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Neighborhood traffic management and community livability : three Vancouver case studies Roth, Heike Dagmar 1986

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NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNITY L I V A B I L I T Y THREE VANCOUVER CASE STUDIES By HEIKE DAGMAR ROTH M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES THE SCHOOL OF COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL 1986 © H e i k e Dagmar R o t h , 1986 & $ I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Gradua l SWdLitfS — Sckool ©-- GswiWAvVfj aftC\ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The study in v e s t i g a t e s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of neighborhood t r a f f i c management i n achieving a balance between two carpeting o b j e c t i v e s : a c c e s s i b i l i t y and community l i v a b i l i t y . I t s r o l e i n c r e a t i n g environmental areas, d e f i n i n g environmental c a p a c i t i e s and providing an a r t e r i a l network i s studied, as i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a f f i c and land use. The importance of an e f f i c i e n t transportation system and l i v a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l areas, combined with the increasing use of neighborhood t r a f f i c management suggests that the eff e c t i v e n e s s of neighborhood t r a f f i c management planning i n addressing neighborhood l i v a b i l i t y issues and i t s e f f e c t s on the transportation system are important urban concerns. Three Vancouver neighborhoods with neighborhood t r a f f i c management plans implemented between 1979 - 1982, Shaughnessy, Vancouver Heights and the West End, serve as case studies. The ef f e c t i v e n e s s of the neighborhood t r a f f i c management planning process i n addressing neighborhood concerns i s measured by determining the perceptions of the group advocating the plan with respect t o the process and the plan, and by determining how w e l l t h i s group represents the neighborhood. Indicators of representative-ness used include: d e s c r i p t i v e , substantive, geographic and process. Determining the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the neighborhood t r a f f i c management plans i n reducing t r a f f i c volumes wi t h i n the neighborhoods i s achieved by an a l y s i s of before and a f t e r t r a f f i c counts. With regard t o the e f f e c t s of the implemented plan on the transportation system, the study looks a t t r a f f i c volumes a t nearby a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s and the presence of a r t e r i a l improvements made i n conjunction with the neighborhood t r a f f i c management plan. i i The study f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the group advocating the neighborhood t r a f f i c management plan i s representative of the area and that the planning process i d e n t i f i e s and responds to the concerns of the area r e s i d e n t s . However, the implementation of the neighborhood t r a f f i c plans f a l l s short of meeting residents' needs, due t o the design of the devices or the timing of the implementation. The study fin d i n g s on the e f f e c t s of the plan on the transportation system are not conclusive, but suggest no major impacts. The study concludes th a t the neighborhood t r a f f i c management planning process should be improved by for m a l i z i n g the r o l e of neighborhood t r a f f i c planning, thereby g i v i n g legitimacy t o both c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the plans produced. In add i t i o n , the adoption o f an environmental area:policy emphasizing the p r o t e c t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods w i l l ensure that plans are implemented as intended. The study a l s o concludes th a t an optimal balance between e f f i c i e n c y of the transportation system and environmental q u a l i t y can only be achieved by the i n t e g r a t i o n of neighborhood t r a f f i c management planning, transportation planning, and land use planning. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER ONE - The R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 S t u d y A p p r o a c h 5 i D a t a C o l l e c t i o n Methods 6 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e T h e s i s 6 CHAPTER TWO - The L i t e r a t u r e Review I n t r o d u c t i o n 9 H i s t o r i c a l O v e r v i e w 11 C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s e s 12 N e i g h b o r h o o d T r a f f i c Management 14 N e i g h b o r h o o d T r a f f i c Management E x p e r i e n c e s o f O t h e r C i t i e s S e a t t l e 17 London - B a r n s b u r y 19 - P i m l i c o 20 D e l f t , H o l l a n d 20 B e r k e l e y 21 D i s c u s s i o n o f C a s e s 22 CHAPTER THREE - I n t r o d u c t i o n t o C a s e s V a n c o u v e r ' s R e c e n t T r a n s p o r t a t i o n H i s t o r y 26 G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r 27 C i v i c S t r u c t u r e s 28 Ca s e S t u d y F o r m a t 29 Sh a u g h n e s s y I n t r o d u c t i o n 31 Lan d Uses 31 E x i s t i n g P l a n s 31 Z o n i n g 32 . r i E v o l u t i o n o f t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d T r a f f i c : P l a n 32 V a n c o u v e r H e i g h t s I n t r o d u c t i o n 36 L a n d Uses 36 E x i s t i n g P l a n s 36 Z o n i n g 3 7 E v o l u t i o n o f t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d T r a f f i c P l a n 37 West End I n t r o d u c t i o n 4 3 L a n d Uses 43 E x i s t i n g P l a n s and Z o n i n g 43 E v o l u t i o n o f t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d T r a f f i c P l a n 44 i v Page CHAPTER FOUR - The People and the Process Methods Used 50 Soc ia l Charac te r i s t i c s 52 Res ident ia l Location 56 The Process Shaughnessy - A c t i v i t i e s of : the PTCC 6 0 Vancouver Heights - A c t i v i t i e s of the VHCC 61 West End - A c t i v i t i e s of the WETC 62 Analys is 63 Committee Perceptions Shaughnessy - Planning Process 65 Shaughnessy f Implemented NTM.Plan ' ' 6 5 Vancouver Heights -Planning Process 66 Vancouver Heights - Implemented NTM Plan 6 7 West End - Planning Process 67 West End - Implemented NTM Plan 68 Discussion of Cases 68 CHAPTER FIVE - Analys is of Tra f f i c Considerations Introduction 71 Methods Used 71 Shaughnessy Neighborhood Tra f f i c Plan 73 A r t e r i a l Intersect ions 77 Vancouver Heights Neighborhood Tra f f i c Plan 79 A r t e r i a l Intersect ions 79 West End Neighborhood Tra f f i c Plan 83 A r t e r i a l Intersect ions 87 Comparison of Cases 90 CHAPTER SIX - Conclusions 93 REFERENCES Chapter Two References 99 Chapter Three References 103 Chapter Six References 105 Bibliography 106 v APPENDIX Page A r t e r i a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Counts 112 Interview Schedule 120 D e f i n i t i o n s 122 Abbreviations 122 v i L I S T OF TABLES TABLE DESCRIPTION PAGE 1 SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SHAUGHNESSY LOCAL AREA AND PRO-TRAFFIC CONTROLS COMMITTEE MEMBERS 53 2 SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VANCOUVER HEIGHTS LOCAL AREA AND VHCC MEMBERS 54 3 SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WEST END LOCAL AREA AND WEST END TRAFFIC COMMITTEE MEMBERS 55 4 A C T I V I T I E S IN GROUP PLANNING PROCESSES 64 5 SHAUGHNESSY NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC COUNTS 76 6 SHAUGHNESSY ARTERIAL INTERSECTION COUNTS y 78 7 VANCOUVER HEIGHTS ARTERIAL INTERSECTION COUNTS 82 8 WEST END NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC COUNTS 86 9 WEST END ARTERIAL INTERSECTION COUNTS 88 v i i L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE DESCRIPTION PAGE 1 VANCOUVER AND SURROUNDING AREA 2 LOCATION OF NTM CASE STUDIES IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER 30 3 SHAUGHNESSY NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN 35 4 VANCOUVER HEIGHTS NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN 4 2 5 WEST END NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN 48 6 RESIDENTIAL LOCATION OF PRO-TRAFFIC CONTROLS COMMITTEE MEMBERS 5 7 7 RESIDENTIAL LOCATION OF VANCOUVER HEIGHTS CITIZENS COMMITTEE MEMBERS 58 8 RESIDENTIAL LOCATION OF WEST END TRAFFIC COMMITTEE MEMBERS 59 9 SHAUGHNESSY NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN 75 10 VANCOUVER HEIGHTS NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN 80 11 WEST END NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN 85 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o Dr. P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r and Dr. P a u l T e n n a n t f o r t h e i r s p e c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h i s p r o j e c t . Many t h a n k s t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e community g r o u p s s t u d i e d , R i c h a r d P e d e r s e n , C a r o l e W a l k e r , Graham C l a y and F r e d Cavanagh. f o r s h a r i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h me. I a l s o w i s h t o t h a n k Nancy Nowlan and C h r i s Z e i s s , my o f f i c e mates, and J o h n Speakman and my h u s b a n d S c o t t M c B r i d e f o r h e l p i n g me m a i n t a i n my p e r s p e c t i v e o v e r t h e l a s t 18 months. ix THE RESEARCH PROBLEM INTRODUCTION Urban transportation planning aims to achieve an optimal balance between two competing ob j e c t i v e s : the operational e f f i c i e n c y of the transportation system, and i t s responsiveness to t r a f f i c e x t e r n a l i t i e s — optimal as defined by community values. Urban transportation planning has h i s t o r i c a l l y focussed on e f f i c i e n c y concerns, with t r a f f i c e x t e r n a l i t i e s being considered by engineers and planners rather than by c i t i z e n s . Changing s o c i a l values placed pressure on the system to become more responsive, and the advent of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n planning processes allowed f o r the expression and incorporation of ccmmunity needs i n urban transportation planning. The development of neighborhood t r a f f i c management plans through neighborhood planning processes i s one way i n which the responsiveness of the o v e r a l l transportation plan can be increased. As greater responsiveness generally r e s u l t s i n l e s s e f f i c i e n c y , community values suggest t r a d e o f f s t o be made. D i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e because o v e r a l l community values are too general t o suggest which t r a d e o f f s should be made: t h i s i s best done a t the neighborhood l e v e l . Planning f o r operational e f f i c i e n c y , i n contrast, i s an a c t i v i t y best undertaken a t the urban or r e g i o n a l l e v e l ; e f f i c i e n c y concerns are not a p r i o r i t y i n the development of neighborhood plans. Achievement of both objectives are important i n t h e i r contributions t o the l i v a b i l i t y of an urban area. The f i n a l t r a d e o f f s between m o b i l i t y and the r e s i d e n t i a l environment are made a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . Neighborhood t r a f f i c management (NTM) schemes are often implemented i n areas where the l e v e l of m o b i l i t y g r e a t l y surpasses t h a t of l i v a b i l ^ i t y as an attempt to redress the imbalance. The slow and gradual i n f i l t r a t i o n of commuter t r a f f i c i n inner c i t y r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods has become a source of discontent among a f f e c t e d residents i n recent years. The gradual nature of the increase allows f o r adaptation, but a p o i n t i s reached where the e x t e r n a l i t i e s associated with t h i s through t r a f f i c , such as noise, decreased safety and p o l l u t i o n are perceived to reduce the l i v a b i l i t y of the area. Inner c i t y areas are most a f f e c t e d due t o t h e i r l o c a t i o n between the CBD and o u t l y i n g areas, and the g r i d s t r e e t layout common t o these areas f a c i l i t a t e s access f o r both l o c a l and non-local t r a f f i c . While demand f o r access to the CBD continues t o grow, s t r e e t c a p a c i t i e s remain r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d . The p r o t e c t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods from auto r e l a t e d e x t e r n a l i t i e s i s generally accomplished by the use of t r a f f i c management devices i n the neighborhood t o mitigate negative impacts. These devices are inexpensive and easy t o i n s t a l l r e l a t i v e t o other s o l u t i o n s , such as increasing a r t e r i a l capacity o r providing a l t e r n a t i v e modes of transportation. In a d d i t i o n , the high degree of development i n urban areas coupled with high construction costs makes a c a p i t a l s o l u t i o n economically unfeasible as w e l l as p o l i t i c a l l y unpopular. Hence, i n response to intense c i t i z e n pressure, c i t i e s have investigated, developed, implemented, evaluated and modified t r a f f i c management schemes; devices ccmmonly used have included t r a f f i c c i r c l e s , d i v e r t e r s , road closures and signage. C i v i c s t a f f and e l e c t e d representatives are h e s i t a n t t o approve the implementation of neighborhood t r a f f i c management plans because the representativeness of the advocating group i s not ensured, and 2 because t r a f f i c i s generally r e d i s t r i b u t e d rather than reduced. R e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c onto adjacent s t r e e t s or back onto already congested a r t e r i a l s r a i s e s p u b l i c controversy, and charges that neighborhood t r a f f i c management i s incompatible with other urban transportation o b j e c t i v e s . The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o evaluate the eff e c t i v e n e s s of neighborhood t r a f f i c management planning i n achieving a balance between the operational e f f i c i e n c y of the transportation system, and i t s responsiveness to t r a f f i c e x t e r n a l i t i e s . I t i s recognized t h a t numerous f a c t o r s are involved i n the operational e f f i c i e n c y of the urban transportation system and community l i v a b i l i t y . T r a f f i c volumes on r e s i d e n t i a l and a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s are used as an i n d i c a t o r of both operational e f f i c i e n c y and l i v a b i l i t y . Although they are a f a i r i n d i c a t o r of l i v a b i l i t y , they are a weak i n d i c a t o r of the operational e f f i c i e n c y of the transportation system. Unfortunately, t r a f f i c volumes were the only c o n s i s t e n t l y a v a i l a b l e measure and are used t o give a q u a l i t a t i v e , i f not q u a n t i t a t i v e i n d i c a t i o n . This t h e s i s w i l l address the following questions: does neighborhood t r a f f i c management respond t o the concerns of c i t i z e n s regarding the impacts of automobile r e l a t e d e x t e r n a l i t i e s on t h e i r community? What i s the e f f e c t of neighborhood t r a f f i c management schemes on the operational e f f i c i e n c y of the transportation system? Analysis and research i n urban transportation i n general, and the tra d e o f f s between e f f i c i e n c y and responsiveness i n p a r t i c u l a r are important because most transportation decisions are p u b l i c sector decisions. As these decisions u s u a l l y occur wi t h i n the p o l i t i c a l 3 j u r i s d i c t i o n of one m u n i c i p a l i t y , with expenses and pervasive impacts borne by the same group of c i t i z e n s — the e l e c t o r a t e , i t i s i n the i n t e r e s t s of the c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s to s t r i k e the 'best' balance. Planning"s concern with the issue i s manifold. NTM deals with the a l l o c a t i o n of resources: access and m o b i l i t y , and a safe and pleasant environment. The work of planners i s e s s e n t i a l t o ensure that both objectives are considered and t o inform and encourage the community to respond to wider concerns. In a d d i t i o n , because planning f o r urban transportation must be comprehensive, incorporating s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s , community values and urban and neighborhood development goals, planners must a l s o determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of NTM as a method of p r o t e c t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods, AND i t s e f f e c t s on operational e f f i c i e n c y . Achievement of a s e n s i t i v e balance between the r e s i d e n t i a l environment and the transportation system i s e s s e n t i a l and i s only po s s i b l e by a process which allows f o r the expression of c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s and the negotiation of compromises. The development and adoption of a p o l i c y on neighborhood t r a f f i c management w i l l a f f e c t c i t i z e n s , c i v i c s t a f f and e l e c t e d representatives by: - providing d i r e c t i o n and a framework f o r NTM a c t i v i t i e s ; -decreasing ad hoc, short term problem so l v i n g ; - generating expertise i n required areas; - c l a r i f y i n g other c i t y p o l i c i e s , such as the s t r e e t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system and zoning schedules; - ensuring more e f f i c i e n t a l l o c a t i o n of funds. In a d d i t i o n , the establishment of formal procedures w i l l l e g i t i m i z e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and decrease the controversy surrounding NTM plans. 4 STUDY APPROACH This t h e s i s w i l l use a case study approach t o evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of NTM planning i n achieving a balance between e f f i c i e n c y and responsiveness. I t w i l l focus on NTM plans which are developed and implemented on a neighborhood b a s i s , and intend t o manage t r a f f i c i n i t s place or r e d i s t r i b u t e i t . The experiences of three Vancouver neighborhoods and t h e i r NTM plans w i l l be investigated. Vancouver has been chosen as the l o c a t i o n of t h i s study because of i t s s u b s t a n t i a l h i s t o r y of c i t i z e n involvement i n urban transportation planning. NTM plans which were implemented several years ago are a v a i l a b l e f o r study; the case study approach w i l l allow f o r the examination of the e f f e c t s of these implemented plans. Investigating a number of cases wi t h i n one c i t y and w i t h i n a short time period i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f e r e n t experiences p o s s i b l e w i t h i n one planning structure. Several c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g cases have been developed: 1) the NTM plan should cover an area with measurable t r a f f i c e x t e r n a l i t i e s ; 2) c i t i z e n involvement must be present; 3) c i v i c s t a f f should be involved i n plan development; 4) goals of c i t i z e n s must include reduction of auto r e l a t e d e x t e r n a l i t i e s ; 5) the area t o be covered by the NTM plan must cover more than two i n t e r s e c t i o n s and use more than two devices. Based on these c r i t e r i a , Shaughnessy, Vancouver Heights and the West End have been selected as case studies. Although the a f f e c t e d areas vary i n s i z e , NTM treatment, and proximity t o the CBD, they a l l include c i t i z e n 5 and c i v i c s t a f f involvement r e l a t e d to the reduction of measurable t r a f f i c e x t e r n a l i t i e s . The cases selected had NTM plans implemented between 1979 and 1982. DATA CDLLECTION METHODS Data c o l l e c t i o n methods included primary and secondary sources. Personal interviews were conducted with those neighborhood group representatives who were prominently involved with the NTM issue. Secondary sources included C i t y Council minutes, Transportation Committee minutes, Reports t o Council and other c i v i c documents, as w e l l as newspapers and p u b l i c a t i o n s . Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were selected as the method of primary data c o l l e c t i o n . Although subject t o problems r e l a t e d t o interviewer b i a s or manipulation, t h i s method was chosen because i n depth, i n t e r p r e t i v e information r e l a t i n g t o the NTM planning process, and the r e s u l t s of the implemented NTM plan were desired. Secondary sources were used t o provide o b j e c t i v e information of a s t a t i s t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l nature. ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS Chapter One has provided an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the research problem, and study approach. Chapter Two provides a l i t e r a t u r e review, covering the h i s t o r y of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n planning, c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n processes i n transportation planning, neighborhood t r a f f i c management theory and the t r a f f i c management experiences of four c i t i e s . Vancouver's h i s t o r y with c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n transportation planning and i t s goals introduce Chapter Three; the remainder of the Chapter cover the land uses, plans, zoning and evolution of the NTM . ; . 6 plans i n each case study area. The c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n process i s analyzed i n Chapter Four and the e f f e c t s of the NTM plan on l o c a l and a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s i s discussed i n Chapter F i v e . Chapter S i x provides a conclusion. Footnotes are provided by chapter a t the end of the t e x t . 7 CHAPTER TWO 8 THE LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION C i t y s t r e e t s have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y viewed as thoroughfares with transportation planning enhancing the e f f i c i e n t movement of i n d u s t r i a l , commercial and ccmmuter traffic."*" In a d d i t i o n to t h i s m o b i l i t y f u n c t i o n , c i t y s t r e e t s provide access f o r emergency, water, sewer, gas, l i g h t i n g , and refuse c o l l e c t i o n services and a l s o s p a t i a l l y 2 organize land uses wi t h i n the c i t y . For these reasons, c a r e f u l planning and management i s e s s e n t i a l t o prevent congestion i n the urban transpor-t a t i o n system and i n e f f i c i e n c y i n the operation of c i v i c s e r v i c e s , and t o ensure complementarity with other c i v i c development goals. Streets a l s o perform an important s o c i a l function. Jacobs and Appleyard document the importance of the s t r e e t as the s i t e of extensive 3 d a i l y i n t e r a c t i o n which contributes t o the q u a l i t y o f neighborhood l i f e . As the majority of movement i n urban areas i s local,comprised of t r i p s not exceeding two to three miles i n length, and as the majority of the urban dwellers' time i s spent i n r e s i d e n t i a l areas, s t r e e t q u a l i t y and 4 l o c a l m o b i l i t y are neighborhood concerns. T r a f f i c i n many c i t i e s has increased t o the p o i n t where both 5 operating e f f i c i e n c y and q u a l i t y of urban l i f e are p u b l i c concerns. NTM schemes can improve both, i f t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s are strengthened with p u b l i c a c t i o n and p o l i c y . Incorporation of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o government p r a c t i c e s and p o l i c i e s increases the number of i n t e r e s t s involved and contributes t o the balancing of s o c i a l and economic object-6 l v e s . T r a f f i c r e l a t e d e x t e r n a l i t i e s include noise, a i r p o l l u t i o n , v i b r a t i o n , d i r t and soot, v i s u a l i n t r u s i o n and l o s s of privacy, 9 p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l neighborhood d i v i s i o n and concerns regarding the 7 safety of both v e h i c l e s and pedestrians. As t r a f f i c volumes increase i n a gradual manner, adaptation t o the e x t e r n a l i t i e s i s p o s s i b l e and g the changes go unnoticed. However, when volumes reach l e v e l s where e x t e r n a l i t i e s are perceived, c i t i z e n involvement begins. Inner c i t y r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods are the prime l o c a t i o n f o r i n t e n s i v e c i t i z e n involvement i n transportation planning because: 1) the value of p h y s i c a l resources and s o c i a l structures 9 of e x i s t i n g neighborhoods i s recognized; 2) ..the neighborhood i s viewed as a p o l i t i c a l u n i t ; " ^ 3) the increase i n incomes which l e d t o an increase i n car ownership has a l s o l e d t o demands f o r the c o n t r o l of automobile r e l a t e d externalities;"'"^ 4) o l d e r areas have a g r i d s t r e e t pattern which provides 12 ease of access f o r through t r a f f i c ; 5) t r a f f i c volumes continue t o increase and few transpor-t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s are constructed i n h i g h l y developed 13 areas. Development o f l o c a l t r a f f i c plans does not reduce the need f o r 14 ( transportation planning a t the urban l e v e l . Rather, l o c a l plans 15 must contribute t o the o v e r a l l health of the c i t y . T r a f f i c management devices should i d e a l l y be introduced as one part of a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n program tha t established short and long term goals, provides p o s i t i v e features as w e l l as t r a f f i c r e s t r a i n t s , and promotes a l t e r n a t i v e s t o automobile use."^ 10 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW Schemes to protect r e s i d e n t i a l areas from the e f f e c t s o f t r a f f i c date back t o the 1800s when i n some European towns, trade v e h i c l e s were 17 forbidden entry i n t o c e r t a i n r e s i d e n t i a l or park areas. The f i r s t contemporary scheme occurred i n 1928 i n a suburban development i n Radburn, New Jersey where design elements were used t o ensure tha t q u a l i t y o f l i f e considerations were met: a l l housing was s i t u a t e d on cul-de-sacs, and the i n t e r a c t i o n between pedestrians and t r a f f i c was reduced by the 18 separation of pedestrian ways from the s t r e e t . By the 1950s, urban transportation planning consisted mainly of s t r a i g h t l i n e p r o j e c t i o n s of t r a f f i c counts and comparisons of forecasts with e x i s t i n g s t r e e t c a p a c i t i e s — t h i s t e c h n i c a l emphasis was r e i n f o r c e d by the advent of the computer. C i t i z e n involvement was minor and the 19 t h r u s t was the construction of highway systems. T r a f f i c c o n t r o l s were used mainly to increase s t r e e t capacity and smooth .the flow of t r a f f i c 20 a t i n t e r s e c t i o n s . In the 1960s, highway l o c a t i o n became recognized as a major transportation planning problem, because the l i n k between land use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d r e v e a l i n g an unequal geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n o f costs and b e n e f i t s associated with transportation 21 investments. C i t i z e n involvement was confined l a r g e l y to evaluating 22 complete plans; NTM p r i n c i p l e s were ap p l i e d t o o l d e r c i t y centres. The 1963 Buchanan Report, proposing "environmental areas" where non-local t r a f f i c i s eliminated and environmental considerations 23 predominate seemed to be the precursor to NTM schemes i n Great B r i t a i n . However, i n both the United States and the United Kingdom, urban renewal cleared many o l d inner c i t y r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods before 24 t r a f f i c management p r i n c i p l e s could be applied. S o c i a l and environmental 11 aspects of transportation planning were recognized i n the 1970s. C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n became widespread and was incorporated i n t o most phases of the planning process; urban transportation planning was seen as 25 a p o l i t i c a l as w e l l as a t e c h n i c a l process. Soaring construction costs and l i m i t e d funds l e d to a concern f o r b e t t e r use o f e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s ; t h i s concern continues i n t o the 1980s. C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n continues to be integrated i n t o the planning process and i s being l e g i t i m i z e d i n many c i t i e s by being a formal requirement i n the development of transportation plans. P u b l i c concern i s aimed a t promoting 26 greater economy, e f f i c i e n c y and equity i n transportation investments. CITIZEN PARTICIPATION IN THE URBAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING PROCESS Transportation planning i s a continuous process i n v o l v i n g c i v i c s t a f f , e l e c t e d representatives, and c i t i z e n s : t r a d i t i o n a l l y , the c i t i z e n s work with c i v i c s t a f f to i d e n t i f y and analyse the problem, and develop 27 and implement a course of a c t i o n t o resolve i t . F i n a l approval i s the 28 domain of the e l e c t e d representatives. The view of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as a s e r v i c e r e i n f o r c e s the importance of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e f i n i n g 29 community values with respect to t h a t s e r v i c e . Planning i s the process where community goals and values are 30 c l a r i f i e d . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n does not ensure th a t consensus w i l l be reached a t any stage i n the process. A divergence of opinion i s more common and i s b e n e f i c i a l i n that many community i n t e r e s t s are 31 i d e n t i f i e d . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n allows "new p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t e l e s t o make transpo r t a t i o n planning more responsive t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and values". These new sources w i l l provide inputs t o transportation planning other 12 32 than t r a d i t i o n a l economic and e f f i c i e n c y concerns; incorporation of these concerns w i l l r e s u l t i n b e t t e r o v e r a l l transportation decisions because a wider range o f values w i l l be r e f l e c t e d . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n transportation planning and d e c i s i o n making i s important not only t o plan b e t t e r transportation systems but a l s o t o "strengthen the d e c i s i v e nature of the planning process" and to 33 create p u b l i c support f o r p u b l i c d e c i s i o n s . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n should aim beyond l o c a l i z e d , ad hoc problem r e s o l u t i o n to longer term transportation planning. Representativeness of c i t i z e n s groups i s an often r a i s e d concern of 35 c i v i c s t a f f and o f f i c i a l s . Studies have shown that the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a n t s are d i f f e r e n t from those of 36 the oommunity they are representing. The congruence of demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s between p a r t i c i p a n t s 37 and the community i s termed d e s c r i p t i v e representation. As sharing a set of s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s does not ensure sharing a s e t of values, Cole describes substantive representation: the congruence between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and the comrmjnity with respect to the goals and o b j e c t i v e s f o r the community. P i t k i n and Peterson state that both d e s c r i p t i v e and substantive measures should be considered when i n v e s t i g a t i n g represen-4 - 4 - - 3 8 t a t i o n . Geographical representation, ensuring t h a t a l l areas of the community are represented i s another measure of community coverage. 39 Other measures include formal representation and process i n d i c a t o r s . Formal representation includes the process o f s e l e c t i n g representatives; process i n d i c a t o r s c a l l f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of e f f o r t undertaken i n the planning process to influence representation, and the e f f e c t s o f 13 these e f f o r t s . The process i n d i c a t o r s contribute a sense of dynamism; the previous four measures are s t a t i c . NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT The development and implementation of neighborhood t r a f f i c management plans i n many c i t i e s i n North America and Europe i n recent decades has contributed g r e a t l y t o experience i n NTM planning. In a d d i t -i o n , t h e o r e t i c a l work has provided a s o l i d d e f i n i t i o n of the problem and i t s importance i n urban areas, and has suggested measures and p o l i c i e s aimed a t r e c o n c i l i n g the competing objectives o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the environment. The 1963 Buchanan Report o u t l i n e s the d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a f f i c and a c t i v i t y , the l a t t e r being s i t u a t e d i n b u i l d i n g s concentrated 40 i n c e n t r a l business areas of c i t i e s . As c i t i e s have developed, the a c t i v i t i e s concentrated i n the c e n t r a l areas have increased; the high degree o f development has constrained a c c e s s i b i l i t y w i t h i n these areas and the environmental q u a l i t y has decreased. A c c e s s i b i l i t y and environment are described as two competing facets of the urban t r a f f i c problem. In order to meet both concerns, Buchanan suggests the c r e a t i o n of environmental areas, connected by an a r t e r i a l network. Environmental areas are areas where environmental considerations predominate. They are not t r a f f i c f r e e zones; however, the t r a f f i c volume and type i s r e l a t e d to the character of the area. Any area, r e s i d e n t i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , mixed use, can form an environmental area; the environmental standards w i l l be according t o the area. Apple-yard f e e l s that only neighborhoods with vulnerable populations, or those vulnerable t o i n t r u s i o n should be protected, or made i n t o 41 environmental areas. In ad d i t i o n , he suggests that l e v e l s o f 14 p r o t e c t i o n required w i l l vary by area. Buchanan states that a l l s t r e e t s have an environmental capacity 42 which i s definable by an absolute t r a f f i c volume. This capacity i s based on s t r e e t dimensions, land uses and pedestrian t r a f f i c . Appleyard supports the environmental capacity concept and suggests th a t there i s an extremely wide v a r i a t i o n p o s s i b l e , by s i m i l a r types o f neighborhoods, 43 i n what co n s t i t u t e s acceptable, absolute t r a f f i c volumes. He a t t r i b u t e s t h i s to both p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the area and population c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s i z e of each environmental area i s determined by the type 44 of land uses and t h e i r density. Higher density areas generate greater volumes of t r a f f i c from l o c a l and non-local sources. A denser a r t e r i a l network i s required t o ensure that the environmental capacity of the area i s not exceeded. The increased d i f f i c u l t y of providing an a r t e r i a l l i n k i n a densely developed area i s noted: "the p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of c o n t r i v i n g the network could and almost c e r t a i n l y w i l l , 45 l i m i t the amount of t r a f f i c i n urban areas." Buchanan states that the establishment of environmental standards w i l l determine a c c e s s i b i l i t y ; a c c e s s i b i l i t y can only be increased by large expenditures on p h y s i c a l improvements. In sum, "there are absolute l i m i t s t o the amount o f t r a f f i c that can be accepted i n towns, depending on t h e i r s i z e and density, but up to those l i m i t s , provided a c i v i l i s e d environment i s t o be ret a i n e d or created, the l e v e l of v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s i b i l i t y a town can have depends on :'...: i t s readiness t o accept and pay f o r the p h y s i c a l changes required." 46 In response t o environmental concerns r a i s e d by c i t i z e n s , c e r t a i n t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices are cxammbnly i n s t a l l e d t o a l l e v i a t e perceived problems. The devices used include both operational and 15 p h y s i c a l measures. The operational measures are signs; they have l i m i t e d success and are best used when enforcement i s p o s s i b l e . Physical measures include: 1) t r a f f i c c i r c l e : t h i s device i s used i n the centre of an i n t e r s e c t i o n , p r i m a r i l y f o r the purpose of decreasing v e h i c l e speed. A decrease i n speed w i l l r e s u l t i n decreased noise and accidents. T r a f f i c c i r c l e s do not reduce t r a f f i c volumes. 2) t r a f f i c d i v e r t e r : t h i s device i s used t o reduce t r a f f i c volumes. I t i s a r a i s e d platform constructed a t a 45 degree angle across an i n t e r s e c t i o n and forces v e h i c l e s t o turn. D i v e r t e r s are oft e n used to eliminate s h o r t c u t t i n g . 3) t r a f f i c i s l a n d : an i s l a n d i s a t r i a n g u l a r or rectangular r a i s e d platform used t o channelize t r a f f i c . This device r e s t r i c t s access and thereby reduces t r a f f i c volumes. T r a f f i c i s l a n d s may be free-standing o r joined to the curb. 4) cul-de-sac: t h i s i s a dead-end s t r e e t and i s used t o reduce t r a f f i c volumes. 5) mini-parks: s t r e e t s are closed and made i n t o parks, r e s u l t i n g i n reduced t r a f f i c volumes. The type...of measures implemented depends on the problem to be solved,. and generally neighborhood t r a f f i c management plans involve a combination of both p h y s i c a l and operational measures. The NTM plan can be a s e r i e s of d i v e r t e r s and signs only, or a pa r t o f an o v e r a l l neighborhood improvement program, i n c l u d i n g p l a n t i n g , 47 streetscaping and parks. T r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices can be app l i e d t o one or to several s t r e e t s , a neighborhood, or an e n t i r e c i t y . The devices can be applied a t the periphery of an area to t o t a l l y eliminate 16 t r a f f i c , o r within an area t o slow i t down. Generally, the type of device and the p r i o r i t y of implementation should be determined by the 48 s e v e r i t y o f the problem and the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the area residents. Since t r a f f i c flow i s l i k e an e c o l o g i c a l system, s h i f t i n g to most convenient patterns, d i f f i c u l t i e s o ften a r i s e when t r a f f i c c o n t r o l 49 devices are i n s t a l l e d on only one or two s t r e e t s . The t r a f f i c i s s h i f t e d onto other l o c a l s t r e e t s or onto already congested a r t e r i a l s . On the l o c a l s t r e e t s , the change i n t r a f f i c volumes may not be large, but w i l l be v i s i b l e and l i k e l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l . P o l a r i z a t i o n of residents w i t h i n the neighborhood may occur, accompanied by charges that a more comprehensive approach to the problem i s needed, or that a l a r g e r area 50 should be covered. A comprehensive approach i s more e f f e c t i v e i n that 51 i t provides a l t e r n a t i v e s i n modes of transp o r t a t i o n and route chosen. With respect t o the s i z e o f the area covered, small plans are more l i k e l y t o have manageable c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n programs, which allow f o r 52 debate, negotiation and compromise. NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCES OF OTHER CITIES The following cases have been chosen f o r t h e i r d i f f e r e n t approaches to NTM programs and d i f f e r e n t lessons learned. SEATTLE S e a t t l e i s known f o r i t s Neighborhood T r a f f i c Control Program, which 53 has evolved over the l a s t 25 years. In the e a r l y 1960s, neighborhood t r a f f i c concerns were addressed on an ad hoc b a s i s . The process became more structured i n conjunction with an extensive s t r e e t improvement program and i n 1968 a committee composed of representatives o f several c i v i c departments was formed t o in v e s t i g a t e the f e a s i b i l i t y of 17 environmental, operational and t r a f f i c safety irrprovements i n the context of a neighborhood s t r e e t plan. This committee worked with the c i t i z e n s of a S e a t t l e neighborhood i n 1971 and s u c c e s s f u l l y developed a plan which reduced both t r a f f i c volumes and accidents and had a minor impact on t r a v e l times, a r t e r i a l t r a f f i c flow or d e l i v e r y of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s . In 1978, the Neighborhood T r a f f i c Control Program was formally established and a l l o t t e d an annual budget. A formal c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n process was developed and incorporated i n t o the program. Due t o strong community i n t e r e s t , each request f o r a neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l device was ranked according to t r a f f i c volumes, speed, and number of accidents a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n . Although t h i s system ensured th a t the most serious areas were being addressed, i t was r e v i s e d t o ensure that program funds were being spent i n an optimal way. In the current program, the c i t y ranks a l l r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s by the number of accidents and thereby i d e n t i f i e s those neighborhoods with the most serious safety concerns. The c i t y then contacts the residents l i v i n g near the i d e n t i f i e d areas, and neighborhood meetings are held t o determine support f o r a device. Where support e x i s t s , a permanent device i s i n s t a l l e d and monitored f o r s i x months; follow-up meetings or a survey are conducted only when complaints are received. Since 1981, the Program has been l a r g e l y confined t o the use of t r a f f i c c i r c l e s . C i r c l e s have proven t o be e f f e c t i v e i n reducing speed, which i s consistent with S e a t t l e ' s p o l i c y of managing t r a f f i c i n i t s place rather than s h i f t i n g i t . In recent years, t r a f f i c volumes have remained r e l a t i v e l y constant on s t r e e t s r e c e i v i n g treatment, but the perception of e x t e r n a l i t i e s i s decreased due to l e s s noise. C i t i z e n 18 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s s t i l l a strong element i n the program and without neighborhood support, no a c t i o n i s undertaken. THE CENTRAL LONDON AREA The influence of the Buchanan Report i s evident i n the NTM schemes i n the following two areas: BARNSBURY In 1964, a scheme to redevelop one s t r e e t i n t h i s c e n t r a l London neighborhood was opposed by a group of residents who wanted an o v e r a l l p l a n f o r the neighborhood and were i n t e r e s t e d i n an 'environmental area 1 54 treatment. In response, the Borough developed and exhibited a report which d i v i d e d the area i n t o environmental zones, stressed the d i v e r s i o n of commuter t r a f f i c through the use of one way s t r e e t s and cul-de-sacs, and made recommendations with respect t o housing problems i n the area. T r a f f i c management was the p u b l i c p r i o r i t y and the Greater London Council approved a scheme l i m i t e d to the suggested t r a f f i c improvements. In conjunction with the implementation of the t r a f f i c management scheme, the Borough independently c a r r i e d out a t r e e p l a n t i n g and town-scaping program. Sh o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , some area residents protested that the ' t a r t i n g up' of the neighborhood would contribute to e x i s t i n g pressure on low income tenants to r e l o c a t e . This group was a l s o d i s s a t i s -f i e d w i t h ± h e way i n which the scheme r e d i s t r i b u t e d t r a f f i c , and decreased t h e i r own a c c e s s i b i l i t y and m o b i l i t y . A major problem i n Barnsbury was th a t the a r t e r i a l s were a t capacity, and the high degree o f e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l development prevented improve-ments from being made on both a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s and i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n the area. Given these c o n s t r a i n t s , the e x i s t i n g s t r e e t system had t o be 19 managed i n a way to achieve the best balance between m o b i l i t y and environmental concerns. Unfortunately the Borough f a i l e d t o involve the residents of the area i n debating t r a d e o f f s and determining neighborhood p r i o r i t i e s . Despite f u r t h e r reviews and minor modifications, a t t i t u d e s towards the scheme i n the mid 1970s remained negative. PMLICO Pimlico adopted an environmental area designation i n 1965 and i n 1968 implemented a NTM plan that allowed f r e e i n t e r n a l c i r c u l a t i o n but 55 severely r e s t r i c t e d entry to the neighborhood. One way out s t r e e t s and a one way i n t e r n a l maze were implemented to eliminate t r a f f i c c u t t i n g through l o c a l s t r e e t s to avoid i n t e r s e c t i o n delays. The plan was i n i t i a t e d by the C i t y and although i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n was negative, a t t i t u d e s changed q u i c k l y . An evaluation of the plan showed tha t i n t e r n a l t r a f f i c volumes and accidents decreased s u b s t a n t i a l l y and that l i t t l e t r a f f i c had s h i f t e d t o p e r i p h e r a l s t r e e t s , although these a r t e r i a l s had s u f f i c i e n t capacity t o absorb any t r a f f i c increases r e s u l t i n g from the NTM plan. DELFT, HOLLAND — THE WOONERF D e l f t i s known f o r i t s innovation i n t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices — l e g i s l a t i o n and design guidelines f o r the woonerf were introduced i n 1976. A woonerf i s a r e s i d e n t i a l area where the s t r e e t i s geared t o pedestrian use but a l s o allows v e h i c l e s ? ^ E t i s not s u i t a b l e f o r a r t e r i a l s , nor f o r areas with heavy parking requirements. The woonerf treatment complements the major s t r e e t system by making a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between the a r t e r i a l s t r e e t system and the l o c a l s t r e e t s , without r e s t r i c t i n g access. In a woonerf, curbs are removed t o eliminate the d i s t i n c t i o n between 20 the pedestrian area and the v e h i c l e area. T r a f f i c speed i s low, and changes i n route d i r e c t i o n or pavement surfaces are used to create a r e s i d e n t i a l impression which i s r e i n f o r c e d by p l a n t i n g and s t r e e t f u r n i t u r e . C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s important to ensure that areas with such treatment meet the needs of the residents and w i l l be maintained. This concept manages t r a f f i c i n place, rather than r e d i s t r i b u t i n g i t — the devices work to reduce the impact of automobiles, rather than the volume. The woonerf concept has been ap p l i e d extensively i n Europe and i s being applied experimentally i n North America. BERKELEY In the e a r l y 1970s the a n t i - c a r movement became a popular cause i n Berkeley and i n 1974, c i t i z e n s became a c t i v e l y involved i n the Berkeley 57 Neighborhood T r a f f i c study. Although the study was to develop a comprehensive t r a f f i c strategy, i n c l u d i n g t r a n s i t , b i c y c l e and pedestrian a l t e r n a t i v e s , p u b l i c i n t e r e s t seemed t o focus on t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices and the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c rather than general transportation p o l i c y and t r a f f i c reduction. In 1975, c i t i z e n s developed t r a f f i c plans f o r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l areas which were d i s t r i b u t e d throughout Berkeley and discussed a t p u b l i c meetings. The plans proposed a t o t a l of 46 d i v e r t e r s , 10 s i g n a l s , over 300 stop signs, 17 t r a f f i c c i r c l e s and various other modifications and regulations. Negative r e a c t i o n t o the proposals l e d t o rninor modifications and the plan was implemented i n the f a l l . By e a r l y 1976, two c i t i z e n s groups had been formed. The C i t i z e n s Against the Barricades, advocating f r e e use of a l l s t r e e t s and use of 21 t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices only to improve t r a f f i c flow, had c o l l e c t e d s u f f i c i e n t signatures t o ensure that the t r a f f i c management plan would be put t o the vote i n the June e l e c t i o n . The Berkeleyans f o r F a i r T r a f f i c Management advocated the use of b a r r i e r s f o r improved q u a l i t y of urban l i f e , and wanted the adoption of the NTM scheme t o be based on the outcome of the t r i a l p eriod evaluation. They a l s o wanted the program to continue as i t was a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r f e d e r a l funding f o r p u b l i c t r a n s i t systems. The evaluation of the scheme took place, showing p o s i t i v e neighbor-hood e f f e c t s with s l i g h t increases i n t r a f f i c volumes on a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s , t r a v e l times, and t r a f f i c congestion. The vote on the T r a f f i c Plan was 56% i n favor o f r e t a i n i n g the d i v e r t e r s . Thereafter, the C i t y conducted a post evaluation and a c i t i z e n s advisory committee was created t o consult with c i t i z e n s i n the development of a formal c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n process f o r future modifications to the plan. DISCUSSION OF CASES A l l of the cases discussed are r e s i d e n t i a l areas experiencing through t r a f f i c as a r e s u l t of t h e i r geographic l o c a t i o n between c e n t r a l areas and outer city/suburb areas. S e a t t l e ' s program i s a city-wide program implemented a t the s t r e e t l e v e l . Barnsbury and Pimlico are examples of neighborhood c o n t r o l s ; Berkeley i s the only case of c i t y wide c o n t r o l s , although the plan was developed incrementally, with each neighborhood designing t h e i r plan. Each c i t y provides unique lessons. S e a t t l e ' s lengthy experience with NTM programs has r e s u l t e d i n the establishment of a formal program and 22 c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n process. However, the degree of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was higher i n the program o f the e a r l y 1970s when the c i t i z e n s were i n i t i a t i n g the process and making t r a d e o f f s , than i n the current program which i s c i t y i n i t i a t e d and involves c i t i z e n s only i n the approval phase. I t i s unclear whether a c i t y i n i t i a t e d plan, based on the number of accidents per i n t e r s e c t i o n responds to the concerns of the residents i n those neighborhoods r e c e i v i n g treatment. E f f i c i e n c y i n the a l l o c a t i o n of program funds seems t o have been achieved, and the management of t r a f f i c i n place should have fewer negative operational r a m i f i c a t i o n s . The f o r m a l i z a t i o n of the process may a l s o reduce the .. controversy o f t e n surrounding these schemes, because the issue i s moved from the p o l i t i c a l arena to the bureaucratic l e v e l . Barnsbury provides a good example of the type of d i f f i c u l t i e s commonly experienced i n NTM programs. The i n s u f f i c i e n t , y et f i x e d , a r t e r i a l capacity meant that any changes would have t o be managed on the e x i s t i n g s t r e e t network. This c o n s t r a i n t was exacerbated by the f a i l u r e of the Borough t o introduce a c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n process which allowed f o r the expression of concerns and debate among various i n t e r e s t s . The lack of time and structure f o r negotiation may have contributed to the negative impression held by some residents of the scheme. In contrast, the lack of controversy surrounding the Pimlioo t r a f f i c management scheme may have been due to the f a c t t h a t no t r a d e o f f s were required. L o c a l needs f o r a c c e s s i b i l i t y were met and the environmen-t a l q u a l i t y of the area was improved. S u f f i c i e n t a r t e r i a l capacity was a v a i l a b l e f o r non-local t r a f f i c squeezed o f f l o c a l s t r e e t s , although the t r a f f i c counts i n d i c a t e d that most of i t avoided the area e n t i r e l y . 23 The woonerf is another example of managing the effects of traffic in place rather than relocating i t . The use of landscaping and street furniture offset any reduction in access. Berkeley is the best example available of a comprehensive traffic management scheme, developed through a citizen participation process. It is not a typical NTM scheme because i t applies to a whole city, but the development of plans for individual areas, and the lack of transportation alternatives to reduce traffic volumes make i t very similar to other traffic management schemes. The slight reduction in operation efficiency was offset by perceived community benefits. 24 CHAPTER THREE 25 VANCOUVER'S RECENT TRANSPORTATION HISTORY Vancouver and surrounding suburbs form the l a r g e s t metropolitan area i n western Canada. Vancouver's c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t i s the major focus of commercial a c t i v i t y i n the region and hence, the des t i n a t i o n of ever increasing volumes o f commuter t r a f f i c . The l o c a t i o n of Vancouver and i t s c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t i n r e l a t i o n t o other centres i n the region i s depicted below. WEST VANCOUVER \l NORTH VANCOUVER J DISTRICT II FIGURE #1 VANCOUVER AND SURROUNDING AREA. SOURCE: C i t y of Vancouver SCALE i 10KH i 26 E f f i c i e n t t r a f f i c movement i n t o the downtown area i s hampered by three f a c t o r s . F i r s t l y , the Vancouver c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t i s not located i n the geographic centre o f the region. Secondly, i t i s located on a peninsula, and the bridges to i t tend t o concentrate t r a f f i c t o a few major a r t e r i a l s . L a s t l y , the d i f f i c u l t access i s r e i n f o r c e d by the lack of freeways i n Vancouver. Since the 1960s, Vancouver's c i t i z e n s have been a c t i v e l y involved i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d e c i s i o n making, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect t o freeways. Numerous studies, p u b l i c meetings and hearings became c l e a r l y focussed i n 1967 and 1968 when c i t i z e n s protested the T h i r d Crossing of Burrard I n l e t , the downtown freeway alignment through Gastown, and the Georgia viaduct alignment through Chinatown."'" Vancouver's f i r s t neighborhood t r a f f i c management plan was implemented i n the West End i n 1974-75, although seme t r a f f i c management devices were i n s t a l l e d as a p a r t of neighborhood improvement programs e a r l i e r . The three neighborhoods serving as case studies complete those plans implemented. Other plans are c u r r e n t l y being developed i n Grandview-Woodland, Mount Pleasant and Strathcona, a l l inner c i t y neighborhoods. GOALS FOR VANCOUVER Between 1978 and 1980 the Vancouver C i t y Planning Commission c o l l e c t e d the opinions o f the residents of Vancouver r e s u l t i n g i n the Goals f o r Vancouver document which was given C i t y support. Of i n t e r e s t are the following goals: 1) "to support e f f o r t s to generally reduce, b u f f e r or mask the unwanted noises o f the c i t y ; 2) to support the development of i n d i v i d u a l character and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r neighborhoods of Vancouver: 27 3) t o improve automobile c i r c u l a t i o n i n the c i t y by the management of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , rather than the development of new roads, widening of e x i s t i n g roads,etc; 4) to improve the pedestrian environment i n a l l p arts of the c i t y and plan f o r i t s enhancement 5) t o promote the opportunity f o r resident involvement i n the future of Vancouver and i t s neighborhoods 6) to manage growth and change so as t o ensure a high q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r a l l c i t i z e n s of Vancouver " 2 A current document dealing with growth and i t s consequences f o r housing, employment, environment and tran s p o r t a t i o n i s the Vancouver Plan. This Plan views transportation as one of Vancouver's most important and c o s t l y p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , and discusses the C i t y ' s goals t o accommodate incr e a s i n g t r a v e l demand, reduce congestion, and protect r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods. The Vancouver Plan p r o j e c t s increased peak period t r a v e l which w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o accorimodate with e x i s t i n g l e v e l s of s t r e e t and t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s . I t proposes the development of a c a p i t a l investment plan f o r t ransportation f a c i l i t i e s and the establishment of a downtown parking p o l i c y as i n t e r i m measures t o accxammodate increased t r a v e l demand. Other i n t e r i m measures to derive a d d i t i o n a l capacity from the e x i s t i n g t ransportation system are the construction of l e f t - t u r n bays a t c r i t i c a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s and the computerization of t r a f f i c s i g n a l s . The Plan recognizes the neighborhood l i v a b i l i t y - commuter access problem as an area of c i v i c dispute r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r study and the development of a l t e r n a t i v e s . CIVIC STRUCTURES At the time of the e a r l i e s t neighborhood t r a f f i c management plan discussed i n t h i s study (1979), the C i t y of Vancouver had been a c t i v e l y 28 involved i n l o c a l area planning programs f o r approximately s i x years. Planners and p o l i t i c i a n s had experience i n c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a structure and method f o r l o c a l area planning had been developed. The type and extent of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the r o l e of the l o c a l area planning committee and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c i v i c bureaucracy was defined. T h i s recognized the importance of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c l a r i f i e d and l e g i t i m i z e d the process, and gave support t o the plan. None of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a pplied t o the neighborhood t r a f f i c management planning processes investigated. There was no recognized structure or method t o follow to ensure representation and an open and p u b l i c process, no c i v i c s t a f f support or expertise, no channels of :: cxarimunication between neighborhood and c i v i c representatives and no accepted means to b u i l d c i v i c support. Although b e n e f i t t i n g from . experience gained from l o c a l area planning processes, the neighborhood t r a f f i c management committees developed and promoted the t r a f f i c plans r e l a t i v e l y independently of C i t y H a l l . CASE STUDY FORMAT The p r o f i l e s of the three neighborhoods selected discuss the land uses i n the area, e x i s t i n g plans and zoning, and b r i e f l y describe the evolution of the NTM plan. The background information forms a context f o r the di s c u s s i o n of the people and process and the t r a f f i c character-i s t i c s which follow. .The map on the following page depicts the l o c a t i o n of the three case study NTM plans i n Vancouver. 29 CITY OF VANCOUVER LOCAL AREAS T N FIGURE #2 LOCATION OF NTM CASE STUDIES IN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER SOURCE; C i t y of Vancouver SCALE . . 1 2 3 km 30 SHAUGHNESSY INTRCDUCTION Shaughnessy i s a p r e s t i g i o u s r e s i d e n t i a l area located c l o s e t o Vancouver's c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . I t s exclusive nature was e s t a b l i s h e d i n the e a r l y 1900s when large homes were constructed on large, i r r e g u l a r shaped l o t s , and maintained over the decades by c i t i z e n a c t i o n i n t e n t on preserving the s i n g l e family nature of the area and the 3 exclusive type of development. LAND USES Shaughnessy remains a very low density, s i n g l e family r e s i d e n t i a l 2 4 neighborhood. The average l o t s i z e exceeds 1500m . However, approximately ten per cent of a l l dwellings are multi-family dwellings and two per cent are i n s t i t u t i o n a l dwellings f o r the e l d e r l y , p h y s i c a l l y and 5 mentally handicapped. Shaughnessy s t r e e t s are wide, ranging i n width from twenty t o t h i r t y metres and are l i n e d with mature trees. The widest s t r e e t s are d i v i d e d by t r e e l i n e d boulevards. On s t r e e t parking i s itujiimized through the p r o v i s i o n of generous o n - s i t e parking f o r each dwelling u n i t . EXISTING PLANS Through the e f f o r t s of the Shaughnessy Heights Property Owners Assoc i a t i o n , the F i r s t Shaughnessy Planning Study Working Committee 7 was e s t a b l i s h e d and recognized by C i t y Council i n J u l y 1979. The committee was structured t o ensure representation of a cross s e c t i o n of Shaughnessy i n t e r e s t s , and with the support of c i t y s t a f f , produced the F i r s t Shaughnessy O f f i c i a l Development Plan, Background Report, and 31 F i r s t Shaughnessy Design Guidelines. These dociurrients were adopted by C i t y Council i n May 1982. The O f f i c i a l Development Plan provides goals and d i r e c t i o n with respect to heritage considerations, housing, t r a f f i c c i r c u l a t i o n , community services and community involvement. I t includes as one of i t s goal statements "to discourage commuter and through g t r a f f i c i n F i r s t Shaughnessy". The Background Report i d e n t i f i e s the s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s of the through t r a f f i c problem, discusses t r a f f i c volumes, and o u t l i n e s r e s i d e n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with measures implemented t o date. I t a l s o recognizes that commuter through t r a f f i c occurs as a r t e r i a l s became congested, and that i n the long term, a r t e r i a l improvements, as w e l l as r a p i d t r a n s i t w i l l be required t o preserve q u i e t and safe s t r e e t s . ZONING The RS-4 d i s t r i c t schedule a p p l i e s t o the e n t i r e case study area; i t s i n t e n t i s to maintain e x i s t i n g area c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as s i n g l e family residences on large l o t s , as w e l l as t o permit new s i n g l e family development compatible i n density, scale and l o t s i z e . EVOLUTION OF THE NEIGHBORHCCD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SCHEME The p o r t i o n of Shaughnessy i n which the neighborhood t r a f f i c management plan was implemented i s surrounded by the h e a v i l y t r a f f i c k e d a r t e r i a l s of G r a n v i l l e , Arbutus, 16th and King Edward Avenues. I t l i e s a t the southern terminus of a major bridge cr o s s i n g and a r t e r i a l s t r e e t . E a r l i e r s t r e e t plans included a proposal f o r a major connector l i n k i n g the Burrard S t r e e t Bridge and another major a r t e r i a l , but the construction of t h i s connector was formally abandoned i n 1975. Lacking an a r t e r i a l connection to other north-south a r t e r i a l s , motorists began shor t c u t t i n g 32 through r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s to avoid both congestion and l e f t turn delays. In response to numerous complaints from Shaughnessy residents, the C i t y of Vancouver Engineering Department undertook a study of t r a f f i c conditions i n the area i n August 1980. At the same time, a group o f residents becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of the e f f e c t s of through t r a f f i c on t h e i r neighborhood formed the Pro-T r a f f i c Controls tommittee. The goal of the Committee was b a s i c a l l y to reduce through t r a f f i c and preserve a safe and q u i e t neighborhood. The Committee's primary area of concern was the case study area; the l a r g e r area considered extended south t o 41st Avenue. A neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n was approved by C i t y Council i n September 1980, based on input from the Shaughnessy residents and the Engineering Department study. The plan included a number of d i v e r t e r s to r e s t r a i n through t r a f f i c — t h e i r i n s t a l l a t i o n being subject to a favorable response of area residents. Numerous measures were a l s o recommended f o r the a r t e r i a l s surrounding Shaughnessy to accommodate the increased t r a f f i c volumes r e s u l t i n g from the d i v e r t e d t r a f f i c . The survey included a l l residents l i v i n g ; i n c l o s e proximity t o the 9 proposed measures; the r e s u l t was 72% i n favor of the plan. In J u l y 1981, Council unanimously approved the implementation of the neighborhood t r a f f i c plan f o r a t r i a l p eriod of s i x months, as w e l l as the implementation of three a r t e r i a l improvements. The temporary d i v e r t e r s were i n s t a l l e d i n December 1981 and were perceived t o reduce the amount of non-local t r a f f i c using the l o c a l s t r e e t s by f o r c i n g d r i v e r s to remain on G r a n v i l l e and Arbutus when t r a v e l l i n g between 16th.".and King Edward Avenues. 33 An opposition group was formed i n January 1982; i t s goal was t o ensure equal access to c i t y s t r e e t s to a l l c i t y r e s idents. In February 1982 the Mayor and the C i t y Engineer met with representatives of the two groups.and agreed to reduce the t r i a l p e r i o d to four months. A report was requested from the C i t y Engineer on a l t e r n a t i v e s to d i v e r t e r s ; he reported that: "any neighborhood t r a f f i c p l a n can only succeed i f there i s an adequate a r t e r i a l network f o r through t r a f f i c to be d i v e r t e d to. In the case of northwest Shaughnessy, the adjoining a r t e r i a l s are congested and the b a r r i e r s appear t o have worsened t h i s c ondition." 10 The engineering study was d i r e c t e d a t three s p e c i f i c areas, t o be implemented i n a comprehensive and co-ordinated manner: 1) short-term a r t e r i a l improvements; 2) long-term a r t e r i a l airprovementsr 3) a l o c a l s t r e e t plan — based on a plan submitted by the area residents, c a l l e d the laarapronu.se p l a n 1 . The compromise plan replaced the d i v e r t e r s with l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e measures: t r a f f i c c i r c l e s , t r a f f i c i s l a n d s , p a r t i a l d i v e r t e r s and signage. I t was adopted by Council on March 23, 1982. Despite a h i g h l y organized and v o c a l opposition, the permanent measures, as depicted on the following page, were i n s t a l l e d i n June 1982. The P r o - T r a f f i c Controls Committee d i s t r i b u t e d a brochure t o a l l Shaughr nessy residents d i s c u s s i n g the t r a f f i c problem and chosen s o l u t i o n . The brochure stated " C i t y Council has acted to preserve the r e s i d e n t i a l q u a l i t y of l i f e — i s n ' t t h i s something you support?" 34 SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r SCALE 1 n . _ 4 0 0 i i 400 . 800 35 VANCOUVER HEIGHTS INTRODUCTION Vancouver Heights i s located i n the northeast corner of the Hastings-Sunrise ccmmunity, as w e l l as i n the northeast corner of Vancouver. The case study area i s bounded by Cassiar Street, Hastings Street, Boundary Road and Burrard I n l e t . LAND USES Vancouver Heights i s a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d s i n g l e family r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood o f f e r i n g e x c e l l e n t views of the harbour and the north shore mountains. The area has a t r a d i t i o n a l g r i d s t r e e t pattern and slopes steeply to the west. I t s l o c a t i o n adjacent t o the P a c i f i c National E x h i b i -t i o n s i t e a l s o contribute to seasonal t r a f f i c and parking problems. Both Cassiar and Hastings Streets are a r t e r i a l s . Hastings S t r e e t has assorted r e t a i l uses. The area has no park space. EXISTING PLANS The Hastings-Sunrise L o c a l Area Plan was adopted by Vancouver C i t y Council i n May 1985 a f t e r a f i v e year long l o c a l area planning process. The i n t e n t of the plan i s to maintain and improve the l i v a b i l i t y o f the Hastings-Sunrise coiinunity. I t i d e n t i f i e s the following o b j e c t i v e s : 1) to p r o t e c t l o c a l r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s from through t r a f f i c through s t r e e t modifications;"'"''" 2) to improve the l i v a b i l i t y of the area adjacent to Cassiar S t r e e t by developing a freeway connection which w i l l 12 mitigate l o c a l impacts r 3) t o improve a r t e r i a l t r a f f i c flow by s t r e e t and i n t e r s e c t i o n 36 improvements; 4) to improve pedestrian c r o s s i n g f a c i l i t i e s . ZONING The majority of land i n "the Vancouver Heights area i s zoned RS-1, i n d i c a t i n g s i n g l e - f a m i l y dwellings, and the preservation of the s i n g l e family character of the area. The commercial development along Hastings S t r e e t i s zoned C2, providing f o r a wide range of r e t a i l and s e r v i c e operations. EVOLUTION OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MA1IAGEMENT SCHEME T r a f f i c has been a problem i n the Vancouver Heights neighborhood since the early. 1960s when the Second Narrows Bridge and the Trans-Canada Highway were completed without a freeway connector. Cassiar S t r e e t acts as the missing l i n k i n the Trans-Canada Highway and i s the most he a v i l y t r a f f i c k e d a r t e r i a l i n Vancouver, c a r r y i n g approximately 15 60,000 v e h i c l e s per day (vpd). The major c o n s t r a i n t to the e f f i c i e n t movement of t r a f f i c i n t h i s c o r r i d o r i s the Cassiar and Hastings i n t e r s e c t i o n . The congestion and t r a f f i c delays r e s u l t e d i n the d i v e r s i o n of t r a f f i c onto l o c a l s t r e e t s , i n an e f f o r t t o bypass the i n t e r s e c t i o n e n t i r e l y . Congestion a l s o r e s u l t e d i n a greater than average number of accidents — t h i s was a l s o observed on those l o c a l s t r e e t s used by through t r a f f i c . Approximately 60% of Cassiar S t r e e t t r a f f i c moves d i r e c t l y from 16 the Second Narrows Bridge to the Trans-Canada Highway and v i c e versa. T r a f f i c on Cassiar S t r e e t continues t o increase by 5 - 6% annually, 17 much higher than the norm of 2% per annum. Cassiar i s a l s o a major truck route and leads to the only bridge 37 c r o s s i n g a v a i l a b l e i n Vancouver; i t c a r r i e s approximately 1000 heavy trucks (three axles or more) i n a ten hour day. The long term nature of t h i s problem l e d t o safety and a r t e r i a l improvements i n the 1970s, however, the continual increase i n t r a f f i c rendered the improvements inadequate. The Cambridge loop — a c i r c u l a r ramp to ca r r y southbound bridge t r a f f i c d i r e c t l y onto the Cambridge overpass was a l s o proposed as an inte r i m measure t o increase t r a f f i c e f f i c i e n c y and reduce neighborhood impacts. The C i t y Engineering department conducted a .study and prepared a report which was presented t o Council i n June 1979. In the month p r i o r t o t h i s presentation, the Vancouver Heights C i t i z e n s Committee (VHCC) was formed, and a p u b l i c meeting to discuss the Cambridge loop was held. The general goal of the VHCC was t o preserve the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the area by pr o t e c t i n g the neighborhood from a perceived t r a f f i c problem comprised of excessive t r a f f i c volumes on r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s , speeding and t h r o u g h - t r a f f i c . The group's short term goal was the implementation of t r a f f i c c o n t r o l measures t o eliminate t r a f f i c and associated problems w i t h i n the Vancouver Heights neighborhood. The longer term goal was to seek a r e s o l u t i o n of both the neighborhoods' concerns and those of the commuter. The group's major area of concern was i n the area forming the case study; t h e i r secondary focus extended east i n t o Burnaby. The VHCC a l s o met with the C i t y Manager to discuss t h e i r concerns and were advised to send a delegation t o Council. The (Zammittee studied the report prepared by the Engineering department, and was successful i n defeating the loop proposal by arguing that the d e c i s i o n to construct the loop was made without neighborhood input and d i d not 38 consider neighborhood impacts: l o c a t i n g a freeway off-ramp i n a r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhood was unacceptable. The group a l s o urged the negotiation of a long-term s o l u t i o n with the province. The high cost of the long term so l u t i o n s developed by the province, as w e l l as the need f o r p r o v i n c i a l co-operation r e s u l t e d i n the VHCC continuing to meet over the summer of 1979 to develop a set of in t e r i m measures which would more e f f e c t i v e l y reduce through t r a f f i c while a long term s o l u t i o n was developed. The Ctammittee proposal involved two bas i c sets o f measures: 1) the i n s t a l l a t i o n of barricades on a l l l o c a l s t r e e t s abutting onto Cassiar, as w e l l as on the Cambridge overpass and on Skeena Street; 2) modifications to the Hastings-Cassiar i n t e r s e c t i o n i n v o l v i n g the ad d i t i o n of a second l e f t turn lane north and southbound Cassiar onto Hastings, and increased l e f t turn s i g n a l time. The C i t y Engineering department f e l t that the modifications t o the Hastings-Cassiar i n t e r s e c t i o n suggested by the VHCC d i d not adequately increase i n t e r s e c t i o n capacity t o provide s u f f i c i e n t capacity f o r the t r a f f i c d i v e r t e d from the closure of a l l s i x s t r e e t s . The C i t y Engineer a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t the closure o f Cambridge St r e e t and overpass and Skeena St r e e t was inappropriate, the former being recognized as a through s t r e e t and bus route, the l a t t e r as a p r o v i n c i a l access road. The disadvantages associated with the i n s t a l l a t i o n of b a r r i e r s across each l o c a l s t r e e t a t Cassiar were a l s o noted: steep slopes and narrow s t r e e t s create d i f f i c u l t y i n executing turns, and delays could a r i s e i n emergency access s i t u a t i o n s . The C i t y Engineer promoted a 39 t r a f f i c management plan comprised of s e l e c t i v e d i v e r t e r s , turn r e s t r i c t i o n s and other signage combined with increased enforcement. The a n a l y s i s and concerns of various c i v i c departments, and dele -gations were heard a t a Council meeting on September 25, 1979. Council unanimously approved the i n s t a l l a t i o n of d i v e r t e r s f o r the Cambridge overpass and Skeena Street, and f o r a l l the l o c a l s t r e e t s abutting onto Cassiar; improvements f o r the Cassiar-Hastings i n t e r s e c t i o n were a l s o approved. Temporary closures were implemented i n advance of the suggested improvements a t the Hastings and Cassiar i n t e r s e c t i o n s and both residents and commuters complained about the r e s u l t i n g congestion. In ad d i t i o n , . the p r o v i n c i a l government promptly ordered the removal of the b a r r i e r s on Cambridge and Skeena Str e e t s , as those f a c i l i t i e s were constructed by the Province and were r e g i s t e r e d as p u b l i c highways under the Highways Act. This i n c i d e n t angered the VHCC f o r several reasons. They had recommended that the closure of Cambridge and Skeena be negotiated with the P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of Highways, and a l s o that the b a r r i e r s be i n s t a l l e d i n conjunction with the construction of capacity, improve-ments, neither or which were done. The VHCC was a l s o angered a t the lack of preparation and adequate n o t i c e : signage was non-existent, not v i s i b l e , or confusing. In ad d i t i o n , the barricades were i n s t a l l e d without f l a s h i n g l i g h t s to advise night-time motorists of t h e i r existence. Discussions continued a t the neighborhood l e v e l through the VHCC, the Burnaby Heights C i t i z e n s ' Ctemmittee and the Hastings-Sunrise C i t i z e n s ' Planning Committee. In J u l y 1981, C i t y Council approved i n p r i n c i p l e , the use of gates to r e s t r i c t access t o the Cambridge overpass and Skeena 'z: Street, during non-peak hours, subject t o support from the majority of 40 area residents. The opinion p o l l was conducted i n the f a l l of 1981 and the majority of respondents opposed the barricades c i t i n g reduced access, emergency access d i f f i c u l t i e s and the enforced use of already congested Cassiar and Hastings Streets as reasons. Based on the survey r e s u l t s Council agreed not to proceed with the b a r r i e r s and gates i n the Vancouver Heights area, but t o continue discussions with area residents regarding t r a f f i c d i s r u p t i o n s i n the neighborhood. The t r a f f i c plan i n Vancouver Heights i s depicted on the following page. 41 N N \ \\ i if i ST, /I \ .Barrier Barrier Barrier I Barrier I Barrier "0 57.5 -577 5ff5 5y TRIUMPH 5(95 *0 PANDORA 5<97 >-JOHN FRANKLIN W f.s g FRANKLIN 588 * HASTINGS 59(7 CAMBRIDGE ST OXFORO ST OUNDAS ST ST • ST ST ST FIGURE #4 VANCOUVER HEIGHTS NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r SCALE l'=400', 400 . 800 , N 42 THE WEST END INTRCDUCTION The West End i s located between Vancouver's c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t , the one thousand acre Stanley Park, and two i n l e t s . I t s l o c a t i o n makes i t both a high amenity neighborhood, and an area disrupted by diverse, o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The case study area boundaries are Robson Street, Thurlow Street, Beach Avenue and Denman Street. LAND USES The major land use i n the West End i s r e s i d e n t i a l and various types of housing are a v a i l a b l e : s i n g l e family, multi-family, walk-ups and high r i s e s . The area a l s o has several convenience sotres, commercial o f f i c e space and p u b l i c and i n s t i t u t i o n a l uses. Generally low r i s e , small scale r e t a i l stores l i n e Robson, Denman and Davie Str e e t s , e n c i r c l i n g the majority o f the r e s i d e n t i a l area included i n t h i s case study. The West End i s d e f i c i e n t i n open space and park areas compared to other areas i n Vancouver. I t s higher land values have constrained the C i t y ' s a b i l i t y to meet t h i s need. The area has a t r a d i t i o n a l g r i d s t r e e t system. EXISTING PLANS AND ZONING A Local Area Planning program was conducted i n the West End between 1973 - 1975 r e s u l t i n g i n the West End O f f i c i a l Development Plan e s t a b l i s h -ing the West End D i s t r i c t zoning, and the West End Planning P o l i c i e s . The O f f i c i a l Development Plan a p p l i e s to an area s i m i l a r t o that of the case study. I t s i n t e n t i s two f o l d : t o ensure that 43 1) "high standards of design and development are maintained throughout the West End, and 2) the general environment of the West End i s maintained as an a t t r a c t i v e place i n which to l i v e or v i s i t . " 18 The Plan confirms the high density r e s i d e n t i a l nature of the West End and allows f o r a l l types of r e s i d e n t i a l uses i n the area, as w e l l as s o c i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l uses of a non-commercial nature. I t aims t o recognize e x i s t i n g s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s and t o encourage a s o c i a l mix and d i v e r s i t y of dwelling types. Preservation and improvement of the West End as a d e s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n , and the p r o v i s i o n of opportunities f o r residents to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the planning and development of t h e i r l o c a l area are two of the o v e r a l l p o l i c i e s i d e n t i f i e d as West End Planning P o l i c i e s . With respect to transportation concerns, the following p o l i c y i s import-ant: to reduce through t r a f f i c and irdnimize i t s detrimental e f f e c t . Other p o l i c i e s include preserving the e x i s t i n g d i v e r s i t y of West End residents, and r e t a i n i n g the character of e x i s t i n g West End neighborhoods. Commercial p o l i c i e s include promoting uses of i n t e r e s t t o pedestrians and securing neighborhood input with respect to the establishment of convenience stores. EVOLUTION OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN The West End has a lengthy h i s t o r y i n neighborhood t r a f f i c management. A NTM plan known as T r a f f i c Scheme 1 (TS1) was i n s t a l l e d i n the West End west of Denman St r e e t i n l a t e 1974 and e a r l y 1975. At the same time, the C i t y i n s t a l l e d two d i v e r t e r s i n the area east of Denman — the case study area. TS1 was seen to enhance the l i v a b i l i t y of the area west o f Denman and provided a p o s i t i v e example of the b e n e f i t s 44 of neighborhood t r a f f i c management c o n t r o l s . In 1974, C i t y Council a l s o approved", i n p r i n c i p l e T r a f f i c Scheme 2 f o r the case study area, which aimed to reduce through t r a f f i c and minimize negative t r a f f i c - r e l a t e d impacts. The measures proposed were r e s t r i c t i v e i n nature and received only mediocre support of the area residents; the implementation of the scheme was delayed. In June 1977/,:the West End T r a f f i c Committee (WETC) was formed l a r g e l y i n response t o a C i t y i n i t i a t e d l o c a l improvement to repave and recurb one high t r a f f i c volume l o c a l s t r e e t : Nelson Street. Area residents were opposed to the upgrading because i t would r e s u l t i n both increased t r a f f i c volume and speed. C i t i z e n a c t i o n defeated the p r o j e c t and r a i s e d community awareness of the t r a f f i c conditions i n the area. The WETC has three major areas of concern: volume of t r a f f i c , speed of t r a f f i c and through t r a f f i c . Their goals were b a s i c a l l y to work towards a l i v a b l e , s table community i n the West End, with safe, q u i e t s t r e e t s , and t o e s t a b l i s h a w e l l defined community i d e n t i t y and boundaries. They believed that t r a f f i c d i v e r s i o n was the key t o achieving t h e i r goals. Their geographic area of concern extended from C h i l c o t o Burrard S t r e e t s , A l b e r n i to F a l s e Creek. The WETC began t o work towards t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s east of Denman Stre e t and i n A p r i l 1978, TS2 was reconsidered. The community was resurveyed t o determine residents' opinions regarding the t r a f f i c plan. A f t e r a lengthy delay, i n May 1980, a t a Committee t o Council meeting, the C i t y Engineering department reported a low response r a t e of 8.2%, but responses generally i n favor of the proposals: 45 - 56% i n favor o f t r a f f i c d i v e r t e r s east of Denman - 61% i n favor of mini-parks i n v o l v i n g s t r e e t closures - 65% i n favor of pedestrian paths 19 - 80% i n favor of ba s i c s t r e e t improvements In June 1980, a f t e r hearing numerous delegations, Council agreed to approve, i n p r i n c i p l e , pedestrian pathways, t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices and mini-parks f o r the area east of Denman Street. In J u l y , i n order t o deal with the approved improvements on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , the West End C i t i z e n s Subcommittee was formed and seventeen West End groups were i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . The West End T r a f f i c Committee was the major force on t h i s Subcommittee, which worked with s t a f f from the C i t y Engineering, Planning and F i r e departments, and the Parks Board. An intens i v e c i t i z e n c o n s u l t a t i o n process between J u l y and September 1980 included a community walk to i d e n t i f y t r a f f i c problems, numerous sub-committee meetings and a general meeting with other West End i n t e r e s t groups to discuss l o c a t i o n options f o r mini-parks and pedestrian pathways. Through these e f f o r t s , agreement was reached on the l o c a t i o n of pedestrian pathways, and three options f o r mini-park l o c a t i o n s were developed. M i n i -park l o c a t i o n was based on the following o b j e c t i v e s : - to reduce neighborhood open space d e f i c i e n c i e s - t o discourage through t r a f f i c - to maintain emergency and l o c a l access - to provide an equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the area - to preserve mature trees Each option included s i x mini-parks i n areas i d e n t i f i e d as being d e f i c i e n t i n park space and v a r i e d with respect to r e s t r i c t i o n of:c through t r a f f i c , l o c a l access and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c . A r t e r i a l 46 improvements were not addressed as p a r t of T r a f f i c Scheme 2. A p u b l i c meeting was held i n October 1980 and was attended by approximately 250 people. Over 60% of the delegations spoke i n favor 20 of the most r e s t r i c t i v e . o p t i o n . I t was favored p r i m a r i l y because i t o f f e r e d p r o t e c t i o n from t r a f f i c t o the e n t i r e community. At a November 1980 Council meeting, t h i s option was approved. In November 1981, temporary b a r r i e r s were i n s t a l l e d on the s i t e s of f i v e proposed mini-parks and two t r a f f i c d i v e r t e r s . Despite some resident objections, the permanent t r a f f i c plan was completed i n l a t e 1982. I t i s depicted on the following page. 47 FIGURE #5 WEST END NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN SOURCE: C i t y o f SCALE l'=600' L_ V a n c o u v e r SYMBOLS / E x i s t i n g d i v e r t e r / New d i v e r t e r 5 M i n i - p a r k • T r a f f i c c i r c l e A T r a f f i c i s l a n d 6 C u l - d e - s a c 48 CHAPTER FOUR 49 THE PEOPLE AND THE PROCESS METHODS In order to determine whether NTM planning addresses the concerns of c i t i z e n s regarding automobile r e l a t e d e x t e r n a l i t i e s , an answer t o the following question was sought: how w e l l are c i t i z e n s ' concerns represented? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , do NTM plans address the needs of the e n t i r e neighbor-hood, or those of the plan advocates? The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a c t i v i t i e s and opinions of those advocating the NTM plan were examined to provide an i n d i c a t i o n of neighborhood opinions with regard to neighborhood t r a f f i c management. The implementa-t i o n of the plans confirms that they passed the s c r u t i n y of both the l o c a l residents and the c i v i c o f f i c i a l s , a l s o i n d i c a t i n g some degree of representativeness. The following i n d i c a t o r s were used to i n v e s t i g a t e the represent-ativeness of the NTM planning process: 1) s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the committee members 2) goals, values of the plan, as developed by the committee members 3) r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n of the members 4) e f f o r t s made to ensure representation. These i n d i c a t o r s of representativeness w i l l be used as a b a s i s f o r a n a l y s i s : t 1) d e s c r i p t i v e representation: the degree of congruence between the committee and the community on s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; 2) substantive representation: the degree of congruence between the committee and the community with respect t o goals and 50 and objectives f o r the development of the area; 3) geographical representation: a l l parts of the area represented by one or more committee members who re s i d e i n the area. Comparison of the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the community and the committee, and comparison of committee goals and objectives with those of other relevant community groups, as w e l l as the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of geographical representation w i l l provide responses to the extent, l o c a t i o n and nature of representation i n the NTM planning process. In a d d i t i o n , a n a l y s i s of: 1) process i n d i c a t o r s , i n c l u d i n g e f f o r t s undertaken a t the community l e v e l t o i ) determine the existence of socio-economic and.' c u l t u r a l groups i n the area t o be included i n the planning process; i i ) increase representation by using various c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n techniques; i i i ) i n fluence representativeness by the timing, l o c a t i o n and p u b l i c i z a t i o n of meetings. w i l l determine whether e f f o r t s t o ensure representation of community i n t e r e s t s are adequate. A l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were obtained through i n t e r -views with group leaders; these are compared t o community character-i s t i c s obtained from the C i t y of Vancouver,document Vancouver Local Areas 1971-1981. Although these s t a t i s t i c s represent an e n t i r e l o c a l planning area, of which each case study forms only a portion, the s t a t i s t i c s w i l l be assumed t o apply equally w e l l t o the p o r t i o n of the l o c a l area being studied. 51 SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS In a l l three cases, the number of residents involved i s ' t o o small to make a comparison s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A comparison w i l l be made, however, t o provide an i n d i c a t i o n of how s i m i l a r the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n NTM planning are to the other area r e s i d e n t s . The number, of members i n each group i s presented below: Shaughnessy 7 core group members, 23 i n t o t a l Vancouver Heights 6 core group members West End 7 core group members The graphs on the following pages i n d i c a t e the d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r age, education, and length of residence i n the area, by case study. 52 SHAUGHNESSY • Shaughnessy Local Area 50 kO H % of Population30 20 10 AGE 1 1 1 Pro-Traffic Controls Committee I 1. 0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 k0-k9 50-59 60-69 70+ YEARS OF AGE 100 801 % of Population 60 20 EDUCATION 1 i No 1-2 yrs. 3 and + university university years university 100 80 % of Population ItO 20 LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN AEEA h n n Una T 1^ 2 3-5 6-9 10 YEARS TABLE #1 SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS'' OF SHAUGHNESSY LOCAL AREA AND PRO-TRAFFIC CONTROLS COMMITTEE MEMBERS SOURCE: V a n c o u v e r L o c a l A r e a s 19 71-1981; p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h PTCC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . 53 VANCOUVER HEIGHTS AGE • Hastings Sunrise Local Area Vancouver Heights Citizens Committee 50 ho-ld of Population 30' 20. 10-0-9 I Jj 1 10-19 20-29 30-39 ^0-^9 50-59 60-69 70+ YEARS OF AGE % of Population 100-80-60' 1*0-20" EDUCATION 1 1 No 1-2 yrs. 3 and + university university y e a r 6 university 100" 80 % of Population 60' 20' LL <i LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN AREA 1-2 3-5 6-9 10 years YEARS TABLE #2 SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VANCOUVER HEIGHTS LOCAL AREA AND VHCC MEMBERS SOURCE: V a n c o u v e r L o c a l A r e a s 1971-1981; p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h VHCC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . 54 THE WEST END •West End Local Area 50-to' % of Population 30 2CH 10 West End T r a f f i c Committee AGE XX 1 0^ 9 10-19 20-29 30-39 ko-ki 50-59 60-69 YEARS OF AGE i 1 l 70 + 100. 80-60-to-20-No EDUCATION n I 1-2 yrs. 3 and + university university years university % of Population 100-80 60 to 20 LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN AREA h n 1 .1-2 3-5 6-9 10 YEARS TABLE #3 SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WEST END LOCAL. AREA AND WEST END TRAFFIC COMMITTEE MEMBERS SOURCE: V a n c o u v e r L o c a l A r e a s 1971-1981; p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h WETC r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  Both Shaughnessy and the West End have a wide range i n the ages of p a r t i c i p a n t s ; the West End has strong senior c i t i z e n representation. Vancouver Heights has a narrow age range. With respect to the remaining v a r i a b l e s , i n general, the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l three groups were bet t e r educated and resi d e d i n the area longer than other area r e s i d e n t s . Shaughnessy's p a r t i c i p a n t s r e f l e c t the community most with regard t o education and length of residence; the West End p a r t i c i p a n t s r e f l e c t t h e i r community l e a s t on these two v a r i a b l e s . The stronger p a r t i c i p a t i o n of o l d e r residents i n Vancouver Heights and Shaughnessy i s not s u r p r i s i n g . I t i s more expensive t o l i v e i n these b e t t e r q u a l i t y , s i n g l e family neighborhoods, and income i s generally r e l a t e d t o both age and education. These cases suggest that neighborhood t r a f f i c management planning p a r t i c i p a n t s have a 'stake' i n t h e i r neighborhood, and may be p a r t i c i p a t i n g t o ensure that t h e i r q u a l i t y of l i f e i s maintained. RESIDENTIAL IXXZATION The maps on the f o l l o w i n g pages i l l u s t r a t e the r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n of the group members. 56 f 7 FIGURE #6 RESIDENTIAL LOCATION OF PRO-TRAFFIC CONTROLS COMMITTEE MEMBERS N SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r SCALE 1" = 4 00' I 400 ROD 57 Barrier Barrier Barrier I Barrier I Barr l e r 577 OXFORD ST d 585 DUNOAS ST o TRIUMPH 586 ^ o PANOORA 587 ST • ST st/r ^ JOHN FRANKLIN fS O FRANKLIN 588 * ST. HASTINGS 590 ST D N FIGURE #7 RESIDENTIAL LOCATION OF VANCOUVER HEIGHTS CITIZENS COMMITTEE MEMBERS O SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r SCALE 1--1QQM 4 0 0 , 8 0 0 58 FIGURE #8 RESIDENTIAL LOCATION OF WEST END TRAFFIC COMMITTEE MEMBERS O SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r SCALE l " = 6 0 0 ' firm . i-ann SYMBOLS / E x i s t i n g d i v e r t e r / New d i v e r t e r = M i n i - p a r k • T r a f f i c c i r c l e A T r a f f i c i s l a n d & C u l - d e - s a c 59 T r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices were i n s t a l l e d w i t h i n one block of the great majority of Shaughnessy p a r t i c i p a n t s , and a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s i d e on s t r e e t s which had high t r a f f i c volumes. With the exception of one Vancouver Heights C i t i z e n s ' Committee member who resided i n Burnaby (and l i a i s e d with the Burnaby Heights C i t i z e n s ' Committee), the same holds f o r Vancouver Heights. In the West End, many members reside d on Nelson Street, which was and s t i l l i s perceived as a s t r e e t with excessive t r a f f i c flows. As i n Vancouver Heights, one member resided outside the case study area. In contrast with the other two areas, the West End NTM plan appears t o have more coverage, b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the e n t i r e area. THE PROCESS In order to define the problem, develop a plan and obtain community support f o r i t , the groups undertook numerous a c t i v i t i e s . ACTIVITIES OF THE SHAUGHNESSY PTCC This small neighborhood group met as required between mid 1980 and 1982. Group meetings were not formally p u b l i c i z e d but arranged by telephone with members c a l l i n g each other, as w e l l as i n v i t i n g other residents of the area when discussions s p e c i f i c t o the area were t o occur. Other a c t i v i t i e s included door to door p e t i t i o n i n g , attending meetings with Council members, and sending delegations to Council and Committees of Council. There was moderate i n t e r a c t i o n between the PTCC and representatives of the C i t y Engineering department i n the development of s o l u t i o n s to the t r a f f i c problems, but l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n with C i t y Planning 60 deportment representatives. I t was noted that extensive Planning depart-ment involvement was present i n the development of the F i r s t Shaughnessy O f f i c i a l Development Plan, where the t r a f f i c problem was discussed and formally recognized by Council, In terms o f i n t e r a c t i o n with other neighborhood groups, the PTCC l i a i s e d with the SHPOA and kept t h i s A s s o c i a t i o n apprised of i t s a c t i v i t i e s . The SHPOA supported the goals and the a c t i v i t i e s of the Committee. The PTCC a l s o promoted i t s viewpoint with known members of the opposition Ban the B a r r i e r s group r e s i d i n g i n proximity to the proposed sol u t i o n s . Following the i n s t a l l a t i o n of the t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices, the Committee c i r c u l a t e d a brochure o u t l i n i n g the evolution of the plan and i l l u s t r a t i n g closures and a l t e r n a t e routes. ACTIVITIES OF THE VANCOUVER HEIGHTS CITIZENS' OTMMITTEE The VHCC, a small neighborhood committee, held meetings i n members' hemes or a t the community school i n the evenings on an as required b a s i s . Although the p u b l i c meetings were p u b l i c i z e d by f l y e r s dropped to homes, the majority of meetings were arranged by telephone. One group member worked f o r a l o c a l newspaper and wrote an a r t i c l e on the barricades i n the Vancouver Heights neighborhood. A blockade conducted received extensive media coverage. The VHCC had considerable i n t e r a c t i o n with t h e i r l i a i s o n Alderperson, and noted tha t t h i s was a p o s i t i v e way of keeping the p o l i t i c i a n s informed of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . The group a l s o made a presentation t o the B.C. M i n i s t e r of Highways, the Mayors of Vancouver, West Vancouver, North Vancouver, the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, Burnaby, 61 and two Vancouver alderpersons. With respect to l i a i s o n with other groups, the VHCC l i a i s e d with the Burnaby Heights C i t i z e n s ' Committee and the Hastings Sunrise C i t i z e n s ' Planning Committee. The Burnaby Heights C i t i z e n s ' Committee was formed approximately the same time as the VHCC and f o r the same reason. These two groups worked c l o s e l y together. The VHCC kept the Hastings-Sunrise Committee apprised of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and received t h e i r support, but these groups worked independently of each other. There was no d i r e c t involvement with the C i t y Planning department, apart from communication through the Hastings-Sunrise group; numerous meetings occurred between the VHCC and the C i t y Engineering department. As only the measures approved i n September 1979 were implemented, the p u b l i c p r o f i l e of t h i s group was l i m i t e d t o a short period of time, although i t continued t o meet i n t o 1983. ACTIVITIES OF THE WEST END TRAFFIC COMMITTEE The WETC was i n i t i a l l y comprised of eighteen people — area residents and representatives o f West End organizations. A core group of seven evolved and t h i s number remained stable over the f i v e years t h i s Crjmmittee was a c t i v e , despite annual n o t i f i c a t i o n of each of the former members. A l i s t of approximately two hundred f i f t y names of supporters was developed through WETC a c t i v i t i e s , with f i f t y t o one hundred of these p a r t i c i p a t i n g when requested. The WETC met the f i r s t and t h i r d Monday evenings of each month a t a neighborhood house located a t the corner of Nelson and Bidwell,,Streets. Many of the meetings were p u b l i c i z e d i n the West Ender, a l o c a l newspaper. Other a c t i v i t i e s included: 62 - d e l i v e r i n g informational f l y e r s - conducting p r o t e s t marches - w r i t i n g and submitting b r i e f s t o C i t y Council and Committees o f Council - p l a c i n g advertisements i n the l o c a l newspaper - :writing over f o r t y l e t t e r s and a r t i c l e s f o r the l o c a l newspaper - conducting t r a f f i c and pedestrian counts - conducting p u b l i c meetings - p o l l i n g l o c a l mayoralty and aldermanic candidates f o r t h e i r p o s i t i o n on NTM planning - appearing on t h i r t y t o f i f t y hours o f community t e l e v i s i o n promoting TS 2 - l i a i s o n with C i t y Planning and Engineering department s t a f f The Chairperson of the WETC noted th a t the extensive p u b l i c i z a t i o n and media a c t i v i t y was t o ensure p u b l i c awareness and to prevent a l l e g a t i o n s of s e c r e t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . ANALYSIS To enable comparison among groups, a t a b l e has been developed. The minus signs i n d i c a t e that the a c t i v i t y was not undertaken;plus signs i n d i c a t e that the a c t i v i t y was engaged i n , with more than one plus sign i n d i c a t i n g greater emphasis on the a c t i v i t y or the use of numerous approaches to accomplish t h i s a c t i v i t y . 63 PROCESS INDICATORS PTCC VHCC WETC 1) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of groups — -:•++ 2) use of various c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n techniques - + -H-3) p u b l i c i z a t i o n of committee meetings - ++ 4) p u b l i c i z a t i o n of p u b l i c meetings - + ++ 5) timing/location of meetings - + 6) i n t e r a c t i o n with other community groups + + ++ 7) i n t e r a c t i o n with c i v i c s t a f f / o f f i c i a l s + ++ •>+ 8) use of media, p u b l i c communication + ++ •:•+++ TABLE #4 A C T I V I T I E S IN GROUP PLANNING PROCESSES SOURCE: P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h g r o u p r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ... The WETC d i d the most of the three groups to increase community awareness of and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the preparation of the NTM plan. The VHCC has a mixed record; the Shaughnessy PTCC d i d not make any attempts to increase p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and prepared and d i s t r i b u t e d a brochure on the problem and the s o l u t i o n only a f t e r the NTM plan was implemented. However, the opposition group worked d i l i g e n t l y to secure continued media coverage, ensuring that both the neighborhood and the c i t y was aware of the problem. CX3MMITTEE PERCEPTIONS ON THE PROCESS AND THE PLAN Committee members interviewed were a l s o questioned regarding t h e i r 64 perceptions of the process, the r o l e of the C i t y , and the implemented NTM plan. These questions were included t o provide subjective information on the i n d i v i d u a l NTM planning processes, the perceived e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the NTM plan i n addressing neighborhood concerns, and the perceptions of the r o l e of c i v i c s t a f f and o f f i c i a l s . This subjective information i s intended to complement the ob j e c t i v e information: the process i n d i c a t o r s , t r a f f i c counts and c i v i c p o l i c i e s and guidelines, or lack thereof. SHAUGHNESSY - PERCEPTIONS OF THE PTCC 1) Neighborhood T r a f f i c Management Planning Process The PTCC stated that the r o l e of a l o c a l government should be to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l i v a b i l i t y concerns and address these concerns. The ad hoc approach t o NTM was deemed inadequate i n the long term, and unsuitable f o r neighborhoods adjacent t o a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s . The Chair-person i n d i c a t e d that longer term tran s p o r t a t i o n planning had not been adequate to ensure that s u f f i c i e n t a r t e r i a l capacity e x i s t e d to prevent t r a f f i c f i l t r a t i o n through neighborhoods. I t was a l s o suggested that the C i t y be d i v i d e d i n t o neighborhood u n i t s (smaller than the current l o c a l area planning areas) and as problems a r i s e or are a n t i c i p a t e d , planning f o r neighborhood needs i n conjunction with planning f o r a r t e r i a l c a p a c i t i e s , should occur. 2) Implemented Neighborhood T r a f f i c Management Plan The i n i t i a l plan, comprised of d i v e r t e r s was not viewed as the optimal s o l u t i o n by the Committee, but was seen as a f i r s t attempt a t s o l v i n g a d i f f i c u l t problem. The Committee recognized that the d i v e r t e r s completely obstructed t r a f f i c and were antagonistic to many 65 motorists. The i n s t a l l a t i o n o f the d i v e r t e r s i n advance of improvements to the a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s compounded t h i s antagonism. The reduction o f the t r i a l p eriod t o four months from s i x was supported by the Committee and the compromise plan was f e l t to be a more appropriate s o l u t i o n . The residents i n the case study area have adjusted t o the plan, and the t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices are perceived to have made an e x c e l l e n t improvement to the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the immediate area, despite some non-compliance. Improvements t o si g n a l s a t adjacent i n t e r s e c t i o n s are now i n place and delay and congestion i s perceived to be minor. Although some residents have been forced to a l t e r t h e i r routes, t h i s d i s r u p t i o n i s a l s o perceived as minor, i n contrast with major b e n e f i t s t o the o v e r a l l community. VANCOUVER HEIGHTS - PERCEPTIONS OF THE VHCC 1) Neighborhood T r a f f i c Management Planning Process This group i n d i c a t e d t y p i c a l perceptions o f the Planning and Engineering departments: the planners were seen t o be responsive t o the l i v a b i l i t y concerns of the neighborhood; the engineers focused on 'moving cars'. The Engineering department was a l s o c r i t i c i z e d f o r t h e i r emphasis on the q u a l i t y of s t r e e t s and sewers, rather than the q u a l i t y of l i f e . There was a l s o general d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the C i t y ' s i n a b i l i t y to carry out i t s motions, as they were intended to be c a r r i e d out. The Chairperson noted the u t i l i t y of the l i a i s o n alderperson and suggested that t h i s be continued i n a l l such neighborhood processes. I t was a l s o suggested that the lack of p o s i t i v e response from the C i t y f r u s t r a t e d many c i t i z e n s and that the C i t y should undertake a survey to determine why those who p a r t i c i p a t e stop p a r t i c i p a t i n g . The Chairperson 66 a l s o stated t h a t the needs of the taxpayer f o r a safe, l i v a b l e environment should be a major concern f o r a l o c a l government and should not require c i t i z e n p r o t e s t to force r e s o l u t i o n of a long recognized problem. 2) Implemented Neighborhood T r a f f i c Management Plan The Chairperson stated that the barricades on F r a n k l i n , Pandora, Triumph, Oxford and Dundas had a l l e v i a t e d t r a f f i c conditions on these s t r e e t s , y e t was d i s s a t i s f i e d with the l i m i t e d nature of these measures and t h e i r r e d i s t r i b u t i v e e f f e c t s . The VHCC does not perceive a diniinished t r a f f i c flow i n the neighborhood — the volume of through t r a f f i c remains unacceptably high and i s now concentrated onto Cambridge and Skeena Streets. This group awaits a long term s o l u t i o n — one of the Cassiar connector options, and hopes tha t the Vancouver Heights neighborhood can remain v i a b l e i n the interim. THE WEST END - PERCEPTIONS OF THE WETC 1) Neighborhood T r a f f i c Management Planning Process The WETC perceived a general l a c k of d i r e c t i o n , commitment and understanding of neighborhood t r a f f i c management and t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices on the p a r t of the c i v i c s t a f f and el e c t e d representatives. The Chairperson noted th a t l i v a b i l i t y does not seem to be recognized by p o l i t i c i a n s as a legitimate neighborhood concern. A philosophy favoring greater neighborhood c o n t r o l of an area, based on q u a l i t a t i v e as w e l l as q u a n t i t a t i v e f a c t o r s , was a suggested improvement to the process. The Chairperson a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t the ad hoc nature of NTM planning detracts from both e f f i c i e n c y and effe c t i v e n e s s of transportation planning, but w i l l not be replaced by longer term or o v e r a l l transportation 67 planning u n t i l greater leadership and a c t i o n i s displayed by el e c t e d o f f i c i a l s . Reaction to neighborhood ccmplaints was perceived as the current procedure. A power d i v i s i o n between the Planning and Engineering departments was described. The dominance of the Engineering department and t h e i r r e l i a n c e on qu a n t i t a t i v e measures provides the el e c t e d representatives biased information. To balance t h i s , very organized, v o c a l , c i t i z e n s groups are required t o put f o r t h a q u a l i t a t i v e , environmental p o s i t i o n . I t was suggested that c i t i z e n s ' involvement should be l i m i t e d t o providing neighborhood input, rather than developing and promoting plans. 2) Implemented Neighborhood T r a f f i c Management Plan Although the WETC perceives improvements with respect t o t r a f f i c d i s r u p t i o n s i n the West End, i t was in d i c a t e d that the work was only p a r t i a l l y complete. The e f f o r t s were h a l t e d i n 1983, due both t o group fa t i g u e and the development of an anti-WETC group. However, t h i s i n t e r l u d e was of a temporary nature. The group has i d e n t i f i e d the following areas r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r work: 1) lane : p r o t e c t i o n 2) p r o t e c t i o n of Burnaby, Comox, Nelson and J e r v i s Streets 3) downgrading of Denman, Robson, Davie and Beach Avenues, thereby reducing t h e i r t r a f f i c volumes. The WETC met again i n November 1985. DISCUSSION OF CASES The small s i z e s of the three groups studied provides only an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r representativeness of the ccmmunity. With respect to s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the group members are generally b e t t e r educated 68 and has resided i n the area longer than the community as a whole. When analyzing r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n , i t appears th a t neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices were located i n proximity t o members homes i n a l l cases. The purpose of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s to define problems i n areas and develop solutions t h a t are appropriate t o both the problem and the area. As c i t i z e n s r e s i d i n g c l o s e t o a problem are both more l i k e l y to be aware of i t and b e t t e r able to develop s o l u t i o n s , many of the devices should n a t u r a l l y be located near p a r t i c i p a n t s . Nevertheless, neighborhood t r a f f i c management plans generally require a combination of devices, and p o s s i b l y s t r a t e g i e s , and i n t e r a c t i o n with other neighborhood groups and c i v i c s t a f f help t o i d e n t i f y these and incorporate them i n t o an o v e r a l l plan. A l l groups in t e r a c t e d with e x i s t i n g groups and c i v i c s t a f f and o f f i c i a l s . The amount of e f f o r t made t o increase both awareness and represent-ativeness v a r i e s . The Shaughnessy group perceived t h e i r problem as a neighborhood problem and d i d not see the need to involve others. Generally, t h i s holds true f o r the Vancouver Heights group, although t h i s group d i d use the media t o r a i s e awareness. The West End group defined t h e i r problem as one a f f e c t i n g the e n t i r e COTimunity and hence t h e i r emphasis on both a plan with complete community coverage, and the emphasis on ccaranunity awareness and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A l l groups perceived the ad hoc nature of NTM planning t o be inadequate and a l l c a l l e d f o r more c i v i c a c t i o n , d i r e c t i o n and commitment. The groups a l l f e l t that neighborhood l i v a b i l i t y was a concern of a municipal government and c a l l e d f o r long range transportation planning to be done i n conjunction with NTM planning. Two of the groups ind i c a t e d that greater emphasis should be given t o neighborhood input. 69 CHAPTER FIVE 70 ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONSIDERATIONS INTRODUCTION In order t o provide obj e c t i v e information regarding the eff e c t i v e n e s s of the implemented NTM plans and e f f e c t s on adjacent a r t e r i a l s , t h i s chapter w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e the t r a f f i c plans implemented i n the three case study areas. In Vancouver, both p h y s i c a l and operational t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices are used and applied a t both the periphery of the neighborhood and wi t h i n i t . The C i t y has developed a guideline f o r t r a f f i c volumes i n r e s i d e n t i a l neighborhoods. This guideline i s 1000 v e h i c l e s per day (vpd) f o r s i n g l e family areas and has been developed f o r Vancouver through years of experience with Vancouver neighborhoods. 1000 vpd appears t o be the volume a t which residents perceive t r a f f i c as being unsafe, noisy or d i s r u p t i v e . 3000 vpd i s the guideline f o r m u l t i p l e - u n i t dwelling areas. No s i m i l a r g u i d e l i n e e x i s t s f o r lanes. METHODS USED Implementation of a neighborhood t r a f f i c management plan, i f e f f e c t i v e , should reduce t r a f f i c and r e l a t e d e x t e r n a l i t i e s i n the neighborhood by f o r c i n g t r a f f i c back onto a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s . In order to inv e s t i g a t e the occurrence o f t h i s , and any impacts i t may have on the operational e f f i c i e n c y , t r a f f i c volumes within the neighborhood and a t nearby a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s were examined. Int e r s e c t i o n counts were used rather than a r t e r i a l counts because i n urban areas, i n t e r s e c t i o n capacity i s the major f a c t o r l i m i t i n g t r a f f i c flow on a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s . In an attempt to o f f s e t any d i f f i c u l t i e s a t a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c , i n t e r s e c t i o n improvements 71 are often made i n conjunction with the implementation of the NTM plan. The C i t y of Vancouver Engineering department conducts i n t e r -s e ction counts during a.m. and p.m. peak periods. Due t o the expense of manually c o l l e c t i n g these counts, they are generally performed every two years f o r most a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s . T r a f f i c counts are conducted more frequently only i f the i n t e r s e c t i o n i s under study, or the subject of complaint or controversy. As each two hour peak perio d count represents only one sample of a po s s i b l e 365, the counts are adjusted f o r day of week and time of year. This adjustment enables comparison between, f o r example, a Tuesday i n February and a Friday i n J u l y . A l l counts are conducted on weekdays. The counts are a compilation of movements a t each l e g of the i n t e r s e c t i o n . The north l e g f i g u r e s represent t r a f f i c which i s south bound when entering the i n t e r s e c t i o n and w i l l turn east or west, or continue southbound, as an example. T r a f f i c counts by l e g of i n t e r s e c t i o n form the b a s i s of t h i s a n a l y s i s . As numerous f a c t o r s influence both t r a f f i c volumes and routes used, the f i g u r e s and a n a l y s i s presented here can, a t best, serve as an i n d i c a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of the NTM plan. Unfortunately, no engineering studies have been undertaken by the C i t y of Vancouver t o determine the impact of NTM plans on the operational e f f i c i e n c y of nearby a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s . The C i t y has determined that the t y p i c a l r a t e of increase of t r a f f i c volumes on a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n Vancouver i s 2% per annum. This f i g u r e i s important when examining the increases i n i n t e r s e c t i o n volumes over time. For each i n t e r s e c t i o n , the date of implementation of the NTM 72 plan i s given, as well as the dates of the before and a f t e r counts, t o i l l u s t r a t e the amount of time both between counts and a f t e r implementation. As a s i x month perio d i s considered the norm f o r t r a f f i c adjustment t o routing changes, an i d e a l count period would be s h o r t l y before the implementation of the NTM plan, and approximately s i x months the r e a f t e r . Unfortunately, no such counts were a v a i l a b l e . A r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n counts, tabulated by i n t e r s e c t i o n l e g , were examined f o r : 1) change i n t r a f f i c volume by l e g 2) change i n t r a f f i c volume by i n t e r s e c t i o n 3) change i n proportion of t r a f f i c volume c a r r i e d by each l e g The l a t t e r t a b u l a t i o n was done to a i d i n d e p i c t i n g changes i n t r a f f i c patterns. A l l supporting t r a f f i c count table s are i n the Appendix. SHAUGHNESSY 1) The Neighborhood T r a f f i c Management Plan Apart from the four a r t e r i a l s d e f i n i n g the case study area, the remainder of the s t r e e t s are a l l l o c a l s t r e e t s . The t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s implemented are: - one t r a f f i c c i r c l e - one t r a f f i c i s l a n d ( p a r t i a l closure) - f i v e r e s t r i c t e d entrances i n t o the neighborhood - numerous stop signs The t r a f f i c c i r c l e i s located a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n o f s i x l o c a l s t r e e t s and i s intended t o force d r i v e r s to reduce t h e i r speed. Step signs placed on two of the l o c a l s t r e e t s a t the c i r c l e r e i n f o r c e t h i s e f f e c t . The t r a f f i c i s l a n d located on Pine Crescent a t 19th Avenue i s designed to 73 allow northbound t r a f f i c only, and a l s o has a stop sign. These two measures combined with the generous use of Stop signs are designed to reduce t r a f f i c speed and increase safety i n the neighborhood. The f i v e r e s t r i c t i o n s to entry are located a t the periphery of .the neighborhood. These measures are intended t o reduce the volume of t r a f f i c entering Shaughnessy — a goal which the t r a f f i c counts i n d i c a t e has been achieved. The NTM plan implemented i s depicted on the following page. 74 FIGURE #9 SHAUGHNESSY NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r SCALE IV = 400' , 400' , 800' 75 IDCATION BEFORE AFTER % CHANGE F a l l 1981 June 1982 Maple N/of 18th 1034 834 -19 17th W/of Cypress 159 158 .0 Cypress N/of Hosmer 4342*1 1334 -69 Cypress N/of 18th 135 : 817 +505 19th W/of Cypress 190 169 -11 Cypress N/of Matthews 4094 966 -76 Cedar Cres N/of 19th 4166 1007 -76 Pine N/of 17th 1764 1432 *2 -19 Pine Cres N/of Matthews 1239 504 -59 17th W/of F i r 428 308 -18 Pine Cres N/of Marpole 856 1075 +26 TOTAL 18407 8604 -53 *1 1980 f i g u r e *2 incomplete count -3 hours missing TABLE #5 SHAUGHNESSY NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC COUNTS SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ^ E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t The counts i n d i c a t e an o v e r a l l reduction of t r a f f i c i n the neighborhood by one-half. Before the implementation of the t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices only four of the twelve s t r e e t s had l e s s t r a f f i c than the 1000 vpd guid e l i n e . A f t e r implementation seven l o c a l s t r e e t s f e l l w i t h i n t h i s g u i d e l i n e , with two s t r e e t s narrowly excluded. Only two st r e e t s gained t r a f f i c , one remaining wi t h i n the 1000 vpd guideline, the other exceeding i t s l i g h t l y . Although the volumes on both of the st r e e t s which gained t r a f f i c are not large, they w i l l be perceived, a t l e a s t i n i t i a l l y , due to the magnitude of the increase. In sum, i t appears that t h i s NTM plan has been successful i n reducing t r a f f i c volumes i n the neighborhood, with minimal r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . 76 2) A r t e r i a l Intersections Changes i n some a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n flow i n t o the Shaughnessy area r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o the implementation of the NTM plan. They are e a s i l y v i s i b l e f o r these reasons: 1) Shaughnessy's singular land use: r e s i d e n t i a l — there are no other uses i n the area t o a t t r a c t motorists; 2) the NTM plan was designed t o eliminate through t r a f f i c that was p r i m a r i l y northbound i n the a.m. peak and southbound i n the p.m. peak. The following i n t e r s e c t i o n s were analyzed: 1) Burrard and 16th 2) G r a n v i l l e and 16th 3) Arbutus and 16th 4) G r a n v i l l e and King Edward 5) Arbutus and King Edward Burrard and 16th, being clos e d completely t o southbound t r a f f i c and r e s t r i c t e d to northbound t r a f f i c was a f f e c t e d most d i r e c t l y , and warrants f u r t h e r discussion. With the intr o d u c t i o n of a t r a f f i c i s l a n d on the southside of Burrard S t r e e t a t 16th, t h i s i n t e r s e c t i o n b a s i c a l l y changed from a t r a d i t i o n a l four l e g i n t e r s e c t i o n t o a T i n t e r s e c t i o n . Southbound t r a f f i c was forced to turn east or west and continue the southbound journey on a nearby a r t e r i a l . Changes made on King Edward made access i n t o Shaughnessy d i f f i c u l t , r e s u l t i n g i n p r i m a r i l y l o c a l t r a f f i c entering Burrard S t r e e t a t the Burrard and 16th Avenue i n t e r s e c t i o n . This low l e v e l of northbound t r a f f i c f a c i l i t a t e d the forced l e f t t u r n movements of southbound t r a f f i c . In ad d i t i o n , a l e f t turn advance s i g n a l was added a t t h i s 77 i n t e r s e c t i o n . With the exception of the s l i g h t decreases i n north and south bound v e h i c l e s , the proportions of t r a f f i c i n each l e g remained r e l a t i v e l y constant. O v e r a l l changes i n a.m. and p.m. peak i n t e r s e c t i o n volumes are indi c a t e d below: A.M. P.M. INTEPSECnCN BEFORE AFTER % CHANGE BEFORE AFTER % CHANGE YEAR OF COUNT BURRARD & 16til 2287 2177 -5 2527 2481 -2 1981,1982 GRANVTT.TiR & 16th 4207 4596 +9 4964 5022 +1 1980,1982 ARBUTUS & 16th 2676 2732 +2 3130 3113, 0 1981,1982 GRANVILLE & KING EDWARD 5056 5021 0 4894 4949 +1 1981,1983 ARBUTUS & KING EDWARD 2796 2517 TIO 3112 3496 +12 1978,1982 TABLE #6 SHAUGHNESSY ARTERIAL INTERSECTION COUNTS SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t As the standard rate of increase i n t r a f f i c volumes f o r i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n Vancouver i s approximately 2% per annum, few of the above i n t e r s e c t i o n s are cause f o r concern. The a.m. increase a t G r a n v i l l e and 16th i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t r a f f i c o r i g i n a t i n g east of G r a n v i l l e and a po s s i b l e s h i f t of former Shaughnessy through t r a f f i c . The Arbutus and King Edward counts can be p a r t i a l l y ••: explained by the four year gap between counts, but a l s o by probable rerouting of former through t r a f f i c . The a.m. decrease a t Arbutus and s King Edward, the l i t t l e change a t G r a n v i l l e and King Edward and the decrease a t Burrard and 16th suggest that seme of the t r a f f i c o r i g i n a t i n g from the south or west of Shaughnessy chose a l t e r n a t e routes t o 78 Vancouver's c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t . The p a r t i a l closure of the one s t r e e t through Shaughnessy, and corresponding a r t e r i a l improvements appear t o have increased the operational e f f i c i e n c y of the i n t e r s e c t i o n a t Burrard and 16th. This appears to have been achieved without overloading other nearby •. i n t e r s e c t i o n s . In sum, the plan i n Shaughnessy appears to have achieved a good balance between meeting the q u a l i t y of l i f e and environmental standards desir e d by the area residents without causing serious d i s r u p t i o n s t o t r a f f i c flow on nearby a r t e r i a l s . VANCOUVER HEIGHTS 1) Neighborhood T r a f f i c Management Plan Cassiar and Hastings Streets are c l a s s i f i e d as a r t e r i a l s ; the remaining s t r e e t s are l o c a l . The t r a f f i c devices implemented were d i v e r t e r s a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of each l o c a l s t r e e t and Cassiar, as depicted on the following page. The d i v e r t e r s eliminated a l l through t r a f f i c from these s t r e e t s — approximately 6000 vpd. 2) A r t e r i a l Intersections Vancouver Heights, l i k e Shaughnessy, i s generally a r e s i d e n t i a l area. I t s land uses are somewhat more diverse, with two convenience stores and a ccmmunity school i n the neighborhood, and the Hastings St r e e t commercial s t r i p on i t s southern f r i n g e . I t s boundaries are c l e a r l y defined on a l l sides except east where the d i v i s i o n i s p o l i t i c a l rather than by an a r t e r i a l s t r e e t o r change i n land use. Vancouver Heights' small s i z e and simple NTM plan a l s o makes f o r r e l a t i v e l y v i s i b l e changes i n a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n t r a f f i c volumes, 79 x \ \ < / ' ' I ' / ' ST, I t ? ; Barrier Barrier Barrier B a r r i e r I Barri er 576 -577 585 TRIUMPH 586 *) PANDORA 587 SIR g JOHN FRANKLIN es g FRANKLIN 588 * HASTINGS 590 OUNDAS • ST ST ST C A M B R I D G E S T O X F O R D S T ST 31 a ST N FIGURE #10 VANCOUVER HEIGHTS NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r SCALE 1" = 400' i 4 0 0 800 80 changes which r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o the in t r o d u c t i o n of the t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices. The following i n t e r s e c t i o n s were analyzed: 1) Cambridge and Skeena 2) Boundary and Cambridge 3) Boundary and Hastings 4) Cassiar and Hastings Only the l a s t i n t e r s e c t i o n i s t r u l y an a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n ; however, the others function as a r t e r i a l s with high t r a f f i c volumes. As i n Shaughnessy, one i n t e r s e c t i o n more than others depicts the t r a f f i c flow changes, and i n t h i s case, the numbers r e i n f o r c e the perceptions of the VHCC with regard t o the e f f e c t of t h e i r NTM plan. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the t r a f f i c d i v e r t e d from the l o c a l s t r e e t s should be d i v e r t e d p r i m a r i l y through the Cambridge and Skeena i n t e r s e c t i o n , then t o Cambridge and Boundary, Boundary and Hastings and l a s t l y t o Cassiar and Hastings. As the congestion a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Cassiar and Hastings r e s u l t e d i n t r a f f i c s h o r t - c u t t i n g through Vancouver Heights i n i t i a l l y , i t i s u n l i k e l y that ccmmuters w i l l automatically return to i t once l o c a l s t r e e t s are barricaded. I t i s more l i k e l y t h a t the a l t e r n a t e routes mentioned above w i l l be used. O v e r a l l changes i n a.m. and p.m. peak period i n t e r s e c t i o n volumes are in d i c a t e d on the following page. 81 INTERSECTICN BEFORE AFTER % CHANGE BEFORE AFTER % CHANGE YEAR OF COUNT CAMBRIDGE & SKEENA 629 ."' 1344 +114 1132 1486 +31 1973,1980 BOUNDARY & CAMBRIDGE 793 1281 +62 1093 1223 +12 July,Nov. 1979 BOUNDARY & HASTINGS 3286 3582 +9 3588 3937 +10 1978,1980 CASSIAR & HASTINGS 6031 6113 +1 6472 7780 +20 1978,1979 TABLE #7 VANCOUVER HEIGHTS ARTERIAL INTERSECTION COUNTS SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t Unfortunately, the large gap between counts taken a t Cambridge and Skeena skew the percentages of increase somewhat. I f the 2% per annum increase i s applied, the increase over the seven year peri o d should be i n the order of 17%. As n e i t h e r Cambridge nor Skeena are a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s , the 2% per annum r a t e may be high, but w i l l be used here i n the absence of a better adjustment f a c t o r . The r e s u l t i n g 97% increase i n a.m. t r a f f i c and 14% increase i n p.m. t r a f f i c suggest that the a f t e r t r a f f i c volumes a t t h i s i n t e r s e c t i o n are the r e s u l t of more than normal increases i n t r a f f i c volumes. The majority of t r a f f i c increase a t t h i s i n t e r s e c t i o n i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the north and east legs of the i n t e r s e c t i o n i n both the a.m. and p.m. peak periods. This suggests th a t the t r a f f i c d i v e r t e d from the barricaded l o c a l s t r e e t s concentrated a t the Cambridge and Skeena i n t e r s e c t i o n . In sum, the i n t e r s e c t i o n a t Hastings and Cassiar i s the only a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h i n t h i s case study and i t s problems with regard to operational e f f i c i e n c y are w e l l documented. However, ..the impact on t h i s i n t e r s e c t i o n of b a r r i c a d i n g a l l l o c a l s t r e e t s abutting Cassiar cannot be estimated. The increases i n t r a f f i c volumes a t the 82 other important i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n the area, are greater than normal (using the 2% r a t e ) , suggesting that these i n t e r s e c t i o n s are serving t o a l l e v i a t e congestion by d i s t r i b u t i n g t r a f f i c . Further t o t h i s point, the heavy use of these i n t e r s e c t i o n s w i t h i n the neighborhood i n d i c a t e t h a t the NTM plan f a i l e d to achieve a balance between environmental considerations i n the area, and operational e f f i c i e n c y . C e r t a i n l y the f i v e barricaded s t r e e t s have b e n e f i t t e d from the e l i m i n a t i o n of through t r a f f i c , but i t s subsequent s h i f t t o other s t r e e t s suggests th a t the o v e r a l l community has not gained from the implementation of the plan. THE WEST END 1) The Neighborhood T r a f f i c Management Plan A r t e r i a l s t r e e t s form the boundary of the case study area; a l l other s t r e e t s are l o c a l s t r e e t s . T r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices i n the West End were implemented i n a comprehensive manner — each s t r e e t i n the case study area received one or more devices: 1) D i v e r t e r s — two d i v e r t e r s are located a t Pendrell and Bute, and Broughton and Harwocd. (Two previously i n s t a l l e d d i v e r t e r s are located a t Cardero and Haro, and a t Pendrell and B i d w e l l ) . 2) Mini-parks — s i x mini-parks are located a t : - Bute and Haro - J e r v i s and Burnaby - Broughton and Nelson l - N i c o l a and Pendrell - Cardero and Comox - Cardero and Burnaby 83 These mini-parks are one-half block i n length, ending a t the lane. There i s an a d d i t i o n a l h a l f mini-park located a t N i c o l a and Harwood, serving t o r e s t r i c t northbound access i n t o the neighborhood. 3) T r a f f i c c i r c l e s — f i v e t r a f f i c c i r c l e s are locate a t : - J e r v i s and Haro - J e r v i s and Nelson - J e r v i s and Comox - Broughton and Barclay - Bidwell and Nelson„ 4) T r a f f i c i s l a n d s — three t r a f f i c i s l a n d s are located a t the eastern boundary of the case study area t o r e s t r i c t entry i n t o the West End. They are located a t : - Thurlow and Bute - Thurlow and Comox - Thurlow and Burnaby 5) One cul-de-sac i s located on Bute a t Burnaby. The NTM plan implemented i n the West End i s depicted on the following page. 84 1 1 J D J J D J 3 " i.tC CEOHGE HARO ST u LOW 605 6Pg | I NELSON > _ 607 ROBERTS £. S. ANNEX LOftO ROBERTS £ S. 609 PENDRELL OAVIE ST. 6/.? ( W 1 £ ST. 6/J BURN AST FIGURE #11 WEST END NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r SCALE i» SYMBOLS = 600 600 1200 / E x i s t i n g d i v e r t e r / New d i v e r t e r = M i n i - p a r k • T r a f f i c c i r c l e A T r a f f i c i s l a n d C u l - d e - s a c 85 The following t r a f f i c counts show that despite some r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c i n t o the lanes, the volume of t r a f f i c has been reduced by approximately 17%. LOCATION BEFORE AFTER % CHANGE South of Davie Cardero S/of Davie 2319 973 -58 Burnaby W/of J e r v i s 1490 1689 +13 Harwood W/of J e r v i s 1798 818 -55 Broughton N/of Harwood 1217 565 -54 J e r v i s N/of Harwood 4143 851 -79 N i c o l a S/of Davie 2046 2315 +13 Broughton S/of Davie 2479 2458 0 J e r v i s S/of Davie 3856 3192 -17 Sub-total 19348 12861 -34 Lanes S/of Davie,W/of Cardero 863 601 -30 S/of Davie,E/of Cardero 411 575 +40 N/of Harwood, W/of J e r v i s 268 719 +168 N/of Harwood, E/of J e r v i s 458 551 +20 Sub-total 2000 2446 +22 North of Davie Broughton N/of Comox 2487 587 -76 Ccmox W/of J e r v i s 1935 2287 +18 J e r v i s S/of Comox 4328 6860 +59 J e r v i s N/of Davie 5630 6699 +19 Pendre l l W/of Thurlow 1013 1378 +36 Bute S/of Pendr e l l 9003 4694 -48 Pendrell W/of J e r v i s 4972 2493 -50 Cardero N/of Pendr e l l 2564 790 -69 Sub-total 31932 25788 -19 Lanes N/of Ccmox, W/of Broughton 176 321 +82 N/of Ccmox, E/of Broughton 382 591 +55 N/of Davie, W/of J e r v i s 666 1011 +52 N/of Davie, E/of J e r v i s 1833 3134 +71 N/of Davie, W/of N i c o l a 765 601 -21 N/of Davie, E/of N i c o l a 589 971 +65 Sub-total 4411 6629 +50 TOTALS 57691 47724 -17 TABLE #8 WEST END NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC COUNTS SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t 86 In the sub-area south of Davie before the implementation of the NTM plan, a l l e i g h t s t r e e t s i n t h i s sub-area exceeded the 1000 vpd g u i d e l i n e . A f t e r implementation, only four exceeded i t . O v e r a l l , only two s t r e e t s gained t r a f f i c . The lanes i n the sub-area experienced an o v e r a l l increase of 22% with only one of the four lanes showing a decrease. When t r a f f i c counts i n the lanes and the s t r e e t s are combined, there i s an o v e r a l l decrease of 28%, representing 6041 vpd. In the area north of Davie Street, four of the e i g h t s t r e e t s experienced t r a f f i c decreases. Before the introduction of the NTM plan, a l l s t r e e t s exceeded the 1000 vpd guideline; afterwards, s i x of the e i g h t remained i n t h i s category. Of the s i x lanes i n t h i s sub-area, there was an increase of t r a f f i c of 50%. The t o t a l NTM plan decrease i n t r a f f i c volume of 17% represents 9967 v e h i c l e s per day. This i s a s i z e a b l e reduction but l e s s than a n t i c i p a t e d from a comprehensive, t o t a l neighborhood plan. The mini-parks add to the environmental q u a l i t y of the area while a l s o working to reduce t r a f f i c . However, the l i m i t e d success of t h i s NTM plan suggests that f u r t h e r study i s required. 2) A r t e r i a l Intersections The West End presents the most d i f f i c u l t problems with respect to the a n a l y s i s of t r a f f i c flows through a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s . I t s l o c a t i o n adjacent to the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t , Stanley Park, i t s high density, and d i v e r s i t y of land uses a l l contribute to heavy t r a f f i c flow i n the area, and t o obscuring the e f f e c t s of the t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices on nearby a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s . There are no i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n the West End which c l e a r l y d e p i c t any s h i f t of t r a f f i c as a r e s u l t of the NTM plan. Examination of the proportions of t r a f f i c 87 i n each l e g a f t e r the implementation of the plan do not help c l a r i f y the s i t u a t i o n . The i n t e r s e c t i o n s considered f o r a n a l y s i s are as follows: A.M. P.M. INTERSECTION BEFORE AFTER % CHANGE BEFORE AFTER % CHANGE YEAR OF COUNT THURLOW & ROBSON 3262 3455 +6 5404 5252 -3 1982,1984 THURLOW & DAVIE 1590 1393 -12 2365 2471 +4 1981,1983 DENMAN & BEACH 1395 2814 +101 1957 3186 +63 1982,1984 DENMAN & ROBSON 1658 1795 +8 1892 2042 +8 1981,1983 DENMAN & DAVIE 1476 2991 +103 1686 3275 +94 1982,1984 TABLE #9 WEST END ARTERIAL INTERSECTION COUNTS SOURCE: C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t Through examination of the above counts i n conjunction with the NTM plan, the following could be suggested: 1) Thurlow and Robson: the small a.m. increase may be due to the closure of Bute a t Haro (mini-park), f o r c i n g southbound t r a f f i c to use t h i s i n t e r s e c t i o n . As Thurlow i s a one-way s t r e e t (southbound), northbound t r a f f i c continues t o use an al t e r n a t e route. 2) Thurlow and Davie: the cul-de-sac a t Burnaby and Bute eliminates t h i s short-cut f o r southbound t r a f f i c , p o s s i b l y c o n t r i b u t i n g to the small p.m. increase. The a.m. decrease a t t h i s i n t e r s e c t i o n could be the r e s u l t of t r a f f i c remaining on Denman and Beach and using P a c i f i c Avenue. 3) Denman and Beach: no t r a f f i c c o n t r o l s were implemented a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n adjacent t o t h i s one — the large increase could be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o s e l e c t i o n of new routes. 88 4) Denman and Robson: the increases i n t r a f f i c a t t h i s i n t e r s e c t i o n may be due to the lack of r e s t r i c t i o n s a t the corner of Bidwell and Haro and a d i v e r t e r a t the corner of Cardero and Haro, i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n . By eliminate oncoming t r a f f i c , t h i s d i v e r t e r may a c t u a l l y f a c i l i t a t e westbound t r a f f i c using t h i s route to avoid the i n t e r s e c t i o n a t Denman and Robson. I t does work however, t o prevent s h o r t - c u t t i n g of northeast bound t r a f f i c . 5) Denman and David: the d i v e r t e r a t Bidwell and Pend r e l l has eliLminated t h i s short-cut t o the Denman-Davie i n t e r s e c t i o n , thereby c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the increase. However, no counts a t Bidwell and Pendrell are a v a i l a b l e t o support t h i s theory. Furthermore, the slow and lengthy implementation o f t h i s p l a n and the s e l e c t i v e use of temporary measures f u r t h e r complicate t h i s a n a l y s i s . Mthough seme temporary b a r r i e r s were i n s t a l l e d i n l a t e 1981, the construction of the complete plan was not completed u n t i l December 1982. For t h i s a n a l y s i s , a l l a f t e r counts were post 1982,- some of the before counts l i k e l y occurred during construction. As there were no a r t e r i a l improvements made i n conjunction with the implementation of the NTM plan, the magnitude of increases a t some of the i n t e r s e c t i o n s suggest that problems may e x i s t . However, a t t r i b u t i n g these increases to the NTM plan i s spurious. Undoubtedly, some r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c occurred — the magnitude and d i r e c t i o n of change cannot be determined frcm the f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e . In sum, the West End, despite i t s comprehensive NTM plan, appears to have been much more successful a t improving the environmental q u a l i t y of the area through the intr o d u c t i o n of mini-parks than by the reduction 89 of t r a f f i c . Unfortunately, e f f e c t s on the a r t e r i a l i n t e r s e c t i o n s can only be suggested. I t i s c l e a r however, tha t the large volumes of t r a f f i c a t these i n t e r s e c t i o n s w i l l r e s u l t i n continued through t r a f f i c i n the neighborhood unless more st r i n g e n t measures are introduced, or a r t e r i a l improvements are made. I t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t f u r t h e r study i s required. COMPARISON OF CASES The NTM plan i n Shaughnessy i s c l e a r l y the most successful a t achieving a balance between environmental areas and t r a f f i c operation considerations, with Vancouver Heights and the West End being l e s s successful. From these cases i t appears tha t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n achieving a balance are r e l a t e d t o : 1) density of development; 2) d i v e r s i t y of land uses; 3) l o c a t i o n of a r t e r i a l s ; 4) a r t e r i a l improvements. This c l o s e l y r e l a t e s to Buchanan's f i n d i n g s that the more diverse and intense the land uses are within an environmental area, the more a r t e r i a l l i n k s are required, and are more d i f f i c u l t to provide. Based on t h i s , the success o f the Shaughnessy plan i s due to i t s very low density, s i n g l e use, lack of a r t e r i a l s separating the area, and e f f e c t i v e a r t e r i a l improvements. Vancouver Heights f a l l s i n the middle: the mixed success of t h i s plan i s due b a s i c a l l y to inadequate a r t e r i a l improvements. The West End plan, with the l e a s t t r a f f i c reduction, had the highest density, the greatest d i v e r s i t y of land uses, a r t e r i a l separation of the area, and a lack of a r t e r i a l improvements. Furthermore, the 1000 vpd t r a f f i c volume guideline, and the 2% per annum r a t e of-increase::on.arterial i n t e r s e c t i o n s may have l i m i t e d 90 a p p l i c a t i o n to the West End, due p r i m a r i l y to the large population r e s i d i n g i n the area,, and the d i v e r s i t y of uses which a t t r a c t large numbers of residents from other areas o f the c i t y . As the neighborhood i s comprised l a r g e l y of m u l t i - u n i t dwellings, the 3000 vpd gui d e l i n e appears more a p p l i c a b l e . Furthermore, i t i s p o s s i b l e that a d d i t i o n a l a r t e r i a l l i n k s are required t o ca r r y the t r a f f i c generated by t h i s neighborhood. The C i t y of Vancouver Engineering department maintains that a r t e r i a l improvements were not made i n conjunction with the NTM plan, as they had no evidence that the t r a f f i c problem was caused by through t r a f f i c . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that the Vancouver Heights group recognized that t h e i r plan could not.be suc c e s s f u l u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t a r t e r i a l :. improvements were made t o provide the heavy commuter t r a f f i c flow with a safe and convenient a l t e r n a t i v e t o shor t - c u t t i n g through t h e i r neighborhood. The West End T r a f f i c Oxmittee, on the other hand, have begun pursuing t h e i r goal of fu r t h e r reducing access t o t h e i r neighborhood. Although lane p r o t e c t i o n involves small measures and has d i r e c t safety b e n e f i t s , the downgrading of the a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s w i l l l i k e l y r e s u l t i n worsening conditions w i t h i n the neighborhood. 91 CHAPTER SIX 92 CONCLUSIONS The t h e s i s studied the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of neighborhood t r a f f i c management planning i n achieving a balance between two competing objectives of urban transportation planning: a c c e s s i b i l i t y and environmental q u a l i t y . Three Vancouver neighborhoods with NTM plans served as case studies and conclusions are o f f e r e d with respect t o both the theory and the cases. The NTM planning process appears t o achieve a balance between a c c e s s i b i l i t y and l i v a b i l i t y . Environmental areas are defined and plans are developed which aim t o protect these areas and provide an a r t e r i a l network s u f f i c i e n t t o carry the e x i s t i n g volume of t r a f f i c . Those l i v i n g i n a f f e c t e d neighborhoods have become a major force i n the process and contribute t o the achievement of t h i s balance i n t h e i r r o l e s as consumers of transportation services and as residents of areas a f f e c t e d by t r a f f i c . The case studies corroborate the work done by Buchanan, emphasizing the existence of a definable, s p e c i f i c t r a f f i c volume, which, i f the environment i s t o be considered, i s the environmental capacity. I t a l s o supports Appleyard's a s s e r t i o n that perceptions of environmental capacity vary by c i t y and by communities wit h i n a c i t y . The environmental capacity considers the density of development and d i v e r s i t y of land uses and i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the e x i s t i n g or desired character of the environmental area. Buchanan's theory that the establishment of an environmental capacity determines the l e v e l of a c c e s s i b i l i t y , with subsequent requirements f o r improvements i n the a r t e r i a l network, i s a l s o supported by t h i s study. Greater density of development and i n t e n s i t y of land use was found to generate t r a f f i c volumes i n excess of those s t i p u l a t e d by the environmental 93 capacity. However, as Buchanan notes, the greater the l e v e l of development and a c t i v i t y , the more d i f f i c u l t the imposition of a needed a r t e r i a l l i n k becomes. Due t o the d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a f f i c and land use, Buchanan c a l l s f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of transportation and land use planning. This i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the development of long range area plans. However, the i n c r e a s i n g use of NTM planning, d i s t i n c t frcm o v e r a l l transportation planning, suggests that f i r s t the i n t e g r a t i o n of these two types of transportation planning i s required. Rather than conducting NTM planning as a r e a c t i o n t o neighborhood complaint, i t should be undertaken as an i n t e g r a l part of planning f o r transportation f a c i l i t i e s . The e c o l o g i c a l nature of t r a f f i c , where a change i n one p a r t of the system a f f e c t s other parts and where t r a f f i c s h i f t s continuously t o the most convenient routes, a l s o c a l l s f o r the coordinated planning of neighborhood and a r t e r i a l t r a f f i c c a p a c i t i e s , routes and improvements. Once the l i n k between NTM planning and o v e r a l l urban transportation planning has been enabled, the primacy of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between transportation and land use planning must be recognized, because transportation's r o l e i s t o provide access t o land uses and l i n k a c t i v i t i e s . The i n t e g r a t i o n of land use planning i s c e n t r a l , as the type and density of development w i l l influence both the need f o r a c c e s s i b i l i t y and the perceptions o f l i v a b i l i t y / e n v i r o n m e n t a l capacity. Integrated planning can achieve a b e t t e r balance, and over time, make the balance e a s i e r to achieve due t o the introduction o f complementary land uses where po s s i b l e . Environmental q u a l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y are b a s i c c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r several reasons. The need f o r l i v a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l 94 areas and accessibility to other areas for work or leisure are common to daily l i f e , and are generally local in nature. In addition, streets are a public good and transportation decisions are generally public decisions. The unequal distribution of costs and benefits associated with the installation of a traffic device calls for the making of rational decisions and tradeoffs. In order to make better decisions and to build public support for decisions, civic authorities recognize and ut i l ize the local knowledge of area residents. Citizen participation in the NTM portion of transportation planning is increasing. Citizen participation in the tradeoff process identifies coranunity issues and values, and makes tradeoffs suited to the area and acceptable to those residing in the area. The wide variation in perceptions of environmental capacity/livability discussed by Appleyard reinforce the importance of local involvement in making local decisions. As tradeoffs between environmental quality and accessibility are required, citizen participation in the development of overall plans which make the tradeoffs is required. The integration of NTM, overall transportation planning and land use planning w i l l provide an opportunity for citizen participation in the development and advocacy of plans which go beyond their neighborhood. The adoption of a policy for the creation and preservation of environmental areas and environmental capacities tailored to the neighborhood is needed to encourage this participation and to generate public support for transportation plans. Such a policy is a f i rs t step to promote the acceptance of environmental areas and to give direction and legitimacy to the tradeoff process. Recognition of environmental and operational considerations in the context of existing, and possibly future land uses, w i l l guide citizen involvement and the 95 d e c i s i o n making process. Several conclusions can be drawn s p e c i f i c t o the cases studied. The establishment and promotion of environmental standards achieved by concerned area residents was separate from transportation and land use planning being performed by two d i f f e r e n t c i t y departments. The plans, i n i t i a t e d and developed by concerned residents, expanded through i n t e r a c t i o n with other c i t i z e n s groups and c i v i c s t a f f , and adopted by a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n , addressed the concerns of the neighborhood. C i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was deemed important and i n need of strengthening by both a formal structure and c i v i c r e c o g n i t i o n of the knowledge and f a m i l i a r i t y of l o c a l residents with land uses, t r a f f i c patterns and the environmental capacity of the neighborhood. With respect t o operational e f f i c i e n c y , the plans d i d not appear t o have negative e f f e c t s on the o v e r a l l transportation system, although the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s were only marginally conclusive. However, i n two of the three cases, the implementation of the plans f e l l short of providing r e s o l u t i o n t o the problem i d e n t i f i e d , due mostly t o the timing of the implementation. The environmental capacity developed by the C i t y served only as a gu i d e l i n e and was applied with great reluctance. The v a r i a t i o n i n neighborhoods studied suggests that f u r t h e r study i s required t o determine environmental c a p a c i t i e s , and t o confirm neighborhood boundaries s u i t a b l e f o r transportation planning; the l o c a l area planning u n i t s i n use were deemed too large. The ev o l u t i o n of NTM advocacy groups provided a channel f o r the expression of community needs, but these needs were subordinated t o both a c c e s s i b i l i t y and c i v i c budgets. The NTM plans were not implemented as 96 intended, nor were the cormunity needs incorporated i n t o o v e r a l l t ransportation planning. NTM and transportation planning should be integrated with funding and budget procedures, t o ensure that plans are not implemented i n a piecemeal fashion. As the plans are generally conceived as t o t a l packages, t o be e f f e c t i v e they must be implemented as t o t a l packages. R e d i s t r i b u t i n g t r a f f i c back onto a r t e r i a l s without making a r t e r i a l improvements, or providing a t t r a c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s to car users w i l l make neighborhood t r a f f i c management appear as a c u l p r i t . Integration of the two types of t r a f f i c planning w i l l ensure that they are d e a l t with together, and that plans w i l l be implemented comprehensively. This study a l s o suggests the development and adoption of a transportation p o l i c y that i s based on environmental c a p a c i t i e s with an a r t e r i a l network serving these environmental areas. Such a p o l i c y , combined with c i t i z e n involvement and integrated planning should enable and enhance the development of a long range transportation plan. Buchanan notes that: "the great danger f o r the future would seem to l i e i n the temptation to seek a middle course by t r y i n g t o cope with a s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g volume of t r a f f i c by means of minor a l t e r a t i o n s , r e s u l t i n g i n the end i n the worst of both worlds — poor t r a f f i c access and a grievously eroded environment!' 1 The c o n f l i c t i n g nature of the o b j e c t i v e s of transportation planning, the magnitude of the expenditures involved and the e s s e n t i a l p u b l i c involvement i n determining the t r a d e o f f s a l l contribute t o the complex and interdependent nature of the urban transportation problem. 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D i c k e y , M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g , 2nd e d i t i o n , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: H e m i s p h e r e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1983) p.2. 20) OECD, Urban T r a n s p o r t and t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , p.44. 21) D i c k e y , M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g , p.3. 22) OECD, Urban T r a n s p o r t and t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , p.42. 23) C o l i n Buchanan and t h e S t e e r i n g Group and W o r k i n g Group a p p o i n t e d by t h e M i n i s t r y o f T r a n s p o r t , T r a f f i c i n Towns, (London: Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1963) p. 39,42. 24) OECD, Urb a n T r a n s p o r t and t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , p.42. 25) D i c k e y , M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g , p. 4-5. 26) I b i d . , p.5 - 7. 27) H a r r y L a s h , P l a n n i n g i n a Human Way, ( O t t a w a : M i n i s t r y o f S t a t e f o r Urban A f f a i r s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 11,25,46 28) F r a n k C. C o l c o r d J r . , U r b a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D e c i s i o n  M a k i n g , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.:.'U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , September 1 9 7 4 ) , p . x i i i ; R i c h a r d J . B o u c h a r d , " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : How t o G e t T h e r e From H e r e " , Highway  R e s e a r c h R e c o r d #380, 19 7 2 ) , p. 2-3. 29) M e l v i n M. Webber, " A l t e r n a t i v e S t y l e s f o r C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n T r a n s p o r t P l a n n i n g , " (Highway R e s e a r c h  R e c o r d #356, 19 7 1 ) , p. 6-7. 30) . P r o j e c t Committee on Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g , U r b a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g G u i d e , ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1977), p. 11 - 12. 31) I b i d . 32) B a r r y Wellman, " P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g , " T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y , O c t o b e r 1977) p.639. 33) B o u c h a r d , " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : How t o G e t T h e r e From H e r e , " p.3; P r o j e c t Committee on Urb a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g , U r b a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g G u i d e , p.5. 100 34) M e l v i n M. Webber, On t h e T e c h n i c s and P o l i t i c s o f  T r a n s p o r t P l a n n i n g , ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , O c t o b e r , 1973) p.10. 35) James A. D r a p e r , C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Canada A Book  o f R e a d i n g s , (Toronto: new p r e s s , 1971) p. 303. 36) R i c h a r d L. C o l e , C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n a.nd t h e Urban  P o l i c y P r o c e s s , ( L e x i n g t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : D.C. H e a t h & Co., 1974) p.88; Roger E. K a s p e r s o n and Myrna B r e i t b a r t , P a r t i c i p a t i o n , D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and A d v o c a c y P l a n n i n g , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s , 1974) p.8. 37) C o l e , C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e Urban P o l i c y  P r o c e s s , p. 78. 38) Hanna P i t k i n , c i t e d i n C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e  Urban P o l i c y P r o c e s s , R i c h a r d L. C o l e , p. 89. 39) Hanna P i t k i n and P a u l P e t e r s e n , c i t e d i n C i t i z e n p. 25. 40) Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, P- 36,37,40,42,43,45 41) A p p l e y a r d , L i v a b l e S t r e e t s , P- 253-254. 42) Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, P- 50. 43) A p p l e y a r d , L i v a b l e S t r e e t s , P- 264. 44) Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, P- 43. 45) I b i d . , p.44. 46) I b i d . , p. 191. 47) A p p l e y a r d , L i v a b l e S t r e e t s , P- 275. 48) I b i d . p. 254. 49) I b i d . p. 273. 50) I b i d . 51) I b i d . p. 236. 52) I b i d . p. 273. 101 53) James W. D a r e and N o e l F. Schoneman, " S e a t t l e ' s N e i g h b o r h o o d T r a f f i c C o n t r o l Program," I n s t i t u t e o f T r a f f i c  E n g i n e e r s J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y 1982, p. 22-26; L l o y d C. O r l o b , " T r a f f i c D i v e r s i o n f o r B e t t e r N e i g h b o r h o o d s , " T r a f f i c  E n g i n e e r i n g , J u l y 1975, p. 22 - 26; s o u r c e s f o r t h e S e a t t l e s e c t i o n . 54) A p p l e y a r d , L i v a b l e S t r e e t s , p. 157-166, 180-181; s o u r c e f o r B a r n s b u r y s e c t i o n . 55) I b i d . p. 181 - 183; s o u r c e f o r P i m l i c o s e c t i o n . 56) I b i d . p. 249 - 251; s o u r c e f o r D e l f t s e c t i o n . 57) I b i d . p. 215 - 239; s o u r c e f o r B e r k e l e y s e c t i o n . 102 CHAPTER THREE REFERENCES 1) S e t t y P e n d a k u r , C i t i e s , C i t i z e n s &::Ereeways, ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: p u b l i s h e d by a u t h o r , O c t o b e r , 1972) p.11-21. 2) V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , G o a l s f o r  V a n c o u v e r , ( V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , F e b r u a r y , 1980) p. 14,25,40,41,68,62. 3) C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , F i r s t  S h a u g h n e s s y P l a n B a c k g r o u n d R e p o r t , ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , May 1982) p. 2-4. 4) I b i d . p.2. 5) I b i d . p. 14 - 17. 6) I b i d . p. 27 - 28. 7) I b i d . p. i i , i i i , l . 8) C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , F i r s t  S h a u g h n e s s y O f f i c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n , ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , May 1 9 8 2 ) , p.3. 9) S t a n d i n g Committee o f C o u n c i l on E n v i r o n m e n t and T r a f f i c , R e p o r t t o C o u n c i l , ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , J u l y 9, 1981) p . l . 10) C i t y Manager, Manager's R e p o r t t o C o u n c i l , ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , F e b r u a r y 19, 1982) p . l . 11) C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , Q u a r t e r l y  Review, ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , J u l y 1985),p.6. 12) I b i d . 13) I b i d . 14) I b i d . 15) C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , Manager's R e p o r t t o C o u n c i l , ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , September 12, 19 79) p . l . 16) C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t , Recommendation t o C i t y Manager f o r C o u n c i l , ( V a n c o u v e r ; C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , September 4, 19 79) p . l . 103 17) I b i d . 18) C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , West End  O f f i c i a l D e v e l o p m e n t P l a n , ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , A u g u s t 1983) p.3. 19) C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r S t a n d i n g Committees o f C o u n c i l on P l a n n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and W a t e r f r o n t , R e p o r t t o C o u n c i l , ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , May 15, 1980) p. 1-2. 20) C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , Manager's R e p o r t t o V a n c o u v e r  C i t y C o u n c i l , ( V a n c o u v e r : C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , O c t o b e r 30, 1980) p.7. 104 CHAPTER SIX REFERENCES 1) Buchanan, T r a f f i c i n Towns, p.79. 105 BIBLIOGRAPHY A p p l e y a r d , D o n a l d . 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H u t c h i n s o n , B.G. P r i n c i p l e s o f Ur b a n T r a n s p o r t Systems P l a n n i n g . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : S c r i p t a Book Co., 1974 I n s t i t u t e o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E n g i n e e r s . P r o c e e d i n g s : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium On N e i g h b o r h o o d T r a f f i c  R e s t r a i n t . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : I n s t i t u t e o f T r a n s p o r t -a t i o n E n g i n e e r s , 1981. J a c o b s , J a n e . D e a t h and L i f e o f G r e a t A m e r i c a n C i t i e s . New Y o r k : Random House I n c . , 1961. J a c o b s e n , L i n d a , e d. The T r a n s p o r t a t i o n / U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t  C o n f l i c t . V a n c o u v e r : UBC S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , 1982. K a s p e r s o n , Roger E. and Myrna B r e i t b a r t . P a r t i c i p a t i o n , D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and A d v o c a c y P l a n n i n g . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n G e o g r a p h e r s , R e s o u r c e P a p e r No. 25, 1974. L a s h , H a r r y . P l a n n i n g i n a Human Way. T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n Co. o f Canada L t d . f o r t h e M i n i s t r y o f S t a t e f o r Urba n A f f a i r s , 1976. L e a , N.D. and A s s o c i a t e s . An A p p r a i s a l f o r t h e C i t y o f  V a n c o u v e r o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Systems and R o u t e s  C o n n e c t i n g t h e B r o c k t o n P o i n t C r o s s i n g t o P r o v i n c i a l  Highways 401 and 499. V a n c o u v e r : N.D. L e a and A s s o c i a t e s , November 1968. L i p i n s k i , M a r t i n E . " N e i g h b o r h o o d T r a f f i c C o n t r o l s . " ASCE T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , May 1979, 108 M y e r s , P h y l l i s and G o r d o n B i n d e r . T h i n k i n g S m a l l : T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ' s R o l e i n N e i g h b o r h o o d R e v i t a l i z a t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: U r b a n Mass T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1979. O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n and Development. S e m i n a r : u r b a n T r a n s p o r t and t h e E n v i r o n m e n t . P a r i s : O.E.C.D., J u l y 19 79. O r l o b , L l o y d C. " T r a f f i c D i v e r s i o n f o r B e t t e r N e i g h b o r h o o d s . " T r a f f i c E n g i n e e r i n g , J u l y 1975. O r s k i , K e n n e t h C. " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g as i f P e o p l e M a t t e r e d . " P r a c t i c i n g P l a n n e r , March 1979. P e d e r s e n , R i c h a r d . Member o f t h e V a n c o u v e r H e i g h t s C i t i z e n s ' Committee. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , November 1985, V a n c o u v e r . P e n d a k u r , S e t t y . C i t i e s , C i t i z e n s & F r e e w a y s . V a n c o u v e r : p u b l i s h e d by a u t h o r , O c t o b e r 1972. P r o j e c t Committee on U r b a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g . U r b a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g G u i d e . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1977. R o t h e n b e r g , J.G. and I a n G. H e g g i e , e d . T r a n s p o r t and t h e U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & Sons, 19 74 Thomson, J . M i c h a e l . G r e a t C i t i e s and T h e i r T r a f f i c , M i d d l e s e x , E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books, 1977. V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n . G o a l s f o r V a n c o u v e r , V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , F e b r u a r y 1980. W a l k e r , C a r o l e . C h a i r p e r s o n o f t h e West End T r a f f i c Committee. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , November 1985, V a n c o u v e r . Webber, M e l v i n M. " A l t e r n a t i v e S t y l e s f o r C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n T r a n s p o r t P l a n n i n g . " Highway R e s e a r c h R e c o r d #356, 1971. 109 Webber, M e l v i n M. On t h e T e c h n i c s arid P o l i t i c s o f T r a n s p o r t  P l a n n i n g . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1973. Wellman, B a r r y . " P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y , O c t o b e r 1977. 110 APPENDIX 111 ARTERIAL INTERSECTION COUNTS SHAUGHNESSY Burrard & 16th Avenue 7 - 9 a.m. Leg Before % of t o t a l A f t e r % of t o t a l % change i n t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 407 18 394 18 -3 East 472 21 605 28 • +28 South 393 17 161 7 -59 West 1015 44 1017 47 -T o t a l 2287 2177 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change -5% 4 - 6 p.m. North 1044 41 1000 40 -4 East 762 30 804 32 +5 South 19.1 8 86 4 -55 West 530 21 591 24 +12 T o t a l 2527 2481 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change -2% Arbutus & 16th Avenue 7 - 9 a.m. Leg Before % of t o t a l A f t e r % of t o t a l % change i n t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 466 17 467 17 -East 347 13 381 14 +10 South 1186 44 1187 43 -West 677 26 697 26 +3 T o t a l 2676 2732 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change +2% 4 - 6 p.m. North 1034 33 998 32 -3 East 851 27 807 26 -5 South 795 25 762 24 -4 West 450 15 546 18 +21 T o t a l 3130 3113 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change:less than 1% 112 G r a n v i l l e & King Edward 7 ~ 9 a,m. Leg Before % o f t o t a l A f t e r % of t o t a l % change i n t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 1147 23 1082 22 -6 East 788 16 807 16 +2 South 2121 42 2049 41 -3 West 1000 20 1083 22 ' +8 T o t a l 5056 5021 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: l e s s than 1% 4 - 6 p.m. North 2213 45 2166 44 -2 East 785 16 835 17 +6 South 1045 21 1109 22 +6 West 851 17 839 17 -1 T o t a l 4894 4949 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change +1% Arbutus & King Edward 7 - 9 a.m. Leg Before % of t o t a l A f t e r % of t o t a l % change i n t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 590 21 567 23 -4 East .519 19 511 20 -2 South 910 33 864 34 -5 West 777 28 575 23 -47 T o t a l 2796 2517 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: -10% 4 - 6 p.m. North 1135 36 1521 43 +34 East 758 24 670 19 -12 South 748 24 782 22 +5 West 471 15 523 15 +11 T o t a l 3112 3496 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +12% 113 G r a n v i l l e & 1 6 t h 7 - 9 a.m. N o r t h E a s t S o u t h West T o t a l B e f o r e % o f t o t a l A f t e r % o f t o t a l %chahge i n 806 19 767 17 -5 330 8 429 9 + 30 2144 51 2440 53 +14 927 22 960 21 +4 4207 4596 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change +9% 4 - 6 p.m. N o r t h 1586 32 1759 35 +11 E a s t 667 13 603 12 -10 S o u t h 1394 28 1158 23 -17 West 1317 27 1502 30 +14 T o t a l 4694 5022 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change +1% 114 VANCOUVER HEIGHTS Cambridge & Skeena 7 ^  9 a.m. Leg Before % of t o t a l A f t e r % o f t o t a l % change i n t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 60 10 388 29 +547 East 400 63 686 51 +72 South 42 7 140 10 +233 West 127 20 130 10 +2 T o t a l 629 1344 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +114% 4 - 6 p.m. North 296 26 457 31 +54 East 176 16 305 21 •+73 South 40 4 34 2 -15 West 620 55 690 46 +11 T o t a l 1132 1486 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change +31% Boundary & Cambridge 7 - 9 a.m. Leg Before % of t o t a l A f t e r % of t o t a l % change "in t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 135 17 96 7 -29 East 46 6 65 5 +41 South 414 52 677 53 +64 West 198 25 443 35 +124 T o t a l 793 1281 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +62% 4 - 6 p.m. North 78 7 69 7 -12 East 20 2 41 3 +105 South 270 25 339 28 +26 West 725 66 774 63 +7 T o t a l 1093 1223 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +12% 115 Boundary & Hastings 7 - 9 a.m. Leg Before % of t o t a l 7After % of t o t a l % change i n t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 780 24 650 18 -17 East 1496 46 1777 50 +19 South 401 12 385 11 -4 West 609 18 716 20 +18 T o t a l 3286 3582 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +9% 4 - 6 p.m. North 359 10 307 8 -14 East 836 23 1147 29 +37 South 1002 28 875 22 -13 West 1391 39 1608 41 +16 T o t a l 3588 3937 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change:+10% Cassiar & Hastings 7 - 9 a.m. Leg Before % of t o t a l /After % of t o t a l % change i n t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 2063 34 2150 35 +4 East 1612 27 1754 29 +9 South 1719 29 1517 25 -12 West 637 10 692 11 +9 T o t a l 6031 6113" T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +1% 4 - 6 p.m. North 1883 29 2283 29 +21 East 1093 17 1462 19 +34 South 1708 26 2215 28 +30 West 1788 28 1820 23 +2 T o t a l 6472 7780 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +20% 116 WEST END Thurlow & Robson 7 - 9 a.m. (Thurlow i s one way southbound.) Leg Before % of t o t a l A f t e r % of t o t a l % change i n t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 1482 45 1507 44 +2 East 1068 33 1239 36 +16 South - - - - -West 712 22 709 21 -T o t a l 3262 3455 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +6% 4 - 6 p.m. North 2972 55 2551 49 -14 East 1313 24 1477 28 +12 South - - - - -West 1119 21 1224 23 +9 T o t a l 5404 5252 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: - 3% Thurlow & Davie 7 - 9 a.m. (Thurlow i s one way southbound). Leg Before % of t o t a l A f t e r % of t o t a l % change i n t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 405 25 498 36 +23 East 536 34 406 29 -24 South - - - - -West 649 41 489 35 -25 T o t a l 1590 1393 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: -12% 4. - 6 p.m. North 973 41 1075 44 +10 East 834 35 794 32 -5 South - - • - -West 558 24 602 24 +8 T o t a l 2365 2471 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +4% 117 Denman & Beach 7 - 9 a.m. (No south l e g ) . Leg Before % of t o t a l /After % of t o t a l % change i n t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 586 42 1359 48 +131 East 597 43 1092 39 +83 South - - - - -West 212 15 363 13 +71 T o t a l 1395 2814 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +101% 4 - 6 p.m. North 542 28 943 30 +74 East 1002 51 1835 58 +83 South - - - - -West 413 21 408 13 +1 T o t a l 1957 3186 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +63% Denman & Robson 7 - 9 a.m. Leg Before % of t o t a l A f t e r % of t o t a l % change i n t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 577 35 562 31 -3 East 166 10 229 13 +38 South 738 45 767 43 +4 West 177 11 237 13 +34 T o t a l 1658 1795 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +8% 4 - 6 p.m. North 586 31 536 26 -9 East 552 29 729 36 +32 South 592 31 625 31 +6 West 162 9 152 7 -6 T o t a l 1892 2042 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +8% 118 Denman & Davie 7 - 9 a.m. Leg Before % of t o t a l A f t e r % of t o t a l % change i n t r a f f i c i n t e r s e c t i o n i n t e r s e c t i o n volume North 711 48 1633 55 +130 East 237 16 377 13 +59 South 478 32 884 30 +85 West 50 3 97 3 +94 T o t a l 1476 2991 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +103% 4 - 6 p.m. North 699 41 1197 37 +71 East 350 21 672 21 +92 South 520 31 1233 38 +137 West 117 7 .173 5 +48 T o t a l 1686 3275 T o t a l I n t e r s e c t i o n Volume Change: +94% 119 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE PART 1 - THE GROUP 1) What f a c t o r s , events l e d t o the formation of the group? 2) When d i d the group s t a r t t o function? 3) What were the goals of the group? 4) What was the group's d e f i n i t i o n of the problem? 5) What was the group's geographic area of concern? 6) How was membership achieved? 7) Was the membership stable? 8) Can you provide me with the following information on each of the group members -age -education -length of residence i n the area - r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n by cross s t r e e t s 9) What types of a c t i v i t i e s d i d the group conduct? How often? 10) Did the group have any involvement with, or receive assistance from the C i t y Engineering or Planning departments? What kind? 11) Did the group l i a i s e with any other groups? 12) T e l l me about your group meetings: when were they held? where were they held? d i d you p u b l i c i z e the meetings? how? 13) Did the group use any other techniques or a c t i v i t i e s t o increase or maintain p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? 14) Did the group i d e n t i f y any groups i n the area to be included? PART 2 - THE PROCESS 1) How d i d the group perceive the C i t y ' s d i r e c t i o n and ccmrutment t o the problem i d e n t i f i e d ? 2) How d i d the group perceive the C i t y ' s d i r e c t i o n and ccmmitment t o neighborhood t r a f f i c management? 3) What are your f e e l i n g s about the process the group used? Please discuss your f e e l i n g s with respect t o the structure, the nature of the process (long vs. short term focus), the s u i t a b i l i t y of i t . 120 4) How could the process be improved? PART 3 - THE NEIGHBORHGOD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN 1) Was the group concerned about p o s s i b l e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c to adjacent s t r e e t s , o r areas not covered by the plan? How d i d the group respond t o the concern? 2) What i s the group's perception of the s o l u t i o n that was implemented, i n general? Has the s o l u t i o n been e f f e c t i v e i n s o l v i n g the problem/s i d e n t i f i e d ? 3) What e f f e c t has the NTM plan had on the areas surrounding the implemented neighborhood t r a f f i c c o n t r o l devices? on the case study area? on the adjacent a r t e r i a l s ? 121 DEFINITIONS ad hoc unplanned adjustments t o solve problems as they a r i s e a r t e r i a l a s t r e e t whose main function i s to ca r r y large volumes of v e h i c l e s , and t o connect l o c a l s t r e e t s l o c a l s t r e e t a s t r e e t whose main function i s t o provide access to property operational e f f i c i e n c y = e f f i c i e n c y of t r a f f i c operations average operating speed i s achieved and maintained; lack of congestion, lengthy i n t e r s e c t i o n delays, accidents; - i n d i c a t o r used i n t h i s study i s t r a f f i c flow through i n t e r s e c t i o n s through t r a f f i c t r a f f i c which passes through an area that has no o r i g i n nor de s t i n a t i o n i n the area t r a f f i c .actual volume (number) of v e h i c l e t r i p s ABBREVIATIONS SHPOA S h a u g h n e s s y H e i g h t s P r o p e r t y Owners A s s o c i a t i o n PTCC P r o - T r a f f i c C o n t r o l s Committee VHCC V a n c o u v e r H e i g h t s C i t i z e n s Committee WETC West End T r a f f i c Committee TS1 T r a f f i c Scheme 1 TS2 T r a f f i c Scheme 2 vp d v e h i c l e s p e r day NTM neighborhood t r a f f i c management 122 

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