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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The experience of women at the University of British Columbia, 1906-1956 Stewart, Lee Jean 1986

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THE EXPERIENCE OF WOMEN AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1906-1956. By LEE JEAN STEWART A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982 THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (History) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1986 © Lee Jean Stewart, 1986. In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 M a i n M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT T h i s study of the c o e d u c a t i o n a l experience of women a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia from 1916 to 1956 i s t h r e e f o l d . I t examines how the i n s t i t u t i o n adapted t o the female presence, the ways women a s s i m i l a t e d or accommodated themselves t o t h e i r environment, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the changing c l i m a t e of s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of women to the purposes of women's educat i o n and t h e i r experience a t u n i v e r s i t y . The study i s p l a c e d i n both a thematic and a r e g i o n a l context. The thematic framework i s suggested by the h i s t o r i o g r a p h y concerned w i t h women's admission t o u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the ni n e t e e n t h century. T h i s l i t e r a t u r e e s t a b l i s h e s the r o l e of the "uncompromising" and " s e p a r a t i s t " f e m i n i s t s , p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s , p u b l i c o p i n i o n , s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of f e m i n i n i t y , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s i n determining the form and content of women's ed u c a t i o n . The s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t account f o r the development of higher education i n the province d e f i n e the r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t . T h i s study f i n d s t h a t s e p a r a t i s t f e m i n i s t s e x e r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e i n d e f i n i n g women's ed u c a t i o n i n the e a r l y p a r t of the t w e n t i e t h century. However, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s guided the e s t a b l i s h i n g of Nursing and Home Economics Departments a t UBC. I n s t i t u t i o n a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s such as the appointment of a Dean of Women and the b u i l d i n g of women's r e s i d e n c e s , s i m i l a r l y depended on p r a c t i c a l economic s o l u t i o n s t o appease f e m i n i s t a g i t a t i o n . i i i I r r e s p e c t i v e of the e q u a l i t y t h a t i s i m p l i e d by coeducation, s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of women continued t o a c t as o b s t a c l e s t o women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n higher education and ensured t h e i r secondary s t a t u s . Female students d e v i s e d s t r a t e g i e s t o ease the c o n t r a d i c t o r y e x p e c t a t i o n s of the academic and the s o c i a l community. They chose nonconformity to gender e x p e c t a t i o n s , conformity to standards of f e m i n i n i t y , the p r e c a r i o u s balance of double conformity to academic and feminine standards, and s e p a r a t i s t feminism to r e d r e s s the i n e q u i t y of women's secondary s t a t u s w i t h i n higher education. i v CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER I THE THEMATIC FRAMEWORK 5 II THE REGIONAL CONTEXT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 I I I THE ACCOMMODATION OF THE UNIVERSITY TO WOMEN: THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF NURSING AND HOME ECONOMICS 63 Nursing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Home Economics 75 IV THE ACCOMMODATION OF THE UNIVERSITY TO WOMEN: THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DEAN OF WOMEN AND WOMEN'S RESIDENCES 125 Dean of Women 125 Women's Residences 139 V THE FEMININE IMAGE AND THE FEMALE REALITY: THE ACCOMMODATION OF WOMEN TO CONTRADICTORY EXPECTATIONS 161 CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . 203 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOURCES CONSULTED . . . . . . . . . , . . 207 Pa r t A Primary Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Pa r t B Secondary Sources 210 APPENDIX 220 V LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page Figure 1. UBC Enrollment: 1914-15 to 1950-51 163 Tables 1. Residence of Female Students While Attending McGill University College of B r i t i s h Columbia 1907-14, and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia r 1919-20, 1929-30, 1939-40, 1949-50 143 2. Parental Occupations of Female Students Enrolled at McGill College of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1907-14, and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1919-20, 1929-30, 1939-40, 1949-50 169 3. Religious A f f i l i a t i o n s of Female Students Enrolled at McGill University College of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1907-14, and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1919-20, 1929-30, 1939-40, 1949-50 . . . . 170 4. Religious A f f i l i a t i o n s by Sex and Quinquennial Age Groups for Vancouver i n 1931 172 5. N a t i o n a l i t i e s of Parents of Female Students Attending the University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1929-30, 1939-40 173 6. Bi r t h Place of Female Students Enrolled at McGill University College of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1907-14, and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1919-20, 1929-30, 1939-40 173 ACKNOWLEDG EMENTS My s u p e r v i s o r Dr. Margaret Prang and UBC A r c h i v i s t Laurenda D a n i e l l s were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d i r e c t i n g my general research i n t e r e s t s t o the focus of t h i s i n q u i r y . Throughout the r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s , Dr. Prang's comments, qu e s t i o n s , suggestions, and c r i t i c i s m s were always i n c i s i v e and c h a l l e n g i n g . Mrs. D a n i e l l s ' enthusiasm f o r the study and her e x p e r t i s e a t r e t r i e v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l records helped t o reduce the f r u s t r a t i o n I o f t e n f e l t i n attempting t o r e s e a r c h the d i f f u s e s u b j e c t of the female experience. The index t o sources p e r t a i n i n g t o women a t UBC, began by Frances W a s s e r l e i n and Penny Washington i n the summer of 1979, complemented my own r e s e a r c h . I t i s my hope t h a t W a s s e r l e i n and Washington (whom I have never met) w i l l f i n d t h i s t h e s i s a s a t i s f y i n g c o n c l u s i o n to the p r o j e c t they must have e n v i s i o n e d s e v e r a l y e a r s ago. I am a p p r e c i a t i v e , too, of Dr. Robert A.J. McDonald's forebearance i n our d i s c u s s i o n s about s o c i a l c l a s s ; of Dr. W. Peter Ward's recommendations r e g a r d i n g the s o r t i n g of o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s ; and of Jay Handel's a s s i s t a n c e with the computer g r a p h i c s . My f r i e n d and f e l l o w student, Donna Lomas, whose i n t e r e s t s and areas of e x p e r t i s e are very d i f f e r e n t from my own, was most s u p p o r t i v e and sympathetic t o t h i s p r o j e c t . I wish, here, to express my g r a t i t u d e f o r her u n f l a g g i n g encouragement, her p o s i t i v e t h i n k i n g , and h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m . F i n a l l y , I c o u l d not have i n v e s t e d so much time and energy i n my academic i n t e r e s t s without the c o o p e r a t i o n , understanding and l o v e of my f a m i l y . I d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s t o my mainstay, John L e v i n , who helped me i n every way to become a f u l l - t i m e student; t o my sons D'Arcy and Simon Rideout, who never h e l d i t a g a i n s t me t h a t I was not a f u l l - t i m e homemaker; and t o my daughter, Tracy Rideout, who l e f t i n search of her " r o o t s " and now begins her own experience i n higher education a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto. 1 INTRODUCTION P r i o r to the mid-nineteenth century, higher education i n Great B r i t a i n and North America was an e x c l u s i v e l y male p r e r o g a t i v e . Indeed, the argument t h a t higher education had been a r t i c u l a t e d by and f o r men and t h a t women were n e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y nor ment a l l y equipped t o p a r t i c i p a t e proved t o be one of the o b s t a c l e s t h a t exponents of women's educa t i o n had t o overcome. In t h e i r e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t female c a p a b i l i t i e s were equal to male, the e a r l y p i o n e e r s of women's edu c a t i o n would s e t t l e f o r nothing l e s s than the admission of women t o academic courses i d e n t i c a l to those o f f e r e d t o male s t u d e n t s . 1 P r e v i o u s l y , women's educa t i o n was c o n f i n e d t o the 'parlour a r t s ' but the f e m i n i s t reformers e n v i s i o n e d higher l e a r n i n g t h a t would enable women t o f u l f i l f u n c t i o n s more u s e f u l than d e c o r a t i v e . The admission of women t o u n i v e r s i t i e s o f t e n hinged on the p r o v i s i o n of separate l e a r n i n g and l i v i n g space f o r female students. In the nine t e e n t h century the r e s i d e n t i a l C o l l e g e s a t Oxford and Cambridge c o n s t i t u t e d an i n t e g r a l p a r t of higher education f o r men. The l a c k of accommodation f o r women, t h e r e f o r e , was an obvious o b s t a c l e to t h e i r admission w h i l e r e s i d e n t i a l requirements were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n determining admission p o l i c y . G e n e r a l l y , North American i n s t i t u t i o n s d i d not e s t a b l i s h r e s i d e n t i a l C o l l e g e s i n the Oxbridge model, but where women had t o win access t o male i n s t i t u t i o n s , numerous r e g u l a t i o n s governed women's a c t i v i t y and m o b i l i t y on the 2 2 . . . campus. Some u n i v e r s i t i e s r e q u i r e d female students t o at t e n d separate c l a s s e s i n t h e i r own a f f i l i a t e d C o l l e g e and t o l i v e i n the campus r e s i d e n c e . 3 Undoubtedly, these arrangements were intended t o preserve the t r a d i t i o n a l l y male domain as much as to p r o t e c t female v i r t u e . When segregated c o n d i t i o n s were i n s i s t e d upon, women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n u n i v e r s i t i e s was o f t e n delayed u n t i l endowments p r o v i d e d s u i t a b l e f a c i l i t i e s . ^ In the e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s , the " i m i t a t i v e c o l l e g e s " r e s o l v e d some of the co n t r o v e r s y surrounding women's ed u c a t i o n . Vassar, W e l l e s l e y and Smith C o l l e g e s f o r women were a l l permanent i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h high academic standards and c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s t i g e . These C o l l e g e s proved t h a t higher education w i t h r i g i d standards was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r women.^ Separate e d u c a t i o n i n e i t h e r an independent or c o o r d i n a t e c o l l e g e r e q u i r e d generous endowments which were not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to newly s e t t l e d p o p u l a t i o n s . The newer u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the western s t a t e s and p r o v i n c e s f a i l e d t o e s t a b l i s h separate i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r women, but accepted them i n the same classrooms as men wit h l i t t l e or no c o n t r o v e r s y . By the t u r n of the century, the j u s t i c e of educating women was no longer a sub j e c t f o r debate and i n the years before World War I, coeducation gained r e s p e c t i b i l i t y . I n c r e a s i n g l y , u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t r o d u c e d courses aimed a t women and t h e i r f u t u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s i n s o c i e t y . Women had been excluded from higher e d u c a t i o n . f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d of h i s t o r y , yet the process whereby women's ed u c a t i o n became d e f i n e d and a c c e p t a b l e was completed i n l e s s 3 than f i f t y y e a r s . By the time B r i t i s h Columbia e s t a b l i s h e d a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y i n 1915, the enrollment of women was assured. The accommodation of the u n i v e r s i t y to women now bears c l o s e r s c r u t i n y . An examination of women's experience i n the f o r m a t i v e y e a r s of higher education i n B r i t i s h Columbia a f f o r d s f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the h i s t o r i c a l processes of change and c o n t i n u i t y t h a t a l t e r e d or confirmed s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of women and d e f i n e d t h e i r e ducation. 4 Notes 1 Emily Davies r e c o g n i z e d t h a t women had t o show they c o u l d w i t h s t a n d the r i g o u r s of higher l e a r n i n g as w e l l as men. In 1869 Davies founded a L a d i e s ' C o l l e g e i n a house a t H i t c h i n , o u t s i d e of Cambridge, and persuaded Cambridge p r o f e s s o r s t o l e c t u r e t o her students. She a l s o arranged f o r her students t o take the Cambridge examinations. In 1873 the experiment was v a l i d a t e d when Davies' school was u n o f f i c i a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d by Cambridge as G i r t o n C o l l e g e . For i n s t a n c e , at Mount A l l i s o n , New Brunswick, the female academy opened i n 1854 i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to the e x i s t i n g male academy but the female branch would be " e n t i r e l y d i s t i n c t ... and the students of the d i f f e r e n t branches w i l l not be allowed t o a s s o c i a t e or even meet, e i t h e r i n p u b l i c or i n p r i v a t e , except i n the presence of some o f f i c e r s of the I n s t i t u t i o n . " John G. Reid, "The Education of Women a t Mount A l l i s o n , 1854-1914," A c a d i e n s i s , Volume XII, No. 2 (Spring) 1983, p. 6. Thi s was t r u e f o r C o r n e l l and M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t i e s . ^ M c G i l l would not open i t s doors t o women bef o r e the wealthy businessman Donald A. Smith o f f e r e d a sum of $50,000 i n 1884 to e s t a b l i s h a C o l l e g e f o r women. Adele Simmons, "Education and Ideology i n Nineteenth-Century America: The Response of E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s t o the Changing Role of Women," i n Ber e n i c e A. C a r r o l l ed., L i b e r a t i n g Women's H i s t o r y : T h e o r e t i c a l and  C r i t i c a l Essays (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1976), p. 116. c O b e r l i n C o l l e g e , Ohio, f i r s t admitted women and granted them a r e g u l a r a r t s degree i n 1841. I t was the s t a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s of the Middle West, i n Iowa, Wisconsin and Michigan, which were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the growing acceptance of coeducation. Simmons, p. 120. 5 CHAPTER I THE THEMATIC FRAMEWORK Although removed i n time and p l a c e from the co n t r o v e r s y surrounding women's admission t o u n i v e r s i t i e s , t h i s study of women's ed u c a t i o n i n t w e n t i e t h century B r i t i s h Columbia cannot a v o i d r e t u r n i n g t o t h a t n i n e t e e n t h century experience to e s t a b l i s h the h i s t o r i c a l roots of women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n higher e d u c a t i o n . More s i g n i f i c a n t , however, than a n a r r a t i v e review of the events and p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h a t ensured the admission of women t o Canadian, American or B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the mid 1800s i s the h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s t h a t seeks t o account f o r these r a d i c a l changes i n women's e d u c a t i o n . 1 In the words of Margaret Bryant, the e x t e n s i o n of education t o women i n ni n e t e e n t h century England represented 2 "the most unexpected r e v o l u t i o n of the ce n t u r y . " In s p i t e of form i d a b l e o p p o s i t i o n , the movement f o r equal education gained a momentum t h a t not only escaped contemporary understanding but a l s o r e s i s t e d h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n . Conventional h i s t o r i e s of nin e t e e n t h century B r i t a i n acknowledged, i n general terms, t h a t women's admission t o secondary and higher education was but one of the s e v e r a l p r o g r e s s i v e reform measures t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d 3 the "age of improvement." In t u r n biographers of notable f e m i n i s t educators c r e d i t e d the d e d i c a t i o n of a few ou t s t a n d i n g women f o r reforms t h a t were, perhaps, too r e v o l u t i o n a r y to have been p o s s i b l e without r e f e r e n c e of the wider context of s o c i a l 6 change. In the l a s t decade h i s t o r i a n s have attempted a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l changes t h a t made i t p o s s i b l e f o r h a l f the p o p u l a t i o n t o r e c e i v e p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g . 4 The i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s i b i l i t y to educa t i o n f o r women was not s o l e l y a product of f e m i n i s t a g i t a t i o n ; but n e i t h e r was i t the i n t e n t i o n of the m a j o r i t y of the middle c l a s s reformers t o extend e d u c a t i o n t o women.5 Although ni n e t e e n t h century e d u c a t i o n a l reform was e s s e n t i a l l y a middle c l a s s movement i t had been aimed p r i m a r i l y a t men. Women who sought to convert p u b l i c i n t e r e s t (and c a p i t a l ) t o the problems of g i r l s ' e d ucation n e a r l y always r e t r e a t e d t o p r i v a t e solutions.** B u r e a u c r a t i c and i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes t h a t might f a c i l i t a t e the women's cause were o c c a s i o n a l l y endorsed by e n l i g h t e n e d 7 pedagogues. However, S h e i l a F l e t c h e r shows t h a t the lo n g term e f f i c a c y of any proposed e x t e n s i o n of s c h o o l i n g t o g i r l s was g s u b j e c t t o pragmatic p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . P o l i t i c i a n s p e r c e i v e d t h a t e d u c a t i o n f o r g i r l s and women remained a pe r i p h e r y concern t o the m a j o r i t y of p u b l i c o p i n i o n and i t s support r a r e l y gained any p o l i t i c a l advantage. I n s t i t u t i o n a l reforms were a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r the admission of women t o the most revered of the B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s . While the commitment t o women's ed u c a t i o n seldom p r e c i p i t a t e d t he d i s m a n t l i n g of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y admission p o l i c i e s , women u l t i m a t e l y stood t o b e n e f i t from i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s t o reform Oxford and Cambridge U n i v e r s i t i e s — long regarded by d i s s e n t e r s and non-conformists as c i t a d e l s 7 of p r i v i l e g e . In e f f e c t , these p r e s t i g i o u s medieval communities were moved by Parliamentary i n t e r v e n t i o n t o r e f l e c t more a c c u r a t e l y the u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e s of the new middle c l a s s . The ref o r m a t i o n of these e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and the c r e a t i o n of new ones i n the nin e t e e n t h century e l i m i n a t e d r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n as a means of l i m i t i n g admission; a l t e r e d the c u r r i c u l u m to i n c l u d e the new s u b j e c t s of h i s t o r y , a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s and modern languages; q u e s t i o n e d t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g methods; and i n v e s t e d i n the u n i v e r s i t y a n a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to re p l a c e i t s e l i t e one. 9 C l e a r l y the d i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t a r i a n s succeeded i n removing o b s t a c l e s t o u n i v e r s i t y admission t h a t f a c e d both d i s s e n t e r s and women, not only as r e l i g i o u s t e s t s were removed but a l s o re s i d e n c e requirements. The m o d i f i c a t i o n and expansion of ni n e t e e n t h century education promised gr e a t e r s o c i a l m o b i l i t y f o r middle c l a s s men, but women had t o overcome more than i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r t e r s i n t h e i r attempts t o cr e a t e new s o c i a l r o l e s f o r themselves. S o c i a l a t t i t u d e s t o women, i n p a r t i c u l a r a s c r i p t i o n s of f e m i n i n i t y , p r o v i d e d s u b t l e and profound b a r r i e r s t h a t delayed, o b s t r u c t e d and attempted t o d e f i n e women's e d u c a t i o n a l ambitions. Joan Burstyn examines the ideas surrounding the c o n t r o v e r s i a l issue of a d m i t t i n g women t o higher e d u c a t i o n . 1 ^ The a r t i c u l a t e opponents — c h i e f l y members of the medical p r o f e s s i o n s , clergymen, reformers of male education and i d e a l i s t s — f e a r e d any changes they b e l i e v e d would 8 fundamentally a l t e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the sexes and upset the s o c i a l order as they knew i t . In e f f e c t , the o p p o s i t i o n sought to defend the V i c t o r i a n i d e a l of womanhood and the n o t i o n of separate spheres which ensured t h a t men and women would not compete wi t h each other. The i d e a l of womanhood appeared as a p a r a d o x i c a l by-product of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . As the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y came to r e l y l e s s on the t o i l of women i n the home, the middle c l a s s c o n s t r u c t e d s o c i a l v a l u e s t h a t ensured women would, i n f a c t , remain i n the home, a testimony to the economic success of t h e i r male r e l a t i v e s . Middle c l a s s women were expected t o p a t t e r n t h e i r a c t i v i t y a f t e r the a r i s t o c r a t i c model and thus t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e themselves from the working c l a s s who found i t i n c r e a s i n g l y necessary to combine work i n the home with p a i d employment i n i n d u s t r y . In order to ma i n t a i n s t a t u s , middle c l a s s women were r e q u i r e d t o i s o l a t e themselves from the work f o r c e . The V i c t o r i a n housewife was imbued w i t h a moral p u r i t y t h a t was intended t o c r e a t e a s a n c t i t y of the home and i n s p i r e the management of the household and the mothering of the c h i l d r e n . R e l i g i o u s arguments r e i n f o r c e d the nine t e e n t h century i d e a l of womanhood and supported the b e l i e f t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sexes had been p r e - o r d a i n e d . x ^ The opponents of higher education f o r women attempted t o prove t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes were i n n a t e , or i f environmental, they were necessary to continue c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y . S c i e n t i f i c and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l evidence was amassed t o prove t h a t female p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would impede 9 women's l e a r n i n g ; when t h i s e v i d e n c e became d i s c o u n t e d , o p p o n e n t s a r g u e d t h a t t h e e f f o r t demanded by h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n w o u l d i n j u r e women's r e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y . 1 * ^ B u r s t y n d e m o n s t r a t e s how t h e V i c t o r i a n i d e a l o f womanhood was c e n t r a l t o d e f i n i t i o n s o f c l a s s a n d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s t a t u s quo. She a l s o c o n f r o n t s t h e i d e a l w i t h r e a l i t y t o show t h a t f o r many m i d d l e c l a s s f a m i l i e s t h e i d e a l and i d l e w i f e was b o t h e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n t o l e r a b l e . Many women ne e d e d t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e m s e l v e s , and t h e ran g e of a p p r o p r i a t e work f o r m i d d l e c l a s s women h a d d i m i n i s h e d . D e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e s , w h i c h i n c r e a s e d f a m i l y s i z e a nd t h e number o f s i n g l e women, compounded t h e f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e s on in c o m e s s t r u g g l i n g t o m a i n t a i n t h e r i s i n g s t a n d a r d s o f m i d d l e c l a s s l i f e . J The o p p o s i t i o n f o u g h t f o r an i d e a l of womanhood t h a t r a n c o u n t e r t o m o u n t i n g e c o n o m i c i m p e r a t i v e s . B u r s t y n p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e was no c o n s e n s u s on t h e p u r p o s e o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r women and t h e i s s u e s i n d i s p u t e were c o n f u s e d . R e f o r m e r s were o b l i g e d t o d e f e n d t h e m s e l v e s i n t e r m s d e f i n e d by t h e i r o p p o n e n t s . W h i l e t h e o p p o n e n t s t o women's e d u c a t i o n d i d n o t s t o p t h e movement t o a d m i t women t o c o l l e g e s and e v e n t u a l l y t o r e c e i v e d e g r e e s , t h e y managed t o e x e r t some i n f l u e n c e on t h e k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o women. S a r a Delamont a n d C a r o l Dyhouse l o o k more c a r e f u l l y a t t h e i d e o l o g i e s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d t h e k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n women 14 r e c e i v e d . L i k e B u r s t y n , t h e s e two h i s t o r i a n s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e between r e a l i t y and t h e i d e a l , and t h e 10 c o n t r a d i c t o r y e x p e c t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t t h e r e i n . Delamont t r a c e s the c e n t r a l theme she c a l l s "double c o n f o r m i t y " t h a t p e r s i s t e d throughout the establishment of educat i o n f o r middle and upper c l a s s g i r l s and women i n both B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . x ^ T h i s double conformity concerned the s t r i c t adherence on the p a r t of both educators and educated t o two s e t s of r i g i d s t a n d a r d s : those of " l a d y l i k e " or "feminine" behaviour at a l l times, and those of the dominant male c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l system. E d u c a t i o n a l p i o n e e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t to do otherwise would be to j e o p a r d i z e the whole of female ed u c a t i o n . In e f f e c t , t h i s i s the legacy to which Bu r s t y n r e f e r s when she w r i t e s t h a t reformers were f o r c e d t o defend t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n t h e i r c r i t i c s ' terms. Because many V i c t o r i a n s b e l i e v e d t h a t s c h o l a r s h i p and l a d y l i k e behaviour were incompatible, so the schools and c o l l e g e s s e t out t o prove them wrong. x^ The e d u c a t i o n a l reformers who were determined t h a t women should do what men d i d , Delamont c a l l s "the uncompromising". But t h e r e were a l s o those who favoured m o d i f i e d c u r r i c u l u m f o r 17 women — "the s e p a r a t i s t s " . The s e p a r a t i s t s wanted courses f o r women which were p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o t h e i r f u t u r e as te a c h e r s , nurses and mothers. The uncompromising maintained t h a t "separate never means equal", and thus the e d u c a t i o n a l p i o n e e r s were f o r c e d t o make no concessions t o p r o p o s a l s f o r 18 separate c u r r i c u l u m or examinations. Delamont concludes t h a t the snare of double conformity was unavoidable and an uncompromising s t r a t e g y was e s s e n t i a l f o r success a t the l e v e l 11 1 9 of higher education. C a r o l Dyhouse shows t h a t women's ed u c a t i o n a t the secondary l e v e l was a l r e a d y d i r e c t e d toward the r o l e women were expected t o f u l f i l i n s o c i e t y . ^ 0 Dyhouse examines the development of women's ed u c a t i o n between 1880 and 1920 i n B r i t a i n i n the context of " S o c i a l D a r w i n i s t i c " i d e a s . Although Dyhouse r e j e c t s a simple c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a d i t i o n a l c o n s e r v a t i v e arguments about women's r o l e i n s o c i e t y and the S o c i a l - D a r w i n i s t i c terminology of the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s , her study shows how these ideas l e n t credence to arguments t h a t emphasized the important r o l e of women as "guardians of the race" . The net r e s u l t was i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e to emphasize domestic s u b j e c t s i n the secondary e d u c a t i o n of g i r l s . Joyce Pederson e x p l o r e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between 21 i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and s o c i a l v a l u e s . Pederson argues t h a t the new g i r l s ' p u b l i c s c h o o l s and women's c o l l e g e s s t r e s s e d d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o u r a l norms and s o c i a l v a l u e s than those emphasized i n p r i v a t e s c h o o l s . The new p u b l i c s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s d i f f e r e d from p r i v a t e g i r l s * s c h o o l s i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , the nature of t h e i r t i e s t o the outer world, t h e i r a u t h o r i t y p a t t e r n s , and the s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s . Whereas the t r a d i t i o n a l p r i v a t e s c h o o l s were sm a l l e r and the g i r l s were o f t e n s i n g l e d out f o r s p e c i a l treatment a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s , the age range was gr e a t e r and r e l a t i o n s h i p s were more dependent or f a m i l i a l . The newer, l a r g e r s c h o o l s emphasized s i m i l a r treatment f o r a l l 12 students, grouped them wi t h others a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r age and academic t r a i n i n g , and p l a c e d them i n a more c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n t h a t emphasized i n d i v i d u a l achievement over s o c i a l s t a t u s . Sports became a c c e p t a b l e f o r women, and more independent, impersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s were encouraged between s t a f f and students. L i k e F l e t c h e r , Pederson concludes t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l reforms a f f e c t i n g women owed l e s s t o f e m i n i s t commitment than t o other f a c t o r s . In t h i s case, s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n s themselves, which responded t o a more general process of change, s u i t e d those new s o c i a l groups i n t e r e s t e d i n a c q u i r i n g e l i t e s t a t u s through academic achievement. T h i s r e f l e c t i o n on the fo r m a t i v e p e r i o d of women's educ a t i o n i n England r e v e a l s p a t t e r n s of change and c o n t i n u i t y i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p of women to t h e i r s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environments. Although the admission of women t o secondary and higher education proceeded from the e f f o r t s of the middle c l a s s t o assume meaningful and i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e s i n the new s o c i a l order, these h i s t o r i a n s c o n f i r m t h a t the movement f o r e d u c a t i o n a l reforms was not committed wholly to f e m i n i s t i d e o l o g y . The d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the ranks of the middle c l a s s about the e x p e c t a t i o n s of women i n the new order, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the V i c t o r i a n i d e a l of womanhood, i n d i c a t e d a deeper c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t of f e m i n i s t and p a t r i a r c h a l v a l u e s . Throughout the co n t r o v e r s y surrounding the education of women, the s o c i a l meaning of womanhood remained a potent agent of s o c i a l i z a t i o n aimed a t c o n f i n i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g women's proper 13 sphere i n the nine t e e n t h century. As s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic im p e r a t i v e s e x e r t e d p r e s s u r e s on the i d e a l and r e a l c o n d i t i o n of women, the movement t o extend e d u c a t i o n t o women appeared t o recog n i z e f e m i n i s t s ' demands but, i n f a c t , was l a r g e l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o them. Women's education, as i t was endorsed by f e m i n i s t educators, became a matter of the accommodation of women t o e x i s t i n g male o r i e n t e d s t r u c t u r e s i n the b e l i e f t h a t t h i s r e presented e q u a l i t y f o r women. Neve r t h e l e s s , the s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s i n the form and content of women's edu c a t i o n r e f l e c t e d changes i n the wider context of s o c i e t y t h a t r e f a s h i o n e d i d e a l s of womanhood and r e c a s t d e f i n i t i o n s of education f o r women. J In response to a changing c l i m a t e of s o c i a l and economic e x p e c t a t i o n s the middle c l a s s g r a d u a l l y r e j e c t e d an i n c r e a s i n g l y a n a c h r o n i s t i c , ornamental r o l e f o r women i n favour of a p o t e n t i a l l y more u s e f u l , p r a c t i c a l one. The middle c l a s s was not e n t i r e l y comfortable w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s of higher education f o r women and continued t o r e s i s t the conferment of degrees and women's en t r y i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l l y male p r o f e s s i o n s . In North America, the i s s u e of women's ed u c a t i o n d i d not arouse the c o n t e n t i o u s , o f t e n m i l i t a n t p r o p o r t i o n s experienced i n Great B r i t a i n . The c u l t u r a l and geographic environments of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s may have o f f e r e d l e s s r e s i s t a n c e to proponents of equal education f o r women than the c e n t u r i e s of t r a d i t i o n and custom t h a t d e f i n e d B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s . I n i t i a l l y , separate or co o r d i n a t e c o l l e g e s served t o 14 uphold standards of V i c t o r i a n morality that objected to the intermingling of the sexes and preserved the notion of separate spheres. However separate women's colleges were an additional expense and r e l i e d on scarce philanthropic endowments. When i t became unfashionable to pub l i c l y oppose education for women, educators might continue to f o r e s t a l l i t due to lack of funds for the women's college. Alternately, women "bought" t h e i r way in to estab l i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s through subsidies and g i f t s that were made available on condition of the admission of women.24 American and Canadian historians, Woody, Newcomer and G i l l e t t agree that economic considerations proved more important than democratic idealism in encouraging the development of education for women i n North America. 2 5 The f i r s t coeducational colleges, in the west, evidently opened t h e i r doors to women because t h e i r fees generated additional revenues and Legislatures could not afford to estab l i s h 26 separate i n s t i t u t i o n s to accommodate women. Coeducation as i t was implemented by i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, therefore, might s i g n i f y compliance with feminist pressure to admit women to u n i v e r s i t i e s , but not necessarily commitment to t h e i r education. A growing l i t e r a t u r e of women's experience i n higher education attests that women entered an environment that held 27 contradictory expectations. Some histo r i a n s have argued further that the benefits to women were more apparent than 2 8 r e a l . In most instances the accommodation of colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s to the female presence, beyond t h e i r admission, 15 7 9 was i l l u s o r y . The h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l d i m e n s i o n s o f s o c i a l c h a n g e t h a t a f f e c t e d w o m e n ' s s t a t u s i n V i c t o r i a n s o c i e t y y i e l d s f u n d a m e n t a l i n s i g h t s a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f women t o t h e i r s o c i e t y w i t h c o n c o m i t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . 3 ^ Thus t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f h i s t o r i a n s a b o u t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f women ' s e d u c a t i o n i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r o v i d e n o t o n l y a r e l e v a n t p r e a m b l e t o t h i s s t u d y o f women ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b u t a l s o a t h e m a t i c f r a m e w o r k f o r an i n q u i r y i n t o women ' s c o e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . The f i r s t o f t h e s e themes i s s u g g e s t e d by F l e t c h e r ' s r e s e a r c h w h i c h shows t h a t s u p p o r t f o r women ' s e d u c a t i o n was s h a p e d more by p a r t i s a n t h a n by f e m i n i s t p o l i t i c s . The l o n g a w a i t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e new p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1915 c o u l d h a r d l y have b e e n o t h e r t h a n a p o l i t i c a l e v e n t . Not o n l y d i d i t o c c u r d u r i n g a " b u s t c y c l e " i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l economy b u t a l s o t h e G r e a t War and women ' s s u f f r a g e h o v e r e d on t h e p o l i t i c a l h o r i z o n . F l e t c h e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n s p r o m p t q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e i m p a c t women ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r f e m i n i s t s h a d on t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y and t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f women ' s e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e . D i d t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f l o c a l and w o r l d e v e n t s s t r e n g t h e n o r weaken t h e women ' s c a u s e ? By 1 9 1 5 , n e a r l y h a l f a c e n t u r y o f c o e d u c a t i o n i n one o f i t s s e v e r a l f o r m s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d G r e a t B r i t a i n h a d 16 removed the more v i s i b l e b a r r i e r s t o women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n higher education. However, Burstyn e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of f e m i n i n i t y i n f l u e n c e d both the formal and in f o r m a l aspects of women's ed u c a t i o n throughout the nine t e e n t h century. A n a l y s i s of women's experience i n the twent i e t h century should, t h e r e f o r e , take account of the changing c l i m a t e of e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r women. To what extent d i d these e x p e c t a t i o n s seek t o d e f i n e e d u c a t i o n — along the l i n e s suggested by Dyhouse's r e s e a r c h — i n a d e l i b e r a t e attempt a t s o c i a l e n gineering? The two views of women's educati o n , represented i n Delamont's terms by the "uncompromising" and the " s e p a r a t i s t s " , p e r s i s t e d i n the tw e n t i e t h century. But were the suppo r t e r s of c u r r i c u l a designed f o r women's r o l e s as te a c h e r s , nurses, and mothers l o o k i n g backward or forward? Perhaps the uncompromising and the s e p a r a t i s t s i n the twent i e t h century i l l u s t r a t e the dilemma of f e m i n i s t s t r a t e g i e s which cannot r e s o l v e the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the demand f o r e q u a l i t y and the a s s e r t i o n of sexual d i f f e r e n c e . One of the most enduring a s p e c t s of women's experience a t u n i v e r s i t y may be the most d i f f i c u l t to surmise. Pederson's r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t occurs w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l environment c o n s t i t u t e s an important element of a woman's ed u c a t i o n as i t may a f f i r m or a l t e r e x p e c t a t i o n s of women i n s o c i e t y . Women i n t e r a c t with t h e i r s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l environment i n c o u n t l e s s ways, from t h e i r classroom and r e s i d e n t i a l arrangements t o t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l and s e r v i c e 17 o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and are a f f e c t e d on both conscious and unconscious l e v e l s . Often the s u b t l e t i e s of what may, i n r e t r o s p e c t , be termed d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a t t i t u d e s toward women were not p e r c e i v e d as such by i n d i v i d u a l s who accepted caveats or c o n s t r a i n t s as custom. Ne v e r t h e l e s s , s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s formed s o l e l y on the b a s i s of sex determined and i n f l u e n c e d women's s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s and behaviour. H i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s must look f u r t h e r than the s u b j e c t i v e understanding of the i n d i v i d u a l experience to i d e n t i f y how s o c i a l i z a t i o n r e f l e c t s the l a r g e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of women wit h t h e i r s o c i a l community. To t h i s end, a study of women's c o l l e c t i v e experience a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia over f i v e decades w i l l perhaps c o n t r i b u t e to an improved understanding of the f o r c e s , both r e g i o n a l and c u l t u r a l , t h a t shaped women's l i v e s and determined t h e i r education. 18 Notes 1 A d e t a i l e d overview and chronology of women's educa t i o n may be found i n Josephine Kamm, Hope De f e r r e d ; G i r l s '  E d ucation i n E n g l i s h H i s t o r y (London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1965). 2 Margaret Bryant, The Unexpected R e v o l u t i o n : A Study i n  the H i s t o r y of the Education- of Women and G i r l s i n the  Nineteenth Century (London: U n i v e r s i t y of London I n s t i t u t e of Education, 1979), p. 22. Asa B r i g g s , The Age of Improvement (London: Longmans, Green and Co. L t d . , 1959). 4 For i n s t a n c e : S h e i l a F l e t c h e r , F e m i n i s t s and Bureaucrats (Cambridge: Cambridge Press, 1980); Joan Burstyn, V i c t o r i a n E d u c a t i o n and the Ideal of Womanhood (London: Croom Helm, 1980); C a r o l Dyhouse, " S o c i a l D a r w i n i s t i c Ideas and the Development of Women's Educat i o n i n England 1880-1920", H i s t o r y  of • Education 5 (1976), pp. 41-58; Sara Delamont, "The C o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n L a d i e s ' Education", The Nineteenth-Century  Woman: Her C u l t u r a l _ a n d _ P h y s i c a l World, ed. Sara Delamont and Lorna Duff i n , ppl 134-63; Joyce s". Pedersen, "The Reform of Women's Secondary and Higher Edu c a t i o n : I n s t i t u t i o n a l Change and S o c i a l Values i n Mid- and L a t e - V i c t o r i a n England", H i s t o r y  of E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y 19 (1979), pp. 61-91. 5 The dons a t Cambridge were r e l u c t a n t t o embrace the women's cause because they b e l i e v e d i t would d e t r a c t from t h e i r own — of defending male l i b e r a l education, which was under a t t a c k by the u t i l i t a r i a n s — and a l s o , of impeding the re f o r m a t i o n of the c o l l e g e system. Other reformers claimed t h a t g i r l s ' e ducation would be a t the expense of boys', p a r t i c u l a r l y of the working c l a s s e s . ^ Frances Mary Buss, Dorothea Beale and Emily Davies appeared b e f o r e the Taunton Commission t o ple a d f o r endowments f o r g i r l s ' e ducation but had to r e l y on t h e i r own f i n a n c e s t o run t h e i r s c h o o l s . 7 Notably, Henry Sidgwick. Although he d i f f e r e d w i t h Emily Davies' "uncompromising" stand he was one of the founders of Newnham C o l l e g e , Cambridge. See Sheldon R o t h b l a t t , The R e v o l u t i o n of the Dons: Cambridge arid V i c t o r i a n S o c i e t y i n V i c t o r i a n England (London: Faber, 1968) . 8 F l e t c h e r , g T h i s i s , admittedly, a whig i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The new i n d u s t r i a l and commercial i n t e r e s t s urged t h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s became n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the s e r v i c e of the e n t i r e n a t i o n and not merely u s e f u l to c l e r g y , gentry and a r i s t o c r a c y . R o t h b l a t t . * 19 x ® Burstyn. 1 1 By c o n t r a s t , i n Canada, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the gospel by Methodists, P r e s b y t e r i a n s and B a p t i s t s o f t e n l e d t o an i n c r e a s e d r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to p r o v i d e women with higher education, a l b e i t to f i t them as b e t t e r helpmates f o r men. Prom Donna Yavorsky Ronish, "Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s 1869-1875: B r i t i s h and American i n f l u e n c e s , " Unpublished paper d e l i v e r e d a t the conference of the Canadian H i s t o r y of Education A s s o c i a t i o n i n Vancouver, October, 1983. 12 Burstyn. 13 For a f u l l d i s c u s s i o n of the standards of consumption and behaviour t h a t d e f i n e d middle c l a s s f a m i l y s t a t u s , see J.A. Banks, P r o s p e r i t y and Parenthood: A Study of Family Planning Among the V i c t o r i a n Middle C l a s s . (London: Routledge, 1954) . 14 Delamont; Dyhouse. 15 Delamont, P- 140. 16 Delamont, pp. 144-5. 17 Delamont, P. 154. 18 Delamont, P. 159. 19 Delamont, P- 159. 20 Dyhouse. 21 Pederson. 22 Pe dersen, P- 86. 23 P r i o r to the mid-nineteenth needed foremost to be "accomplished" i n the p a r l o u r a r t s of music, drawing, and dancing. These embellishments would i n c r e a s e her e l i g i b i l i t y f o r marriage, the only p r o f e s s i o n open t o a woman, and enhance her ornamental r o l e i n the household. In the words of John Ruskin, Sesame and L i l i e s (London: 1865): "A woman ought to know the same language, or s c i e n c e , ably so f a r as may enable her to sympathise i n her husband's p l e a s u r e s and i n those of h i s best f r i e n d s . " In the p u b l i c s c h o o l s and women's c o l l e g e s , women might a c q u i r e u s e f u l s k i l l s f o r more p u b l i c spheres of l i f e i n l a t e V i c t o r i a n England. Women i d e n t i f i e d e d u c a t i o n a l and s e r v i c e occupations as being compatible with the image of womanhood and s u i t e d f o r women's work. These pastimes had been e f f e c t i v e l y p ioneered by women's v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t s i n benevolent s o c i e t i e s and reform o r g a n i z a t i o n s . But the i n c r e a s e d complexity inherent i n c i v i c bureaucracy demanded a degree of p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n and e x p e r t i s e . The higher education of women then took on an 20 i n c r e a s e d p r a c t i c a l value as employment i n the new p r o f e s s i o n s , spawned by advances i n p u b l i c h e a l t h and a t t i t u d e s toward c h i l d h o o d and edu c a t i o n , promised, i f not an a l t e r n a t e choice to marriage and motherhood, an important i n t e r m e d i a r y o c c u p a t i o n . 2 4 Mabel Newcomer, A Century of Higher Education For Women (New York: Harper, 1959) , pi! 153. Endowments accounted f o r the admission of women t o C o r n e l l i n 1870 and M c G i l l i n 1884. See C h a r l o t t e W i l l i a m s Conable, Women a t C o r n e l l - The Myth of  Equal Education. ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977) and Margaret G i l l e t t , We_Walked V e r y - W a r i l y , A H i s t o r y of Women a t M c G i l l (Montreal: Eden Press, 1981) . Thomas Woody, A H i s t o r y of Women's E d u c a t i o n J i n the U n i t e d . s t a t e s (New York: Octagon, 1974); Newcomer; G i l l e t t . Z { j G i l l e t t , p. 10. 2 7 Sara A. B u r s t a l l , Retrospect and Prospect.' S i x t y Years  of Women's Educa t i o n . (London: Longmans, 1933) ; Vera B r i t t a i n , The Women a t Oxford. (New York: Macmillan, 1960); David Riesman, "Some Dilemmas of Women's Ed u c a t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l Record, F a l l 1965, pp. 422-34; Janet Lever and Pepper Schwarz, Women a t Yale (New York: B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1971); R i t a McWill i a m s - T u l l b e r g , Women a t Cambridge. ' A Men's U n i v e r s i t y — Though of • a Mixed^ Type. (London: V i c t o r G o l l e n z Ltd., 1975); Conable; G i l l e t t ; ReiS. 2 8 S h e i l a M. Rothman, Woman's Proper P l a c e : A H i s t o r y of  Changing I d e a l s and P r a c t i c e s , 1870 to the Present (New York: B a s i c Books, 1978) argues t h a t c o e d u c a t i o n a l p u b l i c u n i v e r s i t i e s r e i n f o r c e d women's s o c i a l r o l e , as wife-companion from the 1920s t o 1950s, both i n and out of the classroom. Conable, op. c i t . , p. 20, argues t h a t the women a t C o r n e l l were t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y and unequ a l l y from the men; t h a t the unequal sex r a t i o maintained women i n t r a d i t i o n a l sex r o l e s ; and t h a t women l e a r n e d i t was more important t o be charming, feminine and p a s s i v e , than t o be i n t e l l i g e n t and a g g r e s s i v e . J i l l Conway, " P e r s p e c t i v e s on the H i s t o r y of Women's Education i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " H i s t o r y of Education Q u a r t e r l y , 14 (1974), pp. 1-12, c h a l l e n g e s Woody's a s s e r t i o n t h a t coeducation was a u t o m a t i c a l l y a " l i b e r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e " f o r American women. She argues t h a t women need t o experience a female c o n t r o l l e d and d i r e c t e d world, i f they are to d i s c o v e r a sense of t h e i r own p o t e n t i a l f o r s e l f - d i r e c t i n g a c t i v i t y . Coeducation i n the mid-nineteenth century, c l a i m s Conway, d e p r i v e d women students of the o p p o r t u n i t y to experience a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and s e l f - d i r e c t i n g female community. 29 The extent t o which i n s t i t u t i o n s might accommodate women students has been an i s s u e s u b j e c t t o debate s i n c e the nin e t e e n t h century. However, s i g n i f i c a n t s t u d i e s i n the twe n t i e t h century have confirmed t h a t many of the e x i s t i n g procedures and s t r u c t u r e s of higher e d u c a t i o n remain 21 d i s c r i m i n a t o r y to women. See Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , P r e l imiriary  Report on the Status of Women a t Harvard (Cambridge: 1970) c i t e d Tn Nemiroff, Greta, "Women and E d u c a t i o n , " M c G i l l  J o u r n a l of Education V o l . X (Spring 1975). See a l s o : Canada, Royal Commission on the Status of Women i n Canada Report (Ottawa, 1970) . For a t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of the connection between the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s of women, and s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of womanhood/femininity, see S a l l y Alexander, "Women, C l a s s and Sexual D i f f e r e n c e s i n the 1830s and 1840s: Some R e f l e c t i o n s on the W r i t i n g of a Feminist H i s t o r y , " H i s t o r y  Workshop S p r i n g 1984. See a l s o Adele Simmons, "Education and Ideology i n Nineteenth-Century America: The Response of Ed u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s t o the Changing Role of Women," i n L ibe r a t i n g • • Women' s H i s t o r y f o r an examination of the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s toward women and the nature of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r them. P a t r i c i a A l b e r g Graham, "Expansion and E x c l u s i o n : A H i s t o r y of Women i n American Higher E d u c a t i o n , " SIGNS: J o u r n a l of Women i n ^ C u l t u r e  and S o c i e t y , Summer 1978^ V o l . T~, NoT T~. argued t h a t e x p l a n a t i o n s of the h i s t o r i c a l r o l e of women i n higher education i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s between the mid-nineteenth and mid-twentieth c e n t u r i e s r e s t upon the understanding of a s e r i e s of r e l a t e d changes i n both education and the s t a t u s of women. 22 CHAPTER II THE REGIONAL CONTEXT Befo r e attempting t o e x p l o r e how women's educa t i o n proceeded a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s necessary to review the e a r l y h i s t o r y of higher education i n the pro v i n c e , and t o e s t a b l i s h the s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and, perhaps, p s y c h o l o g i c a l background t h a t f a s h i o n e d a t t i t u d e s toward the education of women up t o World War One. Although the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia was not e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l 1915, the f i r s t Act t o e s t a b l i s h a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly i n 1890. T h i s Act was p r e c i p i t a t e d by " f r i e n d s of higher e d u c a t i o n " eager to implant the idea of a u n i v e r s i t y i n the growing p r o v i n c i a l s o c i e t y . The U n i v e r s i t y Act of 1890 e n v i s i o n e d a p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t would o f f e r an A r t s Course to encompass a l l branches of l i b e r a l education, a Science Course t o i n c l u d e a g r i c u l t u r e , mechanics, mining and c i v i l e n g i n e e r i n g , and a Teacher T r a i n i n g Course or Normal S c h o o l . 1 The Act a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r governance modelled a f t e r Oxford and Cambridge and i n v i t e d "graduates of any U n i v e r s i t y i n Her Majesty's Dominions, who s h a l l have r e s i d e d i n t h i s Province two months pre v i o u s t o the p a s s i n g of t h i s A c t " t o r e g i s t e r as members of the f i r s t 2 Convocation. Of the 125 men who responded, the m a j o r i t y r e s i d e d i n l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s , and were d o c t o r s , e d u c a t i o n i s t s , engineers, judges, lawyers, c l e r g y and members of 3 the L e g i s l a t u r e . E v i d e n t l y there were no female graduates i n 23 B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1890. The f i r s t c onvocation formed a committee to d r a f t r e v i s i o n s t h a t became the B r i t i s h Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Amendment Act of 1891. T h i s committee re p e a l e d t h i r t y - o n e of t h i r t y - f o u r s e c t i o n s of the e a r l i e r Act and s u b s t i t u t e d f i f t y - f i v e s e c t i o n s . There were to be four F a c u l t i e s : A r t s and Science, Medicine, Law, and A p p l i e d S c i e n c e . 4 The Normal School was no longer to be i n c l u d e d i n the new u n i v e r s i t y as a r e s u l t of o p p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the Department of E d u c a t i o n . 5 The Senate would be the se n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body. S e c t i o n f i f t y - t w o ensured the admission of women as i t r e q u i r e d t h a t the senate s h a l l make f u l l p r o v i s i o n f o r the education of women a t the U n i v e r s i t y i n such a manner as i t s h a l l deem most f i t t i n g : P r o v i d e d however, t h a t no woman s h a l l , by reason of her sex, be d e p r i v e d of any advantages or p r i v i l e g e s accorded t o other students of the U n i v e r s i t y . g The n e c e s s i t y of t h i s amendment i n d i c a t e s t h a t the admission of women was not e n t i r e l y a foregone c o n c l u s i o n before 7 the t u r n of the century. S i m i l a r l y , the phrase " i n such a manner as i t s h a l l deem most f i t t i n g " i n v i t e s s p e c u l a t i o n as t o the form t h a t women's edu c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia might have taken i n 1891. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t , i n the minds of those who d r a f t e d t h i s amendment, equal education was synonymous wi t h the coeducation of men and women i n the same classrooms. T h i s was not the model e n v i s i o n e d twenty-one y e a r s l a t e r i n February 1912, when the M i n i s t e r of Education, Henry Esson Young, drew up the i n s t r u c t i o n s and r e g u l a t i o n s of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r u n i v e r s i t y b u i l d i n g s . Young foresaw a women's c o l l e g e comprised o f : 24 a group of two or thr e e b u i l d i n g s f o r i n s t r u c -t i o n ( l e c t u r e h a l l s , l i b r a r y , l a b o r a t o r i e s , o f f i c e s ) . . . r e s i d e n c e d o r m i t o r i e s , commons, clubrooms...and gymnasium.... R The proposed c o l l e g e would have p r o v i d e d separate space f o r a l l i n s t r u c t i o n , residence and p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r women. For b e t t e r or worse, the v i s i o n of a separate c o l l e g e f o r women proved even more remote than the permanent campus f o r the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y , which was not r e a l i z e d b e f o r e 1925. Nevertheless, the i n t e n t t o make higher e d u c a t i o n e q u a l l y a v a i l a b l e to women, e s t a b l i s h e d by the Amendment Act 1891 was not tampered wi t h i n the subsequent Acts, p r i o r to the opening of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC) i n 1 9 1 5 . 1 0 The f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , which h a l t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y from 1914-1923, pr e c l u d e d the b u i l d i n g of separate f a c i l i t i e s f o r women. Coeducation without s e g r e g a t i o n was, i n f a c t , the cheapest way i n which the u n i v e r s i t y c o u l d accommodate women and not de p r i v e them of any advantages or p r i v i l e g e s , i n accordance w i t h the s p i r i t expressed by the lo n g defunct f i r s t c o n v o cation. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o as s e s s whether the views of the members of the committee, who entrenched equal education f o r women i n the Amendment Act of 1891, represented popular o p i n i o n , or per s o n a l commitment. Soward p o i n t s out t h a t members of the convocation had graduated from u n i v e r s i t i e s where coeducation, i n one of i t s s e v e r a l forms, had a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d ; 1 1 a l s o t he c l e r g y were w e l l represented, p a r t i c u l a r l y 12 13 Methodists, who had a t r a d i t i o n of educating women. The p o s i t i o n of Methodists on the i s s u e of women's higher education 25 i n B r i t i s h Columbia was made c l e a r a t the B.C. Conference of the Methodist Church i n 1891. Members passed a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t c o n g r a t u l a t e d the L e g i s l a t u r e f o r the Act t o e s t a b l i s h a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y : ...where the youth of both sexes, and of a l l denominations may r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n the s e c u l a r branches of higher e d u c a t i o n . ^ When the Amendment Act was presented t o the L e g i s l a t u r e on A p r i l 1, 1891, the only issue t h a t was d i s c u s s e d concerned an amendment t o ensure t h a t no r e l i g i o u s dogma would be taught or r e l i g i o u s t e s t s r e q u i r e d of any student or employee. 1 5 Although f i f t e e n days l a t e r , t h i s same L e g i s l a t u r e p e r f u n c t o r i l y d e f e a t e d a B i l l to extend the p r o v i n c i a l f r a n c h i s e to women, again with l i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n , the i s s u e of women's educa t i o n had provoked no o p p o s i t i o n or a t t e n t i o n . P e r h a p s by 1891 the p r e s t i g i o u s e d i f i c e s of Oxford and Cambridge not only served as models f o r u n i v e r s i t y governance and s e c t a r i a n e d u c a t i o n but a l s o f o r equal 17 educ a t i o n . But these Acts, a f t e r a l l , r epresented o n l y the 'i d e a ' of a u n i v e r s i t y framed by an e l i t e group who regarded a u n i v e r s i t y as a symbol of the c o n t i n u i t y of the c u l t u r a l t i e s with B r i t a i n , and of the coming-of-age of t h e i r new p r o v i n c e . The proposed p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y remained merely an 'idea' i n the face of l o c a l o b s t a c l e s t h a t proved more co n t e n t i o u s than e i t h e r the s e c t a r i a n debates or the q u e s t i o n of women's ed u c a t i o n i n nin e t e e n t h century England. The r i v a l r y between V i c t o r i a and Vancouver over the permanent s i t e f o r the u n i v e r s i t y campus delayed the 26 establishment of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia for 18 twenty-five years. In the meantime higher education was provided i n the lower mainland by private and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . Whetham College, at the corner of Georgia and G r a n v i l l e Streets Vancouver, offered preparatory courses for men for the f i r s t and second year examinations i n Arts at any u n i v e r s i t y . 1 9 This college opened i n 1890 but closed three years l a t e r due to f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . In New Westminster, the Methodist Church founded Columbian College i n 1892,. and was a f f i l i a t e d with V i c t o r i a College i n Cobourg, Ontario and l a t e r with the University of Toronto. Columbian College was coeducational and offered courses i n a l l four years toward 20 degrees i n Arts and Theology. When i t became evident that the jealousies between mainland and islan d interests had e f f e c t i v e l y aborted the intentions of the University Act of 1891 to e s t a b l i s h a p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , a Provincial B i l l in 1894 granted permission to a l l high schools i n the province to a f f i l i a t e with any university of recognized standing. The V i c t o r i a and Vancouver High Schools a f f i l i a t e d with McGill University in Montreal to provide the f i r s t year i n Arts i n 1899 21 and the second year i n 1902. From 1901 to 1908 "the university question" e l i c i t e d l e t t e r s to the editors of the l o c a l newspapers as public opinion reacted to the government's handling of the problem of higher education i n the province. The supporters of a pr o v i n c i a l university expressed concern that a f f i l i a t i o n with u n i v e r s i t i e s outside the province posed many problems: the expense to 27 students of going east t o complete the f i n a l y e a r s , the l o s s of young people to e a s t e r n u n i v e r s i t i e s where they might remain, and the cost t o the pro v i n c e t o fe e d students t o the e a s t e r n O O u n i v e r s i t i e s . ^ Some w r i t e r s argued t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y would a l l o w access t o a l l students, while a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h e a s t e r n u n i v e r s i t i e s b e n e f i t e d o n l y the wealthy who co u l d a f f o r d t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n out of the province to complete t h e i r d e g r e e s . 2 3 The Pastor of the F i r s t P r e s b y t e r i a n Church suggested t h a t h i g h school m a t r i c u l a t i o n should q u a l i f y students f o r c h o i c e s other than M c G i l l because "lady s t u d e n t s , " who were not y e t allowed t o study medicine a t M c G i l l , would have to make a l t e r n a t i v e arrangements t o continue t h e i r s t u d i e s . 2 4 The authors of these l e t t e r s foresaw t h a t the continued absence of a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y would aggravate s o c i a l i n e q u i t i e s and u l t i m a t e l y t h r e a t e n p r o v i n c i a l p r o s p e r i t y . Moreover, t h i s correspondence i n d i c a t e d t h a t 'the idea of a u n i v e r s i t y ' had matured i n t o a 'demand f o r higher education' under p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l . While the demand f o r higher education i n the province e s c a l a t e d , the L e g i s l a t u r e appeared r e l u c t a n t t o i n c u r the f u l l f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y . In the fac e of p u b l i c p r e s s u r e , the Government welcomed an in t e r m e d i a r y s o l u t i o n presented by " M c G i l l men," one of whom, Lemuel F. 25 Robertson, was a member of the Vancouver High School s t a f f . Under t h i s p l a n M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y would a d m i n i s t e r i n the prov i n c e the f i r s t two y e a r s of u n i v e r s i t y education i n A r t s and A p p l i e d S c i e n c e s . T h i s p r o p o s a l to e s t a b l i s h M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y 28 C o l l e g e of B r i t i s h Columbia (MUCBC) evoked a stormy debate between M c G i l l and Toronto U n i v e r s i t y graduates about the pre f e r e n c e shown by the province to the former i n s t i t u t i o n over the l a t t e r . 2 6 A d m i n i s t r a t o r s of Columbian C o l l e g e a l s o o b j e c t e d t o the i n j u s t i c e of a l l o w i n g M c G i l l to confer degrees when Columbian C o l l e g e had been r e f u s e d a c h a r t e r to confer degrees i n A r t s on the grounds t h a t no other i n s t i t u t i o n should pre-empt the p r e r o g a t i v e s t h a t belonged t o the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y . 2 ^ The advocates of a B r i t i s h Columbian u n i v e r s i t y remained s i m i l a r l y d i s s a t i s f i e d . Matters came to a head i n February 1906. Amidst charges t h a t handing over higher education t o M c G i l l was " u n - B r i t i s h Columbian, u n - B r i t i s h , and v i c i o u s " 2 * * a new U n i v e r s i t y B i l l was set b e f o r e the L e g i s l a t u r e t h a t empowered the Royal I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Advancement of L e a r n i n g t o e s t a b l i s h M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y 2 9 C o l l e g e of B r i t i s h Columbia. The establishment of MUCBC strengthened i n t e r e s t i n a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y . The d e t a i l s of the i n e x o r a b l e l e g i s l a t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 3 0 from 1906 to 1915 w i l l not be recounted here, except t o note t h a t i n subsequent r e v i s i o n s of the U n i v e r s i t y Act, the u n i v e r s i t y l o s t i t s i n i t i a l resemblance to E n g l i s h and S c o t t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s as i t more c l e a r l y i m i t a t e d p r a c t i c e s of ea s t e r n 31 Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the change i n outlook t h a t now generated the demand f o r a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y w i l l a l s o c l a r i f y a t t i t u d e s toward women's edu c a t i o n i n the ye a r s women attended M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e of B r i t i s h 29 Columbia i n 1906-1915. Between 1886, when the C i t y of Vancouver was founded, and the outbreak of World War One, B r i t i s h Columbia was transformed from a maritime s o c i e t y to a c o n t i n e n t a l community. 3 2 The r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth, between 1881 and 1 9 1 1 3 3 was supported by the i n f l u e n c e of a d e v e l o p i n g wheat economy; the e x t e n s i o n of American r a i l r o a d s , f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l , entrepreneurs and technology i n t o the north-west; and the expansion of B r i t i s h investment i n t o the p r o v i n c e . 3 4 By 1911, Vancouver had become the f i n a n c i a l m e t r o p o l i s of the r e g i o n . 3 5 The i n f l u x of b u s i n e s s and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s gave r i s e t o a middle c l a s s eager to c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p through t h e i r economic and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s group viewed higher education as a means t o the f u l f i l m e n t of t h e i r s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . 3 ^ In s h o r t , the demand f o r higher education i n the province came from an ambitious middle c l a s s made a f f l u e n t by a burgeoning economy. While some f a m i l i e s c o u l d a f f o r d t o send t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o p r e s t i g i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s t h i s was a c o s t l y p r o p o s i t i o n f o r the m a j o r i t y . There was a l s o concern t h a t young people sent out of the p r o v i n c e f o r t h e i r education would not r e t u r n u n l e s s t h e r e were i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y would not only s a t i s f y the d e s i r e of the middle c l a s s e s t o prepare t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n the community, without having t o send them out of the p r o v i n c e , o p but a l s o i t c o u l d a s s i s t i n the development of the p r o v i n c e . The m a j o r i t y of the immigrants to B r i t i s h Columbia from 1901 to 1921 were from O n t a r i o , Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Vancouver's new r e s i d e n t s from O n t a r i o brought with them a Canadian i d e n t i t y — perhaps borne of U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t t r a d i t i o n s — t h a t promoted and took p r i d e i n Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n s . 4 ^ Increased numbers of u n i v e r s i t y alumni r e s i d e n t i n the c h i e f p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s of B.C. a l s o supported higher education and the proposed university. 4-*-Thus the demand f o r higher education i n B r i t i s h Columbia stemmed from s o c i a l , economic and demographic f a c t o r s 4 2 t h a t were shaped w i t h i n the west coast r e g i o n a l context. These f a c t o r s h e l d p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the education of women. The middle c l a s s wanted t o educate t h e i r daughters as w e l l as t h e i r sons. Indeed, a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y would l i k e l y b e n e f i t more daughters i n f a m i l i e s where scarce funds f o r education were h a b i t u a l l y d i r e c t e d t o send sons out of the p r o v i n c e . P r i o r to the establishment of u n i v e r s i t y education i n the p r o v i n c e , the Normal School o f f e r e d many women t h e i r only choice f o r post secondary education. Teaching remained one of the few o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o young women; consequently, there were t h r e e times as many female tea c h e r s as t h e r e were male. 4"* Parents and stu d e n t s c o u l d f o r e s e e t h a t not a l l g i r l s c o u l d 44 continue t o be absorbed by the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . A p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y promised women a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t e a c h i n g . The r a p i d changes t h a t e n g u l f e d the west coast s o c i e t y engendered co n s c i o u s and subconscious needs f o r s o c i a l c o n t r o l . The impact of immigration, and the f e a r of a t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n , f o s t e r e d a growing i n t e r e s t i n c r e a t i n g l o y a l c i t i z e n s , a s t a b l e and prosperous s o c i e t y , and a "bet t e r r a c e . " T h i s l a s t concern grew out of the endemic h o s t i l i t y to A C the "non-white" p o p u l a t i o n . ° T h i s r a t h e r i g n o b l e sentiment, n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n c r e a s e d the c r e d i b i l i t y of higher education of women who, at the t u r n of the century, burdened the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r " r a c i a l p u r i t y " and c u l t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y . 4 7 The v a g a r i e s of f o r t u n e t h a t i m p e r i l l e d the f a m i l y economy were not unknown t o the women of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 4 8 Middle c l a s s women recog n i z e d the advantages, o f t e n the n e c e s s i t y , of t r a i n i n g t h a t would enable women t o r e l y on t h e i r own re s o u r c e s . An appeal to parents t o educate t h e i r daughters appeared i n the September i s s u e of Westward Hoi, a B r i t i s h Columbian magazine. "A London Gentlewoman" was, i r o n i c a l l y , the pen name of t h i s w r i t e r who a d v i s e d : ...The poorest g i r l s i n the world a re those not taught to work...Rich parents have p e t t e d them and they have been taught to despise labour and to depend on o t h e r s f o r a 1 i v i n g . . . E v e r y daughter should l e a r n t o earn her own l i v i n g , the r i c h as w e l l as the poor...The wheel of f o r t u n e r o l l s s w i f t l y around; the r i c h are l i k e l y to become poor, and the poor r i c h . . . W e l l - t o - d o g i r l s should l e a r n t o work. No reform i s more imp e r a t i v e than t h i s . 4 9 T h i s e d i t o r i a l i n d i c a t e d the growing concern of women t h a t they be equipped t o earn a l i v i n g . The c l i m a t e of e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t encouraged women to p a r t i c i p a t e i n higher education i n B.C. was l e f t , however, n e i t h e r to good l u c k nor m i s f o r t u n e . Although women were not denied a c c e s s e i t h e r to MUCBC i n 1906 or UBC i n 1915, i t had become evident both to i n d i v i d u a l s and t o women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t they had a r o l e t o f u l f i l e n s u r i n g t h a t women would have a 32 v o i c e i n the new p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y , and some i n f l u e n c e over women's e d u c a t i o n . The growth of p r o f e s s i o n a l and business i n t e r e s t s determined the mandate of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia to a s s i s t i n the development of the p r o v i n c e . It was t o be a p r a c t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n r e s p o n s i v e to the needs of an e x t r a c t i v e resource economy and r e l a t e d i ndustry. 5^* But the v o c a l and v i s i b l e a c t i v i t y of orga n i z e d and w e l l connected women served t o remind the p u b l i c and the government t h a t women must be accommodated i n higher education, beyond the mere f a c t of t h e i r admission. In the face of stro n g r e g i o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s f o r the c o n t r o l of higher education i n B r i t i s h Columbia, women's educ a t i o n was s c a r c e l y a con t e n t i o u s s u b j e c t i n the e a r l y y e a r s of the tw e n t i e t h century. Nonetheless, women seldom missed an o p p o r t u n i t y to demonstrate t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y was an i s s u e of prime importance to both women and men. In the heat of the debate between the M c G i l l and Toronto men about the cla i m s of M c G i l l to parent the p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , an e d i t o r i a l i n the Vancouver newspaper, The News A d v e r t i s e r , a p p r i s e d the p u b l i c t h a t women viewed the proceedings from a more pragmatic, l e s s p a r t i s a n p e r s p e c t i v e . I t i s a l l very w e l l f o r men who belong t o t h i s U n i v e r s i t y , or t h a t C o l l e g e t o argue from every p o i n t of the compass i n fa v o r of the m e r i t s of t h e i r own pet and p a r t i c u l a r i n s t i t u t i o n of l e a r n i n g ; but the women of Vancouver, who are not graduates of any such i n s t i t u t i o n of l e a r n i n g , and who simply want t o see e s t a b l i s h e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia the best u n i v e r s i t y o b t a i n a b l e . . . c a n n o t p o s s i b l y h e s i t a t e an i n s t a n t i n a c c o r d i n g t h e i r e n d o r s a t i o n and approval to 33 the U n i v e r s i t y B i l l now bef o r e the P r o v i n c i a l Parliament. • • • 5 2 In February 1906, at l e a s t one "l a d y " attended "a meeting of u n i v e r s i t y men" t o con s i d e r how to proceed toward a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y . Her presence was c u r i o u s enough to be noted by The Vancouver World, although she was not named. One woman who was i d e n t i f i e d f o r t a k i n g an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n higher education was the w i f e of the M i n i s t e r of Education, Henry Esson Young.-'-' i n Soward's words, Dr. Young was ...to be champion of higher education...and the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y , an advocacy which was dou b t l e s s b r i g h t e n e d by the enthusiasm of h i s w i f e who had been an i n s p i r i n g teacher i n V i c t o r i a High School. Gibson i n h i s p o r t r a i t of UBC's f i r s t p r e s i d e n t , Dr. Frank Wesbrook, a l s o r e f e r s t o the a s s i s t a n c e of "Mrs. H.E. Young" i n the w r i t i n g of the U n i v e r s i t y Act of 1908. Doubtless i t was R o s a l i n d (Watson) Young's experience a t M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y t h a t informed her husband's v i s i o n of a separate women's c o l l e g e i n 1912. 5 6 By the beginning of the tw e n t i e t h century, women a t the western edge of settlement had a l r e a d y recognized t h a t t h e i r -.7 i n t e r e s t s were best pursued through c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . Women's reform groups were g e n e r a l l y h i g h l y esteemed i n the community 5 8 and paved the way f o r women's a c t i v i t y i n the p u b l i c sphere. O r g a n i z a t i o n s , n o t a b l y the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a L o c a l C o u n c i l s of Women, e s t a b l i s h e d 1895, and the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club, e s t a b l i s h e d 1907, proved v i g i l a n t on matters t h a t concerned 59 women's e d u c a t i o n . In the e a r l y y e a r s of higher education i n 34 the p r o v i n c e , c l u b membership a f f o r d e d women some p o l i t i c a l l e v e r a g e whereby they c o u l d secure a t l e a s t token c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r women i n the form of female r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n convocation, i n the Senate, and the Board of Governors of the U n i v e r s i t y . 6 0 One of the f i r s t women e l e c t e d by the convocation t o the UBC Senate was E v l y n F a r r i s , a prominent supporter of higher education and equal r i g h t s f o r women. 6 1 A graduate of Acadia U n i v e r s i t y , Evlyn (Kierstead) F a r r i s , M.A., 1899, had been a student of philosophy, and a teacher of h i s t o r y and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e . As was customary i n t h i s e r a , F a r r i s gave up her te a c h i n g a f t e r her marriage and accompanied her husband, John Wallace de Beque F a r r i s , to Vancouver i n 1905 where he pursued a s u c c e s s f u l c a r e e r i n law and p o l i t i c s . However, F a r r i s never r e l i n q u i s h e d her commitment t o the education of women or her i n t e r e s t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y . 6 2 Although F a r r i s ' " e l i t e s t a t u s " as the w i f e of the Attorney-General of B r i t i s h Columbia 1917-22 a f f o r d e d her the op p o r t u n i t y to use her i n f l u e n c e to f u r t h e r what would s t i l l be c a l l e d the 'woman's cause* i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century, F a r r i s e s t a b l i s h e d a network of support f o r educated women whose i n f l u e n c e surpassed her own personal connections. In 1907 Evly n F a r r i s o r g a n i z e d a c l u b f o r women u n i v e r s i t y graduates i n Vancouver, and a year l a t e r , i n V i c t o r i a , where R o s a l i n d Young became the f i r s t p r e s i d e n t . The membership grew from e i g h t to f i f t y w i t h i n the f i r s t year and F a r r i s e n v i s i o n e d t h a t a union of a l l the c o l l e g e women of B r i t i s h Columbia would have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the higher education of women i n the p r o v i n c e . As a r e s u l t of the l o b b y i n g of the L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women and the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club, F a r r i s was the f i r s t woman t o be appointed t o the Board of Governors i n 1917. She served as a member of the Senate or the Board f o r the next t h i r t y y e a r s . 6 4 E v l y n F a r r i s and the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club e x e r c i s e d a profound i n f l u e n c e with regard t o the establishment of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and i t s l o c a t i o n on the mainland, to the s t a t u s of female students a t the u n i v e r s i t y , and t o the a b o l i t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y l e g i s l a t i o n which p r o h i b i t e d women from p r a c t i s i n g law i n the p r o v i n c e . 6 5 The f u n c t i o n s of the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club of Vancouver were m a n i f o l d . At a personal l e v e l , c l u b membership o f f e r e d graduates the op p o r t u n i t y to r e - c r e a t e the s p e c i a l woman's world of f r i e n d s h i p and shared experience t h a t had s u s t a i n e d and enhanced t h e i r experience a t c o l l e g e . The c l u b ' s second p r e s i d e n t , Miss Anne B. J a m i e s o n 6 6 d e s c r i b e d t h i s aspect of the c l u b when she wrote: Our own l i t t l e world was so d e l i g h t f u l , g e t t i n g a c q u a i n t e d w i t h women from so many c o l l e g e s , f i n d i n g a bond of union so s t r o n g . . . r e j o i c i n g i n the thought t h a t the best t h i n g s p e r t a i n i n g t o c o l l e g e l i f e were not h o p e l e s s l y past and gone. 6_ Jamieson r e f l e c t e d f u r t h e r t h a t the c l u b was a t f i r s t a k i n d of p r o t e c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n , f i g h t i n g back the encroachments of a m a t e r i a l i s m everywhere present and t h r e a t e n i n g t o e n g u l f u s-68 C l e a r l y , the i n t e r a c t i o n and f e l l o w s h i p of ki n d r e d s p i r i t s was an important f a c e t of c l u b membership e q u a l l y f o r the 36 p r o f e s s i o n a l woman and the housewife who had l i t t l e d a i l y c o ntact with other women i n t h e i r work. Isabel Maclnnes, the f i r s t and f o r many ye a r s the only female p r o f e s s o r to teach at M c G i l l C o l l e g e and UBC f was an a c t i v e member of the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club (UWC) as was Mary B o l l e r t , Dean of Women 1921-42. For these women, the UWC undoubtedly p r o v i d e d a sense of refuge from t h e i r male dominated environments w h i l e r e k i n d l i n g s t r e n g t h s d e r i v e d from t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h i s separate s p h e r e . 7 1 The graduate women who i n i t i a l l y j o i n e d the UWC had attended c o l l e g e a t a time when ed u c a t i o n f o r women was l a r g e l y 'experimental' and j u s t i f i e d by the assumptions t h a t u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g would equip women f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e work i n c o l l e g e settlement houses and c h a r i t a b l e and p h i l a n t h r o p i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . The U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club continued t h i s focus of women's work t o promote s o c i a l w e l f a r e and c i v i c reform. T h e i r e f f o r t s t o improve the s t a t u s of women, which today would be termed f e m i n i s t consciousness r a i s i n g , p r o p e l l e d the UWC i n t o v a r i o u s areas of a c t i v e concern. Most n o t a b l e was the c l u b ' s d e d i c a t i o n t o the l e g a l r i g h t s of women and c h i l d r e n , women's p r i s o n 7 2 reform, and, q u i t e n a t u r a l l y , women's ed u c a t i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club f r e q u e n t l y sent speakers t o the L a d i e s ' L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y a t M c G i l l C o l l e g e , and l a t e r to UBC, 73 and e v e n t u a l l y funded s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r women stud e n t s . The presence of an o r g a n i z e d body of graduate women not only encouraged the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of young women i n higher education a t the new u n i v e r s i t y , but a l s o served as a l i n k t h a t , perhaps, 37 l e g i t i m i z e d t h i s a c t i v i t y i n a s o c i a l and economic c l i m a t e p r e d i s p o s e d t o regard the u n i v e r s i t y as a t r a d i t i o n a l area of male e x p e r t i s e . The o r g a n i z e d women of the pr o v i n c e , represented i n t h i s case by the UWC, were i n i t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l but not p o l i t i c a l l y powerful i n t h e i r attempts t o pr e s s u r e the government t o f u l l y accommodate women's i n t e r e s t s i n the u n i v e r s i t y . The c o m p l e x i t i e s of these f e m i n i s t p o l i t i c s w i l l be u n r a v e l l e d i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter, but an example, here,, w i l l s u b s t a n t i a t e the aforementioned d i s t i n c t i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y Act 1908 c r e a t e d a new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body, the Board of Governors, which possessed the general powers of management, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and c o n t r o l of prope r t y , revenue, b u s i n e s s and a f f a i r s of the U n i v e r s i t y . In the Board, t h e r e f o r e , r e s t e d the a u t h o r i t y to f i x the f e e s , appoint, promote or remove members of the t e a c h i n g s t a f f (upon recommendation of the P r e s i d e n t ) , to cr e a t e F a c u l t i e s and Departments, and t o d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l p o l i c y . The Senate had no a d m i n i s t r a t i v e powers but served as the guardian of e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y , and a l i n k between F a c u l t i e s and the B o a r d . 7 4 In 1912, the UWC, which had p l a y e d an a c t i v e r o l e two ye a r s p r e v i o u s l y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the permanent s i t e f o r UBC a t Point Grey, turned i t s a t t e n t i o n s t o lobby the government t o appoint women t o the Board of Governors. The UWC was not the only women's c l u b t o nominate women t o the Board from the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women a t the most powerful a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l would ensure the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of women's 38 7 5 i n t e r e s t s , and e s t a b l i s h t h e i r r i g h t to h o l d these o f f i c e s . Two clubwomen, Mrs. E v l y n F a r r i s (Vancouver) and Mrs. Madge Watt ( V i c t o r i a ) , had been e l e c t e d by the convocation to the Senate, the l e s s e r body. A l b e i t from the women's p o i n t of view, the Senate was the v e h i c l e to guide the education of women, the Board of Governors was c l e a r l y the more powerful. Despite p r e s s u r e e x e r t e d by women's clubs i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , no women were appointed t o the o r i g i n a l Board. The Board of Governors announced by the Government on A p r i l 4, 1913 was composed of nine l e a d i n g male c i t i z e n s of V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, r e p r e s e n t i n g b u s i n e s s , f i n a n c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . ^ 6 UBC P r e s i d e n t Frank F. Wesbrook, who assumed h i s d u t i e s January 1913 on c o n d i t i o n t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y would be immune from p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e , was assured by the Government t h a t the appointments were made without regard t o p o l i t i c a l 77 c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The reverse i s more c r e d i b l e i n view of the f a c t t h a t two members of Parliament from V i c t o r i a , but no women, were appointed. However, the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia was ever an i n s t i t u t i o n dependent on governmental g o o d - w i l l and 7 8 s u b s i d y . I t may have been hoped, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i t would prove expedient to i n v o l v e powerful men i n a b i r t h so dependent on p o l i t i c a l benevolence. I t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the Board of Governors c o n s t i t u t e d a l l the i n t e r e s t s t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y intended t o serve, except women's. Organized women of the province had access to power through t h e i r c l u b a c t i v i t i e s but d i d not, i n 1913, w i e l d enough 39 power i n d i v i d u a l l y , or represent any important c o n s t i t u e n c y , to be c o n s i d e r e d as Governors of the U n i v e r s i t y . I t was not u n t i l women had won the vote from the newly e l e c t e d L i b e r a l Government i n 1917, t h a t E v l y n F a r r i s , who had helped t o e s t a b l i s h the Women's L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Vancouver i n 1915 and whose husband, by t h i s time, was the Attorney-General and M i n i s t e r of Labour, r e c e i v e d her appointment — the f i r s t t o a woman — to the Board of Governors. F a r r i s had a l r e a d y d i s c o v e r e d the l i m i t a t i o n s of the Senate as a decision-making body. Although members had been e l e c t e d or appointed t o the Senate i n 1912, they were not c a l l e d together b e f o r e February 1916, a f t e r the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia had f i n a l l y opened. P r i o r to t h i s meeting, the press r e p o r t e d F a r r i s ' i n d i g n a t i o n when she d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the s p e c i f i c t a s k s a l l o c a t e d t o the Senate were performed by s e l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s without c o n s u l t a t i o n of the e n t i r e e l e c t e d members. "What annoys the women of the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club, " she s a i d , i s t o f i n d t h a t the government has drawn up the c u r r i c u l u m d e a l i n g w i t h the education of women (which i s a power e x p r e s s l y g i v e n t o the Senate) without g i v i n g us a chance to be heard i n the matter. For i n s t a n c e , the tUBC 1915/16] c a l e n d a r says t h a t women may at t e n d the c l a s s e s i n A r t s but does not say t h a t they may at t e n d the c l a s s e s i n the F a c u l t y of Science, the omission being e q u i v a l e n t t o a p r o h i b i t i o n . j g The ' p r o h i b i t i o n ' of women from e n t e r i n g courses i n A p p l i e d Science echoed the i m p l i c a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n a statement i n the MUCBC c a l e n d a r s : "the courses i n A r t s a re open t o men and women 40 80 on equal f o o t i n g . " Women were not admitted t o A p p l i e d Science courses a t M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y and had n o t f t h e r e f o r e , been e l i g i b l e t o a t t e n d these c l a s s e s a t MUCBC. What appeared t o F a r r i s as a p r o h i b i t i o n perhaps r e f l e c t e d custom rather than an i n t e n t i o n t o discourage women from c o n s i d e r i n g A p p l i e d Science as a s u i t a b l e course of study. Nevertheless, F a r r i s r e c o g n i z e d the importance of removing any o b s t a c l e s t h a t r e s t r i c t e d women's ed u c a t i o n . The calendar subsequently passed through the hands of the Senate t o r e c e i v e 'rubber stamp 1 a p p r o v a l , a f t e r the f a c t . ^ 2 The p r e s e r v a t i o n of e q u a l i t y of education i n t h i s small i n s t a n c e had t o y i e l d t o the more pragmatic v i c t o r y t h a t was achieved when the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f i n a l l y opened i t s doors i n the autumn of 1915. Although from 1908 to 1915 the establishment of the U n i v e r s i t y remained more or l e s s imminent i n the minds of Frank Wesbrook and Henry Esson Young, s u f f i c i e n t funds from the Government had not been forthcoming. The prolonged delay may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the o v e r r i d i n g government p o l i c y to b u i l d r a i l w a y s , which r e s u l t e d i n d e f i c i t s t o the go P r o v i n c i a l Treasury by 1912. Government 'cutbacks' to the proposed U n i v e r s i t y were an annual f e a t u r e t h a t Wesbrook f a c e d even p r i o r to the War. A f t e r the d e c l a r a t i o n of World War One, e f f o r t s t o b u i l d the permanent campus a t Point Grey were abandoned i n December 1914. The s k e l e t a l frame of the Science B u i l d i n g remained u n f i n i s h e d and unoccupied u n t i l the student body s y m b o l i c a l l y s c a l e d the empty s t r u c t u r e e i g h t y e a r s l a t e r to draw p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r campaign t o b u i l d the 41 8 4 u n i v e r s i t y . In 1915 Wesbrook r e s i g n e d h i m s e l f to the supposedly temporary q u a r t e r s f o r the new U n i v e r s i t y i n M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e a t F a i r v i e w . 8 5 O s t e n s i b l y , an empty P r o v i n c i a l Treasury and the e x i g e n c i e s of the War postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y c o n s t r u c t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y b u i l d i n g s . However i n the y e a r s before the War when the p r o v i n c i a l c o f f e r s showed a s u r p l u s higher education i n B r i t i s h Columbia was not deemed a p r i o r i t y f o r government expenditure. The i n t e r e s t s of the a f f l u e n t middle c l a s s e s who promoted the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y were perhaps o f f s e t by those i n t e r e s t e d i n l e s s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' employment. S o c i a l i s t members of the L e g i s l a t u r e had o b j e c t e d t o the u n i v e r s i t y on grounds t h a t e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e was a l r e a d y too expensive and the c o s t s of t u i t i o n a t UBC would be p r o h i b i t i v e f o r some c l a s s e s . They were appeased o n l y by the promise t h a t t u i t i o n would be f r e e . I f the m a j o r i t y of B r i t i s h Columbians b e l i e v e d a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y was an e l i t i s t indulgence, Frank Wesbrook made every e f f o r t to d i s p e l t h i s image i n repeated speeches t h a t p o r t r a y e d UBC as "the people's u n i v e r s i t y [which] must meet a l l 87 the needs of a l l the people." Wesbrook's e f f o r t s t o democratize the appeal of the u n i v e r s i t y were c a l c u l a t e d t o win 88 a broad base of p u b l i c support. E v i d e n t l y , n e i t h e r Wesbrook's e n t r e a t i e s nor h i s enthusiasm awoke s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t i n higher education t o f o r c e the t r a n s f e r of t h i s p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from M c G i l l to the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. If the government c o n s i d e r e d i t inopportune to b u i l d the 42 u n i v e r s i t y b e f o r e World War I, the e n l i s t m e n t of a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of men of u n i v e r s i t y age made i t even more i n a p p r o p r i a t e a f t e r 1914. An i n t e r v i e w w i t h P r e s i d e n t Frank Wesbrook, w h i l e he was i n P o r t l a n d Oregon,** 9 r e v e a l e d the primal value p l a c e d upon the enrollment of " h e a l t h y , " " f i t " men a t the u n i v e r s i t y . The u n i v e r s i t i e s of Canada a r e becoming p r a c t i c a l l y c o l l e g e s f o r women and a t l e a s t one newly formed i n s t i t u t i o n [UBC] was n e a r l y broken up by the e n l i s t m e n t of i t s male students f o r the European War, a c c o r d i n g t o Dr. Frank F. Wesbrook, P r e s i d e n t of UBC...UBC was hard h i t i n i t s i n f a n c y , when the enrollment of men dropped from three hundred t o t h i r t y . The t h i r t y men who c o u l d n ' t pass the examination f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . . . . g Q During the War there was l i t t l e m o t i v a t i o n t o b u i l d a u n i v e r s i t y f o r a m a j o r i t y of women, or men d e c l a r e d u n f i t f o r m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . The s u b t l e i n t e r p l a y of t e n s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o c l a s s and gender d i f f e r e n c e s do not c o n s t i t u t e , here, any f u l l y developed argument t o e x p l a i n the delay i n the b u i l d i n g of the u n i v e r s i t y . I t i s suggested o n l y i n an attempt t o capture the nuances of sentiment t h a t , nonetheless, informed the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c l i m a t e on the west c o a s t . I t would appear t h a t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y a t P o i n t Grey might have been delayed i n d e f i n i t e l y without the 91 e x t r a o r d i n a r y e f f o r t s of the e n t i r e student body i n 1922-23. The f i n a l stage of p u b l i c commitment t h a t brought p r e s s u r e to bear on the government was generated by the student campaign t o " B u i l d the U n i v e r s i t y . " Now remembered as "The Great Trek," the students formed an impressive parade t h a t marched from downtown 43 Vancouver to the e i g h t year o l d frame of the Science B u i l d i n g where students e r e c t e d the f i r s t permanent s t r u c t u r e — the C a i r n — to commemorate the o c c a s i o n . 9 2 T h i s " p i l g r i m a g e " was the c u l m i n a t i o n of a ye a r ' s campaign by the students who c o l l e c t e d 17,000 s i g n a t u r e s on a p e t i t i o n , which they presented w i t h due pomp and ceremony to the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly i n November 1922. A week l a t e r Premier John O l i v e r announced t h a t funds would be made a v a i l a b l e immediately to begin c o n s t r u c t i o n of u n i v e r s i t y b u i l d i n g s a t Point Grey. The f i r s t l e c t u r e s were h e l d i n the new b u i l d i n g s on the permanent campus i n September 1925. 9 3 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia was not t r u l y e s t a b l i s h e d by: any s i n g l e Act of the L e g i s l a t u r e but by three stages of i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c commitment. In the ye a r s 1890-1904 the idea of a u n i v e r s i t y a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of a small p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n whose l o f t y p r e t e n s i o n s were perhaps ahead of t h e i r time, i n view of the short d u r a t i o n of the f i r s t U n i v e r s i t y Act of 1890. By 1904 an a u d i b l e demand f o r higher education i n the province s i g n a l l e d the second stage of a more broadly based p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n of the economic need f o r a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y . T h i s demand was u n e a s i l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h temporary s o l u t i o n s adopted by the p r o v i n c i a l government t h a t i n c l u d e d a " c a r e t a k e r " i n s t i t u t i o n from the east, and borrowed premises f o r a t r u n c a t e d U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1915. But i n 1922, with the F i r s t World War behind them, the students of the u n i v e r s i t y were threatened w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the r e c e n t l y i n s t i t u t e d f e e s , without any f i r m plans by the government t o vacate the cramped, inadequate f a c i l i t i e s a t 44 F a i r v i e w and b u i l d a t Point Grey. With the Senate, the Board of Governors, and the M i n i s t e r of Education working, a t times, a t cr o s s purposes t o r e s o l v e the u n r e m i t t i n g budgetary c r i s e s f a c e d a n n u a l l y by the u n i v e r s i t y , the Students' C o u n c i l t a c k l e d the r e a l issue t h a t d e t e r r e d Government commitment: the p o l i t i c a l u n p o p u l a r i t y of l a r g e r money grants t o the u n i v e r s i t y . As a r e s u l t of the door-to-door c o n v e r s i o n of p u b l i c o p i n i o n throughout the p r o v i n c e , the students' p e t i t i o n d e l i v e r e d a message from an e l e c t o r a t e t h a t no government c o u l d s a f e l y i g n o r e . The f a t e of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia r e s t e d i n the p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y of v o t e s . 9 4 The s o c i a l , economic, and f i n a l l y , p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t e d p u b l i c support f o r the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y s i m i l a r i l y i n f l u e n c e d a t t i t u d e s toward the higher education of women i n B r i t i s h Columbia and ensured t h e i r i n i t i a l acceptance w i t h i n MUCBC and UBC. Although i t i s l i k e l y t h a t women would have been accommodated a t a c o o r d i n a t e c o l l e g e i f the u n i v e r s i t y had proceeded without f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t i n 1891 or 1906, coeducation of men and women i n the same classrooms proved the cheaper o p t i o n . 9 5 P r i o r to World War I the n o t i o n of higher education f o r women i n B r i t i s h Columbia complemented B r i t i s h and North American middle c l a s s e x p e c t a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l i t y and s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . In a r e g i o n where c l a s s and r a c i a l d i s s e n s i o n , a t times exacerbated by economic t e n s i o n s , remained, at l e a s t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , a l a t e n t but u n p r e d i c t a b l e t h r e a t , women were re c o g n i z e d as n a t i o n b u i l d e r s and guardians of the race. Higher education would prepare them f o r these r o l e s and t h e i r ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' v o c a t i o n s t h a t i n c l u d e d motherhood and t e a c h i n g . In t h i s r e s p e c t , B r i t i s h Columbian women were perhaps f o r t u n a t e t h a t s o c i a l d e f i n i t i o n s of womanhood d i d not thwart t h e i r ambitions t o a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y , although these d e f i n i t i o n s narrowed t h e i r f u t u r e c h o i c e s . Economic c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n c r e a s e d the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t women would have t o earn t h e i r own l i v i n g a t some time, e i t h e r b e f o r e marriage, or i n the event t h a t death or f i n a n c i a l c a l a m i t y d i s r u p t e d t h e i r l i v e s . In an i n c r e a s i n g l y complex world, higher education f o r women was necessary to mai n t a i n both s o c i a l and economic s t a t u s . Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r t h a t promoted and p r o t e c t e d f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e s toward the education of women was the a c t i v i t y of orga n i z e d women on the west coast. In t h e i r v o l u n t a r y c a p a c i t i e s , clubwomen pioneered women's work i n the expanding c i v i l b u r e a u c r a c i e s and s o c i a l w e l f a r e agencies, thus c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the changing views of women's work. T h e i r advocacy of u n i v e r s i t y education t o p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and t o i n c r e a s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women i n the p u b l i c spheres c r e a t e d a c l i m a t e of e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t encouraged the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n higher education from i t s i n c e p t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club e s t a b l i s h e d a v i s i b l e presence of educated women who supported the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y and s e i z e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o become p o l i t i c a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n a l l matters p e r t a i n i n g t o women's ed u c a t i o n . T h i s review of the e a r l y h i s t o r y of higher education i n 46 B r i t i s h Columbia has fo c u s s e d on the development of the u n i v e r s i t y from an idea to the p h y s i c a l p l a n t , and the examination of the s o c i a l context t h a t framed a t t i t u d e s i n support of the education of women d u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d . By 1915, t h e r e was no longer any moral o p p o s i t i o n t o women's presence on campus, such as was heard i n the ni n e t e e n t h century, or f e a r t h a t a l i b e r a l education would unhinge t h e i r minds or u n f i t them f o r t h e i r r o l e s as wives and mothers. However, on the n a t i o n a l scene, the f u n c t i o n s of u n i v e r s i t i e s had a l s o changed from the ni n e t e e n t h century B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s , along w i t h the r e c i p e f o r l i b e r a l e d ucation. A c c o r d i n g t o P e n c i e r ' s t h e s i s , the primary f u n c t i o n of the E n g l i s h speaking u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada to 1920 was d e f i n e d by the concept of Q 7 " s e r v i c e " ; " the u n i v e r s i t y e x i s t e d t o meet the needs of the people. A second popular f u n c t i o n emerged, of the u n i v e r s i t y as the i n t e l l e c t u a l resource of the s t a t e . Although the c u l t u r a l and moral value of the l i b e r a l A r t s remained a d e f e n s i b l e p r e s c r i p t i o n , the f u n c t i o n s of the E n g l i s h speaking u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada were i n i t i a l l y u t i l i t a r i a n and showed a constant 98 concern f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . These changes i n the f u n c t i o n s of the u n i v e r s i t y held „ c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r women's ed u c a t i o n i n the tw e n t i e t h century from those i n the n i n e t e e n t h . The suppo r t e r s of women's admission t o u n i v e r s i t i e s i n B r i t a i n , a century b e f o r e , faced o b s t a c l e s t h a t were based, i n p a r t , on the t r a d i t i o n a l concept of a u n i v e r s i t y as an i n t e g r a t e d community of s c h o l a r s concerned w i t h making as w e l l as t r a n s m i t t i n g 47 knowledge. Not only d i d the u n i v e r s i t y r e f l e c t a masculine world, which men wanted t o defend a g a i n s t any feminine encroachment, but a l s o higher e d u c a t i o n represented s p i r i t u a l and P l a t o n i c i n t e r e s t s removed from the p r a c t i c a l concerns of d a i l y l i v i n g . To ensure t h a t women would garner t h e i r f u l l share of respect and s t a t u s as equals i n the u n i v e r s i t y community, as w e l l as t o answer the arguments of the o p p o s i t i o n , the "uncompromising" would not count as v i c t o r y any ed u c a t i o n t h a t was not the same as f o r men." Thus the admission of women to Oxford and Cambridge t o r e c e i v e a l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n was an e s s e n t i a l s t r a t e g y i n t h e i r campaign f o r equal e d u c a t i o n . I t was a l s o an i n v a s i o n of the male domain. But the "uncompromising" eschewed the " s e p a r a t i s t s ' " p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r more p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t emphasized t r a i n i n g f o r women's f u t u r e r o l e s as nurses or homemakers. In t r u t h , women's admission t o u n i v e r s i t i e s i n n i n e t e e n t h century B r i t a i n c o i n c i d e d w i t h the reformers' new u t i l i t a r i a n emphasis i n high e r e d u c a t i o n f o r men; i n t h i s r e s p e c t , women's e d u c a t i o n t h a t d i d not take i n t o account the changing f u n c t i o n s of higher e d u c a t i o n continued t o l a g behind. A c c o r d i n g t o the p r a c t i c a l f u n c t i o n s of the Canadian u n i v e r s i t y i n the tw e n t i e t h century, e d u c a t i o n f o r women should equip female graduates f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l work e q u i v a l e n t i n economic and s o c i a l s t a t u s t o t h a t of the male graduates. However, d e s p i t e women's i n c r e a s e d access t o the u n i v e r s i t i e s , higher e d u c a t i o n prepared men, not women, f o r the p r o f e s s i o n s . 1 0 0 For men, a L i b e r a l A r t s degree was o f t e n a 48 p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r academic c a r e e r s or admission t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s . Education t h a t terminated w i t h an A r t s degree, as i t d i d more f r e q u e n t l y f o r women, equipped them f o r u n s p e c i f i c o c cupations a t the lower end of the pay s c a l e . In f a c t , the choice of A r t s e d u c a t i o n f o r the m a j o r i t y of women represented a f a i r l y a ccurate a p p r a i s a l of the l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s open t o most women a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n . Teaching was the one c l e a r choice f o r women who wished t o e s t a b l i s h a career f o r t h e m s e l v e s . 1 0 1 The t r a d i t i o n a l male p r o f e s s i o n s continued t o discourage a l l but the most determined, e x c e p t i o n a l women. But f o r women's enrollment t o continue t o c l u s t e r i n A r t s programmes, rather than i n more s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s , was perhaps t o continue t o value e d u c a t i o n f o r women a t the l e v e l of "accomplishments" — those n i n e t e e n t h century a t t r i b u t e s t h a t were more u s e f u l on the marriage market than i n the labour 102 f o r c e . Herein l i e s the dilemma, as i t s u r f a c e d a g a i n i n the twe n t i e t h century: how to de f i n e women's edu c a t i o n t o ensure s o c i a l and economic e q u a l i t y ? Should women l a y siege to the t r a d i t i o n a l l y male domains, as d i d the "uncompromising" h a l f a century b e f o r e ? Or was i t time f o r the " s e p a r a t i s t s " t o emerge v i c t o r i o u s w i t h 'women's* p r o f e s s i o n s c e r t a i n t o r e t a i n a separate but equal s t a t u s ? How the u n i v e r s i t y accommodated the female presence a f t e r the f a c t of t h e i r admittance, or to put i t i n Wesbrooks* terms, how the u n i v e r s i t y intended t o serve the needs of a l l the people, was of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o the orga n i z e d women who had pl a y e d an a c t i v e p a r t i n e n s u r i n g women's e a r l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n 49 higher education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Their role i n defining women's education aft e r the University was established — resolving, or not, the conundrum of the so c i a l expectations of women — i s the subject of the following chapters. 50 Notes 1 F. Henry Johnson, A H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964), pp. 74-75; Harry T. Logan, Tuum E s t : A H i s t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958), pp. 3-4. Logan, p. 4. Logan, p. 7. The R e g i s t e r of Members of Convocation, 1890 g i v e s the p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e , degrees h e l d and u n i v e r s i t i e s of a l l who r e g i s t e r e d and i s i n c l u d e d i n F r e d e r i c H. Soward, "The E a r l y H i s t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia," unpublished manuscript 1930, pp. 380-388. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . 4 Logan, p. 8. Johnson, p. 75. The Department of Education was u n w i l l i n g t o surrender a u t h o r i t y over the f i e l d of teacher t r a i n i n g . The Normal School opened January 1901 h o l d i n g c l a s s e s i n the Vancouver High School before the b u i l d i n g on the north-west corner of Cambie S t r e e t and 12th Avenue was completed i n 1909 — t h i s b u i l d i n g i s c u r r e n t l y used by the P r o v i n c i a l Department of P u b l i c Works. St a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1891. ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, 1891) pp. 383-39. 7 For i n s t a n c e , the Royal V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e f o r Women had o n l y been e s t a b l i s h e d a t M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y seven y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y i n 1884. Women were not admitted t o M c G i l l u n t i l an endowment f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g a separate women's c o l l e g e made i t p o s s i b l e f o r women t o a t t e n d c l a s s e s without m i n g l i n g w i t h the men s tudents. G i l l e t t , Chapter 2. p Henry Esson Young, " I n s t r u c t i o n s and R e g u l a t i o n s of the Competition f o r U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g s f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Government of B r i t i s h Columbia," Frank F a i r c h i l d Wesbrook Papers, Box 1, Folder 3, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . 9 The winners of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o m p e t i t i o n were a Vancouver f i r m of a r c h i t e c t s : Messrs. Sharp and Thompson whose o r i g i n a l p lans may be seen i n Thompson, Berwick, P r a t t and P a r t n e r s A r c h i t e c t u r a l Records, UBC L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . 1 0 The U n i v e r s i t y Act of 1891 f a i l e d t o e s t a b l i s h the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y and a new Act i n 1908 was necessary to r e v i v e the i n t e n t i o n t o c r e a t e t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . S.97 r e i t e r a t e d the amendment of the f i r s t Act, S.52, to p rovide a l l the advantages and p r i v i l e g e s t o women t h a t were accorded to 51 male students of the u n i v e r s i t y . "An Act t o E s t a b l i s h and Incorporate a U n i v e r s i t y f o r the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia." S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1908, pp. 303-320. 1 1 Coeducation has meant d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s a t d i f f e r e n t times: e d u c a t i o n of the sexes together i n the same c o l l e g e (but not n e c e s s a r i l y the same education f o r both); i d e n t i c a l e ducation of the sexes t o g e t h e r ; and educa t i o n i n co o r d i n a t e c o l l e g e s . Thomas Woody, p. 224. The u n i v e r s i t i e s attended by members of the convocation conformed t o one of these models f o r coeducation. Of the 24 u n i v e r s i t i e s represented, 12 were Canadian. The l a r g e s t group of graduates was from the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto (20), M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y (16) , and Cambridge (14). T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n from Soward, p. 6. A l s o , t h e r e were 11 graduates from V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e , Cobourg, O n t a r i o and 3 from Mt. A l l i s o n . 1 3 Women were admitted as e a r l y as 1836 to the Upper Canada Academy, Cobourg, O n t a r i o , run by the Wesleyan Methodist Church i n Canada. They r e c e i v e d separate but equal education u n t i l Dr. Egerton Ryerson, P r i n c i p a l of V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e which i n c o r p o r a t e d Upper Canada Academy, ended the female department of the Academy i n 1841. For d e t a i l s see Marion Royce, "Methodism and the Education of Women i n Nineteenth Century O n t a r i o , " A t l a n t i s 3 ( 2 ), P a r t 1, Spr i n g 1978. The Methodists' Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y awarded the f i r s t degree to a woman i n the B r i t i s h Empire, a B.Sc. to Grace Annie Lockhart i n 1875, and seven y e a r s l a t e r , the f i r s t B.A. to a woman i n Canada. See John G. Reid, "The Education of Women a t Mount A l l i s o n , 1854-1914," A c a d i e n s i s , V o l . XII (Spring 1983). 1 4 Soward, p. 6. 15 The D a i l y Times, A p r i l 1, 1891. B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly " S e s s i o n a l C l i p p i n g Books, Newspaper Accounts of the Debates. 1 6 I b i d , A p r i l 15, 1891. The L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly was engaged more s t r e n u o u s l y , a t the time, i n measures t o r e s t r i c t Chinese immigration. 1 7 In f a c t , women's s t a t u s a t these u n i v e r s i t i e s was f a r from equal or even secure, but the p u b l i c i t y surrounding t h e i r admission f o s t e r e d the impression t h a t the i s s u e had been s e t t l e d . By 1891, the women's c o l l e g e s were t o l e r a t e d as u n o f f i c i a l appendages of Cambridge and Oxford. Although the female students s t u d i e d the same c u r r i c u l u m , were taught by the same p r o f e s s o r s , and s a t f o r the same examinations as the male students, Oxford d i d not admit women t o i t s degrees u n t i l a f t e r World War I, wh i l e Cambridge r e s i s t e d u n t i l 1948. 18 For a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the events t h a t l e d t o 52 the demise of the f i r s t U n i v e r s i t y Act, see Soward. A l s o , Logan, pp. 8-12. 1 9 I t i s unclear whether Whetham C o l l e g e accepted women stude n t s . Logan r e f e r s o n l y to men (p. 13) , w h i l e Johnson i n c l u d e s women, (p. 78) . 20 See Soward, pp. 41-2 and Johnson, p. 79. Columbian C o l l e g e was empowered t o grant degrees only i n Theology. The enrollment dwindled a f t e r UBC was e s t a b l i s h e d and Columbian C o l l e g e c l o s e d i n 1928 soon a f t e r the Union T h e o l o g i c a l C o l l e g e was founded on the u n i v e r s i t y campus. Syst( r n r r o i - -Soward, p. 17. See a l s o , George H i n d l e , The E d u c a t i o n a l  rstem of B r i t i s h Columbi a ( T r a i l : T r a i l P u b l i s h i n g , 1918), p. Hin d l e s t a t e s t h a t Okanagan C o l l e g e , Summerland was a f f i l i a t e d w i t h McMaster U n i v e r s i t y and Nelson High School with the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto. o o -- - - -For example, see l e t t e r s i n The Vancouver Province, November 11, 1901; November 12, 1901; March 7, 1904; March 17, 1904; February 7, 1906; February 8, 1906. O "3 _ _ - - -----The Vancouver Province, November 11, 1905; The Vancouver News-Advertiser, February 5, 1908. 24 ' L e t t e r s from Rev. R.G. Macbeth to The Vancouver Province, November 11, 1901, p. 5. 25 Logan, p. 16. 2 6 Soward, p. 48. 27 D e t a i l s of the o p p o s i t i o n t o M c G i l l ' s a f f i l i a t i o n with education i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n B r i a n Coleman, " M c G i l l B r i t i s h Columbia, 1899-1915," McGil1 J o u r n a l of Education, 11, No. 2 (Autumn 1976) , pp. 179-T81T 28 The Vancouver News-Advertiser, February 4, 1906, p. 25; The Province, February 9, 1906, p. IT. 29 Soward, p. 104. The Royal I n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Advancement of L e a r n i n g was the o f f i c i a l t i t l e of the Board of Governors of M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . Logan, p. 20. 3 0 These d e t a i l s have been amply recorded i n both Soward and Logan's h i s t o r i e s of the u n i v e r s i t y . 31 Soward p. 74. I t should be noted here, a l s o , t h a t throughout the fo r m a t i v e p e r i o d of the establishment of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e r e was pr e s s u r e t o c r e a t e a Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n , a l b e i t m indful of the B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n , but a l s o d i s t i n c t l y un-American. There was frequent r e f e r e n c e i n the newspapers t o the preference f o r h i r i n g p r o f e s s o r s from 53 w i t h i n Canada, and a concern about the Canadian content of textbooks, e s p e c i a l l y h i s t o r y t e x t s a f t e r the War. An e a r l y proponent of what would c u r r e n t l y be c a l l e d 'Canadian S t u d i e s ' was c r i t i c a l of Wesbrook's f o r a y s t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t a i n f o r new p r o f e s s o r s f o r UBC and c a u t i o n e d him not t o overlook Canadian s c h o l a r s . T h i s w r i t e r a l s o suggested t h e r e be a u n i v e r s i t y department devoted t o Canadian problems, i n c l u d i n g Canadian h i s t o r y , geography and s o c i o l o g y , to c o n t r i b u t e to the s o c i a l and moral u p l i f t of Canada. See Vancouver Sunset, December 24, 1913. Robert A.J. McDonald, " V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, and the Economic Development of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1886-1914" i n B r i t i s h Columbia; H i s t o r i c a l Readings, W. Peter Ward and Robert A.J. McDonald, eds. (Vancouver: Douglas, 1981), p. 369. 33 The p o p u l a t i o n of the province i n c r e a s e d 700% i n t h i s p e r i o d , from 50,000 to 392,000. R. E. Caves and R.H. Holton, "An O u t l i n e of the Economic H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1881-1951" i n H i s t o r i c a l Essays on B r i t i s h Columbia, J . F r i e s e n and H.K. Ralston, eds. (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1976), p. 153. 3 4 McDonald, p. 369. 3 5 With only 28% of the p r o v i n c i a l work f o r c e , Vancouver employed 37% of the p r o v i n c e ' s b u i l d i n g t r a d e s workers and more than 40% of those engaged i n f i n a n c e , i n r e a l e s t a t e , i n the p r o f e s s i o n s , and i n the i r o n and s t e e l manufacturing s e c t o r s . McDonald, pp. 388-9. The p o p u l a t i o n rose i n Vancouver from 27,000 i n 1901 to 100,401 i n 1910. See Norbert Macdonald, "Pop u l a t i o n Growth and Change i n S e a t t l e and Vancouver, 1880-1960" i n F r i e s a n and R a l s t o n , p. 214. 3 6 T h i s i s e v i d e n t by the number of female students whose f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n s were i n business or the p r o f e s s i o n s . See Table 2, Chapter V. Although the m a j o r i t y of female students d i d not have f a t h e r s i n these o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s , they were represented i n a higher p r o p o r t i o n than would be found i n a comparable cohort i n the l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n . The p a t t e r n i s confirmed f o r male students i n p r i v a t e s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s by Jean A l i c e Barman, "Growing up B r i t i s h i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Boys i n P r i v a t e School, 1900-1950". Unpublished D.Ed, t h e s i s , UBC, 1982, p. 436. 37 The correspondence of Frank Richards, J.P., who wrote to The Province, November 5, 1906, e x e m p l i f i e s the view t h a t a u n i v e r s i t y would c o n t r i b u t e to the economic development of the p r o v i n c e : "The higher education of the c h i l d r e n of t h i s p r o v i n c e means i n c r e a s i n g the wealth-producing c a p a c i t y and w e l l - b e i n g of the f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n . " See a l s o R. Cole H a r r i s , " L o c a t i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia," BC S t u d i e s , No. 32, (Winter 1976-77), who argues t h a t B r i t i s h Columbians had wanted a u n i v e r s i t y because i t would be good f o r l o c a l b u s i n e s s . 54 3 8 Some s e c t o r s of the province were q u i t e s p e c i f i c about the U n i v e r s i t y ' s r o l e i n development. E a r l y i n 1904 the Nelson U n i v e r s i t y Club, i n the Kootenay mining d i s t r i c t , passed a r e s o l u t i o n recommending " t h a t the Government should e s t a b l i s h as soon as p o s s i b l e , a thoroughly equipped School of Mines, and should add t o i t ... departments f o r the t e a c h i n g of A p p l i e d Science which are of s p e c i a l value i n the development of the i n d u s t r i e s of the Province ... t h a t i n the absence of such i n s t i t u t i o n s a h a r d s h i p i s i n f l i c t e d upon the boys and young men of B r i t i s h Columbia inasmuch as they must e i t h e r l e a v e the Province to secure such t r a i n i n g as w i l l q u a l i f y them f o r the l e a d i n g p o s i t i o n s i n any p r o f e s s i o n or submit to permanent d i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r such p o s i t i o n s ... th a t immediate steps be taken t o provide by endowment f o r the establishment, equipment and maintenance i n the near f u t u r e of a P r o v i n c i a l U n i v e r s i t y . " Logan, p. 17. 3 9 Macdonald, p. 214. 4 0 I b i d . , p. 211. Barman a l s o notes the Canadian c h a r a c t e r of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n as i t developed i n B.C., p. 47. 4 1 Soward, p. 85. A O For a broader d i s c u s s i o n of the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of B r i t i s h Columbia, p a r t i c u l a r l y the s o c i a l and economic i m p l i c a t i o n s of a p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d predominantly by mi g r a t i o n , see W. Peter Ward, "Pop u l a t i o n Growth i n Western Canada, 1901-71," i n The Developing West, J.E. F o s t e r , ed., (Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a Press, 1983), pp. 157-77. 4 3 Teachers employed 1915-16: T o t a l 2,064, Men 523, Women 1,541. See George H i n d l e , p. 72. Hin d l e a l s o s t a t e d t h a t men were not a t t r a c t e d t o t e a c h i n g because of i t s low s t a t u s and low wages, p. 79. 4 4 H i n d l e o f f e r e d s e v e r a l i n s i g h t s i n t o g i r l s ' education and the o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to them p r i o r to the f i r s t War. For example: "Parents with daughters t o provide f o r , f i n d i n g few other s u i t a b l e avenues open t o them, saw i n the high s c h o o l s and normal s c h o o l s of the pr o v i n c e , a s o l u t i o n ...." "In many i n t e r i o r towns t h a t have experienced b u s i n e s s d e p r e s s i o n t e a c h i n g p r o v i d e s the one avenue open t o a g i r l . . . . " "What g i r l s a re to do when the p r o f e s s i o n becomes so crowded ... w i l l be a s e r i o u s problem f o r parents t o s o l v e . There was a time when women of marriageable age r e a d i l y found s u i t a b l e mates i n B r i t i s h Columbia. That day i s p a s t . " p. 71. A C Westward Ho! Magazine p u b l i s h e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia expressed these concerns i n an e d i t o r i a l December 1907 because "... t h i s p r o v i n c e i s s u f f e r i n g from slow growth i n t h e matter of the white p o p u l a t i o n , " p. 1. Also t y p i c a l were b e l i e f s t h a t , " U n i v e r s i t y education w i l l h e l p c r e a t e a b e t t e r race by making b e t t e r men and women." The Vancouver Pro v i n c e , October 8, 1913. 55 46 See W. Peter Ward, "C l a s s and Race i n the S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1870-1939" i n W. Peter Ward and Robert A.J. McDonald. Ward argues t h a t c l a s s boundaries were secondary d i v i s i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i e t y b e f o r e 1939 and t h a t the major cleavages were based upon race. The concern f o r 'a b e t t e r race' was not, however, l i m i t e d t o the west coast but was p a r t of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l ideas, predominant i n the l a t e V i c t o r i a p e r i o d , t h a t were concerned w i t h e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and 'the q u a l i t y of the r a c e . 1 ^ The importance of eugenics and s o c i a l D a r w i n i s t i c assumptions t o women's e d u c a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n Dyhouse. 48 See, f o r example, the experiences of Mrs. Joe (Nan) Bourgon i n M a r j o r i e Rosberg ed., Rubber Boots f o r Dancing; and Other Memories (Smithers: Hetherington, 1979) . Nan Bourgon came from England t o Vancouver where she found work as a dressmaker, a h o t e l worker and a c a f e w a i t r e s s . With her savings she brought her parents t o l i v e w i t h her but the de p r e s s i o n of 1913-14 f o r c e d the f a m i l y to break up i n search of work. Nan went north to work i n a caf6 and a h o t e l b e f o r e she married a French-Canadian and s e t t l e d i n the B u l k l e y V a l l e y . 4 9 Westward Ho!Magazine, September 1907, p. 15. 5 0 The B r i t i s h Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Act, 1908 p r o v i d e d : "Such i n s t r u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y , whether t h e o r e t i c a l , t e c h n i c a l , a r t i s t i c , or otherwise, as may be of s e r v i c e to persons engaged or about t o engage i n manufactures, mining, e n g i n e e r i n g , a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l p u r s u i t s of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia." See Statutes" of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1908. 51 ___ _ _ Vancouver News A d v e r t i s e r , February 18, 1906. 52 -- - -The Vancouver World, February, 1906, i n UBC Scrapbook 1, p. 49. 53 Dr. Henry Esson Young, a M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y medical graduate was M i n i s t e r of Education and Hea l t h f o r the p r o v i n c e . See, W. G. Gibson, "Makers of the U n i v e r s i t y — Henry Esson Young," UBC Alumni C h r o n i c l e , 9:2 (Summer 1955) p. 16. 54 R o s a l i n d Watson r e t i r e d from t e a c h i n g t o marry Young. Soward, p. 62. 55 Gibson says t h a t Mrs. H.E. Young had w r i t t e n the Act. W.C. Gibson, Wesbrook and h i s U n i v e r s i t y , (Vancouver: 1973) , p. 125. Mrs. R o s a l i n d Young graduated from M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y i n geology. Gibson, Wesbrookand h i s U n i v e r s i t y , p. 46. 57 Female o r g a n i z a t i o n s were a n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l f e a t u r e from the 19th Century w e l l i n t o the 20th Century. 56 'Clubwomen' was the term t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d women i n v o l v e d i n a v a r i e t y of c o l l e c t i v i t i e s t h a t d e a l t w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l , p o l i t i c a l , benevolent, c u l t u r a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l , r e l i g i o u s and reform matters. For a view of the most s i g n i f i c a n t n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , see V e r o n i c a Strong-Boag, The Parliament of Women: The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f W o m e n o f C a n a d a , 1893-1929, (Ottawa: Na t i o n a l Museum of Man, Mercury S e r i e s , 1976) . The a c t i v i t y of clubwomen i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been i n v e s t i g a t e d by G i l l i a n Weiss, "'As Women and as C i t i z e n s ' : Clubwomen i n Vancouver, 1910-1928," unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984) . Weiss e s t i m a t e s t h a t the a f f i l i a t e d membership of the Vancouver LCW i n 1914 was 5,000, p. 52. See a l s o Linda L o u i s e Hale, "The B r i t i s h Columbia Woman Suffra g e Movement, 1890-1917," unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 . 5 8 Clubwomen i n B r i t i s h Columbia had a p u b l i c image t h a t was both genteel and buoyant. In a s p e c i a l women's e d i t i o n of The Vancouver Sun, March 19, 1913, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e members of twenty women's s o c i e t i e s w i t h an estimated membership of 5,000 u n i t e d t o produce an i s s u e of twenty pages t o provide a p u b l i c testimony to the work undertaken by women i n the c i t y to f u r t h e r p h i l a n t h r o p y , education and p a t r i o t i s m . Women were f i r s t e l e c t e d t o school boards i n V i c t o r i a , Vancouver and New Westminster because of the sponsorship of the L o c a l C o u n c i l s of Women i n these c e n t r e s . Lee Stewart, "'One B i g Woman*: The P o l i t i c s of Feminism i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1894-1918," unpublished paper, 1985. 5 9 John K e i t h F o s t e r , "Education and Work i n a Changing S o c i e t y : B r i t i s h Columbia, 1870-1930," unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970. 6 0 In 1912, a l l graduates r e s i d i n g i n the province under the p r o v i s i o n s of the U n i v e r s i t y Act, 1912 were i n v i t e d t o r e g i s t e r f o r conv o c a t i o n . Between May 1 and J u l y 31, 739 r e g i s t e r e d . Twenty-five were appointed by the government, i n c l u d i n g two women: Mrs. Margaret J e n k i n s and Mrs. Marie McNaughton. J e n k i n s ' c l u b membership i n c l u d e d WCTU, V i c t o r i a L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women ( v i c e - p r e s i d e n t 1911-14), V i c t o r i a Women's Canadian Club, the Cymrodian S o c i e t y , the M e t r o p o l i t a n Methodist Church L a d i e s A i d , the Home Nursing S o c i e t y , the L a d i e s ' A u x i l i a r y to the Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n and the V i c t o r i a Women's Co n s e r v a t i v e Club. Jenkins was e l e c t e d t o the V i c t o r i a School Board 1897-1898 and 1902-1919. McNaughton was p r e s i d e n t of the Vancouver L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women 1910-1913 and was e l e c t e d t o the Vancouver School Board 1912-1914. She was a l s o a member of the Vancouver Women's Canadian Club. B i o g r a p h i c a l data from L i n d a L o u i s e Hale, "Appendix: Votes f o r Women: P r o f i l e s of Prominent B r i t i s h Columbia S u f f r a g i s t s and S o c i a l Reformers," i n In Her Own Right, Barbara Latham and Cathy Kess, eds., ( V i c t o r i a : Camosun C o l l e g e , 1980) . See a l s o Note 61. 57 Both Vancouver and V i c t o r i a U n i v e r s i t y Women's Clubs nominated f o u r members as candidates f o r the U n i v e r s i t y Senate. Two women withdrew to stren g t h e n the c l u b s ' e n d o r s a t i o n of Mrs. Evlyn F a r r i s from Vancouver and Mrs. Madge Watt, V i c t o r i a . Convocation e l e c t e d f i f t e e n members i n c l u d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club nominees. See Soward, p. 98 and P h y l l i s Reeve, The H i s t o r y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club of Vancouver, 1907-1982, (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club of Vancouver, 1982) , p. 5. 6 2 F a r r i s ' work was re c o g n i z e d by two Honorary Doctor of Law degrees. In 1923, she r e c e i v e d the LL.D. from her alma mater, Acadia U n i v e r s i t y — the f i r s t time a maritime u n i v e r s i t y had ever awarded an LL.D t o a woman — " f o r s e r v i c e s rendered t o educa t i o n and f o r other d i s t i n g u i s e d p u b l i c s e r v i c e . " In 1942, UBC c o n f e r r e d F a r r i s ' second LL.D. 6 3 Reeve, p. 4. 64 Mrs. E v l y n F. F a r r i s was appointed t o the Board of Governors by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l 1918-1929, and e l e c t e d by the Senate 1936-1942. She served on the UBC Senate 1915-17, and 1930-1935. 6 s In 1910, F a r r i s became a member of a committee i n search of a permanent l o c a t i o n f o r the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y . She argued f o r c e f u l l y f o r i t s l o c a t i o n on the mainland, at Vancouver, rather than a t the c a p i t a l c i t y on Vancouver I s l a n d . Reeve, pp. 4-5. See a l s o Reeve, p. 10 f o r d e t a i l s about the UWC lobby f o r l e g i s l a t i o n t o enable women to p r a c t i s e law i n the provi n c e a f t e r Mabel French, a lawyer from New Brunswick, was denied admission t o the Bar because of her sex. 66 Miss Anne (Annie) B. Jamieson was a teacher at Vancouver High School. Born i n Leed, Quebec i n 1870 she d i d her teacher t r a i n i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba. She was a member of the L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women and the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club. Jamieson served i n the UBC Senate 1918-42 and on the Board of Governors 1935-1941. She was a l s o the f i r s t woman t o s i t on the Vancouver L i b r a r y Board as a r e s u l t of a campaign by Vancouver clubwomen t o support a female member. At the time of her reti r e m e n t i n 1927, Jamieson was v i c e p r i n c i p a l of King Edward High School. Jamieson was awarded an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from UBC i n 1942. 6 7 " S p e c i a l women's E d i t i o n " of the V a n c o u v e r S u n , March 19, 1913. C i t e d a l s o i n Reeve, pp. 22-23. 6 8 I b i d . 6 9 The membership of the UWC i n 1913 represented v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n s , " i n c l u d i n g those of housewife, teacher, doctor, lawyer, d e n t i s t , j o u r n a l i s t , e d i t o r , doctor of music, t r a i n e d nurse, YWCA s e c r e t a r y and business woman." Jamieson i n Reeve, p. 24. 58 I s a b e l Maclnnes was appointed t o the MUCBC f a c u l t y i n 1911-12 as a l e c t u r e r i n Modern Languages. Born i n L a n c a s t e r , O n t a r i o , Maclnnis r e c e i v e d her M.A. from Queen's U n i v e r s i t y i n 1908 and a Ph.D. from the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a i n 1925. She l e c t u r e d i n French, German, E n g l i s h Composition f o r 37 years a t UBC. Maclnnes was the only female p r o f e s s o r u n t i l 1920. She was p r e s i d e n t of the UWC 1934-36 and a frequent speaker on f e m i n i s t t o p i c s of her day v a r y i n g from " f e m i n i s t t h e o r i e s as r e f l e c t e d i n the E n g l i s h n o v e l " t o "equal o p p o r t u n i t y , equal pay." See Chapter 3 f o r b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about Mary B o l l e r t . ' A For the importance of the separate women's sphere and women's c u l t u r e to t h e i r p o l i t i c i z a t i o n i n the l a t e 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s , see E s t e l l e Freedman, "Separatism as S t r a t e g y : Female I n s t i t u t i o n B u i l d i n g and American Feminism, 1870-1930," Fern i n i s t S t u d i e s , V o l . 5, No. 3, ( F a l l 1979) pp. 512-529. 7 9 ' Helen Gregory M a c G i l l was most i n f l u e n t i a l i n the commitment of the UWC to reform laws concerning women and c h i l d r e n . She was a founding member of the Vancouver U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club, a c t i v e i n the L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women and i n the s u f f r a g e campaign. M a c G i l l was appointed the f i r s t woman judge of j u v e n i l e c o u r t i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1917-28 and 1934-45. M a c G i l l authored s e v e r a l works on women and c h i l d r e n and the law. Hale, "Appendix," pp. 296-7. A f t e r M a c G i l l * s death i n 1947, the UWC p l a c e d a small brass t a b l e t to her memory on the w a l l of Main L i b r a r y , UBC. U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club, Minutes, March 24, 1947. 7 3 The U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club of V i c t o r i a was the f i r s t t o maintain, i n 1913, a bursary f o r V i c t o r i a g i r l s t o study a t the U n i v e r s i t y . S c h o l a r s h i p s funded by U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club of Vancouver to other post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the pro v i n c e are l i s t e d i n Reeve p. 97. 7 4 See B r i t i s h Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Act, 1908, a l s o Logan, p. 36. 75 The UWC's nomination of t h e i r p r e s i d e n t , Mrs. W.J. B a i r d , was a l s o endorsed by LCW and supported by a p r o f e s s o r from U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto and Rev. John MacKay. The Women's Canadian Club recommended the appointment of a woman as d i d the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire, M u n i c i p a l Chapter, and the L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women because "...a f a i r p r o p o r t i o n of the students of the U n i v e r s i t y w i l l be women." The L o c a l C o u n c i l s of Women a l s o nominated Miss A l i c e R a v e n h i l l , (See Note 43, Chapter III) and Rev. F.A.P. Chadwick nominated Mrs. Helen Gregory M a c G i l l . Wesbrook Papers, Box 1, Folder 3. 76 See Soward, p. 101; Logan, p. 45. 7 7 I b i d . 59 7 8 P o l i c i e s toward u n i v e r s i t y funding appear to have evolved more from n e g l e c t than d e s i g n . As e a r l y as 1872 P r o v i n c i a l Superintendent of Education, John Jessop f i r s t advocated a scheme of l a n d endowments as a means of f i n a n c i n g a u n i v e r s i t y to make i t independent of annual votes from the P r o v i n c i a l Treasury. The U n i v e r s i t y Act of 1891 i n d i c a t e d a r e l i a n c e on f u t u r e endowments made by i n d i v i d u a l s . Dr. H.E. Young, with the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Act 1907, attempted t o f o l l o w Jessop's v i s i o n . The province was to s e t ap a r t , w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s , two m i l l i o n a c r e s of l a n d which would e v e n t u a l l y provide revenue f o r the u n i v e r s i t y . When Wesbrook surveyed these lands i n the Cariboo country i n 1914, he was di s h e a r t e n e d a t the low value of the l a n d — "saddened by the prospect of endowment l o n g delayed, and r e s o l v e d then t o campaign f o r a tax-supported u n i v e r s i t y r a ther than an endowed one." Gibson, Wesbrook, p. 108. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t revenues from t h i s l a n d and i n 1958 Logan wrote: "Hopes f o r any s u b s t a n t i a l advance i n u n i v e r s i t y p o l i c y r e s t e d then, as they do now ... on the rea d i n e s s of the Government t o supply necessary funds." Logan, p. 34. 7 q , _ , y V i c t o r i a Times, January 7, 1916. Of) See M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e of B r i t i s h Columbia Calendar, 1914-15, p. 13. ° In 1916 Margaret Healy, i n f a c t , r e g i s t e r e d i n the F a c u l t y of A p p l i e d Science but she d i d not graduate. The f i r s t woman t o graduate was Rona Hatt Wall i s i n 1922 with a degree i n chemical e n g i n e e r i n g . 8 2 In view of the c o n f l i c t i n g l o y a l t i e s of the Senators and the UBC f a c u l t y t h a t were rooted i n i s s u e s u n r e l a t e d t o F a r r i s ' concerns, t h e r e was l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y to e f f e c t any s u b s t a n t i a l changes a t t h i s time. See a l s o , Gibson, pp. 141-2 f o r more d e t a i l s of t h i s 'stormy meeting.' Logan, p. 49. 'The Great Trek' i n 1923 i s d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n t h i s 83 84 paper. 8 5 MUCBC o r i g i n a l l y h e l d c l a s s e s , 1906-7, i n the new Vancouver High School at 12th Avenue and Oak S t r e e t . By 1907-08 MUCBC expanded t o occupy the o l d c i t y h o s p i t a l b u i l d i n g s a t the corner of Cambie and Pender S t r e e t s . A f t e r these b u i l d i n g s were condemned by the c i t y h e a l t h o f f i c e r i n 1911, temporary classroom space was e r e c t e d on the s i t e of the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l at the south east corner of L a u r e l S t r e e t and 10th Avenue — r e f e r r e d t o as "the F a i r v i e w shacks." A new b u i l d i n g b u i l t f o r the General H o s p i t a l , was the f i r s t A r t s b u i l d i n g of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Logan, pp. 26-7. 8 6 Soward, p. 74. 60 87 Frank F. Wesbrook, "The P r o v i n c i a l U n i v e r s i t y i n Canadian Development," speech g i v e n a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, Winnipeg, November 1913. T h i s t e x t was r e p r i n t e d i n Science, e a r l y i n 1914, and a v e r s i o n g i v e n t o the Canadian Club of V i c t o r i a e n t i t l e d "The People's U n i v e r s i t y " i n November 1914. According t o Gibson, Wesbrook's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y should serve more than the academic community aroused many o b j e c t i o n s from those determined t o m a i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo. Gibson, pp. 75-8. 8 8 Wesbrook t a i l o r e d h i s speeches t o s u i t the i n t e r e s t s and g a i n the support of the groups he addressed; t h i s d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y l e s s e n h i s c o n v i c t i o n but l e d him to sometimes misjudge h i s audience and v i c e v e r s a . For example, he spoke to the Vancouver business community at a Progress Club luncheon s e l l i n g them on the idea t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y was a good b u s i n e s s a s s e t from a commercial standpoint — students would spend t h e i r money and "the best c l a s s of s e t t l e r " would be a t t r a c t e d t o the c i t y . The "Vancouver" "Sun, October 12, 1913. To the Canadian Club, Wesbrook promised t h a t higher education would improve moral, p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l development, thus e n s u r i n g a " f i n e r r a c e . " News " A d v e r t i s e r October 8, 1913. Wesbrook's speeches o f t e n e l i c i t e d responses c r i t i c a l of h i s u t i l i t a r i a n emphasis and when he spoke to the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club i n November, 1913 advocating domestic s c i e n c e f o r women he drew a hot response from E v l y n F a r r i s . See Chapter I I I f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s . 89 Wesbrook was on h i s way east to make f i n a l arrangements f o r Physics and Chemistry. 90 T h i s statement complete with s t a t i s t i c a l i n a c u r r a c i e s was p r i n t e d i n a P o r t l a n d newspaper, The Oregonian, A p r i l 15, 1916, UBC Scrapbook 7, p. 8. 91 The c o m p l e x i t i e s of the p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s t h a t caused the delays w i l l be found i n Logan, pp. 88-9. Q2 Logan p. 91. 93 Logan, pp. 90-1. See a l s o , John Rodenhizer, "The student campaign of 1922 to ' b u i l d the U n i v e r s i t y ' of B r i t i s h Columbia" BC S t u d i e s , 4:21-37 (September 1970). 94 A song composed f o r the o c c a s i o n of the student p i l g r i m a g e e n c a p s u l a t e d the p i v o t a l i s s u e s as seen by the s t u d e n t s : the inadequate f a c i l i t i e s and p u b l i c support. "We're t h r u w i t h t e n t s and h o v e l s ... The Government can't r e f u s e us, No matter what they say, For w e ' l l get the people v o t i n g For our new home i n Point Grey." Logan, p. 91. 61 In t r u t h , t h e r e was no r e a l d e c i s i o n not to b u i l d the separate women's c o l l e g e i n d i c a t e d i n the plans f o r UBC by Sharp and Thompson. The order of c o n s t r u c t i o n of b u i l d i n g s on the Point Grey s i t e i n d i c a t e d t h a t accommodation f o r s c i e n c e , a l i b r a r y , and power house were the f i r s t p r i o r i t i e s . The remaining b u i l d i n g s were semi-permanent s t r u c t u r e s : a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a u ditorium and c a f e t e r i a , a r t s and s c i e n c e , a p p l i e d s c i e n c e , a g r i c u l t u r e , three e n g i n e e r i n g b u i l d i n g s , and f o r e s t products b u i l d i n g . Residences, gymnasiums and women's b u i l d i n g s were dropped from the plans t o save c o s t s . Wesbrook's speech to "Sun, the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club, November 10, 1913, p. 52. T h i s e x t e r n a l l y p r e s c r i b e d and i n t e r n a l l y o r g a n i z a t i o n s were p a r t i c u l a r l y views of female moral as q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r 96 November 1913. Vancouver mi s s i o n of women was both conceded. Women's reform w i l l i n g t o c l a i m the t r a d i t i o n a l s u p e r i o r i t y and maternal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s o c i a l reform of the Canadian community. 9 7 Marni F r a z i e r De Pen c i e r , "Ideas of the E n g l i s h Speaking U n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada to 1920," unpublished Ph.D. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1978, p. 655. 9 8 The ideas i n t h i s paragraph about the f u n c t i o n s of the u n i v e r s i t y have t h e i r source i n P e n c i e r ' s t h e s i s , pp. 654-66. I t i s evident t h a t UBC's Pr e s i d e n t Wesbrook and Dr. H.E. Young's U n i v e r s i t y Act 1908, along w i t h her s t u d i e s of the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1906 and the U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan 1907, i n f l u e n c e d her c o n c l u s i o n s . 99 The terms 'uncompromising' and ' s e p a r a t i s t s ' are Delamont's terms t o d e s c r i b e the two views of women's ed u c a t i o n i n n i n e t e e n t h century England. See Chapter I. 100 „ TT T ~ J H i s t o r i c a l S t a t i s t i c s of Canada, 2nd F.H. Leacy, ed. ed. (Ottawa: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1983), Degrees awarded by Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s .... S e r i e s W504-512. Bachelor and F i r s t P r o f e s s i o n a l Master ' s Doctorate Years Male Female Male Female Male Female 1920 3,306 701 170 48 23 1 1930 4,411 1,820 358 100 39 7 1940 5,960 2,193 520 67 70 5 1950 13,411 3,774 1,344 220 191 11 MacPherson's i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the c a r e e r s of female Canadian u n i v e r s i t y graduates i n 1920 shows t h a t the t o t a l graduates a l i v e i n 1919 was 3,751. Of t h i s number, 1,139 were married, 1,002 were teachi n g , 573 were i n other p r o f e s s i o n s and 62 1,046 were unaccounted f o r . E l s i n o r e MacPherson, "Careers of Canadian U n i v e r s i t y Women," unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1920, p. 19a. MacPherson a l s o shows t h a t i n the west, t e a c h i n g remained the c h i e f , sometimes the only occupation open t o a woman u n i v e r s i t y graduate, p. 22. See a l s o A l i s o n P r e n t i c e , "The F e m i n i z a t i o n of Teaching," i n The Neglected M a j o r i t y , Susan Mann Trofimenkoff and A l i s o n P r e n t i c e , eds., (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, L t d . , 1977). x MacPherson 1 s data show t h a t the l a r g e s t number of graduates were married. MacPherson, p. 19a. In ge n e r a l , married women d i d not work o u t s i d e the home unle s s they had a c q u i r e d e x t r a o r d i n a r y e x p e r t i s e and r e p u t a t i o n i n a p r o f e s s i o n such as law or medicine, or i n e x c e p t i o n a l circumstances such as wartime, or to 'te m p o r a r i l y ' supplement low f a m i l y incomes. As women were p a i d lower s a l a r i e s than men, marriage was a t t r a c t i v e not only, o b v i o u s l y , f o r sentimental and s o c i a l reasons but a l s o f o r economic ones. 63 CHAPTER I I I THE ACCOMMODATION OF THE UNIVERSITY TO WOMEN: THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DEPARTMENT OF NURSING AND HOME ECONOMICS A f t e r the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia opened i n 1916, two s i g n i f i c a n t a d d i t i o n s a p p a r e n t l y demonstrated the w i l l i n g n e s s of the U n i v e r s i t y to accommodate women. The Department of Nursing was, i n 1919, the f i r s t t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the B r i t i s h Empire, and a Dean of Women was appointed i n 1921 to ad v i s e female students. However, a School of Home Economics and a residence f o r women, perhaps the most common concessions t o the female presence found a t some of the rep u t a b l e u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada and the Un i t e d S t a t e s , were not permanently e s t a b l i s h e d a t UBC u n t i l the f o u r t h and f i f t h d ecades. 1 An a n a l y s i s of the f a c t o r s t h a t prompted or delayed the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d c u r r i c u l u m , p e r s o n n e l , and boarding arrangements w i l l perhaps r e v e a l the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s behind these d e c i s i o n s about women's education, and the degree to which these a d d i t i o n s represented a response to the needs, i n t e r e s t s and wishes of women. Nursing The e x i g e n c i e s of the F i r s t World War and the Spanish 2 . i n f l u e n z a epidemic i n 1918 imparted a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to women's work and r e v i s e d a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r e ducation. Although women's war work o f t e n transcended women's t r a d i t i o n a l sphere, i t was the image of woman as nurse t h a t r e f l e c t e d 64 s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of the u n s e l f i s h p a t r i o t i c duty of women i n wartime, much as the image of man as s o l d i e r r e f l e c t e d t h i s duty of men. Nursing assumed, t h e r e f o r e , an a c t i v i t y of h e r o i c p r o p o r t i o n s as a r e s u l t both of Flor e n c e N i g h t i n g a l e ' s legendary r e p u t a t i o n and the s t o r i e s t h a t came home from the f r o n t . Furthermore, n u r s i n g began t o a t t r a c t the i n t e r e s t of middle c l a s s women who had the 'luxury' of s e v e r a l years of secondary education and the d e s i r e to pursue a ' u s e f u l ' v o c a t i o n . Nursing had always been an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p system. 3 i t s f e a t u r e s of residency, r e g u l a r ( i f minimal) wages, and the p r o v i s i o n of a uniform undoubtedly appealed t o hard working, ambitious women from poor or working c l a s s homes where extended e d u c a t i o n was otherwise i m p o s s i b l e f o r them. However the growth i n h o s p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s , with t h e i r s p e c i a l i z e d medical and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s , i n c r e a s i n g l y demanded higher standards of education f o r nurses, along w i t h more s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g . The Graduate Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia (GNABC), with the support of the L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women, had s t r u g g l e d f o r nine years before succeeding i n A p r i l 1918 i n o b t a i n i n g a b i l l t h a t would g i v e them r e g u l a t o r y powers over t h e i r own members. 4 The renamed R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia (RNABC) re c o g n i z e d the advantages t o the f l e d g l i n g n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n of b e t t e r education f o r women, and i n 1918 s e t age and e d u c a t i o n a l requirements f o r p r o s p e c t i v e 5 nurses. The ambivalence of some members of the medical 65 p r o f e s s i o n toward the e f f o r t s of the GNABC i n 1916 to r e g u l a t e and ensure high l e v e l s of t r a i n i n g among t h e i r own personnel was e v i d e n t by the p r e v a r i c a t i o n s of Dr. Henry Esson Young, whose amendments t o an e a r l i e r v e r s i o n of the Nurses' R e g i s t r a t i o n Act appeared not to r e c o g n i z e the i n t e n t i o n s of the Act. But not a l l medical men opposed a change i n the s t a t u s of nurses, e s p e c i a l l y when i t proved a means t o t h e i r own ends. The endeavors made by nurses' a s s o c i a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia c o i n c i d e d w i t h changes i n a t t i t u d e s toward p u b l i c h e a l t h and reforms i n h o s p i t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In B r i t i s h Columbia, the l e a d e r of the H o s p i t a l S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n Movement, which was g a i n i n g momentum throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, was Dr. Malcolm T. MacEachern, the Medical Superintendent of the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l (VGH). MacEachern's commitment t o the improvement of h o s p i t a l s e r v i c e s l e d him to e n v i s i o n a uniform, s t a n d a r d i z e d course f o r a l l nurses t o be g i v e n i n v a r i o u s h o s p i t a l s by teachers t r a i n e d a t p the U n i v e r s i t y . While the Graduate Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n t r i e d t o r a i s e the s t a t u s of n u r s i n g through t h e i r attempts t o g examine and r e g i s t e r nurses a f t e r t h e i r t r a i n i n g , MacEachern i n i t i a t e d p l a n s t o i n c o r p o r a t e n u r s i n g t r a i n i n g i n t o a u n i v e r s i t y degree programme, i n h i s endeavor to achieve t h i s same purpose. A l b e i t f o r MacEachern, high standards of n u r s i n g were probably more important to h i s concepts of h o s p i t a l e f f i c i e n c y , and t o h i s need f o r s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f , than t o any d e s i r e to ' p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e ' women's work."^ 66 MacEachern's schemes were i n n o v a t i v e and he, too, c o n f r o n t e d o p p o s i t i o n . There was open h o s t i l i t y from some of the VGH s t a f f d o c t o r s toward the degree programme. 1 1 P r e s i d e n t Wesbrook, a l s o a medical doctor, d i d not t h i n k i n 1918 t h a t the time was r i g h t f o r a Department of Nursing a t UBC because of the c o n g e n i t a l monetary problems f a c e d by the u n i v e r s i t y . 1 2 I t would be sheer s p e c u l a t i o n t o suggest t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r nurses, e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e a medical s c h o o l , a dream Wesbrook had abandoned y e a r s e a r l i e r , might have engendered some f e e l i n g s of j e a l o u s y on h i s p a r t . Nevertheless, w i t h i n months of Wesbrook's untimely death i n October 1 918, 1 3 the UBC Senate responded f a v o u r a b l y to Dr. MacEachen's pr o p o s a l s t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y become i n v o l v e d i n the e d u c a t i o n of n u r s e s . 1 4 But a l e t t e r from the C o l l e g e of P h y s i c i a n s and Surgeons, i n r e p l y to the UBC Senate's request f o r guidance i n e s t a b l i s h i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and requirements f o r the n u r s i n g programme, r e v e a l s , i f not reasons t o account f o r Wesbrook's l a c k of enthusiasm f o r MacEachern's p l a n , the nature of the a n t i p a t h y f e l t by d o c t o r s of medicine toward the advanced t r a i n i n g of nurses. So f a r as the C o u n c i l has been a b l e to a s c e r t a i n , the consensus of o p i n i o n of Medical men i s t o the e f f e c t t h a t the t e a c h i n g of a l a r g e p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m of the Medical student t o nurses i s u n d e s i r a b l e . . . f u r t h e r . . . 1. I f n u r s i n g i s t o be taught i n the u n i v e r s i t y i t should be as a post-graduate course. 2. That o v e r t r a i n i n g of nurses i s not d e s i r a b l e and r e s u l t s l a r g e l y i n the l o s i n g of t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s . 3. T h e o r e t i c a l branches of n u r s i n g are of very l i t t l e use i n the s i c k room. 4. That a nurse can be s u f f i c i e n t l y t r a i n e d i n the two y e a r s t o meet a l l requirements.-^ T h i s l e t t e r was r e c e i v e d , however, s e v e r a l months a f t e r the u n i v e r s i t y approved a degree programme i n n u r s i n g — the f i r s t i n the B r i t i s h E m p i r e . 1 6 C o n s i d e r i n g the o b s t a c l e s t h a t had impeded n e a r l y a l l of Wesbrook• s attempts t o get the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y under way, h i s own w e l l founded s k e p t i c i s m about the f e a s i b i l i t y of n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n , the c r i p p l e d f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y , the f a c t t h a t no other degree programme f o r n u r s i n g e x i s t e d i n Canada, and the l a c k of any other p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y e x c e p t i n g A p p l i e d Science, i t was remarkable t h a t a Department of Nursing was e s t a b l i s h e d a t a l l , but e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n f o u r months. The UBC Senate f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d i n February 1919 Dr. MacEachern's p r o p o s a l t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y e s t a b l i s h a Department of N u r s i n g . 1 7 By May, the Senate had worked out the d e t a i l s and recommended t o the Board of Governors t h a t a Department of Nursing be e s t a b l i s h e d i n connection w i t h the F a c u l t y of Science, l e a d i n g t o the degree of B.Sc. There had been no l o b b y i n g by women's groups whose en e r g i e s were d i r e c t e d towards a Department of Home Economics at t h i s time. The RNABC was i n i t i a l l y r a t her " a l o o f " i n i t s a t t i t u d e to the degree course, probably because they had been 18 n e i t h e r c o n s u l t e d nor i n v o l v e d . And y e t the Board of Governors approved the new department and Miss E t h e l Johns, RN, was h i r e d i n August t o head the Department of Nursing a t UBC and assume the d u t i e s of the D i r e c t o r of Nursing a t VGH. The Senate's approval of the Department of Nursing was c l e a r evidence t h a t t h i s body c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the e d u c a t i o n of 68 n u r s i n g students was a d e s i r a b l e and l e g i t i m a t e f i e l d of a c t i v i t y f o r the u n i v e r s i t y . But was t h i s d e c i s i o n guided by any p h i l o s o p h i c a l commitment t o p r o f e s s i o n a l education f o r women? A c l o s e r examination of the process whereby the Senate and the Board of Governors s a n c t i o n e d t h i s new department r e v e a l s t h a t many i n t e r e s t s were served by t h i s d e c i s i o n , and r e p u t a t i o n s were made, but any motive to a s s i g n a more p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s t o n u r s i n g was rooted i n the need of h o s p i t a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o crea t e a h i e r a r c h y w i t h i n n u r s i n g , rather than i n the i n i t i a t i v e of the u n i v e r s i t y to advance the st a t u s of women or women's work. In 1919 the u n i v e r s i t y was s t i l l t e m p o r a r i l y housed i n b u i l d i n g s adjacent t o the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l . T h i s geographic p r o x i m i t y had a l r e a d y suggested c o o p e r a t i v e arrangements between the two i n s t i t u t i o n s . For example, Dr. R.H. M u l l i n , D i r e c t o r of L a b o r a t o r i e s a t VGH, a l s o headed the Department of B a c t e r i o l o g y at UBC and each i n s t i t u t i o n p a i d p a r t of h i s s a l a r y . The C h a n c e l l o r of UBC, Dr. Robert E. McKechnie p r e s i d e d over the Senate and was a l s o , i n 1919, the Chairman of the Education Committee of the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l . When Dr. MacEachern's l e t t e r was read a t the February 13, 1919 meeting of the Senate, C h a n c e l l o r McKechnie was a b l e to e x p l a i n i n d e t a i l , and wit h a degree of enthusiasm, what the p l a n would accomplish. The Senate r e a d i l y appointed a thr e e member committee to confer with the VGH Education Committee and t o r e p o r t back t o the Senate. These members i n c l u d e d Dr. W.D. Brydone-Jack, p h y s i c i a n and surgeon and 69 chairman of the committee; Dr. H. Ashton, Department of French; and Miss S h i r l e y Clement, B.A., the f i r s t UBC graduate to be e l e c t e d t o the S e n a t e . 1 9 On March 5, 1919 the Senate r e c e i v e d the r e p o r t of t h i s committee with the recommendation t h a t the Senate endorse the p l a n f o r the Department of Nursing and forward same to the Board of Governors. S h i r l e y Clement was compelled t o h a l t t h i s s w i f t passage of a p l a n t h a t c a r r i e d a heavy weight of i n t e r e s t and i n f l u e n c e of medical men with h o s p i t a l c o n n ections. In a move t h a t remains as the only evidence of any conscience about the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n c o n f e r r i n g the degree, or of the consequences of the Senate's d e c i s i o n i n terms of women's education, Clement d e c l a r e d she was not i n accordance w i t h the recommendation. Clement argued t h a t i f the u n i v e r s i t y were going t o grant degrees i n Nursing, i t should demand something i n the l i n e of general e d u c a t i o n — at l e a s t a year i n A r t s — as was r e q u i r e d of the other students i n A p p l i e d S c i e n c e . The Senate noted Clement's o b j e c t i o n s and e n l a r g e d the committee by f i v e members t o study 20 the matter f u r t h e r . On May 14, 1919, t h i s committee recommended t o the Senate t h a t a Department of Nursing be e s t a b l i s h e d i n connection with the F a c u l t y of Science. The admission requirements were to be h i g h school m a t r i c u l a t i o n or i t s e q u i v a l e n t , at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Senate. Students were to take two years of A r t s a l o n g w i t h p r a c t i c a l work a t any i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t came up t o the standards s e t down by the u n i v e r s i t y a u t h o r i t i e s . The Medical 70 C o u n c i l o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d be a s k e d t o draw up a s t a n d a r d o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e g u i d a n c e o f t h e S e n a t e i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r o p o s e d h o s p i t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . The S e n a t e a d o p t e d t h i s r e p o r t and s u b m i t t e d i t t o t h e B o a r d o f 91 G o v e r n o r s . A l l o b s t a c l e s were s e e m i n g l y removed a f t e r t h e B o a r d o f G o v e r n o r s was a d v i s e d t h a t t h e Department o f N u r s i n g w o u l d i n v o l v e no e x p e n s e t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y . The V a n c o u v e r G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l w o u l d pay t h e D i r e c t o r o f N u r s i n g who w o u l d h e a d t h e D epartment o f N u r s i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y . N u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n was t h u s a p p r o v e d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y w o u l d h a ve no f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s d e p a r t m e n t . The S e n a t e and t h e B o a r d o f G o v e r n o r s s u b s e q u e n t l y a p p r o v e d a f i f t h y e a r o f a c a d e m i c work i n t h e combined c o u r s e , a f t e r a f o u r - m o n t h p u b l i c 22 h e a l t h n u r s i n g c o u r s e . But when t h e L i b r a r y Committee a s k e d i n F e b r u a r y 1920 f o r a $250 g r a n t t o p u r c h a s e books f o r n u r s i n g s t u d e n t s , t h e B o a r d r e c a l l e d t h a t h o s p i t a l a u t h o r i t i e s had a g r e e d t h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y w o u l d n o t be a s k e d t o assume any c o s t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e Department o f N u r s i n g , and t h i s 23 r e q u e s t was d e n i e d . UBC r e c e i v e d a p r o p o s a l i n A p r i l 1920, f r o m t h e P r o v i n c i a l B o a r d o f t h e C a n a d i a n Red C r o s s S o c i e t y , t o e s t a b l i s h a Red C r o s s C h a i r o f P u b l i c H e a l t h . The Red C r o s s o f f e r e d t o pay $5000 f o r t h r e e y e a r s and pay t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s s a l a r y . The S e n a t e a n d t h e B o a r d a c c e p t e d t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o a d v a n c e t h e c a u s e o f P u b l i c H e a l t h t h r o u g h o u t B.C. Dr. R. H. M u l l i n ( B a c t e r i o l o g y ) was a p p o i n t e d Red C r o s s P r o f e s s o r o f P u b l i c 71 Health, and Mary Ard. Mackenzie, the former Superintendent of the V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses, was named Red Cross I n s t r u c t o r of a p u b l i c h e a l t h course. Again the U n i v e r s i t y was r e l i e v e d of any f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 2 4 In r e c o g n i t i o n of her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the Department of Nursing a t UBC, E t h e l Johns had been appointed A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of Nursing i n September 1920. Her s a l a r y at t h i s time was s t i l l p a i d by the H o s p i t a l and funds from the Red Cross. At the end of 1921 Johns r e s i g n e d as the D i r e c t o r of Nursing a t the H o s p i t a l but r e t a i n e d her p o s i t i o n i n the Department of Nursing a t UBC. I t was not u n t i l 1923 t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y was prepared t o accept the f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r John's s a l a r y of $2500 per annum. 2 5 In 1926, E t h e l Johns r e s i g n e d her p o s i t i o n t o accept a resear c h grant from the R o c k e f e l l e r Foundation i n France. Mabel F. Gray, R.N., succeeded Johns as A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of Nursing. The u n i v e r s i t y had moved, a t l a s t , to Point Grey i n 1925 and the Nursing Department r e l o c a t e d t o the top f l o o r of the Science B u i l d i n g . The U n i v e r s i t y apparently determined t h a t the Department of Nursing was no longer an experimental venture or one to be l e f t i n the hands of a woman without an advanced degree. Dr. Hibbert W. H i l l was appointed the new 9 6 Head of the Department of Nursing and P u b l i c H e a l t h . The U n i v e r s i t y s u f f e r e d d r a s t i c budget c u t s i n the 1930*s. One of the f i r s t Departments t o have to l i m i t r e g i s t r a t i o n was Nursing and H e a l t h . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n continued u n t i l , once again , a world war c r e a t e d an urgent need f o r women as nurses, 72 27 and the l i m i t a t i o n s were r e s c i n d e d . The f i r s t programme to combine a u n i v e r s i t y degree with h o s p i t a l t r a i n i n g , without i n c u r r i n g a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s to the u n i v e r s i t y , s u r e l y enhanced the r e p u t a t i o n s of UBC and Leonard Sylvanus K l i n c k , Dean of A g r i c u l t u r e , who was A c t i n g - P r e s i d e n t d u r i n g the months of Wesbrook's i l l n e s s and subsequent to h i s death. The young u n i v e r s i t y was c r e d i t e d w i t h a ' f i r s t , 1 and Dean K l i n c k was o f f e r e d , i n May 1919, the Presidency of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. S i m i l a r l y , the p r o g r e s s i v e model f o r nurses' t r a i n i n g gained a c c l a i m f o r VGH and i t s Medical Superintendent, Dr. Malcolm MacEachern, who r e s i g n e d i n 1923 to become a D i r e c t o r of the American C o l l e g e of P h y s i c i a n s and S u r g e o n s . 2 8 But i t would be a shallow a n a l y s i s t h a t concluded t h a t the Department of Nursing was e s t a b l i s h e d t o s a t i s f y and advance the p e r s o n a l ambitions of u n i v e r s i t y or h o s p i t a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . I t would be e q u a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e , however, to i n t e r p r e t the appearance of t h i s programme, which was aimed i n t h i s e r a at female students, as a commitment by the u n i v e r s i t y to women's p r o f e s s i o n a l education. S o c i a l , economic and c l a s s i n t e r e s t s combined t o support the e stablishment of the Department of Nursing a t UBC. In the e a r l y y e a r s , the c o s t s of e s t a b l i s h i n g the U n i v e r s i t y i n c r e a s e d always a t a f a s t e r r a t e than the p r o v i n c i a l government a n t i c i p a t e d . Monies r e q u i r e d by the U n i v e r s i t y were d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n w h i l e p u b l i c o p i n i o n about the r o l e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the u n i v e r s i t y was, i n Soward's words, "uninformed." P u b l i c e x p e c t a t i o n s ranged from 73 the e n t h u s i a s t i c b e l i e f s t h a t a l l branches of l e a r n i n g should be undertaken, and a l l problems of s o c i e t y must be s o l v e d by the u n i v e r s i t y , to the s k e p t i c a l view t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y was O Q o n l y good f o r breeding " p a r a s i t e s and s o c i a l b u t t e r f l i e s . " A f t e r Wesbrook's death, the M i n i s t e r of Education, Dr. J.D. MacLean, questioned the A c t i n g P r e s i d e n t , Leonard S. K l i n c k , about the u n i v e r s i t y ' s p o l i c y regarding v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r "boys and g i r l s . " J U C l e a r l y , a u n i v e r s i t y programme t h a t would o f f e r p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r a s p e c i f i c v o c a t i o n would p a c i f y both extremes of p u b l i c o p i n i o n : t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y provide s o l u t i o n s f o r s o c i a l problems, and t h a t higher education equip students w i t h p r a c t i c a l , u s e f u l s k i l l s . A v o c a t i o n a l programme t h a t d i d not p l a c e any a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l demands on the u n i v e r s i t y , t h a t i s t o say on p r o v i n c i a l resources, was an a t t r a c t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n on every account. If the c o s t s of the Department of Nursing had not been borne by the VGH, the u n i v e r s i t y would l i k e l y have been unable and u n w i l l i n g t o e s t a b l i s h t h i s programme. A f t e r World War I the community recognized i t s need f o r nurses. There was a shortage of nurses f o r p a t i e n t care i n the h o s p i t a l , and the i n c r e a s e d emphasis on b u r e a u c r a t i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n the new f i e l d of p u b l i c h e a l t h widened the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women i n spheres they had i d e n t i f i e d as t h e i r own. U n i v e r s i t y and h o s p i t a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were thus r e c e p t i v e to Dr. MacEachern's p l a n t h a t would i n i t i a l l y p r ovide a cheap source of h o s p i t a l labour, and e v e n t u a l l y produce more h i g h l y educated n u r s i n g personnel 74 t h a t c o u l d perform s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e s i n the h o s p i t a l . The combined programme would a t t r a c t middle c l a s s women who might otherwise r e s i s t the r i g o u r s of h o s p i t a l d i s c i p l i n e and residenc e requirements of h o s p i t a l t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s . 3 1 T h i s middle c l a s s was thus assured of l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n t h i s •noble,' expanding, but arduous p r o f e s s i o n . In the n i n e t e e n t h century, advocacy of higher e d u c a t i o n of women f o r n u r s i n g would have been c a l l e d a ' s e p a r a t i s t 1 s t r a t e g y t h a t t o the 'uncompromising* might undermine the cause f o r equal e d u c a t i o n f o r women. There was no attempt i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i n the t w e n t i e t h century t o c l a r i f y or j u s t i f y t h i s k i n d of u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n f o r women, other than the need t o overcome an i n i t i a l c o n f u s i o n and r e s i s t a n c e of CBC f a c u l t y who d i d not understand how Nursing would f i t i n t o the academic community. Even E t h e l Johns, R.N., recognized the tenuous b a s i s of the s t a t u s of Nursing a t the U n i v e r s i t y when she s a i d , 3 2 "We came i n the back door and we may be out tomorrow." The sugg e s t i o n t h a t n u r s i n g students c o u l d best be accommodated by 3 3 the F a c u l t y of A p p l i e d Science a p p a r e n t l y appeased everyone. However, i t was a n i c e i r o n y t h a t a female UBC graduate e l e c t e d t o the Senate, S h i r l e y Clement, managed t o brid g e the d i s t a n c e of the ni n e t e e n t h century debate between the s e p a r a t i s t s and the uncompromising, and the t w e n t i e t h century r e a l i t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , with her i n s i s t e n c e t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y should r e q u i r e a t l e a s t one year of general e d u c a t i o n t o j u s t i f y a u n i v e r s i t y degree. There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t a degree i n n u r s i n g allowed a 75 woman t o combine a ge n e r a l , a l i b e r a l , education with the p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g t h a t would p r o v i d e her wit h s p e c i f i c s k i l l s and s t a t u s i n the work f o r c e . For t h i s reason alone, the Department of Nursing, e s t a b l i s h e d a t UBC i n 1919, was a s i g n i f i c a n t s t e p toward post secondary education t h a t r e c o g n i z e d women's work, and sought to i n c r e a s e i t s s o c i a l and economic v a l u e . But t h i s was more l i k e l y an ' e f f e c t ' than a 'cause' i n the d e c i s i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y to o f f e r a degree programme f o r n u r s i n g s t u d e n t s . Home Economics The establishment of the Department of Nursing a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia cannot p r o p e r l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o f e m i n i s t a g i t a t i o n from e i t h e r the student body or the l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n . Although the L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women was ins t r u m e n t a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the School of Nursing a t the Vancouver C i t y H o s p i t a l i n 1 8 9 9 , 3 4 the Department of Nursing a t UBC represented a confluence of i n t e r e s t s t h a t were more p r a g m a t i c a l l y conceived than p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y i n s p i r e d . On the other hand, no other s i n g l e i s s u e s i n c e women's s u f f r a g e commanded such s u s t a i n e d and e n e r g e t i c support from women i n B r i t i s h Columbia, as the movement t o e s t a b l i s h a Department of Home Economics a t UBC. For reasons, o f t e n a l t e r e d and sometimes f o r g o t t e n , d u r i n g the span of a campaign t h a t p e r s i s t e d f o r over t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , women r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the f u l l spectrum of f e m i n i s t p o l i t i c s worked together to implement a course of study aimed a t p r o f e s s i o n a l i z i n g female d o m e s t i c i t y . 76 The e v o l u t i o n of the terms t o d e s c r i b e a course of study t h a t combined the p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l a spects of both homemaking and the domestic economy i n d i c a t e d the impact of s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes on the concepts of the f a m i l y , and of work i n the home. Thus, what were c a l l e d 'Courses i n Domestic Science' before the F i r s t World War became 'Departments of Home Economies' by the Second; and a t the time of t h i s w r i t i n g , UBC o f f e r s a Bachelor of Home Economics degree from i t s 'School of Family and N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s . ' Concurrent with these changes were f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the st a t u s of women, of women's work, and of f e m i n i s t consciousness. The po i n t t o be made i s t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l l y women's sphere was i n the home and the Home Economics movement 3 7 represented the e f f o r t s of women, predominantly, to r e d e f i n e t h e i r own sphere. While seeking t o m a i n t a i n women's f a m i l i a r occupation w i t h i n the home, the Home Economics movement, which s t r e s s e d the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c and economic p r i n c i p l e s t o home 3 8 management, sought a l s o t o e l e v a t e the st a t u s of 'housewife.' In economic terms, a degree i n Home Economics would g i v e a woman an advantage i n a new p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d f r e e from the 39 c o m p e t i t i o n of men. H i s t o r i c a l l y then, the Home Economics movement was a ' s e p a r a t i s t * s t r a t e g y t h a t promoted e d u c a t i o n t o prepare women f o r t h e i r l i f e ' s work. In the tw e n t i e t h century the movement a t t r a c t e d both c o n s e r v a t i v e s and reformers; c o n s e r v a t i v e women wanted a course to teach the b a s i c s of housewifery and motherhood, and reforming women rec o g n i z e d the p o t e n t i a l of the ' s e p a r a t i s t ' s t r a t e g y to counteract a male 77 b i a s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . 4 0 In the i n i t i a l y e a rs of pl a n n i n g f o r UBC, the d i f f e r e n c e s between the ' s e p a r a t i s t s ' and the 'uncompromising', i n matters t h a t p e r t a i n e d t o the education of women, were more s h a r p l y drawn than i n l a t e r y e a r s . 4 1 The s e p a r a t i s t p o s i t i o n was taken up by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Women and the Women's I n s t i t u t e s who championed the t e a c h i n g of Home Economics i n the s c h o o l s . Indeed, one of the founders of both these n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , Adelaide Hoodless, o r i g i n a t e d the Home Economics movement i n Canada. 4 2 In B.C. the L o c a l C o u n c i l s of Women urged P r e s i d e n t Wesbrook t o e s t a b l i s h u n i v e r s i t y courses f o r women. The LCW a l s o nominated ( u n s u c c e s s f u l l y ) t o the UBC Senate, a recent immigrant and C o u n c i l member, who had pioneere d home economics i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g l i s h s c h o o l s , A l i c e R a v e n h i l l . 4 3 The LCW, r e c e i v e d a sympathetic h e a r i n g from P r e s i d e n t Wesbrook, perhaps because h i s mother-in-law, Lady T a y l o r , was a V i c e P r e s i d e n t of the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of 44 Women, although he appeared t o have h i s own c o n v i c t i o n s about the value of Home Economics i n s t r u c t i o n and i t s c a p a c i t y t o e f f e c t reform a t t i t u d e s towards h e a l t h and n u t r i t i o n . On the other hand, the Vancouver U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club, i n the beginning, r e f u s e d membership t o women from o u t s t a n d i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s i f t h e i r degrees were obtained w i t h Home Economics 46 as p a r t of t h e i r course work. P r e s i d e n t Wesbrook t r o d on unfirm ground, t h e r e f o r e , when he spoke t o the UWC about the "nation's need f o r experts i n s p e c i a l l i n e s — household 47 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , home economics, domestic s c i e n c e . " 78 E v l y n F a r r i s , founder and former P r e s i d e n t of the UWC, and UBC Senator, h e l d s t r o n g and 'uncompromising' views about domestic s c i e n c e courses a t the u n i v e r s i t y . F a r r i s presented her c o n v i c t i o n s i n an address, "The U n i v e r s i t y and the Home" d e l i v e r e d t o the Women's E d u c a t i o n a l Club of Columbian C o l l e g e i n 1914. F a r r i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the tendency i n America to int r o d u c e p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r women i m p e r i l l e d t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l development, and endangered the value of p h i l o s o p h i c a l l e a r n i n g . In sho r t , F a r r i s upheld the b e n e f i t s of a l i b e r a l education i n a world t h a t she thought i n c r e a s i n g l y s u b s t i t u t e d " p r a c t i c e f o r p r i n c i p l e s . " She was r e l u c t a n t t o a t t r i b u t e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s t o homemaking, but conceded t h a t i f i t was a p r o f e s s i o n then women co u l d enter p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s f o r t r a i n i n g a f t e r r e c e i v i n g a ba c h e l o r ' s degree. A l t e r n a t e l y , domestic s c i e n c e courses were b e t t e r o f f e r e d " i n other s c h o o l s e n t i r e l y d i s t i n c t from the u n i v e r s i t y and under a 48 board of c o n t r o l . " F a r r i s c l e a r l y meant t o d i s a s s o c i a t e women's edu c a t i o n from the p r e v a i l i n g acceptance of the sexual d i v i s i o n of labour, and the assumption t h a t women's i n t e r e s t s were overwhelmingly domestic. I t i s l i k e l y , too, t h a t F a r r i s wanted t o pre s e r v e the emphasis on equal education, meaning the same education f o r men and women, a t the u n i v e r s i t y . A f t e r r e a d i n g the newspaper's account of F a r r i s ' demonstration t h a t Home Economics was an u n s u i t a b l e s u b j e c t f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the c u r r i c u l u m of a u n i v e r s i t y , A l i c e R a v e n h i l l 49 responded. R a v e n h i l l ' s r e p l y to the e d i t o r of the News-A d v e r t i s e r j u s t i f i e d Home Economics as a v a l i d i n t e l l e c t u a l 79 p u r s u i t ; her l e t t e r remains as evidence of the argumentation t h a t persuaded many women t o support t h i s cause, and s i l e n c e d the o b j e c t i o n s of o t h e r s . Much of the l e t t e r i s c i t e d here to i l l u s t r a t e the s t r e n g t h of her appeal. Mrs. F a r r i s i s r e p o r t e d to have based her o b j e c t i o n s on these grounds: (1) t h a t the a r t s course i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s i s i t s e l f a p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r the homemaker; (2) the c h i e f work of a U n i v e r s i t y i s to teach people to t h i n k , whereas she maintains 'the i n t r o d u c t i o n of too many s u b j e c t s on s c i e n t i f i c l i n e s i s not w e l l c a l c u l a t e d t o produce t h i n k e r s ' ; (3) 'popular courses without a high c o n d i t i o n of entrance weaken a U n i v e r s i t y . ' I would l i k e to enquire why — i f the a r t s course i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s g i v e s t h i s p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r home l i f e , do the graduates i n a r t s permit the r a t e of i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y i n Canada to reach a h e i g h t only e q u a l l e d i n R u s s i a ; why does t u b e r c u l o s i s a n n u a l l y c l a i m such an undue p r o p o r t i o n of v i c t i m s among the p o p u l a t i o n ; why are the r e p o r t s on the medical i n s p e c t i o n of school c h i l d r e n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e such anxious reading? Again, why was i t t h a t e f f o r t s t o check communicable d i s e a s e s or to safeguard the h e a l t h of n a t i o n s were so f u t i l e u n t i l the b i r t h of b i o l o g y and the a p p l i c a t i o n of chemistry and p h y s i c s t o these s o c i a l problems i n the second q u a r t e r of the l a s t century threw a f l o o d of l i g h t on courses p r e v i o u s l y hidden, and formed the f o u n d a t i o n of modern s a n i t a t i o n ? With regard t o Mrs. F a r r i s ' second p o i n t : Are such men as Darwin, Wallace, Huxley ... Pasteur, C u r r i e ... not to be numbered among the world's g r e a t e s t t h i n k e r s ? In the t h i r d p l a c e , why should 'Home Economics' n e c e s s a r i l y weaken a U n i v e r s i t y ? I t i s based upon a l a r g e group of s c i e n c e s — b i o l o g y , chemistry, p h y s i c s , mechanics, economics ... as w e l l as psychology, p h y s i o l o g y and hygiene. Much of the work ... demands c a p a c i t y f o r r e a l r e s e a r c h . . . . There i s no d i f f i c u l t y i n p l a c i n g the s u b j e c t on a s t r i c t l y U n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . F i n a l l y , may I ask why, i f the care of p l a n t and animal l i f e i s of such moment t o the w e l l - b e i n g of t h i s p r o v i n c e , t h a t a g a i n and a g a i n emphatic 80 assurances have been gi v e n t h a t a foremost p l a c e i n t he c u r r i c u l u m of the new U n i v e r s i t y i s t o be give n t o agriculture,™ why does not the r i g h t care of human l i f e c a l l f o r s i m i l a r r e c o g n i t i o n . 5 ^ R a v e n h i l l and F a r r i s 1 p u b l i c exchange of o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g the place of Home Economics a t the u n i v e r s i t y echoed the debate of the ' s e p a r a t i s t s ' and the 'uncompromising' h a l f a century b e f o r e , when women's educa t i o n f i r s t emerged as a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e . Moreover, R a v e n h i l l ' s arguments complemented the r h e t o r i c of the "maternal f e m i n i s t s " who j u s t i f i e d women's i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l and c i v i c reform as an e x t e n s i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l views of female moral s u p e r i o r i t y and maternal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Home Economics c o u l d p r o v i d e the s o l u t i o n t o the n a t i o n ' s s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . 5 2 F a r r i s ' concerns f o c u s s e d more p r e c i s e l y on i s s u e s of education and the ' idea of a u n i v e r s i t y . ' Her defense of l i b e r a l education r e f l e c t e d her own experience as a student of philosophy and c l a s s i c a l s t u d i e s . The r i s e of p r o f e s s i o n a l or v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t the u n i v e r s i t y , i n c o n t r a s t t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s of a 'general' or ' l i b e r a l ' education, had proved c o n t e n t i o u s s i n c e the mid-nineteenth century when B r i t i s h u n i v e r s i t i e s were reformed t o r e f l e c t a more u t i l i t a r i a n emphasis. In B r i t i s h Columbia, i n the tw e n t i e t h century, i t was an o l d i s s u e i n a new context because now the p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g under d i s c u s s i o n was aimed a t women. F a r r i s ' arguments had l e s s appeal to the m a j o r i t y of women who d i d not have a u n i v e r s i t y e ducation. For many, her views represented an e l i t i s t a t t i t u d e toward e d u c a t i o n . Supporters 81 of the Home Economics movement would r e f e r to women l i k e F a r r i s CO as "narrowly c u l t u r e d . " As the Home Economics movement gained momentum i n the pr o v i n c e , the o b j e c t i o n s of F a r r i s , and women who h e l d s i m i l a r views, were heard l e s s . By the mid-twenties, the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club was committed t o r a i s i n g funds f o r a C h a i r i n Home Economics a t UBC. Although the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club became an a c t i v e promoter f o r Home Economics Courses a t the u n i v e r s i t y , the UWC Minutes show t h a t i n every in s t a n c e t h a t the i s s u e was d i s c u s s e d , or r e s o l u t i o n s were made on t h e su b j e c t , e i t h e r to r a i s e f i n a n c i a l or p u b l i c support, F a r r i s was absent from those m e e t i n g s . 5 4 From 1913 t o her r e t i r e m e n t i n 1942, Dr. F a r r i s served a l t e r n a t e l y on the UBC Senate and the Board of Governors. A f t e r her o r i g i n a l p u b l i c statement of her p o s i t i o n on the s u b j e c t of Home Economics i n 1914, F a r r i s remained s i l e n t on the i s s u e . N e i t h e r the Minutes of the Senate, the Board, nor the UWC r e v e a l the measure of F a r r i s ' a v e r s i o n , i n d i f f e r e n c e , or even assent t o p r o p o s a l s f o r Home Economics Courses a t UBC. I t remains a c u r i o u s c o i n c i d e n c e , however, t h a t the movement f o r Home Economics met f i n a l l y with success w i t h i n s i x months of Dr. F a r r i s ' r e t i r e m e n t from the Board of Governors i n 1942. In the absence of any c l e a r r e c o r d t h a t she changed her mind on t h i s i s s u e , i t would appear t h a t F a r r i s d i d not use her p o s i t i o n t o promote t h i s e d u c a t i o n f o r women, as d i d Annie Jamieson, f o r i n s t a n c e , who spoke i n support of Home Economics when she served on the Senate and the Board. F a r r i s may have p u r p o s e f u l l y , d i s a s s o c i a t e d h e r s e l f from 82 the UWC's i n t e r e s t s i n home economics t o r e t a i n her c r e d i b i l i t y i n other spheres. But she may a l s o have been a powerful behind-the-scenes a l l y i n the u n i v e r s i t y ' s p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e to Home Economics t h a t l a s t e d f o r a qua r t e r of a century. In the beginning, women had every reason t o be hopeful t h a t Home Economics would be a v a i l a b l e a t the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y . The proposed b u i l d i n g p l a n s f o r UBC i n 1913-14, which p r o v i d e d t h a t a domestic s c i e n c e b u i l d i n g would be one of the f i r s t c o n s t r u c t e d , i n d i c a t e d the u n i v e r s i t y ' s t a c i t a p proval of t h i s course of s t u d y . 5 5 Home economics courses were e s t a b l i s h e d a t other Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h i s e r a , and w i t h P r e s i d e n t Wesbrook's s a n c t i o n i t seemed l i k e l y t h a t UBC would f o l l o w s u i t . 5 6 The Senate f i r s t recommended t o the Board of Governors i n A p r i l 1919 t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y e s t a b l i s h a School of Home Economics with a Ba c h e l o r s degree of Household S c i e n c e . T h i s proposal urged an e a r l y appointment of a Dean t o arrange f o r s t a f f and equipment f o r l e c t u r e s t o begin i n the 1920-21 57 s e s s i o n . The response of the Board was "sympathetic" t o the Senate's request and promised t o co n s i d e r i t when the c ft U n i v e r s i t y was i n a b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n . Taken aback by t h i s postponement the Senate sent a c l e a r message to the Board. ... we as a Senate s t r o n g l y recommend t o the Board of Governors t h a t they put f o r t h every e f f o r t to have a F a c u l t y of Home Economics opened i n 192 0 . 5 Q 83 Again the Board d e f e r r e d t h i s undertaking. The f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g t he Senate Committee on Home Economics — Annie Jamieson and J.A. McLean — in t e r v i e w e d the board members t o urge immediate a c t i o n be taken t o e s t a b l i s h a Home Economics Course. They emphasized t h a t without i t , women would have t o l e a v e the province t o take t h i s t r a i n i n g ; t h a t women wanted t o take t h i s t r a i n i n g t o f i t them f o r t h e i r d u t i e s i n the home and community and not with a view to remunerative employment; and t h a t the m a j o r i t y of homemakers would p r e f e r a Home Economics Course to any o t h e r . 6 0 The Board r e i t e r a t e d t h a t i n the present c o n d i t i o n of f i n a n c e s i t was im p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h a F a c u l t y of Domestic S c i e n c e . 6 1 T h i s was to be the p a t t e r n of communication between the Senate and the Board of Governors on t h i s s u b j e c t f o r the next twenty y e a r s . Even more r e l e n t l e s s than the Senate i n t h e i r remonstrances with the Board of Governors were the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from v a r i o u s women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s , whose continuous p e t i t i o n s kept the matter of Home Economics from being f o r g o t t e n . The LCW's i n t e r e s t i n Home Economics educ a t i o n f o r g i r l s was l o n g s t a n d i n g . John F o s t e r ' s t h e s i s , "Education and Work i n a Changing S o c i e t y : B r i t i s h Columbia, 1870-1930" reviews the p r e v i o u s l y s u c c e s s f u l r o l e of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the C o u n c i l s of Women p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n b r i n g i n g new forms of o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n t o p r o v i n c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The L o c a l C o u n c i l s of Women, founded i n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver i n 1894, succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g Domestic Science i n s t r u c t i o n i n the c i t y s c h o o l s . F o s t e r r e v e a l s t h a t 84 the t a c t i c s of the LCW were s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and me t h o d i c a l . A f t e r g e t t i n g a change i n l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t a l l o w e d women t o serve as school t r u s t e e s , they then e l e c t e d members of the L o c a l C o u n c i l to school boards. C o n c u r r e n t l y , the L o c a l C o u n c i l s s e t about t o educate the p u b l i c t o the val u e of Domestic Science e d u c a t i o n f o r g i r l s . They sponsored t e a c h i n g demonstrations and purchased equipment f o r hig h s c h o o l s . Before the changes brought about by the BC School Survey, 1924-25, Home Economics (and Manual T r a i n i n g f o r boys) was in t r o d u c e d o n l y when l o c a l tax payers wanted these courses which were c o n s i d e r e d ' f r i l l s ' . 6 3 The LCW. was f a m i l i a r , then, with the necessary process of a p p l y i n g p r e s s u r e t o the government and i n f l u e n c i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n t o a c h i e v e success. The LCW.' i n i t i a t e d the campaign f o r a Home Economics Course at the u n i v e r s i t y , but a new a s s o c i a t i o n — the Parent-Teacher F e d e r a t i o n — appeared i n the twenties t o c a r r y the campaign 64 through two decades t o i t s f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s . The Parent-Teacher F e d e r a t i o n (P-TF), a p r o v i n c i a l body composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from l o c a l Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n s , was nominally an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h a membership of both men and women. However, women c o n s i s t e n t l y formed P-TA e x e c u t i v e s and appeared t o be the predominantly a c t i v e members. Doubtless the P-TA continued the a s s o c i a t i o n of women f o r t h e i r common i n t e r e s t s i n a t r a d i t i o n w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d by the women's c l u b movement; but the u n - r e s t r i c t e d membership ensured t h e i r emancipation from an image t h a t now had c o n s e r v a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s . The P-TF was, perhaps, one of the few 85 o r g a n i z a t i o n s open t o both men and women t h a t women c o n t r o l l e d — an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t home and school were s t i l l accepted by the p u b l i c as the l e g i t i m a t e spheres of women. Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n s were formed i n the c i t y i n 1916 a f t e r the Education Committee of the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club f i r s t proposed the b e n e f i t s of such communication between the home and s c h o o l . 6 5 But i t was the new Dean of Women, Mary B o l l e r t , who was c r e d i t e d with founding the p r o v i n c i a l f e d e r a t i o n i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e s . As a member of the UWC she presented a paper o u t l i n i n g the f u l l p o t e n t i a l of c o o p e r a t i o n between Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n s . 6 6 One of the f i r s t and long e s t l a s t i n g i n t e r e s t s of the P r o v i n c i a l Parent-Teacher F e d e r a t i o n was the campaign t o e s t a b l i s h a Home Economics Course a t the U n i v e r s i t y . The Second Parent-Teacher E d u c a t i o n a l Conference h e l d i n Vancouver i n January 1922, marked the o f f i c i a l l a u n c h i n g of t h i s campaign. Mr. M.B. Mackenzie, A s s i s t a n t M u n i c i p a l Inspector of Vancouver Schools, f o r m e r l y from New Zealand, spoke on "The Education of Women and G i r l s i n New Zealand." Mackenzie expressed the view t h a t a woman ought to be educated to be a homemaker, but her t r a i n i n g ought a l s o t o f i t her to be econ o m i c a l l y independent. He o u t l i n e d the School of Domestic Science a t the U n i v e r s i t y i n New Zealand. In the d i s c u s s i o n t h a t f o l l o w e d , Annie Jamieson observed t h a t the women of Vancouver had l o n g been i n f a v o r of a s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g course and urged every person present t o work t o a t t a i n t h i s w 4.- 6 ? obj e c t i v e . 86 The i n i t i a l s t r a t e g y i n the P-TF Campaign was t o m o b i l i z e p u b l i c support f o r Home Economics. A r t i c l e s p l u s the agendas of meetings of the P-TF, p u b l i s h e d i n the d a i l y and weekly newspapers, kept a l i v e the i s s u e of Home Economics edu c a t i o n i n the u n i v e r s i t y , and served t o educate p u b l i c o p i n i o n . By 1922 the "Parent-Teacher News and Views," which f e a t u r e d p u b l i c i t y about Home Economics, dominated the f r o n t pages of the Western Woman's Weekly (WWW).68 E l i z a b e t h Berry, Supervisor of Home Economics f o r Vancouver C i t y Schools, addressed the q u e s t i o n of Home Economics e d u c a t i o n f o r women i n an a r t i c l e i n the WWW, i n A p r i l 1 9 2 2 . 6 9 Berry quoted from a prominent educator at Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , Dr. F r e d e r i c k H. Sykes whose paper "The S o c i a l B a s i s of the New Education f o r Women" j u s t i f i e d women's edu c a t i o n f o r t h e i r work i n the home and the c i t y . Berry a l s o put women's h i s t o r i c a l s t r u g g l e f o r access t o e d u c a t i o n i n a contemporary context. She reviewed women's long, d i s h e a r t e n i n g , unnecessary f i g h t ... f o r the r i g h t to b e n e f i t i n t h e i r j u s t share of the money f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes [and] f o r t h e i r r i g h t to what appeals t o them i n su b j e c t matter. ~j ^  Berry b e l i e v e d t h a t the f i g h t f o r equal education had caused women t o r e j e c t t h i s ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' sphere of women's work and r e s u l t e d i n the d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the ' a r t s ' of cooking and sewing. In a d d i t i o n , modern changes i n s a n i t a t i o n standards, household technology and i n d u s t r i a l i n n o v a t i o n l e s s e n e d the a b i l i t y of mothers t o t r a n s m i t home management t o t h e i r daughters. To remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n Berry a s s e r t e d t h a t t h i s 72 e d u c a t i o n must be a d m i n i s t e r e d by the s c h o o l s . In an e a r l i e r 87 a r t i c l e i n The Province Berry argued t h a t a Home Economics Department a t UBC would p r o v i d e the necessary s t a n d a r d i z e d t r a i n i n g f o r teachers of Home Economics i n B.C. s c h o o l s . 7 3 Doubtless B e r r y ' s arguments encouraged a number of women's groups t o j o i n f o r c e s w i t h the P-TF t o r a i s e funds t o e s t a b l i s h a C h a i r of Home Economics a t UBC, and t o ple a d t h e i r case r e p e a t e d l y b e f o r e the U n i v e r s i t y . 7 4 Before the end of the second decade, women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o c u s s e d t h e i r e n e r g i e s p r i m a r i l y on the Senate which was the determining body f o r e d u c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m at the U n i v e r s i t y . But a growing awareness t h a t t h e i r concerns r e q u i r e d a p o l i t i c a l s o l u t i o n was evi d e n t a f t e r a Home Economics Endowment Fund was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1926 by the P-TF. 7 5 i n a province-wide campaign women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s r a i s e d the sum of $11,000 mostly 7 fi through p r i v a t e s u b s c r i p t i o n s . At one po i n t i n the campaign, l e a d i n g businessmen i n Vancouver r e p o r t e d l y o f f e r e d t o sub s c r i b e $20,000 p r o v i d e d the women c o u l d match t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n , and a l s o p r o v i d e d t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y would 77 accept a $40,000 d i m i n i s h i n g endowment. Des p i t e P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k ' s avowed sympathies wi t h the annual p e t i t i o n s r e c e i v e d from the Home Economics s u p p o r t e r s , the Board of Governors remained i n t r a c t a b l e and women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s began t o lobby the P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r of Education. A d e l e g a t i o n from the P r o v i n c i a l Parent-Teacher F e d e r a t i o n and the L o c a l C o u n c i l s of Women appeared a g a i n before the Board, i n December 1928, determined t o undermine the r e s i s t a n c e 88 7 8 to e s t a b l i s h i n g a Course i n Home Economics a t the U n i v e r s i t y . T h i s d e l e g a t i o n t e s t i f i e d t h a t p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , rather than s u b s i d i n g , was advancing, and t h e r e was a great demand f o r teac h e r s of Home Economics i n the Pro v i n c e . The d e l e g a t i o n f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t both the M i n i s t e r of Education, Canon H i n c h l i f f e , and Premier Tolmie were f a v o r a b l e to the women's p e t i t i o n , but had p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e i r c h i e f o b j e c t i o n was t h a t the a u t h o r i t i e s of the U n i v e r s i t y had not asked f o r the establishment of such a C o u r s e . 7 9 The women appealed t o the Board, t h e r e f o r e , to seek funds from the Government t o e s t a b l i s h the Course i n September. It must have proved d i f f i c u l t f o r the P-TF to imagine how the campaign t h a t had r a i s e d a s u b s t a n t i a l sum of f i n a n c i a l support, i n a d d i t i o n t o the moral support of p u b l i c o p i n i o n , the UBC Senate, and the M i n i s t e r of Education, c o u l d have f a i l e d t o win o f f i c i a l s a n c t i o n from an a l l e g e d l y sympathetic Board of Governors, or to evoke t h e i r request f o r a d d i t i o n a l votes from the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly f o r a Home Economics Course. T h i s r e v e l a t i o n was a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t o the P-TF t h a t t h e i r powers of per s u a s i o n might be more p r o f i t a b l y d i r e c t e d toward the P r o v i n c i a l government. The p e r s i s t e n c e of the d e l e g a t i o n of women was rewarded i n 1929 when a P r o v i n c i a l grant was made a v a i l a b l e t o the U n i v e r s i t y f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g a Course i n Home Economics; but the Board r u l e d the amount " e n t i r e l y inadequate" 8 0 and took no a c t i o n . A f t e r being a d v i s e d t h a t any unused p o r t i o n of t h i s grant a l l o t t e d f o r Home Economics i n 1929-30 89 would not be c a r r i e d over to 1930-31, and t h a t no a d d i t i o n a l monies would be a v a i l a b l e f o r Home Economics i n 1930, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, New Westminster and North Vancouver appeared a g a i n before the Board of Governors. Whereas p r e v i o u s l y t h i s d e l e g a t i o n c o n f i n e d i t s e f f o r t s t o lobby a l t e r n a t e l y the U n i v e r s i t y and the Government, i t now attempted t o perform brokerage f u n c t i o n s between the M i n i s t e r of Education and the U n i v e r s i t y P r e s i d e n t . 8 1 The women deleg a t e s had s e t up a "round t a b l e conference on a l l phases of the Home Economics s i t u a t i o n " t o be attended by the M i n i s t e r of Education, Canon Joshua H i n c h l i f f e , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the P r o v i n c i a l P-TF and the C o u n c i l s of Women. The d e l e g a t i o n requested t h a t P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k and a Committee from the Board of Governors, "with power to a c t , " be appointed t o confer with the M i n i s t e r and the female d e l e g a t e s a t the meeting i n two days time ( A p r i l 2, 1930). T h i s conference y i e l d e d p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . The M i n i s t e r s t a t e d he would do h i s utmost t o o b t a i n the necessary funds t o provide accommodation f o r Home Economics by 1931 and recommended t h a t the P r e s i d e n t , t h e r e f o r e , should arrange courses f o r the f i r s t two y e a r s . The M i n i s t e r would p r o v i d e money f o r a d d i t i o n a l expenditures i f i n s t r u c t o r s needed t o be h i r e d b e f o r e the end p o of the present f i s c a l y ear. By May, the Board had adopted a Report from the Senate o u t l i n i n g a two year Course i n Home 83 Economics t o begin i n the f a l l of 1931. Twenty-five women r e g i s t e r e d a t UBC i n 1930 i n t e n d i n g t o 90 84 take the f i r s t two years of the Home Economics Course. i n 1931, the P-TF and the L o c a l C o u n c i l s of Women sent l e t t e r s of g r a t i t u d e t o the B o a r d . 8 5 The P-TF on l y awaited c o n f i r m a t i o n from the Board of Governors t h a t plans were underway to e s t a b l i s h the f u l l f o u r - year programme, bef o r e they t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r Endowment Fund t o the U n i v e r s i t y . The Board, however, cou l d not g i v e these assurances and the Fund remained i n the hands of the P-TF. In f a c t , i n A p r i l 1932, the P r e s i d e n t a d v i s e d the Board t o d i s c o n t i n u e Home Economics and t o r e t u r n the unused p o r t i o n of $12,500.00 to the P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r y . 8 6 The Home Economics Course had s u r v i v e d f o r only one year when i t became the c a s u a l t y of the p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e s t h a t enveloped the U n i v e r s i t y from 1930-32. A s t e a d i l y reduced o p e r a t i n g revenue, r e s u l t i n g both from the c o e r c i v e t a c t i c s of the M i n i s t e r of Education t o f o r c e changes i n U n i v e r s i t y 87 education and the e f f e c t s of the economic d e p r e s s i o n i n BC, p r e c i p i t a t e d an i n t e r n a l c r i s i s . F a c t i o n s i n the Senate c h a l l e n g e d the Board's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y . The eventual r e s u l t was a vote by the Senate i n March 1932 of non-confidence 88 i n the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i v e r s i t y . The Board subsequently requested an enqui r y i n t o the problems of the U n i v e r s i t y . Judge Peter Lampman, the Commissioner of the Enquiry, concluded t h a t the c h i e f issue of co n t e n t i o n , i n t e r n a l l y , had been the c o s t s of A g r i c u l t u r a l research and the apparent f a v o r i t i s m shown t o t h i s F a c u l t y by i t s former Dean K l i n c k i n the face of d e c l i n i n g enrollment and gra n t s . A l s o , the d i s t i n c t i o n s between the d e c i s i o n making 91 powers of the Senate and the Board were imprecise, and the Pr e s i d e n t proved t o be an i n s u f f i c i e n t l i a i s o n between the two b o d i e s . 8 9 The extent t o which Home Economics had become a p o l i t i c a l pawn i n an e x t e r n a l s t r u g g l e f o r power was r e v e a l e d by i t s emphasis i n the Lampman Report. Lampman was h i g h l y c r i t i c a l of the Government's r o l e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the Department of Home Economics and p i l l o r i e d t he e f f o r t s of the women who promoted t h i s Course. Judge Lampman s t a t e d : And h e r e i n l i e s one of the t r o u b l e s of the U n i v e r s i t y . Instead of competent a u t h o r i t i e s being allowed t o f i x courses of study, some i n d i v i d u a l s , obsessed w i t h the importance of some p a r t i c u l a r course, p r e v a i l upon the a u t h o r i t i e s t o add t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r pet s u b j e c t . T h i s i s a l l the more dangerous when a fund has been r a i s e d and s u b s c r i b e d f o r the purpose.... I am s u s p i c i o u s of a l l such r e s o l u t i o n s . The Government has a p p a r e n t l y succumbed t o the pr e s s u r e as i t a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e d money f o r th a t course. I t i s almost u n b e l i e v a b l e , c o n s i d e r i n g the s t a t e of f i n a n c e s a t t h i s time. n r, Lampman may have been c o r r e c t t o censure the i n t e r f e r e n c e of the Government i n the e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s of the U n i v e r s i t y . However, Lampman appeared ignorant of the h i s t o r i c a l precedent i n B.C. wherein v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s p l a y e d a r o l e i n 91 a f f e c t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l change. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups had funded, p r e v i o u s l y , new u n i v e r s i t y programmes ' f o r the p u b l i c good,' f o r example, the Department 92 of Nursing and P u b l i c H e a l t h . Moreover, i n the absence of any c l e a r d e c i s i o n by the "competent a u t h o r i t i e s , " w i t h respect t o Home Economics, t h e i r repeated assurances of sympathy 92 a c c o m p a n i e d by e x c u s e s o f i n s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c e s c o n v e y e d t o t h e women ' s d e l e g a t i o n s t h e n e e d f o r a p o l i t i c a l s o l u t i o n t o o v e r c o m e t h e a p p a r e n t s t a l e m a t e . The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a c a d e m i c f r e e d o m f r o m p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e h a s a l w a y s b e e n t h e c o n c e r n o f u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a t a r e f u n d e d by t h e s t a t e . Howeve r , t h e u n i v e r s i t y s u r e l y has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s i t s p o s i t i o n on e d u c a t i o n a l m a t t e r s t h a t a r e r a i s e d by p u b l i c o p i n i o n . The P r e s i d e n t a n d t h e B o a r d , p r i o r t o 1 9 2 9 , had a m p l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e i t h e r u p h o l d o r d e n o u n c e Home E c o n o m i c s e d u c a t i o n on r e a s o n a b l e g r o u n d s . I n s t e a d , t h e y c h o s e t o d e f e r and r e s i s t a l l a t t e m p t s by t h e S e n a t e a n d p o p u l a r s u p p o r t g r o u p s t o e s t a b l i s h t h i s C o u r s e w h i l e a p p e a r i n g t o g i v e i t a p p r o v a l . The B o a r d ' s e q u i v o c a t i o n s , w h i c h may h a v e b e e n a d e l i b e r a t e p l o y , 9 3 s e e m i n g l y s h i f t e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s . Lampman c o u l d n o t , t h e r e f o r e , r e a s o n a b l y c h a r g e p o l i t i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n a m a t t e r t h a t so 94 c l e a r l y i n v i t e d p o l i t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . A p r o m i n e n t c l ubwoman , A l i c e T o w n l e y , a t t a c k e d Lampman* s j u d g e m e n t s a n d d e f e n d e d b o t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f women a n d t h e q c d e c i s i o n o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o f u n d Home E c o n o m i c s . i n a l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r o f The P r o v i n c e , J u l y 3 1 , 1 9 3 2 , T o w n l e y a r g u e d . . . s o m e t i m e s o u r women v o t e r s a r e i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k t h a t t h e i r o p i n i o n s a n d d e s i r e s a r e n o t g i v e n t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t s h o u l d be e x t e n d e d i n a l l f a i r n e s s , b u t i n t h i s m a t t e r we s h o u l d a p p r e c i a t e t h e s t a n d t a k e n by t h e g o v e r n m e n t . T h e r e a r e many o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s [a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y ] . Why s h o u l d Home E c o n o m i c s b e a r t h e b r u n t o f J u d g e Lampman ' s h i g h d i s a p p r o v a l ? Who 93 are the "competent a u t h o r i t i e s * t h a t should ' f i x d e s i r a b l e courses of study' i n t h i s case? I t i s a changing world.... What about the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ? I f i t be reasonable t o spend such an amount on t e a c h i n g men t o farm, why not encourage our women t o l e a r n how to manage the home, the fo u n d a t i o n of the nation?qg Townley's l e t t e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t Lampman's a t t a c k would l i k e l y renew the campaign f o r Home Economics d e s p i t e the f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t threatened the continued e x i s t e n c e of the U n i v e r s i t y . 9 7 In f a c t , the P-TF e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1932 a Permanent Committee of the Home Economics Endowment Fund t o take charge of the funds, to work f o r the ree s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Course, to keep up a p u b l i c i t y campaign, and t o award s c h o l a r s h i p s and p r i z e s t o students i n t e n d i n g t o pursue Home Q O Economics elsewhere. The next decade saw t h i s whole s e r i e s of events repeated: the P-TF and the C o u n c i l s of Women sent l e t t e r s and d e l e g a t i o n s t o the Board r e q u e s t i n g a d e c i s i o n on the reestablishment of the Department of Home Economics; the P r e s i d e n t and the Board r e i t e r a t e d t h e i r sympathy with those requests but claimed they c o u l d not proceed without funds; and the Board r e f u s e d t o i n c l u d e e s t i m a t e s f o r the Course i n t h e i r o p e r a t i n g budgets 99 submitted t o the government. Late i n 1936, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the f o l l o w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , under the a u s p i c e s of the P r o v i n c i a l Parent-Teacher F e d e r a t i o n , met with the Board of Governors t o urge the r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a degree course i n Home Economics: t h e P r o v i n c i a l Parent-Teacher F e d e r a t i o n , Vancouver U n i v e r s i t y 94 Women's Club, L o c a l C o u n c i l s of Women (Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , New Westminster), Business and P r o f e s s i o n a l Women's Club of Vancouver, BC Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , BC T r u s t e e s A s s o c i a t i o n , Women's I n s t i t u t e s , Trade and Labour C o u n c i l , BC G i r l Guides A s s o c i a t i o n , Women's E d u c a t i o n a l A u x i l i a r y of the Un i t e d Church, Kiwanis Club and the P.E.O. Sisterhood. x®® The wide c r o s s - s e c t i o n of p u b l i c o p i n i o n represented by t h i s d e l e g a t i o n prompted a Report to the Board of Governors submitted by Pre s i d e n t K l i n c k on February 22, 1937 . 1 0 1 K l i n c k ' s Report reviewed the n e g o t i a t i o n s and c o s t s f o r Home Economics from 1931-32, and found ... t h a t the present f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y p a r a l l e l s too c l o s e l y the s i t u a t i o n which obtained when Home Economics was d i s c o n t i n u e d t o warrant a resumption of t h i s course a t the present time. And f u r t h e r , ... the Board has d e f i n i t e l y committed i t s e l f to the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of a number of b a s i c Departments now i n e x i s t e n c e , and f o r which the funds necessary to gi v e e f f e c t t o t h i s p o l i c y have not been o b t a i n e d . P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k a l s o recorded h i s own a t t i t u d e : Throughout the e n t i r e p e r i o d of the n e g o t i a t i o n s , the P r e s i d e n t a c t i v e l y supported the request f o r the establishment of a Department of Home Economics. To him, the need was e v i d e n t , the demand undoubted. The content of the courses, i n s o f a r as these were d e f i n i t e l y determined, was unquestionably of U n i v e r s i t y grade. These reasons might be addressed w i t h even g r e a t e r f o r c e today., n 9 C l e a r l y P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k wished t o a l i g n h i m s e l f w i t h the supporters of the Home Economics Course, but i t was not then 95 (nor had i t ever been) i n c l u d e d i n the Board's p r i o r i t i e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , or p r o j e c t e d i n t o the budgetary r e q u i s i t i o n s . Again, the Home Economics d e l e g a t i o n s were l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t the s t r e n g t h of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s o p p o s i t i o n l a y i n i n s u f f i c i e n t f u n d i n g ; but they a l s o had reason t o hope t h a t t h i s o b s t a c l e might be overcome. The Province was beginning t o show si g n s of recovery from the e f f e c t s of the economic 1 03 de p r e s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y budget slowly expanded t o i n c l u d e grants f o r resea r c h and p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n . Furthermore, UBC f a c u l t y member, Dr. George M. Weir, served as P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y and M i n i s t e r of Education i n the new L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 1 0 4 Dr. Weir co-authored w i t h J.H. Putnam the BC Schools Survey i n 1925, (known a l s o as the Putnam-Weir Survey), which was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of Home Economics i n t o the r e g u l a r school c u r r i c u l u m . 1 0 5 The P-TF might reasonably expect Weir to be sympathetic t o t h e i r cause, and e a r l y i n 1937 they i n q u i r e d about the Board's p o l i c y i n the event t h a t a promise c o u l d be obtained from the M i n i s t e r of Education of an a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r Home Economics i n the next U n i v e r s i t y budget ( 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 ) . 1 0 6 Perhaps determined t o a v o i d a r e p e t i t i o n of the 1929 f i a s c o , P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k r e p l i e d t o the P-TF Committee i n terms which made i t c l e a r t h a t the p r i o r i t i e s s et by the U n i v e r s i t y , which d i d not i n c l u d e Home Economics, should not be pla c e d a t r i s k by any a d d i t i o n a l p l e a s f o r supplementary f u n d s . 1 0 7 E v i d e n t l y the P-TF was f o r e s t a l l e d and th e r e was no rec u r r e n c e , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , of the M i n i s t e r ' s a c t i o n s i n 1929 t h a t had 96 r e s u l t e d i n the temporary s a t i s f a c t i o n of the Home Economics proponents a t the co s t of d i s s e n s i o n i n the U n i v e r s i t y . The economic d e p r e s s i o n of the 1930's thwarted the ex t e n s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s a t UBC. The overcrowded c o n d i t i o n s , a f t e r 1935, f o r c e d l i m i t a t i o n of enrollment, e s p e c i a l l y i n l a b o r a t o r y c o u r s e s . 1 0 8 E a r l y i n 1939 e x p e c t a t i o n s of resumed b u i l d i n g prompted requests from v a r i o u s d e l e g a t i o n s who were anxious not onl y to e s t a b l i s h Home Economics but a l s o t o pro v i d e i n s t r u c t i o n i n Law, Pharmacy, 10 9 Pre-Medical T r a i n i n g , and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . But the outbreak of World War I I i n August 193 9 suspended a l l p r a c t i c a l p l a n s f o r immediate expansion i n these a r e a s . By 1940 the U n i v e r s i t y began t o c h a r t i t s course f o r the f u t u r e . And so d i d the Permanent Committee of the Home Economics Endowment Fund. A l e r t e d t o the a c t i v i t y of other groups t h a t were c o u r t i n g the ap p r o v a l of the Senate and the Board of Governors f o r new courses, the Committee decided t o i n t e r v i e w " c e r t a i n people" p r i o r to the next meeting of the Senate (February 21, 1940), once agai n , t o b r i n g t o i t s a t t e n t i o n "the i n c r e a s i n g need of the re e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Home Economics C o u r s e . " 1 1 0 The Home Economics Committee gained a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n c e s s i o n a t t h i s meeting when the Senate recommended t o the Board of Governors "that i f and when funds a r e a v a i l a b l e , the Course i n Home Economics be r e e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r to the estab l i s h m e n t of any other c o u r s e . " 1 1 1 A number of p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e changes o c c u r r e d i n the next few ye a r s t h a t a f f e c t e d d e c i s i o n s about U n i v e r s i t y 97 ed u c a t i o n i n B.C. In the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n i n 1941 none of the three p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s r e c e i v e d a c l e a r m a j o r i t y . The L i b e r a l s and C o n s e r v a t i v e s were f o r c e d i n t o an uneasy c o a l i t i o n w i t h L i b e r a l John Hart s e r v i n g as Premier. E a r l y i n 1942 the U n i v e r s i t y came under a t t a c k i n the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. The M i n i s t e r of Education, H.G.T. Perry, wanted more c o n t r o l over how the gr a n t s were spent by the U n i v e r s i t y . Dorothy Steeves, CCF member, announced her i n t e n t i o n t o sponsor a b i l l "to democratize the Board of Governors." Steeves charged the U n i v e r s i t y was o p e r a t i n g i n a "sacrosanct vacuum" and Herbert Gargrave, CCF, complained t h a t "the L e g i s l a t u r e was s u b s i d i z i n g a c l a s s of s o c i e t y t h a t can a f f o r d t o pay f o r i t s e l f . " Moreover, the f i v e women i n the L e g i s l a t u r e — Laura Jamieson (CCF), T i l l y Jean R o l s t o n ( C o n s e r v a t i v e ) , Nancy Hodges ( L i b e r a l ) , Dorothy Steeves (CCF), and Grace Maclnnis (CCF) — transcended t h e i r p a r t i s a n d i f f e r e n c e s t o pre s s f o r the establ i s h m e n t of a Department of Home Economics. They were outraged t h a t students had t o l e a v e the Province to complete a degree i n Home Economics. R o l s t o n and Hodges p o i n t e d out t h a t $17,000 had been r a i s e d by women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a s s i s t t he fun d i n g of Home Economics but s t i l l no a c t i o n had been 112 taken. 1 Z Sweeping changes took p l a c e i n t h i s p e r i o d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of UBC. Although t h e r e were reasons f o r t h e i r r e s i g n a t i o n s , not c l e a r l y connected t o the a t t a c k s i n the L e g i s l a t u r e , only t h r e e of the nine members of the Board of 113 Governors i n the s e s s i o n 193 9-40 remained i n 1944-45. 98 P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k a l s o prepared t o r e t i r e e a r l y i n 1944. Such a r e v i s i o n of personnel i n e v i t a b l y brought new p e r s p e c t i v e s t o the UBC Governors. Undoubtedly t e n s i o n s r a i s e d i n the L e g i s l a t u r e prompted the M i n i s t e r of Education, i n September 1942, to request P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k t o i n c l u d e an estimate of the c o s t s of e s t a b l i s h i n g Home Economics i n the U n i v e r s i t y budget f o r 1943-44. 1 1 4 The amount of $14,570.00 was subsequently approved f o r the Department of Home Economics t o begin o p e r a t i o n s i n 1943, u t i l i z i n g the l a b o r a t o r i e s i n one of the c i t y s c h o o l s . 1 1 5 For the second time, the d e c i s i o n t o e s t a b l i s h Home Economics i n s t r u c t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y was founded on p o l i t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . But the terms of the s o l u t i o n , which r e l i e d on borrowed f a c i l i t i e s , suggest t h a t i n t h i s round of n e g o t i a t i o n s , the Board was e q u a l l y anxious t o s e t t l e t h i s l o n g s t a n d i n g problem. In the fa c e of a campaign t h a t had endured f o r a qu a r t e r of a century, i t i s reasonable to ask why the p r o v i n c i a l government pushed and the U n i v e r s i t y y i e l d e d on the i s s u e of Home Economics i n s t r u c t i o n a t t h i s time. The Home Economics campaign depended on the upheaval of p o l i t i c a l change and wartime c o n d i t i o n s t o persuade the U n i v e r s i t y to make t h i s e d u c a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to women. In educatio n , as i n other matters of s o c i a l w e l f a r e , the balance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y had s h i f t e d t o governments t o deal with i n e q u i t i e s caused by the economic de p r e s s i o n , and emergencies caused by wartime circumstances. In B.C. a c o a l i t i o n government and a l e f t - l e a n i n g p a r t y i n o p p o s i t i o n proved eager to e x e r c i s e 99 t h e i r commitment t o a new p o l i t i c a l consciousness t o s o l v e s o c i a l problems. The P-TF campaign became an o b j e c t of mutual i n t e r e s t t o a l l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n l i g h t of the c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d by both the CCF o p p o s i t i o n and the M i n i s t e r of Education a g a i n s t the U n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and the s o l i d a r i t y of the f i v e female MLAs on the q u e s t i o n of Home Economics. The e x i s t e n c e of the Home Economics Endowment Fund c l e a r l y a t t e s t e d t o a s u b s t a n t i a l b a s i s of support f o r t h i s Course. In view of the r e c a l c i t r a n c e of the U n i v e r s i t y , the P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t o r s appeared j u s t i f i e d i n suggest i n g t o the Pr e s i d e n t t h a t e s t i m a t e s f o r t h i s Course be i n c l u d e d i n the budget f o r the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . The le n g t h y campaign of the P-TF was thus a i d e d , c o n s i d e r a b l y , by the cu r r e n t mood of the government t o place a more 'democratic emphasis' on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y , and t o make post secondary education more re s p o n s i v e t o the needs of the p o p u l a t i o n . The tenor of the times, perhaps, made government i n t e r v e n t i o n more p a l a t a b l e to the U n i v e r s i t y i n 1942 than i t d i d i n 1930. With t h i s 'encouragement' from the M i n i s t e r of Education, the Governors appeared t o q u i c k l y surmount o b s t a c l e s t h a t had impeded the establishment of Home Economics s i n c e 1919. The amount of money a v a i l a b l e f o r the Department of Home Economics i n 1942 was a c t u a l l y l e s s than the grants made n e a r l y ten y e a r s p r e v i o u s , which had been deemed i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t h a t 116 time. I f the use of high school l a b o r a t o r i e s had been r e j e c t e d i n the past as u n s u i t a b l e accommodations, these o b j e c t i o n s were overcome i n view of more p r e s s i n g 100 c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The r e s o l u t i o n of the Senate to gi v e Home Economics p r i o r i t y over the i n t r o d u c t i o n of any other new i n s t r u c t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y , presented a problem i n p l a n n i n g f o r the f u t u r e of the U n i v e r s i t y . P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k and the Board d i d not need a l o n g memory to r e c a l l the i n c r e a s e i n the U n i v e r s i t y ' s enrollment t h a t f o l l o w e d World War I. That the present War would e v e n t u a l l y end was c e r t a i n , and the n e c e s s i t y f o r the U n i v e r s i t y to accommodate the r e t u r n i n g v e t e r a n s , most of them men, was e q u a l l y assured. But the U n i v e r s i t y * c o u l d make no plans before Home Economics was r e e s t a b l i s h e d . U l t i m a t e l y i t was i n the U n i v e r s i t y ' s i n t e r e s t s t o i n s t i t u t e Home Economics and c l e a r the way f o r the Senate's approval f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n new areas l i k e S o c i a l S e r v i c e work and i n those areas of t r a d i t i o n a l l y male e x p e r t i s e : Law, Pharmacy, and Pre-Med. E a r l y i n 1943, the schedule to e s t a b l i s h a Department of Home Economics f o r the f a l l s e s s i o n was n e a r l y d i s r u p t e d when Pr e s i d e n t K l i n c k ' s search a c r o s s the country f o r s u i t a b l e t e a c h i n g s t a f f f e l l s h o r t of h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s . In h i s Report to the Board of Governors, P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k reviewed h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t . A f t e r having made a f a i r l y e x haustive canvass of Canadian graduates i n Home Economics, K l i n c k concluded t h a t I do not have a s i n g l e name to recommend t o the Committee f o r appointment t o the Headship ... the reason ... i s the almost t o t a l absence of women i n Canada wi t h the necessary academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e experience necessary f o r the 101 Headship, t h a t i s , i f the Department of Home Economics i s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n a b a s i s comparable w i t h t h a t of of other Departments i n the U n i v e r s i t y . 1 1 R The P r e s i d e n t c o n s i d e r e d the d e c i s i o n s by the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Saskatchewan and Manitoba to go t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r women t o Head t h e i r Departments and qu e s t i o n e d whether UBC should f o l l o w t h i s o p t i o n . K l i n c k suggested a l s o t h a t a year's delay might allow more time f o r candidates t o study the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . He a d v i s e d t h a t the l a c k of departmental accommodation was a b a r r i e r not e a s i l y surmounted, e s p e c i a l l y when one approaches members of l a r g e and generously equipped departments where s p e c i a l i z a t i o n has been h i g h l y developed and where ... a l a r g e s t a f f i s regarded as e s s e n t i a l to d e s i r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n . ^ q Neither the UBC Senate nor the M i n i s t e r of Education was i n fav o r of any f u r t h e r delay and the P r e s i d e n t was a u t h o r i z e d t o conclude n e g o t i a t i o n s i n May f o r p r o s p e c t i v e appointees i n the 120 Department of Home Economics. Many women i n B r i t i s h Columbia f i n a l l y achieved t h e i r goal to e s t a b l i s h Home Economics a t UBC. Perhaps unaware t h a t t h i s v i c t o r y f o r f e m i n i s t p o l i t i c s was tempered by the c u r r e n t need f o r p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expediency, the longtime su p p o r t e r s of the home economics campaign were more e x h i l e r a t e d by the s w i f t i n s t a l l a t i o n of the Course, than c r i t i c a l of i t s shortcomings. There i s no b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t i o n of the dilemma t h a t f a c e d the proponents of post-secondary domestic e d u c a t i o n f o r women 102 than was r e v e a l e d by the P r e s i d e n t ' s attempts t o h i r e women with d o c t o r a l degrees t o s t a f f the Department of Home Economics. Without high academic standards f o r teachers and rese a r c h f a c i l i t i e s , the study of Home Economics would not ach i e v e a s t a t u s comparable to t h a t of other Departments i n the U n i v e r s i t y . Nor c o u l d i t hope to r a i s e the s t a t u s of 'women's work' on a l e v e l comparable wi t h other p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y . But w h i l e Home Economics e d u c a t i o n was c o n t i n u a l l y d e f e r r e d by the U n i v e r s i t y , women were denied the op p o r t u n i t y to develop t h i s f i e l d and t o r a i s e i t s c r e d i b i l i t y w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y community. However, the r e a l p i t f a l l f o r the ' s e p a r a t i s t s ' , perhaps f o r e s e e n by 'the uncompromising', was t h a t the success of education f o r women's s o c i a l r o l e s was measured by the c a p a c i t y of the graduate to put her t h e o r e t i c a l l e a r n i n g t o p r a c t i c a l use, and t o f u l f i l the s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d f o r her sex. The Home Economics Department was one of the few areas i n which a graduate's marriage and subsequent work i n the home was regarded as the p r a c t i c a l employment of her post-secondary 121 e d u c a t i o n . Thus the ambition t o pursue graduate s t u d i e s was evidence t h a t the student had d e f i e d (or denied) s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , to prepare f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r . As lo n g as the choice between d o m e s t i c i t y and s c h o l a r s h i p was, f o r women, mutually e x c l u s i v e , fewer women would pursue graduate d e g r e e s . 1 2 2 While the o b s e r v a t i o n s about the c o n f l i c t between graduate e d u c a t i o n and marriage h e l d e q u a l l y true f o r women i n other 103 d i s c i p l i n e s , the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p a u c i t y of graduate degrees i n Home Economics were p a r t i c u l a r l y d e b i l i t a t i n g i n view of f e m i n i s t aims. As lo n g as the emphasis of education i n Home Economics l a y on the maternal and homemaking r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of women, and not on s p e c i f i c s c h o l a r l y research and p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e to e n l i v e n the f i e l d , i t was d i f f i c u l t to encourage women t o undertake graduate work i n Home Economics. Women, t h e r e f o r e , remained r e l a t i v e l y u n d e r q u a l i f i e d i n u n i v e r s i t y departments t h a t might have ensured a female sphere w i t h i n the academy. In f a c t , i n the t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s t h a t the P-TF p e t i t i o n e d the Board of Governors a t UBC, domestic e d u c a t i o n ceased t o r e t a i n the f e m i n i s t complexion of i t s youth. Whereas i n i t i a l l y the Home Economics movement encompassed aims, both l i b e r a t i v e and c o n s e r v a t i v e , by 1942 the p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l i d e a l s and r e a l i t i e s of women's r o l e s cast the movement i n t o a more r e t r o g r e s s i v e mode. A b r i e f understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the f e m i n i s t aims of the Home Economics movement t o the st a t u s of women w i t h i n a changing c l i m a t e of s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s w i l l h elp t o e x p l a i n , f u r t h e r , how the more r a d i c a l aims became d i l u t e d , and why the e x p e d i t i o u s e s tablishment of Home Economics i n 1942 no longer represented a v i c t o r y f o r f e m i n i s t p o l i t i c s . A l i c e R a v e n h i l l and A d e l a i d e Hoodless advocated women's educ a t i o n f o r t h e i r domestic r o l e s a t a time when maternal feminism was both c r e d i b l e and e f f e c t i v e because i t emerged from a w e l l - d e f i n e d women's c u l t u r e formed i n the l a t e 104 n i n e t e e n t h century. The women's movement i n t h i s p e r i o d was strenghthened by separate female i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t m o b i l i z e d women and gained p o l i t i c a l leverage i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y . 1 2 3 Thus s u f f r a g i s t s developed a s u c c e s s f u l s t r a t e g y , based on the st r e n g t h of women's separate sphere, but designed t o extend women's p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n beyond the domestic sphere. The Home Economics s u p p o r t e r s adopted the same s t r a t e g i e s i n an attempt t o overcome a male b i a s i n e d u c a t i o n . 1 2 4 Schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d Home Economics Departments before, d u r i n g , or immediately f o l l o w i n g WWI, more l i k e l y responded t o the maternal f e m i n i s t aims of t h i s new i n s t r u c t i o n . In f a c t , Home Economics was o f t e n seen as complementary to i n s t r u c t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g f o r men i n an e r a when men and women claimed separate but equal spheres 125 i n the work of n a t i o n b u i l d i n g . Furthermore, the emphasis on the s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s of household s c i e n c e encouraged women t o venture i n t o s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s as an e x t e n s i o n of a l e g i t i m a t e ( s o c i a l l y approved) i n t e r e s t , rather than as a d e v i a t i o n from the i n t e r e s t s u s u a l l y expected of t h e i r sex. The f e m i n i s t aims of the Home Economics movement showed gre a t e r promise w h i l e a separate female sphere p r e v a i l e d . The attempt of the 'new women' i n the 1920's t o a s s i m i l a t e i n t o male dominated i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n s , e f f e c t i v e l y eroded the s t r e n g t h s of a separate female i d e n t i t y , female 126 i n s t i t u t i o n s , and p u b l i c feminism. A f t e r women's s u f f r a g e , women's networks appeared outdated. In the words of one 105 h i s t o r i a n of American feminism, women gave up many of the s t r e n g t h s of the female sphere without g a i n i n g e q u a l l y from the man's world they e n t e r e d . 1 2 7 In B.C. the Home Economics movement was an attempt by many women t o s u s t a i n maternal feminism and recover 'a sphere they had lost'!-'- 2** The Home Economics campaign m o b i l i z e d p u b l i c support i n a manner re m i n i s c e n t of the p r e - s u f f r a g e f e m i n i s t p o l i t i c s . The d e l e g a t i o n s t h a t appeared b e f o r e the Board of Governors of the U n i v e r s i t y , perhaps represented a broad c r o s s - s e c t i o n of female support. However, the membership i n these o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u f f e r e d a severe d e c l i n e from the 1920's t h a t suggests t h e i r f a i l u r e to speak f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y of women. i i : 7 P o s s i b l y , the most vehement Home Economics s u p p o r t e r s were alumni of the p r e - s u f f r a g e female i n s t i t u t i o n s . Although women should be f r e e to determine t h e i r own spheres, ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' education t h a t continued t o s t r e s s homemaking, as women's most e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n i n s o c i e t y was an attempt t o s o l v e new problems wi t h o l d s o l u t i o n s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of feminism. The idea t h a t a degree i n Home Economics might prepare women, who d i d not marry, f o r r e l a t e d p r o f e s s i o n s was put forward i n the t w e n t i e s . But by the t h i r t i e s and f o r t i e s , the i n e q u i t i e s of s o c i e t y made i n c r e a s i n g l y v i s i b l e by the economic d e p r e s s i o n , and the i m p e r a t i v e to harness r e s o u r c e s and i d e a l s once a g a i n t o the war e f f o r t , renewed a t r a d i t i o n a l emphasis on 130 women's pl a c e i n the home as the hub of s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . I t i s more than c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 106 r e a f f i r m e d the i d e a l d i v i s i o n of work a c c o r d i n g t o gender at a time when women were v i s i b l y employed o u t s i d e the home, o f t e n i n c o n v e n t i o n a l l y male a r e a s . 1 3 1 Both the de p r e s s i o n and the war encouraged a female l a b o r f o r c e t h a t would prove temporary i n l i g h t of a s t a b i l i z i n g economy, the r e t u r n of e n l i s t e d men, and the r e v i v a l of c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward women's w o r k . 1 3 2 In the s o c i a l c l i m a t e t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n 1942, domestic ed u c a t i o n f o r women represented a phi l o s o p h y of women's educ a t i o n t h a t was more c o n s e r v a t i v e than p r o g r e s s i v e . In t h i s r e s p e c t , the r e a c t i o n a r y aims inh e r e n t i n the Home Economics movement i n t e r s e c t e d w i t h the p r e v a i l i n g c l i m a t e of s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ; thus the education of women i n Home Economics p r i m a r i l y served s o c i a l imperatives before i n d i v i d u a l or I -JO f e m i n i s t p r e f e r e n c e s . - > J The v a l i d i t y of t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s borne out by the d e c i s i o n s made concerning the Department of Home Economics i n the yea r s f o l l o w i n g the end of the war. K l i n c k ' s r e t i r e m e n t i n J u l y 1944 c o i n c i d e d w i t h a new era of b u i l d i n g the U n i v e r s i t y under a s s i s t a n c e from the Fed e r a l Government, and the i n n o v a t i v e , sometimes unorthodox d e c i s i o n s of P r e s i d e n t Norman A.M. MacKenzie. MacKenzie's i n s t a l l a t i o n address echoed the e a r l i e r c o n v i c t i o n s of UBC's f i r s t p r e s i d e n t , Dr. Frank F. Wesbrook, who a l s o b e l i e v e d : "the U n i v e r s i t y should and must s t r i v e to serve the community and every group and i n d i v i d u a l i n i t . " 1 3 4 To the P-TF's Permanent Committee of the Home Economics Fund, which was s t i l l i n t a c t w h i l e d e l i b e r a t i n g the best use f o r t h e i r $20,000, Dr. MacKenzie's words promised "a f r i e n d l y s p i r i t of c o o p e r a t i o n " ; 107 h i s request i n 1945 t h a t a member of t h i s Committee a c t i n a c o n s u l t a t i v e c a p a c i t y with the U n i v e r s i t y Home Economics Committee was "deeply appreciated."-'- 3 5 MacKenzie, hi m s e l f , a p p r e c i a t e d the s e r v i c e t h a t the Home Economics Department c o u l d render to h i s campus over the next few y e a r s . In 1945-46, r e g i s t r a t i o n a t UBC almost doubled w i t h 2,254 veterans i n a t o t a l student body of 5 , 6 2 1 . 1 3 6 Whereas P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k , who f a c e d an i n c r e a s e i n the student p o p u l a t i o n i n 1931, c o n s u l t e d the f i r e m a r s h a l l and l i m i t e d e n r o l l m e n t , 1 3 7 P r e s i d e n t MacKenzie r e c o g n i z e d the urgent need f o r both classrooms and student housing c o u l d be met by u t i l i z i n g t he abandoned Army and A i r Force camps. Twelve camps were dismantled t o t r a n s p o r t the huts t o the campus t o equip as l e c t u r e rooms and l a b o r a t o r i e s . Four camps remained on t h e i r o r i g i n a l s i t e s t o serve as l i v i n g q u a r t e r s f o r students; two of them, Acadia and F o r t Camps, were adjacent t o the campus; a t h i r d was on L u l u I s l a n d ; and the f o u r t h s i t u a t e d on L i t t l e Mountain, was converted i n t o s u i t e s f o r married 13 8 s t u d e n t s . The problem of how to f e e d 200 s i n g l e and married u n i v e r s i t y students i n campus r e s i d e n c e s was s o l v e d by commandeering d i e t e t i c majors i n Home Economics t o operate the 139 d i n i n g s e r v i c e a t Acadia Camp as p a r t of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n . Here, s u r e l y , was the denouement of th a t o l d debate between E v l y n F a r r i s and A l i c e R a v e n h i l l . Time had v a l i d a t e d F a r r i s * concerns t h a t the emphasis on p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r women a t the U n i v e r s i t y c o u l d d i v e r t t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l e n e r g i e s from, what she termed, p h i l o s o p h i c l e a r n i n g . The f a c t 108 t h a t women comprised the s m a l l e s t m i n o r i t y of the student p o p u l a t i o n i n the post war y e a r s , 1 4 0 while a t the same time some women on campus were a c t i v e l y p e r p e t u a t i n g women's s e r v i c e r o l e i n s o c i e t y , made academic women appear to be an endangered s p e c i e s . I t would be a c o n t e n t i o n of a l a t e r f e m i n i s t movement, the seeds of which were sown i n the y e a r s f o l l o w i n g World War I I , t h a t would suggest t h a t the aims of domestic e d u c a t i o n f o r women's s o c i a l r o l e s ran c o n t r a r y to the aims of higher l e a r n i n g : t o l i b e r a t e the human p o t e n t i a l from the s o c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t may stem from gender, e t h n i c , or c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s . E v l y n F a r r i s had been s i m i l a r l y d i s c o m f i t e d by the prospect of Domestic Science Courses a t the u n i v e r s i t y i n 1913. I t d i d not appear t h a t 'women's work' was more h i g h l y v alued when i t was performed i n the u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g as the Governors were not i n i t i a l l y eager to make a v a i l a b l e adequately equipped f a c i l i t i e s f o r Home Economics. A Committee of the Board of Governors, i n November 1946, a l l o c a t e d funds f o r permanent b u i l d i n g s based on 'the most urgent needs'; a t t h i s time a Home Economics B u i l d i n g was d e f e r r e d i n f a v o r of an A p p l i e d S c i e n c e s B u i l d i n g , and a B i o l o g i c a l Science and 141 Pharmacy B u i l d i n g . The f i r s t Head of the Department of Home Economics, Dorothy Lefebvre, r e s i g n e d on December 31, 1946, to 142 be married. But she took t h i s o c c a s i o n to p r o t e s t the Governors' assessment of p r i o r i t i e s f o r permanent b u i l d i n g s and urged them to r e c o n s i d e r t h e i r d e c i s i o n s i n view of g i f t s 143 r e c e i v e d f o r a Home Economics B u i l d i n g . Lefebvre was 109 r e f e r r i n g t o a $75,000.00 bequest from the l a t e Jonathan R o g e r s 1 4 4 and the $20,000 donation from the P - T F . 1 4 5 The Board was unmoved by t h i s request and the Department of Home Economics continued t o occupy s i x army huts u n t i l January 1949 when they were destroyed by f i r e . There f o l l o w e d some hasty d e c i s i o n s t o e r e c t a permanent b u i l d i n g w i t h the money from Rogers' e s t a t e , the insurance settlement, and the P-TF f u n d . 1 4 6 The Department of Home Economics was thus comfortably housed by October 1949 i n a modern b u i l d i n g , "one of the newest and best equipped i n a l l C a n a d a . " 1 4 7 Seven y e a r s l a t e r , the f i n a l o b j e c t i v e of the home economics campaign was met when a Home Management House was opened i n which students i n t h e i r second year l e a r n e d " s k i l l s and techniques of housekeeping as w e l l as some managerial s k i l l s . " 1 4 8 Although Home Economics e d u c a t i o n appeared t o serve i d e o l o g i e s t h a t were more c o n s e r v a t i v e than p r o g r e s s i v e , and was more o r i e n t e d t o s o c i a l u s e f u l n e s s than t o i n d i v i d u a l f u l f i l m e n t , t h e r e were p r a c t i c a l advantages f o r women with Home Economics degrees. In f a c t , the m a j o r i t y of UBC graduates i n 1946 and 1947 with degrees i n home economics had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g employment i n h o s p i t a l s , s c h o o l s and 149 i n d u s t r y . The maternal f e m i n i s t s i n the inter-war y e a r s were unable t o s o l v e the conundrum of s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of women i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o promote domestic e d u c a t i o n , but they recognized, perhaps, t h a t home economics might prepare women f o r economic r o l e s unchallenged by men. The Department of Home 110 Economics a t UBC c o u l d begin t o s t i m u l a t e a demand f o r graduates t h a t would expand economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women. Without the campaign t h a t was s u s t a i n e d throughout the twenties and t h i r t i e s by women who wanted t o e l e v a t e the s t a t u s of women's work i n the home, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t a Department of Home Economics would have been e s t a b l i s h e d a t UBC. To t h i s end, maternal feminism served t o m o b i l i z e women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o e x e r t continuous p r e s s u r e on the government and the u n i v e r s i t y . However, economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l f o r c e s proved more p e r s u a s i v e then f e m i n i s t p o l i t i c s i n f i n a l l y d etermining the d e c i s i o n of the Board of Governors t o o f f e r t h i s Course f o r women. I l l Notes 1 The establishment of the Dean of Women and of women's re s i d e n c e s i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV. o The i n f l u e n z a epidemic reached Vancouver i n the autumn of 1918. The U n i v e r s i t y suspended l e c t u r e s f o r f i v e weeks on October 20 and the Auditorium and classrooms were converted i n t o h o s p i t a l wards f o r i n f l u e n z a p a t i e n t s . Some of the s t a f f and students v o l u n t e e r e d f o r o r d e r l y and n u r s i n g d u t i e s . Three UBC students d i e d . Jo Ann Whittaker, "The Search f o r L e g i t i m a c y : Nurses' R e g i s t r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1913-1935," i n Latham and Pazdro, p. 315. 4 Whittaker, p. 317. 5 Whittaker, p. 320. The handbook f o r n u r s i n g s tudents a t Vancouver General H o s p i t a l made i t q u i t e apparent t h a t middle c l a s s women wit h s e v e r a l y ears of high school were i n demand. The handbook s t a t e d : "women of s u p e r i o r e d u c a t i o n and refinement w i l l be giv e n p r e f e r e n c e . " See Cavers, p. 30. 6 Whittaker, pp. 318-19. 7 MacEachern was Medical Superintendent from 1913-23. Margaret M. S t r e e t , W a t c h - f i r e s on the Mountains: The L i f e and Wr i t i n g s o f E t h e l Johns. (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1973), p. 115. 8 S t r e e t , p. 115. a The nurses* a s s o c i a t i o n a l s o t r i e d t o e f f e c t changes i n t h e i r working c o n d i t i o n s . 1 0 The shortage of nurses a f t e r the war c o n t r i b u t e d t o the l a c k of s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f . 11 12 13 S t r e e t , p. 130. S t r e e t , p. 116. Wesbrook d i e d October 19, 1918, thr e e weeks be f o r e the end of the war, of kidney disease and p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n z a i n f e c t i o n . 1 4 S t r e e t , p. 117. 1 5 L e t t e r dated 3 May 1920 from A.P. P r o c t o r , R e g i s t r a r of the C o l l e g e of P h y s i c i a n s and Surgeons of B.C. to St a n l e y W. Mathews, S e c r e t a r y , The Senate UBC. See S t r e e t , pp. 128-9. 16 The Senate subsequently asked the B.C. H o s p i t a l 112 A s s o c i a t i o n f o r advice on h o s p i t a l standards f o r the p r a c t i c a l course f o r nurses. Dr. MacEachern, S e c r e t a r y of the H o s p i t a l A s s o c i a t i o n s e t f o r t h the proper standards. 1 7 S t r e e t , p. 117. 118. I P T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n from E t h e l Johns, c i t e d i n S t r e e t , p. 1 Q Sources: S t r e e t , pp. 116-118; Logan, p. 45; U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Senate, Minutes of Meetings, Volume I; U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Board of Governors, Minutes of Meetings. 2 0 UBC Senate Minutes, March 5, 1919. 2 1 UBC Senate Minutes, May 14, 1919. A l l recommendations from Johns a c c o r d i n g t o S t r e e t , p. 22 126. 23 24 25 26 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, February 23, 1920. UBC Senate Minutes, A p r i l 1920. S t r e e t , p. 141. Dr. H.W. H i l l succeeded Dr. R.H. M u l l i n , a f t e r h i s death, as the Head of B a c t e r i o l o g y and P u b l i c H e a l t h . In 1925 the Department of Nursing and P u b l i c H ealth fu s e d and r e t a i n e d Dr. H i l l as the Head. Dr. H i l l had been a colleague, of Dr. Wesbrook a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota. Gibson, p. 191. 27 Enrollment was l i m i t e d t o f i f t e e n i n f i r s t year Nursing and Health i n J u l y 1931. In January 1942, a l l r e g u l a t i o n s l i m i t i n g attendance were waived except f o r Nursing and P u b l i c H e a l t h , and Teacher T r a i n i n g . These l i m i t a t i o n s were r e s c i n d e d a month l a t e r " i n l i g h t of the urgent need f o r nurses and t e a c h e r s a t the present time." UBC Board of Governors Minutes, J u l y 29, 1931; January 26, 1942; February 23, 1942. 2 8 Ann S. Cavers. Our School of Nursing 1899 to 1949 (Vancouver: 1949), p. 24. 29 Soward, p. 315. 30 L e t t e r to P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k from M i n i s t e r of Education, Dr. J.D. MacLean, 1918. Soward, p. 202. 31 Daughters of the middle c l a s s e s were i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o a f f o r d the c o s t s of a u n i v e r s i t y education, both i n terms of t u i t i o n expenses and the a b i l i t y of t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o support a non-wage earner l i v i n g a t home. Also these women were l i k e l y to have completed more y e a r s of secondary 113 s c h o o l i n g and t o f i n d a t t r a c t i v e the prospect of a u n i v e r s i t y degree. 3 2 E t h e l Johns, R.N. Address t o members of the King Edward High School Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n , The Province, January 1, 1923 . 3 3 In a l e t t e r from E t h e l Johns t o Dr. M u r i e l Uprichard, September 16, 1965, Johns wrote: " I t i s apparent t h a t c e r t a i n members of the f a c u l t y of the U n i v e r s i t y disapprove of t h i s i n t r u s i o n by a group of students i n Nursing. What r i g h t had nurses t o U n i v e r s i t y p r i v i l e g e s ? And where d i d they belong? There was no medical school ... no school of education ... not even a Department of Home Economics .... Dr. MacEachern and Dr. M u l l i n came to our rescue ... our proper p l a c e [was] i n the Department of A p p l i e d Science ... Dean Brock agreed. T h i s d e c i s i o n heartened me c o n s i d e r a b l y . I b e l i e v e d then, as I do now, t h a t n u r s i n g i s an a p p l i e d s c i e n c e and t h a t we had a r i g h t to be t h e r e . " S t r e e t , p. 126. 3 4 Cavers, p. 14. 3 5 Without reviewing the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l s u f f r a g e campaigns, s u f f i c e to say t h a t women o f f i c i a l l y r e c e i v e d the r i g h t to vote i n B r i t i s h Columbia on A p r i l 5, 1917 and i n f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s on May 24, 1918. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , under the War Time E l e c t i o n Act, r e l a t i v e s of members of armed f o r c e s were e l i g i b l e to vote from September 20, 1917. See Catherine L. Cleverdon, The Woman S u f f r a g e Movement i n Canada (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1978) . 3 6 The c u r r e n t terminology t h a t puts the emphasis of study on ' f a m i l y and n u t r i t i o n a l s c i e n c e s ' attempts t o make t h i s Department l e s s gender s p e c i f i c i n i t s appeal and e x p e c t a t i o n s . The f e m i n i s t consciousness t h a t s u r f a c e d w i t h the women's movement i n the 1960s i d e n t i f i e d e d u c a t i o n t h a t perpetuated o c c u p a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o sex as both i n e q u i t a b l e and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . In consequence, a few male students chose t h i s school but g e n e r a l l y men a r e l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n the t r a d i t i o n a l l y female p r o f e s s i o n s than the r e v e r s e . 37 The 'Home Economics movement' i d e n t i f i e s , here, the attempts t o e s t a b l i s h the study of Home Economics f o r female students a t the u n i v e r s i t y . 3 8 Robert M. Stamp, "Teaching G i r l s T h e i r 'God Given Place i n L i f e ' : The I n t r o d u c t i o n of Home Economics i n the Schools," A t l a n t i s 2,2, Pa r t I (Spring 1977). T h i s a r t i c l e o u t l i n e s Hoodless' commitment t o home economics e d u c a t i o n as a means of p r o t e c t i n g the f a m i l y from d i s e a s e and death caused by improper n u t r i t i o n , food p r e s e r v a t i o n and u n s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s . She b e l i e v e d t h a t p r a c t i c a l education f o r women would c r e a t e "a higher type of womanhood" and g i v e g r e a t e r r e s p e c t t o the domestic o c c u p a t i o n s . 114 In B r i t i s h Columbia, Mrs. D.L. MacLaurin of the Education Committee of the V i c t o r i a C o u n c i l of Women argued t o the authors of the B.C. Schools Survey t h a t Home Economics " i s pre-eminently the proper and l o g i c a l study f o r womankind" and t h a t i f Home Economics were gi v e n i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e and r e c o g n i t i o n i n educa t i o n " t h a t much u n d e s i r a b l e and unnecessary c o m p e t i t i o n between the sexes w i l l be avoided." C i t e d i n Maureen Sangster Chestnutt, " O r i g i n and Development of Home Economics I n s t r u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1870 to 1951," Unpublished T h e s i s f o r M.Sc. i n Home Economics, C a l i f o r n i a P o l y t e c h n i c State U n i v e r s i t y , San L u i s Obispo, 1975, p. 43. See a l s o Joan M. Burstyn, "Women's Education i n England d u r i n g the Nineteenth Century: A Review of the L i t e r a t u r e , 1970-1976," H i s t o r y of Education, 6, 1(1977), p. 16. Burstyn p o i n t s out t h a t i n the United S t a t e s f o r f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n of women Ph.D.'s i n Zoology and Chemistry were, i n f a c t , the l e a d e r s i n the new f i e l d of Home Economics. 4 0 Burstyn; Marta Danylewycz, Nadia Fahmy-Eid, et N i c o l e T h i v i e r g e , "L'Enseignement Manager et Les "Home Economics" au Quebec e t en O n t a r i o au Dgbut du 20e S i e c l e Une Analyse Comparee," i n An Imperfect Past: Education and S o c i e t y i n Canadian H i s t o r y ^ ecT. J~. Donald Wilson (Vancouver: Centre f o r the Study of Curr i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , 1984). 4 1 The terms ' s e p a r a t i s t ' and 'uncompromising' are taken from the themes of the n i n e t e e n t h century campaign f o r women's educ a t i o n as o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I. 42 Robert M. Stamp, "Adelaide Hoodless, Champion of Women's R i g h t s , " i n P r o f i l e s of Canadian Educators, eds. Robert S. Pat t e r s o n , e t . aT~. (Toronto: Heath, 1974) . A d e l a i d e Hoodless, i n 1897 founded the f i r s t Women's I n s t i t u t e i n Stoney Creek, O n t a r i o . She a l s o o r i g i n a t e d w i t h Lady Aberdeen, the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Women, the V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses, and the YWCA. B r i t i s h Columbia was the second p r o v i n c e t o o r g a n i z e Women's I n s t i t u t e s i n 1909. See a l s o Alexandra Z a c h a r i a s , " B r i t i s h Columbia Women's I n s t i t u t e i n the E a r l y Years: Time t o Remember," i n In Her Own Ri g h t , eds. Barbara Latham and Cathy Kess ( V i c t o r i a : Camosun C o l l e g e , 1980) . A O Vancouver C o u n c i l of Women Papers, Minutes 1912, p. 47, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . A l i c e R a v e n h i l l and her s i s t e r l e f t England i n 1910 to look a f t e r t h e i r brother and h i s son on Vancouver I s l a n d . R a v e n h i l l had been a pioneer i n p r e v e n t a t i v e medicine, p u b l i c h e a l t h , home economics, s a n i t a t i o n and hygiene i n Great B r i t a i n . She was the f i r s t woman Fellow of the Royal S a n i t a r y I n s t i t u t e of London and one of the founding members of the B r i t i s h Columbia Women's I n s t i t u t e . From 1911 to 1917 R a v e n h i l l worked f o r the B.C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e t o or g a n i z e Women's I n s t i t u t e s and w r i t e b u l l e t i n s f o r t h e i r use. By 1915 she was appointed t o the P r o v i n c i a l A d v i s o r y Board — a body comprised of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Women's I n s t i t u t e s who made recommendations t o the 115 Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . In t h i s c a p a c i t y , R a v e n h i l l headed a d e p u t a t i o n f o r the establishment of a Ch a i r of Home Economics a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1917, R a v e n h i l l became D i r e c t o r of Home Economics, Utah State C o l l e g e but re t u r n e d t o V i c t o r i a i n 1919. Although A l i c e R a v e n h i l l d i d not serve on the Board of Governors of UBC, she r e c e i v e d an honourary Doctorate of Science i n 1948. R a v e n h i l l donated the l a r g e s t most v a l u a b l e c o l l e c t i o n the UBC L i b r a r y had y e t r e c e i v e d i n 1923. T h i s g i f t i n c l u d e d books, p e r i o d i c a l s and proceedings of S c i e n t i f i c S o c i e t i e s , many of which c o n t a i n e d her own p u b l i c a t i o n s . Sources f o r R a v e n h i l l : Z a c h a r i a s ; A l i c e R a v e n h i l l , Memories of" ah" E d u c a t i o n a l Pioneer, (Toronto: J.M. Dent, 1951); UBC Scrapbook #16, p. 7. 4 4 Vancouver News-Advertiser, December 2, 1913. 45 Wesbrook addressed the LCW i n 1913 on the subj e c t of women's e d u c a t i o n . In response to the LCW.'s r e s o l u t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h p h y s i c a l education a t UBC, he agreed t h a t p h y s i c a l education a t the u n i v e r s i t y , along w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n i n p u b l i c and p e r s o n a l hygiene c o u l d h e l p s o l v e a number of s o c i a l problems. In an address t o the P r o g r e s s i v e A s s o c i a t i o n i n New Westminster, P r e s i d e n t Wesbrook c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the t r a i n i n g of homemakers was the most important work f a c i n g the U n i v e r s i t y . ( P h y s i c a l Education was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1936, Home Economics i n 1943). UBC scrapbook #2, pp. 78, 85. 4 6 Chestnutt, p. 19. 4 7 The Vancouver Sun, November 20, 1913. 48 The Vancouver Sun, February 26, 1914, i n UBC Scrapbook #2, p. 125. 4 9 See Note 43. 50 There was an h i s t o r i c a l a l l i a n c e between i n s t r u c t i o n i n A g r i c u l t u r e and Home Economics. Home Economics s u p p o r t e r s regarded t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n f o r g i r l s complementary to a g r i c u l t u r e f o r boys. The founding o b j e c t i v e of the Women's I n s t i t u t e was t o promote household s c i e n c e and were funded i n t h e i r endeavors t o disseminate i n f o r m a t i o n i n r u r a l areas by P r o v i n c i a l Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e . R a v e n h i l l appealed then, to t h i s customary a l l i a n c e of a g r i c u l t u r e and home economics i n view of a s u b s t a n t i a l sum that was awarded t o the U n i v e r s i t y by the Dominion Government t o e s t a b l i s h a F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e . 5 1 The D a i l y News-Advertiser, March 13, 1914 i n UBC Scrapbook #2, p. 125. 52 For a more complete d i s c u s s i o n of 'maternal feminism', a term t h a t s i g n i f i e s the concerns and arguments of many of the s u f f r a g i s t s b e f o r e World War I, see V e r o n i c a Strong-Boag, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n I n T i m e s L i k e These, N e l l i e L. McClung, 116 (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1972) . 53 E l i z a b e t h Berry, B . S c , Supervisor of Home Economics, Vancouver C i t y Schools, wrote i n 1922, "Many n a r r o w l y - c u l t u r e d women s t i l l o b j e c t t o t h i s i n n o v a t i o n on the ground t h a t i t i s a method of again assuming a yoke from which woman has only r e c e n t l y f r e e d h e r s e l f . " Western Woman's Weekly, A p r i l 1, 1922. U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club of Vancouver, Minutes, V o l . 1, Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s . For example: The Minutes of the meeting October 5, 1926 record P r e s i d e n t E v l y n F a r r i s ' absence from the meeting i n which the E d u c a t i o n a l Committee recommended t h a t the UWC support the P r o v i n c i a l Parent- Peacher F e d e r a t i o n t o endow a Ch a i r of Home Economics a t UBC. F a r r i s was absent October 19, 1926 when a f u n d r a i s i n g b r i d g e game was o r g a n i z e d t o r a i s e money f o r Home Economics. Als o on A p r i l 5, 1927 when t h i s e f f o r t was repeated. 5 5 UBC B u i l d i n g Plans, Thompson, Berwick, P r a t t and P a r t n e r s A r c h i t e c t u r a l Records, UBC Main L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . A l s o a l e t t e r to the Premier from C h a n c e l l o r F. Ca r t e r - C o t t o n , December 17, 1914, p r o j e c t e d the c o s t s based on plans t o provide f o r a r t s and s c i e n c e , mining and other e n g i n e e r i n g branches i n 1915; a g r i c u l t u r e and domestic s c i e n c e i n 1916; f o r e s t r y i n 1917 "... these being the l i n e s of work which most c l o s e l y a f f e c t the w e l l b e i n g of the people and the l i f e and the i n d u s t r i a l development of the P r o v i n c e . " UBC Board of Governors, Minutes, December 17, 1914. 5 6 The U n i v e r s i t i e s of Aberta, Manitoba, M c G i l l , Saskatchewan and Toronto o f f e r e d degree courses, i n Household Science by 1920. The Department became a School at Saskatchewan i n 1928 and the B.H.Sc. was s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the B.A. i n 1929. Robin S. H a r r i s , A H i s t o r y of Higher Education i n Canada 1663-1960 (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1976), p. 407. 57 UBC Senate, Minutes of Meetings, March 15, 1919; A p r i l 2, 1919, V o l . 1, pp. 86, 95. 5 8 UBC Senate, Minutes of Meetings, May 14, 1919, October 15, 1919; UBC Board of Governors Minutes, May 26, 1919. 5 9 UBC Senate, Minutes of Meetings, May 14, 1919. 6 0 UBC Senate, Minutes of Meetings, May 5, 1920. The meeting took p l a c e February 23, 1920. 61 I b i d . L e t t e r from Board of Governors, A p r i l 28, 1920. 6 9 F o s t e r , Chapter 4. 6 3 C h e s t n u t t , p. 29. 64 The C o u n c i l of Women l o s t a l a r g e measure of i t s e a r l i e r 117 p r e s t i g e and i n f l u e n c e i n the decades f o l l o w i n g World War I. T h i s was due i n p a r t , to a general l o s s i n s t a t u s of gender s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s a f t e r the v i c t o r y of women's s u f f r a g e made them appear outdated and membership d e c l i n e d . A l s o , with a s h i f t to more b u r e a u c r a t i c and s p e c i a l i z e d agencies f o r reform, s o c i a l work, and education, the LCW. r e l i n q u i s h e d some of these f u n c t i o n s . 65 66 67 68 Reeve, p. 17. Western Woman's Weekly, January 21, 1922. Western Woman's Weekly, January 28, 1922. From December 1917 t o J u l y 1924 the Western Woman's  Weekly, was e d i t e d and p u b l i s h e d every Thursday i n Vancouver by Miss Amy Kerr and her s i s t e r Mrs. P o l l a n g e r Pogue. It was the o f f i c i a l organ of the most a c t i v e of Vancouver's women's c l u b s . The purpose of t h i s newspaper was t o "reach and u n i t e the great e r p u b l i c " on i s s u e s deemed important t o the women of B.C. 6 9 E l i z a b e t h Berry, "why i s Home Economics a School S u b j e c t ? " Western Woman's Weekly, A p r i l 1, 1922. 7 0 F r e d e r i c k Henry Sykes, "The S o c i a l B a s i s of the New Education f o r Women" i n Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 18, 1917, pp. 226-242. Sykes reco g n i z e d t h a t women's primary work was homemaking but i n the urban context, s c h o o l s , l i b r a r i e s , parks, playgrounds, and h o s p i t a l s a l l became " s p l e n d i d e x t e n s i o n s of the home." 71 Berry, "Why i s Home Economics a School Subject?". 7 2 I b i d . 73 The Vancouver Province, November 12, 1920, i n UBC Scrapbook #12, p. 80. 74 Some of the more a c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d e d the Women's I n s t i t u t e s , the L o c a l C o u n c i l s of Women, the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club and the Women's Canadian Club. 7 5 "Synopsis of h i s t o r y of movement t o e s t a b l i s h a degree course ....", i n Home Economics Scrapbook, Box 1, Department of Home Economics, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . 7 6 I b i d . 77 "Short H i s t o r y " , Department of Home Economics, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . T h i s typed h i s t o r y by an unknown author c o n t a i n s the a l l e g a t i o n t h a t a brewery o f f e r e d t o match the sum r a i s e d by the women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s so t h a t the Cha i r of Home Economics c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d but the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i v e r s i t y was not w i l l i n g t o accept ' t a i n t e d money.' 118 7 8 UBC Board of Governors, Minutes, December 22, 1928. T h i s d e l e g a t i o n from the P r o v i n c i a l Parent-Teacher F e d e r a t i o n was l e d by (Mrs.) O l i v e Muirhead and (Mrs.) C h a r l o t t e E. Rae, who would remain the spokeswomen f o r the P-TF campaign u n t i l 1949. The L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women was represented by (Mrs.) Paul Smith and Mary F a l l i s . 7 9 Canon Joshua H i n c h l i f f e had been c r i t i c a l of the U n i v e r s i t y and i t s p o l i c i e s s i n c e 1920. As an MLA he j o i n e d i n the a t t a c k on the h i s t o r y t e x t by Canadian W.L. Grant, c h a r g i n g t h a t i t was a n t i - B r i t i s h . Mack Eastman and W.N. Sage of the UBC h i s t o r y department defended the t e x t but J.D. MacLean, L i b e r a l M i n i s t e r of Education, withdrew i t from B.C. s c h o o l s . Again i n 1923, H i n c h l i f f e a t t a c k e d the ' a n t i - B r i t i s h s p i r i t ' at UBC as r e f l e c t e d i n i t s t e x t s and remarks made by P r o f e s s o r Sedgewick i n defense of a student who v o i c e d h i s o b j e c t i o n t o the B r i t i s h d i s m i s s a l of Canadian v a l o r i n World War I. H i n c h l i f f e ' s apparent r e c e p t i v i t y to the Home Economics d e l e g a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , to d i s c r e d i t the U n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t o strengthen h i s own p o t e n t i a l to i n t e r c e d e . See a l s o Note 54. On the banning of the h i s t o r y t e x t , see Cha r l e s W. Humphries, "The Banning of a Book i n B r i t i s h Columbia," BC S t u d i e s 1 (1968-69), pp. 1-12. 8 0 A grant of $20,000 was intended t o e s t a b l i s h both a Department of Home Economics and Economics. UBC Board of Governors Minutes, January 28, 1929, p. 1452. 8 1 UBC Board of Governors, Minutes, March 31, 1930. 9,7 UBC Board of Governors, Minutes, A p r i l 28, 1930. UBC Board of Governors, Minutes, May 26, 1930. OA ° Chestnutt, p. 65. p c UBC Board of Governors Minutes, November 30, 1931. 8 6 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, A p r i l 22, 1932. Although P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k had t r a v e l l e d t o e a s t e r n Canada i n 1930 to study the equipment and accommodation needed f o r Home Economics, and t o i n t e r v i e w c a n d i d a t e s t o s t a f f t h i s Department, only one appointment/expenditure was i n c u r r e d . In October 1931, the f i r s t appointment charged t o the Home Economics Department was f o r a Phy s i c s a s s i s t a n t — Mr. P. Armstrong. The unused p o r t i o n of the grant was re t u r n e d t o the P r o v i n c i a l Treasury to be used f o r compensations t o d i s c h a r g e d employees — the r e s u l t of the d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n i n the budget. 87 In view of t h i s E d u c a t i o n M i n i s t e r ' s h i s t o r i c a l a n t i p a t h y toward the U n i v e r s i t y (see Note 46) i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to imagine H i n c h l i f f e ' s i n t e n t i o n s t o undermine a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s . Logan observed t h a t H i n c h l i f f e d i d not approve of the U n i v e r s i t y as i t was then being a d m i n i s t e r e d , 119 t h a t h i s own experience w i t h Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l systems was n e g l i g i b l e , and he had l i t t l e sympathy with the i d e a l of popular e d u c a t i o n . He was convinced t h a t standards of the U n i v e r s i t y were not high enough, and he suspected t h a t many of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s a c t i v i t i e s were w a s t e f u l . He d i s l i k e d the p r o f e s s i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l courses and foc u s s e d h i s a t t a c k s on the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e . M i n i s t e r H i n c h l i f f e a l s o adopted the p r a c t i c e of a t t e n d i n g Board meetings and arranged f o r them to be h e l d i n the M i n i s t e r ' s Room i n the Vancouver Court House. T h i s environment had a harmful e f f e c t upon the d i s c u s s i o n s . Logan, p. 110. I t i s d o u b t f u l , then, t h a t H i n c h l i f f e ' s support of Home Economics represented a n y t h i n g more than a ch a l l e n g e to the P r e s i d e n t and the Governors' management, while g i v i n g the appearance of responding t o the demands of p u b l i c o p i n i o n . The re p u r c u s s i o n s of these p o l i t i c s proved d e s t r u c t i v e to a l l i n t e r e s t s . pq The Home Economics i s s u e was r e a l l y the l a s t straw i n an i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t t h a t saw F a c u l t i e s competing f o r scarce r e s o u r c e s . For d e t a i l s of t h i s complex and b i t t e r s t r u g g l e see Logan, pp. 109-120. 89 Judge Peter Lampman, Report, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . Q Q L e t t e r to E d i t o r from A l i c e Townley, Vancouver Province, J u l y 31, 1932. UBC Scrapbook #19, p. 43. Townley quotes ( a c c u r a t e l y ) from Lampman's r e p o r t . See Note 62. 91 See F o s t e r . 9 2 See Chapter I I I . 93 In the same way th a t H i n c h l i f f e used the Home Economics contingent t o undermine the U n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the Governors may have wished t o gai n p u b l i c sympathy f o r the c o n t i n u a l l a c k of funds. 9 4 C l e a r l y , t h i s c o n f l i c t r e f l e c t e d a f a i l u r e i n the p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d t o n e g o t i a t e s o l u t i o n s t o what amounted to t h e i r own i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s r e f e r s t o Canon H i n c h l i f f e ' s understanding of Canadian post- secondary education i n the tw e n t i e t h century and a l s o to P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k ' s . 9 5 A l i c e Townley was an a c t i v e member of the LCW, Vancouver, founding member of the Vancouver Women's Press Club, Vancouver Womens' Canadian Club, member of the Imperial Order of Daughters of the Empire, the S o c i e t y f o r the Prev e n t i o n of C r u e l t y to Animals, the Women's Musical Club, the King Edward Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n , the Women's I n s t i t u t e and other A r t s and S c i e n t i f i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . Townley was a l s o founder and p r e s i d e n t of the BC Equal F r a n c h i s e A s s o c i a t i o n 1912-1917 and other p o l i t i c a l c l u b s . She was the f i r s t woman e l e c t e d t o the Vancouver Park Board, 1928-1935. Townley authored s e v e r a l 120 p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g P o i n t s i n the Laws of B r i i s h Columbia R e g a r d i n g t h e L e g a l Status of Women (1911). Source: Linda Louise Hale, "Appendix: Votes f o r Women: P r o f i l e s of Prominent B r i t i s h Columbia S u f f r a g i s t s and S o c i a l Reformers," i n Latham and Kess, pp. 301-2. 96 Here again the argument emerged t h a t Home Economics e d u c a t i o n f o r women was the c o e d u c a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e to A g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g f o r men. In view of the s t r u g g l e of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e t o s u r v i v e d u r i n g the con t r o v e r s y at the U n i v e r s i t y , t h i s analogy had an i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . 97 See the f i n d i n g s of the Kidd Committee i n Logan, p. 119. 98 Address by C h a r l o t t e E. Rae, Co-Chairman of the Permanent Committee of the Home Economics Endowment Fund, d e l i v e r e d a t the opening of the Home Economics B u i l d i n g , UBC, October 26, 1949. Department of Home Economics, Box 1, UBC L i b r a r y , UBC A r c h i v e s , qq UBC Board of Governors Minutes, May 30, 1932; November 30, 1936; February 22, 1937; May 22, 1937; May 28, 1938; May 30, 1938; November 28, 1938. 1 0 0 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, November 30, 1936. Al s o , Rae's address, Department of Home Economics, Box 1, UBC L i b r a r y , UBC A r c h i v e s . 1 0 1 P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k wrote, "Report to the Board of Governors," f o l l o w i n g the request by a d e l e g a t i o n , under the au s p i c e s of the P r o v i n c i a l Parent-Teacher F e d e r a t i o n , t h a t the degree course i n Home Economics be resumed. Department of Home Economics, Box 1, Folder 2, UBC L i b r a r y , UBC A r c h i v e s . l 02 K l i n c k , Home Economics Report. 1 0 3 Logan, pp. 120-1. 104 In 1935 the L i b e r a l s were e l e c t e d w i t h T.D. P a t u l l o as the Premier. Dr. G.M. Weir was on le a v e of absence as Head of the Education Department a t UBC from 1933-41 while he served as the M i n i s t e r of Education and the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y . 1 0 5 J.H. Putnam and G.M. Weir, Survey of the School System ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1925). Weir was regarded as a p r o g r e s s i v e educator. See Jean Mann, "G.M. Weir and H.B. King: P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t i o n or Education f o r the P r o g r e s s i v e S t a t e ? " i n S c h o o l i n g a n d S o c i e t y i n 20th Century B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , J . Donald Wilson and David CT Jones eds., (Cal g a r y : D e t s e l i g E n t e r p r i s e s , 1980) . 1 0 6 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, March 22, 1937. 107 L e t t e r to Is a b e l S a l t e r , S e c r e t a r y Permanent Committee 121 of the Home Economics Endowment Fund from P r e s i d e n t L.S. K l i n c k , March 30, 1937, Department of Home Economics, Box 1, UBC L i b r a r y , UBC A r c h i v e s . 1 0 8 Logan, p. 121. 1 0 9 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, January 30, 1939. Dr. Weir wanted p r o v i s i o n a l s o f o r " N u t r i t i o n a l D i e t e t i c s . 1 1 1 0 I s a b e l S a l t e r , S e c r e t a r y Permanent Committee of the Home Economics Endowment Fund, Typed Report, Department of Home Economics, Box 1, UBC L i b r a r y , UBC A r c h i v e s . 1 1 1 I b i d . 1 1 2 The Vancouver Pr 6v in c e , February 4, 1942. Home Economics Scrapbook, p. 30, Department of Home Economics, Box 1, UBC L i b r a r y , UBC A r c h i v e s . 1 1 3 Logan, p. 168. 1 1 4 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, September 28, 1942. 1 1 5 I b i d . 1 1 6 In 1929-30 the grant was awarded f o r $20,000.00 and i n 1931 i t amounted t o $25,000.00. UBC Board of Governors Minutes, February 24, 1930; March 16, 1931. In 1943 i t was $14,570.00. 1 1 7 Although i n the 1920s and 1930s the Governors had not f e l t o b l i g e d t o implement the Senate's recommendations t o e s t a b l i s h a Home Economics Course, the p u b l i c i t y surrounding the is s u e and the avowed sympathy of the P r e s i d e n t , i n the 1940s, ensured t h a t the Board of Governors c o u l d not e a s i l y overcome the Senate's s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t Home Economics should be giv e n p r i o r i t y . l i p . UBC Board of Governors Minutes, V o l . 22, January 25, 1943. 119 120 I b i d . UBC Board of Governors Minutes, V o l . 22, May 31, 1943. (Miss) Dorothy P. Lefebvre, B.H.Sc. (Sask.), M.S. (Iowa State) was appointed A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r and A c t i n g Head f o r three y e a r s a t $3,800.00 per annum. (Miss) C h a r l o t t e S. Black was appointed A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r at $3,400.00 per annum. S t e l l a B e i l , B.Sc. i n Home Economics, M.Sc. (Kansas State) was A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r a t $2,800.00 per annum. UBC Board of Governors Minutes, June 28, 1943; J u l y 26, 1943. 191 C h a r l o t t e S. Black, D i r e c t o r , "Report on School of Home Economics, 1951-52," Department of Home Economics, Box 1, UBC L i b r a r y , UBC A r c h i v e s . Black r e p o r t e d t h a t Home Economics 122 graduates c o u l d be found employed i n h o s p i t a l s , department s t o r e s , b u s i n e s s e s , schools and h e a l t h departments "... so you may see t h a t the School of Home Economics a t UBC i s making a c o n t r i b u t i o n i n the country. Close to one h a l f of the graduates a r e now married and i n homes of t h e i r own ... we have a l a r g e number of ' g r a n d - c h i l d r e n . ' " 122 I f a f a c u l t y woman were to marry she endangered her p o s i t i o n . S t e l l a McGuire was allowed t o share the t e a c h i n g d u t i e s i n E n g l i s h w i t h her husband who s u f f e r e d poor h e a l t h a f t e r World War I. Dorothy Blakey i n the f o r t i e s sought K l i n c k ' s assurance t h a t she c o u l d keep her p o s i t i o n a t UBC when she married because she c o u l d not a f f o r d t o marry without her job. Dr. Dorothy Blakey Smith, Taped i n t e r v i e w . 1 2 3 See Freedman. In B r i t i s h Columbia some measure of t h i s female i n s t i t u t i o n b u i l d i n g i s evi d e n t i n Weiss' t h e s i s . 124 F o r example, Mrs. D.L. MacLaurin, r e p r e s e n t i n g the V i c t o r i a LCW to the Putnam-Weir Survey i n 1925, expressed the importance of Home Economics courses f o r g i r l s and young women i n terms t h a t were f a m i l i a r to the maternal f e m i n i s t s . MacLaurin concluded her p r e s e n t a t i o n : "We b e l i e v e t h a t the home i s the n a t u r a l and r i g h t f u l domain of woman, and t h e r e f o r e t h a t Home Economics, the scie n c e of the Home, i s pre-eminently the proper and l o g i c a l study f o r womankind; we b e l i e v e ... [that] many other s o c i a l problems [ w i l l be] s o l v e d when the d i g n i t y of homemaking i s adequately recognized and Home Economics gi v e n i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n a n a t i o n a l ... scheme of ed u c a t i o n . " Chestnutt, p. 43. 1 25 Adelaide Hoodless won S i r W i l l i a m Macdonald's support f o r Home Economics and the Macdonald I n s t i t u t e of Home Economics was e s t a b l i s h e d a t the A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e i n Guelph, O n t a r i o i n 1904 — the f i r s t c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n f o r women i n Home Economics i n the country. G i l l e t t , p. 348. 126 T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s i m p l i c i t i n Freedman 1s a n a l y s i s . I t i s a l s o suggested i n Lee Stewart, "Women on Campus i n B r i t i s h Columba: S t r a t e g i e s f o r S u r v i v a l , Years of War and Peace 1906-1920," i n Latham and Pazdro. I 2 7 Freedman, p. 529. 128 A p o l o g i e s t o Peter L a s l e t t f o r r e p h r a s i n g of "the world we have l o s t . " 129 The d e c l i n e of women's c l u b membership i n B . C . i s noted by Weiss, and, i n Canada, by Ve r o n i c a Strong-Boag, The Pariiament of Wornen. 1 3 0 . Karen Anderson, Wartime Women: Sex Roles, Family R e l a t i o n s , a n d t h e Status of Women du r i n g World War II (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1981) pp. 110-111; Mary Vipond, 123 "The Image of Women i n Mass C i r c u l a t i o n Magazines i n the 1920s," The Neglected M a j o r i t y ; Essays i n Canadian Women's H i s t o r y , Susan Mann T r o f imenkoff and A l i s o n P r e n t i c e eds., (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1977) pp. 116-124; Ruth P i e r s o n , "Women's Emancipation and the Recruitment of Women i n t o the Labour Force i n World War I I , " i n Tro f i m e n k o f f and P r e n t i c e , pp. 125-145. 1 3 1 Vipond. T O O J- J* P i e r s o n ; Susan Hartmann, " P r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r Penelope: L i t e r a t u r e on Women's O b l i g a t i o n s t o Returning World War II Vete r a n s , " Women's St u d i e s 5(1978), pp. 223-29. 133 T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s reached a l s o by J i l l K. Conway, " P e r s p e c t i v e s on the H i s t o r y of Women's Education i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " H i s t ory of Education Q u a r t e r l y , 14(1974), pp. 1-12. Conway s t a t e s : "The development of women's p r o f e s s i o n s should thus be i n t e r p r e t e d as a c o n s e r v a t i v e t r e n d by which the p o t e n t i a l f o r change inh e r e n t i n changed e d u c a t i o n a l experience was s t i l l - b o r n and women's i n t e l l e c t u a l e n e r g i e s were channeled i n t o p e r p e t u a t i n g women's s e r v i c e r o l e i n s o c i e t y rather than i n t o independent and s e l f - j u s t i f y i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l endeavor." p. 9. 1 3 4 Logan, p. 173. 135 "Report" by O l i v e Muirhead and C h a r l o t t e Rae, Co-Chairmen of the Permanent Committee of the Home Economics Fund, October 25, 1959, Department of Home Economics, Box 1, UBC L i b r a r y , UBC A r c h i v e s . •jog The i n c r e a s e d enrollment was p o s s i b l e because of the Fed e r a l Government's a s s i s t a n c e , the admissions p o l i c y adopted by the N a t i o n a l Conference of Canada on U n i v e r s i t i e s , and the d e c i s i o n of the P r e s i d e n t and Board of Governors t o r e j e c t no one w i t h entrance q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Logan, pp. 175-76. 1 3 7 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, March 25, 1931; Logan, p. 112. I n i t i a l l y l i m i t a t i o n of enrollment was a matter f o r the government t o decide b e f o r e an amendment t o the U n i v e r s i t y Act empowered the Board t o enforce t h i s d e c i s i o n . 138 Logan, p. 176. 139 140 141 142 143 Chestnutt. See Chapter 5. UBC Board of Governors Minutes, November 25, 1946. Lefebvre was succeeded by C h a r l o t t e S. Black. UBC Board of Governors Minutes, December 30, 1946. 124 The Rogers bequest was r e c e i v e d i n January 1946 f o r the e r e c t i o n of a b u i l d i n g t o house the Department of Home Economics. UBC Board of Governors Minutes, January 28, 1946. 1 4 5 In October 1944 the P-TF f i n a l l y r e l i n q u i s h e d the $20,000.00 they had r a i s e d f o r Home Economics. The P-TF and the UBC Board of Governors agreed t h a t the money would be used f o r the e r e c t i o n and equipping of a Home Management House on the U n i v e r s i t y Campus. UBC Board of Governors Minutes, A p r i l 24, 1944; October 30, 1944. 1 4 6 The money from the P-TF fund was a c t u a l l y 'borrowed' at t h i s time because i t had a l r e a d y been designated f o r a Home Management House. The d e c i s i o n t o e r e c t a Home Economics b u i l d i n g was not without f u r t h e r c o n t r o v e r s y . C o n t r a c t o r s v o c a l i z e d t h e i r c r i t i c i s m of the UBC a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r not su b m i t t i n g the p r o j e c t f o r tender. P r e s i d e n t MacKenzie defended h i s a c t i o n s by c l a i m i n g t h a t the b u i l d i n g was needed immediately and funded by p r i v a t e not p u b l i c monies whose exact amount was not known. MacKenzie was i n the h a b i t of e x p e d i t i n g procedures and t a k i n g on heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s i n the post war p e r i o d s i n c e he had been given a u t h o r i z a t i o n by the Board of Governors t o take "emergency a c t i o n ... as may be necessary i n respec t of s t a f f , equipment and accommodation," UBC Board of Governors Minutes, September 24, 1945. 1 4 7 Muirhead and Rae, "Report". The l a r g e amount of money t h a t had been l e f t f o r the U n i v e r s i t y f o r the Home Economics B u i l d i n g by Jonathan Rogers, convinced some people t h a t the b u i l d i n g should be named a f t e r t h i s donor. T h i s p r o p o s i t i o n was d i s c u s s e d by the Board of Governors who ( s e n s i b l y and s e n s i t i v e l y ) d e c i d e d a plaque and Rogers' p o r t r a i t would s u f f i c e . I t would have been a f i n a l i r o n y , indeed, i f the women of B r i t i s h Columbia whose e n e r g i e s were d i r e c t e d t o t h i s cause f o r many years had seen t h e i r p r o j e c t named f o r a male be n e f a c t o r , a l b e i t , Rogers' bequest was g r a t e f u l l y r e c e i v e d . UBC Board of Governors Minutes, September 26, 1949, October 31, 1949. 148 "General H i s t o r y of Home Management Houses;" "UBC Home Management House H i s t o r y , " Department of Home Economics, Box 1, Fol d e r 4, UBC L i b r a r y , UBC A r c h i v e s . The Home Management House was b u i l t w i t h f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e from the Women's Committee of the UBC Alumni Development Fund and the continued i n t e r e s t and donations of B.C. women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 149 "Reporting on the U n i v e r s i t y , " Department of Home Economics, Box 1, UBC L i b r a r y , UBC A r c h i v e s . 125 CHAPTER IV THE ACCOMMODATION OF THE UNIVERSITY TO WOMEN: THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DEAN OF WOMEN AND WOMEN'S RESIDENCES Dean of Worneh P r i o r to 1921, the d u t i e s of the Dean of Women a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were i n f o r m a l l y taken up by va r i o u s women a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the u n i v e r s i t y , e i t h e r on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e or at the request of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and stud e n t s . P r e s i d e n t Wesbrook f i r s t requested a s s i s t a n c e from the wives of f a c u l t y members t o approve boarding houses f o r students from out of town. 1 The f a c u l t y wives subsequently organized i n t o the F a c u l t y Women's Club w i t h the o b j e c t i v e s of promoting s o c i a b i l i t y among the f a c u l t y and s t a f f , of t a k i n g an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n student a f f a i r s , and of l e n d i n g such s e r v i c e s t o u n i v e r s i t y a c t i v i t i e s as might be needed from time to time. The F a c u l t y Women's Club welcomed new women students, h e l d t e a s f o r the j u n i o r and s e n i o r women, v i s i t e d s i c k s tudents, and e n t e r t a i n e d students i n members' homes on Sundays. 2 In the absence of other female f a c u l t y members a t MUCBC i n Vancouver, or at UBC before 1921, I s a b e l S. Maclnnes, P r o f e s s o r of Modern Languages, f u l f i l l e d a d d i t i o n a l d u t i e s as chaperone and patron a t the students' s o c i a l and c l u b f u n c t i o n s . Although i n l a t e r y e a r s she denied t h a t she was an u n o f f i c i a l Dean of 3 Women, at the end of the war when men retu r n e d t o the 126 classroom i n gr e a t e r numbers, Maclnnes, arr o g a t e d t o h e r s e l f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of reminding her students "what c o l l e g e women d i d and d i d n ' t do." 4 I s a b e l Maclnnes served, i n 1919-21, as P r e s i d e n t of the F a c u l t y Women's Club, which i n c l u d e d female f a c u l t y members as they appeared a t the u n i v e r s i t y . 5 These women, then, were f a m i l i a r with the v a r i e t y of tasks t h a t needed t o be performed i n the i n t e r e s t s of women students; i t was l i k e l y t h i s awareness t h a t l e d the F a c u l t y Women's Club t o recommend t o Pr e s i d e n t Wesbrook i n January 1918 the appointment of an A c t i n g Dean of Women.6 The F a c u l t y Women's Club may a l s o have grown t i r e d of s h o u l d e r i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the u n i v e r s i t y f o r female students. Maclnnes claimed t h a t her heavy lo a d of t e a c h i n g f o r c e d her to e v e n t u a l l y drop out of the F a c u l t y Women's Club as an a c t i v e 7 member. The Club, e v i d e n t l y , thought i t was time the U n i v e r s i t y f o r m a l l y accommodated female students w i t h a Dean of Women. Wesbrook's i l l n e s s and the Club's sympathies toward h i s wi f e , Anne Wesbrook, a l s o the Club's V i c e P r e s i d e n t i n 1917-18, undoubtedly tempered the amount of pre s s u r e the Club was w i l l i n g t o e x e r t a t t h i s time. The i s s u e s u r f a c e d a g a i n a year l a t e r at a general meeting of the Women's Undergraduate S o c i e t y (WUS). In February 1919, the young women a t UBC decided t h a t there was an ever i n c r e a s i n g need f o r the o f f i c i a l appointment of a Dean of Women. On t h i s o c c a s i o n a committee was chosen t o o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n from the Alma Mater S o c i e t y (AMS) — the students' s o c i e t y — to p e t i t i o n Dean K l i n c k and the Board of Governors 127 f o r such an appointment. I t i s unclear whether t h i s d e c i s i o n r e s u l t e d from any p a r t i c u l a r g r i e v a n c e s h e l d by women students a t t h i s time. They d i d i n d i c a t e , however, t h a t as they formed a s i g n i f i c a n t number i n the student body, " t h e i r need can no longer be o v e r l o o k e d . " 8 E v i d e n t l y , a Dean of Women represented t o these women a r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r own st a t u s w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y community, as w e l l as an o f f i c e of p r a c t i c a l value to female students. The f o l l o w i n g month, the Board of Governors expressed i t s sympathy with the WUS request and promised t h a t i n the event of the U n i v e r s i t y ' s moving t o Point Grey, i t would be given e a r l y Q and s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A c t i o n was thus d e f e r r e d by the Board w h i l e the U n i v e r s i t y was housed i n i t s 'temporary' q u a r t e r s . The women students again argued t h e i r case f o r a Dean of Women i n t h e i r s p e c i a l issue of the student newspaper, Ubyssey, February 17, 1921. T h i s i s s u e e n t i t l e d "Arts Women's Number" i n c l u d e d a v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t s of i n t e r e s t t o the women students, i n a d d i t i o n t o an a r t i c l e t h a t supported a Dean of Women a t UBC. The author of t h i s e d i t o r i a l o u t l i n e d not only the u n i v e r s i t y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o women i n t h i s matter, but a l s o the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and a t t r i b u t e s t h a t would recommend a woman f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n . The a r t i c l e s t r e s s e d the importance of the c o l l e g e woman ...as a f a c t o r i n Canadian l i f e . . . o f whom great t h i n g s are expected. The type of woman she i s t o be i s the v i t a l concern of the u n i v e r s i t y . 128 The a r t i c l e suggested a l s o t h a t a Dean of Women should be a sc h o l a r who would serve as an i n s p i r a t i o n f o r undergraduate women. She should be a woman of some age and experience, with a good judgement and a knowledge of l i f e ; a l o v a b l e woman, d i g n i f i e d and reasonable; one who understands the Canadian c h a r a c t e r and i d e a l s , and sympathizes with them. That the women students w i l l respect her, she should be i n f l u e n t i a l i n the management of the u n i v e r s i t y a f f a i r s and h o l d a p o s i t i o n of adequate a u t h o r i t y . A f t e r g i v i n g examples of the Dean's work a t Queen's U n i v e r s i t y and a t the Royal V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e f o r Women a t M c G i l l , the a r t i c l e concluded, . . . I f we t h i n k how much c e r t a i n p r o f e s s o r s always mean t o the young men of a u n i v e r s i t y , we s h a l l r e a l i z e perhaps the great d i f f e r e n c e which a Dean of Women would make i n a g i r l ' s f our years of c o l l e g e . I t ' s up t o the u n i v e r s i t y to take care of i t s type. Here, then, was a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t female students recognized both the d i f f i c u l t i e s of a s s i m i l a t i o n i n a male o r i e n t e d environment, and the c o n f l i c t s i n s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f a c e d by women a t the u n i v e r s i t y . These students i d e n t i f i e d the appointment of a Dean of Women as the means whereby the u n i v e r s i t y might a f f i r m women's place w i t h i n the academic community. By 1921, thr e e f a c t s became i n c r e a s i n g l y evident t o the u n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : the growth i n the student p o p u l a t i o n was g r e a t e r than had been a n t i c i p a t e d , even without the i n f l u x of r e t u r n i n g war v e t e r a n s ; the government grants would continue t o f a l l s h o r t of p r o j e c t e d e x p e n d i t u r e s ; and the 129 U n i v e r s i t y would not be moving t o Point Grey i n the near f u t u r e . The appointment of a Dean of Women i n these circumstances, t h e r e f o r e , came somewhat as a s u r p r i s e . Although the u n i v e r s i t y r e c e i v e d no i n c r e a s e i n funds from the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r the f o l l o w i n g year, P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k , nonetheless, assured students, i n an i n t e r v i e w conducted by Ubyssey s t a f f i n March, t h a t an allowance had been made f o r a Dean of Women f o r the next s e s s i o n . 1 3 On h i s r e t u r n from d i s c u s s i o n s with u n i v e r s i t y p r e s i d e n t s i n E a s t e r n Canada i n the summer of 1 9 2 1 , 1 4 P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k recommended and the Board approved the appointment of Miss Mary Louise B o l l e r t , M.A. , as the new "Advisor of Women" and A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of E n g l i s h . 1 5 By making B o l l e r t an "Advisor to Women" ra t h e r than a Dean, both the st a t u s and the s a l a r y of t h i s p o s i t i o n dropped 16 s i g n i f i c a n t l y . S i m i l a r l y , by h i r i n g a woman without a doct o r a t e to teach i n the Department of E n g l i s h , the U n i v e r s i t y was not o b l i g e d t o o f f e r an i n i t i a l appointment above the l e v e l of A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r . The U n i v e r s i t y thus h i r e d B o l l e r t a t the minimal remuneration of $3,000 per annum f o r a p e r i o d of 17 three y e a r s . C l e a r l y , i t hoped t o comply nominally with the request of female students, with as l i t t l e expenditure as p o s s i b l e . I t appeared t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y d i d not want t o i n v e s t much a u t h o r i t y i n t h i s p o s i t i o n . In the autumn of 1921, Pre s i d e n t K l i n c k f o r m a l l y i n t r o d u c e d Mary B o l l e r t , Advisor to Women, to the female students. He c l a r i f i e d the extent and l i m i t a t i o n s of her j u r i s d i c t i o n : 130 She i s not here to d i s c i p l i n e s tudents... t h a t . . . r e s t s w i t h the F a c u l t i e s . . . n e i t h e r to draw up r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the government of students...she i s here to a s s i s t you i n making self-government e a s i e r , more r e s p o n s i b l e , more e f f i c i e n t . Neither i s she here to advise d i r e c t l y i n academic m a t t e r s . . . t h a t i s the duty of the Deans of F a c u l t i e s . She i s here to a s s i s t you i n every undertaking, o r g a n i z e d or unorganized, which i s designed f o r your i n d i v i d u a l or c o l l e c t i v e b e n e f i t and i n a l l matters not w i t h i n the prov i n c e of the Deans of F a c u l t i e s , f o r example, choosing a vocation.-^g B o l l e r t was meant t o be a c o u n s e l l o r to women i n a l l matters except those that r e l a t e d t o t h e i r c h i e f reasons f o r being a t the u n i v e r s i t y — t h e i r academic s t u d i e s . Her a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y was c u r t a i l e d because the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the o f f i c e , u n l i k e the Deans of F a c u l t i e s , d i d not i n c l u d e a seat on the UBC Senate. Moreover, B o l l e r t ' s t e a c h i n g d u t i e s were c o n f i n e d t o "freshman" E n g l i s h c l a s s e s f o r the female 19 students. In e f f e c t , the newly c r e a t e d o f f i c e of an Advi s o r of Women, as i t was d e f i n e d and implemented by the Board, f e l l f a r s h o r t of the i d e a l proposed e a r l i e r t h a t s p r i n g by the women i n t h e i r student newspaper. There was a notable e x c e p t i o n t o the Board's unanimous 20 ap p r o v a l of Mary B o l l e r t ' s appointment. The minutes of the Board of Governors do not i n d i c a t e why Evlyn F a r r i s cast a d i s s e n t i n g v o t e . However, i n view of her known r e p u t a t i o n f o r upholding women's i n t e r e s t s i n education, i t i s p o s s i b l e to spe c u l a t e on s e v e r a l reasons. F a r r i s may have disapproved a l t o g e t h e r of an o f f i c e t h a t suggested ' s e p a r a t i s t ' treatment of women t h a t might d e t r a c t from t h e i r s t a t u s as equals on campus. Her ge n e r a t i o n s t r i v e d , a f t e r a l l , to commend the 131 v i r t u e s of coeducation and advocated a s s i m i l a t i o n of women i n a l l a s pects of the u n i v e r s i t y community. On the other hand, F a r r i s may have o b j e c t e d t o the d i l u t e d s t a t u s and a u t h o r i t y of the p o s i t i o n as i t developed from 'Dean* to an 'Advisor' of Women, to the l a c k of s u p e r i o r s c h o l a s t i c c r e d e n t i a l s e i t h e r expected or accepted i n the candidate, to the combination of the o f f i c e with t e a c h i n g d u t i e s t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d the se g r e g a t i o n of students by gender i n the E n g l i s h c l a s s e s , to the s a l a r y , or to the choice of B o l l e r t , h e r s e l f , as the s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t . Whatever were F a r r i s ' reasons, as the only female member of the Board of Governors, i t was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s s e n t and remains as the only, a l b e i t s i l e n t , i n d i c a t i o n t h a t there was any r e f l e c t i o n on the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s d e c i s i o n f o r women's ed u c a t i o n . Despite the evident l i m i t a t i o n s t o the newly c r e a t e d o f f i c e of Advisor of Women, Mary B o l l e r t and the three women who subsequently assumed t h i s p o s i t i o n , d i r e c t e d t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e t a l e n t s and e n e r g i e s t o l e g i t i m i z i n g , and expanding 22 women's place on campus. The 'Advisor of Women* became de f a c t o Dean of Women almost from the s t a r t of B o l l e r t ' s term. The customary t i t l e would not g i v e way to the d e s c r i p t i v e d e s i g n a t i o n , and B o l l e r t was the "Dean of Women" t o both 23 students and f a c u l t y f o r the next twenty y e a r s . S i m i l a r l y , Mary B o l l e r t overcame l i m i t a t i o n s t o her a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s when she served as an e l e c t e d member of the Senate of the U n i v e r s i t y from June 1933 to her retirement i n 1941. 132 In August 1941, Dr. Evlyn F a r r i s and Miss Annie Jamieson were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a proposed amendment t o the U n i v e r s i t y Act t o i n c l u d e the Dean of Women with the Deans of F a c u l t i e s as members of the S e n a t e . 2 4 The new Dean of Women, Dr. Dorothy Mawdsley, wrote to the Senate a few yea r s a f t e r her appointment t o suggest t h a t her work would be a s s i s t e d i f she was i n c l u d e d as an e x - o f f i c i o member of the F a c u l t y C o u n c i l and of the 25 Senate. J Although Mawdsley, l i k e B o l l e r t , was an e l e c t e d member of the Senate, she recogn i z e d the importance of s e c u r i n g l e g a l l y t h i s r i g h t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the Dean of Women. I t was not u n t i l May 1949 t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y ' s S o l i c i t o r advised the Senate t h a t i n h i s o p i n i o n , " a l l Deans, i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether they are Deans of F a c u l t y or otherwise a re a u t o m a t i c a l l y members of the S e n a t e . " 2 6 The Dean of Women was thus assured of her s t a t u s as a U n i v e r s i t y Senator, and no longer dependent on the Senate or Convocation f o r an e l e c t e d s e a t . The handicap of the low s a l a r y was not overcome f o r e i t h e r Dean B o l l e r t or Dean Mawdsley. The Dean of Women was a h i g h l y v i s i b l e member of the u n i v e r s i t y community and had t o a t t e n d numerous p u b l i c f u n c t i o n s . She was c a l l e d upon t o address o r g a n i z a t i o n s who wanted an e n t e r t a i n i n g speaker, and t o canvass a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t might be f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t i v e of the u n i v e r s i t y and women students. C l e a r l y , there were s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and expenses a t t a c h e d t o t h i s p o s i t i o n t h a t were not common t o other s t a f f members. According t o Mawdsley, t h i s aspect was somewhat of a ha r d s h i p f o r her with l i m i t e d 133 27 resou r c e s . Mawdsley envied B o l l e r t 1 s p r i v a t e means t h a t a l l o w e d her greater freedom to t r a v e l and e n t e r t a i n w h i l e she was D e a n . 2 8 Perhaps the most important f a c t o r t h a t determined how the o f f i c e of the Dean of Women would evolve was the p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y and i n t e r e s t s of the woman t o take t h i s p o s i t i o n . Mary B o l l e r t was a "gentle s o u l , " a graci o u s and sympathetic c o u n s e l l o r to female s t u d e n t s . 2 9 Reportedly a b i t of a P u r i t a n , she was a woman of st r o n g conscience and d e d i c a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n a l work and s o c i a l w e l f a r e a c t i v i t i e s . 3 0 But i n Mawdsley's words, B o l l e r t was "no s c h o l a r " and f e l t handicapped without her d o c t o r a t e . 3 1 B o l l e r t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n s were p r i m a r i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by her a c t i v i t y as a l i a i s o n between the u n i v e r s i t y and the l a r g e r community, e s p e c i a l l y women's a s s o c i a t i o n s . In t h i s c a p a c i t y , B o l l e r t f r e q u e n t l y defended her students' behaviour to a p u b l i c t h a t h a r d l y knew how to j u s t i f y the seemingly i c o n o c l a s t i c e r u p t i o n s of y o u t h f u l energy p r e v a l e n t i n the 1920's and 1930's. 3 2 Mary B o l l e r t was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of many of the educated ' p r o f e s s i o n a l ' women of her day. She b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was 33 women's g r e a t e s t duty to sway p u b l i c o p i n i o n . To t h i s end she worked i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l peace o r g a n i z a t i o n s between the wars. She encouraged female students t o take p u b l i c speaking c l a s s e s t o h e l p them f e e l secure i n p u b l i c r o l e s . But she was a r e a l i s t who recog n i z e d t h a t f o r many more years homemaking would be the c h i e f occupation and v o c a t i o n of g i r l s . B o l l e r t b e l i e v e d , however, t h a t e d u c a t i o n was important f o r women to 134 develop e t h i c a l c h a r a c t e r and inner c o n t r o l , and t o teach them how to use l e i s u r e time i n a r e s p o n s i b l e manner. 3 4 B o l l e r t espoused the e q u a l i t y of men and women but i n many res p e c t s she invoked seemingly outdated views about women's p r o c l i v i t i e s . Her advice to f i r s t year students i n 1932 perhaps best i l l u s t r a t e s B o l l e r t ' s i d e a l f o r women's conduct — a c u r i o u s blend of an o l d gender stereotype and the new woman. B o l l e r t c a u t i o n e d : "A c u l t u r e d woman never makes a noise i n a p u b l i c p l a c e except i n a great c a u s e . " 3 5 And i n 1935 Dean B o l l e r t d e c l a r e d t h a t she d i d not favo r a proposal by V a r s i t y women t o form a tra c k team, i n the b e l i e f t h a t the s p o r t was too strenuous f o r women without c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . 3 6 Dean B o l l e r t remained unmarried and l i v e d a f u l l l i f e t h a t r e f l e c t e d the s t r e n g t h of her commitment t o s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s . She was b u t t r e s s e d by st r o n g t i e s t o a woman's c u l t u r e t h a t p e r s i s t e d w i t h d i f f i c u l t y a f t e r the f i r s t wave of feminism peaked when Canadian women won the vote. In her c a p a c i t i e s as Dean and clubwoman, B o l l e r t was a world t r a v e l l e r . She was a delegate f o r Canada a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of Women Conference i n P a r i s i n 1924, i n Geneva i n 1929, and i n Edinburgh i n 1932. B o l l e r t was a speaker at the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of Women i n Chicago i n 1933. And i n 1934 she was one of twelve Deans of Women i n North America to 37 tour Japan as a guest of the Japanese YWCA. B o l l e r t was a f f i l i a t e d w i t h numerous o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A member of the UWC, B o l l e r t worked wit h Evlyn F a r r i s t o found Parent-Teacher 135 A s s o c i a t i o n s i n the c i t y s c h o o l s . At her death i n J u l y 1945, she was Pr e s i d e n t of the Pan P a c i f i c Women's A s s o c i a t i o n . Dr. Dorothy Mawdsley succeeded Mary B o l l e r t as Dean of Women i n 1941. Mawdsley brought a new image to the Dean's o f f i c e with her down-to-earth, pragmatic d i s p o s i t i o n and a quick sense of humour. Mawdsley was l e s s a s o c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y and more an academic s c h o l a r than her predecessor. She earned a M.A. degree i n E n g l i s h and French from UBC i n 1927, and a Ph.D. i n E n g l i s h from Chicago i n 1933. The l a t t e r degree was completed i n the summer months a f t e r l e c t u r i n g a t UBC i n the winter s e s s i o n s t o pay her way. In 1935, with her f r i e n d and c o l l e a g u e , M a r j o r i e Leeming, Mawdsley co-authored a composition t e x t f o r use i n B.C. s c h o o l s . 4 0 Mawdsley was p e r s o n a l l y very f a m i l i a r with the f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t f a c e d many female students. She b e l i e v e d t h a t the co s t of higher education f o r women was more fo r m i d a b l e than f o r men because women were u s u a l l y p a i d l e s s f o r t h e i r 41 summertime work. She concentrated her e f f o r t s on p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n s f o r women who had t o work t h e i r way through a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . Dean Mawdsley launched an employment bureau f o r female students where they c o u l d r e g i s t e r f o r t y p i n g work on the campus, and f o r b a b y s i t t i n g — c a l l e d nursemaid — i n the evenings. I n t e r e s t e d employers co n t a c t e d the bureau 42 "Buttercup E n t e r p r i s e s L t d . " — where they were matched w i t h an a v a i l a b l e student. A f t e r her reti r e m e n t , Dr. Mawdsley was c r i t i c a l of some of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s t h a t she f e l t were disadvantageous 136 to women. I t annoyed her when the f r u i t s of her own l a b o u r s f o r women were denied t o them. For example, she l e c t u r e d t o v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o r a i s e money f o r the Dean of Women's Fund, to h e l p women students i n emergencies, but Mawdsley claimed the funds were d e p o s i t e d by the Bursar i n t o the general budget and were not a v a i l a b l e to her when she needed them. Dr. Mawdsley was c r i t i c a l , too, of the segregated E n g l i s h c l a s s e s f o r f i r s t and second year students. E n g l i s h p r o f e s s o r s i n i t i a t e d separate i n s t r u c t i o n f o r male and female students a f t e r World War I when i n c r e a s e d enrollment determined the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l s e c t i o n s of r e q u i r e d E n g l i s h courses. Mawdsley claimed t h a t the male p r o f e s s o r s who d i d not want t o teach the women gave these s e c t i o n s t o the j u n i o r female a s s i s t a n t s . These a s s i s t a n t s , and Mawdsley was one f o r s e v e r a l years, were a l s o expected t o read compositions of the sen i o r men. Mawdsley judged t h a t i t was p a r t i c u l a r l y u n f a i r t h a t the male p r o f e s s o r s set the examinations and the female i n s t r u c t o r s never saw them bef o r e they were given. T h i s p r a c t i c e , she f e l t , gave the male students a s l i g h t edge because t h e i r own i n s t r u c t o r s s e t the t e s t s . 4 3 The ' t r a d i t i o n ' of separate E n g l i s h c l a s s e s f o r men and women continued unchallenged u n t i l 1941. F i n d i n g t h a t one of the three weekly E n g l i s h 2 l e c t u r e s f o r women c o n f l i c t e d with a l e c t u r e i n another s u b j e c t , ten female students s a t i n on the men's c l a s s e s . In the f i r s t term, P r o f e s s o r s L a r s e n and MacDonald r a i s e d no o b j e c t i o n s but i n the second term when Pro f e s s o r F.G.C. Wood found these students i n h i s c l a s s , they 137 were summarily e j e c t e d . 4 4 I t was r e p o r t e d i n the student newspaper t h a t Wood d e c l a r e d I am not accustomed t o l e c t u r i n g t o young women i n t h i s course ... such young women w i l l t h e r e f o r e vacate the room a t o n c e . ^ The g i r l s then moved out en masse, " b l u s h i n g uncomfortably and accompanied by loud h i s s e s and boos from the roomful of AC males."* 0 Wood l a t e r denied t o the Ubyssey t h a t he had any an t i p a t h y toward women students, but t h a t he was taken by s u r p r i s e when he saw the l a r g e number of women and assumed they were " v i s i t o r s " . "For y e a r s , " Wood claimed, " E n g l i s h 2 was d i v i d e d i n t o a men's s e c t i o n and a women's s e c t i o n ... g i r l s who had a l e g i t i m a t e reason f o r doing so w i l l be per m i t t e d t o a t t e n d the men's c l a s s e s . 1 , 4 7 Separate i n s t r u c t i o n was r e j e c t e d by the female students because i t was i m p r a c t i c a b l e ; but Dean Mawdsley recognized t h a t separate i n s t r u c t i o n f o r women, based on the pre f e r e n c e of male p r o f e s s o r s t o teach male students, subordinated the experience of women w i t h i n the academic community. Mawdsley focussed her energy, however, not on the d i s m a n t l i n g of separate l e a r n i n g space f o r women a t UBC, but on the c o n s t r u c t i n g of separate l i v i n g space. She i d e n t i f i e d the l a c k of dormitory accommodation f o r UBC women as a more s e r i o u s impediment t o women's o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n higher education. Dean Mawdsley*s success i n t h i s regard r e l i e d on the e f f o r t s of organ i z e d women, many of whom f i r s t campaigned f o r women's re s i d e n c e s when they attended UBC many years e a r l i e r . T h e i r e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation f o r women are 138 recounted i n the f o l l o w i n g pages. I d e a l l y , the p o s i t i o n of Dean of Women i n North American u n i v e r s i t i e s represented an e a r l y attempt t o acknowledge the p a r t i c u l a r needs of women students, and t o accommodate them w i t h i n an i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t was t r a d i t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d t o serve men. The Dean a c t e d as an a d v i s o r , c o n f i d a n t e and c o u n s e l l o r w h i l e a l s o s e r v i n g as a r o l e model f o r young women. Her own academic achievements, won i n a predominantly male sphere, might o f f e r reassurance and encouragement t o the female s c h o l a r who f e l t the f r u s t r a t i o n s p e c u l i a r to a m i n o r i t y . The o f f i c e of the Dean of Women was both a c o n s e r v a t i v e and a r a d i c a l response to the ambiguous s t a t u s of women on campus. I t was c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h a t i t appeared t o focus on the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a separate women's sphere w i t h i n a c o e d u c a t i o n a l environment t h a t emphasized e q u a l i t y i n the l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . But i n i t s r a d i c a l aspect, the p o s i t i o n of Dean of Women attempted t o e s t a b l i s h women i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s of the u n i v e r s i t y , and t o ensure women a v o i c e i n an otherwise male sphere. S i m i l a r to contemporary concepts of a f f i r m a t i v e a c t i o n , the o f f i c e of the Dean of Women t r i e d t o re d r e s s an imbalance p e r c e i v e d w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . By p r o v i d i n g women students w i t h t h e i r own a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , they might be assured t h e i r i n t e r e s t s would be upheld. For i t s p a r t , the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia endeavored t o accommodate women's request f o r a Dean of Women. But the U n i v e r s i t y conceded any r e a l s t a t u s or a u t h o r i t y to the p o s i t i o n o n l y r e l u c t a n t l y . I t was, t h e r e f o r e , the s t r e n g t h s and 139 weaknesses of the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the Deans, themselves, t h a t d e f i n e d t h i s o f f i c e and made i t an e f f e c t i v e resource f o r female students. The Dean of Women was o f t e n as much an enigma on campus as was the female student. Was she a f u l l f l e d g e d academic a d m i n i s t r a t o r or a surrogate mother f i g u r e ? The two images of women were not wholly compatible a t the u n i v e r s i t y ; indeed, they were emblematic of the c o n f l i c t t h a t female students faced i n t h e i r choice of t h e i r f u t u r e r o l e s , as l o n g as s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s decreed these c h o i c e s t o be mutually e x c l u s i v e . Women's Residehces I r r e s p e c t i v e of a u n i v e r s i t y ' s a b i l i t y to provide student r e s i d e n c e s , or r e q u i r e students to l i v e i n them, u n i v e r s i t i e s have tended t o shoulder some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , almost throughout the twentieth century, f o r the housing of i t s female students. T h i s paternalism'stemmed from widely accepted views t h a t members of 'the weaker s e x 1 , being more v u l n e r a b l e , were i n need e i t h e r of p h y s i c a l or moral p r o t e c t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e i n determining what was a s u i t a b l e boarding s i t u a t i o n . F a m i l i e s o f t e n looked t o the u n i v e r s i t y f o r assurances about t h e i r daughters' w e l f a r e w h i l e they were away at c o l l e g e , and welcomed a degree of c o n t r o l and i n f l u e n c e by the U n i v e r s i t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The l a c k of these assurances where there were no a u t h o r i z e d r e s i d e n c e s might even reduce the o p p o r t u n i t y of a woman t o a t t e n d a u n i v e r s i t y some d i s t a n c e from home. 140 I n l i e u o f b u i l d i n g women's r e s i d e n c e s , UBC p r o v i d e d p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d e n t s w i t h a l i s t o f a v a i l a b l e rooms t h a t had been a p p r o v e d e i t h e r by t h e w i v e s o f f a c u l t y members, or a f t e r 1921, by t h e Dean o f Women. 4 8 Male s t u d e n t s m i g h t s h a r e a 4 9 b a c h e l o r a p a r t m e n t and t e n d t o t h e i r own h o u s e k e e p i n g . T h i s p r o v e d an e c o n o m i c a l and s o c i a b l e s t r a t e g y f o r male s t u d e n t s . However, f e m a l e s t u d e n t s f a c e d r u l e s t h a t p r o h i b i t e d t h e i r l i v i n g t o g e t h e r i n a s h a r e d a p a r t m e n t u n l e s s one o f t h e g i r l s was t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age. u I t was u n l i k e l y t h a t many u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s were o l d e r t h a n t w e n t y - o n e , even i n t h e i r l a s t y e a r , w h i c h meant t h a t f e m a l e s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s i n t h e c i t y must be p r e p a r e d t o pay f o r room and b o a r d . As women were l i m i t e d a l s o i n t h e k i n d o f summer employment t h a t was a v a i l a b l e t o them, and g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d 51 l e s s wages t h a n t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s , t h e y were, p e r h a p s , more d e p e n d e n t on t h e f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o s u p p o r t them w h i l e t h e y a t t e n d e d u n i v e r s i t y . Women s t u d e n t s who came t o UBC f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e a n d who l i v e d i n b o a r d i n g h o u s e s s c a t t e r e d a l l o v e r t h e c i t y m i s s e d a l s o t h e c o m p a n i o n s h i p a f f o r d e d by s h a r e d r e s i d e n c e . S t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e s may p r o v i d e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s f o r b o t h s e x e s , b u t w h i l e women's autonomy was more c o n s t r a i n e d by s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation on campus was, p e r h a p s , a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e e q u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . T h i s was s u r e l y t h e 52 v i e w o f t h e a r c h i t e c t s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y i n 1912, o f t h e B o a r d 53 54 o f G o v e r n o r s i n 1913, o f t h e f e m a l e s t u d e n t s i n 1921, o f 141 55 P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k i n 1921, and of members of the Sub-Committee on Women's Residences who expressed i n t h e i r Report i n 1947: ...the enrollment of women a t t h i s U n i v e r s i t y would be l a r g e r i f residence accommodation were a v a i l a b l e . To the UBC a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , a women's residen c e remained an i d e a l t h a t was i m p o s s i b l e to r e a l i z e . The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s of the U n i v e r s i t y to provide student r e s i d e n c e s by 1916 were 57 abandoned due to UBC's p r e c a r i o u s f i n a n c i a l s t a t e . A f t e r World War I, the s t a f f and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s f a c e d with the inadequacies of the F a i r v i e w s i t e i n c r e a s i n g l y regarded P o i n t Grey as the promised l a n d where the r e a l i t y of a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y would merge a t l a s t with the dream. P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k thus assured female students t h a t "a residence f o r out-of-town 5 Q women would be a p r e - r e q u i s i t e " f o r UBC's move to Point Grey. Although the U n i v e r s i t y was unclear how or when a women's residenc e would be b u i l t , students were q u i t e c e r t a i n about why i t was needed. Female students advocated t h a t a women's residence be e s t a b l i s h e d even b e f o r e the move to Point Grey. They recognized t h a t E a s t e r n u n i v e r s i t i e s w i t h r e s i d e n c e s were more a t t r a c t i v e than boarding houses t o f a m i l i e s who were w i l l i n g t o send t h e i r daughters away to u n i v e r s i t y . In 1921, they suggested a house i n F a i r v i e w be converted not only to provide f o r "the p h y s i c a l comfort of the g i r l s " but a l s o f o r 59 "the companionship and fun of community l i f e . " These views expressed by the women suggest t h a t the p a r t i a l independence o f f e r e d by a student r e s i d e n c e , with i t s promise of a s o c i a l support network, was p r e f e r a b l e to the impersonal, o f t e n l o n e l y , 142 arrangements found i n a rooming house. Soon a f t e r her a r r i v a l Dean B o l l e r t s i m i l a r l y observed: ...the UBC stands g r e a t l y i n need of a women's residen c e ... not only f o r more comfort and uniform housing ... but f o r the great e r s o c i a b i l i t y such a residence a f f o r d s ... t i t ] would i n c r e a s e out-of-town e n r o l l m e n t s . Many women would send t h e i r daughters i f there was such a residence. f iQ Without dormitory accommodation, the U n i v e r s i t y served the urban p o p u l a t i o n more than the p r o v i n c i a l one. The m a j o r i t y of students who attended UBC r e s i d e d permanently i n Vancouver with t h e i r f a m i l i e s ( t a b l e 1 ) . Women whose homes were o u t s i d e of the C i t y had t o be a b l e to a f f o r d t o board i n rooming houses near the U n i v e r s i t y , or l i v e w i t h r e l a t i v e s . B o l l e r t a l s o h e l d the view t h a t a reside n c e o f f e r e d more to a student than a roof and a bed; " i t o f f e r s t r a i n i n g as v a l u a b l e as the classroom." Dean B o l l e r t e n v i s i o n e d her own r o l e extended t o s u p e r v i s e the running of the women's residen c e and looked forward t o meeting the g i r l s on a more i n t i m a t e b a s i s . ^ x A r e s i d e n c e f o r women was not recommended o n l y as a source of comfort, convenience,and s o c i a b i l i t y t h a t would p o s s i b l y i n c r e a s e the female enrollment a t UBC. Mary E l l e n Smith, B.C.'s f i r s t e l e c t e d female MLA urged, i n May 1922, the p r o v i s i o n of student r e s i d e n c e s "so t h a t the poor as w e l l as the r i c h . . . m i g h t 6 2 have the equal o p p o r t u n i t y of ed u c a t i o n . " In the minds of Smith, and o t h e r s , campus r e s i d e n c e s should p r o v i d e economical housing f o r students w i t h l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l resources. In the t h i r t i e s t h i s theme became more prominent as the c o s t s of room and board e s c a l a t e d a g a i n s t the background of the 143 -economic d e p r e s s i o n . Four female students d e v i s e d a s t r a t e g y whereby they c o u l d reduce t h e i r c o s t s by s h a r i n g rented accommodation without v i o l a t i n g the U n i v e r s i t y ' s r u l e s f o r women's boarding arrangements. These students rented, i n d i v i d u a l l y , housekeeping rooms on the main f l o o r and basement of a l a r g e f a m i l y house s i t u a t e d near the U n i v e r s i t y . The owners occupied the top f l o o r . The g i r l s d i d t h e i r own housekeeping and cooking but shared a communal k i t c h e n . Each p a i d $6.00 per month f o r t h e i r room, and board c o s t s came to approximately $15.00. T h i s represented a s i z e a b l e r e d u c t i o n of combined room and board c o s t s t h a t averaged from $30.00 to $35.00 per month f o r students i n rooming h o u s e s . 6 3 TABLE 1 RESIDENCE OF FEMALE STUDENTS WHILE ATTENDING McGILL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1907-14, AND THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1919-20, 1929-30, 1939-40 , 1949-50. N=100x5. • V ; V - " " - ' • • ; ' - ; Residence 1907-14 1919-20 1929-30 1939-40 1949-50 At Home Boa r d i n g 79% 21% 85% 15% 77% 23% 65% 35%. 63% 37% SOURCE: UBC R e g i s t r a t i o n f o r the years noted. R e g i s t r a r ' s Records, UBC A r c h i v e s . NOTE: The i n c r e a s e i n the number of boarding students from 1919 to 1949 may r e f l e c t the r i s i n g p r e s t i g e of the P r o v i n c i a l U n i v e r s i t y and a greater w i l l i n g n e s s of f a m i l i e s o u t s i d e the C i t y to send t h e i r daughters t o UBC. In 1949 a small number of female v e t e r a n s of the armed s e r v i c e s l i v e d i n the UBC re s i d e n c e A c a d i a Camp. In 1939-40, 2% and i n 1949-50, 7% of the women with permanent c i t y addresses chose to board c l o s e r to the u n i v e r s i t y . T h i s choice r e f l e c t e d a t r e n d toward g r e a t e r autonomy f o r female students t h a t may or may not have r e l i e d on p a r e n t a l s t u d i e s . 144 In 1939 students took another d e c i s i v e s t e p t o s o l v e t h e i r housing problems a t UBC. The co-op boarding house movement, which began as an experiment by t h i r t e e n male students, spread t o i n c l u d e four e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h f o r t y - o n e students. Members bought shares (10 x $1.00) t o provide c a p i t a l to s t a r t the p r o j e c t and formed a Co-operative S o c i e t y which became r e g i s t e r e d under the S o c i e t i e s A c t . They maintained a l e g a l a d v i s o r and a l s o a car f o r each group. By 1941, thr e e houses p r o v i d e d accommodation f o r male students and one f o r the 64 women. * The co-op boarding houses represented an a l t e r n a t i v e way of l i f e t h a t m i r r o r e d the i d e a l o g i c a l c u r r e n t s i n the l a r g e r s o c i e t y as i t searched f o r s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l reforms t o counteract the upheaval of the Depression. D i s c u s s i o n c l u b s were i n t e g r a l to the c o o p e r a t i v e movement as was self-government. House l e a d e r s were e l e c t e d each term. By o r d e r i n g g r o c e r i e s i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s every two weeks and s h a r i n g the housework, members experienced communal l i v i n g and c o s t s were reasonable. The U n i v e r s i t y maintained a d i s c r e t e v i g i l a n c e over these l i v i n g arrangements of female students. "Gentlemen f r i e n d s " c o u l d be e n t e r t a i n e d i n the house and the women had a curfew when they went out f o r the evening. A "house mother" a c t e d as a 6 6 chaperone and performed the he a v i e r d u t i e s . F u r n i s h i n g s were p r o v i d e d by a donation of $90.00 from the F a c u l t y Women's 67 Club. Dean B o l l e r t gave the co-op house her b l e s s i n g a f t e r 145 she accepted a dinner i n v i t a t i o n from the women and i n s p e c t e d the premises. Dean Mawdsley, however, regarded the 'experiment 1 as a f a i l u r e . She found i t w a s t e f u l and i n e f f i c i e n t because the houses were vacat e d by students i n the summer months and the contents were s t o l e n . 6 9 T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t u r b i n g f o r Mawdsley who spoke to women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o r a i s e money to f u r n i s h the house. She maintained i t c o u l d only work i f a person were p a i d t o l i v e i n 70 the house permanently. Dean Mawdsley's e f f o r t s were d i r e c t e d toward the b u i l d i n g of a permanent women's res i d e n c e on campus. Even b e f o r e the end of World War II Mawdsley found i t d i f f i c u l t to f i n d s u i t a b l e accommodation f o r students from out-of-town. Rooms t h a t were a v a i l a b l e d i d not always provide meals. In the f a l l of 1943, the U n i v e r s i t y had t o p l a c e ads i n the c i t y newspapers t o ensure housing requirements would be met. In t h a t same year, the P r e s i d e n t of the Alumni A s s o c i a t i o n , and a Senate Committee to cons i d e r student l i v i n g accommodation, recommended t h a t the 71 U n i v e r s i t y b u i l d a student r e s i d e n c e to ease t h i s urgent need. By 1945, the d e m o b i l i z a t i o n of the armed f o r c e s compounded the housing problems i n Vancouver. Men and women who were war v e t e r a n s were e n t i t l e d t o a month of education f o r each month 72 spent i n s e r v i c e . T h e i r r e t u r n t o campus f o r c e d the U n i v e r s i t y to provide temporary accommodation. P r e s i d e n t MacKenzie moved army huts onto the campus t o i n c r e a s e classroom and l a b o r a t o r y space, and a l s o t o serve as r e s i d e n c e s f o r 146 m a r r i e d a n d s i n g l e s t u d e n t s . The m a j o r p r o b l e m s o f p r o v i d i n g d i n i n g s e r v i c e s was t u r n e d o v e r t o t h e new l y e s t a b l i s h e d D e p a r t m e n t o f Home E c o n o m i c s . 7 3 The army hu t r e s i d e n c e s gave p r i o r i t y t o v e t e r a n s . A c a d i a Camp was t h e o n l y one o f t h e f o u r t o a c c e p t s i n g l e f e m a l e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e h u t s a l l o t t e d t o women we re f i l l e d w i t h i n two d a y s o f t h e r e c e i p t o f t h e f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n s . 7 4 B e c a u s e o f t h e 7 5 l a c k o f s p a c e , more women w e r e r e f u s e d t h a n a c c e p t e d . The r e s i d e n t s o f A c a d i a Camp i n 1945 i n c l u d e d a t o t a l o f 72 women (61 v e t e r a n s a n d 11 non v e t e r a n s ) a n d 170 men (138 v e t e r a n s a n d 32 non v e t e r a n s ) , 7 6 W h i l e u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e s f o r women h a v e b e e n r e p r e s e n t e d i n a n e a r l i e r e r a as b a s t i o n s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l , t h e A c a d i a R e s i d e n c e was r e g a r d e d , p e r h a p s more i n h i n d s i g h t , a s " a n u n i q u e 77 e x p e r i m e n t i n c o m m u n i t y . " T h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f men a n d women, m a r r i e d a n d s i n g l e , some who h a d s e e n a c t i v e s e r v i c e , and o t h e r s who we re away f r o m home f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , made s t r i n g e n t r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s i n c o n c e i v a b l e . T h e r e w a s , i n f a c t , l i t t l e means o f e n f o r c i n g e v e n m i n i m a l a t t e m p t s t o m o n i t o r t h e g i r l s ' 7 8 w h e r e a b o u t s . B e h a v i o r a l c o n s t r a i n t s we re l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e n e e d f o r harmony w i t h i n t h e c r a m p e d a n d c l o s e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e Camp d e s c r i b e d a s f o l l o w s . T h i n - w a l l e d h u t s , h o u s i n g f r o m t w e l v e t o s i x t y s t u d e n t s , were c r o w d e d c l o s e t o one a n o t h e r , w i t h a few y a r d s s e p a r a t i n g t h e s i n g l e s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e m a r r i e d q u a r t e r s , and o n l y a q u i c k w a l k b e t w e e n t h e s i n g l e men and women; i n t h e m i d d l e o f i t a l l was a t r a i l e r camp! No one t h o u g h t much a b o u t s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f and r e g u l a t i o n s we re a t a n a b s o l u t e m i n i m u m . 7 q 147 The students o r g a n i z e d t h e i r own Residence C o u n c i l , i n c l u d i n g a Women's C o u n c i l , and drew up a c o n s t i t u t i o n by which Oft to govern themselves and mediate d i s p u t e s . u From time to time d e c i s i o n s were made with approval of the m a j o r i t y t h a t were unacceptable to the m i n o r i t y of female r e s i d e n t s . Although a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Dean of Women, a f a c u l t y member c a l l e d 'the don' r e s i d e d i n Acadia, women r a r e l y c ontacted her because they never c l e a r l y understood which i s s u e s should be r e f e r r e d t o the Dean of Women i n s t e a d of the Residence C o u n c i l . 8 1 In any case, the Dean of Women's recommendations were l a r g e l y i g n o r e d , 8 2 o v e r r u l e d , 8 3 or subj e c t t o such co n t r o v e r s y as t o cas t doubt on her a u t h o r i t y to make d e c i s i o n s about the students p A i n r e s i d e n c e . * In t h i s r e s p e c t , the O f f i c e of the Dean of Women, which had y e t to r e s o l v e the inherent ambiguity of the powers of t h i s p o s i t i o n , f a i l e d t o strengthen the v o i c e of women who comprised a small m i n o r i t y of the student body, i n or out of the campus r e s i d e n c e , a f t e r the war. Two i s s u e s a t Acadia demonstrated t h a t women had p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s t h a t had t o be upheld a g a i n s t the m a j o r i t y vote. A b u i l d i n g d e s i g n a t e d as the women's lounge was unfu r n i s h e d and, at f i r s t , used very l i t t l e ; d e s p i t e the o b j e c t i o n s of the women, the men decided t o move a b i l l i a r d t a b l e i n t o the room f o r t h e i r own r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. The matter was s e t t l e d by Pr e s i d e n t MacKenzie who argued t h a t the b u i l d i n g was f o r the women's use, and i t was not w i t h i n the power of the students' c o u n c i l to usurp the space f o r any other purposes. The women subsequently s e t about making t h e i r lounge a more a t t r a c t i v e p l a c e and 148 were a i d e d i n t h i s endeavor by Dean Mawdsley who canvassed the 8 5 U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club f o r funds. At another meeting of the Co u n c i l a motion was passed, agai n over the p r o t e s t a t i o n s of the women, to allow men t o v i s i t i n the women's rooms u n t i l 10 p.m. on Sundays. The F a c u l t y C o u n c i l approved t h i s measure r e g a r d l e s s of the stro n g o p p o s i t i o n of the Dean of Women. 8 6 The female r e s i d e n t s b e l i e v e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n should not be overlooked by the m a j o r i t y vote. In a s e c r e t b a l l o t , e i g h t y percent of the women r e j e c t e d the motion t o all o w male v i s i t o r s , with the exception of c l o s e r e l a t i v e s , i n t h e i r rooms. They argued t h a t the r u l i n g would be harmful to the r e p u t a t i o n of Acad i a . Perhaps they f e l t i t was d e t r i m e n t a l to t h e i r own r e p u t a t i o n s and would pose d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h roommates. As a r e s u l t of t h i s n e g a t i v e p o l l , the U n i v e r s i t y r e c o n s i d e r e d i t s d e c i s i o n and the r u l i n g was withdrawn. T h i s i s s u e prompted c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments t o determine more d e f i n i t e procedures, to c o n t r o l the C o u n c i l ' s a u t h o r i t y , and t o c l a r i f y the Dean of 87 Women's p o s i t i o n i n regard t o women r e s i d e n t s . The U n i v e r s i t y had responded t o the housing c r i s i s by p r o v i d i n g r e s i d e n c e s f o r men. Only Acadia accommodated a few women. L i t t l e Mountain and L u l u I s l a n d were f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e s f o r married students but r a r e l y was the student the female p a r t n e r . As observed by one commentator i n the UBC Annual: In most, but not a l l cases, i t i s the male member of the household who makes the d a i l y p i l g r i m a g e to Point Grey. The wives stay home and v i e with neighbours i n i n v e n t i n g new and d i f f e r e n t ways t o make a four room army hut l i v e a b l e . f t o 149 The Union T h e o l o g i c a l C o l l e g e helped t o ease the housing shortage by a c c e p t i n g male students. Four f r a t e r n i t y houses — Phi D e l t a Theta a t 10th and Wallace, Phi Kappa P i on Cedar Crescent, Beta Theta P i on 12th at G r a n v i l l e , Zeta P s i on 6th and Blanca — a l s o lodged male students. The Student Co-op A s s o c i a t i o n f a c e d w i t h high r e a l e s t a t e p r i c e s , and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o b t a i n i n g b u i l d i n g s i n the Point Grey area, owned, i n 1947, only one house f o r the men and rented a second f o r women. As always a p p l i c a t i o n s outnumbered the accommodation a v a i l a b l e . 8 9 In 1947, Dean Mawdsley stepped up her campaign t o get re s i d e n c e s f o r women a t UBC. The s i t u a t i o n was c l e a r l y p r e f e r e n t i a l f o r male students. The f o c u s i n g of a t t e n t i o n on t h e i r needs f o l l o w i n g WW II was i n e v i t a b l e but the women had waited l o n g enough f o r equal c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Mawdsley addressed the U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club and t o l d them of the p l i g h t of 664 90 women c u r r e n t l y boarding i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the c i t y . The Club's membership i n c l u d e d many UBC graduates who, themselves, had wished f o r a women's r e s i d e n c e . Dr. P h y l l i s Ross, a UBC alumnus who had won honours as a member of the U n i v e r s i t y debating team, who had been wartime A d m i n i s t r a t o r of O i l s and Fats i n Ottawa, and who i n 1961 would become C h a n c e l l o r of UBC, 91 spoke a l s o t o the Club. The UWC supported f o r many years the Home Economics campaign and w i t h t h i s o b j e c t i v e behind them they now d i r e c t e d t h e i r e n e r g i e s t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a women's r e s i d e n c e . A Committee was formed i n 1947 t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s cause and propose 92 a c t i o n . S e v e r a l women, who had c l o s e attachments t o UBC and 150 women's educati o n , served on t h i s Committee: (Mrs.) E v e l y n L e t t , Convenor, (Mrs.) E v l y n F a r r i s , Mrs. 0. B a n f i e l d , Dr. Isa b e l Maclnnes, (Mrs.) Walker, (Miss) Mary F a l l i s , and Dean Dorothy Mawdsley. 9 3 The f i r s t a c t i o n of t h i s Committee was t o send a l e t t e r to the Board of Governors t r a n s m i t t i n g a r e s o l u t i o n which c a l l e d f o r ...a s u i t a b l e , permanent women's residen c e as a f i r s t charge upon the next a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r b u i l d i n g purposes a t the U n i v e r s i t y . q ^ T h i s was endorsed by a number of BC women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g : Women's Canadian Club, U n i v e r s i t y Women's Clubs, Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n s , Soroptomist Clubs, Business and P r o f e s s i o n a l Women's Clubs, Women's I n s t i t u t e s and P a n h e l l e n i c A s s o c i a t i o n . By not emphasizing the needs of women but rat h e r the needs of the whole pro v i n c e to be served by the U n i v e r s i t y , t h i s r e s o l u t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d t o a t t r a c t p o l i t i c a l support. The appeal to the Board t o g i v e p r i o r i t y to a women's residen c e i n f u t u r e b u i l d i n g p l a n s r e c a l l e d the f i n a l l y s u c c e s s f u l attempt i n the Home Economics campaign t o win a r e s o l u t i o n from the Senate t h a t gave Home Economics f i r s t c l a i m to a d d i t i o n a l funds f o r new i n s t r u c t i o n . 9 6 B.C. women were by t h i s time w e l l p r a c t i s e d i n t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s t o m o b i l i z e women and to b r i n g p r e s s u r e to bear on the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i v e r s i t y , the M i n i s t e r of Education, and the Premier of the Prov i n c e . L e t t e r s were w r i t t e n and d e l e g a t i o n s assembled t o argue the case f o r a women's r e s i d e n c e . 151 Although the women who campaigned f o r Home Economics were t r e a t e d s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y , even i n d u l g e n t l y , they had not been welcomed by the U n i v e r s i t y as a l l i e s b efore P r e s i d e n t MacKenzie a r r i v e d i n 1945. I t was, however, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of MacKenzie 1s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o rec o g n i z e the p o t e n t i a l of human resources t o s a t i s f y h i s go a l , which was t o b u i l d the U n i v e r s i t y . Thus the UWC Committee on Women's Residences was i n v i t e d t o j o i n with Committees of the Senate and the Board of Governors t o work Q 7 t o g e t h e r . In January 1948 these Committees e s t a b l i s h e d a Women's Residence Fund t o be d i r e c t e d by a committee a c t i n g w i t h the Dean of Women. Women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s were t o be n o t i f i e d of i t s e x i s t e n c e and monies c o l l e c t e d would be handled by the U n i v e r s i t y B ursar. Mrs. Evelyn L e t t and the UWC arranged t o di s c u s s the matter of women's r e s i d e n c e s with the M i n i s t e r of Education p r i o r to a formal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the Premier and 9 8 the M i n i s t e r of Finance. W i t h i n a year, UBC was awarded $650,000.00 under the terms of the BC Loan Act f o r the 99 c o n s t r u c t i o n of three r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s f o r women. The Alumni-UBC Development Fund f o r Women's Dorms r a i s e d an a d d i t i o n a l $15,000.00 f o r the p r o j e c t , and the Parent-Teacher F e d e r a t i o n and other women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s donated money to . , 100 f u r n i s h the rooms. The f i r s t permanent women's r e s i d e n c e s were b u i l t on the s i t e of F o r t Camp, s i t u a t e d on Northwest Marine D r i v e and were opened i n May 1951. The b u i l d i n g s were named Wesbrook, Maclnnes and B o l l e r t H a l l s t o honour the women who f i g u r e d i n the e a r l y 152 l i f e of the U n i v e r s i t y , and c o n t r i b u t e d t o the l i v e s of women s t u d e n t s . 1 0 1 Dean Dorothy Mawdsley who had pla y e d a v i t a l and determined r o l e was s i m i l a r l y honoured when the Lower Ma l l Residences were completed i n 1961. Mawdsley had been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n g a r n e r i n g the support of the network of BC Women's O r g a n i z a t i o n s but she was l e s s s u c c e s s f u l at m a n i p u l a t i n g U n i v e r s i t y p o l i t i c s . Twenty years a f t e r her retirement she s t i l l f e l t angry and f r u s t r a t e d w i t h the d e c i s i o n s of the U n i v e r s i t y Residence Committee t h a t was 'dominated by men i n t e r e s t e d i n b u i l d i n g t h e i r own e m p i r e s . ' 1 0 2 Mawdsley confessed i n a taped i n t e r v i e w t h a t she was " h o r r i f i e d a t the wasted space and c o s t s inherent i n the th r e e b u i l d i n g s t h a t were approved as the women's r e s i d e n c e s . " Although they were w e l l designed, they were expensive to operate. She had wanted one compact b u i l d i n g w i t h a common door (to keep t r a c k of the women.) Mawdsley named Dr. Gordon Shrum as the "power c e n t r e " who with "one st r o k e of the pen made i t th r e e permanent b u i l d i n g s , " without c o n s u l t i n g her. "No one co u l d do a n y t h i n g w i t h Shrum," a c c o r d i n g t o Mawdsley and her former a s s i s t a n t M a r j o r i e Leeming. Mawdsley's d i s p u t e with him had a l o n g h i s t o r y . Shrum was o r i g i n a l l y r e p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g the army huts on the campus but Mawdsley was upset a t the tremendous c o s t s of m a i n t a i n i n g these semi-permanent s t r u c t u r e s as r e s i d e n c e s . As each y e a r ' s funds a l l o c a t e d f o r student r e s i d e n c e s were spent i n r e f u r b i s h i n g these huts Mawdsley t o l d 104 him, " i t was l i k e throwing money i n t o the Fraser R i v e r . " The e s t a b l i s h i n g of women's r e s i d e n c e s a t UBC i n 1951 was 153 a c u r i o u s example of the present c a t c h i n g up to the past, d e s p i t e a s i g n i f i c a n t exchange of e x p e c t a t i o n s . P r i o r to the twe n t i e t h century, separate l i v i n g space f o r women on campus was o f t e n presented f o r the 'moral' p r o t e c t i o n of both sexes. In B r i t i s h Columbia, b e f o r e WWI, a women's residen c e was i d e n t i f i e d by female students as both advantageous and necessary to provide a companionable experience, and to ensure t h a t women from a l l p a r t s of the pro v i n c e would be accommodated a t the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y . For n e a r l y h a l f a century, female students who e v e n t u a l l y became alumni, two Deans of Women, and a network of women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s reminded the U n i v e r s i t y of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o pro v i d e accommodation f o r the women students. F i n a l l y , a f t e r demonstrating i t s commitment t o housing the i n f l u x of predominantly male student veterans i n 1945, the U n i v e r s i t y acknowledged the p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t and r e a l need f o r women's r e s i d e n c e s f o r young students from out of town. The new campus 'dorms', b u i l t mid-century, thus f u l f i l l e d the hopes and e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t p r e v a i l e d among female students s i n c e UBC opened a t F a i r v i e w . 154 Notes 1 Jo Robinson, S i x t y Y e a r s of F r i e n d s h i p and S e r v i c e , 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 7 7 ; A B r i e f H i s t o r y of the F a c u l t y Women's Club of UBC. (Vancouver, 1977), p. 1. F a c u l t y Women's Club Records, Box 1, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, The L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n . 3 I b i d . 4 I s a b e l S. Maclnnes, Tape recorded i n t e r v i e w , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, The L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . 5 Robinson. 6 7 8 F a c u l t y Women's Club Records, Box 1. Maclnnes Tape. UBC Scrapbook #8, February 22, 1919, p. 50. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, The L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . 9 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, March 31, 1919. 10 11 12 13 14 Ubyssey, February 17, 1921, p. 1 I b i d . I b i d . UBC Scrapbook #12, p. 90. K l i n c k d i s c u s s e d the d u t i e s of Deans of Women with other u n i v e r s i t y p r e s i d e n t s . Soward, p. 269. 15 Mary L o u i s e B o l l e r t , born i n Guelph, O n t a r i o , completed a B.A. at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto 1906 and an A.M. at Columbia U n i v e r s i t y i n 1908. From 1910-14 she was an A s s i s t a n t i n E n g l i s h at Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y and Dean of Women a t Regina C o l l e g e u n t i l 1921. B o l l e r t had been the d i r e c t o r of gene r a l e d u c a t i o n a l work and s o c i a l w e l f a r e a c t i v i t i e s f o r Robert Simpson Co. L t d . and f o r Sherbourne House Club, Toronto, which she organized as a residence f o r business women. Her c l u b a f f i l i a t i o n s i n c l u d e d the Pan P a c i f i c Women's A s s o c i a t i o n , the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t y Women, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of Women, the Soroptomist Club, Georgian Club, Women's Canadian Club, U n i v e r s i t y Chapter, I.O.D.E., U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Alumnae, F a c u l t y Women's Club, League of Nations S o c i e t y , B.C. Temperance League. The s a l a r y schedule f o r 1921 was as f o l l o w s : Deans, 155 $5,500-$7,500; P r o f e s s o r s , $4,000-S5,000; A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r s , $3,200-$3,800; A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r s , $2,400-$3,000; I n s t r u c t o r s , $l,600-$2,200; A s s i s t a n t s , up t o $1,500. Logan, p. 84. 1 7 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, J u l y 25, 1921. 1 8 Ubyssey, November 24, 1921, pp. 1-2. The t i t l e of the o f f i c e was a f a i r i n d i c a t i o n of the a u t h o r i t y t h a t was allowed by the i n s t i t u t i o n . These t i t l e s ranged from "Advisor to Women," "Dean of Women," t o "Warden." The U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a had an Ad v i s o r to Women Students, 1921-42, and a Dean of Women a f t e r 1950. Walter H. Johns, A H i s t o r y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a (Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981) . At M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y the head of the Royal V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e f o r Women was c a l l e d the "Warden" f o l l o w i n g the model of S o m e r v i l l e C o l l e g e , Oxford. G i l l e t t , p. 164. In t h i s l a t t e r case, the d u t i e s were d e f i n e d i n i t i a l l y as the Head or P r i n c i p a l of the women's re s i d e n c e , or c o l l e g e , and to students the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the "guardian" were o f t e n incompatible with the confidence sought i n the " c o u n s e l l o r " . Dr. Mary Dorothy Mawdsley, Tape recorded i n t e r v i e w , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, The L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . See f u r t h e r t h i s chapter f o r d i s c u s s i o n of segregated E n g l i s h c l a s s e s . 2 0 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, J u l y 25, 1921. 21 Dorothy Mawdsley suggested t h a t I s a b e l Maclnnes a l s o may have h e l d these views, i n i t i a l l y . Mawdsley tape. 22 There were four Deans of Women: Mary L. B o l l e r t (1921-41); M. Dorothy Mawdsley (1941-1959); Helen McCrae (1959-1973); E. Margaret F u l t o n (1974-1978). The p o s i t i o n was e l i m i n a t e d i n 1978 and the f u n c t i o n s were assumed by the O f f i c e f o r Women Students. 23 Soward noted t h a t B o l l e r t ' s t i t l e was changed from "Advisor" t o "Dean of Women" i n 1922, p. 281. 2 4 UBC Senate Minutes, Volume 9, p. 841, August 29, 1941. 2 5 UBC Senate Minutes, Volume 10, p. 1075, October 18, 1944. 2 6 UBC Senate Minutes, Volume 12, p. 1500, May 10, 1949. T h i s d e c i s i o n a f f e c t e d a l s o the Dean of Men, an O f f i c e e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r the i n f l u x of male students f o l l o w i n g World War I I . 27 In 1946 Dean Mawdsley's s a l a r y was $4,000 with $1,000 of th a t amount p a i d f o r her te a c h i n g i n the Department of E n g l i s h . Board of Governors Minutes, A p r i l 29, 1946. 156 28 29 30 Mawdsley tape. I b i d . The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , January 8, 1933. 31 Dorothy Mawdsley, Tape Recording. Although r e t i r i n g deans were awarded c u s t o m a r i l y an honorary degree, B o l l e r t was not accorded t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n . 3 2 UBC Scrapbook #15, p. 21, p. 41, p. 101. 3 3 Address t o the Canadian Daughter's League, The Vancouver Province A p r i l 13, 1939, UBC Scrapbook #25, p. 37. 3 4 Address t o the E d u c a t i o n a l Club, The Vancouver Province, December 12, 1924, UBC Scrapbook #15, p. 106. 35 36 37 38 Ubyssey, September 30, 1932. Ubyssey, October 1, 1935. Ubyssey, September 26, 1941. B o l l e r t ran as a L i b e r a l candidate i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s i n 1941 but was not e l e c t e d . She d i e d four years a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t . 3 9 M a r j o r i e Leeming had been a student at UBC and a champion t e n n i s p l a y e r . When they s t a r t e d work on t h e i r composition t e x t , Leeming moved i n t o Mawdsley's household which i n c l u d e d Mawdsley's parents who were supported by t h e i r daughter. The two women continued t o share t h e i r l i v e s i n t o r e t i r e m e n t . Leeming had been an i n s t r u c t o r i n P h y s i c a l E ducation a t UBC and from J u l y 1951 to June 1959 she served as the A s s i s t a n t t o the Dean of Women. Both r e t i r e d t o Vancouver I s l a n d where they b u i l t themselves a c a b i n . Mawdsley, Tape Recording. 40 T h e i r accomplishment was announced i n the V i c t o r i a Times, October 15, 1935: "Two G i r l s Produce New B.C. Composition Textbook: UBC Scrapbook, #22, p. 77. T h i s t e x t : M. Dorothy Mawdsley and M a r j o r i e H. Leeming, Modern Composition f o r H i g h Schools and C o l l e g i a t e s ( V i c t o r i a : 1935). 41 Mawdsley, Tape r e c o r d i n g . A O 'Buttercup' — from H.M.S. P i n a f o r e , o p e r e t t a by G i l b e r t and S u l l i v a n —• a young woman whose past experience i n c l u d e d running a baby farm. Mawdsley, Tape r e c o r d i n g . 43 Dr. Dorothy Mawdsley, who was a student and an E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t o r at UBC bef o r e she became Dean of Women, r e c a l l e d t h a t the c l a s s e s had been segregated on purpose to the time of her 157 Deanship. She and S t e l l a MacGuire taught the women's s e c t i o n s i n the f i r s t year E n g l i s h because "Sedgewick d i d n ' t want women." Dr. Mawdsley f e l t i t was u n f a i r t h a t men orga n i z e d the courses and s e t the exams. The women marked t h e i r own s e c t i o n s and a l s o read the papers of the s e n i o r men. As the j u n i o r i n s t r u c t o r s they d e l i v e r e d the f i r s t l e c t u r e i n the af t e r n o o n s . The j u n i o r i n s t r u c t o r s (women) were ' l e t go' i n the d e p r e s s i o n . There are numerous and e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e s t o the unequal treatment of women f a c u l t y members i n the reminiscences of Mawdsley, Nevison and Maclnnes. However, as t h i s r e s e a r c h focussed as much as p o s s i b l e on the experience of female students, e x t e n s i v e c i t a t i o n t o show the l e s s e r s t a t u s of female f a c u l t y has been omitted. Dr. Dorothy Mawdsley, Tape Recording, UBC A r c h i v e s . 4 4 Ubyssey, January 10, 1941. 4 5 I b i d . I b i d . Dr. Myrne Nevison was a student a t UBC i n the 1940s and e v e n t u a l l y returned t o teach and head the Department of C o u n s e l l i n g Psychology i n the F a c u l t y of Educa t i o n . She remembered t h a t as a ' f r e s h e t t e ' , conspicuous i n the r e q u i r e d green a t t i r e , she waited i n her f i r s t c l a s s f o r the E n g l i s h p r o f e s s o r to a r r i v e . When the t a l l lanky p r o f e s s o r appeared, with h i s gown f l y i n g , he growled, "shut up you damn females" and spent ten minutes bemoaning the f a c t t h a t he had been f o r c e d t o take f r e s h e t t e s . T h i s p r o f e s s o r (F.G.C. Wood) was remembered as an e x c e l l e n t i n s t r u c t o r who was a l s o "very charming" but upset t h a t he had to teach women. Dr. Myrne Nevison, Tape Recording, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, UBC A r c h i v e s . A l s o , Dr. Dorothy Mawdsley, Tape Recording. 4 7 Ubyssey, January 14, 1941. 48 The r o l e of the F a c u l t y Women's Club and the Dean of Women i n the i n s p e c t i o n of rooms has been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a pter. 4 9 "Betty Coed," i n The Vancouver Sun, October 10, 1935, UBC Scrapbook #22, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, UBC A r c h i v e s . 5 0 I b i d . 5 These p o i n t s about women's employment were made by Dean Mawdsley i n a taped i n t e r v i e w . 52 UBC P l a n s , Thompson, Berwick, P r a t t and Pa r t n e r s A r c h i t e c t u r a l Records, UBC Main L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . 53 A r e s i d e n c e f o r 300 students was the f i r s t item to be b u i l t a c c o r d i n g t o the UBC Board of Governors Minutes, May 30, 1913. 158 5 4 Ubyssey, February 17, 1921. 5 5 Ubyssey, March 10, 1921. 5 6 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, October 27, 1947. 5 7 In the statement by the Board of Governors of requirements f o r UBC f o r the f i r s t f i v e years, the b u i l d i n g of the Women's residen c e was p r o j e c t e d f o r 1915-16. World War I and a s h i f t i n the p r o v i n c i a l economy and spending p r i o r i t i e s h a l t e d the plans t o b u i l d UBC. UBC Board of Governors Minutes, May 30, 1913. See a l s o Chapter I I . 5 8 Ubyssey, March 10, 1921. 5 9 Ubyssey, February 17, 1921. 6 0 The Vancouver Sun, September 26, 1922. UBC Scrapbook #12, p. 178. 6 1 I b i d . fi2 The Vancouver Pr o v i n c e , November 25, 1922, UBC Scrapbook #12, p. 2~UT. 6 3 "Betty Coed" i n The Vancouver Sun, October 10, 1935, UBC Scrapbook #22, p. 76. 6 4 UBC Annuals 1941-45. 6 5 I b i d . 6 6 UBC Annual 1941. 6 7 I b i d . 6 8 I b i d . 69 Mawdsley, Tape r e c o r d i n g . 7 0 I b i d . 71 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, A p r i l 26, 1943; May 31, 1943; August 30, 1943; September 27, 1943. 7 2 The Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s p r o v i d e d a s s i s t a n c e to students f o r these purposes. See Augusta Margaret Thomasson, "Acadia Camp: A Study of the Acadia Camp Residence a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia from September 1945 to May 1949," Unpublished t h e s i s f o r Master of S o c i a l Work, UBC, 1951, p. 2. 7 3 See Chapter I I I . 74 Thomasson, p. 4. 159 7 5 I b i d . S e v e n t y - f i v e a p p l i c a n t s were turned away. 7 6 Thomasson, p. 20. 7 7 "General Report on Acadia Camp," June 1964, Dean of Women's O f f i c e Papers, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y , UBC A r c h i v e s . 7 8 Dean Mawdsley was unhappy about the g i r l s ' p r a c t i c e of s t a y i n g out l a t e with no one knowing t h e i r whereabouts or when they were expected t o r e t u r n . She a l s o suggested l a t e passes be signed, a procedure t h a t was endorsed by a vote from the female r e s i d e n t s . Although t h i s procedure was adopted i n p r i n c i p l e i t was ignored i n p r a c t i c e and as th e r e was no machinery to enforce i t , the matter was dropped. Thomasson, p. 40. 7 Q "General Report on Acadia Camp," p. 1. 8 0 Totem, UBC Annual, p. 222; Thomasson. 8 1 Thomasson, p. 35. 8 2 See Note 46 and 51. The F a c u l t y C o u n c i l approved male v i s i t o r s i n women's rooms d e s p i t e Dean Mawdsley's o b j e c t i o n s . See f u r t h e r i n t h i s pape r . OA Three women r e s i d e n t s were r e p o r t e d t o the Dean of Women f o r s t a y i n g i n the r e c r e a t i o n h a l l with male students u n t i l three or four o'clock i n the morning. The Dean requested these g i r l s t o leav e Acadia at Christmas because t h e i r behavior was " u n d e s i r a b l e " . Because the Res i d e n t s ' C o u n c i l was not c o n s u l t e d i t d i s p u t e d the Dean's a c t i o n and questioned her j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the r e s i d e n c e . Thomasson, p. 36. p 5 Thomasson, p. 43. 86 The argument i n favo r of a c c e p t i n g the r u l i n g was t h a t not t o do so was to show a la c k of confidence i n Acadia's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body and i n the students' a b i l i t y t o conduct themselves p r o p e r l y . Thomasson, p. 44. 87 88 89 90 Thomasson, p. 45-7. Totem, UBC Annual, 1947, p. 222. I b i d . U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club Minutes, Volume 2, January 13, 1947, C i t y of Vancouver A r c h i v e s . 91 I b i d . Dr. P h y l l i s Ross's son, John Turner became, b r i e f l y , Prime M i n i s t e r of Canada i n 1984. 160 92 U n i v e r s i t y Women's Club Minutes, Volume 2, March 10, 1947 . 9 3 I b i d . F a r r i s , Maclnnes and Mawdsley's connections to UBC are evident i n t h i s paper. Evelyn L e t t (nee Story) A r t s '17 married another prominent graduate, Sherwood L e t t . Mary F a l l i s graduated from UBC i n 1932. 9 4 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, March 31, 1947. 9 5 I b i d . 9 6 See Chapter I I I . 9 7 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, October 27, 1947; January 9, 1948. 9 8 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, June 28, 1948. 9 9 UBC Board of Governors Minutes, January 30, 1950. 1 0 0 Totem, UBC Annual, 1950, p. 35. 1 0 1 The F a c u l t y Women's Club a l s o named t h e i r f i r s t s c h o l a r s h i p f o r Anne Wesbrook who had, h e r s e l f , i n i t i a t e d a cash p r i z e i n the e a r l y years of UBC. ± V J £ m Mawdsley, Taped i n t e r v i e w . 103 Dr. Gordon M. Shrum was the D i r e c t o r of the U n i v e r s i t y Housing A u t h o r i t y . 1 0 4 Souce f o r t h i s paragraph was Mawdsley's taped i n t e r v i e w . CHAPTER V THE FEMININE IMAGE AND THE FEMALE REALITY: THE ACCOMMODATION OF WOMEN TO CONTRADICTORY EXPECTATIONS Women's a s s o c i a t i o n s concerned w i t h the education of women, and i n d i v i d u a l s l i k e E v l y n F a r r i s , Annie Jamieson, Madge Watt, Mary B o l l e r t and Dorothy Mawdsley, i n t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s as Senators, Governors, or Deans of Women, worked t o ensure t h a t women would be e q u i t a b l y t r e a t e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The f u l l burden of adjustment c o u l d only be borne, however, by the students. An understanding of the experience of female students a t UBC remains incomplete without c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the ways i n which they accommodated themselves, p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y to an i n s t i t u t i o n whose primary f u n c t i o n was t o educate men, and t o a s o c i a l c l i m a t e t h a t remained u n c e r t a i n of the purpose of higher education f o r women. The message t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y e x i s t e d c h i e f l y f o r the education of men was conveyed t o both men and women i n a v a r i e t y of ways, but a t the more l i t e r a l l e v e l , by repeated r e f e r e n c e s t o "men" as i n the w r i t t e n and spoken emphasis on men's r o l e s i n higher e d u c a t i o n . The t h r u s t of many an i n s p i r e d address, even as i t was d e l i v e r e d t o a female audience, s t r e s s e d "the need f o r educated men," "the b e n e f i t a f f o r d e d any community by a body of c u l t u r e d men, s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r l i n e s , " and l i b e r a l education "designed t o enable man to adapt h i m s e l f whatever the f u t u r e may b r i n g . " 1 162 As l a t e as 1956, i n h i s address t o the members of the gra d u a t i n g c l a s s , Dean Henry F. Angus suggested an a p p r o p r i a t e motto f o r UBC would be: "Not B u i l d i n g s but Men Make the City. " ' ' Language t h a t p e r s i s t e n t l y denied women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n higher education, by making no mention of them, communicated an i n d i f f e r e n c e to t h e i r presence. The lower r a t i o of women t o men e n r o l l e d a t UBC i n a l l but two yea r s d u r i n g World War I, as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 1, was a t l e a s t p a r t l y due to an i n d i f f e r e n c e deeply embedded i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n . In the f i r s t h a l f of the twent i e t h century, i n d i f f e r e n c e presented as for m i d a b l e an o b s t a c l e to the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women a t the u n i v e r s i t y as h o s t i l i t y . Although women had e s t a b l i s h e d both t h e i r r i g h t and a b i l i t y to a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y , women were not co n s i d e r e d the t r u l y l e g i t i m a t e h e i r s t o higher education. The p u b l i c remained u n c e r t a i n about the importance of higher e d u c a t i o n i n l i g h t of the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r men and women. I n d i f f e r e n c e and h o s t i l i t y to female students expressed not only t h i s popular u n c e r t a i n t y , but a l s o the d e f e n s i v e r e a c t i o n of the male u n i v e r s i t y community a g a i n s t female encroachment. The c o i n c i d e n c e of the founding of UBC wit h the beginning of World War I heightened the p u b l i c ' s ambiguity about the importance of women's ed u c a t i o n . Although the r e g i o n a l context p r i o r to World War I had been s u p p o r t i v e of women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n higher education, the predominance of female students on campus d u r i n g the war years was regarded as a Enrollment 10000 9000 8000 7000 + 6000 5000 --4000 --3000 --2000 1000 + 0 Figure 1 UBC Enrollment: 1914-15 to 1950-51 (Full-time and part-time - Winter and Summer Sessions) Male Enrollment Female Enrollment 1914-15 1919-20 1924-25 1929-30 1934-35 1939-40 1944-45 1949-50 Academic Year Source: UBC Calendars 164 temporary and unnatural consequence of the Empire's need f o r y o u t h f u l s o l d i e r s . The b u i l d i n g of the p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y was postponed i n d e f i n i t e l y by a community unsympathetic to a ' l a d i e s c o l l e g e . ' 3 Women's c l a i m to higher education seemingly r e q u i r e d constant j u s t i f i c a t i o n over the next t h r e e decades. Women countered any popular resentment, or c o l l e c t i v e g u i l t , caused by t h e i r prominence i n the i n i t i a l y e a r s of UBC's e x i s t e n c e , by assuming the g u a r d i a n s h i p f o r the v a l u e s of righteousness, t r u t h , and honour on the home f r o n t . Miss I s a b e l Maclnnes, P r o f e s s o r of Modern Languages, i n her address t o the UBC Women's L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y i n 1917, urged the members i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . Surely we — exempt from t h e i r g r e a t s a c r i f i c e — should u n i t e with them i n m a i n t a i n i n g here those supreme i n t e r e s t s f o r which they are f a c i n g danger and death. Surely our c o l l e g e l i f e , too, should have a nobler purpose and be t e s t e d by higher standards.^ Women's r o l e i n higher education d u r i n g the war y e a r s thus served a moral and p a t r i o t i c purpose which strengthened and u n i f i e d women's a c t i v i t i e s on campus and d e f l e c t e d b e l i t t l i n g i n s i n u a t i o n s . A f t e r World War I, women f a c e d a g a i n the need to r e d e f i n e and expand t h e i r r o l e s i n higher education i n response to changing s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and p u b l i c a n t i p a t h y . For many yea r s a u n i v e r s i t y education f o r women was deemed unnecessary because motherhood was regarded as the only true career f o r women. Women then argued t h a t the b e n e f i t s of "a t r a i n e d and 165 d i s c i p l i n e d mind" supplemented the " i n h e r i t e d i n s t i n c t s of motherhood." Furthermore, f e m i n i s t s who recognized the need t o extend women's economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s beyond t h e i r dependence or marriage s e i z e d the argument t h a t j u s t i f i e d women's ed u c a t i o n f o r i t s s o c i a l u s e f u l n e s s . E t h e l Johns, Head of Department of Nursing, proclaimed i t "our duty to prepare the modern g i r l f o r one of two a l t e r n a t i v e s , marriage, or the l i f e she must l e a d i f marriage does not come." 6 Johns b e l i e v e d t h a t a woman's ed u c a t i o n meant ... [ s e l f i s h l y ] an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c u l t u r e ... and a l s o the t r a i n i n g t h a t makes p o s s i b l e the a b i l i t y to earn a l i v i n g , again a s e l f i s h matter, but f u r t h e r ... i t means the c a p a b i l i t y of r e n d e r i n g a r e a l s e r v i c e to the community. 7 Johns, l i k e many of the e d u c a t i o n a l p i o n e e r s of the prev i o u s century and her contemporaries, found i t necessary to j u s t i f y women's ed u c a t i o n i n terms of gender s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . Women's ed u c a t i o n t h a t aimed a t s o c i a l u s e f u l n e s s preserved the feminine a t t r i b u t e s of motherhood and u n s e l f i s h s e r v i c e . In t h i s process 'motherhood* became more bro a d l y d e f i n e d t o encompass the work of nurses, t e a c h e r s and e v e n t u a l l y home economists. Education f o r women's s o c i a l u s e f u l n e s s d i d not ease the acceptance of women i n t o the f i e l d s of study t r a d i t i o n a l l y dominated by men. The few women who braved the f o r c e of p u b l i c o p i n i o n t o attempt degrees i n the A p p l i e d Sciences f a c e d g r e a t e r o b s t a c l e s a f t e r g r a d u a t i o n . Women were favoured f o r "the r o u t i n e drudgery of l a b work" but i n the words of one 166 UBC p r o f e s s o r , "women do not make as good s c i e n t i s t s as men... they do not have the same l a r g e r grasp of s c i e n t i f i c problems and t r e n d s . " 8 Women i n sc i e n c e tended t o s p e c i a l i z e i n b i o l o g y or b a c t e r i o l o g y which f i t t e d them f o r employment i n h o s p i t a l s and p u b l i c h e a l t h departments, a l b e i t they were p a i d c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s than men doing the same work. 9 Women t a k i n g n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l courses a t UBC w i t h no c l e a r a p p l i c a t i o n t o ' s o c i a l u s e f u l n e s s ' were open t o a t t a c k not only f o r competing w i t h men f o r scarce resources w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n but a l s o f o r renouncing t h e i r primary female o b l i g a t i o n s . During p e r i o d s of economic s t r e s s women, p a r t i c u l a r l y , were s i n g l e d out f o r c r i t i c i s m . In the e a r l y 1920s the overcrowded c o n d i t i o n s of the U n i v e r s i t y housed a t Fa i r v i e w p r e c i p i t a t e d rumours t h a t student enrollment would have t o be l i m i t e d . One author of a l e t t e r to the e d i t o r of Ubyssey proposed a s o l u t i o n t h a t c l e a r l y showed the s t r a i n on co e d u c a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s and an u n d e r l y i n g resentment toward women t a k i n g " c u l t u r e c o u r s e s . " ...Last year out of the 82 who were given t h e i r B.A. degrees, only 16 had the a b i l i t y and the i n i t i a t i v e to take Honours. Over 76% of those t a k i n g the Pass Course were women, and of these only a small m i n o r i t y graduated i n Science ... who i s the most value t o the community, a graduate i n French L i t e r a t u r e or a graduate i n C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g or B a c t e r i o l o g y ? . . . I s i t r i g h t t h a t a woman who i s t a k i n g a pass course i n , say, Philosophy, and who w i l l probably be married w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s of graduation, and w i t h i n t e n w i l l have f o r g o t t e n a l l the Philosophy she ever knew, should be pe r m i t t e d t o prevent some other student from l e a r n i n g the fundamentals of h i s l i f e work, n Women defended themselves with a humourous response t h a t 167 p o i n t e d out the a b s u r d i t y of any admission p o l i c y t h a t would attempt t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t female students by a s s e s s i n g the use of t h e i r education i n the f u t u r e . 1 1 In 1932, an economic c r i s i s t h r eatened post-secondary education i n B.C. and the Kidd Report d e l i v e r e d i t s unsympathetic c o n c l u s i o n s about the f a t e of the U n i v e r s i t y . ' ' Women were again p l a c e d on the d e f e n s i v e as d i s g r u n t l e d c i t i z e n s q u e s t i o n e d the value of t h e i r education. The w r i t e r of a l e t t e r to the e d i t o r of The Prov i n c e , September 25, 1932, supported the Kidd Report and a t t a c k e d a home economics demonstration a t an elementary school where he had seen "...a w e l l nourished matron t e a c h i n g a l i t t l e g i r l how to mix dough, while another was making an apron. "-L-> His q u e s t i o n , "where are the mothers of these homeless c h i l d r e n ? " s c a r c e l y d i s g u i s e d h i s i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t any woman not a housewife was d e r e l i c t i n her womanly d u t i e s and c o n t r i b u t e d t o the unnecessary c o s t s i n edu c a t i o n . T h i s w r i t e r t a r g e t e d women u n i v e r s i t y students more d i r e c t l y as an unwelcome expense to the taxpayer. I i n v i t e taxpayers t o ... watch the f l i g h t of students westward t o the classrooms. Scores and sc o r e s of c a r s speed p a s t , f i l l e d not with s e r i o u s young men, but with c h a t t e r i n g g i r l s . Are these the youth to whom Mr. Weir s t a t e s the taxpayer owes so much? Are they seeking an educ a t i o n or a t h r i l l ? Are Messrs. Weir and Angus running a u n i v e r s i t y or a l a d i e s ' c o l l e g e ? 1 4 In hard economic times the community d i s p l a y e d g r e a t e r h o s t i l i t y toward female students and women's work o u t s i d e the home. Because the purposes of educating women were not c l e a r , 168 inasmuch as a u n i v e r s i t y degree was not a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r homemaking, women's ed u c a t i o n was regarded as a lu x u r y t h a t might be c u r t a i l e d t o conserve r e s o u r c e s . Many regarded the presence of women a t the u n i v e r s i t y as a demonstration of a ki n d of conspicuous consumption of an a f f l u e n t middle c l a s s . Indeed, i t i s commonly p o i n t e d out by s o c i o l o g i s t s and h i s t o r i a n s t h a t a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of f a t h e r s of u n i v e r s i t y students tended t o have occupations i n a p r o f e s s i o n or busi n e s s w i t h a higher income and s t a t u s than would be found i n a comparable age cohort i n the r e g i o n a l or n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . 1 5 T h i s study does not d i s p u t e t h a t u n i v e r s i t i e s may have been l e s s a c c e s s i b l e to f a m i l i e s of l i m i t e d means. In t h i s r e s p e c t a daughter's e d u c a t i o n may depend t o an even l a r g e r degree than a son's on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s u r p l u s f a m i l y r e s o u r c e s . However, as i n d i c a t e d i n t a b l e 2, the p r o f e s s i o n a l and business o c c u p a t i o n s together accounted, a t the most, f o r only h a l f of the students' f a t h e r s . 1 * ' The remaining h a l f were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of v a r i e d o c c u p a t i o n a l groups. UBC was founded on the p r i n c i p l e t h a t higher education should be a f f o r d a b l e to a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s . The l a c k of t u i t i o n f e e s a t MUCBC and UBC bef o r e 1920-21 meant t h a t p r i o r to t h i s date f a m i l i e s had onl y to co n s i d e r the c o s t s of extending the p e r i o d of dependence of t h e i r daughters and not the a d d i t i o n a l burden of y e a r l y f e e s . The p a r e n t a l occupations of female students e n r o l l e d a t MUCBC ( t a b l e 2) shows t h a t female students whose f a t h e r s ' occupations f e l l i n the s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d c a t e g o r i e s b e n e f i t e d from t h i s absence of 169 fe e s . The lower percentage of students from p r o f e s s i o n a l f a m i l i e s i n d i c a t e s , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , t h a t they were sent t o more p r e s t i g i o u s u n i v e r s i t i e s out of the p r o v i n c e . TABLE 2 PARENTAL OCCUPATIONS OF FEMALE STUDENTS ENROLLED AT McGILL COLLEGE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1907-14, AND THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1919-20, 1929-30, 1939-40, 1949-50. Oc c u p a t i o n a l Category N=68 1907-14 N=62 1919-20 N=99 1929-30 N=97 1939-40 N=54 1949-50 P r o f e s s i o n a l 16.2% 25.8% 33.0% 22.0% 20.4% Business/ Commercial 23.5% 29.0% 23.0% 27.0% 25.9% Managerial 8.8% 4.8% 4.0% 9.0% 14.8% C l e r i c a l 5.9% 3.2% 7.0% 3.0% 9.3% S k i l l e d 19.1% 16.1% 11.0% 10.0% 7.4% S e m i s k i l l e d 14.7% 12.9% 8.0% 11.0% 7.4% P r i v a t e M e a n s * 11.8% .... 6.5% 14.0% 18.0% 14.8% * T h i s category i n c l u d e s widows, and households where the mother was a s i n g l e parent who l i s t e d no occupation, and r e t i r e d f a t h e r s . In f a c t , UBC women shared r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s t o a l a r g e r degree than socio-economic s t a t u s ( t a b l e 3) . P r i o r to 1929, P r e s b y t e r i a n f a m i l i e s showed a gr e a t e r p r o p e n s i t y than f a m i l i e s from other r e l i g i o u s backgrounds f o r educating t h e i r 18 daughters. Over the next twenty years t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n s h i f t e d t o f a m i l i e s who attended the Un i t e d Church which absorbed many P r e s b y t e r i a n s , a f t e r church union i n 1925. 170 TABLE 3 RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONS OF FEMALE STUDENTS ENROLLED AT McGILL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1907-14, AND THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1919-20, 1929-30, 1939-40, 1949-50. N=100x5 Denomination 1907-14 1919-20 1929-30 1939-40 1949-50 A n g l i c a n / Church of England 14% 21% 26% 31% 35% A p o s t o l i c 1% Bapt i s t 12% 4% 7% 3% 1% Brethren 2% C h r i s t i a n Science 2% 1% 2% 2% Congrega-t i o n a l 5% 1% E p i s c o p a l i a n 1% 1% Jewish 1% 1% 1% 1% 6% Lutheran 1% 3% 1% Methodist 24% 13% None L i s t e d 4% 4% 2% 6% P r e s b y t e r i a n 37% 45% 10% 4% 4% P r o t e s t a n t 4% 9% 17% 24% Roman C a t h o l i c 1% 5% 5% 4% 6% United 37% 33% 15% Acco r d i n g t o the Canadian census f o r 1931, shown i n t a b l e 4, women i n the same age cohort as u n i v e r s i t y students, ages 15-24 years, l i v i n g i n Vancouver were almost e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between 171 the A n g l i c a n and the U n i t e d Church; but i n 1929-30, 11 percent more female students r e g i s t e r e d as members of the U n i t e d Church. More men and women of a l l ages i n Vancouver claimed t o be A n g l i c a n s i n 1931 ( t a b l e 4) although they were not the l a r g e s t groups t o educate t h e i r daughters u n t i l 1949 ( t a b l e 3) . The next h i g h e s t group i n t h a t year i d e n t i f i e d themselves o n l y as P r o t e s t a n t s , perhaps an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , church membership had d e c l i n e d . The r e l i g i o u s p r e f e r e n c e s served as an eloquent i n d i c a t o r of the B r i t i s h and Canadian o r i g i n s of the parents of women students t h a t was borne out by t h e i r d e c l a r a t i o n s of p a r e n t a l n a t i o n a l i t y i n c l u d e d on the UBC r e g i s t r a t i o n cards f o r 1929 and 1939 ( t a b l e 5) . The m a j o r i t y of female students were Canadian born and l i v e d i n the Vancouver area i n t h e i r parents' homes ( t a b l e 6) I r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r f a m i l y backgrounds, gender e x p e c t a t i o n s determined t h a t women shared s i m i l a r experiences i n higher education. The m a j o r i t y of female students e n r o l l e d i n A r t s with a view to becoming t e a c h e r s . Many of the M c G i l l C o l l e g e women completed one or two ye a r s before they went on t o 19 Normal School. A survey of UBC Alumni i n 1925 reported t h a t some female graduates were working i n medicine, a g r i c u l t u r e , s c i e n c e , m i s s i o n a r y and s o c i a l s e r v i c e work, nursing, j o u r n a l i s m , stenography, or were i n business f o r themselves, but 20 most of them were t e a c h i n g . Teaching was an a c c e p t a b l e o c c u p a t i o n f o r women t h a t p r o v i d e d them with the o p p o r t u n i t y to t r a v e l , to f i n d economic independence, and to f i n a n c e t h e i r 172 co n t i n u e d e d u c a t i o n f o r an undergraduate or a graduate degree. TABLE 4 RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION BY SEX AND QUINQUENNIAL AGE GROUPS FOR VANCOUVER IN 1931 Denomination Female Both Sexes Female Female A l l Ages A l l Ages 15-19 v r s 20-24 v r s A d v e n t i s t s 235 415 25 14 A n g l i c a n s 35,630 71,739 3,424 2,991 B a p t i s t s 5,526 10,578 539 529 Brethren and United B r e t h r e n 313 628 37 30 Confucians and Buddhists 3,273 15,709 267 258 C h r i s t i a n s 95 227 11 12 C h r i s t i a n S c i e n t i s t s 1,693 2,912 171 127 Jews 1,140 2,372 127 137 Lutherans 3,423 8,963 306 528 P r e s b y t e r i a n s 16,796 35,366 1,620 1,493 P r o t e s t a n t s 198 489 16 29 Roman C a t h o l i c s 11,097 23,635 1,200 1,176 United 31,378 61,213 3,376 3,086 SOURCE: Census of Canada, 1931. V o l . I I I . (Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1931), Table 22. 173 TABLE 5 NATIONALITIES OF PARENTS OF FEMALE STUDENTS ATTENDING THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1929-30, 1939-40. N=100x2 N a t i o n a l i t y 1929-30 1939-40 F a t h e r 1 s Mother's F a t h e r ' s ' Mother's American 0 1 2 5 A u s t r a l i a n 0 0 0 1 B r i t i s h 1 2 7 7 Canadian 61 59 43 45 C r o a t i a n 0 1 0 0 Dutch 0 1 0 0 E n g l i s h 18 21 19 17 F i n n i s h 0 0 1 1 French 0 1 0 0 Greek 0 0 1 0 "Hebrew" 0 0 1 1 I r i s h 2 4 3 4 Norwegian 0 1 0 0 Russian 0 0 1 1 S c o t t i s h 9 7 11 14 Swedish 0 0 3 4 Swiss 2 1 0 0 Welsh 1 0 0 0 Not Given 6 1 8 0 TABLE 6' BIRTH PLACE OF FEMALE STUDENTS ENROLLED AT McGILL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1907-14, AND THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1919-20, 1929-30, 1939-40, (1949-50 NO RECORDS). N=100x4 B i r t h Place 1907-14 1919-20 1929-30 1939-40 Vancouver 21% 24% 28% 37% B r i t i s h Columbia o u t s i d e Vancouver 22% 25% 29% 26% Canada 31% 23% 22% 24% United S t a t e s 7% 12% 4% 1% United Kingdom 3% 12% 12% 5% Other 4% 3% 2% Not Given 16% 2% 5% 174 Other courses t h a t appealed t o women were e s t a b l i s h e d s l o w l y at UBC. Departments of Nursing i n 1920, Teacher T r a i n i n g i n 1924 and S o c i a l Work i n 1 9 4 5 2 1 i n c r e a s e d the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women to q u a l i f y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l work i n these f i e l d s . As d i s c u s s e d i n a previous chapter, Home Economics was long fought f o r by the women i n B r i t i s h Columbia bef o r e i t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 19 4 2 . 2 2 A f t e r World War I I , Pharmacy and Law i n i t i a l l y a t t r a c t e d a few women; however, l i k e E n g i n e e r i n g , these f i e l d s were con s i d e r e d men's p r o f e s s i o n s . T e c h n i c a l l y , a l l f a c u l t i e s and sc h o o l s were open t o women but i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century s o c i a l c o n t r a i n t s proved as stro n g a d e t e r r e n t t o women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n as any formal p r o h i b i t i o n . 2 3 Women who entered a t r a d i t i o n a l l y male f i e l d of study may have experienced more o v e r t l e v e l s of sexual d i s c r i m i n a t i o n than other women a t the u n i v e r s i t y . T h i s i s not to say th a t female students i n t e g r a t e d and a s s i m i l a t e d more r e a d i l y i n t o A r t s courses. Segregated E n g l i s h c l a s s e s and male p r o f e s s o r s who s c a r c e l y concealed t h e i r i n d i f f e r e n c e to female students engendered a sense of i n f e r i o r i t y i n women. 2 4 Women f e l t they 25 always had t o be b e t t e r than men t o get r e c o g n i t i o n . A l t e r n a t e l y , the "feminine" e d u c a t i o n a l f i e l d s were as s i g n e d t o 2 6 the lower ranks i n the academic h i e r a r c h y . Female students p e r s o n a l l y s u f f e r e d l e s s h o s t i l i t y i n these f i e l d s but r e s i s t a n c e and r e s e r v a t i o n s were d i r e c t e d toward the programmes. The low p r e s t i g e of the f i e l d s of study may be a s c r i b e d t o t h e i r r e l a t i v e newness as areas of syste m a t i c 175 i n q u i r y , to p e r c e i v e d lower i n t e l l e c t u a l standards, or t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h women, and thus the lower end of p r o f e s s i o n a l s a l a r y s c a l e s . 2 7 The u n d e r l y i n g a n t i p a t h y , which s u r f a c e d e i t h e r as i n d i f f e r e n c e or h o s t i l i t y toward women i n higher education, remained rooted i n gender e x p e c t a t i o n s . A f t e r World War I gender e x p e c t a t i o n s were conveyed to a great extent by the image of f e m i n i n i t y t h a t appeared i n an i n c r e a s i n g a r r a y of media, much of i t imported i n t o B.C. from the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In American f i l m s and popular women's magazines, standards of f e m i n i n i t y were c o n s i d e r a b l y broadened over the span of three decades f o l l o w i n g World War I. The p i c t u r e of female ingenuousness and innocence d e p i c t e d i n the e a r l y twenties gave way to a more r e b e l l i o u s image l a t e r i n the decade when the new woman wore s h o r t e r s k i r t s , bobbed her h a i r and r e j e c t e d t r a d i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r a l c o n s t r a i n t s . C l o t h i n g and cosmetics became important items i n determining f e m i n i n i t y i n the t h i r t i e s and f o r t i e s as f i l m s and g l o s s y magazines promoted the American f a s h i o n i n d u s t r y . Women were p o r t r a y e d i n more e r o t i c l e s s maternal r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e i r c l o t h e s accentuated r a t h e r than masked t h e i r b odies. The new image r e f l e c t e d changing i d e o l o g i e s t h a t a f f e c t e d women's l i v e s . "Educated motherhood" gave way to a new 28 emphasis on women's r o l e as "wife-companion." The primary r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a woman's l i f e s h i f t e d from her c h i l d r e n to her husband. F e m i n i n i t y was thus measured by a woman's a b i l i t y to a t t r a c t and p l e a s e men. Although the changing image of woman 176 i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t s i n s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of womanhood, the r e v i s e d standards of f e m i n i n i t y d i d l i t t l e to nur t u r e a p u b l i c acceptance of women as c r e d i b l e , s e r i o u s , ambitious s t u d e n t s . As the consumer p o t e n t i a l of the u n i v e r s i t y woman was di s c o v e r e d by the marketplace, the a d v e r t i s i n g f e a t u r e s of newspapers and mass c i r c u l a t i o n magazines packaged potent images of f e m i n i n i t y designed t o appeal to female students. The d a i l y press c a l l e d female students by the American a p p e l l a t i o n "coeds" and glamourized t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n the s o c i e t y pages. P r e f e r r i n g t h e i r p u l c h r i t u d e to t h e i r p r o f u n d i t y , * g o s s i p columnists d e s c r i b e d the e l a b o r a t e gowns 'coeds' wore to c h a r i t y b a l l s . C i t y newspapers p r e f e r r e d t o p o r t r a y a ste r e o t y p e t o an i n d i v i d u a l experience and columns f o r women students were w r i t t e n under the pseudonyms "Betty 30 Coed" and "Fanny F r e s h e t t e . " The standards of feminine behaviour and academic c r e d i b i l i t y made i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y demands on female students. I t was d i f f i c u l t f o r female students t o be both 31 a t t r a c t i v e to men and taken s e r i o u s l y . Women had few r o l e models w i t h i n the academic sphere. T h e i r female p r o f e s s o r s who were career o r i e n t e d were unmarried and c o n s i d e r e d d i f f e r e n t from other women. T h i s ' d i f f e r e n c e ' u s u a l l y meant they d i d not conform to c u r r e n t standards of f e m i n i n i t y . In f a c t , these women hoped t h e i r gender would p l a y no obvious p a r t i n t h e i r success or f a i l u r e . They wanted acceptance i n the same terms as men and b e l i e v e d t h a t only conformity to the s t a t u s quo or 177 3 2 masculine standards would e l i m i n a t e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . These women were not n e c e s s a r i l y f e m i n i s t s who wished t o chall e n g e a system t h a t t r e a t e d women unequally; they were o f t e n i n d i v i d u a l i s t s who b e l i e v e d ambition was a perso n a l matter. They d i d not share the experiences of 'other' women. 3 3 These academic women had t o c h a r t t h e i r own course and they p a i d a high p r i c e f o r t h e i r nonconformity. They f o r f e i t e d attachments t o the female spheres but were not i n c l u d e d e n t i r e l y i n the men's. Well i n t o the twe n t i e t h century, academic women s t r u g g l e d t o win r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h i n the male u n i v e r s i t y community. 3 4 The rewards f o r a female s c h o l a r were the freedom and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of autonomy t h a t were c o n v e n t i o n a l l y reserved f o r a man, and an i d e n t i t y t h a t d e r i v e d from her own accomplishments and c a p a b i l i t i e s . But the choice of nonconformity over f e m i n i n i t y meant the d e n i a l of much t h a t was recog n i z e d as female i n a s o c i e t y where a career and marriage were mutually e x c l u s i v e a c t i v i t i e s f o r a woman. Several UBC graduates f i t i n t o t h i s p a t t e r n of nonconformity as they eschewed the s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n of womanhood t o the b e n e f i t of t h e i r chosen f i e l d s . Undoubtedly t h e i r c h o i c e s were formed by t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s , s p e c i a l circumstances, and e x c e p t i o n a l t a l e n t s t h a t bear c l o s e r s c r u t i n y . T h i s paper seeks t o c l a r i f y , however, t h a t the pre s s u r e s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n may not be ignored i n women's experience i n higher education. An ou t s t a n d i n g m i n o r i t y were a b l e to wi t h s t a n d s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n or i s o l a t i o n t o achieve 178 t h e i r g o a l s , but the m a j o r i t y of women were r e l u c t a n t to cast o f f the company of t h e i r own sex or the t r a p p i n g s of t h e i r sexual i d e n t i t y . Perhaps the e a s i e s t and most obvious choice f o r female students a t the u n i v e r s i t y was t o y i e l d t o the predominant s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of womanhood, make the most of t h e i r f e m i n i n i t y , and ensure t h a t higher education would not endanger t h e i r m a r i t a l p r o s p e c t s . Women tended t o b e l i e v e i n the i n t e r war p e r i o d t h a t the c o n t r o v e r s y over coeducation was behind them and they ignored or were o b l i v i o u s t o the more s u b t l e evidence of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 3 6 They f e l t c o n f i d e n t i n t h e i r womanhood and secure i n the knowledge t h a t t h e i r attendance a t the u n i v e r s i t y represented the s o c i a l a s p i r a t i o n s of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . For perhaps n e a r l y one t h i r d of the female students, these s o c i a l a s p i r a t i o n s formed the l a r g e r p a r t of t h e i r own 37 ambition. Women's s o c i a l i z a t i o n d i d not begin a t the u n i v e r s i t y , a f t e r a l l , and the s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of the a f f l u e n t middle c l a s s complemented the i d e a l s d e p i c t e d i n the American popular c u l t u r e . Feminine conformity appealed, t h e r e f o r e , to a number of women who deemed i t e s s e n t i a l to o b t a i n and m a i n t a i n t h e i r s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . In t h e i r d e s i r e to emulate the i d e a l , feminine c o n f o r m i s t s on campus adopted a s o p h i s t i c a t e d look, wore dresses and hats from Madame Runge on G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , j o i n e d s o r o r i t i e s , and read the "women's page" i n the Ubyssey, which reviewed the l a t e s t f a s h i o n and grooming news and r a t e d female students a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p o i s e , grace and f l a i r f o r wearing c l o t h e s . 179 Women succumbed t o the l u r e of the department s t o r e " f a s h i o n revue" which i n v i t e d female students t o a c t as "mannequins" wit h the promise of f u n d r a i s i n g p r o f i t s t o use f o r t h e i r own purposes. ° T h i s c l i m a t e taught women t o regard o t h e r s of t h e i r sex as c o m p e t i t i o n f o r male a p p r o v a l . UBC "coeds" made news when judged by a v i s i t i n g male member of the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto debating team "to be more handsome and h e a l t h y than the e a s t e r n v a r i e t y . " Although the s e n i o r c l a s s i n 1934 d i d not permit "a r i d i c u l o u s b a l l o t to decide the dimensions and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the female i d e a l , " 4 0 by the 1940s c o l l e g e beauty c o n t e s t s t h a t sought the "Queen of the B a l l " or "the best l e g s " 4 1 were c o n s i d e r e d standard entertainment on campus. The popular 'image of f e m i n i n i t y ' became i n c r e a s i n g l y p reoccupied w i t h female s e x u a l i t y as masculine f a n t a s i e s widened the d i s t a n c e between the feminine i d e a l and the female r e a l i t y . Student p u b l i c a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s m i r r o r e d t h i s t r e n d . A f u l l page photo p o r t r a i t i n the 1948 UBC Annual i d e n t i f i e d a beauty queen " S h e i l a " as "The F r e s h e t t e We Would Most L i k e To Be O r i e n t a t e d With" because of her " s u l t r y l o n g -42 las h e d l o o k . " Female students dressed i n b a t h i n g s u i t s t o c o l l e c t donations f o r the March of Dimes — a c h a r i t y fund 43 r a i s i n g e f f o r t . In 1949 student candidates f o r Queen of the Mardi Gras B a l l were i n t r o d u c e d t o a crowd t h a t had been warmed up by " g a l a x i e s of b a t h i n g s u i t s amply f i l l e d out" by the s t a f f 44 of one of the l e a d i n g downtown manufacturers. E l a b o r a t e chorus l i n e s of s c a n t i l y c l a d female students formed an 180 e s s e n t i a l p a r t of dance programmes staged around "Mardi G r a s f " A C "Arabian N i g h t s " or "South P a c i f i c " themes. The men students c o n t r i b u t e d by performing t h e i r own v e r s i o n s of a female s t r i p tease r o u t i n e . 4 6 Feminine conformity served the p r i o r i t i e s of s o c i a l c l a s s and the marketplace t h a t were, i n the long r u n r a n t i t h e t i c a l both to women and women's i n t e r e s t i n higher education. T h i s focus on women's p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s a f f e c t e d a t t i t u d e s toward women i n such u n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s as a d m i n i s t e r i n g the student c o u n c i l . UBC yearbook e d i t o r s d e s c r i b e d female o f f i c e r s as " f i v e p r e t t y g i r l s " and "the p e t t i c o a t b r i g a d e . " 4 7 The woman who a c c i d e n t a l l y became, i n 1951, the second on l y female P r e s i d e n t of the AMS, Nonie Donaldson, was r e f e r r e d t o as a "pert commerce student" who " c o n t i n u a l l y amazed and g r a t i f i e d [the f a c u l t y ] by the i n t e l l i g e n t and mature way i n which she 48 handled the most d i f f i c u l t of student o f f i c e s . " I t would seem t h a t the i n c r e a s e d o b s e s s i o n with women's bodies d i d , indeed, d e t r a c t from the r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r minds and accomplishments. The e x p l o i t a t i v e nature of the image of f e m i n i n i t y to which women conformed i n these decades i s perhaps e a s i e r to recogn i z e i n r e t r o s p e c t . The young women who l i v e d these times accepted t h a t the sexual a t t i t u d e s allowed them gr e a t e r freedom without f o r s e e i n g t h a t they would a l s o l e a d t o a great e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t them. The low st a t u s of women a t 49 u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the twe n t i e t h century i s w e l l documented. The b a s i s of t h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l a y i n the s t e r e o t y p i c a l image 181 of s o c i a l f e m i n i n i t y . The image — more fa n t a s y than r e a l — of women's i n c r e a s e d sexual a v a i l a b i l i t y undermined women's academic c r e d e n t i a l s . The d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t t h a t women f e l t when they d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e i r adherence to standards of f e m i n i n i t y was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e i r second c l a s s s t a t u s e v e n t u a l l y turned i n t o the anger t h a t sparked the women's l i b e r a t i o n movement i n the 1 9 6 0 s . 5 0 The f a c t t h a t u n i v e r s i t y women mistook, what were e s s e n t i a l l y male, f a n t a s i e s f o r a model of womanhood a t t e s t s t o the ambivalence women f e l t i n t h e i r r o l e s as students i n the 1930s and 1940s. Middle c l a s s women were urged t o o b t a i n a good e d u c a t i o n but they were expected t o work — " f i n d something t o do" was the e x p r e s s i o n — f o r only a few years b e f o r e they f u l f i l l e d primary e x p e c t a t i o n s of marriage. Women le a r n e d i n and out of the classroom t h a t t h e i r most important job was t o be " i n t e r e s t i n g wives." T h e i r eager conformity to an image so c l e a r l y designed t o e l i c i t male a p p r o v a l , n e v e r t h e l e s s , r e v e a l s women's p a r t i n changing i d e o l o g i e s about marriage. Women's in d u l g e n t behaviour i n these decades r e g i s t e r s a l s o an important stage i n a woman's l i f e - c y c l e — a p e r i o d of semi-autonomy s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the standards of 51 a peer group. At the he a r t of the peer s o c i e t y and h i g h l y s u p p o r t i v e of feminine conformity l a y the network of f r a t e r n i t i e s and s o r o r i t i e s t h a t c o n t r o l l e d much of the group l i f e on the 52 campus. At UBC s o r o r i t i e s and f r a t e r n i t i e s were t o l e r a t e d r a t h e r than encouraged from t h e i r f i r s t appearance i n the 182 1920s. Neither Deans of Women, Mary B o l l e r t or Dorothy Mawdsley, e n t i r e l y approved of s o r o r i t i e s but they cooperated w i t h them. B o l l e r t e x e r t e d p r e s s u r e to modify rushing C O procedures. J I t was f e a r e d t h a t members of these " s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s " would dominate the student s o c i e t y and undermine the campus s p i r i t . They were even d i r e c t l y a t t a c k e d by members of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1940 and charged w i t h being C A undemocratic. * In t r u t h , f r a t e r n i t i e s and s o r o r i t i e s s t r a t i f i e d campus s o c i e t y ; t h e i r members d i d win student c o u n c i l p o s i t i o n s and campaigns were o f t e n fought on the b a s i s of f r a t e r n i t y vs. independent candidacy. In c o n t r a s t t o the s o c i a l s e r v i c e a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t had a t t r a c t e d membership from t h e i r mothers' g e n e r a t i o n the s o r o r i t y f u l f i l l e d l e s s a l t r u i s t i c f u n c t i o n s f o r u n i v e r s i t y women i n the inter-war y e a r s . I t was an o r g a n i z a t i o n d i v i s i v e t o female s o l i d a r i t y because of the s e l e c t i v e c r i t e r i a a t t a c h e d t o membership. Yet the s i s t e r h o o d of the s o r o r i t y nurtured female r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a community where women's c u l t u r e had been c o n s i d e r a b l y weakened s i n c e the d i s m a n t l i n g of women's reform a s s o c i a t i o n s . The s o r o r i t y undertook p h i l a n t h r o p i c fund r a i s i n g but the c h i e f emphasis was on the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of i t s members t o become the i d e a l p r o f e s s i o n a l wife-companion. In a s o c i a l c l i m a t e t h a t c o n s i d e r e d t h i s t o be women's most important f u n c t i o n , s o r o r i t i e s f a c i l i t a t e d women's attempts t o maximize t h e i r c o n t r o l over c o u r t s h i p and marriage p r o s p e c t s . S o r o r i t y membership n e i t h e r appealed t o everyone nor c o u l d a l l students a f f o r d i t , but membership i n a s o r o r i t y o f f e r e d one 183 s t r a t e g y to l e s s e n the c o n f l i c t t h a t many u n i v e r s i t y women experienced as a m i n o r i t y whose purposes f o r higher education were ambiguous i n l i g h t of s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . Not a l l u n i v e r s i t y women chose the b l a t a n t conformity to gender e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t has been represented h e r e t o f o r e . There were numerous student a c t i v i t i e s on campus t h a t a t t r a c t e d l e s s p u b l i c i t y than the glamorous b a l l s and beauty c o n t e s t s but were more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of women's attempts t o a c q u i r e equal s t a t u s and to a l t e r r a t h e r than a f f i r m s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . S e l f government was e s t a b l i s h e d a t UBC i n 1915 with both male and female students e l i g i b l e t o vote and run f o r o f f i c e . T h i s e g a l i t a r i a n i s m was s t i l l not i n evidence a t M c G i l l , Montreal, the parent i n s t i t u t i o n of UBC and i t s Alma Mater S o c i e t y , where women were not allowed t o j o i n or vote u n t i l 1 9 3 1 . 5 6 However, i t proved more d i f f i c u l t f o r a woman t o be e l e c t e d t o the presid e n c y of the AMS than i t had been to assure her of th a t r i g h t . In 1916, Evelyn Story, one of the students r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d r a f t i n g t he AMS c o n s t i t u t i o n , a c t i v e i n the L a d i e s ' L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y and the p u b l i c a t i o n of the M c G i l l Annual, ran f o r the pr e s i d e n c y . Story b e l i e v e d she was capable of the task but she a l s o f e l t i t was her duty to serve when many of the male students were a t war. A l a s t minute campaign waged by the men i n the Science f a c u l t y proclaimed Story a " s e l f - s e e k i n g woman" 57 and she was defeated by one v o t e . The f o l l o w i n g year Nora Coy, who had served as the Women's A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s i d e n t i n 1916, became the f i r s t female P r e s i d e n t of the 184 AMS. Coy d i d not f i n d i t easy to g a i n the f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n of e i t h e r the F a c u l t y Committee or the male undergraduates, and she and other members of the C o u n c i l were f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r C p attempts t o amend the AMS c o n s t i t u t i o n . Coy's e l e c t i o n d i d not a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s p e l p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t a female p r e s i d e n t . L i k e many of women's apparent gains i n wartime, the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t a woman would r e g u l a r l y p r e s i d e over the student body proved t e m p o r a r y . 5 9 Not u n t i l 1951 d i d a woman ag a i n become P r e s i d e n t of the AMS when Nonie Donaldson, e l e c t e d P r e s i d e n t of WUS, rep l a c e d the male AMS p r e s i d e n t - e l e c t who d i d not r e t u r n t o the U n i v e r s i t y i n the f a l l . 6 0 C l e a r l y , s o c i a l custom and e x p e c t a t i o n s about women's r o l e s continued t o c o n s t r a i n women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s they shared w i t h men. Women's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the student c o u n c i l remained l i m i t e d t o o f f i c e r s of t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s t he P r e s i d e n t of the Women's A t h l e t i c 61 A s s o c i a t i o n and the Women's Undergraduate S o c i e t y , or to the t r a d i t i o n a l l y female areas of e x p e r t i s e — the s e c r e t a r y . The l a r g e s t women's o r g a n i z a t i o n on campus, although i t d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y have the most a c t i v e members, was t h e . Women's Undergraduate S o c i e t y (WUS) which represented a l l female students. A c c o r d i n g t o the student newspaper i n 1916 WUS was e s t a b l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y to provide sandwiches f o r s o c i a l 6 2 f u n c t i o n s . Members of the WUS were q u i t e w i l l i n g t o supply refreshments f o r the Freshman Reception, A r t s Men's Dances, and Science S k a t i n g P a r t i e s , but one of the most popular events was staged a n n u a l l y by WUS f o r women o n l y . F a c i n g a shortage of 185 men a t the dances d u r i n g WWI, the women inaugurated a masquerade attended by female "couples" dressed i n male and female costumes. The event i n c l u d e d c a r n i v a l games, humorous s k i t s , dancing, and p r i z e s f o r the best d i s g u i s e . 6 3 Long a f t e r the dearth of men ceased t o be a problem, the women continued t o enjoy t h e i r own company at t h e i r annual "High J i n k s " . Every year men c h a l l e n g e d t h e i r e x c l u s i o n and attempted s u r r e p t i t i o u s l y to invade t h i s g a t h e r i n g , but a l l imposters were d i s c o v e r e d and u n s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y e v i c t e d . The WUS annual High J i n k s was the most v i s i b l e evidence of a female t r a d i t i o n a t UBC t h a t f o s t e r e d a s p i r i t of shared comraderie w h i l e s t r e n g t h e n i n g women's group i d e n t i t y . The Women's Undergraduate S o c i e t y helped women accommodate themselves t o the U n i v e r s i t y . WUS f u r n i s h e d the women's common room, i d e n t i f i e d the needs of female students and brought them 6 4 to the a t t e n t i o n of the Board of Governors. In the mid t h i r t i e s WUS t r i e d t o combat the d i s r u p t i v e i n f l u e n c e of the s o r o r i t i e s by dev e l o p i n g a programme of a c t i v i t i e s t o i n v o l v e a l l women. WUS ass i g n e d " b i g s i s t e r s " t o a l l " f r e s h e t t e s " t o guide them through r e g i s t r a t i o n and i n i t i a t i o n , welcomed students from out of town with i n t r o d u c t o r y teas, encouraged i n t e r c l a s s s p o r t , s t a r t e d a women's gymnasium c l a s s and a f e n c i n g c l u b , and promoted women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the P l a y e r s .._ C C Club and on the Ubyssey s t a f f . In a d d i t i o n , Dean Mary B o l l e r t and C l a r e Brown, WUS Pr e s i d e n t , founded i n 1935 a UBC chapter of Phra t e r e s open t o a l l UBC women "to promote s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e among women 186 s t u d e n t s and to acquaint f r e s h e t t e s with campus life."°^ P h r a t e r e s took the shape of a v a s t , u n l i m i t e d s o r o r i t y which attempted t o overcome the d i v i s i v e e f f e c t s of the Greek l e t t e r s o c i e t i e s t h a t fragmented the female p o p u l a t i o n i n t o s o c i a l c l i q u e s . The s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e of the s o r o r i t i e s remained powerful, however, w e l l i n t o the f i f t i e s , although the m a j o r i t y of the women students were not members. In 1943, female students requested and the Senate and 67 Board approved, a war work p l a n f o r women. A l l female students were r e q u i r e d t o spend two hours a week a t p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , Red Cross Work, and f i r s t a i d or home n u r s i n g . Senior students c o u l d a l s o take courses i n t y p i n g , motor mechanics, map-reading, measurements and instruments, and day nursery. These courses c o u l d q u a l i f y a woman to be a t h i r d c l a s s army d r i v e r , an a s s i s t a n t i n a i r r a i d s h e l t e r s , an i n s p e c t o r i n war f a c t o r i e s , and t o o b t a i n a f i r s t a i d c e r t i f i c a t e from St. Johns Ambulance. An o f f i c i a l u n i v e r s i t y detachment of the Red Cross Corps was formed on campus and s i x t y students took p a r t i n a weekly three hour programme. Female students wanted t o provide 6 8 " u s e f u l " and e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s . A t t i t u d e s toward women and women's work sometimes made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r students t o g a i n respect f o r t h e i r war e f f o r t s . During World War I, u n i v e r s i t y women took the place of male f r u i t h a r v e s t e r s i n the summer of 1917. 6" Crews of female students p i c k e d b e r r i e s a t Gordon Head, Vancouver I s l a n d . A Vancouver newspaper acknowledged t h e i r p a t r i o t i s m but the photo of women dressed l i k e f i e l d workers was 187 accompanied by the h e a d l i n e s : "Looks l i k e a beauty chorus i n a comedy." 7 0 Amusement a t the s i g h t of women performing unaccustomed d u t i e s turned t o impatience d u r i n g World War II when students armed w i t h k n i t t i n g needles attempted t o k n i t d u r i n g l e c t u r e s . P r o f e s s o r s s t r e n u o u s l y o b j e c t e d t o women's war work being c a r r i e d out i n the f r o n t rows of the c l a s s r o o m ! 7 1 Ignorance and p r e j u d i c e about women's c a p a b i l i t i e s determined the c o n t r i b u t i o n s they c o u l d make to the war e f f o r t . During World War I I , the Ford Motor Company conducted a course i n motor mechanics f o r women but i n s t r u c t o r s were not prepared t o impart more than t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge. 7 2 when a blood donor c l i n i c was set up on campus, women were not allowed t o gi v e blood because ... women are more d i f f i c u l t to bleed, t h e i r v e i n s are not so prominent and they have l e s s e r amount of blood . . . i f women were to be used as blood donors i t would n e c e s s i t a t e the establishment of a separate c l i n i c , which would mean dou b l i n g the s t a f f , space and expense. Instead, women with n u r s i n g and st e n o g r a p h i c experience were r e q u i r e d t o do "women's j o b s . " 7 4 WUS t r i e d t o ensure t h a t although women comprised the m i n o r i t y of students t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were not overlooked by the U n i v e r s i t y or the students' c o u n c i l . Members p e t i t i o n e d the U n i v e r s i t y f o r a Dean of Women, a residen c e f o r women, and 7 5 p r o t e s t e d C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n s t h a t appeared d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of s e l f government o f t e n r e q u i r e d WUS to c o n t r o l the behaviour and image of women i n accordance with 188 e x t e r n a l l y d e r i v e d e x p e c t a t i o n s . C r i t i c i s m of female students continued t o serve as a gauge of p u b l i c support of the U n i v e r s i t y and the students' a n x i e t y to garner p u b l i c approval l e d WUS to recommend t h a t women suppress c e r t a i n of t h e i r own pr e f e r e n c e s i n the i n t e r e s t of the U n i v e r s i t y . During WWI, WUS t r i e d t o enforce "a d i g n i f i e d and s u i t a b l e appearance of female s t u d e n t s " w i t h a decree t h a t " a l l students other than F r e s h e t t e s w i l l be expected t o wear t h e i r h a i r up" and s e n i o r s were encouraged t o wear academic gowns. I t was hoped t h a t these e f f o r t s on the p a r t of women would r e l i e v e any impression t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y was "a g l o r i f i e d form of high s c h o o l . " 7 6 The i s s u e of women smoking c i g a r e t t e s on campus emerged i n the 1920s and ag a i n i n the 1930s. Although male students c o u l d smoke u n r e s t r i c t e d except i n the classrooms, female students were not allowed t o smoke anywhere on campus or at any f u n c t i o n sponsored by the U n i v e r s i t y . WUS passed t h i s r e s o l u t i o n i n February 1931 because women smoking would harm the U n i v e r s i t y i n the eyes of the p u b l i c . They argued t h a t a t such a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n the h i s t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y i t was not the time t o a l i e n a t e p u b l i c o p i n i o n . These same reasons were given t e n yea r s p r e v i o u s when students prepared t h e i r campaign t o b u i l d 77 the U n i v e r s i t y . C l o t h i n g d r i v e s sponsored by WUS to a s s i s t t he C i t y ' s r e l i e f e f f o r t s seem to have been l a r g e l y overlooked by c r i t i c s more eager to disparage the "young people w i t h more money than 7 8 b r a i n s " who p u r p o r t e d l y attended UBC. In an e f f o r t to a v e r t f u r t h e r a t t a c k s on "the gay and giddy coeds", WUS s t r o n g l y 189 recommended i n 1932 t h a t female students should not take men to dinner at p u b l i c p l a c e s before the Coed B a l l , nor to supper 7 9 a f t e r w a r d s . In a d d i t i o n , s p o r t s c l o t h e s , not formal dress, were to be worn t o the dance i n a s i m i l a r endeavor to keep campus a c t i v i t i e s as i n o f f e n s i v e as p o s s i b l e d u r i n g the Depression. These attempts by WUS to set standards of behaviour and appearance f o r u n i v e r s i t y women were guided by the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the b e t t e r r e p u t a t i o n of the whole was compensation f o r any i n d i v i d u a l infringement of pers o n a l r i g h t s . 8 0 WUS t r i e d t o bridge the d i s t a n c e between the p u r e l y academic goals of the nonconformists and the s o c i a l rewards sought by the feminine c o n f o r m i s t s . The s t r a t e g i e s of WUS were not very d i f f e r e n t from those of the 'sweet g i r l graduates' of the n i n e t e e n t h century whose acceptance and success a t the u n i v e r s i t y was ensured o n l y by t h e i r double conformity to the standards of the male e d u c a t i o n a l system and the standards of 81 ' l a d y l i k e ' behaviour. In e f f e c t , WUS endeavored t o e s t a b l i s h a model of f e m i n i n i t y t h a t was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r female students, and t h a t would prove u l t i m a t e l y advantageous t o women. WUS t a c t i c s were de v i s e d t o win p u b l i c confidence not cha l l e n g e i t ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , WUS d i d not aim at s e r v i n g the s t a t u s quo. The primary goal was the accommodation of female students and throughout the years of t h i s study, WUS a c t i v i t i e s s t r u g g l e d t o g r a f t a f e m i n i s t p e r s p e c t i v e on i s s u e s of e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t a t UBC. One of the e a r l i e s t p r o j e c t s arranged by WUS i n the 190 twenties was a l e c t u r e s e r i e s t o acquaint female students with v o c a t i o n a l o p t i o n s other than t e a c h i n g . Teaching was the most a c c e s s i b l e p r o f e s s i o n f o r women, but many chose i t f o r only t h a t reason and because they knew l i t t l e about other c h o i c e s open t o women. WUS sponsored i n 1923 a three day v o c a t i o n a l conference i n which women who were knowledgeable i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s spoke to the u n i v e r s i t y students on c a r e e r s t h a t were opened up t o women i n l i b r a r i a n s h i p , c l i n i c a l psychology, p h y s i c a l c u l t u r e , s o c i a l w e l f a r e and settlement work, l a b o r a t o r y research, n u r s i n g , YWCA work, j o u r n a l i s m and household s c i e n c e . 8 2 WUS was e q u a l l y concerned w i t h the r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l l i f e of u n i v e r s i t y women. The i n i t i a t i o n r i t e s and High J i n k s were important annual events t o e s t a b l i s h u n i t y and f r i e n d s h i p ; but women wanted a b u i l d i n g of t h e i r own where they c o u l d gather f o r t h e i r c l u b a c t i v i t i e s or a cas u a l chat on an in f o r m a l d a i l y b a s i s . Even be f o r e the U n i v e r s i t y moved t o Point Grey i n 1926, women began t o r a i s e funds f o r t h e i r 83 "Women's Union B u i l d i n g . " The women's groups i n the c i t y 84 were s u p p o r t i v e and a i d e d WUS fund r a i s i n g programmes. UBC women r e l i e d on rummage s a l e s , candy s a l e s , b r i d g e p a r t i e s , teas, tag days, f a s h i o n shows, the Coed B a l l and p r i v a t e • 85 donations t o c o l l e c t money f o r t h e i r p r o j e c t . During the worst y e a r s of the Depression, WUS shelved t h e i r p l a n , n e v e r t h e l e s s , by the m i d - t h i r t i e s women had r a i s e d over $11,000. 8 6 In 1935 the men decided t h a t more money c o u l d be r a i s e d i f 191 they j o i n e d i n the women's e f f o r t s ; however, i n exchange f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n they wanted a Students' Union B u i l d i n g i n s t e a d of a Women's Union B u i l d i n g . The dream he l d by female students over s u c c e s s i v e y e a r s a t UBC was r e l u c t a n t l y conceded, along w i t h the funds a l r e a d y r a i s e d , when they were persuaded t h a t a Women's Union B u i l d i n g was not f i n a n c i a l l y f e a s i b l e i n the near f u t u r e . 8 7 The Union B u i l d i n g became an i s s u e i n 1935 AMS e l e c t i o n . Peggy Wales, the AMS s e c r e t a r y f o r two y e a r s and the f i r s t woman t o run f o r the Presidency s i n c e World War I, o u t l i n e d an e i g h t p o i n t programme i n c l u d i n g a p l a n t o get a Union B u i l d i n g and p l a y i n g f i e l d s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a p u b l i c works programme. Wales recommended see k i n g support f o r these p r o j e c t s from candidates i n the impending f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . 8 8 Wales and the two other male candidates were defeated by Bernard Brynelson, a student i n the F a c u l t y of Science, whose campaign programme c o n s i s t e d of a longer noon hour and rec e s s , and more p l a y i n g 89 f i e l d s . P r e s i d e n t B r y n e l s o n was giv e n a l l the c r e d i t i n the f o l l o w i n g year f o r r e c r u i t i n g support from the f e d e r a l government, the alumni, the Board of Governors, and the Senate to make the Student Union B u i l d i n g a p r o j e c t f o r the 90 U n i v e r s i t y ' s t w e n t y - f i r s t a n n i v e r s a r y c e l e b r a t i o n . Aided by $25,000 from the p r o v i n c i a l government, $10,000 from WUS, and a d d i t i o n a l s u b s c r i p t i o n s of $45,000 c o n s t r u c t i o n began on the students' b u i l d i n g i n 1939. Using student labour i n the summer, the new Student Union B u i l d i n g was completed and f o r m a l l y opened on January 31, 1940. I t was named the Brock 192 Memorial B u i l d i n g i n t r i b u t e to Dean Re g i n a l d W. Brock and M i l d r e d Brock who had o f f e r e d support and f r i e n d s h i p t o student a c t i v i t i e s f o r many years b e f o r e t h e i r death i n an a i r crash at A l t a Lake i n 1935. UBC women d i d manage t o r e t a i n a room of t h e i r own i n the new b u i l d i n g — the M i l d r e d Brock Lounge f o r 91 women. Li k e the Women's Undergraduate S o c i e t y , i t s e l f , the idea of the Women's Union b u i l d i n g i n the 1940s rep r e s e n t e d the v e s t i g i a l remnants of a s e p a r a t i s t s t r a t e g y t h a t had been i n t e g r a l to the s t r e n g t h of f e m i n i s t p o l i t i c s i n the l a r g e r 9 9 community i n the f i r s t q u a r t e r of the century. Female i n s t i t u t i o n s and women's c u l t u r e had proved important t o the 9 ? emergence of a f e m i n i s t consciousness. Almost from the time women were granted the vote, however, women's a s s o c i a t i o n s were devalued. T h i s t r e n d was e v i d e n t on campus as women's 9 4 o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c r e a s i n g l y merged w i t h the men's, and the p l a n f o r a Women's Union B u i l d i n g expanded t o serve a l l students. S o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s continued t o e x e r c i s e a for m i d a b l e impact and c o n t r o l on women's experience a t the U n i v e r s i t y both i n and out of the classroom. The s o c i a l c l i m a t e and unequal sex r a t i o a t UBC tended t o r e i n f o r c e s o c i a l i z a t i o n r e g a r d i n g women's r o l e s . A l l of women's a c t i o n s were p o t e n t i a l l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n l i g h t of the c o n f l i c t i n g demands of the s o c i a l community with i t s e x p e c t a t i o n s of f e m i n i n i t y , and the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h i t s e x p e c t a t i o n s based on a masculine p r o t o t y p e . I n t e l l e c t u a l a g g r essiveness, a 193 p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r academic success, remained i n c o m p a t i b l e with 95 images of f e m i n i n i t y and women's s o c i a l r o l e . Consequently, much of the c o l l e c t i v e energy of female students was d i r e c t e d a t combatting h o s t i l i t y and i n d i f f e r e n c e to t h e i r presence, and m i t i g a t i n g the c o n t r a d i c t o r y demands of f e m i n i n i t y and academia. The n o t i o n t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y was a c u l t u r a l legacy, or e n t i t l e m e n t , inherent i n the l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of the UBC Motto Tuum Est — " i t i s y o u r s " — was, t h e r e f o r e , more a p p l i c a b l e to the male than the female s t u d e n t . 9 6 i n c o n t r a s t , the popular or l a y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Tuum Est — " i t ' s up t o you" — perhaps h e l d g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r many of the women who attended UBC. T h i s a d v i s o r y message embodied the shrug of i n d i f f e r e n c e extended t o women i n higher education and a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to devise s t r a t e g i e s t o defend t h e i r p l a c e i n a "conquered", although not necessary compliant, t e r r i t o r y . In the face of p u b l i c ambiguity, female educators attempted t o formulate a consensus about the purpose of higher e d u c a t i o n f o r women; but they continued t o j u s t i f y higher education f o r women i n terms of the e x p e c t a t i o n s of womanhood. P h i l o s o p h i e s of education t h a t enhanced a woman's p r e p a r a t i o n f o r motherhood, s o c i a l u s e f u l n e s s , and her r o l e as wife-companion r e f l e c t e d changing s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s but d i d not transcend them. Women were a b l e to change t h e i r s o c i a l r o l e s but not the fundamental a t t i t u d e s t h a t perpetuated women's secondary s t a t u s w i t h i n academic i n s t i t u t i o n s . 194 The accommodation of women students t o those p r e s s u r e s of s o c i a l c o n t r o l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r e j u d i c e took the form of four s t r a t e g i e s : nonconformity, feminine conformity, double conformity, and s e p a r a t i s t feminism. Nonconformity to gender e x p e c t a t i o n s brought a woman personal s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t was not e n t i r e l y s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . Women who e x c e l l e d i n t h e i r s c h o l a r l y endeavors were o b l i g e d , sooner or l a t e r , to make a choice between marriage and t h e i r academic i n t e r e s t s . Conformity to standards of f e m i n i n i t y promised the rewards of male approval and s o c i a l f u l f i l l m e n t , but, r a r e l y , academic c r e d i b i l i t y or equal s t a t u s . Double conformity t r i e d t o balance the more c o n s e r v a t i v e s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of feminine behaviour a g a i n s t the flamboyant m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n an attempt t o p r o t e c t women's r i g h t s i n the male domain. None of these responses c h a l l e n g e d the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s toward the education of women. Although the nonconformists e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t women c o u l d f u l f i l academic r o l e s they were regarded as e x c e p t i o n a l or " d i f f e r e n t " women whose ' f e m i n i n i t y ' was q u e s t i o n a b l e . Academic success f o r a woman i m p l i e d s o c i a l f a i l u r e . S e p a r a t i s t feminism, on the other hand, sought to change the s t a t u s quo to gai n r e c o g n i t i o n of women's i n t e r e s t s and ambitions i n higher education, and to engage women i n s e l f - d i r e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these s t r a t e g i e s l i e s not i n t h e i r comparative e f f e c t i v e n e s s , but i n the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the s o c i a l image of womanhood continued t o obscure the purpose of women's educa t i o n and a c t e d as an impediment t o women's 195 achievement of f u l l and equal s t a t u s a t the u n i v e r s i t y . In sh o r t , a woman's performance i n higher education was ever i n f l u e n c e d by the i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e f a c t of her gender. Coeducation was not a u t o m a t i c a l l y a l i b e r a t i n g experience f o r women but the o p p o r t u n i t y e x i s t e d f o r female students t o a l t e r s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of womanhood. 196 Notes 1 Reverand W. L e s l i e Clay, i n 1909, a r t i c u l a t e d "the need f o r educated men" and " c u l t u r e d men" even as he addressed the V i c t o r i a L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women about the need f o r a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y . V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t , February 9, 1909, p. 7. Henry F. Angus, " C r i t i c a l Review of UBC H i s t o r y , " UBC Alumni C h r o n i c l e , V. 10, No. 2 (Summer 1956) pp. 16-17, saw the f u t u r e i n "men's" hands. Angus, p. 17. ° See Chapter I I . 4 I s a b e l Maclnnes, "Address t o the Women's L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y , " i n Anonymous, January 1917, p. 6. (Anonymous was a student p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t preceded the Ubyssey.) 5 E t h e l Johns, R.N. "Education f o r Womanhood," Address gi v e n t o members of the General Gordon Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n . T h e P r o v i n c e , November 16, 1922. The Province, November 16, 1922. 7 The "Province, January 1, 1923. 8 The Vancouver Sun, December 23, 1935. UBC Scrapbook #22, p. 1W. 9 I b i d . 1 0 Ubyssey, October 20, 1921. L e t t e r "A S o l u t i o n " from PINX IT. 1 1 Ubyssey, October 27, 1921, p. 5. T h i s w r i t e r , "Tweedle Dum," suggested q u e s t i o n s t o be answered by female students i n an e f f o r t to reduce r e g i s t r a t i o n of women. Are your i n t e n t i o n s honourable? Do you propose to study C i v i l E n gineering, B a c t e r i o l o g y , or other u s e f u l s c i e n c e ? State p r e c i s e value to community of your e l e c t i v e . 12 In 1932 a demoralized and d e b t - r i d d e n C o n s e r v a t i v e government i n B.C. s a n c t i o n e d the appointment of a committee of business e x e c u t i v e s to look i n t o the f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s of the p r o v i n c e . The "Kidd Report" named a f t e r George Kidd, Chairman, recommended the c u r t a i l i n g of government spending, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n e d u c a t i o n . See Mann, "G.M. Weir and.H.B. King: P r o g r e s s i v e Education or Education f o r the P r o g r e s s i v e S t a t e ? " i n J . Donald Wilson, David C. Jones. 13 James R. S c o t t , West Vancouver, L e t t e r to the E d i t o r , The Province, September 25, 1932. UBC Scrapbook #19, p. 84. 1 4 I b i d . 197 i c - - -Barman; M. P a t r i c i a Marchak, I d e o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s i n Canada, (Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1975); John P o r t e r , The  V e r t i c a l Mosaic (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1965). 1 6 I t was not p o s s i b l e to d i s c o v e r the e d u c a t i o n a l background of the mothers of these students or to determine the impact they may have had on the dec i s o n t o educate t h e i r daughters. However, Peter Z.W. Tsong, The UBC " Alumni, 1916-1969: Thoughts of 12.6% of the UBC Alumni (Vancouver: Canada Press, 1972) , noted t h a t Home Economics graduates had the h i g h e s t per cent of f a t h e r s and mothers wi t h U n i v e r s i t y degrees. T h i s group a l s o c i t e d t h e i r parents' e x p e c t a t i o n s as t h e i r reason f o r a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y . See Appendix f o r notes on the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . I t i s assumed t h a t the r e l i g i o n s of the female students r e f l e c t e d those of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . 1 9 MUCBC Annuals 1910-15, UBC Annuals 1916-17. 2 0 In 1925 Mr. Van Wilby of the UBC Alumni A s s o c i a t i o n surveyed 749 students who had graduated s i n c e 1916. The Sunday Province, A p r i l 19, 1925, UBC Scrapbook #5, p. 52. 1 "I The two year course f o r the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Diploma founded i n 1929-30 expanded t o thr e e years a f t e r 1935. From 1940-41 the Diploma Course was r e s t r i c t e d t o graduates o n l y . Women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s p e t i t i o n e d the Board of Governors t o appoint a f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r to ensure a grea t e r p r e s t i g e to the programme: Miss M a r j o r i e J . Smith, an experienced s o c i a l work teacher and a d m i n i s t r a t o r was appointed i n 1943 and became Head of the Department of S o c i a l Work i n 1945. 22 Tsong r e p o r t e d t h a t the r a t i o of men and women who e n r o l l e d i n Education and the Humanities was balanced a t approximately 50%. Male r e g i s t r a t i o n predominated i n A p p l i e d Science a t 99.28%, F o r e s t r y 98.14% and was a m i n o r i t y i n Nursing a t 1.6%, and Home Economics a t 2.59%. Neve r t h e l e s s , the f i r s t woman Rona Hatt, graduated i n Chemical E n g i n e e r i n g i n 1922. Her reminiscences i l l u s t r a t e the ways i n which women were discouraged from e n t e r i n g n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s . Rona A. Hatt Wall i s , Taped i n t e r v i e w , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, UBC A r c h i v e s . 2 4 See Chapter IV. 25 T h i s sentiment was expressed f r e q u e n t l y by a l l s u b j e c t s i n taped i n t e r v i e w s . 2 6 G i l l e t t , pp. 333-4. 2 7 I b i d . 198 o q _ _ _ . See W i l l i a m H. Chafe, The American Woman; Her Changing S o c i a l , Economic and P o l i t i c a l Roles, 1920-1970 (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1972), Chapter 4; Rothman, Chapter 5. 2 9 Student r e p o r t e r Alan Morley wrote i n h i s column "The Student's Angle," The Vancouver Sun, November 1, 1935, "I consider p r o f u n d i t y a poor s u b s t i t u t e f o r p u l c h r i t u d e . " 3 0 "Betty Coed" appeared i n The Vancouver Sun and "Fanny F r e s h e t t e " , i n The Pr o v i n c e . 31 Renate B r i d e n t h a l , "Something Old, Something New: Women Between the Two World Wars," i n Becoming v i s i b l e : Women i n European H i s t o r y . Renate B r i d e n t h a l , C l a u d i a Koonz eds. (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1977) pp. 422-444. •3 O For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the problems women fac e d i n the male o r i e n t e d academic sphere see David Riesman, "Some Dilemmas of Women's Ed u c a t i o n " Educationa1 Record, F a l l 1965, pp. 422-34. E l i z a b e t h L. C l e s s , "A Modest Proposal f o r the Education of Women," The American S c h o l a r , V o l . 38 (Autumn 1969) No. 4, pp. 618-627. 33 Nemiroff, op. c i t . , pp. 3-19, reviews the developmental base of s e x - r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t the girl/woman who chooses e d u c a t i o n a l success, and a career f a c e s consequences of s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m and pe r s o n a l c o n f l i c t . 3^ The s u b j e c t s of the i n t e r v i e w s r e f e r r e d t o throughout t h i s paper c o n f i r m t h a t female academics g e n e r a l l y found t h e i r gender an o b s t a c l e to r e c o g n i t i o n and advancement. Dr. Dorothy Mawdsley, Dr. Dorothy Blakey-Smith, Dr. Is a b e l Maclnnes, Dr. Myrne Nevison, Taped i n t e r v i e w s , UBC A r c h i v e s . 3 5 To mention on l y the women who have been noted thus f a r i n t h i s paper, the l i s t i n c l u d e s : Dorothy Mawdsley, M a r j o r i e Leeming, S y l v i a Thrupp. Dorothy Blakey-Smith married a t age 44 a f t e r a t e a c h i n g c a r e e r at UBC. She a s c e r t a i n e d from P r e s i d e n t K l i n c k t h a t her t e a c h i n g j o b would be secure b e f o r e she decided t o marry. Dr. Dorothy Blakey-Smith, Taped i n t e r v i e w , UBC A r c h i v e s . "3. An a r t i c l e i n The " Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 27, 1932 compared two genera t i o n s of female students from the 1900s and 1932. T h i s column s t r e s s e d t h a t i n the present "there were no b a r r i e r s t o women i n new f i e l d s of a d v e r t i s i n g , commerce, and j o u r n a l i s m . The o l d f i e l d s of medicine and law were opened up t o women." UBC Scrapbook #19. 37 See Tsong, with regard t o f a m i l y e x p e c t a t i o n s . 3 8 The Vancouver Sun, October 25, 1935. UBC Scrapbook #22, p. 87. See a l s o Ubyssey, October 2, 1936 f o r the f i r s t " S o c i e t y Page". "Shopping wi t h Mary Ann" a d v i s e d " f o r s o r o r i t y c a b a r e t s go t o Madame Runge ... to f i n d what you want." 199 39 p. 114. 40 The V i c t o r i a ; Times, November 1935, UBC Scrapbook #22, The Province, March 26, 1934, UBC Scrapbook #21, p. 68. In 1944, WUS sponsored a cont e s t f o r the most b e a u t i f u l l e g s . The winner was a t h i r d year A r t s student who was "somewhat s k e p t i c a l about the f i t n e s s of such a cont e s t a t an i n s t i t u t i o n of higher l e a r n i n g . " Dean of Women's Scrapbook, Dean of Women's O f f i c e , UBC A r c h i v e s . Totem,.1948. I b i d . , p. 310. 42 43 4 4 Tote 1"/ 1949, p. 41. 4 5 Totem, 1948, 1949, 1950. 4 6 Totem, 1949, p. 43. 4 7 Totem, 1949, p. 33; Totem 1950, p. 21. 4 8 Totem 1951. 49 Canada, Royal Commission on the Status of Women i n  Canada Report (Ottawa, 1970); Women's A c t i o n Group of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, A Report on the Status of Women at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h "Columbia (Vancouver : T a l o n books, 1973); B e t t y Richardson, Sexism i n Higher Education (New York: Seaburg P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) ; J i l l McCalla V i c k e r s and June Adam, but can you ty p e : Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s and the Status of Women ( B u f f a l o : C l a r k e , Irwin" 1977); G l o r i a DeSole and Leonore Hoffmann eds. Rocking the Boat; Academic Women and Academic Processes (New York: Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n , 1981). 50 See B e t t y F r i e d a n , The Feminine Mystique, (New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1963) . 51 The importance of the peer group and the a s s o c i a t i o n of male autonomy with the p e r i o d of t h e i r l i v e s spent a t the u n i v e r s i t y i s developed by Joseph F. Rett, R i t e s of Passage; Ado1escenee i n America 1790 to the Present (New York: B a s i c , 1977) . 52 On s o r o r i t i e s see Rothman, and Paula S. Fass, The Damned and the B e a u t i f u l : A m e r i c a n Y o u t h i n t h e 1920s (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1977) . 53 .... The Province, January 20, 1939. UBC Scrapbook #25, p. 4. 54 Mrs. Laura Jamieson (CCF) and Mrs. D.G. Steeves (CCF) urged the a b o l i t i o n of f r a t e r n i t i e s and s o r o r i t i e s a t UBC. The 200 News-Herald, November 28, 1940, UBC Scrapbook #26. 55 T h i s was a p a r t i c u l a r concern t o Jewish g i r l s who c o n s u l t e d Dean Mawdsley about forming t h e i r own s o r o r i t y . Mawdsley was s u r p r i s e d t h a t they d i d n ' t chose to j o i n a s o r o r i t y t h a t was without d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (some would not allow c e r t a i n e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s ) but they e x p l a i n e d t h a t a Jewish S o r o r i t y would ensure t h e i r meeting men from the Jewish f r a t e r n i t y and reduce the t h r e a t of i n t e r m a r r i a g e . 56 G i l l e t t , pp. 186-9. 5 7 Stewart i n Latham and Pazdro, p. 189 58 UBC Annual, 1917-18, p. 11. 5 9 In 1935 Peggy Wales ran f o r Pr e s i d e n t of the AMS but was defeated by a male candidate. The previous two AMS e l e c t i o n s had e l e c t e d the P r e s i d e n t by acclamation. There was a n o t i c e a b l e tendency to round up candidates t o oppose women who sought e l e c t i o n and ensure t h a t there would be a v o t i n g procedure. T h i s was t r u e a l s o f o r the e l e c t i o n of the Ch a n c e l l o r of UBC a f t e r P h y l l i s Gregory Ross was nominated. Although the C h a n c e l l o r , except i n 1916, had always been e l e c t e d by acclamation, i n 1961 Anne Angus was urged t o run alon g w i t h another male candidate who d e c l i n e d , to "ensure t h a t the democratic p r o c e s s was e n f o r c e d . " Anne Angus, Taped i n t e r v i e w , UBC A r c h i v e s . 6 0 Totem, 1951. 6 1 R e g r e t t a b l y , the changing s t a t u s of women's s p o r t s had to be omitted from t h i s paper. I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t an a r t i c l e by t h i s author w i l l be forthcoming on t h i s t o p i c . S u f f i c e to say, the women who were i n v o l v e d i n a t h l e t i c s were c o n s t a n t l y c o n f r o n t i n g p r e j u d i c e and pushing a g a i n s t a t t i t u d e s t h a t c o n s t r a i n e d women's performance and p o t e n t i a l i n s p o r t s . Women's a t h l e t i c teams experienced d i f f i c u l t y r e c e i v i n g f u n d i n g from the U n i v e r s i t y , even i n 1930 when the Women's B a s k e t b a l l team had the o p p o r t u n i t y to represent UBC a t the Women's I n t e r n a t i o n a l Games a t Prague. The Board of Governors granted them pe r m i s s i o n t o a t t e n d "on the d i s t i n c t understanding t h a t t h i s p e r m i s s i o n does not i n v o l v e any f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the p a r t of the U n i v e r s i t y . " Board of Governors Minutes, A p r i l 28, 1930. The UBC women's team won the Championship of the Olympiad a f t e r the t r i p was made p o s s i b l e by funds r e c e i v e d from a campaign o r g a n i z e d by UBC graduates. 62 Anonymous, December 1916, p. 23. 63 UBC Annual, 1917-18. Also Maclnnes, Taped i n t e r v i e w . 64 Anonymous, December 1916, p. 23. WUS p e t i t i o n e d the Board f o r a Dean of Women and r e s i d e n c e s f o r women. See Chapter IV. 201 6 5 The V a n c o u v e r S u n , November 17, 1934. UBC S c r a p b o o k #21, p. TZT. 6 6 Totem, 1936. 6 7 UBC B o a r d o f G o v e r n o r s , M i n u t e s o f M e e t i n g s , May 31, 1943, V o l . 22. 6 8 Totem, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1944. 6 9 T h i s p l a n t o f i l l t h e need f o r f r u i t p i c k e r s d u r i n g t h e s h o r t a g e of manpower, and t o g i v e employment t o f e m a l e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s was s u g g e s t e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r L o c a l C o u n c i l of Women. 7 0 UBC S c r a p b o o k #8, pp. 20-1. 7 1 The_ V a n c o u v e r Sun, O c t o b e r 22, 1941. UBC S c r a p b o o k #26, p. 105. The r e s p o n s e of t h e s t u d e n t s : " i t i s o u r p a t r i o t i c d u t y and we i n t e n d t o c o n t i n u e i t u n l e s s someone s t o p s u s . " 7 9 D r . D o r o t h y M. Mawdsley, Taped i n t e r v i e w . 7 3 The P r o v i n c e , O c t o b e r 6, 1941. UBC S c r a p b o o k #26, p. 105. 7 4 I b i d . 75 F o r example, UBC s t u d e n t c o u n c i l d e c i d e d ' c o e d s ' may not s h o o t r i f l e s i n t h e campus r i f l e r ange b e c a u s e t h e y m i g h t h u r t t h e m s e l v e s . WUS o b j e c t e d t o t h i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and o b t a i n e d p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e C a n a d i a n O f f i c e r s T r a i n i n g C o r p s f o r women t o use t h e campus ra n g e w i t h i n s t r u c t o r s . The C o u n c i l s t i l l r e f u s e d t o t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a l l o w i n g women t o s h o o t . The- V a n c o u v e r Sun, November 10, 1937 . UBC S c r a p b o o k #24, p. 5. 76 6, 1931. 78 79 80 81 82 U b y s s e y , F e b r u a r y 20, 1919. 7 7 The V a n c o u v e r Sun, J a n u a r y 25, 1925; U b y s s e y , F e b r u a r y U b y s s e y , F e b r u a r y 19, 1932. I b i d . U b y s s e y , F e b r u a r y 6, 1931. UBC S c r a p b o o k #17, p. 79. See C h a p t e r I f o r o r i g i n s o f te r m " d o u b l e c o n f o r m i t y . " The P r o v i n c e , J a n u a r y 18, 1919; U b y s s e y , J a n u a r y 23, 1919 i n UBC S c r a p b o o k #8, p. 50. T h e P r o v i n c e , November 20, 1922 i n UBC S c r a p b o o k #15, p. 19. The P r o v i n c e , J a n u a r y 31, 1923; J a n u a r y 19, 1923 i n UBC S c r a p b o o k #13, p. 75. 202 po _ The V a n c o u v e r S u n , November 1 0 , 1 9 2 5 . OA E x e c u t i v e M i n u t e s , U n i v e r s i t y Women's C l u b , V o l . 4 , November 2 8 , 1 9 2 7 , V a n c o u v e r C i t y A r c h i v e s . 8 5 U b y s s e y , O c t o b e r 2 1 , 1 9 3 0 . 86 1 9 4 0 . U b y s s e y , F e b r u a r y 4 , 1 9 3 6 , F e b r u a r y 7 , 1 9 3 6 . T o t e m , 87 T h e V a n c o u v e r S u n , A p r i l 8 , 1 9 3 5 . UBC S c r a p b o o k #22; U b y s s e y , J a n u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 3 6 . U b y s s e y , March 8 , 1 9 3 5 . I b i d . 88 89 9 0 U b y s s e y , J a n u a r y 2 4 , 1 9 3 6 . 9 1 T o t e m , 1 9 4 0 . q o ^ F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f women ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h i s e r a , s ee G i l l i a n W e i s s , " ' A s Women a n d a s C i t i z e n s : ' C l u b women i n V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 1 0 - 1 9 2 8 " . 9 3 E s t e l l e F r e e d m a n , " S e p a r a t i s m as S t r a t e g y : F e m a l e I n s t i t u t i o n B u i l d i n g a n d A m e r i c a n F e m i n i s m , 1 8 7 0 - 1 9 3 0 , " F e r n i n i s t S t u d i e s ( F a l l 1979) 5 1 2 - 5 2 9 . 94 F o r r e a s o n s why t h i s o c c u r r e d i n campus o r g a n i z a t i o n s s ee S t e w a r t , i n L a t h a m and P a z d r o . The L a d i e s L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y merged w i t h t h e M e n ' s i n 1 9 2 0 ; t h e YWCA a n d YMCA m e r g e d e x e c u t i v e s a f t e r t h e y became t h e S t u d e n t C h r i s t i a n Movement . The mos t s u c c e s s f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a t t r a c t e d m a l e a n d f e m a l e m e m b e r s h i p s we re t h e L e t t e r s C l u b a n d t h e H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y w h i c h f e a t u r e d s m a l l s e m i n a r s h e l d i n p r o f e s s o r s ' homes . T h i s f o r m a t e n c o u r a g e d f e m a l e s t u d e n t s t o t a k e a c t i v e r o l e s . O t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o l l o w e d t h e p a t t e r n o f i n i t i a l m a l e a n d f e m a l e m e m b e r s h i p t h a t e v e n t u a l l y became d o m i n a t e d by t h e men . 95 C l e s s , "A Modes t P r o p o s a l . . . " a r g u e s t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l a g g r e s s i v e n e s s , a s a g i v e n b a s i s f o r a c a d e m i c o r e c o n o m i c s u c c e s s , i s s e e n a s a m a l e v i r t u e b u t a f e m a l e v i c e . 9 6 The o f f i c i a l C o a t o f Arms f o r UBC c o n s i s t s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o a t o f Arms a s a ba se on w h i c h r e s t s a n o p e n b o o k , i n s c r i b e d w i t h t h e L a t i n w o r d s Tuum E s t . T h i s m o t t o c h o s e n by U B C ' s f i r s t P r e s i d e n t , D r . F r a n k F. W e s b r o o k , was t o e x p r e s s t h e i d e a t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n e x i s t e d t o s e r v e a l l t h e needs o f a l l t h e p e o p l e — " I t i s y o u r s . " L o g a n , o p . c i t . , p . 5 3 . 203 CONCLUSION T h i s study has fo c u s s e d on the experience of women w i t h i n the c o e d u c a t i o n a l framework e s t a b l i s h e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the process whereby women's education became d e f i n e d . In the r e g i o n a l context, the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e d the development of higher education i n the pro v i n c e h e l d p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r female students. Despite the importance of these f a c t o r s i n e f f e c t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l change, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to consign the r o l e played by the women of the province to a secondary s t a t u s . Notable i n d i v i d u a l s , women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and female students i d e n t i f i e d the i s s u e s and formulated the s t r a t e g i e s t o ensure t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia accommodated women, however r e l u c t a n t l y or i m p e r f e c t l y , a c c o r d i n g t o the e v o l v i n g f u n c t i o n s of higher education i n the tw e n t i e t h century. T h i s paper began wi t h a review of the h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o women's admission t o higher education i n the ni n e t e e n t h century. The l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e d a thematic framework f o r t h i s study because i t r a i s e d some t i m e l e s s p l a c e l e s s q u e s t i o n s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p of women's ed u c a t i o n and t h e i r s t a t u s i n the wider s o c i e t y . 1 In t h i s l a r g e r , c u l t u r a l context, women's i n t e r e s t and a c t i v i t y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g s p e c i a l i z e d c u r r i c u l u m , personnel, and boarding arrangements -i n s hort, t h e i r feminism - may be understood as a r e a c t i o n t o 2 the male environment. Higher education r e f l e c t e d the thought and s c h o l a r s h i p of men, the v a l u e s and p r e s c r i p t i o n s of men, 204 and the t r a i n i n g t h a t was o f f e r e d l a r g e l y a n t i c i p a t e d the f u t u r e l i f e ' s work of men. The u n d e r l y i n g demand of the f e m i n i s t s was the equal s t a t u s of women i n what remained a male pas t i m e . 3 In the f i r s t h a l f of the twe n t i e t h century, the s e p a r a t i s t s were more a c t i v e than the uncompromising i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o r e d r e s s the imbalance i n coeducation. Women's l e s s e r s t a t u s was seldom due to any formal p r o h i b i t i o n s r e g u l a t i n g t h e i r enrollment or academic c h o i c e s but r a t h e r to the continued emphasis on women's s o c i a l r o l e s t h a t obscured the purpose of educating women. In a s o c i a l context t h a t looked upon higher education f o r a man as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s l i f e ' s work, i n t e g r a l to h i s s t a t u r e and i d e n t i t y i n the community, and e s s e n t i a l to h i s a b i l i t y to support a w i f e and c h i l d r e n a c c o r d i n g t o middle c l a s s standards, education f o r a woman, although a r i g h t , was not regarded as a n e c e s s i t y . In the minds of many, education f o r women f i l l e d the i n t e r v a l i n a woman's l i f e between the time she was her f a t h e r ' s daughter and her husband's w i f e . The woman not d e s t i n e d t o be a man's w i f e might, i f educated, r e t a i n some measure of s o c i a l s t a t u s and the q u a l i t i e s of womanhood i n the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . But i t was understood t h a t a woman's f i r s t c hoice was marriage and any a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t continued past the marriageable age were t i n g e d w i t h a sense of f a i l u r e , or worse, a b e r r a t i o n . In a s o c i a l c l i m a t e t h a t tended t o r e i n f o r c e s o c i a l i z a t i o n r e g a r d i n g women's r o l e s , women on campus were, perhaps, t o l e r a t e d more than encouraged i n t h e i r academic endeavors. 205 Coeducation i m p l i e d equal r i g h t s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s , o b l i g a t i o n s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n higher l e a r n i n g . When i t was implemented e v e n t u a l l y at the American s t a t e and Canadian p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t i e s , coeducation appeared, t h e r e f o r e , to represent a commitment both to i d e a l s of e q u a l i t y , and the education of women. In f a c t , coeducation f u l f i l l e d p r i m a r i l y a u t i l i t a r i a n f u n c t i o n t h a t was rec o g n i z e d as e a r l y as 1908. When J u l i u s Sachs from Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , Teachers C o l l e g e , addressed the Education Conference i n Boston t h a t year, he po i n t e d out t h a t "coeducation was of no s o c i a l or p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e but merely the cheapest way of s a t i s f y i n g the j u s t demands of women t h a t they be giv e n every i n t e l l e c t u a l o p p o r t u n i t y . " 4 The women of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n t h e i r v i g i l a n c e and det e r m i n a t i o n , endeavored t o r e i n s t a t e the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of coeducation t h a t had been e n v i s i o n e d by f e m i n i s t educators i n a time and p l a c e f a r removed from the i s s u e s surrounding higher education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 206 Notes 1 Chad G a f f i e l d , "The Micro H i s t o r y of C u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s : P r e s c o t t County and the Language of I n s t r u c t i o n Controversy," Unpublished paper presented t o the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1984, argued t h a t the syste m a t i c a n a l y s i s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s e s s e n t i a l i n the e x p l i c a t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l p rocess and begins w i t h a t i m e l e s s , p l a c e l e s s q u e s t i o n . Conceptual t o o l s and the methodology f o r t h i s study were f u r t h e r p r o v i d e d by three h i s t o r i a n s who have been concerned t o s o l v e some of the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the w r i t i n g of women's h i s t o r y : Gerda Lerner, "New Approaches t o the Study of Women i n American H i s t o r y , " i n L i b e r a t i n g Women's H i s t o r y , ed. Berenice A. C a r r o l l (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1976); H i l d a Smith, "Feminism and the Methodology of Women's H i s t o r y , " i n L i b e r a t i n g W o m e n ' s H i s t o r y ; Joan K e l l y - G a d o l , "Women i n the Renaissance and Renaissance H i s t o r i o g r a p h y , " Feminist S t u d i e s 3 (1975), No. 3-4. i _ Janet Lever and Pepper Schwarz, Women a t Yale (New York: B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1971) conclude a l s o t h a t the r i s e of feminism among female students c o u l d be t r a c e d t o a r e a c t i o n to the male environment. -> S a l l y Alexander, "Women, C l a s s and Sexual D i f f e r e n c e s i n the 1830s and 1840s: Some R e f l e c t i o n s on the W r i t i n g of a Feminist H i s t o r y , " H i s t o r y Workshop; S p r i n g 1984, suggests t h a t feminism's u n d e r l y i n g demand Is f o r women's f u l l i n c l u s i o n i n humanity. 4 J u l i u s Sachs, "The I n t e l l e c t u a l Reactions of Coeducation," E d u c a t i o n a l Review, Volume 35, 1908, pp. 466-475. 207 BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SOURCES CONSULTED PART A: PRIMARY SOURCES A l : LOCATED IN UBC ARCHIVES OR SPECIAL COLLECTIONS DIVISION, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, LIBRARY, UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED Alma Mater S o c i e t y . 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M c G i l l J o u r n a l of Education 11, (No. 2 Autumn 1976) . 215 Conway, J i l l . " P e r s p e c t i v e s on the H i s t o r y of Education i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . " H i s t o r y of Education Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 14 (1974). Danylewycz, Marta; Fahmy-Eid, Nadia; e t T h i v i e r g e , N i c o l e . "L*Enseignement Manager et Les 'Home Economies' au Quebec et en O n t a r i o au D£but du 20e S i e c l e Une Analyse Comparee." In An Imperfect Past; E d u c a t i o n and S o c i e t y i n Canadian H i s t o r y . E d i t e d by J~. Donald Wilson. Vancouver: Centre f o r the study of Curriculum and I n s t r u c t i o n , 1984. Delamont, Sara. "The C o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n L a d i e s ' E d u c a t i o n . " In The Nineteenth-Century Woman: Her C u l t u r a l and P h y s i c a l World. E d i t e d by Sara Delamont and Lorna Duff i n . London: Croom Helm, 1978. Dyhouse, C a r o l . 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"Expansion and E x c l u s i o n : A H i s t o r y of Women i n American Higher E d u c a t i o n . " SIGNS: J o u r n a l of Women i n Cul t u re an d S o c i ety, V o l . 3 (No. 4 Summer 1978) . Hale, Linda L o u i s e . "Appendix: Votes f o r Women: P r o f i l e s of Prominent B r i t i s h Columbia S u f f r a g i s t s and S o c i a l Reformers." In In Her Own R i g h t . E d i t e d by Barbara Latham and Cathy Kess. V i c t o r i a : Camosun C o l l e g e , 1980. H a r r i s , R. Cole. " L o c a t i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia." BC S t u d i e s , (No. 32 Winter 1976-77). Hartmann, Susan. " P r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r Penelope: L i t e r a t u r e on Women's O b l i g a t i o n s t o Returning World War II Vet e r a n s . " Women's S t u d i e s V o l . 5 (1978). 216 Hershberg, Theodore and Dockhorn, Robert. "Occupational C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . " H i s t o r i c a l Methods Newsletter, V o l . 9, (Nos. 2 and 3 March-June 1976) . Humphries, C h a r l e s W. "The Banning of a Book i n B r i t i s h Columbia." BC S t u d i e s 1 (1968-69). K e l l y - G a d o l , Joan. "Women i n the Renaissance and Renaissance H i s t o r i o g r a p h y . " F e r n i n i s t : S t u d 1 e s , V o l . 3 (No. 3-4 1975). Lerner, Gerda. "New Approaches t o the Study of Women i n American H i s t o r y . " H i s t o r y . " In L i b e r a t i n g Women's H i s t o r y . E d i t e d by Berenice A. C a r r o l l . Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1976. Macdonald, Norbert. " P o p u l a t i o n Growth and Change i n S e a t t l e and Vancouver, 1880-1960." In H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s on B r i t i s h Columbia. E d i t e d by J . F r i e s e n and H.K. Ral s t o n . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1976. McDonald Robert A.J. " V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, and the Economic Development of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1886-1914." In B r i t i s h Columbia: H i s t o r i c a 1 Readings. E d i t e d by W. Peter Ward and Robert A.J. McDonald. Vancouver: Douglas, 1981). Mann, Jean. "G. M. Weir and H.B. King: P r o g r e s s i v e Education or Education f o r the P r o g r e s s i v e S t a t e ? " In S c h o o l i n g and Soc i e t y i n 20th Century" B r i t i s h Columbia. E d i t e d by JT Donald Wilson and David C~. Jones. C a l g a r y : D e t s e l i g E n t e r p r i s e s , 1980. Nemiroff, G r e t a . "Women and Ed u c a t i o n . " M c G i l l J o u r n a l of Education V o l . X (Spring 1975) . Pedersen, Joyce S. "The Reform of Women's Secondary and Higher E d u c a t i o n : I n s t i t u t i o n a l Change and S o c i a l Values i n Mid-and L a t e - V i c t o r i a n England." H i s t o r y of Education Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 19 (1979) . Pi e r s o n , Ruth. "Women's Emancipation and the Recruitment of Women i n t o the Labour Force i n World War I I . In The Neglected M a j o r i t y : Essays i n Canadian Women's H i s t o r y . E d i t e d By Susan Mann Tro f i m e n k o f f and A l i s o n P r e n t i c e . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1977. P r e n t i c e , A l i s o n . "The F e m i n i z a t i o n of Teaching." In The Neglected M a j o r i t y . E d i t e d by Susan Mann T r o f imenkoff and A l i s o n P r e n t i c e . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1977. Reid, John G. "The Education of Women a t Mount A l l i s o n , 1854-1914," A c a d i e n s i s , V o l . XII (No. 2 Spring 1983). Reid, John G. "Mount A l l i s o n C o l l e g e : The Re l u c t a n t U n i v e r s i t y . " A c a d i e n s i s , V o l . X (No. 1 Autumn 1980). 217 Richards, E l l e n H. and Kinne, Helen. "Survey Courses i n the Sci e n c e s and Home Economics." E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w , 35 (January 1968) Riesman, David. "Some Dilemmas of Women's E d u c a t i o n . " E d u c a t i o n a l Record ( F a l l 1965) . Rodenhizer, John. "The student campaign of 1922 to ' b u i l d the U n i v e r s i t y ' of B r i t i s h Columbia." BC S t u d i e s , 4:21-37 (September 1970) . Royce, Marion. "Methodism and the Education of Women i n Nineteenth Century O n t a r i o . " A t l a n t i s 3 ( 2 ) , Part 1 (Spr i n g 1978) . Sachs, J u l i u s . The I n t e l l e c t u a l Reactions of Coeducation." Educationa1 Review, 35 (1908) . Simmons, Adele. "Education and Ideology i n Nineteenth-Century America; The Response of E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s t o the Changing Role of Women." In L i b e r a t i n g Women's H i s t o r y : T h e o r e t i c a l and C r i t i c a l Essays. E d i t e d by Berenice A. C a r r o l l . Urbana: u n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1976. Smith, H i l d a . "Feminism and the Methodology of Women's H i s t o r y . " In L i b e r a t i n g W o m e n ' s H i s t o r y . E d i t e d by Berenice A. C a r r o l l . Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1976. Stamp, Robert M. "Teaching G i r l s T h e i r 'God Given Place i n L i f e ' : The I n t r o d u c t i o n of Home Economics i n the Scho o l s . " A t l a n t i s 2 Part I (Spring 1977). Stamp, Robert M. "Adelaide Hoodless, Champion of Women's R i g h t s . " In P r o f i l e s of' Canadiari Educators. E d i t e d by Robert S. P a t t e r s o n e t a l . Toronto: Heath, 1974. Stewart, Lee. "Women on Campus i n B r i t i s h Columbia: S t r a t e g i e s f o r S u r v i v a l , Years of War and Peace 1906-1920." In Not J u s t P i n Money: S e l e c t e d Essays on the H i s t o r y o f Women's Work i n B r i t i s h Columbia. E d i t e d by Barba ra K~. Latham and Roberta J~. Pazdro. V i c t o r i a : Camosun C o l l e g e , 1984. S t r i e k e r , Frank. "Cookebooks and Law Books: The Hidden H i s t o r y of Career Women i n Twentieth Century America." J o u r n a l of S o c i a l H i s t o r y (No. 1 F a l l 1976) . Sykes, F r e d e r i c k Henry. "The S o c i a l B a s i s of the New Education f o r Women." Teachers C o l l e g e Record, 18 (1917). Thomas, Martha Carey. "Present T e n d e n c i e s i n Women's C o l l e g e and U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n . " E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 35 (January 1908) . 218 Vipond, Mary, "The Image of Women i n Mass C i r c u l a t i o n Magazines i n the 1920s." In T h e N e g l e c t e d M a j o r i t y : E s s a y s i n Canadian Women's H i s t o r y . E d i t e d By Susan Mann Trofimenkoff and A l i s o n P r e n t i c e . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1977. Ward, W. Peter. " P o p u l a t i o n Growth i n Western Canada, 1901-71." In The D e v e l o p i n g W e s t . E d i t e d by J.E. F o s t e r . U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a Press, 1983. Ward, W. Peter. "Class and Race i n the S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1870-1939." In B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Readings. E d i t e d by W. Peter Ward and Robert A.J. McDonald. Vancouver: Douglas, 1981. Wein, Roberta. "women's C o l l e g e s and D o m e s t i c i t y , 1875-1918." H i s t o r y of Education Q u a r t e r l y V o l . XIV (No. 1 Spr i n g 1974) . Whittaker, Jo Ann. "The Search f o r L e g i t i m a c y : Nurses' R e g i s t r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1913-1935." In Not J u s t P i n Money: S e l e c t e d Essays on the H i s t o r y of Women's Work  i n B r i t i s h Columbia. E d i t e d By Barba ra K~. Latham and Roberta J . Pazdro. V i c t o r i a : Camosun C o l l e g e , 1984. Zacharias, Alexandra. " B r i t i s h Columbia Women's I n s t i t u t e i n the E a r l y Years: Time t o Remember." In In Her Own Ri g h t . E d i t e d by Barbara Latham and Cathy Kess. V i c t o r i a : Camosun C o l l e g e , 1980. B3: THESES AND UNPUBLISHED ESSAYS Barman, Jean A l i c e . "Growing Up B r i t i s h i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Boys i n P r i v a t e School, 1900-1950." Doctor of Education t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1982. Chestnutt, Maureen Sangster. " O r i g i n and Development of Home Economics I n s t r u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1870 to 1951." M.Sc. t h e s i s i n Home Economics. C a l i f o r n i a P o l y t e c h n i c S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , San L u i s Obispo, 1975. T h i s work g i v e s o n l y a chronology of events l e a d i n g t o Home Economics a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. F o s t e r , John K e i t h . "Education and Work i n a Changing S o c i e t y : B r i t i s h Columbia, 1870-1930." M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970. G a f f i e l d , Chad. The Micro H i s t o r y of C u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s : P r e s c o t t County and the Language of I n s t r u c t i o n C ontroversy." Paper presented t o the Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1984. 219 Hale, Linda L o u i s e . "The B r i t i s h Columbia Woman Suffra g e Movement, 1890-1917." M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977. Kilgannon, Anne Marie. "The Home Economics Movement and the Trans f o r m a t i o n of Nineteenth Century Domestic Ideology i n America." M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 . MacPherson, E l s i n o r e . "Careers of Canadian U n i v e r s i t y Women." M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1920. Penc i e r , Marni Fraz e r De. "Ideas of the E n g l i s h Speaking U n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada to 1920." Ph.D t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1978. Ronish, Donna Yavorsky, "Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s 1869-1875: B r i t i s h and American I n f l u e n c e s . " Paper presented t o the Canadian H i s t o r y of Education A s s o c i a t i o n , October, 1983. Soward, F r e d e r i c H. "The E a r l y H i s t o r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia." Manuscript: 1930. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The L i b r a r y , S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . Stewart, Lee J . "'One B i g Woman*: The P o l i t i c s of Feminism i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1894-1918." Unpublished paper i n the po s s e s s i o n of the author. W r i t t e n 1985. Thomasson, Augusta Margaret. "Acadia Camp: A Study of the Acadia Camp Residence a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia from September 1945 to May 1949." M.S.W. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951. Weiss, G i l l i a n . "'As Women and as C i t i z e n s ' : Clubwomen i n Vancouver, 1910-1928." Ph.D. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984. 220 APPENDIX To compile t a b l e 2, the occupations of the f a t h e r s of female students were c a t e g o r i z e d t o provide a general d e s c r i p t i o n of the socioeconomic background of the women i n attendance a t M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1907-14 and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1914-49. These occupations were e s t a b l i s h e d from the Vancouver C i t y D i r e c t o r y f o r the ye a r s 1907-14, 1919-20, 1949-50, and from the UBC r e g i s t r a t i o n cards i n the years 1929-30 and 1939-40. The i n i t i a l s o r t r e l i e d on the " o c c u p a t i o n a l d i c t i o n a r y " compiled by Theodore Hershberg and Robert Dockhorn t o a i d h i s t o r i a n s i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the o c c u p a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e as o u t l i n e d i n H i s t o r i c a l Methods Newsletter, V o l . 9, Nos. 2 and 3 (March/ June 1976) , pp. 59-98. A n a l y s i s of the occupations was c o n f i n e d t o the range o f f e r e d by the I n d u s t r i a l (INDT) Code a t i t s most aggregate l e v e l . The o c c u p a t i o n a l data were thus c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h i r t y - o n e of the p o s s i b l e f o r t y - o n e i n d u s t r i e s . Three a d d i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s were added t o r e f l e c t t w e n t i e t h century o c c u p a t i o n a l data. The o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s were subsequently organized by f u n c t i o n i n t o a commonly recognized v e r t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. Despite i t s t w e n t i e t h century o r i e n t a t i o n , Bernard R. B l i s h e n ' s (1958) o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s s c a l e proved t o be too s o p h i s t i c a t e d f o r the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of data c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s study. The o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s i n Peter G. Goheen, V i c t o r i a n 7 T o r o n t o 1900; P a t t e r n and Process of 221 Growth (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, 1970) pp. 229-30, provided, with some m o d i f i c a t i o n s , a more v i a b l e model. The c l e r i c a l o ccupations i n c l u d e d government employees i n the p u b l i c s e r v i c e . A new category was necessary to accommodate the middle-management o c c u p a t i o n s : managers and s u p e r i n t e n -dents. In t w e n t i e t h century B.C., b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e s appeared t o belong more p r o p e r l y with the p r o f e s s i o n a l occupations than w i t h Goheen's n i n e t e e n t h century business o c c u p a t i o n s . The business category thus r e f l e c t s general commercial occupations i n c l u d i n g r e a l e s t a t e agents, merchants and salesmen. The u n s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s comprised a minute segment of the survey and were r e - d i s t r i b u t e d i n t o the s e m i s k i l l e d category (e.g., mariner, gardener, housekeeper). A g r i c u l t u r a l occupations were a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the s e m i s k i l l e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . In the sample f o r 1919-20 a small p o r t i o n of f a t h e r s (1.6%) were on a c t i v e s e r v i c e . T h i s group was omitted from the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . The category "persons of p r i v a t e means" i n c l u d e d widows and households where the mother was a s i n g l e parent who l i s t e d no o c c u p a t i o n , and r e t i r e d f a t h e r s . 

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