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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Planning Northwest British Columbia economic development : a comparative study Webber, Andrew J. M. 1987

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PLANNING NORTHWEST BRITISH COLUMBIA . ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY By ANDREW J . M. WEBBER B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1987 © A n d r e w J . M. Webber, 1987  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree that for  that  Library  s h a l l make  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  copying or  f i n a n c i a l gain  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  understood  the  shall  g r a n t e d by  the  not  be  of  this  this  and R e g i o n a l Studies  Date  April  9,  1987  M,  Planning  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  J.  Columbia  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Andrew  thesis  head o f  representatives. publication  further  permission.  S c h o o l o f Community F a c u l t y of Graduate  the  I agree that  permission by  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  department or for  in partial  Webber  written  ii  PLANNING NORTHWEST BRITISH COLUMBIA ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY  ABSTRACT: The t h e s i s is; a r e t r o s p e c t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f two economic their  r e s p e c t i v e planning processes, undertaken  d u r i n g the same time p e r i o d . is northwestern  p l a n s and  f o r the same a r e a  The g e o g r a p h i c s e t t i n g f o r the t h e s i s  B r i t i s h Columbia.  The time p e r i o d c o v e r e d by  the  The t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s the d i f f e r e n c e s which can o c c u r between the  two  r e v i e w i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1980 t o 1985.  p l a n s and  searches  f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s  which  seem to a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . The economic p l a n produced by the  British  regional  Columbia  provincial  government  recommends  a  future  economy based on l a r g e - s c a l e , c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e t e c h n o l o g y  and f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f the r e g i o n w i t h a w o r l d economy. p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s used was  c e n t r a l i z e d and t e c h n o c r a t i c .  p l a n , produced by the r e g i o n a l Economic  The  other  Development Commission,  also  recommends f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n but i s o r i e n t e d towards community  development  locally-controlled)  and  appropriate  technology.  The  The  plan  (i.e. is  sustained  small-scale,  informed  by  a  locally-based, p a r t i c i p a t o r y process.  C a t e g o r i e s f o r comparing r e g i o n a l development  the two p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s a r e drawn from  planning l i t e r a t u r e , planning theory l i t e r a t u r e  and r e v i e w o f the c a s e s t h e m s e l v e s . a r e employed  Nine p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s  i n the a n a l y s i s . The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s t h a t the c r i t i c a l  p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s which a f f e c t the c o n t e n t o f the p l a n s a r e : the l e v e l  of public participation  i n each  p r o c e s s , the manner i n  which c o n t r o l o v e r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s c e n t r a l i z e d o r d e c e n t r a l i z e d , and t h e s p a t i a l  i n t e r e s t o f key a c t o r s .  The s t u d y method u s e d , an  ex p o s t  case  can  facto  study,  however,  only  infer  causal  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p r o c e s s and p l a n v a r i a b l e s ; i t does n o t p r o v i d e c e r t a i n knowledge o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS:  Abstract  i i  L i s t o f Tables  viii  L i s t of Figures  ix  Acknowledgement  x  CHAPTER ONE:  1  INTRODUCTION  Purpose o f T h e s i s  1  Study Methods  2  Sources o f I n f o r m a t i o n  4  A n a l y t i c a l Approach  5  Organization of Thesis  7  CHAPTER TWO:  DETERMINATION OF CATEGORIES OF ANALYSIS  9  F u n c t i o n a l and T e r r i t o r i a l Development  10  S e l e c t i o n o f Plan Categories  16  S e l e c t i o n o f Process Categories  17  C h a p t e r Summary  21  V  CHAPTER THREE: THE NORTHWEST REGION  23  D e f i n i t i o n s o f the Northwest Region  24  The Economy o f N o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  28  Physiography  28  Economic H i s t o r y  29  Transportation Infrastructure  32  P o p u l a t i o n and Income L e v e l s  34  The L o c a l Economies  36  The Contemporary R e g i o n a l Economy  39  Major Projects Inventory  46  The S h o r t - T e r m P o l i c y S o l u t i o n s  47  CHAPTER FOUR: THE PROVINCE'S PLANNING PROCESS AND PLAN  52  The Need F o r an Economic S t r a t e g y  52  The V a l u e o f t h e P l a n  55  The C a b i n e t T o u r s  57  A Model f o r Development  63  The N o r t h w e s t Economic Development S t u d i e s  65  Review  73  CHAPTER F I V E : THE REGIONAL DISTRICT PLANNING PROCESS AND PLAN P o l i t i c a l / I n s t i t u t i o n a l Context R e l a t i o n s h i p s With O t h e r R e g i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s  75 76 85  Chambers o f Commerce/Business I n f o C e n t r e s  86  Skeena Manpower Development Committee  87  B.C. M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r  89  Employment Development B r a n c h  89  vi  F e d e r a l B u s i n e s s Development Bank  90  Municipalities  90  T e n s i o n i n the I n s t i t u t i o n a l Environment  94  Legitimacy C r i s i s  95  Polarized Politics  96  Restraint Politics  97  Description of Planning Process  98  T e c h n o c r a t i c Approach  98  P a r t i c i p a t o r y Approach  106  The Emerging P l a n  115  P l a n Implementation  115  CHAPTER SIX: Comparison  ANALYSIS  128  o f Economic P l a n s  128  Approach to T e c h n o l o g y  128  Spatial Closure vs. Functional Integration  131  Comprehensive  132  or Sectoral Plans  V i s i o n a r y or Incremental Plans  132  S u s t a i n e d Community Development  134  Comparison  of Planning Processes  135  P l a n n i n g Mandates  136  Centralized vs. Decentralized Control  139  Degree o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n  140  Spatial Interest  142  Timing of Process  145  D e t e r m i n i s t i c or F l u i d Process  146  R o l e o f Development Model  147  vii  Background o f P l a n n e r s  148  Role of Planner  148  Causal R e l a t i o n s h i p s  153  P l a n n i n g Mandates  154  Centralized vs. Decentralized Control  157  Degree o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n  158  Spatial Interest  158  Timing o f Process  159  D e t e r m i n i s t i c or F l u i d Process  159  R o l e o f Development Model  160  Background o f P l a n n e r s  160  Role o f Planner  161  CHAPTER SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS  162  BIBLIOGRAPHY  167  APPENDIX ONE:  AN APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY:  THE PORTABLE MINERAL CONCENTRATOR  178  viii  LIST OF TABLES:  1.  F u n c t i o n a l and T e r r i t o r i a l Development  15  2.  P o p u l a t i o n o f M a j o r Communities, 1981  35  3.  A v e r a g e M o n t h l y Unemployment I n s u r a n c e C l a i m a n t s i n C.E.I.C. Skeena D i s t r i c t and S p e c i f i e d A r e a s w i t h i n D i s t r i c t  42  4.  Regional D i s t r i c t of Kitimat-Stikine: A s s e s s m e n t 1981 - 1985  42  5.  C a b i n e t Committee on Economic Development, 1982  57  6.  K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t B o a r d , 1984  78  7.  Economic Development Commission:  93  8.  Comparison o f Economic P l a n s  129  9.  Comparison o f P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s e s  137  0  Tax L e v y Revenues  ix  LIST OF FIGURES: 1.  K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (Map)  25  2.  B.C. Government P l a n n i n g A r e a (Map)  27  3.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I n f r a s t r u c t u r e (Map)  33  4.  P r o v i n c i a l Government P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s :  5.  I n t e r m i n i s t r y W o r k i n g Group S t r u c t u r e  6.  Regional D i s t r i c t Planning Process:  7.  Causal R e l a t i o n s h i p s : P l a n & P r o c e s s V a r i a b l e s  Timetable  53 67  Timetable  99 155  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:  In p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s I am i n d e b t e d t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and i n s i g h t p r o v i d e d by P e t e r B o o t h r o y d , G e r a l d Hodge and Brahm Wiesman o f t h e School o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . In T e r r a c e , a l o n g overdue acknowledgment i s owed John P o u s e t t e o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , and t o o u r f e l l o w e m p l o y e e s , whose s u p p o r t has been i n s t r u m e n t a l . S p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n must a l s o be accorded L i s a Davis f o r enduring typing o f t h i s t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , I wish t o r e c o g n i z e Norma Kerby, who f i r s t saw t h e p o t e n t i a l i n s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g development, l a t e r c o n v i n c e d me o f i t s v a l u e , b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s c a n a c c r u e from community-based economic p l a n n i n g .  I.  PLANNING NORTHWEST BRITISH COLUMBIA ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY  CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION  Purpose o f T h e s i s : D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f 1981 t o 1985 two economic p l a n s were f o r northwestern the  second  produced and  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — o n e by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government,  by a  regional  economic  different.  processes  which g e n e r a t e d  The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n  authority.  l a r g e r economic system. centralized  planning  Commission's  i s o r i e n t e d towards l a r g e - s c a l e ,  plan  and i s g u i d e d  r e g i o n as a h i n t e r l a n d o r p a r t o f a  The p l a n i s t h e outcome o f a t e c h n o c r a t i c , process.  more  The r e g i o n a l  explicitly  Economic  Development  r e f l e c t s a conception  o f the  ( a n d i t s i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n i t i e s ) as an i n t e g r a l , o r g a n i c  u n i t and promotes s u s t a i n e d community d e v e l o p m e n t . plan advocates  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s  small s c a l e o r a p p r o p r i a t e technology.  plan i s informed regional  Though  them a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n t e n s i v e r e s o u r c e development ( m e g a - p r o j e c t s )  by a p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e n o r t h w e s t  northwest  planning  f o r t h e same a r e a d u r i n g t h e same time p e r i o d , t h e two p l a n s  the planning  capital  compiled  through  The r e g i o n a l  a l o c a l , p a r t i c i p a t o r y process.  and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s , however, p r o c l a i m  r e s p e c t i v e economic o b j e c t i v e s , can be a c h i e v e d  Both t h e that t h e i r  v i a the functional  i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e n o r t h w e s t economy w i t h a g l o b a l economy.  T h i s t h e s i s i s a comparison  o f t h e s e two p l a n s and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  planning  purpose  processes.  The  i s to i d e n t i f y the  critical  2.  variables  i n the planning  divergence  between  processes  t h e two  which  plans.  The  seem  to account f o r  thesis  will  describe  v a r i a t i o n s which can emerge i n p l a n s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e same a r e a a t about  t h e same time and w i l l  p r o c e s s e s which  seem t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s .  of t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l certainty,  a l l o w us t o p r o j e c t , though  t h e outcomes  of planning  i n g r e d i e n t s o f such p r o c e s s e s . planners  identify differences i n the planning  processes  The f i n d i n g s  not p r e d i c t with by r e v i e w i n g  the  T h e s e f i n d i n g s may a l s o r e v e a l t o  how d e s i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such  as s u s t a i n a b l e community  development o r a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n o l o g y might be c o n s i d e r e d i n a p l a n through a d j u s t m e n t s t o p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  Knowing  how we  arrive at specific  kinds  of plans  f o r economic  development s e r v e s an u l t i m a t e purpose  o f making r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  more  knowledge  e f f e c t i v e and r e l e v a n t . uncover  "new  This  avenues  may  lead  which  John  planners  to  Friedmann  o f f e r s i s necessary f o r regional planning to maintain i t s  " l e g i t i m a t e m i s s i o n " (Friedmann,  f o r development,"  further  1981:15).  Study Methods:  The t h e s i s i s a r e t r o s p e c t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f two economic development p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s and p l a n s . it statistical.  The s t u d y i s n o t e x p e r i m e n t a l n o r i s  I n s t e a d , t h e t h e s i s r e l i e s upon i n - d e p t h n a r r a t i v e  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e two c a s e s as t h e b a s i s f o r comparing  the processes  3.  and  plans.  The  thesis  components  of  respective  regional  three  the  then  planning and  i n f e r s causal processes  relationships  and  characteristics  provincial plans.  The  1)  a c o m p a r i s o n o f the two  2)  a c o m p a r i s o n o f the two p l a n n i n g  3)  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  and how" "why"  planning  processes  process  characteristics  (causal) drawn  regional  the  plans  "causal"  simultaneously  in i t s investigation what, when, where  ( d e s c r i p t i v e ) and then  contain  different  planning  a  review  of  literature.  regional  development  In a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l  provide  i n f o r m e d judgements about the  planning  (e.g.  acknowledged l i m i t a t i o n s .  processes  and  complete a u t h o r i t y small-scale  planning  process  r e s u l t i n g plans.  causal The  (Emory, processes  literature  and  categories  are  s u g g e s t e d by the c a s e s t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h a f t e r - t h e - f a c t  s t u d y method has  consider  outcomes  The c a t e g o r i e s c h o s e n f o r comparing p l a n s and from  which  plans)  The paper w i l l r e l a t e the "who,  of the p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s  1980:91,93).  with  in  plans  t h e s i s i s both " d e s c r i p t i v e " and  (Emory, 1980:84).  The  the  stages:  e x p l a i n the v a r i a t i o n s between the two  are  of  analysis unfolds  a f f e c t the outcomes i n the p l a n s (and which  The  between  observation.  F i r s t , i t can relationships  only  between  t h e s i s cannot conclude  t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the economic  plans  t e c h n o l o g y ) are n e c e s s a r i l y the r e s u l t o f c e r t a i n elements  (e.g.  locally-based,  participatory  4.  process).  The v a l i d i t y o f the c a s e s t u d y c o n c l u s i o n s i s d e p e n d e n t  upon the  comprehensive coverage  allow  the  reader  given  in  the  o f the  narrative, i t s ability  to e l i m i n a t e a l t e r n a t i v e explanations  thesis  conclusions  and  the  author's  from  to  those  impartiality.  However, t h i s s t u d y can p r o v i d e c a t e g o r i e s o f a n a l y s i s f o r t e s t i n g i n f u t u r e case s t u d i e s .  A  second  limitation is  generalizable. accurate  an  not  be  Though t h i s t h e s i s a s p i r e s t o p r o v i d e as complete  and  account  variables  in  the  resulting  plans,  information.  that  as  study  possible  planning the  the  of  processes  conclusions  conclusions  the and  are  may  relationships  between  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  still  based  upon  the  limited  O n l y two c a s e s a r e b e i n g r e v i e w e d i n t h i s paper.  Sources of Information:  Principal  sources  of  information  government's  plan  publications,  culminating  Economic  and  Development  consulted  in  the  for  description  process  are  a  i n the  1983  p r i n t i n g o f The  Many  government  Studies. preparation  of  this  series  of  thesis  the  of  government Northwest  officials but  B.C.  were  systematic,  s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s were not p a r t o f the r e s e a r c h method.  Personal  communications are r e f e r e n c e d i n the t e x t .  Sources  of  information  f o r d e s c r i p t i o n of  the  regional  planning  5.  p r o c e s s are p u b l i s h e d and  i n t e r n a l documents o f the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e  Regional  District.  Economic  Regional  D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e i s the agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  The  the r e g i o n a l economic p l a n .  Development  The a u t h o r was  Commission  of  the  an economic development  o f f i c e r f o r the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and i n v o l v e d i n a l l a s p e c t s o f the economic s t r a t e g y .  Knowledge g a i n e d d u r i n g t h i s e x p e r i e n c e  augments  printed information.  A n a l y t i c a l Approach:  The  purpose  o f the  categories  for  corresponding  following chapter  analyzing  processes.  the In  i s to e s t a b l i s h appropriate  two the  economic  plans  analysis  five  and  dimensions  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p l a n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and compared. f o l l o w e d by a comparison criteria. then  be  according  c a t e g o r i e s , the purpose characteristics.  The  or  This i s  o f the p r o c e s s e s a c c o r d i n g to n i n e s e l e c t e d  Differences or s i m i l a r i t i e s analyzed  their  to  the  between the two various  plans  planning  process  b e i n g t o a t t r i b u t e p l a n outcomes t o plan  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are  the  will  process  dependent  v a r i a b l e s ; the p r o c e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are the independent v a r i a b l e s .  John P i a t t has l a b e l l e d t h i s r e s e a r c h approach method ( i n Emory, 1980:103).  the " s t r o n g i n f e r e n c e "  "The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s method c a l l s  f o r the r e s e a r c h e r to d e v e l o p m u l t i p l e hypotheses a  phenomenon"  (Emory,  1980:103).  by which t o e x p l a i n In  other  words,  6.  t h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n s i d e r a wide range o f p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c a t e g o r i e s i n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n p l a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Those which  cannot  eliminated  1980:104).  This  are  the b e s t e x p l a n a t i o n s o f c a u s e s  approach  "reduces  attachment  (and  (Emory,  potential  bias)  of  be  the  r e s e a r c h e r f o r a g i v e n h y p o t h e s i s " (Emory, 1980:103).  Examples o f p l a n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o be c o n s i d e r e d a r e the r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l approaches to  local  to s c a l e of technology,  community  sustainability  economic  structure.  Important  employed  r e f e r to p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n methods, p l a n n e r  centralized  and  and. approaches  planning  with  process  approaches respect  to  v a r i a b l e s to  be  roles  d e c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l o v e r the p l a n n i n g  processes.  These c a t e g o r i e s , both f o r the p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s , emerge from regional  planning  S t o h r , 1981)  literature  (Friedmann  and  ( S t o h r and T o d t l i n g , 1979),  Weaver, 1979)  planning theory  (Gunton, 1984) and from r e v i e w o f the c a s e s  two  p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s .  processes  process  Equal t r e a t m e n t  i s not g i v e n i n t h i s paper.  in a regional institutional  section  is  provided  which  The  Regional  environment.  describes  (Walter literature  a  comparison  i n d e s c r i b i n g the  i s s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by c o m p e t i t i o n among l o c a l  agencies  the  themselves.  A p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n must be noted i n the o f t h e two  and  regional  District government  Thus, a lengthy political  and  institutional  c o n t e x t i n which  the Economic Commission i s o b l i g a t e d  to f u n c t i o n .  On the o t h e r hand i t i s assumed t h a t s i m i l a r f a c t o r s do  not a f f e c t the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n . conflicts  which  might  have  However, the w r i t e r was not p r i v y to  arisen  i n the  provincial cabinet  or  7.  bureaucracy  and  which  may  have  a f f e c t e d the  plan  for  northwest  d e v e l opment.  Organization of Thesis:  T h i s paper c o m p r i s e s  seven c h a p t e r s and one appendix.  i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r , i s C h a p t e r Two, used  i n which the c a t e g o r i e s t o be  i n c o m p a r i n g the p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s  T h r e e , e n t i t l e d "The N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n " , economy o f n o r t h w e s t e r n  Following this  are i d e n t i f i e d .  d e s c r i b e s the  B r i t i s h Columbia,  resource-based  the r e g i o n ' s  physiography,  i t s economic h i s t o r y and the c o n t e m p o r a r y p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t . Four  and  Chapter  Chapters  F i v e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e n a r r a t i v e s on the p r o v i n c i a l  and  r e g i o n a l economic p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s and t h e i r r e s u l t i n g p l a n s .  The  comparison  the  o f p l a n s and p r o c e s s e s  most i m p o r t a n t  i s made i n C h a p t e r  f i n d i n g s summarized and  c h a p t e r , C h a p t e r Seven.  discussed  Six, with  i n the  concluding  C h a p t e r Seven a l s o r e c o r d s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  further research.  The  Appendix  provides  more  detailed ^information  mineral concentrator concept.  technology  plan.  is  technology  the  portable  The p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r i s the b e s t  example o f an a p p r o p r i a t e This  on  as a d v o c a t e d  usually  a  truck  i n the r e g i o n a l transportable  ore  p r o c e s s i n g u n i t , which c o u l d be used to s e r v i c e the numerous, s m a l l but t y p i c a l l y u n u t i l i z e d p r e c i o u s m e t a l s The  term  "appropriate"  is  applied  d e p o s i t s i n the because  the  northwest.  technology  is  8.  compatible  with  entrepreneurial residents. a r e terms  worker interest  skill and  levels financial  in  the  capacity  region, of  local  northwest  " A p p r o p r i a t e " , " a l t e r n a t i v e " and " s m a l l s c a l e " t e c h n o l o g y used  i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n t h i s paper.  control over technology.  A l l engender  local  9.  CHAPTER TWO:,  DETERMINATION OF CATEGORIES OF ANALYSIS  The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e c a t e g o r i e s t o be used  i n comparing t h e two p l a n s and t h e two p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s .  Literature  from regional  development p l a n n i n g w i l l  enable a l i s t i n g of relevant plan c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  be employed t o This  literature  f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s some o f t h e c r i t i c a l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s v a r i a b l e s t o be examined.  The c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f two a l t e r n a t i v e development models c i t e d i n t h e r e g i o n a l development l i t e r a t u r e .  By e x a m i n i n g a  d e b a t e f r o m r e g i o n a l development p l a n n i n g between "development from above"  and  "development  from  below"  (Stohr & Todtling,  1979),  (Friedmann & Weaver, 1979), ( S t o h r & F r a s e r , 1981), a framework f o r comparing t h e two p l a n s i s e s t a b l i s h e d .  S p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s t o be  used i n t h e a n a l y s i s emerge from t h i s framework ( s e e T a b l e 1 ) .  The same l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be r e v i e w e d t o i d e n t i f y some o f t h e p l a n n i n g process v a r i a b l e s . theorist  Tom  An a r t i c l e on p l a n n e r r o l e s w r i t t e n by p l a n n i n g  Gunton  will  Importantly, not a l l plan l i n k e d t o any l i t e r a t u r e . particular  cases.  also  be  c o n s i d e r e d (Gunton,  or process categories w i l l  1981).  be d i r e c t l y  S e v e r a l a r e s u g g e s t e d by r e v i e w i n g t h e two  The c h a p t e r t u r n s now t o an o v e r v i e w o f t h e  f u n c t i o n a l ( d e v e l o p m e n t from above) and t e r r i t o r i a l ( d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m below) development models.  10.  F u n c t i o n a l and T e r r i t o r i a l  Development:  Over t h e l a s t few d e c a d e s , t h e f u n c t i o n a l model has dominated s p a t i a l T a y l o r , 1981:1). by e x t e r n a l  integration  development  p l a n n i n g t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e (Stb'hr &  "The b a s i c h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t development i s d r i v e n  demand and i n n o v a t i o n  i m p u l s e s , and t h a t  from a few  dynamic s e c t o r a l o r g e o g r a p h i c c l u s t e r s development would, e i t h e r i n a s p o n t a n e o u s o r i n d u c e d way,  ' t r i c k l e down' t o t h e r e s t o f t h e  system" ( S t o h r & T a y l o r , 1981:1).  The model has o f t e n m a t e r i a l i z e d  as a growth c e n t r e o r growth p o l e s t r a t e g y . r e l i e s s t r o n g l y on n e o - c l a s s i c a l commodities economic  and f a c t o r s  efficiency  construction  The f u n c t i o n a l  economic t h e o r y ; thus m o b i l i t y o f  o f production i s advocated  (Stohr & Tb'dtling,  of transportation  model  1977:137).  and communications  to  increase  Often, the  systems a r e t h e  p r a c t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f such o b j e c t i v e s .  The based  assumption i s that areal on a fundamental  maximize  aggregate  geographically  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f economic  principle  growth,  activity,  o f comparative advantage,  Though  growth  c o n c e n t r a t e d , over time s p a t i a l  may  will  initially  inequalities  be would  d i m i n i s h as f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n seek l o c a t i o n s o f h i g h e s t r e t u r n . This  i s labelled  35).  "Such  externally  a d i v e r g e n c e - c o n v e r g e n c e syndrome  strategies,  oriented,  nature, capital  have  as  well  tended  as  being  t o be urban  (Hansen, 1981:  outward-looking or and i n d u s t r i a l  in  i n t e n s i v e , and dominated by h i g h t e c h n o l o g y and t h e  11.  ' l a r g e p r o j e c t ' a p p r o a c h " (Sttfhr & T a y l o r , 1981:1).  External  and  development)  are  s c a l e economies are thus c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s model.  "Development  'from  basic-needs  below  strategies (territorial  1  oriented,  regional-resource-based,  labor  on  the  'highest' technology"  scale, use  (Stohr & Taylor,  I n s t e a d o f " m a x i m i z i n g r e t u r n on s e l e c t e d f a c t o r s , " r e l y i n g p r i n c i p l e of  comparative  advantage  in  " i n t e g r a l r e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n " i s advocated first  small  o f t e n r u r a l - c e n t e r e d , and argue f o r the  o f ' a p p r o p r i a t e ' r a t h e r than 1981:1).  intensive,  (StShr,  1981:39).  A  paramount  a  global  economy,  t o s e r v e r e g i o n a l needs  objective  is  self-reliant  development.  Two  important  origins  of  c r i t i c i s m s of  functional  development  territorial  development  alternative:  the  explain  the  (1)  that  i n e q u a l i t i e s i n the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f r i c h and poor r e g i o n s have not been overcome by p r e s e n t r e g i o n a l p o l i c y and (2) t h a t functional  t i e s between  regions  may  worsen  increased  social well-being  u n d e r m i n i n g r e g i o n a l l y h e l d c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c v a l u e s , by disintegration processes,  local  o r through  territories. inherent  of  A  Concentrating  and  of  the  development  autonomy o f  model  'trickle-down'  or  begins  smaller  with  'spread  "an  effect'  o f p a s t development p o l i c i e s " ( S t o h r & T a y l o r , 1981:1). their  research  mostly  on  the  international  c r i t i c s of contemporary p r a c t i c e r e p o r t a widening of  causing  non-institutional social  the e r o s i o n o f p o l i t i c a l  territorial  distrust  expectations  non-market  by  disparities  between  rich  and  poor  scene,  not a c o n t r a c t i o n  nations  (Stohr  &  12. T o d t l i n g , 1977:137).  The  functional  development  decades by economic  model  theory.  has been  Development  sustained  f o r several  has become e q u a t e d w i t h  m a t e r i a l p r o g r e s s and i s measured by such m a r k e t - b a s e d i n d i c a t o r s as regional Walter  income o r employment Stohr  monolithic  argues  levels  that  this  (St'dhr & T o d t l i n g ,  model  "presumes  1977:141).  an  eventually  and u n i f o r m c o n c e p t o f d e v e l o p m e n t , v a l u e systems and  human h a p p i n e s s , which a u t o m a t i c a l l y o r by p o l i c y i n t e r v e n t i o n spread over the e n t i r e world"  By  contrast,  territorial  diversity  among  political  autonomy  accepts cultural  The model  based rise  (St'dhr, 1.981:41).  development  regions.  on to  the forms  further  give  of  conducive  to  the well-being o f c i t i z e n s .  functional  relationships  are hierarchical  social  and v a l u e  advocates  presumption  relationships  that  regional  territorial  organization Whereas  create  self-organization  social  systems  and s e l f - p o l i c i n g "  which  and " g u i d e d by operate  more  large-scale superior  a u t h o r i t i e s , " t h e s m a l l s c a l e human i n t e r a c t i o n s i n t e r r i t o r i a l usually  will  space  by  "informal  (StShr & Todtling,  1977:143).  Friedmann and Weaver d e s c r i b e t h e two forms o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h i s manner: The t e r r i t o r i a l f o r c e d e r i v e s from common bonds o f s o c i a l o r d e r f o r g e d by h i s t o r y w i t h i n a g i v e n p l a c e . Functional t i e s a r e based on mutual s e l f - i n t e r e s t . G i v e n i n e q u a l i t i e s at t h e s t a r t , a f u n c t i o n a l o r d e r i s always h i e r a r c h i c a l , a c c u m u l a t i n g power a t t h e t o p . T e r r i t o r i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , on t h e o t h e r hand, though t h e y w i l l be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n e q u a l i t i e s o f power, a r e tempered by mutual r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s which t h e members o f a t e r r i t o r i a l group c l a i m from one a n o t h e r (Friedmann & Weaver, 1979:7).  13.  Development  i n t h i s context  i s as much  a political  or cultural  phenomenon as i t i s d e f i n e d by e c o n o m i c s .  Functional  development  centralized planning" organizations 1981:41).  In  decentralized regions. "the  and  i s typically characterized  "top-down  ( L e e , 1981:121), l a r g e - s c a l e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e large-scale  comparison,  planning  r e d i s t r i b u t i v e mechanisms territorial  and p o l i t i c a l  St'dhr and T o d t l i n g s u g g e s t  right  by  of individuals  development  authority  (Stohr,  calls  t o be  vested  t h a t development s h o u l d  and s m a l l  groups  for in  include  to determine  their  immediate n a t u r a l and human e n v i r o n m e n t and t o e x e r t c o n t r o l on t h e influence  of external  influences  which  economic, t e c h n o l o g i c a l ,  affect  their  well-being"  c u l t u r a l and (Stohr  &  other  Tb'dtling,  1979:135).  T h i s o b j e c t i v e o f s e l f - r e l i a n t development i s t o be a c h i e v e d  through  a  between  strategy  of  "selective  spatial  closure."  t e r r i t o r i e s o f commodities, technology within these  Transfers  or capital will  be  assessed  c o m m u n i t i e s , n o t n e c e s s a r i l y w i t h a view t o m a x i m i z i n g  o v e r a l l economic e f f i c i e n c y , r a t h e r i n r e g a r d t o t h e a b i l i t y o f these exchanges spatial  to s a t i s f y basic-needs closure  natural  resource  "communalization  implies  some  form  use—described of  o f each  community.  o f ownership by  Friedmann  productive  wealth"  education  systems  Selective  or control and  (Friedmann  Weaver &  over as  Weaver,  1979:195).  Regional  control  over  and t e c h n o l o g y  i s also  14. f o r e s e e n (Stb'hr & T o d t l i n g , 1977:154).  T e c h n o l o g y would no l o n g e r  a  defined  determinant  development instrument  of  development  model) of  (as  but  would  "be  society"  (Stohr  &  reverted  under to  Todtling,  a  the  functional role  1977:154).  c l o s u r e , however, does not c o n n o t e o p p o s i t i o n  a  regional  context"  rather  than  of  an  Selective  to growth o b j e c t i v e s .  The s t r a t e g y promotes " i n c r e a s e d and i n t e g r a t e d r e s o u r c e in  be  mobilization  s e l e c t i v e resource  withdrawal  ( S t o h r , 1981:61).  The  territorial  different  functional  concepts  organization area.  and  of  perspectives  "space"  and  embrace  "system."  the s o c i a l system i s p e r c e i v e d  substantially In  territorial  as a p h y s i c a l l y bounded  I t i s a p o l i t i c a l community w i t h a c u l t u r e and h i s t o r y .  In a 1981  a r t i c l e on " c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , " John  Friedmann e n t i t l e s t h i s form o f community as " l i f e s p a c e . " compares t h i s c o n c e p t "economic model.  space" He  territorial  claims  o f space w i t h  which  dominates  that excessive  i n t e g r i t y ; "we  the a b s t r a c t and in  the  functional  He  then  discontinuous  functional  development  integration  undermines  can see the r e s u l t i n the d i s s o l u t i o n o f  l i f e s p a c e s and t h e i r p r o g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n to economic s p a c e . . . " (Friedmann,  1981:7).  In  functional  organization,  the  viewed as e s s e n t i a l l y u n b o u n d e d - - ! i m i t e d o n l y as a g l o b a l As  an a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t ,  economic space has  few  system  is  economy.  o f the human s c a l e  q u a l i t i e s one f i n d s i n n e i g h b o r h o o d s o r l o c a l communities where t i m e , p l a c e and c i r c u m s t a n c e two  cases,  are s h a r e d .  the r e a d e r w i l l  In the f o r t h c o m i n g  f i n d a p a r a l l e l i n how  review o f the  the p r o v i n c e  and  15.  r e g i o n p e r c e i v e d i f f e r e n t l y a n o r t h w e s t B.C. r e g i o n .  To summarize  this  section, the basic features  o f each model a r e  h i g h l i g h t e d i n T a b l e 1.  TABLE 1:  F u n c t i o n a l and T e r r i t o r i a l Development  F u n c t i o n a l Development  Territorial 1)  Development  promotes i n t e r n a l l y - o r i e n t e d economy ( i n t e r n a l i n n o v a t i o n impulses)  1)  promotes e x t e r n a l l y - o r i e n t e d economy ( e x t e r n a l demand f o r commodities) (Stohr £. T a y l o r , 1981)  2)  advocates s t r a t e g y t o reduce 2) b a r r i e r s to factor mobility, based on comparative advantage maxim (economic e f f i c i e n c y )  advocates s t r a t e g y of s e l e c t i v e s p a t i a l closure (integrated r e s o u r c e m o b i l i z a t i o n ) based on r e g i o n a l basic-needs i m p e r a t i v e s (vs. " s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y " ) (Friedmann & Weaver, 1979) ( S t o h r , 1981)  3)  supported by top-down decision-making & c e n t r a l ized planning (Lee, 1981)  3)  advocates r e g i o n a l c o n t r o l over n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e use, technology, e t c . ; d e c e n t r a l i z e d planning (Stohr, 1981)  4)  r e l y s upon p r i m a r i l y an economic concept o f development; r e l i a n c e on marketbased p r o c e s s e s  4)  a c c e p t s more d i v e r s e s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l concepts of development  5)  r e l y s upon l a r g e - s c a l e 5) i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r implementing policy  o r i e n t e d towards s m a l l e r s c a l e institutions  6)  dominated by h i g h e s t t e c h nology and l a r g e - s c a l e p r o j e c t approach; t e c h n o l o g y a "determinant" of d e v e l o p ment (Stohr & T o d t l i n g , 1977)  6)  promotes a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h nology approach; t e c h n o l o g y an "instrument" of s o c i e t y  7)  based on c o n c e p t i o n of unbounded, a b s t r a c t space (Friedmann, 1981)  7)  based on c o n c e p t i o n of bounded, t e r r i t o r i a l space  16.  Selection of Plan Categories:  The two economic  models as summarized i n T a b l e 1 a r e f a i r l y complex  a g g r e g a t i o n s o f i d e a s on the s u b s t a n c e o f economic planning process. pertinent  development  In d i s a g g r e g a t i n g t h e s e c o n c e p t s  to the  comparison  of the  case  study  and  two c a t e g o r i e s  plans  immediately  emerge.  F i r s t t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s , do the c a s e s t u d y p l a n s m a i n t a i n d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to t e c h n o l o g y ? promote  large  "determinant" technology  scale  technology  o f development,  and  views  Does one p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y and  consider  technology  w h i l e the o t h e r promotes  technology  as  an  "instrument  a  small s c a l e of society?"  S e c o n d l y , what a r e the c o n c l u s i o n s o f the two p l a n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the s p a t i a l c l o s u r e v s . f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n d i m e n s i o n ? plan  lean  towards  an  i n t e r n a l l y - o r i e n t e d economy  and  Does one the  other  towards an e x t e r n a l l y - o r i e n t e d economy?  Three  other  c a t e g o r i e s worth  examination  are  based  upon  d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c a s e s t u d y p l a n s t h e m s e l v e s . t h a t o f the p r o v i n c e , i s c o m p r e h e n s i v e ; in a p o l i c y implementation  this  phase to one economic  sector.  visionary  or  Another  incremental?  The  study  determine  a s p e c t o f the p l a n s i s whether t h e y Does one  plan,  o r s e c t o r a l and  Are t h e r e f a c t o r s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s which variation?  One  the r e g i o n a l p l a n i s l i m i t e d  s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e ask, a r e the p l a n s comprehensive why?  visible  p l a n e x p l o r e new  are  development  17.  a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i l e the o t h e r m a i n t a i n observation of  F i n a l l y , the  t h a t r e f l e c t e d i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n i s an a c t i v e p u r s u i t  solutions  to  such  diversification,  plan  regional  unemployment  assessment of a category regional  the s t a t u s quo?  contrasts  economic  and  uneven  This  as  lack  development,  with  the  province's,  i s arguably  a  i n which the  large-scale natural  p o l i c y which  does  not  of  requires  e n t i t l e d "community s u s t a i n a b i l i t y . "  agency a d v o c a t e s a p o l i c y o f c o n t i n u e d extraction.  problems  The latter  resource lead  to  To summarize, f i v e d i m e n s i o n s o r c o m p a r a t i v e p l a n c a t e g o r i e s w i l l  be  s u s t a i n e d development o f t h e n o r t h w e s t .  examined i n the a n a l y s i s  chapter:  1)  Approach to Technology  2)  S p a t i a l Closure vs. Functional  3)  Comprehensive or S e c t o r a l  4)  V i s i o n a r y o r Incremental  5)  Approach t o Community S u s t a i n a b i l i t y  S e l e c t i o n of Process  Integration  Plans Plans  Categories:  The  d i s c u s s i o n on t e r r i t o r i a l  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f some o f the p l a n n i n g  obvious  and  d i s t i n c t i o n between the  centralized  and  decentralized  f u n c t i o n a l development a l l o w s  two  process  variables.  for An  models i s t h e i r r e l i a n c e upon  planning.  However,  terms  such  as  18.  "bottom-up" and "top-down" p l a n n i n g , "development planning  from  often  mind.  above,"  generate  For instance,  and  only  "development from  below" and  " c e n t r a l i z e d " and " d e c e n t r a l i z e d " ill-defined  i s the only  images  i n the reader's  significant  f a c t o r that the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g o c c u r s i n t h e l o c a l community o r i n t h e political  and economic  centre?  Or  do  these  concepts  concern  t h e m s e l v e s as w e l l w i t h how d e c i s i o n making o c c u r s r a t h e r than s i m p l y where?  F o r example, t h e r e g i o n a l p r o c e s s depends upon a h i g h r a t e o f  public  involvement  within  the region.  participation  and  provincial capital.  of local  people,  The p r o v i n c e the planning  and t h e p r o c e s s relies  process  In t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n ,  much  is controlled  l e s s upon  public  i s c o n t r o l l e d from  the  t h e terms c e n t r a l i z e d and  decentralized r e f e r to control of the planning processes.  Is c o n t r o l  o v e r t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s l o c a l o r based i n t h e c e n t r e ?  A separate  category  of  in  the  analysis  will  examine  the  level  public  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each p r o c e s s .  The d i f f e r i n g c o n c e p t i o n s o f "space" o u t l i n e d i n t h e same d i s c u s s i o n on t h e f u n c t i o n a l and t e r r i t o r i a l models n e c e s s i t a t e a comparison how t h e n o r t h w e s t decision-makers  r e g i o n i s c o n c e i v e d o f i n each p r o c e s s .  on  Do t h e  overseeing the p r o v i n c i a l plan maintain a conception  o f a b s t r a c t space w h i l e t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n m a n i f e s t s a c o n c e p t i o n o f territorial  space?  What t h e r e f o r e i s t h e s p a t i a l  i n t e r e s t i n each  planning process?  A g a i n t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s t o be used i n t h e a n a l y s i s which  19.  are  independent  suggested  o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d but  d i r e c t l y from the two s t u d y c a s e s .  are  These c a t e g o r i e s a r e  l i s t e d below and the terms d e f i n e d : P l a n n i n g Mandates: There a r e d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r o v i n c i a l government and Economic Development Commission w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r l e g i s l a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r planning, t h e i r geographic j u r i s d i c t i o n s and r e s o u r c e s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l . D e s c r i b e d under the l a b e l , " p l a n n i n g mandates," a r e the economic p l a n s a f f e c t e d by d i f f e r e n c e s in these f a c t o r s ? Timing of Process: The two p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e u n d e r t a k e n o v e r d i f f e r e n t time periods. Does t h i s modest d i f f e r e n c e i n t i m i n g a f f e c t p l a n outcomes? D e t e r m i n i s t i c or F l u i d Process: Do t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s adopted seem to impose c o n c l u s i o n s about the r e g i o n ' s economic development f u t u r e , as r e c o r d e d i n the p l a n s . Or a r e t h e s e a d a p t a b l e p r o c e s s e s and open to c o n s i d e r i n g v a r i o u s development a l t e r n a t i v e s ? R o l e o f Development Models: Is e i t h e r p r o c e s s c o n s t r a i n e d by a p r e - c o n c e i v e d v i s i o n o r model o f economic d e v e l o p m e n t ? Background  of Planners:  A r e t h e r e i d e o l o g i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and/or o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p l a n n e r s i n v o l v e d which a f f e c t the p l a n outcomes? Role o f P l a n n e r s : Are t h e r e d i f f e r e n c e s between the two economic p l a n s which can be a s c r i b e d t o d i f f e r e n t r o l e s p l a n n e r s assume i n the two c a s e s ? With  r e s p e c t t o the l a s t c a t e g o r y , s e v e r a l terms w i l l  from a 1984 a r t i c l e i n Canadian Gunton. a  be e x t r a c t e d  P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w r i t t e n by  Tom  In "The R o l e o f the P r o f e s s i o n a l P l a n n e r , " Gunton c o n s t r u c t s  taxonomy  of  eight  alternative  roles  planners  can  20.  perform.  The  article  condenses  considerable  planning  theory  l i t e r a t u r e b u t i t s ' p u r p o s e i s t o d e s c r i b e i n r e a l i s t i c terms  planning  practice.  planners  P a r e n t h e t i c a l l y , h i s recommendations a r e t h a t  should not s t r i v e f o r a single, c o r r e c t r o l e but should accept the e x i s t i n g d i v e r s i t y o f approaches in various  and l e a r n which  roles are suitable  environments.  Gunton b e g i n s w i t h a common d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p l a n n e r as a t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t who uses s c i e n t i f i c r a t i o n a l i t y t o s o l v e s o c i a l problems. then  f a s h i o n s t h e a l t e r n a t e r o l e s from  arisen  over  comprehensive  the years  of this  t h e c r i t i c i s m s which  r o l e --  that rationality  t h a t p l a n n i n g o n l y performs  on b e h a l f o f t h e s t a t e .  have  i s not  enough, t h a t p l a n n i n g i s i n e f f e c t i v e i f s e p a r a t e d  decision-making,  He  from  a legitimation function  A t one extreme i s t h e " T e c h n o c r a t , "  above  p o l i t i c s and i d e o l o g y , who e s t a b l i s h e s s o c i e t a l g o a l s , d e f i n e s means and  implements  plans.  At  the other  extreme,  planning  as a  p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y v i r t u a l l y d i s a p p e a r s , r e p l a c e d by a c o n t i n u o u s d i a l o g u e between p l a n n e r and c l i e n t redundant to  i n " S o c i a l L e a r n i n g , " o r made  as " S o c i a l Reform" t r a n s f e r s power from p r o f e s s i o n a l e l i t e s  clients  Technocrat,  (Gunton, Public  1984:402,403). Servant,  Referee,  Agent, S o c i a l L e a r n e r and S o c i a l  Gunton's Advocate,  Reformer.  eight  roles are  Bureaucrat,  State  21.  C h a p t e r Summary:  T h i s c h a p t e r has i d e n t i f i e d  t h e c a t e g o r i e s which w i l l  be used t o  compare t h e two p l a n s f o r n o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a development and categories  to  compare  the  categories  chosen on which  two  planning processes.  t o base a c o m p a r i s o n between  The  five  the  two  They  are  economic p l a n s have been l a b e l l e d :  Nine  1)  Approach to Technology  2)  Spatial Closure vs. Functional Integration  3)  Comprehensive o r S e c t o r a l P l a n s  4)  V i s i o n a r y or Incremental Plans  5)  Approach t o Community S u s t a i n i b i l i t y  planning process categories  have  been  selected.  entitled:  1)  P l a n n i n g Mandates  2)  C e n t r a l i z e d v s . D e c e n t r a l i z e d C o n t r o l Over P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s  3)  Degree o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n  4)  Spatial  5)  Timing of Process  6)  Deterministic or F l u i d Process  7)  R o l e o f Development Models  8)  Background o f P l a n n e r  9)  Role of Planner  Interest  22.  The t h e s i s now commences t h e n a r r a t i v e p o r t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s w i t h a presentation  on t h e n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n .  C h a p t e r T h r e e p r o v i d e s an  economic h i s t o r y o f t h e n o r t h w e s t , i l l u m i n a t e s some o f t h e a r e a ' s economic problems and d e s c r i b e s a c o n t e m p o r a r y p l a n n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t .  23.  CHAPTER THREE:  THE NORTHWEST REGION  In t h i s c h a p t e r , an economic p r o f i l e o f n o r t h w e s t e r n is presented.  Recent  British  Columbia  economic c o n d i t i o n s , as a c o n t e x t t o economic  planning, are a l s o discussed.  N o r t h w e s t B.C. region.  i s not  a finite  geographic,  I t i s d e f i n e d a r b i t r a r i l y and d i f f e r e n t l y  p l a n s o f the p r o v i n c e and r e g i o n .  planning  process  are d i s c u s s e d .  of  the  economic  history  of  In the second  discusses  otherwise P r o f i l e of  1982.  Beginning  around  depression.  this material  High  1981  the  section,  the  region,  identifies  entitled,  unemployment was  overview  significant  g i v e s a demographic p r o f i l e municipalities.  i s drawn from  northwest  two  a condensed p r o f i l e o f  the economies o f i n d i v i d u a l  cited  i n the economic  The d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e s an  p h y s i o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s o f the n o r t h w e s t , and  political  r e g i o n s as d e f i n e d i n the  Economy o f N o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h Columbia,"  the r e g i o n a l economy i s o f f e r e d .  or  In the f i r s t o f f o u r s e c t i o n s o f  t h i s c h a p t e r , the d i f f e r e n t n o r t h w e s t  "The  cultural  the R e g i o n a l  subsided  into  Unless Economic  economic  a most s a l i e n t r e p e r c u s s i o n  but  permanent employment l o s s e s i n h i g h wage m a n u f a c t u r i n g  and  sector  contemporary  jobs  regional The  occurred.  These  aspects  economy are r e l a t e d i n more d e t a i l  final  overcoming  also  section  discusses  t h e s e employment  senior  problems.  of  the  primary  i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n .  governments'  policies  for  24.  S t a t i s t i c s i n s u p p o r t o f t h e n a r r a t i v e a r e p r o v i d e d but the r e a d e r i s c a u t i o n e d t h a t demographic typically based  flawed- or  on  perception  and economic  lacking. and  data f o r the northwest i s  Decision-making  intuition.  is therefore often  Terrace  area  statistics  p e r i o d i c a l l y w i l l be employed t o r e p r e s e n t t h e economic c o n d i t i o n s o f the e n t i r e northwest.  D e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e Northwest R e g i o n :  For t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and B.C. government for  northwest  development,  somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y .  the  northwest  B.C.  plans  region i s defined  T h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t i v e g e o g r a p h i c , p o l i t i c a l  o r c u l t u r a l e n t i t y o f n o r t h w e s t B.C..  I n t r o d u c e d onto a complex  of  mountain ranges and r i v e r systems i s t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t Stikine (Figure 1).  T h i s i s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t , a c r e a t i o n o f  the p r o v i n c i a l government. 40,000 m i l e s on t h e west communities and  the  i n a r e a (102,000 km ) 2  originates  i n the n o r t h .  The  major  o f the Regional D i s t r i c t are K i t i m a t , T e r r a c e , Stewart  District: to  and e x t e n d s from M i l b a n k e Sound  c o a s t t o t h e 58th p a r a l l e l  Hazel t o n s .  Regional Rupert  2  The K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t i s  Winnipeg,  Two  interprovincial  the Yellowhead Manitoba;  highways  t r a v e r s e the  Highway 16 e x t e n d s from P r i n c e  the  Stewart  i n K i t i m a t i n the s o u t h and  Highway j u s t n o r t h o f the Yukon b o r d e r .  C a s s i a r Highway  37  connects with the A l a s k a  25  26.  The  p o p u l a t i o n o f the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l  concentrated. 1981  census  F u l l y 31,400 p e o p l e  is dispersed  o f Canada, 1981).  in small  is highly  o f the R e g i o n a l  p o p u l a t i o n o f 42,400 r e s i d e i n the urban  T e r r a c e and K i t i m a t (Census population  (74%)  District  District  centres  of  The remainder o f the  s i n g l e i n d u s t r y communities  or  numerous s m a l l I n d i a n r e s e r v e s .  The  provincial  Kitimat-Stikine  plan  covers  Regional  a  District  larger  area  (Figure 2).  than  just  the  It includes Prince  Rupert and e n v i r o n s i n the west and extends n o r t h t o the Yukon b o r d e r by  including  the  matter-of-factly  unincorporated describes  this  S t i k i n e Region. area  as  The  follows:  province  "The  region  c o n s i s t s o f the S t i k i n e and K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e Census D i v i s i o n s t o g e t h e r with  S u b d i v i s i o n A o f the Skeena-Queen C h a r l o t t e Census D i v i s i o n "  (The  Northwest  Region,  1982:17).  (Census  division  and  regional  was  62,755,  d i s t r i c t boundaries are coterminous).  Total  population  in  1981  of  this  i n c l u d i n g 16,200 i n P r i n c e Rupert (The  Northwest  unincorporated.  Region,  northwest and  1,950  1982:21).  region  i n the S t i k i n e Region  The  Stikine  Region  is  L o c a l government s e r v i c e s i n t h i s a r e a a r e p r o v i d e d  e i t h e r i n company towns such as C a s s i a r by l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s ( B r i n c o M i n i n g L t d . ) o r from V i c t o r i a by the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l Affairs.  The  M i n i s t r y i s supported  commissions  i n the communities  by  local  advisory  o f Dease Lake and A t ! i n .  planning  Figure. 2:  B.C. GOVERNMENT PLANNING AREA  source: The Northwest  Region, 1982  28.  The p r o v i n c i a l development s t r a t e g y d i s t i n g u i s h e s between a p o p u l a t e d S o u t h e r n Zone and an u n d e v e l o p e d N o r t h e r n Zone (The New 1982:11).  Frontier,  The N o r t h e r n Zone i s t h e p o r t i o n from S t e w a r t n o r t h .  The  development model e n v i s a g e d by t h e p r o v i n c e , however, would a p p l y t o the e n t i r e n o r t h w e s t q u a d r a n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  The Economy o f N o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a :  Physiography:  The m a j o r g e o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s o f n o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h Columbia a r e a series  of northwest-southeast trending  t r a n s e c t e d by s e v e r a l m a j o r r i v e r s . Coast Mountains often inland,  i n the  e x c e e d 1,800  south, are  the  mountain  ranges which  are  Along the P a c i f i c Coast, the meters  in elevation.  Hazelton Mountains,  Boundary and C a s s i a r Ranges t o the n o r t h .  Further  and  Skeena,  The m a j o r r i v e r s o f the  r e g i o n a r e the S t i k i n e , I s k u t , Nass, Skeena and B u l k l e y . d i v e r s e and v a s t t e r r a i n , t h e c l i m a t e v a r i e s m a r k e d l y .  Over t h i s  A m i l d e r and  wetter " c o a s t a l - m a r i n e " c l i m a t e dominates along the c o a s t .  Moving  i n l a n d c o l d e r and d r i e r " i n t e r i o r - c o n t i n e n t a l " i n f l u e n c e s p r e v a i l .  This  rugged geography has c o n f i n e d  valley corridors. transportation agriculture.  s e t t l e m e n t w i t h i n a few  river  S e t t l e m e n t has g e n e r a l l y o c c u r r e d a l o n g t r a d e and  routes  and  in valley  bottom  areas  suitable  for  C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n 1981, more than 75% o f the p o p u l a t i o n  o f t h e K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t r e s i d e d w i t h i n 80 km o f the Skeena  River  (Regional  Economic  Profile,  1982:1-7).  29.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , n a t i v e I n d i a n s e t t l e m e n t , which  d a t e s back more  than  8,000 y e a r s , took p l a c e i n t h e major r i v e r v a l l e y s . The r i v e r s and a network  of trails  interior  became  and c o a s t a l  important  Indian  corridors f o r trade  peoples.  Communities  between  developed  at  strategic locations.  Economic H i s t o r y :  The f i r s t i n c u r s i o n s o f w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t i n t o t h e r e g i o n with  the search f o r precious metals.  corresponded  G o l d was d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e  S t i k i n e r e g i o n i n t h e 1860's and t h e S t i k i n e R i v e r became a w e l l t r a v e l l e d r i v e r highway. region  i n the i n t e r i o r  regional supply centre.  In t h e 1870's a g o l d rush i n t h e Omineca encouraged  t h e growth  of Hazelton  H a z e l t o n was t h e f u r t h e s t p o i n t i n l a n d on  the Skeena R i v e r f o r steamboat  travel.  Hazelton's  would be renewed i n t h e 1890's K l o n d i k e G o l d Rush. estimated  as a  t h a t 8,000 p e o p l e  Economic P r o f i l e s , 1982:4).  lived  strategic role By 1910, i t i s  i n the Hazelton area  (Community  In 1981, l e s s than 4,000 p e o p l e r e s i d e d  in the area.  Other  major  construction America  developments  i n the e a r l y years  o f the C o l l i n s  through  Overland  were t h e  Telegraph  Line  attempted  from  North  t h e B e r i n g S t r a i t t o A s i a , and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e  transcontinental  Grand  Trunk  Pacific  Railroad  (now  Canadian  National), circa  1912.  The r a i l w a y p r o v i d e d t h e i n i t i a l  stimulus  30.  t o the f o r e s t s e c t o r as i n d u s t r y d e v e l o p e d around  the p r o d u c t i o n o f  r a i l r o a d t i e s and the e x p o r t o f c e d a r t e l e g r a p h p o l e s .  Wars have a l s o p l a y e d an i n s t r u m e n t a l r o l e i n the economic h i s t o r y o f the r e g i o n .  In the l a t e 1890's, the S t e w a r t a r e a was  i t s own m i n i n g boom. area  (Regional  the scene  of  Perhaps as many as 10,000 p e o p l e r e s i d e d i n the  Economic anything  Profile,  events,  the  the  World War  i s i d e n t i f i e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the r a p i d d e p o p u l a t i o n o f D u r i n g war time the p o p u l a t i o n was  than 100 p e o p l e .  which  would  affect  the  A s e r i e s o f a i r p o r t s was  B.C.  roads were c o n s t r u c t e d which  Terrace with  reduced t o l e s s  saw the e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n the northv/est o f key  region. and  First  S t e w a r t ' s h i s t o r y has been one o f "boom and b u s t . "  World War  infrastructure  world  that  was  The Second  i s o l a t e d from  Showing  northwest  the community.  but  1982:1-5).  P r i n c e Rupert,  P r i o r t o World War  and  long-term  growth  of  constructed throughout connected  Telegraph  northern  the communities  Creek  with  Dease  I I , T e r r a c e was an i n s i g n i f i c a n t a g r i c u l t u r a l  f o r e s t i n d u s t r y community.  the of Lake. and  D u r i n g war time i t became a m i l i t a r y base  w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 3,000 and i t would c o n t i n u e to grow a f t e r w a r d s . T e r r a c e i s now the l a r g e s t urban c e n t r e i n n o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h  During  the  forefront production  1950's as  the  and  1960's  region's  dimensional  the  most  lumber  f o r e s t i n d u s t r y came  important  sawmills,  became m a j o r employers  i n the communities  and  Prince  Kitwanga.  In  Rupert  Columbia.  the  basic  to  industry.  s e r v i c i n g export  the High  markets,  o f South H a z e l t o n , T e r r a c e Skeena  Pulp  Mill  was  31.  constructed  by Columbia C e l l u l o s e .  the  was  region  erected  in  Hemlock, balsam f i r and  In 1970  Kitimat  cedar  are  by  a second p u l p m i l l  Eurocan  Pulp  for  and  Paper.  the most abundant wood  species  harvested.  The  Alcan  P r o j e c t was  a l s o r e a l i z e d i n the  1950's.  V a l l e y i s where the A l c a n Aluminum Company r e c o g n i z e d industrial  p o t e n t i a l i n the c o m b i n a t i o n  tidewater One  of  access the  Kitimat. and  l a r g e s t aluminum  The s m e l t e r was  Ocelot  Kitimat  the l a r g e s c a l e  of f l a t , developable  and h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power g e n e r a t i o n  world's  This  smelters  was  land,  power c a p a c i t y . constructed  in  l a t e r complemented by the Eurocan Pulp M i l l  C h e m i c a l s Methanol  p l a n t , but  the community has  fallen  w e l l s h o r t o f i t s o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n growth p r o j e c t i o n s o f 30,000 t o 50,000 p e o p l e .  The  Alcan  P r o j e c t i s the most w i d e l y  projects  which  have  resource  projects  shaped  include  known o f s e v e r a l l a r g e  northwest development.  Premier Gold  and  Major  scale mineral  Granduc Copper Mine i n  S t e w a r t , the C a s s i a r A s b e s t o s Mine i n C a s s i a r and the Amax Molybdenum Mine a t K i t s a u l t .  World s c a l e pulp m i l l s were c o n s t r u c t e d  R u p e r t and K i t i m a t .  in Prince  More r e c e n t a d d i t i o n s to t h i s i n v e n t o r y o f l a r g e -  s c a l e p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e the O c e l o t Methanol p l a n t i n K i t i m a t and  the  R i d l e y I s l a n d c o a l and g r a i n e x p o r t f a c i l i t i e s n e a r P r i n c e R u p e r t .  T o d a y ' s r e g i o n a l economy i s s t i l l h i g h l y dependent upon i n t e r n a t i o n a l markets,  lacks  stability  and  resource  based  economy  with  economic secondary  diversification. manufacturing  It is a limited  to  32.  primary  resource  production,  processing  pulp  manufacturing.  in  the  manufacturing,  form  fish  of  dimensional  processing  and  lumber aluminum  T y p i c a l l y the r e a s o n s c i t e d as c o n s t r a i n t s t o f u r t h e r  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n in manufacturing  a r e h i g h l a b o r c o s t s , high c o s t s f o r  transporting  t o markets  f i n i s h e d products  and  the  small  size  of  regional markets.  Transportation  Infrastructure:  Much o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e o f the n o r t h w e s t has constructed projects.  simply The  to  service  Stewart Cassiar  individual Highway was  S t e w a r t on the c o a s t as i t s s o u t h e r n the e x p o r t o f the p r o d u c t s i n the mid  1970's was  resource  been  development  o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t with  terminus i n order to f a c i l i t a t e  o f the C a s s i a r A s b e s t o s Mine.  Only l a t e r  the road j o i n e d to the Y e l l o w h e a d Highway 16  system thereby f a c i l i t a t i n g i n t r a - r e g i o n a l t r a f f i c .  The  transportation  services  ( F i g u r e 3) which now  r e g i o n ' s e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d economy. been d e v e l o p e d  in Kitimat,  Prince  e x i s t r e f l e c t the  M a j o r s h i p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s have  R u p e r t and  Stewart.  The  large  a i r l i n e companies o f P a c i f i c Western and C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c s e r v i c e the region  from  Vancouver  Prince  Rupert,  inter-provincial  International  Terrace highways  and and  Airport  Smithers. the  Canadian  through The  airports  region  National  in  has  two  Rail  line  F i g u r e 3:  TRANSPORTATION  source: The Northwest  INFRASTRUCTURE Region, 1932  34.  extends  across  the  region to Prince Rupert,  with  a branchline  to  Kitimat.  This  transportation  infrastructure  has  facilitated  the  population  growth o f the r e g i o n i n r e c e n t decades and has c r e a t e d , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , a system  f o r e x t e n s i v e i n t r a - r e g i o n a l t r a v e l and  among n o r t h w e s t  urban c e n t e r s .  developed  according  between  was  constructed  T e r r a c e was and  but l a r g e l y i n d e p e n d e n t l y  individual  recent occurrence.  northwest communities have  t o a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n as a r e s u l t o f e x t e r n a l  demand f o r commodities, Linkage  Non-native  northwest  o f one  communities  are  another.  actually  a  An a l l - w e a t h e r road between H a z e l t o n and Kitwanga  only  i n 1955.  The  highway between H a z e l t o n  paved o n l y i n the e a r l y 1970's.  K i t i m a t was  communication  A road between T e r r a c e  needed o n l y i n the 1950's.  Highway 16 t o S t e w a r t was completed  and  A paved highway  from  o n l y i n 1985.  P o p u l a t i o n and Income L e v e l s :  The  population  of  the  northwest  region  as  described  p r o v i n c i a l economic p l a n , i n 1981, was 62,755 (The N o r t h w e s t 1982:21).  The  1981  census  Kitimat-Stikine  Regional  42,400, the Skeena-Queen C h a r l o t t e R e g i o n a l  (Prince Rupert  a r e a ) p o p u l a t i o n was  predominantly  was  1,953. of  British  The  Region,  District  18,402, and the S t i k i n e r e g i o n ,  population origin  the  District  p o p u l a t i o n was  population  for  and  of  the  generally  northwest a  is  younger  35.  population  than the p r o v i n c i a l one.  Approximately  25% o f  northwest  r e s i d e n t s are native Indian.  The  population  i n the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e r e g i o n i n r e c e n t decades  has  n e i t h e r grown a t a c o n s i s t e n t r a t e nor been e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d a c r o s s the r e g i o n .  Nonetheless,  the p o p u l a t i o n has grown from 9,669 p e o p l e  i n 1951  t o 42,400 i n 1986,  regional  district  and  has  increased i n a l l areas of  (Census o f Canada r e c o r d s ) .  T e r r a c e and  the  Kitimat  have been the f a s t e s t g r o w i n g communities because o f the development o f the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y and c r e a t i o n o f the A l c a n Aluminum p r o j e c t . P r i o r t o 1951, the i n d u s t r i a l community o f K i t i m a t d i d not e x i s t . 1951,  In  the p o p u l a t i o n o f T e r r a c e was o n l y 961, but would grow r a p i d l y  afterwards.  The  No. 1 i n 1949  s t a r t i n g p o i n t was  granting of Tree  t o the Columbia C e l l u l o s e Company.  Farm  License  T e r r a c e remains an  i m p o r t a n t t i m b e r p r o c e s s i n g community.  TABLE 2:  P o p u l a t i o n o f M a j o r Communities,  1981  16,197 P r i n c e Rupert 17,757 T e r r a c e and D i s t r i c t 12,814 Kitimat 393 Hazelton 712 New H a z e l t o n 1,456 Stewart 230 Atlin 1,053 Cassiar 320 ( e s t . ) Dease Lake S o u r c e : The N o r t h w e s t Region (1982) The  official  importance sectors.  to  Statistics the  Canada  northwest  Of the n o r t h w e s t  of  1981 its  Census primary  l a b o r f o r c e , 12.6%  data and  indicate  the  manufacturing  is classified  within  36.  p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y ; a f u r t h e r 26.5% i s engaged  in manufacturing.  The  l a t t e r would be a c c o u n t e d f o r by h i g h wage employment i n p u l p m i l l s , s a w m i l l s and aluminum  manufacturing.  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o v i n c i a l  a v e r a g e s a r e 7.1% i n t h e p r i m a r y s e c t o r and 14.7% i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g .  A g g r e g a t e d s t a t i s t i c s c o m p i l e d by t h e p r o v i n c e u s i n g 1979 tax  returns reveal  t h a t a v e r a g e p e r s o n a l incomes o f the n o r t h w e s t  were 105% t h a t o f a B.C. n o t i c e a b l y between earned  i n the  individual  average.  communities.  larger  H a z e l t o n a r e a 1979  However, p e r s o n a l incomes S u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r incomes  c e n t e r s o f K i t i m a t , and  Terrace.  incomes were but 72% o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l  (The Northwest R e g i o n ,  range  In  were the  average  1982:23).  The L o c a l Economies:  Masked by e m p l o y i n g a g g r e g a t e d s t a t i s t i c s region  i s the r e a l i t y  to d e s c r i b e a  t h a t v a r i o u s communities  northwest  which c o m p r i s e  the  n o r t h w e s t have s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t economic s t r u c t u r e s , h i s t o r i e s and d e m o g r a p h i c s .  T h i s s e c t i o n c o n c l u d e s w i t h a b r i e f commentary on  the unique f e a t u r e s o f t h e l a r g e r n o r t h w e s t c e n t e r s .  Prince  Rupert  significance.  is a strategic  transshipment point of  international  I t i s the terminus f o r the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway  N o r t h e r n M a i n l i n e and s i t e o f the n a t i o n ' s most modern g r a i n and c o a l export f a c i l i t i e s .  The community has a h i s t o r y l i n k e d t o t h e s e a ;  37.  commercial  fishing,  fish  processing  v i s i b l e and h i s t o r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t  and  marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  are  s e c t o r s o f the economic p r o f i l e .  The l a r g e s t i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t i s the Skeena K r a f t P u l p M i l l .  Terrace  i s the most d i v e r s i f i e d  Columbia.  community i n n o r t h w e s t e r n  British  I t has the most c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e t a i l s e c t o r o f any o f the  r e g i o n ' s c e n t e r s and has d e v e l o p e d as a r e t a i l and commercial c e n t e r f o r the e n t i r e n o r t h w e s t  q u a r t e r o f the p r o v i n c e .  service  Terrace i s  a l s o a r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r , the s i t e o f many p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l government o f f i c e s . based  1/3  on  retail,  commercial  government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and has  a well  Employment i s commonly d e s c r i b e d as  1/3  established logging  s a w m i l l s and a p o l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g  Kitimat  is  Together, Co.,  principal  Alcan Smelters  1986).  industrial  s e r v i c e s , 1/3  on the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . s e c t o r , with  two  high  manufacturing  production  center  for  L t d . , Eurocan  the  region. Paper  L t d . employed o v e r 3,400 p e o p l e i n  1983.  o v e r 50% o f the K i t i m a t l a b o r f o r c e ( D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t , The community's s e r v i c e s e c t o r however has f a i l e d t o m a t u r e .  recent  years  retail  and  personal  services  have  tended  processes  northwest  resources.  smelter o r i g i n a t e s overseas Kitimat  owing plant  to  low  to  U n l i k e T e r r a c e , w i t h an economy  h i g h l y dependant upon r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , o n l y the Eurocan  methanol  Terrace  P u l p and  c o n c e n t r a t e i n T e r r a c e , 60 km n o r t h .  in  on  plant.  and C h e m i c a l s  and O c e l o t C h e m i c a l s  T h i s was  In  the  and  Bauxite  for  the  Pulp M i l l  Alcan  Aluminum  i n Japan and A u s t r a l i a and i s p r o c e s s e d cost  processes  h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power. natural  gas  The  transported  Ocelot by  38. p i p e l i n e to K i t i m a t from n o r t h e a s t B.C. o r A l b e r t a .  The H a z e l t o n A r e a i s c o m p r i s e d communities. era.  The  o f a s e r i e s o f n a t i v e and  V i l l a g e of Hazelton  non-native  i s a c h i l d o f the  steamboat  A c r o s s the B u l k l e y R i v e r , the o t h e r l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t y , New  Hazelton, center,  is a child the  o f the  Hazeltons  are  railroad. now  Once a v i b r a n t economic  characterized  unemployment and low income l e v e l s .  by  endemic  high  A service sector is virtually  n o n - e x i s t e n t i n the a r e a and the economy i s h i g h l y dependent upon two dimensional that  the  lumber s a w m i l l s .  i r o n y o f the H a z e l t o n economy i s  area  has  probably  the  of  any  northwest  center.  development tributary  The  best  potential for Based  to the area, the Hazeltons  upon  diversified  the  resources  have e x c e l l e n t p r o s p e c t s  a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g and t o u r i s m .  in  The H a z e l t o n a r e a i s one  o f the few p l a c e s l e f t i n the northwest w i t h o u t s e r i o u s c o n c e r n s  over  a v a i l a b l e timber supply.  To the n o r t h , m i n i n g and m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n p r o v i d e the base f o r the local  economies  Northwest  i n Stewart,  Region,  Cassiar, Atlin  1982:26).  Stewart  is  and also  Dease  Lake  developing  s t r a t e g i c gateway t o n o r t h e r n r e s o u r c e s and government has transportation  infrastructure  to  facilitate  this  (The as  a  provided  opportunity.  Stewart  a l s o has p o t e n t i a l to become a s i g n i f i c a n t wood p r o c e s s i n g  center.  Thus f a r , f o r e s t s e c t o r a c t i v i t y has been l i m i t e d t o l o g  h a n d l i n g and exit  sorting.  Commencing i n 1985,  p o i n t f o r whole l o g e x p o r t s .  A l a s k a p u l p m i l l s , down the B.C.  Stewart  became a m a j o r  This material i s exported  c o a s t and o v e r s e a s .  to  None o f t h e s e  39.  northern  communities  has y e t a c q u i r e d  secondary  industry  or a  diversified service sector.  The Contemporary R e g i o n a l Economy:  R i s k s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l a c k o f d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and i n t h e e a r l y 1980's f a i l i n g dictated  i n t e r n a t i o n a l markets f o r many n o r t h w e s t  that the northwest  consequences.  the social  and economic  I f one had taken an e x c u r s i o n t h r o u g h  northwestern  B r i t i s h Columbia  would endure  commodities  i n e a r l y 1984 (when t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t economic  p l a n n i n g commenced) one would have found construction  activity,  failures.  In  boarded-up  Terrace,  h i g h unemployment,  s t o r e f r o n t s and many  unemployment  hovered  near  little business  40%  and  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a f o o d bank was a w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d embarrassment f o r t h e community.  Commencing around  1981 s e v e r a l mine c l o s u r e s and slowdowns i n t h e  f o r e s t i n d u s t r y r e s u l t e d i n h i g h unemployment i n t h e r e g i o n .  In t h e  f o r e s t - b a s e d c e n t e r s , the beginning o f the r e c e s s i o n i n the northwest was s i g n a l l e d by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers o f A m e r i c a  strike  which took p l a c e i n t h e summer o f 1981. While t h e s t r i k e had n o t h i n g to do w i t h  the wider  r e c e s s i o n , f o r many f o r e s t workers  i n the  T e r r a c e a r e a e s p e c i a l l y , permanent work i n t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y was not t o become a v a i l a b l e a g a i n .  40.  Though n o t o c c u r r i n g a l l a t once, mine c l o s u r e s had a cumulative  impact  closures Granduc  on  unemployment  i n the  o f the Amax Molybdenum Mine Copper  region.  significant  Together  in Kitsault,  Esso  the  Minerals  Mine and the S c o t t i e G o l d Mine i n S t e w a r t , and  the  B e l l and G r a n i s l e c o p p e r mines i n G r a n i s l e r e s u l t e d i n the l o s s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,200 the Commissioner  direct jobs.  of C r i t i c a l  Owing o n l y to the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f  I n d u s t r i e s and c o n c e s s i o n s p r o v i d e d by  t h e p r o v i n c i a l government on h y d r o - e l e c t r i c r a t e s was the B e l l Mine reopened  i n the f a l l o f 1985--and t h i s w i l l be f o r o n l y a t h r e e y e a r  d u r a t i o n because o f d e p l e t i n g r e s e r v e s . has  permanently  almost  c l o s e d , the  entirely  and  the  Meanwhile,  townsite site  and  the Granduc  physical plant  reclaimed  to  meet  Mine  removed  provincial  e n v i r o n m e n t a l g u i d e l i n e s . S c o t t i e G o l d Mines f i l e d f o r b a n k r u p t c y i n A u g u s t , 1986 ( N o r t h e r n M i n e r , August 16,  Official  Statistics  1986).  Canada unemployment r a t e s f o r n o r t h e r n  British  Columbia have ranged between 4.8% i n 1980 t o 15.6% i n 1985.  However,  these  inherent  f i g u r e s were  weaknesses  i n the  highly Statistics  misleading Canada  because  of  s u r v e y methods.  the  Notably,  a  sample s i z e o f o n l y 215 h o u s e h o l d s was used p r i o r to 1985 f o r a l m o s t the e n t i r e n o r t h e r n h a l f o f the p r o v i n c e ( H a r v i e Andre, March 1985).  The most comprehensive  s u r v e y s o f unemployment r a t e s i n the n o r t h w e s t  were c o m p i l e d e v e r y t h r e e t o s i x months o v e r a two y e a r p e r i o d by the Regional only  District  compiled  of Kitimat-Stikine.  for  the  Greater  These  Terrace  f i g u r e s however were -  Nass  Valley  area,  41.  r e p r e s e n t i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f about 19,000 o f a R e g i o n a l population  o f .42,400.  The  m o n i t o r the  condition  number  individuals  of  a s s i s t a n c e , and logging  of  purpose o f t h e s e s u r v e y s  the  forest sector.  on  unemployment  accounting  contractors  unemployment  primary  for fairly  who  would  assistance,  the  By  insurance  not  normally  Regional  be  District  and  40%  to  actual  and  l a r g e numbers o f  1981  was  totaling  social  independent  eligible  for  calculated  unemployment r a t e s over the two y e a r p e r i o d o f 1983 36%  District  t o 1985  (Economic Development Commission, June 1983,  real  between November  1983, J a n u a r y 1985).  Unemployment  insurance  data  alone  should  not  be  i n t e r p r e t e d as  measure o f unemployment but r e g i o n a l U.I.C. s t a t i s t i c s do p r o v i d e o r d e r o f magnitude i n d i c a t o r o f a f a l t e r i n g economy. table (Table Canada  3) r e c o r d s  Employment  sub-areas.  The  Charlotte  Islands  average monthly insurance  and  Immigration  Commission  The  claimants  Skeena  a an  following i n the  District  and  D i s t r i c t e x t e n d s from Houston t h r o u g h t o the Queen and  E x t r a p o l a t i n g from 1981  includes  Kitimat  and  areas  north.  Census f i g u r e s , the t o t a l l a b o r f o r c e o f the  Skeena D i s t r i c t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y  38,000.  42.  TABLE 3: A v e r a g e M o n t h l y Unemployment I n s u r a n c e C l a i m a n t s i n C.E.I.C. Skeena D i s t r i c t and S p e c i f i c A r e a s w i t h i n D i s t r i c t 1980  1981  1982  1983  1984  1985  Terrace CEC Area  829  1,000  2,235  1,890  2,360  2,091  K i t i m a t CEC Area  300  334  564  631  621  652  Smithers CEC Area  512  631  1,297  1,010  1,188  1,176  Houston CEC Area  199  260  753  552  421  557  3,014  3,565  7,422  6,944  7,246  7,102  Skeena D i s t r i c t  Source:  CEC Terrace (from Kutcho Creek Stage 2 Report, volume 2, p. 15, March 1986)  Property  a s s e s s m e n t f i g u r e s a r e one measure o f a r a t e o f i n v e s t m e n t  o c c u r r i n g i n an area (Table 4 ) . Assessment i s e s p e c i a l l y to local  important  government b e c a u s e i t d e t e r m i n e s t h e revenue a v a i l a b l e t o  pay f o r l o c a l s e r v i c e s . assessment  which  have  T h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e d e p i c t s t h e changes i n occurred  i n the Kitimat-Stikine  Regional  D i s t r i c t s i n c e 19.81. TABLE 4:  Regional  District o f Kitimat-Stikine  L o c a l P r o p e r t y A s s e s s m e n t s 1981-1985 1982  1981  1983  1984  1985  D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t  $ 91,957,518  $126,593,144  $126,857,657  $126,295,610  $128,411,306  D i s t r i c t o f Terrace  36,850,288  43,111,413  36,224,058  35,883,473  37,604,922  D i s t r i c t of Stewart  8,179,029  10,531,142  9,348,052  9,132,659  2,604,849  1,389,107  1,837,377  1,565,544  1,538,911  1,748,802  500,782  684,660  592,585  567,235  606,846  E l e c t o r a l Area A  12,502,258  14,773,141  19,582,252  19,584,313  11,903,453  E l e c t o r a l Area B  9,323,539  11,672,544  10,349,268  10,390,160  10,572,858  E l e c t o r a l Area C  16,189,783  21,082,927  19,132,888  18,382,692  18,470,788  E l e c t o r a l Area D  291,720  464,385  383,821  297,361  312,095  E l e c t o r a l Area E  6,571,322  8,623,626  7,327,914  7,631,268  8,263,705  $183,755,346  $239,374,359  $231,364,039  $229,703,682  $220,499,624  D i s t r i c t of New Hazelton V i l l a g e of Hazelton  note:' V a l u e s  have  not been  adjusted  for  inflation.  43.  During  t h i s 1981-1985 p e r i o d , p r o p e r t y  seemingly  assessments increased  by a  h e a l t h y 20% over 1981 l e v e l s , b u t i n f a c t d e c r e a s e d  every  y e a r s i n c e a peak was reached price  index  as a s u r r o g a t e  i n 1982.  U s i n g t h e Vancouver consumer  f o r a northwest  i n f l a t i o n r a t e , a 21%  i n f l a t i o n r a t e between 1981 and 1985 means t h a t t h e a b i l i t y o f l o c a l government t o r a i s e r e v e n u e has d e c r e a s e d  substantially (Statistics  Canada, March 1986:35).  Equally  s i g n i f i c a n t i s the observation  were u n e v e n l y  d i s t r i b u t e d throughout  t h a t changes i n a s s e s s m e n t  the Kitimat-Stikine region.  example, major i n c r e a s e s i n a s s e s s m e n t were a c h i e v e d of Kitimat. Ocelot  This  Chemicals'  expansion  For  i n the D i s t r i c t  i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to construction o f the methanol  o f the Alcan  plant  Aluminum  and  port  Smelter.  facility,  plus  some  I t i s worth  noting,  however, t h a t no a p p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e i n employment o c c u r r e d  because  of these developments.  By c o m p a r i s o n , c o n s i d e r a b l e  assessment losses occurred  in Electoral  Area A (Nass V a l l e y - A l i c e Arm) and w i t h i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f S t e w a r t . The former l o s s e s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o c l o s u r e o f t h e Amax Molybdenum Mine a t K i t s a u l t and c l o s u r e o f Westar T i m b e r ' s semipermanent l o g g i n g camp i n t h e Nass V a l l e y .  In S t e w a r t ,  t h e shutdown o f S c o t t i e Gold  Mine, d e m o l i t i o n o f t h e Granduc Mine and t o w n s i t e , retroactive  tax assessment  appeal  combined w i t h a  by i t ' s owner, Esso  Minerals,  r e s u l t e d i n 1985 i n a 71.5% d e c r e a s e  i n t h e a s s e s s m e n t base o f t h e  m u n i c i p a l i t y from t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r .  Many l o c a l government s e r v i c e s  were s e v e r e l y c u r t a i l e d as a r e s u l t .  44.  A n o t h e r measure o f i n v e s t o r c o n f i d e n c e building  activity.  average  of  61  In T e r r a c e  single  family  r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s averaged  i n a community i s r e s i d e n t i a l  between houses  1979  were  170 per y e a r .  and  1981  constructed  From 1982  an  annual  and  total  through  1985  no  m u l t i - r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s have been c o n s t r u c t e d and o n l y 39 houses have been b u i l t o v e r t h e s e f o u r y e a r s ( C i t y o f Terrace, 1986:10).  The  preceding  northwest  c o l l e c t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c s o n l y s e r v e t o show t h a t  the  r e g i o n e x h i b i t e d a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an economy h i t  by r e c e s s i o n , i f o n l y more a c u t e l y f e l t than i n o t h e r a r e a s o f the province.  Very  h i g h unemployment was  previous experience would s u g g e s t  the most v i s i b l e impact  w i t h t h i s "boom and b u s t " r e s o u r c e - b a s e d  i t was  only a temporary s i t u a t i o n .  Yet i t was  but  economy during  the r e c e s s i o n t h a t major i n d u s t r i e s o p e r a t i n g i n the n o r t h w e s t  began  to  their  re-examine  organizations  t h e i r manpower accordingly.  requirements  and  Lumber companies such  and West F r a s e r Timber L t d . made i n v e s t m e n t s order  to  investment  stay  competitive  restructure  in  smaller  i n new  world  would be a t the expense o f l a b o r .  as Westar T i m b e r technologies  markets.  in  Capital  A l c a n Aluminum a d o p t e d  a n o - h i r i n g p o l i c y and reduced employment from 2,500 i n 1981 t o 2,200 i n 1986  ( D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t , 1986).  without disguised  lowering  productivity.  Eurocan a l s o reduced The  recessionary  employment environment  s u b s t a n t i a l permanent employment l o s s e s o c c u r r i n g i n a l l  a r e a s o f the northwest  and f e l t i n a l m o s t a l l economic s e c t o r s .  45.  In the T e r r a c e  a r e a , which had d e v e l o p e d on the b a s i s o f the f o r e s t  industry, resource  depletion, reductions  i n the annual a l l o w a b l e  and t e c h n o l o g i c a l u p g r a d i n g  i n the m i l l s w i l l r e s u l t (by 1987)  predicted  permanent j o b s  40%  loss or  520  i n t h i s major  ( G r e a t e r T e r r a c e O f f i c i a l Community P l a n , 1984:183-189). a n o t h e r 680 j o b s have been e s t i m a t e d lost  from  the  between 1980 l o s s e s can  Alcan  mentioned with  industry  In K i t i m a t ,  and  the  Eurocan  Pulp  ( D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t , J a n u a r y , 1986).  a l s o be r e c o r d e d  in a  by the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o have been  Aluminum S m e l t e r  and 1985  cut  in other  communities and  Similar  some  the permanent mine c l o s u r e s . . T h i s a u t h o r  Mill  already estimates  t h a t 2,400 permanent j o b s have been l o s t i n the n o r t h w e s t s i n c e  1980  i n the r e g i o n d e f i n e d f o r the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n .  These are d i r e c t j o b s , u s u a l l y h i g h p a y i n g and h i g h l y s k i l l e d . previous  economic s t u d i e s R e g i o n a l  D i s t r i c t estimates  From  o f employment  m u l t i p l i e r s used to c a l c u l a t e l o c a l s p i n - o f f employment u s u a l l y range between 1 and  2.  could  7,500 p e o p l e .  approacn  Therefore  total  employment l o s s e s  Total  labor force  i n the  i n 1981  in  north this  r e g i o n was 30,765 (Census o f Canada 1981).  These employment l o s s e s would not have been o f such c o n c e r n  if it  were not f o r the l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to which t h e s e  idled  technical  and  trade  D i s t r i c t assessed resource-based  skills  could  be  the s i t u a t i o n and  business  opportunities.  transferred.  The  Regional  chose t o promote s m a l l e r The  province's  scale  p l a n f o r the  r e g i o n r e l i e d upon the l a r g e s c a l e r e s o u r c e development p r o j e c t , the "mega-project."  46.  Major Projects  It  has  Inventory  already  been r e c o r d e d  p a t t e r n s i n the northwest scale  project  and  participation. impressive through  t h a t economic h i s t o r y and  have been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the l a r g e often  In  with  keeping  with  significant this  t o the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y .  projects  projects province's  public  development  in  and  light  B.C.  commenting of  the  on  In c l o s i n g t h i s o v e r v i e w s i n c e 1980,  i t i s worth  the  of  recession  status and  the  the  sector  history,  l i s t o f m e g a - p r o j e c t s stands w a i t i n g t o c a r r y the  economic f o r t u n e s o f northwest these  settlement  an  region on the listing  development  objectives  of  the  plan.  1.  A l c a n Aluminum Kemano Completion - postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y .  Project  2.  S t i k i n e - I s k u t H y d r o - e l e c t r i c P r o j e c t (B.C. Hydro) - postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y .  3.  Crows Nest R e s o u r c e s Telkwa Thermal Coal P r o j e c t - proceeding through provincial review process; d e l a y s ; d e f e r r e d commitment to s t a r t - u p d a t e .  4.  L i q u i f i e d N a t u r a l Gas e x p o r t f a c i l i t i e s planned f o r P o r t Simpson and K i t i m a t - p r i n c i p a l c o r p o r a t e a c t o r s changed; s a l e s agreements abroad c o u l d not be o b t a i n e d ; postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y .  5.  E x p a n s i o n o f O c e l o t Chemicals Methanol P l a n t i n K i t i m a t - c o n s t r u c t i o n o f ammonia p l a n t began i n 1985 and s h o u l d o p e r a t i o n a l by f a l l 1986; p l a n t i s m o s t l y c o n s t r u c t e d modules f a b r i c a t e d abroad and s h i p p e d t o K i t i m a t .  6.  G u l f R e s o u r c e s Mt. K l a p p a n A n t h r a c i t e Coal Mine - p r o c e e d i n g through p r o v i n c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e v i e w p r o c e s s ; s e v e r a l t e s t m a r k e t i n g shipments have been made t o E u r o p e , e a s t e r n Canada and K o r e a .  project  be in  47. 7.  Kutcho Creek Copper Mine - proceeding through environmental review process; no c o n s t r u c t i o n d a t e committed due t o low commodity p r i c e s ; p r o j e c t has been d e l a y e d s e v e r a l times s i n c e l a t e 1970's.  8.  New Eurocan Sawmill i n K i t i m a t - p r o j e c t i s no l o n g e r v i a b l e as p a r e n t company West F r a s e r Timber p u r c h a s e d e x i s t i n g Westar Timber sawmill i n T e r r a c e .  9.  T e r r a c e - P r i n c e Rupert H y d r o - e l e c t r i c T r a n s m i s s i o n L i n e - postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y .  10.  S c h a f t Creek Copper-Molybdenum Mine - postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y .  11.  P e t r o c h e m i c a l e x p o r t f a c i l i t y a t P r i n c e Rupert - postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y .  O n l y two o f t h e s e e l e v e n p r o j e c t s appear to have any p o t e n t i a l to be r e a l i z e d b e f o r e 1990 and o n l y the Mt. Klappan A n t r a c i t e p r o j e c t has not been s u b j e c t to d e l a y s .  The O c e l o t C h e m i c a l s ammonia p l a n t , now  s c h e d u l e d f o r c o m p l e t i o n i n the f a l l o f 1986 i s an e x c e p t i o n .  A t $80  m i l l i o n t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l a g a i n add to K i t i m a t ' s l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l tax base.  However, i t s r e a l impact on the r e g i o n i n terms o f permanent  employment i s q u e s t i o n a b l e .  T o t a l j o b s a t the ammonia p l a n t w i l l  be  fifteen.  The Short-Term  Policy Solutions:  J u d g i n g from the k i n d s o f s e n i o r government e x p e n d i t u r e s made i n the northwest  d u r i n g the r e c e s s i o n p e r i o d a f t e r 1981,  t h e r e was  little  e v i d e n c e t h a t the i s s u e o f permanent j o b l o s s was a t a l l r e c o g n i z e d . I n s t e a d , the economic problems temporary,  the consequence  o f the n o r t h w e s t were i n t e r p r e t e d as  of a c y c l i c a l  downturn i n markets.  The  p o l i c y r e s p o n s e was t o d i r e c t s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f government funds  48.  t o programs such as t e m p o r a r y employment  programs o r p u b l i c works.  T h i s p o l i c y amounted t o a s h o r t - t e r m s o l u t i o n .  These employment  programs were m o s t l y t h e r e s u l t  of a series  of  f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l agreements and m o s t l y used f e d e r a l f u n d s a l l o c a t e d through  t h e Canada  Employment  and  I m m i g r a t i o n Commission.  Some  p r o v i n c i a l f u n d s were a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d and p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s such as  the  Ministry  administration.  of  Forests  Through  were  heavily  t h e s e employment  involved programs  in  program  much  needed  s i l v i c u l t u r a l , o t h e r f o r e s t r y - r e l a t e d work and community p r o j e c t s were u n d e r t a k e n .  development  In most programs, income s u p p l e m e n t s were  p a i d t o unemployment i n s u r a n c e r e c i p i e n t s and "U.I. e x h a u s t e e s . "  The  i n c e n t i v e f o r p r i v a t e companies t o become s p o n s o r s o f p r o j e c t s was an o v e r h e a d a l l o w a n c e which c o u l d be p u t towards a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o s t s o r f o r r e n t i n g t h e i r own m a c h i n e r y and equipment t o a p r o j e c t .  Aided  by  vocal  Woodworkers Committee  lobbying  efforts  by  the  local  International  o f A m e r i c a U n i o n and t h e Skeena Manpower  Development  ( d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e ) , the T e r r a c e a r e a was one o f  the p r i n c i p a l b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f t h e s e programs. June 1983, $9.8 m i l l i o n was Assistance Development  Program Program  (EBAP) (NEED).  Between May 1982 and  s p e n t t h r o u g h the Employment and  t h e New The  E x p a n s i o n and  Bridging Employment  EBAP e x p e n d i t u r e s i n the  Kalum  F o r e s t D i s t r i c t ( T e r r a c e a r e a ) r e p r e s e n t e d 19% o f a l l program f u n d s spent  in British  Columbia  (Jennings,  1985).  This  $9.8  million  p r o v i d e d an i n f u s i o n i n t o t h e T e r r a c e economy o f $4.5 m i l l i o n above the " n o r m a l " e x p e n d i t u r e s o f the Canada Employment  and I m m i g r a t i o n  49.  Commission  ( M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , O c t o b e r 4,  1983:1).  The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t f o r e s t r y employment s u r v e y s showed the e x t e n t to  which  these  temporary  employment  r e s i d e n t s o f the T e r r a c e a r e a . employed  o v e r 1,500  programs  D u r i n g 1983,  were  "employing"  t h e s e work  p e o p l e o r o v e r 15% o f the T e r r a c e a r e a w o r k f o r c e  (Economic Development  Commission,  O c t o b e r 4, 1983:1).  In e f f e c t the Canada Employment and  Commission  the  was  at  northwestern B r i t i s h  time  silviculture  protection.  This  intensive. development  June 1, 1983) ( M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s ,  one. o f  the  largest  Immigration  employers  in  under t h e s e temporary work programs  was  Columbia.  Much o f the work c o m p l e t e d basic  programs  i n c l u d i n g stand work  tending,  r e q u i r e d minimal  In a d d i t i o n , community  thinning  skills  p r o j e c t s such  were a l s o u n d e r t a k e n .  but as  and  fire  was  labor  local  parks  L a t e r , some o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s  would c o n t i n u e t o be funded but s u b s t a n t i a l drops i n f u n d i n g i n the region  f o l l o w e d i n 1984,  ironically,  subsequent  to p r o v i n c i a l  and  federal elections.  W h i l e many o f the s i l v i c u l t u r e p r o j e c t s w i l l r e t u r n b e n e f i t s t o the r e g i o n i n the l o n g - t e r m and have r e n d e r e d i n t e n s i v e f o r e s t management a salient political little  evidence  i s s u e i n some n o r t h w e s t c o m m u n i t i e s ,  that  components  of  the  indicator  of  senior  development  these  work  p r o j e c t s would  r e g i o n a l economy government  s t r a t e g y would  have  over  a  commitment  be  there  significant  longer  period.  to  longer  a  was  been p r o v i s i o n o f t r a i n i n g  An term  through  50.  these  projects  to  develop  a  c o n t r a c t o r s and t e c h n i c i a n s . to  the  regional  technicians  college  garnered  of  more  skilled silviculture  O n l y i n l a t e 1985 was f u n d i n g a l l o c a t e d to  t r a i n i n g program  subsequently  core  establish  a  six  month s i l v i c u l t u r e  f o r f o r t y people.  m i n i s t e r i a l support  The  project  a t the f e d e r a l  has  level  and  has been expanded to o t h e r n o r t h w e s t c o m m u n i t i e s .  A second m a j o r i n f l o w o f s e n i o r government money was c h a n n e l e d t o the r e g i o n t h r o u g h p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s . highway  paving  Transportation  projects and  were  In 1983 s e v e r a l l a r g e r e g i o n a l  i n i t i a t e d by  Highways.  Some  of  the  these  B.C.  Ministry  projects  of  permitted  c o n t r a c t o r s t o employ t h e i r i d l e heavy equipment on s h o r t term o r day l a b o r c o n t r a c t s and r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e numbers o f l o c a l people hired. of  In the 1982/83 f i s c a l y e a r t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s  Transportation  and  Highways  in  the  Skeena  being  o f the M i n i s t r y  Electoral District  amounted t o $18.0  m i l l i o n , o f which $2.6  labor" contracts.  In 1983/84 t h e s e t o t a l s i n c r e a s e d to $36.7 m i l l i o n  and  $8.1  million  respectively  m i l l i o n were spent on  (Ministry  Highways,  1982/83:110-112;1983/84:125-128).  upgrading  the  Canadian  National  Rail  of  Transportation  Construction  l i n e was  another  work  "day  and on  important  employer during t h i s period.  During  this  policy  episode  senior  government  t a r g e t e d to the l e v e l o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  Discussed  expenditures  were  i n more d e t a i l i n  the a n a l y s i s c h a p t e r , the i n d i v i d u a l as the f o c a l p o i n t o f government p o l i c y i s but one  manifestation  of l i b e r a l  ideology.  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l and r e g i o n a l l e v e l i n t e r e s t s may c o n f l i c t .  We w i l l  see  51.  The  best  programs  example took  Stewart.  liberal  place with  was  perspectives reflected  c l o s u r e o f t h e Granduc  Coinciding with  permanently workers  of  mobilization  the  announcement  of  government  t o seek employment e l s e w h e r e i n Canada  financial  to  i n manpower  Copper  Mine  close  resources  the to  a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e form o f r e l o c a t i o n a l l o w a n c e s .  a r g u e , may  a c t u a l l y have  been  mine assist  including providing  p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l a s s i s t a n c e t o unemployed mine w o r k e r s , t h i s one m i g h t  in  While program,  t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f the  community and r e g i o n by e n c o u r a g i n g o u t - m i g r a t i o n o f s k i l l e d  workers  from t h e n o r t h w e s t .  finding  L e s s government  e f f o r t was put towards  o r c r e a t i n g l o n g term employment f o r t h e s e workers w i t h i n S t e w a r t o r the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n .  I t was, i n p a r t , r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t a s u r p l u s o f  s k i l l e d workers was becoming a v a i l a b l e i n t h e r e g i o n which e n c o u r a g e d the  Regional  District  to  development p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  engage  in  its  particular  economic  52.  CHAPTER FOUR:  THE PROVINCE'S PLANNING PROCESS AND PLAN  This  reviews  chapter  Columbia  government  development  in  formulating  o f northwestern  p r o c e s s outcomes. 4).  the planning  British  The p r o c e s s  process a  used  plan  Columbia,  by t h e  f o r the  British economic  and d e s c r i b e s  the  has two d i s t i n c t phases ( s e e F i g u r e  L a t e i n 1981 and a g a i n i n 1982 members o f t h e C a b i n e t  Committee  on Economic Development made " f a c t - f i n d i n g " v i s i t s t o t h e n o r t h w e s t to d i s c u s s development i s s u e s o f t h e r e g i o n .  L a t e r , i n September,  1982, t h e C a b i n e t Committee announced i t s i n t e n t i o n t o f o r m u l a t e an economic s t r a t e g y f o r n o r t h w e s t its  bureaucracy  alternatives services.  to describe  growth  potential  i n t h e r e g i o n and  f o r settlement,  power  generation  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  These s t u d i e s would c o n c e n t r a t e  the r e g i o n ( f r o m Stewart represent  a  political  technical  planning  on t h e N o r t h e r n  t o t h e Yukon b o r d e r ) . process  objectives are established. a  B.C. and s e t t h e e x p e r t a d v i s o r s i n  stage,  i n which  Zone o f  The c a b i n e t  development  goals  tours and  P r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e economic s t r a t e g y i s i n which  the bureaucracy  explores  From t h e " f i r s t - h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n " p r o v i d e d t o t h e C a b i n e t  Committee  o p t i o n a l means t o a c h i e v e g i v e n ends.  The Need f o r an Economic S t r a t e g y :  on i t s two t o u r s , t h e d e c i s i o n s a r e made t o commission "a r e p o r t t h a t would  realistically  then t o p r o c e e d  summarize  the area's  economic  p o t e n t i a l , " and  t o d e v e l o p an economic s t r a t e g y f o r t h e r e g i o n (The  New F r o n t i e r , 1982:7).  Despite  a c u r i o u s p u b l i s h e d comment a b o u t  1981  1983  i!982  October 1981:  P o l i t i c a l Phase  1984  f i r s t c a b i n e t committee  February 1982: second t o u r t o A t l i n , and Dease Lake March 1982:  tour Cassiar  t h i r d t o u r t o Stewart  T e c h n i c a l Phase  £  z  z—1-> e a r l y 1982: C a b i n e t i n s t r u c t s Task F o r c e t o compile review of northwest B.C. economic potential September 1982: Cabinet announces i n t e n t i o n t o develop r e g i o n a l economic s t r a t e g y ; The New F r o n t i e r & The Northwest Region r e p o r t s are r e l e a s e d October 1983: Summary r e p o r t of Northwest Economic Development S t u d i e s i s r e l e a s e d December 1983: background r e p o r t s t o Northwest S t u d i e s are r e l e a s e d post-1983: p u b l i c & p r i v a t e sector planning of s p e c i f i c development p r o j e c t s c o n t i n u e s government a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d t o road access f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s  54.  the c a b i n e t ' s m e e t i n g s i n the n o r t h w e s t , and  i t was  heard"  (The New  t h a t "the message was  F r o n t i e r , 1982:7), i t was  clear  not p r e c i s e l y  s t a t e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government what the need was  f o r such  a  s t r a t e g y nor were reasons g i v e n f o r i t s t i m i n g .  Purely  political  undertaking  motives  cannot  the s t r a t e g y .  be  overlooked  In the f a l l  o f 1982  as  reasons  for  election talk  was  c i r c u l a t i n g and the announcement o f an economic s t r a t e g y would be a high p r o f i l e event.  T h i s a u t h o r r e c a l l s t h a t the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n  was t o have the m a j o r i t y o f the C a b i n e t Committee i n T e r r a c e f o r the September  15,  1982  McClelland attended.  briefing.  Instead,  only  Labour M i n i s t e r  An e l e c t i o n was not h e l d u n t i l May,  Bob  1983.  The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t economic p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s commences i n l i g h t o f extremely  high  r a t e s o f unemployment and  permanent j o b  t h e r e a r e any c o r r e s p o n d i n g c r i s i s d i m e n s i o n s  loss.  If  to the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n ,  one i s l e f t t o suppose i t i s a f e a r o f r a p i d , u n c o o r d i n a t e d Though the o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n o f the p r o v i n c e ' s  s t u d i e s was  growth. to  be  t h a t the r e g i o n has good p o t e n t i a l f o r moderate growth (The N o r t h w e s t Region, been  1982:15), a t the time t h a t p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s would have  conceiving  s e c t o r s such In  1981,  of  initiating  as m a n u f a c t u r i n g  a and  strategy,  corporate  petrochemicals  A l c a n Aluminum's Kemano C o m p l e t i o n  Petroleum  decisions.  seemed Regional  to  be  moving  quickly  hydro-electric  in  quite active.  P r o j e c t and L i q u i f i e d  N a t u r a l Gas p r o p o s a l s f o r K i t i m a t by Petro-Canada Dome  was  planning  and P o r t Simpson by toward  power  production demand  was  55.  f o r e c a s t t o grow a t an annual r a t e o f 8.5% between 1980 and 1990 (The N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n , 1982:87).  The V a l u e o f t h e P l a n :  In  retrospect  t h e economic  strategy  as l a t e r  published  i n The  N o r t h w e s t Economic Development S t u d i e s (1983) e s t a b l i s h e s a framework for  public  sector  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e economic  r e g i o n . .. The r e p o r t s  growth  summarize development p o t e n t i a l  o f the  (emphasizing  l a r g e - s c a l e p r o j e c t s ) and o u t l i n e p o s s i b l e r o l e s government w i l l  play  in  The  providing  intent  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , community  o f the strategy  services.  i s t o make use o f t h e "untapped"  resources  o f the northwest  long-term  objectives  F r o n t i e r , 1982:5).  and human  i n order  o f economic  " t o support  natural  the  Province's  growth and p r o s p e r i t y "  (The New  The b i a s i s d i s t i n c t l y p r o v i n c i a l i n s c o p e , n o t  r e g i o n a l , though development i s t o be "mindful  o f the environment,  the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e l e s s t a n g i b l e a s s e t s and a t t r i b u t e s o f t h i s part o f our Province"  (The New F r o n t i e r , 1982:5).  bold a s s e r t i o n , the province settlement  ignores  and s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s  In a p a r t i c u l a r l y  the centuries o f native  Indian  o f w h i t e i n h a b i t a t i o n , and c a l l s  the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n , "The New F r o n t i e r . "  Regardless, wasteful  the Northwest  Studies  public relations exercise.  should  difficulties  as a  The N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s r e p o r t s do  c o n t a i n m i n o r e r r o r s and m i s c o n c e p t i o n s the s c e n e , t h e study  n o t be d i s m i s s e d  a r i s i n g from w o r k i n g f a r from  recommendations a r e o f t e n i m p r e c i s e  i n predicting the timing  o f resource  because o f  developments i n  56.  the  north,  but  several  important  development a r e a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d .  policies  regarding northwest  F o r example, an i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l  group e x a m i n i n g s e t t l e m e n t o p t i o n s i n t h e N o r t h e r n Zone c o n c l u d e d t h a t the i n t e r e s t s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t would be b e t t e r s a t i s f i e d i f future  large-scale  resource projects  incorporated  block  commuting  programs f o r w o r k e r s .  R a t h e r than c o n s t r u c t i n g new  t o w n s i t e s i n remote a r e a s , companies  would be e n c o u r a g e d t o house t h e i r w o r k f o r c e s i n t h e e x i s t i n g l a r g e r c e n t r e s o f t h e S o u t h e r n Zone o f S m i t h e r s , T e r r a c e o r P r i n c e R u p e r t . Workers would be t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e p r o j e c t s i t e by a i r o r r o a d and housed  i n c o m f o r t a b l e but  temporary  accommodations  at  the  work  place.  S h i f t s would be f o r f a i r l y l o n g d u r a t i o n s ( e g . seven days on,  seven days o f f ) .  The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s p o l i c y a r e t o a s s i s t d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f t h e S o u t h e r n Zone, i n c r e a s e the t a x b a s e s , r e d u c e e x c e s s c a p a c i t y i n community s e r v i c e s and a v o i d s o c i a l problems which might occur i n the p r e s e n t l y unpopulated northern c e n t r e s (Northwest S t u d i e s , S e t t l e m e n t O p t i o n s , 1983: s e c . 4 . 3 . 8 . ) .  Two companies w i t h  p r o j e c t s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g r e v i e w e d under the p r o v i n c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l review  p r o c e s s f o r mine d e v e l o p m e n t , G u l f R e s o u r c e s (Mr. K l a p p a n  A n t h r a c i t e Coal Mine) and Sumac Mines ( K u t c h o Creek Copper Mine) have adopted  block  commuting  strategies.  The  Regional  District  of  K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e i s one l o c a l government which s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s t h i s policy  (RDKS c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , A u g u s t  Project).  12,  1986,  re:  Kutcho  Creek  57.  The C a b i n e t T o u r s :  The C a b i n e t Committee on Economic Development i s an e l e v e n - p e r s o n subcommittee o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t . In September 1982, i t s c h a i r m a n was Labour M i n i s t e r Bob M c C l e l l a n d , who had r e c e n t l y been t r a n s f e r r e d from  the  Ministry  of  Energy  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e Committee Ministry  of  Resources)  Forests,  and  from  (Cdn. News  Facts,  1982:  2740).  i s from t h e r e s o u r c e m i n i s t r i e s (eg'.  Ministry  o f Energy,  other ministries  with  Mines  and  Petroleum  responsibilities for  economic development ( e g . M i n i s t r y o f F i n a n c e , M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s D e v e l o p m e n t ) .  The CCED was c r e a t e d " t o f o r m u l a t e  p o l i c i e s and programs which would e n c o u r a g e c o m p r e h e n s i v e and  economic  1982:6).  expansion  in British  A membership l i s t  Columbia"  from September  (The New  industrial Frontier,  1982 ( a f t e r a c a b i n e t  s h u f f l e ) i s p r e s e n t e d below. TABLE 5: Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon.  C a b i n e t Committee on Economic Bob M c C l e l l a n d Tony Brummet Hugh C u r t i s Alex Fraser  Hon. J a c k H e i n r i c h Hon. Tom W a t e r l a n d Hon. Don P h i l l i p s Hon. Harvey S c h r o e d e r Hon. B r i a n Smith Hon. S t e v e n Rogers Hon. C l a u d e Richmond  M i n i s t e r o f Labour M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , Parks & H o u s i n g M i n i s t e r of Finance Minister of Transportation and Highways Minister of Municipal Affairs Minister of Forests M i n i s t e r o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s Development M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Food M i n i s t e r o f E n e r g y , Mines & Petroleum Resources M i n i s t e r o f Environment M i n i s t e r o f Tourism  Members o f t h e C a b i n e t Committee 1981  and a g a i n i n e a r l y  Development  1982.  toured the northwest region i n l a t e Normal  practice  i s that cabinet  58.  members  or  various  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as  forums.  committees  meet  separately opposed  to  with  d i f f e r e n t groups  staging  T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y the program adopted  l a r g e , open  p r e p a r e b r i e f s on p o l i c i e s and c o n c e r n s development.  public  on t h e s e t o u r s .  e x c e p t i o n i s t h a t V i c t o r i a r e q u e s t e d i n advance t h a t n o r t h w e s t regarding northwest  in  The  groups economic  In a d d i t i o n , the C a b i n e t Committee r e c e i v e d u n s o l i c i t e d  b r i e f s from groups and i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n i n g o f an impending  Cabinet  t o u r ( C a t h y Mayoh, C a b i n e t S e c r e t a r i a t , p e r s . comm.).  The d e t a i l e d a r r a n g e m e n t s o f a c a b i n e t t o u r , i n c l u d i n g communications with  local  g o v e r n m e n t s , would be managed by  s t a f f members o f  the  C a b i n e t S e c r e t a r i a t . But i f the formal l e t t e r o f i n v i t a t i o n from  Bob  McClelland  any  to  indication, planning October  the  Regional  there  are  initiative 19, 1981,  no  is  District clues  i n the  that  of a  offing.  Kitimat-Stikine major In  is  regional  economic  correspondence  Chairman o f the C a b i n e t Committee, Bob  dated  McClelland  s i m p l y s t a t e s t h a t the CCED: ...conducts r e g u l a r t o u r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia and h o l d s m e e t i n g s i n v a r i o u s r e g i o n s on economic development and i n d u s t r i a l i s s u e s . We use t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to v i s i t l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s and t o u r c o m m u n i t i e s . (The meeting w i t h the R e g i o n a l Board on O c t o b e r 26, 1981) would g i v e us an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s r e g i o n a l economic m a t t e r s (R.H. M c C l e l l a n d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , O c t o b e r 19, 1981). Three c a b i n e t t o u r s took p l a c e , i n O c t o b e r March  1982.  During  the f i r s t  1981,  February  1982,  t o u r , n i n e members o f the  and  Cabinet  Committee s p e n t t h r e e days i n the r e g i o n i n the t h r e e m a j o r c e n t r e s o f K i t i m a t , T e r r a c e , and P r i n c e R u p e r t . local  municipal  councils,  The c a b i n e t met m o s t l y chambers  with of  59.  commerce r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and o t h e r c i v i c o r i n d u s t r y e l i t e  groups.  F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n t o u r s o f the major i n d u s t r i a l p l a n s were a l s o p a r t o f the v i s i t . Westar  The  Committee v i s i t e d t h e P o r t Simpson LNG  pulp m i l l  in Prince Rupert,  and met  site,  with o f f i c i a l s  the  of or  t o u r e d the A l c a n Aluminum S m e l t e r and Eurocan P u l p M i l l i n K i t i m a t . An o p e n i n g ceremony a t the O c e l o t Methanol attended.  Open p u b l i c meetings  P l a n t i n K i t i m a t was a l s o  were not p a r t o f t h i s O c t o b e r  1981  t o u r ( C a t h y Mayoh, p e r s . com.).  The  two  subsequent  visits  to the a r e a were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by more  extensive public participation.  In F e b r u a r y , 1982,  s i x members o f  the C a b i n e t Committee v i s i t e d the s m a l l e r communities  i n the N o r t h e r n  Zone o f A t l i n , C a s s i a r and Dease Lake. spent  two  Throughout  days  in  the  port  and  In March 1982, f i v e members  mining  community  of  Stewart.  a l l t h r e e t o u r s a c o r e group c o n s i s t e d o f Bob M c C l e l l a n d  ( M i n i s t e r o f Energy, Mines  and P e t r o l e u m  Resources), Jack H e i n r i c h  ( M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r ) , Tom W a t e r l a n d ( M i n i s t e r o f F o r e s t s ) , J i m  Chabot  ( M i n i s t e r o f Lands, Parks and Housing) and Don P h i l l i p s ( M i n i s t e r o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s  Development).  D u r i n g t h e s e v i s i t s to the N o r t h e r n Zone, open p u b l i c m e e t i n g s h e l d i n the e v e n i n g i n C a s s i a r and S t e w a r t .  were  In A t l i n , C a s s i a r and  Dease Lake i n f o r m a l community luncheons were a l s o h e l d .  A g a i n , where  a p p l i c a b l e , C a b i n e t met w i t h the l o c a l m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l and b u s i n e s s interests,  but  did  not  rely  e x c l u s i v e l y on  these  people  for  i n f o r m a t i o n as o c c u r r e d i n the l a r g e r , more s o u t h e r l y c e n t r e s .  For  60.  example, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  o f the Kaska Dene T r i b a l C o u n c i l met  with  C a b i n e t members i n C a s s i a r ( C a t h y Mayoh, p e r s . comm).  Subsequent  government  r e g a r d i n g who  publications  submitted  briefs.  exhibit  considerable  A t the September, 1982  variance  announcement  i n T e r r a c e , two r e p o r t s are made p u b l i c .  The f i r s t i s a statement  economic  potential  a  gathered  from  in  the  region  the m e e t i n g s w i t h  e n t i t l e d The N o r t h w e s t Region: Study  1982,  states  that  plus  summary  northwest  of  residents.  information The  A B r i t i s h Columbia R e g i o n a l  "several  b r i e f s on  development were a d v a n c e d " (The Northwest Region,  of  report, Economic  furthering  economic  1982:5).  Comments  which summarize t h e s e b r i e f s o n l y acknowledge the i n p u t o f r e g i o n a l e l i t e groups such as m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t boards and chambers o f commerce (The N o r t h w e s t Region,  The New  1982:28-34).  F r o n t i e r i s a l s o r e l e a s e d a t the same o c c a s i o n .  This report  d i s c u s s e s the P r o v i n c e ' s p l a n t o d e v e l o p an economic s t r a t e g y f o r the region,  a l s o h i g h l i g h t s development  issues  and  opportunities,  c r e a t e s a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e o f the c a b i n e t t o u r s : The Committee met w i t h groups and i n d i v i d u a l s ; they ranged from p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s and m u n i c i p a l l e a d e r s t o Chambers o f Commerce and i n d u s t r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , from n a t i v e groups t o environmentalists. They read b r i e f s and heard s u b m i s s i o n s c o v e r i n g a wide range o f s o c i a l and economic c o n c e r n s . The s u b j e c t s were i m p o r t a n t and i n t e r e s t i n g : the l a c k o f d i v e r s i t y i n the economy o f the r e g i o n ; the dependence on s i n g l e - r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s ; the h i g h l a b o r t u r n o v e r ; the need f o r more community s e r v i c e s ; the a r e a ' s f e e l i n g o f r e g i o n a l i s o l a t i o n . Some r e s i d e n t s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n t h a t the North West's e x i s t i n g l i f e s t y l e m i g h t be m a s s i v e l y d i s r u p t e d by too much development too f a s t . O t h e r s w o r r i e d t h a t t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a l u e s m i g h t be j e o p a r d i z e d . Some . urged q u i c k a c t i o n t o e n c o u r a g e economic development now; o t h e r s e x p l a i n e d the r e g i o n ' s need f o r new j o b s , new i n d u s t r i e s , new v i t a l i t y (The New F r o n t i e r , 1982:7).  but  61.  The N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n :  A B r i t i s h Columbia R e g i o n a l  Economic S t u d y ,  1982 i s , as j u s t s t a t e d , a r e p o r t which c o n t a i n s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  local  regional  groups' economic  presentations potential.  to  The  cabinet report  and  a  statement  i s a concise,  on  readable  p r o f i l e o f the r e g i o n a l economy and i n c l u d e s a summary o f economic, environmental  and  development.  social  i m p a c t s which  might  arise  from  future  One c o u l d d e s c r i b e the p r o c e s s as a " s c o p i n g " e x e r c i s e ;  i t s p u r p o s e i s t o i d e n t i f y c r i t i c a l r e g i o n a l development i s s u e s .  More i m p o r t a n t l y , The N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n , i n b o t h s u b t l e and e x p l i c i t ways,  demonstrates  that  fundamental  components  development p l a n had a l r e a d y been d e t e r m i n e d .  of  the  regional  For t h e S o u t h e r n Zone  the l a r g e - s c a l e developments b e i n g p l a n n e d a t t h e time a r e t r e a t e d as appropriate  mechanisms  Continuation  of  a  to  diversify  that  part  of  the  l a r g e - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y development  recommended (The N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n , 1982:16).  region.  history is  In the N o r t h e r n Zone,  n i n e l a r g e " c o r n e r s t o n e " m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s a r e p r o p o s e d as c a t a l y s t s for  further  development.  Regional  economic  performance  t h e r e f o r e be a f u n c t i o n o f e x p o r t - b a s e d d e v e l o p m e n t .  would  The s t r a t e g y  p l a n n i n g which f o l l o w e d c o n c e n t r a t e d r e s e a r c h on the N o r t h e r n Zone.  Some  of  the  language  used  provincial  attitudes  Communities  of the north  region  described  as  i n The  regarding  Northwest  development  are described  generally  Region of  the  as "remote"  "uninhabited  illustrates northwest.  (p. 26), the  hinterland"  (p.  18),  62. regional  resources  are  "untapped" ( p . 54) o r " u n e x p l o i t e d "  and i n need o f " ' r o a d s t o r e s o u r c e s ' " (p. 5 2 ) .  Remarks have a l r e a d y  accompanying r e p o r t , The New  (p.  57)  i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e development  been made about the  t i t l e of  the  Frontier.  The c o n c e r n s o f r e s i d e n t n o r t h w e s t g r o u p s , as they are documented i n The  Northwest  philosophy  of  Region  report,  development.  do  not  Goals  include  on  the  diversification  are  are c i t e d but, m o s t l y ,  the  such  m e n t i o n e d , i s s u e s such as l a b o r t u r n o v e r  as  opinions  b r i e f s are s h o p p i n g l i s t s f o r s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s o r p o l i c i e s . D i s t r i c t of Stewart requested  a connection  to the B.C.  F e r r y System.  The C i t y o f P r i n c e R u p e r t wanted the M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s to the timber and  low-cost  housing  District  Chamber  of  extrapolate  Commerce wanted  would be m a i n t a i n e d  N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n , 1982:28-31).  the  from the  information  "The o b j e c t i v e s o f r e g i o n a l b a l a n c e ,  Provincial  N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n , 1982:17).  The  did  not  objectives necessarily  mean  that  concurred.  that (The  received  employment,  These o b j e c t i v e s  Economic P o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s "  are (The  r e a d e r w i l l n o t e , as a d i g r e s s i o n ,  t h a t an a l l e g e d c o n s i s t e n c y between i m p r e c i s e p r o v i n c i a l and objectives  The  the p r o v i n c e managed t o  income growth and s t a b i l i t y are b e i n g p u r s u e d . with  assurances  as a government p r i o r i t y  Regardless,  some economic o b j e c t i v e s  during t h e i r tours.  consistent  increase  s u p p l y a v a i l a b l e t o i n d u s t r y a l o n g the n o r t h c o a s t .  Terrace  The  methods  chosen  to  achieve  regional these  63.  A Model f o r Development:  The N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n r e p o r t c a r r i e s an i m p o r t a n t message: p r o v i n c e v e r y e a r l y on had  resolved  t h a t a model  of  that the development  i n - c o r p o r a t i n g an e x p o r t o r i e n t a t i o n and l a r g e - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y was appropriate f o r the northwest.  Although small-scale  opportunities  (eg. w i l d e r n e s s tourism or native Indian c r a f t production) are not t o t a l l y i g n o r e d , i n the l i s t o f development p o t e n t i a l the emphasis i s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y on the l a r g e - s c a l e r e s o u r c e development p r o j e c t .  The d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f the N o r t h e r n Zone which f o l l o w e d and c o m p r i s e the development s t r a t e g y a r e c i r c u m s c r i b e d by t h i s e a r l y Consequently, undertaken  The  Northwest  Economic  Development  decision.  Studies are  " t o d e t e r m i n e the s c a l e o f t i m i n g o f p o t e n t i a l m i n e r a l  d e v e l o p m e n t s , and t o i d e n t i f y o p t i o n s t o s u p p l y power, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i n o r d e r t o s e r v e t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t s ; (The N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s : is  Summary R e p o r t , 1983:1). relegated  to  being  a  The  development  strategy  planning  technical  research  project.  T h i s e x e r c i s e would s u p p o r t t h e g i v e n development model not  seek a l t e r n a t i v e m o d e l s .  T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f t h e development model.  One  technicians  i s that  from  their  advantageous  u n d e r t a k i n g t h e background  position  r e s e a r c h may  provincial  have  exposed  c a b i n e t t o no o t h e r development model t h a n the l a r g e - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y  64:  one.  I t i s through  t h e eyes  o f the p r o v i n c i a l b u r e a u c r a c y  that  development o p p o r t u n i t i e s are i d e n t i f i e d .  An a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s which  e x p l a i n s the o r i g i n s o f the  chosen  model i s t h a t c a b i n e t i n d e e d d e c i d e s upon an a p p r o p r i a t e model f o r northwest  development through  with northwest remains  groups  and  the  political  individuals.  process  of consulting  In t h i s s c e n a r i o , c a b i n e t  supreme, chooses development ends and i n s t r u c t s i t s s t a f f t o  d e t e r m i n e a l t e r n a t i v e means. holds a predetermined p r i o r t o any  Yet a t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t c a b i n e t  v i s i o n f o r northwest  northwest  development,  p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , any  formulated  cabinet tour or  any  technical research.  S u p p o r t i n g the v a l i d i t y o f the t h i r d o p t i o n i s  the  the  declaration of  replicate  i t s proven  The  reviewed the  active  suggests  process  F r o n t i e r , 1982:5).  r o l e of  i t intended  applied in  to  Northeast  N o r t h e a s t Coal i s the  one—that  the  the  government  and  politicians  However, none o f t h e s e  t h a t the second  politicians planners  t h r e e hypotheses  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t p l a n n i n g which  the  process  thus  should  be  interpretation is  established identified  goals the  and  means.  brings into question  the  t a k e s p l a c e a f t e r the September  1982  s t r a t e g y announcement o n l y s e r v e s a purpose development model.  in  t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l planning process  l a t e r on the assumption  correct  objectives  that  mega-project.  reasonably  described  Committee  "open-planning"  Coal development (The New archetypal  Cabinet  o f r e a l i z i n g the  chosen  65.  The Northv/est Economic Development S t u d i e s :  The N o r t h w e s t Region i s w r i t t e n by the Economic A n a l y s i s and R e s e a r c h Bureau o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s The  r e s e a r c h , however,  group."  i s compiled  by  an  Development.  "interministry  The M i n i s t r i e s o f E n e r g y , Mines and P e t r o l e u m  Transportation  and  Highways,  Environment,  working  Resources,  Intergovernmental  R e l a t i o n s , M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , T o u r i s m , F o r e s t s , and A g r i c u l t u r e and Food a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s t u d y (The Northwest R e g i o n , 1982:5). Northwest  Region  i s more "a q u a l i t a t i v e  review" o f the  The  northwest  r e g i o n a l economy but terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e s t u d y c a l l f o r more technical  work  statistical the  to  be  undertaken,  including  forecasting  a n a l y s e s (The N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n , 1982:9).  and  In t u r n i n g t o  second phase o f t h i s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e p r o c e s s becomes more  technocratic.  In a d d i t i o n , t h e i n t e r m i n i s t r y f o r m a t becomes more  evident.  The  September  provincial  1982  government  economic  s t r a t e g y announcement  t o an  "open-planning" process.  commits  the  Continuous  d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e p u b l i c o f t h e n o r t h w e s t i s t o be a v i t a l p a r t o f a regional second  economic phase  public input. from  s t r a t e g y (The  o f the  New  Frontier,  strategy is actually  P l a n n i n g a f t e r September  1982:8);  compiled with  this  minimal  15, 1982, has l i t t l e i n p u t  t h e r e g i o n , o t h e r t h a n from t h e p r o v i n c i a l  regional  yet,  government's  own  officials.  A r e v i e w o f the terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e s t r a t e g y makes one wonder  66.  why a p r o m i s e t o p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n would even be c o n s i d e r e d . provincial  bureaucracy i s instructed  series of detailed  The  by t h e CCED t o u n d e r t a k e a  s t u d i e s on t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e n o r t h w e s t  r e g i o n , f o c u s s i n g on t h e n i n e key m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s which had been identified  previously.  The s t r a t e g y i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a t e c h n i c a l  exercise.  A  "committee  Studies. is  a p p r o a c h " i s employed  i n the Northwest  Development  R e p o r t i n g t o t h e C a b i n e t Committee on Economic Development  an I n t e r m i n i s t r y  Opportunities.  Task  The  F o r c e on N o r t h w e s t Economic  Task  Force  has  Development  representation  from  a  c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f r e s o u r c e and economic development m i n i s t r i e s and i s co-chaired  by L o m e  Division),  Ministry  Sivertson,  Assistant  Deputy M i n i s t e r ,  (Mines  o f E n e r g y , Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s and  W i l l i a m M c R e y n o l d s , A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r t h e M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development.  Beneath  t h e Task  F o r c e , s i x "Working G r o u p s " a r e e s t a b l i s h e d t o  perform  specific  research  assignments.  The s i x g r o u p s a r e t h e  E c o n o m i c , F i n a n c i a l and M a r k e t i n g Group, t h e M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e s Group, t h e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Group, t h e M u n i c i p a l Group, t h e E n e r g y Group and the E n v i r o n m e n t a l and S o c i a l  Impact  Group.  committees a g a i n encompasses s e v e r a l m i n i s t r i e s .  Membership  i n these  Members o f t h e Task  F o r c e a r e a l s o members o f w o r k i n g groups and some i n d i v i d u a l s s i t on more t h a n one w o r k i n g g r o u p . groups  I n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d by t h e w o r k i n g  i s channeled through the Economic, F i n a n c i a l  and M a r k e t i n g  67.  Group  i n order  scenarios.  F i g u r e 5:  t o assess  the feasibility  o f various  development  The committee s t r u c t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d below i n F i g u r e 5:  Northwest Economic Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s : I n t e r m i n i s t r y working group s t r u c t u r e  CABINET COMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  INTERMINISTRY TASK FORCE ECONOMICS/FINANCE MARKETING CROUP  MINERAL RESOURCES GROUP  TRANSPORTATION GROUP  source: Northwest  &  MUNICIPAL CROUP  Studies,Settlement  ENERGY GROUP  o p t i o n s , 1.9S3  ENVIRONMENT & SOCIAL IMPACT GROUP  68.  Taken d i r e c t l y from Group  is a list  the r e p o r t the E n v i r o n m e n t a l  o f the  committees and  and S o c i a l Impact  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e terms  of  reference:  Economic, F i n a n c i a l and M a r k e t i n g  Group  - expected to: - r e f i n e l a r g e - s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n s c e n a r i o s and c o n f i r m t h e i r l i k e l i h o o d of r e a l i z a t i o n ; - e s t i m a t e a s s o c i a t e d demands f o r i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ; and - e v a l u a t e the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e means o f providing infrastructure. M i n e r a l R e s o u r c e s Group - expected t o : - e s t i m a t e p o t e n t i a l development and p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s o f p r i n c i p a l p o t e n t i a l mining p r o p e r t i e s i n region; - r e f i n e e s t i m a t e s o f m i n e r a l o u t p u t q u a n t i t i e s , and o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n l a b o r f o r c e s ; and; . - a n a l y z e w o r l d markets f o r p r o b a b l e t r e n d s i n m i n e r a l p r i c e s . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Group - expected t o : - i d e n t i f y a range o f p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s f o r r o a d , rail, p i p e l i n e and o t h e r t r a n s p o r t s e r v i c e s a t v a r i o u s o p e r a t i n g levels; - p r o v i d e p r e l i m i n a r y c o s t e s t i m a t e s f o r t h e s e o p t i o n s ; and - i n v e s t i g a t e the need f o r , and p o s s i b l e c o s t s o f , p o r t improvements a t S t e w a r t and P r i n c e Rupert. M u n i c i p a l Group - expected t o : - estimate total regional population growth, based on workforce estimates; - i d e n t i f y the range o f h o u s i n g o p t i o n s and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l c o s t s ; and - where n e c e s s a r y , i n i t i a t e p r e l i m i n a r y l o c a t i o n s t u d i e s f o r p o t e n t i a l s i t e s f o r new towns.  69.  E n e r g y Group - expected to: - e s t i m a t e the p o t e n t i a l e x t e n t and t i m i n g o f power demands, based on the development s c e n a r i o s ; - i d e n t i f y a range o f f e a s i b l e s m a l l - s c a l e and medium-scale h y d r o - e l e c t r i c and thermal generation and transmission a l t e r n a t i v e s ; and - i n v e s t i g a t e the f e a s i b i l i t y o f p r i v a t e o r j o i n t - v e n t u r e ( p r i v a t e / p u b l i c ) power d e v e l o p m e n t s . Environmental  and S o c i a l Impact Group  - expected to: - d e v e l o p an o v e r v i e w o f the impacts o f major mine-based development; - develop an overview of the impacts of potential i n f r a s t r u c t u r e developments; - i d e n t i f y p r e l i m i n a r y m i t i g a t i o n needs; and - i d e n t i f y v a r i o u s means o f e n c o u r a g i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , Environmental The  O v e r v i e w , 1983:2,3)  i n t e r m i n i s t e r i a l s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t s a m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y approach  to r e s e a r c h .  Individuals possessing  a v a r i e t y of technical  and academic backgrounds c o n t r i b u t e t o the s t u d i e s . p u b l i s h e d i n 1983,  skills  Six studies  are  i n c o r p o r a t i n g a v a r i e t y o f r e s e a r c h methods.  Most  o f the a n a l y s i s i s q u a n t i t a t i v e ; f o r example, a s e r i e s o f f i n a n c i a l assessments  is  performed  for  transportation  and  hydro-electric  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e t o a number o f p r o p o s e d m i n e s .  More  subjective  Municipal the  information  of  associated with  information  appears  Group, f o r example, i n c l u d e s  capacity  Settlement  also  different  Options, on  study  reports.  to  endure  social  development ( N o r t h w e s t  1983:sec. 4 . 3 . 8 ) . the  some  The  a q u a l i t a t i v e assessment  communities  large-scale resource  in  Because b a s e l i n e  area  is  of  costs Studies,  environmental  insufficient,  the  70.  Environmental  and  Social  Working  questionnaire  to  regional  and  officials  Group  distributes  Victoria-based  i n o r d e r t o gauge t h e e c o l o g i c a l  development  scenarios  (Northwest Studies,  a  detailed  resource  ministry  i m p a c t s o f a number o f Environmental  Overview,  1983:4).  In a d d i t i o n t o a Summary R e p o r t w r i t t e n by t h e R e g i o n a l and R e s o u r c e Analysis  Branch  o f the M i n i s t r y  o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s  Development, s i x r e p o r t s a r e p r e p a r e d by t h e Task F o r c e on N o r t h w e s t Economic  Development  Opportunities.  N o r t h w e s t Economic Development Overview,  Environmental  These r e p o r t s  comprising the  Studies are e n t i t l e d , Socio-Economic  Overview,  Potential  Mine  Developments,  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n O p t i o n s , S e t t l e m e n t O p t i o n s and Power S u p p l y O p t i o n s . The Summary R e p o r t i s r e l e a s e d t o t h e p u b l i c i n O c t o b e r , 1983, t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s e r i e s i n December, 1983.  The c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s , The N o r t h w e s t Economic S t u d i e s , was rather  "not to represent a blueprint  indicate  priorities  f o r future  f o r development, but  p l a n n i n g and  ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1 9 8 3 : i i ) .  Development development"  The c o n t e n t i o n made i n  the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n i s t h a t a b l u e p r i n t f o r n o r t h w e s t development i n f a c t had a l r e a d y been f o r m u l a t e d ; t h u s , t h e d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s  could  o n l y a s s e s s d i f f e r e n t s c e n a r i o s f o r growth w i t h i n t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f a p r e d e t e r m i n e d development model.  The c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r p r o v i n c i a l government r e s e a r c h had been  71.  t h a t development  o f t h e more p o p u l a t e d S o u t h e r n Zone would be w e l l  s e r v e d by t h o s e development the  time.  Without  p r o s p e c t s which were on t h e h o r i z o n a t  committing  itself  t o s u p p o r t i n g any s p e c i f i c  p r o j e c t s , t h e p r o v i n c e i d e n t i f i e s aluminum m a n u f a c t u r i n g ,  liquified  n a t u r a l gas e x p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , and p e t r o c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s i n g as h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t development area o f f e r i n g  potential.  The N o r t h e r n Zone i s seen as an  " s u b s t a n t i a l development  potential  based m a i n l y upon  the s i g n i f i c a n t b u t l a r g e l y u n d e v e l o p e d m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s " (Northwest S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , that  the  Northern  infrastructure  1982:i).  Zone  The o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e a l s o made  "lacks  to sustain early  virtually  a l l the  necessary  l a r g e - s c a l e development"  and t h a t  development " w i l l r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l p r i v a t e and p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t s investments consideration  which  can only  of alternatives"  be made  after  (Northwest  careful  p l a n n i n g and  S t u d i e s , Summary  Report,  1983: i i ) . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s on t h e N o r t h e r n Zone i s d e l e g a t e d by  t h e C a b i n e t Committee  t o t h e I n t e r - M i n i s t r y Task  p r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r , " t h e s e s t u d i e s were u n d e r t a k e n s c a l e and t i m i n g o f p o t e n t i a l m i n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t s ,  Force.  As  to determine the and t o i d e n t i f y  o p t i o n s t o s u p p l y power, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and community i n f r a s t r u c t u r e in order to serve these developments. i d e n t i f y the social development  proceeds"  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  The Task F o r c e i s asked t o i s s u e s which m i g h t a r i s e as  ( N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1 9 8 3 : i ) .  The l a s t l i n e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p o l i t i c i a n s a r e w i l l i n g t o l e t t h e bureaucracy  identify  conflict  issues but are going  dominion over c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n .  to maintain  72.  The c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s do n o t c o n t a i n t h e o p t i m i s m which i s p a r t o f t h e e a r l i e r N o r t h w e s t Region r e p o r t . two  p r o j e c t s , t h e Mt. Klappan  Greek  copper/zinc  on-stream  mine,  p r i o r t o 1990.  Instead, only  a n t h r a c i t e c o a l mine and t h e Kutcho  are believed  t o have  potential  t o be  With i n c l u s i o n o f t h e S t i k i n e and S c h a f t  Creek copper m i n e s , o n l y f o u r p r o j e c t s a r e l i k e l y t o be i n p r o d u c t i o n by t h e y e a r 2000 (Northwest S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1983:37,38).  The  studies also i d e n t i f y three sub-regions  l i k e l y centres f o r mineral development.  i n t h e n o r t h which a r e  For planning purposes, the  p r o v i n c e c o n c l u d e s t h e t h r e e a r e a s c o u l d be t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y . three sub-regions  a r e t h e Kutcho Creek Resource  Area,  100 k i l o m e t e r s e a s t o f Dease L a k e , t h e Mount Klappan 150  kilometers  northeast  o f Stewart,  The  approximately Resource  and t h e S c h a f t  Area,  Creek-Stikine  Resource A r e a , 150 k i l o m e t e r s n o r t h w e s t o f S t e w a r t .  The  recommendation  o f the Northwest  Studies  i s that these  areas  s h o u l d be t h e t a r g e t s o f c o n t i n u i n g development p l a n n i n g . "In p a r t i c u l a r , f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be f o c u s s e d on t h e question o f resource road a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r the three areas and r a i l a c c e s s f o r t h e Mount Klappan a r e a . Additional analysis i s also necessary to f i n a l i z e the settlement o p t i o n s and t h e energy s u p p l y o p t i o n s f o r t h e s e r e g i o n s . S i n c e t h e b a s e l i n e e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a t a f o r t h e whole o f t h e n o r t h w e s t i s l i m i t e d , f u r t h e r e f f o r t t o improve t h e d a t a base i s r e q u i r e d " (Northwest S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1930:40). In 1986 road a c c e s s f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d i e s i n t h e Kutcho Creek a r e a and f o r t h e Mt. Klappan  p r o j e c t were completed  the p r o v i n c i a l government.  and p a r t i a l l y funded  by  Such i s one i n d i c a t i o n o f a commitment by  c a b i n e t t o t h e N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s ' recommendations.  73.  Review:  The p r o v i n c i a l economic p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s commences w i t h an e p i s o d e i n which  development  defined.  goals  In t h i s  and  "political  objectives phase"  f o r the northwest  t h r e e c a b i n e t committee  are tours  take p l a c e and e f f o r t s a r e made t o c o n s u l t w i t h n o r t h w e s t r e s i d e n t s . In t h e S o u t h e r n leadership;  Zone, c a b i n e t r e l i e s upon l o c a l b u s i n e s s and c i v i c  i n the Northern  Zone,  informal  public  hearings  and  community luncheons a r e h e l d .  Even b e f o r e t h e September 1982 announcement t o f o r m u l a t e a s t r a t e g y f o r development o f t h e n o r t h w e s t  region, the p r o v i n c i a l bureaucracy  begins  a process  public  sector roles i n a s s i s t i n g resource  private sector.  o f i d e n t i f y i n g growth  p o t e n t i a l and s u g g e s t i n g development l e d by t h e  The announcement o n l y s i g n a l s t h a t t h e t e c h n i c a l  p l a n n i n g phase has begun i n e a r n e s t .  The Northwest  Studies are the  most v i s i b l e p r o d u c t s o f t h i s p l a n n i n g .  In s p i t e o f t h e C a b i n e t Committee's e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h a c o n t i n u o u s dialogue with the people o f the northwest, m o s t l y a p r o d u c t made i n V i c t o r i a . concluded  statements  A f t e r t h e c a b i n e t t o u r s have been  no avenues a r e o f f e r e d t o t h e n o r t h w e s t  outcome o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . hearings  t h e development p l a n i s  held  which  contained  review  to a f f e c t the  T h e r e a r e no p u b l i c meetings  t h e Northwest  Studies.  i n The New F r o n t i e r ( 1 9 8 2 ) ,  a f t e r September, 1982, an " o p e n - p l a n n i n g "  process.  or  Contrary to  planning Regional  i s not input  74.  is  only  acquired  through  regional  officials  of  regional  economic  development,  strategy  formation  provincial  line  agencies.  Participation limited  to  in the  however,  process.  is  not  Opportunities  for  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by r e g i o n a l groups and i n d i v i d u a l s are s t i l l a v a i l a b l e through resource  environmental projects.  review In  procedures  used  in  actuality, private sector  assessing  major  proponents  are  o b l i g a t e d under the d i r e c t i o n o f the p r i n c i p a l government to c o n s u l t w i t h the l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s .  The  long-term  d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n o f the  p r o v i n c e , however, i s not s u b j e c t t o r e v i e w .  The  p r o v i n c i a l process  begins  during  relatively  healthy  economic  t i m e s ; r e a l i z a t i o n o f s e v e r a l l a r g e - s c a l e p r o j e c t s i n the  northwest  seems imminent.  By the time the N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s a r e r e l e a s e d the  recession  hold  takes  but  the  p r o v i n c i a l plan  C a t a l y s t s o f development i n the N o r t h e r n  is altered  Zone a r e s t i l l  little.  t o be  nine  large mineral p r o p e r t i e s .  Dismissed  from  the p r o v i n c e ' s  are s m a l l e r p r e c i o u s metal  examination  deposits.  o f development p o t e n t i a l  "Given the s i g n i f i c a n t c y c l e s  in p r e c i o u s metal p r i c e s , the d i f f i c u l t y i n p r e d i c t i n g p r o j e c t t i m i n g and omit  the s m a l l s c a l e o f many o f t h e s e p r o s p e c t s , i t was these  p o t e n t i a l mines from  Summary R e p o r t ,  1983:7).  decided  the a n a l y s i s " (Northwest  In the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g  to  Studies, process,  which t h i s t h e s i s w i l l now a d d r e s s , small s c a l e m i n i n g i s recommended as a v i a b l e development a l t e r n a t i v e .  75.  CHAPTER FIVE:  THE REGIONAL DISTRICT PLANNING PROCESS AND PLAN:  In t h e two p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s , t h e r e g i o n i s d e s c r i b e d , d e v e l o p m e n t concerns  o f northwestern  B.C. d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1980 t o 1984 a r e  discussed  and  t h e economic  planning  exercise  provincial  government i n 1981 i s examined.  initiated  by t h e  In t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s d e t a i l e d and i t s outcome as an economic p l a n d e s c r i b e d .  As  i s t o be d e m o n s t r a t e d ,  planning  within  the regional  planning  program can be seen l a r g e l y as a p r a g m a t i c r e s p o n s e t o t e n s i o n w i t h i n two d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t s .  F i r s t , r e g i o n a l development i s s u e s o f h i g h  unemployment and permanent j o b l o s s e s a f f e c t t h e p l a n n i n g Added  to these  rivalries,  threats  participation prospects campaign  are pressing institutional  in a  o f more which  concentrates  from  regional budget  reflects on  local  municipalities to economic  cutbacks a  economic  factors.  shorter  development  force term  opportunities  process.  Inter-agency withdraw function  t h e Commission time which  from and  into a  horizon  and  which  are  the  most  realizable.  Consequently,  i n t h e f i r s t o f two m a j o r s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r , a  description of the p o l i t i c a l  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s f o r m u l a t e d i s p r e s e n t e d .  environment  i n which  This s e c t i o n begins  w i t h a f a i r l y l e n g t h y s t a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Economic Development Commission, i t s s t r u c t u r e , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s other  economic development a g e n c i e s  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  w i t h i n the Regional  District.  76.  L a t e r the impacts  o f some o f the dynamic a s p e c t s o f t h i s c o n t e x t ,  such as p o l a r i z e d p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s and  s e n i o r government  fiscal  r e s t r a i n t p o l i c i e s , are a s s e s s e d .  In  the  second  s e c t i o n , the  planning  process  economic  development  economic p l a n .  ingredients of  are d e s c r i b e d . programs  The which  process together  Regional  District  employs two  separate  generate  regional  a  The two programs a l s o i n d i v i d u a l l y i d e n t i f y the s m a l l  mines p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . which  the  d e t a i l s the  attempt  A concluding section i s provided  t o implement the  technology  considered  appropriate.  These  two  programs  involve  very  different roles for planners,  d i f f e r e n t planning  activities,  d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s and d i f f e r e n t  s t y l e s o f communication but both are p r o c e s s e s d e s i g n e d  to i d e n t i f y  a p p r o p r i a t e forms o f economic development f o r the r e g i o n . program  i s based  upon a c o n s u l t a n t ' s  review  The  of smaller  d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the n o r t h w e s t .  first  resource  The  second  program i s h i g h l i g h t e d by c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c i n p u t a c q u i r e d  through  a s e r i e s o f b r a i n s t o r m i n g seminars region.  h e l d i n t h r e e communities o f the  The f i r s t program i s l a b e l l e d here a T e c h n o c r a t i c A p p r o a c h ;  the second i s l a b e l l e d a P a r t i c i p a t o r y A p p r o a c h .  Politicai/Institutional  Context:  C o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y , the powers o f l o c a l government i n Canada a r e v e s t e d in p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n .  B e g i n n i n g i n 1967, t w e n t y - e i g h t r e g i o n a l  77.  governments  known as  government.  had  a  1981  approximately  1-1,  were formed  (102,000 km ) i n n o r t h w e s t e r n  census  1.5%  by  the  B.C.  population  of  British  42,400.  Columbia  This  represents  o f the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g i n an a r e a  of approximately 1982:  Districts  The R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e encompasses an 2 2  a r e a o f 40,000 m i l e s and  Regional  10%  of  the  province  (Regional  Economic  Profile,  2-1).  The m a j o r i n c o r p o r a t e d communities  w i t h i n the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a r e  the D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t , D i s t r i c t o f T e r r a c e , D i s t r i c t o f  Stewart,  District  The  Regional  parallel;  i t then  o f New  District's  Hazelton  boundary on  extends  southward  Prince  Rupert  outside  of  and  the  Village north  to Milbanke  and the  Smithers  of Hazelton.  i s the  58th  Sound near Klemtu are  two  Kitimat-Stikine.  on t h e west c o a s t .  l a r g e r northwest The  communities  Kitimat-Stikine  D i s t r i c t a l s o c o n t a i n s many I n d i a n Reserves  which  Regional  a r e exempt  from  Regional D i s t r i c t j u r i s d i c t i o n .  The R e g i o n a l deliver  D i s t r i c t s ' p r i m a r y and b e s t known r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to  land  use  planning  a r e a s o f the r e g i o n .  s e r v i c e s to the  settled  unincorporated  Incorporated m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  t h e i r own l a n d use p l a n n i n g .  The K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l  District  a d m i n i s t e r s a t o t a l t o 24 d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s o r s e r v i c e s f o r e i t h e r the e n t i r e r e g i o n o r s p e c i f i e d l o c a l a r e a s .  These r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  a r e wide r a n g i n g and i n c l u d e l a n d use p l a n n i n g , economic  development,  o p e r a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s such as a s k i a r e a and a p u b l i c marina,  t o animal  c o n t r o l and  management o f r e f u s e  sites.  78.  A u t h o r i t y f o r t h e s e f u n c t i o n s i s g i v e n by the p r o v i n c i a l government through "supplementary  l e t t e r s patent."  P o l i c i e s o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t a r e f o r m u l a t e d by a R e g i o n a l c o n s i s t i n g of twelve  directors.  The  Board  c o u n c i l s of the i n c o r p o r a t e d  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a n n u a l l y a p p o i n t m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l members t o s i t as D i r e c t o r s on t h e R e g i o n a l largest  Board.  Two  D i r e c t o r s r e p r e s e n t the  p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s , the D i s t r i c t s  o f K i t i m a t and  two  Terrace,  w h i l e each o f the t h r e e o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have a s i n g l e D i r e c t o r . In a d d i t i o n the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t has f i v e e l e c t o r a l areas f o r the remaining  unincorporated areas.  Each e l e c t o r a l a r e a  has a s i n g l e D i r e c t o r a c q u i r i n g o f f i c e by d i r e c t e l e c t i o n f o r a two y e a r term. Board  Most r e s o l u t i o n s and bylaws a r e v o t e d on by the R e g i o n a l  by a w e i g h t e d  following  table lists  v o t e a c c o r d i n g to a p o p u l a t i o n f o r m u l a . the  1984  Regional  Board  and  strength: TABLE 6:  K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board (1984) T o t a l Vote Carried  Area A Area B Area C Area D Area E Hazel ton New H a z e l t o n K i t i m a t No. 1 K i t i m a t No. 2 Stewart T e r r a c e No. 1 T e r r a c e No. 2  Percy T a i t F r e d Roisum Gordon Robinson Joe Murphy Robert Lavoie Alice Maitland P e t e r Weeber Lee E l l i s Ron B u r n e t t Andrew B u r t o n David G e l l a t e l y Alan Soutar  2 3 3 1 3 1 1 4 3 1 3 3 28  their  The voting  79.  The K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t m a i n t a i n s a permanent f u l l t i m e staff  o f between 12 t o 15 p e r s o n s , making i t one o f t h e s m a l l e s t  Regional D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s in Terrace.  i n the province.  Its offices  are located  S e v e r a l s t a f f members have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  f o r several  f u n c t i o n s and h o l d s e v e r a l for  the  Regional  titles.  District  is  F o r example, t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r also  the  Economic  Development  C o m m i s s i o n e r , and t h e A s s i s t a n t A d m i n i s t r a t o r i s a l s o t h e D i r e c t o r o f Planning. of  The r e l a t i v e l y  activities  s m a l l s t a f f s i z e f a c i l i t a t e s an awareness  o f o t h e r departments  t h r o u g h f o r m a l and  informal  channels.  Economic Development i s one f u n c t i o n o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t .  Its  method o f d e l i v e r y i s t h r o u g h an Economic Development Commission and i s o u t l i n e d i n R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Bylaw No. 107, p a s s e d i n 1980. The Economic  Development  Directors  Commission  i s comprised o f a l l the Board  o f t h e R e g i o n a l Board w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n  D i r e c t o r s from the D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t . function  effective  undertaking  i t s own  January  Kitimat withdrew from the  1 s t , 1984,  economic  o f t h e two  development  with  the  program.  intention Unlike  of the  R e g i o n a l B o a r d , t h e r e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e Commission a r e v o t e d on w i t h each D i r e c t o r c a r r y i n g o n l y a s i n g l e v o t e . open  to the public  and h e l d  Commission m e e t i n g s a r e  on t h e same day as t h e r e g u l a r l y  scheduled monthly meetings o f the Regional Board.  In terms o f t h e  methods o f o p e r a t i o n , t h e Commission f u n c t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e Regional  Board, i t s resolutions  a r e n o t r e v i e w e d by t h e R e g i o n a l  B o a r d , though f o r m a l l y t h e Commission i s s u b s e r v i e n t .  80.  A Commission c o m p r i s e d e x c l u s i v e l y o f p o l i t i c a l the  structure  chosen f o r o n l y  four  representatives  o f t h e 20  was  R e g i o n a l Economic  Commissions which were formed i n B.C. between 1978 and 1980.  Most  other Regional D i s t r i c t s appointed private sector individuals to s i t on  their  politicians  Commissions and  or  chose  appointments  a  structure  from  the  involving  private  sector  a mix (Ernst  of &  Whinney, 1981: 3-1 t o 3 - 5 ) .  Where o u t s i d e p r i v a t e s e c t o r p e o p l e were  b r o u g h t i n , t h e Commissions  c o u l d more c l e a r l y f u n c t i o n as b o d i e s  s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Board than has been t h e c a s e i n the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t .  The K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e Economic Development Commission has been used as a  vehicle  to  discuss  almost  any  issue  concerning  economic  d e v e l o p m e n t , which p r e v i o u s l y and i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s would d e a l t with a t the Regional Board l e v e l . been  used more as a p o l i t i c a l  promotions or planning purposes. Commission  activities  be  O f t e n the Commission has  lobby than f o r s t r i c t l y  economic  A r e v i e w o f Economic Development  f r o m 1983 shows t h a t o n l y e i g h t o f t h e  143  r e s o l u t i o n s o f the Commission a l l o c a t e d f u n d i n g o r d i r e c t e d s t a f f t o engage i n economic p r o m o t i o n a l programs.  The Economic Development Commission has one f u l l t i m e s t a f f member, the A s s i s t a n t C o m m i s s i o n e r , w i t h t h e Commissioner p e r f o r m i n g t h e dual r o l e as A d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t and d e r i v i n g o n l y 25% o f h i s s a l a r y i n 1984 f r o m t h e Economic Development f u n c t i o n .  During  1984 t h e Commission a l s o made p a r t t i m e use o f a c o n s u l t a n t based i n  81.  T e r r a c e and one o t h e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s t a f f member t o a s s i s t w i t h s p e c i a l economic development p r o j e c t s .  While markedly in working  l i m i t e d i n r e s o u r c e s and t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y  with f o r e i g n subject matter  processing,  a  covered  the  three  who  worked  by  consultant  broad  such as m i n i n g  cross-section of d i s c i p l i n e s principal on  Commission  the  small  staff  mines  and  is  mineral  nevertheless  members and  project  C o l l e c t i v e l y t h e s e f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s had p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  in  the 1984.  education in  the l i b e r a l a r t s , commerce, law, e c o l o g y , r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g , r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , b u s i n e s s management and  The  Commissions  cannot  be  marketing.  considered  grass  roots  organizations.  I n s t e a d t h e y o n l y came i n t o b e i n g w i t h the p r o v i s i o n o f f u n d i n g from the  p r o v i n c i a l and  Commissions Industrial  were  federal  originally  Development  governments.  The  funded  late  i n the  S u b s i d i a r y Agreement  Regional 1970's  (IDSA).  Economic from  I t was  s h a r e d 50/50 between the two s e n i o r l e v e l s o f government. agreement  was  one  of  f o l l o w i n g the G e n e r a l  a  s e r i e s of  o u t l i n e d key a r e a s f o r r e g i o n a l development t o which federal  government  Whinney, 1 9 8 1 : i ) .  funds  and  p o l i c y would  In B r i t i s h Columbia  were a l s o s i g n e d f o r f o r e s t r y and t o u r i s m  IDSA  monies  were  originally  to  be  be  which  cost  The IDSA  s u b s i d i a r y agreements  Development Agreement o f 1974,  the  signed in turn  p r o v i n c i a l and  targeted  (Ernst &  l a r g e r s u b s i d i a r y agreements development.  provided  to  the  regional  Commissions f o r t h r e e y e a r s on a d e s c e n d i n g s c a l e o f s u p p o r t - - 9 0 %  in  82. the f i r s t y e a r , 70% Whinney, 1 9 8 1 : i ) . amounting  i n the second  and 50% i n the t h i r d ( E r n s t &  Many Commissions  received a forth year of support  t o 45% o f the budget o f the Commission  IDSA S t e e r i n g Committee.  as approved  IDSA was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y  o f I n d u s t r y and Small B u s i n e s s Development and the f e d e r a l o f R e g i o n a l Economic  The  Economic  Department  Expansion.  Development  K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e was  by an  Commission  formed  of  i n 1980,  the  Regional  and was  District  of  in i t s last year  of  r e c e i v i n g o u t s i d e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t ( 4 5 % IDSA c o n t r i b u t i o n ) i n  1984.  T h i s was the y e a r i n which the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s under r e v i e w i n t h i s thesis  took  particularly Commission,  place.  As  as  might  they  will  be  seen,  result  in  financial the  constraints,  termination  a f f e c t e d the b e h a v i o r o f the Commission  of  the  and o t h e r l o c a l  government a g e n c i e s , and c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s t y l e o f p l a n n i n g used by the Commission local  in that year.  One a s p e c t o f the problem was t h a t some  government p o l i t i c i a n s were l o s i n g  commission  interest  i n the r e g i o n a l  because i t was no l o n g e r g o i n g to be e l i g i b l e f o r s e n i o r  government g r a n t monies.  Through  the  approximately  years  1982-1984  $120,000.  the  In y e a r s  Commission 1983  and  budget 1984  was  revenues  IDSA g r a n t s o f $84,707 and $59,380 r e s p e c t i v e l y (Economic Commission, Commission property  January  1986).  The  portion of  held  the  included  Development  funding  for  n o t c o v e r e d by IDSA g r a n t s must be o b t a i n e d from taxes.  Supplementary  The  Commission,  however,  L e t t e r s P a t e n t t o a maximum 1/2  is mill  at  limited  the local  in i t s  tax l e v y .  In  83.  1985, w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f IDSA g r a n t s , t h e Commission c o u l d o n l y a c q u i r e a t a x r e q u i s i t i o n o f $63,700 - - . a 47% r e d u c t i o n i n r e v e n u e s i n one y e a r (Economic Development Commission, J a n u a r y 1986).  Bylaw No. 107 o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t d e f i n e s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and p r o c e d u r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e Economic Development Commission.  The  bylaw s t a t e s t h a t w i t h d r a w a l f r o m t h e f u n c t i o n must be i n t h e f o r m o f a r e s o l u t i o n f r o m t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l , g i v e n one y e a r i n advance t o take e f f e c t  January 1st o f the following year.  The D i s t r i c t o f  K i t i m a t w i t h d r e w f r o m t h e Commission f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1984.  D i s c o n t e n t was  h e a r d f r o m o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and t h e  D i s t r i c t s o f T e r r a c e and New H a z e l t o n b o t h gave n o t i c e t o w i t h d r a w t o take e f f e c t  on J a n u a r y 1 s t , 1986.  (However  i n both cases these  communities d e c i d e d t o remain w i t h t h e Commission.) the  Commission  was  threatened, especially  The v i a b i l i t y o f  as K i t i m a t and T e r r a c e  r e s p e c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n 1984, 55% and 16% o f t h e t a x l e v y o f t h e Regional D i s t r i c t ("Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e Assessments, 1976-1985").  The  most  definitive  commissions Economic  i s found  Development  statement i n the  on  1978  Commissions."  commissions  are "to coordinate,  development  activities  on  a  a  mandate  f o r the  IDSA  "Guidelines  The  preamble s t a t e s  rationalize  regional  f o r Regional  and promote  basis..."(Ernst  economic  &  that  the  economic Whinney,  1981:1.1).  C l e a r l y t h i s c o u l d n o t be an e x c l u s i v e domain o f r e g i o n a l  government  a g e n c i e s , nor  ultimate  goals  of regional  does  i t provide  economic  much  g u i d a n c e on  d e v e l o p m e n t , n o r on  how  the to  84.  achieve these goals. projects,  However, beyond b e i n g g i v e n a l i s t o f e x p e c t e d  such as t o c o m p i l e a r e g i o n a l  establish  an  accounting  system,  more  economic  profile  or to  specific  directions  on  a c t i v i t i e s , methods and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were n o t f o r t h c o m i n g . I t i s curious that only with advent o f the P r o v i n c i a l - M u n i c i p a l Partnership Program and  i t s encouragement o f a d o p t i n g an economic d e v e l o p m e n t  f u n c t i o n a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , t h a t a handbook has been p u b l i s h e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development, on how t o e s t a b l i s h an economic d e v e l o p m e n t f u n c t i o n , a l t e r n a t i v e and  methods  of  undertaking  Development M a n u a l , 1 9 8 5 ) .  key  projects  structures,  (Community  Economic  The B.C. government's P a r t n e r s h i p Program  o f f e r s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s g r a n t s t o h i r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f i c e r s and t o f u n d promotions.  P r o p e r t y t a x b r e a k s t o new b u s i n e s s e s a r e a l s o o f f e r e d .  With t h e announcement o f the IDSA r e g i o n a l commissions program, many local  governments  dollars  with l i t t l e  economic through  probably seized  c o n c e p t i o n f o r t h e need o r r o l e  development their  functions.  at the opportunity  commission.  commissioners,  In  have  practice  tinkered  the  with  f o r "free" of a  local  commissions, a  myriad  of  The economic c o m m i s s i o n e r s have a c t e d as a " o n e - s t o p  shop" f o r b u s i n e s s and demographic i n f o r m a t i o n , an a g e n t f o r s e n i o r government on p u b l i c i z i n g t h e T a t t e r ' s b u s i n e s s a s s i s t a n c e programs, and an a d v o c a t e f o r l o c a l commissions business  have  also  planning  planning, acted  government i n V i c t o r i a and Ottawa.  produced  consultants,  promotional brochures, acted engaged  as p r o m o t e r s o f l o c a l  in  long  term  The as  economic  b u s i n e s s and d e v e l o p e r s o f  85.  industrial  parks  and  research  agencies.  The  Kitimat-Stikine  Commission has over time e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h a l l t h e s e  More  recently  commissions  the  turning  economic p l a n s  recession their  has  efforts  which f o c u s  given  stronger  In many cases by  these  rise  to  to developing  upon import  the  community-based  and b u s i n e s s  t i e s t o t h e r e g i o n s ' manpower and n a t u r a l these s t r a t e g i e s probably  agencies  regional  substitution, job creation  based upon e x p a n s i o n o f e x i s t i n g b u s i n e s s e s with  functions.  development resources.  r e p r e s e n t more o f an e f f o r t  to j u s t i f y themselves  rather  than  reflecting  s i n c e r e o b j e c t i v e s t o e n c o u r a g e economic d e v e l o p m e n t .  R e l a t i o n s h i p s With O t h e r R e g i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s : The  Economic Development Commission  i s the only  government agency  p r o v i d i n g an a l l encompassing range o f s e r v i c e s r e l a t i n g t o economic planning agency's predicated  and p r o m o t i o n f o r t h e e n t i r e K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n . domain upon  within  an  i t s regional  institutional perspective,  environment an a b i l i t y  is  The thus  t o draw on  c e r t a i n e x p e r t i s e i n i t s s t a f f and p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s n o t a v a i l a b l e t o other  government development a g e n c i e s  and i t s s i n g l e purpose as an  economic development a g e n c y .  Other agencies planning  o r p r o m o t i o n -- o f t e n as an a d j u n c t i v e  institutions. provided,  i n t h e r e g i o n a l s o engage i n some a s p e c t s o f economic a c t i v i t y f o r these  In t h e f o l l o w i n g , a l i s t o f t h e s e r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s i s  a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s g i v e n and  86.  a  comment  on  the  Commission  is  noted.  Commission's chances the  measure  of  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  the  Economic  Development  Critical  the  Economic  Development  of survival within this i n s t i t u t i o n a l milieu is  community  municipalities.  The  responsibilities  to  support  degree  to  or competition  d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l  accorded which  to  there  amongst t h e s e  towards  i t by is  an  local  the  local  overlap  of  governments i s  the end o f t h i s s e c t i o n .  It is  t h r o u g h t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h a t an i s s u e u n d e r l y i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s is introduced.  T h i s i s s u e c o n c e r n s the c o n t i n u e d l e g i t i m a c y o f the  Economic Development Commission.  Chambers o f Commerce/Business I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e s :  There  are  Regional  four  chambers  of  o f community p r o m o t i o n ,  much more b r o a d l y based metropolitan areas. membership  Hazeltons  A l l are p r i n c i p a l l y business a s s o c i a t i o n s created  f o r t h e purposes  respective  i n the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e  D i s t r i c t , l o c a t e d i n T e r r a c e , K i t i m a t , the  and S t e w a r t .  District  commerce  than would be  though found  membership i s i n chambers  In most c a s e s f u n d i n g i s o b t a i n e d  dues,  though  both  the  Chambers  of  Commerce  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to  b e h a l f o f t h e i r communities.  Kitimat  receive  undertake  and  grants tourism  in  through  Terrace from  and their  promotion  on  O n l y the T e r r a c e and D i s t r i c t and  K i t i m a t Chambers can s u p p o r t a f u l l time s t a f f member.  For  the  most  responsibilities  part,  there  between  i s only the  a  chambers  minor and  d u p l i c a t i o n of the  Economic  87.  Development Commission  has  audiovisual helped  Commission. left  Development  production  materials  financially  Generally,  t h e Economic  o f p r o m o t i o n a l b r o c h u r e s and  t o t h e chambers,  and  on o c c a s i o n  to support these endeavors.  Commission  i s not  Development  a member  of  The  any  has  Economic  chamber  of  commerce and w i l l o n l y send a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o chamber m e e t i n g s as r e q u e s t e d . A f a i r l y i n f o r m a l p r o j e c t by p r o j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p i s m a i n t a i n e d w i t h t h e chambers by t h e Commission a t both s t a f f and e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l  levels.  The chambers o f commerce a r e a l s o s u p p o r t e d f i n a n c i a l l y by t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y and S m a l l B u s i n e s s Development t o a c t as s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on the p r o v i n c i a l government's s m a l l business  development  duplication  of  one  programs. aspect  Commission's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  This of  the  i s at f i r s t Economic  glance a Development  However, t h i s has n e v e r been an  a r e a o f d i s p u t e , but i n f a c t a s s i s t s the Commission by d i v e r t i n g p o t e n t i a l l y many t i m e consuming day t o day i n q u i r i e s .  Skeena Manpower Development Committee:  Skeena Manpower i s a u n i q u e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t i s composed o f the m a j o r i n d u s t r i a l e m p l o y e r s o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( e g . A l c a n , E u r o c a n , Westar T i m b e r ) and m a j o r operating  u n i o n s ( e g . IWA,  BCGEU, CPWU).  The  construction  t r a d e s u n i o n s have chosen n o t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e Committee.  88.  The Committee  a c t s as a t h i n k - t a n k and p o w e r f u l l o b b y group  c o n c e r n i n g i t s e l f w i t h r e g i o n a l manpower d e v e l o p m e n t , employment and unemployment  issues.  The Committee was formed i n 1977 i n a  p e r i o d when l a b o r t u r n o v e r was a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m f o r t h e m a j o r i n d u s t r i e s o f the region. opinions  to  senior  Skeena Manpower c o n t i n u e s t o v o i c e  government  on  manpower  issues  and  has  p e r i o d i c a l l y s p o n s o r e d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s which a d d r e s s c u r r e n t employment r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s .  A p r o j e c t c o m p l e t e d i n 1984 was an  i n v e n t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s r e q u i r e d by a l l the m a j o r employers of the northwest.  The i n v e n t o r y was c o n v e r t e d t o a  computer program and made a v a i l a b l e t o n o r t h w e s t h i g h  school  counsellors.  Skeena  Manpower  according union.  is  funded  by  membership  dues a p p o r t i o n e d  t o t h e number o f employees w i t h i n each company o r In a d d i t i o n an annual g r a n t i s p r o v i d e d by t h e r e g i o n a l  o f f i c e o f t h e Canada Employment  and I m m i g r a t i o n Commission i n  Vancouver. Skeena addition  Manpower  usually  holds meetings  once  a month.  t o i t s u n i o n and c o r p o r a t e membership,  In  the monthly  m e e t i n g s a r e a t t e n d e d by n e a r l y a l l government a g e n c i e s i n t h e n o r t h w e s t which a r e i n v o l v e d i n manpower d e v e l o p m e n t o r economic development.  Staff  of the  Economic  Development  Commission  r e g u l a r l y a t t e n d t h e m e e t i n g s o f Skeena Manpower and have o f t e n a s s i s t e d w i t h t h e d e s i g n o f t h e Committee's r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . The  specific  interest  i n employment  issues  of  the  Skeena  89.  Manpower Development Committee, t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r , and the  Employment  Development  Branch, o f f e r s  little  competition  w i t h t h e Economic Development Commission.  B.C. M i n i s t r y o f L a b o u r :  A regional o f f i c e of the p r o v i n c i a l labor m i n i s t r y i s maintained in  Terrace.  programs  this  f o r employment  delivered. funding  Through  ministry,  creation  and  provincial manpower  government  training  are  Occasionally, s p e c i f i c projects being considered f o r  by  the ministry  will  be  referred  to  the  Economic  Development Commission s t a f f f o r comment on t h e i r v i a b i l i t y and c o m p a t i b i l i t y with Regional D i s t r i c t goals.  Employment  Development  Branch/Canada  Employment  & Immigration  Commission:  The  Employment  administers programs.  Development  the  federal  Branch  is  government's  the  agency  manpower  which  development  H i s t o r i c a l l y , i t has m a i n t a i n e d a s i m i l a r but c l o s e r  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e Economic Commission t h a n has t h e M i n i s t r y o f Labour.  A g a i n , Commission s t a f f w i l l  and have a l s o  review project proposals  been r e q u e s t e d t o p r o v i d e a l i s t projects  to  funded  under  regional  new  federal  priorities  for  programs.  Commission s t a f f members were o f t e n a s k e d t o r e v i e w  a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r EBAP p r o j e c t s .  be  of  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n  of regional  90.  f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l manpower o f f i c e s i n T e r r a c e p e r m i t s  easy  exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n among t h e s e government a g e n c i e s .  F e d e r a l B u s i n e s s Development Bank:  T e r r a c e i s t h e l o c a t i o n f o r a F e d e r a l B u s i n e s s Development Bank serving  a l l o f northwest  federal  government  British  lending  institution  a s s i s t the small business s e c t o r . small  business  counselling  Columbia.  The FBDB  formed  is a  p r i m a r i l y to  A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e FBDB o f f e r s  services  to  upgrade  management  a b i l i t i e s and a s s i s t w i t h s m a l l b u s i n e s s p l a n n i n g .  This i s a  s e r v i c e t h e K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e Economic Development Commission does not p r o v i d e b e c a u s e o f l i m i t e d e x p e r t i s e i n t h i s f i e l d — t h o u g h o t h e r r e g i o n a l commissions have. inquiries  received  by  the  Consequently,  Commission  in  many which  business business  c o u n s e l l i n g a p p e a r s n e c e s s a r y a r e r e f e r r e d t o FBDB.  Municipalities: The c o n t i n u i n g s u p p o r t District essential  o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f the Regional  f o r t h e r e g i o n a l Economic Development Commission i s f o r t h e Commission's  viability.  support of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p o l i t i c a l  Not only i s the  and f i n a n c i a l , b u t i t  a l s o e f f e c t i v e l y s i g n i f i e s community s u p p o r t and l e g i t i m a c y .  With  creation  of  the  regional  Economic  Commission,  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s e f f e c t i v e l y surrendered to the Regional  the  District  91.  their  interests  in  economic  m u n i c i p a l i t y i s anxious, the  Commission  to  municipality.  development.  effect  economic  development  within  each  of four m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r the  " f a v o r s " which t h e Commission can p r o v i d e  The s u p p o r t  each  i f n o t s u s p i c i o u s , a b o u t the e f f o r t s o f  The c o m p e t i t i o n  which i s c o n t i n u o u s  However,  creates this tension  and n o t e a s i l y d i s p e r s e d .  o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s v e r y dependent upon good  communication  between r e g i o n a l  district  These r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e s t w i t h and s t a f f o f t h e Commission  and m u n i c i p a l  levels.  both t h e e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n s  and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  Aggravating  problems f o r t h e Commission i s t h a t i n poor economic t i m e s i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e Commission t o b o a s t o f many s u c c e s s s t o r i e s .  One  important  incorporated  complication  Commission  i n q u i r i e s r e c e i v e d by t h e Commission s t a f f must  c o n f i d e n t i a l , even f r o m t h e e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s  Commission. that  communication between t h e  communities and t h e Economic Development  is that business be kept  regarding  of the  I t i s t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t t o overcome the s u s p i c i o n  municipal  officials  have  that  the  development t o t h e "wrong" m u n i c i p a l i t y .  Commission In a c t u a l  directs practice,  Commission s t a f f have g e n e r a l l y l e f t t h e s i t e l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n up  to  the  proposals from  entrepreneur,  though,  a r e i n anyway f o o t l o o s e .  residents  of  s t a r t i n g a business chosen t o l i v e .  the  northwest  in fact,  few  development  Often, enquiries are simply considering  expanding  i n a community i n which they have  or  already  92.  In  spite  of  the  existence  of  the  regional  commission,  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have a l s o u n d e r t a k e n some o f t h e i r own economic development planning  programs.  offices.  This Through  i s usually the  done  through  administration  their  of zoning,  s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l and o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y b y l a w s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s control  d e v e l o p m e n t , o f t e n w o r k i n g much more c l o s e l y w i t h t h e  d e v e l o p e r t h a n t h e r e g i o n a l commission c a n . The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can  t h e r e f o r e c l a i m s u c c e s s w i t h economic d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h o u t  the  need f o r t h e Economic Development Commission.  Development functions  Commission  therefore  competes  The Economic  with  municipal  f o r p r o p e r t y t a x r e v e n u e s and o v e r l a p s i n s e v e r a l  responsibilities.  An i d e a t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y m i g h t be b e t t e r o f f u n d e r t a k i n g economic development by i t s e l f ,  however, does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  have t h e same i m p a c t i n each m u n i c i p a l i t y . municipalities withdrawing expertise  from  t h e Commission  large  amounts  and have  o f K i t i m a t , which withdrew  i s intending to establish  department. undertaken  Thus  enough  staff  from the f u n c t i o n  i t s own economic  f a r , these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  by an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  assistant.  larger  o f money by  t o manage t h e f u n c t i o n a d e q u a t e l y t h e m s e l v e s .  District 1983,  can " s a v e " f a i r l y  The two  and The after  development  are primarily  The D i s t r i c t o f  T e r r a c e has expanded i t s P l a n n i n g Department t o be now known as P l a n n i n g and Development.  In 1985 T e r r a c e a l s o formed and l a t e r  p r o v i d e d some f u n d i n g t o a p u b l i c a d v i s o r y committee t o i n f o r m council  on economic development m a t t e r s .  The d i s c r e p a n c y i n  93.  w e a l t h between t h e l a r g e r and s m a l l e r communities i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e t a x l e v y s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e commission from 1983 t o 1984:  TABLE 7:  Economic Development Commission Tax Levy Revenues 1984  1983 D i s t r i c t of Kitimat District of Terrace D i s t r i c t of Stewart D i s t r i c t o f New H a z e l t o n Village of Hazelton E l e c t o r a l Area A Electoral Area B E l e c t o r a l Area C Electoral Area D E l e c t o r a l Area E  $17,999 5,140 1,326 222 84 1,829 966 1,788 35 685  $  $30,074  $52,253  18,142 4,612 792 287 9,889 5,246 9,282 150 3,853  The s m a l l e r communities o f t h e r e g i o n and t h e u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t have f e w e r o p t i o n s t h a n the two larger municipalities.  The D i s t r i c t o f S t e w a r t , t h e D i s t r i c t o f  New H a z e l t o n and t h e V i l l a g e o f H a z e l t o n p r o b a b l y have n e i t h e r the  e x p e r t i s e n o r t h e number o f s t a f f t o t a k e on an economic  development f u n c t i o n . to  In a d d i t i o n t h e i r f i n a n c i a l  the Regional D i s t r i c t  f o r economic  contributions  development are  also  r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , r e n d e r i n g i t much l e s s j u s t i f i a b l e o r f e a s i b l e to  withdraw  continuing regional  from  t h e Economic  participation function  Development  Commission.  by t h e l a r g e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  i s a central  The i n the  c o n c e r n o f most o f t h e s m a l l  94.  c o m m u n i t i e s , b e c a u s e the v i a b i l i t y o f the r e g i o n a l commission i s dependent upon t h e s e l a r g e a s s e s s m e n t b a s e s .  T e n s i o n i n the I n s t i t u t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t :  The l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n which has thus f a r taken p l a c e i n t h i s  chapter  has been to d e s c r i b e an e n v i r o n m e n t i n which the Economic Development Commission had t o f u n c t i o n .  Developments o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n a r e g i o n a l  d e v e l o p m e n t and an i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t e x t were i m p o r t a n t of  the  style  Commission  and  content  through  1984  r e f l e c t e d a pragmatic  of  and and  planning  1985.  adaptive  adopted  by  This planning response  determinants the  Economic  process  largely  to tension w i t h i n  each  context.  C h a p t e r T h r e e o f t h i s t h e s i s d i s c u s s e d a r e g i o n a l development p r o b l e m i n which i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t government and p r i v a t e s e c t o r  resources  needed t o be m o b i l i z e d t o c o u n t e r employment l o s s e s o c c u r r i n g i n the l a r g e r i n d u s t r i e s o f the r e g i o n . to l i e in r e v i t a l i z i n g northwest. The  planning  concentrator  small  A p a r t o f the s o l u t i o n was  scale precious  metals  mining  argued in  the  T h i s s o l u t i o n had a m a n i f e s t t e c h n o l o g i c a l a s p e c t t o i t . process  centered  upon p r o m o t i o n o f the custom  mineral  concept.  A t the same time  t h a t the r e g i o n was  s u f f e r i n g s e v e r e l y through  a  p e r i o d o f r e c e s s i o n , the r e g i o n a l Economic Development Commission  was  under i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e  was  therefore necessary  l o c a l l y to j u s t i f y i t s e x i s t e n c e .  It  t o produce f a i r l y immediate r e s u l t s which would  95.  c o u n t e r d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n . follow  a  list  of  background  i n s t i t u t i o n a l environment  issues  In t h e p a r a g r a p h s t h a t  i s offered concerning  and e f f e c t s upon the Commission's  the  planning  process.  1.  Legitimacy C r i s i s : The  Economic  Development Commission  was  many s u c c e s s e s d u r i n g poor economic possible withdrawals several  decreasing budgets, which  recognized  development  and  times and was t h r e a t e n e d by  from t h e economic  municipalities.  not able to p o i n t to  This  development  situation,  l e d to the Commission would  support  f u n c t i o n by  combined  with  adopting a strategy  a devolution of  p l a n n i n g t o the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . One  economic  p a r t o f the  p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o be d e s c r i b e d i n the n e x t s e c t i o n was f o r m u l a t i o n by the Economic  Commission  the  o f economic s t r a t e g i e s  f o r the t h r e e c e n t r e s o f T e r r a c e , the H a z e l t o n s and S t e w a r t .  In  t u r n , t h e s e were t o be handed o v e r t o t h e s e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n the s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s .  This  need  to  restore faith  i n the  p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n two ways.  Commission  a f f e c t e d the  F i r s t , i t became e x p e d i e n t  to  work on p r o j e c t s which would b r i n g v i s i b l e r e s u l t s as opposed  to  engaging  i n more e s o t e r i c a c t i v i t i e s such as r e s e a r c h and d a t a  c o l l e c t i o n which a r e seldom seen by the p u b l i c . S i m i l a r l y , l o n g term economic on  a  shorter  p l a n n i n g was b e i n g eroded as the Commission term  survivalist  s u c c e s s e s were b e i n g s o u g h t .  perspective.  Shorter  took term  96.  Augmenting  this  Commission  legitimacy  i s a perception  issue  faced  by  changes t o the M u n i c i p a l  withdraw from  to  F o r example,  A c t p e r m i t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to  r e g i o n a l l a n d use p l a n n i n g .  Provincial-Municipal  Economic  t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l commitment  regional d i s t r i c t s in general i s also diminishing. recent  the  More r e c e n t l y , the  P a r t n e r s h i p Program has been i n i t i a t e d  in  which p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s a r e b e i n g a l l o c a t e d t o communities  to  develop  economic s t r a t e g i e s , form economic development o f f i c e s  and a s s i s t w i t h s p e c i f i c l o c a l development p r o j e c t s .  However,  regional  in  districts  are  ineligible  to  participate  the  P a r t n e r s h i p Program, as i t i s d i r e c t e d to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  2.  Polarized Politics: The  p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia  polarized politics  i s o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as  i n which p o l i t i c a l  i d e o l o g i e s are  contained  w i t h i n the two camps o f the l e f t o f c e n t r e New D e m o c r a t i c and r i g h t o f c e n t r e S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y . particularly  evident  in  the  municipal  Party,  This polarization i s politics  n o r t h e r n communities o f K i t i m a t and T e r r a c e . program adopted  having  of  the  two  Consequently,  any  by the Economic Commission to maximize  popular  s u p p o r t must appeal t o both l e f t and r i g h t . The advocacy  of small s c a l e mining  by the Commission e n j o y e d  a  g r e a t a d v a n t a g e i n t h i s r e s p e c t by b e i n g p o l i t i c a l l y ambiguous. The Commission's attempt t o a s s i s t the b u s i n e s s community o f the mining  s e c t o r would b r i n g the Commission i n t o f a v o r w i t h  r i g h t , w h i l e promotion  the  o f s m a l l s c a l e t e c h n o l o g i e s m i g h t appeal  97.  to  left  wing  opinion.  Similarly,  i t was  never  explicitly  o u t l i n e d whether p r o m o t i o n o f s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g was a r a d i c a l development a l t e r n a t i v e d e s t i n e d to replace l a r g e s c a l e resource development o r whether  i t was  a s h o r t e r term s t o p g a p measure  which c o u l d c o - e x i s t w i t h the l a r g e r t e c h n o l o g i e s which would r e t u r n w i t h an improved economy.  3.  Restraint Politics: In  F e b r u a r y , 1983,  the p r o v i n c i a l  government s p e n d i n g r e s t r a i n t s .  government  invoked severe  This a f f e c t e d the capacity of  government o f f i c i a l s a t b o t h the p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l levels. in  government  With r e s p e c t t o t h e c a s e s t u d y , t h e impact on r e s t r a i n t  Victoria  Restricted  probably  assisted  the  Commission's  cause.  i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o t r a v e l around t h e p r o v i n c e and  l i m i t e d by f u n d i n g c u t b a c k s t o p r o v i d e programs t o a s s i s t t h e m i n i n g community, t h e " v o l u n t e e r e d " a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t was t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s ' a d v a n t a g e . was  perhaps  more  willing  to  entertain  the  The M i n i s t r y ideas  of  the  Commission i n t h e s e r e s t r a i n e d t i m e s .  At  the  regional  level,  restraint  had  two  impacts.  r e s t r a i n t i n d i c a t e d t o t h e communities t h a t o u t s i d e  First, government  h e l p i n o v e r c o m i n g p r e s s i n g economic problems was p r o b a b l y n o t likely increase  to occur i n the near future. the  saliency  development—development the r e g i o n .  of  self-help  which would  The consequence was approaches  to  to  economic  be g e n e r a t e d f r o m w i t h i n  S e c o n d l y , r e s t r a i n t meant t h a t r e s t r i c t e d b u d g e t s  98.  would  have t o be f u n n e l e d  i n t o t h e most e f f e c t i v e p r o g r a m s ,  again reducing the l i k e l i h o o d of engaging i n e s o t e r i c approaches to p l a n n i n g .  Description of Planning  Process:  In t h i s s e c t i o n t h e c o n t e n t s o f the Economic Development Commission's planning process are described. this  chapter  employed.  As was s t a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o  two, d i f f e r e n t programs f o r economic d e v e l o p m e n t a r e These a r e d e s c r i b e d  using  the l a b e l s o f  A p p r o a c h " and " P a r t i c i p a t o r y A p p r o a c h . "  "Technocratic  (See F i g u r e 6.)  The  programs e a c h i d e n t i f y t h e p o r t a b l e m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n i d e a .  two This  c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e Commission's methods t o have  the  portable  m i l l i n g concept  p r o c e d u r e f o r implementing  Technocratic  realized.  It represents  a  the r e g i o n ' s economic p l a n .  Approach:  L a t e i n 1983,.a s t u d y was done by a T e r r a c e r e s i d e n t , a c o n s u l t a n t t o the Economic Development Commission, l i s t i n g economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s available  in  Development  the  region.  Commissioner  O r i g i n a l l y asked  to suggest  by  the  Economic  d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l i n the  K i s p i o x V a l l e y , n o r t h o f H a z e l t o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e v o l v e d i n t o a more general study.  The s t u d y i n v o l v e d an a n a l y s i s o f the b a s i c r e s o u r c e s  w i t h i n o r t r i b u t a r y t o t h e communities o f t h e R e g i o n a l identification recorded  in a  of  investment  report  opportunities.  e n t i t l e d "Small  and  These  D i s t r i c t and ideas  Medium-Sized  were  Resource  ACTIVITY  • 1984 J  PLAN FORMULATION  1  Technocratic  Participatory  £  1  . 1985 1 •  1  Approach  Approach  z—*  1  1  . 1986 1 1  i  i  i  >  November  1983: f i r s t d r a f t o f "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s i s completed F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 4 : s e m i n a r s commence i n S t e w a r t A p r i l 1984: r e v i e w o f " E c o n o m i c O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t i s c o n c l u d e d ; document i s made p u b l i c December 1 9 8 4 : s e m i n a r s c o n c l u d e i n H a z e l t o n a r e a ; a l l r e p o r t s c o m p l e t e d by e a r l y 1985  PLAN IMPLEMENTATION June  1984:  d e c i s i o n made t o p r o c e e d w i t h conference November 1 9 8 4 : m i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e h e l d in Terrace December 1 9 8 5 : M i n e r a l D e v e l o p m e n t A g r e e ments f u n d s c o m m i t t e d t o p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g study May 1986: Trader Resource C o r p o r a t i o n completes p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g study  100.  Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s 1984).  The  university  author  i n Northwestern  i s a long  training  in  time  natural  B r i t i s h Columbia"  (Kerby,  r e s i d e n t o f T e r r a c e , who resources  management  has  and  the  biological sciences.  A t the o u t s e t o f the a n a l y s i s a number o f i m p o r t a n t s u i t a b l e investment  were d e f i n e d .  The  criteria  c r i t e r i a were chosen  c o n s u l t a n t and Commission s t a f f l a r g e l y i n r e s p o n s e  for  by  the  t o the k i n d s o f  developmental  problems f a c e d by the r e g i o n as p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d i n  this thesis.  P a r a p h r a s i n g from p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l on t h i s s t u d y  the  c r i t e r i a were as f o l l o w s :  1.  O p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d be s m a l l b u s i n e s s o r i e n t e d : As  f u r t h e r trends  replacement pool  i n the  larger industries indicate further  of labor with c a p i t a l  present  now,  and g i v e n the s u r p l u s  labor  emphasis would be on s m a l l e r b u s i n e s s  where  employment c r e a t i o n would be m a x i m i z e d .  2.  O p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d b u i l d upon e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e i n d u s t r i e s and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e development: The c o s t s o f j o b c r e a t i o n are s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower when existing  businesses  as  strategy  would  counter  run  opposed to  t o c r e a t i n g new previous  attempts  expanding  ones. to  This provide  i n d u s t r i a l l a n d i n communities and e n c o u r a g e f i r m s t o e s t a b l i s h manufacturing  plants in non-metropolitan  areas.  101.  Opportunities  t o be d e v e l o p e d  s m a l l amounts o f i n v e s t m e n t  should  recognize  the r e l a t i v e l y  c a p i t a l a v a i l a b l e i n the r e g i o n :  A s e m i n a r h e l d i n T e r r a c e w i t h l o c a l bank managers r e v e a l e d t h a t fairly  large savings  therefore  accounts  some l o c a l p e o p l e  d o l l a r s of venture  are m a i n t a i n e d could obtain  c a p i t a l (Kerby,  c e n t r e s i n the n o r t h w e s t  i n the c i t y  and  several m i l l i o n s of  1985).  However, i n  t h i s would not h o l d t r u e .  other  Nonetheless,  p r o j e c t s r e q u i r i n g hundreds o f m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s o f c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t were e l i m i n a t e d from the a n a l y s i s .  Opportunities  should  b u i l d upon  the  skills  available in  the  regional labor f o r c e or require l i t t l e t r a i n i n g or r e t r a i n i n g :  Opportunities idle  s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be a b l e t o u t i l i z e the p r e s e n t l y  construction,  forest  industry,  mining  and  industrial  regional  economic  service s k i l l s .  Opportunities  should  facil itate  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and community s t a b i l i t y :  Preferred business  opportunities  discerned  through  examination  linkages  with  other  sectors  V a l u e - a d d e d s h o u l d be m a x i m i z e d .  using of  this criterion will  consumption of  the  be  and  technical  regional  economy.  102.  6.  Priority  should  be  placed  upon  projects  which  can  generate  r e t u r n s w i t h i n a f a i r l y s h o r t time f r a m e , p r i o r t o a mass exodus of i n d u s t r i a l workers.  T h i s e x e r c i s e generated very  practical  1984:2).  to  many i d e a s f o r i n v e s t m e n t ,  the  highly  Ideas were forwarded  mining,  agriculture,  industrial  unconventional"  tourism,  the bulk commodities b e i n g t r a n s p o r t e d c o a l , g r a i n and n a t u r a l gas.  upon  investment  sawmills;  retail,  In a d d i t i o n , p r o p o s a l s  and a r e v i e w p r o c e d u r e  (Kerby,  September,  through  commercial  were d e v e l o p e d  and around  the r e g i o n i n c l u d i n g  In l i g h t o f the c r i t e r i a l i s t e d above  t o be d i s c u s s e d s h o r t l y , a p r i o r i t y was  opportunities  in  the  forest  sector  placed  (portable  low volume d r y k i l n to add v a l u e to l o c a l s m a l l  sawmills'  p r o d u c t s ) , t o u r i s m ( p a c k a g e d t o u r s ; s o u v e n i r p r o d u c t i o n ) , and (custom c o n c e n t r a t o r s  the  f o r such economic s e c t o r s as f o r e s t r y ,  fisheries,  services.  " r a n g i n g from  f o r small s c a l e mining).  mining  A lower p r i o r i t y  p l a c e d upon p r o j e c t s such as aluminum f a b r i c a t i o n ( s p i n o f f from  Alcan  Aluminum S m e l t e r  i n K i t i m a t ) , and  d e r i v a t i v e s from  the O c e l o t Methanol P l a n t ) which had e a r l i e r been  s t r o n g l y advocated  petrochemicals  was  "best  fits"  with  the  an i n v e s t m e n t  selection  f o r l e s s than  $5  million  i d e a w i t h one  criteria.  indicated that a f u l l y operational mill region  (using  i n the r e g i o n .  The p o r t a b l e custom c o n c e n t r a t o r was the  production  capital  Later  c o u l d be i n s t a l l e d investment  of  research in  (Sala,  S u b s t a n t i a l l y c h e a p e r a l t e r n a t i v e s c o u l d be f o r m u l a t e d u t i l i z i n g  the  1981). used  103.  equipment on the market o r by employing an  operating  region.  mine  to  a stationary e x i s t i n g mill at  s e r v i c e a number o f d e p o s i t s  in a  single  A f i r s t r e v i e w by the Commission o f m i n e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s  in  the r e g i o n c o n s i d e r e d amenable t o the custom m i l l c o n c e p t numbered a t 20  p r o p e r t i e s which c o u l d r e s u l t i n f u l l  time  employment f o r  200  p e o p l e ( K e r b y , 1984:10,11).  In a d r a f t form the "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t was c i r c u l a t e d to selected business  l e a d e r s and government o f f i c i a l s i n the  northwest  and t o s i m i l a r i n d i v i d u a l s i n V a n c o u v e r and V i c t o r i a . Those s e l e c t e d to review and  the r e p o r t were chosen  were  generally  responsible  the  for various  by s t a f f o f the R e g i o n a l  highest  ranking  p r o v i n c i a l resource  government  District officials  ministries within  the  northwest  (eg. D i s t r i c t G e o l o g i s t , Smithers; D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t ,  Smithers;  District  people  were u s u a l l y w e l l  purpose the  Manager, M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s , T e r r a c e ) .  o f t h i s r e v i e w was  draft report—to  which  were  not.  known t o R e g i o n a l  District  staff.  The  t o t e s t and r e f i n e the i d e a s r e c o r d e d i n  i d e n t i f y which were c o n s i d e r e d Most  These  r e p l i e s were  Development Commission by e a r l y  returned  to  f e a s i b l e and the  Economic  1984.  As o p i n i o n s f a v o r a b l e and n e g a t i v e were r e t u r n e d on the v a r i o u s i d e a s contained focused  i n the r e p o r t , Economic Commission s t a f f undertook research  i n t o some o f the most p r o m i s i n g  c o n s i d e r i n g economic, environmental  ideas.  more Loosely  and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s , f i v e i d e a s  were to s u r f a c e as p r i o r i t i e s and would be s u p p o r t e d  in  subsequent  104.  Commission b u d g e t s :  1.  P o r t a b l e o r custom c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r small p r e c i o u s m e t a l s m i n e s ,  2.  d r y k i l n and r e m a n u f a c t u r i n g  3.  p o r t a b l e s a w m i l l s and  4.  t o u r i s m s o u v e n i r and c r a f t p r o d u c t i o n ,  5.  s p e c i a l i z e d t o u r i s m development ( e g . J a p a n e s e f i s h i n g t o u r s ) .  o f wood p r o d u c t s ,  chippers,  I t was on the i n i t i a t i v e o f an o f f i c i a l i n the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y & Small B u s i n e s s Development i n V i c t o r i a t h a t the "Economic Opportunities"  r e p o r t was  r e f e r r e d t o the D i r e c t o r o f the  Mineral  P o l i c y and E v a l u a t i o n Branch o f the B.C.  M i n i s t r y o f E n e r g y , Mines  and P e t r o l e u m  s t r o n g l y i n s u p p o r t o f the  portable  Resources.  concentration  terms o f r e f e r e n c e more  H i s review was proposal  Later  s t a f f and  his reply included  preliminary  f o r a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y which would examine i n  detail this opportunity  1984).  and  through  in  the  northwest  (Basham,  January,  p r i v a t e m e e t i n g s between R e g i o n a l  District  s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s o f the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f Mines  understanding  was  reached  t h a t p r o v i n c i a l funds would be put  an  forward  f o r such a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y i f a p r i v a t e s e c t o r p r o p o n e n t c o u l d be located. the  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the r e p l y a l s o noted the v a l u e i n e x a m i n i n g  smaller  scale  macro-planning  being  1984). the  option undertaken  for by  its the  compatibility province  with  (Basham,  the January  The p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g c o n c e p t was to become the c e n t r e p i e c e o f  regional  economic p l a n , l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t o f t h i s p o s i t i v e  r e c e p t i o n by s e n i o r government o f f i c i a l s .  105.  A f t e r t h i s i n i t i a l and f o r t u n a t e c o n t a c t w i t h the V i c t o r i a o f f i c e o f the Mines D i v i s i o n , the R e g i o n a l Mineral P o l i c y Branch. Economic Commission  D i s t r i c t worked d i r e c t l y w i t h  T h i s l i a i s o n was t o be e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l when  s t a f f attempted to contact  t e s t i n t e r e s t i n the custom m i l l c o n c e p t s credibility  o f the  the  Regional  D i s t r i c t was  industry  people  to  i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r .  The  g r e a t l y enhanced by  the  s u p p o r t o f the M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s .  The  provincial  government  commitment t o the s m a l l  would  later  indicate  s c a l e mining concept.  a  significant  L a t e i n 1985  R e s o u r c e s L t d . o f V a n c o u v e r , a j u n i o r m i n i n g company w i t h a  Trader promising  g o l d p r o p e r t y on Banks I s l a n d , south o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , would r e c e i v e 50%  government f u n d i n g  concentration the  B.C.  f o r a f e a s i b i l i t y study  i n t o b a r g e mounted  u n i t s to s e r v i c e small c o a s t a l mineral  coast.  government  funds  were  allocated  along  from  the  r e c e n t l y s i g n e d f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l M i n e r a l Development Agreement  (TRM  Engineering,  The  properties  1985).  Once the comments o f a l l t h o s e . r e v i e w i n g  the "Economic  r e p o r t were r e c e i v e d , a r e v i s e d r e p o r t was p r e p a r e d , elected  board  of  p u b l i c document.  submitted  the  Economic Development Commission  The  final  r e p o r t was  Opportunities"  and  t o the made a  c i r c u l a t e d quite widely  to  i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n the n o r t h w e s t and any c r i t i c i s m s o r comments were i n f o r m a l l y r e c o r d e d report continues  by the Commission s t a f f .  t o be used as a p l a n n i n g and p r o m o t i o n a l  The  document by  the Commission, e s p e c i a l l y as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t opportunities  in  the  region.  The  "technocratic  approach"  106.  documented thus f a r was  q u i t e e f f i c i e n t and encompassed o n l y  about  t h r e e months. The p r o c e d u r e  r e l a t e d above f o r i d e n t i f y i n g development p o t e n t i a l i n  the m i n i n g s e c t o r i s based on the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the g e o l o g y o f the a r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s m a l l e r v e i n - l i k e d e p o s i t s c o n t a i n i n g minerals  o f g o l d and  silver.  the  More and more s p e c i f i c methods f o r  p r o c e s s i n g o r e by custom and p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n were  determined  o v e r the next two y e a r s by d i r e c t c o n t a c t by Commission s t a f f w i t h mining  i n d u s t r y p e r s o n n e l , through  concept 1984,  and  through  mining  information provided  conference  sponsored  T h e r e f o r e , where the p r o c e s s terminates study  identification  Columbia  by  for  in  late  process,  as  selected  i n T e r r a c e a t a November, Regional  District.  t o i d e n t i f y the a p p r o p r i a t e  technology  i s an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n .  commenced  technology  p r i v a t e s e c t o r r e s e a r c h i n t o the  1985  can  the  Consequently, be  the  considered  feasibility part  i t i s t o recommend a custom mineral  occurrences  along  of  an  processing  the  British  c o a s t l i n e (TRM E n g i n e e r i n g , 1985).  P a r t i c i p a t o r y Approach:  Quite  separate  from  concentration concept was also  engaged i n a n o t h e r recommended the  investment economic  the  process  for  the  custom  as above, the Economic Development Commission economic development p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e which p o r t a b l e o r custom c o n c e n t r a t o r  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the n o r t h w e s t . development  identifying  strategies  for  as a v i a b l e  In an e f f o r t t o assemble  i t s three  major  population  107.  centres,  the  Economic  Development  Commission  used  a  series  of  b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e s s i o n s w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n from a b r o a d c r o s s - s e c t i o n of  the  suggest  general  public  possible  strategies  typically  non-technical  to  identify  investment opportunities  to realize  in  the  these.  seminars,  The  and  language  was  p r o d u c i n g volumes  of  i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t a t e o f and p o t e n t i a l o f each l o c a l economy.  The d e c i s i o n t o d e v e l o p c u s t o m i z e d community economic s t r a t e g i e s was t a k e n by the Commission i n l i g h t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l problems b e i n g f a c e d i n t h e r e g i o n and a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t a s e l f - h e l p a p p r o a c h t o economic  development  was  n e c e s s a r y because  of  senior  government  r e s t r a i n t and g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l . I t was a l s o seen as p a r t o f a p r o c e s s o f t r a n s f e r r i n g l o c a l economic development r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s from the regional d i s t r i c t l e v e l to the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s g i v e n t h e d e c i s i o n o f some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o w i t h d r a w from  t h e Commission.  The  Economic  Development  Commission  would  p r o d u c e t h e economic d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s and t u r n them o v e r t o t h e individual The  municipalities  future  of  the  f o r implementation i n succeeding years.  R e g i o n a l Economic  Development  Commission  was  uncertain.  The t h r e e l o c a l Marketing  a r e a s f o r which t h e economic s t r a t e g i e s  P l a n s ) were p r o d u c e d were  (1) S t e w a r t , (2) T e r r a c e and  D i s t r i c t and (3) the H a z e l t o n s - K i s p i o x V a l l e y . studies, staff social  i t was  the d e l i b e r a t e  F o r t h e l a t t e r two  p o l i c y o f t h e Economic  t o f o r c e an awareness on s e m i n a r p a r t i c i p a n t s and  economic  entity,  (labelled  ignoring  multiple  Commission  of a  larger  political  108.  jurisdictions.  F o r example, t h e l o g i c a l economic b a s i n i s t h e e n t i r e  Hazelton  region  comprised  of  and two  Kispiox Valley. incorporated  Even  though t h i s  municipalities,  one  area i s  improvement  d i s t r i c t and s e v e r a l I n d i a n R e s e r v e s , o n l y one economic s t r a t e g y was formulated.  In i t s e l f , f r a g m e n t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d by  Commission s t a f f t o be a c o n s t r a i n t t o d e v e l o p m e n t .  Beyond t h i s m a n i p u l a t i v e a s p e c t t o c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e s t r a t e g i e s , t h e contents  o f the s t r a t e g i e s  themselves to determine. to  suggest potential  discussed  were  largely  left  to the  communities  Seminar p a r t i c i p a n t s were o s t e n s i b l y a s k e d  i n v e s t m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s but i n so d o i n g a l s o  community a t t i t u d e s  towards d i f f e r e n t  forms o f  economic  d e v e l o p m e n t , c o n s t r a i n t s and a s s e t s f o r development and methods o f r e a l i z i n g development p o t e n t i a l .  A l l o f which was documented i n the  final reports.  The s e m i n a r s were i n f o r m a l , f r e e - t h i n k i n g exchanges o f o p i n i o n perception.  Using  local  expertise  as  the  principal  and  source of  i n f o r m a t i o n was an i n t r i n s i c and d i s t i n c t i v e e l e m e n t o f t h e p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n , though t h e program had a b i a s towards l o c a l l y g e n e r a t e d economic d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e s t u d y p r o c e s s made no p r e t e n s e as t o the s c a l e o r t y p e o f development under d i s c u s s i o n .  The  b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e m i n a r s commenced i n F e b r u a r y 1984  i n Stewart,  were h e l d i n the H a z e l t o n a r e a b e g i n n i n g i n t h e Autumn and l a t e r i n the y e a r , were s t a g e d i n t h e T e r r a c e a r e a .  The f i r s t s e m i n a r i n each  community was h e l d w i t h t h e l o c a l government p o l i t i c i a n s i n o r d e r t o  109.  f a m i l i a r i z e them w i t h the p r o c e s s . Commission  E v e r y seminar was l e d by a s i n g l e  s t a f f member and u s u a l l y l a s t e d t h r e e h o u r s .  11 s e m i n a r s were needed,  In T e r r a c e  i n S t e w a r t 8, and i n t h e H a z e l t o n s 8.  s e s s i o n s were i n the e v e n i n g i n o r d e r n o t t o c o n f l i c t w i t h  Many working  hours. The  seminars  volumes  of  Commission  proved  to  be  information to staff.  To  extremely be  condensed  staff.  The  c r e a t e d problems citizens.  into a final  i t s detriment,  e x e r c i s e was v e r y time consuming limited  i n f o r m a t i v e , and  the  public  generated report  participation  and demanding o f a Commission  l e n g t h o f time t o complete  by  with  each p r o j e c t a l s o  i n m a i n t a i n i n g the i n t e r e s t o f l o c a l c o u n c i l s and  Though a l l the community seminars were completed i n two to  t h r e e weeks, each p r o j e c t , from p l a n n i n g s t a g e s t o c o m p l e t i o n o f the final  r e p o r t took f o u r t o s i x months.  However, i t was  the p r o c e s s  used t o c o m p i l e the r e p o r t s , r a t h e r than the f i n a l document, which was  perhaps  o f most v a l u e .  The  seminar  e x e r c i s e was  adopted  to  group  of  m o b i l i z e l o c a l knowledge and l o c a l e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p .  Previous  experience  of  the  Commission  staff  with  a  i n d e p e n d e n t s m a l l b u s i n e s s l o g g e r s i n the T e r r a c e a r e a had shown the advantages  o f b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r p e o p l e from w i t h i n the same  sector to develop Ministry  o f F o r e s t s ' Small  came t o g e t h e r w i t h several Steering  s e l f h e l p programs.  a view  Business  These  through  S.B.E.P. p o l i c i e s o f the M i n i s t r y . Committee  continues  to  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  E n t e r p r i s e Program  to changing  function  economic  (S.B.E.P.)  collective action  Three y e a r s l a t e r , a and  has s u c c e s s f u l l y  110.  c o n t r i b u t e d t o s e v e r a l p o l i c y improvements, o f t e n w i t h significance. the T e r r a c e Forests'  An S.B.E.P. member now area's major timber  alongside  l i c e n s e h o l d e r s on the M i n i s t r y o f was  e s t a b l i s h e d t o v o i c e o p i n i o n s on M i n i s t r y p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e s .  The  S.B.E.P. Committee a l s o o b t a i n e d  the  to  Steering  has an a p p o i n t m e n t  Committee  right  Kalum  province-wide  perform  salvage  Committee.  The  from  logging  Kalum  the M i n i s t e r o f F o r e s t s  on  cut  areas  on  the  larger  companies' T r e e s Farm L i c e n s e l a n d h o l d i n g s .  The r o l e o f the p l a n n e r here was and  create  a network o f  independent  separate  from  Commission  —  develop  self-help strategies  to  political  the  s i m p l y to c r e a t e the  or i n s t i t u t i o n a l  loggers  thereby  which would  permitting  i d e n t i f y and  barriers.  The  "melting-pot" function  the  overcome  group  to  economic,  Commission a l s o  provided  some t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t and would o f t e n a s s i s t i n t r a n s l a t i n g l e t t e r s and  p o s i t i o n papers,  compiled  by  the  Steering  l a n g u a g e s u i t a b l e f o r the government b u r e a u c r a c y forwarded  into a  p r i o r t o them b e i n g  t o the M i n i s t r y o f F o r e s t s .  The d e c i s i o n was  t h e r e f o r e taken t h a t the economic s t r a t e g y s e m i n a r s  would not be t o t a l l y random g r o u p i n g s the  Committee,  program used  with  the T e r r a c e  but would a t t e m p t t o d u p l i c a t e loggers.  p a r t i c i p a n t s were p l a c e d i n groups c o r r e s p o n d i n g  Consequently,  seminar  b e s t w i t h the s e c t o r  o f the economy w i t h which t h e y were most f a m i l i a r . S e p a r a t e  seminars  were t h e r e f o r e h e l d , where a p p r o p r i a t e , i n each community f o r in  such  sectors  a g r i c u l t u r e and  as  the  f o r e s t industry, mining,  public administration.  tourism,  In the c o n s i d e r a b l y  people retail, larger  111.  c e n t e r o f T e r r a c e , o t h e r s e m i n a r s were h e l d w i t h s p e c i a l  interest  groups such as o r g a n i z e d l a b o r , women's groups and t h e chamber o f commerce e x e c u t i v e ( K e r b y , 1985).  In a l l t h r e e c o m m u n i t i e s , a number  o f l o n g time r e s i d e n t s were asked t o a t t e n d t h e s e m i n a r s . i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e was  to m o b i l i z e local  A g a i n an  entrepreneurial energies  o u t s i d e o f t h e f o r m a l p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g a development s t r a t e g y .  The community d e v e l o p m e n t s t r a t e g i e s c o u l d e a s i l y be b i a s e d d e p e n d i n g upon  how  against  participants this,  several  t h e Commission  sources  administration Stewart  and  i n the s e m i n a r s  such  and the  as  staff  municipal  Regional D i s t r i c t area,  To  guard  o b t a i n e d s u g g e s t e d names  local  Hazelton  were s e l e c t e d .  councils,  Directors. invitations  from  municipal  In a d d i t i o n , i n to  seminars  were  c o o r d i n a t e d by t h e l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y because the p u b l i c was p r o b a b l y more f a m i l i a r w i t h m u n i c i p a l o f f i c i a l s i n t h o s e communities than the Commission.  W h i l e a l l t h o s e r e q u e s t e d t o a t t e n d were p r e - s e l e c t e d  and were m a i l e d a p e r s o n a l i n v i t a t i o n and a q u e s t i o n n a i r e used t o f a c i l i t a t e d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e s e m i n a r , anyone e l s e from t h e  public  e x p r e s s i n g a n . i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g was a l s o asked t o a t t e n d .  The  brainstorming  cross-section  of  viewpoints  were  considered  a  assemble within  people heard.  in  exclusively  community.  gathered each  However,  c o m p l e t e l y open  almost each  seminars  information  community the  one.  seminar  and  felt  a  broad  many  contrary  process cannot  Instead, the  l e a d e r s o f b u s i n e s s and  I t was  from  intent  was  be to  o p i n i o n from  t h a t t h e i d e a s f o r economic  development g e n e r a t e d i n t h e s e m i n a r s would be most l i k e l y m a n i f e s t e d  112.  by t h e s e k i n d s o f p e o p l e . was  highly  selective,  e n t e r p r i s e and l o c a l  For  a l l three  described  In t h i s r e s p e c t , the s t r a t e g y p l a n p r o c e s s supportive  private  sector  business  entrepreneurship.  communities, a "Marketing  the  many  identified and  P l a n " was  investment  development  constraints  objectives.  With v a r y i n g degrees  municipal  of  discussed  prepared  opportunities,  community  which listed  attitudes  and  o f s u c c e s s , the r e s p e c t i v e l o c a l  c o u n c i l and R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t D i r e c t o r s were asked t o draw  upon the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the m a r k e t i n g  plan to determine  a  s m a l l number o f p r i o r i t y p r o j e c t s , which i n t u r n would c o n s t i t u t e an economic s t r a t e g y . already  suggested  Nonetheless, which  o f t e n the seminar  development  p a r t i c i p a n t s had  opportunities  were  the  most  v i a b l e o r most demanded by the community.  The p o i n t o f e l a b o r a t i n g on the p r o c e s s to d e v e l o p community economic s t r a t e g i e s i s t o note t h a t , a p p a r e n t l y u n s o l i c i t e d , the s m a l l s c a l e mining  opportunity  and  the  custom  i d e n t i f i e d in. a l l three communities.  concentration  concept  were  In S t e w a r t , a community w i t h a  l o n g h i s t o r y o f m i n i n g d e v e l o p m e n t , the c o n c e p t was d i s c u s s e d i n most detail  and  considered  to  be  a  potential  c o n s t r a i n t s ( S t e w a r t M a r k e t i n g P l a n , 1984). was  a l s o brought  forward  with  relatively  The s m a l l mine p o t e n t i a l  i n the H a z e l t o n seminars  where many o f the  p a r t i c i p a n t s would have p e r s o n a l knowledge o f the m i n i n g that area.  few  history of  F a i r l y w e l l known mines such as S i l v e r S t a n d a r d and  Rose o p e r a t e d w i t h i n s e v e r a l m i l e s o f the V i l l a g e o f H a z e l t o n .  Red  113.  In T e r r a c e ,  the  small  mine p o t e n t i a l was  t r e a t e d as a p r i o r i t y o f the community. until  the Second World War  f o r e s t economy now  also recognized  but  not  Though the T e r r a c e area  had  a v i a b l e mining  the  the p u b l i c ' s mind.  Moreover,  s e v e r a l o f the T e r r a c e s e m i n a r s were h e l d a f t e r the m i n i n g  conference  was  staged  literally,  i n t h a t community and  a l s o s e v e r a l s e m i n a r s were h e l d ,  i n rooms which d i s p l a y e d p o s t e r s  conference.  In  prejudiced. surfaced  dominates w i t h i n  s e c t o r , presumably  other  words,  the  a d v e r t i s i n g the  seminars  had  mining  probably  In a l l c a s e s , however, the p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r  f o l l o w i n g an  a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the  geology  o f much o f  been idea the  northwest.  To c o n c l u d e t h i s s e c t i o n , i t i s w o r t h w h i l e to  remark  on  the  effectiveness  community economic s t r a t e g i e s . there  of  taking a s l i g h t digression  this  program  of  developing  In none o f the t h r e e communities  been an o v e r t a t t e m p t by the m u n i c i p a l i t y to use  r e p o r t s as formal council strategy.  of  the  guides  the f i n a l  to l o c a l economic d e v e l o p m e n t .  D i s t r i c t of Stewart  Only  f o r m a l l y a d o p t e d the  M o r e o v e r , the D i s t r i c t o f Stewart Provincial-Municipal  the  economic  took the i n i t i a t i v e o f  s u b m i t t i n g the s t r a t e g y to the M i n i s t r y o f I n d u s t r y & Small Development under the  has  Partnership  Business  Program  has r e c e i v e d f i n a n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from the p r o v i n c e  and to  a s s i s t l o c a l economic d e v e l o p m e n t .  I t was  never  expected  by  the  Commission  staff  that  i t could  be  c l e a r l y shown t h a t the t h i n k - t a n k s e m i n a r method caused a development idea  to  be  acted  upon.  Nonetheless,  many  ideas  listed  in  114.  the  Marketing  Plans  have  come  into  fruition  since  1984.  Most  n o t a b l y , i n S t e w a r t , w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a f e r r y s l i p , A l a s k a S t a t e f e r r y s e r v i c e was r e a l i z e d i n l a t e 1985. T h i s f e r r y s e r v i c e would s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve t o u r i s t t r a f f i c through of  a  t h e community.  lobbying  Stewart/Hyder  effort  by  The p r o j e c t was a p r i m a r y Stewart  Chamber o f Commerce.  fishing  tours  August  of  from  Japan  1986.  remanufacturing  And  facility  municipal  council  and  In T e r r a c e , t h e f i r s t  i n t o northwestern i n Terrace was  objective  as  constructed  B.C. w i l l well,  a  the  organized  commence i n  wood  products  by one o f t h e  seminar  participants.  F o r Commission s t a f f who o r g a n i z e d  and m o n i t o r e d  r o l e t o be p l a y e d was a f a i r l y i n a c t i v e one: d i s c u s s i o n and r e c o r d i n g t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . extremely  informative  expense  considerable  t h e seminars  one o f f a c i l i t a t i n g  The seminars  though were  t o t h e s t a f f members, p r o v i d i n g a t quantities  of  the  information  on  minimal  the  local  e c o n o m i e s , i n c l u d i n g s o f t e r forms o f i n f o r m a t i o n such as t h e s o c i a l dynamics o f each c l o s e working  community.  T h i s c o u l d be a c q u i r e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  influential  only  through  members o f t h e l o c a l  community.  The  v a l u e o f t h e seminars  overlooked  either.  as p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s e x e r c i s e s cannot  The seminars  created  a much more  be  widespread  awareness about t h e Economic Development Commission w i t h t h e g e n e r a l public. economic  P o p u l a r s u p p o r t f o r an a c t i v e v e r s u s a r e a c t i v e approach t o development  as  indicated  by  developing  the  economic  115.  s t r a t e g i e s was a l s o shown.  Few p e o p l e d e c l i n e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the  s e m i n a r s ; r a t h e r , most were a n x i o u s t o be i n v o l v e d .  The Emerging P l a n :  Emerging from the c o m b i n a t i o n approaches most  i s the  visible  technology,  region's  economic development p l a n .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are the'  diversification  o f the t e c h n o c r a t i c s and p a r t i c i p a t o r y  and  externally-oriented  the  motivation  to  stability  but  economy.  advocacy achieve  a  The  of  a  The  plan's  small  scale  community  willingness  to  plan  not  does  economic  maintain include  an a  recommendation o f t e r r i t o r i a l c l o s u r e .  The  Commission p l a n i s not p u b l i s h e d i n a s i n g l e f i n a l  must be d i s c e r n e d from a r e v i e w o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  report  but  Aspects  of  the two d i f f e r e n t programs which c o n s t i t u t e the p r o c e s s are  recorded  i n "Economic Development O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n N o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h  Columbia"  (1983) and the " m a r k e t i n g  p l a n s " (1984, 1985)  f o r the communities o f  T e r r a c e , S t e w a r t and the H a z e l t o n s .  Plan  Implementation:  I t i s an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n where the phase b e g i n s o f of  the  alternative  implementation  of  the  small  scale  plan.  Even  Development Commission had mineral  concentrator  solidified  mining long  implementation  technology--hence, before  the  i t s p o s i t i o n t h a t the  Economic custom  i d e a s h o u l d be a r e g i o n a l economic development  116. p r i o r i t y , i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had a l r e a d y s t a r t e d a p r o c e s s o f s e l l i n g the i d e a t o p r i v a t e m i n i n g of Mines.  Implementation,  about  1984  mid  i n t e r e s t s and t o the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y however, became the dominant a c t i v i t y o n l y  when a d e c i s i o n t o p r o c e e d  with  staging a  mining  c o n f e r e n c e i n T e r r a c e i n November was made.  The meaning a t t r i b u t e d t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  in t h i s context i s , simply,  g e n e r a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r towards the p o r t a b l e custom mineral concentrator. a portable mill  The e x e r c i s e d i d not r e s u l t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  i n northwestern  B r i t i s h Columbia  but was  successful  a t l e a s t , as w i l l be d e t a i l e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , i n moving the several  stages  c l o s e r to a production d e c i s i o n .  In May,  concept 1986,  a  j o i n t p r i v a t e s e c t o r , government funded f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y i n t o barge mounted  concentration  units  to  be  operated  of  formulating  along  B.C.'s  coast  returned favorable r e s u l t s .  In  contrast  to  the  process  s t r a t e g i e s , i n which p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was implementing closed  the  portable  process, characterized  building of opinion. mining  concentration by  i n d u s t r y t o make m a n i f e s t .  among  surrendered Further,  development  an i n t r i n s i c  technology  bargaining  The c o n c e p t was  economic  was  element, largely a  i n d i v i d u a l s and t o e x p e r t s i n the  i t was  a given  that  market mechanisms would be used and t h a t the p r i v a t e s e c t o r would be the  v e h i c l e through  delivered.  which  the  custom c o n c e n t r a t o r  i d e a would  be  117.  Through 1984, as t h e Economic Development Commission s t a f f i n t e r a c t e d w i t h v a r i o u s g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g concept  was t r e a t e d w i t h  and amusement.  varying  technology  reactions of d i s i n t e r e s t , derision  The c o n c e p t was commonly seen as a novel one, but the  Commission c o u l d n o t f a l l back on any e s t a b l i s h e d r e p u t a t i o n area nor possessed challenge  any p a r t i c u l a r m i n i n g t e c h n o l o g y  t o t h e Commission  was  together  supported the  a  constituency  of  t h e s m a l l mines c o n c e p t  portable  mill  technology  expertise.  to e s t a b l i s h c r e d i b i l i t y  m i n i n g i n d u s t r y and r e l e v a n t government c i r c l e s . bring  i n the  within  The s t r a t e g y was t o  appropriate  and, s e c o n d l y , was  The  expertise  which  to demonstrate that  technically  and  economically  feasible.  In o r d e r f o r t h e Economic Development Commission t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n its  promotional  campaign,  M i n i s t r y o f Mines.  i t had  to obtain  the support  A s t a r t i n g p o i n t was the shared  o f the  d e s i r e o f both  the M i n i s t r y and t h e Economic Development commission t o see a v i a b l e mining industry i n the northwest part of the province.  But beyond  t h i s , t h e s i t u a t i o n demanded t h a t t h e Economic Development Commission had t o work w i t h  considerably  disproportionate  power compared  with  the M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s , y e t had t o i n f l u e n c e t h e p o l i c y o f t h i s much stronger Mines with  institution.  I t was a l r e a d y  r e l a t e d that support  B r a n c h gave t h e Economic Development the mining industry.  access  Commission  o f the  credibility  In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s a d v a n t a g e o f  t o an i n d u s t r y c o n s t i t u e n c y ,  the n a t u r e  having  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between t h e Commission and t h e Mines M i n i s t r y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d unequal  d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i n a n c i a l resources,  access  to  by  political  118.  power ( i n c a b i n e t ) , and a v i r t u a l monopoly on t e c h n i c a l knowledge. The o n l y o b v i o u s advantage  the Commission  h e l d o v e r the M i n i s t r y o f  Mines was more i n t i m a t e knowledge o f the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n .  Throughout  the p r o c e s s  of planning f o r a r e v i t a l i z e d  s m a l l mines  s e c t o r , the M i n i s t r y o f Mines' o f f i c i a l s m a i n t a i n e d a p o s t u r e h i g h l y s u p p o r t i v e o f the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y . the p r o p o s a l o f the Economic  Though many o f f i c i a l s c o n s i d e r e d  Development Commission  t o be novel i f  n o t d u b i o u s , t h e m i n i s t r y was w i l l i n g to e n t e r t a i n the c o n c e p t , a t least until  some measure o f s u p p o r t f o r the c o n c e p t i n t h e p r i v a t e  s e c t o r c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d . provincial  s t a f f , was  The l a t t e r , as agreed to by r e g i o n a l and  t o be a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h an i n d u s t r y c o n f e r e n c e  h e l d i n T e r r a c e i n November 1984 mines o p p o r t u n i t y . p r o p o s a l was  d e v o t e d e x c l u s i v e l y to the s m a l l  In a d d i t i o n , t a c i t s u p p o r t o f the s m a l l mines  g i v e n a t the m i n i s t e r i a l  level  when t h e M i n i s t e r o f  E n e r g y , Mines and P e t r o l e u m R e s o u r c e s , Steven R o g e r s , a g r e e d to speak at this conference.  To the l e s s e r e x t e n t t h a t s u p p o r t o f a w i d e r n o r t h w e s t B.C. p u b l i c was  needed,  for  example  to  maintain  the  enthusiasm  of  p o l i t i c i a n s and the b u s i n e s s community, f o c u s s i n g a t t e n t i o n on portable  mill  technology  had  decided  advantages.  local the  From a p u b l i c  r e l a t i o n s s t a n d p o i n t , one c o u l d d i s c u s s the t e c h n o l o g y and show what c o u l d be done t o enhance economic an a l r e a d y w e i g h t y  development  r a t h e r than a d d i n g t o  c o l l e c t i o n o f d e p r e s s i n g news and  negative a t t i t u d e s throughout  the r e g i o n .  corresponding  In l i g h t o f a c u r r e n t l y  119.  popular  conception  that  planners  hinder  development,  this  was  a  p o s i t i v e and r e f r e s h i n g f e a t u r e o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  Secondly,  it  was  recognized  technological  problem  political  institutional  or  technology,  was  simplified  by  not  Commission  exclusive  elements,  understanding  development f o r a g r e a t e r a u d i e n c e .  but  of  staff  that  social,  dealing  the  economic,  with  only  the  o f a much l a r g e r problem  of  A r e p o r t , which condensed  the  i d e a s b e h i n d the p o r t a b l e m i l l o p p o r t u n i t y and d i s c u s s e d the need f o r and  contents  technology  of a f e a s i b i l i t y study i n t o applying portable m i l l i n g  i n northwestern  B r i t i s h Columbia,  consumption i n November 1984.  a  Comprehensive  written for public  T h i s r e p o r t i s e n t i t l e d "Small  Development i n N o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h for  was  Columbia:  Feasibility  Study"  Mines  Background  Information  (Economic  Development  Commission, November 1984).  I t was g e n e r a l l y the i m p r e s s i o n o f both p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f Mines official? mill  and  Regional  District  i d e a would not become a r e a l i t y w i t h o u t  preceding implementation. investment  determine  entirely  an  Hence a c o m p r e h e n s i v e f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y , which would  s m a l l m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s amenable to a custom c o n c e n t r a t o r  consider  the  research  The i n f o r m a t i o n on which t o base such  financial,  technological  and  b e l i e v e d t o be an e s s e n t i a l i n t e r i m s t e p . in  considerable  d e c i s i o n , such as M i n i s t r y r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s , s i m p l y i s  not a v a i l a b l e .  and  s t a f f t h a t the p o r t a b l e o r custom  attitudes of  marketing  was  I t was a l s o soon r e v e a l e d  s e n i o r M i n i s t r y o f Mines  p u b l i c sector venture  options,  officials  that  an  i n t o p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g would not  be  120.  considered.  Instead,  through  a  process  of  Economic Development Commission o f f i c i a l s and Mines,  the  Ministry  made  the  offer  that  bargaining the B.C. it  between  Ministry  would  entertain  c o s t - s h a r i n g w i t h a p r i v a t e company on a f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y , but if  i t could  be  shown t h a t  the  company was  of  seriously  only  considering  d e v e l o p m e n t o f the i d e a .  I t was  p r e v i o u s l y d i s c l o s e d t h a t p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f Mines s t a f f  r e a c t e d s t r o n g l y i n f a v o r o f the custom c o n c e n t r a t o r was  f i r s t presented  This support  p r o p o s a l when i t  t o them i n the "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s "  report.  however d i d not i n c l u d e any f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o the  Commission nor  i n i t i a l l y t o anyone i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r  proposing  similar ideas.  Nor d i d i t i n c l u d e much M i n i s t r y s t a f f s u p p o r t .  The  burden f e l l upon the Economic Development Commission t o p r o v e t o the M i n i s t r y and to the B.C. was  m i n i n g i n d u s t r y t h a t the p o r t a b l e m i l l  viable.  T h i s m a r g i n o f s u p p o r t from the M i n i s t r y was the Commission i n p u r s u i n g the  idea  established  nonetheless  the custom m i l l c o n c e p t .  connections  of  Ministry  staff  critical  I t was with  I t was  principally  Ministry  o f Mines  staff  which  through  the  i n d u s t r y t h a t the Commission s t a f f g a i n e d c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h  to  mining industry.  introduced  the  Commission t o key i n d i v i d u a l s i n the i n d u s t r y such as the manager o f the B.C.  and Yukon Chamber o f M i n e s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C.  and t o m i n i n g companies.  o f the  Mining  S i m i l a r l y , acceptance  by the M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s , S t e v e n R o g e r s , t o be a k e y n o t e s p e a k e r a t the November 1984  conference  was  another i n g r e d i e n t in a s t r a t e g y to  121.  r a i s e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n t e r e s t i n t h e small mines c o n f e r e n c e .  The  c o n f e r e n c e was i t s e l f a d v e r t i s e d as a p r o j e c t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f M i n e s . with  assistance  from  The program o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e was  M i n i s t r y s t a f f and s e v e r a l  designed  senior provincial  M i n i s t r y o f Mines s t a f f members came from V i c t o r i a and o t h e r  regions  of the province to attend the conference.  The c o n f e r e n c e mind: with  f o r m a t was chosen w i t h f o u r o v e r l a p p i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n  ( 1 ) t o e s t a b l i s h Economic Development Commission the mining  industry  and government,  credibility  (2) t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e  f e a s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g p o r t a b l e o r custom c o n c e n t r a t o r s ,  (3) t o t e s t  entrepreneurial  i n t e r e s t i n t h e p o r t a b l e o r custom m i l l i n g i d e a and  (4)  an i n d u s t r y - b a s e d  to create  small s c a l e a l t e r n a t i v e .  supported  the  Other unrelated objectives included:  (1)  to i n d i c a t e t o the northwest Commission  was  promote T e r r a c e  constituency  which  r e g i o n t h a t i t s Economic Development  a c t i v e l y pursuing t o the mining  economic development and ( 2 ) t o industry  as a p o s s i b l e  source  of  support s e r v i c e s t o the industry.  To i t s c r e d i t , i n an a t t e m p t a t c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f i d e a s on small scale mining,  the conference  experience  and e x p e r t i s e .  industry,  the eighty  collection. companies,  They local,  c o n s u l t a n t s , mining officials.  a t t r a c t e d an u n u s u a l l y  Though a l l were o s t e n s i b l y from t h e same  conference included  old  wide range o f  time  participants  representatives prospectors  formed of  and  an  unusual  junior  mining  miners,  industry  equipment s u p p l i e r s and s e n i o r l e v e l government  Somewhat  s u r p r i s i n g l y , Gulf  Canada  Resources L t d . ,  122.  Noranda E x p l o r a t i o n s , Sumitomo M e t a l s and Esso M i n e r a l s , a l l m a j o r c o r p o r a t i o n s , were a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i n , t h e a u d i e n c e .  E s t a b l i s h i n g a "demonstration  e f f e c t " (Schumacher, 1974:151) was  i m p o r t a n t goal o f the c o n f e r e n c e . i d e a s on m i n e r a l development,  In o r d e r t o c h a l l e n g e c o n v e n t i o n a l  the Commission s t a f f members b e l i e v e d  i t was n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g i n s p e a k e r s from f a r a f i e l d . portable milling M i l l - from  Sweden  technology and  was  represented  presented  by  subsidiary in Missisauga, Ontario. expensive  of  successfully Similarly,  portable in  a  systems  several  conference  panel  a  For example,  by the S a l a  speaker  from  its  "Caravan" Canadian  The S a l a M i l l i s amongst the most a v a i l a b l e but  third  programs f o r s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g  world  has  situations  d i s c u s s i o n on  been  applied  (Sala,  government  1981). support  i n c l u d e d a p r e s e n t a t i o n g i v e n by a  P o l i c y A d v i s o r f o r the Ontario M i n i s t r y of Natural Resources. Ontario,  the  provincial  provides financial  an  government  through  the  In  60MILL  Program,  s u b s i d i e s t o companies t o p r o v i d e ore  treatment  f a c i l i t i e s f o r custom m i l l i n g o f g o l d o r e s .  Some o f  the  best  information  at  the  mining  p r e s e n t e d by t h o s e p o s s e s s i n g f o r m a l academic technical  expertise.  c o n f e r e n c e was B.C..  the owner/operator  the  best  was  not  t r a i n i n g or recognized  speaker  of  the  o f the D u t h i e Mine near  two  day  Smithers,  Paul K i n d r a t a c q u i r e d many y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n m i n i n g i n  B r i t i s h Columbia, and  Perhaps  conference  took  physical  then r e c e n t l y formed a company w i t h h i s f o u r sons  o v e r a mine l a s t abandoned i n 1952.  By d o w n s i z i n g  the  p l a n t and custom b u i l d i n g a v e r y s m a l l f i f t y t o n per  day  123.  mill,  the  group  silver-lead-zinc  now  mines  mine  what  could  (Charmichael,  Canada, 1954:105-111).  become  1984)  a  very  lucrative  ( G e o l o g i c a l Survey  The owner has n e g l i g i b l e academic  of  training  b u t c l e a r l y e x e m p l i f i e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the r a r e , s u c c e s s f u l s m a l l mine o p e r a t o r . exploration marketing  He p o s s e s s as a r a r e c o m b i n a t i o n o f s k i l l s i n  geology, and  mining,  business  construction,  management.  The  mineral  conference  o p p o r t u n i t y by which he c o u l d s h a r e t h i s a c c u m u l a t e d  processing, provided  an  experience with  o t h e r ' p o t e n t i a l small miners.  A t t h e time o f w r i t i n g t h i s paper 1 1/2 y e a r s have p a s s e d s i n c e "A Conference  on  Small  S c a l e O p p o r t u n i t i e s " was  staged  in Terrace.  S e v e r a l e n q u i r i e s i n t o p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g t e c h n o l o g y have been r e c e i v e d by t h e Economic Development Commission and by t h e p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f Mines but no company has y e t a c t e d t o d e v e l o p  such a m i n e r a l  processing unit.  D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d as w e l l , t h e p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments completed  a $10 m i l l i o n , f i v e y e a r M i n e r a l Development  Agreement.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the Agreement, s i g n e d on J u l y 30, 1985, made t h e type o f f e a s i b i l i t y s t u d y e n v i s i o n e d by t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t e l i g i b l e f o r s e n i o r government f i n a n c i a l  s u p p o r t (News R e l e a s e , J u l y 30, 1985).  The Economic Development Commission a l s o committed $6,500 f o r t h e year  1985  towards  the  small  mines  opportunity, anticipating  c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e s e funds a l o n g w i t h s e n i o r government s u p p o r t t o a m i n i n g company i n v e s t i g a t i n g p o r t a b l e o r custom m i l l i n g t e c h n o l o g y i n the  northwest  ( E c o n o m i c Development  Commission,  1985 P r o v i s i o n a l  124.  Budget P r o p o s a l ) . January  L o c a l governments o p e r a t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia on a  t o December budget y e a r .  In 1986,  the Commission  had  not  r e c e i v e d any r e a s o n a b l e s u b m i s s i o n s r e q u e s t i n g f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t and the i d e a was o m i t t e d i n t h e 1986 budget. f a c t t h a t g o l d and  A l s o worth r e c o r d i n g i s the  s i l v e r p r i c e s remained  f a i r l y stagnant  t h i s p e r i o d (B.C. M i n e r a l Q u a r t e r l y , volume 11,  A f t e r the c o n f e r e n c e , Commission  through  1986).  s t a f f d e a l t w i t h i n q u i r i e s on the  p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r as t h e y would  any o t h e r development  inquiry.  However, as the s m a l l s c a l e o p p o r t u n i t y p r o g r e s s i v e l y moved o u t o f the f o r e f r o n t , combined elected  Economic  compete  for staff  Commission  with personnel  changes  Development Commission, time.  As  just  occurring with  the  o t h e r p r i o r i t i e s began t o  mentioned  above,  no  Economic  f u n d s were budgeted d i r e c t l y to the s m a l l mines p o t e n t i a l  a f t e r 1985.  B r i e f l y though, the c a s e s o f two p o r t a b l e m i l l p r o p o s a l s  which came t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the Commission  a r e worth r e c o u n t i n g .  In both  why  i n s t a n c e s , the  reasons  s t r i c t l y the author's o p i n i o n .  provided  on  each  failed  Company names w i l l n o t be c i t e d  are due  to m a t t e r s o f . c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y .  E a r l y i n 1985, a j u n i o r m i n i n g company based i n Vancouver the p r o v i n c i a l feasibility metals.  M i n i s t r y o f Mines  study  Also  or  s e e k i n g funds  portable milling  for  for a  precious  The company, which h o l d s m i n e r a l p r o p e r t i e s i n n o r t h w e s t e r n  B r i t i s h Columbia, was  i n t o custom  in Victoria  approached  a t t e n d e d the m i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e i n T e r r a c e but i t  never determined i t was  never  i f the i d e a was agreed  generated at that conference.  i f a feasibility  s t u d y would  be  site-  125.  s p e c i f i c t o some p a r t o f n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  The M i n i s t r y o f Mines encouraged  the company and Economic Commission  s t a f f t o meet t o t r y t o produce  a j o i n t proposal f o r submission  the p r o v i n c e .  Though meetings  never p r o c e e d e d . p r o j e c t and may financial  were h e l d i n Vancouver,  the p r o p o s a l  The company d i d not seem e n t i r e l y committed o n l y have been t e s t i n g the w a t e r s  assistance.  to  to the  f o r government  From t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f Commission s t a f f ,  any  s t u d y would have t o be o f s p e c i f i c b e n e f i t t o n o r t h w e s t e r n  British  Columbia.  working  There  were a l s o communication  difficulties  in  t o g e t h e r when based 500 m i l e s a p a r t .  L a t e r i n 1985, an e x p l o r a t i o n g e o l o g i s t , w e l l r e s p e c t e d i n the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , approached  the Commission s t a f f s e e k i n g more i n f o r m a t i o n on  portable  milling  Hazelton  area, attended  with  the  technology.  This  the c o n f e r e n c e  person,  who  resides  and would d e v e l o p  a s s i s t a n c e o f s e v e r a l c o n t a c t s made a t t h a t  in the  the idea  conference.  I n i t i a l l y , he r e p r e s e n t e d a s m a l l group o f l o c a l p r o s p e c t o r s l o o k i n g a t the Skeena and B u l k l e y c o r r i d o r s , from Houston w e s t , as a f i r s t a r e a f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o custom m i l l i n g p o t e n t i a l . As the p r o j e c t has now e v o l v e d , a p r o p o s a l has been c i r c u l a t e d i n Vancouver  that ten  j u n i o r m i n i n g companies w i t h p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e Skeena r e g i o n  purchase  s h a r e s i n a c o n s o r t i u m v a l u e d a t $2,500 each. matched  by  the  Mineral  Development  These funds were t o be  Agreement  for  a  $50,000  f e a s i b i l i t y study.  T h i s p r o p o s a l has been somewhat slow to d e v e l o p , m a i n l y because  the  126.  seasonal  demands on p r o s p e c t o r s  keep them e x t r e m e l y  s p r i n g and summer, o f t e n i n v e r y i s o l a t e d p l a c e s .  busy through  the  In a d d i t i o n , the  Commission a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has been unable t o d e v o t e time to p r e p a r e a s u i t a b l e formal  submission  on t h i s group's b e h a l f f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n  by s e n i o r government and the j u n i o r m i n i n g  In May  1986,  a feasibility  Mineral  Development  Vancouver returned mounted m i l l i n g Trader  funded  Agreement  undertaken  a favorable  opinion  units  Regional  District  Rupert.  In a d d i t i o n , the  properties  in  considered  the  northwest  by the f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l f o r Trader on  s e r v i c i n g small  R e s o u r c e s owns 'a p r o m i s i n g  Kitmat-Stikine  (TRM  study  fraternity.  the  Resources  v i a b i l i t y of  coastal mineral  precious  metals  of  eight  study  deposit  located  coastal  barge  properties.  on Banks I s l a n d , s o u t h  feasibility  in  1985).  small mines c o n f e r e n c e  The  company was  the  of  Prince  four  other  B.C.  properties  t o have good p o t e n t i a l f o r s e r v i c i n g by a p o r t a b l e  Engineering,  of  not i n a t t e n d a n c e  i n T e r r a c e and t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e  mill  a t the t h a t the  Commission has d i r e c t l y h e l p e d shaped the company's d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s .  Afterword:  The  Commission  potential There  undertook  the  program  to  promote the  in l i g h t of tension within a local  had  mines  political situation.  been  serious  concerns  that  f u n c t i o n a t the  Regional  District  level  would be  terminated.  By  Commission  resources  upon  resource  development  more  concentrating  the  small  economic  development  c l o s e l y t i e d w i t h the l o c a l economy and more s h o r t term o b j e c t i v e s ,  127. i t was hoped t h a t t h e Commission c o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e i n e n h a n c i n g the regional  economy and c o u l d m a i n t a i n t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e l o c a l  municipalities.  P r o m o t i o n o f t h e custom and p o r t a b l e m i l l i n g t e c h n o l o g y d i d n o t h i n g to p r e v e n t t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the Commission.  In December, 1984,  o n l y one month a f t e r t h e m i n i n g c o n f e r e n c e i n T e r r a c e , b o t h t h e D i s t r i c t o f New H a z e l t o n and D i s t r i c t o f T e r r a c e gave t h e r e q u i r e d one y e a r ' s n o t i c e t o withdraw f r o m t h e f u n c t i o n , e f f e c t i v e J a n u a r y 1st,  1986.  The  activities  o f the r e g i o n a l  Economic  Development  Commission d u r i n g 1984 frad n o t c a p t u r e d the i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l municipal  councils.  L a t e i n 1985  though, the d e c i s i o n s  o f both  c o u n c i l s would be r e v e r s e d .  S p u r r e d on t o f i n d immediate economic s o l u t i o n s w i t h i n an e n v i r o n m e n t o f waning l e g i t i m a c y , the custom m i l l c o n c e p t f o r t h e Commission i s proving term. to  a  private  t o be much more t h a n a s o l u t i o n a c h i e v a b l e  i n the short  The Economic Development Commission, which r a i s e d t h e c o n c e p t regional sector  implementation.  development interest,  priority no  and  attracted  longer  actively  government  and  pursues  its  O t h e r p r i o r i t i e s have a p p r o p r i a t e d s t a f f t i m e and  the make-up o f t h e Commission a t e l e c t e d and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e has changed c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e 1984.  M o r e o v e r , o p e r a t i n g on annual  budget y e a r s , d e v e l o p m e n t p r o m o t i o n s a t t h e l o c a l face prospects of a lack of continuity.  levels  government  level  128.  CHAPTER SIX:  ANALYSIS  In C h a p t e r Two,  two s e t s o f c a t e g o r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n o r d e r to  compare the case s t u d y p l a n s and t h e i r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s .  In t h i s  c h a p t e r , the a n a l y s i s w i l l u n f o l d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n t h r e e s t a g e s : (1)  a comparison  o f the two p l a n s ,  (2)  a comparison  o f the two  (3)  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of causal  processes r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  categories  o f p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s and the two p l a n s .  Comparison o f Economic P l a n s : T h i s comparison  c o v e r s o n l y the f i v e p l a n c a t e g o r i e s o r  dimensions  which were drawn from  the r e g i o n a l development l i t e r a t u r e and  review  themselves.  of  the  plans  d i f f e r e n t approaches territorial  to technology,  closure,  the  The  comparison  vs.  incrementalist  sustained  community d e v e l o p m e n t .  examines  the  the p l a n p o s i t i o n s i n r e g a r d t o  comprehensiveness  visionary  from  outlooks The  of  and  the  their  comparison  plans,  their  approaches  i s summarized  to in  T a b l e 8.  1)  Approach to  Technology:  A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n i s i t s promotion  of appropriate technology.  that  scale,  small  locally  controlled  The r e g i o n technology  considers better  AUTHORITY  Economic Development Commission  APPROACH TO TECHNOLOGY  promotes s m a l l scale, locallyc o n t r o l l e d technology  APPROACH TO SUSTAINED DEVELOPMENT  SPATIAL CLOSURE/ FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION  COMPREHENSIVE/ SECTORAL  VISIONARY/ INCREMENTAL  promotes s u s t a i n a b l e community development  promotes f u n c t i o n a l integration  comprehensive o u t l o o k ; s e c t o r a l i n implementation  visionary  does n o t promote s u s t a i n a b l e community development  promotes f u n c t i o n a l integration  comprehensive  incremental  technology a malleable social institution; an " i n s t r u m e n t o f society"  Province of British Columbia  '  promotes l a r g e scale, capital intensive technology  t e c h n o l o g y a 'determinant of development"  Table 8 :  COMPARISON OF ECONOMIC PLANS  130.  incorporates  regional  values  technologies  supported  by  c o n t r a s t i s most a p p a r e n t the r e g i o n .  The B.C.  cornerstone  mineral  entrepreneurial  and the  needs than  the  large-scale  p r o v i n c i a l government.  The  i n e n v i s i o n i n g m i n e r a l development i n  government p l a n r e l i e s upon s e v e r a l l a r g e properties;  i n t e r e s t i n the  the  portable mineral  and s m a l l s c a l e p r e c i o u s m e t a l s m i n i n g . is c o n s c i o u s l y excluded  region  gauges  concentrator  The s m a l l mine o p t i o n  by the p r o v i n c e i n i t s e x a m i n a t i o n  of  r e g i o n a l economic p o t e n t i a l .  Statements  contained  in  the  Northwest  Studies  s m a l l mines development i n d i c a t e a n e g a t i v e holds  towards  small  scale  c o n t r i b u t i o n to northwest  technology.  pertaining  b i a s the Little  to  province  significant  development i s a c c o r d e d the s m a l l mine  a l t e r n a t i v e by the p r o v i n c e .  Moreover, unpredictable  precious  m e t a l s p r i c e s r e n d e r the s m a l l s c a l e o p t i o n awkward t o p l a n f o r (Northwest S t u d i e s , Summary R e p o r t , 1983:7).  As o u t l i n e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n on "development from above," Stb'hr and  T o d t l i n g a t t r i b u t e t o the f u n c t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t model  n o t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y as a " d e t e r m i n a n t Todtling,  1977:154).  Upon  reading  F r o n t i e r and The N o r t h w e s t Region impression condition  of development" (Stohr & reports  such  as The  New  the r e a d e r i s l e f t w i t h  the  t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l government s i m i l a r l y equates of  development  Large-scale resource  a  with  development and  large-scale i t s associated  r e p r e s e n t the s t a t u s quo i n c o n t e m p o r a r y n o r t h w e s t  a  technology. technology development.  131. They c o n t i n u e t o be most s u i t e d t o a c h i e v i n g p r o v i n c i a l g o a l s .  The c o n t r a s t i n g  view o f t e c h n o l o g y  put f o r w a r d  by S t o h r  and  T'ddtling i s one o f t e c h n o l o g y  as "an i n s t r u m e n t  (StcJhr & T O d t l i n g ,  T e c h n o l o g y can been seen as a  manipulable  v a r i a b l e i n economic d e v e l o p m e n t , a m a l l e a b l e  institution. which  1977:154).  of society"  I t i s t h e Economic Development Commission  i s t h e more open  technology.  social  to considering  plan  alternative scales of  The Commission, more than t h e p r o v i n c e ,  recognizes  creative capacity within alternative technologies.  2.  Spatial Closure vs. Functional  Integration:  The p r o v i n c e ' s p l a n s t r o n g l y e x e m p l i f i e s s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e f u n c t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t model. the  structure  Growth  of  projected  the  region  T h e r e i s no e x c e p t i o n i n terms o f  f o r the will  be  future  northwest  economy.  through  increased  encouraged  functional  integration  of  northwest  B.C.  with  international  economies.  Large-scale  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e such as p o r t and highway  development i s a n t i c i p a t e d to f a c i l i t a t e t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n .  Though  the  Economic regional with  type  Development  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e needed Commission  growth can be a c h i e v e d  external  closure.  of  economies.  plan through  Neither  also  may  differ,  determines  the that  functional integration plan  promotes  spatial  T h e r e * i s no d i f f e r e n c e between the two p l a n s i n terms  of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  132.  3.  Comprehensive o r S e c t o r a l P l a n s :  The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n i s by f a r the more c o m p r e h e n s i v e o f the plans.  The B.C.  government p l a n examines development p o t e n t i a l  i n a l l the m a j o r economic s e c t o r s o f the n o r t h w e s t plan  is  published  opportunities, options.  two  as  a  series  settlement,  of  reports  transportation  economy. on  and  The  development power  supply  The p r o v i n c e makes much g r e a t e r use than the r e g i o n o f  q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n which would be found i n the p r o v i n c i a l government's own r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s .  The  regional plan i s comprehensive i n i t s v i s i o n f o r regional  growth  and  However,  discusses  the  appropriate focussed.  a  discussion technology  wide  range  i n Chapter  of  economic  Five  s t a t e s t h a t the  on  potential.  implementing  p l a n becomes  narrowly  The p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r i d e a demands c o n s i d e r a b l e  r e s o u r c e s from the Economic Commission as the c o n c e p t conventional  an  attitudes  in  the  mining  industry  challenges  and  present  government p o l i c y .  The Commission p l a n i s reduced to a s e c t o r a l  plan,  only  pertaining  to  the  mineral  development  sector.  Reasons f o r the p l a n becoming n a r r o w l y f o c u s s e d a r e g i v e n  later  in this chapter.  4.  V i s i o n a r y o r Incremental  Plans:  Both p l a n s share a l o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e , even t h o u g h , ironically,  the  regional  plan  was  initiated  to  achieve  133.  short-term started  objectives. i n order  The Commission  to maintain  the  planning  support  process  of  the  was  member  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r t h e r e g i o n a l development f u n c t i o n .  The p l a n f o r The New F r o n t i e r f o r e s e e s a m a s s i v e u n d e r t a k i n g the some  p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s . existing  communities), generally practice.  local will  The s t r a t e g y w i l l  economies  significantly  does n o t r e p r e s e n t  undermine  ( i . e . northern impact  any r a d i c a l  the  by  native  landscape  departure  but  from  past  The p r o v i n c e d e s i r e s an a c c e l e r a t e d r a t e o f r e s o u r c e  e x t r a c t i o n and p r i m a r y  processing,  as development c a t a l y s t s .  using several large projects  The l a r g e p r o j e c t has an e s t a b l i s h e d  h i s t o r y i n the northwest.  The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n does n o t r e f l e c t any d e l i b e r a t e of new economic development models f o r t h e r e g i o n . can quo.  proclaim  that  the plan  exploration I n s t e a d , one  advocates maintaining  the status  The p l a n s i m p l y e x t e n d s t o an " u n d e v e l o p e d " "New F r o n t i e r "  an e x i s t i n g model o f d e v e l o p m e n t .  The r e g i o n a l p l a n i s t h e more v i s i o n a r y . government p o l i c y and i n d u s t r y with  development p r o p o s a l s  The p l a n d i s r e g a r d s for  increasing  development  which  a t t i t u d e s , the region  i t considers  e x i s t i n g patterns  diversification more  closely  In t h e f a c e o f c u r r e n t  a r e more  counters  appropriate.  o f development and c a l l s  o f t h e economy reflects  local  and  business  skill  levels,  134.  c a p i t a l a v a i l a b i l i t y and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n t e r e s t .  The r e g i o n a l  p l a n embodies a s e a r c h f o r new development p a t t e r n s .  5.  S u s t a i n e d Community Development:  The  term  "sustained  "selective spatial inward-looking development  development" i s a concept c l o s u r e " but n e v e r t h e l e s s  territorial contains  diversification  and  perspective.  the  objectives  growth  f o r the  of  different shares  a  from  similar  Sustained  community  economic  stability,  northwest  region  and  its  i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The c o n c e p t a l s o i m p l i e s a d e g r e e o f r e g i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l o v e r  The  plan  compiled  by  o b v i o u s l y i s guided  the  Economic  resources.  Development  Commission  Sustained  development  by t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s .  i s an i n t r i n s i c , m o t i v a t i n g a s p e c t o f the m a r k e t i n g the  technocratic  a p p r o a c h o f the  Commission's  economic o b j e c t i v e s a r e p r o c l a i m e d  plans.  planning  i n advance o f the  In these  research.  The Commission p l a n f a l l s s h o r t o f c a l l i n g f o r s e l e c t i v e c l o s u r e but  i t i s guided  resources  by  be m o b i l i z e d  a territorial  imperative  that  regional  to solve f i r s t pressing d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  h i g h unemployment and permanent j o b l o s s .  In the B.C. goals  are  government r e p o r t , The N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n , "regional  balance,  s t a b i l i t y " (The N o r t h w e s t R e g i o n , one  might  therefore  employment, 1982:17).  conclude  that  income  the s t a t e d growth  and  On f i r s t i n s p e c t i o n the  province  135.  likewise  supports  evidence  i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the t h e s i s r a i s e s doubt whether the  B.C.  sustained  government p l a n  examples g i v e n was  overcome  the  These  development.  However,  i s a " r e g i o n a l " plan at a l l .  important  economic  counter-cyclical  community  The  most  the p o l i c y o f s e n i o r government to  problems  p o l i c y such  of  the  region  through  as t e m p o r a r y employment programs.  programs were j o i n t l y  administered  by  the  federal  and  p r o v i n c i a l governments.  T h e r e was  no e v i d e n c e  o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r a l economic  problem o f permanent j o b l o s s i n the n o r t h w e s t .  Rather,  the  w e a l t h c r e a t e d i n the l a r g e r economy c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the region  i f necessary.  mega-project resource  A more c y n i c a l v i e w p o i n t  strategy  in  e x p l o i t a t i o n and  itself  only  regional  is that  results  dependence  the  in  continued  upon  external  markets because o f minimal d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n .  Comparison o f P l a n n i n g  Nine  categories  forward  in  Process:  relevant  Chapter  Two.  to  the In  planning  this  processes  section,  the  were  two  brought  case  p r o c e s s e s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s .  study  The  nine  categories are:  1)  P l a n n i n g Mandates  2)  C e n t r a l i z e d v s . D e c e n t r a l i z e d C o n t r o l Over P l a n n i n g  3)  Degree o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n  Process  136. 4)  Spatial Interest  5)  Timing of Process  6)  D e t e r m i n i s t i c or F l u i d Process  7)  R o l e o f Development Models  8)  Background o f P l a n n e r  9)  Role o f Planner  The comparison  1)  i s summarized i n T a b l e 9.  P l a n n i n g Mandates: The  region  i s at a  distinct  disadvantage  relative  to  the  p r o v i n c i a l government i n i t s a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t p o l i c y . To b e g i n with,  the Regional  District  i s a c r e a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l  government, r e p r e s e n t i n g d e l e g a t e d in  the province.  power.  The  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l power v e s t e d  p r o v i n c i a l government  holds  ultimate  The p r o v i n c i a l government a l s o has a t i t s d i s p o s a l more  r e s o u r c e s i n terms o f p e r s o n n e l  and f i n a n c e s than t h e r e g i o n .  Though t h e f o r m a l government documents which d e c l a r e a mandate for  t h e r e g i o n a l commissions  appear to t r a n s f e r s u b s t a n t i a l  a u t h o r i t y f o r r e g i o n a l economic p l a n n i n g t o r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , in a c t u a l i t y the region's c a p a c i t y i s l i m i t e d . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g on crown l a n d , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s o v e r 98% of  the  Kitimat-Stikine region,  1982:1-1), remains The  (Regional  Economic  Profile,  under t h e a u s p i c e s o f p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s .  authority of regional  districts  i s thereby  constrained;  AUTHORITY  PLANNING MANDATES  CONTROL OVER PROCESS (Centralized/Decentralized)  PUBLIC PARTICIPATION  SPATIAL INTEREST  TIMING OF PROCESS  Economic Development Commission  regional  decentralized  high l e v e l v i a community s e m i n a r s  regional  December 1983 t o December 1984+  limited efficacy limited  Province of British Columbia  r e g i o n d e f i n e d as organic u n i t  ( r e c e s s i o n economy)  resources  province-wide  centralized  lower  levels  supra-regional r e g i o n d e f i n e d as hinterland; part of l a r g e r system'  more a u t h o r i t y t o affect policy  (systems p e r s p e c t i v e only applied f o r a n a l y s i s purposes) l i b e r a l atomistic bias reflected i n policy  Table 9:  COMPARISON OF PLANNING PROCESSES  O c t o b e r 1981 t o December 1983+ (recession occurs during plan development)  AUTHORITY  DETERMINISTIC/FLUID  ROLE OF DEVELOP-  PROCESS  Economic  fluid,  Development Commission  process  Province  deterministic  British Columbia  of  BACKGROUND OF PLANNER  ROLE OF PLANNER  MENT MODEL  exploratory  emerging  from  ment m o d e l ; affected  develop-  m o d e l may p r e c e d e ' p r o c e s s and p r e d e t e r mine p l a n outcomes  Table 9 (cont.):  interdisciplinary  plan not  T e c h n o c r a t and Social  Learner  roles  interdisciplinary  Public  Servant  role  based i n p o l i t i c a l centre  (politicians plan goals)  locally-based  establish  COMPARISON OF PLANNING PROCESSES CO CO  139.  l o c a l government's e f f i c a c y w i t h r e s p e c t t o economic p l a n n i n g i s severely circumscribed.  C e n t r a l i z e d v s . D e c e n t r a l i z e d C o n t r o l Over P l a n n i n g  The  Regional  programs  District  plan  i s dependent  f o r i d e n t i f y i n g development  upon  Processes:  two d i f f e r e n t  p o t e n t i a l b u t , i n both  i n s t a n c e s , the c o n t r o l over the planning process the  region.  Local  Opportunities"  technical experts  report.  In  prepared  formulating  remains  t h e "Economic local  economic  development s t r a t e g i e s , t h e p r o c e s s i s even more d e v o l v e d : the l e v e l o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . p l a n s i s d e c i d e d upon by n o r t h w e s t c o n t r i b u t e d i n community  For  t h e purposes  planning process political  centre  residents, with  information  seminars.  of developing  the Northwest  Studies,  the  i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e c a b i n e t committee i n t h e of  British  p l a n i s a l s o l a r g e l y based  Columbia.  Responsibility for  in Victoria.  region  the  The N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s  were p r e p a r e d by t h e I n t e r m i n i s t r y Working Group. northwest  to  The c o n t e n t o f t h e m a r k e t i n g  w r i t i n g t h e m a j o r documents o f t h e p l a n and f o r implementing  the  with  i n t o t h e p l a n was a c h i e v e d  The i n p u t o f through  the  c a b i n e t t o u r s a t t h e commencement o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and through  p r o v i n c i a l government o f f i c i a l s l o c a t e d i n n o r t h w e s t e r n  British  Columbia.  140.  Degree o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n :  P a r t i c i p a t i o n by n o r t h w e s t  r e s i d e n t s i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the  economic  in  plans  occurred  both  processes  but  much  more  p a r t i c i p a t i o n was used to i n f o r m the r e g i o n a l p l a n .  To i n f o r m the p r o v i n c i a l p l a n , community luncheons public  meetings  N o r t h e r n Zone. and  were  used  the  Cabinet  informal  Committee  in  In the S o u t h e r n Zone, i n T e r r a c e , P r i n c e  Kitimat, Cabinet  business  by  and  leadership  Rupert  r e l i e d more on e s t a b l i s h e d m u n i c i p a l to  communicate  local  interests.  making n o t a b l e e f f o r t s t o i n f o r m and be i n f o r m e d r e s i d e n t s , the C a b i n e t  by  the  and  Though northwest  Committee d i d not a c h i e v e the l e v e l  of  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e d i d not b e n e f i t as much from the  extensive  personal  knowledge o f l o c a l  people,  which  the  Economic Development Commission o b t a i n e d .  The  Regional  respects  D i s t r i c t community seminars  because  recipients  of  business  and  i n v i t a t i o n s but  civic the  were e l i t i s t leaders  Regional  i n some  were  District  primary did  r e s t r i c t o t h e r s from a t t e n d i n g —  and o t h e r s d i d a t t e n d .  seminars  and  sessions.  were One  small  groupings  intensive  hour  than 3 one  hour  A l l t h r e e community s t r a t e g y r e p o r t s were m a r k e d l y  shaped by community i n p u t . reports  The  can a n t i c i p a t e more f o c u s e d d i s c u s s i o n and more  v a l u a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n i n 27 t h r e e hour seminars luncheons.  three  not  which  comprise  The  Northwest  same cannot Studies.  be s a i d f o r the The  technical  141.  language o f t h e r e p o r t s i s one i n d i c a t o r o f how t h e p r o v i n c i a l p l a n was i n f o r m e d .  "One m i g h t argue t h a t t h e b a s i c form o f t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n was formulated  i n t h e T e c h n o c r a t i c Approach and t h e r e f o r e s u b s e q u e n t  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l .  However, w i t h o u t t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d f r o m t h e community s e m i n a r s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t ideas  which had p r e v i o u s l y a r i s e n i n p r e p a r i n g  t h e "Economic  O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t would have l a c k e d l e g i t i m a c y , v i t a l i t y and applicability.  The r e g i o n a l p l a n i s seen as a p r o d u c t r e s u l t i n g  from t h e T e c h n o c r a t i c and P a r t i c i p a t o r y A p p r o a c h e s combined.  The  elected  members  o f t h e Economic . Development  believed that the general designing  t h e economic  experiment  p u b l i c c o u l d and s h o u l d be a p a r t o f plan  t h e Commission public  Commission  o f t h e community. has  learned  of  From  this  the substantial  contribution  that  p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n make t o economic  development.  Namely, t h e m a r k e t i n g p l a n s e m i n a r s i d e n t i f i e d t h e  small mines o p p o r t u n i t y , t h e s e m i n a r s a s s i s t e d t h e Commission i n d e f i n i n g development p r i o r i t i e s and l e g i t i m i z e d t h e T e c h n o c r a t i c Approach.  The s e m i n a r s h e l p e d  to j u s t i f y  conclusions  development p r i o r i t i e s r e a c h e d i n t h e "Economic report.  about  Opportunities"  E f f e c t i v e l y as a u t h o r s o f t h e m a r k e t i n g p l a n s , t h e  p u b l i c c o n t r i b u t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t way t o t h e R e g i o n a l development p l a n .  District  142.  Spatial Interest:  The  two  plans  different  apply  concepts  Northwestern  to  of  British  the  same  geographic  "region" are Columbia  area  contained  but  i n the  very plans.  i s d e s c r i b e d i n the p r o v i n c i a l  development p l a n as p a r t o f a l a r g e r , e s s e n t i a l l y i l l i m i t e d , economic  system.  Moreover,  the  region  is  proclaimed  a  hinterland, suggesting a condition of subservience.  The  Economic  Development  Commission  o r g a n i c views o f t h e n o r t h w e s t .  plan  Northwest  is predicated  upon  B.C. i s not p r e s e n t e d  as an autonomous c u l t u r a l o r p o l i t i c a l system but a c o n c e p t i o n of  a  bounded,  contrasting recorded  views  in  space"  territorial  e n t i t y i s apparent.  o f "space"  Chapter  Two  (Territorial  between  in  the  with  bounded,  Development)  "economic s p a c e " ( F u n c t i o n a l  Participants  correspond  and  The  the  plans'  distinction  territorial  "life  abstract,  unbounded  process  identify  Development).  region's  planning  development p r o s p e c t s w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g a view t h a t t h e i r l o c a l areas  and  the  communities.  northwest  region  are  Particularly,  viable,  small-scale  territorial development  o p p o r t u n i t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n the "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t and  the  community  Marketing  Plans  of resources  reflect  an  awareness  of  the  local  t r i b u t a r y t o the community and  local  e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l i n t e r e s t . T h i s i n t u r n , p r o v i d e s the f o u n d a t i o n for  advocating  community-level  solutions  to  development  143.  problems.  Augmenting  consciousness stressful the  formation  of  a  local  or  regional  i s t h a t the p l a n i s w r i t t e n i n the c o n t e x t  economic  c o n d i t i o n s commonly e x p e r i e n c e d  of  throughout  northwest.  The Northwest provincial  has no s i g n i f i c a n t autonomous e x i s t e n c e g i v e n the  government's s p a t i a l  interest.  "Regional"  economic  p l a n n i n g i n the domain o f the p r o v i n c i a l government i s l a r g e l y a misnomer.  Though the p r o v i n c e adopts a systems approach  economic p l a n n i n g , the n o r t h w e s t for analytical devised;  purposes.  systems  for  in i t s  i s t r e a t e d as an e n t i t y m o s t l y  Northwest  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems  h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power  generation  are and  t r a n s m i s s i o n a r e c o n c e i v e d -- n e c e s s a r y i n g r e d i e n t s i n a p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i n g the n o r t h w e s t r e g i o n i n t o a g l o b a l economy.  A  motivating  development  of  factor the  F r o n t i e r c o n t a i n s the  of  region  the serve  provincial  process  is  p r o v i n c i a l needs.  that  The  New  statements:  Few a r e a s o f the P r o v i n c e have as v a s t a p o t e n t i a l as the N o r t h West; p o t e n t i a l t o s u p p o r t the P r o v i n c e ' s long-term objectives of economic growth and prosperity. In an age when t h e r e a r e few t r u e f r o n t i e r s l e f t , B r i t i s h Columbians can p r o u d l y f o c u s t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n on the North West (The New F r o n t i e r , 1982:5). The  northwest  i s a h i n t e r l a n d o f a l a r g e r , more  "developed:  p o l i t i c a l and economic system.  D i f f e r e n c e s between the two  planning processes  i n the  spatial  i n t e r e s t c a t e g o r y a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e to the d i f f e r e n t mandates o f  144.  the  planning agencies.  jurisdiction  The Economic Development  i s regional,  the provincial  Commission's  government's  interest  i s p r o v i n c e - w i d e . However, t h e a b s e n c e o f an o r g a n i c c o n c e p t o f region  on t h e p a r t  fundamental state.  o f t h e p r o v i n c e may be a t t r i b u t a b l e  characteristics  to  o f t h e modern, l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c  The f o c u s o f l i b e r a l  i d e o l o g y on t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s o f  p a r t i c u l a r importance.  W i t h i n t h e l i b e r a l w o r l d v i e w , s o c i e t y i s g u i d e d by t h e r a t i o n a l , self-interested  actions  central  of  focus  individual:  liberalism  individual  individual  of i t s individual  mobility"  as  components.  ideology  happiness, individual  (Marchak, 1979:267  has  "The  been  consumer  i n Gunder,  the  choice, 1981:25).  The l i b e r a l w o r l d v i e w i s n o t o r g a n i c o r h o l i s t i c b u t a t o m i s t i c . When t h i s i d e o l o g y i s m a n i f e s t e d i n t o economic p o l i c y , t h e k i n d s o f "make work" employment programs and programs f i n a n c i a l l y t o a s s i s t w o r k e r s t o m i g r a t e f r o m t h e r e g i o n , as implemented i n r e c e n t y e a r s i n n o r t h w e s t B.C., a r e t h e r e s u l t . region-wide  interests  may  be  undermined  by  Ironically, facilitating  out-migration of s k i l l e d workers.  F u r t h e r m o r e , under l i b e r a l i s m t h e r o l e o f government has e v o l v e d to become one o f a m e d i a t o r , m a i n t a i n i n g t h e " r u l e s o f t h e game" to  prevent  dominance. between 1981:27).  groups  from  "A c l a s s l e s s  a l l members  of  obtaining universality society  political  or  economic  i s perceived  to exist  (Marcuse,  1968)"  When t h i s i d e o l o g y becomes t r a n s l a t e d  into  (Gunder, regional  145.  economic  policy,  economic  d i s p a r i t i e s are  t r a n s f e r payments (Gunder, 1981:27).  equalized  Given  with  s e n i o r government  c o u n t e r - c y l i c a l economic p o l i c y , the c o n c e p t o f a r e g i o n as an organic e n t i t y diminishes.  Timing of Process:  The B.C.  government p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s commenced i n the Autumn o f  1981 and the p l a n b a s i c a l l y completed  by December 1983 when The  N o r t h w e s t S t u d i e s were r e l e a s e d t o the p u b l i c . Economic Development Commission was f u l l y c o n c e i v e d by J a n u a r y p l a n r e p o r t s was  The p l a n o f the  begun i n l a t e 1983  1985 when the l a s t o f the  and  was  marketing  published.  Not i n t e n d i n g t o preempt the d i s c u s s i o n t o f o l l o w on cause  and  e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t a t t h i s p o i n t to s t a t e t h a t the r e c e s s i o n which took  hold  i n the n o r t h w e s t  m a r k e d l y a f f e c t s the form o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n . plan,  though  unemployment affected. and  a l s o being and  formulated  permanent  employment  The p r o v i n c i a l p r o c e s s may  represented  too  during  substantial  a  the  plan  to  provide  an  The p r o v i n c i a l  loss,  was  have p r o g r e s s e d commitment  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i f the main r e a s o n was  high hardly  too f a r ,  of provincial the advent for  of  undertaking  o p t i m i s t i c f o r e c a s t on  economic d e v e l o p m e n t , f o r the purposes  1982  a period of  government r e s o u r c e s , t o change d i r e c t i o n s w i t h recession.  in  regional  o f an e l e c t i o n campaign,  there  would  planning  be  little  incentive  to  substantially alter  the  process.  Deterministic or F l u i d Process:  The p r o c e s s to  be  Early  employed by the B r i t i s h Columbia government a p p e a r s  consistently in  the  reliance  leading  process  upon  to  major  large-scale  some  inevitable  elements  of  technology  the  are  conclusions.  plan,  such  determined.  The  r e m a i n d e r o f the p r o c e s s , i n which the I n t e r m i n i s t r y Task conducts  the  research,  which s u p p o r t s region.  The  to a t e c h n i c a l  Force  exercise  a l a r g e - s c a l e r e s o u r c e development model f o r the  The p r o v i n c i a l p r o c e s s i s the more d e t e r m i n i s t i c .  regional  considering  process  to  content  o f the p l a n .  economy can the  is  more  alternative futures  appear  because  i s relegated  as  be  leading  not  be  fluid;  it  f o r the  is  region  predetermined  open  and  to  does- n o t  to  any  outcomes  The  plan's v i s i o n of a future regional  known i n advance o f the  process  more  relies  upon  informal  d i s c u s s i o n among s e m i n a r p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The  planning and  often  in  the  process random  subject matter  in  the s e m i n a r s c o u l d not be e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d by n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Another  aspect  entrepreneurs  of or  the groups  seminars to  s o l u t i o n s t o economic p r o b l e m s .  program was  mobilize  to  to a s s i s t l o c a l develop  The example o f the  their  own  independent  147.  l o g g e r s was o f f e r e d . problems,  N e i t h e r the s o l u t i o n s , nor n e c e s s a r i l y the  were u n d e r s t o o d  exercise.  The  prior  planning  process  t o engaging i s not  i n the  seminars  deterministic.  p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e p r o v i d e s o n l y an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l o c a l t o c r e a t e t h e i r own f u t u r e s .  The people  A c h i e v i n g a p r e f e r r e d and  clearly  d e f i n e d f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n , e s t a b l i s h e d i n advance o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i s not the o b j e c t i v e o f the p r o c e s s .  Role o f Development M o d e l :  A model i s an a b s t r a c t i o n , an a r c h e t y p e o r i d e a l c o n c e p t i o n . r e v i e w i n g the p r o v i n c e ' s p l a n n i n g f o r n o r t h w e s t has been r e p o r t e d t h a t fundamental  In  development, i t  a s p e c t s o f the e n s u i n g  plan  were a l r e a d y d e c i d e d upon by the time The New  F r o n t i e r and  N o r t h w e s t Region were p u b l i s h e d .  already in place  and was g u i d i n g the p l a n n i n g .  A model was  A f u t u r e f o r the r e g i o n based  f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n and l a r g e s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y was  p r i o r t o the p r o c e s s .  the  process  was  of participation  and  exercise precede  tours,  devoid the  the  process  i n the  B.C.  generally  a  politics.  government  on  formulated  e a r l y on i n the p r o c e s s o r perhaps cabinet  The  After  technical  D i d a model  plan, while  the  p r o c e s s preceded an emerging model i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n ?  R e l a t i v e t o t h e . B . C . government p r o c e s s , p l a n n i n g by the r e g i o n occurred  without  development.  For  a  well-defined  example,  in  the  vision community  for  northwest  seminars  few  l i m i t a t i o n s were imposed on the range o f i d e a s o r o p t i o n s f o r  148.  development which might  be d i s c u s s e d .  A model f o r development  must be i n f e r r e d i n t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t c a s e from the p l a n f o r regional  development  strategy  for  which,  mineral  in  turn,  development.  was  implemented  The  Regional  as  a  District  d e v e l o p m e n t model was an outcome o f t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s .  8)  Background  of Planners:  T h e r e a r e n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r o l e s p l a n n e r s p l a y i n t h e two c a s e s ( d i s c u s s e d i n the n e x t c a t e g o r y ) but t h e r e a r e few dissimilarities  in a t t r i b u t e s or d i s p o s i t i o n s of regional  provincial planners.  In s p i t e o f b e i n g l i m i t e d i n numbers o f  planners,  the  similarly  interdisciplinary  backgrounds  or approaches.  regional  bear on both p l a n s .  process  v i s - a - v i s the  and  relies  upon  provincial is common  academic  T e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e i s brought  The most a p p a r e n t  The  "Economic O p p o r t u n i t i e s " r e p o r t i s a  longtime  r e s i d e n t o f t h e r e g i o n and would have a t her d i s p o s a l  everyday  and  of the  to  d i f f e r e n c e between the  r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n e r s i s where t h e y a r e l o c a t e d . author  and  continuous  contacts  with  other  northwest  people.  I n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n her r e p o r t , and u l t i m a t e l y c o n t a i n e d i n the  regional  plan,  would  be  based  not  only  on  "processed  knowledge" but p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l .  9)  Role of Planner:  In  Chapter  One,  Tom  Gunton's  article  in  Canadian  Public  149.  Administration eight  was  cited  alternative  i n which  planner  roles  he  develops (Gunton,  a taxonomy 1984).  of This  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system w i l l be employed to d e s c r i b e p l a n n e r r o l e s o c c u r r i n g i n each o f the two c a s e s .  In the B.C.  government p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e p l a n n e r f i l l s  role of technical expert f o r decision-making.  the  A c t i v e l y , o r even  c a s u a l l y r e l y i n g upon s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r y , the p l a n n e r  identifies  a l t e r n a t i v e means t o a c h i e v e the development g o a l s d e f i n e d i n the p o l i t i c a l one  arena.  U s i n g Gunton's t e r m i n o l o g y t h i s r o l e i s  of "Public Servant."  The p o l i t i c i a n r e t a i n s c o n t r o l o v e r  e s t a b l i s h i n g the g o a l s o f p l a n n i n g and o v e r the of  plans.  Gunton c l a i m s  p l a n n i n g (Gunton,  this  1984:404).  implementation  i s the most p o p u l a r  view  " A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s view,  of  planning  was a p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n the sense t h a t i t i n v o l v e d e x p e r t analysis  o f means-ends  r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l  as  a  political  a c t i v i t y i n the sense t h a t i t sought t o r e a l i z e s p e c i f i c ends determined  through  a political  process"  (Gunton,  P l a n n i n g . i s seen as "a g e n e r a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s o f t h r e e components: and e f f e c t u a t i o n "  v a l u e f o r m u l a t i o n , means  (Gunton,  1984:404).  1984:404). comprised  identification  P l a n n e r s might  c l i e n t s i n a r t i c u l a t i n g v a l u e s and ends but would m o s t l y  assist limit  t h e i r a c t i v i t y t o e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e means.  In the " T e c h n o c r a t i c Approach," Commission,  the  process  used by the Economic Development of  plan  formulation  is  150.  c l e a r l y dominated by p l a n n e r s assuming a t e c h n i c i a n ' s r o l e . s m a l l mines o p p o r t u n i t y and  then  defined  technicians. critical "Economic  through  I t has  to  the  is first  i d e n t i f i e d by one i n d i v i d u a l  a  referral  process  Opportunities"  as  well,  report  that  the  possesses  a  author  and v a l u e s .  a political  the  combination  of  region.  process  any r e g i o n a l economic g o a l s  I t i s the d e c i s i o n o f the p l a n n e r s t h a t s m a l l  medium s i z e d r e s o u r c e the p l a n n e r s  decide  are  planners  the  process  by  and  development o p p o r t u n i t i e s be a p r i o r i t y ; on what the r e g i o n a l development problems assume what the  selection criteria  a p p r o p r i a t e development o p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d be. review  probably  the T e c h n o c r a t i c Approach makes no o v e r t a t t e m p t to  d e f i n e through  and  other  of  academic t r a i n i n g and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the northwest  Importantly,  by  a l r e a d y been s t a t e d t h a t i t i s  process,  The  various  for  Only a f t e r the  government o f f i c i a l s  and  selected  members o f the b u s i n e s s community i s c o m p l e t e d i s the "Economic Opportunities"  report  presented  to a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  political  board and then t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  Given  t h a t the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n n e r s  n o t the  politicians  assumed f o r the r e g i o n i t s economic g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , decided would  and  on methods by which economic development a l t e r n a t i v e s be  defined  identified, by  Servant" Technocrat  Tom  should role  the  planning  role  of  "Technocrat"  Gunton (Gunton, 1984:400-403) and be  ascribed is  to  historically  the  Regional associated  not  "Public  District. with  as  The  physical  151.  p l a n n i n g , p l a n n i n g which was a p p l i e d t o problems stemming u r b a n - i n d u s t r i a l growth i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  The p l a n n e r  e s t a b l i s h e s community g o a l s , i d e n t i f i e s and c h o o s e s means. idea  of  conflicting  interests  and  competing  from  ends  "The seemed  c o n s p i c u o u s l y i r r e l e v a n t " (Gunton, 1984:400).  The  r o l e o f the planner  i n t h e community economic  strategy  e x e r c i s e i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t . I t i s one o f l i m i t e d i n t e r v e n t i o n , more as a c a t a l y s t i n a s i t u a t i o n c a l l i n g dialogue.  f o r face-to-face  The p l a n n e r a s s i s t s c l i e n t s t o e s t a b l i s h g o a l s , t o  d e t e r m i n e a l t e r n a t i v e means and implement p o l i c y . The o b j e c t i v e of  t h e Economic  facilitate  Development  t h e exchange  community.  Commission  of information  staff  members  i s to  among members o f t h e  The community i s t h e r e f o r e c o n c e i v e d  as a s y s t e m ;  i t s . economic w e l l - b e i n g a i d e d by t h e f l o w o f i n f o r m a t i o n .  The s e m i n a r s p r o v i d e a v e h i c l e by which t h e p e r s o n a l  knowledge  o f p a r t i c i p a n t s can be i n c l u d e d i n an economic s t r a t e g y . is  in  comparison  Opportunities"  with  preparation  r e p o r t , i n which  of  the "processed  the  This  "Economic  knowledge" o r  technical e x p e r t i s e o f the planner dominates. A c c e p t i n g f o r t h e moment t h a t " s o c i a l l e a r n i n g " can be a p p l i e d at w i l l for  t o s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g problems r a t h e r than as a method  comprehensive  s o c i e t a l guidance, i n t h i s portion o f the  Regional  D i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , t h e p l a n n e r ' s r o l e i s as a  "Social  Learner"  (Gunton,  1984:413,414).  Social  learning  152.  recognizes that there i s disagreement i n s o c i e t y over ultimate ends and t h a t p l a n n e r s ' t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s o f t e n f a i l t o p r o v i d e the s o l u t i o n s t o s o c i a l rational,  scientific  problems. activity  P l a n n i n g as e x c l u s i v e l y a  is  susceptible  to  failure  according to this viewpoint.  The  a l t e r n a t i v e p r o v i d e d by t h e o r i s t s such as John  (1973)  is  that  planning  (societal  guidance)  Friedmann  should  be  a  c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s i n which a c t i o n o r p o l i c y f l o w s f r o m "mutual learning."  P l a n n i n g i s i n f o r m e d by t h e p r a c t i c a l and i n t i m a t e  " p e r s o n a l knowledge" o f c l i e n t s and by t h e " p r o c e s s e d  knowledge"  of planners.  abilities,  theories  and  T r a i n e d p l a n n e r s can p r o v i d e a n a l y t i c a l systematic  methodology  to  problems.  Clients  c o n t r i b u t e v a l u e s and norms but a l s o r e a l i s t i c s o l u t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e y know b e s t t h e c o n t e x t .  The t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s o f  planners  "communication  are  augmented  by  and  group  dynamic  s k i l l s " ( G u n t o n , 1984:414).  The community planning ideas  exercises.  were  redefined. to  s e m i n a r s p r o v e t o be v e r y p r o d u c t i v e " t r a n s a c t i v e "  identified  Several and  i n n o v a t i v e economic community  objectives  The economic s t r a t e g y f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s  s o m e t h i n g a k i n t o community  seminar  development  development  "self-actualization"  p a r t i c i p a n t s were f o r c e d t o r e d e f i n e t h e  b a s i c v a l u e s , g o a l s and economic o b j e c t i v e s . strong normative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  amounted i n which  community's  The p r o c e s s  had  153.  Given  the  crisis  transactive composing  proportions  planning an  economic  plan.  case study, s o c i a l  on  one  identified  might  the  seemed a d m i r a b l y  regional how  of  economic  recession,  s u i t e d as a method f o r  Nevertheless,  judging  learning offers l i t t l e  implement  those  i n the planning process.  economic  from  the  information  opportunities  In t h e R e g i o n a l  District  c a s e , the p r o c e s s o f implementing  the a l t e r n a t i v e s m a l l mines  technology  involvement  public,  p r o g r e s s i v e l y excluded  whereas  participation. negotiation officials process  the  social  l e a r n i n g method  The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  p r i v a t e companies.  i n which  the  planner's  general  demands  public  p r o c e s s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  among government o f f i c i a l s and  of the  and  between  government  It is a closed, skill  political  i s in bargaining  and  mobilizing opinion.  Causal R e l a t i o n s h i p s :  This  chapter  has  described  v a r i a t i o n s which  can  emerge  in  two  economic development p l a n s which were f o r m u l a t e d f o r the same a r e a a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same t i m e . approaches are  The p l a n s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r  to t e c h n o l o g y and s u s t a i n e d community development.  a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  comprehensiveness.  No  plans'  d i f f e r e n c e was  visionary outlooks found  i n terms  of  There  and  their  promoting  s p a t i a l c l o s u r e over f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n .  The  a n a l y s i s i s intended  p r o c e s s e s which  to  l o c a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  planning  seem to a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s i n the p l a n s .  154.  Nine  planning  process  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were  surveyed.  From  the  information provided i n the n a r r a t i v e the a n a l y s i s w i l l i n f e r causal relationships  between  characteristics.  planning These  systematically  by  variables)  discussing  (dependent  and  reviewing  variables).  process  variables  relationships  will  each  category  process  t h e i r impacts  on  and  be  plan  described (independent  plan c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e a l s o shown i n m a t r i x  f o r m a t i n F i g u r e 7.  One f i n d i n g can be p r e s e n t e d spatial  i n advance o f t h i s a n a l y s i s :  c l o s u r e / f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n dimension  that the  i s n o t a f f e c t e d by  p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Very d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s e s a r e used in . the  cases,  but  there  i n t e g r a t i o n i n the plans.  is  agreement  concerning  functional  No c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p can be  concluded  from s i t u a t i o n .  1)  P l a n n i n g Mandates:  The  limited jurisdiction  o f the Regional  District's  Economic  Development Commission c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n becoming reduced to a s e c t o r a l plan i n i t s implementation.  Lacking in a  mandate and r e s o u r c e s the Commission does n o t have the c a p a c i t y t o implement a c o m p r e h e n s i v e development p l a n .  Commission s t a f f  are o b l i g e d t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h s e n i o r government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o advance the s m a l l mines c o n c e p t .  The Commission adopts  selective  priorities.  government  approach  to  r e a l i z e plan  exercises  much  greater  The  a  B.C.  control  PLAN CHARACTERISTICS APPROACH TO TECHNOLOGY  APPROACH TO SUSTAINED DEVELOPMENT  SPATIAL CLOSURE/ FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION  CO  to CO  CENTRALIZED/ DECENTRALIZED CONTROL  appropriate (smalls c a l e ) t e c h n o l o g y an assumed v a l u e o f a l o c a l process  s u s t a i n e d development an assumed v a l u e o f a l o c a l process  PUBLIC PARTICIPATION  p a r t i c i p a t i o n encourages a search f o r appropriate solutions; appropriate technology a consequence o f a local participatory process  p a r t i c i p a t i o n encourages community s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ; s u s t a i n e d d e v e l o p m e n t , an i n t r i n s i c value i n l o c a l , p a r t i c i p a t o r y process  SPATIAL INTEREST  regional perspective e f f e c t s a search f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y appropriate (small-scale) solutions  p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s do n o t coincide with regional; province less l i k e l y to adhere t o c o n c e p t o f s u s t a i n a b l e development  TIMING OF PROCESS  r e c e s s i o n encourages s e l f - h e l p r e c e s s i o n encourages a p p r o a c h e s t o economic r e g i o n t o pursue development technological alternatives; indirect effect  B  VISIONARY/ INCREMENTAL  limited jurisdiction of region v i s - a - v i s province l i m i t s plan t o mining sector  PLANNING MANDATES  u  COMPREHENSIVE/ SECTORAL  Figure 7: CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS: .PLAN AND PROCESS VARIABLES  community s e m i n a r s represent a f l u i d process; plan i s visionary i n outlook  en  APPROACH TO TECHNOLOGY  DETERMINISM/ FLUIDITY  ROLE OF DEVELOPMENT MODEL  APPROACH TO SUSTAINED DEVELOPMENT  SPATIAL CLOSURE/ FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION  COMPREHENSIVE/ SECTORAL  VISIONARY/ INCREMENTAL  exploration o f technological alternatives i s e n c o u r a g e d by r e g i o n ' s f l u i d process; determinism in p r o v i n c i a l process limits consideration of alternatives  f l u i d i t y and v i s i o n a r y categories correspond; d e t e r m i n i s m and incremental categories correspond  m o d e l may p r e d e t e r m i n e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p l a n and prevent e x p l o r a t i o n o f development a l t e r n a t i v e s  a predetermined vision f o r d e v e l o p m e n t may e x p l a i n the determinism in the p r o v i n c i a l plan  BACKGROUND OF PLANNER  local technocrat i s f i r s t to i d e n t i f y appropriate technology  local technocrat consciously advocates sustained development i n " E c o n o m i c O p p o r t u n i t i e s " report  PLANNER ROLE  Social Learner role f a c i l i t a t e s consideration of technological alternatives  Social Learner role f a c i l i t a t e s awareness o f community o f i t s e l f  P u b l i c Servant role r e i n f o r c e s s t a t u s quo  P u b l i c Servant r o l e surrenders goals o f plan to p o l i t i c i a n s  Figure 7 (cont.):  S o c i a l Learner role encourages f l u i d i t y  CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS: PLAN AND PROCESS VARIABLES  157.  over the economy and  the n a t u r a l  resource  base.  The  province  has much g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y t o e f f e c t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n .  2)  C e n t r a l i z e d v s . D e c e n t r a l i z e d C o n t r o l Over P l a n n i n g  Process:  T h e r e i s a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between the " ' a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s " technology case  and  study  process  --  f o r whom p l a n n i n g  The  regional  shows t h a t emerging from a l o c a l l y - b a s e d  planning  which  participation solutions  --  to  development  is  a  high  level  i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  small  scale  technology  the  functional  predicts,  c e n t r a l i z e d planning  to  be  reinforced  development  model  technology.  process  Appropriate  almost  i s undertaken.  of  by  problems. senior and  d e f i n i t i o n , appropriate  government  public  r e l i e s upon  comes to a d v o c a t e l a r g e  technology  a natural  As  of  technology  scale  i n the r e g i o n a l case  outcome o f a l o c a l p r o c e s s , i s technology  which  a  seems but  by  fosters  l o c a l c o n t r o l and i s s u i t a b l e to l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s .  Sustained  community development i s a l s o an  the d e c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . planning  process  i n t r i n s i c value  Where the c o n t r o l o v e r  i s based i n the r e g i o n , s u s t a i n a b l e  of the  northwest  economic development becomes a p r e - e m i n e n t p r i o r i t y . Where the c o n t r o l over  planning  interest  in sustained  attitude  i s to  l a r g e r economy.  i s l o c a t e d i n the p o l i t i c a l development d i m i n i s h e s .  contain The  regional  economic  The  centre,  provincial  problems w i t h i n  s p a t i a l i n t e r e s t o f each p r o c e s s  a f f e c t e d by where c o n t r o l over p r o c e s s i s l o c a t e d .  the  a  is also  158.  Degree o f P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n : The  community  seminars  used  by  the  Commission e n c o u r a g e d an u n h i n d e r e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the r e g i o n .  Economic  Development  e x p l o r a t i o n o f development  Regionally appropriate  such as the p o r t a b l e m i n e r a l  concentrator  solutions  are l o g i c a l outcomes  of a l o c a l , p a r t i c i p a t o r y process.  The s e m i n a r e x e r c i s e f u r t h e r a s s i s t s the community t o  recognize  i t s d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l , i t s c o n s t r a i n t s t o d e v e l o p m e n t and to formulate  community g o a l s .  self-identification,  The p r o c e s s becomes one o f community  and  sustained  i n t r i n s i c v a l u e i n the p r o c e s s . provincial  plan  reaches  development  again  an  Informed v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y , the  different  conclusions  regarding  t e c h n o l o g y and community d e v e l o p m e n t .  Spatial Interest:  The  d i f f e r i n g s p a t i a l i n t e r e s t s o f the a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the  planning processes Different  approaches  sustainability different  are  spatial  appropriate, provincial  n o t i c e a b l y a f f e c t the outcomes i n the to  found  technology in  interests.  small-scale perspective  the  cases  From  technology  a is  and to  community  correspond  regional is  with  perspective,  i d e n t i f i e d ; from  l a r g e - s c a l e technology  The p r o v i n c e views the northwest  to  plans.  the  recommended.  as a h i n t e r l a n d and p a r t o f a  159.  larger  economic  system,  and  does  not  promote  sustained  development f o r the r e g i o n .  Timing of Process:  The most i m p o r t a n t o c c u r r e n c e which happened d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e two  p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s was  the r e c e s s i o n .  I t has a  m a r g i n a l impact on t h e c o n c l u s i o n s made i n the B.C.  government  p l a n ; y e t , the r e c e s s i o n i n d i r e c t l y b u t s u b s t a n t i a l l y shapes t h e regional plan.  The r e c e s s i o n and t h e more permanent  structural  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o c c u r r i n g i n the n o r t h w e s t economy gave c r e d e n c e t o s e l f - h e l p a p p r o a c h e s t o economic d e v e l o p m e n t .  By  the  region  conditions  for a  p u r p o s e f u l s e a r c h by  the  creating into  development a l t e r n a t i v e s , a r e g i o n a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t i s d e v e l o p e d , sustained  community development  becomes an even more  salient  m o t i v a t o r and t e c h n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e u n c o v e r e d .  Deterministic or Fluid Process:  The s e m i n a r s used by t h e R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t were open-ended  and  e x p l o r a t o r y , hence, c o n s t i t u t e a f l u i d p r o c e s s . As w i t h s e v e r a l of  the  other  variables,  an  exploration  of  development  a l t e r n a t i v e s i s f a c i l i t a t e d and t h e two p l a n s a c q u i r e d i f f e r e n t approaches to technology.  The d e t e r m i n i s m which c h a r a c t e r i z e s  the p r o v i n c e ' s p r o c e s s seems t o r e i n f o r c e a development s t a t u s quo.  The p r o v i n c e does n o t c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e  development  o p t i o n s and does n o t s t e e r away f r o m the p r e v a i l i n g l a r g e - s c a l e  160.  r e s o u r c e development model. the  more  visionary  The r e g i o n a l p l a n i s c o n s e q u e n t l y  plan.  The  B.C.  government  plan  is  T h i s c a t e g o r y i s s i m i l a r i n e f f e c t as t h e p r e v i o u s c a t e g o r y .  If  incremental.  R o l e o f Development M o d e l :  a model f o r development p r e c e d e s  and i n f l u e n c e s t h e p r o v i n c i a l  p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , i t would p a r t l y e x p l a i n t h e d e t e r m i n i s m process  and  constrained  some  of  the variations  by a p r e - d e t e r m i n e d  i n the  i n the plans.  Not  v i s i o n f o r development, the  r e g i o n i s more l i k e l y t o e x p l o r e new development c o u r s e s . c o u l d a f f e c t t h e r e s p e c t i v e approaches  This  t o t e c h n o l o g y , as w e l l as  r e n d e r t h e r e g i o n a l p l a n t h e more v i s i o n a r y .  Background o f P l a n n e r :  The c a s e s do n o t p r o v i d e much e v i d e n c e on a t t r i b u t e s o f p l a n n e r s which a f f e c t t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e p l a n s .  One  observation,  however, i s t h a t i t was a p l a n n e r based i n t h e r e g i o n who f i r s t identified advocated  the smaller-scale technologies  have  process.  consciously  s u s t a i n e d community d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t t h e p l a n was n o t  a product could  and who  only of a professional planner. been  generated  e x c l u s i v e l y from  The r e g i o n a l  plan  a participatory  161.  Role of Planner:  None o f the r o l e s t a k e n on by the p l a n n e r s i n e i t h e r case cause variations  between the p l a n s t o o c c u r but t h e y f a c i l i t a t e  divergence.  In the T e c h n i c i a n r o l e , the p l a n n e r s u r r e n d e r s to  the p o l i t i c i a n t h e c r i t i c a l  i n g r e d i e n t s o f the p l a n .  c a s e s t u d y , the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t committee scale  a  technology,  functional  In t h i s  advocates a l a r g e  i n t e g r a t i o n development  model.  P l a y i n g the r o l e o f T e c h n i c i a n , p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n e r s ' work o n l y m a i n t a i n s a s t a t u s quo.  The p r o v i n c i a l p l a n i s i n c r e m e n t a l as a  r e s u l t , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s not s o u g h t .  The S o c i a l  L e a r n e r r o l e f a c i l i t a t e s the o p p o s i t e r e s u l t .  community s e m i n a r s a r e e x p l o r a t o r y and v i s i o n a r y , t h e y a r e g i o n a l o r community-based c o n s c i o u s n e s s conditions  for identifying  Technocratic appropriate approaches  role, forms  the of  development  sets which  specific  In  criteria  necessarily lead  on t e c h n o l o g y and community s u s t a i n a b i l i t y  from t h o s e o f the p r o v i n c e .  encourage  and e s t a b l i s h t h e  appropriate technologies.  planner  The  the for to  different  162.  CHAPTER SEVEN:  The  CONCLUSIONS  t h e s i s has compared two economic p l a n s f o r n o r t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h  Columbia and planning being  the  process  two  processes  which generated  to  occur  between  the  plans.  model f o r r e g i o n a l  development.  Commission s u p p o r t s  continued  The  processes The  government a d v o c a t e s a l a r g e - s c a l e t e c h n o l o g y ,  external  plans.  c a t e g o r i e s were used i n the a n a l y s i s , the  t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a t i o n s i n the p l a n n i n g  differences  the  Nine  objective  which c a u s e  British  Columbia  functional integration  regional  Economic Development  f u n c t i o n a l t i e s between the r e g i o n  economies but promotes s m a l l - s c a l e , a p p r o p r i a t e  and  technology  and s u s t a i n a b l e community d e v e l o p m e n t .  Given  the  limitations inherent  p o s s i b l e to provide  in  the  study  method,  i t is  d e t e r m i n i s t i c knowledge about c a u s a l i t y .  ex p o s t f a c t o s t u d y , v a r i a b l e s c a n n o t be c o n t r o l l e d , nor known, as would be experiment. study.  Causal  Nonetheless,  the  case  i n most formal  studies  not  In an  necessarily r e l y i n g upon  r e l a t i o n s h i p s can o n l y be i n f e r r e d i n t h i s case the  case  v a r i a b l e s which a f f e c t p l a n  study  suggests  orientations  are  that the  the  critical  l e v e l of  public  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the s p a t i a l i n t e r e s t o f key a c t o r s i n the p r o c e s s the manner i n which c o n t r o l o v e r the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s  and  is centralized  or d e c e n t r a l i z e d .  I t has  not been the p u r p o s e o f t h i s e x e r c i s e  plans—to  s t a t e t h a t one  p l a n i s b e t t e r than  to e v a l u a t e the o t h e r .  the  two  In f a c t ,  163.  the  narrative  records  positive features  about  both  plans.  example, the "top-down" p l a n o f the p r o v i n c e w i l l have value  when  commodity  institutions resumes.  in  prices  increase  and  large-scale  resource  development  The p l a n p r e p a r e s the northwest  the  For  considerable  i n t e r e s t of in  the  large region  f o r t h a t which i s almost  an  i n e v i t a b l e f u t u r e f o r development o f the r e g i o n .  An i n t e r e s t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y t o t e s t some o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s i n f u t u r e research  i s presenting  i t s e l f i n northwestern  change i n l e a d e r s h i p i n the g o v e r n i n g has  brought  The  new  i s a p o p u l i s t and  an  advocate  of  government. decentralized  I t may be worth r e v i e w i n g the p r o c e s s the new  uses t o p l a n n o r t h w e s t  A  provincial Social Credit Party  a b o u t s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n the s t y l e o f  premier  government.  B r i t i s h Columbia.  leadership  r e g i o n a l development and compare i t w i t h  the  findings of t h i s t h e s i s .  In s p i t e o f not appropriateness  wanting  t o make e v a l u a t i v e  judgements about  the  o f e i t h e r p l a n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t not t o be a t t r a c t e d  by the f l u i d i t y and c r e a t i v i t y which i s p a r t o f the r e g i o n a l and which r e s u l t s i n unusual community d e v e l o p m e n t .  approaches to technology  and  process, sustained  In c o n t r a s t , a t e c h n o c r a t i c and c e n t r a l i z e d  p r o c e s s used by the p r o v i n c e seems t o l e a d to p r e d i c t a b l e outcomes i n the p l a n f o r The New F r o n t i e r .  The  research  i n d i c a t e s that a l o c a l , p a r t i c i p a t o r y process  l i k e l y t o c r e a t e an o r i e n t a t i o n t o s u s t a i n e d and  appropriate  technology  than  i s more  community development  a c e n t r a l i z e d a l t e r n a t i v e such  as  164.  t h a t o f the B.C. more  creative  locally.  and  more  The  l o c a l process  s e n s i t i v e to  that  a p p e a r s t o be  which  is  the  appropriate  Goals such as s u s t a i n e d development and a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  technology the  government.  in  ( i . e . s m a l l - s c a l e , l o c a l c o n t r o l ) are i n t r i n s i c aspects of  locally-based,  participatory  process.  They  are  guiding  principles.  The  two  produce  case s t u d i e s f u r t h e r s u g g e s t economic  plans  which  that i f there i s a d e s i r e to  consider  the  goals  community development and a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n o l o g y , locally-based conclusion  and  does  participatory  not  can an  within  process.  sustainable  a p r o c e s s which i s  suffice.  necessitate  However,  planner  a p p r o a c h was  used i n one component o f the r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  high  level  sufficient  to  development. create  of  participation in  develop  a  locally  an e n v i r o n m e n t o f f a c e - t o - f a c e  initiated  are  Though  a  community plan  for  plan.  territorial  dialogue.  the  technocratic process,  seminars local  A more  was  economic  The S o c i a l L e a r n e r r o l e demanded o n l y t h a t the  planner involved,  however be r e q u i r e d i n implementing  A c h i e v e m e n t s i n p r o m o t i n g the s m a l l  a l t e r n a t i v e r e q u i r e d the p e r s e v e r a n c e  There  the  well-conceived  p o l i t i c a l o r a d v o c a c y r o l e may  this  interventionist role for  professional  a  the  of  a  mine  of local o f f i c i a l s .  development  dimensions  to  the  Economic  Development Commission p l a n , such as the s u s t a i n e d development goal and the o r g a n i c c o n c e p t i o n o f the r e g i o n , but the r e g i o n a l p l a n does not  advocate  spatial  closure.  In  examining  the  territorial  d e v e l o p m e n t m o d e l , c l o s u r e and s u s t a i n e d community development can  be  165.  i n t e r p r e t e d as i n t e r c o n n e c t e d  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; whereas the  regional  case shows t h a t they can be seen as i n d e p e n d e n t .  Early  in  the  variables  analysis  do  not  i t was  have a c a u s a l  closure/functional participation  chapter,  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  integration aspect  affects  the  sustained  Influences explain  outside  why  explanations of  the  development the n i n e  both  cases  The  must  be  process  support  that  the  process  territorial  o f the economic p l a n s .  orientation  development i n the r e g i o n a l p l a n . and  determined  towards concepts  sustained  Yet,  community  of s p a t i a l closure  disaggregated  for  analysis.  c a t e g o r i e s must be examined t o  functional  integration.  Perhaps  are t o be found i n , s i m p l y , the market c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  natural  resources  of  the  northwest  region,  or  in  more  fundamental and commonly h e l d v a l u e p r e m i s e s o f l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l actors.  John Friedmann "legitimate  states  mission,"  community needs and 1981:15).  The  that it  suggest  for regional should new  planning  facilitate  the  to maintain articulation  does not r e p r e s e n t  v i s i o n a r y e x p l o r a t i o n o f new development o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  obligation  and  processed  of  d e m o n s t r a t e s the  region  as  knowledge  identification  of  an  potential of a region  organic  from  appropriate  The  a  Economic  i s more s u c c e s s f u l i n f u l f i l l i n g t h i s  d e f i n i n g f o r i t s e l f development p r i o r i t i e s . attitude  of  avenues f o r development ( F r i e d m a n n ,  provincial plan, unfortunately,  Development Commission p r o c e s s  its  the  The p r o c e s s  e n t i t y , combines region,  technological  and  consciously r e f l e c t s an personal  results  solutions  to  in  and the  pressing  166.  regional  economic c o n c e r n s .  furthest  with  foundations  the  The p l a n n i n g program, which i s taken  portable  suitability  of  portable  procedure  was  when p l a n n i n g development,  concept,  establishes  f o r an i n t e r e s t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t model.  s e n i o r government and m i n i n g  planning  milling  i s being the  the  The f a c t t h a t  s e c t o r i n t e r e s t s a r e now e x a m i n i n g t h e  concentration  shows  n o t an i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l  that  the  exercise.  region's In  times  v i e w e d as an i n c u m b r a n c e , t h a t i t h i n d e r s  program  employed  by  the  Economic  Commission d i s c l o s e s c o n s t r u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l f o r p l a n n e r s .  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"  T e r r a c e , B.C.:  Economic Development Commission, R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , September 1984. K e r b y , Norma. Terrace:  "The G r e a t e r T e r r a c e Economic Development M a r k e t i n g P l a n . " Economic Development Commission, R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f  K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , March 1985. K e r b y , Norma.  Greater Terrace O f f i c i a l Settlement Plan:  S t u d i e s and P l a n n i n g Recommendations.  Background  T e r r a c e , B.C.:  Regional  D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , December 1984. P r i n c e George R e g i o n a l Development C o r p o r a t i o n .  " E d i t o r s Comments."  P r i n c e George R e g i o n a l R e p o r t , May 1986. R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Economic Development Commission, and t h e D i s t r i c t o f S t e w a r t . Terrace:  "An Economic S t r a t e g y f o r S t e w a r t . "  Economic Development Commission, March 1986.  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Economic Development Commission. "The H a z e l t o n s Economic Development M a r k e t i n g P l a n : Report."  Terrace:  Evaluation  F e b r u a r y 1985.  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Economic Development Commission. "1981 Census o f Canada: Terrace:  October  Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e . "  1985.  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Economic Development Commission. " P o p u l a t i o n and L a b o u r F o r c e S t a t i s t i c s : T e r r a c e , B.C.:  Greater Terrace Area."  Economic Development Commission, December 1984.  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Economic Development Commission. "Small Mines Development i n N o r t h w e s t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : I n f o r m a t i o n f o r a Comprehensive F e a s i b i l i t y S t u d y . " November 1984.  Background  Terrace:  176.  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Economic Development Commission. " S t e w a r t Economic Development M a r k e t i n g P l a n : Terrace:  Evaluation Report."  May 31, 1984.  L o c a l Government U n p u b l i s h e d Works:  B r a d y , Ray ( M a y o r ) , D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t .  "Economic Changes i n K i t i m a t "  p r e s e n t a t i o n t o Skeena Manpower Development Committee, June 27, 1985. C a r m i c h e a l , Bob.  "The D u t h i e M i n e , S m i t h e r s , B.C."  T e r r a c e , B.C.:  Economic Development Commission, R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , A u g u s t 1984. Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e .  "Assessments:  1976-1985."  Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e .  " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e , r e : Kutcho Creek  P r o j e c t t o Mr. Tom M a f t e c h u k , M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . "  August  12, 1986. Regional D i s t r i c t of K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e .  " R e p o r t t o Economic Development  Commission, r e : F i n a n c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f K i t i m a t ' s W i t h d r a w a l From the Economic Development Commission."  September 1983.  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Economic Development Commission. " G r e a t e r T e r r a c e A r e a : Employment S t a t i s t i c s . "  T e r r a c e , B.C: June  1, 1983, November 30, 1983, and J a n u a r y 11, 1985. R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e , Economic Development Commission. " R e p o r t t o Economic Development Commission, r e : 1985 Commission's Budget P r o p o s a l . "  O c t o b e r 11, 1984.  177.  Miscellaneous Reports: Aluminum Company o f Canada.  " A l c a n P o s t p o n e s Kemano P r o j e c t . "  Vancouver,  A l c a n News R e l e a s e , O c t o b e r 26, 1984. C a n a d i a n News F a c t s . E r n s t and Whinney.  1982 "A S t u d y o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l Commissions Program i n  B r i t i s h Columbia (1978-1980).  I n d u s t r i a l Development S u b s i d i a r y  Agreement r e s e a r c h r e p o r t , March 12, 1981. Urban Systems L t d . Kutcho Creek P r o j e c t : Socio-Economic Assessment. M i n e r a l s Canada.  S t a g e 2 R e p o r t Volume 2:  P r e p a r e d f o r Sumac Mines L t d & E s s o  Kamloops, B.C.: March 1986.  178.  A p p e n d i x One:  An A p p r o p r i a t e T e c h n o l o g y : Concentrator:  The P o r t a b l e M i n e r a l  Though the economic problems o f n o r t h w e s t e r n  B r i t i s h Columbia  many causes  and s o l u t i o n s w i l l have e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , and  dimensions,  t h e r e was  which  was  outlined  to  be  one  "Economic  in technological  Opportunities"  e n t e r p r i s e development more  natural  resources  available  in  region  to  and  the  the  f i n a n c i a l c a p a c i t y o f p e o p l e r e s i d e n t i n the n o r t h w e s t . that  implementation  As  smaller  D i s t r i c t to f o s t e r  closely tied the  level  terms.  report, several  s c a l e t e c h n o l o g i e s were promoted by the R e g i o n a l small  social  s o l u t i o n p r e s c r i b e d a t the l o c a l  l a r g e l y expressed  i n the  have  kinds skills  of and  I t was hoped  o f the s m a l l e r t e c h n o l o g i e s would c o u n t e r  the  employment l o s s e s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the l a r g e r i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s  and  a s s i s t economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n .  The  technology  which i s c e n t r a l t o t h i s t h e s i s i s the p o r t a b l e o r  r e g i o n a l custom m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t o r .  These are e a s i l y t r a n s p o r t a b l e  mineral  which  ore  processing  facilities  physically  or  through  c h e m i c a l a c t i o n e x t r a c t v a l u a b l e m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t e s from waste r o c k material.  Used  a t the mine s i t e  or within  an  economic  d i s t a n c e the c o n c e n t r a t o r w i l l p r e p a r e m a t e r i a l f o r l a t e r at a mineral  smelter.  Unlike  usual  method  construction  of  ore  concentrator  i s e i t h e r completely  the  an  of  mine  processing  development, facility  on  p o r t a b l e and  conversion  which site,  hauling  the  requires custom  is transported  to  179.  numerous mine p r o p e r t i e s w i t h i n within  a region  an a r e a  and s e r v i c e s s e v e r a l  or i s centrally located  properties.  The p o r t a b l e  c o n c e n t r a t o r c a n be c a r r i e d by one o r a s e r i e s o f t r u c k s and i s e i t h e r f i x e d t o a t r u c k o r o f f - l o a d e d onto s k i d s ( S a l a , 1981). coastal  areas,  barge  mounted  portable  concentrators  are  In  another  alternative.  Though most uses o f a p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r i n North America been  as  bulk  testing  facilities  to  assist  in  have  determining  m e t a l l u r g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r o p e r t i e s being assessed f o r large mine p o t e n t i a l , use o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t o r f o r n o r t h w e s t  B.C. i s b e i n g  proposed here as a p r o d u c t i o n u n i t s e r v i c i n g t h e many small p r e c i o u s metals mineral deposits o f the r e g i o n .  In terms o f g e o l o g i c a l development many a r e a s o f n o r t h w e s t e r n Columbia sedimentary  are  characterized  by  and v o l c a n i c r o c k s ,  granitic  intrusions  resulting in small,  British  into  older  faulted or  v e i n - l i k e m i n e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s , o f t e n o f economic s i g n i f i c a n c e ( K e r b y , September, 1984).  Many o f t h e s e s o - c a l l e d "hydrothermal  deposits,"  r e s u l t i n g from " c o n t a c t metamorphism," a r e o f i n t e r e s t because c o n t a i n h i g h grades o f t h e p r e c i o u s m e t a l s o f g o l d and s i l v e r . p r o p e r t i e s a r e a l s o o f i n t e r e s t because  Access  These  many a r e l o c a t e d near t h e  larger population centers o f the region i n c l u d i n g Smithers, H a z e l t o n and T e r r a c e .  they  Stewart,  to these mineral p r o p e r t i e s i s often  a l r e a d y p r o v i d e d through f o r e s t r y development o r mines a c c e s s  roads.  In a d d i t i o n , many o f t h e s e m i n e r a l o c c u r r e n c e s have been e x p l o r e d o r developed  i n t h e p a s t p r o v i d i n g c o s t s a v i n g s i n new e x p l o r a t i o n work  180.  while  supporting  the  likelihood  of  encountering  further  mineral  d e p o s i t s w i t h p o t e n t i a l f o r economic e x p l o i t a t i o n .  Many o f the d e p o s i t s a r e t o o s m a l l t o j u s t i f y c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an ore d r e s s i n g f a c i l i t y on s i t e , which method o f m i n i n g .  i s the most common and  efficient  Because t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s i n the n o r t h w e s t  move b u l k commodities  to  t o a s m e l t e r a r e p r o h i b i t i v e , and t h e n e a r e s t  s m e l t e r i n B r i t i s h Columbia  i s at T r a i l , without c o n c e n t r a t i o n the  o n l y o p t i o n f o r the s m a l l p r o p e r t y h o l d e r i s t o hand s o r t o r e .  This  means t h a t o n l y t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e d p i e c e s a r e s e l e c t e d ( i . e . h i g h g r a d i n g ) which can l e a d t o i n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n r e s o u r c e use.  The  custom  facilities and  concentrator  a l t e r n a t i v e i s to provide  ore  processing  i n a region of small deposits of s i m i l a r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n  operated  costs  for  equipment a r e reduced f o r the p r o p e r t y owners, cash f l o w problems  are  improved  on  because  a  toll  charge  basis.  High  capital  the s m a l l mine can g e n e r a t e revenue a t a v e r y e a r l y  s t a g e i n development and t h i r d l y , custom c o n c e n t r a t o r s can be used  as  bulk  testing facilities  mineral  r e s o u r c e s and  chooses  t o own  take  a n t i c i p a t e through investment  upon  resource chemistry.  and o p e r a t e  "advantage  of  to permit  lower  better delineation of Where a m i n i n g  Q u a r t e r l y , volume 2,  company  i t s own  p o r t a b l e m i l l , the company can  off-site  c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , " and  r e - s a l e value "greater recapture of the cessation  still  of  1986:11).  mine  operations"  Reclamation  expenses  reduced (B.C. M i n e r a l Q i i a r t e r l y , volume 2, 1986:11).  (B.C. may  can  capital Mineral also  be  181.  As t o o l s t o a s s i s t r e g i o n a l development t h e custom c o n c e n t r a t o r and development o f s m a l l mines a r e proposed Regional could  District be  because  transferred  technologies  are  skills  to  this  appropriate  as a r e a t t r a c t i v e by t h e  already  a v a i l a b l e i n the  industry.  f o r the  Moreover,  particular  northwest,  the s i z e o f the c a p i t a l investment  residents  o f the northwest  and, f i n a l l y ,  region smaller  geology  of  the  i s w i t h i n the reach of small  mines  development  would a s s i s t d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and economic s t a b i l i t y o f t h e r e g i o n .  Custom c o n c e n t r a t o r s c o u l d be owned and o p e r a t e d by a c o o p e r a t i v e o f mineral  c l a i m h o l d e r s o r be government owned and o p e r a t e d  (Kerby,  1984:10).  In M e x i c o , f o r example, a c o u n t r y which has a  h i g h l y developed presence  small  mine s e c t o r , t h e r e  i n many a s p e c t s o f t h e i n d u s t r y .  assistance  at cost  i s a strong  This assistance includes  i n e x p l o r a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n o f r e g i o n a l  (Salas,  1980:279-285).  marketing  agencies  Other nations for  mineral  concentrators  have e s t a b l i s h e d  concentrates  Ownership o f a p o r t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t o r  government  government  (Unitar,  is a critical  1980).  i s s u e as under  c o n d i t i o n s o f monopoly t h e mine owners can become s u b s e r v i e n t t o t h e custom m i l l  operator.  T h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f t e c h n o l o g i e s a v a i l a b l e which employ the custom mill  concept.  northwest flotation  owing  The most l i k e l y systems which would be used  i n the  t o t h e p o l y m e t a l l i c o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would  systems  or  possibly  gravimetric  systems.  c o n c e n t r a t e would be p r o d u c e d c o n t a i n i n g s e v e r a l m e t a l s .  A  be bulk  Lead, z i n c  182.  and s i l v e r o r c o p p e r and g o l d , f o r example, a r e o f t e n d i s c o v e r e d i n association.  As many o r e s o f the r e g i o n c o n t a i n a r s e n i c , i t would be p r e f e r a b l e to establish  a stationary regional  v i s i t i n g numerous mine s i t e s .  mill  rather  than  a portable  mill  By d e l i v e r i n g o r e s s h o r t d i s t a n c e s to  a c e n t r a l p l a c e , t a i l i n g s d i s p o s a l would be much more manageable.  The  most e x t r a v a g a n t  million  Canadian  o f the  portable m i l l s costs approximately  ( S a l a , 1981).  $3  S u b s t a n t i a l l y c h e a p e r systems  are  a v a i l a b l e o r an e n t e r p r i s i n g d e v e l o p e r c o u l d f a b r i c a t e a system u s i n g used  equipment  northwest, exceeding  precious  is  widely  grades are  very  available.  the  1 o z . o f g o l d per ton o f rock a r e not uncommon.  In a  assume t h a t 20,000 tons  h i g h , such  In  grades  case,  metal  presently  that  hypothetical oz./ton.  which  are present  grading  .5  Over 400 w o r k i n g days ( l e s s than two y e a r s ) 10,000 ounces  o f g o l d c o u l d be p r o d u c e d a t a r a t e o f 50 t o n s / d a y .  At $300 U.S./oz  o f g o l d , t h i s p r o p e r t y has an i n s i t u v a l u e o f $3 m i l l i o n  U.S.  For a s m a l l company, t h i s s i m p l e a r i t h m e t i c may be the b e g i n n i n g o f a viable business.  However, a p r o d u c t i o n r a t e o f 50 tons/day  s m a l l mine by t o d a y ' s  industry standards  i s a very  (some would say a n y t h i n g  the North A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r y below 500 tons/day  i s a small mine) and a  l a r g e r m i n i n g company w i t h h i g h o v e r h e a d c o s t s demanding h i g h on i n v e s t e d c a p i t a l w i l l r a r e l y c o n s i d e r t h i s  in  opportunity.  returns  183. Though m i n i n g has h i s t o r i c a l l y been a t a s m a l l s c a l e ( U n i t a r , 1980), the p r e v a i l i n g s t r u c t u r e o f the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y i n N o r t h America i s characterized  by a small  number o f v e r y l a r g e companies engaged i n  c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e , large scale mining techniques. i s most l i k e l y  t o be  pursued  by  Small s c a l e m i n i n g  j u n i o r mining companies,  family  operations or i n d i v i d u a l s .  It  can  be  conjectured  industry prevents  that  the  existing structure  an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the small  o f the  mining  scale opportunity  in  s e v e r a l ways: 1.  By  paying  high  wages  larger  mines  a t t r a c t the  limited  mining expertise. 2.  A momentum i s formed d r a w i n g r e s e a r c h m o n i e s , t r a i n i n g and technological  development  into  examining  mining  o p p o r t u n i t i e s from a c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . i s some e v i d e n c e  There  t h a t economic models used to c a l c u l a t e the  v i a b i l i t y o f mines ( i e . l a r g e mines) do not a p p l y t o smaller  property  and  t h e r e f o r e may  the  show on paper t h a t  an  economic small mine i s uneconomic ( G l a n v i l l e , 1984). 3.  The  influence  p o l i c y and  of  larger  mining  companies  on  government  government a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s h i n d e r s  the  r e b i r t h o f s m a l l mine d e v e l o p m e n t .  Small s c a l e m i n i n g need not be seen as an a l t e r n a t i v e to l a r g e s c a l e , capital  i n t e n s i v e m i n i n g but  supposition mineral  here  is that  can  c o e x i s t with  prevailing attitudes  large mining. and  perceptions  r e s o u r c e development c o n s t r a i n the development o f s m a l l  The on scale  184.  mining.  By  facilitating  entrepreneurs  i n small  information  scale mining,  makers, the K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e R e g i o n a l  flows  among  successful  industry leaders  and  policy  D i s t r i c t attempted  t o have t h i s  F i n a l l y , w h i l e the d i s c u s s i o n thus f a r has been about  a particular  economic o p p o r t u n i t y r e - e v a l u a t e d .  technology,  and t h i s t e c h n o l o g y was  the c e n t e r p i e c e o f a  promotional  s t r a t e g y by the Economic Development Commission, i n a c t u a l i t y ,  the  custom  new  concentrator  was  industry.  I t was  greatest  importance,  This  leaves  the  used  as  a  vehicle  to  it  a  the t e c h n i q u e o f s m a l l s c a l e m i n i n g which was not  the  decisions  specific  regarding  technology the  became  the  opinion  Commission s t a f f t h a t f o r s m a l l  of  mining  the  promoted.  of  particular  entrepreneur.  Economic  to develop,  beyond the t e c h n i c a l had t o be s o l v e d .  of  being  adoption  t e c h n o l o g i e s a t the mine s i t e up t o the i n d i v i d u a l  Similarly,  encourage  Development  other  problems  T h i s i n c l u d e d the need t o  enhance the s k i l l s o f p r o s p e c t o r s , g e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y s and amendments t o t a x a t i o n p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g the s m a l l m i n e r . i s s u e s were p i g g y - b a c k e d  onto  promotion  However, a l l t h e s e  o f the custom  i d e a , m o s t l y to g i v e a s i m p l e d e m o n s t r a t i o n  concentrator  o f what c o u l d be done t o  enhance the r e g i o n a l economy and t o r e n d e r the problems o f the s m a l l m i n e r s i m p l e r and b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d by a w i d e r  audience.  

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