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Medieval seamanship under sail Vidoni, Tullio 1987

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MEDIEVAL SEAMANSHIP UNDER SAIL by TULLIO VIDONI B. A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1986.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  of History)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d s  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 19 8 7 <§)Tullio V i d o n i  U 6  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and study. scholarly  or for  her  Department  of  The University of British 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6(3/81)  Columbia  I further  purposes  gain  the  requirements  I agree  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  of  It not  be  that  the  Library  permission  granted  is  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  make  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  ii  ABSTRACT  Voyages o f d i s c o v e r y c o u l d n o t be  entertained  until  the advent o f t h r e e - m a s t e d s h i p s . S i n g l e - s a i l e d s h i p s were e f f e c t i v e f o r voyages o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n , f a v o u r a b l e w i n d s . S h i p s w i t h two  masts  undertaken could  make  long  had  more  c o a s t a l voyages i n t h e summer. Both t h e s e t y p e s or l e s s s e v e r e any  l i m i t a t i o n s t o s a i l i n g t o windward. To s a i l  s h i p s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h i s mode i t i s n e c e s s a r y  able t o balance keeping  course  with  the s a i l  plan a c c u r a t e l y . This  t o be  method  c o u l d n o t r e a c h i t s f u l l developemnt  of  until  more t h a n two s a i l s were a v a i l a b l e f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n .  Rud-  d e r s never were adequate t o h o l d s h i p s t o windward  cour-  s e s . S h i p s w i t h t h r e e o r more masts c o u l d be s a i l e d i n a l l weather w i t h v e r y  l i t t l e dependence on t h e power  r u d d e r and t h e freedom from t h i s l i m i t a t i o n made s i b l e t o b u i l d s h i p s l a r g e enough t o c a r r y s i z a b l e t h e i r s t o r e s and s p a r e g e a r o v e r ocean c r o s s i n g s .  of the i t poscrews,  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter  Page  I  The s a i l : a s h e e t t o t h e w i n d .  II  Single-masted ships.  14  III  Two-masted s h i p s .  53  IV  Three-masted s h i p s .  64  V  Conclusions.  97  Bibliography.  1  108  iv  LIST OF  FIGURES  Figure  Page  1.  Leeway•  6  2.  The square s a i l .  8  3.  C o n t r o l o f r o t a t i o n w i t h the s i n g l e s a i l .  11  4.  The f u n c t i o n o f the b o w l i n e i n s a i l - s e t t i n g .  15  5.  Modes of s a i l i n g .  17  6.  D e v i c e s on the s t e r n .  19  7.  Map o f the C e n t r a l and E a s t e r n  8.  Making t a c k s w i t h medieval s a i l s .  25  9.  A r u n n i n g s h i p on the windward s i d e o f t h e c r e s t of a wave  28  10. The s t e r n p o s t  Mediterranean.  rudder  21  36  11. Two-masted Genoese s a i l i n g s h i p b u i l t f o r t h e Crusade o f King L o u i s IX of F r a n c e .  55  12.  74  Italian full-rigged  s h i p , 1470-80.  13. The nao Santa M a r i a . An i d e a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . 14. D i f f e r e n t t y p e s of three-masted s h i p s .  77 103  1  CHAPTER I  THE SAIL: A SHEET TO THE WIND.  The  ocean was f i r s t conquered i n  1492  by  Columbus,  and w i t h i n 27 y e a r s t h e whole w o r l d was g i r d e d . By l a n ' s time n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s , r e l a t i v e o c e a n - g o i n g endeavours were s t i l l non-existant. instruments,  That was t r u e  of  to  the  charts  i n c l u d i n g time-keeping  by  such as v i s u a l s i g h t i n g s and samples b r o u g h t up  by  the  astronomical  devices.  Determining  environmental the  as a  lead-line.  navigators, and —  science of  of  I t was  conditions.  dead-  observations,  examination  though t o d e t e r m i n e one's l a t i t u d e , p r o b a b l y 40 n a u t i c a l m i l e s under i d e a l  of  and  was unknown and c o n s i s t e d w h o l l y o f t h e p r o c e s s supplemented  scope  extremely rudimentary or  l o n g i t u d e s a t sea was i m p o s s i b l e . N a v i g a t i o n  reckoning,  Magel-  bottom possible  w i t h i n 30  or  Dead-reckoning  t h e r e f o r e , o n l y r e q u i r e d two t o o l s -- compass  l e a d l i n e -- and one f u n d a m e n t a l s k i l l t o ensure t h a t t h e i r ships  would  follow  --  seamanship the  desired  c o u r s e s as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e , w i t h i n v e r y narrow margins of s a f e t y . The development o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y  required  to  c o n t r o l ships of i n c r e a s i n g l y large s i z e f o r the length of time n e c e s s a r y t o c o v e r g r e a t d i s t a n c e s  following a  prac-  2 tical  p a t h between two  sea-faring. Sailors  p o i n t s , i s the m e d i e v a l  advanced  from  handling  lesson  in  ships  that  c o u l d o n l y be s a i l e d i n f a v o u r a b l e weather  for  the  dur-  a t i o n of s h o r t v o y a g e s , t o the m a n i p u l a t i o n  of s h i p s  with  complex s a i l  p l a n s , capable  of l o n g , u n i n t e r r u p t e d c o a s t a l  voyages t h a t encompassed the A t l a n t i c s h o r e s of Europe voyages o v e r a l l the seas of the w o r l d ,  i n a l l weather.  E a r l y m e d i e v a l s h i p s , w i t h a s i n g l e square one  s i d e - r u d d e r , and  difficult  even w i t h a  sternpost  t o c o n t r o l , but c o m p a t i b l e  w i t h voyages of  short  w i n d s . Two-masted s h i p s o f f e r e d  a  fail  with  measure  favourable  of  direction  adequate i n f a i r w e a t h e r , but  under c o n d i t i o n s of r e d u c e d s a i l  of the t r i - and m u l t i - m a s t e d  ship  and were  harbour  to  sail  rudder,  d u r a t i o n . They c o u l d o n l y l e a v e  c o n t r o l t h a t was  and  was  prone  a r e a . The  advent A  study  of the s t e p s i n the development of s a i l i n g methods,  based  on a v a i l a b l e documents, some of s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a , and  of the  panying t h i s e v o l u t i o n , w i l l sea-going  changed t h a t .  which  shipboard provide  c a p a b i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e and  s a i l i n g and,  practices  necessary  u l t i m a t e l y , f o r the u n d e r t a k i n g  i s intended  to support  masts.  long  winter  of d e l i b e r a t e  the t h e s i s t h a t such  Very  accom-  for  evidence  t i e s c o u l d not have been c a r r i e d out p r i o r t o d u c t i o n of m u l t i p l e  extensive  i n f o r m a t i o n about the  voyages of d i s c o v e r y a c r o s s o c e a n s . The study  contain  the  voyages  of  this  activiintrorequired  3 l a r g e c r e w s , t o make up f o r l o s s e s due t o d i s e a s e and c i d e n t s , and  l a r g e s t o r e s i n the form of  food  and  of  large  g e a r , a l l o f which meant a need f o r s h i p s placement.  Displacement  translates  itself  to  spare dis-  momentum,  t h a t i s t o say r e s i s t a n c e t o a b r u p t changes o f  direction.  T h i s r e s i s t a n c e had t o be overcome i n emergencies day-to-day  ac-  and  in  maneuvering i n e v e r - c h a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  Ow-  i n g t o the s i z e o f t h e s e s h i p s the demands  could  not  be  met by the s a i l i n g m a r i n e r e x c e p t by h i s b e i n g a b l e t o use t h e power o f the wind f o r s t e e r i n g .  There has been no time i n t h e h i s t o r y o f s a i l i n g when the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r overcoming  momentum  were  adequately  met by the a v a i l a b l e s t e e r i n g g e a r . T h e r e f o r e i t has  been  e s s e n t i a l f o r s a i l o r s to learn to f o l l o w t h e i r courses b a l a n c i n g the s a i l p l a n of  their  changes o f c o u r s e by a l t e r i n g i t .  craft  and  to  by  execute  T h i s a r t c o u l d not r e a c h  a complete measure of s u c c e s s u n t i l  the  introduction  of  The c o n t r i b u t i o n of the r u d d e r  to  i  the m u l t i - m a s t e d s h i p . k e e p i n g a c o u r s e was t a c k s was  Going  about  and  changing  a c c o m p l i s h e d by r e - s e t t i n g the s a i l s i n the  q u i r e d o r d e r . The pose, b u t not One  minimal.  r u d d e r was  at best useful f o r t h i s  repur-  essential.  major d i f f i c u l t y  i n assessing  the  sailing  a b i l i t i e s of e a r l y m e d i e v a l s a i l i n g v e s s e l s i s the  capdearth  4 of d e s c r i p t i o n s o f e v e r y d a y m e d i e v a l seamanship.  Archaeo-  l o g i c a l f i n d s and g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n s s t i l l  provide  b e s t clues- as t o how v e s s e l s were c o n s t r u c t e d  and  Too  many v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t t h e r e s u l t s o f t e s t s ,  s i z e r e p l i c a s o r on models i n t e s t - t a n k s and for  the  rigged.  on  full-  wind-tunnels,  us t o be a b l e t o a r r i v e a t s e l f - e v i d e n t c o n c l u s i o n s as 2  t o how t h e v e s s e l s were i n f a c t s a i l e d s a i l i n g single-masted  . The t r a d i t i o n  s q u a r e - s a i l e d b o a t s has  practically  d i e d o u t i n Europe and such f o l k - s a i l o r s t h a t s t i l l to t h i s p r a c t i c e , i n the Shetland so i n h u l l s o f q u i t e fairly  sophisticated  Therefore  recent gear  cling  I s l a n d s f o r i n s t a n c e , do  design, that  no v a l i d e x p e r i e n c e  of  with  is  can  be  the  help  equally gained  of  modern.  from  these  sources. There i s l i t t l e  difficulty  with  understanding  the  e a r l y method o f downwind s a i l i n g , as a l l t h a t was r e q u i r e d for  t h i s purpose was a s a i l o f any shape, h o i s t e d and b a l -  l o n i n g o v e r t h e f o r e p a r t o f t h e s h i p . The  sail,  i f  too c r u d e l y c u t and t h o u g h t l e s s l y r i g g e d , was n o t a b l e  to  t a k e t h e s h i p upwind. I n o r d e r  of  to entertain  t r a v e l l i n g t o windward i t i s n e c e s s a r y have a s h i p t h a t c a n be p o i n t e d  same  that  the  first way  of  and  t h i s i s p o s s i b l e i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w resulting trajectory will  a c t u a l l y see t h e  any  point of  p o i n t upwind  of her  ship  departure.  idea  a l l to  even that  when the  reaching As a  ship  p o i n t i n g t o windward must s a i l a t some a n g l e t o the  wind,  the wind p r e s s u r e on the exposed s i d e o f the h u l l and  the  s a i l s w i l l push her downwind t o some e x t e n t . S a i l o r s  call  'leeway' the d i f f e r e n c e between the d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h the s h i p i s p o i n t e d and the d i r e c t i o n sailed  ( F i g u r e 1, p.  6).  of  Various  the  path  elements  actually  affect  a n g l e i n d i f f e r e n t ways, up t o the p o i n t of making l a r g e as t o deny the s a i l o r  any  practical  t h e s e e l e m e n t s 'windage' was  the l e a s t u n d e r s t o o d :  as  o t h e r f u n c t i o n s . C a s t l e s were the most of windage on m e d i e v a l of w a r f a r e a t sea was were n e c e s s a r y  c r a f t . As  it  gains.  they  Among  that  do  be  to  may  notorious  l o n g as the  b o a r d i n g , l a r g e and  sources  only  tall  so  windage  i s the amount o f wind caught by a l l the s u r f a c e s not c o n t r i b u t e t o s a i l i n g , n e c e s s a r y  this  method  "castles"  t o p r o v i d e o f f e n s i v e and  defensive  advan-  tages t o the f i g h t e r s and were the most  prominent  super-  s t r u c t u r e s of medieval r e s s e d and  ships.  As s a i l i n g t e c h n o l o g y  s h i p s became a b l e t o h o l d r e l i a b l y  prog-  courses  to  advantages  of  improved s a i l p l a n s were a g a i n l o s t t o the n e c e s s i t i e s  of  windward, b i g g e r c a s t l e s were  built.  The  w a r f a r e and the performance of s h i p s t o windward very l i t t l e .  In the f i r s t h a l f o f  the  sixteenth  improved century  s h i p s w i t h f o u r masts and t o p s a i l s c o u l d not s a i l a p p r e c i a b l y c l o s e r t o the wind than the b a s i c three-masted of the p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y . At t h a t time the c o n c e p t  ships of  sea-  b a t t l e s c o n s i s t i n g of a r t i l l e r y d u e l s a t a d i s t a n c e o c c u r -  Wind d i r e c t i o n  '  1  K,  > e  Leeway Figure 1  e  7 r e d t o Hawkins, w h i l e s e r v i n g as t h e  comptroller  E n g l i s h navy, p r i o r t o t h e Armada e p i s o d e . not r e q u i r e c a s t l e s t o t h e same were more w e a t h e r l v  t h a n those  extent  His  and  of the  ships  did  consequently  o f h i s opponents.  In o r d e r t o p o i n t a s h i p t o  windward  the  following  e l e m e n t s a r e e s s e n t i a l ( F i g u r e 2, p. 8 ) :  F i r s t , a s a i l t h a t i s t a l l e r t h a n i t i s wide o r i s a t l e a s t s q u a r e , o r a group o f s a i l s a r r a n g e d  on t h e mast  in  a similar configuration.  Second, some means o f a d j u s t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n c e n t r e o f t h e s a i l on a f o r e - a n d - a f t  l i n e according  n e c e s s i t i e s o f s a i l i n g w i t h t h e wind o r these  of the  against  to the  i t , and  include the bowline.  T h i r d , a braced  y a r d . The  t a c k l e f o r bigger s a i l s ) going  brace  is a  rope  (or a  from t h e t i p o f t h e y a r d t o  the s t e r n o f t h e s h i p . The b r a c e p r e v e n t s  the  b e i n g a c c i d e n t a l l y f l i p p e d around t h e mast when  yard the  from ship  i s pointed too c l o s e t o the wind.  Fourth, a k e e l , leeboard or shaped as t o c o u n t e r a c t  leeway.  at  least  a  rudder  so  Sheet and t a c k a r e two d i f f e r e n t names f o r t h e same r o p e . The s h e e t c o n t r o l s t h e windward c l e w . The  square s a i l Figure 2  9 I t has not been d e t e r m i n e d by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s early single-sailed  ships  had  r e a s o n i t i s not c l e a r how  braced  those  ships  c e r t a i n s a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s . "The was  a vital  g e t t i n g to  s t e p away  from  windward",  yards. were  invention  the  to  of  a  specialist  in  rigging  Owain  n e c e s s i t y f o r a braced yard i s  and not  in  brace  oar  for  Roberts,of  an  Greenwich  ship-handling^. self-evident,  one c a r r i e s out e x p e r i m e n t s t r y i n g t o s a i l w i t h sail  this  the on  h i s t o r i a n w i t h the N a t i o n a l M a r i t i m e Museum and  For handled  dependence  according  whether  The  unless  a  square  t o windward. T h i s n e c e s s i t y became o b v i o u s t o R o b e r t s  i n the course of w i t n e s s i n g  a number o f e x p e r i m e n t s  r i e d out i n Denmark and Sweden  with  replicas  of  carViking  b o a t s w i t h gear t y p i c a l o f the V i k i n g s . To s a i l a t a l l , i n any d i r e c t i o n but s t r a i g h t  must  be  c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e b o w l i n e , a rope g o i n g from the c l e w  to  the bow. sail  downwind,  the  sail  I t f o l l o w s t h a t the b o w l i n e r e p r e s e n t s the  c o n t r o l d e v i s e d i n the e a r l i e s t a t t e m p t s t o s a i l w i t h  winds anywhere f o r w a r d o f the beam. As a m a t t e r o f l a t i o n i t can be s a i d t h a t the etymology words i n many M e d i t e r r a n e a n northern o r i g i n f o r  i t  languages  (It. bolina;  or  would Fr.  indicate bouline; sounds  i m i t a t i v e o f t h a t o f the n o r t h e r n word, w i t h no l o c a l meaning i n t h e s e  languages.  specu-  of the e q u i v a l e n t  b o l i n a ; e t c . ) . These s o u t h e r n words a r e mere are  first  a Sp.  that roots  10 Ordinarily a sail will marked tendency or  f o r the s h i p t o r o t a t e away from the  i n t o the w i n d . A s a i l  will  have t h e e f f e c t of c r e a t i n g  that i s rigged  too  far  cause the s h i p t o t u r n downwind. A s a i l  back w i l l  have the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t  advantage,  set  too  ( F i g u r e 3, p.  b u t , i n the g e n e r a l c a s e ,  l a r g e f o r c e s and a r u d d e r w i l l  rotation  counteract  w i t h o n l y l i m i t e d s u c c e s s and w i t h  no  these  success  t a i n e d p e r i o d s o f n a v i g a t i o n . The problem  of  r o t a t i o n h i n g e s t h e r e f o r e on t h e s e t t i n g o f  wind  forward far  11).  minute amounts t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s can be used by t h e to  a  In  sailor creates effects  for  sus-  controlling the  sail  in  the b r o a d e s t s e n s e . The r u d d e r i s e f f e c t i v e o n l y m i n i m a l l y i n t h i s r e s p e c t , i t s p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n being t h a t of cont r o l l i n g a c c i d e n t a l minor d e v i a t i o n s from the c o u r s e  that  c o r r e s p o n d s t o a c e r t a i n s e t t i n g o f the s a i l . These d e v i a t i o n s , c a l l e d by s a i l o r s  'yaw , a r e 1  f e c t s o f waves s t r i k i n g the bow  normally  random  ef-  o r the s t e r n , o r caused  by  pitching.  The  shape of a s a i l v a r i e s w i t h t h e a n g l e a t which i t  i s s t r u c k by t h e - w i n d and i t i s never s y m m e t r i c a l , a t h a t i s o b v i o u s even t o an u n t r a i n e d eye. The  fact  shape v a r i e s  o v e r t i m e , as w e l l , w i t h the s t r e t c h i n g and  shrinking  of  the s a i l c l o t h and r o p e s , as t h e y respond t o  stresses  and  w e t t i n g . T h e r e f o r e , the problem o f p l a c i n g and k e e p i n g the  11  A. The wind W causes the ship to d r i f t . A resistance t o d r i f t ( R ) , c e n t e r e d i n H, i s d e v e l o p e d by the h u l l .  C. A s a i l s e t t o o f a r back. The r e s u l t i s a r o t a t i o n t o windward.  Control  B. A s a i l s e t t o o f a r f o r w a r d . The l a t e r a l e f f e c t of the wind (P) on the s a i l i s c e n t e r e d i n K. The r e s u l t i s a r o t a t i o n downwind.  D. A s a i l s e t n e u t r a l . No r o t a t i o n .  of r o t a t i o n w i t h the s i n g l e Figure 3  sail  12  c e n t r e o f wind p r e s s u r e tance t o d r i f t  anywhere near t h e c e n t r e o f r e s i s -  i s a p r a c t i c a l one t h a t  a t t e n t i o n t o f i n e t u n i n g and was when t h e s a i l and r i g g i n g  requires  particularly  constant pronounced  were wool and hemp. A t t h e  same  time t h e s a i l w i l l cause t h e s h i p t o h e e l , t h a t i s t o l e a n over downwind, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e mode o f when t h e s h i p i s s a i l e d s t r a i g h t heeling allowed  sailing,  downwind. The  amount  i n s a i l i n g o a r e d s h i p s was s e v e r l y  by t h e low f r e e b o a r d  e x t e n t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e mode straight  intensity  of  downwind. E v e r y t h i n g  sailing,  t o some  except  when  i s a f u n c t i o n of the angle a t which the s h i p and i n c r e a s e s  the s h i p i s b r o u g h t c l o s e r t o t h e w i n d . Oared q u i r e d s h a l l o w h u l l s and k e e l s and under s a i l amounts o f leeway. W i t h i n  medieval s a i l o r  had  c h a n g i n g from b e i n g a sails.  limited  e l s e being equal, i t s  s a i l e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e wind d i r e c t i o n  ceptable  of  o f such v e s s e l s . V i k i n g l o n g s h i p s a r e  a good example. Leeway, as w e l l , i s always p r e s e n t  going  except  to  learn  rower  to  these  ships made  becoming  a  as re-  unac-  parameters  his professional  is  the  craft,  handler  of  13 Notes t o C h a p t e r I . J . H. P a r r y , an h i s t o r i a n w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n o v e r s e a s e x p a n s i o n , has examined the problems of the single square s a i l i n o t h e r c r a f t , w o r l d - w i d e , b e s i d e s medie v a l s h i p s . He has a l s o s t u d i e d the v a r i o u s d e v i c e s used when a t t e m p t i n g t o overcome i t s b a s i c disadvantages t o windward. These s u b j e c t s a r e discussed i n the c h a p t e r "A R e l i a b l e S h i p " , i n The D i s c o v e r y o f t h e Sea, (The D i a l P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1974), p. 16-17. Owain R o b e r t s , " V i k i n g S a i l i n g P e r f o r m a n c e " , i n A s p e c t s of M a r i t i m e A r c h a e l o g y and E t h n o g r a p h y , Ed. Sean M c G r a i l , (Wandle P r e s s , London, 1984), pp. 123-151. I b i d . , p.  131.  14  CHAPTER I I  SINGLE-MASTED SHIPS  The  problems i n h e r e n t i n s a i l i n g  squared-rigged  a  single-masted,  c r a f t b o t h downwind and anywhere c l o s e  the wind a r e f o r m i d a b l e , i f t h e p l a y o f t h e s a i l  to  i s the  o n l y d e v i c e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s a i l o r t o e n a b l e him t o cont r o l r o t a t i o n . Such p l a y must have duction of the bowline, s a i l w h i l e the sheets  first,  involved  i n order  to  the  intro-  flatten  k e p t i t c l o s e t o t h e mast  the  (Figure  4, p. 1 5 ) , and e v e n t u a l l y t h a t o f t h e y a r d b r a c e t o v e n t t h e wrong s i d e o f t h e s a i l A l s o , as a square s a i l w i l l on a b r o a d r e a c h  from c a t c h i n g  n o t keep i t s  the  prewind.  shape  steadily  ( F i g u r e 5, p. 1 7 ) , a system o f  multiple  s h e e t s was u s e d , as had a l r e a d y been done i n Roman s h i p s , and  t h e whole crew had t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e e f f o r t , each  man h o l d i n g one  of  the  sheets.  The  experiments  i m i t a t i o n V i k i n g g e a r , mentioned above, i n c l u d e d a  with trial  of t h i s method o f s a i l c o n t r o l . The b o a t was s a i l e d  suc-  c e s s f u l l y on v a r i o u s downwind c o u r s e s , w i t h t h e  foot  the s a i l  un-oared  b e i n g k e p t a d j u s t e d as  required .  s h i p s t h i s s o l u t i o n was i m p r a c t i c a l ,  1  On  f o r lack  of  of  man-  power. The problem o f c o n t r o l l i n g a l a r g e , b a l l o n i n g s a i l  15  Upwind  The  f u n c t i o n of  the  bowline i n  Figure 4  sail-setting  16 was never s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s o l v e d u n t i l d i v i d e d t h a t i n c l u d e d t o p s a i l s were i n t r o d u c e d century.  However, some s o r t  of  i n the  whisker  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h s h e e t and b o w l i n e  reach.  The marginal  plans  fifteenth  pole,  would  p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s a t s t a b i l i z i n g the s a i l broad  sail  used  give  the  in best  on a r u n o r on  a  2  c o n t r o l o f r o t a t i o n , i t seems, i n single-masted,  was  still  quite  squared-sailed s h i p s , except i n  f a i r w e a t h e r , when g r e a t f o r c e s a r e n o t  encountered.  The  amount t h e s a i l had be moved f o r e - a n d - a f t t o e n s u r e s t a b l e s u s t a i n e d s a i l i n g i n any d i r e c t i o n , day and n i g h t , t o comp e n s a t e f o r t h e s t r e t c h i n g and h a r d l y be a c h i e v e d  shrinking  by t h e c o a r s e  alone w i t h sheets, bowlines  of  manipulation  gear  could  of the  and w h i s k e r - p o l e s .  But  sail  i fi t  was p o s s i b l e t o a l t e r m e a s u r a b l y t h e a n g l e o f r a k e o f t h e mast, t h e n t h e r e a r e r e a s o n s f o r a c c e p t i n g t h e b o a t s w i t h adequate h e i g h t o f f r e e b o a r d moderate depth o f k e e l would i n d e e d  and  have been  idea  at  that  least  capable  a of  s a i l i n g downwind and a l s o c l o s e t o t h e w i n d , and a l s o ,  to  some measure, h o l d i n g a c o u r s e .  be  This requirement could  p l a u s i b l y f u l f i l l e d by a s t e r n w i n d l a s s  or a simple  system  of t o g g l e s o r dead- eyes on t h e backstay"^.  Windlasses i n k n o r r s , the V i k i n g s ' cargo  boats,  are  4  mentioned  i n sagas  even i n t h e  t w e l f t h century  and  m  Modes of  sailing  Figure 5  18 his  i d e a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a k n o r r , from a number o f r e -  productions, Bjorn tor  L a n d s t r b m , an a u t h o r i t a t i v e  o f t h e development o f s h i p s and  the author  books on t h i s s u b j e c t , shows t h e b a c k s t a y boat attached  illustra-  t o a s t e r n w i n d l a s s ^ . An  of  many  o f t h a t type  inventory  of  of the  gear found i n t h e Cog John a f t e r she f o u n d e r e d i n 1414 i n c l u d e s an a p p a r a t u s f o r t h e m a s t . Cogs, t o o , had a  wind-  6  7  lass or a capstan  on t h e s t e r n  castle ,  which  would  be  used f o r h a n d l i n g c a r g o and t o weigh t h e a n c h o r s . However, i f t h e s e were t o be i t s o n l y p u r p o s e s ,  this  winch  would  have o b v i o u s l y been i n s t a l l e d somewhere n e a r e r  t o t h e mast  and  multi-masted  t h e f o r e c a s t l e , as was common i n  later,  s h i p s . The c o n c l u s i o n i s a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e  loca-  t i o n o f t h e w i n c h on t h e v e r y s t e r n had t h e purpose o f a d j u s t i n g t h e rake o f t h e mast a c c o r d i n g  to  the  n e c e s s i t i e s o f s a i l i n g downwind o r c l o s e - h a u l e d  different ( F i g u r e 6,  p. 19) . W a r s h i p s had t o keep t h e i r m a n e u v r a b i l i t y under  oars  p r e - e m i n e n t , a f a c t t h a t would make t h e i r s a i l i n g c a p a b i l ities  rather indifferent, as, later,  single-masted  g a l l e y s . Therefore  was  t h e case  experiments  s t r u c t e d warships are not l i k e l y to the b e s t s a i l i n g performance p o s s i b l e  with  with recon-  provide  evidence  at  time.  the  merchant v e s s e l s t h e p r e s e n c e o f a l a r g e number o f  of For  rowers  i n them would have i n c r e a s e d o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and t h e r e f o r e  A. A w i n d l a s s . A m i n i a t u r e i n G r e g o r i i D i a l o g i . R o y a l L i b r a r y , B r u s s e l s . (From G. A s a e r t , Westeuropese s c h e e p v a a r t i n de middeleeuwen, 1974, P l a t e f a c i n g p. 3 3 ) .  B. A c a p s t a n . D e t a i l from a m i n i a t u r e i n La Premiere Guerre P u n i q u e , c a . 1460. R o y a l L i b r a r y B r u s s e l s . From G. A s a e r t , Westeuropese s c h e e p v a a r t i n de middeleeuwen, 1974, P l a t e f a c i n g p. 8 1 ) . D e v i c e s on the s t e r n Figure  6  20 i t was mandatory t h a t such v e s s e l s s a i l . G. F. Marcus,  a specialist  in  performed  best  Scandinavian  s h i p , i n a s t u d y on t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e  knorr  sagas, p o i n t s out t h a t the warship or l a n g s k i p be t r u s t e d f o r passages way t o t h e Faeroe  under seaman-  based could  on not  even as s h o r t as t h e r u n from Nor-  I s l a n d s , n o r c o u l d t h e l a n g s k i p make t h e g  c r o s s i n g from Norway t o I c e l a n d .  The u l t i m a t e d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n s h i p i n a storm was r u n n i n g b e f o r e even up a beach, as Norse  of the  a  single-masted  wind,  eventually  s a i l o r s would do i f i t was  the  9  o n l y way t o save l i v e s  . Running  b e f o r e a wind would  v e r y c o s t l y consequences even f o r a cog" "^ o f l a t e r  have times,  1  s i m p l y i n d i s t a n c e and time l o s t . A d d i t i o n a l t i m e would be spent c a l l i n g a t some nearby h a r b o u r , r e - s u p p l y i n g  stores  t h a t were d e p l e t e d d u r i n g t h e r u n . A v i v i d a c c o u n t o f such a voyage on a cog i n t h e summer o f 13 85 was w r i t t e n by t h e Florentine Lionardo d i Niccold Frescobaldi, and a m i l i t a r y  l e a d e r , on t h e o c c a s i o n o f  t o t h e H o l y Land. He had l e f t 1384,  and had a f a i r l y  Italy late  uneventual  trip  a  politician  h i s pilgrimage  i n the spring to  the  of  Levant,  s i n c e i n t h a t season t h e winds a r e m o s t l y from t h e w e s t e r l y quadrants i n t h a t p a r t of the Mediterranean. winds would have been  unfavourable  The  for travelling  same from  B e i r u t t o V e n i c e i n May, t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , as. F r e s c o b a l di  found.  22 "We made s a i l [from B e i r u t ] a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f May, h a v i n g always f a v o u r a b l e winds as f a r as t h e G u l f o f S a t a l l a [ A n t a l y a ] ; t h e r e a sudden blow caught u s , w i t h such a storm and such a s t r e s s o f wind t h a t i t blew t h e bonnets o f t h e s a i l and wrapped t h e s a i l around t h e mast and i t pushed us a l l t h e way t o B a r b a r y , w i t h t h e water coming many, many t i m e s over . t h e deck, and t h u s i t b r o u g h t us c l o s e t o l a n d , perhaps h a l f a m i l e from i t . By t h e g r a c e o f God i t s t a r t e d t o l e s s e n , as we had c a s t i n t o t h e sea some r e l i c s , of a kind s u i t a b l e f o r such a storm. And we found t h a t we had t r a v e l l e d about e i g h t hundred [ V e n e t i a n ] m i l e s b e f o r e t h e storm ..."  Allowing f o r a Venetian mile of t h e y would have l o s t  four  0.6  hundred . and  nautical eighty  miles  nautical  12 miles.  T h i s i s i n f a c t , as a round f i g u r e ,  d i s t a n c e between t h e G u l f o f Egypt.  Antalya  and  the c o r r e c t the  coast  of  However, t h i s was n o t t h e i r o n l y l o s s o f t i m e . F r e -  s c o b a l d i r e l a t e s f u r t h e r on: "... we had been f o u r t e e n days w i t h o u t s e e i n g a n y t h i n g b u t a i r and w a t e r , and i n g r e a t f e a r f o r our l i v e s . And t h u s , b a c k t r a c k i n g on our c o u r s e , and l e a v i n g t h e I s l a n d o f C i p r i [Cyprus] on our r i g h t - h a n d s i d e , we went on l a n d t o t a k e new p r o v i s i o n s o f w a t e r and f o o d , o f w h i c h we were i n v e r y g r e a t need, because o f t h e g r e a t t h i r s t that we had s u f f e r e d i n t h a t c o g , h a v i n g had t o e a t i n the manner o f a s a l a d a l l t h e l e a v e s o f c e r t a i n oranges t h a t t h e master had i n some b a r r e l s , that he was t r a n s p o r t i n g from B a r u t i [ B e i r u t ] t o V i n e gia [Venice]" .  Fra  1  N i c c o l o da P o g g i b o n s i , a Tuscan f r i a r known o n l y  f o r the voluminous d i a r y of h i s t r a v e l s , t e l l s of a experience, during h i s r e t u r n t o Venice  from a  worse  pilgrimage  23 to t h e Holy Land. "On t h e 7 o f August [1346] ... I went t o the harbour o f Famagosta [ i n Cyprus] and I e n t e r e d the sea on a v e r y l a r g e V e n e t i a n c o g ; and i n t h e name o f God we s e t s a i l towards t h e West: and we had good weather, so t h a t we went o u t o f t h e G u l f of C i p r i . Then t h e wind g h e r b i n o [South-West] came up, c o n t r a r y t o u s , and i t gave us so much t r o u b l e t h a t i t b r o u g h t us t o t h e Sea o f S e t a l i a [ G u l f o f A n t a l y a ] and we found o u r s e l v e s upon Turkey M a j o r , i n a c o u n t r y t h a t i s c a l l e d A c h i l l i d o n [Cape Xhel i d o n i a (Greek) o r T a s l i k ^ T u r k i s h ) ] , a t t h e h a r bour o f Caccovo [Kekova]" u n  The two l a s t mentioned l o c a l i t i e s a r e i n F i n i k e (South-West T u r k e y ) , some  120  nautical  miles  Bay  from  the  c o u r s e i n t e n d e d f o r t h e c o g . They anchored i n t h a t bay t o w a i t f o r b e t t e r weather and when they thought i t had they s e t o f f a g a i n . Then. N i c c o l o  come  relates,  "when we were o u t a t s e a , where i t i s open, l o ! a storm came up c o n t r a r y t o us and i t took u s , a g a i n s t our w i s h e s , t o B a r b a r y and thus we approached t h e h a r b o u r o f T r i p o l i ; and do n o t misunderstand i t f o r T r i p o l i i n S o r i a , but T r i p o l i of B a r b a r y [ L i b y a ] " .  The d i s t a n c e between F i n i k e Bay and T r i p o l i i s 700 n a u t i c a l m i l e s . From  there  t h e cog  had  Mothoni ( G r e e c e ) . a d i s t a n c e o f about 480 m i l e s . planned voyage  of  about  685  miles  to  about go  Thus,  to a  (Famagusta-Mothoni)  r e q u i r e d s a i l i n g 1400 m i l e s t o c o m p l e t e . A  more  i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e narrowness o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f  relevant a  cog  i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o u r s e t h a t t h e cog s h o u l d have f o l -  24 lowed t o e n t e r the Kaso Channel (285 degrees) and  the c o u r s e  from  to  Mothoni  i t f o l l o w e d t o go t o  Tripoli  (265 degrees) o n l y d i f f e r from one  Mediterranean  a n o t h e r by 20  cogs of the time a l r e a d y  nets, s a i l extensions the s a i l  Finike  carried  t h a t c o u l d be added a t the  bon-  foot  of  i n f a i r w e a t h e r . Bonnets were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  an  improved s a i l c o n f i g u r a t i o n . To reduce were removed and cut.  degrees.  the r e m a i n i n g  sail  S a i l s w i t h r e e f i n g p o i n t had  weather and  sail  still  to  the r e s u l t i n g shape was  had  be far  the  bonnets  the  desired  trussed from  in  bad  ideal.  The  b e n e f i t s of the square s a i l w i t h bonnets f o r most modes of s a i l i n g are o b v i o u s ,  but the  basic  disadvantage  s i n g l e square s a i l t o windward s t i l l close-hauled and  s a i l w i t h bonnets was  the r e m a i n i n g  s a i l was  d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . So the  remained,  of  the  because  impossible to  maintain  not t a l l enough t o produce  reasons  for  such  a  the  astonishingly  l o n g runs of s i n g l e - s a i l e d s h i p s as t h o s e r e p o r t e d by  Fre-  s c o b a l d i and  All  Poggibonsi  are not d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n .  m e d i e v a l s a i l s , r e g a r d l e s s of c u t , were r i g g e d b e f o r e mast and  t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d t a k i n g the wind on  i n o r d e r t o change t a c k s —  called  dieval  ( F i g u r e 7, p. 2 5 ) . T h i s  'wearing s h i p ' —  always g r e a t e r t h a n 180 vessels).  On  s t a r t i n g the t u r n w i t h  the  c o n s i s t s of a  degress  (about 220  single-masted the  rudder  ships while  stern  maneuver  turn  that  d e g r e e s on this the  the  sail  is me-  meant was  Wind  A. Changing t a c k s  (wearing  ship)  Wind  B. M u l t i p l e t a c k s i n a narrows  Making t a c k s w i t h m e d i e v a l s a i l s  Figure 8  slackened  and  the y a r d was  s l o w l y swung around t o s u i t  the  i n c o m i n g t a c k . N e i t h e r s a i l , nor r u d d e r were q u i t e c a p a b l e by t h e m s e l v e s of p r o d u c i n g  a drastic  t u r n on s h o r t  notice  i n a t i g h t s p a c e . T o g e t h e r , t h e y were a d e q u a t e , but as  the  s h i p approached the  was  point  of  the  turn  where  she  r e c e i v i n g the wind dead a s t e r n , she a c c e l e r a t e d most of the ground g a i n e d  on the  previous  and  tack.  case of s h o r t t a c k s i n narrow c h a n n e l s she was l o o s e ground. In t h i s  case  s a i l i n g the c h a n n e l and, have t o s t a r t r u n n i n g . g i n g t o windward was  she  being  would  I t i s very doubtful  a worthwhile exercise  avoid entering a having  this  channel  explains between  s h o r e s on b o t h s i d e s —  two  even  f i n a n c i a l l y d i s a s t r o u s r u n . Severe running  even i f  single-sailed  the  ship  incapable  of  had  in  a  any a  lee  was  master  the  of  case,  off  islands  storms  would  zig-zag-  tacks  at  plenty  she  ship  why  the to  that  In a s t r o n g wind making c o n t i n u o u s  p o s s i b l e a t a l l , and  In  likely  i n an open s e a ,  e x c e p t f o r the n e c e s s i t y of w o r k i n g the shore.  be  lost  not would  —  thus  cost  would  of  a  require  sea-room,  as  s h i p c o u l d not h o l d a c o u r s e t o windward  in  rough w a t e r s .  A ship running  f r e e l y before  pitch wildly, a fact c e n t r e of p r e s s u r e  that  alters  of the s a i l  a  following the  sea  position  in relation  when the s h i p n e a r s the windward s i d e of the  to  the crest  will  of  the hull: of  a  27 wave she w i l l  f i n d h e r s e l f stern-down, w i t h the t i p of the  mast p o i n t i n g somewhat a s t e r n  ( F i g u r e 9, p. 2 8 ) .  c o n d i t i o n brings the centre of pressure far  back , t h e s h i p w i l l  and  t h e n e x t wave w i l l  type o f a c c i d e n t  of  If  this  the s a i l  too  i r r e s i s t i b l y t u r n toward t h e wind  f i n d her across the weather.  i s called  always f a t a l . When r u n n i n g  'broaching'  and  i n emergencies  i s almost  such  as  d e s c r i b e d above, t h e master would want h i s o n l y s a i l as f a r f o r w a r d of b r o a c h i n g  and  the r i s k  t o a minimum. T h i s c o u l d be p r e v e n t e d Of  those  mast  as p o s s i b l e , so as t o r e d u c e  r a k i n g t h e s i n g l e mast d r a s t i c a l l y f o r w a r d .  This  o n l y by  course,  reduced and l o w e r e d s a i l would g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e  a  t o the  same e f f e c t .  Under c o n d i t i o n s o f normal had  navigation  hemp  t o be r e - a d j u s t e d a t e v e r y change o f t a c k , by means o f  t a c k l e s . A s h i p s a i l i n g t o windward h e e l s her s a i l  i s thereby  o f f centre.  This  noticeably causes  a  tendency f o r t h e s h i p t o t u r n i n t o t h e w i n d . T h i s was  shrouds  p r a c t i c a l l y impossible to  correct  beyond  a  strong tendency certain  p o i n t when s a i l i n g w i t h a s i n g l e s a i l , even by g r e a t t i o n s on t h e r u d d e r .  exer-  As l o n g as t h e r u d d e r c o u l d cope w i t h  that c o n d i t i o n , the pressure be p h y s i c a l l y  and  transferred  o f t h e wind on t h e s a i l from  t h r o u g h t h e r i g g i n g , sometimes  the s a i l to  s t r a i n on t h e shrouds c o u l d exceed  to  the point  would  the  hull  where  the  the strength  of the  28  ELEVATION  A r u n n i n g s h i p on t h e windward s i d e of a c r e s t o f a wave. Figure 9  m a t e r i a l . Dismasting  was  a normal consequence.  the helm c o u l d not cope i n any non, rig  manner w i t h  s a i l o r s knew t h a t t h e y had and  t h e y had  reason,  to  run  or  too much  risk  r e i n f o r c i n g the mast and  Whenever  this  phenome-  wind  for  dismasting.  their  For  this  the y a r d w i t h e x t r a  rig-  g i n g i n the e v e n t of heavy weather was  a  common  practice 17  i n the M i d d l e  Ages, a c c o r d i n g  t o R o b e r t o da S a n s e v e r i n o  a f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o n d o t t i e r e and author and  a  diplomat,  o f an i n t e r e s t i n g d i a r y of sea v o y a g i n g on  the  galleys  round s h i p s . Of c o u r s e ,  shrouds and  s t a y s a l s o had  p e r i o d i c a l l y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the i n i t i a l ing,  and  ,  u n t i l most of the s t r e t c h i n g had  ming was  t o be tended t o hours  occurred.  of  Sail trim-  the most e s s e n t i a l p a r t of c o n t r o l l i n g  i n o r d e r t o run a d e s i r e d c o u r s e , minor f u n c t i o n of c h e c k i n g  yaw.  s a i l - t r i m m i n g as a d e t e r m i n i n g  importance  factor in  c o u r s e was  c l e a r l y recognized  t i o n s . The  B l a c k Book of the A d m i r a l t y ,  a  ship  only  of  running  i n medieval l e g a l  a n c i e n t m a r i t i m e s t a t u t e s i n use  the  the helm h a v i n g  The  sail-  proper a  safe  prescrip-  collection  i n E n g l a n d and  the  of  elsewhere  i n Europe from the e a r l y M i d d l e Ages and used i n the  Court  of the A d m i r a l t y f o r s e t t l i n g j u d i c i a l c a s e s a r i s i n g  from  the p r a c t i c e s of the s e a , i s c l e a r i n  this  respect.  The  e a r l i e s t p a r t s of t h i s book are b e l i e v e d t o have been c o l l e c t e d i n 1422,  but the c h r o n o l o g i e s  of the v a r i o u s  parts  30 of  t h i s document a r e a m a t t e r o f d i s c u s s i o n among  r a p h e r s . Some o f t h e s t a t u t e s c o l l e c t e d a t t h a t  paleogtime  are  b e l i e v e d t o have e x i s t e d i n 1068 and may have even e a r l i e r o r i g i n s . The e a r l i e s t  part  of  the  collection  "Rules o f O l e r o n " , from a s e a - p o r t on t h e same name. I n t h e s e r u l e s for  the  master's  s a i l i n g proper courses, courses  i s l a n d ' of the responsibilities  which  c a r g o damage due t o e x c e s s i v e motion  are the  of  would the  prevent  ship,  were  d e f i n e d i n terms o f s a i l - t r i m m i n g : "A shyp b e i n g l a d e n a t B r e s t o r e l s w h e r , and h o y s e t h i t s s a y l e t o go w i t h i t s wynes, and t h e mayster and h i s maryners trymme n o t t h e y r s a y l as they s h u l d e , and bad wether t a k e t h them a t sea i n suche manner, t h a t t h e shyp's c a s k s roll, and s t a v e i n p i p e o r t o n n e , and t h e shyp a r r i v e s i n s a u f t e a t i t s r y g h t d i s c h a r g e . The marchaunt says to t h e mayster t h a t h i s wyne has £ § f a u l t o f t h e shyp's c a s k s etc. e n  The v a l i d i t y o f t h i s r u l i n g found  l  o  s  t  recognition  else-  where. I t was i n c o r p o r a t e d , a l m o s t v e r b a t i m , i n t h e B l a c k e Booke o f t h e A d m i r a l t y : "A s h i p b e i n g c h a r g e d or  elsewhere,  ...  and  the  maister  and  at his  Burdews mariners 19  trymmeth n o t t h e y r s a y l as i t s h u l d e , p r i n c i p l e was t h a t damage t o t h e c a r g o caused  etc.  The  by t h e  ship  b e i n g i m p r o p e r l y s a i l e d was a r e s u l t o f t h e s a i l  not being  trimmed as i t s h o u l d . With the s a i l  p r o p e r l y s e t and t h e  ship  on c o u r s e  o n l y one  s i d e - r u d d e r would s u f f i c e f o r  the  general  poses of s u s t a i n e d n a v i g a t i o n : the s a i l would have trimmed s l i g h t l y a s t e r n of n e u t r a l f o r wind on the p o r t s i d e and  sailing  s l i g h t l y forward  i n g w i t h the wind on the s t a r b o a r d s i d e . the b o a t would be t o p o r t and  of i t f o r In  sail-  either to  deeply  (but not n e c e s s a r i l y  i n a feathered p o s i t i o n , that i s  blade almost v e r t i c a l ,  with  its  in  be the  case rotate  the j o b of the helmsman would t h e n s i m p l y  f a i r l y well vertical  inward,  to  with  l e f t w i t h a minimal tendency  s i s t of t r a i l i n g h i s oar r e a s o n a b l y  blade  pur-  the  con-  water,  so),  with  the  say  with  the  to  leading  edge  slightly  so t h a t i t would have a n e g a t i v e d i p . That i s a l l  t h a t would be r e q u i r e d t o c r e a t e enough drag the r o t a t i o n  of  the  ship  to  port  e f f e c t i v e l a t e r a l f o r c e t h a t would  and  to  counteract  to  create  an  counteract  leeway  to  20  some e x t e n t increase Decreasing  . I n c r e a s i n g the amount of n e g a t i v e  the  drag  and  bring  the  ship  to  i t would a l l o w the s h i p t o r o t a t e  t o p o r t . Any  g o n d o l i e r would f i n d t h i s  and c o n v e n i e n t ,  starboard. spontaneously  exercise  as each s t r o k e i m p a r t s  d i p would  familiar  the g o n d o l a a  t o p o r t , w h i l e the amount of d i p of the o a r - b l a d e end of the s t r o k e c o n t r o l s whether  the  gondola  s t r a i g h t or t u r n t o p o r t or t o s t a r b o a r d . The the few c r a f t t o have s u r v i v e d u n m o d i f i e d  gondola,  one  s i n c e the  from the s t a r b o a r d s i d e .  is  stroke  the go  and  similar  at will  Ages, i s u n i q u e i n t h a t i t can o n l y be rowed A  push  Middle steered  used  by  e x p e r t canoe p a d d l e r s without  having  who  can  keep  a  to r e s o r t to p a d d l i n g  straight  on  both  sides.  t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge i s r e q u i r e d of a s a i l o r t h i s r e s u l t on any  sort  of  boat,  but  this effect, particularly sails  the  balance.  the p e c u l i a r method of or rudder  the  is  towards  physically  other  side  steer-  is requir-  p o s i t i v e a c t i o n only  the s i d e of the boat on which i t  applied.  of  its  a c c o r d , under the p r e s s u r e of the p r o p e l l i n g oar or of sail.  The  sail  was  p r o g r e s s i v e l y set  w i t h s m a l l adjustments being made, the wind was  blowing  to  give  depending  from the p o r t or the  on  starboard  to  p o r t . A s a i l o r c o u l d produce these r e s u l t s more  adjustments was  however, reflected  r e q u i r e d f o r s t e e r i n g . The  because  the  of  e f f o r t l e s s y , or even to work a t a l l , depended on these adjustments being made  correctly.  easily of  the  a b i l i t y of the rudder  side  rotation  progress  i n the r e d u c t i o n of  the  whether  the s h i p , i n o r d e r to a l l o w f o r a minimum  i t sounds,  own  direction  of  than  the  and  ed because a s i d e - r u d d e r has  boat must t u r n towards  sail  so because the b e s t of ropes  from the s i d e w i t h an oar, paddle  The  produce  to  s t r e t c h under strain,, a l t e r i n g  is  No  essential  In a l l the above cases ing  to  under  c a p a b i l i t y of f i n e - t u n i n g the o n l y s a i l  course  the  effort to  work  essentially Depending  on  21 the symptoms r e p o r t e d by the helmsman shrouds and  probably  s t a y s had  sheets,  to be shortened  bowlines, or  length-  ened, as t a u g h t by e x p e r i e n c e , u n t i l t h e r u d d e r c o u l d cope w i t h the circumstances. I t i s not  difficult  to  s a i l - s e t t i n g was c o n s i d e r e d such an e s s e n t i a l  see  why  p a r t of sea-  manship .  S t e e r i n g a cog different,  with  in principle,  a  side  than  rudder  steering  a  was  not  knorr,  much except  t h a t t h e h i g h e r s i d e s would r e q u i r e a v e r y l o n g r u d d e r the r u d d e r would have t o be k e p t c l o s e r t o Of c o u r s e , t h i s would  require  an  the  inordinate  or  vertical. amount  of  p h y s i c a l e f f o r t , as t h e tendency f o r t h e r u d d e r  would  be  to t r a i l  craft,  a  through  a  astern. A simple l i n e , o r , f o r heavier  t a c k l e g o i n g from t h e neck o f t h e  rudder  (or  hole i n the blade) forward t o the side of the  ship  do t h e j o b o f h o l d i n g t h e r u d d e r i n t h e c o r r e c t Then a l i n e g o i n g a s t e r n  would  position.  c o u l d be used t o l i f t  the rudder  c o m p l e t e l y o u t o f t h e water when n o t i n use i n t i d a l  har-  bours, or f o r beaching. A f i f t e e n t h century ship w i t h t h i s k i n d o f arrangement i s d e p i c t e d on t h e tomb o f  St.  Peter  22 t h e M a r t y r i n t h e Church o f S t . E u s t o r g i o a t M i l a n . t h i s gear and a minimum o f c a r e  from  the  helmsman,  r u d d e r c o u l d be k e p t v e r t i c a l l y c l o s e t o t h e all  With  hull  the  almost  t h e time and one would n o t r e q u i r e a g r e a t d e a l o f ex-  p e r i m e n t i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h a t a r u d d e r i n such  a  would c o u n t e r a c t leeway more e f f e c t i v e l y , as w e l l .  position  T r y i n g t o beat a g a i n s t a wind b l o w i n g board  s i d e o f the b o a t  from the  star-  (a ' s t a r b o a r d t a c k ' ) , w i t h the  der p a r t l y out o f the water because of  the  rud-  direction  of  h e e l , would r e s u l t i n a v e r y p r e c a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n of e q u i l i b r i u m i n any  s o r t of chop, s h o r t o f moderate,  rudder b l a d e coming out of the water a t e v e r y tween waves and d u r i n g s e v e r e r o l l i n g .  If  with  the  trough  be-  boats  s i n g l e s i d e - r u d d e r were c a p a b l e of making t a c k s  with to  wind-  ward on b o t h s i d e s , t h e s e t a c k s would be v e r y u n e q u a l . any r a t e , the problem o f  controlling  and  s o l v e . Beyond a c e r t a i n s i z e o f h u l l  a difficult  i t was  w i t h any k i n d o f r u d d e r . These d i f f i c u l t i e s experiment  At  counter-acting  r o t a t i o n by the means o f a s i d e - r u d d e r was to  a  one  impossible  led s a i l o r s  adopting at l e a s t four d i f f e r e n t types of  to  rud-  d e r s . Romola and R. C. A n d e r s o n , the a u t h o r s o f  a  mental book on the h i s t o r y of s h i p s , argue t h a t  different  l e v e l s of e f f i c i e n c y of four d i s s i m i l a r kinds i n s t e e r i n g boats of v a r y i n g s i z e s  were  the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , thus c a u s i n g  some  of  funda-  rudders  recognizable northern  in port  a u t h o r i t i e s t o l e v y d i f f e r e n t dues on s h i p s , a c c o r d i n g • t o the type o f r u d d e r employed. These a u t h o r s have found F l e m i s h , Dutch and German documents  name  four  different  k i n d s o f s t e e r i n g g e a r : the o r d i n a r y s t e r n - r u d d e r r o e d e r ' ) , the s t e e r i n g - o a r ( ' h a n t r o e d e r ' ) , ( 'sleeproeder ) 1  passed  through  and a  fourth  kind  a h o l e i n the h u l l .  the  that  ('hang-  side-rudder  ('kuelroeder') ,  that  I t i s not c l e a r whether  i t was p a r t o f t h e r u d d e r i t s e l f o r o n l y t h e  tiller  that  was i n b o a r d . S h i p s w i t h t h e h a n g r o e d e r , a l s o c a l l e d  "rud-  23 der a s t e r n " , p a i d more. The  problem o f s t e e r i n g w i t h  equal  t a c k had been s o l v e d i n a n c i e n t times  ease  on  i n the  either  Mediterrane-  an, and i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n two  side-rudders.  In the North  p l i c a t i o n . There i s no northern  t h i s i d e a never  explanation  s o l u t i o n t o making e q u a l  for this  of  found  ap-  fact.  The  t a c k s was t h e  introduc-  t i o n of the c e n t r a l rudder  ( F i g u r e 10, p. 3 6 ) . The problem  of  central  sail-setting  with  a  rudder  or  with  s i d e - r u d d e r s was a g r e a t d e a l s i m p l e r t h a n w i t h s i d e - r u d d e r , as each r u d d e r had  positive  s i d e . S h i p s would t h e n use t h e same s a i l t a c k s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s i d e from w h i c h t h u s making i t e a s i e r  f o r systematic  a  the  wind  ship to a  Medi-  s h i p w i t h s t e r n p o s t r u d d e r i s a t P i s a , and i t i s In the Mediterranean  duction of the  rudder  sternpost  immediate o b s o l e s c e n c e  d i d not  the i n t r o -  lead  t o the  o f t h e t w i n s i d e - r u d d e r s , and  ships w i t h three rudders 2 4  when  required  would b r i n g a r u n n i n g  of t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  later.  both blew,  zig-zagging  b e a t , o r v i c e v e r s a . The e a r l i e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f terranean  on i t s on  b e a t i n g a l o n g way t o windward. A d j u s t m e n t s were o n l y when a change o f c o u r s e  single  action setting  twin  were seen more t h a n  one  even  century  36  A.  B.  Elbing Seal.  S h i p on the Font i n W i n c h e s t e r C a t h e d r a l , from t h e Low C o u n t r i e s , 1180.  The s t e r n p o s t r u d d e r . (Both f i g u r e s from R. W. Unger, S h i p i n the M e d i e v a l Economy, 600-1600, p. 142) . Figure  10  The  37  The r e a s o n s f o r t h e g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e of t h e p o s t r u d d e r a r e o b v i o u s . The e f f e c t o f  a  side-rudder  any type v a r i e s w i t h the d e p t h o f immersion  o f the  T h i s caused a g r e a t  work  deal  of  unnecessary  helmsman i n any s o r t o f s e a , and k e e p i n g a was  difficult.  But  the  s t e r n p o s t r u d d e r was a c c e p t a b l e , and  most  essential  that greater angles  with  c l o s e r t o the wind was  this  the  the  course of  the  heel  became  of  sailing  capability  enhanced.  than  hold  i n t h e f a c e o f c o n t r a r y winds i n an open s e a .  They c o u l d not work t h e i r way iar  for  benefit of  of  blade.  steady  A l l m e d i e v a l s h i p s c o u l d do l i t t l e b e t t e r t h e i r ground  stern-  out o f h a r b o u r s w i t h  channels i n adverse c o n d i t i o n s  rowing o r t o w i n g . L e a v i n g an open  without  resorting  anchorage  m a t t e r a g a i n . The wind had t o be b l o w i n g  pecul-  was  from  to  another  the  shore  and a g r e a t d e a l o f sea-room had t o be a v a i l a b l e downwind, as the s h i p , l a y i n g head t o the w i n d , around by s a i l a l o n e , u n t i l she was  had  to  sailing  broad r e a c h , so as t o a c q u i r e enough speed  in to  be  turned  a  fairly  be  steer-  a b l e . A poem i n a m a n u s c r i p t p r e s e r v e d a t T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , Cambridge ( p r o b a b l y composed e a r l i e r  than  c e n t u r y ) d e s c r i b e s how  on  ship  2 5  :  i t was  done  the a  fifteenth  single-masted  38  Anone the mastyr commandeth f a s t To a l l h i s shypmen i n a l l the h a s t To d r e s s hem sone about the mast Theyr t a k e l i n g t o make.  The sailors  f i r s t order  given  by  the  master  t o come a t the mast f o r making  is  for  the  sail.  W i t h howe i s s a then they c r y What howe mate thou s t o n d y s t t o ny Thy f e l l o w may not h a l e the by Thus t h e y b e g i n t o c r a k e .  The  s a i l o r s c r y "Ho!  while pulling mate, who  H o i s t ! " . Someone  is  told  the h a l y a r d he i s s t a n d i n g too c l o s e t o  has no room t o do h i s h a u l i n g . I t  they are working  together, pulling  that his  appears  that  l a y over the  yard  by hand.  A boy o r tweyn anone up s t y e n And o v e r w h a r t the s a y l e y e r d l y e n Yhow t a l y a the remenaunt c r y e n And p u l l w i t h a l l t h e y r myght.  A boy or two  immediately  go up and  (and thus a r e h a u l e d up w i t h i t ) w h i l e the r e s t  cry  "Ho!  Tallyho!"  with  all  (Ho! H a u l , Ho!)  and keep  on  pulling  t h e i r m i g h t . T h i s b o a t , e v i d e n t l y , had no i s the rope rungs s t r e t c h e d a c r o s s boys had  the  ratlines, shrouds.  So  t o go a l o f t w i t h the y a r d , i n o r d e r t o u n f u r l  s a i l as soon as i t was  up. Once  they  had  their  job  that the the of  39 u n f u r l i n g done, t h e y would  descend  along  the  boltrope,  t h a t i s the rope sewn t o the e d g i n g of the s a i l , one of the c l e w s and t h e n c o n t i n u e hand the sheets u n t i l  t h e i r f e e t touched  over  the  down  hand  deck.  one. S a i l o r s would always shun the r a t l i n e s ing,  along  This  n e i t h e r an u n u s u a l p r a c t i c e , nor a p a r t i c u l a r l y  to  was  dangerous  for  descend-  s i n c e t h i s p r o c e s s e n t a i l s l o o k i n g down t o f i n d one's  f o o t i n g , an  uncertain  undertaking  on  a  whereas w h i l e coining down a l o n g a rope t h e y have had a g r i p between t h e i r a n k l e s . Once d r a w i n g wind t h e y would go a l o f t by  the  needed. The poem does n o t d e s c r i b e t h e  rolling  ship,  would  always  the same  sail  was  route,  if  unfurling  of  the  sail. Hale t h e bowlyne now v e r e the s h e t e Coke make r e d y anone our mete Our p i l g r i m s have no l u s t t o e t e I p r a y God geve hem r e s t .  T h i s i s t h e v o i c e o f the master. The the downwind c l e w o f t h e s a i l .  and  v e e r i n g , o r s l a c k i n g o f f , the s h e e t would have caused  the  t o go way  forward,  thus  causing  the  controlled  bowline  sail  Hauling  sheet  the  ship,  d r i f t i n g a s t e r n and f a l l i n g o f f the w i n d , t o go h e r s e l f . There was helm was  no one a t the  helm  yet,  still  about  because  not n e c e s s a r y nor u s a b l e a t t h i s s t a g e . The  by the cook  i s o r d e r e d t o make a meal r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o the p i l g r i m p a s s e n g e r s , as  they  seem  to  have  already  lost  their  40  stomach f o r f o o d . Go t o the helm what howe no nere  They a r e now under way and the master o r d e r s to  go the helm and s t e e r , so as t o p r e v e n t t h e  someone  ship  from  h e a v i n g any c l o s e r t o the wind t h a n she a l r e a d y i s d o i n g . Yhowe t r u s s a h a l e i n the b r a y l e s Thow h a l y s t n a t be good thow f a y l e s 0 se howe w e l l owre good s h i p s a y l e s And t h u s t h e y say among.  There i s t o o much wind and the s a i l o r s a r e o r d e r e d t o g a t h e r , o r t r u s s , the s a i l up by h a u l i n g  in  the  brails. 0 ft  T h i s c o u l d be v e r y w e l l the e f f e c t o f the a p p a r e n t b e i n g p r o p e r l y f e l t as the s h i p  accelerates  wind  towards  c r u i s i n g speed, a f t e r she i s f i n a l l y trimmed.  The  her  master  b e r a t e s a s h i r k e r and t h e n has words o f a d m i r a t i o n f o r the b e h a v i o u r of h i s s h i p under the  press  of  wind.  q u e s t i o n , they are having a very f i n e s a i l . g a t h e r s more  speed  the  apparent  f a r t h e r f o r w a r d and t h i s w i l l  wind  As  seems  Without the  ship  to  shift  r e q u i r e f u r t h e r t r i m m i n g , so  as t o s a i l c l o s e r t o t h e w i n d . Hale i n the w a r t a c k h i t s h a l l be done  "Haul i n the t a c k ! "  " I t . s h a l l be done".  The s a i l i s  not  t a u t enough f o r t h e k i n d o f b e a t t h e y a r e now  The t a c k c o n t r o l l e d t h e windward the  tack i n without s l a c k i n g  sail  making.  clew of the s a i l .  the  bowline  Hauling  tightened  the  and b r o u g h t t h e f o o t c l o s e r t o t h e mast, a t t h e  same  time', as r e q u i r e d so as t o s a i l c l o s e r . T h i s i s t h e e f f e c t of  t h e i n c r e a s e d a p p a r e n t w i n d , as t h e  cruising  reaches  her  ship  around  with  speed.  The problem o f h a v i n g t o t u r n t h e one s i n g l e s a i l the  ship  upon l e a v i n g , d u r i n g t h e  c r a f t d i d n o t have enough  speed  a c t i o n o f t h e helm, was by i t s e l f  to  phase  in  respond  a challenging  to the one.  same problem e x i s t e d a l s o when e n t e r i n g a cramped  would  simply  come  The  harbour  or when h a v i n g t o anchor c l o s e t o shore a t an open W i t h a l i g h t wind a master  which  beach.  in  under  minimum s a i l , choose h i s s p o t f o r a n c h o r i n g , d r o p t h e s a i l and t h e f i r s t a n c h o r , and l e t momentum  and  r e s t . I t was q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y i f he  wind had  s t e r n w i n d : i f he came i n a t t o o h i g h  a  need t o t u r n t h e s h i p i n t o  before  t h e wind  do  speed  a  the strong  he  would  (or w h i l e )  l e t t i n g down h i s a n c h o r s , and i n d o i n g so he would have t o depend  on t h e s t o u t n e s s o f t h e hawsers and on t h e  q u a l i t y o f t h e bottom i n o r d e r t o check  the  holding  considerable  momentum. A l s o , w h i l e coming a r o u n d , t h e s h i p  would  to expose h e r s i d e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o wind  waves.  and  have The  s e r i o u s n e s s o f such a p r e d i c t a m e n t was c o n s i d e r e d on b o a r d  42 S a n s e v e r i n o ' s s h i p on t h e n i g h t o f t h e 1458 w h i l e t h e y were d r i v e n  under  bare  20  of poles  December before  a  s t o r m , towards t h e beach o f Ancona. " , . . They were a f r a i d t h a t t h e f u r y o f t h e wind would throw them onto t h e s h o r e a t n i g h t , b r e a k i n g t h e s h i p t o p i e c e s on some p l a c e where t h e r e was no chance o f escape w h a t s o e v e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y because o f i t b e i n g n i g h t - t i m e ; o r e l s e , i f t h e y had wanted t o c a s t t h e a n c h o r s and l a y t o , t h a t t h e f u r y o f t h e wind and t h e v e r y p o w e r f u l and v e r y h o r r i b l e s t o r m t h a t t h e y were h a v i n g were such as t o p r e v e n t them from s t o p p i n g and a n c h o r i n g ; o r t h a t w h i l e [ t h e a n c h o r s ] were t a k i n g hold and s w i n g i n g t h e s h i p a r o u n d , t h e wind and t h e waves o f t h e sea would have caused t h e s h i p t o h e e l o v e r t o t h e p o i n t o f making her t o turn turtle." ' 7  Z  The master c a r r i e d o u t t h e maneuver i n t h i s way: " I n t h e end Our L o r d God and Our Lady o f L o r e t o ... caused t h e wind t o a b a t e t o some e x t e n t , so t h a t , as t h e y k e p t on s o u n d i n g a l l t h e time and h a v i n g found t w e n t y - f o u r fathoms o f water a s h o r t t i m e a f t e r m i d n i g h t , t h e master o r d e r e d two v e r y heavy a n c h o r s t o be c a s t , each anchor b e i n g s e c u r e d w i t h two v e r y t h i c k and v e r y long new hawsers t i e d t o one a n o t h e r . And w h i l e c a s t i n g the s a i d a n c h o r s he o r d e r e d t h e helm t o be p u t down t o t u r n t h e s h i p and, Deo G r a t i a , t h e wind h a v i n g dropped somewhat a t t h a t t i m e , t h e a f o r e s a i d a n c h o r s t o o k h o l d w e l l . The s h i p d i d n o t r u n i n t o any danger w h i l e coming a r o u n d , w h i c h was a m a r v e l l o u s t h i n g and beyond t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e master and o f as § officers and s a i l o r s as t h e r e were t h e r e " a n y  2  All semanship  t o l d , the episode describes a remarkable f e a t  of  i n a c c e l e r a t i n g t h e r o t a t i o n o f t h e s h i p , so  as  t o reduce t h e t i m e t h e s i d e o f t h e s h i p was exposed  to  a  minimum, t h a t i s b e f o r e the anchors s t a r t e d t o helm b e i n g put o v e r s t a r t e d the s h i p t u r n i n g  grab. of  The  its  a c c o r d , as o t h e r w i s e t h e sudden p u l l of the a n c h o r s , the s h i p s t i l l  a c r o s s t h e w i n d , would have caused  h e e l o v e r . Meanwhile t h e hawsers  were  paid  around a b i t t , so as t o have t h e  necessary  off  would  sea-anchor, c r e a t i n g would  have an  the  additional  see t h e s h i p f a c i n g  touched bottom.  had  the  friction  same  before  running as  force the  for would  effect  turning  wind  to  running  t a k e h o l d . The p r e s e n c e o f t h e s e l e n g t h s o f c a b l e bows  with  her  s t o p p i n g them and making them f a s t when the a n c h o r s  from t h e  own  that  anchors  T h i s , u l t i m a t e l y , e x p l a i n s the r e a s o n  e l e c t i n g t o anchor a t g r e a t d e p t h ,  using  two  a  very  for long  hawsers, as t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s would buy t h e s h i p the e x t r a time n e c e s s a r y while s t i l l  for  turning  f r e e o f t h e bottom.  around  Maneuvers  would be a t t e m p t e d o n l y i f a g r e a t e r r i s k such as t h a t o f b e i n g r u n onto a l e e master would w a i t f o r t h e weather bad weather  offshore,  and  s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s of t h i s  completely  such was  shore.  as  this  impending, Otherwise  a  t o a b a t e , r i d i n g out t h e  Sanseverino's  diary  reports  kind.  To e n t e r a h a r b o u r w i t h no wind a t  a l l , or  with  a  c o n t r a r y w i n d , o r an e b b i n g t i d e meant u s i n g a t u g , i n the form o f a tow-boat powered by o a r s . The  strong  " R o l l s of O l e r o n " p r o v i d e d  backs some  pulling rules  the  dealing  w i t h these circumstances:  " L i k e w i s e , a shyp cometh t o  p l a c e and wuld e n t e r i n t o a p o r t or haven, and  any  i t sets  e n s i g n t o have e i t h e r a p i l o t o r a b o a t t o tow  an  i t within 29  bycause the wind o r the  tyde  is  contrary  ..."  etc.  T h i s , o f c o u r s e , would o c c u r q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y and were a l l o w e d t o s e t t h e i r own  crews  at  towing  masters in  other  v e s s e l s , f o r a f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , when no o t h e r  help  was  ship  a v a i l a b l e . T h i s l a b o u r was  considered  ordinary  d u t y , a c c o r d i n g t o the customs t h a t bound the  sailors  to  the master. The  Good Customs o f the Sea,  the  section  of  the B l a c k Book  of  dealt  with  the  the  Admiralty  arrangements between m a s t e r s , decreed:  " F u r t h e r , a mariner  s h i p p e r s , t r a d e r s and i s bound t o go and  o r a v e s s e l i n o r d e r t h a t i t may 30 o r d e r s him t o do so the Good England  Customs  ..." are  in a version  Juggementz de l a Meer" (1284-1327). Nothing  etc.  unknown.  earliest  They  "La  during  i s known about square  the sail  appear i n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n ,  were  Chartre  the  reign  reasons of  origins  of  received  in  d'Oleroun of  des  Edward  nor i t  that  northern is  II  Landstrom the e a r l i e s t  illustrations  caused fashion  certain  re-acquired relevance i n that area.  the etymology o f i t s name i s a l t o g e t h e r to  tow a s h i p  e n t e r a p o r t , i f the mate . The  called  crews,  3 1  c o m p e t i t o r t o the  lateen s a i l  that  clear. are  how Not  a to the  even  According from  Greek  manuscripts of the n i n t h c e n t u r y  and  they  depict  small  32 c r a f t w i t h two r u d d e r s  . The  classicist  Lionel  Casson  hypothesizes a Mediterranean o r i g i n f o r t h i s s a i l ,  because  a n c i e n t s a i l o r s t h e r e had l e a r n e d a method o f c h a n g i n g the square s a i l  —  used as such on r e a c h e s and runs — i n t o a 33 t r i a n g u l a r one f o r s a i l i n g t o windward. Casson found evidence f o r t h i s •  complex  of  the  work  of  several  writers  of  34  antiquity.  the  in  Ancient Mediterranan s a i l o r s  system o f b r a i l s , w h i c h t h e y  shape and s i z e o f t h e s a i l  had  used  devised  for  according to  a  adjusting  the  strength  the w i n d . The b r a i l s were ropes t h a t went from t h e deck  over the y a r d , t o the f o o t o f the s a i l . P u l l i n g them would s h o r t e n the s a i l , s l a c k e n i n g them would a l l o w t h e s a i l  to  b a l l o o n o v e r the f o r e p a r t o f t h e s h i p . U n m o d i f i e d a n c i e n t square s a i l s c o u l d be used f o r dead runs o r b r o a d r e a c h e s . When g o i n g t o windward  the s a i l o r s would m o d i f y  by b r a i l i n g i t i n a t r i a n g u l a r  shape.  This  the  sail  modification  was a c h i e v e d by p u l l i n g the b r a i l s more on one  side  on the o t h e r . "A square s a i l b r a i l e d up i n t h i s  particular  f a s h i o n and s e t a s l a n t i s i n shape not  a  and may  possibly  all-important In  have 35 sail".  the  invention  the M i d d l e Ages t h e l a t e e n s a i l  M e d i t e r r a n e a n Sea t o played  sparked  unlike  a major  part  a l l the  countries  i n the development  spread of  than  lateen, of  that  from  the  Europe  and  of multi-masted  46 s h i p s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s c u t o f s a i l  consists i ni t s  a l l o w i n g a s h i p t o p o i n t t o windward a t c l o s e r a n g l e s t h a n the s i n g l e square s a i l . Under such c o n d i t i o n s almost l i k e a f o r e - a n d - a f t  r i g . Medieval  i t behaves  sailors, i n fact,  36 considered although  i t as such  and so do  many  modern  i t d i f f e r s from a pure f o r e - a n d - a f t  e s s e n t i a l manners: i t i s r i g g e d b e f o r e r e q u i r e s wearing the s h i p , wind, i n order  that  scholars,  r i g i n two  the  mast  i s turning  and i t  before  the  t o change t a c k s , l i k e a square s a i l ,  a pure f o r e - a n d - a f t  r i g , being  rigged  a f t of  while  the  mast,  allows t a c k i n g , t h a t i s t u r n i n g i n t o the wind. This i s , of course,  a matter of semantics,  and i t c a n be s a i d t h a t t h e  l a t e e n s a i l embodied most o f t h e advantages o f and-aft  r i g t o windward and most o f t h o s e  of  the the  foresquare  37  s a i l downwind  . The r i g g i n g o f t h e l a t e e n s a i l  the shrouds i s s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t i v e downwind s a i l complicated  of  forward of  i t s origin  and u s i n g i t t o windward i n v o l v e d maneuver  with  the  yard  and  the p o r t i o n s o f s a i l  a r e a on t h e two  were u n e q u a l . S e t t i n g t h e  sail  the  sides  of  for different  s a i l i n g c o n s i s t e d i n v a r y i n g the angle of the r e s p e c t t o t h e mast by  the  means  of  tackles  mast, the  yard and  course  The so mast  modes  h a u l i n g the sheet i n u n t i l the ship ran true w i t h a mum o f h e l p from t h e helm. When on a windward  To  forward.  to  a  fairly  shrouds.  f a c i l i t a t e t h i s maneuver t h e masts were r a k e d l a t e e n s a i l y a r d was s e t a s y m m e t r i c a l l y  a  as  of with then  minithe  47  s h e e t would t h e n cause the s a i l  to curve  wind s i d e of the s h i p . Reasons of  along  geometry  the  of  down-  sail  and  y a r d r e q u i r e d t h a t the downwind shrouds be removed and windward ones be r e - t i g h t e n e d a t  every  change  of  T h i s maneuver s h i f t e d the p o s i t i o n of the c e n t r e  tack.  of  wind  pressure  as needed, d e p e n d i n g on the  y a r d was  o b v i o u s l y amenable t o r e c e i v i n g v a r y i n g s i z e s  s a i l , to s u i t d i f f e r e n t w h i l e the p r a c t i c e of  ranges changing  of  course  the  wind  sails  sailed.  The  velocity,  according  of and,  to  the  38 weather i s documented f o r f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y ing  i s known about the manner of  single-masted  lateen-rigged  sailing  craft.  ships early  Single  sources The  and  used  of a u x i l i a r y power as e a r l y as the t e n t h  usage of l a t e e n s a i l s on g a l l e y s  g a l l e y s remained p r a c t i c a l s h i p s of  lasted warfare.  sails  Mediterranean  century  o a r e d w a r s h i p s of the E a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n  medieval  lateen  were the normal means of p r o p u l s i o n f o r a l l merchant s h i p s as e a r l y as the s e v e n t h  , noth-  as  large  them  as  century. long  as  48  Notes t o C h a p t e r I I .  1. Owain R o b e r t s , " V i k i n g S a i l i n g P e r f o r m a n c e " , i n A s p e c t s of M a r i t i m e A r c h a e l o g y and E t h n o g r a p h y , Ed. Sean McGrail, (Wandle P r e s s , London, 1984). See the S e c t i o n ' F u t u r e E x p e r i m e n t s w i t h S a i l s ' , pp. 128131. 2. T h i s i s s i m p l y a s p e c u l a t i o n , as t h e r e i s no documentat i o n f o r t h i s use o f the b e i t i a s s , b u t t h e n t h e r e i s no d o c u m e n t a t i o n s as t o how i t would be used i n any manner. The D a n i s h Immer S l e i p n e r r e p l i c a , built in 1981, used the b e i t i a s s s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h i s manner. See Ole C r u m l i n - P e t e r s e n , " E x p e r i m e n t a l Boat Archaeo l o g y " , i n A s p e c t s o f M a r i t i m e A r c h a e o l o g y and Ethnography , Ed. Sean M a c G r a i l , (Wandle P r e s s , London, 1984) , F i g . 5.15, p. 121. 3. I f t h i s c o n j e c t u r e i s c o r r e c t i t c o u l d o f f e r an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f a c t t h a t an odd number o f p a i r s of f i t t i n g s were found a t G o k s t a d . See 0. Roberts, Op. C i t . , p.132. For t h e q u a n t i t i e s of f i n d s Roberts quotes A. E. C h r i s t e n s e n , 1979, V i k i n g Age R i g g i n g , a s u r v e y o f s o u r c e s and t h e o r i e s , i n M c G r a i l , S (Ed.), 1979, pp. 183-193. 4. G.  F. Marcus, "The E v o l u t i o n o f the K n o r r " , The Mariner's M i r r o r , 41, 1955 (Cambridge University P r e s s , Cambridge, 1955), p. 118.  5. B j o r n L a n d s t r o m , The S h i p , ( A l l e n 1961), pp. 62-63.  and  Unwin,  London,  6. Ian F r i e l , "Documentary S o u r c e s and t h e M e d i e v a l S h i p " , i n The I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f N a u t i c a l Archaeology and Underwater E x p l o r a t i o n , 12.1, 1983, T a b l e 3, p. 46. F r i e l assumed t h i s a p p a r a t u s t o be the y a r d p a r r a l , a l t h o u g h the word t y r e i s used for this d e v i c e e l s e w h e r e (Gear from the wreck a t G r a i n t h o r p e , 1353, Op. C i t . , T a b l e 6, p. 5 9 ) . 7. R i c h a r d W. Unger, The S h i p i n the M e d i e v a l Economy, 600-1600, (Croom Helm, London, 1980), p. 141. Also, Romola & R. C. Anderson, The Sailing-Ship, Six Thousand Y e a r s o f H i s t o r y (George G. H a r r a p and Co. L t d . , London, 1926), p. 166. 8. G. F. Marcus, Op.  C i t . , p.  121.  49  9. G.  F. Marcus, "A Note on Norse Seamanship: S i g l a T i l B r o t s " , M a r i n e r ' s M i r r o r , 41, 1955 (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, 1955), pp. 61-62.  10. T h i s name was a p p l i e d t o a number of large Northern t r a d i n g s h i p s and d i d not become s p e c i f i c until the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . In the M e d i t e r r a n e a n t h e y a r e ment i o n e d i n the fourteenth century ( I t . cocca, Fr. cocque). 11. L i o n a r d o d i N. F r e s c o b a l d i , " V i a g g i o in Terrasanta", V i a g g i i n T e r r a s a n t a , Ed. C e s a r e A n g e l i n i ( F e l i c e Le M o n n i e r , F i r e n z e , 1944), p. 166. The translation of t h i s and a l l the quotes from t h i s work a r e by Tullio Vidoni. 12. A c o m p a r i s o n between the d i s t a n c e s g i v e n by medieval a u t h o r s and a c t u a l d i s t a n c e s expressed i n modern n a u t i c a l m i l e s has been made by T. V i d o n i . S a n s e v e r i no o f f e r s the g r e a t e s t d a t a . The Venetian mile was e q u a l t o 0.63 n a u t i c a l m i l e s , o r 1167 metres. D i s t a n c e s i n the t e x t a r e i n n a u t i c a l m i l e s and speeds a r e i n k n o t s ( n a u t i c a l m i l e s per h o u r ) . D i s t a n c e s in q u o t a t i o n s from m e d i e v a l t e x t s a r e i n V e n e t i a n miles and the . m o d i f i e r ' [ V e n e t i a n ] ' i s always used i n t h e s e occasions. 13. L. F r e s c o b a l d i , Op.  C i t . , pp.  166-67.  14. F r a N i c c o l o da P o g g i b o n s i , L i b r o d ' O l t r a m a r e , Ed. A l b e r t o B a c h i D e l i a L e g a , 2 v o l . , (Commissione per i T e s t i d i L i n g u e , B o l o g n a , 1 9 6 8 ) , V o l . 2, pp. 216-17. The t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s and a l l the quotes from this work a r e by T. V i d o n i . 1  15.  I b i d . , p.  217.  16. D i s m a s t i n g i n heavy weather on a s h i p where a l l the g e a r i s p r o p e r l y m a i n t a i n e d can o n l y o c c u r when s a i l i n g t o windward. In o t h e r modes of s a i l i n g i n a storm the s h i p w i l l c a p s i z e i n s t e a d . To a v o i d c a p s i z i n g a master had the o p t i o n of c u t t i n g s t a y s , shrouds and mast and l o o s i n g a l l the gear o v e r b o a r d . "Hewing the mast", c h o p p i n g i t w i t h an ax, was probably not a r a r e e v e n t , and the s t a t u t e s o f a l l p o r t c i t i e s def i n e d the e n s u i n g f i n a n c i a l l i a b i l i t i e s i n g r e a t det a i l . Among the c o l l e c t i o n of sea-laws i n S i r T r a v e r s T w i s s Ed., The Black Book o f the A d m i r a l t y the f i n a n c i a l problems d e r i v i n g from "hewing the mast" are d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a t u t e s : "The Judg-  50 ments of the Sea" ( V o l . I l l , p. 1 5 ) , "The Gotland Sea-laws" ( V o l . IV, p. 7 7 ) , "The P u r p l e Book of B r u g e s " ( V o l . IV, p. 3 1 3 ) , "The D a n t z i c Sea-laws" ( V o l . IV, p. 3 4 1 ) , "The M a r i t i m e Laws o f the O s t e r l i n g s " ( V o l . IV, p. 373) and "The Sea-laws of Fland e r s " ( V o l . IV, p. 4 2 7 ) . The invariable legal app r o a c h was t h a t o f c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s a c t i o n as a form o f j e t t i s o n , l i k e any o t h e r 'act o f man'. 17. " T h e i r f e a r s were n o t i l l - f o u n d e d , because the master and the o t h e r o f f i c e r s and sailors, expecting a s t o r m , s t a r t e d t o r e i n f o r c e the mast, t h e y a r d , and t o t a k e a l l t h e o t h e r measures t h a t a r e u s u a l l y t a k e n when a s t o r m i s e x p e c t e d . " R. S a n s e v e r i n o , Op. Cit. , D i a r y o f 2 7 t h O c t o b e r 1458, pp. 208. 18. S i r T r a v e r s T w i s s Ed., " R o l l e o f O l a y r o n " , The Black Book o f t h e A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871; Professional Books L i m i t e d , A b i n g d o n , Oxon, 1985), V o l . 2, p. 445. 19. S i r T r a v e r s T w i s s Ed., "The B l a c k e Booke of t h e A d m i r a l t y " , The B l a c k Book o f t h e A d m i r a l t y , 4 Vol. (1871; P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , A b i n g d o n , Oxon, 1985), V o l . 1, p. 103. 20. T h i s c o n c l u s i o n can be r e a c h e d i n t u i t i v e l y . However, model t e s t s r e p o r t e d by 0. R o b e r t s (Op. C i t . , p. 138) c o n f i r m e d t h i s f a c t . O n l y the s e t t i n g f o r one tack was t r i e d and a modest a n g l e o f "about 5 d e g r e e s , l e e helm" was found t o be sufficient. Leeway was e s t i m a t e d a t 10 d e g r e e s . T o t a l e l i m i n a t i o n o f leeway is impossible. 21. The j a r g o n used by V e n e t i a n s a i l o r s to report the s t a t e o f s t e e r i n g i s o f t e n used by S a n s e v e r i n o . A s h i p was s a i d t o be o r z i e r a when i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r the helmsman t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e tendency o f t h e ship t o t u r n t o windward. She was s a i d t o be p o z e r a i n t h e o p p o s i t e c a s e . A whole v o c a b u l a r y e x i s t e d t o d e s c r i b e s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s ( i . e . , S a n s e v e r i n o : Orza s t r i c t a = Close-hauled). 22. B. L a n d s t r o m , Op. C i t , p.  88.  23. Romola and R. C. Anderson, The Sailing-Ship, Six Thousand Y e a r s o f H i s t o r y , (George H a r r a p and Company L t d . , London, 1926), pp. 89-90. 24. One such s h i p i s d e p i c t e d i n a 1486 illustration of the anchorage of Mothoni i n von Breydenbach's rela t i o n of h i s p i l g r i m a g e t o the H o l y Land. B e r n a r d von  51 B r e i d e n b a c h ' s e n t o u r a g e d u r i n g t h a t voyage i n c l u d e d a d r a f t s m a n and h i s P e r e g r i n a t i o i n Terram Sanctam i s the e a r l i e s t known i l l u s t r a t e d t r a v e l o g . 25. The v e r s i o n used i n t h i s paper i s t h a t t r a n s c r i b e d by R. and R. C. Anderson i n Op. C i t . , pp. 91-93. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s book does n o t have a l i s t of s o u r c e s and t h e a u t h o r s i d e n t i f y the m a n u s c r i p t t h u s : "A poem t h a t has been p r e s e r v e d i n a m a n u s c r i p t a t T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , Cambridge. The actual manuscript b e l o n g s t o the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b u t t h e poem seems to be r a t h e r e a r l i e r . " The poem has no title and b e g i n s w i t h the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : Men may l e v e a l l gamys That s a y l e n t o Seynt Jamys For many a man h i t gramis When t h e y b e g i n t o s a i l e . 26. A p e r s o n on a m o t o r s h i p t h a t i s t r a v e l l i n g i n calm a i r f e e l s a wind b l o w i n g from t h e bow toward the stern. T h i s wind i s c a l l e d 'apparent . I f a 'real' wind blows a c r o s s the p a t h o f the moving s h i p , t h e appare n t wind w i l l be f e l t b l o w i n g d i a g o n a l l y , from somewhere between t h e bow and t h e beam. A s h i p t r a v e l l i n g at 15 k n o t s i n a c r o s s - w i n d b l o w i n g a l s o a t 15 knots will e x p e r i e n c e an a p p a r e n t wind coming from a d i r e c t i o n of 45 degrees from t h e bow. T h i s wind will be s t r o n g e r , by a f a c t o r o f 1.4 in this case, acc o r d i n g t o r u l e s o f v e c t o r i a l m a t h e m a t i c s . On a s a i l i n g s h i p , p r o p e l l e d by t h e r e a l w i n d , t h e s a i l s are s e t ' a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a p p a r e n t w i n d . The d i r e c t i o n of the a p p a r e n t wind and i t s s t r e n g t h a r e a f f e c t e d by the speed o f t h e s h i p , t h u s the s a i l s must be r e trimmed a t s h o r t i n t e r v a l s o f time w h i l e the s h i p i s a c c e l e r a t i n g , u n t i l she r e a c h e s c r u i s i n g speed. I t i s normal f o r a s h i p g e t t i n g under way w i t h a beam wind to f i n d h e r s e l f b e a t i n g i n t o a s t r o n g e r a p p a r e n t wind by the time she r e a c h e s c r u i s i n g speed. 1  27. R. S a n s e v e r i n o , Op.  C i t . , p. 280-281.  28. I b i d . , p. 281-82. 29. S i r T r a v e r Twiss Ed, " R o l l e o f O l a y r o n " , Op. 465 .  Cit. ,  p.  30. S i r T r a v e r Twiss Ed., "The Good Customs o f the Sea", The B l a c k Book o f the A d m i r a l t y , 4 Vo1. (18 71; P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Abingdon, Oxon, 1985), V o l . 3, p. 223.  52  31. I b i d . , pp.  xii-xiii.  32. B. L a n d s t r o m , Op.  C i t . , pp.  80-83.  33. L i o n e l C a s s o n , S h i p s and Seamanship i n t h e Ancient W o r l d , ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , P r i n c e t o n , N. J . , 1971), pp. 243-45 and 273-76. L a t i n e e r s p r o b a b l y e x i s t e d i n the f i f t h c e n t u r y B.C.. See Op. C i t • , pp. 268-69. 34. A r i s t o t l e , A r i s t o p h a n e s and Tatius. Aristotle knew t h a t the r u d d e r a l o n e was not adequate t o h o l d a s h i p on a windward c o u r s e . See L. C a s s o n , Op. C i t . , p. 276n. 35. L. C a s s o n , Op. 36.  C i t . , p.  277.  "... a t about midday t h r e e f o r e - a n d - a f t s a i l s appeared ... [some] guessed t h a t t h e y were t h e g a l l e y s ... from A l e x a n d r i a " . R. S a n s e v e r i n o . Op. C i t . , p. 260.  37. A l t h o u g h n o t much i s known about the use o f t h e s i n g l e l a t e e n s a i l , i t can be deduced from d r a w i n g s t h a t i t would be b e s t a t any mode between a c l o s e b e a t to a broad r e a c h . On t h i s s u b j e c t see a l s o J . HParry, Op. C i t . , pp. 17-19. 38. R. S a n s e v e r i n o , Op. C i t . , p. 39 and passim. F. C. Lane mentions the square c o c h i n a and the triangular p a p p a f i c h o as storm s a i l s used by the Venetians in the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . See F r e d e r i c . C. Lane, N a v i r e s et C o n s t r u c t e u r s a V e n i s e pendant l a Renaissance, (S.E.V.P.E.N., P a r i s , 1965), pp. 17-20.  53  CHAPTER I I I  TWO-MASTED SHIPS  P i c t u r e s of the f o u r t e e n t h century i n d i c a t e then s q u a r e - r i g g e d s h i p s i n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n s i m i l a r t o the s i n g l e - m a s t e d s q u a r e - r i g g e d N o r t h . The d i f f i c u l t i e s  inherent  in  that  were  ships  trying  quite of  to  by  the  control  s h i p s w i t h t h i s t y p e o f r i g d i c t a t e d t h e maximum  size  the s h i p s . The  sail  and  that  a  crew  thirteenth  cen-  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power i n one  mast a l o n e l i m i t e d the amount o f s a i l c o u l d handle  s a f e l y . In t h e t w e l f t h  area and  t u r i e s demands f o r bottoms s t a r t e d t o s o a r to  the c r u s a d i n g z e a l o f k i n g s and t h e  Whole  on  proportion  the  armies  k n i g h t s and h o r s e s had t o be s h i p p e d  to  the  s h i p p i n g demanded more c a p a c i o u s h u l l s ,  soldiers, Holy  sail  this  demand  by  the  of size  Mediterrane-  adopting  a  divided  plan.  The  reasons  f o r the a d o p t i o n  of  the  d o u b l e - s a i l e d type o f r i g a r e o b v i o u s . The was  Land,  volume  beyond  t h a t c o u l d be managed w i t h the e x i s t i n g r i g s .  for  maritime  of  t o g e t h e r w i t h a l l t h e i r weapons and g e a r . T h i s  an s h i p b u i l d i n g met  one  opportunities  l a r g e p r o f i t s i n s h i p p i n g were not l o s t c i t i e s o f the M e d i t e r r a n e a n .  in  of  undoubtely  much e a s i e r t o  handle  than  double-masted, resulting any  craft  previous  t y p e . The  main r e q u i r e m e n t i n h a n d l i n g  c o n t r o l of r o t a t i o n — the amount  of  wind  depending on how possible  to  was  a sailing  e a s i l y achieved  carried  by  the  drastic  shortened t u r n i n g r a d i i ,  in  Thus  changes a  of  manner  i n d e p e n d e n t of the e f f e c t s of the r u d d e r s . s e n t i a l advantage w h i l e g o i n g about a t t a c k , where some ground i s always t h a t the s h i p l a b o u r s  her way  it  was  end  during  around. In  became with wholly  T h i s was  the  lost  sails,  course,  that  —  regulating  individual  h a r d t h e y were s h e e t e d .  perform  by  ship  an  es-  of  each  the  time  certain  weather  c o n d i t i o n s t h i s f a c t o r a l o n e would be d e c i s i v e i n a l l o w i n g a master t o e n t e r a narrows between h a v i n g t o c i r c u m n a v i g a t e one but  i m p o r t a n t g a i n towards  n a v i g a t i o n was allowed  made.  The  two  islands  or  of the i s l a n d s . Thus a a  technology  splitting  of  all-weather  the  sail sail  S a i l s o n l y needed t o be h o i s t e d o r r e d u c e d one  at a  tenth Louis  b a s i c two-masted s h i p of the  c e n t u r i e s was  the t y p e  of  twelfth  craft  tiny,  of  the same s i z e crew t o h a n d l e a l a r g e r  The  his  built  plan area. time.  and  thir-  for  King  IX of F r a n c e f o r h i s Crusade of 1 2 5 0 , r i g g e d w i t h 1  l a t e e n m a i n s a i l d e p l o y e d from a main-mast t h a t was somewhat f o r w a r d of a m i d s h i p s , a s t e r n , w h i c h had on c o u r s e  and  a  lateen  the b a s i c f u n c t i o n of k e e p i n g  ( F i g u r e 1 1 , p.  55).  measure of s t a b i l i t y i n h o l d i n g  This  solution  a  stepped  mizzensail the provided  windward c o u r s e s t h a t  ship a was  Two-masted Genoese s a i l i n g s h i p b u i l t f o r t h e K i n g L o u i s IX o f F r a n c e . (From: R. W. Unger the M e d i e v a l Economy, 600-1600, p. 124}.  F i g u r e 11  Crusade o f The S h i p i n  unknown t o e a r l i e r s a i l o r s ,  with  downwind r u n s , as w e l l . The s a i l and was the s h i p 'pay  mainmast  of  carried  o f f ' , t h a t i s cause her t o and  this effect  when  closer  downwind t o the p o i n t where a b a l a n c e  larger  would  make  downwind  heavy  weather.  sailing push  was  re-  the  stern  of the s a i l p l a n  In s p i t e of her g r e a t e r s i z e , such a s h i p  be h e l d on a windward c o u r s e  the c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  mizzen  steadto  However, even the b e s t b a l a n c e d  s h i p c r e a t e s some d i f f i c u l t i e s p i t c h e s i n heavy s e a s . The  f o r the helmsman  was  could  i n f a i r weather q u i t e  i l y by the s i m p l e means of a d j u s t i n g the  suit  sailing  when  she  c y c l i c a l v a r i a t i o n s of the  po-  s i t i o n of the c e n t r e of wind p r e s s u r e wave a f t e r wave, c r e a t e v a r i a b l e  as the  rotational  r e s u l t i n a marked t e n d e n c y f o r the s h i p t o and  the  for  rotate  c e r t a i n l y i n very  q u i r e d , the m i z z e n , c a r e f u l l y s e t , would  acquired.  safety  so l o c a t e d t h a t i t s s a i l , a l o n e ,  whenever n e c e s s a r y , To c o u n t e r a c t  plenty  s t a r b o a r d a l t e r n a t e l y . To c o u n t e r a c t  ship  climbs  forces yaw  that  to  port  t h i s tendency  in  a two-masted s h i p r e q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l of l a b o u r and  at-  t e n t i o n t o m i z z e n s h e e t and  most r e l e v a n t  and  most u n d e s i r a b l e b y - p r o d u c t of t h i s phenomenon on any  sort  of c r a f t i s the l e n g t h e n e d given tack, course.  caused  by  rudder.  The  t r a j e c t o r y of the s h i p d u r i n g a zig-zagging  T h i s phenomenon was  the  p l a i n l y u n d e r s t o o d by  a t l e a s t i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t i o n e d by S a n s e v e r i n o  about  it  is  intended sailors  often  i n h i s d i a r y as the p r i n c i p a l  mencause  57  of s h i p s  l o o s i n g ground  i n adverse  winds.  s h i p s , o n l y c a p a b l e o f v e r y wide t a c k s ,  On  that  t h a n 80 d e g r e e s o f f t h e w i n d , t h i s e f f e c t  medieval  is  reduced  c a l l y t h e i r p r a c t i c a l c a p a b i l i t y o f making r e a l  greater drasti-  gains  to  kinds  of  windward i n any s o r t s o f s e a b u t f l a t ones.  Beating perils. yaw  w i t h a two-masted s h i p had i t s own  I t was q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t o o much o f a  would c r e a t e enough wind p r e s s u r e  on  the mizzen  send t h e s h i p r e b o u n d i n g t o o f a r i n t o t h e w i n d , s u l t s t h a t c o u l d be l i t t l e  ships i n higher  control of r o t a t i o n  with  to re-  short of c a t a s t r o p h i c . In other  words, t h e a d v e n t o f t h e second s a i l made i t manage b i g g e r  downwind  was s t i l l  possible  to  winds b u t t h e problem o f t h e f a r from b e i n g  N i c c o l o da P o g g i b o n s i ' s r e l a t i o n o f a  ship  r i g g e d i n t h i s manner c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h i s  kind  of v e s s e l c o u l d n o t t a k e s e v e r e a d v e r s e weather much  bet-  U l t i m a t e l y , l i k e a cog,  haven o r make a c o s t l y  on  solved. a  t e r t h a n a cog.  voyage  fully  she had t o seek  run for i t .  "On t h e day s i x o f A p r i l o f t h e y e a r 1346 o f Our L o r d , i n t h e m o r n i n g , we c r o s s e d ourselves and embarked on a s h i p w i t h two masts and two c r o w s n e s t s , and i n t h e name o f t h e L o r d we made s a i l : t h u s we t r a v e l l e d s e v e r a l d a y s . Then we had a c o n t r a r y w i n d , t h u s we went making t a c k s over the s e a , now towards h e r e , now towards t h e r e ; and a f t e r t h e t h i r d day [ o f making t a c k s ] we had a f a v o u r a b l e w i n d , and we made a good d i s t a n c e with a s t r o n g wind a s t e r n ; and t h e n f o r some, days we had a c o n t r a r y g a l e , so t h a t we t o o k r e f u g e i n Ischiavonia [Istra] a t a c i t y that i s c a l l e d Puola [ P u l a ] . We remained t h e r e a few days ..."  a  58 The  d i s t a n c e between V e n i c e and  t h i s i s a l l t h e y had  t o show f o r  days of s a i l i n g . O b v i o u s l y ing  P u l a i s 68 m i l e s ,  perhaps  the r i g was  i t s ground when making t a c k s , and  g r e a t d e a l more t h a n i t was l o s s t h e y had  t o add  the s t a y i n  waiting for a favourable Good F r i d a y , and  met  capable  eight  v e r y poor a t it  of  Pula  or  would  making. for  wind. E v e n t u a l l y  a they  and more  hold-  loose To few  a  this days,  left,  on  with further troubles:  "We were a s h o r t time a t sea and l o ! a c o n t r a r y wind came up, t h a t was p u s h i n g us toward d e s t r u c t i o n onto the s h o r e ; and us dropping the s a i l , the wind^was so s t r o n g t h a t i t made i t f a l l i n the w a t e r . "  In o r d e r not t o drop the s a i l had  i n the w a t e r  t o be swung i n t o the wind w h i l e the s a i l  n e c e s s a r y . p r a c t i c e w i t h a l a t e e n or any sail, sail and  the  ship  came down,  k i n d of t r i a n g u l a r  s i n c e such s a i l s c a n n o t be f u r l e d upwards. A f t e r fell  drift  a  the  i n the w a t e r the s h i p would become un-manageable out of c o n t r o l . P o g g i b o n s i  u t t e r p a n i c , as the s h i p was u n t i l i t was  about "two  describes  a scene  r a p i d l y c l o s i n g on the  a r b a l e s t - s h o t s from i t " and  of  shore, he  was  4  making h i m s e l f r e a d y t o jump f o r i t . At t h a t had  point  a break: "While we were t h u s g o i n g toward d e s t r u c t i o n onto the s h o r e , the wind eased and the sailors, w i t h v e r y g r e a t e f f o r t , t o o k the sail i n , comp l e t e l y soaked; and i m m e d i a t e l y t h i s was unders t o o d t o be a [good] omen, and t h e y c a s t the an-  they  59 c h o r s i n t o the s e a , but not soon enough t h a t s h i p would a v o i d coming c l o s e t o the rock[s]. happened t h a t one of the r u d d e r s was damaged t o r e p a i r i t we s t a y e d ... i n the said c i t y Pula] ten days."  In due  course they reached Mothoni  l e f t t h i s h a r b o u r on the f i r s t of May, n i n g . They went some way  (Greece) and early in  ships  . P o g g i b o n s i ' s s h i p was  the  the  c a r g o , a s " w e l l as i n d i s t a n c e  lost:  us back one  [Venetian]  back i n the G u l f of  mor-  new  end  and  fifty  Venice  [the  "And  this  and  damaged  storm  m i l e s and  Adriatic  by  sank  stout  s u r v i v e d , but not w i t h o u t p a y i n g a heavy p r i c e i n  hundred and  they  towards t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n , but  e v e n i n g t h e y were b a t t l i n g a storm t h a t i n nine other  the It and [of  Sea]  took  put  us  in  one  7  s i n g l e day  and  night"  . In a day  of good  wind  that  ship  Q  c o u l d c o v e r 180 speed o f 7.5 at reaching  n a u t i c a l miles  knots. and  She  was  running,  , turning  obviously  reasons  performance a r e not d i f f i c u l t t o see.  windage, and  caused  an  an  a very  but n e x t t o u s e l e s s  windward over rough s e a s . The  of t h i s t y p e of c r a f t ,  out  for The  average  good  sailer  at  going  to  this  kind  of  castles, typical  inordinate  amount  c o n s e q u e n t l y leeway. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e  whether the p o t e n t i a l s h i p , owed t o her  degree  of  weatherliness  to of  of say this  l a t e e n s a i l s , c o u l d have compensated f o r  t h i s f l a w a t a l l , even under a manageable f o r c e Under heavy s t r e s s , when she  c o u l d have been s e n t  m i z z e n t o rebound i n t o the w i n d ,  prudence  of  wind. by  required  the that  60 she  s a i l w i d e r t a c k s , so as t o a l l o w f o r a g r e a t e r  of s a f e t y f o r the m a n s a i l .  When s a i l i n g  wider  o b v i o u s l y c o u l d not h o l d her ground. Under stances  the m a i n s a i l was  the o n l y  and  the r a t i o of p r o g r e s s  ed the  latter.  versus  tacks  those  source  the m i z z e n p r o v i d i n g the p r e c a r i o u s  margin  of  she  circum-  propulsion,  balance  to  windward  leeway would have  favour-  9  A n o t h e r t y p e of two-masted s h i p was  early  car-  r a c k , known t o have e x i s t e d from the l a t e f o u r t e e n t h  cen-  t u r y , r i g g e d w i t h a square main and mainmast b e i n g  stepped forward  the  a lateen  mizzen,  of a m i d s h i p s . The  earliest  known i l l u s t r a t i o n of a s h i p of t h i s t y p e i s i n the g a n i A t l a s of 1 3 6 7 ^ . The Probably  i t was  the r e s u l t of a d d i n g a  triangular  t h a t the  square-sailed vessels  l a r g e r single-masted  have been n e x t t o i m p o s s i b l e  Landstrom  mizzen  ship.  and  Pizzi-  o r i g i n s of t h i s r i g a r e unknown.  to s t a b i l i z e a s q u a r e - s a i l e d  circumstances  the  speculates  t o keep on c o u r s e i n  would certain  that Mediterranean s a i l o r s voyaging  yond the P i l l a r s of H e r c u l e s  were r e s p o n s i b l e  for  be-  adding  11 the l a t e e n m i z z e n t o such s h i p s two-masted c a r r a c k Maritiem  i s the s o - c a l l e d  Museum P r i n s  t h i s model was  . A w e l l - k n o w n model of a  Hendrik  in  Mataro  Ship  Rotterdam.  of  the  Originally  k e p t i n the Church of M a t a r o , near  Barcelo-  na. Landstrom's s p e c u l a t i o n i s based on the f a c t t h a t  the  h u l l and  are  the r i g g i n g  of the  mainmast  of t h i s  model  61 s i m i l a r t o those t o single-masted  be  seen  ships of the  i n many  time.  No  illustrations details  about  p e r f o r m a n c e o f two-masted c a r r a c k s a r e known. The f a c t having  a s q u a r e s a i l as  t h e main  source  of  would n o t make t h i s c r a f t a b e t t e r c a n d i d a t e f u l windward s a i l i n g t h a n t h e  two-masted  lateen s a i l s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y at least, i t could the b e t t e r downwind s a i l e r .  the of  propulsion  for  ship  of  successwith  have  two been  62 Notes t o C h a p t e r I I I . 1. On t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e Seventh Crusade K i n g L o u i s IX o r d e r e d a f l e e t o f 120 t r a n s p o r t s t o be b u i l t a t Genoa and V e n i c e . A c c o r d i n g t o E. A n g e l u c c i and A. C u c a r i these s h i p s had t h e f o l l o w i n g d i m e n s i o n s : o v e r a l l l e n g t h 84 f e e t ; l e n g t h a t t h e w a t e r l i n e 57 f e e t ; beam 20 f e e t ; h e i g h t o f t h e s i d e s 20 1/2 f e e t . See E. A n g e l u c c i & A. C u c a r i , S h i p s , (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New Y o r k , 19 7 7 ) , p. 52. 2. N. P o g g i b o n s i ,  Op. C i t . , pp. 8-9.  3. I b i d . , pp. 9-10. 4. I b i d . , p. 10. 5. I b i d . , p. 11. 6. The w a t e r s around M o t h o n i always had a h i g h concentrat i o n o f t r a f f i c , as i t was a c o m p u l s o r y p o r t o f c a l l f o r a l l home-bound V e n e t i a n s h i p s , i n o r d e r t o r e p o r t to t h e a u t h o r i t i e s s i g h t i n g s o f p i r a t e s h i p s . Outbound m a s t e r s would c a l l t h e r e i n order to decide whether t o p r o c e e d a l o n e o r i n convoy, d e p e n d i n g on the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d . P o g g i b o n s i ' s s h i p had c a l l e d a t Mothoni f o r t h i s r e a s o n . 7. N. P o g g i b o n s i , Op. C i t . , pp. 11-12. 8. I b i d . , p. 18. 9. As t h e wind i n c r e a s e s so do t h e waves. A b e a t i n g ship w i l l b e g i n t o yaw and, as a m a t t e r o f p r u d e n c e , a master w i l l ease t h e s h i p and p o i n t h e r on w i d e r t a c k s . W i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d wind t h e s h i p w i l l travel f a s t e r , b u t o n l y up t o a c e r t a i n p e r c e n t a g e o f h e r h u l l speed. A t t h e same time t h e e f f e c t s o f windage - on s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s such as t h e c a s t l e s i n c r e a s e more r a p i d l y ( i n a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e square o f t h e wind v e l o c i t y ) and leeway i n c r e a s e s accordingly. F o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y s a i l o r s were c o n c e r n e d w i t h f i g h t i n g o f f p i r a t e s , and would s a c r i f i c e performance t o d e f e n c e . P i r a t e s h i p s had c a s t l e s , as w e l l , and t h e r e f o r e t h e compromise i n p e r f o r m a n c e was n o t v e r y c r i t i c a l . S a n s e v e r i n o d e s c r i b e s an e n c o u n t e r w i t h a Genoese p i r a t e s h i p w i t h i n s i g h t o f t h e c i t y o f Rhodes. The f i r s t c o n c e r n o f t h e master o f S a n s e v e r i no ' s g a l l e y was t h e n t o g a i n sea-room t o windward on h i s a d v e r s a r y and made a t a c k a l l t h e way t o T u r k e y .  63 The p i r a t e c o u l d n o t s a i l as c l o s e t o t h e wind as t h e g a l l e y and l o s t h i s q u a r r y . The g a l l e y wasted one day as a r e s u l t o f t h i s e n c o u n t e r . The p r e s e n c e o f p i r a t e s a f f e c t e d t h e economics o f s h i p p i n g well beyond t h e immediate c o s t r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e material l o s s e s due t o c a p t u r e s and s i n k i n g s . The necessity f o r c a s t l e s d i m i n i s h e d t h e o v e r a l l economy of ship performance t o an e x t e n t t h a t i s n o t c a l c u l a b l e . F u r t h e r time was l o s t f o r m i n g c o n v o y s . S h i p s traveling a l o n e had t o go t o p o r t s from where convoys s a i l e d . Squadrons o f e s c o r t g a l l e y s were k e p t by t h e Venet i a n s a t M o t h o n i and K o r o n i ( G r e e c e ) . 10.  B. L a n d s t r b m , Op. C i t . , p. 91.  11.  I b i d . , p. 92.  64 CHAPTER IV  MULTI-MASTED SHIPS  The most r e l e v a n t f a c t o r t h a t made  the  three-masted  s h i p an a l l - w e a t h e r c r a f t and a v e r s a t i l e f i g h t e r , was h e r c a p a b i l i t y , i n most  situations,  of  being  quickly  s i m p l y t u r n e d about by a l t e r i n g t h e b a l a n c e  of  p l a n , t o meet a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I t was j u s t b r i n g h e r about a g a i n , when t h e emergency  the  as  was  and sail  easy  to  over,  and  resume t h e p r o p e r c o u r s e .  The most s e v e r e f l a w o f  the  mizzensail  in a  two-  masted c r a f t was t h a t i t was l i a b l e t o send a b e a t i n g s h i p f a r t h e r i n t o t h e wind t h a t  was  intended,  at  the  worst  p o s s i b l e moment, a t t h e s u r g i n g o f a g u s t o f wind. A s m a l l foremast w i t h a l i t t l e  f o r e s a i l would o f f s e t t h i s  effectively,  and  the  Three-masted  ships  ship  was  and  Genoa,  and  p o s s i b l y elsewhere, a t the beginning of the f i f t e e n t h  cen-  tury.  1  so  existed  three-masted  tendency  i n Venice  The e a r l i e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a t h r e e - m a s t e d  born.  ship i s  i n a S p a n i s h b o w l , b e l i e v e d t o be o f t h e e a r l y  fourteenth  century, kept  Museum  i n the V i c t o r i a  and  Albert  London.-The s e a l o f L o u i s de Bourbon i s t h e e a r l i e s t 2 illustration  (1466).  In the s p r i n g  voyaged on a t h r e e - m a s t e d g a l l e y  of  and  1458  in  dated  Sanseverino  i n the winter  of  1458-1459 on a t h r e e - m a s t e d s h i p . was  Handling  these  a l r e a d y common p r a c t i c e , and t h e i r masters  were e x p e r i e n c e d and seasoned a t  Tree-masted  vessels,  and  crews  their trade.  v e s s e l s c o u l d be b a l a n c e d t o p o i n t i n any  d i r e c t i o n w i t h i n t h e p h y s i c a l l i m i t s s e t by  the  of  on  shrouds and y a r d s . S a i l i n g such  a  ship  c o u r s e was a m a t t e r o f a d j u s t i n g t h e mizzen  geometry a  and  steady foresail  s h e e t s t o m i n i m i z e t h e work o f t h e r u d d e r and i t s  ensuing  d r a g . D r a s t i c changes o f c o u r s e t o windward would be  made  by r e d u c i n g t h e amount o f wind c a r r i e d by t h e f o r e s a i l , as a f i r s t measure, s a i l s , u n t i l a new  and  then  balance  by was  resetting  the  acquired.  remaining  Similarly,  a  change downwind would be s t a r t e d by d e c r e a s i n g t h e  effort  of  t h e m i z z e n s a i l . S a n s e v e r i n o never mentions  rudder  or  t h e t i l l e r when d e s c r i b i n g changes o f c o u r s e , and  the  only  once o r t w i c e on o t h e r o c c a s i o n s t h r o u g h o u t h i s d i a r y , b u t he i n v a r i a b l y r e p e a t s " t h e y r e s e t t h e i r s a i l s " ,  i n a l l the  i n s t a n c e s where a change o f c o u r s e i s r e p o r t e d .  When on a dead nan such a s h i p would be a l m o s t s t e e r i n g . W i t h t h e mizzen f u r l e d , o r r e d u c e d , t h e pal  p r e s s o f wind was on t h e main. The f o r e s a i l  shielded  by t h e main and do no  work,  unless  selfprinci-  would the  s t r a y e d o f f c o u r s e and t h e n t h i s s a i l would become  be ship  exposed  66 to the wind, w i t h the e f f e c t of sending the s h i p back back downwind, onto  her  course.  b r o a c h i n g i m p o s s i b l e . I t was  This  technique  make  a v e r y a n c i e n t method, h a v i n g  been p r a c t i c e d by the downwind s a i l o r s of used an artemon on the bow  would  antiguity,  f o r t h i s very reason.  r i n o d e s c r i b e s a f r e e run under s i m i l a r  who  Sanseve-  conditions  on  a  t h. dark n i g h t , on the 6 the f i f t h hour of  the  of December- 1458: night  the  "  Levante  at and  about  Scirocco  [ E a s t - S o u t h - E a s t ] wind s t a r t e d t o blow v e r y f r e s h ,  where-  upon the master and the s a i l o r s r e s e t the s a i l s , took v e r y gladly  the  said  wind  on  the  stern  s u c c e s s f u l l y and g l a d l y f o r the r e s t of  and that  and  .., they lowered the m i z z e n s a i l as f a r as  for  their  safety."  very  night they  could  3  On a r e a c h , a f t e r b a l a n c i n g the f o r e and she was  sailed  pure p l e a s u r e , a c c o r d i n g t o  the  Sanseverino.  s c r i b e s a s i m i l a r o c c u r r e n c e on a three-masted  mizzen He  galley  deon  st May  21  1458  i n the v i c i n i t y of S i b e n i k ( D a l m a t i a ) , w i t h  these words: "At t h a t time [4 p.m.] the wind called Maestro [North-West] s t a r t e d t o blow, from astern of the g a l l e y and the master o r d e r e d a l l t h r e e s a i l s t o be r e s e t and w i t h the s a i d wind they were making seven or e i g h t [Venetian] m i l e s per hour. And because u n t i l t h a t time they never had had any s t e r n winds, everybody was c h e e r f u l and joyous, not j u s t the p i l g r i m s , but even the sailors. Because of t h e i r g l a d n e s s a number of them, young and f i t of body, g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r around one of  67 them s t a n d i n g near a c a b l e w h i c h t h e s a i l o r s call the m a i n s t a y and i t i s t h e c a b l e t h a t holds the mainmast o f t h e g a l l e y , and c l i m b e d the s a i d c a b l e , some r e a c h i n g t h e c r o w s n e s t and some t h e main y a r d and t h e y c l i m b e d on each o t h e r s ' should e r s so t h a t t h e y were t o u c h i n g t h e c r o w s n e s t B e s i d e s t h i s , t h e y were c l i m b i n g up and down t h e ropes and t h e s a i l w i t h ... a g i l i t y ..."  Obviously  the ship  required  very  from t h e crew w h i l e on t h i s c o u r s e . with three  reach.  stern  quarter  power. By b a l a n c i n g  c o u r s e would be k e p t  almost  would  most  This  a s t e r n w i n d , t h e master o r d e r e d  wind on t h e provide  broad  attention  T h i s v e s s e l was r i g g e d  l a t e e n s a i l s and t h e r e f o r e h e r  mode o f s a i l i n g was a having  little  explains  why,  the s a i l s reset. A  make  t h e f o r e and  a l l three  sail  the mizzen  the  automatically.  s t o p p e d f r o l i c k i n g as soon as t h e wind  efficient  The  sailors  shifted:  "They c o u l d have p e r f o r m e d many o t h e r feats i f t h a t wind had c o n t i n u e d , b u t i t d i e d a f t e r about two hours and a c o n t r a r y one s p r a n g up, r e q u i r i n g t h j i t t h e y pay a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t r i m m i n g o f the s h i p . "  T r a v e l l i n g t o windward was  still  difficult.  masted s h i p s c o u l d make modest g a i n s a g a i n s t a leeway was s t i l l  Three-  wind,  but  a v e r y s e v e r e p r o b l e m . I n heavy weather a  t h r e e - m a s t e d g a l l e y , o r a s h i p , would make some headway o r l o o s e ground a l m o s t i n d i f f e r e n t l y . yaw,  Pitching  would  w i t h t h e i n h e r e n t . l o s s o f g r o u n d , so t h a t i t  t h a t t h e s e v e s s e l s c o u l d make g a i n s  only  over  a  cause appears fairly  68 smooth s e a . S a n s e v e r i n o ' s  diary  of  November  11,  r e c o r d s : "... s i n c e t h e sea was n o t v e r y r o u g h ,  1458  with a l l  t h i s making t a c k s they advanced enough t o see t h e r o c k Sapientia."  On t h e f o l l o w i n g  night  " t h e same  Provenza  [ W e s t e r l y wind] p r e v a i l e d and t h e y had t o make t a c k s t i n u o u s l y , b u t , as t h e sea made some  gains."  7  was  Similar  calm,  they  comments  are  of  con-  nevertheless to  be  found  s p r i n k l e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e book.  A r a r e w e a l t h o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a on t h e g e n e r a l  per-  formance o f f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h r e e - m a s t e d v e s s e l s , i n a l l p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n s o f s a i l i n g , c a n be found i n S a n s e v e r i no ' s d i a r y o f h i s p i l g r i m a g e t o t h e H o l y  Land.  His  bound voyage was made on a g a l l e y and h i s d a t a  out-  regarding  the windward t a c k s made by t h i s v e s s e l p r o v i d e some o f t h e most a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r a r e a l i s t i c  deter-  m i n a t i o n o f t h e l e v e l o f performance a t t a i n a b l e w i t h t e e n t h c e n t u r y r i g g i n g and s a i l e r , capable  gear.  She  was  an  fif-  excellent  o f d o i n g a t l e a s t 140 n a u t i c a l m i l e s i n a  good d a y , as she d i d on June 4 t h , 1458, under  ideal  ditions  respectable  , t u r n i n g o u t a speed o f 5.8 k n o t s , a  rate f o r a h u l l designed  t o be rowed. On t h e  other  con-  hand,  when s a i l i n g t o windward, h e r performance was p o o r . On t h e 24  t h  o f May, 1458, as  they  were  approaching  a  harbour  making t a c k s : " b e i n g f i v e m i l e s o f f Ragusa, ... because o f the c o n t r a r y wind c a l l e d L e v a n t e  [East] i t took s i x hours  69 9 t o do what i n good weather would have taken b u t one". The i n d i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h i s g a l l e y was c a p a b l e o f making t a c k s a t a r a t i o o f 1 t o 6 t o t h e d i r e c t c o u r s e , o r , a t an a n g l e of 80 degrees  t o t h e wind. th  On  the  28  of  May,  i n the v i c i n i t y  of  Kotor  (Dalmatia) : " I n t h e morning the wind s t a r t e d t o blow from Scirocco  [ S o u t h - E a s t ] , which was  contrary  to  them,  and  caused t h e sea t o be t u r b u l e n t . ... However  they kept  s a i l i n g c l o s e - h a u l e d and b e a t i n g t o windward as  close  they c o u l d , day and n i g h t , they  found  that  they  [and]  had  ....  made  the  good  [Venetian] m i l e s " (about 9 n a u t i c a l m i l e s )  next  morning  about  fifteen  These  1 0  as  tacks  were even Wider, a t about 8 7 degrees. th On t h e 29  o f May, i n f r o n t o f t h e c a s t l e o f  ( D a l m a t i a ) : "The seas  [started]  e v e r , [as] t h e c o n t r a r y still  Scirocco  to  become  bigger  [South-East]  p e r s e v e r i n g , so t h a t they s t a y e d i n t h e  t i o n almost t h e whole day ... and s o , they day making t a c k s i n s i g h t o f t h e s a i d c a s t l e  Ulcinj  wind same  than was posi-  re-mained a l l ..."^  Since  they d i d not move, t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t o t a l e f f o r t f o r t h e day i s equal t o t a c k s o f 90 degrees. Throughout t h e of t h e outbound l e g o f  diary  t h e voyage s i m i l a r r e s u l t s a r e r e -  p o r t e d r e g u l a r l y , as a r e r e c o r d s o f n e t l o s s e s , f o r t a c k s g r e a t e r than 90 degrees.  70  S i m i l a r d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r the t h r e e - m a s t e d  ship  on w h i c h S a n s e v e r i n o t r a v e l l e d from A c r e t o Ancona i n  the  w i n t e r o f 1458-59.  For  This  example on t h e 2 6 * t  1  ship  of October  was  a  she  fast  ran  sailer.  from  sunset  "some t i m e p a s t m i d n i g h t " a d i s t a n c e o f 60 n a u t i c a l  to  miles  12 under b a r e p o l e b e f o r e a s t o r m .  On  November  broad r e a c h , she made 180 n a u t i c a l  miles  h o u r s , w h i c h g i v e s an average speed  of 13  l i k e l y t h e h u l l speed o f t h a t c r a f t .  in 7.5  7,  on  twenty-four knots,  Running  t r a v e l l i n g at  speeds  between  very  before  v e r y s e v e r e storm under b a r e p o l e s d u r i n g the n i g h t December she was  6  and  1 4  On t h e 16  rather  7  that  indifferent.  o f O c t o b e r , f i v e days  the E a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n : "... Maestro  a  19/20  k n o t s . However, when b e a t i n g , h e r p e r f o r m a n c e , l i k e o f the g a l l e y , was  a  a  very  out  of  fresh  [North-West] came up, w h i c h caused  t a c k s a l l n i g h t , a t t i m e s towards B a r b a r y ,  Acre, wind  from  to  make  them at 15  in  times  to-  wards T u r k e y , w i t h o u t g a i n i n g any headway." I t t o o k t h r e e days i n v a r i a b l e winds f o r t h i s s h i p t o d o u b l e Cape Matapan, on t h e Mani P e n i n s u l a t h e y had approached on November 8 Mayno [Mani] ...  t h :  (Greece), which  " t h e y s i g h t e d Cape o f  but d u r i n g the n i g h t  [the winds]  changed  71 to Garbino  [South-West],  sometimes t o Maestro  sometimes t o ... Provenza  [West],  [North-West], a l l c o n t r a r y winds,  so  1 £>  that they gained l i t t l e  o r n o t h i n g on t h e i r t r a v e l . "  On  th November 9  "... i n t h e morning  they  near and upon t h e same Cape o f Mayno,  found  themselves  but, nevertheless,  as t h e Ponente [West] wind was f r e s h e n i n g ,  they  kept  on  making t a c k s a l l d a y , w i t h o u t e v e r b e i n g a b l e t o double i t and w i t h o u t making any p r o g r e s s , t o t h e g r e a t c h a g r i n and 1 "7 th. trouble of a l l . " On November 10 , "... i n t h e morning t h e y found t h a t  they  had  drifted  downwind  during  n i g h t , r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g made good any d i s t a n c e , t h e y were s t i l l  the  because  abeam o f t h e s a i d Cape o f Mayno,  but out  a t s e a and more t h a n t h i r t y m i l e s from i t ; and as i t began t o blow a l i t t l e na  [North]  Greco [ N o r t h - E a s t ] and a l i t t l e  Tramonta-  and sometimes t h e r e was a c o n t r a r y w i n d ,  still  t h e y k e p t a t i t l o n g enough, so t h a t a t about midday 18  they  d o u b l e d t h e s a i d Cape o f Mayno".  This p a r t i c u l a r  voyage  from t h e L e v a n t t o V e n i c e , b e i n g made i n t h e w i n t e r , dogged by c o n t r a r y w i n d s , as was t o be season  expected  i n that  i n that part of the Mediterranean. I t i s not  p r i s i n g that Sanseverino r e p o r t s  many  similar  was  sur-  difficul-  ties . Although these records are i n d i c a t i v e f e r e n t a b i l i t y t o windward, t h i s little  ground,  o v e r a l l . The master  ship  of  would  an loose  indifvery  c o u l d keep on t r y i n g as  72  l o n g as needed,  until  he made t h e n e x t p o i n t o f l a n d . Un-  der more s e v e r e weather  c o n d i t i o n s , t w i c e he  running before the wind,  but  the  runs  resorted  were  s h o r t . I t appears t h a t he would e l e c t t o do  to  relatively-  so  when b i g  seas s t a r t e d t o b r e a k o v e r t h e gunwales a t n i g h t and began to  t o s s h i s deck c a r g o around.  It  is difficult  to  whether h i s d e c i s i o n s were b o r n o f prudence  or d i r e  sity.  size  D u r i n g t h e day he c o u l d  assess  the  know neces-  and  the  power o f each wave as i t came, and ease h i s s h i p o v e r  the  w o r s t ones as he saw f i t . I t was s i m p l y a m a t t e r o f e n i n g t h e m i z z e n s h e e t when t h e bow s t a r t e d t o the s h i p would  loos-  lift,  and  t u r n t o t a k e t h e wave on t h e s t e r n q u a r t e r .  In t h e d a r k he was l i k e l y t o m i s j u d g e  some o f t h e s e waves,  and r u n n i n g would be t h e b e s t p a r t o f v a l o u r . A t h i r d r u n , n e a r l y d i s a s t r o u s , was made o u t o f the n i g h t  of  December  inadequate t o hold the  19, ship  the on  extreme rudder  course  necessity having  under  on  proved a  single  reduced s a i l , a f t e r t h e f o r e and mizzen had t o be dropped.  There  i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t by  s a i l o r s were f u l l y c a p a b l e sails  of  a l o n e and S a n s e v e r i n o  the  fifteenth  handling  describes  their a  f o r to  s h i p from b e i n g  Gulf  (Greece).  aground  in  the  ships  dramatic  where t h i s t y p e o f maneuver was c a l l e d run  century  of  save  by  event the  Kalamata  73  "Sunday, the 12 of November, w i t h the Provenza [West] wind s t i l l p r e v a i l i n g , but very l i g h t , and the sea b e i n g a l m o s t c a l m , t h e y k e p t on making t a c k s as u s u a l until midnight, still g a i n i n g some s m a l l d i s t a n c e . I t was about m i d n i g h t and the s h i p on a t a c k towards the l a n d and not f a r from i t , when the s a i d P r o v e n z a d i e d , so that the s h i p had no motion and a l m o s t e v e r y man was a s l e e p . And w h i l e e v e r y t h i n g was l i k e t h a t , a l l of a sudden the L e v a n t e and Scirocco (East-SouthE a s t ] wind r o s e , s t r o n g and f o r c e f u l , which was v e r y f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e i r voyage, e x c e p t i t c a u g h t the s a i d s h i p so p o i n t e d [towards the l a n d , as the wind had d i e d d u r i n g an i n s h o r e t a c k ] and so c l o s e t o the l a n d t h a t i t a l m o s t threw her aground and t h e y found t h e m s e l v e s i n a v e r y g r e a t danger. But the m a s t e r , the o f f i c e r s and the other sailors were i m m e d i a t e l y on t h e i r f e e t and ... i m m e d i a t e l y r e s e t the sails and t o o k her f a r t h e r out to sea." .  I t must be n o t e d t h a t the s h i p was so t h e r e was  no s t e e r i n g a v a i l a b l e . The  s u d d e n l y a l e e one, and  sail  totally  so t h e y had  shore  t o t u r n the  her o f f . Only a g r e a t d e a l  of  generations ed r i g s . ing  heavier  that experience  was  ( F i g u r e 12,  r a p i d l y e v o l v i n g towards  enough t o c a r r y r e l a t i v e l y across  the v a s t n e s s  consistently ^ . 2  quickly with  them t o s u c c e e d .  the  p l a n among p.  mastery  l a r g e crews and  of the o c e a n s , and  of  less s o p h i s t i c a t -  w h i c h made p o s s i b l e  s h i p s by d i v i d i n g the s a i l  c r e a s i n g number of s a i l s  ship  become  i n h e r i t e d from a l o n g l i n e  s t r u g g l i n g w i t h the e a r l i e r ,  I t was  had  familiarity  t h i s t y p e of manoeuver would have a l l o w e d T h i s s t y l e of seamanship was  becalmed,  74). of  handlan  in-  Seamanship craft  big  a l l their  gear  t o b r i n g them  back  74  F i g u r e 12  A l r e a d y 'by the b e g i n n i n g s h i p s were making the f i r s t  of  the  deliberate  l a n d i n the A t l a n t i c , west  and  s h i p s were c a p a b l e  sailed  covery,  and  of b e i n g  fifteenth  south  forays of  far  from  Europe.  i n operations  e v e n t u a l l y of commerce and war,  in  the w o r l d where s e c o n d a r y bases t h a t c o u l d be case of bad weather or s h o r t a g e s  century  These  of  dis-  areas  of  reached  in  d i d not e x i s t . The  early  21  caravels  employed i n the e x p e d i t i o n s  that  led  d i s c o v e r y of M a d e i r a , the West C o a s t of A f r i c a and r o u t e t o I n d i a were round s h i p s , about  sixty  to  the  of  the  feet  long,  had  s m a l l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s so as t o r e d u c e windage and  two  masts r i g g e d w i t h l a t e e n s a i l s . T h i s type  developed i n t o a three-masted l a t e e n e e r , l a t i n a , favoured  called  f o r e x p l o r a t i o n because of  l i n e s s , w h i c h a l l o w e d her  greater  of  her  caravel caravela weather-  manoeuverability  w o r k i n g a l o n g unknown s h o r e s . V a r i a n t r i g s and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them a l l over Europe and  when  hulls  were  multiple  square  s a i l s c o u l d be r i g g e d on them, o b t a i n i n g a s a i l p l a n was  s p e c i f i c of c a r a v e l a s redondas or naos. N a v i g a t o r s  derstood  from c o n s t a n t  directions.  Columbus' S a n t a  a complex s a i l p l a n , c o n s i s t i n g of a  t h a t c o u l d be augmented w i t h two and  that un-  the b e n e f i t s of t h i s type of r i g f o r l o n g voyages  over oceans i n r e g i o n s where the winds were known t o  had  had  a square f o r e s a i l .  Maria, square  bonnets, a  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e  provided with a s p r i t s a i l  f o r downwind  main  a  blow nao,  mainsail topsail  s a i l s she  course-control  was and  76 with a small lateen s a i l that mizzen f o r balance On a r e a c h  could  be  on windward c o u r s e s  hoisted  on  ( F i g u r e 13,  w i t h g e n t l e winds a l l t h e s e  sails,  the  p.77).  and  more,  22 c o u l d be used a t the same t i m e . The nal  s i z e of t h e s e  ships e n t a i l e d very large  momentums so t h a t s t e e r i n g  them  was  too  the  use  of  dangerous an o p e r a t i o n t o p e r m i t directily,  even t o c o n t r o l  known i n the t h i r t e e n t h  yaw.  The  century,  rotatioheavy  the  tiller  whipstaff,  became  c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s d e v i c e  was  an  p r i n c i p l e o f the l e v e r . "...  the r u d d e r ,  and  already  mandatory.  application instead  The  of  the  of  just  p a s s i n g o v e r the s t e r n p o s t , went t h r o u g h an o p e n i n g i n the s t e r n . There was a n g l e . The  a bar a t t a c h e d  helmsman h a n d l i n g  t o the  a  90°  higher  and  see the a c t i o n of the s h i p . For l a r g e r s h i p s a  fulcrum  had  t o be added above the p o i n t where the t i l l e r  Moving i t i n one other  ...  could  added  the  mechanism e f f e c t i v e some time 23 ry"  move  d i r e c t i o n made the  Builders  in  amount of movement of the t i l l e r , required  c o u n t e r a c t i n g yaw.  for  By the  c o n t r o l l e d i n a manner t h a t  the  met  heavy move  in  the  made  the  which  the  fourteenth reduced  probably  centu-  the  total  to l i t t l e  ordinary  be  the  rudder.  fulcrum  fifteenth can  the rudder  . L i k e a l l l e v e r s , the w h i p s t a f f  than what was  could  at  stand  bar so t h a t the helmsman  the bar  tiller  operation  century  ships  defined  as  more of were  modern,  The nao Santa M a r i a . An i d e a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . (From: J . M. H i d a l g o - M a r t i n e z , Columbus' S h i p s , 1966).PF i g u r e 13  78 i n s o f a r as l a r g e changes i n d i r e c t i o n  were  effected  smooth, b u t d r a s t i c changes i n t h e b a l a n c e p l a n , a b a s i c method t h a t was n o t t o be  of  the  altered  even  bysail by  the appearance o f t h e modern s t e e r i n g w h e e l .  The  f i n a l development o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e was  the ad-  d i t i o n o f a f o u r t h mast, t h e b o n a v e n t u r e , and o f a sail  f l y i n g from t h e b o w s p r i t .  indispensable  T h i s s a i l p l a n , found t o be  on l a r g e r s h i p s , made i t s appearance towards  the end o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y  or,  rather,  t h i s t i m e common enough t o be d e p i c t e d The  in  i t was  that  the  f o r course-keeping,  d i d n o t have t o be as s m a l l as had been p r e v i o u s l y n e c e s s a r y . The c a r r a c k w i t h a l a r g e  by  illustrations.  p r o c e s s had been h a s t e n e d by t h e d i s c o v e r y  f o r e and m i z z e n s a i l s , i n d i s p e n s a b l e  one  square  sguare  thought  foresail  was  o f t h e e a r l y r e s u l t s . T h i s s h i p was h e l d on a windward  c o u r s e by a l a t e e n m i z z e n and she was i n a l l c e r t a i n t y n o t more e f f i c i e n t i n t h i s  mode  than  Sanseverino's  masted s h i p s , u n t i l a t o p s a i l was added t o the c o m b i n a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n t h e t a l l f o r p o s i t i v e and s u s t a i n e d  t h e mainmast,  r i g indispensable  p e r f o r m a n c e t o windward.  p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d be enhanced by a l a r g e r m i z z e n three  three-  s a i l s c o u l d be used f o r d r i v i n g  the ship.  and  This a l l  As t h e  amount o f s a i l a d j u s t m e n t r e q u i r e d f o r s e t t i n g a s h i p on a course i s very  s m a l l , l a r g e mizzens  and  large  foresails  p r o v e d t o be t o o u n w i e l d y f o r t h i s t y p e o f work. Thus  the  b o n a v e n t u r e mast w i t h a s m a l l s a i l , t u r e s a i l ' , was to windward.  rigged a f t of the  called  the  mizzen f o r  'bonavenadjustments  The square s p r i t s a i l on the b o w s p r i t was  f o r downwind r u n s . The  mainmast  carried  w e l l . The V e n e t i a n c a r r a c k o f about 1500 t h i s k i n d c r a f t , t o g e t h e r w i t h the nao t h a t c o u l d be s a i l e d t o windward  as a  used  a  topsail,  as  was  typical  of  and  the  matter  galleon,  of  choice,  r a t h e r t h a n as a m a t t e r o f n e c e s s i t y . U n q u e s t i o n a b l y ,  the  b e s t t a c k s t h a t t h e s e s h i p s c o u l d make were c l o s e r t h a n 80 degrees.  T h r e e - and f o u r - m a s t e d s h i p s h e r a l d e d a the  economy o f n a v i g a t i o n . A more  new  demanding,  age  daring  and  e f f i c i e n t s t y l e o f s h i p management ensued. W i t h some i n t h e weather s h i p s c o u l d be s a i l e d n o n - s t o p  over  in  luck great  d i s t a n c e s , f o r example from t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n t o the N o r t h Sea, a l l y e a r round. H a v i n g winds s t i l l  r e d u c e d ranges  to  make  tacks  dramatically,  in  due  mainly  s t o r e s s p o i l a g e and t o s h o r t a g e s o f v i t a l needs. r i n o ' s 1458-59 voyage  from A c r e t o V e n i c e was  contrary to  Sanseve-  planned  by  the  master o f the s h i p as a b o l d , d i r e c t , n o n - s t o p r u n . He  was  so s u r e o f the performance of h i s c r a f t , as  to  speed  and w e a t h e r l i n e s s , t h a t he r e f u s e d to.go t o B e i r u t t o j o i n a convoy t h a t was b e i n g formed t h e r e t o p r o t e c t the B e i r u t galleys, pirates.  about  to  return  from  their  Fall  run,  from  For t h e purpose of e n h a n c i n g speed he  also  took  80 i n o n l y as much b a l l a s t as he deemed  strictly  necessary.  T h i s d e c i s i o n gave h i s s h i p h i g h e r f r e e b o a r d when and reduced  beating  d r a f t and r e s i s t a n c e . T h i s gamble d i d n o t pay  o f f as w e l l as he had hoped.  Contrary  winds  slowed  his  p r o g r e s s t o t h e p o i n t t h a t he r a n o u t o f f o o d a t about one t h i r d o f t h e way and had t o s t o p a t M e l o s ,  an  the Greek A r c h i p e l a g o , where p r o v i s i o n t u r n e d s c a r c e . He d i d manage t o add s e v e r a l  island out  boatloads  him as f a r as M o t h o n i ,  about t w o - t h i r d s o f  from t h e r e , i n what was supposed t o be t h e  to  of  and g r a v e l t o h i s b a l l a s t , however. The n e x t s t a g e the  be  rocks brought  way,  final  in  and  l e g of  t h e voyage, he had t o make a s t o p i n Ancona, l e s s t h a n one hundred m i l e s from P o r e c , where he would p i l o t f o r e n t e r i n g the harbour  have  taken  the  of Venice.  Stoppages o f t h i s k i n d depended on t h e w i n t e r weather b u t , o t h e r w i s e , m u l t i - m a s t e d  luck  of the  s h i p s c o u l d be  r e l i e d on t o r e a c h t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n s a l l y e a r round,  re-  g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r type and s i z e . The g r e a t number and v a r i e t y o f s h i p s S a n s e v e r i n o met i n a s i n g l e w i n t e r t r i p a r e e v i d e n c e o f t h a t . A l l seemed t o be a f f e c t e d by t h e weather more o r l e s s t o t h e same e x t e n t . Among t h e s h i p s  reported  by S a n s e v e r i n o was a v e r y l a r g e g a l l e a s s , so b i g as t o comparable, i n h i s o p i n i o n , t o a palace i n a c i t y , l i g h t g a l l e y o f t h e K n i g h t s o f Rhodes t h a t h e r . The g a l l e a s s was a l a r g e  oared v e s s e l  was  and  be a  escorting  rigged l i k e a  81 s h i p , w i t h a square main and two l a t e e n s a i l s f o r s t e e r i n g h e r ; t h e l i g h t g a l l e y had t h r e e l a t e e n s a i l s , and maneuverable as t h e c a r a v e l w i t h  similar  was  rigging.  as  These  two s h i p s t r a v e l l e d t o g e t h e r and sought r e f u g e a t Melos a t the same t i m e as S a n s e v e r i n o s s h i p . A n o t h e r V e n e t i a n s h i p 1  24  of  some  three-hundred  botti  ,  also  25  h a r b o u r , b a t t e r e d by t h e s t o r m .  arrived  A l l these  at  this  vessels  left  on t h e same day and, w h i l e b e a t i n g t h e i r way o u t o f M e l o s , t h e y met a g a l l e y t h a t was making t a c k s and l a t e r , the same s t a g e o f t h e voyage, a second malmsey w i n e , a l s o b e a t i n g on r e t u r n i n g from a r e c e n t Finally, a pirate attracted  by  was  the  her  military also  heavy  way  out  another  ship,  one  another.  and  by  two  with  Both  were  home.  at  Euboea.  i n the  same' w e a t h e r ,  and  them  an  including  the  above  There other  gave  ships,  p i r a t e ' s , a r r i v e d a few days l a t e r a t few hours o f  loaded  expedition  traffic,  u n s u c c e s s f u l chase. A l l the  one,  during  Mothoni,  they  within  were  galleys,  d e f i n e d . L a t e r d u r i n g t h a t s t a y , and a t t h e  joined not  a by  better  height  of  a  very severe storm, f i v e l i g h t g a l l e y s a r r i v e d a t the  same  harbour, apparently q u i t e u n r u f f l e d .  boat  from  was  lost  Ragusa d i d n o t manage t o e n t e r t h a t w i t h a l l hands. A few  days  later  A  cargo  haven another  and  light  galley  j o i n e d t h e f i r s t f i v e , coming from C r e t e and h a v i n g on h e r s t e r n t h e same weather  t h a t was  preventing  Sanseverino's  s h i p from s e t t i n g o u t . These s i x g a l l e y s were supposed  to  82 r e p l e n i s h t h e i r s t o r e s a t Mothoni w h i l e w a i t i n g t o p r o v i d e e s c o r t t o t h e B e i r u t and t h e A l e x a n d r i a F a l l r u n , due t o a r r i v e i n a s h o r t  galleys  time.  loaded w i t h sugar was a l s o expected from  of the  Another Cyprus  galley to  join  26 the same convoy.  L a t e r i n t h e voyage, S a n s e v e r i n o s s h i p 1  was o v e r t a k e n by t h r e e o f t h e above were p r o c e e d i n g  under oars on a calm  large day.  galleys  which  Further  still  they met a C a n d i o t c a r a v e l , coming from V e n i c e and on t h e same day they were o v e r t a k e n by a f a s t s h i p .  loaded  with  an u n u s a l l y l a r g e and e x p e n s i v e cargo o f s p i c e s , forty 27 days o u t o f A l e x a n d r i a . In t h e harbour o f Ancona they • e n c o u n t e r e d t e n more s h i p s t h a t had a r r i v e d on d i f f e r e n t 28 days, s e e k i n g  refuge  these e v e n t s  occurred  January 1 1  t h  from  a  long-lasting  between  October  12  storm t h  ,  the  1458 and  , 1459.  These r e c o r d s make p o s s i b l e a p r e l i m i n a r y of  .A l l  economics  of  sailing  with  m u l t i - m a s t e d s h i p s . S a n s e v e r i n o p l a c e s t h e encounter  with  the f a s t s h i p a t a p o i n t o f land  five  m i l e s South o f S i b e n i k  winter  and  called  (Dalmatia)-  made good, b e a t i n g o r o t h e r w i s e ,  summer  comparison  Capocesto,  At t h a t p o i n t  1100  nautical  she had miles  in  f o r t y d a y s , an average speed o f 27.5 m i l e s p e r day. At t h e same p o i n t S a n s e v e r i n o ' s s h i p had made good 1250  nautical  m i l e s i n s i x t y - t w o days, an average speed o f 20.2 m i l e s day.  These times and averages i n c l u d e t h e  stopovers  a  made  83 necessary ensuing  by the l o n g p e r i o d s o f c o n t r a r y  shortages  on b o a r d . In  s h i p s would make 82 n a u t i c a l During  favourable miles  on  a t sea f o r a t o t a l of 23  travelled  about 1900  nautical  days,  u l a r c a s e the s t o p o v e r s  and  these day.  voyage h i s  ves-  which  least  138.  daily  In t h i s  were not i n c l u d e d i n the  t i o n s , as t h e y were made f o r the purpose  the  average  during  m i l e s . The  0, i n c o n t r a r y w i n d s , the l a r g e s t  and  weather  an  the outbound p a r t of S a n s e v e r i n o ' s  s e l was  was  winds  of  run  particcalcula-  sight-seeing  f o r the c o m f o r t o f an u n u s u a l group of p a s s e n g e r s t h a t  incuded  a c o u s i n of the K i n g o f E n g l a n d . O r d i n a r y  v e s s e l s were making t h a t run  non-stop.  It  ber of days n e c e s s a r y  for  an  equivalent  merchant  appears  w i n t e r weather would r e q u i r e t h r e e t o f o u r times  that  the  summer  num-  voyage.  There i s no d o u b t , however, from the number of s h i p s i n g the w a t e r s , viable.  t h a t the outcome  Some s t o p o v e r s , a l t h o u g h  was  still  forced,  master of S a n s e v e r i n o s  be  c a r g o of c o t t o n i n M o t h o n i , w h i l e c o n t r a r y storms  he had  u n l o a d e d was  r e p l a c e d w i t h b a l l a s t . In the  greater freeboard  and  t o t a l economy of any voyage business  increased the  his  prevent-  from l e a v i n g t h a t h a r b o u r . P a r t o f the w e i g h t  ready to leave w i t h a  The  of  ed him  made some p r o f i t and was  made  arose.  s h i p managed t o s e l l p a r t  1  ply-  economically  could  p r o d u c t i v e t o some e x t e n t , i f the o p p o r t u n i t y  had  it  that  end  ship  stability.  he that  In  the  manner  of  carrying  i n r e l a t i o n t o the c a p a b i l i t i e s  of  one's  on  craft  84 was  a m a t t e r o f judgement and  experience  T h i s m a t t e r i n c l u d e d the dilemma o f  in  seamanship.  overloading  (summer)  v e r s u s u n d e r l o a d i n g ( w i n t e r ) , and t h e problem o f  juggling  the sum  of the weights c a r r i e d ,  in relation  to t h e i r  spe-  c i f i c g r a v i t y , so as t o ensure maximum s t a b i l i t y . A t e n d e r ship i s compelled to s a i l wider tacks i n swamping, and t h i s may  result  order  to  avoid  i n e x t r a days o r even  weeks  of s a i l i n g . A competent master would have t o keep on a l l t h e s e d e t a i l s ,  particularly  critical  an  eye  during  the  w i n t e r s e a s o n , so as t o maximize per diem r e t u r n s .  Sanse-  v e r i n o 's d i a r y i s v e r y e l o q u e n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t . The  most  r e l e v a n t a s p e c t o f v o y a g i n g i n t h e w i n t e r i n v o l v e d a l l the problems ors  o f s a i l i n g t o windward i n heavy weather  and  sail-  o f t h e second h a l f o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y were  able  t o cope w i t h them, i f by the s m a l l e s t o f  margins.  However, the new b r e e d o f m u l t i - m a s t e d  ships  needed  s m a l l e r c r e w s , i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r s i z e , and were t o make s h o r t e r t i m e s t h a n t h e i r s i n g l e and  able  double-masted  r  p r e d e c e s s o r s , and, round, they c o u l d ers. sail,  being  capable  of  sailing  p r o v i d e g r e a t e r revenues  a l l year  to t h e i r  In the case o f t h e o r d i n a r y c o g , w i t h a s i n g l e i t had been d i f f i c u l t t o keep her s a i l  w h i l e on a b e a t i n h i g h winds o v e r a  rough  ownsquare  plan balanced sea  and  ul-  t i m a t e l y she had no a l t e r n a t i v e t o r u n n i n g b e f o r e the wind when she c o u l d no l o n g e r be s a i l e d . Runs o f a day  or  two  85 before  a wind meant some hundreds of m i l e s l o s t , m i l e s  be made up.  Two-masted s h i p s were u n s a f e when  windward i n a n y t h i n g  but summer weather and  season t h e y were l i a b l e t o l o o s e running  and  rudder,  t h r e e masts and b o w s p r i t  a  great  r e c o v e r i n g from a r u n . B i g  pointed  to  even  in  that  deal  of  time  ships  with  axial  c o u l d b e a t much c l o s e r  the w i n d , p r o v i d e g r e a t e r s a f e t y . f o r although  to  their  cargo,  to and,  t h e y would make t r u l y e f f e c t i v e g a i n s t o windward  w i t h g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y , they  could  ground or l o o s e o n l y a l i t t l e .  at  least  hold  their  no  longer  When t h e y c o u l d  f i g h t t o windward t h e i r t h r e e s a i l s c o u l d t h a t t h e y would h e a v e - t o . T h i s was  a  be  trimmed  delicate  operation,  r e s o r t e d t o o n l y i n extreme weather c o n d i t i o n s , and not known when the t e c h n i q u e  was  so  it  f i r s t d e v e l o p e d , but  is fif29  teenth century  s a i l o r s were a l r e a d y  familiar  with i t .  H e a v i n g - t o i s the u l t i m a t e d e f e n s i v e p o s i t i o n of a  multi-  masted s h i p , b e f o r e h a v i n g  t o make a r u n . I t  o r i e n t i n g the f o r e s a i l and  the m i z z e n s a i l i n such a manner  as t o cause the s h i p t o yaw  i n an a r c of  d e g r e e s , each s a i l c a t c h i n g and n a t e l y , w h i l e the bow  some  s p i l l i n g the  i s always k e p t  off  consists  20  to  wind  the  m a i n s a i l , d r a s t i c a l l y r e d u c e d , i s s e t so as t o p r o v i d e  not make s t e r n w a y . A s h i p i n makes v e r y n e g l i g i b l e p r o g r e s s enough t o p r e v e n t  the r u d d e r  this  condition  through  the  ship of  The no does  sailing  water,  from b e i n g p r e s s e d  30  alter-  wind.  more power t h a n i s r e q u i r e d t o e n s u r e t h a t the  of  only  backwards  86 and damaged. Her  speed i s so low t h a t  i n t o oncoming seas and  she  never  plunges  she c a n n o t , nor needs, t o be s t e e r -  ed. Meanwhile she d r i f t s u n c o n t r o l l a b l y a l o n g a w h o l l y predictable trajectory that w i l l measurable l o s s of ground over  eventually  result  in  long p e r i o d s of time.  l o s s i s always much l e s s t h a n the one a r u n . Thus a s h i p caught by a storm k e p t i n t h i s mode f o r days on end,  un-  This  she would s u f f e r i n an  and  ocean  she  a  on  can  be  be  in  would  v e r y l i t t l e danger. Only a f t e r t h i s p o s t u r e became  impos-  s i b l e t o m a i n t a i n , o n l y when t h r e e s a i l s c o u l d  longer  be k e p t s e t because o f the p r e s s o f  wind,  no  would  have r e s o r t e d t o r u n n i n g . B e s i d e s , the ease w i t h  beating  and  i n t e r m i t t e n t a f f a i r d u r i n g p e r i o d s of m a r g i n a l  Long-range n a v i g a t i o n  prompted  the  ship  which  t h r e e - m a s t e d v e s s e l c o u l d be t u r n e d about would a l t e r n a t i n g of p o s t u r e s between  a  make  a the  running  an  weather.  development  of  n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s , such as the compass w i t h r o t a t i n g w i n d r o s e and  nautical publications  t a b l e s and  in  the  form  r u t t e r s , t o supplement the a g e - o l d  of  charts,  leadline  and  s a n d g l a s s . W h i l e improved n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s were bound  to  c o n t r i b u t e t o the g e n e r a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f s h i p s , t h e i r c i f i c b e n e f i t s to winter n a v i g a t i o n  are  less  more d i f f i c u l t t o p r o v e , as a s h i p t h a t i s not s t r o n g and  p r o p e r l y designed  r i g o u r s o f w i n t e r storms w i l l  and  rigged to  r e c e i v e no  clear  speand  inherently  withstand  the  conceivable  ad-  87 v a n t a g e by p o s s e s s i n g n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s , i n any age.  Owing  t o t h e l e v e l of t e c h n o l o g y then a v a i l a b l e , m e d i e v a l  ships  f o u g h t f o r t h e i r l i v e s more than once on any g i v e n voyage, as w i t n e s s e d  by F r e s c o b a l d i , P o g g i b o n s i and  Sanseverino,  and seamanship a l o n e , b o r n o f t r a d i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , t o see them  had  through.  For the purpose of c o a s t a l n a v i g a t i o n d a t a from g a t i o n a l a i d s are  meanigless  unless  one's  navi-  position  known w i t h v e r y g r e a t a c c u r a c y , as a c o u r s e t o  any  is  point  on a c h a r t can o n l y be p l o t t e d from a p o i n t t h a t i s known. This kind  of  accuracy  was  m a s t e r s , because m e d i e v a l  not  available  to  c h a r t s were drawn  g r i d . T h e i r d e s i g n e r s "took no a c c o u n t o f the e a r t h ; the a r e a c o v e r e d  was  of  medieval  on  a  the  treated  square  sphericity as  a  plane  30 surface".  As a consequence m e d i e v a l  charts favoured  c u r a c y o f d i s t a n c e s over a c c u r a c y o f a n g l e s . The n a v i g a t o r " d i d not work h i s dead r e c k o n i n g , n a v i g a t o r d o e s , by calculated  the  actually  distances  drawing made  good  on  medieval  as the  along  ac-  a  modern  chart;  he  his  chosen  c o u r s e , measured w i t h h i s d i v i d e r s the a p p r o p r i a t e  length  on t h e d i s t a n c e s c a l e , and marked h i s p o s i t i o n by  pricking  the parchment w i t h the p o i n t of the d i v i d e r s . He used  his  w r i t t e n p o r t o l a n o f o r c o a s t w i s e p i l o t a g e and the c h a r t f o r 31 passages on the open s e a . "  Navigating  under  not r e q u i r e p l o t t i n g a c o u r s e , as the odds  of  sail a  does  sailing  88 ship being  a b l e t o s a i l a p l o t t e d c o u r s e are  Under s a i l no two  very  small.  voyages c o u l d be the same, as one  would  o n l y mark on the c h a r t s d a i l y f i x e s , t r y i n g t o  stay  whatever winds happened t o g i v e the b e s t d a i l y  runs,  one  might have had  to switch courses  in  mid-run  with and  if  the  32 wind s h i f t e d  , so i t was  s a i l and  rig  changes i n n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s t h a t were Under s t r e s s of weather the man had  t o keep an eye  changes  heel  and  not  important.  i n .charge of s t e e r i n g  on the s a i l s , watch how  would keep her a n g l e of  and  be  e a s i l y his ship  sensitive  to  the  As  the  33 amount of weather t h a t he f e l t on pressure  the  on the t i l l e r v a r i e d he had  g o i n g was  course.  Where  he  t h e n i m m a t e r i a l , as the t o t a l s a f e t y of  s h i p depended on h i s symptoms. He would  alertness consider  o s c i l l a t i n g rose, swinging box,  .  t o a d j u s t the f o r e or  the m i z z e n , w i t h a consequent s h i f t of was  tiller  in  the  responding readings  i n a poorly  of  a  suspended  of q u i t e s e c o n d a r y c o n c e r n . S a n s e v e r i n o  of many such c a s e s t h a t o c c u r r e d  to  the these  wildly compass  depicts  i n h i s s h i p : "but  ...  s t r e n g t h of the c o n t r a r y wind d i d not p e r m i t  [the  t o a r r i v e a t h i s proposed g o a l , and  necessary  s t i c k i t out a t sea and  it  was  s t e e r by the w i n d " . ^  4  p i c t u r e of where  his  and  ship  the  master] to  of c o u r s e ,  master c o u l d p e r i o d i c a l l y t a k e a l o o k a t the compass, t o average the r e a d i n g s ,  one  a  try  endeavour t o a c q u i r e a mental might  have  been  going,  as  89 compared  t o where he had i n t e n d e d t o s a i l h e r , so  as  make c o r r e c t i o n s when t h e weather would g i v e him a S i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s o f n a v i g a t i o n a r e r e p o r t e d by  to  break. Sanseve-  r i n o d u r i n g h i s voyages from C r e t e t o Rhodes, from A c r e t o Melos I s l a n d and from Mothoni t o Ancona. The f i n a l of a m a s t e r ' s n a v i g a t i o n a l e f f o r t s , w h i c h i s t o  outcome say t h e  degree o f a c c u r a c y o f h i s dead r e c k o n i n g , depended  totally  on h i s m e n t a l p i c t u r e o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s  lands  i n r e l a t i o n t o wind d i r e c t i o n s . These were, i n f a c t , o n l y p o i n t s marked  on  most  c o u r s e s and b e a r i n g s were calculations.  Even  medieval  not  elementary  compasses  amenable  the  and  so  t o mathematical  charting  problems  were  impossible to solve.  Any s a i l o r  can  be  a  witness  to  cases  of  dead-  r e c k o n i n g e r r o r s as l a r g e as t h i r t y o r f o r t y m i l e s a t t h e end o f e i g h t o r n i n e days o f w i n t e r f u r y i n t h e S a n s e v e r i n o has a humorous a n e c d o t e  about  Atlantic.  five  officers  w o r k i n g s e p a r a t e l y w i t h c h a r t s and d i v i d e r s a f t e r a i n a s t o r m and t h e n l o o k i n g o u t f o r l a n d ,  week  where,  as i t  35  t u r n e d o u t , t h e y were s e e i n g c l o u d s ter,  u n s u r e o f h i s dead r e c k o n i n g  . A responsible after a  few  days  making t a c k s i n murky w e a t h e r , would be c o m p e l l e d t o a l a n d f a l l somewhere, t o were c o r r e c t . Such  a  ascertain  case  whether  i s reported  d u r i n g h i s voyage from Mothoni t o Ancona,  by  his  masof make  hunches  Sanseverino  requiring  they  90  make a l a n d f a l l a t the l i g h t h o u s e on Saseno I s l a n d v e n t u r i n g i n t o the  Adriatic  When c r o s s i n g a f a i r l y  l a r g e body  s i g h t o f l a n d , the p r a c t i c e was  of  water  out  of  t o s a i l as  close  to  the  well  to  wind as r e a s o n a b l e , and meet the o p p o s i t e the windward o f the i n t e n d e d p o i n t o f c o a s t was  shore  arrival.  s i g h t e d and some mountains  or  Once  other  his destination, sailing  procedure  was  along  the  f o l l o w e d on S a n s e v e r i n o ' s  the  landmarks  were r e c o g n i z e d , the master would make a r e a c h for  before  or  a  shoreline. galley  run This  upon  ap-  and a g a i n when making  the  37  proaching  the c o a s t o f I s t r a  38  f i n a l a p p r o a c h t o the c o a s t o f the  Holy  the b e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n of the compass i n  Land  Perhaps  weather,  in  t h i s case t o s a f e t y , c o u l d be t h a t of h e l p i n g a master  to  make up h i s mind as t o where or how  to  f i g h t h i s way  bad  .  f a r he s h o u l d  try  i n a storm b e f o r e t u r n i n g on a dead run  for  a s p e c i f i c haven. H i s d e c i s i o n would a l l o w him a t the  end  very l i t t l e  room f o r c o r r e c t i n g m i s t a k e s . But even i n t h i s  case he had  t o have a b e t t e r t h a n f a i r  knowledge  of  his  39  p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e by o r d i n a r y , v i s u a l means  . Sanseveri-  no, a l t h o u g h h i s d a i l y r e p o r t s c o n t a i n c l e a r l y a b l e n o m e n c l a t u r e of  ship  gear  and  understand-  extremely  r e c o r d s o f wind d i r e c t i o n s and c o u r s e s  s a i l e d , very  mentions the use of n a v i g a t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s , and c a s e s the l e a d l i n e  seems t o be the  reliable rarely  i n these  most c r u c i a l one.  He  91 mentions c h a r t i n g o n l y once.  All  medieval  commercial  navigation  was  limited  voyages d u r i n g w h i c h one was seldom o u t o f s i g h t  of  to land  40 for  more t h a n f i v e o r s i x days  and t h e n a v i g a t i o n a l d i f -  f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d were w e l l  within  experience  knowledge  of  sight  land  and  traditional  master. When he was  out  of  the  of  limits  of the  the  average  for  longer  p e r i o d s he and h i s o f f i c e r s would be g r o p i n g f o r c l u e s and Sanseverino  r e c o r d s many such i n s t a n c e s . Seamanship was  a  t r a d e , l i k e any o t h e r , t o be l e a r n e d as an a p p r e n t i c e , t h e e s s e n t i a l p o i n t of i t being the s k i l l so as t o p r e v e n t  of handling  h e r from b e i n g overcome by  Next came t h e s k i l l  the  a  weather.  of u s i n g the wind f o r p r o p u l s i o n  s t e e r i n g so as t o be a b l e t o go toward a  ship  and  d e s t i n a t i o n . At  l a s t t h e a p p r e n t i c e became p r o f i c i e n t a t n a v i g a t i o n s i m p l y by b e i n g on b o a r d a s h i p and becoming f a m i l i a r w i t h s i g h t s 41 and  landfalls.  92 Notes t o C h a p t e r  1. J . H. P a r r y , Op. 2. B. L a n d s t r b m , Qp.  C i t . , pp. C i t . , p.  3. R. S a n s e v e r i n o , Op. 4. I b i d , pp. 5. I b i d ,  P-  96.  C i t . , p. 267 .  28. 230.  7. I b i d ,  231.  8. I b i d , P-  48 .  9 . I b i d , P-  31.  10 . I b i d ,  27-28.  27-  6. I b i d , PP-  IV.  PP .  37  11. I b i d , P-  39 .  12 . I b i d , P-  210  13. R. S a n s v e r i n o , Op. C i t . , p. 228. ' H u l l speed' i s the u l t i m a t e speed t h a t a d i s p l a c e m e n t h u l l can develop under t h e b e s t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . No amount of power w i l l be a b l e t o push t h a t h u l l through the water any f a s t e r . T h i s i s the fundamental r e a s o n f o r h a v i n g to reduce s a i l when r u n n i n g b e f o r e v e r y h i g h winds: the e x c e s s i v e power produced by t h e s a i l s would have d e s t r u c t i v e r e s u l t s , as the h u l l , h a v i n g reached i t s maximum speed, w i l l produce i n f i n i t e r e s i s t a n c e t o f u r t h e r a c c e l e r a t i o n . The h u l l speed of any v e s s e l i s r e l a t e d t o i t s underwater l e n g t h , l o n g e r h u l l s h a v i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r h i g h e r speeds. P l a n i n g h u l l s do not have t h i s l i m i t a t i o n . 14. R. S a n s e v e r i n o , Op. 15. I b i d , P-  204.  16 . I b i d ,  P-  228  17. I b i d ,  P-  229 .  18 . I b i d ,  P-  230.  C i t . , p.  278.  93  19.  I b i d , p.  231-232.  20. The m a n o u e v e r a b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of multi-masted s h i p s a l t e r e d the methods of w a r f a r e , as w e l l . Seab a t t l e s i n open s e a s , r a t h e r t h a n i n q u i e t b a y s , became common. See A r c h i b a l d R. L e w i s and Timothy J . Runyan, European N a v a l and Maritime History, 3001500, ( I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , B l o o m i n g t o n , 1958), pp. 144-169. 21. The o r i g i n s of the c a r a v e l a r e not known and some a u t h o r s a s s o c i a t e the name w i t h t h a t of a t y p e of h u l l c o n s t r u c t i o n ( c a r v e l ) , t y p i c a l of Mediterranean shipbuilding. Two-masted caravels existed and Landstrom s u g g e s t s t h a t an i n f l u e n c e i n t h e i r development can be r e c o g n i z e d i n the r i g of the Venetian galie sottili, which i n the thirteenth century t r a v e l l e d as f a r as E n g l a n d (Op. C i t . , p. 128). The c a r a v e l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e a r l y voyages of disc o v e r y was r i g g e d w i t h two o r t h r e e l a t e e n s a i l s , a l though v a r i a n t s e x i s t e d e v e r y w h e r e . So, i t i s o f t e n n e c e s s a r y t o mention c a r a v e l s by the l o c a l name, such as the P o r t u g u e s e c a r a v e l a redonda or the Italian sciabecco. Sanseverino, f o r i n s t a n c e , mentions a " c a r a v e l l a c a n d i o t a " , meaning a v e s s e l r i g g e d i n the C a n d i o t (Cretan) manner. A more d r a s t i c change i n r i g g i n g , t o square s a i l s , would t r a n s f o r m a l a r g e c a r a v e l i n t o a nao. Two of Columbus' c a r a v e l s underwent this change. See Jose Maria Martinez-Hidalgo, Columbus' S h i p s , Howard I . C h a p e l l e Ed., (Barre P u b l i s h e r s , B a r r e , Mass., 1966). 22 "[The wind] began t o blow v e r y g e n t l y . I then r a i s e d a l l the s a i l s of my s h i p , the mainsail and two b o n n e t s , and the foresail and the spritsail, the m i z z e n , the main t o p s a i l and the s a i l of the b o a t on the poop." See Frey B a r t o l o m e de l a s Casas, Primer V i a j e de C r i s t o b a l C o l o n segun su D i a r i o de a Bordo, (Ramon Sopena, B a r c e l o n a , 1972), p. 38. A l l the t r a n s l a t i o n s from t h i s book are by T. V i d o n i . 23. R i c h a r d W.  Unger, Op.  C i t . , p. 168  and  195n.  24. The b o t t e was a u n i t of c a r g o c a p a c i t y . Studies by F.C. Lane i n d i c a t e t h a t the b o t t e o r i g i n a l l y used in V e n i c e was about 750 litres. In 1432 the smaller b o t t e of C a n d i a (Crete) was adopted as the standard u n i t f o r p r i c i n g c a r g o and i t s use became general. T h i s b o t t e c a n d i o t a , c a l c u l a t e d by Lane on the basis of o t h e r c u r r e n t v o l u m e t r i c u n i t s , had a c a p a c i t y of  94 605 l i t r e s and would t h e n weigh about 0.6 metric t o n s , o r 0.6 t o n s d e a d w e i g h t , as t h e two a r e a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l . I n modern terms a s h i p o f t h r e e hundred b o t t i would have a deadweight o f 180 t o n s . At the t u r n o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y s m a l l e r b o t t i , o f about h a l f a t o n o r l e s s , became s t a n d a r d i n v a r i o u s ports of E u r o p e , i n c l u d i n g V e n i c e . See F.C. Lane, Op. C i t , pp. 236-243 and p.43n. 25. R. S a n s e v e r i n o ,  Op. C i t .  26 . I b i d , p.  233-252.  27. I b i d , p.  260-272.  215-217  28 . I b i d , p. 292. 29. I b i d , p. 38. 30. J . 31.  H. P a r r y , Op. C i t , p.41.  Pedro de Medina, t h e J . H. P a r r y , Op. C i t , p. 42 l i b r a r i a n o f t h e f u t u r e a d m i r a l o f t h e Armada, t h e Duke o f Medina S i d o n i a , w r o t e an A r t e de N a v e g a c i o n , a Suma de C o s m o g r a f i a and i s b e s t known as t h e a u t h o r of t h e R e g i m i e n t o de N a v e g a c i o n , w r i t t e n i n 1563. I n the f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e R e g i m i e n t o he d e s c r i b e s t h e uses o f t h e marine c h a r t : "A marine c h a r t ( p r o v i d e d t h a t i t i s t r u e and a c c u r a t e ) shows s i x t h i n g s u s e f u l f o r n a v i g a t i o n , v i z . : ... The l o c a t i o n and t h e l a y o f l a n d s and i s l a n d s , ... t h e winds t h a t a r e f a v o u r a b l e f o r going to various p l a c e s , ... t h e d i s t a n c e between places, ... t h e l a t i t u d e o f t h e v a r i o u s p l a c e s i n d e g r e e s , ... t h e p o s i t i o n of the ship according to the e l e v a t i o n of the sun a n d , f i n a l l y , ... i t c a n be used t o mark on i t new i s l a n d s o r bays n o t y e t drawn on i t " . See Pedro de Medina, R e g i m i e n t o de N a v e g a c i o n , compuesto por e l M a e s t r o Pedro de Medina (1563), J u l i o F. G u i l l e n Ed. , 2 volumes, ( I s t i t u t o de Espana, M a d r i d , 1 9 6 4 ) , v o l . 1 , pp. 26-27. To choose a f a v o u r a b l e wind "look a t the chart f i n d the place of departure ... and t h e p l a c e o f d e s t i n a t i o n ... and s e l e c t one the t h i r t y - t w o winds t h a t a r e used f o r n a v i g a t i o n . " ( I b i d . , p. 2 7 ) . The p o s i t i o n by t h e sun a t t h e end o f the d a i l y r u n , a t noon, was marked as f o l l o w s . "When a master ... wants t o t o mark h i s p o s i t i o n on t h e c h a r t he must take two d i v i d e r s ... t h e f i r s t d i v i d e r must be p l a c e d w i t h one p o i n t on t h e p l a c e o f d e p a r t u r e and t h e o t h e r on t h e rhumb l i n e followed [ w i t h an o p e n i n g e q u a l to the estimated distance  95 t r a v e l l e d ] , then he must p u t t h e o t h e r d i v i d e r w i t h a p o i n t on t h e t h e East-West l i n e [a p a r a l l e l o f l a t i tude] w i t h an o p e n i n g e q u a l t o t h e l a t i t u d e measured ... t h e n he must s l i d e w i t h g e n t l e hand t h e two d i v i d e r s u n t i l t h e p o i n t s meet ..." ( I b i d . , 29-30) . The p o s i t i o n was thus p r i c k e d on t h e c h a r t . A l l t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s from Pedro de Medina's book a r e by T. Vidoni. 32. R. S a n s e v e r i n o , Op. C i t . , p. 274-290. 33. F o r r e a s o n s o f s a f e t y s h i p s a r e never s a i l e d w i t h t h e sail plan balanced perfectly neutral. A minimal amount o f tendency t o t u r n t o windward i s g e n e r a l l y l e f t . T h i s tendency i s p e r c e i v e d by t h e helmsman as a l i g h t p r e s s u r e o f t h e t i l l e r a g a i n s t h i s hand and i s r e f e r r e d t o as "weather helm". With a s t e a d y wind t h e amount o f weather helm i s c o n s t a n t . Should t h e wind i n c r e a s e s u d d e n l y because o f g u s t s o r because o f t h e a p p r o a c h i n g o f a s q u a l l t h e amount o f weather helm f e l t would i n c r e a s e i m m e d i a t e l y , g i v i n g t h e helmsman a w a r n i n g . The s h e e t s w i l l be s l a c k e n e d and t h e s h i p w i l l be s a i l e d a l i t t l e more o f f t h e wind while the g u s t o r t h e s q u a l l l a s t . When t h e y d i e t h e weather helm f e l t d e c r e a s e s . I t i s then time t o h a u l t h e s h e e t s i n a g a i n and resume t h e p r e v i o u s c o u r s e . A sudden l i g h t n e s s on t h e t i l l e r i s t h e o n l y w a r n i n g a helmsman w i l l have, even i n t h e d a r k , o f h i s s h i p h a v i n g yawed t o o f a r t o windward. He w i l l s l a c k e n t h e m i z z e n and g i v e a l l t h e l e e helm he c a n , h o p i n g t o s a i l the s h i p o f f the wind. F o l l o w i n g doggedly a rhumb l i n e w i t h o u t p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e symptoms would have d i s a s t r o u s consequences. 34. R. S a n s e v e r i n o , Op. C i t . , p. 42 and p a s s i m . 35. I b i d , P- 206-07. 36 . I b i d , P • 264-65. 37 . I b i d , p. 24-26 . 38. I b i d , P- 65-66. 39. R. S a n s e v e r i n o , Op. C i t . . A v e r y p r e c i s e r u n o f t h i s k i n d , from t h e G u l f o f Quarnero t o Ancona, was made by S a n s e v e r i n o ' s s h i p on t h e n i g h t 19/20 December 1458, pp. 275-283. 40. The l o n g e s t runs away from l a n d were t h e s t a g e s Norway-Iceland and G r e e n l a n d - L a b r a d o r sailed by t h e  95  V i k i n g s . A t 630 n a u t i c a l m i l e s the d i s t a n c e from Norway t o I c e l a n d i s the g r e a t e s t . At 5 k n o t s , w i t h weak w i n d s , t h a t d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e s about f i v e days to c o v e r . They p r o b a b l y made f a s t e r p a s s a g e s . L o c a l knowledge was a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t o a master f o r making approaches t o h a r b o u r s . T h i s i n c l u d e d a m e m o r i z a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f landmarks when making l a n d f a l l s from d i f f e r e n t directions. Pedro de Medina gave a d v i c e on t h i s problem in his R e g i m i e n t o de n a v e g a c i o n . See " A v i s o X V I I I . De cuando e l p i l o t o conoce un p u e r t o que ha e n t r a d o en e l y despues v i e n e a e l por rumbo d i f e r e n t e d e l con p r i m e ro e n t r o . Que debe h a c e r p a r a l o c o n o c e r . ( A d v i c e X V I I I . About the case of a master who knows a h a r b o u r i n w h i c h he has p r e v i o u s l y e n t e r e d and a f t e r w a r d s comes t o i t on a c o u r s e t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t from the one used t h e f i r s t t i m e . What he must do t o r e c o g n i z e i t . ) " i n Pedro de Medina, Op. C i t . , pp. 150-151.  97  CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS  Leaders of e x p e d i t i o n s of d i s c o v e r y h e l p from n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s and n o t  required  much  was  little  available.  Compass, a s t r o l a b e and q u a d r a n t had u n i q u e i m p o r t a n c e f o r a d d i n g new l a n d s t o e x i s t i n g c h a r t s and f o r f i n d i n g way home. F o r l o n g ocean c r o s s i n g t h e a b i l i t y t o by i n s t r u m e n t s  was n e c e s s a r y .  Accuracy of  l e s s r e l e v a n t , owing t o t h e l a c k ocean c r o s s i n g s  medieval  of  miles)  was  dangers.  For  shore  instrumentation  i n daily  latitude  was,  f i e l d of overseas  expansion  that  in a  fixes  a s t r o l a b e would n o t i m p a i r t h e outcome o f a p o s i t i o n a l e r r o r s are not cumulative.  navigate  navigation  c a s e , more t h a n adequate: even an e r r o r o f h a l f (30 n a u t i c a l  one's  this  degree  with  an  crossing,  as  Thus, i t was i n t h e  the  chief  impact  of  m e d i e v a l n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s , such as t h e y were, was f e l t .  Compasses and a s t r o l a b e s were c e n t u r i e s  o l d by  time o f t h e voyages o f d i s c o v e r y and t h e same c a n be of t h e s t e r n p o s t r u d d e r . The case c a n be made t h a t n a v i g a t i o n c r e a t e d a demand f o r more a c c u r a t e and  c h a r t s , which  oceanic skills  navigators  readily  said  oceanic  instruments  were  not  forthcoming.  still  depended on t h e i r dead  f i r s t and f o r e m o s t . Columbus d i d n o t  the  Early  reckoning  even  bother  98  with observations his  o f l a t i t u d e d u r i n g t h e outbound  f i r s t voyage, as he d i d n o t have  a  l e g of  precise  destina-  t i o n , n o r a c h a r t t h a t he c o u l d t r u s t west o f t h e He c r o s s e d t h e A t l a n t i c u s i n g n o t h i n g b u t dead Columbus had o n l y one c h a r t — highly fanciful  reputed  1474 T o s c a n e l l i map  Azores.  reckoning.  t o be a copy o f t h e  —  that  he  had  to  share w i t h M a r t i n A l o n z o P i n z o n , t h e c a p t a i n o f t h e P i n t a , whenever one o r t h e o t h e r needed i t . m e a s u r i n g speed — mination  a very important  The o r d i n a r y l o g f o r  1  tool  f o r the  o f dead r e c k o n i n g when o u t o f s i g h t o f  more t h a n a few days — c r o s s i n g s , i n an progress  became common  endeavour  to  only  establish  deter-  land  for  with  oceanic  the  westerly  o f s h i p s , a t a time when l o n g i t u d e s c o u l d n o t  calculated.  So  i t was  not  lack  n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s t h a t had p r e v e n t e d t a i n i n g the idea of oceanic  of  instruments  sailors  be and  from  enter-  voyaging.  For a measure o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t an ocean c r o s sing  entailed  R e g i m i e n t o de seventy  years  one  must  navegacion,  refer  to  written  books by  such  Pedro  as  de  Medina  a f t e r Columbus' f i r s t voyage. The R e g i m i e n t o  was w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r o c e a n - g o i n g  masters,  having  i n mind t h e runs t o and from Nueva Espana ( A m e r i c a ) . the  effects  described  the  of  drift  and t h e  when  intricacies  sailing of  In i t  close-hauled  keeping  proper  r e c k o n i n g when s a i l i n g a g a i n s t t h e wind f o r l o n g  are dead  periods  are d i s c u s s e d intended  . A complicated  method of  retrieving  one's  p o s i t i o n as soon as t h e r e i s a  favourable  break  4  m  the weather i s i l l u s t r a t e d  can g a t h e r tack  of  . From  the  one  some a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the a n g l e sixteenth  d i s c u s s e d was  century  ships.  One  t h a t of a s h i p l e a v i n g  Domingo on a c o u r s e  t o t a k e her  C o n t r a r y winds t a k e her t o  Cape  f o r Malaga and  problem  Sanlucar  to  the  Verde  problem he g i v e s d e a l s w i t h the case Barcelona  discussion  of  Medina  for  Santo  Canary  Islands.  instead.  Another  of  a  ship  b e i n g pushed s o u t h  to  Both the p o s i t e d problems i n d i c a t e t h a t v e r y  leaving Mallorca.  open  on the o r d e r of t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by S a n s e v e r i n o ,  tacks,  were  still  the norm. However, t h e s e  s h i p s would keep on s a i l i n g . Pedro  Medina's t e x t t e a c h e s , new  courses  as an o r d i n a r y m a t t e r of f a c t ,  can be s e t from the new  p o s i t i o n s to  s i r e d d e s t i n a t i o n s . As soon as s h i p s c o u l d be  the  built  c o u l d t r a v e l thousands of m i l e s i n a l l weather the of s y s t e m a t i c  ocean c r o s s i n g s became r e a l i s t i c .  c o u l d o n l y be of the m u l t i - m a s t e d  i t y r e q u i r e d f o r such l o n g - r a n g e v e n t u r e s , wind d i r e c t i o n and,  t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , of  Such s h i p s sail  reliabil-  earliest  types,  could  have  been  of  strength.  There i s no q u e s t i o n t h a t a s i n g l e - s a i l e d c r a f t , even of the  de-  notion  regardless wind  how  that  t y p e , w i t h complex  p l a n s , as o n l y t h e s e r i g s endowed s h i p s w i t h the  de  blown  by  one an  100  uncommon storm a c r o s s t h e A t l a n t i c and s u r v i v e . T h i s  could  have w e l l been t h e case w i t h many a V i k i n g b o a t i f caught by a storm w h i l e engaged i n hops  from  island  w h i l e v o y a g i n g as f a r as t h e westernmost North  A t l a n t i c . B u t t h e same  boat  weather systems would  have  carry  unfailingly  typically  not  of the  be  Ordinary  changeable  overtaxed  island  reaches  could  a g a i n , by d e s i g n , o v e r t h e same r o u t e .  to  the  sailed Atlantic  winds  very  that  limited 5  c a p a b i l i t i e s of a s i n g l e - s a i l e d c r a f t  to  windward . F o r  s i m i l a r r e a s o n s i t would have been i m p o s s i b l e t o s a i l  with  any p r o b a b i l i t y o f s u r v i v a l a two-masted s h i p a c r o s s  vast  bodies  o f "water. A two-masted  ship  with  medieval  sails  c o u l d n o t be managed t o windward on l o n g r o l l i n g waves f o r any g r e a t l e n g t h o f t i m e . As t h e wind i n c r e a s e d t h e master would have had t o compromise as t o whether t o t h e sail  f o r power o r f o r s t e e r i n g . The  equilibrium  mizzenbeing  a  p r e c a r i o u s one, soon t h e s h i p would have a c q u i r e d t o o much •weather helm and t h e m i z z e n would have had t o At t h a t p o i n t t h e d e s i g n o f t h e r i g would  be  have  furled. compelled  him t o r u n . Pedro de Medina s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o s a i l windward was n o t a  natural  thing  s a i l i n g was i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t complex s a i l  and  knowing  that how  to  all-weather to  manage  p l a n w i t h t h e h i g h e s t degree o f a r t f u l n e s s :  a  101 "There a r e c e r t a i n t h i n g s about n a v i g a t i o n t h a t appear n a t u r a l , and one among them, i s when the master s a i l s w i t h a f a v o u r a b l e w i n d , and as much so as he w i s h e s , w i t h w h i c h he makes h i s s t r a i g h t r u n w i t h o u t impediments o f any s o r t s , so t h a t i t appears t h a t t h i s t h i n g i s a n a t u r a l one and a s o u r c e o f g r e a t c o n t e n t m e n t as w e l l . But when he s a i l s w i t h a wind t h a t i s d i f f e r e n t from the one he needs, and he t r a v e l s w i t h t r o u b l e , and l a b o u r , and w o r r y , ... when ... [he] i s s a i l i n g and c a n n o t f i n d a wind s u i t a b l e f o r h i s p r o g r e s s , such as he has t o make, and t h u s n o t i n c o n f o r m i t y ' w i t h t h e c o u r s e t h a t he must f o l l o w ; I say t h a t ... t h e n he must s a i l by t h e wind o p e r a t i n g t h e s a i l s ; t h a t i s s e t t i n g them i n such a manner t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e wind i s n o t d i r e c t l y i n conformity w i t h h i s c o u r s e , h i s endeavour must be such that the s h i p keeps on s a i l i n g as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o her i n t e n d e d c o u r s e . The master must know how t o order t h i s s e t t i n g of the s a i l s , f u r l i n g some o f them, h o i s t i n g o t h e r s , and [how] t o e n s u r e that they are s e t i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e mode w i t h w h i c h t h e s h i p i s s a i l i n g , as p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e s , and [he must know how] t o m o d i f y i t when i t does not work as c o n v e n i e n t l y [as i t s h o u l d ] .  The  P i n t a made h e r f i r s t  l a n d f a l l a t t h e Grand Canary  a f t e r t h e crew t w i c e c a r r i e d o u t l e n g t h y  repairs  to the  7  r u d d e r a t s e a , p r o o f t h a t a s k i l l e d master c o u l d ship with three without still  masts,  although  with  sail  difficulty,  a  even  s t e e r i n g g e a r . N a v i g a t i o n over g r e a t d i s t a n c e s was  a f a i r l y p r i m i t i v e a f f a i r , as i t was based on c h a r t s  of v e r y  little  substance.  The s t a t e o f c a r t o g r a p h y  time o f t h e voyages o f d i s c o v e r y i s d i s c u s s e d s i c work o f A d m i r a l  Antonio  a t the  i n the c l a s -  B a r b o s a , Novos S u b s i d i o s  para  a H i s t o r i a da C i e n c i a N a u t i c a da Epoca dos D e s c o b r i m i e n t o s (1948).  Cartographers  o f t h a t t i m e had t o r e s o r t  promise i n order t o compile  charts  i n which  to both  comwind  102 d i r e c t i o n s and d i s t a n c e s would c o r r e s p o n d t o r e a l i t y the same degree o f a c c u r a c y .  These d a t a  were  with  more  accu-  r a t e l y e x p r e s s e d i n words i n p o r t o l a n s . None o f t h e c h a r t s produced b e f o r e  1568 a l l o w e d  p l o t t i n g c o u r s e s and b e a r i n g s  by r u l e r and pen, because t h e y were based on a square g r i d t h a t made no a l l o w a n c e f o r t h e s p h e r i c i t y o f t h e E a r t h . I n t h a t year the mathematician Gerard  Mercator  c a r t o g r a p h i c p r o j e c t i o n that bears h i s  devised  name,  to  the  obviate  Q  this essential difficulty.  Charts  were n o t a  key  factor  f o r s u c c e s s i n l o n g voyages o f d i s c o v e r y . At t h e end  of  his first  voyage  Columbus  made  p e r f e c t r e t u r n l a n d f a l l a t the Azores —  t h e most  crucial  phase o f t h e whole e x p e d i t i o n , as t h e y were and w a t e r —  by dead r e c k o n i n g  a l o n e . Only once  seen t h e P o l a r S t a r , w h i c h "appeared Cape S t . V i n c e n t , b u t t h e motion o f a l l o w them t o t a k e  out of  quite the  ship  food  had  high,  a  they  as a t  would  not  i t s a l t i t u d e with the astrolabe or the  9  quadrant."  Columbus made t h e l a n d f a l l a f t e r b e i n g  by a storm f o r two  days.  He  had  made  no  driven  astronomical  sightings. I t has o f t e n  been  a  matter  of  discussion  whether improved n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s o r t h e s t e r n p o s t were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g  as t o rudder  of overseas n a v i g a t i o n .  At t h e c o r e o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f n a v i g a t i o n a l  aids  i s the  103  It que con el fcfctjieve • 2Dos cofao oeuen tener l o s v n f l r u * mentoBoelanauegaaon/vnaque fean ctertos / t o t r a qnefean p o l t d o s w nun* b t e n f c e c f c o s : £ que el pilot© fe p:ecie oe tenellos t a l e a . * p u e s el fer c i e r t p s le e s g r a pio u e d j o / t f e r p o l i d o s t n r n t bien J?ecl2os o a coritento. om t ^ l l i f r t 11 ^ °e Pilotol3aoeconofcer elna"9  C  l  " i n m a f i a s que t i e n e . u  o  en quefea o e n a u e g a r t faber l a s _  T R l a n a u e g a d o n o e i a m a r andanmucr?w*> trios:?no rodbs o c v n a manera m a s o e oiftt .res l?ed?uras ? m a n e r a a : a aflt moe fon oe v  D i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f t h r e e - m a s t e d s h i p s . " A d v i c e I I . How a master must a c q u a i n t h i m s e l f w i t h t h e s h i p on w h i c h he has to voyage and u n d e r s t a n d h e r c a p a b i l i t i e s . " (From Pedro de Medina, R e g i m i e n t o de N a v e g a c i d n , 1563, v o l . 1 , f o . l v i i ) . F i g u r e 14  104  marine c h a r t . Unless a c h a r t can be  drawn  according  c e r t a i n mathematical p r i n c i p l e s t h e r e s u l t s t i o n s by i n s t r u m e n t s raphers  cannot be recorded  to  of  observa-  reliably.  Cartog-  o f t h e age o f t h e d i s c o v e r i e s d i d n o t possess  the  r e q u i r e d mathematics and t h e i r knowledge o f geography  de-  pended h e a v i l y on t r a d i t i o n s and legends. ped  t h e w o r l d and brought  D i s c o v e r e r s map-  the i n f o r m a t i o n  back  t o the  makers o f maps.  The  s t e r n p o s t rudder was known  since  at  least  the  l a t e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y and t h e consequence o f i t s appearance was an improved c a p a b i l i t y f o r s h i p s t o s a i l Greater  to  windward.  angles o f h e e l s , d e r i v i n g from c l o s e r s a i l i n g , be-  came a c c e p t a b l e . Even w i t h t h i s b e n e f i t t h e e x i s t i n g  rigs  c o u l d n o t take f u l l advantage o f t h i s improvement. I t was i m p o s s i b l e t o s e t t h e s i n g l e s a i l t a u t enough c l o s e r courses  to  u n t i l t h e b o w s p r i t , perhaps one  l a t e r , made i t s appearance. P a s s i n g t h e bowline b l o c k a t t h e end o f  the bowsprit  r e s u l t . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of  rudder  generation through  a  the desired diminishes  in  p r o p o r t i o n t o the s i z e of the s h i p , unless  some  of  power s t e e r i n g i s a v a i l a b l e . The w h i p s t a f f  increased  f o r c e a v a i l a b l e a t the t i l l e r ,  any  produced  sustain  b u t reduced  movement t o t h e amount r e q u i r e d f o r c o n t r o l  sort  the a r c of of  yaw. The  appearance o f t h e w h i p s t a f f i s the s i g n a l t h a t t h e i n course-keeping  by b a l a n c i n g t h e s a i l  the  plan  was  lesson fully  105 learned.  The  single technical  advantage  that  made  voyages o f d i s c o v e r y was t h e d e p e n d a b i l i t y o f  possible  multi-masted  s h i p s . A t the end o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e were many types, s u i t a b l e for d i f f e r e n t  sorts  of  endeavours,  t h e o r i e s and o p i n i o n s on t h e i r m e r i t s were w i d e l y  and  discus-  sed. The s u b j e c t was u n d e r s t o o d w e l l enough t h a t r i g s were changed d u r i n g s t o p o v e r s ,  to suit prevailing  c a l c o n d i t i o n s . A l s o mixed f l e e t s  of  ships  meteorologiwith  r i g s and o t h e r s w i t h squares ones were employed f e r e n t purposes i n t h e same  expeditions."'"''"  The  lateen  for difultimate  performance o f these s h i p s depended on t h e master's understanding of t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s dro de Medina c o n s i d e r e d themselves a c q u a i n t e d  (see F i g u r e 14, p.103). Pe-  i t essential  that  masters  make  w i t h t h e type o f s h i p o f which  they  were t o take c h a r g e ^ , because much more depended 1  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c behaviour  o f c e r t a i n r i g s than on  o t h e r f a c t o r s combined, i n o r d e r t o s a i l a s h i p of m i l e s out and back home.  on t h e a l l  the  thousands  106 Notes t o C h a p t e r V. "Tuesday 25 September [1492]. ... The A d m i r a l was t a l k i n g [ a c r o s s t h e water] w i t h M a r t i n A l o n s o P i n z o n , t h e c a p t a i n o f t h e o t h e r c a r a v e l , P i n t a , about a chart t h a t he had s e n t him on h i s c a r a v e l three days b e f o r e , on w h i c h , i t a p p e a r s , t h e A d m i r a l had drawn some i s l a n d s [ r e p u t e d t o be] i n t h a t sea. Martin A l o n s o was s a y i n g t h a t t h e y were i n t h e i r neighbourhood and t h e A d m i r a l answered t h a t he b e l i e v e d i t t o be s o , t o o ...; and w i t h t h i s t h e A d m i r a l t o l d him t o send him back t h e s a i d c h a r t . As soon as t h e c h a r t was s e n t t o him by t h e means o f a r o p e , t h e A d m i r a l s t a r t e d t o c h a r t on i t . t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e c a p t a i n o f h i s s h i p and h i s o f f i c e r s . " B. de l a s Casas., Op. C i t . , pp. 14-15. Pedro de Medina, Op. C i t . , v. 1, I I I I , pp. 125-127.  Second  Part,  Advice  Pedro de Medina, Op. C i t . pp. 127-129 .  1, Second P a r t , A d v i c e V,.  Pedro de Medina, Op. C i t . V I , pp. 129-130.  1,  Second  Part,  Advice  For t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s o f t h e V i k i n g r e p l i c a that was s a i l e d by C a p t . Magnus Andersen t o N o r t h A m e r i c a i n 1895 see 0. R o b e r t s , Op. C i t . , p. 139. Pedro de Medina, Op. C i t . , v. 1, I I I , pp. 123-125.  Second  Part,  Advice  "The A d m i r a l was showing g r e a t anxiety a t not being able t o help the s a i d c a r a v e l [Pinta] i n her p r e d i c a ment b u t says t h a t h i s a p p r e h e n s i o n i s d i m i n i s h e d by the knowledge t h a t [her c a p t a i n ] M a r t i n A l o n s o P i n z o n was a man o f courage and c a p a c i t y . " B. de l a s C a s a s , Op. C i t . . p. 8. The f a c t t h a t a s h i p t r a v e l l i n g on a c o n s t a n t compass h e a d i n g does n o t t r a v e l on a s t r a i g h t l i n e , such as the rhumb l i n e s seen on m e d i e v a l c h a r t s , had escaped the a t t e n t i o n o f m e d i e v a l c a r t o g r a p h e r s . A s h i p trav e l i n g on a c o n s t a n t h e a d i n g c r o s s e s a l l t h e m e r i d i ans w i t h t h e same a n g l e . S i n c e t h e m e r i d i a n s radiate from t h e P o l e , t h e s h i p t r a v e l s on a s p i r a l w i t h i t s c e n t r e on t h e p o l e . T h i s s p i r a l i s c a l l e d 'loxodromy' and M e r c a t o r ' s m e r i t i s t h a t o f h a v i n g d e v i s e d a type o f p r o j e c t i o n t h a t t r a n s f o r m s loxodromies into  107 s t r a i g h t l i n e s , thus e n a b l i n g n a v i g a t o r s t o p l o t them w i t h a r u l e r . P r i o r t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Mercator's c h a r t s t h e o n l y c h a r t i n g t o o l s were d i v i d e r s , because m e d i e v a l c h a r t s were r e l i a b l e o n l y f o r t h e purpose o f r e c o r d i n g d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d . The rhumb l i n e s drawn on them had some degree o f a c c u r a c y o n l y i n low l a t i tudes o r over s h o r t d i s t a n c e s . 9. B. de l a s Casas  Op. C i t , p. 134.  10. Pedro de Medina, Op. C i t . v o l . 2 , p. 122-23. 11.  Second  Part,  Advice I I ,  The c o m p o s i t i o n s o f Columbus' f l e e t s a f t e r h i s f i r s t voyage and t h e c h o i c e s o f s h i p s made by C a b r a l , Vasco da Gama and M a g e l l a n are a r e f l e c t i o n of t h i s d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r among s h i p s o f d i f f e r e n t sailing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . See J . H. P a r r y , " T e c h n i c a l Problems and S o l u t i o n s " , i n The D i s c o v e r y o f t h e Sea, (The D i a l P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1974), pp. 149-170.  108 Bibliography  Primary sources. B a r t o l o m e de l a s C a s a s , ( F r e y ) , P r i m e r V i a j e de C r i s t o b a l C o l o n segun su D i a r i o de a Bordo • 3 Agosto 1492/ 15 Marzo 1493 • (Ramon Sopena, B a r c e l o n a , 1972)F r e s c o b a l d i , L i o n a r d o d i N., "Viaggio i n Terrasanta", V i a g g i i n T e r r a s a n t a , C e s a r e A n g e l i n i Ed., ( F e l i c e Le M o n n i e r , F i r e n z e , 1944), pp. 38-167. N i c c o l b da P o g g i b o n s i , (Fra'>, L i b r o d ' 0 1 t r a m a r e , Alberto B a c h i D e l i a Lega Ed., 2 v o l . . (Coramissione per i Tes t i d i L i n g u e , B o l o g n a , 1968). Pedro de Medina, R e g i m i e n t o de N a v e g a c i o n , compuesto por e l Maestro Pedro de Medina (1563), J u l i o F. G u i l l e n Ed., 2 v o l . , ( I s t i t u t o de Espana, M a d r i d , 1964). S a n s e v e r i n o , R o b e r t o d a , V i a g g i o i n T e r r a s a n t a f a t t o e des c r i t t o per R o b e r t o da S a n s e v e r i n o , G i o a c c h i n o Maruff i Ed., (Commissione per i T e s t i d i L i n g u a , B o l o g n a , 1969) . T w i s s , S i r T r a v e r , Ed., "Judgement o f t h e Sea", The Black Book o f t h e A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: Professional Books L i m i t e d , A b i n g d o n , Oxon, 1985). V o l . I l l , pp. 1-33 . , " M a r i t i m e Laws o f the O s t e r l i n g s " The B l a c k Book o f the A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , A b i n g d o n , Oxon, 1985), V o l . IV, pp. 357-383. , " R o l l e o f O l a y r o n " , The B l a c k Book o f t h e 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , Oxon, 1985), V o l . I I , pp. 430-81. ,  Admiralty, Abingdon,  "Sea-laws i n F l a n d e r s " , The B l a c k Book o f the A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books Limited, Abingdon, Oxon, 1985). V o l . IV, pp. 357-383.  , "The B l a c k e Booke o f t h e A d m i r a l t y " , The B l a c k Book of the A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books L i m i t e d , A b i n g d o n , Oxon, 1985), V o l . I , pp. 1-334.  109  , "The D a n t z i c S h i p - l a w s " , The B l a c k Book o f t h e Adm i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books Limited, Abingdon, Oxon- 1985), V o l . IV, pp. 335-355. . "The Good Customs o f t h e Sea", The B l a c k Book o f t h e A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books Limited, Abingdon, Oxon, 1985), V o l . I l l , pp. 35-659. , "The G o t l a n d S e a - l a w s " , The B l a c k Book o f m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (.1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books A b i n g d o n , Oxon, 1 9 8 5 ) , V o l . IV, pp. 53-129.  t h e AdLimited,  , "The P u r p l e Book o f B r u g e s " , The B l a c k Book o f t h e A d m i r a l t y , 4 V o l . (1871: P r o f e s s i o n a l Books Limited, Abingdon, Oxon, 1985) V o l . IV, pp. 301-333.  Secondary s o u r c e s . A n d e r s o n , Romola and R. C , The S a i l i n g - S h i p , S i x Thousand Years of H i s t o r y , (George H a r r a p & Company L t d . , London, C a l c u t t a , S i d n e y , 1926). A n g e l u c c i , Enzo & A t t i l i o C u c a r i , S h i p s - ' ( M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, New Y o r k , 1977). A s a e r t , G., Westeuropese s c h e e p v a a r t i n de (Unieboek, Bussum, 1978).  middeleeuwen,  B a r b o s a , A n t o n i o , Novos S u b s i d i o s p a r a a H i s t o r i a da C i e n c i a N a u t i c a da Epoca dos D e s c o b r i m i e n t o s , (Imprensa P o r t u g u e s a , P o r t o , 1948). B r a d f o r d , Gershom, A G l o s s a r y o f Sea Terms, Company, New Y o r k , 1944) .  (Dodd, Mead  &  B r e s c , Henry e t a l . , S t u d i d i S t o r i a N a v a l e , C e n t r o p e r l a S t o r i a d e l l a T e c n i c a i n I t a l i a , P u b b l i c a z i o n i , IV, 7 (1975) . C r u m l i n - P e t e r s e n , O l e , " E x p e r i m e n t a l Boat A r c h a e o l o g y i n Denmark" i n A s p e c t s o f M a r i t i m e A r c h a e o l o g y and E t h n o g r a p h y , Ed. Sean M a c G r a i l , (Wandle P r e s s , London, 1984), pp. 97-122.  110 F r i e l , I a n , "Documentary Sources and the M e d i e v a l Ship", i n The I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f N a u t i c a l Archaeology and Underwater E x p l o r a t i o n , 12.1, 1983), pp. 41-62. Kemp, P e t e r , The H i s t o r y of S h i p s , ( O r b i s P u b l i s h i n g , don, 1978). Landstrom, B j o r n , 1961) .  The  Ship,  (Allen  and  Unwin,  Lon-  London,  Lane, F r e d e r i c C , N a v i r e s e t C o n s t r u c t e u r s a V e n i s e pendant l a R e n a i s s a n c e , (S.E.V.P.E.N., P a r i s , 1965). , V e n i c e , a M a r i t i m e R e p u b l i c , (John Hopkins P r e s s , B a l t i m o r e , 1973).  University  L e w i s , A r c h i b a l d R. and Timothy J . Runyan, European Naval and M a r i t i m e H i s t o r y , 300-1500, I n d i a n a University P r e s s , B l o o m i n g t o n , 1958). Marcus, G. F., "A Note on Norse Seamanship: S i g l a T i l B r o t s " , M a r i n e r ' s M i r r o r , 41, 1955 (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Cambridge, 1955), pp. 61-62. , "The E v o l u t i o n o f the K n o r r " , The 41, 1955, (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y 1955) . pp. 115-122.  Mariner's Mirror, PressCambridge,  M a r t i n e z - H i d a l g o , J o s e M a r i a , Columbus' S h i p s , Ed. Howard I. C h a p e l l e , (Barre P u b l i s h e r s , B a r r e , Massachusetts, 1966) . M a t t i n g l y , G a r r e t t , The Defeat of (Jonathan Cape, London, 1959).  the  Spanish  Armada,  McEvedy, C o l i n , The Penguin A t l a s of Medieval History, (1961: Penguin Books L t d . , Harmondworth, M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d , 1980) . Morton Nance, R., "The S h i p o f the R e n a i s s a n c e " , M a r i n e r ' s M i r r o r , V o l . 41, 1955, (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, Cambridge, 1955), pp. 180-192. P a d f i e l d , P., Guns a t Sea: a h i s t o r y of n a v a l gunnery, E v e l y n , London, 1973). P a r r y , J . H., The D i s c o v e r y o f the Sea, New Y o r k , 1974)  (The  Dial  (H.  Press,  Ill R o b e r t s , Owain, " V i k i n g S a i l i n g P e r f o r m a n c e " , i n Aspects of Maritime Archaelogy and Ethnography. Ed. Sean M c G r a i l , (Wandle'Press, London, 1984), pp. 123-151. Unger, R i c h a r d W., The S h i p i n the M e d i e v a l Economy, 1600, (Croom Helm, London, 1980)  600-  V i i l a i n - G a n d o s s i , C h r i s t i a n e , Le N a v i r e M e d i e v a l a T r a v e r s l e s M i n i a t u r e s (C.N.R.S., P a r i s , 1985. A d m i r a l t y Manual of Seamanship, B.67, 3 volumes, M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, 1967) . M e d i t e r r a n e a n and B l a c k Seas, C h a r t No. r a l t y , London, 1980) .  449,  (1921:  (Her Admi-  

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