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Medieval seamanship under sail Vidoni, Tullio 1987

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MEDIEVAL SEAMANSHIP UNDER SAIL by TULLIO VIDONI B. A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of History) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standards THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 19 8 7 <§)Tullio Vi d o n i U 6 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT Voyages of d i s c o v e r y could not be e n t e r t a i n e d u n t i l the advent of three-masted s h i p s . S i n g l e - s a i l e d ships were e f f e c t i v e f o r voyages of sho r t d u r a t i o n , undertaken w i t h favourable winds. Ships w i t h two masts could make long c o a s t a l voyages i n the summer. Both these types had more or l e s s severe l i m i t a t i o n s to s a i l i n g to windward. To s a i l any s h i p s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h i s mode i t i s necessary to be able to balance the s a i l p l a n a c c u r a t e l y . This method of keeping course could not reach i t s f u l l developemnt u n t i l more than two s a i l s were a v a i l a b l e f o r ma n i p u l a t i o n . Rud- ders never were adequate to hold ships to windward cour- ses. Ships w i t h three or more masts c o u l d be s a i l e d i n a l l weather w i t h very l i t t l e dependence on the power of the rudder and the freedom from t h i s l i m i t a t i o n made i t pos- s i b l e to b u i l d ships l a r g e enough to c a r r y s i z a b l e crews, t h e i r s t o r e s and spare gear over ocean c r o s s i n g s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I The s a i l : a sheet to the wind. 1 II Single-masted s h i p s . 14 I I I Two-masted s h i p s . 53 IV Three-masted s h i p s . 64 V C o n c l u s i o n s . 9 7 B i b l i o g r a p h y . 108 i v LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Leeway• 6 2. The square s a i l . 8 3. Control of r o t a t i o n with the s i n g l e s a i l . 11 4. The f u n c t i o n of the bowline i n s a i l - s e t t i n g . 15 5. Modes of s a i l i n g . 17 6. Devices on the s t e r n . 19 7. Map of the C e n t r a l and Eastern Mediterranean. 21 8. Making tacks w i t h medieval s a i l s . 25 9. A running ship on the windward side of the c r e s t of a wave 28 10. The sternpost rudder 36 11. Two-masted Genoese s a i l i n g ship b u i l t f o r the Crusade of King Louis IX of France. 55 12. I t a l i a n f u l l - r i g g e d s h i p , 1470-80. 74 13. The nao Santa Maria. An i d e a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . 77 14. D i f f e r e n t types of three-masted s h i p s . 103 1 CHAPTER I THE SAIL: A SHEET TO THE WIND. The ocean was f i r s t conquered i n 1492 by Columbus, and w i t h i n 27 years the whole world was g i r d e d . By Magel- lan's time n a v i g a t i o n a l aids, r e l a t i v e to the scope of ocean-going endeavours were s t i l l extremely rudimentary or no n - e x i s t a n t . That was true of c h a r t s and as t r o n o m i c a l instruments, i n c l u d i n g time-keeping d e v i c e s . Determining lo n g i t u d e s at sea was i m p o s s i b l e . N a v i g a t i o n as a science was unknown and c o n s i s t e d wholly of the process of dead- reckoning, supplemented by environmental o b s e r v a t i o n s , such as v i s u a l s i g h t i n g s and the examination of bottom samples brought up by the l e a d - l i n e . I t was p o s s i b l e though to determine one's l a t i t u d e , probably w i t h i n 30 or 40 n a u t i c a l miles under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s . Dead-reckoning n a v i g a t o r s , t h e r e f o r e , o n l y r e q u i r e d two t o o l s -- compass and lead l i n e -- and one fundamental s k i l l -- seamanship — to ensure t h a t t h e i r ships would f o l l o w the d e s i r e d courses as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e , w i t h i n very narrow margins of s a f e t y . The development of the technology r e q u i r e d to c o n t r o l ships of i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e s i z e f o r the length of time necessary to cover great d i s t a n c e s f o l l o w i n g a prac- 2 t i c a l path between two p o i n t s , i s the medieval lesson i n s e a - f a r i n g . S a i l o r s advanced from handling ships t h a t could o n l y be s a i l e d i n favourable weather f o r the dur- a t i o n of short voyages, to the manipulation of ships w i t h complex s a i l p l a n s , capable of long, u n i n t e r r u p t e d c o a s t a l voyages t h a t encompassed the A t l a n t i c shores of Europe and voyages over a l l the seas of the world, i n a l l weather. E a r l y medieval s h i p s , w i t h a s i n g l e square s a i l and one s i d e - r u d d e r , and even w i t h a s t e r n p o s t rudder, were d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l , but compatible w i t h voyages of short d u r a t i o n . They could only leave harbour w i t h f a v o u r a b l e winds. Two-masted ships o f f e r e d a measure of d i r e c t i o n c o n t r o l t h a t was adequate i n f a i r weather, but was prone to f a i l under c o n d i t i o n s of reduced s a i l area. The advent of the t r i - and multi-masted s h i p changed t h a t . A study of the steps i n the development of s a i l i n g methods, based on a v a i l a b l e documents, some of which c o n t a i n e x t e n s i v e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a , and of the shipboard p r a c t i c e s accom- panying t h i s e v o l u t i o n , w i l l provide i n f o r m a t i o n about the sea-going c a p a b i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e and necessary f o r w i n t e r s a i l i n g and, u l t i m a t e l y , f o r the undertaking of d e l i b e r a t e voyages of d i s c o v e r y across oceans. The evidence of t h i s study i s intended to support the t h e s i s t h a t such a c t i v i - t i e s c o uld not have been c a r r i e d out p r i o r to the i n t r o - d u c t i o n of m u l t i p l e masts. Very long voyages r e q u i r e d 3 l a r g e crews, to make up f o r l o s s e s due to disease and ac- c i d e n t s , and la r g e s t o r e s i n the form of food and spare gear, a l l of which meant a need f o r ships of l a r g e d i s - placement. Displacement t r a n s l a t e s i t s e l f to momentum, that i s to say r e s i s t a n c e to abrupt changes of d i r e c t i o n . This r e s i s t a n c e had to be overcome i n emergencies and i n day-to-day maneuvering i n ever-changing circumstances. Ow- ing to the s i z e of these ships the demands c o u l d not be met by the s a i l i n g mariner except by h i s being able to use the power of the wind f o r s t e e r i n g . There has been no time i n the h i s t o r y of s a i l i n g when the requirements f o r overcoming momentum were adequately met by the a v a i l a b l e s t e e r i n g gear. Therefore i t has been e s s e n t i a l f o r s a i l o r s to l e a r n to f o l l o w t h e i r courses by b a l a n c i n g the s a i l p lan of t h e i r c r a f t and to execute changes of course by a l t e r i n g i t . This a r t c o u l d not reach a complete measure of success u n t i l the i n t r o d u c t i o n of i the multi-masted s h i p . The c o n t r i b u t i o n of the rudder to keeping a course was minimal. Going about and changing tacks was accomplished by r e - s e t t i n g the s a i l s i n the r e - q u i r e d order. The rudder was at best u s e f u l f o r t h i s pur- pose, but not e s s e n t i a l . One major d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s e s s i n g the s a i l i n g cap- a b i l i t i e s of e a r l y medieval s a i l i n g v e s s e l s i s the dearth 4 of d e s c r i p t i o n s of everyday medieval seamanship. Archaeo- l o g i c a l f i n d s and graphic d e s c r i p t i o n s s t i l l provide the best clues- as to how v e s s e l s were c o n s t r u c t e d and r i g g e d . Too many v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t the r e s u l t s of t e s t s , on f u l l - s i z e r e p l i c a s or on models i n t e s t - t a n k s and wind-tunnels, f o r us to be able to a r r i v e at s e l f - e v i d e n t c o n c l u s i o n s as 2 to how the v e s s e l s were i n f a c t s a i l e d . The t r a d i t i o n of s a i l i n g single-masted s q u a r e - s a i l e d boats has p r a c t i c a l l y d i e d out i n Europe and such f o l k - s a i l o r s t h a t s t i l l c l i n g to t h i s p r a c t i c e , i n the Shetland I s l a n d s f o r i n s t a n c e , do so i n h u l l s of q u i t e recent d e s i g n , w i t h the help of f a i r l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d gear t h a t i s e q u a l l y modern. Therefore no v a l i d experience can be gained from these sources. There i s l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h understanding the e a r l y method of downwind s a i l i n g , as a l l t h a t was r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s purpose was a s a i l of any shape, h o i s t e d and b a l - l o n i n g over the f o r e p a r t of the s h i p . The same s a i l , i f too c r u d e l y cut and t h o u g h t l e s s l y r i g g e d , was not able to take the s h i p upwind. In order to e n t e r t a i n the idea of t r a v e l l i n g to windward i t i s necessary f i r s t of a l l to have a ship t h a t can be pointed t h a t way and even when t h i s i s p o s s i b l e i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t the r e s u l t i n g t r a j e c t o r y w i l l a c t u a l l y see the sh i p reaching any p o i n t upwind of her p o i n t of departure. As a s h i p p o i n t i n g to windward must s a i l at some angle to the wind, the wind pressure on the exposed s i d e of the h u l l and the s a i l s w i l l push her downwind to some ext e n t . S a i l o r s c a l l 'leeway' the d i f f e r e n c e between the d i r e c t i o n i n which the s h i p i s pointed and the d i r e c t i o n of the path a c t u a l l y s a i l e d (Figure 1, p. 6). Various elements a f f e c t t h i s angle i n d i f f e r e n t ways, up to the p o i n t of making i t so l a r g e as to deny the s a i l o r any p r a c t i c a l g a i n s . Among these elements 'windage' was the l e a s t understood: windage i s the amount of wind caught by a l l the surfaces t h a t do not c o n t r i b u t e to s a i l i n g , necessary as they may be to other f u n c t i o n s . C a s t l e s were the most not o r i o u s sources of windage on medieval c r a f t . As long as the only method of warfare at sea was boarding, l a r g e and t a l l " c a s t l e s " were necessary to provide o f f e n s i v e and defensive advan- tages to the f i g h t e r s and were the most prominent super- s t r u c t u r e s of medieval s h i p s . As s a i l i n g technology prog- ressed and ships became able to hold r e l i a b l y courses to windward, bigger c a s t l e s were b u i l t . The advantages of improved s a i l plans were again l o s t to the n e c e s s i t i e s of warfare and the performance of ships to windward improved very l i t t l e . In the f i r s t h a l f of the s i x t e e n t h century ships w i t h four masts and t o p s a i l s c ould not s a i l a p p r e c i - a b l y c l o s e r to the wind than the b a s i c three-masted ships of the previous century. At t h a t time the concept of sea- b a t t l e s c o n s i s t i n g of a r t i l l e r y duels at a d i s t a n c e occur- Wind d i r e c t i o n 1' > K, e e Leeway Figure 1 7 red to Hawkins, wh i l e s e r v i n g as the c o m p t r o l l e r of the E n g l i s h navy, p r i o r to the Armada episode. His ships d i d not r e q u i r e c a s t l e s to the same extent and consequently were more weatherlv than those of h i s opponents. In order to p o i n t a ship to windward the f o l l o w i n g elements are e s s e n t i a l (Figure 2, p. 8): F i r s t , a s a i l t h a t i s t a l l e r than i t i s wide or i s at l e a s t square, or a group of s a i l s arranged on the mast i n a s i m i l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Second, some means of a d j u s t i n g the p o s i t i o n of the centre of the s a i l on a f o r e - a n d - a f t l i n e a ccording to the n e c e s s i t i e s of s a i l i n g w i t h the wind or a g a i n s t i t , and these i n c l u d e the bowline. T h i r d , a braced yard. The brace i s a rope (or a t a c k l e f o r bigger s a i l s ) going from the t i p of the yard to the s t e r n of the s h i p . The brace prevents the yard from being a c c i d e n t a l l y f l i p p e d around the mast when the s h i p i s p o i nted too c l o s e to the wind. Fourth, a k e e l , leeboard or at l e a s t a rudder so shaped as to counteract leeway. Sheet and tack are two d i f f e r e n t names f o r the same rope. The sheet c o n t r o l s the windward clew. The square s a i l F igure 2 9 I t has not been determined by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s whether e a r l y s i n g l e - s a i l e d ships had braced yards. For t h i s reason i t i s not c l e a r how those ships were handled i n c e r t a i n s a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s . "The i n v e n t i o n of the brace was a v i t a l step away from the dependence on oar f o r g e t t i n g to windward", accor d i n g to Owain Roberts,- an h i s t o r i a n w i t h the N a t i o n a l Maritime Museum of Greenwich and a s p e c i a l i s t i n r i g g i n g and s h i p - h a n d l i n g ^ . The n e c e s s i t y f o r a braced yard i s not s e l f - e v i d e n t , unless one c a r r i e s out experiments t r y i n g to s a i l w i t h a square s a i l to windward. This n e c e s s i t y became obvious to Roberts i n the course of w i t n e s s i n g a number of experiments c a r - r i e d out i n Denmark and Sweden w i t h r e p l i c a s of V i k i n g boats w i t h gear t y p i c a l of the V i k i n g s . To s a i l at a l l , i n any d i r e c t i o n but s t r a i g h t downwind, the s a i l must be c o n s t r a i n e d by the bowline, a rope going from the clew to the bow. I t f o l l o w s t h a t the bowline represents the f i r s t s a i l c o n t r o l devised i n the e a r l i e s t attempts to s a i l w i t h winds anywhere forward of the beam. As a matter of specu- l a t i o n i t can be s a i d t h a t the etymology of the e q u i v a l e n t words i n many Mediterranean languages would i n d i c a t e a northern o r i g i n f o r i t ( I t . b o l i n a ; F r. b o u l i n e ; Sp. b o l i n a ; e t c . ) . These southern words are mere sounds t h a t are i m i t a t i v e of t h a t of the northern word, w i t h no r o o t s or l o c a l meaning i n these languages. 10 O r d i n a r i l y a s a i l w i l l have the e f f e c t of c r e a t i n g a marked tendency f o r the s h i p to r o t a t e away from the wind or i n t o the wind. A s a i l t h a t i s r i g g e d too f a r forward w i l l cause the shi p to t u r n downwind. A s a i l s et too f a r back w i l l have the opposite e f f e c t (Figure 3, p. 11). In minute amounts these tendencies can be used by the s a i l o r to advantage, but, i n the general case, r o t a t i o n c r e a t e s lar g e f o r c e s and a rudder w i l l c o unteract these e f f e c t s w i t h o n l y l i m i t e d success and w i t h no success f o r sus- t a i n e d periods of n a v i g a t i o n . The problem of c o n t r o l l i n g r o t a t i o n hinges t h e r e f o r e on the s e t t i n g of the s a i l i n the broadest sense. The rudder i s e f f e c t i v e o n l y m i n i m a l l y i n t h i s r e s p e c t , i t s p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n being t h a t of con- t r o l l i n g a c c i d e n t a l minor d e v i a t i o n s from the course t h a t corresponds to a c e r t a i n s e t t i n g of the s a i l . These d e v i a - t i o n s , c a l l e d by s a i l o r s 'yaw 1, are normally random e f - f e c t s of waves s t r i k i n g the bow or the s t e r n , or caused by p i t c h i n g . The shape of a s a i l v a r i e s w i t h the angle at which i t i s s t r u c k by the-wind and i t i s never symmetrical, a f a c t t h a t i s obvious even to an u n t r a i n e d eye. The shape v a r i e s over time, as w e l l , w i t h the s t r e t c h i n g and s h r i n k i n g of the s a i l c l o t h and ropes, as they respond to s t r e s s e s and w e t t i n g . Therefore, the problem of p l a c i n g and keeping the 11 A. The wind W causes the ship to d r i f t . A r e s i s t a n c e to d r i f t (R), centered i n H, i s developed by the h u l l . C. A s a i l set too f a r back. The r e s u l t i s a r o t a t i o n to windward. B. A s a i l set too f a r forward. The l a t e r a l e f f e c t of the wind (P) on the s a i l i s centered i n K. The r e s u l t i s a r o t a t i o n downwind. D. A s a i l s et n e u t r a l . No r o t a t i o n . C o n t r o l of r o t a t i o n w i t h the s i n g l e s a i l F i gure 3 12 centre of wind pressure anywhere near the centre of r e s i s - tance to d r i f t i s a p r a c t i c a l one t h a t r e q u i r e s constant a t t e n t i o n to f i n e tuning and was p a r t i c u l a r l y pronounced when the s a i l and r i g g i n g were wool and hemp. At the same time the s a i l w i l l cause the s h i p to h e e l , t h a t i s to lean over downwind, r e g a r d l e s s of the mode of s a i l i n g , except when the s h i p i s s a i l e d s t r a i g h t downwind. The amount of h e e l i n g allowed i n s a i l i n g oared ships was s e v e r l y l i m i t e d by the low freeboard of such v e s s e l s . V i k i n g longships are a good example. Leeway, as w e l l , i s always present to some ex t e n t , r e g a r d l e s s of the mode of s a i l i n g , except when going s t r a i g h t downwind. E v e r y t h i n g e l s e being e q u a l , i t s i n t e n s i t y i s a f u n c t i o n of the angle at which the s h i p i s s a i l e d i n r e l a t i o n to the wind d i r e c t i o n and i n c r e a s e s as the s h i p i s brought c l o s e r to the wind. Oared ships r e - qu i r e d shallow h u l l s and k e e l s and under s a i l made unac- ceptable amounts of leeway. W i t h i n these parameters the medieval s a i l o r had to l e a r n h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l c r a f t , changing from being a rower to becoming a handler of s a i l s . 13 Notes to Chapter I. J . H. P a r r y , an h i s t o r i a n w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n overseas expansion, has examined the problems of the s i n g l e square s a i l i n other c r a f t , world-wide, besides medi- e v a l s h i p s . He has a l s o s t u d i e d the v a r i o u s devices used when attempting to overcome i t s b a s i c d i s - advantages to windward. These s u b j e c t s are d i s c u s s e d i n the chapter "A R e l i a b l e Ship", i n The Discovery of the Sea, (The D i a l P r e s s , New York, 1974), p. 16-17. Owain Roberts, " V i k i n g S a i l i n g Performance", i n Aspects of Maritime Archaelogy and Ethnography, Ed. Sean M c G r a i l , (Wandle Pr e s s , London, 1984), pp. 123-151. I b i d . , p. 131. 14 CHAPTER I I SINGLE-MASTED SHIPS The problems i n h e r e n t i n s a i l i n g a single-masted, squared-rigged c r a f t both downwind and anywhere c l o s e to the wind are for m i d a b l e , i f the pla y of the s a i l i s the only device a v a i l a b l e to the s a i l o r to enable him to con- t r o l r o t a t i o n . Such p l a y must have i n v o l v e d the i n t r o - d u c t i o n of the bowline, f i r s t , i n order to f l a t t e n the s a i l w h i l e the sheets kept i t c l o s e to the mast (Figure 4, p. 15), and e v e n t u a l l y t h a t of the yard brace to pre- vent the wrong s i d e of the s a i l from c a t c h i n g the wind. A l s o , as a square s a i l w i l l not keep i t s shape s t e a d i l y on a broad reach (Figure 5, p. 17), a system of m u l t i p l e sheets was used, as had a l r e a d y been done i n Roman s h i p s , and the whole crew had to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the e f f o r t , each man h o l d i n g one of the sheets. The experiments w i t h i m i t a t i o n V i k i n g gear, mentioned above, i n c l u d e d a t r i a l of t h i s method of s a i l c o n t r o l . The boat was s a i l e d suc- c e s s f u l l y on v a r i o u s downwind courses, w i t h the f o o t of the s a i l being kept adjusted as r e q u i r e d 1 . On un-oared ships t h i s s o l u t i o n was i m p r a c t i c a l , f o r lack of man- power. The problem of c o n t r o l l i n g a l a r g e , b a l l o n i n g s a i l 15 Upwind The f u n c t i o n of the bowline i n s a i l - s e t t i n g F i gure 4 16 was never s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s olved u n t i l d i v i d e d s a i l plans t h a t i n c l u d e d t o p s a i l s were intr o d u c e d i n the f i f t e e n t h century. However, some s o r t of whisker p o l e , used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h sheet and bowline would give the best p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s at s t a b i l i z i n g the s a i l on a run or on a broad r e a c h . 2 The c o n t r o l of r o t a t i o n , i t seems, was s t i l l q u i t e marginal i n single-masted, s q u a r e d - s a i l e d s h i p s , except i n f a i r weather, when great f o r c e s are not encountered. The amount the s a i l had be moved f o r e - a n d - a f t to ensure s t a b l e s u s t a i n e d s a i l i n g i n any d i r e c t i o n , day and n i g h t , to com- pensate f o r the s t r e t c h i n g and s h r i n k i n g of gear c o u l d h a r d l y be achieved by the coarse manipulation of the s a i l alone w i t h sheets, bowlines and wh i s k e r - p o l e s . But i f i t was p o s s i b l e to a l t e r measurably the angle of rake of the mast, then there are reasons f o r ac c e p t i n g the idea t h a t boats w i t h adequate height of freeboard and at l e a s t a moderate depth of k e e l would indeed have been capable of s a i l i n g downwind and a l s o c l o s e to the wind, and a l s o , to some measure, h o l d i n g a course. This requirement could be p l a u s i b l y f u l f i l l e d by a s t e r n windlass or a simple system of t o g g l e s or dead- eyes on the backstay"^. Windlasses i n k n o r r s , the V i k i n g s ' cargo boats, are 4 mentioned i n sagas even i n the t w e l f t h century and m Modes of s a i l i n g Figure 5 18 h i s i d e a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a kn o r r , from a number of r e - pr o d u c t i o n s , B j o r n Landstrbm, an a u t h o r i t a t i v e i l l u s t r a - t o r of the development of ships and the author of many books on t h i s s u b j e c t , shows the backstay of t h a t type of boat attached to a s t e r n w i n d l a s s ^ . An i n v e n t o r y of the gear found i n the Cog John a f t e r she foundered i n 1414 i n - cludes an apparatus f o r the mast 6. Cogs, too, had a wind- 7 l a s s or a capstan on the s t e r n c a s t l e , which would be used f o r h a n d l i n g cargo and to weigh the anchors. However, i f these were to be i t s o n l y purposes, t h i s winch would have o b v i o u s l y been i n s t a l l e d somewhere nearer to the mast and the f o r e c a s t l e , as was common i n l a t e r , multi-masted s h i p s . The c o n c l u s i o n i s almost i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the l o c a - t i o n of the winch on the very s t e r n had the purpose of ad- j u s t i n g the rake of the mast according to the d i f f e r e n t n e c e s s i t i e s of s a i l i n g downwind or cl o s e - h a u l e d (Figure 6, p. 19) . Warships had to keep t h e i r m a n e u v r a b i l i t y under oars pre-eminent, a f a c t t h a t would make t h e i r s a i l i n g c a p a b i l - i t i e s r a t h e r i n d i f f e r e n t , as, l a t e r , was the case w i t h single-masted g a l l e y s . Therefore experiments w i t h recon- s t r u c t e d warships are not l i k e l y to provide evidence of the best s a i l i n g performance p o s s i b l e at the time. For merchant v e s s e l s the presence of a larg e number of rowers i n them would have in c r e a s e d o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and t h e r e f o r e A. A w i n d l a s s . A m i n i a t u r e i n G r e g o r i i D i a l o g i . Royal L i - b r a r y , B r u s s e l s . (From G. A s a e r t , Westeuropese scheepvaart i n de middeleeuwen, 1974, P l a t e f a c i n g p. 33). B. A capstan. D e t a i l from a mi n i a t u r e i n La Premiere Guerre Punique, ca. 1460. Royal L i b r a r y B r u s s e l s . From G. Asaert , Westeuropese scheepvaart i n de middeleeuwen, 1974, P l a t e f a c i n g p. 81). Devices on the s t e r n Figure 6 20 i t was mandatory t h a t such v e s s e l s performed best under s a i l . G. F. Marcus, a s p e c i a l i s t i n Scandinavian seaman- s h i p , i n a study on the e v o l u t i o n of the knorr based on sagas, p o i n t s out t h a t the warship or l a n g s k i p c ould not be t r u s t e d f o r passages even as short as the run from Nor- way to the Faeroe I s l a n d s , nor could the l a n g s k i p make the g c r o s s i n g from Norway to Ice l a n d . The u l t i m a t e d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n of a single-masted s h i p i n a storm was running before the wind, e v e n t u a l l y even up a beach, as Norse s a i l o r s would do i f i t was the 9 only way to save l i v e s . Running before a wind would have very c o s t l y consequences even f o r a cog"1"^ of l a t e r times, simply i n d i s t a n c e and time l o s t . A d d i t i o n a l time would be spent c a l l i n g at some nearby harbour, r e - s u p p l y i n g s t o r e s t h a t were depleted d u r i n g the run. A v i v i d account of such a voyage on a cog i n the summer of 13 85 was w r i t t e n by the F l o r e n t i n e Lionardo d i N i c c o l d F r e s c o b a l d i , a p o l i t i c i a n and a m i l i t a r y l e a d e r , on the occasion of h i s p i l g r i m a g e to the Holy Land. He had l e f t I t a l y l a t e i n the s p r i n g of 1384, and had a f a i r l y uneventual t r i p to the Levant, s i n c e i n t h a t season the winds are mostly from the wester- l y quadrants i n t h a t p a r t of the Mediterranean. The same winds would have been unfavourable f o r t r a v e l l i n g from B e i r u t to Venice i n May, the f o l l o w i n g year, as. F r e s c o b a l - d i found.  22 "We made s a i l [from B e i r u t ] at the beginning of May, having always favourable winds as f a r as the Gulf of S a t a l l a [ A n t a l y a ] ; there a sudden blow caught us, w i t h such a storm and such a s t r e s s of wind t h a t i t blew the bonnets of the s a i l and wrapped the s a i l around the mast and i t pushed us a l l the way to Barbary, w i t h the water coming many, many times over . the deck, and thus i t brought us c l o s e to land , perhaps h a l f a mile from i t . By the grace of God i t s t a r t e d to l e s s e n , as we had c a s t i n t o the sea some r e l i c s , of a k i n d s u i t a b l e f o r such a storm. And we found t h a t we had t r a v e l l e d about e i g h t hundred [Venetian] miles before the storm ..." A l l o w i n g f o r a Venetian mile of 0.6 n a u t i c a l miles they would have l o s t f o u r hundred . and e i g h t y n a u t i c a l 12 m i l e s . This i s i n f a c t , as a round f i g u r e , the c o r r e c t d i s t a n c e between the Gulf of Antalya and the coast of Egypt. However, t h i s was not t h e i r only l o s s of time. Fre- s c o b a l d i r e l a t e s f u r t h e r on: "... we had been fou r t e e n days without seeing anything but a i r and water, and i n great f e a r f o r our l i v e s . And thus, b a c k t r a c k i n g on our course, and l e a v i n g the I s l a n d of C i p r i [Cyprus] on our right-hand s i d e , we went on land to take new pro- v i s i o n s of water and food, of which we were i n very great need, because of the great t h i r s t t h a t we had s u f f e r e d i n t h a t cog, having had to eat i n the manner of a s a l a d a l l the leaves of c e r t a i n oranges t h a t the master had i n some b a r r e l s , t h a t he was t r a n s p o r t i n g from B a r u t i [ B e i r u t ] to Vine- g i a [ V e n i c e ] " . F r a 1 N i c c o l o da Poggibonsi, a Tuscan f r i a r known only f o r the voluminous d i a r y of h i s t r a v e l s , t e l l s of a worse experience, d u r i n g h i s r e t u r n to Venice from a p i l g r i m a g e 23 to the Holy Land. "On the 7 u n of August [1346] ... I went to the harbour of Famagosta [ i n Cyprus] and I entered the sea on a very large Venetian cog; and i n the name of God we set s a i l towards the West: and we had good weather, so tha t we went out of the Gulf of C i p r i . Then the wind gherbino [South-West] came up, c o n t r a r y to us, and i t gave us so much t r o u b l e t h a t i t brought us to the Sea of S e t a l i a [Gulf of Antalya] and we found ourselves upon Turkey Major, i n a country t h a t i s c a l l e d A c h i l l i d o n [Cape Xhe- l i d o n i a (Greek) or T a s l i k ^ T u r k i s h ) ] , at the har- bour of Caccovo [Kekova]" The two l a s t mentioned l o c a l i t i e s are i n F i n i k e Bay (South-West Turkey), some 120 n a u t i c a l miles from the course intended f o r the cog. They anchored i n tha t bay to wait f o r b e t t e r weather and when they thought i t had come they set o f f again. Then. N i c c o l o r e l a t e s , "when we were out at sea, where i t i s open, l o ! a storm came up co n t r a r y to us and i t took us, agains t our wishes, to Barbary and thus we approached the harbour of T r i p o l i ; and do not misunderstand i t f o r T r i p o l i i n S o r i a , but T r i p o l i of Barbary [ L i b y a ] " . The d i s t a n c e between F i n i k e Bay and T r i p o l i i s about 700 n a u t i c a l m i l e s . From there the cog had to go to Mothoni (Greece). a d i s t a n c e of about 480 m i l e s . Thus, a planned voyage of about 685 miles (Famagusta-Mothoni) r e q u i r e d s a i l i n g 1400 miles to complete. A more r e l e v a n t i n d i c a t i o n of the narrowness of the l i m i t a t i o n s of a cog i s the f a c t that the course that the cog should have f o l - 24 lowed to enter the Kaso Channel from F i n i k e to Mothoni (285 degrees) and the course i t f o l l o w e d to go to T r i p o l i (265 degrees) only d i f f e r from one another by 20 degrees. Mediterranean cogs of the time a l r e a d y c a r r i e d bon- n e t s , s a i l extensions t h a t could be added at the f o o t of the s a i l i n f a i r weather. Bonnets were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r an improved s a i l c o n f i g u r a t i o n . To reduce s a i l the bonnets were removed and the remaining s a i l s t i l l had the d e s i r e d cu t . S a i l s w i t h r e e f i n g p o i n t had to be t r u s s e d i n bad weather and the r e s u l t i n g shape was f a r from i d e a l . The b e n e f i t s of the square s a i l w i t h bonnets f o r most modes of s a i l i n g are obvious, but the b a s i c disadvantage of the s i n g l e square s a i l to windward s t i l l remained, because a c l o s e - h a u l e d s a i l w i t h bonnets was i m p o s s i b l e to maintain and the remaining s a i l was not t a l l enough to produce the d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . So the reasons f o r such a s t o n i s h i n g l y long runs of s i n g l e - s a i l e d ships as those r e p o r t e d by Fre- s c o b a l d i and Poggibonsi are not d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n . A l l medieval s a i l s , r e g a r d l e s s of c u t , were r i g g e d before the mast and t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d t a k i n g the wind on the s t e r n i n order to change tacks (Figure 7, p. 25). This maneuver — c a l l e d 'wearing s h i p ' — c o n s i s t s of a t u r n t h a t i s always g r e a t e r than 180 degress (about 220 degrees on me- d i e v a l v e s s e l s ) . On single-masted ships t h i s meant s t a r t i n g the t u r n w i t h the rudder w h i l e the s a i l was Wind A. Changing tacks (wearing ship) Wind B. M u l t i p l e tacks i n a narrows Making tacks w i t h medieval s a i l s Figure 8 slackened and the yard was s l o w l y swung around to s u i t the incoming tack. N e i t h e r s a i l , nor rudder were q u i t e capable by themselves of producing a d r a s t i c t u r n on s h o r t n o t i c e i n a t i g h t space. Together, they were adequate, but as the s h i p approached the p o i n t of the t u r n where she was r e c e i v i n g the wind dead a s t e r n , she a c c e l e r a t e d and l o s t most of the ground gained on the previous t a c k . In the case of s h o r t tacks i n narrow channels she was l i k e l y to loose ground. In t h i s case she would be i n c a p a b l e of s a i l i n g the channel and, being i n an open sea, she would have to s t a r t running. I t i s very d o u b t f u l t h a t z i g - z a g - ging to windward was a worthwhile e x e r c i s e i n any case, except f o r the n e c e s s i t y of working the s h i p o f f a lee shore. In a strong wind making continuous tacks was not p o s s i b l e at a l l , and t h i s e x p l a i n s why a master would avoid e n t e r i n g a channel between two i s l a n d s — thus having shores on both s i d e s — even at the c o s t of a f i n a n c i a l l y d i s a s t r o u s run. Severe storms would r e q u i r e running even i f the s h i p had p l e n t y of sea-room, as s i n g l e - s a i l e d s h i p c o u l d not hold a course to windward i n rough waters. A s h i p running f r e e l y before a f o l l o w i n g sea w i l l p i t c h w i l d l y , a f a c t t h a t a l t e r s the p o s i t i o n of the centre of pressure of the s a i l i n r e l a t i o n to the h u l l : when the s h i p nears the windward s i d e of the c r e s t of a 27 wave she w i l l f i n d h e r s e l f stern-down, w i t h the t i p of the mast p o i n t i n g somewhat a s t e r n (Figure 9, p. 28). I f t h i s c o n d i t i o n b r i n g s the centre of pressure of the s a i l too f a r back , the sh i p w i l l i r r e s i s t i b l y t u r n toward the wind and the next wave w i l l f i n d her across the weather. This type of a c c i d e n t i s c a l l e d 'broaching' and i s almost always f a t a l . When running i n emergencies such as those d e s c r i b e d above, the master would want h i s only mast and s a i l as f a r forward as p o s s i b l e , so as to reduce the r i s k of broaching to a minimum. This could be prevented only by r a k i n g the s i n g l e mast d r a s t i c a l l y forward. Of course, a reduced and lowered s a i l would g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e to the same e f f e c t . Under c o n d i t i o n s of normal n a v i g a t i o n hemp shrouds had to be r e - a d j u s t e d at every change of ta c k , by means of t a c k l e s . A s h i p s a i l i n g to windward heels n o t i c e a b l y and her s a i l i s thereby o f f c e n t r e . This causes a strong tendency f o r the s h i p to t u r n i n t o the wind. This tendency was p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to c o r r e c t beyond a c e r t a i n p o i n t when s a i l i n g w i t h a s i n g l e s a i l , even by great exer- t i o n s on the rudder. As long as the rudder could cope w i t h t h a t c o n d i t i o n , the pressure of the wind on the s a i l would be p h y s i c a l l y t r a n s f e r r e d from the s a i l to the h u l l through the r i g g i n g , sometimes to the p o i n t where the s t r a i n on the shrouds could exceed the s t r e n g t h of the 28 ELEVATION A running s h i p on the windward s i d e of a c r e s t of a wave. Figure 9 m a t e r i a l . Dismasting was a normal consequence. Whenever the helm could not cope i n any manner w i t h t h i s phenome- non, s a i l o r s knew t h a t they had too much wind f o r t h e i r r i g and they had to run or r i s k d i s m a s t i n g . For t h i s reason, r e i n f o r c i n g the mast and the yard w i t h e x t r a r i g - ging i n the event of heavy weather was a common p r a c t i c e 17 i n the Middle Ages, according to Roberto da Sanseverino , a f i f t e e n t h century c o n d o t t i e r e and a diplomat, and the author of an i n t e r e s t i n g d i a r y of sea voyaging on g a l l e y s and round s h i p s . Of course, shrouds and stays a l s o had to be tended to p e r i o d i c a l l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the i n i t i a l hours of s a i l - i n g , u n t i l most of the s t r e t c h i n g had occurred. S a i l t r i m - ming was the most e s s e n t i a l p a r t of c o n t r o l l i n g the s h i p i n order to run a d e s i r e d course, the helm having o n l y the minor f u n c t i o n of checking yaw. The importance of proper s a i l - t r i m m i n g as a determining f a c t o r i n running a safe course was c l e a r l y recognized i n medieval l e g a l p r e s c r i p - t i o n s . The Black Book of the A d m i r a l t y , a c o l l e c t i o n of a n c i e n t maritime s t a t u t e s i n use i n England and elsewhere i n Europe from the e a r l y Middle Ages and used i n the Court of the A d m i r a l t y f o r s e t t l i n g j u d i c i a l cases a r i s i n g from the p r a c t i c e s of the sea, i s c l e a r i n t h i s r e s p e c t . The e a r l i e s t p a r t s of t h i s book are b e l i e v e d to have been c o l - l e c t e d i n 1422, but the c h r o n o l o g i e s of the v a r i o u s p a r t s 30 of t h i s document are a matter of d i s c u s s i o n among paleog- raphers. Some of the s t a t u t e s c o l l e c t e d at t h a t time are b e l i e v e d to have e x i s t e d i n 1068 and may have even e a r l i e r o r i g i n s . The e a r l i e s t p a r t of the c o l l e c t i o n are the "Rules of Oleron", from a sea-port on the i s l a n d ' of the same name. In these r u l e s the master's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r s a i l i n g proper courses, courses which would prevent cargo damage due to ex c e s s i v e motion of the s h i p , were de f i n e d i n terms of s a i l - t r i m m i n g : "A shyp being laden at Br e s t or elswher, and hoyseth i t s s a y l e to go w i t h i t s wynes, and the mayster and h i s maryners trymme not theyr s a y l as they shulde, and bad wether t a k e t h them at sea i n suche manner, t h a t the shyp's casks r o l l , and stave i n pipe or tonne, and the shyp a r r i v e s i n saufte at i t s ryght d i s c h a r g e . The marchaunt says to the mayster t h a t h i s wyne has £ § e n l o s t f a u l t of the shyp's casks e t c . The v a l i d i t y of t h i s r u l i n g found r e c o g n i t i o n e l s e - where. I t was i n c o r p o r a t e d , almost verbatim, i n the Blacke Booke of the A d m i r a l t y : "A s h i p being charged at Burdews or elsewhere, ... and the maister and h i s mariners 19 trymmeth not theyr s a y l as i t shulde, e t c . The p r i n c i p l e was t h a t damage to the cargo caused by the s h i p being improperly s a i l e d was a r e s u l t of the s a i l not being trimmed as i t should. With the s a i l p r o p e r l y set and the s h i p on course only one side-rudder would s u f f i c e f o r the general pur- poses of s u s t a i n e d n a v i g a t i o n : the s a i l would have to be trimmed s l i g h t l y a s t e r n of n e u t r a l f o r s a i l i n g w i t h the wind on the p o r t s i d e and s l i g h t l y forward of i t f o r s a i l - i n g w i t h the wind on the s t a r b o a r d s i d e . In e i t h e r case the boat would be l e f t w i t h a minimal tendency to r o t a t e to p o r t and the job of the helmsman would then simply con- s i s t of t r a i l i n g h i s oar reasonably deeply i n the water, f a i r l y w e l l v e r t i c a l (but not n e c e s s a r i l y s o ) , w i t h the blade i n a f e a t h e r e d p o s i t i o n , t h a t i s to say w i t h the blade almost v e r t i c a l , w i t h i t s l e a d i n g edge s l i g h t l y inward, so t h a t i t would have a negative d i p . That i s a l l t h a t would be r e q u i r e d to c r e a t e enough drag to c o u n t e r a c t the r o t a t i o n of the s h i p to p o r t and to c r e a t e an e f f e c t i v e l a t e r a l f o r c e t h a t would cou n t e r a c t leeway to 20 some extent . I n c r e a s i n g the amount of negative d i p would i n c r e a s e the drag and b r i n g the s h i p to s t a r b o a r d . Decreasing i t would a l l o w the s h i p to r o t a t e spontaneously to p o r t . Any g o n d o l i e r would f i n d t h i s e x e r c i s e f a m i l i a r and convenient, as each s t r o k e imparts the gondola a push to p o r t , w h i l e the amount of d i p of the oar-blade at the end of the s t r o k e c o n t r o l s whether the gondola w i l l go s t r a i g h t or t u r n to p o r t or to s t a r b o a r d . The gondola, one the few c r a f t to have s u r v i v e d unmodified s i n c e the Middle Ages, i s unique i n t h a t i t can only be rowed and steered from the s t a r b o a r d s i d e . A s i m i l a r s t r o k e i s used by expert canoe paddlers who can keep a s t r a i g h t course without having to resort to paddling on both sides. No t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge i s required of a s a i l o r to produce t h i s r e s u l t on any sort of boat, but under s a i l the c a p a b i l i t y of fine-tuning the only s a i l i s e s s e n t i a l to t h i s e f f e c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y so because the best of ropes and s a i l s s t r e t c h under strain,, a l t e r i n g the balance. In a l l the above cases the peculiar method of steer- ing from the side with an oar, paddle or rudder i s r e q u i r - ed because a side-rudder has p o s i t i v e action only towards the side of the boat on which i t i s p h y s i c a l l y applied. The boat must turn towards the other side of i t s own accord, under the pressure of the p r o p e l l i n g oar or of the s a i l . The s a i l was progressively set to give d i r e c t i o n with small adjustments being made, depending on whether the wind was blowing from the port or the starboard side of the ship, i n order to allow for a minimum of r o t a t i o n to port. A s a i l o r could produce these r e s u l t s more e a s i l y than i t sounds, however, because the progress of the adjustments was r e f l e c t e d i n the reduction of the e f f o r t required for s t e e r i n g . The a b i l i t y of the rudder to work e f f o r t l e s s y , or even to work at a l l , depended e s s e n t i a l l y on these adjustments being made c o r r e c t l y . Depending on 21 the symptoms reported by the helmsman sheets, bowlines, shrouds and probably stays had to be shortened or length- ened, as taught by experience, u n t i l the rudder could cope w i t h the circumstances. I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to see why s a i l - s e t t i n g was considered such an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of sea- manship . S t e e r i n g a cog w i t h a s i d e rudder was not much d i f f e r e n t , i n p r i n c i p l e , than s t e e r i n g a k n o r r , except t h a t the higher s i d e s would r e q u i r e a very long rudder or the rudder would have to be kept c l o s e r to the v e r t i c a l . Of course, t h i s would r e q u i r e an i n o r d i n a t e amount of p h y s i c a l e f f o r t , as the tendency f o r the rudder would be to t r a i l a s t e r n . A simple l i n e , o r , f o r heav i e r c r a f t , a t a c k l e going from the neck of the rudder (or through a hole i n the blade) forward to the si d e of the s h i p would do the job of h o l d i n g the rudder i n the c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n . Then a l i n e going a s t e r n could be used to l i f t the rudder completely out of the water when not i n use i n t i d a l har- bours, or f o r beaching. A f i f t e e n t h century s h i p w i t h t h i s k i n d of arrangement i s d e p i c t e d on the tomb of St. Peter 2 2 the Martyr i n the Church of St. E u s t o r g i o at M i l a n . With t h i s gear and a minimum of care from the helmsman, the rudder could be kept v e r t i c a l l y c l o s e to the h u l l almost a l l the time and one would not r e q u i r e a great deal of ex- perimenting to d i s c o v e r t h a t a rudder i n such a p o s i t i o n would counteract leeway more e f f e c t i v e l y , as w e l l . T r y i n g to beat a g a i n s t a wind blowing from the s t a r - board side of the boat (a 'starboard t a c k ' ) , w i t h the rud- der p a r t l y out of the water because of the d i r e c t i o n of h e e l , would r e s u l t i n a very p r e c a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n of e q u i - l i b r i u m i n any s o r t of chop, short of moderate, w i t h the rudder blade coming out of the water at every trough be- tween waves and d u r i n g severe r o l l i n g . I f boats w i t h a s i n g l e side-rudder were capable of making tacks to wind- ward on both s i d e s , these tacks would be very unequal. At any r a t e , the problem of c o n t r o l l i n g and c o u n t e r - a c t i n g r o t a t i o n by the means of a side-rudder was a d i f f i c u l t one to s o l v e . Beyond a c e r t a i n s i z e of h u l l i t was i m p o s s i b l e w i t h any k i n d of rudder. These d i f f i c u l t i e s l e d s a i l o r s to experiment adopting at l e a s t four d i f f e r e n t types of rud- ders. Romola and R. C. Anderson, the authors of a funda- mental book on the h i s t o r y of s h i p s , argue t h a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of e f f i c i e n c y of four d i s s i m i l a r kinds of rudders i n s t e e r i n g boats of v a r y i n g s i z e s were r e c o g n i z a b l e i n the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , thus causing some northern port a u t h o r i t i e s to l e v y d i f f e r e n t dues on s h i p s , according • to the type of rudder employed. These authors have found t h a t Flemish, Dutch and German documents name four d i f f e r e n t kinds of s t e e r i n g gear: the o r d i n a r y stern-rudder ('hang- r o e d e r ' ) , the s t e e r i n g - o a r ('hantroeder'), the side-rudder ( 'sleeproeder 1) and a f o u r t h k i n d ('kuelroeder') , t h a t passed through a hole i n the h u l l . I t i s not c l e a r whether i t was p a r t of the rudder i t s e l f or only the t i l l e r t h a t was inboard. Ships w i t h the hangroeder, a l s o c a l l e d "rud- 2 3 der a s t e r n " , p a i d more. The problem of s t e e r i n g w i t h equal ease on e i t h e r tack had been sol v e d i n a n c i e n t times i n the Mediterrane- an, and i n other p a r t s of the world, w i t h the adoption of two s i d e - r u d d e r s . In the North t h i s idea never found ap- p l i c a t i o n . There i s no e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s f a c t . The northern s o l u t i o n to making equal tacks was the i n t r o d u c - t i o n of the c e n t r a l rudder (Figure 10, p. 36). The problem of s a i l - s e t t i n g w i t h a c e n t r a l rudder or w i t h twin side-rudders was a great deal simpler than w i t h a s i n g l e s i d e - r u d d e r , as each rudder had p o s i t i v e a c t i o n on i t s s i d e . Ships would then use the same s a i l s e t t i n g on both t a c k s , r e g a r d l e s s of the s i d e from which the wind blew, thus making i t e a s i e r f o r systematic z i g - z a g g i n g when beat i n g a long way to windward. Adjustments were r e q u i r e d only when a change of course would b r i n g a running s h i p to beat, or v i c e v e r s a . The e a r l i e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n of a Medi- terranean s h i p w i t h s t e r n p o s t rudder i s at P i s a , and i t i s of the f o u r t e e n t h century. In the Mediterranean the i n t r o - d u c t i o n of the s t e r n p o s t rudder d i d not lead to the immediate obsolescence of the twin s i d e - r u d d e r s , and even ships w i t h three rudders were seen more than one century l a t e r . 2 4 36 A. E l b i n g S e a l . B. Ship on the Font i n Winchester C a t h e d r a l , from the Low C o u n t r i e s , 1180. The s t e r n p o s t rudder. (Both f i g u r e s from R. W. Unger, The Ship i n the Medieval Economy, 600-1600, p. 142) . Figure 10 37 The reasons f o r the general acceptance of the s t e r n - post rudder are obvious. The e f f e c t of a side-rudder of any type v a r i e s w i t h the depth of immersion of the blade. This caused a great deal of unnecessary work f o r the helmsman i n any s o r t of sea, and keeping a steady course was d i f f i c u l t . But the most e s s e n t i a l b e n e f i t of the s t e r n p o s t rudder was t h a t g r e a t e r angles of heel became acc e p t a b l e , and w i t h t h i s the c a p a b i l i t y of s a i l i n g c l o s e r to the wind was enhanced. A l l medieval s h i p s could do l i t t l e b e t t e r than hold t h e i r ground i n the face of c o n t r a r y winds i n an open sea. They could not work t h e i r way out of harbours w i t h p e c u l - i a r channels i n adverse c o n d i t i o n s without r e s o r t i n g to rowing or towing. Leaving an open anchorage was another matter again. The wind had to be blowing from the shore and a great deal of sea-room had to be a v a i l a b l e downwind, as the s h i p , l a y i n g head to the wind, had to be turned around by s a i l a lone, u n t i l she was s a i l i n g i n a f a i r l y broad reach, so as to a c q u i r e enough speed to be s t e e r - a b l e . A poem i n a manuscript preserved at T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , Cambridge (probably composed e a r l i e r than the f i f t e e n t h century) d e s c r i b e s how i t was done on a single-masted s h i p 2 5 : 38 Anone the mastyr commandeth f a s t To a l l h i s shypmen i n a l l the hast To dress hem sone about the mast Theyr t a k e l i n g to make. The f i r s t order given by the master i s f o r the s a i l o r s to come at the mast f o r making s a i l . With howe i s s a then they c r y What howe mate thou stondyst to ny Thy f e l l o w may not hale the by Thus they begin to crake. The s a i l o r s c r y "Ho! H o i s t ! " . Someone i s t o l d t h a t w h i l e p u l l i n g the h a l y a r d he i s standing too c l o s e to h i s mate, who has no room to do h i s h a u l i n g . I t appears t h a t they are working t o g e t h e r , p u l l i n g by hand. A boy or tweyn anone up styen And overwhart the s a y l e y e r d lyen Yhow t a l y a the remenaunt cryen And p u l l w i t h a l l theyr myght. A boy or two immediately go up and l a y over the yard (and thus are hauled up w i t h i t ) w h i l e the r e s t c r y "Ho! T a l l y h o ! " (Ho! Haul, Ho!) and keep on p u l l i n g w i t h a l l t h e i r might. This boat, e v i d e n t l y , had no r a t l i n e s , t h a t i s the rope rungs s t r e t c h e d across the shrouds. So the boys had to go a l o f t w i t h the yard, i n order to u n f u r l the s a i l as soon as i t was up. Once they had t h e i r job of 39 u n f u r l i n g done, they would descend along the b o l t r o p e , t h a t i s the rope sewn to the edging of the s a i l , down to one of the clews and then continue hand over hand along the sheets u n t i l t h e i r f e e t touched the deck. This was n e i t h e r an unusual p r a c t i c e , nor a p a r t i c u l a r l y dangerous one. S a i l o r s would always shun the r a t l i n e s f o r descend- i n g , s i n c e t h i s process e n t a i l s l o o k i n g down to f i n d one's f o o t i n g , an u n c e r t a i n undertaking on a r o l l i n g s h i p , whereas w h i l e coining down along a rope they would always have had a g r i p between t h e i r a n k l e s . Once the s a i l was drawing wind they would go a l o f t by the same r o u t e , i f needed. The poem does not d e s c r i b e the u n f u r l i n g of the s a i l . Hale the bowlyne now vere the shete Coke make redy anone our mete Our p i l g r i m s have no l u s t to ete I pray God geve hem r e s t . This i s the v o i c e of the master. The sheet c o n t r o l l e d the downwind clew of the s a i l . Hauling the bowline and v e e r i n g , or s l a c k i n g o f f , the sheet would have caused the s a i l to go way forward, thus causing the s h i p , s t i l l d r i f t i n g a s t e r n and f a l l i n g o f f the wind, to go about by h e r s e l f . There was no one at the helm y e t , because the helm was not necessary nor usable at t h i s stage. The cook i s ordered to make a meal r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to the p i l g r i m passengers, as they seem to have a l r e a d y l o s t t h e i r 40 stomach f o r food. Go to the helm what howe no nere They are now under way and the master orders someone to go the helm and s t e e r , so as to prevent the s h i p from heaving any c l o s e r to the wind than she a l r e a d y i s doing. Yhowe t r u s s a hale i n the b r a y l e s Thow h a l y s t nat be good thow f a y l e s 0 se howe w e l l owre good s h i p s a y l e s And thus they say among. There i s too much wind and the s a i l o r s are ordered to gather, or t r u s s , the s a i l up by h a u l i n g i n the b r a i l s . 0 ft This could be very w e l l the e f f e c t of the apparent wind being p r o p e r l y f e l t as the s h i p a c c e l e r a t e s towards her c r u i s i n g speed, a f t e r she i s f i n a l l y trimmed. The master berates a s h i r k e r and then has words of a d m i r a t i o n f o r the behaviour of h i s s h i p under the press of wind. Without q u e s t i o n , they are having a very f i n e s a i l . As the s h i p gathers more speed the apparent wind seems to s h i f t f a r t h e r forward and t h i s w i l l r e q u i r e f u r t h e r trimming, so as to s a i l c l o s e r to the wind. Hale i n the wartack h i t s h a l l be done "Haul i n the tack!" " I t . s h a l l be done". The s a i l i s not t a u t enough f o r the k i n d of beat they are now making. The tack c o n t r o l l e d the windward clew of the s a i l . Hauling the tack i n without s l a c k i n g the bowline t i g h t e n e d the s a i l and brought the f o o t c l o s e r to the mast, at the same time', as r e q u i r e d so as to s a i l c l o s e r . This i s the e f f e c t of the in c r e a s e d apparent wind, as the s h i p reaches her c r u i s i n g speed. The problem of having to t u r n the s h i p around w i t h one s i n g l e s a i l upon l e a v i n g , during the phase i n which the c r a f t d i d not have enough speed to respond to the a c t i o n of the helm, was by i t s e l f a c h a l l e n g i n g one. The same problem e x i s t e d a l s o when e n t e r i n g a cramped harbour or when having to anchor c l o s e to shore at an open beach. With a l i g h t wind a master would simply come i n under minimum s a i l , choose h i s spot f o r anchoring, drop the s a i l and the f i r s t anchor, and l e t momentum and wind do the r e s t . I t was q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y i f he had a strong s t e r n wind: i f he came i n at too high a speed he would need to t u r n the s h i p i n t o the wind before (or while) l e t t i n g down h i s anchors, and i n doing so he would have to depend on the stoutness of the hawsers and on the h o l d i n g q u a l i t y of the bottom i n order to check the c o n s i d e r a b l e momentum. A l s o , w h i l e coming around, the s h i p would have to expose her s i d e p e r p e n d i c u l a r to wind and waves. The seriousness of such a predictament was considered on board 42 Sanseverino's s h i p on the n i g h t of the 20 of December 1458 w h i l e they were d r i v e n under bare poles before a storm, towards the beach of Ancona. " , . . They were a f r a i d t h a t the f u r y of the wind would throw them onto the shore at n i g h t , breaking the s h i p to pieces on some place where there was no chance of escape whatsoever, p a r t i c u - l a r l y because of i t being n i g h t - t i m e ; or e l s e , i f they had wanted to c a s t the anchors and l a y t o , th a t the f u r y of the wind and the very powerful and very h o r r i b l e storm t h a t they were having were such as to prevent them from stopping and anchor- i n g ; or t h a t w h i l e [the anchors] were t a k i n g hold and swinging the s h i p around, the wind and the waves of the sea would have caused the s h i p to heel o v e r 7 t o the p o i n t of making her to t u r n t u r t l e . " Z ' The master c a r r i e d out the maneuver i n t h i s way: "In the end Our Lord God and Our Lady of Loreto ... caused the wind to abate to some ex t e n t , so t h a t , as they kept on sounding a l l the time and having found twenty-four fathoms of water a short time a f t e r midnight, the master ordered two very heavy anchors to be c a s t , each anchor being secured w i t h two very t h i c k and very long new hawsers t i e d to one another. And w h i l e c a s t i n g the s a i d anchors he ordered the helm to be put down to t u r n the s h i p and, Deo G r a t i a , the wind having dropped somewhat at t h a t time, the a f o r e - s a i d anchors took hold w e l l . The s h i p d i d not run i n t o any danger w h i l e coming around, which was a marvellous t h i n g and beyond the e x p e c t a t i o n of the master and of as 2 § a n y o f f i c e r s and s a i l o r s as there were t h e r e " A l l t o l d , the episode d e s c r i b e s a remarkable f e a t of semanship i n a c c e l e r a t i n g the r o t a t i o n of the s h i p , so as to reduce the time the si d e of the ship was exposed to a minimum, t h a t i s before the anchors s t a r t e d to grab. The helm being put over s t a r t e d the shi p t u r n i n g of i t s own accord, as otherwise the sudden p u l l of the anchors, w i t h the s h i p s t i l l across the wind, would have caused her to heel over. Meanwhile the hawsers were pai d o f f running around a b i t t , so as to have the necessary f r i c t i o n f o r stopping them and making them f a s t when the anchors would take h o l d . The presence of these lengths of c a b l e running from the bows would have had the same e f f e c t as a sea-anchor, c r e a t i n g an a d d i t i o n a l t u r n i n g f o r c e t h a t would see the s h i p f a c i n g the wind before the anchors touched bottom. T h i s , u l t i m a t e l y , e x p l a i n s the reason f o r e l e c t i n g to anchor at great depth, using two very long hawsers, as t h i s combination of f a c t o r s would buy the s h i p the e x t r a time necessary f o r t u r n i n g around completely w h i l e s t i l l f r e e of the bottom. Maneuvers such as t h i s would be attempted o n l y i f a g r e a t e r r i s k was impending, such as t h a t of being run onto a lee shore. Otherwise a master would w a i t f o r the weather to abate, r i d i n g out the bad weather o f f s h o r e , and Sanseverino's d i a r y r e p o r t s s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s of t h i s k i n d . To enter a harbour w i t h no wind at a l l , or w i t h a c o n t r a r y wind, or an ebbing t i d e meant using a tug, i n the form of a tow-boat powered by strong backs p u l l i n g the oars. The " R o l l s of Oleron" provided some r u l e s d e a l i n g w i t h these circumstances: " L i k e w i s e , a shyp cometh to any place and wuld enter i n t o a port or haven, and i t sets an ensign to have e i t h e r a p i l o t or a boat to tow i t w i t h i n 29 bycause the wind or the tyde i s c o n t r a r y ..." e t c . T h i s , of course, would occur q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y and masters were allowed to set t h e i r own crews at towing i n other v e s s e l s , f o r a f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , when no other help was a v a i l a b l e . This labour was considered o r d i n a r y s h i p duty, according to the customs t h a t bound the s a i l o r s to the master. The Good Customs of the Sea, the s e c t i o n of the Black Book of the A d m i r a l t y t h a t d e a l t w i t h the arrangements between masters, s h i p p e r s , t r a d e r s and crews, decreed: " F u r t h e r , a mariner i s bound to go and tow a s h i p or a v e s s e l i n order t h a t i t may enter a p o r t , i f the mate 3 0 orders him to do so ..." e t c . . The e a r l i e s t o r i g i n s of the Good Customs are unknown. They were r e c e i v e d i n England i n a v e r s i o n c a l l e d "La Chartre d'Oleroun des Juggementz de l a Meer" d u r i n g the r e i g n of Edward I I (1284-1327). 3 1 Nothing i s known about the reasons t h a t caused a competitor to the square s a i l of northern f a s h i o n to appear i n the Mediterranean, nor i t i s c e r t a i n how the l a t e e n s a i l r e - a c q u i r e d relevance i n t h a t area. Not even the etymology of i t s name i s a l t o g e t h e r c l e a r . According to Landstrom the e a r l i e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n s are from Greek manuscripts of the n i n t h century and they d e p i c t small 3 2 c r a f t w i t h two rudders . The c l a s s i c i s t L i o n e l Casson hypothesizes a Mediterranean o r i g i n f o r t h i s s a i l , because a n c i e n t s a i l o r s there had learned a method of changing the square s a i l — used as such on reaches and runs — i n t o a 3 3 t r i a n g u l a r one f o r s a i l i n g to windward. Casson found evidence f o r t h i s i n the work of s e v e r a l w r i t e r s of • 34 a n t i q u i t y . Ancient Mediterranan s a i l o r s had devised a complex system of b r a i l s , which they used f o r a d j u s t i n g the shape and s i z e of the s a i l a ccording to the s t r e n g t h of the wind. The b r a i l s were ropes t h a t went from the deck over the yard, to the f o o t of the s a i l . P u l l i n g them would shorten the s a i l , s l a c k e n i n g them would a l l o w the s a i l to b a l l o o n over the f o r e p a r t of the s h i p . Unmodified a n c i e n t square s a i l s c o u l d be used f o r dead runs or broad reaches. When going to windward the s a i l o r s would modify the s a i l by b r a i l i n g i t i n a t r i a n g u l a r shape. This m o d i f i c a t i o n was achieved by p u l l i n g the b r a i l s more on one s i d e than on the other . "A square s a i l b r a i l e d up i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f a s h i o n and set a s l a n t i s i n shape not u n l i k e a l a t e e n , and may p o s s i b l y have sparked the i n v e n t i o n of t h a t 3 5 a l l - i m p o r t a n t s a i l " . In the Middle Ages the l a t e e n s a i l spread from the Mediterranean Sea to a l l the c o u n t r i e s of Europe and played a major p a r t i n the development of multi-masted 46 s h i p s . The importance of t h i s cut of s a i l c o n s i s t s i n i t s a l l o w i n g a s h i p to p o i n t to windward at c l o s e r angles than the s i n g l e square s a i l . Under such c o n d i t i o n s i t behaves almost l i k e a f o r e - a n d - a f t r i g . Medieval s a i l o r s , i n f a c t , 3 6 considered i t as such and so do many modern s c h o l a r s , although i t d i f f e r s from a pure f o r e - a n d - a f t r i g i n two e s s e n t i a l manners: i t i s rig g e d before the mast and i t r e q u i r e s wearing the s h i p , t h a t i s t u r n i n g before the wind, i n order to change t a c k s , l i k e a square s a i l , w h i l e a pure f o r e - a n d - a f t r i g , being r i g g e d a f t of the mast, allows t a c k i n g , t h a t i s t u r n i n g i n t o the wind. This i s , of course, a matter of semantics, and i t can be s a i d t h a t the la t e e n s a i l embodied most of the advantages of the f o r e - and-aft r i g to windward and most of those of the square 37 s a i l downwind . The r i g g i n g of the l a t e e n s a i l forward of the shrouds i s s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t i v e of i t s o r i g i n as a downwind s a i l and usi n g i t to windward i n v o l v e d a f a i r l y complicated maneuver w i t h the yard and shrouds. To f a c i l i t a t e t h i s maneuver the masts were raked forward. The la t e e n s a i l yard was set asymmetrically to the mast, so the p o r t i o n s of s a i l area on the two si d e s of the mast were unequal. S e t t i n g the s a i l f o r d i f f e r e n t modes of s a i l i n g c o n s i s t e d i n v a r y i n g the angle of the yard w i t h respect to the mast by the means of t a c k l e s and then h a u l i n g the sheet i n u n t i l the s h i p ran true w i t h a m i n i - mum of help from the helm. When on a windward course the 47 sheet would then cause the s a i l to curve along the down- wind s i d e of the s h i p . Reasons of geometry of s a i l and yard r e q u i r e d t h a t the downwind shrouds be removed and the windward ones be r e - t i g h t e n e d at every change of tack. This maneuver s h i f t e d the p o s i t i o n of the c e n t r e of wind pressure as needed, depending on the course s a i l e d . The yard was o b v i o u s l y amenable to r e c e i v i n g v a r y i n g s i z e s of s a i l , to s u i t d i f f e r e n t ranges of wind v e l o c i t y , and, w h i l e the p r a c t i c e of changing s a i l s a c c o r d i n g to the 3 8 weather i s documented f o r f i f t e e n t h century s h i p s , noth- ing i s known about the manner of s a i l i n g e a r l y medieval single-masted l a t e e n - r i g g e d c r a f t . S i n g l e l a t e e n s a i l s were the normal means of p r o p u l s i o n f o r a l l Mediterranean merchant ships as e a r l y as the seventh century and l a r g e oared warships of the Eastern Mediterranean used them as sources of a u x i l i a r y power as e a r l y as the t e n t h century. The usage of l a t e e n s a i l s on g a l l e y s l a s t e d as long as g a l l e y s remained p r a c t i c a l ships of warfare. 48 Notes to Chapter I I . 1. Owain Roberts, " V i k i n g S a i l i n g Performance", i n Aspects of Maritime Archaelogy and Ethnography, Ed. Sean M c G r a i l , (Wandle Pr e s s , London, 1984). See the S e c t i o n 'Future Experiments w i t h S a i l s ' , pp. 128- 131. 2. This i s simply a s p e c u l a t i o n , as there i s no documenta- t i o n f o r t h i s use of the b e i t i a s s , but then there i s no documentations as to how i t would be used i n any manner. The Danish Immer S l e i p n e r r e p l i c a , b u i l t i n 1981, used the b e i t i a s s s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h i s manner. See Ole Crumlin-Petersen, "Experimental Boat Archae- ology" , i n Aspects of Maritime Archaeology and Eth- nography , Ed. Sean M a c G r a i l , (Wandle P r e s s , London, 1984) , F i g . 5.15, p. 121. 3. I f t h i s c o n j e c t u r e i s c o r r e c t i t c o u l d o f f e r an explan- a t i o n f o r the f a c t t h a t an odd number of p a i r s of f i t t i n g s were found at Gokstad. See 0. Roberts, Op. C i t . , p.132. For the q u a n t i t i e s of f i n d s Roberts quotes A. E. C h r i s t e n s e n , 1979, V i k i n g Age R i g g i n g , a survey of sources and t h e o r i e s , i n M c G r a i l , S (Ed.), 1979, pp. 183-193. 4. G. F. Marcus, "The E v o l u t i o n of the Knorr" , The Mariner's M i r r o r , 41, 1955 (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, 1955), p. 118. 5. B j o r n Landstrom, The Ship, ( A l l e n and Unwin, London, 1961), pp. 62-63. 6. Ian F r i e l , "Documentary Sources and the Medieval Ship", i n The I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of N a u t i c a l Archaeology and Underwater E x p l o r a t i o n , 12.1, 1983, Table 3, p. 46. F r i e l assumed t h i s apparatus to be the yard p a r r a l , although the word t y r e i s used f o r t h i s device elsewhere (Gear from the wreck at G r a i n t h o r p e , 1353, Op. C i t . , Table 6, p. 59). 7. Richard W. Unger, The Ship i n the Medieval Economy, 600-1600, (Croom Helm, London, 1980), p. 141. A l s o , Romola & R. C. Anderson, The S a i l i n g - S h i p , S i x Thousand Years of H i s t o r y (George G. Harrap and Co. L t d . , London, 1926), p. 166. 8. G. F. Marcus, Op. C i t . , p. 121. 49 9. G. F. Marcus, "A Note on Norse Seamanship: S i g l a T i l B r o t s " , Mariner's M i r r o r , 41, 1955 (Cambridge Univer- s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, 1955), pp. 61-62. 10. This name was a p p l i e d to a number of l a r g e Northern t r a d i n g ships and d i d not become s p e c i f i c u n t i l the t w e l f t h century. In the Mediterranean they are men- t i o n e d i n the f o u r t e e n t h century ( I t . cocca, F r . cocque). 11. Lionardo d i N. F r e s c o b a l d i , "Viaggio i n T e r r a s a n t a " , V i a g g i i n T e r r a s a n t a , Ed. Cesare A n g e l i n i ( F e l i c e Le Monnier, F i r e n z e , 1944), p. 166. The t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s and a l l the quotes from t h i s work are by T u l l i o V i d o n i . 12. A comparison between the d i s t a n c e s given by medieval authors and a c t u a l d i s t a n c e s expressed i n modern n a u t i c a l miles has been made by T. V i d o n i . S a n s e v e r i - no o f f e r s the g r e a t e s t data. The Venetian mile was equal to 0.63 n a u t i c a l m i l e s , or 1167 metres. D i - stances i n the t e x t are i n n a u t i c a l miles and speeds are i n knots ( n a u t i c a l miles per hour). Distances i n q u o t a t i o n s from medieval t e x t s are i n Venetian m i l e s and the .modifier '[Venetian]' i s always used i n these o c c a s i o n s . 13. L. F r e s c o b a l d i , Op. C i t . , pp. 166-67. 14. F r a 1 N i c c o l o da Poggibonsi, L i b r o d'Oltramare, Ed. A l - berto Bachi D e l i a Lega, 2 v o l . , (Commissione per i T e s t i d i Lingue, Bologna, 1968), V o l . 2, pp. 216-17. The t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s and a l l the quotes from t h i s work are by T. V i d o n i . 15. I b i d . , p. 217. 16. Dismasting i n heavy weather on a s h i p where a l l the gear i s p r o p e r l y maintained can o n l y occur when s a i l - i n g to windward. In other modes of s a i l i n g i n a storm the s h i p w i l l c a p s i z e i n s t e a d . To avoid c a p s i z i n g a master had the o p t i o n of c u t t i n g s t a y s , shrouds and mast and l o o s i n g a l l the gear overboard. "Hewing the mast", chopping i t w i t h an ax, was probably not a r a r e event, and the s t a t u t e s of a l l p o r t c i t i e s de- f i n e d the ensuing f i n a n c i a l l i a b i l i t i e s i n great de- t a i l . Among the c o l l e c t i o n of sea-laws i n S i r Travers Twiss Ed., The Black Book of the Admiralty- the f i n a n c i a l problems d e r i v i n g from "hewing the mast" are d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t u t e s : "The Judg- 50 ments of the Sea" ( V o l . I l l , p. 15), "The Gotland Sea-laws" ( V o l . IV, p. 77), "The Purple Book of Bruges" ( V o l . IV, p. 313), "The Dantzic Sea-laws" (Vol. IV, p. 341), "The Maritime Laws of the Oster- l i n g s " ( V o l . IV, p. 373) and "The Sea-laws of F l a n - ders" ( V o l . IV, p. 427). The i n v a r i a b l e l e g a l ap- proach was t h a t of c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s a c t i o n as a form of j e t t i s o n , l i k e any other 'act of man'. 17. "Their f e a r s were not i l l - f o u n d e d , because the master and the other o f f i c e r s and s a i l o r s , e x p e c t i n g a storm, s t a r t e d to r e i n f o r c e the mast, the yard, and to take a l l the other measures t h a t are u s u a l l y taken when a storm i s expected." R. Sanseverino, Op. C i t . , Diary of 27th October 1458, pp. 208. 18. S i r Travers Twiss Ed., " R o l l e of Olayron", The Black Book of the A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871; P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon, 1985), V o l . 2, p. 445. 19. S i r Travers Twiss Ed., "The Blacke Booke of the A d m i r a l t y " , The Black Book of the A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871; P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon, 1985), V o l . 1, p. 103. 20. This c o n c l u s i o n can be reached i n t u i t i v e l y . However, model t e s t s r e p o r t e d by 0. Roberts (Op. C i t . , p. 138) confirmed t h i s f a c t . Only the s e t t i n g f o r one tack was t r i e d and a modest angle of "about 5 degrees, lee helm" was found to be s u f f i c i e n t . Leeway was estimated at 10 degrees. T o t a l e l i m i n a t i o n of leeway i s i m p o s s i b l e . 21. The jargon used by Venetian s a i l o r s to r e p o r t the s t a t e of s t e e r i n g i s o f t e n used by Sanseverino. A s h i p was s a i d to be o r z i e r a when i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r the helmsman to counteract the tendency of the s h i p to t u r n to windward. She was s a i d to be pozera i n the opposite case. A whole vocabulary e x i s t e d to d e s c r i b e s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s ( i . e . , Sanseverino: Orza s t r i c t a = C l o s e - h a u l e d ) . 22. B. Landstrom, Op. C i t , p. 88. 23. Romola and R. C. Anderson, The S a i l i n g - S h i p , S i x Thousand Years of H i s t o r y , (George Harrap and Company L t d . , London, 1926), pp. 89-90. 24. One such s h i p i s d e p i c t e d i n a 1486 i l l u s t r a t i o n of the anchorage of Mothoni i n von Breydenbach's r e l - a t i o n of h i s p i l g r i m a g e to the Holy Land. Bernard von 51 Breidenbach's entourage during t h a t voyage i n c l u d e d a draftsman and h i s P e r e g r i n a t i o i n Terram Sanctam i s the e a r l i e s t known i l l u s t r a t e d t r a v e l o g . 25. The v e r s i o n used i n t h i s paper i s t h a t t r a n s c r i b e d by R. and R. C. Anderson i n Op. C i t . , pp. 91-93. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s book does not have a l i s t of sources and the authors i d e n t i f y the manuscript thus: "A poem t h a t has been preserved i n a manuscript at T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , Cambridge. The a c t u a l manuscript belongs to the f i f t e e n t h c entury, but the poem seems to be r a t h e r e a r l i e r . " The poem has no t i t l e and begins w i t h the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : Men may leve a l l gamys That s a y l e n to Seynt Jamys For many a man h i t gramis When they begin to s a i l e . 26. A person on a motorship t h a t i s t r a v e l l i n g i n calm a i r f e e l s a wind blowing from the bow toward the s t e r n . This wind i s c a l l e d 'apparent 1. I f a ' r e a l ' wind blows across the path of the moving s h i p , the appar- ent wind w i l l be f e l t blowing d i a g o n a l l y , from some- where between the bow and the beam. A s h i p t r a v e l l i n g at 15 knots i n a cross-wind blowing a l s o a t 15 knots w i l l experience an apparent wind coming from a d i r e c t i o n of 45 degrees from the bow. This wind w i l l be s t r o n g e r , by a f a c t o r of 1.4 i n t h i s case, ac- cord i n g to r u l e s of v e c t o r i a l mathematics. On a s a i l - i n g s h i p , p r o p e l l e d by the r e a l wind, the s a i l s are s e t ' a c c o r d i n g to the apparent wind. The d i r e c t i o n of the apparent wind and i t s s t r e n g t h are a f f e c t e d by the speed of the s h i p , thus the s a i l s must be r e - trimmed at s h o r t i n t e r v a l s of time w h i l e the s h i p i s a c c e l e r a t i n g , u n t i l she reaches c r u i s i n g speed. I t i s normal f o r a s h i p g e t t i n g under way w i t h a beam wind to f i n d h e r s e l f b e a t i n g i n t o a stronger apparent wind by the time she reaches c r u i s i n g speed. 27. R. Sanseverino, Op. C i t . , p. 280-281. 28. I b i d . , p. 281-82. 29. S i r Traver Twiss Ed, " R o l l e of Olayron", Op. C i t . , p. 465 . 30. S i r Traver Twiss Ed., "The Good Customs of the Sea", The Black Book of the A d m i r a l t y , 4 Vo1. (18 71; P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon, 1985), V o l . 3, p. 223. 52 31. I b i d . , pp. x i i - x i i i . 32. B. Landstrom, Op. C i t . , pp. 80-83. 33. L i o n e l Casson, Ships and Seamanship i n the Ancient World, ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , P r i n c e t o n , N. J . , 1971), pp. 243-45 and 273-76. L a t i n e e r s probably e x i s t e d i n the f i f t h century B.C.. See Op. C i t • , pp. 268-69. 34. A r i s t o t l e , Aristophanes and T a t i u s . A r i s t o t l e knew th a t the rudder alone was not adequate to hold a s h i p on a windward course. See L. Casson, Op. C i t . , p. 276n. 35. L. Casson, Op. C i t . , p. 277. 36. "... at about midday three f o r e - a n d - a f t s a i l s appeared ... [some] guessed t h a t they were the g a l l e y s ... from A l e x a n d r i a " . R. Sanseverino. Op. C i t . , p. 260. 37. Although not much i s known about the use of the s i n g l e l a t e e n s a i l , i t can be deduced from drawings t h a t i t would be best at any mode between a c l o s e beat to a broad reach. On t h i s s u b j e c t see a l s o J . H- P a r r y , Op. C i t . , pp. 17-19. 38. R. Sanseverino, Op. C i t . , p. 39 and passim. F. C. Lane mentions the square cochina and the t r i a n g u l a r pappaficho as storm s a i l s used by the Venetians i n the f i f t e e n t h c entury. See F r e d e r i c . C. Lane, Navires et C onstructeurs a Venise pendant l a Renaissance, (S.E.V.P.E.N., P a r i s , 1965), pp. 17-20. 53 CHAPTER I I I TWO-MASTED SHIPS P i c t u r e s of the f o u r t e e n t h century i n d i c a t e t h a t by then square-rigged ships i n the Mediterranean were q u i t e s i m i l a r to the single-masted square-rigged s h i p s of the North. The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t r y i n g to c o n t r o l ships w i t h t h i s type of r i g d i c t a t e d the maximum s i z e of the s h i p s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of power i n one s a i l and one mast alone l i m i t e d the amount of s a i l area t h a t a crew could handle s a f e l y . In the t w e l f t h and t h i r t e e n t h cen- t u r i e s demands f o r bottoms s t a r t e d to soar i n p r o p o r t i o n to the crusading z e a l of kings and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l a r g e p r o f i t s i n s h i p p i n g were not l o s t on the maritime c i t i e s of the Mediterranean. Whole armies of s o l d i e r s , k n i g h t s and horses had t o be shipped to the Holy Land, together w i t h a l l t h e i r weapons and gear. This volume of s h i p p i n g demanded more capacious h u l l s , beyond the s i z e t h a t c o u l d be managed w i t h the e x i s t i n g r i g s . Mediterrane- an s h i p b u i l d i n g met t h i s demand by adopting a d i v i d e d s a i l p l a n . The reasons f o r the adoption of the double-masted, d o u b l e - s a i l e d type of r i g are obvious. The r e s u l t i n g c r a f t was undoubtely much e a s i e r to handle than any previous type. The main requirement i n handling a s a i l i n g s h i p — c o n t r o l of r o t a t i o n — was e a s i l y achieved by r e g u l a t i n g the amount of wind c a r r i e d by the i n d i v i d u a l s a i l s , depending on how hard they were sheeted. Thus i t became p o s s i b l e to perform d r a s t i c changes of course, w i t h shortened t u r n i n g r a d i i , i n a manner t h a t was wholly independent of the e f f e c t s of the rudders. This was an es- s e n t i a l advantage w h i l e going about at the end of each tack, where some ground i s always l o s t d u r i n g the time t h a t the s h i p labours her way around. In c e r t a i n weather c o n d i t i o n s t h i s f a c t o r alone would be d e c i s i v e i n a l l o w i n g a master to enter a narrows between two i s l a n d s or h i s having to circumnavigate one of the i s l a n d s . Thus a t i n y , but important g a i n towards a technology of a l l - w e a t h e r n a v i g a t i o n was made. The s p l i t t i n g of the s a i l p l a n allowed the same s i z e crew to handle a l a r g e r s a i l area. S a i l s only needed to be h o i s t e d or reduced one at a time. The b a s i c two-masted s h i p of the t w e l f t h and t h i r - t e n t h c e n t u r i e s was the type of c r a f t b u i l t f o r King Louis IX of France f o r h i s Crusade of 1 2 5 0 1 , r i g g e d w i t h a l a t e e n m a i n s a i l deployed from a main-mast t h a t was stepped somewhat forward of amidships, and a l a t e e n m i z z e n s a i l a s t e r n , which had the b a s i c f u n c t i o n of keeping the s h i p on course (Figure 11, p. 5 5 ) . This s o l u t i o n provided a measure of s t a b i l i t y i n h o l d i n g windward courses t h a t was Two-masted Genoese s a i l i n g s h i p b u i l t f o r the Crusade of King Louis IX of France. (From: R. W. Unger The Ship i n the Medieval Economy, 600-1600, p. 124}. Figure 11 unknown to e a r l i e r s a i l o r s , w i t h p l e n t y of s a f e t y f o r downwind runs, as w e l l . The mainmast c a r r i e d the l a r g e r s a i l and was so l o c a t e d t h a t i t s s a i l , a lone, would make the s h i p 'pay o f f ' , t h a t i s cause her to r o t a t e downwind whenever necessary, and c e r t a i n l y i n very heavy weather. To counteract t h i s e f f e c t when c l o s e r s a i l i n g was r e - q u i r e d , the mizzen, c a r e f u l l y s e t , would push the s t e r n downwind to the p o i n t where a balance of the s a i l plan was a c q u i r e d . In s p i t e of her g r e a t e r s i z e , such a s h i p c o u l d be h e l d on a windward course i n f a i r weather q u i t e stead- i l y by the simple means of a d j u s t i n g the mizzen to s u i t the circumstances. However, even the best balanced s a i l i n g s h i p c r e a t e s some d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the helmsman when she p i t c h e s i n heavy seas. The c y c l i c a l v a r i a t i o n s of the po- s i t i o n of the c e n t r e of wind pressure as the s h i p climbs wave a f t e r wave, c r e a t e v a r i a b l e r o t a t i o n a l f o r c e s t h a t r e s u l t i n a marked tendency f o r the s h i p to yaw to p o r t and s t a r b o a r d a l t e r n a t e l y . To counteract t h i s tendency i n a two-masted s h i p r e q u i r e d a great deal of labour and a t - t e n t i o n to mizzen sheet and rudder. The most r e l e v a n t and most u n d e s i r a b l e by-product of t h i s phenomenon on any s o r t of c r a f t i s the lengthened t r a j e c t o r y of the s h i p d u r i n g a given t a c k , caused by z i g - z a g g i n g about the intended course. This phenomenon was p l a i n l y understood by s a i l o r s at l e a s t i n the f i f t e e n t h century and i t i s o f t e n men- ti o n e d by Sanseverino i n h i s d i a r y as the p r i n c i p a l cause 57 of ships l o o s i n g ground i n adverse winds. On medieval s h i p s , only capable of very wide t a c k s , t h a t i s gr e a t e r than 80 degrees o f f the wind, t h i s e f f e c t reduced d r a s t i - c a l l y t h e i r p r a c t i c a l c a p a b i l i t y of making r e a l gains to windward i n any s o r t s of sea but f l a t ones. Beating w i t h a two-masted s h i p had i t s own kinds of p e r i l s . I t was q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t too much of a downwind yaw would c r e a t e enough wind pressure on the mizzen to send the sh i p rebounding too f a r i n t o the wind, w i t h r e - s u l t s t h a t c o u l d be l i t t l e s h o r t of c a t a s t r o p h i c . In other words, the advent of the second s a i l made i t p o s s i b l e to manage bigger ships i n higher winds but the problem of the c o n t r o l of r o t a t i o n was s t i l l f a r from being f u l l y s o l v e d . N i c c o l o da Poggibonsi's r e l a t i o n of a voyage on a sh i p r i g g e d i n t h i s manner c l e a r l y demonstrates t h a t t h i s k i n d of v e s s e l c o u l d not take severe adverse weather much bet- t e r than a cog. U l t i m a t e l y , l i k e a cog, she had to seek a haven or make a c o s t l y run f o r i t . "On the day s i x of A p r i l of the year 1346 of Our Lord, i n the morning, we crossed o u r s e l v e s and embarked on a sh i p w i t h two masts and two crowsnests, and i n the name of the Lord we made s a i l : thus we t r a v e l l e d s e v e r a l days. Then we had a c o n t r a r y wind, thus we went making tacks over the sea, now towards here, now towards t h e r e ; and a f t e r the t h i r d day [of making tacks] we had a favourable wind, and we made a good d i s t a n c e w i t h a strong wind a s t e r n ; and then f o r some, days we had a c o n t r a r y g a l e , so t h a t we took refuge i n I s c h i a v o n i a [ I s t r a ] at a c i t y t h a t i s c a l l e d Puola [ P u l a ] . We remained there a few days ..." 58 The d i s t a n c e between Venice and Pula i s 68 m i l e s , and t h i s i s a l l they had to show f o r perhaps e i g h t or more days of s a i l i n g . Obviously the r i g was very poor at h o l d - ing i t s ground when making t a c k s , and i t would loose a great deal more than i t was capable of making. To t h i s l o s s they had to add the stay i n Pula f o r a few days, w a i t i n g f o r a favourable wind. E v e n t u a l l y they l e f t , on Good F r i d a y , and met w i t h f u r t h e r t r o u b l e s : "We were a s h o r t time at sea and l o ! a con- t r a r y wind came up, t h a t was pushing us toward d e s t r u c t i o n onto the shore; and us dropping the s a i l , the wind^was so strong t h a t i t made i t f a l l i n the water." In order not to drop the s a i l i n the water the s h i p had to be swung i n t o the wind w h i l e the s a i l came down, a necessary . p r a c t i c e w i t h a l a t e e n or any k i n d of t r i a n g u l a r s a i l , s i n c e such s a i l s cannot be f u r l e d upwards. A f t e r the s a i l f e l l i n the water the s h i p would become un-manageable and d r i f t out of c o n t r o l . Poggibonsi d e s c r i b e s a scene of u t t e r p a n i c , as the s h i p was r a p i d l y c l o s i n g on the shore, u n t i l i t was about "two a r b a l e s t - s h o t s from i t " and he was 4 making h i m s e l f ready to jump f o r i t . At t h a t p o i n t they had a break: "While we were thus going toward d e s t r u c t i o n onto the shore, the wind eased and the s a i l o r s , w i t h very great e f f o r t , took the s a i l i n , com- p l e t e l y soaked; and immediately t h i s was under- stood to be a [good] omen, and they c a s t the an- 59 chors i n t o the sea, but not soon enough t h a t the s h i p would av o i d coming c l o s e to the r o c k [ s ] . I t happened t h a t one of the rudders was damaged and to r e p a i r i t we stayed ... i n the s a i d c i t y [of Pula] ten days." In due course they reached Mothoni (Greece) and they l e f t t h i s harbour on the f i r s t of May, e a r l y i n the mor- nin g . They went some way towards t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n , but by evening they were b a t t l i n g a storm t h a t i n the end sank nine other ships . Poggibonsi's s h i p was new and s t o u t and s u r v i v e d , but not without paying a heavy p r i c e i n damaged cargo, a s " w e l l as i n d i s t a n c e l o s t : "And t h i s storm took us back one hundred and f i f t y [Venetian] miles and put us back i n the G u l f of Venice [the A d r i a t i c Sea] i n one 7 s i n g l e day and n i g h t " . In a day of good wind t h a t s h i p Q could cover 180 n a u t i c a l miles , t u r n i n g out an average speed of 7.5 knots. She was o b v i o u s l y a very good s a i l e r at reaching and running, but next to u s e l e s s at going to windward over rough seas. The reasons f o r t h i s k i n d of performance are not d i f f i c u l t to see. The c a s t l e s , t y p i c a l of t h i s type of c r a f t , caused an i n o r d i n a t e amount of windage, and consequently leeway. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e to say whether the p o t e n t i a l degree of w e a t h e r l i n e s s of t h i s s h i p , owed to her l a t e e n s a i l s , c o u l d have compensated f o r t h i s f l a w at a l l , even under a manageable f o r c e of wind. Under heavy s t r e s s , when she could have been sent by the mizzen to rebound i n t o the wind, prudence r e q u i r e d t h a t 60 she s a i l wider t a c k s , so as to a l l o w f o r a g r e a t e r margin of s a f e t y f o r the mansail. When s a i l i n g wider tacks she o b v i o u s l y could not hold her ground. Under those circum- stances the m a i n s a i l was the o n l y source of p r o p u l s i o n , the mizzen p r o v i d i n g the p r e c a r i o u s balance to windward and the r a t i o of progress versus leeway would have favour- 9 ed the l a t t e r . Another type of two-masted s h i p was the e a r l y c a r - rack, known to have e x i s t e d from the l a t e f o u r t e e n t h cen- t u r y , r i g g e d w i t h a square main and a l a t e e n mizzen, the mainmast being stepped forward of amidships. The e a r l i e s t known i l l u s t r a t i o n of a s h i p of t h i s type i s i n the P i z z i - gani A t l a s of 1 3 6 7 ^ . The o r i g i n s of t h i s r i g are unknown. Probably i t was the r e s u l t of adding a t r i a n g u l a r mizzen to s t a b i l i z e a s q u a r e - s a i l e d s h i p . Landstrom speculates t h a t the l a r g e r single-masted s q u a r e - s a i l e d v e s s e l s would have been next to i m p o s s i b l e to keep on course i n c e r t a i n circumstances and t h a t Mediterranean s a i l o r s voyaging be- yond the P i l l a r s of Hercules were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r adding 11 the l a t e e n mizzen to such ships . A well-known model of a two-masted c a r r a c k i s the s o - c a l l e d Mataro Ship of the Maritiem Museum P r i n s Hendrik i n Rotterdam. O r i g i n a l l y t h i s model was kept i n the Church of Mataro, near B a r c e l o - na. Landstrom's s p e c u l a t i o n i s based on the f a c t t h a t the h u l l and the r i g g i n g of the mainmast of t h i s model are 61 s i m i l a r to those to be seen i n many i l l u s t r a t i o n s of single-masted s h i p s of the time. No d e t a i l s about the performance of two-masted c a r r a c k s are known. The f a c t of having a square s a i l as the main source of p r o p u l s i o n would not make t h i s c r a f t a b e t t e r candidate f o r success- f u l windward s a i l i n g than the two-masted s h i p w i t h two la t e e n s a i l s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y at l e a s t , i t c o u l d have been the b e t t e r downwind s a i l e r . 62 Notes to Chapter I I I . 1. On the occasion of the Seventh Crusade King Louis IX ordered a f l e e t of 120 t r a n s p o r t s to be b u i l t at Genoa and Venice. According to E. A n g e l u c c i and A. C u c a r i these ships had the f o l l o w i n g dimensions: o v e r a l l length 84 f e e t ; l e n g t h at the w a t e r l i n e 57 f e e t ; beam 20 f e e t ; height of the s i d e s 20 1/2 f e e t . See E. A n g e l u c c i & A. C u c a r i , Ships, (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 19 77), p. 52. 2. N. Pog g i b o n s i , Op. C i t . , pp. 8-9. 3. I b i d . , pp. 9-10. 4. I b i d . , p. 10. 5. I b i d . , p. 11. 6. The waters around Mothoni always had a high concentra- t i o n of t r a f f i c , as i t was a compulsory port of c a l l f o r a l l home-bound Venetian s h i p s , i n order to r e p o r t to the a u t h o r i t i e s s i g h t i n g s of p i r a t e s h i p s . Out- bound masters would c a l l there i n order to decide whether to proceed alone or i n convoy, depending on the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d . Poggibonsi's s h i p had c a l - l e d a t Mothoni f o r t h i s reason. 7. N. Poggibonsi, Op. C i t . , pp. 11-12. 8. I b i d . , p. 18. 9. As the wind i n c r e a s e s so do the waves. A be a t i n g s h i p w i l l begin to yaw and, as a matter of prudence, a master w i l l ease the s h i p and p o i n t her on wider t a c k s . With the in c r e a s e d wind the s h i p w i l l t r a v e l f a s t e r , but only up to a c e r t a i n percentage of her h u l l speed. At the same time the e f f e c t s of windage - on s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s such as the c a s t l e s i n c r e a s e more r a p i d l y ( i n a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n to the square of the wind v e l o c i t y ) and leeway i n c r e a s e s a c c o r d i n g l y . Fourteenth-century s a i l o r s were concerned w i t h f i g h t - i n g o f f p i r a t e s , and would s a c r i f i c e performance to defence. P i r a t e ships had c a s t l e s , as w e l l , and t h e r e f o r e the compromise i n performance was not very c r i t i c a l . Sanseverino d e s c r i b e s an encounter w i t h a Genoese p i r a t e s h i p w i t h i n s i g h t of the c i t y of Rhodes. The f i r s t concern of the master of S a n s e v e r i - no ' s g a l l e y was then to gain sea-room to windward on h i s adversary and made a tack a l l the way to Turkey. 63 The p i r a t e c o u l d not s a i l as c l o s e to the wind as the g a l l e y and l o s t h i s quarry. The g a l l e y wasted one day as a r e s u l t of t h i s encounter. The presence of p i r a t e s a f f e c t e d the economics of s h i p p i n g w e l l be- yond the immediate c o s t represented by the m a t e r i a l l o s s e s due to captures and s i n k i n g s . The n e c e s s i t y f o r c a s t l e s d i m i n i s h e d the o v e r a l l economy of s h i p performance to an extent t h a t i s not c a l c u l a b l e . Fur- ther time was l o s t forming convoys. Ships t r a v e l i n g alone had to go to po r t s from where convoys s a i l e d . Squadrons of e s c o r t g a l l e y s were kept by the Vene- t i a n s at Mothoni and Koroni (Greece). 10. B. Landstrbm, Op. C i t . , p. 91. 11. I b i d . , p. 92. 64 CHAPTER IV MULTI-MASTED SHIPS The most r e l e v a n t f a c t o r t h a t made the three-masted ship an a l l - w e a t h e r c r a f t and a v e r s a t i l e f i g h t e r , was her c a p a b i l i t y , i n most s i t u a t i o n s , of being q u i c k l y and simply turned about by a l t e r i n g the balance of the s a i l p l a n , to meet a l l circumstances. I t was j u s t as easy to b r i n g her about a g a i n , when the emergency was over, and resume the proper course. The most severe f l a w of the m i z z e n s a i l i n a two- masted c r a f t was t h a t i t was l i a b l e to send a be a t i n g s h i p f a r t h e r i n t o the wind t h a t was intended, at the worst p o s s i b l e moment, at the surgi n g of a gust of wind. A small foremast w i t h a l i t t l e f o r e s a i l would o f f s e t t h i s tendency e f f e c t i v e l y , and so the three-masted s h i p was born. Three-masted ships e x i s t e d i n Venice and Genoa, and p o s s i b l y elsewhere, at the beginning of the f i f t e e n t h cen- t u r y . 1 The e a r l i e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n of a three-masted shi p i s i n a Spanish bowl, b e l i e v e d to be of the e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h century, kept i n the V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum i n London.-The s e a l of Louis de Bourbon i s the e a r l i e s t dated 2 i l l u s t r a t i o n (1466). In the s p r i n g of 1458 Sanseverino voyaged on a three-masted g a l l e y and i n the winter of 1458-1459 on a three-masted s was a l r e a d y common p r a c t i c e , were experienced and seasoned h i p . Handling these vessels, and t h e i r masters and crews at t h e i r t r a d e . Tree-masted v e s s e l s could be balanced to p o i n t i n any d i r e c t i o n w i t h i n the p h y s i c a l l i m i t s s et by the geometry of shrouds and yards. S a i l i n g such a s h i p on a steady course was a matter of a d j u s t i n g the mizzen and f o r e s a i l sheets to minimize the work of the rudder and i t s ensuing drag. D r a s t i c changes of course to windward would be made by reducing the amount of wind c a r r i e d by the f o r e s a i l , as a f i r s t measure, and then by r e s e t t i n g the remaining s a i l s , u n t i l a new balance was a c q u i r e d . S i m i l a r l y , a change downwind would be s t a r t e d by decreasing the e f f o r t of the m i z z e n s a i l . Sanseverino never mentions the rudder or the t i l l e r when d e s c r i b i n g changes of course, and only once or twice on other occasions throughout h i s d i a r y , but he i n v a r i a b l y repeats "they r e s e t t h e i r s a i l s " , i n a l l the ins t a n c e s where a change of course i s re p o r t e d . When on a dead nan such a s h i p would be almost s e l f - s t e e r i n g . With the mizzen f u r l e d , or reduced, the p r i n c i - p a l press of wind was on the main. The f o r e s a i l would be s h i e l d e d by the main and do no work, unless the sh i p s t r a y e d o f f course and then t h i s s a i l would become exposed 66 to the wind, with the e f f e c t of sending the ship back back downwind, onto her course. This technique would make broaching impossible. I t was a very ancient method, having been p r a c t i c e d by the downwind s a i l o r s of a n t i g u i t y , who used an artemon on the bow f o r t h i s very reason. Sanseve- r i n o describes a free run under s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s on a t h. dark n i g h t , on the 6 of December- 1458: " at about the f i f t h hour of the n i g h t the Levante and S c i r o c c o [East-South-East] wind s t a r t e d to blow very f r e s h , where- upon the master and the s a i l o r s r e s e t the s a i l s , took very g l a d l y the s a i d wind on the s t e r n and s a i l e d very s u c c e s s f u l l y and g l a d l y f o r the r e s t of that night and .., they lowered the m i z z e n s a i l as f a r as they could f o r t h e i r s a f e t y . " 3 On a reach, a f t e r balancing the f o r e and the mizzen she was pure pleasure, according to Sanseverino. He de- s c r i b e s a s i m i l a r occurrence on a three-masted g a l l e y on st May 21 1458 i n the v i c i n i t y of Sibenik (Dalmatia), w i t h these words: "At that time [4 p.m.] the wind c a l l e d Maestro [North-West] s t a r t e d to blow, from astern of the g a l l e y and the master ordered a l l three s a i l s to be reset and w i t h the s a i d wind they were making seven or e i g h t [Venetian] miles per hour. And because u n t i l t h a t time they never had had any s t e r n winds, everybody was c h e e r f u l and joyous, not j u s t the p i l g r i m s , but even the s a i l o r s . Because of t h e i r gladness a number of them, young and f i t of body, gathered together around one of 67 them standing near a cable which the s a i l o r s c a l l the mainstay and i t i s the cable t h a t holds the mainmast of the g a l l e y , and climbed the s a i d c a b l e , some reaching the crowsnest and some the main yard and they climbed on each ot h e r s ' s h o u l - ders so t h a t they were touching the crowsnest Besides t h i s , they were c l i m b i n g up and down the ropes and the s a i l w i t h ... a g i l i t y ..." Obviously the sh i p r e q u i r e d very l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from the crew w h i l e on t h i s course. This v e s s e l was r i g g e d w i t h three l a t e e n s a i l s and t h e r e f o r e her most e f f i c i e n t mode of s a i l i n g was a broad reach. This e x p l a i n s why, having a s t e r n wind, the master ordered the s a i l s r e s e t . A wind on the s t e r n q u a r t e r would make a l l three s a i l p rovide power. By ba l a n c i n g the f o r e and the mizzen the course would be kept almost a u t o m a t i c a l l y . The s a i l o r s stopped f r o l i c k i n g as soon as the wind s h i f t e d : "They could have performed many other f e a t s i f t h a t wind had continued, but i t d i e d a f t e r a- bout two hours and a c o n t r a r y one sprang up, r e - q u i r i n g t h j i t they pay a t t e n t i o n to the trimming of the s h i p . " T r a v e l l i n g to windward was s t i l l d i f f i c u l t . Three- masted ships could make modest gains a g a i n s t a wind, but leeway was s t i l l a very severe problem. In heavy weather a three-masted g a l l e y , or a s h i p , would make some headway or loose ground almost i n d i f f e r e n t l y . P i t c h i n g would cause yaw, w i t h the i n h e r e n t . l o s s of ground, so t h a t i t appears t h a t these v e s s e l s could make gains only over a f a i r l y 68 smooth sea. Sanseverino's d i a r y of November 11, 1458 rec o r d s : "... sin c e the sea was not very rough, w i t h a l l t h i s making tacks they advanced enough to see the rock of S a p i e n t i a . " On the f o l l o w i n g n i g h t "the same Provenza [Westerly wind] p r e v a i l e d and they had to make tacks con- t i n u o u s l y , but, as the sea was calm, they n e v e r t h e l e s s made some g a i n s . " 7 S i m i l a r comments are to be found s p r i n k l e d throughout the book. A r a r e wealth of s t a t i s t i c a l data on the general per- formance of f i f t e e n t h century three-masted v e s s e l s , i n a l l p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n s of s a i l i n g , can be found i n S a n s e v e r i - no ' s d i a r y of h i s p i l g r i m a g e to the Holy Land. His out- bound voyage was made on a g a l l e y and h i s data regarding the windward tacks made by t h i s v e s s e l provide some of the most accurate i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r a r e a l i s t i c d e t e r - mination of the l e v e l of performance a t t a i n a b l e w i t h f i f - t eenth century r i g g i n g and gear. She was an e x c e l l e n t s a i l e r , capable of doing at l e a s t 140 n a u t i c a l miles i n a good day, as she d i d on June 4th, 1458, under i d e a l con- d i t i o n s , t u r n i n g out a speed of 5.8 knots, a r e s p e c t a b l e r a t e f o r a h u l l designed to be rowed. On the other hand, when s a i l i n g to windward, her performance was poor. On the 2 4 t h of May, 1458, as they were approaching a harbour making t a c k s : "being f i v e miles o f f Ragusa, ... because of the c o n t r a r y wind c a l l e d Levante [East] i t took s i x hours 69 9 to do what i n good weather would have taken but one". The i n d i c a t i o n i s that t h i s g a l l e y was capable of making tacks at a r a t i o of 1 to 6 to the d i r e c t course, o r , at an angle of 80 degrees to the wind. th On the 28 of May, i n the v i c i n i t y of Kotor (Dalmatia) : "In the morning the wind s t a r t e d to blow from S c i r o c c o [South-East], which was cont r a r y to them, and caused the sea to be t u r b u l e n t . ... However they kept s a i l i n g close-hauled and beating to windward as cl o s e as they c o u l d , day and n i g h t , [and] .... the next morning they found that they had made good about f i f t e e n [Venetian] m i l e s " (about 9 n a u t i c a l miles) 1 0 These tacks were even Wider, at about 8 7 degrees. t h On the 29 of May, i n f r o n t of the c a s t l e of U l c i n j (Dalmatia): "The seas [started] to become bigger than ever, [as] the contrary S c i r o c c o [South-East] wind was s t i l l p e r severing, so that they stayed i n the same p o s i - t i o n almost the whole day ... and so, they re-mained a l l day making tacks i n s i g h t of the s a i d c a s t l e ..."^ Since they d i d not move, the r e s u l t s of the t o t a l e f f o r t f o r the day i s equal to tacks of 90 degrees. Throughout the d i a r y of the outbound leg of the voyage s i m i l a r r e s u l t s are r e - ported r e g u l a r l y , as are records of net l o s s e s , f o r tacks greater than 90 degrees. 70 S i m i l a r data are a v a i l a b l e f o r the three-masted s h i p on which Sanseverino t r a v e l l e d from Acre to Ancona i n the w i n t e r of 1458-59. This s h i p was a f a s t s a i l e r . For example on the 2 6t*1 of October she ran from sunset to "some time past midnight" a d i s t a n c e of 60 n a u t i c a l miles 12 under bare pole before a storm. On November 7, on a broad reach, she made 180 n a u t i c a l m iles i n twenty-four hours, which gives an average speed of 7.5 knots, very 13 l i k e l y the h u l l speed of t h a t c r a f t . Running before a very severe storm under bare poles d u r i n g the n i g h t 19/20 December she was t r a v e l l i n g at speeds between 6 and 7 k n o t s 1 4 . However, when b e a t i n g , her performance, l i k e t h a t of the g a l l e y , was r a t h e r i n d i f f e r e n t . On the 16 of October, f i v e days out of Acre, i n the Eastern Mediterranean: "... a very f r e s h wind from Maestro [North-West] came up, which caused them to make tacks a l l n i g h t , at times towards Barbary, at times t o - 15 wards Turkey, without g a i n i n g any headway." I t took three days i n v a r i a b l e winds f o r t h i s s h i p to double Cape Matapan, on the Mani P e n i n s u l a (Greece), which they had approached on November 8 t h : "they s i g h t e d Cape of Mayno [Mani] ... but dur i n g the n i g h t [the winds] changed 71 to Garbino [South-West], sometimes to ... Provenza [West], sometimes to Maestro [North-West], a l l c o n t r a r y winds, so 1 £> t h a t they gained l i t t l e or nothing on t h e i r t r a v e l . " On t h November 9 "... i n the morning they found themselves near and upon the same Cape of Mayno, but, n e v e r t h e l e s s , as the Ponente [West] wind was f r e s h e n i n g , they kept on making tacks a l l day, without ever being able to double i t and without making any progr e s s , to the great c h a g r i n and 1 "7 th. t r o u b l e of a l l . " On November 10 , "... i n the morning they found t h a t they had d r i f t e d downwind d u r i n g the n i g h t , r a t h e r than having made good any d i s t a n c e , because they were s t i l l abeam of the s a i d Cape of Mayno, but out at sea and more than t h i r t y m iles from i t ; and as i t began to blow a l i t t l e Greco [North-East] and a l i t t l e Tramonta- na [North] and sometimes there was a c o n t r a r y wind, s t i l l they kept at i t long enough, so tha t at about midday they 18 doubled the s a i d Cape of Mayno". This p a r t i c u l a r voyage from the Levant to Venice, being made i n the w i n t e r , was dogged by c o n t r a r y winds, as was to be expected i n t h a t season i n t h a t p a r t of the Mediterranean. I t i s not su r - p r i s i n g t h a t Sanseverino r e p o r t s many s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l - t i e s . Although these records f e r e n t a b i l i t y to windward, l i t t l e ground, o v e r a l l . The are i n d i c a t i v e of an i n d i f - t h i s s h i p would loose very master could keep on t r y i n g as 72 long as needed, u n t i l he made the next p o i n t of land. Un- der more severe weather c o n d i t i o n s , twice he r e s o r t e d to running before the wind, but the runs were r e l a t i v e l y - s h o r t . I t appears t h a t he would e l e c t to do so when b i g seas s t a r t e d to break over the gunwales at n i g h t and began to toss h i s deck cargo around. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to know whether h i s d e c i s i o n s were born of prudence or d i r e neces- s i t y . During the day he could assess the s i z e and the power of each wave as i t came, and ease h i s s h i p over the worst ones as he saw f i t . I t was simply a matter of l o o s - ening the mizzen sheet when the bow s t a r t e d to l i f t , and the s h i p would t u r n to take the wave on the s t e r n q u a r t e r . In the dark he was l i k e l y to misjudge some of these waves, and running would be the best p a r t of v a l o u r . A t h i r d run, n e a r l y d i s a s t r o u s , was made out of extreme n e c e s s i t y on the n i g h t of December 19, the rudder having proved inadequate to hold the s h i p on course under a s i n g l e reduced s a i l , a f t e r the f o r e and mizzen had to be dropped. There i s no qu e s t i o n t h a t by the f i f t e e n t h century s a i l o r s were f u l l y capable of hand l i n g t h e i r ships by s a i l s alone and Sanseverino d e s c r i b e s a dramatic event where t h i s type of maneuver was c a l l e d f o r to save the sh i p from being run aground i n the Gulf of Kalamata (Greece). 73 "Sunday, the 12 of November, w i t h the Pro- venza [West] wind s t i l l p r e v a i l i n g , but very l i g h t , and the sea being almost calm, they kept on making tacks as usual u n t i l midnight, s t i l l g a i n i n g some small d i s t a n c e . I t was about midnight and the s h i p on a tack towards the land and not f a r from i t , when the s a i d Provenza d i e d , so t h a t the s h i p had no motion and almost every man was a s l e e p . And w h i l e e v e r y t h i n g was l i k e t h a t , a l l of a sudden the Levante and S c i r o c c o (East-South- East] wind rose, strong and f o r c e f u l , which was very f a v o u r a b l e to t h e i r voyage, except i t caught the s a i d s h i p so pointed [towards the l a n d , as the wind had d i e d d u r i n g an inshore tack] and so c l o s e to the land t h a t i t almost threw her aground and they found themselves i n a very great danger. But the master, the o f f i c e r s and the other s a i l o r s were immediately on t h e i r f e e t and ... immediately r e s e t the s a i l s and took her f a r t h e r out to sea." . I t must be noted t h a t the s h i p was t o t a l l y becalmed, so there was no s t e e r i n g a v a i l a b l e . The shore had become suddenly a lee one, so they had to t u r n the s h i p q u i c k l y and s a i l her o f f . Only a great d e a l of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h i s type of manoeuver would have allowed them to succeed. This s t y l e of seamanship was i n h e r i t e d from a long l i n e of generations s t r u g g l i n g w i t h the e a r l i e r , l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t - ed r i g s . I t was t h a t experience which made p o s s i b l e handl- ing h e a v i e r ships by d i v i d i n g the s a i l plan among an i n - c r e a s i n g number of s a i l s (Figure 12, p. 74). Seamanship was r a p i d l y e v o l v i n g towards the mastery of c r a f t b i g enough to c a r r y r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e crews and a l l t h e i r gear across the vastness of the oceans, and to b r i n g them back c o n s i s t e n t l y 2 ^ . 7 4 Figure 12 Already 'by the beginning of the f i f t e e n t h century ships were making the f i r s t d e l i b e r a t e f o r a y s f a r from land i n the A t l a n t i c , west and south of Europe. These ships were capable of being s a i l e d i n o perations of d i s - covery, and e v e n t u a l l y of commerce and war, i n areas of the world where secondary bases t h a t could be reached i n case of bad weather or shortages d i d not e x i s t . The e a r l y 21 c a r a v e l s employed i n the e x p e d i t i o n s t h a t l e d to the d i s c o v e r y of Madeira, the West Coast of A f r i c a and of the route to I n d i a were round s h i p s , about s i x t y f e e t l o n g , had small s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s so as to reduce windage and had two masts r i g g e d w i t h l a t e e n s a i l s . This type of c a r a v e l developed i n t o a three-masted l a t e e n e e r , c a l l e d c a r a v e l a l a t i n a , favoured f o r e x p l o r a t i o n because of her weather- l i n e s s , which allowed her g r e a t e r manoeuverability when working along unknown shores. V a r i a n t r i g s and h u l l s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them a l l over Europe and m u l t i p l e square s a i l s c o u l d be r i g g e d on them, o b t a i n i n g a s a i l p l a n t h a t was s p e c i f i c of c a r a v e l a s redondas or naos. Navigators un- derstood the b e n e f i t s of t h i s type of r i g f o r long voyages over oceans i n regions where the winds were known to blow from constant d i r e c t i o n s . Columbus' Santa Maria, a nao, had a complex s a i l p l a n , c o n s i s t i n g of a square m a i n s a i l t h a t c o u l d be augmented w i t h two bonnets, a main t o p s a i l and a square f o r e s a i l . In a d d i t i o n to these s a i l s she was provided w i t h a s p r i t s a i l f o r downwind c o u r s e - c o n t r o l and 76 w i t h a small l a t e e n s a i l t h a t could be h o i s t e d on the mizzen f o r balance on windward courses (Figure 13, p.77). On a reach w i t h g e n t l e winds a l l these s a i l s , and more, 2 2 could be used at the same time. The s i z e of these ships e n t a i l e d very l a r g e r o t a t i o - n a l momentums so t h a t s t e e r i n g them was too heavy and dangerous an o p e r a t i o n to permit the use of the t i l l e r d i r e c t i l y , even to c o n t r o l yaw. The w h i p s t a f f , a l r e a d y known i n the t h i r t e e n t h century, became mandatory. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s device was an a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of the l e v e r . "... the rudder, i n s t e a d of j u s t passing over the s t e r n p o s t , went through an opening i n the s t e r n . There was a bar attached to the t i l l e r at a 90° angle. The helmsman handling the bar c o u l d stand higher and see the a c t i o n of the s h i p . For l a r g e r ships a fulcrum had to be added above the p o i n t where the t i l l e r met the bar so t h a t the helmsman co u l d move the heavy rudder. Moving i t i n one d i r e c t i o n made the rudder move i n the other ... B u i l d e r s added the fulcrum which made the mechanism e f f e c t i v e some time i n the f o u r t e e n t h centu- 2 3 r y " . L i k e a l l l e v e r s , the w h i p s t a f f reduced the t o t a l amount of movement of the t i l l e r , probably to l i t t l e more than what was r e q u i r e d f o r the o r d i n a r y o p e r a t i o n of c o u n t e r a c t i n g yaw. By the f i f t e e n t h century ships were c o n t r o l l e d i n a manner t h a t can be d e f i n e d as modern, The nao Santa Maria. An i d e a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . (From: J . M. H i d a l g o - M a r t i n e z , Columbus' Ships, 1966).P- Figure 13 78 i n s o f a r as la r g e changes i n d i r e c t i o n were e f f e c t e d by- smooth, but d r a s t i c changes i n the balance of the s a i l p l a n , a b a s i c method t h a t was not to be a l t e r e d even by the appearance of the modern s t e e r i n g wheel. The f i n a l development of t h i s p r i n c i p l e was the ad- d i t i o n of a f o u r t h mast, the bonaventure, and of a square s a i l f l y i n g from the bowsprit. This s a i l p l a n , found to be in d i s p e n s a b l e on l a r g e r s h i p s , made i t s appearance towards the end of the f i f t e e n t h century o r , r a t h e r , i t was by t h i s time common enough to be d e p i c t e d i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s . The process had been hastened by the d i s c o v e r y t h a t the for e and mizzen s a i l s , i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r course-keeping, d i d not have to be as small as had been p r e v i o u s l y thought necessary. The car r a c k w i t h a l a r g e sguare f o r e s a i l was one of the e a r l y r e s u l t s . This s h i p was held on a windward course by a l a t e e n mizzen and she was i n a l l c e r t a i n t y not more e f f i c i e n t i n t h i s mode than Sanseverino's t h r e e - masted s h i p s , u n t i l a t o p s a i l was added to the mainmast, the combination r e s u l t i n g i n the t a l l r i g i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r p o s i t i v e and su s t a i n e d performance to windward. This performance c o u l d be enhanced by a l a r g e r mizzen and a l l three s a i l s c o u l d be used f o r d r i v i n g the s h i p . As the amount of s a i l adjustment r e q u i r e d f o r s e t t i n g a ship on a course i s very s m a l l , l a r g e mizzens and larg e f o r e s a i l s proved to be too unwieldy f o r t h i s type of work. Thus the bonaventure mast w i t h a small s a i l , c a l l e d the 'bonaven- t u r e s a i l ' , was rigged a f t of the mizzen f o r adjustments to windward. The square s p r i t s a i l on the bowsprit was used f o r downwind runs. The mainmast c a r r i e d a t o p s a i l , as w e l l . The Venetian c a r r a c k of about 1500 was t y p i c a l of t h i s k i n d c r a f t , together w i t h the nao and the g a l l e o n , t h a t c o u l d be s a i l e d to windward as a matter of c h o i c e , r a t h e r than as a matter of n e c e s s i t y . Unquestionably, the best tacks t h a t these ships c o u l d make were c l o s e r than 80 degrees. Three- and four-masted ships heralded a new age i n the economy of n a v i g a t i o n . A more demanding, d a r i n g and e f f i c i e n t s t y l e of s h i p management ensued. With some luck i n the weather ships could be s a i l e d non-stop over great d i s t a n c e s , f o r example from the Mediterranean to the North Sea, a l l year round. Having to make tacks i n c o n t r a r y winds s t i l l reduced ranges d r a m a t i c a l l y , due mainly to s t o r e s s p o i l a g e and to shortages of v i t a l needs. Sanseve- r i n o ' s 1458-59 voyage from Acre to Venice was planned by the master of the s h i p as a b o l d , d i r e c t , non-stop run. He was so sure of the performance of h i s c r a f t , as to speed and w e a t h e r l i n e s s , t h a t he refused to.go to B e i r u t to j o i n a convoy t h a t was being formed there to p r o t e c t the B e i r u t g a l l e y s , about to r e t u r n from t h e i r F a l l run, from p i r a t e s . For the purpose of enhancing speed he a l s o took 80 i n o n l y as much b a l l a s t as he deemed s t r i c t l y necessary. This d e c i s i o n gave h i s s h i p higher freeboard when be a t i n g and reduced d r a f t and r e s i s t a n c e . This gamble d i d not pay o f f as w e l l as he had hoped. Contrary winds slowed h i s progress to the p o i n t t h a t he ran out of food at about one t h i r d of the way and had to stop at Melos, an i s l a n d i n the Greek A r c h i p e l a g o , where p r o v i s i o n turned out to be scar c e . He d i d manage to add s e v e r a l boatloads of rocks and g r a v e l to h i s b a l l a s t , however. The next stage brought him as f a r as Mothoni, about t w o - t h i r d s of the way, and from t h e r e , i n what was supposed to be the f i n a l l e g of the voyage, he had to make a stop i n Ancona, l e s s than one hundred miles from Porec, where he would have taken the p i l o t f o r e n t e r i n g the harbour of Venice. Stoppages of t h i s k i n d depended on the luck of the wi n t e r weather but, otherwise, multi-masted ships could be r e l i e d on to reach t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n s a l l year round, r e - ga r d l e s s of t h e i r type and s i z e . The great number and va- r i e t y of ships Sanseverino met i n a s i n g l e w i n t e r t r i p are evidence of t h a t . A l l seemed to be a f f e c t e d by the weather more or l e s s to the same ext e n t . Among the ships re p o r t e d by Sanseverino was a very l a r g e g a l l e a s s , so b i g as to be comparable, i n h i s o p i n i o n , to a palace i n a c i t y , and a l i g h t g a l l e y of the Knights of Rhodes t h a t was e s c o r t i n g her. The g a l l e a s s was a l a r g e oared v e s s e l r i g g e d l i k e a 81 s h i p , w i t h a square main and two l a t e e n s a i l s f o r s t e e r i n g her; the l i g h t g a l l e y had three l a t e e n s a i l s , and was as maneuverable as the c a r a v e l w i t h s i m i l a r r i g g i n g . These two ships t r a v e l l e d together and sought refuge at Melos at the same time as Sanseve r i n o 1 s s h i p . Another Venetian s h i p 24 of some three-hundred b o t t i , a l s o a r r i v e d at t h i s 25 harbour, b a t t e r e d by the storm. A l l these v e s s e l s l e f t on the same day and, w h i l e b e a t i n g t h e i r way out of Melos, they met a g a l l e y t h a t was making tacks and l a t e r , d u r i n g the same stage of the voyage, a second one, loaded w i t h malmsey wine, a l s o b e a t i n g on her way home. Both were r e t u r n i n g from a recent m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n at Euboea. F i n a l l y , a p i r a t e was a l s o out i n the same' weather, a t t r a c t e d by the heavy t r a f f i c , and gave them an un s u c c e s s f u l chase. A l l the above s h i p s , i n c l u d i n g the p i r a t e ' s , a r r i v e d a few days l a t e r at Mothoni, w i t h i n a few hours of one another. There they were j o i n e d by another s h i p , and by two other g a l l e y s , not b e t t e r d e f i n e d . L a t e r during t h a t s t a y , and at the he i g h t of a very severe storm, f i v e l i g h t g a l l e y s a r r i v e d at the same harbour, a p p a r e n t l y q u i t e u n r u f f l e d . A cargo boat from Ragusa d i d not manage to enter t h a t haven and was l o s t w i t h a l l hands. A few days l a t e r another l i g h t g a l l e y j o i n e d the f i r s t f i v e , coming from Crete and having on her s t e r n the same weather t h a t was pr e v e n t i n g Sanseverino's ship from s e t t i n g out. These s i x g a l l e y s were supposed to 82 r e p l e n i s h t h e i r stores at Mothoni while w a i t i n g to provide e s c o r t to the B e i r u t and the Alexandria g a l l e y s of the F a l l run, due to a r r i v e i n a short time. Another g a l l e y loaded w i t h sugar was a l s o expected from Cyprus to j o i n 2 6 the same convoy. Later i n the voyage, Sanseverino 1s ship was overtaken by three of the above large g a l l e y s which were proceeding under oars on a calm day. Further s t i l l they met a Candiot c a r a v e l , coming from Venice and on the same day they were overtaken by a f a s t s h i p . loaded w i t h an u n u s a l l y large and expensive cargo of s p i c e s , f o r t y 2 7 days out of Al e x a n d r i a . In the harbour of Ancona they • encountered ten more ships that had a r r i v e d on d i f f e r e n t 2 8 days, seeking refuge from a l o n g - l a s t i n g storm . A l l these events occurred between October 1 2 t h , 1458 and January 1 1 t h , 1459. These records make p o s s i b l e a p r e l i m i n a r y comparison of the economics of winter and summer s a i l i n g with multi-masted s h i p s . Sanseverino places the encounter with the f a s t ship at a point of land c a l l e d Capocesto, f i v e miles South of Sibenik (Dalmatia)- At that p o i n t she had made good, beating or otherwise, 1100 n a u t i c a l miles i n f o r t y days, an average speed of 27.5 miles per day. At the same point Sanseverino's ship had made good 1250 n a u t i c a l miles i n sixty-two days, an average speed of 20.2 miles a day. These times and averages include the stopovers made 83 necessary by the long periods of c o n t r a r y winds and the ensuing shortages on board. In f a v o u r a b l e weather these ships would make 82 n a u t i c a l miles on an average day. During the outbound p a r t of Sanseverino's voyage h i s ves- s e l was at sea f o r a t o t a l of 23 days, during which i t t r a v e l l e d about 1900 n a u t i c a l m i l e s . The l e a s t d a i l y run was 0, i n c o n t r a r y winds, the l a r g e s t 138. In t h i s p a r t i c - u l a r case the stopovers were not i n c l u d e d i n the c a l c u l a - t i o n s , as they were made f o r the purpose of s i g h t - s e e i n g and f o r the comfort of an unusual group of passengers t h a t incuded a c o u s i n of the King of England. Ordinary merchant v e s s e l s were making t h a t run non-stop. I t appears t h a t w i n t e r weather would r e q u i r e three to four times the num- ber of days necessary f o r an e q u i v a l e n t summer voyage. There i s no doubt, however, from the number of ships p l y - i n g the waters, t h a t the outcome was s t i l l e c o nomically v i a b l e . Some stopovers, although f o r c e d , could be made pro d u c t i v e to some e x t e n t , i f the o p p o r t u n i t y arose. The master of Sans e v e r i n o 1 s s h i p managed to s e l l p a r t of h i s cargo of c o t t o n i n Mothoni, w h i l e c o n t r a r y storms prevent- ed him from l e a v i n g t h a t harbour. P a r t of the weight t h a t he had unloaded was r e p l a c e d w i t h b a l l a s t . In the end he made some p r o f i t and was ready to leave w i t h a s h i p t h a t had g r e a t e r freeboard and i n c r e a s e d s t a b i l i t y . In the t o t a l economy of any voyage the manner of c a r r y i n g on business i n r e l a t i o n to the c a p a b i l i t i e s of one's c r a f t 84 was a matter of judgement and experience i n seamanship. This matter i n c l u d e d the dilemma of o v e r l o a d i n g (summer) versus underloading ( w i n t e r ) , and the problem of j u g g l i n g the sum of the weights c a r r i e d , i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r spe- c i f i c g r a v i t y , so as to ensure maximum s t a b i l i t y . A tender s h i p i s compelled to s a i l wider tacks i n order to avoid swamping, and t h i s may r e s u l t i n e x t r a days or even weeks of s a i l i n g . A competent master would have to keep an eye on a l l these d e t a i l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l d u r i n g the w i n t e r season, so as to maximize per diem r e t u r n s . Sanse- v e r i n o 's d i a r y i s very eloquent i n t h i s r e s p e c t . The most r e l e v a n t aspect of voyaging i n the w i n t e r i n v o l v e d a l l the problems of s a i l i n g to windward i n heavy weather and s a i l - ors of the second h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h century were able to cope w i t h them, i f by the s m a l l e s t of margins. However, the new breed of multi-masted ships needed sm a l l e r crews, i n p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r s i z e , and were able to make s h o r t e r times than t h e i r s i n g l e and double-masted r predecessors, and, being capable of s a i l i n g a l l year round, they c o u l d provide g r e a t e r revenues to t h e i r own- e r s . In the case of the o r d i n a r y cog, w i t h a s i n g l e square s a i l , i t had been d i f f i c u l t to keep her s a i l p lan balanced w h i l e on a beat i n high winds over a rough sea and u l - t i m a t e l y she had no a l t e r n a t i v e to running before the wind when she could no longer be s a i l e d . Runs of a day or two 85 before a wind meant some hundreds of miles l o s t , miles to be made up. Two-masted ships were unsafe when pointed to windward i n anything but summer weather and even i n t h a t season they were l i a b l e to loose a great deal of time running and r e c o v e r i n g from a run. B i g ships w i t h a x i a l rudder, three masts and bowsprit c o u l d beat much c l o s e r to the wind, provide g r e a t e r s a f e t y . f o r t h e i r cargo, and, although they would make t r u l y e f f e c t i v e gains to windward w i t h great d i f f i c u l t y , they c o u l d at l e a s t hold t h e i r ground or loose only a l i t t l e . When they could no longer f i g h t to windward t h e i r three s a i l s c o uld be trimmed so t h a t they would heave-to. This was a d e l i c a t e o p e r a t i o n , r e s o r t e d to o n l y i n extreme weather c o n d i t i o n s , and i t i s not known when the technique was f i r s t developed, but f i f - 29 teenth century s a i l o r s were a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r w i t h i t . Heaving-to i s the u l t i m a t e d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n of a m u l t i - masted s h i p , before having to make a run. I t c o n s i s t s of o r i e n t i n g the f o r e s a i l and the m i z z e n s a i l i n such a manner as to cause the s h i p to yaw i n an arc of some 20 to 30 degrees, each s a i l c a t c h i n g and s p i l l i n g the wind a l t e r - n a t e l y , w h i l e the bow i s always kept o f f the wind. The m a i n s a i l , d r a s t i c a l l y reduced, i s set so as to provide no more power than i s r e q u i r e d to ensure t h a t the s h i p does not make sternway. A s h i p i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n of s a i l i n g makes very n e g l i g i b l e progress through the water, onl y enough to prevent the rudder from being pressed backwards 86 and damaged. Her speed i s so low t h a t she never plunges i n t o oncoming seas and she cannot, nor needs, to be s t e e r - ed. Meanwhile she d r i f t s u n c o n t r o l l a b l y along a wholly un- p r e d i c t a b l e t r a j e c t o r y t h a t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t i n a measurable l o s s of ground over long periods of time. This l o s s i s always much l e s s than the one she would s u f f e r on a run. Thus a s h i p caught by a storm i n an ocean can be kept i n t h i s mode f o r days on end, and she would be i n very l i t t l e danger. Only a f t e r t h i s posture became impos- s i b l e to m a i n t a i n , only when three s a i l s could no longer be kept s e t because of the press of wind, would a s h i p have r e s o r t e d to running. Besides, the ease w i t h which a three-masted v e s s e l could be turned about would make the a l t e r n a t i n g of postures between b e a t i n g and running an i n t e r m i t t e n t a f f a i r d u r i n g periods of marginal weather. Long-range n a v i g a t i o n prompted the development of n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s , such as the compass w i t h r o t a t i n g wind- rose and n a u t i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s i n the form of c h a r t s , t a b l e s and r u t t e r s , to supplement the age-old l e a d l i n e and sandglass. While improved n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s were bound to c o n t r i b u t e to the general performance of s h i p s , t h e i r spe- c i f i c b e n e f i t s to winter n a v i g a t i o n are l e s s c l e a r and more d i f f i c u l t to prove, as a s h i p t h a t i s not i n h e r e n t l y strong and p r o p e r l y designed and r i g g e d to withstand the r i g o u r s of w i n t e r storms w i l l r e c e i v e no conceivable ad- 87 vantage by possessing n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s , i n any age. Owing to the l e v e l of technology then a v a i l a b l e , medieval ships fought f o r t h e i r l i v e s more than once on any given voyage, as witnessed by F r e s c o b a l d i , Poggibonsi and Sanseverino, and seamanship alone, born of t r a d i t i o n a l experience, had to see them through. For the purpose of c o a s t a l n a v i g a t i o n data from n a v i - g a t i o n a l a i d s are meanigless unless one's p o s i t i o n i s known w i t h very great accuracy, as a course to any p o i n t on a c h a r t can only be p l o t t e d from a p o i n t t h a t i s known. This k i n d of accuracy was not a v a i l a b l e to medieval masters, because medieval c h a r t s were drawn on a square g r i d . T h e i r designers "took no account of the s p h e r i c i t y of the e a r t h ; the area covered was t r e a t e d as a plane 30 s u r f a c e " . As a consequence medieval c h a r t s favoured ac- curacy of d i s t a n c e s over accuracy of angles. The medieval n a v i g a t o r " d i d not work h i s dead r e c k o n i n g , as a modern n a v i g a t o r does, by a c t u a l l y drawing on the c h a r t ; he c a l c u l a t e d the d i s t a n c e s made good along h i s chosen course, measured w i t h h i s d i v i d e r s the a p p r o p r i a t e l e n g t h on the d i s t a n c e s c a l e , and marked h i s p o s i t i o n by p r i c k i n g the parchment w i t h the p o i n t of the d i v i d e r s . He used h i s w r i t t e n p o r t o l a n o f o r coastwise p i l o t a g e and the c h a r t f o r 31 passages on the open sea." N a v i g a t i n g under s a i l does not r e q u i r e p l o t t i n g a course, as the odds of a s a i l i n g 88 s h i p being able to s a i l a p l o t t e d course are very s m a l l . Under s a i l no two voyages could be the same, as one would only mark on the c h a r t s d a i l y f i x e s , t r y i n g to stay w i t h whatever winds happened to g i v e the best d a i l y runs, and one might have had to s w i t c h courses i n mid-run i f the 32 wind s h i f t e d , so i t was s a i l and r i g changes and not changes i n n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s t h a t were important. Under s t r e s s of weather the man i n .charge of s t e e r i n g had to keep an eye on the s a i l s , watch how e a s i l y h i s s h i p would keep her angle of heel and be s e n s i t i v e to the 3 3 amount of weather th a t he f e l t on the t i l l e r . As the pressure on the t i l l e r v a r i e d he had to a d j u s t the f o r e or the mizzen, w i t h a consequent s h i f t of course. Where he was going was then i m m a t e r i a l , as the t o t a l s a f e t y of the s h i p depended on h i s a l e r t n e s s i n responding to these symptoms. He would c o n s i d e r the readings of a w i l d l y o s c i l l a t i n g r o s e , swinging i n a p o o r l y suspended compass box, of q u i t e secondary concern. Sanseverino d e p i c t s one of many such cases t h a t occurred i n h i s s h i p : "but ... the s t r e n g t h of the c o n t r a r y wind d i d not permit [the master] to a r r i v e at h i s proposed g o a l , and i t was necessary to s t i c k i t out at sea and s t e e r by the wind".^ 4 of course, a master c o u l d p e r i o d i c a l l y take a look at the compass, t r y to average the readings, and endeavour to acqu i r e a mental p i c t u r e of where h i s s h i p might have been going, as 89 compared to where he had intended to s a i l her, so as to make c o r r e c t i o n s when the weather would give him a break. S i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s of n a v i g a t i o n are reported by Sanseve- r i n o d u r i n g h i s voyages from Crete to Rhodes, from Acre to Melos I s l a n d and from Mothoni to Ancona. The f i n a l outcome of a master's n a v i g a t i o n a l e f f o r t s , which i s to say the degree of accuracy of h i s dead reckoning, depended t o t a l l y on h i s mental p i c t u r e of the l o c a t i o n of the v a r i o u s lands i n r e l a t i o n to wind d i r e c t i o n s . These were, i n f a c t , the only p o i n t s marked on most medieval compasses and so courses and bearings were not amenable to mathematical c a l c u l a t i o n s . Even elementary c h a r t i n g problems were im p o s s i b l e to s o l v e . Any s a i l o r can be a witness to cases of dead- reckoning e r r o r s as l a r g e as t h i r t y or f o r t y miles at the end of e i g h t or nine days of wi n t e r f u r y i n the A t l a n t i c . Sanseverino has a humorous anecdote about f i v e o f f i c e r s working s e p a r a t e l y w i t h c h a r t s and d i v i d e r s a f t e r a week i n a storm and then l o o k i n g out f o r land, where, as i t 3 5 turned out, they were seeing clouds . A r e s p o n s i b l e mas- t e r , unsure of h i s dead reckoning a f t e r a few days of making tacks i n murky weather, would be compelled to make a l a n d f a l l somewhere, to a s c e r t a i n whether h i s hunches were c o r r e c t . Such a case i s re p o r t e d by Sanseverino during h i s voyage from Mothoni to Ancona, r e q u i r i n g they 90 make a l a n d f a l l at the l i g h t h o u s e on Saseno I s l a n d before v e n t u r i n g i n t o the A d r i a t i c When c r o s s i n g a f a i r l y l a r g e body of water out of s i g h t of l a n d , the p r a c t i c e was to s a i l as c l o s e to the wind as reasonable, and meet the opposite shore w e l l to the windward of the intended p o i n t of a r r i v a l . Once the coast was s i g h t e d and some mountains or other landmarks were re c o g n i z e d , the master would make a reach or a run f o r h i s d e s t i n a t i o n , s a i l i n g along the s h o r e l i n e . This procedure was f o l l o w e d on Sanseverino's g a l l e y upon ap- 3 7 proaching the coast of I s t r a and again when making the 3 8 f i n a l approach to the coast of the Holy Land . Perhaps the best c o n t r i b u t i o n of the compass i n bad weather, i n t h i s case to s a f e t y , could be t h a t of h e l p i n g a master to make up h i s mind as to where or how f a r he should t r y to f i g h t h i s way i n a storm before t u r n i n g on a dead run f o r a s p e c i f i c haven. His d e c i s i o n would a l l o w him at the end very l i t t l e room f o r c o r r e c t i n g mistakes. But even i n t h i s case he had to have a b e t t e r than f a i r knowledge of h i s 39 p o i n t of departure by o r d i n a r y , v i s u a l means . S a n s e v e r i - no, although h i s d a i l y r e p o r t s c o n t a i n c l e a r l y understand- able nomenclature of s h i p gear and extremely r e l i a b l e records of wind d i r e c t i o n s and courses s a i l e d , very r a r e l y mentions the use of n a v i g a t i o n a l instruments, and i n these cases the l e a d l i n e seems to be the most c r u c i a l one. He 91 mentions c h a r t i n g only once. A l l medieval commercial n a v i g a t i o n was l i m i t e d to voyages d u r i n g which one was seldom out of s i g h t of land 40 fo r more than f i v e or s i x days and the n a v i g a t i o n a l d i f - f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d were w e l l w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the experience and t r a d i t i o n a l knowledge of the average master. When he was out of s i g h t of land f o r longer periods he and h i s o f f i c e r s would be groping f o r c l u e s and Sanseverino records many such i n s t a n c e s . Seamanship was a t r a d e , l i k e any o t h e r , to be learned as an a p p r e n t i c e , the e s s e n t i a l p o i n t of i t being the s k i l l of handling a s h i p so as to prevent her from being overcome by the weather. Next came the s k i l l of using the wind f o r p r o p u l s i o n and s t e e r i n g so as to be able to go toward a d e s t i n a t i o n . At l a s t the a p p r e n t i c e became p r o f i c i e n t at n a v i g a t i o n simply by being on board a s h i p and becoming f a m i l i a r w i t h s i g h t s 41 and l a n d f a l l s . 92 Notes to Chapter IV. 1. J . H. P a r r y , Op. C i t . , pp. 27-28. 2. B. Landstrbm, Qp. C i t . , p. 96. 3. R. Sanseverino, Op. C i t . , p. 267 . 4. I b i d , pp. 27- 5. I b i d , P- 28. 6. I b i d , P- 230. 7. I b i d , P- 231. 8. I b i d , P- 48 . 9 . I b i d , P- 31. 10 . I b i d , PP . 37 11. I b i d , P- 39 . 12 . I b i d , P- 210 13. R. Sansverino, Op. C i t . , p. 228. ' H u l l speed' i s the u l t i m a t e speed t h a t a displacement h u l l can develop under the best circumstances. No amount of power w i l l be able to push t h a t h u l l through the water any f a s t e r . This i s the fundamental reason f o r having to reduce s a i l when running before very high winds: the e x c e s s i v e power produced by the s a i l s would have d e s t r u c t i v e r e s u l t s , as the h u l l , having reached i t s maximum speed, w i l l produce i n f i n i t e r e s i s t a n c e to f u r t h e r a c c e l e r a t i o n . The h u l l speed of any v e s s e l i s r e l a t e d to i t s underwater l e n g t h , longer h u l l s having the p o t e n t i a l f o r higher speeds. P l a n i n g h u l l s do not have t h i s l i m i t a t i o n . 14. R. Sanseverino, Op. C i t . , p. 278. 15. I b i d , P- 204. 16 . I b i d , P- 228 17. I b i d , P- 229 . 18 . I b i d , P- 230. 93 19. I b i d , p. 231-232. 20. The m a n o u e v e r a b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of multi-masted ships a l t e r e d the methods of warfare, as w e l l . Sea- b a t t l e s i n open seas, r a t h e r than i n q u i e t bays, be- came common. See A r c h i b a l d R. Lewis and Timothy J . Runyan, European Naval and Maritime H i s t o r y , 300- 1500, (Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Bloomington, 1958), pp. 144-169. 21. The o r i g i n s of the c a r a v e l are not known and some authors a s s o c i a t e the name w i t h t h a t of a type of h u l l c o n s t r u c t i o n ( c a r v e l ) , t y p i c a l of Mediterranean s h i p b u i l d i n g . Two-masted c a r a v e l s e x i s t e d and Landstrom suggests t h a t an i n f l u e n c e i n t h e i r d e v e l - opment can be recognized i n the r i g of the Venetian g a l i e s o t t i l i , which i n the t h i r t e e n t h century t r a v e l l e d as f a r as England (Op. C i t . , p. 128). The c a r a v e l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e a r l y voyages of d i s - covery was r i g g e d w i t h two or three l a t e e n s a i l s , a l - though v a r i a n t s e x i s t e d everywhere. So, i t i s o f t e n necessary to mention c a r a v e l s by the l o c a l name, such as the Portuguese c a r a v e l a redonda or the I t a l i a n s c i a b e c c o . Sanseverino, f o r i n s t a n c e , mentions a " c a r a v e l l a c a n d i o t a " , meaning a v e s s e l r i g g e d i n the Candiot (Cretan) manner. A more d r a s t i c change i n r i g g i n g , to square s a i l s , would transform a l a r g e ca- r a v e l i n t o a nao. Two of Columbus' c a r a v e l s underwent t h i s change. See Jose Maria M a r t i n e z - H i d a l g o , Columbus' Ships, Howard I. Chapelle Ed., (Barre P u b l i s h e r s , Barre, Mass., 1966). 22 "[The wind] began to blow very g e n t l y . I then r a i s e d a l l the s a i l s of my s h i p , the m a i n s a i l and two bonnets, and the f o r e s a i l and the s p r i t s a i l , the mizzen, the main t o p s a i l and the s a i l of the boat on the poop." See Frey Bartolome de l a s Casas, Primer V i a j e de C r i s t o b a l Colon segun su D i a r i o de a Bordo, (Ramon Sopena, Barcelona, 1972), p. 38. A l l the t r a n s l a t i o n s from t h i s book are by T. V i d o n i . 23. Richard W. Unger, Op. C i t . , p. 168 and 195n. 24. The b o t t e was a u n i t of cargo c a p a c i t y . Studies by F.C. Lane i n d i c a t e t h a t the botte o r i g i n a l l y used i n Venice was about 750 l i t r e s . In 1432 the s m a l l e r b o t t e of Candia (Crete) was adopted as the standard u n i t f o r p r i c i n g cargo and i t s use became g e n e r a l . This b o t t e c a n d i o t a , c a l c u l a t e d by Lane on the b a s i s of other c u r r e n t v o l u m e t r i c u n i t s , had a c a p a c i t y of 94 605 l i t r e s and would then weigh about 0.6 metric tons, or 0.6 tons deadweight, as the two are almost i d e n t i c a l . In modern terms a s h i p of three hundred b o t t i would have a deadweight of 180 tons. At the tu r n of the f i f t e e n t h century s m a l l e r b o t t i , of about h a l f a ton or l e s s , became standard i n v a r i o u s p o r t s of Europe, i n c l u d i n g Venice. See F.C. Lane, Op. C i t , pp. 236-243 and p.43n. 25. R. Sanseverino, Op. C i t . 215-217 26 . I b i d , p. 233-252. 27. I b i d , p. 260-272. 28 . I b i d , p. 292. 29. I b i d , p. 38. 30. J . H. P a r r y , Op. C i t , p. 41. 31. J . H. P a r r y , Op. C i t , p. 42 Pedro de Medina, the l i b r a r i a n of the f u t u r e admiral of the Armada, the Duke of Medina S i d o n i a , wrote an Arte de Navegacion, a Suma de Cosmografia and i s best known as the author of the Regimiento de Navegacion, w r i t t e n i n 1563. In the f i r s t chapter of the f i r s t p a r t of the Regimiento he d e s c r i b e s the uses of the marine c h a r t : "A marine c h a r t (provided t h a t i t i s t r u e and accurate) shows s i x t h i n g s u s e f u l f o r n a v i g a t i o n , v i z . : ... The l o c a t i o n and the l a y of lands and i s l a n d s , ... the winds t h a t are favo u r a b l e f o r going to v a r i o u s p l a c e s , ... the d i s t a n c e between p l a c e s , ... the l a t i t u d e of the v a r i o u s places i n degrees, ... the p o s i t i o n of the ship according to the e l e v a t i o n of the sun and, f i n a l l y , ... i t can be used to mark on i t new i s l a n d s or bays not yet drawn on i t " . See Pedro de Medina, Regimiento de Navegacion, compuesto por e l Maestro Pedro de Medina (1563), J u l i o F. G u i l l e n Ed. , 2 volumes, ( I s t i t u t o de Espana, Madrid, 1964), v o l . 1 , pp. 26-27. To choose a favourable wind "look at the c h a r t f i n d the place of departure ... and the place of d e s t i n a t i o n ... and s e l e c t one the t h i r t y - t w o winds t h a t are used f o r n a v i g a t i o n . " ( I b i d . , p. 27). The p o s i t i o n by the sun at the end of the d a i l y run, at noon, was marked as f o l l o w s . "When a master ... wants to to mark h i s p o s i t i o n on the c h a r t he must take two d i v i d e r s ... the f i r s t d i v i d e r must be placed w i t h one p o i n t on the place of departure and the other on the rhumb l i n e f o l l o w e d [with an opening equal to the estimated d i s t a n c e 95 t r a v e l l e d ] , then he must put the ot h e r d i v i d e r w i t h a p o i n t on the the East-West l i n e [a p a r a l l e l of l a t i - tude] w i t h an opening equal to the l a t i t u d e measured ... then he must s l i d e w i t h g e n t l e hand the two d i v i d e r s u n t i l the p o i n t s meet ..." ( I b i d . , 29-30) . The p o s i t i o n was thus p r i c k e d on the c h a r t . A l l the t r a n s l a t i o n s from Pedro de Medina's book are by T. V i d o n i . 32. R. Sanseverino, Op. C i t . , p. 274-290. 33. For reasons of s a f e t y ships are never s a i l e d w i t h the s a i l p lan balanced p e r f e c t l y n e u t r a l . A minimal amount of tendency to t u r n to windward i s g e n e r a l l y l e f t . This tendency i s pe r c e i v e d by the helmsman as a l i g h t pressure of the t i l l e r a g a i n s t h i s hand and i s r e f e r r e d to as "weather helm". With a steady wind the amount of weather helm i s constant. Should the wind i n c r e a s e suddenly because of gusts or because of the approaching of a s q u a l l the amount of weather helm f e l t would i n c r e a s e immediately, g i v i n g the helmsman a warning. The sheets w i l l be slackened and the s h i p w i l l be s a i l e d a l i t t l e more o f f the wind w h i l e the gust or the s q u a l l l a s t . When they d i e the weather helm f e l t decreases. I t i s then time to haul the sheets i n again and resume the previous course. A sudden l i g h t n e s s on the t i l l e r i s the only warning a helmsman w i l l have, even i n the dark, of h i s s h i p having yawed too f a r to windward. He w i l l s l a c k e n the mizzen and giv e a l l the lee helm he can, hoping to s a i l the s h i p o f f the wind. F o l l o w i n g doggedly a rhumb l i n e without paying a t t e n t i o n to these symptoms would have d i s a s t r o u s consequences. 34. R. Sanseverino, Op. C i t . , p. 42 and passim. 35. I b i d , P- 206-07. 36 . I b i d , P • 264-65. 37 . I b i d , p. 24-26 . 38. I b i d , P- 65-66. 39. R. Sanseverino, Op. C i t . . A very p r e c i s e run of t h i s k i n d , from the Gulf of Quarnero to Ancona, was made by Sanseverino's s h i p on the n i g h t 19/20 December 1458, pp. 275-283. 40. The longest runs away from land were the stages Nor- way-Iceland and Greenland-Labrador s a i l e d by the 95 V i k i n g s . At 630 n a u t i c a l miles the d i s t a n c e from Nor- way to Ic e l a n d i s the g r e a t e s t . At 5 knots, w i t h weak winds, t h a t d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e s about f i v e days to cover. They probably made f a s t e r passages. L o c a l knowledge was a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l to a master f o r making approaches to harbours. This i n c l u d e d a memorization of the d i f f e r e n t aspects of landmarks when making l a n d f a l l s from d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . Pedro de Medina gave advice on t h i s problem i n h i s Regimiento de navegacion. See "Aviso X V I I I . De cuando e l p i l o t o conoce un puerto que ha entrado en e l y despues viene a e l por rumbo d i f e r e n t e d e l con prime- ro e n t r o . Que debe hacer para l o conocer. (Advice X V I I I . About the case of a master who knows a harbour i n which he has p r e v i o u s l y entered and afterwards comes to i t on a course t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t from the one used the f i r s t time. What he must do to recognize i t . ) " i n Pedro de Medina, Op. C i t . , pp. 150-151. 97 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS Leaders of e x p e d i t i o n s of d i s c o v e r y r e q u i r e d l i t t l e help from n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s and not much was a v a i l a b l e . Compass, a s t r o l a b e and quadrant had unique importance f o r adding new lands to e x i s t i n g c h a r t s and f o r f i n d i n g one's way home. For long ocean c r o s s i n g the a b i l i t y to navigate by instruments was necessary. Accuracy of n a v i g a t i o n was l e s s r e l e v a n t , owing to the la c k of shore dangers. For ocean c r o s s i n g s medieval i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n was, i n t h i s case, more than adequate: even an e r r o r of h a l f a degree (30 n a u t i c a l miles) i n d a i l y l a t i t u d e f i x e s w i t h an a s t r o l a b e would not impair the outcome of a c r o s s i n g , as p o s i t i o n a l e r r o r s are not cumulative. Thus, i t was i n the f i e l d of overseas expansion t h a t the c h i e f impact of medieval n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s , such as they were, was f e l t . Compasses and a s t r o l a b e s were c e n t u r i e s o l d by the time of the voyages of d i s c o v e r y and the same can be s a i d of the s t e r n p o s t rudder. The case can be made t h a t oceanic n a v i g a t i o n c r e a t e d a demand f o r more accurate instruments and c h a r t s , which were not r e a d i l y forthcoming. E a r l y oceanic n a v i g a t o r s s t i l l depended on t h e i r dead reckoning s k i l l s f i r s t and foremost. Columbus d i d not even bother 98 w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n s of l a t i t u d e d u r i n g the outbound l e g of h i s f i r s t voyage, as he d i d not have a p r e c i s e d e s t i n a - t i o n , nor a c h a r t t h a t he could t r u s t west of the Azores. He crossed the A t l a n t i c using nothing but dead reckoning. Columbus had only one c h a r t — reputed to be a copy of the h i g h l y f a n c i f u l 1474 T o s c a n e l l i map — t h a t he had to share w i t h M a r t i n Alonzo Pinzon, the c a p t a i n of the P i n t a , whenever one or the other needed i t . 1 The o r d i n a r y log f o r measuring speed — a very important t o o l f o r the d e t e r - mination of dead reckoning when out of s i g h t of land f o r more than a few days — became common only w i t h oceanic c r o s s i n g s , i n an endeavour to e s t a b l i s h the w e s t e r l y progress of s h i p s , at a time when lo n g i t u d e s c o u l d not be c a l c u l a t e d . So i t was not la c k of instruments and n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s t h a t had prevented s a i l o r s from e n t e r - t a i n i n g the idea of oceanic voyaging. For a measure of the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t an ocean c r o s - s i n g e n t a i l e d one must r e f e r to books such as the Regimiento de navegacion, w r i t t e n by Pedro de Medina seventy years a f t e r Columbus' f i r s t voyage. The Regimiento was w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r ocean-going masters, having i n mind the runs to and from Nueva Espana (America). In i t the e f f e c t s of d r i f t when s a i l i n g c l o s e - h a u l e d are de s c r i b e d and the i n t r i c a c i e s of keeping proper dead reckoning when s a i l i n g a g a i n s t the wind f o r long periods are d i s c u s s e d . A complicated method of r e t r i e v i n g one's intended p o s i t i o n as soon as there i s a favourable break 4 m the weather i s i l l u s t r a t e d . From the d i s c u s s i o n one can gather some a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the angle of tack of s i x t e e n t h century s h i p s . One problem Medina di s c u s s e d was t h a t of a s h i p l e a v i n g Sanlucar f o r Santo Domingo on a course to take her to the Canary I s l a n d s . Contrary winds take her to Cape Verde i n s t e a d . Another problem he g i v e s deals w i t h the case of a s h i p l e a v i n g Barcelona f o r Malaga and being pushed south to M a l l o r c a . Both the p o s i t e d problems i n d i c a t e t h a t very open t a c k s , on the order of those d e s c r i b e d by Sanseverino, were s t i l l the norm. However, these ships would keep on s a i l i n g . Pedro de Medina's t e x t teaches, as an o r d i n a r y matter of f a c t , how new courses can be set from the new p o s i t i o n s to the de- s i r e d d e s t i n a t i o n s . As soon as ships could be b u i l t t h a t could t r a v e l thousands of miles i n a l l weather the n o t i o n of systematic ocean c r o s s i n g s became r e a l i s t i c . Such ships could o n l y be of the multi-masted type, w i t h complex s a i l p l a n s , as o n l y these r i g s endowed ships w i t h the r e l i a b i l - i t y r e q u i r e d f o r such long-range ventures, r e g a r d l e s s of wind d i r e c t i o n and, to a great e x t e n t , of wind s t r e n g t h . There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t a s i n g l e - s a i l e d c r a f t , even one of the e a r l i e s t types, could have been blown by an 100 uncommon storm across the A t l a n t i c and s u r v i v e . This could have w e l l been the case w i t h many a V i k i n g boat i f caught by a storm w h i l e engaged i n hops from i s l a n d to i s l a n d w h i l e voyaging as f a r as the westernmost reaches of the North A t l a n t i c . But the same boat could not be s a i l e d a g a i n , by d e s i g n , over the same route. Ordinary A t l a n t i c weather systems c a r r y t y p i c a l l y changeable winds t h a t would have u n f a i l i n g l y overtaxed the very l i m i t e d 5 c a p a b i l i t i e s of a s i n g l e - s a i l e d c r a f t to windward . For s i m i l a r reasons i t would have been im p o s s i b l e to s a i l w i t h any p r o b a b i l i t y of s u r v i v a l a two-masted s h i p across v a s t bodies of "water. A two-masted s h i p w i t h medieval s a i l s c o u l d not be managed to windward on long r o l l i n g waves f o r any great length of time. As the wind i n c r e a s e d the master would have had to compromise as to whether to the mizzen- s a i l f o r power or f o r s t e e r i n g . The e q u i l i b r i u m being a pr e c a r i o u s one, soon the ship would have acquired too much •weather helm and the mizzen would have had to be f u r l e d . At t h a t p o i n t the design of the r i g would have compelled him to run. Pedro de Medina s t r e s s e d t h a t the a b i l i t y to s a i l to windward was not a n a t u r a l t h i n g and t h a t a l l - w e a t h e r s a i l i n g was imp o s s i b l e without knowing how to manage a complex s a i l p l a n w i t h the h i g h e s t degree of a r t f u l n e s s : 101 "There are c e r t a i n t h i n g s about n a v i g a t i o n t h a t appear n a t u r a l , and one among them, i s when the master s a i l s w i t h a favourable wind, and as much so as he wishes, w i t h which he makes h i s s t r a i g h t run without impediments of any s o r t s , so t h a t i t appears t h a t t h i s t h i n g i s a n a t u r a l one and a source of great contentment as w e l l . But when he s a i l s w i t h a wind t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t from the one he needs, and he t r a v e l s w i t h t r o u b l e , and labour, and worry, ... when ... [he] i s s a i l i n g and cannot f i n d a wind s u i t a b l e f o r h i s progress, such as he has to make, and thus not i n conformity' w i t h the course t h a t he must f o l l o w ; I say t h a t ... then he must s a i l by the wind o p e r a t i n g the s a i l s ; t h a t i s s e t t i n g them i n such a manner t h a t , although the wind i s not d i r e c t l y i n conformity w i t h h i s course, h i s endeavour must be such t h a t the s h i p keeps on s a i l i n g as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e to her intended course. The master must know how to order t h i s s e t t i n g of the s a i l s , f u r l i n g some of them, h o i s t i n g o t h e r s , and [how] to ensure t h a t they are set i n conformity w i t h the mode w i t h which the s h i p i s s a i l i n g , as p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e s , and [he must know how] to modify i t when i t does not work as c o n v e n i e n t l y [as i t s h o u l d ] . The P i n t a made her f i r s t l a n d f a l l at the Grand Canary a f t e r the crew twice c a r r i e d out lengthy r e p a i r s to the 7 rudder at sea, proof t h a t a s k i l l e d master could s a i l a sh i p w i t h three masts, although w i t h d i f f i c u l t y , even without s t e e r i n g gear. N a v i g a t i o n over great d i s t a n c e s was s t i l l a f a i r l y p r i m i t i v e a f f a i r , as i t was based on c h a r t s of very l i t t l e substance. The s t a t e of cartography at the time of the voyages of d i s c o v e r y i s di s c u s s e d i n the c l a s - s i c work of Admiral Antonio Barbosa, Novos Sub s i d i o s para a H i s t o r i a da C i e n c i a Nautica da Epoca dos Descobrimientos (1948). Cartographers of th a t time had to r e s o r t to com- promise i n order to compile c h a r t s i n which both wind 102 d i r e c t i o n s and d i s t a n c e s would correspond to r e a l i t y w i t h the same degree of accuracy. These data were more accu- r a t e l y expressed i n words i n p o r t o l a n s . None of the c h a r t s produced before 1568 allowed p l o t t i n g courses and bearings by r u l e r and pen, because they were based on a square g r i d t h a t made no allowance f o r the s p h e r i c i t y of the E a r t h . In th a t year the mathematician Gerard Mercator devised the c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t i o n t h a t bears h i s name, to ob v i a t e Q t h i s e s s e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t y . Charts were not a key f a c t o r f o r success i n long voyages of d i s c o v e r y . At the end of h i s f i r s t voyage Columbus made a p e r f e c t r e t u r n l a n d f a l l a t the Azores — the most c r u c i a l phase of the whole e x p e d i t i o n , as they were out of food and water — by dead reckoning alone. Only once had they seen the P o l a r S t a r , which "appeared q u i t e h i g h , as at Cape St. V i n c e n t , but the motion of the sh i p would not a l l o w them to take i t s a l t i t u d e w i t h the a s t r o l a b e or the 9 quadrant." Columbus made the l a n d f a l l a f t e r being d r i v e n by a storm f o r two days. He had made no astr o n o m i c a l s i g h t i n g s . I t has o f t e n been a matter of d i s c u s s i o n as to whether improved n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s or the st e r n p o s t rudder were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the beginning of overseas n a v i g a t i o n . At the core of the b e n e f i t s of n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s i s the 103 It que con el fcfctjieve • 2Dos cofao oeuen tener l o s v n f l r u * mentoBoelanauegaaon/vnaque fean ctertos / t o t r a qnefean p o l t d o s w n u n * b t e n f c e c f c o s : £ que el pilot© fe p:ecie o e tenellos t a l e a . * p u e s el fer c i e r t p s le e s g r a pio u e d j o / t f e r p o l i d o s t n r n t bien J?ecl2os o a coritento. C t ^ l l i f r t 11 ^om°elPilotol3aoeconofcer elna"9 u " i n o en q u e f e a o e n a u e g a r t faber l a s m a f i a s q u e t i e n e . _ T R l a n a u e g a d o n o e i a m a r andanmucr?w*> t r i o s : ? n o r o d b s o c v n a m a n e r a m a s o e o i f t t . r e s l ? e d ? u r a s ? m a n e r a a : a aflt moe fon oe v D i f f e r e n t types of three-masted s h i p s . "Advice I I . How a master must acquaint h i m s e l f w i t h the s h i p on which he has to voyage and understand her c a p a b i l i t i e s . " (From Pedro de Medina, Regimiento de Navegacidn, 1563, v o l . 1 , f o . l v i i ) . F i gure 14 104 marine c h a r t . Unless a chart can be drawn according to c e r t a i n mathematical p r i n c i p l e s the r e s u l t s of observa- t i o n s by instruments cannot be recorded r e l i a b l y . Cartog- raphers of the age of the d i s c o v e r i e s d i d not possess the req u i r e d mathematics and t h e i r knowledge of geography de- pended h e a v i l y on t r a d i t i o n s and legends. Discoverers map- ped the world and brought the information back to the makers of maps. The sternpost rudder was known since at l e a s t the l a t e t w e l f t h century and the consequence of i t s appearance was an improved c a p a b i l i t y f o r ships to s a i l to windward. Greater angles of hee l s , d e r i v i n g from c l o s e r s a i l i n g , be- came acceptable. Even with t h i s b e n e f i t the e x i s t i n g r i g s could not take f u l l advantage of t h i s improvement. I t was impossible to set the s i n g l e s a i l t aut enough to s u s t a i n c l o s e r courses u n t i l the bowsprit, perhaps one generation l a t e r , made i t s appearance. Passing the bowline through a block at the end of the bowsprit produced the de s i r e d r e s u l t . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of any rudder diminishes i n pr o p o r t i o n to the s i z e of the sh i p , unless some s o r t of power s t e e r i n g i s a v a i l a b l e . The whip s t a f f increased the force a v a i l a b l e at the t i l l e r , but reduced the arc of movement to the amount required f o r c o n t r o l of yaw. The appearance of the wh i p s t a f f i s the s i g n a l t h a t the lesson i n course-keeping by balancing the s a i l plan was f u l l y 105 learned. The s i n g l e t e c h n i c a l advantage that made p o s s i b l e voyages of discovery was the d e p e n d a b i l i t y of multi-masted s h i p s . At the end of the f i f t e e n t h century there were many types, s u i t a b l e f o r d i f f e r e n t s o r t s of endeavours, and t h e o r i e s and opinions on t h e i r merits were widely d i s c u s - sed. The subject was understood w e l l enough that r i g s were changed during stopovers, to s u i t p r e v a i l i n g meteorologi- c a l c o n d i t i o n s . Also mixed f l e e t s of ships w i t h lateen r i g s and others with squares ones were employed f o r d i f - f e r e n t purposes i n the same expeditions."'"''" The u l t i m a t e performance of these ships depended on the master's under- standing of t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s (see Figure 14, p.103). Pe- dro de Medina considered i t e s s e n t i a l that masters make themselves acquainted w i t h the type of ship of which they were to take charge 1^, because much more depended on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c behaviour of c e r t a i n r i g s than on a l l the other f a c t o r s combined, i n order to s a i l a ship thousands of miles out and back home. 106 Notes to Chapter V. "Tuesday 25 September [1492]. ... The Admiral was t a l k - i ng [across the water] w i t h M a r t i n Alonso Pinzon, the c a p t a i n of the other c a r a v e l , P i n t a , about a c h a r t t h a t he had sent him on h i s c a r a v e l three days befo r e , on which, i t appears, the Admiral had drawn some i s l a n d s [reputed to be] i n t h a t sea. M a r t i n Alonso was saying t h a t they were i n t h e i r neighbour- hood and the Admiral answered t h a t he b e l i e v e d i t to be so, too ...; and w i t h t h i s the Admiral t o l d him to send him back the s a i d c h a r t . As soon as the c h a r t was sent to him by the means of a rope, the Admiral s t a r t e d to c h a r t on i t . together w i t h the c a p t a i n of h i s s h i p and h i s o f f i c e r s . " B. de l a s Casas., Op. C i t . , pp. 14-15. Pedro de Medina, Op. C i t . , v. I I I I , pp. 125-127. Pedro de Medina, Op. C i t . pp. 127-129 . Pedro de Medina, Op. C i t . V I , pp. 129-130. 1, Second P a r t , Advice 1, Second P a r t , Advice V,. 1, Second P a r t , Advice For the v i c i s s i t u d e s of the V i k i n g r e p l i c a t h a t was s a i l e d by Capt. Magnus Andersen to North America i n 1895 see 0. Roberts, Op. C i t . , p. 139. Pedro de Medina, Op. C i t . , v. 1, Second P a r t , Advice I I I , pp. 123-125. "The Admiral was showing great a n x i e t y at not being able to help the s a i d c a r a v e l [Pinta] i n her p r e d i c a - ment but says t h a t h i s apprehension i s dimin i s h e d by the knowledge t h a t [her capta i n ] M a r t i n Alonso Pinzon was a man of courage and c a p a c i t y . " B. de l a s Casas, Op. C i t . . p. 8. The f a c t t h a t a s h i p t r a v e l l i n g on a constant compass heading does not t r a v e l on a s t r a i g h t l i n e , such as the rhumb l i n e s seen on medieval c h a r t s , had escaped the a t t e n t i o n of medieval ca r t o g r a p h e r s . A s h i p t r a - v e l i n g on a constant heading crosses a l l the m e r i d i - ans w i t h the same angle. Since the meridians r a d i a t e from the P o l e , the s h i p t r a v e l s on a s p i r a l w i t h i t s centre on the p o l e . This s p i r a l i s c a l l e d 'loxodromy' and Mercator's merit i s t h a t of having devised a type of p r o j e c t i o n t h a t transforms loxodromies i n t o 107 s t r a i g h t l i n e s , thus enabling navigators to p l o t them w i t h a r u l e r . P r i o r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Mercator's c h a r t s the only c h a r t i n g t o o l s were d i v i d e r s , because medieval charts were r e l i a b l e only f o r the purpose of recording distances t r a v e l l e d . The rhumb l i n e s drawn on them had some degree of accuracy only i n low l a t i - tudes or over short d i s t a n c e s . 9. B. de l a s Casas Op. C i t , p. 134. 10. Pedro de Medina, Op. C i t . - Second P a r t , Advice I I , v o l . 2 , p. 122-23. 11. The compositions of Columbus' f l e e t s a f t e r h i s f i r s t voyage and the choices of ships made by Ca b r a l , Vasco da Gama and Magellan are a r e f l e c t i o n of t h i s d i v i s i o n of labour among ships of d i f f e r e n t s a i l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . See J . H. Pa r r y , "Technical Problems and S o l u t i o n s " , i n The Discovery of the Sea, (The D i a l Press, New York, 1974), pp. 149-170. 108 B i b l i o g r a p h y Primary sources. Bartolome de l a s Casas, ( F r e y ) , Primer V i a j e de C r i s t o b a l Colon segun su D i a r i o de a Bordo • 3 Agosto 1492/ 15 Marzo 1493 • (Ramon Sopena, Barcelona, 1972)- F r e s c o b a l d i , Lionardo d i N., "Viaggio i n T e r r a s a n t a " , V i a g g i i n T e r r a s a n t a , Cesare A n g e l i n i Ed., ( F e l i c e Le Monnier, F i r e n z e , 1944), pp. 38-167. N i c c o l b da P oggibonsi, (Fra'>, L i b r o d'01tramare, A l b e r t o Bachi D e l i a Lega Ed., 2 v o l . . (Coramissione per i Te- s t i d i Lingue, Bologna, 1968). Pedro de Medina, Regimiento de Navegacion, compuesto por e l Maestro Pedro de Medina (1563), J u l i o F. G u i l l e n Ed., 2 v o l . , ( I s t i t u t o de Espana, Madrid, 1964). Sanseverino, Roberto da, V i a g g i o i n Terrasanta f a t t o e de- s c r i t t o per Roberto da Sanseverino, Gioacchino Maruf- f i Ed., (Commissione per i T e s t i d i Lingua, Bologna, 1969) . Twiss, S i r Traver, Ed., "Judgement of the Sea", The Black Book of the A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon, 1985). V o l . I l l , pp. 1-33 . , "Maritime Laws of the O s t e r l i n g s " The Black Book of the A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon, 1985), V o l . IV, pp. 357-383. , " R o l l e of Olayron", The Black Book of the A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon, 1985), V o l . I I , pp. 430-81. , "Sea-laws i n F l a n d e r s " , The Black Book of the A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon, 1985). V o l . IV, pp. 357-383. , "The Blacke Booke of the A d m i r a l t y " , The Black Book of the A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon, 1985), V o l . I , pp. 1-334. 109 , "The Dantzic Ship-laws", The Black Book of the Ad- m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon- 1985), V o l . IV, pp. 335-355. . "The Good Customs of the Sea", The Black Book of the A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon, 1985), V o l . I l l , pp. 35-659. , "The Gotland Sea-laws", The Black Book of the Ad- m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (.1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon, 1985), V o l . IV, pp. 53-129. , "The Purple Book of Bruges", The Black Book of the A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon, 1985) V o l . IV, pp. 301-333. Secondary sources. Anderson, Romola and R. C , The S a i l i n g - S h i p , S i x Thousand Years of H i s t o r y , (George Harrap & Company L t d . , London, C a l c u t t a , Sidney, 1926). A n g e l u c c i , Enzo & A t t i l i o C u c a r i , Ships-' (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1977). A s a e r t , G., Westeuropese scheepvaart i n de middeleeuwen, (Unieboek, Bussum, 1978). Barbosa, Antonio, Novos S u b s i d i o s para a H i s t o r i a da C i e n - c i a N a u t i c a da Epoca dos Descobrimientos, (Imprensa Portuguesa, P o r t o , 1948). B r a d f o r d , Gershom, A G l o s s a r y of Sea Terms, (Dodd, Mead & Company, New York, 1944) . Bresc, Henry et a l . , S t u d i d i S t o r i a Navale, Centro per l a S t o r i a d e l l a Tecnica i n I t a l i a , P u b b l i c a z i o n i , IV, 7 (1975) . Crumlin-Petersen, Ole, "Experimental Boat Archaeology i n Denmark" i n Aspects of Maritime Archaeology and Ethnography, Ed. Sean M a c G r a i l , (Wandle P r e s s , Lon- don, 1984), pp. 97-122. 110 F r i e l , Ian, "Documentary Sources and the Medieval Ship", i n The I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of N a u t i c a l Archaeology and Underwater E x p l o r a t i o n , 12.1, 1983), pp. 41-62. Kemp, P e t e r , The H i s t o r y of Ships, (Orbis P u b l i s h i n g , Lon- don, 1978). Landstrom, B j o r n , The Ship, ( A l l e n and Unwin, London, 1961) . Lane, F r e d e r i c C , Navires et Constructeurs a Venise pen- dant l a Renaissance, (S.E.V.P.E.N., P a r i s , 1965). , Venice, a Maritime R e p u b l i c , (John Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1973). Lewis, A r c h i b a l d R. and Timothy J . Runyan, European Naval and Maritime H i s t o r y , 300-1500, Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Bloomington, 1958). Marcus, G. F., "A Note on Norse Seamanship: S i g l a T i l B r o t s " , Mariner's M i r r o r , 41, 1955 (Cambridge Univer- s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, 1955), pp. 61-62. , "The E v o l u t i o n of the Knorr" , The Mariner's M i r r o r , 41, 1955, (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press- Cambridge, 1955) . pp. 115-122. Ma r t i n e z - H i d a l g o , Jose Maria, Columbus' Ships, Ed. Howard I. C h a p e l l e , (Barre P u b l i s h e r s , B arre, Massachusetts, 1966) . M a t t i n g l y , G a r r e t t , The Defeat of the Spanish Armada, (Jonathan Cape, London, 1959). McEvedy, C o l i n , The Penguin A t l a s of Medieval H i s t o r y , (1961: Penguin Books L t d . , Harmondworth, Middlesex, England, 1980) . Morton Nance, R., "The Ship of the Renaissance", Mariner's M i r r o r , V o l . 41, 1955, (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, 1955), pp. 180-192. P a d f i e l d , P., Guns at Sea: a h i s t o r y of naval gunnery, (H. E v e l y n , London, 1973). P a r r y , J . H., The Discovery of the Sea, (The D i a l P r e s s , New York, 1974) I l l R oberts, Owain, " V i k i n g S a i l i n g Performance", i n Aspects of Maritime Archaelogy and Ethnography. Ed. Sean M c G r a i l , (Wandle'Press, London, 1984), pp. 123-151. Unger, Richard W., The Ship i n the Medieval Economy, 600- 1600, (Croom Helm, London, 1980) V i i l a i n - G a n d o s s i , C h r i s t i a n e , Le Navire Medieval a Travers l e s M i n i a t u r e s (C.N.R.S., P a r i s , 1985. A d m i r a l t y Manual of Seamanship, B.67, 3 volumes, (Her Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, 1967) . Mediterranean and Black Seas, Chart No. 449, (1921: Admi- r a l t y , London, 1980) .

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