c r e a t i o n and manpower t r a i n i n g a r e d e l i v e r e d . O c c a s i o n a l l y , s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r f u n d i n g by t h e m i n i s t r y w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o t h e Economic Development Commission s t a f f f o r comment on t h e i r v i a b i l i t y and c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t g o a l s . Employment Development Branch/Canada Employment & I m m i g r a t i o n Commission: The Employment Development Branch i s the agency which a d m i n i s t e r s t h e f e d e r a l government's manpower development programs. H i s t o r i c a l l y , i t has m a i n t a i n e d a s i m i l a r but c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the Economic Commission than has the M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r . A g a i n , Commission s t a f f w i l l r e v i e w p r o j e c t p r o p o s a l s and have a l s o been r e q u e s t e d t o p r o v i d e a l i s t o f r e g i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s f o r p r o j e c t s t o be funded under new f e d e r a l programs. Commission s t a f f members were o f t e n asked t o r e v i e w a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r EBAP p r o j e c t s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l 90. f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l manpower o f f i c e s i n T e r r a c e p e r m i t s e a s y exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n among t h e s e government a g e n c i e s . F e d e r a l B u s i n e s s Development Bank: T e r r a c e i s the l o c a t i o n f o r a F e d e r a l B u s i n e s s Development Bank s e r v i n g a l l o f n o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The FBDB i s a f e d e r a l government l e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n formed p r i m a r i l y t o a s s i s t t h e s m a l l b u s i n e s s s e c t o r . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t he FBDB o f f e r s s m a l l b u s i n e s s c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s t o upgrade management a b i l i t i e s and a s s i s t w i t h s m a l l b u s i n e s s p l a n n i n g . T h i s i s a s e r v i c e t h e K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e Economic Development Commission does not p r o v i d e because o f l i m i t e d e x p e r t i s e i n t h i s f i e l d — t h o u g h o t h e r r e g i o n a l commissions have. C o n s e q u e n t l y , many b u s i n e s s i n q u i r i e s r e c e i v e d by t h e Commission i n which b u s i n e s s c o u n s e l l i n g a p p e a r s n e c e s s a r y a r e r e f e r r e d t o FBDB. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s : The c o n t i n u i n g s u p p o r t o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t f o r t h e r e g i o n a l Economic Development Commission i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the Commission's v i a b i l i t y . Not o n l y i s the s u p p o r t o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p o l i t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l , b u t i t a l s o e f f e c t i v e l y s i g n i f i e s community s u p p o r t and l e g i t i m a c y . With c r e a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n a l Economic Commission, the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s e f f e c t i v e l y s u r r e n d e r e d t o the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t 91. t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n economic development. However, each m u n i c i p a l i t y i s a n x i o u s , i f n o t s u s p i c i o u s , about the e f f o r t s o f the Commission t o e f f e c t economic development w i t h i n each m u n i c i p a l i t y . The c o m p e t i t i o n o f f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r the " f a v o r s " which the Commission can p r o v i d e c r e a t e s t h i s t e n s i o n which i s c o n t i n u o u s and n o t e a s i l y d i s p e r s e d . The s u p p o r t o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s v e r y dependent upon good communication between r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t and m u n i c i p a l l e v e l s . These r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e s t w i t h both the e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n s and s t a f f o f t h e Commission and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . A g g r a v a t i n g problems f o r the Commission i s t h a t i n poor economic t i m e s i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r the Commission t o b o a s t o f many s u c c e s s s t o r i e s . One i m p o r t a n t c o m p l i c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g communication between t h e i n c o r p o r a t e d communities and the Economic Development Commission i s t h a t b u s i n e s s i n q u i r i e s r e c e i v e d by the Commission s t a f f must be ke p t c o n f i d e n t i a l , even from the e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s o f the Commission. I t i s t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o overcome the s u s p i c i o n t h a t m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s have t h a t t he Commission d i r e c t s development t o the "wrong" m u n i c i p a l i t y . In a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , Commission s t a f f have g e n e r a l l y l e f t t h e s i t e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n up t o t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r , t hough, i n f a c t , few development p r o p o s a l s a r e i n anyway f o o t l o o s e . O f t e n , e n q u i r i e s a r e s i m p l y from r e s i d e n t s o f the n o r t h w e s t c o n s i d e r i n g e x p a n d i n g o r s t a r t i n g a b u s i n e s s i n a community i n which t h e y have a l r e a d y chosen t o l i v e . 92. In s p i t e o f the e x i s t e n c e o f t h e r e g i o n a l commission, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have a l s o u n d e r t a k e n some o f t h e i r own economic development programs. T h i s i s u s u a l l y done t h r o u g h t h e i r p l a n n i n g o f f i c e s . Through t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f z o n i n g , s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l and o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y b y l a w s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o n t r o l development, o f t e n w o r k i n g much more c l o s e l y w i t h the d e v e l o p e r than t he r e g i o n a l commission c a n . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can t h e r e f o r e c l a i m s u c c e s s w i t h economic development w i t h o u t the need f o r the Economic Development Commission. The Economic Development Commission t h e r e f o r e competes w i t h m u n i c i p a l f u n c t i o n s f o r p r o p e r t y t a x reven u e s and o v e r l a p s i n s e v e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . An i d e a t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y m i ght be b e t t e r o f f u n d e r t a k i n g economic development by i t s e l f , however, does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y have t h e same impact i n each m u n i c i p a l i t y . The two l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can " s a v e " f a i r l y l a r g e amounts o f money by w i t h d r a w i n g from the Commission and have enough s t a f f and e x p e r t i s e t o manage the f u n c t i o n a d e q u a t e l y t h e m s e l v e s . The D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t , which withdrew from t he f u n c t i o n a f t e r 1983, i s i n t e n d i n g t o e s t a b l i s h i t s own economic development d e p a r t m e n t . Thus f a r , t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e p r i m a r i l y u n d e r t a k e n by an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t . The D i s t r i c t o f T e r r a c e has expanded i t s P l a n n i n g Department t o be now known as P l a n n i n g and Development. In 1985 T e r r a c e a l s o formed and l a t e r p r o v i d e d some f u n d i n g t o a p u b l i c a d v i s o r y committee t o i n f o r m c o u n c i l on economic development m a t t e r s . The d i s c r e p a n c y i n 93. w e a l t h between the l a r g e r and s m a l l e r communities i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e t a x l e v y s t a t i s t i c s o f the commission from 1983 t o 1984: TABLE 7: Economic Development Commission Tax Levy Revenues 1983 1984 D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t $17,999 $ D i s t r i c t o f T e r r a c e 5,140 18,142 D i s t r i c t o f S t e w a r t 1,326 4,612 D i s t r i c t o f New H a z e l t o n 222 792 V i l l a g e o f H a z e l t o n 84 287 E l e c t o r a l A r e a A 1,829 9,889 E l e c t o r a l A r e a B 966 5,246 E l e c t o r a l A r e a C 1,788 9,282 E l e c t o r a l A r e a D 35 150 E l e c t o r a l A r e a E 685 3,853 $30,074 $52,253 The s m a l l e r communities o f the r e g i o n and the u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t have fewer o p t i o n s than the two l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The D i s t r i c t o f S t e w a r t , the D i s t r i c t o f New H a z e l t o n and the V i l l a g e o f H a z e l t o n p r o b a b l y have n e i t h e r the e x p e r t i s e n o r the number o f s t a f f t o t a k e on an economic development f u n c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n t h e i r f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t f o r economic development a r e a l s o r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , r e n d e r i n g i t much l e s s j u s t i f i a b l e o r f e a s i b l e t o withdraw from the Economic Development Commission. The c o n t i n u i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n t h e r e g i o n a l f u n c t i o n i s a c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f most o f t h e s m a l l 94. c o m munities, because the v i a b i l i t y o f the r e g i o n a l commission i s dependent upon t h e s e l a r g e a s sessment b a s e s . T e n s i o n i n the I n s t i t u t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t : The l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n which has thus f a r taken p l a c e i n t h i s c h a p t e r has been to d e s c r i b e an e n v i r o n m e n t i n which the Economic Development Commission had t o f u n c t i o n . Developments o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l development and an i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t were i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e s t y l e and c o n t e n t o f p l a n n i n g a d o p t e d by t h e Economic Commission t h r o u g h 1984 and 1985. T h i s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s l a r g e l y r e f l e c t e d a p r a g m a t i c and a d a p t i v e r e s p o n s e t o t e n s i o n w i t h i n each c o n t e x t . C h a p t e r T h r e e o f t h i s t h e s i s d i s c u s s e d a r e g i o n a l development problem i n which i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t government and p r i v a t e s e c t o r r e s o u r c e s needed t o be m o b i l i z e d t o c o u n t e r employment l o s s e s o c c u r r i n g i n the l a r g e r i n d u s t r i e s o f t h e r e g i o n . A p a r t o f the s o l u t i o n was a r g u e d t o l i e i n r e v i t a l i z i n g s m a l l s c a l e p r e c i o u s m e t a l s m i n i n g i n the n o r t h w e s t . T h i s s o l u t i o n had a m a n i f e s t t e c h n o l o g i c a l a s p e c t t o i t . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c e n t e r e d upon p r o m o t i o n o f the custom m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t o r c o n c e p t . A t t h e same time t h a t t h e r e g i o n was s u f f e r i n g s e v e r e l y t h r o u g h a p e r i o d o f r e c e s s i o n , the r e g i o n a l Economic Development Commission was under i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e l o c a l l y t o j u s t i f y i t s e x i s t e n c e . I t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o produce f a i r l y immediate r e s u l t s which would 95. c o u n t e r d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n . In t h e p a r a g r a p h s t h a t f o l l o w a l i s t o f background i s s u e s i s o f f e r e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t and e f f e c t s upon the Commission's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 1. L e g i t i m a c y C r i s i s : The Economic Development Commission was n o t a b l e t o p o i n t t o many s u c c e s s e s d u r i n g poor economic times and was t h r e a t e n e d by p o s s i b l e w i t h d r a w a l s from t h e economic development f u n c t i o n by s e v e r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n , combined w i t h d e c r e a s i n g b u d g e t s , l e d t o the Commission a d o p t i n g a s t r a t e g y which r e c o g n i z e d and would s u p p o r t a d e v o l u t i o n o f economic development p l a n n i n g t o the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . One p a r t o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o be d e s c r i b e d i n the n e x t s e c t i o n was the f o r m u l a t i o n by the Economic Commission o f economic s t r a t e g i e s f o r the t h r e e c e n t r e s o f T e r r a c e , the H a z e l t o n s and S t e w a r t . In t u r n , t h e s e were t o be handed o v e r t o t h e s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n the s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s . T h i s need t o r e s t o r e f a i t h i n the Commission a f f e c t e d the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n two ways. F i r s t , i t became e x p e d i e n t t o work on p r o j e c t s which would b r i n g v i s i b l e r e s u l t s as opposed t o e n g a g i n g i n more e s o t e r i c a c t i v i t i e s such as r e s e a r c h and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n which a r e seldom seen by the p u b l i c . S i m i l a r l y , l o n g term economic p l a n n i n g was b e i n g e r o d e d as the Commission took on a s h o r t e r term s u r v i v a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e . S h o r t e r term s u c c e s s e s were b e i n g s o u g h t . 96. Augmenting t h i s l e g i t i m a c y i s s u e f a c e d by t h e Economic Commission i s a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l commitment t o r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i n g e n e r a l i s a l s o d i m i n i s h i n g . F o r example, r e c e n t changes t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t p e r m i t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o withdraw from r e g i o n a l l a n d use p l a n n i n g . More r e c e n t l y , the P r o v i n c i a l - M u n i c i p a l P a r t n e r s h i p Program has been i n i t i a t e d i n which p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s a r e b e i n g a l l o c a t e d t o communities t o d e v e l o p economic s t r a t e g i e s , form economic development o f f i c e s and a s s i s t w i t h s p e c i f i c l o c a l development p r o j e c t s . However, r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s a r e i n e l i g i b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the P a r t n e r s h i p Program, as i t i s d i r e c t e d t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 2. P o l a r i z e d P o l i t i c s : The p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g p o l a r i z e d p o l i t i c s i n which p o l i t i c a l i d e o l o g i e s a r e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e two camps o f the l e f t o f c e n t r e New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y , and r i g h t o f c e n t r e S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y . T h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n the m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s o f the two n o r t h e r n communities o f K i t i m a t and T e r r a c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , any program adop t e d by the Economic Commission to maximize p o p u l a r s u p p o r t must appeal t o both l e f t and r i g h t . The a d v o c a c y o f s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g by the Commission e n j o y e d a g r e a t advantage i n t h i s r e s p e c t by b e i n g p o l i t i c a l l y ambiguous. The Commission's attempt t o a s s i s t the b u s i n e s s community o f the m i n i n g s e c t o r would b r i n g the Commission i n t o f a v o r w i t h the r i g h t , w h i l e p r o m o t i o n o f s m a l l s c a l e t e c h n o l o g i e s m i g h t appeal 97. t o l e f t wing o p i n i o n . S i m i l a r l y , i t was n e v e r e x p l i c i t l y o u t l i n e d whether p r o m o t i o n o f s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g was a r a d i c a l development a l t e r n a t i v e d e s t i n e d t o r e p l a c e l a r g e s c a l e r e s o u r c e development o r whether i t was a s h o r t e r term s t o p g a p measure which c o u l d c o - e x i s t w i t h the l a r g e r t e c h n o l o g i e s which would r e t u r n w i t h an improved economy. 3. R e s t r a i n t P o l i t i c s : In F e b r u a r y , 1983, t h e p r o v i n c i a l government i n v o k e d s e v e r e government s p e n d i n g r e s t r a i n t s . T h i s a f f e c t e d t h e c a p a c i t y o f government o f f i c i a l s a t both the p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l government l e v e l s . With r e s p e c t t o the c a s e s t u d y , the impact on r e s t r a i n t i n V i c t o r i a p r o b a b l y a s s i s t e d t he Commission's c a u s e . R e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o t r a v e l around the p r o v i n c e and l i m i t e d by f u n d i n g c u t b a c k s t o p r o v i d e programs t o a s s i s t t he m i n i n g community, t h e " v o l u n t e e r e d " a s s i s t a n c e o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t was t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s ' advantage. The M i n i s t r y was perhaps more w i l l i n g t o e n t e r t a i n t he i d e a s o f the Commission i n t h e s e r e s t r a i n e d t i m e s . A t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , r e s t r a i n t had two i m p a c t s . F i r s t , r e s t r a i n t i n d i c a t e d t o the communities t h a t o u t s i d e government h e l p i n overcoming p r e s s i n g economic problems was p r o b a b l y not l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . The consequence was t o i n c r e a s e the s a l i e n c y o f s e l f - h e l p a p p r o a c h e s t o economic d e v e l o p m e n t — d e v e l o p m e n t which would be g e n e r a t e d from w i t h i n t he r e g i o n . S e c o n d l y , r e s t r a i n t meant t h a t r e s t r i c t e d budgets 98. would have t o be f u n n e l e d i n t o t he most e f f e c t i v e programs, a g a i n r e d u c i n g t he l i k e l i h o o d o f e n g a g i n g i n e s o t e r i c approaches to p l a n n i n g . D e s c r i p t i o n o f P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s : In t h i s s e c t i o n t he c o n t e n t s o f the Economic Development Commission's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e d e s c r i b e d . As was s t a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s c h a p t e r two, d i f f e r e n t programs f o r economic development a r e employed. These a r e d e s c r i b e d u s i n g t he l a b e l s o f " T e c h n o c r a t i c A p p roach" and " P a r t i c i p a t o r y A p p r o a c h . " (See F i g u r e 6.) The two programs each i d e n t i f y t he p o r t a b l e m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n i d e a . T h i s c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Commission's methods t o have the p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g c o n c e p t r e a l i z e d . I t r e p r e s e n t s a p r o c e d u r e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g the r e g i o n ' s economic p l a n . T e c h n o c r a t i c A p p r o a c h : L a t e i n 1983,.a s t u d y was done by a T e r r a c e r e s i d e n t , a c o n s u l t a n t t o t h e Economic Development Commission, l i s t i n g economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the r e g i o n . O r i g i n a l l y asked by the Economic Development Commissioner t o s u g g e s t development p o t e n t i a l i n the K i s p i o x V a l l e y , n o r t h o f H a z e l t o n , t he r e s e a r c h e v o l v e d i n t o a more g e n e r a l s t u d y . The s t u d y i n v o l v e d an a n a l y s i s o f the b a s i c r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n o r t r i b u t a r y t o the communities o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . These i d e a s were r e c o r d e d i n a r e p o r t e n t i t l e d "Small and Medium-Sized R e s o u r c e ACTIVITY • 1984 . 1985 . 1986 J 1 1 1 1 • 1 1 1 1 i i i > PLAN FORMULATION T e c h n o c r a t i c Approach P a r t i c i p a t o r y Approach £ z—* November 1983: f i r s t d r a f t o f "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s i s completed F e b r u a r y 1984: seminars commence i n Stewa r t A p r i l 1984: review o f "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t i s c o n c l u d e d ; document i s made p u b l i c December 1984: seminars c o n c l u d e i n H a z e l t o n a r e a ; a l l r e p o r t s completed by e a r l y 1985 PLAN IMPLEMENTATION June 1984: d e c i s i o n made t o p r o c e e d w i t h c o n f e r e n c e November 1984: m i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n T e r r a c e December 1985: M i n e r a l Development Agree-ments funds committed t o p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g s t u d y May 1986: T r a d e r Resource C o r p o r a t i o n completes p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g s t u d y 100. Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n N o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C olumbia" ( K e r b y , 1984). The a u t h o r i s a l o n g time r e s i d e n t o f T e r r a c e , who has u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s management and the b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s . A t t h e o u t s e t o f the a n a l y s i s a number o f i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a f o r s u i t a b l e i n v e s t m e n t were d e f i n e d . The c r i t e r i a were chosen by the c o n s u l t a n t and Commission s t a f f l a r g e l y i n r e s p o n s e t o the k i n d s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l problems f a c e d by the r e g i o n as p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . P a r a p h r a s i n g from p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l on t h i s s t u d y the c r i t e r i a were as f o l l o w s : 1. O p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d be s m a l l b u s i n e s s o r i e n t e d : As f u r t h e r t r e n d s i n the l a r g e r i n d u s t r i e s i n d i c a t e f u r t h e r r e p l a c e m e n t o f l a b o r w i t h c a p i t a l and g i v e n the s u r p l u s l a b o r pool p r e s e n t now, emphasis would be on s m a l l e r b u s i n e s s where employment c r e a t i o n would be maximized. 2. O p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d b u i l d upon e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s and  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e development: The c o s t s o f j o b c r e a t i o n a r e s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower when expan d i n g e x i s t i n g b u s i n e s s e s as opposed t o c r e a t i n g new ones. T h i s s t r a t e g y would run c o u n t e r t o p r e v i o u s a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n communities and encourage f i r m s t o e s t a b l i s h m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t s i n n o n - m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . 101. O p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be d e v e l o p e d s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e the r e l a t i v e l y  s m a l l amounts o f i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l a v a i l a b l e i n the r e g i o n : A seminar h e l d i n T e r r a c e w i t h l o c a l bank managers r e v e a l e d t h a t f a i r l y l a r g e s a v i n g s a c c o u n t s a r e m a i n t a i n e d i n the c i t y and t h e r e f o r e some l o c a l p e o p l e c o u l d o b t a i n s e v e r a l m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s o f v e n t u r e c a p i t a l ( K e r b y , 1985). However, i n o t h e r c e n t r e s i n the n o r t h w e s t t h i s would n o t h o l d t r u e . N o n e t h e l e s s , p r o j e c t s r e q u i r i n g hundreds o f m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s o f c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t were e l i m i n a t e d from the a n a l y s i s . O p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d b u i l d upon the s k i l l s a v a i l a b l e i n the  r e g i o n a l l a b o r f o r c e o r r e q u i r e l i t t l e t r a i n i n g o r r e t r a i n i n g : O p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be a b l e t o u t i l i z e t he p r e s e n t l y i d l e c o n s t r u c t i o n , f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , m i n i n g and i n d u s t r i a l s e r v i c e s k i l l s . O p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e r e g i o n a l economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and community s t a b i l i t y : P r e f e r r e d b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s u s i n g t h i s c r i t e r i o n w i l l be d i s c e r n e d t h r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n o f consumption and t e c h n i c a l l i n k a g e s w i t h o t h e r s e c t o r s o f the r e g i o n a l economy. V a l u e - a d d e d s h o u l d be maximized. 102. 6. P r i o r i t y s h o u l d be p l a c e d upon p r o j e c t s which can g e n e r a t e  r e t u r n s w i t h i n a f a i r l y s h o r t time frame, p r i o r t o a mass exodus o f i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . T h i s e x e r c i s e g e n e r a t e d many i d e a s f o r i n v e s t m e n t , " r a n g i n g from the v e r y p r a c t i c a l t o the h i g h l y u n c o n v e n t i o n a l " ( K e r b y , September, 1984:2). Ideas were f o r w a r d e d f o r such economic s e c t o r s as f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g , a g r i c u l t u r e , f i s h e r i e s , t o u r i s m , r e t a i l , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l s e r v i c e s . In a d d i t i o n , p r o p o s a l s were d e v e l o p e d around the b u l k commodities b e i n g t r a n s p o r t e d t h r o u g h the r e g i o n i n c l u d i n g c o a l , g r a i n and n a t u r a l gas. In l i g h t o f the c r i t e r i a l i s t e d above and a r e v i e w p r o c e d u r e t o be d i s c u s s e d s h o r t l y , a p r i o r i t y was p l a c e d upon i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the f o r e s t s e c t o r ( p o r t a b l e s a w m i l l s ; low volume d r y k i l n t o add v a l u e t o l o c a l s m a l l s a w m i l l s ' p r o d u c t s ) , t o u r i s m ( packaged t o u r s ; s o u v e n i r p r o d u c t i o n ) , and m i n i n g (custom c o n c e n t r a t o r s f o r s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g ) . A lower p r i o r i t y was p l a c e d upon p r o j e c t s such as aluminum f a b r i c a t i o n ( s p i n o f f from A l c a n Aluminum S m e l t e r i n K i t i m a t ) , and p e t r o c h e m i c a l s p r o d u c t i o n ( u s i n g d e r i v a t i v e s from the O c e l o t Methanol P l a n t ) which had e a r l i e r been s t r o n g l y a d v o c a t e d i n the r e g i o n . The p o r t a b l e custom c o n c e n t r a t o r was an i n v e s t m e n t i d e a w i t h one o f the " b e s t f i t s " w i t h t h e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . L a t e r r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t a f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l m i l l c o u l d be i n s t a l l e d i n the r e g i o n f o r l e s s t h a n $5 m i l l i o n c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t ( S a l a , 1981). S u b s t a n t i a l l y c h e a p e r a l t e r n a t i v e s c o u l d be f o r m u l a t e d u t i l i z i n g used 103. equipment on the market o r by employing a s t a t i o n a r y e x i s t i n g m i l l a t an o p e r a t i n g mine t o s e r v i c e a number o f d e p o s i t s i n a s i n g l e r e g i o n . A f i r s t r e v i e w by the Commission o f m i n e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s i n t h e r e g i o n c o n s i d e r e d amenable t o the custom m i l l c o n c e p t numbered a t 20 p r o p e r t i e s which c o u l d r e s u l t i n f u l l time employment f o r 200 p e o p l e ( K e r b y , 1984:10,11). In a d r a f t form the "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t was c i r c u l a t e d t o s e l e c t e d b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s and government o f f i c i a l s i n t h e n o r t h w e s t and t o s i m i l a r i n d i v i d u a l s i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . Those s e l e c t e d t o r e v i e w the r e p o r t were chosen by s t a f f o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and were g e n e r a l l y the h i g h e s t r a n k i n g government o f f i c i a l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e m i n i s t r i e s w i t h i n t h e n o r t h w e s t ( e g . D i s t r i c t G e o l o g i s t , S m i t h e r s ; D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , S m i t h e r s ; D i s t r i c t Manager, M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , T e r r a c e ) . These p e o p l e were u s u a l l y w e l l known t o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s t a f f . The purpose o f t h i s r e v i e w was t o t e s t and r e f i n e the i d e a s r e c o r d e d i n the d r a f t r e p o r t — t o i d e n t i f y which were c o n s i d e r e d f e a s i b l e and which were n o t . Most r e p l i e s were r e t u r n e d t o the Economic Development Commission by e a r l y 1984. As o p i n i o n s f a v o r a b l e and n e g a t i v e were r e t u r n e d on the v a r i o u s i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n the r e p o r t , Economic Commission s t a f f u n d e r t o o k more f o c u s e d r e s e a r c h i n t o some o f the most p r o m i s i n g i d e a s . L o o s e l y c o n s i d e r i n g economic, e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s , f i v e i d e a s were to s u r f a c e as p r i o r i t i e s and would be s u p p o r t e d i n s u b s e q u e n t 104. Commission b u d g e t s : 1. P o r t a b l e o r custom c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r s m a l l p r e c i o u s m e t a l s m ines, 2. d r y k i l n and r e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f wood p r o d u c t s , 3. p o r t a b l e s a w m i l l s and c h i p p e r s , 4. t o u r i s m s o u v e n i r and c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n , 5. s p e c i a l i z e d t o u r i s m development ( e g . Japanese f i s h i n g t o u r s ) . I t was on the i n i t i a t i v e o f an o f f i c i a l i n the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y & Small B u s i n e s s Development i n V i c t o r i a t h a t t h e "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t was r e f e r r e d t o the D i r e c t o r o f the M i n e r a l P o l i c y and E v a l u a t i o n Branch o f the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s . H i s r e v i e w was s t r o n g l y i n s u p p o r t o f the p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o p o s a l and h i s r e p l y i n c l u d e d p r e l i m i n a r y terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y which would examine i n more d e t a i l t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y i n t h e n o r t h w e s t (Basham, J a n u a r y , 1984). L a t e r t h r o u g h p r i v a t e m e e t i n g s between R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s t a f f and s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s o f the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f Mines an u n d e r s t a n d i n g was r e a c h e d t h a t p r o v i n c i a l funds would be put f o r w a r d f o r such a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y i f a p r i v a t e s e c t o r p r o p o n e n t c o u l d be l o c a t e d . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the r e p l y a l s o noted the v a l u e i n e x a m i n i n g t h e s m a l l e r s c a l e o p t i o n f o r i t s c o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h the m a c r o - p l a n n i n g b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n by the p r o v i n c e (Basham, J a n u a r y 1984). The p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g c o n c e p t was t o become the c e n t r e p i e c e o f t h e r e g i o n a l economic p l a n , l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t o f t h i s p o s i t i v e r e c e p t i o n by s e n i o r government o f f i c i a l s . 105. A f t e r t h i s i n i t i a l and f o r t u n a t e c o n t a c t w i t h the V i c t o r i a o f f i c e o f the Mines D i v i s i o n , the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t worked d i r e c t l y w i t h the M i n e r a l P o l i c y B r a n c h . T h i s l i a i s o n was t o be e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l when Economic Commission s t a f f a t t e mpted t o c o n t a c t i n d u s t r y p e o p l e t o t e s t i n t e r e s t i n the custom m i l l c o n c e p t s i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t was g r e a t l y enhanced by the s u p p o r t o f the M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s . The p r o v i n c i a l government would l a t e r i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t commitment t o the s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g c o n c e p t . L a t e i n 1985 T r a d e r R e s o u r c e s L t d . o f Vancouver, a j u n i o r m i n i n g company w i t h a p r o m i s i n g g o l d p r o p e r t y on Banks I s l a n d , s o u t h o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , would r e c e i v e 50% government f u n d i n g f o r a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y i n t o barge mounted c o n c e n t r a t i o n u n i t s t o s e r v i c e s m a l l c o a s t a l m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s a l o n g t h e B.C. c o a s t . The government funds were a l l o c a t e d f r o m the r e c e n t l y s i g n e d f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l M i n e r a l Development Agreement (TRM E n g i n e e r i n g , 1985). Once the comments o f a l l t h o s e . r e v i e w i n g the "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t were r e c e i v e d , a r e v i s e d r e p o r t was p r e p a r e d , s u b m i t t e d t o the e l e c t e d b o a r d o f the Economic Development Commission and made a p u b l i c document. The f i n a l r e p o r t was c i r c u l a t e d q u i t e w i d e l y t o i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n the n o r t h w e s t and any c r i t i c i s m s o r comments were i n f o r m a l l y r e c o r d e d by the Commission s t a f f . The r e p o r t c o n t i n u e s t o be used as a p l a n n i n g and p r o m o t i o n a l document by the Commission, e s p e c i a l l y as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the r e g i o n . The " t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h " 106. documented thus f a r was q u i t e e f f i c i e n t and encompassed o n l y about t h r e e months. The p r o c e d u r e r e l a t e d above f o r i d e n t i f y i n g development p o t e n t i a l i n the m i n i n g s e c t o r i s based on the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the g e o l o g y o f the a r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s m a l l e r v e i n - l i k e d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n i n g the m i n e r a l s o f g o l d and s i l v e r . More and more s p e c i f i c methods f o r p r o c e s s i n g o r e by custom and p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n were d e t e r m i n e d o v e r the n e x t two y e a r s by d i r e c t c o n t a c t by Commission s t a f f w i t h m i n i n g i n d u s t r y p e r s o n n e l , t h r o u g h p r i v a t e s e c t o r r e s e a r c h i n t o the c o n c e p t and t h r o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n T e r r a c e a t a November, 1984, m i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e s p o n s o r e d by the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . T h e r e f o r e , where the p r o c e s s t o i d e n t i f y t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y t e r m i n a t e s i s an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y commenced i n l a t e 1985 can be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s , as i t i s t o recommend a custom p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y f o r s e l e c t e d m i n e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s a l o n g t h e B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t l i n e (TRM E n g i n e e r i n g , 1985). P a r t i c i p a t o r y A p p r o a c h : Q u i t e s e p a r a t e from the p r o c e s s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g t h e custom c o n c e n t r a t i o n c o n c e p t as above, the Economic Development Commission was engaged i n a n o t h e r economic development p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e which a l s o recommended t h e p o r t a b l e o r custom c o n c e n t r a t o r as a v i a b l e i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the n o r t h w e s t . In an e f f o r t t o assemble economic development s t r a t e g i e s f o r i t s t h r e e major p o p u l a t i o n 107. c e n t r e s , t he Economic Development Commission used a s e r i e s o f b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e s s i o n s w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n from a broad c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t he g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o i d e n t i f y i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s and s u g g e s t p o s s i b l e s t r a t e g i e s t o r e a l i z e t h e s e . The language was t y p i c a l l y n o n - t e c h n i c a l i n the s e m i n a r s , p r o d u c i n g volumes o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t a t e o f and p o t e n t i a l o f each l o c a l economy. The d e c i s i o n t o d e v e l o p c u s t o m i z e d community economic s t r a t e g i e s was t a k e n by the Commission i n l i g h t o f the d e v e l o p m e n t a l problems b e i n g f a c e d i n the r e g i o n and a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t a s e l f - h e l p approach t o economic development was n e c e s s a r y because o f s e n i o r government r e s t r a i n t and g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l . I t was a l s o seen as p a r t o f a p r o c e s s o f t r a n s f e r r i n g l o c a l economic development r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s from the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t l e v e l t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s g i v e n the d e c i s i o n o f some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o withdraw from the Commission. The Economic Development Commission would produce the economic development s t r a t e g i e s and t u r n them o v e r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s . The f u t u r e o f the R e g i o n a l Economic Development Commission was u n c e r t a i n . The t h r e e l o c a l a r e a s f o r which the economic s t r a t e g i e s ( l a b e l l e d M a r k e t i n g P l a n s ) were p r o d u c e d were (1) S t e w a r t , (2) T e r r a c e and D i s t r i c t and (3) the H a z e l t o n s - K i s p i o x V a l l e y . F o r the l a t t e r two s t u d i e s , i t was the d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y o f the Economic Commission s t a f f t o f o r c e an awareness on seminar p a r t i c i p a n t s o f a l a r g e r s o c i a l and economic e n t i t y , i g n o r i n g m u l t i p l e p o l i t i c a l 108. j u r i s d i c t i o n s . F or example, the l o g i c a l economic b a s i n i s the e n t i r e H a z e l t o n r e g i o n and K i s p i o x V a l l e y . Even though t h i s a r e a i s c o m p r i s e d o f two i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , one improvement d i s t r i c t and s e v e r a l I n d i a n R e s e r v e s , o n l y one economic s t r a t e g y was f o r m u l a t e d . In i t s e l f , f r agmented j u r i s d i c t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d by Commission s t a f f t o be a c o n s t r a i n t t o development. Beyond t h i s m a n i p u l a t i v e a s p e c t t o c o n s t r u c t i n g t he s t r a t e g i e s , t he c o n t e n t s o f the s t r a t e g i e s were l a r g e l y l e f t t o the communities t h e m s e l v e s t o d e t e r m i n e . Seminar p a r t i c i p a n t s were o s t e n s i b l y asked t o s u g g e s t p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s but i n so d o i n g a l s o d i s c u s s e d community a t t i t u d e s towards d i f f e r e n t forms o f economic development, c o n s t r a i n t s and a s s e t s f o r development and methods o f r e a l i z i n g development p o t e n t i a l . A l l o f which was documented i n the f i n a l r e p o r t s . The s e m i n a r s were i n f o r m a l , f r e e - t h i n k i n g exchanges o f o p i n i o n and p e r c e p t i o n . U s i n g l o c a l e x p e r t i s e as the p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n was an i n t r i n s i c and d i s t i n c t i v e element o f the p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n , though the program had a b i a s towards l o c a l l y g e n e r a t e d economic development, t h e s t u d y p r o c e s s made no p r e t e n s e as t o the s c a l e o r t y p e o f development under d i s c u s s i o n . The b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e m i n a r s commenced i n F e b r u a r y 1984 i n S t e w a r t , were h e l d i n the H a z e l t o n a r e a b e g i n n i n g i n the Autumn and l a t e r i n the y e a r , were s t a g e d i n the T e r r a c e a r e a . The f i r s t s eminar i n each community was h e l d w i t h the l o c a l government p o l i t i c i a n s i n o r d e r t o 109. f a m i l i a r i z e them w i t h the p r o c e s s . E v e r y seminar was l e d by a s i n g l e Commission s t a f f member and u s u a l l y l a s t e d t h r e e h o u r s . In T e r r a c e 11 s e m i n a r s were needed, i n S t e w a r t 8, and i n t h e H a z e l t o n s 8. Many s e s s i o n s were i n the e v e n i n g i n o r d e r n o t t o c o n f l i c t w i t h w o r k i n g h o u r s . The s e m i n a r s p r o v e d t o be e x t r e m e l y i n f o r m a t i v e , and g e n e r a t e d volumes o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o be condensed i n t o a f i n a l r e p o r t by Commission s t a f f . To i t s d e t r i m e n t , t h e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e x e r c i s e was v e r y time consuming and demanding o f a Commission w i t h l i m i t e d s t a f f . The l e n g t h o f time t o complete each p r o j e c t a l s o c r e a t e d problems i n m a i n t a i n i n g the i n t e r e s t o f l o c a l c o u n c i l s and c i t i z e n s . Though a l l the community seminars were completed i n two t o t h r e e weeks, each p r o j e c t , from p l a n n i n g s t a g e s t o c o m p l e t i o n o f the f i n a l r e p o r t took f o u r t o s i x months. However, i t was the p r o c e s s used t o c o m p i l e the r e p o r t s , r a t h e r than the f i n a l document, which was perhaps o f most v a l u e . The seminar e x e r c i s e was a d o p t e d t o m o b i l i z e l o c a l knowledge and l o c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . P r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f the Commission s t a f f w i t h a group o f i n d e p e n d e n t s m a l l b u s i n e s s l o g g e r s i n the T e r r a c e a r e a had shown the advantages o f b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r p e o p l e from w i t h i n the same economic s e c t o r t o d e v e l o p s e l f h e l p programs. These p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s ' Small B u s i n e s s E n t e r p r i s e Program (S.B.E.P.) came t o g e t h e r w i t h a view t o c h a n g i n g t h r o u g h c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n s e v e r a l S.B.E.P. p o l i c i e s o f the M i n i s t r y . T h r e e y e a r s l a t e r , a S t e e r i n g Committee c o n t i n u e s t o f u n c t i o n and has s u c c e s s f u l l y 110. c o n t r i b u t e d t o s e v e r a l p o l i c y improvements, o f t e n w i t h p r o v i n c e - w i d e s i g n i f i c a n c e . An S.B.E.P. member now has an a p pointment a l o n g s i d e t h e T e r r a c e a r e a ' s major t i m b e r l i c e n s e h o l d e r s on the M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s ' Kalum S t e e r i n g Committee. The Kalum Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d t o v o i c e o p i n i o n s on M i n i s t r y p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e s . The S.B.E.P. Committee a l s o o b t a i n e d from the M i n i s t e r o f F o r e s t s the r i g h t t o p e r f o r m s a l v a g e l o g g i n g on c u t a r e a s on the l a r g e r companies' T r e e s Farm L i c e n s e l a n d h o l d i n g s . The r o l e o f the p l a n n e r here was s i m p l y t o c r e a t e the " m e l t i n g - p o t " and c r e a t e a network o f i n d e p e n d e n t l o g g e r s which would f u n c t i o n s e p a r a t e from t h e Commission — t h e r e b y p e r m i t t i n g the group t o d e v e l o p s e l f - h e l p s t r a t e g i e s t o i d e n t i f y and overcome economic, p o l i t i c a l o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s . The Commission a l s o p r o v i d e d some t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t and would o f t e n a s s i s t i n t r a n s l a t i n g l e t t e r s and p o s i t i o n p a p e r s , c o m p i l e d by t h e S t e e r i n g Committee, i n t o a language s u i t a b l e f o r the government b u r e a u c r a c y p r i o r t o them b e i n g f o r w a r d e d t o the M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s . The d e c i s i o n was t h e r e f o r e taken t h a t the economic s t r a t e g y s e m i n a r s would n o t be t o t a l l y random g r o u p i n g s but would attempt t o d u p l i c a t e t h e program used w i t h t h e T e r r a c e l o g g e r s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , s e m i n a r p a r t i c i p a n t s were p l a c e d i n groups c o r r e s p o n d i n g b e s t w i t h t h e s e c t o r o f t h e economy w i t h which t h e y were most f a m i l i a r . S e p a r a t e s e m i n a r s were t h e r e f o r e h e l d , where a p p r o p r i a t e , i n each community f o r p e o p l e i n such s e c t o r s as the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , m i n i n g , t o u r i s m , r e t a i l , a g r i c u l t u r e and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In the c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r 111. c e n t e r o f T e r r a c e , o t h e r s e m i n a r s were h e l d w i t h s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups such as o r g a n i z e d l a b o r , women's groups and the chamber o f commerce e x e c u t i v e ( K e r b y , 1985). In a l l t h r e e communities, a number o f l o n g time r e s i d e n t s were asked t o a t t e n d the s e m i n a r s . A g a i n an i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e was t o m o b i l i z e l o c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l e n e r g i e s o u t s i d e o f the f o r m a l p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g a development s t r a t e g y . The community development s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d e a s i l y be b i a s e d depending upon how p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the s e m i n a r s were s e l e c t e d . To guard a g a i n s t t h i s , t h e Commission s t a f f o b t a i n e d s u g g e s t e d names from s e v e r a l s o u r c e s such as l o c a l m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , m u n i c i p a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t D i r e c t o r s . In a d d i t i o n , i n S t e w a r t and t h e H a z e l t o n a r e a , i n v i t a t i o n s t o seminars were c o o r d i n a t e d by t h e l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y because the p u b l i c was p r o b a b l y more f a m i l i a r w i t h m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s i n t h o s e communities than the Commission. W h i l e a l l t h o s e r e q u e s t e d t o a t t e n d were p r e - s e l e c t e d and were m a i l e d a p e r s o n a l i n v i t a t i o n and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e used t o f a c i l i t a t e d i s c u s s i o n i n the s e m i n a r , anyone e l s e from the p u b l i c e x p r e s s i n g a n . i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g was a l s o asked t o a t t e n d . The b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e m i n a r s g a t h e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n from a broad c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f p e o p l e i n each community and many c o n t r a r y v i e w p o i n t s were h e a r d . However, the seminar p r o c e s s c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a c o m p l e t e l y open one. I n s t e a d , t h e i n t e n t was t o assemble a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y l e a d e r s o f b u s i n e s s and o p i n i o n from w i t h i n each community. I t was f e l t t h a t the i d e a s f o r economic development g e n e r a t e d i n the seminars would be most l i k e l y m a n i f e s t e d 112. by t h e s e k i n d s o f p e o p l e . In t h i s r e s p e c t , the s t r a t e g y p l a n p r o c e s s was h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e , s u p p o r t i v e o f p r i v a t e s e c t o r b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e and l o c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . F o r a l l t h r e e c o m m u n i t i e s , a " M a r k e t i n g P l a n " was p r e p a r e d which d e s c r i b e d the many i d e n t i f i e d i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s , l i s t e d development c o n s t r a i n t s and d i s c u s s e d community a t t i t u d e s and o b j e c t i v e s . With v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f s u c c e s s , the r e s p e c t i v e l o c a l m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t D i r e c t o r s were asked t o draw upon the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the m a r k e t i n g p l a n t o d e t e r m i n e a s m a l l number o f p r i o r i t y p r o j e c t s , which i n t u r n would c o n s t i t u t e an economic s t r a t e g y . N o n e t h e l e s s , o f t e n the seminar p a r t i c i p a n t s had a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d which development o p p o r t u n i t i e s were the most v i a b l e o r most demanded by the community. The p o i n t o f e l a b o r a t i n g on the p r o c e s s to d e v e l o p community economic s t r a t e g i e s i s t o note t h a t , a p p a r e n t l y u n s o l i c i t e d , the s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y and the custom c o n c e n t r a t i o n c o n c e p t were i d e n t i f i e d i n . a l l t h r e e communities. In S t e w a r t , a community w i t h a l o n g h i s t o r y o f m i n i n g development, the c o n c e p t was d i s c u s s e d i n most d e t a i l and c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p o t e n t i a l w i t h r e l a t i v e l y few c o n s t r a i n t s ( S t e w a r t M a r k e t i n g P l a n , 1984). The s m a l l mine p o t e n t i a l was a l s o b r o u g h t f o r w a r d i n the H a z e l t o n s e m i n a r s where many o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s would have p e r s o n a l knowledge o f the m i n i n g h i s t o r y o f t h a t a r e a . F a i r l y w e l l known mines such as S i l v e r S t a n d a r d and Red Rose o p e r a t e d w i t h i n s e v e r a l m i l e s o f the V i l l a g e o f H a z e l t o n . 113. In T e r r a c e , t h e s m a l l mine p o t e n t i a l was a l s o r e c o g n i z e d b u t n o t t r e a t e d as a p r i o r i t y o f the community. Though the T e r r a c e a r e a had u n t i l t he Second World War a v i a b l e m i n i n g s e c t o r , p resumably the f o r e s t economy now dominates w i t h i n the p u b l i c ' s mind. Moreover, s e v e r a l o f the T e r r a c e s eminars were h e l d a f t e r the m i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e was s t a g e d i n t h a t community and a l s o s e v e r a l s e m i n a r s were h e l d , l i t e r a l l y , i n rooms which d i s p l a y e d p o s t e r s a d v e r t i s i n g t h e m i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e . In o t h e r words, the seminars had p r o b a b l y been p r e j u d i c e d . In a l l c a s e s , however, the p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r i d e a s u r f a c e d f o l l o w i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the g e o l o g y o f much o f the n o r t h w e s t . To c o n c l u d e t h i s s e c t i o n , i t i s w o r t h w h i l e t a k i n g a s l i g h t d i g r e s s i o n t o remark on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s program o f d e v e l o p i n g community economic s t r a t e g i e s . In none o f the t h r e e communities has t h e r e been an o v e r t a t t e m p t by the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o use t h e f i n a l r e p o r t s as f o r m a l g u i d e s t o l o c a l economic development. On l y the c o u n c i l o f the D i s t r i c t o f S t e w a r t f o r m a l l y adopted the economic s t r a t e g y . Moreover, the D i s t r i c t o f S t e w a r t took the i n i t i a t i v e o f s u b m i t t i n g the s t r a t e g y t o the M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y & Small B u s i n e s s Development under the P r o v i n c i a l - M u n i c i p a l P a r t n e r s h i p Program and has r e c e i v e d f i n a n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from the p r o v i n c e t o a s s i s t l o c a l economic development. I t was n e v e r e x p e c t e d by the Commission s t a f f t h a t i t c o u l d be c l e a r l y shown t h a t the t h i n k - t a n k seminar method caused a development i d e a t o be a c t e d upon. N o n e t h e l e s s , many i d e a s l i s t e d i n 114. the M a r k e t i n g P l a n s have come i n t o f r u i t i o n s i n c e 1984. Most n o t a b l y , i n S t e w a r t , w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f the p r o v i n c i a l government i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a f e r r y s l i p , A l a s k a S t a t e f e r r y s e r v i c e was r e a l i z e d i n l a t e 1985. T h i s f e r r y s e r v i c e would s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve t o u r i s t t r a f f i c t h r o u g h t h e community. The p r o j e c t was a p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f a l o b b y i n g e f f o r t by S t e w a r t m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l and the Ste w a r t / H y d e r Chamber o f Commerce. In T e r r a c e , t he f i r s t o r g a n i z e d f i s h i n g t o u r s from Japan i n t o n o r t h w e s t e r n B.C. w i l l commence i n August o f 1986. And i n T e r r a c e as w e l l , a wood p r o d u c t s r e m a n u f a c t u r i n g f a c i l i t y was c o n s t r u c t e d by one o f the seminar p a r t i c i p a n t s . F o r Commission s t a f f who o r g a n i z e d and m o n i t o r e d t he sem i n a r s t he r o l e t o be p l a y e d was a f a i r l y i n a c t i v e one: one o f f a c i l i t a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n and r e c o r d i n g t he p r o c e e d i n g s . The sem i n a r s though were e x t r e m e l y i n f o r m a t i v e t o t h e s t a f f members, p r o v i d i n g a t minimal expense c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the l o c a l e conomies, i n c l u d i n g s o f t e r forms o f i n f o r m a t i o n such as the s o c i a l dynamics o f each community. T h i s c o u l d be a c q u i r e d o n l y t h r o u g h c l o s e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n f l u e n t i a l members o f t h e l o c a l community. The v a l u e o f the sem i n a r s as p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s e x e r c i s e s c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d e i t h e r . The sem i n a r s c r e a t e d a much more w i d e s p r e a d awareness about t he Economic Development Commission w i t h t he g e n e r a l p u b l i c . P o p u l a r s u p p o r t f o r an a c t i v e v e r s u s a r e a c t i v e approach t o economic development as i n d i c a t e d by d e v e l o p i n g t he economic 115. s t r a t e g i e s was a l s o shown. Few p e o p l e d e c l i n e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s e m i n a r s ; r a t h e r , most were a n x i o u s t o be i n v o l v e d . The Emerging P l a n : Emerging from the c o m b i n a t i o n o f the t e c h n o c r a t i c s and p a r t i c i p a t o r y approaches i s t h e r e g i o n ' s economic development p l a n . The p l a n ' s most v i s i b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e the advocacy o f a s m a l l s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y , the' m o t i v a t i o n t o a c h i e v e community economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and s t a b i l i t y b ut a w i l l i n g n e s s t o m a i n t a i n an e x t e r n a l l y - o r i e n t e d economy. The p l a n does n o t i n c l u d e a recommendation o f t e r r i t o r i a l c l o s u r e . The Commission p l a n i s n o t p u b l i s h e d i n a s i n g l e f i n a l r e p o r t but must be d i s c e r n e d from a r e v i e w o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A s p e c t s o f the two d i f f e r e n t programs which c o n s t i t u t e the p r o c e s s a r e r e c o r d e d i n "Economic Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Northwest B r i t i s h C olumbia" (1983) and the " m a r k e t i n g p l a n s " (1984, 1985) f o r the communities o f T e r r a c e , S t e w a r t and the H a z e l t o n s . P l a n I m p l e m e n t a t i o n : I t i s an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n where the phase b e g i n s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the a l t e r n a t i v e s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g t e c h n o l o g y - - h e n c e , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the p l a n . Even l o n g b e f o r e the Economic Development Commission had s o l i d i f i e d i t s p o s i t i o n t h a t the custom m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t o r i d e a s h o u l d be a r e g i o n a l economic development 116. p r i o r i t y , i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had a l r e a d y s t a r t e d a p r o c e s s o f s e l l i n g the i d e a t o p r i v a t e m i n i n g i n t e r e s t s and t o the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s . I m p l e m e n t a t i o n , however, became the dominant a c t i v i t y o n l y about mid 1984 when a d e c i s i o n t o p r o c e e d w i t h s t a g i n g a m i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e i n T e r r a c e i n November was made. The meaning a t t r i b u t e d t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s , s i m p l y , g e n e r a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r towards the p o r t a b l e custom m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t o r . The e x e r c i s e d i d not r e s u l t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a p o r t a b l e m i l l i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia but was s u c c e s s f u l a t l e a s t , as w i l l be d e t a i l e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , i n moving the c o n c e p t s e v e r a l s t a g e s c l o s e r t o a p r o d u c t i o n d e c i s i o n . In May, 1986, a j o i n t p r i v a t e s e c t o r , government funded f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y i n t o barge mounted c o n c e n t r a t i o n u n i t s t o be o p e r a t e d a l o n g B.C.'s c o a s t r e t u r n e d f a v o r a b l e r e s u l t s . In c o n t r a s t t o the p r o c e s s o f f o r m u l a t i n g economic development s t r a t e g i e s , i n which p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was an i n t r i n s i c e l e m e n t , i m p l e m e n t i n g the p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y was l a r g e l y a c l o s e d p r o c e s s , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b a r g a i n i n g among i n d i v i d u a l s and b u i l d i n g o f o p i n i o n . The c o n c e p t was s u r r e n d e r e d t o e x p e r t s i n the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y t o make m a n i f e s t . F u r t h e r , i t was a g i v e n t h a t market mechanisms would be used and t h a t the p r i v a t e s e c t o r would be the v e h i c l e t h r o u g h which the custom c o n c e n t r a t o r i d e a would be d e l i v e r e d . 117. Through 1984, as the Economic Development Commission s t a f f i n t e r a c t e d w i t h v a r i o u s groups and i n d i v i d u a l s , t he p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g t e c h n o l o g y c o n c e p t was t r e a t e d w i t h v a r y i n g r e a c t i o n s o f d i s i n t e r e s t , d e r i s i o n and amusement. The c o n c e p t was commonly seen as a novel one, but the Commission c o u l d not f a l l back on any e s t a b l i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n i n the a r e a n o r p o s s e s s e d any p a r t i c u l a r m i n i n g t e c h n o l o g y e x p e r t i s e . The c h a l l e n g e t o the Commission was t o e s t a b l i s h c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h i n m i n i n g i n d u s t r y and r e l e v a n t government c i r c l e s . The s t r a t e g y was t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r a c o n s t i t u e n c y o f a p p r o p r i a t e e x p e r t i s e which s u p p o r t e d t he s m a l l mines c o n c e p t and, s e c o n d l y , t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t the p o r t a b l e m i l l t e c h n o l o g y was t e c h n i c a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . In o r d e r f o r t h e Economic Development Commission t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s p r o m o t i o n a l campaign, i t had t o o b t a i n t he s u p p o r t o f the M i n i s t r y o f Mines. A s t a r t i n g p o i n t was the s h a r e d d e s i r e o f both the M i n i s t r y and the Economic Development commission t o see a v i a b l e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y i n t h e n o r t h w e s t p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e . But beyond t h i s , t h e s i t u a t i o n demanded t h a t t he Economic Development Commission had t o work w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l y d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e power compared w i t h the M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s , y e t had t o i n f l u e n c e t he p o l i c y o f t h i s much s t r o n g e r i n s t i t u t i o n . I t was a l r e a d y r e l a t e d t h a t s u p p o r t o f the Mines Branch gave the Economic Development Commission c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h t he m i n i n g i n d u s t r y . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s advantage o f h a v i n g a c c e s s t o an i n d u s t r y c o n s t i t u e n c y , the n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Commission and the Mines M i n i s t r y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , a c c e s s t o p o l i t i c a l 118. power ( i n c a b i n e t ) , and a v i r t u a l monopoly on t e c h n i c a l knowledge. The o n l y o b v i o u s advantage the Commission h e l d o v e r the M i n i s t r y o f Mines was more i n t i m a t e knowledge o f the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n . T h r o u g h o u t the p r o c e s s o f p l a n n i n g f o r a r e v i t a l i z e d s m a l l mines s e c t o r , the M i n i s t r y o f Mines' o f f i c i a l s m a i n t a i n e d a p o s t u r e h i g h l y s u p p o r t i v e o f the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y . Though many o f f i c i a l s c o n s i d e r e d the p r o p o s a l o f the Economic Development Commission t o be novel i f n o t d u b i o u s , t h e m i n i s t r y was w i l l i n g t o e n t e r t a i n the c o n c e p t , a t l e a s t u n t i l some measure o f s u p p o r t f o r the c o n c e p t i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d . The l a t t e r , as agreed t o by r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l s t a f f , was t o be a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h an i n d u s t r y c o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n T e r r a c e i n November 1984 d e v o t e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o the s m a l l mines o p p o r t u n i t y . In a d d i t i o n , t a c i t s u p p o r t o f the s m a l l mines p r o p o s a l was g i v e n a t the m i n i s t e r i a l l e v e l when t h e M i n i s t e r o f E n e r g y , Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , Steven R o g e r s , a g r e e d t o speak a t t h i s c o n f e r e n c e . To the l e s s e r e x t e n t t h a t s u p p o r t o f a w i d e r n o r t h w e s t B.C. p u b l i c was needed, f o r example t o m a i n t a i n the e n t h u s i a s m o f l o c a l p o l i t i c i a n s and the b u s i n e s s community, f o c u s s i n g a t t e n t i o n on the p o r t a b l e m i l l t e c h n o l o g y had d e c i d e d a d v a n t a g e s . From a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s s t a n d p o i n t , one c o u l d d i s c u s s the t e c h n o l o g y and show what c o u l d be done t o enhance economic development r a t h e r than a d d i n g t o an a l r e a d y w e i g h t y c o l l e c t i o n o f d e p r e s s i n g news and c o r r e s p o n d i n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t h r o u g h o u t the r e g i o n . In l i g h t o f a c u r r e n t l y 119. p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n t h a t p l a n n e r s h i n d e r development, t h i s was a p o s i t i v e and r e f r e s h i n g f e a t u r e o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . S e c o n d l y , i t was r e c o g n i z e d by Commission s t a f f t h a t the t e c h n o l o g i c a l problem was n o t e x c l u s i v e o f s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l e l e m e n t s , but d e a l i n g w i t h o n l y the t e c h n o l o g y , s i m p l i f i e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a much l a r g e r problem o f development f o r a g r e a t e r a u d i e n c e . A r e p o r t , which condensed the i d e a s b e h i n d the p o r t a b l e m i l l o p p o r t u n i t y and d i s c u s s e d the need f o r and c o n t e n t s o f a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y i n t o a p p l y i n g p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g t e c h n o l o g y i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , was w r i t t e n f o r p u b l i c consumption i n November 1984. T h i s r e p o r t i s e n t i t l e d "Small Mines Development i n N o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h C olumbia: Background I n f o r m a t i o n f o r a Comprehensive F e a s i b i l i t y S t u d y " (Economic Development Commission, November 1984). I t was g e n e r a l l y the i m p r e s s i o n o f both p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f Mines o f f i c i a l ? and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s t a f f t h a t t h e p o r t a b l e o r custom m i l l i d e a would not become a r e a l i t y w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h p r e c e d i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The i n f o r m a t i o n on which t o base such an i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n , such as M i n i s t r y r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s , s i m p l y i s not a v a i l a b l e . Hence a comprehensive f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y , which would d e t e r m i n e s m a l l m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s amenable to a custom c o n c e n t r a t o r and c o n s i d e r f i n a n c i a l , t e c h n o l o g i c a l and m a r k e t i n g o p t i o n s , was b e l i e v e d t o be an e s s e n t i a l i n t e r i m s t e p . I t was a l s o soon r e v e a l e d i n t h e a t t i t u d e s o f s e n i o r M i n i s t r y o f Mines o f f i c i a l s t h a t an e n t i r e l y p u b l i c s e c t o r v e n t u r e i n t o p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g would n o t be 120. c o n s i d e r e d . I n s t e a d , t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f b a r g a i n i n g between Economic Development Commission o f f i c i a l s and the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s , t h e M i n i s t r y made the o f f e r t h a t i t would e n t e r t a i n c o s t - s h a r i n g w i t h a p r i v a t e company on a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y , but o n l y i f i t c o u l d be shown t h a t t h e company was s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g development o f the i d e a . I t was p r e v i o u s l y d i s c l o s e d t h a t p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f Mines s t a f f r e a c t e d s t r o n g l y i n f a v o r o f the custom c o n c e n t r a t o r p r o p o s a l when i t was f i r s t p r e s e n t e d t o them i n the "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t . T h i s s u p p o r t however d i d n o t i n c l u d e any f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o the Commission nor i n i t i a l l y t o anyone i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r p r o p o s i n g s i m i l a r i d e a s . Nor d i d i t i n c l u d e much M i n i s t r y s t a f f s u p p o r t . The burden f e l l upon the Economic Development Commission t o p r o ve t o the M i n i s t r y and t o the B.C. m i n i n g i n d u s t r y t h a t the p o r t a b l e m i l l i d e a was v i a b l e . T h i s margin o f s u p p o r t from the M i n i s t r y was n o n e t h e l e s s c r i t i c a l t o the Commission i n p u r s u i n g the custom m i l l c o n c e p t . I t was t h r o u g h the e s t a b l i s h e d c o n n e c t i o n s o f M i n i s t r y s t a f f w i t h the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y t h a t the Commission s t a f f g a i n e d c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h i n d u s t r y . I t was p r i n c i p a l l y M i n i s t r y o f Mines s t a f f which i n t r o d u c e d the Commission t o key i n d i v i d u a l s i n the i n d u s t r y such as the manager o f the B.C. and Yukon Chamber o f M i n e s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the M i n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C. and t o m i n i n g companies. S i m i l a r l y , a c c e p t a n c e by t h e M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s , S t e v e n R o g e r s , t o be a keynote s p e a k e r a t the November 1984 c o n f e r e n c e was a n o t h e r i n g r e d i e n t i n a s t r a t e g y t o 121. r a i s e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n t e r e s t i n the s m a l l mines c o n f e r e n c e . The c o n f e r e n c e was i t s e l f a d v e r t i s e d as a p r o j e c t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s . The program o f the c o n f e r e n c e was d e s i g n e d w i t h a s s i s t a n c e f r o m M i n i s t r y s t a f f and s e v e r a l s e n i o r p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f Mines s t a f f members came from V i c t o r i a and o t h e r r e g i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e t o a t t e n d t h e c o n f e r e n c e . The c o n f e r e n c e f o r m a t was chosen w i t h f o u r o v e r l a p p i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n mind: (1) t o e s t a b l i s h Economic Development Commission c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y and government, (2) t o de m o n s t r a t e the f e a s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g p o r t a b l e o r custom c o n c e n t r a t o r s , (3) t o t e s t e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n t e r e s t i n the p o r t a b l e o r custom m i l l i n g i d e a and (4) t o c r e a t e an i n d u s t r y - b a s e d c o n s t i t u e n c y which s u p p o r t e d t h e s m a l l s c a l e a l t e r n a t i v e . O t h e r u n r e l a t e d o b j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e d : (1) t o i n d i c a t e t o the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n t h a t i t s Economic Development Commission was a c t i v e l y p u r s u i n g economic development and (2) t o promote T e r r a c e t o the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y as a p o s s i b l e s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s t o t h e i n d u s t r y . To i t s c r e d i t , i n an attempt a t c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f i d e a s on s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g , t h e c o n f e r e n c e a t t r a c t e d an u n u s u a l l y wide range o f e x p e r i e n c e and e x p e r t i s e . Though a l l were o s t e n s i b l y from t h e same i n d u s t r y , t h e e i g h t y c o n f e r e n c e p a r t i c i p a n t s formed an unusual c o l l e c t i o n . They i n c l u d e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f j u n i o r m i n i n g companies, l o c a l , o l d time p r o s p e c t o r s and m i n e r s , i n d u s t r y c o n s u l t a n t s , m i n i n g equipment s u p p l i e r s and s e n i o r l e v e l government o f f i c i a l s . Somewhat s u r p r i s i n g l y , G u l f Canada R e s o u r c e s L t d . , 122. Noranda E x p l o r a t i o n s , Sumitomo M e t a l s and E s s o M i n e r a l s , a l l major c o r p o r a t i o n s , were a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i n , t h e a u d i e n c e . E s t a b l i s h i n g a " d e m o n s t r a t i o n e f f e c t " (Schumacher, 1974:151) was an i m p o r t a n t g o a l o f the c o n f e r e n c e . In o r d e r t o c h a l l e n g e c o n v e n t i o n a l i d e a s on m i n e r a l development, the Commission s t a f f members b e l i e v e d i t was n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g i n s p e a k e r s from f a r a f i e l d . F or example, p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g t e c h n o l o g y was r e p r e s e n t e d by the S a l a "Caravan" M i l l - from Sweden and p r e s e n t e d by a s p e a k e r from i t s Canadian s u b s i d i a r y i n M i s s i s a u g a , O n t a r i o . The S a l a M i l l i s amongst the most e x p e n s i v e o f p o r t a b l e systems a v a i l a b l e but has been a p p l i e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n s e v e r a l t h i r d w o r l d s i t u a t i o n s ( S a l a , 1981). S i m i l a r l y , a c o n f e r e n c e panel d i s c u s s i o n on government s u p p o r t programs f o r s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g i n c l u d e d a p r e s e n t a t i o n g i v e n by a P o l i c y A d v i s o r f o r t h e O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s . In O n t a r i o , t h e p r o v i n c i a l government t h r o u g h the 60MILL Program, p r o v i d e s f i n a n c i a l s u b s i d i e s t o companies t o p r o v i d e ore t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t i e s f o r custom m i l l i n g o f g o l d o r e s . Some o f the b e s t i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h e m i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e was not p r e s e n t e d by t h o s e p o s s e s s i n g f o r m a l academic t r a i n i n g o r r e c o g n i z e d t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e . Perhaps the b e s t s p e a k e r o f the two day c o n f e r e n c e was t h e o w n e r / o p e r a t o r o f the D u t h i e Mine near S m i t h e r s , B.C.. Paul K i n d r a t a c q u i r e d many y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n m i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , then r e c e n t l y formed a company w i t h h i s f o u r sons and took o v e r a mine l a s t abandoned i n 1952. By d o w n s i z i n g the p h y s i c a l p l a n t and custom b u i l d i n g a v e r y s m a l l f i f t y t o n per day 123. m i l l , t h e group now mines what c o u l d become a v e r y l u c r a t i v e s i l v e r - l e a d - z i n c mine ( C h a r m i c h a e l , 1984) ( G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f Canada, 1954:105-111). The owner has n e g l i g i b l e academic t r a i n i n g b u t c l e a r l y e x e m p l i f i e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the r a r e , s u c c e s s f u l s m a l l mine o p e r a t o r . He p o s s e s s as a r a r e c o m b i n a t i o n o f s k i l l s i n e x p l o r a t i o n g e o l o g y , m i n i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , m i n e r a l p r o c e s s i n g , m a r k e t i n g and b u s i n e s s management. The c o n f e r e n c e p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y by which he c o u l d s h a r e t h i s a c c u m u l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r ' p o t e n t i a l s m a l l m i n e r s . A t t h e time o f w r i t i n g t h i s paper 1 1/2 y e a r s have p a s s e d s i n c e "A C o n f e r e n c e on Small S c a l e O p p o r t u n i t i e s " was s t a g e d i n T e r r a c e . S e v e r a l e n q u i r i e s i n t o p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g t e c h n o l o g y have been r e c e i v e d by the Economic Development Commission and by the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f Mines but no company has y e t a c t e d t o d e v e l o p such a m i n e r a l p r o c e s s i n g u n i t . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d as w e l l , t h e p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments completed a $10 m i l l i o n , f i v e y e a r M i n e r a l Development Agreement. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the Agreement, s i g n e d on J u l y 30, 1985, made the type o f f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y e n v i s i o n e d by the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t e l i g i b l e f o r s e n i o r government f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t (News R e l e a s e , J u l y 30, 1985). The Economic Development Commission a l s o committed $6,500 f o r the y e a r 1985 towards the s m a l l mines o p p o r t u n i t y , a n t i c i p a t i n g c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e s e funds a l o n g w i t h s e n i o r government s u p p o r t t o a m i n i n g company i n v e s t i g a t i n g p o r t a b l e o r custom m i l l i n g t e c h n o l o g y i n the n o r t h w e s t (Economic Development Commission, 1985 P r o v i s i o n a l 124. Budget P r o p o s a l ) . L o c a l governments o p e r a t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia on a J a n u a r y t o December budget y e a r . In 1986, the Commission had not r e c e i v e d any r e a s o n a b l e s u b m i s s i o n s r e q u e s t i n g f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t and the i d e a was o m i t t e d i n t h e 1986 budget. A l s o worth r e c o r d i n g i s the f a c t t h a t g o l d and s i l v e r p r i c e s remained f a i r l y s t a g n a n t t h r o u g h t h i s p e r i o d (B.C. M i n e r a l Q u a r t e r l y , volume 11, 1986). A f t e r the c o n f e r e n c e , Commission s t a f f d e a l t w i t h i n q u i r i e s on the p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r as t h e y would any o t h e r development i n q u i r y . However, as the s m a l l s c a l e o p p o r t u n i t y p r o g r e s s i v e l y moved o u t o f the f o r e f r o n t , combined w i t h p e r s o n n e l changes o c c u r r i n g w i t h the e l e c t e d Economic Development Commission, o t h e r p r i o r i t i e s began t o compete f o r s t a f f t i m e . As j u s t mentioned above, no Economic Commission f u n d s were budgeted d i r e c t l y t o the s m a l l mines p o t e n t i a l a f t e r 1985. B r i e f l y though, the c a s e s o f two p o r t a b l e m i l l p r o p o s a l s which came t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the Commission a r e worth r e c o u n t i n g . In b o t h i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e a s o n s p r o v i d e d on why each f a i l e d a r e s t r i c t l y t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n . Company names w i l l n o t be c i t e d due to m a t t e r s o f . c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . E a r l y i n 1985, a j u n i o r m i n i n g company based i n Vancouver approached t h e p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f Mines i n V i c t o r i a s e e k i n g funds f o r a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y i n t o custom o r p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g f o r p r e c i o u s m e t a l s . The company, which h o l d s m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a t t e n d e d the m i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e i n T e r r a c e but i t was n e v e r d e t e r m i n e d i f the i d e a was g e n e r a t e d a t t h a t c o n f e r e n c e . A l s o i t was n e v e r a g r e e d i f a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y would be s i t e -125. s p e c i f i c t o some p a r t o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The M i n i s t r y o f Mines encouraged the company and Economic Commission s t a f f t o meet t o t r y t o produce a j o i n t p r o p o s a l f o r s u b m i s s i o n t o the p r o v i n c e . Though me e t i n g s were h e l d i n Vancouver, the p r o p o s a l n e v e r p r o c e e d e d . The company d i d not seem e n t i r e l y committed t o the p r o j e c t and may o n l y have been t e s t i n g the w a t e r s f o r government f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . From t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f Commission s t a f f , any s t u d y would have t o be o f s p e c i f i c b e n e f i t t o n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e r e were a l s o communication d i f f i c u l t i e s i n w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r when based 500 m i l e s a p a r t . L a t e r i n 1985, an e x p l o r a t i o n g e o l o g i s t , w e l l r e s p e c t e d i n the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , a pproached the Commission s t a f f s e e k i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n on p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g t e c h n o l o g y . T h i s p e r s o n , who r e s i d e s i n the H a z e l t o n a r e a , a t t e n d e d the c o n f e r e n c e and would d e v e l o p the i d e a w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f s e v e r a l c o n t a c t s made a t t h a t c o n f e r e n c e . I n i t i a l l y , he r e p r e s e n t e d a s m a l l group o f l o c a l p r o s p e c t o r s l o o k i n g a t the Skeena and B u l k l e y c o r r i d o r s , from Houston west, as a f i r s t a r e a f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o custom m i l l i n g p o t e n t i a l . As the p r o j e c t has now e v o l v e d , a p r o p o s a l has been c i r c u l a t e d i n Vancouver t h a t t e n j u n i o r m i n i n g companies w i t h p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e Skeena r e g i o n p u r c h a s e s h a r e s i n a c o n s o r t i u m v a l u e d a t $2,500 ea c h . These funds were t o be matched by the M i n e r a l Development Agreement f o r a $50,000 f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y . T h i s p r o p o s a l has been somewhat slow t o d e v e l o p , m a i n l y because the 126. s e a s o n a l demands on p r o s p e c t o r s keep them e x t r e m e l y busy t h r o u g h the s p r i n g and summer, o f t e n i n v e r y i s o l a t e d p l a c e s . In a d d i t i o n , the Commission a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has been u n a b l e t o d e v o t e time t o p r e p a r e a s u i t a b l e f o r m a l s u b m i s s i o n on t h i s group's b e h a l f f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by s e n i o r government and t h e j u n i o r m i n i n g f r a t e r n i t y . In May 1986, a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y f u n d e d by t h e f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l M i n e r a l Development Agreement u n d e r t a k e n f o r T r a d e r R e s o u r c e s o f Vancouver r e t u r n e d a f a v o r a b l e o p i n i o n on the v i a b i l i t y o f barge mounted m i l l i n g u n i t s s e r v i c i n g s m a l l c o a s t a l m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s . T r a d e r R e s o u r c e s owns 'a p r o m i s i n g p r e c i o u s m e t a l s d e p o s i t i n t h e K i t m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t on Banks I s l a n d , s o u t h o f P r i n c e R u p e r t . In a d d i t i o n , the f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y l o c a t e d f o u r o t h e r p r o p e r t i e s i n the n o r t h w e s t o f e i g h t c o a s t a l B.C. p r o p e r t i e s c o n s i d e r e d t o have good p o t e n t i a l f o r s e r v i c i n g by a p o r t a b l e m i l l (TRM E n g i n e e r i n g , 1985). The company was not i n a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e s m a l l mines c o n f e r e n c e i n T e r r a c e and t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e Commission has d i r e c t l y h e l p e d shaped the company's development p l a n s . A f t e r w o r d : The Commission u n d e r t o o k the program t o promote t h e s m a l l mines p o t e n t i a l i n l i g h t o f t e n s i o n w i t h i n a l o c a l p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . T h e r e had been s e r i o u s c o n c e r n s t h a t the economic development f u n c t i o n a t the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t l e v e l would be t e r m i n a t e d . By c o n c e n t r a t i n g Commission r e s o u r c e s upon r e s o u r c e development more c l o s e l y t i e d w i t h the l o c a l economy and more s h o r t term o b j e c t i v e s , 127. i t was hoped t h a t t he Commission c o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e i n e n h a n c i n g t h e r e g i o n a l economy and c o u l d m a i n t a i n the s u p p o r t o f the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . P r omotion o f the custom and p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g t e c h n o l o g y d i d n o t h i n g to p r e v e n t the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the Commission. In December, 1984, o n l y one month a f t e r t h e m i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e i n T e r r a c e , both the D i s t r i c t o f New H a z e l t o n and D i s t r i c t o f T e r r a c e gave the r e q u i r e d one y e a r ' s n o t i c e t o withdraw from the f u n c t i o n , e f f e c t i v e J a n u a r y 1 s t , 1986. The a c t i v i t i e s o f the r e g i o n a l Economic Development Commission d u r i n g 1984 frad not c a p t u r e d the i m a g i n a t i o n o f the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s . L a t e i n 1985 though, t h e d e c i s i o n s o f both c o u n c i l s would be r e v e r s e d . S p u r r e d on t o f i n d immediate economic s o l u t i o n s w i t h i n an e n v i r o n m e n t o f waning l e g i t i m a c y , the custom m i l l c o n c e p t f o r the Commission i s p r o v i n g t o be much more than a s o l u t i o n a c h i e v a b l e i n the s h o r t term. The Economic Development Commission, which r a i s e d t he c o n c e p t t o a r e g i o n a l development p r i o r i t y and a t t r a c t e d government and p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n t e r e s t , no l o n g e r a c t i v e l y p u r s u e s i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . O t h e r p r i o r i t i e s have a p p r o p r i a t e d s t a f f time and the make-up o f the Commission a t e l e c t e d and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s has changed c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e 1984. Moreover, o p e r a t i n g on annual budget y e a r s , development p r o m o t i o n s a t the l o c a l government l e v e l f a c e p r o s p e c t s o f a l a c k o f c o n t i n u i t y . 128. CHAPTER SIX: ANALYSIS In C h a p t e r Two, two s e t s o f c a t e g o r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n o r d e r t o compare t h e c a s e s t u d y p l a n s and t h e i r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s . In t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e a n a l y s i s w i l l u n f o l d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n t h r e e s t a g e s : (1) a comparison o f t h e two p l a n s , (2) a comparison o f t h e two p r o c e s s e s (3) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c a t e g o r i e s o f p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s and the two p l a n s . Comparison o f Economic P l a n s : T h i s comparison c o v e r s o n l y t h e f i v e p l a n c a t e g o r i e s o r d i m e n s i o n s which were drawn from the r e g i o n a l development l i t e r a t u r e and from r e v i e w o f the p l a n s t h e m s e l v e s . The c o m p a r i s o n examines the d i f f e r e n t a pproaches t o t e c h n o l o g y , t h e p l a n p o s i t i o n s i n r e g a r d t o t e r r i t o r i a l c l o s u r e , the c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s o f the p l a n s , t h e i r v i s i o n a r y v s . i n c r e m e n t a l i s t o u t l o o k s and t h e i r approaches t o s u s t a i n e d community development. The comparison i s summarized i n T a b l e 8. 1) Approach to T e c h n o l o g y : A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n i s i t s p r o m o t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y . The r e g i o n c o n s i d e r s t h a t s m a l l s c a l e , l o c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d t e c h n o l o g y b e t t e r AUTHORITY APPROACH TO APPROACH TO SPATIAL CLOSURE/ COMPREHENSIVE/ VISIONARY/ TECHNOLOGY SUSTAINED FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION SECTORAL INCREMENTAL DEVELOPMENT Economic Development Commission promotes s m a l l -s c a l e , l o c a l l y -c o n t r o l l e d tech-nology technology a m a l l e a b l e s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n ; an "instrument of s o c i e t y " promotes s u s t a i n a b l e community development promotes f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n comprehensive o u t l o o k ; v i s i o n a r y s e c t o r a l i n impl e m e n t a t i o n P r o v i n c e of promotes l a r g e - does not promote promotes f u n c t i o n a l comprehensive i n c r e m e n t a l B r i t i s h s c a l e , c a p i t a l s u s t a i n a b l e community i n t e g r a t i o n Columbia i n t e n s i v e t e c h - development nology ' technology a 'determinant of development" Table 8 : COMPARISON OF ECONOMIC PLANS 130. i n c o r p o r a t e s r e g i o n a l v a l u e s and needs than t h e l a r g e - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g i e s s u p p o r t e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government. The c o n t r a s t i s most a p p a r e n t i n e n v i s i o n i n g m i n e r a l development i n t h e r e g i o n . The B.C. government p l a n r e l i e s upon s e v e r a l l a r g e c o r n e r s t o n e m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s ; t h e r e g i o n gauges e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n t e r e s t i n the p o r t a b l e m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t o r and s m a l l s c a l e p r e c i o u s m e t a l s m i n i n g . The s m a l l mine o p t i o n i s c o n s c i o u s l y e x c l u d e d by the p r o v i n c e i n i t s e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l economic p o t e n t i a l . Statements c o n t a i n e d i n the N orthwest S t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o s m a l l mines development i n d i c a t e a n e g a t i v e b i a s t h e p r o v i n c e h o l d s towards s m a l l s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y . L i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o n o r t h w e s t development i s a c c o r d e d the s m a l l mine a l t e r n a t i v e by the p r o v i n c e . M o reover, u n p r e d i c t a b l e p r e c i o u s m e t a l s p r i c e s r e n d e r the s m a l l s c a l e o p t i o n awkward t o p l a n f o r ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1983:7). As o u t l i n e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n on "development from above," Stb'hr and T o d t l i n g a t t r i b u t e t o the f u n c t i o n a l development model a n o t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y as a " d e t e r m i n a n t o f development" ( S t o h r & T o d t l i n g , 1977:154). Upon r e a d i n g r e p o r t s such as The New  F r o n t i e r and The N orthwest Region the r e a d e r i s l e f t w i t h the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l government s i m i l a r l y e q u a t e s a c o n d i t i o n o f development w i t h l a r g e - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y . L a r g e - s c a l e r e s o u r c e development and i t s a s s o c i a t e d t e c h n o l o g y r e p r e s e n t the s t a t u s quo i n contemporary n o r t h w e s t development. 131. They c o n t i n u e t o be most s u i t e d t o a c h i e v i n g p r o v i n c i a l g o a l s . The c o n t r a s t i n g view o f t e c h n o l o g y put f o r w a r d by S t o h r and T'ddtling i s one o f t e c h n o l o g y as "an i n s t r u m e n t o f s o c i e t y " (StcJhr & T O d t l i n g , 1977:154). T e c h n o l o g y can been seen as a m a n i p u l a b l e v a r i a b l e i n economic development, a m a l l e a b l e s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n . I t i s the Economic Development Commission p l a n which i s t h e more open t o c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s c a l e s o f t e c h n o l o g y . The Commission, more than t he p r o v i n c e , r e c o g n i z e s c r e a t i v e c a p a c i t y w i t h i n a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s . 2. S p a t i a l C l o s u r e v s . F u n c t i o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n : The p r o v i n c e ' s p l a n s t r o n g l y e x e m p l i f i e s s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s o f the f u n c t i o n a l development model. T h e r e i s no e x c e p t i o n i n terms o f t h e s t r u c t u r e p r o j e c t e d f o r the f u t u r e n o r t h w e s t economy. Growth o f the r e g i o n w i l l be encouraged t h r o u g h i n c r e a s e d f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f n o r t h w e s t B.C. w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l economies. L a r g e - s c a l e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e such as p o r t and highway development i s a n t i c i p a t e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n . Though the t y p e o f i n f r a s t r u c t u r e needed may d i f f e r , t h e Economic Development Commission p l a n a l s o d e t e r m i n e s t h a t r e g i o n a l growth can be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h e x t e r n a l economies. N e i t h e r p l a n promotes s p a t i a l c l o s u r e . T h e r e * i s no d i f f e r e n c e between the two p l a n s i n terms o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . 132. 3. Comprehensive o r S e c t o r a l P l a n s : The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n i s by f a r the more comprehensive o f the two p l a n s . The B.C. government p l a n examines development p o t e n t i a l i n a l l the major economic s e c t o r s o f the n o r t h w e s t economy. The p l a n i s p u b l i s h e d as a s e r i e s o f r e p o r t s on development o p p o r t u n i t i e s , s e t t l e m e n t , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and power s u p p l y o p t i o n s . The p r o v i n c e makes much g r e a t e r use t h a n the r e g i o n o f q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n which would be foun d i n the p r o v i n c i a l government's own r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s . The r e g i o n a l p l a n i s comprehensive i n i t s v i s i o n f o r r e g i o n a l growth and d i s c u s s e s a wide range o f economic p o t e n t i a l . However, the d i s c u s s i o n i n C h a p t e r F i v e on i m p l e m e n t i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y s t a t e s t h a t the p l a n becomes n a r r o w l y f o c u s s e d . The p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r i d e a demands c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s o u r c e s from the Economic Commission as the c o n c e p t c h a l l e n g e s c o n v e n t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s i n the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y and p r e s e n t government p o l i c y . The Commission p l a n i s r e d u c e d t o a s e c t o r a l p l a n , p e r t a i n i n g o n l y t o the m i n e r a l development s e c t o r . Reasons f o r the p l a n becoming n a r r o w l y f o c u s s e d a r e g i v e n l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 4. V i s i o n a r y o r I n c r e m e n t a l P l a n s : Both p l a n s s h a r e a l o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e , even though, i r o n i c a l l y , t he r e g i o n a l p l a n was i n i t i a t e d t o a c h i e v e 133. s h o r t - t e r m o b j e c t i v e s . The Commission p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was s t a r t e d i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r the r e g i o n a l development f u n c t i o n . The p l a n f o r The New F r o n t i e r f o r e s e e s a m a s s i v e u n d e r t a k i n g by the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s . The s t r a t e g y w i l l undermine some e x i s t i n g l o c a l economies ( i . e . n o r t h e r n n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s ) , w i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y impact the l a n d s c a p e but g e n e r a l l y does not r e p r e s e n t any r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from p a s t p r a c t i c e . The p r o v i n c e d e s i r e s an a c c e l e r a t e d r a t e o f r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n and p r i m a r y p r o c e s s i n g , u s i n g s e v e r a l l a r g e p r o j e c t s as development c a t a l y s t s . The l a r g e p r o j e c t has an e s t a b l i s h e d h i s t o r y i n the n o r t h w e s t . The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n does not r e f l e c t any d e l i b e r a t e e x p l o r a t i o n o f new economic development models f o r the r e g i o n . I n s t e a d , one can p r o c l a i m t h a t t h e p l a n a d v o c a t e s m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s t a t u s quo. The p l a n s i m p l y e x t e n d s t o an "undeveloped" "New F r o n t i e r " an e x i s t i n g model o f development. The r e g i o n a l p l a n i s the more v i s i o n a r y . In the f a c e o f c u r r e n t government p o l i c y and i n d u s t r y a t t i t u d e s , the r e g i o n c o u n t e r s w i t h development p r o p o s a l s i t c o n s i d e r s a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e . The p l a n d i s r e g a r d s e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s o f development and c a l l s f o r i n c r e a s i n g d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f the economy and b u s i n e s s development which more c l o s e l y r e f l e c t s l o c a l s k i l l l e v e l s , 134. c a p i t a l a v a i l a b i l i t y and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n t e r e s t . The r e g i o n a l p l a n embodies a s e a r c h f o r new development p a t t e r n s . 5. S u s t a i n e d Community Development: The term " s u s t a i n e d development" i s a c o n c e p t d i f f e r e n t from " s e l e c t i v e s p a t i a l c l o s u r e " but n e v e r t h e l e s s s h a r e s a s i m i l a r i n w a r d - l o o k i n g t e r r i t o r i a l p e r s p e c t i v e . S u s t a i n e d community development c o n t a i n s t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f economic s t a b i l i t y , d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and growth f o r the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n and i t s i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The c o n c e p t a l s o i m p l i e s a degree o f r e g i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l o v e r r e s o u r c e s . The p l a n c o m p i l e d by the Economic Development Commission o b v i o u s l y i s g u i d e d by t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . S u s t a i n e d development i s an i n t r i n s i c , m o t i v a t i n g a s p e c t o f the m a r k e t i n g p l a n s . In the t e c h n o c r a t i c a p p roach o f t h e Commission's p l a n n i n g t h e s e economic o b j e c t i v e s a r e p r o c l a i m e d i n advance o f the r e s e a r c h . The Commission p l a n f a l l s s h o r t o f c a l l i n g f o r s e l e c t i v e c l o s u r e but i t i s g u i d e d by a t e r r i t o r i a l i m p e r a t i v e t h a t r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s be m o b i l i z e d t o s o l v e f i r s t p r e s s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s o f h i g h unemployment and permanent j o b l o s s . In the B.C. government r e p o r t , The Northwest R e g i o n , the s t a t e d g o a l s a r e " r e g i o n a l b a l a n c e , employment, income growth and s t a b i l i t y " (The Northwest R e g i o n , 1982:17). On f i r s t i n s p e c t i o n one m i ght t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e t h a t the p r o v i n c e 135. l i k e w i s e s u p p o r t s s u s t a i n e d community development. However, e v i d e n c e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the t h e s i s r a i s e s doubt whether the B.C. government p l a n i s a " r e g i o n a l " p l a n a t a l l . The most i m p o r t a n t examples g i v e n was the p o l i c y o f s e n i o r government to overcome t h e economic problems o f the r e g i o n t h r o u g h c o u n t e r - c y c l i c a l p o l i c y such as temporary employment programs. These programs were j o i n t l y a d m i n i s t e r e d by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments. T h e r e was no e v i d e n c e o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r a l economic problem o f permanent j o b l o s s i n the n o r t h w e s t . R a t h e r , the w e a l t h c r e a t e d i n the l a r g e r economy c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the r e g i o n i f n e c e s s a r y . A more c y n i c a l v i e w p o i n t i s t h a t the m e g a - p r o j e c t s t r a t e g y i n i t s e l f o n l y r e s u l t s i n c o n t i n u e d r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n and r e g i o n a l dependence upon e x t e r n a l markets because o f minimal d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . Comparison o f P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s : Nine c a t e g o r i e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s were b r o u g h t f o r w a r d i n C h a p t e r Two. In t h i s s e c t i o n , the two c a s e s t u d y p r o c e s s e s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s . The n i n e c a t e g o r i e s a r e : 1) P l a n n i n g Mandates 2) C e n t r a l i z e d v s . D e c e n t r a l i z e d C o n t r o l Over P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 3) Degree o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 136. 4) S p a t i a l I n t e r e s t 5) T i m i n g o f P r o c e s s 6) D e t e r m i n i s t i c o r F l u i d P r o c e s s 7) R o l e o f Development Models 8) Background o f P l a n n e r 9) R o l e o f P l a n n e r The comparison i s summarized i n T a b l e 9. 1) P l a n n i n g Mandates: The r e g i o n i s a t a d i s t i n c t d i s a d v a n t a g e r e l a t i v e t o the p r o v i n c i a l government i n i t s a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t p o l i c y . To b e g i n w i t h , t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i s a c r e a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l government, r e p r e s e n t i n g d e l e g a t e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l power v e s t e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The p r o v i n c i a l government h o l d s u l t i m a t e power. The p r o v i n c i a l government a l s o has a t i t s d i s p o s a l more r e s o u r c e s i n terms o f p e r s o n n e l and f i n a n c e s than t h e r e g i o n . Though t h e f o r m a l government documents which d e c l a r e a mandate f o r t he r e g i o n a l commissions appear t o t r a n s f e r s u b s t a n t i a l a u t h o r i t y f o r r e g i o n a l economic p l a n n i n g t o r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , i n a c t u a l i t y the r e g i o n ' s c a p a c i t y i s l i m i t e d . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g on crown l a n d , which c o n s t i t u t e s o v e r 98% o f the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e r e g i o n , ( R e g i o n a l Economic P r o f i l e , 1982:1-1), remains under t h e a u s p i c e s o f p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s . The a u t h o r i t y o f r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i s t h e r e b y c o n s t r a i n e d ; AUTHORITY PLANNING MANDATES CONTROL OVER PROCESS PUBLIC PARTICIPATION SPATIAL INTEREST TIMING OF PROCESS ( C e n t r a l i z e d / D e c e n t r a l i z e d ) Economic r e g i o n a l d e c e n t r a l i z e d h i g h l e v e l v i a r e g i o n a l December 1983 t o Development community seminars December 1984+ Commission l i m i t e d e f f i c a c y r e g i o n d e f i n e d as o r g a n i c u n i t ( r e c e s s i o n economy) l i m i t e d r e sources P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia province-wide more a u t h o r i t y t o a f f e c t p o l i c y c e n t r a l i z e d lower l e v e l s s u p r a - r e g i o n a l r e g i o n d e f i n e d as h i n t e r l a n d ; p a r t of l a r g e r system' (systems p e r s p e c t i v e o n l y a p p l i e d f o r a n a l y s i s purposes) l i b e r a l a t o m i s t i c b i a s r e f l e c t e d i n p o l i c y October 1981 to December 1983+ ( r e c e s s i o n o c c u r s d u r i n g p l a n development) Table 9: COMPARISON OF PLANNING PROCESSES AUTHORITY DETERMINISTIC/FLUID ROLE OF DEVELOP- BACKGROUND OF PLANNER ROLE OF PLANNER PROCESS MENT MODEL Economic f l u i d , e x p l o r a t o r y emerging from develop- i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y T e c h n o c r a t and Development process ment model; p l a n not S o c i a l L e a r n e r r o l e s Commission a f f e c t e d l o c a l l y - b a s e d P r o v i n c e o f d e t e r m i n i s t i c model may precede i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y P u b l i c Servant r o l e B r i t i s h ' process and p r e d e t e r -Columbia mine plan outcomes based i n p o l i t i c a l ( p o l i t i c i a n s e s t a b l i s h c e n t r e p l a n g o a l s ) Table 9 (cont.): COMPARISON OF PLANNING PROCESSES CO CO 139. l o c a l government's e f f i c a c y w i t h r e s p e c t t o economic p l a n n i n g i s s e v e r e l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d . C e n t r a l i z e d v s . D e c e n t r a l i z e d C o n t r o l Over P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s e s : The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n i s dependent upon two d i f f e r e n t programs f o r i d e n t i f y i n g development p o t e n t i a l b u t , i n both i n s t a n c e s , t he c o n t r o l o v e r t he p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s remains w i t h the r e g i o n . L o c a l t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s p r e p a r e d t he "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t . In f o r m u l a t i n g l o c a l economic development s t r a t e g i e s , t h e p r o c e s s i s even more d e v o l v e d : t o the l e v e l o f the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The c o n t e n t o f the m a r k e t i n g p l a n s i s d e c i d e d upon by n o r t h w e s t r e s i d e n t s , w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d i n community s e m i n a r s . For t he purposes o f d e v e l o p i n g t he Northwest S t u d i e s , t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s c o n t r o l l e d by the c a b i n e t committee i n t h e p o l i t i c a l c e n t r e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r w r i t i n g t h e major documents o f t h e p l a n and f o r im p l e m e n t i n g the p l a n i s a l s o l a r g e l y based i n V i c t o r i a . The Northwest S t u d i e s were p r e p a r e d by the I n t e r m i n i s t r y Working Group. The i n p u t o f th e n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n i n t o the p l a n was a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e c a b i n e t t o u r s a t t h e commencement o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and th r o u g h p r o v i n c i a l government o f f i c i a l s l o c a t e d i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 140. Degree o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n : P a r t i c i p a t i o n by n o r t h w e s t r e s i d e n t s i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the economic p l a n s o c c u r r e d i n both p r o c e s s e s but much more p a r t i c i p a t i o n was used t o i n f o r m the r e g i o n a l p l a n . To i n f o r m the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n , community l u n c h e o n s and i n f o r m a l p u b l i c m e e t i n g s were used by t h e C a b i n e t Committee i n the N o r t h e r n Zone. In t h e S o u t h e r n Zone, i n T e r r a c e , P r i n c e R u p e r t and K i t i m a t , C a b i n e t r e l i e d more on e s t a b l i s h e d m u n i c i p a l and b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s h i p t o communicate l o c a l i n t e r e s t s . Though making n o t a b l e e f f o r t s t o i n f o r m and be i n f o r m e d by n o r t h w e s t r e s i d e n t s , t h e C a b i n e t Committee d i d not a c h i e v e the l e v e l o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e d i d not b e n e f i t as much from t h e e x t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l knowledge o f l o c a l p e o p l e , which the Economic Development Commission o b t a i n e d . The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t community se m i n a r s were e l i t i s t i n some r e s p e c t s because b u s i n e s s and c i v i c l e a d e r s were p r i m a r y r e c i p i e n t s o f i n v i t a t i o n s but t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t d i d n o t r e s t r i c t o t h e r s from a t t e n d i n g — and o t h e r s d i d a t t e n d . The s e m i n a r s were s m a l l g r o u p i n g s and i n t e n s i v e t h r e e hour s e s s i o n s . One can a n t i c i p a t e more f o c u s e d d i s c u s s i o n and more v a l u a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n i n 27 t h r e e hour s e m i n a r s than 3 one hour l u n c h e o n s . A l l t h r e e community s t r a t e g y r e p o r t s were m a r k e d l y shaped by community i n p u t . The same ca n n o t be s a i d f o r t h e r e p o r t s which c o m p r i s e Northwest S t u d i e s . The t e c h n i c a l 141. language o f the r e p o r t s i s one i n d i c a t o r o f how the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n was i n f o r m e d . "One might argue t h a t t h e b a s i c form o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n was f o r m u l a t e d i n the T e c h n o c r a t i c Approach and t h e r e f o r e s u b s e q u e n t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l . However, w i t h o u t t he i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d from t he community seminars t he development i d e a s which had p r e v i o u s l y a r i s e n i n p r e p a r i n g t h e "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t would have l a c k e d l e g i t i m a c y , v i t a l i t y and a p p l i c a b i l i t y . The r e g i o n a l p l a n i s seen as a p r o d u c t r e s u l t i n g from the T e c h n o c r a t i c and P a r t i c i p a t o r y Approaches combined. The e l e c t e d members o f the Economic . Development Commission b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c c o u l d and s h o u l d be a p a r t o f d e s i g n i n g t h e economic p l a n o f the community. From t h i s e x p e r i m e n t the Commission has l e a r n e d o f the s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n can make t o economic development. Namely, the m a r k e t i n g p l a n s eminars i d e n t i f i e d t h e sm a l l mines o p p o r t u n i t y , t h e s e m i n a r s a s s i s t e d t h e Commission i n d e f i n i n g development p r i o r i t i e s and l e g i t i m i z e d t h e T e c h n o c r a t i c A p p r oach. The seminars h e l p e d t o j u s t i f y c o n c l u s i o n s about development p r i o r i t i e s r e a c h e d i n the "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t . E f f e c t i v e l y as a u t h o r s o f the m a r k e t i n g p l a n s , t h e p u b l i c c o n t r i b u t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t way t o the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t development p l a n . 142. S p a t i a l I n t e r e s t : The two p l a n s a p p l y t o the same g e o g r a p h i c a r e a but v e r y d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s o f " r e g i o n " a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e p l a n s . N o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia i s d e s c r i b e d i n the p r o v i n c i a l development p l a n as p a r t o f a l a r g e r , e s s e n t i a l l y i l l i m i t e d , economic system. M o r e o v e r , t h e r e g i o n i s p r o c l a i m e d a h i n t e r l a n d , s u g g e s t i n g a c o n d i t i o n o f s u b s e r v i e n c e . The Economic Development Commission p l a n i s p r e d i c a t e d upon o r g a n i c views o f t h e n o r t h w e s t . N o r t h w e s t B.C. i s not p r e s e n t e d as an autonomous c u l t u r a l o r p o l i t i c a l system but a c o n c e p t i o n o f a bounded, t e r r i t o r i a l e n t i t y i s a p p a r e n t . The p l a n s ' c o n t r a s t i n g views o f " s p a c e " c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e d i s t i n c t i o n r e c o r d e d i n C h a p t e r Two between bounded, t e r r i t o r i a l " l i f e s p a c e " ( T e r r i t o r i a l Development) and a b s t r a c t , unbounded "economic s p a c e " ( F u n c t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t ) . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the r e g i o n ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i d e n t i f y development p r o s p e c t s w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a view t h a t t h e i r l o c a l a r e a s and the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n a r e v i a b l e , t e r r i t o r i a l c o m m u nities. P a r t i c u l a r l y , s m a l l - s c a l e development o p p o r t u n i t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n the "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t and t h e M a r k e t i n g P l a n s r e f l e c t an awareness o f t h e l o c a l community o f r e s o u r c e s t r i b u t a r y t o the community and l o c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n t e r e s t . T h i s i n t u r n , p r o v i d e s the f o u n d a t i o n f o r a d v o c a t i n g c o m m u n i t y - l e v e l s o l u t i o n s t o development 143. p r o b l e m s . Augmenting f o r m a t i o n o f a l o c a l o r r e g i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t h a t the p l a n i s w r i t t e n i n the c o n t e x t o f s t r e s s f u l economic c o n d i t i o n s commonly e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o r t h w e s t . The Northwest has no s i g n i f i c a n t autonomous e x i s t e n c e g i v e n the p r o v i n c i a l government's s p a t i a l i n t e r e s t . " R e g i o n a l " economic p l a n n i n g i n the domain o f the p r o v i n c i a l government i s l a r g e l y a misnomer. Though the p r o v i n c e adopts a systems approach i n i t s economic p l a n n i n g , the n o r t h w e s t i s t r e a t e d as an e n t i t y m o s t l y f o r a n a l y t i c a l p u r p o s e s . Northwest t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems a r e d e v i s e d ; systems f o r h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power g e n e r a t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n a r e c o n c e i v e d -- n e c e s s a r y i n g r e d i e n t s i n a p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i n g the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n i n t o a g l o b a l economy. A m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r o f the p r o v i n c i a l p r o c e s s i s t h a t development o f the r e g i o n s e r v e p r o v i n c i a l needs. The New F r o n t i e r c o n t a i n s the s t a t e m e n t s : Few a r e a s o f the P r o v i n c e have as v a s t a p o t e n t i a l as the N o r t h West; p o t e n t i a l t o s u p p o r t the P r o v i n c e ' s l o n g - t e r m o b j e c t i v e s o f economic growth and p r o s p e r i t y . In an age when t h e r e a r e few t r u e f r o n t i e r s l e f t , B r i t i s h Columbians can p r o u d l y f o c u s t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n on the North West (The  New F r o n t i e r , 1982:5). The n o r t h w e s t i s a h i n t e r l a n d o f a l a r g e r , more " d e v e l o p e d : p o l i t i c a l and economic system. D i f f e r e n c e s between the two p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s i n the s p a t i a l i n t e r e s t c a t e g o r y a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the d i f f e r e n t mandates o f 144. the p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s . The Economic Development Commission's j u r i s d i c t i o n i s r e g i o n a l , t h e p r o v i n c i a l government's i n t e r e s t i s p r o v i n c e - w i d e . However, the absence o f an o r g a n i c c o n c e p t o f r e g i o n on the p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the modern, l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c s t a t e . The f o c u s o f l i b e r a l i d e o l o g y on the i n d i v i d u a l i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e . W i t h i n t he l i b e r a l w o r l d v i e w , s o c i e t y i s g u i d e d by the r a t i o n a l , s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d a c t i o n s o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l components. "The c e n t r a l f o c u s o f l i b e r a l i s m as i d e o l o g y has been t h e i n d i v i d u a l : i n d i v i d u a l h a p p i n e s s , i n d i v i d u a l consumer c h o i c e , i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l i t y " (Marchak, 1979:267 i n Gunder, 1981:25). The l i b e r a l w o r l d v i e w i s not o r g a n i c o r h o l i s t i c b u t a t o m i s t i c . When t h i s i d e o l o g y i s m a n i f e s t e d i n t o economic p o l i c y , the k i n d s o f "make work" employment programs and programs f i n a n c i a l l y t o a s s i s t w orkers t o m i g r a t e from t he r e g i o n , as implemented i n r e c e n t y e a r s i n n o r t h w e s t B.C., a r e the r e s u l t . I r o n i c a l l y , r e g i o n - w i d e i n t e r e s t s may be undermined by f a c i l i t a t i n g o u t - m i g r a t i o n o f s k i l l e d w o r k e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , under l i b e r a l i s m t h e r o l e o f government has e v o l v e d t o become one o f a m e d i a t o r , m a i n t a i n i n g the " r u l e s o f the game" t o p r e v e n t groups from o b t a i n i n g p o l i t i c a l o r economic dominance. "A c l a s s l e s s u n i v e r s a l i t y i s p e r c e i v e d t o e x i s t between a l l members o f s o c i e t y ( M arcuse, 1968)" (Gunder, 1981:27). When t h i s i d e o l o g y becomes t r a n s l a t e d i n t o r e g i o n a l 145. economic p o l i c y , economic d i s p a r i t i e s a r e e q u a l i z e d w i t h t r a n s f e r payments (Gunder, 1981:27). G i v e n s e n i o r government c o u n t e r - c y l i c a l economic p o l i c y , the c o n c e p t o f a r e g i o n as an o r g a n i c e n t i t y d i m i n i s h e s . T i m i n g o f P r o c e s s : The B.C. government p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s commenced i n the Autumn o f 1981 and the p l a n b a s i c a l l y c o m p l e t e d by December 1983 when The  Northwest S t u d i e s were r e l e a s e d t o the p u b l i c . The p l a n o f the Economic Development Commission was begun i n l a t e 1983 and was f u l l y c o n c e i v e d by J a n u a r y 1985 when the l a s t o f the m a r k e t i n g p l a n r e p o r t s was p u b l i s h e d . Not i n t e n d i n g t o preempt the d i s c u s s i o n t o f o l l o w on cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t a t t h i s p o i n t t o s t a t e t h a t t h e r e c e s s i o n which took h o l d i n the n o r t h w e s t i n 1982 m a r k e d l y a f f e c t s the form o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n . The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n , though a l s o b e i n g f o r m u l a t e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f h i g h unemployment and permanent employment l o s s , was h a r d l y a f f e c t e d . The p r o v i n c i a l p r o c e s s may have p r o g r e s s e d too f a r , and r e p r e s e n t e d too s u b s t a n t i a l a commitment o f p r o v i n c i a l government r e s o u r c e s , t o change d i r e c t i o n s w i t h the a d v e n t o f r e c e s s i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i f the main r e a s o n f o r u n d e r t a k i n g the p l a n was t o p r o v i d e an o p t i m i s t i c f o r e c a s t on r e g i o n a l economic development, f o r the purposes o f an e l e c t i o n campaign, t h e r e would be l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . D e t e r m i n i s t i c o r F l u i d P r o c e s s : The p r o c e s s employed by t h e B r i t i s h Columbia government appe a r s to be c o n s i s t e n t l y l e a d i n g t o some i n e v i t a b l e c o n c l u s i o n s . E a r l y i n the p r o c e s s major elements o f the p l a n , such as r e l i a n c e upon l a r g e - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y a r e d e t e r m i n e d . The r e m a i n d e r o f the p r o c e s s , i n which the I n t e r m i n i s t r y Task F o r c e c o n d u c t s the r e s e a r c h , i s r e l e g a t e d t o a t e c h n i c a l e x e r c i s e which s u p p o r t s a l a r g e - s c a l e r e s o u r c e development model f o r t h e r e g i o n . The p r o v i n c i a l p r o c e s s i s the more d e t e r m i n i s t i c . The r e g i o n a l p r o c e s s i s more f l u i d ; i t i s more open to c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s f o r the r e g i o n and does- n o t a ppear t o be l e a d i n g t o any p r e d e t e r m i n e d outcomes i n t h e c o n t e n t o f the p l a n . The p l a n ' s v i s i o n o f a f u t u r e r e g i o n a l economy can not be known i n advance o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s because the p r o c e s s r e l i e s upon i n f o r m a l and o f t e n random d i s c u s s i o n among semi n a r p a r t i c i p a n t s . The s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n the s e m i n a r s c o u l d n o t be e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d by n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f the s e m i n a r s program was t o a s s i s t l o c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s o r groups t o m o b i l i z e t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own s o l u t i o n s t o economic p r o b l e m s . The example o f the i n d e p e n d e n t 147. l o g g e r s was o f f e r e d . N e i t h e r the s o l u t i o n s , nor n e c e s s a r i l y t h e p r o b l e m s , were u n d e r s t o o d p r i o r t o e n g a g i n g i n the seminars e x e r c i s e . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s n o t d e t e r m i n i s t i c . The p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e p r o v i d e s o n l y an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l o c a l p e o p l e t o c r e a t e t h e i r own f u t u r e s . A c h i e v i n g a p r e f e r r e d and c l e a r l y d e f i n e d f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n , e s t a b l i s h e d i n advance o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i s n o t the o b j e c t i v e o f the p r o c e s s . R o l e o f Development Model: A model i s an a b s t r a c t i o n , an a r c h e t y p e o r i d e a l c o n c e p t i o n . In r e v i e w i n g the p r o v i n c e ' s p l a n n i n g f o r n o r t h w e s t development, i t has been r e p o r t e d t h a t fundamental a s p e c t s o f the e n s u i n g p l a n were a l r e a d y d e c i d e d upon by t h e time The New F r o n t i e r and The  Northwest Reg i o n were p u b l i s h e d . A model was a l r e a d y i n p l a c e and was g u i d i n g the p l a n n i n g . A f u t u r e f o r the r e g i o n based on f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and l a r g e s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y was f o r m u l a t e d e a r l y on i n the p r o c e s s o r perhaps p r i o r t o the p r o c e s s . A f t e r the c a b i n e t t o u r s , t h e p r o c e s s was g e n e r a l l y a t e c h n i c a l e x e r c i s e d e v o i d o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p o l i t i c s . D i d a model pre c e d e t h e p r o c e s s i n the B.C. government p l a n , w h i l e the p r o c e s s p r e c e d e d an emerging model i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n ? R e l a t i v e t o t h e . B . C . government p r o c e s s , p l a n n i n g by the r e g i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h o u t a w e l l - d e f i n e d v i s i o n f o r n o r t h w e s t development. F o r example, i n the community seminars few l i m i t a t i o n s were imposed on the range o f i d e a s o r o p t i o n s f o r 148. development which might be d i s c u s s e d . A model f o r development must be i n f e r r e d i n t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t c a s e from the p l a n f o r r e g i o n a l development w h i c h , i n t u r n , was implemented as a s t r a t e g y f o r m i n e r a l development. The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t d evelopment model was an outcome o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 8) Background o f P l a n n e r s : T h e r e a r e n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r o l e s p l a n n e r s p l a y i n t h e two c a s e s ( d i s c u s s e d i n the n e x t c a t e g o r y ) but t h e r e a r e few d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s i n a t t r i b u t e s o r d i s p o s i t i o n s o f r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n e r s . In s p i t e o f b e i n g l i m i t e d i n numbers o f p l a n n e r s , t h e r e g i o n a l p r o c e s s v i s - a - v i s t h e p r o v i n c i a l i s s i m i l a r l y i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y and r e l i e s upon common academic backgrounds o r a p p r o a c h e s . T e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e i s b r o u g h t t o b e a r on both p l a n s . The most a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e between the r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n e r s i s where t h e y a r e l o c a t e d . The a u t h o r o f t h e "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t i s a l o n g t i m e r e s i d e n t o f t h e r e g i o n and would have a t h e r d i s p o s a l e v e r y d a y and c o n t i n u o u s c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r n o r t h w e s t p e o p l e . I n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n her r e p o r t , and u l t i m a t e l y c o n t a i n e d i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n , would be based not o n l y on " p r o c e s s e d knowledge" but p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l . 9) R o l e o f P l a n n e r : In C h a p t e r One, Tom Gunton's a r t i c l e i n Canadian P u b l i c 149. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was c i t e d i n which he d e v e l o p s a taxonomy o f e i g h t a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n n e r r o l e s (Gunton, 1984). T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system w i l l be employed to d e s c r i b e p l a n n e r r o l e s o c c u r r i n g i n each o f the two c a s e s . In the B.C. government p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e p l a n n e r f i l l s the r o l e o f t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . A c t i v e l y , o r even c a s u a l l y r e l y i n g upon s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r y , the p l a n n e r i d e n t i f i e s a l t e r n a t i v e means t o a c h i e v e the development g o a l s d e f i n e d i n the p o l i t i c a l a r e n a . U s i n g Gunton's t e r m i n o l o g y t h i s r o l e i s one o f " P u b l i c S e r v a n t . " The p o l i t i c i a n r e t a i n s c o n t r o l o v e r e s t a b l i s h i n g the g o a l s o f p l a n n i n g and o v e r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p l a n s . Gunton c l a i m s t h i s i s the most p o p u l a r view o f p l a n n i n g (Gunton, 1984:404). " A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s view, p l a n n i n g was a p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n the sense t h a t i t i n v o l v e d e x p e r t a n a l y s i s o f means-ends r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l as a p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i n the sense t h a t i t sought t o r e a l i z e s p e c i f i c ends d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s " (Gunton, 1984:404). P l a n n i n g . i s seen as "a g e n e r a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s c o m p r i s e d o f t h r e e components: v a l u e f o r m u l a t i o n , means i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and e f f e c t u a t i o n " (Gunton, 1984:404). P l a n n e r s might a s s i s t c l i e n t s i n a r t i c u l a t i n g v a l u e s and ends but would m o s t l y l i m i t t h e i r a c t i v i t y t o e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e means. In the " T e c h n o c r a t i c A p p r o a c h , " used by the Economic Development Commission, t h e p r o c e s s o f p l a n f o r m u l a t i o n i s 150. c l e a r l y dominated by p l a n n e r s assuming a t e c h n i c i a n ' s r o l e . The s m a l l mines o p p o r t u n i t y i s f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d by one i n d i v i d u a l and then d e f i n e d t h r o u g h a r e f e r r a l p r o c e s s by o t h e r t e c h n i c i a n s . I t has a l r e a d y been s t a t e d t h a t i t i s p r o b a b l y c r i t i c a l t o t h e p r o c e s s , as w e l l , t h a t the a u t h o r o f the "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t p o s s e s s e s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f academic t r a i n i n g and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n . I m p o r t a n t l y , the T e c h n o c r a t i c Approach makes no o v e r t a t tempt to d e f i n e t h r o u g h a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s any r e g i o n a l economic g o a l s and v a l u e s . I t i s the d e c i s i o n o f the p l a n n e r s t h a t s m a l l and medium s i z e d r e s o u r c e development o p p o r t u n i t i e s be a p r i o r i t y ; t h e p l a n n e r s d e c i d e on what t h e r e g i o n a l development problems a r e and t h e p l a n n e r s assume what the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a f o r a p p r o p r i a t e development o p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d be. O n l y a f t e r the r e v i e w p r o c e s s by v a r i o u s government o f f i c i a l s and s e l e c t e d members o f the b u s i n e s s community i s completed i s the "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t p r e s e n t e d t o a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p o l i t i c a l b o a r d and then t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . G i v e n t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n n e r s n o t t h e p o l i t i c i a n s assumed f o r t h e r e g i o n i t s economic g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , and d e c i d e d on methods by which economic development a l t e r n a t i v e s would be i d e n t i f i e d , t h e p l a n n i n g r o l e o f " T e c h n o c r a t " as d e f i n e d by Tom Gunton (Gunton, 1984:400-403) and not " P u b l i c S e r v a n t " s h o u l d be a s c r i b e d t o the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The T e c h n o c r a t r o l e i s h i s t o r i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p h y s i c a l 151. p l a n n i n g , p l a n n i n g which was a p p l i e d t o problems stemming from u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a l growth i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The p l a n n e r e s t a b l i s h e s community g o a l s , i d e n t i f i e s and chooses means. "The i d e a o f c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s and competing ends seemed c o n s p i c u o u s l y i r r e l e v a n t " (Gunton, 1984:400). The r o l e o f t h e p l a n n e r i n the community economic s t r a t e g y e x e r c i s e i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t . I t i s one o f l i m i t e d i n t e r v e n t i o n , more as a c a t a l y s t i n a s i t u a t i o n c a l l i n g f o r f a c e - t o - f a c e d i a l o g u e . The p l a n n e r a s s i s t s c l i e n t s t o e s t a b l i s h g o a l s , t o d e t e r m i n e a l t e r n a t i v e means and implement p o l i c y . The o b j e c t i v e o f t he Economic Development Commission s t a f f members i s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n among members o f the community. The community i s t h e r e f o r e c o n c e i v e d as a system; i t s . economic w e l l - b e i n g a i d e d by the f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The s e m i n a r s p r o v i d e a v e h i c l e by which t he p e r s o n a l knowledge o f p a r t i c i p a n t s can be i n c l u d e d i n an economic s t r a t e g y . T h i s i s i n comparison w i t h p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t , i n which the " p r o c e s s e d knowledge" o r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e o f the p l a n n e r d o m i n a t e s . A c c e p t i n g f o r the moment t h a t " s o c i a l l e a r n i n g " can be a p p l i e d a t w i l l t o s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g problems r a t h e r than as a method f o r comprehensive s o c i e t a l g u i d a n c e , i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , the p l a n n e r ' s r o l e i s as a " S o c i a l L e a r n e r " (Gunton, 1984:413,414). S o c i a l l e a r n i n g 152. r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e r e i s d i s a g r e e m e n t i n s o c i e t y o v e r u l t i m a t e ends and t h a t p l a n n e r s ' t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s o f t e n f a i l t o p r o v i d e the s o l u t i o n s t o s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . P l a n n i n g as e x c l u s i v e l y a r a t i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y i s s u s c e p t i b l e t o f a i l u r e a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w p o i n t . The a l t e r n a t i v e p r o v i d e d by t h e o r i s t s such as John Friedmann (1973) i s t h a t p l a n n i n g ( s o c i e t a l g u i d a n c e ) s h o u l d be a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s i n which a c t i o n o r p o l i c y f l o w s from "mutual l e a r n i n g . " P l a n n i n g i s i n f o r m e d by the p r a c t i c a l and i n t i m a t e " p e r s o n a l knowledge" o f c l i e n t s and by the " p r o c e s s e d knowledge" o f p l a n n e r s . T r a i n e d p l a n n e r s can p r o v i d e a n a l y t i c a l a b i l i t i e s , t h e o r i e s and s y s t e m a t i c methodology t o p r o b l e m s . C l i e n t s c o n t r i b u t e v a l u e s and norms but a l s o r e a l i s t i c s o l u t i o n s because t h e y know b e s t the c o n t e x t . The t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s o f p l a n n e r s a r e augmented by "communication and group dynamic s k i l l s " ( Gunton, 1984:414). The community s e m i n a r s prove t o be v e r y p r o d u c t i v e " t r a n s a c t i v e " p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s . S e v e r a l i n n o v a t i v e economic development i d e a s were i d e n t i f i e d and community development o b j e c t i v e s r e d e f i n e d . The economic s t r a t e g y f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s amounted t o something a k i n t o community " s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n " i n which se m i n a r p a r t i c i p a n t s were f o r c e d t o r e d e f i n e the community's b a s i c v a l u e s , g o a l s and economic o b j e c t i v e s . The p r o c e s s had s t r o n g n o r m a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 153. G i v e n t h e c r i s i s p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e economic r e c e s s i o n , t r a n s a c t i v e p l a n n i n g seemed a d m i r a b l y s u i t e d as a method f o r composing an economic p l a n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , j u d g i n g from the r e g i o n a l c a s e s t u d y , s o c i a l l e a r n i n g o f f e r s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on how one m i g h t implement t h o s e economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . In t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t c a s e , the p r o c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g the a l t e r n a t i v e s m a l l mines t e c h n o l o g y p r o g r e s s i v e l y e x c l u d e d i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , whereas the s o c i a l l e a r n i n g method demands p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n e g o t i a t i o n among government o f f i c i a l s and between government o f f i c i a l s and p r i v a t e companies. I t i s a c l o s e d , p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s i n which t h e p l a n n e r ' s s k i l l i s i n b a r g a i n i n g and m o b i l i z i n g o p i n i o n . C a u s a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s : T h i s c h a p t e r has d e s c r i b e d v a r i a t i o n s which can emerge i n two economic development p l a n s which were f o r m u l a t e d f o r the same a r e a a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same t i m e . The p l a n s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r a p p roaches t o t e c h n o l o g y and s u s t a i n e d community development. T h e r e a r e a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p l a n s ' v i s i o n a r y o u t l o o k s and t h e i r c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s . No d i f f e r e n c e was found i n terms o f p r o m o t i n g s p a t i a l c l o s u r e o v e r f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s i s i n t e n d e d t o l o c a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s which seem to a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s i n the p l a n s . 154. Nine p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s u r v e y e d . From t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n t h e n a r r a t i v e t he a n a l y s i s w i l l i n f e r c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s and p l a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y by r e v i e w i n g each p r o c e s s c a t e g o r y ( i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ) and d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r impacts on p l a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (dependent v a r i a b l e s ) . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e a l s o shown i n m a t r i x f o r m a t i n F i g u r e 7. One f i n d i n g can be p r e s e n t e d i n advance o f t h i s a n a l y s i s : t h a t t he s p a t i a l c l o s u r e / f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n d i m e n s i o n i s n o t a f f e c t e d by p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . V e r y d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s e s a r e used i n . t h e c a s e s , but t h e r e i s agreement c o n c e r n i n g f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n i n the p l a n s . No c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p can be c o n c l u d e d from s i t u a t i o n . 1) P l a n n i n g Mandates: The l i m i t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t ' s Economic Development Commission c o n t r i b u t e s t o the r e g i o n a l p l a n becoming r e d u c e d t o a s e c t o r a l p l a n i n i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . L a c k i n g i n a mandate and r e s o u r c e s the Commission does n o t have the c a p a c i t y t o implement a comprehensive development p l a n . Commission s t a f f a r e o b l i g e d t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h s e n i o r government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o advance the s m a l l mines c o n c e p t . The Commission ado p t s a s e l e c t i v e approach t o r e a l i z e p l a n p r i o r i t i e s . The B.C. government e x e r c i s e s much g r e a t e r c o n t r o l PLAN CHARACTERISTICS APPROACH TO TECHNOLOGY APPROACH TO SUSTAINED DEVELOPMENT SPATIAL CLOSURE/ FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION COMPREHENSIVE/ SECTORAL VISIONARY/ INCREMENTAL CO u to CO B PLANNING MANDATES CENTRALIZED/ DECENTRALIZED CONTROL PUBLIC PARTICIPATION a p p r o p r i a t e ( s m a l l -s c a l e ) technology an assumed v a l u e of a l o c a l process p a r t i c i p a t i o n en-courages a search f o r a p p r o p r i a t e s o l u t i o n s ; a p p r o p r i a t e technology a consequence of a l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t o r y process l i m i t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o f r e g i o n v i s - a - v i s p r o v i n c e l i m i t s p l a n t o m i n i n g s e c t o r s u s t a i n e d development an assumed value of a l o c a l process p a r t i c i p a t i o n encourages community s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; s u s t a i n e d development, an i n t r i n s i c v a l ue i n l o c a l , p a r t i c i p a t o r y process community seminars r e p r e s e n t a f l u i d p r o c e s s ; p l a n i s v i s i o n a r y i n o u t l o o k SPATIAL INTEREST r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e e f f e c t s a search f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y appro-p r i a t e ( s m a l l - s c a l e ) s o l u t i o n s p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s do not c o i n c i d e w i t h r e g i o n a l ; p r o v i n c e l e s s l i k e l y to adhere to concept of s u s t a i n a b l e development TIMING OF PROCESS r e c e s s i o n encourages r e g i o n to pursue t e c h n o l o g i c a l a l t e r -n a t i v e s ; i n d i r e c t e f f e c t r e c e s s i o n encourages s e l f - h e l p approaches to economic development Figure 7: CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS: .PLAN AND PROCESS VARIABLES en APPROACH TO TECHNOLOGY APPROACH TO SUSTAINED DEVELOPMENT SPATIAL CLOSURE/ COMPREHENSIVE/ VISIONARY/ FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION SECTORAL INCREMENTAL DETERMINISM/ FLUIDITY e x p l o r a t i o n o f t e c h -n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s i s encouraged by r e g i o n ' s f l u i d p r o c e s s ; determinism i n p r o v i n c i a l process l i m i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e s f l u i d i t y and v i s i o n a r y c a t e g o r i e s c o r r e s p o n d ; d e t e r m i n i s m and i n c r e m e n t a l c a t e g o r i e s c o r r e s p o n d ROLE OF DEVELOPMENT MODEL model may predetermine aspects o f the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n and prevent e x p l o r a t i o n o f develop-ment a l t e r n a t i v e s a predetermined v i s i o n f o r development may e x p l a i n the dete r m i n i s m i n the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n BACKGROUND OF PLANNER PLANNER ROLE l o c a l t e c h n o c r a t i s f i r s t to i d e n t i f y a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h -nology S o c i a l L e a r n e r r o l e f a c i l i t a t e s c o n s i d e r -a t i o n of t e c h n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s P u b l i c Servant r o l e s u r r e n d e r s g o a l s o f p l a n to p o l i t i c i a n s l o c a l t e c h n o c r a t c o n s c i o u s l y advocates s u s t a i n e d develop-ment i n "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t S o c i a l L e a r n e r r o l e f a c i l i t a t e s awareness of community of i t s e l f S o c i a l L e a r n e r r o l e encourages f l u i d i t y P u b l i c Servant r o l e r e i n f o r c e s s t a t u s quo Figure 7 (cont.): CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS: PLAN AND PROCESS VARIABLES 157. o v e r t h e economy and the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e b ase. The p r o v i n c e has much g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y t o e f f e c t a comprehensive p l a n . 2) C e n t r a l i z e d v s . D e c e n t r a l i z e d C o n t r o l Over P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s : T h e r e i s a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between the " ' a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s " o f t e c h n o l o g y and f o r whom p l a n n i n g i s u n d e r t a k e n . The r e g i o n a l c a s e s t u d y shows t h a t emerging from a l o c a l l y - b a s e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s -- which i s r e i n f o r c e d by a h i g h l e v e l o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n -- i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s m a l l s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y s o l u t i o n s t o development p r o b l e m s . As t h e f u n c t i o n a l development model p r e d i c t s , s e n i o r government r e l i e s upon a c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and comes to a d v o c a t e l a r g e s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y . A p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e r e g i o n a l c a s e seems t o be a l m o s t a n a t u r a l outcome o f a l o c a l p r o c e s s , but by d e f i n i t i o n , a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y i s t e c h n o l o g y which f o s t e r s l o c a l c o n t r o l and i s s u i t a b l e t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . S u s t a i n e d community development i s a l s o an i n t r i n s i c v a l u e o f the d e c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Where the c o n t r o l o v e r the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s based i n the r e g i o n , s u s t a i n a b l e n o r t h w e s t economic development becomes a p r e - e m i n e n t p r i o r i t y . Where t h e c o n t r o l o v e r p l a n n i n g i s l o c a t e d i n the p o l i t i c a l c e n t r e , t h e i n t e r e s t i n s u s t a i n e d development d i m i n i s h e s . The p r o v i n c i a l a t t i t u d e i s t o c o n t a i n r e g i o n a l economic problems w i t h i n a l a r g e r economy. The s p a t i a l i n t e r e s t o f each p r o c e s s i s a l s o a f f e c t e d by where c o n t r o l o v e r p r o c e s s i s l o c a t e d . 158. Degree o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n : The community s e m i n a r s used by the Economic Development Commission e n c o u r a g e d an u n h i n d e r e d e x p l o r a t i o n o f development o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the r e g i o n . R e g i o n a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e s o l u t i o n s such as t h e p o r t a b l e m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t o r a r e l o g i c a l outcomes o f a l o c a l , p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s . The s e m i n a r e x e r c i s e f u r t h e r a s s i s t s the community t o r e c o g n i z e i t s development p o t e n t i a l , i t s c o n s t r a i n t s t o development and t o f o r m u l a t e community g o a l s . The p r o c e s s becomes one o f community s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and s u s t a i n e d development a g a i n an i n t r i n s i c v a l u e i n the p r o c e s s . Informed v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y , the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n r e a c h e s d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t e c h n o l o g y and community development. S p a t i a l I n t e r e s t : The d i f f e r i n g s p a t i a l i n t e r e s t s o f the a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s n o t i c e a b l y a f f e c t the outcomes i n the p l a n s . D i f f e r e n t approaches t o t e c h n o l o g y and t o community s u s t a i n a b i l i t y a r e found i n the c a s e s t o c o r r e s p o n d w i t h d i f f e r e n t s p a t i a l i n t e r e s t s . From a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , a p p r o p r i a t e , s m a l l - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y i s i d e n t i f i e d ; from t h e p r o v i n c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e l a r g e - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y i s recommended. The p r o v i n c e views the n o r t h w e s t as a h i n t e r l a n d and p a r t o f a 159. l a r g e r economic system, and does n o t promote s u s t a i n e d development f o r the r e g i o n . T i m i n g o f P r o c e s s : The most i m p o r t a n t o c c u r r e n c e which happened d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f t h e two p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s was the r e c e s s i o n . I t has a m a r g i n a l impact on the c o n c l u s i o n s made i n the B.C. government p l a n ; y e t , the r e c e s s i o n i n d i r e c t l y b ut s u b s t a n t i a l l y shapes the r e g i o n a l p l a n . The r e c e s s i o n and the more permanent s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o c c u r r i n g i n the n o r t h w e s t economy gave c r e d e n c e t o s e l f - h e l p a p proaches t o economic development. By c r e a t i n g t he c o n d i t i o n s f o r a p u r p o s e f u l s e a r c h by the r e g i o n i n t o development a l t e r n a t i v e s , a r e g i o n a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t i s d e v e l o p e d , s u s t a i n e d community development becomes an even more s a l i e n t m o t i v a t o r and t e c h n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e u n c o v e r e d . D e t e r m i n i s t i c o r F l u i d P r o c e s s : The s e m i n a r s used by the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t were open-ended and e x p l o r a t o r y , hence, c o n s t i t u t e a f l u i d p r o c e s s . As w i t h s e v e r a l o f t he o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , an e x p l o r a t i o n o f development a l t e r n a t i v e s i s f a c i l i t a t e d and the two p l a n s a c q u i r e d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o t e c h n o l o g y . The d e t e r m i n i s m which c h a r a c t e r i z e s t he p r o v i n c e ' s p r o c e s s seems t o r e i n f o r c e a development s t a t u s quo. The p r o v i n c e does n o t c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e development o p t i o n s and does not s t e e r away from the p r e v a i l i n g l a r g e - s c a l e 160. r e s o u r c e development model. The r e g i o n a l p l a n i s c o n s e q u e n t l y the more v i s i o n a r y p l a n . The B.C. government p l a n i s i n c r e m e n t a l . R o l e o f Development Model: T h i s c a t e g o r y i s s i m i l a r i n e f f e c t as t h e p r e v i o u s c a t e g o r y . I f a model f o r development p r e c e d e s and i n f l u e n c e s t h e p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i t would p a r t l y e x p l a i n t he d e t e r m i n i s m i n the p r o c e s s and some o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n the p l a n s . Not c o n s t r a i n e d by a p r e - d e t e r m i n e d v i s i o n f o r development, the r e g i o n i s more l i k e l y t o e x p l o r e new development c o u r s e s . T h i s c o u l d a f f e c t the r e s p e c t i v e approaches t o t e c h n o l o g y , as w e l l as r e n d e r t he r e g i o n a l p l a n t he more v i s i o n a r y . Background o f P l a n n e r : The c a s e s do not p r o v i d e much e v i d e n c e on a t t r i b u t e s o f p l a n n e r s which a f f e c t t he v a r i a t i o n s i n the p l a n s . One o b s e r v a t i o n , however, i s t h a t i t was a p l a n n e r based i n the r e g i o n who f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d t h e s m a l l e r - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g i e s and who c o n s c i o u s l y a d v o c a t e d s u s t a i n e d community development, but t h e p l a n was not a p r o d u c t o n l y o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r . The r e g i o n a l p l a n c o u l d have been g e n e r a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y from a p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s . 161. R o l e o f P l a n n e r : None o f the r o l e s t a k e n on by the p l a n n e r s i n e i t h e r case cause v a r i a t i o n s between the p l a n s t o o c c u r but t h e y f a c i l i t a t e a d i v e r g e n c e . In the T e c h n i c i a n r o l e , the p l a n n e r s u r r e n d e r s t o the p o l i t i c i a n t h e c r i t i c a l i n g r e d i e n t s o f the p l a n . In t h i s c a s e s t u d y , the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t committee a d v o c a t e s a l a r g e s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y , f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n development model. P l a y i n g the r o l e o f T e c h n i c i a n , p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n e r s ' work o n l y m a i n t a i n s a s t a t u s quo. The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n i s i n c r e m e n t a l as a r e s u l t , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s not s o u g h t . The S o c i a l L e a r n e r r o l e f a c i l i t a t e s t he o p p o s i t e r e s u l t . The community se m i n a r s a r e e x p l o r a t o r y and v i s i o n a r y , t h e y encourage a r e g i o n a l o r community-based c o n s c i o u s n e s s and e s t a b l i s h t h e c o n d i t i o n s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g i e s . In the T e c h n o c r a t i c r o l e , t he p l a n n e r s e t s s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a f o r a p p r o p r i a t e forms o f development which n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o approaches on t e c h n o l o g y and community s u s t a i n a b i l i t y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f the p r o v i n c e . 162. CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS The t h e s i s has compared two economic p l a n s f o r n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia and the two p r o c e s s e s which g e n e r a t e d t h e p l a n s . Nine p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c a t e g o r i e s were used i n the a n a l y s i s , the o b j e c t i v e b e i n g t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s which cause d i f f e r e n c e s t o o c c u r between t h e p l a n s . The B r i t i s h Columbia government a d v o c a t e s a l a r g e - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y , f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n model f o r r e g i o n a l development. The r e g i o n a l Economic Development Commission s u p p o r t s c o n t i n u e d f u n c t i o n a l t i e s between the r e g i o n and e x t e r n a l economies but promotes s m a l l - s c a l e , a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y and s u s t a i n a b l e community development. G i v e n the l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the s t u d y method, i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e d e t e r m i n i s t i c knowledge about c a u s a l i t y . In an ex p o s t f a c t o s t u d y , v a r i a b l e s c a nnot be c o n t r o l l e d , nor n e c e s s a r i l y known, as would be the c a s e i n most f o r m a l s t u d i e s r e l y i n g upon e x p e r i m e n t . C a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s can o n l y be i n f e r r e d i n t h i s c a s e s t u d y . N o n e t h e l e s s , the c a s e s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s which a f f e c t p l a n o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e the l e v e l o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the s p a t i a l i n t e r e s t o f key a c t o r s i n the p r o c e s s and t h e manner i n which c o n t r o l o v e r the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s c e n t r a l i z e d o r d e c e n t r a l i z e d . I t has n o t been the purpose o f t h i s e x e r c i s e t o e v a l u a t e t h e two p l a n s — t o s t a t e t h a t one p l a n i s b e t t e r than the o t h e r . In f a c t , 163. the n a r r a t i v e r e c o r d s p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s about both p l a n s . F o r example, the "top-down" p l a n o f the p r o v i n c e w i l l have c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e when commodity p r i c e s i n c r e a s e and the i n t e r e s t o f l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n l a r g e - s c a l e r e s o u r c e development i n the r e g i o n resumes. The p l a n p r e p a r e s the n o r t h w e s t f o r t h a t which i s a l m o s t an i n e v i t a b l e f u t u r e f o r development o f the r e g i o n . An i n t e r e s t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e s t some o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i s p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f i n n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A change i n l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e g o v e r n i n g p r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y has b r o u g h t about s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n the s t y l e o f government. The new p r e m i e r i s a p o p u l i s t and an a d v o c a t e o f d e c e n t r a l i z e d government. I t may be worth r e v i e w i n g the p r o c e s s the new l e a d e r s h i p uses t o p l a n n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n a l development and compare i t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s t h e s i s . In s p i t e o f not w a n t i n g t o make e v a l u a t i v e judgements about t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f e i t h e r p l a n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t not t o be a t t r a c t e d by the f l u i d i t y and c r e a t i v i t y which i s p a r t o f the r e g i o n a l p r o c e s s , and which r e s u l t s i n unusual a p proaches t o t e c h n o l o g y and s u s t a i n e d community development. In c o n t r a s t , a t e c h n o c r a t i c and c e n t r a l i z e d p r o c e s s used by the p r o v i n c e seems t o l e a d t o p r e d i c t a b l e outcomes i n t h e p l a n f o r The New F r o n t i e r . The r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l o c a l , p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s i s more l i k e l y t o c r e a t e an o r i e n t a t i o n t o s u s t a i n e d community development and a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y than a c e n t r a l i z e d a l t e r n a t i v e such as 164. t h a t o f the B.C. government. The l o c a l p r o c e s s a p p e a r s t o be t h e more c r e a t i v e and more s e n s i t i v e t o t h a t which i s a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a l l y . G o a l s such as s u s t a i n e d development and a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i n t e c h n o l o g y ( i . e . s m a l l - s c a l e , l o c a l c o n t r o l ) a r e i n t r i n s i c a s p e c t s o f t h e l o c a l l y - b a s e d , p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e s s . They a r e g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s . The two c a s e s t u d i e s f u r t h e r s u g g e s t t h a t i f t h e r e i s a d e s i r e t o produce economic p l a n s which c o n s i d e r the g o a l s o f s u s t a i n a b l e community development and a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , a p r o c e s s which i s l o c a l l y - b a s e d and p a r t i c i p a t o r y can s u f f i c e . However, t h i s c o n c l u s i o n does n o t n e c e s s i t a t e an i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t r o l e f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r w i t h i n the p r o c e s s . Though a t e c h n o c r a t i c a pproach was used i n one component o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , a h i g h l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the community s e m i n a r s was s u f f i c i e n t t o d e v e l o p a w e l l - c o n c e i v e d p l a n f o r l o c a l economic development. The S o c i a l L e a r n e r r o l e demanded o n l y t h a t the p l a n n e r c r e a t e an e n v i r o n m e n t o f f a c e - t o - f a c e d i a l o g u e . A more i n v o l v e d , p o l i t i c a l o r a d v ocacy r o l e may however be r e q u i r e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g a l o c a l l y i n i t i a t e d p l a n . Achievements i n p r o m o t i n g t h e s m a l l mine a l t e r n a t i v e r e q u i r e d the p e r s e v e r a n c e o f l o c a l o f f i c i a l s . T h e r e a r e t e r r i t o r i a l development d i m e n s i o n s t o t h e Economic Development Commission p l a n , such as the s u s t a i n e d development g o a l and the o r g a n i c c o n c e p t i o n o f the r e g i o n , but the r e g i o n a l p l a n does no t a d v o c a t e s p a t i a l c l o s u r e . In e x a m i n i n g the t e r r i t o r i a l d evelopment model, c l o s u r e and s u s t a i n e d community development can be 165. i n t e r p r e t e d as i n t e r c o n n e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; whereas t h e r e g i o n a l c a s e shows t h a t t h e y can be seen as i n d e p e n d e n t . E a r l y i n the a n a l y s i s c h a p t e r , i t was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s do n o t have a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e t e r r i t o r i a l c l o s u r e / f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n a s p e c t o f t h e economic p l a n s . Y e t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n a f f e c t s the o r i e n t a t i o n towards s u s t a i n e d community development i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n . The c o n c e p t s o f s p a t i a l c l o s u r e and s u s t a i n e d development must be d i s a g g r e g a t e d f o r a n a l y s i s . I n f l u e n c e s o u t s i d e t h e n i n e p r o c e s s c a t e g o r i e s must be examined t o e x p l a i n why b o t h c a s e s s u p p o r t f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Perhaps e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e t o be found i n , s i m p l y , t h e market c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n , o r i n more fundamental and commonly h e l d v a l u e p r e m i s e s o f l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l a c t o r s . John Friedmann s t a t e s t h a t f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g t o m a i n t a i n i t s " l e g i t i m a t e m i s s i o n , " i t s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f community needs and s u g g e s t new avenues f o r development (Friedmann, 1981:15). The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , does not r e p r e s e n t a v i s i o n a r y e x p l o r a t i o n o f new development o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The Economic Development Commission p r o c e s s i s more s u c c e s s f u l i n f u l f i l l i n g t h i s o b l i g a t i o n and d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e p o t e n t i a l o f a r e g i o n c o n s c i o u s l y d e f i n i n g f o r i t s e l f development p r i o r i t i e s . The p r o c e s s r e f l e c t s an a t t i t u d e o f r e g i o n as an o r g a n i c e n t i t y , combines p e r s o n a l and p r o c e s s e d knowledge from t h e r e g i o n , and r e s u l t s i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o p r e s s i n g 166. r e g i o n a l economic c o n c e r n s . The p l a n n i n g program, which i s t a k e n f u r t h e s t w i t h t he p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g c o n c e p t , e s t a b l i s h e s the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r an i n t e r e s t i n g development model. The f a c t t h a t s e n i o r government and m i n i n g s e c t o r i n t e r e s t s a r e now examining the s u i t a b i l i t y o f p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n shows t h a t t he r e g i o n ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e was n o t an i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l e x e r c i s e . In times when p l a n n i n g i s b e i n g viewed as an incumbrance, t h a t i t h i n d e r s d evelopment, the program employed by the Economic Development Commission d i s c l o s e s c o n s t r u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l f o r p l a n n e r s . 167. BIBLIOGRAPHY:  P l a n n i n g L i t e r a t u r e : Emory, C. W i l l i a m s , B u s i n e s s R e s e a r c h Methods. Homewood, I l l i n o i s : R i c h a r d De I r w i n , I n c . , 1980. F a l u d i , A n d r e a s , ed. A Reader i n P l a n n i n g T h e o r y . T o r o n t o : Pergamon P r e s s , 1973. Friedmann, J o h n . L i f e Space and Economic Space: C o n t r a d i c t i o n s n R e g i o n a l Development. 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"Economic Changes i n K i t i m a t " p r e s e n t a t i o n t o Skeena Manpower Development Committee, June 27, 1985. C a r m i c h e a l , Bob. "The D u t h i e Mine, S m i t h e r s , B.C." T e r r a c e , B.C.: Economic Development Commission, R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , August 1984. R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . "Assessments: 1976-1985." R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , r e : Kutcho Creek P r o j e c t t o Mr. Tom M a f t e c h u k , M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . " August 12, 1986. R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . " R e p o r t t o Economic Development Commission, r e : F i n a n c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f K i t i m a t ' s Withdrawal From the Economic Development Commission." September 1983. R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Economic Development Commission. " G r e a t e r T e r r a c e A r e a : Employment S t a t i s t i c s . " T e r r a c e , B.C: June 1, 1983, November 30, 1983, and J a n u a r y 11, 1985. R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Economic Development Commission. " R e p o r t t o Economic Development Commission, r e : 1985 Commission's Budget P r o p o s a l . " O c t o b e r 11, 1984. 177. M i s c e l l a n e o u s R e p o r t s : Aluminum Company o f Canada. " A l c a n Postpones Kemano P r o j e c t . " V a n c o u v e r , A l c a n News R e l e a s e , O c t o b e r 26, 1984. Canadian News F a c t s . 1982 E r n s t and Whinney. "A Study o f the I n d u s t r i a l Commissions Program i n B r i t i s h Columbia (1978-1980). I n d u s t r i a l Development S u b s i d i a r y Agreement r e s e a r c h r e p o r t , March 12, 1981. Urban Systems L t d . Kutcho Creek P r o j e c t : Stage 2 R e p o r t Volume 2: S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Assessment. P r e p a r e d f o r Sumac Mines L t d & Ess o M i n e r a l s Canada. Kamloops, B.C.: March 1986. 178. Appendix One: An A p p r o p r i a t e T e c h n o l o g y : The P o r t a b l e M i n e r a l C o n c e n t r a t o r :  Though the economic problems o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia have many causes and s o l u t i o n s w i l l have economic, p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s , t h e r e was one s o l u t i o n p r e s c r i b e d a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l which was t o be l a r g e l y e x p r e s s e d i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l t e r m s . As o u t l i n e d i n the "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t , s e v e r a l s m a l l e r s c a l e t e c h n o l o g i e s were promoted by the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t t o f o s t e r s m a l l e n t e r p r i s e development more c l o s e l y t i e d t o t h e k i n d s o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e r e g i o n and t h e s k i l l s and f i n a n c i a l c a p a c i t y o f p e o p l e r e s i d e n t i n the n o r t h w e s t . I t was hoped t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s m a l l e r t e c h n o l o g i e s would c o u n t e r the employment l o s s e s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the l a r g e r i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s and a s s i s t economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . The t e c h n o l o g y which i s c e n t r a l t o t h i s t h e s i s i s t h e p o r t a b l e o r r e g i o n a l custom m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t o r . These a r e e a s i l y t r a n s p o r t a b l e m i n e r a l o r e p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t i e s which p h y s i c a l l y o r t h r o u g h c h e m i c a l a c t i o n e x t r a c t v a l u a b l e m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t e s from waste r o c k m a t e r i a l . Used a t t h e mine s i t e o r w i t h i n an economic h a u l i n g d i s t a n c e t h e c o n c e n t r a t o r w i l l p r e p a r e m a t e r i a l f o r l a t e r c o n v e r s i o n a t a m i n e r a l s m e l t e r . U n l i k e the u s u a l method o f mine development, which r e q u i r e s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an o r e p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t y on s i t e , t he custom c o n c e n t r a t o r i s e i t h e r c o m p l e t e l y p o r t a b l e and i s t r a n s p o r t e d t o 179. numerous mine p r o p e r t i e s w i t h i n an a r e a o r i s c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d w i t h i n a r e g i o n and s e r v i c e s s e v e r a l p r o p e r t i e s . The p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r can be c a r r i e d by one o r a s e r i e s o f t r u c k s and i s e i t h e r f i x e d t o a t r u c k o r o f f - l o a d e d onto s k i d s ( S a l a , 1981). In c o a s t a l a r e a s , barge mounted p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r s a r e a n o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e . Though most uses o f a p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r i n No r t h America have been as b u l k t e s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g m e t a l l u r g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r o p e r t i e s b e i n g a s s e s s e d f o r l a r g e mine p o t e n t i a l , use o f the c o n c e n t r a t o r f o r n o r t h w e s t B.C. i s b e i n g p r o p o s e d here as a p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s e r v i c i n g the many sma l l p r e c i o u s m e t a l s m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s o f the r e g i o n . In terms o f g e o l o g i c a l development many a r e a s o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i o n s i n t o o l d e r s e d i m e n t a r y and v o l c a n i c r o c k s , r e s u l t i n g i n s m a l l , f a u l t e d o r v e i n - l i k e m i n e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s , o f t e n o f economic s i g n i f i c a n c e ( K e r b y , September, 1984). Many o f t h e s e s o - c a l l e d " h y d r o t h e r m a l d e p o s i t s , " r e s u l t i n g from " c o n t a c t metamorphism," a r e o f i n t e r e s t because t h e y c o n t a i n h i g h grades o f the p r e c i o u s m e t a l s o f g o l d and s i l v e r . These p r o p e r t i e s a r e a l s o o f i n t e r e s t because many a r e l o c a t e d near t h e l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s o f the r e g i o n i n c l u d i n g S m i t h e r s , S t e w a r t , H a z e l t o n and T e r r a c e . A c c e s s t o t h e s e m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s i s o f t e n a l r e a d y p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h f o r e s t r y development o r mines a c c e s s r o a d s . In a d d i t i o n , many o f t h e s e m i n e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s have been e x p l o r e d o r d e v e l o p e d i n the p a s t p r o v i d i n g c o s t s a v i n g s i n new e x p l o r a t i o n work 180. w h i l e s u p p o r t i n g the l i k e l i h o o d o f e n c o u n t e r i n g f u r t h e r m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s w i t h p o t e n t i a l f o r economic e x p l o i t a t i o n . Many o f the d e p o s i t s a r e t o o s m a l l t o j u s t i f y c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an ore d r e s s i n g f a c i l i t y on s i t e , which i s the most common and e f f i c i e n t method o f m i n i n g . Because t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s i n the n o r t h w e s t t o move b u l k commodities t o a s m e l t e r a r e p r o h i b i t i v e , and t h e n e a r e s t s m e l t e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s a t T r a i l , w i t h o u t c o n c e n t r a t i o n t h e o n l y o p t i o n f o r the s m a l l p r o p e r t y h o l d e r i s t o hand s o r t o r e . T h i s means t h a t o n l y t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e d p i e c e s a r e s e l e c t e d ( i . e . h i g h g r a d i n g ) which can l e a d t o i n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n r e s o u r c e use. The custom c o n c e n t r a t o r a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o p r o v i d e o r e p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n a r e g i o n o f s m a l l d e p o s i t s o f s i m i l a r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n and o p e r a t e d on a t o l l c h a r g e b a s i s . High c a p i t a l c o s t s f o r equipment a r e reduced f o r the p r o p e r t y owners, cash f l o w problems a r e improved because the s m a l l mine can g e n e r a t e revenue a t a v e r y e a r l y s t a g e i n development and t h i r d l y , custom c o n c e n t r a t o r s can be s t i l l used as b u l k t e s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o p e r m i t b e t t e r d e l i n e a t i o n o f m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s and r e s o u r c e c h e m i s t r y . Where a m i n i n g company chooses t o own and o p e r a t e i t s own p o r t a b l e m i l l , the company can t a k e "advantage o f lower o f f - s i t e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , " and can a n t i c i p a t e t h r o u g h r e - s a l e v a l u e " g r e a t e r r e c a p t u r e o f t h e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t upon c e s s a t i o n o f mine o p e r a t i o n s " (B.C. M i n e r a l  Q u a r t e r l y , volume 2, 1986:11). R e c l a m a t i o n expenses may a l s o be r e d u c e d (B.C. M i n e r a l Q i i a r t e r l y , volume 2, 1986:11). 181. As t o o l s t o a s s i s t r e g i o n a l development the custom c o n c e n t r a t o r and development o f s m a l l mines a r e proposed as a r e a t t r a c t i v e by the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t because s k i l l s a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e i n t h e r e g i o n c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h i s i n d u s t r y . M o r e o v e r , s m a l l e r t e c h n o l o g i e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the p a r t i c u l a r g e o l o g y o f the n o r t h w e s t , the s i z e o f the c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t i s w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f r e s i d e n t s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t and, f i n a l l y , s m a l l mines development would a s s i s t d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and economic s t a b i l i t y o f the r e g i o n . Custom c o n c e n t r a t o r s c o u l d be owned and o p e r a t e d by a c o o p e r a t i v e o f m i n e r a l c l a i m h o l d e r s o r be government owned and o p e r a t e d a t c o s t ( K e r b y , 1984:10). In M e x i c o , f o r example, a c o u n t r y which has a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d s m a l l mine s e c t o r , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g government p r e s e n c e i n many a s p e c t s o f the i n d u s t r y . T h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n c l u d e s a s s i s t a n c e i n e x p l o r a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n o f r e g i o n a l c o n c e n t r a t o r s ( S a l a s , 1980:279-285). O t h e r n a t i o n s have e s t a b l i s h e d government m a r k e t i n g a g e n c i e s f o r m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t e s ( U n i t a r , 1980). Ownership o f a p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r i s a c r i t i c a l i s s u e as under c o n d i t i o n s o f monopoly the mine owners can become s u b s e r v i e n t t o the custom m i l l o p e r a t o r . T h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n o l o g i e s a v a i l a b l e which employ the custom m i l l c o n c e p t . The most l i k e l y systems which would be used i n the n o r t h w e s t owing t o the p o l y m e t a l l i c o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would be f l o t a t i o n systems o r p o s s i b l y g r a v i m e t r i c s y s t e m s . A b u l k c o n c e n t r a t e would be produced c o n t a i n i n g s e v e r a l m e t a l s . L e a d , z i n c 182. and s i l v e r o r c o p p e r and g o l d , f o r example, a r e o f t e n d i s c o v e r e d i n a s s o c i a t i o n . As many o r e s o f the r e g i o n c o n t a i n a r s e n i c , i t would be p r e f e r a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a s t a t i o n a r y r e g i o n a l m i l l r a t h e r than a p o r t a b l e m i l l v i s i t i n g numerous mine s i t e s . By d e l i v e r i n g o r e s s h o r t d i s t a n c e s t o a c e n t r a l p l a c e , t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l would be much more manageable. The most e x t r a v a g a n t o f the p o r t a b l e m i l l s c o s t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y $3 m i l l i o n C a n a d i a n ( S a l a , 1981). S u b s t a n t i a l l y c h e a p e r systems a r e a v a i l a b l e o r an e n t e r p r i s i n g d e v e l o p e r c o u l d f a b r i c a t e a system u s i n g used equipment which i s p r e s e n t l y w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e . In the n o r t h w e s t , p r e c i o u s metal grades a r e v e r y h i g h , such t h a t grades e x c e e d i n g 1 o z . o f g o l d p e r ton o f r o c k a r e n o t uncommon. In a h y p o t h e t i c a l c a s e , assume t h a t 20,000 tons a r e p r e s e n t g r a d i n g .5 o z . / t o n . Over 400 w o r k i n g days ( l e s s than two y e a r s ) 10,000 ounces o f g o l d c o u l d be produced a t a r a t e o f 50 t o n s / d a y . A t $300 U.S./oz o f g o l d , t h i s p r o p e r t y has an i n s i t u v a l u e o f $3 m i l l i o n U.S. For a s m a l l company, t h i s s i m p l e a r i t h m e t i c may be the b e g i n n i n g o f a v i a b l e b u s i n e s s . However, a p r o d u c t i o n r a t e o f 50 t o n s / d a y i s a v e r y s m a l l mine by t o d a y ' s i n d u s t r y s t a n d a r d s (some would say a n y t h i n g i n the N o r t h American i n d u s t r y below 500 t o n s / d a y i s a s m a l l mine) and a l a r g e r m i n i n g company w i t h h i g h o v e r h e a d c o s t s demanding h i g h r e t u r n s on i n v e s t e d c a p i t a l w i l l r a r e l y c o n s i d e r t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y . 183. Though m i n i n g has h i s t o r i c a l l y been a t a s m a l l s c a l e ( U n i t a r , 1980), t h e p r e v a i l i n g s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m i n i n g i n d u s t r y i n N o r t h America i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s m a l l number o f v e r y l a r g e companies engaged i n c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e , l a r g e s c a l e m i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . Small s c a l e m i n i n g i s most l i k e l y t o be p u r s u e d by j u n i o r m i n i n g companies, f a m i l y o p e r a t i o n s o r i n d i v i d u a l s . I t can be c o n j e c t u r e d t h a t the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e o f the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y p r e v e n t s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s m a l l s c a l e o p p o r t u n i t y i n s e v e r a l ways: 1. By p a y i n g h i g h wages l a r g e r mines a t t r a c t the l i m i t e d m i n i n g e x p e r t i s e . 2. A momentum i s formed drawing r e s e a r c h monies, t r a i n i n g and t e c h n o l o g i c a l development i n t o e x a m i n i n g m i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s from a c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t economic models used to c a l c u l a t e t h e v i a b i l i t y o f mines ( i e . l a r g e mines) do not a p p l y t o the s m a l l e r p r o p e r t y and t h e r e f o r e may show on paper t h a t an economic s m a l l mine i s uneconomic ( G l a n v i l l e , 1984). 3. The i n f l u e n c e o f l a r g e r m i n i n g companies on government p o l i c y and government a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s h i n d e r s the r e b i r t h o f s m a l l mine development. Small s c a l e m i n i n g need not be seen as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o l a r g e s c a l e , c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e m i n i n g but can c o e x i s t w i t h l a r g e m i n i n g . The s u p p o s i t i o n here i s t h a t p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s on m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e development c o n s t r a i n the development o f s m a l l s c a l e 184. m i n i n g . By f a c i l i t a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w s among s u c c e s s f u l e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g , i n d u s t r y l e a d e r s and p o l i c y makers, t h e K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t attempted t o have t h i s economic o p p o r t u n i t y r e - e v a l u a t e d . F i n a l l y , w h i l e the d i s c u s s i o n t h u s f a r has been about a p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n o l o g y , and t h i s t e c h n o l o g y was the c e n t e r p i e c e o f a p r o m o t i o n a l s t r a t e g y by t h e Economic Development Commission, i n a c t u a l i t y , the custom c o n c e n t r a t o r was used as a v e h i c l e t o encourage a new i n d u s t r y . I t was t h e t e c h n i q u e o f s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g which was o f g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e , n o t the s p e c i f i c t e c h n o l o g y b e i n g promoted. T h i s l e a v e s t h e d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the a d o p t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n o l o g i e s a t the mine s i t e up t o the i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r . S i m i l a r l y , i t became the o p i n i o n o f the Economic Development Commission s t a f f t h a t f o r s m a l l m i n i n g t o d e v e l o p , o t h e r problems beyond t h e t e c h n i c a l had t o be s o l v e d . T h i s i n c l u d e d the need t o enhance t h e s k i l l s o f p r o s p e c t o r s , g e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y s and amendments t o t a x a t i o n p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g the s m a l l m i n e r . However, a l l t h e s e i s s u e s were p i g g y - b a c k e d onto p r o m o t i o n o f t h e custom c o n c e n t r a t o r i d e a , m o s t l y t o g i v e a s i m p l e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f what c o u l d be done t o enhance the r e g i o n a l economy and t o r e n d e r the problems o f the s m a l l m i n e r s i m p l e r and b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d by a w i d e r a u d i e n c e . 

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